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.— '•)•'■ 






LV?. 



V;m1;V'.V.; 





1* • t I ^ r ^ 



''B^5^:i+S'.lSl 



3§arbarti CoUcgr ILitirarg 




BOUGHT FROM GIFTS 

FOR THE PURCHASE OF ENGLISH 

HISTORY AND LITERATURE 



**SUBSCItrPT10N OF 1916'^ 



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Chronicles op 
WINQHAM. 

(Being a contribution towards the History of the Parish.) 
Compiled from Various Works 

— BY — 

ARTHUR gUSSEY, 

(Member of the Kent A rchaological Society,) 



Canterbury : 
Printed & Published by J. A. Jennings, City Printing Works, 



1896, 



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^5)-^ vSivf . \SI 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

OCT 13 1916 

SUBSCRIPTION OF 1916 



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TO THE PARISHIONERS 

OF 

WINGHAM, 

AND THOSE BORN IN THE PARISH 

ALTHOUGH NOW LIVING ELSEWHERE 

THIS HISTORY OF THEIR PARISH 

IS DEDICATED. 



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PREFACE, 



" There is hardly a town or village in the land " (says Dr. 
Augustus Jessop in one of his many interesting and instructive 
papers) " that does not contain some interesting record of a remote 
past, some historic monument worth looking at, some unique 
specimen of ancient art, or some spot where great deeds have been 
done, or some great man whose nam3 is a hous2hold word, has 
lived and toiled and played the hero's part, or been laid to rest at 
last with some monument to indicate the place of his sepulchre." 

When the writer of this history, came to reside at Wingham in 
the year 1890, he was told various traditions about a College, and 
residence of the Archbishops, etc. Not being able to obtain any 
definite particulars, search was therefore made for further informa- 
tion in the County Histories, Volumes of the Kent Archaeological 
Society, etc , etc., and a few papers about the parish were printed 
in the ** Kentish Express and Ashford News " during the year 1891. 
Since that time however, further information has been found, 
which is now printed with the hope that it may be as interesting to 
the readers, as the search for the information has been to the 
writer. 

This History only claims to be original, in the sense of being first 
published in a collected form, derived from numerous works most 
of which are mentioned, and is but a contribution towards a better 
history in the future, of one of the many interesting parishes in the 
County of Kent. In giving the history of the Manor House of the 
Archbishops, it was thought advisable, that some particulars should 
be given of those who visited the house, 

The writer wishes to acknowledge the kindness of the Dean and 
Chapter of Canterbury fur allowing him to have access to the 
Cathedral Library, which u lo readily granted to all who apply. 



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The librarian and his assistant at the Canterbury Municipal Library 
for opportunity to frequently consult that most excellent work the 
" Dictionary of National Biography;" a friend at New Romney for 
supplying me with the references to Wingham in the various re- 
ports of the Historical Manuscripts Commission, and a copy of the 
pedigree of the Palmer family from Berry's Visitation of Kent, 
which pedigree however makes the children (according to the mon- 
ument in the church erected by his fourth son Roger) to be the 
brothers and sisters of their own father — Sir Thomas Palmer who 
died in 1625. Also to thank the Rev. J. M. Fox and the church- 
wardens (Mr. Thomas H. Lovell, and Mr. George Chandler) for 
allowing access to the ancient parish-books ; the many unknown 
friends who have so kindly answered my enquiries in ' * Notes and 
Queries " ; and finally all those who so readily offered to take 
copies, and thus enabled this History of Wingham to be printed. 

Perhaps an apology is due to the more learned readers, that the 
writer was unable to consult the treasures of the British Museum, 
Rolls []Office, and the Lambeth Library, with reference to the 
Parish. An additional note about the name Wingham, will be 
found in Chapter XIV. , being supplied after the first part of the 
work was printed. 

Wingham, 

Easter, 1896. 



^^.- *ti{ rN~~-TSfy 




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BOOKS CONSULTED FOR THIS HISTORY. 



Celtic Britain— Professor Rhys. 
Roman Britain— H. M. Scarth. 
Anglo Saxon Britain— Grant Allen. 
Caesar in Kent— F. T. Vine. 
The Saxon Chronicle (Roll Series), 2 Vols. 
(For the introductory chapter). 



History of Kent— Hasted, 4 Vols, (folio). 

History of Kent— Harris. 

History of Kent —Ireland, 3 Vols. 

Survey of Kent— Charles Seymour, 1776. 

Villare Cantianum— Thomas Philpott. 

Doomsday Book of Kent.— L. B. Larking. 

Doomsday Book— W. de Gray Birch. 

Anglo-Saxon Charters— W. de Gray Birch, 3 Vols. 

Dugdales' Monasticon. 

Tanner's Monasticon. 

Canterbury Diocesan History — R. C. Jenkins. 

The Weald of Kent— Robt. Furley. 

Kalendar Patent Rolls. 

Kalendar Treasury Papers. 

Constitutional History— Bishop Stubbs. 

Historical Lectures— Bishop Stubbs. 

Documents Illustrative, etc. — Bishop Stubbs. 

History of English People— J. R. Green. 

Itinerary of King John-T. D. Hardy. 

Itinerary of King Henry II. — R. VV. Eyton. 

Rymer's Foedra. 

Dictionary of National Biography. 

Lives of the Archbishops— W. F. Hook. 

Lives of the Judges — Edward Foss. 

Repsrtorium— Newcourt . 



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8 



British Magazine. 

Rishanger's Chronicle (Camden Soc. 1840). 

Chislet—F. Haslewood. 

Smarden — F. Haslewood. 

Corner of Kent — J. R. Planche. 

Parish Registers— Chester- Waters. 

Parish Registers and Fleet Marriages— Burns. 

Bells of Kent— Stalschmidt. 

Norman Conquest— E. A. Freeman. 

Historical Essays — E. A. Freeman. 

Becket— J. C. Robertson. 

Becket — R. A. Thompson. 

Saxons in England— Kemble. 

Camden Society, 1877, 1880, 1886. 

Gervase of Canterbury— (Rolls Series) 2 Vols 



M. Paris Great History— 


5 


M. Paris Lesser History — 


3 


Chronicle, Edw. I. and II.— 


2 


Chronicle, John de Oxenedes— 




Parliament 1305— 




Letters Abp. Peckham— 


3 


Letters Christ Church, Canterbury ,, 


3 


Materials for Reign of Henry VII. ,, 


2 


etc., etc., etc. 





ERRATA. 

P. 25, line 8, after ** village of Winga " leave out the 
words ** or Wine," see page 199. 

P. 67, line 19, for ** Edward VI,''" read ** Edward IV." 

P. 94. line 17, for ** mortie " read ** mortise." 

P. 134, line 20, for *' Witsun " read ** Whitsunday. ' 

P. 199, line 30, for ** Country *' read " County." 



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CONTENTS. 



I. Introdudlory. 

II. Roman Villa, etc. 

III. History of the Manor. 

IV. The Archbishop's Manor- House. 
V. The Lesser Manors. 

VI. The Church. 

VII. College of Secular Canons. 
VIII. Canonries ot the College. 

IX. Provosts and Vicars. 

X. Canons of the College. 

XI. Wat Tyler— John Cade— Sir Eustace de 

Aubrichescourt — De Winghams. 

XII. The Oxenden Family. 

XIII. The Palmer Family. 

XIV. Various. 

XV. The Epitaphs. 



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Chapter L 

INTRODUCTORY. 

yx'^E have no record who were the people, and their 
^^^ customs, that lived in this country (now called 
Britain) before the Celts came over from Gallia or Gaul, 
and conquered the inhabitants. 

Pythias, however, who lived in the time of Alexander 
the Great (b.c. 356-323) about the year b.c. 340 
sailed from Marseilles on a voyage of discovery, and 
after passing round Spain to Brittany came to Kent and 
the other southern-parts of this island; where he 
discovered that its inhabitants traded with the Continent. 
He also noticed corn growing in the fields which was 
gathered into large barns and then thrashed, because 
the clouds and rain prevented such work being done in 
open air, as in the south of France. The natives made 
a drink by mixing wheat and honey, which is the 
" mead ** made at the present day in parts of Wales. 

Some two hundred years later (b.c 140) another 
Greek named Posidonius, with whom Cicero had studied 
at Rhodes, visited the tin-district of Cornwall; and 
informs us that the Celtic inhabitants of Britain lived in 
mean dwellings, made of reeds or wood; and that in the 
time of harvest, they cut off the ears of corn, and stored 
them in pits underground. 

As to their religion, every locality had its divinity, and 
the rivers were specially identified with certain divine 
beings. Diseases were also represented as persons, for 
example the yellow death (the aguej was a strangt 
figure with golden teeth, eyes and hair, that came from 
the marshes. During the Roman occupation, which 
lasted more than three centuries and a half, most of the 
Celts had become Christians, and to a certain extent 
familiar with Roman civiHzation. 

Gold coins have been found similar to those of Gauli 

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70 Chronicles of Wingham, 



which are said to have been coined between the years 
B.C. 200 and 150; most probably in Kent, which was 
the most civiHsed part from its trade with Gaul. 

In the year b.c. 55 was the first Roman invasion when 
Julius Caesar having been informed that the Gauls had 
received help from Britain, resolved to cross over the 
sea; first Caesar found out from the traders, the manner 
of life and warfare of the people, and if any harbours 
for a fleet of ships. He was not able to obtain much 
information, but when the Celtic inhabitants heard of 
the warlike preparations, they sent over ambassadors to 
Caesar, promising hostages and submission to the 
Roman Empire. They were sent back to Britain with 
one Commios, who as soon as he landed was placed in 
bonds. Caesar having collected at Portus Itius (now 
Boulogne) eighty transport-vessels to convey two legions 
(probably some eight to ten thousand persons)^ and as 
many galleys as he could obtain, about August 24th, 
loosed his ships at sunset and was carried forward by a 
gentle south-west breeze, but the tide drifted them too far 
so that at daybreak Caesar beheld Britain on the left-hand 
then with a change of tide and by help of the rowers, 
they reached the cHfFs of Dover about noon, where the 
Celtic inhabitants were gathered in full force to oppose 
a landing, which caused Caesar to sail about seven miles 
along the coast to the open beach near Deal, where 
having landed a severe fight took place, ending in 
victory for the Roman army. After about a month as 
winter was coming on Caesar returned to Gaul and 
made preparations for a second visit during the next 
summer. 

Then on July 21st, in the year b.c 54, with five legions 
and two thousand horse, in more than eight hundred 
vessels, Caesar *'set sail at sunset'* from the modern 
Boulogne, and again landed near Deal, then marched 
twelve miles inland by the old British track through 
Knowlton and Goodneston, to the high ground where now 
stands Adisham mill, to attack the Celts who "at the 
passage of a river" had fortified themselves with felled 
trees, on the rising ground from opposite Garrington 
'(anciently written Warminton, that is "the war 



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Introiuctoty, ,V 

enclosure*'^ round to Bridge Hill and Charlton where 
they were defeated by the Roman soldiers. With the 
fighting against the various tribes in different parts of 
this country, it is not our intention to give particulars. 
From Caesar however we learn, that the " inhabitants of 
Kent, were the most civilised, and very similar to the 
Gauls in their way of living." 

In the reign of the Emperor Claudius another general 
named Aulus Plautius was sent over with four legions 
(the second, ninth, fourteenth and twentieth) and others, 
probably about fifty-thousand men, in the year a«d. 43, 
also landing in Kent, and in time all the tribes were 
overcome. 

This county of Kent (which takes its name from the 
Celtic word *'Kant** or ''cant*' meaning a comer) was 
very thickly populated, the inhabitants Uving in villages 
of wooden huts, whilst most of the land was covered 
with trees, and only in the valleys was there any 
' cultivation; the rivers extended into wide estuaries near 
the sea, with large swamps on either side. Richborough 
(Rutupiae), Dover ^Dubris) and Lymne (Lemanus) 
were soon made the landing places of the troops, and 
firom thence as the armies advanced, roads were made 
to Canterbury (Durovemum) and direct to London. 
These roads very probably followed the course of 
British trackways, and were made by the soldiers, with 
the natives working under their directions, who "amidst 
stripes and reproaches" were made to help, clearing the 
woods and draining the marshes. These roads varied 
in width, but were generally fifteen feet wide, with 
posting stations at intervals, which at first were for 
military use, but when the country became settled, for 
the transit of goods, branch roads (viae vicinales) 
were formed, and country roads (agrariae) upon which 
less labour was expended, yet traces of them remain 
to the present time. A Curator (or surveyor) of the 
highways was appointed who was an officer ot 
distinction. 

The area of cultivation went on increasing, and the 
sites of many Roman Villas that have been discovered — 
as at Wingham— shows that every healthy and 

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12 Chronicles of Windham. 



advantageous place was fixed upon. The villas were 
generally built not very far from their fortified places, and 
near to the chief roads; although they varied in 
plan these houses were mostly built round a square 
open-court or else to form the two sides of a 
square, with outbuildings. They were placed on the 
slope of a hill, near a wood from which flowed a brook 
or plentiful stream of water. The tesselated floors of 
the rooms, and remnants of wall-painting, show the 
arts of civilised life, and a refinement not always found 
in the larger and more remarkable public buildings. 
They also prove how wide was the prosperity and 
wealth of the Romans, whose civilisation from their 
numerous colonies on the Continent, soon reached this 
country and gave to its inhabitants a more established 
form of government. The country houses were 
probably built for recreation, agricultural pursuits, and 
hunting the beaver, bear, wolf, wild ox, and stag. 

The fortress at Richborough ("which became the usual 
place of landing for people from Gaul) was built by 
Vespatian, and is built of layers of squared-stones, held 
together with courses of Roman-brick passing through 
the thickness of the walls, which were twelve feet thick. 
About five hundred jrards to the south-west are the 
remains of the amphitheatre for the recreation of the 
soldiers, but now almost destroyed by cultivation, A 
quantity of Roman coins have been found there 
extending over a period of four hundred years, ending 
with those of Constantine ii. Quantities of oysters 
were sent from its neighbourhood to Rome, and Juvenal 
speaks of their excellence. The second legion was also 
stationed there, until the Romans finally left Britain in 
the year 410. The walls of Richborough before the 
Norman Conquest (1066) were crumbling away through 
the influence of the weather and the more speedy 
destruction of men. The ruins of this ancient-fortress 
were purchased in 1895 ^^^ vested in trustees, who will 
prevent further destruction. 

About the year 360, the Picts and Scots began to 
harass the country, especially the east-coast, destroying 
many of the Roman buildings, such remains when 



Introductofy. 13 



discovered show signs of rebuilding after having been 
burnt. When the Romans left Britain in the year 410, 
because their soldiers were required at Rome, many 
towns were in existence containing baths, temples, and 
theatres of which the ruins are often found. 

We have now reached the Anglo-Saxon period, 
whose first ancestors came from the great table-lands 
and plains of Central Asia and were called Aryans. 
They were a simple and fierce band of warriors and 
shepherds, a people well built, and of fair skin; having 
a considerable knowledge ot primitive culture; living 
under a patriarchial rule; acquainted with tillage but 
ignorant of all metals, except gold; having weapons and 
implements of stone; and worshipping the open heaven 
as their chief god. 

From their original homes they dispersed south-wards 
occup)dng the fertile plains of the Indus and Ganges, 
becoming the ancestors of the Brahmins. Others found 
a home in the hills of Persia, while a great number 
moved westwards occupying one after another, the 
various plains of Europe. First the Celts spread across 
the south of Russia and Germany, then to the western 
coasts and islands from Spain to Scotland, and 
held rule in Spain, Gaul, and Britain until the 
Roman conquest. A second wave of immigration 
peopled the shores of the ^Egean and Adriatic Sea; 
whilst a third the Teutonic or German people, drove 
out the Celts over a large part of central and western 
Europe; and the Slavonic tribes at the present day 
inhabit the extreme eastern part of Europe. The 
Teutons who moved across Europe from east to west, 
slowly drove out the Celts from the central plains, and 
settled in the district between the Alps, Rhine, and 
! Baltic. They were divided into three tribes:— (i) the 
Jutes who lived in the marsh-forests on the coast of 
Jutland; (2) the English who dwelt just to the south in the 
heath-clad peninsula, now called Sleswick; and (3) the 
Saxons (the largest tribe) who occupied the flat shore 
from the mouth of the Oder to the Rhine. 

In their Freisland home, this tribe of wild farmers and 
tall warriors, with their large limbs, fair hair, grey eyes, 



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14 Chronicles of Wingham 



and round heads; tilled their little plots of ground, in 
the clearings of the forest in which they hunted. Their 
battle axes and shields were made of bronze and they 
exchanged amber for gold, silver and glass beads. Every 
clan or family lived by itself, and formed a guild for 
mutual protection, being bound to avenge the death of 
their kinsfolk; this duty of blood-revenge was their 
supreme religion. Their villages were the huts in a 
clearing of the forest, and each family was known by the 
name of its ancestor ; the border of their enclosure was 
either some woodland, a fen, or heath, which was jealously 
guarded, so that whoever crossed it, gave notice of his 
coming by blowing a horn, or he would be cut down as 
a stealthy enemy. Each house had its court-yard and 
cattle-fold, whose owner could let loose his kine or 
horses, on a certain space of ground that was alloted to 
him for a year, by the assembled village. Their wealth 
was chiefly in cattle, fed on the pastures, and pigs 
turned out to fatten on the acorns of the forest. The 
hall of the chief stood in the midst of the huts; and the 
village assembly met under some sacred tree, or at the 
side of the tomb of a dead chief, or in the open air, 
when every head of a family had a right to appear, and 
give his opinions at these meetings; disputes were then 
settled, the wrong-doer judged, and his fine fixed by the 
kinsfolk 

Altho their constitution was democratic yet they had 
distinctions of rank, such as "^Ethehng " or cheiftain, 
** freolings'* or freemen, and "theows" or slaves. If 
there was a war, the ajthelings cast lots who should be 
the leader, but when the war was over, each tribe 
returned to its former independence. 

Their slaves might be of any race, and were probably 
captives taken in war, who in time would learn the 
language, and their children become English in all but 
blood ; for wherever slavery exists, the blood of the 
slave community is very mixed. 

As to their religion, their chief deity was Thunor or 
Thunder, the angry warrior who hurled his thunderbolts 
from the stormy clouds. Woden is represented as the 



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Introductory. IS 



leader of their exodus from Asia to the north-west of 
Europe, and therefore was probably a deified ancestor, 
for all their chieftains traced their pedigree back to 
Woden. Elves, ogres, giants and monsters, inhabited 
woods and fens, who still survive in folk-lore or fairy 
tales. Their temples were stockades, where human 
sacrifices were offered to their gods, or the spirits of 
departed chiefs. 

Their life mainly consisted of alternate grazing, 
piratical-sea-faring, cattle-lifting, or on the war trail 
against the possessions of others, when not obliged to 
defend their own. Living on the sea-shore had turned 
them into pirates, and they first constructed long row- 
boats of oaken boards about seventy feet long, and made 
to be beached on the shore. During the Roman 
occupation of Britain, they now and again plundered the 
exposed east-coast ; that rich and badly defended 
province being a tempting prey. 

About the middle of the fifth century after the Roman 
soldiers had been withdrawn in the year 410, they 
crossed over the sea and settled in Britain, enslaving 
the Celts, destroyed the churches, burnt the villas, and 
laid waste the towns, again bringing pagan-barbarism. 
A Celtic legend says that about the year 449 the Jutes 
landed in Kent at Ebbsfleet under their leaders Hengist 
and Horsa ; settled in Thanet where near the sea, they 
felt secure against treachery, and gradually spread over 
the mainland, and along the coast as far as London. 
The ancient chronicler Gildas says " a multitude of 
whelps came forth from the lair of the barbaric lioness, 
in three boats," for Vortigern the king ot the Welsh 
had invited them to help him against the Pidls of north 
Britain, and the Scots of Ireland, who were ravaging 
the deserted provinces, after the departure of the 
Romans. Having overcome them the Jutes turned 
against Vortigern in the year 455, and at a battle fought 
at Aylesford, Horsa was slain and buried at Horstead, 
after the body had been burnt there, and a mound 
thrown up over the ashes. Catigern the son of Vortigern 
also was slain and Kits Coty (as it is called) represents 
his tomb, whilst the stone circles at Allington and 



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16 Chronicles of Wingham, 



Tollington, mark the graves of the lesser chiefs who 
were killed. Two years after Hengist eud his son iEsc 
fought against the Britons at Crayford and slew four 
thousand men, causing the Britons to forsake Kent and 
flee in terror to London. ^Esc became king of Kent in 
488 and ruled for twenty four years ; and from the Jutes 
are descended the people of Kent. 

The English about a d. 500 came over in a body 
from their home in Friesland, where they had cultivated 
their plots of ground and hunted in the forest ; and took 
possession of the east-coast of Britain. With fire and 
sword they stamped out every trace of civilization, for 
they had no love for the arts of peace, prefering war and 
plunder until they became christianised. In their old 
homes among the marshlands of Germany, they 
considered "white horses as most sacred, and kept them 
m the groves and woods of the gods," and this their 
national emblem, they brought over with them, and to 
this day a white horse is the symbol of Kent, whilst its 
figure cut in the chalk hills of Berks and Wilts, is a 
witness ot their settlement further west. Cantware was 
the name of the men who settled in Kent, whilst Cant- 
wara-byrig (modern Canterbury) was their fortress or 
stronghold. 

These English who had long been known and dreaded 
as pirates and devestators, brought over their women 
and children (who became the mothers of a following 
generation), their flocks, herds, goods, and the peculiar 
breed of cattle with short horns. They gave up their 
sea-hal»its and ship building (for when the Danes came' 
the English had no ships), having entered into the full 
enjoyment of ochards and fields, for the cultivation 
of the Kentisli-glens must have been ver}' different to 
what they were used to, in their former heath clad home. 
Not caiing for the towns, being tillers of the! soil, they 
burnt the houses built by the Romans, killed or enslaved 
the serfs and divided the land in their national way. The 
slaves cultivated the soil for bread and beer, cattle and 
horses fed in the pastures and pigs in the woods, whilst 
the roads and cities fell into ruin. Their ** clan '* names 
we find most numerous on the east-coast, and the 



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Introductory. 17 

further we go inland they are fewer, especially as we 
reach the Celtic west. In their new country the 
^'ealdormen*' assumed royal powers for they had to 
keep and extend their possessions against the native 
Wdsh on their western frontier. 

Bears then lurked in the remotest woods, packs of 
wolves came forth at night, ravaging the folds of the 
herdsmen ; wild boars wallowed in the fens and devoured 
the acorns in oak-woods, deer ranged over the heathery 
tracks ; whilst wild white cattle such as still exist in 
Northumberland, were to be found in various places. 
So hunting was their chief pastime, when they were not 
engaged in war ; for game, boars-flesh, and venison 
were part of their food. 

The chief was the head of the people, not of the 
county ; and his estates or "hams'* were in different 
parts, where food and other things were collected by his 
slaves, and he passed from one to the other estate, 
making a journey in a waggon drawn by oxen. Only 
by moving about, could he gain information, whilst 
provisions could only be obtained in the places where 
they were grown. 

Marriage was by purchase from the father of the 
woman ; which custom survives to this day in the father 
giving the woman in marriage. Polygamy existed, and 
it was the custom for men to marry their father's wives, 
as part of his property, and therefore part of the heritage 
of the son, as in the case of Eadbald the son of Ethelbert. 
Every chief had his minstrel who sang the short and 
jerky Anglo-Saxon songs. Their dead warriors were 
buried in full war-dress in the south of England, whilst 
in the north they were burnt and their ash«is placed in 
tumuli, and buckles, rings, hairpins, necklaces, and 
scissors, are found in their tombs. They made simple 
earthen vessels, and also swords and knives ; but glass 
vessels were probably brought over from Gaul to Kent, 
and thence found their way over the country. 

In their English home, their religion did not alter ; it 
was one of terror, evil spirits surrounded men on every 
side, and dwelt in solitary places, walked over the land 



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IS Chronicles of Wingham. 



by night ; whilst ghosts dwelt in the forests, and elves 
haunted the rude stone circles of former days. Charms 
spells and incantations were the most real and living 
part of their faith, and some of their myths continue as 
folk-lore, to the present day. Once a year fire was 
kindled by rubbing two sticks together, and all the fires 
of the village were relighted from the blaze thus 
obtained. Cattle were passed through fire to preserve 
them from fiends, and tattooing was practised by the 
noble class. 

In the year 596 Pope Gregory the Great determined 
to send a mission to England, and chose Augustine the 
Prior of St, Andrews Monastery at Rome, sending him 
with forty monks. They landed at Ebbsfleet in the Isle 
of Thanet, in the spring of 597 and were fovourably 
received by iEthelbert, who then was the king of Kent, 
for his wife Bertha (the daughter of Charibert king of 
Paris) was a Christian and had brought with her as 
chaplain Luidhard, formerly Bishop of Senlis, who 
officated in the little church of St. Martin, just outside 
Canterbury. iEthelbert met the monks in the open air, 
fearing some incantation or spell might be thrown over 
him, if he was in a building. Augustine was allowed to 
preach to those willing to listen, and a dwelling was 
given to the strangers in Canterbury ; which city the 
monks entered carrying a cross of silver, and a picture 
of Christ, whilst they sang one of the Litanies of the 
church : — ** Turn from this city O Lord, thine anger 
and wrath, and from thy holy house, for we have sinned/* 
At the following Whitsuntide king iEthelbert and his 
followers were baptised, and shortly after a great 
number of his people. 

With Christianity the Latin language was introduced, 
laws were written down in regular codes, and monasteries 
soon became a great civilizing and teaching agency. 
Those who judge such institutions by their later days, 
forget the benefits which they gave to the people in 
their earlier existence. They were spared even in war, 
being places where peaceful minds could retire for 
honest work and learning. The monks were benefactors 
in those places in which they built their religious 



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Introductoty. 19 



houses : for they drained the marsh lands, cleared the 
forest, cultivated the land, and boiled down the salt of 
the brine-pans. " In days of rudeness and ignorance, 
they were the builders, architects, sculptors, painters, 
and illuminators of those times. In their scriptoria and 
libraries they preserved and handed down treasures of 
sacred and secular learning, which without their labours 
must have perished. When there was no poor-law, by 
the food given away at the monastery gate, the poor and 
needy were fed, whilst the sick also were visited. 
Within their walls was often a refuge for persecuted 
innocence, and a sanctuary against lawless oppressors; 
whilst they also oflfered a hospitable welcome and kindly 
shelter to many a homeless wanderer. Within their 
walls God was daily and nightly worshipped. His praise 
ever chanted, and the lamp of devotion kept burning, 
with a clear, true and living flame." 

In 787 the Danes first landed in Wessex and were 
driven off, but in 795 they ravaged the whole of the east 
coast of England, destroying the church at Lindisfarne. 
In 832 they landed and plundered the Isle of Sheppey, 
and four years later great numbers came, so that the 
English seemed quite unable to resist them, for there 
was no central organisation, army or ships. A host of 
them came to Sandwich in 851, when iEthelsan king of 
Kent destroyed nine of their ships ; but more came over 
and wintered in Thanet. stormed Canterbury and 
Rochester, and even went up the river as far as London. 
Two years later there was a great battle in Thanet, and 
in 855 they first wintered in the Isle of Sheppey. They 
again ravaged Kent in 865 but the people of Kent under 
iEthelbert, promised money if the Danes would make 
peace, for they were certainly near to the English in 
blood and speech, and they seemed to have kept away 
for about twenty years; as it was not until 885 they 
again besieged Rochester and a great battle was also 
fought at the mouth of the river Stour. In 893 as many 
as two hundred and fifty ships came to the mouth of the 
river Limene and went up to Appledore; whilst Haestan 
with eighty ships destroyed Middleton (which is 
supposed to be Milton) on the Thames. The isle of 



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20 Chronicles of Wingham, 



Thanet was a^ain ravaged in 980, and Olaf the Dane 
came to Sandwich in 993, whilst six years later he sailed 
up the Medway to Rochester and plundered most of 
West Kent. These repeated incursions when they 
'•everywhere plundered and burnt as their custom" 
(says the Saxon Chronicle) cause a general destruction 
of churches and monasteries. Only in Wessex were the 
Saxons able to withstand the Danes, and that was under 
the guidance of Alfred, who compelled Guthrum tlie 
Dane to restore Wessex and the southwest part of Mercia 
from London to Bedford, and thence along the line of 
the Watling Street to Chester. Yet the country slowly 
advanced in civilisation, and the marriage ot the various 
kings with princesses of France, helped this on. There 
was but little foreign trade ; wine, silk, spices and 
artistic works being imported for the wealthy nobles ; 
and pictures, incense, relics, and vestments, for the 
churches and monasteries. 

The various manors were held by considerable 
landowners, tilled by his churls, who had become 
semi-servile tenants, with the customary rent ot labour 
to their superiors. The landowner's income was derived 
from the produce of his land, and the breeding of slaves, 
who were exported from Bristol and London for the 
markets of south Europe. The forests and heaths were 
the hunting grounds of the kings and nobles, whilst in 
the "hurst" and "denes" the swineherds had their 
huts. 

On the death of Archbishop Dunstanin 988, " the first 
Englishman who deserves the name of statesman, for he 
united the unwieldly kingdom into a rough unity," the 
Danes again began to ravage our land, and Archbishop 
Sigeric advised king ^Ethelred to buy off the Danes, 
by a payment of ;f 10,000, an enormous sum of money in 
those days. This only caused others to come, but the 
foolish massacre of them on St. Brice's day (13th 
Noveniber) 1002, brought over Sweyn to avenge them, 
who with his men, marched up and down the country 
for two years, and " burnt and slew all that they found.*' 
In 1006 a great fleet came to Sandwich and plundered 
the place, whilst next year a heavy tribute paid to the 



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Introductory. 21 



Danes, brought over Thorkell to such a rich prize, and 
in September loii they burnt Canterbury, took 
Archbishop iElphege prisoner, also the Abbes Leofrun 
of S. Mildred's Minster. 

Sweyn the King of Denmark came to Sanwich in July 
1013, but died in the next year, and Cnut his son be- 
came king, who came to Sandwich in June 1014, where 
he caused the hands, ears, and noses, to be cut off the 
hostages that had been given to Sweyn. Next year he 
ravaged thro' Kent a$ far as Wessex, 

"Altho the Danes again brought in barbarism, it is 
always assumed by chroniclers and their copyists of 
later days, that they were also heathens. Yet Danish 
writers maintain that they converted East-Anglia, and 
introduced a purer form of Christianity. It should also 
be remembered that Denmark was converted to 
Christianity in 858. We may therefore readily believe 
that the Danes were Christians at that period, and their 
hostilitv was directed against the religious orders, who 
were hostile to them, and oflfered a more organised 
resistance, and not against religion itself, as they often 
spared the parish-churches." 




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Chapter II. 

ROMAN AND OTHER REMAINS. 

TRYING HAM has been a place of residence for many 
V-A-l centuries, and the first dwellers here, who have 
left substantial traces behind them were the Romans. 
In July, 1 88 1, a Roman bath was discovered, and 
excavated by the Kent Archeological Society. Previously 
in the year 1710 a plough had unearthed a stone coffin 
on Wingham Court farm, containing some black ashes. 
The remains of this Roman Bath were found in a 
portion of the field known as the '• Vineyard," and near 
the bridge on the road to Canterbury. The walls were 
of Roman-tile eighteen inches thick, which was covered 
with white and slate colour mosaic, and also the floor, 
embedded in a mortar of pounded tile. In the southwest 
corner a drain went through the wall ; and on the north 
side some steps (about seven inches wide) led up to 
another room, which was nearly ten feet by eleven feet, 
with the floor about a foot higher than the first room. 
The walls of this room were two feet thick, and built of 
flint, and the southwest corner also had a drain. On 
the west was a doorway leading to the Hypocaust or 
furnace for heating the bath. To the north of this second 
room was a third room, having the floor fifteen inches 
higher than the adjoining room, its tesselated surface 
representing a labyrinth pattern, with three bands of 
black and white for a border. 

The hypocaust eleven feet wide, leading from the 
second or middle room (of the three uncovered) had a 
floor nearly three feet lower than the room which led 
into it. Upon this floor were laid blocks of masonry, 
with fire passages between; a central one the whole 
length with two cross flues, covered over with large 
tiles. This extended westerly, the further part being 
built on a different plan to the first ; at the other end 



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Roman and Other Remains. 2$ 

was another room about ten feet square^ which had no 
paved floor. 

The rooms imcovered were only those belonging to a 
bath, so that the size of the house, which was probably 
further south, is not known ; but the site is one that 
was usually chosen by the Romans, being sheltered, 
from the east and north winds, but open to the south- 
west, with a stream of pure water near, that comes from 
Wingham Well. From the various things found, 
including mill-stones, a quantity of bones of the ox, pig 
and deer, it is thought that after the departure of the 
Romans in 410 from this country a semi-barbarous 
people lived on the site, who used the buildings for 
agricultural purposes. The uncovering of this interesting 
reUc of a past age, was superintended by George 
Dowker, Esq., of Stourmouth, and this description is 
taken from his report printed in "Archeologia Oantiana" 
Vols XIV, XV. 

The name of this field " the vineyard," shows that the 
vine was once extensively cultivated here, which 
was first brought to England about the year 280. In 
after years most large church buildings had a vineyard 
cultivated by the monks, and those of the Archbishop at 
Teynham and Northfleet were well known for their 
excellent produce. When an Archbishop died, the 
officers of the king looked after the growth of the grape, 
and its making into wine. 

As late as the year 1315 a Walter de la Vineterie of 
Wingham, and his wife Johanna sell a messuage with 
its appurtenances in this parish, for £5 to Henry 
Seneshal of Dene — (Arch. Cant. XIII. 294). 

Now Wingham village, if not on, was very near the 
old Roman road from Richborough to Canterbury, and 
six roads from various parts meet in the village. Most 
of them seem survivals of ancient cross-country roads, for 
the footpaths are almost paralled to the road due north 
from Preston and Stourmouth, with its ferry to the Isle 
of Than et ; then south from the village through Adisham, 
are evidences of a line of communication from Thanet to 
Lympne on the south coast- Whilst east of the village 

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24 



ChfMicUs of Wingham. 



the raised footpath (or causeway^ from Dambridge 
through Staple to Eastry where it joined the Roman 
Road from Dover to Richborough, is no doubt a most 
ancient road. The ground on the south side of this 
causeway has filled up, through the rain washing down 
the earth from the higher ground. 

Not far, south-east at Withersden Hall, a Saxon 
burying-place has also been found, which was opened 
by Lord Londesborough and Mr. Ackerman. 




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Chapter III. 

HISTORY OF THE MANOR. 

^HE old and picturesque village of Wingham with 
^ its broad street shaded by lime and chestnut trees 
is situated on what was once a swampy marsh. 

The name was written Wingeham, Wyngham, and 
Wigam ; and from its form Winganham in the Charter 
dated 941, when the Manor was restored to the church 
at Canterbury, the meaning of the name is probably 
" the homestead or village of Winga or Wine, some 
Anglo-Saxon worthy. Some however consider the 
name is derived from its situation. 

Probably the original Roman Road from Richborough 
to Canterbury, was north of the village, but that part 
across the marshes of the lesser Stour being flooded in 
winter, eventually caused a track to be made further 
south, along the higher ground, and crossing the marsh 
at Wingham where it was much narrower ; then the 
track turned westward just along the border of the 
marsh, and regained the old Roman Road at the top of 
Littlebourne Hill. 

When in later years Sandwich became an important 
town and port, the village was a resting place, mid-way 
between that town and the cathedral city ; and the 
Archbishops of Canterbury having a manor-house in the 
village, many distinguished visitors who entered England 
by way of the port of Sandwich, were able to rest 
themselves before entering in a proper and dignified 
manner the renowned city of Canterbury. 

The Manor of Wingham appears to have been 
originally of the same size as the Hundred of Wingham, 
and therefore consisted of the present parishes of Ash, 
Goodnestone, Nonington, Wingham, and part of 
Wymlingsweald (or Womenswold as it is called at the 



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26 Chronicles of Wingham, 



present day); and these parishes are thus included in the 
Manor of Wingham as recorded in the Domesday 
Survey. But Wingham was first given to the See of 
Canterbury by King iEthelstan (either the King of Kent 
of this name in 836, or ^thelstan, King of Mercia from 
924, until 946, who was brother to King Eadmund 
mentioned in the following charter of restoration). In 
the troubles of the Saxon Heptarchy, the Church of 
Canterbury lost its possessions at Wingham, until "in 
the year of the Lord's Incarnation 941, Eadmund the 
King [940 — 6], his brother Eadred and Edwin, son of 
Eadmund, restored to the Church of Christ, which is in 
Canterbury, those lands which his forefathers had 
unjustly taken away from the Church of God, and 
those that belonged to that church." The names of the 
Manors then restored were — Twiccanham (Twickenham 
given in 793), Preostantun (Preston-next- Fa versham, 
given in 822), Winganham (Wingham), Swyrdlingan 
Swarling-in-Petham, given in 805), Bosingtun, Gravenea 
(Graveney, given in 811), and Ulacumb (Ulcomb). 

The latin original is as follows : — " Anno dominice 
Incarnationis DCCCCXLI. Eadmundus rex Eadredus 
frater ejus, necnon et Eduuinus filius ejusdem Ead- 
mundi regis reddiderunt ecclesie Christi in Dorobernia 
in nomine ejusdem salvatoris Jhesu Christi, has terras 
quas antecessores eorum a predidta ecclesia servis Dei 
ibidem, in eadem ecclesia Des servientibus in juste 
abstulerunt, Hec autem sunt nomina terrarum quas 
Christi ecclesie rediderunt — Twiccanham, Preostantun, 
Winganham, Swyrdlingan, Bosingtun, Gravenea, 
Uulacumb " — {Birch's Anglo-Saxon Charters, Vol. ii., No. 
766.) 

Another charter dated 946 says King ^thelstan 
had given the above places ** In honour of Christ." 

The next account that we have of the manor, is in the 
Domesday Survey, which was taken (as it states) *' in 
the one thousand and eighty-sixth year from our Lord's 
Incarnation, but the twentieth of the reign of King 
William ;" and it was stated as the objecfl of the Survey, 
that it was to enable every one to know what were his 



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History of the Manor. ti 



rightful possessions, and not usurp the property of 
others. But the King required a tolerably accurate 
knowledge of the possessions and revenues of the crown ; 
for those who held lands had their exa(5l political 
position and liabilities defined, and paid a yearly fee, 
homage, or land tax, in proportion to the amount and 
fertility of their lands, thus leaving the subjecfts as 
vassals of the king. 

The king and his advisers most probably had in* their 
minds, some former survey, and one of the old writers 
informs us it was ordered in 1085, when the king and 
his councillors were at Gloucester, and so minute were 
the particulars taken that *' not one hide of land, an ox, 
cow, or swine, that was not set down in the writ.** The 
King was at Sarum in 1086, where he received the sub- 
mission of the chief land-owners to the yoke of military 
tenure, who did homage and affirmed themselves by 
oath, as ** willing to be faithful to King William their 
Lord, within and without the realm of England.*' 

In Kent (or as the name is spelt Chenth), the Survey 
begins with the town of Dover, then (2) the land of the 
King, (3) that belonging to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, most of which was " the same as in the time of 
Edward the Confessor,** (4) the land of the monks or men 
of the Archbishop, includinu; that belonging to Christ 
Church Monastery, and St, Martin's, Canterbury ; (5) 
the land belonging to the Bishop of Rochester ; (6) the 
Bishop of Bayeaux, the half-brother of the King; then 
that of the other religious houses, and the great and 
small owners. Now the usual order is, (i j the possess- 
ions of the King, (2) the Bishop, etc. But ** the men of 
Kent had gathered round Harold, when William first 
came, and received as their reward the decree that no 
English tenant in-chief might hold a rood of Kentish 
soil. Most of its former inhabitants were slain at 
Hastings, so that the whole land was ready for confis- 
cation." 

The record of our parish in the Survey is,-*'In the lathe 
of Estrei [Eastry] is Wingham Hundred. The Arch- 
bishop himself holds Wingham. Taxed at 40 sulins in 



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28 ' Chronicles of Wingham, 



the time of Edward the Confessor, now at 35 sulins. In 
demesne 80 carucates and 85 villeins, with 20 bordari 
having ^y carucates. There are 8 servi and two mills 
worth 35s. Wood for the feeding of 5 hogs, and two 
small woods for fencing; Value in the time of Edward 
the Confessor at £yy, and now at ;^ioo. Of this Manor, 
William de Acris holds one sulin in Fletes ; and there he 
has one carucate, and 4 villeins, and one soldier with 
one carucate. And the fishery with a salt-pan (salina) 
worth 3od. The whole valued at 40s. Of this Manor 5 
of the Archbishop's men hold 5^ sulins, and 3 yokes. 
And they have there 8 carucates, and 22 bordari and 8 
servi. The whole worth ^21.'* 

Now the Survey (or census) did not include women 
and children, but if we add up the villeins 85, bordari 
20, servi 8, the total number is 113, with 35 more at 
Fleet, maldng altogether 148. Now allowing only six 
in a famil}' (that is four children besides the father and 
mother), would make a population of about 900 persons, 
for the whole Manor of Wingham, or the present par- 
ishes of Ash, Goodneston, Nonington, Wingham, Wym- 
lingsweald. 

In explanation of the above Survey, we may say that 
the " lathe " or " last '' of land is a division only found 
in Kent, and is said to be derived from the word 
*'geladian," which means ** to assemble *' ; whilst the 
** hundred *' goes back long before the days of Alfred, 
and is supposed to derive its name from the one hundred 
hides of land, of which it was composed. 

The " Sulin " is a measure of land, which is only 
found in this county, and from a passage in the Register 
of Battle Abbey, is supposed to be equal to the ** hide." 
A sulin was equal to about 216 English acres, or 80 
acres of Norman measure. The word is derived from 
** sulh " a plough, that, is, the quantity of land that could 
be tilled every year by one plough of four oxen. 

As to the " carucate " or plough's worth ; it was the 
amount of land that one plough could cultivate in the 
year. The word was introduced by the Normans, and 
means a sort of four-wheeled vehicle, but since ploughs 



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Histoty o] the Manor. 29 



only have two wheels, it is supposed to refer to the four 
beasts that were yoked to the plough; just as at the 
present day four horses are reckoned a team. The 
"demesne" or " dominium *' was the part of an estate 
held to the Lord's proper use. 

The ** 85 villeins " were those who (together with 
their famiUes) were in servitude to the Lord of the soil- 
in this case the Archbishop— like the cattle and stock 
on the land. They had cultivated the " Folkland " 
which, according to Freeman, " was the property of the 
whole State, out of which land, by consent, portions 
might be cut off and granted by written document to 
particular owners as their book land, and on this they 
supported themselves and their families, but were not 
able to move from it by their own will, although their 
Lord could remove them.** The coming of the Normans 
somewhat improved the condition of the villeins, and 
later on they were divided into two classes ; those be- 
longing to the land and transferred with it, so that any 
one who bought the land, would also buy the villeins 
who lived on that portion of land. The others were 
those who were attached to the person of their Lord, 
and could only be transferred by a deed. Their work 
was almost the same as that of the farm labourers of the 
present day ; but instead of a weekly wage they were fed 
and lodged by their masters. They could not hold 
lands or goods as their own personal property, and their 
children grew up in the same service, whilst their 
daughters could not be married without the consent of 
the Lord of the estate, for if they were married to a man 
upon another estate it would be considered as a damage 
to the property she went from. However they were 
protedled by law from cruelty, and only obtained their 
freedom by a formal deed (many of which exist) from 
their Lord, or by an estate or annuity being given them 
by him, who, if a benevolent man, greatly improved 
their condition, and allowed them to enjoy their holdings 
in a regular descent. As they would have no deeds to 
show for such small estates, except the customs and ad- 
missions entered on the roll of the Lord of the Manor, 
or the copy of such entries witnessed by the steward of 



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30 Ckronicks of Wingham. 

the estate, in after years they were called tenants by 
copy of the court-roll, and their tenure a copyhold. 

The exact condition of the ** Bordari *' has been much 
discussed, but most probably they were those who 
performed the interior services, such as finding com, 
threshing, drawing water, cutting wood, and similar 
work. They also lived in towns as well as in country 
distriifls, for in the city of Norwich there were 480 
bordari at the time of the Survey, who were so poor that 
they were not able to pay taxes. They evidently 
performed occasional services for their maintenance, for 
it is recorded that on one estate they "worked for one 
day in each week." 

The eight ** servi " belonged to a class very different 
to the *• villeins,*' and were more numerous than the 
free, their position being a degraded one. Slavery was an 
early institution, and traffic in slaves appears to have 
extensively prevailed English youths were exported 
and sold in the slave market at Rome, where Pope 
Gregory first saw the English boys, which caused him 
to send a mission to re-christianize our country. In the 
early English laws we find that there were various sorts 
of slaves: — (i) The *^theow" or simple slave, (2) the 
"esne" or slave who works for hire, (3^ the "wite-theow*' 
who is reduced to slavery because he cannot pay his 
debts, (4) the man who sold himself or his children to 
avoid starvation, and (5) the slave who worked in his 
master's house or on a farm and was part of the live 
stock on the estate with the horses and cattle. Slave- 
huts were part of the homestead of every rich landowner; 
and the ploughman, goatherd, swineherd, oxherd, 
shepherd, dairymaid, barnman, sower, and woodward 
were often slaves. They had no place in a court of 
justice, but if slain by a stranger his owner claimed 
damages. If a slave ran away he might be chased like 
a strayed beast, and when caught might be flogged to 
death as a warning to the other slaves. After a time 
their condition improved, and they could claim two 
loaves of bread every day, and Sunday rest was secured 
to them, for a slave who worked on that day, at the 



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History of the Manor, 31 



orders of his master, became free. He could also 
purchase his freedom out of his savings, when he became 
a " free man," and either occupied land under the clergy, 
for which rent was paid, or else went to live in the towns. 
On the church lands the porportion of ''servi" was 
about five-and-a-half per cent, of the population, whilst 
on the lands of lay lords and other tenants-in-chief, it 
was as much as sixteen in the hundred, or nearly three 
times as much, which seems to show that the monas- 
teries had already begun to better the condition of their 
slaves. 

William the Conqueror, by an edict, put an end to the 
slave trade, which had been carried on at the port of 
Bristol ; but it soon after revived and, at the time of 
Henry II. (i 154- 1 189), Ireland was full of Englishmen 
who had been sold into slavery, in spite of royal 
prohibitions and the spiritual threats of the church. A 
man was then worth six oxen. In 1461 the trade was 
still carried on at Bristol, and from there in 1685, 
criminals and slight offenders were transported, and sold 
as slaves in the West Indies, the mayor of the town in 
that year being the chief offender. From Exeter, during 
the time of Cromwell (1649-60) a large number of 
royalists, who had risen in favour of the king, were sent 
to Barbadoes and sold for slaves. 

The mill belonged to the Lord of the Manor, and the 
site is generally occupied by one at the present day, 
showing the long duration of rural employments. 
Watermills were one of the things introduced by the 
Romans, who had one in each of their towns and en- 
campments, with a bakehouse. The owner of the mill 
received from his tenants either a payment of money, or 
grain or eels taken from the mill pond. In Anglo- 
Saxon charters is frequently found the expression '* halt- 
a-mill," which denotes that the opposite bank of the 
stream belonged to a different owner, and in such cases 
the mill had two wheels, which belonged to their 
respedlive owners. A mill was always valuable property 
especially when the Normans introduced the system of 
making their other tenants on the estate have their corn 
ground in the mill. 

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33 Chronicles of JVingham, 



A wood for the feeding or pannage of hogs consisted 
of oak and beech. In all ages the oak has been looked 
upon as the most important tree of the forest, reaching 
the age of 700 years, which has caused it to be venerated. 
Its value was then reckoned, not by its size, but by the 
number of hogs that could obtain food from its acorns. 
The pigs wandered about in the wood without limit or 
reservation attended by the swineherd, who rested 
beneath the shade of the trees. Both the Romans and 
Saxons were very fond of pork, and reared extensive 
herds of swine. Other woods of thorn, elder, maple, 
willow, bramble and furze would be used for repairing 
fences, the large timber for the building of houses, and 
the small wood for fires. 

The value of this Manor of Wingham in the time of 
Edward the Confessor had been £yy, whilst some 25 
years later, at the date of the survey, it had increased to 
;f 100 and in another 200 years, when we reach the time 
of Archbishop Winchelsea (1294-1313), the value had 
increased to ^^249 3s. yd. 

Fletes was a distant part of the Manor near Richboro* 
— now know as " Fleet Farm " — taking its name from 
the Anglo-Saxon **fleot" that means running water, or 
flood, and was held by a sub-tenant, William de Acris, 
who was the son of Godfrey Fitz-Goscelin, Viscount 
d*Arques, in Normandy, and from whom descended by 
female hein;, nearl}' all the large estates in the east 
corner of Kent, to the (now extindl"^ great families of 
Crevecceur, Criol, and Sandwich. 

The ** tithe of the Manor of Fleet** was given in 1084, 
by Archbishop Lanfranc, to the priory of St. Gregory, 
in Canterbury, which he then founded tor aged men and 
women, under the charge of the regular canons of the 
order of St, Augustine. This was confirmed by Arch- 
bishop Hubert Fitz- Walter (1193-1205) in the reign of 
Richard I. 

Salt-pits, or pans, were valuable ; this county and 
Sussex were especially rich in them on the extensive 
and flat parts of the sea-coast. At high tide the sea 
water was let into large shallow ponds, and left for the 



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History of the Manor. J3 



sun and wind to evaporate, leaving the salt at the 
bottom, which was an economical way of obtaining the 
salt. In other places where salt was obtained by 
boiling the brine, woods were often granted for 
that purpose. The " salt-pan (salina) worth 3od.," 
would be the place known at the present day as the 
"salt-pans" near Richborough, and in Ash parish. 
{Domesday Book by Birch,^ 

This Manor eventually became the parish of Wing- 
ham, until in 1282 Archbishop John Peckham, divided 
the large parish into four separate ones, as mentioned 
in the History of the College. 

Archbishop Boniface, in 1252, obtained from King 
Henry HI., the grant of a weekly market, to be held 
every Tuesday. The proper legal procedure was 
observed the king first ordered an enquiry to be held, 
and a jury of twelve men from the " Hundred of Wing- 
ham" — the present parishes of Ash, Goodnestone, 
Nonington, and Wingham — was called together to 
examine evidence for and against the proposed market. 
Their names are still known, and almost all of them may 
be found within the '* Hundred'* — Sampson de Wender- 
ton, Walter de Wenderton, William de Dene, Roger de 
Chilton, Theobald de Helles, William Attemolande, 
Henry de Pedinge, William Adgar, Thomas de Rollinge 
Hamo Attermede, Richard de la Hale, and John de 
Hanking. After due enquiry this jury of the Hundred 
Court, " testified upon oath, that to grant a market, will 
not be to the injury of the king or neighbouring markets, 
but rather to their advantage. That the markets of 
Canterbury and Sandwich will be improved by traders 
coming to the said market of Wingham "(for there was 
no market on that day nearer than Lenham). So the 
village had the right to hold a market granted, for this 
granting of a market, with power to levy tolls, was a 
royal privilege that was generally given to a bishop, 
together with the market dues, and in many cases the 
clerk of a market would be an ecclesiastic. It will also 
be remembered that fram Saxon times, until the year 
1538, the Archbishop was Lord of the Manor of Wing- 
ham. The village market, however, flourished, and 



34. ChronUks of Wingham. 



was said to have injured that of Canterbury. Nearly 
fifty years after the market was granted the Archbishop 
in 3290 was accused of injuring the market of Canter- 
bury, because his market at Wingham intercepted the 
provisions on the road, and thus increased the price of 
things at Canterbury ; the case being brought before the 
justices, they decided that the Archbishop had the right 
of holding a market at Wingham, and therefore through 
him no wrong was done to the City. The ** Lion Inn " 
very probably occupies the site of the market-house. — 
(Arch, Cant, Vol, ii.; Hist. MS8. Report), 

The village also had two fairs every year, held on 
May 1 2th and November 12th, for cattle, and were 
considerable ones, even down to some twenty years ago; 
but at the present time those days do not differ from 
the ordinary quiet ones. *' Fair " is said to be derived 
from the word *'feriae," meaning "holiday,** and the 
fairs originated in the assembling of people for the 
dedication of a church, or for some other religious 
festival. At first they were held in the churchyard on 
Sunday after the service, but Archbishop Stafford, in 
1444, during the reign of Henry VI„ prohibited the 
holding of fairs or markets on Sunday or Saint Days, 
** because of the injuries and offences to God and His 
saints*' through having them on those days. 

In the year 1299, by an order of Council with the 
consent of Edward I. the price of things were fixed as 
foUows: — A fat cock i^. (equal to about 2S. of the 
present day); two pullets i^d., a fat capon 2jd. (about 
4s.); a goose 4d. (equal to about 6s. 8d.); a partridge 
i^d. a pheasant 4d. a swan 3s. (from £2\,o£'^)\ two 
woodcocks ijd. A whole lamb between Christmas and 
Shrovetide 6d, (about los.). during the rest of the year 
4d. (about 6s.). Game and poultry were very abundant, 
and also eggs; partridges were captured by hawks or 
nets. Mutton could be bought for about Jd. a lb (about 
5d.); beef was a little dearer whilst butter and cheese 
were double the price of meat. 

In those days beer-shops were generally kept by 
women, and the beer was id^ a gallon (about is. 6d,). 



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History of ihe Manor, 35 



As to wages, a farm baliff received los. a year (about 
£ci)y and a ploughman 7s. (equal to between £6 and £t)^ 
whilst a cook had is. 6d. a year, but such servants 
would also have their food and lodgings given them. 
Haymakers received id. a day (about is. 6d.), and 
labourers i\A. (from as. 3d. to 2s, 6d.\ masons 3d. a 
day (about 4s.) Furley's History of the Weald. 

In April, 1326, the Bailiff was named Richard, who 
looked after the Wingham Manor during the absence of 
the Archbishop. Two years later, on March 2nd. 1328, 
a commission of oyer and terminer (that is power to 
hear and determine cases), was sent to John de Ifeld, 
etc., touching evil doers who entered the closes, parks, 
and woods of the Manor of Wingham."(/ira/. Patent Rolls), 
This John de Ifeld, was probably the third son of 
Thomas de Ifeld of this county ; who in 1272 was one of 
the perambulators (or surveyors of boundaries) of the 
forests south ot the river Trent. In the reign of 
Edward III. he several times represented this county in 
Parliament. Very probably he is the same person who 
was seneschal (or steward) of Christ Church Monastery 
in 1322, and sent by the Prior to Sandwich about a 
matter of taxation ; and in November 1330 proposed to 
retire from his office, when Prior Henry de Eastry 
wrote and asked him to suggest ** some proper person^ 
a. knight, or other,"to be their high steward. He had 
also acSled as " a justice of the marsh *' with reference to 
Lyden marsh near Sandwich, the monastery having 
built a sea wall there, which expense should have been 
paid by a scot or rate, levied on all the owners. John 
de Ifeld, however, continued as high steward, for Prior 
Richard de Oxenden in 1332 requested him to be at 
the Parliament in London, that was to meet on the 
Monday after the Festival of S. Gregory (March 12th), 
in that year. He was also informed by the Prior, that 
the dispute between Christ Church Monastery and 
Dover Priory was adjourned, so he was not to reward 
Richard Wyleby, the counsellor of the monastery, ** for 
the delay would be dangerous," unless he thought it 
ought to be done. — {Foss" Judges-Letters Christ Church 
Canti) 

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56' ChfonkUs of Wingham» 



In April, 1333, the Sheriff of Kent took two of the 
tenants of the Manor of VVingham, and placed them in 
the castle at Canterbury, thus violating the rights of the 
archbishop to whom this manor belonged*— (L«l[^^rs CkrUt 
Church). 

In 1348 appeared the Black Death, the most terrible 
plague the world has ever witnessed, which devastated 
the whole of Europe. Of the three or four millions of 
people who then formed the population of England, 
more than one half were swept away in its repeated 
visitations ; so that our village, by its nearness to 
the Continent, and being on the road from a port 
much frequented could not escape from the contagion. 
Its ravages were greatest in the towns, where filthy and 
undrained streets were a constant haunt of leprosy and 
fever ; the villages also suffered, so that the scarcity of 
labourers caused by the terrible death, made it difficult 
for the " villeins*' to perform the services due from them 
for their lands, and for a time cultivation became 
impossible, whilst the sheep and cattle strayed through 
the fields of corn for there was no one left to drive them 
away. The harvest also rotted in the ground, the fields 
were left untilled ; men who wandered in search of work 
were masters of the labour-market ; for there were but 
few labourers ; and corn rose to such a high price that a 
days work would not earn enough money for a man to 
live on. 

Edward III, had just entered London in triumph after 
his vidlories in France, and feasting and merriment went 
on everywhere for some time. But when the Parlia- 
ment had been summoned for January, 1349, the king 
was obliged to put off the assembling until April 27th, 
" because a sudden visitation of deadly pestilence had 
broken out at Westminster and the neighbourhood, 
which was increasing daily and causing much 
apprehension for the safety of any great concourse of 
people should they assemble,** yet in March of that 
same year "it was. increasing with extraordinary 
severity.** 

We have no further particulars of the Manor until in 



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History of the Manor. J7 

1459 Roger Brent was appointed for life, Bailiff of 
Winghsim— (Hist. MSS Report IX.) 

The Archbishop of Canterbury ceased to be lord of 
the manor, and lost his residence here in 1538, when 
Edward Cranmer exchanged away the manor house and 
lands, with Henry VIII., for other land, which the king 
failed to give. So it continued in the hand of the crown 
until Charles I., in 1630, granted the site called Wingham 
Court, with the lands belonging to it, unto trustees for 
the use of the City of London,at the yearly fee farm 
rent of £27 6s. 8d., and at the end of this same.reign 
it was conveyed to Sir William Cowper. But the manor 
itself, with the royalties, profits of courts, etc. remained 
with the crown, and in 1650 were valued at ;^I34 4s. 
yd. ; since which time the right to hold the courts, 
receive the fines, reliefs, &c. and the privilege of holding 
the manor courts, has belonged to the Oxenden family, 
who hold the " manor court " at the present day — 
{Hasudlll). 

Sir Henry Palmer, Baronet (the eldest son of Sir 
Thomas Palmer, and great grandson of the Sir Henry 
Palmer who bought the college in 1553) had in the year 
1665 been appointed steward of the Manor of Wingham 
and in July, 1702 petitioned Queen Anne that his grant 
might De renewed. He was Sheriff of Kent in 1691, and 
married Ann, daughter of Sir William Luckyn, of 
Waltham, in Essex, but leaving no children, at his 
death in 1708, the title went to Thomas Palmer, the son 
of his brother Herbert and his wife Dorothy Pynchon, 
for Herbert had died in February, 1700, and was buried 
in the middle of the chancel of the church. 

In December, 1723, Sir George Oxenden was offered 
by the Master of the Treasury, the stewardship of the 
Manor of Wingham, but as he declined the office 
Thomas Winter was appointed. He was churchwarden 
of Wingham in 1719, and when, on May 19th, 1720, a 
meeting was held about re-casting the bells of the 
Church he contributed £1 los. ; his house was then 
rated at ^5 6s. 8d., and his name occurs in the church 
book for the last time in 1735. In the churchyard is a 

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38 Chronicles of Wingham. 

tombstone with this inscription, " Here lieth the body 
of Thomas Winter, Gent., late of this Parish, who 
departed this life May 6th, 1741, aged 69 years," which 
is probably that of the person appointed steward of the 
manor. The family, however, had been resident in the 
parish a hundred years previously, for on the death of 
•* John Winter of Wingham," in 1663, his daughter Jane 
Dancy administered to his estate.— (iv^aswiy Papers', Arch 
Oant. XX.) 




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Chapter IV. 
THE ARCHBISHOPS MANOR-HOUSE. 

7i^E have already said that the whole Manor of 
>^ Wingham belonged to the Archbishops of 
Canterbury from Saxon times, so the Wingham Manor- 
House was also one of their residences, where they have 
often stayed, and entertained royal and other important 
persons. Besides the Palace in the cathedral city, the 
archbishops had thirteen manor-houses in various parts 
of Kent — Aldington, Bishopsbourne, Charing, Ford, 
Gillingham, Knole, Lyminge, Maidstone, Otford, 
Saltwood, Teynbam, Wingham, and Wrotham. 

The site of the ancient residence of the archbishops is 
now occupied by Wingham Court and its farm 
buildings. 

Although Archbishop Lanfranc (1070-89) is said to 
have built a residence on many of the Manors, yet the 
first recorded visitisthat of Archbishop Thomas a Becket, 
whose murder in his cathedral, soon caused his name 
and Canterbury Cathedral to be known throughout the 
world. When, in December, 1170, he was returning to 
England after his exile, having been reconciled to Henry 
II., as the vessel in which he and his companions neared 
the shore, they said to him, "This is England." The 
Archbishop replied sadly (knowing the character of 
Henry), "you will wish yourselves elsewhere before fifty 
days are gone.'* Within a month he was murdered. 
Having landed at Sandwich, which was the port of the 
Archbishops he was met by enthusiastic crowds, "as 
a victim sent from heaven." As he passed through 
Wingham and the other villages on his way to Canter- 
bury, the people ran together with the parish priest, 
with the processional cross at their head shouting, 
"Blessed is he that cometh iathej name of the Lord." 
In the cathedral city he was received with the sound of 



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40 Chromcies of iPittghant. 



trumpets, with psalms and hymns by the p«or ; and by 
the monastery with the reverence and veneration due to 
him, and the cathedral was hung with silks and costly 
curtains in honour of his return : for he was regarded as 
the representative of the people as against the feudal 
nobility. After about a week he went on to London to 
see the young King ; and from there to the Manor of 
Harrow, in Middlesex, where Simon, Abbot of St. Alban's 
visited him, and then went to the young King on 
behalf of the Archbishop. 

Becket had returned to Canterbury on December 
2 1 St, and upon the Christmas festival, after the sermon, 
during the Mass, solemnly excommunicated Nigel de 
Sackville, and Robert de Broc. On the following 
Tuesday' whilst peacefully sitting in the Hall of the 
Palace, with his personal attendants — John of Salisbury, 
William Fitz Stephen, his chaplain, and Edward Grim a 
monk from Cambridge, (who had arrived a few days 
before, on a visit) — on that ever memorable December 
29th, 1 1 70, about three o'clock in the afternoon, the four 
knights — Reginald Fitz Urse, Hugh de Moreville, 
William be Tracy, and Richard de Bret, burst in with 
insults and threats, demanding an audience in the name 
of the King. Gazing at each other at first without 
speaking, they soon blamed the Archbishop for his 
late proceedings and after an angry scene, they withdrew 
for their arms, and placed a guard at the Monastery 
Gate, to prevent the citizens coming to help the monks. 

After the four knights left the Hall of the Palace, the 
Archbishop was hurried through a private door into the 
cloisters and the Church, whither the four knights 
followed, and unable to drag him out of the church 
(although they feared to slay him there), Tracy with 
his sword, cut off the tonsured crown of the Archbishop's 
head, and Reginald Fitz Urse knocked him down with 
his sword, and on the steps of the altar the Archbishop 
was murdered. 

Leaving the church the knights hastened to the 
Palace, carried off the plate, money, jewels and other 
valuables ; and, mounting the best horses from the 



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Thi Archbishofs Manor-House, 4f 

stables, they returned to Salt wood Castle, and thence 
to Knaresborough Castle in Yorkshire, which belonged 
to Hugh de Morville. Osbert the Chancellor of the 
Archbishop then went into the Church and bound up 
the head of Eecket, and the murderers being gone, a 
multitude of people flocked in and gathered round the 
body, which the monks placed before the High Altar. 
Next day, (December 30), Robert de Broc, who had 
been left in charge of the Palace in the name of his 
brother Ralph, who in January 1165 had been appointed 
** custodian " of the property of the Archbishop, threat- 
ened that the body should be cast out if it was not 
quickly buried without ceremony. So in fear, Walter, 
Abbot of Boxley, who was staying there, with the Prior 
and monks, buried the murdered Archbishop in the 
crypt of his Cathedral, before the altars of St. John and 
St. Augustine. 

" This event shocked the whole religious world, for 
Becket had been murdered in his own Cathedral, in 
violation of the sanctity of a church ; the sword of the 
murderer had cut off the crown consecrated by priestly 
undlion and tonsure. When Henry H. heard thereof at 
Argentan, in France, he broke into lamentations, refused 
food for three days, and transadled no public business 
for forty days. He also sent messengers to Canterbury, 
saying he had not authorised the murder. When the 
Pope heard the news at Tusculum, he shut himself up for 
eight days, and reproached himself for not having given 
more support to the champion of the Church.** He 
then excommunicated the murderers, who were sent on 
a pilgrimage of expiation to the Holy Land. 

We generally judge both the Archbishop and the 
King through the spedlacles of the present day ; but, 
" to understand Thomas a Becket (said the late Prof- 
essor Freeman^, one must thoroughly know the age in 
which he lived, and every fair minded man who studies 
the question, must be convinced that with all his faults 
Thomas of Canterbury is fairly entitled to a place among 
the worthies of whom England is proud." 

Although it would take too much space to give any 



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42 Chronicles of Bingham, 

adequate particulars of him, we may mention that he 
was the son of Gilbert and Matilda Becket, born on 
December 21st, 11 18, in his father's house at Cheapside, 
London. When ten years of age he was sent to school 
at Merton in Surrey, and, upon completing his education 
he became one of the household of Archbishop Theobald 
(1139-61;, as a young man worthy of patronage, and 
soon after was appointed Archdeacon of Canterbury. 
When Henry II. came to the throne, he appointed 
Becket Chancellor of England, and the latter soon 
became the king's most intimate friend, and adviser, 
going with him to the Continent in 1 156, when Henry 
II. wished to bring to submisson his brother Geoffrey, 
who had laid claim to Anjou, which Henry would not 
allow. "Becket was endowed (says Bishop Stubbs) 
with many brilliant and serviceable gifts ; he was an 
amiable man of business, variable, politic, liberal even 
to magnificence, well acquainted with the laws of 
England, and not deficient in the accomplishments of 
either cleric or knight. His singular career illustrates 
at once the state of the clergy at that time and his own 
power of adapting himself, apparently with a good 
conscience, to each of the three great schools of public 
thought in turn. The clergy of the Norman reigns may 
be arranged under three classes, (1) the man of the 
thoroughly secular type, like Roger of Salisbury, a 
minister of State and a great statesman, who received 
high preferment in the Church, as a reward for official 
services; (2) the professional ecclesiastic, like Henry of 
Winchester, who looks to the interest of the Church first, 
and whose public course is dictated by regard for clerical 
objects, who aims at a mediatorial position in the 
conflicts of the State, and who has close relations to the 
great ecclesiastical centre at Rome; (3; the man who 
acts on and lives up to higher principles of action, and 
seeks first and last what seems to him to be the glory of 
God. This last class of men is respresented to some 
extent by Anselm. Thomas a Becket appears to have 
lived through all these, and both friends and enemies 
debate to which of the two divisions of the last class his . 
life and death place him. Until his promotion to 



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The Archbishop* s Manor-House. 43 

Canterbury he had been chancellor, lawyer, judge, 
financier, secretary of state. Now he became the primate 
the champion of the clergy, the agent or patron of the 
Pope, and assertor of the rights of his Church and of 
his own constitutional position as the first free adviser 
of the Crown. He made enemies among his former 
associates by demanding from them restitution of the 
estates that belonged to the See of Canterbury, which 
they unlawfully had seized. At Woodstock, in 1163, ^^ 
had a dispute with the king about a question of taxation 
of the clergy, beneficial to the royal revenues, but hurtful 
to the Church, and they never met again as friends." 

Having been consecrated Archbishop on the octave of 
Whit-Sunday, 1162, Thomas a Becket appointed the 
day as a festival to be observed every year by the 
Church in honour of the Holy Trinity. 

At the Wingham Manor House, Archbishop Baldwin 
("i 1 85-90) frequently stayed, so as to be near Canterbury 
during his dispute with the monks of Christ Church 
Monastery about the church at Hackington, which the 
Archbishop had begun to build. It seems he wished to 
remove his cathedral to another church and form a 
chapter of secular canons, who, with all the bishops, 
should ele<5l the Archbishop, so that he would cease to 
be the Abbot and head of Christ Church Monastery ; 
and they would always choose their own abbot. To 
carry this out the Archbishop restored and enlarged 
Hackington Church (^then about half-a-mile from the 
city), which he proposed to dedicate to the martyred St. 
Thomas a Becket, and obtained from the Pope permis- 
sion to appropriate for the purpose a fourth part of the 
offerings made at his tomb in the crypt of the cathedral. 
When the monks of Christ Church found out what 
Baldwin intended doing they were very indignant and 
appealed to Rome, the poorer people and the religious 
world taking their side, as being likely to lessen the 
honour and glory of the cathedral and the tomb of the 
saint, so that the Pope revoked his permission and re- 
quired Baldwin to appear at Rome, and on his return the 
Archbishop came and resided at Wingham. In the 



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44 Chronicles of Wingham, 



first year of the reign of Richard I. the dispute was 
compromised by Hackington Church being pulled 
down — some think the stones were used to build Bar- 
freston Church — and by exchange of some land belong- 
ing to the See of Canterbury for the Manor of Lambeth, 
which then belonged to the Bishop of Rochester, where 
Baldwin removed the canons, and some of the stones, 
timber, and other material. 

Baldwin was a man of dark complexion, with an open 

and venerable countenance, of medium height, and rather 

thin ; he never ate meat, only vegetables. He was born 

at Exeter, of a family who were poor, and received his 

education in one of the monastic schools which were 

open to all who chose to attend, and there he distin- 

tinguised himself as a scholar. His learning, zeal, and 

piety brought him to the notice of Bartholomew, Bishop 

of Exeter, who ordained him and made him archdeacon. 

Soon after he resigned, and joined the Cistercian monks, 

founded at Citeaux, a village near Dijon, and who 

followed the rule of St. Bernard. They were first 

introduced into this country in 1128 by Walter GifFard, 

Bishop of Winchester, who founded the Abbey of 

Waverley, in Surrey. Their rule was never to eat flesh, 

except as a medicine in sickness, or fish, eggs, 

milk, or cheese. They slept on straw beds, in 

their tunics and cowls; but at midnight they went to 

the church and sang their offices until day-break, when 

they went to the chapter-house. The day was spent in 

labour, reading, prayer , and alms deeds, and they 

never talked, except at the times allowed for spiritual 

conference. Their dress was a white robe, made of un- 

dyed wool. 

In the year 1180, Baldwin was consecrated Bishop of 
Worcester, and lour years later, on the death of Arch- 
bishop Rich, he was chosen to succeed him, and was 
enthroned at Canterbury, May 15th, 1185. 

When the archbishop was staying here in March, 
1 186, some monks came out with reference to the three 
churches of Monkton, Eastry, and Mepham, which in 
the previous January the archbishop had taken posses- 



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The Archbishop s Manor-House, 45 

sion of (Gervase ». 332.) Baldwin was here 17th May 
1 187 when he appointed William to be Prior of Dover 
and Dunstan Prior of St. Gregory in Canterbury, con- 
trary to the custon of the church of Canterbury, for they 
should have been appointed in the chapter-house there, 
but the archbishop kept away because of his dispute 
with the monks about Hackington. — (Gervase vol, i.) 
In that same year Heraclius, the Patriarch of Jerusa- 
lem, together with the Masters of the Knights Templars 
and Knights Hospitalers, came to England, asking for 
help against the Saracens, and were received with due 
honour by Henry H. at Reading. Shortly after a 
meeting was held at Clerkenwell, when Henry gave 
them 50,000 silver marks and permission to any of his 
subjedls to assume the cross ; those who refused to go 
were to pay a tax (called ** Saladins Tithe ") towards the 
expenses of those who went. Archbishop Baldwin was 
the first to offer himself for the Crusade, and ordered 
colle(5lions to be made in every church, whilst he him- 
self went throught Wales with the banner of S. Thomas 
of Canterbury, preaching that all who went would be 
free from, and absolved of all the sins, which they re- 
pented of and confessed. When, in 1189, Richard I. 
became king, preparations were made for the Crusade, 
and on February 24th, 1190, Archbishop Baldwin, at 
the altar of Christ in the cathedral, took the pilgrim staff, 
and saying farewell to the Church of Canterbury, and 
England, crossed from Dover on his way to the Holy 
Land, and died at Acre in the following November : — 
(Gervase). 

A few years later, on March 13th, 1194, came through 
our village the long-absent King Richard I. (the lion- 
hearted), having landed at Sandwich, after his long im- 
prisonment in an Austrian dungeon when returning 
from fighting in the Holy Land, and met with a very 
hearty reception by his people, and going on to Canter- 
bury, gave thanks to St. Thomas for his freedom. For 
his ransom the Chancellor (Hubert Walter) ordered all 
bishops, clerics, earls, barons, abbots, or priors to give 
a fourth part of their possessions. " Richard's career in 
the Holy Land, with all its mistakes and shortcomings, 

uiyiiiz.uu uy -v — « -v^ ■v..' -t tV^ 



46 Chronicles of Wingham, 

was the brightest period of his life, crowns with a halo 
of romantic glory a life which the world cannot forget, 
and which, under other circumstances, might have been 
remembered only as one of violent misrule and passion," 
A great historian has said of the Crusades, " They were 
the first great effort of mediaeval life to go beyond the 
pursuit ot selfish and isolated ambition ; they were the 
trial-feat of the young world endeavouring to use, to the 
glory of God and the benefit of man, the arms of its new 
knighthood. They brought out a love for all that is 
heroic in human nature, the love of freedom, the honour 
of bravery, sympathy with sorrow, perseverance to the 
last, and patient endurance without hope." 

The next royal visit to the village was King John, 
who, leaving Ewell on May 25th, in the year 121 3 came 
across to Wingham, but three days later returned to 
Ewell and Dover, with reference to the negotiations for 
peace, between the king and Archbishop Stephen 
LauTjtpn. On May 30th he returned to Wingham and 
stayed four days, then went to Chilham. John was at 
Sandwich on the last day of April, 12 16, when Louis of 
France was threatening to invade the land, and from 
there passed through the village to Canterbury. A 
month later on May 20th, Louis landed at Stonar, 
crossed the river and burnt Sandwich, sent his son to 
besiege Dover Castle, which was guarded by Hubert de 
Burgh, and his brave defence is a most interesting 
chapter in the history of the county. Louis first went 
on to Canterbury, where the citizens surrendered the 
Castle to him, andhe afterwards took alJ the other castles 
in Kent, except Dover : — {Itinerary oj King jfohn). 

We now have a picflure of rural life, and are informed 
that about this time the Manor House became the 
centre of every village, with the Manor Court held in its 
hall, where the Lord or his steward received homage, 
recovered fines, or enrolled the villagers in their tithing. 
If he possessed criminal jurisdidlion he held the court 
of justice, whilst outside his doors would be the gallows 
on which criminals were hanged. Around the house 
was the home farm, cultivated by the »* villeins " of the 

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The Archbishop's Manor-House, 47 

manor, who filled his barn with sheaves, sheared the 
sheep, and hewed the wood for the manor-hall fire. 
For this service they held their lands, and were bound 
to gather in their master's harvest, help in the plough- 
ing and sowing of autumn and spring, whilst the 
labourers were bound to help in the work of the farm 
throughout the year. Money payment now began to take 
the place of the labour-rent, and " malt-silver,** ** wood- 
silver," and " larder-silver," took the place of the older 
personal service of providing wood, food, etc. The 
luxury, splendour, and pomp of knighthood, together 
with the cost of campaigns, emptied the purses of 
knights and barons, so that the sale of freedom to a 
** serf*' or ** villein '* and the exemption of a service due 
was an easy way of re-filling them. — (Green's History of 
the English People.) 

The Emperor Frederick II. asked in marriage the 
Princess Isabella, to which Henry II. and his nobles 
consented ; so the Archbishop of Cologne, and the Duke 
of Louvain came over to this country to condu(5l the 
princess abroad. On May 6th, 1235, *^®y started from 
London, resting at Dartford, then through Rochester 
to Faversham Abbey, where they rested for the night, 
next day they reached Canterbury, where, at the 
Shrine of St. Thomas they offered their devotions. 
Thence, thro* this village to Sandwich, where the 
numerous company embarked. May i ith, and after three 
days and nights reached the mouth of the Scheldt, 
finally landing at Antwerp. — {Matt Paris — Great History)^ 

Archbishop Edmund Rich, spent the Christmas 
Festival of 1238 at the Wingham Manor house, after- 
wards going on to the Palace at Canterbury. Also here 
25th February, 1239, when he gave his consent that the 
church of St. Martin at Guston should be appropriated 
to St. Martin*s Priory at Dover, but eight marcs {£^ 
6s. 8d.) a year were to be reserved for the Vicar of 
Guston :- {Hasted IV.) 

The early history of this archbishop is, that he was 
born on the Feast of St. Edmund (Nov. 20th) between 
the years 1 170-5, at Abingdon, being the son of Edward 

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48 ChrotUOes of Wingkam, 

(or Reinald) Rich and his wife Mabel, who had three 
other sons and two daughters. Edmund was brought 
up at Abingdon, and afterwards educated at Oxford and 
Paris. Altho* austere to himself, tender to others. 
About I220 appointed Treasurer of SaHsbury, and 
Prebendary of Calne, and while staying there 1233 
messengers from Rome arrived, informing him he was 
appointed Archbishop of Cantetbury, and he was con- 
secrated in the cathedral 2nd April, 1234, by Roger 
Niger, Bishop of London, in the presence of the king 
and thirteen bishops. Upon 14th January, 1235, the 
archbishop married in Canterbury cathedral, Henry III. 
to Eleanor (then only fourteen years old^, the daughter 
of the Count of Provence. At Gloucester he induced 
Henry III. to accept the homage of Gilbert Marshall 
(formerly Vicar of Wingham), brother and heir to the 
Earl-Marshall. In 1237 the Archbishop rebuked the 
king for inviting Cardinal Otho to England, and in the 
month of December, the Archbishop set out for Rome, 
having quarrelled with his monks, and had a law-suit 
with the Earl of Arundel who hunted in the Archiepis- 
copal forests. He returned to England with Otho as 
Legate, and they were received at Canterbury about the 
Feast of the Assumption (Aug. 15th.) in 1238; but soon 
after there were fresh quarrels with the monks, because 
Archbishop Edmund was stridl and objedled to the 
luxury and secularity of their discipline, so the Arch- 
bishop chiefly resided at Teynham or Wingham. In 
April, 1239, he came here from Teynham, by way of 
Selling to Shamelford, and thence through Lower 
Hardres and Bridge, so as to avoid Canterbury, and 
stayed here for some days, receiving a messenger from 
Rome, and next day, April 26th, wrote to the official of 
the Archdeacon, ordering him to excommunicate the 
monks of Christ Church for their disobedience to his 
orders. The Archbishop left here in May and returned 
to Teynham. Disgusted with the opposition of the king, 
and overcome at the exadlions of the Pope, in demanding 
three hundred benefices, Archbishop Edmund, without 
asking permission of the king, went abroad November, 
1240, from Graistanhede [PGreat Stonar "between Dover 



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TJU Arckbishop*$ Mmor-House, 49 

and Sandwich'*] (says Gervase), to Pontigny Abbey the 
place of refuge for Becket and Stephen Langton and 
there much honoured he died, i6th November, 1240, and 
was buried Miracles soon marked his resting place 
at Pontigny, and a demand for his canonisation, which 
Henry III and Archbishop Boniface opposed ; but a 
commission was appointed to investigate the claims and 
in 1246 he was canonised, and known as St. Edmund 
of Canterbury— (D/(t?<. Natl. Bio; Gervase of Canterbury). 

His successor Archbishop Boniface, in the year 1252 
obtained from Henry HI the grant of a weekly market 
on Tuesday, for the village. Also at the Manor House 
in September, 1262. when he gave his consent to the 
appointment of Richard Talbot as Bishop of London, 
who from age and infirmity could not go to the Arch- 
bishop, and shortly after died ; so Henry de Sandwich 
was then appointed in his place, and consecrated 27th 
May, 1263, in the cathedral — (Oervase). 

This archbishop was the eleventh child of Thomas 
the Count of Savoy, and his wife Marguerite de 
Faussigny. As a boy he entered the Carthusian Order, 
and in 1234, when quite young, became Bishop of 
Bellay. When Henry HI married Eleanor of Provence 
she was used by the needy members of the House of 
Savoy for their advancement, and one in 1243, became 
Vicar of this Parish. At the request of Henry 
in the monks of Canterbury elected Boniface as 
Archbishop in the year 1241, and the king appropriated 
the revenue until Boniface first came to this country 
in April 1244, but was not consecrated until 15th January, 
1245, at Lyons, by Pope Innocent IV. <*Boniface did noth- 
ing important for church or state in England, being a man 
of small ability even in practical matters. He is praised 
for three things— he freed the See of Canterbury from 
debt, built almshouse at Maidstone, finished the great 
hall of the palace, begun by Hubert Walter*'. — (Diet. 
Natl. Bio.) 

In 1255, a strange visitor was seen in the village — an 
elephant was landed at Sandwich, being a present from 
the king of France to Henry III. The elephant was 

uiyiiiz.uu uy -v — ■■WvJV^Lv^ 



50 Chnmicks of Wingham, 

taken on to the Tower of London, where a special house 
was built for the animal, which was ten years old, but 
only lived to the following February. The cost of its food 
and keeper from Michaelmas, 1255, to February, 1256, 
being £16 13s. id. — {John de Oxenedes), 

Archbishop Robert Kilwardby (1273-8) with the 
license of Pope Gregory X intended to divide the 
revenues from the great parish of Wingham into several 
prebends ; but having been appointed a Cardinal he left 
England, and was unable to carry out the work. 
Kilwardby was a Dominican (or Black) Friar, being the 
first member of that order, who became archbishop, 
and was consecrated in the cathedral 26th February, 
1273. and in the following May whilst at Teynham 
Manor House, received the pallium. Very little is 
known of his birth and parentage, but probably he was 
a native of Yorkshire ; educated at Oxford where he 
joined the Dominican Friars, who had settled there in 
the year 1221, in the Jewry, but sold their land and 
moved into the parish of St. Ebbes in 1259 ; and there 
Kilwardby joined them, on his return from Paris, and 
became "Provincial", being a pious and learned man. 
In August 1274 ^^ officiated at the coronation of 
Edward I and his Queen in Westminster Abbey ; and 
the next year attended the Synod of Lyons, begining a 
"visitation'* after his return. Having been made 
Cardinal Bishop of Portus by Pope Nicholas HI in 
1278, Kilwardby resigned Canterbury, and went to 
Rome, where he did not live long, for he died nth. 
September, 1279, and was buried in the chapel of St 
Dominic— (D^r/. Natl Bio,) 

John Peckham. Founder of Wingham College. 

John Peckham was born some years earlier than 1240, 
probably at Peckham in Sussex which place belonged 
to Lewes Priory, and to which his family were great 
friends. He had a brother Richard, whose son Walter, 
received many appointments from his uncle the arch- 
bishop, including a Canonry of the College. The 
archbishop received his early education and training 
in the celebrated Benedictine (or Cluniac) Monastery of 

uiyiiiz.KU uy -v — « -v^ ■v..' -x t>^ 



The Archbishop's Manor-Housi, 51 

Lewes, that had been founded by William de Warrenne 
in the reign of William the Conqueror upon the site of 
a Saxon church, dedicated to St Pancras. It is 
recorded that in 1076 *'William de Warrenne and 
Gundrada my wife, wishing to make a pilgrimage to St. 
Peter's in Rome, went on our way staying at many 
monasteries which are to be found in France and 
Burgundy, and there we offered up our prayers. When 
we had reached Burgundy, we learnt that we could 
not safely go further, because of the war which was 
going on then between the Pope and the Emperor. 
Thereupon we took up our abode at the Monastery of 
Clugny, a great and holy abbey built in honour of St. 

Peter And because we found there such great 

sanctity and devotion and Christian charity ; and more- 
over so much honour shewn us by the good Prior and 
all the monks, who received us into their society and 
fraternity — we began to regard that Order and House, 
with love and devout regard, above all other religious 
houses that we had seen. But Hugh their holy abbot 
was not then at home. And because a long time before 
and now more than ever, my wife and I had it in our 
purpose and wish, by the consent of Lanfranc the 
archbishop, to build up some religious house for our sins 
and for the salvation of our souls ; it seemed to us then, 
that we should not be willing to found a house of any 
other Order, so gladly as that of the Cluniac Order. 
Therefore we sent and requested of Hugh the Abbot, 
and of the whole congregation, that they would grant to 
us, two or three or four monks of their flock, on whom 
we would bestow the church near our castle of Lewes, 
which in ancient times had existed in honour of S. 
Pancras, and which we, from being a wooden church 
had converted into one of stone. And at starting we 
were prepared to surrender as much land and cattle and 
goods, as might suffice for the support of twelve monks. 
But the holy abbot was at first very averse to listen to 
our petition, because, of our foreign land being so long a 
distance off, and especially because of the passage by sea. 
But after that we had procured a license to introduce 
Cluniac monks into the land of England, from our Lord 
King William, and that the Abbot on his part had been 

uiyiiizuu uy -v — ■ -v^ -v^ -t tV^ 



52 Chronicles of Wingham 



certified of the kings will ; then at last he granted and 
sent to us four of his monks, on whom at the outset, we 
bestowed all the things which we had promised, and we 
confirmed the same by writing, which we sent to the 
Abbot and Monastery of Clugny, because they were 
unwilling to send their monks until this had been done. 
And thus it was granted to me and my wife, to bring the 
Cluniac monks into our English land.*' — {igth Century) 

Such was the origin of the monastery, where the 
founder of our college received his first instruction : 
afterwards going to Oxford, where he joined the Fran- 
ciscan Friars, whose monastery was situated in the 
parish of St Ebbes. He most strictly kept the rule of his 
Order, fasting ; that is, eating only one meal every day 
seven times in each year ; from the Epiphany for forty 
days ; and then from Septuagesima until Easter, and, 
unless this festival fell late, his fast would not be broken 
from Epiphany to Easter. After Ascension Day. he 
fasted until June 29th, which was the Festival of SS. 
Peter and Paul ; and then for forty days from the 
Festival of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
(August 14th); and for forty days from OcSlober 4th, 
which was the Festival of S. Francis, the founder of 
his Order. Even when he became Archbishop he 
continued his life of selfdenial, and although a most 
hospitable man, did not partake of the f®od prepared for 
his guests. 

Peckham became a pupil of Adam Marsh, who speaks 
of him in favourable terms, in the year 1250 ; and 5;oon 
after he went to study at Paris, where he met Thomas 
Aquinas. Returning to Oxford about 1270 he became 
eleventh lector (or public reader) of the Franciscans. 
He was one of the great men who at that period directed 
their minds to the pursuit of natural philosophy. Al- 
though stern and int<?lerant to those who diftered from 
him or disobeyed his orders, yet he was also severe to 
himself that he might be an example of the obedience 
he enforced. His usual place of residence was at Grey 
Friars, in London, where the Franciscans had their 
home; but, being at Rome when Archbishop Kilwardby 



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The Archbishop's Manor-House. 53 

arrived in 1278 to take his place as a Cardinal of the 
Papal Court, Peckham was appointed to succeed him, 
and was consecrated by Pope Nicholas III. on February 
19th, 1279, and he at once returned to England. As a 
Franciscan, having taken the vow of poverty, he was 
obliged to borrow several thousand marks from the 
Itahan bankers for his journey home in a dignified 
manner. 

He reached Amiens on May 21st, and was present at 
a meeting there between Edward I and Phihp III of 
France, when the king kindly received the archbishop 
and restored to him the temporalities. On June 4th he 
crossed from Witsand to Dover, but was dismayed to 
find that Kilwardby had sold and paid to the king the 
previous years revenue of the See ; whilst the crops and 
rents of this year, due at Easter, were also in the king's 
hand, so that, with the exception of a small sum due at 
midsummer, he had nothing on which to feed himself, 
his numerous household, and horses. From the same 
cause, when he was enthroned at Canterbury on 
October 8th, he was obliged to write and ask the bishops 
abbots, and noblemen to supply him with venison and 
other game for the feast which always followed the 
religious ceremony. They evidently responded very 
willingly as the feast was a most magnificent one, Edward 
I being present. 

Archbishop Peckham was greatly opposed to a num- 
ber of benefices being held by one priest, or as he called 
it, holding a " damnable multitude of benefices," which 
was very common in those days. One of the first things 
that he did after landing, at Dover on June 4th. 1279, 
was to summon a Provincial Council at Reading, for 
July 29th, to carry out the verbal instrucflions he had 
received from the Pope to check the spread of plurality 
in England. He was much liked by the poor, for he 
frequently sided with them against their oppressors, in 
one case rebuking a noble landowner (the Earl of Surrey) 
for keeping too large a quantity of game to the injury of 
those living on his lands. He also threatened a bishop 
of his province who allowed his officials to sequestrate 
benefices and then extort money{for releasing them ; and 



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54 Chronicles of Wingham, 



asserted the rights of the Archbishop's tenants at 
Lambeth to the ferry there, which the Abbot of West- 
minster claimed. 

Very soon Peckham began a visitation of his diocese, 
and, when travelling assumed the dress of a Franciscan, 
and was known as *' Friar John.'* Coming across from 
Lyminge he arrived in July, 1279, a month after his 
arrival in this country, on his first visit to the Manor 
House of Wingham or as he generally spelt the name in 
his letters, Wyngeham — when his various tenants came 
and did homage and fealty to the new Archbishop, and 
paid their rents from the produce of their farms for the 
support of the Archbishop and his numerous retinue 
during their stay at the place. 

Wherever the Archbishop went whilst on his visita- 
tion he inquired into the state of the clergy and laity, 
and would also set right any evils that had arisen 
through negligence or other cause. He made the jour- 
ney on horseback with a retinue of about one hundred 
horsemen. As a mark of rank he had hawks and 
hounds, which in passing through uncultivated or 
thinly-inhabited distriifls, were useful to procure food. 
Robbers abounded so that a large number of followers 
were necessary for protedtion, as well as servants of 
various trades — the farrier being a man of considerable 
importance, for horses were continually losing their 
shoes. They did not travel very quickly, for it took 
some time to have so many ready, and often only five 
miles were journeyed in a day. Where the Archbishop 
had no Manor House he and his household would be 
entertained by an abbot, or knight, or the redlor of the 
parish, or, if there were no such person near, the neces- 
saries of life would be obtained from the people. This 
rendered it necessary for the Archbishop's apparitor to 
precede him. This official was known by his painted 
bag containing citation or notice to the redlor and 
officials of parishes, who, if unwarned would have 
pleaded poverty, and were not able to supply the 
provisions required. 

The result of this visitation was that parishioners were 



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The Archbishop's Manor-House. 55 

ordered to provide for their church, unless they had 
them, the following things : — A chalice, usually made of 
gold or silver, and beautified with precious stones ; a 
chasuble, the chief vestment worn by the priest during 
the service ; a clean alb of linen, with tight sleeves, and 
longer than a surplice ; an amice, the square piece of 
linen which is fastened round the neck, and turned back 
over the vestments to form a sort of collar ; a maniple, 
in the shape of a stole, but much shorter, and worn by 
the priest, deacon, and sub-deacon over the left arm ; a 
girdle, the cord used round the waist over the alb ; a 
cross for procession, which was also held before the 
deacon on high festivals, when he sang the gospel 
during the eucharistic service; a smaller cross to be used 
at funerals ; a bier, on which the dead were carried 
to burial ; a censor, or thurible, for burning incense, 
made of brass or silver, and originally an open dish, to 
which was added a pierced cover and also chains for 
swinging ; a lantern and bell, to be carried before the 
priest when he carried the Sacrament from the church 
to the sick or dying, that the parishioners might know ; 
Lent veils, to put over the cross and pictures in the 
church during Passiontide, to remind the people of the 
hiding of Christ's glory during His earthly life and bitter 
Passion ; manuals, or books with the shorter and 
occassional offices, such as Baptism, Marriage. Burial 
of the dead, etc., etc. ; banners to be carried in the 
processions, to signify the progress and future triumph 
of the Church ; small hand-bells to be rung in the 
services at the consecration and elevation of the host ; 
vessels for holding holy-water, with which the people 
signed themselves on entering and leaving the church, 
to remind them they were set apart for the service of 
God in baptism ; the bread for the communion ; an 
osculatory, to hold the consecrated wafer, when it was 
kissed by the people at the end of the service ; Easter 
taper, with candlestick* which was lighted on Easter 
Day as a type of the glory and majesty of the Resurrec- 
tion, and the joy with which we should keep the Easter 
festival ; bells in the tower, with ropes ; and a font, with 
lock and key. 



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56 Chronicles of Wingham. 



Following the old Anglo-Saxon practice, Archbishop 
Peckham ordered that the image of the saint to whom 
the church was dedicated should be carefully preserved 
in the chancel. In our church the image would be that 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The parishioners had to 
keep in repair the body of the church, both the inside 
and outside, and also the altars, the various images, 
windows, and the churchyard inclosed with a proper 
wall or fence. 

On July 23rd, 1282, the Archbishop paid another visit 
to the Manor of Wyngekam, whence he wrote to the 
Bishop of Rochester, desiring him to attend to the 
petition of a woman against her husband for ill-treatment 
and adultery. On the next day he went to his palace 
at Canterbury about a dispute between the Prior and 
monks at Christ Church, which he probably managed to 
settle, as he returned to our village by the 28th, on 
which day he wrote to a Florentine merchant and also 
to his official, informing him that the inhabitants of 
Canterbury Diocese were not to be cited out of it. 
Next day he wrote to the Dean of Mailing and others, 
desiring them to call upon the rectors and vicars to pay 
the arrears of ** the fifteenth;" and to William of 
Newark, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, asking him to send 
someone to treat in a dispute connected with the 
Province of York. On the 31st the Archbishop wrote 
to "his very dear lord. Edward, by the grace of God 
King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine, 
that Friar John, by the permission of God Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Primate of all England," requested the 
king's favour on behalf of the Bishop of Winchester. 
He then left our village for another of his manor-houses. 

At this visit he arranged for the founding of the 
College for Secular Canons, and the division of the 
* Manor of Wingham into four separate parishes, and then 
went on to Canterbury, where, on August 5th, Prior 
Nicholas de Sandwich and the monks gave their 
consent, but it was not until 7th June, 1290, that Edward 
I gave his sanction. 

On September 4th, at an ordination held in the 



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The Archbishop* s Manor-House. 57 

church of Hythe, the Archbishop ordained two of the 
villagers, William de Wyngeham, priest, and John de 
Wyngeham to the minor office of acolyte. 

In the following year, 1283. he paid us several visits ; 
in April, when he wrote to the Provincial of the Friar- 
Preachers concerning a bond which he wished the 
Archbishop to pay ; and on the next day (April 24th) he 
wrote to the Archdeacon of Canterbury, ordering him 
to excommunicate those persons who were taking the 
goods of Christ Church Monastery for their private use, 
and to find out the names of the offenders. In the 
month of September the Archbishop came across from 
Lyminge to our parish, whence he sent injunctions to 
the Priory of S. Martin's, at Dover, about the receipt of 
their rents, etc. ; whilst on the 17th he wrote to the Dean 
and Canons of Chichester, desiring them to receive the 
purgation of Simon de Stanbrigge, rector of Harting. 
On September 21st he left our village and went to 
Teynham. 

In the spring of 1284 Archbishop Peckham stayed 
here for nearly two weeks, and wrote on April i8th to 
Edward I. asking that the Bishop of S. Asaph, who 
was with the Court, might meet him in Wales ; and that 
apostates who had been imprisoned might not be 
liberated. On the 20th of the month he left for Salt- 
wood. Two years seem to have gone by before the next 
visit, in May 1286, is recorded, when he wrote to the 
Prioress and Convent of Sheppy, forbidding them to 
allow secular women (that is those, who had not taken 
the vows and been received into the community) to live 
in the convent. In the December of this year. 1286, at 
Terrying [Tarring] in Sussex, the Archbishop admitted 
Walter de Wyngeham, to the minor office of acolyte, 
In March of the following year, 1287, he was again in 
our parish, and wrote to Ralph, the Archdeacon of Ely, 
ordering him to investigate certain alleged slanders 
against Archbishop Peckham and others by a religious 
person at Cambridge ; and, that he himself might know 
how to proceed in the affair, he wrote and asked the 
Bishop of Lincoln to send the proceedings of a former 
Archbishop concerning certain articles of false science 
^^Ojdotd. .,„ze..yGoogIe 



S8 Chronicles of Wingham. 



On Saturday, before the Feast of St. Edmund (March 
1 8th) the Archbishop received the homage of Thomas de 
Mortone, for twenty acres at Stourmouth, which is the 
eight-part of a knight's fee. He also instituted Henry 
Abbot, Vicar of Stockbury, on April 21st, to which 
church he had been presented by the Prior of Leeds. 

On the eve of Trinity Sunday, at Bridge, some natives 
of our parish we admitted to the minor-offices, William 
Grey de Wengham to the office of sub-deacon ; and 
Henry de Wengham, and William son of Richard de 
Wengham, and Roger de Tayleur, of Wengham, 
were admitted acolytes. 

Archbishop Peckham spent the Christmas of 1287 
here, when he ordered the various tenants of the Manor 
of Wingham, to perform their dues and services to the 
Canons of the College. 

In the year 1290 Peckham came to reside in our 
parish at the end of July, when he wrote to the official 
of the Bishop of London, to excommunicate all those 
who helped or received William de Pershore, an apostate 
Franciscan Friar ; and on the same day wrote to the 
Abbot of Chertsey, the President of the Benedictine 
Chapter, ordering him to restore William of Pershore 
to the Friars-Minors which Order he had left. On Julj' 
29th, the archbishop instituted Henry de Rye to 
Croydon Vicarage, and next day went on to Bishops- 
bourne ; and from there to South Mailing in Sussex. 

On July 1 6th, 1291, Peckham came for the last time, 
when he wrote to the Mayor and Commonalty of Dover, 
asking them to allow the Prior and Convent of Dover 
to enclose their cemetery. He also wrote on the same 
day to Thomas de Ringemer, the late Prior of Christ's 
Church, Canterbury, "absolving him for leaving that 
monastery and joining the Cistercian Order." On July 
17th, he ordered the Archdeacon of Canterbury to take 
steps for the better observance of the ceremonies of the 
church and of Sunday. 

The Archbishop, whose health had begun to fail for 
some time died at Mortlake near the Thames, one of the 



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The Archbishop's Manor-House. 59 

Manors of the See of Canterbury, on Dec. 6th, 1292, 
having previously promised Prior Henry de Eastry of 
Christ's Church Monastery, that he would be buried 
in the cathedral, where we can see his tomb at the 
present day in the martyrdom. It is constructed of grey 
Sussex marble, surmounted with a canopy ; on the front 
of the tomb are nine niches, containing figures of arch- 
bishops, whilst on the tomb is a figure of Peckham in 
his vestments, carved in bog-oak which has survived the 
stonework of many more recent monuments. Tradition 
says the mitre was of silver. A good specimen of the 
Archbishop's seal is in the cathedral library. It is of 
green wax, representing him in the act of benediction, 
wearing a chasuble, pallium, and dalmatic, with a mitre 
on his head ; on each side of the figure is a lily. {Letters 
Abp. Peckham ; Diet, Natl. Bio; Hook's lives of the Arch" 
bishops). 

Archbishop Robert Winchelsea, a year after his con- 
secration, came to the Manor-House, at the end of 
Sptember 1295 and entertained king Edward I ; and the 
writ of summons directed to the archbishop, to assemble 
his clergy together, to chose persons for the Parliament 
which would be held at Westminster, on the Sunday 
after the Feast of 8t. Martin (November nth,) was 
dated by the king from Wingham (Sep. 30th) at this 
visit. Then the king and archbishop went on to 
Canterbury where Winchelsea entertained Edward I. for 
some days in the Palace. {Stubb^s " Documents Illustrative 
etc.'' Rymer L 826). 

Archbishop Winchelsea, was born at Winchelsea, in 
Sussex, about the middle of the reign of Henry II., 
though the exact date is unknown. As a boy he was 
handsome, and of insinuating manners and amiable 
ways. Receiving his education in the school at 
Canterbury, he afterwards went to Paris, where he 
became, in after years. Rector of the University. On 
his return to England he became a member of Merton 
College, Oxford, and in 1288 was Chancellor of Oxford. 

Richard de Gravesend, Bishop of London (1280- 1306), 
made him archdeacon of Essex and also a Prebendary of 



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60 Chronicles of Wingham. 

St. PauPs appointing him to read a divinity lecture so 
that he resided in London and was a diligent preacher. 
On the death of Archbishop Peckham, 1792, the Prior 
and Monks of Canterbury took steps to elect a successor 
and King Edward privately intimated his wish that 
Winchelsea should be elected. Having been chosen by 
the monks he started for Rome where he arrived on Whit 
Sunday, 1293, but the Papal throne was vacant and 
Celestine V, not elected until July of the next year, so that 
Winchelsea was not consecrated until September 12th, 
1294. On his return to England he was enthroned with 
the usual magnificence on such occasions, both King 
Edward and his son, the young Prince of Wales, being 
present. 

At a council held at Merton in Surrey, in 1305, it was 
stated that there were heretics who professed infidelity 
in almost every parish, who thus thought that by not 
believing in Christianity they might be free from paying 
the dues and tithes to the parish priest. The remedy 
proposed soon taught them different and may be some 
little consolation to the tithe-payer of to-day. From 
such persons were to be taken tithes on the profits of 
woods, mast (the fallen acorns and beechnuts on which 
swine were fed), trees when sold, parks, fish, stews (in 
which fish were bred and kept), rivers, ponds, fruits of 
trees, cattle, seeds, pigeons, beasts in warrens, fowling, 
gardens, courtyards where herbs and flowers were grown 
wool, flax, wine, grain, turf when dug for fuel, swans, 
capons, geese, ducks, eggs, bees, honey, wax, mills, 
what is caught in hunting, handicrafts, merchandise, 
lambs, caJves, and colts, according to their value. — 
{Hook's Lives of the Archbishops). 

Edward I., who had crossed to Flanders in August 

1297, on his return landed at Sandwich i4.th March, 

1298, and came thro' the village on his way north, to 
wage war against the Scots. {Gervase II ; Rymer /. 889.) 

When staying at the Manor House in October 1305, 
Archbishop Winchelsea wrote to Prior Henry de Eastry 
that religious services should be recited for the soul of 
the late Earl of Warrenne, as the letter of the king 

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The Archbishop* s Manor-House . 61 

requested. {Letters Christ Church I.) 

At Wingham on 25th November, 1309, the Arch- 
bishop received the homage of John de Ratling for half 
a knight's-fee in Ratling. {Letters Ahp, Peckham,) 

Archbishop Winchelsea was not much at Court, being 
unwilling to yield to the demands of the king, yet he 
was ** the most able Archbishop since Stephen Langton** 
a man of considerable force of character, who seldom 
sought advice, or evaded responsibility behind the 
wisdom of another person ; and when the king, in 1296, 
had demanded a grant of money from the clergy, it 
was refused. {Letters Christ Church.) 

The Archbishop died at the Otford Manor House, his 
favourite place of residence, on nth May, 1313, and his 
body was taken with great ceremony to Canterbury, and 
buried in the cathedral next to the altar of St. Gregory 
in the south transept of the choir. Both in 13 19, and 
1326, eflForts were made to have him canonised, but 
without success, altho it is said miracles were wrought 
at his tomb, which probably caused its disappearance in 
the enlightened days of the Reformation ! {Hook ; Arch. 
Cant.f XX,) 

Edward II, returning from France, landed at Sand- 
wich 1 6th July 13 1 3, and passed through Wingham on 
his way to London. {Rymer, II, 222.) This king was 
again here 21st August, 1325, and then went across to 
Sturrey, and from there, three days later, started for 
Dover but was taken ill and obliged to go to Langdon 
Abbey {Rymer, II, 605.) 

Edward III., who sailed from Dover 25th May, 1329, 
in a ship of Winchelsea, accompanied by the Bishop of 
Lincoln his Chancellor, and many nobles, leaving, 
during his absence, his brother, John de Eltham, Earl 
of Cornwall, as Regent, who came to this Manor House, 
and, in the king's name, forbade anyone to interfere 
with the appointment of Robert de Tanton as a 
Prebendary in the Collegiate church of Aberguilly in 
South Wales. {Rymer //. 764.) 

We had another royal visit in 1332, when Edward III 

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62 Chronicles of Wingham. 



after landing at Dover with many of his nobles, came 
across to Wingham, and was entertained by Archbishop 
Simon de Mepham, a native probably of Mepham in this 
country, about spven miles west of Rochester, from 
whence he derived his name. Had a brother named 
Edmund, also Thomas who became a friar, and a 
sister Joan who became the wife of John de la Denei 
whose family gave its name to the chapel of S. James, in 
the parish church of Mepham. The Archbishop was 
educated at Oxford between the years 1290 -6, at 
Merton College where he devoted himself to the study 
of theology ; and was ordained priest on the Festival of 
S. Matthew, (Sept 21st,) in the year 1297 by Archbishop 
VVinchelsea in Canterbury Cathedral, who gave Simon 
the Rectory of Tunstall in this county, which he held 
until he became archbishop. Became also a Prebendary 
of Llandaff, in 1295; ^^^ soon after a Canon of 
Chichester ; but took no part in public affairs, nor was 
he eminent as a scholar. On the death of Archbishop 
Walter Reynolds, i6th Nov., 1327, the monks of Christ 
Church received permission to elect, dated Nov. 30th, 
and on December nth a committee of seven monks 
acting for the whole body, elected Simon de Mepham, 
and Edward III gave his consent the following 2nd 
January (1328). Then on i8th January he sailed from 
Dover on his way to Rome, where the Pope and 
Cardinals were urged to accept him, which was done 
May 25th, and on the Feast of S. Boniface (June 5th) 
he was consecrated in the church of the Dominicans at 
Avignon, by the Cardinal- Bishop of Palestrina. Having 
received the paUium, the Archbishop started homewards, 
landing at Dover September 5th, but not enthroned 
until the Feast of S. Vincent, (January 22nd) 1329, by 
the aged Prior Henry de Eastry ; next day Archbishop 
Mepham set out for London, where he presided over a 
Provincial Council held at St. Paul's on January 27th 
when the strict observance of Good Friday was ordered, 
and the keeping of another Festival in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, ** that her memory may be mere 
often and solemnly celebrated, following the steps of our 
venerable predecessor Anslem, who thought fit to add to 



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The Archbishop's Manor-House. 63 

her other festivals, that of her Conception, we order and 
firmly command that the Feast of the Conception of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary be solemnly celebrated for the 
future in all the churches of the province of Canterbury ." 
The other days kept in her honour are the Purification, 
(February 2nd,) Annunciation (March 25th,) and 
Assumption (August 14th). Of this last event it has 
been well said by a distinguished scholar, who recently 
departed this life: — ** St. Mary died as well as others, 
she died not as others die, for through the merits of her 
Son, by whom she was what she was, by the grace of 
Christ, which in her had anticipated sin, which had filled 
her with light, which had purified her flesh from all 
defilement, she had been saved from disease and malady 
and all that weakens and decays the bodily frame. She 
the Lily of Eden, who had always dwelt out of the sight 
of man, caused no noise in the world by her departure. 
The Church went about her common duties — preaching, 
converting, suflfering; there were persecutions, there 
were martyrs, there were triumphs ; at length rumour 
spread through Christendom that Mary was no longer 
on earth ; they sought for her relics but they found them 
not. And then the tradition came wafted westwards on 
the aromatic breeze how that, when the time of her 
dissolution was at hand and her soul was to pass in 
triumph before the judgment seat of her Son, the 
apostles were suddenly gathered together in one place, 
even in the Holy City, to bear part in the joyful cere- 
monial ; how they buried her with fitting rites ; how that 
the third day when they came to the tomb they found it 
empty, and angelic choirs, with their glad voices, were 
heard singing, day and night, the glories of their risen 
Queen. Thus we are able to celebrate, not only her 
death, but also her Assumption." 

On 4th February 1329, Archbishop Mepham crowned 
Phillipa of Hainault, the wife of Edward III ; and in 
this same year had a quarrel with the monks of St, 
Augustine's Abbey, through requiring them to produce 
the evidence that they based their claims to a large 
number of churches in Kent, which the Abbott and 
Monks refused to thus justify their long established 

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64 Chronicles o) Wingham. 



rights. Prior Eastry advised the archbishop to abait 
his claim rather than have a costly law-suit. However 
the archbishop summoned Abbot Ralph and his monks 
to the court ot the archbishop, but they not appearing 
were declared contumacious, so they appealed to the 
Pope who sent a nuncio to try and settle the suit, but 
Archbishop Mepham refused to recognise the authority 
of the judge. After hearing the case judgment was 
given in favour of St. Augustine's Abbey, and the 
archbishop was ordered to pay ;^7oo to the monks, but 
he refused, so in 1333 was excommunicated. When 
therefore he died 12th October, 1333, the monks of St. 
Augustine's said they could prevent the burial of the 
archbishop until released from the sentence of excom- 
munication. He left £^0 to the monks of the cathedral, 
to buy land, the rent to be for the expenses of celebrat- 
ing his anniversary. This archbishop's tomb of black 
marble is beneath the arch of entrance to the chapel of 
St. Anselm in the cathedral. He is considered ** a man 
of no great ability and with scanty knowledge of 
ecclesiastical tradition and propriety, and the main- 
tenance of the rights of his See caused disputes on every 
side." (Diet Natl. Bio. : Hook's Lives of the Abps.) 

Our clerical readers may like to know that at the time 
of Simon de Meopham the fee of an Archdeacon for the 
induction of a rector or vicar to a parish was 3s. ^d. 
(equal to about £2 los. at the present time) ; or if by his 
official, 2s. (about £1 los.), and was paid either in coin 
or the necessaries of life ; whilst his apparitor or mess- 
enger, who journeyed a day before him to announce his 
approach, was only allowed to stay one day and night 
with a rector or vicar once a quarter. Parishioners, also, 
were not allowed to leave their parish church to go to 
some other to be married. 

Edward IH generally sailed from Sandwich when he 
went to France, and landed there with Queen Phillipa, 
1 2th Od^ober 1347, when returning to this country after 
the Battle of Crecy on August 28th of the previous year. 

Did Froissart confuse this return to Sandwich, with 
that of the Black Prince and his captive the king of 
France, ten years later in 1357 which landing took place 



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The Archbishop* s Manor-Home, 6S 

at Southampton, and not Sandwich as Froissart and 
others following him state ? 

Simon de Sudbury Bishop of London (1362-75) was 
frequently sent abroad by Edward III to arrange truces, 
treaties of peace, and other state affairs, and on one of 
these occasions, stayed at the Manor- House, for on 
i6th November, 1374, he wrote from Wingham to R. 
Kesteven, who was the collector of a sum of money lor 
the expenses of two Papal- N until or ambassadors sent 
to England, to make peace between Edward ill and the 
Pope, and also with the king of France — {Camden Society 
1877). 

When Archbishop Whittlesey died 6th June 1374. 
Simon de Sudbury was appointed his successor, but was 
then on an embassy in France. On his return he landed 
ist March, 1375, at Sandwich, and with his numerous 
retinue visited ^Vingham, on his way to Canterbury, 
where he was enthroned on Palm Sunday ; and since it 
was the season of Lent, fish only was eaten at the feast 
which followed. 

When at Wingham in November of this same year, 
Archbishop Sudbury granted an amendment to the 
charter Archbishop Simon de Islip gave to St. Thomas 
Hospital at the Eastbridge in Canterbury. — {Letters 
Christ Church), 

When the Black Prince died at the early age of 46, 
on June 8th, 1376, his body laid in state at Westminster 
until the month of September, when it was taken to 
Canterbury, and, on the Feast of St. Michael, buried 
on the south side of the shrine of St. Thomas. Those 
present included Archbishop Sudbury, William Court- 
enay, Bishop of London, William of Wykeham, Bishop 
of Winchester, and many others. By his will the Black 
Prince had requested to be buried in the ** Chapel of our 
Lady in the Crypt," near the Chantry, which he had 
founded in 1363, after his marriage. — {Stanley,) 

In 1378, Archbishop Sudbury decided to carry out 
some repairs at the Cathedral, and issued a mandate to 
all ecclesiastical persons in his Diocese, that they should 
collec5l money for the rebuilding of the nave ; an in- 
dulgence of forty days was to be granted to all who 

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66 Chronicles of Wing ham. 



contributed. He also built the present West-gate of the 
City, and repaired the greater part of the present wall 
between the west and north gates, in remembrance of 
which the Mayor and the Aldermen of the City visited 
his tomb every year on the anniversary of his death, to 
pray for the repose of his souL-- {Hook's Abps. of Cant,) 

Richard II. in 1379, had appointed Archbishop 
Sudbury as chancellor, and he presided over the Par- 
liament of 1380, when a tax of four-pence was imposed, 
to be paid by every one above the age of fifteen, to pay 
for the late war in France, This caused great excite- 
ment, followed by the insurrection led by Wat Tyler, 
when Archbishop Sudbury was beheaded on Tower Hill, 
15th June, 1 38 1, his head was placed on a pole, and 
carried through the streets. Further particulars about 
this will be found in another chapter. 

The early history of this archbishop is, that he was 
the son of Nigel and Sarah Theobald, of Sudbury, in 
Suffolk, who were well off, and able to pay for a good 
education for their son, who studied at the English 
Universities, and also in Italy and France. In 1360 he 
was appointed Chancellor of Salisbury Cathedral, and 
two years later became Bishop of London, being conse- 
crated in St. Paul's Cathedral, March 20th, 1362. He 
did not forget his native place, where he rebuilt the west 
end of St. Gregory's Church, and endowed a college of 
secular priests on the site of his father's house. — {Hook's 
Lives of Abps.) 

During the minority of Henry VI. (whose reign was a 
period of reverse and humilation, the French possessions 
won by Henry V. were lost by the folly of those who 
governed in the name of his son) — the Duke of Bedford, 
who was Regent in France for the young King, landed at 
Sandwich, 20th December, 1425, and passed thro' the 
village on his way to L,ondon.—{Stubb*s Constitutional 
History III.) 

In January 1439, John Kemp Archbishop of York 
and Chancellor went with Henry Beaufort Bishop of 
Winchester and others to Calais, with reference to a 
peace with France. On their return they were unable 
because of the wind to reach Dover, and landed at 



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The Archbishop^s Manor-House. 67 

Sandwich Ocflober 3rd, and four days later reached 
London. Cardinal Kemp in his younger days had been 
a canon of the College. — (Kemp in Die. Nath. Bio.) 

During the troubles of the civil war of the Roses, the 
village must have been somewhat disturbed, for the 
Yorkish leaders had gone to the Continent to arrange 
with the Earl of Warwick. Archbishop Thomas 
Bouchier (1454-86) who sided with them, early in June 
1460, left Canterbury in great state with his servants and 
retainers, and went to Sandwich, where on June 
5th, the vessels were seen approaching the shore. With 
his cross carried before him and in his vestments the 
Archbishop waited their landing, and then gave them 
his blessing amidst the joyful shouts of the people. The 
Earls of Warwick, Salisbury, and other nobles, with 
their followers came through our village on their way 
to London, and on their march were joined by 2,000 
men from KenU-^ {Hook's Abps. of Canterbury). 

Edward VI came through the village on his way to 
Sandwich on Whit sun-eve 1471 ; and again in 1477, 
when he sailed with his army on an expedition to France 
{Planche's ''Corner of Kent "). 

Henry VII was at Canterbury 20th March, 1488, and 
after staying two days went on to Sandwich and from 
there **to our Castle of Dover." 

The Convocation of Canterbury which met in London 
from January 14th to February 17th, in the year 1489, 
granted to the King a subsidy of ;^25,ooo ** for the 
protec5lion and defence of the Church and Kingdom of 
England."— half of the amount was to be paid by May 
I st, and the remainder by November ist, of the same 
year. From the Diocese r.f Canterbury was to be con- 
tributed ;^2,oo4 7s. lod., and Archbishop Morton 
appointed the Abbot and Monks of Boxley to collect this 
sum in this diocese. They were so slow in doing this 
that, to save trouble, the Abbot resigned. 

In 1493, on June 26th the King granted permission to 
Archbishop Morton that he might "impress stone hewers 
for the buildings, which he was about to repair at his own 
expense, in Kent, Surrey, and Sussex." — {hen, VII. Roll 
Stries.) ^ . 

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63 Chronicles of Wingham. 

In the history of the College we have mentioned that 
Archbishop William Warham came to Wingham 14th 
September, 151 1, to hold a ** visitation '* of the college, 
the particulars being given in chapter VII. 

William Warham was born about 1450 in the parish 
of Church Oakley, near Basinstoke, in Hampshire, and 
sent to school at Winchester when very young. From 
there he was elected to a scholarship at New College, 
Oxford, and in those days the students were up at five 
in the morning, and went to service in the chapel ; the 
morning was devoted to study and the afternoon to re- 
creation. In the evening, at eight in winter, and nine 
o'clock in summer, the college bell was rung and the 
gates closed. In 1475 Warham became a Fellow, and 
studied law, afterwards practicing in the Court of 
Arches, London, where his ability attracted the notice of 
Archbishop Morton, and through him became known to 
Henry VII., who. sent Warham and others in 1493 to 
the court of Burgundy with reference to Perkin 
Warbeck,who was supposed to be the Duke of York, 
and therefore pitied and secretly helped. When he 
returned, Warham was made one of the commissioners 
who were in treaty for the marriage of Prince Arthur 
with Katherine of Aragon. Being a statesman and 
law}er (as well as an ecclesiastic) he was appointed in 
1494 Master of the Rolls, which office he held for eight 
years, having at the same time a seat in the Council. 
In 1496 he became Archdeacon of Huntingdon, where 
his duties were probably discharged by a deputy, 
for in those days numerous appointments were given to 
one person, that their income might enable that person 
to serve the Church or king in some high office, with 
very little remuneration. In 1501 he was elected Bishop 
of London, but was not consecrated until September in 
the next year, being absent on an embassy. He resign- 
ed being Master of the Rolls, and was appointed keeper 
of the Great Seal, and Lord Chancellor. In November, 
1503, Warham was elected Archbishop, and enthroned 
March 9th, 1504, ** with wonderful great solemnity, the 
Duke of Buckingham being high steward for the occa- 
sion (when he came to Canterbury with a retinue of .one 
hundred and forty horsemen), to prepare everything that 

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The Archbishop* s Manor-House. 69 

might be required for the feast. As it was the Lenten 
season, fish only was eaten, but there were two hundred 
and thirty-six dishes of fish, served in various ways, and 
the total cost of the feast is said to have been £5y^ 
which would be equal to ;^5.ooo at the present day. 
Although War ham *s own tastes were simple and he rarely 
tasted wine, yet at his entertainments his guests were 
invited so partake of numerous delicacies. 

Warham soon after his enthronement, decided to build 
his tomb in the martyrdom of the Cathedral, next to 
that of Archbishop Peckham, who died in 1292, Prior 
Thomas Goldstone, (the second of that name) and the 
monks gave their consent April 6th, 1507, and promised 
to protect the tomb and its ornaments for ever. 

Henry VII often visited Archbishop Warham and waS 
his guest at the Palace about three weeks before the 
king died, when he brought his ** Will " that the Great 
Seal might be affixed by Warham, who was Chancellor. 
When Henry VII. died, April 30th, 1509, the career of 
Warham as a statesman ended, for in the next reign 
" he was respected rather than trusted." Cardinal 
Wolsey having taken his place. 

In 1509 he bought the Wenderton estate which he 
bequeathed to his brother Hugh, whilst his nephew 
William was provost ot the college, and received other 
rich appointments. 

Archbishop Warham, however did not live to see the 
dissolution of the great monasteries, for in August, 1532, 
he went to visit his nephew. Archdeacon Warham, at 
Hackington, and was greatly fatigued by the journey, 
and there, August 22nd, he died, and was buried in the 
martyrdom of the Cathedral, in the tomb which he 
had built in isoj.-— (Hookas '* Lives of Archbishops ; Foss 
Judges ; etc) 

In the year 1538 Archbishop Edward Cranmer 
exchanged away the Wingham-Manor with its residence 
and also several others, with Henry VIII, for other 
lands which the king failed to give in exchange ; so the 
Archbishops lost both their Manor and its Manor 
BQVise.—HasUd III, 



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Chapter V. 

THE LESSER MANORS. 

It has been stated already, that the Manor of 
Wingham belonged to the Archbishops of Canterbury, 
since it was restored to them in the year 941. And they 
the *' tenant in-chief," subgranted portions of the Manor 
to other persons. 

All land was held from the King — ** the lord-para- 
mount*' — either diredl by those who were called 
*• tenants-in-chief," or through some one else, and for 
which the holders were subjedl to certain services. 
Knight-service was that the persons who held about 
twelve ploughsworth of land (and in the time of 
Edward II. was worth £10 a year) had to go, at his 
own expense, with his over-lord, to the wars for forty 
days in every year, if called upon — this being the rent 
or service given for the land. If only half a knight 's-fee 
was held, the person was only required to give twenty 
days, and so in proportion. 

Such holders of land were subjecfV to certain taxes or 
rates: — (x) *' Aids '* when they contributed to the ransom 
of the King if in prison ; thus for the ransom of Richard 
I. from the Austrian prison, a ** scutage for the redemp- 
tion of the King ** was levied, when each holder of a 
*' knight's-fee" paid 20s. (equal to about /"30). To the 
cost of making the eldest son of the king a knight ; or 
towards the marriage portion of the eldest daughter, 
for which purpose Henry II. in 1168 levied a marc 
(13s. 4d.) from each Knight's fee, when his daughter 
Maud, married the Duke of Saxony and Bavaria. (2) 
*' Relief," which was the payment of a fine to the King, 
on the death of an ancestor, when the son took posses- 
sion of the estate, if he was of full age. Then he took 
the oath of fealty, and did homage by kneeling and 
holding his hands between those of his lord (3) 

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The Lesser Manors, 71 



** Primer Seisin," or a year's profit from the estate of the 
dead tenant, paid to the over-lord ; so that ** death 
duties" are not a modern innovation. (4) ** Wardship " 
— if the heir-male to the estate was under twenty-one, or 
a female under sixteen, then the king was their guardian, 
and had (5J " Right of Marriage '* during the same 
period, but was not responsible for the profits from the 
infant's land, and could arrange for their marriage when 
they came of age ; (6) ** Fine " — Whenever the land was 
alienated, that is, sold or exchanged, which could only 
be done with permission from the Crown; (7) "Escheat" 
was if the tenant or owner of the land died without an 
heir, or was convidled of treason or felony; the estate 
went or " escheated " to the Crown. •* Free-service " 
was that which any free man could undertake; whilst 
" base-service " was only fit for peasants, or those of 
servile-rank, such as the ploughing the land of the over- 
lord — {Arch. Cant. Vol. II.) 

The Archbishop of Canterbury, as lord of the Manor 
of Wingham, granted or sub-let portions. One of these 
was Dene, or Denne, which name means a wooded 
valley with pasturage, and is probably a Celtic word 
adopted by the Saxons. This manor house was situated 
in a valley, and became the inheritance of a family who 
took their name from the place, and was held as the 
" eighth part of a knight's fee "from the Archbishop ; so 
they had to help the king in war at their own cost, for 
five days in every year, if called upon. 

The first mention of this Dene family is in the ** Life 
of S. Thomas of Canterbury and his Miracles," written 
by Benedi(5l» Abbot of Peterboro', who was formerly 
Prior of Christ Church. Among the many miracles 
wrought at the tomb of St. Thomas in the Cathedral, is 
that of a knight advanced in age, named William de 
Dene, living near Canterbury, who was paralysed in his 
whole body, and required two or three men to move him, 
and although he was attended by dodlors, became more 
feeble and shrunk up, for there is no healing in the sons 
of men ; but at last placed his hope in God, and ordered 
that he should be taken to Canterbury, and because he 
could not support himself on horseback, was carried in a 



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72 Chronicles of H'ingham, 



sort of litter to the tomb of the holy martyr, where 
having called upon the martyr of God, his feet and legs 
recovered their use, his nerves were strengthened and his 
whole body restored like that of a young man, so that 
he stood up and walked before all the people. In 
gr titude he prostated himself before the saint, and 
leaving his staff as a sign that he was well, walked away 
with gladness. 

In May, 1196, Thomas de Dene and hie brother 
Harlewin de Dene, sold a suling (216 acres) and half 
of land, that is 324 acres, with their appurtenances at 
Estretling [East Ratling], to Thomas de Godwinstone 
and his heir, for the sum oi six marcs, and eighteen acres 
and a virgate of land at Ickham, together with a yearly 
payment of 4d. to the Dene family on the Feast of St. 
Michael.— (^rcA. Cant. Vol. I.) 

William de Dene was one of the twelve who were 
appointed in 1252 as the Jury of the Hundred, to inquire 
about the grant of a weekly market on Tuesday, to the 
village. 

In the year J 253, when Edward, the eldest son of 
Henry III. was knighted, amongst those who contri- 
buted towards the expense (which, as mentioned above, 
was one of the conditions by which land was held) is the 
name of Richard de Dene, who held ** the eighth-part of 
a knights fee in Dene.*' 

In ** Rishanger's Chronicle,'* is mentioned a miracle 
wrought in Emma de Dene, who recovered from para- 
lysis, when a fillet or band which had been brought from 
the body of Simon de Montfort, had been applied to her 
head. Richard, the Vicar of Wingham, and the whole 
parish, were witnesses of the cure. Simon de Montfort, 
slain at the battle of Evesham in 1265, ^^^ ^^^^ ^^* 
garded as a martyr, and ** in popular song the martyr of 
Evesham was coupled with the martyr of Canterbury." 
Since Simon de Montfort and his work are often not 
understood, a few particulars from ** The Didlionary of 
National Biography '' may not be out of place. 

He was the son of Simon IV. of Montfort TAmaury in 
Normandy, born about 1208, and his name first occurs 



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The Lesser Manors. 73 



in a charter of his father's, dated 1217. Having incurred 
the wrath of the Queen Regent of France in 1229, Simon 
crossed over to England, and on August 31st, 123 1, 
Henry HI. gave him back the land of his father ; and 
we find Simon officiating as grand-seneschall (or steward) 
at th^ coronation of the Queen, 20th January, 1236, 
although the Earl of Norfolk disputed the right. Two 
years later Simon de Montfort was privately married in 
the royal chapel at Westminster, on January 7th, 1238, 
to Eleanor, the sister of Henry HI., when the king gave 
away the bride ; but this marriage was an offence against 
ecclesiastical discipline, since after the death of her first 
husband, William Marshall, the second Earl of Pem- 
broke, she had taken a vow of perpetual widowhood, in 
the presence of Archbishop Edmund. When this 
marriage became known, Richard, Earl of Cornwall 
(brother to the king), in the name of the barons, re- 
proached the King for disposing of a royal ward without 
their consent and knowledge. On February 2nd, Simon 
** humbled himself to Earl Richard, and by means of 
gifts and intercessors, obtained from him the kiss of 
peace." Then, at the end of March, Simon started for 
Rome to obtain a dispensation for his marriage with 
Eleanor, which was granted May loth, but in England 
it was never wholly forgiven. Simon returned to 
England in Ocftober, and his child, born in advent, was 
hailed as possible heir to the crown. On June 20th, 1239, 
Simon was godfather to the eldest son of the King, but 
in August the King quarrelled with him about a debt 
which Simon owed to Count Peter ot Brittany, that 
should have been paid two years previously, but had 
been transferred to Thomas of Savoy, one of the uncles 
of the Queen. Henry HL ordered the commons of 
London to seize Simon, and carry him to the Tower, 
but this was prevented by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 
and Simon escaped with his wife down the Thames, and 
withdrew beyond the Alps, but having taken the cross 
after his marriage, Simon now renewed the vow, and thus 
protected was able to return to England in April, 1240, 
when his quarrel with the King being made up, Simon 
went with other English Crusaders to the Holy Land. 
Returning in the spring of the next year he joined Henry 



74 Chronicles of l^ingham. 



III. in Poitou, doing good service with his retinue at the 
battle of Saintes, July 22nd, and stayed with the King 
through the winter in France, and returned with him in 
1243 to England. Next year Simon was one of the 
twelve commissioners that the Parliament appointed 
with reference to the king's demands for money. In 
1247 he went to France **on secret business*' for the 
King, and after his return in the autumn again took 
the cross, but in the spring of 1248 the king asked him to 
undertake the government of Gascony, which nobody 
had been able to manage, and Simon agreed if he could 
have absolute control and a free hand ; so in the 
Autumn he crossed to France, and by the end of next 
year, the whole country was subdued. But on January 
ist, 125 1 with only three squires, Simon appeared in 
England, his funds exhausted, so that he was unable 
single-handed to carry on such a costly struggle, for 
all Gascony was up in arms ; and this eventually 
caused another quarrel between him and the King, 
with the result that Simon resigned Gascony on 
September 29th, 1252, and withdrew into France. 
When Henry III arrived in Gascony, August, 1253, 
very soon he was obliged to call Simon to his aid, 
and they spent Christmas together, and next Easter 
Simon returned to England and imformed Parliament 
of the state of things in Gascony. 

In May, 1258, Simon de Montfort was one of a 
commission of twenty-four, chosen to draw up a scheme 
of administrative reform, and was soon recognized as 
the champion of the English people against the king 
and his Poitevin favourites. At the Whitsuntide 
Parliament of 1263 the king was denounced by the 
barons as false to his oath, and they proclaimed war 
upon all violators of the ** Provisions of Oxford," and 
Simon was recognised as their captain and took the 
command, marched upon Hereford and mastered the 
foreign interlopers in the west. ** At the head of the 
barons, Simon was trusted by the clergy and worshipped 
by the people, for he tried to unite all those who 
possessed power." 

Simon was at Romney, July gth, 1263, ^^^ sent 

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The Lisser Manors, 75 



messengers to the other Cinque ports, which sided with 
him ; and three days later was at Canterbury to consult 
with the Bishops of London, Lincoln, and Chester. On 
July 15th Dover Castle surrendered to him, which was 
given into charge of Henry de Sandwich, Bishop of 
London, until Richard de Gray could take charge of the 
Castle. When, therefore, the king and his friends came 
to Dover in the month of December and demanded 
entrance into the Castle, this was refused as the warden 
was absent, so the king was obliged to retire to St. 
Martin's Priory. 

The battle of Lewes took place May 14th, 1264, and 
Simon became virtually the governor of the kingdom, 
when ** England breaths in the hope of liberty," says the 
chronicler. Simon de Montfort then summoned his 
famous Parliament to meet at Westminster on January 
20th, 1265, " which was an assembly of the supporters 
of the existing government, and from the number of 
bishops, abbots, priors, etc., summoned, it is clear 
proof that the clergy as a body were on the side of 
Simon de Montfort.*' Each sheriff had a writ ordering 
two discreet knights from each shtre to be chosen, and 
the barons of the Cinque Ports received a similar 
mandate, for they sided with him. But at the battle 
of Evesham (August 4th, 1265) Simon was slain — " the 
soul of the great patriot passed away *' says Green), and 
set free Henry III, and next spring the Cinque Ports 
gave in their adherance. However, in popular song the 
martyr of Evesham was coupled with the martyr of 
Canterbury, and miracles were wrought at the tombs of 
both. 

But, to return to the Dene family — Richard de Dene, 
on July 2ist, 1279, did homage to Archbishop John 
Peckham, "for the eighth part of a knight's-fee at Dene.'* 
when the Archbishop as lord of the manor, paid his first 
visit to Wingham. "Homage was the most honourable 
service, which the tenant performed without his girdle, 
and with head uncovered. The lord being seated, the 
tenant knelt before him and placed his hands between 
those of his lord, and said ** I become your man from 
this day forward of life and limb and of earthly worship 

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76 Chronicles of Wingham. 



and unto you shall be true and faithful, and bear you 
faith ^or the tenements that [ claim to hold of you, saving 
the faith that I owe to the king." 

Peter de Dene, of this family, was a learned lawyer in 
priest's orders, who according to the custom of those 
days, was a Prebendary of London, York, Wells, South- 
well, and Wymborne, from all of which he received the 
income. In 1301 the Abbot and Monks of St. Augustine's 
Abbey appointed Peter de Dene their counsel, at the 
yearly stipend of ;^io (which would be equal to some 
£2^0 of to-day) ; ana in February, 1302, Peter was 
excommunicated by the Dean of the Arches Court for 
intruding himself into the living of East Angmering, in 
Sussex. In 1312 he was received as a brother of St. 
Augustine's Abbey, and in 1330 was allowed to build a 
house for himself and his followers, at a cost of 200 
marcs (;^i33 6s. 8d.), within the precincts of that Abbey 
near the Infirmary, which a few years later, gave rise to 
disputes. — {Letters Christ Church Vol II,) 

In 1318, John de Dene and his wife Johanna bought for 
20 marcs (£i'^ 6s. 8d.), from John Hereward, of Dele- 
bregge [Elbridge] 32 acres of land, three acres of 
meadow, and five acres of wood, with their appurtenances 
in Littlebourne and Delebregge. Prior Richard 
Oxenden, of Christ Church Monastery, in a letter dated 
P'ebruary 4th, 1332, which he sent to Archbishop 
Mepham, alludes to the death of John de Dene, stev/ard 
of the Archbishop's Palace, who had died just before the 
Feast of Purification. He left a legacy of £^ 

(equal to more than £100) to the monastery, which 
was paid in October, 1334. — {Arch, Cant, XIV,) 

Again, in 1347, when Edward III. knighted his son 
the black Prince, amongst those assessed to contribute 
towards the expenses were ** the heirs of Alan de Dene 
who held the eighth-part of a fee at Dene from the 
Archbishop." Since the assessment was forty shillings 
a knight's fee, they paid five shillings, which would be 
equal to about £$ at the present day. 

Jocosa (ox Joyce), the daughter of Alexander de Dene, 
married Solomon Oxenden, of Nonington, who died 



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The Lesser Manors. 77 



in 1367, leaving two sons Alan and Richard, who 
became Prior of Christ's Church, and in another 
hundred years this family had obtained this estate {Arch. 
Cant. VI), 

During the troubles of Wat Tyler, in 1381, it is 
recorded that Richard atte Dene did violently and 
malicously kill William Wottone, at Wotton, on April 
17th, 1 381, and raised insurredlion with others unknown, 
in the fourth year of King Richard II., and continued 
until after tue Feast of Corpus Christi (June 14th), on 
which day Archbishop Simon Sudbury was feloniously 
killed in London, and the said Richard atte Denne was 
present and urged on the death of the Archbishop. 
Now, perhaps, through this ad^ of treason and felony, 
their land " escheated to the crown '* (unless, as Hasted 
says, they sold it), for Henry Hussey, a man of great 
power in the reign of Edward III., became possed of 
this Manor about this time. He also held lands at 
Lenham, Boughton Malherbe, and Stourmouth, but 
died in 1385, and his descendants sold the estate to a 
family named Wood, who in the time of Henry VI. 
(1422-1461), again sold the property to John Oxenden, in 
whose family it was their chief residence until they 
obtained Broome in 1661. 

The Dene coat-of-arms was **per chevron, argent and 
vert three birds countercharged." (Hasted III.) 

Wenderton Manor. 

This was another part of the great Manor of 
Wingham that belonged to the Archbishops, and 
gave its name to the family of Wenderton ; and in 
1252 two of this family, Sampson de Wenderton and 
Walter de Wenderton, served on the jury of the Hun- 
dred Court, to enquire about the grant of a weekly 
market to the village. — (Arch. Cant^ Vol. 11, ) 

Archbishop John Peckham, at an ordination which he 
held in Faversham Church, in the month of September, 
1286, admitted Alan de Wenderton to the office of 
** acolyte. *' 

There was also a William de Wenderton and his wife 
Margeria, who in the year 13 14, bought from Alexander 



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78 Chronicles of Wingham, 



A 



Penesoun, of Dover, a messuage with one hundred and 
six acres of land, four and a half acres of pasture, at 
Adisham, together with the right to receive a yearly 
rent of 3s. 4d., one cock and five hens. — {Arch, Cant, 
Vol. XIII.) 

Three years later, in 1317, a Thomas le Kyng de 
Wenderton and his wife Margaret, bought from William 
de Petwood, a chaplain, a messuage with a garden, 
forty-six and a half acres of land, one acre and a rood of 
meadow, twelve acres of pasture, two acres of wood, one 
and a half acres of marsh, which paid a rent of 20s. and 
a quarter of barley ; the whole of the land being in 
Wingham. Now the name of **Petts Lane" and *'Petts 
Wood " remain unto this day. 

Again in 1321 William de Wenderton, with his wife 
Cecilia, bought from Walter de Kemeseye, of Wingham, 
forty acres of land and the third part of a messuage, 
having a rent of 3s. 3d., and twenty-five eggs with 
appurtenances at Adesham. (Arch. Cant. Vol XIV.) i 

In the year 1390 this family with others offended their 
over-lord (or lord of the great manor) by not carrying 
out in the required way certain services under which v\ 
they held their land from the Archbishop. For in that ^j 
year John Wenderton, John Postal, John Bay, William 
Heyward, and John White, all of them being tenants of 
the Lord of Wingham, having been warned that 
Archbishop Courtenay would be at his Palace in 
Canterbury for Palm Sunday in that year, were told by 
the bailiff of the manor to take their hay, straw, and 
other things according to the custom by which they 
held their lands. However, they took the straw, etc., 
tied up in sacks instead of openly in carts, and for so 
doing were required to go in procession from Wingham 
to Canterbury, each one carrying openly on his shoulders 
a sack stuffed with hay or straw. (Fox " Acts, and 
Monuments.'') 

Brooke, in the east of the parish, was anciently part 
of the Wenderton estate, until Jane de Wenderton 
married Richard de Oxenden, of this parish, when Brooke 
went to that tamily and became one of their residences. 
Her husband built the present tower of Goodnestone 



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The Lesser Manors, 79 



Church and died in 1469, being buried in the chantry- 
chapel on the north side of the chancel. The 
Wendertons also possessed for many generations the 
Manor of Bay, in the adjoining parish of Ickham, until 
John de Wenderton in 1509, sold both Wenderton and 
Bay to Archbishop William Warham, who, at his death 
in 1532, left the estates to his younger brother, Hugh 
Warham, and he gave Bay to his daughter Ann when 
she married Sir Anthony St. Leger, the lord-deputy of 
Ireland. Hugh Warham and his descendants resided 
at Wenderton, and there his grandson, Edward 
Warham, died in 1592, and was buried in " the upper 
end of the south aisle of the church," beneath a window 
which he had beautified. Most probably his tomb is 
that arched recess in the south wall, and may have 
contained originally a recumbent figure. The stained 
glass in the window above this arch had an inscription 

" Edwarde Warham Genteell of making this 

wyndowe "which Sir Stephen Glynne mentions 

in his description of this church in his ** Notes on the 
Churches of Kent," after a visit about the year 1863. 
This stained glass was unfortunately removed at the 
last restoration, if the destrudlion of ancient monuments 
can be called restoration. — {Hasted III,) 

The coat of arm of this Edward Warham, was fsays 
Hasted), "gules a fess or, between three escallops 
argent in base, in chief a goats head couped at the neck, 
argent, attired or." 

The Warham family remained at Wenderton until 
the reign of James I, when in 1609 they sold the estate 
to William Manwood, who in after years sold it to 
Vincent Denne, and at his death the property was 
divided between his three daughters. He was buried at 
the east end of the south aisle of the church, where the 
stone covering his grave remains, with the inscription — 
" Here lyeth the bodie of Vincent Denne, of Wenderton, 
gent., deceased June nth, 1642, in the sixty-third year 
of his age." His eldest daughter, Dorothy, married 
Thomas Ginder, Sergeant-at-Law, who died March 5th, 
1 71 6, at the age of fifty- two, when his widow placed the 
monument to his memory on the south wall of the 



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so Chnmicies of Wingham. 



church; and twenty years after she died, May 2nd, 1736, 
when eighty-two years old. The Wenderton Manor- 
House was most pleasantly situated on high ground, 
with extensive views in all diredlions, but all that re- 
mains of the hoube is a portion of the north wall and a 
cellar. The Ordnance Survey map states that the house 
was built in 1390. but we do not know on what 
authority. 

The name Wenderton appears to be made up of three 
words. — Wen, the same as the first part of Wengham, 
der, is dur or dour, the Celtic word for water ; and ton, 
is the Anglo-Saxon for enclosure or village. 

The coat of arms of the Wenderton family, who took 
their name from this place, was — " Azure a fess between 
shovellers argent," as shown in the south window of the 
chancel of Denton Church. A shoveller is a species of 
duck.— (Arch. Cant. VI ) 

Walmeston Manor. 

This Manor was held from the Archbishop of 
Canterbury as one " knight's-fee,*' by a family who took 
their name from the place. The name seems to be 
traceable back to Woden, and in this form would mean 
** the enclosure of Woden,** but if the original ending of 
the word was " stone '* and not ** ton," as'Walmestone, 
the name would mean ** the stone of Woden," but there 
is at the present day no remarkable stone there, although 
there might have been a thousand years ago. Woden, 
the special god of the Teutonic race, is said to have led 
their exodus from Asia to the north-west of Europe, and 
all chiefs were descended from him. To Woden were 
dedicated trees and stones which were used as land- 
marks to denote the boundaries of estates. 

Robert de Septvans died possessed of this land in 
1249, and when the son of Henry III. was knighted in 
1254, Robert de Septvans held a knight's fee at Walme- 
stone from the Archbishop. — {Planche's Corner of Kent.) 

When Archbishop Peckham held an ordination at 
Faversham in September, 1286, he admitted a Richard 
de Welmeston to the minor office of " acolyte." Per- 
haps the branch of the Septvans family who held 



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Th$ Lesser Manors. 81 



Welmeston afterwards became known bj' that name. 
For a Bertinus de Welmeston in 13 19 sold for twenty 
marcs (/"13 6s. 8d.^ to Roger le Barbour, of Canterbury, 
and Henry de Dover, a messuage with eighteen acres 
and three roods of land with their appurtenances in 
Wingham. Again in 1332, Bertinus de Welmeston and 
his wife Matilda, bought for twenty marks, from Roger 
Barbour and Henry de Dover, a messuage with six and 
a half acres of land with their appurtenances, situated in 
Elmeston, Preston and Stourmouth. In the same year 
a John de Welmeston bought for forty marcs (;^26 13s, 
4d.), from Gilbert de Brenle and his wife Christiana, a 
messuage with twenty-eight acres of land, and a 6s. rent 
with appurtenances at Wingham. 

But when the Black Prince was knighted in 1347, 
William de Septvans contributed forty shillings (equi- 
valent to £50) ** for the land which Robert de Septvans 
held from the Archbishop at Wyelmeston.'* Since that 
time the land has continually changed owners. — {Arch, 
Cant. X. XIV. XX. J 

Trapham. 

Although not a manor this place is said formerly to 
have belonged to a family of that name, but, in the time 
ot Queen Elizabeth, to John Trippe, who married, first, 
Benet Boteler, of Eastry, and had a son John ; and by a 
second wife, Elizabeth More (descended from those of 
Benenden), had a son Charles, and two daughters, one 
(Clara) married William Harfleet, of Sandwich (the son 
of John Harfleet of Ash, who died in 1582), and at his 
death in 1610, left four sons— John, William, Charles, 
and Thomas — and four daughters — Clara, Elizabeth, 
Mary, and Jane. 

Charles Trippe, son of the first mentioned John and 
Elizabeth Trippe, married Rose Harfleet (daughter of 
Sir Thomas Harfleet), at Ash Church, July 17th, 1615, 
and at her death he married Katherine Bell, by whom 
he had three sons — Charles, John, and Christopher ; 
and his monument is now in the south chapel — '* Charles 
Trippe, councillor-at-law, justice of the peace in the 
county of Kent, died at his house at Trapham, in the 
parish of Wingham, January 12th, 1624, and was buried 



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82 Chronicles of Wingham, 



in the south cross aisle of the said church.'* 

Thomas Harfleet, of Trapham (the youngest son of 
Walter Harfleet, of Bekeshourne), married Margaret 
Newman, of Canterbury. In 1683, she is spoken of as 
widow of Thomas Harfleet, late of Trapham, and in the 
Bodleian Library, at Oxford, is a bond dated 1683, for 
;^2,ooo, given by Margaret Harfleet, of Trapham, in the 
parish of Wingham, county of Kent, widow, to Sir 
Edward Monins. of Waldershare, Baronet, to secure the 
payment of ;^i,i66, according to certain indentures. 

These Harfleets (alias Septvans) were the descendants 
of the celebrated East Kent family of that name, which 
goes back to before the year 11 80; and married into 
most of the noted Kentish families of Cobham, Twitham, 
Chequer, Oxenden, Crevecceur, etc. Their name Har- 
fleet is supposed to have been derived from their Manor 
of Gurson Fleet, in the parish of Ash. — Planche's Corner 
of Kent; Arch. Cant. Vol. V. 

Information about Twitham will be found in the 
chapter giving the histories of the canonries. 

We may understand what was the manner of life in 
the country houses of those days from the information 
given by Bishop Stubbs in his "Constitutional History": 
— ** The household of the country gentleman was similar 
to that of his great neighbours, although the number of 
servants and dependants would seem out of all propor- 
tion to modern wants. Yet servants were in very many 
cases poor relations, wages were small, food was cheap 
and good, and the aspiring cadet of an old gentle family, 
might, by education and accomplishments, rise into the 
service of a baron, who would take him to court, and 
make his fortune. In the cultivation of his own estate 
the lord of a single manor found employment and 
amusement, he also had his share of work in the court of 
the county, in the musters and arrays at fixed times 
each year. In his parish church the country gentleman 
prayed and was buried, altho* if very rich he founded a 
chantry in the church ; or in some cases built a chapel 
to his manor house, and was allowed to have a resident 
chaplain.'* It is interesting to know that these chap- 
lains, about the year 1378, were paid £5 6s. 8d. a year, 



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The Lesser Manors, 83 



or only half that sum if they lived in the house and 
received their meals. 

Then there was that almost extin<5> class — " the 
yeomanry of the middle ages were a body, which in 
antiquity of possessions and purity of extradlion, was 
probably superior to the class that looked down upon it 
as ignoble. It was from the younger brothers of the 
yeoman families that the householdsbf the great lords 
were recruited ; they furnished men at arms, archers, 
and hobelers to the royal force at home and abroad, or 
settling down as tradesmen in the towns, formed one of 
the links that bound the town to the rural population. 
Their wills and inventories show their life was a pleasjint 
one, for the necessaries of life were abundant and cheap, 
although markets were precarious, as there were no 
loreign supplies to make up for bad harvests. Their 
houses were well though plainly furnished, and in his 
will the yeoman frequently left a legacy to his parish 
church, or for the repair of the parish roads." 




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Chapter VI. 
HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 

eXCEPT in those cases, where we have Saxon 
Charters giving proof of an early foundation, we 
have no history of parish-churches, until their mention in 
the Domesday Survey of the year 1086. But the law 
of King Edmund in 944, **required the bishop and king 
to restore the houses of God on their estates ", such 
churches no doubt being in ruins through the invasions 
of the Danes, which also caused the suppression of some 
of the earliest Saxon monasteries in this county. 

"It is probable (says the late Mr. Roach Smith) that 
many of our oldest churches are of Saxon origin, 
although from enlargements and repairs, only a very few 
can be referred to with masonry of so early a period. 
That many occupy the sites of Roman buildings is 
shown from the intermixture of stone and mortar that 
had previously been used in Roman structures." Now 
quite near to the site of the church, was one of these 
buildings, from whose ruins plenty of material could be 
obtained. 

In the Anglo-Saxon times there were very few 
churches in the villiages, but only a cross was set up at 
the foot of which the monks who came from a neighbour- 
ing monastery, preached and baptised ; for it was the 
regular clergy who carried the preaching of Christianity 
into the country districts. Wherever a conversion to 
Christianity took place to any extent, a religious house 
was very soon built, from which the clergy visited the 
villages to preach, but distance from a church and bad 
roads through uncultivated districts soon caused a 
priest to reside in a certain district under the direction 
of the Bishop. Those who judge the monasteries by 
their later days, forget the benefits which they gave to 
the people in their earlier existence. "They were spared 



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History of the Church. 85 



even in war, being places where peaceful minds could 
retire for honest work and learning. The monks were 
benefactors to those places where their houses were 
built, for they drained the marsh lands, cleared forests, 
tilled the land, and boiled down the salt of the brine 
pans. In days of rudeness and ignorance they 
cultivated the arts, and were the builders, architects, 
sculptors, painters, and illuminators of those times. In 
their libraries they preserved and handed down treasures 
of secular and sacred learning, which, but for them, 
must have perished. When there was no poor laws, 
the poor and needy were fed by the food given away at 
the monastery gate, whilst the sick were visited by the 
brethren. Within their walls was a refuge for perse- 
cuted innocence, and a sanctuary against lawless 
oppressors, whilst they also offered a hospitable welcome 
and kindly shelter to many a homeless wanderer. 
Within their walls God was daily and nightly wor- 
shipped. His praises ever chanted, and the lamp of 
devotion kept burning with a clear, true, and fervent 
flame." 

It will be noticed that in the Domesday Survey of 
this parish (or estate), there is no mention of a church 
here, although there was one at Ickham, Littlebourne, 
and Wickhambreaux, but knowing that ** the intention 
of that Survey was not to find out what was the con- 
dition of the church or her ministers; so that churches 
would only be mentioned if a payment of some kind, 
such as services, rents or produce was due to the king. 
We cannot therefore decisively appeal to the Survey 
for the existence or non-existence of churches at the 
time it was completed." Yet in the Survey of Kent, we 
find 183 Manors had a church. 

However in the Kentish Domesday of the Monastery 
of Christ Church at Canterbury, is a list of thirteen 
churches and monasteries "* infra civitatem " (outside 
the city), viz. tolkeston, Limenam, Liminges, Middle- 
tune, Nuvantunum, Tornham, Wyngeham, Moegdestane, 
Wye, Cyrringe. These existed lonp: before the coming 
of Archbishop Lanfranc. {Hist. M.S.S, RepoH VIII . 
316;. 

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Chronicles of Wingkam. 



Parish churches were generally formed in the following 
way, when a large landowner became a Christian, he 
built a church on his estate for the use of the tenants, 
and first obtained the licence of the Bishop, after which 
the site was seletfled, and when approved, a cross was 
ere(5led by the Bishop or his commissioner. Materials 
having been provided, chiefly timber, which was ver}^ 
plentiful in the woods, on a certain day the Bishop came 
in his robes, and after prayer, offered up incense, the 
people sang a hymn in praise of the Saint to whom the 
church was to be dedicated ; and a feast finished the 
proceedings. Thus the irreguhir shape of a parish, 
often having detached portions, — as Wingham has in 
the parish of Staple — shows that it was the estate of 
the owner that in the first place formed the parish. 

As Wingham Manor was part of the possessions of 
the Archbishop, who was also the Abbot or Head of 
Christ Church Monastery at Canterbury, the monks 
from there at first would come out to our village to 
preach until a church was built by one of the archbishops, 
for those who lived round his Manor House, and for the 
convenience of his numerous household when they came 
with him to stay in our pleasant village. The Arch- 
bishop's house must have been of considerable size, for 
not only could it contain his own large retinue, but also 
at the same time the King and his numerous followers, 
when they were entertained in our village. In those days 
people were not very particular as to their accom- 
modation, and would be quite contented to sleep amidst 
the rushes that covered the floor of the hall. The site 
of the old Manor House is now occupied by Wingham 
Court and its farm buildings. The estate of the "thane"' 
or chief landlord formed the parish, which estate was 
made chargeable with a tithe to the church that the 
owner was bound to provide by law. The church was 
therefore, built near the residence of the land-owner, 
instead of that part of the estate which was most central 
or convenient for the tenants, and this is the reason that 
in some places the church is a considerable distance 
from the village, which afterwards grew up. The word 
parish, implies an ecclesiastical boundary, and the district 

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History of the Church, 87 

belonging to each church ; it is seldom found in 
documents of civil matters until the reign of the Tudors. 
when by the suppression of the monasteries, laws had 
to be made for the relief of the poor, which then acknow- 
ledged the church boundaries called parishes. 

The remains of the first stone church built here,we have 
in the south wall of the present chancel, with plain round 
arches to the sedilia within the sanctuary rails. This 
church remained down to the time of Archbishop John 
Peckham, who in 1282 altered the parish church into a 
collegiate church for a Provost and six secular canons. 
The parish-church not being large enough for a collegiate 
church, it was enlarged, but church building was slow 
work in those days. The chancel with its north and 
south chapel (intended as short transepts) to make the 
church cruciform, were built in the Decorated Style of 
ArchitecTlure, (which is usually dated from about 1272 to 
1377J, but the large south and north window, in the 
respective chapels (or transept sj, and also those in the 
nave of the church, are of Perpendicular design (1377- 
1509), shewing the nave was finished at a later date 
when a new style of archite(51ure had come in. The east 
window of the south chapel is a decorated one, and the 
same as those in the chancel. 

The parish church is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, to whom 107 churches in the county of Kent are 
dedicated, being by far the greatest number to any 
individual sairt. The fabric is built of flint with some 
admixture of stone, and is chiefly in the decorated style. 
It consists of a chancel with north and south chapels, 
and a nave with south aisle, although betore the reform- 
ation period, there was also a north aisle, as the bricked 
up arch in the north chapel proves. 

The chancel is very lofty, with a boarded roof, 
restored some twenty years ago ; in the centre of the 
east wall is an aumbrey, in which the various things 
used at the altar were kept when not in use, and in the 
same wall at the south end is a piscina or drain, where 
the sacred vessels were washed at the close of the 
service. On the south side of the sandluary is a sedilia 

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88 Chronicles of Wingkam. 



of three seats, of which the seat nearest the east wall is 
the highest ; but unfortunately, the floor of the sancfl- 
uary having been raised, it is only about nine inches to 
the seat, so that it is impossible to use the sedilia as 
originally meant. These seats were used by the 
priests during the chanting of certain portions of the 
high-mass, which was a long service. There is also a 
large priest's door in the south wall (blocked up at the 
restoration in 1874-75), with the top of the arch cut off 
by the window above ; probably this and the plain 
round arches of the sedilia are the remains of the old 
church that was first built, and enlarged at the time of 
the founding of the College. The east window is 
modern. It was put in when the chancel was restored 
a few years ago, and would greatly improve the church 
if it was filled with stained glass, altho' of most extra- 
ordinary design ; the other windows of the chancel are 
" Decorated or Middle Pointed/* that is early in 1300, 
or the 14th Century. 

In the floor are the stones over the graves of some 
members of the College, from which the brasses have 
been torn off" : on the left was a very fine conopy-brass ; 
and on the right a priest in a cope — very possible these 
are the tombs of Provost Chicheley, who died 1466, and 
Provost Ediall, who died 1520, both of whom, we have 
learnt, were buried in the chancel of the church. 

As a significant contrast to the old times, when only 
priests were buried in the chancel of a church, in the 
most central position in the floor is the tomb of Herbert 
Palmer a descendant of the family, who bought the 
College — " Here lies the Body of Herbert Palmer son 
of Sir Thomas Palmer of Wingham, Bart, who by his 
wife Dorothy daughter of John Pynchon of VVrittle in 
Essex, left two sons Thomas and Henry, and two 
daughters Ann and Elizabeth, and died Feb. 16th 1700'' 

The old stalls for the Canons of the College, with 
their carved miserere seats, remain in the choir, whilst 
on the floor are some stone slabs from which the brasses 
have been stolen, and beneath which some of the 
canons were buried. 



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History of the Church, 89 

The lower portion of the old wooden screen divides 
the chancel from the nave of the church, and was put 
up about 1682, but was never a rood-loft and the upper 
part was removed in 1874-5. This screen no doubt 
took the place of the old rood-loft, "to the new 
painting " of which James at Well in 1508 
left twenty shillings. The appearance of the church 
would be much better, if the screen and rood-beam 
were restored. 

The Nave is remarkable as being one of those in this 
county without stone pillars and arches between the 
nave and its aisle ; having instead lofty pillars of chest- 
nut to support the beam upon which rest the timbers 
of the roofs. This gives a very light appearance to the 
church, but we must feel very thankful that this oblong 
style of preaching place was not copied in any neigh- 
bduring churches. Soon after the suppression of the 
College, when the church was in a ruinous condition, 
the north aisle is said to have been pulled down, and 
the material used to re-build the walls of the nave and 
south aisle. Timber being plentiful, wooden pillars 
were used between the nave and its one remaining aisle 
the windows were built in the debased style of the time, 
and the old stonework used for the main part, whilst the 
tracery of the upp6r part of the window was left out. 
The north wall was built so thick that it cuts off part of 
the moulding of the chancel arch ; and just over the 
pulpit is a square opening in the wall through which can 
be seen the top of the pillar whence sprang the first 
arch between the nave and north aisle. The floor just 
at the entrance to the chancel is paved with some old 
tiles (found during the last restoration), but with any 
pattern that may have been upon them unfortunately 
worn off. 

At the east end of the south wall is a plain piscina or 
drain, marking the site of one of the altars ; and just by 
the entrance door is the holy- water stoop. 

The large arched-recess in the south wall, is no doubt 
the tomb of Edward Warham who died 1592. There is 
an estate in this parish called Wenderton belonging to a 

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90 Chronicles of Wingham. 

family of that name from before 1252, John de 
Wenderton in 1509 sold the estate to Archbishop 
Warham, who at his death in August, 1532, left the 
property to his brother Hugh Warham, and his grand- 
son Edward resided at Wenderton, where he died in 
1^92, and was buried in '*the upper end of the south 
aisle of the church," beneath a window which he had 
beautified. — (Hasted iii.). The Nave was originally 
much higher with clere-story windows, and the roof was 
then not so pointed, and on the west side of the tower, 
outside, we see a portion of the lead of the roof still era- 
beded in the side of the tower. Outside on the north 
may also be seen the blocked up arch, between the north 
aisle audits chapel, and the piscina or drain of the altar, 
is in the wall. 

From the old **Church Books" we learn the following 
items of information: — 

1728. " A new Pulpit and Desk were bought at a cost of ;f 11 iis., 
and three brass-bolts and hat pins for the Pulpit, cost 3s. 
2d.~ these bolts must have been for the desk of parson and 
clerk, and also the pulpit door." 

1735. •• Two cushions for desk and pulpit, and the carriage home, 
7s. 5cl." 
*' Binding the Great Bible, and carriage to and from Can- 
terbury, 13s." 

1739- *' For a Book to Bury the Dead, 2S. 6d." 

1741. " Repairs to the Clerk's Desk, is. 2d." 
" Book to Register the Briefs, is." 

1751. <'John Hunt was paid ;f7 los. 4d., work done about the 
Church." 

1753. •• John Oldfield £7 us. 8d. for whitewashing the Church." 

" Richard Castle £13 4s. gd. for work done about the Church." 
•• Cleaning the Sentences, and painting, £3 3s." 

1754. •• A new Register Book, 12s." 

1755. " Work done about the Church, £2 19s. 2d." 

1 761. " A new scarf for Mr. Nairn [Vicar] £1 4s. iid." 

*• Paid for a Communion cloth, £3 17s, 6d." 
1766. *• A Psalm Book for the Clerk's use, 3s. 6d." 

•• A new surplice and making, £$ 2S. 6d.'* 
1773. •• Mending Pulpit cloth and cushan, 2S." 

••New Prayer Book, i6s." 
1778. •* New Register Book, 5s. 3d." 
1 791. ••Velvet Pulpit cloth and cushan cost the parish ;f 20 4s., 

and another 7s. for making." 
i8q2. •• Binding a Prayer Book, 5s." 
1821. ''Paidfor a Vestry Book, 4s." 



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Histofy of the Church. 91 



1824. •' Paid for a Register Book. 7s. 6d." . 
'*The new Marriage Ad, is. id." 
" A blue cloth for Communion Table, ^^3 is. 5d. " 
' Robt. Sweetlove, expenses for improvement of the Church, 



/51 14s. 2d. 
" Robt. Seath's bill. /158 8s. 5d." 
'John Mecrow's biir;^79 13s. lod." 



1 83 1. •' Henry Branford for Altar Piece, ;f 10. " 
1855. " Cleaning and whitewashing the Church, £$ 13s. 6d." 
1855. " Making new blinds, £4 is. 2d." 
•• Varnishing the pulpit, 15s." 

The Porch on the south side, from its height and 
windows above the lower ones, appears to have had a 
room over, although there is no trace of a staircase. In 
such rooms were kept the vestments and other things 
required for use in the services of the church. The 
east wall outside has traces of very early construction. 
From the *'Church Book,'* we learn that in 1723 
"twenty four broad stones to pave the Porch," were 
bought for 30s. and the carriage of them was another 

THE NORTH CHAPEL OR THE BROOKE 

CHANTRY. 

The history of this old chantry-chapel on the north 
side of the church appears to show that it takes its name 
from having been endowed by the owners of the land at 
Brooke, on the Durlock stream (a name showing that 
an estuary of the sea has been turned into a meadow) 
in the east of this parish. In former days people took 
their surname from their land, or the place where they 
lived. Thus we find that on April 6th, 1334, there was 
granted to John atte Broke de Wyngham, a commission 
of oyer and terminer {audirc ct determinarc), that is he was 
appointed a judge of assize to hear and determine cases. 
From this family the land went (probably by marriage) 
to the Wendertons, who resided north of the parish, 
and were persons of importance in 1252, when Samson 
de Wenderton and Walter de Wenderton served on 
the jury of the " Hundred Court, " to enquire about the 
grant of a weekly market on Tuesday for the village. 
However, it was by marriage that Brooke went to 
the Oxenden family, when Richard de Oxenden (the 

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92 ChronkUs of Wingham, 



elder son of John Oxenden de Wingham and his wife, 
Jane de Dene) married Jane de Wenderton and received 
Brooke as her marriage portion. They built the present 
tower (campanile) of Goodnestone Church, and when he 
died, in 1469, Richard de Oxenden was buried in this 
chantry. He left no issue. 

Whether it was the Wtoderton or Oxenden family 
who founded this chantry, at present there is no 
evidence; but it must have been first built after 1282, 
when the church, being made collegiate by Archbishop 
John Peckham, the fabric was enlarged to a more 
dignified size. But the name is evidence that it was a 
chantry founded according to the pious notions of those 
times, to pray for the welfare of the departed members 
of the family to whom Brooke belonged. About the end 
of the fourteenth century it was customary to endow a 
chantry priest with a yearly income of about ten marks, 
i,e,, £6 13s. 4d. (or equal to about ;^ioo at the present 
day), also a house rent free. First the founder having 
obtained those licenses which the law and statute of 
mortmain required, then settled so much land or a rent 
charge upon the first chantry-priest whom the founder 
nommated, and, after his death, the heirs had the 
appointment, the rector (or vicar) and churchwardens of 
the parish being also appointed to see the deed was 
faithfully carried out. The chantry-priest recited the 
daily offices, vespers and nocturns for the dead; and in a 
country church helped the parish priest at the Sunday 
services (which would not be necessary at Wingham 
with its staff of fourteen priests for the services in the 
collegiate-church). When all chantries were 

suppressed in the reign of Edward VI. the money was 
appropriated for other purposes. 

Another member of the Oxenden family, William 
(elder son of Edward Oxenden de Dene, and his wife, 
Alicia Barton), married Elizabeth Hill, and at his death 
in 1576 requested by his will " to be buried in the northe 
chauncel of the churche of Wingam," leaving "my great 
horse, my hawk, and spannells** to his nephew, Richard 
de Hardres* W^illiam's younger brother Henry married 



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History of the Church. 93 



Elizabeth Young, and had five sons, Edward, Henry, 
Thomas, Christopher, and William, and a daughter Mary, 
and it was this Henry Oxenden, who, leaving Brooke, 
built about the year 1582 the Dene House (which was 
pulled down between iorty and fifty years ago^, and died 
there on August ist, 1597. He was buried in this 
Brooke Chantry, and the grave was marked by "a stone 
having a brass effigy of a person in a shroud, with five 
sons and a daughter,*! and bearing the following 
inscription: ''Here lyeth buried the bodye of Henrye 
Oxenden, Esquire, who builded that house in Wingham 
called Deane, who departed this life August 1st, 1597, 
and gave his lands to Henry Oxenden, his son. Disce 
quid es et quid eris. Minunto mari.'* (Learn what thou 
art, and what thou wilt be. Remember you must die). 
This inscription has long ago disappeared, but was 
copied in the year 1750, {Arck. Cant. VI). 

This chapel was used as a schoolroom until the 
present buildings were erected for that purpose. The 
windows are mean, and, unfortunately, out of sight, or 
it might have moved the heart of someone to restore 
them. There is a monument, dated 1625 (where the 
altar was), of the family to whom the Provost's House 
was sold, with alabaster figures of Sir Thomas Palmer 
and his wife Margaret. He had been made a baronet by 
Elizabeth, and was the son of Henry Palmer to whom 
the College was given. There was in ancient times a 
room over the eastern end of this chapel, for there is a 
narrow window looking towards the altar in the chancel; 
perhaps the College officials kept their vestments, etc., 
here ; whilst those used for the services of the parishion- 
ers in the nave, were kept in the room over the porch. 

The roof of this chapel was in such a bad state of repair 
and there being doubt as to the ownership. Sir Percy 
Oxenden declining to repair, and also St. John's College 
Cambridge, the present owners of the Brooke estate ; so 
a small committee was appointed in the year 1895, *o 
raise the necessary funds, and repair the roof. During 
the work the ceiling fell down, shewing the very fine 
old chestnut rafters, it was then decided to re-plaster 
between the timbers, which is a very great improvement. 

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94 Chronicles of Windham. 



Some interesting details were also found as to the 
original construction of this chapel ; which when first 
built, was the same size as the corresponding chapel on 
the south side. The ridge of the roof then went north 
and south, and the window was originally a fine 
perpendicular one, similar to the one opposite ; for the 
debased brick arch over this window, was found to be 
hollow, but there still remains, the stone sides of the 
original perpendicular window. 

The probability is, that the services of the collegiate 
church, required so many vestments, and other things 
that were then used, that it was found necessary to 
extend this north-chapel further east, which was divided 
into an upper and lower story, there being two windows 
in the east wall, whilst the high altar could be seen by 
the Sacristan, from this upper room. The beam along 
the top of the east wall also has mortie holes, where the 
rafters of a ceiling were fixed. Some future restoration 
of the chancel, may reveal a blocked up window in its 
north wall 

The timbers of the roof also, have traces of having 
been previously used, and was no doubt altered to its 
present shape, when the north aisle of the church was 
pulled down. Having been used as a schoolroom, since 
1686. this chapel has naturally been badly used. 

.We have no doubt a portion of the stipend of the 
former chantry-priest, in the bequest made in 170 1 by 
Richard Oxenden of Brook, of £4 a year to the Vicar 
for a sermon in Lent, and the £1 to eight poor persons, 
present on Easter Sunday. 

On the south wall of this chapel, is a monument, with 
this inscription ; — ** 1684 Memoriae Sacrum. In the 
upper part of this chancel lie buried the bodies of Sir 
James Oxenden, Knt., buried 26th September, 1657. 
Elizabeth, wife of the present Sir Henry Oxenden, 
Knt. and Baronet, buried 20th August. 1659. William, 
son of the said Sir Henry buried 20th January, 1661 ; 
Susanna Booth, wife of Sir Robert Booth, daughter of 
the said Sir Henry Oxenden buried 29th August, 1669. 
Margaret, relict of Sir James, buried iSthOctober, 1671. 



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History of the ChuHh, 95 



Elizabeth daughter of the present Sir James Oxenden, 
and his wife Elizabeth, died an infant and was buried 
19th August, 1675." 

Arms — Oxenden quartering Brooker. 

The South Chapel, dedicated to S. John, also 
belongs to the Oxenden family who formerly lived in 
this parish at Dene, until they moved to Broome, which 
they obtained by marriage in 1661, since which time 
they have been buried at Barham, or Denton. The 
tracery of the fine large perpendicular window, in this 
chapel is blocked up with brick and plaster ; whilst in 
the centre of the chapel is a most extraordinary 
monument. 

Richard Oxenden de Wingham, who lived in the 
reign of Richard II (1377-99) is first of this family, 
mentioned as being buried in this south chapel. He 
had married Isabella, daughter ot Theobald de 
Twitham. 

All the windows of the church were in ancient time 
very rich in painted glass, and the present bare and 
desolatfe appearance is a great contrast to its former 
magnificence; for, as an old writer has said, "It is 
better to see a church abounding in sacred furniture 
than, as some are, bare, dirty, more like stables than 
churches. 

The Tower. 

At the west end of the nave is a tower and spire 
containing a clock and eight bells, with the following 
inscriptions on them: — i "Ben Parlett, R, Phelps made 
me 1720" 2 and 3. **R. Phelps, fecit 1720." 4, 5, and 6, 
'*R. Phelps made me 1720.** 7, • 'Prosperity and 
happyness to all our worthy benefactors. R. Phelps 
fecit 1720." 8 "Rev W. Newton, curate. T. Winter, W. 
East, Churchwardens. R. Phelps made me in 1720. 
We learn some interesting particulars about these 
Bells, in the "Church Book 1720-1801", from which it 
appears that the Bells were somewhat out of tune. 
First there is recorded under date January 29th 1719 — 
"An account of the several sums of money subscribed 



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96 ChroHicles of Wingham. 

and paid into the hands of Thomas Winter, and 
William East, Churchwardens of the parish church of 
Wingham, for and towards the new casting the Six 
Bells belonging to the said parish church, and making 
them into eight musical bells.'' The total amount 
subscribed by the parishioners wasj^gi los. 6d. towards 
which sum Rev. William Newton, Vicar, gave £i iis. 
6d. ; Sir Thomas Palmer £^o ; and Sir Geo. Oxenden 
of Dene ;^20. 

On May 19th, 1720, a vestry meeting was held 
' 'touching and concerning the new casting of the Six 
Bells of the parish-church. It was then and there 
agreed on and ordered by the parishioners and inhab- 
itants of the said parish then and there present, or by 
a majority. For and in consideration of the several 
sums of money subscribed by several gentlemen and 
other inhabitants amounting to ;^9i los. 6d., and paid 
to the churchwardens Thomas Winter, and William 
East, who were to take down the six bells, and with 
addition of new metal, have them cast, and ^ made 
into eight musical bells, and hang them up in the 
steeple after the best manner. Any expense beypnd 
the amount collected, was to be paid by the parishioners 
to the churchwardens." The Bells were taken from 
here to Sandwich and sent to London for recasting 
by barge, at a cost "up and down" of £^ 3s, whilst 
the " Porte dues etc. at Sandwich" amounted to £1 is. 
4d., and there was another 5s. "for unloading the bells". 
Two sets of bell ropes then cost £^ 4s. after the bells 
were again placed in the tower ; and almost every year 
after, new ropes were bought at a cost of £1 i8s., but 
they rung the bells then more frequently than at the 
present day, e.g. the ringers had 5s. on the King's 
birthday, Coronation l3ay, Gunpowder Treason, 
Prince of Wales Birthday, etc. etc. ; and they evidently 
rang so vigorously that in 1728 the "clapper" of the 
fourth-bell was mended at a cost of 2S. 6d. 

In 1729 the Vane on the spire was gilded, for the 
Bum of ^i I OS and placed on the spire, at a further 
cost of £1 I2S. gd. ; the ringers receiving 2S. 6d. for 
ringing in commemoration of tlie event. Further 

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History of the Church. 97 



particulars about the bells are. 

1740. "John Potter, casting the Brasses of ye ist, 2nd, 3rd, and 

7th Bells, which weighed 39 Jibs, at 7d. a lb., /i 3s." 
••Paid him for 25jlbs. new metal at is. id. per lb., £1 7s.7d." 
•• Seven new Solley wheels, and bringing the tackle from 

Canterbury, 6s. dd." 
" Putting in Brasses and new Hanging the Bells, £2 2s." 
•• Hogseam for the Bells, ijd., and the annual New Bell 

Ropes, cost £1 14s." 
1746. "There was bought Leather for the Bell-clappers, is. 6d., 

and John Potter lor altering the False Beats of the 4th, 5th, 

6th, and Tenor Bells, was paid los. 6d." 

1742. •' New rope for the Tenor Bell, 6s." 

1743, •• Repairing Belfrey Boards, 6d." 
1754. •• Leather for a Bell, is." 

1777. " Two bolts for the Belfrey Door, 2s. 5d." 

1785. •• John Sweetlove. repairing the wheels of the Bells, /, 1 is. 2d." 

1787. " Seven * peaces ' of leather for the Bells, 4s." 

1820. •• Paid for Tolling the Bell for the King, 5s." 

1840. '* Paid Ringers day of Her Majesty's Marriage, /i." 

Outside repairs and the costs are mentioned : — 

1727. •• Mending lead on the steeple, 7s." 

1728. •• Copper Plate for Vane, and carriage from Canterbury, 

13s. 3d." 
•• Taking down the old Spindle from the Church Spire, 5s." 

1729. " Gilding the Vane, £1 los. 

•• Placing on the Steeple, jfi 12s, gd." 
1793, '• This year the spire was repaired, and its leaden covering 
sold for ;^i78 3s.5d. , and the old Vane and Spindle sold for 
9s. 6d. A man watching the lead three nights was paid 
7s. 6d. Auftion duty tor selling lead j^5 2s. 6d. The 
spire was then covered with copper, costing ^210 i6s. 4d., 
and this work caused the Parish Clerk to be poetical, and 
compose the following lines " :— 

•• In Seventeen Hundred and Ninety and three, 

•• Richard Hodgman, of Folkestone, he coppered me, 

*• And fixed on my Head a magnificent Vane, 

•• Which discovers the way of the wind by the same. 

•' 'Twas the fifth day of August this work was begun, 

'• With intent for to keep me from rain, wind, and sun, 

" But some seem to think that never would be done, 

" This matter by many had oft been discussed, 

•• Which was the best clothing and which was the worst ; 

•• Some were partial to Copper, and some for lead, 

•• And others said shingle will serve in its stead, 

" But I on that point will never trouble my head, ' 

'• If you finish me well, for to make me secure, 

*• So that I a hundred of years may endure." 

Henry Sancroft, 



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98 Chronicles of Wingham, 



In the above lines we may see the origin of the 
Epitaphs in our country churchyards. 

There is still kept up the ancient custom of ringing 
one bell every Sunday morning at eight o'clock, even 
when there is no service ; but we may hope that once 
more there will always be a service at that hour 
throughout the year — 

•• When in the choir they ofifer up 
The mystic sacrifice." 

The parishioners would also prefer to hear the bells rung 
before each service, for which purpose they were hung 
in the tower, instead of only once a month. 

Benefactions to the Parish. 

On the south wall of the Tower is the *• Table of 
Benefactors," which we learn from the old Church 
Book was put up in 1729 at a cost of £6, 

*' John Church of this parish, Yeoman An. Dom. 1604, E^^ve to 
the Poor ;^io which was continued at Interest. But the said 
Principle Sum hath lately been paid into the hands of the Overseers 
of the Poor, who now yearly at Easter distribute to the poor los. 
for the interest thereof." 

'• Hedlor Du Mont a Frenchman born, gave the silver cup and 
small patten for the Holy Communion in the year 1632." 

"Sir George Oxenden Knt, and President for the Hon. East 
India Co. at Surat in East India, 1660, gave the velvet pulpit cloath 
and cushion." 

'• John Rushbeecher of this parish, Gent. 1663 gave five acres of 
land lying in Woodnesborough, the rents, issues and profits thereof 
to be annually distributed to ten of the meaner sort of people of 
Wingham, not receiving alms of the parish." 

•* The above Sir Geo. Oxenden 1682 gave the sum of /500 for the 
repairing and beautifying of this Church and Dean Chancel, at 
which time the monument there was eredled, the church ceiled, the 
pillars and beams cased, the commandments etc. set up, the fine 
marble font eredled, the pews raised, with many other improvements 
of strength and beauty. He also at same time gave ;^2o to the 
poor." 

••Sir James Oxenden of Dean, Kt. and Baronet about the year 
1686, founded and endowed a school in this parish with jf 16 per an, 
for ever. For the teaching twenty poor children in reading and 
writing." 

" Richard Oxenden of Brook, Esqr., Barrister at Law 1701 gave 
;^4 per an. for ever to the Minister of this parish for the time being. 
For the readingDivine Service and Preaching a Public Sermon in this 
church on every Wednesday in Lent and on Good Friday.*' 



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History of the Church, 99 



" He likewise at the same time gave 20s. a year for ever. To be 
distributed to eight poor persons that shall be at Divine Service on 
Easter Day. He also gave £ to the poor at the same time." 

•• Henry Palmer, of this parish, Esq., 1710, gave the sum of ^^25 
to the poor." 

••Mrs. Elizabeth Bosvile, Reli<a of Robert Bosvile, of Ainsford, 
in this County, Esq., 1710, gave the sum oi£5 to the poor." 

•• Robert Wyborn, of Preston, Gent., 1711, gave;f5 to the poor." 

** Thos. Ginder, of Wenderton, 17 16, gave £$ to the poor." 

•• Thomas Palmer, of St. Dunstan's in the East, in London, Esq. 
gave ;i3oo for the repairing, beautifying and adorning the Great 
Chancel of this church. He also gave the sum of £20 to the poor. " 

"Sir Henry Oxenden of Dean, Bart. 1720, gave ;f 10 to the poor. 
Dame Anne Oxenden relidl of the said Sir Henry Oxenden, Bart ; 
gave ;f 10 to the poor at the same time." 

•• Sir Thomas Palmer of this parish Bart, 1720, gave ;f 20 towards 
recasting the old bells and adding two new bells to the pealL 

"Sir George Oxenden of Dean, Bart ; gave jf 20 for the same use. 
And the sum of /41 tos. 6d. was raised by Subscription among 
several gentlemen and inhabitants of this parish for the purpose 
aforesaid." 

"Mrs. Elizabeth Masters, relid of Strensham Masters of Brook, 
Esqr., 1728, gave the large Silver Flaggon. MissSibilla Oxenden, 
of I'>rook, Spinster, at same time gave the large Silver Patten. The 
above and Mrs. Masters in 1759 adso gave the large Silver Dish." 

The Registers : — 

The Registers of the parish date from 1588 but 
contain nothing very interesting. These Books (says 
the late R. E. Chester Waters in his instrucftive work 
on this subjedl; were first known in England in 1538, 
when a royal-injuncSlion was issued by Thomas 
Cromwell, the Vicar-General on September 29th, of 
that year : — ** The curate of every parish Church, shall 
keep one book or register, which book he shall every 
Sunday take forth, and in the presence of the church, 
wardens, or one of them, write and record in the same 
all the weddings, baptisms, and burials, made the whole 
week before ; and for each time that the same shall be 
omitted, shall forfeit to the said church 3s. 4d/' This 
caused many Registers to be commenced. In 1555, 
Cardinal Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury required the 
names of the god-parents of the child to be entered in 
the register of baptisms, but after his death, this 
custom except in some, parishes died out. 

On Odtober 25th, 1597, the clergy of the Province of 



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100 Chronicles of T^ingham. 



Canterbury, being assembled in Convocation, drew up 
minute regulations for the preservation of these books, 
which were to be of parchment, into which were to be 
copied the entries in the old paper-books from 1538. 

During the Civil War f 1643-53), Parliament required 
" a fair register-book of velim," to be kept in each 
parish, in which the time of birth was also to be put 
down; and in 1653 the books were to be kept by "parish 
registers*' as they were called, who were to charge **one 
shilling for every certificate of publication and entry of 
marriage, and four pence for every entry of birth and 
burial.'* Their modern name is Registrar. They 
published the banns ** on three Lord's Days, at the end 
of morning exercise in church or chapel, or else in the 
market-place on three successive market-days." This 
having been done, the persons took the certificate to 
the nearest justice-of-the-peace, where having made a 
declaration, the justice declared the persons to be man 
and wife. The ring and kiss, were superstitious and 
therefore abolished. However many people preferred 
the service of the prayer-book, although liable to a fine 
oi£5- 

To encourage the manufadiure of wool, it was ordered 
that after March 25th, 1667, no one was to be ** buried 
in any shirt, shift, or sheet, other than should be made 
of wool only," and as this law was not always obeyed, in 
1678 an affidavit had to be made thai, •* the deceased 
was not put in, wrapt up, or wound up, or buried, in 
any shirt, shift, sheet, or shroud, made or mingled with 
flax, hemp, silk, hair, gold or silver, or other than what 
is made of sheeps wool only, nor any other material, 
contrary to the late Adl of Parliament for burying in 
woolen." This law fell into disuse, but was not re- 
pealed until 1 81 4. 

Only one name was given at baptism until the Georg- 
ian period, when it became customary to give two or 
more, and a name once given cannot be altered except 
at Confirmation, although at the present day they are 
changed by advertising in a paper. The Puritans used 
to insist that names must be taken from the Bible. 



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History of the Church. 101 

There is one churchwardens* accounts for the years 
1667 and 1668, during the primacy of Archbishop 
Sheldon (1663-77) who was a violent enemy of the 
Puritans, and chief promoter of the Adl of Uniformity. 
Through the kindness of the present churchwardens we 
are able to give " the account of Henry Butdry and 
Richard Solden, churchwardens for the parish of Wing- 
ham, beginning at one Easter, 1667, and ending Easter, 
1668," wherein they charge themselves as follows : — 

The charge themselves with for two knells 

Paid for our Diners at the Visitation 

Paid for the Book of Articles 

Paid to enter ye Register Book in the Corte [Court] 

Paid for 24 Bushells of Lime 

Paid for caring [carrying] of the Lime 

Paid for a load of sand, and carriage 

Paid for cordes to mend the pewes, and for the carpenter's 

work 
Paid to Edward Drayson for nailles and houldfastes 
Paid for the Bill of Presentments to Mr. Stondands 
Paid at Court to enter ye Bill 
Paid at ye Court for James Oldfield 
Paid for a Rope for ye great Bell 

Paid to 5 days and a half work to the mason and his man 
Paid to Robert Board for Bread and Wine for the 

communicants 
Paid to John Browne for killing three foxes 
Paid for a bundell of laths 
Paid to John East for looking to t^e church 
Paid to Robert Butdry for lodging three seamen 
Paid to |Mr. Stephens for writing the Register Bill and 

bringing ye register Book 
Paid for Bread and Wine for ye communion at Easter 
Paid to Stephen Boand 
Paid to Stephen Boand 
Item paid to several seman at several times 
Moneys which could not be collected 
Item paid for writing those accounts, and losses, and 

gathering books, and for carrying them out 
Item moneys to make up the sum of the goyld [gold] loss 

Church Plate : — 

This consists of a Chalice 8Jins. high, originally gilt, 
with a bell-shaped bowl, inscribed '* This cup was given 
to this parish of Wing ham by HetSlor de Mont, a 
Frenchmanyborn, Jan. ist, 1632." — The makers mark 
is H.B., and the Paten is engraved with D.M. in 



s. 


d. 


6 


8 


4 








6 


I 


10 


10 





3 





2 


8 


18 





4 


6 


2 


6 


I 


4 


2 


8 


6 


8 


15 


7 


8 


6 


3 





I 


4 


26 








9 


3 





4 


2 


15 


8 


3 


4 


9 


2 


14 


II 


4 





3 


5 



102 



Chronicles of Wingham. 



The Flagon, is^ins. high, the circumference of base 
being 24in. On the handle is the crest of the Master 
family, and on the lid the arms of Oxenden and Master, 
impaled. Inscribed, " The gift of Elizabeth Master to 
ye church of Wingham Parish, in Kent," in year 1726. 
She was Elizabeth Oxenden, who, in 1724 married 
Streynsham Master, but he died the same year. 

The Paten, SJins. in diameter. Inscribed, ** Gift of 
Sibella Oxenden, of Brook, to ye Church of Wingham 
Parish, Kent, 1728." 

Alms-Dish, i7ins. in diameter, having engraved on it 
the arms of the family of Master of Brook. The date 
is supposed to be 1739, but the " Benefadlors Board " 
says, given in 1759 by Mrs. Masters, who gave the 
silver-flagon in 1728. — (Arch. Cant XV I L) 
The Churchwardens: — 



1720 
1721 
1722 

1723 
1724 

1725 
1726 
1727 
1728 
1729 
1730 
1 731 
1732 
1733 
1734 
1735 
1736 
1737 
1738 
1739 
1740 
1741 
1742 
1743 
1744 
1745 
1746 

1747 
1748 

1749 



Thomas Winter 

Thomas Wood 

>i 

•• 
John Matson 

f» 

Edward Baker 

II 

II 

Richard Crambrook 

»» 
Michael Wood 

II 
John Nearne 
William East 

it 

Thomas Sawyer 

•I 
Edward Baker 

Charles Matson 

Michael Wood 

John Seath 



William East 
i» 

John Crambrook 

•» 
Thomas Rainer 

•I 
George Culmcr 

»f 
Richard Castle 

•I 
John Nearne 

i> 
Richard Gibbs 

John Bradley 
i» 

JohnOldfield 

»» 
Thomas Palmer 

•I 
John Hawkes 

Jacob Lamb 

John Adkins 

»i 
Joseph Greenstreet 



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History 


0/ the Chunk. 


103 


1750 JohnSeath 


Joseph Greenstreet 
Stephen Dowker 




1 75 1 Henry Harris 




1752 


>» 




1753 
1754 
1755 John Hawks 

1756 


'» 




•1 
Solomon Spratt 




1757 

1758 William Marsh 


Henry Baker 




1759 


»i 




1760 Daniel Hammond 


John Hunt 




1761 


,, 




1762 Thomas Wood 

1763 

1764 John Oldfield 


Thomas Parkes 




John Broadbridge 




1765 


•1 




1766 Abraham Barras 


Stephen Sayer 




1767 


ti 




1768 William East 


William Murton 




1769 


(» 




1770 Thomas Austen 


Daniel Dixon 




1771 i» 

1772 Richard Pemble 


John Holness 




1773 


i» 




1774 William Port 


William Hawks 




1775 


,, 




1776 James Pilcher 


Richard Marks 




1777 


ft 




1778 Charles Matson 


John Hawks 




1779 


t* 




1780 Thomas Parkes 


Cranford Smith 




1 781 


i» 




1782 Richard Pemble 

1783 

1784 William East 


William Sharp 




Richard Pemble 




1785 


William Hawks 




1786 John Sanders 


,, 




^787 , ^ •; 


George Rigden 




1788 John Elgar 


„ 




1789 , »• 


John East 




1790 John Pettit 


i» 




1791 


George Harris 




1792 Hen. Thos, Hollingbery 


,, 




1793 


John Holness 




1794 Charles Elgar 


,, 




1795 


John Hawks 




1796 Charles Matson 


• r 




1797 


John Elgar 
William Hawks 




1798 John Elgar junr. 




1799 James Powell 


,, 




1800 


Stephen Elgar 





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104 



Chronules oj Wingham. 



1801 James Powell 

1802 George Harris 

1803 ,, 

1804 John Elgar 
1805 

1806 James Powell 

1807 

1808 John Goulden 

1809 

1 8 10 Stephen Elgar 

1811 

18 12 John Hawks 

18 13 „ (Dene) 

1814 ., 

18 1 5 John Dadds 

1816 H 

r8i7 George Harris 

1818 George Harris 

1819 T. M. Rigden 

1820 John Rigden 

1821 Stephen Elgar 

1822 „ 

1823 George Harris 

1824 „ 

1825 John Dadds 
1826 

1827 John Matson Rigden 

1828 „ 

1829 Thomas Matson Rigden 

1830 Richard Deverson 

1831 

1832 John Dadds 

1833 

1834 Stephen Elgar 

1835 

1836 John Elgar 

1837 

1838 John Matson Rigden 

1839 Richard Laslet 

1840 M 

1 841 John Long 

1842 ,. 

1843 Edward Pyner 

1844 M 

1845 Johi\ Long 

1846 John'^lgar 

1847 Thomas Turner 

1848 ., 

1849 John Elgar 

1850 „ 
z8i;i „ 



Stephen Elgar 

>> 
John Hawks 

»• 
John Dadds 

George Harris 

.,' 
Charles Matson 

Richard Deverson 

John Hawks (Brook) 
John Elgar 

•• 
Charles Matson 

•• 
Richard Laslet 

»» 
Thomas Turner 

t» 
Richard Deverson 

»» 
John Hawks 

William Elgar 

•» 
Stephen Elgar 
Ricnard Laslett 

•» 
James Elgar 

William Elgar 

•t 
John Long • 

John Matson Rigden 
William Minter (junr.) 

>• 
John Dadds 



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History of the Churehl 



105 



1852 » 

1853 

1854 

1855 Leonard Laslett 

1856. „ 

1857 , .» 

1858 Edward Lawrence 
1859 

i860 James Dadds 

Overseers :— 

1705 Thos. Young 

1706 Terry Matthews 

1707 John Crambrook 

1708 Thomas Lade 

1709 David Atweli 

1 7 1 o Thomas Sawyer 

171 1 Thomas Wise 

1712 Thomas Young 

1 713 Thomas Winter 

1 714 William Oldfield 

1 7 15 Stephen Bean 

1 7 1 6 Terry M atthews 

1717 Richard Garrett 

1 71 8 Thomas Wood 

1 719 George Culmer 

1720 Thomas Bradley 

1 72 1 Richard Castle 

1722 Thomas Sayer 

1723 £ Baker 

1724 John Matson 

1725 Thomas Winter 
X726 Richard Crambrook 

1727 John Nearn 

1728 Terry Matthews 

1729 Michael Wood 

1730 Thomas Sawyer 

1731 Edward Baker 

1732 John Oldfield 

1733 William East 

1734 Richard Castle 

1735 Richard Crambrook 

1736 Michael Wood 

1737 Thomas Holness 

1738 Charles Matson 

1739 Edward Baker 

1740 Richard Crambrook 

1 74 1 Michael Wood 

1742 John Oldfield 

1743 John Morris 

1744 William Marsh 

1745 Charles Matson 



William Minter (Twitham) 

James Dadds 

WilUam Minter (Twitham) 

James Dadds 

Anthony Laslett 

James Dadds ^ 
ohn Elgar 



Thomas Wood 
John Brice 
Daniel Browning 
C Palmer 

Nicholas Gibbs 
William Marten 
William East 

[ohn Greenstreet 
[ ames Kitchingman 
' ohn Rumney 

ames Shrubsole 
William East Uunr.) 
Thomas Rainor 
John Brice 
Benjamin Tucker 
Henry Elliott 

{ohn Crambrook 
ohn Browning 
Thos. Wise 
Joseph Greenstreet 
John Kingsford 
Richard Gibbs 
John Bradley 
Thomas Rayner 
Alexandra Silk 
Edward Browning 
William Tatnell 
James Lamb 
Joseph Greenstreet 
George Culmer 
Thomas Palmer 



John Hawkes 
John Ad kins 
Joseph Greenstreet 
Richard Castle 
Jacob Lamb 



William Paramor 
Daniel Hammond 



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106 



CkvonkUi of Wingham. 



1746 Richard Crambrook 

1747 John Seath 

1748 Henry Harris 

1749 Solomon Sprat 

1750 Robert Barrows 

1 75 1 RlchaqJ Crambrook 

1752 MichaS Wood 

1753 John Hawks 

1754 Henry Baker 

1755 Jo^n Oldfield 

1756 Stephen Dowker 

1 75 7 Richard Gibbs 

1758 Thomas Wood 

1759 Richard Castle 

1760 Stephen Sayer 

1 761 Henry Harris 
1762 

1762 John Broadbridge 

1763 Daniel Hammond 

1764 Daniel Dixon 

1765 William Murton 

1766 James Beach 

1767 Richard Pemble 

1768 John Hunt 

1769 John Stokes 

1770 John Seath 

1771 Henry Palmer 

1772 James Pilcher 

1773 Thomas Parkes 

1774 Thomas Austen 

1775 Augustin Wraith 

1776 Joseph Hawks 

1777 Charles Matson 

1778 William Sharp 

1779 William East 

1780 Caleb Palmer 

1 78 1 Thomas Austen 

1782 Peter Sanders 

1783 Charles Matson 

1784 

1785 Richard Pemble 

1786 James Pilcher 

1787 John Elgar 

1788 John Holness 

1789 William Hawks 

1790 John Elgar 

1 791 William Hall 

1792 Charles Elgar 

1793 John Hawks 

1794 John East 

1795 John Rigden 

1796 Stephen Elgar 



Richard Gibbs 
Joseph Greenstreet 
William East 

John Kingsford 
ohn Adkins 
Thomas Smeed 
John Hunt 
Abraham Barras 
Thomas Farkes 
James Powell 
Richard Crambrook 

James Bexter 
John Tritton 
Richard Marks 
William Murton 

William East 
John Hawks 
John Holness 
Thomas Bradley 
Thomas Chapman 
Solomon Spratt 
Daniel Hammond 
William Gibbs 
Crawford Smith 
William Hawks 
William Port 
William East 
Daniel Hammond 
George Hammond 
John Holness 
John Oldfield 
William Hawks 
John Sanders 
William Hawks 
James Powell 
William Wraith 
John Hawks 
John East 
John Pettit 
George Rigden 
H. T. HoUingbury 
George Harris 
James Powell 
Charles Matson 
William Hawks 
James Powell 



John Elgar 
George Harris 
James Pilcher 



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History of the Church, 



107 



1797 


John Elgar, Senr. 
Johd Holness 


1798 John Elgar 


1799 Charles Matson 


Stephen Elgar 


1800 John Hawks 


John Elgar 


1801 


It 


1802 WiUiam Hawks 




1803 John Hawks 

1804 

1805 George Harris 


James Powell 


John Goulder 


1806 Stephen Elgar 




1807 . „ 


John Hawks 


1808 John Elgar 


Charles Matson 


1809 John Dadds 




181 ' ohn Hawks 


Richard Deverson 


18 1 1 John Goulder 


George Harris 


181 2 Stephen Elgar 


John Hawks 
William Minter 


18 1 3 Charles Matson 


18 14 John Dadds 

1815 John Hawks 


Richard Deverson 




1816 


Richard Laslett 


18 1 7 Stephen Elgar 


Robert Matson 


18 1 8 T. M. Rigden 




18 1 9 John Dadds 


Thomas Turner 


1820 George Harris 


Richard Deverson 


182 T John Hawks 
1822 William Elgar 


Richard Laslett 




1823 Stephen Elgar 


T. M. Rigden 


1824 John Dadds 

1825 Richard Laslett 


Thomas Turner 


Richard Deverson 


1826 John Hawks 
1827" Stephen Elgar 




John Dadds 


1828 William Elgar 




1829 Thomas Matson Rigden 


Richard Deverson 


1830 John Dadds 


James Elgar 


1831 Stephen Elgar 




1832 Thos. Matson Rigden 


James R, Jacobs 


1833 Richard Deverson 


It 


1834 


,, 


1835 John Elgar 

1836 James Elgar 

1837 

1838 Robert Holness 


^ , •» 


John Dadds 


Charles Miller 


1839 Thomas Matson Rigden 


Clement Harris 


1840 John Elgar 


John Long 


1841 


John Seal 
John Beal 


1842 John Elgar 


1843 


»» 


1844 John Elgar 


»» 


1845 John Long 

1846 Leonard I^slett 


If 


>» 


1847 Edward Pyner 




1848 Stephen Nicholas 


•• 



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108 Chronicles of Wingham. 

1849 John Beal 

1850 

J851 Jesse Coleman „ 

1852 John Daxlds William Minter 

1853 John Boys Sankey " 

1854 Anthony Laslett Richard Elgar 
1855 

1856 Robert Holness ,, 

i«57 

1858 William Minter ,, 

1859 John Robinson William Minter 
i860 „ , , 

The Rushbeecher Charity: — 

John Rushbeecher of the parish of Wingham in the 
County of Kent Yeoman, by his Will bearing date the 
14th of October, 1663, gave and devised as follows, that 
is to say *< Touching the disposing of all that parcel of 
Land with the appurtenances conteyning by estimacion 
five acres more or less lying and being in the Parish of 
Woodnesborough in the occupation of Richard Neame 
and which I lately purchased of Silvester Morris, and I 
do hereby give and devise the said parcel of land 
conteyning five acres more or less with the appurten- 
ances unto my two friends Thomas Denne and Stephen 
Beane and to their heirs to and for the use benefit and 
behoofe of ten of the meaner sort of people of Wingham 
aforesaid not receiving alms from the said Parish of 
Wingham, for ever, the Rent whereof to be paid and 
distributed unto and amongst such poor people of 
Wingham aforesaid and their successors at the discretion 
of the said Thomas Denne and Stephen Beane and their 
heirs for ever." 

From the death of the said Testator which happened 
soon after the execution of his said will up to and 
inclusive of the year 1801 the rents of the said piece of 
land devised by his said Will as aforesaid were annually 
applied to and for the benefit of ten of the meaner sort 
of people of the poor of the Parish of Wingham afore- 
said being the objects of the said Testator's bounty, by 
the Churchwardens and Overseers of the same Parish. 
But in the year 1801 one John Bean assumed to 
himself the ownership of the said piece of land and by 
his will dated July 15th, 1801, devised or pretended 



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Histoty of the Church, 109 



to devise the same land to his friend David Anderson 
in fee. 

By Indentures of lease and release dated respectively 
the 23rd and 24th days of August, 1803, the said David 
Anderson and Martha his wife in consideration of 
;^200 conveyed the said piece of land to one Michael 
Constable in fee and by certain Indentures of lease 
and release dated respectively the gth and loth days 
of November, 1809, the said Michael Constable in 
consideration of ;^290 conveyed the said piece of land 
to Richard Pettman in fee. 

The said Richard Pettman made his will, October 
loth 1809, and shortly afterwards died, but the said 
piece of land did not pass by the said will as the 
conveyance thereof to him bore a subsequent date to 
his said will and therefore by Indentures of Lease 
and Release dated October loth and nth, 18 10, Richard 
Pettman therein described as one of the children and 
devisees named in the said will of the said Richard 
Pettman deceased and his heir-at-law. Richard 
Leggatt and Sarah his wife, Edward Curling and 
Elizabeth Hatton his wife, Edward Slaughter and 
Mary Jane his wife (and which said Sarah Leggatt, 
Elizabeth Hatton Curling and Mary Jane Slaughter 
were the only three children and devisees named in 
the will of the said Richard Pettman deceased) for the 
valuable consideration therein mentioned conveyed a 
messuage and five acres of land in Woodnesborough 
aforesaid, and also the said piece of land to the said 
Edward Slaughter in fee. 

Edward Slaughter by his will bearing date June 22nd, 
1831, gave and devised the said messuage and five acres 
of land in Woodnesborough aforesaid and also the 
said piece of land devised by the will of the said John 
Rushbeecher, unto John Hoile and John Debock 
therein described their heirs and assigns, upon trust 
to receive and take the yearly rents issues and profits 
thereof and pay and apply the same for the benefit of 
his wife Mary Slaughter for life, and afterwards of his 
niece Catherine Solly as a feme sole for her life with 



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110 Chronicles of Wingham. 

remainder to the use of all and every the child or 
children of his said niece lawfully begotten, in equal 
shares as tenants in common and the heirs of their 
respective bodies with cross remainders in tail between 
them, and the said Testator appointed Mary Slaughter 
John Hoile and John Debock Exors. of his will, who 
on or about August 25th, 1835, duly proved the same 
will in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 

In Hillary Term, 1835, a suit was instituted in the 
High Court of Chancery to recover from the devisees 
of Edward Slaughter the possession of the Charity 
Land wherein the Attorney General at the relation of 
the Rev. Montague Oxenden, Vicar of Wingham was 
Plaintiff; and Mary Slaughter, John Hoile, John Debock 
Thomas Solly and Catherine his wife, and Katherine 
Slaughter Solly and Julia Solly infants, by the said 
Thomas Solly their father and guardian were the 
Defendants. William Lee was solicitor for the Vicar 
without any pecuinary assistance from him or any 
other person and in December, 1841, the case was 
brought to a successful issue. 

By the Decree made on hearing the case December 
20th, 1841, it was amongst other things ordered that 
it should be referred to the Master of the said Court 
of Chancery, to whom the case stood referred, to 
appoint two or more proper persons to be Trustees of 
the said Charity. And it was ordered that the defend- 
ants Mary Slaughter, John Hoile, and John Debock, 
should deliver possession of the said piece of land, 
together with all deeds papers, and writings relating 
thereto to such persons, when so appointed, to be held 
by them upon the trusts of the will of the said John 
Rushbeecher. 

On January 24th, 1844, John Dadds and Edward 
Pyner, then the churchwardens, John Elgar and John 
Beal the overseers of the Parish, and their successors 
the churchwardens and overseers of the Parish for 
the time being, were to be the Trustees. 

The Defendants had to pay the cost, but William 
Lee, solicitor for the Vicar incurred divers other costs, 

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History of the Church. Ill 



charges, and expenses amounting to £2(^ 14s gd. and 
as there was no fund to pay the same, he proposed 
that the amount should be paid gradually, and he 
would lease the land, paying a small sum yearly for 
the use of the Charity. But this was not done, so in 
March, 1846, William Lee petitioned the Vice-Ghancellor 
of England pra3nlng that out of the rents and profits 
of the land, the churchwardens and overseers should 
have £s a year for the charity, and the remainder 
each year paid to him to liquidate the sum of ;^296 14s. 
gd. until that was paid and satisfied. On March 27th, 
1846 it was so ordered ; and from that date ;^io a year 
was paid to William Lee until 1853, when he "for a 
good and valuable consideration...... assigned unto 

James Elgar and Richard Elgar of Wingham, all that 
sum of ;^205 4s gd, the balance due to him." From 
1853 to 1879 the amount was paid to them, when being 
paid off, the Charity Commissioners drew up a scheme 
in May, 1877, by which the money from the Charity 
land is spent for the use and benefit of ten or more of 
the poor parishioners; either by (i) the supply 
of clothes, linen, bedding, fuel, food or other articles 
in kind ; {2) the supply of temporary relief in 
money, in the case of unexpected loss, urgent distress 
or sudden destitution ; (3) Payment not exceeding one 
pouud each by way of reward or prizes, for the benefit 
of children attending a national or public elementary 
school, who shall have attended school for not less than 
two years next preceeding the award of payment ; (4) 
the maintenance of a library in or for the benefit of 
the scholars in any public elementary school in the 
Parish ; (5) providing lectures or evening classes in 
such school. 

By the Local Government Act, 1894, Four Trustees 
for this Charity are appointed by the Parish Council 
which public-body in 1895 appointed: — 
Mr. Edward J. Elgar. 
„ Henry Goodban. 
,, William J. Meek. 
„ John Wrake 
A trustee's term of office is four years, except that of 

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1t$ Chronicles of H^ingham, 



those first appointed, two will retire at the end of two 
years. 

Thb Foulke-Rutter Charity: — 

This is a charity that the Parish has had for only 
a few years. Jonathan Foulke-Rutter of Watling 
Street, Canterbury, who died 19th September, 1865, by 
his will dated the previous ist March, 1864, bequeathed 
the sum of ;f 3 a year for the maintenance of his wife's 
tomb, in the churchyard of Wingham, and any balance 
remaining over, to be given to the widows of the parish. 

Extract from will — "I particularly request my kind friend 
" William Vaine (one of the executors before named) will consult 
*' Mr. Sankey as to the best manner of securing for ever the 
** annual amount of three pounds to the Minister and Church- 
" wardens of the parish of Wingham, to keep the small tomb 
" erected to the memory of my dear wife in good repair and 
" painted every three years, and the grass round it neatly kept, 
** which I suppose one year with another will cost twenty 
** shillings; the remainder of the three pounds to be distributea 
« every Christmas in sums of five shillings among poor cleanly 
*< widows of that parish ; and entirely at the discretion of the 
" minister and churchwardens for the time being. I give and 
" bequeath at the decease of Charlotte Hayward—One hundred 
''three per cents reduced Annuities for that purpose, which I am 
" sure I may rely upon my friend William Vaine attending to." 

The estate of the Testator having been administered 
in the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice 
and although Charlotte Hayward (now Young) is 
living, the parties interested in the residue of the 
estate desired that the bequest to the parish, should 
be carried out without delay. By an order of the court 
dated 20th July, 1889, it was provided that the sums of 
£110 New Consols; and £72 cash should be left in 
the hands of the Paymaster General of the Court for 
the arrears due, and the Minister and Cbkirchwardens 
might apply to the Court, as to the application of the 
funds: — 





£ s. d. 


New Consols 


no 


Money on Deposit 


72 


Cash 


3 19 4 



£ii5 ^ 9 4 

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Histoty of the Church. 113 



This amount was then transferred to the Official 
Trustees of Charitable- Funds, at a cost with the legacy 
duty of £2'^ I2S. 3d. and the Vicar and Churchwardens 
appointed Trustees to receive the interest on the 
amount (then /159 8s. 7d.) as it became due. A further 
sum of £40 was invested by the Trustees in government 
Consols, making a total of ;^I50 ; invested in the name 
of this Charity and the annual income is £^ 2S. 4d. 




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Chapter VII. 

WINGHAM COLLEGE. 

^HE College was founded in 1282 for a Provost (or 
vJ head) and six secular Canons, so named because 
such priests did not belong to one of the great Religious 
Orders, like the regulars, who made a vow of true 
obedience, perpetual chastity, and wilful poverty. But 
for the great disadvantages under which the Archbishop 
entered upon his primacy ^as given in his life) his muni- 
ficence would very probaoly have been greater, for the 
choir of the church has fourteen stalls. It should also 
be remembered that it was the intention of Archbishop 
Kilwardby to found a College here, but he left England 
to take up his residence at Rome, as Cardinal Bishop of 
Portus, before he carried out his design. 

Part of the buildings were almost opposite the church, 
and on the east side of the Archbishop's Manor House ; 
the pi(5luresque old cottage (repaired in 1893), the **Dog" 
Inn, and the Post Office, are probably part of the 
college, being the houses of the canons. For although 
some persons think the college was built in the custom- 
ary form of a square, with a quadrangle in the centre, 
and that these three houses are remains of the side that 
faced the village street ; yet upon close observance, 
these houses appear to have been built quite separate, 
and the writer believes they are the houses of the 
canons, although altered and repaired since 1547. For 
at Endellion in Cornwall, and St. Mary's College within 
the Castle of Hastings in Sussex, there was a college for 
secular-canons, who lived in separate houses, which at 
Endellion still remain. -{Notes and Queries, Sept, i6th, 
1893.) When Archbishop Warham held his "visitation'* 
of the College in 151 1, it is stated, that ** each canon 
should keep residence in his own house, and at his own 
table *' which was not done. But there v/ere six canons 
and we have only three houses, which probably from 

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Wingham College, 115 



their construcftion were each meant as a residence for 
two canons, many of whom held a living elsewhere ; 
unless three houses have been pulled down, or were 
never built. The Provost lived in a house close to the 
church, on the south-east side, which stood on the site 
of the original vicarage. It seems to have been custom- 
ary at that time to reward a secular priest who success- 
fully carried out some state business (most of which in 
those days was undertaken by clerics), with a canonry 
in some collegiate church which was not a monastic 
house, although the canons lived by rule. 

The Foundation Deed was signed at Wingham 
Manor House on August 2nd, 1282, iandby the kindness 
of a friend, we are enabled to give a translation ; — 

** Brother John, by Divine permission Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Primate of all England, who is about to 
examine the letters in hand, eternal greeting to all in 
the Lord, The providence of the Supreme Father, 
whose rule regulates the boundaries ot the whole 
creation, has entrusted His Vineyard to keepers, and 
gives to each one according to his own peculiar capacity 
and measure of grace ; has delivered the management of 
the affairs of his kingdom to be held in charge, lest the 
magnitude of the entrusted talent should exceed the 
strength and diligence of the steward, so that the 
treasury of the Lord be diminished, the vineyard laid 
waste, and the flock (purchased by the blood of Christ) 
owing to the inability of the earthly shepherd, be wasted 
by the wolf without hindrance. We therefore in our 
anxiety for the living fruit, perceiving (thro' the grace 
given to us) the anxious watching in the tower of Christ, 
and in process of time diredling our attention to the 
benefits which alone ought to influence the minds of 
Catholics for the guidance of souls ; have turned our 
eyes to the church of Wingham as it were to a fruitful 
vineyard filled with branches and fruits, which cannot 
be easily cultivated by the labours of one husbandman, 
nay, further, by the labours of two, from the great 
extent of the parish as well as its numerous population, 
and its revenues are sufficient to furnish the payment of 
more labourers. And it seems very much opposed to 

je 



"d' 



/ 75 Chronicles of Windham* 



the Divine plans, together with the harm caused to the 
general welfare and unspeakable loss of souls, that\vhat 
is quite enough for more soldiers of Christ should be 
pressed into one purse. Wherefore, as a remedy for a 
danger of this kind, we, together with our Chapter, with 
due consideration, have gone over the matter carefully, 
and report the arrangement of our lord Pope Gregory 
X. of blessed memory ; who, true to the good intention 
of the Lord Robert [Kilwardby] our predecessor, 
wished the church of Wingham to be divided into 
prebendaries. We have, therefore, divided it into four 
parishes, as follows : — ^The first and chief of all these 
we declare to be the Church of Wingham, together with 
all its hamlets and our Archiepiscopal tithes of Berton, 
together with the chapel and tithes of the Manor of 
Overland and all its tenants ; and with it all the tithe of 
Campi Crul, which is allowed to be of our holding in 
the same territory. The second, the parish of Esse 
[Ash] having the tithes which were given to the ? 
of Geldenton, together with the chapel of Flete and all 
its hamlets, except those we have expressly given to the 
church of Wingham. The third, the church of God- 
wynestone [Goodnestone] with the hamlets of Bonning- 
ton, Offington, Rolling, Newenham, Underdone, together 
with parts of Tuicham and Chilenden, which from the 
earliest times have belonged to the church of Godwynes- 
tone. The fourth, the church of Nonington, with the 
chapel of Wymelingewelde, [now corrupted to Womens- 
wold], and the hamlets of Rittlynge [Ratling], Freyde- 
ville, Hesol, Suthnonington, Hakeholt, Catehampton, 
Attedane, Wolshethe [Woolwich], and Vike, some of 
which have been fixed in well-proportioned parts, which 
the vicars are known to have so far held without 
hindrance. And, because in this division we have 
regard only to the honour of God, and the spiritual and 
temporal welfare of souls, following the canonical rules 
according to Dionysius, we therefore, openly forbid 
anyone opposing this present division under threat of 
Divine curse. For we have most carefully considered 
the matter, with the advice of learned men, and have 
confirmed it with the impress of our seal, Farewell 



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Wingham College. 117 



Given at Wingham this 2nd of August, in the year of 
our Lord 1282 ; and the fourth of our consecration. 

Archbishop John Peckham then took the deed to 
Canterbury, where, in the. chapterhouse of Christ 
Church Monastery, on August 5th, Prior Nicholas de 
Sandwich signed his consent on behalf of that Monastery; 
but it was not until 7th June, 1290, that Edward I. gave 
his consent when at Westminster. 

The names of the six canonries of the College were — 
Bonnington, Chilton, Pedding Ratling, Twitham, and 
Wymlingswold, named from the places of their endow- 
ment. Further particulars of them, will be found in 
Chapter VIII. 

The income of our parish church and its vicarage 
being now appropriated and given to the Provost of 
Wingham College for his support, as part of his portion, 
in order that the services of the church should be duly 
carried on for the parishioners, the Archbishop required 
that the Provost and each of the Canons should have a 
Vicar — or, as we should say at the present day, a curate 
— whilst the Canons themselves were bound to reside in 
the College for at least four months of every year. The 
parish church now, until the suppression of the College 
in 1547, was partly collegiate and partly parochial, the 
choir and chancel being used by the Canons for their 
services, where their old stalls still remain, whilst the 
nave with its two aisles was used by the parishioners for 
their services. , 

As our founder and benefactor expected, some 
opposition was raised, and on July 23rd, 1283. Arch- 
bishop Peckham was obliged to write to his Commissary 
as follows : — **Brother John, by divine permission, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England, to 
our dear son, Master Martin, Commissary of Canterbury 
health, greeting and blessing. A little while ago, by the 
astonishing suggestion of certain persons (it seems to us) 
that a certain monk, who said that he was the Sacristan 
of W^estniinster, with his accomplices in those parts, has 
rashly dared to inhibit the parishioners of Wingham, of 
Esse [Ash], and Godwynestone, and of Nonnington in 



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1T8 Chronicles of Wingham 



our Diocese and jurisdi(5lion of Canterbury, and has 
publicly and expressly said that the inhabitants of those 
parishes should not on our authority pay to the re(5lors 
or guardians of those parishes, nor to any one who 
appears on their authority; the greater and lesser tithes 
or any dues whatever, or make any satisfaction for them 
in any form ; unjustly overthrowing as much as they can 
the position of the said rectors and the before- mentioned 
churches, which they have obtained canonically. 
Wherefore, we strongly charge and command you to go 
without any delay to those churches and all their chapels 
on a Sunday or Holy Day, when during the solemnization 
of Mass, you will, by our authority publicly and solemnly 
declare to all and every parishioner, strongly bid them 
that, without taking any notice of the worthless and 
empty inhibition of the said monk and his supporters, 
they are to pay the greater and lesser tithes and all just 
dues to the before mentioned churches and their recflors, 
by whatever name or right they may be called, together 
with the plain conditions by which they are held, and 
make adequate satisfaction to them under pain of the 
greater excommunication which we pronounce against all 
in these writings, of whatever sex or rank they may 
be ; and there are those who think that although a 
canonical monition was issued before have thought that 
the opposite would be done. But we will that the 
sentence of excommunication be extended to all those 
who knowingly and of malice have withdrawn or 
purloined anything from the tithes or any of the dues 
(as mentioned) that ought to be paid to the said churches 
and to those who have given help, counsel, or favour to 
the witholder or plunderer, or to Tedysio de Camilla, 
who has paid and surrendered secretly and openly any 
of the tithes or dues to the procurator, nuncio, or any 
one claiming in his name, whom we excommunicate, and 
wish to be denounced by name when you can lawfully 
obtain their names, and the days and places to which it 
shall seem good to you to summon them, until they 
obtain the benefit of absolution according to law. Let 
this be made known to us by your written letters, or in 
some other manner. But whatever you contrive or 
promise to do, when asked by the said rec5lors as to place 

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Wingham CotUge. 179 



and time, take care to inform us by your letters contain 
ing the account of these things. Given at Otford, July 
23rd, 1283, the fifth of our consecration/' 

Of the Provosts and Canons of the College some be- 
came distinguished men in State affairs, whilst others 
reached high positions in the Church, and their history 
will be found in chapters IX and X. 

Except for the notices of the College, in the lives of 
the Provosts and Canons, we have not many detailed 
particulars, until a little more than forty years before its 
suppression we have a visitation held by Archbishop 
Warham, which he began 9th September, 151 1, in the 
chapter house of the cathedral. The archbishop was 
accompanied by the celebrated Cuthbert Tonstall, who 
was his chancellor, and afterwards became Bishop of 
Durham. Having visited the religious houses in Canter- 
bury, on September 14th, Archbishop Warham arrived at 
the Collegiate Church of Wingham, where after a sermon 
in the church, he held a ** visitation " of the college, and 
found as follows : — 

Provost— Henry Ediall. 

Canons • Ambrose Payne (1499*1522) 

Thomas Kery 

John Williams 

Robert Woodward (1505-31) 

Thomas Dryffield 

Robert Cowper 
Vicars— Thomas Bartlott 

John Millett 

John Gellyff (or Joliff) 

Robert Dobbys 
Chantry Priest — Thomas Pennoche (or Glover) 
Choir Clerks (or Choristers) John Becke 

Richard Banes 

John Morys 

William de Latours 
Churchwardens— Edward Oxenden 

Thomas Pynder 
Parishioners— John Perry 

John Berrys 

Thomas Morres 

Richard Shehon 

' The Provost Henry Ediall was examined with 
reference to the services and the state of the whole 



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120 Chr<micUs of Wingham. 



college ; said that whereas by the foundation there ought 
to be eight vicars-choral, there are only four. Also the 
Provost and each Canon ought to have a vicar-choral in 
priest's orders, or a deacon capable of being ordained a 
priest at the next ordination. 

Each Canon is bound at the end .of the first year of 
residence, to present some ornament to the College ; and 
should keep residence in his own house, and at his own 
table, which none of them do. The house of Canon 
Ambrose Payne wants repair, and is very ruinous. He 
was told by the Archbishop to repair his house 
sufficiently within a year, under pain of removal. And 
since he also held two benefices, he was to shew to the 
Archbishop the deeds of plurality and institution, before 
the next Festival of All Saints (November ist). This 
he did, shewing the apostolical dispensations and 
institutions. 

Canon Thomas Kery did not produce the deed of his 
appointment, which he was therefore to shew to the 
Archbishop at Lambeth, before the next Festival of All 
Saints, This he did. 

Canon John Williams exhibited the deed of his ap- 
pointment, and said that although it was required that 
each Canon should have a vicar-choral in priests orders, 
yet Archbishop Bouchier (1454-86) when Thomas 
Rotherham was Provost of the College, 1458-63, be- 
cause each vicar had only £4, a year, ordered that there 
should be four priest- vicars, and four secular clerks. 

The Vicars stated that in old times, there were eight, 
but now only four, and they pray that their bod}' may 
be increased to eight. Also that a marc (13s. 4d.) is 
withdrawn from the stipend of each ; and that formerly 
the Provost and Canons promoted the Vicars to bene- 
fices, but now give them to strangers. They used to 
have well taught (doctosj choir clerks, now they have 
but two who are untaught (indo<5los). The rules of the 
College are never read in the presence of the Vicars, 
and therefore they do not know whether they are 
keeping them or not. 

John Millet, a vicar, exhibited his letters of orders 



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Wingham Coiligi, 121 



shewing that he had been ordained at Ronie. He was 
probably Vicar of Lyminge, 1508-11, and in 1524 
became Vicar of Bethersden. 

Iohn JolifF, a vicar, was a professed monk, and shewed 
3uU, containing Papal dispensation, allowing him to 
go without the habit of a monk. This the Archbishop 
did not admit, but warned him to remove from his 
diocese and jurisdiiftion. Then the said John confessed 
that he had made profession in the Monastery of 
Evesham, fourteen years before. 

Robert Dobbs, another vicar, did not produce his 
*' letters of orders,'* as a proof that he was ordained, and 
was ordered so to do before the Festival of All Saints. 
This he did before the Archbishop at Lambeth, on 
Odlober 17th, by John Wilkins, who was chaplain to 
Provost Henry Ediall. 

The Chantry- Priest, Thomas Pennocke (or Glover), 
exhibited "letters of orders'' which were suspicious, so 
the Archbishop ordered him to cease from officiating 
at divine service, in the diocese, and quit the juris- 
di(5lion of the Archbishop immediately after the Feast 
of St. Michael. 

A certain bill was exhibited on the part of the Prior 
and monks of Christ Church Canterbury who claimed 
the right to visit the college, when there was a vacancy 
in the archiepiscopal see. 

At the end of the enquiry, Archbishop Warham 
required all the Canons present, to show cause before 
himself at Lambeth, on or before the Festival of All 
Saints, why each Canon should not maintain a Vicar, 
according to the original foundation of the College. 
Then on October 23rd, Canons Robert Woodward, 
Ambrose Payne, and John WilHams appeared before the 
Archbishop at Lambeth, when he warned them not to 
go away from the College without special license. 
[British Magazine XXIX) 

The suppression of the Religious Houses in this 
country, is well known, so that only a short explanation 
is necessary. 

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122 Chronicles of Wingham. 

Henry VIII was only nineteen when he became king, 
and was '*not more vicious than many kings who have 
maintained a very fair reputation in history. In force of 

character there are few indeed that come near him 

...-.the main originator of the greatest and most 
critical changes of his reign. He had been carefully 
educated by good scholars and had made remarkable 
progress. He succeeded a king who had been his own 
first minister. As early as 1515 he had declared himself 
determined not to allow any superiority of external 
spiritual courts in a country of which he was sovereign. 
As lord and master of the church, he could utilise church 
machinery to obtain the divorce and re-marriage, on 
which he had set his heart, and when tired of the 
second wife he could obtain from Archbishop Cranmer, 
the annulling of that marriage, as easily as he could 
obtain a Bill of attainder from the Parliament," 

In 1531 by threat of " Praemunire " he made the 
clergy recognise him as the supreme head of the church 
of England, and pay to the king ;^ii8,840 by the votes 
of Convocation, If they will pay money, they will 
surrender power and next year were made to renounce 
their right of spiritual legislation without royal license ; 
and consent to the reform of canon-law under the 
authority of the king, and the Parhament of 1532 passed 
the "Statute of Appeals" which forbad any appeal being 
made to Rome. 

On the death of Archbishop William Warham at 
Hackington, August 22nd, 1532, Henry VIII appointed 
Cranmer, already committed to the question of the 
marriage, and the Archbishop was enthroned on 
November 3rd ; whilst Henry in anticipation of the 
divorce married Anne Boleyn, and obtained from 
Cranmer sentence of nullity of the previous marriage, 
and the validity of the new one on May 23rd 1533, and 
on June ist, Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen by the 
Archbishop. 

In 1534 Parliament gave secular recognition of the 
King as supreme head on earth of the Church of 
England, which led to the death of Fisher, Bishop of 

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Wingham College. 123 



Rochester ; the confidential friend of the King's father 
and grandfather ; and of those who represented all that 
was good in his own early experience. {Stubbs Mediaval 
and Modem History Lectures) 

Cardinal Wolsey by his plans for church reforms 
some ten years earlier, by the suppression of useless 
monastic foundations, had opened the eyes of Henry 
VIII. to a new possibility. It will be remembered how 
Cardinal Wolsey, in 1524, having obtained from Pope 
Clement VIII. pern;iission to suppress those small 
religious-houses having less than seven inmates, and 
their revenues were to be devoted to educational pur- 
poses. Religious houses whose revenue was so small 
that they could not support more than seven monks, 
were considered scarcely able to maintain serious dis- 
cipline. This was only the beginning that ended in all 
of them being swept away. ** All the forest of religious 
houses in England began to shake, justly fearing that 
the king would fell the oaks, when the Cardinal began 
to cut the underwood." Commissioners were sent out 
to inquire into the condition of these very small 
monasteries, whose revenues were to be used for 
founding a College at Oxford, and a school in Wolsey*s 
native town of Ipswich. In this county Lesnes Abbey, 
and Tunbridge Priory were thus suppressed. — {Wolsey 
by 7. M. Creightoti). 

Henry VIII in 1535 sent Thomas Crum well and his 
agents to enquire into the state of the monasteries, 
which was laid before Parliament. 

At the end of February, 1536, the Bill for the Dissolu- 
tion of the smaller religious houses was passed by 
Parliament. Those that had less than twelve inmates, 
and whose income was under ;^200 a year, were to sur- 
render their houses, lands, tithes, churches, etc., to the 
King. By this Act were confiscated and suppressed in 
this county — the Abbies of St. Rhadigunds, and West 
Langdon, also the Priories of Folkestone, Dover, Bil- 
sington, St. Gfeogory's in Canterbury, Cumbwell, 
Horton, Headcorne, Mottenden, Aylesford Newenden, 
Sandwich, and Minster in Sheppey. "The old scandals 

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724 Chronicles of Vf^ingham, 



(says Mr. James Gairdner) universally discredited at 
the time, and believed in by a later generation only 
through prejudice and ignorance, are now dispelled for 
ever, and no candid writer will ever dream of resusci- 
tating them." 

The King's chief agent to carry out this had been 
Thomas Crumwell, who was now beset, on one side, by 
the heads of those houses where few irregularities had 
been discovered, that they might be continued ; and on 
the other side by many noblemen and gentlemen of the 
Court, v.'ho wished for a share of the spoil. The greater 
foundations then fell under the displeasure of the King, 
for the part they were suppose to have taken in the 
disturbances which had followed the suppression of the 
others. — {Diocesan History) 

In 1539 Parliament passed an Act giving the monastic 
estates to the King, the great abbeys being terrified into 
"voluntary surrender," whilst those abbots that refused 
to surrender their houses were hanged or beheaded for 
high treason. Thus came to an end the great religious 
houses of Christ Church, St. Augustine's, and the 
Nunnery of St. Sepulchres in Canterbury ; the Abbies of 
Faversham, Boxley, and Mailing ; the Priories of Leeds 
and Dartford, and certain hospitals. 

The Abbots and Priors then sat in Parliament for the 
last time ; and a "Court of Augmentation" was founded 
to manage their property, Wingham College however 
escaped for a few years, not being a religious house in 
the strict sense of the term, but a College of Secular- 
Priests, who lived in their separate houses, But in 1547 
the first year of the reign of Edward VI, the colleges, 
chantries, hospitals, and guilds fell under the displeasure 
of the king— or more correctly his advisers — for the part 
they were supposed to have taken in the disturbances, 
which so naturally followed the suppression of the 
religious houses. These included S. Nicholas at 
Harbledown, S. Lawrence and S. Jacobs for Lepers, 
the Hospitals of East bridge, Maynard's, and Northgate, 
at Canterbury ; S. Bartholomew's at Sandwich ; the 
Maison Dieu (or Domus Dei) and S. Bartholomew's 
Leper Hospital at Dover; the Colleges at Bredgar, 

uiyiiiziuu uy -s^j -^^ v,^' -t t^ 



Wingham CoUeqe. 125 



Cobham, Maidstone, Wingham, and Wye and many 
others. 

The annual income of Wingham College at its 
suppression was ;^2o8 14s 3d. (equal to some ;^i,9C)o a 
year at the present day), for the Provost himself received 
every year from the tithes and personal oflFering £\s 6s 
8d. (equal to some ;f 450, or three times as much as the 
income of the living is now), and he further had from 
the tithes of the chapel at Overland £20 a year (equal 
to about ;^2oo), out of which he paid £g a year ( about 
£go) to a priest who did the duty at Overland. So the 
income of the Provost was equal to some £s50 a year 
at the present day. — (Hasted III) 

The canons received every year from the tithes, 
offering etc. given to the churches of Ash, Overland, 
Richboro*, Nonington, Wymlingswould, and Good- 
neston, the sum of ^133 13s 4d. (equal to ;^i,300 a 
year at the present day), and from other lands in the 
parishes of Wingham, Preston, and Ash, £g 14s 3d., 
out of which they paid to the Priory of Folkestone 
twenty seames of barley (a seam being equal to eight 
bushels) ; and £2 6s 8d. To the Archbishop they paid 
£1 15s gd. ; to the Prioress of S. Sepulchre's, los. ; and 
to Preston Manor gs gd. 

Annual pensions for life were given to the Members 
of the College — to Edmund Cranmer ;^2o a year (equal 
to nearly ;^20o), which he received until 1553, when 
he was obliged to leave the country. Canons John 
Blande, John Thorpe, Robert CoUyns, John Clayton, 
Matthew Goodriche, and John Stowe received £6 13s 4d. 
(equal to about ;^6o a year.) The Vicars, Roger Lynsey, 
and Augustin Quested, £^ 5s. each (some ;^4o), and 
the others, Richard Broke, Edward Cowdry, Richard 
Turnore, and Edward Sturgeon, £2 each ; and several 
of them lived many years into the reign of Queen Mary. 
—{Arch. Cant, II). 

The house of the Provost, at the east of the church 
and the vicarage before the college was founded, 
remained in the hands of the King until 1553, when 
Edward VI sold it for the sum' oi £sig iis 4d. with the 



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li& Chronicles of Wingham. 



church and all the tithes that were paid to the church 
(then nearly ;^6oo a year), and one acre of glebeland to 
Sir Henry Palmer subjedl to a payment of ;^2o a year 
to the Vicar, who was therefore left without a 
residence. This family was descended from the 
Palmers of Angmerin, in Sussex, and Sir Henry 
PaJmer and his descendants lived in the Provost's house. 
He died at the age of seventy at the siege of Guisnes, in 
France; whilst his brother Thomas, who sided with 
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, in support 
of Lady Jane Grey, was beheaded on Tower Hill, 
August 23rd, 1553. 

The houses of the Canons were' also sold, — according 
to an abstract of the title deeds belonging to Henry 
Baker of Wingham. "Nov. 29th, 1549, Edward VI. 
with the advice of the Lord Protector and his Council 
grants to the said Thomas Persse and William 
Alexander their heirs and assigns for ever, all the 
aforesaid Six Messuages and their appurtenances, in 
as full, free, and ample a manner and form, as any 
Master, Provost, Prebendaries, Governors, or Ministers 
of the College of Wingham, or any Chantry- Priest, 
Chaplain or Incumbent held the said six messuages. 
Each of the said Messuages valued at fifteen shillings 

a year...... granted in Fee simple and that we, our 

Heirs, Successors for ever, yearly and from time to 
time, shall exonerate acquit and save harmless, as 
well the said Thomas Persse and William Alexander 
their heirs and assigns as also the said messuages, 
and all and singular the Premises, and every several 
part thereof, against us, our heirs and successors, and 
against all other persons whatsoever, of all and all 
manner of Corrodies, Rents, Fees, Annuities, Pensions, 
Portions and sums of money issuing or going out of 
the Premises or charged upon the same, or any part 
thereof; except the Services above reserved and such 
leases as now are in being, and the conditions of them 
for life or years, whereby the old rent or a greater is 
reserved. — [From a Paper given to me by an oldinhahiiant). 

Now we come to sad times of great destruction, when 
the necessary things lor the service of the church were 



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Wingham College, 127 



sold by the churchwardens, who were careful to state 
that it was ** with the consent of the whole parish" 
** Edward VI. was but the toy and puppet of men whO| 
in enriching themselves and crushing their rivals, 
present a spe(5tacle of statesmanship as degrading to 
this country as can be imagined, their deadly feuds be- 
ing settled generally by the headsman's axe." In 1548 
this king (or more correcSlly his advisers^ caused inven- 
tories to be made of all the goods and ornaments of the 
parish churches : for the safe keeping of these goods the 
churchwardens were held responsible. This inventory 
shows the richness, multitude, and variety of the goods 
and ornaments — that the bells were hanging in the 
towers, the organs were in the choir, and every parish 
church had silver crosses, pixes, candlesticks, cruets, 
censers, and spoons, all of silver, which were probably 
still used on festival days. But the work of destrudlion 
soon commenced ; Archbishop Cranmer, in the Convo- 
cation of November, 1547, had exhorted the clergy to 
** throw out all the Popish trash which was not yet cast 
out ;" and in the summer of 1548 (after the inventory 
had been taken^, images, shrines, and monuments were 
destroyed or removed, altars, vestments, sanctus-bells, 
carved wood, and iron and brass work were sold, white- 
wash covered the paintings on the walls, and common 
glass (a very poor substitute) took the place of the 
glorious painted windows. Some lines written by the 
late John Mason Neale very well describe the state of 
the churches under the new system : — 

111 hands are on the Parish Church ; 

They batter down the nave : 
They strip the lead, they spoil the dead, 

They violate the grave ; 
They laugh to scorn the humble prayer, 

Writ o're the senseless clay, 
That asketh, '* Of youre charite 

A Paternoster say :" 
They overthrow the sdtar tomb, 

With effigy and lore, 
" For Jesu's tender love, in peace 

Repose they evermore." 
No more the Matin-songs of praise, 

Nor Holy Vespers rise ; 
Hushed is the voice of Compline, ceas'd 

The Daily Sacrifice, 

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128 Chronicles of Wingham, 



From Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. XIV., we learn 
that the inventory of our parish church, before the 
; destruction began was as follows: — 

1 saite of redd satten with l^ons of gould, the crossee of the 
vestmentes [the chasuble] imbroidered with pearls with .... 
to the same, but uot of the same worke with albes and amitts 
[amice] and all that belong thereunto. 

2 copes belonging to the same of silke, the ground being red with 
ostrich feathers of golde and flowers of greene, the orfrayes of gold 
with images. 

1 suite of vestyments of white damaske with the crosse of redd 
damaske braunched with goulde, with' all things belongyng to the 
same ; with a coope [cope] of bawdkyn clothe with circles and 
images. 

[The " suite of vestyments " means a complete set of the chasuble, 
dalmatic, and tunicle, " with all things belonging to the same " the 
albs, stoles, girdles, etc. " Bawdkyn clothe " is a sort of rich em- 
broidered silk or cloth. 

4 white copes of damaske with flowers and Lyons, 

1 suit of vestyments of yellow silk with flowers of greene, and 
beasts of gould, with a cope of the .same, and all things belonging to 
the same 

[Yellow was the colour of the vestments worn on certain Saints' 
Days, according to the " Sarum use."] 

1 suite of vestiments of silke. the ground redd with branches of 
blewe, and flowers of gould, with a coupe [cope] of the same 
with variable braunches, and all things belonging to the same. 

Isuit of vestiments with a cope to the same, of silke with beadys ; 
the crosses with the orfraryes of clothe of gould, with all things 
belonging to the same. 

1 suite of vestiments of greene silke, with ostriche feathers of 
white, with all things belonging to the same except two of the . . . 

1 suite of vestiments of blacke velvett with crosses of cloth of 
silver, with all things belonging to the same except the cope. 

1 vestiment [a chasuble] and a tunicle of white satten, with 
popingoyes [very probably doves] with all things belonging to them. 

1 vestyment of redd velvett, with the crosse of blewe damaske with 
all things belonging to yt. 

1 vestyment of white damaske, with a crosse of redd velvett, with 
all things belonging to yt. 

1 cope of ould blewe velvett, with starres of goulde. [This would 
be worn in the processions on the Festivals of the Blessed Virgin 
(Feb. 2nd, March 25th, Aug. 14th, Dec. 8th).] 

1 vestyment and 1 cope of silke greene and redde, with the crosse 
of blewe, with one albe belonging to it, wyth a tunycle wantine both 
albe and .... 

1 vestyment of silke with a crosse of redd damaske having the 
crucifix upon the back with all things belonging to yt. 

1 vestyment of white fustian [a coarse thick twilled cotton clothl 
with all things belonging to yt. 



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Wingham College. 129 



1 vestyment of redd wich a crosse of blewe worsted, used in Lenle 
[This was the colour according to the " Use of Sarum."] 

1 ould cope of whyte sylke. 

1 vestyment of redd satten with a small crosse of golde, wanting 
both albe .... 

1 ould vestyment with a crosse of goulde. 

2 cushions of ould sarsenet with blewe damaske embroydered with 
gould. 

1 aulter clothe of silke with white braunches and fowles. 
I aulter cloth of white and redd damaske paned [that is 
composed of small squares] , 

1 aulter clothe painted with the image S. Nicholas. 

2 aulter clothes of yellow silks. 

1 aulter clothe of white silk with a fruntlett of greene silk. 

4 aulter clothes of lynneu. 

1 clothe for the reAor's stoole. 

1 crosse clothe of green sarcernet with the images of Our Ladye 
and the Trinity. [Was this a banner ?] 

1 canabye [canopy] clothe of redde silke with birds [very 
probably embroidored pelicans] of gould. [This canopy clothe 
was carried in the procession over the priest with the Blessed 
Sacrament on the Festival of Corpus Christi.] 

1 vayle [veil] for lent^with two lenten aulter clothes with Jesus and 
the Mother of Christ. 

1 pillow upon the high aulter. 

4 curtens at the high aulter, two of olde clothe of golde, and two 
of sarcenett. 

2 banners for Passion Sondaye. 

2 ould Lenten clothes of Our Lady aulter, with an image of Our 
Ladye upon one of them, sowed on. 

A Gospell booke with silver plate, with the image of Christ and 
the Four Evangelists. 

2 sylver sensours [censers] with a shipp of silver. [The ship or 
boat contained the incense before it was put into the censer.] 

2 chalices with a sarcament box [for the altar bread] of ivory 
clasped with silver. 

A trendle handle of silver. 

A silver Pax gilte, with the image of Our Lady. 

A corporas case [in which the fine linen veils are kept, and now 
called a 'Burse'] of cloth of gold with two fyne corporaces. 

2 corporas cases of velvet with the image of the crucifixe and two 
corporaces. 

Corporas case redd velvett with W and B of gould, with a 
corporace. 

3 course corporace cases with their corporaces. 

Corporace case of redd velvett, with imagery and Ihesus written 
with goulden letters, with two corporaces. 

1 crosse of silver and guilt, enamelled with Mary and John. For 
this [processional] crosse ther is controversie between the college and 
the parishe ; for the college had the possession of the same crosse 
unto the Feaste of Corpus Christi four yeares fully past, at which 



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130 Chronicles of Wingham. 

tyme when the priest had read the Gospel in the Roodelofte, afte^ 
that he was returning with the said crosse. Master Oxenden, being 
then churchwarden, called the clerke [the priest] into the parishe 
chancell and tooke away the sayde crosse from the possession of the 
coUedge unto the feaste of S. John Baptist last, at which tyme it 
was dely vered into the handes of James Hales Serjante at the Lawe 
hee to order the matter indififerently both for the colledge and also for 
the parishe, who as yett hath done nothing in the said matter. 

There was also a " Paire of organs," very possibly that bought by 
the money left by John Sanders in 1509 for that purpose ; and also 
•• the service books in the quier." 

A better state of things revived, when, in 1554, Queen 
Mary ascended the throne, and her cousin, Cardinal 
Reginald Pole, was able to return to England after his 
long exile. Landing at Dover on November 20th, 1554, 
he was most enthusiastically received, and escorted by 
400 horsemen to Canterbury, whose citizens were re- 
minded, by the splendour of his followers, of the golden 
days their fathers spoke of when pilgrims visited the 
shrine of the blessed St. Thomas the Martyr. Every- 
where on the road to London, Pole was received as a 
legate sent on a message of peace, whilst before him 
was carried the legate's cross and two silver axes. 
From Gravesend he went by royal barge along what 
was then the chief thoroughfare to London, the silvery 
Thames. At Whitehall he was received by the King 
and Queen, and then went on to Lambeth, which had 
been splendidly furnished for him at the expense of the 
Queen. Having been elecfled Archbishop although then 
only a deacon, he was ordained priest, March 20th, 
1556, in the church of the Monastery of the Grey Friars 
at Greenwich, and two days later consecrated Bishop, 
both Queen Mary and Philip being present at the 
service. 

The son of Sir Richard Pole, who had married 
Margaret, the sister of the Earl of Warwick, he was born 
in the year 1500 at Lordington, a few miles from 
Chicester, and received his education at a school of 
considerable repute, attached to the Carthusian Monas- 
tery at West Sheen in Surrey. At the age of twelve he 
went to Oxford, where he became acquainted with Sir 
Thomas More. Owing to his close connecflion with 
Royalty, Reginald Pole received considerable church 



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mngham College. 131 



patronage, whilst a layman, enjoying the income of two 
prebendaries in Salisbury Cathedral, besides being Dean 
of Wimborne Minster in Dorset, to which, in 1527, was 
added the Deanery of Exeter, This was not inconsist- 
ent with the opinions of that age, and Henry VIII. 
grateful to Pole's mother for her kindness to his 
daughter Mary, made no secret of his intentions to ad- 
vance her son to the primacy and considered the 
Church might educate her future primate. 

When nineteen Pole went abroad to Padua to finish 
his education, the necessary means being liberally sup- 
plied by the King during the time he was abroad, and 
at his return to this country in 1525 was heartily 
welcomed by the King and Cardinal Wolsey, In 1532 
he again went abroad and visited Florence, Verona, and 
other places. Not approving of the King's divorce and 
re-marriage, he refused to return when ordered, well 
knowing that he would be put in the Tower of London 
on his return. In 1530 on the death of Cardinal Wolsey, 
Pole was offered the Archbishopric of York by Henry 
VIII, if he would declare in favour of the divorce, 
which Pole refused to do. 

Although not yet ordained Pole was invited by the 
Pope to attend an assembly of learned men at Rome 
in 1536, and in December was made a Cardinal Deacon 
without the consent of Henry VIII., thereby making 
himself an outlaw whose lite might be taken. He 
therefore remained abroad until the death of Henry 
VIII ; when he was able to return to this country.— 
{Hook's Lives of the Archbishops). 

Shortly after his consecration. Cardinal Pole began 
a visitation of the parishes in his Diocese, which brings 
to our knowledge the terrible ruin and desolation which 
the churches of this country presented at this period ; 
altars, fonts, vestment, service-books, as well as the 
images and other ornaments, everywhere had been 
destroyed or desecrated, and the Archbishop at once 
ordered the parishes to restore the necessary vestments 
and things needed for the services of the church, such 
as albs, amice, cope, stole, chasuble, processional cross, 



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132 ChronUles of Wingham. 



and the altar with its ornaments. 

In Wingham Church, and many others, the rood-beam 
across the chancel arch, with its crucifix and the 
images of S. Mary and S. John, also the image of the 
patron saint of the church, had been destroyed, and 
were ordered to be restored. Some of the parishioners 
were brought before the Archbishop, because they 
refused to come to the Sacrament or join in the process- 
ions ; whilst others who did attend the church were 
charged with looking down on the ground, at the 
elevation of the Host, so as to avoid the act of adoration ; 
whilst one person was accused of hiding himself behind 
one of the pillars of the church for the same intention. 
Contempt of the sacraments and ceremonies of the 
church is a constant ground of accusation, while the 
refusal and neglect to receive the Communion on the 
Great Festivals does not show a very creditable state of 
things, although, at the present time, we who are so 
accustomed to the very numerous divisions may consider 
such charges as trivial. But it is surely a sad indication 
of the absence of reverence, which the extreme party 
had caused among the poorer folks, for the most sacred 
ordinances of Christianity, to know that a parishioner of 
Wingham was very severely reprimanded by the Arch- 
bishop for profaning and blaspheming the Sacrament. — 
{Diocesan History). 

In 1537 Cardinal Pole had granted to him by Philip 
and Mary the houses and premises in the mint yard of 
the late Piory of Christ Church at Canterbury, formarly 
held by the almoner. {Hist M.S.S, Report V. 440). 

Unfortunately Cardinal Pole did not live long to carry 
out his good work, but died two years later, on 
November i8th, 1558, just twenty-two hours after the 
death of Queen Mary. His body lay in state at 
Lambeth for forty days, and was then conveyed with 
great pomp to Canterbury, and buried in the Cathedral, 
where in the crown a plain brick tomb, covered with 
plaster, without name or inscription, marks his resting- 
place, for it would have been very dangerous for anyone 
to propose a better monument. He was the last Arch- 
bishop buried in the Cathedral. 



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Wingham College. 133 



During tlie reign of Queen Mary a terrible fear must 
have hung like a threatening storm over those who had 
enriched themselves with the property of the Church, 
that they would be called upon to restore it to its 
original and rightful use; so that the accession of 
Elizabeth and a reformed government must have been 
welcome by them, as a matter of self-interest, so that 
they might continue to enjoy the plundered tempor- 
alities of the Church, The country also began to realise 
the result of the suppression of the monasteries, whose 
property enabled them to amply provide out of their 
storehouse for the needs of the aged poor, without the 
help of poor rates. So this property once belonging to 
the Church no longer relieved the poor, who thus 
suffered a very great amount of misery ; and very soon 
poor-rates were made and workhouses built. — {Diocesan 
History) 




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Chapter VIII. 

THE CANONRIES OF THE COLLEGE. 

^! here were six canonries, which were named from the 
vJ land that endowed them, and their history is as 
follows: — 

Pedding situated in the present parish of Ash, near 
the Durlock stream. A family taking its name from 
this place, is mentioned as early as the reign of Henry 
III, when Henry de Peddinge and others were appointed 
in 1252, as a ** jury of the Hundred,*' to enquire as to 
the lawfulness of granting a weekly-market to Wingham. 
{^Arck. Cant. II). 

In 1270 there was a Thomas de Pedding ; Roger the 
son of Nicholas de Pedding ; and Stephen the son of 
John de Pedding, and very probably it was this Stephen 
de Pedding who was ordained a priest, by Archbishop 
Peckham in Hythe church, during September, 1282. In 
1280 John de Pedding signs his name as a witness to a 
charter of Henry de Goshall. On Trinity eve 1287, in 
Bridge church, Archbishop Peckham admitted a John de 
Pedding to the office of acolyte. ** Nicholas de Pedding 
in Ash '" was ordained deacon, and next Witsun in 
Hythe church, ordained priest. {Planche^s Ask; Letters 
Ahp. Peckham.) 

In September, 1315, a Stephen de Peddynge, Chaplain* 
and others, sold a messuage with sixteen acres of land 
with appurtenances, at Ash, to John de Egerydenne 
who also was a chaplain. — {Auk. Cant, XIII). 

Two years later in September, 1317, John de Peddyng 
and his wife Constance buy from Walter Daulard of 
Sandwich, eleven and half acres of land, one acre of 
meadow, four acres and a rood of pasture, one rood of 
wood, a rent of 4s. lod, also a rent of one cock and three 
hens, together with the moiety of one acre of turf [for 
fuelj, and three parts of the moiety of a messuage with 

uiyiiiz.uu uy -v — ■■WvJStLv^ 



Wingham College, 135 



its appurtenances in Ash and Staple next Wyngeham. 
Again at Easter, 1319, John de Peddynge and his wife 
Constance, bought for twenty marks (equal to about 
/300 to day) some more land from the same Walter 
Daulard — five acres one rood and half of arable land, 
one rood of wood, a rent of 2od. and two heqs, together 
witJa the moiety of one acre of meadow, and an acre of 
turf with its appurtenances in Esshe and Staple next 
Wengeham.— (i4r^A. Cant, XIIL XIV). 

Now this name **Daulard** appears to be a corruption 
of **Durlock,'* where he lived, and took his name, but 
seems to have moved to Sandwich, and sold his land at 
"Durlock'* to the adjoining owner of Pedding. Durlock 
means a **water lake," same as the Welsh '*dwr" water; 
and represents the process by which an estuary of the 
sea was turned into a meadow. 

In June, 1331, Prior Richard Oxenden wrote to the 
BalifF of Wyngham Manor, *'in your next Hundred 
Court, give effect to the letter sent to you by our lord 
the Archbishop [Mepham], concerning the maintenance 
of the children of Henry de Peddyng and his wife 
Isabel ; so that neither our lord the archbishop, nor 
his ministers may be blamed on account of any neglect 
of yours, and that no complaint may be made in a 
higher court about the provision of the said main- 
tenance." — {Letters Christ Church Vol. I). 

Peter de Pedding in the year 1347 is a witness to a 
charter of Walter the son of Henry de Goshall, also 
in the next year Thomas de Pedding had a law suit 
with Walter de Goshall about the Manor of Clivesend 
in the Isle of Thanet. 

By the reign of Henry VII, (1485-1509) the estate 
had passed to the Solly family — probably by marriage — 
and a Stephen Solly married in 1547 Elizabeth 
Hougham, whose grandson John Solly of Wingham 
when he died 1661, left a **messuage with lands 
commonly called Pedding" to his wife Margaret who 
died in 1710 at the age of eighty, and was buried in Ash 
Chur ch.-^(Planche's ''Ash'') 



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736 Chraniclis of Wineham. 



Chilton. 

This was a Manor that originally belonged to the 
Archbishop's of Canterbury, and held from them by a 
family named Chilton, being part of their estate. A 
canonry in the college was endowed with the tithes of 
the land that William de Chilton held from Arch- 
bishop Peckham, except the three fields Bradesfelde, 
Brenithe, and Utlehere, which were given for the 
support of the Canons in common. 

There was a Ralph de Chilton who was a Canon of 
St. Paul's, London, 1183-92 ; whilst Roger de Chilton 
was one of the commissioners who inquired into the 
granting of a market to Wingham in the year 1252 ; 
and this Roger had three brothers, Walter, John, and 
Theobald. There was also a Simon de Chilton in 1263 
who was probably son of Roger ; and a John de Chilton 
ordained acolyte by Archbishop Peckham in Aldington 
Church at Whitsuntidge 1289. This family also held 
the Manor of Chilton in Sittingbourne which they 
sold in reign of Edward III- 

William de Chilton died possessed of this estate 
in 1303, which was then sold to William de Baude, 
who died possessed of it in 1331, his wife being JcAanna 
de Criol, who was descended from William de Arques 
through the celebrated East Kent family of Avranches and 
Crevecceur. This estate then went to Thomas de 
Walton, who died in 1364, and his family sold it to Sir 
William de Septvans, whose descendants sold the 
estate in 1675 ^^ George Thorpe a Prebendary of 
Canterbury, by whom it was bequeathed in 1716 to 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge. — '^Planche's "^sA"). 

TwiTMAM. 

This Manor is situated in the east part of the parish 
and the land extends into Goodneston parish ; and 
gave its name to, and was the residence of a family 
named Twitham, who also owned Twitham Hills, (br 
Hells^ in the next parish of Ash, and a considerable 
amount of land in the neighbourhood of Darent and 
Dartford. It is thought that about the middle of the 
twelfth century the two seperate families of Hells and 



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Canonries of the College. 137 



Twitham, married two daughters and co-heiresses of 
the Ros family mentioned in the Domesday Survey. 
Twitham married the elder daughter, and taking her 
coat^of-arms, which is three roses in allusion to the name, 
whilst the arms of Twitham are "three cinquefoils" 
represented by five leaves issuing from a central ball. 
—(Arch. Cmrt. XV.) 

This Manor was held as the fourth part of a knight's 
fee from the Archbishop, and as such contributed to 
the customary "aids" or assessments. Alan de 
Twitham was with King Richard I. at the siege of 
Acre, in Palestine, in the year 1191, whilst in 1201, 
Theobald (who was the son of Hamo) de Twitham had 
a law-suit with Thomas Garwinton (modern 
Garrington) about some land at Iledon. There was 
also another Alan de Twitham, who on July i8th, in 
the year 1279, did homage and fealty in the manner 
formerly described "for the fourth part of a knight's 
fee at Twycham'* to Archbishop Peckham, when at the 
Lyminge Manor House. Alan was succeeded by 
Theobald de Twitham and his heirs were a third AXdiVi 
and a Hamo de Twitham, who in 1347 contributed 
towards the expenses of knighting the Black Prince. 
Now this Alan de Twitham had a dispute with Thomas 
dfe Seinlegier about some land, which was likely to 
cause a breach of the peace, so that Archbishop John 
Stratford was appealed to that he might prevent this. 
For it seems that Thomas de Seinlegier, at Maidstone, 
before the justices holding the assize there, publicly 
said that he would make ready against Alan, whom 
the Archbishop ordered to appear before him at 
Lambeth "on the vigil of the Ephiphany of our Lord." 
Alan died in 1353, and was succeeded by his grandson 
also named Alan, who was then only five years of age, 
and when he became of age his property consisted of 
"Twitham Manor in the parish of Goodneston, and 
Helles Manor in Ash, also a seperate acre of meadow 
land and half a rood of land in that parish." He had a 
sister, Maud who married into the Septvans family, and 
thus the Ash portion of the property went to them. 

Richard Oxenden dt Wingham who lived in the 



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138 Chronicles of Wingham. 



reign of Richard II., married Isabella, the daughter of 
Theobald de Twitham, and at his death was buried in 
St. John's Chapel, on the south side of Wingham 
Church, and appears to be the first of the Oxenden 
family mentioned as being buried there. It was their 
son, John Oxenden, who supported John Cade. 

Twitham was also the name of one of the canonries 
belonging to the church, for Archbishop Peckbam, 
when he made the church collegiate in the year 1286, 
endowed the first canon stall on the south side of the 
choir, "with the tithes of the land that Alan de Twitham 
held from the Archbishop, except the two fields 
Holdene and Brocfeld, the tithes from which were to 
be for the whole college. — {Letters Christ's Church; 
Planchc's ''Ash'*). 

The coat-of-arms of the Twitham family was — 
**sable, semee of crosses crosslet argent, three cinque- 
foils of the last", as shewn in the south window of the 
chancel of Denton Church.—{Arch, Cant. VI.). 

Ratling 

This manor (now in the parish of Nonington) was 
held as a " knight*s-fee" by a family v/ho took their 
name from the estate. About the year 1160 there was a 
person named Alan de Ratling, who had a small portion 
of ground in Canterbury, at the north east corner of the 
city wall, and near the monastery bakehouse, which he 
sold to Prior Wibert and the monks, who reduced a rent 
of his from 28d. to i4d. a year. — {Letters Chrisfs Church.) 

On July 18th, 1279, at the Lyminge Manor House, 
Ralph Perot did homage and fealty to Archbishop John 
Peckham, **for half a knight's fee at Ratling" whilst 
three days later at the Wingham Manor House, Richard 
de Dover did homage and fealty to the archbishop "for 
half a knight's fee at Ratling. In 1286 the first sub- 
diaconal canonry in the college, was endowed with "the 
tithes of the land that Richard de Ratling and Ralph 
Perot held from the archbishop, between the highway 
which led from Crudeswood to the cross at Bonyngton 
and thence to the estate of the Priory, at Adesham". — 
rff^^tters Abp4 Peckham ; Hasted III.) 



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Canonries of the College. 139 

In 1305 the exors of John de Estrateling [East 
Ratling] petition the Parliament held that year, saying 
the sum of ;f 132 is due to them for the journey and 
return of horses used by John de Ratling in the service 
of the king in Gdiscony. ^-(Parliament 1305 in Rolls Series.) 

John de Ratling on 25th November, 1309, did homage 
and fealty " for half a fee in Ratling," to Archbishop 
Robert Winchelsea when staying at the Wingham 
Manor-House, 

In 1324 a Laura de Ratling, became Abbess of 
Mailing Nunnery, which had been founded by Bishop 
Gundulph of Rochester. 

Between 1344-8 a Thomas de Retlyngg who was one 
of the officers of Christ Church Monastery had been 
ordered by the kings official, to collect the wool subsidy. 
The Prior thereupon wrote to the Archbishop, asking 
him to obtain the release of this Thomas de Railing from 
that work, as he was so very useful a servant to the 
Monastery. — {Letters Christ's Church Voh 11 •) 

When the Black Prince was knighted in 1347, the 
heirs of Sayer de Ratling and his sister Margaret, 
contributed 40/- (equivalent to £^0) from the land which 
they held of the Archbishop at Retlynge. Whilst 
Richard the son of Richard de Ratling with two others 
were joint holders of one fief at Hartanger, and they 
contributed 40s. He, further, with John Colkyn, the 
Abbott of S. Alban's, and Edmund de AchoU, jointly 
contributed 40s. from Esol and Freydeville. Thomas 
de Ratling, jointly with the Abbott of Langdon Abbey 
contributed 20s. from the third part of a fief and a half 
which they held at Swingfield from Hamo Crevcoeur. 
— {Arch, Cant, X,). 

Isabella the daughter of Richard de Ratling married 

{ohn Oxenden de Wingham, who lived in the reign of 
lenry VI. (1422-61) and they had two sons John and 
Robert —(Arch. Cant. VI.). 

But Sayer de Ratling who died in 1387 left an only 
daughter Joan, who married John Spicer, and their 
daughter cicely married a John Isaac of Bridge, whose 

uiyiiiz.uu uy -v — « -v-^ ■v..' -t iV^ 



140 Chronicles of WinghaniM 



grandson Edward Isaac sold this property in the rei^ 
of Henry VIII. (1509-47) to Sir John Fineux, chief 
justice of the King's Bench. His descendants sold the 
property to the Nevinsons, who resold to Sir William 
Cowper, and gives that family one of their titles Baron 
Ratling.— (P/w7i/»a«). 
The coat-of-arms of the Ratlings (who married in the 

Oxenden family) was — "gules semee a lion rampant 

or," as shown in the south window of the chancel at 
Denton -{Arch. Cant. VI), Hasted however says 
"gules a lion rampant between a orle of tilting spears, 
heads or.,* — (Hasted III, 707) 

The Ratling family also owned the Manor of Hull 
in the parish of Shoulden near Deal, and in 1355 f 29 
Edward III.) we find the names of Thomas, the son of 
John de Ratling, also Richard de Ratling who had to 
assist in the "ward" or "sea-watch" of that part of the 
coast from Sandwich to S. Margaret's — {Pritchards 
Hist, of Deal; Phtlipott.) 

BONNINGTON. 

Archbishop Peckham endowed the second canonry 
in the College; with the tithes from the lands of 
Thomas de Bonynton, Henry de Dover, Heirs ot John 
de Bonynton, Alexander de Coleshulle, and William 
Edgar in the Hamlet of Bonnington. This estate 
belonged to a family of that name, down to the time of 
Edward II (1307-27). For in 1325 Thomas de 
Bonynton, bought from Theobald de Underdowne one 
hundred and sixty acres of land, forty of pasture and 
one acre of moor, in Goodwyneston, Nonynton, Bekes- 
bourn and Littlebourn. 

Afterwards the land went to the Boy's family, who 
spread through East Kent ; and were descended from 
Roger de Boys (or Bosco) who came over with the 
Conqueror. 

Thomas Boys died possessed of this estate in 1497, 
and was buried with his wife Edith, before the south- 
door of the church, in the churchyard of Goodneston. 
His son William Boys bought Fredville and removed 



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Cononries of the College, 14 1 

there, but died ?t Bonington in 1507 and was buried 
in Goodneston Church, when his eldest son John had 
Fredville and Thomas the second son, Bonington. In 
1 71 9 their descendants sold the property to Sir Brook 
Bridges.— (iJos^^ji ///.) 

WyMLIH<3^.WOLD 

Archbishop Peckham when he founded the College 
endowed the second subfiiiM^QnAl canonry with th/e 
tithes of the land which lay between the highway from 
the wood La Dene, as far as the highway from 
Nethersole to Barham Down, and the estate of Acolter. 
—{Hasted III.) 

As the name of this parish has taken rather a peculiar 
form, we may mention that the name occijrs in an 
Anglo-Saxon Charter of the year 824 when Arcbfcishop 
Wulfred exchanged some land with his monks, and 
some of the land was bounded on the east by Wimlin- 
cgawold — {Birch's Anglo S^xon Charters. /. 525). 




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Chapter IX. 
VICARS AND PROVOSTS. 

Gilbert Marescal (or Marshall) 1228 

He was presented to the living by King Henry HI on 
September 19th, 1228, when there was no archbishop, through 
the death of Stephen Langton on the previous July 9th, so that 
the presentation lapsed to the crown. 

He was third son of William Marescal (or Marshall) the 
second Earl of Pembroke and Striguil (who died 1231), and 
being of weakly constitution was intended for an ecclesiastical 
career. Having taken minor-orders he received the living of 
Orford in Suffolk, 30, May 122c, and three years later that of 
Wingham. He is spoken of by the historian Matthew Paris, as 
*' a learned man who held a benefice." However the life of a 
soldier was more his choice, for he joined his brother Richard 
in opposing foreign advisers, and acted for him in Ireland, 
where Giltert won over to their side all but the Lacys* and their 
followers. On the death of his brother Richard, 16 April, 1234, 
he crossed over to Wales and through the mediation of 
Archbishop Edmund was pardoned by the king, and also his two 
younger brothers — Walter and Anselm. At Worcester, 1 1 Tune, 
W34, Gilbert was knighted by Henry HI and invested with the 
Earldom of Pembroke ; also the wand of office of Mareschal, 
which according to custom had been held by his ancestors. 
Next year he was accused of causing the deah of Henry 
Clement, but proved his innocence by oath, yet the king never 
liked him as he did before. In November. 1239. Gilbert took 
the cross with Richard Earl of Cornwall, and when in the 
following Tmly, was about to leave England, was recalled by the 
king. Whilst taking part in a tournament at Ware in Hertford- 
shire on 27th June, 1241, with many of the English nobles, 
Earl Gilbert Marescal was thrown from his horse, and died the 
same day, but his body was taken to London and buried in 
the Temple church, where a stone effigy supposed to be his, 
is preserved. He had married in 1230 Margaret de Lan valla, 
ana (2) in August 1235, Margaret sister of Alexander II, of 
Scotland who survived him three years, and died in 1244 ; but 
Gilbert left no children by either wife.— (^r^A. Cant, XX. 66, 
Matt, Paris: Diet. Natl. Bio.) 

An Italian cleric in 1232. 

The living must in those days have been a rich one, for it 
was given to poor and needy foreigners, who were intruded into 
benefices by means of "provisions" as they were called ; that is 



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Vicars and Provosts, 143 



writs which forbad any one being appointed to a living, until 
some one belonging to the Roman court was appointed. When 
in 1226 the Pope required that one canonry in every cathedral 
and collegiate-churcn, should be assigned to his use, also an 
equal revenue from the episcopal estates, and from each 
monastery, the request was refused. 

About Christmas, 1232, the barns belonging to the Vicar at 
Wingham, when full of produce were plunder^l and burnt down 
by the parishioners and others, to show their dislike to these 
foreign priests. He was an Italian, who went to Roger Niger, 
Bishop of London, who on the following Feb. loth, excom- 
municated the authors of this outrage. The Pope was angry 
when he heard that the priest had been thus treated, wrote a 
sharp letter to Henry III. ordering him to punish the authors of 
this outrage. But inquiry having been made into the affair, it 
was found that so many persons were concerned, also that 
Hubert de Burgh sided with them ; the king thought it best to 
take no notice, or the peace of the country might be disturbed. 
Archbishop Richard Grant had died in August 1231. and 
Edmund Rich was not consecrated at Canterbury until 2nd 
April. 1234. "At this time (says Dr. Jessop) the country 
swarmed with foreign ecclesiastics who never came near their 
livings", although they received the income.— (JlfaW. Paris, VoU 
II. 339,) 

Ph's r? Philip] de Sabaudia (or Savoy) 1243 — 

Probably a relative of Archbishop Boniface of Savoy, and one 
of the many foreigners whom' the wife of Henry III brought 
over to England. The king, in May. 1243, appointed him to 
Reculver, and in September of same year to Wingham ; for there 
was no Archbishop then, Edmund Rich having died i6th 
November, 1240. and Boniface, althoufirh elected in 1241 and 
received the revenue, was not consecrated until 1245. 

Peter of Savoy, another uncle of the Queen, in 1240 was made 
Earl of Richmond, and seven years later brought over a number 
of poor foreign ladies, who were married to the rich nobles of 
Englsxid.—fArch, Cant. Vol. XX. ; Matt, Paris,) 

Richard. 

The only particulars of him that we have, is that " Richard 
Vicar of Wingham " with the whole parish bear witness to 
the mirawjle wrought in Emma de Dene, who partly recovered 
from paralasis. when a fiUett or band which had been brought 
from the body Simon de Montfort, had been applied to her 
head. Now Simon de Montfort killed at Evesham in 1265 was 
long regarded as a masiyT.'-{Rishanger's Chronicle — Camden 
Society 10.) For fuither particulars see Manor of Dene—Chapter 
V. 

John de Sarestone died 1271. 

This vicar died April 20th, 1271, and was buried in the chancel 
of the church.— f'Has^^ III), 



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144 Chronicles of Wingham. 



Theodosius de Camilla 1271-1281. 

A foreign ecclesiastic, appointed in April, 1271, by Henry III, 
who also gave him in November, 1272, that of Ash. which was a 
sort of chapel-of-ease to the mother church of Wingham, 
Theodosius was one of the Pope's chaplins, but it is very doubt- 
ful if this Theodosius de Camilla ever came to this country, for 
in 1 271. the very year of his appointifient, complaint was made 
that "Theodosius de Camilla, non-resident redor of Wingham, has 
allowed the ofndinents (that is the necessary things used in the 
services of the Churches) to go to decay." Therefore Nicholas 
de Sandwich, the i^rior of Christ Church, Canterbury, with the 
consent of the prodor (or ecclesiastical lawyer} of this alien 
Redtor, took possession of the corn and other proaud^s found on 
the premises of the r^ory at Winghd,m, so as to provide the 
necessary money to replace those oftiamehts ; but also, what 
was far more important, to pay ^ '^liftefenth '* (or tax) to the 
king. Now, besides having th<l<$e two chutrhes in Kent, Theo- 
dosius was at the same time Dean til Wolverhampton Collegiate 
Church, and Redtoi- of Tarring, near Worthing, in Sussex, 
which living h6 held seven years, and shewed his knowledge of 
the places by saying that Wingham ^d Tarring were both in 
the Diocese of Canterbury. Archbishop Peckham was greatly 
opposed to a number of beneficies being held by one priest, or, 
to use his own words, holding a " damnable number of bene- 
fices," which was so very common then, so, in 1282 he deprived 
Theodosius of his livings in this country, and he appealed to the 
Pdjpe, and the Archbishop wrote to his representatives at the 
Papal Court, explaining that Theodosius de Camilla (i) irregu- 
lanly claimed privileges ; ^2) abused them ; (3) neglected the 
cure of soul ; (4) was guilty of simony with reference to the 
church of Wingham and its chapels, which he wanted to sell to 
a certain person for as much land as was worth 2± marcs ot £16 
(equal to about £500 at the present day). Tneodosius was 
unable to recover his livings, aTthough his great supporter in 
this country, John the Sacristan of Westminster Abbe^, boldly 
took up his case, and even allowed his zeal to carry him so far 
that he flung a roll of parchment (some citation) into the face of 
Archbishop Peckham, whilst he was consecrating in Canterbury 
Cathedral, Thomas de Ingoldsthorpe as Bishop of Rochester, on 
the Feast of S. Michael, 1283. He also, on behalf of Theodosius 
caused the Archbishop some trouble at Ash, whilst arranging for 
a successor, and the founding of Wingham College, for the in- 
come of two of the canonries — Chilton and Pedding — was derived 
from land in Ash. 

Theodosius de Camilla, afterwards became Bishop of Turin 
1300-1318.— (-^y^A Cant XX: Letters Abp, Peckham :IiI : Hist 
M.S.S. Report V. 428.) 

Roger de Rothwell. 1282 — 1287 

In 1279 appointed Dean of the Arches Court, by Archbishop 
Peckham, also chancellor of Oxfoid, and in May, 1281, Bdward 



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Vicars and Provosts. 145 



I appointed him and the Archdeacon of Canterbur]^, to be the 
King's proctors concerning the royal-chapels ; and in January 
1282, he bad to enquire into the case of certain tenants of the 
Archbishop at Lambeth, who had been interfered with by the 
Abbot of Westminster. On May 9th of this year, at the 
Mortlake Manor House, be surrendered to the archbishop the 
seal of the Dean of the Arches Court, and the following June 
29th. Archbishop Peckham, when staying at the Wingham Manor 
House, appointed him to the living. — (Letters Abp. Peckham, Vol, 
III.) 

Provosts of Wingham, 1287- 1547. 



Peter de Guldeford, 1287- 1294. 

He belonged to the family of this name at East Guldeford. 
near Rye» In Sussex, whose earliest ancestor was Richard 
Guldeford born about 11 86. He seems to have been the first 
Provost appointed to the College, and was evidently one in 
whom Archbishop Peckham had great confidence, for he was 
treasurer of the archbishop's household. On the eve of the 
Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, in the year 1283, this 
archbishop presented him to Bishopsbourne church and on 
Feb. 2ist, 1287, he was instituted Provost of Wingham to which 
was annexed the Vicarage, but had permission to be absent 
until he received all the income, which seems to show that 
everything in connection with the college, was then not fully 
settled ; and further Provost Peter still remained treasurer of the 
archbialiop's household, when on 31 March. 1288, he was ordered 
to have a new mitre made for Archbishop Peckham, at a coat of 
/173 43. id., an amount equal to some ;^4ooo at the present 
day. When staying at the Manor House, the archbishop on 20th 
April, 1292, granted to Provost Peter da Guldeford. one acre of 
land from the manor, and ordered the bailiff of the manor, to give 
the Provost possession of the same. When the college was 
sold in 1333 this •• one acre of glebe-land " is specially 
mentioned.— (L^f^^rs Abp. Peckham,) 

On March 13th. in the year 1313, Prior Henry de Eastry, 
informed the Provost of Wingham ^ut we are not told his name) 
that the Prior of Christchurch Monastery, intended holding " a 
visitation " of the College, by order of William, Cardinal Priest 
of St.Ciriaci in Thermis. But the Provost of Wingham protested 
against this. When there was a vacancy in the See of Canter- 
bury the Prior of that monastery claimed the right to hold 
•' visitation *• in the place of the archbishop. Archbishop 
Winchelsey however did not die until May nth, 1313, but for 
some time previously had been out of favour with the king who 
had confiscated his possessions. This claim to hold a visitation, 
when there was no archbishop, frequently occurs, and always 
• gave ris3 to disputes,— (H*si. MSS. Report VIII, 352.} 



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146 Chronicles of Wingham. 

Nicholas de Tarenta [? Darent,] 

A person of this name in 1307 was one of the legal advisers of 
Christ Church Monastery ; but all that we hear of this provost, is 
that in 1328 he was so old and feeble that he could not look 
after the College, so Archbishop Simon de Mepham on 29th 
September, 1328, ordered Prior Henry de Eastry to go out to 
Wingham and inquire into the case, fiut first the Prior on 
October 2nd wrote to the Provost as follows — •• Henry by divine 
permission Prior of Christ Church, from the venerable Father in 
God, Simon [de Mepham] by divine permission Archbishop of 
Canterbury, etc, hath received authority (as recorded below), with 
reference to the Provost of the Collegiate Church of Wingham to 
whom we send greeting. We have received the commands of the 
Archbishop in these words" -Simon by divine grace, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, Primate of all England, to our well-beloved son in 
the Lord, Henry Prior of our Church of Christ, greeting, health, 
and blessing. Having been informed with reference to a certain 
worthy man our well-beloved the Provost of the Church of 
Wingham, is now so infirm of body that he is unable to carry out 
the duties committed to him, and therefore for bis own good, oeing 
so infirm and worn*, out, we therefore will that if necessary, assist- 
ance be given him in the management of his College, and we 
require and command you to go to the Church of Wingham on our 
behalf and thoroughly inquire into the state of the said Provost,and 
when you have personally found out if you think he ought to have 
assistance, then with the consent of the Provost we authorise you to 
appoint some person as his coadjutor (or assistant) with our 
authority. Whatever you shall do on our behalf in this matter 
we will at once grant to you letters patent concerning these things. 
Dated from Mortlake 29th September, 1328, and the first of our 
consecration. By which authoritative order, we [the Prior] cite 
you the Provost, and through you, each of the canons, vicars, and 
clerics who are not canons, and six of the chief parishioners of the 
parish, we will and command you to cite, call together, and appear 
before us in the Church of Wingham, on the Monday next after 
the Feast of St. Faith (October 6th) ; and further shall require 
you by the words of the same mandate, to answer touching the 
whole truth of the matter, and see that it is carried out, X>ated 
from Canterbury 2nd October, 1328." 

When Prior Henry de Eastry had held this enquiry it was found 
that the Provost was so inhrm, that the Rector of Monkton 
in Thanet—a church belonging to the monastery — was appointed 
coadjutor. Henry etc.... We therefore by authority of the before 
mentioned mandate about the Church of Wingham recently 
enquired into ; because it was plain to us after careful enquiry 
made, and by other lawful means ; the Provost was founa so 
infirm of body because of his great age, that he cannot attend to 
his duties — which are great and responsible— in the way they 
should be done ; we therefore knowing your worth and merit, 
appoint you Richard, Rector of Monkton in Thaiiet, coadjutor to 
the Provost of Wingham. Dated from Canterbury, 19th October, 
i^2S,**— (Letters Christ Church Vol i.) 



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Vicars and Provosts, 147 



Adam de 1332: 

The previous aged Provost must have died soon after 1328 ; for 
on 22na May, 1332, Archbishop Simon de Mepham appointed — 
"Adam, Provost of Wingham/'— and five others, to examine 
into the fitness of those persons who offered themselves for ordina- 
tion.— (L^Wm Christ Church Vol /.) 

Robert de Solbury 1351-1358 : — 

He had been appointed Rector of Ickham in 1324, which 
living he held until 135 1. He also held other important offices ; 
and was Proctor (ox representative) of Oxford University at the 
Papal Court, and in October, 1331, returned to this country; when 
he was then appointed the representative of Christ Church 
Canterbury, at Rome. In June, 1332, he was at Rome, and in 
January of the next year, Prior Richard de Oxenden requested 
him to find out about certain valuable documents that belonged to 
the Monastery, which had been sent to Rome. When in August, 
1334, he asked for his salary, the Prior put him off with an excuse. 
In July, 135 1, appointed Provost of Wingbam, so he exchanged 
Ickham Rectory for Evnsford, near DartFord, where he died in 
1358. Robert de Solbury, in the foundation deed of the Dennis 
Chantry in Ickham Church 1393, is mentioned as '* formerly Vicar 
ol Ickham Church."— (i4rf A. Cant XIV; Letters Christ Church.) 

John Severley 1358-1363. 

He was probably '• Commissary " of Archbishop Islip who 
appointed him Provost, for in November, 1358, he was present 
at Lambeth, when William de Islip (or Jocelyn,) resigned the 
Rectory of Cliffe near Rochester. During his rule, William de 
Heghtresbury one of the canons of the college was also Redlor 
of Ickham (1354-72) where some of the parishioners would not 
pay their tithe, so in November, 1359, the archbishop ordered 
Provost Severley to enquire into the maXter. ^(Arch. Cant, XIV. 
XV.) 

William Rede 1363 — 1366. 

Another of the distinguished Provosts of the college. 
Educated at Exeter college Oxford, and afterwards elected a 
Fellow of Merton college, and according to a memorandum 
preserved in the archives of that college, he built the library, 
and filled it with books. He was certainly eminent for his 
knowl^ge of geography, astronomy, and architecture; a 
diligent collector of manuscripts which he caused to be tran- 
scribed at his own cost ; and by gifts of books or money, a ?reat 
benefactor to the libraries of Exeter, Oriel, Balliol, and New 
Colleges. In 1363 he was made Provost of Wingham College by 
Archbishop Simon de Islip. which position he resigned three 
years later, became Archdeacon of Rochester, and in 1369 
appointed Bishop of Chichester, by Pope Urban V. He was a 
friend of Bishop William of Wykeham, and a good sample of 
the learned and scholarly bishop. In 1385 he died, desiring by 
his will to be buried in the parish church of Selsey. before the 



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748 Chronicles of Wingham, 



high-altar, but was buried in Chichester Cathedral, yet no 
monument erected to his memory, although he left thirteen 
silver-gilt cups for the use of the monks. — {Memorials of Chichester 
by Stephens.) 

Thomas Mount de Wickham 1366 — 1368. — {Hasted III) 

We have no particulars of this and the next two 
Provosts, except their appointments. 

John de Sexton 1368 — 1374. — [Dugdale) 

William de Windsor 1374. — (Dugdale.) 

In 1330 Prior Henry de Eastry wrote to Archbishop Simon 
de Mepham. asking him to allow Jordan. Redtor of Boughton; to 
exchange his living with a John de Windsor, who then was 
Rector of Bidinton in the Diocese of Winchester. He may have 
been the person who in 1374 became Provost ? — (Letters Christ 
Church). 

Matthew Ashton 1412 — 1433, 

He was Redor of Ivychorch in this county 1408-12, and then 
appointed Provost of the college, by Archbishop Thomas 
Arundel, after the death of that archbishop 19th Feb. 1414, and 
before Henry Chichele was enthroned, Prior John de Wodens- 
borough, attempted to hold a •• visitation * of the college, 
according to the asserted rights and power of the Prior. But 
Provost Ashton would not recognise that right, or allow the 
Prior to hold his *• visitation " and a compromise was made 
between them. Provost Matthew Ashton died in 1343 and was 
buried in the chancel of the church, under a marble slab on the 
north side of the high-alter. — {Arch, Cant. Vol. XIII ; Camden 
Society 1877 ; Hist. MSS. Report IX.) 

Richard Toste — 1458. 

All we know of him, is that he died in the year 1458, — 
(Hasted III.) 

Thomas Rotherham (or Scot,) 1458-63. 

His family name was Scot, but being bora at Rotherham, 24th 
August, 1423, thence took his surname. Educated at Eton, and 
one of the hrst scholars of King's College at Cambridge ; then 
became a fellow of Pembroke Hall, of which, afterwards, he was 
the master. Appointed provost of Wingham in 1458, by 
Archbishop Thomas Bouchier, and for many years was legal- 
adviser to Christ Church Monastery. Edward IV. made him a 
royal chaplain, and altho* he presided over the college for only 
five years, his after career was distinguished. In 1468 he became 
keeper of the King's priv^'-seal, Provost of Beverly in his native 
Yorkshire, and Bishop of Rochester (1468-72), and sent as sole 
ambassador to the king of France to treat for peace. In 1472 
translated to Lincoln, and two years after raised to the high office 
of Lord-Chancellor, and sat in the Parliameats of 1478 and 148J, 



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Vicars and Provosts. 149 



but meantime on 3rd September, 1480, became Archbishop of 
York (1480-1500). and at same time was Master of Pembroke 
College. Cambridge, 1480-7. Twenty years later he died at 
Cawood, a residence of the Archbishop of York, on the 29th May, 
1500, at the age of seventy-six. He had founded in his native 
place a college for a provost and five priests, and left bequests to 
Oxford and Cambridge, In his will, made August, 1498, he lett 
*• to the College of Wyngam, where I was Provost, a jewelled 
chalice (calicem prcetii), worth 100/-." Whilst Rotherham was 
Provost of Wingham, Archbishop Thomas Bouchier allowed the 
number of vicars to be reduced to four " in priests orders," 
because they only receive £^ (equal to about /50 at the present 
day) a year each ; so it is probable the four divided the income 
between them, originally meant ior six.— ( Foss' Lives 0/ Judges ; 
Letters Christ Church, Vol, IIL) 

Thomas Chichele, id.63-1466. 

Said to be a brother of Archbishop Henry Chichele (who died 
in 1443), but Duncombe, in his " Three Hospitals of Canterbury," 
describes him as " grandson of William Chichele, the younger 
brother of the Archbishop." He was a Prebendary of London 
from 1429 until his death ; Archdeacon of Canterbury, 1443, and 
in November, 1449. gave his consent to Wye vicarage being 
united to the College of St. Gregory and St. Martin at Wye, 
which Archbishop Kerope had founded there. Master of East- 
bridge Hospital in Canterbury, 1445-66 ; and in 1463 appointed 
by Archbishop Thomas Bouchier. Provost of Wingham. He died 
the 26th January, 1466, and was buried in the choir of the 
Church. — {Letters Christ Church Vol, IIL; Duncomhe's V Three 
Hospitals r Newcourt,) 

John Bourchier, 1466- 1469. 

A kinsman of Archbishop Thomas Bourchier, by whom he was 
appointed Provost, also Archdeacon of Canterbury, 1479, and 
Ma&ter of Eastbridge Hospital. 1467-9 ; a Prebendary of Wells 
Cathedral. 1481. also a Prothonotary of the Pope. Although 
Provost John Bourchier used the arms and family knot of the 
feudal Bourchiers. it is not known what connection he was to that 
family. He died, 6th November, 1495, and was buried in the 
Lady Chapel of the Cathedral.— '• Hie jacet sub hoc marmore 
expectans misericordiam Dei, venerabilis vir Magister Johannes 
Bourchier, Archidiaconus Cantuariensis, qui quidem Johannes 
migravit ad Domium 6 die mens November, 1495. Cujus anime 
de sua magna pietate propitietur altissimus. — [Battley's Somner ; 
Notes and Queries Oct. 26th, 1895). 

Richard Copping— 1495. 

Appointed by Archbishop Thomas Bourchier after whose 
death 6th April, i486, the Prior of Canterbury (William de 
Selling), attempted to hold the customary " visitation," that the 
Prior claims by right to hold ; but Provosts Copping appealed 
to Rome, where the case lasted for seven years, and in 1493 a 



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150 Chronicles of Wingham, 

compromise was again made, evidently in favour of Wingham 
College, as the Monastery remained discreetly silent. This 
Provost died in i^g^-^ (Dugdak ; Camden Society 1877.) 

Thomas Morton. 

A brother of Archbishop John Morton, who must have 
appointed him Provost. A cleric of this name was presented 
24th November, 1485, by Henry VII, to the church of Creke in 
the diocese of Lincoln ; and as Archdeacon of Ely in June ,1488, 
he and others were ordered to see that the great bridge at 
Cambridge was repaired. His brother, the Archlnshop, was 
previously Bishop of Ely (1478-86).— (i4«A, Cant. XIV, MaUrials 
for Reign 0/ Henry VII, Rolls Series,) 

Henry Ediall — 1497— 1520 

Evidently a great friend of Archbishop John Morton, who, in 
June, 1487, appointed him Vicar of Saltwood in this county, 
and in July, 1497, Provost of Wingham ; he was also one of the 
exors. of Cardinal Morton's will, and Archdeacon of Rochester. 
He was Provost when Archbishop Warham held a visitation 
of the College, 14th September, 151 1, (as recorded in the history 
of the college). When he died in 1520. he was buried in the 
choir of the cnurch before the image of our Saviour.— (i^rcA. 
Cant. XVIII; Hasted III,) 

William Warham — 1520 — 1533. 

A nephew of Archbishop Warham, after whom he was named. 
Appointed by his uncle. Rector of Orpington, in December, 151 1, 
and was Archdeacon of Canterbury, 15 14-1535, and a preben- 
dary of London, 1515. In 1520, on the death of the former 
Provost, the Archbishop appointed his nephew, and at the same 
time " granted certain lands in Wingham to William Warham 
cleric." He had Papal dispensation as " Archdeacon of 
Canterbury to hold the 'Frovostship of Wine^ham, contrary to 
the rules of that college." He went with Cardinal Wolsey on 
his embassy to the French King in the year 1527, when the 
Cardinal left London on July 3rd, escorted by nine hundred 
horsemen, and at Canterbury had a conference with the Aich- 
bishop about the way Katherine of Arragon was to be treated. 
On August 4th they entered Amiens to meet Francis I, with 
reference to the proposed divorce. Provost Warham was also 
Rector of Harrow on the Hill, 1532-7, and of Hayes in Middle- 
sex from 1532 until his death in 1557. On the death of his 
uncle, the archbishop. 22nd August, 1532, at Hackington 
Rectory, the residence of the Archdeacon, Provost Warham 
retired from his archdeaconry, receiving a pension of £Sob, year, 
and resigning Wingham for a pension of ;^20 a year. He died 
in 1557.— (Arch. Cant. XIII ; Newcourt ; Battley^s Somner ; Hist 
MSS. Report IX, and Cecil Papers III.) 

Edmund Cranmer, 1534 — 1547. 

The last Provost of the College. He was the son of Thomas 
Cranmer of Aslacton in Notts, and a brothsr of Archbishop 



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Vicars and Provosts. 151 



Edward Cranmer who appointed him both Provost and 
Archdeacon (1534-54). In 1542, he contributed ;^2o to a 
loan for Henry VIII, and received several rich hvings in 
the gift of the Archbishop —Ickham 1547-54, Cliffe near 
Rochester 1549-54. and a Prebendary of Canterbury. On the 
accession of Queen Mary, in 1554, he was deprived of all his 
benefices, being a married man, which was a great offence, so 
he fled to Germany. His son. Thomas Cranmer, was registrar 
of the archdeaconry, and died 1604, being buried in St. 
Mildred's Church, Canterbury, where there is his monument, 
and also one to another descendant William Cranmer, who died 
in 1697— i^r^A. Cant XI, XIV ; Gentlman's Magazine, 1860. 

The College with others, that had escaped the dissolution of 
the monasteries, not being a religious house in the strict sense 
of the word, was suppressed by the advisers of Edward VI in 
1547, remaining in the hands of the king, until sold in 15 C3 
with the church to Sir Henry Palmer, for ;^5i9 iis. 4d., 
subject to the payment of ;f 20 a year to a Vicar. 

Vicars: — 

-1557 — Robert Charles 

1 558- 1 559 —James Forrester. 

1559-1607 — Francis Reynolds. 

1607-1618 — ^William Brigham. 

He married at Staple, in 1609. Margaret Oxenden, (born 1587) 
the sixth daughter ot Edward Oxenden, of Brooke, by his wife 
Alice Fowler of Islington. Also Vicar of Ash. 1626-38. and 
probably presented to both livings by the Oxenden family. 

1618-1672 — Samuel Stevens. 

Who married, in 1664, Jane Masters of St. Mary's, North- 
gate, Canterbury— (Can^fffMry Marriag$ Licenses ^ Second series by 
J. M. Cowper.) 

1672-1719 — Christopher Harris, 

Who was also Redor of Stourmouth, 1690-1719, A small 
brass (now in the north chapel) states he was buried in Wing- 
ham church: — " Near the desk lyeth the Body of Christopher 
Harris, Curate of this parish 47 years, and Rector of Stour- 
mouth 30, he died 24th November. 1719, aged 73." 

1719-1744 — William Newton. 

A native of Maidstone, where he lived for some years, and 
wrote a history of Maidstone College. Also Redtor of 
Gillingham in Etorset, 1696-1744. This Vicar, in January, 1719, 
contributed £1 iis. 6d, *• towards the new casting the Six 
Bells belonging to the said parish church, and making them into 
eight musical bells, etc. " Had a son William, born at Wingham 
14th September, 1721, but died at Canterbury of small-pox, 
i6th April. 1737, when 16 years of age. The Vicar died in 1744 



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152 Chronicles of fPingham, 



and was buried at the west end of the south aisle of the church, 
near the font. 

A daughter. Sarah, married Henry Neville, a surgeon, of 
Wingham, and she died 23rd February, 1789. aged sixty-ei|^ht. 
' and her husband 7th March, 1808, at the age of eighty-nine. 
Their daughter Jane died unmarried 7th July. 1831. aged eighty- 
four, being buried in the church. 

1744-1756. — John James. 

He first signs tne Church Boolt as "Minister" at the Easter 
vestry meeting 1745. 

1756-1769. — John Nairn. 

Signs the church book for the first time at Easter 1757. 
Probably he was previously curate of Great Mongeham 1755-7, 
and left here, when he became Rector of Kingston, 13th Jan- 
uary, 1769. 

1 770- 1 779. — John Lohie. 

Also Vicar of St. Dunstan's Canterbury. 1767-1801. 

1790-1791. — William Thomas, 

Probably curate to the former vicar, since he signs himself 
"sub-curate of Wingham" in 1788, but receives 4/- as Visitation 
dinner at the Easter Vestry 1790. 

1795-1800.— ? Harvey 

Receives payment as Vicar, for * 'Visitation dinners" in these 
years. May have been a son of Richard Harvey, Rector of St. 
Lawrence, Thanet 1766-93, who married a daughter of Judith 
Matson, of Wingham. 

1800-1811. — John Tucker. 

His name first mentioned in the church-book at Eaffter, tSot, 
when be receives £t is. for his " visitadon dinner," and same 
amount every year up to the year 18 iz. Also Rector of Graves- 
end and Luddenham in this county. He died, aGth February, 
181 1, at the age of fifty-two. 

181 i-i8i6— Philip le Geyt. 

The son of Robert le Geyt» of Canterbury, born in 1776, and 
educated at Magdalene College, Oxford. Vicar of Chislet, 1803- 
16. and Marden, 1817-47. • He married Jane Cairnes and had 
thirteen children. Died at Esher, in Surrey, 6th January, 1847, 
where he was buried. — (Chisletby HasUufood,) 

1824-1826. — Thomas Bruce. 

1826- 1 837. — Montagu Oxenden. 

Who lived at the Dene Mansion, being a son of Sir Henry 
Oxenden of Broome. Educated at Exeter College. Oxidrd, he 
was ordained deacon in 1823 by the Archbishop of York. Rector 
of Luddenham, Kent, 1827-78, to which he was presented by the 
Lord Chancellor, and in 1837 ^1^® ^^^ of Wincnelsea appointed 



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Vicars and Provosts, 15S 



him Rector of Eastwell, which he held until his death in 1880, 
The present Baronet. Sir Percy D. Oxenden, was his second son. 
It was the Rev. Montagu Oxenden, who brought the action that 
recovered the Roshbeecber Charity for the parisnioners. 

1 838- 1 844. — Charles Levingston, 

Who married Elizabeth Woolhouse ; and in 1847 he was curate 
of St. Lawrence, in the Isle of Wight. 

1 844- 1 859. — Henry Sim. 

1859-1877. — William Clarke. 

Having been educated at Queens College, Oxford, where he 
took his degree in 1845, and was ordained the next year by the 
Bishop of Chichester, and became curate of Icklesham, in Sussex, 
1846-50; St. Stephen's, Brighton, 1852-6; then chaplain at 
Heyeres, 1856-9, whence he came to Wingham. The Bishop of 
Winchester presented him in 1877, ^^ Hook in Surrey, where he 
remained until 1890, and then became Vicar of Rumburgh with 
St. Michael, South Ehnham, in the diocese of Norwich, which he 
has since resigned. 

1877-1890. — Robert Rigby Kewley, 

Who took his degree at Brazenose College, Oxford, in 185 1, 
and was ordained by the Bishop of Rochester, in 1863. Curate of 
Bishop Hatfield, Herts, 1863-70; St. Michael and AH Angels, 
Sydenham, 1870-5 ; St. Bartholomew's, Sydenham, 1875-7, when 
he came to Wingham, and left this parish in 1890, being appoint- 
ed Vicar of Bucklesbury, with Marlestone, near Reading, m the 
Diocese of Oxford. 

1891 — Joseph Makinson Fox, B.A. 

University of London, 1854. Ordained Deacon by the Bishop 
of Rochester in 1886, and was curate of St. Nicholas, Strood, 
next Rochester, 1886-91. 




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Chapter X, 

CANONS OF THE COLLEGE. 

mANY of those who were Canons of Wingham 
College became distinguished men, both in church 
and state, and we are able to give particulars of the 
following: — 

William de Haleberg, 1287- 

He was appointed to act with the Dean of the Court of Arches 
in April, 1282, in a case between Henry de Buckland and the 
exors. of Robert de Trillowe. In February of the next year, 
with others, he went to Westminster to consider the evidence 
for the exemption of Great Malvern Priory, when he is described 
as " examinatori " of the Court of Canterbury. On Easter 
Eve, 1283, William de Haleberg was ordained Deacon, and is 
described as Re<5tor of All Saints. When at the South Mailing 
Manor House, February 2ist, 1287, Archbishop Peckham 
appointed him to the Bonnington Canonry of our church, and 
Archbishop Winchelsey, June 27th, 1310, appointed him Redor 
of Smarden, which he resigned in 1^12.— {Letters Ahp, Peckham.) 

John de Lewes, 1287- 

Evidently a native of Lewes in Sussex. He, in 1280, became 
Vicar of Smarden in this county, succeeding John de Bestane, 
who had resigned. Archbishop Peckham, when staying at the 
South Mailing Manor House, in Sussex, on October 20th, 1285, 
appointed John de Lewes Vicar of Ash, and next year to the 
Ratling Canonry in the collegiate Church of Wingham, then 
recently founded by the Archbishop. He resigned Ash in 
November, 1288, when appointed to Horsley, in Surrey. He 
was also Redor of Buxted, in the Diocese of Chichester, when, 
in July, 1292, Archbishop Peckham, who was at the Otford 
Manor House, granted him license to build a chapel at Gilbridge, 
in that parish, for which land was granted. He appears to have 
held his canonry at Wingham for some years, as in the year 
1319 we find that a John de Lewes, clerk, bought from John 
de Boudon a messuage of forty acres three and a half roods of 
land, paying a rent to the overlord of sevenpence and two hens, 
in Nonington-next- Wingham ; and at Easter in the next year, 
he bought another twenty acres at the same place. — (Letters 
Peckham, Arch. Cant. XIV,) 

Walter de Peckham, 1287- 

A nephew of the Founder, being a son of Richard de Peckham. 
Walter was appointed to the Wymelingwolde Canonry, February 



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Canons of the College. f55 



2ist, 1287, by the Archbishop, when at the South Mailing 
Manor House, but must then have been only a layman, for when 
admitted "acolyte" in Tong Church, at the September ordi- 
nation 1288, be is described as Canon of Wingham ; and was 
ordained *• sub-deacon " at Slindon, in the following December, 
when he was also Rector of Tarring, in Sussex ; and Deacon at 
Croydon in March, 1289, and Priest at Tong church later in the 
same year.— (Letters Ahp, Peckham.) 

William de Sardenia, 1287- 

A Professor of Civil Law. and appointed Vicar of Goodnestone 
July 29th, 1282, by Archbishop Peckham when at Wingham 
Manor House ; and upon the departure of the Archbistiop into 
WaJes in November of the same year, William de Sardenia was 
one of those who were appointed to look after the rights of the 
Archbishop during his absence in Wales, trying to arrange peace 
between Llewellyn and Edward I, On Tune 29th, 1283, he was 
presented to Great Chart, and in the tollowing November to 
Chiddingstone. The Archbishop ordered him, July 24th, 1284, 
to cite those who were concerned in the burning of Hampton 
Church, in the diocese of Exeter ; and three years later was 
rewarded (February 21st, 1287), with the Chilton Canonry, and 
July 3rd, 1288, the church of Boughton next Blean, with the 
chapel of Heme Hill. He also became a Prebendary of St. 
Paul's London, and was official of the Arches Court for the 
years 1297-1308. — (Letters Ahp. Peckham, and Newcourt, 1, 14^8, 
434) 

Martin de Hampton, 1287- 1306. 

Re6kor of Wittersham, when on May 5th. 1282, Archbishop 
Peckham, at the Mortlake Manor House, appointed him to be 
his Commissary, and next June 30th to Paseying Chapel on the 
deprivation of Theodosius de Camilla (a former Vicar of this 
parish). "When at the Aldington Manor House, Archbishop 
Peckham, on September ist, orders his commissary to compel 
the debtors of Stephen de Forde, late Rector of Saltwood, to 
pay their debts ; and in December Martin had to proceed against 
two of the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury, who had fled 
from their Monastery, being assisted by Sir Robert de Hardres. 
From the Otford Manor House the Archbishop informs 
Martin that the people of Wingham, and others, are not to obey 
the inhibition of the Sacristan of Westminster, with reference to 
Theodosius de Camilla. Next year when at Saltwood Castle, 
April 20th, 1284, Archbishop Peckham orders Martin to appoint 
a coadjutrice to the Prioress of S. Sepulchres Nunnery, at 
Canterbury. From Liddington, January ist, 1285, the 

Archbishop orders Martin de Hampton, and Thomas, Rector of 
Chartham, to take possession of the goods of Walter de 
Chelecumbe, the deceased Redlor of Ickham ; and three days 
later empowers Martin and the Archdeacon of Canterbury to 
demand certain monks of Christ Church: — Ralph de Adisham, 
John de Welles, John de London, and John de JShamelford, who 



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156 Chromcles of U^ingham. 



had been imprisoaed by the kings officers. On January 25th 
Martin was rewarded with the rich living of Ickliam and sdso 
became a Canon of the College, but continued to aft as com^ 
missary for the Archbishop, who. in December. 1285, when at 
the Charing Manor House, orders Martin to excommunicate all 
those persons who made illegal exactions on the tenants of the 
Archbishop. Martin de Hampton was buried in the chancel of 
Ickham Church, where there was a brass with this inscription, 
" Pray for the soul of Martin de Hampton, sometime Redor of 
this Church, and Canon of Wingham, whose body rests here. 
He died November 28th, 1306."— (L«««rs Ahp. Ptckkam ; Arch. 
Cant. XIV, 116). 

Thomas de Cbartham, 1287- 

A native of Chartham, in thtsconnty. In 1281, with others, 
had to audit the accounts of Hamo. Vicar of Ash, previously 
Warden of Eastbridge Hospital, Archbishop Peckham appointed 
him to the Pedding Caoonry in 1287, but resiffned the same year, 
and was appointed a Canon of South Mailing in the place of 
Lambert de Mouneto, who had died. — {Letters Ahp. Peckham,) 

Roger Burd for Bourd), 1287-92, 

Archbishop Peckham, when at the Wingham Manor Hoose, 
June 26th, 1287, appointed him to the Pedding Canonry in 
succession to Thomas de Chartham ; and in 1288 he was ordained 
priest in the Chapel at Slindon, at the December ordination. 
Roger Burd resigned the Wingham Canonry in 1292.— (L«/^s 
Ahp . Peckham,) 

Robert de Cysterne, 1292- 

Ordained by Archbbhop Peckham, in Arundel Church, on 
Saturday, in the first week in Lent, 1288 ; and became Rector of 
Hadleigh, in Suffolk, until the Archbishop, when at Mortlake 
Manor House, October 8th, 1292, appointed him Canon of Wing- 
ham, in place of Roger huxd,— (Letters Ahp, Peckham), 

Thomas de Upton, 1299-1327. 

He had been ordained priest by Archbishop Peckham, at 
Croydon, in March, 1289, and was then appointed Rector of 
Adisham, holding both until his death in 1327, when he was 
buried in the south transept of Adisham Church, where his stone 
coffin may be seen. — (Arch^ Cant, XIV,) 

Robert de Wyvill, 1328- 

A king's clerk (or royal chaplain) had given to him, August 
15th, 1328, by Edward HL, when at York, *' the Canonry in the 
Collegiate Church of Wingham, lately held by Thomas de Upton," 
in the King's gift by reason of a vacancy in the See of Canterbury. 
Archbishop Reynolds died November i6th, 1327, and Archbishop 
Mepham was enthroned January 22nd, 1329.- (Kal. Pat, Rolls.) 

Vitalis de Testa, 1324- 

Evidently a foreigner, also at same time a Canon of Salisbury, 



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Canons of the College. 157 



and Dean of St. Paul's. London, 1314-28. Probably non-resident. 
(Newcourtl.41). 

Michael de Bereham, 1310-1320. 

May have been a native of Barham. Chancellor of the Diocese 
of Canterbury, and tn 1310 appointed a Canon of the CoUei^e and 
Rector of Saltwood from 1310 to 1320.'- (Arch, Cant. XVIII.) 

John de Bruyton, 1320- 1334. 

A native of Somerset, who. in 1300 was Chancellor of the 
Archbishop, and in 13 17', Rector of Cliffe at Hoo. which next year 
he ezchan^d for Lyminge ; and in 1320 succeeded the former as 
Rector of Saltwood and a Canon of our College. He was a very 
learned man, and one of the Chaplains of Edward II. On Jan. 
3rd, 1 32 1, he was appointed with two others, as commissioners, 
to enquire into the case of Richard atte Notebeame. a Canon 
of St. Gregory's, Canterbury, who was in prison. He was still 
a member of Archbishop Winchelsea's household in 1332, when 
Prior Henry de Eastry requested him not to summon for non- 
residence the Vicars of Brooke, near Wye, and St. Dunstan's, 
LondoD, who both had leave of absence. In 1323 John de 
Bruyton had been appointed Archdeacon of Canterbury, but the 
Pope cancelled the appointment.— (L^ttws Christ Church, Vol I, 
Arch Cant. XV.-) 

Richard de Tuberville, 1334- 

Edward III. on February, 1st, 1334. appointed him (one of his 
chaplains) Canon of Wingham, lately held by John de Bruyton, 
in the gift of the King, as the see of Canterbury was vacant, 
Archbirtiop Mepham having died the previous October — (Kal.Pat. 
Rous) 

John de Grandison, -1328. 

Succeeded in his Canonry by Nicholas de Hugate in Feb- 
ruary 1328 (Kal. Pat. Rolls. ),B.nd if the person who became Bishop 
of Exeter (1328-69). he was the second son of William de Grand - 
ison, who died in 1335. and bom at Ashton, in Herefordshire, 
about 1292, studying theology at Paris. Became a Prebendary of 
York. 1309, Archdeacon of Notts, 1310, and in 1322 a Canon of 
Wells. Appointed by the Pope, Bishop of Exeter, he was con- 
secrated at Avignon, and on his return landed at Dover. February 
3rd, 1328. and two days later made his profession of obedience to 
Prior Henry de Eastry. as there was no Archbishop. Bishop 
Grandison was installed in his cathedral on the octave of the 
Feast of the Assumption (August 22nd). and began to restore the 
cathedral. When Archbishop Mepham arrived at Exeter in 
June. 1322, to hold a " visitation " of the cathedral. Bishop 
Grandison shut the door and drew up his men in battle array, so 
the Archbishop was obliged to retire. Having been a great 
benefiBu:tor to his cathedral, the Bishop died, July 15th, 1369, 
aged 77, and was buried in his cathedraf — {Die. Natl, Bio.) 



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158 Chronicks of Wingham, 



Nicholas de Hugate, 1328. 

Edward III. when at York, February i8th, 1328, gave him the 
Canonry which Master John de Grandison had in the Collegiate 
Church of Wingham, in the Diocese of Canterbury, in the king's 
gift by the voidance of that See. Archbishop Reynolds died 
November i6th, 1327 and Archbishop Mepham was enthroned 
January 22nd, 1329. — (^Kal. Pat. Rolls.) 

Adam de Bridlington. 

Edward III. on September 21st, 1332, presented him to the 
Church of Stretton, at Strettonsdale, in the diocese of Hereford ; 
when he is described as a king's clerk, Canon of Wingham, and 
Parson of Aylmerstone in diocese of Norwich. -(JiTa/. Pat. Rolls.) 

Robert de Norton, 1326. 

He had been sent to Rome by Archbishop Reynolds, as his 
' Proctor ' or representative, and then Rector of Merstham, 
Rector of Ickham for a few Months in 1322, and then Rector of 
Ivychurch 1323-5, became a Canon of the College in 1326. 
Also Dean of the Peculiars in the Arches Court i^2^-$t— (Arch. 
Cant. XIII; Newcourtl. 434.) 

John de Tomford, 1333- 

A royal chaplain, and appointed by Edward III. when at 
Windsor, October 20th, 1333, Canon of Chilton, in the Church 
of Wingham, in the gift of the King, through a vacancy in the 
See. It was only eight days after the death of Archbishop 
Mepham, October 12th, 1333. — (Kal. Pat. Rolls.) 

Robert de Canterbury, died 1333. 

A native of our Cathedral City, who had been also a 
Prebendary oi St Paul's, and Archdeacon of Essex in 1332. — 
{Newcourt I. 72.) 

Robert de Tanton, i333-i335' 

He had granted to him by Edward III. when at Marlborough' 
November 3rd, 1333, the Canonry in the Collegiate Church of 
Wingham. which Robert de Canterbury lately held ; being in 
the king's gift by reason of a vacancy at Canterbury— {Kal. Pat. 
Rolls.) He was a chaplain to Edward III, who having appointed 
his brother John de Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, as regent during 
his absence, sailed from Dover May 26th, 1329. and three days 
later, John de Eltham was at the Wingham Manor House, where 
in the name of the King, he forbids anyone to interfere with the 
presentation of Robert de Tanton to a Canonry in the Collegiate 
Church of Abergwilly in South Wales. In 1332 he was a 
Prebendary of St. Paul's, ; and two years later Archdeacon of 
Durham, he died in 1335.— (/?ywtfr ^^' ^^' Newport I. 220.) 

Arnold De Vernoles, -I333- 

He held the Twitham Canonry, and Aufifust 29th, 1333, received 
permission from Edward III. who was then at Westminster, to 
exchange with William de Bordenne, Canon of the Church of 
S. WuTfram at Abbeville— /^iTfl/. Pat, Rolls.) 

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Canons of the College. 159 



Bernard de Vinentis, -I333* 

The Proctor of an alien patron consents to an exchange of 
benefices, and describes himself as " the humble cleric Bernard 
Vinentis, a devout and aged man, Canon of Sarum ; also of the 
Collegiate Church of Wingham ; and Rector of Shoreham in the 
Diocese of Rochester.— (ifw^ MSS., Report V.) 

Richard de Norwich, 1352-4. 

Held the Pedding Canonry in 13^2, and two years after was 
appointed by Edward III. a prebendary of St. Paul's, London, 
which he resigned in 1355, when he become Archdeacon of 
Norwich, his native place, where he died in 1361. — (Arch. 
Cant. XIV.) 

William Whittlesey, 1352-3. 

He held the Chilton Canonry for only a few months, and was 
Dean of the Arches Court, 1360-4. He became Archbishop of 
Canterbury from 1368 74. He was a native of Whittlesey, a 
town near Cambridge, where he was educated at S. Peter's 
College, of which he became the master in 1349. His uncle 
(Archbishop Simon Islip fi 342-66) made himself responsible for 
his education, and by his advice Whittlesey studied canon law at 
Avignon in France. In 1337 he was made Archdeacon of 
Huntingdon, and in 1360, when the See of Rochester was vacant, 
he was appointed Bishop through the influence of Archbishop 
Islip, who was becoming infirm, and wished for a friend and 
helper ; for the Bishop of Rochester then acted as a sort of vicar 
to the Archbishop, looking after the Diocese of Canterbury when 
the Primate was abroad or away on visitations. Whittlesey was 
consecrated by Archbishop Simon Islip on February 6th, 1362, in 
the chapel of the Otford Manor House. On the vacancy at 
Canterbury, in 1368, when Archbishop Simon Langham was 
created a Cardinal Priest by Pope Urban V., and left England to 
reside at Rome, where the cardmals filled public offices and 
officiated as judges, William Whittlesey succeeded him. Owing 
to a re-appearance of the plague, the usual feast that followed the 
enthronisation of an archbishop was omitted, because of the 
danger of gathering a number of people together. Soon after he 
became an invalid, and was neither physically nor intellectually 
fit for the position. In 1373 he left his sick room at Lambeth 
Palace to open Convocation in St. Paul's Cathedral, but fainted 
in the pulpit whilst preaching, and was carried to his barge and 
rowed back to Lambeth, where he died, June 6th, 1374, be- 
queathing his library of books to St. Peter's College, Cambridge, 
where he had been educated. His body was brought to Canter- 
bury, and buried opposite his uncle, Simon Islip, between two 
pillars of the south arcade of the nave. In 1786 the stone was 
moved and his skeleton found. — [Hook ; Newcourt I. Arch. Cant.) 

Robert atte Brome, died 1372: 

In 1 360 the College became rather notorious through one of the 
Canons, Robeit atte Brome, being a party to a serious breach of 



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160 Chronicles of Wingham. 



ecclesiastical discipline. In that year Sir Eustace de Aubriesches- 
court was married to Elizabeth, the daughter of the Marquis de 
Jailers, and a niece of Edward III., who had been solemnly 
veiled as a nun by the Bishop of Winchester, at Waverley, in 
Surrey, after the death of her first husband (December 27th. 1352) 
John, Earl of Kent, and brother to the fair Joan who married the 
Black Prince. But she evidently altered her mind, for she 
secretly withdrew from the convent, and eight years after, " before 
the sun-rising upon the Feast of St. Michael," in the year 1360, 
was secretly married to Sir Eustace by Robert atte Brome, one of 
the Canons, in Wingham Church. Such a transgression of 
ecclesiastical discipline called forth a speedy punishment, and the 
two culprits were summoned before Archbishop Simon Islip in 
the following April at the Mayfield Manor House, who. ordered 
as a penance that they should pay a priest to celebrate the 
Divine service (that is, ma.ss) every day in the church of Wing- 
ham, where the offence had been committee, for the good of the 
souk of Sir Eustace and his wife, and also of the Archbishop. 
The priest was to say also every day the seven Penetential 
Psalms (vi., xxzii., xzxvii., li., cii., cxxz., cxliii.), and also the 
Litany for them and all faithful Christians ; and the Placebo 
(which is the vesper hymn for the dead, and begins with the 
words Placebo Domino) ; and the dirge or office for the dead, so 
called from the opening words of the anthem, " Dirige in con- 
spectu," *• Lead me, O Lord, etc." Every morning Sir Eustace 
was to say five Paternosters (Our Father, etc.), and five Aves 
("Hail thou that art highly favoured: the Lord is with thee ; 
Blessed art thou among women,") whilst steadfastly looking^ upon 
the wounds of the crucifix, and the same every night. His wife 
having committed the greatest offence, was to say every day of 
her life the seven Penetential Psalms, and the fifteen Gradual 
Psalms (cxx., iv.), with the Litany. Placebo, and Dirge. Once 
every year she was to go barefoot to the shrine of the glorious 
martyr St. Thomas of Canterbury, and on one day of every week 
for the remainder of her life only eat bread and water and 
porridge. She lived until June 6th, 141 1, so that her penance 
ksted for 51 years, and was buried in the church of the Fnars 
Minors, at Winchester, in the tomb of her first husband, John, 
Earl of Kent. 

Robert atte Brome, the Canon who married Sir Eustace de 
Aubrieschescourt to the Countess of Kent, as narrated above, 
died in 1372, and was buried in the chancel of our Church. By 
his will he left to each of the Canons ;f 3 6s. 8d. (five marks), 
equal to about £so of the present day ; and 13s. 4d. to each Vicar, 
whom the Canons were bound to provide, whilst 20s. was left to 
the choir boys, or little clercks (parvis clericis). 



For further particulars about Sir Eustace de Aubrieschescourt 
etc., see chapter XI. 

Alexander Wayte. 

He was one of the executors of the will of Juliana de Leyboume, 



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Canons of the College. 161 

Countess of Huntingdon, who died November xst, 1367, and had 
a large Manor-House at Preston. -^Arck. Cant. I.) 

William de Heghtresbury, died 1372. 

Held the Wymlingswould Canonry, where he made his will in 
1372. He was also a Canon of Salisbury, and rector of Ickham 
in 1354. in which church he was buried, and to which he left 
several books and vestments. The tomb of a priest, in eucharistic 
vestments, that is in the north transept of Ickham church may 
very possibly be that of William de Heghtresbury. Whilst he 
was Rector of Ickham, some of the parishioners refused to pay 
their tithes ; so in 1359 John Severly who was then Provost of 
Wingham College, was ordered by Archbishop Islip to enquire 
into the matter.^ (Arch. Cant. XIV., Diet. Natl. Bio.) 

William Blankpayn, 

Having been a Canon for some years, in 1386 he became 
Rector of Ickham, which he held until i^go— [Arch. Cant, xiv,) 

Richard de Warmingfton died 1378. 

He held the Chilton Canonry for some years before 1378 
when he died, and was buried in the chancel of Adisham 
church of which he was also the Rector (1369-78). — 
{Arch. Cant, XIV.) 

John Ovying, 

Who had been Chantry priest of Lukedalc in Littlebourne 
church, held the Pedding Canonry and at the same time was 
Rector of Adisham (1379-82). Also Rector of Penshurst in 
this county. — (Arch. Cant. XIV.) 

John Prophet, 

A Canon of the College and at the same time Rector of 
Adisham from 1382 until 1386, which living seems to have 
been generally held by one of the canons. In 1387 he became 
a Prebendary of Lincoln, and Rector of Orpington 1392, which 
he resigned for the Deanery of Hereford in 1393. Archbishop 
Courtenay (1381-96) made him one of his chaplains, and Henry 
IV. made him a Secretary of State in 1404, whilst his son 
Henry V., appointed John Prophet keeper of the Privy Seal in 
141 1, for such a post was generally held by a priest. He had 
be9n made Dean of York in 1407, where he died in 1416, but 
was buried in Ringwood Church, Hants, where a fine monu- 
mental brass is over his grave.— (Arch. Cant.) 

William Lye, 

Rector of Geldeston, Herts, in 1381 being presented by the 
king, and next year Rector of Hadham in the same county. 
In 1386 he exchanged from Hasley in the Diocese of Lincoln 
with John Prophet, for Adisham, and the Wymlingsweald 
Canonry which in 1 390 he again exchanged with Reginald de 
CohhBm.— (Arch. Cant. XIV.) 



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162 Chronicles of Wingham, 



Reginald de Cobham, 1390 -1402. 

The son of the first Baron Cobham, and educated at Oxford, 
In 1364 he became Rector of Cowling, and Northfleet 1379-90. 
and in 1390 Rector of Adisham, and Canon of Wyraling weald. 
He died in 1402 and was buried in the north-aisle of Cobham 
church, where a brass represents him as a priest, in cope, 
almuce, and surplice.— (.^r^A. Cant. XIV.) 

Richard Courtenay, died 1415. 

A son Philip Courtenay of Powderham Castle in Devon, 
where he was born. His uncle Archbishop Courtenay looked 
after his education and sent him to Exeter College, Oxford, 
where he became doctor of Canon and civil law. When 
Archbishop Courtenay in 1395 made Maidstone CJhurch Col- 
legiate; he placed on one of the stalls the coat-of-arms 
of his brother Philip, the father of this Richard ; and the 
Archbishop when he died, left to his nephew " his dearest son 
and pupil 100 marks (;f 33-6-8), and if he became a cleric and 
promoted to the priestly-oflSce (sacerdotium) my Dictionarium 
in three volumes, and my best mitre in case he shall become a 
bishop, during his life ; and after his death (or if he shall return 
to the world (ad mundum redierit) to Canterbury cathedral." 
On July 24th, 1394 Richard Courtenay was made a Prebendary 
of S. Pauls, and soon after also of Lincoln, York and Wells. 
In 1400 he was Precentor of Chichester, and in 1403, Dean of 
St. Asaph, when his father died in 1406 he succeeded to the 
family possessions. In 141 o and 141 2 he was Chancellor of 
Oxford and did good work ; and was a great friend to Henry of 
Monmouth Prince of Wales, going with him on an expedition 
against the insurgents. In September, 1413, Courtenay was 
consecrated Bishop of Norwich by Archbishop Arundel, Henry 
V. and many nobles being present, but never visited his Diocese 
were John Leicester Archbishop of Smyrna discharged the 
duties. Having been sent on an embassay to France in 1414 he 
died of dysentery, September 15th, 141 5, but his body was 
brought to this country and buried in Westminster Abbey, 
behind the tomb of Edward the Confessor— (DeV. Natl. Bio.) 

John Kemp. 

A native of this county, being the son of Thomas and Beatrice 
Kemp of Olantigh in the parish of Wye, whose family had lived 
there since the days of Edward I. Probably he was] educated 
in the monastic school of Canterbury, afterwards being sent to 
Merton College, Oxford, and became lawyer in the ecclesiastical 
courts, and was one of the assesors employed by Archbishop 
Arundel in the trial of Sir John Oldcastle for heresey. In 
1415, Chichele had appointed him Vicar-general, and Henry V. 
employed him as ambassador to negotiate a peace with the King 
of Arragon, and treat for a marriage with his daughter. Kemp 
was one of the seven fellows of Merton, who attended Henry V. 
when he invaded Normandy, and when in 1419 the monks of 



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Canons of the College, 163 

Rochester elected Kemp as their Bishop, he was in Normandy, 
and was probably consecrated by Archbishop Chichele at Rouen 
on December gth. Three yearslater on Feb. 28th, 142 1, Kemp, 
was translated to Chichester, and the following November, to 
London (1421-4). He was no friend of Duke Humphrey of 
Gloucester, but sided with Henry Beaufort, Bishop Winchester. 
In 1426 Kemp became Archbishop York, and next year Henry 
VI. made him Chancellor of England, which office he held until 
Feb. 25th, 1432. In January 1439, he went with Beaufort and 
others to Calais, and returned to Sandwich October 3rd, being 
unable to land at Dover, because of the wind, and four days 
later reached London. On Dec. i8th, 1439, the Pope made 
Kemp a Cardinal, with the title of S. Balbina, and Henry VI. 
confirmed him in his possessions. In September, 1450, Cardinal 
Kemp came through Kent to try the leaders of the recent revolt 
under Cade ; and two years later on the death of Archbishop 
Stafford (May 1452) was translated to Canterbury, having been 
recommended to the monks by Henry VI, on June 4th., and 
was enthroned in the cathedral December nth, being received 
at the door of the cathedral by Waynfleet Bishop Winchester, 
who was also Lord-Chancellor. On July 21st., 1452, the Pope 
had appointed Kemp, Cardinal Bisnop of S. Rufina ; and ne 
seems to have had the confidence of both Henry V. and VI, 
who employed him on important state affairs, Treaty of Aragon 
in 1415; with France 1417, and with Burgundy in 1418. " He 
was a man of great experience, moderation, and fidelity, the 
friend and co-a5ijutor of Beaufort, yet thoroughly respected by 
the opposite party." Cardinal Kemp died March 22na, 1453, at 
the age of 73 and was buried in the south aisle of the choir of 
the cathedral in a high marble tomb ; having the inscription — 
" Here lies the Most Rev. Father in Christ, John Kemp Cardinal 
Bishop of St. Rufina in the most holy Roman Church ; Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who died March 22nd, 1453, on whose 
soul may God be merciful."— (DfV. Natl. Bio.; Stubb's Cons, 
History ; Foss' -^ Lives of Judges " ; Arch. Cant.) 

John de Stopindon, died about 1447. 

He held the Ratling Canonry, and was also Rector of Wick- 
hambreaux from 142 1 until 1440, when he exchanged with 
Robert Pecock, a Canon of Wilton. Archdeacon of Colchester, 
1433, and of Dorset, 1440 ; then employed in France on state 
affairs. Master of the Rolls, 1438-46, when he retired, and died 
about 1447 — {Hasted III., Foss' Judges.) 

Richard Vincent, died 1473. 

He was instituted by Archbishop Chichele in 1432, Rector of 
Ickham. and held the hving until his death in i^J^.—'iArch 
Cant. XIV.) 

Nicholas Bulfynch, 1473-88. 

Was one of the Canons when appointed Rector of Ickham, in 
November, 1473, and remained there until 1488, when he 



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t64 OhronieUs oj Wingkam, 



exchanged with John Hcrvy, Rector of St. Michael's, Crooked 
Lane, in London.— -(y^rirA. Cant.XlV.) 

John Hervy, 1488-92. 

Was Rector of St. Michael's, Crooked Lane, and exchanged 
with the former Canon. Also became Dean of the Arches Court. — 
{Arch. Cant. XIV.) 

Vincent Clement, i444-7S, 

Held the Twitham Canonry and was Rector of Adisham 
(1444-56), and a Prebendary of Hereford, Lincoln, and Licb6eld. 
Also Archdeacon of Wilts, Winchester, and Huntingdon. — {Arch 
Cant. XIV.) 

There was a Vincent Clement much employed by Henry VI. at 
the Roman Court 1 to procare the necessary Papal Bulls for the 
foundation of Eton College He is described as a '* Cathelanns " 
by a Roman ecclesiastic, and therefore supposed to be a Spaniard 
of Catalonia. He is also spoken of as " a star of the University 
of Oxford, which illuminates the firmament by its light." From 
Rome, Clement writes on 13th January, 1443, to Bishop Thomas 
Bekyngton, how he was unable to obtain the indulgences for 
Eton college ; but soon after he must have returned to England, 
as on February 22nd the King wrote to the University of Oxford, 
asking that Clement might be rewarded with a degree in divinity 
without delay, since he will shortly leave the country on im- 
portant state business. He is said to have been only a sub-deacon 
at this time. In March he was back at Rome, and daring the 
following months frequently mentioned in letters to various 
persons as the authorised agent of the King. On May 13th, 
Henry VI. wrote from Westminster to Pope Eugenius IV., 
asking for further indulgences to be granted through Vincent 
Clement, for Eton College. On 31st December, 1443, Clement 
wrote home to Becky ngton, saying hs had received the King*s 
Instructions, but had not been able to do much, although he was 
devoted to the cause of the King. In 1454 this Clement became 
Pope's collector m England for many years. — {Correspondence 
Bishop Beckyngton,) 

John Parnienter, 1475. 

Had the Twitham Canonry for one month in 1475, on death of 
before mentioned Clement, having previously been Rector of 
Newchurch, in Romney Marsh (1472), and commissary to Arch- 
bishop Bourchier, and by his commands, about 1470, ordered that 
the confessors appointed to shrive the pilgrims flocking to the 
Shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury, were not to demand fees for 
their services. He died in 1501, and M'as buried in the church of 
St. Alphege, Canterbury, of which he was the Rector, where his 
brass may be seen.— (-4y^A. Cant. XIII., XIV. : Letters Christ 
Church, II L) 

Henry Cowper, 1493- 1500. 

Also Rector of Adisham, 149T-1500., being appointed by Arch- 
bishop Morton.— {-4 rcA. Cant, XI V.) 



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Canons of the CoUeg$, 165 



Ambrose Payne, 1499-1521. 

He held the Chilton Oanonry. and when Archbishop Warham 
held a "visitation of the College" Sept. 14th, 151 1, his house 
was said to be very ruiaoos, and was ordered to repair it within 
a year, under pain of removal. He also held two benefices ; but 
stayed until 152 1, when he exchanged his canonry for one in the 
Collegiate Church at Hastings.— MyrA. Cant. XIV., British 
Magazine XXIX). 

Robert Woodward, 1 505-1 531. 

He held the Ratling Oanonry for twenty-six years and one 
of the Canons when Archbishop Warham held his visitation, 
(Sept. 14th, 151 1). Cardinal Morton had presented him to 
Adisham in 1500, and he held that living until 1523, when he 
resigned on a pension of £2^ a year, but continued a Canon of 
the College for eight years longer. He was Warden of All Souls 
College, Oxford, 1528-33, when he resigned, and died at North- 
more near Oxford, and was buried there. — (Arch. Cant. XI V,; 
Gutch). 

Thomas Kery. 

Canon in 151 1, at Archbishop Warham's visitation, when he 
also held more than one benefice. — (British Magazine XXIX). 

John Williams. 

Canon at Abp. Warham's "visitation" in 15 11. when he showed 
the deed of his presentation to the canonry, and said that each 
canon ought to have a vicar-choral in priest's orders ; but that 
Abp Bourchier, when Thomas Rotherham was Provost (1458- 
63), because each vicar had only /^ a year, ordered that there 
should be four priest-vicars and lOur secular clerks. —(British 
Magazine, XXIX). 

Thomas Driffeld. 

Canon in 15 11, but nothing further said about him at the " visi- 
tation " in that year. — (British Magazine). 

Robert Cowper. 

Canon in 1511, then became Rector of Great Mongeham, ex- 
changing in 1526 to Snargate Rectory in Romney Marsh. — {Arch, 
Cant. XIII.) 

John Saunders, died 1509. 

He left, by his will in 1509, the sum of £6 8s. 4d. towards 
buying a "pair of organs" for the church, which is thought 
to be one with two stops. He also gave to the chapel at Fleet, 
near Richboro', a printed Breviary, the book which contains the 
daily services of the Church, for the canonical hours of prayer ; 
Matins, which was sung soon after midnight ; Prime, about 
6 a.m. ; Tierce, at 9 a.m, ; Sext, at mid-day ; Nones, at 3 
in the afternoon ; Vespers, an evening service at 6 p.m. ! and 
Compline, a late service which completed the day. The Breviary 



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166 Chronicles of Wingham. 



also contains the special services for Sundays and Saints' Days. 
He also left a Mass Book that had belonged to a former priest 
named Thomas ; this book contained the service of the Mass for 
the various days of the year. Another bequest was 20s. for a 
new window in the parish church. This chapel at Fleet was in 
existence down to the time of Edward YI. (1547-53), and was 
used by the inhabitants of that part of the parish of Ash. Some 
think this small church was on the east side of Richboro' Castle, 
towards the cliff, where traces of walls and portions of skeletons 
have been found ; others that it was built on the square plat- 
form of masonry, in the middle of the Castle, although it is not 
known for what purpose that mass of masonry, was built. The 
"oolite stone" is also found in other Roman buildings. 
John Saunders was also Vicar of Ash, 1494-1509. — {Planche's, 
''Ash") 

Peter Ligham, 1533-8. 

Dean of the Arches Court, and from 1526 Rector of Salt wood 
and Vicar of Hythe, which, together with canonry he held until 
his death in August, 1538. A few months before his death he 
was also appointed Warden of Eastbridge Hospital in Canter- 
bury.— f^^rcA. Cant. XVIII.) 

Robert Chaloner, died 1541. 

Archbishop Warham appointed him Rector of Adisham in 
1526, which he held with the Pedding Canonry.— f^drf A. 
Cant. XIV). 

Richard Astall, 1541-6. 

Rector of Chevening 1533-6, held the Pedding Canonry, and 
compounded for the *' first-fruits " on April 5th, 1541, his sure- 
ties being Henry Lacy, of Archbishop's household, and John 
Killiyngrew of the same. Also Rector of Ightham, where he 
was buried.— (-4 rcA. Caw/. XVI.) 

John Thorpe, 1546-7. 

Succeeding Richard Astall both as Rector of Chevening and 
in the Pedding Canonry. He was chaplain to Archbishop 
Cranmer, and when the College was dissolved in 1547, received 
a pension of /6 13s. 4d. (equal to about £(iQ at present day). — 
{Arch. Cant. XVI . 2). 

John Blande, 1543-7. 

Held the Ratling Canonry from 1543, when he compounded 
for the first fruits, and at the suppression of the College in 1547, 
he was allowed a pension of £6 13s. 4d. (equal to /60 a year of 
the present day), and at the same time was Rector of Adisham 
from 1541 until he was put to death in 1555. From Arclueologia 
Cantiana, Vol. XIV., we learn that, when Mary came to the 
throne, and former Church order was restored, on September 
3rd, 1553, ]p^T^ Austen, the churchwarden of Adisham, took the 
top of the Communion Table off its tressels and laid it aside. 
On November 26th, of the same year, Richard and Thomas 
Austen went to Blande after the service was ended and charged 



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Canons of the College. 167 



him with having pulled down in former years (probably when 
ordered by Archbishop Cranmer in 1548) the altar of the church 
and its tabernacle, and the rood-beam and they declared they 
would have the Mass celebrated in the church on the following 
Sunday. Nothing however was done until the Festival of the 
Holy Innocents (December 28th) and of the Dedication of the 
church, upon which day the parish priest from Stodmarsh came 
to say Mass. At the time for the sermon Rector Blande ad- 
dressed the congregation from the door of the rood-screen, but was 
interrupted by the church-wardens and the constable, who shut 
him in a side chapel until the service was over, when sureties 
were taken that he would abstain from preaching. In February 
1554, he was sent to Canterbury jail and on May 21st was 
examined before Archdeacon Harpsfield and Commissioner 
Collins as to his belief, when a great many persons were present. 
He was remanded to the Cranbrook sessions in July, when he 
was ordered to be put in the stocks by Sir Thomas Moyle, and 
afterwards sent to Maidstone jail, where he was kept until 
February, 1555, when he was sent to Canterbury Castle. On 
March 2nd in the chapter House of the cathedral, Justice 
Oxenden, Petit, Webb, and Hardres, presented him to Richard 
Thornedon, Bishop-Sufifragan of Dover (1546-78), as one str» ng- 
ly suspected of heresy, when after a long examination, he was 
condemned and delivered to the secular power for punishment. 
On July I2th, 1555, he was, with others, burnt to death. 

Henry Holland, 1545-7 

Held the WymUngweald Canonry, and in 1547 received a 
pension. — (Arch, Cant. II). 

Mattew Goodriche, -i547 

He received a pension oi £^ 13 4 (equal to £66\ a year, and 
then became a Minor Canon of Canterbury, ana in 1544 was 
deprived of his office by Cardinal Pole, because a married man. 
>-(Arch. Cant, 11, Hist. MSS, Report JX. lOI). 

Robert Collins, (or Colens). 

Vicar of Lymne from 1524 until he resigned in 1535 ; pen- 
sioned as a Canon in 1547. He had received the grant of a cell 
in the Black Friars at Canterbury, ajid with Archdeacon 
Harpsfield examined John Blande (Canon of Wingham, and 
Rector of Adisham), in the chapter-house of the Cathedral, 
May i8th to 21st, 1554, and also in March of the next year, 
when Blande was strongly suspected of heresy.— (^y^A. Cant. 
XIIL.XIV.,XViII.) 

Richard Turner. 

Vicar to one of the Canons when the College was suppressed * 
in 1547. and received a pension of £2 a year. Then became one 
of the six preachers of Canterbury, but deprived in 1554 by 
Cardinal Pole, for being a married man.— (/if s/. MSS. Reports 
IX.) 



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Chapter XI. 

WAT TYLER'S INSURRECTION. 

y^HE popular idea is that this arose from the murder 
vJ of a tax-gatherer at Dartford, but the commotion 
was far deeper in orif^in. 

The Parliament of 1380, over which Archbishop 
Sudbury, being Chancellor, presided, imposed a tax 
of a groat (4d.)> to be paid by every one above fifteen 
years of age, to pay for the late war in France. This 
caused great excitement in the country where the 
labourers now had to pay, but hitherto had escaped 
taxation. The system of villeinage was undergoing a 
change, — labourers had been obliged to perform certain 
works for their owners, in return for which they had 
a house arid maintenance on the owner's estate, and 
were protecfled from robbery and wrong, whilst they 
were also allowed to join in the feasting at the hall. 
When the barons, made poor by long wars, began to 
sell portions of their lands to wealthy citizens or burg- 
esses, the villeins on that land would be sold with it, 
and the purchasers tried to get as much work as 
possible out of them, and the mutual kindness between 
superior and inferior no longer existed, so that the 
villeins had been combining against their lords for 
relief from burdensome feudal customs which made 
the great body of the people mere bondsmen, and the 
cry of the insurgents was — **no tenant should do 
service or custom to the lords as heretofore," and at 
the various manor houses they burnt the rolls and 
books. They first seized William de Septvans, the 
Sheriff of Kent, burnt his books and rolls, released the 
prisoners from Canterbury Castle and other jails. 

John Balle, a priest of Maidstone, said that '^things 
would never prosper unless all distinctions were 
abolished, since all were descended from a common 

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Wat Tyler's Insurrection. t69 



ancestor, and it was not right for some to be clothed 
in rich stuffs, ornamented with expensive furs, whilst 
others were obliged to wear coarse cloth. Nor should 
some live on wine and fine bread, whilst others had 
only water and rye bread to eat." Then (says John 
Richard Green) * 'England first listened to a declaration 
of natural equality and the rights of man." Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Cambridge and Hertfordshire rose in arms, 
and through Surrey and Sussex the revolt spread as 
far as Devon ; but in Kent the outbreak began under 
Wat Tyler, who marched to Canterbury, which **was 
of their mind,'* and opened its gates. They * 'plundered 
the Palace of the Archbishop and released John Balle 
who had been imprisoned there," and terribly frighten- 
ed the monks. Led by Wat Tyler and John Hales, of 
Mailing, a hundred thousand men marched to London, 
apd on Blackheath, " every lawyer who fell into their 
hands was put to death." Richard H., only about 
fifteen years of age, was at Windsor, but returned to 
the Tower of London for greater security although 
most of the people of London sympathized with the 
movement. Richard went down the river and was 
received with shouts of joy, although the courtiers 
were< frightened. Next day he rode to Mile End to 
address those from the Eastern Counties, and during 
his absence, the others who had entered London broke 
into the Tower and seized Archbishop Sudbury in the 
Chapel, took him outside,^ and had him beheaded June 
15th ; his head was then placed on a pole and carried 
through the streets. The death of Wat Tyler at 
Smithfield, and the promise of the King to see to 
their grievances, caused the multitude to disperse. 
The body of the Archbishop was afterwards conveyed 
to Canterbury and buried near the Altar of S. Dunstan, 
•*He was a political victim, and as Chancellor, not 
Archbishop of Canterbury, he suffered the vengeance 
of the Commons." Some ten years previously he had 
been rash enough to speak against the pilgrimages to 
the Shrine of St. Thomas, when, in 1370, great crowds 
were going there. Some of them cursed him and 
hoped he would meet a shameful death, and naturally 



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170 Chronicles of Wittgham, 

imagined that the rights of St. Thomas were avenged 
when Sudbury was beheaded. We can therefore 
understand that no efforts were made to make him a 
martyr. 

After the commotion was over, the jury of the various 
Hundreds reported as to the state of the county. The 
jurors of the Hundred of Wingham and Eastry jointly 
inquired ** concerning malefactors who maliciously made 
insurrection against our Lord the King and his people, 
in the fourth year of the reign of Richard II., say upon 
their oath that on Monday next, after the feast of Holy 
Trinity (June loth) in the year 1381, Lawrence Smyth, 
of Chylendenne, and John Gunne, of Monckton, 
maliciously against the peace made insurrection at 
Chillenden against our Lord the King and his people, 
and continued that insurrection until Saturday after the 
Feast of St. Barnabas the Apostle (June 15th), in the 
aforesaid year ; and they say that Kichard atte Dene 
violently and maliciously killed William Wottone, at 
Wotton. And they say that John de Feversham and 
Sarah, his wife, made complaint that John Twytham 
and John Clerk, of Preston concerning a certain trespass 
upon the aforsaid John and Sarah, committed by John 
Twitham and John Clerk, but the jury say they are not 
guilty thereof." The constables of the Hundred of 
Wingham were : Thomas de Goodnestbn, William at 
Ware, Robert Kyleras, Henry Penny; and the 
Wardens: John Gustone and John Kedynton. Con- 
stables of Eastry Hundred : Thomas Noldyn, John 
El ward, John Benjamin, and Walter Howtin ; and 
the Wardens; William Harm ere and John Towcester. 
{Arch. Cant. III.) 

John Cade. 
In common with most of the villages, Wingham 
contributed its share of men to the insurrection, led by 
John Cade to redress all the wrongs of the people. 
Shakespeare, however (in the second part of Henry VI., 
Act 3, Scene i), is not quite correct in describing him as 
**a headstrong Kentishman, John Cade of Ashford," for 
in the ** Dictionary of National Biography'* he is said to 
have been an Irishman by birth; (and Shakespeare 



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John Cade's Insurnction. 171 

makes the Duke of York say "In Ireland have I 
seen this stubborn Cade oppose himself against a troop of 
Kernes, etc.") Nothing seems to be known of Cade's 
personal history, except that he was obliged to abjure 
the realm for having murdered a woman v/ith child ; so 
he fled to France and and served in the war against 
England^ but returned to Kent under the name of Aylmer 
pretending to be a physician, and at the time of the 
rebellion was living in the household of Sir Thomas 
Dacre, in Sussex. 

The ruinous result of the great struggle with France 
aroused the people of this country to a burst of fury 
against the wretched government. "Kent was the 
great manufacturing district of the day, with a busy 
population, and from there the rising spread over Surrey 
and Sussex. A military levy of yeomen of the three coun- 
ties was organized, the greater part of the gentry, mayors 
of towns, and constables of the Hundreds summoned men 
as if by lawful authority, so that more than three hun- 
dred esquires and gentlemen, together with the Abbot 
of Battle (Richard Dartmouth) and the Prior of Lewes 
(John Daniel) openly favoured their cause. John Cade 
took the significant name of Mortimer (and it seems as 
if his pretension to high birth was generally believed in), 
and placed himself at the head of the 20,000 men of 
Kent who marched on to Blackheath, encamping there 
June ist, well prepared for war ; but Henry VI., who 
was holding Parliament at Leicester, came to London, 
and they retiring to Sevenoaks, were followed by order 
of the King. The men of Kent being vidlorious they, on 
July 3rd, again entered London, this time with the men 
of Sussex and Surrey, and the king with his queen went 
to Kenilworth Castle, and Archbishop Stafford retired 
to the Tower, for most of the citizens of London were 
with the men of Kent." Having forced his way across 
the bridge, on entering the city Cade went to London 
Stone (preserved to this day in Cannon Street) and struck 
his sword upon it, and with reference to himself, and as 
explaining his own action, said — " Now is Mortimer 
lord of this City.' This was not a foolish adt, but a 
relic of the primitive open-air meetings, and the place 
where proclamations were made. 

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172 Chronicles of Wingham. 



After the vi(5lory at Sevenoaks, and the death of Lord 
Say, the most unpopular of the ministers, their 
<' complaint *' was considered ; which was not a question 
of villeinage (that had died away), or religion, but of 
economical reforms, and the restoration of the freedom 
of ele<5Hon. 

Cardinal John Kemp, then Archbishop of York, and 
the Chancellor, Archbishop Stafford, and William 
Waynfleet, Bishop of Winchester, had a conference 
with Cade in the Church of S. Margaret, Southwark, 
with the result that a general pardon was sent to Cade 
and his followers, so that most of the men returned 
home. But Cade having sent a quantity of booty bj'' 
barge to Rochester, went by land, and with some of his 
followers, attempted to capture Queenboro' Castle ; and 
by the discovery that his real name was not Mortimer, 
Cade's pardon ** had no strength," was invalid, and on 
July 12, a proclamation was issued against him, a i,ooo 
marks offered dead or alive, and he was captured near 
Heathfield, in Sussex, by Alexander Iden, a squire of 
Kent (and not yet Sheriff) for it was not a fortnight 
after the murder of the former Sherifi of Kent, William 
Crowmer, who had married Lord Say's daughter^ ; but 
John Cade died from his wounds, whilst t)eing taken to 
London, where his head was set on London Bridge. 

Now as to the local part taken in this insurredHon, 
Shakespeare in the above mentioned play mentions, 
" the son of Best, the tanner of Wingham,'* as amongst 
those assembled on Blackheath, although we do not 
find this name amongst those pardoned (as given in 
Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. VIL), he may be included 
among the many not mentioned by name. But the 
picturesque old shop, modernised with plate-glass 
windows, that is next to the bridge in the village street, 
is said to occupy the place of a tannery. We, however, 
find the following names of Wingham people mentioned 
in this ** pardon,'* granted after the insurrection was put 
down: — «* John Oxenden and James Hope, gentlemen; 
also James Cluterynden (also spelt Scheterynden^ and 
Richard Pery, constables of the Hundred of Wingham ; 



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John Cade* 9 InsHrrution, 173 

Will Donington ? (Bonington), and all others in the 
same Hundred." Whilst from the adjoining parish of 
Preston—" Will Woodhill, the constable, John HaJl, 
and John Rekedon." 

The '' John Oxenden *' who was pardoned must have 
been the one sumamed Ginkin, and son of Richard 
Oxenden and his wife Isabella de Twitham. John 
married Isabella, the daughter of Richard de Ratling, 
and had two sons, John and Robert ; but his son John 
died in 1440, some ten years before the time of Cade, 
The James Hope we are unable to identify, except that 
two years later, in 1452, a person of that name was 
Mayor of Fordwich, but there is no evidence that they 
were one and the same person. — {Die, Natl. Bio. etc.) 

An Elopement and its Sequel. 

Elizabeth, the daughter of the Marquis de Juliers, and 
a niece of Ed ward III. had married John, Earl of Kent, 
the brother of the fair Joan who married the Black 
Prince. When the Earl of Kent died shortly after on 
December 27th, 1352, leaving to his wife great 
possessions, including the Manor of Wickhambreux in 
this county, the disconsolate young widow, in ** the 
bloom of youth and beauty," entered the convent at 
Waverly, in Surrey, where, taking a vow of perpetual 
widowhood, she was solemnly veiled as a nun by the 
Bishop of Winchester. But she afterwards altered her 
mind, repented of so hastily quitting the world, and, 
owing to a gay young knight, secretly withdrew from 
the convent, and came to her Manor House of Wick- 
hambreux. 

The day had just broken on the morning of St. 
Michael's Massday, in the year 1360, when the Countess 
of Kent with a few attendants rode from her house across 
the low-lying land, bordering on the marshes ot the 
Stour, to the village of Wingham, where, at the gate of 
the church, a brave knight, Sir Eustace de Aubriche- 
court (who had come from his relations at Denn 
Court, in the parish ot Wodensboro') met her, and they 
entered the church where, ** before the sun-rising," they 

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174 Chronicles of Wingham. 



were married by Rev. John Ireland, who was Vicar of 
Robert atte Brome, one of the Canons of the College, 
and evidently very friendly disposed to one, or both, of 
the parties. 

Now this was a terrible breach of ecclesiastical 
discipline a vowed nun escaping and marrying ; so when 
the news reached the ears of Archbishop Simon de Islip 
he summoned the offending parties to appear before him 
in the following April at the Mayfield Manor House in 
Sussex, when, if it had not been for their rank and 
powerful influence, the marriage would have been 
declared null and void ; but the following penance was 
imposed upon them :— Since their marriage was unlaw* 
fully solemnized in the church of Wingham, Sir Eustace 
and his wife were to pay a priest to celebrate Divine 
Service daily in that church for the good of their souls, 
and also of the Archbishop. The priest was also to say 
every day the Seven Penitential Psalms with the litany 
for them and all faithful christians ; and the " Placebo" 
(which is the vesper hymn for the dead) and the 'Dirige,' 
for all the faithful departed. Every morning Sir 
Eustace was to say, as soon as he had risen from his 
bed, five * 'Paternosters" and five "Aves," whilst stead- 
fastly looking on the wounds of the crucifix ; and the 
same every night ; whilst the Lady Elizabeth, having 
committed the greatest offence, was to say, every day 
of her life, the Seven Penitential, and Fifteen Gradual 
Psalms, with the Litany, Placebo, and Dirige ; once 
every year to go barefoot to the shrine of the glorious 
martyr St. Thomas of Canterbury ; and one day every 
week for the remainder of her life eat only bread and 
water and porridge. This penance lasted for fifty-one 
years. We find the names of Sir Eustace de Aubriche- 
court and his wife mentioned with others in a '*Mass 
for Benefactors", at Eastbridge Hospital, Canterbury, in 
the year 1363, just three years after this marriage. 

They had a son William who was buried at Bridport, 
and when the mother died on June 6th 141 1, long after 
her second husband, she was buried in the church of 
the White Friars at Winchester, beside her first 
husband — ^John, Earl of Kent. 

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An Elopement. 175 



But what of the gay young knight ? He was a son 
of Sir Nicholas de Aubrichecourt, who entertained at 
his Castle of Aubrichecourt, near Bonehain, in 
Flanders, Queen Isabella (wife of Edward II.) and 
her son, the future Edward III., when in Flanders, 
and her cause was championed by Sir John Hainault 
who, vrith his forces, landed at Bristol in 1326, and 
soon after Edward II. was imprisoned at Berkley 
Castle, and his son, then sixteen years of age, was 
crowned king on Christmas Day. 

For the services rendered by Sir Nicholas and his 
sons, they were no doubt kept in England by the 
youuR king and his mother; for when Edward III. 
founded in 1344, the "Knights of the Blue Garter," 
Sir Sanchio de Aubrichecourt (brother to this Sir 
Eustace) was one of the first twenty-six knights then 
appointed. A third son Nicholas married the heiress 
of Stratfield Saye. 

Sir Eustace was with the Black Prince at the 
Battle of Poitiers, September 19th, 1356, when having 
charged Lord Louis Von Concibras, both were thrown 
to the ground, and Sir Eustace was taken prisoner to 
the Earl of Nassau, but in the confusion of the battle 
he was rescued, and afterwards performed many 
a gallant deed of arms. 

When Lady Phillipa of Lancaster, was, in 1387, 
given in marriage to the king of Portugal, she was 
escorted there by Sir John de Aubrichecourt (said to 
be a nephew of our Sir Eustace) and two other knights 
with one hundred horsemen and two hundred archers. 
At Castile, according to the customs of the time, he 
was challenged to a tilt of three courses with the spear 
by Lord Boucicaut, who, however, was in France and 
unable to return, so that the tournament did not come 
ofiF. 

Canon Robert atte Brome, whose Vicar had per- 
formed the marriage, died in 1372, and was buried in 
Wingham Church. By his will he left to each of his 
brother canons five marks (equal to about £^0 at the 
present day), and one mark to each vicar, whom the 

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176 Chronicles of H'ingham, 



canons were bound to provide. — (Froissarts Chronicles ; 
Letters Christ Church ; Notes and Queries March 31st, 1894), 

The «* De Winghams/' 

Although the whole manor belonged to the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, who sub-granted portions to 
persons who became known by the name of the land 
they held ; yet there were some persons who became 
eminent, and were known by the surname ** Wingham." 
But it does not follow that all of that surname, taken 
from their place of birth were relations, for they may 
have belonged to the smaller manors, which name was 
dropped and that of Wingham used. The following 
persons occupied more or less important positions : — 

Ralph de Wingham, who was one of the witnesses to 
a charter of Archbishop Richard, dated about ii 75. 
Ralph was evidently a member of the household of the 
Archbishop. — {Arch. Cant, IV.) 

* » ♦ • • 

Peter de Wingham. whose name occurs as one of the 
parties to an agreement in the year 1198 that was made 
in the King's Court, between Andrew de Belchamp on 
the one part, and Peter de Wingham and William de 
Boseville on the other part. — {Maddox " Hist, Exchequer.'^) 
« » « » « 

Henry de Wingham, the most celebrated native of 
the parish, seems to have been lord of the Manor of 
Syberteswould (or Shepherdswell), and became much in 
favour with Henry HI., who in November 1245, 
assessed a tallage or tax on the towns of England, and 
appointed John de Gray Justice of Chester and Henry 
de Wingham to assess the same in the town of Chester. 
The king in 1246 gave him the living of Elham, and in 
1248 that of Milstead, and four years later, the living of 
Headcorn, all situated in this county. 

He was also one of the commissioners whom Henry 
HI, sent into Gascony in January 1252, to enquire into 
certain violations of the truce ; for the people of Gascony 
having murmured against their governor, Simon de 
Montfort, the King secretly sent there his cleric, 



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The De fVingham. 177 



. Henry de Wingham "a shrewd man," to enquir,e into 
the matter. On March 6th, he and Rocelin de Fos 
reported to the King that they had visited the Arch- 
bishop of Bordeaux, and then went on to the army, but 
something definite was to be settled on Passion Sunday. 
On his return he was appointed chancellor, when on the 
vigil of the Epiphany, 1254-5, William de Kilkeney 
delivered the great seal to the King, which the same 
day was delivered to Henry de Wingham ; the King also 
rewarded him with the living of Tenterden, but the 
parishioners would not allow him to be inducfled. Next 
year on the death of William de Kilkeney, Bishop of 
Ely (who had died in Spain when on State affairs), 
Henry HI., wished de Wingham to be his successor ; 
but the monks of Ely elecfled their sub-prior, Hugh de 
Balsham. The king was so angry when he heard this 
that he ordered the woods to be cut down, and the fields 
destroyed that belonged to the monks of Ely ; but 
Henry de Wingham allayed the wrath of the King by 
protesting he was not suitable for the office and would 
not accept it. In 1257 he had the valuable Deanery of 
St. Martin's-le.grand, London, given him and as such 
is one of the witnesses to the King's consent to a pro- 
posed reform of governance that was agreed to at West- 
minster, May 2nd, 1258. As the keeper of the Great 
Seal, Henry de Wingham was present at Oxford, June 
nth, 1258, when at the ** Mad Parliament " (as it was 
known) he v/as one of the twelve whom the King nom- 
inated for the commission of reform in the government 
of England. Soon after this, as Lord of the Manor of 
Shepherdswell, he gave Shepherdswell Church to the 
Abbey of St. Radegund*s near Dover, for the mainten- 
ance there of one canon of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and 
the poor who came to that abbey. The monks of 
Winchester in 1259, knowing that he would be most 
acceptable to the king, elected him as a man of merit 
for their bishop, but he refused the position fearing the 
displeasure of the King, saying he was not fit for the 
office or learned in the scriptures. When, however, at the 
end of the same year he was chosen Bishop of London 
he accepted, as he would be near the King and court, and 



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178 Chronicles of Wingham, 

was consecrated February 15th, 1260, by Archbishop 
Boniface in the Church of St. Mary, Southwark. 
He was present at the Council held at Lambeth 
8th May, 1261; but ruled over his church only two 
years, tor he died on the Feast of St. Mildred 
(13th July), 1262, at his Manor House of Stepney, 
and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
on the South side of the Choir, next to the Grave of 
Eustace de Fauconberg, a former Bishop of the See. 
Just before his death the King had appointed Henry de 
Wingham Constable of Dover Castle on July loth, 
1262. The news of his death was brought to the King 
whilst staying at Canterbury. — (Hasted IV; Arch. Cant. 
XX; Letters Henry HI. (Rolls Series); Matthew Paris; 
Gervase of Canterbury ; Foss* Judges; Stubbs *^ Cons. Hist.** 
and ** Documents Illustra, etc.** Newcourt ; Lyon's Dover;) 
m • * • * 

Richard de Wingham, appointed 2nd October, 1256, to 
<* the church of Dover Castle" by Henry HI. This was no 
doubt, through the influence of the former distinguished 
native ot the Yi\\sLge.—{Arch. Cant. XX.) 

« « « « « 

Walter de Wingham, who was Lord of the Manor of 
Shepherdswell, in the year 1262, gave to the vicars of that 
church a house and land, wherein the-vicars of the parish 
lived.— (Htfs^^ IV.) 

• • « « • 

Henry de Wingham, another person of this name, but 
not the bishop although probably a nephew of his, for he 
became Archdeacon of Middlesex, and one of the execu- 
tors of the bishop's will. Archdeacon Henry de Wingham 
did not long survive the bishop, for he died in November, 
1 266.-'(Newcourt.) 

« • • • • 

Ralph de Wingham became Vicar of Dartford, where 
he died in 12-]%.— {Arch. Cant. XVIII.) 

« • « « « 

John de Wingham, a nephew of the bishop, who in 
Z262 (just before his uncle's death) was appointed 

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The De Wingham. 179 



Precentor of St Paul's Cathedral. He was also one of 
the executors of the bishop's will, together with John de 
Chishull, Archdeacon of London, and Henry de 
Wingham, the Archdeacon of Middlesex. In 1274 John 
de Wingham, who was '* Chantor of St. Pauls," was 
chosen as one of the mediators between the Welsh, Irish, 
and Scotch students in their disputes at Oxford. He 
died about 13 10, and a chantry was founded in the 
Cathedral for the good of his soul, and John de Piumstock 
a successor in his office, in the year 1341 left two marcs 
(£1 6s 8d.), a year to this chantry. — {Newcourt; Guichs' 
Oxford.) 

« « « « « 

Thomas de Wingham became a monk of Faversham 
Abbey, of which he eventually became Abbot, 1319-26 
and was blessed by Archbishop Walter Reynolds.— 
{Hasted 11.) 

« « « « « 

Geoffrey de Wingham one of the Sheriffs of London, in 
the year 1346, when John Hamonde was Mayor. — 
(Camden Society ^ 1880). 

« « « « « 

John de Wingham from the land which he held at 
Shepherds well, of Dover Castle, contributed 19s, in 1347 
towards the expense of knighting the Black Prince. — 
(Archbishop of Canterbury X.) 

« « « « « 

Richard de Wingham, who must have assisted Richard 
in, in some important matter, for in the year 1370, the 
King granted to him during his life the sum of ;^ioo, 
yearly, •* for the good services rendered by him.'' — (Issue 
Roll. Exch. 44, Edward III.) 



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Chapter XII. 
THE OXENDEN FAMILY, 

pTLTHOUGH conne(5led with Wingham for over five 
vl hundred years the Oxendens originally came 
from '*Oxinden in Nonnington/' and in the time of 
Edward II. were one of the most influential families 
in East Kent. 

In the centre of the Dene-chapel on the south side 
of the chancel, is a monument to this family. 

(West Side). 

**This monument was ere<5ted in ye year 1682, in 
memory of those of branch of the family of 

Oxenden seated at Deane who ly interrd in this church 
whose ancestors have flourished in this county for 
severall ages. 

"Of this family was Henry Oxindeii who built 
Deane House, second son to Edward Oxindeti of 
Brook, Esq. This Henry had issue two sons, ye first 
named Edward who became heir of Brook, and the 
second Sir Henry who became owner of Deane. This 
Sir Henry by Elizabeth his wife, daughter and heir 
of James Brooker of Maydeken in Kent, Esq. left 
issue Sir James Oxinden Kt. in memory of whom 
more especially, his third son Sir George Oxinden 
Kt, (who died at Surat in East India, President for 
ye Honorable East India Company there, and governor 
of ye Island and Castle of Bombay) gave a legacy 
of ;^300 for ye erecfling of this monument. 

•*This Sir James dyed anno 1657, leaving issue by 
his Lady, Margaret, daughter of Thomas Nevison, of 
Eastry, in this county, Esq. ; Sir Henry Oxinden 
Kt. and Baronet, now living. 

"Others of this family seated at Deane who ly 
interred in this church, are Dame Elizabeth wife of ye 



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• The Oxenden Family, T87 



first Sir Henry who dyed 2nd of Sep. 1588. Dame 
Margaret, wife of Sir James, who dyed anno 1671. 
Dame Elizabeth daughter of Sir William Meredith 
of Leeds Abbey in this count}', Baronet, and second 
wife to ye present Sir Henry Oxinden Kt. and Baronet ; 
she was buried ye 20th of August, 1659. Dame 
Susanna, eldest daughter of ye said Sir Henry and 
Dame Elizabeth his wife, who was married to Sir 
Robert Booth, Kt. late Lord chief-justice of Ireland 
and dyed 27th of Odlober, 1669.*' 

(North Side). 

"Under this monument lye interred Sir Henry 
Oxenden, Kt. and Baronet (son of Sir James) who 
married three wives ; the first was Mary Baker daugh- 
ter of Robert Baken of St. Martins in the Fields in 
the County of Middlesex, gentleman, by whom he had 
issue only one daughter who died an infant. His 
second wife was Elizabeth the daughter of Sir William 
Meredith of Leeds Abbey in this county, by whom he 
had a numerous issue. His third wife was Elizabeth 
daughter of William Read of Folkestone, Esq. and 
relict of Mark Dixwell of Broom, Esq., by whom he 
had no issue. He died August, 1686, well beloved by 
his country, which he faithfully serv*d in the chiefest 
offices of Trust and Honour. Dame Elizabeth third wife 
of Sir Henry Oxinden above mentioned, who dyed 
January i6gi." 

The following were the chief members of this family 
and not being able to give a proper pedigree, numbers 
have been placed against the names for convenience of 
reference. 

1. The fiirst member of the family from whom the 
pedigree is traced, was Solomon Oxenden " de Oxenden 
m Nunnington," who lived in the time of Edward HI. 
(1327-77) and was buried at Nonington. He married 
Joyce the daughter of Alexander de Dene, and had two 
sons Allan and Richard, The second son Richard, 
became in 1320 a Benedictine monk of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, making his pofession of obedience to Arch- 
bishop Walter Reynolds, and four yeacs later was 



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182 Chronicles of Wingham, 



ordained deacon by Hamo de Hythe, Bishop of 
Rochester, at the request of Prior Henry de Eastry, 
whose fi;reat influence he inherited. The aged Prior 
Eastry having died April 6th, 1331, in the Cathedral 
**at the time of high mass, when ninety-two years 
of age,'* on the following April 25th the monks 
assembled in their chapter-house, and elected Brother 
Richard de Oxenden, then about thirty years old, and 
therefore in the prime of life. During his rule the large 
decorated window was inserted in the south wall of the 
chapel of St. Anselm, at the cost of 1^42 17s. 2d., part 
being contributed by certain friends of the late Arch- 
bishop Mepham, whilst the rest of the money 
;^34 3s. lod. was provided by the prior. After pre- 
siding over the monastery for only seven years, he died 
when probably about forty years of age, and was buried 
in the chapel of St. Michael, and was the first of the 
Priors (except Wybert) to whom a monument was 
erected in the cathedral, " Here rests in mercy and 
thankfulness Richard Oxenden, sometime Prior of this 
church, who died August 4th, 1338." 

2. Richard Oxenden of Wingham, son of Allan, 
and grandson of Solomon, lived in the time of Edward 
III. and was buried at Nonington. 

3. Richard Oxenden de Wingham (son of No. 2) 
lived in the time of Richard II (1377-99), and married 
Isabella de Twitham of Godnistone, (the daughter of 
Theobald de Twitham who had married a Septvaqs), 
and they had a son John. Richard when he died, was 
buried in S. John's chapel, Wingham Church, and is the 
first of the family mentioned as being buried there. 

4. John Oxenden de Wingham (surnamed Qinkin), 
son and heir of No. 3, married Isabella the daughter of 
Richard de Ratling, and had t,wo sons John and Robert. 
He lived in the time of Henry VI. (1422-61), and was 
buried in the St. John's chapel on the south side of the 
chancel. 

5. John Oxenden de W^ingham, son of No, 4, 
married Jane Dene, by whom he had two sons, Richard 
and Thomas. He died in 1440 and was buried \n 



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The Oxenden Pamily. IBS 



Wingham church. He probably applied for a coat of 
arms, though died before it was granted, since on 6 Feb., 
1446, one was granted to John Oxenden, " sylver thee 
oxen sable, amed with gooldfys a cheveryn of the same," 
which was confirmed ** to the heirs of his body lawfully 
begotten, without impechment of any person for 
evermore." 

6. Richard Oxenden de Wingham, eldest son of 
No. 5, married Jane de Wenderton, but they had no 
children. He built the "campanile" (or tower) of 
Goodneston church, and died in 1469. 

7. Thomas Oxenden de Reculver, second son o^ 
No. 5. (but some say a third son of No. 4,) married 

Jane Orleston, and had one son Thomas who succeeded 
im. He died in 1450, being buried at Reculver. 

8. Thomas Oxenden de Dene, (son of 7) married 
Elizabeth Rainscroft, the daughter of a fishmonger of 
London, by whom he had two sons, Edward and 
William. He died in 1492 and was buried in the church 
of St. Mary Magdalene, near the old fish market, 
London. 

9. Edward Oxenden de Dene (eldest son of No. 8), 
married Alicia Barton, and had two sons, William and 
Henry, also two daughters Francisca and Mary. He 
left Brooke to his son William and the Dene estate to 
Henry. In 1501 he had been appointed Warden of 
Cruddeswood, and was one of the churchwardens when 
Archbishop Warham held his visitation, i6th 
Septemt>er, 1511. Buried next to Richard Oxenden 
(probably No. 6). 

10. William Oxenden de Wingham, (son of No. 
9), married Elizabeth Hill (or Hyles) but died without 
issue in 1576, and by his will requested ** to be buried 
in the northe chancel of the churche of Wingham." 
He left no bequest to the church ; but " the best 
gelding," and " the second best gelding, to two different 
people, my great horse my hawk and spannells '* to his 
nephew and executor Richard de Hardres. 

11. Henry Oxenden de Dene fbrother of No. 10 
and second son of No. 9), married Elizabeth Young 



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1^ Chronicles of TPingham, 



and had five sons, — Edward, Henry, Thomas, Chris- 
topher, William, and a daughter Mar}'. He left 
Brooke and built the Dene House about 1582, and 
died there in 1597, but was buried in the Brooke 
Chantry on the north-side of the church. A stone 
with a brass effigy of a person in a shroud, with five 
sons and a daughter marked the spot, having this 
inscription — "Here lyeth buried the Bodye of Henry 
Oxinden Esquire, who builded that house in Wingham 
called Deane, who departed this life the ist of August 
1597, and gave his land to Henry Oxinden his son. 
Disce quid es, et quid eris. Memento mori." 

12. Edward Oxenden of Brooke, (the eldest' son 
of No. 11) married Alicia Fowler of Iseldon (or 
Islington) London and had two twin sons William and 
Henry, also six daughters Mercy, Jane, Katherine, 
Priscilla, Margaret and Elizabeth. He died 6th Feb. 
16 1 5, His son William born in September, 1581, 
married Dorothy Grove of Canterbury, but died with- 
out children 7th April, 1657. Henry his twin-brother 
married *'ignobiiis" (that is a family who had no coat- 
of-arms) Maria Fendall, and had two sons, Henry 
and William, also three daughters Mary, Katherine, 
Anna, Their eldest son Henry (born in 1620) married 
in 1653, Margaret the daughter of Richard Masters. 

13. Henry Oxenden de Dene, born there about 
1549, an<i (the second son of No. 11 and brother of 
No. 12) was knighted 17th Feb., 1606. He married 
Elizabeth the only daughter and heiress of Jacob 
Brooker of Maydeken, in the parish of Barham, where 
she died in 1588, leaving two sons James and Richard. 
He was buried at Wingham in May, 1620. 

14. James Oxenden de Dene soldier, born August 
1586, (eldest son of No. 13) married Margaret 
Nevinson, of Eastry, by whom he had five sons. 
Henry, James, George, William, Christopher ; and 
six daughters, Anna, Mary, Elizabeth, Margaret, Jane, 
Sibylla. He died at Dene, 24th September, 1657, and 
was buried in Wingham Church, also his wife in 1671. 

15. Richard Oxenden de Heme and- after wards- 



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The Oxenden Family, 185 



of Barham, was born at Dene, 1588, being second son 
of No. 13, and brother of 14 ; married in 1607, Katherine 
Sprackling, and had four sons Henry, James, Richard, 
Adam, also two daughters Katherine and Elizabeth. 
He died at Maydeken, 20th May, 1629, being buried 
in Denton Church, 

16. Henry Oxenden (eldest son of No. 14), born 
28th April, 1614 ^^ Heme, the residence of his uncle 
Richard (second son of 13 j, was knighted nth June, 
1660, and created Baronet 8th May, 1678. He married 
three times (i) Mary Baker of London by whom he had 
a daughter Mary, who died when four years old; (2) 
Elizabeth Meredith of Leeds Abbey, Kent, 14th August, 
1640, and by her had seven sons, James, Henry, 
William, George, Richard, Christopher, William, also 
six daughters, Susanna, Elizabeth, Margaret, Jane, 
Anna Mary. Their mother died 19th August, 1659, 
and Henry Oxenden married as his third wife, Elizabeth 
the widow of Mark Dixwell of Brome, i8th Feb., 1661 
and at his death in 1686, she survived until 169 1, 
Brome has been the chief seat of the family since then, 

17. James Oxenden (second son of 14), born at 
Dene 6th July, 1615, died unmarried, and was buried in 
Wingham church loth Feb., 1638. 

18. Henry Oxenden de Barham, born i8th 

ianuary, 1608, (eldest son of 15), married in 1632 Anna 
*eyton (bom at Knowlton 1612). by whom he had two 
sons Thomas and Henry, also two daughters Margaret 
and Elizabeth. His wife died 28th August, 1640, and 
was buried at Denton, and he married Gathering Culling 
of Barham, having by her three daughters, Catherine, 
Mary and Anna. — {Arch, Cant, Vol, VI,) 



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Chapter XIII. 
THE PALMER FAMILY. 

CDWARD VI. in 1553 sold the House of the Provost 
of Wingham, and all the tithes that were paid to 
the church, together with one acre of glebe to Sir Henry 
Palmer for £sig iis. 4d., subject however to a 
payment of ;^2o a year to a Vicar. 

No. I. This Henry Palmer was descended from 
the Palmers of Sussex, being the second son of Sir 
Edward Palmer of Angmering in that county, who had 
married Alice Clement, sister of Sir Richard Clement of 
Ightham Moat in Kent. 

Sir Henry Palmer was a man of great repute who 
in 1539 was appointed Bailiff of Guisnes, Master of the 
ordnance, and Warden ot the forest there. In 1544 ^^ ^^^ 
capture of Boulogne, when his arm was broken. In 
1553 he bought the House of the Provost, as mentioned 
above, and in July of this year was arrested — probably 
at same time as his brother Thomas — but soon liberated 
and returned to Calais. In the expedition from Guisnes 
in December, 1558, he was wounded, but afterwards 
retiring to Wingham died there in September 1559, 
when seventy years of age. He had married Jane 
Windebank of Guisnes and left three sons, Thomas, 
Arnold, and Edward. — {Die, Natl, Bio.) 

His elder brother John Palmer who was nicknamed 
Buskin Palmer, was Sheriff of Surrey, 1533, and of 
Sussex, 1543, and became a noted dicer but winning from 
Henry VIII. was eventually hanged. He married 
(accordingtoBerry)(i) Jane, daughter of Thomas Hynde 
of London, and (2) Mary daughter of William, Lord 
Sondes— (JD*V. Natl. Bio.) 

The other brother Thomas Palmer, the youngest of the 
three sons of Sir Edward Palmer of Angmering ; was 

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The Palmer Family. 187 



attached to the Court, and in 15 15 served at Tournay, 
and was a gentleman-usher to Henry VIII in 151 9 ; also 
at the Field of the cloth of Gold. Knighted at Calais 
November loth, 1532, and favourably noticed by the king 
who played dice with him, and in 1533 appointed Palmer 
Knight-porter of Calais, a post of importance. Taken 
prisoner by the French at Guisnes he had to ransom 
himself. ** He was joint commander of the English 
forces which invaded Scotland in 1548 and took 
Haddington. On the blockade of that town by the 
French and Scots he was taken prisoner while escorting 
a relieving force which revictualled the exhausted 
garrison." On the death of Henry VIII, Palmer who 
had unbounded courage sided with Somerset whom he 
hated, but Palmer gained notoriety by revealing 
Somerset's treason to the Earl of Warwick, evidently 
hoping to rise with Northumberland. Sir Thomas Palmer 
had received the possessions of four religious houses, — 
Snelleshall Priory in Bucks ; South Mailing College in 
Sussex; Dynmore Preceptory and Austin Friars at Wig- 
more in Herts ; and began to build himself a house in the 
Strand, but adhering to the cause of Lady Jane Grey, 
he was sent to the Tower July 25th, 1553, condemned 
by a special commission, and executed on Tower Hill, 
the following August 22nd with the Duke of North- 
umberland and others— (£)tV. Natl. Bio ; Joyce, ^'Doom of 
Sacrilege"). 

On the east wall ol the North (or Brooke^ Chapel, is 
the Monument of Sir Thomas Palmer who died in 1625. 
This Monument was originally against the north wall of 
the chancel, and removed to its present position at the 
restoration of the church in 1874-5, 

** To the memory of Sir Thomas Palmer of Wingham, 
Knt. and Bart, and of Dame Margaret his wife, 
daughter of John Poley of Badly, Esq., of that ancient 
Fameley in the County of Southfolke. This place was 
the Seate of his inheritance, but not of his Discent, being 
lineally extracted from the House of Angmering in the 
County of Sussex. 

God crowned him with ye blessing of a longe and 

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18S Chronicles of Wmgham. 

prosperous life augmented it with ye coroforte of 
a Virtuous and pious wife, with whose be-lov'd Societe 
hee was enrich't 62 years. The thredes of theyr lives 
were evenly spunn, they liv'd in concord, died in peace, 
his period was 85 yeares, hers 83. They were beloved 
by their neighbours, lamented by their friendes. 
Honoured by their chlidren, and Mist by ye Poor, for 
whose sake they never brake up house in this Place for 
60 yeares. Thus lived they happily and died Christianly 
Hee the 7th of January. She the August following. 
Anno 1625. 

They had issue Six Sonnes and five daughters, John, 
Mabel, Henry, Marie, John, Francis died younge. 

Sir Thomas Palmer Knight father to Sir Thomas 
Palmer Bart, (now living) died before his Father, and 
lys here interred. 

Sir Roger Palmer, Knight of the Bath was Cupbearer 
to ye Princes Henry and Charles and now master of 
Howshowld to Kinge Charles. 

James Palmer of the bedchamber to Kinge James of 
blessed memory. 

Jane first married to Sir William Meredith Knight ; 
&c. afterwards to the Lord Vaughan. 

Margaret married to Richard Amhurst, Esq., Serjant 
at law. 
These last four are yet living. Anno 1627." 
Roger Palmer the fourth son placed this monument. 

On this Monument are seven coats-of-arms quartered 
viz. 1, Palmer, 2, Sedinghouse, 3, Stopham, 4 Bilton, 5, 
Clement, 6, Tudor, 7, Shamburg, 8, Palmer. 

The Palmer coat-of- arms — "Or. two bars gules each 
charged with three trefoils argent, in chief a greyhound 
courrant sable. Crest — a demi-panther rampant, 
issuing flames out of the ears and mouth, holding in its 
paws a palm-branch, proper. Motto — Palmavirtuti 
(Palm is for virtue). Berry in his pedigree of this 
family, makes his first six children, who died young, to 
be the brothers and sisters of this Sir Thomas Palmer. 

uiyiiiz.uu uy -v — « -v^ -v^ -t i.V^ 



The Palmer Family, 189 



No. 2. — Sir Thomas Palmer 1540-1625. He was 
the eldest son of Sir Henry Palmer (No. i.), born about 
1540, and lived at Wingham 60 years, entertaining 
Queen Elizabeth in September, 1573, when on her way 
from Sandwich to Canterbury. He became High 
Sheriff of Kent 1595, and on the expedition to Cadiz 
was Knighted. James I. created him a Baronet in June 
1 62 1, and he died in 1625 when 85 years of age — {Die. 
Natl. Bio.) 

Roger Palmer his second &on was made a Knight of 
the Bath, and Master of the household of King Charles; 
died without issue, having married Katherine daughter 
Sir Thomas Porter of Gloucestershire, and widow of Sir 
Ralph Welch.— (B^yy>'.) 

Sir James Palmer the third son held office in the 
household of James I. and became one of the personal 
friends of Charles I. (when Prince of Wales). He had 
artistic tastes, and became one of the governors of the 
royal tapestry works at Mortlake. In 1638 he was ap- 
pointed deputy to the Chancellor of the Order of the 
Garter and in 1645 chancellor of that Order, but the war 
of the commonwealth prevented him receiving any pay 
from that office, and he died 1657 before the restor- 
ation of the Monarchy. He married (i) Martha, 
daughter of Sir Willian Gerard, of Dorney, Bucks, who 
died in 161 7, and was buried at Enfield, leaving a son 
Philip, and a daughter Vere, married to Thomas Jenyns 
of Hayes in Middlesex ; (2) Katherine daughter of Lord 
Powis and widow of Sir Robert Vaughan, by whom he 
was father of Roger Palmer, who became Earl of 
Castlemaine. — [Die, Natl, Bio,) 

This Roger Palmer, son of the before mentioned Sir 
Tames Palmer of Hayes, Middlesex, and his second wife 
katherine Vaughan, was born at Dorney Court, Sept. 
3rd, 1634. Educated at Eaton and Kings College, 
Cambridge, and in 1656 admitted a student at the Inner 
Temple. On April 14th, 1659 he married Barbara 
Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who upon the Restoration 
became Mistress of the King, who in 1661 created her 
husband Earl of Castlemaine to propitiate her because 
of the Portugese match ; but Roger Palmer never took 



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190 Chronicles of H^ingham, 



his seat in the Irish House of Lords. Their eldest son 
Charles Fitzroy was baptized by a priest— Roger Palmer 
being a Catholic — ^but the Countess had him rebaptized 
at S. Margaret's, Westminster, on June i8th, 1662, which 
caused a quarrel and their separation, Then he travelled 
abroad, going in 1668 on a mission to the Porte, and 
through Syria and the North of Africa. In 1667 he was 
denounced by Titus Oates as a Jesuit, sent to the Tower, 
tried and acquitted. On Feb. 15th, 1685-6 he embarked 
at Greenwich and went to Rome, where he was privately 
received by the Pope. Roger Palmer died July 21st, 
1705, and was buried in the vault of his mother's family 
at Welshpool. He was a loyalist, a devout catholic, 
and accomplished scholar. — {Die. Natl. Bio,) 

Monument on the West wall of the North -Chapel; but 
before the restoration of 1874-5 in the Chancel. 

** Thomas Palmer, Kt. died before his father, married 
Margaret, daughter of Herbert Pelham of Sussex, by 
whom he had issue, Thomas and Herbert. Herbert 
took Holy Orders, was Master of Queen's College, 
Cambridge." 

Thomas Palmer, Bart, on decease of his grand father» 
married Ehzabeth daughter of Sir John Shirley, of Iffield 
in Sussex, was buried April 20th, 1656, having suffered 
much by the iniquity of the times, both in his estates, 
and by the imprisonment of his person. 

Had issue six sons — Henry, Roger, Herbert, Tames, 
Thomas, John; and six daughters — Margaret, bybilla, 
Elizabeth, Mary, Ann, Esther. Thomas the fifth son 
lived many years in Turkey, died at the age of 82, left 
by his will /300 to the repair of this Chancel, which was 
accordingly laid out in 1718." 

No. 3. — Sir Thomas Palmer mentioned on this tomb 
who married Margaret Pelham, etc., was the eldest son 
of No. 2., but died before his father, and was buried at 
Wingham. 

No. 4. — Sir Thomas Palmer, Bart., the eldest son of 
No. 3, and on the death of his grandfacher (Sir Thos. 
No. 2) in 1625, married Elizabeth Shirley of Sussex, and 
after suffering much ** by the iniquity of the times," died 



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The Palmer Family. 191 



in April, 1656, leaving the six sons and six daughters, 
mentioned on this monument. 

No. 5. — Sir Henry Palmer, Bart., the eldest son of the 
above Sir Thomas Palmer (No. 4) was Sheriff of Kent 
1691. In 1665 he had been appointed Steward of Her 
Majesty's Manor of Wingham in Kent, and in July, 1702, 
petitioned Queen Anne that this grant might be re- 
newed. Also one of the Trustees of the living of East- 
church in Sheppy 1684- 1706. He married Ann daughter 
of Sir W. Luchyn of Waltbam in Essex, but died in 
1706 without issue, and the title went to his nephew 
Thomas.— (iira^. Treasury Papers 1702-7, p. 49, Arch. 
Cant. XIV. Berry.) 

Thomas Palmer the fifth son of No. 4 "lived many 
years in Turkey", and on the Benefadtors Board is 
described as *'Thomas Palmer of St. Dunstan's in the 
East. London, gave ;^30o for the repairing, beautifying 
and adorning the great Chancel of this church. He 
also gave the sum of ;^2o to the poor." Now the 
church repairs were carried out in 1718 (see tombstone) ; 
but the legacy to the poor does not seem to have been 
given away until 1732, for one of the Church Books, 
under that date contains particulars of a legacy from 
**Thomas Palmer late of the city of London who left ;^2o 
to the poor", which was distributed by William 
Newton Vicar, the churchwardens and overseers on 
April 29th, 1732 "according to the direction and 
appointment of Thomas Hey, Esq. and Dame Elizabeth 
Palmer his y/i{e''— (Church Book 1720-1800.) 

Was this legacy distributed in 1732 left by Sir 
Thomas Palmer who died in 1723 ? 

Herbert Palmer third son of No. 4, and brother of 
Sir Henry Palmer (No. 5) married Dorothy Pynchon 
of Writtle in Essex, and was buried in the centre of 
the Chancel-floor, where the slab over the grave has 
this inscription — "Here lies the body of Herbert 
Palmer, son of Sir Thomas Palmer of W^ingham 
Bart, who by his wife Dorothy daughter of John 
Pynchon of Writtle in Essex, left two sons Thomas 
and Henry, and two daughters Ann and Elizabeth, 
and died February i6th, 1700. When therefore his 



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192 Chronicles of Wingham. 



brother Sir Henry Palmer (No. 5) died in 1706 without 
issue, the title went to Thomas the eldest son of this 
Herbert Palmer. 

No. 6. — Sir Thomas Palmer, Knt. and Baronet, was 
the eldest son of the above mentioned Herbert Palmer 
and succeeded to the title on the death of his uncle Sir 
Henry Palmer (No. 5) in 1706 without issue. He 
married three times (i) Elizabeth Marsham daughter 
of Sir Robert Marsham of the Moat, Maidstone, and 
had three sons Henry, Thomas, and Robert who died 
young, and four daughters Margaret, Ann, Elizabeth, 
and Mary (2) the second wife was named Cox, by 
whom he had a son Herbert born before their marriage ; 
and (3) Elizabeth Markham "spinster of Covent 
Garden" whom he married in the Fleet, May 26th, 
1722. Of this person Pope wrote: — 

"To Palmer's bed no actress comes amiss 
He weds the whole Personae Dramatis." 

He was M.P. for Rochester 1714-23, and his portrait 
is in the Guildhall of that city. In 1719 he contributed 
;^30 towards the re-casting of the Bells of Wingham 
church ; at which date we find his residence was rated 
at £50 13s- 4^. 

When Sir Thomas Palmer died in 1723, leaving no 
legitimate son, the title went to the Palmers of Dorney 
Court in Bucks.— {Berry, Arch. Cant. XIV ; XVII ; Burns 
''His. of Fleet Marriages.*') 

Now Elizabeth Palmer, third wife of Thos. Palmer* 
whom he had married May 26th, 1722, after his death in 
1723 married Thomas Hey, and they appear to have 
lived elsewhere for eight years, as the Wingham house 
was occupied by Jacob Debouverie 1 725-1 731 when it 
was rated at £^6 13s. 4d. In 1731 they returned to 
Wingham and she was known as " Dame Elizabeth 
Palmer,'' for in 1732 ** Thomas Hey and Dame Elizabeth 
Palmer his wife " appoint those who are to receive the 
legacy of ;^2o left to the poor of this parish by " Thomas 
Palmer, late of the city of London." Was this legacy 
left by her first husband Sir Thomas ? They had a son 
Thomas Hey, who, on the death of Mis. Cosnan in 1797, 



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The Palmer Family. 193 



came into the property. Thomas Hey seems to have 
died in 1746, for from that year until 1763 ** Dame 
Elizabeth Palmer " is rated for the house in which year 
she died and the house was occupied by Colonel John 
CosnsLU.— {Church Book 1720-1800.) 

Herbert Palmer, the natural son of the last Sir 
Thomas Palmer (No. 6) by his second v/ife, married 
Bethia D*Aeth of Knowlton, and was buried in the 
church, as recorded on the oval tablet now on the East 
wall of the North Chapel: — " In the family vault near 
this place lie interred the remains of Herbert Palmer, 
Esq., son of Sir Thomas Palmer, Bart., of Wingham, in 
the County of Kent. He married Bethia fourth 
daughter of Sir Thomas D'Aeth of Knowlton in 
the said County, who in gratitude and tender affecflion 
to an indulgent husband and generous benefactor has 
caused this monument to be erected to his memory. 
He departed this life December 10th, 1760, aged 64." 
He was therefore born in 1696. His widow married 
Colonel John Cosnan, and on the death of Dame Elizabeth 
Palmer in 1763, they lived in the house at Wingham 
which at first was rated at only ;^3o 6s. 8d. Colonel 
John Cosnan died in 1778 but the widow lived at 
Wingham until her death in 1797, when the house was 
rated at £^.5 los.— {Church Book 1720-1800 ; Arch. Cant. 
XIV.) 

Rev. Thomas Hey, D.D,, was the son of Dame 
Elizabeth Palmer (Hey) by her second husband, Thomas 
Hey. He came into the Wingham property on the 
death of Mrs. Cosnan in 1797, and was for 54 years 
Rector of Eastchurch, in the isle of Sheppy (1755-1809), 
then in the gift of the Palmer family ; and at the same 
time Rector of VVickhambreaux(i755-i8o9), a Prebendary 
of Rochester for 21 years, and curate of Swingfield, He 
married Etheldreda Lynch, daughter of John Lynch of 
Groves, and Dean of Canterbury, and the rating of the 
house in 1800 was ;^50 a year. He endowed the 
Vicarage of Wingham with /"loo a year and a house, 
but was buried in the chancel of Wickhanibreaux. After 
his death in 1809, his widow lived here until 1814. — 
{Arch. Caih. XIV ; Chuvcr. Booic hZO-lSCO.^ 



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Chapter XIV. 
VARIOUS. 

THE INN SIGNS. 

>^he history of the origin of the signs hung outside the 
^ inns (and formerly also outside other shops, when 
every tradesman hung out his sign or trade symbol), is 
an interesting one, and in many country places may be 
traced back to a local origin, being part of the coat-of- 
arms of some local family. 

That ** good wine needs no bush,*' is a proverb derived 
from the Romans, with whom it was the custom to bang 
out a bush as the sign of a tavern. In England during 
the middle ages, the houses of the nobility, when the 
family was absent, were used, it is said, for entertaining 
travellers, and the family coat-of-arms being in front of 
the house give a name to the place amongst strangers; 
and thus in latter times the " arms" of the Lord of the 
Manor were very often put up as a sign, of which we 
find instances in many villages. As early as the time 
of Richard the II. every innkeeper was obliged by law 
to hang out a sign, and if he broke the licensing laws 
of those days, the taking away of his license was 
accompanied by the taking away of the sign. 

THE RED LION. 

This is a common and favourite sign, which is supposed 
to have been derived from the badge of John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster, whose coat-of-arms being a red lion 
rampant," and as an inn sign the lion is generally shown 
as **rampant," which means standing erect on the 
hind legs, with one fore-leg elevated, as though ready 
to spring towards its prey. We may perhaps trace the 
sign to a local origin, but in that case it should be of 
a diflfqrent colour, for we find *'a gold lion rampant" 
was part of the coat-of-arms of the Rattling family, of 



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The Red Lion. 195 



whom we find mention as early as the year i i6o, and since 
Lord Cowper is Baron Ratthng of Wingham, it may be 
that through these families has come the sign, although 
the lion has changed the colour of its skin. 

Some consider this inn was part of the college 
buildings, but more probably it occupies the site of the 
Market-house of the village for Archbishop Bonifacei 
in 1252, obtained form King Henry III, the grant of 
a weekly market, to be held every Tuesday. The proper 
legal procedure was observed; the King first ordered 
an enquiry to be held, and a jury of twelve men from the 
**hundred of Wingham" — The present parishes of Ash, 
Goodnestone, Nonington, and Wingham — was called to 
examine evidence for and against the proposed market. 
Their names are still known, and almost all of them may 
be found within '*the hundred" Sampson de Wenderton, 
Walter de Wenderton, William de Dene, Roger de 
Chilton, Theobald de Helles, William AttemoUnde, 
Henry de Pedinge, William Adgar, Thomas de RoUinge, 
Wamo Attermede, Richard de la Hale, and John de 
Hanking. After due enquiry this jury of the Hundred 
Court '^testified upon oath, that to grant a market, will 
not be to the injury of the king or the neighbouring 
markets but rather be to their advantage. That the 
markets of Canterbury and Sandwich will be improved 
by traders coming to the said market of Wingham" (for 
there was no market on that day nearer than Lenham). 
So the village had the right to hold a market with 
power to levy tolls which was a royal privilege generally 
given to a bishop together with the market dues, and in 
many cases the clerk of a market would be an ecclesias- 
tic. It will also be remembered that from Saxon times, 
until the year 1538, The Archbishop was Lord of the 
Manor of Wingham. The village market however 
flourished, and was said to have injured that of Canter- 
bury. Nearly fifty years after the market was granted 
the Archbishop in 1290 was accused of injuring the 
market of Canterbury because his market of Wingham in- 
tercepted the provisions on the road, and thus increased 
the price of things at Canterbury, the case being 
brought before the justices. 



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196 Chronicles of fPittgham, 



they decided that the Archbishop had the right 
of holding a market at Wingham, and therefore through 
him no wrong was done to the City. 

The " Petty sessions" used to be held at the Lion, 
until ten years ago, when the present Sessions House 
was built; but the Manor Courts are still held here 
although they were always at one time held in the open 
air, and there seems to be no doubt that the modern 
custom of holding them at public houses instead of at a 
properly constituted Court Hall, is simply a transfer 
dictated by notions of comfort. In bad weather the 
steward or baliflf would hold the court in the church in 
the old days. 

THE DOG. 

The sign of this inn is one that frequently occurs. 
Although a greyhound was part of the coatof-arms of 
the Palmer lamily, who bought from the king the House 
of the Provost, in the year 1553, this sign is really a 
hunting dog, whose old name was a " talbot,*' and the 
name most probably came through the Oxenden lamily 
for Henry Oxenden of Dene, born about 1549 and knighted 
in 1606, married Elizabeth Brooker, of Maydeken, 
and the coat-of-arms of that family was **thiee talbots 
passant," that is three dogs represented as walking, with 
three feet on the ground the fourth foot being raised, and 
the tail curved over the back. But sign painters of a 
later age not understanding heraldry, altered the proper 
position of the dog. 

This house and the one on each side of it are no doubt 
a portion of the College, as the Canons lived in seperate 
houses, which were sold in 1549. And therefore the dog 
may have been an inn since that date. Either three of 
the Canons houses have been pulled down or each house 
was divided into two, for an abstract of the title deeds 
states; — **Nov. 29th, 1549 Edward VI. with the advice 
of the Lord Proctor and his council grants to the said 
Thomas Persee and William Alexander their heirs and 
assigns for ever, all the aforesaid six messuages and their 
appurtenances in as full, free and ample a manner and 
form as any master Provost, and Prebendaries^, Governors 



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The Dog. 197 

or Ministers of the College of Wingham, or any Chantry 
Priest, Chaplain or Incumbent held the said six messuages 
valued at fifteen shillings a year . . . granted in 
fee simple . . . and that we, our heirs, successors 
for ever, yearly and from time to time shall exonerate, 
acquit, and save harmless, as well the said Thomas 
Persee and William Alexander their assigns, as also the 
said six messuages, and all and singular the Premises 
and every several part thereof, against us our heirs and 
successors, and against all other persons whatsoever, of 
all, and all manners of corridies rents, fees, annunites, 
pensions, portions, and sums of money issuing or going 
out of the premises, or charged upon the same, or any 
part thereof, except the services above reserved, and such 
leases as now are in being, and the conditions of them 
for life or years, whereby the old rent or a greater is 
reserved.*' 

The old house at the corner of the school lane was 
repaired during 1893, when the fine large window was 
discovered, having previously been covered over with 
plaster: and also the interesting mediaeval doorway with 
wooden shutter on the inside was found. A few old 
coins was also found, viz. a William and Mary Jd. 1690, 
George II. ^d. 1748 and 1777, also an Irish ^d. 1746, 
and a farthing of the reign of George III. and IV. 

A new " barge-board " was carved the same pattern 
as the old one, which is said to be similar in design to 
some carving in Winchester Cathedral, that was done in 
the time of the celebrated William of Wykeham who 
died in 1404. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the hoods (an 
inverted coal-shoot) over the doors were additions, when 
the house was repaired. 

THE ANCHOR. 

This sign came into use rather as an emblem than 
anything to do with shipping, being used as a symbol of 
hope, *' the anchor of the soul." and was also a favourite 
sign with the early printers. 



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198 Chronicles of Wingham. 



EIGHT BELLS. 

The Bell is a very general sign. The English always 
seem to have been fond of bell ringing, and a German 
traveller who visited this country in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, says of our countrymen, ** they are vastly 
food of noises that fill the air, such as firing of cannons, 
beating of drums, and the ringing of bells." But in 171 9 
an event occurred in the parish which may have been 
sufficiently important to be used for a sign as an inn ; 
for in that year the parishioners decided to re-cast the 
six bells belonging to the church, and make them into 
eight musical bells. We may conclude that they were 
much out of tune, as it is frequently noted that they are 
to be re-cast into *' eight musical bells." 

DEDICATIONS TO ST. MARY. 

Our parish church is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, to whom, by far the largest number to any 
individual saint are dedicated. In this county of 
Kent 108 churches are dedicated to her, and of that 
number only five are modern. Ashford, Barfreston, 
Betteshanger, Bexley, Bishopsbourne, Brabourne, Brook 
Barham, Canterbury 4, Capel-le-Ferne, Chalk, Chart 
(Great and Little^ Chartham, Chatham, Chilham, 
Ohiddingstone, Chislet, S. Mary Grays. Crundale, Denton, 
Dover, Downe, Eastling, Eastry, Eastwell, Ebony, 
Elham, East, Farleigh, Fawkham, Fordwich, Frittenden, 
Goudhurst, Greenhithe(i856), Greenwich, Hadlow, 
Halden, Hardres, Hastingleigh, Hayes, Higham, 
Hinxhill, Hoath, Hoo St. Marys, Horton Kirkby, 
Hunton, Ide Hill, Kenardington, Kennington, Lamber- 
hurst, West Langdon, Langley, Leigh, Lenham, 
Lewisham, Luddenham, Lydden, Mailing, Minster, 
Nakington, Nettlestead, Newington, Nonington, Norton, 
Orlestone, Patrickbourne, Plaistow, Piatt, (1843), 
Postling, Poulton, Ramsgate (1790), Reculver, Ripple, 
Riverhead (183 1), Strood (1869), Pvolvenden, Sandwich, 
Sellinge, Selling, Sevenoaks, Sevington, Shortlands, 
Smeeth, Speldhurst, Stalisfield, Stanstead, Stelling, 
Stodmarsh, Stone, Stone (near Rye), Stouting, Sutton 
Valence, Teynhan, Thurnham, Upchurch, Walmer, 

uiyiiiz.uu uy -v — « -v^ -v^ -t IV^ 



First Parish Council. 199 

Westerham, Westwell, Willesborough, Wingham, 
Woodlands, Wodensborough, Woolwich. 

The area of the Parish is 2637 acres, and the 
population at the last census was 1246, being an increase 
of 93 persons in the ten years, so that the population is 
increasing, rather than decreasing as in some parishes. 

FIRST PARISH COUNCIL 

The Local Government act 1894, abolished the parish 
vestry for all secular-business, and on 4th December, 
1894 the first parish- Meeting was held (according to that 
act) to receive the nomination papers and elect the first 
nine parish Councillors. The result of that Parish- 
meeting was the following very representative council* 

Arthur Hussey 
Henry Goodban 
William J. Meek 
Edward Streatfield 
George Shaxted 
Charles S. Phillips 
John W. Robinson 
John Wrake 
Henry B. Palmer 

Who remained in office until their successors were 
appointed and elected at a Parish meeting in March, 
1896. 

THE NAME WINGHAM. 

The following note, respecting the origin of the name 
of the Parish, has been kindly supplied by a friend, well 
known to many readers from his interesting papers upon 
this Country published in the columns of The Kentish 
Express. Mr. Moore has devoted many years to the 
study of Philology and his derivation quite dispels the 
idea that the name Wingham is derived from the situa- 
tion of the parish : — 

The etymology of place-names is, as a rule, a matter 
of extreme difficulty and uncertainty, but Wingham— or, 
in its older form Winganham— is, fortunately, a happy 
exception, its derivation being easy to give, and that 
with certainty. ** Nearly every phonetic law has been 

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200 Chronicles of Wingham, 



violated in the growth and the decay of local names" 
once wrote Professor Max MuUer to me, and probably 
in seventy-five per cent of the appellations of our 
English villages this is true. In your third chapter, I 
notice, you have already given the name of Wingham 
as meaning '* the homestead or village of Winga " and 
this is the only possible meaning of Winganham, as the 
name of the place appears in its earliest known form 
(see a Charter of the year 941, quoted on your twenty- 
sixth page). Winga is the name of some Early English 
settler who made your neighbourhood his **Ham " qr 
home, and the form Wingan is just simply the ordinary 
Genitive (or Possessive) case of all those names, in the 
tongue of our forefathers, which ended in ** a ** — for 
example, Guma, a man ; Guman, a man's ; ^Ella, Ella ; 
iELLAN, Ella's ; and so forth. It is one of the plainest 
simplest, and most obvious derivations. There is the 
form itself before us, and nobody possessing even only 
** a nodding acquaintance " with Early English speech- 
craft can be for a moment in doubt. And ** whenever,'' 
wrote Mr. Kemble, '* we can assure ourselves that the 
vowel is long (in the word Ham as used in place-names) 
we may be certain that a village or community is 
implied." Natives of Wingham may justly feel proud, 
I think, at the fact that their parish has retained its 
name in such an almost wholly uncorrupted form all 
down the long centuries of phonetic change. It is a sad 
pity, by the way, that many good folks will make mere 
"chance guesses" at the derivations of local names, as 
some, I notice, have done in respect of Wingham. 
Without some knowledge of Early EngHsh it is 
impossible to do anything satisfactory — with this 
acquirement, even, it is quite easy to commit oneself! 
Not with Wingham, however, though that quaint old 
blunderer in the matter of derivations — Philipott— does 
tell us gravely that it is ** so named of the two rivers 
which inclaspe it like two wings," a clever hit but a. 
gigantic blunder ! I wish the derivation of the name of 
many another Kentish village was as easy as old 
Wingham, for how many an hour's reseaich would be 



saved thereby. 



Alfred Moorr. 



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Chapter XV. 

THE EPITAPHS. 

/nf\ANY persons being interested in this subject, those 
VU on the tombstones in the churchyard are here 
printed. None are of paiticular merit, and they have 
been printed in chronological order, in order to show 
their development, or perhaps it would be more correct 
to say decay. 

William Newton. i6 years. 1737. 

How blind is Hope, and how regardless Fate 
That so much worth, Should have so Short a date ! 
But is it strange that such a virtuous mind 
His way again to Heaven, so soon should find I 

Mercy Taylor. 34 years. Feb. 1747. 



By the grace of God .... 

Sleep in sweet silence never to awake 

Till Christ doth raise thee, and to glory take. 

William Sutton. 24 years. Feb. 14th, 1760. 

In blooming years as you will see 
I left my friends to mourn for me 
Mourn not dear friends for my decese 
For Christ I hope hath made my peace. 

Henry Harris. 52 years. Nov. ist, 1762. 

Here Reader mark perhaps now in thy Prime 
The stealing steps of never standing time 
Thou'lt be what I am, catch the present hour 
[Mark ?] that well, for thats within thy power. 

Sarah King. Dec. 15th, 1769. 

Mother sleeping here 
My children dear, weep not for me 
But live in love and unity. 

Augustin Wraith. 61 years. Mar. 19th, 1778. 

The angels ward this sleeping dust 
Till Jesus comes for all the just 
Then may these wake with sweet surpris3 
And in our Saviour's image rise. 



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202 Chronicles of Wingham. 

Thomas Denne. 19 years. Dec. 30th, 1792. 

Though sudden death/did him convey 
Unto this dismal house of clsiy' 
We trust in God, aod Ijpp^ tjiat he 
The joys of Heaven now doth see 
He like a hly fresh and green 
Soon was cut down and no more seen. 

Susanna Holness. 69 years. March 27th, 1800. 

Here a kind parent in death's dark abode 

In solemn silence waits the trump of God 

You once loved friend, your heartful grief refrain 

Your temporal loss is her eternal gain 

For she with joyful hope has gone here beneath 

And in her dying moments conquered death. 

Edward McCann, Surgeon. 48 years. Jan. ist, 1802. 

A tender husband and a friend sincere, 

Tom from a wife's fond arms lies buried here 

Mournful she sits ; whilst round her hand in hand 

In silent sympathy her children stand. 

Their parent number 'd with th' untimely dead, 

Each infant weeps its unprotdted head, 

Nor these alone his early death deplore, 

The Poor will prove his tender care no more 

Yet wherefore mortals dim with tears your eyes 

This world is but a passage to the skies. 

Mary McCann (wife of above). 53 years. Sep. 3rd, 1804. 

May you dear orphans who are left behind 
Copy the virtues of your mother's mind 
Be honest, kind, generous, just, like she. 
Live to your God, and he your friend will be. 

Robert Beal. 53 years. May i8th, 1800. 

Anne Beal, (wife) 40 years. Jan. loth, 1802. 

Elizabeth Beal, (daughter) 14 years. Feb. i6th, 1802. 

While o'er the tomb of parents truly dear 
Lamenting children drop the filial tear; 
A stone, a verse. O honoured pair receive. 
As the last tribute gratitude can give 
Patience in suffering, thro' your lives appear'd 
And faith in Christ the darksome valley cheered, 
That faith and patience may we keep in view 
'Till call'd to share the blissful heaven with you. 

John Holness. 70 years. June 27th, 1810. 

My life a burthen was worn out with pain 
I die in peace in hope to rise again. 



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Robert Beal. 14 years. March 24th, 18 10. 

Mourn not my friends dry up your weeping eyes 
Within this grave my body only lies 
My soul unto a better place is flown 
Where it will wear an everlasting crown. 

Mary Hawks. 1818. 

Worn by disease which baffled human skill 
Content to suffer all her Maker's will 
She fell a lingering vidtim to his power 
And calmly waited God's appointed hour. 

Edward Stark. 1819. 

Adieu fond Parent now thou'lt prove 
How vast the depth of thy Creator's love 
Oh Glorious change; mortality's relief 
Yet till we share the Joy forgive our grief 
These little rights a Stone a verse receive 
The last poor tribute thy fond Children give. 

Thomas Austen, Yeoman, Walmeston. 91 years. 

[April nth, 1825. 
His worth was known to them who knew him best 

Henry Sayer. 84 years. Sep. 23rd, i8og. 

Edward Sayer. 78 years. Dec. 29th, 1791. 

William Sayer. 100 years Dec. 6th, 1822. 

Farewell vain world, I've had enough of thee 
And now am careless what thou say'st of me 
Thy smiles I count not, nor thy frowns I fear 
My days are past, my head lies quiet here 
What fault you've seen in me, take care to shun 
And look at home, enough there is to be done. 

Leonard Miller. 1825. 

A better man never lived. 

Sarah Martin. 57 years. Nov. 20th, 1849. 

Why should we be unwilling for to die 
So long as we live in pain and misery. 
Grieve not for me my friends so dear 
We are not lost but sleeping here 
We humbly hope to meet you all again, 
Where everlasting jo}'^ and pleasure reigns. 



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204 Chronicles of Wingham, 



Michael Pett. 6i years. Dec. 19th, 1850. 

As fall the leaves 'neath autumn's withering blast 
So die mankind, their spring and summer past 
Yes, thou, ere long, must lie beneath the sod 
Then young or old "Prepare to meet thy God." 

Ann Skey. 21 years. Feb. 15th, 1850. 

How swift the Shuttle flies, that weaves our shroud, 

Dorothy Plank. 20 years. Nov. 29th, 1851. 

A Daughter, Wife, and Mother sleeps below. 
How many ties were severed at one blow, 
Wives, Daughters, Mothers, all ye mortals see 
How scant the term of human life may be ; 
Then live by faith, and death in vain will call 
Who lives in Jesus shall not die at all. 

Mary Ann Martin. 31 years. May 14th, 1852. 

My life a burden was worn out with pain, 
I died in peace in hope to rise again. 

George Blackman. 75 years. 1858. 

Weep not for me my children dear, 
I am not dead but sleeping here ; 
God does not always warning give, 
Therefore be careful how you live. 

Mary Blackman. 72 years, 1858. 

Affliction sore long time she bore, 
Physicians were in vain. 
Till God was pleased to call her hence 
And ended all her pain. 

Thomas Henry Kendal. June 26th, 1871. 

Wife and children be content, 
For unto you I was but lent, 
My debt is paid, my erave you see. 
Therefore prepare to follow me. 

Richard Sutton, 40 years. May nth, 1863. 

George Sutton, (son), 24 years. Oct. 13th, 1876. 

The grave doth hide thee from my view. 
And I alone my path pursue ; 
Thy father's numbered with the dead. 
And now my son, thou too art fled. 
Thus called with both so soon to part, 
That God alone might have my heart. 



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INDEX. 



PAGE 
Acris, William de 82 

Adam, Provost 147 

Ajchbishop's Munor House 39 

ARCHBlSUOPd OF CakTBUBURY:— 

Baldwin 43 

Becket 89, 43 

Boniface 33, 49 

Bourchier 67, 130 

Coartenay 78 
Cranmer 8 7, C9, 122 

Danstan 20 

Rdmnnd 47 

Habert, Walter 45 

60 



Kilwardby 

Lanfranc 

Mepham 

Morton 

Peckham 

Pole 

Sudbury 

Winchelsea 

Warham 
Archdeacons Fee 
Ash 

Ash ton. Provost 
Assumption, B.V.M., 
Astall, Canon Bichaid 



02 
67 
60 

180 

65 

59 

08.115,119,122 

04 

25,33,116 

148 
63 

166 



Aubrichecourt, Sir. £. de 173 

Augustine, St., 18, 63 

Bay in Ickham 79 

Bells 95-7 

Benefactions 94, 98 

Bereham, Canon M. de 167 

Black Death 36 

„ Prince 65. 76 

Blande, Canon J., 166 

Blankpayn, Canon W., 161 

Ronnington 140 

IJourchier, Provost 149 

Bordari 30 

Bndlington. Canon A. dc 158 

Brighim, W., Vicur 151 



PAGB 

Brooke 78, 91»5 

Bruce, T., Vicar 162 

Brome, Canon R. de 169 

Bruvton, „ J. de 167 

Bulfinch, „ N. de 163 

Burd, ., R.de 16'3 



Caesar at Deal 10 

Cade, John 170 

Camilla, T. de. Vicar 1 44 

Canons of College 119, 164 

„ pensioned 1547 125 

„ Houses 126 

Canonries 117, 184 

Canterbury, Canon B. de 158 

CarHcate of Land 28 

Chaloner. Canon B. 166 

(3hantry Priests 92. 121 

Charities 108-113 

Charles, R., Vicar 151 

Chai-tham, Canon T. de 166 

Chichele, Provost Thos. 149 

Chilton Canonry 136 

Church, The 55, 84 

„ Books SO, 96-7 

„ Goods in 164S 128 

„ Plate 101 

„ Wardens 102-6 

Clarke, W., Vicar 163 

Clement, Canon V., 164 

Cobham, „ R.de 162 

College, The 5>^ 114, 126-6 

Collins, Canon R. 167 

Coppyng, Provost R. 149 

Courtenay, Canon B. de 162 

Cowper, Canon H. 1(14 

„ „ R. 119, 166 

Cranmer, Provost 150 

Crasades, The 45 

Cysterne, Cation R. Ce 158 



Danes, The ly 

Deal, (wsa: at lo 



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206 



Index, 



PAGE 

Dedication of Churches to St. 

Mary 198 

Dene 71, 92 

Dobbs, Robert, Vicar 121 

Dog Inn * 196 

Dometday Survey 26, 85 

Dryfield, Canon T. 119, 165 

Dnrlock 135 



vBdiall, Provost 
Edward I. 
.'„ 11. 
„ III. 
^ght Bells Inn 
Elephant 
Elopement 
Epitaphs, The 
Ethel Stan's gniut 

F^irs 

Fletes 

Forrmter, J., Vicar 

Fox, J. M. 



88, 119, 150 

60 

61 

61,64 

198 

49 

173 

201 

26 

34 

32 

151 

153 



Geyt, P. Le, Vicar 152 

Goodneston 25, 33, 78, 92, 116 

Gk)odriche, Canon M. 167 

Qrandison, „ J. de 157 

Guldeford, Provost 145 



Haleburg, Canon W. dc 


154 


Hampton, ., M. de 


117, 155 


Harfleet, The 


' 82 


Harvey, Vicar 


153 


Harris, C. „ 


351 


Heghtresbury, Canon W. de 


161 


Henry VI, 


66 


„ VII. 


G7 


„ VIII. 


69, 122 


Hervey, Canon J 


164 


Holland, „ H. 


107 


Hugate, „ N. dc 


158 


Hundred Jury 


3;J, 170 


Ickham 


79,85 


If eld, John de 


35 


Italim Vicar 


142 


Inn Signs 


104 


James, J., Vicar 


152 


John, Kin J? 


4<; 


Jolitf, J., Vicar 


121 



PAGE 

Kemp, Canon J. 163 

Kent, Meaning of 11 ' 
Kerry, Canon T. 119, 120, 165 

Kewfcy, R. R., Vicar 153 

Land tenures 7C 

Lathe of land 28 

Xieigham. Canon P. 166 

Lesser Manors 70 

Levingston, C, Vicar 153 

Lewes, Canon J. de 164 

Lewes Priory 55 

Idfe in Country Houses 82 

Littleboume 85 

Loftie, J., Vicar 152 

Lye, Canon W. 161 

Manor of Wingham 25, 32, 35, 37, 8<» 

„ House 39, 46 

Manors, Lesser 70 

Marescal, G., Vicar 142 

Market 33, 194 

Mill 31 

Millett, John, Vicar 120 

Montfort, Simon de 72 

Morton, Provost 150 

Nairn, J., Vicar 152 

Newton, W., Viair 151 
Nonnington 25, 33, 116 

Norton, Canon Robert 158 

,; „ Richartl 159 

Old Church Books 90, 95-7 

Otford Manor House 61 

Overseers 105-8 

Ovying, Canon J. 161 
Oxenden Family S7, 76, 91-5, 187 

^ ' 180-5 

Oxenden, M., Vicar 152 



Palmer Family 

,, Sir Henry 37, 

,, Herbert 

„ Sir Thomas 
Thomas 
Parish Council, Fir«t 

,, Registers 
Parmeuter, Canon J. 
Payne, ., A. 

Peckham. ., W. de 
Peddinp Caiionrv 
Peiiiiockc. T., Ciiaiilrv Pries 



186-93 

126, 191 

88, 191 

93, 187 

126, 186 

199 

99 

164 

119, 165 

154 

134-5 

t 121 



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Index. 



207 



PAGE 

Picts and Scots 11 

Prices ill 1299 34 

Prophet, Can on J 161 

Provost's HuuRe - 116, 12i 
PbOVOST'S of THK ObLLKUE:— 

Adam 147 

Aahton 148 

Bourchier 120, 149 

Coppyng 149 

Chichele 88, 149 

Cranmer 150 

Ediall «8, 119, 150 

Gcdldefonl 145 

Morton 160 

Mount de Wickham 158 

Rotherham (or Scott) 148 

Reade 147 

Severlev 147 

Sexton" 148 

Solbury 147 

Tarenta 146 

Toste 148 

Warham 150 

Wickham 148 

Wyndaor 148 

Ratlmg Canonry CI, 188, 140 

Red Lion Inn 194 

Reade, Provost W. 147 

Registers, The Parish 99 
Religions Houses Suppressed 122 

Reynolds, P., Vicar 151 

Richborough 12, 28, 25 

Richard I. 45 

,, Vicar 72, 143 

Roman Villa 11, 22 

„ Roads 11, 23, 25 

Rothwell, tt., de. Vicar 144 

Rotherham. Provost, 147 

Rushbeecher Charity 98. 108-112 

Rutter Charity 112 

Sabaiidia, P., Vicar 143 

Salt Pans, 32 
Sandwich 30, 25, 45-7, 60, 61, 64-6 



Sardenia, Canon, W,. de. 


156 


Sarestone, J., de, Vicar 


143 


Saunders, Canon J, 


165 


Septvans, R., de 


80 


Servi, The 


30 


Severley, Provost 


147 


Sexton „ 


148 


Simon de Montf ort 


72-5 


Solbury. Provost 


147 



PAGE 

Stevens, 8., Vicar 151 

Stopindun, Canon J. dc 163 

Sttlin of bind 28 
Suppression uf Religions Honsesl22-5 

Tanton, Canon R, do 158 

Tarenta, Provost 146 

Testa, Canon V. de 156 

Teynham Manor House 48, 50, 67 

Thomas, W., Vicar 152 

Thoi-pe, Canon J. de 166 

Tomfonl, „ „ 168 

Toste, Prsvost 146 

Trapham 81 

Tucker, J., Vicar 162 

Turberville, Canon R. de " 157 

Turner, R., Vicar 167 

Twitham Canonry 186-8 

Tyler, Wat 77, 168 

Upton, Canon T. de 166 

Vernoles, Canon A. de 168 

Vestments etc., 1647 128 
Vicars 72, 142, 151 

Villeins 29 

Vineyards 23 

Vinentis, Canon B. de 159 

Vincent, „ R. 163 

Visitation of Abp. Peckham 54 

College 114, 119 



Walmeston 

Warham, Edward 
„ Hugh 
,, Provost 

Warmington, Canon R. 

Wayte, Canon A. 

Wenderton 

Whittlesey, Canon W. 

Wickhambreux 

Willi^ims, Canon J. 

Windsor, Provost 

Wingham, The Name 
De 

Winter, Thos. 

Withersden Hall 

Wolsey, Cardinal 

Woodward, Canon J. 

Wymlinjfsweald 

Wyvill, Canon R. 



80 

79, 89 

79,90 

150 

161 

160 

69, 77, 89 

159 

85 

119-20, 166 

148 

25, 199 

176-9 

37 

•24 

123, 131 

119,165 

25, 116, 141 

156 



Yeomanry 



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SUBSCRIBERS* 



Armstrong. Mrs., Preston. 

Arnold. G. M., Esq.. F.S.A. ; Milton Hall. Gravesend. 

Baker, W. A., Mr., Wingham. 

Barrett. Miss, Stroud Green, N. 

Beal, Mr., Wingham. 

Beaumont. E.. Esq., Wingham. Two copies. 

Bell, M.. Esq.. F.G.S.. Bourne Park. 

Blaikid, Mrs., Fulham, London. 

Bliss, Rev. Canon, Betteshanger Rectory. 

Branford. Mr.. Brambling. 

Brockwell. Dr., L.R.C.P.E. ; M.R.C.S., Eng., Wingham. 

Brooke, Rev. C.H., Criggion Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

Brisley, Mr. C, Ash. 

Canterbury Cathedral Library, per the Bishop of Dover. 
Canterbury Municipal Library. 
Carpenter, Mrs., Cfapham, London. 
Chandler. Miss. Wingham. 
Mr. G.. 

Mrs., Goldston Ash, 
Chapman, Mrs., Wingham. 
Clarke, Rev, W., Wonersh. Guildford. Four copies. 

Mr.. Wingham. 
Cloke, F. S., Esq., Sandwich, 

Coleman, Mrs., Tonbridge. Two copies. 

Collard, E. M., Esq.. Heme Bay. 
Collier, Rev. C. V., Great Ayton-in-Cleveland, Yorks. 
Conyngham, The Marquess, London Ten copies. 

Cooper, Mr., Wingham. 

Copeland, Lieut.-Col. F. S, A.. Westgate-cn-Sea Two copies. 

Cotton, C, Esq., M.D. ; F.R.C.P.. Ramsgate. 
Coulter, Mrs., Preston. 
Cowper, J. M., Esq.. Canterbury, 
Critch, Mrs., Goodnestone, 

Dart, H. B., Esq.. Kilbum Priory, N.W. 

Davis, Mrs., Ickham. Four copies. 



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Subscribers, 209 



Denne, T., Esq., Rowhill. Dartford. 

Doughty, Mr., Wingham. 

Dowker. G., Esq., F.G.S. ; Ramsgate. 

Drury, Mr., Wingham. Two copies. 

Dudley, H., Esq., Wingham. 

Dyson, Rev. F., Denne Hill. 

Elgar, Mrs., Crockshard, Wingham. 
Miss, Ramsgate. 
,, Mr., Dover. Two copies. 

Evans, Miss, Peckham, S.E. 

Fairchild, Mr., Clapton, London. 
Fell, S. G., Esq., Ickham Hall. 
Fostall, Mr., Wingham. 

Fox, Rev., J. M., Wingham Vicarage. Two copies. 

French, Mrs., Eltham. 
„ Lewis, Esq., St. John's College, Oxford. 

Gardener, F. W., Esq., Dover. Three copies, 

Goodb^, Mr. H., Wingham. 
Goulden, Mr. W. E., Canterbury. 

Hall, Mr., Wingham Well. Two copies. 

Hambrook, Mr., Wingham. 

Hatfield, Captain, Hartsdown, Margate. 

Miss, Ickham. 
Haslewood, Rev. F. G., L.L.D.. D.O.L., Chislet Vicarage. 
Hetherington, Miss, Sandwich. 
Hibberd, Mrs , Stroud Green, N. 
Hicks, Mrs.. Sandwich. 
Hinge, Miss. Wingham. 
Hogben, Mr. C„ Wingham. 

Holman, Mr., Littlebourne. Two copies. 

Holness, Mr., Beaute, Staple. Four copies. 

„ Wingham Well. 

,, Mrs., Wingham. 

„ Miss, 

,, ,, A. Peckham, London. 
Horsley, Mrs., Dover. 
Howse, .Mr., Ash 

Hounslow, Rev., E., All Saints Vicarage, Haggerston, N., 
Hudson, Miss, Wingham. 
Hutton, Kev., E. A., F.R.M.S., Broadbottom, Manchester. 

Jacobs, Mr. E., Ash. 
ones, Mr., Wingham. 
„ Rev. J., St. Nicholas Rectory, Fishguard, S. Wales. 



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Keller, Miss, Tulse Hill, London. Two copies. 

Kelsey, Mr. H. B., Stourmouth. 
Kendall, Mr. E., Wingham. 
" E. 



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.. F. 
., Miss, 
Kirby, Mr.. Broome, Barham. 
Knocker, Col. E. W., Dover. 

Larkin, Mr., Wingham. 

Latham, Rev. J. L., Lydden Vicarage. 

Lovell, Mr., Wmgham. Two copies 

Luckhurst, Mr., Wingham. 

Ludgater, Mrs., Littlebourne. 

Makey, Mr., Ash. Three copies. 

Martin, Mrs., Shepherds Bush, London. 

Matson, Mrs.. Wingham. 

Mayes, Mr., Littlebourne. 

Maylam, J., Esq., Wingham. 

Meek, Rev. W. J., The Manse, Wingham. 

Mercer, W. J., Esq., Margate Two copies.. 

Miles, Mr., Twitham, Wingham. 

Miller, Miss, London. 

Mittell, Mrs., Horsham. 

Mobbs, S. N.. Esq.. Kent Coast College, Heme Bay. 

Moore, A., Esq., Eythorne. 

Mowll, M., Esq., Dover. Two copies. 

Murphy, Miss, Brixton, London. 

Murton, Mr., Ash. 

Newington, Mr., Wingham. 

Newsham, Mr., „ 

Northbourne, Lord, Betteshanger. Two copies 

Osborne, A. G., Esq., M.R.C.S., Dover. 
Oxenden, Sir Percy, Broome Park. 

Payne, Rev. Dr. Bruce, Deal. 
Pepper, M., Esq., Mayor of Dover. 
Phillips, Mrs., Marlborough, 
rittock. Mips, Wingham. 

Mrs. R., ,, Two copies. 

M Mr.. 
Plumptre, Mrs. J. B., Goodnestone. Two copies^ 

C, Esq., Fredville. 
H, Fitzwalter, Esq., Goodnestone. Two copes.. 



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Pyner, Mr., Dover. 

Quelch, Mr., Walmeston, Wingham. 

Ratcliffe, Mr., Patrix bourne. 

Rice, Mrs., Clapton, London. 

Rigden, Mr., Maidstone. 

R(xigers, Mrs. , Ashford, Two copies. 

Robinson, Mr., Wingham. Two copies. 

Kosher, A., Esq.. The Grange, Rosherville. 

Scammell, B. C, Esq., Dover. 

Scott. Rev. R. F., St. John's College, Cambridge. Two copies. 

Sells, Mr.. Tunbridge Wells. Two copies, 

Shakerley, Miss., Rowling House, Goodnestone. 
Slater, F. Esq., Alkham. 
Stokes, Mr , New Romney. 
„ Mr. G., Wingham, 

Mr. S., ., Three copies, 

String6r, H. Esq., New Romney. 
Syckelmoore, Mr., Dover. 

Tate, Miss. , Ramsgate. 
Taylor, Miss., Ickham. 
Terry, Miss, Ickham. 
Tickner, Mr.. Wingham. 
Theobald, F. V.. Esq., Wye. 
Thurston, Miss, Canterbury. 
Tritton. Mr., Preston. 

Vine, Mr., Wingham. 

White, Miss, Worth. 

Wilkie, Rev. C. H., Kingston Rectory. 

K. W. , Esq. , Ramsgate. 
Williams, Mr., New Cross Rd, London. 
Wood, Rev. E. S.. Ash Vicarage. 

, , Leslie, S. . Esq. , Tunbridge Wells 
Woodruff. Rev. C. E., Otterden Rectory. 
Wrake, Mr., Wingham. 



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