(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Chronicles of the mayors and sheriffs of London, A.D. 1188 to A.D. 1274 : translated from the original Latin and Anglo-Norman of the "Liber de antiquis legibus", in the possession of the corporation of the city of London"

CHRONICLES 



OF T1IR 



MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON, 



A.D. 1188 TO A.D. 1274. 

Translated from the original Latin and Anglo-Norman of the " LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEOIBUS," tn 

the possession of the Corporation of the City of London: attributed to ARNALD Fixz-TiiEDMAK, 

Alderman of London in the Reign of Henry the Third. 



THE 



FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON, 



A.D. 1259 TO A.D. 1343. 

Translated from the original Anglo-Norman of the " CRONIQUES DE LONDON," preserved in the 
Cottonian Collection (Cleopatra A. vi.) in the British Museum. 






, foit|j States mtb Illustrations, 



HENRY THOMAS RILEY, M.A., 

CLARE HALL, CAMBRIDOE ; 
<^P THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER-AT-LAW. 



LONDON : 
TEUBNER AND CO., PATERNOSTER ROW. 

MDCCCLXIII. 




EMILY FAITHFULL, PRINTER AND PUBLISHER IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, 
VICTORIA PRESS, 83A, FARRINGDON STREET, B.C. 



INTRODUCTION. 



WHILE, in spite of the ravages of time, we still possess a considerable amount 
of materials for enabling us to gain an accurate insight into the history of 
this country during the Middle Ages, so far as that history is purely political, 
or, in other words, centred around kings, and warriors, and ecclesiastics ; it is 
equally the fact, and one not a little to be regretted, that there is a commensurate 
deficiency of means to enable us to become acquainted with the history of the 
middle and lower classes, " the Commons of England," during'the same period. 
It is from a sense of this deficiency, that the Translator has been induced to place 
the accompanying Chronicles in an English form before such readers as, taking 
some interest in the realities of social life in those dark days, may not possess 
the necessary leisure, opportunity, or qualifications, for reading them in the 
original Latin or French. 

These interesting records of times long past, though, like other and better 
known Chronicles of the same period, dealing largely with the deeds and aspira- 
tions of the sovereigns and potentates who were living here from five to six 
hundred years ago, possess in addition the peculiar merit, that they disclose to 
us almost every item of information that has survived, as to the history of the 
English Capital during the same period ; and that they incidentally enlighten us 
more, as to the status, rights, and usages, of the multitudes who were subsisting 
by trades and handicrafts within the walls of a great city in those days, than 
probably, the whole of our other Chronicles combined. 

Many of these details in the first of these Histories, more especially are 
extremely curious, and present us with successive pictures, in comparatively 
minute outline, of the doings of a great and impulsive community of the Middle 
Ages, steeped in the universal ignorance, barbarism, and credulity of the day, 
prone to cruelty and bloodshed, ground to the earth by extortionate imposts, and 
writhing under a tyranny almost despotic. To enumerate a few only of the 
more prominent among the shifting scenes of metropolitan life in those days 
which its pages present : we here witness the gatherings of the London popu- 
lace in full Folkmote, whether to discuss their manifold grievances, or to 
celebrate the fiction of granting leave to the sovereign to visit his dominions 
beyond sea : the meetings of the citizens at the l Guildhall ever and anon, 
either to elect their officers, or to protest against tyranny and extortion with- 
out limit, the air resounding, we are told, with loud and boisterous shouts of 

1 The Guildhall of that day, it must be present building, but stood at a distance of 
borne in mind, was not identical with the about fifty yards behind its site. 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

" Ya, Ya," or " Nay, Nay " as the case might be : the trooping of the Londoners 
down to Westminster, women and men alike, by royal mandate, to witness* their 
worthless sovereign, Henry the Third, assume the character (without the risks 
or responsibilities) of a Crusader : the habitual goings-out of Mayor and citizens 
to meet the King at Knightsbridge (Kniwtebrigge) on his return from Windsor, 
to salute him with what must have been but hollow greetings at the best : the 
ready answer of the citizens, " in countless multitudes," to the summons tolled 
out by the " Great Bell " of Saint Paul's, calling them to a work of pillage and 
devastation, so foul as the laying waste with fire the Earl of Cornwall's fair, 
manor of Isleworth (Ystleworthe) : the gatherings of the citizens, in attendance 
on their Mayor, at shortest notice, to do the King's biddings and behests, or to 
receive law at his hands, whether at the J New Temple, at Westminster, at 
Woodstock, or at Windsor : the rebukes, insults, and imprisonments, repeatedly 
experienced by the citizens at the hands of the Justiciars, or the ministers of the 
sovereign : the assembling of the citizens at the Exchequer, in attendance upon 
the King, and the consequent discussions about the contemplated change of 
coinage: the populace in eager hunt, from time to time, and on the most frivolous 
pretexts, for the lives and property of the greatly suffering Jews : the citizens, 
sick to the very death of the tyranny, the extortions, and the importunities, of 
their rapacious sovereign, upon watch and ward in support of the rising cause of 
the Barons : the outrages committed by the dregs of the populace, under pretext 
of supporting that good cause : the vengeance exercised by the sovereign on 
regaining liberty and unrestrained power after the Battle of Evesham, in the 
abject humiliation of the citizens, commencing at 2 Berkingecherche, continued at 
Staines, and consummated, in breach of his plighted word, in the bailey and keep 
of Windsor : the speedy transition of the populace from dread and despair to 
extravagant jubilation, on the birth of John, the short-lived firstborn of Prince 
Edward, the shops and 8 selds all closed, men and women, clerks and laymen, 
hastening away to Westminster to give thanks to God, the streets of the City 
resounding the while with dances and carols for joy, " as is the usual custom 
" on the 4 Feast of Saint John the Baptist : " the street-fights kept up night 
after night by the Guilds of the goldsmiths and the tailors, the bodies of the slain 
being thrown into the Thames : the arbitrary and illegal doings of the dema- 
gogue Mayors, Thomas Fitz-Thomas and Walter Ilervy, and their adherents : 
all these, with numerous other descriptive passages of a like character, are 
striking pictures of a great community, either doing or suffering, in some of 
our darkest days, in the Middle Ages even ; for parallels to which, at so remote 
a date, our other Chronicles are to be searched in vain, however much more im- 
portant many of them may be in other respects. 

1 Now known merely as ' the Temple :' the 2 Now known as Allhallows Barking.' 

Old Temple,' situate in Holborn, was the 3 Or warehouses, 

original settlement of the Templars in the 4 24th of June, 
vicinity of London. 



INTRODUCTION. V 

As to the second of these works, the " French Chronicle" the main interest 
of its contents, as being one of our earliest records compiled in illustration of 
the history of the City of London, lies in the same direction. Though com- 
paratively brief and meagre in appearance, there could not, in fact, have been 
found a more fitting companion work to the " Chronicles of the Mayors and 
Sheriffs" both as to subject, date, and the pleasing simplicity of its details. 

The Liber de Antiquis Legibus (" Book on Ancient Laws ") from which the 
first of these Chronicles is translated, is the earliest collection of historical 
records now existing among the archives belonging to the Corporation of the 
City of London. It is a small closely written folio volume, partly in mediaeval 
Latin and partly in early French, containing 159 leaves of parchment, paged 
continuously with Arabic numerals. When the volume was originally prepared, 
some of the pages were left blank by the Compiler, but have since been filled 
with matter of somewhat more recent date. Its present repository is the 
Record-Room in the Town Clerk's Office, at the Guildhall of the City of 
London. 

The portion of the volume supplied (mainly in Latin, with occasional insertions 
in Norman French) by the hand of the original compiler, though composed 
probably from time to time at earlier dates, seems to have been written shortly 
before, or in, the year of Our Lord 1274, the second year of King Edward the 
First ; the preparations made for his Coronation, on the 19th of August in that 
year, being the Uast subject treated of in this part of the work. 

Though abounding with information on a great diversity of other matters, 
the volume seems to have had its name, as remarked by the late Mr. Hunter in 
his Appendix to the Report (1837) of the Commissioners on the Public Records 
(p. 465), from the circumstance that it contains the oldest code of Ordinances 
for the government of the City of London, in the " Assize " of Henry Fitz- 
Eylwin, its first Mayor ; enacted in reference to the style and material of edifices 
and party -walls, and the rights of the inhabitants in relation to their immediate 
neighbours ; as also, incidentally, many other particulars, elucidating the rights, 
privileges, and duties, of the civic authorities. 

The Chronicle which, (in combination with the 2 " Additional Insertions ") 
forms the original portion of the Liber de Antiquis Legibus, commences in the 
year 1188, when Henry Fitz-Elywin, of 3 Loudenestane (London Stone), was 
elected the first of its Mayors ; and is thence continued, year by year, to A.D. 
1273, with 4 a few particulars relative to A.D. 1274; the names of the successive 
Mayors and Sheriffs being given, together with those of the Custodes (or 
Wardens) of the City, when, as was often the case, by an arbitrary and tyraii- 

1 See page 178. The stone, however, does not now occupy 

3 Pp. 179-208 in the present Volume. exactly its ancient site. 

3 His residence being close adjoining thereto. 4 See pp. 177, 178. 



vi INTRODUCTION. 

nical exercise of power on part of the sovereign (Henry III., more especially), 
the constitution of the City was suspended. 

In this Chronicle many events of the time, both political and domestic, are 
entered, and much of its matter, in reference to the City of London more 
particularly, as already remarked, is to be sought in vain in any other of our 
mediaeval records. The entries of events are few and brief in the earlier years ; 
as having occurred at too remote a period, probably, to have attracted the 
attention of the Compiler, or come under his notice. The execution of William 
Longbeard (or Fitz-Osbert), in the reign of Richard I., is mentioned ; but we 
are enabled to obtain information in reference to it from l other sources, in much 
more interesting detail. 

The somewhat more circumstantial history of the Chronicle may be said 
to commence with an account of the arrest of Hubert de Burgh, at Brent wood, 
in 1232; in succession to which, the more remarkable passages bear reference 
to the seizure and burning of unlawful nets in 1236 (mentioned also on several 
occasions at later dates) ; a singular interview of Gerard Bat, the Mayor of 
London, with King Henry, at Woodstock, in 1240 ; the King's visit to the City, 
and public leave-taking of the citizens in 1241, when about to pass over into 
Gascoigne, with various other instances of similar leave-takings; the re- 
markable dissensions in 1244, 5, between Nicholas Bat and Simon Fitz-Mary ; 
the injustice inflicted upon the citizens of London in 1248, in compelling them, 
though sorely against their will, to close their shops and warehouses for fifteen 
days, and sell their wares only in the Fair at Westminster ; the offences com- 
mitted in the same year against the civic franchises by Simon Fitz-Mary, and 
his punishment ; the summons of the citizens to appear before the King at 
Windsor in 1249 ; the oath of fealty made by the citizens to Prince Edward and 
the Queen, in 1252 ; the summons of the citizens in 1254, to make answer to 
the King for the escape of a prisoner from Newgate ; the execution in London, 
A.D. 1255, of eighteen Jews of Lincoln, on the charge of murdering a child, "in 
" despite of the Christian faith." 

About the year 1257, the Chronicle again changes its character, and begins 
to be much more full and circumstantial in its narrative. Among its more 
prominent contents about this period, we may reckon an interesting Letter to 
the citizens of London from Richard, Earl of Cornwall, the newly-elected King 
of Almaine (Germany), descriptive of his journey from England to his new 
dominions, his reception, his triumph over certain of his enemies, and his 
Coronation, at Aix ; very similar, as Mr. Hunter has remarked (in p. 465 of the 
Report above quoted), to another Letter of the same date printed in Rymer's 
Fcedera ; the serious results arising from the mysterious roll, sealed with green 
wax, found in the King's Wardrobe at Windsor, A.D. 1257 ; the Provisions 
of Oxford, enacted in 1258 by the "Mad Parliament," as the royalists- our 

1 Roger de Hoveden, more especially, and Roger of Wendover. 



INTRODUCTION. VH 

compiler in the * number derisively styled it ; and the consequent wars between 
the King and Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, originally supported by 
the great majority of the English Barons. For the remainder of this reign, 
A.D. 1258-1272, as Mr. Hunter has remarked, no Chronicle has come down 
to us more 2 full or more authentic than this. Many of the most important 
transactions of the period took place in London, or its immediate vicinity ; and 
we have here a narrative of them, combined with passing events more peculiarly 
belonging to the City's domestic history, evidently penned by the hand of a 
contemporary, and, as remarked in the sequel, there seems every reason to believe, 
a witness of, and actor in, many of the scenes which he describes. 

The portion of the Liber de Antiquis Legibus, which may, with strict 
justice, be" termed, 8 " Additions" to the Chronicle above-mentioned, and con- 
sisting, for the most part, of matter which would not conveniently admit of 
being inserted in the- body of the narrative, is evidently by the hand of the 
same compiler ; and, to some extent, (as in 4 p. 194, for example,) of prior date 
in composition to the latter part of the Chronicle itself. 

The " Later Insertions " (pp. 208-228) occur on various leaves in the volume, 
which were left blank by the original compiler, and extend from the earlier part 
of the reign of Edward the First to the 20th of Edward the Second. They 
are of a miscellaneous character, inserted here and there, without any regu- 
lar system or order, in hands more or less difficult to be deciphered, written in 
corrupt French, of a Walloon or Picard complexion, and apparently, from the 
extraordinary manner in which the commonest English names and surnames are 
dealt with, by scribes of anything but English extraction. By way of recom- 
pense, however, for these aberrations, several curious 5 particulars are given 
in reference to the reigns of the first two Edwards, which, in all probability, are 
nowhere else to be traced. 

Besides the " Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs," the contemporary 
"Additions," and the " Later Insertions," translated in the present Volume, 
there is some other matter inserted on various leaves of the Liber de Antiquis 
Legibus, of less interest, and little or no value in a historical point of view; 
consisting of various extracts from the Gesta Regum Anglorum of William of 
Malmesbury ; Catalogues, in Latin prose, of the Archbishops of Canterbury 
and their Suffragans, the Archbishops of York, and the Bishops of Durham, 

See p. 40. drawn up for the purpose of more ready 

2 The account, for example, of the frightful reference. 

indignities perpetrated on De Montfort's s John le Jauser (or Chaucer), a trial in 

body ; to be found, in similar detail, in no reference to whom is described in p. 221, not 

other contemporary Chronicle. See page 80 improbably was an ancestor (perhaps grand- 

of this Volume. father) or relative of the Poet Geoffrey 

3 See pp. 179-208 of this Volume. Among Chaucer. See also p. 376 of the Translation 
these, the early enactments relative to the of Liber Albus, for the mention, about thirty 
Jews (pp. 194-201), deserve notice. years later, of Richard le Chaucer,' who pro- 

4 See Note 1 in that page. The Summary bably, was the Poet's father, 
of Mayors there given, appears to have been 



Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

down to the beginning of the reign of Edward the First ; Catalogues, in Latin 
verse, of the Archbishops of Canterbury, the Popes, and the Emperors, to the 
beginning of the same reign ; the Statute of Marlborough ; and a few other 
memoranda of an unimportant nature ; all of which have been omitted in the 
present Translation, as having been evidently inserted in the volume for the 
private use of the Compiler in the way of general reference, and not as being in 
any sense illustrative of the history of the City of London. 

As to the name and identity of the Compiler, it is impossible to speak with 
certainty, but there seem to be substantial grounds for believing that his name 
was " Arnald," or " Arnulf, * Fitz-Thedmar," an Alderman of London ; the same 
personage, in fact, incidents in whose life are touched upon, in several instances, 
more or less at length, in the Chronicle and the " Additions," passages which 
will be found in pages 37, 39, 40, 46, 120, and 170, of the present Volume ; 
as also, the singular story of his descent, parentage, birth, and persecutions 
(in the way of extortionate taxation), in pages 201-208 ; a narrative, we may 
fairly conclude, of so peculiar a nature and of so entirely personal an interest, 
as not to be likely to be inserted in a volume of national and civic history 
by any other than an individual occupying the most influential position in the 
compilation of the work. From a combination of these details, we learn 
that Arnald Fitz-Thedmar was grandson, by the mother's side, of Arnald de 
Grevingge, a citizen of Cologne ; that his father was one Thedmar, a native of 
Bremen ; that Arnald was born on the Vigil of Saint Laurence, the 9th of 
August, A.D. 1201 ; that he was Alderman of, one of the Wards of the City of 
London ; that he was a member of the small, but wealthy and influential, party 
in the City, that supported Henry III. 2 against Simon de Montfort and the 
Barons ; and that he was in the number of the citizens marked, by Thomas 
Fitz-Thomas, the Mayor, and Thomas de Piwelesdon, for a proscription, which 
was about to be carried into fatal effect on the very day on which news reached 
London of the Battle of Evesham, which gave the death-blow to the aspira- 
tions of De Montfort and his supporters. 

That Fitz-Thedmar was an Alderman of London, we learn from several of 
the passages already alluded to ; but over which of the City Wards he presided, 
appears to be now 8 unknown. In addition to his Aldermanry, he would seem to 
have held some office under the Corporation, somewhat resembling that of 
Chamberlain, or Town Clerk, and for which he not improbably was indebted 
alike to his influential connexions, and to his support, in the face of no small 
peril, of the royal cause. We are led to the conclusion that he may have held 

1 Sometimes the name is simply given as ' certain knights and barons,' ran away at the 
'Thedmarus,' Thedmar, or Tedmar ; see p. 120, Battle of Lewes. See p. 66. 

example. 3 No allusion is made to him in the list of 

2 In proof of this, it deserves remark, how Aldermen of London given in the Inquisition 
openly, without any attempt at concealment or of 3 Edward I., printed in the Rotuli Hundred- 
palliation, the Chronicle informs us that the orum, I. pp. 404-433. 

greater part of the Londoners, as well as 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

such office by the fact, that in the last leaf of the Liber de Antiquis Legibus, 
there is a memorandum inserted (p. 227 of this Volume), to the effect that, in 
the year 1270 "the Chest of the Citizens" of London was in his custody, and 
that certain of the more valuable of the City archives were deposited therein. 
Not improbably, he may have resigned his Aldermanry on assuming this office. 
At what exact date Fitz-Thedmar died, we have probably no means of ascer- 
taining ; but there can be little doubt that his decease took place early in the 
third year of Edward the First, from the circumstance that, on the Morrow of 
Saint Scholastica (10 February) in the third year of that reign (A.D. 1275), his 
will was read and l enrolled in the Hustings. We learn however but little from 
the written Enrolment, which is evidently a mere extract only from the will, in 
reference to certain lay fees, shops and cellars, belonging to him in the 2 City of 
London ; which he leaves to Stephen Eswy, his kinsman (consanguineo meo), 
for the benefit of Fitz-Thedmar's wife, the said Stephen, and the Monks of 
Bermondsey. In this Enrolment, the name of his wife is 3 not given ; but it 
seems not improbable that it was "Dionysia," from the fact that in folio 61b of 
Letter-Book A, preserved at Guildhall, one of the earliest of the City records, there 
is a memorandum to the effect, that on the Saturday after the Feast of Saint 
Matthias (24 February) in the 20th year of King Edward the First, certain 
damages for an assault were paid to Adam le Taylur and Dionysia, his wife, 
"who was formerly the wife of Tedmar the Easterling (le Estreis) ;" a name 
then commonly applied to Germans, and, in some instances, to persons of 
German extraction as well. If this surmise is correct, as Fitz-Thedmar died in 
his 74th year, and his wife contracted a second marriage and was surviving seven- 
teen years after that date, there must have been, to all appearance, a consider- 
able disparity between their ages. Beyond these meagre facts, despite very 
careful research, no allusion to him has been met with in contemporary docu- 
ments ; with indeed the unimportant exception of the Letter referred to in the 
4 Note annexed, where his name is incidentally mentioned. In a Writ of the 

1 The Enrolment is still preserved among of Sir Arnuld, son of Sir Thetmar, a 
the MS. Enrolments at Guildhall, No. VII. ' burgess of London, ' at the time when the 
Membr. 8. Londoners had incurred the crime of lese- 

2 In the Parish of Allhallows in the Hay, or majesty by opposing the King, some years 
Allhallows the Great, in Thames Street; so before. That, as amends for such crime, a 
called from Hay Wharf, in its vicinity. certain tax was inflicted upon the people of 

3 Reference is first made to her as, uxor mea London, but that Hermann had left that 
prcedicta, ' my wife aforesaid,' evidently shew- city half a year before the tax was levied, 
ing that the commencement of the will is That in spite of this, and of the fact that 
wanting. Hermann was a foreigner, and a servant only, 

4 In Rymer's Fcedera (New Ed. I. p. 534) the London officials had demanded his 
we find a Letter addressed to the King of quota, by certain threatening letters ad- 
England (A.D. 1276,4th Edward I.) by the City dressed to the citizens of Bremen ; and that, 
of Bremen., stating that one of their fellow- in consequence of non-receipt thereof, the 
citizens, 'Hermann de Bremen' by name, Mayor and burgesses of London had now 
had formerly been a servant in the house for fourteen (twelve?) years prevented the 

b 



X INTRODUCTION. 

second year of Edward II. (A.D. 1309) printed in Madox's History of the 
Exchequer, mention is made of a " John Tedmar," as being one of the executors 
of John d'Armen tiers, Alderman of Langbourn Ward ; and who, it seems not 
unlikely, may have been a son of Arnald, the more especially as, in the narrative 
before referred to. the four brothers of Arnald Fitz-Thedmar are mentioned (p. 
202) as having died in early life, and, to all appearance, without issue ; while 
from four of his sisters who attained marriageable years, " sprang sons and 
" daughters, grandsons and granddaughters, and other kinsfolk, more than I can 
" enumerate." 

As to these sisters of Fitz-Thedmar, we are enabled to learn some few 
particulars, from the circumstance that the will of one of them, " Margeria, 
" daughter of Thedmar, the Teutonic," and then widow of l Walter de Wincestre, 
was enrolled at Guildhall ; the 2 Enrolment still existing there, and bearing date, 
the Monday after the Conversion of Saint Paul (25 January), in the sixth year 
of Edward I. (A.D. 1278). From the mention in it of her " niece Margeria, 
" daughter of Ealph Eswy," we infer that another of Fitz-Thedmar's sisters 
was married to a person of that name ; identical perhaps with the individual 
mentioned in the ensuing Chronicle as being Sheriff in 1234 and 1239, Mayor 
in 1241, 1242, and 1243, and as having died in 1246. From the same En- 
rolment we also learn, that a third sister was the wife of John de Gyzors, 
a member of a family of considerable influence in the City, and the same per- 
sonage probably who is mentioned as filling the office of Sheriff in 1240 and 1245, 
which he resigned in the latter year for that of Mayor ; Mayor again in 1258 ; 
and, with Arnald Fitz-Thedmar and others of the royalist party, as being 
placed under proscription in 1264. From this source of information, we thus 
have reason to infer that Fitz-Thedmar was connected by marriage with some 
of the most substantial men of the City in his day. 

How the Liber de Antiquis Legibus come into the possession of the Corpo- 
ration of the City of London, is now unknown. It seems not improbable 
however, that it formed part of the bequest of Manuscript volumes left to the 
City in the year 1328 by Andrew Horn, Fishmonger and Chamberlain ; the se- 
cond item in whose will (written in Latin) is " one other book, on the Ancient 
* * * o f England," the noun substantive being omitted. Supposing the 
omitted word to be " Legibus," the book so bequeathed would bear much the 
same title by which the City volume in question is now, and probably always 
has been, known. On the other hand however, it appears at least equally 
probable, from the similarity of subjects, that the book so bequeathed is identical 



people of Bremen from visiting, with due Majesty. 

safety, the English dominions. For this l Probably the same person who is named 

extreme hardship, Hermann being now dead, in the following Chronicle, as Sheriff in 

and his heirs being willing to comply with 1229. 

all just demands, redress is prayed of his 8 No. IX. Membr. 3. 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

with one of the two manuscripts now bound up in one volume, and preserved 
at Guildhall, under the collective title of " Liber Horn.'' 

The original text of the Liber de Antiquis Legibus was published by the 
Camden Society in 1846, under the editorship of the late Mr. Thomas Stapleton; 
but without any attempt, by Notes, Glossary, or explanation, to trace its origin, 
illustrate its history, or elucidate its manifold obscurities. In preference to 
placing entire reliance upon Mr. Stapleton's rendering of the text, the present 
translation has been based upon a careful collation of it with the Latin and 
French of the original volume. 

The " French Chronicle of London " is translated from the Norman French 
of the Cottonian Manuscript, Cleopatra A. VI. ; of which volume it forms the 
latter portion, commencing at folio 54. From the nature of the handwriting 
(on small octavo leaves of parchment) and the fact that it ends at the 17th year 
of Edward III., we are justified in concluding that it was compiled in the 
earlier half of the fourteenth century; but by whom, or for what especial 
object, it is probably impossible to ascertain. The Chronicle has no name given 
to it in the Manuscript, but in the edition of the original French, published by 
the Camden Society in 1844, under the supervision of Mr. George James 
Aungier, it has " Croniques de London " for its title. No other copy, besides 
that in the Cottonian volume, is known to exist. 

For the purposes of the present translation, the original has been at times con- 
sulted, though the French text has been ably rendered in the Camden volume. 
The Translator is sensible also, that it would be an unjustifiable omission on 
his part, were he to omit acknowledging his obligations to the Notes by which 
the text of Mr. Aungier's edition is so abundantly illustrated. 

Among the more interesting portions of the narrative of the French 
Chronicle may be enumerated ; the Legend of Fair Rosamond, though 
singularly 2 out of place, in probably its very earliest form, before the additions 
of the clue, the dagger, and the poison, were thought of ; the account of the 
repair of the Cross on the Clocher, or Belfry, of Saint Paul's ; the alleged 
Miracles wrought at the Tablet erected by Thomas of Lancaster in that church ; 
the celebration of his own interment by the Minstrel, Thomas Wade ; the 
murder, by the London populace, of Walter de Stapulton (Stapledon) Bishop of 
Exeter ; the early wars of Edward the Third, in prosecution of his claims upon 
the French crown ; the details of the naval battle of Sluys, or Ecluse ; the siege 
of Tournay, and the mention of the use of 8 gunpowder by the English, on that 
occasion, June 1340; the unexpected arrival of Edward in London at night (30th 
November 1340), and the disastrous results thereof to the Constable of the 

1 See the Introduction to Liber Custumarum t 3 See p. 278. Cannon are said by most 
pp. ix-xi, published (1860) under the super- authorities to have been first used by the 
intendence of the Master of the Rolls. . English at the battle of Crecy in 1346. 

2 See Note to page 232. 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

Tower, and several of the ministers ; the seizure of the accumulated treasures 
of Sir John de Molins, at his manor of Ditton and in the Abbey of Saint 
Alban's ; with various minor details of commensurate interest, the purport of 
some of which has probably not survived to us from any other mediaeval source. 
The mode of dealing with names and surnames by the writer of this Chronicle 
is somewhat peculiar, but by no means so remote from the ordinary English 
standard as that which characterizes the " Later Insertions " in the Liber de 
Antiquis Legibus. 

The present translation has been made throughout as literally, and as 
nearly presenting a reflex of the Latin and French originals, as, consistently 
with the possibility of its being readily understood, it could be made. This 
latter object carefully kept in view, it has been the endeavour of the Translator 
to preserve as closely as possible the quaintness of diction of the original works ; 
and it is alike from this motive and from a wish to avoid what might, in strictness, 
be liable to impeachment of anachronism, that all names, both of persons 
and localities, have been allowed to retain the ancient forms awarded to them in 
the original, whether by English scribes or by writers of evidently foreign ex- 
traction ; the means of at once identifying the name with its modern equivalent 
being given in a Note annexed : and this too, in many instances, (" York," the 
equivalent of the ancient " Euerwik ," for example), more than once, or twice 
even ; with the view of saving the trouble of reference to an Index to such 
readers, not imbued with a knowledge of our early nomenclature, as may be dis- 
posed to devote a few hours to the uninterrupted perusal of two curious records, 
hitherto buried, in comparatively inaccessible volumes, under barbarous Latin 
and more uncouth French, of the domestic incidents of times, about which, by 
the great majority of even well-educated persons, little or nothing is known. 

The years of the Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs, the reader should 
be reminded, are civic years, reckoning from the election of the Sheriffs at 
Michaelmas in each year : consequently, the occurrences mentioned as belonging 
to that year, will in reality often belong to the year following, according to the 
usual mode of reckoning the Dominical year. Hence it is that, (in page 1) 
King Richard the First is mentioned as reigning in the (civic) year 1188, 
though in reality he did not commence his reign until the 6th of July in the 
year of Our Lord 1189. In further illustration of this mode of reckoning, 
the Battle of Lewes, which is entered (p. 66) under the civic year 1263, was 
fought on the 14th of May in the Dominical year 1264. 

HENRY THOMAS RILEY, 

CITIZEN AND FAN-MAKER. 
4M April, 1863. 



CHRONICLES 



OF THE 



MAYOES AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. 

1 RICHARD L 2 EDWARD I. 



CHEONICLES 



OF THE 



MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON 



HENRY DE ^ORENHELL,) 

_, [-Sheriffs. Foi.68. 

EICHARD FITZ-REYNER, ) 

These were the first Sheriffs of London, being so appointed at the 
Feast of Saint Michael, in the year of Grace 1188, the first year of the 
reign of King Richard ; and in the same year, the Jews were destroyed 
throughout 2 England. In the same year, Henry Fitz-Eylwin of 3 Londene- 
etane was made Mayor of London ; who was the first Mayor of the City, 
and continued to be such Mayor to the end of his life, that is to say, for 
nearly five and twenty years. And in the same year, that King, and 
Philip King of France, set out for Jerusalem, and a countless multitude 
of 4 Crusaders with them. 

A.D. 1189. JOHN HERLISUN,' 



T, -p. i Sheriffs. 

ROGER LE Due, 



3TJW,) 

ETC, i 

A.D. 1190. WILLIAM DE HAVERILLE,) 

JOHN BOKOIHTE, J Sher 

A.D. 1191. NICHOLAS DUKET,) 

T, ,, J- Sheriffs. 

PETER NEVELUN, ) 

In this year, the same King was made captive in 5 Almaine, while 
returning from the Holy Land, and was ransomed for one hundred thou- 
sand marks of silver. 

A.D. 1192. ROGER LE Due, ) _ 

^ . f Sheriffs. 

ROGER FITZ-ALAN, ) 

1 7. e. Cornhill. 3 London Stone ; in the vicinity of which he 

8 In London and York more especially ; resided. 

the persecution commencing on the day of the 4 Cruce Signatorum literally, "marked with 
Coronation of Richard I. " the Cross." * Or Germany. 

B 



2 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1192. 

In this year, the same King was liberated, and on the third of the 
Ides [13] of March landed at 1 Sandwys; and on the fourth day of the 
week after, arrived at London with a great array. 

A.D. 1193. WILLIAM FITZ-YZABEL, 



WILLIAM FITZ-ATHULF, ' Sheriffs - 

A.D. 1194. ROBERT BESAUNT, ) 

-r r Sheriffs. 

JUKEL ALDERMAN, 3 

In this year, William 2 with the Beard, was drawn and hanged, on the 
eighth of the Ides [6] of April. 

A.D. 1195. GODARD DE ANTIOCH, ) 

T* T-, -r-, r Sheriffs. 

ROBERT FITZ-DURAUNT,) 

A.D. 1196. ROBERT BLUND, ) 

NICHOLAS DUKET,$ " ffs * 

A.D. 1197. CONST ANTINE 3 FlTZ-ATHELHULF,) 

ROBERT LE BEL, } Sheriffs ' 

A.D. 1198. ARNULF FITZ-ATHULF, ) 

. > bherms. 

RICHARD FITZ-BARTHELMEU,) 

In this year the King before-named was wounded in the left shoulder 
by an arrow from an 4 arbalest; and died on the eighth of the Ides [6] 
of April. In the same year, King John was crowned on Our Lord's 
Ascension. 

A.D. 1199. ROGER DE DESERT,) 
JACOB ALDERMAN, $ S 

A.D. 1200. SYMON DE 5 ALDERMANEBYRI,) 

WILLIAM FITZ-ALIZ, \ b 

In this year were chosen five and twenty of the more discreet men of 
the City, and sworn to take counsel on behalf of the City, together with 
the Mayor. 

A.D. 1201. NORMAN BLUND,) 

JOHN DE KATE, J S 
A.D. 1202. WALTER BRUN, ) 

WILLIAM CHAMBERLEYN,^ Shenffs - 

1 Sandwich. a Written Fitz-Athulf" above. 

a Or " Long -Beard." His proper surname 4 Or crossbow, 
was Fitz-Osbert. * Now " Aldermanbury." 



A. D. 1203.] GREAT FIRE OF SOUTHWARK, ETC. 3 

A.D. 1203. THOMAS DE HAVERILLE,) 

HAMO BROND, J S 

A.D. 1204. JOHN WALRAVEN, ) 

EGBERT DE WINCESTRE^ Shenffk 

In this year there were Pleas of the Crown at the Tower of London. 
A.D. 1205. JOHN HELILAND, ) 

EADMUND DE LA HALE, } Sherlffs - 
A.D. 1206. SERLO LE MERCER, ) 

HENRY DE 1 SAINT AuBAN,i Shenffs - 
A.D. 1207. ROBERT DE WINCESTRE,) 

WILLIAM HAKDEL, $ Sherifik 

In this year there was an interdict laid on the whole of 
England, on the ninth of the Calends [23] of April; which 
lasted six years, fourteen weeks, and three days, 
A.D. 1208. THOMAS FITZ-^EAL, 



PETER LE Due, J Sheriffs ' 
In this year the whole of England did homage to King John at 
Merleberge. 

A.D. 1209. PETER LE JUVENE, 



WILLIAM WITB, f Sheriffs ' 
A.D. 1210. STEPHEN LE GROS,) 

ADAM DE WYTEBY,} Sheriffs 
In this year a certain Angevin was burnt to death at London. 

A.D. 1211. JOCE FITZ-PETER,) 

T n r Sheriffs. 

JOHN GARLAUND, ) 

In this year was the Great Fire of 3 Suthwerk; and it burned the 
Church of Saint Mary, as also the Bridge, with the Chapel there, and 
the greatest part of the City. 

A.D. 1212. CONSTANTINE LE JlJVENE,) 

EALPH HELYLAND, f Sheriffs ' 

In this year died Henry Fitz-Eylwyne, the first Mayor of London, 
and Roger Fitz-Alan succeeded him. 
A.D. 1213. MARTIN FITZ-ALIZ,) 

PETEE BATH, | Sheriffs -, 

1 Saint Alban's. 3 Southwark. This fire took place in July, 

1 Marlborough. A.D. 1212. 



4 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1213. 

In this year died Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, Justiciar of the King of 
England, at the Tower of London. 

A.D. 1214. SALOMON DE BASINGES,) 

TT > Sheriffs. 

HUGH DE BASINGES, ) 

In this year, Serlo le Mercer was made Mayor ; and the Barons 
of England entered London against King John on the Feast of 
Gordianus and Ephimachus 1 [10 May]. 

A.D. 1215. ANDREW NEVELUN,) 

rr, > Sheriffs. 

JOHN TRAVERS, $ 

In this year landed Louis, son of Philip, King of France, whom 
the Barons of England invited to their aid against the before-named 
King John ; which Louis laid siege to the Castle of 2 Dowre. In the 
same year, William Hardel was made Mayor of London. 

A.D. 1216. BENEDICT LE S SEYNTER,) _, 

TTr > Sheriffs. 

WILLIAM BLUND, ) 

In this year, Jacob Alderman was made Mayor, and so continued 
from Easter until the Feast of the Holy Trinity ; but being then con- 
demned to lose the Mayoralty, on the same day Salomon de Basinges 
was made Mayor. In the same year also died King John, and Henry, 
his son, was crowned at Gloucester; for by reason of the war still 
continuing between himself and the aforesaid Louis and the Barons of 
England, he could not come to London and there be crowned. 

A.D. 1217. RALPH HELYLAUNDE,) _, 

,_, > Sheriffs. 

THOMAS BUKEREL, > 

In this year Louis departed from England, peace being made between 
the aforesaid King Henry and the same Louis and the Barons of 
England ; and Serlo le Mercer was again made Mayor of London, and so 
continued for five years. 

A.D. 1218. JOCE LE 3 PESUR,) _ 

IT > Sheriffs. 

JOHN YYEL, ) 

A.D. 1219. JOHN VYEL, again, "> 

RICHARD DE WYMBELDON,) Sheriffs - 

1 Roger of Wendover says, " Sunday, 24th 2 Dover. 

"May, 1215," but unfortunately, Sunday fell 3 Meaning, " the Bell-maker." 
on the 23rd in that year. 4 Either, Maker of Balances, or Weigher, 



A. D. 1219.] EXECUTION OF CONSTANTI5E FITZ-ATHULF, ETC. 5 

This year, on the day of 1 Pentecost a the same King Henry was 
crowned at Westminster, Hugh de Burgh being Justiciar of all 
England ; and the blessed Thomas the Martyr was afterwards 
translated on the morrow of the 2 Octaves of the Apostles 
Peter and Paul. [29 June.] 

A.D. 1220. RICHARD RYNGER,) _, 

t Sheriffs. 
JOCE LE JUVENE, 3 

In this year there were Pleas of the Crown at the Tower. 

A.D. 1221. RICHARD RENGER, again,) 

> Sheriffs. 
THOMAS LAUMBERT, ) 

In this year, 3 Constantine Fitz-Athulf was hanged, and that without 
judgment. 

A.D. 1222. THOMAS LAUMBERT, again,} 

> Sheriffs. 
WILLIAM JOYNER, ) 

In this year, Richard Renger was made Mayor of London, and so 
continued for five years. 

A.D. 1223. JOHN TRAVERS, again,") 

ANDREW BUKEREL, 
A.D. 1224. ANDREW BUKEREL, 

JOHN TRAVERS, again, 
A.D. 1225. MARTIN FITZ- WILLIAM, 

ROGER LE Due, 

1 Or Whit Sunday. " of London, and commanded all the chief 

2 The Octave or Octaves of a festival was " men of the City to appear before him. This 
that day week; in the present instance, the 6th " being done, he enquired of them who had 
of July. " been the mover of sedition in the City. 

3 Sheriff in 1297. The circumstances attend- "Constantine, constant in his presumption, 
ing the execution of Fitz-Athulf, are given in " said, * It is I, what would you have ? ' The 
interesting detail in the Chronicle of John de " Justiciar, on hearing this, arrested him, 
Oxenedes, (pp. 146, 147, of the printed edition) . " without making any tumult, and two of his 
" In the same year, (1222) it befell, on Saint " supporters with him ; and in the morning 
" James's Day, that at a wrestling-match in " sent him to Faux (de Breaute), attended 
" London, such dissensions arose, that, in the " by a troop of armed men, to be hanged. 
' sedition which resulted therefrom, Constan- " On having the halter put around his neck, 
" tine Fitz-Olaf cried aloud in an insulting " he offered fifteen thousand marks of silver 
"tone, 'Montjoye!' repeatedly exclaiming, " for his life. And so, Constantine was hanged, 
" ' May God help us, and Louis, our lord ;' and the other two along with him." 
" a fact that could not remain concealed. " Montjoye ! " it may be remarked, was the 
< Whereupon, Aubert de Bure, collecting a war-cry of the French prince Louis and his 
" force of armed men, proceeded to the Tower adherents. 




6 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1226. 

A. D. 1226. MARTIN FITZ- WILLIAM, again,) 
ROGER LE Due, again, } b 

In this year, Pleas of the Crown were held at the Tower, and John 
Herlisun failed in 1 making his law, which he waged for the death of 
Lambert de Legis ; to whom the King granted life and limb at the 
instance of the prayers of the women of the City ; and he became an Hos- 
pitaller of the 2 Hospital of Jerusalem. 

A.D. 1227. HENRY DE COKHAM/) 
STEPHEN BUKEREL, ) ^ 

In this year, Roger le Due was made Mayor of London, and so 
continued four years. 

A.D. 1228. STEPHEN BUKEREL, again, ) 

~ . t- oheriirs. 

HENRY DE COKHAM, again,) 

A.D. 1229. WALTER DE 



T, -n Sheriffs. 

ROBERT FITZ-JOHN, 

At the withdrawal of these from their bailiwick at the Feast of Saint 
Michael, all the Aldermen and principal men of the City made oath, with 
the assent of all the citizens, that at no time would they allow any 
Sheriff to be admitted to the Sheriffwick for two consecutive years, as 
before they had been admitted. 

A.D. 1230. JOHN DE WOUBORNE, ) 

_ _ __ > Sheriffs. 

RICHARD FITZ- WALTER,) 

A.D. 1231. WALTER LE BUFLE, ) 

-,, TT r Sheriffs. 

MICHAEL DE SAINT HELEYNE,) 

In this year, Andrew Bukerel was made Mayor of London, on the 
Feast of Symon and Jude, [28 October,] and so continued for seven 
years. 

A.D. 1232. HENRY DE EDELMETON,) r 

> Sheriffs. 
GERARD BAT, ) 

In this year, the before-named Hubert de Burgh, the Justiciar, was 
persecuted with the greatest of persecution ; so much so, that command 
was given to the Mayor and Sheriffs, by letters of his lordship the King, 

1 I.e. proving his innocence by the oath of "one's law." 

a set of jurors, or compurgators, in those 2 The Order of Knights of St. John of Jeru- 

days called a " law ; " the proving of inno- salem. 
cence by such oath being known as " making 



A. D. 1232.] DISGRACE AND FLIGHT OF HUBERT DE BURGH. 7 

that he should be captured, wheresoever he should be found. After this, 
taking to flight, he betook himself to a certain chapel at Brentwood, ( l in 
Brandwodde) ; from which place he was dragged by force, and was after- 
wards replaced there by Roger, Bishop of London. But after a short 
time, he surrendered himself to* the mercy of his lordship the King, and 
was taken to the Tower of London ; and after that, to the Castle of 
Devizes, from which Castle he made his escape, and betook himself to a 
certain church for safety ; from this however he was ejected by Richard 
Marshal, the then Earl of 2 Penbrok, between whom and his lordship the 
King there had arisen a great dissension. After the death of this 
Richard, the same Hubert, together with Gilbert, brother of the afore- 
said Richard, and the other Barons who before had been against 
the King, was admitted to the peace of his lordship the King, 
at Gloucester. The same year, on the Vigil of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Mary [15 August] the citizens of London mustered in arms at 
the Mile Ende, and well arrayed in the London 3 Chepe. 

A.D. 1233. ROGER BLUND, ) 

SYMON FITZ-MARY, \ fe ffs ' 

This Symon, in the first term of his Shrievalty, so sadly wasted 
the property that formed the issues of the Sheriffwick, that he was not 
allowed to receive them any longer ; and by the Mayor and citizens, care 
was entrusted to the clerks of the SheriiFwick of collecting the same, and 
safely disposing thereof in acquittance of the 4 ferm of his lordship the 
King. 

A.D. 1234. RALPH ESWY, Mercer,) 

T T.T F bneriffs. 

JOHN NORMAN, ) 

A.D. 1235. GERARD BAT, again,) 

r Sheriffs. 
ROBERT HARDEL, ) 

In this year, 5 Alianora, daughter of the Count of Provence, came into 
England, and was there crowned Queen. 

A.D. 1236. HENRY DE COKHAM, again,) 

JORDAN DE COVENTRE, $ Sheriffs. 

1 The old English explanation of the Latin side. 

' apud Boscum Arsum." 4 Or rent, due from the City to the King. 

2 Pembroke. 5 Or Eleanor. 

3 Or market ; the site of the present Cheap- 



8 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1236. 

These seized all the sailors found in the x kidels standing in the 
Thames, and brought them, with their nets, to London, and imprisoned them 
in Neuwegate ; who were all amerced before his lordship the King at 
Keningtone ; which amercement by judgment remained unto the Sheriffs 
of London : and then were their nets burnt in London. 

A.D. 1237. JOHN DE 2 TuLESAN, 



^ i Sheriffs. 

CHAMBERLEYN,) 

In this year died Andrew Bukerel, and Richard Renger was made 
Mayor. 

A.D. 1238. JOHN DE WILEHALE,) 01 . 

[ hheriits. 
JOHN DE KOUDRES, } 

In this year died the aforesaid Richard Renger, the Mayor, and 
William Joynier was made Mayor. 

A.D. 1239. RALPH ESWY, Mercer, again,) 
REGINALD DE BUNGEYE, > 

These being elected before the Feast of St. Michael, there arose 
a dissension in the City, because Symon Fitz-Mary had obtained the 
King's letters, to the effect that they should admit him to the Shrievalty. 
But certain of the principal men, with their Mayor, William Joynier, 
would not consent thereto ; but said that he had obtained this in contra- 
vention of their liberties. And because the said Symon was not then 
admitted to be Sheriff, his lordship the King was moved to anger thereat ; 
wherefore the citizens repaired to the royal Court, to conciliate the 
King's favour, but could not do so ; so that they were without a Mayor 
until the Feast of Saint Hilary [13 January] ; when Gerard Bat was 
admitted [to the Mayoralty], and continued to be Mayor until the Feast 
of Symon and Jude [28 October]. 

A.D. 1240. JOHN DE GESEORZ,) 
MYCHAEL THOVT, \ S 

In this year was 3 dedicated the church of St. Paul, at London. 
In this year, Gerard Bat was again chosen Mayor, with whom certain 

1 Nets of a peculiar nature laid in dams, bably from Walbrook, the locality where he 

prepared for the taking of fish. See further lived. 

as to this transaction, Liber Custumarum, pp. 3 /. e. newly dedicated, on completion of 

3942, and Liber Albus, pp. 500502, the choir by Bishop Roger, surnamed Niger, 

printed editions. Matthew Paris gives the date as 1242. 

3 Called " de Walebroc " elsewhere : pro- 



A. D. 1240.] THE MAYOR OF LONDON OFFENDS KING HENBY. 9 

of the citizens proceeded to Wodestok, for the purpose of presenting 
him ; and his lordship the King declined to admit him [to the Mayoralty] 
there, or before he had come to London. And on the third day after, 
upon the King's arrival there, he admitted him ; and after the oath had 
been administered to him, that he would restore every thing that had 
before been taken and received, and would not receive the forty 
pounds which the Mayors had previously been wont to receive from 
the City, the Mayor said, when taking his departure ; " Alas ! my 
" Lord, out of all this I might have found a marriage portion to give my 
" daughter." For this reason the King was moved to anger, 
and forthwith swore upon the altar of Saint Stephen, by Saint 
Edward and by the oath which he that day took upon that altar, 
and said ; " Thou shalt not be Mayor this year, and for a very little 
" I would say, Never. Go, now." The said Gerard, hereupon, not 
caring to have the King's ill-will, resigned the Mayoralty, and Re- 
ginald de Bunge was appointed Mayor of London. 

A. D. 1241. JOHN FITZ-JOHN VYEL,' 



THOMAS DE DUREME, $ Sheriffs. 
In this year, an eclipse of the sun took place within the l quinzaine 
of Saint Michael, about the 2 ninth hour, while Roger, Bishop of London, 
was being buried. In this year, Ralph Eswy was made Mayor, and 
so continued for three years. On the Feast of Saints Fabianus 
and Sebastianus [20 January] in this year, Earl Richard, brother of 
King Henry, returned from the Holy Land to London, it being the 
six-and-twentieth year of the reign of that king; and in the same 
year his lordship the King asked leave of the citizens of London, at 
Saint Paul's Cross, that he might pass over into Gascoigne, to aid 
the Count de la Marche against the King of France ; and soon after, 
crossed over. In this year, William 3 de Marisco, who had been 
convicted of treason against his lordship the King, was taken in the 
isle of 4 Lundey by William Bardulf and Richard de Warenne, and 
brought to the Tower of London. Afterwards, on the Vigil of Saint 
James the Apostle [25 July] he was drawn and hanged, and on 

1 A space of fifteen days, reckoning as full 3 Or " of the Marsh." 

days both the first and last ; our fortnight. < Off the coast of Devonshire ; in the Bristol 

2 7. e. three in the afternoon. Channel . 



10 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1241. 

the morrow of Saint James divided into four parts, one of which, 
together with his head, remained suspended at London, and another 
part 1 

A. D. 1242. ROBERT Fixz-JoHN, again,) 

-o -^ /- 1 1 -xi c Sheriffs. 

RALPH ESWY, Goldsmith, ) 

In this year, Ralph Eswy was again made Mayor, and because his 
lordship the King was not in England, was presented to the Chief 
Justiciar of his lordship the King, that is to say, to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, at 2 Keningtone, and there sworn and admitted. And in 
the same year, about the Feast of Saint Michael, the King returned 
from Gascoigne. 

A. D. 1243. HUGH BLUNB, Goldsmith,) 

t Sheriffs. 
ADAM DE GISEBURNE, ) 

In this year, Ralph Eswy was again made Mayor, and presented to 
his lordship the King, at Westminster. In this year, there were Pleas 
of the Crown at the Tower of London on the morrow of the 3 Hokeday, 
which lasted until the Feast of Saint Barnabas the Apostle [11 June]. 
In these pleas were remitted the 4 essoins, which were wont to be presented 
on the day before the day of Pleas of the Crown at the gate of the Tower 
of London, as to the death of those who had been 5 attached until the 
holding of the Pleas of the Crown; upon the understanding that the 
sureties of such persons should be always held indemnified before the 
Justiciar, if the death of the persons so bailed should be testified by the 
Alderman and the 6 visnet. In these pleas, there was a law ordained for 
7 foreigners attached in the City for homicide, to the effect that they shall 
put themselves on the verdict of two-and-forty men sworn of the three 
Wards next adjoining, as to whether they are guilty thereof, or not ; and 
this before the Justiciary In these pleas William Bream 8 waged the 

1 The sentence is incomplete. 5 Persons suspected but allowed to go at 

2 In Surrey; where our early kings had a large, on mainpriseor bail, until the time of 
palace, and whence its name. trial. 

3 Or " Hocktide," the second Tuesday after Or " visnue, " " venue, " or neighbour- 
Easter ; when " hocking," a species of rough hood. 

and practical jokes, was extensively practised. 7 /. e. non-freemen. 

4 Lawful excuses, put in by defendants, or 8 /. e. placed himself on the verdict of 
their representatives, for non-appearance in thirty-six jurors or compurgators; who all, on 
Court. oath, pronounced him not guilty. 



JLD. 1243.] DISSENSION CAUSED BY SIMON FITZ-MARY. 11 

Great Law, and completed it excellently well. At this time his lordship 
the King took the City into his hand, that is to say, on the morrow of the 
Holy Trinity, for the harbouring of Walter Buriler, without warrant for 
so doing ; and re-delivered it unto Ralph Eswy, Mayor of London, to be 
held in his keeping, until his return from Scotland. For, a short time 
after this, he warred, with a great army, against the King of 
Scotland ; but they came to terms. 

A.D. 1244. NICHOLAS BAT, ) 

. c, . r oheriiis. 
RALPH DE Bow, 'Spioef,) 

These persons being elected and sworn on the third day before the 
Feast of Saint Michael, his lordship the King returned from Scotland to 
London on the Vigil of Saint Michael, and again took the City into his 
hand for the cause aforesaid, forbidding the Sheriffs to do any of their 
duties ; and he entrusted the City to Ralph Eswy, the then Mayor, and 
to Michael Tovy ; who held it until the Feast of Saint Luke [18 October] ; 
upon which day, the citizens made fine to the King in the sum of one 
thousand pounds. On the morrow however, the Sheriffs before-mentioned 
were presented. This year, upon the Feast of Saint 2 Dionis [8 April] 
Fulk Basset was consecrated Bishop of London, in the Church of the Holy 
Trinity at 3 Alegate. In this year, Michael Tovy was made Mayor. In 
this year his lordship the King warred against David, son of Lewelin, in 
Wales with his host. 

Upon the withdrawal of the Sheriffs from their bailiwick, the citizens 
meeting at the Guildhall, on the fourth day before the Feast of Saint 
Michael, for the election of Sheriffs, there arose a very great dissension in 
the City, through Simon Fitz-Mary ; who, understanding that the Mayor 
was wishful to admit Nicholas Bat to the Shrievalty for the following- 
year, declared that he would prove him to be a perjurer, if he should admit 
the said Nicholas to the Shrievalty for two successive years, in contra- 
vention of the oath which all the Aldermen had made, by assent of the 
whole City, fifteen years before, in manner already noticed. By reason 
whereof, out of respect for the Mayor, the said Symon surrendered his 
Aldermanry into the hands of the City, by way of 4 amercement. Upon the 

1 /. e. Dealer in spices. ' Aldgate. 

5 Or, Denis. 4 Or modified fine. 



12 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D.1244. 

Vigil of Saint Michael, certain of the populace elected Nicholas Bat, with 
the Mayor's assent, and the principal men Adam de Benetleye, saying that 
the said Nicholas ought not to be chosen for two consecutive years ; nearly 
all the Aldermen leaving the Guildhall ; and so Nicholas Bat remained 
Sheriff. 

A. D. 1245. NICHOLAS BAT, again, 

Sheriffs. 



dthj 



ADAM DE BENETLEYE, Goldsmith, 

But the said Nicholas being afterwards removed, John de Gyseorz 
was appointed in his stead. But this John being made Mayor, Robert de 
^orenhelle was made Sheriff. 

This year, Michael Tovy was elected Mayor, on the Feast of Symon 
and Jude [28 October] ; and because his lordship the King was at that time 
in Wales, he was not immediately presented': but afterwards, on the 
third day after the Feast of Saint Brice [13 November], he was presented 
to his lordship the King at Wudestok, upon his arrival from Wales ; though 
the King declined to admit him in the absence of his brother, Earl Richard, 
and named as a day for the citizens, the thirteenth day after the aforesaid 
day, at 2 Wyndlesore. 

Upon which day, the citizens and the before-named Michael came to 
the place aforesaid, bringing with them their charters as to their liberties 
and the Mayoralty ; which being read before his lordship the King, the 
King again named a day for the citizens at London, upon his arrival there. 
And when he had come to London, upon the Vigil of Saint Lucy [13 
December] he summoned all the Aldermen of the City to appear before 
him on the morrow at Westminster. All of w T hom, Michael Tovy, 
Nicholas Bat, Thomas de Dureme, Ralph Sperling, and John de Koudres 
excepted,were sworn before his lordship the King, and examined as to the 
election of Nicholas Bat ; who said, that they opposed such election, upon 
the day that it was made, because that no person ought to be Sheriff two 
consecutive years, according to the Statute of the City and the oaths of 
the Aldermen and principal men of the City, which they had made on 
that occasion fifteen years before. 

Wherefore, the said Nicholas was deposed from the Shrievalty on the 
morrow of Saint Lucy, and his lordship the King appointed John de 

1 Cornhill. 3 Windsor. 



A. D. 1245.] TETB CITIZENS TAKE QUEEN-HYTHE, AT A RENT. 13 

Gyseorz in his stead. After this however, the said John was made 
Mayor, on the second day before the Feast of Saint Hilary [13 January], 
and on the same day was presented to the King at Westminster, and 
admitted. For his lordship the King would not admit the said Michael 
Tovy to the Mayoralty, by reason of the assent given by him as before 
noticed ; whereupon, he resigned the Mayoralty, and John de Gyseorz 
was made Mayor. Afterwards, on the Feast of Saint Vincent [22 
January] the citizens, because they had only one Sheriff, elected Eobert 
de Korenhell, and he remained Sheriff. 

A.D. 1246. SYMON FITZ-MARY, 



-^ Sheriffs. 

LAUKENCE DE FKOWYK, 

In this year, the citizens of London took Queen-Hythe, they paying a 
yearly rent of fifty pounds to *Earl Richard, and sixty shillings to the 
Sick of Saint Giles's without London. In the same year, Peter 
Fitz-Alan was made Mayor ; and in the same year, that is to 
say, in the year of Grace 1246, on the 20th day of February, there 
was an earthquake at London about the 2 ninth hour. In this year, on the 
16th day of April, namely, the sister of his lordship the King, on the 
mother's side, the daughter of the Count de la Marche, came to London, 
and was married to the Earl of Warenne. 

In the same year, on the Monday next after 3 Hokeday, it was adjudged 
in the Guildhall that a woman who has been endowed with a certain and 
specified dower may not,- nor ought to, have of the chattels of her deceased 
husband, beyond the certain and specified dower assigned to her, unless 
in accordance with the will of her husband. And this befell through 
Margery, the relict of John Vyel the Elder, who, by numerous writs 
of his lordship the King, demanded in the Hustings of London the 
third part of the chattels belonging to her said husband. 

In this year, the Prior and Canons of Saint Bartholomew's, by counsel 
and aid of William de Haverille, Treasurer of his lordship the King, and of 
Johnde Koudres, their 4 Sokereve, and of Nicholas Fitz-Jocey, set up a new 
5 tron, on the Vigil of Saint Bartholomew [24 August], refusing to allow 

1 Earl of Cornwall. Soke, or place of exclusive jurisdiction. 

2 Three in the afternoon. 5 Beam, or scales, for the weighing of wool 

3 See page 10 ante. and heavy goods. 

4 Bailiff, or agent for the business of their 



14 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.i>.1246. 

any one to weigh except with that tron; and this, in contravention of 
the liberties and customs of the City. Wherefore the principal men of 
the City, together with their Mayor, Peter Fitz-Alan, and a multitude 
of the citizens, on the morrow went to the Priory of Saint Bartholomew, 
and advised the Prior and Canons of that place to make amends for that 
act of presumption, and to desist therefrom ; whereupon, they forthwith 
gave up the practice, and by the Mayor and Sheriifs of London it was 
published that every man was to sell, buy, and weigh in that market, just 
as they previously had been wont to do. In the same year died Ralph 
Eswy, 1 Mercer, on the Feast of Cosmas and Damicanus [27 September], 

A.D. 1247. WILLIAM VYEL, ) ^ 

, T -r> > Sheriffs. 

NICHOLAS BAT, again, ) 

This year, on the Translation of Saint Edward the King and Con- 
fessor 2 [9 June] a portion of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ was 
brought to London, being sent by the Patriarch of Jerusalem to his 
lordship the King, and was deposited at Westminster. In the same year, 
Michael Thovy was again made Mayor, and by precept of his lordship 
the King it was published that if any clipped penny or halfpenny 
should be found offered for the purchase of anything, the same should 
immediately be perforated. At this time, the money was entirely 
made anew, that is to say, immediately after the Feast of All Saints 
[1 November]. 

In the same year, on the Monday after the Feast of Saint Peter's 
Chains [1 August] Henry de 3 Ba, a Justiciar sent by his lordship the 
King, came to Saint Martin's le Grand, to hear the record which had 
been given upon the plaint of Margery Yyel, on the Monday after Hoke- 
day in the previous year, as already noticed in this book ; as to which 
judgment the said Margery had made complaint to his lordship the 
King, and had found pledges to prove that the same was false. Where- 
upon, the Mayor and citizens meeting there, the record having 
been read through, and all the writs of his lordship the King 
which the said Margery had obtained, having been read and heard, 
the Justiciar said: "I do not say that this judgment is false, but the 

1 In page 10 ante, he has been styled " Gold- assigned to that event, 
smith." But see p. 7. 3 Bath. 

a Or else 29 April, as both dates have been 



A. . 1247.] UNDUE ASSUMPTION OF JURISDICTION BY THE CITIZENS. 15 

" process therein is faulty, as there is no mention made in this record 
" of summons of the opponents of the said Margery, and, seeing that John 
" Vyel, her husband, made a will, it did not pertain to your Court to 
" determine such a plea as this." To which the citizens made answer; 
" There was no necessity to summon those who had possession of the 
" property of the deceased, for they were always ready, and proffered 
" to stand trial at suit of the said Margery in our Court ; and besides, 
" we were fully able to entertain such plea by assent of the two parties, 
" who did not at all claim or demand the ecclesiastical Court, and seeing 
" that his lordship the King by his writ commanded us to determine the 
"same." 

At length, after much altercation had taken place between the 
Justiciar and the citizens, the Justiciar said that they must shew all this 
to the King and his Council, and so they withdrew. Afterwards 
however, and solely for this cause, his lordship the King took the City 
into his hand, and by his writ entrusted it to the custody of William de 
Haverille and Edward de Westminster, namely, on the Vigil of Saint 
Bartholomew [24 August] ; whereupon, the Mayor and citizens went to 
the King at Wudestok, and shewed him that they had done no wrong; 
but they could not regain his favour. Wherefore upon their arrival 
in London, the aforesaid William de Haverille exacted an oath of the 
clerks and all the Serjeants who belonged to the Shrievalty, that they 
would be obedient unto him, the Mayor and Sheriffs being removed 
from their bailiwicks. Afterwards, on the Sunday before the Nativity 
of Saint Mary [8 September], the Mayor and Sheriffs, by leave of 
the King, received the City into their hands, and a day was given 
them to make answer as to the aforesaid judgment before the King and 
his Barons, namely' the morrow of the translation of Saint Edward, 
at Westminster. 

A.D. 1248. NICHOLAS FITZ-JOCEY, ) 
GEOFFREY DE WYNCESTRE,) 

In this year the citizens of London, at the request of his lordship the 
King, not compelled, and yet as though compelled, took their wares to 
the Fair of Westminster, on Saint Edward's Day [16 March] ; and also, 

1 See page 14 ante. 



16 CHRONICLES OF TI1E MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.I>. 1248. 

the citizens of many cities of England, by precept of his lordship the 
King, repaired thither with their wares ; all of whom made a stay at 
that fair of full fifteen days, all the shops and 1 selds of the merchants of 
London in the meantime being closed. 

And on the morrow of St. Edward, the Mayor and citizens appeared 
at Westminster, to make answer as to the judgment before-mentioned, 
that had been given against the aforesaid Margery Vyel, and so from day 
to day until the fourth day; upon which last day, his lordship the King 
requested them to permit the Abbot of Westminster to enjoy the franchises 
which the King had granted him in Middlesex, in exchange for other liberties 
which the citizens might of right demand. To which the citizens made 
answer, that they could do nothing as to such matter without the consent 
of the whole community. The King, however, on learning this, as though 
moved to anger, made them appear before him, and, after much alter- 
cation had passed as to the said judgment, (Henry de la Mare, a 
kinsman of the before-named Margery Vyel, constantly making allega- 
tions against the citizens), counsel being at last held before his lordship 
the King between the Bishops and Barons, the Mayor and citizens were 
acquitted and took their departure. In the same year, Michael 

Fol. 67 B. . 

Tovy was again made Mayor. 

It should be observed, that when Simon Fitz-Mary, for his offence, 
had delivered his Aldermanry into the hands of the City, as above 
noticed, by assent of the whole community the Mayor returned him 
his Aldermanry, upon condition of his conceding that if at any future 
time he should again contravene the franchises of the City, the Mayor 
might, without plea or gainsaying, take back his Aldermanry into 
the hands of the City, and wholly remove him therefrom. Where- 
fore, in this year, because the said Symon had manifestly sided with 
Margery Yyel in the complaint which she had made to his lordship the 
King as to the judgment given by the citizens as to which, as is already 
written, she herself was cast as also, for many other evil and detestable 
actions of which he had secretly been guilty against the City, the Mayor 
took his Aldermanry into his own hands, and wholly removed him there- 
from ; and the men of that Ward, receiving liberty to elect on the Monday 

1 Extensive sheds, used as warehouses for the stowage of merchandize. 



A. D. 1248.] NEWS OF THE DEFEAT OF THE KING OF FBANCE. 17 

before Mid-Lent chose Alexander le l Ferrun, and that too in his absence ; 
but he, afterwards appearing at the Hustings, was on the Monday 
following admitted Alderman. 

In the same year, upon the Feast of Saint Matthew [21 September] 
there came news to London, that the King of France, who had sailed 
with a great army of Christians against the Saracens, had taken 
2 Damiete, the most strongly fortified city in Egypt, on the preceding 
Octaves of the Holy Trinity. 

A.D. 1249. JOHN TULESAN, again, ) 

[ Sheriffs. 
RALPH HAKDEL, 3 

In this year, Roger Fitz-Roger was elected Mayor, and that too in 
his absence ; and was afterwards admitted by the King at Rochester. 
In the same year, on the third day after the Epiphany, the citizens 
recovered [on appearing] before the King, two kinds of franchise, of 
which for many years they had been deprived. For the King granted 
that the Jews, who before had been 3 held to warranty by writ of the 
Exchequer, should plead in future before the citizens as to their tene- 
ments in London. He also granted that the 4 Chirographers of the 
Chest of the Jews should [in future] be 5 tallaged like other citizens. 

In this year, on Sunday in Mid-Lent, nearly all the men, as well as 
women, of London having met together, in accordance with the precept 
of his lordship the King, in the Great Hall at Westminster, his lordship 
the King assumed the Cross with the view of setting out in aid of the 
Holy Land. It is also to be noted, that after his lordship the King had 
repeatedly requested the citizens to grant to the Abbot of West- 
minster the franchises which we have already mentioned in this record, 
in this year, on the Wednesday, namely, in the week of Pentecost, there 
was a day of 6 love appointed, at the demand of his lordship the King^ 
between the citizens and the Abbot ; upon which day, the Mayor, and 
a countless multitude of the citizens with him, came to the New Temple, 

1 Meaning, the " Ironmonger." In a sue- 3 On the transfer of property. 

ceeding page, he is named among those 4 The keepers of the starrs, deeds and con- 
banished from the City for siding with Simon tracts made by the Jews, who were regarded 
de Montfort. as the especial property of the King. 

2 Damietta, in Egypt ; which was taken by 5 Or " taxed." 
Louis IX. King of France, on the 6th of 6 Or " reconciliation." 
April, 1249. 

I) 



18 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYOKS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1249. 

where the Abbot was, there being also present William de Haverill, the 
Treasurer, Henry de Ba, Roger de Turkelby, John de Gratesdene, 
Justiciars, and others who had been sent thither by the King. Upon 
these desiring to hold a conference with the Mayor and Aldermen, the 
whole of the populace opposed it, and would not allow them, without 
the whole of the commons being present, to treat at all of the matter ; 
all of them exclaiming with one voice that in no point would they recede 
from their wonted franchises, which, by Charters of his lordship the 
King and his predecessors, they possessed. 

Upon this, a day was given them by the Justiciars to appear before 
his lordship the King at l Wyndlesore, the Tuesday following, namely ; 
and solely for this reason, the King took the City into his hands, and 
delivered it to. William, the Treasurer, and to Peter Blund, the Con- 
stable of the Tower, all the clerks and Serjeants of the SherifFwick 
paying obedience to them. On the day appointed, the Mayor 
and citizens appeared at Wyndlesore ; when the King, wishing 
to harass them, compelled them, through his Justiciars, to shew cause 
why they had gainsayed the Charter which he had granted to the Abbot 
of Westminster, and why they had not permitted the men, who by his 
precept had been placed in inquisition for causing a tumult in the mat- 
ter between the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Canons of Saint 
Bartholomew's, to make oath as to the same. For, a short time before 
this, the said Archbishop wished to hold a visitation among the said Canons, 
a thing that they would not permit. The citizens however made 
answer, that they had had no day named for pleading there against 
the Abbot of Westminster, and that out of the City of London they 
were not bound to plead ; and that if they had been bound to plead 
thereon, they ought not to receive any judgment as to the same in the 
absence of their peers, the Earls, namely, [and] Barons of England ; as 
also, that no man of London ought to swear in any inquisition, except 
in accordance with the oath which he had [already] made to his lordship 
the King, and in virtue of the fealty in which he is bound to him, 
unless it be a case where one might lose life or limb, or lose land or 
gain it. After this, consultation being held between the King and his 

1 Windsor. 



A.D. 1249.] THE CITIZENS EXEMPTED FROM PONTAGE. 19 

Council, the City was restored to the citizens, and day was given them 
until the Translation of Saint Edward [13 October]. 

In the same year, about the Feast of Saint James [25 July] there 
came news to London, alas ! that the King of France, before-mentioned, 
had been captured by the Saracens, his brothers and nearly all the 
Christian army being taken or slain. He himself however, a short time 
after, was ransomed by the Templars and Hospitallers. 

A. D. 1250. WILLIAM FiTZ-KiCHARD X LE PRESTRE,) 

HUMPHREY LB FEVRE, J Sheriffs. 

In this year, John Norman was made Mayor. In the same year, 
on the Monday after the Feast of Saint Michael, it was enacted by the 
citizens, that the Wardens of the Bridge, from that day forward, should 
have, take, or claim, nothing from the ships or property of citizens passing 
through the 2 iniddle of the Bridge; whereas, before they had been 
wont to take twelve pence for every ship belonging to a citizen, the 
same as foreigners. 

In the same year died 3 Fretheric, Emperor of the Romans, who 
had taken to wife a 4 sister of King Henry, daughter of King John ; and the 
5 Pope departed from Lyons to Milan. 

A. D. 1251. NICHOLAS BAT, again, 



LAURENCE DE FROWYK, again, 

In this year, there were Pleas of the Crown held at the Tower o 
London on the morrow of Saint Michael; at which pleas, Alexander de 
Minynes, John Duraunte, Andrew le 6 Pepperer, and William Duraunte, 
made the r Great Law ; and in like manner, Thomas de Faleyse and 
Iseuda de Tateshall, who had 8 waged the Great Law in the pleas that 
were last pleaded at the Tower, then fulfilled the same. Also, John, 
le Clerc by name, failed in making his law, and was therefore condemned 
to death. 

In the same year, at the Feast of the Translation of Saint Edward 
[13 October], the citizens of London, at the request of his lordship the 

1 " The Priest." 6 Dealer in pepper and spices. 

2 At the drawbridge. 7 1. e. proved their innocence on the oath of 

3 Frederic II. who died in Apulia, 13 De- thirty-six compurgators or jurors. 

cember, 1 250. 8 1. e. had given pledge to take their trial 

4 Isabella. in this form. As to the case of Iseuda de 

5 Innocent IV. Tateshall, see the Liber Albus, folio 33 A. 



20 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1251. 

King, offered large tapers at the altar of Saint Edward,, namely, at every 
1 Office, one square taper of wax. In this year, Adam de Basing was 
made Mayor, on the Feast of Symon and Jude [28 October]. In this 
year, on the Feast of Saint Stephen [26 December] 2 during the 
Nativity, his lordship the King gave Margaret, his eldest daughter, in 
marriage to the King of Scotland. This year, on the morrow of Saint 
John the Baptist [24 June], there was intense heat, which lasted five 
days. 

A.D. 1252. WILLIAM DE DURESME, ) 

m ITT i Sheriffs. 

THOMAS DE W YMBURNE,) 

This year, John Tulesan was made Mayor. In the same year, on 

Tuesday, the thirteenth day of May, the Archbishop of Canterbury 

and other thirteen Bishops, in the Great Hall at Westminster, 

with the assent of his lordship the King, and in his presence and 

that of Earl Richard, his brother, and many other Earls and Barons, 

arrayed in pontificals and with lighted 3 tapers, excomunicated all those 

who should contrive or do aught whereby the liberties contained in the 

Charters which he had made to the Barons of his realm, in the ninth 

year of his reign, should in any point after that day be infringed or 

nullified. 

Afterwards, on the morrow of Our Lord's Ascension, on the 30th 
day of May, namely, by precept of his lordship the King, the whole 
community of London was assembled in the churchyard at West- 
minster; where his lordship the King took leave of them, saying 
that he was about to cross over into Gascoigne ; and gave orders 
that all persons in the City should meet together, on the Sunday 
following, at Saint Paul's Cross, in presence of those whom he should 
send thither, and there make oath of fealty to Sir Edward, his son, 
and to his Queen, to whose charge he was about to commit his kingdom. 
Afterwards, this matter was postponed until the Tuesday in Pentecost ; 
on which day, the whole commons of the City did fealty at the Cross 
aforesaid, to Sir Edward, and in his presence, saving their fealty to 
his lordship the King. 

1 Portion, or fresh division, of the service 3 For the Formula of Excommunication then 
of the Roman Church. pronounced, see Statutes of the Realm (1815). 

2 1. e. in Christmas week. Vol. I. p. 6. 



A.D. 1252.] EXTORTIONS PRACTISED UPON THE JEWS. 2 1 

At the same time, the King exacted from all the Jews a whole 
moiety of all their moveables, giving them credit by their a starrs for the 
same; and by his writ gave orders to the Justiciars assigned for the 
custody of the Jews, that if any Jew, by the tenth day after sight of 
the said writ, should not have made satisfaction for his tallage, such 
person should be outlawed, and Dovre should be assigned for him and all 
his household as the port for sailing with the first wind, never to return ; 
this however was afterwards not persisted in. At the same time, the 
King by a new Charter confirmed unto the citizens of London all their 
franchises, laws, and customs, as also those which they had in the time 
of King Henry the First, both used and disused ; and further granted, 
that seven pounds sterling should be allowed yearly to the Sheriffs in their 
2 ferm, for the liberty of the Church of Saint Paul ; and that the Mayor, 
who was wont to be presented to the King only, wherever in England he 
might be, should in future be presented to the Barons of the Exchequer 
at Westminster, in case the King should not be in London at the time 
when the Mayor was elected. It should also be known, that the citizens 
then gave unto his lordship the King five hundred marks for obtaining 
that Charter. 

Afterwards, on the Wednesday before the Feast of Saint Laurence 
[10 August] his lordship the King put to sea, to cross over to Gascoigne. 

A.D. 1253. KlCHARD PlKARD, ) 

JOHN DE NORHAMPTON,) k 

In this year, on a Friday, after dinner, it being the tenth day of 
October, the water of Thames rose to a greater height than ever it had 
done in our times. In the same year, Nicholas Bat was made Mayor, and 
on the morrow was presented to the Barons of the Exchequer at West- 
minster, and sworn and admitted, in manner granted to the citizens by 
Charter of his lordship the King, of which mention has been made above 
in this record. In this year, about the Feast of Saint Michael, it was 
enacted by the whole community, that the bailiwick of Bridge Street and 
of Queen-Hythe, which previously they used to let to ferm, should be 

1 Deeds of acquittance so called, peculiar to land, which had been granted as a Soke, or 

transactions with the Jews. See p. 17 ante. place of exclusive jurisdiction, to the Dean 

8 Rents and payments due to the Exche- and Chapter of St. Paul's, 
quer. This payment was for a small piece of 



22 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1253. 

held by the Sheriffs, whoever they might be, they paying therefor fifty 
pounds yearly to his lordship the King, and sixty shillings to the Hospital 
of Saint Giles, and to the commons of the City twenty-seven pounds. 

In this year, it was enacted by the community, that no one of the 
franchise of the City should in future pay 1 scavage for his beasts sold on 
the field of 2 Smethefeld, as before they had been wont. In this 
year, about the season of Lent the Sheriffs of Middlesex, by 
precept of his lordship the King, caused all the wears to be destroyed that 
stood in the Thames towards the West ; and at this time, many nets which 
were 3 injurious, were burnt in Westchep. Afterwards, and before Pente- 
cost, the Sheriffs of London, seeing that the water of Thames pertains 
unto London, by precept of his lordship the King destroyed all the other 
wears from London to the sea. In the same year, on the 29th day of May, 
her ladyship the Queen put to sea, to cross over to her lord the King, 
in Gascoigne ; and her son Edward with her, to espouse the sister of 
the King of Spaku 

A.D. 1254. WILLIAM ESWY, Mercer,) 

^ T f oherilis. 

ROBERT DE LINTON, ) 

In this year, Ralph Hardel was elected Mayor of London, and 
because the Barons of the Exchequer were then at the Parliament 
at Wyndlesore, he was not presented on the morrow ; but on the day 
after, the citizens, bringing with them their new Charter, presented 
him to the said Barons, who would not admit him without Writ of 
his lordship the King; saying that the Mayor, in the preceding year, 
was not admitted by reason of the new Charter, but by assent of her 
ladyship the Queen, then at Westminster, to whose custody the 
kingdom had been entrusted. And immediately after this, the Barons 
shewed a writ of his lordship the King, by which precept was 
given to them that they should take the City into the King's hands, 
for non-observance in the City of the assize of bread and ale. 
And although the citizens ought not to be molested for such a 
default as this, but only the Sheriffs, if convicted thereof; still, the 
City was taken into the King's hands, and delivered into the custody 

1 A duty payable for the shewage of goods to 2 Smithfield ; so called as being the smetfie, 
be sold. or level, field. 

3 By reason of the smallness of the meshes. 



A. D. 1254. j THE CITIZENS SUMMONED BEFOBE THE KING. 23 

of John de Gyseorz, the said John being sworn before the Barons ; 
after which, the clerks and all the Serjeants of the Sheriffs, as also the 
Wardens of the Gates, the Thames, and the Gaol, were there sworn. 
And all this had been discussed in the Parliament aforesaid, because * 
the citizens, being divided among themselves, would not appear 
there before Earl Richard, as they had promised him, to put an end 
to a matter on which they had frequently entreated him before, 
namely, the Exchange. Afterwards, the citizens waited upon the Earl, 
to entreat his favour ; whereupon, he named for them a day at London, 
saying that he would do nothing therein without counsel of the King, 
to whom a moiety of the issues of the Exchange belonged. After this, 
on the third day after the 1 Feast of Saint Edmund the Archbishop, 
the citizens of Westminster made fine to the said Earl before the 
Council of his lordship the King, in a sum of 600 marks; whereupon, 
all claims were remitted on account of the Exchange, and the Mayor 
and Sheriffs were restored to their bailiwicks. 

In this year the King returned from Gascoigne, and passing through 
the midst of France with the safe-conduct of the King of France, put to 
sea at 2 Wytsant, and landed at Dover in the week of Our Lord's Nativity, 
on Saint John's Day [27 December] ; the Queen also then came, Sir 
Edward, the King's son, remaining in Gascoigne, with the King of 
Spain's sister, whom he had just married; his father having given 
him Gascoigne, Ireland, the Earldom of Chester, Bristowe with its 
Castle, 3 Staunford, and whatever he held in the parts of Wales. 
After this, on the second day before the Epiphany [6 January], the 
King, coming to London, summoned the Mayor and citizens to 
appear before him immediately after the Epiphany ; and wished 
to*make them answerable for the escape of John de Froine, who had been 
taken and imprisoned in Neuwegate, as having been indicted for consenting 
to the death of a certain Prior from beyond sea, who belonged to the house- 
hold of the Bishop of Hereford. To this the citizens made answer, that the 
custody of the Gaol does not belong to them, but to the Sheriffs only. 
Whereupon, answer was made to them by the King, that as they make 

1 Either 16 or 17 November ; it is uncer- 2 Witsand, near Calais, 
tain which. 3 Stamford, in Lincolnshire. 



24 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D 1254. 

the Sheriffs, they themselves ought to be answerable for them. To this 
the citizens said, that they do not make the Sheriffs, but only have to 
choose them, and present them to the Barons of his lordship the King ; 
and that such Sheriffs can do nothing in respect of their office, before 
they have been admitted at the Exchequer ; that in no point ought they 
to be answerable for the Sheriffs, save only as to the ferm due from the 
Sheriffwick, and only then, when the Sheriffs themselves are not of 
sufficient means to pay the ferm. 

At length, after much altercation, the Sheriffs were taken and delivered 
to the Marshal of the King's Court, and on the morrow were imprisoned 
in the Tower of London; where they remained a month and more. 
Afterwards, about the Feast of the Purification of Saint Mary [2 
February], for many reasons shown to the King, the Sheriffs were 
released on surety of the Mayor ; but the King, being moved to anger 
beyond measure at such escape, would not allow the Sheriffs to remain 
in office as such. Wherefore the citizens removed them and elected 
others, on the first Monday in Lent, namely, Stephen de Oystergate 
[and] Henry de Waleraund. 

A.D. 1255. MATTHEW BUKEREL,} 
JOHN LE MYNUR, $ S 

This year, upon the Feast of Saint Eldreda [23 June] which was on a 
Sunday, the sister of the King of Spain, wife of Sir Edward, eldest son 
of his lordship the King, came to London, and a countless multitude of 
Bishops, Earls, Barons, Knights, and citizens, went forth from the City 
to meet her, as also his lordship the King, in person; the City of London 
being most nobly tapestried and arrayed. 

In this year, seeing that it is specified in the Charters as to the 
Mayoralty, that the citizens may remove their Mayor at the end of the 
year, and substitute another, or retain him, if they will, on condition that 
he be presented to the King, Ealph Hardel was continued Mayor, and 
did not even vacate the Mayoralty, as all the Mayors before had been 
wont to do ; and on the third day was presented to the King, sitting at 
the Exchequer, and there admitted, not being sworn, but only charged 
in accordance with the oath that he had made in the preceding year. 
On the same day, the King took the City into his hand, because the 



A.D. 125-5.] ACCUSATION AGAINST CERTAIN JEWS OF LINCOLN. 25 

citizens, who had been repeatedly pressed for the l Queen's Gold, would 
not agree to pay it; and so the City remained in the hands of the 
Treasurer, to whom the King had entrusted it, until the Octaves of Saint 
Martin [11 November] ; on which day, by writ of his lordship the King, 
the City was restored to the citizens, in accordance with their request 
made at Windlesore. 

In the same year, upon the Feast of Saint Cecilia [22 November], 
which was on a Monday, two-and-ninety Jews were brought to West- 
minster from Lincoln, and were imprisoned in the Tower of London, for 
the death of a certain male child, whom they purposely slew at Lincoln, in 
despite of the Christian faith. Eighteen of these, who, when the King 
was at Lincoln, had declined to put themselves upon the verdict of 
Christians, without Jews, as concerning that death, and had been then 
indicted for the same before the King, were on the same day 
drawn, and, after the hour of dinner, and towards the close of 
the day, hanged. The other 74 were taken back to the Tower. 

In the same year, Sir Edward, the King's eldest son, came to London 
from Gascoigne, on the Vigil of Saint Andrew [30 November], the City 
being handsomely hung with tapestry for the occasion. In this year, the 
Queen, for a sum of 400 marks, remitted to the citizens of London all 
claim which she had against them on account of her Gold ; which Gold all 
the other men of the realm were wont to pay upon fine made to his lord- 
ship the King. In the same year, the King of Scotland and his Queen, 
daughter of the King of England, came into England, and, on the 
Assumption of Saint Mary [15 August] were with his lordship the King 
at Wudestok ; upon which day, the said King held a great and most 
noble Court, nearly all his Earls and Barons being present. After this, 
on the Sunday before the Decollation of Saint John [29 August] the 
King of Scotland and his Queen came to London, the City being 
decorated and hung with tapestry. 

A.D. 1256. WILLIAM ESWY, Draper/; 

-o > Sheriffs. 

RICHARD DE EWELLE, > 

Be it observed, that whereas in past times the new Sheriffs were wont, 
on the Vigil of Saint Michael in each year, to ride with the citizens to 
Neugate, to receive charge of the prisoners there, and then to all the 

1 A compulsory charge of ten per cent, in favour of the Queen Consort, upon certain fines. 

E 



26 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. I25fi. 

Gates of the City, to exact fealty and trustiness of those who receive 
the City customs ; this year, all the servants who pertain unto the 
Shrievalty, came to the Guildhall upon the same day, and there, before 
the Mayor and citizens, plighted their faith a in the Sheriffs' hands, that, 
they would be faithful, every one in his office, so long as in their service 
they should remain. This year, Ralph Hardel was again chosen Mayor, 
on the Feast of Symon and Jude [28 October], and, his lordship the King 
not being in London, was presented to the Barons of the Exchequer and 
there admitted. 

In this year, on the Monday before the Feast of Saint Andrew 
[30 November], William de Munchanesey appeared at the Hustings, 
and had the testament read of Paulina his deceased wife, daughter of 
Reginald de Bungeye, by which she had devised all her tenements in 
London; and proffered to prove the same, as is the custom of the City 
as to testaments, touching any tenement, land, or rent. To which, answer 
was made by the persons who alleged that .they were the heirs of the 
said Paulina, that it was not necessary to prove that testament, as it was 
not a reasonable one. For that she was not able to devise any tenement, 
seeing that she was under her husband's control. At length, after much 
altercation had taken place between the parties, the Mayor and citizens, 
having held conference thereon in the Chamber, came and said, that no 
married woman can, or ought to, devise any tenement of hers, and that 
if she does so, it must be revoked as void; for that no sale, gift, lease, or 
alienation, which a woman, having a husband, makes as to land, tene- 
ments, or rents, ought to stand good, unless she comes to the Hustings 
with her husband, and openly makes oath as to the same. 

Be it remembered, that in the same year, at the Feast of the Inno- 
cents [28 December], in the Chapel of Saint Stephen at Westminster, 
before his lordship the King and his Council, Sir Richard, Earl of Corn- 
wall, brother of the said King, gave assent to the election made by the 
princes of 2 Almaine, who had chosen him to be their King. At the 
same hour on that day, there was a great tempest, and thunder 

Fol. 70 B. * fe 

and lightning, at London and elsewhere. 
It has usually been the custom, when wares which have to be sold 

1 I. P.. their hands placed within those of the 2 Or Germany. 
Sheriff. 



A.D. 1266.] ENACTMENT AS TO THE WEIGHING OF MONEY. 27 

by balance, are weighed, for the draught of the balance to incline on the 
wares side, the case of gold and silver excepted, which are always 
weighed with the pin standing midway, and inclining neither towards 
the weight nor towards the gold or silver ; and consequently, that the 
weigher, who weighs in the City by the balance of his lordship the 
King, is able, by reason of such draught, to give a greater weight to 
one person than to another, through favour, may be, or through fear, or 
through a bribe passing between them, or perhaps inadvertence. It was 
therefore provided and enacted on the Saturday after the Feast of 
Saint Nicholas [6 December], in the one-and- fortieth year of the reign of 
King Henry, son of King John, that all wares which have to be weighed 
by the King's balances in the City, shall be weighed like gold and silver, 
the draught in no degree inclining towards the wares ; and that, in lieu 
of such draught, the vendor ought to give to the buyer four pounds in 
every hundred. At the same time, it was provided that the weigher 
ought to receive, for his trouble, one halfpenny for every hundred 
pounds by him weighed ; but where there are several hundred pounds, 
one farthing for every hundred, and in the same manner, for a thousand 
weight two pence halfpenny. 

In the same year, Henry de Ba, the Justiciar, came to the Guildhall 
of London, bringing to the Mayor and Sheriffs a writ from his lordship 
the King; who thereupon summoned before him all the vintners of the 
City. The Justiciar wishing to amerce all of these for breach of the 
assize of wine, the citizens made answer, that the vintners who had 
broken the assize ought, and are wont, solely to be amerced at the Com- 
mon Pleas of the Crown, and not before a Justiciar at the Tower. To 
whom the Justiciar made answer that this will not satisfy his lordship 
the King, for that it does not seem just or right that they may break the 
assize for seven years or more with impunity, and only once be amerced 
for so many offences. To which reply was made, that his lordship the 
King both is wont to, and may, whenever he pleases, upon election by 
the citizens, appoint two wardens to keep that assize, in manner as here- 
tofore ; such wardens being now dead, and the citizens having had no 
precept since for the election of others. That the same wardens too, 
when any one is convicted of breach of the assize, ought to sell the wine 
found in the tun, in reference to which the breach has been committed, 



28 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1256. 

and to produce the money at the Pleas of the Crown holden before the 
Justiciars, the transgressor nevertheless being there also amerced. At 
length, after much altercation had taken place, the matter was postponed 
for conference thereon with the King. After this, the Mayor and citizens 
waited upon the King at Wyndlesore, who named for them a future day 
at London, at the holding of Parliament in Mid-Lent. 

In the same year, during Lent and in Easter week, there came 
several princes of Almaine to London, namely, the Archbishop of 
Cologne, and other Bishops, Dukes, and Counts, who all did homage to 
his lordship Earl Richard, in presence of his lordship the King, his 
brother, they having elected him King of Almaine. After this, on 
Thursday in the same week, he took his departure from London, jour- 
neying towards the sea, his wife being with him, as also his son Henry, 
by his first wife, mother of the Earl of Gloucester; and putting to sea 
at * Gernemue on the 27th day of April, on the Feast of Philip and 
James [1 May] they landed at 2 Thurdrakt, which is situate on the 
water called " Musele." Afterwards, on Our Lord's Ascension, he was 
crowned, as set forth in the Letter underwritten: 

" Richard, by the grace of God King of the Romans, ever Au- 
" gust, to the Mayor and citizens of London, health and all bless- 
" ings. We do the more joyfully and in especial retain in our heart the more 
" propitious and marked events that attend our elevation, inasmuch as we 
" do believe that the pleasures thereof are doubled by congratulation : and 
ee the more especially do we find a threefold degree of exhilaration in our 
" joyousness, when we feel assured that the same has reached your ears, 
" confident as we are that the same are always ready, in the purity of your 
" good faith and the zeal of your warm affection, attentively to listen to 
" news of our well-being ; while at the same time, in our own affection 
" towards you, we do feel a longing regret which tells us how much more 
" rejoiced we should have been rather to converse with you personally 
" hereon, and upon certain other festive matters, than give you informa- 
" tion thereof through the agency of writing, acting as our interpreter. 
" To the end, however, that a full and certain knowledge may be im- 
" parted to you of all the joyous events that have befallen us since we took 
" our departure from among you, we have deemed it proper that the 

J Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 8 Dort, or Dortrecht, situate on the Maas. 



A.D. 1256.] LETTER TO THE CITIZENS FROM THE KING OP THE ROMANS. 29 

" present page, indicative of the events aforesaid, should unto you 
"be directed; intimating thereby, as matter for your congratulation, 
(f that on the Sunday next after the Feast of Saint Mark the Evan- 
"gelist [25 April], attended by our suite, we took ship at 1 Jernemue. 
" On the Tuesday following, the day, namely, of the blessed Apostles 
" Philip and James [1 May], all, as well ourselves and our family as our 
" suite, being well alike in person and in effects, we reached the town of 
" 2 Durdreych, situate in the midst of the dominions of the Count of 3 Hoy- 
" land ; and, after staying there two days to take some repose after our 
" fatigues, on the third day we took our departure therefrom, and then con- 
" tinuing our progress, through the countries of Hoyland and Gelderland, 
" on the Friday before the Feast of Our Lord's Ascension arrived at Aix ; 
" the more illustrious and more worthy of the men thereof, clergy, that is 
" to say, as well as laity, nobles, knights, and all other the citizens, meeting 
" us at our entrance into the said city, and receiving us magnificently and 
" honourably amid the greatest joyousness and jubilation, glad and re- 
joicing, without any obstacle or difficulty whatsoever intervening. And 
" it is our belief, so far as in these lands the testimony bears witness of 
" general and wide-spread report, that for the last two hundred years, no 
" one of the Roman Emperors or Kings, upon newly commencing his rule, 
" has ever without grave offence, or opposition and gainsaying thereon, 
" entered the city of Aix. And while after so entering the said city, it 
" was necessary for us to make a somewhat long sojourn therein, behold ! 
" certain rumours, cherished by our warmest desires, reached us, joy- 
" ously making known unto us that the Archbishop of Treves, the enemy 
" of our advancement, who, to the detriment of our name and honour, with 
" a vast multitude of armed men had laid siege to our Castle and Palace 
" of Bopardt, and had prepared many engines for the capture thereof 
" had been attacked by our beloved prince, the venerable Archbishop of 
" Mentz ; who, with the aid of a great body of warriors from among our 
"faithful subjects, out of respect for our name had hastened to the relief 
" of the said Castle, and to the assistance of the people there besieged, and 
" on the Wednesday next after the 4 Feast of Saint John Port Latin [6 

1 Yarmouth, in Norfolk. remembrance of the Evangelist being cast 

2 Dortrecht. into a cauldron of boiling oil, before the 

3 Holland. Latian Gate at Rome. 

4 The Day of St. John Port Latin was in 



30 CHRONICLES OP THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1256. 

" May] had manfully engaged the said Archbishop of Treves ; not with- 
" out slaughter of his partisans, while many of his knights and other 
" accomplices were made prisoners, the Archbishop himself, at the close 
" of the battle, by the aid of a disgraceful flight avoiding the 
" punishment of death, or at least the peril of being taken cap- 
" tive. And thus, our said Castle being, by the aid of the aforesaid 
" Archbishop of Mentz and other our faithful people, happily relieved 
" from the blockade of the besiegers and the assaults of the foe, and ex- 
" cellently well supplied with provisions and such other valiant defenders 
" as were needed, the same Archbishop of Mentz at Aix presented himself 
" before us. Where, on the Feast of Our Lord's Ascension, himself and 
" the Archbishop of Cologne being present, as also many other Bishops, 
" Dukes, Counts, and Barons, peers and nobles of our realm, and faithful sub- 
" jects of ours, we did. upon the throne of 1 Charles the Great,withall befitting 
" solemnity, in the name of Him 2f Who resisteth the proud, but giveth 
" grace to the humble,' receive the sceptre of the Holy Roman Empire, and 
ss the crown thereof; our most dear consort being in like manner on the same 
" day solemnly crowned together with us, as was befitting. At length, 
" the feast of our coronation having been celebrated with great solemnity 
" and rejoicing, and the counsels of our well-beloved princes and other 
" our faithful subjects as to our own affairs having been communicated to 
" us, it seemed unto ourselves and to them, that it would be most in 
" accordance with the elevation that had by vote been conferred upon 
" us, that we should immediately, without loss of time, proceed to the 
" humbling of those who were rebelling against us, and more especially, 
" and first thing of all, turn all our endeavours towards breaking the horns 
" of him of Treves who had raised them against us ; that so, as he was the 
(f first of all, in our matters, to shew himself not so much a just and a 
" reasonable [opponent] as a willing embroiler, he may be the first to 
" experience and to learn what and how much to his detriment our hand 
" both can and may effect. As to this however we would especially have 
" you informed, that we do now trust that so great is our power in 
" Almaine, through the aid of our faithful subjects and supporters, that, 
" while they continue to cherish their fealty towards us, and remain 
" zealous in their devotion in our behalf, the power of no man living will 
1 Or, Charlemagne. a James iv. 6, and 1 Peter v. 5. 



A.D. 1256.] AGREEMENT MADE WITH THE ABBOT OF WALTHAM. 31 

" be an object of fear to us. Given at Aix, this 18th day of May, in the 
" first year of our reign." 

In this year, about the Feast of Saint 1 Peter's Chains [1 August], the 
King of England fought, with a great army, against Llewellin, son of 
Griffin, the Prince of Wales, and against other Welshmen who had 
risen against the King, because that Sir Edward, the King's son, would 
not treat them in accordance with their customs. Accordingly, coming 
with his army to the castle that is called 2 "Ghennok," he remained there 
until the Nativity of the Blessed Mary [8 September], awaiting his men 
from Ireland, for whom he had sent ; but as they did not come, his 
lordship the King seeing that he could not crush the Welsh, unless 
with a great multitude of foot-soldiers accompanying him, he withdrew, 
having placed garrisons in his castles. 

This year, about the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary 
[8 September], peace was made between the citizens of London and the 
Abbot of Waltham, who before had been at variance, because that the 
Abbot would exact Stallage of them in the Fair of Waltham ; for which 
reason all the people of London withdrew, refusing to resort to the said 
Fair of Waltham for three years and more. And the agreement 
so made was to the effect, that the Abbot returned to the 
citizens of London all the distresses that had been taken for the said 
stallage, and for such distresses as had been lost and had become 
spoiled, the value thereof in money ; and he further granted that in 
future the citizens might resort to the said fair, and there stand acquitted 
of all stallage for ever. 

4 A.D. 1257. THOMAS FITZ-THOMAS, ) 
ROBERT DE CATELONIE,$ 

The said Robert dying however, on the morrow of Saint Lucy 
[13 December] Matthew Bukerel, was made Sheriff; but on the Ides 
[13] of February was removed, and William Grapefige was made Sheriff 
in his place. 

In this year, the King issued a new coinage, of golden pennies, each 

1 Or, Saint Peter " ad Vincula" stalls. 

2 Glamorgan. 4 " In this year Ralph was continued 

3 A payment for the privilege of erecting * Mayor." Marginal Note. 



32 CHRONICLES OF THE MA.YOBS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1257. 

two Sterlings in weight, and of the purest gold ; and it was his will that 
such gold coin should pass current in value for twenty sterlings. 

This year, on the Sunday next after the Feast of All Saints [1 No- 
vember] the Mayor and citizens appearing before his lordship the King 
at the Exchequer in obedience to his precept, he put them to the ques- 
tion, conjuring them by the fealty in which they were bound to him, 
that they would certify him, according to their consciences, whether the 
aforesaid coinage would be beneficial and for the common weal of his 
kingdom, or not. Accordingly, holding counsel and conference thereon 
among themselves, they appeared before the King and said, that through 
that coinage the greatest detriment might accrue to his realm, and more 
especially to the poor of his realm, the chattels of very many of whom 
are not worth in value a single gold coin. And further, they said that 
through that coinage gold would be held of much lower value, when that 
money should come to be dispersed in so many hands; a thing that was 
already evident, seeing that sheet gold, which always used to be worth 
2 ten marks, was then worth nine marks only, or even eight. Whereupon, 
after they had set forth many reasons why that coinage would prove 
otherwise than beneficial, his lordship the King replied^: " It is my will 
ei that this coinage shall pass current, the penny for twenty sterlings, 
" but that no one shall be compelled to take it ; and whosoever shall take 
" it, shall be at liberty to exchange it wherever he may please, without 
" hindrance therein ; and if he shall think proper, he may come to our 
" Exchange, and shall have for every such golden penny nineteen 3 pence 
" and one half-penny. 

This year, on the Monday next after the Feast of Saint Hilary [13 

January], it was provided that, whereas the Sheriffs at their own option 

had taken money of the merchants of Normandy who bring woad into the 

City, for leave to harbour the same; by reason whereof they 

were excessively oppressed ; in future, the merchants should be 

at liberty to import their woad, and should give to the Sheriffs seven 

shillings for such leave on every 4 frail, besides one half-penny on 

every quarter for custom. 

1 A sterling was a silver penny. 3 L e. sterlings, or silver pennies. 

2 By the ounce. 4 Large packages made of wicker or osier. 



A.D. 1257.] CHARGE AGAINST THE MAYOR, AND ENQUIRY THEREON. 33 

This year, shortly before the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed 
Mary [2 February], a certain roll was found in the Wardrobe of his lord- 
ship the King at Wyndlesore, sealed with green wax, and placed there by 
some person unknown, in which were set forth many articles against the 
Mayor ; to the effect that the City had been aggrieved by him and his 
abettors, beyond measure, as well in respect of tallage as of other injuries 
that had been committed by them. Wherefore, his lordship the King, 
wishing to know the truth thereof, sent John Maunsel to London on the 
Conversion of Saint Paul [25 January], and had the Folkmote sum- 
moned on the Sunday following. Upon which day, he had the said roll 
read before all the people, there being there present the 2 Earl of Glou- 
cester, Henry de 3 Ba, and others of the Council of his lordship the 
King, saying that the King would not allow his city to be aggrieved, 
but desired to be certified as to what rich men had been favoured in the 
tallages, and what poor men aggrieved, and whether the Mayor and his 
advisers had appropriated anything out of the tallages to their own use; 
and further, commanded all the Aldermen, early in the morning of the mor- 
row, to summon their Wardmotes; and also, commanded that the men of 
each Ward should there, in the absence of the Alderman, choose from their 
number six-and-thirty men who before had been tallaged ; all of whom 
were on the same day, about the 4 first hour, to appear at Saint Paul's, 
before him and others of the King's Council, who should be sent thither. 
And accordingly so it was done, and these six-and-thirty men appearing 
on the morrow in the hall of the Bishop of London, in the presence 
of John Maunsel [and] Henry de Ba, Justiciars, Henry de Wengham, 
Chancellor, Philip Lovel, Treasurer, and others of the King's Council, the 
aforesaid John spoke and gave orders on behalf of his lordship the King, 
that the persons should certify them upon the said articles on oath. 
But they said that, according to the laws of the City, they ought not to 
make oath upon any inquest, except where it was a question of life and 
limb, or where land was to be lost or gained ; but that they ought only to 
be adjured by the oath which they had made unto the King, and in virtue 
of the fealty in which they are bound unto God and the King ; and so, 



1 Or, Candlemas. 3 Or, Bath. 

2 Richard de Clare. 4 From six to seven in the morning. 

F 



34 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. I>- D - 1257 - 

much altercation taking place between the Justiciars and the citizens, 
nothing was done on that day. 

A day therefore was named for the citizens, being the morrow, at the 
Guildhall; upon which day, the before-named John Maunsel 
coming into the Guildhall, together with the King's Council, 
the citizens again refused to agree to make oath in the inquisition afore- 
said. But on the morrow, on the Wednesday, that is to say, before the 
Purification of the Blessed Mary [2 February], upon the King approach- 
ing Westminster, the Mayor and citizens went forth to salute him, as 
the usage is, as far as 1 Kniwtebrigge : the King however sent thither 
a certain esquire, commanding them not to appear in his presence. 
Wherefore the citizens, perceiving that the King was moved to anger, 
returned home forthwith, without addressing the King. Afterwards, 
on the Vigil of the Purification, the Mayor and a countless multitude 
meeting in the Guildhall, Michael Tovy and Adam de Basing were sent 
thither by his lordship the King, to say that the King was willing to 
preserve all their franchises unimpaired ; but that, for the benefit of the 
City, he was wishful that inquisition should be made, and that too upon 
oath, by what persons his commons had been so aggrieved in reference to 
tallages and other instances of transgression ; as also, that no one should be 
punished unless he had offended, and that too, without detriment to the 
community. In the same words John Maunsel and the others, sent by 
the King, made affirmation ; and so, by reason of such words and pleasant 
promises, the populace gave assent, crying aloud, 2 " Ya, ya, " to taking 
the oath, in disparagement of their own franchises ; which in fact these 
same most wretched creatures had not been the persons to secure. 

Upon the same day, the said John forthwith seized the City into the 
hand of his lordship the King, the Mayor, Sheriffs, and King's Cham- 
berlain being removed, though no one of them had been in any way con- 
victed ; and then delivered it into the custody of the Constable of the 
Tower, and substituted Michael Tovy and John Addrien in place of the 
Sheriffs. On the same day, there were delivered to the said John Maun- 
sel all the rolls of the tallages that had theretofore been made; all which 

1 Knightsbridge. an officer whose duty it was to collect prisage 

2 The early form of 'Tea, Yea." and other revenues for the King. 

3 In early times, the City Chamberlain was 



A.D. 1257.] CHARGES AGAINST THE MAYOR, ADOPTED BY THE KING. 35 

he caused to be sealed, and then returned them to the Chamberlain of the 
City. After this, on the morrow of the Purification, and so from day to 
day, there appeared before the said John in the Chamber of the Guild- 
hall, or else before the 1 Constable and others who had been sent thither 
by the King, six-and-thirty men of every Ward ; the same six-and-thirty 
making answer together, but by themselves only, and unaccompa- 
nied by any others of the Wards, and being sworn as to the arti- 
cles aforesaid and many other points on which they had been questioned. 
And this lasted until the first Sunday in Lent, which then fell on the Feast 
of Saint Scholastica the Virgin and Austberta [10 February] ; so that the 
said inquisition was made throughout twelve Wards, and this so secretly, 
that nothing was revealed unto any one, either of the interrogatories put 
by the Justiciars, or of the answers made by the citizens thereto, until 
the day before-mentioned. 

Upon which day, the King summoned before him at Westminster the 
Mayor and Sheriffs, and all the Aldermen of the City, as well as the 
six-aud-thirty men of each of the twelve Wards aforesaid, through whom 
that inquisition had been made. These being assembled, all the Alder- 
men were called by name, and four men of each Ward ; who accordingly 
came into the Exchequer before the Barons of the Exchequer, and the Earl 
of Gloucester, and the 2 Earl of Warwyk, and John Maunsel, and Henry 
de Ba, and the Constable of the Tower, and others of the King's Council. 
The Mayor also being summoned, together with Nicholas Bat and Nicholas 
Fitz-Joce, Matthew Bukerel, John Tuleshan, and John le Minur, John 
Maunsel said, in presence of all the other Aldermen and other persons, 
that the King sued them for grievances and injuries committed against 
the men of his city. After which, he caused to be read one portion of the 
inquisition aforesaid, and said that through them and their counsels the 
City had been aggrieved and ruined, and through this more especially, 
that by them the mode of making tallage had been changed ; the roll of 
the last tallage not having been read in the Guildhall before all the 
people summoned therefor, in manner as was formerly wont to be done ; 
but the moment the tallage was made, all the tallagers received their 
license, the said roll not even being sealed. And thus had the Mayor 

1 Of the Tower. - John de Plessets, Earl of Warwick, jure 

uxoris. 



36 CHEONICLE8 OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [* 1257 - 

and others changed the roll at their own will, for the advantage of some 
persons and to the loss of others. 

To this answer was made, that for some time the tallage-roll used 
to be read in the Guildhall before all the people, but that this practice 
had been then left off for ten years and more. At length, after many 
objections had been made by the Justiciars and answers given by the others 
thereto, they made denial of force and injury, and [averred] that no 
one had by them been aggrieved in the tallage or had been favoured 
therein; as also, that the last tallage had been made by 
men by the whole community elected, and sworn thereto. 
Also, that the amount of this tallage was reduced to writing by the 
tallagers ; which writings were still in the possession of William Fitz- 
Bichard, one of such tallagers ; and this, according to the laws of the 
City of London they made offer to prove. To this however Henry de 
Baluster objected, asking whether they were ready to place themselves, 
so far as this matter was concerned, for good and for evil, upon those 
other Wards of the City, by which no inquisition had before been made. 
Whereupon they said that, as to all trespasses imputed to them, they were 
ready to defend themselves by the laws and customs of the City of 
London. Enquiry was then made by John Maunsel of the Aldermen and 
other citizens, what the custom of London was in such a case ; to which they 
made answer, that for homicide the citizens of London ought to defend 
themselves by the oaths of six-and-thirty men, and for trespass against the 
King by twelve men, and for trespass against any other person by six 
compurgators, the accused himself making oath the l seventh. John 
Maunsel however, not content with this, and wishing to aggrieve the 
persons before-mentioned, named the morrow for them to appear before 
his lordship the King. 

On the morrow the citizens appeared at Westminster ; on which day 
John Maunsel caused to be read before the King, seated at the Ex- 
chequer, the aforesaid inquisition that had been made in the City, all 
those of the King's Council being then present, who had been there on 
the preceding day, with many others beside. After this, the Aldermen 
and citizens, on being summoned, appeared before the King. The 
Mayor, however, and the men before-mentioned were called separately 
1 Or, " swearing with the seventh hand," as it was generally called. 



A.D. 1257.] CHARGES MADE AGAINST CERTAIN ALDERMEN. 37 

by name ; and in like manner Arnulf Fitz-Thedmar and Henry Wale- 
mound, who had not before been in any way accused. As to the Mayor 
and Nicholas Bat, who, when at Windlesore, had opposed the inquisition 
before the King, they were without answer ; wherefore they threw them- 
selves upon the mercy of his lordship the King, saving always their 
liberty and that of the City of London. 

As to the other six men, the King caused them to be impleaded, for 
that through counsel given by them to the Mayor, his city had been 
aggrieved beyond measure, as well through tallages unjustly made as 
other injuries inflicted upon the commons of London ; in addi- 
tion to which, the King's beams and weights had been changed, 
a thing that was not lawful to be done without the King's permission- 
To this last, answer was made, that the beam and weights had not been 
changed, but the form only and manner of weighing ; and this, for the 
purpose of securing great advantage and greater accuracy, had been done 
through the agency of more than two hundred trustworthy men of the 
City. For whereas before, the draught of the beam used to incline 
towards the wares, and by reason of such draught the weigher was in 
the habit of giving greater weight to one man than to another, either 
through favour, or through fear, or on receiving a bribe, a thing that had 
been covertly done ; it had since been provided, that all wares which 
are sold by the King's balance, should be weighed just like gold and 
silver, and without any draught being allowed whatsoever ; the vendor, 
in lieu of such draught, giving the buyer four pounds in every hundred. 
But that through them or through their counsel the City had been 
aggrieved in tallages or in other matters, they made denial, and were 
ready to disprove the same, as well as all misdeeds to them imputed, 
according to the laws and customs of the City. 

Enquiry was also made of the other Aldermen, what was their custom 
in such a case ; whereupon, after holding counsel, they appeared before 
the King, and said the same as had been said the day before, namely, 
that the citizens of London ought to defend themselves on charge of 
trespass as against the King, by oath of twelve men of the City ; and that 
such was their custom. But the King, not content with this, gave orders 
to the Sheriffs, to convene the Folkmote on the morrow at Saint Paul's 
Cross, whither John Maunsel would be sent by him, as well as some 



38 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1257. 

others of his Council, to make enquiry of the commons whether such was 
their custom. Upon which day, on a Tuesday, namely, all the Aldermen 
and citizens came to Saint Paul's Cross. But when the six men before- 
named, who had been questioned by the King, understood from the mur- 
murs of the populace that they would not support the Aldermen in the 
answer that had been made by them in presence of the King, they went 
to the persons who had been sent by the King, and who were then 
in the house of a certain Canon of Saint Paul's, and said that they 
declined to plead against his lordship the King ; and that they threw 
themselves upon the mercy of his lordship the King, and prayed that 
the King would cause inquisition to be made by such persons as he 
might think proper, whether they were in any way guilty of any 
crime, saving however their liberties unto them and the other 
citizens. But the others declined to grant them any inquisition; 
and so, they being at the King's mercy, John Maunsel and the others who 
had been sent by his lordship the King, came to Saint Paul's Cross; and 
one of them, using bland words, and, as it were, preaching unto the popu- 
lace, while promising them that all their rights and liberties should be 
preserved unimpaired by his lordship the King, further said, " supposing 
ss that any bailiff or bailiffs of theirs should have treated them unjustly, 
" and have inflicted many evils and hardships upon them and upon the 
" City, supposing such a case, ought they, according to the law of the 
" City, to defend themselves as against the King, upon his making suit, 
" by the oaths of twelve men, and as against their fellow-citizens by the 
" oaths of six, and so be acquitted of all the consequences of such an 
" offence?" To which enquiry (no conference being first held among the 
discreet men of the City, as is usually the practice), answer was made 
by some of the populace, sons of divers mothers, many of them born 
without the City, and many of servile condition, with loud shouts of 
" Nay, nay, nay," in contravention of the privilege of the franchises that 
had been granted unto the City of old, and by their predecessors, citizens 
of blessed memory, obtained, and, until that time, strictly observed. And 
thus and in such manner, without any shape of reason, were all the 
Aldermen of the City disavowed. 

Then, on the King's behalf, the said John commanded that all the 
Aldermen, the Sheriffs, and the King's Chamberlain, should appear before 



A.D. 1257.] DISGRACE OF ARNALD FITZ-THEDMAR. 39 

the King on the morrow at Westminster. Accordingly on the morrow, 
on a Wednesday, namely, all the parties aforesaid appeared in the Great 
Hall at Westminster; where, after some little stay, his lordship the King, 
having first taken counsel with his advisers in Saint Stephen's Chapel, 
came to them, and he having taken his seat on the tribunal, Henry de 
Ba, the Justiciar, gave judgment; to the effect that all the persons 
aforesaid were degraded, and removed from their bailiwicks, and were 
at the King's mercy, and held under arrest; it being declared that, with- 
out the King's leave, no one of them should in future return to his baili- 
wick. After this, the King at once giving his permission, they were 
bailed, and returned home. 

After all these things, at the suggestion of John Maunsel, the King 
granted that, except the men before-named who had been questioned, 
each of the others should have his bailiwick restored, if elected by the 
commons of the City to any such. Whereupon, all the Aldermen, save 
and except the persons before-mentioned, were restored to their 
bailiwicks, Richard de Hadestok only excepted. Also, Thomas 
Fitz-Thomas was restored to his Sheriffwick, but William Grapefige was 
made Sheriff in place of Matthew Bukerel. William Fitz-Bichard also 
was made Mayor of London. 

Afterwards, from day to day, the Chamberlain of the City, before 
John Maunsel and his people, gave in the account of the tallages made 
in the days of the Mayoralty of John Tulesan and Ralph Hardel, there 
being present many men of the City who had been elected thereto, of 
very discordant and diverse sentiments thereon. In reference to which 
account, no one of the eight men before-mentioned was convicted of 
having done wrong in any respect. At this time, new Aldermen were 
chosen by the Wards, and placed in each of the Wards of those who had 
been deposed, in manner already stated; except indeed that the Ward 
which belonged to the before-named Arnald Fitz-Thedmar remained in 
the hand of the Mayor. It should also be known, that the said Arnald 
Fitz-Thedmar was not in any way accused, except in reference to the 
beam ; the mode of weighing by which was rectified by him and by the 
others, in manner already mentioned in this record. Still however, it 
was rather through the influence of hatred than because his deserts in 
any way merited it, that he was classed among the others, as may be seen 



40 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1257. 

from the following facts. For afterwards, on the day before the Feast of 
Saint Leonard [6 November] in the a 44th year of his lordship the King, 
John Maunsel testifying in full Folkmote at Saint Paul's Cross, in 
presence of his lordship the King and of his Council, that the King had 
been certified that the said Arnald was unjustly degraded, he was re- 
called to the favour of his lordship the King, and restored to his position. 

In this year, there was a failure of the crops ; upon which failure, a 
famine ensued, to such a degree that the people from the villages resorted 
to the City for -food; and there, upon the famine waxing still greater, 
many thousand persons perished ; many thousands more too would have 
died of hunger, had not corn just then arrived from 2 Almaine. 

In this year was held that 3 Mad Parliament at Oxford, about the 
Feast of Saint Barnabas [11 June] ; in which Parliament it was provided 
and ordained by certain Earls and Barons of England, that those bad cus- 
toms should be abolished, through which the realm, in the time 
of this King, had been so long and so immoderately oppressed and 
aggrieved, and that, by this same King and others among the most power- 
ful men in the realm. To which ordinances the King, though reluctantly, 
gave his assent, and made oath to that effect. And to carry out this matter, 
there were chosen the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Bishop 
of Worcester, Sir Roger Bigot, Marshal, [and] Earl of Norfolk, Sir 
Richard de Clare Earl of Gloucester, Sir Simon de Montfort Earl of 
Leicester, Sir Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford, the Earl of Ware- 
wyk, the Earl of Albemarle, Hugh de Bigot, 4 Peter de Saveye, Peter de 
Montfort, Roger de Mortimer, James de Audeleye, [and] John Maunsel. 

At the same time also, the brothers of his lordship the King," on the 
mother's side, namely, Sir Eymer [de Valence], Bishop Elect of Win- 
chester, Sir William de Valence, who had married the daughter of Warin 
de Munchenesey, Sir Geoffrey de Liseny, and Sir Guy de Liseny, would 
not give their assent to such oath; but without leave withdrew from 
the said Parliament, and set out for the sea-coast with their arms and 
harness, and, if they only had had ships, would have embarked. After- 
wards however, in a Parliament held at Winchester, they received leave 

1 A. D. 1259. tendency of the writer's opinions to the cause 

2 Germany. of the Baroiis. 

3 This remark gives proof of the adverse 4 Peter of Savoy, the Queen's uncle. 



A.D. 1257.] THE MAYOR ASSENTS TO CHARTER GRANTED TO BARONS. 41 

from the Barons to depart from the realm of England, and a- day was 
given them to be at Dover and set sail, the Sunday namely after the 
Feast of Saint Silas the Apostle [13 July] ; but they were not allowed 
to take with them any of their treasures, save only as much as might 
suffice for their expenses. In the same manner, William de Saint Ermin 
and many other foreigners had leave ; all of whom set sail on the Sunday 
before-mentioned, or on the morrow. 

Be it observed, that by reason of the aforesaid provision and statute, 
so made by the said Parliament at Oxford, not being observed, the realm 
of England was beyond measure disturbed, and many thousands of men 
perished, as in this book is set forth hereafter. It should also be known, 
that in the aforesaid Parliament at Oxford, a Justiciar over the whole of 
England was elected by the Barons, in the person of Hugh 
Bygot, brother of the Marshal, and the Tower of London was 
delivered into his hands. 

The same year, on the morrow of Saint Mary Magdalen [22 July] 
his lordship the King being at Westminster, there came certain of the 
twelve Barons before-mentioned to the Guildhall of London, namely, the 
Earl Marshal, Sir Simon de Montfort, John Fitz-Geoffrey, and others, 
bringing with them a certain Charter, to which were appended the seals 
of many Barons, as also the seal of his lordship the King and of his son 
Edward ; who thereby gave their assent, and made oath, that they would 
hold and observe whatever the aforesaid Barons should provide for the 
advantage and amendment of the realm ; the persons so sent putting the 
Mayor and Aldermen, and others of the City, to the question whether 
they would assent to the provision so made by them. The Mayor accord- 
ingly, and other citizens, who could not obtain leave to speak thereon 
with his lordship the King, at once holding conference among themselves, 
consented to observe the said provision, and made oath so to do, and set 
the common seal of the City to the charter before-mentioned, saving 
however unto them all their liberties and customs. Afterwards, the Barons 
before-mentioned from day to day held conference, sometimes at the New 
Temple, sometimes elsewhere, as to reforming for the better the usages 
and customs of the realm. After this, on the Nones [5th] of August, an 
edict was published in the City, that no one of the King's household, nor 
any other person, should take anything in the City, except at the will of 



42 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. UfiT. 

the vendors ; saving however unto his lordship the King his rightful 
prisage of wine, that is to say, from every ship that owes full custom, two 
tuns of wine at the price of forty shillings. And further, that if any one 
should presume to contravene the same, and be convicted thereof, he 
should immediately be imprisoned. After this, no one of the King's officers, 
nor yet any of their people, took anything, without soon after paying the 
vendor for the same : this, however, lasted for a short time only. 
A. D. 1258. JOHN ADDRIEN, Draper, 



EGBERT DE ^ORENHELLE, again, ^ 
This year, John de Gizors was chosen Mayor, and that too, even in 
his absence. This year, after a Parliament held by the Barons at West- 
minster, Hugh Bygot, the Justiciar, went to Saint Saviour's, and, 
having Koger de Turkelby for his associate, held there all the Pleas 
which pertain unto the Justiciars Itinerant in the County of 2 Suraye ; 
and not only did he there amerce several 3 bailiffs and others 
who had been convicted of offences committed against those 
subject to them, but he caused them to be imprisoned, clerks as well as 
laymen. And yet he ransomed one person for twenty marks, and 
certain others for forty marks, and more ; while several others, for but 
trifling reasons, he immoderately aggrieved. 

In these pleas the men of 4 Suwerc and others of the County of 
Suraye made complaint against the Sheriffs and citizens of London, 
that they unjustly took custom without the Stone Gate on the Bridge, 
seeing that they ought to possess no such rights beyond the Drawbridge 
Gate. The citizens, coming with their Sheriffs who had been summoned 
by the Justiciars, appeared at Saint Saviour's before the Justiciars, and, 
bringing with them their Charters, said that they were not bound to 
plead there, nor would they plead without the walls of the City ; but 
without formal plea, they were willing to acknowledge that it was quite 
lawful for the Sheriffs of London to take custom without the gate afore- 
said, and that too, even as far as the 5 staples placed there, seeing that the 
whole water of Thames pertains unto the City, and always did pertain 
thereto ; and that too, sea-ward as far as the 6 New Wear. At length, after 

1 Cornhill. 5 Probably for mooring vessels. 

a Surrey. 6 In the close vicinity probably of the 

3 Folio 77 is omitted in the numeration. present Yantlet Creek; which runs from <ho 

4 Southwark. Thames t" thp Medway. 



A.D.1258.] REGULATIONS AS TO BAKERS IN THE CITY. 43 

much altercation had taken place between the Justiciars and the citizens, 
the Justiciars caused inquisition to be made, on the oath of twelve 
knights of Sureye and this, although the citizens had not put themselves 
on such inquisition whether the Sheriffs of London had taken any 
custom beyond their limits. Who said, upon oath, that the Sheriffs 
aforesaid might rightfully take custom there, for that as far the staples 
before-mentioned, the whole pertains unto the City, and no one has any 
right upon the Thames, as far as the New Wear, save and except the 
citizens of London. 

After this, the Justiciar before-mentioned, having as his associate 
Roger before-named, came to the Guildhall of London, and there held 
Pleas from day to day, as to all those who wished to make plaint ; and 
at once, without either making reasonable summons or admitting any 
1 essoin, determined the same, observing no due procedure of justice ; 
and that too against the laws of the City, as also against the laws and 
customs of every freeman of the English realm. This however the 
citizens persistently challenged, saying that no one except the Sheriffs 
of London ought to hold pleadings, in the City as to trespasses there 
committed ; but to no purpose. Still however, the citizens had judg- 
ment done upon all persons abiding in the City, who had been 
convicted, or had been cast in making a false charge. At the 
same time also, the Justiciar summoned before himself and before the 
Earl of Gloucester all the bakers of the City who could be found, to- 
gether with their loaves ; and so, by some few citizens summoned before 
them, judgment was given in reference to their bread ; those whose 
bread did not weigh according to the assay of the City, not being placed 
in the pillory, as they used to be, but, at the will of the Justiciar and 
Earl aforesaid, exalted in the 2 tumbrel, against the ancient usage of the 
City and of all the realm. 

This year, on the Octaves of the Innocents [28 December] when the 
assize of wine and ale was proclaimed in the City, the City crier pro- 
claimed the assize as well without the Stone Gate situate on London 
Bridge as elsewhere in the suburbs of the City. 

In this year, Sir Richard, King of Almaine, brother of his lordship 

1 See page 10 ante. means a high cart only, or a cucking-stool. 

2 It seems somewhat doubtful whether this 



44 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1258 

the King, together with his Queen and children, passing through the 
midst of France, crossed over and landed at Dover, and on the Vigil of 
the Purification, of the Blessed Mary [2 February] came to London, the 
City being excellently hung and arrayed. 

This year, on the Monday before the Feast of Saint Gregory [12 
March], provision was made among the judgments at Guildhall, that, 
when a person brings the testament of any one deceased, in order to 
prove the same in the Hustings, even though any person may claim a 
right in a tenement by such testament devised, notwithstanding such 
claim, probate shall immediately be taken thereof, the right however of 
every one being reserved. For that such probate ratifies nothing, save 
only the fact that it is the last will of the deceased. Consequently, not- 
withstanding such probate, every one who has a right in the tenement 
devised by such testament, through any other person than the testator, 
may demand the same, by Writ of Right, or Writ in the nature of a 
Writ of Entry, or in the nature of Writ of Mori $ Ancestor other than 
the testator, or by Plaint of Intrusion ; provided always however, that 
such plaints as are made without writ, be made within the term by the 
usual customs of the City provided. 

This year, a provision and statute was made, that all Pleas of debt as 

to the citizens of London should be held before the Sheriffs only. In the 

same year, before Easter, was begun the 1 New Work at the 

Church of Saint Paul ; also, Fulk Basset, Bishop of London, 

died just before Pentecost. 

A. D. 1259. ADAM BRUNING, ) 01 . 

}- Sheriffs. 
HENRY DE COVENTRE,) 

This year, within the quinzaine of Saint Michael there was a very 
great wind, and a most dreadful tempest both by land and sea, so that 
numberless vessels, going forth from the port of 2 Gernemue to fish, 
were lost, together with their men. 

In the same year, on the Friday before the Feast of Simon and 
Jude [28 October], there was held a great and long Parliament ; and his 

1 The Church of St. Faith in St. Paul's, and the " New Work." 

the cross aisles. The years 1251 and 1256 3 Yarmouth in Norfolk, 
have also been assigned to the commencement 



A. D. 1259.] AMENDED REGULATIONS AS TO PLEADERS. 45 

lordship the King, being in the Great Hall at Westminster, where many 
Earls and Barons, and a countless multitude of people, had met, caused 
the Composition to be openly and distinctly read, that had been made by 
the Barons, as noticed in the 1 other book, as to amending the usages and 
laws of the realm. The Archbishop of Canterbury, and many other 
Bishops, arrayed in pontificals, pronounced sentence of excommunication 
against all those who should make any attempt upon the said Composi- 
tion. And then, his lordship the King took leave to cross over into France, 
for the purpose of making peace with the King of France ; and delivered 
his kingdom into the safe keeping of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Bishop of Worcester, [and] the Lords Roger Bigot, Hugh Bigot, and 
Philip Basset. 

In this year William Fitz-Richard was made Mayor. 

In the same year, on the day before the Feast of Saint Leonard [6 
November], his lordship the King came to the Cross of Saint Paul's, a 
countless multitude of the City being there assembled in Folkmote, and 
took leave of the people to cross over, just as he had done before at 
Westminster ; and promised them that he would preserve all their liberties 
unimpaired, and, for the amendment of the City, granted them certain 
new statutes which he commanded to be inviolably observed; to the effect, 
that in future it should not be necessary to have a pleader in any plea 
moved in the City, either in the Hustings or in any Courts in the City, 
save only, in pleas pertaining to the crown, or else pleas of land or of 
distresses unjustly taken. But every one was to set forth his complaint 
with his own lips, and the other side in like manner, without hindrance, 
so that the Court, in its prudence, being certified as to the truth of the 
matter, might render equal and righteous judgment unto the 
parties. Also, that if with any pleader there should be an agree- 
ment made for him to have part of the tenement for which he was plead- 
ing, in respect of his pay, and he should be convicted thereof, he should 
lose such share, and be suspended from his calling. The same too was to 
be done as to the others, who, upon being convicted of such an offence, 
were to lose their own portion, acquired, and be heavily punished as 
well. 

On the same day, John Maunsel said, on behalf of his lordship the 
1 What this alludes to, it seems impossible to say. Perhaps " another leaf" is the meaning. 



46 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1359. 

King, that he had been certified that Arnulf Fitz-Thedmar, of whom 
mention has been made above, had committed no offence,, and had been 
unjustly indicted ; wherefore he recalled him to his peace and favour, and 
commanded that he should be reinstated in his [former] position. 

This year, upon the morrow of the Feast of Saint Leonard [6 Novem- 
ber] his lordship the King took his departure from London for the sea- 
coast; and on the Monday following, in the Hustings, the said Arnulf was 
replaced in seisin of his Ward, from which he had before been deposed. 

Afterwards, on the Feast of Saint Brice [13 November], which at 
that time fell on a Friday, his lordship the King crossed over; having 
first recalled to his grace and favour Nicholas Fitz-Joce, John le Minur, 
and Matthew Bukerel, of whom mention has been made above. Ralph 
Hardel, Nicholas Bat, and John Tulesan, were dead. 

This year, just before Our Lord's Nativity, the seal of his lordship 
the King was changed, he being still beyond sea; the l superscription 
being to the following effect " Henricus Dei Gratia Rex Anglie, 
(f Dominus Hibernie et Dux Aquitannie" " Henry by the Grace of God 
" King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Acquitaine." 

At this time also, a lasting peace was made between him and the 
King of France, in form under-written ; that is to say, he quitted claim 
unto the King of France as to all right and title which he had to 
Normandy, Poitou, and Anjou, retaining unto himself only Gascoigne 
and certain other parts of Acquitaine, for which he did homage to the 
King of France. At the same time, the King of England gave his 
daughter Beatrice in marriage to the son of the Earl of Bretagne. 

This year, on the morrow of Saint Valentine [14 February], which 
then fell on a Sunday, Henry de Wengham was consecrated Bishop of 
London by Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Church of 2 Saint 
Mary of Suwerk. 

In the same year, when it had been arranged by Sir Edward, the 
King's son, and the Earl of Gloucester, who were then at vari- 
ance, that they should hold a general Parliament at West- 

1 " As to this new Seal of the King, the the King held the sword and the sceptre ; 

* prophecy was then fulfilled which says ' By " whereas, upon the new one, the sceptre with- 

" ' reason of a wondrous change, the sword shall " out the sword." Marginal Note. 

" <be severed from the sceptre,' a thing that 2 St. Mary Overy in Southwark. 
" was then fulfilled. For upon his old Seal 



A.D. 1259.] STRIFE BETWEEN PRINCE EDWARD AND EARL GLOUCESTER. 47 

minster, three weeks after Easter Day, and it was also proposed that they, 
and many other Earls, and Barons, and knights, should, with their horses 
and arms, take up their abode within the City ; seeing that very great 
loss and peril might have accrued therefrom to the citizens and to the 
City, Sir Richard, King of the Romans, came to Westminster in Easter 
week, and summoning the Mayor and certain discreet men of the City in 
presence of himself and the Chief Justiciar, and Sir Philip Basset, 
held conference with them as to avoiding this peril. Wherefore, it was 
then provided, that neither Sir Edward, nor the said Earl, nor any one 
else, as to whom any suspicion might be entertained, should be harboured 
within the walls of the City ; which was accordingly done. It was also 
provided, that all persons of fifteen years and upwards, each to the best 
of his ability, should be well provided with arms ; and that all the City 
Gates shoulcl be closed at night and watched by armed men, and should 
not be opened in the daytime ; with the exception of Bridge Gate, Lud- 
gate, and 1 Alegate, which also were to be well fortified with armed men. 
Also, that the King before-mentioned, the Justiciars aforesaid, and Philip, 
as well as those whom they might think proper to bring with them, and 
against whom no suspicion existed, might be harboured within the City, 
and, together with the citizens, protect the City if necessary. 

Afterwards, on the second day before the Feast of Saint Mark the 
Evangelist [25 April] his lordship the King, coming from the parts be- 
yond sea, landed at Dover; and on the fifth day after the said Feast, 
came to London and took up his abode in the hostel of the Bishop of Lon- 
don, causing the Earl of Gloucester, and many others, at his will, to be 
harboured within the City, the Gates in the meantime being well fortified 
with armed men, by day and night. Sir Edward however and the 
Earl of Leicester, and their followers, were lodged without the City, 
both 2 at the Hospital of Jerusalem, and in all the other houses which lay 
between the City and Westminster. The King of Almaine however took 
up his abode in his own house at Westminster, as it was not necessary 
for him to be in the City, while his lordship the King was making stay 
there. Afterwards, the King having made a stay in the City of fifteen 
days and more, returned from thence to Westminster on the 17th of the 

v. 

1 Aldgate. 2 In Clerkenwell. 



48 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1259. 

Calends of June [16 May], and a day was named for holding another 
Parliament, the l quinzaine of Saint John the Baptist [24 June], 

After this, the King of Almaine took his departure from London for 
the sea-coast, on the Feast of Saint Botolph [17 June], that is to say; 
and, on the third day after the said Feast, put to sea at Dover. 

In the said Parliament, as varying and different opinions existed be- 
tween his lordship the King and the Barons of England, a day was named 
for holding a Parliament, the Feast of Saint Edward [5 January] namely. 

A. D. 1260. RICHARD PIKARD, / ^ 

JOHN BE NORHAMTO^ Shenffs ' 

This year, on the Feast of the Translation of Saint Edward [13 Oc- 
tober], John, son of the Earl of Bretagne, who had married the daughter 
of his lordship the King, was made a knight, as also many other nobles, 
at Westminster, amid the greatest hilarity and rejoicing. 

In the same year, on the Monday before the Feast of Simon and Jude 
[28 October], Sir Hugh le Despenser was made Justiciar of England; 
and in the same year William Fitz-Richard was again made Mayor. 

Afterwards, on the morrow of Simon and Jude, the King of Almaine, 
returning from the parts beyond sea, came to London ; and on the follow- 
ing day, the King of Scotland came, with his Queen; who, upon her lord 
returning home, remained with her mother the Queen of England, until 
the time of her delivery. 

In this year, on the Monday after the Feast of Saint Edmund the 
King [20 November], it was provided in full Hustings, that, because 
such pleas as were moved by many kinds of Writs of his lordship the 
King, could not in one day, between morning and 2 Vespers, or even 
3 Complines, be, all of them, brought to a conclusion; from that day 
forward, all pleas moved by Writ of Dower *Unde nihil habet, and all 
pleas of Customs and Services, should be heard on the same day on 
which the Common Pleas are heard. 

The same year, after the Purification of the Blessed Mary [2 Feb- 
ruary] the King came to London, and afterwards, on the Sunday before 
the Feast of Saint Valentine [14 February], had the Folkmote sum- 

1 I.e. & fortnight after. 3 Or Second Vespers, about 7 o'clock. 

2 From about 3 or 4 in the afternoon to 4 "Of which she has nothing" meaning, 
seven. thp woman making claim. 



A.D. 1260.J AFFRAY WITH THE PEOPLE OF NORTHAMPTON. 49 

moned at Saint Paul's Cross; whither he himself came, and the King 
of Almaine, the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Maunsel, and many 
others. The King also commanded that all persons of the age of twelve 
years and upwards should make oath before their Alderman, in every 
Ward, that they would be faithful unto him, so long as he should live, 
and, after his death, to his heir ; which was accordingly done. Then all 
the Gates of the City were shut, night and day, by the King's command, 
the Bridge Gate, and the Gates of Ludgate and Alegate, excepted, which 
were open by day, and well fortified with armed men. 

Be it remembered, that in an affray that took place this year, at the 
Fair of l Norhamptone, between the Londoners and the men of Norhamp- 
tone, certain persons of Norhamptone were wounded, and one of them 
afterwards died ; but whether he died from the injury so in- 
flicted or by a natural death, is not known. The Bailiffs how- 
ever of that town, who are always envious of the Londoners, seized four 
men of London, imputing the death to them, and, after imprisoning them, 
seized all their goods, as well as those of the other Londoners. Upon 
hearing this, the Mayor and citizens, seeing that no Londoner is bound 
to plead without the walls of the City, except in pleas as to tenures with- 
out, obtained royal letters directing them to deliver up such persons to 
the Mayor or to his messenger bearing such letters, that they might take 
their trial before the King, as they ought to do, according to the laws of 
the City; the said Bailiffs, however, would not let them go, either for 
that writ or for another, which the Mayor obtained on a second request. 
But, in contravention of the precepts of his lordship the King and of the 
liberties of London, they kept them still more closely and more cruelly 
confined ; and so they remained there until after the Purification of the 
Blessed Mary [2 February] ; at which time the King came to London 
and sojourned at the Tower. 

On the morrow of his arrival, the Mayor and citizens went to his lord- 
ship the King, and obtained from him a third writ for delivery of the 
prisoners aforesaid, as also, another writ, directed to the Sheriff of the 
County of Northamptone, to the effect that if the Bailiffs should be unwil- 
ling to release them, he should enter their liberties and deliver them up 
to the bearer of the letters of his lordship the King, to take them before 

1 Northampton. 



50 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1260. 

his said lordship the King, there to do what 3 in accordance with the laws 
of the City, they ought to do. These letters being obtained, behold ! 
news came that the aforesaid prisoners were at ^herringe near 
Westminster, whither the Mayor and Bailiifs of Norehamptone had 
brought them. Upon hearing this, the Mayor of London sent to them 
certain citizens, carrying the writ before-mentioned : which writ being 
read and understood, they still would not agree to deliver the prisoners 
to the said messengers. Upon this therefore, the Mayor of London, 
waiting upon the King with a countless multitude of people, shewed unto 
him, making grievous complaint, how that the said Bailiffs, in despite of 
his royal majesty, and to the very great disgrace of his City of London, 
for all his third writ, would do nothing. The King, moved to 
anger, upon this sent Peter de Nevile, a certain marshal of his 
household, to Cherringe ; who immediately brought the prisoners before 
the King, and they were delivered to the Mayor. 

The citizens however forthwith made plaint against the people of Nor- 
hamptone, of the trespass that had been committed against them, and their 
contempt of the Writs of his lordship the King ; to which the others made 
answer. As to this plaint and answer, the King named for them the next 
day as a day for hearing judgment ; the giving and receiving of which 
judgment was however, by collusion, respited from day to day for more 
than five weeks ; at the end of which, on the third day before the 
Feast of the Annunciation of Our Lady, the Mayor and citizens came to 
the Tower, as also the Bailiffs of Norhamptone, and appeared before the 
King in his Chamber there ; there being also present, the Chief Justiciar, 
Philip Basset, John Maunsel, Robert Walerand, and others of the Council 
of his lordship the King. The citizens hereupon demanded their judgment 
that had been so respited, as between them and the people of Norhamtone, 
in reference to their plaint and the answer made thereto. The people 
of Norhamtone however said that they never made any answer to them, 
but only to his lordship the King, seeing that they were not bound to 
plead without the walls of their own borough; and made profert of a 
Charter of his lordship the King to that effect, which had been made in 
the one-and-fortieth year of the King now reigning. The citizens how- 

1 This passage deserves remark, as confuting there in memory of the chvre reine, Eleanor, 
the assertion that has been erroneously made, wife of Edward I. 
that Charing owes its name to the cross erected 



A.I>. 1260.] THE PEOPLE OF NORTHAMPTON PLEAD THEIR CHARTER. 51 

ever said that that Charter ought not to avail them, seeing that they were 
not then in the enjoyment of many of the articles contained therein, and 
more especially, because they had made answer in all the Fairs of England. 
For that they had made answer at the Fairs of 1 Saint Ives, 2 Saint 
Botolph's, 3 Lenne, and 4 Stanford; and even here they had departed from 
their Charter, by making answer to the plaint of the citizens. After 
this, the record of the Justiciar's Roll was read, in which was specified the 
answer that had been made by them unto his lordship the King as to con- 
tempt of his writs, the same being openly and distinctly enrolled. But as 
to the plaint of the citizens and the answer made by the burgesses thereto, 
little or nothing was entered therein. The citizens however declared that 
they had made plaint against them, to the effect that they had wrongfully 
detained their own freemen, in contravention of the franchises of London, 
after receiving the writs of his lordship the King, and did still detain the 
chattels of the persons before-named ; and further, made plaint against 
them as to other trespasses, whereby they had been injured and had re- 
ceived damage to the value of ten pounds. To which the others 
made answer, that in part they acknowledged and in part denied 
the same, and as to the same they placed themselves upon the record of 
the Bishops and Barons, who were present on that day, and demanded 
judgment thereon. [The citizens] also demanded judgment as to the 
new Charter of the burgesses, which ought to be of no validity, [they 
said], as against the Charters of the citizens, of which they made profert; 
namely, the Charter of King Henry the Second, of King Richard, of 
King John, and that of his lordship the King now reigning, and that 
they were then in enjoyment of all the liberties in the aforesaid Charters 
contained. 

At length, after much altercation had taken place between them, con- 
ference and counsel was held thereon by his Barons before his lordship 
the King; and because the Bishops and others who had been present on 
the day of the plea being heard, were not then present, judgment was 
respited until five weeks after Easter. 

About the same time, during Lent, Philip de Boklaunde, a marshal 

1 In Huntingdonshire. 3 Lynn, in Norfolk. 

2 Saint Botolph's Town, or Boston, in Lin- 4 Stamford, in Lincolnshire, 
colnshire. 



52 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1260. 

of his lordship the King, who had always claimed that the citizens of 
London ought to make answer before the King's 1 Seneschal, whensoever 
any one of the King's household might make complaint against them, im- 
pleaded a certain merchant, in contravention of his liberties, who had been 
born in the parts beyond sea. This plea was brought into the City before 
the Sheriffs of London, and there determined. 

In this year, the Bishop Elect of Winchester, who was consecrated 
at Rome, and of whom mention has been made 2 above, died about the 
Feast of Our Lord's Nativity, while coming to England with letters from 
the Pope ; and, by assent of the Barons, William de Valence, his brother, 
returned to England about Easter. 

After this, when the five weeks after Easter had expired, judgment 
in the aforesaid matter between the Londoners and the men of Nor- 
hamtone, was again respited until the 3 quinzaine after the Feast of Saint 
John [24 June]. 

Be it remembered, that at the Easter aforesaid, his lordship the King, 
while at Winchester, made Philip Basset his Chief Justiciar, 
without the assent of the Barons, who refused to admit him to 
such office ; and so, for this reason and for other causes, there arose a dis- 
sension between his lordship the King and the said Barons, and that too 
without any manifest reason for the same. 

A.D. 1261. PHILIP LE TAILLOUR, 

Sheriffs. 



RICHARD DE WALEBROK 



,i 



In this year, just before the Translation of Saint Edward [13 October] 
the aforesaid dissension was allayed between his lordship the King and 
his Barons, the King and his Queen then sojourning at 4 Saint Paul's, 
and the King of Almaine at Saint Martin's le Grand ; a reconciliation 
however, which did not last. On the contrary, the Barons, after this, in 
some places removed the Sheriffs of his lordship the King, and appointed 
others there, whom they styled " Wardens of the Counties ; " and further, 
would not allow the Justiciars to do their duty, who had been sent 
throughout the kingdom on Eyre. 

1 Or " Steward." 4 p ro bably in the house of the Bishop Henry 

2 See page 40, ante. de Wengham, who was in great favour with 
:J Or fortnight's end. Henry III. 



A.D.1261.] THE KING ABSOLVED FKOM HIS OATH BY THE POPE. 53 

This year, Thomas Fitz-Thomas was made Mayor. 

In this year, at Lent, his lordship the King caused to be read at 
Saint Paul's Cross a certain Bull of Pope * Urban, who had been made 
Pope the same year ; which confirmed the Bull of Pope 2 Alexander, his 
predecessor, who had previously absolved the King and all the others of 
the oath which they had made in the Parliament at Oxford, as before 
noticed in this record. The King also sent his writ throughout all the 
cities of England, commanding that no one should gainsay such absolution, 
and further, that if any one should in deed or word presume to do the 
contrary of such command, he should be taken, and not liberated without 
order of his lordship the King, 

In this year, the King of Almaine took his departure from London, 
on the day before the Feast of Saint Alban [22 June], and crossed over 
the third day after. 

After this, on the Sunday next after the Feast of Peter and Paul 
[29 June], his lordship the King took leave of the citizens of London, 
at Saint Paul's Cross, to pass over into France, and on the morrow 
departed from Westminster for the sea-coast, and the Queen with him ; 
there being at that time beyond sea Sir Edward and Sir Edmund, sons 
of his lordship the King. The King and Queen soon afterwards 
crossed over. 

About this time died Richard de Clare, Earl of Glou- 
cester, and Henry de Wingham, Bishop of London. 

After this, the King fell ill of a grievous sickness, about the Feast of 
Saint Mary in the month of 3 September ; by reason of which sickness, 
he remained in the parts beyond sea until after the Feast of Saint 
Nicholas [6 December]. 

About the same time Richard Talebot, Dean of St. Paul's, was elected 
Bishop of London ; who, returning from the parts beyond sea, where he 
had been presented to his lordship the King, came over to England; but 
falling ill, he took to his bed and died, just before the Feast of Saint 
Michael, and before consecration. 

1 Urban IV., previously Patriarch of Jeru- 3 On the eighth of that month ; being the 
salem. Feast of her Nativity. 

2 Alexander IV. 



54 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1262. 

A.D. 1262. OSBERT DE * SlJTHFOLCH, ) 
ROBERT DE 2 MUNPELERS, > 

This year, Thomas Fitz- Thomas was again made Mayor of London. 

In this year, just after the Feast of Saint Martin [11 November] 
about the time of Vespers, a certain Jew having wounded a Christian 
with an 3 anelace, in Colecherche Street, many Christians, indeed a count- 
less multitude of people, ran in pursuit of the Jew, and broke into many 
houses belonging to the Jews ; not content with which, afterwards at 
nightfall they carried off all the goods of the said Jews, and would have 
broken into many more houses, and carried off the goods, had not the 
Mayor and Sheriffs repaired to the spot and driven away those offenders 
by force of arms. For which reason, inquisition was made on the morrow, 
and so from day to day, by the Mayor and Sheriffs in the Guildhall, 
twelve men from each of the Wards of London, to whom no suspicion 
attached in reference to that felony, being sworn thereunto. And after- 
wards, all the Aldermen made inquisition upon this matter, each in his 
own Wardmote ; and those who were indicted or accused, were taken by 
the Sheriffs and imprisoned, part of them in Neugate and part in 4 Crepel- 
gate. But afterwards, those who were free of the City and who could 
find pledges, were liberated on surety. 

In this year his lordship the King returned from France, and putting 

to sea, together with the Queen, at Witsand, landed at Dover 

on the Vigil of Saint Thomas the Apostle [21 December], and 

on the Wednesday before the Epiphany [6 January] arrived in London. 

This year there was a great frost and thick ice, the frost beginning on 
the fifth day before the 5 Nativity and lasting for three whole weeks; the 
Thames too was so frozen, that at one time it was covered from shore 
to shore, so much so, that it had all the appearance of being able to be 
crossed over on foot and on horseback. 

In the same year, on the seventh day of February, were burnt, by 
reason of a fire breaking out there, the Lesser Hall of his lordship the 

1 Suffolk. 4 In the stations probably for the armed 

2 Now Montpellier. watch, at the sides of, and perhaps over, the 

3 A knife or dagger, worn in the girdle, at Gate. 

the side. 5 Christmas Day. 



A.D. 1262.] RESISTANCE OF PRISAGE BY CONSTABLE OF THE TOWER. 55 

King at Westminster, the Chamber, the Chapel, the l Receiving-Room, 
and many other official buildings as well. 

In this year, just before 2 Saint Peter's Chair, the Mayor and citizens 
of London shewed unto Sir Philip Basset, Justiciar of England, and 
others of the Council of his lordship the King, at Westminster, that the 
Constable of the Tower, in contravention of their franchises, wished to 
arrest and seize vessels in the Thames before the Tower, and take 
prisage of corn and other things, before they had reached the wharf; 
further saying, that just then he had caused a vessel belonging to 
Thomas de Basinges, laden with wheat, to be stopped before the Tower, 
and was for taking one hundred quarters therefrom, at a price, by the 
quarter, two pence less than it would have sold for when brought ashore. 
To which the said Constable made answer, that this he was quite at 
liberty to do, in behalf of his lordship the King ; whereupon, the citizens 
replied, that attachments on the Thames pertain solely to the Sheriffs of 
London, seeing that the whole water of Thames belongs to the City 
from shore to shore, as far as the 3 Newe Were ; as had been repeatedly 
shown before the Justiciars Itinerant at the Tower, and as had been 
assented to at 4 Bermundesheie, by twelve knights of Sureye, upon oath, 
before his lordship Hugh Bigot, Justiciar of England, then itinerant 
there. 

They said also, that his lordship the King takes no prisage of corn, 
before the vessel has reached the wharf, and that then he is to have the 
quarter of wheat at two pence less than it would sell for ; and this, only 
for the support of his own household. Also, that neither the 
Constable nor any other person is to have prisage of corn ; but 
that, if he wishes to buy anything, he must buy it in the market of the City, 
like the citizens, and at the option of the vendor ; and they entreated his 
lordship the King, that he would preserve their liberties ; always claiming 
however, that there they neither would, nor ought to, undergo judgment 
or receive the same. Then, after conference had been held between the 
Justiciars and others of the King's Council, Sir William de Wilton 

1 This is probably the meaning of " Recep- and that at Antioch, 22 February. 
" taculum." 3 See page 42, ante. 

2 There were two Festivals of this name ; 4 Bermondsey. 
that instituted at Rome was on 28 January, 



56 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1262. 

made answer to the citizens ; " His lordship the King is wishful that 
<e your liberties be preserved, and it is our duty to be wishful that his 
" rights be not lost ; and because we are ignorant what are the rights 
" which pertain unto the Tower, we will make inquisition at the end of 
" three weeks after Easter, of other persons who have been Constables 
" there, what kind of l seisin his lordship the King has had there ; but the 
" City, in the meantime, may enjoy its own seisin wholly and in peace, 
tf saving however such claim on part of the Constable, as upon the said 
" day he shall be able reasonably to shew." Whereupon, it was provided 
by the citizens, and injunction was given to the Sheriffs, that they should 
not allow the Constable to make any attachment on the Thames, and 
should repel force by force, if necessary. 

In this year, his lordship the King again gave his assent to the main- 
tenance of the Statutes of Oxford, and sent his writs, in which the said 
Statutes were set forth in writing, throughout all the Counties of 
England, enjoining that the same should be observed, as well as others 
which the Earl Marshal, the Earl of Leicester, Philip Basset, and Hugh 
Bigot, were about to prepare : an ordinance which held good for no 
long time. 

Afterwards, on Sunday in Mid-Lent, many people of the City 
meeting at Saint Paul's Cross, the Mayor did fealty to Sir Edward, 
2 after the King's decease; and on the morrow all the Aldermen did the 
same in the Guildhall, those who were absent through illness doing the 
same at home, before the Mayor. On the Sunday following, all males 
of twelve years of age and upwards, made the same oath before their 
respective Aldermen, each in his own Wardmote. 

In this year, before Pentecost, the Barons who had given 
their assent to the observance of the Ordinances and Statutes made at 
Oxford, sent a certain letter to his lordship the King, under the seal of 
Roger de Clifford, requiring of him that he would maintain those Statutes; 
and defied all those who should attempt to contravene the same, saving 
always, the persons of the King, the Queen, and their children. Imme- 
diately after this, the said Barons, with a great army, levied war against 
all their adversaries, and, in the first place, at Hereford seized the 

1 1. e. right. of '* post vitam suam." 

2 This can be the only meaning apparently, 



A. D. 1262.] ADDKESS OF THE BAKONS TO THE KING. 57 

1 Bishop of Hereford, and all his Canons who were aliens, carried off all 
their treasures, sold all that they could find upon their manors, and ravaged 
many of the manors with fire. And in the same way they did as to all 
the manors by which they passed, belonging to those, that is to say, who 
attempted to infringe the said Statutes, ecclesiastics as well as others ; in 
their churches also, they placed new rectors, and more especially in the 
churches that were held by aliens, doing no harm to any persons except 
their adversaries, but strictly maintaining the peace as towards them. 
Seizing however the castles belonging to his lordship the King and 
some others, they placed new constables in them ; all of whom they 
made to swear fealty to his lordship the King, always carrying before 
themselves the King's standard. After this, about the Feast of Saint 
John [24 June], they sent a letter to the citizens of London, under the 
seal of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, desiring to be certified by 
them whether they would observe the said Ordinances and Statutes, 
made to the honour of God, in fealty to his lordship the King, and to 
the advantage of all the realm, or would in preference adhere to those 
who wished to infringe the same. 

And be it known, that the prayer of the Barons was to the following 
effect : " The Barons do humbly and duteously request of his lordship 
" the King, that the Ordinances and Statutes made at Oxford, and con- 
" firmed by oath as well of his lordship the King as of the nobles, and 
" after that, of all and singular of the realm of England, shall be strictly 
" and inviolably observed. Provided however, that if anything in them, 
" by award of good men thereunto elected, shall be found to the prejudice 
if or injury of his lordship the King or of the realm, the same shall be 
" wholly withdrawn therefrom ; and that if anything shall be doubtful 
"or shall need correction, the same shall be made clear or 

Fol. 85 A. 

" corrected ; and that as to other points, those namely that are 
" good and beneficial, security shall be provided that the same shall be 
" for ever strictly observed. They do further request, that the realm shall 
" in future be governed, under his lordship the King, by trusty and 
" skilful natives of the same and not by others than such ; the same as in 
i( all other kingdoms throughout the world is commonly done. " 



Peter de Egeblaunch : who was obnoxious to them as being a native of Savoy. 

I 



58 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.B. 1262. 

Upon receiving the message, the citizens shewed the same to his lord- 
ship the King, who was then at the Tower, the King of Almaine, the 
Queen, Sir Edward, and Robert Walrand being the only other persons 
who were then present ; and they further said, that all the community was 
willing to observe those Statutes which were to the honour of Gt)d, in 
fealty to the King, and to the advantage of the realm ; which Statutes, 
by the King's command, had before been ratified by the said community 
by oath ; and further, that it was their wish that no knights [or] ser- 
jeants, aliens by birth, should be allowed to sojourn in the City ; for that 
it was through 1 them that all the dissensions had arisen between the King 
and his Barons. After this, by the King's command, certain of the 
citizens were sent to Dover with the King's Council, to treat for peace 
with the Barons. On the occasion of which journey, answer was made 
to the Barons, that all the community was willing to observe the said 
Statutes, to the honour of God, in fealty to his lordship the King, and 
to the advantage of the realm, saving always the liberties of London : and 
thus was a league made between the Barons and the citizens, with this 
reservation, " saving fealty to his lordship the King." 

At this season, and indeed before, all aliens, both knights and ser- 
jeants, were dismissed from the City ; who were afterwards placed by Sir 
Edward in garrison at Wyndleshore. And at this time also the citizens 
kept watch and ward, riding by night throughout the City with horse 
and arms ; though among them a countless multitude of persons on foot 
obtruded themselves; some evil-minded among whom, under pretext of 
searching for aliens, broke open many houses belonging to other persons, 
and carried off such goods as were there to be found. To restrain the 
evil designs of these persons, the watches on horseback were therefore 
put an end to, and watch was kept by the respective Wards, each person 
keeping himself well armed within his own Ward. 

Afterwards, on the Sunday before the Feast of Saint Margaret [20 
July], the Barons came to London, and on the morrow the King and 
Queen withdrew from the Tower to Westminster. At this 
time, with the assent of his lordship the King, Hugh le De- 
spencer was made by the Barons Justiciar of all England, and the Tower 
of London delivered into his charge. 

1 /. e. the aliens residing in the kingdom. 



A.D. 1262.] VIOLENCE OF THE LONDON POPULACE. 59 

Be it here remarked, that this Mayor,, during the time of his Mayor- 
alty, had so pampered the City populace, that, styling themselves the 
" Commons of the City," they had obtained the first voice in the City. 
For the Mayor, in doing all that he had to do, acted and determined 
through them, and would say to them, " Is it your will that so it shall be ?" 
and then, if they answered " Ya, ya," so it was done. And on the other 
hand, the Aldermen or chief citizens were little or not at all consulted 
on such matter ; but were in fact just as though they had not existed. 
Through this, that same populace became so elated and so inflated with 
pride, that during the commotions in the realm, of which mention has been 
previously made, they formed themselves into covins, and leagued them- 
selves together by oath, by the hundred and by the thousand, under a 
sort of colour of keeping the peace, whereas they themselves were mani- 
festly disturbers of the peace. For whereas the Barons were only fight- 
ing against those who wished to break the aforesaid Statutes, and seized 
the property of such, and that too by day, the others by night broke into 
the houses of the people of 1 Quercy and of other persons in the City, 
who were not against the said Statutes, and by main force carried off the 
property found in such houses, besides doing many other unlawful acts as 
well. As to the Mayor, he censured these persons in but a lukewarm way. 

Afterwards, these same persons, like so many Justiciars Itinerant, 
wished to remove all 2 purprestures, new and old, observing no order of 
trial ; and endeavoured to throw open lanes, which, by writ of his lord- 
ship the King and with the sanction of the Justiciars Itinerant, the 
community assenting thereto, had been stopped up and rented to certain 
persons; so much so, in fact, that some of them they opened, with- 
out judgment given, and in like manner did they remove certain pur- 
prestures, and some of them after dinner 3 ; and this they did, not only 
for the purpose of removing them, but for the opportunity of carrying 
off the timber and other things there to be found. 

After this, on the morrow of Saint Margaret [20 July], a writ of 
his lordship the King was sent to the Mayor and citizens, and 
was read in the Guildhall ; it being set forth therein, that the 

1 A province in the S. of France, its capital or enclosing, common ground, or land belong- 
being Cahors. ing to the Crown. 

2 Alleged encroachments by building on, 3 This passage appears to be incomplete. 



60 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1262 

dissensions which existed between the King and the Barons had been 
allayed, and that the King commanded that his peace should be strictly 
observed, as well within the City as without; and that, when any one 
should be known to contravene the aforesaid Statutes, he should be 
arrested by the Bailiffs, and all his goods seized, and kept in safe 
custody until the King should have issued his precept to other effect 
thereupon. And further, that from that day forward all matters should 
be conducted and determined according to the law of the land. 

At this season, the Barons aforesaid, to conciliate still further the 
good will of the citizens, addressed them, and said that they would make 
provision, in case aught should be subtracted from their liberties; and 
even more, that such other matters, as, consistently with justice and 
honour, might tend to augment their liberties, if put in writing, they, the 
Barons, would shew unto the King and his Council ; and that the King 
would confirm the same with his seal, to be held by the said citizens and 
their heirs for ever. The Mayor too had all the populace of the City 
summoned, telling them that the men of each craft must make such pro- 
visions as should be to their own advantage, and he himself would have 
the same proclaimed throughout the City, and strictly observed. Accord- 
ingly, after this, from day to day individuals of every craft of themselves 
made new statutes and provisions or rather, what might be styled " abomi- 
" nations," and that, solely for their own advantage, and to the intolerable 
loss of all merchants coming to London and visiting the fairs of England, 
and the exceeding injury of all persons in the realm. At this time too, 
nothing whatever was done, or treated of, for the common advantage of 
the City or for the increase of its liberties ; though still, the l aforesaid 
enactments and provisions were not carried into effect. 

After this, on the Vigil of Saint James [25 July] the Barons too 
departed from London for Windleshore, with the view of besieging 
the castle there : which Castle however was surrendered by Sir Edward, 
and peace made, on the day after the Feast aforesaid, the King 
and Barons still staying in the neighbourhood of 2 Fuleham ; 
immediately after which, the aliens who were within the Castle re- 
turned to their native land. 

1 Those namely, made ly the various trades 2 Fulham. 

within the City. 



A.D. 1262.] SUIT WITH THE ABBOT OP WESTMINSTER. 61 

At this time also, many nobles and others, making complaint, set forth 
unto the King and his Council, that they, among others, had been plun- 
dered, and that too unjustly, adding that they were not opposed to the 
said Statutes of Oxford, and demanding justice : a matter however, which 
was postponed until the quinzaine of Saint Michael. 

Afterwards, on the second day after the Feast of Saint Matthew 
[21 September], which then fell on a Sunday, his lordship the King, the 
Queen, and their sons, with many nobles of England, crossed over to be 
present at a conference with the King of France at Boulogne ; where 
the pilgrimage of himself and of other Crusaders to the Holy Land was 
treated of, as also the coronation of his l son as King ; there being there 
present, nearly all the Dukes and nobles of France, Burgundy, Cham- 
pagne, and Spain. 

A.D. 1263. THOMAS DE FORD, ) n 

> Sheriffs. 
GREGORY DE KOKESLE,} 

In 2 this year, on the day after the Octaves of Saint Michael, his lord- 
ship the King, returning from Boulogne, arrived in England, and, on the 
Friday after, reached London. 

Be it observed, that whereas for many years there had been a dispute 
between the Abbot of Westminster and the citizens of London as to 
some liberties which the said Abbot, by a certain Charter, obtained of his 
lordship the King, demanded in the County of Middlesex, at length, on 
the Tuesday after the Octaves of Saint Michael in this year, the said dis- 
pute was determined by judgment given at the Exchequer of his lordship 
the King, in presence of Gilbert de Preston, Justiciar, by Writ of the 
King thereunto specially deputed, and of the Barons of the Exchequer. 
For, by verdict upon oath of twelve knights of the county of Middlesex, 
it was decided that the Sheriffs of London may enter all vills and tene- 
ments which the Abbot holds in Middlesex, even unto the gate of his 
Abbey, and there in every way make summons and distraint, the same as 
in the tenements of other freeholders of the County ; and that the tenants 
of the Abbot are bound to do suit at the County Courts and at the Hun- 
dred Courts, and to do all other services, as the freeholders of the 
County aforesaid are wont to do. Afterwards, in process of time 

1 Afterwards Philip the Third, of France. computed throughout from the Feast of St. 

2 This passage shews that the years are Michael, 29 September. 



62 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1263. 

the said Abbot and his Convent, by Charter sealed with the common 
seal, remitted for ever unto the citizens all right of action which they 
had in Middlesex by reason of the before-named Charter, obtained 
of his lordship the King to the prejudice of the citizens : which how- 
ever was not afterwards adhered to. 

This year, in the Parliament held after the quinzaine of Saint Michael, 
a dissension again arose between his lordship the King and the aforesaid 
Earl of Leicester and his accomplices. For the King and Sir Edward, 
and many nobles of the realm who adhered to them, desired that justice 
should be done to all those, upon whom depredations or trespasses had 
been unjustly committed ; while the other party would not consent thereto. 
After this too, the King desired that those who were to be of his own 
household, should be chosen and put in office by himself. 

At this season, Sir Edward, under colour of paying a visit to his wife, 
entered the Castle of Wyndeshor, and there continued to abide. The 
King also, on the morrow, departed in the morning from Westminster in 
the direction of the said Castle, and entered it with such of his own people 
as he thought proper; many Earls and Barons following, who adhered to 
him, while the Earl of Leicester and his accomplices were staying in 
London. Afterwards, however, the two parties submitted the dispute to 
the arbitration of the King of France. 

This year, Thomas Fitz-Thomas was again elected Mayor by the 
populace, the Aldermen and principal men of the City being but little 
consulted thereon; and immediately after the election he was sworn, just 
as he had been the two preceding years ; a thing that no other Mayor had 
ever been, unless he had been first admitted by the King or his Barons 
of the Exchequer. On the morrow however he was presented to the 
aforesaid Barons at Westminster; but was not admitted, the King for- 
bidding it by his writ, he being for many reasons greatly moved to anger 
against the City. 

After this, his lordship the King, who had before sent letters to the 

King of France, signifying that he would abide by his arbitration as to 

the dispute existing between himself and the Barons, crossed over in the 

week of the Nativity, and Sir Edward and others of his Council, to hold 

a conference with the King of France. Peter de Montfort also, 

and certain others on part of the Barons, whose letters patent 



A.D.1263.] AWARD OF THE KING OF FRANCE. 63 

the aforesaid King also had, to the effect that they would abide by his 
arbitration, crossed over. 

Accordingly, the King before-mentioned, on the Wednesday before 
the Conversion of Saint Paul [25 January], made known his award, the 
tenor of which is as follows : 

" We, the parties being convened at Amiens, his lordship the King of 
" England in person, and some of the Barons personally, and others by 
" their proctors, appearing before us, after hearing the allegations and 
" defences on either side, and fully understanding the reasons by the 
" parties alleged, considering that, by the provisions, ordinances, statutes, 
" and obligations, of Oxford, and by the results which therefrom have 
" ensued, and by reason thereof, the royal right and honour have been 
" greatly impaired, [and] that disturbance of the realm, oppression, and 
l( plunder of churches, and most grievous disasters to other persons of the 
" said realm, ecclesiastical and secular, natives and aliens, have ensued ; 
" as also, a thing that was reasonably to be apprehended, to the end 
f< that evils still more grievous might not in future arise ; after taking 
" counsel of good and high personages, do, by our award and our ordi- 
" nance, quash and annul the aforesaid provisions, ordinances, statutes, and 
ee obligations, by whatsoever name the same may be observed, and what- 
" soever through them, or by reason of them, has ensued ; and this the 
" more especially, as it appears that the Supreme Pontiff has by his 
" letters pronounced the same quashed and annulled ; we ordaining, that 
" as well the said King as the Barons, and such other persons as have agreed 
" to this present compromise, and have in any way bound themselves to 
" observe the aforesaid, shall wholly acquit and absolve themselves thereof. 
" We do also add that, by force or virtue of the aforesaid provisions, or 
" ordinances, or obligations, or of any power by the King granted thereon, 
"no person shall make new statutes, or shall hold or observe those 
(e already made ; nor ought any one, for non-observance of the aforesaid, 
" to be held guilty of a capital crime or in any other way to be an enemy, 
" or to undergo any punishment by reason thereof. We do also decide, 
" that all letters made as to the aforesaid provisions, and by reason thereof, 
" shall be null and void, and do further ordain that the same shall be 
" restored by the Barons unto the King of England, and duly returned. 
" We do also say and ordain, that all castles which have been delivered 



64 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 12fi3. 

" for safe custody, or by reason of the aforesaid, and which are still 
" withheld, shall, by the said Barons unto the King be freely 
6f restored, by the said King to be held, in such manner as, before the time 
" of the aforesaid provisions, he was wont to hold the same. We do also 
" say and ordain, that it shall be lawful unto the same King, freely to ap- 
ff point, depose, institute, and remove, the Chief Justiciar, Chancellor, Trea- 
" surer, Minor Justiciars, Sheriffs, and all other ministers and officials of his 
" realm and his household whomsoever, at his own free will, in such manner 
66 as, before the time aforesaid, he was wont. Also, we do revoke and quash 
" the statute made, to the effect that the realm of England shall in future 
" be governed by natives, as also that aliens shall depart therefrom, not 
" to return, those only excepted whose stay the faithful subjects of the 
ef realm should in common allow. We do ordain by our award, that it 
" shall be lawful for aliens to remain in security within the said realm, 
" and that the said King shall be at liberty to call aliens to his counsel, 
" such as he shall deem to him to be advantageous and trustworthy, in 
" such manner as before the time aforesaid he might do. Also, we do 
" say and do ordain, that the said King shall have full power and free 
" rule within his realm and the appurtenances thereof; and that he shall 
" be in the same position and with the same plenary power, in all things 
" and by all things, that he was in before the time aforesaid. We further 
" are unwilling, nor by this present ordinance do we intend, in any way 
" to derogate from the royal privileges, charters, liberties, statutes, or 
" praiseworthy customs, of the realm of England, which before the time 
" aforesaid existed. We do also ordain, that the said King shall withhold 
" and remit all rancour as towards the said Barons, which against them he 
" may entertain by reason of the premises, and the Barons also in like 
" manner ; and that no person shall in future, himself or by any other, in 
" any way aggrieve or offend another by reason of the premises, which 
" unto us by way of compromise have been referred." 

After this, his lordship the King returned to England from the parts 
beyond sea. 1 

The Barons however were not content with the award of the said 
King of France, but immediately levied war upon Eoger de Mortimer 
in the Marches of Wales ; and levelled all his castles, pillaged his lands, 

1 "On the 15th of the Calends of March" (15 February). Marginal Note. 



\ 



A.I>. 1263.] THE MANOR OF ISLEWORTH RAVAGED BY THE CITIZENS. 65 

and burnt his manors and villas ; Sir Edward also, on coming to his suc- 
cour with a strong force, was nearly taken prisoner. At this time also, 
another Parliament was held at Oxford between his lordship the King 
and the Barons aforesaid. The Londoners however, and the Barons of 
the Cinque Ports, and nearly all the middle class of people throughout 
the kingdom of England, who indeed had not joined in the reference to 
the King of France, wholly declined his award. 

Wherefore, the Londoners appointed one of their number, ^ 
Thomas de Piwelesdone by name, to be their Constable, and as 
Marshal, Stephen Buckerel, at whose summons, upon hearing the great 
bell of Saint Paul's, all the people of the City were to sally forth, and not 
otherwise; being prepared as well by night as by day, [and] well armed, 
to follow the standards of the said Constable and Marshal wheresoever 
they might think proper to lead them. After this^ Hugh le Despenser, 
the Justiciar, who then had charge of the Tower, with a countless multi- 
tude of Londoners, went forth from the City, following the standards of 
the aforesaid Constable and Marshal ; none of them knowing whither 
they were going, or what they were to do. Being led however as far 
as l Ystleworthe, they there laid waste and ravaged with fire the manor of 
the King of Almaine, and plundered all the property there found, and 
broke down and burned his mills ane fish-preserves, observing no truce, 
at the very time that the said Parliament was in existence. And this was 
the beginning of woes, and the source of that deadly war, through which 
so many manors were committed to the flames, so many men, rich and 
poor, were plundered, and so many thousands of persons lost their lives. 

The Parliament however being concluded without any agreement 
being arrived at, the Earl of Leicester came to London, and many of 
the Barons with him. Immediately upon this, his lordship the King and 
Sir Edward, with a strong force, fought at Norhamptone, and took that 
place, and the Castle there as well, as also Peter de Montfort, and Simon, 
son of the Earl before-mentioned, and all the Barons there found, together 
with all their harness ; they also seized all the burgesses, the whole of 
whom the King caused to be kept in safe custody. At this time, the 
Barons and Londoners entered into a league by written instrument and 
by oath, all in fact of twelve years of age and upwards ; to the effect that 

1 Isleworth, in Middlesex. ? 



66 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1263. 

they would stand together against all men, saving however their fealty to 
their lord the King. 

Afterwards, in the week before Palrn Sunday, the x Jewry in London 
was destroyed, and all the property of the Jews carried off; as many of 
them as were found, being stripped naked, despoiled, and afterwards 
murdered by night in sections, to the number, that is to say, of more than 
five hundred. And as for those who survived, they were saved by the 
Justiciars and the Mayor, having been sent to the Tower before the 
slaughter took place ; and then too, the Chest of 2 Chirographs was sent to 
the Tower for safe custody. Then also, as well as before, much 
money belonging to the men of Italy and of Quercy, which had 
been deposited in the Priories and Abbeys about London for safe custody, 
was dragged forth and carried off to London. Afterwards, in the week before 
Easter, the Barons and the Londoners attacked Rochester and took it, 
and laying siege to the Castle there, took the 3 bailey ; but, on hearing news 
of the King's approach, they withdrew and returned to London in Easter 
week. After this, on the Feast of Saint John Port Latin [6 May], the 
Barons and Londoners went forth from the City to meet his said lordship 
the King, who was then in the neighbourhood of 4 Liawes, with a very 
great force. Making a halt there, the Barons sent letters to his lordship 
the King, and the King sent them letters of his in answer ; and in like 
manner tho King of Almaine and Sir Edward which letters see written 
on the reverse of this leaf. On the ninth day after that day, which fell 
on a Wednesday, very early in the morning, the contending parties met 
without the town of Liawes ; and at the first onset, the greater part of 
the Londoners, horse and foot, as well as certain knights and Barons, took 
to flight towards London. The [other] Barons however, and those who 
remained, fought with the King's army until nightfall, and after a count- 
less multitude on either side had been slain, the Barons gained the victory, 
and took the town of Liawes. The King of Almaine also was taken, 
and many other Earls and Barons either surrendered themselves or were 
slain. In this conflict, apart from the Kings and Sir Edward, five-and- 

1 Or " Judaism." The district (in the 2 Or Starrs, mentioned in page 21 ante. 

vicinity of the Guildhall) where the Jews 3 The courts of the castle, that lay between 

lived ; who were regarded as peculiarly the the outer wall and the keep, 

property of the King. * Lewes, in 



A. D. 1263.] DEFEAT OF THE KING AT THE BATTLE OF LEWES. 67 

twenty Barons, bearing banners, were either taken or slain; certain 
Barons, however, of the King's army took to flight and escaped. 

Be it remarked, that on the same night, between the King and the 
Barons it was provided and ordained, that the Provisions of Oxford 
should stand unshaken, and that if aught in them should need correc- 
tion, the same should be duly corrected by four of the most noble men 
of England, Bishops or persons of rank ; and that if any dissension 
should arise between them, so much so that they could in no way come to 
an agreement thereon, they should then abide by the decision of the 
Count of Anjou and the Duke of Burgundy; if indeed the greater part 
of the Barons should be willing to agree thereto. And that they would 
faithfully observe this provision, the two Kings before-mentioned gave 
their eldest sons, as hostages and prisoners, unto the Barons ; and it was 
determined that a Parliament should be held in London at the Feast 
of l Pentecost then next ensuing ; an arrangement which was never car- 
ried into effect. 

Afterwards, on the Tuesday before Ascension Day, the peace between 
the King and the Barons was proclaimed in London, and on the morrow 
the army of the Barons came to London, and his lordship the King with 
his own people ; as also the King of Almaine and many prisoners, 
who had been taken in the aforesaid battle; Sir Edward and 
Sir Henry of Almaine, who were hostages, as already stated, being kept 
in custody in Dover Castle. The King of Almaine however, and many 
other prisoners, were put in the Tower of London. As to his lordship the 
King, he was lodged at Saint Paul's, when many members of his house- 
hold were removed from him ; added to which, nothing was allowed to 
him or to the King of Almaine until they had delivered their hostages 
unto the Barons. 

2 Copy of the Letters which the Barons sent to his lordship the King, before 
the Battle before-mentioned, and of the Letters which the said King, in 
return., sent to them ; as also 9 of the Letters which the King of Almaine 
sent to the Barons in return. 

11 To their most excellent Lord, Henry, by the grace of God, the 
" illustrious King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Acquitaine, 
1 Or Whitsuntide. 2 Mentioned in page 66 ante. 



68 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1263. 

" the Barons and other his faithful subjects, desiring to observe their oath 
" and the fealty that is due unto G od and to him, health and devoted 
" service, with all reverence and honour. Whereas by many proofs it is 
" evident, that certain persons about you have suggested unto your lord- 
" ship many falsehoods as to ourselves, and that too, intending as great 
" evils as they may, not only unto ourselves but also unto you and the 
(f whole of your realm ; be it known unto your Excellency, that it has' 
" been our wish, with the fealty which unto you we owe, to maintain the 
" safety and security of your person with all our might ; it being our 
" purpose, to the utmost of our power, to aggrieve not only our own 
" enemies, but also yours as well, and those of all your realm. Be pleased 
"therefore, not to believe them as to the matters aforesaid;* for we shall 
" always be found to be faithful unto you. And we, the Earl of Leices- 
" ter and Gilbert de Clare, at the prayer of the others, for us and for 
" them, here present, have hereto set our seals." 

" Henry, by the grace of God, etc., to Simon de Montfort and 
" Gilbert de Clare, and their accomplices. Whereas by the war and 
(< general commotion in our realm, which by you have lately been raised, 
" as also by the conflagrations and other enormous acts of devastation, 
" it is manifestly evident that you do not regard the fealty that from 
" you is due unto us, nor do care in any way for the safety of our 
" person ; seeing too that you have outrageously aggrieved the nobles 
" and other our faithful subjects, who with constancy do adhere 
" unto their fealty to us, and do, to the utmost of your power, 
" as by your letters you have signified unto us, purpose to aggrieve 
" them ; we, considering the grievance of them to be our own grievance, 
" and the enemies of them to be our own enemies, the more especially as 
" our said faithful subjects, in the observance of their fealty, do faithfully 
" and manfully aid us against your unfaithfulness, do care nothing for 
" your assurances or for your love, but, as being our enemies, do defy 
" you. Witness myself at Lewes, this 12th day of May, in the eight- 
<( and-fortieth year of our reign." 

" Richard, by the grace of God, King of the Romans, ever August, 
" and Edward, of the illustrious King of England the first-born, and all 



A.D. 1263.] DEFIANCE OF THE BARONS BY PRINCE EDWARD. 69 

" other the Barons and nobles, who in the works of sincere fealty and 
" devotion do testify their constant adherence unto the aforesaid King of 
-"England, to Simon de Montfort, Gilbert de Clare, and all and singular 
" other the accomplices of their perfidy. From your letters which you 
" have sent unto the illustrious King of England, our most dear lord, 
" we have heard that we by you are defied ; although this your verbal 
" defiance has already been sufficiently proved unto us by fact of your 
" hostility, in the destruction by fire of our property and the laying waste 
" of our possessions. We therefore do wish you to know that you, as 
" public enemies by enemies, are defied by all and singular of us ; and 
" that from this time forward we will, with all our mind and our strength, 
" wheresoever we shall have the means of so doing, do our utmost to 
" inflict injury alike upon your persons and your possessions. And 
" further, whereas you do falsely impute unto us, that we do give neither 
" faithful nor good counsel unto our said King, you do say that which 
" is not the truth. And if you, Sir Simon de Montfort, or Gilbert de 
" Clare, do wish to assert that same in the Court of the said King, we 
" are ready to procure for you a safe-conduct to come unto the said 
" Court, and by another, your peer in nobility and in birth, to make proof 
" of our innocence herein, and, as being a perfidious traitor, the falsehood 
" of yourself. We all are content with the seals of the Lords aforesaid, 
" that is to say, of the King of the Romans, and Sir Edward. Given at 
" Lewes, this twelfth day of May." 

After this, the King of Almaine was taken to the Castle of Berkam- 
stede. 

Then the Bishops and Barons held a Parliament, in which it was 
ordained, as is set forth in the letters of his lordship the King, which he 
himself made, and sealed with his seal ; which letters begin as follows : 
" For the reformation of the present state of the realm, there shall be 
"chosen three of the most discreet persons of the realm, etc." 1 

At the same time provision was made as to depredators, as 

Fol. 90 B. 

well clerical as lay, how proceedings were to be taken against 

them. Also, as to clerks who have borne arms in the war, or in the 

company of robbers. Also, as to clerks and laymen who have carried 

1 For the whole of this document, see the Liber Outtumarum, lately published, pp. 663, 664. 



70 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1263 

off ecclesiastical property in one diocese, and have benefices or domiciles 
in another ; when they cannot be reached with citation where they have 
perpetrated their offences. Also, as to clerks and laymen who have made 
clerks captive. 

1 To the first, answer was made ; if any one should think proper to 
act otherwise [than right], let due course of law be observed ; but where 
rapine has been committed upon a church, either by clerk or layman, 
or at their moving, or where violence has been committed upon an 
ecclesiastical person by a person ecclesiastical or lay, or upon a layman 
by a clerk ; because through fear of greater peril,, injuries committed 
upon churches, as also those of a private nature, might, after many such 
wrongful deeds had been left unpunished, possibly be checked through 
the risk of such peril ; 2 1 do deem it in such cases to be agreeable and 
expedient, that the Bishop shall in his diocese cause inquisition to be 
made thereon, as to who, from whom, what, how much, and from what 
place, has with violence stripped and despoiled the house ; and further, 
that the names being specified, the persons shall be lawfully cited, and 
in the case of notorious and manifest acts, after monition has issued, 
condemnation shall follow. But in secret cases where there is denial, 
purgation is to be awarded. And because a multitude is implicated 
herein, it is expedient, I think, that there should be some little tending to 
severity. 

To the second, answer was made ; that clerks, bearing arms in actual 
conflict, if on the side of those who were supporting justice and repelling 
violence, shall for a time be suspended from office, and, after the period 
of such suspension shall have expired, may be restored to office ; provided 
however they have struck or wounded no one in the said conflict. From 
this you may form a judgment what I think as to other like cases. But 
where such persons have leagued themselves with robbers or depredators, 
and have been partakers in robbing or depredation, especially of churches 
and ecclesiastics, they must incur the peril of their order, and may by 
strict right be deprived of their benefices : against such persons, when 
accused, proceedings must be taken by way of inquisition, as already 
stated. 

1 The whole of this passage is evidently 2 It is probably the then Legate who is 
corrupt and imperfect ; and its meaning can speaking, 
only be guessed at. 



A.D. 1263.] CONTEMPLATED INVASION OF ENGLAND. 71 

To the third, answer was made ; that when misdoers betake them- 
selves to other parts, so that citations cannot reach them there, an edict 
must be publicly put forth by the Bishop, to the effect that the same 
Bishop, at a certain time and place, will make inquisition as to such acts 
of rapine and such depredators ; and notice must be given to all who are 
in any way interested, that they may be present at such inquisition, if 
they shall deem it expedient. And whoever shall be found guilty, shall 
by the Bishop of the place in which he has committed the offence, be ex- 
communicated, and execution of such sentence shall be demanded of the 
Bishop in whose territory he has domicile or benefice. And if any person 
shall wish to bring such offender to trial, the Bishop of the place 
in which the offence was committed, must cite the Bishop in 
whose diocese he has benefice or domicile, who in such case must do for 
his peer whatever is necessary. 

To the fourth, answer was made ; that those who make clerks captive 
are by the Canon rendered excommunicate, and after satisfaction has been 
made for the injuries committed, and the costs and damages, they must be 
sent for absolution to the Apostolic See ; and if they shall have extorted 
anything by way of ransom, the same shall be restored, simply or two- 
fold, according to the award of the Bishop. Also, in this case, procedure 
may be had by way of action, if there be any one who may wish to pro- 
ceed by inquisition, in case the injured parties have shown a purpose to 
act through the influence of fear, or through slothfulness, or collusion. 
This ordinance was not at that season carried into effect. 

At this season, because news came that through the Queen's con- 
trivance, and that of Peter de l Sauveie, John Earl of Warenne, Hugh 
Bigot, William de Valence, John Maunsell, and others, who were then 
in the parts beyond the sea, certain aliens intended to invade the kingdom 
of England by force of arms, a Writ of his lordship the King was sent to 
the Sheriffs of England, to the effect under-written : 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and 
" Duke of Acquitaine, to the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Earls, 
" Barons, Sheriffs, Knights, freemen, and all the commons, of the County 
" of Essex, greeting. Whereas we have heard for certain, that a great 
" multitude of aliens, collecting ships from every quarter, are making 

1 Savoy. 



72 CHRONICLES OP THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1263. 

" preparations to enter our realm by force of arms, to the confusion and 
" the everlasting disherison of us, and of all and singular persons in this 
t( realm, unless indeed we shall deem it proper to meet them with a strong 
" hand, we do command you, in virtue of the fealty in which unto us you are 
" bound, and do strictly enjoin, that manfully and strenuously you do forth- 
" with equip with horses and with arms, all knights and freeholders who 
" shall thereunto suffice ; that so, you be with us at London, with all your 
" array, on the Sunday next after the Feast of Saint Peter's Chains [1 
" August], to proceed with us forthwith against such aliens, in defence by 
" us and by you of all this realm. And you, the Sheriff, taking with you 
" the l Keeper of the Peace of the same County, are to give notice unto 
" the Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Barons, and all others who owe service unto 
" us, and are strictly to enjoin on our behalf, by virtue of the fealty and the 
' f homage in which unto us they are bound, and as they love themselves, 
<e their lands and tenements, that each one of them do come, not only with 
" the military service which unto us is due, but with all the might and 
" power that he may, or else send unto us upon that day such horses, and 
" arms, and chosen foot-soldiers, as he shall be able ; that so by their 

" aid we may be enabled the more efficiently to meet this peril. 

" And let no one, by reason of the shortness of this notice, and 
<( because that it does not contain a reasonable time of summons, excuse 
" himself; seeing that urgent necessity does not allow of postponement to 
" a future day ; nor is it our intention or our wish, that even this shall be 
"drawn into a precedent, to the prejudice of others. And further, from 
" every vill, upon the same day, you are to summon eight, six, or four at 
" the least, according to the size of such vill, of the best and most able 
"foot-soldiers, well provided with befitting array, that is to say, with 
" lances, bows and arrows, swords, arbalests, and axes, and have them 
" provided therewith at the common expense for forty days. In the case 
" also of cities, in like manner, castles, and boroughs, where there is a 
" greater multitude of men, according to the extent and means of every 
" such place, omit not, in manner aforesaid, to send as well foot as horse, 
" in such numbers as, taking into consideration the nature of the business, 
" you stall think proper to provide. Nor is any one to make allegation 

1 Probably the official known at a later period as the " Clerk of the Peace." 



A.n.1263.] PREPARATIONS MADE TO RESIST THE INVASION. 73 

" of the approaching time of harvest, or of his being occupied with his 
" family affairs of any other kind, seeing that it is more safe and more 
" advantageous, with security to the person, to be in goods in some small 
" measure damnified, than, with total loss of land and of goods, by the 
" impious hands of those who, thirsting for your blood, will spare neither 
" sex nor age, if they can prevail, to be delivered up to the sufferings 
" of a cruel death. This our mandate therefore you are to have pub- 
(f lished throughout your County in form aforesaid, and notice thereof 
" given unto each, that, as they love our honour and that of our land and 
i( their own lives, and as they would avoid their own disherison and the 
" everlasting disherison of their posterity, they hasten to make prepara- 
" tions as manfully and as efficiently as they may ; that so, all excuses 
" laid aside, at the very latest, on the Sunday next after the Feast of 
" Saint Peter's Chains [1 August] they appear at the place aforesaid. 
" And you are to know, that if you shall find any persons to hold this 
" mandate in contempt, or to be in reference thereto negligent and remiss, 
" we shall heavily exact from their persons and their property for the 
" same ; in such manner as against those whose fault it will not be, if we 
" and our realm are delivered over to confusion and to everlasting dis- 
(( herison. In testimony whereof, we have caused these our letters patent 
" to be written. Witness myself, at Saint Paul's, London, this 7th day 
" of July, in the eight-and-fortieth year of our reign." 

After this, in obedience to the precept of the before-stated writ, 
countless multitudes of horse and foot gathered together from all the 
Counties of England ; and, well provided with arms, set out for the sea- 
coast, to defend the realm against aliens ; and in like manner, number- 
less ships of the Cinque Ports and other places put to sea with crews 
well-armed, for the purpose of resisting the said aliens with a strong 
hand. 

Afterward?, about the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary 
[15 August], his lordship the King and the Barons set out for 
Dover, where there was a conference held between envoys sent 
by the King and the Barons of England on the one hand^ and the aliens 
whom the Queen of England, John Maunsell, Peter de Sauveie, and 
their accomplices had induced, at a vast outlay, to make a descent upon 
England. 



74 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1263. 

Afterwards, about the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, 
[14 September], Sir Hugh le Despenser, Justiciar of England, Peter 
de Montfort, and other nobles, the Bishop of London, the Bishop of 
Worcester, and other Bishops, crossed over for the purpose of arranging 
and confirming a treaty of peace. 

At this time, the ecclesiastics throughout all England gave the tenth 
part of the issues of their churches. 

They were not sworn 



A.D. 1264. EDWARD BLUND, 



Sheriffs. 



at the Exchequer 



PETER FITZ- AUGER, , 

[ when presented. 

This year, on the second day before the Feast of the Translation of 
Saint Edward the Confessor [13 October], the King returned to London 
from the sea-coast. 

At this time, about the Feast of Simon and Jude [28 October], it 
was provided that three Bishops should be chosen, unto whom should be 
given by his lordship the King and the Barons, full power of reasonably 
correcting all injuries clone to the Church in this kingdom between 
Easter in the year of our Lord 1263 and the said time; a thing that the 
Barons conceded in good faith, and by their letters patent confirmed the 
same. And if any one should decline to be judged by the said Bishops, 
he was to be excommunicated, and by the lay power compelled to make 
satisfaction ; and it was then provided, that such Bishops should collect 
all issues of benefices of aliens which had existed in contravention of the 
Provisions of Oxford, and should deposit the same in safety, until peace 
throughout the realm should be fully confirmed. 

Be it remembered, that Thomas Fitz-Thomas, who in the preceding 
year had been elected Mayor, though he had not been admitted, still 
remained in office throughout the whole year : but in that year no Pleas 
of Land were pleaded, save only Pleas of Intrusion, as also Pleas on 
plaint made, which pertain to the Assizes; nor was any Hustings held. 
Hence it was, that no affidavits as to tenements were sworn from foreign 
Courts, nor was any testament proved. The same Thomas also was again 
elected Mayor on the. Feast of Simon and Jude [28 October], and on the 
morrow admitted by the King. 

1 Or, regulations as to the sale of victuals, and other commodities, within the City. 



A.I>. 1264.] PROVISIONS MADE AS TO LIQUID MEASURES. 75 

In this year, it was provided in the Hustings, on the morrow of All 
Souls [2 November], that all measures by which wine, ale, and other 
liquors, are sold, should be of the same dimensions, the mouth of the 
gallon being ordered to measure four inches across. On the same day, it 
was enacted and provided that no advocate should be an 1 essoiner in the 
Hustings, or in any other of the City Courts. 

In this year, about the Nativity, the Barons of the March of Wales, 
who before had adhered to the King and had been with him at the battle 
of Liawes, and had afterwards fought at the head of a large army 
in the March aforesaid, committing depredations and many mis- 
chiefs, concluded peace at Gloucester, his lordship the King being there, as 
also the Earls of Leicester and Gloucester, and many other nobles. Some of 
these Barons however abjured the realm of England for a year and a day, 
to proceed to Ireland in exile, and there to stay the whole of the said 
year, their lands, tenements, and castles, remaining in the hands of the 
Earl of Leicester in the meantime. But after such year should have 
expired, and when the said Barons should have returned to England, 
they were to abide by the award of their peers, and to be bound to be at 
the sea-coast ready to cross over, on the twentieth day after our Lord's 
Nativity ; an arrangement which did not hold good. 

This year, on the Octaves of Saint Hilary [13 January], there came 
to London, by summons of his lordship the King, all the Bishops, 
Abbots, Priors, Earls, [and] Barons, of the whole realm, as also the 
Barons of the Cinque Ports, [and] four men of every city and borough, 
to hold a Parliament ; in which Parliament, on Saint Valentine's Day 
[14 February], it was made known in the Chapter-House at Westmin- 
ster, that his lordship the King had bound himself by his charter, on 
oath, that neither he nor Sir Ed-ward, would from thenceforth aggrieve, or 
cause to be aggrieved, the Earls of Leicester or Gloucester, or the citizens 
of London, or any of those who had sided with them, on pretence of any 
thing done in the time of the past commotions in the realm ; and he 
thereby expressly gave orders, that the Charters of Liberties and of the 
Forest, which had been made in the ninth year of his reign, together 

1 An ageut or attorney, whose sole duty it support them before the Court, 
was to pi offer essoins for defendants, and 



76 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.I>. 1264. 

with the other articles which had been enacted in the month of June in 
the eight-and-fortieth year of his reign, should be inviolably observed. 

Afterwards, on the day before the Feast of Saint Gregory [12 
March], Sir Edward and Henry of Almaine, who had surrendered them- 
selves as hostages at the battle of Liawes, until peace should be restored 
in England, were delivered up to his lordship the King, free and quit, 
before all the people in the Great Hall at Westminster ; and at the same 
time there were read certain letters obligatory of his lordship the King 
and Sir Edward, in which it is set forth how and under what penalties 
they, upon oath, had promised to maintain the peace and tranquillity of 
the realm. And then, nine Bishops, arrayed in pontificals, with lighted 
tapers, pronounced excommunicate all those who should presume to do 
aught against the Charters of Liberties and the Forest, or against the 
Statutes which had been enacted in the preceding year. There were 
also then read certain other letters of Sir Edward, in which, upon oath, 
he promised to surrender three castles which he held in the 
March of Wales ; the same to be given, by counsel of his lord- 
ship the King, into the custody of men of the realm, not suspected, by 
them to be held for three whole years. 

He further promised, that he would give due care that the knights 
of the March of Wales should duly fulfil what they had undertaken, and 
that if they should not, he would prove their deadly enemy, and, by force 
of arms, to the utmost of his power would compel them to do the same. 
He further promised, that for three years from the Easter next ensuing 
he would remain in England, and would not depart therefrom, without 
leave of the Council. He further promised, that he would not bring, or 
cause to bring, aliens into the realm of England ; and that if any should 
come, and he by the Council of his lordship the King should be warned 
thereof, he would, to the utmost of his power, resist the same. And faith- 
fully to observe all these things he bound himself, upon peril of all the 
lands, tenements, honours, and dignities, which he then possessed 01 
should possess, if he should contravene any one of the articles aforesaid, 
and the same should be manifestly proved. And for the more sure 
observance thereof, Sir Henry of Almaine, of his own accord, offered 
himself as hostage for Sir Edward aforesaid, to remain in custody of Sir 
Henry de Montfort until Saint Peter's Chains [1 August] ; and if, in 



A.D. 1264.] THE MAYOR AND ALDEKMEN DO FEALTY AT SAINT PAUL'S. 77 

the meantime, any army of aliens should prepare to come into England 
by force of arms, in such case the said Henry was to remain hostage 
in the same custody for Sir Edward, until the Feast of All Souls [2 
November] then next ensuing; that so, in the meantime it might be 
ascertained how Sir Edward should be inclined to conduct himself as 
towards the aliens aforesaid. 1 

On the same day it was made known, that whereas his lordship the 
King, before the battle of Liewes, had by counsel of his advisers defied 
the Earls of Gloucester and Leicester, and those who adhered to them, it 
was now provided that all free men of the realm of England should do 
homage and fealty to him anew, saving however all articles in his letters 
obligatory, and in the letters of Sir Edward, contained. 

After this, on the 17th day of March, the Mayor and Aldermen ot 
London in the Church of Saint Paul did 2 fealty to his lordship the King, 
who was there present ; and on the Sunday following, all persons in the 
City, of the age of twelve years and upwards, made the same oath, each 
before his own Alderman, in his own Ward. 

Afterwards, between Easter and Pentecost there arose certain dissen- 
sions between the Earl of Gloucester and the Earl of Leicester, his lord- 
ship the King being then at Gloucester. For the Earl of Gloucester 
said, that many of the articles which had been prepared at Oxford and at 
Liawes, had not been fully observed ; and those articles were 
put in writing by the said Earl. Whereupon, the aforesaid 
Earls of Gloucester and Leicester, upon oath and by their letters obliga- 
tory, submitted to the arbitration of the Bishop of Worcester, Sir Hugh 
le Despenser, Sir John Fitz-John, and Sir William de Munchensy ; which 
arrangement however was not carried into effect. 

In this year, by assent and consent of certain nobles of England, 
namely the Earl of Leicester and his sons, the men of the Cinque Ports 
roved about the sea in 3 keels and other vessels, plundering all those whom 

1 "It should be known, that all the afore- ' taking the oath, dared to utter words so rash 
" said letters of his lordship the King and of ' as these, saying unto his lordship the King 
" his son, were quashed after the Battle of * in presence of the people ; ' My lord, so long 
" Evesham, as set forth below in this book." ' 'as unto us you will be a good lord and King, 
Marginal Note. ' ' we will be faithful and duteous unto you.' " 

2 " Then, whose who were present might Marginal Note. 

" see a thing wondrous and unheard of in this 3 A kind of merchant vessels, 
"age; for this most wretched Mayor, when 



78 CHRONICLES OP THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1264 

they found coming into England or leaving it ; and they cruelly threw 
men overboard into the sea, sparing no one, whether English or aliens. 
Of all the plunder so acquired, the said Earl of Leicester and his sons 
received a third part, it was said. 

Afterwards, on the Thursday in the week of Pentecost, Sir Edward 
departed from Hereford without leave, his lordship the King, the Earl of 
Leicester, and many other Earls and Barons, then being there ; and took 
his departure in the direction of Chester. 

After this, Sir Edward, accompanied by the Earl of Gloucester and 
the Barons of the March and others, as also the Earl of Warenne and 
William de Valence, who had recently landed at 1 Penbrok, took 
Gloucester and the Castle there. At this time, his lordship the King, 
listening to evil counsel, gave and granted unto Leuwelin, Prince of 
Wales, the greater part of the March, with the castles thereof, as also, 
lands and castles of orphans, who were under age and in guardianship : 
whereupon, Lewelin, as soon as ever he received seisin of any castle, at 
once levelled the same, to the very great loss and detriment of the realm 
of England. For the Welsh had never before entered into such a league 
with the English, nor ever will enter into any such, without fraud and 
estrangement through them thence ensuing. This gift his lordship the 
King made unto the said Lewelin, in order that he might give him aid 
against his son and his followers. 

In the same year, upon the morrow of Saint Swithun [15 July], 

Simon de Montfort the Younger, with other Barons and their adherents, 

took and plundered Winchester, and destroyed the Jewry there; because 

the citizens would not admit them into the City without his lordship the 

King being present. After which, they laid siege to the Castle there; 

but, upon hearing rumours of the approach of Sir Edward, 

although he did not come, through fear they withdrew. 

Be it remembered, that at the same time that the before-mentioned 
dissension arose between the said Earls of Gloucester and Leicester, 
it was provided and enacted among the Londoners, and confirmed by 
oath of every person of twelve years and upwards, that the peace of 
his lordship the King should be strictly observed within the City and 

1 Pembroke. 



A.D. 1264.] FOLLOWERS OF THE YOUNGER DE MONTFORT HANGED. 79 

without ; and that if any person should contravene the same, and should 
be convicted thereof, he should immediately undergo capital punishment, 
notwithstanding any franchise that he might possess ; and this was pro- 
claimed throughout all the City, as also by letters patent of the commons 
of the City, published in the four adjoining Counties, in all hundreds 
and vills within a distance from London of five-and-twenty miles : 
wherefore, certain persons who had followed the army of Simon de Mont- 
fort the Younger to London, and who had been convicted of the commis- 
sion of robberies in J Stebenhe and 2 Hackenheie, were hanged, about 
the Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul [29 June]. 

After this, on the night after Saint Peter's Chains [1 August], Sir 
Edward, the Earl of Warenne, William de Valence, and their adherents, 
came with a strong armed force, to 3 Kenelworthe, and there found all 
the army of Simon de Montfort the Younger buried in sleep. Upon 
this, Sir Edward caused immediate proclamation to be made, that no one 
of his people should slay any of the army of the said Simon ; but that 
they should be taken alive. Accordingly, there were captured there 
the Earl of Oxford, William de Munchensy, Adam de Newmarket, 
Baldwin Wake, Hugh de Nevile, and many others, Barons, knights, 
and serjeants, all of whom were carried prisoners to Gloucester, 
having lost their horses and arms, and all their harness. As to Simon 
before-named, he and certain others, taking to flight, threw themselves 
into the Castle of Kenelworthe; while as many as were able, took to 
flight and escaped. 

Be it observed, that his lordship the King, with the Earl of Leicester 
and his adherents, had been staying at Hereford for many weeks, being 
unable to pass the Severn, as all the bridges had been broken down by 
Sir Edward and the Earl of Gloucester; the said Edward, and the Earl 
and the Barons of the March of Wales, with their army, preventing the 
King from crossing over with his troops. At last, while the said Edward 
was with his army at Kenelworthe, as already mentioned, his lordship 
the King, with his forces, crossed the Severn at Worcester 
on the morrow of Saint Peter's Chains [1 August], which 4 day 

1 Stepney. /. e . the day after Saint Peter's Chains, or 

2 Hackney. 2nd August. 

3 Kenilworth, in Warwickshire. 



80 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1264 

then fell upon a Sunday. After this, on the Tuesday following, such 
Tuesday being the third day after the Chains, and the fourth ot 
August, they arrived at * Hevesham, where Sir Edward and the Earl 
of Gloucester surprised them with all their army; and on the same day, 
the two parties engaging without the said town, the said Edward and 
the Earl of Gloucester gained the victory, and the Earl of Leicester 
and his eldest son, Henry, were slain; Hugh le Despenser also, and 
Peter de Montfort, and all the Barons and knights who had adhered 
to them, were slain, a few only excepted, who however were badly 
wounded and made prisoners. It was said also, that many knights and 
men-at-arms on that side were slain, while on the other side but very 
few lost their lives. 

The head of the Earl of Leicester, it is said, was severed from his 
body, and his testicles cut off and hung on either side of his nose ; and in 
such guise the head was sent to the wife of Sir Roger de Mortimer, at 
Wiggemor Castle. His hands and feet were also cut off, and sent to 
divers places to enemies of his, as a great mark of dishonour to the 
deceased ; the trunk of his body however, and that only, was given for 
burial in the church of Evesham. On the same day and at the same 
hour that the battle took place, there was a very great tempest at 
London and elsewhere, accompanied with 2 coruscations, lightning, and 
thunder. 

After this, when certain news was heard of the battle aforesaid, all 
the prisoners who had been taken at the battle of Liewes and put in the 
Tower of London and the Castle of Windleshores, were set at liberty 
and released without ransom. In like manner, the King of Almaine was 
liberated from the Castle of Kenelworthe, and all the other prisoners who 
had been taken by the said Earl of Leicester and his accomplices during 
the aforesaid disturbances in the realm of England. 

After this, about the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary [8 
September], his lordship the King held a Parliament at Winchester, 
where Simon de Montfort the Younger, who had a safe-conduct from 
his lordship the King and Sir Edward, appeared; but as he was not 
able at that season to make peace on his own terms, he withdrew and 

1 Evesham, in Worcestershire. means something of the nature of the Aurora 

2 The word " chorutcationes " here probably Borealie. 



A.D. 1264.] FEAR OF THE KING'S VENGEANCE IN THE CITY. 81 

threw himself into the Castle of Kenelworthe, whither he had summoned 
many knights and men-at-arms, who still adhered to him. In the said 
Parliament, it was provided that all who were taken at Kenelworthe, as 
already noticed, as also those who were taken at the battle of Evesham, 
as well as the heirs of those who were slain there, should be disinherited, 
because, as it was said, they had in reality been against the King, 
although fighting together with him as following his standard. 
For it was resolved that he was not in full enjoyment of his 
power, after he had been taken at the battle of Liawes ; but rather, under 
the rod and power of the Earl of Leicester, who did whatever he pleased 
with the King's seal, and all things pertaining unto the realm of England. 
His lordship the King also then recalled all donations of lands, churches, 
[and] prebends, which between the day of his capture and the day 
aforesaid he had granted ; and all letters, charters, and writings, which 
he and his son had executed by compulsion throughout the whole time 
aforesaid, were recalled and made of no effect. 

A.D. 1265. GREGORY DE KOKESLE,) 
SIMON DE HADESTOK, $ S 

On the morrow of Saint Michael, as the custom is, the Mayor and 
citizens proceeded to Westminster, to present them to the Barons of the 
Exchequer ; but finding no one there, they returned home. And so, 
they were 1 not admitted Sheriffs. Be it remembered, that at the close of 
the Parliament before-mentioned, his lordship the King had summoned 
to Wyndleshores all the Earls, Barons, [and] knights, as many as he could, 
with horses and arms, intending to lay siege to the City of London, [and] 
calling the citizens his foes. 

Then was all the City in great alarm. The fools and evil-minded 
persons, however, who had previously been adherents of the Earl of 
Leicester against the King, proposed fortifying the City against him ; 
while the discreet men of the City, who always maintained their fealty 
to his lordship the King although some part of them, but by compulsion, 

1 " They were not admitted, because his * in the disturbances of the realm ; and he re- 

" lordship the King had then taken the City " tained the same for nearly six years." Mar- 

" into his own hands ; because that the citizens ginal Note. 
" had been adherents of the Earl of Leicester 



82 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. o. 1265. 

had given their adherence to the said Earl, would not assent thereto ; 
but, though they sent many letters, through men of the religious Orders, 
to his lordship the King, for the purpose of beseeching his favour, it was 
of no avail to them. At length, after holding counsel among themselves, 
the whole community gave its consent to throwing themselves on the 
mercy of his lordship the King, and made letters patent thereupon, 
sealed with the common seal; eight men being selected to carry and 
shew the same unto his lordship the King, and to present such letters to 
him at Windleshores. Upon the road, they were met by Sir Roger de 
Leiburne, who said that he, for the benefit and advantage of* the City, 
had come to make arrangements for peace between his lordship the King 
and the citizens : upon hearing which, the men who had been so sent, 
returned home ; and the said Roger took up his quarters in the Tower 
of London. 

The next morning however, the said Roger went to the Church called 
1 Berkinge Cherche ; where the Mayor and a countless multitude of the 
citizens had met ; and then, summoning the Mayor and more discreet 
men of the City, the said Roger said to them that if it was their wish to 
become reconciled with his lordship the King, they must wholly subject 
themselves unto the will of his lordship the King as to life and limb, and 
as to all things inoveable and immoveable. The citizens accordingly 
gave assent thereto, and caused letters patent to be made, sealed with the 
common seal ; which letters the said Roger took with him to his lordship 
the King at Windleshores. 

Afterwards, on the Friday next after the Feast of Saint Michael, 

the same Roger came to London, and on the morrow proceeded 

to the Church before-mentioned ; the Mayor also and citizens 

met there, to whom the same Roger said, that it was the desire of his 

lordship the King, that all chains which had been placed across the 

streets, should be removed, and that all the posts to which the said chains 

had been attached, should be rooted up, and carried, all of them, to the 

Tower; and so it was afterwards done. 

It was also the wish of his lordship the King, that the Mayor and 
principal men of the City should come to him at Windleshores, to con- 
firm what was said in the letters aforesaid. The said Roger also brought 
1 Allhallows Barking, near the Tower. 



A. D. 1265.] THE MAYOR AND CHIEF MEN OF THE CITY ARRESTED. 83 

letters patent of safe-conduct of his lordship the King, for the Mayor and 
citizens,, so that they might safely go to Windleshores, there to stay and 
thence to return, the same to last until the Monday then next ensuing, 
and throughout the whole of the Monday aforesaid. Wherefore, on the 
same day, the Mayor, and about forty of the more substantial men of 
the City, set out and arrived at Stanes. On the morrow, which was a 
Sunday, after the citizens had awaited the arrival of the said Roger until 
the 1 third hour, he came, and then the Mayor and citizens accompanied 
him to Windleshores ; where he entered the castle, the citizens remaining 
without until evening. His lordship the King also then caused proclam- 
ation to be made, that no knight, Serjeant, or other person, should pre- 
sume to say or to do anything affronting to the citizens, seeing that they 
had been summoned to the peace of his lordship the King. 

After this, there were sent on part of his lordship the King, the said 
Roger, and Sir Robert Walraven and others, to inform the Mayor and 
citizens that the King was not then advised in what form to make known 
his will unto them ; but that they were to enter the Castle, and on the 
morrow should learn the same. Upon this, they entered, and all of them 
were lodged in the 2 tower in safe custody, the letters of safe-conduct 
granted by the King availing them nought. They also remained there 
throughout the whole of that night and the whole of the follow- 
ing day ; but at a later hour, were separated and sent into the 
3 bailey of the Castle, and there lodged, all of them, the Mayor excepted, 
Thomas de Piwelesdon, Michael Thovi, Stephen Bugerel, [and] John de 
Flete, whose bodies the King gave to Sir Edward ; and they remained in 
the tower. 

After this, his lordship the King departed from Windleshores and 
came to London, calling the citizens his enemies, and giving away more 
than sixty houses belonging to citizens ; they, with all their families, being 
expelled. In like manner also, he gave away all such goods belonging to 
the citizens as they possessed without the City, as at 4 Lenne, for example, 
5 Gernemue, and other sea-ports. He also took all their 6 foreign lands, 

1 Nine in the morning. 5 Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 

2 Or Keep. 6 /. e. lands without the liberties of the 

3 See page 66 ante. City. 

4 Lynn, in Norfolk. 



84 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1265. 

into his hands, and destroyed and wasted all goods there found. At this 
time, Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes, Constable of the Tower, was made Warden 
of the City, and styled l " Seneschal," appointing under him two Bailiffs, 
John Addrien, namely, and Walter Hervi, who, in place of Sheriffs, were 
to have charge of the City. 

After this, the citizens aforesaid, who were in the bailey at Windle- 
shores, were liberated by leave of his lordship the King and of his son, 
and returned home, all of them, to London, on the Thursday next after 
the Feast of Saint Luke the Evangelist [18 October], with the exception 
of Richard Bonaventure, Simon de Hadestoke, William de Kent, Ead- 
mund de Essex, and William de Gloucester, who remained. 

At this time, his lordship the King had hostages taken for keeping the 
peace, from more than sixty citizens, who accordingly were put in the 
Tower ; and at the same time the King had the citizens spoken to, to the 
effect that they must make fine to him for their offence. Upon this, after 
holding conference, they made answer that the citizens had not equally 
offended ; for that some of them had always maintained the peace of his 
lordship the King, and whom in those times he used to call his friends. 
Others again had been adherents of the Earl of Leicester ; but this, be- 
cause compelled thereto. Many others again, evil-minded persons, had 
spontaneously sided with the said Earl and his accomplices, committing 
depredations both within the City and without. Wherefore it seemed 
unto the citizens, that they ought not equally to be punished ; and they 
accordingly entreated the King and his Council, that each of them might 
individually be allowed to make fine in proportion to his offence, and that 
every one might be punished according to his transgressions. And this 
was granted them, though it was not carried into effect. 

After this, on the Tuesday next after the Feast of Saint Nicholas [6 
December], the King took his departure from Westminster for 
Norhamptone, and on the same day, John de la Linde, knight, 
and John Waleraven, clerk, were made Seneschals, the Tower of London 
being delivered into their hands. On the same day, there came to West- 
minster upon summons more than four-and-twenty of the most substantial 
men of the City ; all of whom made oath before the Council of his lordship 
the King, that they would faithfully and safely keep the City in his 

1 Or, Steward. 






A.D. 1265.] LETTER OF PARDON FROM THE KING TO THE CITIZENS. 85 

behalf, Sir Roger de Leiburne telling them that his lordship the King 
had delivered his City into their keeping, under the Seneschals before- 
mentioned. 

Be it remarked, that at the time when the City submitted itself unto 
the mercy of his lordship the King, many persons in the City who had 
spontaneously sided with the Earl of Leicester, took to flight ; having 
committed depredations and many mischiefs within the City and without, 
and, in the time of the aforesaid Mayor, styling themselves the " Commons 
" of the City," having had the first voice there, the principal men thereof 
being but little consulted in reference thereto. 

Be it remarked, that in the week of Our Lord's Nativity in the same 
year, in presence of Sir Roger de Leiburne and Robert Walraven, sent 
by his lordship the King, who was then at Norhamptone, the citizens made 
fine to his lordship the King in the sum of 20000 marks sterling, for all 
trespasses and excesses during the disturbances of the realm imputed to 
them ; in consideration whereof, he granted unto them his Charter, in form 
under- written : 

Letters of his lordship the King, whereby he remitted his indignation unto 

the Citizens. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, etc. to all men, etc. 
" greeting. Know ye, that in consideration of a fine of 20000 marks,, 
" which our citizens of London have made unto us as their ransom, by 
" reason of trespasses or excesses against us, and our Queen, and Richard 
" the illustrious King of Almaine, our brother, and Edward our eldest son, 
" by them committed, or unto them imputed, we do, for ourselves and our 
" heirs, so far as in us lies, wholly remit and pardon unto the said citi- 
" zens and their heirs all such trespasses and excesses, in form as follows, 
" that is to say ; that they shall have all issues of rents arising from houses 
" and tenements as well in the City aforesaid as in the suburbs thereof, 
" from the time of our Lord's Nativity last past, upon the understanding 
" that from henceforth they shall, from such rents, satisfy all persons 
" whatsoever in such manner as shall be right ; and shall have all goods 
" and chattels of such misdoers within the same City, as, in the disturbances 
" aforesaid, have been against us and Edward our eldest son, 
" and who thereof have been, or shall be, indicted ; save and 



86 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1265. 

" except the goods and chattels of those whose bodies we have granted 
" unto our said son, and except the houses, lands, tenements, and rents, of 
" the same citizens, which are and ought to be our escheats, by reason of 
" the trespasses aforesaid ; and shall have all goods and chattels of citizens 
" of the same city in the parts of Flanders arrested, save and except the 
" chattels and goods of those who by lawful inquisition may be found or 
(f convicted to have been our enemies. And that all prisoners of the same 
" city, except those whose bodies we have given unto our firstborn son 
" aforesaid, shall from prison be delivered ; save also such prisoners as 
" have by the same citizens been indicted and taken, and shall be indicted 
" and taken. And that the hostages of the citizens aforesaid, for the safe- 
" keeping of the same city unto us delivered, save and except the hostages 
" of the prisoners of our son aforesaid, and the hostages of those who have 
(f taken to flight, if any such there shall be, shall in like manner be set at 
" liberty ; and that from the goods of such citizens as have died in the city 
e< aforesaid, since the time that the said citizens have submitted themselves 
" unto our will, a contribution shall be proportionally levied towards the 
" said ransom, according to the means of the deceased, in the same manner 
" as in regard to the means of the other citizens who are still living in the 
" city aforesaid ; and in like manner it shall be done as to the goods of all 
" men of the same city who are there in our 1 Exchange. We have also 
" granted unto them, that all goods and chattels of the reputable men of 
" the City aforesaid, which have been taken from each and every of them, 
" from the time when the citizens aforesaid submitted themselves unto 
" our will, without our warrant aforesaid, the goods of Richard de 
" Walebrok excepted shall unto them be wholly restored ; and that the 
" said citizens shall throughout all our territories and dominions, freely 
" and without impediment on part of us or ours, as well by sea as by land, 
" trade with their wares and merchandize, in such manner as they shall 
" deem expedient, quit of all custom, toll, and 2 passage ; and shall sojourn 
" wheresoever they shall think proper, in the same our realm, for purposes 
" of business, in such manner as in past times they have been wont to do, 
" until such time as of our counsel it shall as to the state of the city afore- 

1 At the Tower, and acting as moneyers at a A toll levied for passing over ferries, 
the Mint, or their assistants. 



A.D. 1265.] ESCAPE OF SIMON DE MONTFORT THE YOUNGER. 87 

" said be more fully provided. And that no one of the said city, as to 
" whom it may manifestly be proved that in the disturbances aforesaid he 
fe has been our enemy, or the enemy of our eldest son aforesaid, shall in 
"future sojourn or be harboured in the city aforesaid. In testimony 
" whereof, we have caused these our letters patent to be made. Witness 
" myself, at Norhamptone, this tenth day of January, in the fiftieth year 
" of our reign." 

By reason of this ransom, then were set at liberty William 
de Gloucester, Richard Bonaventure, William de Kent, [and] 
Simon de Hadestoke ; Eadmund de Essex having been previously released. 

After this, Simon de Montfort the Younger, while his. lordship the 
King was at Norhamptone, threw himself upon his mercy, to abide by 
the award of the King of Almaine and the Legate of his lordship the 
Pope, then in England, and certain others, Barons of England. After- 
wards, having come to London and made a stay for some time in the 
Court of Sir Edward, not awaiting his award, he escaped stealthily 
without leave and by night, making for Winchester, where he joined the 
pirates of the Cinque Ports ; who then, as before, were seizing all the 
merchants they could, whether coming to England or departing from 
England, and either slaying them or plundering their goods. Still 
however, these pirates did not dare to attack any foreign prince or 
knight, coming in armed guise to England, or leaving it. This Simon 
however afterwards crossed the seas. 

The same year, in the week before Palm Sunday, Sir Edward re- 
ceived into the favour of his lordship the King, his father, and of himself, 
all the men of the Cinque Ports, as well misdoers as others ; and granted 
that they should have all their liberties, and possess all their lands and 
tenements. And in like manner it was granted unto knights, Serjeants, 
and all others who had been their adherents in the disturbances aforesaid, 
that they should freely have and hold all the possessions and lands, which 
they had before held ; also, all acts of depredation and homicide by land 
or by sea were forgiven, whatsoever the same might be, which they 
had committed upon men of the realm of England, Ireland, ScotlancT, 
Wales, and Gascoigne ; those lands namely, which belong to the dignity 
of his lordship the King. And if any person of a land other than the 
lands above-mentioned, should wish to proceed against such persons for 



88 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1265. 

depredations committed against them, or for homicide committed against 
their kinsfolk, he was to come into the Court of the Cinque Ports aforesaid, 
and there have justice awarded him. But for what reason or through what 
necessity all the concessions aforesaid were made unto them, I know not. 

The Bishops who, for their disobedience, were sent to Koine, must 
not be past over in silence here. A year and a half before, when the 
Queen of England, Peter de 1 Sauweye, the Earl of Warenne, Hugh 
Bigot, and a countless multitude of knights and men-at-arms, together 
with a large fleet, were in Flanders and intending to cross over to 
England with a strong and armed force, against the Earl of Leicester 
and his accomplices ; the Roman Legate, who is now 2 Pope, then being 
in those parts, pronounced sentence of excommunication against 
the said Earl and all who adhered to him in the disturbances of 
the realm of England before-noticed, and placed the City of London 
under ecclesiastical interdict, as well as all persons and places belonging 
to the said Earl and his adherents; and this he enjoined upon certain 
Bishops there, in order that they might publish his said sentence and 
the aforesaid interdict throughout all England. And because they 
failed to do so, 3 Ottoboni, who is now Legate from Rome., summoned 
them before him at London, and addressed them, pronouncing them 
contumacious. Wherefore, after much altercation had passed between 
them for the reason aforesaid, and because they had shewed themselves 
so luke-warm during the said disturbances in the realm, in not chiding 
or rebuking those evildoers who were striving against his lordship the 
King, the week before Palm Sunday in this year he suspended 4 Henry, 
Bishop of London, and 5 Stephen, Bishop of Chichester, from duty and 
benefice, sending them to Rome, to be punished according to their 
deserts by his lordship the Pope. 

After this, on the Monday next after the quinzaine of Easter, for 
the same reason the same Legate suspended 6 John, Bishop of Win- 

1 Savoy. 3 Ottoboni di Fresco; Cardinal of Saint 

2 Guy le Gros or le Foulques ; previously Adrian, and Pope (for about five weeks) as 
Archbishop of Narbonne and Cardinal Bishop Adrian V., in 1276. 

of Sabina. As he died in November 1268, 4 Henry de Sandwich, 

the present passage tends to shew that the 5 Stephen de Barksteed. 

latter part of this Chronicle is by the hand of 6 John Gernsey. 
a writer previous to that date. 



A.P.12G5.] THE EXCHEQUER REMOVED TO SAINT PAUL'S. 89 

Chester, from duty and benefice, naming a peremptory time for him to 
appear in presence of his lordship the Pope, there to receive penance 
according to his deserts. 

About the same time, the Exchequer of his lordship the King was 
transferred from Westminster to Saint Paul's, so that the Pleas in Bank 
which used to be held at Westminster, were now held in the hall of the 
Bishop of London ; the l Exchequer too being placed in the chamber of 
the said 2 Bishop. The Legate however was lodged in the Tower of 
London. 

In the same year and at the same season, the persons who had been 
deprived of their possessions, as already mentioned, collected in bands, 
and fought by force of arms, in Norfolch, Suthfolch, and 3 Holand, as 
also in divers other places throughout England, plundering many per- 
sons; on which occasion, some of them entered Lincoln, certain persons 
of that city siding with them, and plundered many of the citizens there. 
The boroughs and vills also, through which some of them passed, made 
fine to them, in order that they might not be attacked. Those however 
who had entered Lincoln, on hearing news of the approach of Sir 
Edward, withdrew. 

At this time, about the Feast of the Apostles Philip and James 
[1 May], his lordship the King held a Parliament at Norhamptone. To 
this Parliament were sent formal messengers from the City of London, 
begging his lordship the King that he would be pleased to 
reinstate them in their former position, and that they might elect 
Sheriffs from among themselves, who should be answerable to the King's 
Exchequer for the ancient ferm. Whereupon, returning from the Par- 
liament, they came to London on the Vigil of our Lord's Ascension, and 
brought letters of his lordship the King, both close and patent, the tenor 
of which is as follows : 

Letters of his lordship the King as to leave to elect Bailiffs. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 
"and Duke of Acquitaine, to his well-beloved and trusty, the 4 Barons 

1 The table so called, at which the officers of a Holland, or Hoyland, in Lincolnshire, 
the Exchequer sat. 4 The Aldermen and tenants in capite were 

2 Who was now in disgrace, and on his way so styled, 
to Rome. 

N 



90 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1265. 

" and citizens of London, greeting. Whereas we have granted unto you, 
" that you may elect one of your fellow-citizens, a trusty and discreet 
" person, who has heretofore constantly adhered unto his fealty to us and 
" to Edward, our eldest son, the same to attend to the duties of Sheriff 
" of Middlesex and of Warden of the City of London ; such person by 
" you to be presented at our Exchequer, and there to take the oath of 
" fealty, as the usage is, and to be answerable unto us at the Exchequer 
" aforesaid for the ferm thereof; for which ferm the Sheriffs thereof 
' ' respectively from of old have been wont there to be answerable ; all 
" which things we have granted unto you of our own free will ; provided 
(< however that the said Sheriff and Warden shall with the liberties of 
" the Abbey of Westminster in no way interfere : we do command you 
" that of your fellow-citizens you elect such a person thereunto, and 
f( make known unto us his name. Witness myself, at Norhamptone, this 
" first day of May, in the fiftieth year of our reign." 

" Henry, by the grace of God etc., to all to whom these present 
" letters shall come, greeting. Know ye, that we have granted unto our 
" well-beloved Barons and citizens of London, that they may elect one of 
" their fellow-citizens, a trusty and discreet person, who has heretofore 
" constantly adhered unto his fealty to us and to Edward, our eldest son, 
" the same to attend to the duties of Sheriff of Middlesex and of Warden 
" of the City of London ; the name of such person to be made known 
" unto us, that so he may be presented at our Exchequer, and there take 
" the oath of fealty, as the usage is, and be answerable unto us at our 
"Exchequer aforesaid for the ferm thereof; all which things we have 
" granted unto them of our own free will. It is our will, however, that 
se the said Sheriff and Warden shall with the liberties of the Abbey of 
" Westminster in no way interfere. In testimony whereof we have 
" caused these letters patent to be made. Witness myself, at Norhamp- 
" tone, this 30th day of April, in the fiftieth year of our reign." 

Accordingly, on the morrow, being the day of Our Lord's Ascension, 
which on this occasion fell upon the Feast of Saint John Port Latin [6 
May], the citizens met at the Guildhall, and William Fitz-Eichard was 
elected by them and sworn, to attend to the office of Sheriff of Middlesex 
and the Wardenship of the City of London, in form in the aforesaid letters 



A.D. 1265.] RESISTANCE BY CITY POPULACE TO THE KING'S ORDERS. 91 

contained: and on the morrow was presented to the Barons of the 
Exchequer at Saint Paul's, and there admitted and sworn. 

Be it remarked, that many of the common people, on the day that 
the aforesaid election took place, gainsayed the same, crying 
" Nay, nay," and saying, " We will have no one for Mayor, 
" save only Thomas Fitz-Thomas, and we desire that he be released 
" from prison, as well as his companions, who are at Windleshores." 
Such base exclamations did the fools of the vulgar classes give utterance 
to, on the previous Monday, in the same Guildhall. Wherefore his 
lordship the King, on hearing rumours to this effect, fearing an insurrec- 
tion of the populace against the principal men of the City, who main- 
tained their fealty towards him, sent to London Sir Roger de Leiburne ; 
who, on the Saturday next ensuing, came into the Guildhall with a 
great retinue of knights and Serjeants, with arms beneath their clothes ; 
whither a countless multitude of the City had already resorted, and that 
without summons. And the same Sir Roger gave orders, on behalf 
of his lordship the King, that all who were suspected, should be seized 
and put in arrest, lest they might enter into some confederacy with 
the enemies of his lordship the King. Wherefore, on the same day 
there were taken more than twenty persons, no one of the populace 
making any opposition thereto. 

Be it remarked, that those who adhered unto his lordship the King 
had frequent conflicts with their adversaries ; for example, on one occa- 
sion in the County of Derby, where John de Eyvile, Baldwin Wake, 
and the Earl of Ferrers, (who two days before had withdrawn from his 
,. allegiance to the King, and had given in his adherence to them upon oath), 
with many others, had met together, with horses and arms, in the vill 
that is known as l Cestrefeld. Here Sir Henry of Almaine, Sir John de 
Baliol, and others who maintained their fealty to his lordship the King, 
surprised and attacked them, on the Vigil of Pentecost, many of them 
being taken prisoners and many slain. The Earl of Ferrers also was 
taken, and carried to the Castle of Windleshores. As to John de Eyvile 
and Baldwyn Wake, they took to flight. 

After this, on Friday in the week of Pentecost, Sir Edward attacked 
Adam Gurdan and his accomplices in the wood of Aulton, where many 

1 Now Chesterfield. 



92 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1265 

were slain and captured, and lost their all. Afterwards, on the fourth day 
of June, Boneface, Archbishop of Canterbury, came to London from the 
parts beyond sea, where he had been staying all the time of the aforesaid 
disturbances in the kingdom of England. 

In the same year, after the Feast of the Nativity of Saint John the 
Baptist [24 June], his lordship the King laid siege to the Castle of 
Kenelworthe, having with him a countless army of Earls, Barons, knights, 
men-at-arms, and others who adhered to their fealty. The same year, 
on the second of the Ides of July [12 August], at night, the wife of Sir 
Edward was delivered of her first-born son, at Windleshores ; on hearing 
news of which, the citizens of London caused proclamation to be made 
in the City, that on the morrow the whole community should 

Fol. 99 B. * 

celebrate the same by doing no handicraft, for joyousness at the 
birth of the said child. Accordingly on that day, all 1 selds and shops 
being closed, all the men and women, clergy as well as lay, went on foot 
and horseback to Westminster, to give thanks unto God for the birth of 
the child, and to offer prayers for its safety. Also, throughout the streets 
of the City there was dancing and singing of carols for joy, as is the usual 
yearly custom upon the Feast of Saint John the Baptist [24 June]. 
The name that was given to the child was " John." 

Be it observed, that on the Vigil of Saint Michael a writ of his lord- 
ship the King was read in the Guildhall before all the people ; in which 
was set forth, that he had given orders that the Charter of liberties which 
he had granted unto his Barons of England, in the ninth year of his reign, 
should be read before all the people, and that all the articles therein con- 
tained should throughout the whole realm of England be strictly observed. 
Also, in the same manner, at this time a writ of his lordship the King, in 
like form, was sent to all the Sheriffs of England. 

Also, on the same day there were immediately read certain letters 
patent, setting forth that the King had delivered the City into the custody 
of William Fitz-Bichard, who before had been elected by the citizens 
Bailiff of the City ; as also, the SherifFwick of Middlesex, he making 
payment, according to the ancient ferm, at the Exchequer. But these 
letters were contrary to the aforesaid Charter, by which the City is 
entitled to have all its franchises and free customs, and by virtue whereof 

1 Or warehouses. 



A.D. 1265.] REGULATIONS AS TO PROPERTY OF THE DISHERISONED. 93 

the citizens ought to elect their own Sheriffs and Mayor. For which 
reason, the citizens sent to the Court of his lordship the King envoys on 
their behalf ; though the same William continued to be Warden of the 
City and of Middlesex ; as the citizens declined to elect any one, in con- 
travention of the letters aforesaid, without leave of his lordship the King. 
Still however, they sent envoys to the Court, as already mentioned. 

At the Feast of Saint Michael, in the year of our Lord 1266, Wil- 
liam Fitz-Bichard, Warden of the City and of Middlesex, still continued 
in his bailiwick ; but being removed on the Feast of Saint Martin [11 
November], by election of the citizens, John Addrien and Luke de 
Batencurt were made * Bailiffs of the City and of Middlesex. 

In this year, about the Feast of Saint Michael, there were chosen 
twelve men of the nobles of the realm, ecclesiastics as well as laymen, 
in whose arbitration and ordinance were placed such matters as touched 
the state of the realm, and of those more particularly who had been dis- 
herisoned ; that so, whatever decision they might give thereon, the same 
should be strictly observed. Accordingly, their ordinance was published 
on the Sunday before the Feast of All Saints [1 November] at 2 Warewyc, 
before his lordship the King and his Council, and a countless multitude 
of Earls, Barons, and others, by the Legate, after his sermon; who 
declared that no one of those who had been disherisoned should 

Fol. 100 A. 

lose his lands ; but that those who had most offended against his 
lordship the King, should be ransomed at the value of their lands for five 
years, and certain others at the value of theirs for two. As to those 
whose offences had not been so great, the sum was to be the value of 
their lands for half a year ; such ransoms to be the property of those who 
then held such lands. It was also provided, that if any one could 
immediately make payment of his ransom, he was immediately to have 
back his lands ; and if unable to do so, he was to have back his land in 
proportion to such part of his ransom as he was able to pay ; the residue 
thereof remaining unto him who was then in possession of the land, until 
the periods before-mentioned, unless in the meantime he should make 
payment of the residue of his ransom. After the like form, it was 
granted unto those who were in the Castle of Kenelworthe, if it should 
be their wish, with the exception of Sir Henry de Hastinges, Sir John 
1 I.e. Substitutes for Sheriffs. 2 Warwick. 



94 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1266 

de la Ware, and the person who had cut off the hand of an envoy of his 
lordship the King. Those however who had been disherisoned, but had 
been guilty of no offence, were to have their lands free, and their 
damages by award of court. It should also be noticed that, first of all, 
the Legate declared that the Charter which the King had granted unto 
the Barons, and of which mention has been previously made, should in all 
its points be strictly observed, etc. ; as is set forth in a certain writing 
made thereon, a copy of which was sent to every County in the kingdom 
of England, under seal of his lordship the King, there to be read. 

After this, the messengers of the City returned from the Court, 
bringing with them letters from his lordship the King, both close and 
patent, on the Vigil, namely, of Saint Martin [11 November] ; whereby 
it was granted unto them, that they should elect two Bailiffs of their 
number to take charge of the City and the Sheriffwick of Middlesex, upon 
payment of the ancient ferm. Wherefore, on the morrow there were 
elected unto that office in the Guildhall, before all the people, l John 
Addrien and Luke de Batencurt, who, being presented at the Exchequer, 
were admitted and sworn. 

After this, on the Feast of Saint Lucy the Virgin [13 
December], the Castle of Kenelworthe was surrendered to his lordship the 
King ; upon the siege of which castle, his lordship the King had been 
engaged, with a great army, from the Feast of the Nativity of John the 
Baptist [24 June] until that day ; his enemies and those who had proved 
unfaithful, holding the said castle against him by force of arms. 

In this year, before the Feast of Saint Michael preceding, those who 
were called the 2 " disherisoned," threw themselves into the Isle of Ely, 
fortifying it with arms ; and repeatedly sallied forth therefrom, laying 
waste and burning manors in divers places in Esex, Norfolch, and 
Suthfolch, as also in the County of 3 Cantebrigscire : they also took and 
plundered the City of 4 Nore wych, and compelled the vills and boroughs 
to pay ransom. 

In this year, when the Earl of Gloucester, who by command of his 
lordship the Legate was coming to London, was at Windleshores, the 

1 This is a repetition, in more circumstantial 3 Cambridgeshire, 
detail, of what has been already stated. 4 Norwich. 

3 " Exheredati" 



A.D. 1266.] EARL OF GLOUCESTER TAKES POSSESSION OF THE CITY. 95 

citizens went to the said Legate, to advise with him as to whether the 
Earl ought to enter the City ; who said, that he was certain that the 
Earl was the King's friend, and that it would be a disgrace to deny 
him admission into the City. Afterwards, on the Friday next before 
Palm Sunday, the citizens sent certain of their fellow-citizens to the 
Earl, who was approaching the City, to request him not to take 
up his quarters within the City, by reason of the great number of his 
troops ; which request he acceded to, and, passing through the middle 
of the City, took up his quarters in 1 Suwerk, with his people. But on 
the morrow, as the Legate. would not come to him on the other side of 
the Bridge, by command of the Legate he came into London, to hold a 
conference with him in the 2 Church of the Holy Trinity ; and so remained 
in the City with his people. From this it is clear that the 
Earl had entrance into the City by counsel and assent of the 
Legate ; by whose counsel the citizens, by order of his lordship the King 
and of the Queen, were required to abide. On the Monday following, 
John de Ey vile and his confederates, who were called the " disherisoned," 
came to Suwerk and took up their quarters there : the citizens under- 
standing which, put the City in a state of defence, and for greater safety 
drew up the drawbridge, that they might not enter the City. For the 
citizens themselves had not the means of attacking them without the 
assistance of the Earl ; who declined to give them such assistance ; as in 
fact it was through him, and at his instigation, that they had come so 
near the City, and had committed much mischief in divers places. 

After this, soon after Easter, the Earl took all the keys of the City 
Gates, and delivered them to such of his own people as he thought 
proper, for the purpose of watching all entrance into, and exit from, 
the City; and always, in the meantime, they who had taken up their 
quarters in Suwerk, had free admission, day and night, by the Bridge 
into the City. Upon this, many citizens departed from the City, through 
fear of his lordship the King ; and their goods the Earl ordered to be 
carried off. 

Thereupon, the low people arose, calling themselves the ee Commons 
" of the City," as had been the case in the time of the Earl of Leicester, 
and had the chief voice in the City ; so that many persons of the City, 
1 Southwark. * At Aldgate. 



96 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 126 

and of the principal men even, were seized by them and put in the Earl's 
keeping, because they had manifestly maintained their fealty towards 
his lordship the King; their goods being either sequestrated by the 
Earl or made away with. And then, by election of the said 
populace, Robert de Lintone and Roger Marshal were made 
Bailiffs; Sir Richard de Culeworth being also made High Bailiff of 
the City by the Earl. Then all those who had been, as it were, out- 
lawed from the City in the time of the Earl of Leicester, for breach 
of the peace of his lordship the King, came into the City and were 
spontaneously admitted ; and all those who had been imprisoned in 
Newgate for the cause aforesaid, were set at liberty. 

Afterwards, on the Wednesday after the close of Easter, the Legate 
issued a prohibition of bells being rung in the City, and of divine service 
being celebrated with song; but the same was to be performed in 
silence ; the doors of the churches being closed, that so the enemies 
of the King, known as the " disherisoned," might not be present at the 
celebration of divine service. After this, at the end of three weeks 
after Easter, his lordship the King came with his army to Hamme, 
and took up his quarters there, in the Abbey of the monks ; and soon 
after, the Legate left the Tower .and took up his abode in the same 
Abbey, where for some time he turned the cloister of the monks into a 
stable for his horses. 

After this, from day to day his lordship the King and the Earl held 
conference, through envoys, as to making peace; the Earl however, 
always in the meantime, protecting the City and the entrance thereto 
with armed men, against the army of his lordship the King. 

Be it remarked, that during these commotions, the Earl did not 
allow those who had come with him to commit acts of depredation with- 
out the City ; though still, the persons who had their quarters beyond 
the Bridge, committed depredations and many acts of mischief in Sureye, 
Kent, and elsewhere. And even, alas for such wickedness ! 

Fol. 102 A. r .1 

they went so far as to repair to Westminster and there despoil 
the Palace of his lordship the King, breaking the seats, windows, and 
doors, and carrying off whatever they could. And although the Earl had 
daily caused proclamation to be made, that no act of depredation should 

1 Substitutes for Sheriffs. 



A.D. 12C6.] CRIMINALS EXECUTED BY DROWNING. 97 

be committed, still, many persons in the City were plundered ; where- 
upon, the Earl had judgment executed upon some of his own people. 
For, on one occasion, where four men-at-arms of Sir William de Ferers 
had been concerned in an act of depredation where one of the citizens 
had been slain, he had them bound hand and foot and cast into the 
Thames, and there drowned. And such was the sentence executed 
during all this period upon those who were condemned. 

Afterwards, in the week after the Feast of the Holy Trinity, peace 
was made between his lordship the King and the Earl through the King 
of Almaine and Sir Henry his son, and Philip Basset, who had frequently 
intervened, as also through some other persons : so that the Earl and his 
people withdrew thereupon from the City, and took up his quarters in 
Suwerk; and his lordship the King, on the Saturday before the Feast of 
the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist [24 June], came to London with 
all his army, and took up his quarters there. And immediately thereupon, 
he had his peace proclaimed, and granted to the disherisoned a truce for 
eleven days from that day, that in the meantime they might treat for 
peace ; and at the same time also, by precept of his lordship the King, 
John Addrien and Luke de Batencurt were replaced in their bailiwick, 
and all the Aldermen in their Wards, in which the Earl had previously 
placed new Wardens [in their stead]. 

On the Monday following, about the 1 sixth hour, the Legate laid a 
general interdict upon the City ; which however was taken off 
about the third hour on the following day, upon two men making 
oath before commissioners of his lordship the Legate at Saint Paul's, and 
swearing upon the souls of all the commons, that they would abide by the 
award of Holy Church. Also, at this time, the whole of the covered way 
which the Earl had made between the City and the Tower, was entirely 
broken up, and the timber carried away. At this time also, on the Vigil 
of Saint John the Baptist [24 June], Sir Alan la 2 Suche was made Con- 
stable of the Tower and Warden of the City by his lordship the King, 
in presence of all the people, at Saint Paul's Cross. 

On the Sunday after this, his lordship the King gave orders that on 
the morrow twenty men should come from each Ward, in readiness to 

1 Twelve in the clay, 2 More generally " Zouche." 

O 



98 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1266. 

level the foss which the Earl had had made, that so the place thereof 
might not be seen. 

Be it remembered, that peace was made between his lordship the King 
and the Earl of Gloucester in form underwritten, namely ; his lordship 
the King remitted unto him and all of his household, fellowship, and 
friendship, and unto all the people of London, all anger, rancour, and 
indignation, and all ill-will, which he entertained towards them by reason 
of trespasses and other things by them committed by land or by water, 
since the said Earl had last departed from Wales, and while he was 
making sojourn in the City. And his lordship the King was to hold them 
acquitted thereof as towards all persons, and not to permit any one of 
them to be molested or appealed by reason .of the trespasses aforesaid ; 
save only, that such merchants as had not intermeddled with the war 
were to have full right of action for recovery of chattels, only their own, 
without amercement on behalf of his lordship the King, according to the 
law of the land. Also, that grants of lands, houses, and rents, 
which had been made, as well by the King as by the Earl, after 
the aforesaid departure of the Earl from Wales, were to be wholly revoked. 
The said Earl also bound himself by oath, that he would not wage war 
against his lordship the King, and made letters thereupon, and found 
sureties in a penalty of ten thousand marks. And this penalty was to 
hold good, until it should be known from his lordship the Pope, whether 
the same should appear to him to be a sufficient penalty; and whatsoever 
his lordship the Pope should ordain thereupon, the said Earl was held 
bound to observe. And this ordinance was to be made before the Feast 
of the Purification of the Blessed Mary [2 February] then next ensuing. 
On this occasion his lordship the King, by his letters patent and 
under-written, agreed to forego as against the Londoners all the ill-will 
which for the reasons aforesaid he had entertained towards them. At 
the same time, at the instance of the King, the citizens promised the 
King of Almaine one thousand marks for the damages which he had 
sustained at Istleworthe. 

Letters of his lordship the King, by way of forgiveness for the harbouring of 

the Earl of Gloucester in the City. 
1 Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 

1 "Written in AngloNorman* 



; 



A.D. 126C.J LETTER OF FORGIVENESS TO THE PEOPLE OF LONDON. 9$ 

" and Duke of Acquitaine, to all those who this letter shall see or hear, 
"greeting. Whereas by reason of the commotions that have of late 
" existed in our territory, we have been moved to anger against the 
" people of London, because of the sojourn of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of 
" Gloucester and of Hertford, in the City aforesaid, and for other things 
" which have been done since the late departure of the Earl from 
" Wales for the City, and since his entry into the same ; as also, for things 
" which have been done by the Earl and on part of others of his house- 
" hold, and of his fellowship, and of his friendship, and by those of 
" London within the City and without, in divers counties and . 
" lands, as well by water as by J land ; we have, by the counsel 
" and by assent of our dear brother the King of Almaine, and of the Earls, 
" and Barons, and Commons, of our land, remitted and foregone, as 
" against all those of London, all manner of wrath and of rancour, and of 
" ill-will, and have granted and accorded, that unto them no harm or 
" mischief we will do or will cause to be done, or will suffer to be done ; 
"and that they shall not be molested or impleaded for the matters 
" aforesaid, save only by merchants who have not interfered in the war, 
" the which shall have their action according to the law of the land, if 
<( they shall so wish ; 2 but that nevertheless, as regards them, or as regards 
" others against whom they shall have offended, all the people of London 
ff shall be quit, so far as we and our heirs are concerned, of all forfeits 
" and amends ; and that, upon suit by such merchants, no one impleaded < 
"shall suffer any harm or damage, such merchants being solely to 
" receive their chattels. Besides this, we do will and do grant, that 
" those of London, who are not in London upon the day on which this 
" acquittance is made, shall go acquitted the same as the others ; that so, 
" if they do nothing against our peace, between now and 3 then, they 
" may of the peace that is now so made, be fully assured. And we have 
" also granted and accorded, that all lands in London which have been 
" seized by reason of this commotion since the time aforesaid, shall be 
<( now restored unto them, and returned. And if there shall be any 
" land that has been taken since the time aforesaid, by reason of the 

1 This is probably the meaning ; though the state, and difficult to be understood, 
passage seems to be imperfect. 3 The time of their return. 

3 The original is here apparently in a corrupt 



100 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 126C. 

<e commotions aforesaid, the same shall forthwith be delivered. In witness 

" of which thing, we, and our dear brother, Sir Richard, by the 

" grace of God, King of Almaine, have unto this writing set 

" our seals. Done at l Est Ratforcl, the sixteenth day of June, in the one 

" and fiftieth year of our reign." 

Soon after this, his lordship the King received into his peace John 
de Ey vile, Nicholas de Segrave, William Marmeyun, and their confede- 
rates, who had taken up their quarters on the other side 'of the Bridge. 
About the same time, while his lordship the King was staying at London, 
in a Parliament held at Wyndleshores, there being present his lordship 
the King of Almaine, Sir Henry his son, Sir Philip Basset, and other 
nobles of the realm of England, a reconciliation was effected between Sir 
Edward and the Earl of Gloucester. 

At the same time also, the Isle of Ely was surrendered to Sir Edward, 
who received those whom he found there into the peace and favour of his 
lordship the King, his father, and caused all the covered ways and fortifi- 
cations, around it and within it, as well by land as by water, to be levelled 
with the ground. In the same manner, all the fortifications, the barbican, 
and the covered way, which had been made around Suwerk, his lordship 
the King caused to- be destroyed and levelled, even so, that the place 
where they were is no longer to be seen. 

After this, his lordship the King, departing from London, set out for 
2 Salopesbery with many Barons, and knights and others, foot and horse, 
to hold a conference at Salopesbery with Lewelin, the Prince of 
"Wales. 

This year was more fruitful than any year in times past, in memory of 
persons then living, as well in reference to fields, abundance of corn, trees, 
and plenty of fruit, as well in woods and 2 spinneys, as in gardens and 
vineyards. 

Be it remarked, that on the Monday next before the Feast of Saint 
Michael, when the commons had met in the Guildhall to elect the Sheriffs 
according to their usages, there was sent a writ of his lordship the King to 
Sir Alan la Zuche, Warden of the City, and to the citizens, commanding 
that John Addrien and Luke de Batencurt should continue to be 4 Bailiffs 

1 East Retford, in Nottinghamshire, 3 Small plantations. 

8 Shrewsbury. 4 Substitutes for Sheriffs. 






A.D. 1266.J MATTERS FOR INQUISITION THROUGHOUT ENGLAND. 101 

until his arrival in London ; and accordingly, they continued to be BailiiFe 
until the Easter next ensuing. 

A.D. 1267. JOHN ADDRIEN, ) 

LUKE DE BATENCURT,} 

In this year, his lordship the King, returning from Salopesbery, 
after peace had been made between him and Lewelin, Prince of Wales, 
arrived in London on the Vigil of Saint Edward, King and Confessor 
[5 January]. 

In this year, about the Feast of Saint Michael, it was provided by 
the Council of his lordship the King, that inquisition should be made 
throughout all the realm of England, as to the points which are set forth 
below in French, in this Book. 

1 " Whereas the King of England hath given the lands of many 
" persons, who had lands in divers Counties and in divers Hundreds, 
" he doth therefore will, that inquisition be made who have been en- 
" feoffed by him, and in what hundred, of lands of such persons ; [and] 
tf that it be stated, who were against him in these commotions in his 
" realm, and of what lands they are enfeoffed, and to whom such lands 
" belonged, and who holds them now, and who have taken the 
" revenues of such lands since that time, and what has become 
" of the same. On the other hand, he doth wish to know, by inquisition 
" made, who have taken the lands of others by force by reason ^of the 
" aforesaid commotions in the realm, and still withhold the same, and 
" have not restored them unto the King ; and who they are that hold 
" the same, and by what warranty. 

"He doth will that inquisition be made, who have been against him 
" in this contest, either in deed or in word, and whether the lands or the 
" goods of such have yet been given, or not, by the King or by any of his 
" people. 

" They shall make inquisition, as well of Archbishops, Bishops, [and] 
( c of all persons of 2 religion, of whatsoever order they may be, as of par- 
" sons, and of priests, and of clerks, and of all other manner of persons, 
" whosoever they may be, who have openly promoted the advantage of 

1 Written in Anglo-Norman in the original' 2 ! e. of orders of religion. 



102 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. !>.. 1267. 

" the Earl of Leicester, and were among those who held with him in mis- 
(f leading the people by lies and by falsehoods, [and] by taking the Earl's 
" part, and slandering the party of the King and his son. 

" They shall make inquisition who have given aid by their money 
" unto the Earl of Leicester, or unto those of his party, or have sent them 
' ( any of their people to aid them, of their own free will, without being 
" distressed therefor. 

" They shall make inquisition which of such feoffees have made peace 
" with their adversaries, and have taken of their monies ; and who have 
" restored unto them their lands without the counsel of the King. 

" He doth will that they make inquisition who have been 
"the principal robbers, and who have been with them, and who 
" have been robbed, and by what people, and of how much, and where, 
" and for what reason, and where the robbers have been harboured. 

"They shall make inquisition whether any lands of the King's 
" demesne have been given by reason of these commotions, and who hold 
" the same, and unto whom they have been given, and for what offence. 

" They shall make inquisition who by, reason of the commotions have 
" committed robberies, homicides, or arson, against the loyal subjects of 
"the King. 

"They shall make inquisition what outlaws have attached them- 
" selves to the company of those who called themselves f the disherisoned,' 
" and remain still in the country, and where they are harboured. 

" They shall make inquisition who have bought the produce of the 
" robberies that have been committed upon the loyal subjects of the King, 
" in the time aforesaid. 

"They shall^make inquisition whether any one of those has been 
" robbed, who held with neither one party nor the other, but kept them- 
" selves in the country ; and who it is that has robbed them, and of what. 

" They shall make inquisition whether any church has been robbed 
" in the time aforesaid, and by whom. 

" They shall make inquisition whether any person has begged of the 
" King the lands of any one, who in the time aforesaid has not been 
" against the King, and still holds the same ; and who it is that does so. 

" They shall make inquisition, who of their own free will have been 
" bailiffs or servants of the Earl of Leicester." 






A.D.1267.] INQUISITORS APPOINTED THROUGHOUT ENGLAND. 103 

TJie Names of the Inquisitors in these Counties. 
Eustace de Baliol; Adam de Gesemue; Richard de Middleton. 
1 Everwyk Northumberland Cumberland Westmeriland 

T -XT j.- i -n. T Fol. 106A. 

L<ancastre JN otingnain JJer by. 

The Names of the Inquisitors in these Counties. 
Robert de Nevile ; Roger de Sumeri ; John le Bretun. 

2 Nicole Northamtune L eicestre Ware wy k Roteland O xne- 
ford Barkschere Bukingham Bedeford. 

The Names of the Inquisitors in these Counties. 

Adam de Greinvile ; Robert de Brehuse ; the Abbot of Schireburne ; 
Richard de Chertedon. 

3 Salopesbery Stafford Hereford Wyrecestre Gloucestre 
Deveneschyre Sumersete Dorsetre Wylteschyre 4 Suhamptun. 

The Names of the Inquisitors in these Counties. 

William de Seint Oumer ; John Luvel ; Simon de Creye. 

Sureye Susexe Kent Middelsexe Esexe Herteford Sutfolke 
Nortfolke Cantebrigge Huntingdone. 

Be it known that this provision, etc. 5 

Beit remembered, that in time previous precept had been often 
given in the Guildhall, before all the people, in behalf of his lordship the 
King, under pain of life and limb, and proclamation had been made through- 
out all the City to a like effect, that no persons should hold any parley, 
conventicles by themselves, or covins, whereby the peace of his lordship the 
King and of the City might in any way be disturbed ; but that all persons 
of the City, rich as well as poor, should be, as it were, one body and one 
man, faithfully and in fealty to maintain the peace of the King and of the 
City ; that so, through such conventicles' and covins the City might not 
again be put to confusion ; as had happened in the times of Thomas Fitz- 
Thomas, the"' then Mayor of London, and of Thomas de Piwelesdone, his 
confederate ; under whose rule the common people, by means of such 
covins and confederacies made among them, had arisen against the 

1 Yorkshire. 3 Shropshire. 

2 Lincolnshire ; such being the name by 4 Southamptonshire, or Hampshire, 
which it was called in the Anglo-Norman 3 The passage ends thus abruptly in the 
language. original. 



104 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1267. 

principal men of the City, and had held all power in the City, so that the 
superiors could neither appease them nor bring them to justice ; and such 
was the beginning of confusion to the City. Besides which, command 
was given and proclamation made, in like form, that no persons should 
take revenge for battery or other injury inflicted upon him; but he was 
to make complaint thereof unto the Bailiffs of the City, who were to do 
such persons full justice thereupon. 

Against this, it happened, about the Feast of Saint Katherine [25 
November] in this year, that a dispute arose between certain of the craft 
of the goldsmiths and certain of the craft of the tailors ; to whom adhered, 
on the one side and the other, some of the trade of the 1 parmenters and 
some of the 2 tawyers ; which persons held great assemblages, and for three 
nights together went armed throughout the streets of the City, 

Fol.l07A. n -. x 

creating most severe conflicts among themselves. Hence, with- 
out doubt, as was said, more than five hundred of these mischievous 
persons were collected together at night, and in the affray many of them 
were wounded; but still, no one would 3 act a part that belongs only to 
the Bailiffs. For every one was waiting by force of arms to take ven- 
geance on his adversary, against the peace and his own fealty to his lord- 
ship the King : the Bailiffs and discreet men of the City understanding 
which, had more than thirty of them seized and imprisoned in Neugate ; 
and these, on the Friday next after the Feast of Saint Katherine [25 
November], appeared before Laurence de Broc, the Justiciar assigned for 
gaol delivery, who took proceedings against them in the King's behalf, 
saying that they, against the peace and their fealty to his lordship the 
King, had gone armed in the City, and had at night wickedly and felo- 
niously wounded some persons, and had slain others, whose bodies, it was 
said, had been thrown into the Thames. 

They however denied violence and injury etc., and as to the same 
put themselves upon the verdict of the 4 venue. But on the morrow, 
those who by the said venue were found to have been in the conflict 

1 Dealers in " parmentery," or broad- cloth, passage ; but it evidently is incorrectly tran- 

* Who prepared fine leather with alum ; scribed and hopelessly corrupt. 

the shoemakers also were sometimes called 4 Or " visnue," or " visnet ; " persons of the 

"aZttfonV." vicinity, 
3 This is probably near the meaning of the 



A.D. 1267.] PERSONS HANGED FOR RIOT IN THE CITY. 105 

aforesaid, were, by judgment of the said Justiciar, immediately hanged, 
although not one among them had been convicted of homicide, l mayhem, 
or robbery. Hence, one Geoffrey, surnamed " de Beverley," a parmenter 
by trade, because certain of those misdoers had armed themselves in his 
house, and he himself had been present with them in arms in the said 
affray, was hanged, together with twelve others who had been indicted, as 
well goldsmiths as parmenters and tawyers. All this however was done, 
that others, put in awe thereby, might take warning, that so the peace 
of his lordship the King by all within the City might be the more 
rigid] v maintained. 

_ * . Fol. 107 B. 

Be it remembered, that in the same year it was ordained 
by his lordship the King and his Council, that Justiciars Itinerant 
should be sent throughout all the kingdom of England, beginning the 
2 Iter immediately after the Feast of Saint Hilary [13 January]. 

Names of the Justiciars Itinerant in the Provinces underwritten. 

Gilbert de Preston; John le Bretun; William de Helyun; John de 
Eketun. Westmerland Northumberland Cumberland Lancastre 
Euerwyk Notingham Dereby "Warewyk Leicestre Lincoln 
Roteland. 

Names of the Justiciars \_Itineranf] in the Provinces under-stated. 

Nicholas de Turry; Kobert de Brus; Henry de Walnestre; Master 
Richard de Stanes. Kent Middelsex Surey Susex Suharnpton 
Wiltune Deveneschire Cornwall Essex Hereteford Norfolke 
Sufolke. 

Names of the Justiciars Itinerant in the Provinces underwritten. 

Richard de Middeltun; Adam de Greinvile; Roger de Messenden; 
John de Strode. Sumersete Dorsete Hereford Gloucestre Wor- 
cestre Salopesbery Stafford Oxneford Barkschire Bukingham 
Bedeford Norhamptune Cantebrigge Huntingdune. 

Names of those who were then Sheriffs in England. 

Fol. 108 A. 

Robert de Layum, Sheriff of Everwykschire. 
William de Huntercumbe, Sheriff of Norhumberland. 

1 The maiming, or mutilation, f a limb 2 Or Eyre,' or Circuit, 
necessary for defence in figlit. 



106 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1267. 

William de Deyre, Sheriff of Cumberland. 

Simon de Hedune, Sheriff of Notingham. 

John le Moine, Sheriff of Norhainpton. 

Baldwyn de Seint Maur, Sheriff of Cantebrigge and of Huutingdone. 

Robert de Norton, Sheriff of Sufolke and Norfolke. 

Samson Foliot, Sheriff of Oxneford and Barkschire. 

Richard de Heylham, Sheriff of Essex and of Hertford. 

Ralph Sansaver, Sheriff of Sureye and of Susexe. 

John de Hockele, Sheriff of Suhamptune. 

Fulk Peinfurer, Sheriff of Kent. 

William de Dun, Sheriff of Wiltune. 

Andrew Wake, Sheriff of Sumersete and Dorsete. 

William de Bikel, Sheriff of Deveneschire. 

Richard de Hockel, Sheriff of Gloucestre. 

Robert de Grele, Sheriff of Hereford. 

William Bagot, Sheriff of Warewyk and Leicestre. 

Walter de Hoptun, Sheriff of Salop and Stafford. 

There was a most violent wind, on the morrow of Saint Hilary [13 
January] in this year. 

In this year, on the third day before the Annunciation of Our Lady 
[25 March], which then fell on a Friday, his lordship the King summoned 
before himself and his Council the citizens of London, and granted them 
certain liberties, as set forth below in this book ; at the same time with- 
drawing many articles of the City's franchises, until such time as they 
should have more fully obtained his favour. 

In the week before Palm Sunday in this year, the citizens of London, 
by command of his lordship the King, chose six men, who were 

Fol, 108 B. J . _. 

presented before him at Westminster on the morrow of Palm 
Sunday, on the second day of April, that is to say. And, at the same time, 
his lordship the King, of his own free will, appointed two of them to be 
Sheriffs of London and Middlesex, and to collect all issues of such Sheriff- 
wick to the use of his lordship the King ; namely, William de Dureham 
and Walter Hervy, John Addrien and Luke de Batencurt being re- 
moved. At this time also, Sir Thomas de Eppegrave was made Warden 
of the City and Constable of the Tower. 

After this, about the Feast of Saint Mark the Evangelist, Ottoboni, 






A.D 1267.] CHARTER GRANTED, ON PARDON OF THE CITIZENS. 107 

Cardinal Deacon of Saint Adrian, Legate of the Apostolic See, held his 
General Council in the Church of Saint Paul ; at which were present, 
either in person or by their proctors, all the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots 
and Priors, Deans, Provosts, and Archdeacons, of all England, Ireland, 
Scotland, and Wales. 

Charter of his lordship the King, which he granted unto the Citizens of 
London; with the hope of more fully obtaining his favour. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and 
"Duke of Acquitaine, to the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, 
" Earls, Barons, Justiciars, Sheriffs, Provosts, Ministers, and to all his 
"bailiffs and faithful subjects, greeting. Know ye that we have granted, 
(e for us and our heirs, unto our citizens of London, whom of late we 
" have received unto our favour and peace, after divers trespasses and 
" forfeitures of them and their community unto us made ; for the which, 
" both as to life and limb, and all other things unto the said City pertain- 
(f ing, they have submitted themselves unto our will ; that no one of 
"them shall be forced to plead~without the walls of the aforesaid City as 
" to anything, except tenures without the City, our moneyers and officers 
(f excepted, and except as to those things which shall happen to be done 
" against our peace, and which, according to the common law of our realm, 
" are wont to be determined in the parts where such trespasses have been 
" committed ; and also, except pleas concerning merchandize which are wont 
" to be determined according to 1 Law-merchant, in boroughs and fairs ; but 
" still, upon the understanding that such plaints shall be determined by 
" four or five of the citizens of London aforesaid, who shall be 

Fol. 109 A. 

" present in the said boroughs or fairs; saving unto us the amerce- 
" ments from thence in anywise arising, as to which unto us and our heirs, 
" under pain of grievous forfeiture, they shall faithfully make answer. 
" We have also granted unto the same our citizens acquittal of 2 murder 
" in the City aforesaid and in the 3 Portsoken ; and that no one of the said 
" citizens shall wage 4 battle ; and that as to pleas pertaining unto the 



1 A special law, differing from the Common 3 The liberties of the City without the walls, 
Law of England, and peculiar to merchants. in the vicinity of Aldgate. 

2 A penalty paid by the inhabitants of the 4 Or judicial combat ; in support of the 
hundred within which a murder was com- justice of his cause, 

mitted, 



108 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.B. 1267. 

ff crown, those more especially which within the City aforesaid and the 
" suburbs thereof may chance to arise, they may l deraign themselves 
(f according to the ancient customs of the said City; this however 
" excepted, that upon the graves of the dead it shall not be lawful to 
ee make -oath in the precise words as to what the dead persons themselves 
" would have said if they had been living ; but in place of such dead 
" persons as before their death shall have been chosen to discharge by 
(( oath those who may have been 3 appealed or charged as to matters 
" pertaining unto the crown, other free and lawful men shall be chosen, 
" who shall do the same without delay which by the deceased persons 
f ' aforesaid should have been done, in case they had survived. And 
ef also, that within the walls of the City, or even within the Portsoken 
" thereof, no one shall take lodging by force or by livery of the 4 Marshal. 
"/We have also granted unto the same citizens, that throughout all our ter- 
" ritories and dominions, wheresoever they shall come with their wares and 
" merchandize, as also throughout all sea-ports, as well on this side of the 
" sea as beyond, they shall be quit of toll and 5 lastage, and of all other 
(f custom, except everywhere our due and ancient 6 prisage of wine, that is 
" to say, one tun before the mast, and another tun behind the mast, at the 
<f rate of twenty shillings each tun, to be paid in such form as we and 
" our predecessors have been accustomed to have such prises. And if 
" any person in anv one of our territories, on this side the sea 

Fol. 109 B. 

" or beyond, or in the sea-ports on this side the sea or beyond, 
(< shall take of the men of Lfondon, in contravention of this our grant, toll 
" or any other custom, except the prisage aforesaid, after such person 

1 /. 0. clear, exculpate, or exonerate. intended verdict would have been ; such oath 

2 A custom common to the Teutones and having the same virtue as that of the deceased, 
the Scandinavians in ancient times ; see the in favour of the person so accused. 

Laws of Ine and of Ethelred, Thorpe's Ancient 3 L e. accused. 

Laws and Institutes of England, pp. 59 and 123. 4 Of the King's household; whose right in 

In the present instance allusion is made to a general, it was, to seize private residences when 

privilege which, until then, had been allowed deemed necessary for the accommodation of the 

in London to a person when accused; to the royal household. 

effect that, when one of his compurgators or 5 A custom levied upon wares sold by the 

jurors had died, whom he had selected to clear last. 

or exonerate him by making oath as to his G A custom paid to the sovereign upon wines 

belief of his innocence, it was allowable for the imported. Prisage was one of the Great Pre- 

accused to say on oath, over the deceased rogative customs, 

person's grave, what the precise nature of bis 






A.D. 1267.] CHARTER GRANTED,, ON PAKDON OF THE CITIZENS. 109 

" shall have 1 failed of right, the Sheriffs of London shall take -naam at 
" London therefor. We have also granted unto them, that in each week 
f( the Hustings shall be held once in the week, and that only for one day, 
" but so that the matters which cannot be determined on that day shall 
" be continued on the morrow, and no longer : and that, as to their lands 
" and tenures within the City, right shall be done unto them according 
' ' to the custom of the same City ; so nevertheless, that as well foreigners 
te as others may make attorneys, as well in prosecuting as in defending, 
" the same as elsewhere in our Court. And that they shall not be 
" molested for 3 Miskenning in their pleas ; that is to say, if they shall 
" not have altogether made their declaration aright. And that, as to all 
" their debts which shall have been contracted in London, and as to 
" securities unto them there made, pleas shall, according to the just and 
" usual custom, there be held. And further, for the amendment of the 
" City aforesaid, we do grant that all shall be quit of 4 Childwite, and of 
" 5 Yeresgive, and of 6 Scotale; so that our Sheriffs of London, or any 
f< other bailiff, shall make no Scotale. And that the said citizens may 
"justly have and hold their lands and tenures, or securities, and also 
" their debts, whosoever may owe the same. And that no merchant or 
" other person shall meet merchants when coming by land or by water 
f( with their merchandize and victuals towards the City, to buy or to sell 
" again, until they shall have come to the said City, and shall 
" have there exposed their merchandize for sale, under forfeiture 
" of the thing bought and pain of imprisonment, from which without 
" grievous punishment he shall not escape. And that no one shall expose 
" his merchandize for sale, which owes custom, until the due custom shall 
" have been levied, under forfeiture of all the wares as to which it shall 
" happen to have been otherwise done. And that no merchant, stranger 
" or other, shall buy or sell any wares which ought to be weighed or 

1 Meaning, have failed to stand his trial. ' heriot' has been suggested, '. e. a contribu- 

8 An Anglo-Saxon word, signifying goods tion of military stores ; also, a fine paid to the 

seized by way of distress. King's ministers on entering upon an office. 

3 A fault or variation in pleadings, punished A compulsory new year's gift to the sovereign, 
with fine ; the word signifying miscounting or is perhaps the true meaning of the word, 
mispleading. 6 Meaning probably, compulsory payments 

4 The penalty for begetting a child upon the for licence to brew or sell ale. In other 
superior lord's bond-woman. instances, this word admits of a different 

5 The meaning of this word is unknown ; a interpretation. 



110 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1267. 

"ironed, except by our beam or 1 tron, under forfeiture of the wares 
" aforesaid. Moreover, those debts which of their contracts or loans 
" shall be owed unto them, they may, for their better security, cause to 
" be enrolled in our Exchequer, upon the recognizance of those who 
" shall stand bound to them in the said debts ; so nevertheless, that no 
" debt be enrolled upon the recognizance of any person who is not there 
< l known ; or unless it be made manifest as to his person by the testimony 
" of six or four lawful men, who shall be sufficient to answer as well for 
<( the debt as for the damages which any persons may have through such 
" recognizance, if the same shall happen to have been falsely made under 
" their name. And for every pound to be enrolled in the said Exchequer, 
" one penny is to be paid to our use, for the charge of the support of 
" those who to such enrolment must attend. And these liberties and 
" free customs we have granted unto them, to hold to them and their 
" heirs, so long as to us and our heirs they shall well and faithfully behave 
" themselves ; together with other their just and reasonable customs 
" which in time of us and our predecessors heretofore they have had, as 
" well as to form and manner of pleading as to their tenures, debts, and 
" securities, as to all other matters whatsoever touching both them and 
" the said City; provided however, that such customs be not contrary to 
" justice and right laws; saving in all things the liberties of the Church 
" of Westminster, unto the Abbot and monks of the same place by the 

" Charters of us and our predecessors, Kings of England, 
Fol. 110 B. 

" granted. But as concerning our Jews, and merchant- 

" strangers, and other things out of our aforesaid grants touching us and 
" our City aforesaid, we and our heirs shall provide as to us shall seem 
" most expedient. These being witnesses, Richard King of Almaine, 
<e our brother, Edward our eldest son, Edmund our son, Roger de 
<{ Mortimer, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Leyburne, Robert Walerand, 
e ' Roger Agulun, Master Godfrey Giffard our Chancellor, Walter de 
( ' Merton, Master John de Cheshull Archdeacon of London, John de la 
" Lyncle, William de Aette, and others. Given by our hand at West- 
" minster, this 26th day of March, in the two-and-fiftieth year of our 
" reign." 

In the same year, the Legate departed from London for the sea- 
1 A balance used for weighing coarse goods, and especially wool. 



A.D.1267.] APPEAL AGAINST MASTER GODFREY DE SAINT DUNSTAN. Ill 

coast on the fourth of the Nones [4] of July. In this year also, on the 
morrow of Saint James the Apostle [25 July], Sir Stephen de Edde- 
worthe was made Constable of the Tower of London, and "Warden of 
that City. Afterwards, in the same year, 011 the morrow of Saint Peter's 
Chains [1 August], the King of Almaine departed from London, to pass 
over to his kingdom. 

In this year, after Pentecost, Master Godfrey de Saint Dunstan, at 
this 2 time Warden of the Bishopric of London, enjoined upon the Parish 
priests of the City that they should pronounce certain of the chief men 
of the City aforesaid, excommunicated, because they received probate 
of testaments as to lands and tenements devised ; whereupon, the citizens 
obtained of his lordship the King a certain writ, the tenor of which is as 
follows : - 

" Henry, by the grace of God etc., to Master Godfrey, Warden of the 
"Bishopric of London, greeting. Whereas our citizens of London, 
"time out of mind, by grant of our predecessors, Kings of 
" England, and of ourselves, and in accordance with the ancient 
" and approved custom, have been wont in their last will, at their own 
" pleasure, to devise their lands and tenements within the liberty of the 
" City aforesaid, and as to the same, to admit before them in their 
" Hustings in London, probate of such testament ; you, as we have 
" heard, in contravention of such customs and grants, have pronounced 
(i sentence of excommunication against those admitting such probates in 
" the City aforesaid, to the no small detriment of the same citizens and 
" to the manifest prejudice of our crown and royal dignity ; at the 
" which we wonder very much, and are moved thereat. We do there* 
" fore command you, strictly enjoining, that, without loss of time by 
" delay, you forthwith recall the sentence aforesaid against our said 
" citizens by reason thereof pronounced ; and this, as you would avoid 
" our indignation, you are in no-wise to omit, that so it may no further 
" be needed for us to be importuned thereon, and thereby have in another 
" manner to put our hand hereto. And know that unless you. shall do 
" this, we shall so grievously take in hand you and yours, that you will 
'.'feel yourselves in no slight manner visited therein. Witness, etc. 

1 Or Whitsuntide. then absent at Rome. 

2 Henry de Sandwich, the Bishop, being 



112 CHKONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1267. 

" Given at Wodestoke, in the month of July, in the two-and-fiftieth 
" year of our reign." 

By this royal mandate, the said Master was superseded in doing 
execution therein. 

Be it remembered, that many persons of the City of London left the 
City, along with their goods, that nothing could be found whereby they 
could be distrained to raise the proportion assessed upon them ; where- 
fore, the citizens obtained royal letters in this form : 

" Henry, by the grace of God, etc., to all bailiffs and his faithful 
" subjects, unto whom these present letters shall come, greeting. Where- 
" as certain persons of our City of London have departed from the same 
<e city with their merchandize, and goods and chattels, seeking subterfuges 
" therein, whereby they may clandestinely escape paying the 
" tallage upon them assessed in regard of the fine of twenty 
" thousand marks, which our citizens of the said city have made unto us 
" for having our good will ; we have granted unto the same our citizens, 
" that the goods and chattels of the persons who have so left the city 
" aforesaid, wheresoever the same in our realm may happen to be found, 
" may be arrested, until they shall have fully made satisfaction as to the 
" tallage upon them assessed. And we do therefore command you, that 
" you cause to be seized the merchandize, goods, and chattels, of the 
" persons aforesaid who have so left the City, wheresoever the same in 
" our realm may happen to be found, until they shall have fully paid 
" the tallage aforesaid, as already mentioned. In testimony whereof, we 
(f have caused these our letters patent to be made. Witness myself at 
" Wodestok, this 14th day of July, in the two-and-fiftieth year of our 
" reign." 

In this year Sir Eadwafd and Sir Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, and 
many other nobles of the realm of England, assumed the Cross at Nor- 
hamtone, on the Feast of Saint John the Baptist [24 June], to set out 
in aid of the Holy Land. 

A.D. 1268. The aforesaid WALTER HERVI,) _ 

A i - c Sheriffs. 

And WILLIAM DE DUREHAM, ) 

These persons continued to be l Bailiffs in form aforesaid, and that, 

1 Or Sheriffs. 



! 



A.D.126&] ItfSOLENT CONDUCT OF GIFFARD, ARCHBISHOP OF YORK. 113 

without election by the citizens, and without precept of his lordship the 
King. 

In this year, when all the Baronage of the kingdom of England had 
come to London, by precept of his lordship the King, to hold a Parlia- 
ment there as to the state of the realm, there came thither Master Walter 
Giffard, Archbishop of York ; who, in derogation of the dignity of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury in his own diocese, had a cross carried 
before him; such 1 diocese extending through all places from the river of 
Humber to the South, as far as the sea. For which reason the said 
Archbishop of Canterbury laid the City of London under interdict, as 

also the district without the City for a distance of two miles 

., ,,' ,. . . FoL112A. 

on every side, so that no divine service was celebrated there, 
except in silence ; and no bells were rung, save in the City only. Nor 
yet, for all this, would the said Archbishop of York withdraw himself; 
but through pride and haughtiness, in contravention of the liberties 
and dignity of the Church of Canterbury, had this cross borne before 
him so long as he remained in these parts. This he did after the 
Feast of Saint Hilary. 

In this year, there was a most severe winter ; and a great frost, 
beginning before the Feast of Saint Andrew the Apostle [30 November], 
lasted until nearly the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary [2 
February]. 

In this year, the water of Thames arose on the Feast of Saint Vincent 
[22 January], reaching a greater height than it had ever done in the 
time of any person then living ; so much so, that many manors, houses, 
and even men, were overwhelmed by the inundation. 

This year, in the first week of Lent, his lordship the King delivered 
unto Sir Edward, his son, the City of London and the Tower; who 
thereupon immediately made Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes Constable of the 
Tower and Warden of the City. 

In this year, Sir Edmund, son of his lordship the King, married 
(Avelina) daughter of the Count of Aubemarle, in the Conventual 
Church of Westminster, in presence of his lordship the King, the 
Queen, Sir Edward, eldest son of his said lordship the King, and many 
other nobles of the realm of England ; upon which day his lordship the 

1 Or rather ' Province.' 

Q 



114 CHEONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1268. 

King held a great and most noble Court in his Great Hall there, that 
is to say, on the ninth day of April, which in this year was l Hokeday. 

This year, upon the Feast of Saint Erkenwald, on the last day of 
April, that is to say, by precept of his lordship the King, there were 
chosen by the citizens, Robert de Corenhelle, 2 Thomas de Basinges, 
Edward Blund, Walter le Poter, 3 William de Hadestoke, and 
4 Anketil de Auverne; who, on the third day after, set out for 
Wyndleshores to go before his lordship the King ; and on the morrow 
the King chose from those six men Robert de 5 Corenhelle and Thomas 
de Basinges, to be his Bailiffs and to be answerable unto him for the 
issues of the Sheriifwick of London and Middlesex. Which Robert 
and Thomas, on the Monday next after their return, were presented in 
the Guildhall of London before the commons of that City, being the sixth 
day of May. This year, on Wednesday in the week of Pentecost, Sir 
Henry, son of the King of Alrnaine, married at Wyndleshores the 
daughter of a certain noble of Acquitaine, Gaston de Byerne by name. 

Be it remarked, that whereas his lordship the King, this time three 
years before, had granted unto Sir Edward his son, to take custom of all 
things coming by sea into England and from England going forth, and 
such custom had been leased unto certain Italians upon yearly payment 
to Sir Edward of a ferm of six thousand marks ; the said Italians exacted 
the same custom of the citizens of London, and took sureties of them, 
in contravention of their franchises. Wherefore the citizens went to 
Sir Edward, and begged of him that he would not allow such a yoke of 
servitude to be imposed upon them, in contravention of the franchises by 
the Charters of his lordship the King, his father, and of his predecessors, 
Kings of England, unto them granted : whereupon, Sir Edward, at their 
entreaty, granted unto them acquittance of the custom aforesaid, givino- 

Fol us A tliem ^ is letteri ^ P atent thereon. The citizens, however, made 
court to him, giving him 200 marks. 

Letters of Sir Edward as to remission unto the Citizens of the New Custom. 
" Edward, of the illustrious King of England eldest son, to all per- 

1 Or Hocktide ; see page 10 ante. 4 Alderman of the Ward afterwards known 

2 Alderman of the Ward of Candlewick- as Farringdon Ward, from its Alderman 
street. Nicholas de Farndone. 

3 Alderman of Tower Ward. 5 Cornhill, 



A.P. 1268.] LETTERS OF REMISSION OF THE NEW CUSTOM. 115 

" sons to whom these present letters shall come, greeting in the Lord. 
" Know ye, that we have granted, and by this our present writing have 
" confirmed, unto all and singular the citizens of London, that they 
< e shall for ever be free and acquitted, throughout all the realm of Eng- 
fe land, of our new aid, which we have of the gift of our father, his 
" lordship the King ; that so neither we, nor our heirs, nor any one 
" through us, or for us, may exact aught of the citizens aforesaid by 
(e reason of the said aid, or in any way claim the same ; but that the 
(t aforesaid citizens and their heirs, as well for time past as for the present 
(f and the future, may for ever enjoy such franchise and may remain free 
fe and acquitted. In testimony whereof, we have unto them caused these 
" our letters patent to be made. Given at x Cipeham, this 26th day of 
" April, in the three-and-fiftieth of the reign of his lordship the King, 
" our father." 

Be it remembered, that about the Feast of Saint Andrew [30 No^ 
vember] last past, died Pope Clement the Fourth ; and after his death 
the Roman See remained vacant for a long time, because the Cardinals, 
with whom the election lies, were at variance; so that there was no 
Pope for 2 three years and more. 

Be it remembered, that on the Tuesday before the Feast of Saint 
Laurence [10 August] Sir Edward departed from London, at the 
request of the King of France that he would attend a conference with 
him in France ; and proceeding by ship as far as Graveshend, found 
staying there the King of Almaine, his uncle, who had arrived 
from his own territories ; whereupon Sir Edward took up his 
quarters at 3 Nortflete. On the morrow, the said King and Sir Edward 
before-named held a great and long conference between them as to the 
said Edward crossing over, and other matters as well ; after which, Sir 
Edward set out for Dover. But the said King on the Thursday follow- 
ing came to London, and his Queen with him, whom he had lately 
married in the territories of Almaine, being the daughter of a certain 
noble of that land. Afterwards, on the day before the Vigil of the 
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary [15 August], Sir Edward, Sir 
Henry of Almaine, Sir Roger de Leyburne, Sir Robert Walraven, Sir 

1 CMppenham. nine months, and two days. 

2 In reality, this vacancy lasted two years, 3 Northfleet, near Gravesend, 



116 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1269. 

Gaston de Byerne, and many other knights and men-at-arms, crossed 
over. 

After this, on the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary [8 Sep- 
tember] next ensuing, the said Edward landed at Dover, on his return 
from the said conference ; where a convention had been made between 
the said King of France and himself, in such form as in this book, in the 
French language, is below set forth. 

1 <( Louis, by the grace of God, King of France, to all those who these 
se letters shall see, greeting. We do give you to understand, that between 
"us and our very dear cousin, my lord Edward, eldest son of the noble 
" King of England, there have been made by common accord, as to his 
"departure on a pilgrimage beyond sea, the following covenants. 
"We are bound to lend unto the aforesaid Edward 70,000 2 livres 
" Tournois, reckoning in such sum 25,000 livres Tournois, which 
" Gaston, Viscount de Byarne, was to have had of us for himself, 
if and for his passage, and for that of his people whom he was to have 
" taken in pilgrimage beyond sea with us; the aforesaid Edward having 
" received the same Gaston and his people into companionship with 
" himself: and from the same 70,000 livres, shall be delivered for horses, 
" for provisions, for ships, and for passage, of the same Edward, whatever 
" shall be needful unto him ; and the same shall be duly paid by our 
" people, or by those whom we shall appoint thereunto, unto those of 
(f whom the things aforesaid shall be taken or bought by the said 
f< Edward, upon view of such persons as he shall see fit to appoint there- 
" unto. And if there shall be any part thereof remaining over, the same 
" shall be delivered unto the same Edward, wherever he shall 
" be beyond sea, after he shall have come unto us. And the 
" aforesaid monies, the said Edward is bound to repay unto us, that is to 
ff say, 10,000 livres in each year, at the two terms underwritten, until 
"we shall have been wholly repaid all the said 70,000 livres. And the 
" first payment, that is to say, of 5,000 livres, shall begin in the middle 
t( of March, in the year of Our Lord's Incarnation 1273 ; and the next 
" payment, of another 5,000 marks, at the Nativity of Saint John the 

1 This letter, as will be seen from the mime- 2 The livre Tournois was worth 20 sols, the 
ration of the folios, has been inserted somewhat livre Parisis 25, 
out of its proper order, 



A.D. 12(39.] CONVENTION BETWEEN EDWARD AND KING OF FRANCE. 117 

(e Baptist [24 June] next ensuing ; and so from year to year at those 
" times, until such time as we shall have been fully paid. And these 
"monies shall be paid each year at the Temple at Pan's, within the 
(< quinzaine after the times above named, from the tribute monies of 
tffl Burdeaus, by the hand of the Constable of the said Edward, or by him 
" who shall hold his place, or else by command of the same. And the 
" same Edward doth will that of such tribute, at each term, there shall 
(e be nothing put to any other use, until such time as we shall wholly 
" have had the payment for each such term ; the which tribute the 
se aforesaid Edward has assigned unto us in manner aforesaid, and has 
"bound himself thereunto, and has witnessed in his letter which he 
ff has delivered unto us, that it is by the wish of our dear cousin the 
" King of England, his father, for the amount of monies aforesaid. And 
(f he doth will, that we shall be paid therefrom, each year from hence- 
" forth, without fail, in manner as aforesaid. And as to this assignment 
" and obligation, the same Edward is to let us have letters from 
" our dear cousin the King of England, his father aforesaid, 
" together with letters of his own. And if it should happen that, before 
" the monies aforesaid shall be paid, the same Edward should hold more 
" territory than he holds at the present time in the realm of France, 
" the same Edward doth will that the same shall also be bound for the 
" payment aforesaid. And, with all this, he doth charge for the payment 
" unto us aforesaid, if default therein there shall be, his goods both 
" moveable and immoveable, the which may be found in our realm. 
" And further, he has promised unto us, that he will be, at the very 
" latest, by the Assumption of Our Lady [15 August] next to come, at 
" the port of 2 Eguemorte, ready to pass over, unless he shall have some 
" excuse for delay, by reason whereof we may hold him excused. And 
" if so be, that he shall not corne unto us by reason of such excuse as 
" aforesaid, which may God forbid, he doth will and doth authorize, 
" that of those tilings which his people shall have bought with the 
" monies aforesaid, we shall retain and shall take that which we shall 
te think fit, at the price at which the same shall have been bought ; and 
" that the residue shall be sold by his people freely, without hindrance 

1 Bordeaux. at the mouth of the Rhone. 

2 Now Aigues Mortes, near Montpellier, 



118 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1209. 

sc by any person, and the monies which shall be the proceeds thereof 
" shall be paid unto us, or at our order, in acquittance of the loan 
" aforesaid ; and that which shall still remain wanting towards making pay- 
* f ment in full of the said sum, shall be taken according to the assignment 
" aforesaid, according to the meaning of the terms before-named. And 
" further, the same Edward hath promised that he will endeavour, in good 
" faith, to pass over and to come, so soon as ever he may, to the 
" place where we shall be. And also, he has promised in good faith 
" that he will do no aggrievance or damage, himself or by his people, in our 
" territory, or in the territory of our brothers, which they have in our 
' ' realm or without, either going on his pilgrimage, remaining thereon, or 
" returning therefrom. And so long as he shall be on his pilgrimage with 
" us, he will obey us in good faith, just as one of our Barons of our own 
" realm, in l doing the service of Our Lord. And all these things afore- 
" said the said Edward has sworn unto us, upon the Holy Evangelists, 
" that he will strictly observe and loyally maintain, and in good faith 
" wholly perform ; and more especially as to this article thereof, that is 
" to say, his coming unto the port aforesaid and his passing on unto the 
" place where we shall be, in manner as is before-mentioned. And the 
" same Edward is to deliver at Paris, before Candlemas [2 February] 
" next ensuing, one of his sons as a hostage, unto ourselves or at our 
" command ; the which son shall be wholly acquitted of, and delivered 
" from, such hostageship, so soon as the said Edward shall have come unto 
" the place where we shall be ; and we will have him delivered, acquitted 
" thereof, unto the said Edward his father. And if it should happen 
" that the said Edward should die before he comes to us, or other hindrance 
" should happen unto him, which may God forbid, whereby we should 
" hold him excused, in manner^ as aforesaid, the child shall be delivered, 
(i wholly acquitted, unto him, or unto his mother, or at her command, or 
" unto the King of England his father, or unto the Queen his mother, or 
" at their command, if it should have so happened that the mother of the 
(( child has died first. And unto such delivery we are bound, ourselves 
" as well as our heirs. And in witness of these things the same Edward 
" has delivered unto us his present letters, sealed with his seal. And 

1 /. e. in taking part in the rescue of the Holy Land from the infidels. 



(( 

1 



A.D. 1269.] PROCEEDINGS OF BE MONTFORT'S SUPPORTERS IN CITY. 119 

" thereunto withal, our dear cousin Henry, eldest son of the King of 
" Almaine, Gaston Viscount de Byarne, Thomas de Clare, brother of the 
" Earl of Gloucester, Eoger de Leyburne, [and] Robert Walerand, 
" Knights, have made oath upon the Holy Evangelists, at the request of 
" the aforesaid Edward, that they will .endeavour in good faith, and 
" will loyally give counsel and pains, that the aforesaid Edward shall 
(i keep and accomplish the covenants aforesaid. And they 
"have set unto the letters of the said Edward their seals, 
<( with the seal of the said Edward, in witness of all these matters 
(i aforesaid. And we, in witness of the matters aforesaid, have unto 
" these present letters caused our seal to be set. This was done at 
" Paris, the Wednesday next after the Feast of Saint Bartholomew the 
Apostle [24 August], in the year of Our Lord 1269. " 

The deeds and works of g;ood men are reduced to writine:, that 

Fol. 114 A. 
so, to their praise and endless glory, they may be handed down to 

the memory of posterity; and in like manner ought the cruelties, the 
malice, the perfidy, and the wickedness of the iniquitous, to be put in writ- 
ing, that so, to their disgrace, reproach, and dishonour, the same may, in 
future times, unto the whole world be notified. Hence it is, that it 
ought not to be passed over in silence what wickedness and what cruelty 
Thomas Fitz-Thomas and Thomas de Piwelesdon, and their iniquitous 
accomplices, amid the many evils which they had committed during the 
commotions in the kingdom of England, thought to perpetrate and hoped 
to carry into effect : and the same would have been done, had it not been 
prevented by the Battle of Evesham occurring. For at the time when 
Sir Edward and the Earl of Gloucester, and their adherents, were at 
Gloucester, the Earl of Leicester and his accomplices, as also his lordship 
the King although not of his own free will being at Hereford, the 
before-named Thomas and Thomas, and other wicked persons, holding con- 
ference among themselves, whether or not at the command of the Earl 
of Leicester I know not, made arrangement, and by oath confirmed the 
same, that suddenly and unexpectedly they would put to death about forty 
of the most lawful men of the City; and this, because they were faithful 
to his lordship the King and to Sir Edward his son. For on a day named, 
namely the Thursday after Saint Peter's Chains "[1 August], the whole 
1 The narrative is here resumed ; as of somewhat previous date to the letter above inserted. 



120 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1269. 

of the commonalty was summoned to appear at the Guildhall, that so among 

them the men aforesaid might be seized, and immediately put to death. 

Accordingly, on that day the wicked persons before-mentioned came there 

with arms beneath their clothes, their accomplices rushing in in troops, 

ready and prepared with swords and other arms to perpetrate the felony 

aforesaid; when, behold! news came of the battle which had been fought 

at Evesham on the Tuesday preceding ; upon hearing which, 

these wicked men of Belial abandoned their design, and so on 

that day the innocent blood was saved. 

The names of the principal persons whom it was so intended to slay : 
John de Gizors ; William Fitz-Richard ; John Addrien, Draper ; 
William de Durham; Gregory de Rokesle; Reginald de Suffolch ; 
Arnald 1 Thedrnar ; Robert de Corenhelle ; Geoffrey de Wincestre ; John 
Derkin ; Bartholomew de Chastel : between which last person and one of 
the evil-minded there afterwards arose a wordy strife, the said Bartho- 
lomew taking the part of Sir Edward, and the other one the part of the 
Earl of Leicester. 

A.D. 1269. Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes still continued to be Con- 
stable of the Tower of London and Warden of the City, and the 
aforesaid Robert and Thomas to be ~ Bailiffs of the City, without any new 
election or presentation; and so continued until the 16th day of July 
following. 

Be it remarked, that in ancient times, it had been enacted and 
provided as to nets, used for fishing in the Thames, that in the body of 
such nets the meshes should be woven of such a size that a man's thumb- 
nail might be able wholly to pass through them ; and that, if in any net 
there should be found a single mesh otherwise woven, the whole of such 
net was to be condemned. For which reason it was, that before the Feast 
of Saint Michael in this year, as also after that Feast, there were many 
nets seized and brought to the Guildhall, and there by twelve sworn men 
of the City, who had no share in the said nets, adjudged to be in contra- 
vention of the statutes aforesaid. But as to this decision, some of the 
citizens thought differently ; and in fact, there were some who said, that 
that part only ought to be burnt which was faulty and unfair, and that 
the other parts, which were good and lawful, ought to be saved ; while on 
1 Elsewhere called Fitz-Thedraar.' 3 Or Sheriffs, 



A.D. 1269.3 ILLEGAL NETS BURNT IN WESTCHEPE. 121 

the other hand, the City, in meeting of its commons, pronounced that the 
net, a part of which is bad, is bad all over, for that the net could not be 
of any avail for fishing as to the part which is bad, unless the other parts 
before-mentioned were attached to it ; and that therefore it was proper 
that the whole net should be burnt ; the same way in fact, that if a man's 
right hand committed felony, his other hand, together with the whole of 
his body, is wont to be punished ; and so likewise, where a man has 
committed felony, all his adherents, and other consenting parties, would 
be punished. And further, in accordance with the precedent 
that on 1 another occasion such nets had been wholly burnt, the 
citizens agreed in common that these should in the same manner be con- 
demned ; and accordingly so it was done, for on the third day after the 
Feast of Saint Michael, all those nets, about twenty in number, were 
burnt in the middle of Westchepe ; so that nothing whatever of them 
was saved. 

Also, be it remarked, that at this time many of those nets were taken 
at a distance from the Thames and without the liberties of the City ; but 
this was done by authority of the Constable of the Tower of London, 
who was Warden of the City. 

Be it remembered, that in this year, after the Feast of Saint Michael, 
as also, five weeks before the said Feast, his lordship the King sent his 
writ unto the citizens of London, commanding them that, as they loved 
him, they should hold themselves in readiness to do him the service of the 
Butlery on the Feast of Saint Edward [5 January] then next ensuing ; 
upon which day he had purposed to translate the body of that Saint, and, 
himself and his Queen, to wear the crown. The citizens accordingly, 
although at that time they were not bound as a matter of duty to such 
service, for the purpose of gaining his good-will gave their assent thereto, 
and made preparation, at great outlay and great expense, with noble vest- 
ments of scarlet and of silk, and other raiment duly befitting. But when all 
had been now prepared, and the citizens were ready to perform the said 
service, behold! on the Vigil of Saint Edward, his lordship the King 
caused proclamation to be made in the King's Hall at Westminster, as also 
in Chepe in London, that he was not advised that he should wear his 
crown on that occasion. For that it ought to suffice for him once to have 

1 See the printed Liber Custumarum, p. 39, the 21st year of Henry 111. 

R 



122 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. o. 1269. 

worn his crown ; and that no person, Londoner or others, was on the 
morrow to take part in doing any service before him, but only those of his 
own household. Any person however who should wish to come to the 
dinner, would be admitted thereto gratuitously. And thus was this noble 
service on part of the Londoners left out. However, on the morrow, the 
citizens, who had made all due preparations, set out for Westminster, 
carrying neither goblet nor cup, but offering their prayers in presence of 
his lordship the King, together with their oblations, to the Saint. After 
Mass too, those who wished, remained to dinner, while the others returned 
home. 

On the same day, the King had the body of the Saint before-men- 
tioned translated from the spot where it had been placed, when first trans- 
lated in the time of King Henry the Second ; the shrine in which it 
lies, together with the body, being transferred to another spot, 

Fol. 117 B. . '! 

where it now lies. He also had a new l basilica made over the 
Saint, all covered and adorned with the purest gold and costly gems. 

It ought not here to be past over in silence, that the Archbishop 
of York, still persisting in his pretensions, had his cross borne before him, 
to the prejudice of the Church of Canterbury, and he himself upon this 
day took precedence in the celebration of divine service ; upon which, 
not one of the Bishops, who were there present arrayed in their ponti- 
ficals, having come by the King's command, about thirteen in num- 
ber, from various parts of England and the parts beyond sea, would 
follow the said Archbishop in the procession when the body of the Saint 
was carried round the exterior of the church ; but remained, all of them, 
within the church. In like manner, when the body was deposited where 
it now lies, he was the only one who censed it, all the other Bishops 
remaining seated on the sedilia in the stalls of the monks. At this time 
in fact, and so long as he remained in the neighbourhood of London, the 
interdict continued, both in all places and in just such manner, as in 
this Book is before set forth. 

Be it remembered, that according to the custom of the City, all mer- 
chant-strangers, coming into London, were wont to be harboured, to- 

1 The word basilica does not seem to have fashioned like a miniature church. See Par- 
any English equivalent, it meaning the upper ker's Glossary of Architecture, I. p. 65. 
portion of a tomb of elaborate workmanship, 



A.IX 1269.] REGULATIONS INFRINGED BY FOREIGN MERCHANTS. 123 

gether with their merchandize, in hostels belonging to citizens ; and their 
wares, which are sold by the hundredweight, such as wax, alum, and 
the like, to be weighed by the balance of his lordship the King. Other 
wares again, which are valued by the pound, such as pepper, ginger, 
1 brasil, 2 grains, and the like, used to be weighed by various balances 
at the 3 hosts' places, or else [valued] by the basket of them, the buyer 
having upon every hundredweight four pounds for the draught; the 
commodity being weighed with the pin standing midway, the same as 
gold and silver are weighed. Afterwards, the Italians, the people of 
Quercy, and the merchants of Provence, (who at first however were 
but few in number), coming to the City with their merchandize, trans- 
acted business in a similar manner ; but in process of time, when a great 
number of merchants from the parts aforesaid, who were extremely rich, 
had brought into the City a very great quantity of merchandize, in order 
that the amount of such wares might remain unknown to the citizens, 
they declined to be harboured in the hostels of the citizens, but built 
houses in the City, and abode therein by themselves, housing there their 
goods. And then too, weighing by balances of their own, they 
sold their wares contrary to the custom of the City ; and even 
went so far as, themselves to weigh by their own balances certain articles 
which were sold by the hundredweight, and which ought to be weighed 
by the King's balance ; to the prejudice of his lordship the King, and to the 
loss and subtraction of his 4 pesage ; and this they did for many years. 

Afterwards, when his lordship the King gave unto the citizens a new 
Charter as to their liberties, in which it is set forth that no merchant- 
stranger shall buy or sell any wares that ought to be weighed or troned, 
except by the beam and tron of his lordship the King, under forfeiture of 
the whole of such wares, and this too had been proclaimed throughout 
all the City these merchants, nevertheless, continued to weigh as they 
had previously done. But when the King and his Council were given 
to understand this, his bailiffs, in accordance with his command, took all 
the balances and weights of the said merchants, and, upon good sureties, 

1 A kind of dyeing wood, the juices of which Glossary, p. 805. 

were of a red colour. 3 Or keepers of the hostels, where the 

2 The kermes, or Coccus ilicis and arborum, foreign merchants were lodged. 

which was taken to be, not an insect but a 4 The duty charged for weighing goods by 
seed. See the printed Liber Custumarum, the King's balance, tron, or beam. 



124 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON, [A.D. 1269. 

Attached the persons themselves. Afterwards, in this year, on the 
Thursday next ensuing before the Feast of the Apostles Simon and Jude 
[28 October], his lordship the King summoned the said merchants to 
appear before himself and his Council at Westminster ; and because they 
were convicted of having weighed by their balances against the King's 
prohibition, and after proclamation had been made in the City, and 
because their balances and weights, when examined in the King's Ex- 
change, were found, it is said, to be untrue, they were adjudged to be 
amerced and committed to prison ; immediately upon which, being about 
twenty in number, they were taken to the Tower and there imprisoned. 
On the morrow too, their balances and weights were burnt in 2 Westchep ; 
and such parts thereof as could not be consumed by fire, were broken to 
pieces with iron hammers, and wholly destroyed : this too was done in the 
absence of the Warden and Bailiffs of the City ; and solely by Walter 
Hervi. Then the said merchants made fine to the King in the sum of 
one thousand pounds sterling ; and this under compulsion, as it were, they 
being in dread of being thrust into a most noisome prison. 

In this year, about the Feast of Saint Nicholas [6 December], a writ 
of his lordship the King was sent unto the Warden, Bailiffs, and 
Aldermen of the City ; in which it was set forth that he commanded, 
that all those who, after the City had been restored to him, had with- 
drawn themselves from it through fear of losing life or limb, 
and had since returned, should be expelled from the City, that 
so by them the venom might not again be diffused throughout the City : 
whereupon, after the Warden, Bailiffs, and all the Aldermen, had met 
together, and the aforesaid writ had been read and understood, the War- 
den produced a certain roll which he had received in the 3 Wardrobe of 
his lordship the King, in which were written the name? of many persons 
who, during the commotions in the kingdom, voluntarily adhered to the 
Earl of Leicester, committing depredations within the City and without ; 
which roll was drawn up upon inquisition made by certain of the more 
lawful citizens of the City, and, being sent to the King's Wardrobe, 
was immediately afterwards delivered to him. This roll being read and 
understood, and duly examined, the persons [therein mentioned] were 

1 /. e. arrested and bound over. the Royal Charters and the accounts of the 

- West Cheap ; the present Cheapside. King's expenditure were kept. 

3 An office in the English Court, in which 



A.D. 1269.] ADHERENTS OF DE MONTFORT BANISHED FROM THE CITY. 125 

subjected to enquiry, and their names entered in a certain roll. After 
this, on the fourth day before Our Lord's Nativity, a countless multitude 
of people of the City meeting together in the Chamber of the Guildhall, 
this matter was made known, and the aforesaid writ was read, of his 
lordship the King, the names also being read, of those who were to be 
removed from the City ; to which matter the whole populace gave its 
assent. 

After this, on the second day before Our Lord's Nativity, proclamation 
was made throughout all the City, that those whose names had been read 
before the people, in manner already stated, should, if then in the City, 
betake themselves away from it, never to return ; while those who were 
then sojourning without the City, were for the future never to return to 
it, under pain of life and limb. And then, the names of the aforesaid 
persons were published, and by the crier openly specified, being as 
follow : 

Thomas de Piwelesdone. 

William de Heywode. 

Richard de Coudres. 

Richard le * Cofferer. 

Robert de Dereby. 

Albin de Dereby. 

Ivo le 2 Linge-draper. 

William le * Flauner. 

Guido, his servant. 

William May, Mercer. 

Richard le Bret. 

William de Basinges, Mercer. 

Robert Baynard, Draper. 

Henry de Hauvile. 

Philip de Halstede. 

4 Coc le Afeyte. 

John, his brother. 

Conrad, the Goldsmith. 

1 Maker of coffers, or small boxes. cakes. 

2 The Linendraper. 4 This name not improbably means Coc (^r 

3 Probably, Maker of flauns, a kind of light Cook) the Dandy,' or ' the Affected.' 



126 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. l-><;9. 

Eadmund de Exeport. 
John Fitz-Patrick, Goldsmith. 
Henry, his brother. 
Alexander le 1 Ferun. 

Hubert, the Goldsmith. 

F01.119A. -,,. T\/T 1 1 

William Makerel. 
Everard le 2 Batur. 
Geoffrey de Ruhinges. 
Roger Luveday. 
Hawkin le 3 Plumer. 
William de Bixle, Stockfishmonger. 
John de 4 Oistregate. 
Master Guido, the Tailor. 
Henry Saunnays. 
John de Cumbe. 
Henry de Capelestone. 
John de Coventre, Broker. 
Richard Ayswy, Broker. 
Hudde le Bereman. 
Hobbe Lok. 
John de Flete, Barber. 
William the Clerk, Deacon. 
Walter de Mulsham. 
Richard Wombestrong. 
Peter de Haywode, Fishmonger. 
Eadmund, who was with Stephen Bukerel. 
Colin Briante, Butcher. 
Roger de Piwelesdon. 
Richard, his brother. 
Thomas tie Clavill. 
Roger de Lydgate, Mercer. 

1 Probably meaning the ' Ironmonger.' feathers. 

This person was pardoned in the 13th Edward 4 A Watergate on the Thames, the lane 

I. : see Letter- Book A. folio 74 b. running to which- was a great mart for shell- 

2 Perhaps meaning, the 'Beater 'or 'Fuller' fish. The north end of the present London 
of cloth. Bridge occupies its site. 

3 /. e. the Feathermonger,' or Seller of 



A.D.1269.] THE PILLORY BROKEN; IMPUNITY OF THE BAKERS. 127 

Ralph de Dudington. 

Robert Stor. 

John, who was with John Heirun. 

Gilbert le Armerer. 

William Snacard. 

Adam de 1 Ysemongere Lane. 

Henry de Hudendene, Taverner. 

John de Lanfare, 2 Chaluner. 

The names of these persons remained in the hands of the Warden 
and Bailiffs. 

In this year, the pillory that stood in Chepe was broken through the 
negligence of the Bailiffs, and for a long time remained unrepaired : 
wherefore, in the meantime no punishment was inflicted upon the bakers, 
who made their loaves just as they pleased ; so much so, that each of their 
loaves was deficient in one third of the weight that it ought to weigh, 
according to the award that had been made upon the assay of the Feast 
of Saint Michael preceding : and this lasted for a whole year and more. 

In the same year, all the free men of the kingdom of England, as well 
of vills as of cities, and boroughs, and elsewhere, gave unto his lordship 
the King one twentieth part of all their moveable goods, towards pay- 
ment of his expenses on his expedition to the land of Jerusalem. But 
afterwards, Sir Edward undertook that expedition, on behalf of his father 
and himself. 

In this year, Louis King of France, son of King Louis, son of Philip, 
set out for the Holy Land, on the 14th day of March, which in this year 
fell on a Friday. Shortly before this, Sir Edward had had one of his sons 

taken to the King of France, in accordance with the covenants 

Fol. 119 B. 
in 3 writing that had lately been made between them. The King 

however, feeling sufficient confidence in the said Sir Edward without any 
hostage, sent his son back to England. 

Be it remembered, that about Hokeday, almost all the Bishops, Earls, 
Barons, Knights, and freeholders of the whole realm of England, by com- 
mand of his lordship the King, met together in London ; and then was 
held a Parliament at Westminster, upon many articles of the customs of the 

1 Ironmonger Lane, in the City ; from the shalloons, so called from Chalons, in France, 
A. S. isen, iron. where they were extensively manufactured. 

2 Meaning perhaps, a dealer in chalons* or 3 See page 116 ante. 



128 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1269. 

realm of England, and more especially upon a dispute that had taken 
place between Sir Edward and the Earl of Gloucester. Whereupon, 
Sir Edward and the Earl, to put an end to the said dispute, wholly sub- 
mitted themselves to the award of the King of Almaine ; which award 
the said King of Almaine pronounced, in manner set forth in the next 
leaf hereof. 

Be it remembered, that after this, on the 13th day of May, there 
came to Saint Paul's Cross nine Bishops, arrayed in their pontificals, 
namely, Nicholas of Winchester, John of Hereford, Godfrey of Wor- 
cester, Roger of Norwich, Laurence of Rochester, Roger of Chester, 
Walter of Salisbury, [William] of Bath, and Anian of Saint Asaph in 
Wales ; who caused to be read a certain Bull of Pope Innocent, con- 
firmatory of the Charters of the Liberties of England and of the Forest, 
which the King had executed unto the Barons of England, in the ninth 
year of his reign ; and caused to be read, openly and distinctly before all 
the people, the sentence which, in the year of Our Lord 1253, had been 
pronounced in the Greater Hall at Westminster, before the King and 
many nobles of England, by thirteen Bishops arrayed in pontificals, 
against all transgressors of the said Charters. Which being read and by 
the people understood, these nine Bishops pronounced excommunicated 
all persons who since the sentence aforesaid had done, or procured to be 
done, anything in contravention of any articles in the aforesaid Charters 
specified. They also pronounced excommunicated all persons who, 
during the continuance of the commotions in the realm, had laid violent 
hands upon rectors or clerks, and who had taken and carried off goods 
deposited in sacred places, to whomsoever they might belong; unless, 
within the quinzaine after the day aforesaid they should come to make 
amends, and make satisfaction 'at the award of the Diocesans of those 
places. And this sentence was afterwards published in every church in 
London by the parish priests thereof. 

On the Tuesday before Pentecost, which then fell on the 27th 
day of May, the King of Almaine pronounced his award, in form as 
follows: that if Sir Edward shall in the month of September cross the sea 
for the Holy Land, then the Earl of Gloucester shall cross the said sea 
in the month of March following. And if the said Earl shall be willing 
to undertake that expedition in behalf of his lordship the King, who has 



CERTAIN PRIVILEGES RESTORED TO THE CITY. 129 

assumed the Cross, in such case his lordship the King shall pay him 8000 
silver marks, one half at the Feast of All Saints [1 November] next 
ensuing, and the other half in the month of March following. But if he 
shall think proper to undertake that expedition in his own behalf, then 
his lordship the King shall pay him 2000 marks. And as security that he 
will observe the award aforesaid, the said Earl shall deliver the Castle 
of Tunbrigge, and the Castle of Henlege in the Marches of Wales, into 
the hands of his lordship the King ; upon the understanding that, when 
the King shall have been certified that he is in the Holy Land, the King 
shall without delay have those castles delivered to such person as the 
Earl may think proper ; but the Earl shall then repay to the King the 
outlay which he shall have expended upon the keeping of the said 
castles, while in his hands: which award however was not carried into 
effect. 

About the same time, that is to say 1 Pentecost, at the instance of Sir 
Edward, his lordship the King granted unto the citizens that they might 
have a Mayor from among themselves in such form as they were wont to 
elect him. He also granted unto them, that they might have two Sheriffs 
from among themselves, who should hold the Sheriffwick of the City and 
of Middlesex to ferm, in such manner as they had previously been wont; 
upon the understanding however, that whereas in past times they had 
only paid yearly 300 pounds sterling of 2 blanched money, in future they 
should pay yearly 400 pounds sterling counted out. 

Accordingly, in the same week the citizens chose John Addrien, 
Draper, to be Mayor of the City, and Philip le Taillour and Walter le 
Poter, to be Sheriffs of the City. But because, after this had been done, 
Sir Edward was not in the vicinity of London, they were not at once 
presented unto his lordship the King, or before his arrival ; upon which, 
Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes being no longer Warden of the City, the aforesaid 
John was presented unto his lordship the King, and admitted ; that is to 
say, on the 16th day of July following, which in that year fell on a 
Wednesday. And on the Friday following, he was sworn before the 
King ; and on the same day Philip and Walter before-named were pre- 

1 Or Whitsuntide. Hence a payment in 'blank' or 'blanched' 

a Silver melted down, or blanched, to ascer- money, meant a payment of so many pounds of 
tain its fineness and freedom from alloy. tried and genuine silver. 

8 



130 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 12C9. 

sented as Sheriffs at the Exchequer, and admitted. And then were 
delivered unto the citizens all their ancient Charters of liberties which 
were in the King's hands ; and it was granted unto them by his lordship 
the King and by Sir Edward that they might fully enjoy the same, save 
that, for the ferm of the City and County they were to pay 400 pounds 
yearly, as already stated. 

At this time, the citizens gave unto his lordship the King 100 
marks sterling, with which was bought gold for repair of the 
1 basilica of Saint Edward. They also gave unto Sir Edward 500 marks, 
towards his expenses on the expedition to the Holy Land. 

In this year, about the Feast of Saint Margaret [20 July] died 
Boneface, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the 2 land of his birth. 

Be it remembered, that in the Parliament held at Winchester in this 
year, in the month of July, by assent of the Bishops and nobles of the 
realm of England there present, the King delivered his cross, which he 
had borne, unto Sir Edward, his son, that he might take his departure, 
in behalf of himself and of his father, for the Holy Land. The King 
also then granted unto him all the monies forthcoming from the twentieth 
penny collected throughout all England from all free men of that realm, 
of which mention has previously been made in this Book. And then Sir 
Edward himself took his departure for 3 Portesmue, in order that he 
might cross over from that place; he intending to pass through Gascoigne 
and Spain, in order to hold a conference with the King of Spain, his 
wife's brother ; but for want of a fair wind, after waiting nearly fifteen 
days, he took his departure thence for Dover, and there he put to sea, 
with his wife and all his retinue, on the 20th day of August, and with 
all speed made for land beyond sea; and so, giving up the aforesaid 
journey into Gascoigne and Spain, in haste he set out straight for the 
parts where he might find the King of France. 

Be it remembered, that in this year, about Easter last past, it was 
provided by the common Council of his lordship the King, that^ cloths 
coming into England from the parts beyond sea should contain at least 
26 ells in length, and an ell and a half in breadth, under forfeiture of 
the whole piece of cloth. And at the same time, orders were given to 

1 See page 122 ante, 3 Portsmouth, 

3 /. e. Savoy. 



A.D.1370.] PRINCE EDWAED SETS SAIL FOR TUNIS. 131 

the merchants that, after the Fair of l Saint Botolph then next ensuing, 
they should not bring any cloths into England, under the penalty afore- 
said, unless they should be of the said length and breadth, 2 burels of 
Normandy excepted. 

At the Feast of Saint Michael, A.D. 1270, were made Sheriffs, 
GREGORY DE ROKESLE, 
HENRY WALEYS. 

These Sheriffs, immediately after the Feast of Saint Michael, had a 
new pillory made, and erected it in the place where the old pillory had 
previously stood, of which mention has been made in the preceding 
leaf. After this, and after the Feast of the Translation of 
Saint Edward [13 October], there came news to London that 
the 3 King of France, who had assumed the Cross and was on his road to 
the Holy Land, had died in a certain island, situate in the Mediterranean 
Sea and inhabited by the Saracens ; as also one of his sons, and many 
persons of noble and middle rank who had followed him in the Christian 
army. For, leaving the straight road by sea for 4 Aeon, they made sail 
with the view of taking the said island, and landed thereon ; which 
island is very rich, it is said, and is called " Tuniz." But immediately after 
the death of the said King, his son, 5 Philip by name, was elected King 
of the French; whereupon Sir Edward, who had before bound himself to 
the said King now deceased, so long as he should survive, although in no 
way bound to his said son, put to sea, at his earnest entreaty, with a 
strong and well-armed force, and many knights and men-at-arms, for the 
purpose of joining him, it being the Thursday after the Feast of 
Saint Michael ; and on the Sunday before the Feast of Saint Martin 
[11 November] he landed at Tunes. But before his arrival, the King of 
France, and his uncle Charles, had made peace with the King of Tunes . 
whereupon, at the entreaty of the aforesaid King of France and of 
Charles, upon good security being given to Sir Edward, he went with 
them to Sicily, and landed at 6 Trapes, having brought his ships and all 
his retinue in safety. 

1 Botolph's Town, Botulstone, or Boston, in wore this cloth. 
Lincolnshire. 3 Louis IX. 

2 Coarse red or grey cloth, known in 4 The present Acre. 
France as bureau. Hence the ' borel man' of 5 Philip III. or the Bold. 
Chaucer ; a person of the humbler classes, who 6 Trapaui. 



132 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.IX 1270. 

Be it remembered, that about the Feast of Saint Giles [1 September] 
last past, the Countess of Flanders seized all chattels found in Flanders 
belonging to merchants of England,, Wales, Ireland, and even Gascoigne, 
by reason of a certain yearly rent that she demanded of his lordship the 
King of England ; and which rent, as she asserted, was many years in 
arrear. She also forthwith sold the said chattels, and took to her own use 
the monies received for the same, expelling from her territories all the 
merchants aforesaid. Wherefore, Sir Edward, who then was still in 
the parts of France, on his way to the Holy Land, as soon as he heard 
news of such injustice and cruelty committed by the Countess upon the 
men of his father and himself, wrote to his lordship the King, his father, 
and to the Queen and his lordship the King of Almaine, as well as to all 
the Council of the King and of the realm, to the effect that they should 
harass the said Countess and her people in every way they might ; that 
so, all the goods aforesaid that had been taken from the said merchants, 
might be restored to them in full; and this, until ample satisfaction 
should have been made unto his lordship the King for the injuries in- 
flicted upon himself and his subjects. 

Thereupon, after council had been held by order of his lordship the 
King, all chattels belonging to the merchants of Flanders were taken 
and seized ; which however were but few in number, because they, being 
forewarned by the Countess, had sent nearly all their goods 
out of the kingdom. At the same time also, it was forbidden by 
writ of his lordship the King, sent to London and to all the sea-ports, 
that any person, whether native or alien, should take any wool out of the 
realm to the parts beyond sea. And so it was accordingly done, until 
the Parliament which was held at Westminster after the Feast of the 
Translation of Saint Edward [13 October] ; in which Parliament it was 
provided and ordained, that all merchants, those of Flanders excepted, 
might carry wool out of the kingdom, whithersoever they might think 
proper, Flanders excepted. And then, by the King's order, all the mer- 
chants who were in London appeared before his Council at Westminster, 
and there made oath, that they would carry no wool to Flanders, nor 
would have any fellowship with the Flemings, or sell them any wool. 
And if any one should presume to contravene this, all his chattels coming 
into England were to be rendered amenable to his lordship the King, and 






A.D. 1270.] THE OATH OF FEALTY REQUIRED OF THE CITIZENS. 133 

himself to be imprisoned. But if such person should absent himself and 
not come into England, then his fellow-countryman who had come into 
England, was to suffer the punishment aforesaid in his stead. 

It should also be known, that the chattels which the aforesaid 
Countess had seized, were valued at the sum of 40000 marks sterling. 

In this year, John Addrien was again elected Mayor, on the Feast 
of Simon and Jude [28 October], and, his lordship the King not being 
at Westminster, was presented to the Barons of the Exchequer and 
admitted. Also, after the King's return, he was presented to his said 
lordship the King, and admitted ; that is to say, on the Thursday next 
after the Epiphany of Our Lord [6 January], as by the Charter of the 
Mayoralty bound. 

Then was sent a writ of his lordship the King unto the citizens of 
London, in form under- written. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, etc., to the Mayor and Sheriffs, and 
" to the whole community of his City of London, greeting. Whereas 
" you, the Mayor, and certain of your fellow-citizens aforesaid, lately 
" in our presence thereunto appointed, have made oath to the effect 
" that you will constantly adhere to your fealty as towards us; and that, 
<e if we shall go the way of all flesh, living Edward, our eldest son, 
" unto the same Edward, and if, living John our son, we and the said 
" Edward shall have departed this life, unto the same John, you will, 
<f before all mortals, pay and observe the same fealty, and after his 
" decease, unto the right heirs of the crown of England ; and whereas 
fi we, for certain reasons, do will that each of you do make the same oath 
" before our -well-beloved and trusty Master John de Chishull, our 
" Treasurer, as he shall advise, and shall on his part observe 
ft the same ; we do command you, that you, and all and every of 
" you, do upon some certain day, in your Hustings or at the Cross in 
" Saint Paul's Church-yard, make the same oath in form aforesaid. 
" And forasmuch as we do will that the City aforesaid may for our and 
<( your security and peace be so kept, that no one as to whom suspicion 
" may be entertained may enter the same, whereby damage or peril unto 
" us and yourselves may ensue ; we do command you, in virtue of the 
<f fealty, homage, and love in which unto us you are bound, and do strictly 
l< enjoin, that you cause the gates of your city to be sufficiently watched 



134 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1270. 

" by armed men during the day, and by night to be strictly and securely 
" closed ; and that arms or horses, of the price of 100 shillings or more, 
(i without the same City you do not sell, or allow the same to be taken 
s: out of the said City by others than by those who notoriously are our 
" friends ; and that you do not permit any gathering of men, as to the 
e( which sinister suspicions might be entertained, or even any horses of 
f< value, with arms, to enter the said City ; under forfeiture of all your 
te goods, and also of the liberties of your City aforesaid. Witness myself 
" at Wyndeshore, this 29th day of October, in the five-and-fiftieth year 
" of our reign." 

This writ was carried into effect on the 9th day of November, so far 
as doing fealty unto his lordship the King. Afterwards, at the prayer 
of the citizens, his lordship the King certified them by his writ as to who 
were to be admitted into the City ; which writ, turn over this leaf and 
you will find written. 

Be it remembered, that in the previous month of July the citizens of 
London sent a certain writing obligatory, sealed with the seal of the 
commonalty, unto his lordship the King, who was then at the Parliament 
at Winchester ; in which it was set forth that John Addrien, Mayor of 
London, the Barons, citizens, and all the commons of the same city, had 
bound themselves to the effect that they and their heirs, and those who 
should come after them, should always and for all time be faithful unto 
his lordship the King and his heirs, as against all persons. And that if 
they or their heirs, or those who should come after them, should in com- 
mon recede from their fealty to the said King or to his heirs, bearing 
arms against him ; then, by the said writing they agreed that they 
should forfeit life and limb without mercy, and be disherisoned, they 
and their heirs for ever, and held excommunicate : and in many other 
ways in the said writing did they bind themselves. Still however, if any 
individual person, or individual persons, of the same City should do 
aught against his or their fealty to the King or his heirs, they alone 
were to be punished and to have judgment pronounced upon them 
according to the law of the land, without loss to the other citizens. 

" l Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of 
"Ireland, and Duke of Acquitaine, to his well-beloved and 
1 The object of this writ is mentioned above. 



A.J>. 1270.] MEASURES ENJOINED FOR SAFE CUSTODY OF THE CITY. 135 

"trusty the Mayor and Sheriffs of London, and to his citizens of the 
"same city, greeting. Know ye, that for the security of ourselves and 
" of you, and of the city aforesaid, we have of our counsel provided that 
fe the same city and the gates thereof shall be faithfully and well kept 
fe by day and by night ; that is to say, that at night the said gates shall 
" be closed, and by day shall by armed men manfully and discreetly be 
"kept, in form unto you made known thereon the day Before these 
" presents. And also, that no persons, horsemen or footmen, or others, 
"as to whom any suspicion may be entertained, or as to whom it may be 
" suspected thafc it is their wish wrongfully to suggest anything sinister 
" or evil as concerning ourselves, either in saying, preaching, or making 
" any conventicles or covins, shall in future on any account be received 
" into the city aforesaid or shall enter the same. And also, that no great 
" earl or baron, whosoever he shall be, shall on any account be received 
" within the city aforesaid, or shall enter the same, without our especial 
" mandate therefor. And further, that no horse which exceeds in value 
" the price of 100 shillings, shall be retained by any person within the 
" said city. And also, that all armour, to whomsoever the same shall 
" belong, great or small, shall by you be viewed, and unto those in 
" whose keeping such armour is, be delivered, upon good security that 
s: they will not let the same go out of their hands ; but rather shall, to 
e: our behoof, safely keep the same, according to the reasonable price thereof 
" by you to be assessed, in case that of such armour we shall stand in 
" need ; you making the most careful enquiries thereon, as to where and 
" in whose hands such armour may be found. We have further provided, 
" that all persons banished from the city aforesaid, even if they be in 
" the borough of Suwerk, or within the liberties of Westminster, or even 
" within the suburbs of the said city, or elsewhere in the County of 
" Middlesex, as to whom sinister suspicion is entertained or may be 
" entertained, shall be taken or placed under arrest, and safely be kept, 
"until we shall have given other commands as to the same. And 
" therefore, we do command you, that you perform all the premises so 
" manfully, trustily, and diligently, to the security and honour of our- 
" selves and of you, that we may for all time from thenceforth be bound 
"to commend your probity, diligence, and industry therein. Witness 
1 This does not exactly correspond with the date of the preceding document. 



136 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D.1270. 

" myself at Windesore, this first clay of November, in the five-and-fiftieth 
" year of our reign." 

This year, on the third day after the Feast of the Conversion of Saint 
Paul [25 January], about the x first hour, suddenly and unexpectedly, a 
great part of the Tower of the Church of Saint ? Mary Arches, in 
London, fell to the ground in Chepe, and more than twenty persons, 
men and women, were killed. 

In the same year, that is to say, at the end of the year 1270, in 
the month of March, it befell that in the village of 3 Grenewyz, 
near London, a sheep brought forth a monstrous animal, having two bodies 
like those of a lamb, and only one head ; to which head the bodies adhered 
by separate necks. Each body too had four feet and a tail. The head also 
was that of a lamb, with four ears : but whether this prodigy was signifi- 
cant of misfortune to any one is unknown. Still, it is a notorious fact 
that the owner of the tenement, where the said sheep brought forth, a 
man healthy and sound, and sufficiently sober and moderate in drink and 
in food, in the same year suddenly and unexpectedly fell into a state of 
paralysis, losing the power of speech and the use of his right hand. 

News came, on the Sunday before the Annunciation of Our Lady 
[25 March], through a letter sent by a person in the Christian army, to 
the effect that, when the said Sir Edward had arrived at Trapes, as 
written in the preceding leaf, and the army of the Christians had come 
thither, on a conference being held between them, it was ordained and 
ratified upon oath that, by reason of the route failing them, their passage 
should be put off until the Feast of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist 
[24 June] three years from thence. The King of France, the King of 
Sicily, and Sir Edward, as also the Count of 4 Peiters and the other 
nobles of the Christian army, made oath to this effect ; but Sir Edward 
made oath upon condition, if he should be able to shew unto the King of 
France some reasonable cause for which he could not join such ensuing 
expedition. 

It should also be known, that when the whole army was united, it 
seemed to them that they could not possibly have fought against the 
Soldan. The King of France was setting out for France to receive his 

1 Six o'clock in the morning. 3 Greenwich. 

J Or, Saint Mary le Bow. 4 Poitou. 



A.O. 1270.] TRANSACTIONS BEFORE TUNIS. 137 

crown. The King of Sicily again was going to Constantinople against 
the Greeks, and each of the nobles was returning to his own country. 
Whereupon, Sir Edward remained until the month of May at Palermo, 
and was then to cross over to l Aeon. But as to this, he made four con- 
ditions; the first condition being, in 2 case a Pope should be created who 
should forbid his passage until the great expedition. The second condi- 
tion was, in case he should be detained by sickness. The thirdy in case his 
father should die. The fourth, in case there should be a war in England. 
It should also be known, that peace was made between the King 
of Sicily and the King of Tunis, on the condition that the King 
of Tunis should hold his kingdom of the King of Sicily, paying him as 
much as he used to pay the Emperor Fretheric, and his son 3 Manfred, 
and double the arrears which had accrued since the death of the said 
Manfred, for five years, namely. He also paid the King of France and 
the King of Sicily a very large sum of money ; while all the Christian 
prisoners whom the King of Tunis had taken were liberated by him, and 
he further granted that the Christians might celebrate divine service and 
preach upon the Catholic faith throughout all his good towns, without 
hindrance on part of the Saracens ; and that the Christians might go and 
come into his territories, as theretofore they had been wont to do; in 
addition to which, he would harbour no enemy of the King of Sicily. 

It should also be known, that before peace was made between the 
said kings, and the Christian army was in the island before-mentioned, 
the people of 4 Conradin pitched their tents without their town, about 
two miles in advance, and near the Christian army, there being between 
the said two armies a plain as fine and as broad as that near Salesbery ; 
and every day, they used to come so near to the Christian troops that 
they could take aim at them with their bows. It also befell, that certain 
Christians one day met the Saracens with a strong and well-armed force, 
and so pursued them through the very midst of their tents, slaying 
more than two hundred of them, and gaining a great number of their 
pavilions. In this conflict, the King of France lost the marshal of his 



1 Acre. * The supporters probably of Conradin, 

2 At this time, the Papal See was vacant. lately put to death by Charles King of Sicily : 

3 King of Sicily, and natural son of the and who had taken the side of the King of 
Emperor Frederic II. Tunis. 

T 



138 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1270, 

army,, and the Brethren of 1 Beaucaire one hundred of the lower rank. 
It should also be known, that the King of Tunis never went forth from 
his town, when the envoys of the Christian kings came to him for the 
purpose of making peace, the Count of 2 Peinthein, that is to say, and 
the Chancellor of Sicily, and other nobles of the Christian army. Indeed 
the King of Tunis declined to rise from his chair to meet them ; but the 
Prince of Arabia and the King of Bugia went forth from the town, and 
held conference with the Christian envoys, until peace had been estab- 
lished, as already mentioned. It should also be known, that in all the 
Christian army there were not more than 1800 knights, out of whom 400 
had died ; two of them being kings, namely, the King of France and the 
King of Navarre, and five Counts, the Count de 3 Enevers, the Count de 
Eu, the Count de la Marche, the Count de Mendome, and the Count de 
Acele, as also sixty-seven bannerets, besides those of lower rank. 

From what has been before written, it is manifest that this 
4 Charles, the then King of Sicily, (who not long before had 
seized that territory, and had taken the real heir to the kingdom, namely, 
Conradin, son of Conrad, son of the Emperor Fretheric, and had cruelly 
slain him in prison, together with fifteen nobles of the kingdom of Al- 
maine), caused the whole army of the Christians, who had made prepara- 
tions for crossing over to the Holy Land, to commit a grievous error, 
and brought them with him to the said island, giving them to understand 
that it was his intention utterly to destroy the Saracens that dwelt 
therein. This however he did not do, but only brought with him the said 
Christians for the purpose of subjecting that island to his own rule, as 
previously set forth ; and thus did he defeat the passage of the Crusa- 
ders, to the irrecoverable loss of all Christendom, and also to the very 
great misfortune of the Holy Land. 

Be it remembered, that about the Feast of Saint George [23 April] 
in this year, there came news to London, that on the morrow of the 
Feast of Saint Gregory [12 March] preceding, Simon and Guido, the 
sons of Simon de Montfort, late Earl of Leicester, had slain Henry, son 
of Sir Richard, King of Almaine, who was then under the safe-conduct 

1 A town at the mouth of the Rhone, in the 3 Nevers ? 

S. of Frante. 4 Charles I. King of Sicily, son of Louis 

2 Ponthieu? VIII. of France. 



A.I>. 1270.] MUKDER OF HENRY, THE KING'S NEPHEW. 139 

of Philip, son of Louis, King of France, suddenly and unexpectedly, 
while the said Henry was in a church, hearing divine service, in the city 
of Viterbo, near Home. 

Letters sent unto his lords/tip the King of Almaine, after the murder of 

his son. 

" Philip, by the grace of God, King of the Franks, to the excellent 
-' prince, his most dear cousin and friend, Richard, by the same grace, the 
*' illustrious King of the Romans and of Alinaine, and Earl of Cornwall, 
" greeting and affection in sincere love. We would willingly have 
-' brought news of a more pleasing nature to the notice of your 
*< sereneness, had the divine mercy indulged us with the same ; but now 
" are we compelled to announce unto you certain tidings full of 
" sorrow and of sadness, which we, being at Yiterbo on the morrow 
" of the Blessed Gregory, and hearing the divine service of the Mass 
" in the Church of the * Friars Minors at Viterbo, from the 

Fol. 124 B. 

" relation of certain trustworthy persons have heard ; to the 
" effect that Guido and Simon de Montfort, knights, on the same day and 
" at the same hour, with an armed force attacked our most dearly beloved 
" cousin Sir Henry, your eldest son, while in a certain other chapel at 
" Viterbo, in front of his hostel there, for the purpose either of hearing 
" Mass or of offering up his prayers ; and there, at the instigation of t he 
" devil, slew him ; a matter which we impart to you not without intense 
(t grief and anguish of heart. And how greatly we are afflicted thereat, 
" and how disturbed, we propose by the Lord's favour to evince by real 
(i results. But forasmuch as our well-beloved knight, Florence de 
" Warenne, Admiral of our fleet, has, as we have understood, a son of 
" his staying with the children of our dearest cousin Sir Edward, eldest 
" son of the illustrious King of England ; and the same Florence has, 
" as we have understood, always been against Guido and Simon afore- 
" said, we entreat of your mightiness, with all the earnestness we 
" may, that no inconvenience may to such child of our said knight 
" arise ; that so, you may send back unto us safely and securely such 
" child of our said Admiral and knight. Given at Viterbo, on the 
<e morrow of the Feast aforesaid." 

1 Or Franciscans. 



140 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1270. 

Tenor of the Letters which the King of Almaine sent unto the Friars 
Minors of London for his Son. 

" Richard, by the grace of God, King of the Romans, always August, 
" to the Warden of the Friars Minors of London, and his well-beloved 
" and duteous Convent of the same place, greeting and affection in sincere 
(e love. We are compelled to announce unto your devotedness, news most 
" dreadful and full of grief, to the effect that Simon and Guido, the 
(f sons of that most wicked traitor, the late Simon de Montfort, satellites 
" of Satan, on the morrow of Saint Gregory, at Yiterbo, with an armed 
<s force attacked our dearly-beloved and eldest son Henry, while hearing 
" the solemn service of the Mass in a certain chapel there, intent upon 
" his prayers and imagining no evil, and cruelly slew him. And this, not 
f( without great bitterness of heart do we, sorrowing, announce unto you, 
66 making request that, devoutly celebrating his obsequies, you will for 
" him suppliantly intercede with God, that so we may be enabled forth- 
" with to return you worthy thanks for the same. Given at l Istleworthe, 

(t this 24th day of April, in the fourteenth year of our reio-n." 
Fol 125 A. 

On the morrow of Our Lord's Ascension, which in this year 

fell on the 15th day of May, the bones of Sir Henry of Almaine arrived 
in London, and were thence taken to Heiles, to be buried in the 2 Abbey 
of White Monks there, which had been founded by his father, in the 
neighbourhood of Gloucester. 

Copy of Letters, which his lordship the King sent unto the Mayor and 
Sheriffs of London ; to the end that they should cause the same to he 
proclaimed throughout all the City, as set forth below. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, etc., to the Mayor and 
" Sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas the Countess of Flanders has 
" caused the wools, goods, and divers merchandize of merchants of our 
" realm, found within her territory and jurisdiction, to a countless 
" amount of money, not only to be seized, but, what is worse, to the 
(( irrecoverable loss of the merchants aforesaid, and to our own disgrace, 
" to be sold, and has converted the proceeds arising therefrom to her own 

1 Isleworth, in Middlesex. Gloucestershire. 

2 The Abbey of the Cistercians at Hayles in 



A.D. 1270.] PROCLAMATION AGAINST THE COUNTESS OF FLANDERS. 141 

" use : we therefore, having before made it our study to provide against 
" the grievance by the said Countess inflicted, have commanded, that all 
" things throughout our realm belonging to the people of Flanders, 
" wheresoever in our realm the same should be found, should be seized, 
t( and safely kept, until we should have given other commands thereon. 
" And whereas we since, at the requirement as well of the merchants of 
" our realm, as of France, Normandy, and other kingdoms, who gave 
" unto us pledges and other surety by corporal oath, that they would not 
" take any wools unto the parts of Flanders or of Hainault, or would sell 
" the same unto the Flemings, or unto any other merchants whomsoever 
" of the said Countess wishing to sell the same, or would by any artifice 
" or device part therewith, have, under the like form, given leave unto 
" the same merchants to take wools out of our realm unto the parts 
" beyond sea, to make their profit thereon. And whereas we have of 
" late for certain understood, that the wools aforesaid, so by our leave 
"taken out of our realm, are sold by the said merchants, at their 
" pleasure, unto the said Flemings near their own parts, in contravention 
" of the surety aforesaid, a thing that we will no longer in any way 
" endure ; We of our counsel have determined, that all wools of our 
" realm, in future to be exposed to sale, shall remain within our realm, 
" and shall not on any account be taken unto any parts beyond sea 
" whatsoever, before the Feast of Saint John the Baptist [24 June] next 

" ensuing ; and do therefore, command you, that within the term 

/ Fol. 125 B. 

" aforesaid you do not take any wools out of our realm unto 

" any land whatsoever, or through your districts allow the same to be 
" taken; but that, if you shall find any such through your districts about 
" to be taken out of our realm, you shall arrest and safely keep the 
" same, for our commands thereon. Unless indeed the aforesaid Coun- 
" tess, by her proxy and through the intervention of her envoys, unto 
" whom we have named the ensuing Octaves of the Holy Trinity, as a 
(f day for appearing before us in order to treat of this matter, shall have 
" submitted herself unto our will, and you from us shall have received 
" other commands hereon. And this, as you do love yourselves and all 
" things which in our realm you would have, and our lasting indignation 
" would avoid, you are on no account to omit. And you are to make 
" known unto all persons of -your bailiwick who have wools for sale, that 



142 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. IA.D. 1270. 

" they must not despair as to the sale of their wools, seeing that the 
(( merchants of our realm are ready to find us security that, unless the 
" said Countess shall in the meantime make satisfaction to our mind as 
" to the things which have been done, that so we may empower the 
" Flemings to buy wools and to export them, as they were wont, they, 
" the said merchants, will buy all wools belonging to every one, and will 
" pay the money for the same, to the right and true value thereof. And 
" for this cause, we shall signify unto you what arrangement shall 
" be made between us and the said envoys on the Octaves aforesaid. 
" You are also to cause proclamation to be made, that all workers of 
" woollen cloths, male and female, as well of Flanders as of other lands, 
" may safely come into our realm, there to make cloths ; upon the under- 
" standing that those who shall so come and make such cloths, shall be 
" quit of toll and tallage, and of payment of other customs for their 
" work, until the end of five years from this time next ensuing. Wit- 
" ness myself, at Westminster, this 18th day of May, in the five-and- 
66 fiftieth year of our reign." 

The aforesaid mandate of his lordship the King was proclaimed 
throughout all the City on the 2 1 st day of May. 

In this year, at 1 E,eyns, on the Feast of the Decollation of Saint 
John the Baptist [29 August] the aforesaid Philip, son of Louis before- 
mentioned, (who died in the island of Tunis, as already stated,) was 
anointed King of France. 

After the above mandate, the envoys of the said Countess came to 
London on the day appointed for them, namely, the Octaves of the Holy 
Trinity ; and hoping by bribes and promises to corrupt the Coun- 
cil of his lordship the King, asked of him that the matter might 
be postponed until the Feast of Saint Michael ; and that in the meantime 
the merchants of England might trade in Flanders, and the Flemings in 
the kingdom of England, as they had been wont. This however was a 
very foolish request, and one contrary to all reason, seeing that in the 
meantime they would be able to remove all their goods and chattels out 
of the kingdom of England, and buy wool, and carry it to their own 
country, sufficient for all their purposes for the next two or three years, 

1 Rheims. The city of Rennes, in Brittany, was also sometimes so called. 



i.D 1270.] THE FLEMINGS EXPELLED FKOM THE KINGDOM. 143 

while the merchants of England, in the meantime, who had experienced 
losses through the Countess of Flanders, would be altogether deprived 
of their goods and chattels : and this accordingly was wholly denied 
them. But after they had remained in London three weeks, they were 
distinctly told by the King and his Council, on the Feast of the Comme- 
moration of Saint Paul [30 June], that they must leave the kingdom 
of England etc., as set forth in the Letters underwritten. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, etc., to the Mayor 
" and Sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas the Countess of Flanders, 
(( contrary to the duty of propriety and of honour, has not only caused 
" the wools and other the merchandize and goods of ourselves as well as 
" of others, great merchants of our realm, of late, within the territory and 
" domains of the same Countess, to be seized ; but, what is even worse, 
" to the disgrace and contempt of us and our great merchants aforesaid, 
" to be sold; she converting to her own use the whole sum of money 
" arising therefrom ; and the said Countess, by her envoys duly sent unto 
" us many times to treat with us and our Council as to that trespass, 
ee has hitherto made offer unto us of no competent amends therefor : 
" wherefore, we by way of making distraint upon her and her subjects 
" in our realm, until full satisfaction shall have been made for such 
" trespass, against them are provoked to proceed ; after taking, with our 
" Council, diligent consideration hereof, we have provided and enacted, that 
" all goods of Flemings, Hainaulters, and other persons whomsoever, be- 
" longing to the dominions of the said Countess, coming into our realm 
" and dominions, and there now being, together with debts and deposits 
" belonging to such Flemings and Hainaulters, in whose hands soever 
" the same shall be found, whether religious or lay, shall be seized and 
<e safely be kept ; and afterwards, in presence of our well- 
" beloved and trusty, Nicholas Fitz-Adele de la Pole, Alex- 
" ander le Riche of Andovere, Roger de Dunstaple of Winchester, and 
" John de Gernemue, our clerk, whom to make appraisal of such goods, 
" and inquisition as to those deposits and debts, we have deputed, the 
" same shall, upon oath of good and lawful men, be appraised at the true 
" and right value thereof. And that all and singular the Flemings and 
" Hainaulters, and others of the dominions of the said Countess, whether 
" merchants or others, save however those workmen, who with our 



144 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1270. 

"'leave shall come into our realm to make cloths, and those in l ; ke 
f( manner excepted, who have married wives in our realm., and who 
" have lands and certain domiciles therein, and for the greater part dwell 
(f therein, and whom we deem to be native-born shall, under peril of 
" life and limb, and loss of all their goods, depart from our realm before 
" the Tuesday next ensuing after the Feast of the Apostles Peter and 
" Paul next to come. And that all wools of our kingdom shall remain 
" in the same, until we shall have made some other provision therefor. 
" And we do therefore command you, that throughout all your bailiwick 
" you do cause proclamation to be made, that all and singular the 
" men of Flanders and Hainault, and others of the dominions of the said 
" Countess, except the workmen aforesaid and others who have married, 
" or are dwelling in our realm, as already mentioned, shall, under peril 
<( of life and limb, within the time aforesaid depart from our realm empty - 
" handed, saving unto themselves the necessary expenses for their passage. 
" And that no one shall, under the like penalty, harbour or receive them 
" or any one of them after the time aforesaid. And if after the time 
<( aforesaid you shall find any such Flemings within your bailiwick, you 
" shall take them, and at the same time the harbourers of them, and shall 
" safely keep them in our prison, until we shall have given other com- 
" mands as to the same. You are also to cause proclamation to be made, 
" that all and singular the merchants of our realm whose merchandize 
" and goods by the said Countess are seized or sold, as already men- 
" tioned, shall come before us and our Council in presence of the ap- 
" praisers aforesaid, and of our inquisitors, on the Octaves of the Feast of 
"Saint Edward [13 October] next ensuing, ready to shew upon their 
" oath, and that of their merchants, what goods, and of whom, have been 
" sold by the said Countess, or seized, and . how much, and the rightful 
f( value thereof, and to receive such compensation as shall be awarded to 
" them respectively, for their goods so sold or seized. Upon the under- 
" standing however, that if hereafter they shall be convicted of false 
" suggestion or exaction as to the same, they shall thereby incur the loss 
fe of all their goods. And that all and singular the l religious or 
" those who from the aforesaid Flemings, Hainaulters, or others 
"of the dominions of the said Countess, shall have received earnest- 
1 Persons of the religious orders, who were vendors of the wool produced on their pastures. 



A.&. 1270.] EXEMPTION REQUESTED FOR THE FRENCH MERCHANTS. 145 

" money for purchase of their wools and other goods, and who are bound 
ee to make payment unto them of any debts, shall then be there present 
<f to deliver unto us such earnest-money and debts. And nevertheless, 
" you are to distrain those persons so to do, by their lands and chattels 
"in your bailiwick, whose names our said inquisitors shall unto you 
" make known ; and for the purpose of making the said appraisements 
" and inquisitions, you are to summon within your bailiwick, before 
<f the aforesaid our appraisers and inquisitors, upon a certain day and at 
fe a certain place, according as the same inquisitors shall unto you make 
" them known, such and so many good and lawful men of your bailiwick 
" as shall for appraising the goods aforesaid, and for knowing and making 
" inquisition as to the truth concerning all the other matters aforesaid, 
" suffice. And you are manfully to aid such inquisitors to do the same, in 
" such manner as they shall unto you, in our behalf, make known. And 
" you are in such manner to conduct yourselves in performing this our 
" mandate, that we shall feel ourselves bound from henceforth to com- 
" mend your trustiness in the same. Witness myself, at Westminster, 
" this 28th day of June, in the five-and-fiftieth year of our reign." 

The mandate aforesaid was cried throughout the City of London on 
the morrow of the Commemoration of Saint Paul [30 June]. 

1 It should also be known, that the Tuesday which was named 
for the Flemings to take their departure out of England must 
be understood as the Tuesday next after the Feast of the Commemora- 
tion of Saint Paul, namely, the seventh day of July. 

At the same time, letters of his lordship the King were sent, in like 
form, unto all the Sheriffs of the realm of England ; but in the letters 
which were sent unto the Sheriffs in the more distant parts, a longer time 
was given for the Flemings to take their "departure from England, namely, 
until the morrow of Saint Margaret [20 July]. 

Afterwards, after the Feast of Saint John the Baptist [24 June], 
the King of France, the Duke of " Branban, and other princes of the 
parts beyond sea, sent letters unto his lordship the King, requesting that 
their merchants might come into his territories, there to stay and thence 
to depart, according to their ancient customs, in such manner as they 
were wont, and that they might without hindrance take their wools and 

1 Half of this leaf is cut out. 2 Brabant. 

U 



146 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.I>. 1270. 

other their merchandize out of the realm, seeing that they had 

V( } 1 9ft A 

not offended against the King or his people ; but that the 
Countess of Flanders solely should be punished, and those who were of 
her dominions. Wherefore, after conference had been held before his 
lordship the King, provision was made to the effect that all merchants, 
except those of the dominions of the Countess of Flanders, might take 
their wools out of the realm in form provided in the Parliament held at 
Westminster on the Feast of the Translation of Saint Edward [13 
October] last past ; which form has been set forth in the l sixth preceding 
leaf of this Book ; but still, that every one should have writ of his lord- 
ship the King for leave to do the same. As to those however, who were of 
the dominions of Flanders, they were to remain and be in the same state 
as had been provided after the Feast of the Holy Trinity last past; 
namely, in such manner as is set forth in the letters of his lordship the 
King which are written in the preceding leaf ; where you will find a mark 
of reference like this f . Look at the end of this Book for certain 
2 Statutes as to the Jews, which were made in the month of June this 
year. 

In this year died John, the eldest son of Sir Edward, a child five 
years and not quite four weeks of age ; whose body was buried in the 
Church of Westminster on the eighth day of the month of August, 
opposite the basilica of Saint Edward, on the Northern side. 

This year, on the Vigil of Saint Bartholomew [24 August], there 
came news to London by letters of Sir Edward, that in the preceding 
month of May, he, with his wife and all his retinue, had landed at 3 Acon 
in the Holy Land. 

Be it remarked, that when after the battle of Evesham, the citizens of 
London submitted themselves, as to life and limb, and all things, moveable 
and immoveable, to the will of his lordship the King, for the offences 
imputed to them and by some of them committed, and his lordship the 
King took the City into his hands, and placed Wardens there at his own 
will ; at the same time he granted unto his Queen the custody of London 
Bridge ; which custody she held in her hands for nearly six years, and, 
removing the wardens appointed by the citizens, placed there wardens at 

1 Properly the seventh. See p. 132 ante. 3 Acre. 

2 These will be found in a future page. 



A.I). 1270.] INQUISITION AS TO THE PROPERTY OF THE FLEMINGS. 147 

her own option, who during all the time aforesaid collected all 
issues of the rents and lands of the said bridge, converting the 
same to I know not what uses, but expending nothing whatever upon the 
repairs of the said bridge. At last, when the Queen before-mentioned 
had for certain understood, that hereby great damage and peril had 
befallen the said bridge, she resigned to the citizens the said custody 
thereof; and accordingly, on the Feast of Saint Giles [1 September] in this 
year, they elected two men as wardens of that bridge, in the same manner 
as, before the battle of Evesham, it used to be kept. 

Afterwards however, within the fifteen days next ensuing, the Queen, 
at whose suggestion I know not, repented of the said resignation, and 
abandoned her intention, retaining the said bridge in her own hands. 

At the Feast of Saint Michael, Richard de Paris [and] John de 
Buddele were made Sheriffs, it being in the year 1271, and at the end 
of the fifty-fifth year of the King's reign. 

In this year Walter Hervy was made Mayor. 

In this year, at a Parliament held at Westminster, after the Feast of 
the Translation of Saint Edward [13 October], there came before the 
King's Council the persons, who by his command had been sent through- 
out England to make inquisition as to the goods and chattels of the 
Flemings, and said that the goods that had been found by them, in the 
shape of debts and chattels, amounted to 8000 pounds, together with the 
King's debt. At the same time also, it was provided by the Council of 
his lordship the King, that all the merchants of England from whom the 
Countess of Flanders had taken anything, should come to Westminster at 
the approaching Feast of Saint Hilary [13 January], to shew and certify 
the Council of his lordship the King, each by himself, as to the value of 
the chattels which the said Countess had so taken from them, and then 
to receive, each his own proportion, from the aforesaid goods of the 
Flemings. It should also be known, that the chattels which the 
Countess had taken from the English, amounted to 7000 pounds sterling, 
besides chattels of the merchants of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, and of 
tenants of Sir Edward. 

Afterwards, at the Parliament held on the quinzaine of Saint Hilary, 
certain persons whose goods had been taken in Flanders, as 
already stated, and the Londoners more especially, in hope of 



148 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYOKS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 127L 

having some money out of the debts of the Flemings which were then 
being collected throughout England, certified those who by his lordship 
the King and his Council had been appointed thereto, each by his own 
oath and the oaths of two others, what goods the Countess had taken 
from them, and the value thereof. At the same time, all the persons as 
to whom it had been found by the inquisition that had been previously 
made, what they had of goods or debts belonging to the Flemings, were 
instructed that they must produce all monies arising therefrom before the 
Council of his lordship the King, in the first week of Lent. And then 
too, inquisition was made at the same time by each of the City Wards, as 
also by all merchant-strangers who were in the City, as to all those who 
had had intercourse with any persons of the dominions of the Countess 
of Flanders, either in the way of selling, or of buying, or of exchanging, 
or of harbouring their goods ; and also, as to who had taken wools out of 
England to the parts beyond sea, in contravention of the prohibition of 
his lordship the King. 

At this time also, many Flemings found in the City were arrested, 
and kept in custody for some days; in order to be liberated from which, 
they abjured the realm of England, not to return thither, so long as the 
dispute before-mentioned should exist between the King of England and 
the Countess of Flanders. 

This year, in the week before the Annunciation of Our Lady [25 
March], there was brought to London the under-written copy of letters 
which the King of the Tartars, Albaga by name, had sent to Sir Edward, 
who was then at Aeon, together with sixty thousand Tartars and Chris- 
tians, it is said. 

" By aid and by power of the living God, the 1 Chaan Albaga to Sir 

" Edward, by the grace of God the most illustrious first-born of the 

" King of England. Through the prudent men and discreet envoys 

" sent unto us, 2 Brother Reginald Rossel, Godfrey de Wans, 

" John le Parker, we have diligently come to an understanding 

" of the words of the proposition made on your part. At the expressions 

" of your good will we have been very greatly rejoiced. But seeing 

" that, in the past year, the Saracen infidels, causing no slight injury to 

1 Probably the word known in more recent ' 2 Or ' Friar.' 
times as ' Cham' and 'Khan.' 






A.D. 1271.] PROPOSITION MADE BY THE COUNTESS OF FLANDERS. 149 

" the Christian faith, have inflicted very numerous losses upon very many 
" of the Christians, and did in no way hesitate to lay waste their lands 
" [and] possessions, it has pleased us that these, equally the enemies of 
" us and of you, and who meditate hostility towards us both, should be 
" surrounded by our valiant troops on either side, and, put to confusion 
" by the supreme aid of the living God, be thoroughly rooted out. 
" Therefore, being advised thereon, we have on our behalf made it our 
" care to send unto you, in our name, Cemakar, the captain of our 
" army, with a powerful force ; wherefore you, discreetly taking counsel 
" with the said Cemakar, will in future make it your care, with due 
" caution, to issue orders both as to the day and the month for engaging 
" with the foe. Given at Maraga, this fourth day of the month of 
" September." 

In the beginning of the year 1 72, at the end of the month of March, 
died Richard King of Almaine and Earl of Cornwall, brother of his 
lordship Henry, King of England, it being the fifteenth year after his 
Coronation; and was buried in the Abbey of 2 White Monks at Heyles, 
which he himself had built. 

In the same month there came news to London, that a new Pope had 
been created at Rome, after the Papal See had been vacant for 3 three 
years and more ; which Pope was called " Gregory," being the tenth 
Pope of that name, and was consecrated on the tenth of the Calends of 
April [23 March], which then fell on a Sunday. 

In this year, after Easter, there came envoys who had been sent by 
the Countess of Flanders unto his lordship the King, saying that it was 
her wish to make satisfaction to all the merchants of his realm as to all 
goods and chattels which had been taken in her territory, in manner 
already stated ; upon condition however, that the said King should bind 
himself by his letters patent to pay unto her the rent which she demanded 
of him, as also all the debts which he and his Queen owed to the Flemings,, 
within the three years then next ensuing ; and that in case he should not do 
so, she might lawfully distrain all persons coming into Flanders 
from the realm of England by their bodies and all their goods, 
until satisfaction should have been made to her for whatever should be 

1 /. e. 1272. 3 About two years and nine months, in 

2 Or Cistercians. See page 140 ante. reality. 



150 CHRONICLES OP THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1271. 

in arrear. But upon hearing and understanding this haughty message, 
the King, with his Council, was indignant thereat, and contemptuously 
dismissed the said envoys, commanding them, on peril of life and limb, 
to leave the kingdom of England within the three days next ensuing, 
and that no one from the dominions of the said Countess, on the like peril, 
should come into England. This was done on the sixth day of May. 
Still however, by assent of the Council of his lordship the King, it was 
allowed that wool should be taken out of the kingdom in the same man- 
ner that it used to be in the preceding year ; with this addition however, 
that every sack of wool should be marked with the mark of his lordship 
the King ; so that, in case any sack should be found without a seal in 
any ship when crossing the sea, the same should be forfeited. This mark 
too was as follows, that is to say, upon each sack there was a cross to 
be painted with *red earth lengthwise, above and below, as also another 
cross, crosswise, above and below ; and for this mark the merchant was to 
give one halfpenny for each sack. This regulation however, did not 
last. 

Throughout all this year, no punishment was inflicted upon the 
bakers ; but they made loaves at their own will ; so much so, that each 
loaf was deficient one third in weight, or one fourth at least. 

This year, in the month of August, there befell at Norwich a certain 
most unhappy calamity, and one hitherto unheard of by the world, as 
among Christians ; for the Cathedral Church in honour of the Holy 
Trinity, which had been founded there from of old, was burnt by fire 
purposely applied, together with all the houses of the monks built within 
the cloisters of the said church. And this took place through the pride 
of the person who at that time was Prior of this Convent ; as from the 
following facts may be ascertained. For by assent and consent 
of this same Prior, the grooms and servants of the monks very 
frequently went into the City, beating and wounding men and women, 
both within their houses and without, and doing much mischief. This 
Prior also used to endeavour to draw away men of the franchise from 
the commons of the City, in order that they might be under his own 
jurisdiction and severed from the commons. Also, whereas the monks 
have a fair by ancient custom each year, it happened this year, about 

1 Or ruddle. 



A.D.127L] DESTRUCTION OF THE CATHEDRAL AT NORWICH. 151 

the Feast of the Holy Trinity, that after the citizens had come with 
their merchandize there, and the greater part of them, at the end of the 
fair, had returned home, the servants of the monks, wickedly assaulting 
those who remained, beat and wounded them, and slew some ; and for 
this, they never cared to make any amends, but always persevering in 
their malice and wickedness towards the citizens, perpetrated all manner 
of mischief. The citizens however, no longer able to endure so many 
evils, and such violence as this, assembled together and had recourse to 
arms, in order that they might repel force by force ; which this most 
wicked Prior understanding, brought over a great multitude of malevo- 
lent persons from 1 Gernemue, who had been robbers, plunderers, and 
malefactors, during the disturbances in the realm. All these persons, 
coming by water to the Convent, ascended to the belfry where the bells 
were hung, fortified it with arms, just as if it were a castle, and took 
aim with their bows and arbalests therefrom, so that no one could pass 
along the streets or lanes near the Convent, without being wounded. 
The citizens, seeing these acts of violence, were of opinion that these 
misdoers were acting manifestly against the peace of his lordship the 
King, in thus setting up a spurious castle in his city. Accordingly, 
meeting together, and coming to a determination to seize these persons 
and to bring them to judgment in the King's name, they provided them- 
selves with arms, and, approaching the closed gate of the court-yard, on 
being unable to enter it by reason of the armed men by whom 

Fol 1 SI A 

it was defended, set fire to it, and ruthlessly burnt the gate. 
The fire spreading however, the belfry was burnt, and all the dwellings 
of the monks, as well as, according to what some say, the Cathedral 
Church, alas ! together with all the relics of the Saints, books, and 
ornaments, of the church ; so that whatever could be burnt, was reduced 
to ashes, a certain chapel only excepted, which remained unburnt. The 
monks however, and all who were able, took to flight and made their 
escape ; though still, some persons on either side were slain. 

But it ought to be known, that although it is allowable in every way 
to harass and attack the King's enemies and those who break his peace, 
even to the extent of applying fire, if necessary ; still however, it is not 
lawful for Christians to set fire to churches or to other holy places. 

1 Yarmouth, in Norfolk. 



152 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1271. 

His lordship the King however, on hearing this most shocking news, 
was greatly grieved thereat ; and accordingly, in a fury and in great wrath 
he set out for that city, and on his arrival had as many of the citizens 
seized as were held suspected, and imprisoned in his castle. He also caused 
some men who dwelt without the said city to be summoned, desiring to 
learn from them the truth of this matter upon oath ; but when they 
appeared before the Justiciars who by his lordship the King for this pur- 
pose had been chosen, there came the Bishop of the place, l Roger by 
name, one who was in no way inferior in wickedness and cruelty to his 
Prior, and having no consideration for the ties of religion attaching to 
his order or his rank, but, wholly destitute of all pity and mercy, and 
desirous to the utmost of his ability to get all the citizens condemned to 
death, in presence of all the people excommunicated all those who by 
advocacy, for reward, or through feelings of pity or mercy, should spare 
any one of the citizens, so that he should not undergo his trial. Conse- 
quently, after his sentence pronounced, his lordship the King would shew 
no favour to any one, although entreated so to do by many religious men 
dwelling as well within the city as without. And then besides, no allow- 
ance was made for the citizens, because the Prior and his accomplices had 
been the origin and cause of all this misfortune, nor yet for the mischiefs 
and many evils which the citizens had suffered through the said Prior 
and his people ; but inquisition was only made, as to who were 
present in that conflict ; all which persons, young men of the 
city, in number about thirty-two, being indicted thereupon, were by the 
jurors condemned to death, and, by Laurence de Broke, who is a Justiciar 
at Neugate for gaol delivery, and was there present, sentenced to a most 
cruel death ; in accordance with which, they were drawn and hanged, 
and their bodies, after death, burnt with fire. A priest however and two 
clerks, who were convicted upon clear evidence of having committed 
robbery in that church, were delivered to the Bishop for judgment accord- 
ing to the usage of Holy Church. 

Afterwards, by the most truthful inquisition of forty knights dwelling 

near the city, it was found that the church had been burnt by 2 that 

accursed man, and not by fire of the citizens. For he had secretly had 

'blacksmiths introduced into the tower of the church, who there forged 

1 Roger de Skerning, or Skerving. 2 The Prior. 



1 



A.D. 1271.] WALTER HEEVI DEMANDED FOR MAYOR. 153 

bolts and arrows to be used for shooting from arbalests into the city : and 
when these blacksmiths saw the belfry burning, as already written, they 
took to flight and never put out their own fire ; and this communicating, 
the tower was set on fire and the church burnt. It was also found that 
this most iniquitous Prior had purposed burning all the city ; for which 
purpose, By three accomplices of his, he caused the city to be set on fire, 
in three places. Some of the citizens, however, wishing to avenge their 
misfortune, most sadly increased it. For they, during the self-same fire 
burnt down the gate of the Priory aforesaid, of which mention has been 
made above. 

This wicked Prior too was convicted of homicide, of robbery, and of 
numberless other cruelties and iniquities, both by him personally, and by 
his iniquitous accomplices, committed. And therefore, the King had 
him seized, and handed him over to his Bishop, to keep him in safe 
custody in his prison, and produce him before the King at his command- 
But afterwards, this same Prior, after the ecclesiastical manner, purged 
himself before his Bishop, who shewed himself much too favourable to 
him ; and thus did this most iniquitous man, alas ! go unpunished for 
the crimes imputed to him. But after this, within the half year next 
ensuing, the divine vengeance, I believe, overtaking him, Hhis most 
iniquitous person died a wretched death. 

Be it remembered, that in the time of John Horn and 
Walter le Poter, Sheriffs of London, whose names are written 
in the next leaf but one of this Book, when the citizens of London, as 
the custom is, met together for the election of Mayor, in the Guildhall, 
on the Feast of Simon and Jude [28 October], and the Aldermen and 
more discreet citizens would have chosen Philip le Tayllur, the mob of 
the City, opposing such election and making a great tumult, cried aloud, 
" Nay, nay, we will have no one for Mayor but Walter Hervi," who 
before was Mayor ; and against the will of the rest, with all their might, 
placed him in the seat of the Mayoralty. The Aldermen however, and 
many discreet men who sided with them, being unable to make head 
against the vast multitude of a countless populace, immediately went to 
his lordship the King and his Council at Westminster; and Walter 

1 A full account of all these transactions, the History of Bartholomew de Cotton, recently 
from a point of view highly favourable to the published under the Editorship of Mr. Luard, 
Prior, William de Brunhani, will be found in pp. 146 149. 

X 



154 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1271. 

Herevy, taking with him the populace, proceeded thither in like manner, 
promising them, as he before had promised, that he would preserve 
them, one and all, throughout the whole time of his Mayoralty, exempt 
from all tallages, exactions, and tolls, and would keep the City acquitted 
of all its debts, both as towards the Queen as towards all other persons, 
out of the arrears in the rolls of the City Chamberlain contained. 

But this name of <e arrears " he gave to whatever sums had been 
released and remitted, by writ of his lordship the King sent to Sir Alan 
de la Souche, the then Warden of the City, on the occasion of the great 
tallage made by assent of all the citizens, to those among the citizens 
who, beyond the sufficiency of their means, had been assessed towards the 
loans made for the purpose of paying the City's ransom to his lordship 
the King. This release too, and remission, was made by sworn men of 
the venue, and of the trades of those in favour of whom such remission 
was made ; and so, was openly and distinctly enrolled in the rolls of the 
City Chamberlains, which rolls are of record. And besides this, his 
lordship the King had lately written in behalf of some of them to the 
same Mayor and to the Sheriffs of London, that they should have the 
aforesaid rolls examined, and should not aggrieve them, or suffer them to 
be aggrieved, in contravention of the enrolment in them contained. 

But still, this Mayor, in contravention of the aforesaid enrolment and 
of the mandate of his lordship the King, endeavoured to extort from the 
said citizens a great sum of money ; and always made promises to the 
populace with affirmation of his good faith, as already written; and 
accordingly, the populace, believing it to be true as he had promised,, 
became his adherents and submitted themselves to his will ; so much 
so, that the people, by hundreds, by thousands, and by multitudes of 
persons, without number, followed him at his command both on horseback 
and on foot. 

But on the Feast of Simon and Jude [28 October] before-mentioned, 

the said Aldermen and their adherents, on coming before his lordship the 

King and his Council, as already written, shewed unto them, with 

grievous complaints, how that this populace by force had violently and 

unjustly impeded their election, by those to whom the election 

of Mayor and Sheriffs in the City of right more particularly 

belongs than to any one else, and has always been wont to belong. 



A.D. 1271.] WALTER IS WARNED BY THE KING'S COUNCIL. 155 

They also cluteously besought his lordship the King and his Council, 
that the King would be pleased to set his arm and his hand thereto, that 
so this populace, calling itself the " Commons of the City," and excluding 
the Aldermen and discreet men of the City, might not upraise itself 
against his peace and against the peace of his realm, as had happened in 
the time of the Earl of Leicester ; namely, when Thomas Fitz-Thomas 
and Thomas de 1 Pullesdon had so exalted the populace of the City 
above the Aldermen and discreet men of the City, that, when it was 
necessary so to do, they could not make such populace amenable to 
justice; through which, as a thing notorious to the whole world, a deadly 
war arose in England. 

The populace however, shewing no reason against this, but making a 
great tumult in the King's Hall, so much so, that the noise reached his 
lordship the King in bed, to which he was confined by a severe illness, 
was continually crying aloud, <f We are the Commons of the City, and 
" unto us belongs the election of Mayor of the City, and our will distinctly 
" is, that Walter Herevy shall be Mayor, whom we have chosen. " But on 
the other hand, the Aldermen shewed by many reasons, that unto them 
belongs the election of Mayor, both because they the Aldermen are the 
heads, as it were, and the populace the limbs, as also because it is the 
Aldermen who pronounce all judgments in pleas moved within the City. 
Of the populace, on the other hand, there are many who have neither 
lands, rents, nor dwellings in the City, being sons of divers mothers, 
some of them of servile station, and all of them caring little or nothing 
about the City's welfare. 

The populace however still kept crying aloud as before : whereupon, 
the members of the King's Council, wishing to give offence to neither the 
Aldermen's party nor that of the populace, and to the end that the King, 
who was in a weak state, might not be in any way disturbed, dismissed them 
until the morrow, and told the said Walter, that he must not come to 
Court attended with such a vast multitude of people, but only with ten 
or twelve persons, at most ; and after this had been told them, they all 
returned to the City. 

But the said Walter, caring nothing for the orders that had been 
given him by the Council of his lordship the King, immediately after 
1 Elsewhere written " Piwelesclon." 



156 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1271. 

dinner had all the people of the City summoned, except those who were 
adherents of the Aldermen , and this too in the name of his lordship the 
King, though the King knew nothing whatever about it, and commanded 
them all, under heavy pecuniary penalties, to follow him. Accordingly, 
on the morrow, a countless multitude went with him, both horse and 
foot, to Westminster ; and there entering the King's Hall, set forth no 
reasons, but, just as they had done before, kept crying aloud and 
saying, " It is our will that Walter Herevy shall be our Mayor, 
" because no person in the City is so fit and proper to govern us." The 
Aldermen too were there present, awaiting the answer of his lordship 
the King and his Council. The members however of the King's Coun- 
cil told the Aldermen and the others who were adherents of the said 
Walter, that they themselves should unanimously have given their assent 
to any person in the City whom they might have thought proper to be 
their Mayor; and that if they should present such a person unto his 
lordship the King, the King would admit him to the Mayoralty. The 
populace however always kept crying aloud, as already mentioned. For 
all this, the parties aforesaid could obtain no answer from the King and his 
Council for several days. 

But the Aldermen, together with those who adhered to them, as 
well as the said Walter, with a countless multitude of people, who were 
summoned daily under the same penalty, and in every way in the same 
manner as already noticed, attended daily at Westminster, until the 
Feast of Saint Martin [11 November]. 

It should also be remarked, that when this Walter understood that 
he was censured by some persons for wishing to be Mayor of the City, 
who said, " No man ought to hold an office who covets it ; seeing that 
" such people think nothing about the welfare of those subject to them, 
" but only about their own promotion," this Walter, I say, thereupon 
made answer to the people standing about him, affirming and swearing 
by God and by his own soul, to the effect that he did not desire to be Mayor 
or any other officer in the City, for his own sake ; but that solely from 
love of God, and from motives of charity, he was willing to endure that 
burden and that labour, that so he might support the poor of the City 
against the rich, who wish to oppress them in the matter of the tallages 
and expenditure of the City, 






A.D.1371.] HENRY DE FEOWICK MADE WARDEN. 157 

However, upon the Feast of Saint Martin before-mentioned, the 
members of the King's Council, seeing that it would be of no use any 
further to delay this matter, called before them the Aldermen, as well 
as Walter and his adherents, and said to them, " His lordship the King 
" wishes to preserve all your liberties unimpaired ; and as you cannot 
ee unanimously agree to the election of the same person as Mayor, it is 
(( his will, that both Walter Herevy and Philip le Taillur shall be removed 
(( from the Mayoralty, and that you shall have a Warden from among 
f( ourselves ( who for me may keep the City in my behalf, and in that 
" ( of Edward my son.' " And immediately thereupon, Henry de Fro wick 
was made Warden of the City, to keep the same until the Feast of Saint 
Hilary [13 January] next ensuing ; but at whatever hour the 
citizens should be willing unanimously to agree upon the same 
person for Mayor, they were to present him to his lordship the King ; 
and the King, removing Henry from the Wardenship of the City, would 
willingly admit him to the Mayoralty. 

After this, certain persons of the King's Council, namely, Walter de 
Merton and others, came into the City, and for several days held confer- 
ence with the said Aldermen and the said Walter, for the purpose of 
making peace and concord ; whereupon, it was in common agreed that 
five men should be chosen upon the Aldermen's side, and five on the side 
of the said Walter ; and that the person whom they should elect should 
be Mayor for that year. 

The names of those chosen by the Aldermen were, John Addrian, 
Walter le Poter, Henry le Waleys, Henry de Coventre, and Thomas de 
Basinge. The names of those chosen by Walter Herevy were, Robert 
Gratefige, Robert Hauteyn, Allan le 1 Hurer, Bartholomew le Spicer, 
and Henry de Wyncestre. 

This provision however and agreement was not carried into effect, as 
may be seen in what is written below. 

Be it remembered, that certain malicious men of Belial, as it was said, 
proposed that, immediately the King was dead, they should rise against 
the Aldermen and those who adhered to them, and deprive them of 
all their goods and chattels to be found in the City ; thinking among 
themselves that this might be done with impunity, while the realm was 
1 I. e. a maker of Awres, or rough, shaggy caps. 



158 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1271. 

without a King. This however was erroneously supposed by them ; for 
immediately after the King's death, the kingdom devolved upon his son 
Sir Edward ; and when once all persons in the realm had done fealty to 
him, then it is very evident that those under his rule who should have 
perpetrated anything against the peace, ought to be just as severely 
punished, as if it had been under the rule of his father when alive. But 
however, these iniquitous persons were prevented, so that this iniquity 
was not committed. For immediately the King was dead, on the morrow 
of Saint Edmund the Archbishop [16 November], the Archbishop of 
York, the Earl of Gloucester, and many other nobles of England, who 
were then present, came into the City and caused peace to be proclaimed 
as towards all persons, Jews as well as Christians ; after which, they 
came into the Chamber of the Guildhall, where the Aldermen and the 
aforesaid Walter, with a countless multitude of people, were assembled ; 
and, upon hearing of the disagreement that existed between the Aldermen 
and the said Walter, the Earl before-named, seeing such a vast multitude 
of people adhering to this Walter, in order that the quiet of the City 
might not be disturbed, requested that he might be admitted to 
the Mayoralty. But the Aldermen told him that that matter 
had been referred to the arbitration of ten men, in manner already stated. 
The Earl however, disregarding this arbitration, commanded that on the 
morrow, Friday namely, a Folkmote should be called together in the 
Churchyard, at Saint Paul's Cross, and that he should continue to be 
Mayor for that year, to whose election the greater part of the citizens 
should agree. 

On the morrow accordingly, all the City came into Saint Paul's 
Churchyard, and the Archbishop, the Earl, Kobert Burnel, Walter de 
Merton, and many other men of high rank, came to the Church of Saint 
Paul ; and, entering the Chapter-house there, with some of the Alder- 
men, advised them to agree to the election of this Walter, so long as he 
should be Mayor for one year only, lest something still worse might 
happen in the City. Accordingly, seeing that such was the wish of these 
nobles, and that 011 that conjuncture nothing else could be done, the Alder- 
men gave their assent thereto, and, calling the said Walter before them, he 
was told what had been done. And then, by order of the aforesaid 
Archbishop, Earl, and other nobles, the said Walter made oath, that he 



A.D.127L] WALTER HERVI FINALLY ELECTED B1AYOR. 159 

would not aggrieve, or allow to be aggrieved throughout all his Mayor- 
alty, any one of those who had been against his election ; and so, declara- 
tion was made by Walter de Merton before all the people at Saint Paul's 
Cross, to the effect that the Aldermen had agreed that the said Walter 
should be Mayor for one year. 

On the fourth day after the King's death, namely, on the Feast of 
Saint Edmund the King, [20 November] which then fell on a Sunday 
his body, nobly attended, in such manner as befits royalty, was com- 
mitted to the tomb in the Conventual Church of the Monks at West- 
minster, before the great altar there. And after he had been buried, 
the Archbishop of York, who had been celebrating Mass there, the Earl 
of Gloucester, the Earl of Warenne, the Earl of Hereford, and other 
Bishops, Barons, and all the nobles there present, made oath that they 
would keep the peace in the realm, and would with all their strength 
cause the same to be kept ; and that they would keep the kingdom in 
behalf of Sir Edward, who was then in the Holy Land. The King's 
Seal also was then broken, in presence of all the people. 

Afterwards, on the Monday following, and so from day to day, the 
Bishops and Barons met together at the 1 New Temple, for making refor- 
mation of the state of the realm. 

At this time a new Seal was made for Sir Edward, the inscription on 
which is the same as it was while his father was living, the name only 
upon the new Seal being changed. Walter de Merton also was made his 
Chancellor. 

A.D. 1272. JOHN HORN, } 

nr . [ Sheriffs. FoLl84fl, 

WALTER LE POTER, again,) 

2 This year, on the sixth day of October, Eadmund, son of Richard, 
the late King of Almaine and Earl of Cornwall, married the sister of 
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, Margaret by name, 
in the Chapel of Reyslepe ; a town twelve miles distant from London, 
on the West. 

Afterwards, on the Feast of the Translation of Saint Edward, at 
Westminster, Sir Eadmund, son of Richard, the late King of Almaine 

1 On the site of the present Inner and history reverts to a period preceding the 
Middle Temple. death of Henry III, 

2 At this pointj it will be observed, the 



160 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1272. 

and Earl of Cornwall, was made a knight ; as also,, Henry de Laci, Earl 
of Lincoln, and many other nobles of the kingdom of England and the 
parts beyond sea, in number about fifty, it is said. 

In this year, because dissensions had arisen on the Feast of Simon and 
Jude in reference to the election of the Mayor, as in the two preceding 
leaves is more fully set forth, his lordship the King, on the Feast of 
Saint Martin [11 November] appointed Henry de Frowyk Warden, in 
place of the Mayor. 

About the same time, there came news to London that the Prior of 
the Church of the Holy Trinity at Canterbury, who had been elected 
Archbishop, and had been staying at Rome for some time, knowing and 
fully understanding that he would be rejected, because his lordship the 
Pope, upon examination of him, did not consider him sufficiently literate, 
renounced his election; whereupon, his lordship the Pope bestowed 
that dignity upon a certain Friar 1 Preacher, who was Provincial Prior 
of all his Order throughout England, Scotland, and Wales, Robert de 
2 Killewareby, by name. 

Afterwards, on the Feast of Saint Edmund the Archbishop [16 
November], Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, came to Westminster, 
and in presence of his lordship the King, who was then at the point of 
death, made promise upon oath that he would preserve the peace of the 
kingdom of England, and would, to the utmost of his power, cause the 
same to be observed; and that he would keep that kingdom in Sir 
Edward's behalf. Afterwards, at a late hour on the -same clay the King 
died, after a reign of fifty-six full years and twenty days ; and 
was buried on the Feast of Saint Edmund the King [20 No- 
vember], as set forth on the preceding leaf. ^** ' 

On the day after the Feast of Saint Edmund the Archbishop, Walter 
Herevy was made Mayor, as is stated on the other side of the preceding 
leaf; but he was not immediately presented, because since the King's 
death there were no Barons at the Exchequer, up to that clay. 

Afterwards, on the Vigil of Saint Andrew [30 November], the 
Sheriffs before-mentioned were presented anew at the Exchequer, the 
Barons sitting there, in the name of Sir Edward. 

1 Or Dominican. 2 More commonly, " Kilwarclby." 



A.D.1272.J FIRST WRIT FROM THE CHANCERY OF EDWARD I. 161 

Copy of the first Writ that was issued from the Chancery of Sir 
Edward, after the death of his Father. 

" Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and 
" Duke of Acquitaine, to the Sheriff of * Nortffolk, greeting. Whereas 
(i by reason of the death of his lordship King Henry, our father, now of 
" famous memory, the governance of the realm has upon us by hereditary 
<f succession, and by the will of the nobles of our realm, and their fealty 
" unto us made, devolved ; by reason whereof, the said nobles and our 
"faithful subjects, caused our peace in our name to be proclaimed, to all 
" and singular of whom in this realm, as dispensing justice and main- 
" taining peace, we are rendered debtors from henceforth ; we do command 
" you, that throughout all "your bailiwick, in all cities and boroughs, fairs, 
ef markets, and other places, you do cause our peace publicly to be pro- 
" claimed, and strictly to be maintained, forbidding unto all and singular 
" persons, that any one shall presume to commit any breach of our peace, 
(c under peril of disherison, as also of loss of life and limb. For that we 
" are, and shall be, ready to do full justice unto all and singular, by aid 
" of the Lord, in all rights and other matters concerning them, against all 
" persons whomsoever, great as well as small. Witness, W[alter], Arch- 
" bishop of York, at Westminster, this 23rd day of November, in the first 
" year of our reign." 

After this, Sir Edmund, son of his lordship the King, came back to 
London, from the Holy Land, on the tenth day of December, which 
then fell on a Saturday. 

2 This year, on the eleventh day of January, Sir William de Valence, 
who was with Sir Edward, came to London from the Holy Land. On 
the last day of the same month of January, the 3 Bishop of London came 
to London from 4 Rome, whither he had been sent by the Legate. 

T7r\l 1 P 

Be it remembered, that about the month of May previous, it 
befell at Aeon, in the Holy Land, that a certain Saracen, a malicious 
traitor, who knew the French language, came to the Court of Sir Edward, 
and assumed the character of one of the domestics there, as though he 
had been one of his household ; and accordingly, one day approached him, 

1 Norfolk. 4 "Whither he had been sent in disgrace, 

a A.D. 1273. about six years before, for taking part with 

3 Henry de Sandwich. the rebellious Barons. 

Y 



162 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1272. 

saying that he wished to speak with him in private on a matter for his 
own benefit and welfare. Whereupon, Sir Edward, who was too trust- 
ing and gave an unreasonable degree of credit to this traitor, received 
him in his chamber, no other person remaining there. Accordingly, 
this wretch, having shut the door of the chamber, approached Sir 
Edward, as though about to speak to him, and instantly, drawing a 
poisoned dagger, attempted to slay him, giving him four most dangerous, 
and almost deadly, wounds. Edward however, manfully exerting him- 
self, with a strong hand threw the malefactor to the ground, and with the 
traitor's own dagger cut him to pieces, blessed be God! and so slew him. 1 
Afterwards, it became known that the Soldan had sent him to slay Sir 
Edward*} just as the Old Man of the Mountains had been wont to do, 
who, in the time of Richard, King of England, caused the Marquis de 
Munferat to be assassinated, at Tyre in the Holy Land, by two of his 
retainers, as related in the history of King Richard before-mentioned. 

Be it remembered, that after the death of the before-named King, no 
one, impleaded by his writ, was bound to make answer to his adversary, 
unless his lordship Edward, King of England, his son, had by his writ 
given command to carry his father's writ into effect. 

This year, on the morrow of Saint Valentine [14 February], it was 
made known by the Archdeacon of London to all the chaplains of that 
City, that by command of his lordship the Pope all ecclesiastics in office, 
throughout the whole of England, should for two consecutive years give 
one tenth part of all their moveable possessions unto Sir Edward and Sir 
Edmund, sons of the 2 King before-mentioned, on their return from the 
Holy Land, for the purpose of defraying their expenses ; the Templars, 
Hospitallers, and Cistercian Monks, ,only excepted. 

Afterwards, on the first Sunday in Lent, which then fell on the 26th 

day of February, the Archbishop elect of Canterbury, Robert de Kyle- 

wareby by name, was consecrated in the Cathedral Church of the Holy 

Trinity at Canterbury ; there being present the following of his suffragan 

Bishops, namely, Laurence de Saint Martin, Bishop of Rochester, 

Nicholas of Winchester, Godfrey of Worcester, Richard of 

Lincoln, Hugh of Ely, Roger of Norwich, William of Bath, 

1 Not a word is said about Queen Eleanor of probably a later date, 
sucking the poison from the wound ; a fiction 5 Henry III. 



A. D. 1272.] ENVOYS SENT BY THE POPE. 163 

Roger of 1 Chester, Walter of Exeter. The Bishop elect also of Salis- 
bury was present, Robert by name; and there were absent, Henry, 
Bishop of London, and John, Bishop of Hereford, by reason of their 
infirmities. As for Stephen, Bishop of Chichester, he was still at Rome, 
whither he had been sent by Ottoboni, the Pope's Legate, as already 
written. 

Be it remembered, that in the month of November next preceding 
there came envoys to London from his lordship the Pope, bringing 
letters of the Pope ; but because his lordship the King was then dead, 
and his son, who succeeded to the kingdom, was not present, the nobles 
of England would not give the said envoys an answer ; whereupon the 
said envoys, while staying in the meantime at the New Temple, sent 
letters to his lordship the Pope. Still however, they took for their 
expenses, sixteen shillings from every house of religion in England 
established, no one being exempt, whether Templars, Hospitallers, or 
Monks of the Cistercian Order. 

On the day before the Annunciation of Our Lady [25 March], there 
were read in the Guildhall of London letters of his lordship King 
Edward, the tenor of which is as follows : 

" Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 
" and Duke of Acquitaine, to the Mayor, and Sheriffs, and Commonalty 
" of London, greeting. We do know and do strongly hope, that so often 
" as you have heard good tidings of us, your feelings have been gratified 
" thereby, receiving an accession of joy and gladness ; even as at the 
" present moment, when we do make known to you, that at the time of 
" writing these presents, at 2 Caples in the land of Labor, near unto our 
" dearest cousin the illustrious King of Sicily, we are as well and as un- 
" impaired as, after the bitterness of grief that we have experienced by 
" reason of the departure of his lordship the King, of happy memory, our 
" late father, we might be ; a loss which, in submission to the divine 
" will, we do patiently endure. But forasmuch as we should wish, and 
" do desire, that all in our realm should enjoy peace and tranquillity, we 
" do command you, in virtue of the fealty and love, in which unto us you 
(e are bound, that, diligently giving attention thereunto, you make it 

1 One of the then titles of the See of Lich- 2 Apparently Porto Salvo Chapel in 
field and Coventry. Calabria. 



164 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1272. 

" your care, in our absence, so to conduct yourselves, that upon our 
"arrival in England, whither we are now hastening, the Supreme aid 
ee preceding us, we may be able to find you deserving therein. But for- 
" asmuch as we have not yet had made our own royal Seal, we have had 
" these presents, at our instance, enclosed under the Seal of his lordship 
" the King of Sicily before-mentioned. Witness myself, at Caples, this 
(f 19th day of January, in the first year of our reign." 

Be it remembered, that after Stephen, Bishop of Chichester, 
who had been sent to Rome by Ottoboni, Legate of his lord- 
ship the Pope, as has been already stated in this Book, had obtained of 
the Supreme Pontiff, the Lord Gregory the Tenth, his gracious per- 
mission to return to his country and resume his dignity, on such his 
return towards England, he conducted himself foolishly and indiscreetly ; 
for he received into companionship Emeric de Montfort, for the purpose 
of escorting him and bringing him with himself to England; a person 
whom his lordship King Edward held in abhorrence, seeing that his 
brothers had slain Sir Henry of Almaine, as already written. Where- 
upon, his lordship the King immediately gave orders to the Constable of 
Dover Castle, to cause the sea to be w,atched with ships and galleys on 
every side, that he might not enter the kingdom of England. He also 
commanded his Justiciars, to take into their hands the barony of the said 
Bishop. 

In this year, the same as in the three preceding years, no judicial 
cognizance was taken of the London bakers ; but they, giving bribes to 
the Mayor and Sheriffs, made their loaves at their own pleasure, so much 
so, that every loaf was one third or one fourth lighter in weight than it 
ought to be, to the great loss and detriment of the citizens and of all 
persons coming into the City. 

Be it remembered, that throughout the whole time of this Mayor's 
Mayoralty he did not allow any pleading in the Hustings of Pleas of Land, 
except very rarely ; the reason being, that he himself was impleaded as 
to a certain tenement which Isabella Bukerel demanded of him by plea 
between them moved. 

In this year, his lordship the King, returning from the Holy Land 
with a noble array and retinue, came to Paris" on the Thursday before 
Saint Peter's Chains [1 August], which then fell upon the sixth of the 



A.D. 1*72.] THE FLEMINGS EXPELLED FROM ENGLAND. 165 

Calends of August [27 July], his Queen having set out for Gascoigne. 
Aud on the morrow he did homage to the King of France for the lands 
which he holds, and which he claims to hold, of him. 

Shortly after, he set out with his suite for Gascoigne, certain 

"Fol 1 37 A 

Earls and other nobles of the kingdom of England accompany- 
ing him, who had come as far as Paris, and even further, to meet him. 

The letters under-written were read in the Guildhall on the Feast of 
the Nativity of the Blessed Mary [8 September], in the year of Our 
Lord 1273, and proclaimed throughout all the City in accordance with 
the tenor thereof: 

* f Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 
" and Duke of Acquitaine, to his Mayor and Sheriffs of London, greeting. 
" Forasmuch as the Countess of Flanders and her people have, within 
" her territories and dominions, inflicted divers injuries and grievances 
" upon us and our subjects, by reason whereof we are unwilling that 
" they shall any longer come into our realm, or dwell in the same, or sell 
" merchandize or follow business therein ; we do command you, and do 
" strictly enjoin, that in our City of London you do cause it to be publicly 
" proclaimed, that no one of them shall, under forfeiture of his body and 
" his goods, presume to enter our territory or make sojourn there ; and if 
" perchance any individual persons shall have received especial grant from 
" his lordship King Henry, our father, or other our ancestors, to the 
ee effect that they may come into our territory, sojourn therein, and there 
" pursue their trade, you are to cause it to be proclaimed, that such 
(i persons shall collect their merchandize and their debts before the Feast 
" of Our Lord's Nativity next ensuing, and then, at the latest, depart 
" from our realm, under like forfeiture, never to return. Given by the 
" hand of Walter de Merton, our Chancellor, at Saint Martin's le Grand, 
"in London, this 8th day of September, in the first year of our reign." 

In this year, the Archbishop of Canterbury, who had been lately 
consecrated, was enthroned and placed in the Archiepiscopal chair, on the 
Day of Saint Lambert [17 September], which then fell on a Sunday; 
upon which day, arrayed in his pall, he solemnly celebrated divine 
service, and on the same day held a very great and most noble Court, 
consisting of many of the Prelates and Barons of England. 

At this time died Henry de Sandewych, Bishop of London, at a 



166 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A. D. 1272. 

certain manor of his called "Orsete," distant 18 miles from 
London ; whose body was committed to the tomb on the 1 ninth 
of the Calends of October [23 September], being the morrow of Saint 
Matthew the Apostle [21 September], in the Church of Saint Paul at 
London, in the place which he himself had selected on the day of his 
enthronization, in case he should die in the realm of England. 

A.D. 1273. PETER CUSIN, 



T-y t Sheriffs. 

ROBERT DE MELDEBURNE, 

These were chosen Sheriffs, on the Monday before the Feast of Saint 
Michael ; and, on the morrow of Saint Michael, as the custom is, they were 
presented at Westminster to the Barons of the Exchequer, who were not 
then sitting at the Exchequer, but in the Small Chamber next the 
2 Receipt near the Thames, and there admitted ; but only remained such 
until the Feast of Saint Andrew [30 November]. 

The same year, on the Saturday after the Feast of the Translation of 
Saint Eadward [13 October], Friar Robert, the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, together with eight of his Suffragan Bishops, arrayed in pontificals, 
in the Great Hall at Westminster, confirmed the sentence which had 
been pronounced by Archbishop Boneface, his predecessor, and thirteen 
Bishops, in the same hall, as already stated in this Book ; and again 
pronounced excommunicate all those who by deed, counsel, favour, aid, 
or assent, should secretly or openly disturb, or procure to be disturbed, 
the peace of the King and of the realm. 

After this, the nets of the fishermen on the Thames were seized, and 
on the Monday before the Feast of Saint Luke [18 October] brought to 
the Guildhall, and there judicially examined; and because they were not 
lawful according to the statutes of the City, they were burnt in Westchep, 
being 27 in number. 

In this year, before the Feast of Saint Michael, and after that Feast, 
by order of the Constable of Dovere, by reason of the injuries which the 
Countess of Flanders had inflicted upon the merchants of England, as 
already mentioned in this Book, the men of the Cinque Ports, with strong 
and armed force, sailed about the seas with many ships and galleys, and 

1 A mistake probably for the 10th ; as that * Or Counting-house, of the Exchequer, 
day is the 22nd of September. 



X.D. 1273.] BRIBERY OF ONE OF THE SHERIFFS. 167 

stopped all ships which they found sailing, with wool on board, towards 
Flanders, and seized all such goods belonging to the Flemings as they 
found upon the sea. After this, it was forbidden by his lordship the 
King that any wool should be taken out of the kingdom. 

This year, on the Feast of Simon and Jude, Henry le Waleys 

* Fol. 138 A. 

was made x Mayor, and on the third or fourth day after was 
presented to the Barons at the Exchequer, admitted, and sworn. 

About the Feast of Saint Michael in this year, the princes of Almaine, 
those namely unto whom belongs the election of an Emperor, chose a 
certain prince of Almaine, 2 Radulf do Hanesberuth by name ; who in 
the same month was crowned in the city of Aix by the Archbishop of 
Cologne, and on the seat of 3 Charles the Grreat there enthroned. 

Be it remembered, that on the Monday next before the Feast of 
Saint Andrew [30 November] in this year, the Mayor and citizens of 
London coming to the Guildhall, there to plead the common pleas, on the 
same day several bakers were seized for the purpose of examining their 
loaves, as to whether they weighed what they ought to weigh, according 
to the assize that had been made in the City ; of whom, Peter Cusin, 
the Sheriff, allowed one to go free, for a bribe which he received of him, 
and did not produce him. Whereupon, this Peter, being accused thereof 
in full Hustings, confessed that he had received sixty shillings of the 
said baker, not to produce him with the other bakers ; and accordingly 
he was deposed from his office, and the same was immediately promul- 
gated throughout all the City, so that it became known to the Council of 
his lordship the King and the Barons of the Exchequer ; who thereupon 
summoned the Mayor, Sheriffs, and all the Aldermen, before them at the 
Exchequer. 

Upon whose appearance, it was said that such a trespass as this is 
against the royal dignity, and they expressed a desire to know the truth 
of this matter. Whereupon, answer was made by the citizens, producing 
their Charters, that they are not bound to plead without the walls of the 
City, and that the Sheriffs of London ought to enjoy the same liberties 
which the other citizens enjoy ; and that the citizens may remove the 
Sheriffs when necessary, and appoint others in their place, but must pre- 

1 He was again Mayor of London from A.D. 3 Meaning Rodolph de Hapsburg. 
1280 to 1283, and Mayor of Bordeaux in 1275. s Or Charlemagne. 



168 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D.137S. 

sent them at the Exchequer of his lordship the King. And this at last 
was conceded to them, and a day was given them at Saint 
Martin's le Grand in London ; whither the Justiciars of his 
lordship the King came on the Feast of Saint Andrew [30 November], 
as also, the Mayor and Sheriffs, and the citizens. Upon which day it was 
found before them as to Peter Cusin, as already mentioned ; and it was 
also found, upon inquisition made by certain great men of the City, 
charged by their faith in God and by the oath which they had made unto 
his lordship the King, that the other Sheriff, Robert de Meldeburne by 
name, had given his assent to taking the sixty shillings before-mentioned, 
and had been there present in form aforesaid ; and therefore, the same as 
his fellow- Sheriff, he was deposed, and they were both amerced unto his 
lordship the King. Also, on the day after the Feast of Saint Andrew 
[30 November], the citizens elected Henry de Coventre and Nicholas 
Fitz- Geoffrey of Winchester to be Sheriffs for the remainder of that year : 
and they were presented at the Exchequer, and there admitted. But 
when the aforesaid Peter Cosyn and his fellow-Sheriff appeared at the 
Exchequer, the Barons found mentioned in their rolls a certain Sheriff 
of London, namely, Simon Fitz-Mary, who for only a single amercement 
had paid twenty pounds of silver ; whereupon, certain of the citizens, 
bringing their Charters, challenged this, and said that the two Sheriffs 
ought not to be amerced for one offence in more than twenty pounds in 
all. Accordingly, the matter was postponed, until it could be more cor- 
rectly ascertained as to the King's right therein. Peter however was 
enrolled as a debtor in the sum of twenty pounds. 

Be it remembered, that by procuring of the Mayor and certain prin- 
cipal men of the City, several of those who had been banished from the 
City four years before, by order of his lordship the King, as already 
stated in this Book, were taken and imprisoned in Neugate, until it 
should be known by what warranty they had returned to the City and 
taken up their abode therein ; afterwards however, they were set at 
liberty, upon abjuring the City until the arrival of his lordship the 
King. 

On the Feast of the Innocents [28 December] this year, John de 
Burgh, the elder, entered the Tower of London, with all his household ; 
his lordship the King, who was still in Gascoigne, having granted him 



A.D. 1273.] ELECTION OF A BISHOP OF LONDON. 169 

the custody thereof. He had previously however bestowed upon his 
lordship the King all the lands and tenements which he possessed in the 
kingdom of England, and had made him his heir to the same; upon con- 
dition that his lordship the King should find him all the necessaries of 
life, so long as he should live, and should also discharge his debts. 

Be it remembered, that when it was made known to the Dean 
and Chapter of Saint Paul's at London, by the royal letters 
sent to them through their messengers, who had crossed over to his lord- 
ship the King in Gascoigne, that they had leave to elect a Bishop: on 
the morrow of Saint Nicholas [6 December], John de Chishelle, Dean 
of that Church and Provost of Beverley, was elected Bishop ; who, on 
the fourth day after, set out for the purpose of crossing the sea, that he 
might be presented to his lordship the King. After being admitted by 
his lordship the King, he returned to England, and on the Tuesday after 
the Feast of Saint Gregory [12 March] came to Lambhethe, and was 
confirmed by the Official at Canterbury, because the Archbishop was 
not then in England. Afterwards, on the day but one before the Feast 
of the Apostles Philip and James [1 May] in the year of Our Lord 1274, 
he was consecrated by the Bishop of Saint Asaph, in the Chapel of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury at Lambhethe ; and after being so consecrated, 
crossed the Thames in a boat, and on landing, proceeded unshod to the 
Church of Saint Paul, and there on the same day was enthroned. 

Be it remembered, that in this year, on the Tuesday next before the 
Feast of Saint Thomas the Apostle [21 December], the Mayor and 
citizens meeting in the Guildhall, there came one of those persons to 
whom Walter Herevy had granted charters, while Mayor ; who made 
complaint to the Mayor and Sheriffs, that a certain person of his trade 
had worked in contravention of the statutes contained in the charter 
which he and the men of his trade had obtained. Upon this, enquiry 
was made of him from whom they had had this charter ; whereupon, 
producing a copy of such charter, he said that they had had it from 
Walter Herevy, while Mayor. Walter also was present, and acknow- 
ledged it, as also, all the charters which he had executed during his 
Mayoralty. Upon this, answer was made by Gregory de Rokesle, one 
of the Aldermen, on behalf of the Mayor and other more discreet citizens 
of the City, that such charters ought not to have any force beyond the 



170 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1273. 

Mayoralty of the said Walter ; both because this Walter had executed 
them at his own will, without the assent of the Aldermen and discreet 
men of the City, as also, because such charters were solely made 
for the benefit of the wealthy men of the trades to which they 
were granted ; and to the loss and undoing of the poor men of those 
trades, as also, to the loss and undoing of all the other citizens and of the 
whole realm. Upon his saying this, there arose between the aforesaid 
Gregory and Walter a wordy and most abusive dispute, in presence of 
all the people. But afterwards, the said Walter, on leaving the Guild- 
hall, went to the Church of Saint Peter in Chepe, and convened there 
a great multitude of the people of those trades to which he had granted 
charters ; telling them that the Mayor and others wished to infringe their 
charters, but that if they would only adhere to him, he would maintain 
them all in their integrity. And after this, throughout the whole of 
that day and the next, he went through the streets and lanes of the 
City, preaching and enticing the populace, if possible, to become ad- 
herents of his against the Mayor and discreet men of the City. As soon 
however as this became known to the Barons of the Exchequer and the 
Council of his lordship the King, they were greatly moved thereat, and 
fearing lest the King's peace in the City might next be broken by the 
said Walter and his accomplices, held a conference among themselves ; 
and a writ of his lordship the King was sent to the Mayor and Sheriffs 
in form under-written. 

" Edward, by the grace of God, King of England etc., to the Mayor 
" and Sheriffs, and other his faithful citizens of London, greeting. Where- 
" as from the information of you, the Mayor aforesaid, as also of Henry 
" Coventre, Nicholas de Wyncestre, William de Durham, John Adrian, 
" Arnold Tedmar, Gregory de Rokesle, Philip le Taylur, John de 
" Gysors, John Horn, William de Hadestok, Robert de Meldeburn, 
" Luke de Batyncurt, Reginald de Suffolch, [and] Gilbert de Dunton, 
" we have understood that Walter Herevy, and certain others of divers 
" trades of the same city, do manifestly threaten them, because that 
(( they, together with other trusty persons of our city, have wished to 
" annul certain statutes, contrary to right, made by certain men of the 
" trades aforesaid, for their own gain and against the common advantage ; 
" to the which statutes the same Walter, at the time when he was 






A.D. 1273.] CHARTERS UNDULY GRANTED TO CERTAIN TRADES. 171 

" Mayor, caused [his seal] to be set, it is said, contrary to the assent 
" and consent of the aforesaid our faithful subjects, who expostulated against 
" the same, and without consent of the commonalty aforesaid ; and also, 
" do hold covins and conspiracies with certain of their adherents 
" of suspicious character, at divers places and hours, as from the 
" information aforesaid we have been truly certified ; we do command 
" you, that from all and singular such persons you do take good security 
" and sufficient mainprise, that through them, or others of their people, 
" peril may not unto the said city, or to our aforesaid faithful subjects, 
" arise, nor disturbance of our peace in the city aforesaid, in such manner 
" as, there and elsewhere, by reason of such conspiracies and covins, 
" the same has oftentimes been wont to happen. Given by the hand of 
( Walter de Merton, our Chancellor, at Saint Martin's le Grand in London, 
" on the twentieth day- of December, in the second year of our reign." 

By virtue of this writ, the aforesaid Walter was attached, on the 
second day before the Nativity, and upon the surety of twelve men 
of the City released. Soon after this, after the Feast of Our Lord's 
Circumcision [1 January], the Mayor and citizens meeting in the Guild- 
hall, the men of the trades before-mentioned who held charters from the 
said Walter, brought those charters before the Mayor ; to which only 
one part of the seal of the Commonalty of London was appended ; all 
these being given into the hands of the Mayor, that he might keep them 
until some other provision as to the same should be made. 

Afterwards, on the Monday after the Octaves of Saint Hilary [13 
January], the Mayor had these charters brought into the Hustings 
before all the people ; whereupon, they were distinctly and openly read, 
and many articles contained in them expounded, which are manifestly 
to the injury of all the City and all the realm ; and it was therefore 
ordered, with the assent of all the commons of the City there present, 
that those charters should be held as of no weight, and that the men of 
the several trades should follow their crafts in such manner as before 
they had been wont to do, at such hours and such places as they should 
think proper, and carry their [wares] to sell, within the City and with- 
out, wherever they might think proper ; but that their work must be 
good and lawful, under pain of loss thereof. And this was accordingly 
cried throughout all the City. 



172 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1273. 

1 " Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of 
" Ireland, and Duke of Acquitaine, to the Mayor, Sheriffs, and 
" Commons, of his city of London, greeting. For that in our absence, 
" after that we had departed from England, you have conducted your- 
" selves well and faithfully towards us and ours, we do give you especial 
" thanks ; and do feel especially gratified for that, as we have heard, you 
" do greatly desire our arrival in England. Wherefore we do request 
" and ask of you, that, as in past times you have well behaved your- 
" selves, so in future, to the increase of the honour of us and of you, you 
" will endeavour so to conduct yourselves, that honour and advantage 
" may unto us thence accrue, and we may be bound to return you especial 
fe thanks therefor. Given at Boret, this 28th day of December, in 
" the second year of our reign." 

Afterwards, on the day of the Apostles Philip and James [1 May], in 
the Guildhall there were read letters of his said lordship the King, in 
form as follows : 

" Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, 
" and Duke of Acquitaine, to his well-beloved, the Mayor, Barons, and 
" reputable men of London, greeting. From the relation of certain of 
" our faithful subjects, we have more fully understood that for the 
" solemnization of our Coronation, you are in divers manners making pre- 
(e parations, in such way as unto our royal dignity and honour you do 
" consider most conducive ; for the which, as we are bound to do, we 
" do return you many and grateful thanks. But forasmuch as, on our next 
" arrival at Paris, which will be in three weeks after the Feast of Pen- 
" tecost, we do wish to hold a special conference with some persons of 
" our city aforesaid, we do command that you then send thither four of 
" your more discreet citizens unto us. For we do purpose, after arrang- 
" ing our affairs there, to return, God willing, unto our land. We do 
"further command you, that you cause peace and tranquillity, and 
" sufficient justice, within the city aforesaid strictly to be observed. 
" Given at Bordeaux, this third day of April, in the second year of 
" our reign." 



1 From a marginal Note, we learn that this citizens to the King, and was read iu the 
Letter was in answer to Letters sent by the Guildhall on Septuagesima Sunday. 



A.D. 1273.] IMPROVEMENTS EFFECTED IN CHEPE. 173 

In this year, both before and after Penteeost, all the mea- 

i ^r p , ^. . Fol. 141 A. 

sures were broken to pieces by the Mayor of the City, by 
which corn used to be sold in the City, and new ones made of larger 
dimensions ; each of which measures was bound in the upper part with 
an iron hoop, fastened on with iron nails, that so they might not at any 
time be falsified. Each measure also, that is to say, each quarter, half 
quarter, and bushel, was sealed with the Alderman's seal. 

At the same time, the same Mayor had removed from Chepe all the 
stalls of the butchers and fishmongers, as also, such stalls as had been 
let and granted by the preceding Sheriffs to any persons, to have and to 
hold the same in fee all the days of their life ; such persons having given 
to the Sheriffs a great sum of money for the same. Hence it is manifest, 
that this Mayor unjustly disseised them of their freehold. He however 
affirmed that he did this, in order that no x refuse might be found 
remaining in Chepe on the arrival of his lordship the King, who, it was 
said, was shortly about to come into the City from the parts beyond sea. 
He also commanded other commodities to be removed from Chepe, 
which used to be sold there, because, as it seemed to him, the market- 
place was too much crowded by such wares ; and he gave orders that those 
wares should be sold in other places. 

Afterwards, on the morrow of the Holy Trinity, the Mayor and 
citizens coming into the Guildhall, to plead the common pleas, there 
came certain fishmongers, and more especially those who had been 
removed from Chepe, setting forth their plaints, how that they had been 
disseised of their freehold in Chepe. To whom answer was made by the 
Mayor, that this had been done by the Council of his lordship the King, 
in order that there might be no refuse remaining in Chepe on his 
arrival there. Walter Hervi however, to the utmost of his power, 
supported the complaints of the said fishmongers against the Mayor and 
Aldermen ; by reason whereof, a wordy strife arose, in presence of all 
the people, between the said Mayor and Walter aforesaid. Hereupon, 
the Mayor, moved to anger, together with some of the more 
discreet men of the City, went to the Council of his lordship 
the King at Westminster, and shewed them what had then taken place in 
the Guildhall. 

1 It was in a similar spirit probably that the Stocks Market, for butchers and fishmongers, 
same Mayor, Henry le Waleys, founded the A.D. 1283. 



174 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1273. 

Accordingly, on the morrow, when the Mayor and citizens had come 
to the Guildhall, to determine the pleas which had been begun on the 
preceding day, a certain roll was shown and read before the said Walter 
and all the people, in which were set forth many articles as to the pre- 
sumptuous acts and injuries, of most notorious character, which the said 
Walter had committed, while Mayor, against all the commons of the 
City, and in contravention of his oath ; whereupon, the said Walter 
was judicially degraded from his Aldermanry, and for ever excluded 
from the Council of the City. Command was also given to the men 
dwelling in that Aldermanry, to choose a fit and proper man to be 
Alderman of Chepe, in his place, and to present him at the next Court 
in the Guildhall ; which was accordingly done. 

In the first place, this Walter had unrighteously attested that a 
certain person had by writ of his lordship the King been admitted 
attorney in the Court of his lordship the King as to Pleas of Land ; 
whereas it was afterwards ascertained at Gildeforde that no writ there- 
upon had ever been issued from the Chancery ; and so it is notorious, 
that he falsely gave testimony as to that attorney, against his oath, and 
against his fealty to his lordship the King, and to the disherison of the 
adverse party. 

Also, in the time of his Mayoralty, he received a writ of his lordship 
the King, commanding him to appear at Westminster on a certain day, 
there to shew by what right the citizens were to give seisin of the 1 Moor 
to Walter de Merton. Whereupon he, who was the head of the City, 
and ought to be the City's defender, made default, and did not return 
the writ ; by reason whereof, the said citizens are in danger of losing the 
said moor. 

Also, whereas he, in the time of his Mayoralty, was bound to main- 
tain and cause to be observed all assizes made by the Aldermen and 
discreet men of the City, and proclaimed throughout the whole City, he 
allowed ale to be sold in his Ward for three halfpence the gallon, and 
confirmed such sale, setting the seal of his Aldermanry to a 

Fol. 142 A. . J 

certain unfair measure made against the statutes of the City, 

which contained only the sixth part of a gallon. 

Also, whereas he ought not in any way to take any part or receive 

1 Finsbury Moor. 



A.D. 1273.] CHARGES AGAINST WALTER HER VI. 175 

any salary, contrary to his oath he takes fees throughout all the City, and 
receives yearly a certain sum of money from the community of the fish- 
mongers, upon the understanding that he shall support them in their 
causes, whether just or unjust. 

Also, as to the letters patent which certain persons of the trades 
made, ordaining new statutes to their own proper advantage only, and 
to the loss of all the City and all the realm ; to such letters, while he was 
Mayor, he set a part of the seal of the community, which was in his own 
hands, without assent of the Aldermen and other persons, for a great 
sum of money which he received from the members of such trades ; a 
matter which has been clearly set forth, and at sufficient length, in the 
1 fourth and third preceding leaves of this Book. It has also there been 
written, for what reason he was attached on the security of twelve 
sureties. 

Also, whereas corn, wine, and the like, when brought into the City 
for sale, ought not to be taken back out of the City, but be sold in the 
City, according to the law and custom of the City, he, taking a bribe, 
such, for example, as from one merchant a tun of wine, from another a 
pipe, and from another twenty shillings, allowed more than a thousand 
tuns to be taken out of the City, in contravention of 9 his oath and to the 
great loss of the City. 

Also, at the time when there was a dispute between the higher and 
lower orders in the City as to the election of Mayor, he, without the 
assent of his lordship the King and the principal men of the City, caused 
to be assessed among his accomplices, and those who then adhered to him, 
a tallage to the amount of forty marks and more ; which money was 
intended by them for the prosecution of their common interests. And 
the whole of it was converted by him to his own use. 

Also, by his procuring, certain persons of the City, of Stebney, of 
Stratford, and of Hakeneye, came into full Hustings, bringing with 
them a certain pleader, and made unjust complaint against the Mayor, 
who had warranty sufficient for what he had done, namely, the 

J , . Fol. 142 B. 

Council of his lordship the King. This Walter however sided 

with them, and supported their complaint, as set forth in the preceding 

leaf of this Book. 

1 The third and second, according to the notation of the present day. 



176 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1273 

On the 14th day of June in this year, which then fell on a Thursday, 
the son of his lordship the King, 1 Aunfurs by name, who had been born 
about the preceding Feast of All Saints [1 November] at Bordeaux in 
Gascoigne, came to London from the parts beyond sea. The King had 
had two daughters also born in the Holy Land, one of whom died, and 
the other came with him and the Queen to Gascoigne ; and was after- 
wards given to the Countess of 2 Puntif to rear, the mother of the said 
Queen, and the former 3 Queen of Spain. 

Afterwards, on the day before the Feast of Saint Botolph [17 June], 
the citizens selected in the Guildhall Henry le Waleis, the Mayor, 
Gregory de Rokesle, John Horn, and Luke de Batencurt, to cross over 
to his lordship the King, in manner as he had lately requested by his 
letters, already written in this Book ; who accordingly set out, with all 
due honour, on the Monday next ensuing. They also chose William de 
Dureham, Philip le Taylur, and Henry de Fruwyk, on the day afore- 
said before the Feast of Saint Botolph, to be Wardens of the City in the 
absence of the Mayor. There were also appointed by the Mayor, Walter 
le Poter, Peter Cusin, and Eobert de Meldeburne, to hear at the Fair 
of 4 Saint Botolph all complaints against citizens there made, and to 
determine the same 3 , without interference of any Bailiff of the Fair ; in 
such manner as the King had formerly granted unto the citizens, when 
peace was restored between them, after the disturbances in the realm 
that took place in the time of Sir Simon de Montfort. 

Afterwards, at the end of one month after their departure, on the 
17th of the Calends of August [16 July], that is to say, the said citizens 
returned to London. After this, on the Vigil of Saint Margaret [20 
July], Gregory de Rokesle and certain other citizens, as had been en- 
joined upon them by his lordship the King, set out to cross the sea, for 
the purpose of treating of peace between the said King and the Countess 
of Flanders, at 5 Musteroil, on the third day after the Feast of Saint 
Magdalen [22 July] at the latest. 

In this year, eight days before the Feast of Saint John the 
Baptist [24 June], because the Mayor was then absent on his 

1 Intended for ' Alphonso.' Castille. 

2 Ponthieu. 4 Boston, in Lincolnshire. 

3 Being the wife of Ferdinand III. King of 5 Montreuil, in the Pas de Calais. 



A.D. 1273.] ENQUIRY AS TO FLESH SOLD BY JEWS. 177 

journey to the King in the parts beyond sea, the Sheriffs, together with 
certain discreet men of the City, appeared before the Council of his lordship 
the King at Westminster ; whereupon, the members of the Council, before 
certain Jews there present, questioned them, thus saying: " It is notorious 
" that the Jews kill with their own hands all beasts and fowls, whose 
" flesh they eat. But some beasts they consider of their law, and some 
" not ; the flesh of those which are of their law they eat, and not the 
" flesh of the others. What then do the Jews do with the flesh of those 
" which are not of their law ? Is it lawful for the Christians to buy 
" and eat it ? " To which answer was made by the citizens, that if any 
Christian should buy any such flesh of a Jew, he would be immediately 
expelled ; and that if he should be convicted thereof by the Sheriffs of 
the City or by any other person, he would lose such flesh, and it would 
be given to the lepers, or to the dogs, to eat ; in addition to which, he 
would be heavily amerced by the Sheriffs. " But if it seems to you that 
* e this punishment is too light a one, let your discreetness make provision 
" that such Christians shall be visited with a more severe punishment." 
Whereupon, the members of the King's Council said ; " We will not 
" have such persons visited with any more severe punishment, without 
" his lordship the King ; seeing that this matter concerns the Jews, who 
" belong to his lordship the King. But we do strictly command you, 
" in virtue of the fealty in which you are bound unto his lordship the 
" King, that you cause this custom throughout the City rigidly to be 
" observed." 

Of the l Synod held at Lyons by Pope Gregory the Tenth, 
in the year of Our Lord 1274, in the months of June and July. 

In the first place, ordinance was made as to giving aid to the Holy 
Land. 

Also, ordinances were made and enacted in the aforesaid Council, as 
to elections, petitions, and provisions. 

Of the noble provision made against the 2 Coronation of 
his lordship King Eadward, son of King Henry, son of King 
John. 

1 The 14th General Council, from the 14th 1274. This description appears to have been 
f May to the 1 4th of July. written at the moment when the preparations 

2 The date is not given here, 19 August A.D. had been made. 

A A 



178 CHRONICLES OF THE MAYORS AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON. [A.D. 1273. 

Be it remembered, that all the vacant ground within the enclosure of 
his palace at Westminster, was most nobly built over with houses and 
other offices, so that no part thereof could be found vacant. On the 
South side of its old palace there, were built many palatial edifices in 
every quarter, as many in fact as could be built there ; within which 
were erected tables, firmly fixed in the ground ; and at these tables the 
great men, and princes, and nobles are to be refreshed on the day of his 
Coronation, and for fifteen days after the same; that so, all persons, 
poor as well as rich, coming to celebrate the solemnities of his Corona- 
tion, may there be gratuitously received, and no one rejected. 

There are also erected within the said enclosure as many kitchens, in 
which the victuals are to be prepared for the said solemnity ; and these 
indeed without number. And lest these kitchens might not suffice, so 
as not to admit of sufficient victuals being prepared therein, there have 
been placed there numberless leaden cauldrons without the kitchens, in 
which the flesh is to be boiled. It should also be remarked, that the 
great kitchen, in which fowl and other victuals are to be roasted at the 
fire, is uncovered at the top, so that all smoke may escape thereby. 

As to the other utensils, which are requisite for serving so large a 
Court, no one can take an account of them in writing. And as to the 
tuns of wine which have been got in readiness for this occasion, no person 
even knows how to number them. And indeed, to embrace everything, 
never in times past has so great a plenty of delicacies and all good 
things been prepared, which pertain to the entertainment of a most noble 
Court. 

Also, the Great Hall and the Lesser one have been whitened 
anew and painted ; so that the eyes of those who enter them 
and survey such great beauty, must be filled with joyousness and delight. 
And if there has been anything within the enclosure of the Palace of 
his lordship the King, broken or damaged through age or in any other 
way, the same has been repaired and restored to good condition. 



A.D. 1189.] ASSIZE OF BUILDINGS. 179 

Additions to the Chronicles in the Liber de Antiquis Legibus. 
[FITZ-AYLEWIN'S ASSIZE OF BUILDINGS, I. EICHAKD L] 

In the year of Our Lord 1189, in the first year, namely, of 
the reign of the illustrious King Richard, Henry Fitz-Aylewin 
(who was the first Mayor of London) being then Mayor, it was by 
the discreet men of the City [thus] provided and ordained, for the 
allaying of the contentions that at times arise between neighbours in the 
City touching boundaries made, or to be made, between their lands, and 
other things; to the end that, according to the provisions then made and 
ordained, such contentions might be allayed. And the said Provision and 
Ordinance was called an " Assize." 

To prosecute which Assize, and carry the same into effect, twelve 
men of the City were elected in full Hustings ; and were there sworn, 
that they would attend faithfully to carry out the same, and at the sum- 
mons of the Mayor to appear, unless by reasonable cause prevented. It 
is necessary however, that the greater part of the twelve men afore- 
said should be present with the Mayor in carrying out the matter 
aforesaid. 

It should be known, that he who demands the Assize, must demand it 
in full Hustings ; and the Mayor shall assign him a day within the next 
eight days, for such Assize by the twelve men aforesaid, or by the 
greater part of them, in manner already mentioned, to be determined. 

[* But if a house, stone-wall, drain, rain-gutter, or any other edifice, 
shall during the time of petition for the said Assize be built, immediately, 
at suit of the party petitioning, [the other] shall be forbidden to proceed 
any further with such building. And. if, notwithstanding such prohibi- 
tion, any carpenters, stonemasons, or other workmen, or, even the owner 
of the said building, shall persist in so building, they shall be sent to 
prison.] 

But if the Hustings be not sitting, as at the time of the Fair of Saint 
2 Botolph, harvest-time, and the Fair held at Winchester, and a person shall 
deem it necessary to demand the said Assize, the same shall be granted 

1 This passage is not found in the present There is also a copy of the Assize in Li/>er 
copy, the earliest in date, of the Assize; hut is Horn, preserved at Guildhall, 
insetted from that in folio 211 A of Liber Albus. * ' Bartholomew,' in Liber Albus. 



180 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. [A.D. 1189. 

unto him gratuitously by the Mayor, some of the citizens being present 
with such Mayor, and be determined by the twelve jurors aforesaid, in 
manner already stated, or the greater part of them, and that always in 
presence of the Mayor. 

The Provision and Ordinance aforesaid, which has been called an 
" Assize," is to the following effect : 

When it happens that two neighbours wish to build between them- 
selves a stone-wall, each of them ought to give one foot and a half of his 
land ; and so at their joint cost they shall build a stone- wall between 
them, three feet in thickness and sixteen feet in height. And if they 
wish, they shall make a rain-gutter between them, at their joint cost, to 
receive and carry off the water from their houses, in such manner as they 
may deem most expedient. But if they should [not] wish to do so, 
either of them may make a gutter by himself, to carry off the water that 
falls from his house, on to his own land, unless he can carry it into the 
King's highway. 

They may also, if they agree thereupon, raise the said wall, 
as high as they may please, at their joint cost. And if it shall 
so happen that one wishes to raise such wall, and the other not, it shall 
be fully lawful for him who so wishes it, to raise the part on his own foot 
and a half, as much as he may please, and to 1 build upon his part, with- 
out damage to the other, at his own cost ; and he shall receive the falling 
water in manner already stated. 

And if both shall wish to have 2 arches, such arches must be made on 
either side, of the depth of one foot only ; that so the thickness of the 
wall lying between such arches may be one foot. But if one shall wish 
to have an arch, and the other not, tnen he who shall wish to have the 
arch shall find free-stone, and cause it to be cut, and the arch shall be 
set at their joint expense. 

And if any one shall wish to build of stone, according to the Assize, 
and his neighbour through poverty cannot, or perchance will not, then 
the latter ought to give unto him who so desires to build by the Assize, 
three feet of his own land ; and the other shall make a wall upon that 
land, at his own cost, three feet thick and sixteen feet in height ; and he 
who gives the land shall have one clear half of such wall, and may place 
1 /. <?. place his joists arid rafters upon it. * Used as mnnbrips, or cupboards. 



A,D. 1189.] ASSIZE OF BUILDINGS. 181 

his 1 timber upon it and build. And they shall make a gutter, to receive 
and carry off the water falling from their houses, in such manner as is 
before mentioned as to a wall built between neighbours at their joint 
expense. But it shall always be lawful for one desiring so to do, to 
raise his own part at his own cost, without damage to the other. And 
if they shall wish to have arches, they shall make them on either side, in 
manner already stated. But nevertheless, he who shall have found the 
land, shall find the freestone, and shall have it cut ; and the other at his 
own cost shall set the same. 

But this Assize is not to be granted unto any one, so as to cause any 
doorway, inlet or outlet, or shop, to be narrowed or restricted, to the 
annoyance of a neighbour. 

This Assize is also granted unto him who demands it as to the land 
of his neighbour, even though such land shall have been built upon, 
provided the wall so built is not of stone. 

If any person shall have his own stone-wall upon his own land, of the 
height of sixteen feet, his neighbour ought to make a gutter under the eaves 
of the house that is situate upon such wall, and to receive in it the 
water falling from the said house, and lead it on to his own land, 
unless he can carry it off into the highway ; and he shall, notwithstanding, 
have no interest in the aforesaid wall, when he shall have built [a wall] 
beside it. And in case he shall not have so built, he still ought always to 
receive the water falling from the house built on such wall upon his own 
land, and carry it off without damage of him unto whom the wall belongs. 

Also, no one of those who have a common stone-wall built between 
them, may, or ought to, pull down any portion of his part of such wall, 
or lessen its thickness, or make arches in it, without the assent and will 
of the other. 

Also, concerning necessary-chambers in the houses of citizens, it is 
enacted and ordained, that if the pit made in such chamber be lined with 
stone, the mouth of the said pit shall be distant two feet and a half from 
the land of the neighbour, even though they have a common stone-wall 
between them. But if it shall not be lined with stone, it ought to be 
distant three feet and a half from the neighbour's land. And as to such 
pits, the Assize is afforded and granted unto every one who shall demand 
1 Either the joists for flooring, or the wood for the superstructure and roof. 



182 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. [A.D. 1189. 

the same, in reference as well to those of former construction as to new 
ones, unless the same should happen to have been made before the Pro- 
vision and Ordinance aforesaid, which was enacted in the first year of 
the reign of King Richard, as already mentioned. Provided always, 
that by view of such twelve men as are before-mentioned, or the greater 
part of them, it shall be discussed whether such pits have been reason- 
ably made or not. 

1 In the same manner, proceedings must be taken where disputes arise 
as to any kinds of pits made for receiving water, whether clean or foul. 

Also, if any person shall have windows looking upon his neighbour's 
land, although he may have been for a long time in possession of the 
view from such windows, and even though his predecessors may have 
been in possession of the windows aforesaid, nevertheless, his neighbour 
may lawfully obstruct the view from such windows by building opposite 
to the same, or by placing [anything] there upon his own land, in such 
manner as may unto him seem the most expedient ; unless the person who 
has such windows, can shew any writing by reason whereof his neigh- 
bour may not obstruct the view from those windows. 

Also, if any person has corbels in his neighbour's w r all, the whole of 
such wall belonging to his said neighbour, he may not remove the afore- 
said corbels, that he may fix them in any other part of the said 
wall, except with the assent of him to whom such wall belongs ; 
nor may he put more corbels in the wall aforesaid than he had before. 

Be it known, that if a person builds near the tenement of his neigh- 
bour, and it appears unto such neighbour that such building is unjust 
and to the injury of his own tenement, it is fully lawful for him to impede 
the erection of such building, pledge and surety being given unto the 
Sheriffs of the City that he will prosecute ; and thereupon such building 
shall cease, until by the twelve men aforesaid, or the greater part of 
them, it shall have been discussed whether such building is unjust or 
not. And then it becomes necessary that he, whose building is impeded, 
shall demand the Assize. 

On the day appointed, and the twelve men aforesaid being duly sum- 
moned, the Mayor of the City, with the twelve men aforesaid, ought to 

1 This passage appears as a marginal note but occupies this place in the later copies, 
(folio 46b) in the Liber de Antic/in'* 



A.D. 1189.] ASSIZE OF BUILDINGS. 183 

visit the tenements of the persons between whom the Assize is demanded, 
and there, upon view of the twelve men aforesaid, or the greater part of 
them, after hearing the case of the complainant and the answer of his 
adversary, to settle such matter. 

But either party may, on the day appointed, 1 essoin himself, and 
have his day at the same place on that day fortnight. 

But if the party complaining shall make default, his adversary shall 
depart 2 without day, and the sureties of the complainant shall be amerced 
by the Sheriffs. But if it shall be the person against whom the complaint 
is made, that makes such default, the Assize shall nevertheless proceed, 
according to the award of the twelve men aforesaid, or the greater part 
of them ; and the award that shall be given by them ought by the Sheriffs 
to be intimated unto him who has so made default, to the end that the 
award so made may within the forty days next ensuing be carried into 
effect. 

Also, be it known, that so often as such award shall not within forty 
days have been carried into effect, and complaint shall have been made 
thereon unto the Mayor of London, in such case, two men of the Assize, 
or three, ought by precept of the Mayor to proceed to the spot ; and if 
they shall see that so it is, then shall he against whom such proceedings of 
Assize were taken, be amerced by the Sheriff; and the Sheriff, at the 
proper cost of such person, is bound to carry such judgment into effect. 

Also, if a person has a wall built between himself and his neighbour, 
entirely covered at the summit of such wall with his own roofing and 
timber, although his neighbour may have in the aforesaid wall corbels or 
joists for the support of his 3 solar, or even arches or aumbries ; in what- 
ever way such neighbour may have the same in such wall, whether by 
grant of him who owns the wall so covered, or of his predecessor, or even 
without their knowledge, he may claim or have no more in the aforesaid 
wall than he has in possession, without the assent of him who 
owns the wall so covered ; and he ought to receive the water 
falling from the house built upon such wall, under the eaves of the said 
house, as before-mentioned in this Book, and to carry it off at his own 
cost. 

1 Put in a legal excuse for non-attendance. attendance. 

2 /. f. absolutely dismissed from future 3 Upper room. 



184 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. [A.U. 1189. 

Also, if a person owns two parts in a wall, and his neighbour owns 
only a third part, still, such neighbour may place his roofing on his own 
part and build, as freely as he who owns the [other] two parts of such 
wall. And in the same manner ought rain-gutters to.be made between 
them, as already noticed in reference to those who have a wall wholly in 
common between them ; provided always, that such portion be sixteen 
feet in height. 

Also, be it known, that the Assize aforesaid shall not proceed, unless 
it shall be testified that he against whom the Assize is demanded, has 
been summoned. And if the same shall be testified, then upon appearance 
of him who demands the Assize, and of the twelve men of such Assize, or 
the greater part of them, the Assize shall proceed, whether the party sum- 
moned shall appear or not. Still however, he may essoin himself upon 
the day aforesaid, and have his day upon that day fortnight, in manner 
already stated. 

Also, be it known, that if it shall be testified by the Sheriffs, that he 
against whom the Assize is demanded was not in the City, then upon 
such day the Assize shall stand over, and the Sheriffs shall inform those 
who dwell in the tenement as to which such Assize is demanded, that he 
whose tenement it is, must be warned to appear upon that clay fortnight ; 
upon which day, whether he shall appear or not, in case he shall not have 
essoined himself, the Assize shall proceed. 

Also, if it shall so happen, by reason of some impediment, that the 
men of the Assize do not proceed unto the land as to which such Assize 
is demanded, then it will be necessary for such Assize to be demanded 
afresh, either in the Hustings, or in such other way as is the usage at a 
different season, as already stated in this Book. 

But if they proceed unto the land, the parties pleading being present, 
and the greater part of the twelve men aforesaid being absent, then al- 
though the Assize will have to stand over, they may continue the pro- 
ceedings of that day upon the morrow, or upon such day, within the 
following fortnight, as they may please. 

It should be remembered, that in ancient times the greater part of 

the City was built of wood, and the houses were covered with straw and 

stubble, and the like. Hence it happened, that when a sino-le 

Fol. 47 B. 

house had caught fire, the greater part of the City was destroyed 



A.D. 1189.] ASSIZE OF BUILDINGS. 185 

through such conflagration ; a thing that took place in the first year of the 
reign of King Stephen, (as l set forth in the Chronicles before-written in 
this Book,) when, by reason of a fire that broke out at London Bridge, 
the Church of Saint Paul was burnt ; from which spot the conflagration 
extended, destroying houses and buildings, as far as the Church of Saint 
Clement Danes. After this, many of the citizens, to the best of their 
ability to avoid such a peril, built stone houses upon their foundations, 
covered with thick tiles, and [so] protected against the fury of the flames ; 
whence it has often been the case that, when a fire has broken out in the 
City, and has destroyed many buildings, upon reaching such houses, it 
has been unable to do further mischief, and has been there extinguished ; 
so that, through such a house as this, many houses of the neighbours have 
been saved from being burnt. 

Hence it is, that in the aforesaid Ordinance, called the "Assize," it 
was provided and ordained, in order that the citizens might be encouraged 
to build with stone, that every one who should have a stone-wall upon 
his own land sixteen feet in height,, might possess the same as freely and 
meritoriously as in this Book already stated ; it always being the duty, 
that is to say, of such man's neighbour, to receive upon his own land the 
water falling from the house built upon such wall, and at his own cost to 
carry off the same. And if he shall wish to build near the said wall, he 
is bound to make his own gutter under the eaves of the said house for 
receiving the water therefrom. And this, to the end that such house 
may remain secure and protected against the violence of fire when it 
comes, and so, through it, many a house may be saved, and preserved 
unharmed by the violence of the flames. 

If any person shall wish to build the 2 whole of a wall upon his 
own land, and his neighbour shall demand against him an Assize, it 
shall be at his election either to join the other in building a wall in 
common between them, or to build a wall upon his own land, and to 
have the same as freely and meritoriously, as in manner already stated. 
His neighbour however may, if he wishes, build another like wall, and 
of like height, near unto the wall aforesaid : and in such case, rain- 

1 This conflagration is briefly noticed (in Liber de Antiquis Legibus. 
two lines) in the short Chronicle of the reign 2 /. e. the whole breadth of three feet, 
of King Stephen contained in folio 35 A of the 

B B 



186 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. [A. p. 1189. 

gutters, or a gutter, shall be made between them, in the same 
manner as already stated in reference to a wall held in common. 

It should be remarked, that when the men of the Assize shall visit 
the land as to which such Assize is demanded, the parties litigating 
being present, one of the men aforesaid ought always to ask him against 
whom the Assize is demanded, if he knows aught by reason whereof 
such Assize ought to stand over. And if he shall say that he does not, 
such Assize shall immediately proceed. But if he shall say that he has 
a deed from him who demands the Assize, or from some ancestor of his, 
and shall make profert thereof, [benefit of] the same shall immediately 
be allowed him. But if he shall say that he will have such deed at a 
certain day and time, then a day shall be given him on that day fort- 
night ; upon which day he may essoin himself, and shall have his day 
at the end of another fortnight. Upon which day, if he shall produce 
the said deed, [benefit of] the same shall be allowed him ; but if upon 
such day he shall not appear, or if he shall appear and not produce 
the deed, the Assize shall immediately proceed, without further delay. 

It should be remarked, that this Assize proceeds in every way, as 
before stated in this Book, both as to pleading and defending, as well 
against persons under age as against those who are of full age ; that so, 
by reason of the tender age of any person the Assize aforesaid shall not 
be prevented. But forasmuch as such a person has no discretion where- 
by to know how to plead or defend himself in any plea, it is necessary 
that his guardian and he should be jointly summoned,; that so, his guar- 
dian may wholly make answer for him, in every way that he would have 
had to plead, if such cause had been his own ; and then, whatever shall 
be done upon award, shall remain firm and established, without reclaim 
on part of him who was so under age, when he shall have come of age. 

Also, if any one shall make a pavement unjustly in the King's high- 
way, to the nuisance of the City and of his neighbour, such neighbour 
may rightfully prevent it, through the Bailiffs of the City ; and so it shall 
remain, until the matter shall have been discussed and determined by the 
men of the Assize. 

It should also be known, that it does not pertain unto the men of the 
Assize to take cognizance of any case of occupation where a person has 
had peaceful possession for a year and a day. 



A.D. 1189.] ASSIZE OF BUILDINGS. 187 

1 Although a person shall have been in possession for a long time, the 
water that drops from his house, it not having a wall of stone, falling 
upon the vacant land of his neighbour, still, such neighbour may build 
upon the said land, whenever he shall please, and may remove the eaves 
of the said house. And in such case, the person [building] must carry 
off the water that drops from the said house, without detriment to his 
neighbour. The same is to be done also as to rain-gutters that dis- 
charge themselves upon vacant ground. 

But if a person's rain-gutter shall discharge itself into the gutter of 
his neighbour, or shall run through the middle of his tenement, such 
neighbour may not stop up that gutter ; and even if he shall pull down 
that house, and shall not think proper to build it anew, he shall still 
be bound to receive upon his own land the water falling from such gutter 
as before he used to do. But it must be fully understood by the men of 
the Assize, that the water discharged by such gutter was so received and 
carried off. 

These are the Names of the Sheriffs of London since the 

/ -FT" n Fol. 58 A. 

Coronation of King Richard. 

A.D. 1188. Henry de 2 Cornhelle, Eichard Reyner. These were 
made Sheriffs at the Feast of Saint Michael, in the year of Our Lord 1188. 

A.D. 1189. John Herlisun, Eoger le Duk. 

A.D. 1190. William de Haverylle, John Bokoynte. 

A.D. 1191. Nicholas Duket, Peter Fitz-Nevelun. 

A.D. 1192. Roger le Due, Roger Fitz-Alan. 

A.D. 1193. William Fitz-Ysabel, William Fitz-Aluf. 

A.D. 1194. Robert Besant, Jukel Alderman. 

A.D. 1195. Godard de Antioche, Robert Fitz-Durant. 

A.D. 1196. Robert Blund, Nicholas Duket. 

A.D. 1197. Constantine Fitz-Aluf, Robert le Bel. 

A.D. 1198. Arnald Fitz-Aluf, Robert Fitz-Barthelmeu. 

A.D. 1199. Roger de Desert, Jacob Alderman. 

A.D. 1200. Symon de Aldermanneberi, William Fitz-Aliz. 

1 This and the next Ordinance are not added at the end of the Assize, 

included in the text of the Liber de Antiquis 2 The peculiar spelling of these names has 

Lfijibus ; but appear as marginal Notes in been exactly followed throughout, 
lolios 45 and 46.. In the later copies, they are 



188 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

A.D. 1201. Norreman le Blunt, John del Kai. 

A.D. 1202. Walter le Brim, William le Chaumberleyn. 

A.D. 1203. Thomas de Haverille, Hamund Brande. 

A.D. 1204. John Waleran, Richard de Wincestre. 

A.D. 1205. John Elylond, Edmund de le Hale. 

A.D. 1206. Serle le Mercier, Henry de Saint Auban. 

A.D. 1207. Robert de Wincestre, William Hardel. 

A.D. 1208. Thomas Fitz-Neal, Peter le Due. 

A.D. 1209. Peter le Juvene, William Wite. 

A.D. 1210. Stephen le Gros, Adam de Wyteby. 

A.D. 1211. Goce Fitz-Peter, John Gerland. 

A.D. 1212. Constantine le Juvene, Ralph Elyland. 

A.D. 1213. Martin Fitz-Aliz, Peter Bat. 

A.D. 1214. Salomon de Basinge, Hugh de Basinge. 

A.D. 1215. Andrew Nevelun, John Travers. 

A.D. 1216. Beneit le 1 Seynter, William Blund. 

A.D. 1217. Ralph Elyland again, Thomas Bokerel. 

A.D. 1218. Goce le 2 Pesur, John Viel. 

A.D. 1219. John Viel again, Richard de Wimbeldon. 

A.D. 1220. Richard Renger, Goce le Juvene. 

A.D. 1221. Richard Renger again, Thomas Lambert. 

A.D. 1222. Thomas Lambert again, William Joynier. 

A.D. 1223. John Travers again, Andrew Bokerel. 

A.D. 1224. Andrew Bokerel again, John Travers again. 

A.D. 1225. Roger le Due, Martyn Fitz-William. 

A.D. 1226. Martyn Fitz-William again, Roger le Due again. 

A.D. 1227. Henry de Cocham, Stephen Bokerel. 

A.D. 1228. Stephen Bokerel again, Henry de Cocham again. 

A.D. 1229. Robert Fitz-John, Walter de Wincestre. 

A.D. 1230. John de Woburne, Richard Fitz- Walter. 

A.D. 1231. Walter le Busle, Michael de Saint Helen. 

A.D. 1232. Henry de Edelmeton, Gerard Bat. 

A.D. 1233. Roger Blund, Simon Fitz-Mary. 

'Probably meaning, the * Bell -maker ;' 2 The 'Weigher' or ' Balancemaker.' Given 
given previously, in Latin, as ' Campanarius.' as Ponderator in p. 4. 
See page 4 ante. 



EAHLY SHERIFFS OF LONDON. 189 

A.D. 1234. Ealph Eswy, John Norman. 

A.D. 1235. Gerard Bat again, Eobert Hardel 

A.D. 1236. Henry de Cocham again, Jurdan de Coventre. 

A.D. 1237. John de l Walebroc, Gervaise Chaumberleyn. 

A.D. 1238. John de Wilehale, John de Coudres. 

A.D. 1239. Reiner de Bungey, Ralph Eswy again. 

A.D. 1240. Michael Tovy, John de Gysors. 

A.D. 1241. John Viel the Younger, Thomas de 2 Dureme. 

A.D. 1242. Ralph Aswy, Goldsmith, Robert Fitz-John again. 

A.D. 1243. Adam de Gyseburne, Hugh Blund, Goldsmith. 

A.D. 1244. Nicholas Bat, Ralph de Bow. 

A.D. 1245. Nicholas Bat again, Adam de Beverlee ; and 

upon Nicholas being removed, Robert de Cornhull was made 
Sheriff. 

A.D. 1246. Simon Fitz-Mary, Laurence de Frowik. 

A.D. 1247. William Viel, Nicholas Bat again. 

A.D. 1248. Nicholas Fitz-Jocelin, Geoffrey de Wincestre. 

A.D. 1249. John Tolesan again, Ralph Hardel. 

A.D. 1250. Humfrey called " le 3 Fevre," William Fitz-Richard. 

A.D. 1251. Nicholas Bat again, Laurence de Frowic again. 

A.D. 1252. William de Dureme, Thomas de Wimburne. 

A.D. 1253. Richard Picard, John de Norhamton. 

A.D. 1254. William Aswy, Robert de Linton ; which persons being 
removed within the year, there were substituted in their place Stephen 
de Ostregate [and] Henry Walemund. 

A.D. 1255. Matthew Bokerel, John le Minur. 

A.D. 1256. William 4 Aswy, Draper, Richard de Ewelle. 

A.D. 1257. Thomas Fitz-Thomas, Robert de Katalan. The said 
Robert dying, Matthew Bokerel was made Sheriff in his stead; who 
being removed, William Grapefige was made Sheriff. 

A.D. 1258. John Adrian, Draper, Robert de Cornhulle again. 

A.D. 1259. Adam Brouning, Henry de Coventre. 

1 Or Walbrook. In p. 8 ante he is called 3 Or, ' The Smith.' 

4 de Tulesan,' implying that his origin was 4 A different person apparently from the 

from Toulouse. Walbrook was probably the preceding one ; who in page 22 ante, is described 

place of his residence. See A.D. 1249. as a Mercer. 



190 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

A.D. 1260. Richard Picard again, John de Norhamton again. 

A.D. 1261. Philip le Tailur, Richard de Walebrok. 

A.D. 1262. Osbert de Suffolch, Robert de Munpeylers. 

A.D. 1263. Gregory de Rokesle, Thomas de Forde (the Battle of 
Leues). 

A.D. 1264. Edward Blund, Peter Aunger (the Battle of Evesham). 

A.D. 1265. Gregory de Rokesle, Simon de Hadestock. These were 
not admitted ; for his lordship the King at that time had taken the City 
into his own hands, by reason that the citizens had adhered to the Earl 
of Leicester during the disturbance of the realm; and so retained it 
for nearly six years. 

Hugh Fitz-Otes, Knight, was then Chamberlain of the City 
of London, and Constable of the Tower, for some time. John 
de la Linde, Knight, and John Walrant, Clerk, who were Wardens after 
him, caused all the issues of the Sheriffwick of the City and of Middlesex 
to be collected in the King's behalf, by such persons as they thought 
proper, until the Feast of Saint John Port Latin [6 May] next ensuing ; 
and then, with the consent of his lordship the King, by election of the 
citizens, William Fitz-Richard was made Bailiff of the Sheriffwick at 
the ancient ferm. This person continued in such bailiwick until the 
Feast of Saint Martin [11 November] next ensuing, and then, by leave 
of his lordship the King, the citizens chose to be their 1 Bailiffs 

[A.D. 1266.] John Adrian and Luke de Batencourt. 

Memorandum, that in the time of the above-written John and Luke, 
Bailiffs, the Earl of Gloucester being in the City with his army, as 
mentioned in the 2 following Book, the said John and Luke were re- 
moved from their bailiwick and seized by the Earl, and Roger Marshal 
and Robert de Lintone were made Bailiffs by the lower orders of the 
City ; and continued to be such Bailiffs, so long as the Earl remained in . 
the City. 

These latter persons continued in their bailiwick, at the ancient 
ferm, until the Feast of Saint Michael in the year of Our Lord 1267, 
and afterwards until Palm Sunday; when, by choice of his lordship the 
King, there were made Bailiffs of the Sheriffwick, Walter Hervy [and] 

1 Substitutes for Sheriffs. cedes the Chronicles of the Mayor and Sheriffs, 

2 It must be borne in mind that this pre- in the original volume. 



EARLY SHERIFFS OF LONDON. 191 

William de ^ureme. These persons continued in their bailiwick, 
collecting all the issues of the Sheriffwick, in behalf of his lordship the 
King, until the Feast of Saint Michael in the year '68, and from thence 
until the sixth day of May. 

[A.D. 1269.] Thomas de Basing, Kobert de Cornhulle. 

These persons were made Bailiffs, by choice of his lordship the King, 
on the 6th day of May, as already written, to collect all issues of the 
Sheriffwick in behalf of his lordship the King ; and so continued until the 
Feast of Saint Michael, and after, until the 16th day of July in the 
year of Our Lord 1270. And then, at the instance of Sir Edward, the 
City was restored unto the citizens; and it was granted unto them that 
they might make a Mayor and Sheriffs of their number ; but still, that 
they should pay into the Exchequer of his lordship the King 400 pounds 
per annum. And then, on the aforesaid 16th day of July there were 
made Sheriffs, Walter le Poter [and] Philip le Tailur. 

These persons continued to be Sheriffs only until the Feast of Saint 
Michael, next ensuing ; because, according to the custom of the City, 
always at that Feast the Sheriffs of London are wont, and are bound, to 
be elected, and on the morrow to be presented at the Exchequer of his 
lordship the King. 

A.D. 1270. Gregory de Rokesle, Henry le Waleys. 

A.D. 1271. John de Bodele, Richard de Paris. 

A.D. 1272. John Horn, Walter le Poter. 

A.D. 1273. Peter Cusin, Kobert de Meldeburn. 

These being deposed on the Feast of Saint Andrew [30 November], 
there were elected Sheriffs 

Henry de Coventre, [and] Nicholas He Wincestre. 

\_A further account of the Wardens of London, A.D. 1265 1273.] 
A.D. 1265. When the citizens of London submitted them- 
selves unto the will of his lordship the King, for life and for 
limb, and for all their goods, moveable and immoveable, by reason of the 
offences imputed to them as being committed during the disturbance of 
the realm, on the occasion of the contest between his lordship the King 
and the Earl of Leicester and his accomplices, after the Feast of Saint 
Michael, Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes was made both Warden of the City and 

1 Durham. 



192 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

Constable of the Tower of London, and so continued until the Feast of 
Saint Nicholas [6 December] ; and then, after him, Sir John de la Lynde 
and John Walerand, Clerk, were made Wardens of the City and Con- 
stables of the Tower of London : which John de la Lynde having re- 
mained there for some time and then taken his departure, the said John 
Walerand continued in office until the Feast of Saint Michael next 
ensuing. 

A.D. 1266. And the same John so continued until the coming of 
the Earl of Gloucester, as being in league with whom, he had first 
come ; but whether he had foreknowledge of the evil designs of the said 
Earl, I know not. And then, the City remained without a Warden of his 
lordship the King, until peace had been restored between his lordship 
the King and the said Earl ; when, upon the Vigil of Saint John the 
Baptist [24 June], Alan la Zuche, Knight, was made Warden of the 
City and Warden of the Tower, and so continued until the Feast of 
Saint Michael next ensuing. 

A.D. 1267. And after this, the same person continued in office until 
Easter following ; when Sir Thomas de Ippegrave was made Warden 
and Constable, and so continued until the Feast of Saint James [25 
July] next ensuing ; when Sir Stephen de Eddeworthe was made 
Warden and Constable, and so continued until the Feast of Saint 
Michael. 

A.D. 1268. He continued in office until the following Lent, when 
the City and Tower were delivered into the keeping of Sir Edward by 
his lordship the King ; who thereupon appointed Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes ; 
who continued in office until the Feast of Saint Michael 

A.D. 1269, and from then until the 16th day of July next ensuing; 

upon which day, he being removed from the Wardenship of the City, 

John Addrien, who had before been elected by the citizens, 

was, by consent of his lordship the King, presented to the said 

King, and admitted to the Mayoralty, on the 16th day of July ; and so 

continued until the Feast of Simon and Jude [28 October] next ensuing. 

The same John being elected Mayor on the Feast of Simon and Jude 
A.D. 1270, and admitted, so continued throughout that year. 

Walter Hervi was made Mayor on the Feast of Simon and Jude 
A.D. 1271, for one year. 



NAMES OF THE MAYORS. 193 

Henry de Frowick was made Warden of the City by his lordship the 
King, on the Feast of Saint Martin [11 November] A.D. 1272, and so 
continued until the Feast of Saint Edmund [16 November]. 

Walter Herevy was made Mayor A.D. 1272 at Saint Paul's Cross, on 
the second day after the Feast of Saint Edmund the Archbishop, in full 
Folkmote, as is set forth in the Chronicles written in this Book; and so 
continued for one year. 

Henry le Waleys was made Mayor on the Feast of Simon and Jude 
A.D. 1273. 

NAMES OF THE MAYORS OF LONDON. 

Henry Fitz-Eylwin of l Londonestane was the first Mayor of Lon- 
don, being so made in the first year of the reign of King Richard ; 
and continued to be Mayor until his death, a period of nearly five- 
and-twenty years. 

Roger Fitz-Alan, for one year. 

Serlo le Mercer, for one year. 

William Hardel, for one year. 

Jacob Alderman from Easter until Pentecost ; Saloman de Basinges 
for the remainder of the year. 

Serlo le Mercer was made Mayor on the Feast of Simon and Jude 
in the year of Grace 1216, and so continued for five years. 

A.D. 1221. Richard Reinger, Mayor for 2 five years. 

Roger le Due, Mayor for four years. 

In the year of Grace 1230, Andrew Bukerel, Mayor for seven years. 

Richard Reinger again, for one year. 

William Joyenier, for one year. 

Gerard Bat, for one year. 

A.D. 1240. Reiner de Bungeye, for one year. 

Ralph Eswy, for three years. 

Michael Tovy, for one year. 

The same person being also elected in the following year and not 
admitted, the City was without a Mayor until the Feast of Saint Hilary 
[13 January], when John de Gizors was made Mayor until the Feast of 
Simon and .Jude [28 October], 

1 London Stone. exactly agree with those given in the preceding 

3 These numbers, it will be found, do not Chronicle. 

C C 



194 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

Peter Fitz-Alan, for one year. 

Michael Tovy again, for two years. 

Roger Fitz-Roger, for one year. 

A.D 1250. John Norman, for one year. 

Adam de Basinges, for one year. 

John de Tuleshan, for one year. 

Nicholas Bat, for one year. 

Ralph Hardel, for three years. 

The same until the Ides of February [13 February] in another year, 
and then, William Fitz-Richard for the remainder of that year. 

John de Gizors again, for one year. 

William Fitz-Richard again, for two years. 

A.D. 1261. Thomas Fitz-Thomas, for two years. 

The same person was elected for a third year, and presented at the 
Exchequer, but not admitted, though he still continued Mayor for one 
year. 

The same was again elected Mayor, and admitted for one year. This 
was the *last Mayor of London, being so made on the Feast of Simon 
and Jude A.D, 1264. 

[Or THE JEWS IN ENGLAND.] 

Be it remembered, that whereas in times past the Jews had 
been allowed to follow many unlawful practices, which are both 
to the dishonour of God and to the detriment of all the realm ; still, not con- 
tented therewith, in the year of Our Lord 1271 they asked of his lordship 
the King and his Council, that they might have wardship and 2 marriage of 
Christian heirs under age, as also the advowsons of churches belonging 
to those whose lands such Jews might hold in seisin. And this indeed, 
through some of the Council of his lordship the King, who had been cor- 
rupted by bribes, was almost conceded to them ; upon learning which, a 
certain religious, belonging to the Order of the 3 Friars Minors, manfully 
opposed the same, and went unto his lordship the King and his Council, 
and said that that request was altogether to the dishonour of God and to the 

1 This shews the early date of the present * Or maritage ;' i.e. the right of giving, or 
insertion, and that it is of prior composition to rather selling, them in marriage, 
the latter part of the preceding Chronicle. 3 Or Franciscans. 



A.W. 1271.] OF THE JEWS IN ENGLAND. 195 

very great disgrace of all Christendom ; for that in such case, Christians 
would have to be subjected to Jews and be given in marriage by them. He 
further said, that the Jews were in the habit of following many and 
unlawful practices., to the dishonour of God and the detriment of all the 
realm; and this the same man on many grounds convincingly proved 
before his lordship the King and his Council. Wherefore, after counsel 
had been taken by them in common, it was provided and enacted in 
manner hereunder set forth. 

Here are set forth certain matters first indited in reference to the Statutes 

on the Jews. 

"W[alter], by divine permission Archbishop of York, Primate of 
" England, and G[odfrey], by the same grace, humble servant of the 
" Church of Worcester, to their most dearly beloved friend in Christ, 
" Master Richard de Stanes, Justiciar of his lordship the King, greeting, 
" with continual increase of sincere love in Christ. Whereas the perfi- 
" dious Jews, at all times adversaries of the Christian faith, who only 
({ do dwell in this realm by favour of the princes thereof, are encouraged 
" to gain possession of the common liberties and customs of the faithful 
" of this realm of England, as by holding freehold, for example, and 
" claiming other rights which unto freehold pertain ; from the which, if 
" they should be able to obtain the same, very many evils would forthwith 
" ensue. For it would thence arise that, by reason of such tenures, the 
" faithful would have to make corporal oath to unbelievers as to doing 
" fealty unto them: in addition to which, the faithful would have to do 
" homage to unbelievers, as being their lords, and in like manner, un- 
" believers to the faithful. Jews also, by reason of such tenures, would 
" be presenting to churches ; and wardships, marriages, and escheats 
" would come into the hands of unbelievers. Upon assizes too, and 
" recognizances., and juries, by reason of such tenures, they would be 
" frequently placed, and so Jews would be put on a par with the faith- 
" ful, so far as pleas are concerned. There would also be the same 
" law of the realm for Christians and for Jews, a thing that is con- 
" trary to the holy sanctions of the Christian religion and of 

. Fol. 154 B. 

" ourselves. They might be able also in future times, through 

" the agency of money, to gain possession not only of site and freehold, 



196 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. [A.D. 1371. 

(e but of baronies, which are immediately held of his lordship the King, 
" as well. And forasmuch as, by these and other counsels which were 
<f gradually waxing stronger, to the injury of the Christian faith, no small 
" prej udice might have arisen, to the aggrievance of his lordship the 
" King, and of his realm, and of the people of his realm ; of late at London, 
" as you know, in presence of his most serene lordship the 1 King of 
" Almaine and of the venerable father, K[oger] Lord Bishop of Coventry 
t( and Lichefeld, and of ourselves, the whole Council also of his lordship 
" the King of England there sitting, with unanimous will and common 
" assent, to the honour of God and of his holy Church universal, as also, 
" to the common advantage of the realm, after deliberate counsel thereon, 
"it was healthfully provided and enacted, to the effect that no Jew 
" shall from henceforth by deed or gift, or by any other title whatso- 
" ever, have or hold either freehold, or rent, or house to be hired by 
" Christians or by Jews, except only the house which he inhabits in his 
" own proper person ; nor shall in future plead by writ, by law of 
" the realm for Christians provided, as to any of the matters aforesaid. 
" Nor shall writs on any account from the Chancery be granted unto 
(f them as to the matters aforesaid ; and if such shall be granted, they 
" are to be held as null and be void of strength and effect. Wherefore, 
" seeing that from dilatoriness and delay of publication of such statute 
" and provision, the Jews perhaps, and their supporters, insisting upon 
" the nullity thereof, no small detriment might possibly in the meantime 
" arise, we have thought it meet that by these presents your feelings of 
" devoutness should be aroused, to the increase of the honour of God 
" and to the exaltation of the Christian faith, and the advantage and 
" profit of the English people, that so, giving aid to us therein, you may 
" cause, with all the haste that you may, the said statute to be enrolled 
ff wholly and completely, and solemnly to be published, for everlasting 
(( remembrance thereof, by their lordships, the Chancellor of his lordship 
" the King, the Justiciars of Bank, and the great men of the Court, who 
" will the more readily be inclined to support you in so pious an object, 
" and by such others as unto you shall seem expedient : you, in the 
" execution hereof, so conducting yourselves, that you may be enabled to 

1 Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother of Henry III. 



A.D. 1271.] OF THE JEWS IN ENGLAND. 197 

" obtain remuneration therefor of the Most High, for the great increase 
"of whose honour you strive. And from thence, so far as 

Fol. 155 A. 
"yourselves are concerned, may there accrue unto you the 

" meed of high praise, as being a most devout son of the Church ; know- 
" ing for certain, that although some, to the peril of their own souls, may 
" labour to effect the enervation of the same statute, the Prelates will 
" labour for the observance thereof, nor will permit, as indeed they 
" ought not, that it shall remain unperfected, seeing that, from the 
f< duties which are enjoined upon them, they are bound thereto, and that 
tf the common and evident advantage so demands. Farewell. Given at 
" Hadley, on the Feast of the Translation of the Blessed Thomas the 
" Martyr [7 July], in the year of Our Lord 1271." 

These are the Letters of the King of England as to the same. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and 
" Duke of Acquitaine, to his well-beloved and trusty, the Mayor and 
(< Sheriffs of London, and all his bailiffs and faithful subjects, to whom 
" these present letters shall come, greeting. Know ye, that to the 
" honour of God and of the Church universal, and to the amendment 
" and advantage of the land, and the relief of the Christians from the 
" losses and grievances which they have sustained, by reason of the free- 
" holds which the Jews of our realm claimed to hold in lands, tenements, 
" fees, rents, and other tenures, and to the end that no prejudice may in 
" future unto us or unto the commons of our realm, or unto such realm 
'* itself, be generated, we have made provision, by counsel of the prelates, 
" great men, and nobles, who are of our Council, and have also ordained 
" and enacted, for us and for our heirs, that no Jew shall have freehold in 
" any manors, lands, tenements, fees, rents, or tenures whatsoever, by deed, 
" gift, feoffment, confirmation, or any obligation whatsoever, or in any 
" other manner whatsoever ; provided however, that in future they shall 
" inhabit their houses, wherein they dwell, in cities, burghs, or other towns, 
" and shall have the same in such manner as in times past they have been 
" wont to have them, and also may lawfully let other their houses, which 
" they have to let, unto Jews only, and not unto Christians; upon the un- 
" derstanding however, that it shall not be lawful for our Jews of London 
" to buy more houses than they now possess, or in any other way whatso- 



198 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. [A. D. 1271. 

" ever within our City of London to obtain the same, whereby the parish 
" churches of the same City, or the rectors thereof, may incur loss. 
" Still however, the same Jews of London shall be able to repair their 
" ancient houses and edifices which have already fallen into ruin and 
" disrepair, and at their own will restore them to their former state. 
" We have also, by the same counsel unto us given, provided and 
" enacted, that as to inhabiting or letting their houses aforesaid, as 
" before stated, no Jew shall plead or be enabled to plead by our original 
66 writs of Chancery, but only before our Justiciars to the guar- 
" dianship of the Jews assigned, and that, by the writs of Jewry 
" heretofore accustomed and in use. But as to the lands and tenures of 
" which the Jews before this present statute were enfeoffed, we do will 
" that such enfeoffments and gifts shall be wholly annulled, and that those 
" lands and tenements shall remain unto the Christians who may have 
" conveyed the same unto them; provided however, that such Christians 
" shall make satisfaction unto the same Jews for the monies or chattels 
" in their deeds or chirographs named, without usury, which such Jews 
" may have given unto the Christians for the gift or enfeoffment thereof. 
" Upon this condition also, in addition thereto, that if those Christians 
" shall not be able forthwith to make satisfaction for the same, it shall 
"be lawful for the Jews aforesaid to let those tenements unto others, 
" until by reasonable assessment, according to the true value thereof, the 
" amount of such their chattels may, without usury, be levied there- 
" from, saving however unto such Christians their right of dwelling 
" therein ; and upon the understanding that the Jew receives his money or 
" his chattels for the same by the hands of Christians, and not of Jews, as 
" already mentioned. And if it shall happen that any Jew shall from 
" henceforth receive from any Christian a feoffment of any fee or tene- 
" ment, in contravention of the present statute, such Jew shall wholly 
" lose the said tenement or fee, and the same shall be taken into our 
"hand and safely kept, and those Christians, or their heirs, shall receive 
" back such land or tenement from our hand; but upon the understanding, 
" that they shall then pay unto us the whole of the money which from 
" the same Jews for such feoffment they may have received ; or if their 
" means shall not suffice thereunto, then they shall pay the true value 
" of such tenements or fees unto us and our heirs yearly at our Ex- 



A.I>. 1*71.] OF THE JEWS IN ENGLAND. 199 

" chequer, by true and reasonable valuation thereof, until for such 
" money or chattels full satisfaction shall unto us have been made. And 
" as to nurses of children, bakers, brewers, and cooks, among the Jews, 
" seeing that Jews and Christians are upon unequal footing as to religious 
" belief, we do provide and enact, that no Christian man or woman 
" shall presume to minister unto them in the offices aforesaid. And 
" because that the Jews are still wont to receive at the hands of Chris- 
" tians certain rents under the name of e fees,' arising from lands and 
" tenements belonging to Christians, as perpetual payments, we do will 
" and enact that the l statute that was then by us made thereon, shall be 
" confirmed and be held established ; nor shall there be in any way by 
" this present statute aught in derogation thereof. And we do there- 
" fore command you, and do strictly enjoin, that you cause the provision, 
" ordinance, and statute aforesaid, throughout the whole of your baili- 
" wick publicly to be proclaimed, and strictly to be observed. In testi- 
" mony whereof, we have caused these our letters patent to be made. 
" Witness mvself, at Westminster, this 25th day of July, in the 

* . Fol. 156 A. 

" fi ve-and-fiftieth year of our reign." 

Letters of the same King. 

" H[enry], by the grace of God, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy 
" and Acquitaine, Earl of Anjou, to his well-beloved and trusty, Hugh 
" de Pateshelle, his Treasurer, Philip de Asselles, and his fellows, 
" Justiciars for wardship of the Jews assigned, Peter Grimbald, and 
" the Mayor of London, greeting. Know ye, that for the amelioration 
" of our realm, and for repressing the evilmindedness and falsehood of 
" the Jews, on the morrow of Saint Eadmund [20 November] in the 
" four-and-twentieth year of our reign, it was of our Council before us 
" provided, S[tephen] de Segrave, Brother G[eoffrey] our Almoner, 
" B[ertram] de Criolle, our Seneschal, Master S[imon] de Esteyland, 
" G[eoiFrey] le Despenser, and other our faithful subjects being then 
" present, at Winchester, that the keepers of the 2 Chest of London and 
" the clerk-writers should be removed, and that by view of you and of 
" the Constable of the Tower of London, and of two good and lawful 

1 See the next article. Charters, or Chirographs, were kept. 

* In the Exchequer, in which the Jews' 






200 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. [A.D. 1271. 

" men of the City of London, whom you were to associate with your- 
" selves therefor, other two of the lawful and more discreet Christians, 
" and other two of the lawful Jews of London, were to be chosen, to 
(f whose custody such chest was to be recommitted, and each and every 
" of them was to have his own key thereof. By view also of you, two 
" trusty clerks are to be chosen, who, making oath that they will faith- 
" fully behave themselves in that office, shall in future attend to all 
ff manner of writings that between Christians and Jews shall be made ; 
" and who, in presence of the Christian who borrows the money and of 
"the Jew who lends the same, being the parties between whom the 
" writing is made, shall deliver that part of the writing to which the wax 
" is attached, unto the chirographers aforesaid, to be deposited in such 
" chest by the tenth day at the very latest from the time that such 
" writing shall have been made. Also, the first part of the same writing 
" shall remain with the Christian who shall have borrowed such money ; 
" and the second part, which is called the f foot of the chirograph,' and 
" which was wont to be replaced in the chest, shall remain with the Jew, 
" from whom the money so owing shall have been borrowed : upon the 
" understanding that it shall be lawful for him to claim his debt by such 
" foot, and to implead in every way, the same as he was wont by that 
"part to which the wax is attached; such part to which the wax is 
" attached being replaced in the chest, as already mentioned. And if 
" any Christian shall presume to keep out of the chest, and away from 
" the chirographers aforesaid, or from the clerks aforesaid, that part of 
" the chirograph to which the wax is attached, after the tenth day from 
" the time that it shall have been made, he shall unto us be heavily 
" amerced. But if the Jew shall so withhold the same, and shall be con- 
" victed thereof, his 1 chattels shall unto us be forfeited. Also, the seal 
" of the Christian, who shall have contracted such debt, must contain 
" the proper name of him who so borrows, and that part which 
" has to be replaced in the chest, must be sealed with the same. 
" Also, every Jew, wherever he shall be abiding on the day of Saint 
" Michael, must there continue to abide with all his family for the whole 
" year then next ensuing, nor may he thence remove or transfer himself 
" without our especial precept therefor. And we do will, that usury 
1 Meaning his interest under the deed. 



THE HISTORY OF ARNALD FITZ-THEDMAR. 201 

et shall not run against debtors from the Day of Saint John the Baptist 
" [24 June] in the three-and-twentieth year of our reign until the Day of 
" our Lord's Nativity in the four-and-twentieth year of our reign. And 
" we do forbid that any Jew shall otherwise lend his money than by the 
" assize which by us and our predecessors has been commonly granted 
" unto the Jews ; that is to say, that no one shall presume to take greater 
" interest than at the rate of two pence in the pound each week. And 
" therefore, we do command you that you cause the provision before- 
" written to be enrolled and strictly to be observed. These present letters 
ft also are to remain in the Chest of Chirographs of London, in the custody 
" of the chirographers aforesaid, as a rule for their procedure therein. 
(e Witness myself at Clarendon, this tenth day of December, in the four- 
" and-twentieth year of our reign." 

THE HISTORY OF ARXALD FITZ-THEDMAR. 

There was a certain man dwelling in the city of Cologne, 
Arnald by name, and surnamed " de Grevingge," who had a wife, 
a native of the same city, whose name was Ode. Their life, after the 
manner of the Christian religion, was simple and upright before God and 
with man. Living for many years in wedlock a pious and righteous life, 
they had remained without offspring. Hearing however by report how 
many and great miracles God had wrought in England for the Blessed 
Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, who at that period had recently 
suffered martyrdom at the hands of impious men, they made a vow that 
they would set out for England, for the purpose of visiting the sepulchre 
of the said martyr. 

Accordingly setting out, after they had crossed the sea, they came to 
Canterbury, where the body of the said martyr reposes, and there 
offering up their adorations to the Saint, they made a vow that if the 
Lord should grant offspring unto them, they would devote it to the ser- 
vice of the Lord; and that if it should prove of the male sex, they would 
call him " Thomas," after the martyr's name, and would make him a 
monk, that so in the same church, and in the same garb of religion, he 
might serve God and the Blessed Martyr all the days of his life. When 
all this had been done, they were unwilling to return home before they 
had visited London, of which city, so noble and so famous, they had 

D r> 



202 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

heard the fame in their own land. Accordingly, coming to London, they 
took up their abode there ; and after they had made a stay of some time, 
the woman conceived; whereupon the husband, on learning that his wife 
had so conceived, was unwilling to return home until after her delivery, 
by reason of the peril that might befall her. 

The time of her delivery having now arrived, she brought forth a 
son, and his name was called " Thomas," in manner as his parents had 
vowed. After this, by reason of the weak state of the infant, they con- 
tinued their stay in London, without returning home, until she had 
again conceived and been delivered of a daughter, who was named 
" Juliana." In the meantime however, the mother of the before-named 
Ode, who was most tenderly beloved by her and her husband, even more 
than any others of their acquaintances, both friends and kinsfolk, 
departed this life; by reason whereof, they never cared to return to 
their own land, but, buying a house in the City of London, were made 
citizens thereof. Thomas, their son, however, did not become a monk, 
as his parents had vowed; but at the time when Kichard, King 
of England, and Philip, King of France, with a countless multitude of 
Crusaders, set out for the Holy Land, which Saladin had seized, and 
when the Earl of Flanders, Baldwin by name, had gone upon the 
Crusade and had taken possession of Constantinople by force 
of arms, and been made Emperor thereof, the same Thomas 
joined the army of the said Earl as a Crusader. Upon reaching Con- 
stantinople however, he there departed this life. 

As to his sister Juliana, she was married to a certain man of Almaine, 
f( Thedmar " by name, a native of the city of Bremen. Living in wed- 
lock a pious and righteous life, they had eleven children, six daughters 
namely, and five sons. Of these daughters, two died before arriving at 
marriageable years, while the other four were very advantageously 
married in the City of London; and from them sprang a numerous 
progeny, namely, sons and daughters, grandsons and granddaughters, 
and other kinsfolk, more than I can enumerate. As to the five sons of 
the aforesaid Thedmar and Juliana, one died under age, and three others 
when they Had reached the age of twenty-four years. The fifth son 
however, who, after his grandfather, was called " Arnald," lived long 
after the death of all his brothers and sisters. 



THE HISTORY OF ARNALD FITZ-THEDMAR. 203 

It is of what happened in reference to him that I purpose here to 
write ; namely, that while his mother was still pregnant of him she had 
a dream to the following eifect. In a vision, she thought that the Prior 
and Brethren of the Hospital of l Jerusalem, without London, sent for a 
log of wood which was lying upon the fire in her house, as the custom is 
in the houses of the citizens, and that accordingly the porters carried it 
out of the house. After this, about the 2 ninth hour of the day the same 
porters brought a slab of marble, which had been sent to the woman's 
husband by the Prior and Brethren aforesaid, and then departed. Im- 
mediately after which, as it appeared to her, the porters before-mentioned 
brought back the log of wood, and told her that the log must be laid 
upon the fire as long as it would last, and that , after it was wholly 
consumed, the marble slab must be substituted in its place. 

A certain skilful man thus expounded this dream, and said 
to the woman as follows : " The log of wood signifies your husband, and 
" the slab of marble the son who shall be born of you. The circumstance 
" that the log of wood was not in the house when the slab of marble was 
" sent thither about the ninth hour, signifies that your husband will not 
" be at home, when your son is born ; whose birth will take place at the 
" ninth hour of the day. The log of wood being afterwards brought 
" back to be placed upon the fire, signifies that immediately after your 
" son is born, your husband will return home, and will continue to be 
" master of this house all the days of his life, and after him your son will 
" succeed by right of inheritance to the house aforesaid." And so it 
happened. For the woman's husband was not in the City, when she 
was seized with the pains of labour; but had occasion to be staying 
away from the City until after his wife had been delivered. But imme- 
diately after the child's birth, which took place about the ninth hour, he 
came home ; and afterwards remained there as master of the house all 
the days of his life. After his death, his son Arnald, before-mentioned, 
came into possession of the house by right of inheritance. 

As to the difference however that there is between a log of wood and a 
slab of marble, the expounder of the dream on that occasion gave no ex- 
planation, and this matter may be known to God only. This Arnald was 

1 7. e. St. John of Jerusalem, in Clerken- 2 Three in the afternoon, 
well. 



04 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

born in the year of Our Lord 1201, on. the Vigil of Saint Laurence 
[10 August], at the ninth hour of the day. 

Be it remembered, that after the commotions in the king- 
dom of England in the time of the Earl of Leicester, the 
citizens made fine with his lordship the King for the offences imputed to 
them, and by certain persons committed, with the view of gaining his 
good will, in the sum of 20000 marks sterling ; and at the same time 
injunction was given to the citizens, with all haste to acquit the King of 
a great sum of money as against the King of France. They were un- 
able however within so short a time to assess this money upon each of the 
citizens in equal and fair proportions ; and, by provision made in refer- 
ence thereto, the citizens gave, some more, some less, with the view of 
the more speedily paying the money to the King of France. After this, 
the citizens made offer, a second and a third time, to discharge them- 
selves by instalments of the sum due to his lordship the King/ After- 
wards, his lordship the King being desirous to give one thousand marks to 
the Duke of l Bruneswyc, who had lately married the Queen's cousin, he 
sent his writ to the citizens, commanding that they should be assessed 
before John Waleran, the then Warden of the Tower and of the City of 
London, and William de Haselbech, in a sum of 1500 pounds. Accord- 
ingly, the said John and William caused a sum of more than 560 pounds 
to be assessed upon eight men, without inquest of their 2 venue, but by 
the agency of certain malevolent persons of the City whom the said 
John had chosen for the purpose. But after this, whatever was levied 
by virtue of the said writ, was in due manner by the venue assessed. It 
should also be known, that the whole of the assessment by the said writ 
did not amount to 1000 pounds sterling. 

At last, provision was made by the whole of the community, that 
examination should be made by the men of the venue and by sworn men 
of the trades, as to what persons had in previous times been aggrieved, 
and who had been favoured : upon the result whereof, the said tallage 
was to be ordained. Accordingly, upon this tallage many persons were 
acquitted of all claim, more especially those who had been tallaged 
before John and William aforesaid. At the same time also, award was 
given as to Arnald Fitz-Thedmar, as is set forth in this leaf. 
1 Brunswick. : Or v ij, uc t ; se e p. 10 ante. 



THE HISTORY OF ARNALD FITZ-THEDMAR. 205 

" As to Arnald Thedmar, it was found by his venue and 
" by certain men of the other Wards, that the same Arnald is 
(f unduly aggrieved ; for that the same Arnald, as concerns the ransom of 
f( twenty thousand marks, first paid four marks and forty pence for the 
!e house which he inhabits ; and after that, twenty marks by inquisition of 
(( his neighbours. Then again, an increase of five marks, and after that, 
ff one hundred marks, which were assessed before John Waleraund and 
" William de Haselbech without award of his neighbours. After that, 
" half a mark, and then after that, fifteen shillings upon his rent. There- 
" fore it was awarded by the jurors that the same Arnald should stand in 
" peace, and be acquitted of the aforesaid ransom and of the fine of one 
"thousand marks, as towards his lordship the King of Almaine." 

The above award is written in the Rolls of the City and of the 
Chamberlains. 

After this, Walter Hervi, in the time of his Mayoralty, taking with 
him such of the citizens as he pleased, had brought before him all the 
rolls of tallages which had been previously made in the City, and endea- 
voured to extort from the citizens all the monies therein contained, and 
would not make allowance to any one of those who had been aggrieved 
beyond measure and beyond their means. Where a claim had been 
withdrawn against any one by oath of his venue and by letters of his 
lordship the King, he would pay no attention thereto. Accordingly at 
this time, demand was made of the aforesaid Arnald Thedmar, of a very 
large sum of money, which had been assessed upon him in an undue 
manner and without any oath, as already stated. However, Arnald 
waited upon his lordship King Henry, who was then living, and obtained 
from him letters directed to the Mayor and citizens, to the effect that 
they should not presume in any way to aggrieve him, in contravention of 
the enrolment by the Chamberlains of the City ; and afterwards obtained 
letters from Sir Edward, his son, to a like effect. This Walter however, 
so long as he continued to be Mayor, did not cease to aggrieve Arnald, so 
far as demanding of him that sum of money, or part thereof. 

After this, Henry le Waleis was made Mayor, who, summoning 
certain sworn citizens before him to examine the clear arrears of the City, 
again unjustly demanded of him a certain sum in reference to the exac- 
tion before-mentioned ; whereupon, he again obtained letters of his 



206 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

lordship King Edward, which being read before the said Mayor and 
citizens, they gave assent to the observance of the enrolment before- 
mentioned. l 

Copies of Letters of his lordship King Henry, and of Ids lord- 
skip King Edward, his son, of which mention is made at the end 
of this Book. 

" Henry, by the grace of God, etc. Arnald Fitz-Thedmar, your 
" fellow-citizen, hath shown unto us, that when our citizens of London 
" lately made fine unto us in the sum of 20000 marks, for gaining our 
" good will, he, the same Arnald, on the pretence aforesaid, by certain 
ff persons who entertained ill-will towards him, was assessed in a certain 
(C large sum of money unjustly, without inquisition of his venue, and 
" beyond the sufficiency of his means thereunto ; of which sum of money, 
" not without great hardship, he paid one hundred marks. Also, when 
" after this, by our special command, in presence of our well-beloved and 
" trusty Alan le Zuche, the then Warden of the City and Constable of 
" our Tower of London, by the commons of all the City aforesaid strict 
" enquiry was made, and award given, how much each citizen ought 
" to pay in accordance with his means, as also how much each had 
" already paid by way of contribution to the said fine ; and when, in 
" accordance with the award then made, a general tallage was assessed 
" upon the citizens aforesaid, it was found, on inquisition made upon the 
" oaths of reputable men of the venue of the aforesaid Arnald and others, 
" who had been deputed to assess the said tallage, that the said Arnald had 
" already paid beyond the limits of his means : it was therefore provided 
" by the same reputable men, in presence of Alan aforesaid, that the 
" said Arnald, by reason of the payment of one hundred marks aforesaid, 
" which, as well as other thirty-two marks, which at other times had 
" been assessed upon him, he had fully paid, should be, and ought to be, 
" wholly acquitted as well of the fine aforesaid as of the contribution of 
" one thousand marks made unto our brother, the King of Almaine; he 
(( invoking thereupon the testimony of the Rolls of the City Chamber- 
" lains as to the tallage aforesaid. Being unwilling therefore that the 

1 Reference is here made in the text to a of the volume, 
continuation of this subject at the beginning 



THE HISTORY OF ARNALD FITZ-THEDMAR. 207 

" said Arnald, who has always faithfully and constantly adhered unto us 
" and ours, should be unduly aggrieved, we do strictly enjoin that, 
" searching the rolls aforesaid, you do exact of the said Arnald nothing 
" whatever beyond the award and enrolment aforesaid, nor do in future 
" molest him by reason of the fine aforesaid ; and that, if you shall have 
<e made upon him any distress by reason of such further exaction, you 
" do wholly release the same. Witness, etc." 

" Edward, by the grace of God, etc., to the Mayor and Sheriffs of 
" London, greeting. Arnald Fitz-Thedmar, your fellow-citizen, hath 
" shown unto us, that when our citizens of London lately made fine unto 
" his lordship King Henry our father, in the sum of 20000 marks, for 
" gaming the good will of the same our father, he, the same Arnald, on 
f( pretence of the fine aforesaid, etc. [as above, mutatis mutandis.^ ' 

For all the letters aforesaid, Walter Hervi, in the time of his 
Mayoralty, would not desist from aggrieving the before-named 
Arnald, in contravention of the enrolment. 

1 After this, Henry le Waleys was made Mayor, who, together with 
some citizens who had been sworn to examine the arrears of all the 
tallages, as already mentioned, exacted of him a certain sum of money in 
contravention of the said enrolment ; whereupon, he repaired to the Court 
of his lordship the King, and again obtained letters of the King, directed 
to the Mayor and citizens. These being read and understood, they agreed 
to observe the said enrolment ; but still, expressed a wish that the said 
Arnald should aid in discharging the Queen's 2 gold and other expenses 
of the City. Wherefore an agreement was made between the Mayor and 
citizens and the said Arnald, in manner below set forth, this also being 
written in the Chamberlains' Roll. 

" Be it remembered, that when a certain sum of money had been 
" demanded of Arnald Fitz-Thedmar before Sir Henry le Waleys, Mayor 
" of London, and certain other citizens whose names are below set forth, 
" by the whole community of the City appointed and sworn to examine 
" the arrears of all assessments and tallages in the City before made, and 
te there had for some time been a dispute hereupon between the aforesaid 

1 This, it will be remarked, is somewhat of 2 A perquisite anciently due to the Queen 
a repetition of what has been already stated. Consort ; see p. 25 ante. 



208 ADDITIONS TO THE CHRONICLES. 

" Mayor and citizens and the said Arnald in reference thereto, at length 
" the said contest between the said Mayor and citizens and the 
" said Arnald was brought to a conclusion in form underwritten ; 
" that is to say, that it was made satisfactorily evident to the said Mayor 
" and citizens, by the rolls of great tallage made in the time of Sir Alan 
" la Zouche, late Warden of the said City, that the said Arnald had been 
" wholly acquitted of the ransom of 20000 marks, and of the fine of 1000 
" marks to his lordship the King of Almaine, by reason of the 132 marks 
" which at the same time he had paid, in manner as the said rolls fully 
" record. It was also shown to them that the same Arnald had been often- 
" times on other occasions aggrieved. It was therefore awarded by the 
" said Mayor and citizens sworn thereunto, that the same Arnald, in 
" consideration of six pounds which he then paid to them in aid of defray - 
" ing the City's expenses, and of forty shillings which in the time of the 
" Mayoralty of Sir Walter Hervi he had paid as a contribution to the 
" Queen's gold, should be wholly acquitted of Queen's gold and of all 
" tallages, assessments, double quarterages, twentieths, aids, loans, and 
" expenses, in the City of London made, until the Feast of the Apostles 
" Philip and James [1 May] in the second year of the reign of his lordship 
" King Edward, son of King Henry ; there being present the aforesaid Sir 
" Henry, the Mayor, and the others sworn, namely, Nicholas de Wyncestre, 
" Sheriff, Stephen de Mundene and Hugh Mutun, Chamberlains, John, 
" Walter le Poter, John de Norhampton, Ralph le Blund, Aldermen, 
" Ralph de la More, Ralph de Brumle, Robert Grratefige, William de 
" Farenedon, Hugh de Duntone, Thomas Heyrun, and Godfrey le 
" Cofrer, and others." 

INSERTIONS IN THE "LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS," OF A LATER 

DATE. , 

Be it remembered, that at Vespers on the morrow of Saint 

Luke [18 October], being a "Thursday, there was an eclipse 

of the moon, which lasted throughout one quarter of the night, it being 

the sixth year of the reign of King Edward of 1 Carnervan, son of King 

Edward, etc. 

1 Caernarvon ; meaning Edward II. 



MAYORS AND SHERIFFS TEMP. EDWARD II. 209 

Be it remembered, that in the l tenth year of Edward, John de 
2 Sandegrave was Mayor of London. 

In this year died Gilbert de Segrave, Bishop of London. 

In this year there was a hard frost during Christmas week ; and 
throughout this year continued the dearth of corn, and great mortality 
among poor folk. 

Be it remembered, that in the ninth year of Edward, son of King 
Edward, began the dearth of corn : wheat was at first one mark, then 
twenty shillings, and then thirty-two shillings, the quarter, and so 
continued until the arrival of a new year. There was great mortality of 
the people, and great dearth of all manner of victuals throughout the 
kingdom. 

Also, in the eleventh year of Edward, John de Sandegrave was Mayor 
of London: John Priour and William Fourneys, Sheriffs. 

Gilbert de Middletone, a knight of Northumberland, and his brother, 
were drawn and hanged for treason. 

In this year, the Pope ordered the Feast of the Holy Sacrament to 
be held on the Thursday after the Trinity, as also grand pardon. 

3 Sheriffs of London in the twelfth year of Edward, John 
Poyntel and John de Dallinge. John de Sandegrave was 
Mayor for three years. 

In the thirteenth year of Edward, John de Prestone and Simon 
d'Abindone, were Sheriffs of London. In this year, Hamo de 4 Gigewelle 
was Mayor of London. 

Also, in the fourteenth year of Edward, Reginald de Conduit and 
William Prodomme, were Sheriffs. The 5 Iter was holden at the Tower 
of London. 

Also, in the fifteenth year of Edward, Richard Costentein and 
Richard de Hakeneye, were Sheriffs. In this year was the war with 
Scotland ; and the quarter of wheat was worth thirty shillings, at the 
beginning of the sixteenth year of Edward. 

1 A.D. 1316-7- 3 There is a line previous to this, giving 

2 * Wengrave ' is the usual form of the name. Stephen de Abingdon as Mayor ; but in reality 
The peculiar spelling of the surnames, which his mayoralty was in the 9th Edward II. 
appear to have been entered by a person of 4 Properly * Chigwell.' 

foreign extraction, has been here retained 5 Or 'Eyre' of the Justiciars. For an account 
throughout. of it, sec the Librr CWS/MMW/WM, pp. 285 432. 

E E 



210 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

[In the sixteenth year of Edward], Hamo de 1 Jicevelle was Mayor. 
John de 2 Gantan, Grocer, and Roger d'Eli, Fishmonger, were Sheriffs. 

In the seventeenth year, Nicholas de Farendone was made Mayor by 
the King. Adam de Sallesberi, Grocer, and John d'Oxenford, Vintner, 
were Sheriffs. 

Hamo de 3 Gikewelle was Mayor for two years, being the eighteenth 
and the nineteenth years. The Sheriffs were Beneyt de 4 Fayleham, 
Grocer, and John de 5 Haustone, Mercer ; and John Coton, Pelterer, and 
Gilbert de Mordone, Fishmonger. 

[In the twentieth year of Edward] the Sheriffs of London were 
6 Rosser Chintecler, and Richard de 7 Rokinge. Richard de 8 Beytteyne 
was Mayor of London. The King made prisoner in his own land. 

Fol. 42 B. Charter of Liberties of the Bishop of London. 

" Know all those who are and who shall be in time to come, that between 
" Sir 9 Eustace, the Bishop of London, and the Chapter of Saint Paul in 
" London, and the citizens of London, it is thus agreed, in love, as to the 
" limits of the franchises which, as the said Bishop said, do pertain unto 
" his Church, the citizens affirming the contrary. That is to say, that 
" the aforesaid citizens have granted, that no Sheriff or bailiff of Lon- 
" don shall from henceforth enter the 10 Soke of the Bishop in Cornhulle, 
" to make attachment therein, if the plaint have not sooner been shown 
" unto the Sheriff or unto a bailiff of London than unto the bailiffs of the 
" Bishop. Also, that there be no thief found in that Soke, but that he 
" shall be attached by the bailiff of the Bishop ; not even in a case 
" where the bailiff of the Bishop has not been called : and upon the coming 
" of him, the attachment is to be made. And if nevertheless the bailiff 
" shall not come [to make such attachment], the attachment is to be 
( ' made by the bailiffs of the City. Also be it, that if the thief is attached 
" by the bailiffs of the City, he shall be delivered unto the bailiffs of the 
" Bishop for judgment, in the Court of the Bishop within the same Soke. 

1 Chigwell. 7 Properly ' Rothinge.' 

2 Properly ' Grantham.' 8 Or ' Betoigne.' 

3 Chigwell. 9 Eustace de Fauconberge, High Treasurer 

4 Or * Folsham.' of England. 

5 Properly Caustone.' I0 Or place of independent, and exclusive, 
. 6 Given elsewhere as Roger Cliaunceler.' jurisdiction. 



A.D. 1228.] CHARTER OF LIBERTIES OF THE BISHOP OF LONDON. 211 

" And [in such case], when the thief shall be judged, one half of his 
" chattels is to be delivered unto the Bishop, and the other half unto the 
"bailiff of the City. And if the thief shall be taken or attached by the 
" bailiffs of the Bishop, no one of the bailiffs of the City shall intermeddle 
" with him or with his chattels, if he be found in such Soke. And if so 
" be, that a baker of the tenants of the Bishop's Soke shall be found with 
" bread of false weight in such Soke by the Sheriff, he is to be attached upon 
" view of the bailiffs of the Bishop called thereunto, and the baker is to be 
"judged in the Guildhall in presence of the bailiff, if he shall wish it to be ; 
" and nevertheless he is not to be compelled by mandate. And if he be 
" taken out of that Soke, he shall be judged in the Guildhall, whether the 
" bailiff of the Bishop comes there or not, for that he has been taken with 
" false bread. And if he be taken within the Soke or without, three times 
" or more, with bread of false weight, and be attainted thereof, he shall 
" be punished according to the custom of the City, that is to say, 
" whether he be taken and attached within the Soke by the bailiffs of 
" the Bishop, or taken and attached without the Soke by the bailiffs of 
" the City. By the bailiffs of the Bishop he is to be 1 summoned, if he 
" will appear. It is provided above all, that the bakers of the Soke of 
" the King of Scotland are bound to aid the bakers of the Bishop's Soke 
({ in paying unto the Sheriff 28 shillings of silver yearly, in manner as 
" they were wont to do. All men upon lands of the Bishop's fee, or of 
" the fee of Saint Paul, [and] of their successors, of which fees the 
" Bishop and the Church of Saint Paul in London were seised upon the 
" day that this agreement was made, shall be free and acquitted of all 
" customs in 2 Smethfeud or elsewhere, as to all that which they shall 
" buy for their own men, 3 with all that is born thereof and feeds; but 
<c on all that which they shall buy for sale, the Sheriff of Lon- 
(f don shall receive the customs due, wherever they nray then 
" buy the same; and all the carts which are the property of the Bishop 
" or the property of Saint Paul's, [carrying] the things of the Bishop, or 
" of the Canons, or of the men of the fee of Saint Paul's, shall so far be 
" free without custom paid. If so be that it is not the property of the 
" Bishop or the property of Saint Paul's, no cart is to be hired to 4 carry 

1 This passage is, to all appearance, imper- 3 This is perhaps the meaning of ov fee 
feet. ' lur nest et pest' 

2 Suiithficld. 4 From Smithficld. 



212 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBLS. [A.D. 1228. 

" the wares of any one to London. And if any one shall bring the wares 
" of any person, who by reason of his franchise ought to go acquitted, 
" then for his cart he shall give the custom that is due and customary. 
" The same as to the Bishop and his successors, as to the citizens afore- 
f( said. And if they shall bring the wares of any one who by reason of 
" his franchise ought not to go acquitted, then such wares shall pay the 
61 custom due, as aforesaid, and the cart shall go acquitted. No Sheriff 
" or bailiff of London ought to enter any manor of the Bishop, or any 
" manor of Saint Paul's, to ask or to take custom ; but they are to take 
" the same in the customary and established places, that is to say, in 
" Smethefeud or elsewhere, out of their manors or out of their fee. 
" And be it also known, that it shall be fully lawful for the bailiffs of 
" the City, without the bailiffs of the Bishop, to enter the Soke of the 
" Bishop, to collect the King's dues or to distrain for his debts, saving 
" all assizes unto the citizens of London, to secure thereby the common 
fi good of the City, that are not [in contravention of] the articles aforesaid. 
ff And to the end that this loving agreement may be sure and established 
" for ever, and not broken, the aforesaid Bishop and Chapter have ap- 
" pended their seals, and the citizens of London their seal of the com- 
" monalty, with the seals of Sir Roger le Due, the Mayor of London, 
" and of Sir Richard Feuker, to this present writing, in manner of a 
" chirograph in four parts made. Of which parts, the two parts sealed 
6< with the seal of the commonalty and with the seals of the aforesaid 
(e Roger and Richard, are to remain unto the Bishop and the Chapter ; 
" and the two parts sealed with the seals of the Bishop and the 
" Chapter, are to remain with the citizens of London. This was made in 
" the year of Grace 1228, the x twentieth of the Ides of May." 

The fifth year of 2 Edward. Memorandum, that Peter de 
3 Blaceney e, Sheriff of London, died eight weeks before Saint 
Michael, and John de 4 Grantebrigge, Mercer, was sworn 5 Warden for 
the aforesaid Peter in the bailiwick until the Saint Michael next ensuing, 
in presence of the commonalty, upon the mainprise of the executors of 
Peter aforesaid. 

1 This is evidently an error, there being no Blakenev. 
(such date. i Cambridge. 

* Edward the Seeoud. * Of the Sheriffwick. 



TRANSACTIONS IN THE KEIGN OF EDWARD II. 213 

Memorandum as to the Sheriffs of London in the fifth year of 
Edward: Simon de 1 Manewourhe,, 2 Bureller, Richard de Welleforde. 

Memorandum, that upon the Day of Saint Simon and Saint Jude, 
John de Gissors was chosen Mayor of London. 

Memorandum, that Sir Piers de Gavastone, Earl of 3 Cornewayle, 
was in the Castle of 4 Scardebourk, and the Earl of Warenne [and] the 
Earl of 5 Penebrok laid siege thereto; to whom Sir Piers surrendered 
himself, and they took him to the village of 6 Dadintone, and thither 
came the Earl of Warewik, and took the said Piers, and carried him with 
him and his people to the Castle of Warewik. And on the Monday before 
Saint John [24 June], the aforesaid Sir Piers was beheaded in a field 
between Warewik and 7 Cenilleworth, in presence o the Earl of 
8 Launkattre [and] the Earl of Hereford. 

Memorandum, that on the Monday next before the 9 Maudeleyne 
[22 July], came the King, the Earl of Warenne, the Earl of Penebrok, 
Sir 10 Henry de Beumond, [and] Sir Simon de Maule, Seneschal of the 
Bishop of London, unto the Cross in Saint Paul's Churchyard, and many 
of the City of London, to the meeting of the Folkmote ; and there made 
oath, as well to hold their lordship in all rightfulness, as to maintain his 
crown and to preserve the City to his heirs, as their inheritances. 

Memorandum, that on the Vigil of Saint u Colas, and on 
the next day as well, there was a great tempest of thunder and 
lightning. 

Memorandum as to the Sheriffs of London: James le Boteyller, 
Draper, [and] William de Basinges, Woolstapler : Nicholas de Farendone, 
Mayor of London. [A.D. 1308.] 

James de Saint Edmund's, Bureller, and Roger le Paumer, 12 Blader, 
Sheriffs : Thomas Homey n, Mayor of London. 

Memorandum, that on the Sunday next before Our Lord's Nativity 
it began to freeze ; and the frost lasted seven-and-twenty clays, so that 
for nineteen days people went upon the ice over the Thames to the land 

1 Properly ' Mereworthe.' 8 Lancaster. 

2 Maker of burels, coarse russet cloths. 9 Feast of Saint Mary Magdalen. 

3 Cornwall. 10 Henry de Beaumont, a Peer of Parliu- 

4 Scarborough. ment. 

5 Pembroke. n Probably for 'Scolace,' 01" Scholastica,' 

6 Dedingtou, near Banbury. 13 February. 

7 Kenilworth. > 2 Or Corndealer. 



214 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

[on the other side]. King Edward went into Scotland, to war against 
Robert de Brus. 

Simon de Corp, Pepperer, and Peter de Blaceneye, Woolmonger, 
were Sheriffs : Richer de Kef ham, Mayor of London. 

Memorandum, that for one month before Saint Michael, and six 
weeks after, there was a mortality among the people, in towns and in 
1 upland, to great excess, from the malady of flux, by reason of the fruit 
of that year being too much taken. 

Be it remembered, that on the Sunday next after the beginning of 
Lent, Henry de 2 Lasi, Earl of Lincoln, was brought from his house, with 
Earls and Barons, and two knights armed, upon caparisoned steeds, and 
four mounted valets carrying four banners with the arms of Earl Henry, 
on the road unto the Church of Saint Paul ; and on the Sunday after, 
he was buried on the right hand side of the altar of Our Lady, in the 
3 New Work there, a great multitude being present. 

The sixth year of Edward. Memorandum, that Sir Louis, 

brother of the King of France, the Cardinal Blaunk, the Bishop 

of 4 Peyters, Chamberlain of the Pope, came to the King at London, a 

fortnight before Saint Michael, to treat of peace between the King and 

his Earls. 

Memorandum, that on the Day of Saint Brice the Bishop [13 
November], was born Edward, son of King Edward of Carnerwan, in 
the Castle of Windelsore, in the presence of the Cardinal Blaunc, 
Monsire Louis of France, [and] the Lady 5 Margaret, Queen of England ; 
by reason of which good news, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and the 
Commons of London, made feasts, and 6 carols of people in costume, for 
a fortnight after, the Conduit running with wine ; and on this side of the 
Cross of the Earl of r Grlousettre in Chepe, one tun of wine in a pavilion 
to be drunk. And on the Vigil of Christmas next ensuing, Queen 
Isabel rose from childbed in the Castle aforesaid, purified, with great 
feasting, both upon the Vigil, and upon Christmas day, and on the 
following day. 

1 Country places. liberal contributor. 

2 Or Lacy. 4 p o itiers. 

3 Or St. Faith's Church, at the East end of * Step-mother of Edward II. 

the Choir, begun A.D. 1256j3y Bishop Fulk 6 Dances probably, accompanied with songs. 
Basset, and to which the Earl had been a " Gloucester. 



PRELATES OF CANTERBURY AND LONDON. 215 

Memorandum as to the Sheriffs of London the year aforesaid : John 
Lambin, Fishmonger, and Richard de Weleford, elected to aid the other 
by reason of the default of Richard de Horsam previously elected, who 
absented himself at the election and at the presentation. 

And the aforesaid Richard de Weleford died in the first quarter of 
the year; and Adam Lodekin was Sheriff until the ensuing Saint 
Michael, in his place sworn and presented. 

Memorandum, that on the Yigil of the Ascension, King Edward, 
and Isabel, Queen of England, crossed the sea and landed at l Wissant, 
and went to Paris, where the King of France made his son a Knight, and 
King of Navarre, with a great number of festivities, on the Day of 
Pentecost. 

In the following year, the Sheriffs of London were Robert Bordeyn 
[and] Hugh de 2 Sarton. 

Memorandum, that in the eighth year of King Edward, the cross 
with the 3 ball, all gilt, was raised upon the belfry of Saint Paul's ; and the 
Bishop of London, Gilbert de Segrave, deposited many precious things 
in the said cross on the belfry, on the Friday next after Saint Michael 
in the following year. 

John de Peccam 4 elected Archbishop by the Pope. 

Robert de 5 Wincilse elected Archbishop of Canterberi. 

Memorandum, that the aforesaid Robert lies buried at Canterberi, 
by the Cross of Robert de Michaelchurch. 

Immediately after his 6 death, Thomas de Cobeham was elected 
Archbishop of Canterberi, and rejected by the Pope; and Walter 
Reinald, Bishop of 7 Wilsettre, was confirmed Archbishop of Canterbeyri 
by the said Pope. 

Richard de Graveshende, 8 Bishop of London. 

Fol. 52 B. 

9 Robert de Baudok, Bishop of London; and lies buried 
in Saint Paul's. 

1 Witsand, near Boulogne. 5 Winchelsea, A.D. 1293. 

2 Properly ' Garton.' 6 A.D. 1313. 

3 From other sources we learn that this 7 Worcester. 
pomel, or ball, was of sufficient capacity to hold 8 A.D. 1280. 

10 bushels of corn, the cross being 15 feet in 9 Properly Ralph de Baldock, or Baudake: 
height. A.D. 1804. 

4 A.D. 1278. 



216 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

Gilbert de Segrave, elected 1 Bishop of London. 
Bichaid de Neueport, elected 2 Bishop of London. 

Memorandum, that on the Day of Saint Brice the Bishop, 
[13 November,] in the year of King Edward, son of 

Edward, at daybreak, there was an earthquake in London. 

3 This year John de 4 Sandegrave was Mayor of London, by the 
King's letters, [having been Mayor] the year before, and against the 
entreaties of the community. 

Also, in the 13th year of Edward, Hamo de 5 Gicewelle, Mayor. 

Also, in the 14th year, Nicholas de Farendone was Mayor until the 
20th day of February ; and from that day Sir Robert de 6 Cendale was 
Warden, until the 20th day of May. And then Hamo de Gikewell was 
Mayor by command of the King, in contravention of the franchise, 
holding from time to time by writ of the King. 

In the 15th year of Edward. The Sheriffs,, Richard Costentin, 
Draper, and Richard de 7 Haceneye, Woolstapler. This year, in Lent, 
8 Thomas, Earl of five Counties, was beheaded ; the 9 Earl of Hereford 
died in battle ; and barons and knights were slain, or died, by judgment 
imprisoned in the Castles. 

Memorandum, that the gallon of Conduit water weighs ten 

Fol. 55 B. 

pounds four 10 shillings, by the ordinary weight. 

Also, the gallon of Thames water weighs ten pounds sixteen pence, 
by the same weight. 

Also, the grocers' pound of wax and of fruit is to weigh 25 shillings, 
the ounce 25 pence, and the quarter 6 shillings and 3 pence. 

Be it remembered, that the n sterling must weigh 32 grains of corn in 
number, from the middle of the ear ; and to the quarter of an ounce go 
160 grains in number ; and to the half ounce go 320 grains ; and to the 
whole ounce go 640 grains, the ounce, that is to say, of twenty sterlings: 
and to the quarter of the pound go 1920 grains in number; and to the 

1 A.D. 1313. 8 Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, 

2 A.D. 1317. cousin of Edward II. 

3 /. e. 12th Edward II. 9 Humphrey de Bohun. 

4 Or Wengrave. 10 The shilling of silver weighed three-fifths 

5 Chigwell. of an ounce. 

6 Properly, ' Sandale,' or Sendale.' H Or silver penny. 

7 Commonly, * Hakeney.' 



CONTINUATION OF THE LIST OF MAYORS. 217 

half pound go 3840 grains ; and to the pound of 20 shillings sterling go 
7680 grains in number, divided into 12 ounces. And the weight of two 
pounds, which amounts in number to 15360 grains, makes the quart of 
liquor. And the weight of four pounds, which amounts in number to 
30720 grains, makes the pottle. And the weight of eight pounds, which 
amounts in number to 1 60440 grains, makes the gallon. And the 
weight of thirty-two pounds, which amounts in number to 245760 
grains, makes the old half bushel. And the weight of sixty-four pounds, 
which amounts in number to 491520 grains, makes the bushel of wheat, 
of the ancient standard. And the weight of 2 366 pounds, which amounts 
in number to 3 19266180 grains of wheat, makes the half quarter. And 
the weight of 512 pounds sterling, which amounts in number of grains of 
wheat to 3932160, makes the measure of one quarter of eight bushels. 

[ Continuation of the List of Mayors of London, subsequent to the period 
of time comprised in the Chronicle.^ 

Gregory de 4 Rocele, elected Mayor of London the day of 
Saint Simon and Saint Jude [28 October]. 

Henry le Waleys, elected 5 Mayor of London. 
Gregory de Rokele, elected c Mayor of London. 
7 Warden of London, John le Breton. 
Warden of London, Ralph de 8 Sandwy. 

9 Warden of London, John le Breton. 

10 Henry le Waleys, elected Mayor of London the Day of 
Saint Simon and Saint Jude [28 October]. 

11 Ellis Rossel, elected Mayor, the day before-named. Presented 
to the Constable of the Tower for two years. 

Also, John le Blount, elected 12 May or of London the day before- 
named, and presented to Sir John de 13 Blacebrok, Under-Constable of 
the Tower, by writ of the King, and received at the Outer Gate of the 
Tower of London. 



2 



Properly 61440. 7 A.D. 1286. 

Properly 256. 8 Or Sandwich, A.D. 1285, 12871292. 

3 Properly 1966080. 9 A.D. 12931296. 

4 Properly, Rokesley, Mayor A.D. 1274 I0 A.D. 1297, 8. 

1280. " Or Elias Russel, A.D. 1299, 1300. 

5 A.D. 12811283. "A.D. 13011307. 
e AiD . 1284. 13 Or Blaekbrook, 

F F 



218 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

Also, John le Blount elected Mayor of London, the Day of Saint 
Simon and Saint Jude [28 October], and presented to the Earl of 
Warenne, the King's Lieutenant, in the Chamber jof the Archbishop of 
York. 

Also, John le Blound elected Mayor of London, the Day of Saint 
Simon and Saint Jude, and presented at the Exchequer. 

Also, John le Blound elected Mayor, and presented to the King at 
Westminster. 

Also, John le Blound elected Mayor the two following years, and 
presented to King Edward. 

William Coumbemartin elected Mayor, and so continued two days, 
and died. 

Also, John le Blond elected Mayor of London, the third day after 
Saint Simon and Saint Jude, and presented at the Exchequer at West- 
minster; and on the Wednesday next before Saint Martin [11 November] 
presented at the Court of King * Edward, not as yet crowned, at the 
hostel of the Archbishop of York. 

John le Blond elected Mayor, and presented at the Exchequer on the 
morrow of Saint Simon and Saint Jude, in the first year of King 
Edward. 

Nicholas de Farendone elected 2 Mayor of London, and received by 
King Edward at Westminster on the morrow of Saint Simon and Saint 
Jude, in the second year of his reign. 

[ 3 Continuation of the List of Sheriffs of London.~\ 

John Horn, Ralph le Blond. Pleas at the Tower. 

Robert d'Arras, Ralph le Fevre. This year the Mayoralty 
was 4 sold and bought, to be held by him of the preceding year. 
John Adrian, Walter 5 Leggleys. 
William le Maserner, Robert de Basinges. 
Ralph de la More, Thomas Box. 
William de Farendone, Nicholas de 6 Winsettre. 

1 The Second. Rokesley, who held the Mayoralty from A.D, 

8 A.D. 1308. 1274 to 1280. 

3 See page 191 ante. * Properly, Le Engleys,' 

4 In reference, apparently, to Gregory de 6 Winchester. 



CONTINUATION OF THE LIST OF SHERIFFS. 219 

William le Maserner, Richard de Chigewelle. This year there was a 
great frost. 

^auncetin de Bettevile, Walter le Blound. 

Jourdan 2 Godsep, Martin Box. 

Steven de 3 Cornulle, Robert de 4 Rocele. 

Walter le Blound, John Wade. 

Thomas Cros, Walter Hauteyn. 

Thomas de Stanes, William de Hereford. 

William de Bettoyne, John de Caunteberi. 

Fulk de Saint Edmund, Salaman le Cotiller. 

Thomas Romeyn, William de Leyre. 

Ralph le Blound, Hamo Box. 

5 Helis Rossel, Henry le Bole. 

Robert de 6 Rocele, Martin de Aumesberi. 

Henry Box, Richard de 7 Glousettre. 

8 Hadam de Halingberi, John de Donestaple. 

Thomas de 9 Seuvouf, Hadam de 10 Foulam. 

John de n Sterteford. William de Stertefourd. 

Thomas Seli, Pelterer, Richer 12 le Mercer. 

Memorandum, that on Monday, the Vigil of the 13 Tiffany 
[6 January], in the beginning of the seven-and-twentieth year 
of King Edward [I.], at daybreak, there was an earthquake, with loud 
noise, for a short time, in London, Gloucester, [and] elsewhere, through- 
out the kingdom. 

Memorandum, that on the day of the Nativity of Our Lady [8 Sep- 
tember], being a Tuesday, in the seven-and-twentieth year of the 14 King, 
arrived at Dover the Lady Margaret, daughter of Philip, King of France, 
and on the morrow came to Canterbury ; and on the Thursday after, 
came Edward, King of England, to the Church of the Trinity at Canter- 
bury, and espoused the aforesaid Margaret, Queen of England, she being 
of the age of twenty years. 

Properly, 'Anketin.' 6 For 'Adam.' 

Properly, ' Godchep.' 9 For ' Suthfolke,' or ' Suffolk.' 

Cornhill. 10 Fulbam. 

Rokesley. n Stortford. 

Properly Eliaa.' w Generally known as ' Richer de Refham. 

Rokesley. 13 Or Epiphany. 

Gloucester. u Edward I. 



220 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

Memorandum, that on the Sunday next before Saint * Ed ward, 
Queen Margaret came from the Tower through London to Westminster; 
and the Earl of Bretagne, and the Count of Savoy, and the Mayor of 
London, with his Aldermen, arrayed in suit, as also three hundred 
burgesses of the City in suit. There were two 2 bretasches in the road 
of Chepe, from which there were eight outlets discharging wine from 
above; and the road was covered with cloths of gold, against her first 
coming. 

3 Sheriffs, Henry de Fingrie, Fishmonger, and John d'Armenters, 
Draper. 

Memorandum, that on the Sunday next before the Day of the 
Annunciation of Our Lady [25 March], the bones of Sir 4 Edmund, 
the King's brother, were brought to Saint Paul's from the new Abbey 
of the Minoresses without 5 Alegate, and from Saint Paul's to West~ 
minster ; and the King accompanied his bones through the City on foot, 
as also Earls, and Barons, and Bishops ; and on the next day, the bones 
were interred at Westminster, on the left hand side of the altar of Saint 
Peter there ; it being the eight-and-twentieth year of the King's reign. 

Memorandum, that on the Day of Saint Stephen [26 December], 
at the beginning of the eight-and-twentieth year, the 6 crocards and 
pollards were proclaimed. They were cried down throughout England, 
and continued current only until the Vigil of Easter Day next ensuing : 
upon which Vigil it was forbidden that they should pass current. This 
money came from Flanders, and was current in England throughout the 
land for six years, to the great damage of all the realm. 
Lucas de 7 Awerhinge, Richard de Campes, 8 Sheriffs. 

Robert de Callere, Peter de 9 Bossam : being so made upon election 
by Elis Rossel, Mayor, and the Aldermen, and presented to the Constable 
of the Tower, at the Outer Gate. 

As to the above Robert, there was a great dispute between the 
Commons and the Aldermen in reference to his election ; so that they 

1 It seems uncertain whether the 5th inferior value. They generally passed for one 

January or 13th October is here meant. penny, but by proclamation their value was 

Wooden towers. fixed at one halfpenny. 

In the 28th of Edward I., A.D. 1300, 1. 7 Properly, ' Haveringe,' in Essex. 

Edmund Plantagenet, who died A.D. 1295. 6 In the 29th and 30th years of Edward I. 

Aldgate. 9 Or ' Bosenho.' 
Crooked and polled, or clipped, coins of 



EVENTS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD I. 221 

would not pay l the aforesaid Robert, and wished to annul the said elec- 
tion ; but they did pay. 

Memorandum, that on the Day of Saint Simon and Saint Jude [28 
October] John le Blond was elected Mayor of London, and presented 
to John de Blacebrok, Under-Constable of the Tower of London, assigned 
by the King's writ, without the Outer Gate of the Tower aforesaid. 

Memorandum, that John Botetourte and William Jige, Justiciars, 
with John le Blount, Mayor of London, and their people, came to sit in 
the Guildhall of London on the Tuesday next before Saint Dunstan 
[19 May], to hear and determine in an action of trespass between 
John le 2 Jauser, Elis Rossel, and John de 3 Geudeford and others, by 
reason of the acting of the aforesaid John le Jauser in breach of the 
franchise of the City, as was alleged by the Aldermen : and on the morrow 
the said Justiciars, in the hall aforesaid, adjourned the parties until the 
Saturday next, at the Leaden Hall. Upon which day, their oaths were 
4 proffered in discharge of the accusation ; which [the judges] did not allow, 
but held the aforesaid Elis and John, and several of the accused, as un- 
defended, and to pay damages to the aforesaid John le Jauser of 1000 
pounds ; because that the aforesaid Elis and the others would only acquit 
themselves by 5 making their law, in a matter where the franchise did not 
lie out of the 6 Iter. And the aforesaid John le Jauser died within a 
fortnight after this, through an accident, at his own house. 

Simon de Paris, Mercer, and Hugh Pourte, Fishmonger, 7 Sheriffs of 
London. 

Memorandum, that John le Blount was chosen Mayor of London on 
the Day of Saint Simon and Saint Jude [28 October], and presented to 
the Earl of Warenne, the King's Lieutenant, in the Chamber of the 
Archbishop of York, before the King's Council. 

William 8 Comartin, John de Boureford, Sheriffs of London. 

1 The dues received by him in the capacity See Liber Albus, passim. 

of Sheriff. 5 Trial by oath of compurgators was thus 

2 Meaning ' le Chaucer,' the writing being called. 

evidently that of a foreigner. 6 Held by the Justiciars at the Tower. This 

3 Guilford. it is surmised is the meaning of " en cheusepar 
* In conformity with the alleged privileges " la fransise en heyre dehors" 

of the citizens of London, who, in most cases, 7 31 Edward I. 

were allowed to discharge themselves by their 8 Properly Combe Martin, from the place 

own oath and that of jurors or compurgators. in North Devon of that name. 



222 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

John le Blound this year Mayor of London, and presented to 
the Constable of the Tower of London on the morrow of Saint Simon 
and Saint Jude, without the Outer Gate of the Tower aforesaid. 

John de Lincoln, Vintner, Roger de Paris, Mercer, Sheriffs of London. 

John le Blouut elected Mayor of London, and presented to the 
Under-Constable of the Tower of London. 

William Cosin, Reginald de 1 Souriderle, Sheriffs. The year of 

2 Trailbaston. 

Memorandum, that on Monday the Vigil of Saint Bartholomew [24 
August], in the three-and- thirtieth year of King Edward, William le 

3 Wales, a knight of Scotland, was adjudged in the King's Hall at 

4 Neuwouttel, to be drawn, hanged, and beheaded, his bowels burnt, his 
body divided into four parts, and his head cut off and exposed on a lance 
on London Bridge, for treason committed against the aforesaid Edward, 
King of England and Scotland. 

Memorandum, that Robert le Brus, Earl of 5 Karrik, had himself 
crowned King of Scotland, on the Day of the Annunciation of Our 
Lady [25 March], in the four-and-thirtieth year of King Edward; and 
levied war in Scotland against England. 

Simon 6 Frisel, a Baron of Scotland, drawn, and hanged, and beheaded, 
his body taken down and 7 burnt, at London, for treason. 

The five-and-thirtieth year of Edward. [L] Memorandum, 

Fol fi2 A 

that on the Day of 8 Pentecost, Edward, Prince of Wales, 
received his arms from King Edward, his father, he making one of three 
hundred knights, and on the same day was dubbed at Westminster with 
great display ; and on the morrow, Monsire Edward held his feast at the 
New Temple, with eight hundred knights. 

Geoffrey du Conduit, Simon Bollete, Sheriffs of London. 

Memorandum, that John, Earl of 9 Asseles in Scotland, was hanged, 
and his body 10 taken down beneath the gallows, and his head cut off and 
carried on a lance to London Bridge, and his body burnt beneath the 
gallows. 

1 Properly Thunderley,' the present Thun- 6 Carrick. 

dersley, in Essex. 6 Or ' Fraser.' 

3 See under the 30th of Edward L, in the 7 In reality, it was hung in chains, 

following Chronicle. 6 Or Whit-Sunday. 

3 Wallace. Properly, ' Athol.' 

4 Qy. Newbottle ? 10 L e. before he was dead 






EVENTS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II. 223 

Memorandum, that Edward, King of England, died on the Day 
of the Translation of Saint Thomas of Canterbury [7 July], three 
leagues from A Kardeul. Upon the Vigil of the Assumption of Our 
Lady [15 August], the body arrived at the Abbey of Waltham, and 
remained there until the Tuesday next before Saint Simon and Saint 
Jude [28 October] ; upon which day, it was brought to the 2 Trinity of 
London, and on the morrow was conveyed thence by King Edward, his 
son, with the Earls and Barons, and with six knights, mounted and covered 
with his arms, two hundred lighted torches being borne before him, unto 
the Church of Saint Paul ; and on the morrow he was carried to West- 
minster in form aforesaid, by Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, and Priors ; 
and on the Friday after, was interred the noble King Edward on the 
left of the altar of Saint Peter, at the head of King Henry his father, 
and by the side of Saint Edward, towards the North. 

The first year of Edward. [II.] 

Sheriffs, 3 Nicholas Hauteyn, Mercer, ... . Draper. 
Memorandum, that on the Day of the Conversion of Saint Paul 
[25 January], being Thursday, Edward, King of England, espoused 
Isabel, daughter of the King of France, at 4 Boloyne, with great array ; 
and came to London on the Day of Saint Peter's Chair [28 January] ; 
and on the Saturday next ensuing, came the King and Queen, and Sir 
Charles the Duke of Brebaunt, Sir Louys de Cleremound, the Count de 
Breme, with one hundred knights of France, through the City of 
London to the King's Palace at Westminster. And on the morrow, 
which was Sunday, Edward, King of England, received the crown from 
the hand of the Bishop of Winchester, substitute of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, with grand array upon that day ; and the citizens of 
London served that day at the feast, with the Earl of Arundel and the 
Mayor of London, in the Butlership before the King, with two hundred 
cups ; four hundred men being arrayed in divers costumes upon that 
day. 

The second year of Edward. [II.] 
Memorandum, that on the Day of Saint Michael, being Sunday, 

1 Carlisle. Drury were Sheriffs. 

2 In Aldgate. 4 Boulogne, in France. 

3 In reality, Nicholas Pycot and Nigel 



224 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

the Earl of Gloucester married the daughter of the Earl of 1 Wuollestre, 
in Ireland, in the Abbey Church of Waltham, in presence of King 
Edward, and the Earls and Barons ; and on the next day, the Earl's son 
married the sister of the Earl of Gloucester in the same place, and received 
his arms of King Edward. 

Memorandum, that on Sunday in the beginning of Lent, 

in the second year of King Edward, a whale was taken in the 

Thames near 2 Grenewis, being twelve toises in length and five toises in 

girth ; and it was brought to the Tower of London, and there cut up by 

the Constable, Sir John de Cromwelle, acting for the King. 

Parliament of his Lordship King Edward at the Friars s Preachers in 

the City of London. 

The Monday next after the Assumption of Our Lady [15 August], in 
the fifth year of our Lord King Edward, son of King Edward, in 
presence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and many Bishops of the 
land, Earls, and Barons. At which Parliament were sworn all the afore- 
said Lords, and the Chancellor and Treasurer, and the Justiciars, and 
the Barons of the Exchequer, and the Knights of all the Counties : and 
the Mayor and Aldermen of London, with all the better folks of the City, 
were sworn to keep and maintain all the Statutes ordained in the afore- 
said Parliament, to the profit of the King and his people. 

The which Parliament lasted fifteen days ; and at the next return of 

our Lord the King to the House of the Friars Preachers in London, the 

aforesaid Statutes were published by the Bishop of Salisbury, substitute 

of the Archbishop of Canterbury, in Saint Paul's Churchyard, 

in presence of many Bishops, and the Earls of Lancaster, of 

Lincoln, and of Leicester, of 4 Ferys, of Salesbyri, Sir 5 Emeir de Valence, 

Earl of 6 Penebrok, and the Earl of Warwyck, and the Earl of Hereford, 

Sir Hugh de Ver, Earl of 7 Oxeneford, and the Earl of Arundel, and 

many Barons of the land, that is to say, on the Monday next before 

Saint Michael, in the year of our Lord the King aforesaid. And on the 

1 If this means Ulster, the statement seems 3 Dominicans, or Black Friars, 

incorrect ; as Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 4 Ferrers. 

had that title; and his only daughter was 5 More commonly, Aymer.' 

married to Thomas Earl of Lancaster. 6 Pembroke. 

3 Greenwich. 7 Oxford. 



EVENTS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II. 225 

Tuesday next after Saint Michael, came the Earl of Gloucester, Monsire 
Henry de Percy, Sir Hugh Despencer, Sir Kobert le Fitz-Payn, Sir 
Payn l Tipetout, the Chancellor, the Treasurer, and other Lords of the 
King's Council, and pronounced the aforesaid Statutes by the grant and 
the good will of our Lord the King to be maintained and confirmed 
throughout his realm, at the Cross in Saint Paul's Churchyard aforesaid, 
in presence of all the people. And on the Monday next before the 
Day of Saint Edward the King [13 October], the aforesaid Statutes, 
sealed with the King's Great Seal, were sent with his writs throughout 
the Counties, for publication and confirmation of the aforesaid Statutes; 
and on the same day, the King departed from London for his Castle of 
2 Wyndelsore. 

Memorandum, that on the Day of Saint Agnes, the Virgin and 
Martyr [21 January], in the year aforesaid, was issued the King's writ, 
with his letters under his Privy Seal, throughout all the Counties of 
England; to publish thereby on behalf of Sir Piers de Gavastone, Earl 
of Cornwall, his return by the King's command into his own land, 
as being, as pure, good, and loyal, as before he was exiled by act of 
the King, and assent of the Archbishop, Bishops, Earls, and Barons. 
The which command came from York, and was published at London on 
the Saturday next after the Conversion of Saint Paul [25 January]. 

In the seventh year of the reign of King Edward, son 

Jb 01. 14:0 B. 

of King Edward. 

Be it remembered, that on the Sunday next before the Day of Saint 
Luke the Evangelist [18 October], came the Earl of Lancaster, the 
Earl of Warwyk, the Earl of Hereford, the Earl of Arundel, Sir Henry 
de Percy, Sir Robert de Cliiford, Sir John Botetourte, and others not 
named, into the Hall of Westminster, before the King on the high dais 
there, kneeling to make obeisance unto their lord, and to ask pardon. 
And he of his own free will granted it unto them, and gave them his 
letter as to all offences up to that day committed ; and on the morrow 
his general Parliament began. 

Memorandum, that on the Vigil of the Nativity of Saint John the 
Baptist [24 June], being Sunday, there came, the King of England, the 
Earl of Gloucester, the Earl of Hereford, the Earl of 3 Penebrok, and 

1 Or Tibetoft,.or Tiptoft. 3 Pembroke. 

2 Windsor. 

G G 



226 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

many Barons of England, with banners displayed, unto near the Castle 
of l Estrivelyn in Scotland, and gave battle to Robert de Brus, and all 
his force, in the field. In which field, the discomfiture fell upon the 
people of England, it being the Day of Saint John thence next ensuing. 
And there died there the said Earl of Gloucester, Robert de Clifford, 
Baron, Giles de Argenteym, Payn Tipetoft, William le Mareschal, and 
other Barons and Knights, and the Earl of Hereford was taken prisoner, 
John de Sagrave taken, Ralph de Monhermer taken, and other Barons 
and Knights taken ; and the King made his escape without receiving 
bodily harm, and returned to Berwyk. 

[Notice given on the occasion of the 2 Robbery of the King's Treasury at 

Westminster, 31 Edward /.] 

" We do command you, on behalf of our Lord the King, upon pain of 
" forfeiture of life and of limb, and of lands, and of chattels, and whatso- 
" ever you may forfeit, that all those who have found aught of the treasure 
" of our Lord the King, be it gold, or silver, or stone, or any other 
" thing whatsoever, whether within the City or without, in whatsoever 
" place it may be, coming from his Treasury at Westminster which has 
" been broken open, shall come unto the Guildhall before the Mayor 
" and Sheriffs, and restore what they shall have so found, between this 
" and Sunday next ensuing, at the hour of Vespers. We do also 
" command, on behalf of our Lord the King, under pain of forfeiture 
" aforesaid, that all those who have sold or bought aught of the same 
" treasure, or who know that any persons have sold or bought any of 
" that same treasure, or who know that any persons have found any 
" part thereof, or have the same in their keeping in any manner whatso- 
" ever, shall come unto the Guildhall before the Mayor and Sheriffs, and 
" shall shew and acknowledge what they know thereof, between this 
" and Sunday next ensuing, at the hour of Vespers, in manner as is 
" before stated. And whosoever shall not do the same on or before such 
" day, the King will hold them as felons against him." 

The 13th year of Edward [II.], at the beginning. 
Memorandum, that the King, the Earl of 3 Langatre, the 

1 Stirling. Edward I. 

5 See the following Chronicle, s. a. 31 3 Lancaster. 



EVENTS IN THE REIGN OF EDWARD II. 227 

Earl Marshal, the Earl of l Risemond, the Earl of 4 Peneprok, the Earl of 
Hereford, the Earl of Warrenne, the Earl of Artmdel, and many Barons, 
went into Scotland to wage war against Robert de Brus. 

The 20th year of Edward [II.]. 

Memorandum, that Queen Isabel and her son Edward, 
and John de 3 Henaud, Edmund de 4 Wodestoce, Earl of Kent, Roger 
de Mortimer, and the Knights of England who had been banished, and a 
great number of men-at-arms from Henaud, arrived in England and 
penetrated as far as 5 Bristoue, and there took the Earl of 6 Winsettre 
[and] the Earl of Arondel, and sentenced them to death. After this, 
they pursued the King, Hugh 7 le Despencer, [and] Robert de 8 Baudok, 
Chancellor of England ; and took the King, and placed him in custody, 
while Hugh and Robert they sentenced to death as traitors. The King 
they deposed from the crown, and the same year he died by a sudden 
death. Edward, his son, they had crowned at Westminster before his 
father's death, and he went against the Scots, who by force of arms had 
entered his territories ; but having made a treacherous alliance with 
certain of the English, they returned to their own country. 

In 9 this leaf are set forth what Charters were in the Chest 

Fol. 159 A. 

of the citizens in the year of Our Lord 1270 ; which Chest was 

at that time in the custody of Arnald Fitz-Thedmar, under the keys of 

Robert de Corenhelle, and Robert de Rokesle, and John Addrian, 

Draper. 

The Charter of King William the First, 10 written in English. 

The Charter of King Henry the Second as to the Liberties of the 
City, granted in the . . . year of his reign. 

The Charter of King Richard as to the Liberties of the City, granted 
in the . . . year of his reign. 



1 .Richmond. 7 The Younger. 

2 Pembroke. 8 Or Baldock. 

3 Hainanlt. -" This entry, it will be observed, is of con- 

4 Woodstock. siclerably earlier date than the greater part of 

5 Bristol. the insertions. 

c Winchester ; Hugh le Despenser received n< ' script a in AngHris.' ' Anglo-Saxon ' is 

this title in the year 1322. strictly the meaning. 



228 LATER INSERTIONS IN LIBER DE ANTIQUIS LEGIBUS. 

" Whereas the tenure of edifices in the City of London is 

Fol. 161 B. 

" such, that in many places where no Mand has been sold, certain 
" persons may chance to pierce the walls of their neighbours, in which 
" they have no right of their own, nor ought to have, nor ought maliciously 
(< to enjoy the occupation thereof, as by putting in the said walls beams, or 
" corbels, or arches, or aumbries. And such occupations as aforesaid do 
" take place in cellars and in rooms in which no persons can approach the 
" same or can know thereof, save only the household of the occupier. And 
" such occupations as these do last for many years, and are not perceived, 
" so that no complaint can at an early moment be made thereon. It is 
" hereby provided, that at whatsoever time it shall be first perceived by 
" a person, however long after such occupation shall have been made of 
(< his private wall, such person shall at the same time and hour be able 
" to make his plaint thereon in the Hustings. And the Mayor shall give 
" a day for the same ; upon which day the occupier shall be summoned 
" to come before the Mayor and the folks of the 2 Assize. And if the 
" aforesaid occupier shall not forthwith shew his warranty, to the effect 
<e that he has rightfully wrought in that wall, then forthwith, at the cost 
" of the aforesaid occupier, the said occupation is to be ousted, and the 
" aforesaid wall restored to its proper state, as is before stated." 

1 This document is evidently copied most can only be guessed at. 
inaccurately, and, in some places, its meaning 3 Or Jury. 



THE 



FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. 



44 HENEY III. 17 EDWARD III. 



THE 

FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON, 



44 Henry III. [A.D. 1259, 60]. William Fitz-Richard, Mayor. 
Henry de Coventre and Adam Broning, l SheriiFs. 

In this year two 2 Romans were slain in Westchepe, namely, Master 
John le Gras and Beisantyn, by persons who were strangers. This 
year a disagreement took place between Sir Edward and Richard, Earl 
of Gloucestre, by whom the gates of London were shut, and guarded by 
men-at-arms full five weeks and more ; because that the King was then 
beyond sea to make terms with the King of France. 

45 Henry III. [A.D. 1260, 1]. The said William, Mayor. 3 John 
de Norhamtone and Richard Pikard, Sheriffs. 

In this year, on Saint John's Night [27 December] at Christmas, 
there escaped from Neugate Roger de Clere, Geoffrey de Toucestre, John 
de Saint Auban, John de 4 Euerwik, and three others ; and for this 
escape, Roger, the gaoler, was taken and imprisoned in Neugate. 

46 Henry III. [A.D. 1261, 2]. The said William, Mayor. Philip le 
Tailour and Richard de Walbrok, Sheriffs. 

47 Henry III. [A. D. 1262,3], Thomas Fitz-Thomas, Mayor. Robert 
de 5 Mounpelers and 6 Hubert de Suffolk, Sheriffs. 

In this year began the war between the King and his Barons, for the 
7 Provisions of Oxford. Then the 8 Bishop of Hereford was taken by 
the Barons. In this year the New Hall at Westminster was 9 burnt. 

1 Elected at the end of 43 Henry III., for 7 Extorted from Henry III. by Simon de 
the following year. Montfort. 

2 Followers of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 8 Peter de Egeblaunch, a Savoyard. He 
King of the Romans. was expelled from his Cathedral, and sent to 

3 Alderman of Aldgate Ward. the Castle of Erdesley. 

* York. 9 Mentioned in the Liber de Antiquis Legibus, 

5 Moptpellier. *. a. 1262. See pp. 54, 55, ante. 

6 In the Liber de Antiquis Legibus, ' Osbert.' 



232 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. 

In this year the Queen was shamefully hooted and reviled at London 
1 Bridge, as she was desiring to go from the Tower to Westminster ; and 
this, because she had caused a gentle damsel to be put to death, the most 
beauteous that was known, and imputed to her that she was the King's 
concubine. For which reason, the Queen had her taken and stripped all 
naked, and made her sit between two great fires in a chamber quite 
closed, so that this very beauteous damsel was greatly terrified, for she 
thought for certain that she should be burnt, and began to be in great 
sorrow by reason thereof. 

And in the meantime, the Queen had caused a bath to be prepared, 
and then made the beauteous damsel enter therein ; and forthwith, she 
made a wicked old hag beat this beauteous damsel upon both her arms 
with a staff ; and then, so soon as ever the blood gushed forth, there 
came another execrable sorceress, and brought two frightful toads upon 
a trowel, and put them upon the breasts of the gentle damsel ; where- 
upon they immediately seized her breasts and began to suck. Two 
other old hags also held her arms stretched out, so that the beauteous 
damsel might not be able to sink down into the water until all the blood 
that was in her body had run out. And all the time that the filthy toads 
were sucking the breasts of this most beauteous damsel, the Queen, laugh- 
ing the while, mocked her, and had great joy in her heart, in being thus 
revenged upon Kosamonde. And when she was dead, the Queen had the 
body taken and buried in a filthy ditch, and with the body the toads. 

But when the King had heard the news, how the Queen had acted 
towards the most beauteous damsel whom he so greatly loved, and whom 
he held so dear in his heart, he felt great sorrow, and made great lamenta- 
tion thereat : "Alas ! for my grief; what shall I do for the most beauteous 
" E-osamond ? For never was her peer found for beauty, disposition, and 
" courtliness." And after he had for long made such lamentation, he 
desired to know what had become of the body of the beauteous damsel. 
Then the King caused one of the wicked sorceresses to be seized, and 

1 From Wikes' Chronicle, we learn that on This indignation of the Londoners was aroused 

this occasion, upon her barge approaching the by the avarice of Eleanor of Provence and her 

Bridge (14th June), curses and imprecations countrymen. The writer has, by mistake, 

were launched against her, arid she only applied the story of Fair Rosamond, according 

escaped from a shower of mud, broken eggs, to a peculiar version of his own, to the wife of 

and stones, by a speedy retreat to the Tower. Henry III. instead of Henry II. 






THE LEGEND OF FAIR ROSAMOND. 233 

had her put into great straights, that she might tell him all the truth 
as to what they had done with the gentle damsel ; and he swore by 
Almighty God that if she should lie in any word, she should have as 
shocking a sentence as man could devise. 

Then the old hag began to speak and to relate to the King all the 
truth, how the Queen had wrought upon the most beauteous body of the 
gentle damsel, and where and in what place they would find it. And in 
the meantime, the Queen had the body of the most beauteous damsel 
taken up, and commanded the body to be carried to a house of religion 
which has " Godestowe " for name, near Oxenford, at a distance of two 
leagues therefrom ; and had the body of Rosamond there buried, to colour 
her evil deeds, that so no one might perceive the horrid and too shameful 
deeds which the Queen had done, and she might exculpate herself from 
the death of this most gentle damsel. 

And then King Henry began td ride towards Wodestoke, where 
Rosamond e, whom he loved so much at heart, was so treacherously mur- 
dered by the Queen. And as the King was riding towards Wodestoke, 
he met the dead body of Rosamonde, strongly enclosed within a chest, 
that was well and stoutly bound with iron. And the King forthwith 
demanded whose corpse it was, and what was the name of the person 
whose dead body they bore. Then they made answer to him, that it was 
the corpse of the most beauteous Rosamond. And when King Henry 
heard this, he instantly ordered them to open the chest, that he might 
behold the body that had been so vilely martyred. Immediately thereon, 
they did the King's command, and shewed him the corpse of Rosamond, 
who was so hideously put to death. And when King Henry saw the 
whole truth thereof, through great grief he fell fainting to the ground, 
and lay there in a swoon for a long time before any one could have con- 
verse with him. 

And when the King awoke from his swoon, he spoke, and he swore a 
great oath, that he would take full vengeance for the most horrid felony 
which, for great spite, had upon the gentle damsel been committed. 
Then began the King to lament and to give way to great sorrow for the 
most beauteous Rosamonde, whom he loved so much at heart. " Alas ! 
" for my grief,'' said he, " sweet^Rosamonde, never was thy peer, never 
" so sweet nor so beauteous a creature to be found : may then the sweet 

H H 



234 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1263, 4. 

" God, who abides in Trinity, on the soul of sweet Kosamonde have 
" mercy, and may he pardon her all her misdeeds : very God Almighty, 
" Thou who art the end and the beginning, suffer not now that this soul 
" shall in horrible torment come to perish, and grant unto her true 
" remission for all her sins, for thy great mercy's sake." 

And when he had thus prayed, he commanded them forthwith to ride 
straight on to Godestowe with the body of the lady, and there had her 
burial celebrated in that religious house of nuns ; and there did he 
appoint thirteen chaplains to sing for the soul of the said Rosamonde, so 
long as the world shall last. In this religious house of Godestowe, I tell 
you for truth, lieth the fair Rosamonde buried. May Very God Almighty 
of her soul have mercy. Amen. 

48 Henry III. [A.D. 1263,4]. Thomas Fitz-Thomas, Mayor. Gregory 
de Rokesle and Thomas de la Forde, Sheriffs. 

In this year, upon the fourth and fifth of the Ides [9 and 10] of 
April, there was a l massacre of the Jews in London. In the same year, 
upon the 6th of the Ides [10] of May, there was a great conflagration in 
Milkstrete and Bredstrete in Westchepe. And on the next day was the 
Battle of Lewes, that is to say, the Wednesday next before the 2 Feast of 
Saint Dunstan. In this year there was seen in the firmament a star that 
is called a " comet." At this time there were great conflagrations in 
England, and 3 Istelworthe was burnt, and the 4 Jewry destroyed. 

49 Henry III. [A.D. 1264, 5]. The said Thomas, Mayor. Edward le 
Blount, Draper, and Peter Aunger, Sheriffs. 

In this year there were great storms of thunder and lightning in 
England, and by a flash of lightning a part was struck down of the belfry 
of Saint Bartholomew's in London. In this year, upon the day of the 
3 Gule of August [1 August], part of the Barons who held with the 
Provisions of Oxenford were taken at 6 Keningworthe, being there in 
company with Simon de Mountfort the Younger ; and upon the Tuesday 

1 On the ground, according to Fabyan, that worth. See p. 65 ante. 

a Jew had extorted more than legal interest 4 Or Jews' quarter, near the Guildhall, 

from a Christian : upwards of 500 Jews were London. 

killed on this occasion. See Liber de Antiqvis s ' Gula August/.' Probably meaning ' the 

Lfgibus, p. 66 ante. ' Throat of August,' though there is some doubt 

2 /. e. the Deposition of Saint Dunstan, the as to the origin of the name. 
19th May. . 6 Kenilworth. 

3 The Eurl of Cornwall's mansion at Isl(N 



A. D. 1264,,'..] A WARDEN OF THE CITY APPOINTED. 235 

after, was fought the Battle of Evesham, on the Vigil of Saint Oswald 
[5 August]. 

50 Henry III. [A.D. 1265, 6]. Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes was made Warden 
of London, and the Mayor and Sheriffs put down for five years, because 
that the City had held with the Barons. In this year, Stephen Bokerel, 
Thomas de x Peuleslond, Michael Thovy, Goldsmith, John the Capper of 
Flete, and others, were sent for by letter of King Henry, that they 
should come to him at Windesore ; and so soon as they had come, the 
King commanded them to be put in prison, and delivered them to Sir 
Edward, his son ; and he detained them in prison, each by himself, until 
such time as they had been ransomed ; wherefore, they gave a large 
amount of property to Sir Edward that they might be released, and part 
of their lands Sir Edward caused to 'be given to knights of the land, 
in disherison of them and of their heirs for ever, in case they should not 
buy back the same with their own money. 

51 Henry III. [A.D. 1266,7]. William* Fitz-Kichard, Warden. John 
Adrian and Walter Hervi, Bailiffs. And this William Fitz-Ri chard 
was Warden for the King only from the Feast of Saint Martyn [11 
November] until Ascension Day [30 December] ; when the said John 
Adrian and Walter Hervi were made Bailiffs under Sir John de la 
Lynde and Sir John Walravene, who was then Constable of the Tower, 
until Saint Michael. In this year, upon the 2 Day of Saint Cross in 
August, Sir Edward had Gerveys Skyret drawn, who was taken from 
the Churchyard of Saint Sepulchre's, for the death of Giles de Wode- 
ham; for which reason, Master 3 Godfrey de Saint Dunstan was in great 
tribulation for the franchise of Holy Church. In the same year, after 
the Trinity, began the siege of *Kilingworth, and continued until the 
Day of Saint Lucy [13 December] next ensuing, when the castle was 
surrendered. In the same year, about Saint Michael, the disherisoned 
conquered the Isle of Ely. 

52 Henry III. [A.D. 1267,8]. Still there was no Mayor in London, 
but John Adrian and Luke de Batencourt were Bailiffs under Sir John 

1 Called Piwelesdon,' iii the Liber de August. 

Antiquis Lerjilms. 3 Custos, or Warden, of the bishopric of 

2 The Exaltation of the Holy Cross is pro- London 

bably alluded to, 14th September, and not in 4 Keuilworth. 



236 THE FKENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.. 1J67, 8. 

de la Lynde. The same year,, on the Monday before Candlemas [2 
February], the King removed from Westminster to Waltham, to go to 
Saint Edmund's for the purpose of besieging the Isle of Ely. 

53 Henry III. [A.D. 1268,9]. William Fitz-Richard, Warden. 
Walter Hervy and William de Durham, Bailiffs. 

In the same month, at the Parliament at Winchester, Philip le 
Tailour and Walter le x Porter were made Sheriffs. And by assent of 
the Prelates, Earls, and Barons, the King transferred his 2 cross to Sir 
Edward his son, that he might go, as well for him as for himself, to the 
Holy Land ; and granted him the twentieth pennies that were collected 
in England. And after the 20th day of August, he and his wife, and 
many of the great lords of the land, on the Crusade, crossed the sea at 
Dover. And then were removed Walter and Philip from their Sheriff- 
wicks, and Gregory de Rokesle and Henry Waleis were made Sheriffs 
by the citizens. 

54 Henry III. [A.D. 1269,70]. Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes, Warden. 
Thomas de 3 Basingges and Robert de Cornhill, Bailiffs. 

55 Henry III. [A.D. 1270]. Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes, Warden. 
Walter le Porter and * Philip le Tailour, Sheriffs. 

56 Henry III. [A.D. 1270,1]. 5 John Adrian, Mayor. Gregory de 
Rokeslee and Henry le Waleis, Sheriffs. 

In this year the belfry of [Saint Mary] 6 Arches fell to the ground. 

57 Henry III. [A.D. 1271,2]. Walter Hervy, Mayor. John de 
Bodele and Richard de Parys, Cordwainer, Sheriffs. 

This Walter Hervi was made Mayor by election of the commons 
against the will of the Aldermen, and he continued Mayor the year next 
ensuing. In this year died King Henry, on the Day of Saint 7 Edmund 
de 8 Pounteneye [16 November], and on the Day of Saint Edmund the 
King [20 November] he was buried at Westminster. And as soon as 
the interment had been made, Sir Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, 

1 More correctly, ' Poter.' 5 Alderman of Walbrook Ward. 

2 The cross worn as a badge by the Cru- 6 Bow Church. 

saders. 7 Archbishop of Canterbury, died 16 Nov. 

3 Alderman of Candlewick Ward. The 1242. 

family of the Basings gave name to the Ward K ' Seint Edmund the Confessor, that lith 

of Bassishaw. their mansion house (Basing's ' at Poimteneye.' Cott. MS. JuL D. ix. fol. 

jHaugh, or Hall) being there situate. 175. 
Alderman of Bishopsgate Ward. 



A.D. M72, 3.] ACCESSION OF EDWARD I. 237 

and all the other great men of England, did fealty and homage to Sir 
Edward, son of King Henry, who was at that time on pilgrimage in the 
Holy Land, as is before stated. 

EDWARD THE FIRST. 

The Names of the Mayors, and the Marvels in the time of King 
Edward, son of King Henry. 

1 Edward I. [A.D. 1272, 3]. Walter Hervy, Mayor. John Horn 
and Walter le Porter, Sheriffs. 

2 Edward I. [A.D. 1273, 4]. Henry 1 Waleis, Mayor. 2 Henry de 
Coventry and 3 Nicholas de Winchester, Sheriffs. 

At this time Walter Hervi was deposed from his Aldermanry by 
Henry Waleis. This year came King Edward and his wife from the 
Holy Land ; and were crowned at Westminster on the Sunday next 
after the Feast of the Assumption of Our Lady [15 August], being the 
Feast of Saint Magnus [19 August]; and the Conduit in Chepe ran all 
the day with red wine and white wine to drink, for all such as wished. 

3 Edward I. [A.D. 1274, 5]. Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor. Luke de 
Batencourt and 4 Henry de Fro wick, Sheriffs. 

In the same year was Adam de Bekke, Canon of the Church of Saint 
Paul, slain just before the Vigil of Saint Andrew [30 November] : and 
in this year, on the Saturday next before the Feast of Saint Bartholomew 
[24 August], the prisoners escaped from Neugate. In the same year, 
upon the Octaves of Saint Martyn [11 November], the Justiciars in Eyre 
sat at the 5 Cross of Saint Peter, that is to say, Master Roger de Seton, 
John de Cobham, and Salamon de Rochester. 

4 Edward I. [A.D. 1275,6]. Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor. 6 John 
Horn and 7 Ralph de Blount, Goldsmith, Sheriffs. 

In the same year was Michael Thovi, the Younger, hanged ; by 
reason of murders and robberies which the Aldermen imputed to him. 

1 Alderman of Cordwainers' Ward, and Piere, the Stone Cross ; which was its proper 
Mayor of Bordeaux in 1275. appellation. It stood opposite the Bishop of 

2 Alderman of Vintry Ward. Coventry's house, partly on the site of the 

3 Alderman of Langbourn Ward. present Somerset House in the Strand. 

4 A member of the Guild of Pepperers. and 6 Alderman of Bridge Ward. 
Alderman of Cripplegate Ward. 7 Alderman of Bassishaw Ward. 

5 Sub anno 1293 this is called In Croisse de 



238 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A. i>. 1276, 7. 

o Edward I. [A.D. 1276, 7]. Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor. Ralph 
d' Arras and Ralph le Fevre, Sheriffs. 

This year, upon the Vigil of Saint 2 Vincent, Sir John Lovetot 
and Sir Roger Loveday sat at the house of John Fitz-John, for the 
acquittance of those who were indicted by twelve Wards upon articles 
of larceny, and of harbouring clippers of the coin; and only three 
persons were condemned, one man and two women. In this year, the 
King went into Wales with his forces, and the City of London sent him 
100 3 arbalesters. 

6 Edward I. [A.D. 1277, 8], Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor. John 
Fitz-John Adrian and Walter le 4 Cornwaleis, Sheriffs. 

In this year, the Mayor was presented at the Tower of London to Sir 
5 Antony de Bek, and received on behalf of the King ; and there he 
made the oath. And the Mayor received the Sheriffs in the Guildhall, 
by the King's command, to spare them having to go into Wales. In the 
same year, Lewlyn surrendered to the King, and gave him, for having 
his peace, fifty thousand marks sterling, and made oath upon the holy 
relics that he would come twice each year to the King's Parliament : and 
then Leulyn espoused the daughter of Sir Simon de Mountfort, and this 
year the said Leulyn did homage to the King. 

7 Edward I. [A.D. 1278, 9]. Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor. William 
le 6 Mazerier and 7 Robert de Basinge, Sheriffs. 

In this year the three 8 engines were made at the Tower. At this 
time the King of Scotland came to London to the King's Parliament 
from year to year, and hacl his mansion, most befitting for his sojourn, 
between the abode of the 9 Bishop of Chichester and that of the Earl of 
10 Lancaster, which is called n " Saveye," without the Bar of the New 
Temple. 

In the same year, upon the Octaves of Saint Martin [11 November], 



1 Or ' Robert ; ' Alderman of Bread-street 6 Or Mazeliner ; Alderman of Aldersgate 
Ward. Ward. 

2 Either 22 January, 9 June, or 21 August. 7 Alderman of Candle wick Ward. 

3 Or crossbowmen. 8 Of war. 

4 Otherwise called 4 Lengleys.' 9 Stephen de Berksteed was the then Bishop. 

5 Archdeacon, and afterwards Bishop, of )0 Edmund, second son of Henry 111. 
Durham. " The Savoy. 



A.D. 1278, 9.] PUNISHMENTS FOK CLIPPING THE COIN. 239 

which was a Friday, just before 1 tierce, all the Jews of England were 
seized by reason of the coin, which was vilely clipped and falsified, and, 
upon the Feast of Saint Lucy [13 December] after, all the goldsmiths 
of London, and all those of the Exchange, and many of the good folks 
in town were seized, by reason of the purchase of bullion and the 
exchange of large coin for 2 small, for which they had been indicted by 
the Wards. And on the Monday next after the 3 Tiffany, the Justiciars 
sat at the Guildhall for delivery thereon, namely, Sir Stephen de 
Pevencestre, Sir Walter de Helyon, and Sir John de Cobham, and such 
as they might think proper to associate with them ; and by reason of such 
doings, three Christians and 293 Jews were drawn and hanged, for 
clipping the coin. 

In the same year, the Friars 4 Preachers of London began the founda- 
tion of their new church at Castle Baynard; and Brother Robert de 
5 Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury, was sent for by the Pope to be 
made a Cardinal. Also, Brother John de Pekham, who was a Friar 
Minor and a Cardinal, was sent to England to be Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, having been consecrated at the Court of Rome. In the same year 
was held the Round Table at fi Kylingworthe. 

In this year took place the great fire at Saint 7 Botolph's. In this 
year the exchange was made at the Tower of London, of the new money, 
sterling, halfpenny, and farthing, and Gregory de Rokesle [waa made] 
Master of the Exchange throughout all England. This year 8 Murage 
was levied on the 14th day of February in London, to continue for three 
years ; but it was Mid-Lent before it was collected. 

8 Edward I. [A.D. 1279, 80]. Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor. 9 Thomas 
Box and Ralph de la More, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, Master John de Chishull, Bishop of London, died. 

1 A canonical division of the day, beginning the three sons of Roger de Mortimer being 
at 9 in the morning, and extending to Sext or knighted by Edward I. A great tournament 
mid-day. was held, and the guests were sumptuously 

2 And of inferior value. entertained at the Round Table, for three days, 

3 A corruption of ' Theophaneia,' or Epi- at Mortimer's expense, 
phany, 6th January. 7 Boston, in Lincolnshire. 

* Dominicans, or Black Friars. 8 A toll levied for the repair of walls and 

s Who contributed to the building of the fortifications. 

Church of the Black Friars. 9 Alderman of Wai brook Ward. 
6 Kenil worth. This was on the occasion of 



240 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1280, 1. 

9 Edward I. [A.D. 1280, 1]. Gregory de Rokesle, Mayor. l William 
de Farendon and 2 Nicholas de Winchester, Sheriffs. 

10 Edward I. [A.D. 1281, 2]. Henry Waleis, Mayor. William 
Mazerier and Richard de Chikewell, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, London Bridge was broken by the great frost that 
befell. In this same year too, the Mayor first had the grain weighed 
when going to the mill, and after that the flour ; and had the hurdle 
provided, for drawing the bakers thereon. 

11 Edward I. [A.D. 1282, 3]. Henry Waleis, Mayor. Walter le 
Blount and 3 Angecelin de Bete vile, Sheriffs. 

In this year was Leulyn, Prince of Wales, taken and beheaded, and 
his 4 head sent to the Tower of London ; and Sir Edward, son of King 
Edward, was 5 then born, upon Saint Mark's Day [25 April]. 

12 Edward I. [A.D. 1283, 4]. Henry Waleis, Mayor. Martyn Box 
and 6 Jordan Godchep, Sheriffs. 

In this year was 7 Davy, the brother of Leulyn, drawn, hanged, and 
beheaded, and his head sent to the Tower of London. In the same year, 
for the death of Laurence Duket, who was hanged in the church of Our 
Lady at Arches, seven persons were drawn and hanged, that is to say, 
Reginald de Lanfar, Robert Pinnot, Paul de Stybbenheth, Thomas 
Corouner, John de Tholosane, Thomas Russel, and Robert Scot ; a 
woman also, called Alice Atte Bowe, was burnt for the same deed ; and 
Ralph Crepyn, Jordan Godchep, Gilbert le Clerk, and Geoffrey le Clerk, 
were attainted of the felony, and remained prisoners in the Tower. 8 



1 Member of the Goldsmiths' Company and 5 This is an error, as ho was born 25 April, 
Alderman of Farringdon Ward, which he 1284. 

purchased in 1279 from Ralph Flael ; and 6 Removed from office, for being impli- 

from him it received its present name. The cated in the murder of Laurence Duket, next 

Aldermanry descended to his son Nicholas, mentioned. 

and was divided into the Wards Within and 7 Or David. 

Without A.D. 1393. 8 The following were the main circumstances 

2 Alderman of Langbourn Ward. of this case. Laurence Duket, a citizen of 

3 More commonly, 'Anketin:' he was London, wounded one Ralph Cropin, or 
Alderman of Bread Street Ward. Crepyn, in West Chepe. and fled to the church 

4 It was carried through Chepe to the sound of Saint Mary le Bow. Being pursued thither 
of trumpets, and crowned with a silver coronet; by certai persons, he was slain at night in 
after which it was fixed on the pillory there, the steeple of the church, and the body was 
and then conveyed to the Tower, crowned with then hanged in one of the windows, in such a 
j vv way as to deceive the Coroner's inquest, who 



A.D. 1284,5.] OFFENCE OF GREGORY DE ROKESLE. 241 

13 Edward I. [A.D. 1284, 5]. Gregory de Eokesle, Mayor. * Stephen 
de Cornhill and 2 Kobert de Eokesle, Sheriffs. 

In this year, upon the Day of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, the City 
of London was seized into the King's hand, because that Gregory de 
Eokesle surrendered the seal at 3 Berkingchirche, and delivered it to 
4 Stephen Esshwy. 

14 Edward I. [A.D. 1285, 6]. Sir Ealph de 5 Sandwyz, Warden. 
Walter le Blount, Fishmonger, and 6 John Wade, Sheriffs. 

In this year the King passed over into France to a Parliament there, 
to make reconciliation between r three Kings. 

15 Edward I. [A.D. 1286, 7]. Sir Kalph de Sandwyz, Warden. 8 Thomas 
Crosse and 9 Walter Hautein, Sheriffs. 

In this year all the Jews of England were taken and imprisoned ; 
and put to ransom on the morrow of Saint Philip and James [1 May]. 

16 Edward I. [A.D. 1287, 8]. The said Sir Ealph, Warden. 10 William 
de Hereford and n Thomas de Stanes, Sheriffs. 

17 Ed ward I. [A.D. 1288,9]. Sir John de Bretton, Warden. 12 William 
de Betaigne and 13 John de Caunterbury, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, the said Sir John de Bretton was removed, and 
the said Sir Ealph made Warden as before, and then the King returned 
from abroad. 



returned a verdict of felo de se ; whereupon buried in the churchyard, 
the body was dragged thence by the feet, and l Alderman of Bishopsgate Ward, 
buried in a ditch without the City. It so 2 Alderman of Lime Street Ward. 
happened however that a boy, who lay within 3 Allhallows Barking, near the Tower, 
the church the same night, witnessed the trans- 4 The circumstances of this transaction are 
action, and gave information against the mur- fully explained in folio 2 b of Liber Albus. 
derers ; whereupon, numerous persons were 5 Or Sandwich, 
apprehended and sixteen hanged. Alice atte 6 Alderman of Vintry Ward. 
Bowe, who was burnt alive, as the chief con- 7 Philip IV., or the Fair, King of Franco, 
triver of the murder, according to one account and the Kings of Arragou and Spain, 
was the mistress of Crepyn, who, in the same 8 Member of the Fishmongers' Guild, and 
account, is described as a clerk. Those who Alderman of Billingsgate Ward, 
were imprisoned in the Tower, were only 9 Member of the Mercers' Guild, and Alder- 
released on paying heavy penalties ; and the man of Coleman-street Ward, 
church was placed under interdict, the doors 10 Alderman of Aldgate Ward, 
and windows being filled with thorns until n Alderman of Bread Street Ward, 
purification had been duly made. Duket's l2 Alderman of Queen-Hythe Ward, 
remains also were disinterred, and becomingly l3 Alderman of Tower Ward. 

I I 



242 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1289, 90. 

18 Edward I. [A.D. 1289, 90]. Sir Ealph de Sandwyz, Warden. 
Fulk de Saint Edmund and 1 Salamon Coteller, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, all the Justiciars were taken and put to ransom for 
their treason. Immediately after the last Sunday in April, the 2 Earl of 
Gloucester espoused the Lady Joanna of 3 Acre, the King's daughter, 
at Westminster. In the same year, John, son of the Duke of Brabant, 
married Margaret, his 4 other daughter. And after this, it was provided 
by the King and his Council, upon prayer of the Pope, that all the 
Jews in England were sent into exile between the Grule [1st] of August 
and the Feast of All Saints [1 November], under pain of decapitation, if 
after such Feast any one of them should be found in England. 

The same year, one Sir Thomas de Weyland, a Justiciar, forswore 
the land for his 5 knavery. 

19 Edward I. [A.D. 1290, 1]. Sir Ralph de Sandwyz, Warden. 
Thomas Kumeyn and 6 William de Ley re, Sheriffs. 

In this year, upon the Vigil of Saint Andrew [30 November] died 
7 Alianore, the wife of King Edward, and lies buried at Westminster. 
Also, in this year died the 8 Queen, the mother of Sir Edward, and lies 
buried at Aumesbury ; and on the Monday next before Saint Nicholas 
[6 December] her heart was buried at the 9 Friars Minors at London. 

20 Edward I. [A.D. 1291, 2]. Sir John de Bretton, Warden. 10 Ralph 
le Blount and Hamond Box, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, at Easter, the King .moved towards Scotland. 

At this time the Normans came, like robbers by night, with a great 
fleet, and landed just above the Hermitage at Dovere, and plundered 
and burnt a great part of the town. 

21 Edward I. [A.D. 1292, 3]. Sir Ralph de Sandwiz, Warden. 
11 Henry le Bole and Elias Russel, Sheriffs. 

1 Alderman of Broad Street Ward. * Or Eleanor. She died at Hardby in Lin- 

3 Gilbert de Clare. colnshire, of a slow fever. 

3 In the Holy Land ; where she was born 8 Eleanor of Provence, who died at an ad- 
A.D. 1272, being the second daughter of vanced age in June 1291. Her body was 
Edward I. buried in her Convent at Ambresbury. 

4 His third daughter. Or Grey Friars. This church stood on 
8 Causing a murder to be committed, and the site of the present Christ Church, Newgate- 
harbouring the murderd^ street. 

c Alderman of Baynard Castle Ward, and a 10 Alderman of Bassishaw Ward, 
member of the Guild of Pepperers. Alderman of Bishopsgate Ward. 



A.D. 1292,3.] VICTORIES GAINED BY THE CINQUE POKTS. 243 

In this year, the discord began between the King of England and 
Sir John le Baillol, who was then made King of Scotland. In this year, 
the right hands of three men were cut off for theft. In this year, Sir 
Ralph de Sandwyz was removed, and Sir John de Brettone was made 
Warden. In the same year began the dissension between the 1 Ports 
and the Normans, and the Ports conquered a large fleet. 

22 Edward I. [A.D. 1293, 4]. Sir John le Breton, Warden. Robert 
de Rokesle and Martyn de Aumesbury, Sheriffs. 

In this year the King came from Scotland to London, to the Parlia- 
ment there. The same year, the Justiciars Itinerant sat at the 2 Stone 
Cross. 

23 Edward I. [A.D. 1294, 5], Sir John le Breton, Warden. Richard 
de Gloucester and Henry Box, Sheriffs. 

The same year, the Ports conquered a great fleet of Spain. In this 
year there arose so great a flood in the Thames, that it drowned a great 
part of the lands of Bermundeseye and of all the country round about, 
which is still called 3 e the Breach.' 

24 Edward I. [A.D. 1295, 6]. Sir John le Breton, Warden. 4 John 
de Dunstaple and Adam de Hallingbury, Sheriffs. 

The same year died Sir Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. And 
at this time a war began between Sir John Baillol, King of Scotland, 
and the King of England. In the same year the King conquered the 
land of Wales and the land of Scotland ; and there were taken Sir John 
Baillol, King of Scotland, and John Comyn the Younger, and other 
barons and knights of Scotland, who were all sent to the Tower of 
London. 

In the same year 5 Thomas de Turbeville, knight, was drawn and 
hanged for letters containing treason. At this time was fought the 
Battle of Dunbarre, and there were slain of the Scots 26,300 men, and 
on the side of the English no man of renown, Sir Patrick de Graham 

1 Of England, the Cinque Ports more Thames passed its usual limits on the 18th 
especially. For an account of these dissensions ' day of October, and then was made the great 
and their consequences, see the History of " Breach at Retherhith ; and it overflowed the 
Bartholomew Cotton, pp. 227 234. " plain of Bermundeseye and the precinct of 

2 See page 237 ante. " Tothill." 

3 ' Le Breche.' In the (Latin) Annals of 4 Alderman of Walbrook Ward. 
Bermondsey (MS. Harl. 231. f, 46) we read 5 For particulars as to his crime, see the 
that " In this year a flood of the waters of Appendix. 



THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. t A. i>. 1295,6. 

excepted ; and there were also taken at the same time, on the side of 
the Scots, three Earls, seven Barons, eight-and-twenty knights, eleven 
clerks, and l thirteen 2 pillards ; and these were scourged and sent to the 
Tower of London. 

25 Edward I. [A.D. 1296, 7]. Sir John le Breton, Warden. 3 Adam 
de Fulham and Thomas de Suffolk, Sheriffs. 

26 Edward I. [A.D. 1297,8]. Henry Waleis, Mayor. John de Storte- 
ford and William de Storteford, Sheriffs. 4 

The same year, King Edward received the oath of the Scots, at 
Westminster, to the effect that they would never again arise against 
England, or bear arms against him ; that is to say, Sir John le Corny n, 
the Earl of Stratherne, the Earl of Carryk, four Bishops and two 
Abbots, for all the clergy of Scotland ; and so they returned free to 
their own country. 

But nevertheless, in the same year the Scots entered England and 
plundered in Northumberland, and made a knight, William 5 Waleis by 
name, their chieftain. And then the Earl of 6 Warenne, Sir 7 Henry 
Percy, Sir William Latimer, and Sir Hugh de Cressingham, the then 
Treasurer, pursued William Waleis, and took the Castle of 8 Strivelyn, 
and the next morning our people, close upon 6000 in number, issued 
forth to give battle to the said William Waleis; and the said William 
Waleis, with his forces, pursued our people back as far as the bridge of 
Strivelyn, and there was Sir 9 Hugh de Cressingham, the Treasurer, 
slain, and a great part of our people as well. 

27 Edward I. [A.D. 1298, 9]. Henry Waleis, Mayor. 10 Richer de 
Refham and 11 Thomas Saly, Sheriffs. 

In this year, on the Vigil of the Tiffany [6 January] there was 



1 Probably 130 ' is the meaning. 9 According to Prynne, lie was Canon of 

2 Apparently, soldiers so called from their Saint Paul's and an insatiable pluralist, 
marauding propensities. According to Hemingford, his skin was cut 

3 Member of the Guild of Fishmongers, and into pieces, and preserved by the Scotch as 
Alderman of Bridge Ward. relics : other writers say that saddles and 

4 In this year the King restored to the City girths were covered with it. Wallace himself, 
its liberties, on payment of a heavy fine. according to the Chronicle of Lanercost, had a 

5 Or Wallace. sword-belt made of it. 

6 John, Earl Warren, appointed governor I0 Alderman of Dowgate, or else of Bassi- 
of Scotland by Edward I. shaw Ward ; most probably the former. 

7 Nephew of Earl Warren. 1! Alderman of Aldgate Ward. 

8 Stirling. 



A.D.1298,!).] THE BATTLE OP FALKIRK. 245 

an earthquake. At this time, -the King espoused Margaret, the sister 
of the King of France. 

28 Edward I. [A.D. 1299, 1300]. Elias Kussel, Mayor. l John 
d'Armentiers and Henry de Fingry, Sheriffs. 

At this time, upon Christmas Eve, pollards were assessed at the 
value of one halfpenny, and at the following Easter were wholly for- 
bidden. At this time, a great part of the Holy Land was gained by the 
King of Tars, in the month of January and in March, it being the year 
of Grace 1299 ; and on the Day of the Magdalen [22 July] next ensuing 
the battle was fought at 2 Foukirke, and there were killed of the Scots 
57317 men; and a valiant English knight, an Hospitaller, Bryan 3 Jay 
by name, while pursuing William Waleis, who had taken to flight, put 
spurs to his horse ; whereupon his horse leaped into a deep slough, and 
when William Waleis saw this, he turned back and slew him. 

29 Edward I. [A.D. 1300, 1]. Elias Russel, Mayor. Lucas de Haveringe 
and Richard de Chaumps, Sheriffs. 

In this year, at Candlemas, was the Parliament at 4 Nicole, and 
there Sir Edward, the King's son, was made Prince of Wales and Earl 
of Chester. At this time, the Count of Artois and four other Counts, and 
people without number, were slain by 5 Peter Conow of Flanders. And in 
the same year King Edward returned into Scotland, and came to the Castle 
of Strivelyn, which was well furnished with men and with provisions for 
seven years ; and the King could do nothing, so strong was the castle, 
and so well defended. And then the King commanded two gibbets, 
sixty feet in height, to be erected before the gates of the castle, and 
swore a great oath that every person in the castle, whether earl, baron, 
or knight, high or low, in case they should not immediately surrender 
the castle, should be drawn and hanged upon the gibbets, without any 
mercy being shown him. And when those within heard this, they soon 
opened the gates, and surrendered to the King, and the King pardoned 
them. And then all the great men of Scotland made oath that they 
would each year come to Westminster, to his Parliament, and be at his 
bidding. 

1 Alderman of Langbourn Ward. Scotland. 

2 Falkirk. 4 The Norman name for Lincoln. 

3 Preceptor of the Knights Templars in * More generally known as ' Peter Coning.' 



246 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1301, 2. 

30 Edward I. [A.D. 1301, 2], John le Blount, Mayor. Peter de 
Bosenho and l Robert le Callere, Sheriffs. 

In this year, the Earl Marshal and the Earl of 2 Hereforde enfeoffed 
the King with their lands and tenements, and the King was in seisin 
forty days. The King re-enfeoifed the two Earls, to them and to 
their heirs of their bodies begotten, and, in case they should have no 
heir, with reversion to the King and to his heirs. In this year the 
Exchequer was removed from 3 Euerwyk. And in the same year, 
when the war had ceased and come to an end in Wales, Scotland, 
and Grascoigne, in order to replace his great expenses that had been 
incurred in the twenty years before, the King had justice done upon 
malefactors ; and this was called 4 " Traylebastoun," and by it the King 
gained great treasure, and by reason of this judicial process the com- 
mons of the land were [ruled] in greater equity throughout all England 
for two whole years. 

31 Edward I. [A.D. 1302, 3]. John le Blount, Mayor. 5 Symon de 
Paris and 6 Hugh Pourte, Sheriffs. 

At this time the King's 7 Treasury was broken open at Westminster. 

32 Edward I. [A.D. 1303, 4]. John le Blount, Mayor. John de 
Boreford and 8 William Coumbemartin, Sheriffs. 

At this time, Sir Roger Brabason and Sir William de Bereford sat 
as Justiciars to make inquisition who had broken open the King's 
Treasury at Westminster. 

1 Alderman of Cordwainers' Street Ward. of jewels to a large amount, but part of them 

2 Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford were ultimately recovered. In October 1303 
and Essex. Walter Wenlock, Abbot of Westminster, with 

3 York. 80 of his monks, was committed to the Tower 

4 The Ordinatio de Trailbaston is extant on on the charge of stealing property to the value 
the Parliament Rolls, (Pot. Parl I. 178). The of 100000. Twelve of them were kept in 
offenders themselves were styled * Trailbas- prison two years, without trial ; but on Lady 
tons,' and as they are described as murderers, Day 1305, the King, on coming to the church 
robbers, and incendiaries, lurking in woods at Westminster to return thanks for his victory 
and parks, they were probably so called from over the Scots, gave orders for their release 
the fact of their going armed with clubs. A but, according to Walsingham, the persons so 
description is given of them in Wright's Politi- appointed to discharge them, detained them 
col Songs (1839) pp. 318323 ; see also pp. eight days longer out of pure malice. See 
231, 383. P- 226 ante - 

5 Alderman of Cheap Ward. 8 Alderman of Tower Ward, and member 

6 Alderman of Bridge Ward. for the City at the Parliament at Northamp- 

7 On this occasion the Treasury was robbed ton. 



A.D. 1304,5.] WILLIAM WALEIS EXECUTED. 247 

33 Edward I. [A.D. 1304, 5]. John le Blount, Mayor. John de 
1 Nicole and 2 Roger de Paris, Sheriffs. 

At this time William Waleis was taken in Scotland and brought to 
London, on the 3 Day of Saint Dominic [4 August] ; and judgment was 
given against him to be drawn, hanged, and beheaded, his entrails burnt, 
and his body divided into four quarters, and his head fixed upon London 
Bridge, on the Vigil of Saint Bartholomew [24 August], 

34 Edward I. [A.D. 1305, 6]. John le Blount, Mayor. Reginald de 
Tunderle and 4 William Cosyn, Sheriffs. 

In this year, upon the Day of Pentecost, Sir Edward, son of King 
Edward, was made a knight, and other ninety-two knights were also 
made, as a mark of respect for him ; and on the 5 same day, the said 
John le Blount, the Mayor, was made a knight. At this time, Simon 
6 Frisel was drawn, hanged, beheaded, his entrails burnt, and the headless 
body hung up again and watched by night ; and on the same day, 7 two 
knights of Scotland were beheaded at the Tower of London. 

In the same year also, the Bishop of St. Andrew's, Sir Robert le 
Brus, the Earl of Carrik, and all the other Barons of Scotland, were 
bound by oath and by other affiance at Westminster, that they would 
never commit offence against England, under pain of disherison and loss 
of life and limb ; and after making such affiance, they returned safe into 
their own country. 

At this time, in one night and one day, Holy Church, throughout all 
England, was robbed by King Edward of all the treasure that was found 
therein. 

And soon after, the Scots by election made Robert le Brus their 
king ; but Sir John le Comyn would in no manner consent to his being 
crowned, wherefore Robert le Brus slew him in the Church of the Friars 

1 Lincoln ; Alderman of Bassishaw Ward. He was a faithful adherent of Wallace, and 

2 Alderman of Coleman Street Ward. was executed in the 49th year of his age. 

3 This refers apparently to the date of his 7 Properly, a knight and his squire ; namely, 
capture, as he was executed on the 23rd of Sir Herbert de Morham, a Scottish knight, but 
August 1305, the day after his arrival in of French extraction, who had been imprisoned 
London. and had forfeited his estates in 1297, but 

4 Alderman of Queen-Hythe Ward. liberated under the promise of serving Edward 

5 On this occasion the City paid ,2000 to in the Flemish war. His squire, Thomas de 
the King. Boys, was executed with him. 

6 The original form of the name of Fraser. 



248 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1306, . 

Minors at l Dounfrys ; and then, after that, at the Assumption of Our 
Lady [15 August], King Edward made an incursion into Scotland, and 
took the town of * Saint John, and encountered Sir Robert le Brus and 
his company, of whom there were slain 24217 men of Scotland, and Sir 
Robert Brus escaped by flight. At this battle were taken prisoners 
the 2 Bishop of Glasgou, the 3 Bishop of Saint Andrew's, the Abbot of 
Skone, and others, well armed in steel, like traitors against their oath, 
and were presented to King Edward ; still he would not put them to 
death by judicial process, seeing that they were prelates, but had them 
all kept in their arms in safe custody, until such time as the King should 
have commands from the Pope what to do with them. 

35 Edward I. [A.D. 1306, 7]. Sir John le Blount, Knight, Mayor. 
4 Edmund Bolet and 5 Geoffrey del Conduit, Sheriffs. 

At this time the Earl of 6 Atheles was hanged and beheaded in 
London. At this time, the two brothers of Robert Brus were taken in 
Scotland, and hanged. In this year, upon the 16th day of April, Sir John 
Waleis, brother of William Waleis, was hanged and beheaded. At this 
time died the Lady Joanna of Acres, Countess of Gloucester ; and then 
died King Edward, in the parts of Scotland, on the Friday of the 
Feast of the Translation of Saint Thomas of Canterbury [7 July], and 
upon the Vigil of the Assumption of Our Lady [15 August], his body 
was brought to Westminster. 

EDWARD THE SECOND. 

The Names of the Mayors and Sheriffs, and other Marvels, in the time of 
King Edward the Second. 

1 Edward II. [A.D. 1307, 8]. Sir John le Blount, Knight, Mayor. 
T Nicholas Pycot and 8 Neel Druerye, Sheriffs. 

In this year, on the Friday after the Feast of Saint Luke [18 
October], King Edward was nobly buried at Westminster. At this 
time the Templars were destroyed. In this year, on the Sunday after 

1 Dumfries. 4 Alderman of Candlewick Ward. 

* Perth. * Alderman of Bridge Ward. 

3 John Wishart, elected Bishop of Glasgow 6 John, Earl of Athol, an adherent of Robert 

in 1272. Bruce. He was executed 7 Nov. 1306. 

3 William Lamberton, Bishop of Saint 7 Alderman of Coleman Street Ward. 

Andrew's in 1298. 8 Alderman of Billingsgate Ward. 






.D. 1307, 8.] 



ACCIDENTAL DEATH OF SIH JOHN B AC WELLE. 249 



the Feast of 1 Saint Peter's Chair, the King and the Queen, Lady 
Isabele, were crowned ; at which Coronation, Sir John Bacwelle, a 
knight, was 2 killed by falling from a wall. In this year there waa a 
great malady of the eyes, whereby many persons lost their sight. 

2 Edward II. [A.D. 1308, 9]. 3 Nicholas de Farndon, Mayor. James 
le Botiller and William de Basinge, Sheriffs. 

3 Edward II. [A.D. 1309,10]. 4 Thomas Romeyn, Mayor. Roger 
Palmere and James 5 Fouke, Sheriffs. 

At this time came Sir Piers de Gaverstone into England, who had 
been banished by King Edward the 6 Conqueror ; and was made Earl 
of Cornwall, to the great detriment of all the realm. In this year there 
was a very great frost on the Thames, so that many persons passed over 
on foot, upon the ice, to Suthwerk, and back again to London. In this 
year, judgment was given at Westminster against the 7 franchise, as to 
the rights of bastardy ; to the effect that if any one should die without heir 
and without testament made, his lands and tenements should escheat to 
the King. 

4 Edward II. [A.D. 1310, 1]. 8 Richer de Refham, Mayor. 9 Symon 
Corp and 10 Peter de Blakeneye, Sheriffs. 

5 Edward II. [A.D. 1311, 2]. u John Gisors, Mayor. 12 Richard de 
Welforde and Simon de Mereworthe, [Sheriffs]. 

In the same year there was great discord between the King and the Earls 
by reason of Sir Piers de Gaverstone, because that the treasure of the 
land was lavished by him in vanity and great display ; and the said Sir 
Piers entertained great indignation against the great men of the land, 



1 28 January ; another feast so called was 8 Through his wrongful imprisonment of 
held on 22 February. William de Hakford, Mercer, he was deposed 

2 The monks of Westminster considered this from his office of Mayor, and deprived of his 
as a judgment in their favour, there having Aldermanry. 

been some litigation between him and the Con- 9 Alderman of Cordwainer Street Ward, 

vent. He was pressed to death in the crowd. 10 He dying within the year, John de 

3 Alderman of Farringdon Ward, and four Grauntebrigge was chosen in his place, 
times Mayor of London. The date of his 1! Member of the Pepperers' Guild, Alder- 
death seems not to be known, but he was man of. Vintry Ward, seven times Mayor, 
living so late as A.D. 1363. and member for the City at the Parliament at 

4 Alderman of Cordwainer Street Ward. York A.D. 1314. 

5 Fulk, or Folke. la He dying within the year, his executor 

6 Le. Edward I Adam Lotekyn, or Lucekyn, was elected in his 

7 Meaning that of the City, probably. place. 

K K 



250 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D.1311,2. 

and gave to each great man in the land a certain l nick-name in contempt 
and mockery. Therefore, he was watched until out of the King's 
company, and taken by the Earl of 2 Warwyk, and [by] counsel of other 
great men of the land, and brought to Warwyk ; and afterwards, by their 
advice, on the 19th day of June, at the hour of Vespers, he was taken to 
a field called " Blakelowe," near a running stream known as " Gaversik," 
and there beheaded. 

In this year there was pulled down an earthen wall near the Tower, 
which Sir 3 John Cromwell had made ; and as to which there was a great 
tumult on the same night, being the Vigil of Saint Matthew [21 Septem- 
ber], between the commons of the City and Sir John de Cromwelle. 

6 Edward II [A.D. 1312,3]. John Gisors, Mayor. 4 Adam Lucekyn 
and 5 John Lambyn, Sheriffs. 

In the same year was born Sir Edward de Wyndesore, son of the 
King by Lady Isabele the Queen, daughter of the King of France, on 
Monday the Feast of Saint Bryce [13 November] ; and upon the Day 
of Saint Edmund de Pounteneye [16 November], he was baptized by 
Sir Arnald the Cardinal. In this year, the Sunday after Candlemas 
[2 February], the Fishmongers of London made pageant of a ship sailing 
through the midst of Chepe, as far as Westminster. In this year also died 
Robert de Winchelse, Archbishop of Caunterbury. 

In this year the Iter was held in Kent, and there were as Justiciars, 
Sir Hervy de Staunton, Henry Spygornel, William de Goldingtone, 
and John de Motteforde. In this year died Ealph de Baldok, Bishop 
of London. 

7 Edward II. [A.D. 1313,4]. Nicholas de Farndon, Mayor. Hugh de 
6 Barton and 7 Robert de Burdeyn, Sheriffs. 

In this year, Sir Walter Reynold, Bishop of Worcester, was enthroned 
Archbishop of Canterbury, on the Sunday next after the Feast of Saint 



1 He called the Earl of Lancaster, the 'old * A member of the Guild of Fishmongers ; 

hog,' or the 'stage-player, 5 the Earl of Glouces- the celebrated William Walworth was his 

ter, the cuckold's bird,' the Earl of Pembroke, apprentice, 

who was tall and pale, * Joseph the Jew,' and 5 Alderman of Bridge Ward, 

the Earl of Warwick, * the black dog of 6 Or * Garton,' Alderman of Coleman Street 

* Ardenne.' Ward, probably a member of the Guild of 

3 Guy de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Pepperers or Spicers. 

Constable of the Tower. ' A member of the Guild of Goldsmiths. 



A.D. 1313,4.] THE CROSS OF ST. PAUL'S REPAIRED. 251 

Peter's Chair [28 January]. In this year the King was discomfited at 
1 Strivelyn in Scotland by Robert de Brus, on the Day of Saint John 
the Baptist [24 June]. In this battle were slain the 2 Earl of 
Gloucester, Sir Robert de Clifford, Sir Giles d'Argentein, and many 
others; and the Earl of Hereford and other great lords were taken and 
imprisoned at * Boclevile, and the 3 Earl of Penbroke, Sir Hugh le 
Despencer, Henry de Beaumond, John de Cromwell, and others, fled 
to Dunbar, and there put to sea and came to Berwyk. 

In this year the cross of the belfry of Saint Paul's was taken down 
and repaired ; and in the old cross certain relics were found, that is to say, 
a 4 corporal with which they sing mass, white and entire, without any 
defect ; and in this corporal was found a part of the wood of the Cross 
of Our Lord Jesus Christ, wrought in the form of a cross ; a stone of 
the sepulchre of Our Lord ; and another stone from the place where 
God stood when he ascended into heaven ; and another stonejfrom Mount 
Calvary, where the Cross of Our Lord was erected. There was also 
found a purse, and in this purse a piece of red 5 sendal, in which were 
wrapped some bones of the 6 Eleven Thousand Virgins, and other relics, 
the names of which were unknown. These relics Master 7 Robert de 
'Clothale shewed to the people during his preaching on the Sunday 
before the Feast of Saint Botolph [17 June] ; and after the same, 'the 
relics were replaced in the Cross, and many other new ones as well, on 
the Day of Saint Francis [16 July]. 

8 Edward II. [A.D. 1314, 5]. John Gisors, Mayor. Stephen de 
Abingdone and Hamo de Chikewelle, Sheriffs. 

In this year died the Earl of Warwik. In this year there were such 
great rains that the wheat failed, and all other things as well, in August; 
and the rains lasted from Pentecost to Easter. 

In this year, upon the Day of Saint James [25 July] before August, 
there was one baker drawn upon the hurdle alone ; and because another 
baker did not have the same sentence carried out, the same day the 

1 Stirling. 6 Who, with Saint Ursula, according to the 

2 Gilbert de Clare, eighth Earl. legend, were martyred by the pagans at 

* Bothwell. Cologne. 

3 Aymer de Valence, second Earl. 7 Chancellor of Saint Paul's Cathedral. 

4 A fine linen cloth, with which the conse- These relics were kept in the cross, to preserve 
crated elements are covered. the church from tempest. 

* Silk texture of an inferior quality. 



252 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1814,6. 

Mayor before-mentioned was reviled by the people and called a * rogue ; 
for which many persons were imprisoned and impoverished, through the 
malice and false compassing of the said John Gisors, the Mayor. 

9 Edward II. [A.D. 1315, 6]. 2 Stephen de Abingdon, Mayor. 3 Wil- 
liam Bodeleyhg and 4 Hamo Godchep, Sheriffs. 

In this year there was a great famine, so that people without number 
died of hunger; and there was also a great pestilence among the rest of 
the people. The quarter of wheat was sold at Pentecost this year, and 
after, at 38 and 40 shillings ; salt also, at forty shillings, and two small 
onions for one penny. 

10 Edward II. [A.D. 1316, 7]. 5 John de Wengrave, Mayor. 6 William 
de Caustone and 7 Ralph la Balaunce, Sheriffs. 

The great dearth still continued. In July this year there was a 
great thunder-storm, and a great fall of rain, which did vast 8 damage to 
Flete Bridge and to Holborne Bridge. 

11 Edward II. [A.D. 1317, 8]. John de Wengrave, Mayor. William 
de Furneaux and John Prior, Sheriffs. 

In this year, through collusion and conspiracy on part of the said 
Mayor, there was great discord between the commons and him ; and 
the commons provided certain points in their new 9 Charter, a thing 
that was much against the will of the said John, the Mayor. 

12 Edward II. [A.D. 1318, 9]. John Wengrave, Mayor, by pro- 
curing letters from the King, and by consent of certain persons of influence, 
against the will of the commons. 10 John Poyntel and John Dallingge, 
Sheriffs. 

In this year the new Charter was confirmed by the King, and cost 
one thousand pounds. This same John Wengrave did much evil in his 
time to the commons. 

1 This is possibly the meaning of the word 7 Properly, 'Le Balaunccr,' 'meaning probably, 

Rogier. ' a maker of Balances.' 

3 Alderman of Dowgate Ward, and a mem- 8 From MS. Cott. Faustina A. VIII. fol. 

ber of the Guild of Drapers. 175, we learn that this storm, which was con- 

3 Member of the Vintners' Guild. fined to London, destroyed several houses and 

4 Member of the Mercers' Guild and Alder- mills, as well as bridges, and carried away 
man of Bread Street Ward. both men and children. 

5 Recorder and Coroner of the City, and 9 The Charter confirmatory, granted them 
Alderman of Cheap Ward. by Edward II. 

6 Alderman of Bread Street Ward. "> Alderman of Bishopsgate Ward. 



A. D. 1319,20.] SWOKDS FORBIDDEN TO BE WORN. 253 

13 Edward II. [A.D. 1319, 20]. L Hamo cle Chikewell, Mayor. 
2 John de Preston e and 3 Symon de Abingdone, Sheriffs. 

In this year the King passed over into France to do his homage, and 
the Queen with him. In this year 4 swords were forbidden, so that no 
one was to wear them ; by reason of which, many swords were taken 
and hung up beneath Ludgate, within and without. At this time many 
of the people of the trades of London were arrayed in livery, and a good 
time was about to begin. 

14 Edward II. [A.D. 1320, 1]. Nicholas de Farndon, Mayor. 
William Prodhomme and Reginald de Cunduyt, Sheriffs. 

At this time, on Wednesday the morrow of Saint Hilary [13 
January], the Justiciars Itinerant sat at the Tower of London, namely, 
Sir 5 Henry de Staunton, William Herle, [and] Edmund Passelee. 

In this year the Mayoralty of London was forfeited, by reason of an 
offence which John Gysors had committed in the time when he was 
Mayor, in having admitted Henry de Braundeston, a felon to the King, 
to enjoy the franchise of London after such felony committed. For this 
Henry had slain a man in Holy Church, at 6 Our Lady atte Hill. And 
Sir Kobert de Kendale was made Warden, and continued such Warden 
until Wednesday the morrow of 7 Saint Dun.-tan ; when the King granted 
unto the commons, that they might elect a Mayor for the remaining time 
until the 8 quinzaine of Saint Michael ; whereupon, Hamo de Chikewelle 
was chosen Mayor. 

In this Iter it was ordained, that no felon to the King should be held 
to 9 mainprise until the Iter of the Justiciars. In this year a woman, 
Isabele de Bury by name, slew the clerk of the Church of Allhallows 
near London Wall; and kept herself within the same church for five 
days, until the Bishop of London sent his letters to the effect that the 
Church would not save her; whereupon, she was carried out of the 

1 Member of the Guild of Pepperers, six times holding several benefices. 

Mayor of London, and Alderman of Queen- 6 The Church of Saint Mary-at-Hill. 

Hythe Ward. 7 I-e. the Deposition of Saint Dunstan, 19 

2 Member of the Drapers' Guild. May. 

3 Alderman of Tower Ward. 8 Or fortnight. 

4 I.e. the wearing of them in public. 9 Or bail to produce the body. The incon- 
6 Properly, Hervey de Staunton ; founder of venience of such bail will be appreciated from 

Michael House at Cambridge, since embodied the fact that 44 years had elapsed since the 
in Trinity College. He was an ecclesiastic, preceding Iter for the City of London. 



254 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1320, 1. 

church to Neugate, and the third day after was hanged. At this Iter 
also, certain men in power, Aldermen and others, were indicted for false 
conspiracy. 

In this year began a disagreement between the great lords of the land 
and Sir Hugh le Despenser, father and son, as to divers articles, and 
evil, which the peers of the land imputed to them ; whereupon the Earl 
of Hereford, the Mortimers, and many other great lords, ravaged their 
lands and castles, and came with a great host of armed men to London, 
upon the l Gule [1] of August ; and on the Vigil of the Assumption 
of Our Lady [15 August], the Despensers, both father and son, in 
presence of the King at Westminster, were banished. Still however, 
the King retained the son in the realm, through the Cinque Ports ; and 
the said Sir Hugh, the son, plundered 2 dromonds and other ships at sea, 
in great numbers, of property that was coming towards England, and 
great evil did he upon the water during this time. 

15 Edward II. [A.D. 1321, 2]. Hamo-de Chikewelle, Mayor, elected 
by the commons at the King's wish. 3 Richard Constantin and Richard 
Hakeneye, Sherifis. 

In this year, just before All Saints [1 November], the King assembled 
his host and besieged the Castle of 4 Ledes, which belonged to Sir 
Bartholemew Badlesmere, then 5 Seneschal to the King ; and the King 
reached the castle on the Vigil of All Saints, but was kept out of it for a 
fortnight : at the end of which time, Sir Bartholemew de 6 Burghaisse 
and Lady Badlesmere, and others of their company, were sent to the 
Tower of London; and thirteen persons who were in the castle were 
hanged without the gate, and one 7 Watekyn Colpeper of Kent was 
drawn and hanged at Winchilsse. And soon after this, the King caused 
a Charter of 8 great service to be made, and wished in every way that 

1 See page 234 ante. wards joined Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in 

2 Vessels of war. his opposition to the Despensers. 

3 Alderman of Bassishaw Ward. 7 Possibly, Sir Thomas Colpeper, the go- 

4 In Kent. The occasion of this siege was, vernor of the castle, is meant. His death is 
an affront given to Queen Isabella by refusing mentioned in a subsequent page. 

her a night's lodging while on her way from 8 Meaning, a Charter binding the citizens to 

Canterbury. The citizens of London mate- serve the king in his future wars ; from which 

rially aided the King. they considered themselves exempt, except 

5 Or Steward. with their own freewill. 

6 Bartholomew Lord Burghersh, who after- 



A. . 1321, 2.] MANY NOBLES EXECUTED FOR TREASON. 255 

the good people of London should have sealed it ; but the people of the 
City would not accede to it, for all that the King could do. 

At this time, the King went towards l Wircestre with a great host, 
and at the Feast of Saint Luke [18 October] the people of London sent 
to the King at Wircestre 380 men, persons well armed. 

In this year, at the Conversion of Saint Paul [25 January] the two 
Mortimers threw themselves upon the King's favour, and were taken to 
the Tower of London by the Earl of Warenne, Robert 2 Lewer, and many 
others, after dinner on Saturday, the Vigil of Saint Valentine [14 Feb- 
ruary]. At this time, the Sheriff of Hereford was drawn and hanged at 
Gloucester. At this time, on the third day of March, the people of 
London sent to the King, a second time, 120 men-at-arms. At this time, 
on the Tuesday after the Feast of Saint Gregory [12 March], being the 
16th day of March, Sir Thomas de Lancaster, Earl of five Counties, was 
taken at 3 Burghbrigge by one Sir Andrew de 4 Hercle; and Sir 
Humphrey de Boun, Earl of Hereford, was slain, and many good folks, 
Barons of the land, slain, or taken and imprisoned; and on the 21st day 
of March the said Earl of Lancaster was beheaded at 5 Pountfreit. On the 
6 same day also, William Fitz- William, Sir Waryn del Isle, Sir Henry 
de Bradebourne, Sir Thomas Mauduyt, Sir William Tuchet, Sir 
William Cheyne, Barons, and Thomas Page, esquire to the said Earl of 
Lancaster, were all drawn and hanged at London, it being the Vigil 
of Palm Sunday. Also, Sir John Moubray, Sir Roger de Clifford, and 
Sir Gosselyn d'Eyville, were drawn and hanged at T Euerwik ; and Sir 
Henry Tyeis was drawn and hanged at London. 

Afterwards, on the Vigil of Easter, Sir Bartholomew Badlesmere, 
who was a great Baron and Seneschal to the King at London, was 
[seized] on his road to 8 Caunterbure ; and on Wednesday in Easter week 
he was shamefully drawn, hanged, and beheaded at Caunterbure, near 
his nephew Sir Bartholomew de Assebournham. Sir Francis de Alden- 
ham was drawn and hanged at Windesore, on the Wednesday after 

1 Worcester. 1322. 

8 More properly, k Ewer, the ' Waterbearer.' 5 Pontefract. 

For a mention of him, see the printed Liber 6 This date is contradicted by that which 

Custvmarum, p. 684. follows, 3rd April. 

3 Boroughbridge, in Yorkshire. 7 York. 

4 Or Harcla, created Earl of Carlisle in 8 Canterbury. 



2,56 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1521,2. 

1 Paske Florie : Sir Henry de Moimtfort and Sir Henry de Wilingham 
were drawn and hanged at 2 Bristuit : Sir John GifFard and Sir Roger 
de Elmerigge were drawn and hanged at Gloucester: Sir William 
Flemming was drawn and hanged at 3 Kerdyf : Sir Thomas Colepeper 
was drawn and hanged at Winchelse : Sir Stephen Baret was drawn 
and hanged at 4 Collyere. Sir Roger Dammory died a natural death 
from sorrow, at Tuttebury. Sir Hughe de Audelee, the father, and 
Sir John de Charltone, surrendered themselves ta the King's favour. 
Sir John Butturd, Sir John de Kingeston, Sir Mchol Percy, Sir John 
Mautravers the son, Sir John de Twyford, and Sir William Trussel, 
fled beyond sea. Sir Robert de Holond, Sir Hugh de Audele the son, 
and ninety-two other good knights were put in prison, and ransomed 
at the King's will. 

On the Vigil of Saint Margaret [20 July] next ensuing, the good folks 
of London sent to the King, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, one hundred men, 
well armed and equipped. At this time the bushel of wheat was sold at 
3s. Sd. At this time, on the second day of August, the two Mortimers were 
adjudged at Westminster, before six Justiciars, to be drawn and hanged 
for homicide and robberies which the King imputed to them ; but no 
execution of this judgment was made by the King's writ. And the next 
day, the King of his favour granted them their lives, on condition of 
perpetual imprisonment. At this time, upon the Gule [1] of August, 
the King went with his host into the parts of Scotland, and penetrated 
full sixty miles into that land, and there great numbers of his people 
died of hunger for want of food ; and the King had no encounter there, 
but shamefully returned into England, and his people were greatly 
wasted through great misfortunes and mishaps. 

16 Edward II. [A.D. 1322, 3]. Hamo de Chikewelle, Mayor. John 
de Grantham, Pepperer, and Roger de Ely, Fishmonger, Sheriifs. 

In this year, the Scots made a descent upon Blakomore in England, 
and robbed and burnt everywhere, and took great part of the King's 
provisions ; for at this time he was in the vicinity of 5 Euerwik. In the 

1 Or Pascha Floridum, Palm Sunday ; so 3 Cardiff, 
called from the Hymn Occurrunt turbce cum * Colchester. 
'Jloribus etpalmis,' sung on this day. 5 York. 

2 Bristol. 



A.D. 1322,8.] MIRACLES WROUGHT AT ST. PAUL'S. 257 

same year, upon Thursday the third day of March, Sir Andrew de 
Hercleye was made Earl of l Carlil by the King, because he had taken 
the noble Earl Sir Thomas de Lancaster, and had slain Humphrey de 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford. And in the same year the said Sir Andrew 
was taken at Carlil ; and there he was drawn, hanged, and beheaded, 
and his entrails burnt and [his body] quartered ; and his head was sent 
to London on Sunday, the morrow of Saint Gregory [12 March], 

At this time, on the 4th day of April, Hamo de Chikewelle, the 
Mayor, the Aldermen, Sheriffs, and clerks, were summoned to appear 
before the King at Westminster ; when the King, of his own will, 
without any accusation made, ousted the said Hamo from his Mayoralty, 
and made Nicholas de Farndone Warden of London. And the said 
Hamo de Chikewelle, Hamo Godchep, Edmund Lambyn, and Roger 
Palmere, Aldermen, followed the King's Court, to await his pleasure as 
to what he might think proper to accuse them of. 

At this time, God wrought many miracles in the Church of Saint 
Paul, at the tablet there which the said Thomas of Lancaster made ; in 
remembrance that the King had granted and confirmed the Ordinances 
which were made by Saint Robert de Winchelse, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and by all the great and wise men of England, to the great 
profit of all the realm. In which place, the crooked were made straight, 
the blind received their sight, and the deaf their hearing, and other 
beneficial works of grace were there openly shown. At this time, the 
sixth penny upon property was levied in London and other cities in 
England, and in 2 upland the tenth penny, to the great distress and 
impoverishment of the common people of the land. At this time, a truce 
was made between the King of England and Sir Robert de Brus, to last 
from the 12th day of June in the 3 16th year for thirteen years, upon 
divers conditions between the parties confirmed, if loyally observed. 
And after this, at the Translation of Saint Thomas [7 July], by the 
King's writ, issued from. the Chancery, the tablet in the Church of 
Saint Paul, as also the wax taper that was there offered in devotion to 
the martyr, was with great rigour taken away and removed ; but still, 
for all that, the devotion of the people was not wholly, put an end to, 

1 Carlisle. 3 Of the reign of Edward II. 

places. 



258 TPIE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.o.1322,3. 

oblations being still made at the pillar from which the tablet had been 
hung. 

The same year, after dinner on Friday, the third day before the Gule 
[1] of August, the King's Exchequer came from Euerwik to Westmin- 
ster, and great treasure therewith. At the same time, on Monday the 
1 Feast of Saint Peter, on the Gule [1] of August, at night, Sir Roger 
Mortimer, lord of Wigemor, by means of a potion subtly made, and given 
the same evening to the 2 Constable and watch of the Tower, and to the 
other persons therein, escaped from the Tower of London by a ladder 
skilfully made of cord, and fled to Porchester ; where he took ship and 
crossed the sea, and so reached the dominions of the Count of 3 Henaude. 
At this, time, upon Thursday the morrow of the Exaltation of the Holy 
Cross [14 September], the four burgesses who had followed the King's 
Court, returned to London with a fair company of people. 

17 Edward II. [A.D. 1323, 4]. Nicholas de Farndone, Mayor, not 
elected or presented, but appointed at the will of the King. Adam de 
Salesbury and John de Oxenford, Sheriffs. 

At this time, at the Feast of Saint Martin [11 November] and after, 
many good folks of London, and of other cities and towns of the land, 
were arrested by a wicked ribald clerk, Thomas de Newebigging by 
name, who held the King's commission therefor, and who imputed to 
them that they had held converse with Sir Roger Mortimer, and coun- 
selled his escape from the Tower. Also, at the Feast of Saint Nicholas 
[6 December], by the King's will, Hamo de Chikewelle was made Mayor, 
and Nicholas de Farndone removed from the office. In the 4 same year, 
at Saint Hilary [13 January], the Justiciars of the Forest sat at Stratford. 

In the same year, at the beginning of Lent, the King held his Par- 
liament at Westminster, and then the King caused to be seized into his 
hand all the lands and chattels which the 5 Bishop of Herford possessed ; 
because that the King imputed to him that he had aided the Mortimers 
against himself. And on the first Sunday in Lent, after this, a minstrel, 
Roger Wade by name, a 6 crowder, solemnly celebrated his own inter- 

1 The Feast of Saint Peter Ad Vincula, 4 I.e. the same year of the King's reign. 

Saint Peter's Chains, or Saint Peter in Prison. 5 Adam de Orleton, Bishop of Hereford. 

8 Sir Stephen de Segrave. 6 A player on the 'crowd,' (Welsh crwth) par- 

3 Hainault. taking of the nature of the harp and the fiddle. 



A.D.1323,4.] A MAN CELEBRATES HIS OWN INTERMENT. 259 

ment, as though he had been dead, and had masses sung for his soul, 
both he himself and others in his company making offering, so that many 
persons marvelled thereat. And this he did, because he put no trust in 
executors ; but by reason of this act, some persons of the religious Orders 
would have withdrawn from him his l livery which he had bought 
from them for the term of his life ; he himself however died soon after 
Easter. 

In the same year, at the Feast of Saint John [24 June], a disagree- 
ment arose between the King of France and the King of England, by 
reason of homage not being made for the territories of Gascoigne ; where- 
upon, the King of England sent thither the Earl of Kent, his brother, and 
other persons, to defend the land. 

18 Edward II. [A.D. 1324, 5]. Hamo de Chigewelle, Mayor. 
Beneit de Folsham and 2 John de Caustone, Sheriffs. 

At this time, by the instigation of Sir Hugh le Despencer, at Saint 
Michael the King had seized into his hand all the lands which the Queen 
held in England, and removed all her household, French and others, and 
put her upon her wages, twenty shillings per day. At Easter in this 
year, the Queen crossed the sea to treat of peace. And at the 3 Feast of 
the Holy Cross in May, the Earl of Warenne and the 4 Earl of Atheles, 
and other great men, passed over from Portesmouthe, with one hundred 
ships, for the parts of Gascoigne : for which passage the people of 
London sent 140 men-at-arms. 

About the same time, on Tuesday, that is to say, the fourth day of 
July, four persons escaped from Neugate to the 5 Friars Minors, at the 
hour of noon, and slew the porter, Nicholas de Westmille by name. 
And at Saint Bartholomew [24 August] next ensuing, the King with his 
Council was at Dover three weeks, to make preparation for his passage ; 
and had sent over his purveyors, horses, and treasure, and had even gone 
towards the ship to cross over, when, at the instigation of Sir Hugh 
Despencer, he changed his mind, and did not cross over. However, 
upon the Thursday next before the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy 

1 Or daily allowance of the necessaries of .by the Empress Helena in 307 or 326 ; cele- 
life. brated on the 3rd of May. 

2 Member of the Mercers' Guild, and Alder- 4 David de Strabolgie, llth Earl of Athol, 
man of Cordwainers' Street Ward. High Constable of England. 

3 The Invention, or Discovery, of the Cross s Or Grey Friars, in the vicinity of Newgate. 



260 TllE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1324, 1. 

Cross [14 September], he sent Sir Edward de Windesore, his son and 
heir, to do homage to the King of France in his stead. 

In this year, at night on the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lady [8 
September] which was on a Sunday, ten persons escaped from Neugate, 
five of whom were brought back, and four escaped to the Church of Saint 
Sepulchre, and one to the Church of Saint Bride; and afterwards, they 
all 1 forswore England. 

19 Edward II. [A.D. 1325-6]. Hamo de Chikewelle, Mayor. 
Gilbert de Mordone and 2 John Cotoun, Sheriffs. 

At this same time, proclamation was made by the King that no man 
should be the bearer of letters from the Queen, or from his son, the heir 
of England, who were then in the parts of France ; and that if any one 
should carry such letter, he should be arrested, as well as the person to 
whom such letter should be going, and they should be brought before the 
King and his Council. At this time, the Queen wore plain apparel, like 
a lady in grief who had lost her husband ; and by reason of the anguish 
that she felt for maintaining peace, the common people greatly pitied her. 

In this year, on the Sunday before the Conversion of Saint Paul 
[25 January], one 3 Sir Roger Belers, Justiciar of the King, and a great 
lord, was slain near Leycestre ; as to which there was a great outcry 
made, and many persons were imprisoned. At this time, Sir Henry de 
Beaurnond and other great men in power were attached and imprisoned 
by the King, because they would not consent to do the will of Sir Hugh 
Despencer, the son ; and then the King, by advice of his councillors, had 
the Tower of London and other castles stored with provisions. Also, Sir 
Hugh Despencer, the son, had all the carpenters, masons, and smiths 
taken, who were then in London, and everywhere around it, and caused 
all the turrets and 4 crenelles in the Tower to be repaired, and bars and 
5 bretasches to be made at all the gates there, of the very stoutest timber that 
in all England could be found; and had 6 mangonels, r springals, and other 
manner of engines, made at great cost ; and yet this availed him nothing, for 



1 As having gained the privilege of sane- 4 Battlements and embrasures, 
tuary. 5 Bastions and similar defences. 

2 Alderman of Walbrook Ward. 6 Engines for battering walls. 

3 He was murdered in a valley near Reresby , 7 Engines for throwing missiles, 
by Eustace de Folville and his two brothers. 



A.D. 13-25, c.] THE BISHOP OF NORWICH PRONOUNCED A TRAITOR. 261 

his purpose was thwarted in another way ; and all this was done through 
fear of strangers coming over in company with the Queen. 

In this year, on the Vigil of Candlemas [2 February], at night, Saint 
1 Erkenwolde was placed in his new shrine in the Church of Saint Paul. 
The King then gave orders that Sir William de 2 Hermine, Bishop of 
Norwich, should be held as a traitor, and the King imputed to him that 
he was the cause of the Queen and her son remaining in the parts of 
France. And the common people greatly pitied the said William Hermyn, 
seeing that he was a worthy man, and had laboured much to maintain the 
well-being of the land. Then the King was at Dover,- and messengers 
from the Pope came there to him, and returned with their answer privily ; 
that there might be no common talk as to why they had come, or what 
answer they had received. In this year there was a great drought in rivers 
and in springs, so that there was a great want of water in many countries. 
At this time, shortly before the Feast of Saint John [24 June], the town 
of 3 Roiston was burnt, part of 4 Wandlesworth, and the Abbey of 
5 Croxton near Leicester ; and at this time there happened other confla- 
grations in England. 

At this time, for want of fresh water, the tide from the sea prevailed 
to such a degree that the water of the Thames was salt ; so much so, that 
many folks complained of the ale being salt. At this time, at Saint 
Barnabas [11 June] the English conquered the land of Gascoigne, which 
the King of France had overrun, so that many persons were slain ; by 
reason whereof, the King had proclamation made, on the Day of Saint 
Margaret [20 July], that no Frenchman should trade in England, or 
come into these parts ; and it was further set forth in the said proclama- 
tion, that the Queen of England ought no longer to be called ' Queen.' 
At the same time, all the English who were in France were arrested on 
the same day, being a great multitude of people. 

At this time the said Sir Edward, heir of England, and the Lady 

1 Bishop of London in the 7th century. The Queen Isabella against her husband, 
body was removed by night to the chapel of 3 Royston, in Hertfordshire. 

the Blessed Virgin, to avoid too great a con- 4 Wandsworth, in Surrey. 

fluence of the people. 5 This fire took place on St. Barnabas' Day 

2 Otherwise, Ayreminne, Heyremin, or (11 June), through the negligence of the 
Armine. He was Chancellor of England, and plumber, who was mending the leads. 

Lord Treasurer, but gave active assistance to 



262 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D.1325, 6. 

Isabele his mother, Queen of England, collected about them a great array 
of persons, and a great fleet, to come over to England with many men 
from * Henaud ; and the King then gave orders for a great fleet to be 
assembled, for the purpose of preventing the coming of his son, and of 
the Queen and their company. But the mariners of England were 
not minded to prevent their coming, by reason of the great anger they 
entertained against Sir Hugh le Despencer ; and took counsel among 
themselves to go into Normandy, where, upon their arrival, they 
plundered and burnt, to the great damage of the land, though many 
of our English people were there slain. And then, upon the Wednesday 
before the Feast of Saint Michael, which itself fell on a Monday, the 
Queen of England and her son, and the Mortimer, with a vast company 
of great lords and men-at-arms, arrived at 2 Herwiche and Orewelle in 
Essex, to destroy the enemies of the land. 

20 Edward II. [A.D. 1326, 7]. Hamo de Chikewelle, Mayor. 3 Richard 
de Rothinge, Taverner, and Roger Chaunceler, Sheriffs. 

At this time, at Saint Michael, Lady Isabele, the Queen, and Sir 
Edward, her son, sent their letters to the commons of London, to the 
effect that they should assist in destroying the enemies of the land ; but 
received no answer in return, as to their wishes thereon, through fear of 
the King. Wherefore a letter was sent to London by the Queen and 
her son, and was fixed at daybreak upon the Cross in Chepe, and a copy 
of the letter on the windows elsewhere, upon Thursday, that is to say, 
the Feast of Saint 4 Dionis [9 October], to the effect that the commons 
should be aiding with all their power in destroying the enemies of the 
land, and Hugh le Despencer in especial, for the common profit of all the 
realm; and that the commons should send them information as to their 
wishes thereon. Wherefore the Commonalty proceeded to wait upon the 
Mayor and other great men of the City, at the 5 Friars Preachers in 
London, upon the Wednesday before the Feast of Saint Luke [18 
October] which then fell on a Saturday ; so much so, that the Mayor, 
crying mercy with clasped hands, went to the Guildhall and granted the 



1 Hainault. St. James, Garlick-Hythe, where he was buried. 

2 Harwich, 4 Or ' Denis.' 

3 According to Stowe, he rebuilt the Church of 5 Or Black Friars. 



A.D.1326,7.] STAPULTON, BISHOP OF EXETER, MURDERED'. 263 

commons their demand, and cry was accordingly made in Chepe, that the 
enemies to the King, and the Queen, and their son, should all quit the 
City upon such peril as might ensue. It happened also on the same day, 
at the hour of noon, that some persons had recourse to arms, and seized 
one John le Marchal, a burgess of the City, in his own house near 
Walbrok, who was held as an enemy to the City and a spy of Sir Hugh le 
Despencer; and he was brought into Chepe, and there despoiled and 
beheaded. 

Just after this, upon the same day and at the same hour, there came 
one Sir Walter de 1 Stapulton, the then Bishop of 2 Exestre, and Trea- 
surer to the King the year before, riding towards his hostel in Eldedeanes- 
lane, to dine there ; and just then he was proclaimed a traitor ; upon 
hearing of which, he took to flight and rode towards Saint Paul's Church, 
where he was met, and instantly dragged from his horse and carried into 
Chepe ; and there he was despoiled, and his head cut off. Also, one of 
his esquires, who was a vigorous man, William Walle by name, took to 
flight, but was seized at London Bridge, brought back into Chepe, and 
beheaded ; while John de Padington, another, who was warden of the 
manor of the said Bishop, without Temple Bar, and was held in bad 
repute, was beheaded the same day in Chepe. 

Upon the same day, towards Vespers, came the choir of Saint Paul's 
and took the headless body of the said Bishop, and carried it to Saint 
Paul's Church; where they were given to understand that he had died 
under sentence ; upon which, the body was carried to the Church of 
Saint Clement without Temple Bar. But the people of that church 
put it out of the building ; whereupon certain women and persons in the 
most abject poverty took the body, which would have been quite naked, 
had not one woman given a piece of old cloth to cover the middle, and 
buried it in a place apart without making a grave, and his esquire near 
him, all naked, and without any office of priest or clerk ; and this spot is 
called 3c the Lawless Church.' The same night, there was a burgess 

1 Stapledon or Stapleton. According to at the back of the Bishop's house, without 

Walsingham, the reason for this, was the fact Temple Bar ; but the Queen and her son, a 

that the King by his advice had caused the jus- few months after, had it removed to Exeter 

tices itinerant to hold their Eyre in London, so Cathedral, 

that there was the less chance of criminals es- 2 Exeter, 

caping punishment. According to one account, 3 Le Laweles Chirche. 
his body was at first buried in a heap of sand 



2(54 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A. D. 1326, 7. 

robbed, John de Charltone by name. Also, on the Thursday following, 
the Manors of Fynesbury and of 1 Yvilane, which belonged to Master 
Robert Baldok, the King's Chancellor, were despoiled of the wines and 
of all things that were therein, and many other robberies were committed 
in the City. 

Also, upon the same day, the commons of London were armed and 
assembled at the Lede Halle on Cornhille, and the Constable of the Tower 
there agreed with the commons that he would deliver unto them Sir 
John de Eltham, the King's son; as also, the children of Sir Roger 
Mortimer, Sir Moriz de Berklee, Sir Bartholomew de Burghasche, and 
the other persons who had been imprisoned in the Tower, by reason 
of the dissensions for which Sir Thomas de Lancaster and other great 
men had been put to death ; those who were released being sworn unto 
the commons that they would live and die with them in that cause, 
and that they would maintain the well-being of the City and the peace 
thereof. Also, there were sworn and received into the protection of the 
City, the Dean of Saint Paul's, the Official of Canterbury, the Dean 
of the Arches, the Abbots of Westminster and of Stratford, and all the 
2 religious, and all the justices and clerks, to do such watch and ward as 
unto them belonged to do. 

At the same time, upon the Vigil of Saint Luke [18 October] the 
tablet which Sir Thomas de Lancastre had had painted and hung 
up in the Church of Saint Paul was replaced upon the pillar; 
which tablet had been removed from the pillar by the rigorous command 
of the King's writ. At the same time, the 3 Friars Preachers took to 
flight, because they feared that they should be maltreated and annihi- 
lated ; seeing that the commonalty entertained great enmity against 
them by reason of their haughty carriage, they not behaving themselves 
as friars ought to behave. At this time, it was everywhere the common 
talk that if Stephen de 4 Segrave, Bishop of London, had been found, 
he would have been put to the sword with the others who were be- 
headed ; as well as some Justiciars and others, who betook themselves 
elsewhere in concealment, so that they could not be found. At this 

1 Ivy Lane. 4 A mistake for < Stephen de Gravesend.' 

2 /. e. members of the religious Orders. Gilbert de Segrave, Bishop of London, died 

3 Or Black Friars; who were warm sup- in 1316. 
porters of Edward II. 



A.D.1326,7.] FLIGHT OF EDWARD II. 265 

time no pleas were pleaded in the Court of the Official of Caunterburi, 
neither in Consistory nor before Commissary, except as to matters 
touching matrimony or testament, for fear of producing dissensions 
thereby. At this time, a counterfeit letter was forged, and read in the 
Guildhall, in deceit of ^the people, to the effect that the King and 
Queen were reconciled, and that the enemies of the land were taken, 
a thing that was then wholly false. At this time, the King, in company 
with his l enemies, took ship from 2 Bristowe, so that for a time no 
one knew what had become of him ; and on Monday, the Vigil of 
Saint Simon and Saint Jude [28 October], Sir Hugh le Despencer, 
the father, was taken at Bristowe, and there hanged, drawn, and be- 
headed, his head being sent to Winchester, because he was Earl of 
Winchester. 

At this time, on Saturday the Vigil of Saint Edmund [16 November], 
the 3 Bishop of Winchester, who had come from the Queen, came to the 
Guildhall, and was there admitted to be one of the community, to live 
and die with them in the cause, and to maintain the franchise ; and he 
brought letters from the Queen and from her son, to the effect that the 
commons should elect a Mayor from among themselves; for before that, 
there had been no Mayor, save only by the King's favour, seeing that 
the Mayoralty had been 4 forfeited at the Iter of the Justiciars. There- 
fore, they chose the same day one 5 Richard de Betoygne to be Mayor ; 
who had then just come from the Queen, and who the same year suffered 
great persecution from the King and Sir Hugh Despencer, the son. 
At the same time, Sir Henry de Lancaster and other great men pursued 
the King into Wales, near 6 Snaudon, so closely, that the King forsook 
his enemies who had brought him away from his kingdom, and surrendered 
himself to his liege people ; and there the enemies were taken, Sir Hugh 
Despencer, Sir Robert de Baldok, and others in their company, and 
were brought to Hereforde. Also, on the Monday following, the 7 Earl 

'Meaning, the younger Despenser and 7 Edmund Fitz-Alan, 8th Earl of Arundel. 

Robert Baldock. He was connected with the Despencers, and 

2 Bristol. had promoted the execution of the Earl of 

3 John de Stratford. Lancaster, but the chief reason for his own 

4 See page 253 ante. execution, according to Walsingham, was a 

5 Member of the Goldsmiths' Guild, and desire on part of Roger Mortimer, to obtain 
Member for the City in 1327, 8. his estate at Clun, in Shropshire. 

6 Snow don. 

M M 



266 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [4.D.1826,?. 

of Aroundel was beheaded at Hereforde ; and, on the Wednesday after, 
one 1 Bernard d'Espaygne, a wine-merchant, was beheaded in London, at 
2 Nomanneslond, for treason which he had committed. Also, on Monday 
the Vigil of Saint Katherine [25 November], Sir Hugh le Despencer, 
the son, was hanged, drawn, and beheaded, and his entrails burnt, at 
Hereforde, and one 3 Symon de Redingge, who had shown contempt for 
the Queen, was drawn and hanged. Also, one Master Robert de Baldok, 
who was the King's Chancellor, one of the greatest lords of the land, 
the 4 Bishop of Hereforde, and the Prior of Hereforde, were put in prison. 

Also, on Thursday, after dinner, the day before the Vigil of Saint 
Nicholas [6 December], the head of Sir Hugh le Despencer, the son, was 
carried, with sound of trumpets, through Chepe, to London Bridge ; and 
there the head was fixed. At this time too, the King was sent to the Castle 
of 5 Kelingeworthe, in the custody of Sir Henry, Earl of Lancaster. In 
this year, the Queen and her son came to London, with a fine company 
of great men of the land and of the burgesses of London, on the Sunday 
next before the Tiffany [6 January], to hold a Parliament there ; so that, 
on Tuesday the Day of Saint Hilary [11 January], the 6 Archbishop of 
Caunterbury pronounced at Westminster, before all the Baronage of the 
land, many articles against the King. By reason whereof all the people 
agreed, and cried aloud, that he ought no longer to reign, but that they 
should make his son, the Duke of 7 Gyene, king. Wherefore, Bishops, 
Abbots, Priors, Earls, Barons, Knights, and burgesses, were sent to him 
at the Castle of 8 Kylingworthe, to hear his will thereupon, if he would 
agree to the crowning of his son, and abdicate the kingdom ; and if not, 
the messengers were to withdraw their homage for all the land. 

Whereupon, while the messengers were with the King, on the Sunday 
before the Feast of Fabian and Sebastian [20 January], proclamation was 
made in Chepe that all who owed service at the King's Coronation, or 

1 Carte calls him ' Antony.' He was engaged had spoken too freely of the Queen's conduct, 
in collecting the duty of two shillings per tun 4 This is evidently an error, as Adam de 
on wines imported by foreign merchants. Orleton, Bishop of Hereford, was one of the 

2 No Man's Land, was a piece of ground King's most active enemies, 
(about three acres) situate without the walls, 5 Kenilworth. 

on the North of the City, between the lands of 6 Walter Reynolds, Lord Chancellor and 

the Abbot of W estminster and the Prior of St. Lord Treasurer. 

John of Jerusalem. 1 Guyenne. 

3 A member of the King's household, who 8 Kenilworth. 



A.D.1326,7.] IMPRISONMENT AND DEATH OF EDWARD II. 267 

t 

who claimed to hold any service, should be present at the Coronation of 
the new King, Sir Edward, Duke of Gyene, on Sunday the Vigil of 
Candlemas [2 February.] At the same time, upon Tuesday the Feast of 
Saints Fabian and Sebastian [20 January], Sir Walter Reynald, Arch- 
bishop of Caunterbury, preached at the Guildhall of London, and seven 
Bishops came with him ; and there he made oath, with the other Bishops, 
in manner as the great men had before made oath. And because that 
the commons of London had hostile feelings against the Archbishop for 
many reasons, the said Archbishop agreed with the commons that he 
would give them fifty tuns of wine, and, in addition thereto, would make 
compensation the next day to every person who should wish by bill 
reasonably to make plaint against him. 

And then was Sir Edward of Carnarvan sent away to the Castle of 
Berklee, from the Castle of Kelingworthe, through fear that he might 
have been carried off by the abetting and procurement of a certain Friar 
Preacher, Brother l Thomas Dunheued by name, and many others of that 
Order who conspired with him; wherefore, he was taken, as well as 
many others with him, and put into rigorous confinement at 2 Euerwik. 
And then Sir Edward of Carnarvan had two keepers appointed, Sir 
Thomas de Berkle and Sir John Mautravers, to keep him safely in 
perpetual imprisonment. But by the abetting of certain persons, and 
with the assent of his false keepers, he was traitorously and vilely 
murdered by night, like false and disloyal perjurers as they were. 

The said Edward reigned here nineteen years and a half, and lies 
buried at Gloucester. 

EDWARD THE THIRD. 
These are the Names of the Mayors and Sheriffs in the time of 

Edward the Third, born at Windesore, and other Marvels that have 

happened in the same time. 

1 Edward III. [A.D. 1326, 7]. Richard de Betaigne, Mayor. 
Richard de Rothingge and Roger Chaunceler, Sheriffs. 

This Edward of Windesore was made knight and crowned king, all 

1 Thomas Dunhead. He had been commis- King's service. Being made prisoner, he was 

sioned to the Pope by Edward, to solicit a confined in Pontefract Castle, and was killed 

divorce from Isabel, and he now, according to in an attempt to make his escape, 

some accounts, raised a body of men in the 2 York. 



268 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1326, 7. 

in one day, and was only fourteen years of age on the Day of Saint Bryce 
[13 November] then last past ; after which, he held a great Parliament 
at Westminster. In this Parliament the King granted to the citizens of 
London all their franchises which they had before lost, and also granted 
unto the City other franchises which the king had never before granted ; to 
the effect that the Mayor should be Justiciar in the Guildhall, ana 1 that 
before him should be condemned those who should be taken for felony or 
for larceny within the liberties ; by reason whereof, on the eighth day 
of May three persons were condemned to death, it being the Friday next 
after the Feast of Saint John Port Latin [6 May], 

At this time, at the Ascension, the young King, with a great force of 
his land, prepared himself at Newcastle to go against the Scots, and had 
from London 200 men mounted and well armed. At this period the Scots 
had invaded England, as far as l Stannowe Park. And when our young 
King came there, he pitched his tent and pavilions, and besieged the Park 
for fifteen days. And by reason of the hatred that the great men of 
England entertained against the Hainaulters, by consent, the Scots 
escaped from the Park by night, whereas they might all have been 
taken, killed, and overthrown. Also, by sanction of some traitors, 
James Douglas effected an entrance among the pavilions of our young 
King, to carry him off to the dominions of Scotland. But the said 
James Douglas was descried by the watch in the host, and so took to 
flight ; and his chaplain, a strong and vigorous man, was stopped and 
slain. And then, the King and his people returned to 2 Euerwik ; and in 
the meantime there arose a great dissension between the English and 
the Hainaulters, by reason of which many of our English people were 
slain in their houses. And from thence the King went to 3 Nichole, and 
there held his Parliament. And at this time the death of Sir Edward of 
Carnarvan, his father, was made public, who had been traitorously 
murdered in the Castle of Berkle, as God knows. And then the Lady 
Philippa, 4 daughter of the Count of Henaude, came to London, to be 
married to our young King ; and soon after, the King espoused her at 

1 Stanhope Park ; in the Bishopric of Dur- 4 Youngest daughter of William III., Count 
ham. of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand, and Lord 

2 York. of Friesland. She was married to King 

3 Lincoln. Edvvftrd at York, January 24, 1328. 



A.I>. 1327, 8.] INSOLENCE OF SIR ROGER MORTIMER. 269 

Euerwyk, and held his Parliament there. And then came thither 
messengers from Scotland, to treat of peace, and our young King sent his 
messengers to the great men of Scotland, to know all their will thereon. 

2 Edward III. [A.D. 1327,8]. Hamo de Chikewell, Mayor. Henry 
Darcy and John Hauteyn, Sheriffs. 

And then it was granted, ordained, and cried and published through- 
out the two realms, by assent of the Lady Isabel the Queen, the King's 
mother, and Sir Roger Mortimer, and others of their covin, that David 
le Bruis, son of Robert le Bruis, late king of Scotland, should espouse 
Lady Joanna of the * Tower; which espousals were celebrated with 
great solemnity on the Sunday next before the Feast of Saint Margaret 
[20 July], at Euerwyk. And then the Queen, Lady Isabel, and Sir 
Roger Mortimer, assumed unto themselves royal power over many of 
the great men of England and of Wales, and retained the treasures of 
the land in their own hands, and kept the young King wholly in subjec- 
tion to themselves ; so much so, that Sir Henry, Earl of Lancaster, who 
was made chief guardian of the King at the beginning, at his Coronation, 
by common consent of all the realm, could not approach him or counsel 
him. Wherefore, Sir Henry the said Earl, by advice of many great 
men of the land, and of the 2 Archbishop of Caunterbury and other 
Bishops, was greatly moved against the Queen, Lady Isabel, and Sir 
Roger le Mortimer ; with the view of redressing this evil, that so the 
King might be able to live upon his own, without making extortionate 
levies to the impoverishment of the people. 

3 Edward III. [A.D. 1328, 9]. 3 John de Grantham, Mayor. Simon 
Fraunceis and Henry Combemartin, Sheriffs. 

In this year our young King crossed the sea, with a noble retinue, to 
meet the King of France, and do homage for the territories of Gas- 
coygne; and did not remain there long, but returned into England, and 
at Caunterbury had grand jousts held ; and then after that, at London, in 
4 Chepe. Never were there held in England any such famous jousts as 
these. 

1 So called from having been born in the- 3 A member of the Guild of Pepperers. 
Tower of London. In consequence of her 4 It was on this occasion that the Queen 
marriage with David Bruce, she received in and her ladies fell from a stage, erected near 
derision, the name of ' Joan Makepeace' She Soper's Lane. The carpenters, however, 
died without issue in 1357. through whose carelessness the accident had 

2 Simon Mepham. happened, were pardoned at her intercession. 



270 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1329, 30. 

4 Edward III. [A.D. 1329,30]. 1 Simon Swanlond, Mayor. 2 Richard 
Lacer and Henry Gisors, Sheriffs. 

In the same year the Lady Philippa, the Queen, was crowned at 
Westminster, on Sunday at the beginning of Lent : and in the ensuing 
week, the King held his Parliament at Winchester. And there was Sir 
Edmund de Wodestoke, Earl of Kent, arrested; who was son of a 3 king, 
brother of a king, and uncle of our young King ; and right or wrong, he 
was there condemned and 4 beheaded, and so put to death. And then 
after this, in the same year, the King held his Council at Notingham ; 
and there he perceived in divers manners that he had evil counsel, and 
that his kingdom was on the point of being ruined, and the people as 
well. Wherefore, the King took this greatly to heart. For the Queen, 
his mother, and Sir Roger Mortimer, had all the land in their own 
hands, and had collected a great host out of Wales and England, and 
committed great havoc wherever they came ; so much so, that there was 
no woman, wife or maiden, in all the country forty miles and more 
about, who was not forsworn and undone before the very eyes of her 
lord, greatly in his despite. And thus did they hold the young King 
and John of Eltham, his brother, quite under. 

And at this same time, as God willed it, the King, with his Council, 
had Sir Roger le Mortimer privily seized in his bed in the Castle of 
Notingham, and some others with him, and had them sent to the Tower 
of London; whereas they themselves thought to have undone the King 
and all of his blood. And then after this, Sir 5 Roger Mortimer, and 
Sir Symon de Bereford, who was of his counsel, were drawn and hanged 
at London. 

5 Edward III. [A.D. 1330,1]. John de 6 Polteneye, Mayor. 
7 Robert de Ely and Thomas Horewod, Sheriffs. 

1 The same person probably, that in Devon's and is said to have been the first person 
Issue Roll p. 133, is mentioned as selling large executed at Tyburn ; but according to Roger 
quantities of cloth for the King's household, 10 of Wendover, William Fitz-Osbert, or Long- 
Edward II. beard, was executed there in 1196. 

2 Mercer, and Mayor in 1345. 6 Or Pountney. He was born at the village 

3 Edward I., II., and III., are here alluded of Poutenei, or Pultonheath, in Leicestershire. 
to. He was a member of the Drapers' Company, 

4 21 March 1330, his estates being given to and four times Mayor, but never served the 
Geoffrey, Mortimer's youngest son. office of Sheriff. 

6 Mortimer was executed 29 November, 1330, 7 A member of the Fishmongers' Company. 



A.D. 1830,1.] INVASION OF SCOTLAND. 271 

In the same year, the King, with a great host, invaded the parts of 
Scotland near Berwyk, and gave battle to the Scots, and fought them 
foot to foot, and discomfited and slew of the Scots 60718 men. And 
when they of Berwyk saw how that the battle was lost, they cried with a 
loud voice unto Sir Edward, our young King, that they might of his 
grace have life and limb ; and the King granted them life and limb ; and 
they forthwith surrendered unto him the town of Berwyk, whereat the 
whole of England had great joy ; and he then returned into England to 
maintain the peace and to chastise misdoers. 

6 Edward III. [A.D. 1331, 2]. John de Polteneye, Mayor. John 
de Mokkinge and Andrew Aubri, Sheriffs. 

7 Edward III. [A.D. 1332, 3]. John de Prestone, Mayor. Nicholas 
Pike and John Husbonde, Sheriffs. 

8 Edward III. [A.D. 1333, 4]. John Polteneye, Mayor. John 
Hamond and William Haunsard, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, the Duke of Bretagne came into England to do 
homage to our young King, that he might hold his lands in l England in 
peace. And in the same year the King made another expedition into 
Scotland, because the people there would keep no peace, but would 
always be at war ; and so the King passed through the land, but the 
Scots always took to flight, so that no encounter could then take place. 
Wherefore the King was very angry, and all his people then returned into 
England, and he had the laws established, and the false and disloyal, and 
the misdoers of his land, chastised. 

9 Edward III. [A.D. 1334,5]. 2 Eeginald del Conduyt, Mayor. 
John de Hinggestone and 3 Walter Turke, Sheriffs. 

10 Edward III. [A.D. 1335, 6]! 4 Reginald del Conduyt, Mayor. 

5 Walter de Mordone and Ralph de Up tone, Sheriffs. 

11 Edward III. [A.D. 1336,7]. John de Polteneye, Mayor. 

6 William Brikelesworthe and John de Northall, Sheriffs. 

1 In Yorkshire and Northumberland, and 4 According to a more correct account, 
elsewhere. Nicholas Wotton was Mayor in 1335, 6. 

2 Member of Parliament for the City in 5 Member of the Fishmongers' Company. 
1322 and 1327, and a member of the Vintners' 6 MS. Harl. 4199 f. 33b and Stowe (Survey) 
Company. give the names of John Clarke and William 

3 Mayor in 1350, and a member of the Fish- Curtis as Sheriffs, 
mongers' Company. 



272 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1337, 8. 

12 Edward III. [A.D. 1337, 8]. l Henry Darcy, Mayor. 2 Walter 
Nele and Nicholas Crane, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, the Scots began once again to wage war against 
our King; and the King, the third time, assembled a great host, and 
made an expedition throughout the territories of Scotland, but could find 
no one to oppose him ; whereat the King and all his host were very 
indignant. And on his return towards England, the King laid siege to 
the Castle of Dunbarre, and there remained full fifteen weeks ; until the 
King of France wrongfully began to levy war against Sir Edward, our 
young King. And then, messengers were sent to the King of France, 
that is to say, the 3 Archbishop of Caunterbury, the 4 Bishop of Durham, 
5 Sir Geoffrey Scrope, and Sir William de Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon, 
to treat of peace between the two realms of France and England ; and they 
proffered him great gifts, marriage, and great treasure, but the King of 
France would in no wise consent thereto, or grant any terms, but would 
wage war in every way, and seize the land of Gascoigne into his hand, 
and all the lands that our young King had beyond the sea. And then, 
when our young King perceived that the King of France would not do 
otherwise, he sent for all the great men of England, and held a Parlia- 
ment at Westminster, and took counsel to cross the sea and lead an 
expedition against the King of France, who would have no peace : and 
so he asked aid of all his land ; whereupon, there was granted unto him, 
for carrying on his war, great treasure, and a great multitude of men-at- 
arms, as also all the wool of England for two years, to be kept from the 
commencement of his expedition. 

13 Edward III. [A.D. 1338, 9]. Henry Darcy, Mayor. William 
Pountfreit and Hughe Marberer, Sheriffs. 

In this year, our young King provided himself with a great force of 
English and of Welsh, and crossed the sea from Orewelle in Essex, and 
arrived in Flanders ; and his people passed on unto the isle of 6 Cagent 



1 Member of the Drapers' Company. 3 John Stratford, 

a Bladesmith. He was a man of opulence, 4 Richard Aungerville, or De Bury. 

and left lands for repair of. the highways 5 Chief Justice of the King's Bench. 

about London, between Newgate and Wy- 6 Cadsand, an insulated tract of land 

combe, Aldgate and Chelmsford, Bishopsgate between Sluys and Flushing, at the mouth of 

and Wa,re, South wark and Rochester. the Scheldt. 



A.D. 1888,9.] SUCCESSES AGAINST THE FRENCH. 273 

and * slew all who could be found therein ; and there they obtained great 
riches, and then ravaged the whole of the said island with fire. And 
then our young King took his host, and went into Brabant, and sojourned 
a long time at Andwerp, and there held his Parliament ; and there made 
oath unto him all those of Flaundres, of Brabant, of Henaud, and of 
Almaine, that they would live and die with him, our young King, in his 
cause against the King of France. Also, our young King agreed that 
he would be their liege lord, to live and die with them, and to defend and 
maintain them at all times against all people in the world. 

And when the alliance had been made by assent of the lands aforesaid, 
Sir Edward, our young King, took his host and removed from Andwerp, 
and began to make incursions in the territory of the King of France, and 
ravaged it with fire on every side, and conquered more than 160 miles of 
his land. And then was a certain day appointed for a battle to be fought 
between the two kings. And when the time came that the battle should 
have been fought, as to Philip de Yaloys, the King of France, his mind 
changed, and he began to shudder when he saw our people all ready in 
the field in battle array ; whereupon he retreated, like a disloyal knight, 
and said, like a coward, that his heart misgave him that he should be 
discomfited in any battle fought on that day. Wherefore, he retreated 
with his host towards Paris ; to his own perpetual disgrace, and to the 
lasting honour and victory of our own King of England. And at this 
time did Philip de Valois lose the name and appellation of King of 
France ; and to Sir Edward, our King, was given the 2 name and appel- 
lation of rightful King of France and of England ; and the same was 
acceded to by all the chivalry of Christendom. 

And then our young King, the 3 Duke of Brabant, the 4 Count of 
Henaud, the 5 Count of Julers, the Count of 6 Gerle, and many other great 
men of divers lands, returned, each to his own country. But before 

1 On the contrary, they took as many Earl of Cambridge 7 May, 1340, by Edward 

prisoners as they could, and then burnt the III. ; whose niece, Mary, daughter of Remold, 

town. second Duke of Gueldres, by Alianor,Edward's 

3 By the advice, it is said, of Jacob van sister, he had married. The earldom was after- 

Arteveldt, the celebrated brewer of Ghent. wards surrendered by him into the King's 

3 John, Duke of Brabant. hands. 

4 Count William, father-in-law of Edward. 8 The Duke of Gueldres, above-mentioned. 
* William, 6th Marquis of Juliers ; created 

N N 



274 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1888, , 

that the host had departed, the l men of Almaine rifled the English of what 
they had gained in that expedition, and slew many of our people. But 
Sir Edward, our King, and the Duke of Brabant, and other great men, 
caused this great strife to be put an end to and appeased, so that all were 
reconciled. And then the King, with his people, returned to Andwerp 
in Brabant, and sojourned there a long time, together with a great 
council of all the great persons who had made oath unto him. 

And never in the meantime, did Philip de Yaloys dare, with all his 
proud vauntings, to approach our young King ; but said to all who were 
about him, that he would suffer him to lie in peace and spend all that 
he had, and more too than all his realm of England would be able to 
supply ; so that he should make him either the richest king or the very 
poorest in all the world. And then our young King took his leave of 
the Duke of Brabant, and of all the great men of those parts who had 
made oath unto him, to return to England, in order to regulate the state 
of his realm, until a certain hour should come when they should be 
better able to be revenged upon Philip de Valois, King of France. 
Then our King returned unto England, and left the Queen, Lady 
Philippa, there as a hostage, as also his children, in the custody of the 
Duke of Brabant, and other great personages associated with him ; and 
she sojourned at 2 Gaunt until the return of her lord. Also, at the same 
time were taken prisoners Sir William Mountagu, Earl of Salesbury, 
and 3 Sir Robert de Offorde, Earl of Suffolk, and brought to Paris in 
mean guise. And then the King of France said to them, " Ah ! traitors, 
" you shall be hanged ; seeing that you cannot make amends for the 
" damage that your king and you have done in my land." " Certes, 
" Sire," said Sir William Mountagu," you are in the wrong and our King 
" in the right, and this will I prove against whosoever shall gainsay the 
** same, as a loyal knight should do in a strange land." And then spoke 
the Queen of France, and swore that never again should she be glad or 
joyous, if they were not disgracefully put to death. " Sire," said the 
King of * Beame, " it would be a great wrong, and a folly, to slay such 

1 Or Germans. Earl himself. The two Earls were captured 

3 Ghent. in the vicinity of Lille, and confined in the 

3 According to Dugdale, it was Robert de market-place there. 

Ufford, son of the Earl of Suffolk, and not the 4 Bohemia. 



A.n.1338,9.] THE COASTS RAVAGED BY THE FRENCH. 275 

" lords as these ; for if it should so happen that the King of England 
" should again invade your realm of France, and take any peer of your 
" realm, then might one of these go in exchange for another, who is one 
(f of our own friends." 

And so our Lord the King arrived at * Herwiz in Suffolke, and came 
to London before the beginning of Lent, and sojourned there, and held 
a Parliament at Westminster of all the great men of the land. And to 
this Parliament there came messengers from Scotland, to sue for peace, 
but no peace was granted them. At the same time also, Philip de Valoys 
had as great a navy prepared as could be arrayed, of galleys, 2 pinnaces, 
great barges, and all the large ships of Spain and Normandy, and 
wherever else they could be found ; in order to prevent our young King 
from coming back again into his land, and to seize and put all the realm 
of England to the sword. At the same time also, he inflicted great 
damage and great destruction upon England. For at this time the 
towns of Suthamton and Portesmouthe were burnt by night, spoiled, and 
the plunder carried off. Also, the 3 Castle of Gerneseye was taken, and 
the people therein slain, through treason on part of the Constable of the 
said castle. But when our young King heard this, and perceived the 
great felony and compassing of his enemy, Philip de Valoys, he com- 
manded in haste that all his navy of England should be made ready, and 
every ship well equipped and victualled by a certain day named. 

14 Edward III. [A.D. 1339, 40]. i Andrew Aubry, Mayor. William 
de Thorneye and Roger de Forsham, Sheriffs. 

In this year, all the mariners of England, by commission of our Lord 
the King, had all their ships speedily assembled and victualled, and hardy 
and vigorous men from all parts well equipped and armed at all points, 
in every place to fight for life or death. And when the fleet of ships 
of England was assembled in manner aforesaid, Sir Edward, our King, 
and his people, were in the parts of Bury Saint Edmund's ; and from 
thence he passed on to Orwelle, where he put to sea, with his people 
beyond number, upon the Thursday next before the Nativity of Saint 

1 Harwich, in Essex. at this period. 

2 This is probably the meaning ofspynagtz. 4 Member of the Pepperers' Company, three 

3 Probably, Castle Cornet in Guernsey, times Mayor, and Member for the City in 1337. 
which was held by the French for three years 



276 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON [A.D. 1339, 40. 

John the Baptist [24 June], which was on a Saturday ; and upon the 
[next] Friday morning, our King espied his enemies upon the sea, and 
said, " Because our Lord Jesus Christ was put to death on a Friday, we 
" will not shed blood upon that day." 

The wind had then been in the East for the whole fortnight before 
the King put to sea, but by the grace of Him who is Almighty, the wind 
shifted immediately to the West ; so that, by the grace of God, the King 
and his fleet had both wind and weather to their mind. And so they 
sailed on until sunrise at break of day ; when he saw his enemies so 
strongly equipped, that it was a most dreadful thing to behold ; for the 
fleet of the ships of France was so strongly bound together with massive 
chains, castles, 1 bretasches, and bars. But notwithstanding this, Sir 
Edward, our King, said to all those who were around him in the fleet of 
England, fe Fair lords and brethren of mine, be nothing dismayed, but 
" be all of good cheer, and he who for me shall begin the fight and 
" shall combat with a right good heart, shall have the benison of God 
" Almighty ; and every one shall retain that which he shall gain." 

And so soon as our King had said this, all were of right eager heart 
to avenge him of his enemies. And then our mariners hauled their sails 
half-mast high, and hauled up their anchors in manner as though they in- 
tended to fly ; and when the fleet of France beheld this, they loosened 
themselves from their heavy chains to pursue us. And forthwith our ships 
turned back upon them, and the melee began, to the sound of trumpets, 
1 nakers, viols, tabors, and many other kinds of minstrelsy. And then did 
our King, with three hundred ships, vigorously assail the French with 
their five hundred great ships and gallies, and eagerly did our people 
exert great diligence to give battle to the French. Our archers and our 
3 arbalesters began to fire as densely as hail falls in winter, and our 
engineers hurled so steadily, that the French had not power to look or 
to hold up their heads. And in the meantime, while this assault lasted, 
our English people with a great force boarded their gallies, and fought 
with the French hand to hand, and threw them out of their ships and 
gallies. And always, our King encouraged them to fight bravely with his 

1 See page 220 ante. kettledrum. 

* A kind of drum, probably resembling our 3 Or cross-bowmen. 



A. D. 1339, 40.] NAVAL VICTOEY GAINED BY THE ENGLISH. 277 

enemies, he himself being in the l cog called " Thomas of Winchelsee." 
And at the hour of 2 tierce there came to them a ship of London, which 
belonged to 3 William Haunsard, and it did much good in the said 
battle. For the battle was so severe and so hardly contested, that the 
assault lasted from noon all day and all night, and the morrow until 
the hour of 4 prime ; and when the battle was discontinued, no French- 
man remained 5 alive, save only Spaudefisshe, who took to flight with 
four-and-twenty ships and gallies. 

And after this great battle gained, Sir Edward, our King, always main- 
tained himself stoutly upon the sea, and would in no manner disembark 
on land ; and there he held his 6 Parliament for a whole fortnight, to see if 
any one of his enemies might think proper again to assail him. And then 
did our young King disembark, and rode on to Bruges with a very fair 
company, and there held festival for one whole week. And then after this, 
Sir Edward, our King, took his host, with a very fair company of Dukes 
[and] Earls of great lordship, and began to invade France against King 
Philip de Valois, until he came to the strong city of 7 Tornaye ; and he 
besieged the said city with a great host for a quarter of a year ; that is 
to say, from the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist until the Feast of 
Saint Michael. And there, there came to him the Duke of Brabant, with 
8 150 men, mounted and well armed ; the Count of Henaud also came with 
as many; so that his host all about covered seventeen miles of the 
same country, it being a finer army than had ever yet been seen. 

And while the siege of the strong city of Torneye was being 
carried on, Sir 9 Robert the Count of Artoys, Sir Walter de Manny, 



1 A kind of vessel so called in the Middle the narrator. 

Ages. This word is still preserved in the 7 Tournay. 

term ' cock-boat ' (cog-boat) . 8 This number is probably incorrect. 

3 About 9 in the morning. 9 Count of Beaumont le Roger, a prince of 

3 Probably, the same person who was the blood royal of France, descended from 
Sheriff in the eighth year of this reign. Louis VIII. Being accused of employing 

4 Six in the morning. forged writings, in order to obtain the county 

5 This battle was fought off Sluys in Flan- and peerage of Artois, he was banished by his 
ders, on the Eve of St. John the Baptist [23 brother-in-law, Philip of France, and was 
June]. From ten to fifteen thousand of the hospitably received by Edward III. Seethe 
French were^slain, and 4000 English. Poem, Vows of the Heron, Wright's Political 

6 This expression must be regarded probably Poems (1859) . 
as somewhat strained, and a liberty taken by 



278 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1S39, 40. 

g 

1 Jacob de Artefelde, and many other great men, assembled a great 
host of good people, horse and foot, well armed, and took their way 
to the city of 2 Saint Thorner, and hastily assailed the said city, and 
began to throw great stones with their engines, to destroy the city. 
And when those within the city saw the compassing of our people 
without, they took counsel among them to open the gates and give 
battle to our people. And when our people perceived this, they with- 
drew, and with a good will allowed a great multitude of people to come 
out of the city. And when the people were all come forth from the city, 
our men, with hearty good will, turned back, and boldly gave battle 
to the French ; and all those who had taken the field met their death by 
evil mishap, for of the French there were slain 5210 ; among which 
dead were found ninety -five with 3 gilt spurs. So that our people 
pursued the French as far as the gate of Saint Thomer, and there, right 
at the portcullis, were the Frenchmen all slain. And as for those who 
had 4 escaped within the gate, they did not dare come any more out 
of the city, until our people had taken their departure for the siege of 
Torneye. And in the meantime while the siege lasted, that is to 
say, for a quarter of a year, our people from day to day made incursions 
in the parts of France, and burnt, and took prey and prisoners, knights 
and esquires of great renown ; and beasts, and corn, and other provisions 
had they, belonging to the King of France, so that the country, all round 
about the siege, was ravaged, burnt, and brought to destruction. 

At this time, while the siege lasted, Sir Edward, our King, had 
assault made upon the said city of Torneye six times each day, with 
springals and mangonels, throwing huge stones, [and employing] engines 
with 5 powder [and] wildfire; so that the engines with the great stones 
broke down the towers and stout walls, churches, belfries, strong walls, 
fine mansions, and rich habitations, throughout all the said city of 
Torneye. Also, the people within the town were all but destroyed by 
the great famine which prevailed in the said city. For the water, 
running in a fine stream, which used to pass through the city, was 

1 The popular and wealthy brewer of Ghent, 4 The writer, in the simplicity of his narra- 

a powerful ally of Edward III. against Philip tive, is guilty of a contradiction here ; for he 

of Valois. has twice said that they were all killed. 

3 Saint Omer, in Picardy. 5 This early allusion to the use, no doubt, 

3 I.e. knights ; esquires wearing silver spurs, of gunpowder, is deserving of notice. 



A.D. 1889, 40.] SIEGE OF TOURNAY BY EDWARD III. 279 

dammed up and withheld from them, so that neither horse nor other beast 
was retained alive in all the said city ; for so closely were they pent 
within the city, and so great was the famine, that the quarter of wheat 
was worth four pounds sterling, the quarter of oats two marks, a hen's egg 
six pence, and two onions one penny. And as for our people besieging it 
without, throughout all the host of the King of England they had so 
great a plenty of victuals, wine, bread, and flesh of every kind, that 
nothing was wanting; praised be sweet Jesus Christ therefor ! 

Also, at this same time, those within the city of Torneye caused a 
letter to be written to their king, Philip de Valoys, to the effect that he 
must aid them with his forces with all haste, or that otherwise they would 
be compelled of necessity to surrender the said city to the King of 
England; for that their people, whom they had had in the city, were 
killed, dead, and destroyed, and their provisions all consumed ; so that 
they had nothing upon which to subsist, nor could any longer hold the 
city against their adversary, the King of England. And when their 
letter was written, they took a 1 vadlet, and arrayed him in "poor cloth 
like a 2 Jacobin, and delivered him their letter, to carry to their King, 
Philip de Valoys, and sent him by night out of a postern privily. And 
when he had proceeded fully two miles from the city, at daybreak 3 Sir 
Henry de Lancaster, Earl of Derby, met him away from the road, and 
had him arrested and interrogated him; and the vadlet varied in his 
words. And forthwith, Sir Henry had him searched, and found the 
letter upon him ; and then at once they brought this Jacobin before the 
King of England, and he was put upon peril of life and limb to tell all 
the truth as to the strong city of Torneye. And the messenger forthwith 
began his speech before the King ; " Sire," said he, " in nothing will I lie 
" unto you ; certes, all their men-at-arms are slain, and there are left not 
" more than two hundred men capable of defence ; nor victuals have they 
" to sustain themselves beyond a fortnight." 

And the same day, the Count of Henaud took a great force with him, 
and rode to forage full twenty miles in the land beyond the siege, and 

1 Or serving man. hospital for the pilgrims to Saint James (Ja- 

2 The Dominicans, or Friars Preachers, cobus) of Compostella, in Spain, 
were so called, from the fact of their monastery 3 Son of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, 
in Paris having been previously occupied as a 



280 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A. D 1339, 40. 

took great prey in beasts belonging to France, and slew men-at-arms in 
great numbers, and took six-and-twenty of the most valiant knights 
whom Philip de Valoys at that time had, and had them taken as prisoners 
to the King of England; beasts and provisions also without number. 
For a person might then have had a good beeve for forty pence, a swine for 
eighteen pence, a mutton for twelve pence, bread and wine in great 
plenty ; blessed be God therefor ! 

And when the news came to Philip de Valois, how that he had lost 
his valiant knights, and his people had been slain, his beasts and his 
provisions taken and carried to his enemy, the King of England, he began 
to sigh and be in great sorrow thereat. For he did not dare give battle 
to our King of England ; but, like a coward and a recreant knight, he 
made a lady, the 1 Gountess of Henaud, his messenger to come to our King 
and his Council, and pray that he would cease, and no more spill the 
blood of Christians or destroy their goods ; that so, peace might be between 
the two realms, with truce otherwise at his will, and in such manner as 
the parties might agree upon. And the said Philip de Valoys was also to 
agree at the same time, that he should hold in peace Gascoigne, 2 Peyto, 
Normandy, 3 Aungeo, and all the lands that had ever belonged to any one 
of his ancestors in those parts, which he claimed of right to hold ; so that 
there should be no further slaughter of people by land or by sea, no burning 
or destruction, on the one side or the other, so long as the truce should 
last ; as also, that merchants in either kingdom should be able safely to 
pass in every place until a certain day named. Also, that no town, city, 
or castle, was in the meantime to be better victualled, or more strongly 
provided with men or with arms, than they were at that hour, under the 
ordinance in such indenture made. And this covenant, in form aforesaid, 
loyally to observe, Philip de Valoys made oath upon 1 he Saints of God ; 
and every point in the indentures, between him and our King ordained, 
loyally to observe, and in all things on his part to perform the same. 

And then, when they had done this, all the prisoners of the great 
lords, on the one side and on the other, were liberated, until a certain 
day in the truce named ; upon condition, that if peace could between 

1 Jane,Countess of Hainault; sister of Philip, a Poitou. 
King of France, and mother of Philippa, Queen 3 Anjou. 
of England. 



A.D. 1839, 40.] THE SIEGE OF TOURNAY RAISED. 281 

the two kingdoms be maintained, in such manner as is in the indentures 
more fully contained, then in such case, all the aforesaid prisoners, of the 
one side and the other, should, without ransom given, be for ever quit ; 
and further, that if the parties should not be able to agree, nor by a 
certain day from the truce to establish peace, in such case each prisoner, 
on the one side and the other, should upon that same day deliver him- 
self up at the place where he was before imprisoned. Then were Sir 
William de Mountagu, Earl of Salesburi, Sir Robert de Offorde, Earl 
of Suffolk, and many others, released ; and came to the [royal] abode 
before that our Lord the King returned into England. All these things 
were provided, by counsel of our Lord the King, by the great lords 
beyond sea ; who would no longer give their sanction to the great war, 
nor yet to the destruction of the land or to the loss of Christian blood. 
And further, our Lord the King had no treasure anywhere wherewith 
to maintain and pay his people, except at a great loss, wholly by borrow- 
ing of merchants and paying great usury therefor. For he had no 
treasures whatever of his own, nor yet arising from the wool which 
had been granted him by the commons of England, to aid him in main- 
taining his war against the King of France ; for during all the time 
since his last passage, when he conquered his enemies in battle at sea, 
never since could he obtain any thing whatever of his treasure from 
England ; and this, through the covin and abetting of bad traitors who 
of his Council were sworn. 

15 Edward III. [A.D. 1340,1]. Andrew Aubry, Mayor, ^dam 
Lucas and l Bartholomew Denmars, Sheriffs. 

Then was raised the siege of Turneye, which had been continued 
for a quarter of a year ; and our people made great lamentation thereat, 
for they fully thought to have had the treasure and fine things as their 
own for ever, and then was it all lost. And when the host was all 
broken up, our King, with his people, took the road until he came to 
the city of 2 Gaunt; and there he sojourned a long time, and held his 
Parliament there, and took counsel which it would be best to do, to 
remain there or to return to England. For every week he was sending 
letters to his false guardians in England, requesting them to aid and 

1 The residences of both these persons will tumarum, pp. 447, 8. 
be found mentioned in the printed Liber Cos- 8 Ghent. 

O O 



282 



THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1340, 1. 



succour him with his own treasure which had been granted to him by all 
the commons of England. And these false traitors, who had made oath 
unto him, sent him back letters enough, to the effect that the collection 
of the tenths of England, which had been granted to him, could not be 
made, nor could the number of sacks of wool throughout all the realm 
be raised ; and that they did not dare to act more rigorously through 
fear of war, and lest the people might choose rather to rise against them 
than give them any more. Also, that the collection of such monies as 
they had received, did not suffice for the wages or for the fees of the 
servants and officers of the King; nor yet to clear off the debts which 
he himself owed for the expenses of his household ; to the payment of 
which they had been assigned by command of the King himself. 

And when they had sent their letters to such effect to their liege lord 
the King, it so happened that there was one of them who had made oath 
to the King, better disposed towards him than any of the rest ; and, 
knowing all their private doings and contracts, he privily put them in 
writing and all their affairs, as among themselves they had ordered them ; 
as also, that unless he himself should privily come over to England, it 
would be of no use to him to send them any more letters ; and further, 
that no one ought to know it, by day or by night, until he should have 
entered the Tower of London ; immediately upon which, he was to send 
for the Mayor of the said city, and his own serjeants-at-arms ; and then, 
without any longer delay, the whole of such certain persons ought 
immediately to be seized and be brought into the Tower before him ; and 
as for himself, he was to be no more spared than any of the others ; and 
that then, the King would find treasure enough for carrying on his war, 
and gaining the victory over his enemies. 

And when the King had understood the letters that had so come to 
him, he considered what would be the best to do, and immediately sent 
for the Duke of Brabant and Jacob de Artefeld of Flaunders, and many 
others of his Council, and prayed them most tenderly, with clasped hands, 
that they would act faithfully for him as concerned his revenue, which 
must be [collected] as speedily as ever he could arrange. For that it 
behoved him to make a journey to England, by reason that there came 
no treasure to pay his people, out of that which with good will had been 
granted to him. 



A.D. 1840, 1.] THE CORRUPT MINISTERS ARE SURPRISED. 283 

And when he had thus said, he mounted his palfrey and rode until he 
came to x Esclus in Flaunders, and there put himself on board ship, and 
came privily to England. And the night after the Day of Saint Andrew 
[30 November], the King with his company reached land, and with 
lighted torches entered the Tower of London, so that no one there knew 
of his coming. And immediately, he enquired for Sir Nicholas de la 
Beche, the then Constable of the Tower, and guardian of the Duke, son 
of the King of England. And the Under-Constable fell upon his knees 
at the King's feet, and said, " Sire, he is out of town." Whereupon, the 
King was very angry ; and commanded that the doors should be instantly 
opened throughout, so that he himself might see all the things that were 
within the Tower. And when the King had viewed all the things, 
he hastily sent for Andrew Aubry, the then Mayor of London ; who 
immediately came to speak with him. And when he came before the 
King, he fell upon his knees and saluted him ; and the King commanded 
him to rise, and, under pain of losing life and limb, to have brought 
before him the same night, without receiving any respite, the Lord de 
Wake, Sir John de Stonore, Sir William de la Pole, Sir John de 
Polteneye, Sir Richard de Wyleby, Master John de Saint Paul, 
Master Henry de Stratforde, cousin of the Archbishop of Caunterbury, 
Master Michael Wathe, and Sir John de Thorp. 

And all these were taken the same night by the Mayor and the 
King's Serjeants, and brought to the Tower of London before the King, 
and by his command were put in different rooms, each by himself, and 
with each a keeper for his safe custody. And on the morrow, the King 
gave prompt orders that Sir Nicholas de la Beche, the then Constable of 
the Tower, should be sought for, as also Sir John de Molins, and brought 
to him, wheresoever they might be found. Accordingly, they executed 
the King's commands ; and Sir Nicholas de la Beche was found and 
brought to the King, and Sir John de Molins took to flight. 

And when all this had been done, on the Monday next after Saint 
Andrew's Day [30 November], at sunrise, he took his way with certain 
knights, and rode as far as Saint Alban's ; where he took up his quarters 
in the Abbey, and forthwith sent for the Abbot of the house, and com- 
manded him to shew him his buildings. And the Abbot did not dare 

1 Sluys. 



284 THE FRENCH CHKONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1340, 1. 

gainsay him, but opened the doors throughout, and shewed the King 
his rooms. And one door, which stood in a private corner, he concealed, 
instead of shewing him; whereupon, the King asked him why he had 
not opened that door. And the Abbot made answer, that he had not 
the keys. " And who then has them ? " said the King. And the Abbot 
answered him that the property of Sir John de Molyns was therein, 
in safe keeping, and that he had the keys with him. " By Saint Mary, 
" my Lady," said the King, " I will take keys of my own." So he made 
a blacksmith open the locks, and Centered; and there he found great 
riches and a great plenty of treasures, all of which he retained in his 
own possession. And from thence he rode into the country around, 
to his private friends, to learn news from them ; and then returned 
to London. 

And then were arrested Sir William de Sharshille, and Sir John 
Chardelowe, Justiciars in x Bank, as they were sitting on the Assizes 
at 2 Cauntebrigge, and were brought to the Tower of London. Then 
also was Sir Thomas Ferreres taken ; and they were placed, each of 
them, in different rooms. And then after this, by counsel of Sir 
William de Killesby, they were all separated from one another into 
different castles; that is to say, Sir Nicholas de la Beche was sent to 
the Castle of 3 Tikhille, Sir John de Stonore to the Castle of doting- 
ham, Sir John de Pulteneye to the Castle of Somertone, Sir William 
de la Pole to the Castle of Devyses, Sir Eichard de Willeby and 
Master Henry de Stratforde, cousin of the Archbishop, to the Castle 
of Corf, Sir William de Scharshille to the Castle of 4 Kerfilii, Master 
Michael de Wathe and Sir Thomas Ferreres to the Castle of Windesore; 
and the others, Sir John de Chardelowe, Master John de Saint Paul, 
and Sir John de Thorp, remained in prison in the Tower of London. 

And then after this, the King removed his Treasurer, Sir Roger de 
Northboruh, Bishop of Chester, and put in his place a knight, Sir 
Robert Pervinke by name ; and also removed his Chancellor, the Bishop 
of Chichester, brother of the Archbishop of Caunterbury, and put in 
his place a knight, Sir Robert 5 Bouser by name. And then the King 

1 I. e. of the King's Bench. . 4 Caerphilly. 

2 Cambridge. s . Bourchier,' more correctly. 
Tickhill, in the South of Yorkshire. 



A.D. 1840, 1.] TKEASUKE OF SIR JOHN DE MOLEYNS SEIZED. 285 

swore an oath, that never in his time should man of Holy Church be 
his treasurer or chancellor, or in possession of any other great office 
which unto the King pertains ; but that if any such persons should ever be 
attainted of knavery, he would have them drawn, hanged, and beheaded. 
And when he had done this, the King and Queen, and all the household, 
removed from London to Gildeforde, and there he kept his Christmas. 
And from thence the King removed to 1 Stokebogeys, which belonged to Sir 
John de Molyns, and held a great feast there with all the great men of the 
country, for three days. And from thence he removed to Dittone, a very 
fine manor that also belonged to the said Sir John de Molyns, and there 
the King found armour for eighty men, and of plate and treasure great 
plenty; which the said Sir John de Molyns had put into little bags well tied, 
and then into other great sacks well corded, and plunged them into a deep 
pond ; for he fully intended another time to have returned to it ; but his 
design and purpose was wholly frustrated, for the King retained it all as 
his own property, in his own possession. 

* And when the King had done this, he returned to London, on the 
Wednesday next after New Year's Day, and began to hold his Privy 
Council. And then orders were given to search and examine all the 
rolls of offices held under the King, that is to say, the office of Treasurer, 
Chancellor, Cofferers, Justiciars, Sheriffs and their clerks, taxors through- 
out England, collectors of the tenths and of the wools which had been 
granted unto the King for carrying on his war, and of all other ministers ; 
that so, they might be ready with their rolls on a certain day appointed 
at Westminster, before the King's auditors thereunto assigned throughout 
England to hear and determine. And then, after the Wednesday 
following the 2 Tiffany [6 January], Sir Richard de Willeby, one of the 
King's Chief Justiciars, stood at the bar at Westminster, for two days, 
before six persons, to make answer to divers articles as to which he had 
been accused by Sir John Pervinke, Sir Robert de Sadingtone, Sir 
William Scot, Sir Thomas de Wake, the Baron de Stafford, and Sir 
John Darcy, who accused him of divers matters which he had done 
against his liege lord the King. 

And the said Sir Richard made answer to all their enquiries, until he 
had become so weak that he could no longer speak, but as a favour, 
1 Stoke Pogis, in Bucks. * Or Epiphany. 



286 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1340, 1. 

prayed to have the assistance of a man of the law, associated with him to 
aid him in speaking : and with great difficulty would they grant him this 
suit. And when he could no longer hold out in making answer to them, 
the said Sir Richard threw himself upon the King's favour, and was 
remanded to the Tower of London to await the King's pleasure. And 
the same night there was so dreadful a tempest of wind and rain, of 
lightning and thunder, that it battered to the ground and destroyed the 
very fine work of the Church of the a Friars Minors at London. 

Then, after the Tuesday next before the Conversion of Saint Paul 
[25 January], all the officers in the King's Court were ousted and 
removed by Sir William de Killesby, and on the Sunday next ensuing 
proclamation was made throughout London that every one, both high 
and low, who owed fealty or service unto the King, should be ready 
at the Tower of London, for the first time, on the second Monday in 
Lent, before Sir Robert Pervinke and his companions, Justiciars in 
Eyre assigned. Then were certain points ordained by Sir William de 
Killesby and others of the King's Council ; in the first place, that en- 
quiry should be made as to all manner of oppressions, wrongs, damages, 
grievances, and molestations, committed by each person who had been 
minister of the King, and as to their behaviour towards our Lord the King 
and the common people ; that is to say, as to Justiciars of the one Bench 
and the other, assigned to hold pleas of the Forest, Justiciars for holding 
the assizes and for gaol delivery, and all other Justiciars; also, as to eschea- 
tors and sub-escheators, coroners, sheriffs, their clerks and their servants ; 
also, as to taxors, sub-taxors, and their clerks ; as to admirals of fleets of 
the navy, and others with them associated ; also, as to wardens, consta- 
bles of castles for keeping the peace ; as to takers and receivers of wools, 
and others with them associated ; as to assessors and vendors of the 
King's wools, and others them assisting, the same at divers times 
granted ; as to Barons of the King's Exchequer, and as to clerks, as well 
of the Chancery as of the Exchequer, and other places of the King ; as 
'to wardens of forests of vert, their clerks and the officers of the forests, 
chases, and parks ; as to collectors of customs, controllers, 2 troners, 

1 Or Grey Friars ; on the site of the present this occasion by the storm. 

Christ Church, Newgate Street. It was com- 2 Weighers by the King's Tron, or Great 

pleted A.D. 1327, and dedicated to St. Francis. Beam. 
The great western window was destroyed on 



A.D. 1840, l.] ESCAPE OF GRIFFYN OF WALES. 287 

1 butlers, and their associates ; as to receivers of the King's monies 
in the country, and as to those who conceal the same ; as to seneschals 
and marshals, and their clerks ; also, as to keepers of the King's horses, 
and their grooms ; as to purveyors for the King's hostel and for Sir 
Edward, Duke of Cornewaile ; as to warders of gaols ; as to those 2 who 
hold traitorous converse ; as to men-at-arms, 3 hobelers, and archers, and 
as to their associates ; as to bailiffs in Eyre, and as to all other bailiffs, who- 
soever they may be ; also, as to those who have falsely carried wools 
or other merchandize out of the realm, against the prohibition, without 
paying custom unto us ; as to those who maintain false pleas in assizes, 
and other false suits ; also, as to misdoers within the Marches and other 
remote places, in arms beating and wounding persons, until they have 
exacted fines from them by way of ransom ; as to all manner of oppres- 
sions, duresses, and grievances, by any person whatsoever committed, 
whether archdeacon, dean, official, or sequestrators, and their com- 
missaries and officers ; also, as to those who make change of money or 
of other goods, or do in any other manner colourably practise usury ; 
as to those who have falsely done anything by colour of their office, or 
in other manner, for doing their duty, have either partaken with any 
other person, favoured other persons, or of other persons have taken 
tortiously. 

Also, at this time 4 Trailebastoun lay throughout England, and 
certain Justiciars were assigned to sit in every county for enquiry and 
examination upon all the points before-named; and thus was great 
duress inflicted upon the people throughout England. Then after this, 
one GrifFyn of Wales, who had slain the brother and the wife of Jacob 
de Artefelde of Flanders, and who had been taken and brought to the 
Tower of London, and put in strong prison, and fettered with two 
strong pairs of gyves and manacles, upon the evening of Saturday the 
Octaves of Easter, filed through his irons, and broke out of prison, and 
made his escape from the Tower. And a woman, " Ibote atte Knolle " 
by name, was taken on account of the said Griffyn, as a felon against the 

1 Persons who received the King's prisage cult to divine what is. 

on butts of wine. 3 Light-horsemen, who rode on the horses 

2 This is probably not the meaning of * de known as * hobbies.' 
'choysours traiterousment;' but it seems diffi- 4 Seepage 246 ante. 



288 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D 1340. 1. 

King, because that she had come to him daily and had brought to him 
privily .the things which he wished to have; and so, she was put in 
prison for him. 

And at the end of a fortnight after Easter, the King began to hold 
his general Parliament at Westminster, and the Iter was then adjourned 
until such time as the Parliament should be ended. And at this time Sir 
Hugh d'Audelee, Earl of Gloucester, was appointed envoy to carry 
in writing the message of the King and his Council, of England, to the 
Parliament of France, then sitting at the city of Turnaye, to the effect 
that if Philip de Yalois and his Council would establish and grant 
the points comprised in the written message of the King of England, 
there should be peace between them for ever ; and if not, that there 
should be war forthwith, every man for himself, and that, without 
any further respite beyond the day of the truce agreed to between 
the two realms. 

Then came all the great men of England to the King's Parliament, 
but not the 1 Archbishop of Caunterbury, or his brother the 2 Bishop of 
Chichester, or the Bishop of 3 Chester, who were excluded from Parlia- 
ment for a whole week by the abetting of Sir William de Killesby, by 
reason of the enmity that existed between him and the Archbishop. 
Then, in the second week after this, the Earl of Warenne came to 
the Parliament before the King, and found there Sir Robert Pervinke, 
the Baron de Stafforde, Sir William Killesby, and Sir John Darcy, and 
others who were not qualified for sitting in Parliament ; and he began his 
speech and said, " Sir King, how goeth on this Parliament ? In former 
' f days it used not to be thus ; now it is all changed in quite another 
" manner : for those who ought to be the principal persons are excluded, 
" and others, persons in trade, sit here in Parliament, who ought not to 
" be at such Council ; but only the peers of the land who may aid you, 
" Sir King, and maintain you in our great need. And on. this, Sir King, 
" you ought to think." And forthwith Sir John Darcy quietly arose 
and went out ; and then, after him, Sir William de Killesby and all the 
others before-named, without saying a single word. Then arose the 
Earl of Aroundel, and said to the King, " Sire, let the Archbishop enter 

1 John de Stratford. 8 Roger de Northburgh. 

* Robert de Stratford. 



A.D. 1340, L] PREPARATIONS FOR INVADING FRANCE. 289 

" into your presence, and if he can exculpate himself on certain points 
" that are imputed to him, well be it : and if not, we will ordain there- 
ff upon what is best to be done." The King granted his request, and 
there were put in writing thirty -two articles against him : and the 
Archbishop denied them all, and said that he was in no way guilty as 
to any one point that had been alleged against him. 

16 Edward III. [A.D. 1341,2], John * d' Oxenford, Mayor; which 
John died in the same year, and then Simon Fraunceis was made 
Mayor. Richard de Berking, Draper, and John de la Rokele, Grocer, 
Sheriffs. 

At the Feast of Saint Michael after this, our King caused to be 
assembled a great host of vigorous men well armed, and all the navy of 
England well victualled, in the parts of Sandwiz, Dovere, and Portes- 
mouthe ; and remained there two months and more, wholly to collect 
his host and his fleet of the ships of England. For these had been 
granted to him from all the land, in aid of his war against his enemies. 
And at the same time, Philip de Valoys had assembled on the 
other side a great host of each nation, Basques, 2 Bydouese, Spaniards, 
Genoese, and people of many other countries ; so much so, that it would 
be a tremendous thing to say what was the amount of the people whom 
he had gathered together against our King Edward, for the purpose of 
preventing him from crossing beyond sea, so much in fear did he hold 
him ; for battle against our King he dared not give. 

Then our King, when he saw the malice and great wickedness of Philip 
de Valoys, and that he had gathered together so great a multitude of people 
of divers countries for the purpose of preventing our King from going be- 
yond sea, speedily issued commands unto his host ; which was so noble a one 
and so fine, that no king in the world had ever had such before ; for he had 
three hundred large ships, besides 3 farcosts and galleys for carrying provi- 
sions ; [in obedience whereto] the fleet of ships passed on to Portesmouthe. 
This done, they all set sail with great gladness for the coast of 4 France, 
and took all that they could find before them, by land and by sea, until 
they came to Bretagne, to a country therein that is called " Little 

1 Or John of Oxford. He was a member of the French side of the Pyrenees, 
the Vintners' Company ; and was buried in 3 Coasting vessels used for traffic, 
the Church of St. James, Garlick-Hythe. 4 'England,' erroneously, in orig. 

2 People, apparently, of Bedous, a town on 

PP 



290 THE FRENCH CHRONICLE OF LONDON. [A.D. 1341, 2. 

" Cornewaille :" and there our people landed , and stoutly prepared them- 
selves to give battle to their enemies. 

The same night that our lord the King landed, he came to a royal 
manor, belonging to the Lord of Chalouns, where he found abundance of 
all things ; but the people of the manor had all fled, so much so, that 
there was not a single person remaining. And from thence, the King 
and his host came to a rich abbey [the people of] which, invested with 
cross and mitre, came to meet him, and knelt before him, crying mercy; and 
our lord the King granted them his peace. And there also was a very 
noble forest, in which our lord the King took his recreation, and hunted 
for a fortnight, and captured such prey of divers beasts that it was quite 
marvellous to tell of, that is to say, stags, does and roes, bulls, wild fowl, 
wild boars, bears, l swans, foxes, and wolves, savage and wild, in such 
great plenty there, that there was no numbering them. 

And then he passed on with his host day by day through Bretagne, 
until he came to the city of Nauntes ; but no damage did he do thereto, 
for the said city he would not destroy. But there he turned aside 
towards Philip de Valoys by another way, to know whether he would 
dare give battle on his own territory. And then Philip de Valoys 
caused to be broken down all the bridges in the country, so much so, 
that neither our King nor his hgst could approach any nearer to him ; 
but like a coward he requested of our King by his letters that he might 
have a three years' truce. And hereupon, there were fourteen wise 
persons to be chosen, of great renown, that is to say, seven for our King 
and the other seven for Philip de Valois, to go to the Pope and there 
treat for peace between the two realms of France and England, and 
come to terms thereon. And if the same should not be concluded, at 
the end of the truce so made, they were to be ready for waging war of 
deadly battle for all future time. la such manner was the truce granted 
for both parties, France and England. 

17 Edward III. [A.D. 1342, 3]. Simon Fraunceis, Mayor. John 
Lovekyn, and Richard de Keslingbury, Draper, Sheriffs. 

In the same year, our King, Edward, returned to England, but great 
buffeting had he at sea, he and all his host, from a dreadful tempest, by 

1 This is perhaps the meaning of tinge : ' monkeys can hardly be meant. 



A.D. 1342, 3.] EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 291 

reason whereof he lost many of his ships and a great part of his people. 
And, on the morrow of 1 Hokkeday he began to hold his Parliament at 
Westminster, with all the great men of England. And then Sir 
Edward, the King's son, 2 Duke of Cornewayle, by assent of all the 
great men of England, was made Prince of Wales. 

1 Hock Tuesday, the second Tuesday after Duke of Cornwall 17th March, 1337, it being 
Easter. See p. 10, ante. Matthew Paris, in the first creation of that title in England. He 
the middle of the 13th century, is probably the was created Prince of Wales 12 May, 1343 ; 
first who makes mention of it. the latest date alluded to in this Chronicle. 

2 Edward the Black Prince, was created 



APPENDIX. 



The Treason of Sir Thomas de Turberville. See page 243, ante. 

Turberville, who had been taken prisoner by the French, was induced, upon 
his return to this country, to act as their spy, and to give them secret 
information as to the state of affairs in England. For the due performance 
of this compact, he made homage to the Warden of Paris, and gave his two 
sons as hostages. He also made oath to a like effect ; and a deed was duly 
executed, whereby land was secured to him to the value of one hundred livres. 
On his arrival in London, he pretended that he had made his escape from 
prison, and, availing himself of his opportunities, gave such information to 
the King of France as to lead to attacks upon Hy the and Dover, and depredations 
by the French in other parts of the kingdom. From a document formerly 
preserved in the Tower, we learn that his mission extended not only to 
England but to Wales, that he was arrested in the County of Kent, and that 
his treasonable letter was preserved in the royal Treasury in the Tower. 

From Langtoft's Chronicle we also gather that the letter of Turberville to 
the Provost of Paris, was entrusted by him to one of his servants, who 
was to accompany the two Cardinals, on their return to Paris, who had 
been sent by the Pope, for the purpose of reconciling Edward and Philip, 
King of France ; and that he was betrayed to a member of the King's Council 
by the clerk who had written the letter for him. 

The following extract is translated from the Latin History of Bartholomew 
Cotton, (recently edited by Mr. Luard, under the direction of the Master of 
the Rolls) pp. 304-306 : 

' In the same year [A.D. 1295] a certain knight, Thomas Turbevile by name, 
* who had been taken by the French at the siege of Rheims, and detained in 
6 prison by the said King of France, came over to England with traitorous 
'designs, and said that he had escaped from the prison of the said King of 
' France ; whereupon, he was kindly received by our lord the King of England, 
' and much honoured. But after he had remained some little time in the 
' Court of our lord the King of England aforesaid, he attempted to send a 
' certain letter to the King of France ; whereupon, his messenger carried the 
' same to our lord the King of England, and gave him a full and open account 
' of the treachery of his employer. The traitor, suspecting this, took to 



294 APPENDIX. 

' flight, but was taken shortly after. The tenor of his treasonable letter was 
' as follows : l 

" To the noble Baron and Lord Provost of Paris, sweet Sire, at the 2 Wood of 
" Viciens, his liege man 3 at his hands, greeting. Dear Sire, know that I am 
" come to the Court of the King of England, sound and hearty ; and I found 
" the King at London, and he asked much news of me, of which I told him the 
"best that I knew; and know, that I found the land of Wales in peace, 
" wherefore I did not dare to deliver unto Morgan the thing which you well 
" wot of. And know that the King has fully granted peace and truce ; but 
" be you careful and well advised to take no truce, if the same be not to your great 
" advantage ; and know that if you make no truce, great advantage will accrue 
" unto you, and this you may say to the high Lord. And know that I found 
" Sir John Fitz-Thoinas at the King's Court, for the purpose of treating of 
" peace between him and the Earl of 4 Nichole as to the Earldom of 5 Ulvester ; 
" but I do not yet know how the business will turn out, as this letter was 
" written the day after that the Cardinals had been answered ; wherefore I 
" did not dare touch at all upon the business that concerns you. And know 
"that there is little watch kept on the sea-coast towards the South; and know 
" that the Isle of 6 Wycht is without garrison ; and know that the King 
" is sending into 7 Almaine two earls, two bishops, and two barons, to speak to, 
" and counsel with, the King of Almaine as to this war. And know that the 
" King is sending into Gascoigne twenty ships laden with wheat and oats, and 
" with other provisions, and a large amount of money ; and Sir Edmund, the 
" King's brother, will go thither, and the Earl of Nichole, Sir Hugh le Despenser, 
" the Earl of Warwyk, and many other good folks ; and this you may tell to the 
" high Lord. And know that we think that we have enough to do against those 
*' of Scotland ; and if those of Scotland rise against the King of England, the 
" Welsh will rise also. And this I have well contrived, and Morgan has 
'* fully covenanted with me to that effect. Wherefore I counsel you forthwith 
" to send great persons into Scotland ; for if you can enter therein, you will 
" have gained it for ever. And if you will that I should go thither, send word 
" to the King of Scotland, that he find for me and all my people at their charges 
" honourably ; but be you well advised whether you will that I should go 
" thither or not ; for I think that I shall act more for your advantage by 
" waiting at the King's Court, to espy and learn by enquiry such news as may 
" be for you ; for all that I can learn by enquiry I will let you know. And 
" send to me Perot, who was my keeper in the prison where I was ; 
" for to him I shall say such things as I shall know from henceforth, 

1 In Norman French, in the original. 4 Lincoln. 

2 The Bois de Vincennes, of the present 5 Ulster, 
day. 6 Wight. 

3 /. e. having made homage to him. 7 Germany. 



APPENDIX. 295 

" and by him I will send you the matters that I fully ascertain. And 
"for the sake of God, I pray you that you will remember and be advised 
" of the promises that you made me on behalf of the high Lord, that is to say, 
" one hundred livres of land to me and to my heirs. And for the sake of God, I 
" pray you on behalf of my children, that they may have no want so long as 
" they are in your keeping, in meat or in drink, or in other sustenance. And for 
" the sake of God, I pray you that you be advised how I may be paid here ; for 
" I have nothing, as I have lost all, as well on this side as on the other ; and 
" nothing have I from you, except your great loyalty, in which I greatly trust. 
" Confide fearlessly in the bearer of this letter, and shew him courtesy. And 
" know that I am in great fear and in great dread ; for some folks entertain 
" suspicion against me, because that I have said that I have escaped from 
" prison. Inform me as to your wishes in all things. Unto God [I commend 
" you], and may he have you in his keeping." 

' The said Thomas was seized on the Saturday next before the Feast of 

* Saint Michael, and taken to the Tower of London ; and on the Saturday 
' next after the Feast of Saint Faith [6 October] he had his trial, and 
'departed in manner underwritten: l 

' He came from the Tower, mounted on a poor hack, in a coat of 2 ray, and 

* shod with white shoes, his head being covered with a hood, and his feet 
' tied beneath the horse's belly, and his hands tied before him : and around him 
' were riding six torturers attired in the form of the devil, one of whom held 

* his rein, and the hangman his halter, for the horse which bore him had them both 

* upon it : and in such manner was he led from the Tower through London 

* to Westminster, and was condemned on the dais in the Great Hall there ; and 
' Sir Roger Brabazun pronounced judgment upon him, that he should be 
' drawn and hanged, and that he should hang so long as anything should be left 
' whole of him ; and he was drawn on a fresh ox-hide from Westminster to 

* the 8 Conduit of London, and then back to the 4 gallows ; and there is he 
1 hung by a chain of iron, and will hang, so long as anything of him may remain.' 

1 Written in Latin, the following descrip- 3 In Cheapside. 

tion being in Norman French. 4 Probably, the Elms in West Smithfleld. 

2 I, e. rayed, or striped, cloth. 



INDEX. 



Abingdon, Stephen de, Sheriff, 251; Mayor, 

252. 

Symon de, Sheriff, 209, 253. 
"Abominations," novel application of the 

term, 60. 

Aeon, or Acre, 131. 
Addrien, or Adrian, John, 42, 93, 94, 97, 

101, 129, 133, 218, 235, 236, 238. 
Aix, 29. 
Albaga, King of the Tartars, his league 

with Prince Edward, and Letter, 148. 
Albemarle, Earl of, 40. 
Alderman, Jacob, Sheriff, 2 ; Mayor, 4 ; 

condemned to lose the Mayoralty, 4. 
Aldernianebyri, or Aldermanbury, Symon 

de, Sheriff, 2. 
Aldermen of London, contemplated rising 

against the, 157. 
Ale, salt in, 261. 
Alegate, or Aldgate, 11, 47, 220. 
Alianora, Queen, of Provence. See Eleanor. 
Almaine, or Germany, 26 ; corn imported 

from, 40. 
Almaine, Richard, King of, 43, 47, 48, 91, 

97 ; taken prisoner, 66 ; Letter of, to the 

Barons, 68; his award, 129; his son 

murdered, 139; Letter thereupon, 139. 

See Cornwall. 

Henry of, 76. 

"Amercement," meaning of the term, 11. 
Amnesty pronounced in Parliament, 75. 
Andwerp, or Antwerp, 273. 
" Anelace," meaning of the word, 54. 
Angevin, an, burnt to death, 3. 
Antioch, Godard de, Sheriff, 2. 
"Appealed," meaning of the term, 108. 
Arbalesters, sent to King Edward I., by 

the City, 238. 
Arches, regulations concerning, 180. 



Artefeld, Jacob de, of Flanders, 278, 282 ; 

his wife slain, 287. 

Artoys, Count of, besieges St. Oiner, 277. 
Arundel, Earl of, his submission, 225; 

beheaded, 266. 
Asseles, Atheles, or Athol, Earl of, hanged, 

222, 248. 
Assize of ale and wine, 43. 

of bread and ale, effects of non- 
observance of, 22. 
of buildings, the, 179. 
" Assizes," meaning of the term, 74. 
Atheles, or Athol, Earl of. See Asseles. 
"Attached," meaning of the term, 10. 
Aubry, Andrew, Mayor, 275. 
Audeleye, James de, 40. 
Aumesbury, Martin de, Sheriff, 219, 243. 
Aunger, Peter, Sheriff, 234. 
Awerhinge, or Haveringe, Lucas de, Sheriff, 

220, 245. 
Ba, or Bath, Henry de, Justiciar, 14, 18, 

27, 33. 

Bacwelle, Sir John, death of, 249. 
Badlesmere, Sir Bartholomew, put to death, 

225 ; his wife sent to the Tower, 254. 
" Bailey," meaning of the term, 66. 
Bailiffs amerced by the Justiciar, 42. 
Baillol, Sir John, and King Edward, war 

between, 243 ; imprisoned in the Tower, 

243. 
Bakers, City regulations concerning, 43 ; 

lawlessness of the r 150; drawn on a 

hurdle, 240, 251 

Balaunce, Ralph la, Sheriff, 252. 
Bardulf, William, 9. 
'Barons, the, opposed to King John, enter 

London, 4 ; remove the King's Sheriffs 

and appoint others, 52 ; address of, to the 

King, 57 ; seize the Bishop of Hereford, 

Q Q 



298 



INDEX. 



57 ; conciliate the City, 60 ; their Letter 

to the King, 68. 

Bartholomew's, Canons of Saint, 18. 
Barton, or Garton, Hugh de, Sheriff, 250. 
Basilica, a new, for St. Edward, 122. 
Basing, Adam de, Mayor of London, 20. 
Basinge, Robert de, Sheriff, 218, 238. 

William de, Sheriff, 213, 249. 
Basinges, Hugh de, Sheriff, 4. 

Salomon de, Sheriff 4 ; Mayor, 4. 
Thomas de, 55 ; Bailiff of the City, 1 14, 

236. 

Basques, the, 289. 
Basset, Fulk, Bishop of London, 11. 

Philip, 97. 

Bastardy, rights of, 249. 
Bat, Gerard, Sheriff and Mayor of London, 

6, 7, 8 ; his interview with the King, 9. 
Nicholas, Sheriff, 11,12,14,19; Mayor, 

21 ; trial of, 35. 
Batencurt, Luke de, Bailiff, 93, 94, 235; 

Sheriff, 101, 237. 
Bath, Peter, Sheriff, 3. 
"Batur," probably meaning, "Fuller," 126. 
Baudok, Robert de, (properly "Ralph,") 

Bishop of London, 215. 
Beams and Weights, 37. 
Beaucaire, the Brethren of, 139. 
Beauinond, Sir Henry de, 213, 260. 
Beche, Sir Nicholas de la, surprised, 283. 
Bek, Sir Antony de, 238. 
Bekke, Canon Adam de, slain, 237. 
Bel, Robert le, Sheriff, 2. 
Belers, Sir Roger, Justiciar, slain, 260. 
Bells, City, forbidden to be rung, 96. 
Benetleye, Adam de, Sheriff, 12. 
Bereford, Simon de, 270, 

Sir William de, Justiciar, 246. 
Berkeley Castle, Edward II., murdered in, 

267. 

Berking, Richard de, Sheriff, 289. 
Berkingecherche, 82, 240. 
Berkle, Sir Thomas de, 267. 
Bermundesheie, or Bermondsey, 55 ; over- 
flowed, 243. 
Betevile, Angecelin, or Hauncetin, de, 

Sheriff, 219, 240. 
Betoygne, Richard de, Mayor, 2 10, 265, 267. 



Bettoyne, William de, Sheriff, 219. 

Beverley, the Provost of, elected Bishop 
of London, 169. 

Bigot, Hugh, Justiciar, 41, 88. 

Bishops, three, chosen as Judges -in behalf 
of the Church, 74. 

Blacebrok, Sir John de, 217. 

Blaceneye, or Blakeney, Peter de, Sheriff, 
212, 214, 249. 

Blackomore, the Scots make a descent on, 
256. 

Black Prince, the, created Prince of 
Wales, 291. 

"Blader," meaning " Corndealer," 213. 

Blakelowe, Gaveston executed at, 250. 

Blanched money, 129. 

Blaunk, Cardinal, 214. 

Blond, Blound, or Blount, Edward le, She- 
riff, 74, 234. 

Blount, John le, Mayor, 217, 218, 222, 246, 
247, 248. 

Ralph le, Sheriff, 216, 219, 237. 
Walter le, Sheriff; 219, 279, 240. 

Blund, Hugh, Sheriff, 10. 
Norman, Sheriff, 2. 
Peter, 18. 
Robert, Sheriff, 2. 
Roger, Sheriff, 7. 
William, Sheriff, 4. 

Bodele, John de, Sheriff, 236. 

Bodeleyhg, William, Sheriff, 252. 

Bohun, Humphrey de, Earl of Here- 
ford, 40. 

Boklaunde, Philip de, 51. 

Bokointe, John, Sheriff, 1. 

Bole, Henry le, Sheriff, 219, 242. 

Bolet, Edmund, Sheriff, 248. 

Bollete, Simon, Sheriff, 222. 

Boloyne, or Boulogne, 223. 

Bones of the Eleven Thousand Virgins, 
a relic, 251. 

Boreford, John de, Sheriff, 221, 246. 

Bosenho, Peter de, Sheriff, 246. 

Bossam, Peter de, Sheriff, 220. 

Botetourte, John, Justiciar, 221. 

Botiller, James le, Sheriff, 213, 249. 

Bouser, Sir Robert, Chancellor, 284. 

Bow, Ralph de, Sheriff, 11. 



INDEX. 



299 



Bowe, Alice Atte, burned, 240. 
Box, Hamo, Sheriff, 219. 
Henry, Sheriff, 243. 
Martin, Sheriff, 219, 240. 
Thomas, Sheriff, 218, 239. 
Brabant, Duke of, 223; marries a daugh- 
ter of King Edward I., 242. 
Brabason, Sir Roger, Justiciar, 246. 
" Brandwodde," or " Brentwood," meaning 

of the name, 7. 
Brasil wood, 123. 
Bream, William, 10, 11. 
Bredstrete, 2; great fire in, 234. 
Breme, Count de, 223. 
Breton, Sir John le, Warden of the City ; 

241,242,243, 244,247. 
Brikelesworthe, William, Sheriff, 271. 
Bristoue, or Bristol, 227. 
Brond, Hamo, Sheriff, 3. 
Broning, Adam, Sheriff, 23. 
Brun, Walter, Sheriff, 2. 
Bruneswik, or Brunswick, Duke of, 204. 
Brus, David le, marries the Princess 
Joanna, 269. 

Robert le, 214 ; crowned, 222 ; his 
oath at Westminster, 247; made King 
by the Scots, 247 ; his two brothers 
hanged, 248 ; truce between him and 
Edward II., 257. 
Bufle, Walter le, Sheriff, 6. 
Bukerel, Andrew, Sheriff, 5 ; Mayor, 6. 
Matthew, Sheriff, 24, 31; sued for 

grievances, 35. 

Stephen, Sheriff, 6 ; Marshal of Lon- 
don, 65. 

Thomas, Sheriff, 4. 

Bunge, Reginald de, Sheriff, 8 ; Mayor, 9. 
Burdeaus, or Bordeaux, 117. 
Burdeyn, Robert de, Sheriff, 250. 
" Burels," meaning of the term, 131. 
Burghaisse, (Burghersh,) Sir Bartholomew 

de, sent to the Tower, 254. 
Bury, Isabel de, slays a clerk, 253 ; is ex- 
ecuted, 254. 
Butlership, the Mayor serves the King 

in the, 223. 

Butlery, service of the citizens in the royal, 
121. 



Bydouese, the, 289. 
Cadsand, the Isle of, 272. 
Caerphilly, the Castle of, 284. 
Callere, Robert de, Sheriff, 220, 246. 
Cambridgeshire laid waste by the Barons, 

94. 

Campes, Richard de, Sheriff, 220. 
Canterbury, Archbishops of, mentioned, 
10, 18; the Archbishop of, accuses Ed- 
ward II., 266. 
Capital punishment inflicted in the City, for 

breaking the peace, 78. 
Capper, John the, imprisoned and fined, 

235. 

Carnervan, or Caernarvon, 208. 
Carols, 214. 

Catelonie, Robert de, Sheriff, 31. 
Caunterbury, John de, Sheriff, 219, 241. 
Caustone, John de, Sheriff, 210, 259. 

William de, Sheriff, 252. 
Cendale, or Sandale, Robert de, Warden, 

216. 

Cenilleworth. See Kenilworth. 
Cestrefield, or Chesterfield, conflict at, 91. 
Chamberlain of the City, his duty, 34, 39. 
Chamberleyn, Gervaise, Sheriff, 8. 

William, Sheriff, 2. 
Chardelowe, Sir John, Justiciar, 284. 
Charlemagne, the seat on which he was 

enthroned, 167. 
Charter extorted by the Barons, 41 ; the 

citizens refuse to seal a certain, 254. 
Charter of Liberties of the Bishop of 

London, 211. 

Charters, granted to the City, 21, 22, 41, 
107, 227, 252 ; the citizens stand upon 
their, 18, 92 ; of the Forest, 75. 
Chaumps, Richard de, Sheriff, 245, 
Chaunceler, Roger, Sheriff, 210, 262, 267. 
Chepe, or Market, 7, 266; pillory in, 127; 
rejoicings in, 220 ; the Cross in, 262 ; 
the Conduit in, runs with wine, 137. 
Cherringe, or Charing, early mention of, 

50. 
Chichester, Stephen, Bishop of, suspended, 

88. 

Chigewelle, Richard de, Sheriff, 219, 240. 
Chikewelle, Hamo de, Sheriff, 209, 250; 



300 



INDEX. 



Mayor, 216, 253, 254, 256, 258, 260, 
262, 269. 

" Childewite," meaning of the term, 109. 

Chirographer of the Jews, 17. 

Chirographs, the Chest of, sent to the 
Tower, 66. 

Chishull, Master John de, 239. 

Church, Holy, robbed .by King Edward, I., 
247. 

Church, Lawless, a place so called, 263. 

Cinque Ports, the, 73 ; pirates of the, 87 ; 
pardoned by Prince Edward, 87 ; men 
of the, prevent the export of wool, 167; 
side with Edward II., 254. 

Cipeham, or Chippenham, 115. 

Cistercian Monks, the, 162. 

Citizens of London, muster in arms at Mile 
End, 7 ; fined one thousand pounds, 1 1 ; 
keep Watch and Ward, 58 ; alarmed 
by fears of the King's vengeance 81 ; 
throw themselves on his mercy, 82 ; 
houses of sixty, given away by King Henry, 
83 ; sixty, taken as hostages, 84 ; pray 
to be punished according to their 
deserts, 84 ; pardoned by King Henry, 
98 ; are fined 20,000 marks, 85 ; assess- 
ment of, 130; fined 204. See Char- 
ters, City, and London. 

City of London, greatest part of the, burnt, 
3; taken in hand by the King, 11; re- 
delivered to the Mayor, 11 ; taken in 
hand by the King, 15 ; tapestried, to 
greet the wife of Prince Edward, 24; 
seized into the King's hands, 34 ; ag- 
grieved by the Mayor and others, 
35, 37; hung and arrayed in honour 
of the return of the Earl of Cornwall, 
44 ; arming of persons from fifteen years 
and upwards in, 47 ; resolution against 
harbouring Prince Edward or the Earl of 
Gloucester in, 47 ; about to be besieged, 
81 ; houses seized by King Henry, 83 ; 
the populace resist the King's orders, 
91 ; keys of the, taken, 95 ; and Tower, 
a covered way made between, 97 ; privi- 
leges restored to the, 129 ; .seized into 
the King's hand, 241 ; liberties restored 
to the, 244. See Charters, and London. 



Clare, Richard de, Earl of Gloucester, 33, 

40 ; death of, 53. 
Clerc, John le, condemned, 19. 
Cleremound, Sir Louys de, 223. 
Clerks, regulations concerning, 69, 70, 71. 
Clinton, William, Earl of Huntingdon, 272. 
Cloths, imported, regulations concerning, 

130. 

Cobeham, Thomas de, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, 215. 
Coc, "the Dandy," 125. 
"Cofferer," meaning of the term, 125. 
" Cog," whence " cock-boat," 277. 
Cokham, Henry de, Sheriff, 6, 7. 
Colas, or, Scolace, Saint, 213. 
Cologne, the Archbishop of, 28. 
Combemartin, Henry, Sheriff, 269. 

William, Sheriff and Mayor, 218, 221, 

246. 

Comet seen, 234. 

" Commons" of the City, 59, 85, 95, 155. 
Composition with the Barons, read at West- 
minster Hall, 45. 
Conipurgators, or jurors, 19. 
Comyn, Sir John le, slain by Brus, 247. 
John, the younger, sent to the Tower, 

243. 
Conduit, Geoffrey de, Sheriff, 222. 

Reginald de, Mayor and Sheriff, 253, 

271. 

Conference, between Henry HI. and the 
King of France, at Boulogne, 61 ; at 
Dover, between the royal party and the 
Barons, 73. 

Conow, Peter, of Flanders, his victory, 245 
Conradin, King of Sicily, 137. 
Constantin, Richard, Sheriff, 254. 
Corenhell, or Cornhill, Henry de, one of the 
first two Sheriffs of London, 1. 
Robert de, Sheriff, 42, 114, 236. 
Stephen de, Sheriff, 219, 241. 
Cornlmlle, or Cornhill, the Soke of, 210. 
Cornwaleis, Walter de, Sheriff, 238. 
Cornwall, Richard, Earl of, 13, 28. 
Coronation of Richard I., persecution of the 
Jews at, 1. 

of Edward I., preparations for, 178. 
Corp, Simon de, Sheriff, 214, 249. 



INDEX. 



301 



Costentin, Richard, Sheriff, 209, 216. 

Cosyn, William, Sheriff, 222, 247. 

Cotiller, Salamon le, Sheriff, 219, 242. 

Coton, John, Sheriff, 210, 260. 

Coventre, Jordan de, Sheriff, 7. 

Henry de, Sheriff, 44, 231, 237. 

Crafts, extortionate proceedings of the 
London, 60. 

Crane, Nicholas, Sheriff, 272. 

Crepelgate, or Cripplegate, 54. 

Cressingham, Sir Hugh de, slain, 244. 

Cromwelle, Sir John de, 224, 250, 251. 

Cros, Thomas, Sheriff, 219. 241. 

Cross, Crusaders, marked with the, 1. 

Crown, Pleas of the, at the Tower of 
London, 6. 

Croxton Abbey burnt, 261. 

Crusaders, the, diverted from Palestine, 138. 

Culeworth, Sir Richard de, High Bailiff, 96. 

Cusin, Peter, Sheriff, 166; convicted of 
having taken a bribe, 167 ; deposed in 
consequence, 167 ; enquiry by the Jus- 
ticiars, 168. 

Dadintone, or Deddington, 213. 

Dallingge, John, Sheriff, 252. 

Damiete, or Damietta, capture of, 17. 

Darcy, Henry, Sheriff, 269. 
Sir John, 285. 

D'Armenters, John, Sheriff, 220, 245 

D' Arras, Robert, Sheriff, 218, 238. 

D'Audelee, Sir Hugh, 288. 

Davy, brother of Leulyn, beheaded, 240. 

Dearth, great, of corn, 209. 

D'Eli, Roger, Sheriff, 210. 

Denmars, Bartholomew, Sheriff, 286. 

Depredators, clerical and lay, regulations 
respecting, 69, 70, 71. 

Desert, Roger de, Sheriff, 2. 

D'Espaygne, Bernard, beheaded, 266. 

Despenser, Sir Hugh le, Justiciar, 48 ; 
the Tower delivered to, 58 ; slain, 80. 
Sir Hugh le, the Elder, quarrels with 
the Barons, 254 ; is banished, 254 ; 
executed, 227, 265. 
Sir Hugh le, the Younger, 254 ; exe- 
cuted, 266. 

" Disherisoned," the, rules as to their pro- 
perty, 93 ; ordinances concerning the, 93 ; 



fortify the Isle of Ely, 94 ; truce granted 
to, 97. 

Douglas, James, his plot to capture Ed- 
ward III., 268. 

Dover, 4, 21 ; plundered and -partly burnt 
by the Normans, 242. 

Dower, judgment regarding, 13. 

D'Oxenford, John, Sheriff and Mayor, 
210, 289. 

Drawbridge toll remitted as to London 
Bridge, 19. 

Drawbridge Gate, the, 42. 

Drowning, men executed by, 97. 

Druerye, Neel, Sheriff, 223, 248. 

Due, Peter le, Sheriff, 3 

Roger le, Sheriff and Mayor, 1, 
5,6. 

Duket, Nicholas, Sheriff, 1, 2. 

Dunbarre, the Battle of, 243. 

Dunheued, Friar Thomas, apartizan of Ed- 
ward, H., 267. 

Dunstan, Godfrey de Saint, the citizens ap- 
peal against, 111. 

Dunstaple, John de, Sheriff, 219, 243. 

Durdreych, or Dortrecht, 29. 

Durham, Thomas de, Sheriff 9, 12. 

William de, Sheriff, 20, 106, 112; 
1 Warden, 176, 236. 

Earthquakes at London, 13, 216,219, 244. 

Eclipse of the sun, while Roger Bishop of 
London is being buried, 9. 

Eddeworthe, Sir Stephen de, Warden, 111. 

Edelmeton, Henry de, Sheriff, 6. 

Edmund, son of Richard, King of Amiaine, 
his marriage, 159. 

Sir, King Henry's son, , marriage of, 
113. 

Edward I., returns with his Queen from 
Palestine, 164, 237; their Coronation, 178, 
237; reconciles three kings, 241; his 
two daughters married, 242 ; marries 
Princess Margaret of France, 219, 220; 
his death and burial, 223, 248; See 
Edward, Prince (son of Henry III.). 

Edward II., Coronation of, 249 ; his dis- 
graceful flight from Scotland, 256 
disagreement with the King of France, 
259 ; his proclamation against Queen 



302 



INDEX. 



Isabella, 260 ; false report of his being 
reconciled with the Queen, 265; his im- 
prisonment and death, 227, 267. See Ed- 
ward, Prince, of Caernarvon. 

Edward III., reign of, 267291. 

Edward, Prince (son of Henry III.), fealty 
sworn to, 20 ; goes to Gascoigne, to marry 
the King of Spam's sister, 22 ; his titles, 
23; returns to London, 25; maltreats 
the Welsh, 31 ; at strife with the Earl 
of Gloucester, 47 ; done fealty to, by the 
Mayer and citizens, 56 ; given as a hos- 
tage, 67 ; his defiant Letter to the Barons, 
69 ; restored to the King, 76 ; his pro- 
mises, 76; defeats Adam Gurdan at 
Aulton, 91 ; reconciled to the Earl of 
Gloucester, 100 ; assumes the Cross, 112; 
and King of France, convention between, 
116119; and Earl of Gloucester, award 
concerning, 128 ; departs on the Crusade, 
130, 236 ; his agreement with the other 
Crusading princes, 137. See Edward I. 

Edward, Prince, of Caernarvon, born, 240 ; 
created Prince of Wales, 245 ; knighted, 
222,247. See Edward II. 

Edward, de Wyndesore (afterwards Ed- 
ward HI.), born, 214, 250. See Edward 
III. 

Egeblaunch, Peter de, Bishop of Hereford, 
57, 231. 

Eleanor, of Provence, Queen, crowned, 7 ; 
death of, 242 ; a Queen of that name 
reviled for the murder of Fair Rosamond, 
232. 

English, the, in France, arrested, 261. 

Eppegrave, Sir Thomas de, Warden, 106. 

Esclus, or Sluys, 283 ; the Battle of, 276. 

Esshwy, Stephen, obtains the City seal, 
241. 

Essoiners, or Attorneys, 75. 

Essoins remitted, 10. 

Eswy, Ralph, Mayor, 9, 10. 
William, Sheriff, 22, 25. 

Euerwick, or York, the Exchequer removed 
from, 246, 258 ; King Edward III. marries 
Philippa at, 268. 

Evesham, the Battle of, 80, 235. 

Ewelle, Richard de, Sheriff, 25. 



Exchequer, the, transferred to St. Paul's, 89 

removed from York, 246, 258. 
Excommunication, pronounced by the Arch- 
bishops and Bishops, against violators 

of the Charters of Henry III., 20 ; formula 

of, 20 ; pronounced, 45, 76, 128. 
Exestre, or Exeter, Walter, Bishop of, 

beheaded, 263. 
Eyvile, John de, 91, 95, 100. 
Falkirk, the Battle of, 245. 
Famines, in England, 40, 209, 252. 
Farendone, Nicholas de, Sheriff and Mayor, 

210, 213, 216, 218, 249, 250, 253, 257, 

258. 

William de, Sheriff, 218. 
Fauconberge, Eustace de, High Treasurer, 

210. 
Fayleham, or Folsham, Beneyt de, Sheriff, 

210, 259. 
Fealty, oath of, to Prince Edward and the 

Queen, 20; required of the citizens, 133. 
Ferers, Sir William de, 97. 
"Ferm," or rent, meaning of the term, 21 ; 

for the liberty of St. Paul's Church, 21. 
Ferreres, Sir Thomas, captured, 284. 
Ferrers, Earls of, 91, 224. 
Ferrun, or Ironmonger, Alexander le, 17, 

126. 

Fevre, Humphrey le, Sheriff, 19. 
Ralph le, Sheriff, 218, 238. 
Fingrie, Henry de, Sheriff, 220, 245. 
Fishmongers, of London, their pageant, 

250. 
Fitz-Alan, Peter, Mayor, 13, 14. 

Roger, Sheriff and Mayor, 1, 3. 
Fitz-Aliz, Martin, Sheriff, 3. 

William, Sheriff, 2. 
Fitz-Athelhulf, Constantine, Sheriff, 2; 

hanged for treason, 5. 
Fitz-Athulf, Arnulf, Sheriff, 2. 

William, Sheriff, 2. 
Fitz-Auger, Peter, Sheriff, 74. 
Fitz-Barthelmeu, Richard, Sheriff, 2. 
Fitz-Duraunt, Robert, Sheriff, 2. 
Fitz-Eylwin, Henry, first Mayor of London, 

1 ; death of, 3. 
Fitz-Joce, Nicholas, Sheriff, 15; sued for 

grievances, 35, 46. 



INDEX. 



303 



Fitz-John, John, Sheriff, 238. 

Robert, Sheriff, 6, 10. 
Fitz-Mary, Symon, Sheriff 7 ; wastes the 
property of the Sheriffwick, 7 ; refusal to 
admit him to the Shrievalty, 8 ; surren- 
ders his Aldermanry, 11 ; Sheriff, 13 ; his 
Aldermanry restored to him, 16 ; again 
taken from him, 16. 

Fitz-Otes, Sir Hugh, Constable of the 
Tower, 84, 113 ; Warden of London, 
235. 
Fitz-Peter, Geoffrey, Justiciar, death of, 4. 

Joce, Sheriff, 3. 
Fitz-Reyner, Richard, one of the first two 

Sheriffs of London, 1. 
Fitz-Richard, William, Mayor and Sheriff, 
39, 45, 48, 90, 231, 235. 

le Prestre (the Priest), Sheriff of 

London, 19. 

Fitz-Roger, Roger, Mayor, 17. 
Fitz-Thedmar, Arnald, 37, 39, 40, 46; 
marked for proscription, 120 ; history of 
his family, 201 208 ; his unjust assess- 
ment, 204 5 ; Letters concerning, 206 ; 
oppressed by Henry le Waleys, 207 ; set- 
tlement of the matter, 208. See the 
Introduction, pp. viii x. 
Fitz-Thomas, Thomas, Mayor, 31, 53, 62, 

74, 231 ; his wicked designs, 119. 
Fitz-Neal, Thomas, Sheriff, 3. 
Fitz- Walter, Richard, Sheriff, 6. 
Fitz-WiUiam, Martin, Sheriff, 5, 6. 
Fitz-Yzabel, William, Sheriff, 2. 
Flanders, clipped coins brought from, 220. 
the Countess of, her injustice to 
English merchants, 132; retaliation 
upon, 1 32 ; her haughty proposal, 149 ; 
her envoys summarily dismissed, 150. 
See Flemings. 

"Flauner," a, meaning of the word, 125. 
Flemings, expelled from London, 143 ; in- 
quisition as to the property of, 147; 
arrested, 148. See Flanders. 
Flux, great, from eating fruit, 214. 
Flete Bridge, injured by a storm, 252. 
Folkmote, convened at St. Paul's Cross, 37, 
40, 45, 49, 213. 
summoned, 33. 



Folsham. See Fayleham. 

Ford, Thomas de, Sheriff, 61, 234. 

Forsham, Roger de, Sheriff, 275. 

Fouke, James, Sheriff, 249. 

Foukirke, or Falkirk, the Battle of, 245. 

Foulam, or Fulham, Adam de, Sheriff, 

219, 244. 

Fourneys, William, Sheriff, 209. 
" Frail," meaning of the term, 32. 
France, Louis IX. King of, captured by the 
Saracens, 19 ; arbitrates between Henry 
and the Barons, 63, 64. 
Franchises, certain, are recovered, 17; the 
citizens refuse to recede from their, 18 ; 
withdrawn, 106 ; restored, 268. 
Fraser. See Frisel. 
Fraunceis, Simon, Mayor and Sheriff, 269 ; 

289. 

French traders, enactments as to, 146, 261. 
Fretheric, or Frederic, Emperor of the Ro- 
mans, death of, 19. 
Friars Preachers, the, 264. 
Frisel, or Fraser, Simon, executed, 222, 

247. 

Frome, John de, 23. 
Frowick, Henry de, Sheriff, 237 ; Warden 

of London, 157, 160. 
Frowyk, Laurence de, Sheriff, 13, 19. 
Fuleham, or Fulham, 60. 
Fulham. See Foulam. 
Furneaux, William de, Sheriff, 252. 
Garlaund, John, Sheriff, 3. 
Gascoigne, or Gascony, 9, 20. 
Gatesdene, John de, 18. 
Gavastone, or Gaverstone, Sir Piers de, re- 
called from banishment, 213, 249; his 
nicknames for the nobles, 249, 250 ; his 
execution, 213, 250. 
Gernemue, or Yarmouth, 28, 29, 44, 83. 
Gerneseye, the Castle of, 275. 
Ghennok, or Glamorgan, 31. 
Ghent, or Gaunt, 274, 281. 
Giseburne, Adam de, Sheriff, 10. 
Gisors, Henry, Sheriff, 270. 
Gizors, John de, Sheriff, 8, 12 ; Mayor, 13, 

23, 42, 213, 249, 250, 252, 253. 
Glasgow, the Bishop of, 248. 
Gloucester, Earl of, 77, 97, 98, 225 ; takes 



304 



INDEX. 



possession of the City, 95; takes the 
Cross, 112; his oath, 160; marries 
King Edward's daughter, 242 ; dies, 
243. 

Gloucester, Cross of the Earl of, in Chepe, 
214. 
Richard de, Sheriff, 219, 243. 

Godchep, Hamo, Sheriff; 252. 
Jordan, Sheriff, 219, 240. 

Godestowe, the religious house of, 234. 

Golden pennies issued, 31, 32 ; con- 
sidered detrimental by the citizens, 32. 

Goldsmiths and tailors of London, at strife, 
104 ; certain of the rioters hanged, 105. 

Grantebrigge, or Cambridge, John de, 
Warden, 212. 

Grantham, John de, Sheriff, 210, 256; 
Mayor, 269. 

Grapefige, William, Sheriff, 31. 

Gravesend, 115. 

Graveshende, Richard de, Bishop of 
London, 115. 

Great Law, waging the, 19.' 

Grenewyz, or Greenwich, 136, 224. 

Grey Friars, Church of the, injured by 
lightning, 286. 

Grievances, enquiry into, committed by 
ministers of Edward in., 286, 287. 

Grocers' pound of wax or fruit, 216. 

Gros, Stephen le, Sheriff, 3. 

Griffyn of Wales, escape of, from the 
Tower, 287. 

Gueldres, or Gerle, Count of, 273. 

Guildhall, the, 11, 13, 27, 34, 43. 

Hackenheie, or Hackney, 79. 

Hadestok, Simon de, Sheriff, 81. 
William de, Alderman, 114. 

Hainault. See Henaud. 

Hainaulters, English hated by the, 268. 

Hakeneye, Richard de, Sheriff, 209, 216. 

Hale, Edmund de la, Sheriff, 3. 

Hallingbury, Adam de, Sheriff, 219, 243. 

Hamond, John, Sheriff, 271. 

Hardel, Ralph, Sheriff, 17; Mayor, 22, 
24, 25. 

Robert, Sheriff, 7. 

William, Sheriff, 3 ; Mayor, 4. 

Harwich, or Herwiz, 262, 275. 



Haselbech, William de, 204. 

Haunsard, William, Sheriff, 271 ; good ser- 
vice of his ship, 277. 

Hauteyn, John, Sheriff, 269. 
Nicholas, Sheriff, 223. 
Walter, Sheriff; 219, 241. 

Haverille, William de, 15, 18; Sheriff, 1. 
Thomas de, Sheriff, 3. 

Haveringe, Lucas de, Sheriff, 220, 245. 

Helilaud, John, Sheriff, 3. 
Ralph, Sheriff, 3, 4. 

Henaud, or Hainault, Count of, 273. 

Countess of, King Philip's envoy, 280. 
John de, 227. 

Henry, King, III., crowned, 4 ; asks leave 
of the citizens, at St. Paul's Cross, ^to 
pass over to Gascoigne, 9 ; crosses over, 
9 ; returns home, 10 ; his sister married 
to the Earl of Warenne, 13 ; assumes the 
Cross, 17; his anger against the citizens, 
34 ; his oath assenting to the Ordinances, 
40 ; his promises at St. Paul's Cross, 45 ; 
his seal changed, 46 ; return to London, 
47; temporary reconciliation with the 
Barons, 52 ; without the assent of the 
Barons, appoints Basset Chief Justiciar, 
52 ; absolved by the Pope from his oath 
in Parliament, 53 ; writ concerning the 
same, 53 ; crosses over to France, 53 ; 
returns to England, 54 ; crosses over to 
France, 61 ; captured at the Battle of 
Lewes, 66; his Letter to the Barons, 67 ; 
his Letters quashed, 77 ; cancels all 
Charters granted after the Battle of 
Lewes, 81 ; pardons the citizens, 85 ; 
permits the election of Bailiffs, 90; his 
letter of forgiveness to the citizens, 98, 
99, 100; grants liberties to the citizens, 
106; withdraws certain franchises, 106; 
letters to the City, 133, 134 ; his procla- 
mation against the Countess of Flan- 
ders, 140 ; Letter concerning the Coun- 
tess's envoys, 143; Letter concerning the 
Jews, 199, 200; his death, 158, 236. 
Henry, Prince, of Alinaine, a hostage, 67 ; 

his marriage, 114; his death, 138 40. 
Hercleye, Sir Andrew de, created Earl of 
Carlisle, 257 ; hanged, 257. 



INDEX. 



305 



Hereford, Adam Orleton, Bishop of, 258. 
See Egeblaunch. 

Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of, 40, 

216, 225, 252. 

William de, Sheriff, 219, 241. 
the Sheriff of, hanged, 255. 

Herevy, Walter, Sheriff, 106, 112 ; chosen 
Mayor by the populace, 153 ; warned 
by the King's Council, 153, 155; his 
factious proceedings, 154; proceeds to 
Westminster with a large following, 156 ; 
his declaration of disinterestedness, 156; 
elected Mayor, 159, 236, 267; his in- 
justice, 205, 208. 

Herlisun, John, Sheriff, 1; fails in 
" making his law," 6 ; granted life and 
limb, 6. 

Hermine, Sir William, Bishop of Norwich, 
declared a traitor, 261. 

Hinggestone, John de, Sheriff, 271. 

Hobelers, or light horsemen, 287. 

Hockeday, or Hocktide, 10. 

Holand, or Holland, in Lincolnshire, 89. 

Holborne Bridge, injured by a storm, 252. 

Homicide, foreigners attached in the City 
for, 10. 

Horewod, Thomas, Sheriff, 270. 

Horn, John, Sheriff, 153, 159, 218, 237. 

Hospital of Jerusalem, at Clerkenwell, 47, 
203. 

Hospitallers, the, 6. 

Hoyland, or Holland, 29. 

Husbonde, John, Sheriff, 271. 

" Ibote atte Knolle " aids Griffyn of Wales, 
287. 

Innocent IV, Pope, 19. 

Inquisition, throughout twelve Wards, 33, 
35 ; throughout England, 101, 103. 

Interdict, laid on England, 3 ; laid on the 
City, 97 ; laid on the City, 'through the 
Archbishop of York, 113. 

Ireland, Barons exiled to, 75. 

Isabel, Princess, of France, married to Ed- 
ward II., 223 ; as Queen, deprived of her 
title, 261 ; her letters to the citizens, 
262, 265 ; her conduct, 266, 269, 270. 

Isabella, Bang Henry's sister, wife of the 
Emperor Frederic, 19. 



Istleworthe, or Isleworth, ravaged with fire, 
234. 

" Iter," meaning of the term, 209. 

Jacob Alderman, Sheriff, 2. 

Jacobins, Dominicans, or Friars-Preachers, 
279. 

Jay, Brian, slain by Wallace, 245. 

Jewry, of Winchester, destroyed, 78 ; of 
London, burnt, 234. 

Jews, to plead before the citizens in 
certain cases, 17 ; a moiety of their move- 
ables exacted by the King, 21 ; a 
Christian child slain by, 25 ; their 
punishment, 25 ; persecution of, 54 ; 
slaughtered in London, 66 ; enquiry as to 
flesh sold by, and the buyers and sellers 
thereof, 177 ; concerning advowsons of 
churches, etc., held by, 194; concerning 
their wardships of Christians, 194, 195, 
196 ; five hundred killed for extor- 
tion, 234 ; drawn and hanged for clipping 
coin, 239; all in England imprisoned, 
241 ; banished from England, 242. 

Jige, William, Justiciar, 221. 

John, King, crowned, 2 ; death of, 4. 

John, Prince, son of Edward I., birth of, 
92 ; his death, 146. 

Joynier, William, Sheriff, 5 ; Mayor, 8. 

Jukel Alderman, Sheriff, 2. 

Julers, or Juliers, Count of, 273. 

Justiciar, a, over England, elected by the 
Barons, 41 ; complaints against him, 43. 

Justiciars and citizens, altercation between, 
33, 34; Roll of, 51 ; Itinerant appointed, 
105 ; Itinerant, 243, 253. 

Juvene, Constantine le, Sheriff, 3. 
Joce le, Sheriff, 5. 
Peter le, Sheriff, 3. 

Kaye, John de, Sheriff, 2. 

Keels, or merchant vessels, 77. 

Kendale, Sir Robert de, Warden, 253. 

Kenilworth, 79, 81, 92, 94, 234, 235, 239, 266. 

Keningtone, or Kennington, 8, 10. 

Kermes, or grains, 123. 

Keslingbury, Richard de, Sheriff, 290 

Kidels (nets of a peculiar nature), sailors 
seized with, in the Thames, brought to 
London, amerced, and nets burnt, 8. 

R R 



306 



INDEX. 



Killesby, Sir William de, 284, 288. 
Kilwardby, Robert de, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, 160, 162, 239. 
Kniwtebrigge, or Knightsbridge, 34. 
Korenhelle, or Cornhill. See Corenhell. 
Koudres, John de, Sheriff, 8, 12, 13. 
Lacer, Richard, Sheriff, 270. 
Lacy, Henry de, Earl of Lincoln, burial of, 

214. 

Lamb, monstrous, yeaned, 136. 
Lambert de Legis, John Herlisun charged 

with his death, 6. 
Lambhethe, or Lambeth, 169. 
Lambin, John, Sheriff, 215, 250. 
Lancaster, Henry, Earl of, guardian of 

Edward III., 265, 269. 

Thomas, Earl of, 213, 224, 225, 255. 
"Lastage," meaning of the term, 108. 
Laumbert, Thomas, Sheriff of London, 5. 
Lawless Church, the, 263. 
"Law-merchant," meaning of the term, 107. 
Ledes, Castle of, 254. 
Legate, the Pope's, turns the cloisters of 

an Abbey into a stable, 96. 
Leggleys, Walter, Sheriff, 218, 219. 
Leiburne, Sir Roger de, his message, 82, 83. 
Leicester. See Montfort. 
Leuwelin, Prince of Wales, 31, 78, 101, 

238, 239. 

Lewes, Battle of. See Liawes. 
Leyre, William de, Sheriff, 219, 242. 
Liawes, or Lewes, the Barons defeat 

Henry in. at, 66, 75, 234; results 

of the battle, 67. 
Lincoln, caUed "Nicole," 245. 
Lincoln, John de, Sheriff, 222, 247. 
Linde, John de la, 84, 235. 
Linge-draper, or linendraper, 125. 
Linton, Robert de, Sheriff, 22, 96. 
Liseny, Sir Geoffrey de, 40. 

Sir Guy de, 40. 
Lodekin, or Lucekyn, Adam, Sheriff, 215, 

281. 

Londenestane, or London Stone, 1 . 
London, custom of, for homicide, 36 ; 

under Interdict, 88. 
London, Eustace, Bishop of, charter to, 

210,211,212. 



Henry, Bishop of, suspended, 88. See 
Newport, and Roger. 

London Bridge, held by the Queen, 146 ; 
resigned by the Queen, 147 ; again re- 
sumed, 147 ; broken by a great frost, 
240. 

Louis, Prince, of France, lands in England, 
and besieges the castle of Dover, 4 ; 
departs from England, 4. 
Monsire, of France, 214. 

Love and reconciliation day appointed, 17. 

Loveday, Sir Roger, 238. 

Lovekyn, John, Sheriff, 290. 

Lovetot, Sir John, 238. 

Lucas, Adam, Sheriff, 281. 

Lucekyn. See Lodekin. 

Lundy, Isle of, 9. 

Lynn, 51, 83. 

Mad Parliament, the, 40. 

" Making his law," meaning of the term, 
6. 

Manewourhe, Simon de, Sheriff, 213. 

Manny, Sir Walter de, 277. 

Marberer, Hughe, Sheriff, 272. 

Marche, the Count de la, 9. 

Margaret, daughter of King Henry, mar- 
ried to the King of Scotland, 20. 

Margaret, Queen, wife of Edward I., 214, 
245. 

Marisco, William de, drawn and hanged, 9. 

Marshal of the King's houshold, his right 
as to lodging, 108. 

Marshal, Roger, Bailiff, 96. 

Maserner, William le, Sheriff, 218, 240. 

" Maudeleyne," meaning of the term, 213. 

Maule, Sir Simon de, 213. 

Maunsel, John, 34, 40, 73. 

Mautravers, Sir John, keeper of Edward 
n., 267. 

"Mayhem," or "Maiming," what, 105. 

Mayors of London, 193,194. 

Measures, for liquids, regulations concern- 
ing, 75. 

Meldeburne, Robert -de, Sheriff, 166, 168, 
170. 

Mentz, Archbishop of, 29, 30. 

Mercer, Richer le, Sheriff, 219. 

Serlo le, Sheriff, 3 ; Mayor, 34. 



INDEX. 



307 



Merchandize, weights for, 123. 

Merchants, foreign, forced to use the legal 
beam and tron, 123; imprisoned and 
fined, 128. 

Mereworthe, Simon de, Sheriff, 249. 

Merleberge, or Marlborough, homage to 
King John at, 3. 

Merton, Walter de, Chancellor, 159. 

Middletone, Gilbert de, hanged, 209. 

MileEnde, 7. 

Milkstrete, great fire in, 234. 

Minur, John le, 46. 

Miracles wrought in St. Paul's Church, 257. 

" Miskenning," meaning of the term, 109. 

Mokkinge, John de, Sheriff, 271. 

Money, old, exchanged for new, 239. 

Montfort, Guido de, aids in the murder of 
Prince Henry, the King's nephew, 140. 

Montfort, Peter de, 40, 46, 74 ; slain, 80. 

Montfort, Simon de, Earl of Leicester, 
40 ; his dissensions with the King, 62 ; 
sanctions piracy, 78 ; slain, 80 ; ill-treat- 
ment of his remains, 80 ; cruelty of his 
supporters, 119; persons proscribed by 
them, 120; his supporters banished the 
City, their names, 124, 125, 126, 127. 
See Liawes. 

Montfort, Simon de, the Younger, 65; 
plunders Winchester, 78 ; surprised at 
Kenilworth, 79; meets the King at 
Winchester, 80 ; retires to Kenilworth, 
81 ; throws himself on the King's mercy, 
87 ; joins the pirates of the Cinque 
Ports, 87 ; crosses the seas, 87 ; murders 
Prince Henry, the King's nephew, 140. 

Mordone, Gilbert de, Sheriff, 210, 260. 
Walter de, Sheriff, 271. 

More, Ralph de la, Sheriff, 219, 239. 

Mortality, great, 209, 214. 
Mortimer, Roger de, 40 ; war levied upon, 
by the Barons, 64 ; remains of De Mont- 
fort sent to his wife, 80. 
Mortimer, Roger, the Younger, accompanies 
Queen Isabel, 227; escapes from the 
Tower, 258 ; his insolence, 269 ; the first 
person hanged at Tyburn, 270. 
Mortimers, the, sentenced to be hanged, 
256 ; sentence commuted, 258. 



Munchanesey, William de, his attempt to 

prove the will of his deceased wife, 26. 
Munchensy, William de, 79. 
Munferat, Marquis of, assassinated, 162. 
Munpelers, or Montpelier, Robert de, 

Sheriff, 54, 231. 

" Murage," meaning of the term, 239. 
Musteroil, or Montreuil, 176. 
Mynur, John le, Sheriff, 24. 
" Naam," what, 109. 
Navarre, King of, with the army of the 

Christians, 138. 
Nele, Walter, Sheriff, 272. 
Nets burnt at Westchep, 8, 22, 121, 166; 
for fishing the Thames, seized for having 
their meshes smaller than the prescribed 
size, 120; seized by the Constable of 
the Tower, beyond the liberties of the 
City, 121. 
ISTevelun, Andrew, Sheriff, 4, 188. 

Peter, Sheriff, 1, 187. 
Nevile, Hugh de, captured at Kenilworth, 
79. 

Peter de, sent by the King to Cher- 
ringe, to obtain the delivery of the 
four citizens of London, brought 
thither by the Mayor and Bailiffs 
of Northampton, 50. 
Robert de, Inquisitor as to disorders 

in the Midland Counties, 103. 
Newcastle, preparations at, to invade Scot- 
land, 268. 
Newebigging, Thomas de, arrests many 

citizens, 258. 

Newgate, sailors imprisoned in, 8 ; those 
imprisoned there for political offences 
set free, 96 ; several of the banished 
citizens, for returning to the City, im- 
prisoned in, 168 ; prisoners escape from, 
231. 

New Hall at Westminster burnt, 231. 
Newmarket, Adam de, captured at Kenil- 
worth, 79. 
New money, exchange of, at the Tower, 

239. 
Newport, Richard de, elected Bishop of 

London, 216. 
New Temple, meeting of Bishops and 



308 



INDEX. 



Barons there, to confer upon the state 
of the realm, 159. 

New Work of St. Paul's commenced, 44. 
Nicole. See Lincoln. 
No Man's Land, where, 266. 
Norfolk, disturbances there by the dis- 

herisoned, 89, 94. 

Norman, John, Sheriff, 7, 189; Mayor, 19, 
194. 

Normans land at, and plunder Dover, 242. 

Northall, John de, Sheriff, 271. 

Northampton, affray at the Fair of, be- 
tween the Londoners and inhabitants, 
49; Bailiffs of, refuse to deliver up to 
the Mayor of London, upon the King's 
precept, four citizens, accused of the 
death of a man at the Fair, 49 ; citizens 
of, claim their privilege of not pleading 
without the walls of their own borough, 
50 ; taken by the King, 65 ; Parliament 
held there, 189. 

Northampton, John de, Sheriff, 21, 189, 
231. 

Northborough, Roger de, Bishop of Chester, 
removed as Treasurer to the King, 
284. 

Northumberland plundered by the Scots, 
246. 

Norton, Robert de, Sheriff of Suffolk and 
Norfolk, 106. 

Norwich, plundered by the disherisoned, 
94; Cathedral burnt, 150; thirty-two 
citizens of, hanged, drawn, and burnt, for 
being concerned in the burning of the 
Cathedral, 152. 

Nottingham, Council held by Edward III. 
at, 270. 

Oath, the citizens refuse to take an, in the 
arbitration of the question of tallage, 34 ; 
certain, prescribed on the graves of the 
dead, 108. 

Onions, dearness of, 252. 

Ottoboni, Cardinal and Deacon of St. 
Adrian, and Legate of Rome, summons 
the refractory Bishops to London, 88 ; 
holds a General Council at Saint Paul's. 
107. 

Oxenford, John de, Sheriff, 220, 258. 



Oxford, non-observance of the Statutes by 
the Parliament of, produces disturbances 
throughout the kingdom, 41 ; the Charter 
drawn up by the Parliament of, ratified 
by the King, 41 ; assented to by the 
Mayor and citizens of London, 41 ; the 
Earl of, captured at Kenilworth, and 
taken to Gloucester, 79. 
Oystergate, John de, expelled from the City, 
126. 

Stephen de, Sheriff, 24. 
Page, Thomas, hanged, 255. 
Palermo, Prince Edward at, 137. 
Palmere, Roger, Sheriff, 213, 249. 
Paris, Edward I. arrives at, and does 

homage to the King of France, 165. 
Paris, Richard de, Sheriff, 191, 236. 
Roger de, Sheriff; 222, 247. 
Simon de, Sheriff, 221, 246. 
Parliament, Mad, of Oxford, ordains that 
grievances be abolished, 40 ; at Oxford, 
between the King and his Barons, 65 ; 
held by the Bishops and Barons for the 
reformation of the condition of the realm, 
69; in London, 75; at Winchester, 81 ; 
at Windsor, where a reconciliation is ef- 
fected between the Prince of Wales and 
the Earl of Gloucester, 100; held at the 
Blackfriars, in London, 224; at Lincoln, 
245. 

Parmenters, take part in the disputes be- 
tween the tailors and goldsmiths, 104; 
what, 104. 

Passelee, Edmund, Justiciar Itinerant, 253. 
Patriarch of Jerusalem sends some of the 

blood of Jesus to King Henry, 14. 
Paul's Cross. See Saint Paul's Cross. 
Paulina, wife of William de Munchanesey, 
her will revoked, as being made by a 
femme cover te, 26. 
Peace between the King and the Barons 

declared in London, 67. 
Peinfurer, Fulk, Sheriff of Kent, 106. 
Pekham, John de, elected Archbishop of 

Canterbury by the Pope, 215, 239. 
Pembroke, Richard Marshal, Earl of, ejects 
Hubert de Burgh from sanctuary, 7 ; 
Aymer de Valence, Earl of, lays siege 



INDEX. 



309 



to Scarborough Castle, 213; attends 
the King to St. Paul's Cross, 213; flies 
to Dunbar after the Battle of Sterling, 
251. 

Penalties, attached to contravention of the 
Charter granted by the King to the 
citizens, 108 ; for vending goods in 
transit^ 109. 

Pennies, clipped, to be perforated, 14; 
golden, new coinage of, of the value of 
twenty sterlings, issued, 32 ; the circula- 
tion of, remonstrated against by the 
Mayor and citizens, 32. 

Penny, one to be paid upon each pound 
enrolled in the Exchequer, 110. 

Pepperer, Andrew le, makes the Great Law } 
proving his innocence, 19. 

Percy, Sir Henry, pursues Wallace, 244. 
Sir Nichol, flies the country, 256. 

Perth taken by Edward I., 248. 

Pervinke, Sir Robert, made Treasurer of 
Edward in., 284. 

"Pesage," what, 123. 

Pestilence, a great, 252. 

Pesur, Joce le, Sheriff, 4. 188. 

Peter de Savoy. See Savoy. 

Pevencestre, Sir Stephen de, Justiciar, 
investigates the clipping of coin, 239. 

Philip in., King of France, 131, 142 ; 
Letter of, to Richard, King of the Ro- 
mans, on the murder of his son, 139. 

Philip de Valois, cowardice of, 273 ; pre- 
pares a large navy, 275 ; sends the 
Countess of Hainault to Edward III., 
to treat of peace, 280. 

Philippa, daughter of the Count of Hainault, 
espouses Edward HI., 268 ; crowned at 
Westminster, 270 ; sojourns at Ghent, 
274. 

Pikard, Richard, Sheriff, 21, 189, 231. 

Pike, Nicolas, Sheriff, 271. 

Pilgrimage to the Holy Land discussed at 
Boulogne between Henry IH. and the 
King of France, 61. 

Pillards, thirteen taken at Dundee, 244. 

Pillory in Chepe broken, and bakers, in con- 
sequence, escape punishment, 127; a new, 
made, 131. 



Pinnot, Robert, hanged, 240. 

Piracy of men of the Cinque Ports, by 

sanction of the Earl of Leicester, 77. 
Piwelesdon, Richard, expelled the City, 126. 
Roger de, expelled the City, 126. 
Thomas de, appointed Constable by 
the Londoners, 65 ; taken prisoner at 
Windsor, in contravention of the 
safe-conduct, 83 ; confusion in the 
City in his time, 103 ; cruelties of, 
119; expelled the City, 125 ; ex- 
cites the populace, 155 ; attended by 
a multitude to Westminster, 156; 
sent to the King, at Windsor, 235. 
Pleaders, not required by citizens in their 
plaints, except in pleas of the Crown, 
pleas of land, or of distresses, 45; 
mulcted or suspended for consenting to 
take part of the tenement pleaded for, 
in payment, 45. 

Pleas in Bank, formerly held at West- 
minster, transferred to the Hall of the 
Bishop of London, at Saint Paul's, 89. 
Pleas of the Crown, held at the Tower, 6, 
10, 19 ; held at Guildhall, resisted by the 
citizens as contravening their rights, 43 ; 
of debt, to be held before the Sheriffs 
only, 44; of intrusion, and pleas on 
plaint made, only, held in the year 1263, 
74. 

Plenty, a year of, 100. 
Plumer, Hanekin le, expelled the City, 126 ; 

meaning of the word, 126. 
Poitiers, Bishop of, comes to London, 214. 
Poitou, Henry HI. quits his claim on, to the 

King of France, 46. 

Pole, Nicholas Fitz-Adele de la, appointed 
Inquisitor as to the property of Fle- 
mings, 143. 

Sir William de la, ordered to appear 
before Edward III., 283 ; sent to 
the Castle of Devizes, 284. 
Pollards, prohibited, 220, 245. 
Polteney, John de, Mayor, 270, 271 ; 
ordered to appear before Edward IH., 
283 ; sent to Somertone Castle, 284. 
Ponthieu, Count of, envoy to the King of 
Tunis, 138. 



310 



INDEX. 



Countess of, has charge of a daughter 
of King Edward L, 176. 

Porchester, Sir Roger Mortimer flies to, 
258. 

Ports of England conquer a fleet of Spain, 
243. 

Portsmouth burnt by the ships of the King 
of France, 275. 

Portsoken, the liberty of the City without 
the walls, near Aldgate, 107 ; privileges 
at, granted to the citizens by Charter, 
107; exempted from forcible occupa- 
tion, or livery of the King's Marshal, 
108. 

Posts to which chains in the streets were 
attached, ordered to be rooted up and 
taken to the Tower, 82. 

Poter, Philip le, appointed with two others 
to hear complaints during the absence of 
the Mayor in Gascoigne, 176. 

Walter le, Sheriff, 114, 129, 153, 155, 
157, 159, 191, 236, 237. 

Pountfreit, William, Sheriff, 272. 

Pourte, Hugh, Sheriff, 221, 246. 

Poyntel, John, Mayor, 209 ; Sheriff, 252. 

Prebends bestowed by the King, recalled, 
81. 

Preston, Gilbert de, Justiciar, determines 
the suit between the Abbot of West- 
minster and the citizens of London, 
61. 

John de, Sheriff, 253 ; Mayor, 271. 

Prior of Canterbury rejected by the Pope 
for Archbishop, as being too illiterate, 
160. 

Prior of Norwich Cathedral, proved to have 
set fire to it, 153 ; accused of having pur- 
posed burning the whole city, 153 ; 
purged by the Bishop, 153. 

Priour, John, Sheriff, 209, 252. 

Prisage of corn not taken before the vessel 
reaches the wharf, 55 ; restricted to the 
King, 55. 

Prisage of wine, 42, 108. 

Probate, of all testaments ordered, 44 ; of 
Wills at the Hustings in the City, con- 
firmed by Charter, 111. 

Prodhomme, William, Sheriff, 209, 253. 



Property, tax upon, 257. 

Provence, Eleanor of. See Eleanor. 

Provisions of Oxford ordered to be ob- 
served, after the Battle of Lewes, 67. 

Purprestures, attempted to be removed by 
the populace, 59. 

Pycot, Nicholas, Sheriff, 248. 

Queen Hythe taken by the citizens of Lon- 
don, at a rent, of Richard, Earl of Corn- 
wall, 13. 

Quercy, houses of the people of, resident 
in London, broken into by night and 
plundered, 59; money of the people 
of, deposited in the Abbeys and Priories 
about London, plundered, 66. 

Rains, heavy, lasting from Pentecost to 
Easter, 251. 

"Receipt," the meaning of, 166. 

Reconciliation between the King and the 
Earl of Gloucester, terms of the, 98. 

Redingge, Simon de, hanged, 266. 

Refham, Richer de, Mayor, 214, 249 ; 
Sheriff, 214, 244. 

Reinald, Walter, Bishop of Worcester, 
confirmed as Archbishop of Canterbury 
by the Pope, 215; enthroned, 250; 
preaches at Guildhall, 267. 

Reinger, Richard, Mayor and Sheriff, 5, 8, 
187, 193. 

Relic of the Eleven Thousand Virgins found 
in the belfry of St. Paul's, 251. 

Rents of London Bridge collected on behalf 
of the Queen, 147. 

Report of the Inquisition as to the goods 
of the Flemings, 147. 

Richard I. sets out for Jerusalem, with 
Philip, King of France, 1 ; made cap- 
tive in Germany, 1 ; ransomed for 100,000 
marks of silver, 1; liberated, and lands 
at Sandwich, 2 ; slain, 2. 

Richard, Earl of Cornwall, as King of the 
Romans, receives the homage of the 
Electors of Almaine in London, 28; 
embarks at Yarmouth for Germany, 28 ; 
crowned Bang of the Romans at Aix la 
Chapelle, 30. 

Richard, King of the Romans. See Al- 
maine, Richard, King of. 



INDEX. 



311 



Rochester taken by the discontented Barons 
and Londoners, 66. 

Rochester, Salamon de, Justiciar in Eyre, 
sits at the Cross of St. Peter, 237. 

Roger, Bishop of London, replaces Hubert 
de Burgh in sanctuary at Brentwood, 7 ; 
buried, 9. 

Rokesle, Gregory de, Sheriff and Mayor, 61, 
81, 131, 207, 234, 236, 237, 238, 241; in- 
tended to be slain by the disaffected, 120 ; 
included in the writ sent by the King 
to the City, 170; with three others, pro- 
ceeds to Gascoigne to the King, 176 ; 
with others, appointed by the King as 
mediator to effect a peace with the Coun- 
tess of Flanders, 176 ; made Master of 
the Exchange throughout England, 239. 
John de la, Sheriff, 289. 
Robert de, Sheriff, 219, 241, 243 ; has 
charge, with others, of the chest 
containing the Charters of the City, 
227. 

Romans, two slain in Westchepe, 231. 

Rome, Henry de Sandwich, Bishop of 
London, and Stephen de Barksteed, 
Bishop of Chichester, sent as contuma- 
cious to, 88. 

Romeyn, Thomas, Sheriff, 242; Mayor, 249. 

Rosamonde, The Fair, Legend of, 232. 

Rossel, Reginald, envoy to the King of 
the Tartars, 148. 

Rotherhithe, Breach at, caused by the 
overflow of the Thames, 243. 

Rothinge, Richard de, Sheriff, 210, 262. 

Round Table held at Kenilworth, 239. 

Ruhinges, Geoffrey de, expelled the City, 
126. 

Russell, Ellas, Sheriff, 242; Mayor, 217, 
245 ; concerned in an action of trespass, 
221. 

Thomas, hanged, 240. 

Safe-conduct granted to the Mayor and 
citizens of London on repairing to 
Windsor, 88. 

Sailors fined by the King at Keningtone, 
and their nets burnt, 8. 

of the Cinque Ports, pardoned for 
their acts of piracy, 87. 



Saint Albans, Henry de, Sheriff, 3, 188. 

Saint Bartholomew's, belfry of, struck by 
lightning, 234 ; Priors and Canons of, 
set up a new tron or beam for weighing 
heavy goods and wool, 13 ; desist from 
the imposition of it, 14. 

Saint Botolph (Boston), fire at, 239. 

Saint Edward, his body translated, 121 ; 
his basilica repaired with gold, 130. 

Saint Ermin, William de, permitted to 
leave England, 41. 

Saint Heleyne, Michael de, Sheriff, 6, 188. 

Saint Martin's-le-Grand, Richard, King of 
the Romans, sojourns there, 52. 

Saint Mary-le-Bow, tower of, falls, and 
twenty persons killed, 136 ; belfry falls, 
236. 

Saint Maur, Baldwin de, Sheriff of Cam- 
bridge and Huntingdon, 106. 

Saint Omer besieged, 278. 

William de, Inquisitor into the dis- 
orders in the Southern and Eastern 
Counties, 103. 

Saint Paul, John de, ordered to appear 
before Edward IH., 283; confined in 
the Tower, 284. 

Saint Paul's, London, dedicated, 8 ; Sheriffs 
have seven pounds granted by Henry III. 
for the liberty of the Church, 21; the King 
and Queen sojourn there, 52 ; Henry HI. 
lodges there after the Battle of Lewes, 
67; Exchequer removed from West- 
minster thither, 89 ; Henry de Sandwich, 
Bishop of London, buried there, 166; 
cross and ball gilt, 215 ; belfry taken 
down, 251. 

Saint Paul's Cross, solemn meeting of 
Bishops at, to excommunicate all who 
contravened the Charter granted by the 
King to his Barons, 128 ; the King takes 
leave of the citizens at, to pass into 
France, 45, 53. See Folkmote. 

Salisbury, Adam de, Sheriff, 210, 258. 

Salisbury, the Earl of, taken prisoner in 
France, 274; released at Tournay, 281. 

Salt, dearness of, 252. 

Saly (Sely), Thomas, Sheriff, 244. 

Sanctuary broken at St. Sepulchre's, 235. 



312 



INDEX. 



Sandwich, Henry de, Bishop of London, 
sent by the Legate as contumacious to 
Rome, 88 ; dies, 165. 

Ralph de, Warden, 207, 241, 242 ; 
removed, 243. 

Sansaver, Ralph, Sheriff of Surrey and 
Sussex, 106. 

Saracen, a, attempts to slay Edward I. with 
a poisoned dagger, 162. 

Saracens, capture the King of France, and 
defeat the Christian army, 19 ; slain by 
the Christians, 137. 

Sarton, Hugh de, Sheriff, 215. 

Saunnays, Henry, expelled the City, 126. 

Savoy, Peter de, appointed to enquire into 
grievances complained of in the Parlia- 
ment of Oxford, 40 ; conference between 
him and his colleagues with the envoys of 
the King's party at Dover, 73 ; conspires 
for the invasion of England, 71. 

Scarborough Castle besieged by the Earl 
of Pembroke, 213. 

" Scavage," what, 22. 

Schireburne, the Abbot of, Inquisitor into 
disorders in the Western Counties 
during the disturbances, 103. 

Scone, the Abbot of, taken prisoner, 248. 

" Scotale," what, 109. 

Scotland, King and Queen of, visit Henry 
HI. at Woodstock, 25; visit London, 
25, 48 ; the King of, comes to London, 
where he has a mansion, 238, 242 ; 
Robert le Brus causes himself to be 
crowned King of, 222 ; war with, 243 ; 
conquered, 243. 

Scots, make oath at Westminster not to rise 
against England, 244 ; invade England 
as far as Stanhope Park, 268. 

Scott, Robert, hanged, 240. 

Scrope, Sir Geoffrey, sent to France to 
treat of peace, 272. 

Seal, of the King, and its superscription 
changed, 46; of Edward I. made, 159; 
of Henry HI. broken at his death, 159 ; 
of the King of Sicily affixed to the 
Letters sent by Edward I. to the City, 
164; of the City surrendered by Gregory 
de Rokesle, 241. 



Sea-ports, property of citizens of Lon- 
don at various, given away by the King, 
83. 

Segrave, Gilbert de, elected Bishop of 
London, 216; dies, 209; deposits pre- 
cious things in the Cross of the belfry of 
St. Paul's, 215. 

Nicholas de, received into the King's 
peace, 100. 

" Selds," what, 16 ; and shops closed in the 
City in celebration of the birth of John, 
eldest son of Prince Edward, 92. 

Sell, Thomas, Sheriff, 219. 

Seneschal, the title of the Warden of the 
City, 84. 

John Waleraven made, 84. 

Sequestration of the goods of the chief 
men of the City by the Earl of Glou- 
cester, 96. 

Serjeants, alien, dismissed the City, but 
placed in garrison at Windsor, 58 ; and 
clerks of the Sheriffs, sworn at West- 
minster, 23. 

Seton, Roger de, Justiciar, sits at the Cross 
t)f St. Peter, 237. 

Severn, bridges over the river, broken 
down by Prince Edward, 79; crossed 
at Worcester by Henry IH., 79. 

Seynter, Benedict le, Sheriff, 4, 188. 

Sharshille, Sir William de, Justiciar, ar- 
rested, 284 ; sent to the Castle of Caer- 
philly, 284. 

Sheep produces a monstrous lamb with two 
bodies, at Greenwich, 136. 

Sheriff, of Middlesex, permission granted 
to the citizens of London by the King, 
at Northampton to elect one, 90. 

Sheriffs of London, command given to them 
to apprehend Hubert de Burgh, 6 ; 
prohibited holding office two successive 
years, 6, 12; seize the sailors found in 
the nets standing in the Thames, 8 ; 
appointed to hold the bailiwick of 
Bridge Street, and of Queen Hythe, 
upon payment of rent, 21 ; have seven 
pounds yearly granted by the King for 
the liberty of the Church of St. Paul, 
2 1 ; the citizens demur to the responsi- 



INDEX. 



313 



bility for the acts of the, 23 ; imprisoned 
in the Tower for having permitted the 
escape of a prisoner from Newgate, 24 ; 
subsequently freed upon the surety of 
the Mayor, but discharged from office, 
24 ; ride to Newgate to receive charge 
of the prisoners and fealty of all officials, 
at the several Gates, and at Guildhall, 
25; justified in taking toll upon the 
Bridge as far as the Staples, 43 ; deter- 
mine a plea of a Marshal of the King 
against a merchant, 52 ; with the Mayor, 
disperse a mob plundering the Jews, in 
consequence of a Christian having been 
wounded by one, 54; imprison those 
convicted of the riot upon the Jews, 54 ; 
ordered to resist any attachment made 
by the Constable of the Tower on the 
Thames, 56; not to interfere with the 
liberties of the Abbey at Westminster, 
90; prohibited from making Scotale, 
109 ; permission granted to the City to 
elect them upon payment of a fee, 129 ; 
receive the King's letters not to aggrieve 
the citizens with respect to the tallage of 
the ransom, 154; questioned by the 
King's Council as to the uses made by 
the Jews of the flesh they do not eat, 
177; received by the Mayor at Guild- 
hall, 238. 

of England, during the inquisition into 
the disorders of the kingdom during 
the disturbances, 105; have the 
King's Letters sent to them respect- 
ing the Flemings, 145. 
of London and Middlesex appointed by 
the King to collect all issues for his 
use, 106. 

Sheriffwick of London, the property of, 

wasted by the Sheriff, Symon Fitz-Mary, 7. 

Shilling, regulation of the weight of the, 

216. 

Shrewsbury, the King returns from, after 
concluding peace with Leuwelin, Prince 
of Wales, 101. 

Sicily, the King of, peace between him and 
the King of Tunis, 137; the Chancellor of, 
envoy to the King of Tunis, 138 ; Conrad, 



King of, defeats the object of the Crufa- 
ders, 138. 
Skerving, Roger de, Bishop of Norwich, 

summoned by the King, 152. 
Skyret, Gervays, drawn, for the death of 
Giles de Wodeham, 235. 

Sluys, the naval battle of, 267. 

Smithfield, Freemen of the City exempted 
from payment of scavage for beasts sold 
at, 22. 

Snacard, William, expelled the City, 127. 

Soke, in Cornhill, exclusive privilege of the, 
210 ; of the King of Scotland, bakers of 
the, 211. 

Soldan, relieved from the attack of the 
Crusaders, 137; sends a Saracen to slay 
Edward I., 162. 

Southampton burnt by the ships of the 
King of France, 275. 

Southwark, great fire at, in 1212, 3 ; inha- 
bitants of, make complaint against the 
City, of custom imposed at the Stone 
Gate on the Bridge, 42 ; the Earl of Glou- 
cester takes up his quarters there, in 
compliance with the wish of the citizens 
of London, 95 ; banished persons found 
there to be arrested, 135. 

Spain, the sister of the King of, as bride of 
Prince Edward, welcomed to London by 
the nobles, bishops, and citizens, 24. 

Sperling, Ralph, 12. 

"Spinneys," what, 100. 

Spygornel, Henry, Justiciar, 250. 

Stamford given by Henry III. to his son 
Edward upon his marriage, 23. 

Stanes, Thomas de, Sheriff, 219, 241. 

Stapledon, Walter, Bishop of Exeter, mur- 
dered in Chepe, 263. 

" Starrs " of the Jews, what, 21. 

Statutes, new, and provisions, made by the 
crafts of the City of London prejudicial 
to merchants visiting the Fairs of Eng- 
land, 60. 

Statutes of Oxford, 40 ; again assented to 
by Henry III., 56 ; Barons make war on 
those who infringe them, 56; citizens 
of London required by the Barons to 
observe them, 57; the King requested 

s s 



314 



INDEX. 



to order that they be observed, 57; 
when infringed, the party to be ar- 
rested, 60 ; dispute relative to, between 
the King and his Barons, determined 
by the arbitration of the King of France, 
63. 
Staunton, Sir Hervey de, Justiciar, 250; 

Justiciar Itinerant, 253. 
Stephen, Bishop of Chichester, sent by the 
Legate, as contumacious to Rome, 88 ; 
permitted by the Pope to return to 
England and resume his dignity, 164 ; 
his barony ordered to be taken, by the 
King's Justiciars, 164. 
Stepney, the people of, complain at the 

Hustings, 175. 
Sterlings, new, made, 239. 
Stirling, defeat of the English at, and many 
noblemen slain, 226, 244 ; Castle taken, 
244, 245; Battle of (Bannockburn), 
251. 

Stonore, Sir John, ordered to appear before 
Edward HI., 283 ; sent to Nottingham, 
284. 

Stor, Robert, expelled the City, 127. 
Stortford, John de, Sheriff, 219, 244. 

William de, Sheriff, 244. 
Stratford, Henry de, ordered to appear 
before Edward III., 283 ; sent to Corfe 
Castle, 284. 
Stratford, the people of, complain at the 

Hustings, 175. 
Stratherne, Earl of, makes oath not to bear 

arms against England, 244. 
Streets, chains across the, of the City, 
ordered by the King to beTemoved, 82. 
Stybbenheth, Paul de, hanged, 240. 
Suffolk laid waste by the disherisoned, 

94. 
Suffolk, the Earl of, taken prisoner in 

France, 274; released at Tournay, 281. 
Suffolk, Osbert de, Sheriff, 54, 231. 

Reginald de, intended to be slain by 
the disaffected, 120; included in the 
Writ sent by the King to the City, 
170. 

Thomas de, Sheriff, 219, 244. 
Sumeri, Roger de, Inquisitor into the dis- 



orders in the Midland Counties during 
the disturbances, 103. 
Swords prohibited to be worn, 253. 
Taillour, Philip le, Sheriff, 52, 129, 131, 
190, 236 ; ordered to be removed from 
the Mayoralty, 157; included in the 
Writ sent by the King to the City, 
170; appointed one of the Wardens 
of the City during the absence of the 
Mayor in Gascoigne, 176. 
Tailors, the craft of, dispute between and 

the goldsmiths, 104. 

Talbot, Richard, Dean of St. Paul's, elected 
Bishop of London, but dies before con- 
secration, 53. 

Tallage, grievances respecting, referred by 

the King to arbitration, 33 ; inquisition 

respecting, 35 ; rolls of, delivered to John 

Maunsel, one of the King's Justiciars, 

35 ; levied by the Mayor without assent 

of the King and chief citizens, 175. 

Tapers offered at the altar of St. Edward 

by the citizens, at the request of the 

King, 20. 

Tars, King of, gains part of the Holy 

Land, 245. 
Tartars, the King of the, Letter of, to 

Prince Edward, 148. 
Tateshall, Iseuda de, fulfils the wage of the 

Great Law, 19. 

" Tawyers," what, 104; take part in the 
disputes between the tailors and gold- 
smiths, 104. 
Tempest in London on the day of the Battle 

of Evesham, 80. 

Templars, ransom the King of France from 
the Saracens, 19 ; Hospitallers, and Cis- 
tercians, exempted from the tenths to 
be paid to the King, 162; destroyed, 
248. 

Temple at Paris, the appointed place for 
repayment of the loan made by the King 
of France to Prince Edward, 117. 
Tenements, devised, can be claimed by the 
rightful inheritor, notwithstanding pro- 
bate, 44 ; right of possessors of) secured 
by Writ of Right, Writ of Entry, or Writ 
of Mort d 1 Ancestor, 44. 



INDEX. 



315 



Testaments, required to have immediate 
probate, 44; probate on, permitted at 
the Hustings, 111. 

Thames, great rise of the water of, 21 ; 
rights of the City upon the, extend to 
the New Wear, 42; frozen over, 54; 
attachments on the, belong only to the 
Sheriffs, 55 ; whole water of the, from 
shore to shore and as far as the New Wear, 
belongs to the City, 55; four men-at- 
arms of Sir William de Ferers drowned 
in, by order of the Earl of Gloucester, 
for' having robbed and slain a citizen, 97 ; 
frozen for 27 days, 213, 249 ; floods Ber- 
mondsey and the country adjacent, 243 ; 
made salt by the rising of the sea, 261. 

Tholosane, John de, hanged, 240. 

Thomas a Becket translated, 5. 

Thorneye, William de, Sheriff, 275. 

Thorpe, John de, ordered to appear before 
Edward HE., 263 ; kept in the Tower, 
284. 

Thunderley, Keginald de, Sheriff, 222. 

" Tiffany," meaning of, 285. 

Tipetoft, Payn, slain, 226. 

Tolls for repair of walls, called " Murage," 
levied, 239. 

Toucestre, Geoffrey de, escapes from New- 
gate, 231. 

Tournay, besieged by Edward III., 277; 
siege raised, 284. 

Tovy, Mychael, Sheriff, 8, 189; entrusted 
with the City by Henry III., 1 1 ; Mayor, 
11, 12, 193, 194; sent by the King to 
the citizens to assure them of the pre- 
servation of their franchise, 34 ; substi- 
tuted for one of the elected Sheriffs, by 
the King, upon dissatisfaction with the 
City, 34 ; sent to the King at Windsor, 
235 ; hanged, 237. 

Thomas, taken prisoner at Windsor in 
contravention of the safe-conduct, 
83. 

Tower, ninety-two Jews imprisoned in the, 
for the murder of a child at Lincoln, and 
eighteen of them hanged, 25; delivered 
into the hands of Hugh Bygot, the Jus- 
ticiar of England appointed at the Par- 



liament of Oxford, 41 ; Constable of the, 
attempts to seize vessels before the Tower, 
and take prisage of corn, 55 ; delivered 
into the charge of Hugh le Despencer, 
Justiciar of England, 58 ; Jews sent there 
to protect them from the populace, 66 ; 
the Legate lodged there, 89 ; left by the 
Legate, 96 ; merchants imprisoned in, for 
using false weights, and the weights and 
balances destroyed at Westchep, 124; 
John Baillol, King of Scotland, sent 
thither, 243. 

" Trailbaston," what, 246 ; inquisitions of, 
246, 287. 

Trapani, Prince Edward lands at, 131. 

Travers, John, Sheriff, 4, 5, 188. 

Treasurer's office searched, 285. 

Treasury of the King at Westminster 
robbed, 226, 246. 

Treves, Archbishop of, defeated, and com- 
pelled to raise the siege of Bopardt, 29. 

"Tron," what, 110. 

Trussel, Sir William, flies the country, 
256. 

Tuchet, Sir William, hanged, 255. 

Tulesan, John, Mayor, 20; summoned be- 
fore the King's Inquisitor respecting tal- 
lages, 35 ; degraded and removed from 
his bailiwick, 39; Sheriff, 189, 194. 

" Tumbrel," what it probably means, 43 ; 
bakers whose bread is lighter than the 
assay of the City, punished by being 
placed in the, 43. 

Tunbridge Castle to be delivered to the 
King, as security, by the Earl of Glou- 
cester, 129. 

Tunis, King of, peace between him and the 
King of Sicily, 137. 

Prince Edward lands at, 131. 

Turberville, Thomas de, drawn and hanged, 
243 ; his treason described, 293. 

Turke, Walter, Sheriff, 271. 

Turkelby, Roger de, appointed associate 
of the Itinerant Justiciar in the Pleas of 
the County of Surrey, 42 ; and at the 
Guildhall, 43. 

Twyford, Sir John de, flies the country, 
256. 



316 



INDEX. 



Tyeis, Sir Henry, hanged, 255. 

Ulster, Earl of, his daughter married to the 

Earl of Gloucester, 224. 
Uptone, Kalph de, Sheriff, 271. 
Urban IV., Pope, a Bull of, read at 
Saint Paul's Cross, absolving the King 
from the oath made to the Parliament of 
Oxford, 53. 

Valence, Sir Eymer de, Bishop Elect of 
Winchester, withdraws from the Parlia- 
ment of Oxford, 40 ; has permission to 
leave England, 41. 

Sir William de, withdraws from the 
Parliament of Oxford, 40; has per- 
mission to leave England, 41 ; per- 
mitted to return to England, 52 ; 
conspires for the invasion of England, 
71; with others, takes the Castle 
of Gloucester, 78 ; returns from the 
Holy Land, 161. 

Victuals, in transitu, the forestalling of, 
prohibited before reaching the City, 109. 
Vills, compelled to furnish a contingent of 
soldiers, well armed, for forty days, to 
the Sheriff, to resist the threatened inva- 
sion, 72 ; forced to pay ransom by the 
disherisoned, 94. 
Vintners summoned by the King's Justiciar, 

for breach of the assize of wine, 27. 
Viterbo, Henry, son of Richard, King of 

the Romans, slain at, 139. 
Vyel, John, Sheriff, 4, 188. 

John Fitz-John, Sheriff, 9, 189. 
Margery, the relict of, claims the third 
of his chattels, 13; her cause ar- 
gued at St. Martin's- le-Grand, 
between the King's Justiciar and 
the Mayor and citizens, 14, 16. 
Wade, John, Sheriff, 219, 241. 

Roger, a crowder, celebrates his own 

interment, 258. 
Wager of battle, citizens exempted from, 

by charter, 107. 

Wake, the Lord de, ordered to appear be- 
fore Edward HI., 283. 
Wake, Andrew, Sheriff of Somerset and 

Dorset, 106. 
Baldwin, captured at Kenilworth, 79 ; 



with others, resorts to Chesterfield 
with horses and arms, 91 ; takes 
flight before the King's forces, 91. 
Walebrok, John de, Sheriff, 187. 

Richard de, Sheriff, 52, 190, 231; 
goods of, excepted from the commu- 
tation granted to the citizens gene- 
rally, 86. 

Waleraund, or Walraven, Henry de, 
Sheriff, 24. 

John, Sheriff, 3, 188 ; made Seneschal, 
84 ; Warden of the City and Tower, 
192; assesses the citizens towards a 
portion for the King's cousin, 204 ; 
Constable of the Tower, 235. 
Robert, one of the King's Council, by 
whom and the King the dispute 
between the citizens of London and 
Northampton is investigated, but 
judgment deferred, 50 ; sent to the 
citizens of London, while awaiting 
the pleasure of the King without 
-Windsor Castle, 83 ; witness to the 
Charter granted to the citizens, 
110; returns from beyond sea, 
115; one of the sureties to the 
King of France for Prince Edward, 
119. 

Wales, the parts of, in possession of Henry 
III., given by him to his son Edward on 
his marriage, 23 ; three castles in the 
March of^ promised to be deli vered by the 
Prince of Wales, to be held for three 
years, 76 ; King Edward goes thither 
with his forces, 238 ; conquered, 243. 
Wales, Prince of, the son of Edward the 

First made, 245. 

Waleys, Henry le, Sheriff, 131, 236, 237; 
chosen by the Aldermen for approval as 
Warden of the City, 157; Mayor, 167, 
193, 217, 240, 244 ; proceeds with three 
others to the King in Gascoigne, 1 76 ; 
and his colleagues, return from Gas- 
coigne, 176. 

Wallace, Sir John, brother of William, 
hanged, 248. 

William, adjudged to be hanged, 
drawn, and quartered, 222; heads 



INDEX. 



317 



the Scots, 244; slays Brian Jay, 
245 ; taken and condemned, 247. 

Walle, William, Esquire of the Bishop of 

Exeter, beheaded in Chepe, 263. 
Waltham, the Abbot of, differences between 
him and the citizens of London with 
respect to stallage, settled, 31. 

Wandsworth, part of, burnt, 261. 

Wardens, of the Bridge have their toll on 
ships and property of citizens rescinded, 
19 ; of the Gates, the Thames, and the 
Gaol, sworn at Westminster, 23; ap- 
pointed by the King for the assize of 
wine, 27 ; of the assize of wine, empow- 
ered to confiscate it when there is breach 
of the assize, 27 ; of the Counties, ap- 
pointed by the refractory Barons in lieu 
of the Sheriffs appointed by the King, 
52; of the City, Sir Hugh Fitz-Otes 
made one, 84; of the City, permission 
granted to the citizens to elect one, 90 ; 
of the City, not to interfere with the 
liberties of the Abbey of Westminster, 
90 ; of the Bishopric of London, ordered 
to withdraw sentence of excommunica- 
tion against those who granted pro- 
bate of testaments upon the Hustings, 
111. 

Ware, Sir John de la, exempted from the 
ransom for disherison, 93, 94. 

Wares, regulations as to the mode of 
weighing, 26, 37 ; of citizens exempted 
by Charter from toll throughout the 
territories of the King, and at all sea- 
ports, both in England and beyond the 
sea, 108 ; forfeiture of, if sold before 
custom paid, 109 ; sale of, prohibited 
until weighed, 109; regulations as re- 
gards their weighing, 123. 

Warenne, John, Earl of, marries the King's 
sister, daughter of the Count de la 
Marche, 13; conspires for the inva- 
sion of England, 71 ; with others, takes 
the Castle of Gloucester, 78 ; arrives at 
Kenilworth, and surprises the army of 
Simon de Montfort, 79 ; makes oath to 
keep the peace in the realm during the 
absence of King Edward, 159 ; pur- 



sues Wallace, 244 ; crosses to Gascoigne, 
259. 

John, Earl of, the Younger, lays 
siege to Scarborough Castle, 213; 
attends the King to Saint Paul's 
Cross, 213 ; takes the Mortimers to 
the Tower, 255. 

Warwick, John, Earl of, appointed one of 
the King's inquisitors respecting tallages, 
35 ; appointed one of the inspectors of 
grievances complained of in the Mad 
Parliament of Oxford, 40. 

Guy, Earl of, captures Piers de Gave- 

stone, 213, 215 ; solicits pardon of 

the King at Westminster, 225 ; dies, 

251. 

Watch and Ward kept by the citizens, 

58. 

Wathe, Michael, ordered to appear before 
Edward III., 283; sent to Windsor 
Castle, 284. 
Waus, Godfrey de, Envoy to the King of 

the Tartars, 148. 

Wax, regulation of the weight of, 216. 
Wears in the Thames, towards the West, 
destroyed by order of Henry III., 22 ; 
between London and the sea, destroyed 
by the Sheriffs, 22. 
Weigher, public, allowed a fee, 27. 
Weights, regulation of, 123, 216. 
Welleford, Richard de, Sheriff, 213, 249; 

Mayor, 215. 

Welsh, the, successfully resist the attack of 
Henry III. at Glamorgan, 31 ; Henry IH.'s 
league with the, 78. 

Wengham, Henry de, Chancellor, one of 
the referees respecting tallage, 33 ; con- 
secrated Bishop of London, 46, 53. 
Wengrave, John de, Mayor, 209, 216, 252. 
Wenlock, Walter, Abbot of Westminster, 
charged with breaking open the Royal 
Treasury, 246. 

Westmille, Nicholas de, slain, 259. 
Westminster, Fair at, citizens of London and 
other cities required by the King to send 
their wares thither, 15 ; the Abbot of, re- 
fused franchises by the Commons, which 
had been granted them by charter, 18 ; 



318 



INDEX. 



Henry III. appoints that the newly 
elected Mayor, when the King is not 
in London, shall be presented to the 
Barons of the Exchequer at, 21 ; Parlia- 
ment held there, confirming the Statutes 
of the Parliament of Oxford, 45 ; Abbot 
of, dispute of, with the citizens of London 
determined in the Exchequer, 61 ; Ex- 
chequer removed thence to St. Paul's, 
89; citizens resort thither to offer 
prayers for the safe delivery of the 
Princess of Wales, 92 ; King's palace there 
despoiled by the retainers of the Earl 
of Gloucester, 96 ; Church of, exempted 
from operation of the Charter to the 
citizens, 110; banished persons found 
there to be arrested, 135; John, son of 
Prince Edward, buried there, 146 ; 
Henry III. buried there, 159 ; prepara- 
tions at, for the Coronation of Edward I., 
178 ; Edward I. buried there, 223, 248 ; 
Edward II. crowned at, 223; Eleanor, 
wife of King Edward, buried at, 242; 
Barons of Scotland make oath at, 247. 
Edward de, entrusted by the King's 
writ with the City, 15. 

Westminster Hall, assemblage of the people 
there, to see the King take the Cross, 17. 

Weyland, Sir Thomas de, a Templar, fore- 
swears the country, 242. 

Whale taken in the Thames, at Greenwich, 
224. 

Wheat, the King's privilege of having it at 
twopence less per quarter than it sells at, 
55 ; prices of, 209, 256. 

Wiggemor Castle, head of the Earl of 
Leicester sent thither to the wife of Sir 
Roger de Mortimer, 80. 

Wilehale, John de, Sheriff, 8, 189. 

Wilingham, Sir Henry, hanged at Bristol, 
256. 

Willeby, Sir Richard, placed at the bar at 
Westminster, 285. 

William Longbeard (William Fitz-Osbert) 
hanged, 2. 

Wilton, Sir William de, answers the citizens 
in reference to the Constable of the 
Tower's claim of prisage, 56. 



Winchelsea, Robert de, Archbishop of Can 
terbury, 215, 250; buried at Canter- 
bury, 215; his Ordinances confirmed by 
Edward H., 257. 

Winchester, Parliament at, 80, 134; taken 
and plundered, 78. 

Winchester, bishop Elect of, dies on the 
road to England, 52 ; John Gernsey, 
Bishop of, suspended by the Legate from 
duty and benefice, 88, 89 ; the Bishop of, 
brings letters from the Queen, 265. 

Winchester, Geoffrey de, Sheriff, 15; in- 
tended to be slain by the disaffected, 
120. 

Henry de, chosen by Walter Hervey 
for approval as Warden of the City, 
157. 

Nicholas de, included in the writ sent 
by the King to the City, 168 ; Sheriff, 
191, 240, 218. 
Robert de, Sheriff, 3, 188. 
Walter de, Sheriff, 6, 188. 

Winchester, the Earl of, taken and be- 
headed, 227, 265. 

Wind, violent, in 1267, 106. 

Windsor, Castle of, delivered to the dis- 
contented Barons, 60; occupied by the 
King and Prince of Wales, 62 ; pri- 
soners at, set at liberty without ransom, 
80 ; Earls, Barons, and Knights, sum- 
moned thither to lay siege to the City 
of London, 81; deputation sent thither 
to submit the City to the King's mercy, 
82 ; the Mayor and citizens of London 
ordered to repair thither, 83 ; certain 
citizens imprisoned there, in contraven- 
tion of the safe-conduct, set free, 84; 
the remainder liberated by the King's 
Letter from Northampton, 87. 

Wine and ale measures, as also of all other 
liquors, to be of the same dimensions, 75. 

Wine, assize of, power of fining for breach 
of, referred to the decision of the King, 
27 ; King's prisage of, permitted in the 
City, 42 ; prisage of, excepted from the 
redemption from toll, 108; unduly re- 
moved out of the City, 1 75 ; given to be 
drunk on the birth of Edward of Caer- 



INDEX. 



319 



narvon, 214; flowing in Chepe, on the 
passage of Queen Margaret through the 
City, 220; flowing at the Conduit of 
Chepe, 236. 

Winter, severe, and great frost, in 1268, 113. 

Wite, William, Sheriff, 3, 188. 

Woad, usages as to, by the Sheriffs, 
annulled, 32 ; tax on its importation by 
merchants, 32. 

Wombestrong, Richard, expelled from the 
City, 126. 

Wool, permitted to be exported by all mer- 
chants except those of Flanders, 132 ; 
prohibited from being sold to Flemings, 
132 ; prohibited from being exported, 
141, 167; belonging to any foreign mer- 
chants, except the Flemings, permitted 
to be exported, 146 ; sacks to be marked 
with the King's seal, 150. 

Wool ships intercepted at sea by the men of 
the Cinque Ports, 167. 

Worcester, Edward II. marches thither, 255. 

Worcester, Bishop of, appointed by the 
King as inspector of grievances, com- 
plained of in the Ordinances of the Mad 
Parliament of Oxford, 40; appointed 
one of the Wardens of the kingdom 
during the King's absence in France, 45 ; 
with others, passes over to France to 
arrange a treaty of peace with the in- 
vading malcontents, 74 ; one of the arbi- 
trators to determine between the King 
and the discontented Barons, 77. 

Wouborne, John de, Sheriff, 6, 188. 

Writ of Henry III. sent throughout the 
kingdom, commanding that his abso- 
lution from the oath to the Parliament 



of Oxford shall not be gainsayed, 53 ; 
of the King issued to the Sheriffs, relative 
to the threatened invasion, 71 ; of Ed- 
ward I. to the Sheriff of Norfolk, 161. 

Writs of the Kong relative to the prohibited 
sale of wools and other merchandize to 
the Flemings, 140. 

Wylebye, Sir Richard, ordered to appear 
before Edward III., 283 ; sent to Corfe 
Castle, 284. 

Wymbeldon, Richard de, Sheriff, 4, 188. 

Wymburne, Thomas de, Sheriff, 20, 189. 

Wyteby, Adam de, Sheriff, 3, 188. 

Yarmouth, property of the citizens of 
London there, given away by the King, 
83; inhabitants of, assist the Prior of 
Norwich against the citizens of Norwich, 
151. See Gernemue. 

Yarmouth, John de, appointed inquisitor 
as to the property of the Flemings, 143. 

" Yeresgive," what, 109. 

York, Walter Giffard, Archbishop of, con- 
travenes the rights of the See of Canter- 
bury, 113; contravenes the dignity of 
the See of Canterbury at the Transla- 
tion of the body of St. Edward, 122 ; 
comes to the City to proclaim peace 
after the death of Henry IH., 158. 

York, the Exchequer removed from, 246, 
258. 

York and London, persecution of the Jews 
at, commencing on the day of the Coro- 
nation of Richard I., 1. 

Zouche, Sir Alan la, made Constable of the 
Tower, and Warden of the City, 97, 
192 ; receives the King's writ for the 
continuance of the Bailiffs, 100. 



CORRIGENDA. 

Page 23, line 13,/or " of Westminster," read " at Westminster." 
Page 126, line 10,/or " Hawkin," read " Hanekin." 



LONDON: 
EMILY FAITHFULL, 

PRINTER AND PUBLISHER IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY, 
VICTORIA PRESS, 83A, FARRINGDON STREET, B.C. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS 



OF 



TRUBNEB, AND CO., 

60, PATEMOSTER ROW, LONDON. 



THE EPIDEMICS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. By J. F. C. 

HECKER, M.D. Translated by Gr. B. BABINGTON, M.D., F.R.S. Third Edition, 
completed by the Author's Treatise on CHILD-PILGRIMAGES. 8vo., pp. 384, 
cloth, price 9s. 

CONTENTS : The Black Death The Dancing Mania The Sweating 
Sickness Child-Pilgrimages . 

This volume is one of the series published by the Sydenham Society, and, as such, 
originally issued to its members only. The work having gone out of print, this new 
edition the third has been undertaken by the present proprietors of the copyright, 
with the view not only of meeting the numerous demands from the class to which it was 
primarily addressed by its learned author, but also for extending its circulation to the 
general reader, to whom it had, heretofore, been all but inaccessible, owing to the 
peculiar mode of its publication, and to whom it is believed it will be very acceptable, on 
account of the great and growing interest of its subject-matter, and the elegant and 
successful treatment thereof. The volume is a verbatim reprint from the second 
edition ; but its value has been enhanced by the addition of a paper on " Child- 
Pilgrimages," never before translated ; and the present edition is therefore the first 
and only one in the English language which contains all the contributions of Dr. Hecker 
to the history of medicine. 

A DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY. By 

HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, M.A., late Fellow of Ch. Coll. Cam. Vol. I. 
(A to D), 8vo., pp. 24 and 508. Vol. II. (E to P), pp. 570, cloth, price 14s. 
each Vol. (Will be completed in 3 Volumes.) 

"Dictionaries are a class of books not usually esteemed light reading; but no 
intelligent man were to be pitied who should find himself shut up on a rainy day, in 
a lonely house in the dreariest part of Salisbury Plain, with no other means of recreation 
than that which Mr. Wedgwood's Dictionary of English Etymology could afford him. 
He would read it through, from cover to cover, at a sitting, and only regret that he had 
not the second volume to begin upon forthwith. It is a very able book, of great 
research, full of delightful surprises, a repertory of the fairy tales of linguistic science." 
Spectator. 

MACARONEANA ANDRA; overum Nouveaux Melanges de 

Litterature Macaronique. Par OCTAVE DELEPIERRE. Small 4to., pp. 180, 
printed by Whittingham, and handsomely bound in the Roxburghe style, price 
105. 6d. 

This Volume, together with the one published by the Author in 1852, 
forms the completest collection of that peculiar form of poetry in existence. 



2 RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF TRUBNER AND CO. 

ANALYSE DES TRAVAUX DE LA SOCIETE DES 

PHILOBIBLON DE LONDRES. Par OCTAVE DELEPIERRE. Small 4to., 
pp. viii. 134, bound in the Roxburghe style, price 10s. 6d. 

" It is probably not generally known, that among the numerous learned associations 
of the British metropolis there exists one called the Philobiblon Society. This somewhat 
exclusive union of bibliographic philosophers was established in 1853, under the 
auspices of the late Prince Consort, and after the model of the French Academy it 
being one of the fundamental rules of the society never to depass in number the 
immortal Forty. . . . The statutes of the Philobiblon provided for the annual issue 
of a volume of historical, biographical, critical, and other essays, contributed by any of 
the forty members, and printed in a very limited edition not a single book to be 
disposed of for money. To enhance the value of the works thus published, it was 
arranged that every member should receive only two copies of each volume, to be signed 
by the president and secretary of the society, and with the name of the possessor on the 
title-page. . . . The contents of this half-a-dozen semi -mysterious and rare works 
have just been revealed in a curious little book, published by Messrs. Triibner & Co., 
and got up in exact imitation of the products of Caxton's press. The work is dedicated 
by M. Octave Delepierre, the author, to the Duke d'Aumale, the patron of the 
Philobiblon since the decease of Prince Albert, and one of the leading members from 
the beginning." Spectator. 

" Two unpretending but very useful books have been lately compiled by M. Delepierre 
and Mr. Nichols. The former, whose ' History of Flemish Literature ' has already been 
noticed in these columns, has printed an abstract of the multifarious works issued by the 
Philobiblon Society of London, of which, by the way, he is the honorary secretary. 
. . How great a boon such catalogues as these are to historical and literary 
inquirers can only be estimated by those who have experienced the want of them. . . . 
The gentlemen whose works we have named at the head of this paper, have done, in 
their way and degree, a service to literature which may be compared with those 
rendered by the compilers of the Calendars of the State Papers." Saturday Review. 

"M. Delepierre, the secretary, is also a very important contributor. By way of 
tantalizing the public, he issues this 'Analyse,' which is a descriptive catalogue of the 
precious rarities collected by the society." Literary Budget. 

" The account which Mr. Delepierre gives of these volumes makes us regret that 
their contents have remained, as he tells us, almost unknown to the public, since many 
of the contributions appear to be of much interest." Parthnon. 

LES ECOSSAIS EN FRANCE, LES FRANCAIS EN 

ECOSSE. Par FRANCISQUE MICHEL, Correspondant de 1'Institut de 
France, etc. Handsomely bound in two Volumes, 8vo., in rich blue cloth, 
with emblematical Designs, 600 pages each ; with upwards of 100 Coats of 
Arms, and other Illustrations. Price II. 12s. Also a Large Paper Edition 
[limited to 100 Copies], printed on thick paper. Two Volumes, 4to., half 
morocco, with three additional Steel Engravings. Price 31. 3s, 

THE GAME OF CHESS. A reproduction of William 

Caxton's Game of Chess, the first work printed in England. Small folio, 
bound in cloth, price 11. Is.; full calf, 11. Us. 6d. Only Eighty Copies 
for sale. 

The type has been carefully imitated and the cuts traced from the copy in the British 
Museum. The paper has also been made expressly, as near as possible like the original. 
The book is accompanied by a few remarks of a practical nature, which have been 
suggested during the progress of the fount and the necessary study and comparison 
of Caxton's works with those of his contemporaries in Germany, by Mr. Vincent 
Figgins. 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



DA Fitz-Thedmar, Arnold 

676 Chronicles of the mayors 

F5 and sheriffs of London, A.D. 

1188 to A.D. 1274