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>- lOH, LENOX 

C. H. Hutchinson 













TKC lt''l YORK 


H i9!8 L 

Copyrighted, 1906, by 

An Open Le;tter to Mr. C. H. Hutchinson from Rev, George 


Buffalo, N. Y., Oct. i8, 1904. 

My Dear Sir: Through the kindness of good friends in dear old 
Middletown, I have been permitted to read the articles published by 
you in the Journal, entitled ''Chronicles of Middletown." To say 
that I have been interested, is to state very mildly the feeling of happi- 
ness that I have experienced, in common with many others of the readers 
of the Journal. We all owe you a debt of gratitude for your labor 
in searching out the old records, that will be but incompletely paid by 
the purchase of your forthcoming book. Human nature is sometimes 
slow in expressing its appreciation, and on this account I am all the 
more anxious to assure you of our gratitude for the good work you 
have done, and will continue to do. My residence in Middletown run 
from 1846 to 1862, and thus the most impressible years of my life 
were spent in association with Middletown people. A person remem- 
bers the associates and scenes of youth long after he has forgotten 
those encountered in after years. During the early days of the War 
of the Rebellion, I was the only newsboy in the town, and was the first 
to carry papers from house to house, and to sell them on the streets ; 
and in this way I came to know more than half the people in the town. 
I flatter myself that people liked to see me, in those days, not that they 
cared much for me, but they were anxious to get the papers, filled as 
they always were with news of the great war. If suggestions are in 
order, I should advise that your ''Chronicles" include a history of the 
newspapers of the town. 

Many people await with eagerness the issue of your book, and every 
Middletowner of the past or present, ought to assist in making it a 
paying enterprise to the energetic and scholarly editor and publisher. 

Gratefully yours, 

Geo. Whitman. 








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Pineford Farm. Home of George Fisher, Founder of ^liddletown. 


Chapter. Page. 

I. William Penn proposes to locate a city here, 9 

II. Indian tribe located here. Scotch Irish settle, and 

build churches, II 

■ III. History of an old trading post, 12 

IV. Churches established by the Presbyterians nearly 

two hundred years ago, 14 

V. Swiss and German immigrants come here, 22 

VI. Copy of deed from sons of William Penn to John 

Fisher, in 1747, for site of town, 24 

VII. Settlement of Middletown. Town laid out, 27 

VIII. Indian depredations in vicinity. A parallel. Re- 
wards for Indian scalps. Paxton boys organ- 
ized. Indian massacres, 31 

IX. Sketch of Col. James Burd, 37 

X. Building of old Lutheran Church in 1767, 41 

XL Title deed to Royalton by Thomas and John Penn, 45 
XII. Protest of Middletown settlers in 1774, against ag- 
gressions of British government. Names of 
volunteers in Revolutionary army, 48 

XIII. A shelter for Wyoming Valley fugitives from In- 

dian massacre in 1778. Tax lists of 1778 and 
1782, 53 

XIV. Oath of Allegiance. Northern boundary line sup- 

plies, etc. Navigation of Susquehanna. Slaves 

held here, 59 

XV. Sketch of George Frey and his mill. Litigation 

over. Stubbs' Furnaces 63 

XVI. History of Union Canal. William Penn's proposals 

for a water-way, 6y 

XVII. Turnpike. Main street. Conestoga Wagons, 69 

XVIII. Whiskey Insurrection. Major George Fisher, 71 

XIX. Town over a century ago. Taverns. John Penn 

stops here, 77 

XX. Biography of George Fisher, founder of Ports- 
mouth, 80 

XXI. Proposed location of U. S. Capital. Address to 
President Adams. His reply. Middletown ad- 
vertisements. Prices current in 1800. Proces- 
sion and services on death of Washington. 
Wages, 87 



Chapter. Page. 

XXIL Portsmouth, founding of. Lots offered for sale. 
Navigation of Susquehanna Rafts. Boats. 

Lumber traffic, etc., 93 

XXIIL Fairs in Middletown Swatara Bank. Middletown 

as it was over a century ago, 96 

XXIV. Looking backward continued. Post Office. Doc- 
tors. School teachers, etc., 98 

XXV. Looking backward continued. Charlie Ross, 103 

XXVL Looking backward continued, 107 

XXVIL Frey's Will. History of Emaus Orphan House. 

Litigation over. Scholars in 1841-47, 113 

XXVHL Pennsylvania Canal. Breakwater. Mount Joy 
Railroad. First locomotive (The ''Johii 

Bull"). The Pennsylvania Railroad, 124 

XXIX. The Mud Pike. The Middletown Furnace. The 
Slab Mill. The Lath Mill. The Furnace Saw 

Mill. The Feeder-dam, 127 

XXX. Middletown advertisements in 1802. Coal-oil. 

Fourth of July celebration, 130 

XXXI. Lafayette here. Advertisements a century ago. 

Yearly market. First Steamboat Line, 133 

XXXII. Turnpikes laid out. Cameron Furnace. Cameron 

Grist Mill. Arnold ferry-house, 135 

XXXIII. History of Methodist Episcopal Church and Sunday 

Schools 139 

XXXIV. History of Bethel Church and Sunday School ; list 

of scholars in, 144 

XXXV. Soldiers in War of 1812. Incorporation of Bor- 
ough. Mexican War Volunteers, 148 

XXXVI. Middletown proposed as County-seat, 151 

XXXVII. History of St. Mary's Catholic Church, . . . 154 

XXXVIII. Petition for road from Pineford to Harris' Ferry in 

1745. Middletown Militia Companies, 157 

XXXIX. History of United Brethren Church. The Aymish. 

The Dunkards. The Mennonites, 160 

XL. History of St. Michael's Protestant Episcopal 

Church. Old Saw-Mills, 164 

XLI. Burgesses and Councilmen of Borough, 166 

XLII. Water-right from Frey's Mill-race, 170 

XLIII. Citizens' Meeting at opening of Civil War, 1861. 

Extracts from Dauphin Journal, 172 

XLIV. Fire Companies, T78 

XLV. War Record of Company G, Thirty-fifth Regiment, 

Pennsylvania Volunteers. Roll of Company,. . 182 



Chapter. Page. 

XLVI. Middletown Volunteers in Eighty-seventh Regi- 
ment, Pennsylvania Volunteers ; in Ninety- 
second Regiment, Ninth Cavalry, 196 

XLVIL Middletown Volunteers in Ninety-third Regiment, 

Pennsylvania Volunteers, 207 

XL VIII. Middletown Volunteers in Thirty-sixth Regiment, 
in Company G, Forty-first Regiment, Twelfth 

Reserve, 212 

XLIX. Middletown Volunteers in Forty-third Regiment, 

First Artillery, 215 

L. Middletown Volunteers in Eightieth Regiment, 
Seventh Cavalry. In Eighty-third Regiment. 
In One Hundred and First Regiment. In One 
Hundred and Thirteenth Regiment, Twelfth 
Cavalry. In One Hundred and Seventeenth 

Regiment, Thirteenth Cavalry, 218 

LI. Middletown Volunteers in Company H, One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-seventh Regiment, 222 

LII. Middletown Volunteers in One Hundred and Eighty- 
seventh Regiment. In One Hundred and 
Ninetieth Regiment. In One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment. In Company C, One 
Hundred and Ninety-second Regiment. In 
One Hundred and Ninety-fourth Regiment. In 
Two Hundredth Regiment. In Two Hundred 

and First Regiment, 229 

LIII. Middletown Volunteers in Twenty-second United 
States Colored Regiment (Company G, Fifth 

Massachusetts Cavalry), 238 

LIV. Middletown Volunteers in other Regiments. In 

Quartermaster's Department, U. S. A., 240 

LV. Roll of Militia Companies in 1862 (Guards, Cav- 
alry) , 243 

LVI. Roll of Militia Companies in 1863. (Three Com- 
panies), 247 

LVII. Secret Orders organized in Middletown, 250 

LVIII. Musical Organizations in town. G. A. R. Post, . . . 257 

LVIX. Middletown Cemetery. Banks. Newspapers, 261 

LX. Biographical Sketch of Col. James Young, 264 


In the year 1690 William Penn published in London, England, the 
following, which I give in its entirety, as it is of special interest to the 
citizens of Middletown : 

Some Proposals for a Second Settlement in the Province of 


"Whereas, I did, about nine years past, propound the selling of sev- 
eral parts or shares of land, upon that side of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania next Delaware river, and setting out of a place upon it for the 
building of a city, by the name of Philadelphia ; and that divers per- 
sons closed with those proposals, who, by their ingenuity, industry and 
charge, have advanced that city, from a wood, to a good forwardness 
of building (there being above one thousand houses finished in it) and 
that the several plantations and towns begun upon the land, bought by 
those first undertakers, are also in a prosperous way of improvement 
and enlargement (insomuch as last year ten sail ships were freighted 
there, with the growth of the province, for Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c., be- 
sides what came directly for this kingdom). It is now my purpose to 
make another settlement upon the river Susquehannagh, that runs into 
the bay of Chesapeake, and bears about fifty miles west from the river 
Delaware, as appears by the common maps of the English Dominion in 
America. There I design to lay out a plan for the building of another 
city, in the most convenient place for communication with the former 
plantations on the East ; which by land is as good as done already, a 
way being laid out between the two rivers very exactly and conveniently, 
at least three years ago ; and which will not be hard to do by water, by 
the benefit of the river Scoulkill ; for a Branch of that river (the Tul- 
pehocken) lies near a branch that runs into Susquehannagh river (the 
Swatara)* and is the Common Course of the Indians with their Skins 
and Furrs into our Parts, and to the Provinces of East and West Jer- 
sey, and New York, from the West and Northwest part of the conti- 
nent from whence they bring them. "And I do also intend that every 
one who shall be a Purchaser in this proposed settlement, shall have a 
proportionable Lot in the City to build a House or Houses upon ; which 
Town-Ground, and the Shares of Land that shall be bought of me, shall 
be delivered clear of all Indian Pretensions ; for it has been my way 
from the first to purchase their title from them, and so settle with their 

*The distance between the two creeks (connected by the Union canal in 1827) 
is about six miles. 


The Shares I dispose of, containe each Three Thousand Acres for 
iioo and for the greater or lesser quantities after that rate: The acre 
of that Province is according to the Statute of the 33rd of Edw. I. And 
no acknowledgment or Quit Rent chall be paid by the Purchasers till 
five years after a settlement be made upon their Lands, and that only 
sccording to the quantity of acres so taken up and seated, and not other- 
wise ; and only then to pay but one shilling for every hundred acres for- 
ever. And further I do promise to agree with every Purchaser that 
shall be willing to treat with m.e between this and next spring, upon all 
such reasonable conditions as shall be thought necessary for their ac- 
commodation, intending, if God please to return with what speed I can, 
and my family with me, in order to our future Residence. 

"To conclude, that which particularly recommends this Settlement, is 
the known goodness of the soyll and cituation of the Land, which is high 
and not mountainous ; also the Pleasantness, and Largeness of the 
River, being clear and not rapid, and broader than the Thames at Lon- 
don bridge, many miles above the Place intended for this Settlement ; 
and runs (as we are told by the Indians) quite through the Province, 
into which many fair rivers empty themselves. The sorts of Timber 
that grow there are chiefly oak, ash, chestnut, walnut, cedar and poplar. 
The native Fruits are papaws, grapes, mulberries, chestnuts, and several 
sorts of walnuts. There are likewise great quantities of Deer, and 
especially Elks, which are much bigger than our common Red Deer, and 
use that River in Herds. And Fish there is of divers sorts, and very 
large and good, and in great plenty. 

"If any Persons please to apply themselves to me by letter in relation 
to this affair, they may direct them to Robert Ness, Scrivener in Lumber 
street in London for Philip Ford, and suitable answers will be returned 
by the first opportunity. 

"But that which recommends both this Settlement in particular, and 
the Provinces in general, is a late Pattent obtained by divers Eminent 
Lords and Gentlemen for that Land that lies north of Pennsylvania up 
to the 46th degree and a half, because their Traffic and Intercourse will 
be chiefly through Pennsylvania, w^hich lies between that Province and 
the Sea. We have also the comfort of being the Centre of all the 
English colonies upon the Continent of America, as they lie from the 
North East parts of New England to the most Southerly parts of Caro- 
lina, being above 1000 miles upon the Coast. 

There are also Instructions printed for information of such as intend 
to go, or send servants, or families thither, which way they may pro- 
ceed with most ease and advantage, both here and there, in reference to 
Passage, Goods, Utensils, Buildings, Husbandry, Stock, Subsistence, 
Traffick, &c., being the effect of their expence and experience that have 
seen the Fruit of their Labors. 

"WM. PENN." 



In 1676 the remnant of the Susquehannas, a once powerful Indian 
nation, worn out by long contests with the Iroquois, and decimated by 
pestilence, finally disappeared. 

In 1678 the Shaw^anese, a southern tribe, by permission of the Six 
Nations and of the proprietary Government of Pennsylvania removed 
from Carolina and planted themselves on the Susquehanna. At that 
time "so desolate w^as the wilderness that a vagabond tribe could wan- 
der undisturbed from the Cumberland river to the Alabama ; from the 
headwaters of the Santee to the Susquehanna." The Conoys or Gana- 
wese, the Nanticokes from Maryland, and the Conestogas all located in 
this vicinity, that is from Pequea creek to the Conodoguinet. 

There was an Indian town at Dekanoagh (about the site of Bain- 
bridge), near the mouth of Conoy creek, and another near the mouth of 
the Swadahara. (Swatara.) This latter creek seems to have been a 
favorite one with the Indians. In the meadow immediately north of 
the bridge where the old turnpike, the king's highway, crosses it, flint 
arrow and spear heads, and stone axes used to be frequently picked up. 
In 1701, at a council held in Philadelphia, "on the 22nd of 2nd 
month," the "Susquehannagh" Indians made a treaty with Wm. Penn. 
Among the chiefs present was Weewhinjough, chief of the (Conoy) 

In 1705, James Logan, with several others, visited the Ganawese set- 
tled some miles above Conescoga, at a place called Conojaghera, above 
the fort, to learn the news among them, give them advice, and exchange 

July 22nd, 1707, Governor Evans laid before the Council an account of 
his journey among the Susquehanna Indians. He speaks of "Dekanoa- 
gah about nine miles distant from Pequehan." Here the Governor was 
present at a meeting of Shaois, Senequois, and Canoise Indians, and the 
Nanticoke Indians from seven towns. 

At that time this part of the State was much more densely wooded 
than the eastern ; in this immediate vicinity was the belt of pine that 
gave its name to the ford which now the turnpike bridge spans, and 
from which the first settlers of Middletown drew their supplies of build- 
ing material. Tradition says that in the neighborhood of the present 
centre square stood the Indian town marked on old maps as Swaha- 

The first white men who visited these parts were probably French 
Indian traders, who came down from Canada near the close of the 
seventeenth century, as the colonial records allude to them in the be- 
ginning of 1700. 

The English and Irish were probably the first settlers here; there is 
no record fixing the exact date of their coming, but it must have been 


early in the century, for in 1720 they were numerous enough to erect 

These Irish, better known as the "Scotch-Irish," were descendants of 
those Scotch Presbyterians, who, to avoid the persecutions of the Epis- 
copal church, had fled to the north of Ireland about the sixteenth cen- 
tury ; and who, becoming dissatisfied there, and hearing of the religious 
toleration guaranteed by Penn, sought a home in this country. 

They were soon followed (about 1740) by the Dutch, (so-called in 
all the colonial documents) who were no more Dutch than their prede- 
cessors were Irish, but came from the upper parts of Germany. 

The first of this nationality who settled here also fled from re- 
ligious persecutions. They were Moravians (Mennonites), Dunkards, 
Schwenckfelders, Lutherans, German Reformed, etc. 

About 1720 commenced a traffic which continued until nearly the 
close of the century. Agents called Newlanders were sent to Germany 
by prominent firms of Philadelphia, to entice emigrants to Pennsylvania 
by false representations ; the offer of lands, free transportation, &c. 
They were brought over by the ship load, were known as "Redemp- 
tioners," and, upon arrival, put up at auction, and knocked down to the 
highest bidder, for a three years' term, in payment of their passage. 

A class of speculators called "Soul-Drivers" soon arose, who bought 
them up in lots of fifty or more, and driving them through the country, 
disposed of them to the farmers. (For the heirs of one of those pur- 
chased in Middletown, who afterwards married, moved away and was 
lost track of, a considerable property is waiting.) 

The traffic in white slaves paid better than that in black. In many 
instances they were treated worse, and when their time had nearly ex- 
pired, being accused of some misdemeanor, were sentenced by com- 
plaisant justices to a further period of servitude. The trade was brisk 
for awhile, and there were few householders who did not own one or 
more; it finally died out about 1785 or '90. 


In this connection it might be as well to state that Susquehanna is 
derived from an Indian name, Sa-os-qua-ha-na-unk, meaning "long 
crooked river." Swatara is likewise purely aboriginal. Heckwelder 
supposes it to be a corruption of the Delaware name Sa-hadow-a into 
some other tribal dialect. In the early surveys it is written Swa-hatow- 
ra, later Swatorah, finally it became Swatara. Swa-ha-dow-ry, mean- 
ing, "where we feed on eels." Peter Bazillion and Martin Chartier, 
French Indian traders, were at the mouth of the Swatara previous to 
1704. Later, Gordon Howard opened a trading post here. We have 
no data as to when he first came, but in 1718 he was "at the mouth of 
Swatara, in Conestoga township, Chester county," and he was one or 

*See later article on the Presbjrterian Church. 


two seasons here with his son and his partner, James McFarland, in 

Of the many who traverse South Union street, between the subway 
and the (now filled in) outlet lock, few can have failed to notice the 
quaint building that stands, isolated, on the eastern side of the thor- 
oughfare. Its weather-beaten appearance, old-fashioned dormer win- 
dows and general look of age, point it out as a relic of the past. And 
that old house has a history. Sixty years ago it was known as the 
"Ferry house," and this was one of the two points where travelers by 
the river road were ferried across the Swatara. But it has an earlier 
and more romantic record. It was a stockaded and garrisoned frontier 
post in the earlier part of the eighteenth century. Afterwards, during 
the Revolution, some of the Hessian prisoners captured at Trenton, 
were quartered here. To old inhabitants, some of whom have recently 
been gathered to their fathers, it was known as the "Barracks." It is 
probable that several superstructures have been erected upon its vener- 
able stone walls. Their record is lost. The accumulations of soil, de- 
posited there during the digging of the Union Canal, the basin, and by 
the river, have gradually encroached on and hidden them, until, on three 
sides, they are but a foot or two above the surface, while the fourth is 
entirely removed. The old loop-holes which pierced them, about a foot 
square in the inside, and sloping to three inches in width by a foot long 
on the outside, have been bricked up, but seventeen years ago some of 
them were as intact as when the pioneers fashioned them, and to the 
student of history they told the story of our forefathers. Later con- 
structions have materially changed the appearance of the vicinage, but 
one can yet see in what an admirably defensive position, against savage 
attacks, it was located. What tales could those old walls tell of wild 
carousal and wilder forray — of savage feasts and dances — of battles and 
skirmishes — of besiegers and besieged. The dust of assailants and as- 
sailed have long since commingled — the frontier, which it once aided in 
defending, has disappeared. Where the war whoop once rang, is heard 
the whistle of the locomotive and fields of grain wave over leagues of 
ground, which, when this redoubt was erected, were covered by virgin 
forest. The historian has hitherto, failed to mention this post, and its 
only record is tradition. f 

*He married Rachel, daughter of Robert McFarland, who lived on Little Chickies 
creek, near Mount Joy. In 1722, Howard resided about a mile east of Springville, 
and owned several hundred acres of land. Was County Commissioner in 1729, 
1730, 1731- The family was a very prominent one, none of whom have descendants 
residing in this vicinity. 

fin the possession of Dr. D. W. C. Laverty, is an extensive collection, consisting 
of at least a thousand Indian relics, all (with one exception) gathered in Middle- 
town, and its immediate neighborhood. 

Note. — Since article No. 4 was written the walls of the "Old Ferry House" have 
been repaired, and the loop-holes formed therein for defensive purposes, filled up. 
They were originally probably ten in number — three on the north and south sides, 
respectively, and two each on the east and west ends of the building. They were 
about five feet above the ground; 12x3 inches on the outside of the walls and 
12x12 inches on the inside. 


There must have been settlements here then, for in an account of a 
"treaty held at Conestogue" in 1721, published by the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment, it is stated that the "village of Conestogue (Lancaster), lies 
about 70 miles distance (from Philadelphia), almost directly west of 
the city ; and the land thereabout being exceedingly rich, it is now sur- 
rounded with divers fine plantations or farms, where they raise quanti- 
ties of wheat, flax and hemp, without the help of any dung." This is a 
very good evidence that the emigrants had made improvements of the 
best character some years before 1721. As the country was "very 
heavily wooded" much labor and time must have been expended to 
present "fine plantations," and it is certain that they extended further 
west than the present city of Lancaster. 

Another proof that these settlements were of importance is, that as 
early as 1720, preparations had been made by the Presbyterians to erect 
places of worship. The population was so numerous that a demand for 
a State road was made in 1731. One was finally located in 1736, from 
Lancaster, via the Swatara, to Shippensburg, connecting with the one 
between Lancaster and Philadelphia. 

May loth, 1729, Lancaster county was erected. June 9th, of the same 
year, it was divided into townships. Of these "Derry township, begin- 
ning at the mouth of Conewago, thence up Sasquehannah to the mouth 
of Swataaro, thence up Swataaro to the mouth of Quetepehello, thence 
south on a direct line to Conewago, and down the same to the place of 
beginning." "Peshtank — beginning at the mouth of Swataaro, thence 
up the river to Kehtohtoning mill above Peter Allen's, thence eastward 
by the south side of said mill to the meridian of Quetopohello mouth, 
thence on a south course to the mouth of the same at Swataaro, and 
down Swataaro to the place of beginning." Are now both in Dauphin 

Presbyterian Church. 

Within a radius of eight miles around Middletown, are the sites and 
remains of three churches ; all organized at least forty years prior to 
the Revolution, and around whose crumbling and fast disappearing 
ruins cluster many memories of the past. In this locality the Scotch- 
Irish settled ; and when the log cabin was built, and a few acres of forest 
cleared, those rigid Presbyterians erected their temples of worship, and 
thus arose the churches of Derry, Paxton and Conewago. 

They were earnest people, those early settlers of Middletown; they 
kept Sunday as a holy day, and although not possessing the austerity of 
the Puritans, but on the contrary, jovial, generous, and hospitable; yet 


retained enough of the old Scotch leaven, to make them observe it with 
a strictness, which perhaps, in these later days of latitudinarianism, ma- 
terialism and infidelity, it were well to emulate. Then the horse, the ox, 
the man servant, and the maid servant, must rest from all unnecessary 
labor, and church be visited at least once a day. Long rides or walks 
eight miles in one direction, to Derry ; eight in another, to Paxton ; or 
four in another, to Conewago, no matter for ice, sleet, hail or rain ; the 
drifted snow or the bottomless mud; the heat of midsummer, or the 
cold of winter — the stern frontiersman would have deemed his chances 
of Heaven lessened, had he omitted this sacred duty. So with musket 
loaded, and bullet pouch and powder horn well filled, he set forth, either 
on horseback, with wife on pillion behind him, or on foot, with the whole 
family trudging beside. At each clearing others joined, and they trav- 
eled on together ; for the wild beast and wilder Indian lurked near, and 
the churchyard sometimes claimed precedence of the church. 

Derry Church — This congregation was organized in 1719, and in 
1720 the house of worship was erected. The land, forty acres, was 
deeded by William and Thomas Penn several years later. The building 
was constructed of oak logs two feet thick, which were covered with 
hemlock boards on the outside. The pews and floors were of yellow 
pine, cherry and oak. The pulpit was low and narrow, crescent shaped, 
and entered by narrow steps from the east side. Above it, on the south 
side, was a large window which contained thirty-eight panes, made of 
glass of dififerent sizes ; the sash was made of lead, and was brought 
from England. Pegs were stuck in the wall inside, for the men to hang 
their muskets and when in 1883 it became necessary to take the decaying 
building down, many a bullet was found imbedded in the oak logs. The 
first services we have any record of were held in April, 1724. The con- 
gregation was addressed by Revs. Geo. Gillespie, David Evans and 
Robert Cross. Among the members present at that time were : Row- 
land Chambers, Thomas and William Clarke, James Galbraith, Patrick 
and Robert Campbell, John Mitchell, William McBey, James Quigley, 
William Hay, Robert Moody, Malcolm Kerr, Thomas and Hugh Black, 
James Harris, William McCord, Morgan Jones, David McClure, James 
McFarlane, Alexander Hutchinson, John and Benjamin Boyd, James 
Hamilton, John McCosh and sister. 

The old stone step at the main entrance was greatly worn by the feet 
of the thousands who had passed over it. In the graveyard adjoining, 
the sandstone tombstones have so crumbled away, that many of the 
inscriptions cannot be read. The oldest decipherable is of 1734. Rev. 
William Bertram, and Rev. John Roan, were both buried here, the for- 
mer in 1746, the latter in 1775. 

Paxton Church was organized at an early period, at least prior to 
1725, and Rev. James Anderson, of Donegal, preached there one-fifth of 
his time until 1729. In 1732, Rev. William Bertram was minister of 
this, as well as Derry church ; he was paid about £60, "half in money, 
the other half in hemp, linen, yarn, or linen cloth, at market price." 


Rev. John Elder, a graduate of Edinburgh University, succeeded him in 

Mr. Elder, who was also a colonel in the Provincial service, used to 
take his musket with him into the pulpit. On one occasion the Indians 
surrounded the meeting house while he was preaching, but having 
counted the gims, retired without making an attack. At another time 
they arrived by mistake on ]\Ionday instead of Sunday, and after wait- 
ing several days, were discovered, and left by way of Indiantown Gap, 
murdering a number of persons on the Swatara, and carrying off sev- 
eral prisoners. 

The custom of seating women at the inner end of the pews exclu- 
sively, is said to have originated in these times, when the frontiersman 
was required to be ready to spring to the doors, gun in hand, at the first 
note of alarm. 

There were three entrances to the church ; the pulpit used to stand 
in the middle of the house, fronting the southern entrance ; it was after- 
wards built against the north wall, high above the heads of the wor- 
shippers. One aisle ran from east to west, and another from the south- 
ern door to the pulpit. The pews were not uniform, each being built by 
the family occupying it. Two large ten-plate stoves were in the long 
aisle, the smoke from which ascended by pipes to the loft, and found its 
way out through a hole in the roof. 

Southeast of the church is the burial ground, surrounded by a substan- 
tial stone wall. Here rest the Elders. Espys, Sturgeons, McClures. Ma- 
clays, Rutherfords, Simpsons, Harrises, Grays, Gilmores, and genera- 
tions of the English and Scotch-Irish settlers, who once inhabited this 
section of the country, and to whom Middletown was the business, po- 
litical and social centre. Here also lie the remains of Gen. James Cronch 
and Gen. Alichael Simpson, Revolutionary heroes. Men are here en- 
tombed who fought at Quebec, and all through the War of Independ- 

Conewago Church — This church was located about four miles from 
Middletown near where the village of Gainsburg (laid out in 1812), now 
stands. There is no account of its erection, but in 1741, Rev. Samuel 
Black was their regular preacher, indicating that a church had been 
built previous to that time. This structure had probably fallen to decay, 
for another was erected, the only record of which, that has come down 
to us, is that its builder was killed by falling from its roof in 1745, and 
was buried in the graveyard attached. It could have had but a transi- 
tory^ existence, for in the recollection of old Presbyterians, still living, 
their parents and grandparents went to Derry and Paxton. The land 
connected with this church is contiguous to, or rather enclosed by, a 
tract of over two hundred acres, which James Clark held by a warrant 
from the Land Ofifice, dated August i, 1743. It was afterwards patented 
to Robert Spear in 1785. The following memorandum, accompanying 
a draft, will explain itself : 

"Resurveyed for Robert Spear, August 18th, 1785, the above tract of 

St. Peter's Lutheran Church, Aliddletown, Pa. 



land, containing two hundred and two acres and five-eighths and allow- 
ances, situate in Derry township, Dauphin county, late Lancaster, by 
warrant granted to James Clark, 28th of July, 1743. 

(Signed) "Bertram Gai^braith. 

"N. B. — The above square piece of nineteen by twenty perches is a 
Presbyterian meeting house and burying grounds. 

"To John Lukens, S. G. 

"Returned into the Land Office the third November, 1785, for John 
Lukens, Esq., S. G. 

"Edward Lynch." 

This tract of land afterwards passed, successively, through the hands 
of Robert Coleman, Robert Dempsey, John Conrad, John Fisher, George 
Hess and Abraham Rutt, to John Olwine. 

So this church lot is in the midst of a farm, repeatedly sold and trans- 
ferred. The title, however, to the old graveyard, is by law vested in the 
Presbytery of Carlisle, who should take charge of it, and have it prop- 
erly enclosed. What has been supposed to have been a church founda- 
tion, is a dilapidated wall inclosing a burial place. 

We have thus given a brief history of three churches, each of which 
numbered among their communicants, and w^ere partly supported by the 
early inhabitants of Middletown. 

Pastors and people are all gone, but in the well filled graveyards close 
by, rest the ancestors of many families whose names have since become 
well known throughout our country. The Harrisons, the McLeans, the 
Forsters, the Ramseys, the Dixons, the Aliens, the Fergusons, the Stew- 
arts, the Polks, the Calhounes, the Hamptons, the Wilsons, the Petti- 
grews, and a host of others — pioneers in Western Pennsylvania, in Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Ohio, Kentucky, Missouri, California, and 
elsewhere. The lands they once settled, know them no more, and only 
in the musty records of the past, in ruined walls and moss-covered 
tombstones, can the historian find traces of the departed glories of Derry, 
Paxton and Conewago."" 

These churches were then considered at a reasonable distance from, 
and sufficient for the wants of the inhabitants of Middletown. Services 
were, however, frequently held in the German Lutheran church by 
Presbyterian preachers, among whom were Revs. N. R. Snowden and 
James R. Sharon. There must have been some organization among the 
members here, however, for the old Presbyterian graveyard on High 
street, consists of two lots, numbered 94 and 95 ; and Lot No. 95 in the 
plan of the town still extant, is marked "Burying-ground ;" and in his 
list of ground rents due from lots in the town, opposite the number 95 
is the following entry: "Granted by George Frey in 1773. N. B., in- 
quire whether for a church-yard or burying-ground." Colonel James 
Burd and his wife were buried here, the latter in 1785, and the former 

*Since the matter contained in this chapter was written, (January, 1887) Paxton 
church has been remodeled, and a modern edifice erected. — C. H. H. 


in 1793. Lot No. 94, is marked as owned by Swineford, and no ground- 
rent due from it. The title of the church comes through Swineford. 
The brief of title is as follows : Thomas and Richard Penn to John 
Fisher, February 14th, 1747; January 17th, 1759, John Fisher and 
Grace his wife, to George Fisher; March ist, 1761, George Fisher and 
Hannah his wife to Joseph Greenwood; October 27th, 1766, Joseph 
Greenwood and Mary his wife to Thomas Carmicle ; July 29th, 1770, 
Thomas Carmicle and wife to Albright Swineford; December 2nd, 1795, 
Albright Swineford to J. Russel ; June 7th, 1802, J, Russel and Frances 
his wife to John IMcCammon, William Crabb and Edward Crouch, 
"Trustees of the English Presbyterian Congregation or Society of Mid- 
dletown," for five shillings. 

The Burds, McClures, Kirkpatricks, and McClanegans were among 
the first Presbyterian families who settled about here, and had large 
tracts of land. In the early part of the present century the Crabbs, Mc- 
Cammons, Crouches, Jordans, and Elders, took their places, and later, 
the McKibbens, McNairs, and Kendigs. 

We have no data, however, respecting any church organization prior 
to 1850. The records are lost, having probably been among the private 
papers of some one of the original members, who are all dead. 

April loth, 1850, the Presbytery in session at Carlisle appointed a 
committee to visit Middletown, and confer with the Presbyterians there 
as to the practicability of building a church. At a meeting in June fol- 
lowing, of the Presbytery, the committee reported favorably. On Oc- 
tober 29th, the Presbytery met here, when a petition signed by Daniel 
Kendig, Sarah Kendig, Robert F. Snoddy, Edward Burgett, Dr. B. J. 
Wiestling, Matilda WiestHng, Sara Allen, Mary E. Wilt, and David 
Thompson was presented, asking for the organization of a church here. 
The elders then elected were Dr. B. J. Wiestling, Daniel Kendig, and 
Edward Burgett. Thus was organized the first regular congregation 
since the original one had expired half a century before. Supply preach- 
ing was had in the brick church on Water street ("Christ church"). 

April 8th, 185 1, Rev. John Cross was authorized to solicit funds for 
erecting a church edifice ; on June lOth he was called as pastor and 
installed June 23rd. Mr. Cross died suddenly, August 22nd, at Dick- 
inson, Cumberland county, while raising money to build the church, and 
his remains were brought to Dr. B. J. Wiestling's house, from which 
the burial took place. 

On March 31st, 1852, C. W. King conveyed to Daniel Kendig, lots 
Nos. 63 and 64, upon which to erect the church. On August 24th, 
1854, Mr. Kendig conveyed the same to Dr. B. J. Wiestling, Davis 
Thompson, Dr. J. C. Whitehill, C. H. Roe, George Crist, Jeremiah 
Rohrer and D. E. Martin, in trust for the church and congregation. A 
building was immediately erected. It was a neat brick edifice ; with a 
basement for Sunday school and lecture room. Its builders were 
Messrs. Leedom and Fisher. August 28th, 1858, the congregation was 
incorporated. In i860 an act was passed by the Legislature, and ap- 


proved by Governor Wm. F. Packer, March 31, authorizing the congre- 
gation to sell the old graveyard on High street. In March, 1864, the 
trustees purchased of Dr. Mercer Brown, a piece of ground in Lower 
Swatara township, adjoining Middletown, of yj 4-10 perches, on which 
they erected a parsonage. 

In 1852 the Rev. O. O. McLean became pastor, and continued to 
April, 1854. In October, 1855, Rev. John W. White was called, and 
remained until the spring of 1858. His successor was Rev. T. K. Davis, 
from March, 1858, until May 4th, 1863, when Rev. C. Ferriday became 
pastor. (During his absence, from ill health. Rev. H. T. Lee, of Phila- 
delphia, preached.) Mr. Ferriday 's continued sickness compelled him 
to resign, and January 25th, 1865, ^^v. H. L. Rex was called. He was 
installed June 6th, 1865, and remained until May, 1874. In January, 
1875, Rev. Daniel McAfee became pastor, and resigned in January, 1876. 
For some time Rev. A. D. Mitchell supplied the pulpit, but being ap- 
pointed post-chaplain in the United States army. Rev. Robert P. Gibson 
acted as pastor until April 14th, 1878, when Rev. D. C. Meeker was 
called ; he declined, and on May 20th, Rev. Malachi C. Bailey became 
pastor. He resigned in 1880, and his successor was Rev. William G. 
McDonald, who took charge November ist, 1881, and resigned April 
loth, 1884. He was succeeded by the Rev. John Groff, the present 

In 1889 the church building needing repairs, it was decided to erect a 
new edifice. The last service in the old church was in June, 1889. 

The new building, which is in the Gothic style of architecture, is built 
of brownstone. Cost, $20,000. Was dedicated in October, 1890. A pipe 
organ was installed in 1895. The church is a handsome edifice with 
several memorial windows contributed by the Camerons, Kendigs and 
others. Has a seating capacity of 500. 

The Sunday school connected with the church was organized in the 
latter part of the year 1851, in the basement of "Christ Church." (In 
which building the congregation then worshipped.) In the summer of 
1852 it was moved to the Emaus Institute (then at the junction of Union 
and Spring streets), and in November of the same year, on the comple- 
tion of the church, to the room it at present occupies, in the basement of 
that building. 

The records of the school are incomplete, many of them having been 
lost. There have been but three superintendents since its organization, 
viz : Daniel Kendig, Benjamin Kendig and John W. Rewalt, the latter 
being the present incumbent. The superintendent of the infant school 
is Miss Annie E. Kendig. 

When George Fisher planned Middletown, he seems to have intended 
to aid and encourage the establishment of churches of all denominations, 
as, in laying out the town, ground was appropriated for sects which at 
the time had no existence in the place ; as, for instance, to the Moravian 


and Episcopal churches. The Moravian lot adjoined those of the Pres- 
byterians. They afterwards sold it, and it came into the possession of 
George Smuller. 

After Mr. Fisher had disposed of a portion of the lots, he sold out 
his remaining interest in the town to George Frey. In some instances 
Frey afterwards transferred these properties to the church organizations 
for whom they were intended. 

German Reformed Church. 

This branch of the Presbyterian, or Calvinist, church was compara- 
tively strong in this State at an early period. In 1743, the Reformed 
Synods of Holland proposed to the Presbyterian Synod of Philadel- 
phia, a union of the Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed and German Re- 
formed churches in America. This proposition the Presbyterians de- 
clined, and thus these churches, differing in but slight doctrinal points, 
remained separate. 

There was a respectable number of members of the German Reformed 
church in and near Middletown at an early period, and ministers of this 
denomination sometimes preached from the pulpit of old St. Peter's 
Lutheran church. That an organization w^as proposed is evident from 
the fact that on May 22nd, 1770, George Frey and Catherine, his wife, 
sold lot No. 143, situated on the northwest corner of High and Pine 
streets, to John Backenstow (Bachentose), saddler, and Philip Balti- 
more (Parthemore), blacksmith, for five shillings, as a site for a Ger- 
man Calvinist or Presbyterian church and burying ground. The deed 
was acknowledged before Justice James Burd and witnessed by John 
Cline and James Walker. In this graveyard the dead of the denomin- 
ation were buried for a number of vears. 

How They Ceeebrated the 4Th of July in Middeetown 106 

Years Ago. 

Middletown, July ^th, 1798. 
Yesterday being the twenty-second anniversary of American independ- 
ence, in pursuance of notice previously given, the Light Infantry Com- 
pany of this town, commanded by Captain Wolfley, paraded in the pub- 
lic square, for the purpose of celebrating the great festival in commem- 
oration of American emancipation. From thence they marched, at- 
tended by a number of respectable citizens, to a commodious sylvan re- 
treat on the bank of the Susquehanna, called the Locust Grove, on the 
plantation of George Fisher, Esq., to partake of an elegant repast, which 
was served up in a manner perfectly suited to the circumstances of time 

Middletown Reservoir, near Round Top. 




and place. During- the repast (at which Major George Toot presided), 
the greatest harmony prevailed, and the most perfect festivity was con- 
spicuous in every countenance. After dinner the following truly federal 
toasts were drank with the utmost cordiality, each accompanied by a 
discharge from Captain Wolfley's Light Infantry. 

1. The Day Which Gave Birth to American Independence — may the 
anniversary thereof exhibit a perpetuation of the principles which gave 
rise to the same, throughout the remotest generations. 

2. The President of the United States — may that distinguished wis- 
dom and patriotic virtue, which contributed to promote him to the emi- 
nent dignity of first magistrate, continue to guide and influence him to 
discharge the great trust reposed in him, as may be most conducive of 
the happiness of the United States and the good of mankind. 

3. The Constitution of the United States — may the blessings derived 
therefrom be so justly estimated by the American people, that we may 
be stimulated to preserve inviolate, and transmit the same unimpaired to 
our posterity, at the expense of our lives and fortunes — if necessary. 

4. The Legislature of the United States — may wisdom direct their 
councils, unanimity crown their proceedings, and the welfare and pros- 
perity of the United States be the result of their deliberations. 

5. The American people — may they ever profess wisdom to discern, 
and fortitude to repel, the insidious machinations of foreign and domes- 
tic factions. 

6. The Navy of the United States — may the spirit of 'y6 animate each 
warrior's breast with ardent zeal to guard our glorious constitution as 
the Israelites did the ark of old. 

7. The Illustrious Washington, Prince of Patriots — may his long and 
arduous exertions in the service of his country meet their deserved re- 
ward, long life, health and prosperity in this world, and eternal happi- 
ness in the next. 

8. Our Envoys to France — may the result of their mission prove an 
effectual antidote against the baneful influence of French policy, French 
enthusiasm and French fraternity. 

9. Our Diplomatic Agents — may the disgrace of Monroe hold forth 
an instructive lesson to future ministers, that they may never deviate 
from the genuine principles of their instructions, nor listen to the insin- 
uating but invidious flattery of foreign governments. 

10. The Constituted Authorities — detection and universal detestation 
to those men who betray and calumniate the government they were 
chosen to administer and sworn to maintain. 

11. Our National Character — may its purity never be contaminated 
by the polluted breath of faction, sedition or disaffection. 

12. Agriculture — may she continue to improve and flourish under the 
auspicious sanction of wise rules and wholesome laws, until all nations 
shall acknowledge our affluence and esteem our friendship as profitable. 

13. Commerce — may she diffuse her liberal benefits over the whole 
earth, protected and encouraged by all nations, and may her enemies 


meet universal execration, and be excluded from the enjoyment of any 
of her gifts. 

14. Arts and Sciences — may the cultivation thereof be assiduously 
pursued and amply encouraged by every description of men, till the 
United States become the seat of universal knowledge, religion and 

15. The Fair Daughters of America — may their charms never want 
virtue to detect artful blandishments of knaves and traitors. 


Although no actual settlements had been made in Lancaster county 
prior to 1709, a few Indian traders had (as has been previously men- 
tioned) established their posts on the Susquehanna river. 

In the year 1706, a number of Swiss Mennonites went to England and 
made an agreement with William Penn for lands to be taken up in this 

In 1709 the pioneers of this company emigrated to America and pur- 
chased a tract of ten thousand acres, for which they paid five hundred 
pounds sterling, and one shilling quit rent yearly, forever, for every 
hundred acres of the said ten thousand.* Their warrant was dated Oc- 
tober loth, 1710. On April 27th, 171 1, the land was sub-divided among 
them, into so many parts as they had previously agreed upon. 

The descendants of the Puritans boast that their ancestors fled from 
their persecutors, walling to encounter perils in the wilderness and 
perils by the heathen, rather than be deprived by ruthless intolerance of 
the free exercise of their religion. The descendants of the Swiss Men- 
nonites, who amid hardships and trials, made the first settlements in the 
west end of Chester (afterwards Lancaster) county, can lay claim to 
more. Their ancestors did not seek for themselves and theirs only, the 
unmolested exercise of their faith and worship, but they in turn did not 
persecute others w^ho differed from them in religious opinion. They 
pleaded for religious toleration, and their practice confirmed it. 

One of these pioneers was Martin Kendig, ancestor of the Kendig 
family of Union street, Middletown. He was a man of considerable im- 
portance among the colonists, and owned a large amount of land, one 

*Owing to Penn's pecuniary embarrassment he was obliged to mortgage his 
province. The mortgagees appointed commissioners to superintend their interests, 
viz : Edward Shippen, Samuel Carpenter, Richard Hill, and James Logan, who 
repaid the loan from the sale of lands and from his quit rents. Purchasers re- 
monstrated against these quit rents as a burden unprecedented in any other Ameri- 
can colony, but were told that by complying they supported the dignity of the gov- 
ernment, and would be freed from other taxes. 

These quit rents were not uniform, they rated from one shilling per hundred 
acres, to six shillings per annum. They were (with few exceptions) abolished in 


tract of 1,060 acres, another of 530 acres, another of 265 acres. His 
dvvelHng- was constructed of hewn wahiut logs. It withstood the tooth 
of time for one hundred and ten years and had it not been removed in 
1841, might have weathered the elements for a much longer period. 

Although the colonists had scarcely been fairly seated, they thought 
of their old homes, their country and friends. They remembered those 
that were in bonds and suffered adversity, and devised means to send 
some one to the Vaterland, to bring the residue of their families, their 
kindred and brothers in a land of trouble and oppression, to their new 
home, where peace reigned and the comforts of life could not fail. A 
meeting of the society was called, and Martin Kendig having offered, 
was sent to Europe, whence, after an absence of some months, he re- 
turned accompanied by a company of Swiss and some Germans. 

With this accession the settlement was considerably augmented, and 
now numbered about thirty families. They lived in the midst of the 
Mingo or Conestoga, Pequea and Shawnese Indians. This little colony 
improved their lands, planted orchards, erected dwellings, and a meeting 
house and school house, in which religious and secular instruction could 
be imparted. The Mennonites never invested money in rearing stately 
temples, or in building colleges in which to impart useful knowledge. 
They ever observed it religiously to have their children instructed in 
reading and writing, at least ; to bring them up in habits of industry, 
and teach them such trades as were suitable to their wants, expedient, 
and adapted to their age and constitution. Their sons and daughters 
were kept under strict parental authority, and, as a consequence, were 
not led intO' temptations by which so many youths of both sexes are 

Among those who located in the vicinity of the Swiss settlement, 
between the years 1718 and 1740, appear the names of Frantz, Schanck, 
Brenneman, Whitman, Funk, Landis, Eby, Burkholder, Bowman, 
PJaumgardner, Earisman, Nisley, Carpenter (Zimmerman), Snavely, 
Ashleman, Kauffman, Schultz, Houser, Churtz, Bare, Weaver, Longa- 
necker, Musselman, Miller, Staner, Light, Brand, Loughman, Klugh, 
Oberholtzer, Hershey, Brenner, Stouffer, Hummel, Baughman, Whist- 
ler, Schuck, Herr, Zeigler, Keagy, Kreemer, Ulweiler, Snyder, Espen- 
shade, Groff, Keneagy, Beck and many others, which (spelling ex- 
cepted) are now well known in Middletown. 

The German emigration to Pennsylvania had commenced early in the 
century, the first comers settling in some parts of Lancaster county as 
early as 1720, but, being opposed to wars and fighting, during the nu- 
merous Indian raids of that time, they sought more congenial neigh- 
borhoods than that of Paxton. 

A number of this nationality who were located in western New York, 
traveled through the forests to the Susquehanna, descended the river, 
and going up this stream, (the lands on each side of which they found 
occupied by the Scotch-Irish), settled about its head waters, in what 
are now Berks and Lebanon counties in 1723. 


From 1740 to 1750 the Reformed Lutherans and Cathohcs com- 
menced to gather in the unsettled portions of Lancaster county, and 
their names begin to appear among the inhabitants of Middletown about 
the opening of the Revolution. 

"These men," says James Logan (writing in 1725 and 1727), "come 
in crowds — bold, indigent strangers from Germany,- where many of 
them have been soldiers. All go to the best vacant tracts, and seize 
upon them as places of common spoil. They rarely approach me on 
their arrival to propose to purchase ; when they are sought out and 
challenged for their right to occupancy, they allege it was published in 
Europe that we wanted and solicited for colonists and had a superabun- 
dance of land, and therefore they had come without the means to pay. — 
Many of them are Papi sts, the men well armed, and as a body, a war- 
like, morose race." These emigrations, he hopes "may be prevented in 
future by an act of Parliament, else the Colonies will in time be lost 
to the Crown." A prophecy which, half a century later, was fulfilled. 

It is difficult for us in these days of toleration to understand the an- 
tagonisms existing between people of different nationalities, who had 
similarly come to this country as a haven of refuge, where they would 
be free to exercise the dogmas of their respective creeds without mo- 
lestation. The English proprietors, supercilious and arrogant, refused 
to bear their proportion of the taxes — required the Germans to change 
their names before being naturalized — drove the Scotch-Irish on to the 
frontiers, and refused them land in the then eastern counties — and 
would not allow a Catholic to hold office. The Scotch-Irish — added to 
an insular contempt for all other nationalities — despised Quakers and 
Mennonists alike for their non-resistance doctrines. A feeling, which 
the traffic in redemptioners intensified to such an extent, that when 
those of their young people, who did not share their prejudices, wished 
to intermarry with the Germans, they strenuously objected. The Ger- 
mans thus antagonized, opposed to the arrogance of the English, and 
bullying of the Scotch-Irish, a phlegmatic tenacity of purpose, which 
eventually overbore their assumptions, if not their egotism. 

The Revolution cemented these uncongenial elements into a united 
resistance to arbitrary power ; and at its close found them fused into the 
homogeneous mass which has made Pennsylvania the mother of states- 
men, as well as the Keystone of the Federal arch. 


The following is a literal transcript of one of the deeds (in possession of Hon. 
Robert J. Fisher, of York, Pa.), relating to the ground Middletown now stands 
on. Attached unto the deed is a large seal bearing upon it what I presume are the 
arms of the Penns, but which, not being versed in heraldry, I am unable to de- 
scribe.— C. H. H. 

Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, Efquires, true and absolute Proprie- 
taries and Governors in Chief of the Province of Pennsvlvania and 


counties of Newcaftle, Kent, and Suft'ex on Delaware. To all unto 
whom these presents shall come, Greeting : Whereas by virtue of a war- 
rant under the feal of our Land Office bearing date the twenty first day 
of March, 1742, there was furveyed and laid out unto one Jacob Job, a 
certain Tract of Land Situate in Pextang Townfhip in the county of 
Lancafter ; And Whereas by virtue of one other warrant under the feal 
of our Land Office bearing date the Ninth day of January, 1743, a Sur- 
vey was made unto one Thomas Cooper on a certain Tract of Land 
Situate in Pextang Townfhip, adjoining the above mentioned Tract 
within the faid county, Under Certain Conditions in the faid Warrant 
refpectively mentioned, which conditions not having been complied with 
bv the faid Jacob Job and Thomas Cooper, nor either of them, the faid 
Warrants and furveys made in purfuance thereof, are becoming utterly 
void, as in and by the fame Warrants remaining in our Surveyor Gen- 
eral's office, relation thereunto refpectively had, does manifeftly appear, 
And Whereaf afterwards in any by two feveral Warrants, bearing date 
the Nineteenth day of this inftant February. Upon application made to 
Us by John Fifher of the City of Philadelphia, Merchant, our Surveyor 
General was required to accept and receive into his Office the Surveys 
of the faid two Tracts of land fo made as aforfaid, and to make Re- 
turns thereof into our Secretary's Office for the ufe and behoof of the 
faid John Fisher, which Surveys being accordingly accepted by our 
Surveyor General and the faid two Tracts of Land (lying contiguous 
to each other) were by him duly returned into our Secretary's Office 
circumfcribed in one Tract, are included within the lines. Bounds and 
Limits, following (that is to say) Beginning at the mouth of Swataro 
creek and on the east side of the River Susquehanna and from thence 
extending up the said creek on the several courses thereof six hundred 
and eighty two perches to a post, thence by Samuel Kirkpatrick's Land 
south seventy degrees west one hundred and twenty two perches to a 
marked hickory and north twenty degrees west sixty four perches to a 
marked white oak, thence by the same and William Kirkpatrich's Land 
south seventy degrees west one hundred and seventy one perches to a 
marked white oak, thence by the said William Kirkpatrick's north sev- 
enty degrees west fifty perches to a marked hickory, thence by a line of 
marked trees west ninety six perches to a marked black oak, thence 
along a line of marked trees and by Samuel Mean's Land south twenty 
degrees west three hundred and forty nine perches to a white hickory 
marked by the side of the Susquehanna River, thence down the same 
river on the several courses thereof one hundred and eighty four perches 
to the place of beginning containing in the whole six hundred and ninety 
one acres and fifty three perches and the allowance of six acres per 
cent for roads and highways. 

Now at the inftance and requeft of the faid John Fifher. that we 
would be pleafed to grant him a confirmation of the fame. Know ye 
that in Confideration of the Sum of One. Hundred and seven Pounds 
two shillings lawful money of Pennfylvania, to our ufe, paid by the faid 


John Fifher, (the receipt whereof we hereby acknowledge and thereof 
do acquit and forever difcharge the said John Fifher, his Heirs and 
Affigns by thefe Presents) and of the yearly quit rent thereinafter men- 
tioned We have given, granted, released and confirmed. And by these 
George the Second, over Great Britain, &c. And the Thirtieth year of 
Presents for Us, our Heirs and Succeffors, Do give, grant, releafe and 
confirm unto the faid John Fifher, His Heirs and Affignees forever. Six 
Hundred and ninety one acres and fifty three perches of land as the 
same we now set forth and describe as aforefaid With all Mines, Min- 
erals, Quarries, Meadows, Marfhes, Savannahs, Swamps, Cripples, 
Woods, Under-woods, Timber and Trees, Ways, Waters, Water- 
courfes. Liberties, Profits, Commodities, Advantages, Hereditaments, 
and Appurtenances whatever thereunto belonging or in any wife apper- 
taining and lying within the Bounds and Limits aforefaid [Three full 
and clear fifth Parts of all Royal Mines, free from all Deductions and 
Reprifals for digging and refining the fame ; and alfo One-fifth Part 
of the Ore of all other Mines, delivered at the Pit's Mouth only accepted, 
and hereby reserved] and alfo free Leave, Right, and Liberty to and for 
the faid John Fifher his Heirs and Affigns, to hawk, hunt, fifh fowl, in 
and upon the herebv granted Land and Premifes, or upon anv Part 
thereof: TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the faid Tract of Land and 
Premifes hereby granted (except as before excepted) with their Ap- 
purtenances unto the faid John Fifher, his Heirs and Affigns, to the 
only Ufe Behoof of the faid John Fifher his Heirs and Affigns forever 
TO BE HOLDEN of us, our Heirs and Succeffors, Proprietaries of 
Pennfylvania, as of our IManor of Conestoga in the County of Lancafter 
aforefaid, in free and common Soccage by Fealty only, in lieu of all 
other services, YIELDING AND PAYING therefore yearly unto us, 
our Heirs and Succeffors, at the Town of Lancafter in the faid County, 
at or upon the firft Day of March in every Year, from the firft Day of 
March next One Half-penny Sterling for every Acre of the fame, or 
Value thereof in Coin-Current, according as the Exchange fhall then be 
between our faid Province and the City of London, to fuch Perfon or 
Perfons as fhall, from Time to Time, be appointed to receive the fame, 
AND in Cafe of Non-Payment thereof, within ninety Days next after 
the fame fhall become due, that then it fhall and may be lawful for us, 
our Heirs and Succeffors, our and their Receiver or Receivers, into and 
upon the hereby granted Land and Premises to re-enter, and the fame 
to hold and poffefs, vmtil the faid Quit-rent, and all the Arrears thereof, 
together w-ith the Charges accruing by Means of fuch Non-Pavment 
Re-entrv be fullv paid and dif charged. WITNESS the faid' AN- 
THONY PALMER, Esquire. President of the Council of the faid 

Who as well in his own Right as by Virtue of certain powers and 
Authorities to him for this purpose, mutually granted by the faid Pro- 
prietaries Hath hereunto fet his Hand and caufed the Great Seal of the 
said Province to be hereunto affixed, at Philadelphia the twenty fourth 


day of Fcbruory in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hun- 
dred and Forty-seven. The Twenty-Fifth Year of the Reign of King 
George the Second, over Great Britain, &. And the Thirtieth year of 
the faid Proprietaries Government. Anthony Palmer.* 

[On the back of this document is endorsed:] Patent to John Fisher of 
691:53 in Lancaster County. Dated Feb. 24th, 1747: Consideration 
£107,2,0. Recorded at Philadelphia in Pat. Book A Vol 13, Page 364, 
April 5th, 1748. 

Certificate of 
C. Brock Dep. Rec. Dr. 
and seal "Office of Pennsylvania Inrollment." 

(There are several other endorsements as follows:) 
Phila. Feb. 28th, 1757. Received of John Fisher twelve pounds nine- 
teen shillings and two pence half penny sterling in full for nine years 
quit rent due on the within mentioned 691 A's 53 ps. of land to the nth 
day of next month £12.19.2^ Stg. E. Physick. 

Reed. October ist, 1759, of Jno. Fisher two Pounds seventeen shil- 
lings and seven Pence Sterling in money of Pennsylvania in full for two 
years quit rent on the within mentioned Land the ist of March last. 
£2.17.7 Stg. Rich Fockley, R. C. 

Rec. Philad., 14th May, 1760, of John Fisher, one pound eight shill- 
ings and 9| Sterlg in money of Pennsylvania in full for one year quit 
rent due on the within mentioned Land to the ist day of last March. 
$£2,3.10 Curr cr. E. Physick 

Reed. 4th March, 1761, of John Fisher, One pounds 8 9I Sterlg. for 
one year's quit rent due on the within mentioned Land on the ist 
£1.8.9^ Stg. E. Physick 

Reed. 4th March, 1762, of John Fisher, i. 8 9I Sterlg. for one year's 
quit rent due on the within mentioned land to the ist instant. 
£1.8.9^ E. Physick. 

Reed. 7th May, 1765, of John Fisher, £1.8.9^ pence Sterlg. in full for 
one year's quit rent on the within mentioned Land. 
£1.8.91 Stg. E. Physick 


In connection with the deed, I give the following from the Family 
Record of the Fisher family (compiled by John Adams Fisher, Esq.) : ^ 

John Fisher (abavus) came from England to Pennsylvania with Wil- 
liam Penn on the first voyage of the ship Welcome in 1682. He had 

married Margaret and had six children, Sarah, Alice, Anne, 

James, John and Thomas. The first four died without issue. Thomas 
married Margery Maud, in 1692, and had seven children. 


His son John (proavus) married Catherine and had four 

children. John, James, William and Anne. He died at Shippen street, 
Philadelphia, before the Revolution. James settled west of Harrisburg. 
Anne married Enoch Cummins. 

His son John (avus) married ist Elizabeth Light, and 2nd, Grace 
Lloyd. Had three children, John, William and George; his son John 
became a merchant in Jamaica, and had a son and daughter. William 
died without issue. 

His youngest son George (pater) married Hannah Chamberlain, and 
settled at the mouth of the Swatara, in 1752, laid out the town of Alid- 
dletown in 1755, and died in 1776. He left three children, George, John 
and Hannah. Hannah married J. Richardson. John left three children, 
John, George and Juliana. 

George Fisher (2nd) married, first, Elizabeth Minshall, and second, 
Ann Shippen Jones. By his first wife he had four children. Hannah 
Wickersham, John Adams, George Washington and Elizabeth Minshall. 
By his second wife he had four children, Robert J., Edward H., Ann J., 
and Catherine. This is the George Fisher who founded Portsmouth, 
now an integral part of Middletown. 

Of George Fisher, the founder of ^Middletown, we have scant data. 
He was a tall, handsome man, who chafed under the strict rule of the 
Friends or Quakers, and yearned after the pomps and vanities of the 
worldlings. Consequently he was at variance with his family, and to 
remove him from temptation, his father decided to send him to the 
tract of wild land, which he had purchased some five years previous, on 
what was then the sparsely settled frontier. 

George, perforce, accepted the situation and with a train of three 
(Conestoga) wagons, drawn each by six horses, and loaded with the 
necessary supplies of provisions, farming and building implements, set 
out on his toilsome journey. There were no turnpikes in those days 
and but few settlers. It took him five days to reach his destination. 
The roads when it rained were deep in mud, and obstructed with nu- 
merous stumps some portions of the route, through marshy places, 
had been roughly corduroyed and as there were few bridges, most of 
the streams had to be forded ; that part of the way west of Lancaster 
was particularly bad. It was difficult at one or two places to find pas- 
sage between the huge boulders. Being Friends, the teamsters could 
not relieve their feelings by the customary objurgations. 

At length, through much tribulation and weariness of flesh, they 
reached the Swatara, at Pineford, forded it and camped on the high 
ground on its western bank one evening in April, 1752. 

Early the next morning, having selected a site, Fisher commenced 
preparations for the erection of his house. The whole tract was heavily 
timbered with fine oak, hickory, walnut, chestnut, locust, poplar and 
laurel trees, and in this locality was a dense growth of pine. In time 
the trees were cut down, fitted, and a log cabin rose, 18 by 18 feet square, 
and one and one-half stories high. Soon afterwards he built a log 

St. Peter's Churcli, (erected 1:67.) Middletown, Pe 



house, immediately in front, thirty by fifty feet, two stories high, and 
with a twelve foot wide porch on the south and east sides.* 

A few Quaker families soon followed Fisher, and later, some Scotch 
and Irish traders came. The settlement began to grow, and so, with 
the approval of his father, he laid out a town, a short distance west of 
his residence. There were three streets. High, Main and Water running 
from east to west, and five, Union, Pine, Spruce, Race and Vine, from 
north to south. 

It was difficult to secure a surveyor's chain and so a marked rope was 
used, which when dragged over the wet grass and then dried, made a 
variation in the size of the lots. 

This was the site of an ancient Indian village of the Susquehanna 
nation. Some lodges of the Conoy or Ganawese were at the time located 
on the ground in the neighborhood of the square bounded by Pine, 
Spruce, Main and High streets. 

These Indians quickly established friendly relations with the Quaker 
settlers, for they had heard of Penn and his honorable treatment of 
their forefathers. Fisher was also on good terms with the Mennonite 
settlers to the eastward. 

In 1759 his parents conveyed the tract to him, as appears from (a 
synopsis of) the original parchment, which I copy verbatim, et literatim, 
et punctuatim. 

On March 27th, 1759, "Jo^""" Fisher and Grace, his wife, for and in 
Consideration of the Natural Love and Affection which they have and 
bear for the said George Fisher and for and in Consideration of the Sum 
of Four Shillings lawful money of Pennsylvania unto them the said 
John Fisher and Grace, his Wife, in hand well and truly paid by the 
said George Fisher at the sealing and delivery thereof the Receipt 
whereof is hereby Acknowledged and for divers other good Causes and 
Considerations them the said John Fisher and Grace his wife specially 
Moving HAVE given." (Here follows the wording of the original 
deed.) "together with all the Reversions and Remainders Rents Issues 
and Profits thereof and also all the Household Goods Utensils or Imple- 
ments of Husbandry Horses Cows Sheep and Hogs of the said John 
Fisher or belonging to the said Plantation or Tract of Land or there- 
with used or occupied and also all the Estate Right Title Interest Use 
Possession Property Claim and Demand whatsoever." 

Signed John Fisher 
Grace Fisher 
Sealed and Delivered 
in the presence of 
John Cooper, 
Paul Isaac Vote. 

On the 26th day of February one thousand seven hundred and sixty 

*This latter dwelling was torn down in 1859, having stood 106 years. The wing 
or first cabin, was destroyed in 1875. 


three before me William Coleman one of the Justices of ye Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania Came the above named John Fisher and Grace 
his wife and Acknowledged the above written Indenture to be their Deed 
and desired the same may be Recorded as their Deed the said Grace 
thereunto Voluntarily Consenting. She being of full age secretly and 
apart examined and the contents of the said Indenture made known 
unto her Witness my Hand and Seal the day and year aforesaid. 

"W11.UAM Coleman.'" (Seal) 

"Entered in the Office for recording of Deeds for the County of Lan- 
caster in Book L Page 226 etc. the 14th Day of July Anno Domini 1766 
Witness my Hand and Seal of my said office. 

"Edward Shippen Recorder." 

(Endorsed on back of deed:) 

"Deed of Gift 
John Fisher and Wife 
George Fisher." 

The town grew rapidly and its trade soon exceeded any other town 
on the river. The emigration westward was large and continuous, and 
all passed through the town, Main street being a part of the great high- 
way between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh (the latter place being then 
a town of about 500 inhabitants). 

Fisher occupied himself in clearing his new land and took part in the 
Indian wars which soon supervened. In 1776 some individuals of a 
party of travelers became suddenly violently ill, were taken into his 
house and cared for, but soon died. The record does not state the 
cause of their sickness but it was evidently contagious, for Fisher and 
his wife both contracted it, and died within a few hours of each other. 
They were buried on the farm, but no monument marks the place of 
their interment, and the location thereof will doubtless soon be for- 

(The following was given me by Mr. Boyd Hamilton:) 
As early as 1750, certainly, and for some years previously, popula- 
tion grew apace in the immediate vicinity of the mouth of the Swatara 
creek. The locality was known to the provincial rulers as the "South 
End of Paxtang township, Lancaster county." A copy of what is said 
to be from the original assessment of taxables for the year 1749-50, has 
been placed in my hands. I have never seen the original, but presume 
this to be correct, and as such give it a place in this memoranda. It 
will be observed that all the names except Shultz, Sheets and Stern are 

Brown, Alexander, Dugan, Thomas, 

Cannon, Kennedy, Herning, Peter, 

Dickey, Moses, Galbraith, Samuel, 

Dickey, William, Gorden, Charles, 


Gray, John, Montgomery, John, 

Hanna, Andrew, McKnight, James, 

Houston, Andrew, Shields, David, 

Harris, WilHam, Steel, William, 

Jordon, Mathew, Stuart, Hugh, 

Johnson, John, Shultz, Martin, 

Johnson, Francis, Stern, Valentine, 

Kirkpatrick, Will Sellers, Henry, 

Kinney, Patrick, Sheetz, George, 

King, John, Sharp, William, 

Lusk, James. Shaw, Timothy, 

Morrow, John, Shields, John, 

Means, Thomas, Tyler, Robert, 

McKinney, Henry, White, Alexander, 

McClure, Richard, Wood, Samuel, 

Means, John, Wiley, Oliver, 

McKnight, Timothy, Wilson, John, 

McElroy, H,, Wilson, James, 

Welsh, John. 

The above roll contains 45 names. Estimated population 200 persons. 


After Braddock's defeat in July, 1775, the whole frontier was left 
comparatively defenceless, and the Indians scattered through the coun- 
try committing depredations. It is impossible in these papers to go 
into detail ; suffice it to say that much property was destroyed and 
hundreds of people killed and scalped in this county and those imme- 
diately surrounding it. The Proprietaries refused to allow their lands 
to be taxed to raise funds for the common protection, and the pacific 
principles of the Quakers, Dunkards, Mennonites, and Schwenckfeld- 
ers, further complicated matters. The Quakers, in fact, having a ma- 
jority of the Assembly, refused all aid. The people on the frontier, 
exasperated at their heartlessness, sent some of the mangled bodies of 
these victims of savage barbarity to Philadelphia, where they were car- 
ried through the streets placarded as some of the martyrs to the Quaker 
policy of non-resistance. A mob surrounded the house of Assembly, 
and placing the dead bodies in the door-way demanded immediate relief 
for the inhabitants of the border, without, however, moving the mem- 
bers. In 1756 and 1757 the Proprietaries and Assembly, forced by 
popular pressure, raised £135,000 for the defence of the province. 

April 9th, 1756, the Governor was authorized to offer rewards for 
scalps. On the 14th of the same month he issued a proclamation offer- 
ing the following bounties : 


"For every male Indian aged over twelve delivered at a government 
fort or jail, $150. 

"For every female prisoner or male prisoner under twelve, $130. 

"For the scalp of every male Indian, $130. 

"For every English Subject rescued from the Indians, and delivered 
at Philadelphia to the Governor, $150. 

"For the scalp of every female Indian, $50. 

"To every officer or soldier who shall rescue any English captives, 
or take Indian prisoners or scalps, one half of the said bounties." 

To guard against Indian devastations a chain of forts and block- 
houses were erected, at an expense of £85,000, along the Kitochtiny hills, 
from the river Delaware to the Maryland line. Of these the principal 
ones in Dauphin county were Forts Halifax, Hunter, McKee, Manady, 
Henry and Swatara. 

In 1763 came the Pontiac war. It was in this war that the "Paxton 
Boys" became known, not only to the Province, but also to the country 
at large. The Indians, as any student of history knows, under the 
leadership of Pontiac, rose almost simultaneously. The whole frontier 
was ablaze; and Paxtang was truly the frontier, for west of the Susque- 
hanna there was scarcely an inhabitant. 

Authorized by the Governor, the Rev. John Elder, the pastor of Pax- 
tang and Derry Presbyterian churches, organized his Rangers. As the 
Scotch-Irish, who then formed the population of Aliddletown attended 
these two churches alternately, many of them joined the Rangers. 

The Quaker Assembly maintained its usual policy of do-nothingness, 
sympathizing wdth the Indians, and refusing aid to the settlers ; one 
of their number characterizing these latter as "A parcel of Scotch-Irish 
who, if they were all killed, could well enough be spared." 

(Extracts from old letters, &c., of 1763:) 

"Imagination cannot conceive the perils with which the settlement 
at Paxton was surrounded from 1754 to 1765. — To portray each scene 
of horror would be impossible — the heart shrinks from the attempt. 
The settlers were goaded to desperation ; murder follow^ed murder." 

"Rifles were loaded, horses were in readiness. They mounted; 
they called on their pastor to lead them. He was then in the 57th year 
of his age. Had you seen him you would have beheld a superior 
being — " "No man unless he were living in Paxton at the time could 
have an idea of the sufferings and anxieties of the people — " "Did we 
not brave the summer's heat and the winter's cold, and the savage 
tomahawk — were w'e tamely to look on and see our brethren murdered, 
and our fairest prospects blasted, while the inhabitants of Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia county, Bucks and Chester slept, and reaped their gain in 
safety? — The blood of a thousand of our fellow-creatures called for 
vengeance — What remains is to leave our cause with God and our 

(Extract from an address of the "Paxton Volunteers," in 1764, "to 
the candid and impartial world":) 

"The Indians set fire to houses, barns, corn, hay, in short to every- 

Residence of George Fixy, Ft Hinder Emaus Orphan Home, Middletown, Pa. 

^ _^ , , !■■ - . ' " "i 

i TME BEW 'Vwr'.K I 

'' ^"niC LIBRARY^ 




thing that was combustible ; so that ye whole country seemed to be in 
one general blaze, and involved in one common ruin. Great numbers 
of ye Back Settlers were murdered, scalped and butchered in the most 
shocking manner, and their dead bodies inhumanly mangled, some hav- 
ing their ribs divided from ye chine with the tomahawk, others left 
expiring in ye most exquisite tortures, with their legs and arms broken, 
their skulls fractured, and ye brains scattered on the ground. Many 
children were either spitted alive, and roasted, or covered under the 
ashes of a large fire before their helpless parents' eyes. Ye hearts of 
some were taken out and eaten reeking hot, while they were yet beating 
between their teeth, and others, where time and opportunity would 
admit of it, were skinned, boiled and eaten. Hundreds carried into ye 
most miserable captivity, and daily tortured to death in every method 
of cruelty which Indian barbarity can suggest. — The husband butchered 
in the presence of his helpless wife while ye children are clinging around 
his knees ; — Ye widowed mother reserved to be a spectator of ye inhu- 
man massacre of her tender family, before she receives ye friendly 
hatchet that closes her eyes on ye shocking scene. — Those that are 
with child ripped open and mangled in ye most indecent manner. — 
Hundreds of miserable refugees flying to ye nearest frontier town with 
a part of their families leaving the remainder of them in the hands of 
ye enemy, or wandering till they perish in ye woods. — Hundreds re- 
duced from plentiful and independent circumstances, to a state of beg- 
gary and despair, taking shelter in the hovels and stables to secure their 
helpless families from ye inclemency of ye night or ye season; while 
others cannot even obtain this, but are obliged to make fires in ye woods 
and live worse than the savages themselves. — None but those who have 
been spectators or eye-witnesses of these shocking scenes can possibly 
have an adequate idea of our sufifering." 

Dauphin county was then Paxton township (or Paxtang, as some 
called it) of Lancaster county. Middletown and its vicinity was, about 
this time, 1763, the most thickly settled portion of what is now Dauphin 
county. It is fair to presume therefore that a large proportion of the 
"Paxton Boys" lived here. 

These rangers scouted along the whole frontier, from fort to fort. 
They were so organized that while one-third was out, the other two- 
thirds could remain at home to protect the families from possible raids 
during their absence. They generally chose their officers immediately 
before proceeding on a scout, and during that scout rendered them im- 
plicit obedience. They adopted the Indian tactics in fighting, and these 
latter dreaded them, as they never did the regular troops, and avoided 
their vicinity. 

They had several drawbacks to contend with ; the Assembly, con- 
trolled by the Quakers, not only refused to pay them for their services, 


but were continually negotiating with, and sending presents to the 

Below Middletown, on the Conestoga manor, were a number of so- 
called Christian Indians — the special pets of the Proprietaries — that the 
"Paxton Boys" suspected of harboring, concealing, and aiding the sav- 
ages who were committing the murders and outrages in this section. 
Suspicion finally became a certainty, and they determined to capture the 
fiends who, red-handed, had the hardihood to rema:in in the vicinity 
of their crimes. They went for them — they resisted — in the melee the 
so-called tame Indians went under also. 

Then the Assembly became exasperated and the men who could sit 
with folded arms, and see thousands of innocent whites butchered, 
wished to indict the rangers — who had thus rid the world of devils — 
for murder. But the sentiment, of the whole frontier, and that of the 
surrounding colonies was with them, and they remained at home unmo- 
lested. After this there were no more massacres. 

At the opening of the Revolution most of the Paxton men sought the 
ranks of the army, from which but few of them returned to settle again 
in Paxton. As far as we have any record they lived useful and respected 
lives ; some of them afterwards became prominent in this and other 
States ; and through their posterity many of their names have since be- 
come noted in the history of the country. 

But he who seeks for the descendants of the Scotch-Irish in Dauphin 
county finds but here and there a solitary isolated family, surrounded 
everywhere by an entirely different race ; that of the German emigrants, 
who came about the close of the last century, and whose descendants 
inherit the language, the farms and the plodding industry and thrift of 
their forefathers. The ancient churches and graveyards of the Irish 
still remain as monuments of their former occupancy. 

A Parallel. 

In reading over Paper No. 9, I can't help thinking that to me these 
incidents of the past possess a vividness that it is hardly possible for an 
inhabitant of the present peaceful old "Keystone" to realize. So you 
will pardon me if, after quoting from a letter written by a resident of 
Lancaster county, Pa., in 1757, I make a few extracts from one written 
by an inhabitant of Uvalde county, Texas, in 1861 ; to show you how 
the same drama was performed, on a different stage, over a hundred 
years later, and a thousand miles further off. The actors on one side, 
being (judging from the names) descendants of the old pioneers of 
Pennsylvania ; on the other, not alone the wild Commanches and Lip- 
ans, but also (and principally) the Government Indians from the reser- 
vation ; the official in charge of whom (Maj. Neighbors) would 
believe no accusations brought against his pets by the "wild Texans," 
whom he looked upon much as the Quakers of a previous day did on the 
"Scotch-Irish," To make the parallel more complete, the nearest set- 


tlement east of Uvalde was 60 miles distant, west 670 miles ; south 65 
miles, and north over 1,000. 

(Letters to Edward Shippen and others, October 14th, 1757.) 

''Friends and Fellow Subjects: 

"I send you in a few lines the melancholy condition of the frontiers 
of this country. Last Thursday, the 12th inst., ten Indians came to 
Noah Frederick, while ploughing, killed and scalped, and carried away 
three of his children that were with him — the oldest but nine years old, 
and plundered his house — it being but two short miles to Capt. Smith's 
fort at Swatara Gap, and a little better than two miles to my house. 

"Last Saturday evening an Indian came to the house of Philip Rob- 
inson, carrying a green bush before him, said Robinson's son being on 
the corner of his fort — the Indian perceiving that he was observed, fled ; 
the watchman fired but missed him ; this being about three-fourths of a 
mile from Manady fort ; and yesterday morning two miles from Smith's 
Fort at Swatara, in Bethel township, as Jacob Farnwell was going to 
the house of Jacob Meylie to his own, was fired upon by two Indians 
and wounded, but escaped with his life ; and a little after, in said town- 
ship, as Frederick Hawley and Peter Sample were carrying away their 
goods in wagons, were met by a parcel of Indians and killed, lying dead 
in one place, and one man a little distance. But what more has been 
done has not come to my ears, only that the Indians were continuing 
their murders. 

"The frontiers are employed at nothing but carrying of? their effects 
so that some miles are now waste. We are willing but not able without 
help — you are able, if you be willing (that is, including the lower parts 
of the county,) to give such assistance as will enable us to recover our 
waste land. You may depend upon it, that, without assistance, we in 
a few days, will be on the wrongside of you, for I am now on the fron- 
tier, and I fear by to morrow night I will be left two miles. 

"Gentlemen: Consider what you will do, and don't be long about it; 
And don't let the world say that we died as fools died. Our hands are 
not tied, but let us exert ourselves and do something for the honor of 
our country and the preservation of our fellow-subjects. I hope you 
will communicate our grievances to the lower part of the county for 
surely they will send us help, if they understood our grievances. 

"I would have gone down myself, but dare not ; my family is in such 
danger, I expect an answer by the bearer, if possible. 

"I am, gentlemen, your very humble servant, "Adam ReKd. 

"P. S. — Before sending this away I have just received information 
that there are seven killed, and five children scalped alive, but have not 
the account of their names." 

' Extract from a letter in San Antonia, Texas, Herald, March 13th, 
"Since my last, the Indians who went down the Sabinal have returned, 


going up the country. They stole all the horses on Rancheros' creek 
— a party of 40 men are in pursuit of them. The Indians who killed 
Robinson, Adams, Sanders, and Eastwood, and committed the other 
depredations and outrages I wrote you of continued on their course 
down the country, and crossed into Mexico. They treated old man 
Sanders as they did the others, cut out his heart, and scalped him ; they 
also skinned one of his feet, and cut off his long flowing white beard. 
Settlers who have come in town to-day, state that this party overtook 
a man named Morrow on the Frio, below the Laredo road, shot him 
eight times — he probably killed one Indian ; he is still living, and says 
that the party that attacked him were about 24 in number. They also 
killed a Mexican and wounded a Mexican boy somewhere below old 
Fort Merrill, and near the same place stole 65 head of horses. A party 
have but just returned from a scout in the lower country — another 
party is now fitting out, and will be ready to start in a day or so. We 
have never yet failed to overtake them when going up the country, 
nor do I think we will now. But this state of affairs cannot last — the 
State must furnish us the means, men, money and horses, or else the 
frontier will soon be a little nearer San Antonia than would perhaps be 
agreeable to the feelings of her citizens. Uvalde is willing to do what 
she can, but we cannot stand the whole brunt of this contest unassisted, 
while those whom our being on the frontier protects, look on in listless 

The settlement on the Neuces is again broken up — not an individual 
remains. Below here for probably a distance of 100 miles, where there 
were a number of settlements, there is not a soul living. — There are 
no crops being made, and stock is neglected. What we are to do in the 
future, unless a change for the better takes place — and that very soon 
— God only knows. There may be some who will think this picture 
overdrawn ; living remote from the scenes that are daily occurring here 
they will deem this exaggeration, and that we are unnecessarily alarmed. 
To such I would say, change places with us, bear what we have borne, 
year after year, without aid or assistance, and often not even sympathy 
for our misfortunes, or credit for our efforts from those whom our pri- 
vation, toil and blood protected, and freed from the necessity of shar- 
ing in like dangers ; and then see whether Uvalde has not just cause for 
complaint. We have done more actual and efficient service in propor- 
tion to our population, (we have 150 voters) than any other county on 
the border ; we have raised and supported Ranging companies and 
never (save in one solitary instance,) have we received one cent from 
the State for our services. But we cannot do it forever. Long suffer- 
ing and uncomplaining endurance sometimes cease to be virtues. We 
have waited and waited ; and now we want aid, and that quickly. This 
state of things is but a foretaste of what we have to expect ; these small 
parties are but the prelude to larger incursions, and therefore, as I be- 
fore stated we will be unable to endure it much longer. You will 
soon have no frontier to protect, and then, when the evil is at your own 



doors; when you suffer as we now suffer, you may wish for a few of 
those who once stood between you and danger, and whom you refused 
to aid. C. H. Hutchinson." 


Among the early citizens of Middletown was Col. James Burd. In 
spite of holding different political and religious views, the families of 
Burd and Fisher were very intimate, (an intimacy which was after- 
wards cemented by marriage connections and continued through suc- 
cessive generations). So when George Fisher (who had settled on his 
estate in 1752) laid out the town in 1755, Colonel Burd moved with his 
family and slaves on to his farm of "Tinian," about two miles from 
the center of the prospective town. 

About 1760 he erected his residence on the bluff' overlooking the Sus- 
quehanna just back of the town of Highspire which it antedates some 
fifty years. It is a stone structure thirty by forty feet and two and a 
half stories high, and is probably the oldest dwelling in the county of 

It is one of the historic mansions of our State. The most notable 
men of the French and Indian and Revolutionary wars were entertained 
at "Tinian" right hospitably, for its owner was a man of mark in Pro- 
vincial days. 

The old iron knocker of Colonel Burd remains on the front door, 
while the interior presents little change. 

One half a mile to the east of "Tinian" is "Walnut Hill," the home 
of the Cronchs and Jordans. It, too, was erected nearly a century and 
a half ago, and as the residence of Capt. James Cronch of the Revolu- 
tion, Edward Cronch, a Representative in Congress, and Benjamin 
Jordan, a State Senator, all representative men, has an historic interest. 

Colonel Burd was a Scotchman. He emigrated to this country when 
twenty-one years of age, married a daughter of Edward Shippen, Esq., 
and settled in Middletown some five years later. 

He became a man of note in the province. Was successively captain, 
major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel of one of the only two regiments 
at that time in the service of the colony; took an active part at the 
commencement of the Revolution (was colonel of a battalion) and at 
the time of his death was one of the county judges. 

He owned four slaves, viz: Lucy, aged 35 years; Cuff, aged 13 
years; Dina, aged 7 years; Venus, aged two years. He was buried 
by the side of his wife in the old Presbyterian graveyard at the corner 
of Union and High streets, where they rested until June 4th, i860, when 
they were removed by their descendants to the new Middletown cem- 
etery, and reinterred. Near the entrance, on two large marble slabs 
lying side by side, are the following inscriptions: 


Col. James Burd, 
Born at Ormistown, Scotland, 

March lOth, 1726, 

Died at Tinian, Oct. 5th, 1798, 

Aged 67 years, 6 months, 

and 25 days. 

Sarah Burd, 

Born February 22ndj 1731, 

Died at Tinian, Sept 17, 1784, 

Aged 53 years, 6 months, 

And 25 days, 

A few extracts from his correspondence, journal, &c., may prove 

(To Edward Shippen.) 
"Dear & Hon'rd Sir : 

"We are in great Confusion here at present, we have received express 
last night that the Indians and French are in a large body in the cove, 
a little way from William Maxwell, esqur's, and that they immediately 
intend to fall down upon this country. We for these two days past have 
been working at our fort here, and believe shall work this day, this 
town is full of People, they being all moving in with their Famillys, 
5 or 6 Famillys in a house. We are in great want of Arms and Ammu- 
nition, but with what we have are determined to give the Enemy as 
Warm a Reception as we Can, (there has) some of our people been 
taken Prisoners by this party, & have made their escape from them and 
come into us this morning. 

"As our fort goes on here with great \^igour and expect to be finished 
in 16 days, in which we intend to throw all the Women and Children, 
it would be greatly Encouraging could we have Reason to expect 
assistance from Philadelphia by private Donation of Sweevells, a few 
great guns, small arms & ammunition, we would send our Wagons for 
them & we don't doubt upon proper application but something of this 
kind will be done for us from Philad'a. 

"We have 100 men working at Fort Morris, with heart and hand 
every day. I am with Duty to Dady and Mammy, Love to Bro. and 
Sister, my dear wife and the Httle Babys, &c., 

"Dear Sir 
"Your most affectionate son 
"James Burd." 

Directed to Edward Shippen, oen'r, Esq., Lancaster. 

(Gov. Morris to Capt. Burd.) 

"P'da, 3rd Feb'ry, 1756. 

"S'r: — I have just received ye melancholy Acc't of a fresh party of 
Indians falling again upon ye settlement on Juniata, & of their having 
murdered & carry'd off above 15 of ye people there, as I suppose you 
must have heard." 


(To Gov. Morris.) 

"Sir: — I am informed that they are entirely out of all manner of 
Provisions at Fort Granville, which is a very bad situation, as the 
enemy are Constantly Visiting them ; they have wounded two men 
within sight of ye Fort & one of ye men's lives is despaired of, they 
would have Carried off one of them had not Lewt. Ward rushed out of 
the Fort and Rescued him. I could wish we had a Surgeon & Medi- 
cines we shall lose one-half of our men with perhaps slight wounds, 
purely for want of Assistance. 
"I am respectfully, 
Your Hon'rs 

"Most Obed't humble Serv't. 

"James Burd. 

"I hope ye Governor will excuse this scrall, as there is a Scarcity of 
Quills here." 

In 1757 he writes a paper headed "A Proposition for the better 
securing of the Province of Pennsylvania from the inroads of the 
Indians, and finding them Employment at Home in their own Country, 
to prevent them from coming abroad to seek it. With some few reasons 
why our Present Situation can never be a Defenceable one against such 
an enemy." 

Some of the suggestions in which were adopted by the Province. 

Account of James Burd against Tedyuscung 1757. — Capt'n John 
Tedyouskunk (a Delaware chief) to James Burd, for Necessaries fur- 
nished him : 

"To one Regimental coat, £3 

"One gold-lace hat and cockaid., 2 6 — 

" I p'r Shoes, — 7 5 

"i Check Shirt, — 12 — 

"I Ruffled Shirt, i 15 — 

"i Plain do. for his wife, — 15 — 

"i Cotton Handkr, — i 6 

"pr britches, — 16 — 

"i pr. linen do., — 6 — 

"i Riffle Gun, 5 

"i yd scarlet shallown for collars, 4 

"i-| yds. half thicks for leggins, — 6 6 

"i English Pipe Tomahawk, — 12 — 

" I pr buckles, — i 6 

"15 2 o 
Extracts from Colonel Burd's Journal : 
"Thursday, i6th February, 1757. 

"This morning sett out for Lancaster to visit the Troops from Sus- 
quehanna to Delaware. 
"19th, Sunday. 


"This day at ii a. m. marched for Fort Swettarrow, got to Craw- 
fords. 14 miles from Hunters', here I stayed all night, it rained hard. 

"Had a number of applications from the country for protection 
otherwise they would immediately be obliged to fly from Settlements, 
appointed to meet them to hear their Complaints and proposals on 
Tuesday at 10 a. m. at Fort Swettarrow; the country is thick set- 
tled this march along the Blue mountains & very fine Plantations. 

"20th, Monday. 

"]\Iarched this morning at 11 a. m., met a Serg't and ten men here, 
who marched with me back to Swettarrow, this day it rained much, got 
to Swettarrow Fort at 4 p. m., the roads extream bad, the soldiers 
march with great difficulty, found Capt. Lieut. Allen & 38 men here 
per report ; this is 1 1 miles from Crawfords. 

"21 Tuesday. 

"Reviewed the garrison this morning at 10 a. m. and found 38 men, 
viz: 21 belonging to Capt. Lieut. Allen, & 17 detached from Capt. 
Weiser's Co. ; of Capt. Allen's 13 men for 3 years no province arms iitt 
for use, no Kettles, nor blankets, 12 lbs poudder, and 25 lbs of lead, no 
poudder horns, pouches, nor cartouch boxes, no Tomahawks nor Prov- 
ince tools of any kind, 2 months provision. 

"Some Soldiers Absent, and others hy'rd in their places, which has 
been a custom here, the soldiers under no discipline, Ordered a Serg't 
and 15 men to be always out upon the scout from hence to Crawfords, 
keeping along the blue mountain, altering their routs & a targeet to be 
erected 6 inches thick, in order to practice the soldiers in shouting. 

"This day 12 m. d. the Country People came here, I promise them to 
station and officer & 25 men at Robertson's mill, this mill is situate in 
the centre between the Forts Swatarrow & Hunter, this gave the 
People Content." 

From here he goes to Fort Henry, 17 miles and sends back a party to 
garrison Robertson's mill as promised. The journal continues with 
reports on condition of the different forts visited, &c. 

"At Fort Williams I found a targett erected, ordered the Company 
to shoot at the mark, sett them the Example myself by wheeling around 
& fireing by the word of command. I shott a bullott into the centre of 
the mark the size of a Dollar, distance 100 yards." 

He complains of the deep snows and excessive cold interfering with 
travel. Completes his inspection and reaches Philadelphia on Tuesday, 
March 7th. 

His journal, as well as much of his correspondence, is full of interest- 
ing matter, but these papers are growing too voluminous, and one more 
extract will have to suffice. 

"Ordered, in Aug., 1759, to march wdth 200 of my battalion to the 
mouth of the Redstone cr., where it empties itself into the river Mo- 
nongahela, to cut a road somewhere from Gen. Braddock's road to that 
place as I shall judge best, and on my arrival there to erect a fort in 
order to open a communication by the river Monongahela to Pittsburg, 


for the more easy transportation of provisions, &c., from the provinces 
of Virginia and Maryland. Sent forward the detachment under the 
command of Lieut. Col. Shippen, leaving one officer and thirty men to 
bring our five wagons." 

"When I have cut the road and finished the fort, I am to leave one 
officer and twenty-five men as a garrison, and march with the remainder 
of my battalion to Pittsburg." 

He was ordered to pass by Fort Cumberland, and after inspecting the 
stores there, to continue on his route, which seems to have been along 
the road previously opened by Braddock, and which was afterwards 
nearly the route of the Cumberland turnpike. 



St. Peter's Lutheran church is (except those at Derry, Paxton and 
Hanover, before alluded to) the oldest church edifice in the county. 

Lot No. 135, (two hundred and fifty feet,) upon which the old 
church edifice stands, was deeded Sept. i8th, 1764, by George Fisher 
and Hannah his wife, to Peter Woltz, George Frey, and Deterick Schob, 
all of Lower Paxton, (now Swatara) township, Lancaster (now Dau- 
phin) county, Province of Pennsylvania, for the sum of seven shillings 
and sixpence, with the additional rental of one grain of wheat per 
annum payable on each consecutive ist of May. The deed was ac- 
knowledged before John Alison, Esq., and witnessed by Joseph Green- 
wood and Henry Renick. It is written on parchment and is in a good 
state of preservation. 

In the same year a petition was sent to John Penn, Lieutenant Gover- 
nor of the Province, praying for the privilege of erecting a church, and 
also of collecting funds for that purpose. The license reads as follows : 

By the Honorable John Penn, Esquire, Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief of the Province of Pennsylvania, and counties of 
Newcastle, Kent and Sussex on the Delaware. Whereas, it has been 
presented to me, by the humble petition of Christian Roth and David 
Ettley, of Middletown, in the county of Lancaster ; That, "The Luth- 
erans of said town and adjacent, have deputized the said Petitioners to 
collect of the Good People of the said Province, such sums of money 
as they will please contribute towards building a Church in the said 
town. That there is no church for many miles round the said town. 
That the said Congregation had got a lot of ground. And that the said 
congregation was poor, and unable out of their own means to erect a 
Church, without assistance of others, as a great many of the mem- 
bers had been obliged to desert their respective places of abode ; Praying 
that I would be pleased to grant the said petitioners, my License or 
Permission, to collect of the Good People of this Province, such sums of 


money as they would be pleased to contribute towards the said Pious 
Undertaking, &c." 

And I, favoring the request, These are therefore to permit, and 
License the said Christian Roth and David Ettley, within the space of 
three years, from the Day of the Date hereof next ensuing, to make a 
collection of the Good People of this Province, who are willing to Con- 
tribute towards the Building of a Church, or a House of Worship, for 
the said Lutheran Congregation of Middletown, aforesaid, any sum or 
sums of money, not exceeding in the whole Twelve Hundred Pounds, 
Pennsylvania Currency. 

Given under my hand and seal at Arms, at the City of Philadelphia, 
the twenty-eighth Day of September, in the year of our Lord, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and sixty-four; and in the fourth year of the Reign 
of our Sovereign Lord George, the third. By the Grace of God, of 
Great Britain, France and Ireland, King Defender of the Faith, &c. 

John Penn. 

By His Honor's Command, 

Joseph Shippen, Sec. 

There is no record to show how much of this money was raised. 
The members were few, widely scattered, and as appears from the 
terms of the lease, very poor; in fact David Ettley, one of the com- 
mittee, walked as far as Philadelphia on his collecting tour. Many of 
the sett'ers had but recently been driven from their clearings by the 
Indians, who roamed the surrounding forests, and who for years had 
been desolating this frontier with tomahawk, scalping knife and torch. 
The nearest churches were those of the Presbyterians at Paxton, Derry 
and Conewago, and the worshippers who visited them carried fire- 
arms, which they stacked inside during the sermon. 

The church edifice was built in 1767. The corner-stone was laid by 
Justice (Col.) James Burd in the presence of the Revs. Theophilus 
Engeland, N. Harnell, and Conrad Bucher; and the church warden 
and elders. John Christ, Roth, John Metzgar, George Philip Shaage, 
Gottlieb David Ettley, and Jacob King, and also the building committee, 
Conrad Wolfley, Frederick Zeppernick, and George Frey. In the cor- 
ner-stone was placed a German Bible ; the shorter catechism of Martin 
Luther ; three wafers ; a half-pint bottle of w^ine ; and some money in 
Pennsylvania currency. 

The building was constructed of old red sandstone, was two stories 
in height, and had a gallery on the east, south and west sides, the pulpit 
occupying the north side. The main entrance was on Union street, but 
there was also a door on High street. A staircase led from each door 
to the gallery, meeting in the northeast corner thereof. The windows 
were small, as were also the panes of glass in them. The floor was 
composed of bricks nine inches square. The pews were narrow, with 
high, straight backs. The pulpit, a sort of marten box on an enlarged 
scale, was supported by a post eight or ten feet high, and reached by a 


narrow winding stairs ; over it, like a huge extinguisher, hung a sound- 
ing board. A pipe organ was introduced some years afterwards. 

There was no provision made for heating, and when sixty years later, 
stoves were introduced, they were looked upon by the older members 
as a dangerous innovation. The first stoves were enormous affairs, 
capable of receiving into their interiors sticks of wood four feet in 

The membership of "St. Peter's Kirche" (as the stone above the 
doorway has it), consisted, at this time (1767), of sixty-six old and 
sixty-three young persons. 

In August, 1793, George Frey and Jacob King, acting for the con- 
gregation, purchased of George Gross and wife, the adjoining lot (No. 
134), for £3 and a yearly rent of one grain of wheat. By mistake ( ?) 
the deed was made to Frey and King individually, but when they died 
their trustees and executors — John Landis, Charles Fisher, William 
Crabb and John Cassel for Frey's estate, and Jacob Snyder and Daniel 
Ehrisman for King's — conveyed it, by a deed bearing date October 7th, 
1807, to the trustees of the church, viz: John Metzgar, Philip Ettele, 
John Blattenberger, Jacob Wolfley, Christian Eshenauer and Mark 

On March loth, 1807, application was made by the congregation for 
a charter of incorporation. The paper was signed by John Blatten- 
berger, Jr., John Croll, David Ettele, Eudwig , Martin Hemperly, 

John Heppich, George Lowman, Christian Lorentz, Jonas Metzgar, 
George Schneegantz, Jacob Snyder, George Shalkey, Nicholas Shuler, 
George Schuler, John Smuller, Christian Spayd, Ludwig Wolfley. Val- 
entine Weirick and Matthias Waif. March 18th, the application was 
approved by Justices William Tilgman, J. Yates, Thomas Smith and 
H. H. Breckenridge, of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and March 
2 1 St Governor Thomas McKean authorized Timothy Matlack, master 
of the rolls, to issue the charter prayed for. 

In 1813 the steeple was built. For this purpose twelve hundred and 
eleven dollars and thirty-five cents were subscribed by one hundred and 
ninety-three persons, whose names (among which are those of the an- 
cestors of many citizens of the town), are in the church records. 

In 1826 Jane Hannegan sold lot No. 133 to the congregation. So 
that the old church and cemetery comprise three lots, viz: Nos. 133, 

134, 135- 

In 1830 the brick floor was replaced by a wooden one; the straight- 
backed pews gave way to more comfortable ones, a new pulpit was 
erected which had steps on either side, and a recess beneath where the 
pastor could retire and prepare himself for his duties, a semi-circular 
rail enclosing it. 

In 1835 the lecture room was built. In 1850 the whole inside wood- 
work — pews, gallery and all — was removed. 

The windows, which were formerly in two tiers, were made into one, 
and the doorway, facing High street, was converted into a window; 


the pulpit was erected at the west end ; a vestibule was made, from 
which enclosure stairways led to the gallery, and shut off the cold from 
the auditorium. The parsonage on High street was built in 1855. 

This old stone church is now only used occasionally, principally at 
the funerals of those older members who wish the services held within 
its walls. 

On September 4th, 1867, the church celebrated its centennial anni- 
versary, at which were present many distinguished clergymen of the 
Lutheran and other denominations, and persons prominent in the State. 
On this occasion one hundred grains of wheat, enclosed in a silken bag, 
were sent to the Hon. Robert T. Fisher, of York, Pa., the oldest of the 
legal heirs and representatives of George Fisher, who laid out the town, 
and of whom the church lot was purchased, as full satisfaction of one 
clause of the original deed, requiring a rental of one grain of wheat to 
be paid annually. 

In 1872, the old building being inconveniently located, and not large 
enough to accommodate the increasing membership, town lots Nos. 149 
and 150 were secured from the Frey estate at a yearly rental of about 
$16. At a congregational meeting March 7th, 1876, it was resolved to 
erect a new church edifice, and a building committee consisting of Jos. 
H. Nisley, William A. Croll, George A. Lauman, R. I. Young and J. E. 
Carmany was appointed. Plans were adopted June nth, 1877; the 
cornerstone was laid September 6th of the same year, and the building 
completed and dedicated February 2nd, 1878. 

It is on high ground at the southwest corner of Union and Spring 
streets ; is of the Gothic style of architecture, and contains an auditor- 
ium, a chapel, or Sunday school room — with an annex, separated by a 
glass partition from the infant room — and a large and convenient library 
room. The pews are of chestnut, ash and poplar, fair-wood finish and 
arranged in a semi-circular form. The floor has a gradual slope from 
the vestibule to the front. The altar, railing and platform are of the 
same material and finish as the pews. The pulpit, constructed of ash 
and white walnut, is a beautiful piece of work. Three chandeliers, of 
the "Corona" pattern, swing from the ceiling. The handsome windows 
lighting the building are all of stained glass ; three beautiful memorial 
ones, size twelve feet by twenty, are in the auditorium ; the one on the 
east, facing the pulpit, is "In memory of John Croll by his daughters ;" 
the south window is "In memory of Margaretta Cameron, wife of Simon 
Cameron;" the north window is 'Tn memory of Sophia Young, by her 
son, James Young." The entire cost of the structure was $19,000. The 
architect was L. B. Valk, of New York ; the builders, Christian Fisher 
and William Ruhl. 

The pastors of the church have been: 1767-73, Rev. Theophilus Enge- 
land; 1773-88, Rev. T. F. Illing; 1788-93, Rev. J. Kurtz ; 1793-95. Rev. 
P. Pentz; 1795-1803, Rev. H. Miller; 1803-12, Rev.T. F. Sheaff; 1812- 
15, Rev. George Lochman, D. D. ; 1815, Rev. A. H. Lochman, D. D. ; 
1830-34, Rev. J. Van Hoft"; 1834-37, Rev. P. Saline; 1837-44, Rev. 


S. D. Finckle; 1844-47, Rev. J. Voghbaugh; 1847-48, Rev. L. Gerhart; 
1848-53, Rev. W. M. Baum, D. D. ; 1853-56, Rev. Benjamin Saddler; 
1856-65, Rev. C. J. Ehrehart ; 1865-72, Rev. Peter Ruby ; 1873-83. Rev. 
John W. Finkbiner; 1884-1890, Rev. H. C. Holloway; 1890-1904, Rev. 
F. W. Staley ; 1905, Rev. S. T. Nicholas, the present pastor. 

Early in the century this congregation seems to have awakened to the 
necessity of imparting religious instruction to the young, for a Sunday 
school was commenced in 1 819. It w^as probably a crude affair, pos- 
sessing little of the system and order which characterize such institu- 
tions to-day ; the children were taught to read the Bible in English and 
German, and to sing in concert. 

The first superintendent and teacher was Mr. Snell (or Snath). He 
was succeeded, in 1823, by John Croll. During the latter's incumbency, 
the lecture room was built, and the school removed thither ; it was also 
organized as a Union Sunday school. In 1861 the building was enlarged 
to accommodate the increasing number of scholars. Mr. Croll was con- 
tinuously in ofifice until his death, October 12th, 1873. His successor, 
George A. Lauman, assumed the position in January, 1874. Died in 
August, 1888. Samuel Kiefer, assistant superintendent, took charge of 
the school until January ist, 1889, when Isaac O. Nissley, the present 
incumbent was elected. 

On the afternoon of the day the new church was dedicated (February 
2nd, 1879), the Sunday school marched in procession from the old lec- 
ture room to their new quarters. 


Port Royal, although in another township (Londonderry), and on 
the north side of the Swatara river, is connected with Portsmouth by 
two bridges, and is as much an integral part of Middletown as West 
Philadelphia is of Philadelphia, or Allegheny City of Pittsburg. The 
following I have transcribed from the original deed : 

Thomas Penn and John Penn, Esquires, true and absolute Pro- 
prietors & Governors in chief of the Province of Pennsylvania & Coun- 
ties of Newcastle, Kent & Sussex on Delaware. To all unto whom 
these presents shall come Greeting. 

Whereas in pursuance of a warrant dated the third day of Septem- 
ber, 1772, there was surveyed unto William Breden a certain Tract of 
Land called Port Royal Situate adjoining Swatara Creek & the River 
Susquehanna in Derry Township Lancaster County beginning at a post 
at the side of Swatara Creek af'd thence by John Moyer's Land South 
seventy-seven Degrees East, one hundred & twelve perches to a marked 
Hickory thence by Daniel Clendenend's Land South forty-nine Degrees 
West One hundred & twenty perches to a Red Rock at low Water Mark 
at the side of said River & Creek along the several courses thereof two 
hundred and forty-two perches & an half to the place of Beginning Con- 


taining eighty-seven acres & a half & allowance now at the Instance 
and Request of the said William Breden that we would be pleased to 
grant him a Confirmation of the same. Know Ye;, that, in considera- 
tion of the Sum of fourteen Pounds fourteen Shillings lawful money of 
Pennsylvania to our use, paid by the said William Breden (the Receipt 
whereof we hereby acknowledge, and thereof do acquit and forever dis- 
charge the said William Breden his Heirs and Assigns, by these Pres- 
ents) and of the yearly quit rent hereinafter mentioned and reserved, 
we HAVE given, granted, released and confirmed, and by these presents, 
for us, our Heirs and successors, Do give, grant release and confirm, 
unto the said William Breden, his Heirs and Assigns, the said Eighty- 
seven acres & an half of Land, as the same are now set forth, bounded 
and limited as aforesaid : With all Mines, Minerals, Quarries, Meadows, 
Marshes, Savannahs, Swamps, Cripples, Woods, Underwoods, Timber 
and Trees ; Ways, Waters, Water Courses, Liberties, Profits, Commodi- 
ties, Advantages, Hereditaments and Appurtenances whatsoever there- 
unto belonging, or in any wise appertaining and lying within the Bounds 
and Limits aforesaid (Three full and clear fifth Parts of all Royal mines, 
free from all Deductions and Reprisals for digging and refining the 
same; and also one-fifth Part of the Ore of all other Mines, delivered 
at the Pit's Mouth only excepted, and hereby reserved) and also free 
leave. Right and Liberty, to and for said William Breden, his Heirs and 
Assigns, to hawk, hunt, fish and fowl, in and upon the hereby granted 
Land and Premises, or upon any part thereof: To have and to hold the 
said Tract of Land and Premises hereby granted (except as before ex- 
cepted) with their Appurtances unto the said William Breden his Heirs 
and Assigns. To the only Use and Behoof of the said William Breden 
his Heirs and Assigns forever To be hoeden of us our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors, Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, as of our Manor of Conestgoe, 
in the County of Lancaster aforesaid in free and common Socage by 
Fealty only, in lieu of all other Services, yielding and paying there- 
fore unto us, our Heirs and Successors, at the town of Lancaster, in the 
said County, at or upon the first day of March in every year, from the 
first day of March next, One half penny Sterling for every acre of the 
same, or value thereof in Coin Current, according as the Exchange shall 
then be between our said Province and the City of London, to such per- 
son or persons as shall, from time to time, be appointed to receive the 
same. And, in case of non-payment thereof, within ninety days next 
after the same shall become due that then it shall and may be lawful 
for us, our Heirs and Successors, our and their Receiver or Receivers, 
into and upon the hereby granted land and premises to re-enter, and the 
same to hold and possess, until the said quit-rent and all the Arrears 
thereof, together with the Charges accruing by means of such Non- 
payment and Re-entry, be fully paid and discharged. Witness John 
Penn Esq ; Governor of the said Province, who, as w^ell in his own Right, 
as by virtue of certain Powers, and Authorities to him for this purpose, 
inter alia, granted by the said Thomas Penn, hath hereunto set his hand. 


and caused the Great Seal of the said Province to be hereunto afiixed, at 
Philadelphia, this the twenty-ninth Day of January, in the Year of our 
Lord One thousand seven hundred and seventy-four, and the 14th Year 
of the reign of King George the third, over Great Britain &c. 

John Penn 
Recorded in the Rolls Office of and for the Province of Pennsylvania 
in Pat't Book A. A. Vol. 14, pa: 118. 

Witness my Hand & Seal of Office the 31st, January 1774. 

Wiu. Parr, Record'r. 

On the loth of May, 1774, Breden sold his land to Henry Weaver, 
"miller," of Caernarvon township, Lancaster county, Elijah Wickersham, 
merchant, and Joseph Leacock, of Philadelphia, as tenants in common. 
They laid out a town, naming it Port Royal, into four hundred and six- 
teen lots. On June 15th, 1774, Leacock sold his interest to Weaver and 
Wickersham, and upon the same day Weaver and Wickersham made 
an equitable division of the lots between them. Each took alternate lots : 
Weaver got two hundred and eleven lots, and Wickersham two hundred 
and five, with a large lot on Salmon street. Weaver took the even num- 
bered lots and Wickersham the odd numbers. 

December 17th, 1774, Elijah Wickersham sold to Samuel Pleasants 
all the annuities and rents of seven shillings for each lot of 205 lots. 
After Wickersham's death his executors sold to Charles Hurst, Charles 
Hurst sold to Susanna Radney ; Susanna Radney sold to Doctor Wil- 
liam Hurst, and he, on June 15th, 1809, sold to George Fisher for $900. 
After George Fisher's death, these lots came into possession of Hon. 
Robert J. Fisher, of York, Pa., who conveyed them to various parties, 
at different times, disposing of the last but a few months ago. 

The other half of these lots (those belonging to Weaver), were sold 
separately by Martha T. Lorraine, of Clearfield county. She was one 
of the heirs of Lydia Lorraine, who purchased 200 lots from Elizabeth 
S. Swift, October 5, 1855, for $250. How Elizabeth Swift became pos- 
sessed of them, the records of Dauphin county do not show. 

A Philadelphia genealogist, in tracing some early Pennsylvania fami- 
lies contributes an interesting bit of history. The Murrays, of Swatara, 
were of Scotch descent, and appear first in 1732. They were Presbyter- 
ians, and active in the Revolutionary War, but Robert, a grandson of 
the emigrant, after going to North Carolina about 1750, came back, set- 
tled in New York, prospered as a merchant, became a Quaker, and, pur- 
chasing the tract of land known as "Murray Hill," gave his name to the 
fashionable centre on Fifth Avenue. It was his son, Lindley Murray, 
the Quaker, who wrote the grammar, prepared the spelling book, and 
compiled the "English Reader." 



The experience gained by the men of Middletown during their long 
conflict on the frontier, was of value to them. Scarce ten years had 
elapsed, before the approaching throes of that travail of liberty which 
brought forth the Republic, began to be felt. 

The population of Middletown and the surrounding country had not 
forgotten that their fathers fled from oppression. Their exodus was too 
recent, and some of those who had first sought an asylum here, were still 
living to tell their story, and rekindle and keep alive that love of freedom 
for which they had endured so much. Thus they were the first to pro- 
test against the machinations and encroachments of the British govern- 

On the loth of June, 1774 — tzvo years before the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence in Philadelphia, at a meeting in Middletown, of which Col. 
James Burd was chairman, the following resolutions were passed : 

"i. That the acts of the Parliament of Great Britain in divesting us 
of the right to give and grant our money, and assuming such power to 
themselves, are unconstitutional, unjust and oppressive. 

"2. That it is an indispensable duty we owe to ourselves and posterity 
to oppose with decency and firmness every measure tending to deprive 
us of our just rights and privileges. 

"3. That a closer union of the Colonies, and their faithful adhering to 
such measures as a general Congress shall judge proper, are the most 
likely means to procure redress of American grievances, and settle the 
rights of the Colonies on a permanent basis. 

"4. That we will sincerely and heartily agree to, and abide by, the 
measures which shall be adopted by the members of the general Con- 
gress of the Colonies. 

"5. That a committee be appointed to confer with similar committees, 
relative to the present exigency of affairs." 

At the first meeting of the general committee of Lancaster county, 
December, 1774, which was composed of committees from all the town- 
ships, James Burd, Joseph Shearer and John Backenstoe represented 
Paxton township. 

The Middletown resolutions were presented by Elijah Wickersham. 

The influence of Philadelphia in the Revolutionary period over the 
rest of the State, has been greatly overrated. There was a knot of 
patriots there, but they were surrounded by a population which if not 
actively, was at least passively hostile to the patriot cause; in fact the 
counties of Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester, were hot beds of those 
who were not in sympathy with the party who favored absolute inde- 
pendence of the mother country. It was the intelligent people in the 
great border counties of Lancaster, Cumberland, &c., that took the ini- 
tiative and inspired and sustained the able leaders in that city in the 
course which they pursued. In 1774 the population of the Province was 
300,000 of which 120,000 was in Philadelphia, Chester and Bucks coun- 

The Presbyterian Church. 

TME Y.t\''^ '-'j' K 



ties. The same year the excise tax of Lancaster county was twice as 
much as Bucks, and considerably more than Chester. Cumberland 
county, with but 20,000 population, pledged herself to put 3,000 men 
in the service, and borrowing £27,000, did so. Lancaster, Cumberland 
and York, before the Revolution ended, had sent to the field nearly twice 
as many men as the three original counties of Philadelphia, Chester and 

In view of these facts, it is fair to assume that the population, wealth 
and sentiment of the then new counties were the backbone of independ- 
ence. The representation in the Provincial Assembly was most unequal; 
the three original counties had six members each — the eight outer coun- 
ties had two members each. Thus three counties of the eleven into 
which the Province was divided, controlled its legislation. No wonder 
the exasperated Presbyterians and Lutherans complained of Quaker in- 
fluence. It made them only the more ready to fight, so that this wrong 
with others, might be redressed. 

It may be well to remember that Middletown was at this time the cen- 
tre of business and population in this section of Lancaster county (Har- 
risburg had no existence until ten years later), and that most of the com- 
panies formed in the border counties, were either mustered here, or 
camped here, before their march eastward. 

Within two days after the news of the battle of Lexington reached 
here, the Paxton men were organized for resistance. 

In June, 1775, Congress authorized the raising of eight companies of 
riflemen in Pennsylvania. Each company was to consist of one captain, 
three lieutenants, four sergeants, four corporals, a drummer, a trumpeter 
and sixty-eight privates. Their pay was as follows: Captain, $20; 
lieutenant, $13^; sergeant, $8; corporal, $7^; private, $6 2-3 per 
month. They were to find their own arms and clothes. 

Each enlisted man subscribed to the following : "I have this day vol- 
untarily enlisted myself as a soldier in the Ameriean Continental Army 
for one year, unless sooner discharged ; and do bind myself to conform 
in all instances to such rules and regulations as are, or shall be estab- 
lished for the government of said army." 

One of the first companies raised in the Colonies was that of Captain 
A'latthew Smith, of Paxton. The first Pennsylvania battalion, of which 
they formed a part, reached Boston in August, 1775. 

"They are," says Thatcher, a writer of that day, alluding to the Pax- 
ton Boys, "remarkably stout and hardy men, many of them exceeding 
six feet in height. 

"They are dressed in white frocks or rifle shirts and round hats. 
These men are remarkable for the accuracy of their aim, striking a mark 
with great certainty at two hundred yards distance. At a review a com- 
pany of them, while on a quick advance, fired their balls into objects of 


seven inches diameter, at the distance of two hundred and fifty yards. 
They are now stationed in our Hnes, and their shot have frequently 
proved fatal to British ofificers and soldiers who exposed themselves to 
view, even at more than double the distance of common musket shot." 

John Joseph Henry, afterwards President Judge of Lancaster and 
Dauphin counties (the same who years later drew up George — Everhart 
— Frey's will), wrote an account of the campaign. He was a private in 
Captain Smith's company, as were also Emmanuel Bollinger, Valentine 
Weirick and other Middletown men. They led the advance and were in 
the attack on Quebec in 1775, were with Wayne in Georgia in 1772 — at 
Savannah — at Charlestown, and started to return home when the last 
of the Pennsylvania Line embarked for Philadelphia, in July, 1783. 

James Burd, of Tinian (now Ulrich's), was colonel of the "Fourth 
Battalion of Lancaster County Associators" (March 1776). As he had 
been for many years an officer of high rank in the Provincial service, 
this part of the newly formed State levies were placed under him, as 
undoubtedly of more experience than any officer within it. The bat- 
talion covered territory for eighty miles north and fifty miles east, made 
up of brave, intelligent and hardy material. 

At the muster of the battalion on the 25th of March, the companies 
were commanded by the following captains : Joseph Shearer, James 
Cowden, Richard Manning, John Reed, James Murray, Albright Doe- 
bler, Jacob Fridley. The men were marched to and participated in the 
campaign "of the Jerseys" during the summer of 1776, as appears from 
a "return of the troops quartered in and near Philadelphia." 

October 14th, 1776, Thomas Wharton, then President of Council, sent 
express to Colonel Burd, an order to collect his troops and hold "the 
battalion in perfect readiness to march at the shortest warning." 

October 22nd, Colonel Burd transmits the order to Capt. James Mur- 
ray. He (Colonel Burd) had been mortified and disappointed in an 
application for promotion, and had become unpopular with the militia 
of his command. He had influence enough to get his officers together, 
but very few of the rank and file made their appearance. Owing to this 
fact no further action was taken until December, when he sent the fol- 
lowing orders to his captains : 

Tinian, 12 Deer, 1776 
8 o'clock, A. M. 

Gentlemen — upon my Return home Last Night I found an Express 
had been at my house with the Orders Transmitted you hear with, by 
wich you will observe that the whole associators in the Battalion wath 
the Exceptions therein mentioned only are to March — In Consequence 
where of I hereby Request the whole of the Batt'n to be at Middletown 
Early on Monday Morning Next Prepaird from thence to March to Phil- 
adelphia. Agreeable to the Order of Council of Saifty. In the mean- 
time I am Gentlemen. Your Obedient Humble Ser't. 

James Burd, Col. 4th 
Battallion of Lr. Countv. 


N. B. I have also Orders to hire or Impress all the Wagons I can 
meet with thairfore I Request that all the Wagons fitt for Service be in 
Middletown on Monday Alorning Early to goe with the Battalion. 

"The season was stormy and inclement," but, without delay, a pas- 
sionate, tumultuous gathering invaded the town. There were no arms 
to be had, and without weapons it was reasoned that no effective fight- 
ing could be done. Under such circumstances a large proportion of the 
men refused to march. 

December 17, 1776, a great meeting was held in Lancaster, to "en- 
deavor to fall on measures for marching the militia of the town and 
county to join General Washington." 

December 27th, Colonel Burd writes to General Mififlin, that the ren- 
dezvous was at Middletown. "On December i6th, I intended to march 
with the battalion, from Monday, the i6th, to Sunday night, the 22nd, 
instant, and not one man turned out but eighteen, seven of whom were 
officers, myself included, except a small company of volunteers com-, 
manded by Captain Elder, of 33 men, whom I marched off. I put it to 
the vote of the eighteen if I should not march with them ; it was car- 
ried against me that I should not." He then says that he was going to 
Lancaster to see Mifflin ; all his officers protested against this step, so 
that "his influence" might be directed to get the battalion to march. 

On the same date he informed William Atlee, Esq., at Lancaster, 
"you will observe that I have resigned the battalion, and the major did 
say at Middletown that he would also resign. How that may be I can- 
not say." 

There is good reason to infer, from this evidence, that the people of 
this part of the State had reasons for dissatisfaction respecting the con- 
duct of those managing the war. 

The company commanded by Captain James Murray left Middletown 
on the day following the departure of Captain Elder, with his "2)Z nien." 

On the 24th a company of cavalry under Capt. John Hamilton who 
had marched that day fifty miles, arrived here and pushed on the next 

After much confusion and loss of time, a portion of the quota was 
dispatched to the field. The detachments were placed under other offi- 
cers, and no truer heroes were ever set in array against the enemy. 

In the latter part of January, 1777, Col. Samuel Montgomery, with 
his Cumberland county regiment, 800 strong, camped here for two days. 

On the I2th of August, Capt. John Rutherford with his company as- 
sembled here. This company, containing several Middletown men, had 
been in active service throughout the campaign of '76. 

In 1778 Robert Elder (the Captain Elder alluded to by Colonel Burd), 
who had risen to be colonel of a battalion, camped here with his com- 
mand, who were under the following officers : Captains, James Murray, 

Henry McKinney, Samuel Rutherford, McClure, Robert Clark, 

Martin Weaver, James Stewart, John Gilchrist. Captain McClure com- 


manded one, and Captain McKinney another of the companies raised in 
and about Middletown. 

In the same year, the battalion commanded by Col. Alexander Lowry 
was ordered to Middletown, and encamped from March until June. The 
captains of it were Robert McKee, Andrew Boggs, Thomas Robinson, 
Joseph Work, David McQueen, Robert Craig, Abraham Scott, Hugh 
Peden, Abraham Forney, Martin Earhart. The whole force was nearly 
800 men drawn from territory in the vicinity of Middletown ( Conewago, 
Donegal and Elizabethtown). The camp was on Bomberger's (now 
Young's) farm, adjoining the town. The reason for this display of 
force was the protection of the army stores at the Middletown mills, 
where a vast amount of wheat and other supplies had been collected. 
Among the officers of the army who took an active part in affairs in and 
about Middletown, either immediately before, during or after the Revo- 
lution, were: Col. James Burd, Col. Jacob Cooke, Col. Cornelius Cox, 
Col. James Crouch, Col. Edward Crouch, Col. Joshua Elder, Col. Robert 
Elder, Capt. James Cowden, Capt. John Elder, Capt. John Rutherford, 
Capt. Joseph Shearer. 

Although we cannot separate the Middletown volunteers from those 
coming from other parts of Paxton township, Lancaster county, yet we 
find on the muster rolls of the different battalions and companies, some 
few names which at that time or soon afterwards, were identified with 
her history, viz: Allison, Allen, Alliman, Burd, Brandon, Bollinger, 
Baker, Brown, Barnet, Bowman, Black, Bomberger, Cook, Crabb, 
Cooper, Crouch, Campbell, Davis, Duncan, Dickey, Elliot, Elder, Foster, 
Fulton, Fairman, Gross, Glover, Hays, Harrigan, Henry, Hamilton, Ho- 
gan, Hutchinson, Harris', Jamison, Jontz, Kerr, Kennedy, Lynch, Laird, 
Moore, Myers, Miller, Minsker, McCormick, McGuigan, McCann, Mc- 
Arthur, McClure, McClenachan, Means, McCord, Murray, McFarland, 
McNair, Martin, Poorman, Parks, Patterson, Postlethwait, Robinson, 
Ross, Rennick, Steel, Smith, Scott, Shearer, Sheets, Swinford, Thomp- 
son, Taylor, Wier, Walker, Weirich, Wilson, Wolf, Waggoner. The 
rest, although recorded, cannot be localized. 

This was then the most important town in Paxton township of Lan- 
caster county, and therefore it might naturally be supposed that there 
would be no difficulty in designating those who went from here into 
the Revolutionary army. There are many names which are familiar 
ones on our streets to-day and many others that were so a century ago, 
on the muster rolls of the various companies, but there being no par- 
ticularization as to residence, I have (as yet) been unable to classify 
them. Could the dead of those forgotten battlefields, or in the deserted 
graveyards of Paxton, Derry and Conewago, speak, or had their tomb- 
stones longer resisted the gnawing tooth of time, we would know that 
of the more than two thousand patriotic men which Paxton township 
sent to the front, Middletown contributed her full quota. 

Can you not in fancy see them — you, whose freedom they won — those 
brave, stalwart pioneers — as in fringed buckskin or faded blue and buff 


uniforms, with powder horns and patches, bullet pouches and muzzle- 
loading, flint-lock guns, they marched through the single, log cabin-lined 
street of old Middletown — the hardy frontiersmen of Pennsylvania — on 
their way to meet the veteran legions and mercenary allies of a power 
that had battled with, and (up to that time) beaten all nations that dared 
to oppose her. 

On Fame's eternal camping-ground 

Their silent tents are spread, 
And glory guards, with solemn round, 

The bivouac of the dead. 

Nor wreck, nor change, nor winter's blight 

Nor time's remorseless doom, 
Can dim one ray of holy light 

That gilds their glorious tomb. 


Wyoming Massacre. 

May 25th, 1778, the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania 
writes to the Board of War. After alluding to the fact that Colonel 
Grubb wishes a guard of one hundred men at Lebanon, and that the 
Hon. W. A. Atlee insists on keeping a guard at Lancaster until he has 
collected the Hessian prisoners, they add a postscript. "It is proposed to 
withdraw the guard at Middletown as soon as the Hessians are brought." 

July 3d, 1778, occurred the "Wyoming Massacre." The Tories and 
Indians, commanded by Col. John Butler, defeated the settlers under 
Col. Zebulon Butler. (These latter were principally old men and boys, 
the able-bodied men being absent in the Continental army.) Then fol- 
lowed a massacre of the survivors, out of 400 but sixty escaped. (It is 
said that the war made 150 widows and 600 orphans in the Wyoming 
valley.) This remnant taking refuge in Forty-Fort, succeeded in effect- 
ing terms of capitulation, stipulating that their lives and property should 
be spared ; but the Indians could never be bound by treaty, and after 
Col. John Butler and his army had left, burning and plundering com- 
menced, and the remaining widows and orphans, a desolate band, with 
scarcely provisions for a day, took up their sad pilgrimage over the 
dreary wilderness of the mountains and the dismal "Shades of Death."* 

Mr. Minor says : 

"What a picture for the pencil ! Every pathway through the wilder- 
ness thronged with women and children, old men and boys. The able 
men of middle life and activity were either away in the general service, 
or had fallen. There w^ere few who were not in the engagement ; so that 
in one drove of fugitives consisting of one hundred persons, there was 

■■"On the head waters of the Lehigh, was an immense body of rather wet land, 
covered with a dense forest of pine. This place was called, by the forlorn fugitives 
from Wyoming, the "Shades of Death." 


only one man with them. Let the painter stand on some eminence com- 
manding a veiw at once of the valley and the mountain. Let him paint 
the throng- climbing the heights ; hurrying on, filled with terror, despair 
and sorrow. Take a single group, the affrighted mother, whose hus- 
band had fallen ; an infant on her bosom ; a child by the hand ; an 
aged parent, slowly climbing the rugged way, behind her; hunger 
presses them sorely ; in the rustling of every leaf they hear the approach- 
ing savage ; the "Shades of Death" before them ; the valley, all in flames 
behind them ; their cottage, their barns, their harvests, all swept in this 
flood of ruin ; their star of hope quenched in this blood shower of savage 
vengeance !" 

These fugitives were the families of the Connecticut settlers in Wyom- 
ing, against whom a strong feeling existed at that time, the reasons for 
which do not concern these "Chronicles." William Maclay, the founder 
of the Democratic party, and (in 1779) the first Senator of Pennsylvania 
in the United States Senate, was among the number of those obliged to 
flee, and although so strongly prejudiced against the settlers that, in 
1773, in writing to the Secretary of the Province, he says, that "if Hell 
is justly considered as the rendezvous of rascals, we cannot entertain a 
doubt of Wyoming being the place." In a letter sent from here (Pax- 
ton), to Timothy Matlack, Secretary to the Executive Council of Penn- 
sylvania, July 1 2th, 1778, savs: 
' "Dr Sir 

"I write you this letter with reluctance, as I am certain it must give 
pain to any man of sensibility to be informed of the distressed situation 
of our Frontiers. — I will not trouble you with a recital of the inconven- 
ience I suffered while I brought my family by water to this place. I 
never in my life saw such scenes of distress. The river^ and the roads 
leading down to it, were covered with men, women and children, flying 
for their lives, many without any property at all, and none who had not 
lef the greatest part behind. — The panic and spirit of flight has reached 
even to this place. Many have moved even out of this township, and 
almost every one is thinking of some place of greater security. — Some- 
thing, my dear sir, must be done to restore Confidence to the desponding 
and flying multitude, and to make them face the enemy. Depend on it, 
Sir, the County will be lost without some vigorous measures. For God's 
sake, for the sake of the Country, let Colonel Hunter be reinforced at 
Sunbury — send him but a single company, if you cannot do more. Mrs. 
Hunter came down with me. As he is now disencumbered of his family, 
I am convinced that he will do everything that can be expected from a 
brave and determined man. I must mention to you with freedom, an 
opinion that has prevailed, and done great hurt on the Frontiers, viz, 
that no men or relief would be sent to them. The miserable example of 
the Wyoming people, who have come down absolutely naked among us, 
has operated strongly, and the cry has been, let us move while we may, 
and let us carry some of our effects along with us. — Something in the 
w^ay of charity ought to be done for the many miserable objects that 


crowd to the banks of this river, especially those who fled from Wyom- 
ing ; they are a people, you know, I did not use to love, but I now most 
sincerely pity their distress. — I cannot but hope that the men will most 
cheerfully return, with the first troops that go up that way. We are told 
every hour of more and more murders committed by the straggling sav- 
ages. We hope a great part of this vague intelligence may prove with- 
out foundation. The Express waits — am in great haste. Dear Sir, with 
sincere regard. 

"Your most obedient and most 

"humble servant, 
"Wm. Maclay." 

July 14th, 1778, Bartram Galbraith, writing from Lancaster to 
"George Bryan, Vice-President for the State of Pennsylvania," says: 
"Yesterday, at noon, I rec'd the alarming intelligence of eight or nine 
hundred British troops, Tories and Indians, coming down the East 
Branch of the Susquehanna, driving all before them ; it is said they have 
taken three of our Forts at Wyoming, or near to it ; out of which, four 
hundred of our men sallied out upon the enemy (not expecting them to 
be such a number), and that only sixty escaped, since which, the enemy 
have burnt the people's habitations thereabouts. On Sunday morning 
last, the banks of the Susquehanna from Middletown up to the blue 
Mountain, were entirely clad with the inhabitants of Northumberland 
County, who had moved ofif, as well as many in the river, in boats, canoes, 
rafts, &c. Indeed the inhabitants of Wiconisco valley, which is about 
twenty-five miles above Harris's ferry, in this county, were moving on 
Svmday last, and that the people lower down were thinking to follow. 
This I had from Captain Scott, a man of veracity who was up at Car- 
ver's mill for his sister, the wife of Colonel Hunter, and spake with a 
lieutenant of a company that was stationed at Wyoming, and was in the 
action ; he also seen six of the wounded men that were brought down. 
In the mean time, I'm venturing the privilege of calling the class's of 
militia that were ordered to hold in readiness some time ago last March — 
It is really a melancholy affair for the inhabitants of Northumberland, 
as well as many of this county ; for should they not get their crops cut, 
or some of them, the poor people will be entirely ruined ; as many of 
them has been obliged to come off without the necessaries of life, or 
wherewithal to purchase, leaving their stocks behind, &c. In haste I 
wait the orders of Council, 

"and am your ob't 

"h'ble serv't 
"Bartram Galbraith, Lt. 
Lancaster County." 

At this time (1778) Middletown was the first place on the river, of 
any size, which the fugitives would reach and as the wounded, naked 
and famished refugees landed from their rude canoes, dugouts, and 
hastily improvised rafts, after days of exposure and suffering, and 
thronged on shore, what a cheering sight must the little burg with its 


single street, lined with one and two-story log houses, have seemed to 
them. There was a generous sympathy and hospitality among the old 
frontiermen, it was share and share alike ; and although the newcomers, 
of some nationalities, from the wornout old world, were disposed to be 
close-fisted, their offspring, in the free air of that boundless domain, soon 
lost the grasping and mercenary proclivities of their progenitors. So 
they were welcomed with open hands, tables were bountifully spread 
with venison, bacon, hominy, corn-pone, milk and wild honey; with 
lashins of whiskey to wash it all down. And thus soothed and com- 
forted, they rested; and forgot in sleep, for awhile at least, the horrors 
and woes of the recent past, and the loneliness and gloom (for many of 
them) of the future. 

In 1779 General Sullivan was dispatched to carry the war into the In- 
dian country, and (as was stated in a previous paper) the boats for this 
expedition were built in Middletown. 

Philadelphia, May 13th, 1779, Ephraim Blaine writes to President 
Reed : "Sir, I have some time ago given orders to my assistant at Lan- 
caster to send, and without delay, four hundred barrels of flour to Mid- 
dletown," etc. 

June 2nd, 1779, President Reed writes to Col. Samuel Hunter, re- 
questing him, as Lieutenant of the county of Lancaster, to afford General 
Sullivan all the aid in his power ; stating, incidentally, that it will be 
unnecessary to order out the militia of that county, as "there can be no 
danger from an enemy, from Middletown to Sunbury," etc. 

On the next day, he (President Reed) writes to General Sullivan, 
"upon the subject of providing an escort for the stores from Middle- 
town," etc. 

July 28th, 1779, Colonel Hunter writes from Sunbury to Col. Mat- 
thew Smith, of Paxton, detailing fresh Indian outrages there, and con- 
cludes : "N. B. Rouse ye inhabitants there, or we are all ruined here. — 
S. H." 

On the same date Francis Allison writes to Col. Joshua Elder, Sub. 
Lieutenant Lancaster county, to the same effect, ending: "If any relief 
can possibly be afforded it should be given instantly, otherwise the towns 
of Northumberland and Sunbury must be the barriers." Writing again, 
on the 29th, he says : "Hurry if possible, all the assistance possible, with 
utmost haste, or else the consequences on our side will be dreadful." 

On the 30th, William Maclay writes from Paxton to Timothy Mat- 
lack, Secretary of the Council, ending: "I need not ask you what is to 
be done. Help, Help; or the towns of Sunbury and Northumberland 
must fall ; our whole frontier laid open, and the communication with 
General Sullivan's army is cut off." 

August 3rd, Col. Matthew Smith notifies President Reed of his arri- 
val "at Sunbury with sixty Paxton Boys." He says : "The Distress of 
the people here is great — you may have some Conception, but can 
scarcely be told — the town now composes Northumberland County. 


The Enemy have burnt Everywhere they have Been, houses, barns ; rye 
and wheat in the fields, stacks of hay, &c., is all consumed — such devas- 
tation I have not yet seen" &c. 

August 5th. William Maclay writes from Sunbury to Council, speak- 
ing of the arrival of this company ; and says : "Every hour has brought 
us fresh accession of Numbers ; We were near five hundred strong this 
morning, and the whole marched under the command of Colonel Smith, 
for Muncy, to seek them (the enemy) out." 

In the summer of 1779, General Sullivan's expedition arrived at Wy- 
oming ; as they passed the fort, arms gleaming in the sun, their hundred 
and twenty boats arranged in regular order on the river, and their two 
thousand pack-horses in single file, they formed a military display sur- 
passing any yet seen on the Susquehanna, and well calculated to make 
a deep impression on the minds of the savages. 

They arrived at Tioga Point, August nth, and hearing that the enemy 
were at Chemung, an Indian village twelve miles above, went up and 
discovered them lying in ambush below ; the Indians were driven off, 
and, after destroying their grain, &c., the army returned to Tioga to 
wait for General Clinton's brigade, which came down the East Branch 
on the 22nd of August from New York, with 200 batteaux. The united 
forces now moved forward up the Tioga, into the Genesee country. 
They burnt the Indian towns of Katherine's-town, Candai, Kanandaiga, 
Kanaghias, Gaghsuguilahery ; Jenise, their capital or chief town, and 
twenty-four others ; laid waste their fields, and destroyed all their corn, 
a quantity not less than one hundred thousand bushels, and returned to 
"Fort SulHvan," at Tioga, September 30th, 1779. They were received 
by Colonel Shreeve (who had been left behind with two hundred men to 
guard the place), with a joyous salute, and "as grand an entertainment 
as the circumstances would admit." 

The ravages committed by General Sullivan, made but a slight impres- 
sion upon the savages ; they hovered around the frontier until the close 
of the Revolution (1783). 

August 6th, 1781, President Reed writes "to Captain Robinson of the 
Company of Rangers : I hope that by this time the ammunition and 
clothing sent to Captain Hambright, to be forwarded to Captain Scott 
at Middletown, and thence to Captain Hunter, has arrived safe," &c. 
He also writes to Capt. John Hambright: "Sir; your letter of the 25th 
ult., came safely to hand, and we were obliged to you for your care in 
forwarding the ammunition and clothing to Northumberland. We shall 
be glad you would inform yourself whether it has gone forward from 

To convey a better idea of the size of Middletown at this time, the tax 
lists for two years, viz: 1778 and 1782 are appended :t 

fAt this time most of the Scotch-Irish settlers were in the army, whence few of 
them returned to settle again in Middletown. 



Backenstoe, John, 
Caldhord. Matthew, 
Cassel, Nicholas, 
Craft, Philip, 
Crabb, Thomas, 
Creamer, Jacob, 
Derr, Abraham, 
Dowdel, Daniels, 
Ettele, David, 
Ettele, Philip, 
Eater, Jacob, 
Eakins, William, 
Frain, Ulrich, 
Frey, George, 
Gross, Abraham, 
Gross, Alichael, 
Hebright, Christian, 
Harris, Henr}, 
Hemperly, Ludwig, 


Bombach, Conrad, 
Bollinger, Emanuel, 
Backenstrose, John, 
Beitle, Michael, 
Barnet, John, 
Cassel, Nicholas, 
Crabb, William, 
Crabb, Thomas, 
Conrad, Michael, 
Cremer, Elizabeth, 
Cryder, Christian, 
Craft, Philip, 
Conn, Daniel, 
Davis, Henry, 
Defrance, John, 
Dowdel, Daniel, 
Ettele, David, 
Ettele, Philip, 
Farr, Abraham, 
Frey, George, 
Gross, Abraham, 
Gross, Michael, 
Gross, George, Jr., 


Hubley, Frederick, 
King, Christian, 
King, Jacob, 
Kennedy, Dr. Robert, 
Kalm, Margaret, 
i_ebernick, Frederick, 
iwOwman, George, 
T^anning, Dr. John, 
]\IcKinley, Widow, 
IMoyer, Henry, 
Metzgar, George, 
Miller, Adam, 
Miller, Peter, 
Alinshall, Thomas, 
Mayer, John, 
Parthemore, Philip, 
Reigard, Peter, 
Roth, Christian, 
Singleton, Joseph, 


W^all, William. 

Snodgrass, George, 
Still, John, 
Seabaugh, Christian, 
Shertzer, Samuel, 
Swinford, Albright, 
Snyder, Mark, 
Snyder, John, 
Snyder, Jacob, 
Snyder, Simon, 
Shuster, Peter, 
Shaffner, Henry, 
Spayd, Christian, 
Shockin, Philip, 
Shertz, Christian, 
Scott, Patrick, 
Toot, Thomas, 
Walton, Jacob, 
Welker, Felty, 
Weirich, Philip, 


Gross, George, Sr., 
Gregg, Joseph, 
Harrigan, Patrick, 
Hollenback, John, 
Hubley, Frederich, 
Heppich, Christian, 
Hemperly, Ludwig, 
Hemperly, Martin, 
Harris, Henry, 
Jamison, Alexander, 
King, Christian, 
Kennedy, Robert, 
Kissinger, John, 
Lytic, John, 
Lowman, George, 
Lipse, Anthony, 
Lenning, Dr. John, 
Moore, Thomas H., 
Minsker, John, 
Minsker, Thomas, 
McCann, Henry, 
Miller, Jacob, 
Miller, Peter, 

Miller, Adam, 
Myers, Henry, 
AlcClure, David, 
Parthemore, Philip, 
Parks, Samuel, 
Reichert, Peter, 
Shaffner, Henry, 
Scott, Patric, 
Shertz, Christian, 
Spayd, Christian, 
Shuster, Peter, 
Shertzler, Samuel, 
Shockey, George, 
Snyder, Jacob, 
Snyder, John, 
Snyder, Mark, 
Seabaugh, Christian, 
Sneaganc, George, 
Tebemack, Frederick,- 
Wickersham, Abner, 
Wolfley, Conrad, 
Walker, Valentine, 
Wells, William. 


The roll of 1750 — already given — contains 45 names. Estimated pop- 
ulation, 200 persons. The roll of 1782 contains 70 names. Estimated 
population, 350. 

In 1778 the following Middletown soldiers were among those de- 
tached from the army and, under Captain Crouch and others, sent to 
repel the Indians who were committing raids upon the frontiers of Penn- 
sylvania. James McCord, Conrad Alleman, Martin Houser, Jacob Mil- 
ler, Frederick Cassel, George Sheetz. Conrad Wolfley, Dr. Robert Ken- 
nedy, Adam Ritter, John Minsker, Albright Swineford, Christian King, 
John Ritter, Jacob Aliller, John Swineford, George Sneagance, Robert 
Herron, George Williams, Simon Reardon, Richard Allison, Joseph 

The roll of record in Dauphin county in 1785 contains 120 names; 
estimated population 600. 

In 1799 Paxton township was divided and Swatara taken off. 

These rolls, when compared with that of 1750 and other data, show 
the nationality of the earlier and subsequent settlers in and near Middle- 


In 1 777- 1 779, owing to the large number of tories in certain parts of 
the State, it was considered necessary by the Assembly to impose an 
oath of allegiance ; a measure which is usually taken, particularly in 
civil war ; in the late war it was only those suspected of disloyalty w^ho 
were required to take such an oath, but in Revolutionary times, when 
the population was sparse, all were obliged to swear, as follows : 

"We the subscribers, do swear (or afifirm), that we renounce and re- 
fuse all allegiance to George the Third, King of Great Britain, his heirs 
and successors, and that we will be faithful and bear true allegiance to 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as a free and independent State, 
and that we will not at any time do or cause to be done, any matter or 
thing that will be prejudicial or injurious to the freedom and independ- 
ence thereof as declared by Congress, and also, that we will discover, 
and make known to some justice of the peace of said State, all treason 
and traitorous conspiracies which we now know, or hereafter shall know, 
to be formed against this or any of the United States of America." 

Each person taking the oath was given the subjoined certificate : 

"I do hereby certify that hath voluntarily taken 

and subscribed the Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance and 

as directed by an Act of General Assembly of Pennsylvania, passed the 

15th day of June, A. D. 1777. Witness my hand and seal the day 

of , 177—- ' , [^- S.] 

The following are a few of the names of the inhabitants of Middle- 
town, and its immediate vicinity, who took the oath : 



Allison. Robert, 
Ashcraft. William, 
Benner, Jacob, 
Burd, James, Esq., 
Burd, Edward, 
Brown, John, 
Boland, John, 
Crouch, Capt. James, 
Chesney, John, 
Crab, Thomas, 
Cassel, Nicholas, 
Carson, George, 
Donley, John, 
Deem, Adam, 
Davis, Henry, 
Dowdel, Daniel, 
Derr, Conrad, 
Ettele, Philip, 
Ettelin, Gottleib David, 
Flora, Peter, 
Gross, Christian, 
Hinds, John, 
Hemperly, Ludwig, 
Holmes, Abram, 

Hemperly, Martin, 
Johnston, Thomas, 
Kirkpatrick, William, 
Kennedy, Dr. Robt., 
King, Thomas, 
Kirkpatrick, James, 
Lewis, Michael, 
Lindsay, William, 
Lowman, George, 
McClure, Jonathan, 
]\IcClure, Alexander, 
McClure, Andrew, 
McClure, William, 
McClure, Roan, 
McCord, Robert, 
McClure, Richard, 
McCord, James, 
McClenaghan, William, 
iMoore, Howard, 
Means, John, 
Means, James, 
Minsker, George, 
Moore, John, 
McGill, Robert, 
Youngman, Jacob. 

^Nleans, Adam, 
Moore, Thomas, 
McNair, Thomas, 
Plesson, Anthony, 
Ryan, John, Jr., 
Raredon, Simon, 
Shearer, Joseph, 
Spade, Michael, 
Shocken, George P. 
Steel, John, 
Steel, William, 
Shuster, Peter, 
Shoop, Barney, 
Steever, Daniel, 
Spade, Christian, 
Thompson, Thomas, 
Thompson, John, 
Tate, Conrad, 
Wickersham, Abner, 
Wall, William, 
Wertz, James, 
Work, James, 
Wolf, Michael, 
Wierich, Valentine, 

Those who would not take the oath were fined. Among the Quakers, 
Mennonites, Dunkards and others, who from conscientious scruples, 
doubt as to the final issue, or opposition to the cause of the colonies 
refused it, there were many who objected to paying the fine, and the 
Pennsylvania Archives show that the authorities had much difficulty in 
collecting it. 

Improvement of the Susquehanna. 

September 5th, 1789, a meeting of the inhabitants was held in the 
Court House, to consider what steps should be taken to remove "the 
obstructions in the river Susquehanna," particularly at Conewago Falls. 
It was resolved that a subscription be raised for the purpose of "clear- 
ing" those falls, so that the river might be navigated as far down as 
Wright's Ferry (Columbia), and that certain responsible persons be 
appointed and meet at Mr. Archibald McAllister's in Paxton township, 
Dauphin county, on October 19th. 

On this date "a number of the inhabitants of the counties of Lancas- 
ter, York, Cumberland, Northumberland, Dauphin, Huntingdon and 
Mifflin," met. Parties were selected to "raise subscriptions in their sev- 
eral counties," and a treasurer and five commissioners were appointed 
to carry the project into execution. 

November 9th, the State Council instructed them as to the territory 


they were to examine, and the necessity of having their report of prob- 
able expense, &c., ready to be laid before the General Assembly during 
their "present session." This report was received, and March 31, 1790, 
the General Assembly instructed the President of the State, and Su- 
preme and Executive Council, to appoint three suitable persons to re-ex- 
amine, &c. 

April 6th, 1790, Timothy Matlack, John Adlum, and Samuel Maclay 
were appointed commissioners to examine and survey the waters of the 
Ouattapahilla, Swatara, part of the Susquehanna, &c. April 8th, in- 
structions were given them. 

April 23rd, Timothy Matlack and John Adlum, Esqrs., two of the 
commissioners apply to Council for the funds, provisions, tents, instru- 
ments, &c., necessary for their expedition. 

Their estimate of time, provisions, &c., is as follows : 

Men. Days. Days. 
From Sunbury down to Middletown 3 men, 

and stay there 13 days, 3 13 39 

From Middletown to Sunbury and stay 

there, 5 6 30 

From Sunbury to mouth of Consua 8 51 408 

Three men returning with horses, 3 10 30 

From Consua to Juniata, 5 78 390 

Commissioners, 3 148 444 

Day's provisions, i,34i 

Provisions. £ s d 

25 bis of Flour, 25 00 00 

150 lbs of Chocolate boxes, &c., 80000 

160 lbs of Sugar, 7 10 00 

800 lbs of Pork and Bacon, 20 00 00 

Pease and Rice, 20000 

Other small stores, 60000 

68 10 00 

4 horses @ £12 10, 50 00 00 

4 pack saddles, 60000 

Axes and adze, 2 05 00 

Rope, Nails, gimblets and small stores not 

in the Arsenal, 30000 

(much too low.) 

Casks for packing, &c., 40000 

Boat, 15 00 00 

Men's pay, equal to 30 months, at 75s, ... 112 10 00 

Baggs, say 8, at 5d, 2 06 00 

195 01 00 

£263 II 00 


No rum is estimated, but there must be either in pay or something 
else as compensation. 
Contingent expenses. 
And carriages across from Connemach. 
Carriages, &c., &c. 
Powder and Lead. 

Estimate of Time. 

On the Quatapahill and Swatara, 7 days. 

To the Juniata, including unavoidable delay at Middletown, 3 days. 

To Sunbury, including the time for viewing Berry's Falls, McGee's 
Half Falls, Berger's Rififle and Shamokin Falls, 6 days. 

(From Sunbury they estimate expenses to Sinamahonging exploring 
the Consua Toby's Creek, the Presquile, the Kiskeminetas Stoney 
Creek from the Juniata.) 

Total number of days, 148. 

And in this estimate very little, if any allowance is made for rainy 
weather, and everything is supposed to go straight forward, without 
delay of any kind. 

The commissioners left Philadelphia May 6th, 1790. Met Maclay at 
Lebanon and commenced the survey, (which it is not necessary to give 
in detail). They found the people on the Quitapahilla opposed to 
them; and not disposed to aid them; had no time to go "in search 
of people of more good sense," and so came on down the Swatara, 
"which we found to be a very fine stream of water with much less fall 
than we had been led to expect," &c. "We found it necessary to stop 
at Middletown, to procure several articles of provisions, which detained 
VIS until Friday morning, when we set out for Sunbury." 

In 1795, attention was again directed to the navigation of the Sus- 
quehanna. There was no definite action taken, however, until March, 
1823, when an act was passed by the Legislature for the improvement 
of the river from Northumberland to tide-water, and Jabez Hyde, Jr., 
John McMeans, and Samuel L. Wilson were appointed commissioners 
to superintend the work. Jan. 14, 1826, they made their report, stating 
that contracts for the improvement of the river between Northumber- 
land and Columbia will be incomplete until further appropriations are 
made ; that contracts between Columbia and tide-water were nearly 
completed, and that when finished, "crafts will be able to descend from 
Columbia to the head of the Maryland Canal carrying from fifty to sixty 
tons at a stage of water at which, previous to the improvements, they 
could not arrive at the latter place, with more than one-half that 

The total amount of expenditures made by these latter commissioners 
up to January 14th, 1828, was, from Northumberland to Columbia $1,- 
201.50; and from Columbia to the mouth of the river $14,323.37; 
making a total of $15,524.87. 

But altogether considerable sums were thus spent in improving the 


navigation of the Susquehanna and its confluents, the anticipated bene- 
fits to be derived therefrom, owing doubtless to the subsequent con- 
struction of canals and railroads, running parallel therewith, were never 


Slavery had existed in most, if not all, of the Colonies prior to the 
Revolution ; but slave labor never was profitable in northern latitudes, 
and one by one the States north of Mason and Dixon's line abandoned 
it. March ist, 1780, the Pennsylvania Assembly passed an act for its 
abolition. There were at the time quite a number of slaves owned in 
this State ; in Paxton township of Lancaster county there were upwards 
of a hundred. In the immediate vicinity of Middletown, among other 
slave-holders, Colonel James Burd owned four, viz : Lucy, aged 35 ; 
Cuff, aged 13; Diana, aged 7; Venus, aged 2. Captain James Crouch 
owned eleven, viz: Bodly, aged 60 years; Sambo, aged 50; Phillis, 
aged 50; Jack, aged 30 years; Lucy, aged 30; Peter, aged 15; Nan, 
aged 12; Ket, aged 9; George, aged 7; Nell, aged 3; Isaac, aged 9 
months. William Kirkpatrick owned one, viz: Richard, aged 27 years. 
Joshua Elder owned five, viz : Jack, aged 36 years ; Pero, aged 29 ; 
Gin, aged 19; Susanna, aged 2; Silvia, aged 6 months. 


(The following sketch was written by George Fisher, a son of the founder of 
Middletown. A more comprehensive biography of Mr. Frey may appear in the 
forthcoming volume.) 

George Everhardt (Frey). 

After Mr. Fisher, the founder of the town, settled on his estate, 
among the hands whom he hired to assist in ploughing his fields and 
clearing his new land, was George Everhardt, then a penniless German 
lad. George lived with Mr. Fisher some years until he had saved a little 
fund, when investing his money in a stock of trinkets, finery, and other 
articles suitable for Indian traffic, he mounted his pack and started up 
the Susquehanna. Passing the mountains, he encountered a party of 
soldiers from the garrison at Fort Hunter, a few miles above, who ar- 
rested him as a runaway redemptioner (a servant who had been sold for 
a time to pay his passage from Europe), a character common in those 
days, and far more consistent with George's appearance and language 
than that of a peddler, for what peddler, said they, would risk life and 
property Jhus alone and on foot, on this dangerous Indian frontier? 
"Ich bin frey, Ich bin frey" (I am free) repeated George earnestly in 
German, in reply to their charges. 

He succeeded in convincing them of his independence, and went with 
them to the garrison, where he became quite a favorite ; the soldiers 


knowing him by no other name than "Frey" which they had caught 
from his first reply to them. 

He sold out his pack at a fine profit, and continued to repeat his ad- 
ventures, still passing as George Frey, until he was able to start a little 
store in Middletown, and he afterwards erected a mill. Near the close 
of the Revolution, when the old Continental money was gradually de- 
preciating, George, who always kept both eyes open, contrived to be on 
the right side of the account so that instead of losing, he gained im- 
mensely by the depreciation ; and, in short, by dint of untiring industry, 
close economy, sharp bargains, and lucky financiering, he at length 
owned a great part of the real estate in and around the town. He had 
not, however, all the good things of this life ; although he was married, 
Heaven had never blessed him with children — a circumstance which he 
bitterly deplored. The property, therefore, of the childless man, was 
destined to support and educate the fatherless children of a succeeding 
age. He died in 1806 and the brick building still standing on the 
ground adjoining St. Peter's Lutheran church, and now occupied by 
several families, was, after many years of expensive and vexatious liti- 
gation, built about the year 1840. It was used as an orphan asylum 
until 1874, when in a commanding and beautiful situation north of the 
town, the handsome and commodious "Emaus Institute," was erected. 
In a conspicuous position in the grounds surrounding it is a monument 
to the memory of George Frey (why his nickname was used instead of 
his patronymic is a conundrum). 

FrEy's MilIv. 

John Fisher, who was born November 3rd, 1760, and died February 
27th, 1779, inherited jointly with his brother (George Fisher, Esq.) the 
patrimonial estate. He built a mill, constructed a dam (traces of which 
can be seen at low water, a short distance above the feeder dam of the 
Pennsylvania Canal Company) and dug a mill race. His original in- 
tention was to make a canal from the Swatara, so that boats could load 
and unload at his mill. 

He associated with himself John Hollingsworth, a practical miller. 
In 1784 Fisher withdrew, and December 21st of that year, Hollingsworth 
went into partnership with George Frey. The new firm purchased of 
Dr. Fisher his improvements, together with four acres and twenty 
perches of land, for £500. 

According to the articles of agreement entered into between Hollings- 
worth and Frey, they were to carry on a general milling business, manu- 
facturing flour, middlings, &c., Hollingsworth was to do all the buying 
of grain, furnish all the barrels for flour, &c. Frey contracted not to 
retail any mill products at his store, but to send all such purchasers to 
the mill. 

Matters progressed favorably for a while, but soon Hollingsworth 
detecting Frey violating the contract, forthwith demanded a dissolution 

Fisher's Bridge, an old Middletown, (Pa.) Landmark. 

THE riEV^ ''^r>K 

puEiic library; 




of the partnership. On Frey's refusal, he brought suit for a partition 
of the property in the Dauphin Common Pleas Court. The judges of 
this court. Timothy Green, John Glonninger and Jonathan McClure, 
referred the case to the Supreme Court without deciding it. The suit 
was docketed in the Supreme Court, September term, 1787. 

Hollingsworth had many creditors clamorous for pay ; Frey brought 
forward counter suits against him, and assigned claims of Rollings- 
worth's creditors to eat up his part, so that finally he was obliged to 
make an assignment. 

On November 19th, 1790, both parties entered into an agreement that 
judgment should be entered for Frey, unless Hollingsworth, or his as- 
signee, Robert Ralston, should pay one-half of all the money which 
Frey had expended, or was entitled to on the mill, within six months 
from July 3rd, 1761 ; said amount to be determined by three arbitrators, 
viz : John Kean, Joshua Elder, and John Carson. 

April 13th, 1791, the arbitrators brought in their report, granting 
George Frey £3646 6s 2fd specie, that being the "one-half of his ex- 
penditures on lands, mills, and other appurtemmces in question after 
giving John Hollingsworth credit for the money expended by him on 
the same lands." 

Hollingsworth filed a bill of exception, which the Supreme Court 
overruled, July 2nd, 1791, and gave judgment on the report. He was 
now reduced to great straits ; the mill property was worth considerably 
more than twice the amount he was to pay Frey, but he was unable to 
raise it, and thus was likely to lose all. It was not until five years later 
that he procured the requisite sum, which, September 26th, 1796, he sent 
his son to tender Frey ; the latter refused to accept it. Then Hollings- 
worth brought an equity suit in the United States Circuit Court, October 
term, 1800, complaining that Frey had failed to produce his books and 
accounts in court, although notified to do so ; that the conduct of the 
referees was improper in various particulars ; that the books, accounts, 
&c., laid by Frey before the referees were untrue and fraudulent; that 
the latter had suppressed various material documents which he alone 
possessed ; and that the value of the moiety of the property in dispute 
was at least f 10,000. He asked for a perpetual injunction; for an ac- 
count ; for a partition of the premises, and for general relief. 

The court decided that Hollingsworth had been guilty of gross negli- 
gence in allowing five years to elapse before proffering the amount 
awarded ; "although he had previous notice, that he did not avail him- 
self of an appeal to the discretion of the court, but suffered judgment 
to pass against him without making any objection," and dismissed the 
case. The decision was given by Judge Patterson, associate judge of 
court ; Judge Peters, of the district court, dissenting. 

Thus Frey became the sole owner. During the progress of the suit, 
to wit: June 24th, 1789, he purchased from John Fisher and wife "the 
privilege of cutting a canal or mill race" through their lands "for the 
purpose of conveying water to turn a mill or mills, or other water 


works;" granting to John Fisher, on the same day, the right to irri- 
gate his meadow from said race. The deed was witnessed by John 
Joseph Henry and Frederick Oberlander. He rebuilt and enlarged the 
mill, increasing its capacity and making it the largest in Pennsylvania, 
if not in the United States, extending his race, making it a mile and a 
half in length, and constructed the present dam across the Swatara, 
above the Iron Mine Run. After the race and dam were completed, the 
former was found not to be large enough to carry the water required, 
consequently Frey had to go to the Legislature again for a permit 
to make it deeper. This was given on condition that he first secured 
the assent of the owner of the land. 

The business transacted at this mill was enormous. Teams came here 
from far distant points. Flour was shipped (as appears from his books) 
to Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Baltimore; to Maryland, Virginia and 
the Carolinas ; in one instance at least, a ship load going to Europe. 
The river brought an immense trade — one item will give some idea of 
its magnitude — in 1790 (during the progress of the law suit) there 
were over three hundred and fifty thousand bushels of wheat brought 
down the Susquehanna and passed through Middletown for the Phila- 
delphia market. 

After George Frey's death the mill was run by the estate until 1843, 
when Thomas McAllen leased it; in 1845 William Ellinger; in 1847, 
George Allen; in 1848, John D. Heft, William Rewalt and Abraham 
Fisher leased it in partnership ; in 1849, Phdip Zimmerman was added 
to the firm; in 1850, John D. Heft leased it; in 1852, Henry Vogel and 
John K. Buser; in i860, Edward Stover; in 1868, Michael Connelly 
and M. R. Alleman; then Fortney and Singer; then Edward Allen; 
then Gottleib Mayor; then the Swatara Mill Co., and finally the Mid- 
dletown and Swatara Water Co., the present lessee. 

The Stubbs' Furnaces. 

Among the first of the Friends (or Quakers) who followed George 
Fisher to his settlement on the Swatara river, were the Crabbs, Min- 
shalls, Allisons and Stubbs. (Although members of the peaceful de- 
nomination which took the lead among the abolitionists and temperance 
reformers of a subsequent era, I find that none of them objected to a 
social glass, or a profitable investment in slave property.) Daniel and 
Thomas Stubbs, brothers, opened a store on the corner of what is now 
known as Union street and the Square. (The Rodfong property.) 
They seem to have done an extensive business. Both had families. In 
1796 the brothers erected a furnace on what is still known, in the South 
ward, as the "Steel Furnace Lot." Thomas Stubbs was manager. 
They manufactured an excellent quality of steel, for which ready sale 
was found at remunerative prices. This is said to have been the first 
steel manufactured in America. June 6, 1803, Thomas married Mary 
Taylor. Oct. 11, 1804, she died. In 1805 a son of Daniel's, in partner- 
ship with John Elder, purchased the works, and erected a much larger 


establishment further up the Swatara, near Frey's mill. For a time they 
carried on the business successfully, but finally discontinued it. Their 
retorts or chambers were still standing some years ago. 


William Penn, in his proposals for a second settlement in the prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania, published in 1690, alludes to the practicability 
of efifecting a communication by water between the Susquehanna and a 
branch of the Schuylkill. Canals and turnpikes were unknown at this 
period, even in Great Britain. 

In the year 1762 David Rittenhouse surveyed and levelled a route 
for a canal to connect the waters of the Susquehanna and Schuylkill 
rivers by means of the Swatara and Tulpenhocken creeks. The Union 
Canal afterwards was constructed over a portion of this route — the first 
zvhich was surveyed for a canal in the colonics. 

The views of the projectors of this enterprise, were, if the difficulties 
to be encountered are considered, gigantic. They contemplated the 
junction of the waters of Lake Erie and the Ohio with the Delaware, 
on a route extending several hundred miles. A portage over the Al- 
legheny mountains was recommended (an expedient which was subse- 
quently adopted). 

Duly to appreciate the enterprise of that age we must remember that 
the great valley of the Ohio was one boundless forest, uninhabited save 
by wild beasts, or wilder Indians ; moneyed capital was almost unat- 
tainable ; the term "engineering" was unknown to the vocabulary of 
those days; no canal was yet in existence (in England two had been 
commenced, but were unfinished) and public opinion looked upon them 
as visionary. 

In 1769, a survey, authorized by the Provincial Legislature was made 
over a course reaching 582 miles to Pittsburg and Erie, and a report 
issued strongly advocating the execution of the project. But the Revo- 
lution, and the financial depression following the struggle, caused the 
plan to be postponed. 

The great scheme of Pennsylvania was allowed to slumber until Sept. 
29th, 1 791 (about a century after William Penn's prophetic intimation) 
when the Legislature incorporated a company to connect the Susque- 
hanna and Schuylkill by a canal, and slackwater navigation. Robert 
Morris, David Rittenhouse, William Smith, Tench Francis and others 
were named as commissioners. By a subsequent act of April loth, 1792, 
a company was incorporated to efifect a junction of the Delaware with 
the Schuylkill river by a canal extending from Norristown to Philadel- 
phia, a distance of 17 miles. The Schuylkill river, from the former city 
to Reading, was to be temporarily improved ; and thus form, with the 
works of the Susquehanna and Schulykill company, an uninterrupted 
water communication with the interior of the State; with the intention 
of extending the chain to Erie, and the Ohio. 


Experience soon convinced the two companies that a greater length 
of canal was requisite, in consequence of the difficulty of improving the 
channels of the rivers ; hence the company last mentioned determined 
to extend their canal from river to river, a distance of 70 miles. In 
conjunction with the former company, they nearly completed 15 miles 
of the most difficult parts of the two works ; comprising much rock 
excavation, heavy embankments, extensive deep cuttings, and several 
locks (which were constructed with bricks). In consequence of com- 
mercial difficulties, both companies were compelled to suspend their 
operations, after the expenditure of $440,000. 

Frequent abortive attempts were made, from the year 1795 on, to 
resume operations, but notwithstanding the subscription of $300,000, 
subsequently tendered by the State, they maintained only a languishing 

In the year 181 1 the two bodies were united, and re-organized as the 
Union Canal Company. They were specially authorized to extend their 
canal from Philadelphia to Lake Erie, with the privilege of making such 
further extension, in any other part of the State, as they might deem 

In 1819 and 1821, the State granted further aid by a guarantee of 
interest, and a monopoly of the lottery privilege. The additional sub- 
scriptions obtained in consequence of this legislative encouragement, 
enabled the managers to resume operations in 1821. The line was 
relocated, the dimensions of the canal changed, and the whole work 
finished in about six years from this period; after thirty-seven years 
had elapsed from the commencement of the work, and sixty-five from 
the date of the first survey. 

The canal (including the Swatara feeder, &c.) was 89 miles in length 
from Middletown to a point on the Schuylkill a short distance below 
Reading. At ]\liddletown it connected with the main line of the Penn- 
sylvania canal ; at Reading with the work of the Schulykill Navigation 
Company. The descent from the summit to the Schuylkill was 311 feet 
accomplished with 54 locks ; to the Susquehanna 208 feet accomplished 
with 34 locks. 

The summit (between the Swatara and Tulpehocken) was 6 miles 78 
chains in length ; to which must be added to the navigable feeder, which 
extended several miles to the coal mines at Pine Grove. On this section 
the canal passed through a tunnel 729 feet in length, hewn through 
the solid rock. (This zi'as the first tunnel constructed in the United 

This summit was supplied by the water of the Swatara, conducted to 
it by the feeder already mentioned. As the summit was above the level 
of the feeder, two large water wheels and pumps were used for the pur- 
pose of raising water to the requisite height. Two steam engines, one 
of 120, the second of 100 horsepower, were provided for the purpose of 
supplying the feeder in case of accident to the water works. 

In "1828 about $1,600,000 had been expended in the construction of 


the work in addition to the proceeds of the lottery, and excluding the 
sums expended on the old work. 

A great error was committed in making the dimensions of this canal 
too small. It arose, partly from the great scarcity of water, and partly 
from erroneous views entertained by engineers and others having charge 
of the work. The locks of most of the State canals accommodated boats 
of 40 or 50 tons, while those of the Union being adapted only for boats 
of twenty-five tons, excluded the greater portion of those plying on 
the other canals. Between 1857 and i860 it was enlarged. And there 
still being a scarcity of water three large reservoirs were constructed 
in 1866; two near Lebanon and one near Myerstown. However, the 
increasing competition by railroads gradually reduced its traffic to a 
minimum. It long since ceased to pay expenses, and was finally aban- 
doned in 1885. 


The Turnpike. 

Soon after the settlements began to grow the necessity for roads was 
apparent, and a road was laid out from Lancaster to Shippensburg, pass- 
ing through Middletown as early as 1736. 

With the increase of travel came the necessity for turnpikes. The 
first turnpikes in this country were built in Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania. The system of roadmaking known as macadamizing received its 
name from Mr. Loudon McAdam. He went from this country to Eng- 
land in 1783, and introduced his roads there. 

The leading feature of his system was setting a limit in size and 
weight to the stones to be used in the roads, the weight limit being six 
ounces, each stone to pass through a three inch ring. Then covered 
with gravel and rolled with an iron roller. 

The Conestoga Wagon. 

These spendid wagons were developed in Pennsylvania and took their 
name from the vicinity in which they were first in common use, viz : 
Conestoga, Lancaster county. 

They had a canoe shaped bottom which fitted them specially for a 
hilly or mountainous country, for in them freight remained firmly in 
place at whatever angle the body might be. The wagon body was 
painted blue and had red side boards. The rear end could be lifted from 
its sockets ; on it hung the feed-trough for the horses. On one side of 
the body was a small tool chest with a slanting lid. This held hammer, 
wrench, hatchet, saw, pincers, and other simple tools. The wheels had 
tires sometimes six inches broad. The wagon bodies were arched over 
with six or eight bows, of which the middle ones were the lowest; 
these were covered with a strong, pure white, hempen cover, corded 


down strongly at the sides and ends, and under the rear axle tree were 
suspended a tar bucket and water pail. 

Sleek, powerful horses, of the Conestoga breed, Avere used by the 
prosperous teamsters. The horses were usually from four to seven in 
number, were often carefully matched, all dapple gray, or all bay. They 
were so intelligent, so well cared for, so perfectly broken, that they 
seemed to take pleasure in their work. 

The heavy, broad harnesses were costly, of the best leather, trimmed 
with brass plates. Often each horse had a housing of deer skin or bear 
skin, edged with scarlet fringe, while the head stall was gay with rib- 
bons and ivory rings, and colored worsted rosettes. 

Bell-teams were common. An iron or brass arch was fastened upon 
the harness and collar, and bells were suspended from it. Each horse, 
save the saddle horse, had a full set of musical bells tied with gay 

The driver walking alongside^ governed his team with an ease that 
was beautiful to see. These teamsters carried a whip, long and light, 
which, like everything used by them, was of the best material. It had 
a squirrel skin or silk cracker, was carried under the arm, and the 
Conestoga horses were guided more by the crack than the blow. 

All chronicles agree that a fully equipped Conestoga wagon, in the 
days when they were in their prime, was a pleasing sight. 

All the teamsters carried their own blankets, and many carried also a 
narrow mattress, about two feet wide, which they slept upon. This 
was strapped in a roll in the morning, and put into the wagon. Often 
the teamsters slept on the barroom floor, around the fireplace, feet to 
the fire. Some taverns had bunks with wooden covers, around the sides 
of the room. The teamster spread his lunch on the top or cover of his 
bunk; when he had finished he could lift the lid and he had a cofiin- 
like box to sleep in, but this was an unusual luxury. 

The number of these wagons was vast, at one time over three thousand 
ran constantly back and forward between Philadelphia and other Penn- 
sylvania towns. Sometimes a number of them followed in close order, 
the leaders of one wagon with their noses in the trough of the wagon 
on ahead. To show the amount of this traffic, one man in Middletown 
spent his time in making the tar-buckets carried by these wagons. Iq 
one year Conrad Seebaugh, a cooper here, made for John Landis, who 
then (1807) kept store at the corner of the "Square," nine hundred 
fifty-pound firkins in which to pack the butter taken in at the store ; 
and the rental of "Chamber's Ferry" about six miles above Middle- 
town, where most of the travel crossed the Susquehanna, was over $750 
per annum. 

Main street was a portion of this great highway between Philadelphia 
and Pittsburgh. (One section of this road, that between the former city 
and Lancaster, was the first turnpike in the United States. It was com- 
menced in 1792, and finished in 1794, at an expense of $465,000. It was 
macadamized, and substantial stone bridges spanned the streams cross- 


ing it.) Consequently a large proportion of the travel between the east 
and west passed through Middletown. 

Long lines of "Conestoga" or "Pitt" wagons, gaily painted coaches, 
carriages, horsemen, pedestrians, and great droves of cattle and sheep, 
were always in sight. Hotels were to be found every few miles, whose 
jolly landlord knew all the teamsters, drovers, stage drivers, &c., that 
made the road their thoroughfare. Penn, Washington, Lafayette, Har- 
rison, Webster, Stevens, and many other noted men have traveled over 
this route. For long distances, especially in the Alleghenies, the coun- 
try was a dense forest, with only here and there an isolated clearing, 
but on the pike the travel was as dense and continuous as in the streets 
of a large town, and sometimes filled the road for miles, as the immense 
emigration and freightage to the west surged through. 

There were several stage lines ; the drivers were all armed, and car- 
ried horns, which they blew on arriving at or departing from a station. 
Each stage (and there were sometimes many each way a day) carried 
ten passengers and was drawn by four horses, which were changed 
every few miles. 

When the railroad was completed between here and Philadelphia 
(about 1837) the stages ceased running; the traffic grew less and less 
with each succeeding year, until now its ancient glories exist only in 
the memories of a few ancient patriarchs, who tell marvelous stories of 
the "good and old times," and mourn o'er the degeneracy of the pres- 
ent. The turmoil of traffic, the beat of hoofs, the rumble of wheels, 
the tinkling of teamster's bells, the lowing of cattle, the bleating of 
sheep, the toot of stage horns, and the cries of the drovers have ceased. 
The deserted taverns and toll houses have disappeared ; grass grows in 
the once dusty highway and (save an occasional peddler's cart or farm- 
er's wagon) the road is silent and deserted. 


The province of Pennsylvania as early as 1756 had put a tax on 
ardent spirits. Being violently opposed in the western counties, it was, 
after remaining for years a dead letter, finally repealed. On the 3rd 
of March, 1791, the Federal Government, at the suggestion of General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, imposed a tax of four pence a 
gallon on all distilled liquors. 

The Government was but recently established, and its powers were 
little understood. The cause of the Revolution had been an excise law, 
and the people of western Pennsylvania classed this in the same category 
as the tax on tea, etc. They were descendants of the Scotch and Scotch- 
Irish, and came naturally by their love of whiskey. There were no 
temperance societies in those days and there was nothing disreputable 
in drinking liquors ; it was as common as to eat bread. Distilling was 


early commenced and extensively engaged in, and was considered as 
moral and respectable a business as any other. There was no market 
for rye, their principal crop ; there were few roads, and the commerce 
was carried on by means of pack-horses ; now, while a horse could 
carry but four bushels of grain across the mountains, he could carry 
the product of twenty-four bushels in the shape of alcohol. Whiskey, 
therefore, was the one article of traffic by means of which they were 
enabled to pay for their supplies of salt, sugar and iron. They had 
cultivated their fields at the risk of their lives, and protected themselves 
without assistance from the Federal Government ; and now when they 
raised a little more grain than they actually needed, they were prevented 
doing what they pleased with the surplus. 

That is the way in which they looked at the matter ; and so when the 
excisemen, the tax collectors, came, liberty poles were erected ; the 
people assembled in bands ; chased off the intruders ; singed their wigs ; 
cut off the tails of their horses ; put live coals in their boots ; tarred and 
feathered them ; burnt their offices, houses and barns ; or compelled 
them to resign. The whole of that section of the State was aroused in 
armed opposition to the measure. 

In Congress, May 8, 1792, material modifications were made in the 
law, lightening the duty, allowing monthly payments, etc. September 
15th, of the same year, the President issued a proclamation, enjoining 
all persons to submit to the law, and desist from all unlawful proceed- 
ings. Government determined ist, to prosecute delinquents; 2nd, to 
seize unexcised spirits on their way to market ; and third, to make no 
purchase for the army except of such spirits as had paid duty. June 
5th, 1794, Congress amended the law. 

All was of no avail, the excitement still continued, and the people, 
led by prominent men of that day, and section, by united opposition 
practically nullified it, and demanded its repeal. 

It became indispensable for the Government to treat the malcontents 
with more decision, and so finally the President ordered forward the 
army which had been collected in the east. It consisted of 15,000 men, 
regular troops and volunteers from Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania. Governor Lee, of Virginia, was in chief command. 
The other generals were Govenor Mifflin, of Pennsylvania; Governor 
Howell, of New Jersey ; General Daniel Morgan and Adjutant General 
Hand, General Knox, Secretary of War, General Hamilton, Secretary 
of the Treasury, and Judge Peters, of the United States Court, also went 
out to Pittsburgh. 

I have been thus diffuse, because history makes but slight mention 
of this rebellion, and little is known of it. President Washington 
passed through Middletown in October, 1794, and stopped at the tavern 
then owned by McCameron on the site now occupied by the Joseph 
Nislev property, then went on to Carlisle where he reviewed the troops. 
Among the troops who marched to suppress it was one company com- 
manded by George Fisher, Esq., the founder of Portsmouth. As there 


were a number of volunteers from Middletown and its vicinity in this 
company I give an extract from the journal of one of its members, 
Captain Samuel Dewees. He says : 

"Lawyer Fisher, Dentzel, Elder, a storekeeper of the name of Reitzel, 
and other citizens were engaged in raising a volunteer military com- 
pany. Lawyer Fisher was elected captain, lawyer Dentzel, ensign, 
Reitzel, first lieutenant, and second lieutenant. The com- 
pany was a large one, and each member uniformed and equipped himself 
in handsome style. Captain Fisher found out the residence of a drum- 
mer of the name of Warriour. Warriour had been a British drum- 
major, but had at an early stage of the Revolutionary struggle deserted 
from the British, and joined himself to the Continental army, and had 
beat the drum for it until the end of the war. Warriour was chosen 
drum-major in Captain Fisher's company and I was chosen fife-major. 
Warriour was decidedly the best drummer that I had ever seen or heard 
beat during the Revolution. His music was not of the loudest kind, but 
it was sharp, clear, well-timed, and rich in its spirit-stirring melodies. 
Captain Fisher's company was composed of patriotic, intelligent, re- 
spectable and wealthy young men, who prided themselves very much in 
exercising and perfecting themselves in the school of the soldiers. 

"Captain Fisher received orders for his company to march on to 
Carlisle : — We crossed over the Susquehanna river in flats ; these were 
a kind of boat twenty or thirty feet long, and ten or twelve feet wide, 
with sides a foot and a half or two feet high. 

"Upon our arrival in Carlisle we pitched our tents upon the 'commons' 
beyond the 'spring' and very soon after the camp was formed, ten or 
twelve men were detached from our company to join General Washing- 
ton's quarter-guard. President Washington had arrived that day, or 
the day previous, at Carlisle. He had been there^ however, several times 
previous to our marching thither. Warriour and myself played the de- 
tached portion of our company up to the court house, where the Gen- 
eral's body-guard was stationed, and then returned to camp. 

"In a few days after our arrival at Carlisle, President Washington 
issued his orders for all to be in readiness to march. On the next or 
second day thereafter, in the morning, we were ordered to beat up the 
'General.' This was a signal tune. As soon as we would commence 
to play it, all the men would set themselves about pulling up the tent 
pins, and arranging matters for a general strike. At a certain roll on 
this tune (called the 'General') all things being in readiness, the tents 
would be thrown down in one direction and all fall at once in the same 
movement, or as nearly so as could be done. 

"This done, some of the soldiers would engage in rolling them 
up, whilst others would carry them to the wagon, and pack them, camp- 
kettles, &c., therein. When this task was accomplished the long-roll was 
beat and all formed into line. The army then formed by regiments into 
marching order, then marched and formed the line in the main street 
of Carlisle. The regiment to which Captain Fisher's company was at- 


tached, was formed in the main line of regiments, and upon the right 
of that line: Captain Fisher's company occupying the right of that 
regiment, constituted the extreme right of the entire line, and rested in 
the main street opposite the court house. The rear of the main column 
rested at a great distance from town on the old Philadelphia road, and 
beyond the 'Gallows-ground.' This line besides being formed prepara- 
tory to the march, was also established for the purpose of passing the 
review. All the ofificers were at their posts in front of the line in order 
to receive and salute the Commander-in-chief and suite. President 
Washington and the Governors of States then at Carlisle, formed the 
head of the line. The brigade and field officers that accompanied the 
President and Governors took their positions in the line preparatory to 
the review. 

"All things being in readiness, the President and suite moved on to 
a review of the troops. The method of salute was, each regiment as the 
Commander-in-chief and suite drew near was ordered to 'present arms.' 
Field officers, captains, lieutenants, &c., in line in advance of the troops, 
saluted by bringing the hilts of their swords to their faces, and then 
throwing the points of their swords towards the ground at some little 
distance from their bodies on their right side, the musicians at the same 
time playing and beating a salute. The flag bearers at a certain roll of 
the drum would also salute by waving their colors to and fro. The mu- 
sicians in this grand line of military varied very much in their salute. 
Some drummers no doubt knew what tune was a salute, and could have 
beaten it well, but their fifers could not play it ; and some fifers knew 
how to play it, but their drummers could not beat it. An acquaintance 
of mine of the name of Shipe, who played the fife for a company from 
Philadelphia, could have played it, and well too (for many a tim.e we 
had played it together during the Revolution), but his drummer knew 
nothing about it. Some musicians played and beat one thing, and some 
another. One fifer, I recollect (within hearing distance of us), played 
'Yankee Doodle' and his drummer no doubt beat it well, too, but it was 
not a salute. When President Washington and his suite arrived at our 
regiment, I struck up and Warriour beat the old 'British Grenadiers 
march,' which was always the music played and beat, and offered to a 
superior officer as a salute during the Revolutionary War. 

"President Washington eyed us keenly as he was passing up, and con- 
tinued to do so, even when he had passed to some distance from us. 
After this duty was performed, upon the part of the soldiery, Washing- 
ton, in conversation with the officers, asked Captain Fisher if his musi- 
cians (Warriour and myself) had not been in the Continental service 
during the Revolution? Captain Fisher informed him that we had 
been, upon which the President replied that he had thought so, from 
the playing and beating, and observed that we performed it the best of 
any in the army, and were the only musicians that played and beat the 
old (or usual) Revolutionary salute, which he said was as well played 
and beat as he had heard it during the Revolution. Captain Fisher was 


verv proud of our having so far excelled as to attain the just praise of 
thePresident. and said to us upon his return: 'Boys, you have received 
the praise of President Washington to-day, for having excelled all the 
musicians in the line in playing and beating up Washington's favorite 
Revolutionary salute, for he' says not a musician in the whole army has 
played it to-day but yourselves.' If Captain Fisher was proud of Wash- 
ington's commendation of us, my readers may judge that we were not 
less proud of it than himself. 

"In the course of an hour or two after the troops had been reviewed 
by President Washington, at Carlisle, the order of 'forward' was given. 
The whole army then took up its line of march westward, and in the 
evening of that day it reached ]\Iount Rock and encamped. This place 
was about seven miles from Carlisle. The next day we passed through 
Shippensburg and reached Strasburg, at the foot of the mountain, where 
we encamped. I do not recollect whether we remained at this place 
longer than a night or not, but think that we were a day and two nights 
encamped there before we began to ascend the mountain. 

"We broke our encampment at Strasburg, and set out upon the march 
up the mountains. It is nothing to travel over the mountains now to 
what it was then; the roads were both narrow and steep, as well as 
crooked. Owing to the zigzag nature of the road, soldiers in front could 
see many soldiers toward the rear, and the soldiers in the rear could see 
many of the soldiers that marched between it and the front. This march 
not being a forced one, ample time was given us to ascend to its summit. 
"Soon after our arrival at that place (Bedford), portions of our army 
were reorganized. Here we lost our captain (Fisher), who was pro- 
moted to the rank of major. Lieutenant Reitzel became our captain, and 
Ensign Dentzel became lieutenant. After these changes were made we 
had to hold an election for ensign. 

"Shortly after this there was intelligence received that the 'Whiskey 
Boys' in great numbers were lying in ambush awaiting our approach. 
The whole army received an ample supply of ammunition. The rifle 
companies were ordered to mould a great many bullets, and much prepa- 
ration was made to repel any attack which the insurgents might feel dis- 
posed to make. The orders to march upon a certain day were general. 
Each man drew a double or triple quantity of provisions, and received 
orders to cook the same. 

"All things being in readiness, we then took up the line of march, 
and pushed for the Allegheny mountains. I do not recollect anything 
worthy of notice until we were descending the western base of the Alle- 
ghenies in our approach to the 'Glades.' Here we had a hard time of it. 
It was now November, and the weather was not only quite cold, but it 
was windy and rain was falling. By an oversight we were pushed on a 
considerable distance in advance of our baggage wagons, and at length 
halted at an old waste barn that we supposed belonged to some one of 
the insurgents, for had it not been so our army would not have been 
permitted to burn the fences thereon. We collected rails and built fires, 


but owing to the rain and marshy nature of that section of country the 
ground around our fires with our continued tramping became quite 

"My readers may judge of the land's surface, and of the state of the 
roads through the 'Glades' when I inform them that when some of the 
wagons arrived in the forenoon, at where we had halted the night pre- 
vious, they had each from twelve to twenty horses attached to them, and 
the axle-trees were sweeping or shoving the mud and water before them 
as thev moved onwards. None but regular wagoners could have navi- 
gated these mud swamps, and none but regular teamsters, or men ac- 
quainted with bad roads, or roads in their worst state, can conceive the 
impassable state of the roads through the 'Glades' in the year 1794. 

"We next made a halt at Greensburg, in Westmoreland county, and 
the next halt we made, was not far from the 'Bullock Plains,' known by 
many as Braddock's Fields. When we arrived there we formed camp 
and remained a few days. Whilst there, the soldiers, many of them, 
amused themselves by climbing up into the trees, for the purpose of 
cutting out bullets which had been lodged there in 1755, when General 
Braddock was defeated by the Indians. From Braddock's Fields we 
moved on to Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh), and encamped within a mile 
of the town. 

"Whilst we remained at Fort Pitt I obtained permission to visit the 
town every day or two. The old fort (Duquesne) which had been built 
for the protection of this post, I do not recollect whether it was occupied 
by any of our troops, but believe it was not. It was so built as to com- 
mand the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers above and at their junc- 
tion, as also the Ohio river below. The hills around Pittsburgh, particu- 
larly those on the opposite sides of both rivers, were very high. The 
hills above Pittsburgh and between the two rivers were (some of them) 
quite high, and were called different names, as Grant's Hill, Scotch Hill, 
Forbes' Fields, &c. 

"Instead of being met, as was threatened, by a formidable foe, we saw 
nothing in the form of enemies. The disaffected had disbanded and 
gone quietly to their homes. The insurrectionary spirit was every day 
growing weaker and weaker, and in proportion as this had manifested 
itself, the insurgent force had diminished. Mustering from seven to ten 
thousand men only, and they promiscuously and hastily drawn from their 
homes, young and old, without proper leaders, proper discipline, military 
stores, &:c., they had thought it altogether futile to attempt to resist (or 
cope with) a well disciplined army of upwards of fifteen thousand strong. 
After a number of the more active leaders were captured, and handed 
over to the proper authorities, to be dealt with according to the laws of 
the land, the expedition was considered at an end. Governor Lee, be- 
lieving that it was altogether necessary and loudly called for, left General 
Morgan with a strong detachment in the centre of this disaffected coun- 
try. The main body of this army was then withdrawn from Pittsburgh, 
and the surrounding country, and were marched on their way homeward. 


Many who sought discharges obtained them ; some of them enlisted in 
the United States regular service and marched on to join General Wayne, 
who was then engaged in a war with the Indians on the Miami^ in Ohio." 
In the spring the military were finally removed, order had been fully 
restored, the law was acquiesced in, and business resumed its wonted 


Let us go back about one hundred years and look at the old town in 
the days of stage coaches and canals ; when telegraphs, electric lights, 
express companies and daily papers were unknown. To the good old era 
of the scythe and flail, the tallow candle and the tinder box ; before luci- 
fer matches, canned goods, reapers, petroleum, sewing machines, steel 
pens, ready-made clothing, and the thousand and one things that tend 
to demoralize this generation, and wean them from the simple habits of 
their ancestors, were dreamed of. 

It was a jolly old burg then — no total abstinence societies or local 
option laws "froze the genial current of the soul." There was whiskey 
galore, and rows extempore ; taverns every block, and streets, stores and 
inns were crowded with teamsters, raftsmen, boatmen and travelers. 
Yes, those were the flush times of Middletown, and we who live in these 
degenerate days can only mourn that we were not born sooner. 

Commencing on the square — we find the old log house of George Rod- 
fong's on the southeast corner, belonging to Joseph Struhman ; he traded 
it to John Achey,^ who lived here and carried on cabinet making in a 
shop on the same lot. He afterward moved to Ohio. 

Where Joseph Nissley lived was a tavern. This was also the stage 
office for the Philadelphia and Pittsburgh stages and the postoffice, and 
was kept by John McCammon, who was postmaster for nearly twenty- 
seven years. On the same lot in the space now occupied by A. B. Croll's 
hardware store (northwest corner of the square and Main street) was? a 
yard, with sheds for horses. 

Dr. Laverty, Jr.'s (southwest corner Main and Square), was a log 
house built by Conrad Seabaugh's father, afterwards occupied by Jacob 
Schneider, a tobacconist. At the southwest corner Union street and 
Square he had a pottery. This Jacob Schneider bought a Redemptioner, 
a young woman named Schaab, whom his nephew afterwards married. 
She subsequently married a man named Koons. Her brother settled in 
Lebanon and died intestate, leaving considerable property, to which this 
sister's children or their descendants, if they could be found, are heirs. 

Eugene Laverty 's (northeast corner Union and Square) belonged to 
Mrs. Shackey. She left it to Mrs. Smuller, the late George Smuller's 

Jacob Dickert's (northwest corner Union and Square) was owned by 

^ He was married to Jacob Rife, Sr's. sister. 


Dr. James McCammon. Before his time it had belonged to Dr. Meyrick. 
Here Simon Cameron once lived, and here his son, Donald, was born. 

The Rife property (southeast corner Main and Square) was a tavern, 
the "Washington House," kept by George Crabb.^ Mrs. Wentz was 
landladv in 1807. Cummings in his "Sketches of a Tour to the Western 
Country," alludes to this hotel : 

"January 30th, 1807. — After resting about an hour (at Elizabethtown), 
and not feeling at all fatigued, at half past four I proceeded for Middle- 
town, eight miles farther, first loading one of the barrels of my gun with 
a running ball, as I had to pass near where one Eshelman^ was robbed 
and murdered last fall. The road over the Conewago hills was bad, and 
by the time I arrived at the bridge over Conewago creek, three miles 
from Elizabethtown, my left foot began to pain me so that I was forced 
to slacken my pace, which made it dark before I arrived at Swatara 
creek ; when the pain had much increased, which was occasioned by my 
stepping through the ice up to my knees in a run which crossed the road, 
which the darkness prevented my seeing. 

"The boat was at the other side of the creek. 

"In about half an hour, which appeared to me an age, the boat returned, 
and I gladly crossed the creek in a canoe hauled over by a rope exended 
from bank to bank, seventy yards, and in a few minutes after I found 
myself in Mrs. Wentz's excellent inn, the sign of General Washington, 
in Middletown. My foot being much blistered, I bathed it in cold water, 
and then injudiciously opened the blisters with a lancet and sponged 
them with spirits of turpentine. I then got a good supper and an excel- 
lent bed, but my foot pained me so much as to prevent my sleeping, so I 
rose early, unrefreshed and breakfasted with my landlady, an agreeable, 
well-bred woman. 

"The view down the Susquehanna from Mrs. Wentz's back piazza is 
very fine. The town contains about a hundred houses, and is well and 
handsomely situated about half a mile above the conflux of Swatara creek 
with Susquehanna river, the former of which forms a good harbor for 
boats, which it is in contemplation to join to the Schuylkill by a canal, in 
order to give Philadelphia the benefit of the navigation of the Susque- 
hanna through its long course above ^Middletown. If this is carried into 
effect, it will draw to Philadelphia a vast quantity of products which now 
goes to Baltimore. 

"The Susquehanna is a noble river, here about a mile wide, with fine 
sloping wooded banks and abounds with rockfish, perch, mullet, eels, 
suckers, catfish and white salmon, which last is described as a fine fish 
from seven to fifteen pounds in weight, but a distinct species from the 
real salmon of northern rivers. 

"Was it not that the Susquehanna abounds with falls, shallows and 

^ His wife was a sister to Walter Kendig's grandfather. 

' An Eshelman still owns a farm on this road. He was married to Phillip Irwin's 


rapids which impede the navigation, it would be one of the most useful 
rivers in the world, as its different branches, from its different sources 
embrace a wonderful extent of country, settled or rapidly settling, and 
abounding in wheat and maize (Indian corn), which most probably will 
be always staples of the large and flourishing State of Pennsylvania. 

"The'road leads parallel to the Susquehanna in some places close to the 
river and never more distant from it than a quarter of a mile, along a 
very pleasant level bounded on the right by a ridge of low but steep 
wooded hills, approaching and receding at intervals, and affording a fine 
shelter from the northerly winds to the farms between them and the river, 
which perhaps is one reason that the orchards are so numerous and so 
fine in this tract. 

"I have rarely seen in any country a road more pleasant than this, 
either from its own goodness or the richness and variety of the prospect. 
The Susquehanna on the left about three-quarters of a mile wide, some- 
times appearing and sometimes concealed by orchards, groves or clumps 
of wood ; the fine wooded islands on the river ; the mountains rising ab- 
ruptly from the margin of the river, in which they are charmingly re- 
flected, altogether form scenery truly delightful. 

"About six miles above Middletown the mountains terminate and the 
south bank of the river becomes more varied, though still hilly, and here 
on an elevated promontory, with a commanding view of the river, is a 
large and apparently fine stone house, owned by General Simpson, who 
resides in it on his farm and is proprietor of a ferry much frequented by 
the western wagoners, as the road that way is shorter by two miles than 
that by Harrisburg. He farms out the ferry on his side for about three 
hundred dollars per annum, while on this side the proprietor rents it at 
four hundred and seventy. The value of this ferry, called Chambers', 
may serve to convey some idea of the state of traveling in this country, 
particularly if one reflects that there are many other well frequented 
ferries where public roads cross the river within thirty miles both above 
and below this one, and which are all great avenues to the western coun- 

Heckewelder, the Moravian missionary, who passed through Middle- 
town in 1797. alludes to this ferry, and to the town, thus : 

(April 3rd.) "Arrived at a seasonable hour in Middletown, where we 
remained over night. Middletown is an attractive village, having the 
Susquehanna on the west side, and on the east the Big Swatara creek, 
which flows into it about a mile below the village. The square and the 
cross streets are in good condition, and the streets running north and 
south are mostly built up. The houses are built of limestone or brick — 
the majority, however, are frame or log houses. 

"On the morning of the 24th, we made an early start, and notwithstand- 
ing the rain, had good roads to Chambers' ferry, where we took breakfast 
and then crossing the Susquehanna. The country from Middletown to 
the ferry is very pleasing and exhibits some fine farms." 

* John Benner, father of the late John and Jacob Benner, used to keep this ferry. 


(Colonel Burd, Colonel Cronch, Captain Shearer, &c., officers in the 
Revolutionary army, all had estates in this vicinity.) 

The following persons "took out licenses to keep houses of public en- 
tertainment" in Middletown from 1793 to 1803, and some of them con- 
tinued to do so many years after : Henry Moore, Ludwick Wolfley, Peter 
Kipe, John McCann, George McCormick, Frederick Rothfong, John Blat- 
tenberger. Christian Rodfong, Michael Hemperly, John McCammon, Wil- 
liam Crabb, Benjamin McKinley, John Benner, John Smith, George Toot. 

It was probably at the tavern of the first named (Henry Moore), that 
John Penn, son of Thomas Penn, and grandson of William Penn, stopped 
on his return from Carlisle in 1788. In his journal he says: 

April 13th. — From hence the road lay thro' woods till the Susquehanna, 
at a distance, denoted that the (Chambers') ferry was at hand. I crossed 
the river about three and a half o'clock, surrounded by enchanting pros- 
pects. The ride to Middletown is along the eastern bank, and exhibits a 
striking example of the great in the opposite one, rising to a vast height 
and wooded close to the water's edge for many miles. From this vast 
forest, and the expansive bed of the river navigable to its source for craft 
carrying two tons burden, the ideas of grandeur and immensity rush 
forcibly upon the mind, mixed with the desert wilderness of an unin- 
habitated scene. The first particular object on this road is Simpson's 
house, the owner of the ferry where I crossed. It is on a rock across the 
river. At Middletown I put up at one More's, who was a teacher for- 
merly at Philadelphia of Latin and Greek. He talked very sensibly, 
chiefly on subjects which discovered him to be a warm Tory, and friend 
of passive obedience. Unlike many Tories, he is an enemy of the new 
Constitution. Here the Great Swatara joins the Susquehanna, and a very 
fine mill is kept at their confluence by Mr. Frey, a Dutchman, to whom I 
carried a letter from Mr. D. Clymer. 

"April 14th. — Before my departure Mr. Frey showed me his excellent 
mill, and still more extraordinary mill stream, running from one part of 
the Swatara for above a mile till it rejoins it at the mouth. It teas cut by 
himself at great expense and trouble, and is the only work of the kind in 
Pennsylvania. Middletown is in a situation as beautiful as it is adapted 
to trade, and already of a respectable size." 


George Fisher. 

[I will preface my sketch of Portsmouth by a short biography of its 

George Fisher, Esq., was a great grandson of the John Fisher, who 
came from England to Pennsylvania with William Penn on the first voy- 
age of the ship Welcome. He was born at "Pineford" (so called at a 
very early day, from the large grove of pine trees then standing on the 

Farmers' Bank. 

THE riEV^ ''jP-K j 




west bank of the Swatara river, where the great road leading- from Phil- 
adelphia to Fort I'itt passed the former stream by a fording), September 
22d, 1766. His father, the founder of Middletown, and only surviving 
parent, died in 1777. 

Having been thus deprived, at the early age of ten years, of both his 
parents, and having no relatives on the paternal side, he, with his brother 
John and sister Hannah, were by the will of their father, consigned to 
the care of a maternal uncle residing in Chester county, due provision 
having been made and directions left, for their care, maintenance and 
education until they became of age. With this uncle, George resided for 
some years, receiving such instruction as the disturbed condition of the 
country, and the limited advantages the schools of that day afforded. 

Of this period of his life but little is known, although he sometimes 
alluded to the difficulties he and his brother had to encounter in securing 
even the rudiments of an education ; and the hardships they endured in 
traveling twice a day through the unusually deep snows of the severe win- 
ter of 1777 and '78, to the rude, half-finished log school house, situated 
at the intersection of two public roads several miles from the residence 
of his uncle. Small, home-made linen wallets, thrown across their shoul- 
ders, contained in one end their few simple school books, and in the other, 
their homely fare, frequently consisting, to use his own words, of "small 
turn-over pies, hard enough to be used to play 'shinny' with." 

On one occasion the master, as well as the scholars, was very much 
alarmed. Shortly after the assembling of the school on the morning after 
the battle of Brandywine, a regiment of British grenadiers passing along 
one of the roads, unexpectedly encountered a detachment of American 
militia, retreating from that battlefield, along the other. At the junction, 
immediately opposite the school house, an engagement ensued, and many 
bullets struck the logs, or passed through the solitary window of the 
building. The master, however, had presence of mind sufficient to coun- 
sel the children to throw themselves flat on the floor. They did so and 
fortunately all escaped injury. 

Some few years after this occurrence, George was sent to Philadelphia 
and placed in the store of Israel Pemberton, then one of the wealthiest 
and most distinguished merchants of that city, with a view to his receiv- 
ing a mercantile education. The employment was uncongenial to a boy of 
George's energetic temperament, and wholly unsuited to his inclinations, 
and he soon earnestly besought his relatives to take him from the city 
and place him in one of the chief institutions of learning of that day, and 
thus enable him to obtain such an education as would eventually aid him 
in selecting as the pursuit of his life, the legal profession, for which even 
at that early age, he manifested an ardent desire. He finally mentioned 
the subject to Mr. Pemberton, and enlisting his support, gained not only 
the consent of his connections, but also their promise to advance him 
what money Avas needed to carry out his desires. 

He was first sent to an excellent preparatory school at Trenton, New 
Jersey, and finally to Dickinson College, at Carlisle, Pa. Upon the com- 



pletion of his education, he entered the office of John Wilkes Kittera, 
Esq., an eminent lawyer, then residing in the town (now city) of Lancas- 
ter, as a student. He remained with Mr. Kittera until he was admitted 
to the bar at Lancaster, sometime in the summer or early in the fall of 
1787. The precise date of his admission cannot now be ascertained, ow- 
ing to the fact that the "minutes" of the several courts held in the county 
at that day have been lost. The record shows that shortly after, at the 
November term, 1787, of the Court of Common Pleas of Dauphin 
County, he was admitted to practice in the several courts of this county. 

After his admission, he designed settling in Savannah, Georgia, and 
pursuing his profession. With that object in view, he visited Middle- 
town sliortly afterwards, for the purpose of arranging his private affairs, 
and placing his patrimonial estate, near the town, in charge of some com- 
petent and trustworthy agent. Whilst thus engaged, an event occurred 
that changed his purpose and fixed his professional career in a totally 
different location. 

He was one day called upon by a committee representing a large num- 
ber of the Mennonist society, who had settled upon the rich lands of the 
Swatara valley, in Derry township, and the neighborhood of Middle- 
town. The committee stated that, hearing of his arrival, they had been 
authorized to wait upon him, and ascertain whether he was as good a 
friend to the Mennonist settlers as his father had been, and if they found 
him to be similarly disposed, then to employ him as their counsel, to aid 
them in resisting the encroachments that the Irish settlers were making 
upon their lands, and the enjoyment of their religious rights. 

He answered that he had every reason to entertain the same kind feel- 
ings toward their society that, as they had just declared, his father had 
always evinced towards them, and would willingly serve them and for- 
ward' their interests to the best of his ability, but that his determination 
was fixed to remove to Savannah, as soon as he had completed the ar- 
rangement of his private affairs. 

They replied that they thought he had better remain among the people 
in whose midst he was born, and who had strong feelings of friendship 
towards him on his father's account. As an earnest of that sentiment they 
proffered him ten gold Johannes ($80.00), as a retaining fee, if he would 
remain and act as their counsel in their approaching legal contests ; at the 
same time assuring him of a continuance of their patronage and that of 
their brethren, then already becoming a numerous and comparatively 
wealthy class. 

Thus urged, he changed his determination, accepted their retainer, and 
shortly afterwards settled at Harrisburg* (then called Louisburg), 
opened an office and commenced the practice of his profession. 

The dockets of the several courts of Dauphin county for the year 
1788 and 1789, show that he immediately obtained a very large and lu- 

*His office was on the southwest corner of Market Square where the Presby- 
terian Church now stands. 


crative practice in this county. In Northumberland county, also, his legal 
business was a heavy and paying one. He attended occasionally the 
courts of Cumberland, York and Lancaster counties ; in fact, he said that 
for several years after his admission he attended the courts of all the 
counties north and west of Harrisburg, and assisted in trying nearly all 
the numerous and important ejectments, founded upon original titles to 
lands, in the counties mentioned. 

He held a conspicuous place in settling the law of this State in refer- 
ence to the titles to lands claimed or held by actual settlement, improve- 
ment, warrant, survey and patent, in which branch of the profession he 
held an equal rank with the most distinguished of that class of men who 
became at an early day in^ the legal history of Pennsylvania, eminent as 
"Land Lawyers." 

For many years after he commenced the practice of the law, members 
of that profession made minutes of the decisions given by Judges of the 
Supreme Courts, when holding courts of Nisi Prius, on all important 
questions relating to land titles (no book of reports of these decisions be- 
ing published until after 1790), which memoranda they carried in their 
saddle-bags, to be cited as authorities, as occasion should arise, in the 
cases in which they were severally engaged. 

The judges and members of the bar then traveled in compan}-, on 
horseback, from court to court, at all seasons of the year, and through all 
kinds of weather, over roads impassable by any other mode of convey- 
ance, compelled frequently to ford the streams they encountered, and at 
times, when too full to be forded, crossing over them in canoes, swim- 
ming their horses alongside. As the country was but sparsely settled, 
and the accommodations of a very primitive character, each of them had 
a blanket, to be used as a covering on lying down at night — frequently 
upon some straw shake-down, on the floor of a rude log cabin, with their 
saddles as pillows, carrying also, in the holsters of the latter, a flask of 
brandy, a beef tongue, or a piece of dried venison and some crackers. 
On their return from Sunbury and other points on the Susquehanna, 
they occasionally jumped their horses on to rafts, and thus descended 
that stream, sometimes to its junction with the Juniata, sometimes to 
Harrisburg. Then they separated to return to their homes, there to re- 
main until the approach of court again summoned them to renev,- their 
labors, in the comparatively distant frontier counties of the State. 

In these journeys many hairbreadth escapes and ludicrous incidents 
occurred, which at after times, were recounted with great zest, particu- 
larly when some apt delineator pictured a ludicrous reminiscence, the 
actors in which were present. 

They were, as a class, vigorous in body, as is abundantly proved by the 
long lives of uninterrupted good health that most of them enjoyed. 
Highly polished, highly cultivated and richly endowed, their unsurpassed 
mental powers enabled them to achieve the enviable reputation they so 
justly enjoyed, not only during their lives, but after they had passed from 
this sphere of action. They were emphatically "gentlemen of the old 


school." and though of convivial temperaments, lovers of wine and good 
living, seldom, or never, indulged to excess ; whilst in their social inter- 
course with each other, the esprit de corps which so eminently distin- 
guished the profession of that day, always shone forth conspicuously. 
The intimate and confidential friends they had been in their advancing 
years, they continued until they severally sank to honored graves. 

After the division of Northumberland county, Mr. Fisher continued to 
practice in Union county as well, until the year 1826, when he ceased to 
visit these counties. In the spring of 1830, after a highly successful ca- 
reer at the bar for upward of forty years, and after establishing two of 
his sons in the same pursuit, to wit : John Adams (who became eminent 
in his profession and practiced in Dauphin and Lebanon counties for 
over forty years), at Harrisburg, and Robert J. Fisher (afterwards Presi- 
dent Judge of the district composed of the counties of York and Adams), 
at York, Pa., he removed from Harrisburg to the patrimonial estate and 
place of his birth, "Pineford," with the intention of devoting the remain- 
der of his years to agricultural pursuits, for which he had, throughout 
life evinced great partiality. He was, however, sought out in his retire- 
ment, and occasionally induced to aid in the trial of important cases, as 
well at Lebanon as in Dauphin county, until about the year 1838, when 
he ceased practice in the courts of Lebanon, and finally, in 1840, at Har- 
risburg also. 

He, however, again appeared, and for the last time in any court, in the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, at Harrisburg, at May Term, 1845, to 
participate in the argument of the Commonwealth vs. Church, reported 
in I Barr, 105 ; a case in which he had large interests at stake, the dam 
therein complained of forcing the water of the the Swatara upon the op- 
posite banks, and causing serious injury to the lots of the town of Port 
Royal, of which he owned the one-half. 

Having then reached his eightieth year, the force and brightness of his 
intellect, added to the power and volume of his voice, as then exhibited, 
called forth expressions of surprise from all who heard the lucid and very 
able legal argument made by him. 

He continued to reside at "Pineford," in the enjoyment of a ripe and 
vigorous old age, until the eflFects of an accidental fall which he had at 
Harrisburg in the autumn of 1852, caused his death. He died February 
5, 1853, in the eighty-seventh year of his age, in the house where he had 
first seen the light of day, and where his father and mother had lived and 
died before the American Revolution. 

He had always expressed a desire to be buried by the side of his parents 
in the family burying ground on the estate, but in view of the fact that the 
property was then expected to be sold, and thus pass out of the hands of 
the family, it was thought best to inter him at Harrisburg. He was 
therefore taken to the house of his son, John Adams, and from there, 
February 9th, to Mount Kalmia cemetery. His funeral was (up to that 
time) probably the largest ever seen in Harrisburg, and was attended 
by all the judges, members of the bar, officers of the several courts, the 


surviving members of his family and a large number of sympathizing 
friends. The lot is enclosed by an iron railing and an appropriate monu- 
ment marks his grave. 

Devoted to his profession, the subject of this sketch never sought or 
held any civil office. Revering the character of Washington (for whom 
his first vote after attaining manhood had been given, as first President of 
the United States,) and his principal intimacies and associations being 
with the surviving soldiers and statesmen of the Revolution, he imbibed 
in early life the political principles entertained by those patriots, as well 
as by many of the eminent men of that day, and remained the earnest 
and firm supporter of the administration of Washington and of his suc- 
cessor, the elder Adams. Nay, he may be said to have adhered through 
a long life to those principles, never attaching himself to or being recog- 
nized as being a member of any of the political parties which sprang into 
existence upon the defeat and dissolution of the old Federal party. 

The only public station he ever filled was that of major in a battalion 
of volunteers from the counties of Dauphin and York, during the "West- 
ern Expedition" (elsewhere alluded to), upon the disbandment of the 
army he returned to Harrisburg and resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion. In November, 1795, he was married to Elizabeth, a daughter of 
Thomas Minshall, Esq., of York county, who had been a representative 
in the Provincial Assembly of Pennsylvania, in the years 1768, 1769 and 
1770, who had also been commissioned one of the justices of York 
county, in October, 1774, and by virtue of such commission, one of the 
judges of the county court of that county. This lady was also a de- 
scendent of one of the oldest Quaker families of the State, her ancestors 
having emigrated from England between the years 1675 and 1681, and 
settled at Chester, Pa. She died in December, 1803, leaving three chil- 

After her decease, to wit: In January, 1805, he was again married, 
at Philadelphia, by the Rt. Rev. Bishop White, to Ann Shippen Jones, a 
daughter of Robert Strettle Jones, A. M. (and granddaughter of Isaac 
Jones, Charter Mayor of Philadelphia in 1767 and 1768), and Ann his 
wife, who was a daughter of Joseph Shippen (and a lineal descendent of 
Edward Shippen, first Charter Mayor of that city). By this lady, who 
was one of the most beautiful women of her day, he had five children, 
four of whom, with their mother, survived him. 

Mr. Fisher was possessed of a graceful and commanding figure and 
handsome manly features, being endowed by nature with a powerful and 
melodious voice and mental powers of the first order, he was not only 
distinguished at the bar for the acuteness and soundness of his legal 
arguments, but also for the great distinctness, energy and — when occa- 
sion required it — eloquence, with which his forensic efforts were deliv- 
ered. Being naturally of a very convivial disposition, fond of the society 
of men of worth, refinement and intelligence, he was, particularly during 
his residence at Harrisburg, noted for his hospitality and constant habit 
of entertaining handsomely at his house many of the men of worth and 


distinction of this State, with most of whom he was on terms of the 
closest intimacy and friendship. 

"I have seen at his table," says an eminent lawyer, "among other dis- 
tinguished veterans of the Revolution, the venerable General Arthur 
St. Clair, Colonel Henry Miller, Alexander Graydon, &c. At a later 
day, Chief Justice Tilghman, Justices Yeates and Breckenridge, 
David Watts, and Thomas Duncan, of Carlisle; William Montgomery 
and Charles Smith, of Lancaster; Marks John Biddle. of Reading; 
Charles Hall, of Sunbury ; Benjamin R. Morgan, George Vaux, John 
R. Coates, Nicholas Biddle, and John Hallowell, of Philadelphia. And 
at a still later period Chief Justice Gibson, Justice Rogers, James Bu- 
chanan, John M. Scott, George Cowden, William M. Meredith, and 
other gentleman of Philadelphia, as well as from different sections of 
the State." 

After his death, many gratifying memorials of the esteem in which 
he had been held during life, were received by members of his family, 
from distinguished gentlemen residing in dififerent parts of the country. 
Most, if not all, of these letters, were couched in terms expressive 
of the highest respect and esteem for his memory ; and of sincere con- 
dolence with the surviving members of his family for the great loss 
they had sustained. From among these testimonials, all breathing the 
same spirit, two are here selected. One of them, written by William M. 
Meredith, of Philadelphia, says: 

"The death of your father, at a ripe age, was to be expected in the 
order of nature, and scarcely to be regretted on his own account, as, at 
eighty-six, life is scarcely desirable. It is always a shock to lose those 
whom we love, and I therefore offer you my condolence on the occasion. 
I had learned early to esteem your father and his estimable lady, from 
my own parents ; and their uniform kindness to me when I passed my 
winters at Harrisburg m.any years ago, increased my attachment and 
respect for them ; and I have thought it would be agreeable to you to 
know that among all who know your father — and there are many here 
among our elder respectable citizens — there has been a general ex- 
pression of kindness and respect, in which I entirely and sincerely 

The other was written by Jacob B. Weidman, Esq., of Lebanon, to 
Jacob Haldeman, of Harrisburg, who, in transmitting the letter of the 
former gentleman to one of the family of the deceased, says : "Agreeing 
fully with Mr. Weidman in all he has said in regard to your father, I 
take the liberty of sending his letter to you." The letter thus referred 
to states : 

"Since the date of your last letter, an old, mutual and highly esteemed 
friend, George Fisher, has gone to his fathers ; and has terminated a 
long and very useful life. It is true that he grew to be a very old man, 
and was by the present generation nearly forgotten, if he was ever 
known to them. But time was when he enjoyed a reputation at the bar, 
in then Western Pennsylvania, second to no man for legal attainments. 


When he, Thomas Duncan, David Watts, Charles Hall, Charles Huston, 
Steel, Dunlop and others were the pride of the State and the lions of 
the profession. I remember the day when Fisher and Hall were the 
selected specimens of manly perfection and comeliness. Both were 
highly polished gentlemen of the old school, and the powerful and elo- 
quent men of the bar. Fisher was a soldier, too, in the 'Western Ex- 
pedition,' as well as the lawyer who girded on his armor, and labored 
— bravely and arduously labored — to establish the principles of the new 
form of Government upon the newly laid foundations declared in the 
Constitutions of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania, then recently formed. He, whilst the frontiersman was felling 
the trees of the forest, and turning the haunts of wild beasts and merci- 
less savages into smiling fields and homes for civilized men, with his 
brother lawyers was engaged in cementing the foundations of this Re- 
publican Temple. And yet those "Old Fogies" are forgotten ! This 
should not be — every man of them is entitled to a monument in com- 
memoration of his talents, integrity of purpose, moral worth and un- 
doubted patriotism." 


In 1779 the town is noticed in the Colonial records as being a supply 
depot for the army during the Revolution. 

In 1789 the question of fixing permanently the seat of the Federal 
Government was strongly agitated in Congress then in session in New 
York. In the House of Representatives Mr. Goodhue offered the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

"Resohrd — In the opinion of this committee, that the permanent seat 
of Government of the United States ought to be at some convenient 
place on the east bank of the Susquehanna river, in the State of Penn- 
sylvania, &c." 

Mr. Heister moved to insert after the words "Susquehanna river" 
the words "Bctzvcen Harrisbnrg and Middlctonni inclusive." 

A lengthy and spirited debate followed, participated in by nearly all 
the principal members of the House ; those from the Northern and 
Eastern States generally favoring the amendment, and those from the 
South opposing it. The amendment was finally lost. 

Several other amendments were proposed and lost and the original 
resolution was carried. 

The resolution went to the Senate, which body struck out all relating 
to the Susquehanna, and inserted a clause fixing the permanent seat of 
Government at Germantown, Pa. 

The House at first agreed to the clause, but refused to concur with 
some subsequent action of the Senate thereon and pending further con- 
sideration of the subject, Congress adjourned sine die for that year. 

In 1790 the question was again brought up before Congress, and 
created intense excitement throughout the country. The Northern and 


Eastern members were opposed to the seat of government being located 
south of the Susquehanna while the Southern and Western members 
were opposed to its being either north or east of that river. 

The sectional feeling became so strong that the safety of the Union 
was endangered, and Washington, Jefferson, Hamilton and other pa- 
triots sought to effect a compromise, but were unsuccessful. 

At last, through the instrumentality of Mr. Jefferson, the votes of 
one or two Northern members were changed and a bill passed fixing the 
site on the banks of the Potomac, at such place as should be selected 
by commissioners under the direction of the President. 

In 1793 an epidemic prevailed at Harrisburg, which being supposed 
to be caused by a mill dam belonging to two men named Landis, it was 
determiined at a meeting of the citizens, January i6th, 1795, to remove 
the cause; and two thousand six hundred pounds were ordered to be 
assessed on the property of the citizens ; said sum to be offered to the 
Landises for their mill and appurtenances, and if refused the dam was 
to be prostrated by force. 

In the list of about three hundred and fifty citizens, I find George 
Fisher assessed £40, by far the largest amount set against any name (ex- 
cept Joshua Elder's) the others not averaging over £5 each. I merely 
mention this fact to show that Mr. Fisher — the founder of Portsmouth 
— was at that time a heavy property holder in Harrisburg. 

(Extracts from the Oracle of Dauphin, a newspaper published be- 
tween the years 1792 and 1832. The advertisements, &c., unless other- 
wise specified, being by inhabitants of Middletown:) 

April 4, 1798. — John Wier, of Harrisburg, advertises that he has 
moved his store next door, but one, to George Fisher, Esq., opposite 
the lower market house. 

May 30. — A meeting of the inhabitants of Middletow^n (Dauphin 
county) and its vicinity was held on the 19th inst., and three persons 
appointed to prepare an address to the President of the United States, 
which was signed by 147 respectable citizens. The following is a copy 
of the address : 
"To the President of the United States: 

"The address of the inhabitants of Middletown and vicinity in the 
county of Dauphin and State of Pennsylvania: 

"Sir: At a period so interesting as the present, when the political 
situation of the United States is become so precarious with respect to 
the belligerent powers, and especially the French Republic — at a time 
when a haughty nation, evidently aspiring to a dominion of the uni- 
verse and the subjugating of all nations, and repeatedly committing the 
most aggravated and unprovoked depredations on our commerce — re- 
fusing to attend to the just remonstrances of our government, treating 
with the most pointed neglect and contempt its representatives, who 
are furnished with the most ample powers and instructions for adjusting 
and terminating all our differences amicably, and with unparalleled 
effrontry declaring to the world that we are a divided people, dissatis- 


fied with our government, and under the arbitrary influence of a foreign 
nation. At such a time it becomes a duty incumbent on every true and 
unprejudiced American to come forward and by an open and candid 
avowal of his sentiments, endeavor to rescue his country from the odium 
attempted to be cast upon it by such cahmmious aspersions. 

"We, therefore, the subscribers, impressed with a proper regard for 
the welfare and happiness of our country, do beg you, sir, to accept 
this public testimony of our entire approbation of the measures adopted 
bv the executive, and that relying with the fullest confidence on your 
wisdom, integrity, and patriotic exertions, in concert with other 
branches of the Legislature, we shall deem it our indispensable duty to 
be ready on all occasions with cheerfulness to contribute as much as 
within our power lies, to the support of government and the vindication 
and maintenance of our national honor and independence. With these 
sentiments, sir, we offer our sincere and unfeigned wishes for your 
personal happiness and prosperity, and that your services in a political 
capacity may ever meet the deserved approbation of your country." 

June 6. — Answer of the President of the United States to the address 
from Middletown : 

"To the inhabitants of Middletoum and zicinity, in the county of Dau- 
phin and State of Pennsylvania: 

"Gentle^men : This concise but comprehensive address contains 
every assurance which the government can desire, from the best citi- 
zens at a critical moment. To me it is particularly obliging, and de- 
serves my thanks. To the public it must be satisfactory and will receive 
its applause. John Adams. 

"Philadelphia, May 30th, 1798." 

May 19. — Thomas Minshall offers eight dollars reward for a run- 
away apprentice. 

June 6. — Nathan Skeer informs the public that he has opened a ferry 
two miles above Middletown on the Susquehanna. 

August 14. — George Fisher, of Harrisburg, requests those who have 
borrowed muskets, bayonets and cartouch-boxes from him, to return 

December 19. — Died — Colonel Robert McKee, at his residence near 

January 28, 1799. — George Toot notifies John Hull, waggoner, to 
come and get his horse and pay charges or he will be sold. 

January 14. — Henry Shepler, of Harrisburg, informs the public that 
his stage, via Middletown, to Lancaster, will run but once a w^eek in- 
stead of twice, during February and March. 

February 25. — At an election held in Hummelstown by the Second 
regiment of Dauphin county. Major George Toot, of Middletown, was 
elected lieutenant colonel. 

March 27. — Frederick Rodfong & Co. give notice of a dissolution of 

April 8. — Cornelius Cox, assessor, gives notice that he will be at the 


house of William Crabb, on the 26th, to hear appeals from property 

October 25. — The property of Jonathan McClure advertised to be 
sold November 15th at the public house of John McCommon (by Henry 
Orth, sheriff). 

November 9. — George Fisher cautions the public not to purchase the 
above property as it belongs to him, and McClure's lease will expire in 
the ensuing April. 

In the edition of December 23rd is this anecdote: "Two or three of 
the inhabitants of this town (Middletown) were spending the evening 
at a neighbor's house, the man of the house was reading in your paper 
an account of the Norwegian who died in the one hundred and sixtieth 
year of his age ; a person sitting present, who lived some thirty or 
forty miles distant (who was noted for shooting on the wing) said he 
knew a man in his neighborhood who was one hundred and twenty 
years of age, and his grandmother was yet alive. One of the company 
"observed that she must be the widow of Methuselah." The same pa- 
per announces the death of General Washington on the 14th inst. 
[News traveled fast in those days.] 
January 6, 1800. — Prices current [the only one given in the county]. 

Middletown, Jan. 4th, 1800. 

Wheat, $1 43 per bushel 

Rve, 66 " " 

Corn, 50 'I 

Plaster of Paris, i 33 

Salt, 5 33 " barrel 

Shad 8 to 10 00 " 

Whiskey, 47 " gallon 

Bacon, 9 " pound 

Bar Iron, 100 00 " ton 

January 9th, 1800, the citizens of Middletown and surrounding 
country testified their sorrow at the death of General Washington by 
meeting at the house of George Fisher, Esq., and moving therefrom in 
the following order to the meeting house : 


Cavalry on foot, swords drawn. 

Infantry, arms reversed, by platoons inverted. 

Rifle company, arms reversed. 

Militia officers in uniform. 






Young ladies in white 

Ancient citizens first. 

Citizens in general by two. 

Boys in pairs. 


Having arrived at meetinghouse, the troops formed Hnes right and 
left, when the clergy, pallbearers and citizens entered, followed by the 
troops, while the Dead March from Saul was performed by the organist. 

The exercises were opened by a short prayer, and singing part of the 
90th Psalm. Rev. Mr. Snowden and Rev. Mr. Moeller then delivered 
impressive and well adapted addresses. 

December 21, 1799. — Daniel Sweigart (Harrisburg) notified his cred- 
itors to meet him January 3rd, 1800. 

January i, 1800. — Crabb & Minshall gave notice of dissolution of 
partnership. Thomas ^Minshall will carry on the business. (Copper- 

February 28. — Prices current : 

Middletown, Feb. 28th, 1800. 

Wheat, $1 50 per bushel 

Rye 67 " 

Corn, 50 " 

Oats, 2,Z " " 

Plaster of Paris, i 33 " " 

Salt, I 67 " 

Whiskey, 47 " gallon 

Bacon, 9 " pound 

Bar Iron^ 106 67 " ton 


In connection with this "Market report'' it may not be amiss to give 
a short account of the wages paid in those halcyon days. 

In 1793 the Schuylkill and Susquehanna Canal Company advertised 
for workmen, offering $5 a month for the winter months and $6 for 
summer, with board and lodging. The next year there was a debate in 
the House of Representatives, which brought out the fact that soldiers 
got but $3 a month. A Vermont member, discussing the proposal to 
raise it to $4, said that in his State men were hired for £18 a year, or 
$4 a month with board and clothing. Mr. Wadsworth, of Pennsylvania, 
said: "In the State north of Pennsylvania, the wages of the common 
laborer are not, upon the whole, superior to those of the common sol- 
dier." In 1797 a Rhode Island farmer hired a good farm hand at $3 
and $5 a month was paid to those who got employment for the eight 
busy months of the farmer's year. 

A strong boy could be had at that time, in Connecticut, at $1 a month 
through those months, and he earned it by working from daylight until 
eight or nine o'clock at night. He could buy a coarse cotton shirt with 
the earnings of three such months. W^omen picked the wool off the 
bushes and briers where the sheep had left it, and spun and knit it into 
mittens to earn $1 a year by this toilsome business. They hired out as 
help for 25 cents a month, and their board. 

By a day's hard work at the spinning wheel a woman and girl to- 
gether would earn twelve cents. Matthew Carey, in his letter on the 


Charities of Philadelphia (1829) gives a painful picture of the working 
classes at the time. Every avenue of employment was choked with 
applicants. Men left the cities to find work on the canals at from sixty 
to seventy-five cents a day, and to encounter the malaria, which laid 
them low in numbers. The highest wages paid to women was 25 cents 
a day ; and even women who made clothes for the arsenal were paid by 
the government at no higher rates. When the ladies of the city begged 
for an improvement of this rate, the Secretary hesitated, lest it should 
disarrange the relations of capital and labor throughout the country. 

To return to the Oracle, the edition of February 24th, 1800, con- 
tains a transcript of General Washington's will; the value of the 
scheduled property was $530,000. 

March 31. — Wm. Crubb is married to Miss Kendrick, of Lancaster. 

April 7. — Robert Candor's property (near Aliddletown), 130 acres, 
for sale. 

June 20.— A\'m. Crabb, "Surveyor of the Revenue,'' gives notice of 
his appointment, and notifies citizens to make returns of their dwelling 
houses, lands, slaves, &c. 

August II. — Sale of George Cross property in Middletown, adjoining 
the property of Ludwick Wolfley and John Snyder, deceased. To take 
place at the public house of John McCammon on August 23rd. 

September 17. — Sale of Thomas Aloore, deceased, property in Mid- 
dletown. adjoining properties of Charles ]McMurtrie, James Russel and 
George McCormick to take place October 8th. 

October 20. — ]\Iiddletown's vote for sheriff 313; for member of 
Congress, 206. 

April 6, 1801. — George Fisher advertised a three-story brick dwelling 
house for sale, next door to Captain Lee's tavern. 

June 6. — Lieutenant Wm. Carson. U. S. Reg. Inf., advertises a de- 
serter from the redezvous in Middletown. 

September 2. — Barbara Knatcher's new stage line between Harris- 
burg and Lancaster. Leave Harrisburg, ^Mondays and Fridays at 5 
o'clock. Breakfast at ]\Ir. Crabb's, in Middletown; arrive at Lancas- 
ter in the evening. Returning, leave Lancaster Tuesdays and Satur- 
days at 5 a. m. ; dine at Mr. Crabb's, Middletown ; arrive same even- 
ing at Harrisburg. Through fare $2. 14 pounds baggage allowed. 
(150 pounds baggage at passenger rates.) Baggage at the owner's 

September 8. — Robert and John Spear will sell October 24th, 213 
acres of land, farm buildings, &c., four miles from ]\Iiddletown, adjoin- 
ing land of Colonel Robert McGee, deceased, James Scott, now James 
Templeton, &c. 

November 2, 1801. — Henry Shepler (Old Stage Line), advertises 
stages to start three times a week. Fare to and from Lancaster, $1.00. 

December 25. — Stephen Hays, Thomas Smith, James Russel and 
George McCormick, heirs and administrators of Henry Moore, de- 
ceased, oflfer the following properties in ^Middletown for sale : 


One two-story log house, now occupied as a tavern by John Benner. 
One two-story log house, adjoining, occupied by Charles Brandon, 

One tW'O-story log house, adjoining, occupied by George McCormick. 

One lot of five acres adjoining George ^McCormick, 

One lot of four acres on main cross street. 

One lot of eight lots on main cross street and Water street. 

Sale at 10 a. m., January 15th, 1802. 


''The subscriber having laid out a new town at the confluence of the 
Swatara with the Susquehanna, in the county of Dauphin, proposes to 
dispose of the lots at sixty dollars each, when deeds in fee simple are 
delivered for them. As the object of the proprietor is to promote im- 
mediate improvement, and not present emolument, and as many of the 
lots will now sell for from one hundred to three hundred dollars, and 
none of less value than forty dollars, the preference will be determined 
by drawing the several numbers from a wheel. 

"The navigation of the Susquehanna thus far down is perfectly safe ; 
but from this to Columbia (a distance of twenty-one miles) it is ob- 
structed by the Swatara and Conewago falls, and many other rapids, 
so as to render it precarious and hazardous, and sometimes impractic- 

"The well known harbor formed by the mouth of the Swatara is not 
only the most capacious, but the only safe one on the river, and produce 
to more than a million dollars value annually floats down the Susque- 
hanna ; a great proportion of which, it is presumed, will be transported 
from here to the Philadelphia market, on the turnpike road now making, 
and nearly completed to Lancaster (a distance of twenty-four miles) 
and by the contemplated canal from the Susquehanna to the Schuylkill, 
which will enter the harbor through this town. The extensive command 
of water here for the turning of mill-machinery and other water works, 
and its vicinity to the great iron works, owned by Messrs. Coleman and 
Grubb, added to the facility with which an abundant supply of Susque- 
hanna and Juniata coal may be had ; when all combined, will fully jus- 
tify the assertion that no town on the Susquehanna offers more advan- 
tages, and none more certain prospects of gain, to the enterprising mer- 
chant and mechanic than this. 

"The site is an inclined plain, gradually rising from the margin of a 
bank, from ten to fifteen feet above low water, to a summit of fifty 
feet, commanding many beautiful prospects, as well land as water, and 
is as healthy as any on the river. 

"Tickets may be had of the subscriber, and other places, where plans 
of the town mav be seen. George Fisher. 

"Feb. i6th, 1809." 


Previous to this time, as far back as 1755, all the territory lying near 
the mouth of the Swatara was known as Middletown. From the head 
of the river to this point navigation was comparatively safe, but in con- 
sequence of the numerous and dangerous falls, it was supposed the 
Susquehanna could not be safely descended below the Swatara. This 
being the southern limit of navigation, all the marketable produce of 
the Susquehanna and its tributaries was brought here for sale, and dis- 
tributed, and a brisk trade sprang up, which extended not only to the 
surrounding country, but even to Maryland and Virginia. Those who 
have read the preceding papers will remember that, as early as 1690, 
William Penn alludes to the traffic then carried on by the Indians of the 
interior with the Atlantic coast, via the Swatara and Tulpehocken. 
With the advent of the whites this trade increased until in 1760 it ex- 
ceeded that of any other point on the river. 

For a long period it was the great lumber mart of the Susquehanna. 
Every spring and fall the mouth of the Swatara was crowded with rafts 
and arks, loaded with boards, shingles, grain, whiskey, plaster, and 
other marketable products of the up river country ; and not only was 
the mouth filled, but the shores of the river some distance below, and 
for two miles above the "point" were lined with every kind of river 

During the rafting season all was bustle and activity, and the hand- 
ling, counting and measuring of the lumber, grain, etc., gave employ- 
ment to large numbers of men, some of whom came from great dis- 
tances to work, returning to their homes when the busy season was 
over. The spring and fall freshets were harvest times for the mer- 
chants and tavernkeepers. Laborers were in demand, and received 
good wages ; ^ and most of them were liberal patrons of the stores and 
inns. The "Yankees," as all the up-river men were styled, were gener- 
ally a boisterous class ; and, when released from the restraint of their 
homes, usually took a spree, spending their hard earnings freely ; but, 
before returning to their families, laid in a supply of necessaries for 
home consumption, sufficient to last until they could take another trip. 

A row of store houses lined the road facing the Swatara (some of 
which have been altered into dwelling houses, and are still standing, 
but so changed in appearance as not to be recognized) and these were 
frequently filled, from floor to roof, with grain, whiskey, &c. These 
articles, with lumber of all kinds, were transported from this point in 
every direction, teams coming from Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. 

After the war, trade again revived, and flourished extensively vmtil 
1796, after which it gradually declined. Until then, the mouth of the 
Swatara was considered the termination of navigation of the Susque- 
hanna and its tributary streams. Below this it was believed to be im- 
practicable on account of the numerous and dangerous falls and cata- 
racts impeding its bed. In 1796 an enterprising German miller named 
Kreider, from the neighborhood of Huntingdon, appeared in the Swa- 
tara with the first ark ever built in those waters, fully freighted with 


flour, with which he safely descended to Baltimore. His success becom- 
ing known throughout the interior, many arks were constructed, and the 
next year numbers of them, fully freighted arrived at tide- water. 

Thomas Burbridge, a merchant of Wyoming, in the following year 
(1797) freighted and ran, in one season, ninety-one arks loaded with 
coal, a few of which failed to reach their destination for want of skill- 
ful pilots. 

j\Iuch of the trade with this place was carried on in keel-boats (or 
Durham boats, as they were sometimes called, after their first projec- 
tor) and they were the only ones that ascended as well as descended the 

The Susquehanna is almost a mile wide, has a very rocky bed, and in 
low or moderate stages of the water is very shallow. Consequently a 
boat drawing one or two feet of water would soon strike upon the rocks 
and be wrecked unless kept in the channel. This channel is a peculiar 
one shifting from side to side of the river, with a swifter current run- 
ning through it, and even when the river is low, has usually about five 
feet depth of water in it. 

These boats were fifty or sixty feet in length, and required a crew of 
eight expert polemen and a steersman to each boat. To force them up 
against the swift current, about ten miles a day, the boatmen, generally 
four on each side, used setting poles about twelve feet long. Standing 
near the bow of the boat, they thrust the larger end against the bed of 
the river at an inclination, and placing the upper end against their 
shoulders, pushed the boat forward by walking from the bow to the 
stern, making her move just her own length. The impetus kept the 
boat from falling back until having drawn their poles up, they walked 
forward again to the bow, and repeated the operation and so on to the 
end of the day. 

Considerable trading was done by these boats during their trips. 
Their approach to the villages along their route was signalled by the 
blowing of a horn, and those who were desirous of making purchases, 
or of disposing of any surplus products were ofifered an opportunity. 

Supplies were then transported from Philadelphia across to the mouth 
of the Swatara, via Lancaster, in Conestoga wagons, occupying about 
four days in transit ; there they were loaded on the boats, and thence 
pushed by toilsome steps against the current of the Susquehanna for 
days. (The material then requiring the labor of hundreds of men and 
animals, and taking several weeks to transport ; two men with a single 
locomotive and train of cars now carry a similar distance in a few 

In order to avoid the rapids known as the "Conewago Falls," a short 
canal was made, reaching from the head of the falls to York Haven, 
on the York county side of the river. This enabled these small boats 
to pass up and down in safety ; but on the completion of the Pennsylva- 
nia canal, that channel was abandoned. 

On the 17th of March, 1814, George Fisher and wife conveyed to 


John Swar, of Lancaster county, that portion of "a certain tract of two 
hundred and twenty acres, on which the town of Portsmouth is laid J^ 
off." John Swar and Anna, his wife, deeded the lots to other parties, 
at different times. (Part of them back to George Fisher, as appears 
from deeds now in my possession.) 

On March 3rd, 1857, Portsmouth then having a population of seven 
hundred and fifty, was consolidated with Middletown. 


In the "Square" was held the annual fair (alluded to in No. 4). 
These fairs were great commercial marts ; the country was sparsely 
settled, there were no railroads or canals, and but few turnpikes, conse- 
quently the news from the outside world came in driblets, and the social 
intercourse of the inhabitants, particularly that of the female portion 
thereof, was limited to their own immediate neighborhood. (Although 
a neighborhood included a much wider radius then than what we con- 
sider such now, and the uncorseted maids and matrons of that day 
thought little of riding fifteen or twenty miles on horseback to make a 
call ; while the male portion of the community — spite of indulgences 
which would cause a modern cold water apostle unspeakable anguish 
— footed greater distances.) 

So the coming of the annual fair was hailed with delight by old and 
young, and the "yearly market" for this whole section being held in 
Middletown, to it, in carryall and wagon, on horseback and on foot, the 
crowds came trooping from the surrounding country, and from towns 
as far distant as Carlisle, Reading, Lancaster and York. 

The "Square" was the center of attraction, but the adjacent lots in the 
vicinity, and the neighboring streets, were also filled. Here came the 
drovers with horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, &c. ; the dealers in all kinds of 
wares ; the showmen with inchoate and peripatetic menageries, cir- 
cuses, theatres, &c. There were eating booths and drinking booths, 
dancing booths and gambling booths. There were English, Dutch, 
French, Scotch-Irish, and Yankees ; Indians from the forests, and Af- 
rican slaves from the adjoining plantations ; there were farmers in 
smocks and sundowns, wagoners in blouses and caps ; and traders in 
brass-buttoned swallow-tails and bell-crowned beavers ; ithere were 
children in pinafores and round-a-bouts ; women in shortwaisted home- 
spun frocks and simple wimples, and other women in shortwaisted silk 
gowns, and Leghorn coal-scuttles. Some of the crowd were engaged 
in trading, some in swindling, and most of them in murdering the Eng- 
lish language. They were scenes of fun and frolic, noise and bustle, 
turmoil and carousal. The advent of canals and railroads, with the re- 
sulting facilities of intercommunication, caused these fairs to be gradu- 
ally discontinued. 

Citizens' Bank. 

THE riEV^^ '^-uRK 

ASTOR, le: : 



The brick building at the northeast corner of the Square and Main 
street — belonging to ]\Irs. Oberland, she willed it to her sister Mrs. 
Gilliard, mother of the late John and Jacob Benner. In 1807 John 
Landis kept store on this spot. 

East of the Square, north side of Main street (in the building re- 
cently remodeled by Dr. Mish) Hood and Thompson kept store. They 
were succeeded by Ross, he by McNair & Hicks, and they by McNair & 

Old Middletown Bank. — This stone building was built by Ephraim 
Heller for his residence. He was inspector of liquors, and justice of 
the peace. 

In the log house which once stood next door east of the bank, Ephraim 
Heller kept store. The brick building now occupying its site, was built 
by Simon Cameron, and here his son Simon and his daughters Margaret 
(now Mrs. Haldeman) and Virginia (now Mrs. McVey) were born. 

C. F. Beard. — (Main street, north side, opposite.) This building was 
once occupied by the Swatara Bank. The following is an account of 
its organization : 

Swatara Bank. 

''At a large and respectable meeting of the inhabitants of Middle- 
town and the adjoining neighborhood, in the county of Dauphin, the 
19th day of November, 181 3, convened to take into consideration the 
propriety of establishing a bank in said town. James Hamilton was 
appointed chairman and Elisha Green secretary. 

"The meeting fully sensible of the result of a disposable capital, com- 
bined with the many advantages afforded by the junction of the Swatara 
with the Susquehanna, at the now contemplated town of Portsmouth, 
where a large proportion of the immense produce of the country up 
the Susquehanna is offered for sale, confidently believe that the estab- 
lishment of a bank here, will not only greatly promote the commercial 
prosperity of Pennsylvania and industrious and enterprising farmers, 
mechanics, and manufacturers, but will contribute much to the improve- 
ment of the navigation of the river, and to the advancement of the canal 
and lock navigation of the State. 

"Therefore Resolved, that a bank be established at Middletown afore- 
said, with a capital of $250,000, divided into shares of $50 each, to be 
conducted by the president and twelve directors, and to be styled the 
Bank of Swatara. 

"Resolved, that the books be opened at Middletown, on Tuesday, the 
T4th day of December next, by Jacob Snyder and Elisha Greene, at the 
house of John McCammon, for the subscription of fifteen hundred 
shares ; at Hummelstown, on the same day by Christian Spayd and 
Thomas Fox, at John Fox's for five hundred shares ; at Lebanon, in 
the county of Lebanon, on the same day, by William Allison and Abra- 
ham Doebler, at the house of Abraham Doebler, for five hundred 
shares ; at Lancaster, the same day, by James Hamilton and James 


Humes, at the house of John Duchman, for one thousand shares; at 
Elizabethtown, the same day, by John McCammon and Jacob Gish, for 
five hundred shares ; at Manheim, the same day, by Ephraim Heller 

and Wendle Shelley, at the house of , for five hundred 

shares ; at Millerstown, in the county of Lebanon, the same day, by 
William Lowman and Joseph Wallace, at the house of Christian Capel, 
for five hundred shares. 

"Resolved, that five dollars be paid to the commissioners for each and 
every share of stock at the time of subscription. 

"Resolved, that James Hamilton, William Allison, E. Heller, and E. 
Greene, be a committee to draft a constitution for the said bank, which 
shall be printed and submitted to the stock holders at the time of sub- 

"Resolved, that these resolutions be signed by the chairman and sec- 
retary, and be published in the English and German newspapers in the 
counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, and Lancaster." 

The bank was chartered by the Legislature early in 1814, with a capi- 
tal of $400,000, divided into 8,000 shares at $50 each. $100,000 was 
paid up, and Thomas R. Buchanan, George Bower, Isaac W. Van Leer, 
Henry Berry, George Fisher (Harrisburg), John Shelley (London- 
derry), James Wilson (Derry), Jacob Hershey (Derry), James Hamil- 
ton, Christian Spayd, Elisha Greene, Ephraim Heller and William Low- 
man, appointed to receive subscriptions to the stock. The amount was 
subscribed and the bank organized with James Hamilton as president 
and John Neilson cashier. 

Shortly after commencing business the institution was robbed of 
forty thousand dollars in unsigned notes. The thief, a man named 
Rennock, was caught at Myerstown, Lebanon county, and the money 
recovered. Rennock was convicted and sentenced to a lengthy impris- 
onment in the penitentiary. 

After several years' successful business the bank discontinued opera- 
tions, and its affairs were wound up by Mr. Neilson, who afterward 
became cashier of the State Treasury. 


The brick dwelling (north side of Main, east of Beard's) was erected 
by George Beidler (afterwards the first United States postmaster at 
Guthrie, on the opening of Oklahoma Territory), on the site of a log 
house, occupied about one hundred years ago by John Metzger, a sad- 
dler and harnessmaker. His son Jonas resided next door, in a log build- 
ing since torn down. 

William A. Croll's (next east of Beidler's). — In this building resided 
Christian Spayd. He was principal of the Frey estate, a justice of the 
peace and for four years postmaster. 


The Post Office. 

This institution was not carried on with the exactitude and system 
which now prevails. There were no postage stamps, postal cards, or 
stamped envelopes. — There zvere no eywelopes — the letter was folded 
the address written on the outside of the same sheet, and it was fastened 
with a wafer, or sealing wax. The postage was regulated by the dis- 
tance a letter had to go, and could be prepaid or not, at the option of 
the sender. Six, twelve, eighteen and twenty-five cents on single letters 
were common rates. There was no money-order system. The letters 
were not classified, but thrown promiscuously into the mail bag, and 
each postmaster had to hunt for those belonging to his particular office. 

The Middletown post office was established in October, 1800. 
The first postmaster was William Crabb. He was succeeded in 1801 by 
Peter Thurston. In the spring of 1803, John McCammon was appointed. 
He held the office about twenty-seven years, and was succeeded in 
December, 1829, by William Lauman, and his widow, Elizabeth Lau- 
man succeeded him in December, 1832. In June, 1834, Elizabeth Crabb 
took the office. In April, 1836, Christian Spayd was appointed. He 
was succeeded by Edward S. Kendig in March, 1840. In June, 1841, 
John Hicks was appointed. In January, 1845, Edward S. Kendig; in 
February, 1849, Catharine A. Stouch ; in May, 1857, Maria L. Lauman; 
in April, 1861, Walter H. Kendig; on April 19th, 1863, John J. Wal- 
born; April, 1866, Jackson H. Kirlin ; March, 1867, Clara Monaghan 
(did not qualify) ; April, 1867, Rachel McKibbon ; in April, 1883, Mrs. 
McKibbon (who had held office from the time it became a Presidential 
one) resigned and Miss Eveline Wiestling was appointed; October 
22nd, 1895, Israel K. Deckard succeeded her; September 8th, 1900, 
Edward K. Demmy, the present incumbent, was appointed. 

In 1850 Portsmouth, then a separate town, petitioned for a post office, 
the petition was granted, and Dr. John Ringland was appointed ; in 
October, 1851, he resigned and F. H. Neiman was appointed. He was 
succeeded by his sister, S. E. Neiman. She held the office until April, 
1857, when Portsmouth being included in the borough of Middletown, 
the office was abolished. 

To return to W. A. Croll's residence. This stone house was built by 
George Everhart (Frey) ; here he kept a store and tavern. His clerk, 
Christoph Frederick Oberlander, who afterwards became his partner, 
died October, 1795, and is buried in the old (first) Lutheran graveyard. 
In this building, March 3d, 1768, a man named Henry Cowan had a 
quarrel with a negro, a slave of Colonel Burd's ; he pursued him to the 
Colonel's residence, and in the affray which followed was killed. On 
the 6th of March an inquest was held in Frey's house by the coroner of 
Lancaster county, Mathias Slough. The members of the jury were 
Richard McClure, Henry Renick, Thomas McCord, William Dickey, 
John Steel, John Bachentose, Conrad Wolfley, John Steel, Sr., William 
Kerr, John Duncan, Thomas McArthur, Joseph Cook, John Myers and 



John Laird. The negro was convicted of murder, imprisoned, and af- 
terward sold out of the Province. Several of the members of this jury 
became officers of the Pennsylvania Line during the Revolution. 

In the residence of the late Dr. A. N. Brenneman lived Dr. Mercer 


Among the earliest physicians here were Dr. Romer, who located 
before 1770. Dr. John Fisher (son of George Fisher, the founder of 
IMiddletown), born November 3d, 1766, died February 27th, 1797. 
Dr. Charles Fisher, who was born September 8, 1766, and died May 
8th, 1808. Dr. James McCammon began practicing at the beginning 
of the century, having been born in 1788, and died November 7, 1813. 
Contemporaneous with him was Dr. Abraham Price. He was born 
April 27, 1787, and died April 3d, 182 1. A little later was Dr. Abra- 
ham McClelland, who died October 20th, 1828, aged thirty-seven years. 
Dr. Mercer Brown, long in practice, was born February 22, 1795, and 
died February 9th, 1871. Dr. Benjamin Weistling, over forty years in 
continuous practice, was born September i6th, 1805, and died July 
31st, 1883. Dr. Meyrick practiced from about 1795 to 1815, and Dr. 
Simonton read medicine with him. Dr. John Ringland, born January 
29th, 1825, practiced twenty-four years, when owing to a bodily in- 
firmity he was obliged to retire. He died April 17th, 1899. Contem- 
porary with him were Dr. Theodore C. Laverty and Dr. William H. 
Beane. The former was born May 12th, 1831, practiced forty-six years, 
and died August 14th, 1900. The latter was born June 25th, 1837, 
practiced thirty years, and died November 7th, 1899. Dr. Charles E. 
Pease was born May 9th, 1857, and died September 13th, 1904. Dr. 
John H. Myers was born May 14th, 1872, died April 20th, 1901. 

The next house east of Dr. Brenneman's is the residence of the late 
Adolphus Fisher; his father, Dr. Charles Fisher, bought this property 
of John Eshleman in 1802, and Hved in it until his death. 

The late AVilliam M. Lauman's (southwest corner ]\Iain and Pine 
streets) belonged to Mr. Rife, father of Abraham Rife, and was sold 
by him to George Rgmley. Here the late Dr. Benjamin Weistling once 

The Nisley property (northwest corner of Main and Pine streets) 
was then a log house but longer than the present brick building. It 
was owned by Mrs. Crabb, who Hved in the lower part; in the upper 
end the two Misses Job resided, and taught school from 181 5 to 1828. 
They were elderly ladies at this time, and daughters of Adam Job. His 
father, Jacob Job, was one of the oldest settlers in this neighborhood, 
his land warrant being dated in 1742. 

One of their scholars says of them: "The alphabet, spelling, and 
reading short sentences were all they professed to teach ; a majority of 
the children were sent to keep them out of mischief. It was their in- 
variable rule to wash the faces and comb the heads of those who came 


in what they did not consider proper trim, and it was with no gentle 
hand that these operations were performed. They were strict Presby- 
terians, and when the Rev. Mr. Sharon, who ministered to the neigh- 
boring churches of Derry and Paxton, paid them a pastoral visit during 
school hours he would always address the scholars and afterwards pray. 
He was provided with a pillow to kneel on, while we had the bare floor ; 
as his petitions were generally rather long, we were glad when he fin- 
ished, particularly so because school would then be dismissed, in order 
that some refreshment might be provided for him." The old ladies lie 
side by side in the abandoned graveyard on High street near Union. 

Of the other pedagogues of this time, the same gentleman I quoted 
says : "The Rev. John F. Hay was a first-class teacher, and to him 
the larger children were sent. He was very strict in enforcing his 
rules, and in requiring perfect lessons. Mr. Jacob Wilson was a man 
of good common sense, but not much education ; he had, however, a 
wonderful knack in bringing on the pupils as far as he undertook to 
teach. i\Iany of his scholars were young men and women, but he was 
no respecter of persons, and I have seen him flog young men taller 
than himself. He earned the title of 'Bully Wilson' among his 
scholars, yet was a kind man withal, and if we were well-behaved and 
had perfect lessons, we never had any trouble. About the same time 
a Mr. Samuel Dennis, a New England man, a graduate of Yale college, 
kept school in the basement of the old Bethel church. He was an ex- 
cellent teacher and instructed the pupils in the higher branches of 
mathematics, Latin, Greek, &c. The trustees afterwards allowed him 
the use of the school house on Pine street, displacing a Mr. Mendenhall, 
but the supporters of the latter one day entered the building, and after 
forcibly removing Mr. Dennis, reinstalled Mendenhall. Upon this Mr. 
Dennis left town in disgust." 

A Mrs. W^ard was the first school teacher here that we have any 
record of. Jacob Peeler, a nailmaker, taught school in 1808 and '09, 
during the winter months. 

"There were no free schools, and teaching was different from what 
it is now. The teacher sometimes provided his own schoolroom, bought 
his own fuel, made his own fires and kept the room in order. A quar- 
ter's schooling consisted of thirteen weeks, and no week was complete 
unless we made five days and a half. If we missed the half day on Sat- 
urday, we had a full day the next Saturday. There were no steel pens 
at that time and no printed copy books ; the teacher made all the pens 
from goose quills and 'set copies' after school hours. For all this he 
received from $1.50 to $2.00 a quarter for each scholar. Those who 
were too poor to pay for the education of their children, the county 
made provision for, and the teacher was obliged to go to the county 
seat to get his pay from the commissioners." 


When the school law was passed in 1834, Middletown was one of the 
first places to adopt it. The first directors were Dr. Mercer Brown, 
president; John Croll, secretary; Christian Spayd, treasurer; John 
Romberger, E. J. Ramsey and Peter Kob. John Ross was appointed 
a delegate to represent the district in the joint meeting of the commis- 
sioners at the court house in Harrisburg, on the first Tuesday of No- 
vember of that year. He was instructed to vote for the laying of a 
tax for the support of the common schools. There was very little op- 
position to this school law. Among the most active in its favor were 
Gen. Simon Cameron, Henry Smith, George Smuller, John Bomberger 
and Martin Kendig; the latter representing the county in the Legisla- 
ture during the Buckshot War. In 1835 Michael Lazarus was elected to 
represent the district in convention at the county commissioners' office, 
with instructions to vote for levying a tax. and such other measures as 
might be necessary for carrying into effect a general system of educa- 

The propertv on the southeast corner of ]\Iain and Pine streets be- 
longed to Joseph Brestle.^ 

The Farmers' Hotel (northeast corner Main and Pine streets), now 
kept by Martin Snyder, was the Black Horse Tavern, owned by David 
Kiseker.2 It was a favorite stopping place for teamsters. 

Next door, east of Snyder's, vv^as Thomas Dunham's tin shop. 

About where S. L. Yetter's insurance office stands was then Rem- 
ley's blacksmith shop. 

Where Miss Meesy's brick house is (north side of Main street), 
there stood a two-story log tavern, the "Pennsylvania House," of which 
Martin Kendig was landlord. From its porch in 1836 General Harri- 
son in response to an address of welcome delivered by George Fisher, 
Esq., made a short speech to those assembled to greet him. It after- 
wards belonged to John McCammon^ and was kept successively by 

Carlisle, Henry Chesny and Christian Caslow. In this building 

The Middletovjn Argus, the first newspaper printed here, was estab- 
lished by Mr. Wilson in 1834. He did the editorial work and his wife 
helped set type. It was discontinued in 1835. Here also George Rod- 
fong carried on cabinet making, and Henry Schreiner had a saddler's 

In the property of the late John Heistand, John Shuler had a tailor 

In Frank Fisher's property George L. McClure* lived. 

^ Uncle Joseph Brestle. 
^ Mrs. Maria McCord's father. 

^Mrs. R. McKibben's father. It was at Mr. McCammon's hotel, (N. W. cor. 
of the square) that the }vlarquis de Lafayette took dinner in 1825. 
* Father of William McClure, Esq. 


Where Eby's brick residence is (south side Main street, nearly oppo- 
site Aliss Meesey's), ]\Iichael Heikel liven and had a butcher shop back. 

S. L. Yetter's was owned by Parthemore. Here James Ringland' 
kept a store. 

At Ashenfelter's, Wolf had a wagon-making shop. 

On the late Samuel Singer's lot, in a one-story log house, was Robert 
Henry's (afterwards Matthew ]\IcClure's) coppersmith and tin shop. 

In the Singer residence John Snyder lived. 

G. W. Baker's — Daniel Ehrisman — 'Squire Heller had lived here be- 
fore him. 

S. S. Selser's property (southw^est corner Spruce and Main), John 
Myers® kept a butcher shop.' 

Where Daniel Sweigart's residence now stands was then a garden. 
Here on certain nights of the year the shade of a woman in w^hite, who 
was said to have died of a broken heart, walked. There was also a 
man without a head, who had a habit of walking after dark along the 
run where Spruce street now is. 

Kleindopf's (next east), Valentine Weirick lived. He had been a 
soldier of the Revolution and was then watchman at the Swatara Bank. 
This then was a one-story house ; afterwards Mrs. Bombaugh lived 
here, her adopted daughter Eliza Bell'* married DeWitt, who raised it 
to two stories, and put up the back building. 

The late Joseph Brestle's property, (southeast corner Main and 
Spruce), was then an open lot, the next house (east) was owned by 
Peter (brother of Jacob) Schneider, and a man named Smith kept 
tavern here. It subsequently became the residence of the Rev. Mr. Sei- 
bert (German Reformed), and then of Mrs. Eshenower.^ 

John Keener's house, lately torn down, was owned by Adam Hem- 
perly, who lived there. The Schneider property adjoined Keener's lot. 

The Deckard property (east of Kleindopf's) George Selser^" resided 
and carried on nailmaking. He had a small sawmill near the "sluice" 
on the race, and was the first to manufacture sawed plastering lath here. 


In the Hendrickson property Mr. Remley lived ; after him Michael 

At Brandt's (north side Main, east of Deckard's), Mrs. Flanigan re- 
sided. Afterwards Dr. Redfield's widow (Ezra J. Ramsey's sister) lived 
here and tausfht school. 

^ Dr. John Ringland's and Mrs. S. L. Yetter's father. 

" Mrs. Farrington's father. 

' The same shop had been owned by his father. 

" Sister of Mrs. Geo. Lauman. 

' Aunt to Christian King and Mrs. Jacob Benner. 

^^ Father of Samuel Selser, Sr. 


Where Mrs. Barnitz's brick residence it, was a one-story log house. 
Here Mrs. Shuster (a sister of Christian Spayd's) and her sister, Mrs. 
McMurtrie^ Hved. The next house above was Mrs. Shuster's son's (af- 
terwards Christian Alleman's) blacksmith shop. Back of this was David 
McA-Iurtrie's butcher shop. 

At William Starry 's lived John Remley, a chairmaker. He married 
Mrs. McClure.- 

At Christian Hoffer's (south side Main street) lived Adam Toot. 
After him Henry Leham occupied the house and at the back end of the 
lot (on Water street) had a cooper shop. 

Hoffman's (east of Starry's, north side of Main street), lived Kauff- 
man's. In the upper end Joshua Heppich^ had a shoemaker's shop and 

Roop's (south side Main street, north of Hoffer's), Jacob Strouse 
lived and carried on cabinet making. 

John S. Roop's property (southwest corner Race and Main streets) 
was occupied by Hemperly, a nurseryman, who had a nursery near the 
race ground. 

In the Hemperly building (northwest corner Race and Main streets) 
Rachael Marker lived at the lower end; at the upper Simon Zurger, a 
stonecutter, had his shop. After him it was occupied by Joseph Martin. 

Hatz's (southeast corner Race and Main streets), Martin Kendig 
built and kept tavern. It was owned afterwards by David McKibben. 

At the late Lewis Hemperly 's residence (northeast corner Race and 
Main streets), Peter Kob kept the "Jackson House" and had a butcher 
shop back. 

Where the late Mrs. Longenecker lived (next Hemperly's) was a 
yard, in the next house lived Burnheiter's ; afterward Philip Blatten- 

In the late S. Selser, Sr.'s, residence John Conrad lived. It belonged 
to George Lauman.* 

In the CroU property nearly opposite was Isaac Gibson, an auctioneer. 
Here afterwards Alex. Black kept the "Cross-Keys" tavern. 

Aungst's (southeast corner Vine and Main streets), Conrad Sea- 
baugh° lived and had a cooper shop back.® This property was after- 
wards owned by the late Samuel Keller.'^ (He and his brother Sebastian 
were first cousins to Simon Cameron.) 

West Main Street: Mr. Bander's stone house (north side Main, west 

^ Miss Ellen McMurtrie's grandmother. 

^Her daughter Martha married Benjamin Eby, brother of Jacob Eby, (Harris- 
burg) and Ephraim Eby (Phila.). 
^ John Heppich's father. 

* Prof. George Fisher's grandfather. 
' Brother of Mrs. Gilliard. 

* Mrs. Benner, mother of John & Jacob, was a sister of Seabaugh's. 

■^ Their mothers were sisters. Martin Kendig married Sarah Seabaugh, one of 
his daughters. 


of Joseph Nisley's), John Stnbbs Hved. afterwards George Lowman. 

In the old Bethel parsonage (south side, opposite J. Nislev's), Thomas 
Elliot^ lived. 

The old brick building now occupied as a public school house (south 
side ]\Iain, west of parsonage), was built by Elisha Greene. He resided 
here and kept store ; was a justice of the peace. It was afterwards 
Joseph Ross' drygoods store. Joseph Ross was the father of Christian 
K. Ross, who was born here. In this connection it may not be amiss to 
give a slight synopsis of a pathetic story. 

Charley Ross. 

Christian K. Ross resided in Germantown, a suburb and part of Phil- 
adelphia. On July 1st, 1874, his son, Charles Brewster Ross, was ab- 
ducted by two men who soon after commenced correspondence with Mr. 
Ross, demanding $20,000 for his return. Every means, save that of 
compounding with the kidnappers, was tried to recover him. Citizens 
of Philadelphia offered $20,000 reward for the child stealers ; $5,000 
w-as offered for Charley ; immense numbers of photographs and de- 
scriptions of the missing child were scattered broadcast over the land; 
the press in the United States and abroad advertised him ; many in re- 
mote cjuarters of the world became interested in the case ; police, detec- 
tives and citizens everywhere were on the alert ; money was lavished in 
the search, but all without avail. 

December 14th, 1874, William Mosher and Joseph Dauglass were 
shot while committing a burglary on Long Island and one of them lived 
long enough to reveal the fact that they were the abductors, but gave 
no clue to his whereabouts. No trace of the missing child has ever been 

(His father's description of him is here given.) "Charley was born 
May 4th, 1870, and was about four years and two months old when 
he was stolen. His body and limbs were straight and well formed ; his 
face round and full ; his chin small, with a noticeable dimple ; his hands 
very regular and prettily dimpled ; small well formed neck ; broad, full 
forehead ; bright, dark brown eyes, with considerable fullness over 
them ; clear, white skin ; healthy complexion ; light flaxen hair of a 
silky texture, easily curled in ringlets when extending to the neck ; hair 
darker at the roots, a slight cowlick on the left side when it was parted ; 
very light eyebrows. He talked plainly, but was shy and retiring, and 
had a habit of putting his arm up to his eyes when approached by stran- 
gers. He had no marks upon his person except those of vaccination. 
He had a good constitution, and when taken away was full of flesh and 
in good health — never having been sick after he was six months old." 

Harry Ettele's (south side Main, west of Ross building), was a one- 
story log house. Mrs. Heppich" lived here. 

' Dr. Brenneman's wife's father. 
° John Heppich's grandmother. 


Gingerich's (north side Main, west of Stehman's), John Snyder 

In the Leiby property (where John Few resides, northeast corner 
Spring and Main), WilHam Lowman, a hatter, lived.- He kept the stage 
office and postoffice, succeeding Mr. McCammon. His son, William 
(who was a merchant in Philadelphia), donated the bell to the new 
Lutheran church, corner Spring and Union streets, and willed $i,ooo 
for the purchase of an organ. He also left property valued at $10,000, 
the returns from which were to be used in keeping the old Lutheran 
church (northwest corner Union and High streets) in repair. Owing 
to some legal technicality, these bequests have never been realized by the 
church. On this site afterwards was Ettele's^^ hat shop. 

Where the W^iestling residence is (north side Main, west of Ging- 
erich's), old Air. McCammon lived. 

East of Mrs. Flora Saul's property (southeast corner Main and Spring 
streets), on the same lot, was a building owned by a German, Joseph 
Sneegontz. On this corner was afterwards a blacksmith shop,^' carried 
on by Joseph Laubach and Jos. Campbell. ^^ 

Beck's (southwest corner Spring and Main streets), George Croll 
lived and had a cabinet maker's shop. 

The next house (west on Main street) was occupied by John Suave- 
ly 's father, a tailor. 

The late Michael Lauman's residence (northwest corner Main and 
Spring streets) and adjoining lot were left to his father by his grand- 
mother, Mrs. Michael Conrad.^* Here stood two log houses which were 
burned in 1855 ; in the one occupied by Henry Stehman,^^ at that time 
burgess, the records of the borough were destroyed. 

Misses Croll's (west of M. Lauman's) : Here Abner Croll lived. In 
the first house across the run. north side Main and west of Spring, John 
Croll lived. He built the house where the Misses Croll now reside. He 
and Abner CrolP*' were partners in the tannery, which was situated be- 
tween the two houses spoken of. 

Where George Ettele's residence is (south side Main, near the run), 
James Crawford,^'^ a stonemason and bricklayer lived, after him Chris- 
tian Siple,^^ a gunsmith. 

In the late George Barnitz's residence (south side Main street), Chris- 
tian Lawrence lived. 

" Joseph Campbell's grandfather. 
" Father of George and Harry Ettele. 
" Here Michael Lauman learned his trade. 
'^Joseph Campbell's father. 
" Prof. George Fisher's great-grandmother. 
" Father of D. W. & H. C. Stehman. 

^® John Croll, Henry Croll and Abner Croll were brothers, Abner Croll was 
William A. Croll, Esq's, father. 
" Dr. John Ringland's uncle. 
^* Henry Siple, Sr's. father and William and Henry Siple's grandfather. 


The next house, west of Barnitz's, near the run. was a stone one. and 
was first used as a stillhouse, afterwards John Dennis, a weaver, had a 
shop and lived there. 

On the north side of Main street, west of John Croll's, Emanuel Boil- 
ing, an old soldier of the Revolution, lived. When he first came here 
there were but four persons buried in the old (first) Lutheran cemetery 
(southeast corner High and Pine streets). He is supposed to have built 
the old tannery (faint traces of which still exist near Rife's tanyard), 
before Croll commenced. 

Near the Christ residence was old ]\Ir. McCammon's orchard. Here 
John Jemison. a poor Irishman, lived in a shant}' which Mr. McCam- 
mon erected for him. He afterwards went to Indiana, and Neddy Lum, 
a colored man, who had been a servant to Col. Tom Jordan,^** succeeded 

Opposite the American Tube and Iron Company's works (north side 
Main street) was the old Wolfley farm. Here there was another tan- 
nery owned by Jacob Wolfley.-'* 

Joseph Heister, afterwards Governor of Pennsylvania, had several 
hundred acres in this vicinity. He owned the Bomberger farm and the 
"Oak Lane'' farm. One of his heirs (J. Murray Rush, of Philadelphia) 
sold them to subsequent owners. 


On Water street there were but few houses. On the northwest cor- 
ner of Spruce and Water stands the United Brethren Church. 

Where Prof. H. B. Carver's residence is (north side Water, west of 
Spruce), Jacob Albert lived and had a weaver shop. 

At the late James Keener's (south side of Water), stood an old log 
house occupied by Samuel Freeman. 

Where Scott Hemperley's house stands (northwest corner Water and 
Pine streets), John Bomberger^ (Jacob E. Bomberger, the late Harris- 
burg banker's father), lived. On the southeast corner of the same 
streets he had his wagonmaker's shop. 

At John Parthemore's (south side of Water between Spruce and Pine 
streets), John Starr's grandfather lived. 

Where the late Jacob Landis lived (Pine street north of Water), Wil- 
liam Wandlass, a Scotchman, once lived. He was the first cooper in 
town, opening a shop here in 1769. (With him Conrad Seabaugh learned 
his trade.) At the northeast corner of Water and Pine streets, where 
the brick house stands, was an old cellar where he soaked his poles. 

Next (east side of Pine street, north of Landis') lived a family named 
Snyder. Here afterwards resided Aunt Sallie Freeman. 

'" A brother of Edward Jordan. 

'"Mrs. Rachael McKibben's uncle. 

^ He was Mrs. Magdalene Ringland's father and John Heppich's uncle. 


On the west side of Pine street, where the North ward brick school 
house stands was a Httle low log building then used for school purposes ; 
on one side \vas a small gallery, approached by a narrow stairs ; here re- 
fractory scholars were compelled to sit. 

North side of the school house, in the building now the property of 
Mrs. A.-Ackerman, lived Rev. John F. Hay the school teacher. He was 
afterwards the founder of Cottage Hill Seminary, at York, Pa. 

In Miss Ida Evans' property (the frame building north of F. Myers' 
brick residence), Mrs. Esther Lauman,^ George and William Lauman's 
mother, lived. 

On Water street west of Hemperley's stood a small house wherein 
dwelt Mrs. Patty Allen. Afterwards Anna Marshall lived here and 
kept a candy shop, well patronized by the school children. 

Where John Peters resides (north side of Water, west of Hemper- 
ley's) there lived an old colored man named Major Fetterman. 

Kline's (northeast corner Water and Union), George Etter^ built and 
lived in. 

Mrs. Connelly's residence (northwest corner Water and Union), 
John Pricer, a shoemaker, built and lived in. PhiHp Irwin, George and 
William Lauman, Henry Techtmoyer and others learned their trade 
with him. 

Mr. Pricer (who although an excellent man and a good workman, 
had an irrascible temper) owned a black muley cow. One day Abe Sim- 
cox, one of his apprentices, procuring a couple of horns at a neighboring 
tannery, affixed them neatly to muley's head in the place where the 
horns ought to grow ; then with the aid of a bucket of whitewash, he 
painted several spots on her. Pricer coming into the stable at dusk and 
seeing a strange cow there, attempted to put her out. She resisted and 
he grasped her by the horns, which being unprepared to resist such a 
strain, tore loose. Horrified he dashed them down and rushed into the 
shop. "Abe, whose cow is that in the stable?" "Why ours, ain't it?" 
replied Abe, looking up in innocent surprise. "No it ain't ours by a good 
deal !" shouted Pricer, "it's a strange cow, and what's more, I've gone 
and pulled the horns off her !" The burst of laughter which greeted this 
remark showed Pricer that he had been imposed on, and it is reported 
that Abe used a cushion on his workbench for several days afterwards. 

Dr. J. Ruhl's (southwest corner Water and Union streets), was also 
built by John Pricer. Here David McKibben"* lived. Mr. McKibben 
had a large warehouse where Condriet's sawmill afterwards stood. Af- 
ter the railroads had, to a great extent, destroyed the grain commission 
business, he converted it into a planing mill and was the first person in 
town to use the steam engine for manufacturing purposes. This mill 
was afterwards turned into a sawmill and was destroyed by fire in 1846. 

^ Abner Lauman's grandmother. 

^ Washington Etter's father. 

* Mrs. Rachel McKibben's husband. 


In the low building once standing on the north side of Water street 
near the Bethel church, Elisha Green had a cooper shop. Afterwards 
it was Isaac Simcox's tailor shop. 

Where the Bethel church now stands (northeast corner Spring and 
Water streets), Burgoyne lived. He was one of the oldest settlers and 
owned the tannery, afterward owned by Daniel Dowdel ; purchased in 
1830 by Jacob Rife, Sr., and now owned by the Rife Brothers. 

High Street: On the west side of Pine street, above High, John Blat- 
tenberger had a rope walk. 

Old Lutheran parsonage (north side High, between Pine and Union). 
This was then a log structure ; there was a Lutheran school in one end 
and Philips, the organist lived in the other. (The first organist in the 
Lutheran church was INlichael Conrad.^) After Philips, Jacob Wilson 
lived in the upper end and taught in the lower. 

In Kleindopf's (north side High, west of the parsonage), Monaghan,* 
a tailor, lived. 

In the house next, east of the Coleman property, (south side High 
street) lived John Schlich. 

In the Keever residence (northeast corner Spring and High streets), 
James McBride lived; afterwards the widow, Mary Jontz, resided here; 
she married William Peck and moved to Wayne county, Ohio. 

The late Mrs. Bretz's residence (north side High, east of Keever's), 
Jacob Bomberger" built for Jacob Erb ; he afterwards lived here him- 

Where the Wood property is (southwest corner Spring and High 
streets), Elberti carried on tailoring; it was afterwards owned by Mar- 
tin Peck. Northwest of Demmy's stood a hay shed owned by Philip 

Spring Street: At the north end of this street (above High) stood 
a hay shed owned by John McCammon, used to store away hay to supply 
the stage horses. 

Where the residence of William Carr now stands was a log house 
belonging to Philip Ettele. In a log house opposite George Critson, a 
shoemaker, lived. 

The late Frank Swartz's property (east side Spring, south of Main) 
was owned by Mrs. Blattenberger. 

Walter Fortney's property (west side Spring, south of Main). Where 
this residence is there then stood George Gross' large barn. South of 
this Youngblood's lived. 

The property occupied by the late Dr. Robert Long^ (west side Spring 
south of Main), Joshua Heppich sold to Richard McGlennan, who after- 
wards had a shoe shop here. 

^ Michael Lauman's grandfather. 
*John Monaghan's grandfather. 
' Mrs. Jacob Rife, Sr's. father. 
* Here John Heppich was born. 


In the Barr residence (east side Spring, south of Main) Henry Siple,' 
St., hved. 

Mrs. M. Myers' residence was Leonard Alleman's cooper shop ; af- 
terwards Wolfe's wagonmaker shop. 

Next door north of John Rife's residence (northwest corner Spring 
and Water) was David Rohrer's^° locksmith shop. 

Next north of Rohrer's was Goodyear, ^^ a cabinet maker. 

The house (southwest corner Spring and Water streets), Mrs. Sedg- 
wick built ; here she lived and taught school. 

Mrs. Fralich's residence was owned by F. Murray ; there was a 
tavern here. 

Where H. S. Roth lives (west side Spring, opposite Postoffice ave- 
nue) Jacob Rife, Sr., resided.^^ 

In the Hippie property (east side, south of Water) dwelt John Jem- 

Jacob Ehrisman owned several lots here and lived on this street. 

On the southwest corner Spring and Union, where the new Lutheran 
church now stands, were the grounds of the (2nd) Emaus Orphan 
House. (This latter is now occupied as a residence.) 

Union Street: James Billet's^^ residence at the north end of this 
street was originally the Ebenezer Methodist church edifice. 

The Mish property (southeast corner Union and High streets), orig- 
inallv a Moravian church lot, was then in the possession of a Mr. Ress- 
ler. ' 

Ebersole's (northeast corner Union and High streets) was the resi- 
dence of Mr. Ettele. 

At Balsbaugh's, Mr. Ressler lived; afterwards John Blattenberger. 
On this property was afterwards George Smuller's residence and tailor 

The late John Benner's residence (southwest corner Union and High 
streets) was a vacant lot on which James Campbell had a gun shop. 
During the many years that elapsed between the death of George Fisher, 
the founder of Middletown, and the return of his son, the residence at 
"Pineford" was rented, part of the time to Mr. Benner, the father of 
John and Jacob, and they were born in the old two-story log house (the 
first building in Middletown), which was afterwards torn down by Ed- 
ward Fisher. 

Where John Heppich's residence is (west side Union, south of Ben- 
ner's) was Remley & Peck's blacksmith shop and Thomas Jontz's wagon 
shop. Here afterwards was a weaver shop. It was subsequently occu- 

' Father of Wm. H. Siple, of Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
^" Father of Capt. Jeremiah Rohrer, of Lancaster. 
^^ George Rodfong learned his trade with him. 
'^ Here Mrs. Susan Brady was born. 
" George A. Lauman's mother. 


pied by the new Lutherans, after the split in 1835, as a meeting house 
or church until 1838, when they erected Christ Church. 

Alpheus Long-'s (west side Union, south of Heppich's) ; here John 
Benner had a cooper shop. Before his time it was occupied by Michael 

The late William Lauman's residence (west side Union, south of 
Long's) was owned first by Mrs. Shackey; afterwards occupied as a 
tailor shop by Jacob Shurtz ;^'* Dr. Watson lived here at the same time 
and had an office on the opposite side of the street near Balsbaugh's. 

M. H. Gingerich's, a one-story stone house, stood on this site, occu- 
pied by Jontz, a turner. His principal business was turning out tar- 
buckets for Conestoga wagons. Before him Jacob Hamaker lived here ; 
he built the first canal boat constructed in this town ; it was conveyed 
to the canal by being placed on rollers. 

Abner Croll's butcher shop was then occupied by Peter Myers and 
Henry Croll as a butcher shop. 

North of the late Henry Croll, Sr.'s, residence (northwest corner 
Union and the square) there lived Thomas Allison, a school teacher. 

In G. W. Elberti's residence (west side Union, south of square) his 
father, Lawrence Elberti, lived. 

At Mrs. Harry Hinney's (east side Union, north of Water) James 
Russel lived. 

Mrs. John Cole's residence was James Ringland's residence ;^^ after- 
wards John Jos. Walborn,^" a justice of the peace, lived here. 

The Garret property (west side of LInion, south of square), Stubbs 
built. It was afterwards owned by Mrs. Ramsey, who taught school 
here. This was Simon Cameron's first place of residence in Middle- 
town. , 

Where the Wendling and Wolfe properties stand John McFarland 
had a turner shop ; it was afterwards Fortney's hat shop. 

Baker's residence (west side Union, north of Ringland's Hall) was 
built by Polly Kain. She was a great knitter ; it is said that being sum- 
moned to Harrisburg as a witness, she walked there and back, and knit 
six pairs of the long woolen stockings it was then the fashion to wear, 
while attending the court. 

At T. M. Yost's, William King had a tannery, which he afterwards 
rented to John Wolfley. 

Manning's, James McCord, a chairmaker, lived. 

Miss Annie Kendig's residence, James Hamilton built. He erected a 
stillhouse back of it. He owned several warehouses and built a grist 
mill lately occupied by Israel Deckard. Here, afterwards, Barney Duffy 
kept the "Lamb Tavern ;" he had a bowling alley and a shuffleboard, 
and it was a great place of resort for watermen in the spring, and for 
laborers on the canal while it was building. 

"Jacob Shurtz's grandfather. 

" Here Dr. John Ringland was born. 

" Cornelius Walborn's father. 


J. W. Rewalt's property (northwest corner Spring and Union) was a 
distillery, owned either by Wagner or Stubbs. 

Where the late Seymour Raymond's residence stands (east side Union 
opposite Spring) was a large log house belonging to John Elder/'^ and 
sold by him to John Wolfley. 

The site of Arthur King's and Dr. D. W. C. Laverty s residences 
(south of the new Lutheran church) was a large pond; there was once 
a brickyard here. 

Below Raymond's, where the late Dr. Ringland's residence is, was a 
small log house. There were no houses between this and the canal, and 
on the west side of the street none below Rewalt's. 

In Portsmouth William Rewalt^^ kept a store where Wesley Mc- 
Creary's restaurant now is. 

Wagner's ferry was near where the Pennsylvania Canal lock used to 
be ; during high water this was a rope ferry. The double house, the 
late Washington Etter's^'^ property, was the ferry house. There was 
also a low water ferry at Seagrave's ; on the Port Royal side of this 
ferry was a tavern kept by Mrs. Grote. 

At the outlet lock Mr. Gutterman lived and kept a grocery. 

There was an old brewery at the run near the lock, kept by Mr. Baer. 

Across the canal there was a landing at Dunning's, on the Swatara 

At the period we are writing of the "Red Tavern," owned by Frank 
Murray, stood at the point ; there was another at Mrs. Snyder's ; near 
here was the ''Cross Keys Tavern," kept by Mrs. McFaun. 

On the river above the ferry stood the "Lochman House." 

There were several warehouses standing along the bank of the 
Swatara, above the Pennsylvania Canal, and between it and the outlet 

Where Moyer's cabinet maker's shop formerly was, the first store in 
Portsmouth was kept by James Ringland. In after years Kunkle and 
others kept branch stores here in summer time for accommodation of 
the watermen. Later Captain Hawk converted one of the warehouses 
into a permanent dwelling and store and put his son-in-law, McBarron, 
in as partner, and still later Fisher & Boyd opened a store in the "Red" 
warehouse on the canal basin, where Young's Opera House now stands. 

" Mrs. R. C. McKibben's sister. 

'* John Rewalt's father. 

" A. L. Etter's father. 

Note : — In concluding the series of papers entitled "About a Century ago," we 
wish to return our thanks to those who have furnished the information contained 
therein. We are particularly indebted to William Remly; leaving here at the 
age of twenty-two, and returning after an absence of fifty years, his recollections 
of the home of his boyhood were remarkably vivid. We are also under obligations 
to Mrs. Irvin, Mrs. McKibben, Mrs. Adolphus Fishel, Messrs. Michael Lauman, 
Dr. John Ringland, S. Selser, Sr., and others. In order to secure accuracy the 
papers were submitted as a whole to some thirteen of the older residents of Middle- 
town, all now dead. 

Old For 





George Everhardt (Frey) was born March 3, 1732, in Klatte, in the 
county of Darmstadt, Kingdom of Wirtemberg. According to his con- 
temporaries he came to this country as a redemptioner in 1749, served 
his time and then (see chapter 17) — 

The Emaus Orphan House;. 

This institution was the first of its kind in this country. It owes its 
existence to George Frey, who by will provided for its erection and 
maintenance. The will in substance is as follows : 

He bequeaths all his property, to wit: A grist mill with six acres of 
land on the Swatara, and the right to a mill race through the Fisher es- 
tate; 498:! acres purchased from Blair McClenachan ; 284^ acres pur- 
chased from Andrew McClure, Roan McClure and Jonathan McClure; 
120 acres "contiguous to the town of Middletown ;" four houses in ]\Iid- 
dletown, to wit: One occupied by himself, one by Charles McDowell, 
one by Memucan J. Howell, and one by Michael Hemperly; 120 lots in 
Middletown, 207 acres in Northumberland cotmty; about 300 acres on 
Penn's creek, and all his personal property ; in trust to John Landis, 
merchant ; Dr. Charles Fisher, of Middletown ; Jacob Rife, farmer, of 
Derry township ; John Cassel, of Swatara township, yeoman ; in trust, 
to erect and support an Orphan House, which shall be called "Emaus," 
and provide for the education of as many poor orphan children as the 
rents and profits of the said estate would allow ; excepting a house and 
lot, and such furniture, money, etc., as his wife may need. 

He orders that the trustees, a principal and a tutor, shall be members 
of the institution. That they shall within two years after his death, "at 
furthest" carry his will into effect. 

He directs that if at any time, from any cause, a vacancy should occur 
among these officials, they shall elect a freeholder and resident of Dau- 
phin county to fill such vacancy, a record of which transaction, and the 
cause therefore, shall be kept and laid before the judges of the Court of 
Common Pleas at its next session thereafter, and if said judges disap- 
prove of the board's action, a new election shall take place within one 
month after such decision. 

The Duties of the Trustees. 

They are to examine and verify the accounts of the principal. For 
sufficient cause they may remove him and elect another in his stead. 
Once in two months at least, they shall meet at the Orphan House, 
liquidate the accounts, examine thoroughly into all matters pertaining 
to the agriculture, &c., and suggest any changes of advantage to the 
trust ; for which service they are to receive a specified sum per day. 

They have power, together with the principal, to build or finish the 



Orphan House. They must be economical and yet at the same time pro- 
vide for the comfort of the inmates. If they find the funds inadequate, 
they have power to erect mills, machinery or water works on the race, 
or any other buildings on the lots or farms, that they deem necessary 
or beneficial to the institution, but no part of the estate can be sold ; it 
must remain "undivided forever." 

When the Orphan House is ready, they must receive into it for main- 
tenance and education (free of all expense to the children or their rela- 
tives), all such poor, but healthy orphan children, as are of the age of 
five and under twelve years ; and, if they have sufficient funds, poor 
children whose parents are unable to maintain or educate them. 

The children must be educated in the Lutheran religion, and in the 
German language ; no other language shall be taught. 

The children may remain there — the boys until they are fifteen, and 
the girls fourteen years of age, when they shall each receive a freedom 

The Duties of the Principal. 

He shall have immediate superintendence and management of the 
whole estate ; shall oversee and direct the agricultural concerns thereof, 
subject to the advice of the trustees ; shall keep regular bank accounts 
of all receipts and expenditures, and submit such accounts at least every 
two months, to the inspection of the trustees. 

He shall reside in one of the four houses mentioned, and shall have a 
free table for himself and family furnished out of the proceeds of the 
estate, and a stipulated salary yearly. 

He shall exercise a supervision over the mills and other water works 
erected on the race, and keep an exact account of all receipts and ex- 
penditures relative thereto. 

If his own children labor for the institution, they shall have reason- 
able wages therefor. 

If he has been faithful in office and becomes superannuated in the 
service of the estate, he shall be supported out of the funds of the insti- 
tution, and if he has a son who is equally capable and trustworthy, he 
shall be appointed instead of his father. 

Duties of the Tutor. 

At 6 o'clock in the morning he shall assemble the children in a suitable 
room, sing and pray with them, concluding with the Lord's prayer; 
then exercises in the Christian belief and Lutheran catechism; then 
breakfast ; two hours of school, teaching reading, writing, arithmetic 
and catechism ; at 9 A. M., they shall work in the garden. The officers 
of the institution are instructed to lay off ten acres contiguous to the Or- 
phan House, for that purpose, ''which shall be cultivated principally as a 

A portion of the garden shall be devoted to fruits ; hemp and flax 
shall also be raised ; all for the use of the institution, any surplus to be 


disposed of for the benefit of the same ; at 1 1 A. M., thanksgiving, 
"knee prayers, and belief, as in the morning, shall be repeated." The 
children shall then dine. School for two hours ; then work again in 
the garden ; at 6 P. M., singing, "and ceremonial of the morning shall 
be repeated." "In winter, after supper, the girls about six years old, 
shall be taught to spin. When the children have been taught to read, 
one of the boys shall repeat a chapter out of the Bible." 

An orphan shall not be permitted to leave the institution without leave 
from the tutor, and if stubborn, disobedient or incorrigible, the trustees 
shall bind him (or her) out to a trade. 

The tutor if sending the children on errands, must send two together. 
They must be corrected for lying, bad language, &c. 

When the principal needs help on the farm the tutor shall send as 
many children as he may require to assist him — between school hours. 

When the funds of the institution justify it, weaving shall be intro- 
duced, and the "children shall be clothed in home manufactures — the 
boys in brown — the under garments of the girls shall be linsey wolsey, 
their upper garments of blue striped cotton stuffs ;" the clothing to be 
given annually at Easter. 

A female teacher shall instruct the girls in needlework, knitting and 
spinning. The children must assist in keeping the house in order. 

No books shall be used except those which inculcate good morals and 
sound religious principles. When a child is fourteen years old, it shall 
be confirmed and admitted to the sacrament. 

The tutor must be a married man and reside in the institution, and 
shall have a free table furnished himself and family out of the funds 
of the estate, and a specified salary annually. If he should become su- 
perannuated during his service, he shall be supported during life and an 
allowance made him annually. 

Duties of the Trustees, Principal and Tutor Conjointly. 

They have the power of modifying the mode of instruction, if neces- 
sary, so that they conform to the orthodox belief of the church and the 
method practiced in its schools. 

If any charges are brought against any of said officials they shall be 
examined into, and if the accused is found guilty, he shall be removed 
and another elected in his stead. 

They shall annually submit at the first Court of Quarter Sessions in 
the county, which meets after the first of the year, an itemized statement 
of all the accounts of the estate and institution for the preceding year, 
accompanied by sufficient vouchers. And (if required by the court) a 
statement of the children admitted, maintained and educated; their sex, 
ages, &c. The court is requested to appoint three respectable "mem- 
bers of the grand jury," to examine and settle said accounts. If the 
balance is in favor of the accountants, to be placed to their credit; if 
against them, then go to their debit for the ensuing year. If the trus- 


tees, principal and tutor refuse or neglect to exhibit such accounts, the 
court is to compel them to do so. 

The court is requested to appoint "a respectable freeholder," as a 
visitor to the Orphan House, who shall have the right to inspect all the 
properties belonging to the estate, twice a year, at such times as he shall 
select. He shall give the officials of the estate and institution forty- 
eight hours' notice of his visit, and one of them shall accompany him in 
his tour of inspection, and answer all questions he may propound to him. 
The visitor shall report to the next court, a detailed statement of the re- 
sult of his observations ; and the court may either approve his report, 
or if necessary on account of neglect, or gross violation of duty, sum- 
marily remove any of the officials from office, at its discretion ; such 
vacancies to be filled as before provided. When Middletown shall be 
incorporated as a borough, the power of the court to appoint a visitor 
shall cease, and all said visitor's powers be transferred to the burgess of 
said town, forever. 

If the institution should "fail" on account of the death, emigration or 
removal of officials, or any other cause, the Governor of the State is au- 
thorized to appoint other officers, who shall have all the rights, privi- 
leges, emoluments specified in the will. 

The tract of land in Northumberland county, is directed to be sold, 
and the money arising from such sale to be used for the benefit of the 

Should any future legacy or fund be given to the Emaus Orphan 
House, the name of the donor (if permitted), the amount of donation 
and the time when given, shall be entered in a book kept for that pur- 
pose, and on the anniversary of such donation, the clergyman holding 
service in the institution, shall publicly "mention the circumstances of 
such bounty." 

The trustees shall be respectable freeholders of Dauphin county, and 
regular members of some Protestant church. The principal and tutor 
must be of good moral character, and "regular members of the Evangel- 
ical Lutheran religion." 

John Cassel, yeoman, is appointed principal; and the trustees, prin- 
cipal and tutor, are ordered to petition the Governor and Legislature for 
an act of incorporation, under the title of the Emaus Orphan House. 

A codicil provides that all the real estate owned by him, not otherwise 
mentioned; and all now in litigation (when recovered), shall be sold, 
and the proceeds, together with all the moneys due him (when col- 
lected), placed in the hands of the trustees for the use of the institution. 
John Crabb, Sr., is appointed agent to collect all money due him, for 
which service he is to receive ten pounds out of every hundred he col- 
lects. The said John Crabb is to reside with his (Frey's) family, and 
to have iioo per annum in addition to the percentage above specified, 
during the time he is collecting. He is also allowed to keep a horse, and 
to be allowed his reasonable expenses. 

The German school in Middletown under the control of Frederick 


Miller is to be continued until the Orphan House is completed. 

The will was executed May 12th, 1806, in the presence of John Blat- 
tenberger, Abraham Rife and Charles Brandon, who were all his neigh- 
bors. George Frey died the following day, May 13th, 1806. 

This will was drawn up and written by John Joseph Henry, President 
Judge of Dauphin county, who presided over these courts from 1793 
until about 18 10. It was. as may be judged from the summary, an elab- 
orate document, containing minute and special directions. 

Immediately after his death a suit was brought, on a feigned issue, to 
test the validity of the will. After a sharp contest a verdict was given, 
April 16, 1807, in favor of the will, admitting it to probate, but invali- 
dating the codicil, and so far in favor of the contestants. 

The delay occasioned by this suit would have been a trifling matter 
but for the debt incurred in prosecuting it. The attorneys for the trus- 
tees charged $4,800 for their services. The sum added to other charges, 
made the liabilities of the estate at the end of the first year some $8,000. 
This amount, large as it was, might easily have been paid had a proper 
application of the personal estate been made. The money estate was 
estimated at $27,000 ; to be added to this was $2,666.67 realized by the 
sale of the tract of land in Union county. Of the rest of his personal 
estate there is not any precise statement. The power of his wife over 
that was unlimited, at least her privilege was made to do duty for all her 
real expenditures, and for many other transactions of which she knew 
less than nothing. Much of this was shown in the fierce legal contest 
which followed, and which was continued for quite a quarter of a cen- 
tury. It is obvious, however, that the money arising therefrom, was 
entirely diverted from the institution it was intended for, and instead 
of going into its treasury, was used by the trustees or their agents for 
private purposes. 

So much of the land was sold by distress, to pay debts, prior to the 
accounting of 1829, that its acreage was considerably decreased. Con- 
sidering that Frey was not in debt at his death, the charge of "misman- 
agement and dishonesty in management," is not astonishing. 

Instead of applying the revenues of the estate to the liquidation of the 
debt, and the establishment of the Orphan House, they were squandered. 
Thus the debt not only remained but was increasing. Upon legal pro- 
cesses for the payment of debts, mostly created by the trustees, houses, 
lots and lands were sold prior to 1835, to the amount of $17,683.87. 

The trustees also failed to comply with the requisitions of the will, to 
file an annual account of all receipts and expenditures of the institution 
for presentation to the court of Dauphin county. The first eighteen 
months only, did they file a full account. The receipts for that period 
were $4,882.19 and the expenditures $4,724.47. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the will of Mr. Frey had been tried and 
established on a feigned issue, the children of a deceased brother, en- 


couraged to believe that the will could not be carried into effect and that 
eventually they must recover, ventured a suit to get the estate into their 
possession. Some of these children sold out their claims, and the pur- 
chasers united with those who did not sell, in an ejectment to the August 
term of the court, 1826, more than twenty years after the testator's 
death. Christian Spayd, the principal of the estate, and the defendant in 
the ejectment, was a nephew of George Frey, and claimed one-fourth of 
the estate as his share ; the plaintiffs — and among them \vere some of 
the trustees — claimed three-fourths. It was thus the interest of both 
parties that the plaintiffs should recover, as then each party would re- 
ceive the shares respectively claimed. Owing to this state of things, no 
proper defense was made, and a verdict was rendered for the plaintiffs, 
for three-fourths of the estate. The charge of the court had been in 
favor of the defendant, and against the recovery of the heirs, conse- 
quently, on motion, without argument, a new trial was granted; the 
judge asserting that he would not permit such gross injustice to be done 
whilst he was on the bench. 

For some years the Lutheran church had been endeavoring to secure 
such an administration of the affairs of the estate as would meet the ends 
contemplated by the testator. On account of the resistance made, and 
the difficulties thrown in their way by the trustees, with the usual delay 
of legal proceedings, nearly fifteen years elapsed before the trustees' ac- 
counts were finally agreed upon. 

On the 25th of May, 1829, the Supreme Court appointed Francis R. 
Shunk, William Clark and A^alentine Hummel, auditors to examine the 
accounts of John Cassel and Christian Spayd, the former having been 
principal from 1806 to 1814, and the latter from 18 14 to the time of the 
auditors' appointment. 

On the 22nd of November, 1830, these auditors reported. They found 
a balance in Cassel's favor of $711.84 and in Spayd's favor of $9,029.67. 
The report of the auditors w^as set aside by the decision of the Supreme 
Court, in November, 1834, Chief Justice Gibson in delivering the opin- 
ion of the court said : 

"Had the respondents (Cassel and Spayd) performed their respective 
duties and accomplished the purpose of the trust, these balances, though 
sufficiently startling, might have been deemed to have accrued consist- 
ently with good management and fair dealing. But when we find that 
not a single step has been taken for three and twenty years towards a 
dispensation of the founder's bounty, that not a single orphan has had 
the benefit of it, and that the Orphan House built by the founder has 
been suffered to rot, till it is not w^orth the cost of repairing; that a con- 
siderable part of the estate has been dilapidated and sold by the Sheriff, 
a part of it to one of the respondents, and other parts of it to some of 
the trustees ; and that the respondents having taken the profits without 
having fully accounted for them, yet claim to be let in as creditors on the 
fund to an amount that would bankrupt it, we are astounded by the 
magnitude and boldness of the pretension." He pronounced the value of 



the realty in 1826, "worth one hundred thousand dollars;" observing 
that there had been expended "in taking care of it, to the time of adjudi- 
cation (1833), nearly or quite $100,000." 

Instead of confirming the auditors' report the court declared John 
Cassel a debtor to the estate of more than $15,000, and Christian Spayd 
a debtor of more than $12,000; with five years' proceeds of the estate 
to account for. Amounts which neither of them was able to pay, or 
ever did pay. 

Whilst the suit of the relatives against the estate was pending, the 
plaintiffs in the ejectment, who call themselves heirs, desired to efifect a 
compromise with the Lutheran Synod of Pennsylvania and West Penn- 
sylvania. At their request a meeting of representatives from the heirs 
and two Synods was held at York, Pa., on the 25th of March, 1835. The 
representatives of the heirs presented the committees of the Synods at 
this meeting the following proposals, viz : 

"That if they were permitted to get possession of the estate, they 
would appoint and authorize Abraham Bombaugh and Daniel Hummel 
to sell the entire estate, and would appropriate the money arising from 
the sale in the following manner: The one-twentieth part thereof to be 
paid over to the Directors of the Poor in and for Dauphin county, and 
the residue to be divided into two equal shares, one of said shares to be 
paid over to the heirs of George Frey, and the other to be paid over for 
the benefit of the Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania ; to be invested, and 
the annual interest of it applied to the maintenance and education of 
orphans, and other poor and pious young men for the gospel ministry." 

The representatives of the Synods, consisting of J. George Schmucker, 
D. D., President of the Synod of West Pennsylvania ; John C. Baker, 
D. D., President of the Synod of Pennsylvania ; and S. S. Schmucker, 
D. D., Frederick Smith and John Barnitz, committee of the Synod of 
West Pennsylvania, promised to lay the proposal of the heirs before their 
respective Synods for their decision. 

A special meeting of the Synod of West Pennsylvania was called on 
the 14th of June, 1835, to consider the proposal. The Synod of Penn- 
sylvania held its annual convention the same month, at Germantown, 
and in reference to this proposition adopted the following : 

"Whereas, the reputed heirs of Geo. Frey have proposed to this body 
a compromise, &c., &c. Therefore the members of this body have, and 
it is hereby resolved, that they will accede to the proposed compromise, 
for the following reasons. 

"ist. Because the last will and testament of said George Frey ex- 
pressly declares that the institution contemplated by him, should be con- 
nected with the Lutheran church in Pennsylvania ; that its principal 
and teacher must be members of the Lutheran church, and its instruc- 
tion be accommodated, from time to time, to the orthodox belief of the 
church, and the method practiced in its schools. 

"2nd. Because, although the compromise sets aside some of the local- 


ities and minor circumstances of the will, it accomplishes the grand 
moral and religious design of the testator. 

*'3rd. Because after an experiment of twenty-nine years, the church 
has failed in her attempts to coerce the parties to execute the design of 
the testator under the will, and there is but little prospect of having the 
residue of the estate applied with better success to the said design." 
The action of the Synod of West Pennsylvania was substantially the 

Pending these negotiations, however, the old board of trustees, which 
was favorable to the compromise, resigned, and in July of the same year 
the Supreme Court appointed a new board, of which Dr. Mercer Brown 
was principal. The new board was averse to the compromise of the 
heirs with the church, consequently it failed. Subsequently the trustees 
themselves compromised with the heirs, and agreed to pay them $4,- 
500.00 to have the ejectment discontinued, and all claims released and 
surrendered, forever. This compromise was afterwards authorized by 
legal enactments. 

Thus it was not until after many years of expensive litigation, that 
the building on Spring street near Union, was erected. George Frey 
had commenced to build his "Orphan House" about a quarter of a mile 
east of the edifice on Spring street, and a log building, thirty by forty 
feet, and two stories in height, was already under roof when he died. He 
had also established the German school, alluded to in the latter part of 
his will, in which all poor children of that parentage or nationality were 
taught, free of charge. The erection of the Orphan House being de- 
layed, this school was maintained by the trustees for a number of years, 
the teacher receiving his stipulated salary, and having, much of the time, 
but a mere shadow of a school. 

On the completion of the (second) Orphan House, in 1837 "o'^ high 
ground between the towns of Middletown and Portsmouth," Rev. S. D. 
Finkel took charge of it. He continued his connection therewith for 
three or four years, during which period he had under his care from 
two to Hve orphan children, who were supported by the estate. This 
was the first benefit conferred by the bequest on orphans, since it was left 
for them thirty years previous. 

In 1839 the governing body was incorporated. Owing to some error 
the tutor's name was omitted as a corporate member. (This has never 
since been rectified.) 

In the will the trustees held office for life, and were a self-perpetuat- 
ing body — by the act of incorporation their term of office was limited to 
eight years, and the appointing power given to the court of Dauphin 
county; thus a trustee is appointed every two years. The act also pro- 
vided for the teaching of the Engli-sh language in the institution, and a 
leasing of a portion of the real estate for any term not exceeding one 
hundred years ; the grist and sawmills and the farms for not exceeding 
six years ; and any portion of ground along the canal or railroad, of not 



more than ten acres with or without the additional privilege of water 
power, for any term not exceeding twenty years. 

In 1840, in consequence of debts amounting^ to about $8,000, the Or- 
phan House was again discontinued. Shortly afterwards, June 2nd, 
1840, permission was obtained from the Legislature to connect a private 
school with it. The building- was enlarged and virtually converted into 
an academy. For fifteen years the tutor was nothing more than the 
teacher of a select school, receiving a part of his support from the estate ; 
in consideration of which he taught a few poor children gratuitously. 

The following names are those of the scholars who attended this pri- 
vate school during the sessions of 1841 and 1847. 

:\I. R. Alleman, 


John Brown, 
David Brown, 
J. Best, 

Brua Cameron, 
Don Cameron, 
B. F. Etter, 
G. Ettele, 
M. Flora, 
L. Heiner, 

Charles Allen, 
Henry Alleman, 
M. Benner, 
Sarah Brown, 
Rebecca Brown, 
J. Baker, 
W. Boyer, 
Maria 'CroU, 
Lizzie Croll, 
Susan Croll, 
William Croll, 
G. Kain, 
W. Kain, 

Margaret Cameron, 
Virginia Cameron, 
S. Detweiler, 
J. Embig, 
G. Ettla, 


John S. Croll, 
H. Harrison, 
J. Heck, 
lames Jordon, 
R. M. McKibben, 
J. Wolfe, 

George C. Kunkle, 
Christian Kunkle, 
Walter Kendig, 
Christian King, 
George Minshall, 


F. Fortney, 
F. Fenstermacher, 
John Gross, 
Joseph Hoyer, 
Louisa Kendig, 
Clara Kendig, 
Annie Kendig, 
Joseph Nisley, 
Abner Croll, 
Edward Martin, 
M. Kunkle, 
J. Mengus, 
David McMurtrie, 
Frank Murray, 
Jacob Nisley, 
Annie Wolfley, 
Andrew Patterson, 
S. Patterson, Sr., 


John Ross, 
S. Snyder, 
J. Snyder, 
J. C. Stouch, 
Henry Smith. 
John Shelley, 
L. Shelley, 
J. SmuUer, 
John Wolfley, 
A. B. Wood. 

S. Patterson, Jr., 
Frank Peebles, 
Magdalene Ringland, 
John Ross, 
Harriet Ross, 
Sophia Rife, 
S. Rutherford, 
Mary Rewalt, 
Mary Smuller, 
D. Swar, 
Mary Watson, 
Mary Weistling, 
Evaline Weistling, 
Robert Weistling, 
Benjamin Weistling, 
Catherine Zimmerman, 
J. Detweiler. 

In 1846, in view of the fact that although no children were main- 
tained by the estate, yet its indebtedness had increased, the Legislature 


was memorialized and an act passed for the appointment of the trustees 
on the nomination of the two Lutheran Synods lying east and zvest of 
the Susquehanna. The trustees opposed this act and carried it up to 
the Supreme Court, where it was declared unconstitutional. 

Subsequent to this, Thomas Moore, a citizen of Dauphin county, 
offered before the Supreme Court, to contract to pay off the entire in- 
debtedness of the estate, from its proceeds, in seven years, and to give 
ample security for the fulfillment of said obligation. The then principal, 
Dr. Mercer Brown, believing he could do equally as well, undertook it, 
and succeeded; in 1855 the estate was clear of debt, and a balance of 
$1,500 remained in the treasury. The orphan department was again 
resmned, and two children were admitted. 

In spite of this, and of all previous legislation, the institution con- 
tinued to languish, and when Rev. C. J. Ehrehart took charge of the 
Lutheran congregation here, in 1856, he found but two orphans sup- 
ported by the estate. It was mainly due to his exertions that the 
Orphan House at last commenced to fulfil the purpose of its founder. 
During his tutorship, the number of children was gradually increased 
until, in the spring of 1861, twenty children were maintained. Too 
much praise cannot be awarded him. 

After the union of Portsmouth and Middletown the ground between 
them was laid off in lots, and was rapidly built upon and settled, until 
it became the populous center of the town. This rendered the location 
of the Orphan House unsatisfactory, and there being no land in the 
immediate vicinity available for agricultural purposes, the inmates 
thereof could not be instructed in one of the branches that the 
founder had insisted on. It was decided to remove the institution to a 
more favorable site. In 1872, thirty acres of ground were purchased 
of James Young, for $4,500 and the erection of a new edifice com- 
menced. It cost $15,000, was completed early in the winter of 1873, 
and occupied December 17th, of the same year. 

It is a massive structure erected on an elevation half a mile north of 
Middletown known as the Red Hill. It is constructed of brick, is three 
stories in height, and built in the form of an L. The main building is 60 
feet front by 36^ feet deep ; the wing is of a similar height, and 40 by 
36 feet. A large and high porch adorns the front and the whole is sur- 
mounted by a mansard roof. 

Inside there are twenty-eight rooms. The halls are wide, as are also 
the stairways which spring from their centers. The ceilings are high, 
and all apartments commodious and well lighted. The heating and 
ventilating arrangements are perfect. There is a reception room, a 
parlor, a sewing-room, library, dining-room, school-room, play-room, 
wash-room, kitchen, and a number of dormitories. A dry, arched base- 
ment extends under the whole building. 

The family and children's apartments are neatly and tastefully fitted 
up. The library is comparatively small, but contains a good selection 
of books. The school-room is supplied with all the modern educational 


appliances, globes, charts, blackboards, &c. ; it is a cheerful looking, 
pleasant apartment, its windows are filled with flowers. The school 
course embraces history, geography, grammar, physiology, spelling, 
reading, writing and drawing. A literary and scientific department has 
been added by order of the Legislature. There are two school sessions, 
of three hours each, every day except Saturday. In the dining-room 
religious exercises precede and follow each meal ; substantial, well-pre- 
pared and well cooked viands, that compare favorably with the aver- 
age hotel meals, are served. The play-room (although the founder 
made no provision for recreation) is a feature of the establishment that 
more pretentious institutions would do well to copy. The dormitory 
beds, covered with white counterpanes and snowy linen ; the pantries, 
the kitchen, the cellars, but more than all, the comfortably dressed con- 
tented looking children, their almost perfect health, and the air of ex- 
quisite neatness, order and cleanliness which pervade every depart- 
ment, show executive ability in the present management. 
The view from the windows of the institution is a fine one. 

Look here, at the Round Top's bald old crown, 

Lit up by the sun rays' quiver ; 
And there, where Swatara's flashing down, 

Until lost in the broad blue river. 
Mark the pufifing rings of smoke up-curl 

As a far faint whistle sounding, 
Notes where, fire fed, with flash and whirl, 

Man's iron steed goes bounding. 
In near, see many a sun-browned roof, 

Dwarfed chimney, and low steeple ; 
Down where time's shuttle, 'mid warp and woof, 

Life's web weaves the town's people. 
E^st, west, north, south, o'er the wide expanse, 

The eye grasps a picture worth telling, 
Of dotted white homesteads, groves (orchards perchance,) 

With close fence-locked fields, where the grain waves glance ; 
'Neath the soft breezes sinking and swelling. 

The grounds immediately surrounding the institution are well kept, 
and protected by a neat pale fence. In the enclosure on the southern 
side, is a flourishing young peach orchard : in front is a lawn, and east 
are the gardens. There is also a fine spring house, and all necessary 
out buildings. The instructions of the founder, as modified by subse- 
quent legislation, are consistently and faithfully carried out, and every- 
thing is provided that is considered necessary for the comfort and con- 
venience of the inmates. The three farms, cultivated by tenant farmers, 
under the immediate supervision of the principal, are well tilled and pro- 
ductive. The barns, stables, etc., are comparatively recent erections, 
and provided with all modern improvements. In fact the whole estate 
is well conducted, and reflects credit on those controlling it. 

Thus although the past history of the Orphan House is not pleasant 
reading, the present showing of what an honest and competent admin- 
istration of its affairs can accomplish, is gratifying, and encourages 


the hope that this institution — which offers shelter, food and instruction 
to those deprived of their most natural guardians, and fits them for the 
active duties of life — has a bright future before it. 

The following persons have been trustees and officers of the institu- 
tion : 


The original trustees were : John Landis, Charles Fisher, Jacob Rife 
and John Cassel. Their successors previous to 1835 were: William 
Crabb, Sr., Joseph Burd, John Elliot, Jacob Hershey, Ephraim Heller, 
John Smith and George Lauman. 

Trustees subsequent to 1835 : Simon Salade, ]Martin Kendig, Joseph 
Ross, George Etter, John Snyder, Benjamin Jordan, Simon Cameron, 
John Eshenauer. Daniel Kendig, John Pricer, Adolphus Fisher, John 
Jos. Walborn. John Croll, Jacob L. Nisley, J. E. Carmany, Thomas 
^loore, Henry x\lleman, Samuel Kiefer, Joseph H. Nisley, Simon C. 
Peters, Christian W. Esehenauer, Adam Ulrich. 

Present trustees : Simon C. Peters, Henry Alleman, F. W. Lusman, 
Arthur King. 


John Cassel, from 1806 to 1814. 
Christian Spayd. from 1814 to 1835. 
Dr. Mercer Brown, from 1835 to 1866. 
William A. Croll, from 1866 to the present time. 


1837-40, Rev. S. D. Finckel, D. D., Rev. Samuel Spreecher, D. D., 
Mr. Jonathan Cory, Rev. Samuel Schaeffer, Mr. Whittlesey; 1847-55, 
Rev. William Heilig; 1855-59, Rev. M. Valentine; 1859-62, Rev. C. J. 
Ehrehart; 1862-64, John T. Ross; 1865-66, Lewis F. Steinmetz ; 1866- 
70, ]\Iichael R. Alleman; 1870-71, S. L. Yetter; 1871, G. A. Lauman; 
1889, Grant W. Nitrauer; 1894, E. J. :\Iiller: 1900, John Croll, the 
present tutor. 


The Union canal, which was abandoned in 1885, had one of its termini 
here. An outlet from the basin of the canal to the Swatara river was 
made, to allow the boats, rafts, and arks access to and from the Susque- 
hanna. The lock was situate between the railroad — near where it 
crosses the Swatara — and the old collector's office. (For a full descrip- 
tion of this canal see Chapter No. 19.) 

The Pennsylvania Canal 

Also passed through this portion of the borough, and here crossed the 
Swatara by means of an aqueduct, the piers supporting which also sus- 
tained an iron wagon bridge. 


In 1822 an act was passed authorizing- the construction of this canal 
at the expense of the State. July 4th, 1826, ground was broken for it 
with great ceremony. In 1827, the canal commissioners were instructed 
to take measures to build a railroad, to connect the different sections of 
the canal. In 1828, water was let into this division and a railroad was 
commenced, to run from Philadelphia, through Lancaster to Columbia. 
It was an important link in the chain of public improvements inaugur- 
ated by the State. Millions of dollars were spent on both the canal and 
railroad, the expenditure being made necessary by the completion of 
the Erie canal, which was taking the commerce of Philadelphia to New 
York. In 1832, portions of the Columbia railroad were completed, and 
horse cars were run on it ; it took them nine hours to travel from Phila- 
delphia to Columbia, and it was not until 1836 that locomotives were 
regularly put to work on it, to the exclusion of horse power. In 1834, 
the entire line between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh was opened to 
trade and travel. 

It consisted of eighty-two miles of railroad between Philadelphia and 
Columbia ; one hundred and seventy-two miles of canal from Columbia 
to Plollidaysburg ; thirty-six miles of railroad over the Alleghenies, 
from Hollidaysburg to Johnstown ; and one hundred and four miles of 
canal from Johnstown to Pittsburgh, making a total length of three hun- 
dred and ninety-four miles. 

That portion of the road over the mountains is worthy of a brief 
description. It was known as the Portage railroad; in a distance of 
thirty-nine miles and a fraction it overcame, in ascent and descent, an 
aggregate of 2,570 feet, 1,398 of which was on the eastern, and 1,172 
on the western side of the mountain. The top of the mountain, which 
was some 200 feet higher than the culminating point of the railroad, is 
2,700 feet above the Delaware river at Philadelphia. The ascent and 
descent were overcome by ten inclined planes. The shortest plane was 
1,585 feet and 130 feet high; the longest 3,100 feet and 307 feet high. 
There was on the line a tunnel 870 feet long and 20 feet high ; one 
viaduct, that over the Horseshoe Bend, was a semi-circular arch of 80 
feet span. All the viaducts and culverts were built of the most sub- 
stantial masonry. The cars were elevated by stationary steam engines 
at the head of each plane, and on the intervening levels locomotives 
and horses were used. The total cost of this (Portage) road exceeded 

Goods were then shipped in Philadelphia, in sections of boats, which 
were transported to Columbia on railroad trucks prepared for the pur- 
pose; at Columbia they were placed in the canal, and connected to- 
gether, forming a complete boat ; then towed to Hollidaysburg, where 
they were again put upon trucks, and thence carried by the Portage road 
to Johnstown, where they were re-placed in the canal, and towed to 

A large basin for the reception of boats, arks and other water craft 
was located in Portsmouth, and an outlet lock of great capacity con- 


structed to the Swatara. Upon the completion of this lock, that of the 
Union canal was abandoned and suffered to go to decay, and there is 
nothing left to show that there ever was one here. 

The construction of this line of public works cost the State nearly 
fourteen and a half millions of dollars. It was afterwards sold to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, who finally abandoned the whole line 
in 1903. 

The Breakwater. 

During the palmy days of the lumber trade, several efforts were made 
to have a dam, or breakwater, constructed across the Susquehanna, a 
short distance below the Swatara, as a harbor for lumber where it would 
be safe at all seasons. The project, however, never took definite shape. 

The Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy and Lancaster Rail- 

This road, surveyed about 1832, was strenuously opposed by the 
farmers along its line, they objecting to having their farms cut up or 
divided. It was however partially finished, at different points, in 1836, 
and in August of that year the section between Middletown and Harris- 
burg was completed. A horsecar was at first run over it, the horses 
being attached by a rope to the car, and driven alongside the track. In 
September a locomotive called the "John Bull" was brought here by 
canal, on a flatboat landed at the wharf where B. S. Peters & Son's 
brick building now stands, and drawn from thence to the railroad by 
employes and citizens. It was a small, black affair with two driving 
wheels, the piston connected inside of the wheel ; was built in England, 
and was scarcely more than a toy compared with the powerful "mo- 
docs" of the present day. Instead of the heavy T rail and sleepers now 
employed, flat bars of iron, two and a half inches wide, and three quar- 
ters of an inch thick, spiked onto string pieces running lengthwise with 
the line of the road, were used. The first car was about the size of a 
one-horse street car, with the entrance at the side, and would accommo- 
date from twelve to eighteen passengers ; a high seat outside was pro- 
vided for the conductor and brakeman ; three or four cars constituted 
a train. Just below the old Railroad house was a turn-table, and when 
preparing for a start the conductor blew a horn. 

When the locomotive made its first trip there was great rejoicing; 
Governor Ritner, the heads of the State departments, and other promi- 
nent citizens were brought here and handsomely entertained at Peter 
Young's tavern (now occupied by J. A. Kramer). The distance was 
covered in twenty minutes. Afterwards, on Saturdays and Sundays, 
excursions were run to Harrisburg and back every two hours ; the 
single car attached was always crowded. 

The next two locomotives put on the road were built by IMatthew 
Baldwin, of Philadelphia ; they were named after the principal towns 
on the road, and were used for both freight and passengers. Then two 


freight engines, named Henry Clay and David R. Porter, were pur- 
chased from Norris & Son's, Philadelphia. They were heavier and 
lower than the first, and although with but two driving wheels, had the 
piston connected on the outside, as they are now constructed. Owing 
to the heavy work at Elizabethtown, the tunnel there was not fully com- 
pleted until August, 1838. (During its construction passengers were 
conveyed around it in stage coaches.) After August 8th, the trip be- 
tween Philadelphia and the State Capital could be made in seven hours. 
General Simon Cameron, Dr. Mercer Brown, Henry Smith, !Martin 
Kendig, and many other citizens of Middletown, took a great interest 
in the enterprise. 

The; Pennsyi^vania Railroad. 

In Port Royal is the junction of the Mount Joy and Columbia divis- 
ions of this road. i\fter crossing the Swatara on a substantial stone 
bridge of four arches, the road passes through Middletown. 

This road was incorporated in 1846. The charter was granted Febru- 
ary 25th, 1847; ^^^ of^ the loth of December, 1852, cars were run 
through from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, connections being formed be- 
tween the eastern and western divisions by the use of the Portage 
(State) road over the mountains. 

The Pennsylvania Company's road over the Alleghenies was opened 
early in 1854. In 1857 the company became the purchaser of the main 
line of the State works. 

In the years immediately following the completion of the road, it was 
greatly improved ; the tracks doubled, other lines leased or bought, 
depots and extensions built, and later the line was straightened, re- 
graded, and entirely relaid with steel rails. 

Soon after the breaking out of the "Great Rebellion," the president 
of the Road, Colonel Thomas A. Scott, was summoned to Washington 
by President Lincoln, and for some time the whole railroad transporta- 
tion of troops, army supplies and war material was under his supervis- 
ion and direction. 

Years ago the Pennsylvania Railroad had but a single iron track and 
a few wooden stations between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh ; now hand- 
some brick and stone depots line its route, and four tracks of steel bind 
its eastern termini in Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, Washington 
and Richmond, with its western in Pittsburgh, Erie, Cleveland, Toledo, 
Chicago, Cincinnati. Indianapolis, Louisville, St. Louis, &c. 


Thb Mud Pike. 

This turnpike followed the course of the Susquehanna from Columbia 
to Portsmouth, and thence until it crossed the main Philadelphia and 
Pittsburgh pike a short distance west of the town. It was kept in good 


repair until the railroad was laid out, when, as the latter occupied much 
of the pike, it was abandoned, and what was left of it was turned over 
to the townships through which it passed. 

Very few persons have any idea of the difficulties of transportation 
prior to the era of canals and railroads. One hundred years ago, it was 
not uncommon to see hundreds of pack horses pass through here west- 
ward loaded with merchandise, salt, iron, &c. The iron was carried on 
horseback, being bent over and around their bodies. Two men could 
manage ten or fifteen horses, carrying each about two hundred pounds, 
by tying one to the other in single file ; one of the men taking charge 
of the lead horse to pioneer, and the other the hinder one, to keep an 
eye on the adjustment of the loads, and to stir up any that appeared to 
lag. The horses were fitted with pack saddles, and a bell collar orna- 
mented each animal's neck ; at night after their loads had been removed 
they were hobbled and then turned loose. Each horse could carry two 
bushels of coarse alum salt, weighing 84 pounds to the bushel. The 
common price of a bushel of salt in the west at an early period was a 
cow and a calf, and before weights were used, the salt was measured 
into the half bushel by hand as lightly as possible, no one being per- 
mitted to walk heavily over the floor while the operation was going on. 

When wagons were first introduced the carriers considered them as 
great an invasion of their rights, and were as indignant as the teamsters 
were some forty years later when canal boats, and afterwards railroads, 
took their trade. 

In those early years turnpikes were not the miserable apologies for 
roads that are called such now, but were well graded, rounded from 
the center to the gutters on each side, with all the necessary crossings 
for water, and thoroughly macadamized. Such were the roads and 
such the conveyances by which all the internal commerce of the country 
was then carried on. 

The; Middletown Furnace, 

On the west bank of the Pennsylvania canal, between Wood and Law- 
rence streets, was built by Jonathan Warner, January 12, 1855. He sold 
it to James Wood and Robert B. Sterling, who transacted business 
tmder the firm name of Wood & Co. February 2, 1864, Wood & Co. 
disposed of it to John and Richard Meily. , January 8, 1874, Meily & Co. 
transferred it to Lyman Nutting. July 9th, 1880, Lyman Nutting sold 
out to Michael Schall ; and he in December of the same year transferred 
it to the Conewago Iron Company. This furnace stood idle for some 
time, and was finally torn down in 1903. 

It had a forty-five foot stack, an eleven foot bosh, and a capacity of 
six hundred and fifty tons pig-iron per month. 

The residence of the secretary which was once called the "Mansion 
House," was built by Martin Kendig; after his death, his administra- 

ift'frtfi CO 

First United Brethren Church, 


tor. Martin Kendig, Jr., sold it May 30, 185 1, to George M. Lauman, 
He disposed of it, April 25, 1856, to Wood & Co. 

This brick edifice bears an air of faded gentility sadly out of place 
with its present environment ; surrounded, as it once was by orchards, 
groves, and fields, and overlooking a wide expanse of country, it must 
have been a desirable residence. 

The Slab Mill. 

On the mill race opposite the foot of Race street once stood a saw mill, 
known as the "Slab Mill." Although a rough looking affair, for a long 
time it did a flourishing business. Christian Spayd, when principal of 
the Frey estate (from 1814 to 1835), built it, obtaining the material for 
its construction from the (ist) Emaus Orphan House, which stood on 
what is now known as the "Race Ground," west of Keener's brickyard. 
The logs of this latter building were used in the frame work, and the 
stone from its cellar walls in the abutments of the mill. 

It was for several years run by the estate. In 1844 it was leased by 
George and G. W. Etter (father and son); in 1846, by Joseph Brestle; 
in 1848, by the firm of Jacob Landis, Samuel Landis, and John P. Far- 
rington ; in 1850, by Samuel Landis ; in 1852, by Philip Zimmerman ; 
in 1856, by Benjamin Kendig; in i860, by Edward Stover; in 1868, 
by Connelly and Alleman. This latter firm tore down the old slab struc- 
ture, and erected the mill which finally passed under the control of Ken- 
dig & Lauman and was destroyed by fire (1885) while occupied by 

The Lath Mill. 

About 1835, George Selser (father of Samuel Selser, Sr.) had a small 
sawmill on the sluice-way, near this mill, and was the first to manufac- 
ture sawed plastering lath in this section of the country. 

The Furnace Saw Mill 

Once stood near "Camber's Grist Mill," better known to-day as 
"Deckard's Mill." It was erected by John Camber. For a long time 
most of the timbers used in Middletown for building purposes, were cut 
either here, or at the slab mill. It was run successively by Daniel Ken- 
dig & Co. ; Samuel Landis, and Kendig & Hendrickson ; was torn down 
in i860. 

The Feeder Dam. 

The dam across the Swatara which supplied a feeder to the Pennsyl- 
vania canal and the Cameron Company's furnace and grist mill was 
planned by John F. Houston (cousin of H. H. Houston, a native of 
Columbia, Pa.), a graduate of Amherst, and a civil engineer. He en- 
tered as a rodman on the Pennsylvania canal at Middletown in 1832; 
and succeeded Mr. McCutcheon in charge of that enterprise in 1833. 
When the canal was finished, he was ordered to the Gap, and remained 


there until the road was completed in 1835. He then worked on the 
Tidewater (Susquehanna) canal; then on the W. & G. R. R. In 1838, 
he returned to the State service, and was engaged on the Delaware 
canal under Mr. Hutchinson. His last work was settling the accounts 
of the abandoned road known as the "Gettysburg Tape Worm." He 
married Catherine, youngest daughter of George Fisher, Esq., of Mid- 
dletown, and died in 1876. 


January 20, 1802, Peter Shuster, postmaster, commenced advertising 
letters remaining in Middletown postoffice, viz: "Holden Collins, Eliza- 
beth Cowan, Wni. & Jas. Hamilton, John Montgomery, Wm. Stout, 
Mr. Thompson, and Jacob White." 

June 21, 1802, Daniel Shelley died on Shelley's Island, sixty-six years 
of age. Outlived four wives, had eighteen children. 

July 5th, Samuel B. Davis (Harrisburg), advertises "Seneca French 
Creek Oil" to cure consumption, dropsy, rheumatism, &c. Seen in the 
light of our present knowledge, the following may prove interesting: 

Oil Fields of Pennsylvania. 

The commandant of Fort Duquesne writing (probably about 1755) 
to General Montcalm says : "While descending the Allegheny, fifteen 
leagues below the mouth of the Conewago, and three above Fort 
Venango, we were invited by the chief of the Senecas to attend a relig- 
ious ceremony of his tribe. We landed and drew up our canoes on a 
point where a small stream entered the river. The tribe appeared un- 
usually solemn. — The scene was really sviblime. — The surface of the 
stream burst into a complete conflagration. — At the sight the Indians 
gave forth a triumphant shout that made the hills and valleys re-echo 
again ! Here then is revived the ancient fire worship of the East ; — 
here then are the Children of the Sun." 

The Democratic Archives (1842): "The Seneca oil from the oil 
springs on Oil creek was used by the Seneca Indians as an unguent. It 
is almost as celebrated as the far-famed Naptha of the Caspian Sea. 
With it the Senecas mixed their war paints which gave them a hideous 
glistening appearance, and added great permanency to the paint, as it 
rendered it impervious to water." 

The Lancaster Journal, August 12th, 1795, says: "The American 
troops in marching that way halted at the spring, collected the oil and 
bathed their joints with it. This gave them great relief and freed them 
immediately from the rheumatic complaints, with which many of them 
were afifected. The troops drank freely of the waters, and they operated 
as a gentle purge." 

The Neiv York Journal of Commerce (in 1830) thus alludes to Oil 


creek: "Springs exist on its margin, from which there is a constant 
flow of oil, floating on the surface of the water and running into the 
creek, which may be seen for a great distance down the stream. The 
oil is burned in lamps, and used in various ways, but is particularly 
valued for its medicinal qualities. — Considerable quantities are annually 
brought to this city and sold to the apothecaries." 

August 31st, John Cassel, stone cutter, is now manufacturing burr 
mill stones for sale. 

December 13th, Wm. Hamilton is appointed printer of the State Sen- 
ate. / 

January 8th, 1803, Wm. Crabb advertises house and shop of Thomas 
Minshall on Market Square and Main cross street (Union) for sale. 
To let house and lot of Christian Rodfong, lately occupied by Mr. 
Thomas Stubbs, "on the main road from Middletown to the landing 
(Portsmouth) at the junction of the two main streets, suitable for a 
tavern." Also the house adjoining this property. 

March 28, John Cowden, B. F. Young, Joseph Priestley, Wm. Spring 
and Thos. Cooper (Northumberland) solicit subscriptions for the pur- 
pose of stocking the Connecticut with salmon. 

February 21st. "For sale a healthy negro wench; she is an excellent 
washer, baker and cook, and well acquainted with all kinds of house 
work. For terms apply to the printer hereof." 

April 19th, William Crabb, tax collector, notifies the inhabitants of 
Harrisburg, Lower Paxton, Swatara, Derry, West Hanover, Middle 
and Upper Paxton townships, who have not paid their house and land 
taxes, to come to his office, in Middletown, and settle before May ist. 

June 13th, George Shuler, coppersmith and tinplate worker, has for 
sale stills, washing kettles, coloring, planking, fuller's, fish and tea 

July i8th, Christian Swartz (near Middletown) advertises six stray 

December 31st. "Died on Thursday morning last, after a lingering 
illness, Mrs. Eliza Fisher, consort of George Fisher, Esq., of this bor- 
ough, in the thirty-sixth year of her age. By this unexpected decree of 
Providence her husband is deprived of an amiable wife, several young 
children of an affectionate mother, and her relations and acquaintances 
of a kind and sincere friend." 

September 22nd, John Bomberger, Jacob Bomberger and Michael 
Bomberger, executors, offer a plantation of 132 acres, one mile from 
Middletown, and adjoining lands of George Fisher, Esq., and others. 

House (two story log), barn, orchard, timber and ploughed land. To 
be sold by direction of the last will of John Bomberger, deceased. 

December 31st, blacksmiths, nailers, &c., are notified by James Biddle 


to leave their orders for stone coal with James Hamilton, Middletown, 
before February ist, 1805. 

April 17th, John Fox (Hummelstown) acknowledges receipt of 
money from John Smuller (Aliddletown). 

April 6th, Alexander Boggs wants several journeyman nailers. 

June 29th, 1805, "Married in Phila. on Wednesday evening the 19th 
inst., by the Rt. Rev. Bishop White, Geo. Fisher, Esq., attorney at law, 
of this place (Harrisburg), to the amiable, beautiful and accomplished 
Miss Nancy Jones, of Philadelphia." 

Fourth of July Celebration in 1805. 

"On the 4th inst., the citizens of Middletown, wishing to keep in per- 
petual remembrance the happy epoch which ranked America among the 
nations of the earth, made previous arrangements by appointing mana- 
gers, &c. The dawn was hailed by a general volley of musketry, and at 
2 o'clock p. m., they repaired to Locust Grove, where, by the judicious 
arrangement of the managers, a sumptuous repast was prepared for 
them; after appointing Edward Crouch, Esq., President, and James 
Russel, Vice-President, the following toasts were drank, under dis- 
charges of musketry, and the numerous plaudits of the citizens : 

"i. The Day We Celebrate — May the torrid rays of Cancer be an- 
nually hailed by freeman, which led to the discovery of principles, and 
laid open the imposition of governments. 

"2. The President of the United States — May wisdom and virtue 
guide and direct him to the discharge of his important offices with honor 
to himself and advantage to his country. 

"3. The Memory of General Washington — While virtue, talents and 
worth will be revered among mankind, the great birthday of the world's 
emancipation will naturally bring a tear to his urn. 

"4. Prosperity to Pennsylvania, viz: — Agriculture, commerce, manu- 
factures, social life, improvement of inland navigation, turn-pike roads, a 
new governor. 

"5. Thomas McKean, Governor of this Commonwealth — Should he 
be re-elected may he no longer continue his political warfare under false 

"6. Simon Snyder, Candidate for Governor — Should a majority of the 
electors think him worthy, may he convince the people he is a statesman, 
as well as a mechanic. 

"7. The Judiciary of Pennsylvania — May she be stripped of all her 
monkish and technical trappings, and know of no other precedent but 
'do unto others as ye would that others do unto you.' 

"8. Our Brethren in Captivity at Tripoli — May their freedom be 
speedily purchased with American powder and ball. 

"9. ^lay the intercourse of public virtue soon put a period to party 

"10. ]\Iay our rulers be actuated by the love of country more than by 
the 'loaves and fishes.' 


"II. The Memory of Benjamin Franklin — 'Where liberty dwells 
there is my country.' 

"12. May those who would sacrifice our liberties to the privileged 
few be detested as traitors, and despised as fools. 

"13. The infernal traffic of human beings, as it is incompatible with 
the name, may it meet the execration of every freeman. 

"14. The United States of America — As they have heretofore, may 
they continue to be the wonder of the world. 

"15. The Sons of Columbia — May they always live together in the 
strictest ties of unity, and still be able and willing to resent serious in- 
juries when offered them. 

"16. The Fair Daughters of Columbia — May no enemy to his country 
be ever rewarded with their smiles. 

"17. The Enemies of Our Independence — May they be obliged to 
breakfast on green crab-apples, dine on green persimmons, and sup on 
red-pepper, until they change their principles. 


"By the President. — The Tree of Liberty — May it shoot forth its 
branches until the shade thereof covers the human race. 

"Vice-President. — May the Federals remember the language near six 
years since, of old tories, apostate whigs, refugees, &c. 

"James Hamilton. — May the freeman of Pennsylvania on the second 
Tuesday in October next, spell the name of Simon Snyder without miss- 
ing a letter. 

"Daniel Stubbs. — American Steel — May the disorganizer be put in the 
furnace of renovation, raised to a blood-heat, wrapped in flagiston till 
fully converted, and drawn out well blistered. 

"IVilliam Allison. — The Second Tuesday in October next — There is 
a time when the hoary head of inverterate abuse will neither draw rev- 
erence, nor obtain protection. 

"After spending the day in the greatest hilarity and social harmony, 
they formed a grand procession and marched to the center of the town ; 
from thence they repaired to their respective homes, each impressed 
with the lively sense that the importance of the day still pervades the 
breasts of our citizens, and thankful that twenty-nine revolving seasons 
have found us free." 


August 31st, 1805, Middletown. The Constitutional Republicans are 
notified to hold township meetings on Saturday, the 7th of September 
next, and at that time to appoint deputies to a general meeting of dele- 
gates, to be held at Hummelstown on Saturday the 14th of September, 
1805, in order to fix on a general ticket — "Let us show ourselves worthy 


of enjoying the blessings of a free government; let us transmit the pres- 
ent constitution unimpaired to our children ; — and let no friend to Mc- 
Kean and the constitution be absent from the poll on the 8th day of Oc- 
tober next." 

John GingErich, President, 
David DetweilER, V. President. 
John Elliott, Sec'y. 

November, 1808. — The stockholders of the Lancaster, Elizabethtown, 
and Middletown turnpike Company are notified to pay up their arrear- 
ages to finish the road, otherwise "their names will appear in the papers." 

February, 1809. — George Fisher, Esq., having laid out a new town 
named Harborton, at the confluence of the Swatara with the Susque- 
hanna, in Dauphin county, proposes to dispose of the lots at $60 each. 
(The name Harborton was subsequently changed to Portsmouth.) 

April. — Mr. John Gingerich, of Londonderry township, offers to sell 
the time of a stout healthy negro boy, aged about fourteen years. 

Andrew Miller, of Paxton, offers to sell a mulatto wench who has 
five years to serve, and has a child five or six months old, which will be 
sold along. 

(In an old account book of Mr. Geo. Fisher's for 1806, I find under 
the date of July i8th this entry: "Wm. Crabb, jMiddletow^n, Dr., to a 
negro wench sold at £56 5s.) 

May. — Edward Crouch, of Middletown, appointed one of the directors 
of the branch bank established in Harrisburg by the Philadelphia bank. 
(This was the first banking institution in that town.) 

July. — Died on Tuesday evening, last, in Middletown, Mr. George 
Lauman, mason. His death was occasioned by the severe kick of a 

October. — The Middletown races are advertised to commence on 
Wednesday, the 22nd, on which day a subscription purse of $60 will be 
run for in three mile heats. 

May, 181 1. — The "Yearly Market" at Middletown is advertised to 
commence on the nth of June, at which time and place a great number 
of valuable horses, cows, sheep, lambs, calves and hogs, with many ar- 
ticles suitable to the taste of the season, such as pickled oysters, roast 
beef, punch and wine, will be offered for sale. The market is to be en- 
livened with all kinds of music. 

Sunday, January 30th, 1825, notice was received that General Lafay- 
ette and suite were on their way to the State Capital, whereupon Messrs. 
Hawkins and Askey of the joint committee of the Legislature, and M. 
C. Rodgers, Esq., Secretary of the Commonwealth, proceeded in car- 
riages to Middletown for the purpose of meeting the General and his 
party. Dinner was prepared for them in Middletown, and an outrider 
sent forward to ascertain whether he was upon the road. At about half 
past ten Lafayette and secretary. General Spangler, Colonel Spangler, 
and Dr. King, a committee deputed to escort him from York, were 
received at Middletown and took dinner. In the evening he arrived at 


Harrisburg-, where he was taken to the Governor's residence. Here he 
remained several days receiving those hospitaHties which the people of 
this country were proud to tender to one of their most disinterested de- 
fenders. On the 31st he was waited upon by the members of the Har- 
risburg bar in a body, when George Fisher, Esq., on their behalf, made 
an appropriate address, to which the General replied. It would take 
up too much space to enumerate in detail what transpired during his 
stav there. On W'ednesdav, Februarv 2nd, he left with his party for 

Between March. 1823, and January 14th, 1828, the State expended 
$1,201.50 in improving the navigation of the Susquehanna between Col- 
umbia and Northumberland, and from Columbia to tidewater, $14,- 


In 1825 some citizens of Baltimore formed a company for the purpose 
of running a line of steamboats on the Susquehanna between the towns 
of Northumberland and Middletown and three light-draught steam- 
boats, the "Codorus," "Susquehanna," and "Pioneer," were built and 
put in the river at York Haven. Of one of these boats, the "Codorus," 
Henry K. Strong, Esq., in a letter to the Secretary of War (Hon. Lewis 
Cass), dated July 14th, 1834, says: "Eight years ago, a sheet-iron 
steamboat built at York, in this State, was put upon the river, about 
twelve miles below Harrisburg, and forty from tide-water, and was pro- 
pelled by steam to the line separating the States of Pennsylvania and 
New York, nearly two-thirds of the whole distance from the Chesapeake 
it was the first that ever sailed upon American zvaters." 

The boats continued to make trips at short intervals, during the me- 
dium stage of the water, until April, 1826, when one of them — the 
"Susquehanna" — exploded her boiler near Berwick, Columbia county, 
killing and wounding several of her passengers, among whom was 
Christian Brobst, Esq., member of the Legislature from Columbia 
county. This seems to have cast a damper on the enterprise, and 
shortly afterwards the boats were removed from the river. 

In 1827 a small side wheel steamboat plied on the river in this vicinity 
during the summer, but not proving a success financially, was taken off 
and returned to Philadelphia, where it had been purchased. 


Old Advertisements. 

Lancaster, Elizabethtown and Middletown Turnpike. 

Notice is Hereby Given 

That in pursuance of an act of the General Assembly of the common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, entitled "An act to enable the Governor of this 
commonwealth to incorporate a company, for making an artificial turn- 
pike or road, by the best and nearest route from the borough of Lan- 


caster, through EHzabethtown to Middletown," books will be opened in 
the borough of Lancaster, at the house of Adam Weber ; at Elizabeth- 
town, at the house of George Redsecker; at Middletown, at the house 
of William Crabb, on Monday the 14th of May next, at ten o'clock in the 
forenoon, and be kept open until 5 o'clock in the afternoon of the same 
day, and every succeeding day, for three days, for the purpose of 
receiving subscriptions for making the same road ; each share of stock 
being one hundred dollars, 10 dollars of which to be paid on each share, 
at the time of subscribing. 

William Crabb, John Pedan, 

Jas. Hamilton, Ad. Reigart, Jr., 

Elisha Green, Samuel Humes, 

D. Montgomery, Jr., Wm. Kirkpatrick, 

George Redsecker, Christ Mayer, 

John Carolus, John Swarr, 

Adam Weaver, Peter Gonter, 

Abram Witmer, Jacob Dickert, 

John Gundacker, Wm. Montgomery, 

George Frey, W. G. Lattimer. 

March 30th, 1804. 

May 4th, 1805, ''Lancaster, EHzabethtown and INIiddletown Turnpike 
Road." A meeting of the stockholders is requested on Monday, the 3rd 
of June next, at the house lately kept by Michael Nicholas, commonly 
called the Cross-road Tavern, and now kept by Nathan Lightner. The 
object of the meeting is to elect officers, and to organize the company; 
it is therefore hoped that the stockholders will generally attend. ( Signed 
by the Commissioners,) April 23rd, 1805. 


At a meeting of a number of the stockholders of the Lancaster, EHza- 
bethtown and Middletown Turnpike road, held at the house of Nathan- 
iel Lightner, on Monday the 3rd day of June (inst.), agreeably to pre- 
vious notice given; the following persons were duly elected to the 
offices annexed to their respective names, to serve for one year from the 
date hereof, viz: 

President, William Montgomery, 
Treasurer, Christopher ]\L\yer. 


William Crabb, Gerhart Bubach, 

Thomas Stubbs, John Swar, 

Christian Ober, Henry Lecher, 

John Wolfley, Abraham Witmer, 

John Pedan, Martin Greider. 


Take Notice. 

The president and managers are requested to meet at the house of N. 
Lightner, on Saturday, the 15th instant, for the purpose of taking into 
consideration proper measures for commencing operations on said road. 

John Swar, Chairman. 
Wm. Boyd, Secretary. 

Middletown, June 3rd, 1805. 

Lancaster and Middeetown Turnpike Road. 

Agreeably to a resolution of the managers, at their last meeting, they 
will meet at the house of Adam Weaver, in the borough of Lancaster, 
on the 22nd day of July next, at 9 o'clock in the morning, and proceed 
from thence to lay out the tract of said road. 

June 2ist, 1805. 

Lancaster and Middeetown Turnpike Road. 

August 9th. — The managers are requested to meet at the house of 
Nathaniel Lightner, on Monday, the 26th of Aug. instant, at 10 o'clock 
in the forenoon. Wm. Montgomery, President. 

The Cameron Furnace. 

April 26th, 1803, George Roup sold to Abraham Landis a tract of land 
containing 20 acres and 116 perches (part of the Port Royal purchase). 
August 24th of that year Landis sold it to James Hamilton for $900. 
August 30th, 1830, Frederick Watts, administrator of Hamilton's es- 
tate, sold it to John Gamber, "miller," for $4,000. March 20th, 1840, 
John Gamber, "iron master," sold it to Israel and Michael Kinsman 
and Daniel Cohich (1-3 to Israel Kinsman, 1-3 to E. W. Robinson and 
1-6 each to Michael Kinsman and Daniel Cohich). He also sold to the 
same parties and in the same proportions, a number of lots which he 
had purchased from "George Fisher and Ann Shippen his wife" 
(through which he, by Act of Assembly of June i6th, 1836, built a canal 
slip to his furnace) for $2,200. The total purchase money received by 
Gamber was $40,000. February 5th, 1841, D. Cohich transferred his 
interest to I. Kinsman; March 30th, 1841, I. Kinsman sold to M. Kins- 
man, and September 8th, 1841, M. Kinsman sold to John Jewitt. (Jew- 
itt's deed is not recorded, and we have no trace whatever of his dispo- 
sition of the property.) October nth, 1853, George W. Robinson, by 
power of attorney, sold his interest to George and Christian Landis and 
John Care ; these parties sold to J. D. Cameron. 

The Cameron Furnace, situated in Port Royal, on the hill overlooking 
Middletown, was built on a portion of this tract. It stood on the site 
of the two long known as the Christiana Furnaces, which were built 


by John Gamber soon after he came into possession of the land (1830- 
31). He named them after his daughter. They were originally char- 
coal furnaces ; the Gingerich farm and much other woodland was 
cleared to furnish the charcoal.* 

After Jewitt came into possession of these furnaces, Gamber rented 
and ran them for a short time; then Grubb & Cabine; then Care & 
Landis. Burr, who built the Harrisburg bridge, constructed the latter 
works, which were afterwards owned by Joseph H. Landis, James 
Young and J. Donald Cameron, doing business under the name of the 
"Cameron Furnace Co.'' 

This furnace had a forty-seven and a half foot stack, a thirteen and a 
half foot bosh, and a capacity of seven hundred tons of pig per month. 
It was torn down in 1904 and its site is now occupied by the brick plant. 

The Cameron Grist Mile. 

This mill (familiarly known to-day as "Deckard's Mill," from the fact 
that Israel Deckard leased and ran it from 1862 to 1886), on the east 
bank of the Swatara opposite Frey's mill, was on a portion of the same 
tract of land occupied by the Cameron furnace, and always had a similar 
ownership. It was built by James Hamilton in 1803. It was originally 
supplied by water conveyed through a race on the east bank of the 
Swatara, fed by a tumbling dam about three feet high, which crossed 
the river about a quarter of a mile above the present feeder-dam, where 
the ravine comes through the hills on the east side. This dam, as well as 
later the feeder-dam, were provided with booms, and many hundred feet 
of logs were floated to and from it. It was torn down in 1903. 

James Hamilton, the builder of the mill, was born on the Swatara, 
in 1754. During the Revolution he was first, second lieutenant in Capt. 
John Murray's company, Pennsylvania Rifle Battalion ; was afterwards 
captain in the First Pennsylvania ; was taken prisoner by the British at 
the battle of Brandywine ; was subsequently exchanged ; was promoted 
major in the Second Pennsylvania, December loth, 1778. At the sur- 
render of Yorktown, October 19th, 1781, "Major Hamilton with a de- 
tachment marched into the town, took possession of the batteries and 
Bay to the lakes. If this was not the first steamboat ever constructed, 
hoisted the American flag." He afterwards went with the Pennsylvania 
troops tmder Gen. Anthony Wayne to Georgia and South Carolina, 
where he served until the close of the war, in April, 1783. 

In 1803 he returned to his native State and settled at Middletown. He 
was quite a prominent man in the early history of the town ; dealt ex- 
tensively in lumber and grain, was president of the Swatara Bank in 
1804, and built the brick dwelling on North Union street, which stood on 
the site of the handsome residence now occupied by Dr. John W. Rewalt. 

*The Round Top was despoiled of its timber to supply charcoal for the Mount 
Vernon furnace, (situated about four miles east of Middletown,) when it was run 
by the Grubbs. 


He afterwards removed to Middlesex township, Columbia county, 
where he died in 1830, at the age of 76. 

An Old Ferry House. 

In Port Royal on the point of land at the mouth of the Swatara 
stood, until recent years, a large old building built of yellow pine logs 
and weatherboarded, which withstood the elements for over a century. 
It was two stories and a half in height, with high pitched roof, and 
contained a number of rooms. Its early history could not be ascertained 
and in the flush times of the lumber trade, when the Swatara was filled 
and the Susquehanna at this point, lined for miles with rafts, keel-boats 
and arks — this was a tavern, and a great place of resort for boatmen, 
raftsmen and travelers on the river road. John and Christian Zimmer- 
man, William Embick, Stephen Atherton, Isaac Lightheiser and Fred- 
erick Karper were among its later landlords. There was another ferry 
here, and on the western shore of the Swatara, immediately opposite, 
stood Frank Murray's tavern. 

From Scott's Geographical Description of Pennsylvania, published in 
1805, I cull the following: "Middletown, a considerable post town, sit- 
uated near the northwest branch of the Swatara, about two miles above 
its confluence with the Susquehanna. The inhabitants carry on a brisk 
trade in wheat and flour, by means of the Susquehanna and its east and 
northwest branches. Contiguous to the town is one of the largest mer- 
chant mills in the United States. Middletown is 15 miles southeast of 
Harrisburg, 92 W. by N. of Philadelphia, and 142 miles from Washing- 
ton city."' 

(An accurate geographer, if his information was as correct in all other respects, 
it must have been. invaluable. — C. H. H.) 


Although Wesley and Whitfield commenced their field preaching in 
1739, yet it was not until 1759 that Robert Strawbridge, Philip Embury 
and Thomas Webb established Methodist societies in this country. They 
came to America, not as missionaries, but two of them to earn a living, 
and the third (Capt. Thomas Webb) in the service of his King. They 
were soon followed by others. 

The difficulties encountered by these early pioneers were both physi- 
cal and moral. Much of the country through which they were compelled 
to travel was overhung with malaria ; good roads were rare, many of 
them being made by burning the brush, and blazing the trees: Rivers 
were plenty, and fords were few ; of bridges there were hardly any. In 
spring the circuit-rider was often knee deep in mud ; and in winter, if 
without a compass, hopelessly adrift in the snow. The cabins where 
they could lodge were few ; some of them with the latch string pulled 
in, some of them the resorts of horse thieves and desperadoes. In some 


sections the Indian prowled with wolf-Hke ferocity. The rude hos- 
pitaHty of the settler was given with a warm heart, but often with 
dirty hands. The rough blanket which was laid over the itinerant 
sleeper, was often biting with vermin, or the worst forms of cuta- 
neous disease. Often he was hungry, sometimes asking a blessing upon 
a crust of bread,, sometimes for days without as much as that. Asbury's 
meagre pittance of sixty-four dollars a year, was a fair sample of a 
preacher's pay. 

But the moral difficulties which confronted them were greater than 
the physical. Their position from 1770 to 1784 was one of peculiar 
peril. Wesley pronounced disloyalty a sin, and the Methodist preachers 
here were held responsible for his opinions ; they were all supposed to be 
Tories, and were known to be opposed to slavery. Now while the loyal- 
ists were far more numerous than the readers of Bancroft would ever 
dream, the patriots were suspicious, aggressive and violent. In some 
localities the Methodist places of meeting were stoned, the windows 
broken, guns and squibs fired, or boards placed over the chimneys. 
Some of the preachers were imprisoned, others beaten and injured for 
life, others nearly killed. Even Asbury was forced to seek shelter in 
Delaware, and in 1784, when Coke and Whatcoat arrived, he alone re- 
mained of those who had come from England. 

Even at that time outspoken utterances against slavery required no 
little courage, but the same spirit filled them as that which animated 
George Dougherty when, in 1798, he carried through the annual con- 
ference at Sparta, Georgia, the resolution that 'Tf any preacher should 
desert his station through fear, in time of sickness or danger, the con- 
ference should never employ that man again." They were a brave, ar- 
dent and faithful class, those early Methodist itinerants ; men whom 
no mobs could frighten, no difficulties daunt ; and sometimes the bullies 
and desperadoes got the worst of it, particularly when they encountered 
a preacher of the Cartright stamp, who believed in what is now termed 
"muscular Christianity," and who smote them with the "sword of the 
Lord and of Gideon." 

The Methodist itinerants visited Middletown more than a century 
ago, and the first Methodist preaching in the county, antedating that at 
Halifax by twenty-one years, occurred here. As early as 1780, this was 
a preaching place of "York Circuit," then embracing a large area of 
country, and parts of what are now several counties, the preachers cross- 
ing the river a few miles below Middletown. Services were held at 
the dwelling house of Dr. Romer, on High street, then occupied by Eli 
Rigg, one of the first Methodists in the town. 

Sometimes two or three months would elapse ere the itinerant made 
his appearance. In good weather, however, and with no sickness on the 
part of the circuit riders, services were held every four weeks. Little 
is known of the progress of the church here for several years, but early 
in the last century Middletown became part of Dauphin circuit. 

March 12th, 1814, Arnold S. Johns, Eli Rigg, Andrew Alexander, 


John Funk and William Foulk, trustees of the Methodist Episcopal con- 
gregation of Middletown, purchased of Philip Ettla, a lot of ground at 
the northern extremity of Union street, containing seven hundred and 
thirty square yards, for sixty dollars. (This lot had been sold to Ettla, 
June 22nd, 1793, by Frederick Zeppernick for £3, and was part of a 
tract of sixty acres deeded to Zeppernick, March 5th, 1767, by George 
Fisher and wife.) A small frame church was erected on this lot shortly 
afterwards, and was dedicated in the year 1816, by Rev. John Goforth, 
preacher in charge of Dauphin circuit. Here the Methodists worshipped 
for about forty years. This was the second church edifice erected in 
Middletown. In 1839 the building was remodeled and improved. Rev. 
Curry preached the sermon at the reopening. 

At that time this location was not far from the centre of the town, but 
after the canal and railroad were constructed, that part of Middletown, 
which was then called Portsmouth, began to grow, and the larger part 
of the members residing in that vicinity, in 185 1, the cornerstone of a 
new church edifice was laid on Ann street above Catherine. 

In 1856 Middletown was taken from the Dauphin circuit, and with 
Hummelstown and one or two other points, constituted a new charge, 
with Rev. George G. Rakestraw, as pastor. He. found an unfinished 
church, heavily encumbered and with about twenty members ; but by 
dint of earnest effort, in which he was supported by a small congrega- 
tion, a satisfactory arrangement was made with the contractor, Mr. 
George Rodfong. The building was finished and dedicated May loth, 
1854, Rev. D. W. Bartine officiating. 

In 1857 Middletown was taken from the circuit and made a station 
with Rev. George G. Rakestraw as its first pastor. During this year an 
act of incorporation was procured from the Dauphin County Court, and 
the following trustees are named therein : D. J. Boynton, Thomas Fair- 
man, Seymour Raymond, N. T. Wood, Yetman Eaves, John Seibert and 
Henry Lynch. The corporate name is "The Middletown Methodist 
Episcopal Church." 

This church not being of sufficient capacity for the increasing congre- 
gation, early in the year 1883 it was determined to build a larger and 
better house of worship. June nth, the trustees, Thomas Fairman, Sey- 
mour Raymond, Benjamin S. Peters, George W. Ettele, John Fratts, 
John Atkinson and A. S. Matheson, purchased lot No. 298, at the south- 
east corner of Ann and Catherine streets, of Adam Baumbach for $2,500. 
The following committee were selected to superintend the erection of a 
building thereon, viz: Rev. L. B. Brown, Seymour Raymond, B. S. 
Peters. John Atkinson and A. S. Matheson. 

August 3rd, 1883, the cornerstone was laid in the presence of a very 
large concourse of people, with Masonic ceremonies. In it were placed 
a Bible, a Methodist Episcopal hymn book, a Methodist Episcopal year 
book, a Methodist Episcopal discipine, a copy of the Christian Advo- 
cate, Our Church Monthly, ^^liddletown Press, Middletown Journal, 


names of the members of the church and Sunday schools, history of the 
three church buildings, and a program of the exercises. 

The work was immediately commenced and so vigorously pushed that 
the edifice was completed and ready for occupancy by the time for the 
meeting of the succeeding annual conference. The church was dedi- 
cated bv Bishop Thomas Bowman, D. D., LL. D., Sunday, April 27, 

The building is a handsome one, is eighty-five feet long and fifty-five 
feet wide, with an annex four feet in depth in the rear. It is built of 
brick, trimmed with Gettysburg gray granite, is two stories high and 
roofed with slate. Four doors give easy ingress and egress. Two 
wide stairways, protected with heavy balustrades of walnut lead to the 
auditorium. This room is filled with the softened mellow light entering 
through nine Gothic windows of cathedral glass. The ceiling is high 
and peaked, following the slope of the roof. The pews are constructed 
of walnut and ash ; the pulpit, chancel and pulpit furniture are of solid 
carved walnut. The choir is back of the pulpit, slightly higher and 
facing the congregation. In a recess behind the choir is a large and 
handsome pipe organ. The arrangements for heating and ventilation 
cannot be surpassed ; a batter}^ located in the basement automatically 
opens or closes the ventilators, thus maintaining an even temperature. 
The Sunday school room on the first floor, is very complete ; it is divided 
by glass partitions into three departments, and at the opening and clos- 
ing of the school these are all thrown into one. The infant school is in 
the rear of the main school ; both are well furnished. The other two 
rooms are used as class rooms. The library is also in the rear of the 
Sunday school room, and is well stocked with books. 

The architect was William Miller, of Harrisburg; the builder, Wil- 
liam Starry. 

The pastors of the church have been : 1856-58, George E. Rakestraw 
1858-60, S. W. Kurtz; i860, William B. Gregg; 1861-63, J. S. Lame 
1863-65, J. M. Wheeler; 1865-67, S. T. Kemble ; 1867-69, Allen Johns 
1869, L. B. Hughes; 1870-72, J. Montgomerv; 1872-74, T. B. ^liller 
1874-77, S. G. Grove; 1877-79, J- T. Swindells; 1879-82, W. H. Fries 
1882-85, L. B. Brown; 1885-86, M. L. Graves; 1886, David McKee 
1890, William Rink; 1891, S. H. Evans; 1895; William Ridgway; 
1898, J. T. Gray; 1900, W. H. Pickop ; 1902, R. H. Crawford; 1905, 
W. E. Yeager, the present pastor. 

Sunday Schools. 

The history of the Methodist church is so identified with that of the 
Sunday school, that I am tempted to give a slight sketch of the latter 

Hannah Ball, a young ^Methodist, at High Wycombe, England, organ- 
ized a Sunday school in 1767, fourteen years before Robert Raikes began 
his at Gloucester ; and it was Sophia Cook, a member of the Wesleyan 


Society at Gloucester, who afterwards became the wife of Samuel Bran- 
burn, one of Mr. Wesley's most efficient ministers, who first suggested 
to Robert Raikes the idea of a Sunday school, who was also his first 
teacher, and first led his ragamuffin school through the streets of Glou- 
cester to the parish church. 

When Raikes organized his Sunday school in 1781, from John Wes- 
ley it received its principal support. "It seems," says he, "these schools 
will be our great means of reviving religion throughout the nation." 
The Sunday school was first noted in print by Raikes in 1783. In Jan- 
uary, 1785, Wesley, in his Armenian Maga::ine, commended it to his so- 
cieties as a promising field of usefulness. Before 1787 he had Sunday 
schools among his people numbering seven or eight hundred pupils. 
The Methodist Church also originated the system of gratuitous teaching, 
recommended by John Wesley in England, and Francis Asbury in Amer- 
ica, and by the South Carolina conference in 1790, which was the first 
great advance in the spirit and method of Sunday school work. John 
Fletcher conceived the idea of a Sunday school literature ; Dr. Vincent 
originated the uniform and international system of lessons ; the Sunday 
School Institute was first suggested by Dr. Kidder. 

Bishop Asbury established the first Robert Raikes Sunday school on 
this continent, at the house of Thomas Crenshaw, in Hanover county, 
Virginia, but Ludwig Hacker started a Sunday school in Pennsylvania 
(thirty years before Robert Raikes established his), which flourished 
for over twenty-five years. Joseph Alleine opened a similar school in 
England fifty-nine years before that ; the Pilgrim Fathers established 
the first Sunday school in Massachusetts fourteen years before that ; 
Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, established them throughout his large 
diocese before that; John Knox inaugurated the Sunday schools of 
Scotland, "with readers," twenty-three years before that ; Martin 
Luther's celebrated Sunday school at Wirtemburg existed thirty-three 
years before that; the catumenical schools of Origen and TertuUian 
were in operation thirteen hundred years before that. If necessary we 
can trace it back for forty centuries. But these schools degenerating 
into mere training places for endless formalities and soulless catechisms, 
were finally abandoned altogether, and it was two hundred and fifty 
years after the Reformation, before the Sunday school of to-day took a 
definite form in the brain of Robert Raikes. 

After the removal of the Union Sunday school from the Ebenezer 
iMethodist church (see paper No. 21), it ceased to have any Methodist 
connection. Some time afterwards a union school was opened in the 
school house, southeast corner of Ann and Wood streets, but the church 
was poor and weak, and it was not until Middletown was made a sta- 
tion that a sustained eflFort was made. 

June 7th, 1856, a Sunday school was organized in the new (second) 
church, the basement not being completed. 

The first officers were : Superintendent, Thomas Fairman ; assistant 
superintendent, Solomon Heiney ; secretary, Yetman Eaves ; librarian. 


D. J. Boynton ; assistant librarian, Reuben Aliller ; treasurer, G. G. 
Rakestraw ; teachers, Harry Fisher, David Boyle, J. Horner, B. Black, 
J. S. Steese, Wm. Embich, J. A. Piatt, V. Foreman, A. E. Fairman, F. 

A. Murray, Mercy Woughter, Sara Eaves, Annie Wolfley, ]\Iatrona 
Fisher, Harriet Fairman, Mrs. Reed, Lydia Hughes, Mary J. Bennett, 
Angeline Lochman, Margaret Henderson, Mary Fairman and about 
eighty scholars. July 20, Seymour Raymond was made assistant super- 
intendent. In September following the school numbered 2~ teachers 
and 150 scholars. 

In May, 1862, a mission school was started in Port Royal, with Sey- 
mour Raymond as superintendent; in a short while it numbered 140 
scholars. In 1864 so many of the male members of the Sunday school 
had gone into the army that the superintendent had to relinquish its 
control, to take charge of the parent school. 

The superintendents have been : 1856, Thomas Fairman ; 1857-62- 
63-64, N. T. Wood; 1858-70, D. J. Boynton; 1860-61, 1865-69, 1871- 
83, Seymour Raymond; 1883-1903, Joseph F. Raymond; 1904, H. V. 

B. Garver, the present incumbent. 


About 1825 Rev. John Winebrenner, a minister of the German Re- 
formed Church, but who had withdrawn therefrom and entertained and 
preached views on experimental religion which differed somewhat from 
those held by the church, resided at Harrisburg. At the request of the 
friends of Mrs. Black, who had been at one time a member of his con- 
gregation, and who had died on the farm of George Fisher, Esq., Mr. 
Winebrenner came to Middletown to preach the funeral sermon. The 
feeling against him was so strong that some of the older citizens refused 
to have anything to do with him, on the ground that he was not a min- 
ister in good standing in any church. John McCammon, however, on 
being asked whether he would walk with Air. Winebrenner on the occa- 
sion, cheerfully consented, and they were afterwards warm friends. 
The funeral services were held in the Lutheran church and some of the 
young men of the town were so favorably impressed with Mr. Wine- 
brenner, they invited him to preach. The doors of the Lutheran church 
were, however, closed against him, but Mrs. Flanagan, who had charge 
of the Ebenezer Methodist meeting house, opened that building to him, 
and under his ministrations a great revival commenced. He continued 
preaching alternately with the Methodist circuit preachers for several 
years. About 1832 his friends deemed it advisable to have an edifice of 
their own. In the meantime, however, some friends of Mr. Winebrenner 
residing in Middletown, Harrisburg and vicinity met at Linglestown and 
organized a new church or sect, adopting the doctrines taught by J\Ir. 
Winebrenner and styled themselves the "Church of God," but for many 
years they were generally known as "Winebrennarians." Mr. Wine- 

Lilierty Engine House. 





brenner always disapproved of this term, and all his followers are now 
known as members of the "Church of God." The first members of this 

congregation (in 1827), were Susanna Smuller, Bare, Elizabeth 

King, Jacob Rife, Joshua Heppich, Jacob Benner. John Benner, Henry 
Siple, Joseph Ross. George Smuller, George Etter, Conrad Seabaugh, 
George Baker, John McFarland, Eliza Longhead and Eva Crist. 

The first church edifice of this new denomination ever built, was 
erected in Middletown in 1832, on lot No. 23, on the east side of Union 
street, about midway between Water street and Centre Square. It was 
a frame structure, lathed and plastered on the outside. There were two 
entrances at the front, reached by high stairs or steps. The pulpit was 
placed between the doors at the end of the building towards the street, 
and those entering faced the audience. The building had a basement in 
which the Sunday school was held, and at one time a week-day school 
w'as taught therein by Samuel Dennis. 

In 1848, by a change of grade in the street, so much filling was done 
in front of the chvirch that the high steps were no longer necessary, and 
the entrance to the building was made much easier. In 1852 the edifice 
was enlarged by extending the front to the line of the street, casing the 
whole outside with brick, and making a vestibule and gallery. The lat- 
ter was constructed so as to be shut ofif entirely from the auditorium, 
if desired, and was of sufficient capacity for Sabbath school and prayer 
meetings. The internal arrangements were so changed that the pvilpit 
was at the end opposite the entrance. On account of the gradual giving 
away of the wall, the church council, in June, 1873, appointed a com- 
mittee to ascertain the cost of repairing the building ; and at the meeting 
of council, in July following, it reported that it was inexpedient to spend 
any money on repairs. Shortly afterwards it was decided to erect a new 
church edifice, at a cost not exceeding ten thousand dollars ; and to be- 
gin its erection when eight thousand dollars were subscribed. 

The lot section was on the northeast corner of Spring and Water 
streets, which was purchased for twelve hundred dollars. In November, 
1873, eight thousand and thirty-eight dollars had been subscribed. 
Ground was broken June 9th, 1874, and the cornerstone laid June 8th. 
During the following winter the regular services, prayer meetings and 
Sunday schools were held in the basement; and in the winter of 1875 
and 1876, the auditorium was thrown open for the use of the great con- 
course of people attending the union meetings. It is a brick structure, 
and the steeple is one hundred and sixty-eight feet high, surmounted by 
a ball and vane. The roof is of slate, both on main building and steeple. 
The walls are frescoed and the windows of ground and stained glass. 
The seats of the basement are of iron and walnut and chestnut wood, 
with movable backs. Those of the audience room are of the same ma- 
terial, but fixed. The pulpit and reading desk are made of walnut and 

Among the pastors have been Elders John Winebrenner, Smitmer, 
Kyle, Edward West, McCartney, Croll, Mackey, William Miller, Joseph 



Adams, Jacob Flake, William ]\Iooney, A. Swartz, Edward H. Thomas, 
William :\Inllineux. A. Snyder. D. A.'L. Laverty and B. F. Beck. Since 
1867 the pastors have been: 1867, J. Stamm ; 1867-70, J. Keller; 1870- 
y2, T. Haifleigh: 1872-75, George Sigler; 1875-77; W. L. Jones; 1877- 
79, T. .Aliller: 1879-80, W. P. Winbigler; 1880-83, D. S. Shoop; 1883- 
85, J. B. Lockwood; 1885, O. H. Betts ; 1888, G. W. Getz; 1891, J. 
M. Carvell; 1893, C- I- Behney; 1894, J. H. Esterline; 1896, George 
Sigler; 1903, W. J. Schaner ; 1905, Harry Hoover, the present pastor. 

Bethel Sunday School. 

In the early part of the year 1832 (eight years after the formation of 
the "American Sunday School Union"), a Union Sunday school, one of 
the first in the country, was commenced in the old Ebenezer Methodist 
church. It opened with seventy scholars, six male and four female 
teachers. November 25 of the same year it was moved to the Bethel 
church edifice, and, the schoolroom in the basement not being completed, 
met in the auditorium. 

Its male superintendents up to the present time have been : Joshua 
Heppich. George Smuller, Martin Peck, Augustus H. Shote, Lawrence 
Elberti, Jacob Rife, Sr., John Heppich, D. W. Stehman, J. W. Bax- 
stresser and H. G. Schreiner. Its female superintendents were Desidary 
Metzgar and Margaret A. Shott. Its earliest secretaries were W. J. Mc- 
Cammon, Daniel Kendig and Henry Schreiner. Augustus H. Shott was 
the first librarian and continued in that position for many years. The 
scholars in 1832 from November 25th to the close of the year were. 

Scholars. Parents. 

Brestle, Michael, Peter Brestle, 

Brestle, Mary, Joseph Brestle, 

Brestle, Ann, Joseph Brestle (uncle), 

Bomberger, Jacob, John Bomberger, 

Brown, David, Mercer Brown, 

Boyer, Washington, Mrs. Wiman (G. M.), 

Boner, Amanda, William Glover, 

Crawford, Jane, James Crawford, 

Crawford, Sarah, James Crawford, 

Cameron, W. Brua, Simon Cameron, 

Cameron, Rachael, Simon Cameron, 

Crawford, Thomas, James Crawford, 

Carr, Margaret, Alargaret Carr, 

Davis, Daniel, Henry Hawk (stepfather), 

Ettlev, David, Philip Ettley, 

Ettley, Mary D., Philip Ettley, 

Etter, Franklin, George Etter, 

Etter, John, George Etter, 

Etter, Harriet, George Etter, 




Etter, Anna Eliza, 
Elder, John, 
Elliot, William, 
Earisnian, Elizabeth, 
Earisman, Charlotte, 
Earisman, Christian, 
Gross, Elizabeth, 
Glover, Washington, 
Glover, Susan, 
Glover, John A., 
Heppich, Catharine, 
Heppich, John, 
Hemperly, Harriet, 
Hemperly, Lena, 
Hemperly, John, 
Hogan, Richard, 
Heppich. Christian, 
King, Christian, 
Kendig, Daniel, 
Kendig, Ann, 
Kendig, Benjamin, 
Kisseker, Sarah A., 
Kisseker, Margaret, 
Kunkle, Christian, 
Kobb, Sarah, 
Lowman, Frederick, 
Lowman, Edward, 
Lemon, James, 
Metzgar, L,aura, 
Murray, Rachel, 
Murray, Sarah, 
Miller, Sarah, 
McCammon, Elisha, 
McCammon, David, 
McClure, David, 
McClure, William, 
McGlennan, John, 
Murphy, John, 
Morton, James, 
Minshall, Geo. A., 
McMurtrie, Wm,, 
Mundal, David, 
Russel, James, 
Russel, William, 
Ross, Joseph, 
Ross, William, 


George Etter, 

John Elder, 

Thomas Elliot, 

Jacob Earisman, 

Jacob Earisman, 

Jacob Earisman, 

George Gross, 

William Glover, 

William Glover, 

William Glover, 

Joseph Heppich, 

Joseph Heppich, 

Michael Hemperly, 

Michael Hemperly, 

Michael Hemperly, 

Richard Hogan, 

Jacob Heppich, 

Elizabeth King, 

iMartin Kendig, 

Daniel Kendig, 

Daniel Kendig, 

Eliza Kisseker, 

Eliza Kisseker, 

Benjamin Kunkle, 

Peter Kobb, 

William Lowman, 

William Lowman, 

Samuel Lemon, 

Jonas Metzgar, 

Francis Murray, 

Francis Murray, 

Conrad Miller (grandfather) 

John McCammon, 

John McCammon, 

Mary McClure, 

Mary McClure, 

Richard McGlennan, 

Benjamin Murphy, 

Geo. Smuller (guardian), 

Simon Cameron, 

David McMurtrie, 

John Mundal (brother), 

James Russel, 

James Russel, 

Joseph Ross, 

Joseph Ross, 



Ross, Christian, 
Redfield, Philander, 
Seabaugh, John, 
Seabaugh, Samuel, 
Shott, John, 
Snyderly, Christian, 
Snyder, Jacob, 
Snyder, John, 
Snyder, Jeremiah, 
Snyder, Maria, 
Snyder, Sarah, 
Sellers, George, 
Sellers, Hiram, 
Sellers, Sarah, 
Sellers, Mary, 
Simcox, Abraham, 
Stoner, Henrietta, 
Smith, Sarah, 
Smith, Elizabeth, 
Smith, Ann, 
Smith, Catherine, 
Schuster, Susan, 
Schuler, John, 
Spayd, George, 
Thompson, Sarah, 
Thomas, William, 
Woodruff, John, 
Woodruff, Caleb, 
Williams, Samuel, 
Yorger, George, 
Yorger, Emanuel. 

Joseph Ross, 
Anna Redfield, 
Conrad Seabaugh, 
Conrad Seabaugh, 
Margaret Shott, 
Widow Sndyerly, 
Widow Snyder, 
Widow Snyder, 
Francis Murray (uncle), 
John Snyder, 
John Snyder, 
George Sellers, 
George Sellers, 
George Sellers, 
George Sellers, 
Henry Schreiner (uncle), 
Joseph Ross (uncle), 
Henry Smith, 
Henry Smith, 
Henry Smith, 
Henry Smith, 
Christian Schuster, 
John Schuler, 
Christian Spayd, 
John McCammon, 
Mr. Thomas, 
Caleb Woodruff, 
Caleb Woodruff, 
Major Williams (uncle), 
Simon Yorger, 
Simon Yorger. 


War of 1812. 

This war arose, as is well known, from the assumption by England 
of the right to search American vessels, and to take therefrom all sea- 
men whom her officers claimed as British subjects. Congress declared 
war June 18, 1812; authorized a call for 100,000 troops and voted $5,- 
000,000 for war purposes. 

On March 12th (one month before this action by Congress), Gover- 
nor Snyder of Pennsylvania issued his proclamation calling for 14,000 
men. More than three times the number of volunteers responded. In 
1812-13 they were not needed, but upon the destruction of Washington 
and threatened attack upon Baltimore in 18 14, the troop from this 


county marched to York and Baltimore. News of the sig-ning of the 
treaty of peace (December 24, 1814) reached here February 11, 1815, 
and in March, after an absence of about six months, the boys returned 

Among others from Middletown who marched on that occasion were : 
Christian Spayd, brigade inspector; Captain Peter Snyder, John Sny- 
der, John Lehigh, George Hathorn, Joshua Heppich, Michael Cassel, 
Jacob Brown, John McElrato, David Weirich, John Wolf, David 
Moser, John Grunden, David Ettele, Michael Hemperly, John Conrad, 
Daniel Bollinger, Jacob Bollinger, John Smith, Lawrence Elberti, Geo. 
Johntz, Michael Gross, John Cassel, W. Curry, George Remley, George 
Critzen, Charles Hughes, Christian Karp, Philip Youngblood, Thomas 

Incorporation of the Borough. 

The borough was incorporated February 19, 1826, with the following 
boundaries: "Beginning at a stone at the east end of the town on the 
south side of Main street, thence south six degrees east forty-one 
perches to a stone ; thence south eighty-six degrees west sixty perches 
to an apple tree ; thence south sixty-six degrees west eighty-two perches 
to a stone ; thence south twenty-two degrees east two perches and five- 
tenths to a stone; thence south sixty-seven and a half degrees west 
thirty-two perches to a stone; thence north twenty-four degrees west 
across Main street sixty-one perches to a stone ; thence north thirty- 
four degrees east six perches to a stone ; thence north thirty-two de- 
grees west twenty-one perches to a stone; thence north seventy degrees 
east thirty-two perches to a stone ; thence north thirty-two degrees west 
two perches to a stone; thence north sixty-five degrees east one hun- 
dred and eight perches and five tenths to a stone ; thence north eighty- 
six degrees east sixty-one perches and five-tenths to a stone ; thence 
south eight degrees west forty-six perches to a stone ; and thence along 
the south side of the said Main street south eighty-nine degrees east 
seven perches and five-tenths to the place of beginning." 

The first borough election was held the second Tuesday of April 
following, at the tavern of David Kissecker. By legislative act of 
March 9th, 1857, the limits and boundaries were so extended as to in- 
clude the town of Portsmouth and lands contiguous and adjacent to the 
said borough and town. Thus the borough boundaries were then made 
to comprise the following limits: "Beginning at a point on the river 
Susquehanna, and at low watermark thereof, opposite to the termina- 
tion of a certain lane between the lands of George Crist and company, 
and land now or lately the property of A. Welsh ; thence by lands of 
same and J. Rife, John J. Walborn, and Stephen Wilson, north eighteen 
and one-quarter degrees east, two hundred and seven perches to the 
center of the Middletown and Harrisburg Turnpike road; thence by 
said turnpike road south seventy-eight degrees east, forty-six perches 
to a stone ; thence north sixty-four degrees east twelve perches ; thence 


north sixty-one and one quarter degrees east sixty perches to George 
Grist's lane; thence by lands of Ghrist Brown, Croll and others, north 
twenty-seven and one-quarter degrees west one hundred and seventy- 
two and one-half perches to lane at side of Red Hill ; thence by said 
lane north sixty-nine degrees east one hundred and one perches to the 
great road leading from Middletown to Hummelstown ; thence south 
one-half degree east three hundred and twenty-one perches to center of 
Swatara creek; thence down the said creek or river, the several courses 
thereof, to the junction of the said creek and the Susquehanna river at 
low water mark thereof seven hundred and thirty-eight perches ; thence 
up the said Susquehanna river the several courses thereof to the place 
of beginning." 

The same act divided the borough into three wards, viz : All that part 
of the said borough lying north of a line commencing at a point on the 
Middletown and Harrisburg Turnpike, and running directly through 
Water street to a point on the Swatara creek, to be called the North 
ward, and all that part lying south of said line, and north of a line com- 
mencing in the lane forming the western boundary of the borough op- 
posite the extension of Ann street, directly through said extension and 
through Ann street to a point on Swatara creek to be called the Aliddle 
ward, and all that part lying south of the said Ann street line to be 
called the South ward. 

The first election under the newly extended wards and borough oc- 
curred on the third Friday in March, 1857, when three councilmen were 
elected from each ward, and were by lot divided into three classes, to 
serve one, two and three years respectively. Thereafter one was annu- 
ally elected from each ward for a term of three years. The first elec- 
tions were held as follows : In the North ward, at the brick schoolhouse 
on Pine street ; in the Middle ward, at Union Hall on Elizabeth street ; 
and in the South ward, at the town schoolhouse, corner of Spring and 
Ann streets. 

The fourteenth section of this act, extending the limits of the bor- 
ough, and giving council power to survey, lay out, enact and ordain 
streets, roads, lanes, alleys, courts and sewers, was specially exempted 
from applying to the tract of land included within the borough limits 
(as created by this act) late the estate of George Fisher, deceased, 
called and known by the name of "Pine Ford." 

The Mexican War. 

Then annexation of Texas — a measure which, although opposed by a 
powerful minority in that republic, was earnestly desired by the slave 
oHgarchy in the United States, who hoped by its subsequent division 
into four or five States, to increase their representation, strengthen their 
rapidly declining power, and maintain their supremacy in the national 
councils — was successfully accomplished December 24, 1845. 

Texas had originally been a province of Mexico; and that country 


had never recognized its independence, consequently war ensued. In 
1846 Congress appropriated $10,000,000 to carry on the war, and au- 
thorized President Polk to accept 50,000 volunteers. Of this number 
Pennsylvania was awarded two regiments. 

The people of Middletown were staunch Whigs, and were not enthu- 
siastic supporters of the war. Few of them responded and I have been 
given the names of but nine who went from this place, viz : Henry 
Stentz, Christian R. Spayd, Abraham Simcox, John Kincey, Daniel 
O'Donnell, James Murphy, George M. Lauman, Jacob Furman and 
William Black. They participated in several engagements. Henry 
Stentz was wounded, lay for some weeks in the hospital at Vera Cruz, 
and was discharged from there April 13th, 1847; Christian R. Spayd 
died in the city of Mexico, and Abraham Simcox returned home at the 
close of the war in 1848. Of the others I have no record, except that 
George M. Lauman was appointed paymaster. 


It was soon after his arrival in 1682 that William Penn divided his 
province of Pennsylvania into three counties, viz : Bucks, Chester, and 
Philadelphia. By the act of May loth, 1729, Lancaster county was 
separated from Chester. In 1784 a proposition being made to the As- 
sembly to form the present county of Dauphin out of a portion of Lan- 
caster, the inhabitants of Middletown sent in the following memorial : 

"To the Honorable the Representatives of the Freemen of the Com- 
momvealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly: The petition of the 
inhabitants of Lancaster county humbly showeth, that 

"Whereas, The said county being very extensive, and the increase 
of the inhabitants becoming very great, renders the attendance upon 
courts and other business burdensome and expensive to your petitioners, 
occasioned by their situation being so far distant from the county town. 

And Whereas, It seems to be the intention of a respectable number 
of the inhabitants of the county to make application to the Honorable 
House for redress of this burdensome grievance, to have the county di- 
vided into two separate counties for the ease and welfare of the said in- 
habitants ; and when any grievances or inconveniences arise to the in- 
habitants of the State, petition to the Honorable House is the mode to 
make them known to yovir Honors ; and as by experience we are made 
sensible of your strong inclination to remove any inconvenience that at 
any time and from time to time, may arise to your constituents ; you 
first being made sensible that the inconvenience complained of is real 
and well founded, we make no doubt but that you would permit us 
humbly to intimate to you our ideas of the mode of relief, which we 
would beg leave to do, leaving the ultimate determination to your better 

"If you should think proper to divide the county, we would presume 


to recommend the town of Aliddletown. in the lower end of Paxton town- 
ship, as by far the most proper place for the county town, for many 
clear and obvious reasons, which we think would naturally occur to the 
Honorable House, but lest they should not, we beg to mention ours. 

"First, Aliddletown will be as central as any other place that can be 
thought of. Then its situation upon the river Susquehanna, accom- 
modated with the finest, indeed, we may venture to say, the only fine 
safe harbor upon said river, and public utility of the said river Susque- 
hanna to the State of Pennsylvania and to the city of Philadelphia in par- 
ticular, is unquestionable ; that river being a fine navigable river for boats 
from ten to twelve tons burden coming down said river, the river Juniata 
and other streams leading into the Susquehanna some hundreds of miles 
from a fine fertile country on all sides of the river; and we must fur- 
ther presume that time is not far distant when a communication will be 
eifecied from this river to the western waters of the great Lake Erie, 
attended with very trifling land carriage between the heads of the two 

"Another great advantage to the State and particularly to the city of 
Philadelphia, will naturally accrue, and that is, instead of great quan- 
tity of produce of dififerent kind being carried from the counties of York 
and Cumberland to the town of Baltimore, they will be carried through 
the channel of the town of Middletown to the city of Philadelphia. 

"It may not be improper to observe that Middletown is situated at 
the very lowest end of navigable water of said river Susquehanna, so 
that the trade of that extensive river will at all events centre in that 
town and be carried from thence to the city of Philadelphia, and conse- 
quently will draw off from the city a very considerable quantity of mer- 
chandise of all kinds to the new country upon and beyond the Susque- 
hanna river. 

"And, further, that it is not improbable that in time the trade will be 
carried from Middletown to the city of Philadelphia, by water carriage, 
via the river Swatara and other waters to the river Schuylkill, as we 
stand informed that this water communication was viewed some years 
ago by a number of gentlemen of eminence appointed by the House of 
Assembly for that purpose, and reported very practicable. 

"And also that Middletown has the great advantage of being seated 
upon such high ground that they need never be apprehensive of an in- 
undation, even in the lowest part of the town, by the overflowing of the 
Susquehanna and Swatara rivers. 

"That the Honorable House may appoint Middletown for the county 
town is the earnest desire of your petitioners, and by granting the same 
we, as in duty bound, shall ever pray, etc. 

"Lancaster county, March ye 2nd., 1784. 
"Ezra Patterson, "Ludwig Sulwink, 

"Jacob Schneider, "Daniel Croll, 

"Charles Brandon, "Frederick Seybold, 

"Nicholas Cassel, "Anthony Baume, 


'Jacob Schrader, "John McCann, 

■John Burnharter, "Mnrtin Cox, 

"George Miller, "Daniel Walter, 

'Edward Moyer, "James Moon, 

'Conrad Bombach, "Thomas Edminston, 

'Jacob Shantz, "Jacob Smith, 

"Lenox Stawl, "Henry McCann, Jr., 

■Jacob Kraft, "Daniel Dowdel, 

'Jacob Hershey, "Frederick Schuyler, 

'John Nobel, "Sebastian Hendrie, 

'Emanuel Conrad, "James Van Hoerst, 

'John Bachenstose, "James Foster, 

'John Bowman, "Daniel Weylster." 

There are but few signatures to this petition, and there is a notable 
absence of the names of then prominent citizens. It is possible that 
other memorials were sent in, but — owning to causes which I may here- 
after allude to — not probable. 

By an act passed March 4th, 1785, the Assembly created the county 
of Dauphin and fixed the county seat at Harrisburg. 

This was the turning point in the destinies of Middletown and the 
latter place. The former was at the time a town containing eighty or 
ninety houses (and four or five hundred inhabitants), at Harris' ferry 
there was but one building. Then the heaviest trade on the Susque- 
hanna centered in Middletown, and the immense emigration surging 
westward, passed through it ; the larger portion of which, deflecting at 
Chambers' ferry, avoided Harris' alltogether. The effect of the act of 
1787 was marked, as a couple of extracts wall indicate. 

In 1787 {two years after the county seat ivas located), the Rev. 
IManasseh Cutter, who passed through on his way to the Ohio, thus 
writes in his journal : 

"It (Harrisburg) contains about one hundred houses, all built in less 
than three years, many of them brick, built in the Philadelphia style; 
all appear very neat. A great number of taverns, with handsome signs ; 
houses all two-story. About one-half of the people are English. People 
were going to meeting ; thev meet in private houses ; have no churches 

John Penn, son of Thomas Penn, and grandson of William Penn, 
stopped at Harrisburg over night during a journey he made from Phil- 
adelphia to Carlisle, in 1788. In his journal he says: 

"Mr. Harris, the owner and founder of this town, informed me that 
three years ago there was but one house built, and seemed to possess 
that pride and pleasure in his success which ^Eneas envied. One good 
point of view is the tavern almost close to the river. This was the 


house which stood alone so many years. It is called the Compass, and 
is one of the first public houses in Pennsylvania. The room I had is 
twenty-two feet square and high in proportion," 

In 1795, 1796 and 1797 the Duke de la Rochefoucald-Liancourt, of 
France, was traveling in America. He discourses thus of Harrisburg: 

"Mr. Harris, lord of the manor in which Harrisburg stands, availed 
himself of Air. Frey's error to procure his town advantages that the 
other neglected. No sooner was it in contemplation to form the tract 
of country, separated from Lancaster, into a distinct county, than he 
offered to the government of Pennsylvania to sacrifice not only a ferry 
on the Susquehanna, of which he was possessed, and the profits of w^hich 
he lawfully enjoyed, but also — land in and about the town. This offer 
induced the government of Pennsylvania to make this the chief town 
of the county, though it has neither an anchoring place for the ships 
that sail up and down the river, nor can afford them the smallest shelter. 

"The new county obtained the name of Dauphin. The first houses 
were built here in 1782, and their number at present amounts to three 


The Catholic Church. 

The first organized Catholic colony in this country, and one of the 
first to establish religious toleration, was that of Lord Baltimore, 
founded in 1632. 

From Maryland the church crossed into Pennsylvania, and we find a 
considerable Catholic settlement at Conewago about 1740, from which 
points priests visited Central Pennsylvania and soon began the erection 
of churches, among the first of which were St. Mary's at Lancaster, and 
St. Peter's at Elizabethtown. The Catholics of Lancaster were organ- 
ized in 1740 and St. Peter's congregation at Elizabethtown seven years 
later. It was at this church that the Catholics of Aliddletown and its 
vicinity worshipped for over a century, and therefore a short account of 
it is here given. 

St. Peter's church was organized as early as 1752, when the scattered 
Catholics of the district assembled at a little log cabin, erected by Henry 
Eckenroth on his farm about three miles from Elizabethtown, and called 
the "Church of the Assumption." It was at first a mission attached to 
St. Mary's church, Lancaster, and visited by the priests of that parish, 
which then included Middletown, Columbia, Harrisburg, Lebanon, &c., 
in fact the whole of Central Pennsylvania. 

At that time the wayfarer between these and more distant points 
would occasionally meet a solitary priest, on horseback, journeying to 
visit his few parishioners, to give them religious instructions and hold 
services in their widely separated cabins and hamlets. The records 
show that some of them were never again heard of; alone they sank to 


rest, the soughiii<^ of the wind through the forest aisles their only re- 
quiem, the falling leaves or drifting snow their only shroud. 

In 1757, in answer to a request of the Governor for a statement of 
the number of Catholics in the Province of Pennsylvania, Father Farmer 
counted those in Lancaster county as : 

Men. Women. 

Germans, 108 94 

Irish, 22 27 

The congregation of St. Mary's was composed principally of Ger- 
mans, and the priest spoke and preached in both the German and 
English languages, or it sometimes happens that there were two priests, 
each of whom attended to one nationality. 

In 1795 Rev. Ludwig Barth was appointed by Bishop Carroll to St. 
]\Iary's, Lancaster. He immediately began to take steps for the erection 
of a new church at the then growing mission of Elizabethtown. In this 
he was much encouraged by Bishop Carroll. There were then from 
150 to 200 communicants. In 1796 a site was selected in the village, 
and May 30, 1799, the cornerstone was laid by Rev. Father Barth. The 
church committee were Henry Eckenroth, John Kauffman and Andrew 
Gross. Among the more prominent members who acted on the commit- 
tee of the building were : Dominick Eagle, Stephen Felix, John Witman, 
Charles Wade, John Lynch, George Carolus, Adam Gross, Simon Eck- 
enroth and John Wagner. 

To show the devotion of those early Catholics, it is related (either of 
this church or St. Mary's, Lancaster) that the women came daily to mix 
the mortar, while the men gathered the stones from the adjoining farms 
and carried them to the site of the building. 

Father Barth administered the affairs of the mission until 1807. One 
of his associates. Rev. Michael Egan, became first bishop of Philadel- 
phia in 1808. Upon his death Father Barth was urged to accept the 
mitre, but declined. He died in September, 1844, aged 80 years, in the 
54th year of his priesthood. He was succeeded by Revs. Beschter, 
Bryan, Hogan, Schenfelder, Burgess and Holland. Then Rev. Bernard 
Keenan took charge of St. Mary's and its mission, and was pastor over 
53 years, dying, universally regretted in 1877. In 1832 Father Keenan 
gave Rev. M. Curran charge of St. Peter's. He, finding the church too 
small, began the erection of an addition. In this improvement the poor 
Irishmen, then engaged on the railroad, assisted. It was finished in 
1834. In 1847 Rev. Pierce Maher attended this mission. In 1840 
Father F. X. Marshall succeeded. During his pastorate a parsonage 
and a new altar and pulpit for the church were erected. Rev. Michael 
Filan was his successor. In October, 1855, Rev. John McCosker took 
charge of Elizabethtown and missions. The number of Catholics at 
Middletown had considerably increased and "Father John" took a spe- 
cial delight in building up that mission. 


St. ^Mary's Church (Middletown). 

There is a tradition that in 1779, when General SuUivan was here 
preparing for his expedition, a priest celebrated mass for some of the 
workmen, but nothing definite could be learned. 

The earliest Catholics in the vicinity of Middletown that we have 
any record of were : Henrietta Brandon, John Luck, John ]\IcCristal, 
Bernard Alooney, Patrick Boyle, John AIcGuigan and their families. 
They were occasionally visited, after 1795, by priests from Elizabeth- 
town and Conewago. 

Those settlers were probably drawn into the current of emigration 
westward, for in 1846-47 there were but three Catholic families in town, 
viz : Those of Patrick O'Donnel. Richard McGranigan and Luke Nor- 
ton, although in the neighborhood were the Doughertys, Sweenys, Wit- 
mans, Youtzs, Cannons, ]McGarveys, Bradleys, Hollands, Gross, Flynns, 
IMcCanns. AIc^NIillans, Allwines, Schaeffers, &c., some of whom had 
been settled here for many years. In the absence of any priest these 
families would ride, drive, or the male members, cane in hand, would 
walk to Elizabethtown or Harrisburg to church. Services were first held 
at private houses (notably at Luke Norton's) then at the brick school 
house on Furnace Hill, and afterwards at the old school house on the 
southwest corner of Ann and Wood streets. 

In 1857 a lot was secured, and Father John McCosker, to whose 
untiring efforts the congregation is in a great measure indebted for their 
church, began to collect means to build it. 

The cornerstone of "St. ]\Iary of the Seven Dolors" was laid Sun- 
day, September 20. 1857, by Rt. Rev. John Newman, bishop of the dio- 
cese of Philadelphia, assisted by Doctor O'Hara, Rev. John McCosker, 
and several other priests. Doctor O'Hara (afterwards Bishop of Scran- 
ton, Pa.) preached the sermon on this occasion, and also at the conse- 
cration of the church. 

It is located on high ground, at the western end of Ann street, above 
Lawrence ; is a brick structure, of Gothic style with an organ gallery. 
It has a seating capacity on the first floor of over two hundred, and is a 
handsome, well-ventilated edifice. Edward Hodnett built it for nine 
thousand dollars. It was opened for divine service in the spring of 1859, 
Rev. John McCosker officiating. In 1861 Father McCosker was ap- 
pointed chaplain of the fifty-fifth regiment, Pennsylvania volunteers, 
which was assigned to duty in South Carolina. Before starting on his 
journey he was presented with a handsome sword and belt by James 
Young. He served faithfully until, overcome by hardship and disease, 
he returned to Philadelphia and soon afterward died. 

In November, 1861, Rev. Hugh McGorian, who had been on the mis- 
sions in Australia and \'an Dieman's Land, came to America, and was 
appointed pastor of Middletown and Elizabethtown. February 19, 
1864, he died. His successors (each surviving a short time) were: 
Revs. R. V. O'Connor, Eugene Sullivan, Thos. Walsh and Patrick Mc- 
Swiggan. Rev. J. J. ^Icllvaine then took charge. Owing to his exer- 


tions the debt was paid off. After him, December, 1869, Rev. P. J. 
Nunan was appointed. He was followed, February, 1870, by Rev. 
Charles McMonigle, who remained here until September, 1873, when he 
left to take charge of St. Patrick's, at York, Pa. The first mission was 
held in the church, November 10, 1864, by Rev. Father Wendelin, a 
Benedictine monk, under the auspices of Rt. Rev. Bishop Shanahan, 
of Harrisburg, when a considerable number were confirmed. In com- 
memoration thereof a large cross has been erected in the church, bearing 
the date of the mission, and the text, "Abide in my love." — John v:io. 

After Rev. McMonigle's departure. Rev. J. J. Mcllvaine again took 
charge and remained until the close of 1877, when sickness compelled 
him to quit. 

From 1877 to 1879 the church was supplied by different priests. In 
1879 Rev. J. C. Foin was appointed. Father Foin served from 1879 to 
1889. During his incumbency a piece of ground containing nearly three 
acres was purchased at the eastern end of Main street, and laid out as a 
Catholic cemetery. It was consecrated by him, June 26, 1885, he being 
delegated to do so by Rt. Rev. Bishop J. F. Shanahan. (Previous to 
this acquisition the members of St. Mary's had to take their dead to 
Elizabethtown for interment.) It is enclosed by a neat fence and is 
well cared for. 

Since Father Foin's incumbency the priests have been : 

1889 to 1 89 1, Rev. James A. Huber. 

1 891 to 1892, Rev. C. Kenny. 

1892 to 1895, Rev. B. J. Campbell. 
1895 to 1897, Rev. James M. Barr. 
1897 to 1900, Rev. P. J. Costigan. 
1900, Rev. S. Clement Burger. 
1900 to 1901, Rev. L. Stein. 

In 1 901, Rev. H. M. Herzog, the present pastor, was appointed. 
In 1902 a handsome rectory was built. 


[The Harrisburg Telegraph, some time ago, contained the following, 
which we transfer to Chronicles as a portion of the town's history. The 
Pineford spoken of gave its name to the farm of George Fisher, and was 
just above the old rope ferry crossing the Swatara, which Fisher's 
bridge now spans.] 

("The road referred to especially was probably that which com- 
menced at now Paxtang street, from Race street to Paxtang creek and 
continued on the low ground through Highspire — the run there being 
known as Renick's run — to the Swatara. Most of this road was ab- 
sorbed by the original incorporators of the Harrisburg and Middletown 
turnpike. The "back road is yet in existence. The paper is in the hand- 
writing of Robert Baker, the first signer.") 


The Humble Petition of the Inhabitants of Paxton to the Honorable 
Court of Quarter Sessions, Sitting in Lancaster ye Urst Tuesday in 
Feb'y in the Ye r of our Lord one thousand seven hundred & fourtey 

Whereas, we understand that there is appHcation made to your Wor- 
ships for a Road to John Harrises from the pine fourd upon the Swa- 
tara to Coume Down on the River Side within the Bottoms, which we 
Luck upon to be an unsuportable Burden that we are unable to Bair, for 
maney Reasons ; first, because of the maney Grate Swamps & mudey 
Runs that is to be Bridged ; secondly when they are Bridged there is no 
Expectation of them standing one Season, by Reason of the floods, 
thirdly because the most of the Way is so soft that a Leetil time Wagons 
would Cut it so that we never will be able to make it good or maintain 
it, & besides all this, sum years ago John Harris sued for & obtained a 
Road from his house to the pine ford & notwithstanding of all our La- 
bour & pains in Cutting & Bridging of the s'd Road, we acknowledge 
that it is not Good, nor scarcely passable by the Direct Survey ; Whereas 
a small vareyation might have mist those places that is not passable. 
We are Bold to assert that not six Rod might a mist sum of them. 

We beg Lave of Your Worships to hear us patiently to Represent our 
Case fairley as it is; & first, we have briefly shown sum of the Evils 
that will attend that Road on the River side, within the Bottom; & 
secondly that the Road already surveyed & Cut from John Harrises to 
the pine fourd is not Good ; & now wou'd humbly shew whie this Lat- 
ter Road is not Good & scarcely can be made Good ; & first, because 
there was contending parties about the farries, to Witt John Harris & 
Thomas Renicks ; & the s'd Harris haveing obtained an order of court 
for his Back Road & all the men appointed for the laying out of it was 

strangers to these Woods owne : & he being Renickses 

special frind & near kinsman, the worst way he piloted them the Less it 
answered Harrises intent & the more Renixes ; and besides all this, the 
very same day that this Back Road was Laid out the Sherieph held a 
vandew of Peter Allon's Goods; & there was few or none of the near 
neighbours at home to shew them a Better way which we presume sum 
of your pettisnors can do, and notwithstanding of all the objections that 
may be made, that we did not varey a small matter when we Cutt the 
Road in anwer to that ; so we would had we not been Divided ; theye 
that was for Renickes was punctual for the survey, sum threatened to 
stop it if we Left the survey & others affraid if they Left the survey 
they wou'd have to coume & Cutt it again ; Therefore your peitisinors 
Humbley Begs that there may be a final stop put to the Riverside Road, 
& we acknowledge that it is the Glorey of a Countrey to have Good 
Roads ; & w^e promise to be as assistive as possable we can, & Dos pur- 
pose a Better ^^^ay & as near as aney yet purpos'd, & we can shew your 
Worships a Reason for it, the Distance between Susquehanna & Swa- 
tara is but a Littel way, & the Waters or Runs falling botth wais we can 



find Champion Drye ground between the two, not that we are 

own Royd for another, but that, that will be for a publick good. 

Your Worships Compliance to our petitisions will oblige your Humble 
Petitisioners Ever for to pray : 

Robert Baker, 
John Shields, 
Richard McClure, 
Oliver Willey, 
Andrew Hannah, 
Thomas Smith, 
William Sharp, 
]\Iatthew Shields, 
James Morgan, 
John Gray, 
James Polk, 
Robert Smith, 
James Eaken, 

Samuel , 

William Chambers, 
John Johnson, 
Thomas Morrison, 
George Alexander, 
Pat. Montgomery, 
Joseph Scott, 

David Shields, 
John Barnett, 
Michael Graham, 
Andrew Colwell, 
Alexander Meharg, 
John Killcreest, 
James Kern, 

William S , 

Thomas Farrell, 
Andrew Scott, 
Thomas Elder, 
Thomas Dugal, 
James Coler, 
Robert Gray, 
Timothy Shaw, 
John Forster, 
Anthony Sharp, 
Henry Mcllroy, 
Robert Armstrong, 
John Porience, 

Samuel McCorkel, 
Thomas Forster, 
Jeremiah Sturgeon, 
John Lowry, 

James L. , 

Wm. Chambers, 
James Gilchrist, 

Jacob S , 

Wm. McMillan, 
John Willey, 
Alexander Cully, 
William Barnett, 
John Cavet, 
Samuel Sturgeon, 
Alexander Osborn, 
Thomas Simpson, 
William Scott, 

Thomas W. , 

Andrew Foster, 
Nehemiah Steen. 

(Half a century ago.*) 

The "Swatara Guards" — an infantry company, flourished for a num- 
ber of years. They were a fine body of men, well drilled, under the 
command of a capable officer who took great interest in the company. 
The uniform was a blue swallow-tailed coat, faced with yellow, and 
trimmed with yellow cord and innumerable "bullet buttons." Large 
yellow epaulettes covered the shoulders. The pants were blue also, 
with a yellow stripe down the sides. The cap was high and stifif, with 
a large brass plate in front, and a heavy plume of scarlet feathers, a foot 
or more in height. A small pompon was afterwards substituted for 
the plume. When on parade a good deal of powder was burnt in firing 
by platoons and by company in the market square, where they were 
generally dismissed. This company was also furnished with a brass 
field-piece, which was served by a detail of members. 

A rifle company was also in existence. Their uniform was a long 

*This extract is from the Salamagundi papers, written by Dr. John Ringland, 
and copied from an old scrap book kindly loaned me by Mrs. McCord. 


green frock coat, and dark pants, the bottoms faced on the outside with 
leather or oil-cloth, so as to resemble boot-legs ; the cap was sealskin 
with the hair on and of a gig-top style, with black ostrich feathers for 
plume. They were also well-drilled, and marched and shot well. 

The target used by the companies was made of boards, and was about 
the size of an ordinary door ; on it was painted the life size figure of a 
man. The prize for the best shot among the rifles was the privilege of 
wearing a set of white ostrich feathers along with the black. Our friend. 
Mr. George Rodfong, was a good shot and on more than one occasion 
"showed the white feather." 

"Battalion" and "General Review" days of militia were the days of 
the year. The "bone and sinew" then reported themselves for the an- 
nual inspection, review, drill and parade. As for uniform, each dressed 
according to his inclination, some wore coats and some did not ; the 
coats were of all colors, shapes and material — from white to black, and 
from linen to broadcloth. Hats and caps of every style covered the 
heads. Some of the yeomen wore boots, some shoes, and others went 
barefoot. As for weapons, they were various, muskets, rifles, double 
and single barrel shotguns, canes, hoop-poles, corn-stalks, and umbrel- 
las — the latter frequently hoisted to protect their bearers from the rays 
of the sun, or occasional showers. The officers generally provided them- 
selves with a sword, scabbard and belt. The drill and inspection were 
on a par with the arms and accoutrements. The generals, colonels and 
other mounted officers charged furiously on their fiery, untamed steeds, 
conscious that the fate of the nation depended upon them. The different 
regiments having formed their lines, marched through town to the 
parade ground or "commons" followed by all the children old enough to 
accompany them. The "common" was the ground lying between Ann 
street and the canal, in what was then Portsmouth, and in which but 
few houses had been erected. Their military evolutions were executed 
with wonderful precision, no two obeying the word of command at the 
same time, unless by accident, and such a thing as keeping step was un- 
known. The firing, considering that there was scarcely a charge of 
powder in the whole line, was equally well done. After inspection, an 
hour's rest was given, when arms were grounded and ranks broken. 
From the numerous hucksters who always thronged the field on those 
occasions, plentiful supplies of lemonade, small-beer, Monongahela 
whiskey, brandy, rum or gin, were obtained by the tired soldiers, whose 
subsequent evolutions were somewhat tangled. 


In 1825 a schism occurred in St. Peter's Lutheran church under its 
pastor. Rev. Peter Sahm. A great religious revival was in progress in 
the town, and meetings were nightly held in the lecture room, which was 
always well filled. Many members of the church made professions of 

Ann Street M. E. Church. 

TiiE Nl-v^ VuRK 



a change of heart. This was an innovation, and some of the more con- 
servative members looked upon the movement as heretical. Finally the 
opposition to the meetings became so great, that many of the members 
left the church, and started a new congregation, called "Christ Church." 

In 1838, Philip Ettele, Adam Hemperly, Henry Brenneman and John 
Wolf, trustees of Christ church, bought from John Bomberger, Jacob 
Bomberger, Jonas Metzgar, John Snyder, Christian Lehman and Ben- 
jamin Kunkle, a lot of ground on the northwest corner of Spruce and 
Water streets, for $150.00, built thereon a brick church, and continued 
to worship here for many years. The membership gradually declined 
owing to deaths and removals until it was no longer able to support 
a pastor ; and finally those remaining connected themselves with other 

On December 13th, 1861, the trustees of Christ church sold the build- 
ing to Rev. C. J. Ehrehart, who conducted a flourishing private school 
here, known as the Middletown Academy, for several years. 

January 17th, 1866, Ehrehart sold to James Young, M. B. Rambler, 
Jacob L. Nisley, W. R. Alleman, John C. Carmany and G. W. Etter, 
for $906, and April 5th, 1867, these gentlemen sold to Valentine Baum- 
bach, David Peters and John Snyder, trustees of the United Brethren in 
Christ church for $1,200. 

This congregation had, in 1852, erected a frame church on Duck 
street south of Water a lot belonging to John Shoop. It gradually in- 
creased in membership, until it was able to effect the purchase aforesaid, 
which after it came into their possession was entirely renovated and re- 
modeled. For many years only a circuit, this is now a prosperous sta- 

On August 23rd, 1872, the surviving trustees of Christ church, viz: 
Benjamin Kunkel and Adam Hemperly, conveyed to Solomon L. Swartz, 
Joseph Weirich and David Detweiler, trustees of the United Brethren 
church, the cemetery north of the church. 

In 1892 the congregation having grown too large for the building, the 
church built the present edifice. It is a large and handsome structure 
with a belfry tower and all modern appliances, steam heat, electric lights, 
stained glass windows, etc. 

The first Quarterly Conference of this station met May 2nd, 1874. 
The following names were placed upon the roll as members. Rev. J. 
Baltzell, Rev. H. C. Phillips, Rev. Jacob Focht, Rev. Solomon Swartz, 
Augustus Parthemore, A. H. Reider, John Mathias, John H. Baker, 
Howard P. Focht, Benjamin Bletz, John JMaginnis, David A. Detweiler 
and Harry S. Roop. A. H. Reider was elected secretary. 

The first stationed pastor was, 1874-76, Rev. H. C. Phillips; 1876, 
Rev. J. R. Reitzel; 1876-77, Rev. Israel Groff; 1877-78, Rev. H. W. 
Zimmerman; 1878-80, Rev. James M. Lesher (who is now a missionary 
in Africa) ; 1880-83, Rev. James G. Fritz; 1883-85, Rev. A. H. Kaufif- 
man; 1885-86, Rev. Theodore Wagner; 1886, Rev. Z. C. Mower; iT"" 


89, Rev. Thomas Garland ; 1890-95, Rev. J. G. Smoker ; 1896-1904, Rev. 
E. Ludwick ; 1904, Rev. D. S. Eshleman, the present pastor. 

A flourishing Sunday school is connected with the church. Its super- 
intendents since 1871 have been: 1871-73, E. B. Bierbower; 1873-76, 
Andrew Poorman ; 1876-77, J. R. Reitzel ; 1877-78, John H. Baker; 
1878-79, D. A. Detweiler; 1879-80, Aaron Robb ; 1880-93, D. A. Det- 
weiler; 1894-96, Charles Orth ; 1897-1900, J. C. Detweiler; 1901-2, 
J. R. Snyder; 1903-5, D. B. Kieffer, who still holds that position. 

Immediately north of the church is a new and neat parsonage. 

The Mennonites. 

A congregation of New Mennonites afterwards purchased the aban- 
doned frame church on Duck street south of Water. The membership 
was small and meetings were held once a month. After a short interval 
the services were discontinued and the building removed. 

Speaking of the Mennonites, as the members of this denomination 
were, next to the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, the earliest settlers in this 
county, and as they are still numerically strong in the neighborhood of 
Middletown, a short sketch of them may not prove uninteresting. 

The Mennonites are a set of German Baptists, who derive their name 
from Menno Simonis. He was born in Friesland in 1505. In 1537, hav- 
ing been previously a Catholic priest, he united with the Baptists. A 
few years previous to his union with them, this sect had been led away 
by their zeal into the most fanatical excesses at Munster. Menno col- 
lected the more sober-minded into regular societies, who formed an in- 
dependent church under the name of Mennonites, or Mennonists. 

Menno traveled through Germany and Holland, disseminating his 
doctrines and gathering many followers. He died at Oldeslohe in Hol- 
stein, in 1561. Before his death his followers had divided themselves 
into two parties, differing in regard to the rigor of discipline. Other 
sub-divisions occurred after his death. These sects were only tolerated 
in Europe on the payment of exorbitant tribute, and still suffered many 
grievances and impositions. William Penn, both in person and in writ- 
ing, first proclaimed to them that there was liberty of conscience in 
Pennsylvania. Some of them, about the year 1698, and others in 1703 to 
171 1, partly for conscience's sake, and partly for their temporal interest, 
removed here. Finding their expectations fully answered in this plen- 
tiful country, they informed their friends in Germany, who came over in 
great numbers, and settled chiefly in Lancaster and the neighboring 

In 1770 Morgan Edwards estimated that they had in Pennsylvania 42 
churches and numbered about 4,050 persons. They are remarkable for 
their sobriety, industry, economy and good morals, and are very useful 
members of the community. 


The Aymish. 

The Aymish, or Ornish, are a sect of the Mennonists who profess to 
follow more rigidly the primitive customs of the apostolic church. They 
derive their name from Aymen, their founder, and were originally known 
as Avmenites ; they wear long beards, and reject all superfluities, both 
in dress, diet and property. They have always been remarkable for in- 
dustry, frugality, temperance, honesty and simplicity. When they first 
came over and settled near Pequea creek, land was easily acquired, and 
it was in the power of each individual to be a large proprietor, but this 
neither agreed with their profession nor practice. 

In the year of 1720, a thousand acres were offered to an influential 
member of the Aymish faith by the proprietary agent, but he refused the 
grant, saying: "It is beyond my desire, as also my ability to clear; if 
clear, beyond my power to cultivate ; if cultivated, it would yield more 
than my family can consume ; and as the rules of our society forbid the 
disposal of the surplus, I cannot accept your liberal offer ; but you may 
divide it among my married children, who at present reside with me." 

When the sect came to the country they had neither churches nor 
burial grounds. "A church," said they, "we do not require, for in the 
depth of the thicket, in the forest, on the water, in the field, in the dwell- 
ing, God is always present." 

Many of their descendants, however, have deviated from the ancient 
practice, and have both churches and burial grounds. 

During the Revolution, owing to their refusal to take up arms, pay 
the fines imposed on them, or swear allegiance to the Continental gov- 
ernment, they were continually embroiled with the authorities ; as a 
reference to the early State records will show. According to the census 
of 1880, they had 300 churches, 350 preachers and 50,000 members. 

The; Dunkards. 

As a few of the earlier inhabitants of Middletown belonged to this 
sect, and as there are yet some remaining in its neighborhood, I append 
a short account of them. 

The word Dunker of Tunker is a corruption of Taeufer, Baptist. 

In the year 1708, Alexander Mack, of Schreisheim, and seven others, 
in Schwardzenam, Germany, met together regularly to examine the New 
Testament, and to ascertain the obligations it imposes on professing 
Christians, determining to lay aside all preconceived opinions and tradi- 
tional observances. Their inquiries resulted in the formation of the so- 
ciety now called Dunkards or First-day German Baptists. 

Persecuted as they grew into importance, some were driven into Hol- 
land, some to Creyels, in the duchy of Cleves, and the mother church 
voluntarily removed to Scrustervin, Friesland ; and thence emigrated to 
America in 1719, and dispersed to different parts — to Germantown, 
Skippack, Oley, Conestoga and elsewhere. Soon after a church was 
established at Muelback (Mill creek), Lancaster county. One division 


of this sect, that at Ephrata, Lancaster county (about thirty miles from 
here), deserves special mention, from the fact that they succored and 
comforted the distressed families of Paxton during the French and In- 
dian wars. Although opposed to bearing arms, they opened their houses 
cheerfully to the fugitives. The government tendered them its thanks, 
and Governor Penn offered them a whole manor of land, but they would 
not receive it. 

This society owned a farm, a grist mill, paper mill, oil mill and fulling 
mill ; they established a printing office — the second German press in the 
State — where they printed many books, tracts and hymns. 

During the Revolution they were decided Whigs, and after the battle 
of Brandywine, the whole establishment was thrown open to receive 
the wounded Americans ; their Sabbath school house was converted 
into a hospital, and great numbers of the sick were transported there in 
wagons. The army sent to the mill for paper for cartridges, but finding 
none seized the printed sheets, and they were fired off against the British, 
at the battle of Germantown. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church. 

In July 1899, Dr. Hope, then rector of Steelton, held the first service 
of this church in Odd Fellow^s' hall. In a few weeks Ward Reese was 
sent to Middletown by Bishop Talbot and continued to hold services 
regularly at the same place. Early in September there was a meeting of 
the congregation, at which Archdeacon Baker was present. The name 
St. Michael and All Angels was then given the church. The Middle- 
town mission, in October, was made part of the Steelton mission, and 
placed under the care of Rev. W. H. Holloway. (Mr. Reese, after 
getting the Middletown mission in working order, left here to con- 
tinued his studies at school.) After Mr. Holloway took charge of 
the work, a room in Smith's Hall was rented and services held there 
regularly until the spring of 1903, when the hall, having been sold, the 
mission was removed to the frame building at the southwest corner of 
Union and Brown streets, where they still continue to worship. Rev. 
Holloway remained until January, 1902. He was followed by the 
Rev. F. Lyne. He was succeeded in January, 1903, by Rev. J. H. Earp, 
who remained until April, 1904, his successor being the present rector, 
Rev. R. F. Gibson. 

Old Saw Mills. 

Just north of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's stone bridge over 
the Swatara river, lately stood a large sawmill. Originally this was 
the site of a warehouse built by Mr. McKibben. It was turned into a 
sawmill. It was first run by Church, Landis and Kunkle, then by Chris- 
tian Landis and Washington Etter, then by Etter, Carmany and Siple, 


then by Cramer. Mann and Company, then by L. M. Condriet. It was 
abandoned and torn down about 1886. 

In 1856-7, E. and J. McCreary built a sawmill on the Susquehanna 
river, near the old ferry house. In 1866 they tore down this mill and 
removed to Royalton. It was burned down in 1873 ; was rebuilt and en- 
larged and sash and door factory and planing mill attached. Had circu- 
lar, gang and upright saws. Sawed sixty-five rafts in one year. Burnt 
down in 1885. 

William Murray and Martin and Daniel Kendig built a sawmill at 
"the point," where the Susquehanna and Swatara rivers join, in 1846. 
They were succeeded by Kendig, Lescure and Zimmerman. This was a 
large mill. Sawed in one year one hundred and four rafts. Was burnt 
down twice. 

A dilapidated looking building, still standing on the south bank of 
the Swatara, near Frey's grist mill, was a planing mill, built and run by 
Boynton and Co., then run by Christ and Brown. Burnt down. Then 
Kendig bought out Brown and rebuilt. Afterwards run by Kendig, 
Bricker and Lauman. Abandoned in 1892. Where this mill stands was 
once a foundry built by McBarron and Jenkins, afterwards D. Peterson 
ran it. (He was a burgess of the old borough before consolidation.) 

West of this mill stood a sash and door factory, owned first by Shott 
and Rohrer, then by Shott and Ulrich. Afterwards sold to the planing 
mill firm of Kendig, Bricker and Lauman. 

Wm. Rewalt (Dr. J. W. Rewalt's father), built a lot of cars on the 
ground now occupied by the Middletown Car Works. 

E. and J. McCreary had a boatyard at the weigh lock in 1850. 

John Watson had a boatyard where the Reading Railroad freight 
depot now stands. (Here Elijah McCreary learned his trade, March 
loth, 1844.) 

Henry Frick had a boatyard where C. H. Hoffer's barn now stands. 

On Hill Island, opposite the town, was built, in 1844, the largest mill 
on the river, by the firm of Jacob M. Haldeman (of Harrisburg), Harry 
Etter (of York), Martin Croll and George Crist. Croll and Haldeman 
bought out Etter, then Crist and Haldeman bought out Croll. Then 
Daniel Lamb bought out Haldeman. Then Croll bought out Lamb. 
This mill cut principally ship timbers, which were shipped by arks to 
Port Deposit, thence by schooners to Philadelphia, Baltimore and New 
York. Its capacity was over one hundred rafts per annum. It had 
four run of saws, also lath and pale saws, and one set of gang saws. In 
one year it cut one hundred and five rafts. The mill was subsequently 
run by Crist and Brandt. During their ownership, the building, which 
was then full of tobacco, went down the river in the flood of 1865, and 
lodged above Marietta, and was a total loss. It was the only mill run by 
water power. Crist at this time had two other sawmills at New Cum- 
berland. In addition to his Middletown properties, he owned a farm on 
the island. 

A sawmill was built on Brown street and the Union canal by Watson, 


Johnson and Yingst in 1857. It ran in connection with the boatyard 
until 1868, when it was bought by W. D. Hendrickson and V. C. Cool- 
baugh, and run under the name of Daniel Kendig and Company, in con- 
nection with planing mill and lumber yard until 1873, when the two 
last mentioned properties were sold to Kendig, Bricker and Lauman. 
The sawmill was run under the name of Daniel Kendig and Company 
until 1876. Then under the name of Coolbaugh and Hendrickson, until 
1888, when the Pennsylvania Railroad closed the Union Canal and 
obliged them to quit business. 

A planing mill and lumber yard were located on the ground where 
Sweigard's coal yard is now, in 1869, by Rider and Ramsey. In 1870 
John L. Nisley joined the firm. This mill was burned down in 1871. 

Fisher and Ramsey had a planing mill and sash factory on Wilson 
street about where the Weaver blacksmith shop now stands. Watson 
also built a boatyard and screw-dock about where the iron county bridge 
crosses the Swatara. He built many large canal boats here, which being 
too large to pass the locks of the Pennsylvania Canal, were floated down 
the river during high water to Havre de Grace. 

Farrington and Mumma had a mill at Royalton, where Tom Hol- 
land's property, known as "Brenneman's store" is. There was a rope- 
walk owned by T. Jackson and Son near the mill at Royalton. 

Burgess and Councilmen. 
The first Record Book of the borough was destroyed by fire in 1855, 
when the residence of Henry Stehman, then burgess, was burned ; con- 
sequently the records are incomplete, and we can only give a list of offi- 
cials and the dates of their election subsequent to that time. 

March i6th, 1855. March 20th, 1857. 

Burgess. Burgess. 

Henry Stehman. John K. Shott. 

Council. Council. 

Isaac Bear, Christian Fisher, North Ward — Wm. M. Lowman, 

Adam Hemperly, Jr., John Co- George Rodfong, Samuel Det- 

baugh, Abraham Landis, Eli May, weiler. 

David Lehman, George W. Elberti, Aliddle Ward — John Monaghan, 
Joseph Brestle. John E. Carmany, James Young. 

March 21st, 1856. South Ward — Stephen Wilson, 

Burgess. Elijah McCreary, Charles McClain. 

Henry Stehman. 1858 (Lost). 

Council. Burgess. 

Henry Croll, G. W. Elberti, Wil- John K. Shott. 

liam Croll, George Barnet, Dr. March i8th, 1859. 

John Ringland, Adam Hemperly, Burgess. 

Jr., Levi Hummel, John Yingst. Jeremiah Rohrer. 



North Ward— Jacob Rife (i 
year), Abraham Brandt (3 vears). 
Middle Ward— Henry Smith (3 

Southward — George Whitman (2 
years), James Hippie (3 years). 
March 17th, i860. 

Thomas Wilson. 
North Ward — Christian Fisher. 
Middle Ward — John Monaghan. 
South Ward — Elijah McCreary. 
March i6th, 1861. 
E. J. Ramsey. 
North Ward— J. H. Nisley. 
Middle Ward — James Young. 
South Ward— M. B. Rambler. 
March 21st, 1862. 
E. J. Ramsey. 
North Ward — Jacob Ebersole. 
Middle Ward— M. Buckingham. 
South Ward — Daniel Hake. 
1863 (Lost). 
Edward S. Kendig. 
March i8th, 1864. 
Yetman Eves. 
North Ward — John Hendrickson. 
Middle Ward — Henry Detweiler. 
South Ward — Henry Baumbach. 
March i6th, 1865. 
E. J. Ramsey, 
North \^^ard — Jacob Ebersole. 
jVIiddle Ward— William Hen- 

Soi'th Ward — Joseph Stewart. 

March i6th, 1866. 


Charles Churchman. 


North Ward — Joseph Brestle, 

Frederick Koerper. 

Middle Ward — John Monaghan, 
John Ringland. 

South Ward — James Witherow. 
March 15th, 1867. 

George Smuller. 
North Ward— Dr. M. Brown, 
Levi Hummel. 

Middle Ward — John Raymond. 
South Ward— M. B. Rambler, C. 
W. Churchman. 

March 20th, 1868. 
John McCreary. 
North Ward— Caleb Roe. 
Middle Ward — Samuel Landis. 
South Ward — Joseph Stewart. 
October 12th, 1869. 
D. J. Boynton. 
North Ward— (John F. Rife, Eli 

Middle Ward— Kirk Few, Sr., 
John Carmany. 

South Ward — Henrv Hippie, D. 
J. Hake. 

October nth, 1870. 


Henry Raymond. 


North Ward — Jacob H. Baxtres- 


Middle Ward — Joseph Campbell. 

South Ward Ziegler. 

October loth, 1871. 

Henry Raymond. 



North Ward — A. N. Breneman, 
J. W. Rife. 

Middle Ward— Kirk Few, Sr. 
South Ward— George D. Yent- 

Time changed to third Friday in 
March, 1872; all borough officers 
hold over till then. 

March 21st, 1873. 


Henry Raymond. 


North Ward — Henry Hinney. 

Middle Ward— W. D. Hendrick- 

son, John Klineline. 

South Ward — George Yentzer, 
Samuel Brandt, Al. Fortney. 
February 17th, 1874, 
H. C. Raymond. 
North Ward— Dr. A. N. Brene- 

Middle Ward — Samuel Landis. 
South Ward— F. P. Norton. 
February i6th, 1875. 

William H. Embich. 
North Ward — George Rodfong, 
Sr., Joseph Brestle. 

Middle Ward— John K. Shott. 

South Ward — A. Myers. 

February 15th, 1876. 


H. C. Raymond. 


North Ward— J. A. Swartz. 

Middle Ward — John Klineline. 

South Ward— A. B. Fortney. 

February 20th, 1877. 


John W. Rife. 

North Ward — Lauman, Kauflf- 

Middle Ward — Landis, Hen- 

South Ward — Norton. 

February 19th, 1878. 
John W. Rife. 
North Ward— C. H. Hoflfer. 
Middle Ward— C. W. King. 
South Ward — A. Poorman.. 
February 19th, 1879. 

Christian Shireman. 
North Ward — William Lauman. 
Middle Ward— D. A. Detweiler. 
South Ward— H. L. Rehrer. 
February 17th, 1880. 

Charles Churchman. 
North Ward — Jacob Rife. 
Middle Ward— W. H. Siple. 
South Ward — Joseph Stewart. 
February 15th, 1881. 
S. L. Yetter. 
North Ward— C. H. Hoffer. 
Middle Ward — Elias Earisman. 
South Ward— A. Roush. 
February 21st, 1882. 
S. L. Yetter. 
North Ward — John Few. 
Middle Ward— W. H. Kendig, 
D. A. Detweiler. 

South Ward— E. Nagle. 
February 20th, 1883. 
Henry Hippie. 



North Ward — John Baker. 
Middle Ward— H. B. Campbell. 
South Ward— H. L. Rehrer, Jo- 
seph Stewart. 

February 19th, 1884. 
Joseph Hewitt. 
North Ward — Frederick Wag- 

Middle Ward — Elias Earisman. 
South Ward— H. L. Rehrer. 
February 17th, 1885. 
J. H. Cobaugh. 
North Ward— D. W. Stehman, 
J. V. Heistand. 

Middle Ward — Martin Keiidig. 
South Ward — John Kohr. 
February i6th, 1886. 
J. H. Cobaugh. 
North Ward— John G. Fisher. 
Middle Ward— H. B. Campbell. 
South Ward— J. J. Norton, H. 
H. Parsons. 

February 15th, 1887. 


J. H. Cobaugh. 


North Ward— Dr. W. H. Beane, 

Dr. D. W. C. Laverty. 

Middle Ward— L. C. Keim. 
South Ward — George Gotshall. 
February 21st, 1888. 
C. H. Hutchinson. 
North Ward— E. K. Dommy. 
Middle Ward— H. Hippie. ' 
South Ward— E. McCrearv. 

February 19th, 1889. 
C. H. Hutchinson. 
North Ward— J. McDonald. 
Middle Ward — A. McNair. 
South Ward — E. K. Demmy. 
February i8th. 1890. 
C. H. Hutchinson. 
North Ward— H. Croll. 
Middle Ward— A. J. Lerch. 
South Ward — R. Benson. 
February 17th, 1891. 
S. L. Yetter. 
North Ward— H. Croll. 
Middle Ward— F. K. Mohler. 
South Ward — John Beachler. 
February i6th, 1892. 
S. L. Yetter. 
North Ward— J. McDonald. 
Middle Ward— J. Atkinson. 
South Ward — E. K. Demmy. 
February 21st, 1893. 
James H. Nicely. 
First Ward — R. Benson. 
Second Ward — A. J. Lerch. 
Third Ward— M. B. Schaeffer. 
February 20th, 18 )4. 
J. H. Nicely. 
First Ward — F. B. Hampton. 
Second V/ard — J. L. Nislev. 
Third Ward— L. Fenical. 
During Nicely 's incumbency the 
official term of the Burgess was ex- 
tended to three years. Nicely dy- 



ing, W. W. Kurtz was elected to 
fill out his unexpired term. 
February 17th, 1895. 
First Ward— AI. H. Hartman. 
Second Ward — I. K. Longe- 

Third Ward— E. O. Hendrick- 


February i8th, 1896. 
First Ward— G. W. Botts. 
Second W^ard — W. H. Bausman. 
Third Ward— M. Schaeffer. 
February i6th, 1897. 
Jacob Welsh. 
First Ward— J. Hubley. 
Second Ward — J. Ackerman. 
Third Ward— J. L. Nisley. 
February 15th, 1898. 
First Ward — W. C. Bowers. 
Second Ward— W. M. Hippie. 
Third Ward— C. Ashenfelter. 
February 21st, 1899. 
First Ward— G. W. Botts. 

Second Ward — H. W. Bausman. 
Third Ward— M. Snyder. 
February 20th, 1900. 
OHver M. Swartz. 
First Ward — M. Schaeffer. 
Second Ward — C. Long. 
Third Ward— J. L. Nisley. 
February 19th, 1901. 
First Ward— W. H. Martin. 
Second Ward — J. Atkinson. 
Third Ward— D. Seiders. 
February i8th, 1902. 
First Ward — W. Hippie. 
Second Ward — W. C. Fleming. 
Third Ward— E. J. Swartz. 
February 17th, 1903. 
John L. Whisler. 
First Ward — J. Clouser. 
Second Ward — W. Weaver. 
Third Ward— J. L. Nisley. 


Water Right Out of Frey^s Mill Race. 

This indenture made the twenty-fourth day of June, in the year of our 
Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, between George 
Frey, of Paxton township, in the county of Dauphin and State of Penn- 
sylvania, merchant of the one part, and John Fisher, of the township, 
county and State aforesaid, yeoman of the other part. Whereas the said 
John Fisher and Margery, his wife, by their indenture bearing equal 
date herewith, for the considerations therein mentioned, did grant and 
convey unto the said George Frey, his heirs and assigns, the privilege of 
cutting a canal or mill race through a certain piece or plot of ground 
for the purpose of conveying water to turn a mill or mills or other water 
works, which piece or plot of ground is commencing on the western 
bank of Swatara creek bounded and described as followeth, viz : Be- 
ginning at a post on the western bank of Swatara creek, near the divis- 


ion line of the said John Fisher and Blair McClenachan's land, extending 
along and near the division line aforesaid, south sixty-six degrees, west 
thirty-eight and a half perches to a post, thence by various courses and 
distances thhrough the other lands of the said John Fisher (party 
hereto), to the lot of ground on which the mill of the said George Frey 
now stands, and did also grant to him the said George Frey, his heirs 
and assigns, the sole and exclusive right of all the water that can be 
conveyed out of Swatara creek by the above mentioned canal or mill 
race through the lands of him, the said John Fisher, his heirs and 
assigns, as in and by the above mentioned indenture indented to be 
recorded, reference thereto being had, may more fully appear. 

Now this indenture witnesseth that the said George Frey, for and in 
consideration of the sum of five shillings to him in hand well and truly 
paid by the said John Fisher, at and before the ensealing and delivery 
of these presents, the receipt and payment whereof is hereby acknowl- 
edged. As for other good causes him thereunto moving hath granted, 
bargained, sold and confirmed, and by these presents doth grant, bar- 
gain, sell and confirm, unto the said John Fisher and his heirs, the lib- 
erty and privilege of laying one pipe or tube the bore of which is to be 
six inches in diameter at any one place between the place of beginning 
aforesaid and the post which makes the first corner in the above men- 
tioned line, the distance whereof is thirty-eight perches, for the purpose 
of conveying from and out of the said canal or mill race so much water 
as will pass through the said pipe or tube for the watering the meadow 
of the said John Fisher contiguous to the race aforesaid, but for no other 
use, interest or purpose whatsoever ; and also to permit and suffer the 
said John Fisher and his heirs to erect and build a bridge or bridges at, 
upon and across the canal or mill race aforesaid, for the convenience of 
him, the said John Fisher, but in such a manner as not to injure the said 
canal or mill race or to impede or obstruct the passing and repassing of 
boats or other craft thereon. 

To have and to hold the said liberty and privilege hereby granted, or 
intended so to be, to him, the said John Fisher, his heirs and assigns, 
forever, and the said George Frey, for himself and his heirs, executors 
and administrators, doth hereby covenant, promise, grant and agree to 
and with the said John Fisher, his heirs and assigns, that he, the said 
George Frey and his heirs, the said above liberty and privilege and 
premises unto the said John Fisher, his heirs and assigns, against him 
the said George Frey, his heirs, and against all and every other person 
lawfully claiming the said premises, shall and will warrant and forever 
defend by these presents. 

In witness whereof the parties to these presents have hereto inter- 
changeably set their hands and seals the day and year first written. 

George; Frivy. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of Jno. Jos. Henry, C. Fred 

Received on the day of the foregoing indenture of and from the above 


named John Fisher the sum of five shillings in full for the consideration 
in the foregoing deed specified. George^ Frey. 

Attest: — Jno. Jos. Henry, 

C. Fred. Oberlander. 

On the reverse of this deed is the following: 
Dauphin Coimty: 

Be it remembered that on the twenty-fourth day of June, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and eighty-nine before me, Jacob Cook, Esquire, 
one of the Justices of the Court of Common for said county, personally 
came George Frey and acknowledged the within indenture to be his 
act and deed and desired the same might be recorded as such. In wit- 
ness whereof I have hereunto set my name and seal the day and year 
aforesaid. Jacob Cook. 

Dauphin County, ss: 

Recorded August 28th, 1848, in the office for recording of deeds be 
in and for said county in Deed Book S, Vol. 2, Page 266. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the 
seal of said office at Harrisburg the day and year aforesaid. 

Robert F. Black, Recorder. 
Note : — This document is on ordinary writing paper and is in a very dilapidated 
condition. In phraseology and punctuation it is a verbatim copy of the original. 


The Great Rebellion cannot be attributed to the eflforts of the abol- 
itionists, for, as far back as 1776, John Adams wrote to his friend Gates, 
"All our misfortunes arise from a single source — the resistance of the 
southern colonies to a republican government." 

UnHke New England, the Middle States, or their children of the west, 
which were settled by the freedom loving refugees from tyranny in 
Europe, most of the early Southern States filled up with adventurers, 
Royalisis, Cavaliers, from England ; Huguenot noblemen and their re- 
tainers from France, and the worn out, impoverished nobility of Spain. 
The institution of slavery increased and perpetuated a governing class, 
that was rapidly turning this whole section of our country into the es- 
tates of a landed and slave-holding oligarchy, which controlled not only 
the legislation of the South, but also that of the nation. Slavery kept 
out immigration, hindered development, and tended gradually to ener- 
vate and emasculate the population of the territories where it existed. 
The free States, oppressed by no such incubus, rapidly grew in wealth, 
power and intelligence ; the northern democracy, the "mud-sills," from 
being subservient had become aggressive. The serf-begotten aristoc- 
racy saw that the power which they had so long wielded was slipping 
from their grasp. They endeavored to retain it by annexation of fresh 
territory — by legislation — finding all of no avail they resolved on sepa- 


On November 6th, i860, the vote of Middletown was: Lincoln (Re- 
publican), 227; Breckenridge (Democratic), 184; Bell (Union), 34. 

January 21st, 1861, there was a large mass meeting of citizens at 
Union Hall. Colonel John Raymond called the assembly to order and 
nominated Mercer Brown for president. Thirty-three vice-presidents 
were chosen. The secretaries were Benjamin Whitman, Thomas Wilson, 
William Ross and Henry Raymond. Addresses were made by Messrs. 
Christ, Buckingham, Eves, Seymour, Raymond, John Raymond, Henry 
Raymond, and Frederick Lauman. The meeting passed strong Union 

April 1 2th, 1861, news was received here of the attack that morning on 
Fort Sumter by the rebels. April 15th, President Lincoln issued his 
proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers. 

There was great excitement in town. Volunteers, singly and in 
groups, left to join different companies. The bands played. Ladies 
marching to the depot sang patriotic songs as the trains filled with sol- 
diers passed, and sent a delegate to offer their services to the government 
to care for the sick and wounded, if necessary. On Sunday, national 
songs were sung and patriotic sermons preached in the different 
churches. Subscriptions were started to provide for the families of 
those who enlisted, several persons offering $500 each. A full company, 
under Major Rehrer, was formed. 

April 22nd, this company, the J. D. Cameron Infantry, was organized, 
tendered themselves to the Governor, and were accepted. 

Sunday, May 5th, the company left Middletown for Camp Curtin, to 
which place they were conveyed by canal boats, accompanied by a brass 
band, and at least two hundred citizens. Before leaving the wharf here 
the company was addressed by Rev. J. S. Lame (M. E. minister), in the 
presence of over a thousand spectators. "Then amidst the beating of 
drums, blare of trumpets, waving of handkerchiefs, farewells, tears, and 
shouts of sympathizing friends, the boats moved off bearing away their 
freight of American patriots. Fathers and husbands, brothers and sons, 
have left their homes to fight their country's battles." — Dauphin Journal. 

May 24th, the company received their uniforms, viz : A light gray 
coat, fine cassimere pantaloons, and caps to match, the outfit being pre- 
sented by J. D. Cameron, Esq. Their subsequent history is that of the 
regiment of which they formed a part. 

Extracts from the Dauphin Journal. 

The Dauphin Journal of May 9th, 1861, says: "In addition to the 
above company a number of young men from this town joined the Cam- 
eron Guards and the State Capital Guards ; and another company, to be 
called the Middletown Rifle Company, is now being formed." In Com- 
pany E, of the First Pennsylvania Regiment, organized April 20, 1861, 
was Elijah S. Embich ; in the Second Pennsylvania Regiment, in Com- 
pany I, were James Harvey, Henry Brestle and Lot B. Allen. There 
were others whose names I have been unable to obtain. Neither of these 


regiments were in any general engagement, and at the expiration of 
three months, their term of enHstment, the men were returned home and 
mustered out of the service. 

On the same day (May 9th) the Journal says: '*J. Rohrer, Esq., is 
now drilhng a company at Union Hall. Mr. R. has had considerable 
military experience and will make an excellent officer. Captain D. J. 
Boynton is getting up a rifle company to hold themselves in readiness 
for any emergency. 

"May 23d — The Invincibles meet regularly for drill at Union Hall, 
and the company is making rapid progress under Capt. Rohrer. 

"June 6th. — Gen. Philip Irwin, of this place, appointed sutler in U. S. 
Army. Among the deputies selected by the General is W. H. Kendig, 
postmaster. William C. Ross, of this place appointed to a clerkship in 
U. S. Arsenal, Philadelphia. On last Monday (3rd) a number of the 
patriotic ladies of Middletown made havelocks for the J. D. Cameron 

"August 22nd. — Mr. Joseph Rife has been promoted to a second lieu- 
tenancy in the regular army. 

"August 29th. — Mr. L. B. Allen has been authorized to recruit a com- 
pany of cavalry, to be attached to Col. E. C. William's regiment. A 
meeting will be held at Union Hall this evening, when all who desire to 
enlist are invited to attend. Headquarters at Ravmond & Kendig's 

"October 3rd. — We are pleased to learn that Rev. John McCosker, 
pastor of the Catholic churches at this place and Elizabethtown, has 
been appointed by Gov. Curtin a chaplain to one of the Pennsylvania 
regiments. Honor could not have fallen upon a worthier recipient ; he 
commands the respect and esteem of all who are acquainted with him, 
and the army will contain no better Union man, nor one who will be 
more devoted to the welfare of those under his spiritual charge. 

On Saturday evening (September 28th) a meeting was held in Union 
Hall, to get volunteers for Colonel McCarter's regiment, of Lebanon. 
The meeting was addressed by Captain D. J. Boynton and Rev. Lame. 
Several young men enrolled their names. Colonel McCarter is a minis- 
ter of the gospel. Those wishing to join will report immediately to A. 
Black of this place, or Henry Pear. Colonel McCarter is expected to 
deliver an address in this borough this week. 

"October 24th. — A number of our most respectable young men have 
joined this company (Col. ]\IcCarter"s) and a few more, of good, moral 
character, are wanted to fill it. 

"October 31st. — Lieut. J. R. Rife, now at Fort Columbus, N. Y., is 
promoted to a first lieutenancy in the regular army. Col. McCarter's 
regiment, in camp at Lebanon, has received orders to move on Friday 
(Nov. ist). Capt. D. J. Boynton's company, of this place, is attached 
to this regiment. 

"November 7th. — Rev. John McCosker is appointed chaplain to the 
ninetv-fifth (Col. Goslin's) regiment. Shortly after his appointment 



he was the recipient of a handsome sword and belt, presented to him by 
Mr. James Young-, of this place, as a slight token of the donor's regard 
for the many estimable qualities possessed by the reverend gentleman. 
A number of young men from this place are at Camp Cameron, attached 
to a cavalry regiment. 

"Xovember 28th. — Middletown has now two hundred and twenty- 
five volunteers in the U. S. service. Mr. Alvan McNair, Co. D, 6th 
cavalry regiment, in writing to his father from Bladensburg, Md., says: 
'I like the service very well, and although a minor, am determined to 
fight for my country. You need not go to the trouble to get me out of 
the army, for I have made up my mind to stick to Uncle Sam until this 
outrageous rebellion is crushed.' There had been an effort made to get 
the writer out of the army on the plea of his being a minor. We admire 
the pluck of that young man. 

"December 12th. — A box of knit wool socks, sent as Christmas gifts 
to the soldiers bv 

Mrs. James Young, 

Mrs. D. Fortney, 

Miss Clem. Fortney, 

Miss Lizzie Arnold, 

Mrs. J. Beitleman, 

Mrs. Gray Kultz, 

Mrs. Jno. Suavely, 

Miss Violet Ramsey, 

Miss Mary E. Murr, 

Mrs. J. Eves, 

Mrs. A. Poorman, 

Mrs. Dr. Shaeffer, 

Mrs. C. Neff, 

Mrs. Kleiss, 

Mrs. D. Beaverson, Mrs. 

Mrs. Daniel Kendig, Mrs. 

Mrs. S. Henderson, Mrs. 

Mrs. M. Rambler, Mrs. 

Miss S. M. Eves. Mrs. 

Mrs. Catherine Wolfie Miss 

Mrs. M. G. Shott, ' Mrs. 

Mrs. Wash. Snyder, Mrs. 

Mrs. Rogers, Mrs. 

Mrs. Atkinson, Mrs. 

Miss May Fairman, Mrs. 

Mrs. Lorish, Miss 

Mrs. Thomas Fairman, Mrs. 

Mrs. Wm. Embick, Miss 

Mrs. W. Etter, Miss 


J. K. Buser, 
John Ulrich, 
Edward Kendig, 
M. Kissecker, 
F. Fisher, 
Elizabeth Snvder 
R. C. McKibben, 
S. S. Thompson, 
B. Graham, 
Eliza Wagner, 
B. T- Brown. 

"December 19th. — Lieut Shipley, of this place, complimented by Col. 
H. Brown, commander at Fort Pickens, for coolness and bravery dis- 
played during two days' engagement. 

"December 26th. — Capt. D. J. Boynton returns thanks to Morris 
Johnson, E. S. Kendig, George Crist, D. Kendig, James Young, S. 
Landis, George Lenhart and others, of Middletown, for sword pre- 
sented to him." 

March 20, 1862, the following advertisement is quoted in the Dauphin 

"Estate Sale — Eighty Negroes. 

"On Monday, 14th February, 1862, at 10 o'clock a. m., will be sold at 
the residence of the late William Seabrook, Sr., Esq., on Edisto Island 
(S. C. ), a prime gang of eighty negroes, accustomed to the cultivation 
of Sea Island cotton, belonging to the estate of the late Robert C. Sea- 
brook, Esq. Terms : For the negroes, one-third cash ; balance in one 


and two years, with interest from day of sale, secured by bond mortgage 
and personal security. Purchasers to pay for paper. 

"The sale did not take place as advertised, owing to the arrival of U. S. 
troops, and the following is written at the bottom of the bill : 

" 'As the above property has not been disposed of I bequeath it to 
Father McCosker, chaplain 55th regiment, P. V. 

'Mrs. Sarah Seabrook.' 

"May 22nd. — George F. Ross, of this place, appointed aide-de-camp 
to Col. Crocker, acting Brig. Gen. 6th Div., Iowa Vols. 

"June I2th. — Rev. John McCosker, chaplain of 56th Pa. Vols., died 
in Philadelphia, in his 32nd year. Dr. Jas. A. Lowe, of our town, ap- 
pointed surgeon at the military hospital of St. Joseph's, Phila. Soldiers' 
aid association formed. Dr. B. J. Wiestling called to the chair ; T. J. 
Ross, Sec. ; Rev. C. J. Ehrehart, Treas. Resolved, That we organize a 
society to be called the Soldiers' Aid Society of Middletown, and that the 
present officers be permanent officers of the society. Dr. John Ringland 
and J. J. Walborn, Esq., appointed a committee to wait on the surgeons 
at Camp Curtin and ascertained from them the wants of the sick and 
wounded soldiers. An executive committee consisting of four persons 
from each ward was appointed — two ladies and two gentlemen — viz : 
N. Ward— Mrs. Brua Cameron, Mrs. J. W. Stofer, Dr. J. Ringland, 
J. J. Walborn, Esq. M. Ward— Mrs. J. E. Carmany, Miss M. Kis- 
secker, Henry Smith, Seymour Raymond. S. Ward — Miss S. Eves, 
Mrs. George Whitman, Jno. Snavely, E. AlcCreary. Dr. Wiestling's 
residence was selected as the depot for all contributions. 

"July 3rd. — Amount realized from festival of Soldiers' Aid Society 
was $217.42. "J. T. Ross, Sec. S. A. Soc. 

"At a meeting of the Soldiers' Aid Society, in the council chamber. 
Dr. Wiestling was authorized to make bandages of the muslin in his 
possession and Drs. J. Ringland and J. Schaeffer appointed a committee 
to purchase 'Sharpee.' A committee consisting of Rev. C. J. Ehrehart, 
Dr. Ringland and Dr. Schaeffer to inquire into the expediency of estab- 
lishing a hospital in our borough. Also resolved. That the ladies be 
requested to meet in council chamber Tuesday morning 7.30 a. m., and 
divide themselves into committees for the purchase of materials and 
manufacture of needed garments. The president w'as also instructed 
to extend aid to any sick or wounded soldiers brought here in need. 

"July 17th. — July I2th a citizens' meeting held at Union Hall for the 
purpose of encouraging enlistments in response to the call of the Presi- 
dent for 300,000 additional men. Rev. J. S. Lame was chosen president, 
and J. J. Walborn, Esq., secretary. Rev. O. C. McLane moved that 
committees be appointed to arrange for another meeting. Rev. C. J. 
Ehrehart gave patriotic address. On motion of Mr. P. Irwin audience 
joined in singing the 'Star Spangled Banner,' led by William Smith. On 
Tuesday evening a large and enthusiastic meeting was held at Union 
Hall. Daniel Kendig was called to the chair ; Messrs. Jacob Rife and 
Henry Smith, vice-president ; Dr. J. Ringland and J. J. Walborn, Esq., 

Tlie P. R. R. Company's New Depot, Middletown, Pa. 




:ld-;N I 


secretaries. After organization, singing the 'Star Spangled Banner,' 
and prayer by Rev. D. A. L. Laverty, Rev. George T. Cain delivered a 
very eloquent and stirring address. Patriotic resolutions were offered by 
J. J. Walborn, Esq., and adopted. The audience was then addressed 
by Rev. D. A. L. Laverty, and after singing the 'Red, White and Blue,' 

"December 24, 1863. — A meeting was held December i8th at Union 
Hall. Committees were appointed to solicit subscriptions, and receive 
and ship goods to the soldiers from this place now in the Army of the 
Potomac. Committees to raise funds for this purpose: North Ward — 
Mrs. J. W. Stofer, Mrs. Maj. Brua Cameron, Miss Eva Wiestling. 
Middle Ward — Mrs. W. H. Kendig, Mrs. Kate Church, Miss Maggie 
Kissecker. South Ward — Mrs. Eves, Mrs. Rambler, Mrs. Fisher. Com- 
mittee to receive, pack and ship goods — Capt. J. K. Shott, Messrs. J. L. 
Nisley and John H. Suavely. The ladies met with great success and on 
December 29th five barrels and six mammoth boxes of turkeys, geese, 
ducks, chicken, butter, bread, cakes, pies, tobacco, preserved fruits, &c., 
vvere shipped. 

"January 21, 1864. — Major Brua Cameron, son of Hon. Simon Cam- 
eron, died at Lochiel (his father's residence) on Wednesday, the 13th 
inst. The deceased was thirty-eight years of age, and was a resident of 
this place, where he leaves a wife and several children. He held a com- 
mission as paymaster in the army, with the rank of major. He had a 
great many warm, personal friends here, and was well and favorably 
known throughout the state. His remains were interred in the Middle- 
town cemetery on Friday afternoon, followed by the largest funeral 
procession ever witnessed in this place. Peace to his ashes. 

"January 28th. — A meeting was held in the North ward, in the Pres- 
byterian church. John Heppich was chairman. Patriotic speeches were 
made by Dr. Wiestling, ]Messrs. J. L. Nisley, J. J. Walborn, T. C. Search 
and others. 

"February 17th. — George Rodfong enlisted in the signal service corps 
for three years. Lieut. J. H. Waltz (93rd Penna.) opens a recruiting 
office at C. Neff's tavern, in this borough. 

"March loth. — Dr. George F. Mish, surgeon 15th Penna. (Anderson) 
Cavalry, home on furlough. 

"May 19th. — Middletown Guards, organized in the Fall of 1862, paid 

"June 6th. — The Pennsylvania Reserve Corps returned home, after 
three years' service. 

"June 23rd. — A picnic given to Company G, Sixth Reserves, at 
Fisher's woods. At 9 o'clock the soldiers, forty in number, formed in 
line at the market house and with martial music marched to the beautiful 
grove. They were met and escorted by Baumbach's brass band. Exer- 
cises : Singing 'The Star Spangled Banner,' by the Lutheran choir ; 

(The file of the Journal irom July 17, 1862, to Aug. 13, 1863, is missing. — C. 
H. H.) 


Rev. McKinney, late chaplain of the Ninth Penna. Cavalry, addressed 
them ; song by the choir ; Rev. Rakestraw, of the Methodist church, 
then addressed them, alluding and pointing to the worn and tattered 
flag, which was in the rear of the speakers, as evidence of what they 
had passed through ; song ; banquet. The number in attendance was 
1,500. The committee of arrangements were: N. Ward — Dr. John 
Ringland, J. L. Nisley, T. C. Lerch, Mrs. B. F. Kendig, Mrs. A. Hem- 
perly, Mrs. J. H. Nisley. M. Ward— Samuel Landis, Dr. J. H. Nona- 
macher, John Monaghan, Mrs. Yetman Eves, Mrs. Morris Johnson, 
Mrs. Henrv Siple. S. Ward — Dr. J. H. Schaeffer, John H. Snavely, 
B. S. Peters, Mrs. F. Fisher, Miss Murr, Miss C. Fortney. D. R. Ettla 
presented each soldier with a fine silk badge." 

The news of Lee's surrender, April 9, 1865, was received here with 
ringing of bells. The schools were dismissed, and "all gave themselves 
up to the general joy." The citizens were preparing for a grand dem- 
onstration over the return of peace, when the news of the assassination of 
President Lincoln (April 14th) reached here. Says the Journal of the 
20th : "The news of the assassination of our noble chief — our second 
Washington — reached us on Saturday morning at the breakfast table. 
We can never forget the sad, horror-stricken expression on the faces of 
Jthe people as they wended their way to the depot to ascertain if the 
horrible intelligence was true ; men looked into each other's faces as 
though each was moving to the grave with the body of a near and dear 
relation. It could not be true ; the change from speechless amazement 
to wild indignation was not a wide one ; a cry for vengeance went up, 
the day of retribution has come, we take back every word uttered touch- 
ing a humane policy towards the active promoters and sustainers of the 

The funeral train passed through here at 11.30 a. m. Saturday, 
April 22. A handsome arch of spruce was sprung across the track at 
this place, bearing the inscription in large black letters, "For Freedom 
Fallen !" Several hundred citizens assembled to see the train pass 
through town. It consisted of nine elegant cars, elaborately draped in 
mourning. Watchmen were stationed every half mile. 

July 4, 1865, there was a parade of returned soldiers, cavalry, infantry 
and artillery. Several salutes were fired. The soldiers met at Smith's 
Hall, formed in line and marched through the principal street to Center 
Square where the "Declaration of Independence" was read, followed by 
an address by the Rev. G. Rakestraw. 

"July 29th. — A meeting was held to raise funds to erect a monument 
to Middletown soldiers who fell in war." 


Soon after the incorporation of the borough, February 19th, 1828, an 
engine was procured, and a fire company organized under the name of 


1 79 

the "Union." The engine was small but very effective for Its class, and 
was built in Philadelphia by Philip Mason in 1875. 

An ordinance was passed by the borough council, requiring the owner 
of each house to provide "fire buckets," one for each story ; they were 
made of heavy leather ; were long and narrow, and held two or three 
gallons each, they were painted in different colors, each having the name 
of the owner and "Union Fire Company" inscribed upon it. (Some of 
these buckets are still in existence.) They were kept hanging in some 
convenient place, frequently in the hall or entry, and it was the house- 
holder's duty, in case of an alarm, to carry or send them to the fire. 
Double lines of the townsfolk were then formed to the nearest pumps, 
and the buckets were passed from hand to hand, to and from the engine. 
The women were the most effective workers, they standing at their posts 
and handling buckets, while the men were running around giving orders. 
The machine remained in use until 1868, and on several occasions did 
good service. It passed afterwards into the possession of Raymond & 
Campbell. Its subsequent fate I do not know. 

United States Engine House. 

In 1861 a meeting of citizens of Portsmouth was held, at which steps 
were taken to provide better facilities for extinguishing fires. Those 
present subscribed liberally, and a committee appointed to solicit sub- 
scriptions were so successful that David R. Ettla, then a resident of 
Philadelphia, was selected to visit the manufacturers, and secure an 
engine. He made a contract there with Mr. Agnew to build a suction 
engine after the pattern of the old "United States," of that city (of which 
company he was a member). It was built and delivered and then turned 
over to a company for service. 

The company purchased a hose-carriage and hose, but becoming 
financially embarrassed soon afterwards disbanded. The engine was 
sold and taken to Harrisburg ; it was there used by the "Friendship Fire 
Company" several times, but was soon afterwards destroyed by fire, to- 
gether with the building in which it was placed. 

The Good Wile Engine. 

On November i6th, 1866, on the petition of one hundred and eighty- 
three freeholders of the borough, an appropriation of two thousand dol- 
lars was made to purchase a fire engine and erect an engine house. For 
four hundred and fifty dollars an engine with hose-carriage, etc.. was 
purchased from George Smuller ; and Christian Fisher, for nine hundred 
and eighty dollars, contracted for and erected an engine house at the 
northwest corner of Union and Emaus streets. (The building was after- 
wards moved to Catherine street, above Emaus.) The engine was never 
very effective, and was afterwards stored in a stable on Susquehanna 
street, then to the furniture factory, and was finally broken up and the 
metal part sold. 


The Liberty Fire Engine Company. 

As may be judged the borough was but poorly provided with means 
to check or subdue any conflagration, therefore in the year 1874 a num- 
ber of the residents resolved to raise a sufficient sum of money to pur- 
chase a steam fire engine. The firms of Raymond & Campbell, Fisher & 
Smith, Shott & Ulrich, Daniel Kendig & Co., Etter, Carmany & Siple, 
Kendig, Bricker & Lauman, Coolbaugh & Hendrickson, with James 
Young, Benjamin Peters, M. B. Rambler, Geo. Hendrickson, and some 
eighteen other citizens, subscribed about $60 each. The necessary 
amount was raised, and a committee went to Philadelphia and pur- 
chased at Harkness' bazar, for $1,500.00 the Liberty engine. 

The Liberty Steam Fire Company was organized November 7th, 
1874, and incorporated by a decree of the court in January, 1875. 

Its presidents have been: 1874-75, D. R. Ettla; 1876, H. G. Ray- 
mond; 1877-78, W. G. Kennard; 1879, Rufus Franks; 1880-82, W. 
G. Kennard: 1883, Emanuel Kling; 1884-86, A. J. Lerch ; 1887, John 
Hippie; 1888, George Patton ; 1889, Samuel Nusky; 1890-94, A. J. 
Lerch; 1895, John P. Seitz ; 1896-1901, J. S. Kennard; 1902, W. H. 
Koons; 1903-05, A. L. Etter. 

In 1886 A. J. Lerch, D. H. Bucher, Samuel Nuskey, H. H. Rake- 
straw, William Schuetz, Frank J. Stipe and F. B. Bailey made applica- 
tions for a charter which was granted January, 1887. 

In 1889, a building committee was appointed : A. J. Lerch, H. S. 
Michaels, J. S. Hippie, S. H. Nusky, James P. Hippie. A substantial 
brick building was erected and dedicated July 4th, 1891. 

In 1901 the steam fire engine was sold and a chemical engine was 
purchased in Baltimore from the makers. The committee for the pur- 
chase of the chemical was H. A. Lenhart, J. S. Kennard, W. E. Ray- 
mond, J. P. Seitz and O. AI. Swartz. 

In 1902 a bell tower and hosedrier was erected. The assembly-room 
is handsomely furnished and the building provided with all the modern 

The North Ward Hose Company. 

That portion of ]\Iiddletown lying above Water street and formerly 
known as the North ward, is at some distance from the center of the 
borough, and in case of fire, comparatively unprotected. Appreciating 
this condition of affairs, a number of the property holders met together 
in the North ward schoolhouse, March i8th, 1886, and organized the 
North Ward Hose Company, with the following officers: President, 
William A. Croll ; vice-president, Samuel Singer ; secretary, Edward 
L. Croll ; treasurer, D. W. Stehman ; foreman, E. S. Baker ; first as- 
sistant foreman, S. S. Selser ; second assistant foreman, J. H. Horst. 
A committee was appointed to solicit money by subscription to purchase 
a carriage and hose. The citizens responded liberally; a hose-carriage 
was made by H. Saul, the necessary quantity of hose was purchased, 
and the company was ready for active service by June 3, 1886. A bell 


was donated by Raymond & Campbell. The total cost of the buildino- 
was over $i,ooo. The carriage was kept in Nissley's barn, but shortly 
afterwards a piece of land was leased from Frey estate and a neat two- 
story frame building was erected on Pine street north of Union. This 
building was afterwards moved to a lot purchased by the company on 
the north side of Water street. 

The company was reorganized June 3rd, 1889, and assumed the name 
of the old Union Hose Company (whose constitution is now in their 
possession) and was incorporated August 30th, 1897. 

February 2nd, 1903, at a regular meeting of the company, it was 
resolved to erect a new edifice, and a building committee was appointed 
consisting of E. O. Hendrickson, W. J. Roop and Frank Winnaugle. 
The old structure was sold in May, 1904, contract for new building 
awarded July 15th, 1904, ground broken in the same month and the 
present handsome brick structure was completed March 6th, 1905. 

The Rescue Hose Company. 

At the request of W. G. Kennard, a meeting of citizens of the South 
(now the First) ward was held July i6th, 1888, at the colored school- 
house, chairman, Dr. J. C. Lingle ; secretary, H. H. Rakestraw. An 
organization was effected and the following officers elected : President, 
Wm. G. Kennard ; vice-president, Dr. J. C. Lingle ; secretary, H. H. 
Rakestraw ; assistant secretary, H. W. Myers ; treasurer, B. F. Brandt ; 
foreman, John Core ; assistant foreman, David Brandt ; second assistant 
foreman, James P. Hippie ; third assistant foreman, W. Hickernell, Jr. ; 
trustees, F. B. Hampton, Chas. Gottschall, Elijah McCreary, Sr., J. H. 
Welsh, and J. J. Norton. The name of the company adopted was the 
Rescue No. 3. On Monday following adopted constitution. A com- 
mittee consisting of W. G. Kennard, Elijah McCreary, Sr., John Fish- 
burn, Dr. J. C. Lingle, H. H. Rakestraw, B. F. Brandt, A. Baumbach, 
Charles Ulrich, Jr., H. Welsh, and H. W. Myers appointed to raise 
means to purchase carriage and build a hose house. 

The first lot selected was on property of McCreary Brothers on Mud 
Pike. Afterwards a lot on State street was bought from Colonel James 
Young. After the foundation trenches were dug the canal company 
claimed a portion of the ground, making the lot too short. The com- 
pany then purchased the present site on South Union street from George 

On motion of J. J. Norton the resolution appointing a building com- 
mittee was rescinded and the president and trustees were empowered to 

The first fair to raise money was held in September, 1888, and cleared 

^54475- , „„„ 

The company was incorporated October 3rd, 1888. 
In December a second fair was held, and the company purchased five 

hvmdred feet of hose from Eureka Co. 


On jVIarch 4th, 1889, building committee reported building complete 
and all bills paid. 

W. G. Kennard was president until his death in October, 1898, when 
J. H. Welsh, the vice-president, was elected and has filled that office till 
the present time. 

In 1898 the company joined the Fire Association. 

In September, 1899, erected a hose tower, and moved bell-tower into 
it at a cost of $350.00. 

In May, 1900, committee appointed to confer with the other two com- 
panies, and form a fireman's relief association — was organized and in- 
corporated November 12th, 1900. 

In December, 1900, organized a drum corps, John Core, leader, 
under direction of the trustees. 

In April, 1903, added a bath room complete. 

In 1904, put in steam heat and added a kitchen. 

May, 1905, joined fire department. 


Thirty-fifth Regiment. 
Sixth Reserve. (Three years' service.) 

It is a remarkable coincidence, that although recruited in dififerent 
sections of the State, six of the ten companies of this regiment were 
organized on the same day — April 22nd, 1861 — as follows : The "Iron 
Guard," Company A, in Columbia county ; "Northern Invincibles," 
Company F, in Bradford county ; the "J. D. Cameron Infantry," Com- 
pany G (Middletown), Dauphin county; the "Tioga Invincibles," Com- 
pany H, Tioga county ; the "Towanda Riflles," Company I, Bradford 
county ; and the "Susquehanna Volunteers," Company K, in Susque- 
hanna county. The remaining companies, B, C, D, and E, were from 
Snyder, Wayne, Franklin and Montour counties respectively. The men, 
with but few exceptions, had no previous military experience. 

On the 22nd of June the regimental organization was efifected. On 
the Jith of July the regiment received orders to march to Greencastle, 
Pa. ; it arrived there on the following day and was placed in Camp 
Biddle, where it remained drilling until the 22nd, when it moved by 
Cumberland Valley and Northern Central Railroads, via Baltimore, to 

In its passage through Baltimore one of its members was wounded by 
the accidental discharge of a musket, the men supposing they were at- 
tacked, as their predecessors had been on the 19th, were with difficulty 
kept from firing on the mob in the streets. The command was halted, 
the cause of the accident ascertained, and the march quietly resumed. 
The regiment reached Washington on the 24th, encamped east of the 


Capitol, and was mustered into the United States service on the 27th. 
It then moved to Tenallytown, where General McCall had his headquar- 
ters, and was organizing his division of the Pennsylvania Reserves. 
Here it was engaged in performing guard and picket duty and assisting 
in the construction of forts. General McCall, in his report at this time, 
to General AlcClellan, says of the Sixth : "The regiment is very well 
drilled. The malaria arising from the low grounds about Washington 
soon transformed the hardy healthy men of the regiment into an invalid 
organization with a sick roll numbering hundreds." 

The sick were assigned to the Third Brigade of General McCall's 
Division. On the 9th of October it marched, with the division, across 
Chain Bridge and encamped near Langley. A commendable degree of 
proficiency in discipline was attained, which was severely tested on many 
well-fought fields. On the 19th, a reconnaissance was made for the 
double purpose of driving in the enemy's pickets and securing forage. 
This accomplished, it returned to camp on the 21st, but soon to go forth 
and confront the foe, who was reported in force near Dranesville. The 
order was given on the 19th of December to march at 6 a. m. of the fol- 
lowing day, and leaving camp in buoyant spirits, the regiment proceeded 
to the Leesburg pike, where the column was formed and speedily moved 
towards the field of battle. The Ninth Reserves was posted on the right, 
the Sixth in the center, the Kane Rifles on the left, and the Tenth and 
Twelfth in reserve. 

While possession was being taken by the Reserves, the enemy opened 
fire from a battery posted on the Centreville road, which was promptly 
responded to by a section of Easton's Battery of the First Pennsylvania 
Artillery, the first discharge eliciting cheers from the entire line. Im- 
mediately after, the Sixth then on the pike, with its right resting a short 
distance from the intersection of the Alexandria road, was ordered for- 
ward, and after crossing a field and ascending a gentle slope, entered a 
wood, into which it advanced a short distance, wdien the Ninth was met 
slowly retiring. Volley after volley was exchanged with the enemy, 
without an attempt by either party to advance. At length a charge was 
ordered upon his battery. At the word "forward" the regiment bounded 
over the fence in front, crossed the open field, and in a moment had 
driven him from his position in confusion, capturing one caisson and 
some prisoners. Thus the initial victory of the Reserves was won.* 

During the next two months but little occurred to vary the monotony 
of camp life, constant drill and guard, picket and fatigue duty, were 
regularly performed. Remaining in Camp Pierpont until the lotji of 
March, when the Army of the Potomac advanced upon the rebel forti- 
fications at Centerville and Manassas, it marched sixteen miles to Hunt- 
er's Mills, remaining there until the 14th, when ordered to Alexandria, 
where it arrived on the i6th, after one of the most fatiguing marches, 

*Jacob A. Embich, now high constable, beat the first long roll for the regiment 
after this first victory of the Army of the Potomac. 


through rain and mud, shelterless and hungry, experienced during its 
whole term of service. The regiment changed its camp on the 27th, to 
a beautiful grove near Bailey's Cross Roads, and had secured comfort- 
able quarters by appropriating the tents of an unoccupied camp in the 
vicinity, when orders came on the loth of April to march to Manassas. 
Moving through Fairfax Court House and Centreville and crossing Bull 
Run at Blackburn's Ford, the command reached Manassas Junction on 
the 1 2th. These points were full of interest to the men. in consequence 
of being the winter quarters of the rebel army. 

On the i8th, the command marched, following the line of the Orange 
and Alexandria Railroad, to Catlett's Station. Remaining there until 
the 2nd of May, it advanced with the division through Hartwood to 
Falmouth, where it arrived on the 3rd, and encamped a mile north of 
the town. Comfortable and pleasant quarters were constructed of lum- 
ber obtained from an adjoining mill. Extensive preparations were being 
made for an advance upon Richmond from Fredericksburg, the troops 
being clothed and equipped for the campaign in the best possible manner. 
But these plans were all frustrated by the advance of Stonewall Jackson 
down the Shenandoah Valley, and his defeat of Banks. It was then de- 
termined to send the Reserves, by water, to the support of McClellan's 
army operating on the Peninsula. 

On the 13th of June the regiment embarked for White House, where 
it arrived on the following day. Here had been accumulated vast stores 
for the supply of McClellan's army. The First and Second Brigades had 
already arrived and had moved forward. Upon the arrival of the Third 
Brigade the post was in a state of considerable alarm, Stuart having, on 
the night previous, made his famous cavalry raid in McClellan's rear, 
temporarily cutting his line of supply. The Sixth Regiment was de- 
tailed to remain behind, when the brigade marched to join McClellan's 
column, and was stationed at Tunstall's Station, four miles from White 
House, on the Richmond and York River Railroad. On the 19th, five 
companies were ordered to fall back to White House, and the companies 
.remaining at Tunstall's were set to work throwing up earthworks for 
their protection. The advance of the rebels on the right flank of the 
Union army rendered the White House no longer tenable as a base of 
supplies, and preparations were hastily made for its evacuation. On 
the evening of the 28th, everything wore a gloomy aspect. Railroad 
and telegraph communication with the front was severed, and Dispatch 
Station was in possession of the enemy. Innumerable transports, laden 
to their fullest capacity with government stores, were moving away, and 
huge piles, remaining for want of transportation, were prepared for de- 
struction bv surrounding them with hay and saturating them with 
whiskey. The dense clouds of black smoke grandly rolling up towards 
the sky, at length indicated the nature of operations at White House. 

At four p. m., Colonel Sinclair, in command of the companies at Tun- 
stall's Station, received orders to march to White House without delay. 
On the way he was twice urged forward by orders from General Stone- 


man, and finally directed to throw away everything except arms and 
cartridge boxes, and move at double-quick. The enemy followed closely, 
but made no demonstration. Upon its arrival at the landing, the com- 
mand immediately embarked, the other five companies having already 
departed. The view of the shore was inexpressibly grand, and in strong- 
contrast with the appearance it presented a few days previous. Where 
everything had been one busy scene of action — the whole plain a vast 
storehouse, was now swept by the destructive flames. 

Proceeding via Fortress Monroe and James river, the regiment, pass- 
ing on the way the wrecks of the Congress and Cumberland, vividly 
recalling the struggle of these two noble crafts with the powerful iron- 
clad Mcrrimac, arrived at Harrison's Landing on the ist of July. During 
the night the wagon trains from McClellan's discomfited columns began 
to arrive, and towards morning brigade after brigade came pouring in. 
A sad spectacle was presented as the worn and thinned regiments, just 
from the fields of the seven days' battles, many not larger than a full 
company, came toiling in through the mud. The wounded, barely able 
to walk, yet eager to escape capture, dragged themselves along and 
reached the landing in a state well nigh to death. The meeting of the 
Sixth with its comrades of the division was touching indeed, their greatly 
reduced numbers enabling the regiment to fully realize how dreadfful 
had been the late contest before Richmond. 

On the 4th the Sixth was transferred to the First Brigade. The 
regiment at this time exchanged its arms for the Springfield rifles, and 
did skirmish duty alternately with the Kane Rifles. The band which had 
hitherto been connected with it, was on the loth, mustered out of ser- 
vice. From the Peninsula it moved by water on the night of the 14th of 
August, reached Acquia creek on the morning of the i6th, and the 
same day was sent by rail to Falmouth. At dark on the evening of the 
2 1 St, with the division, it marched towards Kelly's Ford, on the Rappa- 
hannock, but by attempting to take a short route, the command became 
detached and scattered, so that nearly the whole night was spent in 
fruitless wanderings. The next day a long and unusually severe march 
was made, reaching Kelly's Ford at dark. The march was resumed on 
the following day in the direction of Rappahannock Station, which place 
was reached just in time to see a column of rebels beat a hasty retreat 
under a galling fire from Captain Matthew's Battery, First Pennsylvania 
Artillery. On the 24th, it reached Warrenton and encamped on the Sul- 
phur Springs road, remaining several days. 

The regiment was sent out on the 26th to guard a signal station on a 
neighboring mountain, but finding no trace of the signal party, returned 
to camp. The contending forces were preparing for a desperate en- 
counter upon the field of Bull Run. On the 27th, the division marched 
on the Alexandria and Lynchburg pike, crossed the line of the enemy's 
march, and encamped at New Baltimore. On the morning of the 28th, 
as the command approached Gainsville, it was suddenly brought to a halt 
bv a rebel battery, which opened fire from a wood some distance to the 


left of the Centreville pike. A line of battle was immediately formed 
and Captain Cooper's Rifled Battery replied with telling effect, soon 
silencing the enemy's guns. A portion of the Sixth was deployed as 
skirmishers, and moved forward across the open fields. No further 
demonstrations were made, and the command reached the Alexandria 
pike, where it bivouacked for the night. 

On the morning of the 29th, the command was early under arms, and 
moving towards the enemy's positions near Groveton. Advancing some 
distance it came upon an open plain where it took position on the ex- 
treme left of the Union line, and pushed immediately out through a piece 
of wood. A rebel battery which had been posted on an elevation about a 
half mile to the left and a little to the rear of the line of the division, now 
opened fire upon it. With a view of getting upon the enemy's right 
flank, the division was immediately faced about and marched a short 
distance to the rear, remaining in no single position any length of time, 
but making a demonstration first at one point and then at another, con- 
stantly under the enemy's fire, but not firing a single shot in return. 
Late in the afternoon an attack was made on the right by General King 
and at the same time a demonstration was made on the left by General 
Reynolds. Moving forward through the wood, across the cornfield in 
front, under a galling fire from the battery occupying a high position 
only a few hundred yards distant, the Reserves reached the base of the 
elevation upon which the rebel force was stationed. This position was 
so completely under the hill that the rebels could scarcely depress their 
guns sufficiently to affect the lines of the Reserves. The Sixth advanced 
up a ravine to the right flank of the battery, with orders to capture it if 
possible. After reconnoitering the position and becoming satisfied that 
the battery, which was supported by a heavy infantry force, could not be 
taken, the fact was reported to General Reynolds, who speedily with- 
drew the division to the rear, and afterwards to the same grounds occu- 
pied the evening before. During the night the position of the division 
was very imprudently disclosed by the kindling of fires in the rear, for 
the purpose of making coffee ; seeing which, the rebels opened fire from 
one of their batteries, which became very annoying. Singularly enough 
one of the first shots fired struck one of the men who had been its cause 
and carried away his arm. 

On the morning of the 30th, the sun rose cloudless, and everything was 
quiet and calm upon that field soon to be made the scene of carnage and 
death. Troops began to move early, preparatory to the day's work. The 
Reserves marched to the left of the Warrenton pike, near Groveton, where 
the Sixth was ordered to the support of Cooper's Rifled Battery of the 
First Pennsylvania Artillery. In the meantime the skirmishers proceeded 
on past Groveton, and met the rebel skirmishers in the woods beyond. 
The regiment was then moved to the left and forward to a position slightly 
in the rear of the advanced line of skirmishers, covering the left flank 
of the division. This position was held until relieved by the advance 
of Porter's Corps, when the division was marched to the rear about two 


hundred yards, and massed on the top of a hill from which the opera- 
tions of Porter's troops were plainly visible. Steadily the enemy was 
compelled to retire, until reinforced, when Porter was driven back with 
loss. The Reserve Division was ordered to form across their line of 
retreat, behind which they might rally and re-form. The First and 
Second Brigades had scarcely moved from their position, when the ene- 
my appeared immediately to the left, and the Third Brigade, of which 
the Sixth was a part, was compelled to resist its advance. Gallantly did 
it perform its duty, but was obliged to retire before superior force. At 
this time General Reynolds was ordered to take position to the right of 
the Henry house, on the hill south of the Warrenton pike, a short dis- 
tance from its junction with the Manassas road. The artillery was 
formed on the brow of the hill, and the division drawn up in column of 
brigade for its support. A brisk artillery duel lasted for some time, 
when the enemy in well dressed lines started forward, evidently intent 
on securing the road which lay between the contending forces. Imme- 
diately the word "forward" was given, and the Reserves swept down the 
hill with headlong impetuosity, reaching the bank at the upper side of 
the road, as the enemy was approaching the fence on the lower, and 
sprang down the bank into the road before them. The rebels, dismayed 
at the rapidity and success of the movement, turned and fled in confu- 
sion, under a terrific fire from the charging column. Thus was the ene- 
my repulsed and an important position retained. In this charge the flag 
of the Sixth was shot from the stafif while in the hands of Alajor Madill. 
It was instantly taken by the gallant Reynolds, who, holding it aloft, 
dashed along the line, the wind catching it about his noble form. The 
sight inspired the men to deeds of greater valor, and for an instant they 
paused in the midst of battle and gave a tremendous and soul-stirring 
cheer for their commander. Returning again to the hill, after resting 
an hour, night coming on, the division marched toward Centreville and 
bivouacked at Cub Run. The loss in this sanguinary battle, extending 
through three days, was six killed, thirty wounded and eight missing. 

On the 31st it moved to Centreville, where, for the first time since 
the 24th. full and adequate rations were issued. The regiment was 
placed on picket near Cub Run, and remained through the following 
day. At 5 p. m. of September ist, it was relieved and followed the divi- 
sion to Fairfax Court House, rejoining it at nine. The march was re- 
sumed on the following morning, the command passing through Annan- 
dale and Bailey's Cross Roads, to Hunter's Chapel, where it encamped 
for ihe night. Subsequently it removed to Munson's Hill. 

On the evening of the 6th of September the regiment marched with 
the division across Long Bridge, through Washington, Leesboro', Pop- 
lar Springs and New Market, and shortly after noon on the 13th en- 
camped on the west bank of the Monocacy creek. The following morn- 
ing it moved via Frederick City and Middletown (Md.) to South Moun- 
tain, where the enemy was posted in large force, and took position in 
column of companies on the extreme right of the army. The line of bat- 


tie advanced a considerable distance toward the summit, the enemy be- 
ing compelled to fall back upon its supports. An attempt was made at 
this point by the Sixth to dash up the mountain side, with a view of 
getting on his flank. The movement was, however, discovered and the 
rebel lines again yielded without affording the regiment an opportunity 
to open fire. It then moved forward to a piece of woods near cleared 
land, on which the enemy hotly contested its advance. The time for 
earnest work had now come. The top of the mountain was only a few 
hundred yards distant, and when reached, would end the battle on that 
part of the field. Night was fast approaching and the battle raged furi- 
ously for many miles to the left. Five companies of the Sixth were or- 
dered to seize and hold the knob of the mountain immediately in front. 
They marched from the wood, passed the enemy's flank and firing into 
it one volley made straight for the mountain top. When within one 
hundred yards they received the fire of the enemy protected by a ledge 
of rocks which capped the summit. The numbers of the enemy were 
largely in excess of this attacking force, but the men of the Sixth, who 
had been restrained in the earlier part of the battle, dashed like steeds 
released from the curb, against the very muzzles of their guns. The ene- 
my, staggered by the impetuosity of the charge, yielded the first ledge 
of rocks and retreated to the second, from behind which he delivered a 
most galling fire, causing the advance to reel under the shock and 
threatening its annihilation. The rebel line to the left, which had been 
passed by these companies, had in the meantime been compelled to yield 
to- the persistent hammering of the other regiments of the Reserves. 
The cheers of the brigade were distinctly heard by both, when the rebels 
broke in spirit by the severity of their losses and the determined front 
presented by the Reserves, fled down the mountain side. These five 
companies had performed an important service and driven before them 
in confusion the Eighth Alabama Regiment. The loss was twelve men 
killed, two officers and thirty-nine men wounded. 

Remaining on the mountain until daylight, it having been ascertained 
that the enemy had retreated, the regiment with the brigade marched 
to Keedysville and encamped for the night near a mill on Antietam 
creek. On the morning of the i6th a general forward movement was 
made, the Sixth moving with the brigade across the creek where the 
enemy's line was found posted to resist further advance. The Bucktails 
were ordered forward as skirmirshers, with the Sixth Regiment in sup- 
port. Emerging from a wood the Bucktails soon became hotly engaged 
and the Sixth rushed to their assistance. The two regiments gained 
the contested ground, but it being already dark and no disposition to 
advance being manifest, the fire slackened and the lines were established 
for the night, the Sixth occupying the edge of the wood next to the 
cornfield. The night was very dark and the men slept on their arms 
ready at a moment's notice to repel an attack. The gray dawn at last 
appeared, and every man nerved himself for the conflict. The death- 
like stillness was at length broken, and the enemy advanced under cover 


of the corn. The caution was given to "fire low," and the sharp report 
of musketry soon marked the commencement of this fierce battle. The 
position was held, notwithstanding the persistent efiforts of the enemy to 
advance, until the troops which had been pressed forward into the corn- 
field were compelled to retire, when the enemy gained the wood and 
subjected the Sixth to a flank as well as front fire. The line to the right 
having yielded, several of the rebel batteries concentrated their fire on 
the wood, which after unsuccessful attempts to clear it was abandoned, 
and, for the first time since the opening of the contest, firing ceased. 
Moving to the right, the division took a position in support of artillery, 
where it remained the balance of the day unengaged but subjected to 
the artillery fire of the enemy. In this engagement the regiment was 
much protected by the woods, yet sustained an aggregate loss of one 
hundred and thirty-two. 

Resting on the battlefield during the following day, in which General 
Lee silently withdrew his forces, on the 19th it marched to the banks of 
the Potomac near Sharpsburg, where it remained until the 26th of Oc- 
tober. During this period much attention was given to the discipline 
of the regiment, and it left camp one of the best drilled of the division, 
which reputation it maintained ever after. It marched via Berlin and 
Hamilton, crossing the Potomac on the 29th to Warrenton, where it ar- 
rived on the 6th of November and went into camp on the ground occu- 
pied by the Reserves a few days previous to the second battle of Bull 
Run. The camp at Warrenton was broken on the nth and the march 
resumed through Fayetteville, Bealton Station, Morrisville, Grove 
Church, Hartwood and Stafford Court House, to Brooks' Station on the 
Acquia Creek and Fredericksburg Railroad, where a very comfortable 
camp was formed. 

The movements preliminary to the battle of Fredericksburg began 
December 8th, when the Sixth with the brigade marched from Brooks' 
Station and reached the hills on the north side of the Rappahannock, 
overlooking Fredericksburg on the nth. On the morning of the 12th 
it crossed the river on a pontoon bridge about three miles below the city. 
A line of battle was formed at right angles with the river, the left of the 
brigade resting upon it. This position was held until daybreak of the 
13th, when the pickets became engaged, and the brigade, the Sixth in 
advance, crossing a small stream under a dense fog marched through a 
cornfield to the Bowling Green road where the line was re-formed. The 
regiment advanced as skirmishers and drove the enemy from the crest 
of the hill and from their shelter behind fences and the railroad embank- 
ment. The battle now raged furiously. The enemy's second line proved 
a formidable obstacle, but soon yielded to the impetuosity of the Re- 
serves. Moving along up hill, followed closely by the brigade, it reached 
a road running along the brow of the hill near which a third line was 
encountered and a terrific fight ensued, ending in the discomfiture of the 
rebels. The regiment had now lost one-third of its entire number, the 
brigade had suffered heavily and Colonel Sinclair had been borne from 


the field wounded, when the enemy was detected moving through the 
woods to the right in large numbers. At the same time a terrific fire of 
musketry was opened on the left of the brigade. The line began to 
waver and no supporting troops being at hand it finally yielded, and the 
regiment with the brigade fell back over the same ground on which it 
had advanced. In this battle, of the three hundred men who went into 
action, ten were killed, ninety-two wounded and nineteen missing. Mov- 
ing to the opposite side of the river on the 20th, the regiment went into 
camp near Belle Plain. 

After having participated in the celebrated "mud march" it returned 
to its old camp and remained there vmtil the 7th of February, 1863, when 
it was ordered to Alexandria to join the Twenty-second Corps. It did 
guard and picket duty until the 27th of March and then moved to Fair- 
fax Station, where it remained until the 25th of June, when it moved to 
join the Army of the Potomac and participate in the memorable Gettys- 
burg campaign. Marching via Dranesville, Edwards Ferry and Fred- 
erick, the regiment joined the army on the 28th, and was again assigned 
to the Fifth Corps. Continuing the march through Uniontown and Han- 
over, it reached Gettysburg at 2 o'clock p. m. of July 2nd, and made a 
charge from Little Round Top with but small loss. Remaining in front 
during the night, on the morning of the 3rd skirmishing commenced, 
which continued through the entire day. Towards evening another 
charge was made, capturing a number of prisoners, recapturing one gun 
and five caissons, and relieving a large number of Union prisoners. In 
this encounter the Sixth remained on the skirmish line until 2 p. m. of 
the 4th, when it was relieved and bivouacked on Little Round Top. It 
sustained a loss of two men killed, a lieutenant and twenty-one men 

Pursuing the retreating rebels to Falling Waters, constantly skirmish- 
ing on the way, it encamped on the 14th, after having captured some 
prisoners near Sharpsburg, when it was ascertained that the rebel army 
had escaped across the river. Marching and an occasional skirmish and 
reconnaissance occupied the time until August i8th, when the regiment 
arrived at Rappahannock Station and remained until the 15th of Sep- 
tember, when it left for Culpeper Court House, which it reached on 
the 1 6th and went into camp two miles beyond the town, where it re- 
mained until October loth. Returning it recrossed the river on the 12th 
and encountered the enemy at Bristoe Station on the 15th, having three 
men wounded by his shells. On the 19th it crossed Bull Run and 
bivouacked on the old battleground. The march was continued on the 
next day through New Baltimore to Auburn, and from thence, on the 
7th of November, to Rappahannock Station, crossing the river on the 
8th and on the loth taking possession of the rebel barracks, where it 
remained until the 24th. It again crossed the river on the 26th at 
WykoflF's Ford, and moving out on the road towards Gordonsville met 
the enemy at New Hope Church. The Sixth was deployed as skirmish- 
ers and sent forward to the support of the cavalry, which was now en- 


gaged. Two charges of the rebels were repulsed by the left wing of 
the regiment. Its loss was two killed and four wounded. 

On the 5th of December the regiment went into winter quarters near 
Kettle Run, where it was engaged during the winter on guard duty. 
Preparations had been carefully made for the spring campaign, and 
breaking camp on the 29th of April it marched to near Culpeper, and 
on the 4th of May crossed the river at Germania Ford, halting at the 
Wilderness Tavern. On the following day the Wilderness campaign 
opened. It was actively engaged on the 5th, 6th and 7th, contesting with 
great gallantry every inch of ground. On the 7th Captain Allen, of com- 
pany G, was wounded. At Spottsylvania, on the 8th, it was engaged in 
heavy fighting nearly the entire day, and on the 9th moved to the right 
of the line and built rifle-pits. On the loth it made two unsuccessful 
charges upon the enemy's works, and again on the 12th. The loss dur- 
ing these engagements was thirteen killed, sixty-four wounded and nine 
missing. Constantly upon the skirmish and picket line, the Sixth met 
the enemy on every field with unflinching courage. On the 22nd it cap- 
tured ninety men of Hill's Corps. At length the final day of its service 
arrived, and with it the crowning success of the Reserves at Bethesda 
Church. The regiment was deployed as skirmishers and had gained 
the Mechanicsville road, near the church, when it was attacked by an 
overwhelming force and compelled to retire with considerable loss. It 
then threw up a rifle-pit, upon which the enemy impetuously charged. 
Retaining its fire until the approaching foe was near, it poured forth a 
volley which inflicted most terrible slaughter. Although but about one 
hundred and fifty strong, the Sixth captured one hundred tnd two pris- 
oners and buried seventy-two dead rebels in its immediate front. Two 
officers of the Sixth were wounded and nineteen men captured. 

After three years of service in the camp and on the march, from its 
initial victory at Dranesville to its final brilliant success at Bethesda 
Church, sharing always the privations and hardships of the Army of the 
Potomac as well as the glory which clusters around its name, the regi- 
ment on the ist of June started for Pennsylvania, where with the Re- 
serves it was enthusiastically received, arrived at the State capital on 
the 6th and on the 14th was mustered out of service. 

Roi.iv OF Company G, Thirty-fifth Regiment (Sixth Reserves, 
Three Years' Service). 


* Jacob Rehrer, April 22, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
November 10, 1862. 

Charles Allen, April 18, 1861 ; promoted from first lieutenant to cap- 
tain, April 3, 1863 ; brevet major, March 13, 1865 ; wounded at Fred- 



ericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, and Wilderness, May 7, 1864; mustered out 
with company, June 11, 1864. 

first Lieutenant. 

*B. F. Ashenfelter, April 18, 1861 ; promoted from second lieutenant, 
April 3, 1863 ; brevet captain, March 13, 1863 ; mustered out with com- 
pany, June II, 1864. 

Second Lieutenants. 

*John Yentzer, April, 1861 ; resigned Nov. 15, 1861. 

John McWilliams, April 18, 1861 ; promoted from first sergeant to 
second lieutenant, April 3, 1863; mustered out with company, June 11, 

First Sergeants. 

Joseph B. Rife, April 22, 1861 ; discharged Aug. 5, 1861, to accept 
promotion as second lieutenant, 6th U. S. Infantry. 

George W. Horn, July 24, 1861 ; killed in action. May 9, 1864 ; buried 
in Wilderness burial ground. 


John R. Stoner, June 5, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant, April i, 1862; 
mustered out with company, June 11, 1864. 

Wall. W. Johnson, July 22, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant, April 11, 
1863; mustered out with company, Jvme 11, 1864. 

B. R. Hayhurst, April 22, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

John A. Bonner, April 18, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
March 23, 1863. 

*James H. Stanley, April 18, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
]\Iay 31, 1864; veteran. 


George W. Gray, April 22, 1861 ; wounded at North Anna, May 23, 
1864; absent at muster out. 

Joseph H. Peters, April 19, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

George W. Cole, April 20, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

John D. Books, April 18, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
Alay 31, 1864; veteran. 

Lorenzo Horn, April 18, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Thomas H. Abbott, April 19, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant-major, 
April II, 1863. 


Rescue Hose House. 





William Fitting, April 22, 1861 ; killed at Fredericksburg, Dec n 
1862. '^ ^' 

Jacob Shapley, January i, 1864; not on muster-out roll; veteran. 
Samuel Sides, Dec. 22. 1863 5 "ot on muster-out roll ; veteran. 
Calvin McClung, Dec. 22, 1863 ; not on muster-out roll ; veteran. 


Alleman, Benj. F., April 18, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, Oct. 29, 1862. 

Baskins, George W., May 3, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Bishop, Jacob, May 3, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 11, 

Berst, Levi, July 15, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 11, 1864. 

Breckbill, Pierce, April 18, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Bear, Henry A., April 18, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Barnes, Simon, April 18, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 
31, 1864; veteran. 

*Bomberger, Michael, Sept. 5, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. 
v., May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Burg, William, May i, 1861 ; died at Tenallytown, Aug. 5, 1861. 

Bailey, Joseph, April 18, 1861 ; killed at Antietam, Sept. 18, 1862. 

Curry, William M., July 15, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

*Chub, John, April 18, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 11, 

Cole, Alonzo, April 18, 1861 ; transferred from Veteran Reserve 
Corps; mustered out with company, June 11, 1864. 

Camp, Simon C, April 18, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Conroy, William, April 18, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

*Cain, William, April 19, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Dec. 27, 1861. 

*Church, Geo. H., April 18, 1861 ; discharged March 20, 1863, ^o^ 
wounds received in action. 

Cover, John, July 15, 1861 ; discharged Feb. 15, 1863, for wounds 
received in action. 

Cornwell, Charles, April 22, 1861. 

Depu, James F., April 18, 1862; absent, in hospital at muster out. 

Dewalt, John, April 20, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 
31, 1864; veteran. 




Dailey, Patrick, April 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Aug. 2, 1861. 

Embick, Jacob A., April 20, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Eichelberger, George, April 20, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt. P. 
v.. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Etter, John C, April 18, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Dec. II, 1863. 

Eichelberger, H., Feb. 22, 1864; killed at Bethesda Church, May 30, 

Elliott, Reuben, July 15, 1861. 

Fish, Lewis, July 15. 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 31, 
1864 ; veteran. 

Fisher, Peter H., April 28, 1861. 

^Giverren, Patrick, May i, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Gosline, James D., July 22, 1861 ; absent, in hospital at muster out. 

Graybill, Jacob, April 22, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

*Garrigan, James, April 23, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
June, 1862. 

*Gibbons, Jacob, Mav i, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Oct. 8, 1862. 

Goss, George W., Sept. i, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Gould, James S., Feb. i, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Feb. 10, 1863. 

Geist, James, May i, 1861 ; died at Alexandria, Jan. 24, 1862; grave 

Hughes, Christian, April 20, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Hemperly, Geo. L., April 22, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Hain, Robert, April 22, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 11, 

Houser, Frederick M., July 10, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. 
v., May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Henderson, Martin, April 22, 1861 ; died Dec. 14, 1862, of wounds 
received in action. 

*Jury, Adam, Jan. 16, 1864; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 
31, 1864. 

Kough, Henry A., April 22, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, July 2, 1862. 

Kohler, Charles, Feb. 4, 1864; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 
31. 1864. 



*Linn, Jacob, April 18, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 11, 

*Lockard, John, May i, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May, 
31, 1864 ■' veteran. 

Lemon, John, May i, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 
31, 1864; veteran. 

Leggore, WilHam, Sept. 13, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

*Lloyd, John, March 7, 1864; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 
31, 1864. 

Montgomery, John, April 20, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Montgomery, William, April 20, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. 
v.. May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Manly, Amos, April 18, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., May 
31, 1864; veteran. 

Martin, Jacob G., April 19, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Marquit, Andrew B., April 20, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, date unknown. 

Mushon, Francis, April 19, 1861 ; transferred to gunboat service, 
Feb. 10, 1862. 

Murphy, Bernard, Aug. 29, 1862; killed at Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. 

*Orth, William H. H., April 19, 1861. 

Peirce, Cyrus H., April 19, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Peirce, George W., April 19, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

*Peters, John W., April 18, 1861 ; mustered out with company, June 
II, 1864. 

Powell, James, April 18, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate. 
May 16, 1863. 

Peters, John M., July i, 1861 ; killed at Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862. 

Penneman, Robert, Sept. i, 1861 ; killed at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. 

Quinsler, William, May 3, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Rouse, Franklin, April 18, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
May 13, 1862. 

Reichenbach, Peter, Oct. 14, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, CkX. 27, 1862. 

Roburm, James, March 8, 1864 ; died May 9, 1864 ; buried in Military 
Asylum Cemetery. 

Sullivan, Cornelius, April 18, 1861 ; wounded at Spottsylvania Court 
House, May 9, 1864; absent, in hospital at muster out. 



Snavely, John D., July 15, 1861 ; wounded at Spottsylvania Court 
House, May 12, 1864; absent, in hospital at muster out. 

Strauss, Aaron G., April 24, 1861 ; discharged Feb. 20, 1863, for 
wounds received in action. 

Stores, Jonas F., July 22, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
April 3, 1862. 

Specht, Henry D., Nov. 28, 1861 ; transferred to 191st Regt., P. V., 
May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Simmer, Charles, Sept. 13, 1861 ; dicharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Feb. 10, 1863. 

Stehman, Henry C, April 20, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, March 23, 1863. 

Strickland, William, Feb. 2, 1864; transferred to 191st Regt., May 
31, 1864. 

Smith, Edgar, May i, 1861 ; died. May 16, 1863. 

Spencer, Lewis, May 10, 1861 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court House, 
May 12, 1864; buried in burial ground at Wilderness. 

Smith, Daniel, Feb. 22, 1864; killed at Spottsylvania Court House, 
May 12, 1864; buried in burial ground at Wilderness. 

Swigart, Aaron, April 19, 1861. 

Swords, John, May 29, 1861 ; not on muster-out roll. 

Townsend, W. Ford, May i, 1861 ; commissioned second lieutenant, 
Dec. 4, 1861 ; not mustered; mustered out with company, June 11, 1864. 

Vincent, Robert W., April 20, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, Oct. 4, 1862. 

Walborn, Frank R., April 20, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, Dec. 24, 1862. 

Weist, Daniel, April 20, 1861 ; died Dec. 14, 1862, of wounds received 
at Fredericksburg. 

Wilson, Daniel, April 20, 1861. 


Eighty-seventh Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers (Three 

Years' Service). 

Regimental organization completed Sept. 25, 1861. May 26, 1862, 
marched to Baltimore. June 23rd, ordered to New Creek, W. Va. In 
August ordered to Rowlesburg in pursuit of Imboden and Jenkins. 
September 12th returned to Clarksburg. October 20th went to Buckhan- 
non; 31st, moved to Beverly; thence crossed Cheat and Allegheny 
Mountains to (November 12th) Franklin; thence returned to New 


Note : These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted from here, and of 
those residents here, between 1861 and 1865, who enlisted elsewhere. 


Creek. December 6th, to Petersburg ; thence to Moorfield ; thence, De- 
cember 1 8th, in pursuit of Imboden, through Wardensville, Capon 
Springs and Strasburg, to Winchester, arriving on the 24th. In May, 
1863, the regiment was ordered to Webster, on the B. & O. R. R., to look 
after straggling bands of rebels. On the 20th returned to Winchester. 
June 1 2th, on i^econnoisance in direction of Strasburg, where it had an 
engagement with the enemy. Battle on 13th and 14th; retreated to 
Harper's Ferry; i6th crossed to Maryland Heights. July ist, Mary- 
land Heights evacuated ; Eighty-seventh detailed to guard boats which 
carried quartermasters' stores to Georgetown, arrived on the 4th, and 
7th joined the Army of the Potomac at Middletown (Md.). Partici- 
pated in the engagement at Manassas Gap, July 23rd ; at Bealton Sta- 
tion, October 26th ; Kelly's Ford, November 7th ; Brandy Station, No- 
vember 8th ; Locust Grove, November 27th, and at Mine Run, Novem- 
ber 30th. Went into winter quarters at Brandy Station. Here one hun- 
dred and eighty of the men re-enlisted and were given a veteran fur- 

The Eighty-seventh bore a part in the battles of the Wilderness and 
Spottsylvania, but without serious loss. In the actions of the ist and 3rd 
of June, 1864. at Cold Harbor, the regiment sustained a loss in killed 
and wounded of about one-third of its strength. With the corps it moved 
from Cold Harbor, crossing the Chickahominy to the James. It moved 
by boats from Wilcox Landing to Bermuda Hundred, where it remained 
three days with General Butler's command, then crossed the Appomattox 
and took position in front of Petersburg on the extreme left of the army. 
June 23rd, with part of the Sixth Corps, it moved upon the W^don 
Railroad, tore up the track for a considerable distance, and had an en- 
gagement with the enemy. July 6th it moved with the division to Fred- 
erick. In the battle of the Monocacy it suffered a heavier loss than in 
any other battle during its entire term of service. September 19th it 
moved with the army under Sheridan against the enemy at Opequan. 
The Eighty-seventh lost in this engagement sixty in killed and wounded. 
In the action of the 22nd, at Fisher's Hill, the regiment lost one killed 
and one wounded. 

September 23rd, its term of service having expired, it was ordered 
(with the exception of veterans and recruits) to York, and October 13th 
mustered out of service. The veterans and recruits were formed into 
a battalion of five companies. This battalion took part in the battle of 
Cedar Creek, October 19th. In March, 1865, five new companies were 
added to the battalion, making it a full regiment. April 2nd it partici- 
pated in a charge upon the works before Petersburg, losing two officers 
and five men killed, and three officers and twenty- three men wounded 
It was also engaged at Sailor's Creek on the 6th. Was finally mustered 
out at Alexandria on the 29th of June, 1865. 




Solomon F. Cover, Co. I, March i6, 1865; i year; absent — sick at 
muster out. 

First Lieutenant. 

Caleb H. Rowe, Co. I, March 16, 1865; i year; resigned June 16, 


William Drabenstadt, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1861 ; 3 years ; promoted from 
corporal, June i, 1864; discharged Oct. 14, 1864 — expiration of term. 

John Burns, Co. I, Feb. 16, 1865; i year; mustered out with com- 
pany, June 29, 1865. 


*John A, Hiney, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1861 ; 3 years ; absent — sick at ex- 
piration of term. 

Lucas Shurer, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1-861 ; 3 years ; wounded June 27), 
1864. Absent at expiration of term. 


*Bently, John, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1861 ; 3 years; died Oct. 19, 1861. 

Crawford, William, Co. I, Feb. 15, 1865; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order, June 16, 1865. 

*Drabenstadt, Frank, Co. B, Feb. 15, 1861 ; 3 years; captured June 
22,, 1864; died at Andersonville. 

Davis, John, Co. I, Feb. 16, 1865; i year; discharged on surgeon's 
certificate. May 16, 1865. 

Eshinower, George, Co. I, March 11, 1865; i year; mustered out 
with company, June 29, 1865. 

Fishburn, John L., Co. I, Feb. 20, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

Fenzel, Francis, Co. I, March 14, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

Forney, William, Co. I, March 14, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

Green, John, Co. I, March 2, 1865 j ^ year ; mustered out with com- 
pany, June 29, 1865. 

Guistewite, John, Co. I, March 8, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

Kendrick, James, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1861 ; 3 years; discharged Oct. 13, 
1864 — expiration of term, 



*Lutz, Adam, Co. I, March 14, 1865; i year; died at Philadelphia, 
Pa., May 25, 1865. 

Manning, Jacob, Co. I, March 9, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

McCann, Jacob B., Co. I, Feb. 15, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

McCann, M. W., Co. I, Feb. 15, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

'■\Mattis, Silas, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1861 ; 3 years; absent — sick at expira- 
tion of term. 

Mattis, Jesse, Co. I, Feb. 28, 1865; i year; mustered out with com- 
pany, June 29, 1865. 

*Myers, John, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1861 ; 3 years; discharged Oct. 13, 
1864 — expiration of term. 

*Noll, John S., Co. I, March 11, 1865; i year; mustered out with 
company, June 29, 1865. 

*Price, Thomas, Co. B, Sept. 14, 1861 ; 3 years; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate, May 3, 1863. 

Ridley, Jacob, Co. I, Feb. 28, 1865; i year; absent — sick at muster 

Roop, David, Co. I, March 7, 1865; i year; mustered out with com- 
pany, June 29, 1865. 

*Ritzel, John, Co. I, March 11, 1865; i year; killed at Petersburg, 
Va., April 2, 1865. 

*Ruth. Henry D., Co. I, March 13, 1865; i year; died at City Point. 

Sides Michael, Co. I, Feb. 21, 1865; i year; mustered out with com- 
pany, June 29, 1865. 

*Welker, Henry H., Co. I, Feb. 2y, 1864; i year; died at Washing- 
ton, D. C, April 6, 1865 ; buried in National Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 

NiNETY-sHcoND Pennsylvania, Ninth Cavaury. (Three Years' 


The Ninth Cavalry, first known as the Lochiel Cavalry, was organized 
August 29, 1 861, and rendezvoused at Camp Cameron. November 20th 
it went by rail to Pittsburgh, and thence by boat to Louisville, Ky., where 
it went into camp on the opposite side of the Ohio river, at Jefferson- 
ville, Ind. By January 10, 1862, the regiment had acquired such profi- 
ciency in drill that it was ordered to the front. On the advance of Gen- 
erals Buell and Mitchell it was detailed to remain for the protection of 
Kentucky, and divided into three battalions. On the 5th of March the 
regiment was ordered into Tennessee. On the 4th of May the Third 
Battalion first met the enemy, under Morgan, at Lebanon, where with 
the Seventh Pennsylvania and the Third Kentucky Cavalry, it most sig- 
nally defeated that daring partizan, capturing his second in command 
and 293 of his men, Morgan himself narrowly escaping capture by swim- 



ming the Cumberland river. On the 14th of May the Third captured his 
rear guard at Spring Creek, and pushing on forced him into the Cum- 
berland Mountains, where his command scattered over the various roads 
leading to Chattanooga. On the 3rd of June the Third advanced to 
Tompkinsville, Ky., and on the 6th defeated a largely superior force, un- 
der Colonel Hamilton, at Moore's Hill, losing in the engagement five 
killed and ten badly wounded. On July 9th. 1862, Morgan, with 2,000 
men, advanced against Tompkinsville ; there were but 200 men in the post 
to oppose him, and they, after maintaining an unequal contest for two 
hours, retired to Burksville, Ky. In this engagement, while the loss of 
the enemy was 57 killed and 140 wounded, the battalion lost but ten 
killed, fourteen wounded and nineteen taken prisoners. After the bat- 
tle of Richmond, Ky., on the 30th, the regiment, in connection with the 
Ninth Kentucky Cavalry, covered the retreat of General Nelson to Louis- 
ville, fighting daily the enemy's advance. At Shelbyville it had a sharp 
encounter, defeating Jenkins, killing 27 of his men and capturing 44. 
Upon General Buell's arrival, in conjunction with the Second Michigan, 
it took the advance to Perryville, and by its boldness in pushing the ene- 
my's rear brought on the sanguinary battle fought there, sustaining the 
fire of his infantry until relieved by General McCook's Corps. It then 
formed on the right of the line, and by its steadiness, foiled every at- 
tempt of the enemy's cavalry to turn its flank. In this action it had ten 
killed and twenty-seven wounded. In general orders, after the action, 
General Buell says: "The Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry behaved most 
bravely, being at one time compelled to stand for three quarters of an 
hour under the concentrated fire of three batteries of the enemy's artil- 
lery, and only retired when ordered to do so." By this time the regi- 
ment was much weakened by hard service, and one-half the men were 
dismounted. It was therefore ordered to Louisville for fresh horses and 

On the 22nd of December, in company with the Second Michigan, 
the regiment started on a raid upon the railroads communicating with 
the rebel capital. The command took to the deer paths of Pine, Cum- 
berland and Clinch Mountains. These mountains are as cheerless, dark 
and savage as when Boone first saw them ; at this point are one hundred 
miles wide, and can only be crossed by following the paths made by deer 
and Indians ages ago. It is difficult to form an adequate conception of 
the hardships the troops encountered on this march. January i, 1863, it 
reached the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad at the Wautauga Bridge, 
and encountered a company of the enemy, under command of Gen. 
Humphrey Marshall, strongly entrenched. The place was carried by as- 
sault and the bridge burned. The captured prisoners were paroled and 
the command moved down the railroad to where it crosses the Holstein 
river. This bridge was defended by an entrenched force of 250 men. 
The works were stormed and the entire force taken prisoners. In this 
action the Ninth lost six killed and twenty wounded. The badly 
wounded were left with the paroled enemy. Leaving the Holstein 


Bridge and destroying a mile long tressel work, the command com- 
menced their return ; by strategy, enterprise and rapidity of movement, 
it eluded a force of 8.000 of the enemy, under Marshall, and recrossed 
the Cumberland Mountains over the same paths by which it had ad- 
vanced. The success of this raid, in the face of a greatlv superior force, 
so chagrined the rebels, that Marshall was relieved of his command and 
never afterwards restored. The regiment reached Nicholasville, whence 
it had started, on the night of the 19th of January, with two-thirds of 
its men dismounted, the animals having been over one hundred miles 
without food. In this raid the Ninth lost thirty killed and one hundred 

After a few days' rest the regiment marched to Louisville, was re- 
mounted, and proceeded thence by rail to Nashville. On the 2nd of Feb- 
ruary it went to Franklin, where, after a sharp skirmish. General For- 
rest's Brigade of the enemy was driven from the town. The regiment 
now formed the right wing of the army of the Cumberland; confront- 
ing it was the left wing of the enemy, a force of 12,000 cavalry, under 
General \"an Dorn. For eighteen days the Ninth, aided by three hun- 
dred men from the Second Michigan Cavalry, confronted this strong 
rebel force, deceiving them as to their strength by frequent attacks upon 
their advanced positions. On the 4th of March Van Dorn advanced to 
storm the post, but a division of infantry having arrived on the night of 
the 3rd, the whole command advanced to meet him, and after a hotly 
contested engagement, lasting six hours, the enemy was driven back to 
his original position. In this action the regiment had twelve killed and 
fifty-one wounded. On the 5th the Ninth advanced and engaged the 
enemy, driving them from their position and holding the ground until the 
infantry formed and advanced to their relief. The action proved disas- 
trous to the Union arms, and Colonel Colburn, with 3,800 infantry was 
captured ; but the Ninth, under Colonel Jordan, fought their way back 
to Franklin, bringing off 220 prisoners, the entire artillery and baggage 
train of the army, and as many wounded as the ambulances could carry. 
For the heroic part borne by the regiment in this action, it was men- 
tioned in special orders by General Rosecrans. 

In the campaign against Bragg the Ninth took part, and with the First 
Brigade, First Division of the cavalry under General Stanley, led the 
advance of our army. It fought in the battles of Rover, Middletown 
and Shelbyville ; at the latter place charging the left flank of the enemy, 
while the Seventh Pennsylvania charged the centre, and in a most stub- 
born hand-to-hand encounter captured nearly a thousand prisoners, with 
the enemy's battery, breaking up entirely his cavalry organization. In 
the action at Elk river it attacked the left flank of the enemy and forced 
him from his position. At Cowan, a few days later, it captured 200 of 
the rear guard of Bragg. A few days before the battle of Chickamauga 
it captured at Lafayette, Ga., a part of the advance guard of General 
Longstreet. At Chickamauga it held the right of our line, and after the 
defeat of Cook's Corps, closed on the right of General Thomas and de- 


fended his fiank during the remainder of the battle. For its conduct in 
this encounter the regiment was commended by General Thomas in most 
flattering terms. 

In the winter of 1863 and spring of 1864, it was in East Tennessee, 
and fought in the battles of Dandridge, New Market, Mossy Creek and 
Fair Garden, capturing at the latter place the artillery of the enemy. The 
regiment having re-enlisted, was given a furlough of thirty days, and 
returned to Pennsylvania early in April. In May, having recruited its 
thinned ranks, to twelve hundred men, it was again in the field at Louis- 
ville. While waiting at this place for arms and horses, Morgan made 
his last raid into Kentucky. The Xinth at once volunteered to defend 
the State capital. Colonel Jordan, seizing the horses necessary to mount 
his command, and arming his men with muskets, they marched to Frank- 
fort by night, fifty-four miles, and held the place, compelling ^Morgan to 
fall back to Pound Gap, where he was badly defeated by a force of cav- 
alry in his rear, under General Burbridge. 

The regiment then marched to Nashville, thence to Chattanooga, ar- 
riving on the 2nd of September. It was immediately ordered in pursuit 
of the rebel General Wheeler, who had started on a raid into Middle 
Tennessee. On the 6th, at Reedyville, it defeated General Dibbrell's 
Brigade of Wheeler's command, taking 294 prisoners. On the 7th it 
went, with other cavalry, after the retreating enemy, and on the same 
day defeated Colonel Anderson of the rebel General William's Division. 
The pursuit was continued on the 8th and 9th, the enemy constantly 
avoiding an engagement, although of more than double the number of 
the Union force. At Sparta the rebels took to the mountains, and passed 
into East Tennessee. In acknowledgment of the conduct of the troops 
in this command, of which the Ninth Pennsylvania constituted two- 
thirds, complimentary orders were issued by General Van Cleve, at Mur- 
freesboro; General Milroy, at Tullahoma, and General Steedman, at 

The regiment then joined General Sherman at Marietta, Ga., and on 
the 14th of November started with that great chieftain on his "March 
to the Sea."' It was assigned to the First Brigade, Third Division of 
Cavalry, under General Kilpatrick, and led the advance of the right wing 
of the army. On the i6th it encountered General Wheeler's Cavalry, 
entrenched at Lovejoy's Station, on the Macon Railroad. By a gallant 
charge the Ninth drove the enemy from his works, capturing four guns 
and over 300 prisoners ; these guns were retained by the regiment until 
the close of the war. 

Early in December it skirmished heavily with the enemy's cavalry 
near Macon, pushing them within the defenses of the city. In conjunc- 
tion with Woolcott's Brigade of the Fifteenth Corps, it fought the battle 
of Bear Creek, defeating Wheeler, but suffering a loss of ninety-five 
killed and wounded. ^Moving to the left flank of the army it demon- 
strated towards Augusta, then southeast towards Millen, one of the 
southern prison-pens. Here Wheeler made a night attack, and at 


Waynesboro another. In both he was defeated. Finding that the Union 
prisoners had been removed from Millen, the command turned towards 
Louisville, Ga. At Buckhead Creek, Wheeler made a heavy attack upon 
the Ninth, hoping to cut it off from the rest of the column ; by a bold 
charge the enemy was beaten off. In all these engagements Wheeler's 
Cavalry outnumbered that opposed to him. Two days later, in conjunc- 
tion with infantry it defeated Wheeler again at Buckhead Church ; the 
following morning he was attacked in a position where he had barri- 
caded himself, and in twenty minutes was in full retreat. At Waynes- 
boro he was again defeated. On this day the command faced towards 
Savannah, where it arrived with the whole army on December 21st. 

After a month's delay the regiment again took the field, marching 
through Robertsville, Barnville and Blackville, S. C. ; at the latter place 
it again defeated a portion of Wheeler's command. Three days later 
Wheeler, reinforced by Hampton's Division, attacked with their whole 
force, but were signally defeated. Without pausing the brigade moved 
towards Columbia ; at Lexington defeated a portion of Wheeler's rear- 
guard and at Blacksnake Station, on the Columbia and Charlotte Rail- 
road defeated another force of the enemy. Crossing the Catawba it en- 
tered North Carolina, then crossed the Great Pedee river and occupied 
Rockingham. March nth it reached Fayetteville. After a few days of 
rest it moved towards Goldsboro, and on the i6th, at Averysboro, was 
engaged from 6 a. m. to 2 p. m. with McLaw's Division of the rebel 
army, capturing a large number of prisoners. In the brigade every 
twelfth man was killed or wounded. 

On the 17th the command marched towards Bentonville, on the left 
flank of the Twentieth Corps, and with it participated in the hotly con- 
tested battle of the 19th, assisting materially in securing a triumph. Af- 
ter refitting and resting near Goldsboro, the cavalry again took the field 
on the 9th of April. Marching day and night, by a circuitous route, it 
struck the head of Johnston's retreating columns, and after a sanguinary 
conflict compelled the enemy to change his course. 

On the morning of the 13th it passed through Raleigh and encoun- 
tered the enemy, under Wheeler and Hampton, in position on the Hills- 
boro road. In this engagement the Ninth bore the brunt of the action. 
The enemy fell back, hotly pursued by the cavalry for ten miles, to Mor- 
risville, where he again made a stand. The line was quickly formed, the 
charge sounded, and the position carried, the enemy retreating in the 
wildest confusion over the plain, broken into fragments by the plunging 
fire of the artillery from the heights overlooking the valley. The col- 
umns being again formed, started in pursuit, when a flag of truce was 
discovered approaching. It was received by the Ninth, under which was 
deUvered the letter of General Joseph E. Johnston, directed to General 
Sherman, asking for a meeting to determine the terms of surrender of 
the army under his command. This w-as the last fighting done, and the 
last guns fired in Sherman's command were from the battery of the 
Ninth Pennsvlvania Cavalry. From ]\Iorrisville the command marched 


to Durham, and the escort to General Sherman when he proceeded to the 
Burnet House to meet General Johnston, and again upon the occasion 
of agreeing to the terms of surrender, was furnished by this regiment. 
After the surrender the command moved through Greenville to Lexing- 
ton, where it remained until the i8th of July, when it was mustered out 
of service. Returning to Pennsylvania it was finally disbanded and the 
war-worn veterans retired to their homes and the peaceful avocations of 



*Thomas W. Jordan, Co. H, May 23, 1863 ; 3 years ; promoted from 
second to first lieutenant, May 30th, 1864; wounded at Readyville, 
Tenn., Sept. 6, 1864; commissioned captain, June 16, 1865; not mus- 
tered ; mustered out with company, July 18, 1865. 

Second Lieutenant. 

Jacob S. Wilson, Co. H., Oct. 29, 1861 ; 3 years ; promoted to quarter- 
master sergeant Jan. i, 1864; commissioned second lieutenant June 16, 
1865 ; not mustered ; mustered out with company July 18, 1865 ; vet- 


James H. Harvey, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; promoted to first 
sergeant May 20, 1865 ; mustered out with company July 18, 1865 ; 

Jacob Wolfley, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant Jan. i, 
1864; mustered out with company July 18, 1865; veteran. 


John C. Beachler, Co. I, Aug. 13, 1864; i year, discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 


Brestle, Henry C, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; discharged Dec. 
24, 1864, expiration of term. 

*Books, Jacob R., Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; killed accidentally 
at Louisville, Ky., Sept. 9, 1862. 

Bretz. William H., Co. C, May 9, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Barnet, Augustus N., Co. C, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by 
general order Mav 29, 1865. 

*Boyd, George E., Aug. 13, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 



Beachler, Jacob, Co. K., Aug. 10, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

Brinser, Abraham F., Co. C, Aug. 12, 1864; i year; wounded at 
Averysboro, N. C, March 16, 1865; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Brubaker, Thomas, Co. H., Aug. 16, 1864; i year; discharged by 
general order June 15, 1865. 

Campbell, James P., Co. C, Oct. 29th, 1861 ; 3 years; captured at 
Tompkinsville, Ky., and paroled July 9, 1862; discharged Dec. 14, 1864 
— expiration of term. 

Clay, John H., Co. I, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

*Cannon, Patrick G., Co. I, Aug. 10, 1864; i year; absent, sick, at 
muster out. 

Campbell, James, Co. C, Aug. 31, 1864; 3 years; discharged by gen- 
eral order June 20, 1865. 

Deibler, George, Co. C, Aug. 13, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Earisman, Elias, Co. H, Aug. 15, 1864; i year; captured; paroled; 
discharged by general order June 18, 1865. 

*Fisher, David N., Co. C, Aug. 12, 1864; 3 years; discharged by 
general order May 29, 1865. 

Fortney, Allen B., Co. H, Aug. 29, 1864 ; i year ; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

*Genkes, Henry, Co. H, Aug. 25, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

Gutshall, John, Co. C, Aug. 13, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Gutshall, George, Co. C, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

*Gheistwhite, Robert, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate, Jan. 5, 1865 ; veteran. 

*Gheistwhite, John, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; died at Louis- 
ville, Ky., Dec. 17, 1862; buried in National Cemetery, section B, range 
8, grave 6. 

Gruber, John B., Co. I, Aug. 16, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Hickernell, Robert, Co. C, Aug. 8, 1864 ; i year ; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865, to date Oct. 26, 1864. 

*Houser, Jacob R., Co. C, Aug. 12, 1864; i year; captured; died at 

Hickernell, William H., Co. C, Sept. 6, 1864; i year; discharged by 
general order May 29, 1865, to date Oct. 26, 1864. 

Irely, Samuel, Sr., Co. A, May 27, 1864 ; 3 years ; mustered out with 
company July 18, 1865. 



Irely, John, Co. G, May 30. 1864 ; 3 years ; mustered out with com- 
pany July 18, 1865. 

Kellar, Jacob, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; discharged Dec. 24, 
1864 — expiration of term. 

KHne, WilHam, Co. C, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Longenecker, I. K., Co. I, Aug. 10, 1864; i year; captured; paroled; 
discharged by general order May 29, 1865. 

*Longenecker, Henry, Co. H, Aug. 15, 1864; i year; absent, in hos- 
pital, at muster out. 

*Laughman, Daniel, Co. C, Aug 30, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

Lutz, John, Co. H, Aug. 30, 1864; i year; mustered out with com- 
pany July 18, 1865. 

Matthias, John, Co. C, May 30, 1864; 3 years; mustered out with 
company July 18, 1865. 

Mansburger, Daniel, Co. E, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by 
general order May 29, 1865. 

Miller, John, Co. I, Aug. 10, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Miller, Henry, Co. I, Aug. 10, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

*]\IcKinley, Jacob, Co. C, Aug. 12, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

Metier, Adam A., Co. H, Aug. 24, 1864 ; i year ; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

Miller, James D., Co. K, Aug. 15, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

*Neeter, John, Co. C, Sept. 10, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Pike, Milton, Co. I, Aug. 10, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Snyder, Samuel, Co. C, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Sheaffer, Jonathan, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; captured at 
Tompkinsville, Ky., and paroled July 9, 1862; discharged Dec. 24, 1864 
— expiration of term. 

Sheaffer, Hamilton, Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; absent, in hospi- 
tal, at muster out. 

Stipe, Andrew J., Co. C, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Stipe, Washington, Co. H, Aug. 19, 1864; i year; discharged by 
general order May 29, 1865. 

*Stipe, Jackson A., Co. H, Aug. 17, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order June 7, 1865. 



Snyder, John H., Co. C, Aug. 12, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

Sanders, Leander L., Co. H, Aug. 16, 1864; i year; discharged by 
general order May 29, 1865. 

Stipe, G. W., Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861. 

Snively, Charles H., Co. C, Sept. 6, 1864; discharged by General 
order May 29, 1865. 

Trump. George W., Co. C, Oct. 11, 1861 ; 3 years; discharged on 
surgeon's certificate Dec. 4, 1862. 

Uhlmer, Jacob, Co. E, Aug. 13, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Whisler, John L., Co. C, Aug. 9, 1864; i year; discharged by gen- 
eral order May 29, 1865. 

Willis, Henry, Co. E, Aug. 10, 1864; i year; discharged by general 
order May 29, 1865. 

Willis, Isaiah, Aug. 10, 1864; i year; unassigned. 

Ninety-third Regiment Pennsylvania Voeunteers. 

Organized October, 1861. November 12th, went to Washington; 
December 2nd, to Fort Good Hope, Md. ; January 22nd, 1862, to Ten- 
allytown ; 26th embarked for the Peninsula and until the 4th of May 
was posted at Warwick Court House, constructing rifle pits and forts 
along Warwick river. Suffered severely here from chills and fever. 
May the 4th, the regiment moved towards Williamsburg; on the 5th, 
in the battle of Williamsburg, its loss was six killed and twenty 
wounded ; May 13th, on the Chickahominy. In the battle at Fair Oaks 
its loss was twenty-one killed, one hundred and eight wounded, and 
twenty-eight missing. A correspondent of the New York Tribune, 
writing of this battle, says : "Take the case of the Ninety-third Pennsyl- 
vania. This thoroughly trained body of troops fought, were driven 
back from position, but not broken ; halted at word of command 
wheeled, fired, retreated, halted, loaded and fired again, and again, and 
came off the ground in perfect order, with their colors flying — a striking 
proof that the success of battles is in the discipline of the troops." 

In the movement of the army from the Chickahominy to the James, 


Note : These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted here ; and of those 
residents here during the war who enlisted elsewhere. 

Note: Some years after the close of the war the Ninth Cavalry formed a 
social organization. Their eighteenth annual reunion took place at Middletown, 
June 9, 1887. Seventy-one of the veterans attended. They held a business meet- 
ing in the room of Post 78, G. A. R. ; a handsome flag was presented to them by 
Mrs. Colonel Reynolds ; in the evening they had a convivial reception in the 
crowded Opera House, and concluded the day with a banquet in the Market House. 


it acted as guard to the trains. At Alalvern Hill the loss of the regi- 
ment was about twenty. On the evacuation of the Peninsula it moved 
by transport from Yorktown to Alexandria, thence to Chantilly, and was 
in the battle here of September ist. On the opening of the Maryland 
campaign it moved to Harper's Ferry, making a reconnaissance as far 
as Sandy Hook. At the battle of Antietam it was held in reserve. In 
the battle of Fredericksburg, December 19, it was held in reserve. In 
the spring cam.paign, under Hooker, it was engaged in the Chancellors- 
ville battle, its loss was six killed, forty-four wounded, and twenty-one 
missing. May 18, 1863, the regiment moved up the Rappahannock. 
The march to Pennsylvania now commenced, and on July ist the regi- 
ment reached Manchester, Md. ; at 9 a. m., on the 2nd, it crossed the 
State line. The men were worn out with fatigue, the day was exces- 
sively hot, and the roads dusty ; but when the colors were unfurled, and 
the drums beaten, in token of their entrance upon the soil of their native 
State, they came to a quick step, with arms at a shift, and marched on 
gaily, singing, "Pennsylvania Again." 

At 2 p. m. the regiment arrived at Rock Creek, just in rear of the line 
of battle at the Gettysburg cemetery. The Ninety-third was the first 
regiment of the Sixth Corps to get into action, and took twenty-five 
prisoners. Since 8 p. m. of the evening previous it had marched thirty- 
nine miles, fought three hours, and passed a sleepless night, without 
food. During the night of the 3rd it was engaged in burying the dead 
and bearing off the wounded. Its loss in this battle was eight killed, 
and twenty-one wounded. At the conclusion of this campaign it returned 
with the army to the neighborhood of Brandy Station and went into 
winter quarters ni svibstantial log huts. 

December 30th, it was detached, and, with the brigade, sent to Wash- 
ington and thence to Harper's Ferry. Loaded upon open freight cars, 
without fire, the men suffered intensely from cold. The feet and hands 
of many were frozen, rendering amputation necessary in two cases, one 
of which proved fatal. 

February 7th, 1864, two hundred and eighty-four of the men, upwards 
of three-fourths of the regiment, re-enlisted, and were given a veteran 
furlough. General Wheating gave a letter to Lieutenant Colonel Long, 
in which occurs this passage: "The great Keystone State has sent few 
regiments to the field who can return showing as handsome a record as 
the one you command." 

On March i8th, 1864, the regiment, recruited to eight hundred strong, 
rejoined the brigade at Halltown, and soon afterwards returned to 
Brandy Station ; May 4th, it set out for the Wilderness. In the engage- 
ments of the 5th and 6th, the regiment lost eighteen killed, and one 
hundred and forty-four wounded. The 7th was comparatively quiet, 
but on the 9th, loth, and nth, it was kept busy maneuvering, digging, 
and fighting. On the morning of the 12th it went into position at the 
right of the famous "Angle," advancing to within fifty yards of the rebel 

Church of God, Middletown, Pa. 

THE i:L\'f '■jRK 



works. The regiment here lost seventy-seven killed and wounded in the 
space of one hour. 

It participated \n the fierce fighting of the army in its progress to the 
James, losing men almost daily; on the i8th of May having thirty killed 
and wounded. It crossed the Rapidan on the 4th of May, and entered 
the campaign with seven hundred and fifty men present for duty — as 
it marched from the trenches of Cold Harbor it had but three hundred 
and twenty-five of that number left in its ranks; fifteen officers and 
three hundred and ten men having been either killed or wounded, and 
ninety-five sick and sent to the rear ; but nine men were captured, and 
these were wounded and left on the field. "From the 4th of May until 
the I2th of June," says a member of the command, "the Ninety-third 
marched three hundred and fifty miles, made twenty-six night marches, 
was fifteen days without regular rations, dug thirty rifle-pits, oftener 
at night than by day, and fought in eight distinct battles. During all this 
time there were but five days on which the regiment, or some part of it, 
was not under fire, and neither officers nor men ever took off their 
clothes, seldom their accoutrements, day or night. Clothes and shoes 
worn out were only replaced by those of dead men, and not until it 
arrived at James river, far from the presence of an enemy did the men 
enjoy the luxury of a bath." 

June 15th the men arrived in front of Petersburg. Heavy skirmishing 
at once commenced and continued until the afternoon of the i8th, when 
they pushed close to the enemy's works on the Norfolk Railroad, en- 
trenching, under a heavy fire, with their bayonets. One officer was here 
killed and five men wounded. It remained here until the 22nd under an 
almost constant fire. On the 22nd it supported the Third Division in an 
attack, losing thirteen killed and wounded. On the 29th it marched to 
the relief of General Wilson ; after tearing up a portion of the Weldon 
Railroad it returned to camp. 

On the 9th of July it was taken in crowded transports to Washington, 
then menaced by General Early, On the 17th there was a battle and 
Early was driven back and pursued across the Potomac. August 9th 
Sheridan assumed command in the Valley, and on the 27th, while under 
his command the Ninety-third had an engagement with the enemy. Sep- 
tember 13th, it supported a battery on Opequan Creek, sustaining some 
loss. On the 19th, at Winchester, the regiment lost seven killed and 
forty wounded. At Fisher's Hill the loss was twenty-four killed and 
wounded ; after pursuing the enemy up the Valley beyond Staunton the 
army returned to Cedar Creek. On the morning of October 19th the 
Ninety-third repelled several assaults of the enemy, but was finally out- 
flanked and compelled to retire. The army was driven back four miles. 
General Sheridan arrived at two p. m. At three he rode along the line, 
saying, as he came to the Ninety-third, "We must sleep in our old camp 
to-night." The engagement was very severe, but the enemy finally gave 
way, and the rout was complete. 

On October 28th, one hundred men whose term had expired were 



mustered out of the service. In November the regiment was ordered 
to Philadelphia where it remained until after the Presidential election, 
when it returned to Winchester. About the middle of December it 
moved to the lines in front of Petersburg. 

During the winter several hundred recruits were received, bringing 
its strength up to the minimum. On the 25th of March, 1865, in an 
attack on the enemy's works, the regiment lost fifteen killed and one 
hundred and thirty-six wounded. At four a. m. on April 2nd, with the 
rest of the brigade, the regiment charged the enemy's works, which were 
carried, the Ninety-third being the first to plant their colors on the ram- 
parts. Their loss on this day was two killed and thirty wounded. Dur- 
ing the night the enemy evacuated Petersburg. On the 6th the regiment 
participated in the battle of Sailor's Creek. On the 9th Lee surrendered. 

The regiment returned by rail to Richmond, thence to Washington, 
and was there mustered out of service June 27th, 1865. 

roliv of middletown volunteers in company i, ninety-third 
Regiment. (Three Years' Service.) 


*Daniel J. Boynton, Oct. 28, 1861 ; mustered out Sept. 24, 1864 — 
expiration of term. 

First Lieutenant. 

Henry J. Waltz, Oct. 28, 1861 ; promoted to sergeant; to second lieu- 
tenant May 26, 1863; to first lieutenant January i, 1864; mustered out 
Oct. 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

Second LieiUenants. 

Jacob S. Steese, Oct. 28. 1861 ; promoted from first sergeant July 
22, 1862; resigned Jan. 5, 1863. 

John H. Parthemer, Oct. 28, 1861 ; promoted to corporal Feb. i, 
1862; to sergeant Nov. i, 1864; to second lieutenant Jan. 2, 1865; 
wounded at Petersburg, Va., March 25, 1865 ; mustered out with com- 
pany June 27, 1865 ; veteran. 

Alexander S. Black, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged July 22, 1862. 


Adam Bishop, Oct. 9, 1862; wounded at Opequan, Va., Sept. 19, 
1864; promoted from private Jan. 2, 1865 ; mustered out with company 
June 27, 1865. 

John S. Mackenson, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
April II, 1862. 




*EIias Beidleman, Feb. 22, 1864; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 
5, 1864 ; promoted to corporal Jan 2, 1865 J mustered out with company 
June 27, 1865. 

*D. L. Hickernell, Feb. 29, 1864; promoted to corporal Jan. 2, 1865; 
mustered out with company June 27, 1865. 

*Henry L. Light, Feb. 20, 1864; wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 
5, 1864; promoted to corporal Jan. 2, 1865; mustered out with com- 
pany June 27, 1865. 

Daniel Parthemer, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Feb. 3, 1862. 

George W. Stoner, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
July 7, 1862. 

William Condron, Oct. 28, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks, Va., May 
31, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate Sept. 30, 1862. 

Harrison Earisman, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Feb. 17, 1863. 

Martin P. Wetzel, Oct. 28, 1861 ; mustered out Nov. 11, to date Oct. 
28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

*Henry Steel, Oct. 28, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. 


*Boot, John, Jr., Nov. 20, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
May 10, 1862. 

Booser, Henry, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Jan. 13, 1863. 

*Beck, William V., March 17, 1864; died May 14, of wounds received 
at Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May 12, 1864. 

Bear, John, Oct. 28, 1861. 

Core, Jacob, Oct. 28, 1861 ; wounded at Spottsylvania Court House, 
Va., May 12, 1864; absent at muster out; veteran. 

Cassel, Hiram, Oct. 28, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 27, 
1865 ; veteran. 

Campbell, Simon, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Sept. 18, 1862. 

Cole, John H., Oct. 28, 1861 ; transferred to United States navy June 
20, 1864. 

*Core, Benjamin. Oct. 28, 1861 ; died Feb. 28, 1862, at Tenallvtown, 
D. C. 

♦Crawford, William A., March 11, 1864. 

Day, John S., Feb. 29, 1864; wounded at Fisher's Hill, Va., Sept. 22, 
1864; mustered out with company June 27, 1865. 

Deabler, George, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
July 9, 1862. 



Embich, Frederick S., Oct. 28, 1861 ; mustered out with company 
June 27, 1865 ; veteran. 

Earisman, Daniel, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Feb. 28, 1863. 

Earisman, Absalom, Nov. 11, 1861 ; discharged Dec. 11, 1861. 

Eves, Hiram C, Oct. 28, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 
1862; mustered out Oct. 28, 1864 — expiration of term. 

*Geistwhite, Abram, Alarch 16, 1862; dishonorably discharged March 
24, 1865 ; veteran. 

*Hunsberger, Daniel, Nov. 14, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate Nov. 7, 1862. 

*Hawk, George W., Oct. 28, 1861 ; wounded at Fair Oaks, Va., May 
31, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate Dec. 24th, 1862. 

Keister, Francis, Oct. 28, 1861 ; not on muster-out roll. 

*Light, Samuel, Oct. 28, 1861 ; died at Highspire, Dauphin county, 
Aug. 14, 1862. 

Slecht, Jacob, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Feb. 
21, 1863. 

Simmers, Joseph, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Jan. 23, 1863. 

Stipe, Andrew, Oct. 28, 1861. 

Sipe, John, Oct. 28, 1861. 

Sanders, Oleander, Oct. 28, 1861 ; not on muster-out roll. 

*Stehman, Christian, Nov. 7, 1861. 

^Whitman, John, Oct. 28, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Dec. 21, 1862. 


MiDDLEH'GWN Volunteers in the Thirty-sixth Regiment — Sev- 
enth Reserve. (Three Years' Service.) 


Campbell, James, Co. C, May 27, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate Aug. 18, 1863. 

Gastwhite, Abraham, Co. C, May 27, 1861. 

*Smith, Benjamin F., Co. C, May 27, 1861 ; died at Baltimore, Feb. 
17, 1864. 

The Seventh lost half its strength on the Chickahominy. After the 
'^'Seven Days' Fight" but two hundred men were left to answer roll- 
call, the killed, w^ounded and missing amounting to three hundred and 
one. At Fredericksburg it had six killed, seventy-two wounded, and 
twenty-two missing. The Reserves had by this time become so much 


Note: These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted here; and of those 
residents here during the war, who enlisted elsewhere. 


reduced by hard fighting that, early in 1863, they were transferred to the 
Department of Washington, where the Seventh remained on guard and 
provost duty until the spring of 1864. 

Forty-first Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers — Twelfth Re- 
serve. (Three Years' Service.) 

This regiment was organized in June, 1861 ; August loth it marched 
to Baltimore ; August 20th it was attached to the Third Brigade ; Octo- 
ber loth, marched to Virginia; December 20th was in the fight at 
Dranesville; May 6th, 1862, four men were captured by guerrillas; 
June 1 2th embarked at Belle Plain Landing to join McClellan on the 
Peninsula; debarked at White House on the 14th and marched to Dis- 
patch Station; on the i8th marched to New Bridge on the Chicka- 
hominy; on the 19th, moved to Ellerson's Mill on Beaver Dam creek. 
From a hill in front of their camp they could see the spires of Rich- 
mond ; here on the 26th, they were engaged with the enemy from three 
o'clock in the afternoon till nine o'clock at night ; over one hundred 
rounds of ammunition per man w^as expended. Roger A. Pryor, of the 
rebel army, in his account of the "Seven Days' Fight," says: "Eller- 
son's Mill was defended with desperate obstinacy." At Gaines' Mill 
the regiment was for three hours exposed to a terrific fire, the loss was 
six killed and twenty-five wounded. 

June 29th, an intensely hot day, it marched eighteen miles without 
food or water; that night it was ordered on picket. Colonel Taggart's 
report says : "The White Oak creek, which we crossed about noon, was 
a complete quagmire from the thousands of horses, teams and artillery 
which were passing, and water to drink was not to be had. Some of 
the men became almost delirious from thirst, and once, when I halted 
for a rest a few minutes, I discovered them drinking from a stagnant 
puddle in w^hich was the carcass of a putrid horse. Poor fellows, I 
pitied them, but I could not permit this, and I promised them water at 
White Oak swamp, but as we arrived there we found it utterly unfit to 
drink. The disappointment was intense ; but in the evening when we 
halted, and General McCall came up and told us there was plenty of 
good spring water in a rivulet close by, the joy of the men knew no 
bounds. Alas ! little did they think that on that very spot, in less than 
twenty-four hours, many of them would pour out their life's blood, and 
the waters of that little brook be reddened by the vital current! Yet 
so it was." 

On the 30th they were heavily engaged ; the regiment lost six killed, 
thirty-six wounded, and twenty-three missing. At Malvern Hill the 
regiment was held in reserve; July ist it moved to Harrison's Landing. 
The total loss of the regiment, in the Peninsula campaign, was thirteen 
killed, sixty wounded, and thirty-six missing. Much sickness occurred 
at Harrison's Landing, owing to the depression occasioned by repeated 
defeat, the unwholesome water and the miasmatic influences of the cli- 


mate. From the Peninsula the Twelfth proceeded to Falmouth, and 
thence by a rapid and fatiguing march to join General Pope's army. 
July 29th, near Groveton, the regiment sustained considerable loss. On 
the 30th near the Henry House it had a severe engagement, holding its 
position against vastly superior numbers, until re-inforced ; the loss was 
five killed and thirty-eight wounded. Near South Mountain its loss was 
six killed and nineteen wounded. August i6th and 17th, at Antietam, 
the regiment lost thirteen killed, forty-seven wounded and thirty-four 
taken prisoners. 

In February, 1863, the regiment, now reduced to a mere skeleton, was 
ordered to the defences of Washington and attached to the Twenty- 
second Army Corps. In April it was ordered to Washington, where it 
performed provost duty for six weeks. 

The Twelfth reached the battlefield of Gettysburg at ten a. m., on 
the 2nd of July. That night the Third Brigade took position on Round 
Top and built the stone wall connecting the summit of Round Top with 
Little Round Top. On October 14th the regiment was engaged at 
Bristoe Station ; on November 19th at Rappahannock Station, and on 
the 26th at Mine Run. It went into winter quarters on the Orange and 
Alexandria Railroad. 

May 4th, 1864, the spring campaign opened, and the Twelfth was 
hotly engaged during the three days in the Wilderness; on the i8th was 
in the fight at Spottsylvania Court House ; on the 23rd at the North 
Anna River ; and on the 30th at Bethesda Church ; on this day the 
regiment's term of service expired. It returned to Pennsylvania, where 
it was enthusiastically received, and on the nth of June was mustered 

MiDDivETowN Volunteers in Company G, Forty-eirst Regiment. 

First Lieutenant. 

George Huber, June 25, 1861 ; promoted to first lieutenant May i, 
1863; mustered out with company June 11, 1864. 


*Daniel D. Bailey, June 25, 1861 ; died of wounds Oct. 8, 1862. 

Hiram Kendig, July 11, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
May 21, 1862. 

David Shirk, July ii, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 


John S. Embick, June 19, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
March 20, 1864. 




Alexander, Washington, June 26, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate Feb. 20, 1863. 

Breneman, Samuel, June 25, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate July 18, 1862. 

Ingles, Frederick, Aug. 5, 1861. 

*Mackinson, Edward, Aug. 3rd, 1861 ; mustered out with company 
June II, 1864. 

*Mentzberger, William. June 25, 1861 ; died Nov. 3, 1861 ; buried in 
Military Asylum Cemetery. 

*Parson, Jeremiah, June 25th, 1861 ; transferred to 190th regiment 
P. v., May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Shaefer, Augustus, June 25, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 
II, 1864. 

Simpson, Orlando, June 25, 1861 ; transferred to 190th regiment, P. 
v., May 31, 1864; veteran. 

Stewart, Charles, July 26, 1861 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate 
Oct. 22, 1862. 

Tennis, John, Aug. 3, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 11, 


Forty-third Regiment Pennsyi^vania VoIvUnteers — First Artil- 
lery. (Three Years' Service.) 

This regiment was organized in June, 1861 ; in August was ordered 
to Washington, where it was armed and equipped, and then moved to 
Camp Barry, east of the Capitol. Here the several batteries were as- 
signed to different divisions and corps of the army, and were never again 
united as a regiment. 

Battery A. 

Battery A participated in the battle of Dranesville, December 20, 
1 861. At Beaver Dam it served with excellent effect. June 27th at 
Gaines' Mill, it was posted in an important position; being left with- 
out support and its ammunition becoming exhausted, it was captured by 
the enemy. It was re-organized and received new guns at Harrison's 
Landing. Participated in the battles of Bull Run, South Mountain and 
Antietam, maintaining its reputation for skill and bravery and leaving 
many of its men dead and wounded upon the different fields. At Fred- 
ericksburg, December ist, it maintained its position under the concen- 
trated fire of the enemy's batteries. Was attached to the army of the 


Note: These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted here; and of those 
residents here during the war, who enlisted elsewhere. 


James. Operated on the Black Water, at Deep Bottom, Fort Darling, 
Seven Pines and Petersburg. It entered Richmond with Weitzel's Corps 
on the day of that city's surrender, and was engaged in demolishing the 
rebel defences and removing their guns. After the completion of this 
duty in July, 1865, the battery turned in its guns at Richmond and 
marched to Pennsylvania, where, after a term of four years and four 
months' service, it v/as mustered out on the 25th. 

Battery B. 

The Middletown men joined this battery at Paoh Mills, near Kelly's 
Ford, Va., early in 1864. May 4th of that year the battery was in the 
engagements near the Lacy House ; on the 9th it fired about forty 
rounds at the enemy beyond the Po river; on the 13th it was in posi- 
tion on the picket line; the two lines were very close, the men had little 
shelter, and it was only by working on their knees that they could load 
the guns. The battery was withdrawn and marched all night, joining 
the corps near Spottsylvania Court House ; was immediately placed in 
position and engaged. On the i8th it was under the hottest fire that it 
encountered during the war. Here the rebels were treated to a little 
mortar practice by the gunners of Battery B. On the 21st this position 
was abandoned. On the 23rd, at Jericho Ford, the battery completely 
demolished a rebel battery that was annoying the Fifth Corps. On the 
2nd of June it went into position at Cold Harbor. The new gunners did 
good execution, firing a greater number of rounds on the 2nd and 3rd 
than had been fired by the battery previously during that campaign. It 
arrived at Wilcox's Landing on the James, on the 15th, and in front of 
Petersburg on the evening of the 17th, and occupied several positions; 
on the i8th in front of Avery Court House, fired a number of rounds; 
on the 30th of July, when the fort in front of the Ninth Corps was 
blown up, it was in service. On the i8th, 19th, and 21st of August it 
was with General Warren's advance on the Weldon Railroad. Decem- 
ber 2 1st it was relieved from duty on the front line and went into winter 
quarters about a mile in the rear. At different times during the winter 
it was on duty. When the enemy captured Forts Steadman and Haskell 
the left section kept a sharp fire on the forts in front. At midnight of 
April I, 1865, all the batteries received orders to open fire; on the 2nd 
the firing was renewed, the gunners doing good execution. Two de- 
tachments of Battery B worked the guns in one of the enemy's batteries 
which had been captured ; six hundred rounds left by the rebels were 
fired, besides a large number brought from the other line by the in- 
fantry. In the afternoon the rebels made an attempt to recapture the 
forts they had lost ; deserted by the infantry Lieutenant Rice and his 
handful of men worked the guns with telling effect. The next day the 
battery was ordered to City Point. May 3rd it left for Washington, 
passing through Richmond. June 3rd the guns were turned in at Wash- 
ington and the men went to Pennsylvania, where they were mustered 
out on the 9th. 


Battery F. 

Battery F was furnished in August, 1861, with horses, equipments 
and four smooth-bore pieces, and transferred to the camp of the Penn- 
sylvania Reserve Corps at Tenallytown. September 12th it was ordered 
to join General Banks at Darnestown, Md., and was never afterwards 
connected with the regiment or the reserves. On October 8th, two steel- 
rifled ten-pounder Parrot guns were added to the battery. The Middle- 
town men joined the company at its rendezvous at Chester, Pa., in Feb- 
ruary, 1864. On the 1st of March the battery returned to Virginia and 
took its place in the Second Corps. May 5th, 6th and 7th it was heavily 
engaged with the enemy in the wilderness. To add to the horrors of 
battle here the breastworks, which were composed of logs and rails, and 
the woods took fire, and many of the wounded perished in the flames. 
At Cold Harbor the battery was attached to the Eighteenth Corps, and 
was sharply engaged. On June 8th it returned to the Second Corps, 
having been in line of battle without relief for six days. On the 14th 
the battery was in position before Petersburg, and several hundred 
rounds were thrown into the city. On the 20th it was engaged on the 
Jerusalem Plank Road. From this time forward until the capture of 
Petersburg, the battery participated in all the movements of the corps, 
being constantly upon the front and engaged in the active operations of 
the siege. Upon the fall of the city, April 3, 1865, it was attached to the 
reserve artillery, and went into camp near City Point. Proceeding thence 
to Washington, where its guns and horses were turned over, it moved to 
Pennsylvania, where on the 9th of June, 1865, it was mustered out of 



*Franklin Houser, Battery F, Jan. 27, 1862 ; mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865 ; veteran. 


*Ackerman, George W., Battery F, Feb. 6, 1864; mustered out with 
battery June 9, 1865. 

Bretz, Thos J., Battery B, Feb. 11, 1864; mustered out with battery 
June 9, 1865. 

Campbell, Alexander, Battery B, Feb. 6, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery, June 9, 1865. 

*Cox, John, Battery E, July 10, 1861 ; mustered out August 4, 1864 
— expiration of term. 

Campbell, Simon S., Battery F., Feb. i, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. 



*Davis, Theophilus, Battery F, Feb. 2, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. 

Davis, Jacob, Battery B, February 8, 1864; mustered out with battery 
June 9, 1865; veteran. 

Gottschall, William, Battery F, Feb. 6, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. 

Houser, John, Battery F, March 14, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. 

Jenkins, Henry S., Battery F, June 4, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. 

McGraw, Edward, Battery E, Feb. 2, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery July 20, 1865. 

*McKinley, Jacob, Battery A, August i, 1861 ; mustered out July 12, 
1864 — expiration of term. 

Pearson, William, Battery G, July 19, 1861, discharged by surgeon's 
certificate December 18, 1861. 

Stewart, IMichael, Battery B, February 2, 1864; mustered out with 
battery June 9, 1865. 

*Swander, John, Battery B, Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out with battery 
June 9, 1865. 

Shaffer, Lewis D., Battery A, May 29, 1861 ; mustered out May 28, 
1864 — expiration of term. 

Weiting, Orlando L., Battery F, Jan. 4, 1864; mustered out with bat- 
tery June 9, 1865. Went to West Point; commissioned first lieutenant, 
TWenty-third U. S. Inf. 

MiDDLETowN Volunteers in the Eightieth Regiment, Pennsyeva- 
NiA Volunteers, Seventh Cavalry. (Three Years' Service.) 


*Kore, Henrv, Co. K, Feb. 3, 1864; mustered out with company Aug., 

Poorman, Henry, Co. K, Feb. 8, 1864; mustered out with company 
Aug. 22>, 1864. 

Schock, Benjamin, Co. M, Feb. 8, 1864; discharged on surgeon's cer- 
tificate March 20, 1865. 

They were with Sherman, and in engagements, May 15, 1864, at 
Rome ; 27th at Dallas and Villa Rica Road ; June 9, at Big Shanty ; 
nth, at McAfee Cross Roads; 20th at Monday Creek; 27th at Kene- 
saw Mountain; July i8th in raid on A. & A. Railroad; 21st in raid on 
Covington; 28th at Flat Rock; August ist at Atlanta; with Kilpat- 


Note: These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted here; and of those 
residents here during the war, who enlisted elsewhere. 


rick's raid; October 12th and 13th at Rome; at Lead's Cross Roads; at 
Nashville; at Plantersville ; at Selma; and at Columbia. 

middletown v0i.unteers in company i, elghty-third regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. (Three Years' Service.) 


Campbell, Henrv, Feb. 8, 1865 ! niustered out with company Tune 28, 

Graft, Andrew, Feb. 8, 1865 5 mustered out with company June 28, 

*Martin, James K. P., Feb. 8, 1865 ! discharged by general order 
June 27, 1865. 

Phillips, William, Feb. 8, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 
28, 1865. 

This regiment was organized September 8, 1861. The Middletown 
men joined it at Hampton Station. Va., in the spring of 1865. They 
were in the engagements at Jones' Farm, White Oak Road, Gravelly 
Run, Five Forks, Southerland Station, Jettersville, and the pursuit to 
Appomattox Court House. The regiment was mustered out of service 
at Washington, and finally disbanded July 4, 1865. 

Middletown Volunteers in Company D, One Hundred and First 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. (Three Years' Service.) 


George Neiman, Feb. 21, 1861 ; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 

William H. Moore, March 10, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 

Richard F. Eppler, March 15, 1865; mustered out with company 
June 25, 1865. 


\^alentine Baumbach, March 7, 1865 ; mustered out with company 
June 25, 1865. 

James P. Hippie, March 8, 1865; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 


Countryman, Adam, March i, 1865; mustered out with company 
June 25, 1865. 

Copeland, Benjamin, Feb. 20, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 

Daugherty, James D., March 10, 1865; mustered out with company 
June 25, 1865. 



James, David, March 13, 1865; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 

Kurtz, Levi W., Feb. 9, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 25, 

Roop, Solomon, March i, 1865; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 

Roop, Christian, March i, 1865; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 

* Starr, WilHam, Feb. 9, 1865 '■> mustered out with company June 25, 

Weirich, Jacob, March 10, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 
25, 1865. 

This regiment was organized in the fall of 1861. By the spring of 
1865 it had been reduced to a skeleton. It was re-organized on Roanoke 
Island. In March of that year eight new companies (in one of which 
were the Middletown volunteers) were assigned to it; they were how- 
ever never consolidated with the original companies, and on the 25th of 
June, 1865, the regiment was mustered out of service at Newbern, N. C. 

Middletown Voi.unte:ers in the One Hundred and Thirteenth 
Regiment Pennsyevania Voeunteers, Twelfth Cav- 
alry. (Three Years' Service.) 


John Core, Co. E, Feb. 23, 1864; mustered out with company, July 
20, 1865 ; veteran. 


*John Minsler, Co. E, Feb. 27, 1864; mustered out with company, 
July 20, 1865. 


Winaugle, WilHam F., Co. E, Feb. 3, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany, July 20, 1865. 

They were in the campaign against Early in June, 1864; were in 
actions at Solomon's Gap, Pleasant Valley and Crampton's Gap; at 
Winchester on the 20th ; at Kernstown on the 23rd ; the loss of the 
Twelfth in this engagement was heavy ; were with Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah Valley. In an engagement on the 21st of August they suf- 
fered loss. In December the regiment paroled the railroad from Har- 
per's Ferry to Winchester, and here had frequent skirmishes; on the 
22nd in battle at Harmony it had six killed and nineteen wounded. 
Their last skirmish was at Edinboro at the time of Lee's surrender. 



MiDDLETowN Volunteers in the One Hundred and Seventeenth 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, Thirteenth Cav- 
alry. (Three Years' Service.) 


Benjamin F. Bretz, Co. F, Aug. 14, 1863 ; three years ; promoted to 
corporal, March i, 1865; mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 


Coover, Adam G., Aug. 28, 1863 '■> three years, mustered out with com- 
pany, July I4, 1865. 

Fortne}-, Christian, Co. I, Jan. 24, 1865 ; one year, mustered out with 
company, July 14, 1865. 

Fratz, William H., Co. C, Aug. 14, 1863; three years, mustered out 
with company, July 14, 1865. 

Gottshall, Daniel, Co. C, Aug. 12, 1863 ; three years, mustered out 
with company, July 14, 1865. 

Hetrick, Daniel Co. C, Aug. i, 1863; three years, mustered out with 
company, July 14, 1865. 

Kough, H. A., Co. C, Aug. 7, 1863 ; three years, mustered out with 
company, July 14, 1865. 

Miller, Frederick, Co. C, Aug. 12, 1863; three years, mustered out 
with company, July 14, 1865. 

McBarron, H. H., Co. I, Jan. 24, 1865 ; one year, wounded at Raleigh, 
N. C, April 13, 1865; mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

They participated in the cavalry engagement at Jefferson, October 12, 
1863 ; here the regiment lost one hundred and sixty-three killed, 
wounded and prisoners ; were engaged three days in the retreat to 
Centreville ; participated in the severe fighting from the 5th to the nth 
of May, 1864; in Sheridan's raid had engagements at Beaver Dam Sta- 
tion and Hawe's Shop ; in the last affair the regiment lost ten killed 
and thirty-five wounded and missing ; at Trevilian Station ; June 24th 
at St. Mary's Church; in this action the Thirteenth lost three officers 
and thirty men, killed, wounded and missing; July ist relieved Wilson; 
were engaged at Jerusalem Plank Road, Malvern Hill and Lee's Mills. 
At Coggins' Point one hundred and fifty of the regiment were captured ; 
September 29th, in action at Wyeth farm, lost two officers and fifteen 
men ; were engaged October 22nd at Boydton Plank Road ; December 
8th and 9th, at Hatcher's Run, it suffered severely. February 5th and 
6th was fighting all of both days at Gravelly Run, and on the evening 
of the 6th"at Dabney's mills. About the middle of February the Thir- 
teenth went to North Carolina; had an engagement with Hampton's 
Cavalry; July 14th, returned to Raleigh, N. C. ; on the 15th went by 
rail to City Point, Va., thence via Baltimore and Philadelphia to Camp 
Cadwallader, where it arrived on the 19th, and on the 27th was finally 

Note: These notes contain the names of those who enlisted here; and of those 
residents here during the war, who enlisted elsewhere. 



One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Regiment Pennsyi^vania Vol- 
unteers. (Nine Months' Service.) 

This regiment, seven companies of which were recruited in Dauphin 
county, was organized August i6, 1862. Colonel William H. Jennings, 
Lt. Col. Henry C. Alleman, Major Jeremiah Rohrer. On the 17th the 
regiment, 969 strong, broke camp and proceeded to Washington. For 
ten days the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh, with other new regi- 
ments, were encamped on Arlington Heights. It was brigaded with the 
Twenty-fourth and Twenty-eighth New Jersey, and Twenty-seventh 
Connecticut, and on the 23rd assigned to duty in guarding Chain Bridge, 
where it remained until the opening of the winter. 

At the beginning of December, upon the eve of Burnside's movement 
upon Fredericksburg, the regiment moved to Falmouth, where it ar- 
rived on the 9th, and was assigned to the Third Brigade of the Second 
Division, Second Corps. During the night of the loth the engineers 
commenced laying pontoon bridges in front of the town, but before they 
were completed the workmen were driven away by the enemy's sharp- 
shooters, concealed in houses along the water's edge. Defeated in his 
first essay, Burnside ordered up his heavy guns and opened upon the 
town. During the bombardment the regiment supported batteries, and 
when this failed of effect Burnside called for volunteers to cross in boats 
and drive out the rebel sharpshooters. A party from Hall's brigade 
was chosen, among whom were members of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh, and leaping to the boats and pulling lustily in the face 
of a shower of bullets they succeeded in reaching the opposite shore. 
After a brief struggle the enemy was driven and the bridge was com- 
pleted. Hall's brigade was the first to cross and immediately com- 
menced skirmishing to clear the town. Concealed in houses and cov- 
erts, from which they could fire with impunity upon the advancing 
troops, the rebels clung to their shelter, and by their unerring aim caused 
grievous slaughter. Half of the town was thus skirmished through, the 
enemy leaving the houses from one side as the Union troops were enter- 
ing at the other, when the brigade was ordered to halt and occupy the 
ground gained, and the columns of Sumner commenced crossing. 

During the night of the nth, Sergt. Solomon Cover and eleven Mid- 
dletown men were captured and carried prisoners to Richmond. A 
fierce fire of artillery was opened upon the town on the following morn- 
ing and the streets were torn by solid shot, but the brigade held man- 
fully to its work. At a little- after noon of the 13th, when repeated at- 
tempts to carry the heights in front of the town had failed, Owen's bri- 
gade, to which the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh was temporarly 
attached, was led to the assault. Moving out to the low, open ground to 
the left of the city, all the while under a fierce fire of artillery in front 


and a flank fire from a deflection in the hills to the right, Owen formed 
his men in line of battle, the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh on the 
left of the One Hundred and Sixth, and dashed forward to his desperate 
task. Braver hearts never beat than filled the bosoms of the men in 
that devoted line. Onward they went over the prostrate forms of the 
dead and the dying, and up to within seventy-five yards of the enemy's 
lines ; but the storm of deadly missiles was here too terrible to breast, 
and they dropped prostrate upon the ground and commenced screening 
themselves behind the dead bodies of their fallen comrades, with which 
the whole plain was strewn. To raise a head was instant death. In this 
perilous position the regiment lay for hours, exposed to the pitiless fire 
of musketry and artillery, and until night had put an end to the contest. 
But out of that silence from the battle's crash and roar rose new sounds 
more appalling still ; rose or fell, you knew not which, or whether from 
earth or air a strange ventriloquism of which you could not locate the 
source, a smothered moan that seemed to come from distances beyond 
reach of the natural sense, a wail so far and deep and wide, as if a thou- 
sand discords were flowing together into a keynote weird, unearthly, ter- 
rible to hear and bear, yet startling in its nearness ; the writhing concord 
broken by cries for help, pierced by shrieks of paroxysm ; some begging 
for a drop of water, some calling on God for pity, and some on friendly 
hands to finish what the enemy had so horribly begun ; some with de- 
lirous, dreamy voices murmuring loved names, as if the dearest were 
bending over them ; some gathering their last strength to fire a musket 
to call attention to them where they lay helpless and deserted ; and un- 
derneath at the time, a deep bass note from closed lips too hopeless or 
too heroic to articulate their agony. 

The regiment was relieved with the brigade during the night and re- 
turned to the town. At the conclusion of the battle it retired to its 
former camp beyond Falmouth. The loss in the engagement was very 
severe, being two hundred and fifty-seven killed and wounded. 

The regiment was soon after settled in comfortable quarters, and was 
employed during the winter in picket and guard duty. On the 27th of 
April, at the opening of the Chancellorsville campaign, the Second Di- 
vision, now commanded by General Gibbon, moved out to the front of 
Fredericksburg, and having laid a pontoon bridge, crossed on the 3rd of 
May. Gibbon was joined in the town by Sedgwick's Corps, which had 
crossed below, and during the night had moved up to the city. An as- 
saulting column was formed and those frowning heights which had been 
so successfully defended by the enemy on the previous December, were 
now triumphantly carried, prisoners, small arms and guns falling into 
the hands of the victors. The enemy retreated towards Chancellorsville 
and was closely followed by Sedgwick as far as Salem Church, where 
Lee, having turned back from Hooker's front, fell upon and crushed 
Sedgwick's Corps, compelling it to withdraw to the left bank of the 
Rappahannock by Bank's Ford. In the meantime. Gibbon, who had been 
left to hold Fredericksburg, took position around the city, and com- 


menced throwing up rifle-pits. With no barrier left to oppose him, the 
enemy pushed forward from his triumph over Sedgwick, and soon made 
his appearance in Gibbon's front, where sharp skirmishing ensued. His 
position was held until the morning of the 4th, when, under the cover of 
a dense fog, he recrossed the river. The loss of the regiment in the en- 
gagement was fifty-three killed and wounded. Lieut. Jacob R. Knisley 
was among the killed. 

The nine months' term of service of the regiment expired on the 14th 
and in pursuance of orders it was relieved and returned to Camp Curtin, 
where, two days thereafter, it was mustered out of service. During its 
brief term of duty at the front, of a little more than five months, it was 
engaged in two pitched battles unsurpassed in severity, and lost an ag- 
gregate of four officers and eighteen men killed, fourteen men who died 
of wounds, sixteen who died of disease, thirty-eight who were dis- 
charged by reason of disability, eleven who were captured, ten officers 
and one hundred and twenty-two men who were wounded, and three 
officers who resigned. 

Rou, OF Company H, One; Hundred and Twenty-seventh Regi- 
MENT_, Pennsylvania Volunteers. Recruited in Middeetown. 


Jeremiah Rohrer, Aug. 14, 1862; promoted to major, Aug. 19, 1862. 
*John K. Shott, Aug. 19, 1862 ; promoted from first lieutenant, Aug. 
19, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

First Lieutenant. 

Isaiah Willis, Aug. 14, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant, Aug. 
19, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant. 

^'^ James R. Schreiner, Aug. 14, 1862; promoted from private, Aug. 
19, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

* Jacob R. Knisley, Aug. 12th, 1862; promoted from first sergeant, 
March 7, 1863; died Mav 15th of wounds received at Chancellorsville, 
Va., May 3, 1863. 

First Sergeants. 

David Hyde, Aug. 12, 1862; promoted from sergeant, March 7, 1863; 
mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 


Solomon Cover, Aug. 13, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 


CJnc- of AiHldlc'ldwn's Handsome Homes. 




Francis J. Rinehart, Aug. 12, 1862; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II, 1862; promoted from private, March 7, 1863; mustered out 
with company, May 29th, 1863. 

WilHam E. Shaffer, Aug. 12, 1862; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

Caleb H. Roe, Aug. 12, 1862; promoted from private, Jan. i, 1862; 
mustered out with company. May 29th, 1863. 


Leander Sanders, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

John P. Kleis, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Henry WilHs, Aug. 12, 1862; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 
13, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

John W. KHnehne, Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to corporal, Nov. i, 
1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 1863. 

Abraham F. Brinser, Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to corporal, Nov. i, 
1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

*David Fisher, Avig. 12, 1862; promoted to corporal Nov. i, 1862; 
mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

Robert C. Lowman, Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to corporal, Nov. i, 
1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 1863. 

*James G. Davis, Aug. 12, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, Feb. 6, 1863. 

*Frank A. Shott, Aug. 12, 1862; died Nov. 10, 1862. 


Henry Hippie, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 29, 

Valentine Ruth, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 


*Ackerman, Ansil, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
12, 1863. 

Airgood, Paul, Aug. 13, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 29, 

*Atherton, Alonzo, Aug. 12, 1862 ; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

*Arnold, Jonas S., Aug. 12, 1862; died Dec. 22, 1862, of wounds re- 
ceived at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 

*Beck, William V., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 



Bancus, Henry, Aug. 12, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 
II, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

*Bretz, Elias Jacob, Aug. 12, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II. 1862; mustered out with company May 29, 1863. 

Bretz, Benjamin F., Aug. 13, 1862 ; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Brown, Andrew, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

Bear, John, Aug. 13, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Burns, John, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Branshoff, Henry, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Brandt, Benjamin, Aug. 13, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Beachler, Jacob, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Brown, Henry, Aug. 13, 1862 ; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Brinzer, John, Aug. 12, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate, 
Jan. 22, 1863. 

*Bretz, Daniel, Aug. 13, 1862; died Dec. 31, 1862. 

Campbell, Alexander, Aug. 12, 1862 ; mustered out with company, 
May 29, 1863. 

*Cramer, John, Aug. 12, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 
II, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 1863. 

Coble, Solomon, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

Crick, Frank, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 


Campbell, David, Aug. 12, 1862; promoted to Q. M. Sergt. Dec. i, 

*Davis, Jacob, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

*Davis, Theophilus, Aug. 12. 1862 ; mustered out with company, 
May 29, 1863. 

*betweiler, Jacob, Aug. 12, 1862; died at Washington, D. C, Nov. 
16, 1862. 

Epler, Richard, Aug. 13, 1862 ; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Fratts, William H., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Fitzpatrick, Thomas, Aug. 13, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 1863. 



Hoover, Isaac W., Aug. 13, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Hickernell, Robert, Aug. 12, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., 
December 11, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

♦Hickernell, David L., Aug. 13, 1862; mustered out with company, 
May 29, 1863. 

*Houser, Jacob R., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 
29, 1863. 

Herold, Leonard, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

Irely, Samuel, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 

Irely, John, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

James, David, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 29, 

Jenkins, Henry S., Aug. 12, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

*Jones, James, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Koehler, Charles, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Keyser, Jacob, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 29, 

*Lutz, William, Aug. 12, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 
II, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 1863. 

*Laughman, Daniel, Aug. 12, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, Dec. 30, 1862, 

Miller, James. Sept. 16, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 29, 

Murphy, Robert, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

*Manybeck, Amos, Aug. 12, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certifi- 
cate, Oct. 16, 1862. 

Miller, John, Aug. 12, 1862. 

McBarron, William, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, 
May 29, 1863. 

*McNeal, George, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

*McBarron, John, Aug. 12, 1862; killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 
13, 1862. 

Null, Jacob S., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 29, 

*Osman, John B., Aug. 12, 1862; died April 6, 1863. 



Phillips, William, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. ^ 

Ruhl, Wilhelm, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Rehrer, Nicholas, Aug. 12, 1862; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

Rittersback, Jacob, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

Ramsey, Charles J., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

*Reed, John, Aug. 12, 1862; killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

Schreiner, Henry J., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, 
May 29, 1863. 

Stipe, Andrew J., Aug. 12, 1862; captured at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. II, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 1863. 

Stipe, Andrew, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

*Stipe, Jackson, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Sheetz, John H., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Shaffer, Isaac H., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

*Snyder, Joseph H., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. 
May 29, 1863. 

Snyder, Samuel, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

Siple, William H., August 12, 1862; mustered out with company. 
May 29, 1863. 

Snavely, John W., Aug. 12, 1862 ; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 

* Swords, William, Aug. 12, 1862 ; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 1863. 

*Singer, Philip, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, Mav 29, 

Sebolt, John, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 29, 

*Stipe, William, Aug. 12, 1862; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate, April i, 1863. 

Ulrich, Martin, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 29, 

Ulrich, Solomon, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 



Wendling-, John, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Whisler, John L., Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Winters, David, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company, May 
29, 1863. 

Young, Hiram, Aug. 12, 1862; mustered out with company. May 
29, 1863. 



ENTH Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
(Three Years' Service.) 


Henry Hippie, Co. A, April i, 1864; mustered out with company 
Aug. 3, 1865 ; veteran. 


Hippie, Benjamin, Co. H; May 7, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Aug. 3, 1865. 

Irely, Samuel, Co. H., May 7, 1864 ; mustered out with company, 
Aug. 3, 1865. 

McGinney, John, Co. H., May 7, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Aug. 3, 1865. 

The regiment reached the army during the fighting at Cold Harbor ; 
was under fire on the Chickahominy, June 7th, and on the 17th and 
i8th at Petersburg; it here lost one-tenth of its numbers, in killed and 
"wounded, and won the special commendation of General Chamberlain ; 
was again under fire on the 20th at Jerusalem Plank Road, and in en- 
gagements on the 1 8th and 19th of August, at Yellow House. Septem- 
ber 22nd the regiment was ordered to Camp Cadwallader, near Philadel- 
phia. It headed the Lincoln funeral procession from the Baltimore 
depot to Independence Hall ; was left as guard of honor while the re- 
mains lay in state, and escorted them from Independence Hall to the 
New York depot when they were borne away. May nth, 1865, it was 
detached for provost duty in different parts of the State and mustered 
out of service August 11, 1865. 

MiDDLETowN Volunteers in Company C, One Hundred and Ninety- 
second Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. (Three 
Years' Service.) 


Bankis, John. Feb. 9, 1865 ; mustered out with companv, Aug. 24, 
1865. ___^. 

Note: These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted here; and of those 
residents here during the war, who enlisted elsewhere. 


Bankis, Jacob, Feb. lo, 1865 ! mustered out with company, Aug. 24, 

Brooks, Cyrus, Feb. 14, 1865; mustered out with company, Aug. 24, 

Grafe, John, Feb. 9, 1865 ! mustered out with company, Aug. 24, 

Hawk, George W., Feb. 10, 1865 ; mustered out with company, Aug. 
24, 1865. 

Lynch, John, Feb. 9, 1865 ; mustered out with company, Aug. 24, 

Miller, Andrew, Feb. 9, 1865 5 mustered out with company, Aug. 24, 

Ridley, Henry, Feb. 10, 1865 ; mustered out with company, Aug. 24, 

The Twentieth Regiment, Pennsylvania Militia (1862) were reorgan- 
ized and recruited in July, 1864, for one hundred days' service, as the 
One Hundred and Ninety-second Regiment of the line. Their term of 
service having expired the men were mustered out in November. One 
company re-enlisted to form part of a second regiment, still known as 
the One Hundred and Ninety-second. In the spring of 1865, nine new 
companies (in one of which were the Middletown men), were recruited 
and reported at Harper's Ferry. A regimental organization was ef- 
fected in March. When the spring campaign opened the regiment moved 
up the valley to Staunton and Lexington ; but few of the enemy were 
met, the fighting here being substantially at an end. It was, however, 
retained and engaged in various duties until the 24th of August, when 
it was mustered out of service. 

Middletown Volunteers in the One Hundred and Ninety-eourth 

Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. (One Hundred 

Days' Service.) 


George F. Ross, Co. D, July 18, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Nov. 6, 1864. 


Charles H. Snively, Co. D, July 18, 1864; transferred to 92nd Regi- 
ment, P. v., Sept. 6, 1864. 


*Atherton, Alonzo, Co. D, July 18, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Nov. 4, 1864. 

Fortney, Christian, Co. D, July 18, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany, Nov. 6, 1864. 


Hickernell, William H., Co. D, July 18, 1864; transferred to 92nd 
Regiment, P. V., Sept. 6, 1864. 

Landis, Robert F., Co. E, July 18, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Nov. 6, 1864. 

Marquart, Mahlon, Co. D, July 18, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Nov. 6, 1864. 

Rife, John W., Co. D, July 18, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Nov. 6, 1864. 

Stipe, Andrew J., Co. G, July 20, 1864; mustered out with company, 
Nov. 6, 1864. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Curtin, July 22, 1864. On the 
day of its organization it moved to Baltimore, and went into camp at 
Mackin's Woods. September ist it moved to Camp Carroll, one mile 
southwest of the city, on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 
Several of the companies were stationed in various parts of the citv for 
provost duty. Details to serve as escorts and guards to rebel prisoners 
on their way to places of confinement, and for recruits destined for the 
front, were constantly made as long as the regiment remained in ser- 
vice. At the expiration of its term the scattered detachments were called 
in, and it proceeded to Pennsylvania, where on November 6th it was 
mustered out. 

One Hundred and Nineteenth and One Hundred and Ninety- 
first Regiments, Pennsylvania Voeunteers. (Three 
Years' Service.) 

Upon the muster out of the service of the regiments composing the 
Reserve Corps, a large number of veterans re-enlisted. These, with re- 
cruits whose terms had not expired, were organized into two new regi- 
ments, known as the One Hundred and Ninetieth and the One Hundred 
and Ninety-first. Of the Middletown volunteers, those in the One Hun- 
dred and Ninetieth were from the Seventh Reserves ; those in the One 
Hundred and Ninety-first from the Sixth. The last battle in which the 
Reserves participated was that of Bethesda Church, May 30, 1864. The 
two new regiments were organized in the field and at once pushed to 
the front. During the severe fighting at Cold Harbor they were sub- 
jected to a heavy artillery and musketry fire. At Charles City, on June 
13th, they held at bay during the whole day a superior force of the ene- 
my, and a number in both regiments were killed and wounded. At 
Petersburg, on the 17th, they captured the entire Thirty-ninth North 
Carolina Regiment and, though vigorously assailed, held their ground 
until relieved. Their loss was considerable. Until the morning of the 
23rd, the brigade (190th and 191st Regts.) was kept on active duty, 
losing daily in killed and wounded. During the 24tli and 25th, sharp- 
shooting was incessant on the picket line. On the i8th of August the 
brigade was ordered upon the skirmish line, and actively engaged with- 


out supports until 4 o'clock on the afternoon of the 19th, when it was 
completely surrounded and forced to surrender. The captives were hur- 
ried away to rebel prison-pens at Richmond, Salisburyf and Danville, 
and kept in confinement until near the time of Lee's surrender. A small 
detachment which had been ordered to the rear for provisions and am- 
munition escaped capture, and this, with men returning from furlough 
and detached duty, was reorganized under command of Colonel Pattee, 
and transferred to the Second Division, participating with it in the re- 
maining hostile operations until the close of the year 1864. March 29, 
1865, this detachment was engaged in skirmishing at Gravelly Run, and 
held its ground to the last, but was finally forced back, losing a number 
in prisoners ; it re-formed further to the left and regained the ground lost 
in the morning. During the night it marched with the Fifth Corps to 
the relief of Sheridan at Five Forks, arriving within supporting distance 
on the morning of xA-pril ist. Here the command was allowed some rest, 
of which it was sorely in need. At noon it was ordered forward, was 
as usual thrown on the skirmish line, and bravely advancing one hun- 
dred yards in front of the line of battle, led the way in that grand left- 
w^heel around the rebel rear which crushed his entire force at one blow. 
When the last charge was made the skirmishers awaited the coming of 
the main Union line, when joining in, they advanced with the column 
and shared in the glorious triumph, bearing away guns and small arms, 
and crowds of captive officers and men. From the 2nd to the 9th the 
pursuit was pushed ; on the morning of the 9th Colonel Pattee was sum- 
moned to the fort with his command. "At about noon on the 9th,"' says 
a member of the command, "we got the order, 'Bucktails to the front,' 
'double-quick,' 'march !' and away we went, past our division, past the 
First Division, past the advance, out into an open space. 'Battalion 
into line,' 'deploy as skirmishers,' 'forward,' 'double-quick,' 'march!' 
rang along the lines. The order seems to ring in my ears now\ Away 
we went, Sheridan's cavalry was just coming out as we went in. Soon 
we got sight of the rebels and they of us. We advanced double-quick, 
and they fell back double-quicker. They opened on us with a battery 
from the brow of a hill, first with shells, and as we got closer, with can- 
ister, and just as we were about charging on the battery — up over the 
brow of the hill in front came a horseman, then another, and another. 
The first bore a white flag. 'Cease firing!' 'cease firing!' was the order, 
and the rider passed down through our line. 'They've surrendered,' 
'they've surrendered,' was repeated from man to man, until the whole 
army knew the glad tidings, and cheer after cheer rent the air. The 
glad hour for which we had been battling for four long years, had come." 
After the surrender the two regiments returned to the neighborhood of 
Washington, and went into camip, where, on the 28th of June, they were 
mustered out of service. 

fThe prison-pen at Salisbury was simply an open space containing about eight 
acres, enclosed by a high board fence. Cannon were placed at the corners of the 
enclosure to overawe the prisoners, and sentinels patrolled constantly around it on 





*Parson, Jeremiah, Co. F., May 22, 1864; captured; died at Salis- 
bury, N. C, Nov. 22, 1864; veteran. 

'^Simpson, Orlando M., Co. F., May 31, 1864; captured; died at Sal- 
isbury, N. C. Feb. 14, 1865; veteran. 

MiDDEETovvN Volunteers in the One Hundred and Ninety-first 


First Sergeant. 

* James H. Stanley, Co. F, May 31, 1864; prisoner from Aug. 19, 
1864, to Feb. 28, 1865 5 discharged by general order, June 20, 1865 ; 


Lorenzo Horn, Co. F, May 31, 1864; promoted to sergeant, June 8, 
1864; captured; mustered out with company, June 28, 1865; veteran. 


John D. Books, Co. F, May 31. 1864; captured; mustered out with 
company, June 28, 1865 ; veteran. 


Bear, Henry A., Co. F, May 31st, 1864; deserted Aug. 11, 1864; re- 
turned March 20, 1865 ; mustered out with company, June 28, 1865 ; 

*Bomberger, Michael, Co. F. May 31, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany, June 28, 1865 ; veteran. 

Dewalt, John, Co. F, May 31, 1864; mustered out with company, 
June 28, 1865 ; veteran. 

an elevated platform built outside. Although the country surrounding it was well 
wooded, the rebels refused to allow the prisoners to cut trees and build barracks 
for themselves, consequently they had no shelter except in such holes as they 
could dig in the ground with their pocket knives and tin cups. Their rations, at 
the best, were scanty, and sometimes they were for days together without any. 
There were about 10,000 prisoners in the enclosure. From exposure and lack 
of nourishment the mortality soon became fearful, and in January, 1865, reached 
fifty deaths per day; sickness in nine cases out of ten, meant death. After death, 
the bodies were stripped of all clothing, except undergarments— loaded in wagons 
like logs of wood — carried out and buried in trenches. Of the 514 prisoners cap- 
tured from the two regiments, besides the large number unaccounted for, 144 are 
known to have perished in this hell, during the five months they were incarcerated 
there. After their release numbers of the living skeletons died before our lines 
were reached, and many immediately afterwards. 


*Eichelberger, George, Co. F, May 31, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany, June 28, 1865; veteran. 

Fish, Lewis, Co. F, May 31, 1864; mustered out with company, June 
28, 1865 ; veteran. 

*Houser, Frederick M., Co. F, May 31, 1864; captured; died at Salis- 
bury, N. C, Oct. 22, 1864; veteran. 

*Kohler, Charles, Co. F, Feb. 4, 1864; captured; died at Salisbury, 
N. C, Dec. 25, 1864. 

Lockard, John, Co. F, May 31, 1864; mustered out with company, 
June 28, 1865 5 veteran. 

Leggore, WilHam, Co. F, May 31, 1864; captured; mustered out 
with company, June 28, 1865; veteran. 

Lloyd, John H., Co. G, Dec. 11, 1862; not accounted for. 

Montgomery, John, Co. F, May 31, 1864; absent with leave at mus- 
ter out. 

Montgomery, William, Co. F, May 31, 1864; prisoner from May 31, 
1864 to Feb. 28, 1865; discharged by general order, June i, 1865; vet- 

Martin, Jacob, Co. F, May 31, 1864; mustered out with company, 
June 28, 1865. 

Two Hundredth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. (One 

Year's Service.) 

This regiment organized at Camp Curtin, September 3, 1864. Sep- 
tember 9th it was ordered to join the Army of the James, and was posted 
at Dutch Gap. November 23rd it was transferred to the Army of the 
Potomac, forming part of the First Brigade, Third Division, Ninth 
Corps, and was stationed near Fort Steadman. When on March 5, 1865, 
the rebels captured this fort and the batteries to the right and left, the 
Two Hundredth being the regiment nearest the fort, was ordered to 
oppose the advance of the enemy. Twice it was compelled to retire, but 
rallied and reformed, and other troops coming to its support, the entire 
line dashed resolutely forward. The triumph was complete ; Fort 
Steadman was retaken with all its guns uninjured; the line lost was re- 
gained, and nearly three thousand prisoners captured. The loss of the 
regiment in this brief engagement was very severe, being fourteen killed 
and one hundred and nine wounded. Lieutenant Colonel McCall, who 
led the regiment, says in his official report : "The officers and men of 
my command all showed the greatest bravery. General Hartranft, com- 
mander of the division, in his official report, says : "The Two Hun- 
dredth Pennsylvania Volunteers deserves particular mention. This regi- 
ment was put to the severest test, and behaved with the greatest firmness 
and steadiness. The regiment made two stubborn attacks upon the 
enemy, and when compelled to retire it fell back in good order." 



April 2nd, at 4 a. m., the division was massed and formed for assault, 
Lieutenant Colonel McCall leading the brigade and Major Rehrer the 
regiment. The Two Hundredth was held in reserve when the first dash 
was made, but was ordered to follow almost immediately, and was sub- 
jected to a destructive fire. Says Major Rehrer in his official report: 
"The officers and men in my regiment did, in this charge under a heavy 
fire from the enemy, behave with great gallantry and coolness, at no 
time showing the least sign of faltering or breaking. At this point of 
the enemy's works we came in possession of two batteries, each mount- 
ing three guns. I at once sent to the rear for the artillerists, who were 
accordingly furnished, and the captured guns turned upon the enemy. 
These works were held during the entire day by my regiment, and were 
all the time under a heavy fire of mixed artillery. Three desperate 
charges were made by the enemy in which they put forth ever)' effort 
to recapture the forts, but they were each time repulsed speedily and 
with heavy loss. After darkness had set in, I was ordered to remove 
the abbatis and chevaux-de-frise formerly used by the enemy and now 
in our rear, round so as to confront and face the enemy, and I at the 
same time advanced one hundred men as a picket line. After this period 
no attempt was made by the enemy to retake the works, and by 10 p. m. 
firing began to be less rapid. At midnight no firing at all was done, ex- 
cept now and then a shot from a sharpshooter." At 4 on the following 
morning, the regiment, with the division, entered the city of Petersburg 
unopposed, the enemy having withdrawn during the night. The loss 
in this engagement was two killed, thirty-four wounded and three miss- 
ing. Major Rehrer was among the wounded, but did not leave the field. 
The pursuit of the enemy was at once commenced, and continued until 
the 9th, when the rebel army surrendered. 

The regiment went into camp at Nottoway Court House, where it 
remained until after the surrender of Johnston, when it marched to City 
Point, and thence proceeded by transport to Alexandria. Here it re- 
mained until the 30th of May, when the recruits were transferred to the 
Fifty-first Pennsylvania, and the rest of the regiment was mustered out 
of service. 

MiDDLETowN Volunteers in the Two Hundredth Regiment. 


Jacob Rehrer, Sept. 2, 1864; promoted from private Co. C, Sept. 3, 
1864; wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 ; to lieutenant colonel, 
April 2, 1865 ; mustered out with the regiment, May 30, 1865. 


George Huber, Co. G, Sept. i, 1864; mustered out with company. 
May 30, 1865. 


First Lieutenant. 
John Mc Williams, Co. G, Sept. i, 1864; wounded at Fort Steadman, 
Va., March 25, 1865 ; brevet captain, April 2, 1865 ; mustered out with 
company, May 30, 1865. 

Second Lieutencmts. 

David Campbell, Co. G, Sept. i, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

John S. Mackinson, Co. B, Aug. 29, 1864 ; commissioned first lieuten- 
ant, March 31, 1865; not mustered; mustered out with company. May 
30, 1865. 


Joseph A. Peters, Co. G, Aug. 31, 1864; wounded at Fort Steadman, 
Va., ]\Iarch 25, 1865 : absent in hospital at muster out. 


Bailey, George H., Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany. May 30, 1865. 

Boner. John A., Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

Brandt. Henry, Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company. 
May 30, 1865. 

*Chubb, John, Co. G, Aug. 30, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

*Dayis, James G., Co. C, Aug. 31, 1864; mustered out with company, 
]\Iay 30, 1865. 

Embich, Elijah S., Co. G, Aug. 18, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany. May 30, 1865. 

Fry, Webster W., Co. G, Aug. 30, 1864 ; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

Hemperly, George L., Co. C, Aug. 30, 1864; mustered out with com- 
pany, ]\Iay 30, 1865. 

Houser, Jacob, Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

Hyde, David, Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

*Jameson, John, Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company. 
May 30, 1865. 

*Linn, Jacob, Co. G, Aug. 23, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

*Pierce, George W., Jan. 20, 1865 ; unassigned. 

*Seibert, George W., Co. G, Aug. 20, 1864 ; wounded at Fort Stead- 
man, Va., March 25, 1865 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 



Siders, John, Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company, May 
30, 1865. 

Sipe, John F., Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

*Sleeper, Joshua, Co. G, Sept. 7, 1864; wounded at Fort Steadman, 
Va., March 25, 1865 ; absent in hospital at muster out. 

Snyder, John, Co. C, Sept. 4, 1864 ; mustered out with company, May 
30. 1865. 

*Wannemacher, John, Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; wounded at Petersburg, 
Va.. ]\Iarch 2, 1865 ! absent in hospital at muster out. 

Young, Hiram, Co. G, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company, 
May 30, 1865. 

MiDDLETowN Volunteers in Co. G, Two Hundred and First Regi- 
ment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. (One Year's Service.) 


Beaverson, David, Aug. 19, 1864; mustered out with company, June 
21, 1865. 

Cain, George W., Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out with company, June 
21, 1865. 

]\Iyers, Charles, Aug. 22, 1864; mustered out with company, June 
21, 1865. 

Milligan, Samuel, Aug. 19, 1864; mustered out with company, June 
21, 1865. 

Rodgers, Henry, Aug. 19, 1864; mustered out with company, June 
21, 1865. 

Strouse, Solomon, Aug. 16, 1864; mustered out wnth company, Jnne 
21, 1865. 

Staeger, David C, Aug. 22, 1864; mustered out with company, June 
21, 1865. 

Staeger, William H., Aug. 24, 1864; mustered out with company, 
June 21, 1865. 

Stees, Jacob S., Aug. 24, 1864; mustered out with company, June 21, 

This regiment was recruited under the call of the President of July 
18, 1864, for five hundred thousand men. Of the ten regiments re- 
quired from Pennsylvania under this call, this was the first ready for 
duty. It organized at Camp Curtin, August 29th, and immediately pro- 
ceeded to Chambersburg, where it went into camp of instruction. Sep- 
tember 17th Companies F and G were ordered to Bloody Run. Shortly 
afterwards Company F was sent to McConnellsburg. During the fall 
and winter these two companies were employed in the disagreeable but 
arduous duties of arresting deserters, nearly five hundred being appre- 



hended and sent to the front. May 24, 1865, Company G was ordered to 
Pittsburgh, where it was put upon provost duty, and its commander, 
Captain Ensminger, was made provost marshal. About the middle of 
June the scattered detachments assembled at Camp Curtin, where on the 
2 1 St the regiment was mustered out of service. 


MiDDLETowN Volunteers in the Twenty-second United States 
CoEORED Regiment. (Three Years' Service.) 


Thomas H. Ayres, Co. E. Dec. 26, 1863 ; mustered out with company, 
Oct. 16, 1865. 


*Eli Ayres, Co. E, Dec. 26, 1863 ; mustered out with company, Oct. 
16, 1865. 


Henry, David, Co. G, Dec. 31, 1863; mustered out with company, 
Oct. 16. 1865. 

Thornton, Robert, Co. G, Dec. 31, 1863; mustered out with company, 
Oct. 16, 1866. 

This regiment organized at Camp William Penn in January, 1864; 
headed the charge at Petersburg, Va., June 15th, captured six of the 
seven guns taken by the division, and two of the four forts. Its loss in 
this engagement was eighteen killed, one hundred and forty-three 
wounded and one missing. In the assault at Chapin's Farm, September 
29th, its loss was eleven killed, four wounded and eight missing. Octo- 
ber 27th it led the charge of the column on the Williamsburg Road, and 
near the old Fair Oaks battleground was repulsed with a loss of over 
one hundred killed and wounded; April 3, 1865, was among the first 
of General Weitzel's troops to enter Richmond, and rendered important 
service in extinguishing the fires then raging in that city. It partici- 
pated in the Lincoln obsequies, and was then sent to Eastern Maryland 
to assist in the capture of Booth and his co-conspirators. In May it was 
sent to Texas and assigned to duty upon the Rio Grande. It returned 
to Philadelphia in October and was mustered out of service. 


Note: These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted here; and of those 
residents here during the war, who enlisted elsewhere. 


MiDDLETowN Volunteers in the Twenty-fourth United States 
Colored Regiment. (Three Years' Service.) 


Bell, Preston, Co. D, Feb. 14, 1865 ; mustered out with companv, 
Oct. I, 1865. 

*McClure, Walter, Co. H, March 3, 1865 ; died at Burkesville, Va., 
Sept. 13, 1865. 

Thomas, Frederick, Co. B, Feb. 2, 1865 ; mustered out with company, 
Oct. I, 1865. 

This regiment organized at Camp William Penn, February 17, 1865; 
in May it proceeded to Washington and was placed in Camp Casey, op- 
posite the city. June ist the regiment was ordered to Point Lookout, 
Md., where it was employed in guarding rebel prisoners. In July it was 
ordered to Richmond, Va., and assigned to duty in the sub-district of 
Roanoke, with headquarters at Burkesville. Government supplies were 
distributed to the needy inhabitants, and the troops were employed in 
preserving order. In September the regiment was ordered to Rich- 
mond, and in October mustered out of service. 

Middletown Volunteers in the Twenty-fifth United States 
Colored Regiment. (Three Years' Service.) 


*Bell, Franklin, Co. H, Feb. 2, 1864 5 mustered out with company, 
Dec. 6, 1865. 

*Bouser, John, Co. I, Feb. 9, 1864; mustered out with company, Dec. 
6, 1865. 

*Bouser, George, Co. K, Feb. 10, 1864; died at Philadelphia, Pa., 
April 4, 1864. 

*Thomas, Isaac, Co. H, May 7, 1865 ; discharged, to date Dec. 6, 

Woodward, John, Co. G, Jan. 30, 1864; died at Philadelphia, Pa., 
March 2, 1864. 

This regiment was organized at Camp William Penn in February, 
1864. It was ordered to Indianola, Tex., and March 15th sailed for 
New Orleans on the steamer Suwanee. In a storm off Hatteras the 
steamer sprung a leak, the men were put to work with buckets, and man- 
aged to keep her afloat until, after thirty-six hours of hard work, she 
was brought into the harbor of Beaufort, N. C, where she was aban- 
doned. The enemy was closely pressing the siege of Little Washing- 
ton, in that State, and the Twenty-fifth was placed in the defenses until 
the emergency passed, when it was sent to New Orleans, where it ar- 



rived May ist. The regiment then went to Barrancas, Fla., where it was 
charged with garrison duty. During the spring and summer of 1865 
the men suffered terribly from scurvy, about one hundred and fifty 
dying, and as many more being disabled for life. The mortality at one 
time amounted to from four to six daily. This was the result of want 
of proper food, but not until the disease had run its course were the ap- 
peals of its officers for suppHes answered. The regiment remained on 
duty at the forts until December, when it was ordered to Philadelphia, 
and on the 6th at Camp Cadwallader was mustered out of service. 

Speaking of the Twenty-fifth, Colonel Hitchcock says : "I desire to 
bear testimony to the esprit de corps and general efficiency of the or- 
ganization as a regiment, to the competency and general good character 
of its officers, to the soldierly bearing, fidelity to duty and patriotism of 
its men. Having seen active service in the Army of the Potomac prior to 
my connection with the Twenty-fifth, I can speak with some degree of 

MiDDLETow^N Volunteers in Company G, Fifth Massachusetts 

Cavalry. ( Colored. ) 

William Harley. 


Samuel Harley, Alexander Hilton, William Lum, Benjamin Lum, 
Thomas G. Stanton, Samuel Thomas, George W. Washington. 

They were enrolled February 2y, 1864 ; went to Boston ; were mus- 
tered in March 4, 1864 ; mustered out with company at Clarksville, 
Texas, October 31, 1865. 



*Capt. B. F. Ashenfelter, Co. H, 201st Regiment, P. V., Aug. 28, 
1864; one year; mustered out with company, June 21, 1865. (See 35th 

Rush Bennett, 54th Regiment, Massachusetts Colored Infantry. 

Henry Campbell, Co. K. Fourth U. S. Infantry. 

^^William Gillette, Co. K, Fourth U. S. Infantry. 

Benjamin Campbell, 9th Regiment, New York Volunteers. (Haw- 
kins' Zouaves.) 

Philip C. Elberti, Co. A, 91st Regiment, P. V., Aug. 21, 1861 ; pro- 
moted to hospital steward, Dec. 4, 1861 ; transferred to United States 
service as hospital steward May 26, 1862; discharged May 26, 1865; 
expiration of term. 


St. Mary's Church, H. M. Herzog, pastor. 

T'If: r^v/ ^'ORK 
•PU?l:C library 



George W. Farrington, seaman, U. S. steamer Essex; discharged by 
general order, Aug. 5, 1865. 

Calvin Garret, Co. H, 195th Regiment, P. V., Feb. 27, 1865; dis- 
charged by general order, Jan. 31, 1866. 

*Dr. James A. Lowe, assistant surgeon St. Joseph's Hospital, Phila- 

* Augustus Long, Battery I, 152nd Regiment, P. V. (Third Artil- 
lery) ; March 11, 1864; discharged by general order, July 5, 1865. 

Alvan McNair, Co. D, 6th U. S. Cavalry, Aug. 31, 1861 ; three years; 
discharged Aug. 31, 1864; expiration of term. 

Dr. George F. Mish. surgeon 5th P. M., Sept. 13, 1862; discharged 
Sept. 27, 1862; assistant surgeon i6oth Regiment, P. V. (Anderson 
Cavalry), Oct. 4, 1862; Captured at Stone River, Dec. 29, 1862; or- 
dered to attend L%ion prisoners during their passage from Chattanooga 
to Richmond, Va. ; attended prisoners in Libby ; released Feb. 1863 ; 
mustered out with regiment at Nashville, Tenn., June 21, 1865. 

*Rev. John McCosker, chaplain 55th Regiment, P. V., Dec. 6, 1861 ; 
three years ; died at Philadelphia, June 4, 1862. 

John Poorman, O. M. Serg't, 64th Regiment, P. V., Jan. 4, 1864; 
three years; promoted from private March i, 1865; mustered out with 
company, July i, 1865; veteran. 

Capt. George F. Ross, 13th Regiment, Iowa Volunteers; appointed 
A. D. C. to General Crocker, Sixth Division Iowa Volunteers ; wounded 
at second battle of Corinth. (See 194th Regiment, P. \ .) 

George W. Rodfong, Signal Corps, U. S. A., Feb. 18, 1864; three 
years ; discharged by general order, Aug. 28, 1865. 

*George Seibert, Co. L 51st Regiment, P. V., Jan. 22^, 1865; dis- 
charged by surgeon's certificate, July 27, 1865. 

*Lieut. Frank R. Walborn, second lieutenant Co. K, 214th Regiment, 
P. v., March 25, 1865; one. year; commissioned first lieutenant July 
12, 1865; not mustered; mustered out with company, March 21, 1865; 
afterwards successively private in 6th U. S. Cavalry and first lieutenant 
in 31st U. S. Infantry. (See 35th Regiment, P. V.) 

W. H. Embick, Co. A, 201st Regiment, P. V., one year's service, Aug. 
18, 1864 ; mustered out with company, June 25, 1865. 

Joseph H. Hoyer, Co. I, 2nd Regiment, P. V., 3 months' service, i\pril 
30. 1861 ; mustered out with company, July 26, 1861. 

W. H. McBarron, Co. I, 201st Regiment, P. V., one year's service, 
Aug. 18, 1864; promoted to corporal, Aug. 24, 1864; mustered out 
with company, June 25, 1865. 

Frederick Miller, Co. E, 117th Regiment (13th Cavalry), P. V., three 
years, Aug. 12, 1863; mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 



Jacob P. Shrov, Co. E, 117th Regiment (13th Cavalry), P. V., Aug. 
8, 1863 ; died at Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 28, 1864. 

Dr. Luther L. Rewalt, assistant surgeon, 25th Regiment, P. V., three 
months' service, April 18, 1861 ; mustered out with company, July 26, 
1861 ; afterwards assistant surgeon 22nd Cavalry. 

George G. Rakestraw, chaplain 201st Regiment, P. V., one year's ser- 
vice, Aug. 29, 1864; mustered out with regiment, June 21, 1865. 

Captain George F. Ross, Co. G, 13th Regiment, Iowa Infantry, Oct. 
28, 1861 ; wounded through bowels at battle of Corinth, Miss. ; dis- 
charged by general order, April 28, 1863; assistant provost marshal 
14th Pennsylvania district ; captain Co. D, 194th Regiment, P. V., July 
18, 1864; mustered out with company, April 6, 1864. 

John C. Snyder, Co. E, 203rd Regiment, P. V., Sept. 6, 1864; pro- 
moted to corporal April ist, 1865; mustered out with company, June 
22, 1865. 

Total number of Middletown volunteers (exclusive of re-enlistments 
and militia), 441. 

The roll is completed. Middletown, a thriving place when Pittsburgh 
was a village, and Harrisburg not in existence ; whose commerce once 
exceeded that of any other town on the Susquehanna; where it was 
once proposed to locate the county seat — the State Capitol — now exer- 
cises but small influence in State affairs and is rarely heard of outside 
her immediate neighborhood. Her sons fought in the early Indian wars 
of the Republic ; battled for liberty in the Revolution, and at a later day, 
in a mightier struggle, maintained her ancient reputation for bravery and 

There she stands, with a record that few towns can equal — none sur- 
pass. With a population in i860 of two thousand six hundred and sixty- 
seven souls (including Port Royal), and but about five hundred and 
thirty-four voters, she sent to the field in four years (excluding re- 
enlistments), four hundred and thirty-three men. 

A quarter of a century has flown by since her volunteers, in the pride 
of their young manhood, left her homes, and went forth to battle for 
their country, and the war-worn veterans who survive, whose health 
and strength were sapped in the hardships of those weary campaigns, 
will, in a few years, join the comrades that shot, shell, starvation in 
rebel prison-pens and disease sent to their deaths earlier. But though 
no monument may ever be erected over them, long after the cowards 
who skulked and tories who sneered, are unremembered dust ; long after 
the traitors who inaugurated the "Great Rebellion" have joined Iscariot, 
Arnold, Burr and their compeers in eternal infamy, the memory of the 
men who risked their lives to save that of their country will be enshrined 
in her heart, and their names remain inscribed in her annals. 

"Nor wreck, nor change, nor winter's blight, 
Nor Time's remorseless doom, 
Can dim one ray of holy light 
That gilds their glorious tomb." 


[From correspondents in Tuscumbia, Ala., Artesian City, Dak. Ter. Philadel- 
phia, and elsewhere, we have received the following additional information re- 
specting Middletown men in the Union army. If our informants will read over the 
rolls already published they will find that the other names sent in have already 
been mentioned. Capt. Ross' record is re-printed because it is more definite than 
that first given.] 

Quartermaster's Department, U. S. A. [During Early's raid the men 
in this department, numbering- about eight hundred, were formed into 
a regiment to repel his attack. As Edward Allen, John B. Cole, George 
Rodfong, Sr., Levi Shaefer, Charles Allen and other Middletown men 
were in this regiment the following is of interest.] 

Quartermaster's Office (Lincoln Branch), Depot of Washing- 

Washington, D. C, March 3, 1866. 

This is to certify that George Rodfong, employed in the wheelwright 
shop of Q. M. Dept., Washington, D. C, was a member of Co. G, ist 
Regiment, organized employes O. M. Dept., and at the time of the rebel 
demonstration on Washington, in July, 1864, went into the rifle pits north 
of the city, in defense of the same ; and that he further remained a mem- 
ber of said regiment, and did all the duties required of him as such, until 
the disbanding of the regiment on the ist day of April, 1865. 

Chas. H. Tomkins. 
Bvt Col. & Q. M. U. S. A., Col. ist Regt. O. E. Q. M. D. 

J. Calm, 
Supt. U. S. Repair Shops & Major ist Regt. O. B. Q. M. Dept. 


Militia 1862. 

After its triumph in the second battle of Bull Run, the rebel army has- 
tened northward and commenced crossing the Potomac. The Reserve 
Corps which was originally organized for the State defense had been 
called to the succor of the hard-pressed army of McClellan upon the 
Peninsula, and was now upon the weary march, with ranks sadly thin- 
ned in the hard fought battles of Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill, Charles 
City Cross-Roads and the second Bull Run, to again meet the foe, but 
powerless to avert the threatened danger. The resuh of the struggle 
on the plain of Manassas, was no sooner known, than the helpless con- 
dition of the State, which had been apparent from the first, became a 
subject of alarm. 

On the 4th of September Governor Curtin issued a proclamation, call- 

NoTE: These rolls contain the names of those who enlisted here, and of those 
residents here during the war, who enlisted elsewhere. 


ing on the people to arm and prepare for defense. He recommended 
the immediate formation of companies and regiments throughout the 
Commonwealth, and for the purposes of drill and instruction, that after 
3 p. m. of each day, all business houses be closed. On the loth, the 
danger having become imminent, he issued a general order, calling on 
the able-bodied men to enroll immediately for the defense of the State, 
and to hold themselves in readiness to march upon an hour's notice ; to 
select officers, to provide themselves with such arms as could be ob- 
tained, with sixty rounds of ammunition to the man. tendering arms to 
such as had none, and promising that they should be held for service, 
for such time only as the pressing exigency for State defense should 
continue. On the following day, acting under authority of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, the Governor called for fifty thousand men, 
directing them to report by telegraph for orders to move, and adding 
that further calls would be made if necessary. The people everywhere 
fled to arms, and regiments and companies were forwarded as fast as 
they could be organized. Fifteen thousand men were concentrated in 
the neighborhood of Hagerstown and Boonsboro. Ten thousand more 
were in the vicinity of Greencastle and Chambersburg, and about twen- 
ty-five thousand were on their way or waiting for transportation to ad- 
vance. Gen. John F. Reynolds, who was at the time commanding a 
corps in the Army of the Potomac, assumed command of the militia. 
On the 14th the head of the Army of the Potomac met the enemy at 
South Mountain and hurled him through its passes, and on the i6th 
and 17th a fierce battle was fought at Antietam, the enemy was defeated 
and retreated in confusion across the Potomac. The emergency having 
passed the militia regiments were mustered out and disbanded. With 
few exceptions they were not in actual conflict, but they nevertheless 
rendered most efficient service. They gave moral support to the Union 
army, and had that army been defeated they would have taken the place 
of the fallen. Called suddenly to the field from the walks of private 
life, with little opportunity for drill or discipline, they grasped their 
muskets, and by their prompt obedience to every order, showed their 
willingness — all unprepared as they were — to face an enemy before 
whom veterans had often quailed. The bloodless campaigns of the militia 
may be a subject for playful satire, but in the strong arms and sturdy 
hearts of the yeomanry of the land, who spring to arms at the moment 
of danger, and when that danger has passed, cheerfully lay them down 
again, rests a sure guarantee for the peace and security of the country. 
In Middletown two companies answered the call ; one was : 

The Middletown Guards. 

On the loth of September this company formed and organized; left 
here on the nth, reaching Chambersburg on the 12th. Says the Dau- 
phin Journal: "A more courageous and enthusiastic set of men than 
this company represents never shouldered a musket, and although a 
number are quite young, their hearts are brimful of patriotism, and they 



are the right kind of boys to make the rebels howl." They were dis- 
banded September 27th. (Some twenty of this company afterwards 
enlisted in volunteer regiments.) 

Enoch S. Yentzer. 

First Lieutenant. 
*Henry C. Raymond. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Joseph H. Landis. 

Hiram H. Parson, 
Franklin Smith, 

Joseph K. Oren, 
Hamlet Murr, 

First Sergeant. 
^George H. Lenhart. 


*Nelson F. Wood, 
George W. Ettele. 


John H. Shaeflfer, 
Simon S. Campbell. 

John R. Sonders. 


*Ackerman, Geo. W., 
*Antrim, Joseph H., 
*Arnold, James H., 

Brubaker, Henry M., 
*Beaverson, David, 

Fishburn, John, 
*Fencil, George, 

Fortney, Christian, 

Fry, Webster W., 

Griffey, John, 

Hoffman, John, 

Hickernell, Wm. H., 

Hippie, James, 

Hawk, George W., 
Henry, Jacob, 
Haggerty, John, 
Irely, Samuel, 
Irwin, George H. 
Keller, John, 
Lynch, John, 
Leonard, David, 
Moore, Matthew, 
McGinnis, John, 
*Norton, Patrick F., 
*Orth, Abraham L., 
Peters, Simon C, 




*Poorman, Andrew J., 
Rodfong, George W., 
Rife, John W., 
Smith, John, 

*Starr, William D., 

Vincent, David, 
Wentling, Orlando L., 
Winagle, Wm. F., 
Wilson, William I., 
*Wannemacher, John. 


Says the Dauphin Journal of Thursday, September 7, 1862: "This 
splendid and brave company, composed of our best and most enterpris- 
ing citizens, left for Harrisburg on Monday afternoon (14th), and re- 
ported themselves at headquarters, but to their disappointment were not 
accepted. They were, however, ordered to return and hold themselves 
ready to move whenever needed. The following is a roll of the men 
who reported themselves, but there are a number of others who would 
have joined in, could they have procured horses." 

James Young. 

First Lieutenant. 
Henry J. Meily. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Jacob Landis. 

" Quartermaster. 
John Raymond. 

Henrv Bumbach. 


Barnet, John J. 
Books, Emanuel, 
Brown, D. P., 
Balsbaugh, Solomon, 
Croll, L. H., 
Croll, William A., 
Clark, Samuel H., 
Campbell, Joseph, 
Christ, George, Jr., 
Earisman, Elias, 

Eppler, John H., 
Etter, John, 
Eshenauer, Christian, 
Eves, Yetman, 
Ebersole, Isaac M., 
^'Fisher, E. H., 
Hendrickson, William D., 
Ginse, William, 
Hinny, Henry, 
Hake, Daniel J., 



Harry, Louis, Nisley, Joseph H., 

Jordan, Thomas, Nisley, M. L., 

Krumbine, J. S., Peters, John, 

Kauffman, B. S., *Rife, H. J., 

Kauffman, H. B., Strickler, Sol. N., 

*Kirlin, J. H., Stiner, WilHam, 

Laverty, J. D., Search, T. C, 

Lame, Rev. J. S., Swartz, Joseph W., 

Lamberton, W. H., Staub, John, 

*Landis, Solomon, Teghtmeyer, D. W., 

*Landis, Samuel Witherow, James P., 

•^Martin, Wallace D., Weistling, J. W., 

McClure. William F., Weistling, B. J., 

McCreary, John, Wilson, W. K., 

Nisley, Jacob L., Yingst, John, 

Zeiters, Solomon. 


The triumph of the rebel army at Fredericksburg, in December, 1862, 
and the still more signal success on the field of Chancellorsville, in the 
beginning of May, 1863, emboldened the rebel leader to again plan the 
invasion of the North. June 15th a brigade under General Jenkins en- 
tered Chambersburg, Pa. On the i6th the rebel General Ewell, with 
part of his corps, crossed the Potomac at Williamsport. Md. On the 
24th and 25th the main body of the rebel army crossed the Potomac at 
Shepherdstown and Williamsport. The excitement in Pennsylvania was 
intense, and particularly in that portion of the State immediately 
menaced, in the Cumberland Valley and along the Susquehanna. Forts 
were thrown up at different points, and rifle pits were dug to command 
the fords on the river. Detachments of the rebels attacked the militia 
on the 28th at Columbia, when the bridge was burned to prevent them 
crossing the river, and at Carlisle, when the town was shelled. But by 
this time couriers had reached the scattered detachments of the rebel 
army, which was menaced by the Army of the Potomac, and recalled 
them to Gettysburg, where on the ist, 2nd and 3rd of July a decisive 
battle was fought, in which the rebel army was beaten and compelled to 
return to Virginia. 

MiDDLETowN Home Guards. 

Most of the young and able-bodied men of Middletown, were, as the 
previously published rolls testify, in the army; but every remaining citi- 




zen took up arms and organized themselves into "Home Guards." Two 
of the leading citizens, Henry Smith and Jacob Landis, went to the 
State Capitol and interviewed Governor Curtin. Two hundred and fifty- 
muskets, and one thousand rounds of ammunition were secured from 
the State Arsenal, and three companies were organized. 

List of names of Middletown Light Infantrv, commanded by Captain 
B. W. Campbell : 

First LieuteiMiit. 

J. H. Landis. 

Second Lieutenant. 
D. W. Fisher. 

First Sergeant. 
R. C. Lauman. 

W. N. Barron, 

David James, 
*Theophilus Davis, 
*Joseph Antrim, 
*Paul Airgood, 
*R. H. Fairman, 

C. F. Snyder, 

L. W. May, 

W. C. Barr, 
*G. H. Irwin, 

W. A. Snyder, 

John Rife, 
*0. L. Wieting, 
*A. Atherton, 
*A. E. Fairman, 
*John Bair, 
*David Hickernell, 
*Siras Books, 
*Daniel Gottshall, 

Thos. McDevitt, 

Second Sergeant. 

Third Sergeant. 
R. L Young, 


J. Fishburn, 

John Beachler, 

Alpheus Long, 

J. H. Baker, 

Alex Campbell. 

Samuel Irely. 
*Samuel Singer, 
*Geo. Gottshall, 

Valentine Ruth, 

F. D. Ruth, 
*Daniel Laughman, 

Lewis D. Sheaffer, 

Simon Peters, 

Wm. Gottshall, 
*Wm. Starr, 

Henry Jenkins, 
*Geo. W. Ackerman, 

J. H. Schaeffer, 

John Lynch, 

James Hippie. 




Robert Hickernell, 
Val. Brumbach, 
Jacob Davis, 
*P. R. Singer, 
Henry Schreiner, 
Wm. Peters, 
John Griffee, 

Joseph Wilson, 
J. R. Houser, 
John Whisler, 
Christian Flair, 
Samuel Snyder, 
H. Brandt,' 
Michael Brestle. 

Of the second company, that commanded by Henry C. Raymond, I 
have no record. 

The third numbered ninety men, whose muster roll is appended: 

John W. Klineline. 

First Lieutenant. 
Solomon Coover. 

Second Lieutenant. 
Caleb Roe. 

First Sergeant. 
H. C. Stehman. 


*Alleman, M. R., 
*Brestle, Michael, 

Brestle, Joseph, 

Books, Emanuel, 

Barnet, T. T., 

Bachmoyer, John, 

Baker, George, 

Beane, V. B., 

Barnes, G. W., 

Bowers, Christian, 

Campbell, Joseph, 

Calor, J. K., 

Cobaugh, George A., 

Cobaugh, J. H., 

Croll, L. H., 

Croll, W. A., 
*Croll, G. L.. 

Croll, J. A., 

Christ, George, 

Davis, Gabriel, 

Deckard, David, 

Deckard, L. L., 
*Ehrehart, Rev. C. J., 

Ebersole, Abraham, 

Ebersole, Isaac, 

Ettele, G. W., 
*Etter, G. W., 

Eirely, John, 
*Eshenauer, C, 

Fisher, Christian, 
*Fisher. W. B., 

Gamble, John. 

Gingerich, Elias, 

Guise, William, 

Hendrickson, W. D., 

Heinsling. John. 

Henry. Will. 

Heppich. John, 




Hess, Jacob, 

Hawn, Jacob, 

Hill, William A., 

Hoffman, John, 

Hummel, Levi, 

Kendig, B. F., 

Kleindopf, William, 
*Klink, Henry, 

Krumbine, J. S., 

Lauman, G. A., 

Laverty, J. D., 
*Laverty, Rev. D. A. L., 
*Lauman, F. M., 

Lessing, D. P., 
*Long, Dr. R. P., 
*Long, Augustus, 

Manning, Aaron, 

Meily, H. J., 
*McCammon, E. G., 

McClure, William F., 
*Murphy, Robert, 

Nisley, Jacob L., 

Nisley, Joseph H., 

Nisley, Martin L., 

Noll, John, 
*Nonamacher, J. W., 
*Peters, David, 

Podlich, A., 

Rodfong, George, 

Roop, David, 

Roop, John, 

Ross, John T., 

Reitzell, John Z., 

Selser, Samuel, 
*Shadt, PhiHp, 

Sinegar, Joseph, 

Schurer, Frederick, 

Shurger, John, 

Strickler, Benjamin, 

Strickler, G., 

Strickler, Solomon, 
*Steinmetz, L. F., 

Teghtmoyer, J. L., 

Ulrich, John, 

Weistling, B. J., 
*Weyl, Godfrey, 

Yingst, John, 

Yost, George. 

*Irwin, Philip, 

The three companies guarded the river bank alternately, picketing 
and patrolling it from Middletown Ferry to below Buck Lock. The 
news of the victory at Gettysburg reached here on the evening of the 
3rd of July, was received with the greatest joy, and the following day 
"The Fourth," was celebrated with unbounded enthusiasm. 



Free Masons. 

It was early in the settlement of this section of the country that the 
history of organized Free INIasonry commences. Three years after the 
Declaration of Independence, and seven before the formation of the 
Grand Lodge of Philadelphia, to wit: in 1779, Perseverance Lodge, 
No. 21, A. Y. M., was organized in Lower Paxton township, Lancaster 

Note : For assistance in compiling these chronicles I am greatly indebted to 
William H. Hickernell. For books and papers I am under obligations to Jacob 
L. Nisley, G. A. Lauman, Mrs. J. W. Stofer, Mrs. Maria McCord, John Fratts, 


Prince Edwin Lodge. 

In 1870 a meeting of Masonic brethren, members of different lodges, 
was held in Middletown, and after an interchange of opinion, it was 
resolved to make application to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for 
a warrant for a new lodge. The subjoined paper was prepared and 
signed, as follows : 

Middletown, Oct. 4, 1870. 

We the undersigned Master Mastons, agree to withdraw from lodges 
of which we are now members, and join in the formation of a new 
lodge, to be located in Middletown, Dauphin county, Pa. : 

Seymour Raymond, Redsecker L Young, 

George H. Lenhart, Joseph Campbell, 

Daniel J. Hake, Joseph H. Nisley, 

Charles H. Zigler, Delanson J. Young, 

George A. Cobaugh, Hiram B. Draucker, 

James J. Hubley, Jacob L. Nisley, 

John A. Witman, Thomas Montgomery, 

Simon C. Peters, James Young, 

George M. Zigler, Henry Ettele, 

Ephraim B. Cobaugh, Walter H. Kendig. 
Henry J. Rife, 

Those who signed made application to their respective lodges for cer- 
tificates of withdrawal, which were granted. They then made applica- 
tion to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, for a warrant of constitu- 
tion, empowering them to meet as a regular lodge at Middletown, to 
be called "Prince Edwin Lodge," recommending Brothers Joseph H. 
Nisley for first W. M., Brother Seymour Raymond for first S. W., 
and Brother George H. Lenhart for first J. W. 

At the annual meeting of the Grand Lodge in Philadelphia, Decem- 
ber 27, A. D. 1870, the application was approved and the R. W. S. M., 
Robert E. Lamberton, designated Monday, March 27, A. D. 1871, as 
the time when the lodge should be constituted. 

On the specified day Prince Edwin Lodge, No. 486, was solemnly 
consecrated and constituted by Robert A. Lamberton, R. W. G. M. ; 
Samuel C. Perkins, R. W. D. G. M. ; Alfred R. Potter, R. W. G. S. W. ; 
Robert Clarke, R. W. G. J. W. ; John Thompson, R. W. G. S., and a 
large number of other brethren. 

and Jacob Rife, Jr. For valuable information I am indebted to Joseph A. Peters, 
Jacob Embich, Wm. Drabenstadt, John S. Fishburn, Jesse Mattis, Jacob Ridley, 
James Campbell, I. K. Longenecker, W. Stipe, David Shirk, Michael Stewart, Alex. 
Campbell, Hiram Parson, B. Shoch, V. Baumbach, H. Hippie, John L. Whisler, 
George H. Irwin, Jacob Landis and others. 

[Each roll, being before published, was submitted to the survivors of the organ- 
ization referred to. H any errors have occurred it is owing to the interest mani- 
fested by those who, after being solicited, failed to aid in making them correct.] 


The officers installed were: Joseph H. Nisley, W. M. ; Seymour 
Raymond, S. W. ; George H. Lenhart, J. W. ; James Young, T. ; Wal- 
ter Kendig, S. 

Odd Fe;i,lows — Triune Lodge, No. 307. 

This lodge, so called because it was made up of members from three 
lodges, viz: Nos. 60, 70 and 160, was started March 20, 1848, and in- 
stituted a few weeks later. The charter members were : 

R. C. Bates, R. P. Long, 

John S. Boyd, Charles McLain, 

C. W. Churchman, John Raymond, 

Joshua Fackler, John Ringland, 

John P. Farrington, Mark Stauffer, 

Frederick Fortney, Thomas H. Totten, 

James Hippie, George F. Witman, 

Samuel Jenkins, James Young, 

John Zimmerman. 

Its first officers were : John P. Farrington, N. G. ; Frederick Fort- 
ney, V. G. ; John Ringland, S. ; Thomas H. Totten, A. S. ; John Ray- 
mond, T. 

The first meetings were held in the hall over Augustus Shott's store, 
(southwest corner Union and Ann streets). In 1852 the lodge removed 
to "Rambler's Hall" (northeast corner Union and Railroad). 

From various causes the membership dwindled away and the lodge 
finally ceased to exist. It was reorganized in January, 1868, and char- 
tered February 15, 1868. The charter members were: 

William Hinkle, M. G. Crvder, 

John Orendorf, D. W. Miller, 

M. Orendorf, W. D. Starr, 

Charles McLain, John D. Peters, 

Geo. F. Whitman, David P. Lescure, 

Charles H. Ziegler, Geo. W. Farrington, 

John. Lutz. 

Its first officers were: Charles H. Ziegler, N. G. ; 'M. G. Cryder, V. 
G. ; G. W. Farrington, S. ; John D. Peters, A. S. ; Charles McLain, T. 

In 1886 the lodge took into consideration the advisability of erecting 
a hall, and June 19th, a building committee was appointed. July 29th 
the lodge concluding to build, instructed the committee, consisting of 
seven members, viz : J. C. Lingle, A. J. Lerch, J. S. Keever, David A. 
Detweiler, Jacob S. Brandt, H. B. Campbell and Cyrus Stager, to com- 
mence operations on land owned by them at the northeast corner of 
Emaus and Catherine streets. 


Tuesday, September 21, 1886, the cornerstone was laid. It contains 
a small lot of United States scrip currency; a copper tablet, inscribed 
with the names of the then President of the United States, Governor of 
Pennsylvania and acting officers of the lodge, and copies of the Middle- 
town Press and Journal. 

The building, a handsome three-story brick, mansard roofed edifice, 
costing $7,000 was (July 2, 1887) completed. 

United American Mechanics. 

The Order of United American Mechanics, Middletown Council, No. 
84, was organized May 22, 1848, by the judiciary committee of the 
State Council of Pennsylvania, viz : 

Montgomery Carracher, Marietta, Pa. ; Jacob S. Roath, Maytown, 
Pa. ; A. H. Shott, Portsmouth, Pa. It met in Mrs. Meesy's frame 
building, on Alain street, over the Nisley Brothers' hardware store. Its 
charter members were : 

William De Witt, James Ringland, 

Edmund S. Bargelt, George Rodfong, 

Elisha JNIcCammon, Hiram Pierce, 

Henry D. Smith, Le Rue Metzger, 

Daniel Funk, William Starr, 

Benjamin Eby, Alfred Putt, 

William McClure, Jeremiah Rohrer, 

Jacob Strouse, Henry Lehman, 

Albert Kob, Abraham Rife. 

This council, which at one time counted among its members nearly 
two hundred citizens of Middletown, dissolved about 1861. 

Golden Centre Council, No. 193, O. U. A. M., was organized Feb- 
ruary 15, 1869, and met in Rambler's Hall. The charter members were: 
Wm. H. Embick, Reuben Snavely, 

Abraham Rife, Amnion W. Beard, 

John J. Rife, Edmund Lerch, 

William Forney, George W. Ettele, 

Benjamin F. Bretz, Geo. W. Eshenower, 

A. Fralich, John Heppich, 

John Fishburn, C. J. Ramsey, 

John E. Haak. 

This council dissolved in 1876. 

Jr. O. U. a. M. — Middletown Council, No. 156. 
This council was organized August 17, 1875. The charter members 

C. N. Raymond, Jos. Fishburn, 

J. H. Keever, J. A. Ebersole, 

Jacob Dunkle, Frank Winnagle, 


Jos. Bollinger, Wm. Garreth, 

Jacob Earisman, John Gephart, 

F. P. Bailey, Frank Stipe, 

H. Diehm, W. Kurtz, 

H. W. Schurtz, Thomas Embick, 

George Mansberger. 

Knights of Pythias — Middletown Lodge. 

Middletown Lodge, No. 268, K. of P., was instituted October 5, 1870, 
with Jos. H. Nisley, J. H. Bletz, B. H. Benner, B. W. Sheaffer, W. F. 
McClure, H. C. Raymond, Geo. H. Koons, Augustus Rouch, Lewis 
Harry, W. T. Morehead, David W. Fisher, Frank Ziegler and Geo. AL 
Ziegler as charter members. 

The first officers were : Jos. H. Nislev, V. P. : J. H. Bletz, W. C. ; 

B. H. Benner, V. C. ; B. W. Sheaffer, R. C. ; W. F. McClure, F. S. ; H. 

C. Raymond, B. ; Geo. H. Koons, G. ; Augustus Rouch, L S. ; Lewis 
Harry, O. S. 

On the night of institution thirty-three additional members were 
initiated. The lodge started out with one of the finest sets of para- 
phernalia in the State, although there were, at the time, 268 lodges un- 
der the control of the ''Grand Jurisdiction of Pennsylvania." It was 
free from debt and its progress during the first few years of its exist- 
ence was satisfactory, but the financial depression existing all over the 
United States from 1873 to 1879, seriously affected it, and November i, 
1876, the lodge surrendered its charter and became extinct. 

In the latter part of the year 1884, A. J. Lerch, John W. Klineline 
and J. W. Bletz, having secured the names of fifty-two members, ap- 
plied for a new charter or the renewal of the old one. Their request 
was acceded to, and December 3rd of that year a new charter, retaining 
the old number of the lodge and containing the names of J. H. Bletz, 
P. C. Elberti, John W. Klineline, John Beachler, John H. Baker, A. J. 
Lerch, R. M. Zearing, E. Earisman, James Ralston, Eugene Walton, S. 
L. Yetter, D. C. Ulrich and Samuel Brandt as charter members, was 
granted. The lodge was reinstituted the same day, with the following 
officers : J. H. Bletz, P. C. ; P. C. Elberti, C. C. ; John W. Klineline, 
V. C. ; John C. Beachler, M. at A. ; A. J. Lerch, K. of R. and L. ; R. ^I. 
Zearing, M. of F. ; E. Earisman, M. of E. ; James Ralston, I. G. ; Eu- 
gene Walton, O. G. ; trustees, S. L. Yetter, D. C. Ulrich, Samuel Brandt. 

Ancient Oiider of Foresters — Court Ivy. 

Court Ivy, No. 6797, A. O. F., was instituted in Middletown, April 
30, 1881, by William J. Carr, D. H. C. R., assisted by George Taylor, 
Robert Benson and S. E. Richardson, all of whom were members of 
Court Equality, No. 6359, at ]McKeesport, Pa. The charter members 
were : 


J. Senor Keever, S. S. Selser, 

James Moore, Geo. W. Fisher, 

Donald ^IcDonald, D. W. Smeltz, 

Wm. Gallagher, John Wood, 

Scott Stevenson, Joseph Rigby, 

Robert Mitchell, J. Smith Keever, 

D. A. Hatz, M. Brestle, 

C. A. Ebersole, Ed. S. Cobaugh, 

George Graw, S. L. Yetter, 

H. J. Miller, ' J. W. Eshelman, 

J. H. Keever, Samuel Singer, 

George J. Robson, Wm. H. Bradbury, 

Charles Fleming, Henry Smith, 

Jas. W. Bramwell, Christ. Hershey, 

John P. Siders, W. H. Beane, 

C. W, Britwinder, F. E. Irwin, 

D. A. Detwiler, H. H. Shellenberger. 

Improved Order of Red Men — Red Wing Tribe, No. 170, 

was instituted in Middletown, April 11, 1872. It met at Rambler's Hall. 
Its first officers were : Prophet, P. C. Elberti ; Sachem, Jacob Andrews ; 
Senior Sagamore, Henry Anthony ; Junior Sagamore, S. H. Milligan ; 
Chief of Records, George H. McNeal; Keeper of Wampum, John H. 
Crown ; Past Sachems, D. L. Stoud, P. C. Elberti. The charter mem- 
bers were: 

F. A. Ziegler, Daniel B. Snyder, 

D. L. Stoud, Reuben Suavely, 

P. C. Elberti, Henry Shetters, 

Jacob Andrews, John Irely, 

Geo. H. McNeal, S. H. Milligan, 

John H. Crown, B. F. Bretz, 

John L. Whisler, Samuel Mateer, 

John L. Sheetz, A. W. Beard, 

Henry A. Anthony, Jacob Schadt, 

Nicholas Rehrer, Jacob Brestle. 

After an existence of over nine years the tribe finally disbanded, 
September 30, 1881. 

Royal Arcanum — Swatara Council, No. 949, 

was organized in Middletown, February i, 1886. The charter members 


A. S. Matheson, J. H. Cobaugh, 

Arthur King, S. S. Clair, 

John Croll, Elias Earisman, 

Edward Croll, Alvan McNair, 

Leroy J. Wolfe, George S. Ettla, 


W. L. Kauffman, H. H. Shellenberger, 

C. E. Pease, J. H. Baker, 

L. C. Keim, J. W. Few. 

Its first officers were : A. King, Regent ; S. S. Clair, V. Regent ; G. 
A. Lauman, Orator ; W. L. Kauffman, Secretary ; J. H. Cobaugh, Col- 
lector ; Geo. D. Russell, Treasurer ; Dr. C. E. Pease, P. Regent ; J. Jos. 
Campbell, Guide; A. AIcNair, Warden; L. C. Keim, Sentry; J. Croll, 

Improved Order of Heptasophs — Middletown Conclave, No. ioi, 

I. O. H., 

was organized in Aliddletown, June 6, 1885, wnth the following charter 

members : 

W. H. Beane, M. D., E. S. Baker, 

J. W. Rewalt, L. C. Nisley, 

C. W. Raymond, A. S. Matheson, 

Geo. S. Ettla, Jas. H. Matheson, 

Jacob R. Myers, Martin Kendig, 

H. H. Kline, S. H. Nev, 

C. A. Landis, W. S. Fortney, 
John A. Borland, Leroy J. Wolfe, 
John Hatz, C. S. Roshon, 

D. H. Bucher, A. J. Lerch, 

Rev. Maris Graves. 
The conclave disbanded June 22, 1887. 

Knights of the Golden Eagle — Susquehanna Castle, No. 143. 

The first preliminary meeting previous to organizing a castle in Mid- 
dletown was held in Smith's Hall, October 20, 1886. A. J. Lerch was 
made chairman, C. A. Landis, secretary, and John H. Baker, treasurer. 
October 27th sixty new members were admitted, and November 3rd 
eighteen more. On the evening of November loth forty-three of the 
members proceeded to Harrisburg and had the degrees conferred on 
them by Harmony Castle, No. 53, and November 17th the following 
charter officers were installed : P. C, W\ M. Lauman ; N. C, A. Lerch ; 
V. C, J. Jos. Campbell ; M. of R., C. A. Landis ; C. of E., E. M. Rav- 
mond; K. of E., John H. Baker; S. H., John C. Buechler; H. P., F. B. 
Hampton ; V. H., G. W. Bowman ; W. B., R. F. Dasher ; W. C, W. F. 
Arnold ; Ens., E. S. Baker ; Esq., Jas. R. Ralston ; First G., W. S. 
Evans ; Second G., H. Dietrich ; Trustees, W. M. Lauman, H. L. 
Rehrer, J. H. Longsdorf; Representative to Grand Lodge, W. M. 

G. A. R. 

The Grand Army of the Republic, an order whose ranks have no 
source of supply outside of the rapidly diminishing number of those who 

Union Hose House. 

' T;Ii^ rii^v' ^'^^^ 




fought side by side in the nation's struggle for existence, was founded 
by General Stevenson, of Illinois, assisted by a few companions who 
served with him. 

Post No. 78. 

Post No. 78, G. A. R., was instituted at Middletown, August 26, 1867, 
by Gov. John W. Geary. The charter is signed by Louis Wagner, 
Grand Commander, and James Given, Assistant Adjutant General. The 
charter members were: 

Jacob Rohrer, William D. Starr, 

David Shirk, Jacob Keller, 

William H. Siple, Daniel J. Boynton, 

Joseph A. Peters, Lewis Willson, 

James H. Stanley, John H. Snyder, 

William H. Embick, John Hogendobler, 

George L. Hemperly, Samuel Snyder. 

After an existence of two years the post disbanded in 1869. 

William Starr Post, No, y^, 

was reorganized by order of the Department Commander, by C. C. 

Hartline, May 28, 1877. The preliminary meeting was held under the 

trees on the lot where the new Lutheran Church now stands. The post 

was instituted in the Masonic Hall, on Ann street, June 22, 1877. The 

charter members were : 

J. H. Stanley, Jacob A. Embick, 

David A. Stephens, J. K. Meanig, 

William Hampton, Calvin Garrett, 

J. H. Wampshire, George F. Mish, 

John Houser, John K. Weaver, 

William H. Spayd, John S. Keever, 

D. J. Boynton, John L. Sheaffer. 

The charter is signed by S. Irwin Given, Department Commander, 
and J. M. Vanderslice, Assistant Adjutant General. 


The Middletown Cornet Band. 

This band was organized in 1855, as follows : Jeremiah Rohrer, E& 
bugle; John Christ, 'Eb cornet; Valentine Dister (leader) B& cornet; 
Henry Smith, B& cornet ; Joseph H. Nisley, alto ; Henry J. Rife, tenor ; 
John McMurtrie, trombone ; John Landis, tuba bass ; Reuben Miller, 
tuba; Charles Allen, tenor sax horn; Frank Peebles, also sax horn; 


Abner Croll, bass sax horn ; Thomas Humes, tenor drum ; George Co- 
baugh, bass drum ; Christian Fisher, cvmbals. They met in Smith's 

One incident connected with their history may be worth mention. 
They once proposed having a concert ; it was to come off on a Monday 
night. Much to their disgust, a band from Harrisburg gave a perform- 
ance on the Saturday preceding. By an appeal to local pride many of 
the town's people were induced to remain away from this rival exhibi- 
tion, but those who did go. were enchanted with the skill of a certain 
youthful drummer, who accompanied the organization. 

This rather disconcerted the Middletown band, who could offer no 
such attraction, but they resolved on securing his services themselves, 
and forthwith posted the town with bills, advertising, among other 
features, "The Infant Drummer." Unfortunately he could not be got. 
The boys were struck with consternation ; it was too late to change the 
program ; the town was excited over the reports of the performance of 
the aforesaid drummer, and a failure to produce him, would be attended 
with consequences too dire to contemplate. At the last moment a happy 
thought struck one of their number — a gleam of light shone o'er the 
troubled waves — he confided it to the others — it was a desperate ex- 
pedient, but they adopted it. 

Night arrived ; Smith's Hall was filled to suffocation ; even the stair- 
ways were thronged, all anxious to see the youthful prodigy of whom 
they had heard such glowing accounts. At the appointed hour the cur- 
tain rose and the band commenced to play. In front of them, standing 
on a big drygoods box (as his celebrated predecessor had been), wear- 
ing a diminutive cap and a soldier coat several sizes too small, with a 
drum strapped in front of him, on which (with imperturable counte- 
nance), he accompanied his fellows, stood the colossal form of our 
genial friend, Abner Croll. 

The audience stared spellbound for an instant, and then as the gigan- 
tic absurdity of the affair struck them, burst into a hurricane of ap- 
plause, hats were thrown up, handkerchiefs waved, and voices, canes, 
feet and hands made for several minutes a perfect pandemonium. It 
goes without saying, that Ab's expedient prevented a fiasco, and that 
the concert was a success. 

This band, after an existence of eight years dissolved. ' 

Baumbach's Brass Band 

was started in 1858. Its first members were: 
Val. Baumbach, W. Wechter, 

Henry Baumbach, John C. Beachler, 

Guido Baumbach (leader), George McCauley, 

Reuben Miller, Jacob Landis, 

Benj. Ashenfelter, George Horn, 

Felix B. Schraedley, John Embich, 

James P. Hippie. 


They applied for a charter October 24, 1868, and were incorporated 
December 3rd of that year, under the title of the "Original Harmonic 
Band of Aliddletown." The charter members were : 
Wm. H. Duhling, Nathaniel Baker, 

Stewart McCord, John C. Beachler, 

F. B. Schraedley, Adam Baumbach, 

Guido Baumbach, Jacob Embich, 

William Condran, V'al. Baumbach, 

William Forney, James Hippie, 

J. A. Peters. 

In 1875 the title was changed to "Liberty Band," Valentine Baum- 
bach (leader) E& cornet; John Preston, solo Bb cornet; Elmer Shoop, 
E& cornet ; Henry Baumbach, first Bb cornet ; Charles Baumbach, sec- 
ond Bb cornet ; John Selser, third Bb cornet ; Henry V. Baumbach, E& 
clarionet; Guido Baumbach, solo Bb clarionet; WilHam J. Tighe (mu- 
sical director), first Bb clarionet; William Wallace, first Bb clarionet; 
John S. Gates, solo alto; Geary Mathias, first alto; John Hippie, sec- 
ond alto; Samuel Davis, third alto; John Leiby, trombone; R. W. 
Mowry, trombone; Frank Davis, first tenor; George Neiman, second 
tenor ; John Hatfield, baritone ; David Giberson, first bass ; Scott Sides, 
second bass ; Harry Draugher, bass drum ; Perry Hippie, snare drum ; 
John Stevenson, snare drum ; Charles Houser, drum major. 

The Junior Mechanics' Band 

owes its inception to George Bowman. He, being a member of Middle- 
town Council, Jr. O. U. A. M., fancied that there was enough musical 
talent in the council to start a band. April 5, 1884, he broached the idea 
to some of his friends, they embraced the suggestion with enthusiasm, 
and on the nth of the month the band was organized. 

Chorae Association. 

This organization, comprising about thirty members, was formed in 
1874, and met in Smith's Hall, Abner Croll, leader; George L. Fisher, 
pianist. They gave several concerts, the last one at Smith's hall, in 
1878. The society soon afterwards dissolved. 

Gates' Orchestra 

was formed in 1875. The members were: John L. Gates, first violin; 
Valentine Baumbach, second violin and clarionette; Guido Baumbach, 
bass viol ; Henry Baumbach, trombone. 

North Ward Band 

met at Jacob Hatz's residence (southeast corner of Race and Main 
streets), July 4, 1876, and organized as follows: H. D. Dasher, Presi- 
dent; W. A. Howdenshall, Vice-President; Henry Hatz, Treasurer; 


John Aungst, John Hatz, 

James Billet, David Hatz, 

H. D. Dasher, John Keener, 

Samuel Davis, Jacob Kleindopf, 

George Eshenauer, Martin McNeal, 

F. Eshenauer, C. J. Sinnegar, 

W. A. Howdenshall, J. L. Sinnegar, 

Henry Hatz, Samuel Selser. 

They received and paid for their instruments, August i, 1876. Their 
teacher was Felix B. Schraedley. They disbanded in 1879. 

Colored Band. 

This band was organized in 1882 by Samuel Stanton and Samuel 
Harley, with the following members : 
S. Harley (leader), Jonathan Shultz, 

William Harley, Sr., George Stanton, 

James Davis, Christian Stanton, 

Louis Harley, Levi Contee, 

William Harley, Jr., Samuel Stanton, 

Enos Banks, James Moore, 

Thomas Dorsey, James Clark, 

John Only. 

LoMBARDi Parlor Orchestra. 

August 19th, 1885, a social club consisting of thirteen boys was 
formed, and styled the "Lombardi Club." On the 26th of November 
following, four of its members in connection with a few of their friends, 
formed the musical organization known as the Lombardi Parlor Or- 
chestra. Its construction was : Miss Mame Landis, first violin ; Miss 
Sue S. Campbell, first violin ; Luther Nisley, first violin ; Eugene Lav- 
erty, second violin ; Edward L. CroU, flute ; George S. Mish, flute ; 
Christ. G. Nissley, cornet ; Grant Shirk, trombone ; Miss Rebecca Croll, 
Miss Jennie Laverty, accompanists. 

The Arion Glee Club. 

Instituted in 1884. The members were: I. O. Nissley, first tenor; 
William Keever, second tenor ; A. H. Reider, first bass ; George Kline- 
line, second bass. 


January 26, 1886, a party of fifty-four young people met in the Pres- 
byterian Church and organized as a musical association, with L. H. 
Park, leader ; G. L. Fisher, pianist, and J. H. Baxtresser, business man- 


ager. A committee consisting of L. H. Park, I. O. Nissley and William 
Keever was appointed to select a place for holding meetings. 

February 8th, the High School building having been secured, the so- 
ciety, now numbering sixty-two. met there and at the suggestion of 
Professor Fisher adopted the name "Polyhymnia." 

May 7th, gave a concert at the Opera House. Receipts, $45.25. 

October 7th, after the summer vacation, the society reorganized with 
forty-six members. 

January 6, 1887, J. H. Baxtresser resigned and A. H. Reider was 
elected in his stead. 

February 4th, assisted by the Liberty Band, gave a concert in aid of 
workmen who lost tools at the destruction of the Middletown Car 
Works. Receipts, $148.50. May 13th, seventy members gave a con- 
cert in the Opera House to invited guests and adjourned for the sum- 

Almond's Orchestra. 

Started in 1886. Its members were: M. J. Almond (leader), first 
violin ; Henry Baumbach, clarionette ; W. T. Harley, second violin ; 
Charles Neiman, first cornet ; Charles Baumbach, second cornet ; John 
Leiby, trombone ; Guido Baumbach, bass viol. 

The Middletow n Cemetery 

is at the northern extension of Union street, on the brow of a hill over- 
looking a wide extent of country. The corporation controlling it was 
chartered August, 1855, and until Portsmouth was consolidated with the 
borough, was know^n as the ''Middletown Cemetery Association." 

The petition for its establishment represents that the subscribers have 
associated themselves together and purchased eight acres of land in the 
vicinity of Middletown, for the purpose of converting the same into a 
cemetery, and desire that they may be incorporated under the title afore- 
said, &c. The signers to the petition were : 
Joseph Ross, Philip Zimmerman, 

Archibald Wieting, George Rodfong, 

Daniel Kendig, Christian Fisher, 

Brua Cameron, John Jos. Walborn, 

J. Croll, Joshua Heppich, 

PhiHp Irwin, John Landis. 

James Young, John Monaghan, 

Raymond & Kendig, Jacob L. Nisley, . 

Adolphus Fisher, E. J. Ramsey, 

George Crist, J. S. Watson, 

John Care. 


October ist the association organized under their charter and elected 
Joseph Ross, president, and John S. Watson, George Crist, E. J. Ram- 
sey, James Young and Adolphus Fisher, managers. 

October 21st the cemetery was dedicated and a large concourse of 
people attended. A hymn, composed for the occasion, was sung, after 
which prayer was offered by Rev. Benjamin Sadtler; a chapter from the 
Bible was read by Rev. E. H. Thomas ; Rev. J. Winebrenner delivered 
an address, and the ceremonies concluded with prayer by Rev. Valen- 
tine Gray. 

The first interment (in April, 1855) was that of D. F. Boynton, a 
child of D. J. Boynton; the first adult (also in April) was James Ring- 
land, a brother of Dr. John Ringland. 

In the spring of 1886, James Young donated to the association a tract 
of land north of and adjoining the cemetery, containing about one and 
one-half acres. 

At the left of the main entrance stands the neat building occupied by 
the superintendent. The grounds are surrounded by a high pale fence, 
are tastefully laid out, most of the lots being enclosed either by iron rail- 
ings or stone curbs, and decorated with flowers and shrubbery. There 
are many handsome monuments and tombstones, and broad, smooth, 
neatly graveled walks and carriageways give access to every portion of 
the cemetery. 

The officers of the association from its organization to 1887 have been: 

Presidents — Joseph Ross, Dr. Mercer Brown, Adolphus Fisher, John 
Hendrickson, Joseph H. Nisley. 

Secretaries — John Alonaghan, Dr. John Ringland. 

Treasurers — Daniel Kendig, D. W. Stehman, W. A. Croll. 

Superintendents of Cemeterv — Daniel Lehman, George Houser, John 
W. Parker, David L. Smith. 

Included in the list of interments are those of many soldiers, some 
nineteen of whom were in the war of 1812, and one (Colonel Burd), 
served prior to the Revolution. There are many other soldiers' graves 
in the old forsaken burying grounds of the town. Men who fought in 
all the wars of the republic lie here; but most of their resting places 
being unmarked the location thereof is forgotten. 


The National Bank of Middletown 

was organized May 12, 1832, and was called the "Bank of Middletown." 
In 1864 it was changed into a National Bank. Its first president was 
Benjamin Jordan, who held this position from 1832 tilll 1841. He was 
succeeded by Dr. Mercer Brown, and he in turn, in 1854, by George 
Smuller. Mr. Smuller died in 1882, and J. Donald Cameron was chosen 
president, Seymour Raymond, vice-president, and Daniel W. Stehman, 


cashier. Gen. Simon Cameron was cashier from 1832 to 1850, when his 
son, J. Donald Cameron (United States Senator), succeeded him. The 
first teller of the bank was John Croll, whose successor was John Mona- 
ghan, in 1856. Air. Monaghan died in 1869, and was succeeded by Dan- 
iel W. Stehman. who held the office until he was elected cashier, and 
H. C. Stehman. teller. J. C. Bomberger, afterwards owner of the Me- 
chanics' Bank, at Harrisburg. was some years earlier assistant teller in 
this bank. The bank finally closed its doors September 10, 1894. 

The Farmers' Bank 

was organized March 27, 1882. in Col. James Young's office on South 
Union street, with the following board of directors, viz : B. S. Peters, 
A. Dissinger, James Young, J. L. Longenecker, V. C. Coolbaugh, M. G. 
Keller and J. W. Rife. B. S. Peters was elected president, Lee H. Niss- 
ley, cashier, and A. H. Reider, teller. The bank was chartered April 12, 
1882, with a capital stock of $50,000. The bank remained in this build- 
ing until July 6, 1899, when, having purchased the building formerly oc- 
cupied by the First National Bank, at the corner of Union and Emaus 
streets, they moved there. In July, 1894, A. H. Reider was elected 
cashier, and M. H. Gingerich, teller. The bank has had a successful and 
prosperous career, capital remaining the same, with surplus and indi- 
vidual profits at the present time (1905) of over $80,000. It was for 
many years the only bank in town. 

The Citizens' National Bank. 

Stockholders of the Citizens' National Bank met in the Young Men's 
Christian Association parlors on North Union street, April 26, 1905, and 
elected the following board of directors, viz : J. W. Rewalt, Dr. D. W. 
C. Laverty, W. R. Fisher, C. F. Beard, H. R. Saul, H. S. Roth, Josiah 
Foltz, C. M. Foltz and H. W. Bausman. The board organized May 2, 
1905, by electing J. W. Rewalt, president; H. S. Roth, vice-president; 
Harry A. Bell, cashier, and Abraham Geyer, teller. It was chartered 
July 8, 1905, and immediately commenced the erection of a bank build- 
ing' on North Union street, north of the Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
road passenger station. Upon the completion of this edifice, Novem- 
ber I, 1905, the bank commenced business. 


The Middletown Argus was the first newspaper printed in town, and 
was established in 1834, by a Mr. Wilson. It was an independent and 
family journal. Mr. Wilson did the editorial work and his wife helped 
to set the type. The office was located on Main street, east of Pine 
street. It was discontinued in 1835. 


The Middletown Emporium was established in 1850, by William 
Hemlock. It was printed as the corner of Pine and Main streets, and 
after being published for a year and a half, stopped. 

The Central Engine was published here in 185 1 and 1852, by H. S. 
Fisher, but the material was purchased and the paper merged into the 
Swatara Gem, in July 1853, by J. W. Stofer. This was a sheet of four 
pages and five columns to a page. In August, 1854, Mr. Stofer enlarged 
it to six columns and printed it on a sheet twenty-two by thirty-three 
inches. In August. 1856, he sold the paper and office to Benjamin 
Whitman, who retaining its size, changed its name to The Dauphin 
Journal. In September, 1856, a co-partnership was formed between 
Messrs. Whitman and Stofer and they continued to publish the paper 
jointly, enlarging and changing it to a quarto form. In January, 1857, 
Mr. Whitman retired, and J. W. Stofer became again the sole pro- 
prietor. In November, 1870, the paper was enlarged to seven columns, 
and printed on a sheet twenty-four by thirty-eight inches, the title be- 
ing changed to the Middletown Journal. In 1885 it was purchased by 
A. L. Etter and a few weeks later was enlarged to a 30x44 sheet, being 
changed to an eight volume quarto. On December i, 1890, Mr. Etter 
commenced the publication of a Daily Journal in addition to the weekly. 

The Middletown Press, an eight-column newspaper of four pages, 
was established July 16, 1881, by J. R. Hoffer. Its editor was J. E. Hof- 
fer. On March 28, 1882, the paper was sold to I. O. Nissley, who en- 
larged and still conducts it. 


CotONEiv James Young. 

One of the remarkable m.en connected with Middletown 's history was 
Col. James Young, who was born at Swatara Hill, near Middletown, 
July 25, 1820, and died May 4, 1895. 

His ancestors acted somewhat prominently in pre-Revolutionary times, 
and during that conflict. His father was born in Berks county. Pa., in 
1781, and from 1820 to 1834 kept the stage house at Swatara Hill. In 
1835 he took charge of the Washington House, corner of Union and 
Ann streets. James received a common school education and then helped 
his father in the hotel. The little monev that he earned he saved until he 


had an opportunity to invest it. The first hundred dollars he made he 
purchased a horse and ran a hack between Middletown and Hummels- 
town. Soon after he was the owner of two horses and a hack, which 
he used in the transportation of passengers and freight between the 
points named. 

After acquiring several hundred dollars he went to Dickinson Col- 
lege and applied for admission as a student, but finding that it would 
take much more than he possessed to graduate, he soon left and re- 
turned to his father. 

At the age of nineteen he invested his savings in a canal boat, and 
took charge thereof, running for nearly a year between HoUidaysburg 
and Philadelphia. He then opened a lumber yard in town, to which he 
soon after added a coal yard. 

About this time Gen. Simon Cameron* interested himself in him and 
made him a director in his bank. He remained in this capacity for over 
thirty years. 

Seeing opportunities for profit in railroad building, which was then 
active, he took contracts for furnishing supplies to the Pennsylvania 
Railroad and did a large business. For eight successive years he fur- 
nished all the ties and wood used by that road between Harrisburg and 
Philadelphia. He also furnished the wood and ties for the Northern 
Central Railway for ten years, before and during the Civil War. When 
a second track was laid on the latter road he contracted for a portion of 
it and was engaged in it for years, having given up the lumber and coal 
business, in which he had been very successful. 

In 1859, he purchased a valuable limestone quarry at Leaman Place, 
Lancaster county, and from it, for twenty-five years, supplied a large 
part of the stone for building the bridges and abutments of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. This also yielded him a handsome revenue. 

These are but a few of the enterprises in which Mr. Young engaged, 
until from the small sum which he had gained by his own efforts, he 
became the possessor of large wealth. He was emphatically one of the 
self-made men of this country, having been the architect of his own for- 

In 1858 he purchased a farm of about two hundred acres, near Mid- 
dletown. To this tract he kept adding, year after year, until his farm- 
ing property exceeded fourteen hundred acres, exclusive of 400 acres of 
pasture land, known as the "Round Top." 

His main farming tracts comprised land formerly occupied by thirteen 
farms, and agricultural experts deemed it one of the finest bodies of 
cultivated land in America. 

He also paid great attention to the breeding of cattle, and his herd of 
Jersey cows was reported to be one of the finest known. Said one his- 
torian : "Perhaps nowhere in the United States are to be found a series 

*Gen. Simon Cameron resided here for over twenty years, and here his son 
Donald, was born. 


of farms which, for all that represents farming in the highest order, in 
every detail, equal those located near the borough of Middletown, Pa., 
and owned by Col. James Young, of that place." 

Visitors from all over the country, from even the most remote States 
and Territories of the Union, Presidents of the United States, Gov- 
ernors of States and distinguished men from almost every walk of life, 
in this country, and from the nobility of Europe, were frequent and ad- 
miring observers. Among those who have visited these farms are the 
Duke of Sutherland, Gen. Simon Cameron, Major Luther Bent, of Steel- 
ton ; Frank Thompson, First Vice-President of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road ; Charles Pugh, General Manager, and a number of leading English 
stockholders in the same road ; Hon. Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of 
the United States ; Andrew Carnegie, Henry G. Phipps and Edward G. 
Bailey, members of the firm of Carnegie, Phipps & Co., of Pittsburg, 
Pa. ; General U. S. Grant, James D. Allen and Eugene De Zellenkoff, 
English and Russian Commissioners to the Centennial Exposition ; Mr. 
Congosto, Consul from Spain ; Mr. Coleman, editor of the London 
Field. (These last four gentlemen, some instructed by their govern- 
ments, others voluntarily, wrote on their return home, elaborate articles 
describing these farms, the high standard attained and excellent man- 
agement.) W. D. Garrison, of Litchfield, England; Maj. Gen. W. S. 
Hancock, Joseph R. Greatorex, William H. Cheetham, Arthur W. Hut- 
ton (the latter three from England), delegates to the world's conven- 
tion of stenographers ; the Supreme Judges of Pennsylvania, and many 
others too numerous to mention, who were surprised to find them under 
the management of a man who had received no educational advantages, 
who was a novice in the beginning, and nevertheless the high position 
he occupied as a farmer was remarkable. They could not understand 
how a man who was identified with several of the largest enterprises in 
the country, could at the same time find opportunity to build up a sys- 
tem of farm operations that was admired and appreciated by the lead- 
ing people of the civilized world. 

Colonel Young was President of the American Tube & Iron Com- 
pany, a director in the Lochiel Rolling Mill Company, a director, for 
over thirty-three years, in the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy & 
Lancaster Railroad Company, director (and organizer) of the Farmers' 
Bank, Middletown; of the First National Bank, Steelton ; Merchants' 
National Bank, Harrisburg; President of the Cameron Furnace Com- 
pany, a stockholder in the Pennsylvania Steel Works, a director of the 
Lancaster City Electric Railroad, of the Harrisburg, Steelton & Middle- 
town Electric Railroad, and a member of the State Board of Agricul- 

That he was a man of great executive ability is obvious. Stern and 
inflexible in guarding his business interests, he was, nevertheless, a man 
of generous heart and marked public spirit, freely aiding the really de- 
serving, and never withholding liberal support to promising enterprises 
conducted by capable men.