(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Chronicon Galfridi le Baker de Swynebroke"

HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



CHRONICON 
GALFRIDI LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE 

E. MAUNDE THOMPSON 



a 



Bonbon 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE 
AMEN CORNER, E.C. 





















* -^1 















I 

V " i ^ 

n* oitHtmi^pt 






W ft S'f*^ 






<C 



r _ * 



I 



Collotyft. 



Oxford University Press. 



CHRONICLE OF GEOFFREY LE BAKER. 
BODLEY MS. 761, f. 122. 



1 * ' 



CHRONICON 



GALFRIDI LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE 



EDITED WITH NOTES 



BY 



EDWARD MAUNDE THOMPSON 

HON. LL.D. ST. ANDREWS ; HON. D.C.L. DURHAM ; F.S.A. 
PRINCIPAL LIBRARIAN OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM 



Ojforfc 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1889 

[ All rights reserved} 



PREFACE. 



THE authorship of the chronicle and ' chroniculum ' which are 
printed in this volume is disclosed in the colophon of the smaller work 
(p. 173). The writer, Geoffrey le Baker, of Swinbrook, an Oxford- 
shire village lying two miles east of Burford, there tells us that he 
wrote, or rather finished writing, this little chronicle at Osney on 
Friday, the festival of St. Margaret [2Oth July], 1347 ; and that the 
work was done at the request of sir Thomas de la More, knight. 
The 'chroniculum' has no other historical importance. It is a jejune 
record of events, beginning with the six days of creation, the ages 
of the world, and a few notes of early history, and proceeding with 
two short series in chronological sequence : the first from the birth of 
Our Lord to the year 1320, touching chiefly on matters of ecclesias- 
tical history and ending with the succession of bishops of certain 
English sees (pp. 158-164) ; the other beginning with the death of 
Augustus, but immediately passing on to events in English history 
down to the year 1336-7 (pp. 164-173). The dates of the entries 
in both series are calculated both in the ordinary manner by the year 
of Our Lord, and also back from the year of compilation, 1347. Baker 
styles himself ' clericus ' ; but by this term he probably does not mean 
that he was a canon of Osney. Had he been one of the brethren of 
that house, we might expect that he would have found room in his 
brief record for more notes connected with the abbey than he has 
done. Only in two places does he mention Osney : the one referring 
to the benefactions of John de Pagham, bishop of Worcester (p. 163), 
the other to the burial of Ela, countess of Warwick (p. 169). 



vi PREFACE. 

The larger chronicle is also the work of Baker. Of this there 
can be no doubt, although his name does not appear in any part 
of it. Not only is the work found in company with the ' chroniculum ' 
in the Bodley MS., but also in a certain passage the author addresses 
sir Thomas de la More, the same knight at whose request Baker had 
written the shorter work in 1347. 

The occurrence of de la M ore's name has been the cause of 
depriving Baker of the honour of the authorship of at least a part 
of his work. For his history of Edward the second's reign came, 
by some accident, to be attributed to his patron, and has been quoted 
under the good knight's name by a succession of writers. Towards 
the close of the sixteenth century this portion of Baker's chronicle 
appears to have' become popular by the dissemination of copies, tran- 
scribed, apparently with some abridgment and alterations, from MSS. 
now lost. The title which these transcripts bore was: 'Vita et Mors 
Edwardi secundi, Gallice conscripta a generosissimo milite, Thoma de 
la Moore.' I think that there can be little doubt that they were 
taken from MSS. which contained Baker's chronicle of Edward the 
second's reign only. Had MSS. (such as the Bodley MS. of our 
text) containing the whole chronicle and the ' chroniculum ' also been 
used, the attribution to sir Thomas de la More could hardly have 
been put forward, with the evidence of Baker's authorship so 
manifest. And further, the condition of the Cotton MS., presently 
to be described, which has the text of Edward the third's reign 
only, copied apparently as a separate chronicle, favours the view of 
the two reigns having been in some copies treated as two distinct 
works. 

The 'Vita et Mors' was first printed by Camden in his Anglica, 
Normannica, Hibernica, etc., in 1603 ; and it has recently had the 
benefit of being re-edited by the Bishop of Oxford a . Referring to the 

1 In Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I. and Edward II. edited by William Stubbs, 
D.D., LL.D. Rolls series ; two vols., 1882-3. 



PREFACE. vii 

original title of the work, it appears that, from the first, it was assumed 
to be the Latin translation of a life of Edward written in French by 
sir Thomas de la More. At the end of his history of the reign Stow, 
Annales, ed. 1605, has the colophon : ' Thus far out of Thomas de la 
More, a worshipfull knight, that then lived and wrote in the French 
tongue what he saw with his eies, or heard crediblie reported by them 
that saw and some that were actors. All which was (at the said sir 
Tho. de la Mores request) translated and more orderlie penned in the 
Latine toong by Walter Baker, alias Swinborne, chanon of Osney 
besides Oxford.' From this it is clear that Stow used a MS. which con- 
tained not only the chronicle but also the ' chroniculum ' ; for otherwise 
he would not have known Baker's name, blundered though it be. And 
yet, if it was this same MS. that he lent to Camden, it is strange that 
the latter should have entitled some extracts which he made from the 
years 1338-1352, (now in the British Museum, Lansdowne MS. 229, 
ff. 1566, 157 a) : ' Ex historia Thomae de la Mare quam mihi accommo- 
davit J. Stowe, 1577 ' 1 . The Bishop of Oxford, Chronicles of the reigns, 
etc. n. Iviii, Ixxv, has faith in the existence of the French life, and does 
not altogether despair of its re-discovery. I venture, however, to think 
that the assumption has been carried too far. The passage in the 
chronicle on which the theory of a French life is based is to be read 
on p. 27 of our text. Baker is there describing the proceedings of 
the deputation sent to the king at Kenilworth to procure his abdi- 
cation ; one of the members is Stratford, bishop of Winchester, and in 
Stratford's train is de la More, probably then a young man : 'quorum 
comitivam,' writes Baker, ' aderens predicto episcopo Wintoniensi, tu, 
generose miles, qui hec vidisti et in Gallico scripsisti, cuius ego sum 
talis qualis interpres, te dico, domine Thoma de la More, tua sapienti 
et inclita presencia decorasti.' These words surely refer immediately 
to the graphic scene which follows the preliminary conference of the 

1 After comparing Camden's extracts, I think that Stow did not use the Bodley MS., 
but possibly a not quite accurate copy of it. 



viii PREFACE. 

two bishops with the king ; the arrival of the rest of the embassy ; 
the introduction of the unhappy prisoner, clad in his sable robe ; his 
sudden faint ; the abdication ; and the renunciation of homage the 
scene in which de la More was himself an actor, and it is unnecessary 
to read our chronicler otherwise than in the obvious sense that he was 
indebted to his patron for a detailed account of it, without straining the 
words to apply to an entire history of the king's life. In fact the 
words ' hec vidisti et in Gallico scripsisti ' confine the limits of de la 
M ore's contribution to what he himself actually saw. 

The connection between Baker and his patron has been elucidated 
by the researches of the Bishop of Oxford, as set forth in his Introduc- 
tion to the volume in which he has re-edited the 'Vita et Mors.' It is 
there most clearly proved that Camden and others who have followed 
him are quite wrong in identifying sir Thomas de la More as a member 
of a family of the name seated in the parish of Bitton in Gloucester- 
shire. He belonged, in fact, as might have been expected, to a place 
much nearer to Baker's home. This place was Northmoor, formerly 
Mora or Moor, in Oxfordshire, lying only some eleven miles south- 
east of Swinbrook, not far from the Berkshire border of the county. 
' In this place, in the seventh year of Edward i, one John, son of 
Stephen de la Mora, held thirty acres of land, a mill, and a passage over 
the Thames, under the prior of Deerhurst, the tenant in chief, by 
annual payment of 535. and $d. and suit at the hundred court of Chad- 
lington. The family of de la More continued to flourish at Northmoor, 
for Anthony Wood found there fragments of their sepulchral monu- 
ments and evidence of their coat armour, argent a fesse dancettee 
gobony gules and sable between three mullets gules. Now in the 
first two parliaments of 1340 sir Thomas de la More sat as knight of 
the shire for Oxfordshire, and was a member of the great committee 
appointed in the second session to sit from day to day until the busi- 
ness was finished and the petitions turned into a statute. He was 
evidently a person of great consideration, was again elected in 1343 



PREFACE. ix 

and 1351, and thus outlived the great plague. He may safely be 
identified with the patron of Geoffrey le Baker. I shall not venture to 
identify him with sir Thomas de la More who in 1370 was constable 
or vice-warden of Porchester Castle under the earl of Arundel, 
although, supposing him to have been a young esquire in the service 
of bishop Stratford in 1326, he may easily be supposed to have survived 
until the close of the reign of Edward iii ' 1 . 

Whether Baker was a tenant or some such dependent of his 
patron is now beyond our power to show ; but it is more than probable 
that the family of de la More had land in, or in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of, Swinbrook, and that the chronicler held some relation of 
this kind towards the reverend knight *. 

There was also a greater Oxfordshire family than the de la Mores 
with whom Baker seems to have had some connection. The Bohuns, 
earls of Hereford, were lords of the hundred of Chadlington, in which 
Swinbrook lies. And it will not escape the observation of the reader 
that Baker speaks with particular reverence of the generous character 
of the unfortunate earl who fell fighting on the wrong side at Borough- 
bridge, and that he describes the manner of his death with some 
minuteness. The details also which he gives of the drowning of 
Edward Bohun in the north are somewhat fuller than in other chro- 
nicles. That this attention to the history of individuals is more than 

1 Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I. and Edward II., vol. ii., Introduction, p. Ixiii. 

1 A curious piece of evidence showing that, at a later period, at least one of the family 
was in possession of land on the very borders of Swinbrook parish has been kindly 
communicated to me by the Bishop of Oxford. It consists of the following memorandum 
of ownership, written in a copy of Bishop Hall's Explication of all the hard texts of the 
Old and New Testaments, which was quoted in a second-hand bookseller's catalogue last 
year : " Thomas More de la More dwelleth in Pagan's Court in Teynton nere Swinbroke 
and Burford, in Oxfordshire, Nov. 1652. Cornet to Tho. Fairfax, 1647." The village of 
Taynton lies a mile on the western side of Burford, while Swinbrook lies to the east ; but 
there is an outlying portion of Taynton parish close to Swinbrook, and at the very 
southern extremity of it is " Pain's Farm," just half a mile north of the village. This, 
I have no doubt, is the " Pagan's Court " where dwelt Fairfax's quondam cornet. Thus 
the names of More and Swinbrook are once more brought together some three centuries 
after our chronicler had passed across the scene. 

b 



x PREFACE. 

the result of a natural interest in the great family of the neighbour- 
hood is, I think, to some extent proved by the fact that the Bodley 
MS., to be presently described, in which is included Baker's chronicle, 
certainly belonged at an early date to some one closely connected 
with the Bohun family. 

But while Baker's debt to de la More for material for his chronicle 
may have been over-estimated, the extent to which he borrowed from 
^ the work of Adam Murimuth, who was also probably a native of his 
county and a near neighbour, is very liberal. A family bearing the 
name of Murimuth appears to have been settled early in the fourteenth 
century at Fifield, five miles north-west of Swinbrook ; and assuming, 
as we fairly may, that Adam belonged to it, we have at once the 
explanation of neighbourhood for the adoption by Baker of the other's 
work as the basis for the greater part of his own. We may, indeed, 
be pretty sure that the two men were acquainted, though Murimuth 
was the senior by some years. He appears to have died in 1347 in 
his seventy-second year ; Baker was certainly living as late as 1358. 
Murimuth's chronicle passed through at least three editions. It was 
with the second edition, brought down to the year 1341, that Baker 
appears to have been acquainted. Although in some passages he 
copies his contemporary word for word, more generally he is content to 
follow the thread of the narrative, altering or amplifying the language ; 
but he also makes very important additions, for which he obtained most 
of his information from living sources. It is, of course, these addi- 
tions which give Baker's chronicle its historical value. For his know- 
ledge of a part of the closing scene of Edward the second's reign he 
was indebted, as we have seen, to sir Thomas de la More ; and, as his 
authority for details of the persecution of the unhappy king by his 
brutal keepers, he quotes by name one of the ruffians, William Bishop, 
who lived long enough to repent his wickedness and tell the pitiable 
story. And, in the course of both reigns, his descriptions of cam- 
paigns and battles are certainly founded upon information imparted 



PREFACE. xi 

by persons who had had a share in them, and in many particulars 
bear the stamp of unusual accuracy. 

We may then be grateful for the preservation of so much that is 
of the greatest historical interest, and may also acknowledge a debt to 
Murimuth, feeling that, had his chronicle not existed, we might have 
lost the superstructure of Baker's picturesque descriptions ; but the 
enjoyment is marred by the pedantic craze of the elder chronicler for 
making his historic year begin at Michaelmas, which his younger con- 
temporary blindly adopts. Baker was certainly not strong in chron- 
ology. He evidently did not write his work from year to year. As 
already stated, he used an edition of Murimuth which ends in 1341 ; 
and he says that he had the story of Edward the second's persecution 
from William Bishop after the occurrence of ' magna pestilencia,' the 
Black Death, in 1348-9. It would appear then that he certainly did 
not commence his chronicle until after 1341, to which period he accepts 
Murimuth's dates without question, and that he may not have begun 
before the middle of the century. As evidence that he did not write 
with regularity, it will be noticed that in several instances he seems to 
have mixed the various information which he had gathered from eye- 
witnesses of different events some time after they had taken place. For 
example, he confuses the campaign in Brittany of 1342 (dating it 1344) 
with that of 1345 J ; and other similar confusions are pointed out in the 
notes. 

I may here briefly capitulate the particular events for the history 
of which Baker's chronicle is of special value. They are : the battle 
of Bannockburn ; queen Isabella's invasion of England, her intrigues, 
and the fall of Edward the second ; his persecution and his murder ; 
the ignominious treaty with the Scots in 1328; the earl of Kent's 
restoration plot; the fall of Mortimer; the battle of Halidon Hill; the 
battle of Sluys ; the march of Edward the third through the north of 

1 I have to confess to falling into this trap ; having entered the later date, instead of 
1342, in the margin of p. 76 and at the top of p. 77. 

b a 



xii PREFACE. 

France and the battle of Crecy ; the battle of Neville's Cross ; the 
siege and fall of Calais ; the Black Death ; the foundation of the order 
of the Garter ; the sea-fight with the Spaniards off Winchelsea ; the 
duel of Thomas de la Marche ; the capture of Guines castle; the battle 
of Mauron ; the duke of Lancaster's single combat with Otho of 
Brunswick; the Black Prince's march from Bordeaux to Narbonne 
and back, the route being described with a fulness which is found in 
no other writer ; and, lastly, the battle of Poitiers, the details of which 
are set forth with remarkable precision. Baker's history of these 
events was drawn upon, to ho small extent, by the historian Stow, 
who has imported into the 1605 edition of his Annales translations, 
more or less correct, of many long passages. And through this 
medium much of Baker's narrative has found its way into more 
recent works. 

The two MSS. which have been used for the present edition are 
the only known copies of the chronicle, viz. Bodley MS. 761, and 
Cotton MS. Appendix LII. The former contains the chronicle and 
the ' chroniculum ' ; the latter, a portion only of the chronicle of the 
reign of Edward the third. The text in the Bodley MS. was printed 
in 1847 by Dr. Giles, as one of the publications of the Caxton Society. 
Giles made use of a transcript ; his work was imperfectly performed ; 
and there is very good reason for believing that he never saw the 
original MS. at all. 

The Bodley MS. is a volume of 200 leaves (including fly-leaves) of 
paper, measuring 12 by 8 inches, of the stout make which was in use 
about the year 1360 or immediately after. It is still bound in the old 
oaken covers. The original contents are : 

1. Thesaurus pauperum : recipes for various complaints, in Latin, 

drawn from the Thesaurus Pauperum of Petrus Hispanus ; followed 
by others in French. Colophpn : ' Expliciunt secreta H. Samp- 
sonis de Clouburnel.' f. 4. 

2. ' Ici comence la novele cirurgerie en Franceis par rime.' Begins : 



PREFACE. xiii 

' Tut 1-e corps est en langur, Quant le chief est en dolur.' Colophon : 
'Explicit nova cirurgia in Gallico.' f. 21. 

3. ' Issi comence le livre de herberie en Franceis, qi est apele cira 

instans ' : a translation from Job. Platearius, De simplici Medicina. 
Colophon : ' Explicit liber herbarum, specierum et gummorum.' f. 28. 

4. ' Liber de virtutibus herbarum, seminum, riorum,' etc. : the Liber 

virtutum simplicium medicinarum of Joh. de Sancto Paulo, 
f. 42 b. 

5. ' Liber cinonomorum de nominibus herbarum,' in alphabetical order. 

Begins : ' Alphita, Farina ordei.' .57 b. 

6. Another list, giving Latin, French, and English terms. Colophon : 

' Explicit nomina herbarum in Latino, Gallico, et Anglico.' f. 67 b. 

7. ' Medulla cirurgie Rolandi ' : extracted from the Chirurgia of 

Rolandus Parmensis. f. 71 b. 

8. ' Issi commence le livre de xii. ewes,' with recipes in Latin and 

French, f. 84. 

9. Transcript of a notarial instrument publishing the award by William 

de Honynton [? Will, de Cusancia], dean of the free chapel of St. 
Martin-le-Grand, in London, of an annual pension of 6s. 8d. to 
Thomas de Walmesford, canon of the same and prebendary of 
Fauconers in Godchester [Good Easter, co. Essex], as against 
Ralph de Brantyngham, also canon of the same and prebendary of 
Godchester; 10 Feb. I355[6], f. 91. 

jo. The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker, with this title added (in a hand 
of about A.D. 1600) : ' Croniculum Galfridi le Baker de Swynebroke, 
clerici, de morte et vita regum Anglic, patris et filii, videlicet 
Edwardorum de Winchester post conquestum j ! . et de Carnarvan 
ij 1 ., anno regni regis Edwardi in. xxj ., ad rogatum Domini Tho. 
de la More militis conscriptum ' *. f. 99. 

11. The ' Croniculum ' of Geoffrey le Baker, f. 149. 

12. The Speculum Stultorum of Nigel Wireker. Title: ' Burnelli 

1 Giles prints this title without comment as if it were original. 



xiv PREFACE. 

speculum merito liber iste vocatur, Cuius sub specie stultorum vita 
notatur.' f. 160. 

13. Poem, in French, on various proverbs, etc. Begins : 

' Chier amy, recevez de moy 
Un beau present qe vous envoy, 
Non pas dor ne de argent, 
Mes de bon enseignement.' f. 180. 

14. Prophecies on events of 1350-1365, in Latin and French, f. 184 b. 

15. Bulls of pope John xxii., concerning the Franciscans and Minorites. 

f. 187. 

1 6. Description of the Island of Angamanain [Andaman Isles] and of 

the Island of Seylam (from Marco Polo ; see Yule's edn., vol. ii. 
pp. 292, 295), followed by some account of Egypt, Palestine, etc., 
in French, f. 195. 

These sixteen articles are written in three different, but contem- 
porary, hands : art. 1-8 being in the first ; art. 9, in the second ; and 
art. 10-16, in the third. On fly-leaves and blank spaces there are the 
following later additions, chiefly of the i5th century : 

17. ' Hoc est regimen domine Johanne Bohoun comitisse Herford [Joan, 

daughter of Richard Fitz-Alan, 3rd earl of Arundel, and widow of 
Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Northampton, who had 
died in 1373 : see below, art. 22], secundum magistrum Georgium, 
medicum domini regis Henrici iiij", anno Domini 1408 ' ; followed 
by recipes. The lady's complaints included fever, head-ache, 
buzzing in the ears ' tremitus auris,' and catarrh, f. 2. 

1 8. Recipes, in English, for the ' dimygreyn,' etc. ; and one in French 

' pur le pere ' [stone], f. 3. 

19. Recipe, in French, of the ointment of William of Exeter, called 
' loignement Dexetre.' f. 27 b. 

20. Cure for the plague, in English (imperfect at the beginning, owing 
to the excision of a leaf). Colophon : ' Explicit tractatus contra 



PREFACE. xv 

epidimiam, editus a magistro de Burdagalia, anno Christi 1390.' 
f. 90. 

21. List of herbal specifics, recipes, properties of herbs, etc., in Latin 
(written on various blank spaces, as they could be found), ff. 90, 
97, 98, 145 -148 &, 159 *-, l8 5 b., 200 b. 

22. Obits of Eleanor of Lancaster, countess of Arundel [daughter of 

Henry, 3rd earl of Lancaster, and wife of Richard Fitz-Alan, 3rd 
earl of Arundel], n Jan. i37a[3], and of her son-in-law Humphrey 
de Bohun, earl of Hereford [and Northampton], 17 Jan. [1373]. 

f. 97 *. 

23. Medicinal notes, from Roger Bacon, in Latin, f. 158. 

24. Astrological notes; on lunar influences, etc. f. 158 b. 

From two of these later entries, articles 17 and 22, it will be seen 
that the MS. passed into the hands of some one connected with the 
family of Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford and Northampton. His 
death and that of his mother-in-law are recorded ; and we have also 
the medical case of his widow, who, as mother of king Henry the 
fourth's late wife, Mary Bohun, is attended by the royal physician in 
1408. From the fact of this case being entered in the MS., and from 
the character of the other additions, it seems not improbable that the 
volume became the property of the physician of the family. But there 
is also evidence of a still earlier link between the MS. and the Bohuns, 
dating back to the time of its compilation. For Thomas de Walmes- 
ford, in whose favour the award was made, as recorded in article 9 
which forms a part of the original contents, was in 1328 presented to 
the rectory of Shenfield in Essex, and again in 1334 to the rectory of 
Lees Magna or Much Lees in the same county, by John de Bohun, 
earl of Hereford, who died in 1335. Walmesford then, was evidently 
a dependent, in some way, of the family, and if, as seems not improb- 
able, the MS. was originally compiled for him, it is no matter for 
surprise that he should have included in it a chronicle written by one 



xv j PREFACE. 

who was a well-wisher, if not also a dependent of the same powerful 
house. 

The Cotton MS. does not appear to have formed any part of the 
Cottonian library, as catalogued. It was found among the burnt MSS. 
which suffered in the disastrous fire of 1731 at Ashburnham House, 
Westminster. It now consists of 22 leaves of vellum, which measure 
generally about gi by 6\ inches, the earlier leaves being rather smaller 
and more shrunken by the action of the fire, and the first half of the 
whole number being a good deal damaged and defaced. The writing is 
of the latter part of the fourteenth century, perhaps of about the year 
1370. It contains, as already noticed, a part of Baker's chronicle for 
the reign of Edward the third only, and it probably never contained 
the earlier reign, for the condition of the first page, worn and defaced, 
is not that of one which has had the protection of leaves preceding it. 
Moreover, the text begins at the top of the page and with a decorated 
initial letter, as in the case of an independent work. All these circum- 
stances point to the omission, from the first, of the history of Edward 
the second's reign ; and support the suggestion, put forward above, 
that the two reigns were sometimes transcribed as separate works in 
different MSS. 

The reason for this rather unusual proceeding is, I think, to be 
found in the arrangement of the text of the beginning of Edward the 
third's reign in the Bodley MS. Here we have, for the first three 
years, two versions (see pp. 34-43 below), the second written imme- 
diately after the first. The second version is that which appears in the 
Cotton MS. It would seem, then, that Baker, after bringing his chron- 
icle to its present conclusion under the year 1356, intended to revise, 
or re-write, his history of Edward the third, and that he had actually 
commenced the work when, probably, death overtook him. For it 
will be seen from his concluding words (p. 155) that he was then 
writing as late as 1358; and, as the copy in the Bodley MS., the 
unrevised work of a careless transcriber, was written in or soon after 



PREFACE. xvii 

1360, it may be inferred that Baker died in the interval. The existence 
of the two versions, written, as they are, consecutively in the Bodley 
MS., goes to prove that the MS. was copied direct from Baker's own 
original work ; he had probably begun his revised version on inserted 
leaves, with the result that the scribe of the Bodley MS. ignorantly 
incorporated the new with the old material. More intelligent copyists 
afterwards saw what the author intended, and transcribed the reign of 
Edward the third with its new commencing version as a separate work, 
just as we have it in the Cotton MS. 

Of the text of that MS. nearly one half has been lost. The 
following are the lacunae : After f. i, one leaf (see pp. 39-41, below), 
after f. 9, one leaf (pp. 62-64) > a ^ ter f- IO ' a qui re of eight leaves (pp. 67- 
96) ; and, at the end, again a quire of eight leaves (pp. 132-155). 

I have only to add that the readings of the two versions just 
referred to, as they appear in the Bodley MS., are here distinguished 
by the letters B and B 2 . Among the Notes and Illustrations at the 
end of the volume I have printed many extracts from contemporary 
chronicles ; and, as he has so largely adopted Baker's text and has in 
turn been so freely referred to by modern historians, I have thought 
it not amiss to give several passages from the Annales of John Stow. 

E. M. T. 

BRITISH MUSEUM, 
November, 1888. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

CHRONICON GALFRIDI LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE ... i 

CHRONICULUM EJUSDEM 156 

NOTES 177 

INDEX . . . . . . . 315 



CORRIGENDA. 

. .. , 

3, last side-note. For 23 Feb., read 25 Feb. 

12, 1. 23. For H[enricum], read H[ugonem] 

46, 1. 25. For hutesio, read cum hutesio 

76, 1. 10, margin. For 1345, read 1342 

77, I- i, ,. .. 

77, 1. 7, Insert A.D. 1345. 

79, first side-note. For Geoffroi, read Godefroi 

85, 1. 17. For Kayen, read Kayeu 

96, fourth side-note. For sir James, read sir William 
103, 11. 24, 25. Delete commas after Gallicos and durantes 
129, 1. 1 8. For quorum, read quarum 
146, 1. 29. For redunitus, read redimitus 
148, 1. 3. Delete comma after mariscum 
153, last side-note. For Lord Audley, read Sir James Audley 
155, 1. 3. For Ville, Ernaldus, read Ville Ernal, dominus, and delete the footnote. 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI LE BAKER 
DE SWYNEBROKE. 

ANNO ab incarnacione lesu Christi regis omnipotentis unigeniti A.D.1303. 
M.CCC.iij., Bonefacii pape huius nominis octavi anno viij., regni vero Campaign 
nobilis regis Edwardi de Wyncestre filii Henrici regis Anglorum xxxj., 
quia Scot! interfecerunt et prodiciose tractaverunt l custodes et min- 
istros quos prefatus Edwardus prefecit custodie regni Scocie et castro- 
rum, cum exercitu Scociam circa Pentecosten transequitavit, et, rebellibus 
quibuscumque captis, occisis, vel a facie gladii fugatis ad insulas seu 
latebras subterraneas 2 , in Angliam remeavit. Rege reverso, Scoti de The Scots 

besiege and 

latibulis et exilio regressi castrum de Strivelin obsederunt 3 , cui ad take Stir- 
tutelam rex prefecit Anglicos xl. dumtaxat, qui, victualibus consumptis, 
equis, canibus, gliribus et muribus vescentes, tandem castrum, contra 
Scotos et, que solet munitissima expugnare, solam videlicet famem 
quamdiu defensum, salvis vita et membris, finaliter reddiderunt. Postea Edward 

. takes Bre- 

rex obsedit castrum de Vnhin et infra xx. dies expugnatum cepit. chin Castle. 

Hoc anno, inter reges Anglie et Francie pace reformata, reddita est Gascony is 

. /-if restored to 

Anghcis Vascoma, que diucius miuste extitit a Gains ocupata. England. 

Isto quoque anno, in vigilia Nativitatis beate Marie, captus est Capture of 

pope Boni- 
Bonefacius papa predictus in Campania, civitate Agnanie, de qua extitit face viii., 

oriundus, procurante rege Francie per suos nuncios W[illelmum] de 

Nogarito et W[illelmum] de Plasiano, atque consencientibus ipsius 

pape familiaribus et vicinis ; tesaurus quoque ecclesie depredatus. Ipse 

1 tractataverunt. B. a subterraneos. B. 3 om. B. 

B 



2 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1303. insuper papa, equo indomito insidens invitus et alligatus, facie versus 

His death, caudam effrenis equi conversa, cursu nimio deferentis fatigatus, spiritum 
ii Oct. ..... -.. . . ,. 

1303. cum sentencia excommunicacionis m degeneres nhos propagmis regalis 

sanguinis Francorum adusque nonum gradum terribiliter exspiravit, vj. 
idus Octobris, anno 1304. 

Election of Anno sequent!, scilicet Christi M.CCC.iiij., Bonefacio predicto suc- 
Benedictxi. . . 

cessit Bened ictus papa xj., nacione Lumbardus, qui xj. kalendas 

Novembris Rome fuit electus et die Dominica sequent! coronatus. 

He excom- i s t e p r ; us f u it de ordine Predicatorum et postea cardinalis Hostiensis 1 

municates 

Boniface's finaliterque pater patrum, qui excommunicavit et excommunicatos 

enemies. 

A.D.1304. denunciavit omnes qui capcioni predecessoris sui consenserunt, et 

His death, postea, nonis lulii, diem clausit extremum. 

7 July. 

Edward ^oc anno rex Edwardus se transtulit in Scociam, castrum de 

reduces Strivelin, quod custodiebat Willelmus Olifard, cum per nonaginta dies 

Castle. crebris insultibus viriliter obsedisset, obsessi repugnare non diucius 

valentes, discalciati et funibus colla constrict! exeuntes, coram rege se 

prostrarunt, vitam et membra misericordie regis commendantes, quos 

ad vitam reservatos carceri tamen mancipatos in Angliam transmisit 

pietas regalis. 

He keeps Anno Christi M.CCC.v.. Benedict! pape xj. anno primo, Edwardi primi 

Christmas 

at Lincoln, post conquestum anno xxxiij. solempnitatem Natalis Christi Lincolnie 

.' rex celebravit ; et iusticiarios de trailebaston per totam Angliam male- 
Justices of 

trailbaston. factores punituros ordinavit, per quos, multis castigatis, regis erarium 
valde fuerat ditatum. 

Execution Hoc anno fuit subtractus, suspensus, et decapitatus Willelmus 

of William 

Wallace. Waleys apud Londonias, qui prius contra Anglicos in Scocia et partibus 

finitimis multa facinora perpetravit. 
A.D.isoe. Circa festum Purificacionis, Robertus le Bruys, nacione Anglicus, 

Robert , . 

Bruce aims volens lure uxons sue sine scitu et assensu ligu dommi sui regis 
Scottish Anglic regnum Scocie 2 usurpare, fecit convocacionem magnatum Sco- 



C i 6) ; nter q uos ; n ecc i es j a f ra trum Minorum apud Dunfres dominum 

He slays 

J nn ' Hosticn. B. - ausus interlined to follow Scocie. B. 

Cumyn. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. $ 

lohannem de Komyn, fidelem amicum regis, conspiracioni sue dis- A.D.1306. 
sencientem trucidavit. 

Exinde, ad festum Pentecosten, rex filium suum primogenitum, Edward of 

Carnarvon 

Edwardum de Carnarvan, cingulo militari decoravit, et cum ipso alios isknightedj 

f 99 1 * 

centum milites ordinavit, apud Westmonasterium ; filium quoque suum duke of ' 

predictum ducatu Aquitannie dotavit. Petrus eciam de Gavestone ex A q ltaine - 

Gaveston is 
precepto regis regnum Anglic abiuravit. banished. 

Demum, circa Nativitatem beate Virginis, Scociam repeciit rex cum Edward 

again 

milicia copiosa, ubi per totam hiemem et estatem sequentes prospere invades 
disponens multa que voluit, labores gravissimos morte prereptus suis 
posteris reliquit; nempe in festo Translacionis sancti Thome martyris, A.D.1307. 
anno etatis sue Ixix., regni vero sui a morte patris 35, et a corona- His death, 
cione sui xxxiij., et ab incarnacione lesu Christi M.CCC.vij., ab hac and burial. 
luce migravit ; cuius corpus apud Westmonasterium xxviij. die Octobris 
sepultum exspectat resurreccionem et regnum sempiternum. 

Anno proxime notato 1 , scilicet incarnacionis filii Dei M.CCC.vij., Accession 

of Edward 

Edwardo de Wyncestre predescnpto viam universe carnis ut prescn- ii. 
bitur ingresso, successit filius suus primogenitus in regnum, Edwardus 
de Karnarvan, dictus secundus post conquestum. Qui statim post 
adepcionem diadematis paterni transfretavit, conciliaturus sibi animum A.D.ISOS. 
Philippi le Beals regis Francorum, ab ipso perantea multum aversum ; He marries 
inter quos ignis Sancti Spiritus talem fervorem caritatis succendit, 



quod rex Edwardus Isabellam, filiam predict! regis Francie, cum magna J an- 
celebritate regum atque procerum utriusque regni apud Boloniam ritu 
maritali sibi copulavit v- kalendas Februarii. Abinde rex Anglic cum 
uxore sua et magna nobilium comitiva v. die Februarii ad Angliam 
reversus, eodem anno, vij. kalendas Marcii, regiam portans coronam, Their co- 
cum regina coronata, apud Westmonasterium, Dominicam in Quinqua- 33 ' 
gesima solemnizavit 

Non extat pretereundum quod regi in partibus Gallic uxorem 
desponsaturo commoranti representavit se quondam sibi familiaris, set 

1 notato repeated. B. 
B 2 



4 CH RON 1C ON CALF RID I 

A.D.1308. precepto patris abdicatus, Petrus de Gavestone predictus, quern 1 rex 
Return of ab exilio in Angliam reduxit; cui eciam dedit comitatum Cornubie 
His romo e * ^l' am sororis sue, videlicet domine lohanne de Acres, comitisse de 
tion and Gloucestre. in uxorem. Erat iste Petrus nacione 2 . corpore 

marriage. 

His elegans et agilis, ingenio acer, moribus curiosus, in re militari satis 

excercitatus ; de quo valencium dicere testimonium quod, ipso in par- 
tibus Scocie ducatui milicie presidente, Scotos valde terruit et repulit 
a predis et aliis vesaniis magnanimitas Anglorum ; quo per invidiam 
Felices successus ipsius odiencium de medio subtracto, incanduit et in- 
valuit in ministros regis Anglic castris Scocie deputatos versuta 
Scotorum vigilancia. 

Foreign Predicte coronacioni affuerunt Karolus frater regine, futurus rex 

princes 

present Francie, item Karolus de Valoys, frater regis Francie et pater Philippi 

coronation, primi intrusoris regni Francorum, et dux Britannic ; item Henricus 

comes Luceburgie, postea imperator. Set Petrus de Gavestone, cultu 

et apparatu omnes transcendens, omnium invidiam et eius nefandum 

partum odium incurrebat, que sola excellenter nobilia lacescit. 

AD. Anno Christi M.CCC.ix. et ipsius regis iij. rex, ut deliniret animos 

1309-10. 

Gaveston invidencium atque sedaret murmur detrahencium, P[etrum] ipsum 
sent to transmisit in Hiberniam cum valida manu contra Ybernicos rebelles, 

Ireland. 

assignans stipendium de regis erario ad scakarium ibidem recipiendum ; 
et quedam prospere, set contra ruinam sui, exaltatus congessit. Set 

He returns, non diu fortuna vultus continuavit illaritatem, nondum enim plene 
revoluto eodem anno rediit de Hibernia ad regis contubernium gratanter 
acceptus. Contra quern 3 non iam secreta set odia manifesta verbis et 
signis atrocibus expressa pullularunt arbitrancium se obsequium pa- 
trare Deo et reipupplice prodesse, si Petrum alienigenam, gloriam 
indigenarum 4 sua prosperitate eclipsantem, vita vel regni incolatu 

A.D. 1311. privarent. Unde rex, ut ipsum a satrapum potestate preservaret, posuit 
ipsum in castro de Bamborgh, asserens hoc factum ut satrapis placeret ; 

1 quam. B. 2 The nationality om. B. ; T. de la More has Italus. 

3 quam. B. * indigenum. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 5 

^ 

set nee evasit, quin contumelias et errores ipse rex piissimus passus est A.D. 131L 
ab en's. 

Anno Christi M.CCC.xj., circa festum Nativitatis loannis Baptiste, pro A.D. 1312. 
defensione P[etri], P[etrus] revocatus a castro de B[amborgh] committitur f - 10 - 
custodie Adomari de Valence, comitis Penbrochie, adiurati coram rege, anT death 
inspecto sancto sanctorum Sacramento altaris, quod ipsum indempnem on aves " 
quatenus posset contra omnes adversaries suos custodiret ad certum 
tempus, citra quod intendebat rex alico modo Petrum regni proceribus 
reconciliasse. Set fidem invidia inter summa lacescens et amor pla- 
cendi inimicis Petri tutorem ipsius contra iuramentum in negligenciam 
abduxerunt. Ducitur 1 tandem Petrus quo non vellet per familiarem 
inimicum in mediam potestatem inimicorum, in manerium videlicet 
Dathintone, que est inter Oxoniam et Warewyc, ubi nee latibulum 
naturale nee castrum aut munimentum aliquod artificiale posset a vicini- 
tate comitis Warewyc P[etrum] sequestrare. Adomarus nocte ab ipso 
Petro recessit, et in aurora G[uido] Warewyc cum comitiva mediocri 
et hutesio accessit. P[etrum] quoque ductum ad castrum Warewyk, 
habita deliberacione cum Thoma comite Lancastrie et comite Here- 
fordie, in ipsorum conspectu in loco qui dicitur Caveresich xix. die 
mensis lunii 2 fecit decapitari ; cuius corpus in ecclesia fratrum ordinis 
Predicatorum de Langli}>e rex honorifice commisit sepulture. 

Eodem anno papa Clemens v. celebravit concilium Viennense primo Council of 
die mensis Octobris incoatum et adusque Pentecosten protelatum, in Condem- 
quo dampnavit ordinem Templariorum, rege Francie Philippo dicto le t ^ e 
Beals presente et id procurante, qui odiosum habuit magistrum magnum Tem P lars - 
ordinis, propter importunam pecunie exaccionem quam sibi pro mari- 
tagio Ysabelle filie sue regine Anglic quondam accommodavit pro- 
vincialis Francie primus. Supra sperabat unum de filiis suis in regem 
lerosolimitanum coronandum idem rex Philippus, ditandum quoque 
prediis destruendorum militum templi Dei. Et hac occasione predictum 
magistrum aliosque multos illius ordinis regno suo constitutes pro- 
1 Ducit. B. * lanuarii. B. 



6 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

. A.D. 1312. curavit comburi, totum quoque concilium [et] 1 ordinem adnihilarf. 

Their Set propositum cupiditatem crudelem non saturavit, nam papa cassa- 

jriveiTto torum terras et possessiones Ospitalariis assignavit ; pro quibus ipsorum 

the Hospi- dominio Hberandis misit in Angliam quemdam 2 cardinalem et sibi 

associatum episcopum Albanensem. Quibus restiterunt heroes An- 

glorum, quorum progenitores Templarios amplis prediis dotaverunt, 

et ipsi, ordine dampnato, possessiones reversas ocuparunt, ita quod 

dicti pape nuncii, infecto negocio pro quo venerant, redierunt. 

Birth of Anno Christi M.CCC.xij., E[dwardi] secundi anno vj. 3 , die sancti 

13 Nov. ' Bricii confessoris, apud Wyndesore natus est regi ex Isabella regina 

magnificus Gallorum triumfator, Scotorum consternator, rectilineari 

propagacione de sanguine regali Anglic et Francie utriusque regni 

heres futurus, suo tempore vocatus tercius Edwardus post conquestum. 

Hoc anno leticia nati filii et regine quam nimium dilexit et tenerrime 

confovit, ne quidquam 4 molestie eii inferret, rex dissimulavit quam mo- 

The king leste gessit mortem P[etri], ancipite quoque sua providencia, nescia 

still mourns 

the death of cums fidei sui concilia secreta aut vitam in pencuhs posset commen- 
dare amicabiliter ; a cuius amicicia manifeste vel occulte Petri interitus 
sequestravit multos. Ipso propterea, armis neclectis, vacante solaciis 
quandoque veris nonnunquam simulatis, regni quoque proceribus in 

Robert necem Petri oportune infligendam ocupatis, Robertus de Bruys fere 

Brace's ... 

successes, omnia castra atque fortalicia bcocie adquisivit, et custodes deputatos 

per regem et ipsius patrem amovit vel peremit. 
A.D. 1313. Anno sequenti, ex consilio et ordinacione prelatorum et aliorum 

Hugh Des- nobilium. Hugo Despenser filius fuit ordinatus camerarius regis loco 
penser, the 

younger, P[etri] prius de medio subtracti, .quern, nisi valentes dicere 5 wlgo 

chamber- menciantur, rex antea nedum minime dilexit immo odivit ; et eo 
lain. 

libencius ad idem officium ipsum elegerunt, qui postmodum. regis animo 

erga ipsum in benignius commutato, eundem exosum habuerunt. Istius 
Hugonis pater tune feliciter superstes erat, magne probitatis miles, con- 
silio providus, armis strenuus, cuius confusionem et ignominiosum finem 
1 om. B. ' quamdam. B. 3 vij. B. * quaquam. B. s de. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 7 

accumulavit amor naturalis set deordinatus quern l visceribus paternis A.D. 1313. 
gessit erga predictum filium suum, corpore formosissimum, spiritu super- f. 100*. 
bissimum, actu flagiciosissimum ; quern 1 spiritus ambicionis et cupi- 
ditatis a viduarum et orfanorum exheredacione in necem nobilium regis 
precipuorum 2 et sui ipsius 3 atque patris interitum precipitarunt. 

Anno Christi M.CCC.xiij., et ipsius regis vij., Anglic milicia, A.D. 1314. 
impaciens 4 iniuriarum quas Robertus le Bruys et sue conspirate p a pa'gn 

in Scotland. 

infidelitatis contra regem Anglic prodiciosi fautores in Scocia per- 
petrarunt, sub ducatu regis iuxta pagum Scocie, quern 5 Strivelyn 
indigene nuncuparunt, se coadunavit, in vigilia Nativitatis sancti 
lohannis Baptiste. Illuc Anglicorum pompa, usque tune solita in 
equis belligerare, copias adduxit cursantium 6 dextrariorum, armorum 
radiancium, miliciamque copiosam, cuius temeritas nimium presumptuosa, 
sibi ipsi blandiendo promittens victoriam quam de suis viribus 
desperantibus solet Imperator universi conferre, de sua securitate adeo 
fuerat confisa ut, preter necessariam reii militari equorum et armorum 
atque victualium habundanciam, vasa quoque aurea et argentea, quibus 

qualibus pacis tempore solent mundi principum convivia luxuriare, secum Luxury in 

the English 
facerent defern. Nunquam tune presentes antea vel post tantam C amp. 

nobilitatem tarn nobilem apparatum tanta superbia intumentem viderunt 7 
solo guerre Martis favori commendare, ut pauper ille Carmelita, frater R. 
Bastone, in suis heroicis de eodem bello, quo presens a Scotis captus, 
deplanxit luctuose. Vidisses ilia nocte gentem Anglorum, non angelorum 
more vivencium set vino madencium, crapulam eructancium, 'Wassayl' 
et ' Drinkhail ' plus solito intonancium ; econtra Scotos silentes sanctam 
vigiliam ieiunio celebrantes, et amore patrie libertatis licet iniusto, tamen 
acri 8 et in mortem parato, estuantes. In crastino Scoti, campi locum Battle of 
nacti victoribus maxime oportunum, subfodiebant ad mensuram trium bum, 
pedum in profundum et ad eiusdem mensure latitudinem fossas protensas 24 ^ une ' 
in longum a dextro in sinistrum cornu exercitus, operientes illas cum plexis 

1 quam. B. * precipucium. B. 3 suipius. B. * impacis. B. 

6 quam. B. 6 cressencium. B. ' vidit. B. " aero. B. 



8 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D. 1314. fragilibus ex virgulis et viminibus sive cratibus, id est 'herdeles,' cespite 
et herbis superstratis, peditibus quidem perviis saltim consciis cautele, 
set equitum pondera non valentibus l sufferre. Scotorum, quorum nulli, 
rege duce proibente, fas erat equum pugnacem asscendere, exercitu 2 
in turmas ut assolet 3 diviso, non longe a predicta fossa, inter ipsos 
et Anglicos non dico dolose set caute excogitata, stetit solidissime acies 
ordinata. Ex adverso progredientis ab occidente exercitus Anglorum 
refulsit sol oriens in scutos aureos et galeas politas, cuius radii micantes 
aspectus armatorum reverberantes movissent magnanimum Alexandrum 
ut illis loco et die vel saltim hora diei congressum suspendisset, et solis 
meridiani, que fuisset illis dexter, iudicium exspectasset ; set proth 
dolor I impetuosa cervicositas Anglorum, suspendio 4 conflictus mortem 
preeligencium, habuit in prima custodia phalangem dextrarios et 
grosses cursarios equitancium, quos latuit Scotorum fossa integumento 
fragili, ut dictum est, sofisticata ; in secunda vero pedites cum sagittariis 
adversariorum fuge reservatis ; in tercia vero regem cum episcopis et aliis 
religiosis viris et inter ipsos vecordi milite H[ugone] le Spenser. Equites 
acieii prime in hostes progressi, equorum titubancium anterioribus pedi- 
bus in fossam trans plexas perforatas affixis, precipites corruerunt, ceci- 
derunt, et omnem insultum et crudelitatem adversariorum ruina ex alto 
prevenerunt ; quibus collapsis insteterunt hostes, mactantes, capientes, 

The et solis divitibus redimendis parcentes. Ibi tune occubuit Gilbertus comes 

English 

losses. Gloucestrie, quern 5 Scoti redimendum libenter reservassent, si per 
togam proprie armature, quam tune non induebat, ipsum cognovissent. 
Comitem comitabantur [in] 6 mortis itinere Edmundus Maulie, Robertus 
de Clifford, Paganus Tiptoft, Egidius Dargentyn, et multi alii ordinis 
militaris. Ceterum inter viros redempcioni fuerunt reservati Wufridus de 
Bohun comes Herefordie, Johannes de Segrave, Johannes de Claveringhe, 
Willelmus le Latimer, et fere trecenti viri militares. Occisorum in pre- 
f. 101. dicto discrimine nonnullos detraxit in cladem falanx sagittariorum non 

1 valencium. B. 2 exercitum. B. a assoleet. B. 

4 suspendo. B. 6 quam. B. 6 cm. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 9 

habencium destinatum locum aptum, set prius armatorum a tergo 1 A.D.1314. 
stancium qui nunc a latere solent constare. Ubi viderunt Scotos 
collapsis in fossam atrociter instare, sagittas quidam in altum casuras 
inter hostium cassides incassum, quidam vero in directum iacientes 
Scotorum paucos a pectore, Anglorum multos a tergo, necuere. Sic 

redit in nihilum hesterna pompa, rege cum episcopis et Dispensatore fuge Flight of 

... . . o , ... Edward. 

presidium arnpiente, quem * non ingemum mortale nee aguitas equorum 

aut involucra locorum a captura Scotorum liberassent, nisi precibus 
sue matris Christus, qui per medium ludeorum incognitus abibat, ipsum 
regem a Scocie finibus eripuisset ; quod non solum ipse, set qui cum 
ipso fugiebant postmodum confitebantur. In tanto fuge periculo rex 
vovit Deo et Virgini dilecte sue genitrici quod pauperibus ipsius 

Carmelitis, matris Dei titulo specialiter insignitis, fundaret monasterium He vows 

the founda- 
aptum ad inhabitandum, in quo xxiiij. fratribus studio teologie deputatis tion of a 

de competentibus expensis subveniret. Votum ratificatum a domino monastery. 
papa lohanne xxij. rex complevit, pallacium suum Oxonie, H[ugone] le 
Spenser dissuadente, fratribus predictis in puram et perpetuam hele- 
mosinam assignando, anno regni sui 3 , domini quoque pape 

lohannis predict! 3 . 

Anno Christ! M.CCC.xv. Scot! sub ducatu Edwardi le Bruyus, qui se A - r> - 

1315-1318. 

fecit a suis regem Hibernie nominari, vexillis desplicatis Hiberniam The Scots 
ingressi, sub vexillo domini lohannis de Birmingham, tune regis Anglic 



iusticiarii, cum suo seudo-rege fuerunt in numero maximo interfecti. defeated. 

Eodem tempore in Anglia nimis invaluerunt pestilencia et fames, isis-isie. 

Plague and 

quarteno frumenti xl. solid is sterlmgorum appreciate*. famine in 

Anno M.CCC.xvi., domini pape lohannis vicesimi secundi anno n an 

A.D. 1317. 

primo, admissi duo cardinales in Angliam et Scociam pro pace refor- 

Cardinals 

manda inter regna, habito cum rege Anglic tractatu, itinerando versus sent to 
Scotos in episcopatu Dunelmensi fuerunt depredati per Gilbertum de peace are 
Midiltone militem, qui postea fuerat proinde suspensus et in quarterns 5 rc 

1 armatorum terga. B. 2 quam. B. ' Blank. B. 

* apprecii. B. 8 quartas. B. 

C 



10 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1317. divisus. Nuncios speciales R[obertus] le Bruyus Scociam noluit 1 per- 

Interdict mittere intrare, pro quo idem cardinales dictum R[obertum] et sibi 

amU 0t ~ aderentes excommunicarunt regnumque Scocie supposuerunt ecclesias- 

tico interdicto. Per Angliam tandem versus curiam reversi pro ablatis 

a predonibus dupplicia receperunt a rege et regni proceribus sponte 

collata. 

A.D.1318. Anno M.CCC.I7 R[obertus] le Bruyus castrum et villam de Berewico 

Bruce takes v iriliter adquisivit. neminem occidendo qui voluit obedire. 

Berwick. 

The king Eodem eciam anno, mense Augusti, rex et comes Lancastne 

earl of* T[homas] prope Leicestriam in quadam planicie sunt concordat! et in- 
arsTrecon 1 - v i cem cum m "ltis amplexibus osculati 2 , qui a morte P[etri] de Gaveston 
tiled. fuerunt in magnum regni periculum et applausum Scotorum sibi inimici 3 . 
A.D.1319. Anno M.CCC.xviij., circa autumnum, rege transequitante magnam 
infeste 4 partem Scocie et ad obsidionem Brewici se disponente, Scoti 
mtrarunt Angliam, usque ad Eboracum predis et incendiis patriam 
Scots lay vastantes, regem infaustis nunciis ad proprii regni tuicionem revocantes, 

waste the . . . v 

north of ipsis non regi obviam set per aliam viam reversis in regionem suam. 
AD Tsao. Anno M.CCC.xix., mense lunii, rex Anglic transfretavit, occurrens 

Edward Ambianis regi Francie Philippe, et recepit ab eo comitatum Pontivie, 

receives _ 

back quem princeps Gallorum in sua novitate propter non factum homagium 

Ponthieu. 

ocupavit. 

1321 Anno Christ! M.CCC.xx., regni regis E[dwardi] secundi xiiij., oritur 

f. 101". inter regem et suos fideles ex una parte atque comites Herefordie et 
movement 6 Lancastrie aliosque barones ex adverse discidium lamentabile ; iniciata 
the < UO(ue f^ i^ ri aronum ad reis 5 



ifest>en- the <l UO( l ue f^t i^ a guerra intestina, que ab interitu baronum ad regis 5 de- 
sers. posicionem et fere tocius sanguinis regalis exheredacionem inolevit. 

Quippe contra Hugonem le Despenser filium, regis camberlinum, incan- 
duit baronum regni odium ex invidia subortum. Fuerunt inter illos qui 
dixerant Hugonem, alterum regem, immo regis rectorem, animum re- 
galem, ad instar Petri de Geveston, incantasse, et de regis familiaritate 

1 voluit. B. 2 osculant!. B. s invicem. B. 

* infesti. B. 5 regem. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. II 

ita 1 presumpsisse quod nonnullos nobiles frequenter a regis 2 colloquio A.D.1321. 
artaret ; quibusdam quoque nonnunquam pro diversis negociis se ipsos 
tangentibus regem alloquentibus, regia benignitate preocupata, ipse 
responderet, responsiones non optatas set adversas votis, regis tantum- 
modo pretendens commoditatem, ipsis refunderet. Talia de Hugonis 
malo fateor, set non adeo quin wlgus garulus peiorem sciverit fingendo 
describere atque vere mala facto deteriora predicare. Pro talibus et 
similibus, in quibus regii ministri solent offendere, reddebatur 3 Hugo 
regni proceribus nimium odiosus. Unde in furibundum appetitum vin- 
dicte proceres accensi predia H[ugonis] patris, in odium filii ac eius 
aderencium, quecumque invenerant in principatu Wallie et in marchia 
ocuparunt, nemora ipsorum et cetera mobilia in Anglia reperta devas- 
tarunt, in utriusque preterea Hugonis necem atque cuiuslibet alterius 
amici, exceptis regio sanguine reverendis, sub sacramento iurisiurandi 4 
conspirarunt. Horum fuerunt principales : comes Herefordie, R[ogerus] Confedera- 
de Mortimer, Mauricius de Berkleye, B[artholomeus] de Baddesmare, barons. 
R[ogerus] Damori, H[enricus] Tyeys. Occulte comes Penebrochie con- 
sensit eiis, set et comes Lancastrie ardenter et manyfeste. Hugo putans 
furorem iracundorum posse tractu temporis mitigari, absentans se ad 
tempus quandoque trans mare, quandoque in mari, de ordinacione regis The Des- 
navigio latitavit. Tandem in parliamento apud Westmonasterium cele- banished, 
brato, rege non consenciente nee tamen pre metu civilis discidii audente 
reclamare, uterque Hugo exulat, contra absentes sentencia promulgata. 

Anno M.CCC.xxj.domine regine Isabelle 5 , circa festum sancti Michaelis The queen 
itinerando venienti ad castrum de Ledes in Cancia et in eo volenti admission 
pernoctasse, fuerat ingressus pertinaciter denegatus. Regine repudium C astle? S 
rex estimans in sui contemptum redundare, per populares vicinos et illos Edward 
de Essexia atque nonnullos Londonienses iussit castrum obsideri. Castri to the 
firmamentum tenuit B[artholomeus] de Baddesmere 6 , in quo uxore et 
filiis relictis cum vernaculis ad eius defensionem aptis, proficissebatur 

1 inter. B. 2 rege. B. 5 reddebat. B. 4 iusiurandi. B. 

~>ella. I 
C 2 



B. 2 rege. B. reddebat. B. 4 iusit 

5 domina regina Isabella. B. 6 Biddesmere. B. 

i~- rt 



T2 CHRONICON CALFRIDI 

A.D.1321. cum aliis baronibus ad demolicionem gazarum Hugonis. Obsidioni 
acriter insistente rege, inclusis desperantibus de castri tuicione, comites 
et barones H[ugonis] vastatores, armatorum suffulti magna comitiva, 
venerunt Kingestonam in vigilia apostolorum Simonis et lude, rogantes 
per nuncios intermissos, dominos Cantuariensem et Londoniensem ac 

Themedia- comitem Penbrochiensem, quod obsidionem rex amoveret, promittentes 

barons is 6 quod post proximum parliamentum castrum regi redditum subderent. 

refused. verO) perpendens castelanos non posse diu resistere et ex- 



asperatus rebellione inclusorum, peticiones baronum noluit exaudire ; 
quibus in pa'rtes alias regressis, castro tandem labore non modico 
expungnato, vj. de forcioribus in ipso repertis indilate suspensis, ux- 

Surrender orem B[artholomei] de Baddesmere et filios eius misit turri Londoniarum 

castle. custodiendos. 

Edward * n sequent! Nativitate Salvatoris rex, Cirencestrie celebrato Natali, 

marches c m exerc ;j u collecto tendens in marchiam Wallie, declinavit Glover- 
into the 

west - niam, per quosdam barones paratos rebellion! ocupatam, per Wigorniam 

A.D. 1322. 

ad Bnggenorthe dingens exercitum, ubi, castro per tempus aliquot 

defenso set tandem per regem viriliter expugnato, castellanorum qui- 

busdam occisis, quosdam fugatos utlagiavit et eorum possessiones ubi- 

f. 102. cumque in suo regno repertas confiscavit. Exinde Salopiam rege 

Submission progresso, uterque Rogerus de Mortuo mari * ad reverenciam et pacem 

the'barons regie magestatis se offerebat, quos turris Londoniarum custodie rex 

transmisit. Mauricium vero de Berkleye et H[enricum] Daudeleye, ad 

instar illorum de Mortuo mari regi subiectos, castro Walingfordie 

destinavit. Comes Herefordie, Gilbertus Talbot, R[ogerus] Damori, et 

omnes alii eiis aderentes ad comitem Lancastrie, in plaga boriali ipsos 

Council at expectantem, se transtulerunt. Istis peractis, archiepiscopo presidente 

in concilio Londoniis celebrato, fuit per prelates provincie Cantuarie 

Recall of declaratum quod processus exilii dominorum H. et H. le Spenser fuit 

pensers. erroneus et de iure adnullandus ; unde cum concilio decreverunt exula- 

tos honori pristino restituendos. 

1 Mortua matre. B. This absurd mistake repeatedly occurs in B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 13 

Anno M.CCC.xxj., nihilo pacifico ex parte baronum oblato regi, set A.D.1322. 
ipsis in sua pertinaci rebellione contra regni statuta, rege inconsulto Edward 
immo invito, manum armatam convocantibus, sub vexillis desplicatis noit ^_ 
armatis militantibus, rex, exercitu recollecto, circa finem mensis Februarii 
in partes boriales suas copias promovit ; cuius adventum barones animose 
prestolantes, post conflictum qualemcumque inter acies regalem et 
comitum Lancastrie et Herefordie apud Bortone super Trentam, regiam He defeats 

the barons 

preeminentem potestatem comites fugerunt, que ebdomada consequente a t Burton 
per multos de Humberlandia, duce Andrea de Harkleye, crevit in aug- 
mentum. Tune vacillavit baronum animositas, consulentibus quibusdam 
quod in regis l graciam et misericordiam, promissa reverencia et debita Thebarons' 
subieccione, se commendarent, quod quidem concilium reddebatur 2 odio- begins to 
sum comiti Lancastrie, quern sic securitavit affinis cognacio sanguinis w 
regalis quod nullum infortunium, quia nullum timebat, ipsum terruit 
a cepto, presertim cum non contra regem set, ut dixit, contra regni 
proditorem Hugonem virum se armasset. Comitem vero Herefordie, 
Humfridum de Bohun, virum 3 per omnia bellicosum, corpore quidem 
strenuum, mente animosissimum, consilio satis providum, compulit in- 
ceptum facinus continuare timor de periculo militum simplicium in fas 
et nefas sibi famulancium, quos non sine mortis supplicio vel usque ad 
egestatem redemcione putaverat posse regi et Dispensatoribus recon- 
ciliari. Unde pietate quam habuit naturalem generosus ille comes 
commotus maluit bello vinci et secundum sibi visum pie mori, quam 
per asportacionem 4 suorum comilitonum vel carceris aut exilii macera- 
cionem seu mortis punicionem sua mente pia diutine torqueri. 

Tandem xvj. die mensis Marcii Martis furore concitant partes, Battle of 
vexillisque regalibus vexilla baronum sub ducatu comitum adversancia bridge, 
procedunt, que utinam contra inimicos crucis Christi plures in decuplo 
regis et comitum unanimi consensu fuissent displicata, et non Anglicus 
in Anglicum, cognatus in cognatum, affinis in affinem, miles in impera- 
torem fuisset debacatus. Congrediuntur acies apud Borubrigge, ubi 
1 regum. B. 2 reddebat. B. s vicerum. B. * apporacionem. B. 



] 4 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D. 1322. piissimus comes Humfridus a quodam Wallico de sub ponte trans fora- 
The Earl of men tabule lancea 1 in inguinem ex parte secreciori, ilia videlicet 2 qua 
non solebant milites armari, sub pedibus neminem habens 3 suspectum, 



Capture of proth dolor ! transfoditur. Capiuntur in campo comes Lancastrie et 

Lancaster, cum eo barones, baronetti, et milites nonaginta, quinque scutiferis, 
clientibus, et aliis impotentibus guerram resuscitare diffugio dimissis, 
et inter illos quibusdam militibus occultis. Captos atque coram regni 
iusticiariis, domino Andrea de Harchleye 4 et aliis, raciocinatos cismate 
et rebellione et in capud regium conspiracione legitime convictos, ne 
impunitas illorum posteris tribueret incentivum taliter delinquendi, diver- 
simode punivit censura legalis. Nempe tante cladis principalem pre- 
sumptorem T[homam] comitem Lancastrie, cuius generositas et diviciarum 
amplitudo quasi immortali ceteros fecerunt aderere, vj. die post regis 
f. 102*. triumphum pupplica iusticia suspendio dampnatum, morte turpissima 

Executions, suum consanguineum non permisit tractari pietas regalis, set decapitacioni 
penam prodicionis misericorditer remisit. De numero ceterorum x. et 
octo in diversis locis Anglie tractis et suspensis, v. fugitivis exilio 
castigatis, ceteros squalore carcerali correptos, parcens multitudini, regia 
miseracio dimisit redempcioni. 

The elder Anno M.CCC.xxij. apud Eboracum parliamento post Pasca celebrate, 

Hugone le Spenser patre comite Wintone 5 constitute, magno exercitu 



of Wm- coadunato, ad festum sancti lacobi rex Scociam intravit. Scoti vero, 
Chester. 

Invasion of destitutis aut secum deportatis ultra mare Scoticum omnibus que possent 
faciliterauferre, solum victualibusevacuatum,prescii futuri adventus ostilis, 
Anglicis reliquerunt. Patriam nullo resistente rex transequitavit 6 , et exer- 

Retreat. citum fame laborantem in Angliam remisit. Quo cognito, Scoti, mari 
transmenso, d ie latitantes, de nocte laborantes, regem insecuti apud forestam 
de Blakemore, in regis ospicium de nocte obsessum insultum dedere; 
siquidem rege cum paucis ab ipsorum insidiis in australes partes elapso, 
captis ex eius comitiva comite Rechemundie, domino de Siliaco nuncio 

1 tablem lanceam. B. 2 vide H. B. 3 habentem. B. " Harcheye. B. 
6 Abintone. B. 6 transestavit. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE, 15 

regis Francie, cum multis aliis, Scoti, totam marchiam usque Eboracum A.D.1322. 

rapinis et igne depascentes, villam de Rypouns sunt depopulati, et The Scots 

tandem Beverlacum pro quadringentis libris sterlingorum oblatis et e e 



statim solutis intactum declinaverunt, ad propria reversi. Anni sequentis 
mense lunii inite fuerunt treuge cum ipsis per annos xiij. durature. A truce. 

Anno M.CCC.xxij., Philippe filio Philippi, rege Francorum, universe A.D.1323. 
carnis viam ingresso, germanus suus Karolus, regni fraterni adeptus Edward 

summoned 

diadema, misit in Angliam dominum Andream de Florencia et alium to do 



quemdam militem ad citandum regem ut se presentaret novo regi 
Gallorum et faceret homagium pro ducatu Aquitannie et aliis suis terris in taine- 
predicti regis regno, et, licet Hugo de Spenser et R[obertus] de Baldok 1 
precibus et meritis predictorum nunciorum mentes informassent suffi- 
cienter, ut ipsi putabant, quod causam sui adventus non notificarent 
regi, tamen in suo recessu monuerunt ipsum, quasi consulendo, quod 
homagium facturus tune regi se presentaret. Super qua monicione seu 
citacione dictus dominus Andreas de Florencia, qui Karolo fuit notarius, 
concilio regis Anglorum hoc ignorante, fecit pupplicum instrumentum, 
cuius virtute rex Francie, contra regem facto processu, terras nonnullas 
de ducatu Vasconie et comitatum Pontivie in suas utilitates fecerat 
seysiri, rege Anglic putante, sicut fuit informatus, predictam citacionem 

non valuisse de iure. Prefatam seisinam ex parte Karoli regnantis cepit Charles of 

Valois 
eius patruus Karolus de Valoys, vir habens Anglicos maxime odiosos, qui takes pos- 

. , . session of 

cum magno exercitu, fungens affectata legacione, pretensis regis Anglic, p on thieu 
ut ducis Aquitannie, inobediencia et homagio non facto, comitatum Pon- A n geno i s . 
tivie et totam Agennam in utile dominium regis nepotis sui seisivit. Tan- 
dem progrediens ad villam de Regula, invenit earn defensam per Edmun- 
dum de Wodestoke, germanum regis Anglic et comitem Cancie ; inter 
quos finaliter initis treugis, duraturis per tempus quo posset de pace inter A truce. 
reges tractari, reddita quoque villa, utraque pars ad propria remeavit. 

Anno M.CCC.xxiij., Rogerus de Mortuo mari, quondam in turri 
Londoniensi, ut superius dicebatur, incarceratus, auxilio proditorum, 

1 Kaldok. B. 



1 6 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1323. custodibus corruptis muneribus, evasit et, in Franciam dilapsus, predicto 
Roger Karolo de Valoys exul Anglorum ipsorum inimico inclinatus adesit, in 
escapes" novum discidium atque miserabilem guerram intestinam reservatus per 
into! ranee. sem i na torem zizanniorum 1 . 

A.D.a.324. Proxima Quadragesima, in parliamento Londoniensi, inquisicione 

f. IDS. facta contra Adam episcopum Herefordensem per legales viros de 

mentVf comitatu Herefordie, super eo quod predictus Adam adesit quondam 



e Mortuo mari, inimicis regis, accommodans eiisdem equos et 
ford. arma iuvansque ad dicti R[ogeri] evasionem, ipso quoque episcopo de 

talibus accusato nolente respondere, omnia temporalia ipsius episcopi 
sive proditoris auctoritate regia confiscantur. Unde inexorabile odium 
contra regem et eius amicos concipiens Adam predictus, vir ingenio 
He stirs natural! calludissimus, et prudencie mundane maximus expertor, faci- 
againstthe norumque arduorum factuosus, ad regis 2 degradacionem et multorum 
hisfriends. nobilium exinanicionem iracundie concepte venenum propinavit serie 
narranda. Contra comites Wintonie et Gloucestrie H[ugonem] et 
Revival of H[ugonem] procerum regni odium antiquum, post regis victoriam 
theDes- apud Borowbrigge aliqualiter mitigatum aut cercius timore potencie 
ers ' regalis occultatum, causa clariore quam fuerat antiquum vires non 
erectum set repens resumpsit. Multis nempe nobilibus sub comite Lan- 
castrie contra regem armatis pepercit, ut dictum est, regia clemencia, quibus 
comites prefati, animum regis 3 quasi fascinatum ad libitum tractantes, 
intulerunt mortem de merito, quam non nisi per graciam predictorum 
comitum H[ugonis] et H[ugonis] evadere se posse non putabant ; 
unde multi istorum diversas manerias pulcherrimas de sua here- 
ditate pro securitate vite promissa predictis comitibus sepe nominandis 
non hilares datores set ex tristicia et ex necessitate vendiderunt. 
Comites igitur H[ugonem] et H[ugonem] fecerunt cunctis odiosos, 
non solum quia ceteris omnibus a rege plus amabantur, set quia, 
spiritibus superbie et ambicionis agitati, milites generosos per exac- 
cionem crudelis redempcionis depauperabant, et eorum filios predia 
1 zizannie. B. * regem. B. 3 regnum. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 17 

paternalia pro nihilo percucientes exeredabant. Cuilibet videbatur A.D.1324. 
bonus importabile tres reges simul in Anglia subferre ; regem multi 
peramabant, set reges H[ugonem] et H[ugonem] multo plures pre metu 

odiebant, nam 

' Ilium quern metuit quisque perire cupit.' 1 

Illos Herefordensis suis temporalibus privatus odiebat ; illos Lincol- 
niensis Henricus de Borewasch, quamquam regis promocione decoratus 
infula, tamen consimili culpa qua 2 supradictus Adam sciens se noxium, 
valde metuebat et per consequens odiebat. Contra universi militum 
et episcoporum istorum amici habuerunt animos egro dolore sar- 
cinatos 3 et in furiam proclivos, et sola reverencia regie pacis manus 

continentes. Ad hoc contra seipsos in universum nefas rapidissimam Hostility 

of the 
iram femineam regine concitabant, eo quod, illorum avaro consilio et queen. 

ordinacione familia consortis regie minorata, sibi certi reditus cum 
precisione fuerant taxati, parciori annona quam solebat victure. Unde 
avaricia insaciabilis feminina concupitis frustrata, aut certe prodigali- 
tas muliebris artata, quarum alteri solet semper ille sexus indulgere, 
non solum contra Dispensatores, set et contra maritum, plus illos quam 
illam consiliis imitatum, exarsit in iras. lam luget Francorum sanguinem 
regalem, immo regis filiam atque successive regum Lodowici, Philippi, 
et demum Karoli unicam sororem, regi set avaro inaritatam ; pro- 
missam fore reginam, set in condicionem ancillarem conversam, Dis- 
pensatorum, quos plus quam odio perfecto oderat, stipendiariam. lam 
vellet cum fratre dominatore Francorum de marito queritura verba 
commiscere ; iam cum patruo Karolo de Valesio, cuiuslibet facinoris 
artificioso, secrete consulere quomodo, in Dispensatores vindicata, ani- 
mum regis mariti serviturum sibi inclinaret. Dampnat mare spaciosum, 
Neustrie litora ab Anglia distinguens. Annuit mare desiccatum aut 
certe pontem latum securum, ut posset quas misit fratri et avunculo 
crebras epistolas ipsa deferre. Angustiis talibus et aliis latentibus in- 
dignatam reginam quis consolatur 4 , nisi lesus per eosdem, scilicet Dis- 
1 Cf. Ovid, Amor. II. ii. 10. 2 cupa quo. B. * farcinatos. B. * consolat. B. 

D 



1 8 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D. 1324. pensatores, quos execratur ipsa, videlicet episcopus Herefordensis ? Cum 

f. ios b . isto deflebat casus communes, et alias rupturi cordis cogitatus expressit. 

? h< ? ls , Tacentis forsan aliquando, plus fesse lacrimis quam querelis, non per- 

the mittit nee ille calidus querelam finiri; set falsam compassionem pro 

bishops of 

Hereford causa sua veris, set pro iniuriis regine fictis, suspiriis et nonnullis lacri- 

and 

Lincoln. mis contestans, non lenivit set auxit indignacionem qua tursit virago. 
Conscius secretorum utrorumque fuerat Lincolniensis episcopus, qui, 
sciens qua cavea wlpem reperiret, regine blanditur l , sofistice compatitur ; 
et, ipso consenciente, novam brigam intestinam ingeniatur 2 presul Here- 
fordensis, asserens regine Votis quelibet votiva successura, si in Francia 
fratrem visitans et patruum eorum auxilium contra Dispensatores im- 
ploraret. Effectivo consilio votivo et finis quam volebat indubitanter 
efficaci applaudens, regina quesivit occasionem transfretandi. Erat illis 
diebus, ut tactum est, sentencia inter reges Anglic et Francie de pace 
tractanda, cuius legacionis nuncium competentem oporteret ordinare. 
The Des- Regi volenti pro tanto negocio transfretasse dissuadebant comites Win- 
dissuade tonie et Gloucestrie, timentes ne, sui contubernio privati, inciderent in 
ftum cross- manus hostiles vicinorum, quibus sciebant se ipsos odiosos. Preterea 
France nec au debant cum rege transfretare, quos non latuit quod ipsos rex 
Francorum faccione sororis sue et Rogeri de Mortemere violento 
veneno 3 odivit. Igitur, ipsius regine iam regi blandientis ceterosque 

The queen proceres prudentis femine sibi conciliantis atque pacem regnorum pro- 
sent to ... 
treat with mittentis mstancia non parva, predictis quoque episcopis in id idem 

brother. occulte consules regios instigantibus, atque proceribus pro maiori parte 
ad hoc concordantibus, multum desiderata legacione fungitur regina. 

Anno M.CCC.24 Isabella regina, regis Francorum unici fratris sui 
unica soror, caris et desideratis aspectibus et osculis presentata, dum 
tractavit inter reges fratrem et maritum, ducem Aquitannie et comitem 
Pontiviacensem, rex eius maritus per totam Quadragesimam et estatem 
in Cancia perendinavit, ut inter ipsum et reginam nunciorum concursus 
faciles haberet, regina negocium pro quo 4 venerat tractanti. Finaliter 
1 blandit. B. 2 ingeniatus. B. s violentum venenum. B. * om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 19 

consensit parliamentum Francorum quod, si rex Anglic resignaret suum A.D.1325. 
ius in ducatum Vasconie atque comitatum Pontiviacensem Edvvardo Proposal to 
primogenito suo, ipse rex Francie faceret predictum filium regis Anglie Gascony 
de predictis ducatu et comitatu habere plenam seisinam, contentus de 



homagio quod ab eodem duce novo, scilicet Edwardo, nepote suo foret the kin s' s 
recepturus. Super hiis rex Karolus literas suas patentes et alias misit 

de salvo conductu pro primogenito Anglie sibi mittendo. Super arti- Fears for 

his safety. 
culis prelibatis fuerant in Anglia multi tractatus apud Langedonam et 

Dovoriam, consulentibus quibusdam quod rex in propria persona mare 
transiret, et hii allegabant quod multa infortunia filio regis, Gallicis 
astutis et cupidis exposito, patris et Anglicorum proteccione destitute, 
possent contingere. ' Quis ' inquiunt ' proibebit regem Francorum dis- 
pari cuicumque velit parvulum maritare, aut sibi curatorem vel tutorem 
assignare?' Istis veraciter recte consulentibus comites Wintonie et 
Gloucestrie non consenserunt, pro eo quod non erant ausi cum rege 
transfretare nee ipso transfretato in Anglia expectare, propter causas 
prius assignatas ; quibus, in ipsorum dampnum, episcopus Lincolniensis 
vehementer assentivit, sperans ad finem deduci tractatum, quern l inter 
ipsum et reginam cum episcopo Herefordie fuerat machinatus, ut in 
parte tangit series prescripta. Predictis comitibus rex nimis compaciens, The king 

. . consents to 

timensque ne, se ipso peregre profecto, in ipsorum comitum exmanici- his going. 
onem nobilitas baronum iterum deseviret et ab olim sopitam resusci- 
taret guerram intestinam, unde consulentibus quod filium a eius mitteret 
prebuit assensum. 

Fecit itaque rex prefato filio suo cartam de prefatis ducatu et < 104. 

comitatu, habendis et tenendis sibi et heredibus suis, regibus Anglorum, granted by 

the king 
addens quod, si, patre suo superstite, filius moreretur, predia prefata in to his son, 

patris dominium reverterentur, cavens eciam per quasdam condiciones ne 

rex Francie posset ipsum E[dwardum] maritare aut tutori sive curatori 

cuiquam submittere. Hec ordinacio fuit facta ex consensu prelatorum 

et aliorum regni nobilium apud Dovoriam, in crastino Nativitatis beate 

1 quod. B. 2 filius. B. 

D a 



30 CHRON1CON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1325. Marie, anno regni regis xviij. Et die lovis sequente prenominatus 
E[dwardus] regis primogenitus cepit enavigare, habens secum W[al- 
Theyonng terum] episcopum Exoniensem et alios nobiles in numero competenti. 
d^ ard Exinde, circa festum sancti Mathei, fecit homagium avunculo suo regi 
thfTkingof Francie, sub protestacionibus factis ex utraque parte. 

France. Completis negociis pro quibus in Franciam missa fuerat regina, 

Edward . . . . 

summons statim post festum sancti Michaelis scripsit sibi eius mantus, preapiens 

and their quod filium suum in Angliam reduceret cum festinacione. Rescripsit 
return. ipsa mulier l quod dominus rex Francie frater suus nimia caritate fove- 
The ret illos et secum invitos detineret, unde, remissa magna parte utriusque 

queen's 

excuses. familie, residium illius anni certa negocia pro quibus ex intencione pro- 
of h Exeter P ficiscebatur ipsa transegit. W[alterus] episcopus Exoniensis non in 
returns. Angliam iussus redire, a questione tamen secreti concilii regine videns 
se totaliter sequestratum, set R[ogerum] de Mortimer et alios profu- 
gatos regis domini sui inimicos locum suum quoad regine familiaritatem 
usurpasse, clam repatriavit. Commovebatur Anglia de regine mora ad 
regis displicenciam extra regnum filium suum detinentis, quibusdam 
asserentibus quod inviti detinebantur, aliis conicientibus quod illicitis 
complexibus R[ogeri] 2 de Mortuo mari delinita, cum ipso et aliis profugis 
Anglorum quos in Francia reperivit, noluit redire ; set has et alias 3 
causas diversas quibusdam falsas, quibusdam vero semiplenas pre- 
tendentibus, episcopi Lincolniensis et Herefordensis, conscii negocii 
cuius finem expectavit irata virago, consciencie secretum dissimu- 
larunt. 

A.D.1326. Vindicta muliebris anni 4 dispendio iam excogitata, calicem propi- 
nandum suorum amatorum consultu finaliter preparavit. In fine quippe 

The queen a nni Hanegondie in partes regina profecta, toti mundo filium suum 

betrothes 

her son to amabilem ac formidabilem absque concilio procerum Anglicorum mari- 

Philippa of .. 

Hainauit. tavit, comitis Hanonie fiham Phiiippam sibi comungens nupcns, licet 
inconsultis attamen prolis nobilitate multigena successu postero beati- 
ficatis, ut suo loco patebit. Colligitur exercitus armatorum de Hanonia 
1 mulieri. B. et. B. 3 hiis et aliis. B. * anno. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 11 

et Germania ; vocantur ad stipendia ex dotibus nove nupte persolvenda. A.D.1326. 

Preerant exercitui militares viri Johannes, comitis Hanonie germanus, An army 

. . . . .. , collected to 

et Rogerus de Mortuo man, lam tune secretissimus atque pnncipalis de j nva de 

,. ... . England. 

pnvata famiha regme. 

Classem ad Anglic littora ventus directam votivus depulit in portum The ex- 

pedition 

Horewille die Veneris proxima ante festum sancti Michaelis; cui se lands at 
obvios confederaverunt comes Mariscalli et Henricus comes Leicestrie, et an d is ' 



cum eiis baronum atque commilitonum proterva multitudo. Nee defue- 
runt prelati ducibus contra patriam et patrie principem infideliter com- 
mixti ; set tanti facinoris machinatores sceleratissimi sue discipule, bishops. 
armis docte sceleris, obviaverunt ad diem expectatum ; non quidem 
lanigerorum aut ovium, set luporum armigerorum crudelium, pastores 
minus quam tiranni horum falangis precipue ducatum prebuere. Ibi 
duo seniores a quibus egressa est iniquitas Babilonica contra Susannam, 
set pro lezabele, hii, inquam, Baal sacerdotes, alumpni lesabel, scilicet 
Lincolniensis et Herefordensis, cum iis quoque Dublinensis atque He- 
liensis, cum eadem regina magnum exercitum congregarunt. Proditori 
facundo verba committuntur Herefordensi, qui pleno conspiratorum Designs of 
parliamento peroravit expediens fore regno quod tante nobilitatis ibi part y Ue 
congregate consilio regendus rex coartaretur ; regine quoque offensa f- 104". 
inexorabilis per voluntatem suam factam de comitibus Wintonie et 
Gloucestrie placaretur. Set quia pro constant! fuit apud omnes quod 
rex, amicicie cultor fidelissimus, suos amicos comites predictos, in 
quorum necem fuerat regina debacata, non sine securitate sue comitive 
dimitteret, nisi invitus, itemque quod sui iudicio innocentes illos ab 
invidorum tiranide tueretur, consenserunt finali precipuorum iuratoria 
caucione quod manu armata regis presencia per illos peteretur 1 . Mit- Letters 
tuntur ab exercitu epistole episcopales ad suos coepiscopos et alios reporting 

, aid from 

amicos, tot duces, tot comites, totque barones Francigenas cum illorum France and 
copiis plenissimis per regem Francorum pro tuicione iuris regine sororis 
sue missos quod vix eorum victui Anglia sufficeret. Consternitur 

1 petiretur. B. 



32 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D.1326. pavore grex indigenus sine pastore, expectans triumphum partis unius, 
paratus se subdere virtuti pociori. Preterea prosiliit mendacium ab 
exercitu in omnes regni plagas divulgatum, quod scilicet pontifex 
Romanus omnes Anglicos absolvit a fidelitate iurata suo regi, fulmina- 
retque sentenciam excommunicacionis in omnes contra reginam arma 
deferentes. Ad huius mendacii confirmacionem finguntur duo cardinales, 
exercitui 1 regine aderentes, nuncii premissorum. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxvj., pontificatus domini lohannis 2 pape xxij. 
anno xj., regis vero Anglic Edwardi xx. et ultimo, guerra intestina 
Anglicos consueta exercitare per exercitum descriptum renovatur, que 
proinde non poterat diu durare, quod rex et comites, quos expetivit 
manus armatorum prodiciosa, invalidos ad resistendum se putantes, 
municionibus aptis defensioni, quasi fugam consulentes, se commisisse 
frustra sunt conati. Rex nempe, percipiens per suos exploratores quod 
Flight of uxori sue tota pene regni communitas falsis territa rumoribus adhesit, 
Chepstow. cum duobus sepedictis comitibus et Roberto de Baldok, paucis 3 quoque 
aliis de sua secreta familia, ad partes Wallicas se transmisit, dimisso 
comite Wintonie ad tuicionem ville et castri Bristollie. Rex vero, deinde 
ad Chepstowe progressus cum comite Gloucestrie et magistro Roberto 
de Baldok aliis quoque valde paucis, se commisit navigio, intendens ad 

He insulam de Londay proficisci. Lunday est insula in flumine Sabrina, 

attempts 

to reach duorum miliarium undequaque longa, habundans pascuis et avenis, 

Lundy 

island. cuniculos producit copiose, columbis, eciam struciombus, quos vocat 
Alexander Necham Ganimedis aves, nidos habet pregnantes, aquas 
insuper recentes de fontibus scaturientes incolis ministrat, ipsa licet ab 
omni parte aquis amarissimis 4 fuerit circumcincta. Unum dumtaxat 
aditum habet iste locus, quo vix duo viri poterunt coniunctim pedites 
incedere ; ex omni alia parte rupis horrende alta proeminencia proibens 
aggressum. Hanc insulam victualibus, ut dictum est, naturaliter habun- 
dantem, tamen ex habundanti vino, oleo, melle, frumento, braseo, 
piscibus, salsis carnibus, et terestri carbone instuffatam, regem volentem 
1 ex exercitui. B. a lohannes. B. 3 pacis. B. * amarasissimis. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 33 

adnavigare ventus contrarius proibuit omnino; unde, sevas tempestates A.D.1326. 
maris vix declinans, applicuit in Clammorgan, et se transtulit ad abba- He lands in 
thiam et castrum de Neth, ubi Wallencium, qui se promittebant secum ganshire. 
velle vitam et mortem communicare, falsa promissione nimium confisus i^ eat h es 
latitavit. 

Regina. iam mulier potentissima, sub vexillo filii, non animo The queen 

advances 

malicioso set male ducti, patrem prosequentis, iussit exercitum in regis to Oxford, 
persecucionem promoveri. A quibus perventum est Oxoniam, ubi, 
coram universitate, presentibus regina et puero duce Aquitannie, set f. 105. 
ducto, R[ogero] quoque de Mortuo mari et aliis satellitibus, principalis 

machinator tante cladis, Adam Herefordensis vocatus cpiscopus, de Adam of 

Orltons 
adventu regine et causa exercitus pupplice predicavit, assumens pro sermon. 

temate : ' Capud meum doleo,' l quam auctoritatem ad talem duxit 
questionem, quod auferendum foret necessario capud languidum de 

regno, nee ullis Ypocratis vinculis salutiferis alligandum. Deinde exer- Advance to 

Gloucester. 
citum Cloverniam promotum auxerunt notabiliter multi boreales regine 

supervenientes. 

Hiis ita se habentibus, wlgus Londoniensis, regine et Rogero de Murder of 

the bishop 
Mortuo mari volens complacere, bone memorie dominum Walterum epis- of Exeter, 

copum Exoniensem xv. die Octobris in medio civitatis furiose captum 
decapitavit, quosdam quoque alios regi fideles, ea sola causa quod regis 
ministerio fideliter adeserunt, attrociter necuere. Capud vero episcopi 
regine apud Gloverniam suo exercitui incubanti, quasi sacrificium Deane 

bene placitum. optulerunt. Intrantes insuper turrim Londoniarum omnes Revolution 

in London, 
incarcerates liberarunt, et ita per edictum pupphcum regme omnes fere 

incarcerati per totam Angliam dabantur libertati. Banniti quoque et 
fugitivi paci fuerunt revocati, ut, pretensis 2 generali pietate et miseri- 
cordia, in novi regis, vetere 3 mitioris, coronacionem populi cupiditas* 
excandesceret. Tune quotquot erant facinorosi 5 aut quomodocumque 
obnoxii regie magestati apud reginam cunctis imperantem summe 

1 IV. Reg. iv. 19. 2 pretensi. B. 3 veteris. B. 

' cupidita. B. " facinoros. B. 



CH RON 1C ON GALFRIDI 



A.D.1326. 



John of 
Eltham 
made 
warden of 
the city and 
the tower. 



General 
confusion. 



Surrender 
of Bristol 
to the 
queen. 



Execution 
of the 
elder Des- 
penser. 



gracie sublevamen faciliter sunt consecuti. Tune regii ministri per totum 
regnum confusi sunt regem advocate aut se regis familiares nuncupare 1 ; 
tantus pavor gregem perterruit, rege pastore persecute. Omnes regii 
ministri reperti in turri Londoniarum per Londonienses amoti fuere, 
novi quoque constituti sub nomine domini lohannis Deltham, pueri ix. 
annorum, filii regis, quern 2 custodem civitatis et turris nominarunt 3 . 
Fuit enim apud omnes regies adversaries cautela generalis, quod, nisi 
nomine alicuius filiorum suorum, nullum facinus lesivum regiam mages- 
tatem ordiretur, ut, si forsitan iusticia regalis ad libere faciendum quod 
vellet in regno et posset de iure foret aliquando resuscitata, in filios suos 
proprios, tamquam demeritorum principales auctores, deseviret*. 

Sic confusione 5 fas et nefas sunt collisa, ut omnes rapaces et homi- 
cidas et sub indifferencia quoscumque facinorosos sceleris impunitas et 
venie facilitas in sua flagicia provocarent. Sic crevit subito rapacitas 
impunita, ut, ubicumque reperiretur regius amicus, aut suis spoliaretur 
aut vita privaretur, set impune. Sufficiebat enim iniurianti exprobrare 
pacienti regis amiciciam. Profuit sub ista confusione cuilibet facinoroso 
suis flagiciis adicere prodicionem. Multis in isto modo crevit facultas, 
reddebatur libertas ; et, si quos preterita iusticia regalis punivit pro- 
diciosos, ipsos ad pristinas divicias et honores restituit potenter muni- 
ficencia regine. 

Gloucestria relicta, ad villam Bristollie, quam, ut pretactum est, 
ocupavit Hugo Despenser pater, regina cum exercitu properavit, 
obsessura tam villam quam castrum, si oportuisset. Set loca munitissima 
solita reserare desperacio compulit generosum ilium comitem in irate 
femine misericordiam se et sua cuncta commendare. Reddebantur 
igitur villa cum castro ; quo ingressa, virago iussit comitem predictum 
sine questione seu responsione finali supplicio detorqueri. Alligatur 
confestim strenuus ille miles, brachiis et tibiis in longum protensis, et, in 
ipsius viventis conspectu, viscera propria de ventre insciso crudeliter 

1 nuncupari. B. 2 quam. B. 3 nominaret. B. * deserviret. B. 

6 confusion!. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 25 

extracta ignibus traduntur, residuum quoque corporis equis detractum in A.D.1320. 
communi furca latronum fuerat suspensum. 

Hiis ita confectis, ad partes marchie regina conversa, apud Hercfor- The queen 
diam per mensem commorata, exercitum dividit 1 , et cum eius una parte 
misit Henricum comitem Laicestrie et magistrum Resum ap Howel cleri- f - 
cum, nacione Wallicum, comprehendere regem et sibi aderentes. Pre- The earl of 

Leicester 

dictus comes erat germanus sepenommati et heres comitis Thome and R. ap 

T . , , r> j i t Howe! sent 

Lancastne; et iste Resus, secum missus, quondam msticia regali in turn toarrestthe 
Londoniarum incarceratus erat, set per regine potenciam sue libertati lng ' 
restitutus. Tam comes predictus quam iste Resus habuerunt possessiones 
et ampla dominia iuxta locum in quo rex latitabat ; fuitque preterea Reso 
tota patria valde nota. Predict! finaliter comes et clericus, non sine magne 
pecunie interventu Wallicis corruptis, regem in monasterio de Neth, 
Hugonem Dispenser filium, desertum pro fuge presidio capescentem, per 
exploratores Wallicos invenerunt. Captis igitur rege, Hugone predicto The king 

and the 

comite Gloucestrie, magistro Roberto de Baldok, et Simone de Redynge, younger 
aliis sine cura fuge dimissis, custodie comitis Leicestrie rex autoritate are 
concilii episcopi Herefordensis commendatus, ad castrum de Kenel- captu 
worthe 2 est adductus, ubi per totam hyemem in satis honesta mansit sent to 
comitiva, nee aliter quam oportuit regem captivum custoditus. worth. 

Regina, utpredictum est, apud Herefordiam, cum magistro tocius sue 
malicie, episcopo scilicet istius civitatis, exercitui presidente, Edmundus 
comes Darundel, Johannes Daniel, et Thomas Miceldevre, ad instanciam The earl of 
Rogeri de Mortuo mari, qui perfecto odio set non prophetico oderat illos, and others 
fuerunt decollati 3 . Postea comes Gloucestrie, Hugo de Spenser films, in 
vinculis oblatus oculis terribilibus indignate, non expectata raciocinacione Execution 
cuiuscumque iudicis, fuit ab eadem civitate, scilicet Herefordie, tractus, younger 
suspensus, decollatus, et in quarterias divisus ; cuius capud fuit missum 
ad pontem Londoniarum, et quatuor quarteria ad quatuor regni partes 
fuerunt distributa. Simon eciam de Redynge fuit ibidem tractus et sus- and of S. 
pensus; set magister Robertus de Baldok, post multas contumelias, car- 
1 dicit. B. a de Kenelw. castr. B. 3 decollata. B. 



2 6 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1326. ceri episcopi Herefordensis fuit mancipatus, ubi nimis dolorosam egit 
111 usage vitam usque ad proximutn sequens festum Purificacionis. Tune siquidem 
of Robe* episcopus Herefordensis, omnis huius mali architector, fecit ipsum ad se 
Baldock. Londonias adduci ; quo deductum Londonienses, non sine dissimulante 
consensu episcopi, rapuerunt et apud Neugate incarceraverunt, querentes 
occasionem contra ipsum, tamquam proditorem, ut possent distractum 
suspensumque mortuis adnumerare; set tandem, post multas inquisiciones 
in ipso non invenientes maculam prodicionis nee alius felonie, ita inhu- 
maniter ipsum tractaverunt, quod eodem anno cito post Pasca obiit in 
tormentis. Tanti sceleris, scilicet rapine et iugulacionis clerici atque 
sacerdotis Dei, non improbabiliter aliquis putabit l autorem manifestum 
vel occultum qui de medio luporum misit in ovile suum tutissimum, 
carcerem videlicet episcopalem, pro ove sibi et lupis tradito tutele, quam 
pretendit 2 , quod ab Herefordia ipsum Londonias fecerat traduci, a suo 
scilicet episcopatu in diocesim alienam, a loco munitissimo in montes 
pardorum 3 . Quid insuper significat quod clerici sibi traditi rapinam 
atque sacerdotis iugulacionem ipse potentissimus prelatus provincie, salva 
dignitate archiepiscopatus, debita diligencia non curavit punire ? Credo 
quod in tali casu verum est illud Quintiliani : ' Torquentem vincit quisquis 
occiditur ' 4 ; et ideo sub silencio pallio querelam [tego] 5 , quam cum 
ecclesia sub altare Dei audivi per voces occisorum innocentum. 

Descriptis et aliis non paucis per reginam, episcopum Hereforden- 

sem, et Rogerum de Mortuo mari, ut cuilibet illorum placuit, confectis, 

A.D.1327. ipsi Londonias se pariter transtulerunt. Ubi, cito post Epiphaniam, in 

Parlla- parliamento per ipsos, quibus nullus ausus est resistere, convocato, fuit 

ment. 

ordinatum et constitutum quod ex parte tocius regm tres episcopi, 

Deputation duo comites, duo abbates, quatuor barones, et de quolibet comitatu 

3 ' Anglie duo milites, item de qualibet civitate et villa capitanea cuiusilibet 

f. loe. comitatus, et similiter de portubus, duo burgenses mitterentur ad regem 

apud Kenelworthe custoditum, facturi infrascripta. Johannes de Stratford 

1 putabitur. B. 2 portendit. B. 3 Cant. iv. 8. 4 Declam. xviii. 14. 

6 'Some such word is wanting to complete the sense, 6 in. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 27 

episcopus Wyntoniensis, Adam de Torletone episcopus Herefordensis, et A.D.1327. 
Henricus episcopus Lincolniensis, college principales negocii tractandi, 
fuerunt missi, quorum comitivam, aderens predicto episcopo Wintoniensi, 
tu, generose miles, qui hec vidisti et in Gallico scripsisti, cuius ego sum 
talis qualis interpres, te dico, domine Thoma de la More, tua sapienti et 
inclita presencia decorasti. Precesserunt ceteros itinerando episcopi Win- 

toniensis et Lincolniensis, secrecius alloquentes regem una cum custode suo, His abdica- 
tion pro- 
comite Leicestrie, ipsum inducturi ut suo primogenito resignaret coro- posed. 

nam. Astute satis isti tres circumvenerunt regem, promittentes sibi 
non parciorem honorem post honeris deposicionem quam antea solebat 
ab omnibus habere regia celsitudo. Adiciebant quoque adulterantes verb- 
um veritatis, in quantum * foret meriti apud Deum, pro subditorum pace, 
quam ea sola via spondebant affuturam, regnum rcspuere temporale ; 
in hoc non indubitanter cum Cayfa pontifice pontifices prophetantes. 
Ex alia parte sibi comminabantur quod, nisi resignaret, populus, sibi 
abdicate redditis homagio et fidelitate, filiis quoque suis repudiatis, alium 
in regem exaltarent quam de sanguine regali. Istis et aliis importunis 
promissis atque minis inflexum piissimum cor regale, non sine singultibus, 

lacrimis et suspiriis, monitis episcoporum condescendit, paracior pro The king 

. . assents. 

Chnsto vttam finire, quam suorum nliorum exneredacionem aut regni . 

diuturnam perturbacionem oculis viventis corporis videre, sciens quod 
bonus pastor animam suam ponit pro ovibus suis. Finaliter ad castrum 
regis inclusivum nuncios ceteros adduxit ille infandus imbassiator, Adam 
Torletone Herefordensis, quos in regis camera secundum suas dignitates 
ordinice collocavit, a multis temporibus affectata, ex omnium permissione, 
sibi ipsi reservans. Tandem regia magestas, togam 2 nigram induta, 
de secreciori camera progrediens, suis servis se representans, concius 
negocii pro quo venerant, pre dolore subito sui impos effectus, corruit ex- 
pansus. Cui accurrentes comes Leicestrie et episcopus Wyntoniensis, vix 
regem semivivum erexerunt ; quern 3 ad mentem et vires pristinas ut- 
cumque revocatum alloquebatur Adam Herefordensis, exponens causam 
1 quanti. B. 2 togram. 13. 3 quam. B. 

E 3 



28 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1327- adventus nunciorum, mira impudencia non confusus regis 1 animum 

attrectare, cui se putavit pre cetcris mortalibus exosum fuisse. Adiecit 

He is suis dictis ille Herefordensis quod oporteret regem regni diadema suo 

addressed . . ..... t . ... 

by the pnmogemto resignare, aut post sui repudium invite pati quod eligerent 

Hereford m re g em quemcumque visum ipsis apciorem pro regni tutela. Hiis 

auditis, rex cum fletu et eiulatu respondit quod multum doluit pro eo 

quod populus sui regni taliter exasperatus foret contra ipsum, quod 

He agrees suam dominacionem fastidiret ; finaliter quoque subiunxit suo bene- 

to abdicate. .... 

placito valde convemsse, quod scilicet films suus populo sic nut 

acceptatus, ut ipsum in regem affectarent habere. In crastino iidem 

The nuncii homagia et ligiamenta domino Edwardo de Karnarvan nuper 

the deputa- regi, per manus Willelmi Trossel militis, ex parte tocius regni refuderunt, 

renounce et Thomas de Blount miles, regalis ospicii senescallus, fraccione virge, 

omage. suum officium designantis, regiam familiam nunciavit esse licenciatam. 

Report to Post hec ad parliamentum Londoniis reversi, responsionem regis plene, 

parliament 

immo plenius quam facta fuit, retulerunt. Factam resignacionem com- 

f. ioe b . munitas regni, veterum fastidiatrix, novorum semper appetitrix, gra- 

tanter admittens, suum primogenitum dominum Edwardum, bone indolis, 

undecim annorum, promptissime erexit, ut infra plenius dicetur; cuius 

puericia quibusdam eo plus cessit ad votum, quo sub tarn molli pastore 

The sperabant gregem regni suis libitis minare. Regine quoque, domine 

dower. scilicet Isabelle de Cayrnarvan, fuit talis ac tanta dos assignata, quod 

regi filio suo et regine Philippe vix remansit tercia pars regie corone 

Allowance pertinencium. Domino vero Edwardo de Cayrnarvan, comitis Leicestrie 

for 

Edward. deputato custodie, centum marcas pro mense expendendas ordinaverunt 
regina et episcopus 2 Herefordensis et Rogerus de Mortuo mari, de fisco 
regali tribuendas. 

He is kept Itaque generosus dominus Edwardus, quondam rex, regie corone 

custody of atque libertatis 3 privacionem pro amore lesu Christi paupcris cruci- 
Leicester ^ x ' pacienter admittens, cum suo consanguineo comite Leicestrie 

1 regem. 13. 2 An alteration apparently from dominus. B. 

3 libertate. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 29 

Henrico mansit, nullo egens quo rcclusus et quasi monasticus indigebat. A .D. 1327. 

Nullum infortunium in ima depressus deplanxit Dei servus, nisi quod 

uxor sua, quam non potuit non amare, nolebat ipsum videre, cuius His grief 

... . ., at separa- 

amplexibus plus quam per annum vixit viduatus, et quod nee ma permisit t ion from 
filium suum novum regem aut aliquem 1 suorum liberorum sibi presenciale 
solacium prebere. Quot amorosa teleumata 2 voce submissa tamquam 
alter Orfeus concinuit, set incassum ! Haa 1 quociens deflevit querulus 
quod tarn generosa et tot nature dotibus tarn speciosa potuit prodicionis 
amaricari felle ! Auscultantibus quandoque non siluit sub iuramento 
quod, postquam primo vidit illam, nunquam aliam mulierem potuit 
amare. Amor languentis, in ceteris adversis paciencia, comitem custo- 
dem et omnes illorum familiares ad miseracionem tantam provocarunt, 
quod generosi militis amorem languidum uxoris sue cordi duriori incude 
adamantine non dimiserunt nunciare. Unde, non amore mota set The queen 

fears being 

furore 3 commota, ferrea virago secreto cogitatu cepit expavescere, forced to 

. i r i return to 

ne unquam per ecclesiam, misens consuetam miseren *, loret compulsa him. 

viro repudiato iterum impcrtire torum. Excogitavit enim quod a for- 
ciori homines indifferentes et pietatis alumnos in sui miseracionem 
provocaret, qui suos inimicos, quos ipsa supra ministros ordinavit, 
per adversitatum tolleranciam et omnium virtutum uberem fragranciam 
ad pietatem sui inclinavit. 

Talibus et aliis cogitatibus angustiata, truculenta leena, recurrens 
ad consilium sui magistri, sacerdotis Baal illius Herefordensis, ab ipso 
recepit ipsum responsum, quod certe sanguinem tetigit quando comes 
Edwardo suo consanguineo compaciebatur. Constituit igitur femina The king 
crudelis, ex ordinacione magistri sui subdoli 5 , episcopi predict!, quod other^" 
Thomas de Corneyc et Johannes Maltravers, duo milites nequam, ipsum custod y- 
Edwardum de custodia comitis Leicestrie receptum ducercnt quo vellent, 
ita quod nullus sui benevolus sen indifferens persona ipsum libere adiret, 
vel sciret ubi diu perendinaret. Hiis duobus nequissimis proditoribus 

1 aliqd. B. 2 Perhaps BtKypma or K^Xij//ara, charms. 3 furori. B. 

4 miseri. B. 6 doli. B. 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D.1327. 



He is taken 
from 

Kenilworth 
to Corfe, 
and thence 
to Bristol 
and 
Berkeley. 



f. 107. 



Brutality 
of his 
keepers. 



fuerat commissum autoritate principal!, ut in quamcumque regni plagam 
declinarent, omnis fortalicii, castri seu ville, quamdiu ipsis placeret et 
quandocumque, custodiam haberent, quolibet de regno sub pena confis- 
cacionis census et vite proibito contravenire huius rei mandate. Educitur 
de nocte a Kenelwortha Edwardus inter inimicos, securus de vita plena 
doloris, primo ad castrum de Corf, deinde Bristolliam, reclusus per 
tempus aliquot in castro, quousque illud foret quibusdam burgensibus 
de villa notum, qui ad ipsius liberacionem et abduccionem in partes trans- 
marinas quam optabat se disponebant ; quorum concilium ut primum 
innotuit custodibus Edwardi, sub noctis 1 cuiusdam opaco silencio ipsum 
de loco illo Berkeleiam abduxerunt. Inhumanitate maiori quam ferina 
Edwardum sui tortores tractavere, cui equitare non licebat nisi de nocte, 
nee aliquem 2 videre, set nee ab ullo videri sibi amicabili. Equitantem 
compulerunt exiliter indutum capud habere discoopertum, volentem dor- 
mire non permisere, non quales volebat set quos 3 nausiabat cibos ipsi 
preparavere, verbo suo cuilibet contradixere, vesanum se esse calump- 
niavere, et, ut breviter concludam, in omnibus sue voluntati se ipsos 
contrarios exibuere, ut frigore seu vigiliis vel cibis intemperatis aut fas- 
tiditis vel saltim pre melancolia 4 alica communi infirmitate correptus 
exspiraret. Set e contra vir in naturalibus optime dispositus, fortis ad 
labores, et ad universes gracia Dei paciens languores, omnes versucias 
malignancium natura vel gracia superavit. Venenum quampluries propin- 
averunt servo Dei ministri Belial, quod aut fortitudine naturali evacuavit, 
sicud solent viri temperate complexionis, secundum Galicnum in tercio 
simplicis medicine, aut, quod verius credo, manifestiori martirio suum 
confessorem Altissimus reservavit. 

Attestata scribimus, .miles reverende, que luce clariore intonarent 
mundo, si non timor emulorum regis devotissimi adhuc superstitum 5 
veritatem clarere proiberet, que non poterit semper occultari. Turn 
abducitur Edwardus, ut prescriptum est, versus Berkeleyam, satrapis 

1 nocte. B. 2 aliquam. B. 3 quas. B. 4 malencolia. B. 

8 supertistitum. B. ' abducit. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 31 

Satane equitans stipatus. Duxerunt exemplar paciencie per gran- A.D. 1327. 
gias castro Bristollie pertinentes, ubi de feno factam coronam capiti, 
iamdudum per oleum sanctum consecrate, imposuit nefarius ille de Cor- Insults 

offered to 

neye, ausus contingere christum Dei, cui illudentes yroma nimis acerba the king, 
milites dixerunt : (tprut) ' Avant, sire kynge,' quod est dictu : (pedens) l 
' Precede, domine rex.' Metuentes maligni ne pariter directe incedentibus 
obviaret aliquis amicus Edwardi vel manus misericors ipsum liberatura, 
declinaverunt ad sinistram, equitantes per mariscum ad fluvium Sabrine 
terminatum. Ingeniati sunt inimici Dei quomodo Edwardum diffor- 
marent, ne foret faciliter notus alicui ; unde ipsius cesariem tarn capitalem 
quam barbam radendam constituerunt. Venientes proinde ad fossam 
in itinere scaturientem, iusserunt ipsum rasu descendere. Cui assidenti He is 
super cuiusdam talpe monticulam, pelvem cum aqua frigida de fossa ditchwater. 
recepta attulit barbitonsor ; cui et aliis asserentibus quod aqua talis pro 
tune deberet sufficere ait Edwardus : ' Velitis nolitis, habebimus pro 
barba aquas calidas,' et, ut promissum veritas consequcretur. cepit 
profuse illacrimare. Ista mihi retulit vivens post magnam pestilenciam 
Willelmus Bischop, qui ductoribus Edwardi prefuit 2 , unde confessus et 
contritus penituit sub spe misericordie divine. 

Tandem devenerunt ad castrum Berkeleye, ubi paciencie exercens He arrives 

at-Berkeley. 
virtutem reclusus, ut anacorita, nobilis Edwardus, ubi, cum beato Job, 

regno temporali spoliatus, nedum per alienigenas set per uxorem, servos 
et ancillas, honorum et utilitatis dominio privatus, expectavit regnum 

eternum pro terreno. Uxor eius Isabella, impacienter ferens quod vita His death 

determined 
sui manti, quem J mmmm odivit, erat ita dm protelata, conquentur O n. 

magistro suo Herefordensi, fingens sibi sompnia pessima interpretatu, 
unde, sicud vera dixit, sibi timuit ne vir suus, aliquando dignitati pris- 
tine restitutus, ipsam tamquam proditricem ignibus aut servituti perpetue 
dampnaret. Episcopus eciam, lese regie magestatis sibi conscius, timuit 
hoc idem quod Isabella. Aliorum non minus ob eandem causam inten- 
debatur metus, quos- adversus Dominum et adversus christum eius 
1 pepedens. B. a prebuit. B. 3 quam. B. 



32 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D.1327. diabolus confederavit. Placuit ergo non paucis utriusque sexus magne 

dignitatis, tarn ecclesiastice quam secularis, quod causa J tanti metus foret 

cum Edwardo consopita, quern 2 , ut quisque metuebat, perire concupivit. 

Mittuntur igitur litere increpatorie custodibus Edwardi calumpniancium 

fallacissime quod remissius quam deberent ipsum custodirent et nimis 

delicate confoverent. Intimatur eciam eiisdem, set semiplcne, quod 

Edwardi interitus aut naturalis aut violentus indifferenter complaceret. 

The bishop Hie vigebat sophistarum fallacia accensa 3 per episcopum qui scripsit: 

ford's ' Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est.' Istud sophisma in duas 

ambiguous 

message, proposiciones resolutum *, quarum pnma constet ex tribus pnmis ter- 
minis, videlicet istis': ' Edwardum occidere nolite,' et secunda ex aliis 
tribus, scilicet istis : ' timere bonum est,' nihil perfidie videtur persua- 
dere ; set receptores literarum, quos non latuit animus episcopalis, aliter 
sophisma commutaverunt, scilicet ad sensum istum : ' Edwardum occi- 
dere nolite timere,' et tune subiunxerunt legendo : ' bonum est,' malum 
f. I07 b . dictamen conscii de malo, non dictantis, male accentuantes. Tali 
sofismate usus est ille callidus sophista, sciens quod sine sui inscripto 
consensu non audcbant executores crudelis mandati Edwardum occi- 
dere, ne sine consensu maiorum de regno aliquando forent accusati 
hoc fecisse. Episcopus vero, in necem Edwardi finaliter determinatus 
et proinde sibi ipsi forsitan accusando de consensu, providit caute- 
lose ut eadem autoritas, sui mandantis affectionum contrariarum ex- 
pressiva, uno modo exposita vel accentuata animaret stultos in mortem 
innocentis, set sub alio sensu facinoris tanti ipsum immunem faceret 
putari ; quod, ut fuit cogitatum, contigit de facto. Denique Edwardi 
interfectores, putantes proinde amiciciam Isabelle et episcopi sofistici 
deceptoris erga se fuisse confirmatam, invenerunt illam et episcopum 
ferventes exactores pignoris eiis traditi, scilicet domini Edwardi, et sti- 
pendium proditorum, scilicet mortem vilissimam, pro demeritis ipsis 
comminantes. Unde stulti confusi quid facerent ignoravere, nisi quod 
epistolam Isabelle et episcopi, aliorum eciam conspiratorum sigillis 
1 ffi. B. z qui. B. 3 accentus. B. * resoluta. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 33 

munitam, in testimonium de ipsorum consensu eiis ostenderunt. Epis- A.D.1327. 
tolam episcopus non recusavit, set suam et aliorum confitebatur ; set 
interpretabatur illam ad sensum innocencia et fidelitate impregnatam, 
set ipsos, tamquam falsos suarum literarum expositores et innocentis 
autoritate propria malos tractatores, minis terribilibus et ipsos J in fugam 
coacturis 2 affligere non cessabat. Hec de litera sofisticata. 

Ad castrum prenominatum ductus dominus Edwardus per dominum 
feodi Thomam de Berkeleye fuerat humaniter et benigne receptus et 
tractatus, set, post recepcionem epistole, predict! exercuerunt tortores 
Edwardi illis commissam potestatem de tutela castri. lubetur protinus 
Thomas de Berkeleye nullam 3 cum Edwardo habere familiaritatem, Thomas de 
cuius non solum penitens, set verecundus quod sibi fuit denegatum forbidden 
facere quod vellet et quod antea de iure liceret, domino Edwardo ^h^f 56 
finaliter cum suspiriis salutato, ad alia sua loca transmigravit. Tune in- kin - 
cepit Edwardi consummativa persecucio, adusque sui mortem continuata. 

Primo nempe reclusum in camera tutissima per exalacionem cadaverum Edward is 

. confined in 

in subcellano positorum ipsum torserunt per multos dies pene usque ad a pestilen- 

suffocacionem. Unde fetorem ilium intollerabilem fuisse penam maxi- ^ c 
mam quam unquam sustinuit ad fenestram camere una dierum carpen- 
tariis ad extra laborantibus servus Dei deplanxit. Videntes tiranni quod He is 

murdered, 

viro strenuissimo non posset per fetorem mors prevalere, nocte, decima " Sept. 
kalendas Octobris, in lecto cubantem subito preocupatum, cum pulvina- 
ribus magnis atque gravi mole amplius quam quindecim robustorum 
ipsum oppressum et subfocatum, cum ferro plumbarii incense ignito trans 
tubam ductilem ad egestionis partes secretas applicatam membra spirit- 
alia post intestinas combusserunt, caventes ne, wlnere in regio corpore 
ubi solent wlnera requiri per aliquem iusticie amicum reperto, sui tortores 
de lesione manifesta respondere atque pro ilia penam subire forent coacti. 
Taliter obruitur miles strenuissimus, emisso clamore, audientibus 
infra castrum et extra satis noto quod esset violentam mortem pacientis. 
Clamor ille expirantis multos de Berkeleya et quosdam de castro, ut 

1 ipsas. B. 2 coactivis. B. s ullam. B. 

F 



34 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1827. ipsi asseruerunt, ad compassionem et oraciones pro sancta anima 

His cries migrante evigilavit. Sic quern mundus odivit, suumque magistrum 

heard. lesum Christum prius odio habuit, primo preceptorem de regno ludeorum 

reprobatum, deinde discipulum regno Anglorum spoliatum recepit cel- 

situdo regni angelorum. Gloriose atque bone finis Edwardi proditorios 

Punish- ministros, scilicet Thomam de Corneye et lohannem de Maltravers, 

his persecucio Isabelle et episcopi Herefordensis, ut proinde viderentur 

ers- manus innoxias et mentes habuisse, utlagiavit, et, ut tactum est, ad 

exilium abegit. Hie de Corney Marsiliam fugitivus clanculo post infra 

triennium cognitus, captus, et versus Angliam reductus, penam pro 

demeritis recepturus, in mari fuerat decapitatus, ne forte magnates et 

magnos 1 prelates et quamplures alios de regno sibi suum nefas monuisse 

et in illud sibi assensum prebuisse accusasset. Alter vero, Maltravers, 

partibus Teutonicorum agens penitenciam diu latitavit. 

f. IDS. Postquam 2 gloriosus 3 rex Edwardus regni diadema, ut prescriptum 

est, suo primogenito, domino 4 Edwardo de Wyndesore, resignaverat 5 , 
habitis de hoc certis rumoribus, in parliamento Londoniis regni proceres 
et prelati ipsum Edwardum Edwardi primogenitum 6 , quindecim circiter 7 
annorum adolescentem 8 , Deo et toti mundo graciosum, in patris succes- 
sorem 9 promtissime admiserunt, atque prima 10 die Februarii, apud West- 
Corona- monasterium, per archiepiscopum Cantuariensem, Walterum Renald 11 , 

tion of 

Edward iii, coronari fecerunt. Tante solemnitati interfuerunt multi tarn alienigene 
quam indigene 12 et precipue stipendiarii 13 Isabelle regine matris sue, quos, 
ut dictum est, de Hanonia et Germania ipsa invitavit. Novus itaque 14 
rex regia corona insignitus, quam beatissimus confessor sanctus Ed- 

1 magnas. B. 

2 Here the Cottonian MS. begins. The Bodleian MS. proceeds with its version to 
the end of the year 1 329, and then gives the text as found in C. to that point. 

* devotissimus. C. 4 om. B 2 . C. 6 resignavit. B. B 2 . 

6 primogeniti. B. ; filium. B 2 . C. 7 quin. cirf.] om. B. ; xiij. B 2 . 

8 juvenem. B 2 . C. 9 in regem. B 2 . C. 10 secunda. C. " Reynald. C. 

12 Anglici. B 2 . C. u om. C. om. B 2 . C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 35 

wardus suus predecessor gestare solebat 1 , quantumcumque gravis A.D.1327. 
ponderis 2 et amplam, tamen ita 3 viriliter ipsam gessit, ut inde mira- 
rentur qui pueri teneritudinem et amplitudinem corone atque pondero- 
sitatem experti 4 noverunt. Eodem die iij. filii Rogeri de Mortuo mari 
atque multi alii milicie cingulo fuerunt decorati 5 . 

Hoc anno, in vigilia sancti Nicholai, fuit magister lacobus de James 
Berkeleye concorditer electus in episcopum Exoniensem, et Dominica elected 
media Quadragesime erat 6 Cantuarie consecratus. Exeter. 

Post coronacionem suam 3 novus rex Ed wardus, huius nominis 7 tercius 
post conquestum Normannorum 8 , cum matre sua et stipendiariis eius 

predictis, congregato magno 9 exercitu, versus Scociam transmeavit 10 ; Invasion of 

Scotland, 
cum quo plures iverunt 11 magis 12 voluntarie quam invite. Apud Eboracum Ri t at 

exercitu profecto 13 , fuit gravis conflictus inter cives Eboracenses 14 et 
Hanonienses, in quo multis civibus de nocte peremtis atque civitate partim 
incensa, post reformatam pacem Hanoniensibus nimis favorabilem, ad 
partes Scocie "exercitus promovetur 15 , quern 10 apud Stanoppark Scoti 
expectarunt. Et, licet exercitus Anglorum fuisset Scotorum in triplo 
maior et omnium iudicio maiori firmitate composicior, attamen Scoti, 

permissione quorumdam magnorum prodiciose n cum ipsis confedera- Failure of 

the expedi- 
torum, sine scitu amicorum regis Anglic ad sua sine lesione sunt reversi. ti.on. 

Rex in Angliam, cum debili principio meliorem graciam precessurus, 
reversus, Hanonienses et alios stipendiaries ad suas partes remisit, 
magnam pecuniam et multa iocalia delicata sibi data secum deferentes. 
Isto anno domino lacobo de Berkeleye, episcopo Exoniensi, viam 

1 quam .... solebat} sancti Edwardi confessoris. B 2 . C. 

2 gravem pondere. B 2 . C. 3 om. B'% C. * sufficienter. B 2 . C. 

6 milicie .... decorati] milites facti fuerunt. B 2 . C. * om. B. 

7 hut. nom.} om. B 2 . C. 8 post conq. Norm} om. B 2 . C. 9 maximo. B 2 . C. 
10 se transtulit. B 2 . C. ; Scociam om. B. " militarunt. B 2 . C. 
" om. B 2 . C. w exerc. prof} om. B 2 . C. " om. B-. C. 

16 in quo .... promovetur} multis de civitate occisis de nocte et civitate partim 
incensa. In crastino, facta pace, versus Scociam exercitus promovetur. B 2 . C. 
16 quam. B. ; om. B 2 . C. " prodicione se. B. 

18 sine .... reverst] sine lesione ac scitu amicorum regis Anglic aufugerunt. B 2 . C. 

F 2 



36 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D. 1327. universe carnis ingresso, dominus Johannes de Grandissono, per pro- 
John Gran- visionem pape, in festo sancti Luce in curia Romana fuit in episcopum 
Exoniensem l consecratus. 

Eodem anno transivit ad celestia dominus Edwardus pater regis, 
ut dictum est supra 2 . 

Death of Hoc anno Karolus de Valesio 3 , patruus regis Francie Karoli 4 

Vafois. 5 atque Isabelle matris regis Anglic s , qui Anglicos semper odio habuit, 

(A.D.I325.) t) ut Dictum est) con t ra comitem Cancie in Vasconia duxit exer- 

citum Francorum, convictus quod regem Francie nepotem suum, 

filium scilicet Philippi le Beals fratris sui 6 , invitatum ad venandum 

et epulandum secum volebat iugulasse, traditur supplicio citra con- 

His con- dignum. Post nempe venacionem, quidam regis clavarii intrantes 

spiracy 

against locum convivii celebrandi, comperta machinacione prodicionis et quod 

France. viri armati, quibus erat pallacium in nemore consistens repletum, pre- 

missos 7 de secreta regis familia trucidarunt, et cordas sericas pro 

nobilibus suspendendis trabibus inlaquearunt 8 , non sine difficultate et 

conflictu evasi 9 , nunciarunt regi periculum in capud suum excogitatum 10 . 

Unde, in alias partes tuciores rege se committente 11 , capitur ille Karolus 

de Valesio, et, quamvis reus regie magestatis, tamen propter reveren- 

Manner of ciam sanguinis regalis non fuit suspensus nee decapitatus, set sine 

femoralibus nudo marmori aquis frigidis resperso insedit, ubi frigore 

finivit inveteracionem dierum malorum 12 . 

Hie Karolus erat germanus Philippi le Beals, regis Francie. 

1 in episc. Exon.] episcopus Exon. B 2 . C. a Eodem .... supra} Postea obiit 

Edwardus secundus, sicut scriptum est supra. B 2 . C. s Item hoc anno dominus 

Kar. de Valoys. B 2 . C. 4 Kar. fil. Phi. le Beals Valesiensis. B 2 . ; Car. filii 

Valesiensis. C. e atque .... Anglie] om. B 2 . C. 

6 nepotem .... sui\ nepotem suum. B 2 . ; Philippum de Beals nepotem suum. C. 

7 pr'ssos. B. 8 et quod viri .... inlaqu.] om. B 2 . C. 9 exeuntes. B 2 . C. 
10 peric. .... excog] om. B 2 . C. " se comm.] declinante. B 8 . C. 

12 capitur .... maloruni\ capitur iste Karolus et convictus, non suspensus nee 
decapitatus propter reverenciam sanguinis regalis, sine femoralibus nudo marmore 
aquis frigidis resperso [respersus. C.] insedit, ubi frigore finivit diem ulcionis sue [ulc. 
temporalis. B 2 .] B 2 . C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE, 37 

Philippus genuit tres filios, scilicet Ludowicum regem Navarrie, Phi- A.D.1327. 
lippum comitem Pictavie, et Karolum, comitem quondam Marchie iuxta Descent of 
Vasconiam, set impresenciarum regem Francie, et insuper unam filiam, * e crown 
scilicet Isabellam, de qua dictum est, reginam Anglic, cuius filius erat 
ille gloriosus rex magnificusque triumphator, Edwardus tercius rex f. ios b . 
Anglic. Karolus vero de Valesio prefatus genuit Philippum de Valesio, 
patrem lohannis, de quibus infra dicetur. Post mortem Philippi le 
Beals, regis Francie, suus filius Ludowicus adeptus paternum diadema, 
concilio patrui sui Karoli instinctus, primo anno regni sui tradidit 
suspendio Ingeramum de Mareny, qui fuit principalis consiliarius patris 
sui Philippi. Regina quoque, uxor sua, filia comitis Burgundie, propter 
adulterium, scilicet impositum cum Philippe Daune milite, fuit suffocata. 
Demum de filia regis Hungarie sibi maritata, Clemencia nomine, genuit 
filium, qui vij. diebus precise vixit. Cui postmodum, per mortem 
patre suo migrante, successit 1 in regnum fraternum Philippus. Cui, 
sine herede corporaliter progenito patri et fratri mortis itinere obeunti, 
successit tercius illorum trium fratrum, scilicet Karolus, quem cum vidit 
patruus eius, vir mire calliditatis, Karolus predictus de Valesio, diu cum 
regina quondam comitissa non impregnata de prolis fecunditate des- 
peratum, spem nactus, nee frustra, quod sibi aut suis heredibus regni 
corona laberetur, nitebatur speratam fortunam accelerare per abbreviaci- 
onem vite nepotis sui Karoli, tune regis, festinandam. Ipsum quoque 
in tantam vesaniam stimulavit timor, ne rex Anglic, quem scivit fuisse 
de iure pro condicione matris sue Karoli avunculi sui regni Francorum 
proximum heredem, ipso et suis heredibus iuste repudiatis, loco suorum 
avi et trium avunculorum in Francia regnaret, qui tune in Anglia, 
Hibernia, Vasconia, et aliis partibus hesperiis prospere regnavit. Cogi- 
tavit insuper vetulus iste prodiciosus quod, si rex Karolus nepos eius 
diu viveret quantumcumque sine progenito herede, nepos eius rex Anglic, 
cuius magestatem continue cressentem odiebat, ipsum de Valesio iam 
senescentem, suos quoque heredes, aut propria magnificencia aut 

1 successus. B. 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



Death of 
Robert 
Bruce 
(9 July, 
1329)- 

Descent 
of the 
Scottish 
crown. 



A. D.1327. adopcione iusta magnatum Francie, vel spe regnandi frustraret vel regno 
iuste privaret. Hanc opinionem, ut infra per Dei graciam patebit, 
excogitatus effectus consequebatur 1 . 

Hoc quoque anno moriebatur 2 Robertas le Bruys, relicto filio suo 
David, septem 3 vel octo annos habente, quern 4 Scoti receperunt in regem 5 
tali iure : Alexander Scotorum rex habuit tres filias sine masculo, 
quarum primam maritavit lohanni de Bayliol, alteram [lohanni] de 
Comyn, et terciam Roberto le Bruyus predicto, nacione Anglico nato 
in Essexia 6 . Post obitum 7 regis Alexandri, de beneplacito Edwardi 
regis Anglic, Scoti erexerunt sibi in regem maritum senioris filie regis 
Alexandri 8 , scilicet lohannem de Bailiol, qui pro regno Scocie regi 
Anglic 9 fecit homagium et iuravit fidelitatem. Postea, ad instigacionem 
perturbatorum pacis regni Scocie, per suas literas regias et nuncios 
solempnes remisit Anglorum regi fidelitatem et homagium, qui fuerat ei 
obligatus, vel aliud aut aliam subieccionem promittens, quam ab eodem 
Edwardo rege volebat exigere. Nihilominus tamen propter hec regnum 
Scotorum detinuit, set non diu, namque rex Anglic predictus de 
Wintonia ipsum regem lohannem regem Scotorum et suiim filium 

1 Instead of this paragraph, B 2 . and C. have the following : ' Hie Karolus erat pater 
Philippi de Valoys, postea regis Francie, set iniuste, et germanus Philippi le Beaus, 
avi regis Edwardi tercii Anglie. Karolus iste cogitavit quod, si posset nepotem suum, 
Karolum regem Francie, non habentem heredem de proprio corpore, vita privare, 
tune ipse aut [alius. C.] suus films, Philippus de Valoys, regno potiretur ; et, propter 
hoc, predictum facinus excogitavit' 2 fuit mortuus. B 2 . C. 

3 quod vir. B. * om. B. ; quam. B 2 . 5 pro rege. B 2 . C. 

6 alteram .... Essexia} alteram Roberto le Bruyus, Anglice nato in Essexia, apud 
Wretle [added by another hand}, et terciam comiti Holandie. B 2 . The same in C., 
which, however, omits the name of 'Bruce 's birth-place. 

7 excessum. B 2 . C. 8 reg. Alex] om. B 2 . C. 

9 B 2 . and C. continue thus : ' Edwardo fecit homagium, quod postea per solemnes 
suos nuncios, ad instigacionem perturbatorum pacis regni Scocie, regi Anglie remisit, 
non minus regnum Scocie detinendo. Unde rex Anglie, Edwardus de Wyntonia [de W. 
om. C.], ipsum et filium suum fugavit potenter de Scocia ; qui in Franciam peregrinus 
moriebatur. Postea Scoti naturaliter rebelles tenuerunt pro rege maritum secunde 
filie regis Alexandri, scilicet Robertum le Bruyus, virum per omnia militarem, nisi quod, 
neglecta fide, contra suum dominum naturalem amore regni militavit. Igitur,' etc. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 39 

Edwardum de regno Scotorum fugavit brachio extento. Quibus in A.D. 1327. 
Franciam peregrinantibus, set castris et municionibus Scocie per regem 
Anglic ocupatis, Scoti, nil aliud quam inconsultam temeritatem con- 
sulentes, tenuerunt pro rege maritum secunde filie regis Alexandri, 
scilicet Robertum le Bruyus predictum, virum per omnia militarem, 
nisi quod, victus ambicione regnandi, neclecta fide, sine qua nullus 1 
approbatur miles, contra suum dominum naturalem presumpsit rebel- 
lionem. Igitur isto Roberto, ut scriptum est, mortuo 2 , Scoti suum 
filium regni proximum heredem et regem habuerunt ; quorum concilium 
Edwardus le Bayliol, films regis lohannis et filie senioris 3 Alexandri f. 100. 
regis 4 , de Francia rediens, ad pacem Anglicorum, Dei auxilio et regis 
Anglic Edwardi tercii, cuius inclita gesta describere intendimus, dis- 
sipavit 5 , ut infra plenius dicetur. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxvij., died vero 6 lohannis pape xij., et Edwardi A.D.1328. 

regis tercii 7 anno primo, Karolus rex Francie, avunculus regis Anglic Death of 

Charles iv. 
et germanus Isabelle, matris regis 8 , tercius quoque 9 illorum trium of France. 

fratrum qui post obitum illorum patris Philippi le Beals regis in Francia 
successive 10 regnarunt, viam universe carnis est ingressus. Illi successit Accession 
in regno Philippus de Valesio 11 , filius patrui sui Karoli traditoris 12 supra of Valois. 
descripti 13 . 

1 ullus. B. 2 Rob. le Bruyus mortuo. B 2 . C. 

* Here C. has lost a leaf. * Alex: regis] oni. B 2 . 

8 de Francia .... dissipavit\ in Francia degens, de auxilio Dei et regis Anglic 
Efdwardi] tercii dissipavit. B 2 . 

6 om. B. 7 reg. tercii\ regis Anglic tercii a conquestu. B 2 . 

8 mat. reg.] regine. B 2 . 9 tercius quoque\ et tercius. B 2 . 10 om. B". 

Valoys. B 2 . " //. trad.] filius Karoli. B 2 . 

13 B 2 . continues thus : ' qui in rnultis locis istius vocatur tirannus, Francorum tradi- 
tor. Philippus de Valesio coronatus Francorum tenuit regnum Navarre in preiudicium 
domine lohanne filie Ludowici regis Navarre et primi illorum trium fratrum qui sine 
herede masculo obeuntes regnum Francie reliquerunt. Huius domine maritus, scilicet 
Carolus comes de Averoys, filius Ludowici filii Philippi le conquerant regis Francie, 
instetit Philippo de Valesio, filio patrui sui coronato, allegans quod hereditas regni 
Navarre feminas non excludit, et ideo peciit hereditatem uxori sue debitam eii reddi. 
Cui fuerat responsum quod mater predicte uxoris sue, sicud adultera sufFocata, non posset 
in filiam, cuius pater ignorabatur, ius hereditarium derivare. Proinde predicta domina 



40 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1328. Hoc anno, in quindena Pasce, celebrato regis nomine set non ingenio 1 

Parliament parliamento Northamptonie, facta est turpis pax inter Anglicos et 

ampton h ~ Scotos 2 , convento inter illos quod David films Roberti le Bruyus, 

Scotland 1 * a dP tatus ut prediximus in regem Scotorum 3 , dominam lohannam 

sororem regis Anglie duceret in uxorem, et pacifice cum ilia regnaret 

suo iure 4 super Scotos ; quod et postea effectus sequebatur. Eodem 

quoque anno rex Anglie iuvenis, non regens nee bene rectus set per 

Charter proditores ductus 5 , fecit Scotis cartam 6 , cuius tenoris et continencie 

fhTscots. series 7 communiter ignoratur, et carta, per quam communitas Scotorum, 

una cum rege lohanne de Bayliol, pro ipsis et eorum successoribus in 

perpetuum se ipsos regi Anglie submiserunt (et, in huius testimonium, 

regis Scocie sigillum, una cum sigillis procerum et prelatorum illius regni, 

fuerat 8 eidem carte appensum), in conspectu conciliorum utriusque regni 

super longam hastam apportata atque lecta, fuit omnino revocata et 

Marriage coram omnibus combusta apud Berewycum. Ubi, desponsata sorore 

of David 

Bruce with regis Anglie, fuit coronatus; et oblatus altari ipsum maculavit ex 

England, dissentiriis quas parvulus paciebatur, unde quidam Scotorum, lacobus 

Dowglas, dixit suis amicis : ' Timeo,' inquiens 9 , ' ne iste totum regnum 

David's Scocie sit fedaturus ' 10 . Vocabatur ab illo casu a blasfemantibus ' David 

nickname. 

dryt hauter ' u . 

Omnium regum Scocie iste primus fuit oleo sancto perunctus 12 in sua 
coronacione. Pecierunt Scoti in parliamento Eboraci quod lapis ille 
grandis, qui iuxta magnum altare in Westmonasterio sub regali cathedra 
ligaturis ferreis ecclesie fundamento incatenatur, super quern solebant 

lohanna, volens seipsam comprobare fuisse filiam legitimam regis Francie, scilicet 
Ludowyci, ad sui instanciam fuit exposita nuda leonibus fame triura dierum molestatis, 
qui ipsam ut filiam regiam venerantes omnino non tetigerunt ; unde regnum Navarre 
petitum fuerat eii et per ipsam suo marito condonatum iudicio et pietate parium regni 
Francorum.' 

1 set non ing.} om. B 2 . 2 et Scotos] om. B 2 . 

3 adopt. Scot.] om. B 2 . * suo iure] om. B 2 . 

* Eodem .... ductus] Item rex Anglie iuvenis et prima etate existens. B 2 . 

6 cartas. B. B 3 . 7 om. B 2 . 8 fuerant. B. B 2 . 9 inquit. B 2 . 

10 fediturus. B. " drit auter. B 2 . 12 unctus. B a . 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 41 

reges Scotorum intronizari, et ideo vocatur regale Scotorum, foret eiis A.D.1328. 

liberatus, ut super ipsum antiquato 1 more suum regem possent conse- Failure of 

.. ., , .. the Scots in 

crare. Ilhs hoc petentibus consihum regis assentivit; unde nuncn t h e i r 

solempnes pro lapide mittuntur. Set abbas Westmonasterii, nunciis 
auditis, scripsit regi et concilio quod lapis iste, quondam per avum regis 2 
Edwardum de Scocia magnis laboribus abductus et ecclesie sue devote 
oblatus, non posset nee deberet ab ecclesia ilia deportari. Cum tali 3 
responsione nuncii ad Scotos sunt sine lapide reversi. 

Ista sponsalia et omnia Scotis favorabilia fuerunt ex ordinacione et The reason 

of the good 
procurancia 4 Isabelle, matris regis, et episcopi Herefordensis Adam, et terms 

._ allowed to 

Rogeri de Mortuo mari, ex parte Anghcorum, et lacobi Dowglas ex the Scots, 
parte Scotorum. Timentes namque predict! Isabella, Adam, et Rogerus, 
ne propter interitum Edwardi patris regis aliqua persecucio, in ipsos 
iuste fulminanda, amicicia Scotorum se faceret egentes, vel ideo, ut dice- 
batur, Scotis favebant, ut, si rex Anglic alico infortunio fuisset mortuus, 
Rogerus de Mortuo mari auxilio Scotorum regnum et matrem regis 
Isabellam usurparet ; et propter hoc 5 comitem Cancie, regis patruum et 
amicum sanguinis proximum 6 , fuisse postmodum decapitatum, ut sci- 
licet iuvenis rex E[dwardus] omni amicorum auxilio, ut quondam pater 
suus, fuisset privatus. 

Celebratis apud Berewicum coronacione et nupciis predictis, pre- Fate of sir 
dictus 5 lacobus Dowglas adivit fronterium Ispanie versus Grenatum 7 , ubi Douglas, 
miles strefluus suam probitatem contra Mauros Saracenos laudabiliter f - 109b - 
ostendebat, et post multas victorias, quas ipso duce Christianis Deus 
commisit, simul contra v. Saracenos solus dimicans, v. 8 letalibus wlner- 
ibus ab ipsis est occisus, set et ipsos occidit, teste fratre Thoma de 
Lavyngtone 9 Carmelita, qui pro tune secularis sub suo ducatu in exercitu 
Christianorum ut potuit laboravit. Habuit occasionem piam duplicem. 
Moriens nempe R[obertus] le Bruys ipsum honeravit sub tali forma : 

1 antiquite. B. 2 regem. B. * ista. B 3 . 4 et procur.] om. B* 

o m. B . * regali s. B 2 . ' Gernatum. B 2 . 8 Here C. resumes. 

* Lavintone. B 2 . C. 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D. 1328. 



The king 

present at 
Hereford 
at the 
marriages 
of Morti- 
mer's 
daughters. 



1 )eath of 
Walter 
Reynolds, 
arch- 
bishop of 
Canter- 
bury 
(16 Nov. 
13*7)- 
Episcopal 
changes at 
Worcester 
and Here- 
ford 

(1327). 
Parliament 
at Salis- 
bury. 

Creation of 
earls. 

The earl of 
Lancaster 
and others 
refuse to 
attend 
parliament. 

They 
submit. 



' Vovi,' inquit, ' Deo, quod contra inimicos Christi forem corporaliter 
militaturus, quod, quia vivus non potero, te, tamquam Scotorum, quos 
summe diligo, virum probatissimum, exoro, ut cor meum contra inimicos 
nominis Christi deportes ad fronterium Granardianum.' 1 Cui lacobus : 
' luro,' inquiens, ' per invocatum cor Christi lesu, cor tuum, ut rogasti, 
me delaturum, et contra predamnatos hostes moriturum.' 2 

Rex Anglic, post predictam sue sororis desponsacionem, cito post 
festum sancte Trinitatis, se transtulit versus 3 Herefordiam, ubi fuerunt 
solcmnes nupcie inter filias Rogeri de Mortuo mari et quosdam nobiles, 
videlicet filium comitis Marescalli et heredem domini I[ohannis] de 
Hastinghes 4 . Fuerunt eciam ibidem hastiludia solemnia, quibus inter- 
fuit mater regis. 

Hoc anno, mense Novembris, obiit Walterus Cantuariensis archiepis- 
copus, cui successit per eleccionem canonicam magister Symon de 
Mepham, doctor in theologia. Hoc anno moriebatur magister Thomas 
de Cobham episcopus Wigorniensis ; cui successit per provisionem pape 
Adam Torltoine 5 , prius episcopus Herefordensis, ad curiam pro negociis 
propriis et matris regis profectus. Item papa providit ecclesie Hereford- 
ensi de magistro Thoma de Charletone, tune in curia presente. 

Anno Domini M.ccc.xxviij., ipsius regis Edwardi 6 tercii a conquestu 
anno secundo, post quindenam sancti Michaelis tenuit rex parliamentum 
Sarisburie ; in quo fecit tres comites, scilicet dominum loannem Del- 
tham 7 , fratrem suum, comitem Cornubie, et R[ogerum] de Mortuo 
mari comitem Marchie Wallie, et pincernam Hibernye comitem de 
Ormonde 8 . Ab hoc parliamento comes Lancastrie et dominus de Wake, 
et alii 9 quidam nobiles se subtraxerunt, et in eorum comitiva dominus 
Henricus de Bellemonte et comes Marescallus ; prope tamen venerant 
armati. Unde in offensionem regem commoverunt, set postmodum in 
estate, procurante archiepiscopo Cantuariensi. apud Bedeford gracie 

1 fronterii Gardianiam. B. 2 Habuit occasionem .... moriturum] om. B 2 . C. 

3 om. B. * Hastinges. B 2 . ; Hastynges. C. 5 magister Adam Thorlestone. C. 
6 om. B. ' Devtam. B. 8 Dormound. B 2 . C. 

9 etalif] et dominus Henricus de Beaumond, et comes Mareschallus et alii. B 2 . C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 43 

regis se submiserunt; non multumque postea comes Lancastrie cecus A.D.1328. 
effectus ad pacienter Deo serviendum se totum ordinavit 1 . 

Eodem anno, circa festum Assensionis, rex mare transivit, fratre suo A.D.isaa. 
comite Cornubie custode regni relicto, et fecit homagium regi Francie, Edward 
Philippo de Valesio, filio Ka'roli proditoris, pro toto diicatu Aquitannie et France and 
comitatu Pontivie, super quibusdam protestacionibus ; quod homagium homage 
rex Francie Philippus recepit sub aliis protestacionibus 2 , videlicet quod taine and 
non admisit 3 homagium pro terris quas pater suus Karolus predictus 
adversus comitem Cancie, ut premittitur, transequitavit, set illas sibi 
detinuit et detinere voluit, quousque foret 4 sibi satisfactum de damnis et 
expensis que 5 pater suus ibidem militando recepit et exposuit. 

Eodem anno archiepiscopus Simon Cantuaricnsis tenuit concilium Provincial 

Council at 

provmciale Londonns, in quo ordinavit ahqua ponderanda ", scilicet London, 
quod in die Parasceves et in commemoracione omnium 7 fidelium ani- 
martim ab omni opere servili cessaretur, et in festo gloriose Concepcionis f. m*. 
Virginis matris Dei 8 laudes celebriter exsolverentur Deo. Item, ipse et 
omnes episcopi presentes excommunicarunt et excommunicatos dentin- Excom- 
ciarunt omnes illos qui in n dominum Walterum de Stapeltone 10 , episcopum 
Exoniensem, quondam orribiliter interfectum, manus violentas quomodo- 
libet iniecerunt, et omnes qui eiis opem, assensum, vel concilium pre- Stapleton. 
buerunt. 

Anno M.CCC.xxix. quidam experturi quos haberet amicos Edwardus A.D.1330. 
sccundus, rex Anglic nuper extinctus, confinxerunt ipsum in castro de t \^ 
Corf laute vivere, set nusquam de die velle videri. Propterea fecerunt ? d s *i[ d "' 

multis noctibus tripudia super muros castri et turres, preferentes " cereos Ji vin S at 

Cone. 

et tortices accensos, ut ab ydiotis de patria forent percepti, quasi aliquem 
magnum 12 regem haberent custoditum, cui solemnizarent. Nova per 

1 et in eorum .... ordinavit\ licet prope venerant armati. De quo [illo. C.] rex 
fuit offensus. Qui tamen postmodum in estate se grade regis, procurante archiepiscopo 
Cantuariensi, submiserunt apud Bedeford. Non multum quoque [que. B 2 .] postea 
comes Lancastrie cecus reperitur. B 2 . C. 

2 sub al. protest.] eciam protestans. C. * amisit. B. B 2 . * esset. B 5 . C. 
8 quas. B. 6 commendabilia. C. ' om. B*. C. 8 matr. Dei] Marie. C. 
* om. B. 10 Stapeldone. B 2 . " prefecerunt. C. 1J aliquam magnam. B. 

G a 



44 



CHRONICON GALFR1DI 



A.D.1330. 

The earl of 
Kent makes 
enquiries. 



He and 

others 
accused 
in parlia- 
ment. 



He is 
beheaded. 

Fate of 
others. 

Reason 

why 

the earl of 

Kent was 

little 

regretted. 



totam Angliam sunt expansa quod regis pater viveret. Unde comes 
Cancie misit illuc quemdam fratrem ordinis Predicatorum, exploraturum 
rei veritatem ; qui, putans se muneribus corrupisse castri ianitorem, 
decipitur 1 . Introducitur nempe latiturus de die in camera ianitoris, 
visurus de nocte quem videre cupiebat. Nocte introducitur in aulam, 
iussus induere habitum secularem, ne perciperetur, videbaturque sibt 
ipsum videre Edwardum patrem regis cene splendide assidentem 2 ; quod 3 
ut credidit, ita retuljt comiti Cancie se vidisse. Unde comes in presencia 
quorumdam, quibus non debuit fidem adibuisse, iuravit se laboraturum 
ad hoc, quod frater suus foret de reclusione ubi detinebatur liberatus. 
Eodem anno, scilicet regni regis tercio, ad instanciam odiencium patrem 
suum 4 , rex tenuit parliamentum Wyntonie, ubi, procurantibus matre sua et 
Rfogero] de Mortuo mari, predictus comes Cancie, patruus regis, et multi 
alii nobiles et religiosi viri, scilicet provinciales ordinum Predicatorum et 
Carmelitarum beate Marie, et 5 frater Ricardus de Blitone, fuerunt accusati 
de eo quod conspiraverunt, ut dicebatur, regis patrem de carcere liberare 
et ad regni statum reducere, licet totum hoc fuisset falsum et fantasiatum. 
Turn comes predictus, propter quasdam confessiones suas et quasdam 
literas secum inventas, licet ulle illarum confessionum seu literarum, etsi 
vere fuissent, non 6 debujssent tantum virum tali supplicio dignum reddi- 
disse, fuit decapitatus. Alii vero 5 , ut provinciales Predicatorum et 
Carmelitarum beate Marie, fuerunt exulati; episcopus vero Londoni- 
ensis fuit manumissioni dimissus ; Robertus de Tauntone clericus et 
fratres quidam de ordinibus Carmelitarum et Predicatorum 7 career! 
fuerunt mancipati. Mors predict! comitis eo minus populo regni dis- 
plicuit, quod malam habuit familiam, res popularium per patriam 
itinerando precio regali capescentem, parum vel nihil pro emptis 
solventes. 

Hoc anno, circa mediam Quadragesimam, vacavit ecclesia Saris- 

1 fuit ipse deceptus, misplaced. C. 2 assidente. B. s cui. B. 

* od.patr. suum] om. B. " om. B. 6 om. B. ; added. C. 

7 quidam Predicatorum et Carmelitarum. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 45 

buriensis per mortem magistri Rogeri de Mortivaus l ; cm ecclesie papa A.D.ISSO. 
providit de domino Roberto de Wyvile 2 , notario regie matris. Hoc Episcopal 
anno, mortuo domino lohanne episcopo Batoniensi, successit per Salisbury 
canonicam eleccionem magister Radulphus de Salopia, doctor 3 decret- ^dE^th^ 
orum et theologie, per Simonem archiepiscopum Cantuariensem con- (*-i>.i39)' 
secratus. 

Item, isto anno papa fecit graves processus iterate contra ducem Quarrel 

. ' of the 

Bavane, impenum Romanorum tiranmce usurpantem. pope and 



Isto anno 1329 Edwardus regis primogenitus et Wallie princeps, 
die lunii xv., apud Wodestoke nascebatur de Philppa regina, in festo 
sanctorum Viti et Modesti 4 . '5 J<me. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxx., ipsius regis Edwardi tercii anno iiij t0 ., die Parliament 

at Notting- 

Venens proxima post festum sancti Luce, nut parliamentum apud ham, 
Notyngham, ubi nimio fulsit honore marcessibili comes Marchie, R[oger- Mortimer's 
us] de Mortuo mari, tamquam regine Isabella, ad cuius nutum omnia P ride - 
disponebantur, conciliarius principalis. Ilium non alio nomine quam 
titulo comitis Marchie ausus est aliquis nominare ; ilium maior strepitus 
virorum comitabatur quam personam regis ; ille quos amavit honoravit ; f. 112. 
regem permittens sibi assurgere, gradiens cum rege pari passu solebat 
arroganter ambulare, nunquam regem preferre, set ipsum aliquando 
anteire. Quemdam officiarium deputatum domino regi 5 pro ospiciis 
nobilium assignandis, ospicium in villa pro comite Lancastrie regis 
consanguineo capescentem, vehementer increpuit iste comes Marchie, 
querens quis eum fecerat audacem inimicum regine Isabelle tam prope 
illam hospitare ; unde territus constabularius ospicium comiti Lancastrie 
ultra villam ad unam leucam domino assignavit, et comitem Herefordie 
Essexieque lohannem de Bohun,constabularium Anglic, ospicio collocavit. Rumours 
Fit murmur inter magnates, quod ad aures populares avolavit, secreto designs. 
dicencium quod ille de Mortuo mari, amasius regine et regis magister, 



1 Mortevauz. C. 2 Wyvyle. C. * per doctorum. B. 

* This paragraph om. C. 6 Quibusdam officiariis deputatis regi. B. 



46 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D. 1330. ad regalis sanguinis demolicionem l et regie magestatis usurpacionem 

A plot is anelaret. Terruit iste murmur aures regales et regis amicos, scilicet 

against Willelmum de Monte acuto, Edwardum de Bohun et alios 2 qui, in 

him- salutem regis coniurati, arbitrati sunt, et iuste, obsequium salutis se 

prestituros regno, si ille de Mortuo mari morti committeretur. Con- 

sulunt sibi adiuratum 3 Robertum de Heland 4 , qui speculator extitit in 

castro per multos annos et cui omnia diverticula castri secretissima nota 

fuerunt, quomodo de nocte ad cameram regine de territorio extra castrum, 

sine scitu ianitorum, rex et sui amici aditum haberent. Speculator 

predictus torticibus accensis duxit dominum suum regem per quoddam 

iter secretum subterraneum, quod incipit a remotis extra castrum et 

terminatur ad medium coquine vel aule turn's principalis, ubi fuit 5 ospitata 

regina. De medio igitur fundo et tramite subterraneo prosilientes, regis 

amici ad cameram regine, quam per Dei graciam invenerunt apertam, 

armati strictis ensibus proficissebantur, rcge eciam armato extra hostium 

camere, ne a matre sua videretur, expectante. Ingressi occiderunt 

Hugonem de Turpintone 6 militem, resistenciam eiis inferre conantem, 

domino lohanne de Neville de Horneby ictum dirigente 7 . Deinde 

invenerunt reginam matrem quasi 8 paratam ad lecti soporem, et comitem 

Arrest of Marchie quem volebant ; et captum secum abducebant in aulam, clamante 

regina : ' Beal fitz, beal fitz, eiez pitie de gentil Mortymer.' 9 Suspectam 

enim habuit filii presenciam, quam oculo non 10 percepit. Mittunt celeriter 

pro clavibus castri, omnem firmaturam loci in manus regias capientes, 

set ita secrete quod hoc null! patuit extra castrum, nisi regis amicis. 

He is , In aurora crastina hutesio et orribili clamore, ipso comite Lancastrie 

removed 

to London. ; am ceco hutesiante, adducunt R[ogerum] de Mortuo mari et quosdam 
alios amicos eius secum captos per Lowhtobergh 11 et Leicestriam versus 
Londonias, ubi in turri 12 ut quondam antiquitus carceri fuit 8 mancipatus, 

1 devolucionem. C. 2 ceteros. B. ' adiuratum Willelmum de Monte acuto. C. 

4 Holand. C. 6 erat. C. 6 Turpyntone. C. * Joh. Nevyle de Hornebi ilia dir. C. 

8 om. B. 9 Bealz fiz, bealz fyz, eyetz pile de gentiz Mortemer. C. 

10 oculo non] oculorum. C. 

" The letters Lo are written as B, in B ; Lowhtoborh. C. 12 turry. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 47 

et, apud Westmonasterium assidente regni parliamento, in vigilia sancti A.D.ISSO. 

Andree sequent! tractus et suspensus, guerras intestinas per totam His 

execution. 
vitam suam crebro suscitatas, super communi furca latronum 3 j NOV. 

apud Elmes, sua morte finivit. Per suos pares fuit morti condigne 
adiudicatus, non tamen venit coram eiis nee responsioni ratiocinatus, 
quoniam a morte comitis Lancastrie, Wintonie, et Gloucestrie, et Cancie, 
non solebant nobiles ratiocinio deputari, set sine responsione atque legitima 
conviccione perierunt ; unde comes iste iure quod in alterum statuit l 
usus extitit, et iuste eadem mensura 2 quam aliis mensus fuerat erat 
eidem remensum. Cause vero mortis predict! comitis Marchie, secundum Reasons 

.... T. . . . ,., for his 

quod sibi imponebantur, erant iste : rrima, quia fuit consenciens suffoca- punish- 
cioni patris regis. Secunda, quia ipse, recepta magna summa pecunie, 
impedivit honorem regis apud Stanoppark, ubi signum dedit Scotis 
ut fugerent, perpenso quod exercitus Anglicorum fuisset verisimiliter 
prevaliturus, nisi ipse, qui quasi dux erat regis puerilis et exercitus, 
tarn gloriosis iniciis regalibus invidisset. Tercio, quia matrimonium 
contractum inter sororem regis et filium Roberti le Bruyus, cuius 
iam penituit amicos regies, ipse fieri procuravit, et insuper sub- 
missionem Scotorum, regi Anglic antiquitus obligatam, per combustio- f - 112b - 
nem cartarum et indulgencia summe libertatis consuluit, immo quasi 
iussit, dissipari serie prescripta. Quarto, quod pecunias repertas in 
tesauris regis et comitum Wyntonie atque Gloucestrie superfluis expensis 
ipsius et regine matris inutiliter consumpsit, nunquam compassus regis 
egestati, quam in sui regni primordio paciebatur. Quinto, quod custodias 
et maritagia pinguia in regis damnum non parvum sibi appropriavit. 
Sexto, quod fuit regis ex intencione malus conciliarius, suam maliciam 
tune potissime ostendens, quando, ut sibi amiciciam regis Francie con- 
firmaret,'regem inTranciam proficisci et Philippum de Valesio verum regem 
Francie 3 , per exhibicionem homagii et fidelitatis, regis puerilem tracta- 
bilitatem recognoscere instruxit; cuius eciam facti omnes amici regis, 

1 statuitur. B. 2 mensuram. B. 

1 confirmaret , . . Francie] om. B. 



48 CH RON 1C ON CALF RID I 

A.D.1330. ut decuit, penituerunt. Alias causas sue mortis wlgus non permittit 

operiri, quas consciencie secreto J et examini ludicis eterni dimittamus. 

Execution Moriebantur cum illo sui 2 amici Simon de Bereford miles et Johannes 

of his 

friends. Deverel scutiferarius, qui, in remissionem suorum peccatorum, libenter 
fecisset pupplicam confessionem de morte crudelissima 3 et modo moriendi 
patris regis, si non per emulos iusticie et veritatis fuisset 4 sibi tempus 
denegatum. 

A.D.1331. Hoc anno dominus 5 rex, cum episcopo Wyntoniensi et domino 

secret W[illelmo] de Monte acuto et aliis admodum paucis, transfretavit, sicut 

J FrancJ *' mercator, cum manticis absque hernesiis, vix secum habens xv. equites, 

pretendens se peregre profecturum, domino loanne Deltham, germano 

suo, custode regni relicto ; et ante finem mensis Aprilis rediit, et fuit 

Touma- apud Derteford solempne torneamentum. Et parum ante festum sancti 

Uartford Michaelis Londoniis in Chepe pulcherrima hastiludia fuerunt, ubi domina 

London regina Philippa cum magna dominarum comitiva de tentoriis, unde 

Accident militares actus specularentur, noviter edificatis, ceciderunt, set illese. 

to the 

queen. Carpentanos proinde punin non permisit ilia pussima regma, set ab 

iracundia regem et amicos regis precibus et genuflexionibus ita revocavit, 
quod in sui amorem omnes eius pietatem considerantes regina misericors 
concitavit. 
Papal taxes Hoc anno dominus papa I[ohannes] 22, anno sui xv., concessit 

on church 

goods. regi decimas proventuum ecclesie Anghcane pro quadnenmo, medietate 

sibi retenta. 

Birth ofthe Hoc anno, scilicet 1330, regis vero 4, die xv. mensis lunii, apud 
Prince, Wodestok natus est 6 primo regi suus 7 primogenitus, dominus Edwardus 

15 June 

(1330). de Wodestok, cuius laudes et magnificos triumphos, quos in captura regis 
Francorum habuit, et alios suis locis describere divina clemencia nos 
permittat. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxj., dicti 5 1[ohannis] pape xvj., Edwardi tercii 

1 secreti. C. 2 sue. B. s crudelissimo. B. C. 

4 fuissent. B. 6 om. C. 6 natus est] om. B. 

7 P r - reg. suus] om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 49 

anno quinto, tenuit rex solempniter Natale apud Welliam usque ad A.D. 1331. 
Epiphaniam, ubi fiebant multa mirabilia sumptuosa. Christmas 



Et circa festum sancti Laurencii proximo sequens venit in Angliam * l 

A. IX 1332. 

dominus Edwardus de Baylol, filius et heres lohannis regis Scotorum, Expedition 
quondam, ut dictum est, exulatus l , declarans ius quod habuit in regnum BallioTinto 
Scocie ; cui adeserunt dominus Henricus de Bello monte et David comes Scotland - 
Dassels et Ricardus Talebot et dominus Radulfus de Stafford baro 2 
et Fulco filius Willelmi et multi alii nobiles, asserentes se ius habere ad 
terras et possessiones in dicto regno Scocie, iure hereditario vel dotum 
uxorum suarum sibi debitas, set per magnates Scocie detentas iniuste. 
Unde postularunt licenciam et auxilium a rege Anglie regnum et predia 
sibi debita recuperandi. Verum rex Anglie, contemplacione pacis inter 
regna nuper facte atque sororis sue regine Scocie, non permisit ipsos 3 
per terram suam aggredi Scociam cum manu armatorum. Propterea 
domini predict! nacti navigium, mare Anglicum ingressi, Scociam 
velificando pecierunt, et apud Clinkhorn 4 iuxta abathiam de Donferme- 
lin 5 litora capescentes magnam resistenciam et inopinam habuerunt. 
Set pedites Anglici pauci numero, celerius terram applicantes, omnes 
Scotos obvios compulerunt in fugam cum illorum ducibus, comite de 
Fyfe et Roberto le Brus 6 , filio R[oberti] quondam regis 7 ; et, antequam 
exercitus armatorum ad litus poterat incedere ordinate, multis Scotis 
interfectis, vexilla Edwardi Baylol et aliorum dominorum apud Deop- 
plinmor pacifice sunt affixa 8 . Postea vero, die sancti Laurencii, apud Total 
Glastimore 9 habuerunt gravem conflictum, ubi duo milia Anglicorum the^cou 
vicerunt quadraginta milia Scotorum, pre multitudine et pressura eciam I0 Aug- 

I. 113. 

se ipsos opprimencium, de quibus quinque comites et alii multi interfecti 
et 10 oppressi fuerunt. In crastino Anglici ceperunt villam sancti lohannis, 
victualibus refertam et bene munitam, quam postea non parvo tempore 

1 exulati. B. 2 tune baro de Stafforde. C. * om. C. 

* Chukhorn. C. 6 Dounfermelyn. C. 6 Bruys. C. 7 filio antiqui. C. 
8 apud . . . affixa} apide pacifice sunt affixa. B. ; apide pacifice sunt Deopplinmor 
affixa. C. Glustemor. C. 10 eciam. C. 

H 



CHRONIC ON GALFRIDI 



A.D.1332. 



Quarrel 
between 
arch- 
bishop 
Mepham 
and the 
bishop of 
Exeter. 



A.D.1333 

Prima 

obsidio 

Berewyci, 

tempore 

Edwardi 

tercii. 



Siege of 
Berwick. 



Edward 
joins the 
siege. 



tenuerunt 1 , et hoc non humana set divina virtute. Ipsumque 2 Anglici 
tune presentes factum retulerunt. 

Hoc anno archiepiscopus Cantuariensis, visitans diocesim Batonien- 
sem, tenuit Natale apud Wieveliscombe 3 , rege apud Welliam, ut dictum 
est, commorante 4 . Mandavit archiepiscopus se velle visitacionem suam 
in ecclesia Exoniensi incoare die Lune proxima post festum Assensionis 
Domini ; quod ne fieret episcopus Exoniensis appellavit. Set, hoc non 
obstante, dicto die Lune accessit archiepiscopus ad civitatem Exonie, non 
permissus ecclesiam clausam intrare pre multitudine armatorum resis- 
tente. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxij., regisanno vj., continuata guerra Scotica, 
anno proximo incoata, multi nobiles Anglici et viri bellicosi ad stipendia 
domini Edwardi Baylol et suorum complicium invitati, circa festum 
Nativitatis sancti lohannis Baptiste Scociam profecti, et preter eos multi 
laudis avidi sumptibus propriis et eiis associati, villam et castrum de 
Berewyk obsiderunt. Rex autem Anglie, considerans multa vituperia 
sibi et suis antecessoribus per Scotos illata, iustam quoque causam 
domini Edwardi de Baylol regis Scotorum per conquestum, et quod 
concordia fuit inter ipsum et Scotos inita per prodicionem, ipso in minori 
etate notorie constituto et in custodia matris sue existente, que concilio 
Rogeri de Mortuo mari proditoris sui per omnia regebatur, factus autem 
vir, evacuans cum apostolo que parvuli erant, contra voluntatem matris 
sue collecta multitudine armatorum, non 5 defensionem aut exaccionem 
sui iuris, set promocionem et sustentacionem iuste calumpnie 6 sui amici 
Edwardi regis Scotorum pretendens, Berewicum viriliter est aggressus 
modicum ante festum sancte Margarete. Ubi obsessi multos cum rege 
Anglie et Scocie conquestore dolosos tractatus habuerunt, ut ipsos 7 
compescerent ab insultu, et auxilium ab extra promissum expectarent ; 
quod venit, set incassum. 

1 quam . . . tenuerunt} om. B., -which repeats the word ceperunt. 

2 om. que. B. s Wyeveliscoumbe. C. 4 comminante. B. 

6 non in. C. 6 fust, calump.] iuris B. 7 ipsos] nostros. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 51 

Anno Domini millesimo CCC mo . xxxiij ., et anno regis Edwardi tercii A.D. 1333. 
vii . 1 , siquidem in festo sancte virginis Margarete, de tota Scocia con- 
gregata maxima multitude, obsidionem si potuisset remotura, in tres exer- 
citus divisa, regis exercitum ad preliandum provocavit, convencione facta 
inter partes adversas quod, si Scoti obsessi potuissent 2 illo die ab extra The Scots 

attempt to 

recipere victuaha, in sua rebellione permanerent, si vero victuahbus relieve the 
adventiciis non consolarentur, post diem transactum regi Anglic villa et f a ji. ' 
castrum redderentur. Ordinantur proinde quadringenti armati cum parvis 
panibus eiis baiulatis, qui Anglorum exercitum a latere circuirent et 
panes quos habebant proicerent infra muros, ut saltim sofistice villa 
victualibus referta crederetur ; set ordinati ad taliter villam restau- 
randum per continuos obsessores et illos de posteriori custodia exercitus 
fuerunt trucidati et a panibus eorum 3 spoliati. Divisus est ab Anglicis 
suus exercitus, parte obsidioni continuande deputata, alia iterum in 
turmas divisa, ad obviandum Scotis supervenientibus preparata. Ibi 
didicit a Scotis Anglorum generositas dextrarios reservare venacioni 
fugiencium, et, contra antiquatum morem suorum patrum, pedes pugnare. 

In principio certaminis exercituum super Halidone Heol 4 , obviorum A Scottish 

champion 
quidam satelles magne stature et ut alter Gohas, in magna virtute cor- slain in 

porali maiorem quam in Deo habens confidenciam, medius inter exercitus combat, 
consistens, singulos Anglicos ad monomachiam provocavit ; qui ab 
effectu ' Tauri versor,' Anglice ' Turnebole ,' vocabatur. E contra 
dominus Robertas de Venale 6 , miles quidam Northfolchiensis 6 , petita 
genuflectendo regis benediccione, cum gladio et pelte gigantem aggres- 
sus, cuiusdam nigri molosi, qui adversarium comitabatur et ipsum iuvit, 
rapidissime 7 gladio precidit lumbos a dorso dividendo. Acrius proinde 
set vecordius instetit occisi canis magister, cuius pugnum sinistrum et Defeat of 
postea capud amputavit miles. Continue congrediuntur partes adverse, a t Halidon 
rege Anglorum suos sapienter atque decenti hilaritate confortante, set Hlll> 

1 Anno . , . vij .] Anno 1333, regis 7 ; in margin. B. 2 obs.pot.} transposed. B. 
3 om. C. * Halidon Heel. C. 6 dominus de Benhale. C. 

6 de Northfolchiensis. B. * iuvit rapid.} transposed. B. 

H 2 



CHRONICON GALFR1DI 



A.D.1333. 



f . 113". 



Berwick 

surrenders. 



Edward 
returns to 
England, 
leaving 
Edward 
Balliol to 
govern 
Scotland. 



Death of 
arch- 
bishop 
Mepham, 
12 Oct. 



vix per mediam horam diei naturalis attrocitate utrobique resistencium 
Scotis aliquali numero peremptis et iam illorum tribus aciebus in unum 
exercitum conglobatis, tandem necessarium fuge presidium arripientes 
dominus rex et sui, dextrariis concensis 1 , celeriter persecuti, occidendo, 
capiendo, in puteos et lacus ipsos fugando, per quinque miliaria venti- 
larunt. Numerus estimatus Scotorum occisorum 2 excedeba't sexaginta 
millia 3 virorum. Post istud bellum opinio falsa * fuit pupplicata quod 
guerra Scotica fuerat finaliter terminata, eo quod vix aliquis de ilia 
nacione remansit, qui posset, sciret, et vellet preliaturos congregare, et 
regere congregatos. Prelati fere tocius regni Scocie in Franciam fugie- 
runt, et eorum valenciores ad summum pontificemde illorum 5 infortunio 
adiutorium et remedium flebiliter requirentes. Post belli triumphum 
rex ad obsidionem Berewici reversus, tarn castrum quam villam, per 
comitem Patricium custodem eorumdem reddita, suscepit. Et idem 
comes Patricius in proximo sequent! parliamento Eboracensi fidelitatem 
et homagium iuravit regi, et ab eodem multos recepit honores ; set, 
iterum infideliter ad suam reversus rebellionem, secundam apud Dun- 
bar 6 passus est obsidionem per dominum W[illelmum] de Monte acuto, 
comitem Sarisburie. 

Facta igitur voluntate regis de hiis 7 qui fuerunt in villa et castro, 
relictaque custodia suis fidelibus ville et castri 8 , que suo dominio iure 
hereditario et conquestu suorum antecessorum dixit pertinere, dimisit 
regem Scocie, Edwardum de Baylol, et ceteros volentes secum manere 
ad custodiam tocius regni Scotorum ; set et ipse in Angliam reversus, 
ad loca nonnulla 9 devota peregrinus, Deo laudes debitas devotus 
exsolvit. 

Eodem anno, circa festum sancti Kalixti pape, vacavit ecclesia 
Cantuariensis per mortem 10 magistri Simonis Mepham n ; cui, ad peticio- 



I arreptis. C. 2 ont. B. 
6 tanto. C. 

8 castris. B. 

II Symonis de Mepham. C. 



3 altered from miliaria. B. 4 vulgaris. C. 

6 Donbar. C. 7 illis. C. 

9 om. B. 10 per mortem] om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 53 

nem regis. papa providit de magistro lohanne de Stretford \ episcopo A.D.1333. 
Wintoniensi. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxiij., regis vero 2 septimo, dominus Edwardus Parliament 

of Scotland 
de Baylol, rex Scocie, tenuit parliamentum m Galewey, cito post festum attended by 

sancti Michaelis, ad quod venerunt nobiles regni Anglic, terras et posses- no ues. 
siones in Scocia vendicantes, et ab inde pacifice in suum natale solum 
revertebantur. 

Eodem anno rex celebravit festum Nativitatis Christi apud Waling- Christmas 

' at Wai- 
ford 3 , cum regina pregnante, que postmodum apud Wodestok peperit lingford. 



filiam suam Isabellam. Rex vero, profectus Eboracum, tenuit parlia- 
mentum, die Lune in secunda ebdomada Quadragesime incoatum ; ad at York - 

.... . Edward 

quod rex bcocie conquestor, licet mvitatus, non accessit, set misit pro Balliol 
ipso excusatores solempnes, scilicet Henricum de Bello monte et Willel- doing 6 
mum de Monte acuto comites, et quosdam alios barones et milites, qui homa s e - 
nunciarunt regi Edwardum predictum Scocie conquestorem non sine 
grandi periculo atque resistencia contra Scotos in insulis latitantes ad 
eius presenciam posse accedere 4 . Attamen ad sequens festum sancti 
lohannis rex predict! conquestoris recepit homagium apud Novum 
castrum super Tyne ; et cito post recepit homagium ducis Britannic pro 
comitatu Richemundie. Et postmodum vocavit prelates et magnates, Council at 
quod infra vj. dies post Translacionem sancti Thome venirent ad eum ham. 

apud Notyngham ; ubi prefixit parliamentum Londoniis celebrandum. Ad Parlia- 

ment. 
quod iterum convocati provmcie prelati, die Lune post festum Exalta- Grant of a 

cionis sancte Crucis, concesserunt regi unam decimam ; populus vero 6 ft*,^' 1 

quintamdecimam prediorum 6 , et decimam mercature per totum regnum, 

ad frenandam 7 Scotorum maliciam concessit. Nunciatum quippe fuit Rising in 

ibidem quod Scoti insurrexerunt et ceperunt R[icardum] de Talebot 8 

et vj. alios milites, multos quoque pedites occiderunt. In eodem quoque A crusade 

parliamento dominus rex concensit quibusdam devotis et promisit se p 

1 Stratford. C 2 Edwardi. C. * Wallyngford. C. 

4 potuisse pro tune accessisse. C. 5 om. B. * istorum. C. 

1 refrcnandam. C. Talbot. C 



54 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D. 1334 



Adam 
Orlton 
translated 
to Win- 
chester, 
I Dec. 
(I333-) 



f. 114. 



iturum in Terram Sanctam propriis sumptibus, set ad hoc tempus 
certum non expressit. Ordinavit tamen archiepiscopum Cantuariensem 
ad papam et regem Francie profecturum, ut possent predict! reges, qui 
nondum fuerant in guerram commoti, unanimi assensu 1 tarn sanctam 
peregrinacionem simul arripere. 

Eodem anno, primo die Decembris, transtulit dominus 2 papa ma- 
gistrum Adam de Horletone, antea episcopum Herefordensem et postea 
Wygorniensem, ad ecclesiam Wyntoniensem, unde quidam sic metrifi- 

cavit : 

'Thomam neclexit, Wlstanum non bene rexit, 
Swithunum voluit ; cur 3 ? quia plus valuit.' 

Id est, dicior ecclesia fuit. Hanc translacionem Philippus de Valesio 
seudo-rex Francie fieri procuravit, et pro ilia suas preces summo ponti- 
fici multiplicavit ; set istam dominus rex Anglic diu distulit acceptare, 
imponens episcopo, iam alia vice translate, quod pro tempore sue lega- 
cionis ad regem Francorum (erat enim hie 4 nuncius regi coronato 5 ) eii 6 
plus placuit quam fidelis nuncius 7 potuit in illo casu, et ob hoc negocia 
domini sui 8 regis Anglorum inutiliter et false procuravit, et illud fuisse 
causam gracie invente in conspectu predicti seudo-regis, qui alias nun- 
quam curasset de promocione unius Anglici, qui nunquam Anglicum 9 
dilexit, neque pater suus, ut supra patuit et infra patebit. Allegavit 
iterum contra translatum quod promotus regis Francorum faciliter con- 
verteretur in sui prodicionem pro suo promotore, qui coronam Francie, 
iure hereditario sibi debitam, et possessionem patrum suorum 10 in Vas- 
conia 11 contra iusticiam Dei et hominum falso detinuit et violenter. 
Nee racione curie Romane poterat 12 translatus regi placere, quia, sicud 
fuit allegatum, dominus rex Anglie scripsit domino pape pro uno alio 
clericosuo ad ilium episcopatum promovendo, impacienterferrens preces 13 
regis Francorum attencius quam suas de episcopis 14 in suo regno creandis 

I assensui. B. 2 om. B. ' om. C. * i. B. 

5 regi coronato} regis. B. e om. C. 7 embassiator. C. 

8 om. C. 9 qui nunq. Angl.} Angl. enim nunquam. C. 10 om. B. 

II Wasconia. C. ] - poterit. B. ls proceres. C. " ipsis. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 55 

exaudiri. Hiis de causis dominus rex precepit confiscari temporalia A.D.1334. 
episcopatus Wyntonie, que 1 tamen, die Veneris post Exaltacionem 
sancte Crucis proximo sequentem, ad preces episcoporum in parliamento 
Londoniis, graciose refudit. 

Hoc anno, per provisionem domini 2 pape, dominus Ricardus de Richard of 

Bury made 
Bury, cito post festum Nativitatis, in monasterio de Cherteseye per bishop of 

Durham, 

dominum Wyntoniensem in episcopum Dunelmensem fuit consecratus. ( J9 Dec. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxiiij., regis Edwardi 2 viij., cito post festum I333-) 
sancti Dionisii Johannes archiepiscopus Cantuariensis transfretavit versus bi 
Philippum de Valesio, vocatum 3 regem Francie, quern libet de cetero 
vocare tirannum, quia inimicum iusticie communis et predicti sancti embassy to 
regni intrusorem. Ad predictum tirannum accedens episcopus predictus, 
vir magne sapiencie et doctor egregius utriusque Juris, peciit continua- 
cionem amicicie inter regna fore prosperandam per mutuam dileccionem 
inter ipsum vocatum * regem Francorum et dominum suum regem 
Anglic. Secundo peciit a tiranno quod civitates et castra, per patrem 
tiranni Karolum proditorem in Aquitannia capta et ab ipso detenta, 
domino suo regi forent restituta. Tercio, quod predictus tirannus dimit- 
teret suam manum auxiliatricem a Scotis sibi impertinentibus, et contra 
illos iuvaret auxilio vel concilio seu favore suum cognatum, regem 
Anglic; annectens finaliter dominum suum regem sepedictum sub hiis 
condicionibus libenter 5 paratum propriis sumptibus ad Terram Sanctam 
proficisci 6 contra inimicos crucis Christi cum illo vocato rege Franc- 
orum. Ad hec tirannus adiudicavit regem Anglic indignum sua ami- 
cicia, quamdiu contra suos amicos Scotos, viros iustos et omni racioni, 
ut asseruit, obedire paratos, guerram iniustam exerceret, nee animum ad 
aliquem posse benevolum se habere, qui illos, scilicet Scotos, tarn in- 
humaniter guerrando vexaret. Ad secundam peticionem noluit aliter 
consentire quam quod expense et dampna forent restituta, que pater 
suus Karolus de Valesio recepit et exposuit in Vasconia militando. Ad 

1 quas. B. C. 2 om. B. " Phil. . . . vocatum] om. C. * om. C. ^ 

6 et libenter. C. 6 profecturum. C 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D. 1334. 



Failure of 
negotia- 
tions. 

Edward 
invades 
Scotland. 

He keeps 
Christmas 
at Rox- 
burgh. 

A.D. 1335. 

f. 114 b . 
French 
envoys 
arrive to 
arrange 
peace 
between 
England 
and Scot- 
land. 

Parliament 
at York. 

Negotia- 
tions with 
the Scots. 



Death 

of the earl 

of Atholl. 



terciam respondit se fuisse iuris amicum et iusticie communis, nee un- 
quam per affinitatem l aut amiciciam carnalem a iusticia, quam dilexit, 
declinaturum, set se velle viis et modis quibus sciret aut posset super 
omnes perturbatores pacis regni Scotorum sue persecucionis iugum 
aggravare ; ' Non enim,' inquiens in fine sermonis, ' pax erit perfecta 
Christianis, antequam rex Francie, in medio Anglie consistens pro tribu- 
nal!, super regna Francie, Anglie et Scocie sit iudex et imperator.' 
Isti prophecie, quam 2 prophetavit, cum esset rex anni illius, non adiecit 
loqui set indignanter se subtraxit nuncius 3 ad alia profecturus. 

Eodem anno rex se transtulit versus marchiam Scocie, et in illis 
finibus hiemavit. Set, audito quod comes Dasceles 4 fuit prodiciose ad 
Scotos conversus et quod dominus Henricus de Bello monte fuit a Scotis 
obsessus, Scociam intravit, et obsidionem fecit amoveri ; et tenuit Natale 
apud Rokesborowh B . 

Cito post Epiphaniam tirannus Francorum misit regi Anglie suos 
nuncios, scilicet episcopum Abricensem et quemdam baronem, pro pace 
Scotorum ; qui usque ad diem Lune medie Quadragesime in Anglia 
expectarunt. Et tune apud Notingham concesse fuerunt treuge usque 
ad festum sancti lohannis proximo tune futurum, ut interim fieret par- 
liamentum super causis tangentibus pacem et statum regnorum. In 
quo parliamento, apud Eboracum celebrate, extitit ordinatum quod rex 
cum exercitu Scociam ultra mare Scoticum transequitaret, quod cito 
postea fuit factum ; set Scoti, campestre bellum nolentes 7 expectare, 
finxerunt se velle pacem habere, ad quam circa festum sancti Michaelis 
multi venerunt, set precipue comes Dasceles 8 , aliis pacem spernentibus. 
Unde postea comes de Morref 9 apud Edeneborgh 10 fuit captus 11 et in 
Anglia carceri mancipatus, et dominus Ricardus Talbot pro duobus 
milibus et quingentis marcarum redemptus. Comes vero Dasceles * 
volens ostendere quod ipse veraciter fuerat conversus, equitavit contra 



1 affinitacionem. C. 
5 Roukesburh. C. 
9 Moref. C. 



2 repeated, C. 
6 Ebricensem. C. 
10 Enedebuwrg. C. 



3 nunciis. B. C. * Dasseles. C. 
7 volentes. B. 8 de Assales. C. 

11 fuit captus\ am. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 57 

Scotos ad obsidionem tmius castri, et cum paucis equitans incidit in A.D.1335. 
hostes quam plures, quibus nolens se reddere set resistere, cum xiij. Edward 

.. .,,,.... . remains on 

tirombus est occisus, post festum sancti Michaelis. Rex autem semper the s co t- 
in ilia marchia Scocie morabatur, a qua 1 nuncii regis Francie nullate- u 
nus recesserunt, set 2 aliquam pacem vel longam treugam, nedum inuti- 
lem set nocivam Anglicis, expectarunt. 

Hoc anno, circa festum sancti Martini, dominus Edwardus le Bohun, Edward 
nobilis indolis, fuit in marchia Scocie submersus. Domicellum nempe drowned 
suum volentem predam pecudum trans flumen fugare percepit pericli- 
tantem, in cuius adiutorium dextrarium suum in alveum direxit, ubi, 
pre limpitudine lapidum grossorum et spericorum super quos aqua de- 
currebat, dextrarius impotens stabilire pedem cecidit cum domino suo 
armato, antequam aliquis poterat iuvare, submerso in profundum. 

Isto eciam anno, quarto die Decembris, obiit Johannes papa 23 US . Death of 

pope John 
in suo pallacio Avinione ; et xx. die eiusdem mensis fuit electus Bene- xxii., and 

succession 

dictus papa xij., et die Dominica post lipiphamam sequentem coro- of Benedict 

, xii. 

natus - (A.D.I334). 

Anno M.CCC.xxxv., Benedict! pape xij. primo et Edward! regis nono, 
rege in marchia contra Scotos continue remanente, mediantibus nunciis 
pape et Francorum, multi tractatus pacis inutiles habebantur et multe Abortive 
treuge ad instanciam Scotorum subdole agencium concesse fuerunt, set tionswith 
nihil efficaciter expeditum, quia treugis pendentibus interfecerunt co- 
mitem Dasseles 3 , sicut supra proximo annali est expressum. 

Hoc anno habuit rex decimam a burgensibus, quindecimam ab aliis, A.D.1336. 
et decimam a clero ; et circa Pentecosten habuit parliamentum Nor- Parliament 
hamptonie, ubi dimisit prelates et alios tractare. Set ipse cum paucis ^ 



adequitavit secrete Berewicum, et ibidem, assumptis secum paucis Edward 

makes a. 

armatis, advenit villam sancti lohannis, ubi sui stupebant de suo ad- sudden 

. expedition 
ventu, presertim cum tarn parva comitiva. Dictam villam munivit to Scot- 

fossatis et muris, et misit comites suos cum rege Scocie conquestore ad *" ' 
patriam transequitandum et scrutandum Scotos resistentes ; set nulli 
1 quo. C. 2 set ut. B. 3 Dasceteles. B. 

I 



58 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1336. audebant eos expectare, in montibus et paludibus ac nemoribus se 
occultabant. 

Return of Post 1 parliamentum predictum, nuncii tiranni Francorum, videntes 

the French 

envoys to quod rex Anglie et suum parliamentum parvipendebant literas sui do- 
France. .._.,...., T , . . . ...... 

mini rnilippi de Valesio, quibus commmabatur regi Anglie immicum 

se 2 fore futurum, nisi Scotorum paci adquiesceret, reversi sunt in 
Franciam, referentes quas treugas et paces ad sui instanciam rex Anglie 
cum Scotis in sui dispendium pluries contraxit, set et quomodo, suas 
literas comminatorias parvipendens, contra Scotos, amicos ipsius tiranni, 
guerram resumere intendebat. Congratulabatur tirannus nunciatis, non 
reminiscens treugarum quas pro sui gracia rex Anglie cum Scotis sibi 
f. us. dispendiosas confirmavit, set, ruminans quod suas literas comminatorias 
parvipendebat, gavisus est occasionem se invenisse qua 2 contra suum 
consanguineum et regni Francie, cui incubuit, verum heredem vexillum 
liliatum 3 posset explicare. Inflatus igitur tirannus spiritu furoris et 
Philip superbie, concitavit Gallos contra Anglicos ; unde guerra terribilis fuit 

determines 

on war. suscitata, quam ipse, de prelio navah et campestn pluries fugatus, post 
occisionem et capturam regum Boemie, Scocie, et Francie et multam 
Christi sanguine redemptorum sanguinis effusionem, non potuit termi- 
nare. 

AD. 1337. Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxyj., circa Epiphaniam, rex et archiepiscopus 
Tohn'of *' de Scociasunt 2 reversi pro sepultura domini loannis Deltham 4 comitis 
Eltham. Cornubie, germani regis, qui in mense Octobris apud Berewyk morte 
Parliament, communi obiit ; et 5 apud Westmonasterium ipsum sepelierunt. Et, con- 

3 Mar. 

Creation of vocato Londoniis parliamento ad diem Lune post festum sancti Mathie 
apostoli et Dominica Quadragesime 6 , fecit dominum Edwardum filium 
suum primogenitum ducem Cornubie, et dominum Henricum de Lancas- 
tria, filium, comitem Derbie, dominum Willelmum de Bohun 7 comitem 
Norhamptonie, dominum Willelmum de Monte acuto comitem Sarisburie, 

1 Et post. C. 2 om. C. 3 Misplaced after invenisse. B. * de Eltham. C. 
om. B. et Dom. Quarfr.] am. C. It should be Quinquagesime. 

7 Bown. C, 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 59 

dominum Robertum Dofford comitem Suffolchie l , dominum Hugonem A.D.1337. 
Daudele comitem Gloucestrie, dominum Willelmum de Clyntone comitem 
Huntyngdonie ; et cum illis xxiiij. milites ordinavit 2 . 

In eodem quoque parliamento statutum fuit quod nulla lana crescens Laws 

.... ... . concerning 

in Angha regnum exiret, set quod ex ea Anghci pannmcarent, et quod export of 

. f . wool and 

omnes fullones et textores quocumque gradu, ad pannmcandum com- woo u en 
petenter instruct!, undecumque venientes, in Angliam reciperentur et ^ fac " 
gauderent certis privilegiis ; viverent insuper de fisco regali, quousque 
possent comode ex artificio victum adquirere. Istud statutum etsi in 
principio videbatur fuisse infructuosum, tamen exinde ars 3 pannificandi 
crevit in regno maior in vigintuplo quam ante fuit visa. Statutum 
fuit insuper in parliamento predicto, quod nullus 4 in posterum emeret 
deferendum pannum de factura transmarina, nee quod aliquis uteretur 
pellura nisi qui haberet in reditibus centum libras. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxvij., regis anno xj., cito post festum sancti Parliament 

and convo- 

Michaelis, habitis Londonns parliamento per dominum regem et convoca- cation, 
cione cleri per archiepiscopum, clerus regi concessit decimam triennalem, et 
itidem sibi concessit communitas burgencium et forinsecorum quintam Subsidies 
decimam, in subsidium guerre 6 Scotice tune ferventis et ad resistendum 
tiranno Francorum, suam sevitiam minis et factis crudelibus ostendenti 6 . 
Utlagiavit 7 nempe vel occidit aut incarceravit, catallis eorum confiscatis 8 , 
omnes Anglice nacionis 9 in regno Francie repertos, comminatus se velle 
ulcisci Scotos, amicos suos. Insuper, de ducatu Aquitannie et comitatu 
Pontivie non reliquit 10 regi villam aut castrum quod in suas 'manus 
poterat seisire. Lanas ergo regni mercatoribus pro certa summa pecunie Wool sent 
venditas, ut pecunias celerius quo posset reciperet, misit Brabanciam ad Brabant ' 
numerum triginta milia 11 saccorum, cum navigio, cui prestitit ducatum Wlthafleet - 
dominus comes Norhamptonie, habens in exercitu sagittarios et Wallen- 

1 Southfblkie. C. 2 om. B. s pars. C. * ullus. B. 

8 guerrarum. B. 6 ostendentis. B. ' Tune, over an erasttre. C. 

8 cat. ear. confisc^ in quantum potuit. C. ' Anglicos nacione. C. 

10 reliquid. B. " milium. B. 

I 2 



6o CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1337. ses in magna caterva, qui animum comitis duds Brabancie in amiciciam 

regis Anglic contra omnes suos l inimicos conversum confirmavit. 
Alliance Eodem quoque anno scripsit literas expositorias inicia inimiciciarum 

Flemish inter ipsum et tirannum Francie exortarum continentes 2 , quas Waltero 

princes. 

le Magne 3 , militi suo fideli, Burgundinensi, tradidit deferendas comitibus 
Hannonie, Gelrie, et luliacensi ; qui omnes amiciciam et contra omnes 
iniustos suos adversarios fidelitatem regi per eorum literas patentes com- 

f. H5 b . promiserunt. Prefatus Walterus le 4 Magne 3 , pro tempore sue legacionis 
Sir Walter . AT v -u 

Mauny vmdicaturus sangumem duorum Anglicorum, quos quesituros navibus 

people of aquas recentes indigene cuiusdam insule iuxta Flandriam necuere, omnes 5 
Cadsand. q uos invenit in eadem insula 6 iussit in ore gladii trucidari ; quod effectu- 
The count aliter fuit impletum, ipso prestante 7 . Ibidem eciam cepit germanum 

of Flanders' .._,,. ...... .. 

brother comitis rlandne, quern rex Anghe sibi adductum, pulcns munenbus, 

equis, et iocalibus honoratum, Flandriam remisit cum libertate. 

The pope Iniciata per modum descriptum Gallica guerra, et deinde rumoribus 

cardinals to ac ^ curiam Romanam ventilatis, dominus papa misit duos cardinales pro 

mediate 1 10 P ace re f rrnan da inter reges, qui apud Westmonasterium exposuerunt 

A.D.1338. coram rege causam sui adventus. Proinde concilio 8 regis convocato in 

answer. S crastino 9 Purificationis Virginis gloriose, post procerum consultum 10 . rex 

cardinalibus finaliter respondit quod, quamvis ipsum ultra modum angus- 

tiatum affecerunt et ll sibi denegatum ius commune, quo deberet in regnum 

avitum succedere, et crudelitas quam suus adversarius Philippus de Vale- 

sio exercuit in Anglicos, ipsos dumtaxat de regno Francie, tamquam 

ludeos aut inimicos Christi, expellendo, trucidando, spoliando, et incar- 

cerando, et sibi ducatum Aquitannie et comitatum Pontivie iniuste sine 

causa auferendo, et insuper Scotos suos rebelles favore, concilio et 

auxilio contra ipsum confovendo, tamen paci ecclesie et regnorum 

libenter condescenderet. Optulit his iniuriis condonandis cardinalibus, 

1 omnes suos] transposed. B. 2 om. B. 3 Mawne. C. * de. B. 

6 propterea added by another hand before omnes. C. 6 om. C. 

7 preeunte. B. * concilium. B. 9 crastinum. B. 
10 de procerum concilio, over erasures. C. n om. B. ; interlined. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 6 1 

quasi regi Francorum, pro pace et pacifica possessione Aquitannie et A.D.1338. 
aliorum feodalium que antecessores sui possederunt et ipse deberet de 
iure possidere, item pro dimissione manus auxiliatricis regis Francie a 
Scotis suis rebellious optulit, inquam, pro hiis summam pecuniarum 1 per 

ipsos racione media taxandam, aut maritagium filii sui primogeniti, et pre- They 

.,,.., . ,-, . depart for 

ter hec resignacionem inns quod habuit ad coronam regm rrancie atque France, 

comitivam suam contra Sarazenos 2 . Cum ista responsione leti recesserunt English 
cardinales, estimantes guerram iam finiri ; et in festo proximo Transla- env y s - 
cionis sancti Benedicti ingressi mare, secum habuerunt lohannem archi- 
episcopum Cantuariensem et R[icardum] Dunelmcnsem et dominum 
Galfridum Scrop, militem 3 , responsionem regis Anglorum tiranno Fran- 
corum delaturos et habentes autoritatem de pace tractare. Tot et tam The king 

of France 

racionabiles oblaciones nunquam potuerunt animum tiranni demolhre, remains 
habentis fiduciam per auxilium Scotorum regem de regno Anglie et 
qualibet sua possessione potenter exheredare. 

Anno Christo M.CCC.xxxviij., domini pape Benedicti, huius nominis 
xij., anno iiij t0 ., Edwardus rex Anglie responsionem tiranni Francorum, 
qui * condiciones 5 supra proximo annali scriptas sibi oblatas atque comi- 
tivam sui contra Saracenos sprevit 6 , celeriter recepit 7 , conceptoque per 
signa manifesta et relacionem non deceptoriam suorum fidelium quod 
prefatus tirannus ad destruccionem Anglie, piratis conductis, suam mili- 
ciam non minus ordinavit, tucius diiudicans rex Anglie suo adversario in 
regno Francie quod vendicavit occurrere animose, quam ipsum in Ang- Edward 

embarks 

ham crudehter affuturum vecorditer expectare, mare armatorum classe for 
transivit, anno regni sui Anglie xij., in quodam die Veneris, qui erat xvij. 
kalendas Augusti. Igitur rex cum regina pregnante atque duabus filiabus 
eius in classe quingentarum navium applicuerunt apud Andewarp, ubi 
cum honore et pace recepti habuerunt obviam marchionem luliacensem, 
dominum marcravium et ducem Brabancie et comites Gelrie 8 et Han- 

1 summ. pectin^ suam pecuniam. B. a atque . . . Sarazenos] om. B. 3 om. B. 
* spernentis. C. 6 concediciones. B. " comitivam . . . sprevit} om. C. ' cepit. B. 
8 Celrie. B. 



62 



CHRONICON CALFRIDI 



A.D.1338. 



Negoti- 
ations with 
the 
emperor. 



f. 116. 



Grant of 
wool, and 
of a tenth. 



French 

privateers 

capture 

English 

ships. 



They sack 
Southamp- 
ton. 



nonie et alios magnates illarum parcium, qui omncs sibi l fidelitatem et 
armatam comitivam contra quoscumque suos adversaries compromiserunt 
sub iuratoria caucione, dum tamen suis stipendiis militarent 2 . Postea 
rex Coloniam adivit, ubi cum Ludowico duce Bavarie, qui se dixit regem 
Alemannie et imperatorem Romanorum, habito tractatu, rediit Braban- 
ciam, et in villa Dandewerp 3 remansit ad tempus. Iterum cum predicto 
rege Alemannie rex conlocutus, atque, amicicia inter ipsos 4 confirmata, 
rediit ad Malines 5 in Brabancia. Cardinales vero et episcopi Cantua- 
riensis et Dunelmensis, reversi de presencia tiranni Francorum, in 
civitate Atrabatensi 6 regem expectarunt. 

Isto anno, in quodam concilio per ducem Cornubie regni custodem 
et prelates et barones 7 convocato 8 , concessa fuit regi lana popularium per 
eos qui fuerunt ibi presentes. Iterumque, clero tune absente coadunato 
ad primum diem mensis Octobris, concesserunt ecclesiastici unam deci- 
mam pro anno tercio tune sequente, set solucionem lanarum, quam 
populares prebuerunt, ipsi unanimiter negaverunt. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxix. 9 , ut premissum est, cum ducibus Bavarie, 
Brabancie, et aliis amicis suis, rege Anglic de prosecucione sui iuris ad 
regnum Francie disponente, tirannus Francorum, maliciam a diu con- 
ceptam de exinanicione regni Anglie intendens evomere, conductos 
lanuenses piratas crudeles misit pro navigio et portubus Anglie vastandis ; 
qui in portu de Sclusa Flandrie ceperunt v. magnas naves regis, set 
vacuas hominibus et mercimoniis, nautis ad solacia secure vacantibus, et 
eas in partes Normannie deduxerunt. Item, feria vj ta . proxima post 
festum sancti Michaelis, quinquaginta galee armatis bene stipate, circa 
horam nonam, ad portum Hamptonis 10 applicuerunt, et villam, que tune 
non fuit armata, depredaverunt ; villanis prevecordia fuge dilapsis, ipsi in 
villa pernoctarunt. In crastino patria coadunata, numero trecentorum 

1 om. C. 2 C. adds : et ibi regina peperit Leonellum comitem de Holvestre. 
3 de Andewarp. C. * eos. C. * ad Malines} protinus, over an erasure. C. 
6 Attrabatensi. C. 7 Here a leaf is wanting in C. 

8 et bar. convoc.~\ convoc. et bar. B. 

9 The ix. of this date is added by a late hand. B. 10 Hamonis. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 63 

piratarum, cum eorum duce filio regis Cisilie iuvene milite, fuerunt inter- A.D.1338. 

fecti. Predicto 1 militi dedit Francorum tirannus quicquid potuit de They are 

defeated, 
regno Anglic nancissci, set ipse, a quodam rustico terre prostratus, 

damans : ' Rancoun,' occubuit fustibus mactatus ab eodem rustico 
reclamante : ' Scio quod tu es Frauncoun ' ; non enim intellexit nee 
eius idioma nee erat doctus captos generosos redempcioni conservare. 
Itaque residui 2 lanuensium, post particularem ville combustionem, ad 
galeas, quibusdam submersis, fugierunt. Hanc villam eius incole amplo 
muro postea cinxerunt. 

Hoc anno rex Anglic per totam hyemem apud Andewerp peren- Birth of 

_ . Edward's 

dinavit, ubi regma sibi pepent dommum Leuencium, comitem Dol- son Lionel 

(29 Nov.) 
vestier. 

Item, rex suscepit vicariatum imperii a prefato duce Bavarie, qui se Edward 

. made vicar 
tenuit pro imperatore, super quo papa scripsit en hteras redargucioms O fthe 

et exortacionis satis dure conceptas, de dato idibus Novembris, ponti- 
ficatus sui anno quarto, adhuc rege taliter in partibus transmarinis 
guerram suam pro suo iure incoandam suspendente. 

In vigilia Annunciacionis undecim galee immiserunt ignem ville de A.D.1339. 
Herewych, cuius ardorem ventus contrarius proibuit crescere in nocu- ^ 

mentum. Ulterius in anno, circa Pentecosten, pirate Normannici et 
lanuenses, in galeys et spinaciis circa portum Hamptonis 3 iterato in mari 
se ostendentes, se velle applicare comminati sunt per suos nuncios, quos 
iusserunt apparatum ville explorare. Et, quia paratos incolas ad resis- 
tendum perceperunt, ad insulam de Vecta migraverunt ; set in illam non 

intrarunt, cedentes proibicioni incolarum ; set se transtulerunt ad alia They harry 

the south 
loca maritima minus bene munita, in quibus, more latrunculorum, multa coast. 

mala commiserunt ; et postea, in festo Corporis Christi, apud Hastinghe, 
quedam tuguria 4 piscatorum combusserunt cum eorum scaphis, homini- 
bus occisis. Item, contra insulam Tanatis et Doveriam et contra 
Folkston multocies se ostenderunt, set in illis locis multa mala non 
fecere, nisi adversus pauperes piscatores. Deinde in portubus Cornubie 
1 predict!. B. 2 residue. B. 3 Hamonis. B. ' turgurria. B. 



6 4 



CHRONICON GALFRIDl 



A.D.1330 



They bum 
Plymouth 

f. ne b . 

They are 
defeated. 



Edward 
impatient 
to attack. 



The 

cardinals' 
advice. 



Edward 
invades 
France, 
20 Sept. 



et Devonie multa mala contra piscatores commisere, et naves quas 
invenerunt solitarias incendebant ; et tandem in ebdomada Pentecosten 
portum de Plummouthe subito ingrgssi, naves quasdam magnas et 
magnam ville partem ignibus vastabant. Quibus dedit obviam dominus 
Hugo de Courtenay, comes Devonie, miles octogenarius, cum aliis 
militibus illius comitatus. Isti, post perdicionem quorumdam popu- 
larium qui dearmati quarellis balistariorum occubuerunt, demum piratas 
cominus aggredientes, multos super aridam mactaverunt, reliquis ad 
navigia ventilatis, et multos * navigio non valentes appropiare mare 
submersit, ad numerum quingentorum, secundum estimacionem tune 
presencium ibidem. 

Nova funesta regis aures in Brabancia commorantis percusserunt 
per asserentes quod Hamptonam et alios portus Anglic cum illorum 
navigio pirate crudeles tiranni Francorum devastarunt. Proinde, suis 
amicis secum presentibus, scilicet marchioni luliacensi et cardinalibus, 
exposita necessitate se vindicandi in suum adversarium tirannum Fran- 
corum, recepit a cardinalibus tale responsum : ' Regnum,' inquiunt, 
' Francie filo serico circumcingitur, quod tota potencia regni Anglorum 
non sufficeret infringere ; propterea, domine rex, expectes Teutonicos et 
alios tibi confederates, quorum maior copia tibi deest adhuc, ut ipsorum 
adiutorio saltim videaris posse Gallicis 2 nocere, atque tune pacem 
honorabilem, nobis Dei gracia mediantibus, cum potenti rege Francie 
poteris optinere.' Ad hec indignati rex et sui comites, nulla contemplata 
expectacione Teutonicorum seu pecunie de Anglia future, quam expec- 
tando tempus magis aptum guerre inlapsum rex cognovit, finaliter 
sentenciavit se in terram Francie vexillo displicato equitaturum, et 
potenciam Francorum comminatam expectaturum, et quod illam vinceret 
prebentem occursum aut honeste sub ilia moreretur. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xxxix. et regni sui Anglic xiij., in vigilia sancti 
Mathei 3 , cum xij. milibus armatorum contra tirannum vexillo displicato 
incepit equitare, comburens et destruens villas * et castra circumquaque. 
1 multis. B. " Here C. resumes. 3 Mathei apostoli. C. " villa. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 65 

In prima nocte> celo contenebrato, dominus Galfridus Scrop, iusticiarius A.D.1339. 
domini regis, duxit alterum cardinalem, scilicet dominum Bertrandum de 
Monte Favencio, beate Marie in Aquirio diaconum l , in magnam turrem 
et altam, ostendens ei totam terram circumquaque versus Franciam ad 
spacium quindecim miliariorum in omni parte incensam, dicens : 
' Domine, videturne tibi quod filum sericum Franciam circumcingens sit 
ruptum 2 ? ' Ad hec sine responsione cecidit cardinalis quasi exanimatus, 
tecto turris 3 expansus pre dolore et timore. Sic per quinque septimanas 
itineravit rex in regnum Francie. cotidie continuando suas dietas, sicud The 

country laid 

potuit exercitus laborare, ita quod totam patnam Cameracensem et waste. 
Tornacensem et Vermodensem et Laudinensem, exceptis muratis civita- 
tibus et ecclesiis et castris, destruxerunt, fugientibus incolis pre timore. 
Numquam sic itinerant! ausus est aliquis obvius resistere, quamvis ipse 
tirannus Francorum cum magnis exercitibus infra civitates muratas suos 
congregasset, ipso in villa fortissima Sancti Quintini latitante; nee um- The French 

kingrefuses 

quam terram, quam dixit esse suam, extra muros civitatum aude- battle. 
bat defendere contra regem Anglic in campo exercitui suo presidentem. 
Propterea inter alias blasfemias, quas universus mundus intulit tiranno, 
quidam hos versus in cedula sagitte alligata in villam sancti Quintini 

sagittavit : 

' Si valeas, paleas, Valoys, dimitte timorem, 
Non lateas, pateas, maneas, ostende vigorem ; 
Flos es, rore cares, campis marcescis et ares ; 
Mane techel phares ; lepus et linx, non leo, pares.' 

Quoad nomen proprium, quia vocabatur Philippus de Valesio, alius vel 
idem sic metrificavit : 

' Phi nota fetoris, lippus nocet omnibus horis, 
Phi nocet et lippus ; nocet omnibus ergo Philippus.' 

Cumque Brabantini 4 , propter defectum victualium et imminentis yemis f. 117. 
asperitatem, disposuissent redire atque fuissent in redeundo, tirannus 

1 diacono. C. 2 ruptam. B. 3 tecto .... exfans.} 

brachiis expansis ; the word brachiis over an erasure. C. * Barbantini. C. 

K 



66 CHRONICON GALFR1DI 

A.D.1339. Francorum hoc advertens movit se versus exercitum regis Anglie; qui 

ipsum libenter expectans revocavit Brabantinos \ Acceptis itaque literis 

ex parte tiranni quod ipse voluit cum rege preliari 2 , rex eii remisit quod 

ipsum voluit per tres dies in campo expectare. Igitur quatriduo in campo 

electo regem expectantem noluit tirannus appropinquare vicinius quam 

ad duo miliaria, set, pontibus confractis, et arboribus cesis atque semitrun- 

He retires catis et in itineribus patulis prostratis, ne rex ipsum insequeretur, versus 

Edward Parisium cum dedecore 3 revertebatur. Quod intelligens, rex Anglie, de 

returns to con cilio suorum amicorum. propter defectum victualium rediit per Hano- 

Brabant. 

niam in Brabanciam, ubi fere per totam hyemem perendinavit. 
Close Medio tempore 4 contraxit magnam amiciciam cum Flandrensibus, 

alliance /- i i- ... 

with the qui omnem subieccionem, homagium, et ndelitatem ipsi mrare se para- 

Flemmgs. verunt; dummodo regem Francie se nuncuparet et in illius rei signum 

arma liliata extunc 5 gestaret. Non enim aliter audebant eii obedire, 

propter interdictum pape, quod fuit interpositum in casu quo contra 

regem Francie forent unquam rebelles. Igitur de concilio suorum 

Edward procerum et amicorum Flandrensibus consensit, et, assumptis nomine 

the'arms et armis regiis Francie, Flandriam recepit in suum dominatum ; cuius 

of France. j nco i e ip sum extunc per magnum tempus, tamquam regi Francie 

conquestori, in omnibus obediebant. 
Philip's De titulo et armis prenominatis taliter alloquebatur quondam Ang- 

remarks on . . .... . ,/->,> 

this event, licos sibi missos tirannus irancorum: Quod, mquit, cognatus noster 
arma gerit quadrata de armis Francie et Anglie compaginatis non nobis 
displicet, pro eo quod pauperiori nostre parentele bachulario partem 
armorum nostrorum regalium libenter concederemus deferendam ; set 
quod in suis sigillo et literis prius nominat se regem Anglie quam Francie 
et primum quarterium suorum armorum cum leopardis anteponit quar- 
terio liliato nos angustiat, videntes quod parvam insulam Anglie magno 
regno Francie preiudicet honorandam.' Cui dominus Johannes de 
Schordich 6 , miles et nuncius regis Anglie 7 , respondit quod, usitato more 

1 Barbantinos. C. 2 preliare. B. 8 ad dedecus. C. 

4 tempori. B. 8 de extunc. B. 6 Shordich. C. 7 om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 67 

modernorum, titulum et arma suorum 1 progenitorum armis et nomini 2 A.p.1339 
iure materno sibi debitis racionabiliter pretulit suus dominus rex 
Anglorum. 

Rege circa negocia prescripta occupato, naute Quinque Portuum, AJ> - 1340 - 

Sailors of 

assumptis spinaciis et scafis bene munitis, cito post festum sancti Hil- the Cinque 

Ports 
larn apphcuerunt Bononie mxta mare in tempore nebuloso quo vix in destroy 

portu fuerant pcrcepti, et in villa inferior! xix. galiotas et iiij. magnas a 



naves et xx. scafas cum omnibus suis armamentis combusserunt una cum ^ ^ u ~ 
domubus iuxta mare situatis, inter quas erat una domus magna plena 
remis et veils, armis et balistis necessariis pro nautis et defensoribus 
decem et novem galeotarum. Tandem, orto conflictu inter villanos et 
Ariglicos, plures intranei ceciderunt occisi. 

Non multum postea, scilicet in principio mensis Februarii, rex in Edward 
Angliam regressus, regina pregnante in Gandavo dimissa, habuit parlia- England. 
mentum apud Westmonasterium, ubi laici concesserunt sibi nonum vellus p ar ii ament . 
lane et nonum agnum et nonam garbam cuiuscumque generis bladi, et Grant - 
clerus unam nonam decimam. Ibi et rex statuit et fecit proclamari 
quod nullus Anglicus, racione nominis aut armorum que tanquam rex 
Francie habuit, secum arma portaret 3 . 

Cito post Pascha comes Sarisburie et Suthfolchie cum paucis xheearlsof 
armatis, dantes insultum ville de Lyle in Flandria, que adesit parti 
tiranni Francorum, nimis de prope, scilicet infra portas, Francos fugi- ri on 
entes insecuti, pectine demisso et fasse armatorum undique subito* 
conclusi, capti in Franciam sunt transmissi. Duos illos milites, si non f. 117". 
debeat obstare ista temeritas, probatissimos, inhumaniter tractavit su- 
perba indignatio Gallicorum ; ferro nempe vinctos, quamvis fide inter- 
posita redditos, non super equos set in biga vectos, quasi predones, in 
medio cuiuslibet civitatis parve seu ville, clamore popularium blasfe- 
mandos, biga stare iussa, ipsos duxerunt ad conspectus tiranni, qui squalore 

1 Here several leaves are wanting in C. 2 nomine. B. 

3 portare. B. 4 stato. B. 

K 2 



68 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D. 1340. carcerali macerates interfecisset turpiter, nisi fretus concilio regis Boemie 

a cruenta libidine abstinuisset. 

Edward Anno Domini M.CCC.xl., regni sui Anglie xiiij., dominus rex tenuit 

WMtsnn- festum Pentecosten apud Gippeswicum, supra suum passagium versus 

Ipswich. Flandriam, intendens transivisse cum simplici comitatu, set, audito 

rumore quod tirannus Francorum misit magnam classem navium Ispanie 

et quasi totum navigium regni Francorum ad impediendum transitum 

suum, convocato suo navigio de Quinque Portubus et aliunde, ita quod 

habuit ducentas sexaginta naves magnas et parvas, igitur die lovis ante 

He sails for festum Nativitatis sancti lohannis Baptiste, vento prospero flante, incepit 

Flanders, ... . ... 

22 June, feliciter navigare, et die Veneris sequente in vigilia predicte Nativitatis 
vidit classem l Francorum in portu de la Swyne prelio paratam et quasi 
castrorum acies ordinatam ; unde, in mari ancorans, per totam illam 

Battle of diem deliberavit quid esset consulcius faciendum. In festo vero sancti 

Sluys, 

24 June. lohannis valde mane classis Francorum se dividens in tres turmas movit 
se per spacium unius miliaris versus classem l regis ; quod percipiens rex 
Anglie dixit non esse ulterius expectandum, se et suis ad arma currenti- 
bus et cito paratis. Post horam nonam, quando habuit ventum et solem 
a tergo et impetum fluminis secum, divise in tres turmas, hostibus dedit 
optatum insultum. Horridus clamor ad ethera conscendit super equos 
ligneos, iuxta Merlini propheciam ; ferreus imber quarellorum de balistis 
atque sagittarum de arcubus in necem milia populi detraxit ; hastis, 
securibus et gladiis pugnabant cominus, qui voluerunt aut fuerunt ausi ; 
lapides a turribus malorum proiecti multos excerebrarunt ; in summa 
committitur sine ficticio ingens et terribile et navale bellum, quale vecors 

Defeat of vidisse a longe non fuisset ausus. Magnitude navium Spannie et altitudo 

the first and 

second multos cassavit ictus Anglicorum ; set finaliter, Gallicis devictis et 
lines of the _, ... 

French evacuata pnma navium cohorte, saiserunt Anghci mam. Naves (aalli- 

corum fuerunt concatenate, ita quod non poterant divelli ab invicem ; 

unde, paucis Anglicis unam partem coortis evacuate custodientibus, 

cetere naves ad secundam coortem manus direxerunt, et 2 cum magna 

1 classica. B. 2 am. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 69 

difficultate dederunt Insultum. Ilia tamen facilius quam prima fuerat A.D.1340. 
evacuata, eo quod Gallici, navibus relictis, pro magna parte gratis se 
ipsos submerserunt. Devictis 1 igitur prima et secunda turmis navalibus, 
crepusculo noctis adveniente, Anglici propter noctis obscuritatem et 

nimiam lassitudinem quiescere decreverunt usque mane. Igitur de nocte Flight of 

other ships, 
triginta naves tercie coortis affugerunt ; et una magna navis, que voca- 

batur James de Deope, voluit secum abduxisse quamdam navem de 
Sandwico, que fuit prioris ecclesie Christi Cantuarie. Set eius naute 
cum adiutorio comitis Huntindunensis viriliter se defenderunt, et eorum 
conflictus per totam noctem duravit. In crastino, finaliter devictis 
Normannis, invenerunt in navi capta ultra quadringentos homines occisos. 
Ulterius, die 2 illucente et cognito quod triginta naves affugerunt, misit Pursuit. 
dominus rex xl. naves bene munitas ad illas insequendas, quibus preposuit 
lohannem Crabbe, quern periciorem in arte navali et cognicione portuum 
Francorum Anglici reputarunt ; quarum tamen effectus ignoratur. In Recovery 

of English 

prima coorte navium captarum invenerunt victores illas naves, quarum ships, 
prima vocabatur ' Dionisius/ et alia ' Georgius,' tercia ' Christophorus,' et f - 118> 
quarta ' le Blake Cogk,' quas Gallici primitus, ut superscriptum est, a 
portu de Scluse furtive abduxerunt. Summa navium bellicarum ibi 
captarum ad ducentas, et bargiarum ad triginta, se extendebat. Nu- 

merus inimicorum occisorum viginti quinque milia excedebat et sub- Losses on 

both sides. 
mersorum ; de Anglicis vero quatuor milia fuerunt occisi, inter quos 

erant quatuor milites, videlicet dominus Thomas de Mounthermer, 
consanguineus regis, dominus Thomas le Latimer filius, et dominus 
Willelmus le Botiller de Siortborne, et quartus, ut dicebatur, quern non 
audivimus nominari. 

Circa idem tempus Scoti, treugam inter ipsos et regem initam Raid of the 

Scots. 

servare nolentes, Angham in multa magmtudme venerunt, occisiom et 
combustioni totam fere marchiam submissam depredantes. Et cum 
predam reducturis nobiles marchiones illarum parcium, quibus magna 
pecunia pro marchie custodia a rege tradebatur, occurrere non curarent 
1 Devicta. B. ' de. B. 



70 



CHRON1CON GALFRID1 



A.D.1340. 



French 

harry the 
coas . 



Edward 
England" 



a s es - 



Robert of 
Artois. 



He lays 
Toumay. 



seu nimium protelarent, populates ipsis Scotis l redeuntibus viriliter 
occurrentes predam captam abstulerunt et multos occiderunt, et plus 
quam octoginta de maioribus Scotorum redimendos carceribus manci- 
parunt ; de quo maiores illius marchie minus racionabiliter fuerunt 
indignati. 

Postea, circa festum sancti Petri ad Vincula, pirate Gallic! cum 
adiutorio Hispanorum insultum dederunt in insulam Vecte et subito 
^1.3^^ Quibus dominus Petrus Russel, miles, cum popularibus 
obviavit et ipsos potenter expulit, pluribus eorum interfectis ; set miles 
ibidem letaliter wlneratus exspiravit. Pirate vero ad partes Devonie 
se transtulerunt, et villam de Teygnemuthe episcopi combusserunt. 
Deinde versus Plummutham migrarunt, set ville defense nil nocuerunt ; 
immo quedam maneria campestria combusserunt, et quemdam militem 
captum duxerunt quo volebant. 

Post bellum navale prescriptum, reductis in Angliam copiis quas 
eduxit, rex spolia comitibus suis distribuit, et devota loca Anglie 
visitavit, in quibus gracias Datori victoriarum suppliciter persolvit. 
Postea, per assensum maiorum de suo concilio, in Flandriam, ut antea 
disposuit, transfretavit, secum deducens dominum Robertum comitem 
Dartoys, 1 ul P er longa tempora ad expensas regis in Anglia vixit. Ad 
regem nempe confugit, petens auxilium contra tirannum Francorum, 
qui possessiones patrum suorum in Artosia et Brabancia detinuit iniuste ; 
unde rex eius homagio auxilium spopondit et prebuit eidem. Igitur per 
Flandriam et Brabanciam suum exercitum et dominium Francorum et 
suam hereditatem rex deducens, iterum ardere villas, profugare Francos, 
blada comburere aut sub pedibus equorum calcare, diu continuavit ; et 
tandem civitatem Tornacensem fortiter obsessit, remissis comitibus Glou- 
cestrie, Arundellie et Huntindonie in Angliam, pro tutela regni. Rex 
igitur, secum habens marchionem luliacensem, ducem Burgundie, et 
comites Hannonie atque Celrie, obsidionem cum paucis Anglicis tenuit 
valde magnam, cui victualia venalia competenter abunde populares de 

1 Scoti. B. 



' 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 71 

Flandria ministrarunt. Confirmatis nempe amicicia et pactis inter A.D.1340. 
ipsos et regem nuper initis, ipsi per omnia, sicud vero regi Francie, He chai- 
se ipsos exibebant. Taliter obsidione confirmata, scripsit rex 1 Philippo Philip. 
de Valesio, tiranno Francorum, quod ipsum in campo expectaret pro 
bello ad diem certum inter ipsos feriendo ; et respondit tirannus, diem 
assignans quo obsidionem se comminabatur amoturum. Set numquam 
ad talem honorem pervenit, licet ab obsidione non ultra iiij. leucas quasi 
per totum tempus in exercitu suo latitaret. 

Comes Hanonie de licencia suos et cum illis ccc* 08 . Anglicos sagittarios f. ua b . 
et paucos armatos direxit versus opidum sancti Amandi, quindecirn 
miliaribus distantem ab obsidione; ubi quinquaginta milites et alios 
multos ceperunt et occiderunt, et quasi infinitas divicias invenerunt, villa Amand. 
et patria adiacente circumquaque destructis ; unde exercitui de victua- 
libus habundantissime providerunt. 

Duravit obsidio Torneacensis usque ad festum sanctorum Cosme The siege 
et Damiani, quod est pridie vigilie sancti Michaelis. Quo die, post i as t s till 
plurimos tractatus super treuga ineunda, per Francos procurata, in quam 2? pt ' 
fuerat consensum ad peticionem Gallicorum usque ad festum sancti Trace for 
lohannis Baptiste, extunc proximo futurum, duraturam, ut posset months, to 
interim de pace tractari, et redditi fuerunt hinc et inde captivi, sub Edward 
convencione iurata redeundi ad dictum festum in casu quo non fieret " n ^ s g y 
pax finalis. Sic fuerat soluta obsidio Tornacensis, et, si verum fateatur, 
ad magnam displicenciam regis Anglic. Rex nempe non habuit secum 
nisi paucos Anglicos ibidem, set omnes alii fuerunt stipendiarii, quibus 
"per quindenam nihil fuerat solutum pro eo quod pecunia expectata de 
Anglia non venit. Preterea dux Brabancie et comes Hannonie, qui pro 
eo potissime cum rege militarunt, ut ville et castra, que tirannus Fran- 
corum ipsis abstulit et iniuste detinuit, forent eis per auxilium regis 
restituta, quod et fuit factum, set, cessante causa pro qua laborabant, 
non plus placuit eiis guerra aliena, propterea uno assensu regem pro- 
vocarunt, et quasi coegerunt, ad treugam ineundam, quorum oportuit 

1 res. B. 



72 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1340. ipsum pro tune sequi voluntatem. Treuga igitur capta et obsidio soluta 
solis Anglicis et Flandrensibus et aliis paucis stipendiariis displicuerunt. 

Edward R e x igitur ad Flandriam reversus venit Gandavum ad festum 

returns to 

Ghent. sancti Michaelis, ubi diu expectavit treuge confirmacionem et pecuniam 

He sud- adfuturam, que non venit. Postea, putantibus omnibus Anglicis expec- 
comesto tantibus in Gandavo cum rege ipsum ibidem ad festum Nativitatis 

England, 

30 Nov. Christi expectaturum, una dierum rex cum octo de suis, fingens se velle 
spaciari, equitans secreto, nullisque familiaribus premunitis, venit 
Selandiam 1 , ubi nacto navigio, post trium dierum et totidem noctium 
navigadonem, in nocte sancti Andree circa gallicantum turrim Lon- 
doniarum per aquam intravit, ipsum comitantibus comite Norhamp- 
tonie et domino Nicholao de Cantilupo, Reginaldo de Cobham, Egidio 
de Bello campo, lohanne de Bello campo, militibus, et Willelmo de 
Kyllesby et Philippe de Westone, clericis. Statim in aurora misit rex 

Removal pro cancellario, tesaurario, et iusticiariis tune Londoniis existentibus, et 

of officials 

statim episcopum CiCestrensem cancellarn digmtate et episcopum Coven- 
trensem ab officio tesaurarie absolutes voluit misisse in Flandriam im- 
pignorandos pro pecunia ; set Cicestrensis exposuit sibi et suis periculum 
canonis qui imminet episcopos incarcerantibus, et sic ipsos turrim exire 
permisit. lusticiarios vero maiores, scilicet dominum lohannem de 
Stonore, dominum R[icardum] de Wyleby, dominum Willelmum de 
Scharesheolle, et precipue dominum Nicholaum de la Beche, qui prius 
fuit custos turris Londoniarum, et dominum lohannem Molyns militem ; 
item, merCatores dominos J. de Pulteney, Willelmum de la Pole, et 
Ricardum fratrem eius ; et clericos cancellarie maiores, videlicet dominos 
lohannem de Sancto Paulo, Michaelem de Wath, Henricum de Stratford, 
et de skakkario dominum lohannem de Thorp et alios quam plures, 
iussit diversis carceribus mancipari. Nee eos absolvit quousque sua 
melancolia 2 concepta de pecunie detencione, quam ad obsidionem 
_ , , Torneacensem debuerant misisse, fuerat sedata. 

H. BU> Hoc anno, circa Nativitatem Domini, Henricus episcopus Lin- 

wash and 

of G. le ' Selandia. B. 2 malencolia. 15. 

Scrope. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 73 

colniensis et dominus Galfridus Scroup, iusticiarius, regis principales A.D.1340. 
cbnciliarii, in Gandavo obierunt. f. 110. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xlj., regni vero sui Anglic quintodecimo, rex Edward 
celebravit Christi Natale apud Guldeford, et postea apud Reding Christmas 
hastiludiavit. Iterum in festo Purificacionis, apud Langeley puerorum, f or d. 
propter honorem nobilium de Vasconia quos ibidem cinxit ad ordinem A.D. 1341. 
militarem, habuit solempnia hastiludia. Item, hoc anno fecit Robertum men t at 
de Boursier, militem, cancellarium Anglic, et Robertum de Sadyntone et 
Robertum de Parnynk, milites, ad officium tesaurarie sucessive ordinavit. 
Emisit eciam iusticiarios, qui in quolibet comitatu sederent et inqui- Enquiry 

into the 

rerent super collectoribus decimarum et quindecimarum et lanarum et collection 

of taxes. 

ministris aliis quibuscumque. Et, quia Londonienses noluerunt per- 
mittere quod super huiusmodi inquisicionibus contra libertates civitatis 
iusticiarii in civitate sederent, ideo ordinavit rex quod in turre 
Londoniarum iusticiarii itineris suas sessiones incoarent, super factis 

Londoniensium inquisituri. Set, quia Londonienses noluerunt ibi res- Resistance 

of the 
pondere quousque sue libertates allocarentur, nee super huiusmodi Londoners. 

allocacione potuerunt brevia seu cartas regis habere de regni cancellaria, 
oriebatur in turri magnus tumultus, a personis ignotis suscitatus, adeo 
quod iusticiarii ibidem se nolle sedere finxerunt usque post Pasca. 
Interim rex, pre 1 tumultu predicto graviter offensus, nitebatur scire 
nomina suscitancium prefatum tumultum ; set ad aliam noticiam non 
potuit devenire, nisi quod autores tumultus exorti 2 fuerunt persone 
mediocres civitatis, suas libertates vendicantes. Unde dominus rex, sua 
turbacione mitigata, Londoniensibus remisit offensam, iusticiariis suas 
sessiones quoad locum ilium desinentibus. 

Anno isto, in quindena Pasce, in parliamento Londoniis celebrate, Parliament, 
comites et maiores regni, scilicet pares et communitas, inter cetera foj- 'reforms, 
pecierunt quod magna carta et ilia de foresta cum aliis ecclesie et regni 
libertatibus forent ad unguem observata, et maiores officiarii domini 
regis a paribus regni in parliamento eligerentur. Set has peticiones 
1 pro. B. 2 exosi. B. 

L 



74 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D. 1341. rex iuxta suum privatum concilium recusans exaudire, et proinde par- 
liamento usque ad festum Pentecosten protelato, finaliter concessit quod 

A compro- sui principales officiarii in parliamento forent iurati, quod in suis officiis 
cuilibet iusticiam exiberent, et, si non facerent, in quolibet parliamento 
tercio die post principium parliamenti sua officia resignarent et singulis 
de eiis querelantibus responderent, atque iudicio parium, si oporteret, 
punirentur. Super hiis et aliis factum fuit statutum regio sigillo consigna- 
tum, et extunc prelatis et aliis magnatibus dabatur licencia recedendi. 

The Hoc anno, circa principium mensis lulii, recepit dominus re'x literas 

emperor 

cancels Ludowici ducis Bavarie et usurpatoris imperii Romanorum ; in quibus 

Edward's . 

office of prefatus Ludowicus, pretendens amiciciam inter ipsum et rhilippum 

vicar of the _ . . . . . ... . .. _, .,. 

Empire. regem trancie nuper mitam, dixit sibi disphcere guerram Cjalncam 
per regem Anglic incoatam, et monuit concordiam inter reges et pacem 
reformandas, ad quam se ipsum optulit et ad hec promisit se libenti 
animo velle vacare et impendere honerosa prosecucione labores, et ad 
hec securius facienda peciit a rege : ' Placeat,' inquiens, ' tibi nobis tuis 
literis dare potestatem premissam tractandi concordiam, treugas ad 
annum vel biennium ordinandi ' ; infra quoque se excusans de amicicia 
inter ipsum et regem Francie Philippum, ut dictum est, iniciata, quam 
dixit cum honore suo se posse acceptasse, ex quo rex Anglic absque 
scitu suo cum rege Philippe treugas et certos terminos ad tractandum 
f. ne b . de concordia suscepit ; propterea predicta amicicia non debere regem 
Anglic moveri l ; et versus finem subiunxit : ' vicariatum tibi per nos 
commissum ex causis revocamus. Data Francunford, xiiij. die lunii, 
regni nostri anno xxvij. et imperii xiiij.' 

Ad vocatos 2 apices imperiales rescripsit rex ita : ' Serenissimo 
principi, domino Ludowico, Dei gracia Romanorum imperatori semper 
augusto, Edwardus, eadem gracia rex Francie et Anglic et dominus 

Hibernie' 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xlij., regni sui Anglic xvj. Francieque tercio, 
rex dedit comitatum Cantbriggie domino lohanni de Henald, patruo 
1 movere. B. 2 vocatas. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 75 

domine Phillipe regine, et, postquam apud Novum castrum celebravit A.D. 1341. 

festum sancte Katerine et solempnitatem Dominice Nativitatis, quo ad 

idem festum David rex Scotorum comminabatur se affuturum, collecto A.D. 1342. 

Edward 

exercitu intravit Scociam, et predictum David fugientem persequcbatur advances 

into Scot- 
ultra mare Scoticum, omnia devastans preter castra et paludes, in quibus i an d. 

Scoti cum eorum rege David se occuluerunt. 

Atque comes Sarisburie, Willelmus de Monte acuto, nacto navigio The earl of 

Salisbury 

cimbarum. insulam unam et optimam illarum, quas vocant Howt hildes, conquers 

the Isle of 
Scocie pertinencium, est ingressus ; ubi universa victonose subiugavit. Man. 

Predictam insulam, que Mannia vocatur, dominus rex prefato comiti 
conquestori libere dedit possidendam, et regem illius terre fecit ipsum 
appellari atque coronari. 

Rex deinde ad partes reversus australes egregium torneamentum Edward 

. . returns. 

apud Dunstaple solempnizavit, cum ducentis et tngmta multibus, et Tourna- 

eodem anno unum bourdis apud Norhamptone fieri permisit. 

Item, in parliamento apud Westmonasterium celebrato, dominus Reconcilia- 
tion of the 
Johannes archiepiscopus Cantuariensis fuit regi conciliatus ; coram quo king and 

,. . arch- 

in parliamento, non tamquam suo mdice ordmano, mravit quod, quamvis bishop. 

de suo concilio et assensu rex tiranno Francorum pro ducatu Aquitannie 
et comitatu Pontivie fecerat homagium, ad hoc tamen numquam consensit 
tamquam in regis preiudicium, nee ut tiranno Francorum huiusmodi 
concilium prebendo placeret, set quia pro tune hoc putavit consulcius 
faciendum pro pace et utilitate rcgis et regni. 

Post predictum parliamentum rex fecit incudi auream monetam New 

coinage, 
triplicis valoris, scilicet denarium vj. solidorum et octo denariorum, 

obolum xl. denariorum, et quadrantem xx. denariorum. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xliij., regis Anglic 17, religiosi possessionati, A.D.1343. 

Grant to 
ad preces amicorum regis, libere contulerunt ei, in subvencionem iuste the king 

from 
guerre sue, localia preciosa, aurea et argentea, equos eciam, bigas atque endowed 

quadrigas ; unde suum erarium multum notabiliter fuerat ditatum. Eodem ter ies. 
anno committebatur escaetoribus regis inquirere et certificare concilium In .q. uest for 

military 

regis, qui ad valorem centum solidorum vel supra de ipso in capitc sen de service. 

L 2 



;6 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D.1343. quocumque feodalia tenerent, et eorum nomina in scriptis notificare. 

Commis- Aliis eciam committebatur quod in qualibet schira sagittarios ex- 

sion oi 

array. 



periendos convocarent, alios eciam viros aptos armis deferendis cum armis 



quibus melius scirent se defendere aut hostes invadere, et omnibus sic 
convocatis et expertis etatis' legitime fuerat preceptum ut ad regis 
imperium forent parati secum contra suos et regni inimicos pugnatum 
ituri. Eodem anno multi vocati in regis auxilium contra Scotos, nee 
Money parati ad eundum, contulerunt pecunias, quibus stipendiarios pro ipsis 

composi- 
tion, domi remansuris rex posset vadiare. 

A.D.1345. Anno Domini M.CCC.xliiii., regis Anglic xviij., in auxilium domini 

The earl of 

North- lohannis de Monte forte, ducis Britannic, cuius uxor et filii in custodia regis 

ampton's 

expedition manserunt, fuerunt missi comes Norhamptome et conies Oxome, dominus 
any ' Hugo Despenser, dominus Ricardus Talebot, milites, et dominus Willel- 

I. 120. 

mus Kyllesby, clericus, singulis prefectis magnis copiis armatorum et 
sagittariorum. Britanniam itaque profecti, invitis inimicis resistentibus, 
terram ceperunt, et multos asperos conflictus contra ipsos habuerunt. 
Tandem, captis villis tarn muratis quam campestribus et aliis fortaliciis, 
castra de Bruske et de Templo Correntyn per insultus ceperunt, et totam 
patriam partim redditam et partim destructam sibi submiserunt usque 
ad villam de Morleys, ubi dominus Karolus de Bloys cum ingenti 
Defeat of exercitu illis obviavit. Igitur in campo iuxta Morleys exercitus hostiles 

Charles of 

Biois at conflixerunt, ubi animositas utriusque gentis, Bntonum videlicet, Galhco- 
rum atque Anglicorum, fuerat experta. Pugnatum est fortiter ex utraque 
parte, ita quod contigit in illo certamine quod nee in bellis, nee Haly- 
donehiel nee de Cressi nee de Fetters, audivimus contigisse. Duces nempe 
parcium, scilicet Karolus de Bloys, cui illius terre dederat ducatum Franc- 
orum tirannus, et Willelmus de Bohun, comes Norhamptonie, quern pro 
tuendo iure lohannis de Mountfort, naturalis ducis illius terre, rex 
exercitui Anglicorum prefecit, animositate quam habuerunt heroes 
generosi, omnia libencius perdidissent quam turpi vecordia arguendi, 
campo relicto, terga vertissent. Pugnatur proinde ex utraque parte 
animose, nee unquam in tota Gallica guerra, que capturam seudo-regis 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 77 

Francorum lohannis antecessit, Francos tam acriter vel ita diu man- A.D.1345. 
ualiter in campo pugnasse potuerit asserere Anglicus aut Francus aliquis, 
nisi mendax. Ter eodem die lassati ex utraque parte se modicum 
retraxere anelitum respiraturi, palis, lanceis et spatis ad quiescendum 
appodiati. Set tandem magnanimus ille Karolus, suis fugientibus, com- 
pulsus erat fugam inire ; unde Anglici saluti pacifice vacabant. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xlv., regis xix., Henricus comes Derbie, postea Campaign 

_ , . of the earl 

dux Lancastrie creatus, et comes Devonie et comes Pembrocnie et O f Derby 
dominus Radulfus, nondum comes Staffordie set baro, et dominus " 
Walterus de Magne Vasconiam destinantur; ubi, conquisitis villis muratis 
et castris, multa gloriosa certamina fortiter vicerunt. Villam Daguiloun 
per insultum adquisitam deputabant custodie Radulphi Staffordie. 
Postea diverterunt se ad alias villas, ut Brigerak, vocatam pre sua 
fortitudine 'cameram Francorum,' et ad villam sancti lohannis et de 
la Ruele et alias multas grandes et fortes et bene munitas, quas magnis 
laboribus et insultibus periculosis adquisierunt. Ibi dux Lancastrie, 
militans 1 in fossatis subterraneis que pro diruendis turribus et muris 
effodiebantur, graves a virilibus defensoribus insultus paciebatur, et 
manualiter contra obsesses dimicavit, et, quod antea fuit inauditum, in 
eiisdem fossatis milites tam Vascones quam Anglicos effecit. Quippe 
villas, civitates, castra et fortalicia ducentas 1. conquirendo, magnam 
partem Vasconie et usque Tolosam transequitavit, ubi dominas Tolosanas 
et virgines nobiles per suas literas ad convivandum secum et suis comi- 
tibus et 2 domino Bernardo de Libreto, Aquitannico fideli, invitavit. 
Set, civitatem Deo conservante, nihil eius incolis malefecit, nisi quod 
terrorem intollerabilem, ut obsessi mihi retulerunt, eiis intulit ; ita 
quod, religiosis mendicis ad arma compulsis, prior Carmelitarum beate 
Marie Tolose, sub vexillo argenteo ymaginem auream beate Virginis 
habente, de quarterio 3 sui incolatus civibus prefectus, ostendens suum f. 120". 
vexillum ad muros, per armorum errancias 4 descriptum ducem ad 

1 milites. B. 2 am, B. 3 quarerio. B. * errancios. B. 



78 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D.1345. devocionem piam et quam plures de exercitu, atque nonnullos ad deri- 

sionem, provocavit. 
Siege of Postea, circa Quadragesimam anni secundi, duce et comitibus cum 

Aiguillon 

by the predis et captivis redimendis, auri quoque et argenti magnis collectis, 

duke of 

Normandy Burdelagiam, Bngeracum, et alias municiones suas reversis, lohannes de 
(.A.D.I34 ;. y a j es j 0j primogenitus e t heres tiranni Francorum, cum magna multi- 



tudine iuvenum militum et stipendiariis Teutonicis non paucis, obsessit 
villam de Aguyloun et eius capitaneum baronem Staffordie, et ita 
sapienter suum exercitum fossatis munierunt quod ad eos Anglicis sine 
magno periculo non patuit accessus, saltim ipsis invitis ; nee minus pru- 
denter seu viriliter obsessi suam civitatem defensam custodiebant, ita 
quod pluries cum exercitu extra muros et portas manu ad manum 
pugnavere. Dux vero et sui non segniter se habuerunt, immo plures 
conflictus cum obsessoribus habuere et obsesses crebro novis victualibus 
refecerunt, nee tamen obsidionem valuerunt penitus amovere, propter 
impossibilitatem aggrediendi obsidentes fossis circumseptos, qui nolu- 
erunt ad bellum campestre feriendum assentire, set respondebant se non 
propter bellum set ad obsidendam illam civitatem illuc advenisse. 
Itaque duravit obsidio prestita usque post festum Decollacionis sancti 
lohannis ; audito nempe pro tune quod rex Anglic apud Cressi patrem 
suum Philippum debellavit, timens ne nimis tarde ad patris presenciam 
et concilium deveniret, gratis dimisit obsidionem, tentoriis et papilioni- 
bus suis incensis, occultam fugam iniit tenebris nocturnis. Fugientes 
persequebantur nobiles obsessi, scilicet comes Staffordie predictus et 
films domini de Libreto, et percusserunt eos in posteriori exercitus parte ; 
cuius amputata cauda, de illorum equis et captivis reductis, tentoriis 
quoque ab igne salvatis opidani fucrunt notabiliter ditati, et de rumoribus 
illorum fugam cantivis valde confortati. 

Prepare.- Hiis in Vasconia et predictis in Britannia mirabilius quam scripsi se 

England habentibus, domino regi ad transfretandum se disponenti eliguntur 

sagittarii, decime et quindecime burgensibus et campestribus sunt col- 

lecte, et insuper vicesies milia saccorum lane eiidem conceduntur. Item, 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 79 

dominus Godefridus de Harecourt, Normannus, venit ad regem, et A.D.1345. 
petens auxilium contra tirannum Francorum, qui terras et possessiones Geoffroi 
suassibi detinuit et abstulit iniuste, facto regi homagio, iuravit sibi fideli- ^^ s urt 
tatem. Postea penituit eundem, propterea conversum in prodicionem service, 
regis, ut placaret faciem tiranni Francorum ; et hoc in sequentibus erit 
tactum. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xlvj., regis anno xx., comes Norhamptonie A.D.1346. 
et ceteri domini cum illo Britanniam, ut descriptum est, profecti, castra 
per illos adquisita in ducatu Britannic viris fidelibus bene victualiata 
custodienda commiserunt, et ad presenciam domini regis cum gloria et 
honore in Angliam revertebantur. 

Postea dominus rex suum passagium in Neustriam properavit, ipsum The fleet 

collected 
apud Portusmutham et Porcestriam navigio expectante. Igitur cum a t Ports- 

comitibus Norhamptonie, Arundelie, Warwykie, et domino de Hare- an( j p or . 
court, Huntyndonie, Oxenfordie, et Suffolchie, et episcopo Dunelmensi, et c 
domino Willelmo de Kyllesby, clerico, quorum quilibet copiosam massam 
armatorum atque sagittariorum secum deduxit, dominus rex ad predictos 
portus a kalendis lunii usque ad quintum diem mensis lulii ventum tar- f. 121. 
dum set prosperum expectavit. Tandem cum mille navibus, spinaciis, Theexpe- 
atque cariariis inceperunt velificare mirabiliter. Secretum tenebatur 
tune concilium regale ; magistri nempe navium adhuc de portu amoti 
nescierunt quo deberent naves dirigere, set iussi sequebantur amirallum. 
Attamen eodem die rex de sua nave emisit nuncios ad cetera vasa, iam 
longe ab litore distancia, precipiens eorum rectoribus ut sequerentur 
amirallum, ad portum de Hoggis in Normannia naves directuri. Tandem 

die tertio decimo eiusdem mensis lulii, ad portum desideratum appli- It lands at 

La Hogue, 
cucrunt, ubi, nacti terram, in littore suum primogenitum fecit militem et 13 July. 

eum principem Wallie constituebat. Statim princeps fecit milites 
dominos de Mortimer, de Monte acuto, et de Ros ; et cum illis eciam 
fuerunt alii consimiliter ad ordinem promoti militarem. Per residuum 
diei et totam noctem rex in villa de Hogges ospitabatur, et in crastino, Advance 
die lovis, per exercitum villa combusta, deinde per patriam Constantin Normandy. 



8o CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1346. profectus 1 , nocte sequent! in Marcelins rex hospitabatur, ibi per quinque 
dies commoratus, in quibus tota patria cum villa de Barbeflete combusta 
fuerat, vastata cum tota ilia costa marina. Deinde ad Valoygnes, bonam 
villam combustam ; deinde ad Seint Combe de Mont, iuxta pontem Dove, 
et ad Karantam ; deinde ad Serins et ad civitatem sancti Ludowici et 
bonam villam de Turny profecti, omnia combusserunt ; et ilia nocte 
ospitatus rex ad Cormolin. Deinde apud Gerin, cellam monasterii de 

Capture of Came, nihil relinquitur inconsumptum. Postea, in die Martis, dederunt 
insultum, et cum magno certamine ingress! sunt nobilem civitatem de 
Came, ad pontem, qui acerrime fuerat defensus. Illic 2 fuerunt capti et 
occisi centum et xliij. milites, inter quos fuerunt comes de Ew et cam- 
berlinus de Tankervyle, probi milites, cum aliis captivis in Angliam 
missi, et abbatissa de Came ; de civibus 3 ville qui resistebant fuerunt occisi 
amplius quam mille trecenti. Ibi morabatur exercitus per sex dies, qui 
spolia usque tune in villis et patria adquisita vel miserunt vel vendiderunt 
nautis vel per nautas, qui iuxta maritima regem sequebantur 4 , omnia 
vastantes, que possent ad artem navalem pertinere. Deinde ad monas- 
terium forte et defensivum et villam de Troward, in marisco situata ; 
postea ad Argenz, bonam villam. De nocte venerunt ad Romenil, 

Arrival at omnia comburentes. Deinde apud civitatem de Lyseus invenerunt car- 

Lisieux. . . 

dmales de Claro monte et Neapolitanum et unum arcniepiscopum, 

offerentes regi tractatum pads ; et ibi morabatur rex per iij. dies, 

recusans tune de pace tractare. Deinde prcterierunt Lestintnoland et 

villam de Briene, et hospitabantur apud Neuburgh, et postea apud Cele- 

beef super Seganam 5 ; et ibi Wallici Seganam transnataverunt, patriotis 

invitis resistentibus, et plures eorum occiderunt. Deinde transierunt iuxta 

Advance to castrum et villam de Fount darch, loca forcia non expugnata ; et ilia 

nocte apud Lury super Seganam hospitabantur, iuxta bonam villam de 

March up Lovers, que fuit incinerata. Postea transierunt per castrum et villam de 

bank. Gailon, capta et combusta, et ospitabantur apud Lungevile, que est iuxta 

1 profecti. B. 2 Illuc. B. s quibus. B. " sequebatur. B. 

6 Seigne Seganam. B. The first -word no doubt an incorporated gloss. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 8t 

bonam villam et castrum de Vernon, non capta nee tacta, et ibi intrarunt A.D.1340. 

in Franciam. Et ilia nocte combusserunt castrum de Rocheblanche, que 

stat ultra Seganam, et ospitabantur apud Frevile super Seganam. 

Postea transierunt per villam de Maunte, de nocte ospitati apud Eporne. 

In crastino, die Veneris, transierunt ad Freignus ; et in Sabbato vene- ' 121". 

runt ad bonam villam de Poecy, ubi pontem per Gallicos fractum, ne Arrival at 

Poissy. 
regi trans Segenam transitus per ilium pateret, contrario sensu ipse rex 

fecit reedifkari. Et eodem die Dominico venerunt de Amyas et Francia 
tres magne acies ordinate ad proibendum regi passagium ; set, habito ibi- 
dem acri conflictu et trecentis Gallicis in illo peremtis atque ceteris fuga ' 
dilapsis, combusserunt triginta duas bigas et quadrigas plenas balistis, 

quarellis, et aliis armaturis atque victualibus. Igitur, ibidem mora Passage of 

the Seine 
duorum dierum protracta, transierunt ad Gersile iuxta Pountoys ; et and march 

. . north- 
die Mercurii apud Autel ospitati, in crastino dimiserunt a latere civi- war ds. 

tatem de Beuvoys intactam, et per Trosolurs profecti apud Somereus 
die Veneris ospitium ceperunt. In crastino cum insultu expugnaverunt 
villam de Poys acriter defensam, et castrum combusserunt. Deinde, 
profecti diebus Lune et Martis, apud Areignus sunt demorati. Deinde, 
apud Acheu ospitati, die lovis venerunt ad Noil sur la Meer, vadum aque 
de Summe de Port, ubi fluxus et refluxus maris succedunt. Ex opposite 

illius vadi venerunt Gallici de civitate Dabevile et illius patrie cum Skirmish at 

the passage 

exclamacione valde superba proibituri transitum per vadum, in tres acies of the 

Somme. 

terribiles divisi ; contra quas habuerunt Anglici dirum congressum, 

domino Hugone de Spenser illud primitus arripiente. Set, per Dei 
graciam, adverso litore invitis resistentibus adquisito, ibidem plures quam 2 
bis mille ceciderunt peremti, et eadem nocte, villa de Crotoye capta et 
incinerata, amplius quam trecenti stipendiarii lanuenses post periculosam 
resistenciam corruertmt occisi. 

Ad vesperum diei Veneris sequentis, rege super litus de Summe The two 

ni -i- j armies 

residente, venit super ripam, quam antea peragrarunt, Phihppus de approach 

Valesio tirannus Francorum, et cum ipso reges Boemie et Malogrie, cum another. 
1 fuge. B. * plures quam] misplaced after peremti. B. 

M 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D. 1346. 



Battle of 
Crecy. 



Disposition 
of the 
French 
army. 



f. 122. 



The ori- 

flamme 

unfurled. 



exercitu innumerabili in acies octo magnas diviso. Gallic! regem et 
Anglicos superbe exclamaverunt, militibus utrinque in vado et super litus 
more guerre hastiludiantibus. Rex misit tiranno offerens pacificum et 
indempnem transitum per vadum ad eligendum sibi locum aptum bello ; 
set formidolosus iste Philippus, qui se antea minabatur insequiturum 
regem, noluit tune bellum, set quasi ad alium locum aquam transiturus 
divertebat, et rex ipsum expectabat per totam noctem. In crastino, 
scilicet die Sabbati, rex promovit suum exercitum ad campum de Cressi, 
ubi obviavit eii exercitus tiranni. Igitur rex semper ad prelium pre- 
paratus, et sui exercitus acie prima principi Wallie filio subordinata, 
custodia secunde missa, terciam custodiam sibi retinens, omnia Deo et 
Virgini beate commendavit, observato quod sui omnes pedites insultum 
hostilem expectabant, dextrariis et cursariis cum victualibus venacioni 
hostium fugitivorum reservatis. 

Exercitus Francorum fuit in novem turmas divisus. Prima custodia 
regi Boemie, viro magne sapiencie et armorum experiencie, commenda- 
batur, qui eodem die in purgacionem sue fame peciit a tiranno primum 
ducatum atque prophetavit se moriturum contra nobiliorem mundi 
militem ; sibi enim dicenti regem Anglie non esse fugam initurum fuit 
vecordia improperata, unde regimen prime custodie habuit cum instancia 
magna. Tantum securi fuerunt in multitudine sui exercitus heroes 
Francorum, quod singuli pecierunt singulas personas Anglicas suis 
carceribus mancipandas. Rex Malogrie peciit regem Anglorum sibi 
dari, alii principem, alii comitem Norhamptonie, alii alios, secundum 
quod videbantur nobiliores ; set tirannus hastutus, timens ne circa 
capcionem nobilium redimendorum sui forent nimium ocupati, et proinde 
segnius ad communem victoriam hanelarent, iussit explicari suum vex- 
illum quod vocatur Oliflammum, quo erecto, non licuit sub pena capitis 
aliquem capere ad vitam reservandum. Vocabatur inquam Oliflammum, 
significans misericordiam Francorum incensam aliquem mortalem 1 reser- 
vare ad vitam non posse, sicud nee oleum inflammatum alicui cremabili 

1 mortalem posse. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 83 

posse parcere. Ita vexillum ad dextram stacionardi regalis Francie habuit A.D.1346. 
aurea lilia lata cum filis aureis a lateribus vexilli regii Francorum, quasi in 
vacuo dependencia. E contra rex Anglic iussit explicari 1 suum vexillum, English 
in quo draco armis suis togatus depingebatur et abinde fuit nuncupatum standard 
' Drago,' significans feritatem leoparditam atque miticiam liliorum in 
draconcinam crudelitatem fuisse conversam. 

Acies taliter ordinate steterunt in campo ab hora prima diei usque Delay, 
ad vesperam, Gallicorum multitudine honerosa per advenientes continuis 
incrementis multiplicata. Tandem, circa solis occasum, exercituum nimis Com- 
horridorum post guerraria astiludia, prima certamina, tubis clangentibus, JJf^hJ? ment 
timpanis et naquirinis cum lituis strepentibus, Gallicis Anglicos quasi battle - 
tonaret exclamantibus, incoaverunt balistarii Francorum, quorum quarelle 
nullum Anglicorum attigerunt set ceciderunt a longe coram eiis. Ad 
strepitum pregrandem balistariorum excitati sagittarii adversos cum 
sagittis confossos necuere, et imbrem quarellarum grandine sagittarum 
finiverunt. Intellecto quod balistarii nihil Anglicis nocuerunt, Gallici Charge of 
armati, iuvenibus dextrariis et agilibus cursariis insidentes, balistarios ad 
numerum septem millenariorum inter ipsos et Anglicos situates sub 
pedibus equorum calcaverunt prostrates, impetuose festinantes in An- 
glicos suas ostentare virtutes. Itaque inter pedites grossis equis calcatos 
sonus inorruit lamentabilis, quern posteriores in exercitu Francorum 
putaverunt fuisse Anglicorum moriencium. Nitebatur proinde quilibet 
Gallicus suos prosequi precedentes; set ad illam inconsultam temeritatem 
maxime fuerunt voluntarii novicii milites, quibus valde habundavit 
exercitus, et omnes cupidi magni honoris, quern regem Anglic debellando 
quilibet putabat se adquisiturum. 

E contra Anglici, Christi matrem invocantes, cum ilium diem sab- Disposi- 

, . .... tion of the 

bati cum iciunns sanctmcarunt 2 , effodierunt in parvo tempore multa English, 
foramina in terra coram acie prima, profunditatem unius pedis eteandem 3 
latitudinem habente 1 quolibet illorum, ut, si, quod abfuit, equites Galli- 
corum ipsos nimis fuissent insecuti, equi ad foramina titubassent. Sagit- 
1 om. B. 2 sacrificarunt. B. * tandem. B. 

M 2 



84 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1346. tarn's eciam sua loca designarunt, ut, non coram armatis, set a lateribus 

regis exercitus quasi ale astarent, et sic non impedirent armatos neque 

inimicis occurrerent in fronte, set in latera sagittas fulminarent. 

The Igitur a balistariis, ut dictum est, per equos grosses calcatis et a 

thrown dextrariis per sagittas perforatis, ingens luctus ad astra 1 levatur, et ab 

fusion "" equis titubantibus aciei forma Gallicorum orride turbatur. Cum Anglicis 

armatis confligentes securibus, lanceis, et gladiis prosternuntur, et in 

medio exercitu Francorum multi compressi a multitudine honerosa sine 

Prowess of wlnere opprimuntur. In tarn diro congressu acierum magnanimus 

{/Wales. 6 Edwardus de Wodestoke, regis primogenitus, agens tune annum etatis 

sextum decimum, in prima custodia ostendebat Gallicis suam probitatem 

admirandam, equos perforando, equites prosternendo, cassides conqua- 

ciendo, lanceas truncando, ictus obiectos prudenter frustrando, suos 

iuvando, se ipsum defendendo, amicos prostratos erigendo, et suis 

omnibus exemplum bene faciendi exibendo ; nee a tanto labore con- 

f. I22 b . quievit, quousque inimici aggere mortuorum muniti se ipsos retraxere. 

Ibi didicit ille militaris honor quomodo bellum de Peitiers, in quo 

postmodum regem Francie captivavit, actus militares expertus ordinaret. 

In isto certamine perstiterunt continue cum iuveni principe contra illi 

pauci ordinati aciei prime, quos Gallici crebro commutati et pro occisis 

aut fessis seu wlneratis retractis novi recentes supervenerunt, et continuis 

accessibus ita ocuparunt principem et sibi astantes, quod per ingruentem 

super ilium molem hostium tune compellebatur genuflexus pugnare. Tune 

cucurrit aut equitavit quidam 2 ad regem suum patrem, et petens auxilium 

exposuit periculum quod imminebat suo primogenito ; unde missus 

cum xx. militibus in principis succursum, invenit ipsum et suos lanceis 

et gladiis appodiatos, super montes mortuorum longos respiracioni et 

quieti inclinatos, hostes retractos expectare. Sic a solis occasu usque ad 

Defeat of terciam noctis quadrantem fuerat vicissim orrida Martis facies ostensa, in 

French. quanto tempore ter Gallici nostros exclamaverunt hostiliter, quindecies 

nostris insultum dederunt, set tandem victi abfugerunt. 

1 astara. B. 2 am. B. s blank. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 85 

In crastino quatuor 1 acies recencium Gallicorum supervenerunt, et, A.D.1346. 
quasi nullum malum suis accidisset, Anglicos iam quarto pompatice Fight on 
exclamantes, decimum sextum congressum inierunt. Anglici ex ad- day. 
verso, quamvis hesterno labore fessi, attamen viriliter restiterunt, et post 
acre magnumque certamen hostes in fugam compulerunt, atque fugientes 
insecuti in ipsa venacione et a principio illius conflictus ter mille viros 
occiderunt, predictis scilicet diebus sabbato et die Dominico. 

Fuerunt in prelio de Cressi peremti rex Boemye, archiepiscopus de French 
Zanxinus, episcopus de Noyoun, dux Lotoringie, comes Dalensount et 
frater eius, Philippus comes de Harecowrt et duo filii eiusdem, comes 
Darsour vel Dauser, comes Daumarle, comes de Saumus, comes de 
Bloys, comes Flandrie, comes de Mocobiliard, comes de Nauver, comes 
de Grant pres ; et alii comites, ut dicebatur, Teutonic!, quorum nomina 
fuerunt ignota. Aliorum dominorum fuerunt occisi dominus Robertus 
Bertram, marescallus exercitus, dominus de Rossengburgh, maximus de 
concilio tiranni, prior provincialis Francie ospitalis sancti lohannis, abbas 
de Corbele, dominus de Morele, dominus de Kayen, dominus de Seven- 
aunt, et plures alii, quos Gallic! capti et inquisiti nescierunt nominare. 
Summa virorum militarium et superioris dignitatis in illo bello perem- 
torum excedebat 2 quatuor miliaria ; alios vero 3 ibidem occisos nemo 
curavit numerare. Istos generosos detraxit in cladem ipsorum inconsulta 
presumcio, ut tactum est, nitencium quemlibet alium antecedere ad 
honorem capiendi sen debellandi regem Anglic. 

Ab hora nona illius diei Dominice, quo biduum 4 certamen fuit ter- 
minatum, rex et exercitus, semoti a mortuis per medium miliare. graciis 
Datori victoriarum et quieti corporal! indulgebant, suos nee minus recen- 
sentes ; non invenerunt quod quadraginta de toto exercitu regis perierunt. English 

loss. 

Tandem hora vesperarum capientes corpus regis Boemie, fecerunt aqua Funeral of 
tepida lavari et involvi in lineiis mundis et poni in feretrum equestre ; schema. 
et circa illud episcopus Dunelmensis, astantibus rege et suis comitibus 
cum clero present!, exequias mortuorum solempniter celebravit. Item, 
1 quatuor et. B. 8 excedat. B. ' res. B. * buduum. B. 



86 



CHRONICON CALFRIDI 



A.D.1346, 



f. 123. 



Siege of 
Calais, 
4 Sept. 

The Scots 

invade 

England. 



Capture of 
the castle 
of Liddel. 

Sir Walter 
de Selby 
put to 
death. 



in crastino, super altare viaticum missa de Requiem et aliis privatis 
celebratis, ducto secum corpore nobilis regis Boemie, transierunt per 
monasterium de Mounteneye, et die Martis sequent! per unum malum pas- 
sagium ad villam de Mounteney, et exinde ad abbaciam de Seint loce. 
Postea, pretereuntes vadum quoddam, ad Novum castrum devenerunt, 
ubi demorati duobus diebus, exinde venerunt Calesiam, quam statim 
obsidione vallaverunt, quarto die Septembris, anno regni regis Anglie xx. 
et a conquestu Francie septimo. 

Edwardo, Dei gracia rege Anglie et Francie conquestore, inexpug- 
nabilem villam de Caleys obsidente, misit tirannus Francorum ad David 
regem Scotorum magnum numerum lanuencium et aliorum stipen- 
diariorum, ipsum exortans per suas literas quod Angliam, sua milicia 
et viris bellicosis, ut dixit, evacuatam, fortiter aggrederetur depredare, 
castra et municiones expugnare, et ad suos usus reservare, ut alias illi 
duo simul sibi totam Angliam eo facilius subiugarent. Igitur, circa 
festum sancti Dionisii, rex Scotorum David cum potencia Scotica et 
stipendiariis sibi missis ingreditur Angliam, dimittens Berewicum per 
Anglicos defensum. Tandem, peragrata foresta Alnewici et adiacente 
patria depredata, oppugnarunt quoddam manerium domini 1 de Wake, 
vocatum Ludedew. Predictum locum per tempus aliquot contra ipsos 
defendebat dominus Gualterus de Seleby, miles magne probitatis, qui 
tandem, mole Scotorum coactus, victori se reddidit pro redemptione con- 
servandus, qui eum in graciam, more victoris de iure militari bellis 
Scoticis atque Gallicis usitato, [cepit 2 ]. Vite illius captura ad David 
noticiam ventilata, iubetur occidi illius miserentem atque redempcionem 
affectantem. Deprecabatur ut ad David conspectum vivus duceretur. 

1 domine. B. 

2 Gualterus . . . cepit] This passage is in utter confusion in B., probably owing to 
apart of it having been written in tlte margin of the original MS. and incorporated 
here at the wrong point. It is as follows : Gualterus de victoris se reddidit pro re- 
dempcione conservandus qui suum in graciam Seleby miles magne probitatis qui 
tandem mole Scotorum coactus more victori de iure militari bellis Scoticis atque 
Gallicis visitato. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 87 

Petit! primi voti compos, genuflexus coram David petivit vitam pro A.D.1346. 
redempcione ; set iterum morti condempnatur. Allegavit miles contra 
crudele mandatum tiranni quod, antique iure pietatis regie regnorum 
tarn Scocie quam Anglic vel Francie, quilibet miser, eciam reus regie 
magestatis, foret gavisurus privilegio immunitatis, quamdiu conspectui 
regis astaret, et quod numquam contingebat aliquem supplicio finali 
detrudi, postquam presentis faciei regalis misericordiam suppliciter 
petivit. Set indurata malicia tiranni torquens funem facinorosum, quo 
in precipicium traeretur, non recordatus quod oleo, misericordie typum 
gerente, fuerat quondam perunctus in regem, quasi lacte leene fuisset 
educatus, iussit duos filios 1 miseri militis in conspectu patris iugulari, 
et postea pre dolore fere insanientis capud amputari. Testis 2 mihi Deus, 
pluries inquisivi, set non audivi de illo milite quod prodicionem contra 
regem Scotorum aut aliquem Scotum perpetravif unquam ; cuius et 
filiorum crudelem et iniustam peremcionem credo fuisse magnam 
causam periclitacionis regis et magni exercitus Scotorum, forma sub- 
sequente. Exinde progredientes miseri, non timuerunt sanctum Cuth- 
bertum, quern 3 antiqui reges Scocie in magna veneracione habuerunt 
et suum monasterium magnis helemosinis ditaverunt, non ipsum inquam 
timuerunt set nee suum dominium devastare. Nempe per multas 4 
suorum prediorum depredaciones venerunt prope Dunelmiam, non The Scots 

, . advance to 

distantes ad duo mmana, ubi quosdam monacos sancti Cuthberti cap- Durham, 



tivos redimendos detinuerunt, pacto cum ceteris inito de certa redemp- 
cione peccunie 5 et bladi, ne manerias illorum ultra depredarent. 

Oritur luctus Anglicorum marchionum a facie exercitus fugiencium ; 
unde dominus Willelmus de la Zouche, archiepiscopus Eboracensis, qui 
locum regium in ilia marchia tune habebat, convocatis cum eorum copiis 
episcopo Carliolensi, comite Danegos, domino de Moubray, domino de 
Percy, domino de Neville, et aliis nobilibus borealibus, cum sagittariis ' 123". 
de comitatu Lancastrie, in vigilia sancti Luce Ewangeliste ad locum qui 
vocatur Neville cros exercitui Scotorum occurrebat. Restitit animose 
1 duorum filiorum. B. ! Testi. B. 3 quam. B. * multos. B. 6 peccunii. B. 



88 



CHRONICON CALFRWI 



Battle of 
Neville's 
Cross, 
17 Oct. 



A.D.1346. nacio Scotia nescia fuge, et, capitibus ferro tectis inclinatis, acies densa 
Anglicos invadens, cassidibus politis et umbonibus numero firmatis, 
sagittas Anglicorum in primordio belli frustravit; set armatorum acies 
prima ictubus letalibus hostes salutavit. Stant pugnaces ex utraque 
parte morti quam fuge paraciores. Vidisses Scotos pre labore fessos 
ictubus securium capitatarum 1 sic atonitos, et tamen stantes, quod ubi 
forsan steterunt decem, singuli singulis appodiati, ad unum ictum uno 
ruente omnes illos decem corruere ; sicud retulerunt hii qui viderunt eos 
cadentes. Marescallus Scotorum, comes Patricius, cui posterior custodia 
fuerat deputata, ut primo percepit Anglicos resistere suosque cadere, 
fugam iniit cum quibusdam conciis sue vecordie, quam dominus de 
Percy eodem die prophetavit dicens : ' Vecordia illius proditoris, num- 
quam ausi nobis in campo eciam obviare, plus proficiet nostro exercitui 
quam nocerent mille Scoti.' Illo fugam ineunte, ceteri fideliter cum 
suo rege persistentes pulcram mortem turpi vite pretulerunt. Steterunt 
nempe in modum rotunde turris glomerati, regem in medio protegentes, 
quousque vix fuerant quadraginta superstites relicti, de quibus non 
potuit aliquis affugere. Tandem eorum rege David per lohannem de 
Copelond captivato et ceterorum quolibet occiso aut redempcioni reser- 
vato, illorum dico qui cum rege perstiterunt, alios fugitives insequebantur 
occidendo et capiendo usque ad Prudhow et Corebrigge. 

In tanto certamine fuerunt capti David de Bruys 2 rex Scotorum, 
comes de Menteth, comes de Fiffe, dominus Malcolmus Flemyng, 
comes de Wixtone ; Willelmus Douglas, Willelmus de Levingstone, 
Walterus de Haliburtone, Johannes Dowglas, David de Anand, lo- 
hannes de Seint Clere, Willelmus Mombray, David fitz Robert fiz 
Cante, Willelmus de Ramsey, Adam Moigne, lohannes Stiward, Rogerus 
de Kyrkepatrik, lohannes Hume, et Willelmus Morre, milites ; lacobus 
Sandelflome, lacobus Lorein, et Henricus del Ker, domicelli. Occisi 
fuerunt in eodem bello comes de Morif, et comes de Straterne ; item 
Alexander Stragy, lohannes de Halybortone, Henricus de Rammesey, 
1 capitatorum. B. * Brays. B. 



Losses of 
the Scots. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 89 

Naso de Rammesey, Adam Nilkessone, Thomas Boyde, lohannes A.r>.i34e. 
Styward, Alanus Styward, David de la Haye, Edwardus de Keth, 
lohannes de Crauford, lohannes de Kyndeseye, Philippus de Meldrun, 
Henricus de Ramesey, Alexander Morre, Humfridus de Boys, Gilbertus 
Ynchemartyn, Robertus Maltalent, et suus germanus Humfridus 
Kyrkepatrik, lohannes Stragy, et Patricius Heringe, milites. Preter 
hos eciam in venacione fugiencium multos occiderunt insequentes ; 
set non plurium quam illorum toge fuerunt de campo principal! 
reportate, ut numero togarum numerus et nomina occisorum in- 
notescerent. 

Dum hec in Anglia geruntur, rex Anglic institit obsidioni ville de Progress of 

. ..... the siege 

Caleys, que in mansco Dartoys situata, gemmo muro dupplicique tossa O f Calais, 
circumcincta, super litus maris Anglici respicit ex opposito turrim 
Dovorie, habens portum, minas ponti sua spernens securitate, ubi navibus f. 124. 
prebet hospicium satis securum. Hoc opidum cum suo castro munitis- 
simo quondam Romanorum potencia struxit. Postquam nempe lulius 
Cesar totam Galliam subiugavit, Calesiam in Artosia et castrum de 
Chapstowe in Venedocia atque turrim Dovorie in Loegria, subiugata 
Britannia, edificavit. Dominus rex suo exercitui fossas amplas cir- 
cumduxit et classem portui Calesii prefecit, ne vel in suos Gallic! irru- 
erent aut obsessis victualia per mare ministrarent. Tamen rex ad 
obsidendum villam magnum navigium in mari detinuit nee abesse per- 
misit. Normanni pirate ceperunt successive xv. naves magnas cum 
parvis, quarum alias abduxerunt suis usibus, ceteras ignibus consump- 
serunt. Capiebantur in mari dominus Edmundus Haclut et dominus 
Willelmus de Bortone, milites, versus Angliam navigando. Itaque, 
obsidione confirmata, rex insultus noluit inferre, sciens cum altis muris 
et fossis non sine periculo hominem posse dimicare. Set nee voluit 
contra villam machinas erigere, ut, sicud alibi fieri solet, officio para- 
riorum muri conquassati 1 et obruti meabiles redderentur; nempe defuit 
fundamentum in quo machinas collocasset. Preterea, muris eorum 

1 conquassata. B. 
N 



90 CHRONIC ON CALF RID I 

A.D.1346. obrutis, adhuc fosse profunde aquis marinis cotidie inundate contra 
totum mundum poterant defendi cum facilitate. Verumtamen obsessi, 
timentes per machinas muros eorum posse ledi, crates et saccos plenos 
paleis paraverunt, quibus ictus lapidum a machinis emissorum fuissent 
delusi; scientes eos lapides remissius ledere quos obiectum mollius recipit 
proiectos. Ergo ab insultibus atque murorum quassacione rex abstinuit, 
cogitans consulte quod fames, que foribus clausis ingreditur, posset et 
deberet obsessorum superbiam domare. Ab arido ad mare profundum, 

Attempt to ex ea parte qua Bolonienses solebant Calesienses victualiare, non navibus 
relieve the . c , .... . - . ... 

town. in profundo ens proibito set super arenam man expanso supernciahter, 

batellas replentes victualibus, comes l Norhamptonie fecit paleatam sepem 

seu palicium proibitorium huiusmodi scafarum ne accederent ; et post- 

modum amirallo Francorum volenti cum navigio guerrario Anglicis 

navibus insultare, ut medio tempore scaphe victuliarent obsessam Ca- 

lesiam, comes Norhamptonie obvius ipsum potenter fugavit. 

A.D.1347- Taliter a festo Nativitatis sancte Marie per totam yemem et mag- 

thelk'i'ng'o'f nam partem estatis sequentes obsidione invalescente, die Lune proxima 

Guines l ante f estum sancti lacobi tirannus Francorum advenit castrum de Gynes 

cum lohanne suo primogenito et filio regis Boemie, postea imperatore 

Romanorum, promittens cum iuramento quod obsidionem guerra seu 

pace amoveret, aut, Anglicis invitis, obsesses victualiaret. Tandem ap- 

and propiavit cum exercitu vix per unum miliare distans a potencia Angli- 

Calais. corum, et, petito per nuncios tractatu pacis, emisit ducem Datenes et 

comitem de Btirbone et Darmynak ; qui, cum duce Lancastrie et co- 

mitibus Norhamptonie et Huntinkdonie de treugis tractantes, non po- 

Fruitless tuerunt assensum Anglicorum optinere. Unde, post guerraria hastiludia, 

negotia- 
tions, partes utreque ad sua tentona sunt reverse. Die secunda optuht 

Signals tirannus diem preliandi, quern rex Anglie libenter suscepit. Obsessi 

of distress . 

from the mterea per signa suum statum tiranno Francorum fecerunt mamfestum, 

in primo nempe adventu tiranni erexerunt eius vexillum super turrim 
principalem castri, alias quoque turres vexillis ducum et comitum de 

1 om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 91 

Francia ornaverunt, et paulo post crepusculum flammam ignis Claris- A.D.1347. 
simam cum ingenti pompa clamancium atque tubarum, timpanorum 
quoque et lituorum, versus exercitum Gallicorum de eminenciori turri 
levaverunt per medium unius hore durantem. Secunda nocte flammam 
consimiliter, set priori paulo parciorem, cum tumultu mediocri por- 
rexerunt. Tercia vero nocte flammam valde tenuem et vix a Gallicis 
perceptibilem, cum voce lugubri et humiliter submissa quasi per unam 
horam porrectam, in fossam castri cadere permiserunt : per hec signi- 
ficantes suam potenciam ad conservacionem ville fuisse finitam ; et 
eadem nocte omnia vexilla preter stacionardum recolligerunt, nihilo 
pompatice de cetero pretenso. 

Tandem appropiavit dies bellicus, quern de Anglia et ligua Teuto- Retreat of 

the French. 

nica in subsidmm regis congressorum decem et septem milia virorum f 124b 
prevenerunt. Unde, secunda die mensis Augusti, tirannus Francorum, 
videns potenciam regis auctam, in aurora diei sua tentoria ignibus de- 
pascens, signo proinde funesto obsessis dato quod non auderet ipsis 
succurrere, vecorditer abfugit ; cuius posteriora mactando et capiendo 
dux Lancastrie et comes Norhamptonie preciderunt. Turpi fuga tiranni Surrender 
Francorum Calisiensibus obsessis comperta, eius stacionardum cum in- 
genti luctu de turri in foveam proiecerunt, et sabbato sequenti illorum 
capitaneus, in bellica praxici miles multum eruditus, vocatus lohannes 
de Vienna, ianuis apertis, insidebat parvo runcino, impos pre gutta pedes 
incedere, collum corda constrictus, venit coram rege ; quern alii milites 
et burgenses pedites, nudi capita et discalciati, funes ad colla eciam 
habentes, sequebantur. Capitaneus itaque optulit regi spatam guer- 
rariam, tamquam inter omnes Christianos preliorum principi precipuo 
et qui contra maximum rcgem Christianorum illam villam cum omni 
decencia militari conquisivit potenter. Secundo sibi tradidit claves ville. 
Tercio, appellans regiam pietatem atque poscens misericordiam, protulit 
regi gladium pacis, quo sentencias rectas adiudicaret atque parceret 
subiectis et superbos castigaret. Oblata receptans, ipsum capitaneum 
et xv. milites totidemque burgenses pietas regalis misit in Angliam, 

N 2 



CH RON ICON CALF RID I 



A.D.1347 



Forts 
erected. 



Punish- 
ment of 
robbers in 
England. 



Outbreak 
of the 
plague. 



A truce 

arranged 

between 

England 

and 

France. 



Text of the 
truce. 



f. 125. 



largis eos ditans 1 muneribus atque libertate quo vellent eundi eiis con- 
cessa; populates eciam repertos in villa piis elemosinis regiis refectos 
iussit usque versus castrum de Gynes indemnes conduci. Post capcio- 
nem ville, milites ex regis imperio ceperunt maneria de Merk et de 
Hoye, et in illis cum magna difficultate edificaverunt fortalicia, positis 
secundum ordinem, ubi nunc sunt muri, in circuitu doleis vino vacuatis 
set lapidibus repletis, ut starent pro muro contra hostes, castellanis ad 
intra murorum edification! incumbentibus. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.xlvij., Edwardi regis Anglic anno regni 2i,~ 
rege modo prescripto obsidioni Calesii incumbente, predones in An- 
glia, nullum timendum estimantes, licencius solito suas nequicias excer- 
cuerunt ; unde iusticiarii tam predones quam alios pacis perturbatores, 
tamquam proditores regis et regni, puniverunt, non plus clerico quam 
laico parcentes, imposito cuilibet tali facinoroso ipsum in capud regium 
et regni perdicionem in favorem Francorum fuisse perversum. 

Eodem tempore, post Kalesii capcionem, incepit illis in partibus 
ilia generalis pestilencia a partibus orientis successive defluxa, unde in 
qualibet parte mundi magna multitude hominum utriusque sexus viam 
universe carnis ingrediebatur, sicud infra plenius dicetur. 

Tanta pestilencia occasionem ministrante, missi cardinales ex parte 
Gallicorum pecierunt treugas a capcione Calesii usque ad festum sancti 
Barnabe proximo futurum duraturas. Prefate peticioni rege consensum 
prebente, ordinantur treuge per predictos cardinales atque comitem de 
Ew et dominum de Tankervylle, prisonarios, sub forma in Gallico qui- 
dem dictata, set in Latinum mei ministerio sic translata : 

' Memorandum, quod treuge inter duos reges sunt inite pro seipsis 
et eorum subiectis et eorum coadiutoribus et eiis aderentibus et pro 
tota patria ab eiis inculta, ita quod omnes capitanei predicte guerre 
sint obligati et iurati in speciali ad treugas tenendas. 

' Treuge iste inite specialiter ex parte pro rege Anglic compre- 
hendant totam Flandriam et terram de Labene et villam Calesii et 



1 detans. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 93 

dominium de Merk et de Oye cum territoriis eiis pertinentibus, per car- A.D.1347. 
dinales et dominos utriusque concilii limitandis 1 . 

' Item, in treugis sint comprehensa omnia que rex Anglic et sui 
subditi sibique coadiuvantes et aderentes tenent in Vasconia, in Peragors, 
Lymosin, Caorsen, Ageneys, Peytou, Sentounge, et tangunt ducatum 
Gyenne. Item, omnia eorum vel ab eiis detenta in Britannia et Bur- 
gundia, et omnia alia ubicumque situata, et omnia ville predia, castra 
et catalla, quorum impresenciarum habent possessiones. 

' Item, securi sint per dictas treugas rex Castelle, dux Brabancie, 
dux Gelrie, et marchio luliacensis, dominus lohannes de Chalons Bur- 
gundinensis, comes de Novo castro, dominus de Facony, vicecomes de 
Usint, dominus lohannes Daspremont, dominus Robertus de Nemurs, 
dominus Henricus de Flaundres, et populus Flandrie, et patria de la 
Bene, et gens Hanonie. Item, dominus de Libreto in Vasconia. Item, 
heres domini lohannis de Britannia, nadgeres comes de Montford et 
dux Britannic, domina de Clissoun, dominus Radulphus de Cours. 
Eciam lanuenses, et omnes alii subditi, affines, coadiutores et aderentes 
domino regi Anglic, cuiuscumque condicionis seu nacionis extiterint. 

' Ex adverso, pro parte regis Francie, comprehensi sint per treugas 
securitandi omnes Scoti et tota patria Scocie. Item, reges Ispanie, 
Boemie, et Arrogonie. Item, duces Brabancie et Gelrie, et duxissa 
Lotoringie cum filiis suis, et comitissa de Bar cum pueris suis. Item, 
dominus lohannes de Henaud et patria Hanegowdie, comes de Nemurs, . 
dominus Ludowicus de Nemurs, episcopus de Lieges, lanuenses, et 
omnes alii coadiutores, affines, et aderentes predicto regi Francorum. 

' Preterea, comes Flandrie specialiter sit obligatus per sacramentum 
iuramenti ad tenendum treugas istas et earum omnia puncta, et quod 
nee per ilium nee aliquem alium nomine suo suscitabitur guerra contra 
Flandriam seu Flandrenses pro tempore treugarum. 

' Item, omnes proceres et capitanii guerre Britannic ex utraque 
parte sint iurati ad tenendum treugas istas. 

' Item, neuter regum pro tempore treugarum intrabit hostiliter alte- 
rius terram, nee comes Flandrensis terram Flandrie. 

' Item, neque rex Francie nee aliquis alius nomine suo habebit 
tractatum occultum seu manifestum cum Flandrensibus vel alico istorum 
in irrupcionem seu contrariacionem seu aliquod preiudicium submissionis 

1 limitandos. B. 



94 CHRON1CON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1347. et convencionis quibus regi Anglie se submiserunt, set nee cum alico 
alio regi Anglie confederate. 

' Item, ex parte regis Anglie erit proximus precedens articulus 
observatus, quoad omnes amicos regis Francie seu sibi quovis modo 
confederatos. 

' Item, quod nulla novitas nee alica mala presumpcio sit facta ex 
alterutra parte, durantibus treugis. 

'Item, quod banniti et fugitivi a Flandria et patria de Labene, qui 
regi Francie adeserunt, abstineant ab ingressu predictarum terrarum, sub 
periculo penarum talibus transgressoribus infligendarum 1 . 

' Item, nullus obediens alteri duorum regum deveniat obediens alteri 
eorum, cui non obediebat in tempore capcionis istarum treugarum. 

' Item, quod nullus alterutri regum subiectus contra alterius regis 
subiectum moveat guerram ; set uterque regum suos subditos teneatur 
artare, ne huiusmodi guerram aliquis illorum pro quacumque causa 
suscitare presumat. 

' Item, quod omnes mercatores, eciam omnes subditi, coadiutores, 
affines, seu quomodocumque pertinentes uni parti vel alteri duorum 
regum, et specialiter nominati Anglici et Flandrenses, cum eorum 
f. I25 b . mercimoniis, tarn per mare quam per terram, seu terras et maria, possint 
libere et sine qualibet calumpnia per omnes terras in istis treugis com- 
prehensas itinerare et perendinare, sicud solebant in aliorum regum 
temporibus, pace inter regna custodita 2 ; dummodo tamen solvant 
secundum antiquas debitas consuetudines et tales dumtaxat novas im- 
positas quales indigene fideles solvere tenentur. Attamen excipiuntur 
ab ista libertate omnes banniti pro alica causa. Persone eorumdem 
ducatuum, pro quacumque fuerint causa banniti, gaudeant libertate et 
immunitate in isto articulo comprehensis. 

1 Item, quod omnes articuli tangentes mercatores et eorum pacem sint 
Parisius et in aliis bonis villis Francie proclamati. 

' Item, nullus duorum regum procurabit per se vel per alium, seu pro- 
curari permittet gratis, quod per curiam Romanam alica molestacio seu 
censura ecclesiastica contra statum seu quietem alicuius duorum regum 
vel suorum amicorum, racione guerre vel alterius cause, sit innovata, 
set omnem talem sine mala ingeniacione pro suo posse reges facient 
impediri. 

1 infringendarum. B. 2 custodotita. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 95 

' Item, omhes obsidiones, per potenciam cuiuscumque subditorum A.D.1347. 
duorum regum in Vasconia seu Gyenna vel Britannia seu Pictavia aut 
in insulis marinis congeste vel ubicumque, immediate post pupplicacio- 
nem istarum treugarum erunt solute. 

' Item, quod, si castrum vel villa vel fortalicium, homines aut alia 
quecumque bona mobilia seu immobilia fuerint capta post confirmacio- 
nem istarum treugarum, quamvis non pupplicatarum, sint tamen in 
integrum statum restituta in quo fuerant die confirmacionis istarum 
treugarum. 

'Item, iusticia fiat cuilibet volenti conqueri de lapsu seu fuga seu 
fide mentita cuiuscumque captivi, et ad hoc sint iudices specialiter 
deputati. 

' Item, quod cuilibet volenti redempcionem suam solvere aut ab 
alico debitum exigere seu de alio proponere querelam assingnetur 
salvus conductus et securus. 

' Item, quod treuge sint confirmate quoad Scotos et eorum marchias; 
quas tamen treugas Scoti si voluerint vel l potuerint infringere, nee 
minus tamen inter reges et alios in eiis comprehensos erunt observate. 

' Item, ad intemeratam custodiam istarum treugarum sint iudices 
specialiter deputati, per quos vel per reges sit precautum quod, si 
aliquod contrarium istis treugis per aliquem fuerit attemptatum, ad sta- 
tum debitum treuge sint reformate, nee propter aliquid eiis contrarium 
factum sint fracte ipse, articulis tamen Scociam tangentibus suo robore 
permansuris. 

' Item, iudices assignati ad reformacionem violacionis istarum treu- 
garum, si alicam fieri contingat, ipsam in locis ad hoc maxime oportunis 
et ex assensu parcium electis studeant resarcire. Ceterum in causis 
istarum treugarum firmitatem concernentibus sint iudices constituti 
constabularius et marescallus Anglic et comes Lancastrie et dominus 
Bartholomeus de Bourghasch, ex parte regis Anglic ; item, constabula- 
rius et marescallus Francie et comes Dactoens et dominus Galfridus de 
Charny, ex parte regis Francie. 

' Insuper est ordinatum quod treuge iste sint pupplice proclamate in 
Vasconia et Britannia infra diem vicesimum, et in Scocia infra diem tri- 
cesimum, a die confirmacionis earumdem treugarum, ipsis usque ad 
festum sancti Barnabe Apostoli proximum sequens dumtaxat valituris.' 

1 om. B. 



9 6 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D. 1347. 



New forti- 
fications 
at Calais. 



Edward 
returns to 
England, 
14 Oct. 

f. 126. 

King 

David of 

Scotland 

and 

Charles of 

Blois 

prisoners. 

Submission 

and death 

of sir 

James 

Douglas 

(1352- 

1353)- 

A.D.1348. 

Regula- 
tions 

respecting 
the king's 
house- 
hold. 

Negotia- 
tions for 
ransom of 
David of 
Scotland. 



Sub hac igitur forma treugis inter regna confirmatis, quippe general! 
pestilencia urgente necessariis, rex edificavit turrim 1 et murum amplum 2 
inter mare et portum Calesii ad proibicionem insultus navalis per 
inimicos, et prefecit capitaneum civitati dominum lohannem de Mont- 
gomery 3 , et deinde, adducens reginam et suum primogenitum, aliam 
quoque magnam procerum multitudinem, versus Angliam suum navigium 
destinavit. In mari tantam revertendo passus est aure 4 intemperiem, 
quod multe naves ex suis perierunt et ipse rex cum maximo periculo 
reversus est, Londonias applicatus xiiij. die Octobris. 

AnnoChristi M.CCC.xlviij.,regis anno 5 xxij ., domino rege in Angliam 
reverse, adducti sunt ad turrim Londoniarum David rex Scotorum et 
dominus Karolus de Bloys, ad Pascha nuper in Britannia post magnos et 
periculosos conflictus per dominum Thomam Dagworthe captus ; qui 
postea per multos annos manserunt in Anglia redimendi. Item, dominus 
lacobus Douglas, in bello Dunelmie captus, Londonias cum rege 
Scotorum adductus, rediit ad pacem regis, iurata sibi fidelitate; quem 
postea in marchiam pacifice reversum Willelmus Dowglas 6 venacioni 7 
invitatum prodiciose equitans a tergo interfecit. 

Isto anno, post Pascha, rex tenuit concilium, ubi contra ministros 
sue familie ordinavit quod, si ab alico invito caperent victualia sine 
solucione pecunie, incontinenti talis minister aut supplicio finali puniretur 
aut domum regiam abiuraret, constituto domino Ricardo Talebot 8 
senescallo regie 9 domus et edicti 10 prefati executore. 

Ad predictum concilium venit pacifice, ex parte Edwardi Bailol u 
regis Scocie per conquestum, abbas de Donfermelyn. Venerunt eciam 
episcopus de Moref 12 et episcopus Glascuensis et duo milites, offerentes 
redempcionem pro David rege Scotorum capto ; quibus fuit 13 responsum, 
ipsum David non fuisse iure militari redimendum, pro eo quod non fuit 



1 Here C. resumes. 

I aurie. B. ; auris. C. 
7 venacione. C. 

II Baylol. C. 



' et murum amplum] om. B. s Mongomere. C. 

6 Anglorum. C. 6 Douglas. C. 

8 Talbot. C. 9 om. B. 10 dicti. C. 

12 Morryf. C. ls fuerat. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 97 

captus sicud iustus bellator qui nullum ius habuit in regnum Anglic, set A.D.1348. 
sicud truculentus predo qui universa que tetigit vastavit ignibus et ferro, 
et ideo, ut fuit subiunctum, oportuit ipsum, gracie regis Anglic submissum, 
omnia per ipsum destructa reparare, ut sic posset graciam sue redemp- 
cionis in conspectu regio reperire. Ab ipsis eciam nunciis querebatur 
utrum de finali pace volebant tractate ; set responderunt eiis commissam 
potestatem ad tractatum pacis non extend!. Ibidem, coram domino 

Willelmo Trussel, fuit comes de Mentez positus raciocinio et convictus The earl of 

Menteith 
quod, contra fidelitatem et homagium mrata regi Anghe, iterum contra executed. 

eundem suum dominum regem armatus militavit ; et ob hoc tractus et 
suspensus in quarteria fuerat divisus. 

Ad idem concilium accesserunt duo comites et duo clerici, missi a Election of 

Edward to 

gremio electorum regis Alemannie, nunciantes regi suam passivam the empire, 
eleccionem ad regiam dignitatem Alemannie l . Illos nuncios cum honore 
competenti et graciis receptos munificencia regalis benigne respexit 2 ; et 
eiis respondit se nolle tanto honeri humeros submittere, quousque suam 
coronam regiam Francie iure hereditario sibi debitam pacifice possi- 
deret. 

Eodem anno, post Pascha, fuerunt apud Lincolniam per comitem Tourna- 
ment at 
Lancastrie, postea ducem, hastiludia solempnia celebrata, quibus interfuit Lincoln. 

plurima dominarum comitiva. Et nuncii regis Ispanie 3 venerunt pro The king's 

daughter 

filia regis, domina Johanna, filio domini sui regis desponsanda ; que apud Joanna 

betrothed 

Burdegalim* in magna pestilencia, de qua infra dicetur, viam universe to the son 

carnis ingressa, adveniente sponso eii obviam, solempni set lacrimose of CastiUe! 

committebatur sepulture. Tantam puellam pulcritudo corporalis atque She dies of 

.... the plague, 

abundancia virtutum moralium tarn graciosam cunctis reddiderunt, 

quod ipsam obeuntem dolor suorum ministrorum compulit ipsos itinere 
mortis sequi suam dominam. 

Isto anno magister Johannes Stretford 5 ,archiepiscopus Cantuariensis, Death of 

archbishop 

xxiij. die Augusti obiit, et xix. die Septembris fuit Cantuarie traditus Stratford, 

33 Aug. 

1 Teutonicorum. C. 9 rexspexit. B. s Yspanie. C. 

4 Burdigalym. C. " Stratford. C. 

O 



98 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D.1348. 



His succes- 
sors, 
f. 126 b . 



Conference 

at Calais to 

renew the 



Edward 
Calais to 






The Black 
Death. 



sepulture. Postea fuit electus in archiepiscopum magister Thomas 
Bradewardin 1 , doctor in theologia ; set provisione pape fuit ad istam 
dignitatem ordinatus magister lohannes Ufford, regis cancellarius, qui 
non consecratus moriebatur. Deinde, anno sequent!, prefatus magister 
Thomas Bradewardin l iterum electus fuit, in curia Romana consecratus, 
et eodem anno mortuus. 

Isto anno, post festum sancti Martini, convenerunt apud Calesiam 
episcopus Norwycensis 2 , comes Lancastrie, comes Suthfolchie 3 , et dom- 
inus Walterus Magne, ex parte Anglorum ; item, episcopus Lugdunensis, 
dux de Burbone 4 et dux Dactenes et comes de Gynes et dominus de 
Tankerville 5 et dominus Galfridus de Charny 6 , ex parte Francorum, pro 
treugis renovandis ; quibus noluit comes Lancastrie assentire, quousque 
duo fortalicia Calesie nociva et contra formam pristinarum treugarum 
edificata fuerant diruta. Quo facto, renovate sunt treuge, usque ad 
primum diem Decembris anni proximo futuri durature. 

Eodem quoque anno dominus rex 7 et primogenitus eius et comes de 
Warewyk et episcopus Wyntoniensis advenerunt Calesiam ad festum 
Sancti Andree 8 . Unde rex misit comitem Lancastrie ad Donemere, 
recepturum ibidem ex parte sua fidelitatem et homagium de comite 
Flandrie cum sacramento iusiurandi; quod et factum fuit. Missi quoque 
fuerunt nuncii Bononiam, ad tractandum ibidem cum concilio Francorum, 
quod ante illorum adventum cecessit in Franciam ; unde literas confectas 
tirannoque Francorum directas tradidit rex Roberto Herle et Thome 
de Verdoun, militibus, predicto tiranno deferendas, in quibus rex peciit 
diem ad preliandum sibi assignari, in casu quo non posset pax finaliter 
inter ipsos reformari. Predictos nuncios regales non permisit tirannus 
sibi accedere ; set, infecto negocio pro quo venerant, iussit per alios 9 eos 
regnum suum exire. 

Anno Christi M.CCC.xlix., regni regis anno 10 xxiij ., ab oriente In- 

1 Bradewardyn. C. 2 Northwicensis. C. * Southfolchie. C. 

* Borbone. C. 8 Tankervyle. C. Sharny. C. 7 om. B. 

8 ad fest. S.Andr.] om. B. 9 per alias] om. B. 10 om. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 99 

dorum l et Turcorum repens pestilencia generalis, medium nostri A.D.1348. 
habitabilis inficiens, Saracenos, Turkos 2 , Siriacos 3 , Palestinos, et demum 
Grecos depopulavit tanta strage, quod terrore compulsi fidem atque 
sacramenta Christ! recipere consult! diiudicabant, audientes quod Christi- 
anos cis mare Grecum mors non terruit crebrius aut magis repente 
consueto. Tandem ad partes transalpinas et abhinc ad Gallias hesperias 
et Teutonicas seva clades successive devoluta, anno septimo sue incoa- 
cionis ad Angliam devenit. Primo quidem portus maris in Dorsetia et 
rursus patriam suis incolis fere privavit 4 , et abhinc Devonian! ac 5 
Somersetiam usque Bristolliam ita desevit, quod Glovernienses illis de 
Bristollia ad suas partes denegarunt accessus, quolibet putante anelitus 
vivencium inter sic morientes fuisse infectivos 6 . Set tandem Glovcrniam, 
immo Oxoniam atque Londonias, et finaliter totam Angliam tarn 
violenter invasit, quod vix decimus utriusque sexus superfuerat. Cimi- 
teriis non sufficientibus, campi eligebantur mortuorum sepulture. Epis- 
copus Londoniensis emit illam croftam ' Nomanneslond ' 7 vocatam 
Londoniis 8 , et dominus Walterus de 9 Magne illam que vocatur ' J>e newe 
chierche hawe,' 10 ubi fundavit domum religiosorum ad sepeliendum 
morientes. Placita in bancis u regio et communi necessario cessavere. 
Pauci proceres moriebantur, de quibus erant dominus Johannes de Mont- 
gomurri 12 , capitaneus Calesie 13 , et dominus 14 de Clisteles 15 , in Calesia 
mortui et apud fratres beate Marie de Carmelo Londoniis sepulti. 
Wlgus innumerum, et religiosorum atque aliorum clericorum multitudo 
soli Deo nota, migravere. luvenes et fortes potissime ilia clades involvit ; 
vetulis et languidis communiter pepercit. Vix aliquis infirmum ausus 
est contingere, relicta mortuorum quondam et nunc 16 preciosa tamquam 
infectiva sani n fugiebant. Uno die letissimi 18 , in crastino defuncti f. 127. 

I Yndorum. C. 2 Turcos. C. * Siracos. B. 

4 fere privl\ transposed. B. 6 aut. B. 6 infeccionis. C. 

7 Nomanneslonde. C. " om, B. * om. C. I0 ]>e Newcherchawe. C. 

II banstis. C. 12 Mongomerey. C. 

13 cap. Cales.] misplaced after Clisteles. B. " domina. B. 

18 Clysteles. C. 16 tune. C. r sane. C. M letissime. C. 

O 1 



IOO 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D.1848. 



It lasts 
more than 
a year in 

England. 



Its course 
in Scot- 
land; 



in Wales ; 



and in 
Ireland. 



A.D.1349. 

Continued 
negotia- 
tions with 
France. 

The truce 
prolonged. 



Submission 
of the 
count of 
Flanders 
to Edward. 



reperiebantur. Torserunt illos apostemata e 1 diversis partibus corporis 
subito irrumpencia, tarn dura et sicca quod ab illis decisis vix liquor 
emanavit ; a quibus multi per incisionem aut per longam pacienciam 
evaserunt. Alii habuerunt pustules parvos nigros per totam corporis 
cutem conspersos, a quibus paucissimi, immo vix aliqu-i vite et sanitati 
resilierunt. Tanta pestilencia, que in festo Assumptionis Virginis 
gloriose Bristollie, et circa festum sancti Michaelis apud Londonias 
incoavit, per annum integrum et amplius in Anglia desevit, ita ut multas 
villas rurales penitus ab omni individuo humane speciei evacuaret. 

Angliam tanta clade vastante, Scoti gavisi putabant illos omni suo 
voto contra Anglicos potituros, qui blasfemando solebant pro tune per 
vilem Anglorum mortem lascive deierare 2 . Set extrema gaudii luctus 
occupans, ab Anglicis recedens gladius ire Dei Scotos in furorem et per 
lepram, nee minus quam Anglicos per apostemata et pustulos, mactavit. 
Set anno sequent! Wallicos eciam una cum Anglicis vastavit ; et tandem 
ad Iberniam quasi 3 velificans, Anglicos ibidem habitantes in magno 
numero prostravit, set puros Hibernicos in montibus et superioribus 
partibus degentes fere non tetigit, usque ad annum Christi M m .CCC m .lvij m ., 
quo inopinate ipsos passim et terribiliter delevit. 

Isto anno, pro treugis renovandis seu pace finali reformanda, trans- 
fretarunt episcopus Norwicensis, comes Norhamptonie, comes Staffordie, 
Ricardus Talbot, et 4 Walterus Magne, milites ; quibus Gallic! pacifice 
occurrerunt, set noluerunt alicui paci finali assentire, nisi Calesia fuisset 
eiis restituta, que fuit eiis denegata, et treuge per annum durature fuerant 
continuate. 

Ceterum comes Flandrie, quern Flandrenses noluerunt aliter recipere, 
nisi, tiranno Francorum abrenunciato, regi Anglorum fidelitatem et 
homagium, una 5 sub iuramento solempni promissa, vellet 6 exibere, 
plenarie submisit se regi Anglic, ad tenendum de illo comitatum Flandrie 
cum fideli servitute suo legali domino exibenda. Numquam tamen post 



in. C. 2 peiorare. C. 

4 om. B. e ana. B. 



3 mactavit . . . quasi} om. C. 
6 valeat. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. IOI 

ilium diem fidelitatem iuratam servavit integraliter ; non multum enim A.D.1349. 
postea cum potencia Francorum Flandriam invasit, destruens, occidens, The agree- 

. j c* j_ rnent 

villas et universa igmbus depascens, que potuit cremare. bet eius bro k en . 
tirannidi populates, cum paucis Anglicis custodie castrorum deputatis, 
prestiterunt acrem resistenciam, in qua plurimis Francigenis occisis, 
comitem retrocedere compulerunt ad fugam. In illo congressu multi 
fuerunt milites dotati, ex quibus erat dominus Johannes de Filebert l , 
Anglicus, honore militari decoratus. 

Interea, ad festum Nativitatis sancti lohannis Baptiste 2 , in purifica- Tourna- 
ment at 
cione regine apud Wyndesore 8 fuerunt solempnia hastiludia, quibus inter- Windsor, 

fuerunt David rex Scotorum, comes de Hew 4 , dominus de Tankerville 5 , * 4 
dominus Karolus de Bloys 6 , et alii alienigene multi captivi, et de licencia 
regis suorumque magistrorum hastiludiabant ; ubi favorabiliter gracia 
campi comiti de Ew 7 fuerat adiudicata. Postea, tempore adipis ferini, 
iidem captivi cum domino rege apud Clarindone 8 et in aliis fdrestis, 
cum aliis eciam regni proceribus, iocundo studio venacionis se dedere. 
Rege talibus intendente, Gallici intrarunt marchiam Britannic et, 
non obstantibus treugis generalibus, circa castrum de Phanes 9 , inboscati f. 127". 
sub ducatu Radulphi de Caux, militis set filii sabatoris, cum paucis pupplice ^? t r j" 

predas capientes, dominum Thomam Dagworthe, militem probatissimum Death of 

.~* . sir 
et ducatus capitaneum, ad rescutacionem patne provocarunt. yui Thomas 

cum sedecim armatis dumtaxat predonibus occurrens 10 , ab inboscatis 
subito circumvallatus, multos 11 et, ut retulerunt de castro speculantes, 
amplius quam trecentos cum suis constanter sibi astantibus effudit. 
Tandem, post quinque quarellos in facie nuda fixes a balistis, nolens se 
reddere filio sabatoris, set omnibus suis prostratis, cum lancea grossa 
oculis privatus, hostes aut occidit aut vulneravit, aut accedere diu non 
permittens, fasse armatorum finaliter obrutus, a corpore gladio confosso 

1 Fylberd. C. 2 om. B. ' Wyndelsore. C. H Ew. C. 

5 Tankervyle. C. 6 Valesio. B. ' Ewe. C. 8 Claryndone. C. 

9 om.; a blank space being left. B. 10 accurrens. B. 

11 circumvallatis, milites. C. 



T02 CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D.1349. nobilis anima indignata recessit, cum defensoribus et auctoribus rei 
pupplice laureanda. Erant ibidem Gallicorum amplius quingentis 
armatorum et balistariorum numerus ignotus. Sagittariis Thome fuerat 
via in auxilium sui domini cautelose preclusa, unde leti ianuas ille 
magnanimus fuerat ingressus qui contra Francos innumeros preliis 
diversis triumphavit, atque sua morte Anglicis omnibus egrum dolorem 
et Gallicis gaudium magnum prestavit l , set non omnibus ; erat enim 
hostibus de facto terribilis, set morum generositate tarn captos quam 
fugatos et liberos in sui amorem et compassionem mortis tam indigne 
quam animose conciliavit. Set films sutoris triumpho gavisus, unde 
magnus princeps vix dignus fuisset, invidiam Francorum et odium 2 
omnium militum bonorum sibi cumulavit 3 . 

Disturb- Nee minus Gallic? cum * comite Flandrie treugas verebantur violare, 

ances in ...... 

Flanders, nempe comes prefatus cum duce Brabancie et ams plunmis de regno 
Francie, exercitu congregate, iterum circa festum sancti Michaelis 
Flandriam invasit, et per falsos Flandrenses sibi consentaneos Bruges 
ingressus magnam multitudinem fidelium regis Anglic domini sui 
catervatim in eorum domibus et plateis trucidavit. Et misit illis 5 de 
Ypro et Gandavo et aliis villis, petens, immo iubens. illas eii reddi ; 
quarum incole, acceptis induciis, scripserunt regi Anglic, quod eiis 
succurreret, aut eos oporteret comitis dominio et tiranni Francorum se 
submittere. Et ideo circa festum Omnium Sanctorum rex, comitantibus 
comitibus Lancastrie et Suthfolchie et aliis, in Flandriam transfretavit, et 
versus Franciam suos duxit ; unde, renovatis treugis inter ipsum et 
Gallicos, comes Flandrie iam tercio regie clementie et dominio suo 6 
se submisit. 

Translation Deinde ad solempnitatem translacionis sancti Thome confessoris et 

of Thomas 

Cantilupe, episcopi Herefordensis rex in Angliam reversus, sua et aliorum procerum 

bishop of 

Hereford, regm devota presencia solempnizavit egregium festum convivancmm in 
honorem predict! almi confessoris celebratum, ad largifluas expensas 
Nicholai de Cantilupo baronis, cognati ipsius sancti Thome. 
1 cumulavit. C. a om. C. 3 comparavit. C. 4 in. C. ' illos. C. f om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 103 

Instante prefata solempnitate. nunciatum est regi per secretaries A.D.1340. 

Emerici de Padua, militis stipendiarii, quod quartadecima die mensis Plot to 

lanuarii forent in Calesiam recipiendi Galfridus de Charny, miles, et alii Calais. 

Gallici in magno numero, quibus Calesia per predictum Emericum fuerat * i 28 - 

vendita, set per regem graciose rescutata tali processu. Predictus 

Emericus Paduensis inter ceteros lanuenses morabatur in Calesia obsessa, 

ad stipendia tiranni Francorum contra regem obsidentem ; set sibi, sicud l 

ceteris, post ville dedicionem concessa gracia vite et membrorum atque 

libertatis militaris, de cetero mansit cum rege stipendiarius ad eiusdem 

Calesie tuicionem. Erat pro tune Galfridus dominus de Matas 2 , miles 

plus quam aliquis Gallicus, ut fama ventilavit, in re militari exercitatus 

atque, cum longa experiencia armorum, nature vivacis sagacitate excel- 

lenter dotatus, et ideo Francie tirannorum, usque ad suum interitum 

et coronati Francorum capcionem in prelio Pictavensi, conciliarius 

principalis. Iste facinorum calidissimus machinator fidem prefati 

Emerici literis sibi evocati auri donis et sofisticis promissis conatus 

pervertere. Finaliter cum falso cupidus convenit quod, pro 

milibus scutatorum aureorum, per turrim, cui Emericus preficiebatur, 

facilem introitum Gallicis in villam prepararet*, atque ad ville et castri 

plenam capcionem 5 quatenus posset adiuvaret. Pactum itaque prodi- 

ciosum quantumcunque per iuramentum et communionem sacramenti 

altaris utrimque 6 confirmatum, attamen ut plenum versuta calliditate et 

fide mentita pessime fuerat iniciatum. Equidem non iam 7 ' Iliacos,' set 8 

Calesios, 'muros extra peccatur et intra,' 9 nam Gallicos, treuge adhuc 

durantes, pie 10 consciencie legibus proibuissent ob omni circumvencione 

pupplica vel occulta, qua pacifice possession! regis Anglic, quoad pre- 

dictam villam, poterant derogasse u . Eciam prefatum Emericum rever- 

encia fidei militaris terruisset ab omni prodicione et inonesta, non eciam 

1 om. B. 2 Mathas. C. * blank space in B ; not in C. 

* repararet. B. ' plen. capt.} tuicionem. B. 8 utriusque. B 

7 non iam} om. C. 8 et. B. ' Horace, Epist. i. 2. 16. 

10 que pie. C. " erogasse. C. 



104 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1349. servanda, sponsione, cum de iure sit hosti servanda fides; set ipse nee 
hosti fidem servavit, nee regi terreno aliter quam dubie 1 militavit, et 
Eterno Principi impiissime servivit, quando corpus Salvatoris, in 
testimonium sue versute convencionis, fallaciter invocavit, et insuper 
communionem calicis recepit. Scripsit tamen regi literas de toto negocio, 
nihil 2 occultans, itaque paratus ad Gallicorum amiciciam, si ipsi expedi- 
vissent, et in regis benevolenciam, casu quo Gallici a proposito frustrati 
fuissent convicti de fraccione treugarum et insuper forte multi redimendi 
caperentur. Set ita contingebat. 

Edward Proinde rex, solicitus de custodia ville, quam non modico labore 

and the 

prince of set obsidione annua subegit, celenter transfretans, ipsum cormtantibus 

Wales 

secretly suo primogenito principe Wallie 3 et comite de Marchia, aliis quoque 

Town.* paucis, diem peremtorium prodicionis per 4 dies prevenit. Igitur 5 
profectus Calesiam, disposuit pro Francis 6 cautelosam receptelam 7 . 

Ambush Nempe sub fornicibus intra pectinem seu portam collectam et valvas 8 

laid for the 

French. ianuarum castn milites locavit, murum tenuem ens anteponens de novo 

fabricatum, non cementatum set fictum, et residuo muro conterminalem 
in superficie levigatum 9 , et ita sofistice operi antique effigiatum, quod 
nescius cautele aliquem ibi inclusum non posset faciliter suspicari 10 . Item 
grossius n merennium pontis versatilis cum serra fecit fere precidi 12 , ita 
tamen quod equites armati possent super ipsum equitare. Ad hoc in 
quodam foramine in facie turris ponti supereminentis quondam arcuato 
opere confecto, grande saxum prudenter collocavit, et cum illo militem 
bone fidei occultatum, qui tempore congruo per ruinam saxi pontem 
f. I28 b . frangeret semicesum. Erat 13 deinde illud foramen ita prudenter super- 
ficie tenus opturatum, quod opus novum pars antiqui appareret et 
inclusus posset omnes intrantes visu numerare. Istis in fieri se habentibus, 

1 debuit. C. 2 vel. B. s Vallie. B. 

4 The -words diem peremtorium have been erased and per is om., the sentence 
thus ending paucis, prodicionis dies prevenit. C ; a blank after per. B. 

5 Sic. C. 6 per Franciam. C. 7 recepte. B. 8 vallis valvas. C. 
9 linitum. C. 10 fac. suspj] transposed. B. " grossus. B. 
12 precindi. B. Contra. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 105 

valde paucis innotuit regis aut principis Wallie presencia, qui, confectis A.D. 1349. 
predictis 1 , in villam secrete se receperunt. 

Igitur pridie peremtorie diei Galfridus de Charny misit quindecim The French 

admitted 

suos ndeles, cum magna parte aun, premu J prodicionis, exploraturos (31 Dec.), 
fidem Emerici et castri disposicionem. Qui, circumquaque quamlibet 
turrim et angulum opertum 3 visitantes, nihil suis votis contrarium 
perceperunt. Unde in crastino fixerunt stacionardum regium Francorum A.D.1350. 
in eminenciori turri castelle, et vexilla Galfridi aliorum quoque domino- 
rum super alias turres locaverunt. Proinde populares de ville custodia, 
quos latuit facinus, tantus terror agitavit, quod ad arma convolantes 
insultum disponebant in castrum festinare. Confestim Gallic! pridie in- 
gressi dominum Thomam de Kyngestone nescium facinoris se fingentem 4 
violenter ceperunt et in bogis ligneis 5 captivarunt. Deinde quidam 
ex illis, emissi ad Francos suos dominos extra municionem imboscatos, 
ostenderunt stacionardum et erecta vexilla, cetera 7 prospera com- 
promittentes, si tamen festinarent ad defensionem castri contra villanos. 
Igitur, surgentes de latibulis, cum pompa solita et innata genti Galli- 
corum, portas castri irruperunt Franci copiose. Tune villani vix manus 
ab insultu continuerunt, ipsos tamen ducibus eorum retrahentibus quasi 
periculum insiliencium diffugitivis 8 , statim fideles regis amici, qui sub 
arcuatis murorum latibulis instar anacoritarum fuerant inclusi, trium 
dierum longam moram fastidientes, se prepararunt 9 ad irrupcionem. Nee 
minus ille qui cum saxo grandi fuit in foramine nuper inclusus, postquam 
vidit tot ingressos ad quorum 10 debellacionem estimabat suos consentaneos 
sufficienter potuisse, molarem ilium ingentem sibi commissum direxit 
ruine ; quo pons versatilis rumpebatur n , et via 12 fuerat preclusa per quam 

hostes fuerant nimium ingressuri, atque, semel ingressi, non poterant They are 

. ,, entrapped; 

per illud iter evadere. Saxum predictum supplevit 1 '' quodammodo vices 

1 confecti predict!. C. 2 om. B. * apertum. C. * fugientem. C. 

6 bogligneis. B. remissi. C. 7 et cetera. C. 8 de fugitivis. C. 

* repararunt. B. 10 quotorum. B ; istorum. C. " rumpepebatur. B. 

12 om. C. 



io6 CH RON 1C ON CALF RID I 

A.D.1350. pectinis ruituri, quod in principle fuit ab officio debito suspensum atque 
Gallicis traditum tutcle in illorum delusoriam assecuritacionem. Ad 

*"? , strepitum saxi et pontis fracti armati anacorite, depulso muro fictili eos 
occultante, apostatarunt, et ad suum ordinem milites Francigenas coe- 
gerunt dira salutacione invitatos. Insultus acerrimus quam diu duravit, 
set tandem devicti hostes suppliciter victorum voluntati se com- 
miserunt. 

Fight with Extranei qui non intrarunt, statim postquam perceperunt suorum 

the French 

in the open, delusionem, terga verterunt ; quos dominus rex, cum paucioribus quam 
sedecim armatis et totidem sagittariis ipsum vocantem set tamen 
ignotum comitantibus, fugitives lacessit, multos prostravit, et in parvo 
tempore valde periculosos labores superavit. Cognita demum Franci- 
genis 1 insequencium paucitate, octoginta viri armatorum contra regem 
se religarunt 2 . Non audeo sapiencie nee discrete milicie set mag- 
nanimitati regis ascribere illam suam in hostes persecucionem, quamvis 
bene in tanto periculo ipsum constet rem gessisse 3 et, gracia Dei ipsum 
preservante, honorem ventilacionis reportasse. Ubi nempe vidit Francos 
religatos, abiecit gladii vaginam, et suos confortans atque ipsorum 
f. 129. staciones disponens ad viriliter agendum provocavit. Sagittarii eciam in 
marisco a lateribus armatorum constiterunt in siccis monticulis et limosis 
paludibus circumvallati, ne graviter armati equites aut pedites ipsos 
fuissent insecuti, quin pocius submersi * in bitumine 5 . Illos eciam rex 
confortans et ad sui pietatem decenti alliciens blandicia, sic affatur : 
' Bene facite,' inquiens, ' arcitenentes, et scitote quod ego sum Edwardus 
de Wyndesore 6 .' Cognitis tune primum regis presencia et necessitate 
bene faciendi, sagittarii nudantes sua 7 capita, brachia et pectora, omni 
sua virtute sagittis non perdendis incubuere, et Gallicos appropiantes 
acutis sagittis salutatos acriter valde receperunt. Armati steterunt 
ex utraque parte super longum et artum pavimentum, in cuius latitudine 

1 om. B. 2 se relig.} om. C. 

3 quam[v]is in tanto periculo ipsum constet egregium facinus bene finaliter 
peregisse. C. 4 submergi. C. * bitumen. B. 6 Wyndezore. C. 7 om. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 107 

vix viginti armati possunt frontaliter constipari, habentes ex utroque A.D.1350. 
latere mariscum armatis invium, in quo steterunt sagittarii securi, suos 
nihil inpedientcs et hostes 1 a lateribus sagittarum grandine confodientcs. 
Siquidem rex et sui ex adverse, atque sagittarii ex transverse, oc- 
ciderunt, captivarunt, et quam diu viriliter resistentes tandem in adventu 
principis Wallie Gallicos in fugam compulerunt. 

Post longam in hostes venacionem, Calesiam reversi numerarimt l-osses of 

the French. 

fugatos et captos ; et invenerunt quod pro castri capcione, secundum 
relacionem captivorum, accesserunt mille viri armorum et sexcenti armati, 
set numerus serviencium tria milia excedebat. Ex hiis fuerunt capti 
dominus Galfridus de Charny et films eius strenuus in armis, Edwardus 
de Rent! 2 , quondam serviens domini regis in officio clavarii, set tune 3 
miles * et tiranni Francorum stipendiarius ; item dominus Robertus 
de Banquilo 5 , Otto de Gule, baro de Martyngham 6 , Baldewinus Sailly 7 , 
Henricus de Frees, Garinus Baillof 8 , Petrus Rynel 9 , Petrus Dargemole, 
Ewstacius de Rypplemont ; et alii multi milites et domicelli fugati 
fuerunt cum suis vexillis, dominus de Mountmarissi 10 , item Laundas, 
qui desponsavit dominam de Seint Pool n , comitissam Penebrochie 12 in 
Anglia, item domini de Fenes, dominus de Planke, et alius Eustacius 
de Ripplemont 13 . Occisi fuerunt u in prelio dominus Henricus de Boys 
et dominus Archebaud, et multi alii, de quorum noticia non curarunt 
victores. Sic prodiciose contra formam treugarum facinus ingeniatum 
eius auctores detraxit in cladem : primo Galfridum per sui et amicorum 
suorum capcionem, auri multi perdicionem, nobilium virorum occisionem, 
ducum magnanimorum fugacionem, et tocius false machinacionis 
finalem frustracionem ; set nee Emericus evasit laqueum periclitacionis, 
immo postea captus inter Gallicos ferro ignito vivus perustus, a militari 
ordine per talorum amputacionem degradatus, lingua privatus per 

1 eciam hostes et. C. 2 Renty. C. * om. B. * milites. B. 

5 Bauquilo. C. 6 Martingraham. B. ' Caylly. C. * Baylof. C. 

9 Reynel. C. 10 Mountmaryssy. C. " Seyn Poul. C. 

12 Penebrugie. C. " Rypplemount. C. " sunt. C. 

p a 



io8 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D.13BO. 



Expedition 
to Gas- 
cony (A.D. 

>349)- 



Order 
against 
gifts to 
judges. 
f. 129 b . 

Death of 
arch- 
bishop 
Bradwar- 
dine (26 
Aug. 1 349). 
A monster. 



Jubilee. 



Edward 
prepares 
to invade 
France. 



Truce. 



abscisionem, postea suspensus, demum decapitatus, et finaliter in 
quarteria divisus, exsolvit penas prodicionis et false peieracionis * in 
sacramentum altaris. 

Eodem anno comes Lancastrie et barones Staffordie et de Greistoke 2 , 
item heredes dominorum de Percy et de Neville 3 atque dominus de 
Fornival 4 et Bartholomeus de Burghasshe 5 , cum multis aliis, circa festum 
Omnium Sanctorum transfretaverant in Vasconiam, posituri resistenciam 
debacacioni lohannis de Valesio, filii tiranni Francorum, qui ducatum 
ilium nimis infestavit. 

Item, concilium regale 6 ordinavit quod nullus regis iusticiarius, 
durante tempore sui officii, reciperet feoda de quocumque seu dona, pre- 
terquam de rege. 

Item, magister Thomas Bradewardyn,.archiepiscopus Cantuariensis 
nondum intronizatus, obiit, et magister Symon de Islep 7 in eius succes- 
sorem fuerat electus. 

Adhuc isto anno, in comitatu Oxonie, iuxta villam que dicitur 
Chepingnortone 8 , inveniebatur serpens bicapitata, habens duas facies 
femininas, unam more novello feminarum ornatam, aliam quoque imitan- 
tem ornatum antiquum, et habuit alas largas ad modum vespertilionis. 

Anno Domini M.CCC.l., ipsius regis anno xxiiij ., domini pape de- 
mentis vj tt . anno 9 , annus iubileus Celebris habebatur, quo omnes 
Christiani apostolorum limina visitantes plenam indulgenciam de omnibus 
peccatis rite confess! et contriti recipiebant. 

Dominus de Fornyval 10 inconsulta temeritate hostibus insultans 
capitur in Vasconia, nee multum postea rex suum passagium in Franciam 
ordinavit; set comes Lancastrie rediens de Vasconia nunciavit eii de 
treugis editis per ipsum, quarum racione regis transfretacio fuerat sus- 
pensa. 

Isto anno, in die sancti Georgii, rex celebravit grande convivium 

' peioracionis. B ; periuracionis. C. 2 Greystoke. C. 3 Nevyle. C. 

4 Furnyval. C. 5 Borewasch. C. ' generate. C. 7 Islepe. C. 

8 Chepyngnortone. C. 9 Blank. B. 10 Furnival. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 109 

apud Wyndesore in castro, ubi instituit cantariam xij. sacerdotum, et A.D.1350. 

fundavit zenodochium, in quo milites depauperati, quibus sua non suffi- Founda- 

.... . tion of the 

cerent, possent in Domini servitute de perpetuis elemosinis fundatorum orderofthe 

illius collegii sustentacionem competentem habere. Preter regem fuerunt 2 * ^^ 
alii compromittentes in fundacionem istius zenodochii, scilicet regis pri- 
mogenitus, comes Norhamptonie, comes Warewici, comes Suthfolchie \ 
comes Salisbiriensis 2 , et alii barones ; simplices quoque milites, scilicet 
Rogerus de Mortuo 3 mari, nunc comes Marchie, dominus Walterus de 
Magne, dominus Willelmus filius Garini, lohannes de Insula, Johannes de 
Mohun 4 , lohannes de Bealchampe, Walterus de Pavely 5 , Thomas Wale 6 , 
et- Hughe de Wrotesley 7 , quos probitas experta ditissimis comitibus 
associavit 8 . Una cum rege fuerunt omnes isti vestiti togis de russeto pul- 
verizato cum garteriis Indie 9 coloris, habentes eciam tales garterias in 
tibiis dextris, et mantella de blueto cum scutulis armorum sancti 
Georgii 10 . Tali apparatu nudi capita audierunt devote missam celebrem 
per antistites Cantuariensem, Wintoniensem, et Exoniensem decantatam, 
et conformiter sederunt in mensa communi n ob honorem sancti martiris, 
cui 12 tarn nobilem fraternitatem specialiter intitularunt, appellantes 
istorum comitivam sancti Georgii de la gartiere 13 . 

In estate sequent!, orta dissencione inter nautas Anglic et Ispanie, Capture of 

..... . ., , ... . ,. English 

Ispam obsederunt mare Bntanmcum cum xluij. magms navibus bellicosis , ships by 
qui 15 decem naves Anglicas versus Angliam ab Aquitannia velificantes ^ips* 
captas atque spoliatas submerserunt, et, taliter iniuria passa vindicata, in 

portum de Sclusa Flandrie applicuerunt. Hiis auditis, rex, suo navigio Edward 

. . ... sails out 

coadunato in quinquaginta navibus et spinacus, Ispanis reversuns obviare w uh his 

disponebat, secumhabens principem Wallie, comites Lancastrie, Norhamp- 
tonie, Warewici, Sarisburie 16 , Arundellie, Huntindonie 17 , Gloucestrie 18 , 

1 Southfolchie. C. 2 Saresburie. C. * Mortua. B. * Mochun. C. 

' Paveleye. C. ' om. C. 7 Wroteleye. C. 

8 quos . . . assoda-vii\ om. B. 9 indi. B. 

10 arm. sane. Georgii] armorum suorum. C. n commini. B. J2 sicud. B. 

13 garter. C. " bellicis vel bellicosis. C. " quibus. B. 

16 Saresburie. C. " Huntyndonie. C. l8 om. C. 



HO CHRONIC ON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1350. et alios barones atque milites, cum eorum precise l secretis commensalibus 
f. 130. et sagittariis. Denique in festo Decollations sancti lohannis, circa 
d horam vesperarum, classes colliserunt ; ubi magne buscee Ispanienses 2 , 



victory, 29 quasi castra casellis, ita nostris liburnis et 3 navibus supereminebant. 
Aug. 

Dire nostros aggrediebantur, saxis evolantibus a turriculis malorum et 

pilis vibrantibus atque quarellis acriter et crebro nostros wlnerantes, nee 
minus lanceis et spatis cominus dimicando et cum classica armatura 
seipsos viriliter defendendo. Exasperatur dirus congressus 4 , quo nostri 
multum teribiliorem non fuerant experti. Terebrarunt tandem sagittarii 
longiori iactu sagittarum illorum balistarios qui curtius illis iecerunt 
quarellas, et ita compulerunt illos officium suum sequestrare. Alios 
eciam super oras buscearum et castra 5 cominus dimicantes tabulis 
navium se protegere votivos reddiderunt. Illos, preterea qui e turribus 
saxa fulminabant, coegerunt se totos ita protegere quod capita et 
humeros more solito exerere 6 non ausi 7 , solis manibus erectis set non a 
sagittarum acie securis, saxa non Jam proiecerunt set dimiserunt cadere, 
pocius in pemiciem suorum 8 quam nostrorum ruitura. Tune scalas 
conscensi nostri in esperias naves irruerunt, gladiis et securibus obvios 
truncantes, et in brevi vasa plena Ispanis 9 vacuabant, atque vacuata 
replebant Anglicis, quousque noctis invide tenebris superfusi non poterant 
videre ceteras xxvij. Ibi vidisses sanguine et cerebro naves pictas 10 ; 
sagittas in malis, velis, temonibus et castris infixas ; de wlneribus mor- 
tuorum sagittarios sagittas colligentes, et imprecari, set incassum, cras- 
tinum bellum renovandum u . Ancorarunt nostri, de prelio 12 sperato 
cogitantes, et 13 nil fuisse factum dum aliquid superfuit faciendum esti- 
mantes 14 , wlneratos curantes inopes, Ispanos 15 mortuos et languidos in 
mari proicientes, cibo et sopori se recreantes, nee minus vigilem custodiam 
armatis manibus committentes. Post noctis silencium aurora prodeunte, 

1 precise cum eorum. C. 2 Yspanenses. C. 3 lib. et] om, B. 

4 aggressus. C. et castra} om. C. 6 excercere. C. ' sunt ausi. C. 

8 ipsorum. C. 9 Yspannis. C. 10 pictas demiono. B. " revocandum. C. 
12 bello. C. w om. B. u fac. est.] ad faciendum. C. 16 Yspannos. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. Ill 

Anglici ad classica nova, set frustra, preparati, tubis, lituis et muse A.D.1350. 
cornubus suos ad arma concitantes, sub pleniore luce solis emergentis 
mare contemplati nullius resistencie signum perceperunt. Nempe xxvij. 
naves, toto nisu fugientes de nocte, decem et septem sero spoliatas, tabo 
cruento et cerebro depictas 1 t regis voluntati reliquerunt. Set invite rediit 
Angliam rex cum triumpho, set magno periculo sui atque suorutn com- 
parato. Reportarunt enim sui 2 capita saucia commissuris lineis involuta, 
brachia et tibias quarellis et telis terebrata, atque dentes evulsos, nasos 
quoque decisos, labra fissa, et oculos erutos ; leti de insigniis gloriosi 
triumfi et evasione, risus doloribus egris miscuerunt quibus erat iocundum 
ex equo 3 inimico sanguine togas maculatas ostendere 4 . Ibi rex octo- 
ginta nobiles tirones ad militarem promovit honorem, et unius doluit 
periclitacionem, videlicet Ricardi de Goldesborowh 5 , miiitis, qui suam mor- 
tem, ut dicitur, vendidit appreciatam kare, ut videbatur Ispannis, nimis 6 . 

Isto anno Philippus de Valesio, vocatus rex Francorum, morbo Death of 

Philip of 
mortis nuncio citatus ad examen ludicis conscienciarum, pupphce con- Valois 

fessus suam iniusticiam qua detinuit coronam Francie, iussit filium suum an d SUC ces- 

lohannem paci finali inter regna condescendere, monens insuper 2 quod, kin g j j, n . 

in casu quo ipse regni solio potiretur, numquam armatus militaret contra 

regem Anglic ad bellum ineundum. Philippo demum universe carnis 

viam ingresso, suus primogenitus prefatus lohannes in regem Francie 

fuit coronatus, set iniuste, et ideo non regem set coronatum Francorum f. iso b . 

libet ilium ex nunc vocitare. 

Post optcntam 7 victoriam belli predescripti, rex scribens summo Edward 

asks for 

pontmci supplicavit quod ahquem clencum sui regni promoveret honori a cardinal's 
cardinalatus, asserens ipsum valde mirari quare ad ilium sanctum English- 
ordinem nullum Anglicum a multis temporibus dignata est recipere 
curia Romana, cum tamen ad utilitatem reverend! cetus cardinalium 
pinguia beneficia in regno Anglic predicto sint 8 reservata, et in dupplici 

1 tabo . . . depictas] om. B. 2 om. B. ' equo ex. C. 

4 quibus . . . ostendere] om. B. * Goldesborw. C. 6 ut . . . nimis] om. B. 

7 In a later hand, over an erasure. C. 8 sunt. C. 



I1CS CHRONICON GALFRID1 

A.D.1360. universitate prefati sui regni ad cuiuslibet scientie liberalis sine super- 
sticione gradum magistralem sint multi excellentes clerici sublimati et 
non minus morum honestate laudabiiiter decorati. Rescripsit predictus 
summus pontifex quod dominus rex eligeret duos clericos sui regni ad 
tantum honorem apciores, et circa illos sic electos clemens pater 
voluntati regie consensum libenter exiberet, si tamen electi fuissent 
ad honorem Dei et ecclesie universalis iudicio cardinalium digni corn- 
Two probati ad petitam dignitatem. Electos propterea magistrum lohannem 
selected 
candidates. Bateman, episcopum Norwicensem J , et Radulfum de Stratford, episco- 

pum Londoniensem, rex curie Romane per suas literas presentavit ; qui 

finem negocii diu set incassum apud curiam prefatam expectarunt. 

Interim siquidem Johannes de Valesio, coronatus Francorum, profectus 

French ad presenciam domini pape, presentavit multos suos clericos de gracia 

cardinals . 

elected, to sedis apostohce promovendos ; ex quibus papa creavit xj. cardmales, 

sion of duobus episcopis prenominatis, utriusque iuris egregiis doctoribus, ad 

meu 1S tutelam ovium eiis commissarum licenciatis. 
Duel in Prefatis 2 in fieri se habentibus, duo milites stipendiarii domini regis 

presence of 

the king, Armenie venerunt ad Angham et regis presenciam, ostendentes literas 
prefati regis Greci, in quibus continebatur quod alter istorum militum, 
scilicet Johannes de Viscomite 3 , nacione Ciprius, alterum, scilicet 
Thomam de la Marche, nacione Gallicum et filium Philippi nuper regis 
Francie, set illegitimum, calumniavit de eo quod predictus Thomas 
debuisset a Turcis quamdam auri summam recepisse ad hoc, quod 
exercitum Christianorum tirannidi Turcorum prodidisset, et quod ad * 
calumnie probacionem Johannes Thomam ad monomachiam provocasset, 
iudicio Edwardi regis Anglic, tamquam principis fortunatissimi 5 , dirimen- 
dam. Pro ista causa prefati milites dimicarunt infra ligaticia pallacii 
regalis Westmonasterii, die Lune proxima post festum sancti Michaelis ; 

1 Nonvycensem. C. 

2 Duellum bastardi cum Ciprio prefati. The first four -words evidently an original 
rubric which has been incorporated into the text. B. 

3 Viscount. C. * a. B. 5 fortissimi. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 113 

ubi Thomas, in declaracionem sue iusticie, eius adversarium superavit, A.D.1350. 
non tamen occidit, quia nee potuit sufficienter armatum penetrare alico 
tormento invasive, preterquam in facie quam habuit nudam. Post 
nempe hastiludia et pedestres congressus, luctando simul in aream 
profusi, Thomas quibusdam stimulis curtis et acutis quos manum dex- 
tram comprimendo 1 digitorum nodi radicales 2 e cirotecis laminatis 
expresserunt, et eos moderni vocant ' gadelinges,' 3 nudam lohannis faciem 
wlneravit. E contra Johannes nullum tormentum habuit ita curtum quo 
posset ledere faciem Thome ; et hinc, orribiliter ipso exclamante 4 , regio 
precepto duellum cessavit, et Thome victoria adiudicatur ; qui victum 
lohannem principi Wallie dederat captivum, atque suam armaturam 
sancto Georgio in ecclesia sancti Pauli optulit devote. 

Hiis peractis, Ciprio datur libertas manumissionis ; et Thomas, Anger of 
ad presenciam sui fratris coronati Francorum confidenter profectus, 
invenit dictum coronatum et proceres Francie contra ipsum indignatos 
pro eo quod coram rege Anglic monomachie consenciebat. Ad hec ^arche 
Thomas securus putative 5 de falsa fratris sui amicicia, volens ostendere f. 131. 
se bene fecisse, inter cetera laudavit regis Edwardi nobilitatem, famam 
per totum mundum ventilatam, et iusticiam quam exercuit iudicando : 
' Non acceptans personam Ciprii qui ipsum regem diligebat preferendam,' 
inquit, ' mihi Franco atque fratri et amico tibi, domino meo regi Francie V 
Itemque 8 comes de Ew in laudes regias profudit habunde, adnumerans 
solacia et beneficia que in Anglia recepit a rege tempore 9 sue cap- 
tivitatis, recensens cum aliis quam longe fuit ab optimo rege invidia 
relegata, quando ipsi in Anglia captivo I0 hastiludianti, ubi eciam rex 
hastiludiavit, non invidebat campi graciam acclamari. Laudibus pre- 

1 premendo. C. 2 raduales. C. s gadelynges. C. 4 vulnerante. C. 

8 Misplaced at the end of the previous sentence. B. ' inter ceterd\ om. C. 

7 Here, both in B. and C, are added the words : ' predict! Edwardi regis iudicis 
adversarii mei,' which are probably two glosses incorporated into the text, viz.: 
' predicti Edwardi regis iudicis,' a gloss on iusticiam ; and ' adversarii mei,' a 
gloss on Ciprii. 

8 Itaque. C. 8 pro tempore. B. lo captivi. C 



H4 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1350. fetis quantumcumque citra condignum predicatis invidebat coronatus 
Francorum, et per indignacionem, ex invidia, noverca iusticie, spurio 
partu progenitam, predictarum laudum precones impie iussit decapitari, 

Execution fingens comitem cum sua regia uxore nimiam habuisse familiaritatem, 

of the 

comte atque suum fratrem lese regie magestatis Francie fuisse reum, quando 

d'Eu and 

T. dela suam causam duellarem regis Anglic exammi commisit. Post pre- 

Th ueen dictum fratricidium, uxorem suam, filiam * nobilis regis Boemie 2 , in 

of France prelio de Cressi 3 dudum occisi, fame torsit usque 4 ad mortem; et 
starved to 

death. deinde cuiusdam monialis fedis amplexibus et concubitu suum regium 
honorem fedavit, usque ad ipsius captivitatem in bello Pictavensi infra 
descripto. 

A.D. 1351. Anno Christi M.CCC.lj. et regis xxv., post octabas Purificacionis 

Parliament. Virginis gloriose, in parliamento Londoniis apud Westmonasterium 

Creations, celebrato, dominus Henricus filius Henrici comitis Lancastrie, ipse comes 

Lincolnie 5 , Leicestrie, Derbie et Grossimontis atque de Ferrariis, factus 

est dux Lancastrie, datis sibi libertatibus atque privilegiis munificencia 

regali qualia nullus comitum habebat. Item, dominus Leunecius 6 de 

Andewerpe, regis filius, fit comes de Holvestria in Hybernia. et dominus 

Johannes de Gandavo, germanus eius, fit comes Richemundie, et dominus 

Radulfus de Staffordia, pridem baro, comes eiusdem tituli creabatur. 

Raid from J n sequent! Quadragesima domini Walterus de Magne et Robertus 

Calais into 

French Herle, capitaneus Calesie, equitarunt in Franciam, cuius magna plaga 
territory. 

depredata, reduxerunt pecudum, bourn, ovium et porcorum magnam 

copiam ; unde Calesiam ita refocillarunt, quod una pinguis vacca vix 
Failure of valeret xvj. denarios sterlingorum. Post hec, circa Pascha, dux Lancas- 

the duke 

ofLancas- trie de Calesia progressus in partes mantimas Artosie et Picardie 
Boulogne, exussit suburbium Bononie ; set insiliendo ville non prevaluit, pro eo 
He attacks dumtaxat quod scale fuerunt nimis curte. Itaque vastavit civitatem 

other 

places. de Tirewane et portum, item villas de Faucunberge 7 et Staples, et in 
nominatis portubus incendebat plures quam centum et xx. naves 

I cm. C. 2 Boemye. C. 3 Cressy. C. * om. C. 

II Henricus comes Lane, et Line. C. 6 Leiicius. C. 7 Facunberge. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 115 

diversarum formarum ; deinde patriam campestrem ignibus depascens A.D.1361. 
usque ad Seint 1 Homers equitavit et, multis fortaliciis expugnatis, cum 
magna preda et plurimis captivis Calesiam revertebatur. f. 131". 

Item, circa festum sancti Georgii, res in Vasconia bene gerebatur, Defeat of 

the French 
quippe marescallus regm Francie cum magna multitudine armatorum near St. 

depopulavit patriam ville sancti lohannis Ewangeliste, cuius custodie d'Angely. 
Edmundus Rose Nortfolchiensis 2 preficiebatur ; unde populares, coad- 
unati cum garnestura predicte ville, hostibus viriliter obviarunt, et, inito 
congressu, multis quoque occisis, ceperunt predictum marescallum et 
multos alios nobiles Francorum, fugatis amplius quam CCCC tis viris status 
militaris 3 . 

Eodem anno eventus bellicus sub ducatu lohannis de Bello campo, Defeat of 
germani comitis Warewici, in perversum fuerat mutatus 4 . Ipse nempe, E n g 



capitaneus tune Calesii, educta fere tota sua custodia, scilicet trecentis """ 
viris armorum atque totidem sagittariis, patriam vicinam triduo vastavit 
et reduxit predam innumeratam ; set in reditu versus Kalesiam 5 domini 
de Bealgin 6 et de Fienes 7 cum mille et quingentis viris armorum illis 
insidias in tribus locis imboscarunt, qui 8 , devictis prima et secunda 
imboscacionibus, venerunt prope pavimentum quod est iter ad Calesiam, 
ubi hostes recentes 8 ipsis occurrerunt. Predictus igitur Johannes, miles 
strenuissimus et mire magnanimitatis, indignatus quasi fugiendo in locum 
tutum et aptum defensioni suos contrahere, sprevit pavimentum eiis 
vicinum pro refugio captare, quo si devenissent, hostes in illos non pre- 
valuissent, si fuerit credendum illis qui fuerunt ibidem ; tune enim 8 illos 
non potuissent circumvallasse. Igitur in piano campo illis restiterunt et 
quantumcunque lassati ex dupplici in eodem die habito conflictu, et multi 
ex eiis periculose fuissent sauciati 9 , sagittarii eciam suas sagittas expen- 



1 Seynt. C. 2 Ros Northfolchiensis. C. 

8 fugaverant amplius quam CCCC viros status militaris alios quadringentos : the 
first and eighth -words having been altered. C. 

* mutata. B. ; mutatum. C. 5 Calesiam. C. e Bealgyn. C. 

7 Fyenes. C. " em. C. " inimici sauciati. C. 

QJ 



Il6 CHRONICON GALFR1DI 

A.D.1351. dissent *, animose tamen, licet non sapienter, suos hostes receperunt. Sic 2 
innovatur acer conflictus, in quo dux adversariorum, prefatus dominus de 
Bealgin, cecidit peremtus ; quo non obstante, sui constanter nostros ex- 
pugnarunt, atque omnes ceperunt preter 3 paucos, qui, in aliis 4 conflic- 
tibus graviter wlnerati, cum illis qui predam ad villam abigebant ante ter- 
cium conflictum fuerant Calesiam, set pauci, regressi. Nullus Anglicus 
fuit ibi occisus, scilicet s qui se voluit alicui reddere ; unde fere omnes 
postea fuerunt aut per redempcionem aut commutacionem aliorum pro 
illis liberati 6 . 

Truce with Eodem anno naves Ispanie 7 cum auctoritate tractandi de pace 

Spain and 

with Angliam applicuerunt, sicud anno preterite fuit per easdem citatas et 

France. 

detentas compromissum ; et ordmate sunt treuge inter Anghcos et illas 

xx. annis durature. Item, inter regna Anglic et Francie inite sunt 
treuge anue duracionis 8 ; quas propter capcionem castri de Gynes 
Gallici fregerunt, sicud annali 9 proximo notatur. 
Adjust- Hiis eciam temporibus mutatum est aurum optimum in novam 

ment of 

coinage. auream monetam, antiquum enim notabihter valuit ultra precmm taxa- 
tum, et ideo Lumbardi, ceteri quoque mercatores alieni, ipsum emtum 
asportaverunt de regno, ad magnam regis et tocius Anglic iacturam, cui 
f. 132. fuit remedialiter provisum per predictam commutacionem. Fuit eciam 
moneta argentea de novo fabricata, videlicet grossus valoris quatuor 
sterlingorum et alius in subduplo sibi appreciatus. 

A.D.1352. Anno Christi M.CCC.lij., circa principium mensis lanuarii, Gallicis oc- 

Capture of cupatis circa reparacionem murorum ville de Gynes, antea 10 per Anglicos 
the castle ... ..... 

of Guines devastate, quidam vin status mihtans open tanto male conscn ingemati 

sunt eius demollicionem, et efficaciter, sub hac forma. Erat quidam Sagit- 
tarius nomine Johannes Danecastrie u , qui aliquando captus et in castro 
de Gynes incarceratus, nee habens underedimi posset, ut ibi similiter opera- 
retur, fuerat dimissus. Iste, cuiusdam fedissime 10 lotricis fedis amplexibus 

1 expendidissent. B. 2 Set. B. 3 preterquam. B. 

4 ceteris. C. 6 om. B. libertati. B. ' Hyspanie. C. 

8 anue duracionis\ altered to anno uno durature. C. 9 altered to anno. C. 
10 erased. C. " Dancastrie. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. ti; 

associatus 1 , didicit ab illaubi trans fossam principalem a fundo fosse fuerat A.D.1352. 
murus fabricatus, latitudinis duorum pedum, protensus ab aggere ad oram 2 
fosse interiorem, ita quidem aquis opertus quod non videbatur, set non ita 
submersus quin vadens per ilium vix genuis contingeret aque superficiem, 
factus quondam ad operam piscatorum, et ideo in medio ad spacium 
duorum pedum discontinuatus. Adhuc ilia feda prodente, metitus est cum 
filo altitudinem muralem. Istis cognitis, una dierum de muro lapsus, Deo 
commissus, per occultum murum prefatum transiit fossam, et, usque ad 
vesperum latens in maresco, de nocte venit prope Calesiam, ubi expec- 
tans clarum diem tune 1 introivit, alias minime recipiendus. Hie edocuit 
avidos prede et furandi castri l prefati quo ingressus pateret illis. Factis 
igitur scalis ad mensuram per ilium taxatam, triginta viri conspirati, 
armis nigris absque splendore cooperti, de nocte castrum, duce lohanne, 
adiverunt, atque, murum scalis conscensi, speculatorem a casu eiis obvium 
incipientem exclamare excerebratum precipitarent in profundum 3 . 
Deinde in aula multos inermes, ad instar ovium in presencia luporum 
attonitos, trucidarunt inventos, aut ad scakkarium aut ad hasardum 
conludentes. Deinde contra dominas et quosdam milites dormientes 
cameras et turres faciliter ingressi, facti sunt magistri omnium que vole- 
bant. Inclusis tandem omnibus captis in una camera forciori, armis 
omnibus spoliatis, Anglicos incarcerates ab anno priori liberates, cibatos 
et armatos, suis quondam magistris prefecerunt, et sic demum omnes castri 
municiones ocuparunt, ignorantibus illis, qui in villa reedificacioni diru- 
torum erant prefect!, quid castellanis contingebat. In crastino preceperunt 
operantibus in villa ab opere cessare, qui, per hoc nota castri capcione, 
celeriter fugerunt; et novi castellani dominas inventas equestres abire 
permiserunt, cum earum robis 4 et cartis atque munimentis quibus sua 
feodalia tenere deberent. 

Eodem die supervenerunt eiis in auxilium quidam invitati a Calesia, 
quibus fideliter astipulantibus castrum secure tenuerunt ; et circa horam 
terciam venerunt missi a comite de Gynes duo milites, qui, petitis induciis, 
1 am. C. 2 horam. B. C. " in prof.} om. B. * robure. C. 



Il8 CH RON ICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1352. quesierunt ab ingressis, qui et cuius, seu quorum autoritate castrum cap- 
Attempt turn detinerent tempore treugarum. Ad hec responsum 1 receperunt, 

to repur- . 

chase the quod intrusi nolebant alicui viventi suum esse revelare, quousque diutur- 
niorem loci seisinam fuissent experti. Igitur in die sancti Mauri abbatis, 
rege suo parliamento incumbente, venerunt Gallici missi a prefato comite 
f. I32 b . de Gynes, asserentes in presencia regis quod, in preiudicium treugarum, 
castrum predictum fuit captum, et ideo iure mutue fidei eiis integraliter 
restituendum. Respondit nunciis providencia regalis quod de 2 assensu 
regio vel scitu non fuit facinus ingeniatum, et ideo petentibus tradidit 
literas preceptorias cuilibet suorum, ne aliquis suus fidelis castrum de 
Gynes, ut premittitur. occupatum detineret, set suis legitimis dominatori- 
bus libcraret illud. Nunciis regressis et expositis sue legacioni 3 contin- 
genciis, accessit ad castrum quandoque suum comes de Gynes, querens 
ab intrusis, sicud alias, cuius nomine castrum occuparent ; quibus con- 
stanter respondentibus quod nomine lohannis Danecastrie, quesivit utrum 
Johannes prefatus esset fidelis regis Anglorum aut eius preceptis inclina- 
turus. Quo respondente quod non, scivit enim quid in Anglia contigit 
nunciis prenominatis, optulit comes pro castro, preter totum tesaurum in 
eo repertum, multa milia scutatorum, aut possessiones pro commutacione 
et pacem perpetuam atque amiciciam regis Francorum. Ad hec finaliter 
responderunt castellani quod ante capcionem sui castri fuerunt Anglici 
nacione, set, suis demeritis a pace et amicicia atque incolatu regis Anglie 
et regni relegati, exulati ; unde locum quem habuerunt libenter venderent 
aut commutarent, set null! prius quam suo regi natural!, scilicet preor- 
dinato regi Anglie, cui, ut dixerunt, forent exposituri suum castrum 
venale pro sui pace atque pacifica revocacione ab exilio ; qui si nollet 
illud 4 emere, regis Francie aut cuiuscumque habundancius offerentis 
pro illo precium convencionis reciperent libenter. Talibus comite eva- 
cuato, rex Anglie castrum revera desideratum emit et ocupavit. 

Istud fortalicium solebat Anglicis opturare viam in patriam supe- 

1 ad hec respons.} repeated. B. 2 otn. C. 3 legacionis. C. 4 id. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 119 

riorem, prebens patrie magnam securitatem a forariis Calesie. Volens A.D.1352. 
igitur concilium Francorum locum ilium rehabere, aut aliud eiusdem The 
utilitatis edificare pro tuicione patrie vicine, miserunt Galfridum de f or tif y a 
Charny, nuper redemptum de carcere Anglorum, cum autoritate faciendi " astery 
que sequuntur 1 . Itinerantibus de Gynes ad Calesiam erat quidam locus 

a sinistris fortis set devotus, habens ecclesiam in qua virgines consecrate 

destroy. 

servierunt Deo, et vocabatur Labascie 2 ; et ita castro de Gynes fuerat 
vicinus 3 , quod stantes Anglici extra portam sue municionis poterant 
illuc 4 sagittare. Istud monasterium faciliter poterat fieri defensibile 5 , 
habuit enim ad instar castri muros erectos et turrim arduam et amplam 
pro campanili ; sedens insuper in marisco, modico labore poterat aquatica 
fossa concludi. Loco sancto quantumcumque suspecto tamen ob devo- 
cionem lesu Christ! omnes Anglici et semper pepercerunt, usque quo 7 
Galfridus prenominatus, in violacionem treugarum, cum potenti manu 
armata Gynes obsessit 8 et moniales ab ecclesia 9 dimovit, castrum de 
ecclesia et muro barbam ac 10 toti fossam nisus fabricare ; et hoc circa 
Pentecosten illius anni, quo tempore aquis non impedientibus poterant 
sui in marisco laborare. Itaque anterius obsessi castellani de Gynes 
vix poterant egredi per 11 fossas aque plenas in cimbis 12 aut per mariscum f. 133. 
invium et aquosum, nee Calesienses poterant ipsos quomodocumque egenos 
victualiare propter obsidionem et custbdiam de Labbastie 13 . Pluries 
exierunt obsessi et dimicabant cum illis de Labbastie 13 , set nimis paucos 
aliquando sagittis et nonnunquam aliis armis occiderunt. Tandem die 
constitute convenerunt Calesienses cum illis de Oye et de Merke, ex una 
parte, occurrentibus castellanis ex adverso, et occiderunt multos, plu- 
resque fugarunt, atque finaliter incenderunt totam Labbastie 14 , et, muris 
dirutis, omnia solo coequarunt. 

Hoc anno domino duce Lancastrie Spruciam profecto et deinde 

1 sequantur. B. 2 Labbscie. B. 3 vicina. B. * ad illam. B. 

6 defensable. B. 6 Angl. ei\ om. C. ' quousque. C. 8 obcessum. C. 

9 loco. C. 10 aut. B. " pre. C. M circulis. a Labascie. C. 
14 Labbascie. C. 



I2O 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D.1352. 



Marriage of 
the duke 
of Lan- 
caster's 
daughter. 
Defeat of 
Gui de 
Nesle by 
Walter 
Bentley, 
14 Ang. 



apud regem Crakkowye 1 et Polonie 2 contra Turcos demorante, filia sua 3 
domino duci Selandie Willelmo, primogenito quondam Ludowici 4 ducis 
Bavarie, intrusoris imperil Romani. fuit in Anglia desponsata de concilio 
regis et ordinacione. 

Isto anno 5 , in vigilia Assumpcionis Virginis, matris Dei, Walterus de 
Benteleye 6 , capitaneus, Robertus Knollis et alii regis fideles in marchia 
Britannic hostibus egregie obviarunt, ubi in certamine diu periculoso 
fuerant occisi marescallus Francie principalis, item domini de Quintin 7 , 
de Curtunoke 8 , de Richemont D , de Mountalban, de Lagenel, de Launey, 
de Mountboche 10 , de Vilechastel u , de la Marche, et alii milites numero 
centum quadraginta, atque domicelli ad summam 12 quingentorum, quorum 
toge armature fuerunt reportate, numero popularium non taxato. 
Ibidem capti fuerunt dominus 13 de Brusebeke 14 , filius marescalli Bertram, 
item Tristram de Maleis 15 , item dominus de Maletret le , item vicecomes 
de Comayn, item Galfridus de Goanes, Willelmus de la Val, Carolus 
Darchefil 17 , Johannes de Bause et alii milites cum domicellis 18 amplius 
quam centum et triginta. Iste Francorum exercitus sub ducatu predict! 
marescalli ex proposito ductoris fuerat a tergo declivo cuiusdam mentis 
vallatus, quod non poterat fugam inire, ut ex fuge desperacione cresceret 
eiis audacia pugnandi, sicud solet animosis 19 . Fuerunt eciam ibidem 
plures de comitiva militum Stelle, qui in sua professione coniu- 
rarunt se nunquam Anglico terga territa versuros, de quibus fuerunt 
inter captos et occisos numerati quadraginta quinque. Ab illo dis- 
crimine pauci non wlnerati evaserunt, in quo ipsorum 20 capitaneus pre- 
fatus Walterus horribiliter vvlneratus iussit triginta sagittarios decapitari, 
qui in maximo belli fervore teriti a Gallicorum immensitate fugam 
inierunt. 



2 et Pot.] om. B. * suo C. 

6 Benteley. C. 7 Quinteyn. C. 



1 Crakowie. C. 

8 om. C. 

9 Rychemund. C. 10 Mountbok. C. 

12 ad summam} summa. C. 13 domini. C. 

15 Maleys. C. " Malatret. C. 

18 damicellis. B. 19 animosus. C. 



4 Lodewici. C. 
8 Curtenoke. C. 
11 Vyle Chastei. C. 

14 Bryssebeke. C. 
17 Darchefyl. C. 
20 illorum. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 131 

Item 1 , comes Staffordie Vasconiam intravit, ubi obvius Gallicorum A.D. 1352. 
magno exercitui, qui a municione Dagent fuerant egressi, hostes fudit, Successor 
cepit 2 et fugavit, circa 3 Nativitatem Virginis gloriose. Ibi fuerunt Stafford in 
capti famosus ille miles, ductor providus atque vir magne presumpcionis, 
vocatus Brusegaudus 4 , et vij. milites comitive de Stella. Nee multum 
postea communi morte obierunt ibidem Johannes Dodianseles 5 et 
Thomas Wale, milites magne probitatis. 

Isto eciam anno, audito quod pirate mare inquietarunt, ordinate A fleet sent 

out against 

sunt vij. naves belhce cum spmacns subservientibus et hburms , quibus pirates. 
amiralli 7 Thomas Coke 8 et Ricardus Totlesham, milites, mare circa litora f. I33 h . 
Pikardie 9 et Normannie despumaverunt, set ante festum sancti Georgii 
votive revertebantur. 

Dum hec in mari et terris gerebantur, duci 10 Lancastrie a Sprucia Challenge 
reverse misit literas Otto, filius ducis u Brunnuswici Teutonici et 12 sti- O f Lan- 



pendiarius coronati Francorum, quibus ipsum ducem calumpniabatur, 
asserens quod dux, per Coloniam de Sprucia revertens, informavit Brunswick - 
maliciose Colonienses de eo quod prefatus Otto nitebatur ipsum ducem 
furtive rapuisse coronato Francorum ut captivum 13 presentandum, sub- 
dens u quod, quia talem raptum numquam excogitavit, paratus fuerat 
in declaracionem sue fame per monomachiam, in curia dumtaxat regis 
Francie, ducem Lancastrie de prestito articulo mendacem comprobare. 
Litere, quibus ista continebantur, non fuerunt sigillate ; et ideo, ne 
stultam visus fuisset cedule fidem adibuisse, presertim per famulum 
status abiecti presentate, misit Ottoni duos milites inquisituros causam 
calumnie et petituros eius super ilia literas patentes per sigillum au- 
tenticum muniendas. Quibus, itineris impleto negocio, ab Alemannia 15 
festinanter reversis, misit dux coronato Francorum pro secure conductu 16 The duke 

goes to 

sui atque suorum optinendo 12 . Cum magna tandem difficultate petita Paris to 
et optenta licencia regis, Parisium adivit ; ubi in ligaticiis, presentibus cftho.' 

1 Eodem anno. C. 2 et cepit. C. 3 ad. C. * Brisegaudus. C. 

Adyngseles. C. et libumis] om. B. ' amirallus. C. 8 Koke. C. 

9 Picardie. C. 10 duce. C. " filius ducts] fill duo. C. 12 om. B. 

13 furtivum. C. H subdans. B. 16 Allymannia. B. I6 securi conduct). C. 

R 



122 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1352. coronato Francorum, rege eciam 1 Navarre et duce Burgundie atque 
plurimis paribus et aliis de regno Francie, dux dextrarium decenter 
conscendit, omni signo sine defectu duello desiderate. Omnino paratus 
expectavit adversarii preparacionem et vocem preconis atque caucionem 
communis iuramenti de fide dictorum et parendo iuri. E contra predictum 
Ottonem vix 2 auxilio sublevancium equus recalcitrans recepit invitus, 



a quo evectus non potuit cassidem set neque scutum decenter aptare, 
aut lanceam erigere, aut se non posse vecorditer finxit 3 . Itaque statim 
coronato atque regi aliisque presentibus comperta Ottonis impotencia, 
coronatus Francorum causam monomachie pertractandam sibi continuo 
reservavit. Unde Otto primitus iussus a loco 4 abscessit 5 , et 6 in area 

Otho dux expectavit. Post hec. precepto coronati Francorum, Otto iuravit 
retracts. 

quod numquam ex tune de predicto articulo ducem Lancastrie 
calumpniaret ; et abinde dux per Selandiam repatriavit. 
Order Incidencia. Post Epiphaniam istius anni, in parliamento apud 

concerning 

the dress of Westmonasterium celebrate, fuit ordinatum, ad instanciam Londonien- 

loose 

women. sium, quod nulla meretrix notata 7 gestaret de cetero capucium nisi 

stragulatum, neque uteretur pellura aut vestibus reversatis, sub pena 
forisfaccionis earumdem 8 . 
Importa- Item, bladi 9 caristia per illos de Selandia et Hibernicos deferentes 

tion of 

com. blada venalia ad diversos 10 portus regni fuit in magnum populi solacium 

mitigata. 

Death of Preterea isto anno pie memorie dominus Willelmus de la Zowche n , 

la Zouche, archiepiscopus Eboracensis, ab hoc mundo migravit ; et in suum locum 
of C York hOP rnagister Johannes de Thursby 12 , episcopus Wircestrie 13 et regni can- 
(19 July). ce n ar ; USj fuerat translatus. 
A.D.1353. Anno Christi M.CCC.13., regis Edwardi xxvij. 14 , in crastino sancti 

Matheivel Mathie 15 apostoli,in 16 parliamento Westmonasterii fuit ordina- 

I et rege. C. 2 predictus Otto; and om. vix. C. s fixit. C. 

* a loco] om. B. 5 recessit. C. * absc. et] transposed. B ; et om. C. 

7 vocata. C. eorumdem. B. C. 9 badi. C. 10 diversas. B. C. 

II Souche. C. la Thorsby. C. ls Wygorniensis. C. 

14 reg. Edw. xxvij^ om. C. u Mathei vel\ om. C. " om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 123 

turn quod stapule lanarum, scilicet locus confluencie mercatorum pro A.D. 1353. 
lanis emendis, que prius fuerant apud Flandriam in Bruges, forent de f.134. 
cetero in diversis partibus Anglic, Wallie, et Hibernie, ordinatis statutis m s e * t O 'f " 



contra transgressores et datis privilegiis mercatoribus, set precipue 
alienigenis, ut patet in legibus inde confectis. 

Post predictum parliamentum comes Norhamptonie, egregius con- Incursion 

of the earl 

tinue domitor Scotorum 1 , quorum versucie semper plus Anghcis of North- 

r . <-, . ampton 

nocuerunt quam fastus pompaticus Galhcorum, profectus est in hcociam into 
cum magna comitiva armatorum et sagittariorum atque Wallencium 
vispilionum ; ubi marchiam transequitavit, et inforciavit castrum de 
Loghmaban et alias suas municiones, atque cepit imboscatos Scotos 
bellicosos, set inter ceteros dominum lacobum de Rammesseye 2 , virum 
militarem et dotatum prediis mille marcarum. Habuit eciam tractatum 
pacis cum ilia superbissima gente Scotorum, qui libenter regem suum 
redemissent et perpetuam amiciciam cum Anglicis fecissent, ita tamen 
quod de rege Anglic rex Scotorum 1 suam terram non teneret. 

Isto anno, in die sancti Nicholai obiit Clemens papa sextus, cui Death of 

Clement vi, 

successit Innocencius papa, eciam sextus. Iste papa Innocencius, pro GDec.ijsa. 

magno pacis desiderio, misit Calesiam cardinalem Bononiensem, audi- A ' D - 1854 - 

_ Mediation 

turum tractatum de pace final! inter regna Anglic et Francie, cui of Innocent 

, . vi. between 

confluxerunt concilia duorum regnorum cum plena autontate tractandi England 

et constituendi condiciones 3 pacis prefate 4 ; et in hoc tandem consense- j" rance 
runt, quod rex Anglic resignaret totum ius suum quod habuit in 
regnum 5 Francie et dimitteret nomen regium Francorum, et haberet pro 
tanto ducatum Aquitannie et comitatus Dartoys et de Gynes, pro 

% 

se et suis successoribus regibus Anglorum, absque hoc quod de rege 
Francie ilia teneret quomodocumque. Istis condicionibus pius Ed- 
wardus, rex Anglic et Francie, pium et benevolum prebuit 6 assensum, 
pro devocione pacis Christianitatis. Tandem pro assecuritacione 
tantarum convencionum mittuntur ad sedem apostolicam nuncii 

1 Scottorum. C. * The name om. B. 3 constituciones. C. 

4 preoptate. C. 5 regno. C. ' om. C. 

t R 2 



124 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1354. solempnes utriusque regni. Quippe a latere regis Anglic fungebantur 
Conference ista legacione episcopus Norwicensis, dux Lancastrie, comes Darundel, 

of English . . 

and French et alii milites ; quibus profectis Avmionam accesserunt archiepiscopus l 
sadorsat Rotomagensis, dux Borbonie, Galfridus de Charny 2 , et alii de concilio 
courT' Francorum. Omnes nuncii fuerunt in honore magno recepti ; dud 
A.D.1354- quidem Lancastrie obviaverunt multi cardinales et episcopi, qui a duobus 

1355. 

miliaribus ipsum conduxerant ad civitatem et pallacium domini pape. 
Tandem in consistorio summi pontificis ipso et cardinalibus atque 
nunciis utriusque presentibus, fuerunt exposite cause nunciorum ; quibus 
auditis, Anglici pecierunt convenciones confirmari, dudum apud Calesiam 
inter seipsos et nuncios Francie ibidem presentes constitutas 3 . Anglicis 4 
Gallici responderunt, quod libenter vellent pacem ; set de Aquitannia et 
de 5 prefatis comitatibus, ut dixerunt, non posset rex Francie, set nee 
ipsi assentirent, quod de fi integritate regni, ad quam rex et ipsi fuerant 
iurati, forent, cum omni iure quo predicto regno pertinebant, alienata ; 
bene tamen consentirent quod utile dominium predictorum ducatus et 
comitatuum regi Anglic devolveretur G , sicud habuerunt Aquitanniam 
sui antecessores, ita tamen quod regalitas regie corone Francie reser- 
varetur. Anglici vero, considerantes quod regalitas predicta pro 
f. I34 b . dilacione homagiorum et liganciarum solebat antiques reges Anglic 
et Francie ad discrimina guerrarum commovere, pecierunt, pro habenda 
pace perpetua, quod prefata dominia forent absolute et sine condicione 
suo regi concessa, ut premittitur. Que peticio, quamvis nuper apud 
Calesiam, ut testabatur cardinalis Bononiensis, fuerat admissa et per 
habentes autoritatem 7 confirmata, tamen ibi fuit pertinaciter denegata. 
Fuit eciam responsum racioni Gallicorum de sui regis et suo 8 iuramento, 
quo videlicet fuerunt obligati ad conservandam integritatem honoris 
regni et illi pertinencium, quod scilicet dominus papa, si eii placeret, 
posset 9 pro bono pacis eos absolvere a predicto iuramento, et hoc quoad 

1 episcopus. C. 2 Charnye. C. 3 constitute. B ; presentibus constitutes. C. 

* Anglici. B. 5 om. B. * devolverentur. B. 7 autoritates. C. 

* sui. C. om. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 125 

certos articulos premisses foret consulte faciendum. Attamen per A.D.1354- 

1355. 

papam nihil fuit innovatum neque reformatum l , quod ad pacem ecclesie 

et regnorum notabiliter valeret. Propterea nuncii ad graves expensas Death of 



illuc destinati sine effectu revertebantur, dempto quod episcopo Norwy- 
censi, viro magne sapientie ibidem obeunti et sepulto, successit dominus 
Thomas de Percy, provisione domini pape et instancia nunciorum. (6 Jan.). 

Anno M.CCC.liiij., rex Navarre 2 , suscitata 3 rixa, occidit dominum 
Karolum de Ispania, Francie marescallum ; unde vindictam coronati Charles of 

Navarre 

declmaturus in propna fugit, mittens avunculum suum duci Lan- applies to 
castrie cum literis suppliciter deprecatoriis quod veniret Normanniam Lancaster 
in sui auxilium et defensionem, reciperetque ab ipso iuramentum 4 fideli- or aid ' 
tatis et amicicie 5 contra omnes viventes 6 . Igitur dux, habita licensia 
a domino rege, magnam classem coadunavit apud Suthamptoniam 7 ; ubi, 
duce parato ad velificandum, revenerunt milites sui nuncii, promissi 
Normanniam 8 pro istius negocii veritate contemplanda, per quos duci 
fuit notificatum 'quod predictus suus consanguineus rex Navarre coro- 
nato Francorum erat pacificatus ; et sic ducis transfretacio pro tune 
suspendebatur. 

Anno M. CCC.lv., regni Edwardi xxix., ipso rege versus Franciam circa The king 
Sandwicum 9 et principe Wallie versus Aquitanniam apud Suttonam in O f Wales 
Devonia ventum prosperum expectantibus per amplius quam quad- ["ade 
raginta dies, ceteris paratis, coronatus Francorum habuit suos exercitus France - 
divisos super portus Normannie et in aliis maritimis, impedituros regem 
seu principem ne ad terram applicarent, in tantum et tarn diu quod 
ipsi Gallic! cum suis stipendiariis patriam propriam nimium vastarunt, et, 
ab erario coronati multis milibus scutatorum inaniter consumptis, tandem 

1 neque reform^ om. B. 

2 Here C. has the following : 'anno supranominato, invocato present! sacramento 
altaris, iuravit fidelitatem regi Anglic, quam dominus dux Lancastrie apud Avinoniam 
sibi securitate interposita suscepit. Et rex postea, rediens Franciam,' etc. 

* suscitataque. C. * securitatem. C. 6 et amfc.] om. C. 

6 C. adds : castrum scilicet Chirbrok in Normannia. 

7 Southamptoniam. C. 8 missi Normannya. C. Sandewicum. C. 



iz6 CHROXICON GALFRIDI 

AJ>.l3SS.vel mans pauper sea parcus predictus coronatus, stipendia suis non 



TbeFnw persolvens, ita fuit ab eis derelictus quod, rege postea l Franciam 2 
desert for depopulante. coronatus non habeas 1 cum quibus occurreret suo perse- 
^'cutori, aut certe vecordia victus non audens 4 , ipsum insequentem 
fugiebat, villas proprias incendens et victualia devastans, ne rex 
hotpicium aut victum pro suis reperiret. Attamen doniinus rex, ipsum 
coronatum tribus diebus persecutus, qualibet nocte hospitabatur ubi 
nocte precedent! coronatus fugiens latitabat. 

Anno supradicto 5 . post mensem Augusti, dominus rex et dux Lancas- 
trie, cum vij. milibus armatorum et pertinenciis. Franciam intrarunt. et per 
ix. dietas in partes australes 5 omnia itinerando flamma depascentes depo- 
pularunt Et, Calesiam reversi, audivit rex 7 quod Scoti furtim intrarunt 
et ceperunt vfllam Berewici, barone de Greistoke* non invitato cum 



r -.-.-. -. 

ewsof the rege militante, cui tamen * committebatur cura vQle iam capte 1: '. Unde 
Ifenridc. rex ad Scociam properavit, Berewicum obsessit, et infra 11 quindenam 
villam sibi redditam recepit, datis vita et libertate inventis in ilia. 
A-D.1356. Deinde Scociam usque ad mare Scoticum peragravit, et quia" victualia 
Abortrie excrcitui defuerunt, pro eo quod Scoti ante 13 suspectum regis adventum 
omnia ad insulas et fortalicia et 14 trans mare Scocie deportarunt, set 
neque naves Xovi castri exercitum victualiarunt tamen ad hoc ordinate, 
cum rege licenciante 15 omnes in Angliam repatriarunt, sequentibus 
in fine exercitus ad xij. miliaria '* Roberto Herle, Almerico de Sancto 
Edmundo, Roberto de Hildesleye 17 et aliis. Quibus Scoti de nocte 



Ac Scots 

with the inventis dormientibus, nihil u adversum suspicantibus, cum exclamaa'one 

insultum dederunt Ibi post longam resistenciam Robertus de Hildes- 
leye et Johannes Brancestre, milites, fuerunt capti, Roberto Herle et 
Almerico vix evasion! se committentibus. Consuluerunt enim predict? 
milites, visa Scotorum prevalencia, quod sui domini barones, ipsos suos 

1 *w. B. * Francie. B. * babens unde. C. * aut . . . audeni] om. B. 

* anno supradicto] om. B. ' in part, autfr.] a blank space in B. 

7 aud. rex\ audio-art. C. ' Greystok. C. * om. B. " captivate. C. 

ita infta. C. om. C. u antea. C. " atque. C. " licenciate. C. 

ad xij. mil.] om. C. Hyldeskye. C. M veL C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYXEBROKE. 



327 



redempturi, pnlcra sen cauta retraccione a Scotorum capcione 
se eximerent; et hoc fecenmt. estimanles consnlte tollerabiliorem 
paapemm mHitum quam baronum et panconrm qnam omnium cap- 



Post hec dominus dux Lancastrie? ordrnatns capitaneus Brrtamrie. 
navigio Neustriam profectns. apad Hoggis a litora nactrifi. circa festam 
sancti Barnabc apostoli eqoilavit crnn PhH^po g-ennano regis Navarre, 
cui ipsmn ducem in sui auxiLum invitavit. Tcfn ^p* anno caroosatuB 
Pnmconun liabens suspectos ^ rcgcm X^avarromni et dcmnmnB dc IIJHB- 
coort et qnosdam alios nobQes dc regno. ipsis a convfviimi filjtis. 
incarceravit et alios nobiies trnridarit, * 






de Hareconrt semri feriendo ant ut dicitur. saccnm indnto 4 
qnod nomqnazn aliter fnit rens prodkianis qnam quod cnm 
Anglic, vero hercdf et de inre, licet nan de facto, rege loans regm 
Francie, nan lenmt, set d rebdb * a^Stii jain ,1 1 Taliter pnefzto regje 

muha rastra 




i c et X ormannia ; qnc cnm anxHi o duck Lancas- 
et honrinibiis tarn" Ang-Tirrs cjnam sue 
i tirannidem infia 

." " '_, " '_ " " 

dannnuE EcwaniiES de 
Warcwi^. Suriiiolchit. 

^-v - j- 

=t 

: 



138 CHRONICON G'ALFRIDI 

A.D.1365. principalis assignatus dux et preceptor milicie hostilis, fungens vice 
coronati Francorum, per universam rebellem linguam Dexitanam 1 , plus 
ceteris de regno Francie patrie et fidelibus regis Anglic iniessit nocu- 
menti, incanduit ira principis tremendi contra prefatum guerre Dexitane 

His resent- persecutorem ; et ob hoc, annuente procerum consultu, princeps 

ment 

against the exercitum destinavit in demolicionem comitatus Arminacensis. Igitur 

Armagnac. incitata profeccione, primo recepit dedicionem fortaliciorum patrie 
luliacensis, et extunc depopulans Armeniacensem valde confortavit 
fideles de Vasconia, qui consimilia perpessi ab illis truculentis viciniis 
ante tam nobilis principis adventum. Ceterum, ut clarius pateant 
introducta, singulas dietas principis in Galliam Nerbonensem inserere 
non tedet 2 . 

Diary Prima die Dominica illius mensis, scilicet quarto die Octobris 3 , 

march divinis laudibus devote consummata, die Lune subsequente princeps 

thesouthof contra inimicos de Burdegali 4 profectus ospitabatur duobus miliaribus 

S.Toct. a Burdegali, in castro scilicet de Urnoun. In crastino transivit per 

iter strictum atque silvestre per medium ville de Longan murate, longa 

dieta, in perdicionem multorum equorum, ad forte castrum de Audert. 

8 Die lovis ad civitatem de Besas habentem ecclesiam cathedralem et 

9 conventum Minorum. Illic die Veneris in exercitu fuit proclamatum 

quod quilibet gestaret arma sancti Georgii, et dicebatur quod inimici 

10 eadem gestarunt. Die Sabbati ad castrum Nau 5 , ubi tria castra trium 

11 " dominorum unum apparent 6 de longe. Die Dominica, scilicet xj 7 . illius 

mensis, transivit exercitus per Laundes de Bordeaux 8 que sunt de 
dominio comitis Fluxensis 9 . Ista dieta 10 longa, vasta n et mala, multos 
perdidit equos. Isto die, in predicto vasto vocato Laundes, duobus 12 
miliaribus a villa de Areule 13 fuerunt vexilla displicata et exercitus in 

1 Here are the two words quod and quia, in contracted forms, apparently a doitble 
repetition of the conjunction quod above. B. 

2 advent, princ. preopt. . . tedet] om. B. 3 scilicet . . . Off.] om. C. 

4 Burdigaly. C. 5 Nawau. C. 6 apparet. C. 7 xij. B. C. 

8 Burdeaws. C. 9 de Fluxensis. B. 10 altered to die via. C. 

11 et vasta. C. 12 a duobus. B. 13 Regula Areule. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 129 

turmas divisus. In prima custodia, in qua ter mille viri armorum, A.D.1855. 
fuerunt comes Warewici constabularius, Reginaldus de Cobham mares- Array of 
callus, dominus de Bealchaump l Somersetensis, dominus de Clifford 2 , the anny ' 
dominus Thomas de Hamptone ad vexilla, et cum eiis Vasconum vij. 
barones. In media custodia, in qua vij. mille viri armorum preter 
clericos et servientes, fuerunt dominus princeps cum duplici vexillo, 
comes Oxonie, dominus Bartholomeus de Bourghasshe 3 , dominus 
lohannes de Insula, dominus de Wylby 4 , dominus de la Ware, dominus 
Mauricius de Berkeleye, filius domini Thome tune viventis decrepit!, 
dominus lohannes Boursers, dominus lohannes de Roos 5 , maior 
Burdegalis, capitaneus de la Busche, dominus de Camount, dominus de 
Mountferant 6 ad vexilla. In custodia postrema alii 7 quatuor mille 
virorum armorum sub comite Suthfolchie 8 et 9 comite Sarisburie 10 et 
domino de Pomers, qui duxit Bernenses. In toto exercitu taliter 
ordinato fuerunt virorum 9 armorum, clericorum, serviencium, sagittari- 
orum et 9 brigancium et biduers n ultra sexagesies mille viri. Etillodie 
fuerunt lanekinus de Berefort et alii milites ordinati, et villa de Arule 12 
cum tribus aliis villis, quorum erat capitaneus dominus Willelmus de 
Reymon, fidelis Anglicus 13 , tune 14 de novo fuerunt reddite domino 
principi ; in quibus exercitus ospitabatur et, biduo ibidem ipso peren- 
dinante, exierunt qui volebant et ceperunt victualia et foragia, et patriam 
hostilem combusserunt, et ita fecerunt generaliter quousque reverteban- 
tur ad terram pacis. Die Martis ospitatis in villa de Montclare 15 , '3 Oct. 
castrum fuit redditum, et post hec iterum ad Gallicos princeps, racione 
ignis qui erupit de villa et istam incremavit, exivit in campum et iacebat 16 
in tentoriis, nolens extunc in villa pernoctare propter similes timores f. ise. 
nocturnes et ut semper esset hostibus paratus. Isto die, tribus villis 
invasis et incensis, facti fuerunt milites Gilotus de Strattone et quidam 

1 Beauchamp. C. 2 Clyfford. C. 3 Borewasche. C. * Wyleby. C. 

6 Rous. C. 6 Mountferaunt. C. 7 am. B. 8 Southfolchie. C. 

9 om. C. I0 Saresburye. C. " Bridewers. C. n Regula Arule. C. 

13 fideli Anglico. B. " erased. C. 15 Mountclare. C. 

16 iacuit. C. 

S 



130 CHRONICON CALFRIDI 

A.D.1355. alii. Item, dominus Johannes de Insula, ad fortalicium de Astanges 

cum quarello sauciatus, obiit die sequent! ad magnam exercitus desola- 

14-16 Oct. cionem l . Diebus Mercurii 2 et lovis perendinarunt, et die Veneris 

17 coram villa forti de Logeron in tentoriis morabantur. Sabbato venerunt 

ad Plasence, villam pulcram et fortem ; cuius omnes incole fugerunt, et 
in castro fuerunt capti comes de Molasin 3 et cum eo multi milites 
atque domicelli per capitaneum de Bosco et dominum de Monte 

18 ferando 4 et Adam de Lowches, eodem die militem primo. Dominica 

tercia 5 , die sancti Luce Ewangeliste, perendinarunt, et fortalicium de 

19 Galian 6 cum insultu expugnatum concremarunt 7 . Die Lune, immisso 

igne ville de Plazense 8 , reliquerunt a dextris villam de Beal marchie et 
hospitarunt coram villa archiepiscopi de 9 Ause, vocata le Basse ; et 
isto die dominus Ricardus de Stafford, germanus comitis de 10 Stafford, 

20 primo ad vexillum suos duxit. Die Martis predicta villa fuit dedita, et, 

quia pertinuit sancte ecclesie, princeps non permisit aliquem intrare 
preterquam personas certas ordinatas ad liberacionem victualium. Die 

21 Mercurii dimiserunt a sinistris pulcram villam de Escamont 11 et vene- 

runt 12 coram villa nobili de Mirande, de dominio comitis de Comenge, 
plena viris armorum ; et princeps ospitabatur in monasterio grandi de 
Bertoues, ordinis Cisterciensis, in quo nullus vivens fuerat repertus. 

22 Die lovis perendinarunt, nihil mali predicto monasterio inferentes. Die 

23 Veneris exierunt nobilem, pulcram et divitem patriam Darmynake, et 

intrarunt patriam vocatam Astarike 13 , per quam transitus erat difficilis, 
artus et montuosus, et ospitati ad Saxante villam, contra proibicionem 
preconis principalis incensam. Per illam dietam et tres alias sequentes 

24 transierunt iuxta celsos montes Arrogonie 14 . Die sabbati venerunt ad 

villam de Seint 13 Morre, ubi in grandi monasterio nigrorum monacorum 
fugatorum retro-custodia, et apud Villefraunke ' 6 media n , et apud 

1 defdem. B. 2 Martis. C. ; altered later from Martis. B. s Molasym. C. 
4 Mount ferando. C. B am. B. 6 Galyan. C. 7 conservarunt. C. 

8 Plasense. C. 9 om. C. 10 om. B. " Escamount. C. 

12 et veneruni} om. C. ls Astaryke. C. 14 Arragonie. C. 

15 Seynt. C. 1G Villefraunc. C. " medio. C. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 131 

Turmayn prima custodia, fuerunt ospitate, villas quidem opulentas et A.D.1355. 
victualibus refertas, set incolis fugitivis desolatas. Dominica quarta, die 25 Oc t. 
sanctorum Crispini et Crispiniani, transierunt quoddam vadum in terras 
comitis de Comenge, que extendebantur usque Tolosam ; set fuerunt 
ignibus et gladio depaste. Et tune dimiserunt a sinistris villam l vocatam 
Sauvetere en Asturake 2 , et transierunt iuxta fortem civitatem vocatam 
Wynbers 3 , ubi, semotis nigris monachis, lohannes papa xxij us . sedem 
episcopalem ordinavit ; et fuerunt ospitati in magna et diviti villa vocata 
Sotamon, comitis de Comenge 4 , ubi fuerat conventus Minorum, set 
cum villa incrematus. Die Lune per patriam amplam, planam 5 , et 26 
pulcram transierunt villam de Seint 6 Foye, usque ad Seint Litz T . 
Die Martis quieverunt ; et die Mercurii sequente, scilicet festo sanctorum ^7. 28 ., 
Simonis 8 et lude, exercitus transmeavit aquam de Geronde 9 , rigidam, 
petrosam, et mirabiliter terribilem ; et iterum eodem die aquam de 
Arage, ilia de Geronde plus periculosam, et descenderunt ad Tolosam. 
Predictas aquas numquam aliquis eques antea transivit ; unde territi f. 136". 
gentes illius terre, nescii quid facerent, nee poterant fugere 10 preocupati, 
prius se putantes per aquas istas secures, neque sciverunt rebellare, 
quos numquam prius furor bellicus invasit. Ilia nocte princeps ospita- 
batur apud Falgarde, modicam villam uno miliari distantem a Tolosa. 
Vix equitarunt postea per aliquam dietam qua non ceperunt nostri 
violenter villas, fortalicia, et castra, que spoliata tradiderunt igni n . Die 
lovis adierunt villam magnam et pulcram de Mont Giscard, partem 29 Oct. 
hereditatis domini Almerici de la Fossade, quam sibi abstulit coronatus 
Francorum, quia fuit fidelis regi Anglic. Iuxta predictam villam 
fuerunt xij. molendine ventose, que pariter flammis depascebantur. Ibi 
capiebantur duo ' spies,' 12 scilicet 13 exploratores, qui dixerunt comitem 
Arminiacensem 14 fuisse Tolose ls , et constabularium Francie apud Mont- 

I ville. B. " Saumetere en Astuarke. C. s Wymbers. C. 

4 Comynge. C. " et planam. C. 6 Seynt. C. 7 Seyntlitez. C. 

8 Symonis. C. 9 Gerounde. C. 10 surgere. C. 

II Vix- . . . igni} om. B. 12 spyes. C. ls om. B, 
14 Arminacensem. C. " Tholose. C. 

S 2 



133 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1355. maban, quatuor leucas distantem 1 a Tolosa, suspicatos adventum 
3o~OctT~ exercitus ad obsidionem Tolose 2 . Die veneris transierunt rectum iter 
regium versus Avinionam per bonam villam de Basige 3 et Ville franke ; 
et totus exercitus fuit ospitatus ad magnam villam vocatam Avionet 4 , 
que erat coronati Francorum, media custodia et tercia in suburbio bene 
quietatis, et prima in altera parte suburbii, Vasconibus et Bernensibus 
infra villam ospitatis, cuius omnes incole fugam inierunt. Ibi fuerunt 
31 incinerate xx. ventose molendine. Die sabbati, ultima die Octobris, 
ospitabantur in grandi opido vocato Chastelnavenareo 5 , ubi ecclesia 
sancti Michaelis canonicorum secularium et conventus 6 Minorum atque 
Carmelitarum beate Marie, item ospitale sancti Antonii et villa 7 vocata 
les Mauns de Pucels, cum conventu Augustinensium, omnia fuerant 

1 Nov. ignibus consumpta. Die Dominica, scilicet in festo Omnium Sanctorum, 

quievit exercitus ; a quo quidam exeuntes conquisierunt unam villam, cui 
ut parcerent et catallis eorum, oppidani dederunt decem milia florencium 

2 aureorum. Die Lune transierunt per villas sancte Marthe le Port et 

opidum grande vocatum Vilkapinche, et extunc intrarunt patriam 
Carkasone ; et princeps ospitabatur apud viculum vocatum Alse. Die 

3 Martis advenerunt Carkasonam, villam pulcram, predivitem, et bene 

edificatam, ampliorem Londoniis infra muros. Inter villam seu burgum 
et civitatem circumcinctam dupplici muro currebat aqua vocata 8 sub 
ponte pulcro petrino, ad cuius pedem pulcrum ospitale fuit situatum. 
In burgo fuerunt quatuor conventus quatuor pauperum religionum, 
quorum ministri, scilicet fratres, non fugerunt, burgensibus et minorissis 
que illic eciam habitabant in civitatem fugientibus. In burgo totus 
exercitus bene et laute ospitatus vix occupavit tres eius quartas, habun- 
dans vino muscato et ceteris victualibus tam delicatis quam necessariis. 
Isto die acies ante burgum fuerunt bene ordinate, et effecti milites filii 
domini de Libreto et dominus de Basset Dreitone, qui incontinent! cum 

1 om. B. 2 Tholose. C. 3 Basyge. C. * Avyonet. C. 5 Chastelnawedarreo. C. 
6 placed before Carmelitarum. C. 7 Here ends C., the last quire being lost. 

8 blank. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 133 

erecto proprio vexillo militavit. Item, Rolandus Daveys et plures ad A.D.1356. 
ordinem militarem promovebantur. Diebus Mercurii et lovis, exercitu 4, 5 Nov. 
in burgo quiescente, habitis induciis, quidam ad hoc ordinati tractarunt 
de pace cum illis de civitate, cuius cives optulerunt, pro salvacione burgy f. 137. 
non comburendi, ducenta et quinquaginta milia scutatorum aureorum. 
Offerentibus aurum princeps respondit quod hue non venit pro auro set 
iusticia prosequenda, nee ut venderet set caperet civitates. Unde, civibus 
in timore coronati Francorum persistentibus, nee suo domino natural! 
volentibus obedire, seu revera non audentibus pro vindicta predict! 
coronati, princeps die crastina iussit burgum ita incendi quod domibus 

religiosis parceretur. Die Veneris, burgo igne accenso, exercitus recessit ; Burning 

of Carcas- 
et postea per fratres religiosos et alios audivit quod burgus incineratus sonne, 

erat. Illo die, scilicet sancti Leonardi, transierunt her laboriosum, 
petrosum, et aquosum, dimisso a sinistris castro de Botenake intacto, 
per campestria et villas vocata la Rustican, et totam patriam com- 
bustam 1 . Sabbato per iter tediosum, vento et pulvere exercitui nocivis, 7 
dimiserunt a sinistris piscinam aquarum recencium, habentem in circu- 
itu xx. leucas, que nee recipit nee emittit aquas aliunde, nisi pluviales aut 
scaturientes, et vocatur Esebon ; atque venerunt ad villam vocatam 
Syloine,redditam principi set intactam, racione domine Ysidis de Britania 
amice principis, cuius erat villa predicta ; et princeps fuit ospitatus ad 
bonam villam vocatam Canet. Dominica, scilicet octavo die Novembris, 8 
transierunt aquam de Saude, partim apud vadum vocatum Chastel 
de terre, et partim trans pontem novum set imperfectum ; et per totum 
iter residuum de die inter arduos montes accesserunt civitati magne 

Narbonensi, unde patria Gallia Narbonensis nuncupatur. Ista civitas Arrival at 

Narbonne. 
fortis et bene murata habuit ecclesiam magnam cathedralem sancti 

lustini, item eximium castrum episcopi, et turrim fortissimam pro vice- 
comite istius ville. Habuit eciam suburbium vocatum burgum, revera 
maiorem et melius edificatum quam ilium 2 de Carkasona. In burgo 
fuerunt quatuor conventus religiosorum mendicancium. Inter burgum 
1 combusta. B. 2 ille. B. 



134 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1355. divitem et largum atque civitatem optime muratam currebat aqua 
que vocatur Aude, veniens a Carkasona et descendens in mare Grecum, 
quod duabus leucis distat a Narbona. Inter civitatem et burgum sunt 
duo pontes petrini et tercius de meremio, altero petrino pro vecturariis * 
diversorum mercimoniorum bene edifkato. Princeps 2 in domo fratrum 
beate Marie de Carmelo fuit ospitatus ; set per totam noctem et in 
crastino sequent! civibus cum exercitu balistis et aliis machinis dimi- 
cantibus 3 , multis ex utraque parte sauciatis, nonnulli interierunt. Die 

jo Nov. Martis, burgo per ignem inflammato per cararias ardentes, exercitus, 
profectus ad torrentem, ipsum in pluribus locis transmeavit ; in quo 
transitu due quadrige domini principis fuerunt per cives defracte et ad 
magnum dampnum depredate. Princeps ospitatur 4 ad villam et castrum 

ii de Ambian. Die Mercurii, scilicet in festo sancti Martini, per longum 

iter et malum, set equis precipue nocivum quia petrosum, et sine 

aquis, aliis eciam victualibus, equi pro aquis potarunt vinum, et, in vino 

f. I87 b . cibis coctis, nihil liquidum nisi vinum aut oleum 5 reperiebatur. Die 

ii Nov. lovis Teodoricus Dale, ostiarius camere domini principis, fiebat miles ; 
et transierunt bonam villam vocatam Ulmes, ubi precedenti nocte 
fuerunt ospitati officiarii comitis Arminiacensis, media custodia ad bonam 
villam comitis de Insula, vocatam Aryle, ospitata. Princeps apud fratrcs 
Minores pernoctavit ; ubi magna habundancia vini muscati, pro romitissa 
de Insula in cellariis reposita, fuerat vastata. Illo die fuerant destructa 
bona villa de Pypious et eius castrum vocatum Redote ; et discoopera- 
tores inimicorum capti retulerunt quod Francorum constabularius et 
comes Arminiacensis in eiisdem villis 6 , ubi exercitus pernoctavit, intende- 

13 bant pernoctasse. Die Veneris exercitus, profectus per longum iter 

petrosum et inaquosum, ospitabatur apud Lamyane, set male pro 

14 penuria domuum et aquarum. Sabbato revertentes versus Vasconiam, 

reliquerunt a dextris piscinam de Esebon et Carkasonam et totum iter 
pristinum, et retro-custodia ospitabatur apud bonam villam vocatam 

1 vituariis. B. 2 Principes. B. 3 et dimic. B. 

* ospitato. B. 6 olium. B. 6 ville. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 135 

Alieir, et media apud Puchsiaucier, ubi turris defensa fuit conquisita; A.D.1355. 
set princeps iacuit ultra pontem iuxta pulcrum rivum aquarum, ex 
cuius utraque parte patria ignibus vastabatur, cum bona villa de Pezence, 
ubi prima custodia fuit ospitata. Dominica, die sancti Macuti, intrave- 15 Nov. 
runt per patriam pulcram, longam et latam, itinere magno. Et exercitus 
acceleravit ad hoc quod princeps foret ospitatus in abbacia magna beate 
Marie de Prolian, ubi in distinctis claustris vivunt de possessionibus 
c. Predicatores, et cxl. domine recluse, vocate Predicatrices ; ubi dom- 
inus princeps in spiritualem confraternitatem domus cum multis aliis 
devote fuerat receptus. Illo die exercitus succendit inter cetera villam 
de Lemoyns, ubi fuerunt conventus quorumlibet fratrum, maiorem 
Carkasona, et pulcrum opidum vocatum Falanges, cui pertinebant xxj. 
molendine ventose, et villas de Vularde et Serre, cum tota patria. Die 
Lune media custodia ospitabatur apud bonam villam vocatam Ayollpuh- 16 
bone, diu defensam, set conquisitam per insultum ; cuius castrum ad 
extra se reddidit ; quibus princeps iussit nihil noceri per ignem, ratione 
comitis Fluxensis, cuius dominio pertinebant. Mane diei Martis, trans- 17 
euntes set districte flumen vocatum Besyle, intrarunt patriam nimis 
vastam ; set circa horam primam venerunt coram grandi monasterio 
ordinis Cisterciensis, fundato per avum l comitis Fluxensis, vocato 
Burgbone, ubi comes prefatus, maior scilicet tocius lingue Doxitane, 
obviavit cum magna leticia domino principi, evasus de carcere coronati 
Francorum, in quo Parisius iacuit duobus annis ; et mansit ex tune cum f. 138. 
principe fidelis. Tune erat predictus comes iuvenis, etatis quasi viginti 
unius annorum, necdum miles extiterat. Illo die equitarunt in dominio 
illius comitis per villas de Maselle et Calmon, quam dividit aqua, ex 
cuius parte ulteriori fuit antiquitus castrum destructum ; et dimiserunt a 
dextris magnam villam de Seint Cavele et arduum castrum vocatum 
Hautripe, que sunt Gallicorum. Set illo die nihil incenderunt propter 
reverenciam comitis prefati et sue vicinie. Immo transierunt iterum 
aquam periculosam de Arage, sicud prius in die sanctorum Simonis et 

1 album. B. 



136 CH RON 1C ON CALF RID I 

A.D.1355. lude. Preterea Tolosam, prius per unum miliare a sinistris dimissam, 
tune per quatuor leucas a dextris intactam reliquerunt ; et media 
custodia fuit ospitata in magna villa de Miremont, que cum castro fuerat 

18 Nov. combusta. Die Mercurii transierunt per castrum comitis Fluxensis, 

vocatum Mounthaut, ad cuius pedem equites singuli successive, cum 
stupore illorum de patria, transierunt aquam magnam de Geronde ; ubi 
continue per totum annum sunt nacelle parate pro transitu indigenarum ', 
que tune ad exercitus impedimentum per villanos vicinos de North 
fuerant subtracte. Aquam de Geronde cum gracia Dei petransitam 
relacione castellanorum nullus potuisset pertransivisse post inundacionem 
pluvie diurne, unde eius transitus Dei virtuti iuste fuerat ascriptus. 
Prefata villa de North fuerat per insultum conquisita, in cuius castro 
reddito retro-custodia pernoctavit. Ex tune dimiserunt rivum de Geronde 
a sinistris, contra cuius cursum adiverunt villam de Markovaw, que 
mirabiliter fuit conquisita. Transivit enim iterum ibidem aquam pre- 
dictam cum admiracione villanorum media custodia, et tune ad fortem 
villam de Carbone, muro ex una parte et aqua ex alia bene munitam, 
tamen ante adventum principis per insultum conquisitam, ita quod 
hospicium prebuit victoribus, principe ad extra, ut ubique fere solebat, 

19 ospitato. Die lovis tempore quieto et delectabili quievit exercitus ad 

magnam recreacionem post labores diebus pristinis continuatos. Die 

20 Veneris, certificate quod Gallici in acies quinque magnas fuerant divisi de 

prope existentes, progress! nostri ad spacium unius miliaris de ospicio 
seipsos in campo apto ordinarunt ad preliandum. Itaque exercitu 
ordinato, quidam suscitatum leporem exclamarunt ; quod audientes 
inimici emiserunt xl. lanceatos, per quos viso exercitu ordinato rever- 
sosque celeriter hec nunciantes, omnes fugerunt cum magno pavore, sicud 
retulerunt capti ex eiis in persecucione. Illo die Bartholomeus de 
Burghasche, Johannes Chandos, et lacobus Daudeleye, ad summam 
quater viginti lanceatorum ordinati discooperatores, accedentes ad 
caudam exercitus Gallicorum, captivarunt triginta duos milites et domi- 

1 indigenum. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 137 

cellos, et inter eos dominum comitem de Romenie ; item, multos bigarios A.D. 1355. 
occiderunt, destruentes eorum victualia. Sero principe ospitato in villa 
de Muwos, quatuor Gallici armorum, Anglicos fugitivi in ecclesiam illius 
ville, equos et arma dumtaxat perdiderunt. Sabbato pluvioso carpserunt 21 Nov. 
malum iter et strictum ad castrum de Oradrie, in quo princeps pernoc- f. I38 b . 
tavit, et mane id combussit. Dominica, die sancte Cecilie, transita 22 Nov. 
grandi via, circa vesperum perceperunt quod hostes fuerunt ex altera 
parte grossi montis, iuxta et infra villam de Gemount, ita quod Anglici, 
tardati usque ad mediam noctem, emiserunt interim sexaginta lanceas 
cum sagittariis ad dexteram ville de Auremont ; ubi inventos iiij. 1 viros 
armorum constabularii Francorum compulerunt villam evacuare, quibus- 
dam occisis et captis nonnullis in persequendo versus Gemont ; ita quod 
media custodia apud Auremont ospitata non bene, prima custodia apud 
Celymont, parvam villam ab hostibus uno miliari distantem, pernoctavit. 
Mane, die sancti dementis, iussis bigariis et officiariis remanere in villa 23 
de Auremont, ceteri pugnantes, in cohortes divisi, hostes a in campo 
expectarunt set incassum ; nempe dominus princeps villam de Gymont 
discooperuit, et invenit quod hostes circa mediam noctem affugerunt, ita 
quod respeccione armorum fuerant disconfecti, presertim cum sui adver- 
sarii, scilicet Anglici, ipsos per itinera longa et mala diu quesitos et 
pluries e vicino repertos solo terrore profugos 3 fugaverint *. Die Martis 24 
post longum iter, in campis ospitati, quo 5 , defectu aquarum, potarunt 
equos vino ; unde in crastino debriati non poterant recto passu incedere et 
multi ex eiis perierunt. Die sancte Katerine cum districcione magna 25 
preterierunt aquam, ubi sperabant inimicis obviasse ; et, dimittentes a 
dextris villam Florencie muratam, aliquando Anglicam, transierunt gran- 
dem villam de Silarde; et media custodia fuit ospitata apud opidum 
de Realmont, violenter conquisitam et ideo combustam. Die lovis 26 
perendinarunt, et captus errancius armorum retulit quod inter constabu- 

1 The number is repeated thus : iiij c . quadringintos. B. 

2 ostes. B. * profuct. B. * fugavit. B. 5 quod. B. 

T 



138 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1365. larium Francorum et comitem Arminiacensem l lis non modica fuit 
exorta pro eo quod, comite promittente bellum ad illorum utilitatem 
ineundum, nihilo facto, cum dedecore pluries fugerunt, quod eiidem 

27 Nov. comiti fuit imputatum. Die Veneris transierunt, set districte, magnam 

aquam, et residue diei inter villas muratas et castra forcia, media cohorte 
in villa de le Serde ospitata. Istam villam, una leuca distantem a bona 
villa de Condone, dux Lancastrie quondam vastavit, et eius castrum 

28 dirupit atque solo coequavit. Sabbato, quadam aqua cum districcione 

transmeata, intrarunt strictum passagium silvestre, ubi multi Vascones et 
omnes Bernenses habita licencia repatriarunt ; et fuit exercitus ospitatus 
ad bonam villam pacis et fortem, que semper fuit Anglicorum, vocatam 
Mesyn. Quo die vexillis complicatis, ut in solo pacis, princeps decrevit 

29 itinerandum. Dominica, in vigilia sancti Andree, princeps quievit, 

30 recepturus homagium et sacramenta illorum de villa. Feria secunda, die 

videlicet sancti apostoli, itinere longo per vastam solitudinem devenerunt 
ad villam de Gelous, ubi sunt tria castra, uno illorum in marisco situato. 

i Dec. Die Martis, principe 2 ad castrum de Melan, quod tribus leucis distat a 
castro Gelous, ospitato, plures de suo ospicio transierunt patriam silves- 
trem et vastam iuxta monasterium Cisterciense vocatum Montguilliam 
et trans forestam regis Anglic nuncupatam Bois maiour, ad villam de 
Regula grandem et bene munitam, quam comes Derbie dudum con- 
quisivit, ut est supra tactum, et infra viij. ebdomadas a capcione ville 

a castrum redditum suscepit. Die Mercurii dominus princeps advenit 
Regulam, cuius equi et quadrige transierunt flumen de Geronde in loco 
ubi numquam antea memoratu aliquis equus transmeavit. In Regula 

i. 139. 

concilio principis consulto, ordinati fuerunt principes et barones ad 
hyemandum in distinctis locis super marchiam, patriam intrinsecam 
Vasconie contra versucias Gallicorum protecturi, qui, a locis eis deputatis 
et sapienter custoditis crebro digressi, multos egregios labores super- 
arunt, nee minus predas opulentas ab hostili patria detulerunt, in 

1 Aminiacensem. B. 2 princeps. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 139 

sustentacionem armate iuventutis et ditacionem patrie devote, de quibus A.D. 1355. 
singillatim sine dispendio non potero tractare. 

Anno Domini millesimo M.CCC.lvj., regni regis Anglic xxx., circa A.D.1366. 
pretacta dispensato, princeps novam auream monetam in Vasconia fieri c ^&m in 
diffinivit. Ipso quoque circa reparacionem dirutorum et alia necessaria Gascon y- 
conservacioni reipublice sapienter occupato, timide fantasie Gallicorum Rumour of 

.... an English 
nnxerunt et ventilarunt fama querula quod dominus rex Anglic in invasion of 

Neustriam applicuisset ; cuius figmenti occasionem vel sompno ceperunt 
vel ex eo quod dominus dux Lancastrie, postquam inforciavit victualibus 
et armis municiones et castra regis Navarre in insula Constantina et in 
multis aliis locis Normannie, direxit iter suum versus Britanniam, cuius 
fuerat capitaneus constitutus de novo; vel aliter, ut creditur, putabant 
wlgares regem Neustriam petiisse pro eo quod anno prestito dominus 
Philippus, germanus regis Navarre venit in Angliam ad presenciam regis 
et instanter petivit auxilium, quo posset detinentibus regem fratrem 
suum vinculatum nocere et predia iure debita predicto fratri suo, set 
minus iuste detenta, bellica manu recuperare. Igitur, offerens homagium Move- 

. - , ... T i 1 i tnents in 

et mrata fidehtate, recepit ex ordmacione regis dominum Milonem de Normandy. 
Stapiltone, virum magne probitatis et mire devocionis ad Virginem 
beatam, set bellicis negociis experienciis egregiis instructum, collegam 
fidelissimum laboris optati. Prenominati viri bellicosi, cum duobus 
milibus togatorum Neustriam profecti, patriam transequitarunt, capientes 
opida murata et alias municiones, et, nonnullis igne consumptis, aliis 
deditis et redemptis, processerunt usque ad castrum quoddam, quod 1 ix. 
leucis dumtaxat distinguitur a civitate Parisiensi. Nee a tanto labore 
vacare curabant quousque, treugis initis, annali proximo dicendis, in 
Angliam redierunt. 

Igitur fama plena terroris populares aures Gallic perculsit, que ad f. I3o b . 

auditum domini principis apud Regulam demorantis erat ventilata et 

viscera piissimi principis commovit egre, ceu 2 nullatenus potentis sufferre 

sui patris salutem Martis amfractibus implicari, dummodo non esset 

1 ad castr, . . . q uoJ] added in the margin. B; 2 seu. B. 

T-2 



140 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1356. presens et posset communicati laboris et ambigue fortune duras seu 
The prince molles sarcinas conferre. Proinde, congestis copiis quas habuit secum in 
marchef ducatu, cum intencione trans Franciam cupitis osculis paternis se pre- 
north - sentare, venit ad Brugeracum, ubi, certificatus comitem Arminiaci 

voluisse post eius recessum patriam depopulasse et ad hoc milicia 
Measures copiosa stipatum nee inparatum fuisse, remisit ad patrie tutelam senes- 
defence of callum Vasconie et dominum Bernardum de Libreto, maiorem quoque 

Burdegalensem, simulque cum eis alios Vascones et magnam classem 

togatorum. 
Conduct of Exinde processit princeps in Franciam, directus per plagas Limovi- 

censem et Bernensem. More boni antistitis suos hortabatur princeps 



: ' progressuros in hostes, non inermes palari, set corpora corporeis arma- 
mentis et animos penitencie Eukaristieque sacramentis ita decorari, ut 
contra rebelles regie paci dimicaturi parati forent, honore temporal! 
viventes et eternali morientes at utrobique vincentes premiari. Nee 
pretermisit artes prudentis imperatoris, cuius refert exitus rerum metiri 
et precavere pericula suorum ; set, premissis illustribus viris lohanne 
Chaundos, lacobo Dawdelye et eorum complicibus in arte tironica 
sufficienter expertis, ad discooperiendum statum patrie hostilis, ne forsan 
insidie inboscatorum nostris inprovisis repente prosiluissent, ipse curavit, 
prospectis itineribus, cotidie movere castra, nee aliter quam si hostes 
affuissent de nocte munire, vigilias solicitas constituere, et eas ipsum 
valencioribus comitantibus circuire, procedencia vero quandoque in 
primis, alias in postremis, et nonnunquam intermedius visitare, ne quic- 
quam inordinatum periculo pateret. Siquidem ingresso Pictaviam 
nunciarunt exploratores quod coronatus adunavit exercitum copiosum, 
presens apud Aurelianum, quern non lateret principis adventus, ut patuit 
de facto. Emisit nempe discooperire exercitum nostrum valentem 
quemdam qui vocabatur Griseus Muto de Chambli, prefectum comitive 
A skirmish, ducentorum togatorum, quibus manus conserentes nostri discooperatores 
ceperunt ex eis xxx. milites et vernaculos, aliis ita plene deletis quod per 
nullum eorum poterat suis renunciari quid fuisset de sociis factum. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 141 

Fortunatis iniciis nostri delectati processerunt versus Romerentyn, ubi A.D.1356. 
repertos dominos de Crone et Brisegaudum, missos ad officium disco- f. 140. 
operiendi, tarn precipitanter occuparunt quod, multis ferro vastante 
peremtis, duces agminis ad castrum fugere compulerunt ; et, captatis 
hospiciis in villa, princeps iussit preconizari crastirium insultum castel- 
lanis applicandum. Die sequent! aggrediuntur armati nostri, fovea Assault of 

the castle 

transita, muros castri, quos scalis ascendere seu portas comburere per ofRomor- 

antin. 
diversa diversi festinarunt; nee frustra, mgressi quippe necuerunt agmma 

multa Quiritum, dum prefati domini cum militibus non paucis ad arxem 
principalem convolarunt. Ilico princeps iussit proceres convenire con- 
sultum, saciusne 1 declinaret fugatos, an obsidione vallatos cogeret ad 
dedicionem. Set quia compertum 2 est coronatum Francorum non am- 
plius x. leucis ab ipso loco distinctum, consulcius diiudicans immotus 
exspectare coronati feritatem preliaturam quam querere forsan non 
exspectaturam potenciam, cum qua summe concupivit conserere manus 
bellatrices, estimans preterea quod obsidio congesta provocare deberet 
Galileos ad eius demolicionem, finaliter sentenciavit se non recessurum 
de loco subacto quousque conclusi forent capti seu dediti, nisi forte 
bellico certamine cogeretur. Proinde iussu principal! fabricatis denuo 
machinis petrariis et testudinibus pro securitate fossariorum, certis officiis 
suis intenti tectum turris et propugnacula spericis saxis protriverunt, et 
in aggerem, qui prebuit arxi fundamentum, sudore fossariorum conca- 
vatum, submiserunt ignem, quo meremio combusto quod pro tempore 
laboris effodiencium molem capitibus eorum imminentem vix sustinebat, 
falso fundamento moles obnixa fuisset prolapsa 3 . Tantis periculis 
impotentes obsessi salutem suam contueri, suppliciter obtulerunt 4 sui 
dedicionem, qua plenariter ad voluntatem principis ordinata, diem sex- 
tum prevenerunt. 

Postea redierunt exploratores, nunciantes quod coronatus Francorum Move- 
ments of 
descendit Turomam castrorum acies ordmaturus. Unde princeps, avidus the king of 

belli propter pacem que solet bellum comitari, adversus coronatum 
1 ne sacius. B. 2 compertus. B. 3 prolapsum. B. * obtulerant. B. 



142 CHRONICON GALFRWI 

A.D.1356. castra direxit, sperans, ut quondam in Garona, sic in Ligeri vada nova 
reperire ; set inundacione pluviarum Ligere suos alveos insolenti tumore 
preterfluente, non permisit aqua nostros ipsam transvadere, et, in aug- 
f. 140". mentum impedimenti, omnes pontes inter Blaviam et Turoniam, quibus 
interfluit Ligeris unda, frangi iussit coronatus, ne inter principem et 
ducem Lancastrie usquequaque via pateret ; quorum exercitus ignes 
alternos de nocte faciliter aspiciebant. Princeps vero Ligerim sequens, 
lateraliter versus orientem progressus, fixit tentoria iuxta Turoniam, ubi, 
expectans quatuor diebus, sperans coronatum una leuca distantem 
preliaturum 1 , intellexit quarto die quod coronatus, ad Blaviam x. leucis 

He crosses a tergo principis preterioratus, per pontem duobus opidis munitissimis 
intersituatum Ligerim transivit atque versus Pictavium properavit. 

Ea coronati declinacione principi comperta, princeps revertebatur 
festinanter, intendens iter coronati preocupasse; quod non fecit. Attamen 

Th( 

English viam transversam et ymaginacione viciniorem trans torrentes tres arri- 
tum m puit, et caudam legionis hostilis 2 ita violenter insequens ocupavit, quod 
attack the rapuit ab ipsa duos comites, scilicet de Juyny et de Waucerre, atque 

French 

rear-guard, marescallum Burgonie. Istis domitis et salutis precio reservatis, peri- 
erunt inopino duro certamine numero magno viri togati. Et hec per diem 
sabbati, proximum diei belli sequentis, contigerunt. Nocte properante, 
in quodam nemore nostri quieverunt ; et in crastino versus territorium 
Pictaviense progressi, comperti sunt, relatu discopertorum, quod coro- 
natus castris ordinatis se preparavit ad bellum ineundum. Nee multum 
post hec asserentes alii discopertores coronatum promovisse castra versus 
nostros consuluerunt dominum principem locum certaminis eligere et 
The exercitum ordinare, ne inordinatos hostes 2 ordinati reperirent. Statim 

^re^a're for P rmce P s et omnes alii secum, pedites consteturi, dextrarios et equos tutele 

battle. 

1 In the lower margin off. 141 b. the following passage is written, which, from the 
catch word, seems to have been intended for insertion at this place : 'preliaturum. 
Ubi dispositis domino Barthoiomeo Bourghasche et aliis ad incendendum suburbium 
Turonie, quolibet trium dierum, post incepti itineris clarum tempus et quietum, incepit 
tonare et celum ita contenebrari quod, sine dubio, merito sancti Martini, custodis 
civitatis Turonensis, hostes proibiti fuerunt a ville combustione.' B. 2 The h om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 143 

garcionum commiserunt, ad hostium venacionem resumendos. Pauci A.D.1358. 
tamen inter exercitus equitarunt, parati secundum morem hastiludiis 
guerrariis. Prima cohors exercitus nostri comitibus Warewici et Oxonie 
comittebatur ; secunde princeps imperabat ; et tercia comitibus Sares- 
burie 1 et Suthfolchie committebatur. In toto exercitu domini principis 
fuerant precise quatuor milia togatorum, mille servientes, et duo milia 
sagittariorum. 

Appropiavit pompatica nobilitas Gallicorum, parvipendens Anglor- Approach 

of the 
um paucitatem, illorum enim multitudo continebat octo milia virorum French. 

militarium, nullo serviencium numero taxato, sub quater viginti et vij. 
vexillis. Tune multi de nostris murmurarunt pro eo quod pridem ad 
tutelam Vasconye remissa fuit magna pars exercitus nostri primo con- 
gregati. Erat inter Galileos quidam Scotus supra notatus, Willelmus 
Douglas, potens in Scocia et Scotica guerra duris laboribus exercitatus. f. 141. 
Ilium coronatus denuo dotavit cingulo militari, et, quia scivit ipsum 
atrocem adversarium Anglicorum et adversus 2 ipsos in armis plurimum 
vexatum, libenter audivit eius concilium et ingenio confidebat. Willel- 
mus prefuit ducentis viris armorum Scotis, quos de patria sua conduxit. 
Istos non latuit quod per totum tempus moderni regis Anglorum 
maxime consueti sunt Anglici pugnare pedestres, in quo Scotos sunt 
imitati, a discrimine Strivilinensi. Idcirco placuit Willelmo, pro more The 
sue gentis, pocius pede quam equo nostros invadere, et instigavit advice of y 
coronatum aliosque Francos consimiliter preliari. Sano exercitati 3 Douglas 
concilio fede vecordie proscriptor coronatus annuens, libenter dextrarios }^ ^h' 6 ' 
emisit in civitatem, ne fuge velocitatem darent alicui, preterquam n>ostpart, 

to fight on 

quingentos ferro contra sagittas coopertos, quorum assessores iussit foot, 
invadere sagittarios in principio certaminis, et prostratos calcaribus 
equinis conculcare ; qui preceptum non perfecerunt, ut patuit eventu. 
Utriusque dispositis aciebus, aurora Dominice lucis rutilante, venit 

1 Saresbusi. B. 2 adversos. B. 

3 patatie. B. Probably the word exercitati, referring to Douglas, is meant, the 
letters xci being copied as pa, and the initial e being dropped. 



144 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A. D. 1356. ad principem quidam cardinalis Petragorisensis, et adiuravit eum per 
Fruitless honorem Dei passi crucifix! et amorem Virginia matris eius reveren- 
tion'oflhe ciamque pacis ecclesiastice atque parcitatem effusionis sanguinis Chris- 
Perigord ^ ia - n ' l > quod placeret sibi bellum suspendere per tempus quo posset 
tractare de pace ; quam promisit futuram honorabilem per suam 
intercessionem, si tamen intercedere permitteretur. Princeps verOj.nulla 1 
penitus tyrranide tactus, nee bellum timuit nee pacem recusavit, set 
prefati sancti patris peticioni modeste condescendit. Unde per totam 
illam diem, reparacioni pacis assignatam, crevit exercitus Francigenum 
mille viris armorum et popularium ingenti multitudine. In crastino, 
scilicet die Lune, rediit cardinalis petens ex parte coronati treugam 
annalem, quam negavit princeps ; tamen ad cardinalis magnam instan- 
ciam concessit treugas adusque festum Natalis Christi duraturas. 
Reversus itaque cardinalis poposcit a coronato pacis inducias, iuxta 
concessioner!! domini principis concedendas ; cuius peticioni, marescallo 
de Claromonte concessum coronati admonente, obiecerunt se marescallus 
Dawdenam, Galfridus de Charny et Dowglas Scotus, quibus coronatus 
veementer animum inclinavit. Isti pronosticarunt quod de communi 
cursu nature non possent Anglici pro tune prevalere, presertim pauci, 
ignota patria et itineribus laboriosis miserabiliter fatigatt, contra nume- 
rositatem Quiritum Gallicorum proprium solum defensuram, et omni 
f. 141*. victuali necessario quieteque diutina 2 sub duce provido recreatam, 
quibus deberet audacia crescere contra predones ex presencia regali, 
gracia cuius quatenus coronati et oleo sancto peruncti tune primum foret 
experienda, cum benedicione venerabilium episcoporum Senonensis et 
Chalonensis sub ipso rege militancium, in 3 oppositum cuius adnitentes 
tenderent ad lesionem regie magestatis. Percepto tandem quod coro- 
natus allegacionibus huiusmodi consenciebat, marescallus de Claro monte 
protendit sacerdoti cuidam literas apostolicas, autoritate quarum 
confessus et absolutus, in ostensione sue fidelitatis, quam minus illo 
providi blasfemarunt pro eo quod suasit treugas iniri, peciit belli pri- 
1 nullam. B. 2 diutino. B. 3 om. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 145 

mum insultum, quern 1 marescallus Dawdenam calumniis legitima pre- A.D.1368. 
scripcione fulcitis set veraciter invidiose nitebatur preocupare. 

Ergo,' marescallis altercantibus et reliquo reliquum posteriorare Address of 
nitentibus, princeps, audito per nuncios cardinalis quod dux Francigenum of^'aiefto 
nullam penitus pacem volebat, nisi furore Martis adeptam, exortacionem 
tali consimilem militibus accitis peroravit : ' Comperior, socii commilitones, 
quod, post apparatum milicie prompte sua tueri et iusta neganti mucrone 
nudato precipere, suspensio virtutis militaris antecedentis periculum 
solet conducere, dum mora docet hostes cavere, novas machinaciones 
providere et incremento potencie seu 2 feda fuga suis consulere, amicis- 
que paratis egregie facere tempore frigessit ardor pristinus preliandi. 
Igitur de cetero mora spernenda ; cuiuslibet animus actu prodat innatam 
seu moribus preditam magnanimitatem ; nusquam fuga nos potefit 
tutare ; libera via ferro captanda est et hostium 3 sanguine durisque 
laboribus comparanda. Nam talibus donis promereri cupit prospera 
fortuna. Contra sepe victos a vobis pugnaturi, memineritis vos divicias, 
decus, gloriam, et omnis virtuosi militis amiciciam, et perpetuandum 
celebre nomen in dextris vestris portare ; preterea quod pacem vitamque 
gloriosam, quam cum liberis et uxoribus senio felici concupiscitis habere, 
non nisi victores poteritis bello commutare. Considero quod solum, quo 
pugnaturi sumus, antiquati iuris hereditarii munimento progenitoribus 
meis regibus Anglic pertinebat ; eciam nobis pertinere deberet, quod 
cum iusticia paterne cause quam nostis, et necessitudine mortem, 
carcerem, dedecus et paupertatem devitandi, et insuper vestra virtus 
assueta cum paucis multos superare, durum quoque Martis iugum sine 
deliciis iocunde tractare, contra licet multos tamen delicatos Francos 
magnam spem triumfandi mihi facit et in vobis rationabiliter debet 
generare. Quod si virtuti cuiuspiam vestri mors aut et sors sint, quod f. 142. 
absit, prevaliture, cavete ne vitam pro nihilo perdatis inultam, set more 
virorum, nedum victi set vincentes, finem honestum subeatis, ne captivi 
sicud peccora traducamini 4 longa morte multandi. Et cogitate quod 
1 quam. B. 2 sew. B. 3 ostium. B. * traducemini. B. 

U 



146 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



His speech 
to the 
archers. 



A.D.1356. pro iusticia, quam prosequimur, constanter agentes, sive vivimus sive 
morimur, Domini sumus ; in qua qui perseveraverit usque ad mortem, 
salvus erit, quam qui paciuntur propter iusticiam, ipsorum est regnum 
celorum.' 

Hiis verbis virtuosis animos heriles arrectos magnifice de exterior! 
. 
facie conspicatus, prudens imperator, ad sagittanorum chentelam con- 

versus, tali concione confortavit eos : ' Virtus fidesque vestra satis 
comprobate sunt mihi, qui multis et magnis tempestatibus ostendistis 
vos non degeneres filios et consanguineos eorum, quibus, sub ducatu 
patris mei prosatorumque meorum regum Anglic, nullus labor erat 
invincibilis, non locus ullus pre asperitate immeabilis, non mons arduus 
inaccessibilis, non turris firmitas inadquiribilis, non exercitus impene- 
trabilis, non armatus ostis formidabilis. Illorum vivacitas Francos, 
Ciprios, Siracusanos, et Calabrienses, atque Palestinos domuerat, et 
indomabilis cervicis Scotos et Hybernicos, pacientissimosque laboris 
Wallicos subegit. Res, tempus, pericula, ex timidis fortes et ex 
optusis ingeniosos facere consueta, honos insuper amorque patrie, 
Gallorum quoque spolia magnifka, magis quam oracio mea, vos hor- 
tantur patrissare. Signa sequamini, preceptis ducum vestrorum animo 
et corpore penitus intenti, ut, si vita cum triumfo fuerit nos comitata, 
firmas amicicias in id, 'idem semper velle seu nolle,' perpetuemus. 
Ceterum, si sors invida, que desit, in universe carnis viam finalem 
nos instanti labore propulerit, non suspendia debita scelestis nomina 
vestra profanabunt, set communiter eundem cifum isti generosi mei 
consortes et ego vobiscum potabimus; quibus vincere Francie nobili- 
tatem erit gloriosum, vinci vero, quod Deus avertat, non periculum 
turpe, set animosum.' 

Talia dicens, prospexit quod erat e vicino lateraliter mons qui- 
dam sepibus et fossis ad extra redunitus, ad intra vero distinctus, 
quippe ex una parte pascuus et ibi dumis condensus, ex alia vero 
vineis consitus, et ex reliqua sacionalis ; in cuius iugo sacionali coortem 
Francorum perpendit residere. Inter nostros et montem erant ampla 



Battle of 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 147 

profundaque vallis et mariscus, torrente quodam irriguus. Ad satis A.D. 1356. 
angustum vadum principis turma cum cariagiis torrentem preterivit, f. i42 b . 
egressaque vallem trans sepes et fossas ocupavit collem, ubi inter 
virgulta faciliter occultabatur loci municione, hostibus alcior incumbens. 
Campus, in quo residebant nostre prima secundaque custodia, distin- 
guebatur a planicie quam ocupavit exercitus Francus sepe longa 
subterfossata, cuius alterum extremum declinavit in mariscum prefatum. 
Declivum marisco incumbentem tenuit comes Warewycensis, dux et 
moderator agminis primi. In superiori parte sepis, a declivo bene 
remota, fuit temesis quedam patula vel hyatus, quern bigarii fecerunt 
in autumpno, a quo remota iactu lapidis stetit nostra tercia turma, 
cui comes Saresburiensis presidebat. Hostes, videntes principis vexil- 
lum nuper manifestum set incipiens successive dimoveri obiectuque Advance 
mentis illorum oculis occultari, estimarunt principis fugam, reclaman- j- ren ch. 
tibus Dowglas Scoto et marescallo de Claromonte non ita fore; set 
opinione sua deceptus marescallus Dawdenam, ut insequeretur principis 
fugam putativam, et cum illo Dowglas, ut promereretur nove milicie 
fulgidum nomen, set Claromontanus, ut expurgaret blasfematam fideli- 
tatem, veementer progrediuntur ; illis enim erat prima custodia 
deputata. Istos precesserunt, ut moris est, astiludiaturi, quibus de 
prima custodia nostra, sub declivo cui residerant, obviaverunt equites 
nostri ad hastiludia specialiter ordinati. Hastiludiorum finem visurus, 
suspendit suum aggressum marescallus Dawdenham. Interim vero 
Claromontanus, sperans progredi per temesim sepis et primam nostram 
coortem a tergo circumvenire, obvium habuit comitem Sarum, qui, 
prospiciens Claromontanum venientem, prudenter suspicatus est eius 
intencionem, et ita qui posteriori nostre custodie presidebat, ut temesim 
celeriter ocuparet et hostes a transitu per iliac artaret, primam 
ingruenciam belli sustinebat. Tune armatorum oriebatur dirus con- 
gressus lanceiis, gladiis atque securibus dimicancium. Nee officia sua 
sagittarii pretermiserunt, set, insistentes aggeri tuto supra fossam et 
ultra sepem, coegerunt sagittas armis militaribus prevalere, quarellas 

U 2 



148 



CHRONICON CALF RID I 



A.D.1366. 



f. 143. 



Defeat of 
the French 
cavalry 
by the 
English 
archers. 



Defeat of 
the French 
first line. 



quoque balistariorum crebrius et profusius evolare. Itaque nostri, 
tercia coorte superius ad temesim viriliter hostes mactante, primaque 
classe subterius in declivo et iuxta mariscum, sub comite Warewici 
Gallos obvios prosternente, sagittarii prime coortis steterunt in marisco 
securi, ne invaderent eos equites ; modicum tamen ibidem valuerunt. 
Equites enim, sicud tactum est, ad sagittarios conculcandos et suos a 
sagittis protegendos coordinati, stantes iuxta suos direxerunt sagittariis 
pectora laminis calibis et scutis nervinis ita solide contecta, quod 
sagitte directe aut in minucias ad durum obiectum fuerant protrite 
vel reflectebantur in Olimpum, in exicium dubium hostis vel amici 
ruiture. Hoc perpendens, comes Oxonie descendit a principe et 
sagittarios ductos in obliquum iussit ad equorum posteriora sagittare ; 
quo facto, saucii dextrarii calcitrarunt, insidentes eiis proruerunt, et, 
contra suos reversi, stragem non modicam intulerunt eorum dominis, 
alium tamen finem machinatis. Abactis itaque dextrariis, sagittarii, 
suo loco priori repetito, latera pugnancia Francorum directo iactu 
terebrarunt. Continuatur orrida Martis insania, decertantibus Ware- 
wicensi Saresburiensique leonibus, quis eorum profusion sanguine 
Franco terram Pictavensem debriaret, armaque propria calido cruore 
gloriaretur maculari. Nee ab opere suo vacavit, sapiencie militaris 
domicilium singulare, strenuis actibus a iuventute in provectam etatem 
decoratus, Thomas Dofford, merito consul Suthfolchiensis. Ipse per 
agmina singula currens, singulos hortans atque confortans ad 
bene faciendum, cavebat ne iuvenum fervor animosus inconsulte progre- 
deretur, aut sagittas architenenses inutiliter dirigerent, et reverenda 
sua voce animis fervidis addidit ignes. In conflictu fortiter agentem 
mors non inulta Claromontanum, nee dedicionem nee fugere dignantem, 
rebus humanis exemit. Set ilium Dawdenam deditum virtus prevalens 
subegit ; Willelmusque Dowglas sauciatus abfugit, paucos quoque sue 
comitive Scotos cum Archiebaldo fratre suo secum reduxit. Illos 
enim atrox furor bellicus omnes fere delevit, ceterosque cunctos illius 
custodie viam mortis honeste vel fugam necessariam, demptis re- 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 149 . 

dimendis captivis, inire coegit. Set, ne victores nimium prosequerentur A.D.isse. 
fugitives, duces nostri providebant, estimantes non decepti quod fortunato 
belli principio labor egregius succederet post accessum exercituum 
futurorum. Proinde nostri se resarcierunt, et prima secundaque nostre 
custodie pariter se glomerarunt. 

Nee mora, progreditur acies altera Gallicorum, quam produxit Advance of 
. ,-, T-> i/- IT- the second 

pnmogenitus coronati Francorum, puta Delfinus Vienensis. Apparatus ii ne . 

huius aciei fuit terribilior atque veemencior quam facies belli primitus 
repressi ; non tamen potuit terrere nostros avidos honoris et exasperates 
seipsos aut socios prius sauciatos vindicare. Set audacter utrinque 
congrediuntur, ad astra tonante tumido boatu sanctum Georgium seu 
beatum Dionisium arbitrum belli fore favorabilem proclamancium. 
Mox in virum vir debacatur et pro vita quisque decertat obvio mortem 
propinare ; nee rapidius feta leena lupum sternit tigrisve terret, quam 
generosi nostri togati confuderunt aut fugarunt armatos hostes, et, 
quamvis diucius ista priori turma nostris resistebat, tamen, post 
stragem magnam suorum, talem sapientes inierunt cautelam, qualem it is 
non fugam set pulcram retraccionem invincibiles ore Galli sunt assueti If 
vocitare. Nostri vero, considerantes quod gracia campi fuit ambigua, 
quamdiu coronatus cum suis copiis affore posset quodque vicina valle 
lateret, noluerunt proinde persecuturi fugientes cedere campo. 

Hoc non perpendit dignus illustribus parentibus heros, dominus f. 143". 
Mauricius de Berkeleye films Thome, qui, per totam principis ex- ^Maurice 
pedicionem biennalem ad vexillum suos ducens, inter precipuos atque Berkeley, 
primes primo cornui belloforontum numquam deficit sua sponte. Hac 
hora solito more l cum primoribus hostes invadens, dignos eternis laudibus 
actus contra Gallos fulminavit. Hie, Delfini satrapis mixtus et in eos 
seviens armata manu, non putabat fugere Francos quamdiu vidit illos 
erectos, et ad anteriora totus intentus, suos nequaquam respiciens a 
tergo nee contemplans in acre signa, solus persequebatur securam 
miliciam magni Delfini, contra quam lancea deindeque gladio et ceteris 

1 om. B. 



150 



CHRONICON GALFRIDI 



A.D.1356, 



The 
French 
renew the 
attack. 



The 
English 
begin to 
lose heart. 



Advance 
of the 
prince of 
Wales. 



armis invasivis virilitate seva confractis, tandem multitudine solus 
stipatus, orride saucius ac vivus raptus, precio salutis reservatus est. 

Interim nostri suos wlneratos sub dumis et sepibus applicabant, 
alii lanceas atque mucrones, suis contritis integriores, a devictis rapu- 
erunt, et architenenses extraere sagittas a miserrimis semivivis festinarunt. 
Non erat aliquis non wlneratus aut eximio labore fessus, demtis solis 
quadringentis, qui vexillo principal! subservierunt, ad obviandum 
coronato sueque milicie reservati. 

Delfino taliter profugato, quidam campi contemplate* ad coronatum 
venit, ita dicens: 'Domine, campus Anglicis cessit, et dominus meus 
vester primogenitus se retraxit.' Cui respondens, coronatus inviolabili 
suo sacramento iuravit quod non illo die foret campum deserturus, 
nisi captus vel occisus et ita violenter abductus. Ergo iubentur 
vexillarii procedere, quos subsecuta numerosa nimis armata manus a 
valle secedens in campo spacioso nostris optutibus se presentavit ; et 
incussit desperacionem vincendi in tantum quod quidam magne pro- 
bitatis astans principi sic eiulavit : ' Hew ! victi deficiemus ! ' Quern, 
fiduciam ingerens in Christo Christiferaque virgine Maria, dominus 
princeps sic redarguebat : ' Mentiris,' inquit, ' pessime vecors, si me 
vivum posse vinci blasfemeris.' Non sola nostros multitude terruit 
hostilis, set consideracio nostre facultatis notabiliter peiorate. Cum 
hoc enim quod multi de nostris sauciati necessario vacabant a con- 
flictu, ceteri fere cuncti fuerunt nimis fatigati et sagittarii sagittas suas 
expendiderunt. Preterea capitaneus de la Busche, vir eximie probitatis, 
ut primum vidit progrediencia castra coronati, petita principis licencia, 
recessit cum sexaginta togatis et c. sagittariis, quern de nostris multi 
putarunt abfugisse. Ea propter nostri, ducibus exceptis, de victoria 
desperantes, Deo se totos comendarunt, et, vitam quasi nihil appreci- 
antes, solum cogitabant ne morerentur soli vel inulti. Tune princeps 
iussit suum signiferum, dominum Walterum de Wodelonde, versus 
hostilia signa se movere ; et cum paucis suis recentibus obviam dedit 
exercitui magno coronati. Ilico classica sonuerunt, nam tube lituis et 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 151 

musicis cornibus atque naquiriis coresponderunt, et Pictavie saxa A.D.isse. 
muralia silvis hecco resonarunt ; unde putasses montes vallibus mugiisse 
et in nubibus tonuisse. Tantis tonitruis fulmina dira non defuere, 
dum radiantibus aureis armis lux scintillat, et de polito calibe corus- f - 144 - 
cant haste volantes, quarum cuspides, fulminis instar, obvia findunt. 
Tune turba minax balistariorum densa caligine quarellorum tetram 
noctem campo reduxit, quam reverberat imber letifer sagittarum, 
quas emisit Anglica falanx, pubes furore, quia desperans, agitata. 
Evolant eciam pila fraxinea, dum se salutant eminus hostes, ac Fran- 
corum coors stipata densis catervis, protegens pectora sub umbonibus 
seriose nexis, a volatilibus ora declinat ; unde sagittarii, faretris in- 
cassum evacuatis, peltibus et gladiis dumtaxat armati, graves armaturas 
invadere docentur a libidine fervente vendere mortem, quam putabant 
ilium diem se finituros. Tune fremit instans Wallie princeps, Gallos 
mutilans mordaci spata, lanceas truncat, ictus reverberat, nisus 
adnihilat, lapses sublevat, et docet hostes quam furiosa sit de- 
speracio sub toga Martis. 

Interim capitaneus de la Busche graditur iter obliquum, sub Thecaptal 

declivo recedens a monte quern l cum principe nuper dimisit, et occulte takes the 

. enemy in 
girans campum venit ad locum submissum prime stacionis coronati. rear. 

Exinde conscendit alciora campi per viam Gallicis ultimo tritam, sic 
quoque subito prorumpens ab occulto per veneranda signa Georgica 
significavit nobis amicum. Tune verecundia principis pugnat aciem 
Gallicam dirumpere, priusquam capitaneus fuisset aggressus latus belli 
quod sola Gallica terga tutarunt. Ergo 

' Precipiti nisu vesanum principis agmen 
In densos agitur cuneos, perque arma, per hostes 
Querit iter, tutoque latens sub tegmine pectus,'" 

1 quam. B. 

* Cf. Lucan, Phars. vii. 496-499. The passage is as follows : 
' Praecipiti cursu vesanum Caesaris agmen 

In densos agitur cuneos : perque arma, per hostem 

Quaerit iter, qua torta graves lorica catenas 

Opponit, tutoque latet sub tegmine pectus.' 



152 CHRONICON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1356. aciem dirimit inimicam calibe vastans obvius princeps; hostibus medium 

se commiscet 1 , 

'Ac rotat efferus 
Undique ferrum, 
Quo ferit obvios. 
Preterit alios ; 
Et ruit omnis 
Tactus ab illo.' 

Invaduntur utrinque miserandi, quos a tergo laniant commilitones de la 
Busche, deputatique sibi sagittarii grandine diro confodiunt. Laceratur 
ex tune tota Francigenum bellica forma. 

' Hie furor Edwardi, serit hie sua fulmina princeps ; 
Nee tamen hie voluit tantum prosternere, quantum' 2 

potuit ex adversa gente prosterni. Set turbatas acies intervolans, et 
armatos rarius consertos inferiorum victoriis dimittens, ad robur coro- 
nati, validis cuneis adhuc stipati, rapido nisu dirigit gressus metuendos. 
Tune vexilla titubarunt, vexillarii corruerunt, hii sua viscera fusa 
calcarunt, alii dentes evomuerunt, multi terre fixi fuerunt, nonnulli 
stantes brachia precisa perdiderunt. Hii morientes alieno cruore se 
volutarunt, pondera lapsa gemuerunt, et anime superbe, corpus igna- 
vum deserentes, diros gemitus emiserunt. Cruor servilis et sanguis 
regalis uno gurgite cucurrerunt, et vicina fluenta purpurantes pisces 
delicato nectare paverunt. Sic furit aper Cornubiensis, qui 

' solas sanguine fusas 
Gaudet habere vias' 3 

The final ad stacionem coronati. Hie validissimorum trux resistencia reperi- 
tur> P u g nant Anglici, repugnant Gallici, quorum dux, licet etatis pre- 
mature, attamen, ira iuvenescens tyronis, egregios geminat actus, hos 

1 commisset. B. 

2 Cf. Lucan, Phars. vii. 534-535 : 

' Nee valet haec acies tantum prosternere quantum 

Inde perire potest.' 
* Cf. Lucan, Phars. ii. 439-440 : 

' Caesar in arma furens nullas, nisi sanguine fuso, 
Gaudet habere vias.' 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 153 

cxcerebrans, alios confodiens; hiis ora rescindit aut facies contundit, A.D.1356. 
illos eviscerat, quosdam detruncat : per omnia monstrans quod a regali 

stipite Francie non omnino degeneravit. Set tandem, fortuna rote ver- The king 

of France 
tiginem preciprtante, Walhe pnnceps mtrat m hostes et, quasi leonma made 

. prisoner. 
seva generositate, domitis superbis, parcit subiectis et cepit coronati 

dedicionem. 

Interim Gallici per rura Pictavie spaciose diffusi, considerantes 
depressionem stacionardi liliati, fuga velocissima vicinam civitatem 
pecierunt. Anglici vero, nullius 1 , quamvis orribiliter sauciati, nee alicuius Pursuit of 

the enemy. 

laboris, licet graviter vexati, pre gaudio vite victorieque recordati, Gallos 
fugaces ad portas Pictavenses persequebantur. Ubi certamine peri- 
culoso bene verberatos 2 strage magna fuderunt Francigenas ; et multo 
plures peremissent, si non fuissent diligenciores ad capturam precio vite 
redimendorum, quam circa triumphum principalem. 

Demum, clangore tubarum nostris in unum revocatis, per arva 
paviliones et tentoria figuntur, et cure wlneratorum, quieti fessorum, 
tutele captorum, recreacionique famelicorum, tota coors alacris in- 
dulsit ; donee, percepto quod de sua comitiva defuerunt eis honore 
militari digressi viri, pro quibus requirendis et vivis aut mortuis 
in castra ducendis pietate pleni destinantur. Igitur. ut quisquis egre Search for 
tulit absentis amici periculum, sic festinus ad Marcium campum querulus WOU nded. 
currit ; et inter aggeres occisorum reperiuntur vix palpitantes, qui pro 
iusticia regis Anglorum et honoris principalis integritate, set et exercitus 
tuta salute, strenuo labore, tabefactivo teste sudore, consumpti 3 , san- 
guinem proprium large fuderunt. Quorum nonnulli nobiles animas pro 
amicis posuerunt, premiumque maxime caritatis, sanctis promissis invic- 
tissime veritatis, regna celestia victoriose receperunt. 

Inter semivivos vix anelantes repertus dominus lacobus Dawdeleye, Lord 

lato scuto superpositus, piissimis brachiis commilitonum fessis fessus, 

sauciis saucius, cruentis exanguis, ad ospicium principis fertur. Inven- 

tario tam precioso tota familia sedulis votis obsequebatur, ipseque 

1 ullius. B. ! verberati. B. 3 consumpcb. B. 

X 



154 C II RON I CON GALFRIDI 

A.D.1350. princeps ab ea sede, qua cenaturus iuxta coronatum residebat, lauda- 
bilissima pietate resurrexit, et fere lacrimans osculabatur frigida labra 
cruore squalida vix spirantis sui carissimi, demumque nudum lecto 
delicato reclinatum paulisperque sue memorie revocatum confortavit, 
asserens pio iuramento quod habuit deditum coronatum ; nempe de 
novis ultra modum desideratis nulli credidit languidus heros, nisi principi 
referenti ; quibus creditis, revixit 1 . Tune reversus princeps coronato, 
suggessit ei ne putaret opus indignurn se fecisse, dum surrexit a cena con- 
fortaturus ilium fere morientem, qui neque sanguini neque saluti propriis 
f. 145. pepercit, quin exposuit ea periculo perdicionis, ne principalis honor liba- 
retur 2 . Post, audita descripcione toge militaris lacobine, dixit coronatus 
quod inter ceteros fortiter agentes valde mirabatur illius militis forcia facta 
terribiliter et diu continuata. Nee multa 3 plura fuerat ea cena locutus, 
nisi quod principi, nativa pietate nobilem predam confortanti, similia 

Speech of talibus verba rependit : ' Inevitabilem licet dolorem, tamen ut decet sub 

the king of . . 

France. mensura dignum duximus coibere ; quamvis enim nostro generoso con- 

sanguineo subiciamur iure belli, non tamen instar sceleratorum seu vecor- 
dium fugitivorum sub latibulo fuimus capti, set, more militum magna- 
nimorum pro iusti causa vivere morique paratorum, Martis arbitrio 
sumus translati de campo nostro, quo fuerunt divites capti, precio salutis 
reservati, vecordesque reprobi profugati, set valentissimi vita magnifica 
spoliati.' 

Li st O f Proxima die post prelium, connumerati sunt captivi : coronatus, qui 

prisoners. vocatur a su j s rex Francorum ; item, dominus Philippus, films eius ; item, 
archiepiscopus Senonensis, comes Pontivie, comes Du, comes de Longe- 
ville, comes de Tankelville, comes Daunterre, comes de Vendadowr, 
comes de Sauncerre, comes de Wademont, comes de Vendomsne, comes 
de Juyny, comes Donmartyn, comes de Salabruse, comes de Sasso, vice- 
comes Nerbone, dominus Daubyni, marescallus Dawdenam, dominus 
Guynchard de Angle, senescallus de Centonge, dominus Mauricius 
Mawmynet, dominus Reginaldus de Guoylhoy, senescallus Pictavie, 
1 revinxit. B. 2 liberetur. B. 3 multum. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 155 

magnus preceptor sive magister hospitalis Ispanie, dominus de Saint A.D.1356. 
Tyger, dominus Damboyde, senescallus de Auvare, dominus de la Tour, 
dominus Dars, dominus Durval, dominus de la Ville, Ernaldus 1 de 
Maungeler, dominus de Plaunke, vicecomes de Bello monte, et dominus 

de Sully. Corpora quoque reperta fuerunt occisorum, ducis de Burbone, List of 

French 
ducis Datenes, constabularii Francie, marescalli de Claro monte, domini killed. 

Godefridi de Charny, domini de Pouns, episcopi Chalonensis, domini de 
Laundas, domini de Rippemont, domini de Chaveny, domini de loole, 
domini de Neel, domini de Aunger, domini de Mount lohan, domini 
Dargentone, domini de Broose, domini de Raas, domini de Rochechiche- 
ward, et domini de Vilem. Omnes captivos a suis magistris princeps 
emit, et adduxit Burdegalim, custodie secure deputandos. 

Principi Burdegali demoranti misit nuncios prefatus cardinalis The 



Petragoricensis, petens per eos securum conductum veniendi et loquendi 



cum principe. Tandem optento quod petivit, excusavit se domino principi 
de eo quod, ipso minus utiliter tractante de pace pridie diei belli, quam- 
vis sine scitu suo, tamen ipsius occasione fuerat Francis tempus idoneum 
ministratum, quo crevit exercitus illorum ; unde potuisset dominus prin- 
ceps credidisse quod sua fraude fuisset ille dolus ingeniatus. Tandem 
principe ratificante reverendi patris excusacionem, cardinalis ut amicus 
acceptatus est. Et captivi Gallicorum tam obnixe precibus devotis f. i45 b . 
institerunt domino principi, quod concessit eiis diem tractandi de pace, Negotia- 

scilicet quintum decimum post Nativitatem lesu Christi, ita quod, An- opened for 

peace. 
glicis apud Blayves et Gallicis apud Mirabel demorantibus 2 , inter opida 

prefata pax finalis ordinaretur. Set ne sine domini regis sui patris 
autoritate beneplacita talia princeps tractaret, scripsit eii veram seriem 
gestorum per viros ordinis militaris, dominos Neil de Lehereyn et Roge- 
rum Totesforde. Nulla tamen pax optata sequebatur per duos annos 
continue sequentes. 

1 Ernal dns. B. 2 demoratur. B. 



X 2 



CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI LE BAKER 
DE SWYNEBROKE. 



f. 149. IN primordio temporis, ante omnem diem', Deus pater in verbo et 

per verbum suum fecit ex nichilo rerum omnium materiam, quam postea 
per vj. dies varies distinxit atque ornavit. Tribus itaque primis diebus 
earn disposuit ; tribusque sequentibus eandem ornavit. Septimo die ab 
omni opere quod fecerat requievit. 

Primo namque die fecit Deus lucem in modum lucide nubis, que 
vice solis ortu suo diem faceret et occasu suo noctem induceret ; et cum 
ista luce primo die creati sunt angeli. 

Secundo die fecit Deus firmamentum in medio aquarum, id est 
quandam exteriorem mundi superficiem ex aquis congelatis, instar 
cristalli solidatam et perlucidam, intra se cetera sensibilia continentem. 
Et dicitur firmamentum, non tantum propter soliditatem, set quia ter- 
minus est aquarum, que super ipsum sunt, firmus et intransgressibilis. 
Dicunt quidam quod isto die Lucifer angelus atque alii, qui suo concilio 
consenserunt, de celo sunt eiecti ; et ideo feria secunda de angelis qui 
remanserunt in aliquibus ecclesiis missa celebratur. 

Tercio die congregavit Deus aquas, que sub firmamento erant, in 
unum locum ; et tune apparuit arida, id est terra. Produxitque eodem 
die herbam virentem et facientem semen, lignumque pomiferum, faciens 
fructum secundum genus suum. 

Quarto die que disposuerat cepit ornare ; et sicut disposicionem sic 
ornatum a superioribus inchoavit, scilicet a firmamento. Fecit enim ea 



CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI. 157 

duo luminaria magna, videlicet solem, lunam et Stellas, que celum ornant, 
terram illuminant, temporaque distingunt ; et posuit ea 1 in firmamento. 

Quinto die ornavit Deus aerem et aquam, volatilia dans aeri, et 
natancia aquis, et utraque ex aquis fecit. 

Sexto die fecit iumenta, bestias, et reptilia, ad terre faciem ornan- 
dam. Novissime autem in consummacione omnium plasmavit Deus 
hominem de limo terre in agro Damasceno ; cui dedit spiritum ad yma- 
ginem et similitudinem suam creatum, et vocatum est nomen eius Adam. 
Transtulitque eum in paradisum voluptatis, et, ne minor esset felicitas si 
consorte careret, quia sine socio nulla est iocunda possessio, fecit Evam 
de costa Ade dormientis, ut esset ei adiutorium simile sibi. 

Seculum generacionibus et successionibus constat ; dicitur enim 
seculum eo quod se sequatur, quia abeuntibus aliis alia succedunt ; et 
ideo, loquendo de seculo, videndum est primo, quot sunt etates seculi f. I49 b . 
quibus omnia secula distinguntur. Et, sicut Deus per vj. dies mundum 
creavit et ornavit et in septimo requievit, ita seculum per vj. etates dis- 
tinguitur, et in septima, videlicet post finem mundi, erit iustis quies et 
gloria, iniustis vero pena eterna. 

De numero autem etatum, prima incipit ab origine mundi, et durat 
usque ad Noe inclusive, continens, secundum Ysodorum, decem genera- 
ciones et annos duo millia CC.liiij. Secunda etas incipit a Noe et durat 
usque ad Abraham exclusive, et continet ix. generaciones et annos 
D.CCCC.xlij. Tercia etas incipit ab Abraham et durat usque ad David, 
et continet xx. generaciones et successiones et annos D.CCCC.xl. Quarta 
etas incipit a David et durat usque ad transmigracionem luda in Babi- 
lonem, continens xx. generaciones et successiones et annos CCCC.lxxvij. 
Quinta etas incipit a transmigracione Babilonis, et durat usque ad adven- 
tum Salvatoris, continens xxiiij. generaciones et successiones et annos 
D.xxv. Et est summa generacionum et successionum ab inicio mundi 
usque adventum Christi Ixxxiij., secundum Ysidorum ; summa vero an- 
norum v.c.xxxviij : verumptamen secundum Orosium, cui maxime con- 

1 eas. B. 



158 CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI 

cordant Ixx. interpretes, v.c.xix. Et istud communiter tenetur. Scxta 
etas, que nunc agitur, incipit a Nativitate Christi, videlicet anno ab 
engine mundi v.c.xix., secundum Orosium, et durabit usque ad finem 
mundi, et continet usque ad presentem annum exclusive M.CCC.xxxvj. 

Numerus in isto primo margins Numerus in secundo margine scriptus 

scriptus est annorum ab origins mundi est annorum ab inicio mundi sequencium 
precedencium gesta inmediate subscripta. gesta in pagina sequente inserta. 

Anni ab origine mundi, secundum Orosium, cui concordant lxx a 
interpretes, usque ad tempus presens. vj.D.xlvj ^ 

iij.DCCC.xix. Ab adventu Bruti primi regis Anglic in Angliam. 

iiij.xxxij. Ab obitu eiusdem, cum regnasset xxxiij. annis et gene- 
rasset tres filios inclitos, quorum primus Locrinus post decessum patris 
regnavit in Anglia, secundus Camber in Wallia, et tercius, videlicet 
Albanactus, in Scocia. ij.D.xlvij. 

Ab urbe Londoniarum condita per eundem Brutum, quam Treno- 
vantum, id est Novam Troiam, nuncupavit. ij. 

mj.CCCC.lxxxj. Ab urbe Romana condita per Romulum et Remum 
fratres gemellos 2 . 

iiij.DCCC.lviij. Alexander, Macedo rex, magnus imperator. Plato, 
Aristotiles, et Ypocras medicus, insignes, claruerunt. M.DC.lxxxviij. 

Octavianus Augustus Romanum suscepit imperium, et dictus est 
Augustus eo quod rem pupplicam auxerat. M.CCC.lxxxix. 

Numerus in isto margine subscriptus Numerus subscriptus est annorum 

est annorum a Nativitate Christi prece- sequencium gesta inferius scripta a Na- 
dencium gesta sequencia. tivitate Christi usque presentem annum, 

qui singulis annis mutabitur. 

Anno ab origine mundi V.c.xix., et Octaviani imperatoris xlij., natus 
est Christus filius Dei, in Bedleem lude, ex Maria virgine, nocte diei 

1 Under this number is "written ij.D.xlvij., which may be intended to come at the 
end of the next sentence. B. 

2 gemellis. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 159 

Dominice, qui primus et summus pontifex sedit in hoc mundo xxxiij. an- 
nis et quantum est a Natali usque ad Pascha, quod tamen pro dimidio 
anno computatur, secundum Chrisostomum. Eodem anno Christus 
fertur in Egiptum, et in septimo a Nativitate in ludeam revertitur. 

xxix. lohannes Baptista predicavit baptismum penitencie. Et in 
proximo anno sequente baptizavit Christum in lordanis flumine. 

M.CCC.xviij. 

xxxj. Christus convertit aquam in vinum, quod fuit inicium sig- 
norum eius. Et anno sequent! lohannes Baptista sub H erode decollatur. 

M.CCC.xvj. 

xxxiij. Dominus noster lesus Christus crucifigitur. Et eodem 
anno, secundum quosdam, Stephanus prothomartir a ludeis lapidatur. 

M.CCC.xiiij. 

xxxiiij. Beatus Petrus cathedram sacerdotalem in partibus orien- 
talibus primo tenuit iiij or annis ; ubi primam missam celebravit, dicendo 
tantummodo Pater noster. Et anno sequenti Paulus apostolus conver- 
titur et fidelis predicator efficitur. M.CCC.xiij. 

xxxviij. Petrus apud Antiochiam cathedram episcopalem adeptus 
est, ubi sedit vij. annis. Anno secundo post Matheus ewangelista scripsit. 

M.CCC.ix. 

xlij. Ab assumpcione Marie virginis, cum esset annorum liiij. Et 
anno proximo Marcus ewangelista ewangelium edidit. M.CCC.v. 

xlv. Petrus apostolus apud Romam xxv. annis, vij. mensibus, viij.. 
diebus, pontificatum tenuit. M.CCC.ij. 

Ixiij. Jacobus frater Domini, qui Justus appellatur, ab impiis ludeis 
lapidatur. M.cc.lxxxiiij. 

Ixx. Petrus, cum apostolatum in supradictis locis xxxvj. annis 
tenuisset, sub Nerone Christianorum persecutore crucifigitur. Eodem 
anno, eodem die, et sub eodem persecutore, Paulus apostolus decollatur. 
Et uterque apud Romam sepelitur. M.CC.lxxvij. 

Ixxj. Beatus Linus apud Romam, immediate post Petrum, pontifi- f. I50 b . 
catum suscepit, et, cum sedisset xj. annis et iiij or . mensibus, martirio est 



160 CHRONICULUM GALFRIDT 

coronatus. Et beatus Petrus Clementem elegerat 1 in papam, tamen 
ipse Linuni et Clementem ante ipsum pontificate coegit. M.cc.lxxvj. 

Ixxxij. Sanctus Cletus Rome apostolatum accepit, et xxj. presbi- 
teros ibidem ordinavit, et, cum sedisset xx. annis, martirio coronatus. 

M.CC.lxv. 

xciij. Beatus Clemens quartus papa Rome apostolatum suscepit, 
et, cum ibidem sedisset ix. annis, martirio est coronatus. M.CC.liiij. 

xcvij. Johannes ewangelista in Patmos insula sub Domiciano rele- 
gatur. Et proximo anno de exilio ad Ephesum revertitur. M.CC.l. 

C.xvij. Beatus Johannes apostolus et evangelista, a Domino ad 
celeste convivium invitatus, in pace requievit. M.CC.xxx. 

C.lxv. Annicetus papa statuit ut clerici [nee] comam innutriant nee 
barbam, set quod omnes habeant coronas ad modum spere rotundas. 

M.C. Ixxxij. 

CC.xlv. Philippus xlij u " imperator erat primus imperator Christianus, 
a beato Poncio martire baptizatus. Origines floruit. M.c.ij. 

CC.lxij. Beatus Sixtus Rome apostolatum suscepit, ubi, cum 
sedisset fere iij. annis, cum sanctis Felicissimo et Agapito, iussu Decii 
imperatoris decollatur. Eodem anno et sub eodem persecutore beatus 
Laurencius martirizatus. M.lxxxv. 

CCC.j. Beati Vincencius, Gervasius, et Prothasius, Gorgonius, Quin- 
tinus, Grisogonus, Anastasia, Agnes, et beata Agatha, sub Diocliciano 
martirizati sunt. M.xlvj. 

CCC.iij. Miles Christi, gloriosus martir Georgius, sub Diocliciano et 
Maximiano imperatoribus martirizatur 2 . M.xliiij. 

CCC.ix. Sancta Katerina virgo sub Maxencio, impiissimo persecu- 
tore Christianorum, decollatur. M.xxxviij. 

CCC.x. Eusebius papa apud Romam pontificatum accepit. Huius 
tempore inventa fuit sancta crux ; et ideo instituit invencionem eius 
celebrari. M.xxxvij 3 . 

CCC.xv. A consecracione beatissimi Silvestri, urbis Rome episcopi. 
Omnes Romani episcopi ante istum martirio coronabantur 4 . M.xxxij. 
1 eligerit. B. 2 martirizantur. B. 3 M.xxxviij. B. * coronabatur B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 161 

CCC.xxxvij. Ab obitu eiusdem, cum sedisset xxij. annis, Constan- 
tinum Augustum a lepra sanasset, taurum ferocem a morte resuscitasset. f. 151. 

M.x. 

CCC.lxx. Beatus Damasus 1 Rome apostolatum accepit, qui hos 
duos versos : ' Gloria patri ' et ' Sicut erat,' a beato leronimo conpositos, 
in ecclesia post psalmos cantandos statuit. Huius tempore beatus 
Ambrosius Mediolani episcopus consecratur, qui ritum cantandi anti- 
phonas in ecclesia constituit. Claruit eciam huius tempore beatus 
Martinus Turonensis episcopus, sanctus leronimus, et Gregorius Nazian- 
zenus 2 . DCCCC.lxxvij. 

CCC.iiij"viij. Ab obitu eiusdem Damasi, cum sedisset Rome 
decem et octo annis, duobus mensibus, et viginti uno diebus. DCCCC.lix. 

CCC.xcviij. Beatus Augustinus, magnus doctor, Yponensis episcopus, 
in fide, sciencia et doctrina pre omnibus post apostolos floruit. Qui 
Augustinus ordinem nigrorum canonicorum, factus canonicus, instituit. 
Eodem tempore lohannes Chrisostomus claruit. DCCCC.xlix. 

CCCC.xx. Ab obitu beati leronimi presbiteri, cum esset annorum 
xcj. ; et apud Bedleem Palestine sepelitur. DCCCC.xxvij. 

CCCC.xxxij. Papa Celestinus primus misit beatum Patricium, filium 
Conches, sororis sancti Martini, in Hiberniam, qui convertit omnes ad 
fidem. DCCCC.xv. 

CCCC.xxxiij. Ab obitu beati Augustini, cum sedisset in episcopatu 
Yponensi xxix. annis, mille et xxx. volumina composuisset. Sep- 
tuagesimo sexto etatis sue anno migravit ad Dominum. Eodem tem- 
pore vij. dormientes, qui CC. annis dormierant, surrexerunt. DCCCC.xiiij. 

CCCC.xliiij. Leo primus apostolatum suscepit. Hie propriam 
manum suam, pro quadam temptacione concepta ex osculacione cuius- 
dam mulieris die Pasche communicantis, clam amputavit, quam beata 
Virgo sibi de facto penitenti miraculose restituit. DCCCC.iij. 

CCCC.lxiiij. Ab obitu eiusdem, cum sedisset xx. annis, diebus xxvij. 
Eodem autem tempore Priscianus gramaticus floruit. DCCC.lxxxiij. 
1 Damasius. B. 2 Nazanrenus. B. 

Y 



1 62 CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI 

D.xxxvj. Ab obitu sancti Benedict! abbatis, institution's ordinis 
monachorum. Eodem tempore sanctus Maurus, Benedict! discipulus, 
claruit. DCCC.xj. 

D.xcj. Beatus Gregorius primus apostolatum Rome suscepit. Hie 
erat doctor divinarum scripturarum solertissimus, qui xl. omelias com- 
posuit, lob et Ezechielem exposuit, registrum [et] pastoralem dialogum 
fecit. Hie Gregorius beatum Augustinum monachum, pro conversione 
f. 151". Saxonum et fide predicanda, in Angliam destinavit, episcopatus sui 
anno vj. DCC.lvj. 

DC. Beatus Augustinus monachus in archiepiscopum Cantua- 
riensem solempniter est consecratus. DCC.xlv[i]j. 

DC.iiij. Ab obitu beatissimi Gregorii, cum sedisset Rome xiij. annis, 
vj. mensibus, x. diebus, et septiformem letaniam statuisset. DCC.xliij. 

DC.vij. Bonefacius iiij u3 . Rome apostolatum suscepit, qui statuit ut 
singulis annis festum Omnium Sanctorum solempnizetur. Hoc tempore 
Eraclius imperator sanctam crucem in Jerusalem portavit, et ideo exal- 
tacionem sancte crucis celebrari Bonefacius constituit. DCC.xl. 

DC.xij. Ab obitu eiusdem Bonefacii pape,. cum sedisset vj. annis, 
octo mensibus, viginti diebus. DCC.xxxv. 

DC.xxiiij. Hisidorus, Hispalensis episcopus, floruit, qui libri de 
summo bono, ethimologiarum, et multorum aliorum autor extitit. 
Eodem tempore Machometus, princeps Saracenorum et magus, cum 
multis annis falsa Saracenis prophetasset, obiit. DCC.xxiij. 

DCC.xxxj. Ab obitu venerabilis Bede presbiteri. DC.xvj. 

DCCC.xliij. Haymo, qui, exponens super Epistolas et omelias super 
Evangelia laudabili stilo conscripsit, claruit. D.iij. 

M.xcj. Urbanus papa statuit ut hore beatissime Virginis ab omnibus 
clericis cotidie dicantur, et officium eius in sabbatis fiat. CC.lvj. 

M.xcij. Venerabilis Anselmus, primo abbas, postea Cantuariensis 
archiepiscopus, in sancta vita et doctrina claruit. cc.lv. 

M.c.ix. Beatus Bernardus ordinem Cisterciencium ingreditur, et 
codem anno abbas Clarevallis efficitur. CC.xxxviij. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 163 

M.C.xvij. Hugho de Sancto Victore, canonicus ordinis sancti Augus- 
tini, Parisius claruit. CC.xxx. 1 

M.C.xxxvij. Theobaldus consecratus est in Cantuariensem archi- 
episcopum, et, cum sedisset xxiiij. annis, obiit. CC.x. 

M.C.xlix. Magister Ricardus de Sancto Victore et Petrus Lum- 
bardus, qui librum sentenciarum composuit, floruerunt. C.xcviij. 

M.C.I. A consecracione lohannis de Pagham, episcopi Wigornie, 
qui contulit canonicis Oseneye ecclesias de Bybury et Turkedene, cum 
advocacione ecclesie de Resyndone ; et sedit in episcopatu Wygornie f- 152. 
octo annis, et decessit. C.xcvij. 

M.C.lxij. A consecracione sancti Thome martiris in archiepiscopum 
Cantuariensem. C.lxxxv. 2 

M.C.Ixviij. Petrus Commestor floruit, qui utriusque Testamenti his- 
toriam scolasticam compilavit. C.lxxix. 

M.c.lxx. Beatus Thomas, Cantuariensis archiepiscopus, in ecclesia 
sua metropolitana, cum sedisset ix. annis, martirizatur. C.lxxvij. 

M.CC.xxxiiij. A consecracione sancti Edmundi de Abyndone in 
Cantuariensem archiepiscopum, qui, cum sedisset vj. annis, apud Ponti- 
niacum decessit. C.xiij. 

M.cc.xxxv. A consecracione Roberti Grostete, episcopi Lincol- 
niensis, qui, cum prefuisset xviij. annis, obiit, et apud Lincolniam sepe- 
litur. C.xij. 

M.CC.liij. Beatus Ricardus de Wichio, episcopus Cicestrie, moritur. 
Et anno M.CC.lxxvj. transfertur dictus Ricardus. xc[i]iij. 

M.CC.lv. A crucifixione sancti Hugonis Lincolniensis iunioris, per 
perfidos 3 ludeos perpetrata. xcij. 

M.CC.lxiiij. Florebant Parisius duo theologi insignes, scilicet sanctus 
Thomas de Alquino, de ordine Predicatorum, et frater Bonaventura, or- 
dinis Minorum. Ixxxiij. 

M.cc.lxx. A consecracione magistri Roberti Culwardeby in archi- 
episcopum Cantuariensem. Ixxvij. 
1 cc.xxiij. B. 2 C.lxxxiiij. B. 3 perfidies. B. 

V a 



164 CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI 

M.CC.lxxvj. A consecracione lohannis de Pecham, Cantuariensis 
episcopi, Roberto de Culwardeby, cum sedisset viij. annis, facto car- 
dinale. Ixxj. 1 

M.CC.lxxviij. Ab obitu Walteri de Mertone, Roffensis episcopi, 
qui aulam de Mertone in Oxonia fundavit et earn, pro sustentacione sco- 
larium in duabus scienciis, videlicet theologia et dialectica 2 , studencium, 
ditissime dotavit. Ixix. 3 

M.CCC. Ab obitu Oliveri de Suttune, episcopi, cum sedisset in epi- 
scopatu Lincolniensi annis xxj. xlvij. 

M.CC.xcij. Ab obitu lohannis de Peccham, archiepiscopi, cum 
sedisset xiiij. annis. Eodem anno Robertus de Wynchilese fit Can- 
tuariensis archiepiscopus. Iv. 

M.CCC.xij. Ab obitu eiusdem Roberti de Wynchilese, cum sedisset 
xx. annis. xxxv. 

M.CCC.xx. Ab obitu lohannis de Daldirby, Lincolniensis episcopi, 
cum sedisset xx. annis. xxvij. 

xv. Ab obitu Octaviani imperatoris, cum imperasset Ivij. annis, 

videlicet ante Incarnacionem xlij. annis et post incarnacionem xv. annis, 

f. 162". totumque mundum suo subegit imperio, anno vero vite sue Ixxviij . 

M.CCC.xxxij. 

CCC.xj. Ex quo Constantinus imperator, devicto Maxencio per 
virtutem sancte crucis, suscepit imperium. M.xxxvj. 4 

CCC.xl. Ab obitu eiusdem, cum imperasset xxx. annis, ac ecclesiam 
Dei pre imperatoribus confirmasset et dotasset. M.vij. 

DCCC.l[x]ix. Ex quo Dany regnum Anglic devastarunt, et regem 
Christianissimum Aymundum decollaverunt. CCCC.lxxviij. 

CCCC.lxxvij. Ex quo Merlinus vates in Britannia floruit, et que 
futura erant Britonibus prophetavit. DCCC.lxx. 

M.lxv. Ab obitu sancti Edwardi, regis et confessoris, cum regnasset 
xxiij. annis, vj. mensibus ; et apud Westmonasterium sepelitur. cc.lxxxij. 

1 Ixix. B. a dialetica. B. 3 Ixxj. B. 4 M.CCC.vj. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 165 

Eodem anno Willelmus conqucstor, dictus Bastard, in Angliam 
venit, et proximo anno sequenti coronabatur. 

M.lxxij. Ex quo Malcolmus 1 , rex Scocie, fecit homagium Wil- 
lelmo Bastard, conquestori, pro regno Scocie, quod de eo tenuit. 

CC.lxxv. 

M.lxxxvij. Ab obitu eiusdem Willelmi, cum regnasset xxx. annis ; 
et apud Cadomum in Normannia 2 sepelitur. Eodem anno Willelmus 
Rufus, nlius dicti Willelmi Bastard, in regem coronatur. cc.lx. 

M.C. Ab obitu Willelmi Rufi, cum regnasset xiij. annis ; et apud 
Wyntoniam sepelitur. Eodem anno coronatur ' Henricus ' primus, 
frater cius, dictus ' Henricus clericus,' qui desponsavit Matildam, 
filiam Malcolmi 3 regis Scocie et sancte Margarete, dictam ' Bonam 
Reginam.' CC.xlvij. 

M.c.x. A desponsacione Matildis imperatricis, filie regis Henrici 
et Matildis uxoris sue, vix quinquenni 4 imperatori Alemannie. 

cc.xxxvij. 

M.C.xviij. Ab obitu Matildis dicte 'Bone Regine.' Eodem anno 
ordo Templariorum apud Jerusalem incepit. CC.xxix. 5 

M.c.xxvij 6 . Galfridus, comes Andagavie, duxit Matildem impera- 
tricem in uxorem, mortuo imperatore ; de qua genuit Henricum 
secundum. CC.xx. 

M.c.xxxiij. A nativitate regis Henrici secundi, filii Galfridi comitis f. 153. 
et Matildis imperatricis. CC.xiiij. 

M.C.xxxv. Ab obitu regis Henrici primi, cum regnasset xxxv. 
annis ; et apud Radyngham sepelitur. Eodem anno Stephanus, cognatus 
suus, coronatur. CC.xij. 

M.C.xxxviij. Commissum est grave bellum in mora de Coutone 
iuxta Northalitone, ubi multa milia Scotorum interfecta fuerunt a 
paucis. cc.ix. 

1 Malcolinus. B. 2 Narmannia. B. 3 Malcoline. B. 

4 quinquenti. B. 6 CCxxx. B. M.C.xxviij. B. 



166 CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI 

M.C.xxxix. Ab adventu Matildis imperatricis in Angliam, que 
quarto sui adventus anno obsidebatur per regem Stephanum * in castro 
Oxonie. CC.viij. 

M.C.liiij. Ab obitu regis Stephani, cum regnasset xix. annis ; 
sepelitur apud Faversham. Eodem anno coronatur Henricus, filius 
imperatricis. C.xciij. 

M.C.lv. A nativitate regis Henrici tercii, dicti ' Henricus iunior,' 
filii regis Henrici secundi. C.xcij. 

M.c.lvij. A nativitate serenissimi regis Ricardi, dicti ' Cor Leonis,' 
in palacio regis apud Oxoniam. C.xc. 

M.C.lxiiij. A translacione sancti Edwardi, regis et confessoris, 
apud Westmonasterium, per sanctum Thomam, Cantuariensem archi- 
episcopum. C.lxxxiij. 

M.C.lxvj. A nativitate regis lohannis, fratris regis Ricardi. 
Eodem anno Matildis imperatrix, filia regis Henrici primi, obiit. 

C.lxxxj. 

M.c.lxx. A coronacione Henrici iunioris, contra inhibicionem 
sancti Thome martins. Eodem anno Angli venerunt in Hiberniam. 

C.lxxvij. 

M.C.lxxxiij. Ab obitu eiusdem Henrici iunioris, qui ' Henricus 
tercius' nominatur. C.lxiiij. 

M.C.lxxxix. Ab obitu regis Henrici secundi, cum regnasset xxxv. 
annis, iij. mensibus. Eodem anno coronatur rex Ricardus apud West- 
monasterium. C.lviij. 

M.c.xciij. A capcione eiusdem regis Richardi per ducem Austrie 
in Alemannia. C.liiij. 

M.C.xciv. A secunda coronacione eiusdem, cum esset a custodia 
solutus et in Angliam reversus, datis imperatori obsidibus et c. millibus 
marcarum. C.liij. 

M.c.xcix. Ab obitu eiusdem Richardi, cum regnasset ix. annis; 

1 Stephani. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 167 

et apud Fontem Ebrardi sepelitur. Eodem anno coronatur Johannes 
frater eius apud Westmonasterium. C.xlviij. 

M.CC.vij. A nativitate regis Henrici quart!, filii regis lohannis. 
Et proximo anno sequent! generale interdictum in Anglia incepit. 

C.xl. 

M.CC.xiiij. A relaxacione eiusdem interdicti, cum durasset per vj. 
annos in toto regno Anglic. C.xxxiij. 

M.CC.xvj. Ab obitu regis lohannis, cum regnasset xvij. annis; et f. I53 b . 
apud Wigorniam sepelitur. Eodem anno Henricus iiij us ., filius eius, cum 
esset annorum ix., apud Westmonasterium coronatur. C.xxxj. 

M.CC.xx. A secunda coronacione eiusdem, cum esset annorum 
xiij., apud Londonias. C.xxvij. 1 

M.CC.xxxvj. A confirmacione libertatum per regem Henricum 
quartum, concessarum communitati Anglic, que in magna carta et de 
foresta continentur 2 . C.xj. 

Sentencia lata per omnes archiepiscopos, episcopos, prelatos, ponti- 
ficalibus indutos, crucibus erectis, et candelis accensis, in omnes con- 
travenientes et transgressores libertatum et consuetudinum contentarum 
in predictis cartis, sicut per regem confirmatis ; et hac de causa 
habuit rex Henricus tricesimam 3 tocius Anglic regni. Sequent! anno 
Octo legatus venit in Angliam. 

M.CC.xxxix. 4 A nativitate regis Edwardi, filii regis Henrici, post 
conquestum primi. Proximo anno sequent! Octo legatus recessit ab 
Anglia. C.viij. 

M.CC.xlij. A transfretacione Henrici quarti cum Alienora uxore 
sua in Wasconiam. C.v. 

M.CC.lvj. Ricardus, comes Cornubie, electus est in imperatorem 
Alemannie ; et proximo anno sequenti coronatur. xcj. 

M.CC.lviij. A provisionibus factis apud Oxoniam. unde multa mala 
futuris temporibus contigerunt. Ixxxix. 

M.CC.lxiij. Rex Henricus intravit Oxoniam et ecclesiam sancte 
1 C.xxvj. B. 2 continetur. B. 3 xviij. B. * M.ccc.xxxix. B. 



168 CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI 

Fredeswyde, cui multa bona contulit ; et capellam sancti Georgii in 
castro Oxonie intravit. Ixxxiiij. 

M.CC.lxiiij. Commissum est bellum apud Lewes, ubi captus erat 
Edwardus filius regis, cum multis nobilibus, per Symonem de Monte 
forti. Ixxxiij. 

M.CC.lxv. Commissum est grave prelium apud Evesham, in quo 
Symon de Monte forti cum multis aliis fidelibus occubuit. Octobon 
legatus venit. Ixxxij. 

M.CC.lxvij. A discumfitura facta apud Cestrefeldiam in comitatu 
Derbie. Ixxx. 

M.CC.lxxij. Abobitu regis Henrici quarti, cum regnasset Ivij. annis, 
anno etatis sue lxvj. Eodem anno obiit Ricardus imperator Aleman- 
nie, frater eius. Ixxv. 

M.CC.lxxiiij. A coronacione regis Edwardi, filii regis Henrici, cum 
Alienore uxore sua, apud Westmonasterium. Ixxiij. 1 

f. 154. M.CC.lxxviij. Rex Scotorum fecit homagium dicto Edwardo, hac 

condicione ut, ubicumque rex inveniretur in Anglia, homagium admittere 
non differret. Ixix. 

M.CC.lxxix. Ex quo fuit inhibitum ne terra et tenementa appro- 
priarentur viris religiosis, ne aliquo modo ad manum mortuam deve- 
nirent, absque speciali licencia domini regis. Eodem anno moneta 
mutata fuerat in Anglia. Ixviij. 

M.CC.lxxxij. Lewelinus, princeps Wallie, interficitur, et caput eius 
Edwardo regi per Edmundum de Mortuo mari transmittitur ; David- 
que, frater Lewelini, apud Rothelan capitur, corpusque eius, in 
partes divisum, in quatuor civitatibus suspenditur, capite Londoniis 
suspense. Ixv. 

M.CC.lxxxiiij. A nativitate regis Edwardi post conquestum secundi, 
die sancti Mathie evangeliste 2 , apud Karnarvan. Iter iusticie erat 
in Anglia. Ixiij. 

M.CC.lxxxviij. Tantus calor erat in autumpno, ut in plerisque 
1 Ixxiiij. B. 2 evangelii. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 169 

locis metentes pro nimio calore in campis moriebantur, et vendebatur 
quarterium frumenti pro xvj. denariis. Eodem anno erat maior pars ville 
sancti Botulphi cum domo fratrum Predicatorum combusta, et nundine 
per quosdam latrones spoliate ; nam 1 quidam falsi armigeri condixerunt 2 
ad invicem, ut quoddam 3 hastiludium, quod ' burdiz ' dicimus, celebra- 
rent ibidem tempore nundinarum, ut tante nundinas spoliarent. lix. 

M.CC.xc. Domina Alienora regina Anglic obiit. Eodem anno 
eiecti erant omnes ludei ab Anglia. Ivij. 

M.CC.xcij. Mortuo Alexandra rege Scocie, consensu Edwardi regis 
Anglic Johannes de Baliolo in regem Scocie eligitur, et eodem anno 
coronatur. Iv. 

M.cc.xciiij. Madoc et Morgan, consanguine! Lewelini, inceperunt 
rebellare in Wallia contra Edwardum regem Anglic. liij. 

M.CC.xcv. Spoliata erat villa Doverie per predones Francie, magna 
pars ville combusta, et multi interfecti. Eodem anno Gilbertus de Clare 
obiit lij. 

M.cc.xcvj.* Dominus lohannes de Sancto lohanne, cum multis aliis 
nobilibus regni Anglic, in Wasconia erat captus et regi Francie presen- 
tatus. Rex Edwardus totum clerum Anglic extra suam proteccionem 
posuit. Willelmus Waleys cum exercitu Scotorum contra regem rebel- f 184". 
lavit. lj. 

M.cc.xcvij. A prima capcione ville de Berewyke per regem Edwar- 
dum, ubi magna pars Scotorum cecidit. 1. . 

M.cc.xcviij. A discumfitura facta apud Fowkyke, die beate Marie 
Magdalene, ubi multi Scoti ceciderunt, Willelmo Waleys fugiente. 
Eodem anno Edwardus rex Margaretam, filiam regis Francie, duxit in 
uxorem. xlix. 

M.CC.xcix. Edwardus rex Anglic ordinavit quod pollardi et ballardi 
ulterius pro sterlingis non currerent in Anglia. xlviij. 

M.CCC. Natus est Thomas de Broyurtone, de Margareta regina 
Anglic. Domina Ela, comitissa Warwici, obiit, et Oseneye sepelitur. 

xlvij. 

1 iam. B. ! conduxerunt. B. 3 quidam. B. 4 MCC.XCV. B. 

Z 



170 CHRONICULUM GALFRIDI 

M.CCC.j. Nonis Augusti, apud Wodestoke, natus est Edmundus 
comes Cancie de domina Margareta regina Anglic. xlvj. 

M.CCC.v. Ab inquisicione facta in Anglia super pacis perturbatoribus, 
Trailbastone nuncupata. Eodem anno Willelmus Waleys, princeps 
Scocie et proditor regis Anglic, tractus fuit et suspensus. Eodem anno 
Robertas de Brus, iiij. idus Februarii, in ecclesia fratrum Minorum de 
Dumfres dominum lohannem Comyn, comitem de Baldenach, cognatum 
suum, insidiose occidit. xlij. 

M.CCC.vj. Die Annunciacionis beate Marie Robertus de Bruys in 
regem Scocie se fecit coronari. Eodem anno, in festo Pentecostes, rex 
Edvvardus apud Londonias Edwardum, filium suum primogenitum, cinxit 
militaribus, cum ducentis militibus. xlj. 

M.CCC.vij. Die translacionis sancti Thome martiris translatus est 
rex Edwardus, post conquestum primus, ex hoc mundo in celum, anno 
etatis sue Ixix., regni vero eius, id est a morte patris sui, xxxv., set a 
coronacione sua xxxiij. Eodem anno Petrus de Gavestone, in partibus 
transmarinis exulans, per regem Edwardum post conquestum secundum 
in Angliam revocatur, et factus est comes Cornubie ; filiam comitis 
Gloucestrie duxit in uxorem. Rex vero Edwardus post conquestum 
secundus Isabellam, filiam regis Francie, v. kalendas Februarii matri- 
f. 155. monio sibi copulavit ; et quinto die Februarii, cum Edwardo rege marito 
suo, in Anglia applicuit. Die autem lovis proxima post Epiphaniam 
capti erant et custodie mancipati omnes Templarii regni Anglic. Eodem 
anno, vj. kalendas Marcii, videlicet Dominica quinquagesima, coronatur 
rex Edwardus cum Isabella uxore sua apud Westmonasterium. xl. 

M.CCC.xj. Petrus de Gavestone de custodia comitis Penbrok per 
Gydonem comitem Warew^kie apud Dadyngtone capitur, et usque 
castrum Warwykie ducitur, et in loco qui dicitur Gaveressiche, in pre- 
sencia Thome comitis Lancastrie, Herefordie, Warwykie comitum et 
aliorum regni Anglic magnatum, die sanctorum Gervasii et Prothasii, a 
quodam Wallensi decollatur ; et non multum post apud Langeleyam, in 
presencia domini regis, cum magno honore sepulture traditur. xxxvj. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 171 

M.CCC.xiiij. A discumfitura facta apud Strivelyn, die sancti 
lohannis Baptiste, ubi ceciderunt Gilebertus comes Gloucestrie, Edmun- 
dus Maulee, Robertus de Clifford, Paganus de Typetofte, Egidius de 
Argenteyn, et multi nobiles milites Anglic interfecti fuerunt. Hum- 
fridus de Bohun, comes Herefordie, Johannes de Segrave, lohannes de 
Claverynge, Willelmus le Latimer, et fere trecenti barones et milites, 
cum magna multitudine peditum, qui restiterunt, fuerunt capti et in 
carcere detrusi, donee per gravem redempcionem fuissent liberati, domino 
nostro rege cum suo Dispensatore et exercitu fuge presidium arripiente. 

xxxiij. 

M.CCC.xij. A nativitate serenissimi regis Edwardi post conquestum 
tercii, die sancti Bricii confessoris, apud Wyndesore. Istorum subscrip- 
torum pro reformacione status regis et regni quidam fuerunt interfecti et 
quidam, prout inferius patebit, instinctu et procuracione l Dispensatorum 
et aliorum malorum consiliancium, in carcere detrusi : videlicet dominus 
Thomas, comes Lancastrie, per Andream de Herkeley et alios plures 
indiscretos pacis ecclesie et regni perturbatores apud Burbrigge erat 
captus, et iuxta Pounfreide pro iure ecclesie et regni decollatus. 
Dominus Humfridus de Bohun, comes Herefordie, dominus Willelmus 
de Sulee et dominus Rogerus de Burfeld, cum multis aliis, apud Bur- 
brigge erant interfecti. xxxv. 

M.CCC.xxj. Domini Warinus de Lylle, Willelmus Tochet, Thomas f. 155". 
Mauduyte, Henricus Bradebourne, Willelmus filius Willelmi iunior, Wil-. 
lelmus de Cheiny erant tracti apud Pounfreithe et suspensi. Domini 
lohannes Moubray, Rogerus de Clifford, Gocelinus Deyvile tracti erant 
et suspensi apud Eboracum. Dominus Bartholomeus de Badelusmere 
tractus fuit et suspensus apud Cantuariam. Domini Henricus de Monte 
forti, Henricus de Wylingtone, capti, tracti et suspensi erant apud Bristol- 
liam. Domini lohannes Gyffard, Rogerus de Elyngbrugge tracti fuerunt et 
suspensi apud Gloucestriam, et Willelmus Flemyng apud Kerdif. Domi- 
nus Henricus Thieis tractus et suspensus Londoniis, et dominus Franciscus 

1 in procuracione. B. 
Z 3 



1 73 CHRONICULUM GALFRID1 

de Aldeham apud Wyndesouere. Dominus Thomas Colepeper tractus 
erat et suspensus apud Wynchelse! Dominus Rogerus de Mortuo mari, 
senior et Junior, Mauricius de Berkele senior, Johannes de Charletone, 
Robertus de Hoylond reddiderunt se voluntati domini regis, qui locis 
diversis * carceri erant mancipati. Domini Johannes de Boutetour, lohan- 
nes de Kyngestune, Nicholaus de Percy, Johannes Mautravers iunior, et 
Willelmus Trossel transierunt mare. Domini Hugho de Audele iunior, lo- 
hannes de Wylingtone, Gilebertus Talebot, Johannes Maudut, Edmundus 
Haclude, Johannes de Sapy, Robertus de Watheville, Philippus de la Beche, 
Johannes de Beeke, Henricus de Laibourne : isti decem, cum sexaginta 
duobus aliis militibus, sunt in diversis locis carceri mancipati. xxvj. 2 

M.CCC.xxv. Domina Isabella, nobilissima regina Anglic, cum 
domino Edvvardo filio suo, pro pace inter dominum Edwardum regem 
Anglic, maritum suum, et regem Francie reformanda, in Franciam trans- 
fretavit. Et anno proximo sequente, cum dominis Johanne de Henoude, 
Rogero de Mortuo mari, et magna multitudine Anglorum et Hanou- 
dorum, apud jipeswiche in Angliam applicuit. Et eodem anno Hugo 
Dispensator, comes Wyntonie, apud Bristolliam, et Hugo Dispensator, 
filius eius, apud Herefordiam, cum Symone de Rading, tracti erant et 
f. 166. suspensi. Et dominus Edmundus comes de Arundel, apud Salopiam 
erat captus, et apud Herefordiam decollatus. [xxij.] 

M.CCC.xxvj. Dominus Edwardus post conquestum secundus coro- 
nam regni domino Edwardo, filio suo primogenito, apud Kenelwrthe re- 
signavit. Et eodem anno, die xx. Septembris, apud Berkeleiem in fata 
decessit ; et apud Gloucestriam in ecclesia conventuali sancti Petri, xxj. 
die Decembris, honorifice traditur sepulture. Eodem vero anno dominus 
Edwardus post conquestum tercius, tercio die Februarii, apud West- 
monasterium erat coronatus. xxj. 

M.CCC.xxix. Dominus Edmundus de Wodestoke, comes Cancie, 
apud Wyntoniam fuit decollatus. Dominus Rogerus de Mortuo mari et 
Symon de Bereford apud Londonias erant tracti et suspensi. xviij. 
1 diversi. B. 2 Misplaced. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 173 

M.CCC.xxx. Dominus Edwardus, dux Cornubie primus, apud 
Wodestoke xv. die lunii de Philippa regina nascitur. xvij. 

M.CCC.xxxij. Domina Isabella, filia regis, de Philippa regina Anglic 
apud Wodestoke nascitur. xv. 

M.CCC.xxxiij. A discumfitura facta apud Glastmore, die sancti 
Laurencii martiris, contra Scotos, per dominos Henricum de Bello monte, 
Ricardum Talboth, baronem de Stafford, et alios, ubi ceciderunt quinque 
milia Scotorum, a duobus milibus Anglorum miraculose, ut creditur, 
interfecti, dominis comite de Athele et Fulcone filio Warini auxiliantibus. 
Commissum est grave prelium, vigilia sancte Margarete, inter Edwardum 
regem Anglic et exercitum Scotorum, in loco qui dicitur Halydoune, 
iuxta Berewyke ; ubi cecidit magna pars milicie Scotorum, cum innu- 
merabili multitudine peditum, et capta erat villa de Berewyke cum cas- 
tello per dominum Edwardum, regem antedictum. xiiij. 

M.CCC.xxxvj. Rex Edwardus tenuit parliamentum Londoniis, xij. 
die Marcii, in quo fecit Edwardum filium suum ducem Cornubie, et quin- 
que comites de novo creavit, videlicet dominos Henricum de Lancastria 
comitem Derbeye, Willelmum de Bohun comitem Norhamtonie, Willel- 
mum de Monte acuto comitem Sarisburie, Hugonem Daudele comitem 
Gloucestrie, et Willelmum de Clyntone comitem Huntynkdonie. xj. 

Memorandum quod die Veneris, in festo sancte Margarete virginis, t. ise*. 
apud Oseneye, anno Domini M'.CCC.xlvij. et anno regni regis Edwardi 
tercii a conquesto xxj ., Galfridus le Baker de Swynebroke, clericus, ad 
rogatum domini Thome de la More, militis, scripsit istud croniculum. 

Memorandum quod ille sanctissimus abbas loachym, monachus, de- 
scripsit mundum per literas alphabet! duraturum, et posuit numerum super 
quamlibet literam c. annos. Et incipit a quando Roma primo fuit condita, 
usque adventum Christ! ; ita quod, computando a prima litera alphabet!, 
videlicet A, et sic gradatim usque literam H, dicit Christum super illam 
literam ex Virgine esse natum. Et, a predicta litera H, sumus super 



174 CHRONICVLUM GALFRIDI 

literam Y, tempore quo ista scripta erant, videlicet in anno iubileo, 
M.CCC.l. Et sic, per eius oppinionem et dicti alphabet! computacionem, 
remanet nisi litera Z, que est ultima litera, ubi ponit finem istius seculi, hoc 
est cc. et 1. annos a tempore dati huius. Et computando modo predicto 
a dato predicto usque adventum Christi, sunt anni , et usque 

datum predictum M'.CCC.l. 

Memorandum de septem etatibus mundi. Unde prima etas continet 
annos ii^.cc.liiij. ; secunda etas, ix c .xlij. ; tercia etas, ix.xl ; quarta etas, 
iiij c .lxxvij. ; quinta etas, v c .iiii xx ix. 1 Unde summa, usque sextam etatem, 
in qua natus est lesus, v ml .C.xxxviij. ; et a nativitate Christi usque nunc, 
isto anno iubileo, M.CCC.l. annos. Prima ab Adam usque Noe. Secunda 
a Noe usque Abraham. Tercia ab Abraham usque David. Quarta a 
David usque transmigracionem. Quinta a transmigracione usque ad- 
ventum Christi. Sexta a Christi adventu 2 usque finem mundi. 

Memorandum quod traditum est a domo Helye, id est a discipulis 
eius, per sex milia annorum erit mundus : duo milia vanitatis, duo milia 
legis, duo milia dierum Messie. 

f. 157. Secundum Ixx. interprets. 

Ab origine mundi usque adventum Christi v. M 1 . c.xxxviij. anni, 
secundum Isodorum. Sexta etas a nativitate Christi usque festum beate 
Margarete, in ultimo anno iubileo nunc, quo die ista scripta erant, 
M'.iij c .l. Summa totalis vj ml .iiij c .iiij**viij. Et sic ad finem septimi 
millenarii v c .xij. anni, secundum oppinionem Orosii. Secundum loachim, 
ad finem septimi millenarii, a die predicto, C.I. anni per literas alphabet!. 
Secundum Metodium, usque ad finem predictum, c.iiij* x ix. Et sic 
nullus concordat cum alio ; nee mirum, quia hoc est unum de secretis 
Dei, quod nunquam sciri potest antequam accident. 

1 This should be v c xxv. 2 o m. B. 



LE BAKER DE SWYNEBROKE. 



175 



PHILIPPUS, vocatus \ 
le conquerant, rex > 
Francie, genuit ) 



SPHILIPPDM le beals, 
regem Francie, qui 
genuit 



( ISABELLAM, reginam 1 
< Anglie, qui peperit > 
( viro suo, regi, ) 



CAROLUM le brnn, 
comitem Marchie et 
postea regem Francie 
et Navarre, tercium 
natu. 

(PHILIPPUM le grand, 
comitem Pictavie et 

1 postea regemFrancie 
et Navarre, secun- 

* dum natu. 



( EDWARDUM, regem 
< Anglie tercium a 
( conquestu. 



I CAROLUM, comitem ) 
( deValesio, qui genuit j 



[LooowicuM, comi- 
- < tem de Averoys, qui 
I genuit 



/LUDOWICUM, primo'j 

J genitum,regemFran- I 

~\ cie et Navarre, qui I 

(. genuit ) 



Filium IOHANNEM, 
qui vixit viij. diebus 
precise. 

lo HAN NAM filiam, 
reginam Navarre et 
comitissam Dave- 



PHILIPPUM, comitem \ /IOHANNEM de Va- 
de Valesio, postea I J lesio, coronatum 
regem Francie, qui f = | Francorum, captum 
genuit / \ in bello de Peitiers. 

I CAROLUM, comitem 
de I^enzon. 

,CAROLUM, comitem 
Daverois, et regem 
Navarre per uxorem. 

] lOHANNAM, reginam 
Francie, Carolo regi 
Francie maritatam. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 1, line i. This brief account of the campaign of 1303, which is taken from Muri- 
muth's chronicle, is made to include the capture of Stirling, which however had 
been taken by the Scots as far back as the end of 1 299. Edward's operations 
extended from May to December. Brechin was the only fortress that made any 
resistance. 

1. 1 5. Reddita est Vasconia. Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, announced that 

he had received restitution of the duchy of Aquitaine, 2oth May, 1303. Fcedera, 
i- 955- 

1. 19. IV. de Nogarito et W. de Plasiano. Guillaume de Nogaret, Philip's 

chancellor, and Guillaume Duplessis, who were despatched, together with Sciarra 
Colonna, to seize Boniface at Anagni. The pope did not die in the hands of his 
enemies. He was rescued by the people of Anagni ; and went to Rome, and 
there died a little more than a month after his captivity. 

Page 2, 1. 14. Nonaginta dies. The siege of Stirling castle lasted from the 22nd 
April to the 24th July, or ninety-three days. 

1. 22. Justiciaries de trailbaston. The commission of Trailbaston issued 

6th April, 1305. See also Hemingburgh, ii. 235. The term Trailbaston has 
been variously interpreted as applying either to the judges or to the offenders. 
As early as the time of Trivet it appears to have been taken as a popular 
nickname for the judges : ' Hi justitiarii ab hominibus popularibus vocati sunt 
de Traylebastoun, quod sonat Trahebaculum ' (Chron., p. 404). This view is, 
however, certainly erroneous. The endorsement on the commission itself shows 
that the offence or offenders are indicated : ' De transgre. nominatis Trailbaston 
audiend. et terminand.' In the Chronological Abstract (p. 66) prefixed to the 
Parliamentary Writs, vol. i., this is pointed out in the following words : ' The 
" Ordinatio de Trailbaston " is extant on the Parliamentary Roll (Rot. Parl., 
vol. i. p. 178). The Commission pursues the term of the Ordinance. Lord Coke 
says that they were called Justices of Trailbaston because they proceeded as 
speedily as one might draw or trail a staff (4 Inst. 34) ; and others have sup- 
posed that they obtained their title from their staves of office. It is obvious, 
however, that the name was originally applied either to the offence or to the 
offenders.' 

Langtoft (Rolls Series), ii. 360, describes these offenders as common quarrellers, 

A a 



17 8 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

banded together and ready, for a few shillings, to beat a goodman who never did 
harm to any one. Fellows of that company are named Trailbastons : 

Respouns ount fet au reys gentz de been voyllance, 

Coment parmy la tere fet est graunt grevaunce 

Par comune contekours, ke sunt par fiaunce 

Obligez ensemble a une purviaunce ; 

Traylbastouns sunt nomez de eel retenaunce. 

En fayres et marchez se proferent fere covenaunce, 

Pur treys souz ou iiij., ou pur la valiaunce, 

Batre un prodomme ke unk fist nosaunce 

A cors Cristiene, par nuli temoygnaunce. 1 

Matthew of Westminster, 450-1, also describes their impartial readiness to 
beat any one to order : ' Circa eadem vero tempora processit in publicum 
novum inquisitionis breve, quod Anglice dicitur Trayllebaston, contra intrusores 
alienarum terrarum, qui, propter timorem conquerentium, ipsas terras vel prasdia 
in manus potentium alienarant ; et contra conductitios hominum vapulatores, 
qui, ab uno viro conduct!, volebant, propter unam summam pecuniae, alium 
vapulare, et iterum a vapulato, propter duplum censum vel amplius, revapulare 
nequius conductorem.' 

Page 2, 1. 23. Per quos ditatum. So Matt. Westm., 451 : ' Per hoc quidem 

breve multi perempti, multi noxii, pauci innoxii sunt inventi. Adeo quidem 
rigide processit hujus coercionis justicia, quod pater proprio filio non parceret, 
sed increpans castigaret. Prae timore autem multi exterriti spontanee exulabant, 
et per fugam et redemptionem pecunias crevit fiscus. 1 

1. 25. Decapitatus Willelmus Waleys. In the Annales Londonienses (printed 

in Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I. and Edward II., ed. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 
1882), p. 139, there is the following account of his reception in London ; together 
with the text of the commission, and the record, of his trial : ' Eodem anno, 
xi kalendas Septembris, dominus Willelmus Waleis miles, ex natione Scotica 
natus, venit Londonias ; cui multitude hominum ac mulierum ibi obviavit, et 
hospitabatur in domibus Willelmi de Leyre, civis Londoniensis, in parochia 
Omnium Sanctorum ad fenum [Fenchurch]. In crastino vero, qui dicitur dies 
Lunas in vigilia sancti Bartholomasi [23 Aug.], ductus fuit equitando apud West- 
monasterium ; Johannes de Segrave et Galfridus de Segrave milites, major, vice- 
comites et aldermanni Londoniarum eum sequentes ac ducentes, cum pluribus 
aliis eundo et equitando, et in aula magna Westmonasterii super scamnum 
australe positus, ac cum foliis lauri coronatus, pro eo quod ipse asseruit, tern- 
pore pra;terito, coronam in eadem aula portare deberet, sicut vulgariter dicebatur.' 
It is also printed in Documents illustrative of Sir William Wallace, ed. Steven- 
son for the Maitland Club, 1841 ; and Stow incorporated a translation of it in his 
Annals. Wallace was executed on the 23rd Aug., 1305. 

1. 28. R. le Bruys, nacione Anglicus. See p. 38, where it is stated that he was 

born in Essex. The manor of Writtle, near Chelmsford, was held by his father. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 179 

Page 3, 1. 3. Rex filium suum . . . cingulo militari decoravit. See the curious ac- 
count of the ceremony as given by Matthew of Westminster, 454-5, in which this 
passage occurs : ' Die autem crastina cinxit rex filium suum baltheo militari in 
palatio suo, et dedit ei ducatum Aquitanias. Princeps ergo, factus miles, perrexit 
in ecclesiam Westmonasterii, ut consocios suos militari gloria pariter venustaret. 
Porro tanta erat ibi pressura gentium ante magnum altare, quod duo milites more- 
rentur, quamplures syncopizarent, etiam cum quilibet ad minus tres milites ad se 
ducendum et tuendum haberet. Princeps autem, propter turbam comprimentem, 
non secus, sed super magnum altare, divisa turba per dextrarios bellicosos, socios 
suos cinxit. Tune allati sunt in pompatica gloria duo cygni vel olores ante regem, 
phalerati re'tibus aureis vel fistulis deauratis, desiderabile spectaculum intuentibus. 
Quibus visis, rex votum vovit, Deo coeli et cygnis se proficisci in Scotiam, mortem 
Johannis Comyn et fidem tesam Scotomm vivus sive mortuus vindicaturus, ad- 
jurans principem et ceteros prsecelsos viros terrae, fide sibi debita, si ipse prius in 
fata decederet, corpus suum secum in Scotiam in bello deferrent, nee sepelirent 
illud quousque Dominus de perfido coronato et gente perjura dedisset victoriam 
et triumphum.' Compare Edward's instructions in this last sentence with the 
dying charge which Froissart (ed. Luce, i. 114) says he gave to his son : ' Et 
avant qu'il morut, il fist appeller son ainnet fil, qui fu rois apries lui, par devant 
tous ses hommes. Et li fist jurer sus Sains que, si tost qu'il seroit trespasses, il 
le feroit boulir en une caudiere tant que li char se partiroit des os, et feroit le 
char mettre en terre et garderoit les os. Et toutes fois que li Escot reveleroient 
centre lui, il semonroit ses gens et assambleroit et porteroit avoech lui les os de 
son pere. Car il tenoit fermement que, tant qu'il aroit ces os avoech lui, li Escot 
n'aroient point victore centre lui. Li quels ne acompli mies che qu'il avoit juret. 
Ains fist son pere raporter a Londres, et Ik ensepelir contre son sierement. Pour 
quoi il li meschei de puis en pluiseurs manieres, si com vous aves oy, et premiere- 
ment a le bataille de Struvelin, Ik ou li Escot eurent victore contre lui.' 

The duchy of Aquitaine was conferred upon the prince, 7th April, 1306. 
Fcedera, \. 983. 

1. 6. Petrus eciam de Gavestone, etc. Gaveston was ordered by the king, at 

Lanercost, 26th Feb. 1307, to leave the kingdom in three weeks, dating from 
nth April. Faedera, i. 1010. See the curious account of Edward's quarrel with 
his son, when the latter asked for the county of Ponthieu for his favourite, as told 
by Hemingburgh, ii. 272. 

1. 14. Cuius corpus apud Westmonasterium, etc. Edward's body was buried at 

Westminster on the 27th (not 28th) October, 1307. 

1. 23. Rex Edwardus Isabellam .... sibi copulavit. Edward in a letter to the 

king of France, 3oth Dec., 1307, announced his intention of being in Boulogne on 
the eve of St. Vincent, 2ist Jan. ; the marriage to take place on the following 
Wednesday, 24th Jan. He did not, however, sail from Dover till the morning of 
the 22nd. He landed at Boulogne on the 24th, and was married the next day. 

A a 2 



l8o NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

He returned to England on the 7th Feb. Fcedera, ii. 25-31. The coronation 
took place on the 25th February. Baker is careless in his dates. 

Page 3, 1. 31. Representavit se quondam sibi familiaris Petrus tie Gavestone. 

This is incorrect. Gaveston was recalled immediately on Edward's accession ; 
and was appointed guardian of the kingdom during the king's absence, 26th Dec., 
1307. F&dera, ii. 24. He received the grant of the earldom of Cornwall and of 
all lands late belonging to Edmund, earl of Cornwall, by patent, dated Dumfries, 
6th Aug., 1307. Fcedera, ii. 2. This grant was made with the assent of the earl of 
Lincoln, who appears as one of the witnesses to the deed, and whose action is 
specially noticed in the Vita Edwardi II. ascribed to a monk of Malmesbury (ed. 
Stubbs, Rolls Series), p. 155 : ' Dominus enim rex juvenis domino Petro, ab exilio 
reverso, de consilio et assensu quorundam magnatum terras, videlicet Henrici de 
Lacy comitis Lincolniae et aliorum, comitatum Cornubiae contulit et donavit. Ipse 
etenim comes Henricus de Lacy, cum dubitaretur an rex prasdictum comitatum a 
jure quod cum corona habebat posset separare, proposuit regem posse, nam sic et 
alii reges bis antea fecerant. Major tamen pars baronum terrae non consensit, 
tarn quia Petrus alienigena erat a Vasconia oriundus, tarn propter invidiam.' 

Page 4, 1. 4. Erat iste Petrus, etc. The chronicles are, naturally, all more or less 
full in their account of Gaveston. The following is written in a more critical 
mood than is usual : ' Hie Petrus a Wasconia oriundus filius fuit cujusdam militis 
Edwardi senioris quondam familiaris. Dum autem Edwardus junior adhuc esset 
princeps Wallias, dictus Petrus armiger in familiarem domus ejus assumptus est, 
et grata exhibitione obsequiorum apud dominum suum summi favoris apicem op- 

tinuit in brevi Sed Petrus jam comes Cornubias olim se fuisse Petrum et 

humilem armigerum noluit intelligere. Nullum suum comitem, nullum suum parem 
reputabat Petrus nisi solum regem. Revera vultus ejus majorem reverentiam 

exigebat quam regis Credo igitur et constanter teneo quia, si Petrus ab 

initio prudenter et humiliter erga magnates terras se gessisset, nunquam eorum 
aliquem sibi contrarium habuisset. Erat enim causa odii secundaria hasc, quod, 
cum ab antique omnibus desiderabile exstiterit habere gratiam in oculis regum, 
solus Petrus gratiam et vultum hilarem regis habuit in favorem, in tantum ut, si 
comes vel baro colloquium habiturus cum rege cameram regis intraret, in praesentia 

Petri nulli rex verba dirigebat, nulli faciem hilarem ostendebat, nisi soli Petro 

In superbia et in abusione sublimes oculos distorquens in fastum, quadam pom- 
posa et superciliosa facie despexit universes, et omnia quasi pro imperio agens 
magnates teme, quibus necessarius esse non potuit quin eorum auxilio magis indi- 
geret, vix aliquando et indignantissime respexit. Et certe in filio regis satis esset 
intollerabile supercilium quod pratendit. Publice tamen scitur quod non erat 
filius regis nee regalem prosapiam quicquid attingens.' Vita Ediv. II., 167-169. 
The same chronicle, 157, also has the following: 'Rex autem continuum 
amorem erga eum habebat, in tantum ut exiret a curia regis prasceptum publicum 
ne quis eum nomine proprio vocaret, videlicet dominum Petrum de Gavestone, 
sed comitem Cornubias nominaret.' With this compare Mortimer's vanity, to 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 181 

quote Baker's words (p. 45) : ' Ilium non alio nomine quam titulo comitis Marchiaa 
ausus est aliquis nominare.' Baker's reference to Gaveston's good service against 
the Scots applies no doubt to the campaign of 1310-11. 

Page 4, 1. 12. Predicte coronacioni affuerunt, etc. The chronicles vary as to the foreign 
guests. Murimuth names Charles le Bel, the duke of Brittany, Henry of Luxem- 
burg, and Louis of Evreux ; the Annales Paulini and Walsingham, more correctly 
apparently, name Charles of Valois and Louis of Evreux, the queen's uncles, the 
duke and duchess of Brabant, and the count of Savoy ; the Contin. Trivet, men- 
tions wrongly, among others, Charles and Louis, the queen's brothers. The 
French king's letter sending Charles of Valois, gth Feb., is printed in the Fcedern, 
ii. 31. In the ceremony the latter put on the king his right boot and spur. 
Fcedera, ii. 36. 

1. 15. Set Petrus de Gavcstone,zlc. Gaveston carried the crown (Annal. Paulm., 

ed. Stubbs, Rolls Series, 261). He also redeemed the ' curtana ' sword, apparently 
for the return procession, and fixed the spur on the king's left foot. Fcedera, ii. 
36. His ostentation at the banquet is thus noticed in the Annales Paulini, 262 : 
' Petrus vero, non regis sed gloriam propriam qujerens, et quasi Anglos contemp- 
nens, ubi ceteri in deauratis vestibus incedebant, ipse in purpura, margaritis in- 
texta preciosis, inter convivas, quasi rege pretiosior equitabat. Quapropter indig- 
natus comes unus voluit interimere eum palam. Cui alius sanior respondebat : 
" Non in die festo, ne forte fiat tumultus in populo et dedecus in convivio. Sed 
expectare vincere nobis erit." ' 

1. 1 8. Rex, ut deliniret animos, etc. Gaveston was banished a second time by 

decree of parliament in the spring of 1308. The publication of banishment issued 
l8th May. Fcedera, ii. 44; Annal. London., 154; Contin. Trivet., 5. He sailed 
from Bristol on the 28th June, having been appointed regent of Ireland on the 
l6th of the month. Fcedera, ii. 51. 'Terminus itaque positus est, dies videlicet 
sancti Johannis baptistae, quo et eodem festo per anni revolutionem elapso idem 
Petrus eandem terram prius abjuraverat. Adveniente igitur die praefixo, dominus 
rex et Petrus cum multo comitatu ad portum Bristollias sunt profecti ; ibidemque 
post modicum a rege licentiatus, Petrus cum multa familia in partes Hibernias se 
transtulit et recepit, totaque terra ex praecepto domini regis Angliaj suas domina- 
tion! et potestati subdita est Petrus in Hibernia jam moram faciens omnes 

redditus illius terras, qui ad regem Anglias pertinebant, ex voluntate regis et pra> 
cepto, in sues usus assumpsit et consumpsit, sicque novissimus error priore factus 
est pejor." Vita Edw. II., 159. He returned to England early in July, 1309; 
served in the campaign against the Scots in 1310-11; and was placed for security 
in Bamborough, when Edward returned to the south in July, 1311. 

Page 5, 1. 4. Petrus revocatus, etc. Baker has entirely omitted Gaveston's move- 
ments in 1311-12. He seems to have confused Bamborough and Scarborough. 
By the Ordinances, Gaveston was again banished ist Nov., 1311. He went to 
Flanders, but returned almost immediately, and rejoined Edward at York at the 
beginning of the new year ; the king's writ declaring his banishment illegal 



l8z NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

bearing date the l8th Jan., 1312. Fcedera, ii. 153 ; Annal, London., 203. On the 
approach of the confederate lords he fled from Newcastle and took refuge in Scar- 
borough early in May; was besieged, and surrendered, igth May, to the earl of 
Pembroke. Annal. London., 204. 

The chronicle of Lanercost, 217, ascribes his unfavourable reception in 
Flanders to the influence of the king of France : ' Sed, quia minus bene erat re- 
ceptus in Flandria, ubi applicuerat, (id agente rege Franciae, qui eum valde detes- 
tabatur, quia, ut dicebatur, rex Anglias, qui duxerat filiam ejus uxorem, minus earn 
dilexit propter Petrum praedictum,) ideo rediit, ad infortunium suum, in Angliam, 
sed in occulto, propter metum comitum et baronum ; et rex eum recepit et duxit 
secum usque Eboracum, et ibi civitatem et patriam vastaverunt, quia non habue- 
runt quid solverent pro expensis.' 

The story of his surrender and subsequent capture by Warwick is told by the 
Monk of Malmesbury, Vita Edw. II., 177 : ' Cum igitur videret Petrus obsidionem 
jam coeptam, auxilium regis interceptum, castrum victualibus destitutum et socios 
minus sufficientes ad bellum, misit ad comitem Pembrokise, se reddere volens sub 
conditione ; et erat conditio haec, videlicet quod dictus comes Petrum usque ad 
gulam Augusti servaret illaesum, et, si placeret ei quod interim comites disponerent, 
bene quidem ; sin autem, restitueretur in pristinum statum, scilicet ad castrum 
unde exierat et ad sororem quam prius reliquerat. Comes autem de hac captione 
gavisus, sociis inconsultis, immo ex proprio capite sumpto consilio, cepit Petrum, 
et placuit conditio, et ad Petrum servandum sub forma praedicta obligavit regi 

terras et tenementa Comes igitur Adolmarus cum vinculato suo Petro re- 

cessit a borea, ad Anglias tendens interiora, et com circiter quinque dietas vel 
amplius peregisset, tandem in comitatum Northamtoniensem deveniens, vocato 
Petro dixit : " Fatigatus es ex itinere, et opus esset tibi recreatione ; est autem 
hie juxta villa modica, locus amcenus et ampla aedificia. Ego vero circa quaedam 
negotia ad tempus recedam ; ibidem morare donee veniam." Et Petrus quod 
comes optulit gratanter accepit ; et misit eum ad dictam villam cum custodia ; 
sed non vidit comes Petrum amplius in Anglia. Cum autem didicisset comes 
Warewykyas omnia quag agebantur circa Petrum, accepta manu valida, accita etiam 
tola patria, clam tendit ad locum ubi cognovit esse Petrum, et valde mane una 
sabbatorum veniens ad villam intravit portam curia; et circumdedit cameram. 
Exclamavit autem comes voce magna : " Surge, proditor, captus es." Et Petrus 
audiens comitem, videns etiam manum comitis superiorem et custodiam cui de- 
putatus non resistentem, induens vestimenta sua descendit de camera. Capitur 
igitur Petrus, et non sicut comes, immo sicut latro, producitur ; et qui solebat pal- 
fridos ascendere jam pedes cogitur ire. Cum autem transissent a villa ad modicum 
jussit comes prasberi Petro jumentum ut eo velocius maturaret iter suum. Et 
Petrum sequebantur cornua tonantia, populus clamans et vox horrida. Jam Petrus 
deposuit cingulum militias, sicut fur et proditor tendit Warewykyae, et ibidem 
veniens mittitur in carcerem. Modo suis vinculis Petrum subjugavit, quern canem 
Warewyk Petrus appellavit.' 

Warwick made Gaveston his prisoner at Dedington on the loth June (Annal. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 183 

London., 206). He gave him over to Lancaster, who with his confederates led him 
out to execution, the earl of Warwick remaining in his castle. Murimuth (Rolls 
Series), p. 17, is evidently wrong in stating that Warwick dismissed him and that 
he was afterwards made prisoner again. In the following extract from the Annales 
London., 207, it will be seen that his execution took place at Blacklow-hill, or 
Gaversike, which lies about a mile north of Warwick, in order that the earl might 
be relieved of immediate responsibility : 

'Die ergo Lunas proxima ante festum sancti Johannis baptistae, anno prae- 
dicto, videlicet xix mo die Junii, prasdicti comites cum suis venerunt apud 
Warwyke et petierunt corpus dicti Petri a prasdicto comite Warwieias ; quern 
praedictus comes Warwicias dictis comitibus tradidit corpus ejus sanum et 
salvum ; at ipsi fecerunt conduci corpus dicti Petri extra villam Warwicias, et extra 
feodum dicti comitis Warwicias, ad Gaverissweche, inter Warwyk et Kilne- 
worthe, et in feodo comitis Lancastrias ; et ibidem fuit decollatus, circa horam 
meridiei, per manus cujusdam Britonis, coram omni populo ibidem coadunato. 
Et sic recesserunt unusquisque ad propria, relinquentes corpus dicti Petri in 
area ubi ipse decollatus est. Tune quatuor sutores de Warwick posuerunt corpus 
mortui super scalam, reportantes versus Warwyk, ibidem sepeliendum ; sed et 
comes Warwicias, qui toto tempore decollationis non exivit de castro, fecit corpus 
reportare ad eundem locum, ubi prius decollatus fuit, extra feodum suum ; et 
ecce fratres Jacobin! conduxerunt corpus ejus apud Oxoniam, ubi multum 
honorifice custoditur: unde multum sunt in odio de comitibus prasdictis.' 

The nicknames which Gaveston gave, with such deadly offence, to certain 
lords are noticed by several of the chroniclers. All does not appear to have 
been properly explained. The chronicle of Lanercost, 216, refers to them in 
these words : ' Ipse enim, credens se in comitatu pro suo perpetuo confirmatum, 
cum esset alienigena et de sola gratia regis tantum honorem adeptus, jam in 
tantam superbiam est erectus quod omnes nobiles comites terras contempsit, et 
vilia cognomina eis deridendo imposuit, inter quos cum comitem Warwici, virum 
utique sapientem et probum, vocasset " Nigrum Canem de Arderne," et esset hoc 
postea comiti intimatum, ille dicitur cum patientia respondisse : " Si vocet me 
canem, pro certo ego mordebo eum, quando videbo tempus meum." ' 

The prose Brute chronicle has also some interesting particulars on this point. 
This chronicle is extant in both a French and an English version. Of the French 
version there are two editions, both compiled in the reign of Edward III., and 
ending with the account of the battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. From the second 
edition of this French version the English version was translated ; and to this 
translation further additions were subsequently made. The names of the writers 
are unknown, but it appears that one of the later editions of the English version 
is due to John Maundeville, rector of Burnham Thorp, co. Norfolk, 1427-1441 
(Notes and Queries, 1856, p. l). To the authorship of the second edition of the 
French version perhaps a clue may be found in certain extracts, or rather trans- 
lations, from a French chronicle, which are printed in Leland's Collectanea, 
i. 454. At the head of these extracts Leland has this note : ' Wylliam de 



184 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Pakington, Clerk and Tresorer of Prince Edwardes, sunne to Edwarde the 3, 
household yn Gascoyne, did wryte a Cronique yn Frenche from the ix. yere of 
King John of Englande on to his tyme and dedicated it to his Lord Prince 
Edwarde. Owte of an epitome in French of this aforeseyde cronique I trans- 
latid carptim thes thinges that folow yn to Englische." Many of these extracts 
prove that much of Pakington's chronicle must have been word for word the 
same as the revised edition of the French Brute. The English Brute chronicle 
was printed by Caxton in 1480, with the title Cronicles of England. 

Caxton's Cronicles do not appear to have had the attention of modern historians 
as much as they deserve. Barnes, the writer of the History of Edward III., 
1688, did not know the book ; but he found in the library of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, a MS. of the English Brute chronicle, and made ample use 
of it, referring to it as ' MS. Vet. Angl. in C. C. C. Cantab. 1 Barnes's quotations 
have been cited by later writers, who have failed to recognize in them the text 
of Caxton. In the following notes I have printed some interesting passages 
from the English Brute, making use of Harley MS. 2279 and Egerton MS. 650. 

Gaveston's nicknames for the barons are thus described : ' Kyng Edward 
lovede Piers of Gavastone so moche ]>at he myjte noujte forlete his companye ; 
and so moche the kyng yaf and behi;te to J>e peple of Engelonde }>at }>e exiling 
of )>e forsaide Piers shulde bene revokede atte Staunford thurj hem )>at him 
exilede. Wherfore Peris of Gavastone come ayen into Engelonde, and, when he 
was come ayen into )>is lande, he despisede j>e gretteste lordes of J>is lande, and 
callede sire Robert of Clare, erle of Gloucestre, horeson ; and j>e erle of N icole, 
sire Henry Lacy, brust bely ; and sir Guy, erle of Warwyke, blak hounde of 
Arderne ; and also he callede }>e noble erle and gentil Thomas of Lancastre 
cherle ; and meny other scornes and shame hem saide, and by many other grete 
lordes of Engelonde. Wherfor ]>ei were towardis him ful angry and sore annoyede.' 
The terms for these names in the French version (Royal Ms. 20 A. iii) are ' filz 
a puteyne,' ' boele crevee," ' noir chien de Ardene,' and ' vielers.' This last word 
the English translator has not understood. In the extract in Leland's Collectanea 
there are additional words : ' vielers, porceo quil est greles et de bel entaille.' 
Misunderstanding the first two words of this sentence, Lingard has made out that 
Lancaster was called ' Old Hog.' But the words mean : ' Fiddler, because he 
is slim and tall.' This seems to be confirmed by Walsingham (Hist. Angl., i. 
115) who says that Gaveston called Lancaster 'histrionem,' and further that 
Pembroke was nicknamed ' Joseph the 'Jew,' the reason being ' quod pallidus 
erat et longus.' The ' pallidus ' and ' longus,' which do not appear to be specially 
descriptive of a Jew, would perhaps belong better to the ' Play-actor,' just as 
'greles ' and ' de bel entaille ' are applied to the ' Fiddler.' 

Page 5, 1. 20. Cuius corpus in ecchsia, etc. Gaveston's body lay for two years at 
Oxford : ' Post Natale Domini [1314], paucis evolutis diebus, dominus rex 
corpus Petri de Gavestone, sui quondam specialis amici, ab Oxonia ad Langeleye 
fecit transferri. Jam enim de capitatione ipsius biennium transivit et amplius, et 
usque nunc apud fratres Oxoniae jacuit inhumatus. Proposuerat namque rex, ut 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 185 

dicitur, prius mortem Petri vindicasse, deinde corpus ejus sepulturas tradidisse. 
Sed jam revocati in amicitiam sunt, ex quibus videbatur rex petere vindictam. 
Rex apud Langeleye, ubi fratribus Praedicatoribus jam pridem domum construxit, 
corpus sui Petri honorifice sepelivit.' Vita Edw. II., 209. See also Knyghton, 
2 S33i an d Annal. London., 232. From the Annal. Paulin. we learn that the 
endowment was ' ad sustentationem annuatim D. marcas, videlicet, pro centum 
fratribus, cuilibet v. marcas.' 

Page 6, I. 4. Misit in Angliam quemdam cardinalem, etc. The envoys were Arnaud 
de Nouveau, cardinal of St. Prisca, and Arnaud d'Aux, bishop of Poitiers, who 
was created cardinal and bishop of Albano, 23rd December, 1312. 

1. 25. Hugo Despenser filius fuit ordinatus camerarius regis. For a summary 

of the different estimates formed by contemporary writers of the conduct of the 
two Despensers, see Bishop Stubbs's Introduction to his Chronicles of the Reigns 
of Edward I. and Edward II., vol. ii. pp. 1. sqq. The younger Despenser was 
at first of Lancaster's party. He was continued in his office of chamberlain by 
the parliament of 1318, in which Lancaster's influence predominated. 

Page 7, 1. 17. Vasa quoque aurea, etc. The Monk of Malmesbury, Vita Edw. II,, 
206, speaks of the loss of treasure at Bannockburn, 'in qua pretiosa supellex 
nostrorum diripitur, qua ducentarum millium librarum asstimatur.' 

1. 19. Nunquam tune presentes, etc. Stow, Annales (ed. 1605), 333, thus trans- 
lates : ' Never afore that time was scene the like preparation, pride and cost in 
the time of warre, as affirmeth Robert Paston, a Carmelite frier, being present 
and taken of the Scots, which he sorowfully bewayled in his heroycall verse 
whiles he was prisoner. The first night (saith hee) ye might have scene the 
Englishmen bathing themselves in wine and casting their gorges. There was 
crying, showting, wassaling, and drinking, with other ryoting farre above 
measure. On the other side, yee might have scene the Scottes quiet, still, and 
close, fasting the even of Saint John Baptist, labouring in love of the libertie of 
their countrey. On the morrowe, the Scottes having gotten the most convenient 
place in the fielde for victorie, made ditches in the grounde three foote deepe, and 
the like in breadth, from the right wing of the army unto the left, covering the 
same with weake twigges or herdles, and againe over with the turfe and grasse, 
which was not of strength to beare horsemen. The army of the Scottes, being 
devided into certaine troupes, stoode not farre off from this dike, which was 
betwixt them and the Englishmen. On the other side, the army of the English- 
men comming out of the west, the sunne rising, casting his beames on their 
golden targets, bright helmets, and other armour, gave such a reflection as was 
both woonderfull and terrible to beholde. In the first warde were the light 
horsemen and heavie coursers. In the second were the archers and other foote- 
men, who were appointed for the chase of the adversaries. In the thirde was 
the king with his bisshoppes and other religious, amongst whome was Hugh 
Spencer. The horsemen of the first front, making uppon their enemies, foundered 

Bb 



186 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

with their fore feete into the ditch and lay there tumbling, abiding the cruelty 
of the Scots, who, coraming upon them, slew some and tooke a great manie rich 
men for raunsome. . . . Almost three hundreth men of armes were slaine in that 
place, our archers killing manie of them, who, seeing the Scottes cruellie bent 
upon our horsemen fallen in the ditche, shotte theire arrowes with a high com- 
passe, that they might fall betwixt the armour of their enemies, which was all in 
vayne : and when they shotte righte foorth, they slewe fewe of the Scottes, by 
reason of their armed breasts, but manie of the Englishmen, by reason of their 
naked backs." 

Page 7, 1. 21. Pauper ille Carmelita, etc. Robert Baston, here referred to, was 
a Carmelite friar of Scarborough, who wrote, among other things, several copies 
of verses on the Scotch wars, including the poem mentioned by Baker. Bower, 
in his continuation of Fordun's Scotichronicon (ed. Goodall, 1759, vol. ii. p. 250), 
tells the story of Baston accompanying the English army into Scotland and 
being there taken prisoner: 'Tantum igitur rex Anglias se et suos reddidit de 
Scotis victoriosos, ut, inter cetera suo proposito congruentia, famosiorem me- 
tristam in universe regno Angliae, videlicet quendam fratrem Carmelitam, secum 
adduxit, ut de triumpho suo, de Scotis adipiscendo, ad ipsorum dedecus, metra 
compingeret, et ad memoriale sempiternum Scotis sic per eum, ut putabat, de- 
vincendis reliquenda . . . Victoria denique feliciter Scotis ascripta, adductus est 
ad regem Robertum prasdictus metrista, et pro redemptione sua compulsus est, 
absque ambiguitate, ista sequentia metra componere, quas utique, pro bonitate 
ipsorum, non sunt sub modio silenda, sed super candelabrum praetenda.' Then 
follow the verses. Holinshed is not so complimentary either to the poet or to 
his verses. In his Chronicles (ed. 1807, 1808, ii. 588 ; v. 345, 349) he mentions 
Baston as being ' borne not farre from Notingham, a Carmelite frier of Scarburgh, 
the same whom King Edward tooke with him into Scotland to write some 
remembrances of his victories, although, being taken by the Scots, he was con- 
streined by Robert Bruce to frame a dittie to a contrarie tune'; and as 'a 
religious man, somewhat learned belike,' who, upon receiving Bruce's commands, 
' gathered his rustie wits togither and made certeine rude verses beginning thus : 

" De planctu cudo metrum cum carmine nudo, 

Risum retrudo, cum tali themate ludo." 
"With barren verse this rime I make, 

Bewailing whilest such theame I take."' 

Stow is misleading, when, in the passage quoted above, he ascribes (by the 
words 'saith hee'j so much of the description to Baston. The poem, which 
is given in Bower, is written in more general terms, as e.g. in the following 
lines referring to the English : 

' Dum se sic jactant cum Baccho nocte jocando, 
Scotia, te mactant, verbis vanis reprobando. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 187 

Dormitant, stertunt, quos irrita somnia mutant, 
Fortes se putant, patriae confinia vertunt. 
Explicat exercitus splendentia signa per arva : 
Jam sunt dispersi, nimis est virtus sua parva.' 

A few verses describing the pitfalls form one of the few passages in which the 
poet condescends to details : 

' Machina plena malis pedibus formatur equinis, 
Concava cum palis, ne pergant absque ruinis. 
Plebs foveas fodit, ut per eas labantur equestres, 
Et pereant si quos videant transire pedestres.' 

With a modest consciousness of shortcomings he concludes : 
'Sum Carmelita, Baston cognomine dictus, 
Qui doleo vita, in tali strage relictus. 
Si quid deliqui, si quas recitanda reliqui, 
Hasc addant hi qui non sunt sermonis iniqui.' 

Page 7, 1. 27. In crastino Scoti, etc. Harbour's Brits (Spalding Club), 262, describes 
the stratagem of the pitfalls in the following lines : 

'And in ane plane feld by the way, 
Cjuhar he thocht ned behufit a way 
The Inglishmen, gif that tha wald 
Throu the Park to the castell hald, 
He gert men mony pottis ma 
Of ane fut bred round, and all tha 
War dep up till ane manis kne, 
Sa thik that tha micht liknit be 
Till ane wax-cayme that beis mais. 
Thus all that nicht travaland he was 
Sa that or day was he had mad 
Tha pottis, and tham helit had 
With -stikis and with gyrs all grene 
Sa that tha micht nocht wele be sene. 

The king, quhen that the mes was done, 
Went furth to see the pottis sone, 
And at his liking saw tham mad : 
On athir sid the way wele brad 
It was pottit as I haf tald. 
Gif that thar fais on hors will hald 
Furth in that way, I trow tha sail 
Nocht wele eschap forouten fall.' 

The account of the battle as given in the chronicle of Lanercost, 225, states that 

B b 2 



1 88 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

at first the English archers drove back the Scottish archers. The main attack is 
then described in these words : ' Ordinaverunt autem [Scotti] sic exercitum suum, 
quod duse acies ejus praeirent tertiam, una ex latere alterius, ita quod neutra 
aliam praecederet, et tertia sequeretur, in qua erat Robertus. Quando vero 
ambo exercitus se mutuo conjunxerunt et magni equi Anglorum irruerunt in 
lanceas Scottorum, sicut in unam densam silvam, factus est sonus maximus et 
horribilis ex lanceis fractis et ex dextrariis vulneratis ad mortem, et sic steterunt 
in pace ad tempus. Anglici autem sequentes non potuerunt attingere ad Scottos, 
propter primam aciem interpositam, nee in aliquo se juvare, et ideo nihil 
restabat nisi ordinare de fuga. Istum processum audivi a quodam fide digno, 
qui fuit prassens et vidit.' The chronicler seems to know nothing of the artificial 
pits. According to his account, the English fell into the channel of the burn : 
'Aliud etiam infortunium accidit Anglicis, quia, cum paulo ante transissent 
unam foveam magnam, in quam intrat fluxus maris, nomine Bannokeburne, et 
jam confusi vellent redire, multi nobiles et alii prae pressura cum equis in illam 
ceciderunt, et aliqui cum difficultate magna evaserunt, et multi nunquam se 
explicare de fovea potuerunt ; et ideo Bannokeburne in ore Anglicorum erat 
per multos annos sequentes.' 

So also the writer of the Vita Edw. II., 205, speaks vaguely of a ditch : 
' Dum igitur gens nostra fugeret, dum vestigia regis arriperet, ecce quasdam 
fossa multos absorbuit, magna pars nostrorum in ipsa periit." 

The Brute chronicle (Harl. MS. 2279) has an interesting note of a popular 
song commemorating the victory : ' And when kyng Edward herde J>is tithing, 
he lete assemble his hoste, and mette }>e Scottis atte Est Revelyn, in j>e day of 
)>e Nativite of seint John )>e Baptist, in }>e yeer of his regne ]>e vij., and in the 
yeer of cure Lorde Jesu Criste m.ccc.xiiij. Alias J;e sorowe and lost J>at j>er 
was done ! For ]>er was slayn )>e noble erle Gilbert of Clare, sir Robert of 
Clifford, baron, and many oj>er ; and of oj>er peple j>at no man couth nombre. 
And )>e kyng Edward was scomfitede. and sire Edmunde of Maule, J>e kyng 
stiward, for drede wente and drenchid him selfe in a fressh ryver j>at is callede 
Bannokesburne. Wherfore the Scottis seide in reprofe and dispite of kyng 
Edward, for as moche )>at he lovede for to gone by water and also for he was 
descomfitede atte Bannokesbourne, therfore maydenes maden a songe therof, 
in )>at cuntre, of kyng Edward of Engelonde, and in Jiis maner songe : 

" Maydenes of Engelonde, sare may ye mourne, 
For tynte ye have youre lemmans atte Bannokisbourne. 

With hevalowe. 

What ! wende )>e kyng of Engelonde 
[To] have gete Scotlande ? 

With rumbelowe."' 

Page 8, 1. 22. Ibi tune occubtdt Gilbertus, etc. See the account of Gloucester's 
death in the Vita Ed-w. II., 203, 204. A fuller list of the English slain is given 
in Annal. London., 231. All the others mentioned by Baker, Mauley, Clifford, 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 189 

Tibetot or Tiptoft, and Argentine, as well as the prisoners, Hereford, Segrave, 
Clavering, and Latimer, had served with more or less distinction in Edward I.'s 
wars in Scotland, in which Segrave had already been made prisoner. Argentine 
was slain fighting, after he had secured the king's safety. Vita Edw. II., 204 ; 
Leland, Collect., i. 786. 

Page 9, 1. I. Prius armatorum a Urgo, etc. Whatever may be said of the 
correctness of this statement, the fact of the notice of change of tactics is 
interesting. 

1. 16. Palladium suum Oxonie, The palace of Beaumont, or, as it was commonly 

called, the King's Hall, which was built in the reign of Henry I., in the northern 
suburb of Oxford. In 1317 it was granted by Edward, in fulfilment of his vow, 
to the Carmelites or White Friars, who established there a convent for twenty- 
four friars, moving from their old house near the river where they had been 
settled since 1256. Wood, Hist. Antiq. Univ. Oxon., i. 248 ; Maxwell-Lyte, 
Hist. Univ. Oxford, 1886, pp. 50, 120. 

1. 20. Scotisub ducatu Edwardi le Bruyus. Edward Bruce landed at Carrick- 
fergus on the 25th May, 1315; he was defeated and slain, near Dundalk, on the 
1 4th Oct. 1318. 

1. 27. Admissi duo cardinales, etc. They were Gaucelin d'Euse and Ludovico 

Fieschi. On their journey northward, in company with Henry Beaumont, bishop- 
elect of Durham, they were attacked and robbed, on the ist September, at Rushy 
Ford, between Woodham and Ferryhill, nine miles south of Durham, by Gilbert 
Middleton, keeper of Mitford Castle, near Morpeth, and Walter Selby. 
Middleton was taken prisoner and executed the following year. R. de Graystanes 
(Angl. Sacra), cap. xxviii ; Walsingham, Hist. Angl., i. 152 ; Hutchinson, Hist, 
and Antiq. of the County Palatine of Durham, i. 267 ; Surtees, Hist. Durham, 
\. xxxviii ; Ftedera, ii. 341, 342. 

Page 10, 1. 9. Rex et comes Lancastrie. Knyghton's account, 2534-5, of the 
meeting which took place on the I4th August, is as follows : ' Condolens igitur 
papa Anglicanse tribulationi et pietate motus, misit duos cardinales in Angliam, 
anno scilicet gratia? m.ccc.xviij., ad reformandam pacem inter regem Angliae et 
cognatum suum, Thomam comitem Lancastrias, et inter regem Anglias et Ro- 
bertum Brus regem Scotia?. Venerunt igitur cardinales, cum rege et regina et 
cum archiepiscopo Cantuariensi cum omnibus episcopis provincias, cum comitibus 
et baronibus et aliis magnatibus regni, apud Leycestriam, et occurrit ei Thomas 
comes Lancastrian, die ex hac parte ei prasfixo, apud Syrothes Brigge, qua modo 
vocatur Sotesbryge, stipatus pulcherrima multitudine hominum, adeo quod non 
occurrit quempiam retroactis temporibus vidisse aliquem comitem duxisse tarn 
pulchram multitudinem hominum in equis sic bene araitorum, scilicet xviij. 
millia. Cumque rex et comes obviarent, sine magna difficultate osculati sunt 
et facti sunt can amici quoad intuitum circumastantium.' According to the 
Annales Paulini, 283, the meeting-place was Hathern, near Loughborough. 



190 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Knyghton's ' Sotesbryge ' has been identified as Zouche-bridge, on the Soar, near 
Hathern. See Stubbs, Chron. Edw. I. and Edw. II., Introduction, ii. Ixxxi. 

Page 10, 1. 18. Rex Anglic transfretavit. Edward sailed from Dover on the igth, 
and returned on the 22nd June. Fcedera, ii. 428. 

Page 11, 1. 9. Unde in furibundum appetitum, etc. The attacks on the property of 
the Despensers took place in May and June, 1321. See the account of the 
quarrel in Vita Edw. II., 254-258. 

1. 17. Occulte comes Penebrochie. So also Adam Murimuth, 33 : ' Comes vero 

Lancastrian consensit eis expresse, et comes de Pembroke occulte.' In the Vita 
Edw. II., 259, Pembroke is represented as mediator. The sentence of banish- 
ment against the Despensers issued in the parliament of July August. See 
Stubbs, Const. Hist., ch. xvi. 

1. 24. Domine regine Isabella, etc. The refusal to admit the queen into Leeds 

castle took place on the I3th October. On the i6th the king's proclamation and 
summonses to the men of the southern counties were issued. Fcedera, ii. 458. 
According to the Annales Paulini, 298, 299, London sent 500 men, the county 
of Essex 1000 men ; and the total force amounted to 30,000. The rate of pay 
per diem was : a knight, 2s. ; an esquire, lid. ; a crossbowman, %d. ; and an 
archer, (id. The castle surrendered on the last day of the month. 

Page 12, 1. II. Sex de forcioribus, etc. 'Die vero animarum proximo sequente 
dictus Waltherus Colpepir tractus et xii. complices sui, validi tamen et fortes, 
per judicium fuerunt suspensi.' Annal. Paul., 299. The same chronicle states 
that Badlesmere's wife and sister were sent prisoners to Dover. 

1. 16. Per Wigorniam ad Briggenorthe. Edward was at Worcester on the 

4th Jan., 1322. Bridgnorth was burnt by the barons' party. The king reached 
Shrewsbury in the middle of the month. 

1. 27. Istis peractis, etc. This took place at the end of 1321. The Despensers 

surrendered, and were taken into the king's protection on the 8th December. 
Fcedera, ii. 463. The archbishop publicly in St. Paul's pronounced their sentence 
illegal on New Year's day Annal. Paul., 301 ; and their condemnation was struck 
off the Rolls of Parliament on the 22nd May following. 

Page 13, 1. 4. Circa finem mensis Februarii. Edward was at Coventry on the 28th 
February. The skirmish at Burton took place on the l6th March. See the ac- 
count of the campaign in the Vita Edw. II., 264-271, and in the Chron. Laner- 
cost. 

Page 14, 1. 8. Andrea de Harchleye. Harcla does not appear among the judges 
named in Fcedera, ii. 478. 

1. II. Nempe tante cladis, etc. 'Quarto quintove die post captionem comitis 

Lancastrian, veniens rex apud Pontfreit jussit adduci comitem sine dilatione, et 
statim jussu regis adducitur, et in quadam nova turri per noctem illam recluditur. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 191 

.... In crastinum producitur comes in aulam coram justitiariis assignatis, et sin- 
gillatim species transgressionis, ac pro quolibet articulo adicitur pcena specialis, 
videlicet, ut primo protraheretur, deinde suspenderetur, ac postremo capite trun- 
caretur. Sed ob reverentiam regii sanguinis pcena protractionis est remissa, sus- 
pensio suspensa, sed pcena pro omnibus decreta. At comes, volens se in aliquibus 
excusare, nitebatur quaedam statim allegare ; sed justitiarii noluerunt ipsum audire, 
quia verba dampnatorum sicut nee nocent nee possunt proficere. Tune ait comes : 
" Fortis est hsec curia, et major imperio, ubi non auditur responsio nee aliqua ad- 
mittitur excusatio." . . . Deinde educitur comes extra castrum, et ascendens quod- 
dam vile jumentum conductus est ad capitolium. Tune comes quasi orando caput 
extendit, et spiculator bis uel ter percutiens caput amputavit. Et base acta sunt 
mense Martii, anno regni quintodecimo.' Vita Ediv. II., 270. 

The story of Lancaster's capture and execution is told graphically in the Brute 
chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) : 'Whan sir Andrewe of Herkela sawe that sir 
Thomas men of Lancastre laskede and slakede, anone he and his companye 'come 
to }>e gentil knyjte Thomas of Lancastre and seyden : " Yelde J>e, treytour, yelde 
}>e." The gentil erle answerde f>o and seide : " Nay, lordes, traytours be we none ; 
and to yow wil we nevere us yelde while J>at oure lyves lasten, but levere we have 
to bene slayn in oure treuthe )>an yelde us to yow." And sir Andrewe ayen grad 
upone sir Thomas companye, yollyng as a wode wolfe, and seide : " Yelde yow, 
treytours taken, yelde yow." And with an hie vois and seide : " Be)) ware, seres, 
)>at none of yow be so bardie uppon life and lyme to mysdone Thomas bodie of 
Lancastre." And wij> }>at worde j>e good erle Thomas wente into a chapel and 
seide, knelyng don uppon his kneys, and turnede his visage towarde J>e crois and 
seide : " AJmyjti God, to )>e I me yelde, and holiche putte me into J>i mercy." 
And wij> that the vilaynes ribaudes lepte aboute him in evere side j>at gentile erle, 
as tirauntes and wode turmentours, and dispoylede him of his armure, and closed 
him in a robe of raye J>at was of his squyers lyvery, and furth lad him unto Yorke 
by water.' 

' Whan he was taken and broujte to Yorke, meny of {>e cite were ful glade, and 
uppon him criede wij> hie vois : " A ! sire traytour, ye erne wel come, blessid be 
God, for now shal ye have j>e rewarde J>at longe tyme ye have deservede " ; and 
cast uppon him meny snow ballis, and meny o)>er reproves dede him. But )>e 
gentil erle j>at suffred and seide ne]>er one ne oj>er. And in )>e same tyme )>e kyng 
herd of j>at scomfiture and was ful glad, and in haste come to Pountfret, and sir 
Hugh )>e Spencer, and sire Hugh his sone, and sir John erle of Arundelle, and sir 
Edmunde of Wodestoke, ]>e kyngis bro}>er, erle of Kente, and sire Aymer of Val- 
ence, erle of Penbroke, and maister Robert of Baldok, a fals pillede clerk, )>at 
was pryve and dwellyng in j>e kyngis courte ; and alle come thider wi}> j>e kyng. 
And sire Raufe of Beestone yaf up )>e castel to )>e kyng, and )>e kyng enterede into 
}>e castelle. And sire Andrewe of Herkela, a fak tiraunt, thurgh jie kynges com- 
aundement nome wij> him }>e gentil erle Thomas to Pountfret ; and ther he was 
prisonede in his owen castelle j>at he had newe made, j>at stode ayens )>e abbay 
of kyng Edwarde. And sir Hugh j>e Spencer, the fader, and sir Hugh his sone 



192 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

caste and thoughte how and in what maner )>e good erle Thomas of Lancastre 
shulde ben dede, withoute eny iugement of his peris. Wherfor hit was ordeynede 
thurgh J>e kynges Justices j>at )>e kyng shuld putte uppone him poyntes of tretry. 
And so hit bifelle )>at he was lad to J>e barre bifore )>e kynges Justices, bare heed, 
as a thefe, in a faire halle within his owen caste! )>at he had made therin meny a 
faire feste bothe to riche and eke to pore. And these were his Justices : sir Hugh 
f>e Spencer, j>e fader, sir Aymer j>e Valance, erle of Penbroke, sire Edmunde of 
Wodestoke, erle of Kente, sire John of Britaigne, erle of Richemonde, and sir 
Robert of Malmethorpe, iustice. And sir Robert him acoupede in }>is maner: 
" Thomas, atte J>e first oure lorde )>e kyng and j>is courte exclude)) yow of almaner 
answer. Thomas, our lorde )>e kyng putte uppon yow fat ye have in his lande 
riden with baner displayede, ayens his pees, as a treytour." And wi)> J>at worde 
)>e gentile erle Thomas with an hie vois sayde : " Naye, forsothe, lordes, and by 
seynt Thomas I was never traytour." The iustice seide ayen J>o : " Thomas, oure 
lorde )>e kyng putte uppon j>e f>at ye have robbede his folk and mordred his peple, 
as a thefe. Thomas, j>e kyng also putte uppon }>e J>at he descomfited yow and 
youre peple with his folke in his owen reame ; wherfor ye wente and fley to j>e 
wode as an owtelawe, and also ye were taken as an outelawe. And, Thomas, as a 
treytour ye shulde ben hangede by resonn ; but )>e kyng haj) foryeve yow )>at iewes 
[punishment] for )>e love of quene Isabelle. And, Thomas, reson wolde that ye 
shulde ben honged, but j>e kyng ha)> foryeve hit yow for cause and love of your 
lynage. But, Thomas, for as moche as ye were take fleyng and as an outelawe, 
j>e kyng wil )>at youre hede be smyten of, as ye have wel deservede. Anone done 
him oute of prees, and anone bring him to his iugemente." The gentile knyjte, 
whan he had herde alle )>ese wordes, with an hie voys criede, sore wepyng, and 
seide : " Alias, seint Thomas, faire fader, alias, shal I ben dede thus ? Graunte 
me now, blissful Lord God, answer." But alle hit avayle him noujte, for )>e cursede 
Gascoigne putte him hider and j>ider, and on him criede with an hie voys : " O 
kyng Arthure, most dredful, wel knowe now fine opyn traytrye ; in evel de}> shall 
thow die, as j>ou hast wel deservede." Tho sette j>ei uppon his hevede, in scorne, 
an olde chapelet alle torente and torne, that was not worth an halpeny. And, 
after, ]>ei sette him uppon a lene white palfreye ful unsemeliche and eke al bare, 
with an olde bridel ; and with an horrible noys they drow him oute of }>e castelle 
towarde his deth, and caste on him many ballis of snawe. And as |>e turmentours 
ladde him oute of j>e castelle, J>o seide he J>ise petous wordis, and his handis helde 
up in hie towardes hevene : " Now )>e Kyng of hevene yeve us mercie, for ]>e 
erthely kyng ha)> us forsake." And a frere prechoure wente wi)> him oute of j>e 
castelle til J>at he come til }>e place )>at he endid his life, and to whome he shrofe 
him alle his life. And )>e gentile erle helde him faste bi J>e clo)>is, and saide : 
" Faire fader, abide wij> us til j>at I be dede ; for my flessh quaketh for drede of 
de}>." And soth for to saye )>e gentil erle sette him uppon his kneys and turnede 
him in to J>e est. But a ribaude, )>at men callede Higon of Mostone, sette hande 
uppon J>e gentil erle and seide in despite of him : " Sir treytour, turne the towarde 
)>e Scottis, thine foule deth to underfonge "; and turnede )>e erle toward J>e north. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 193 

The noble erle Thomas answerede j>o wi}> a mylde voys and seide : " Now, faire 
lordes, I shal done alle youre wille." And with that worde J>e frere wente fro 
him, ful sore wepyng. And anone a rebaude wente to him and smote of his 
hevede." 

Page 14, 1. 16. De numero ceterorum. See particulars of the executions in Knyghton, 
2540-41 ; Chron. Lanercost, 245 ; Gesta Edw. de Carnarvon, 77; Annal. Paulin., 
303. In the last named chronicle it is mentioned that Henry Tyes was hanged 
in London ' in una gonella quartilata de viridi et croceo.' See also the details 
quoted by Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii. 381. 

1. 28. In regis ospicium, etc. At Byland abbey, 1 4th October. 

Page 15, 1. 5. Inite fuerunt treuge. The truce for thirteen years was signed by 
Edward at Thorpe near York, 3oth May; and confirmed by Bruce at Berwick, 
7th June, 1322. Fcedera, ii. 521, 524. 

1. 8. Misit in Angliam A. de Florencia et alium. Andrieu de Florence, dean 

of Furnes. ' Circa gulam Augusti venerunt ad regem Anglian, apud Pykeringe, 
nuncii regis Franciae Karoli, videlicet dominus Beoville et dominus Andreas de 
Florencia, ad citandum et monendum eum quod veniret infra certum tempus ad 
faciendum homagium suum ipsi Karolo, novo regi Francias, pro ducatu Aquitanias.' 
Murimuth, 39. 

1. n. R. de Baldok. Robert Baldock became archdeacon of Middlesex in 1314, 

keeper of the privy seal in 1320, and chancellor 2oth Aug., 1323. He died 28th 
May, 1327. 

1. 28. Initis treugis. 22nd Sept., 1324. 

1. 30. R. de Mortuo mart .... evasit. ' Nocte sequent! festum Sancti Petri ad 

Vincula [i Aug.] dominus Rogerus de Mortuo mari evasit de turri Londoniensi et 
transivit ultra Tamissiam usque ad molendinas J. de Gisors, et deprope in domi- 
bus abbatis fuerunt vii. equi parati, in quibus Rogerus cum vii a . persona iter suum 
arripuit versus mare, et ibi invenit batellam ex praelocutione quorundam.' Annal. 
Paul., 305. See also Knyghton, 2543 ; Blaneforde, 145. 

The Brute chronicle has the following : ' And anone after, sir Roger Mortymer 
of Wygmour brake oute of }>e toure of Londone, and in j>is maner. Sir Roger f>e 
forsaide herde J>at he shulde ben drawe and hongede at Londone in the morue 
after seint Laurence day ; and on )>e day before he helde a faire feste in j>e toure 
of Londone, and fio was sir Stephin Segrave, constabil of London, and meny grete 
men with him. And when J>ei shulde sopen, the forsaide Stephin sente for alle j>e 
officers of )>e toure ; and J>ei come and sopede with him. And when thei shulde 
take here leve of him, a squyer )>at men callede Stephin, J>at was ful pryve with }* 
forsaide Roger, thurgh hire counsel yaf hem all suche a drinke )>at J>e leste of hem 
slepte ii. dayes and ii. nyjtes. And in J>e mene tyme he skapede awaye by water, 
J>at is to sein, by |>e Thamyse, and wente over J>e see and helde him in Fraunce. 
pe kyng was sore annoyede, and )>o putte J>e same Stephene oute of his con- 
stabelrie.' 

C c 



1 9 4 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 16, 1. 5. Inquisitions facta contra Adam episcopum Herefordensem. Orleton had 
been appointed to Hereford, in 1317, by papal provision, in opposition to the king's 
nominee. Accused of treason in the parliament of 1324, he was taken under the 
protection of the prelates ; whereupon the king obtained a verdict against him 
from a jury, as mentioned by Baker. Blaneforde, 140; Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii. 387. 
On 28th May, 1325, Edward applied to the pope for Orleton's deposition from his 
see. Foedera, ii. 601. 

Page 17, 1. 6. Lincolniensis Henricus de Borewasch. Henry Burghersh, nephew of 
Bartholomew de Badlesmere, had been forced by Edward into the see of Lincoln 
when only in his twenty-ninth year and thus under the canonical age. The papal 
bull of appointment is dated 27th May, 1320 (F&dera, ii. 425). Previously the 
king had asked the pope to promote him to Winchester, 2nd Nov., 1319 (Fasdera, ii. 
425). In spite of these favours he had joined in the rebellion of 1322. See 
Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii. 386. He was treasurer in 1327, and chancellor in 1328- 
1330. He died at Ghent in 1340. 

1. 13. Iram femineam regine. On the 1 8th Sept., 1324 the king took into his 

own hands the queen's estates, on the threat of a French invasion. Fcedera, ii. 
569. 

The Chronicle of Lanercost, 254, has the following: 'Alia tamen causa subfuit 
quare regina transire desideravit in Franciam. Dominus enim Hugo Dispensator 
junior, ductor regis Anglias in omnibus agendis, nitebatur in curia papas procurare 
divortium inter regem Anglias et reginam, et pro hoc negotio ivit ad curiam quidam 
homo religiosus, irreligiose faciens, nomine Thomas de Dunheved, cum quodam 
socio assignato, et quidam clericus secularis, nomine magister Robertas de Bal- 
dock. Ipsi etiam instigaverant regem ut caperet in manu sua terras et redditus 
quos rex prius concesserat reginas, et dederunt sibi tantum viginti solidos in die 
pro se et curia sua tola, et amoverunt ab ea suos ministros et famulos speciales, 
in tantum quod uxor dicti domini Hugonis fuit assignata reginse tanquam custos 
ejus, et portavit sigillum ejusdem, nee potuit cuiquam aliquid scribere sine scitu 
ipsius ; de quo domina regina multum fuit indignata pariter et gravata, et ideo 
pro remedio quaerendo voluit fratrem suum in Francia visitare.' 

Page 18, 1. 16. Dissuadebant comites, etc. ' Nolens autem Hugo Dispenser filius, prop- 
ter imminens periculum, quod aliquis transfretandi daret consilium, fertur coram 
aliquibus arroganter dixisse : " Jam apparebit quis consulet domino regi ad ini- 
micos suos transfretare ; quoniam manifestus proditor est, quicunque sit ille." 
Auditis ejus minis, responderunt praslati cum proceribus ad consultationem 
domini regis dicentes : " Domine, constat plures regni magnates absentes esse, 
unde non expedit nobis in tarn arduo negotio sine paribus nostris respondere." ' 
Vita Edw. II., 282. 

1. 25. Desiderata legacione fungitur regina. The queen left England early in 

March. On the 8th of the month Edward tells the pope that she has gone. 
Fcedera, ii. 595. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 195 

Page 18, 1. 27. Unica soror, carts et desideratis aspectibus et osculis presentata. 
Isabella's welcome forms one of Froissart's charming scenes : ' Quant li roi de 
France vei sa serour, qu'il en grant tamps n'avoit veu, et elle deut entrer en la 
cambre, il vint contre lui et le prist par le main droite et le baisa et dit : " A bien 
vigne, ma belle suer et mes biaus nies !" Si les tint tous deus et les mena avant. 
La dame, qui pas n'avoit trop grant joie fors de ce que elle se trouvoit dale's le 
roy son frere, s'estoit ja volue agenoullier par deus ou par trois fois, mais li rois 
ne le laioit et le tenoit toutdis par le main droit, et li demandoit moult douce- 
ment de son estat et de son afaire. Et la dame Ten respondoit tres sagement.' 
Chroniques (ed. Luce), i. 1 6. 

Page 19, 1. 25. Fecit itaque rex . . . cartam. Ponthieu was transferred by charter, 
2nd Sept. ; Aquitaine, loth Sept., 1325. Fcedera, ii. 605, 607. Young Edward 
left England on the 1 2th September. 

Page 20, 1. 7. Serif sit sibi eius maritus. Edward wrote to the king of France 
complaining of the queen's delay, 1st Dec., 1325. On the same day he wrote 
to her ordering her return. On the following day he wrote to his son to return, 
with or without his mother. Fcedera, ii. 615, 6 1 6. 

1. 12. W. episcopus Exoniensis . . . clam repatriavit. In his letter to the queen, 

1st Dec., 1325, Edward states that Walter Stapleton returned at his command : 
'Et come nadgaires, au temps que lonurable piere en Dieu, Wauter evesque 
d'Excestre, feust par devers vous, nous estoit certeinement fait entendant qascuns 
de noz enemiz et banniz par de la lui gaiterent davoir fait mal de son corps, sils 
eussent veu le temps ; et, pur tiels perils escure et pur grosses busoignes que 
nous avions a faire de lui, lui mandissoms, fermement enjoignantz sur la foi et 
la ligeance quil nous devoit, quil se hastoit devers nous, totes autres choses 
lesseez, en la plus seure manere quil poeit, pur lui mesmes salver ; voloms et 
vous mandoms que de ceo que le dit evesque vint sodeinement a nous des dites 
parties lui eiez pur escuse, et entendez quil ne le fist par autre encheson, si 
noun par les causes susdites." Fcedera, ii. 615. 

This account of his flight is given in the Vita Edw. II., 285 : 'Exoniensis unus 
erat ex illis qui venerant cum filio. Curiales vero Francorum ipsum quasi alicujus 
sceleris notatum respiciebant prse ceteris. Ipse vero nichil sibi conscius vel ad 
vultus eorum caute prasmunitus, familiares suos ibidem relinquens qui prassentiam 
suam fingerent, clam fugam iniit, clam de nocte mutata veste usus duplomate 
ad mare devenit, et quasi mercator vel peregrinus navem conscendens in Angliam 
rediit ; et ita, si quid in eum machinatum exstitit, prudenter evasit . . . Asseritur 
enim quod de consilio Exoniensis praedia regina? capta erant in manu domini 
regis, et ipsa destituta Francis familiaribus suis.' 

Page 21, 1. 6. Die Veneris proxima ante festum sancti Michaelis, Friday before 
Michaelmas in 1326 fell on the 26th Sept. But the queen landed on the 24th. 
Edward's order for the array of the eastern counties, in which he refers to the 
queen's landing, is dated 27th Sept. Fcedera, ii. 643. 

C c 2 



196 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 21, 1. 7. Comes Mariscalli et Henricus comes Leicestrie. Thomas of Brotherton, 
the king's brother, created earl of Norfolk in 1312, and earl marshal in 1316. 
Henry here styled earl of Leicester, was restored to his brother's forfeited 
earldoms of Lancaster and Leicester in 1324. He was the king's first cousin. 

1. 16. Dublinensis atque Heliensis. Alexander Bicknor, archbishop of Dublin, 

1317-1349. John Hotham, bishop of Ely (afterwards chancellor and treasurer), 
1316-1337. 

1. 20. Regine quoque . . . placaretur. See Froissart, i. 29, in his account of the 

parley before Bristol : ' Si envoiierent trettier et parlementer devers la royne et 
son conseil, qui ne s'i veurent mies acorder ensi, se la dessus ditte ne pooit faire 
dou dit monsigneur Huon et dou conte d'Arondiel sa volente, car pour yaus 
destruire estoit elle la venue." 

Page 22, 1. 2. Preterea prosiliit mendacium, etc. As a counterblast to this may be 
taken the story that archbishop Reynolds ' attempted to intimidate the invaders 
by publishing, on the 3oth of September, the bulls of excommunication which 
the pope had launched against the king's enemies, that is, the Scots.' Stubbs, 
Const. Hist., ii. 390. ' Ultimo die Septembris, anno supradicto, archiepiscopus 
Cantuariensis, episcopi Londoniensis et Wyntoniensis, cum abbatibus West- 
monasteriensi et Walthamensi, in ecclesia Sancti Pauli Londoniensi, coram se 
clerum et populum civitatis fecerunt coadunari, et quandam bullam, a septennio 
impetratam contra invasores regni Anglis et contra Scotos, pupplicarunt, ponti- 
ficalibus induti, cruce erecta, candelis accensis ; sententiam contra hujusmodi 
invasores tulerunt, et postea de hujusmodi pupplicatione pcenituerunt ; et per 
Thomam de Stouwe, clericum archiepiscopi, publice legi fecerunt, tamen datum 
bulls non fuit lectum.' Annal. Paul., 315. . 

1. 17. Ad paries Wallicas se transmisit. Edward abandoned London on the 

2nd October; he was at Gloucester on the loth and nth, at Westbury on the 
I2th, at Tintern on the I4th, at Chepstow on the i6th-2lst, at Cardiff on 
the 27th, at Caerfilly on the 28th-3oth. Parl. Writs, ii. (Chron. abstr.) 45 1 sq. ; 
Foedera, ii. 645, 646. 

1. 18. Rex vero, etc. Stow, Annales, 346, translates thus: 'The king, Hugh 

Spencer the yoonger, and Robert Baldocke determined to flee into the He of 
Londay, which is in the mouth of the river Severne, two miles in length everie 
waie, abounding with pasture grounds and oates, very pleasant ; it bringeth forth 
conies verie plentifull ; it hath pigeons and other fowles, which Alexander 
Necham calleth Ganimedes birdes, having greate nestes. Also it ministreth 
to the inhabitantes fresh springing waters flowing out of fountaines, although it 
be on everie side environed with the salt sea : it hath onelie one entrance into 
it in the which two men together can scarce goe in a front ; on all other partes 
there is an high hanging over of a great rocke, which letteth the passage to this 
island, as we have saide : it aboundeth altogether with victualles, and is very full 
of wines, oile, hony, corne, bragget, salt-fish, flesh, and sea or earth coales. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 197 

The king being desirous to saile thither, a contrarie winde did altogether 
withstand him ; whereupon hee, scarce avoiding the cruell tempests of the seas, 
arrived at Glamorgan, and went to the abbey of Neth, where, trusting too much 
to the promises of the Welshmen, he did privilie lurke.' 

Page 22, 1. 24. Quos vocat Alexander Necham Ganimedis aves. The birds of Pala- 
medes are thus described by Neckam, De Naturis Rerum (ed. Wright, Rolls 
Series), 1863, cap. xlvi : 'Grues in volatu litteram in aere depingere videntur, 
unde et ab ipsis nomen congrui exortum esse dicitur. Unde Martialis : 

" Turbabis versum, nee littera tota volabit, 
Unam perdideris si Palamedis avem." 

Gruem autem dicit avem Palamedis, quia ipse figures in Grasco idiomate adin- 
venit, et grammaticam in multis feliciter adauxit. Quoniam igitur in volatu 
decent! figuram grues efficere videntur, ideo Palamedis aves dicuntur.' 

Page 23, 1. I. Ventus contrarius. Le Bel, whom Froissart copies, creates a miracle 
out of this adverse wind. According to him the king and the younger Despenser 
take boat from Bristol to seek safety : ' Mais Dieu ne le voulu mie souffrir, car 
leur pe'chie' les encombra ; si avint grande merveille et grand miracle, car ilz 
furent neuf jours tous plains dedens le bastelet et s'efforchoient de nager avant 
tant qu'ilz poyoient, maiz ilz ne peurent si loing nager que tous les jours le vent 
qui leur estoit contraire par la voulente' de Dieu ne les ramenast chascun jour 
une fye ou deux a mains de la quarte part dudit chastel, sique tousjours les 
vdoient et cognoissoient bien ceulx de Post de la royne.' Les Vrayes Chroniques 
de Messire Jehan le Bel (ed. Polain), Brussels, 1863, i. 23. 

1. 3. Abbathiant de Neth. Edward was at Neath as early as the 5th and as 

late as the loth November. Parl. Writs, ii. 763 ; Fcedera, ii. 647. 

1. 4. Wallencium falsa promissione nimium confisus. Compare the words of 

advice put by Froissart, i. 242, into the mouths of Edward's friends : ' Sire, envoiie's 
messages a tous Ids et faites un commandement que toutes gens viennent et 
sans delai, et sus la painne que de perdre corps et avoir, et especiaument mande's 
en Galles : Ii Galois ne vous faudront point.' 

1. 8. Perventum est Oxoniam. The queen's route, after landing, lay through 

Bury St. Edmund's, Cambridge, Baldock, Dunstaple (Annal. Paulin., 314), thence 
to Wallingford, where she issued a proclamation, isth October (Feed. ii. 645), 
and Oxford. 

1. II. Adam Herefordensis vocatus episcopus, etc. In the curious paper con- 
taining Orleton's apology or answers to charges brought against him in 1334 
(printed by Twysden, Decem Scriptores, 2763) he states that in October, 
at Oxford, by order of the present king and of his mother, he published the 
cause of their invasion of the kingdom, and that, to introduce the subject, he 
took for his text Gen. iii. 15 : 'And I will put enmity between thee and the 



198 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head;' but 
that his words were directed against the younger Despenser, not against the 
king. Stow translates the passage as follows, not very happily in the last 
sentence : ' The chiefe deviser of so wicked a dissension, named Adam de 
Orleton, byshop of Hereford, made a publike sermon touching the queenes 
comming and cause of the army, taking for his theame " My head grieveth 
mee," which authoritie he brought to such a question, that a vaine and slouthfull 
head ought necessarily to bee taken awaie from the administration of a kingdome, 
neither ought it to be bound with any hurtfull bands of an hypocrite.' 

Page 23, 1. 19. Walterum episcopum Exon. decapitavit. ' Die Mercurii proxima ante 
festum S. Lucas convenerunt in civitate London, apud la Gyld Hall, omnes majores 
et minores, consilium ineuntes quomodo episcopos Londoniensem et Exoniensem 
et alios regis justiciaries, ad Fratres Predicatores tune congregates, dolo caperent 
et occiderent, et mercatores in civitate deprasdarent, accepta occasione de adventu 
reginas, quod reginae adhasrere nolentes proditores regni. publice censerentur. 
Unde factum est quod in certis locis positas sunt insidiae ad explorandum ad- 
ventum episcopi Exoniensis. Qui cum venisset et ad ecclesiam S. Pauli con- 
fugisset, in hostio ecclesiae a malefactoribus comprehensus, extractus, per- 
cussus, et graviter vulneratus, traxerunt eum per plateas et vicos usque ad 
magnam crucem in Chepe filii diaboli, non verentes manum ponere in christum 
Domini. Sed eum spoliantes et vestibus suis exuentes, ausu crudeli pejores 
quam pagani virum utique fidelem, providum et discretum ac regno valde neces- 
sarium truculenter decapitarunt, caput de corpore abscissum super collistrigium 
statuentes, corpus canibus ad corrodendum projicientes, et ad sepeliendum pro- 
hibuerunt.' W. de Dene, Hist. Roffensis (Anglia Sacra), i. 366. See also 
Annales Paulini, 316 ; Walsingham, Hist. AngL, i. 182. 

The Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) has the following : 'And in f>at same 
tyme J>e same bisshop had in Londone a fair toure in makyng in his cloos uppon 
}>e ryver of )>e Thamyse, j>at was withoute Temple barre ; and him failede stone 
for to make Jierof an ende. Wherfore he comaundede his men for to gone to 
}>e chirche of )>e freres Carme, and j>er J>ei nomen stone to make therwith J>e 
toure ; and moche sande and morter and olde robous )>er was lefte. And for J>e 
dispite j>at ]>e bisshop had done unto holy cherche, and he and his ij. squyers 
were buriede in J>at sande, as thouj J>ei had ben houndes ; and J>er )>ei leyen 
xj. wokes, til ]>at )>e quene Isabel sente hire lettres to J>e comoners and prayede 
hem J>at they wolde suffren and graunt J>at j>e bisshop moste ben take oute of 
}>at place and ben bured atte Exceter, atte his owen chirche. And so he was, and 
his ij. squyers were buriede atte seint dementis chirche withoute Temple barre. 
And hit was no wonder j>ouj )>at bisshop deide in evel deth, for he was a coveytous 
man, and had with him no mercy, and evel councelede J>e kyng.' See also Leland, 
Collect., i. 468. 

The lenient treatment, at a later date, of two of his murderers is thus 
described in the Annales Paulini : ' Dominica proxima post festum sanctas 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 199 

Marias Magdalenas [23 July, 1329] quidam R. de Hatfelde venit de curia Romana, 
ferens litteras absolutionis et pcenitentiae, de eo quod fuerit unus de primis qui 
manus violenter injecerunt in episcopum Exoniensem, et, ut ipsemet fatebatur, 
per medium colli cum cultello percussit ; unde nudus et discalciatus processionem 
antecedens, disciplinam a poenitentiario in medio ecclesias accepit.' (p. 345.) 
' In festo sancti Laurentii [10 Aug. 1330] venit quidam poenitens de curia Romana 
apud Sanctum Paulum, qui interfuit neci episcopi Exonias, et fatebatur coram 
omni populo in processione quod, quando episcopus erat moriturus, clamavit et 
praecepit " Decide, Decide " ; et ad hoc tradidit suum panade [butcher's knife], 
unde caput episcopi fuerat abscisum; et in processione in navi ecclesiaa genu- 
flectens, totus nudus praeter braccas, et in collo quiddam vinculum portans, 
absolutionem recepit ab archidiacono Essexias.' (p. 350.) 

Page 24, 1. 5. lohannis Deltham, pueri ix annorum. John of Eltham, younger son 
of Edward II., created in 1328 earl of Cornwall, was born I5th Aug., 1315, and was 
now in his twelfth year. 

1. 22. Ad -villam Bristollie. The queen occupied Bristol on the 26th October, 

when the young Edward was proclaimed guardian of the kingdom. Foedera, ii. 
646. 

1. 27. Virago iussit comitem predictum sine questione, etc. Froissart, i. 30, follow- 
ing Le Bel, describes the condemnation of the elder Despenser and the earl of 
Arundel : ' Et puis fist la royne ramener monsigneur Huon le Despensier le vielle 
et le conte d'Arondiel devant son ainsnet fil, et devant tous les barons qui la 
estoient, et leur dist que elle et ses filz leur feroient droit et loy et bon jugement, 
selonch leurs fais et leurs oeuvres. Adonc respond! messires Hues et dist : 
" Ha ! dame, Diex nous voelle donner bon juge et bon jugement ; et se nous ne le 
poons avoir en ce siecle, si le nous doinst en 1'autre ! " Adonc se leva messires 
Thumas Wage, bons chevaliers, sages et courtois, qui estoit mareschaus de 1'ost, 
et leur racompta tous leurs fais par escript, et tourna en droit sus un viel chevalier 
qui Ik estoit afin qu'il raportast sus se feautd que a faire avoit de telz personnes, 
par jugement, et de telz fais. Li chevaliers se consilla as autres barons et cheval- 
iers, et raporta par plainne sieute que il avoient bien mort desservie, par pluiseurs 
horribles fais qu'il avoient la endroit oys racompter, et les tenoient pour vrais et 
tous clers. Et avoient desservi, par le diversity de leurs fais, a estre Justine's en 
trois manieres, c'est a savoir, premiers trayne's, et puis decole's, apries pendus a un 
gibet.' The form of the sentence passed on Despenser is given, in French, in 
Annales Paulini, 317, under date of 2;th October. 

Page 25, 1. 5. Resum ap Howel. Rees ap Howel was implicated in the rebellion 
of 1322, but surrendered to the king. He was sent prisoner to Dover. Muri- 
muth, 35. 

1. 15. Captis igitur rege, etc. Edward was taken on the l6th November. ' Et 

eodem die dominus rex Edwardus, fugiens in Walliam, a Walensibus fuit captus 
et ductus ad castellum Lantrosin prope Neiz in Wallia. Dominus Hugo Despenser 



200 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

filius de prope in quodam bosco captus fuit, et magister Robertas de Baldock can- 
cellarius domini regis, dominus Thomas Wyther, J. de Beck, milites, J. le Blunt, 
J. 1 Smale, R. Holdene, Simon de Redyng, et plures alii capti fuerunt et ducti 
apud Herfordiam.' Annal. Paulin., 319. Orleton in his apology, answering the 
charge that his sermon at Oxford had caused the people to seize and imprison the 
king, declares that it is notorious that Edward, on the capture of the younger 
Despenser, gave himself up to the earl of Lancaster : ' Notorie falsum est et mali- 
ciose propositum ; quoniam publicum et notorium est quod dictus dominus rex, 
capto dicto Hugone le Despenser qui ipsum dominum regem captivum tenebat, 
sponte venit ad dominum comitem Lancastrian consanguineum suum, qui eum 
honorifice associavit sibi usque ad castrum suum de Kynelworthe, ubi in comitiva 
diet! domini comitis, in recessu meo de Anglia versus curiam Romanam pro 
domini mei regis qui nunc est et negociis regni sui, dictus dominus rex pater suus 
sanus et incolumis dinoscitur remansisse.' Serif tores X., 2766. 

Page 25,1. 1 8. Ad castrum de Kenelworthe. 'Et regem comitis Lancastrias, consanguine! 
sui, custodies liberarunt, qui duxit regem per Monemoutham et Ledebury et alia 
loca usque ad castrum suum de Kenelworth.' Murimuth, 49. Edward was at 
Hereford on the 2Oth November, when he gave up the great seal, at Ledbury for 
some days at the end of November and beginning of December, and at Kenilworth 
on the 5th December. Fcedera, ii. 646, 647 ; Par!. Writs, ii. 350. 

1. 22. Edmundus comes Darundel, etc. ' Cito post captus est dominus Ed- 

mundus comes de Arundell per dominum Johannem de Charleton, in Schropshyre, 
et ductus est apud Herford, ubi regina cum magnatibus regni convenerat. Et 
quia dederat filium suum heredem filias Hugonis Dispensatoris et secretus in 
consilio et malum procuraverat reginas, ut dicebatur, in sua absentia, et etiam 
procuraverat mortem nobilis comitis Lancastrias Thomas, cum domino Omero de 
Valenciis, comite de Penbroc, qui subito moriebatur in transmarinis agens ; et sic 
dictus Edmundus morti adductus est, distractus et suspensus, xv. kalendas De- 
cembris [17 Nov.], cum armigero suo nomine Johanne Danyell, qui ipsum consilio 
suo in multis seduxerat.' Knyghton, 2546. 

1. 25. Postea comes Gloucestrie. ' Statimque tractatum est apud Herefordiam 

de morte Hugonis Spenser, et quomodo extingui posset tola ejus posteritas, ne ad 
aliquem honorem, gradum, vel statum quis eorum deveniret in regno Angliaa pro 
perpetuo. Et idem Hugo et magister Robertus Baldoc et prior de Herfordia ducti 
sunt apud Herfordiam. Et, cum prope villam appropinquarent, occurrit tanta 
multitudo populorum undique quod omnes mirabantur de visu, et omnes, qui 
poterant cornu sufflare vel vocem hutesii emittere seu aliquam despectionem in- 
ferre, pro suo modulo, cum convitiis et contumeliis intulerunt Hugoni, adeo quod 
retroactis temporibus tam horridus sonus de quocumque sublimi homine non est 
auditus. Et primo vestierunt eum uno vestimento cum armis suis reversatis, 
missa corona de urticis in capite ejus. Simili modo vestierunt Robertum Baldoc 
simili vestimento. Et super vestimentis eorum script! sunt vj. versus de psalmo : 
"Quid gloriaris in malitia?" derisoriori modo quo possent. Dictus Robertus 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 201 

adjudicatus est perpetuo career! apud Newgate ; ibique anno sequent! moriebatur 
sub magna miseria.' Knyghton, 2546. The same writer also gives, in French, the 
judgment passed on Despenser, which appears in Latin in Gesta Ediv. de Car- 
narvon auct. Bridlington, 87. The execution, the cruel details of which are to be 
found in Froissart (i. 34), took place on the 24th November. 

A passage from the Brute chronicle [Harley MS. 2279] may be here quoted: 
' But sir Hugh J>e Spencer, after j>e tyme )>at he was take, wolde ete no manor 
mete no}>er drink no maner drink, for he wiste to have no mercie, but oneliche he 
wiste he shulde bene dede. And j>e quene and her councel ]>o had ordeynede |>at 
he shulde have bene don to deth atte London ; but he was so febil for his mychel 
fastyng }>at he was dede almoste for fastyng, and )>erfor hit was ordeynede ]>at he 
shulde have his iugement atte Herforde. And atte a place of j>e toune his hood 
was take fro his heed, and also from Robert of Baldok, )>at was a fals piled clerk 
also and j>e kynges chaunceler. And men sette uppon hire heedes chaplettis of 
sharpe nettelis, and ij. squyers blewe in hire eeres ij. grete bugle homes uppon )>o 
ij. prisoners, fat men myjte hure there blowyng oute with homes mo J>an a thou- 
sand. And on Symounde of Redyng, J>e kyngis marshal, bifore hem bare her 
armes uppon a spere reversid, in tokene ]>at )>ei shulde bene undone for evermore. 
And uppon j>e morue was sir Hugh j>e Spencer, {>e sone, dampnede to the dethe, 
and was drawe and hongede, biheveded, and his bowellis taken oute of his bodie 
and his bowellis brente ; and, after, he was quarterede and his quarteres sente to 
iiij. tounes of Engelonde, and his heed sente to London brigge. And j>is Sy- 
mounde, for inchesone he despisede )>e quene Isabella, he was drawe and hongede 
in a stage made amydde j>e forsaid sir Hughes galwes. And )>e same day, a litel 
fro J>ennes, was sir John of Arundel bihedede, for he was one of sir Hugh j>e 
Spencers councellers. And anone after was sir Hugh )>e Spencer drawe and 
hongede and bihedede atte Bristowe, and, after, hongede ayein by )>e armes wi}> 
ij. strong ropis ; and, fe iiij. day after, he was hewe al to peces, and houndes eten 
him. And, for }>at inchesone ]>at ]>e kyng had geven the erle of Wynchestre his 
heed, hit was lad thider and putte uppon a spere. And f* fals Baldok was sente 
to London, and j>er he deide in prison emong theves ; for men dede him no more 
reverence fan men wolde done unto an hounde. And so deyden |>e treytours of 
Engelonde, blessid be almyjti God ; and hit was no wonder, for thurgh hire 
councele ]>e good erle Thomas of Lancastre was done unto deth.' 

Page 25, 1. 30. Simon eciam de Redynge. ' Eodem die Simon de Redyng, quidam ser- 
viens qui portabat clavam ante regem, per prasdictum justitiarium ad similes 
pcenas, quas dominus Hugo sustinuit, fuit adjudicatus, et, tractus ante dictum 
Hugonem, portabat vexillum Hugonis vice versa, et cuspis lanceaj fixus intestinis 
ejusdem Simonis; et dicebatur quod non erat prenitens coram populo in toto sup- 
plicio quod pertulit.' Annal. Paulin., 320. ' Eodem die Symon de Redinge tractus 
fuit et suspensus in eadem furca qua Hugo suspendebatur, sed inferius per decem 
pedes. Hie de familia regis fuerat, et plura convitia irrogaverat saepe regina? ; 
unde jam suo docuit exemplo quam periculosum est regem vel reginam blasphe- 
mare.' Walsingham, Hist. Angl., \. 285. 

D d 



202 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 26, 1. 9. Cito post Pasca obiit in tormentis. ' Eodem anno, v to kalendas Junii 
[28 May, 1327], magister Robertus de Baldok, canonicus in ecclesia Sancti Pauli, 
archidiaconus Middelsexiae et aliquando cancellarius domini regis Edwardi, in 
carcere de Neugate in magna angaria et vinculis, in nimio squalore et miseria 
obiit, et, de carcere ad ecclesiam Sancti Pauli Londoniensis delatus, in vigilia 
Penthecostes, videlicet iii kalendas Junii, canonici et ceteri ministri ecclesias 
praedictas, omni honore et sollempnitate quibus decebat concanonico exhibito, in 
cimiterio canonicorutn sepulturae tradiderunt.' Anna/. Pauh'n., 334. 

Among the charges which were brought against Orleton in 1334, he states the 
first to be : ' quod mandavi et feci ausu sacrilego manus inici temere violentas in 
magistrum R. de Baldok ipsumque invitum capi mense Novembris, anno Domini 
m.ccc.xxvj., in civitate Herfordensi.' His answer is : ' Dico et propono quod 
dominus R. de Baldok, dicto mense Novembris, tanquam hostis publicus regis et 
regni et reus criminis laesae majestatis, cum quondam domino Hugone le Dispenser 
per pares dicti regni captus, ductus fuit Herfordiam et ibidem, coram judice secu- 
]ari, una cum dicto Hugone, per pares dicti regni secundum legem convictus, 
michi tune episcopo Herfordensi, juxta libertates ecclesiasticas ipsum tanquam 
personam ecclesiasticam ad forum ecclesia repetenti, fuit secundum consuetudinem 
liberatuset ecclesiastico carceri mancipatus, et ibidem detentus usque ad concilium 
provinciale, mense Januarii anno Domini, etc., Londoniaa celebratum. Ad quod, 
de prascepto domini regis et reginas, matris suae, excitante et procurante potissime 
venerabili patre domino J., tune Wyntoniensi episcopo et Anglise thesaurario, nunc 
vero Cantuariensi electo, cum aliis pluribus terras optimatibus, prsefatum R. adduci 
feci et bona fide sine dolo malo in hospicio meo episcopali recipi et cum diligentia 
debita custodiri, donee praesentari commode posset eidem concilio, ut per ejus 
sententiam et diffinitionem pro suis sceleribus, quas adeo sunt publica et notoria 
quod nulla poterunt tergiversatione celari, reciperet quod inique gessit. Et licet 
non esset verisimile quod, domino rege, praslatis, comitibus ac aliis terrae optima- 
tibus Londoniae tune congregatis et praesentibus pro justicia ibidem in parliamento 
convocatis omnibus exhibenda (in quorum sacro comitatu nichil a quoquam timeri 
potuit vel debuit de jure), vim vel metum quispiam pateretur, tamen per quorun- 
dam armatorum potentiam, invitis custodibus per me sibi [assignatis], per cives 
Londonienses usque ad mortem inibi custoditus [est], ne dictus R., quern hostem 
regni publicum reputabant, [auxilio] quorundam amicorum suorum.et familiarium 
in civitate Londoniensi prassentium, ejus liberacionem, ut asserebant, prece et 
precio, muneribus datis et promissis tracta[n]t[i]um, evaderet quovis modo.' Scrip- 
tores X., 2763. (The concluding sentence is either corrupt or incorrectly printed. 
Suggested emendations are placed within brackets). The Annales Paulini, 320, 
give details of the interference of the Londoners : ' Post aliquantulum vero tem- 
poris ipsum Londonias duxit, et in domo sua in parochia Sanctas Mariae Monthen- 
haut [St. Mary Mounthaw] incarceravit ; sed ballivi Londonienses et alii de civitate, 
animadvertentes quod dictus episcopus non habuit nee habere potuit proprium 
carcerem infra muros civitatis Londoniensis, dictum magistrum R. vi extraxerunt 
et ad carcerem de Neugate duxerunt et ipsum ibidem incarceraverunt.' 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 203 

Page 26, 1. 24. Cito post Epiphaniam, in parliamento. Parliament met on the 7th 
January, 1327. 'The writs had been issued first by young Edward at Bristol 
on the 28th of October, in his father's name. . . . After the great seal had been 
wrested from the king, new writs of more regular form had been drawn up, and 
on the 3rd of December the meeting was postponed to the 7th of January." 
Stubbs, Const. Hist., chap. xvi. The following account of the proceedings is 
given by W. de Dene, Historia Roffensis, who certainly had trustworthy infor- 
mation : ' In crastino Epiphanias, apud Westmonasterium, omnes praslati, comites, 
barones atque populus in magnitudine magna, et praecipue cives Londonienses 
cum magno strepitu ad parliamentum reginae regnantis convenerunt. In quo 
per Herefordensem episcopum, adhasrentibus sibi multis aliis episcopis, pro- 
positum fuit quod, si regina regi adhaereret, occideretur ab eo. Et tandem 
quassitum fuit quern mallent regnare, patrem vel filium ; et hoc primo die par- 
liament!. Et congregatis in parliamento per eundem episcopum injunctum fuit 
quod quilibet ad suum hospitium iret et in crastino, post sumptionem cibi 
et potus, omnes potati redirent et quaestioni episcopi responderent hora 
tertia. Quibus redeuntibus iterate, proposita eadem quasstione, quidam ex 
abundantii cordis, quidam metu ducti, nonnulli tacite propter metum Lon- 
doniensium quaestioni respondere nolentes tandem una voce omnium films 
in regem sublimatur; factis sibi homagiis, in magnam aulam novum regem 
duxerunt, dicentes : "Ecce Rex vester." Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis Wal- 
terus publice prasdicavit: "Vox populi vox Dei." Wintoniensis episcopus ad- 
didit : " Cujus caput infirmum, caetera membra dolent." Herefordensis subdidit : 
" Vae terras cujus rex puer est." Et, pace facta in populo per T. Wake et Lon- 
donienses sibi adhaerentes, "Ave rex" in excelsis proclamatur. In qua pro- 
clamatione episcopus Roffensis, stans in excelsis cum aliis praelatis et majoribus 
regni, qui non cecinit cum aliis nee consensit canere " Gloria, laus, et honor " 
regi novo, male est compressus et comminatus ad mortem. Episcopus Roffensis, 
licet a justiciariis ad faciendum fidelitatem regi, sicut casteri praelati, interpel- 
latus fuisset, nullam tamen fecit ; sed misit archiepiscopum ad respondendum 
pro eo. Archiepiscopus Eboracensis, episcopi Londoniensis, Roffensis, et Carleo- 
lensis cum aliis non consenserunt.' Anglia Sacra, i. 367. 

The chronicle of Lanercost, 257, has similar particulars as to the bishops' 
addresses, but has a different date and gives a longer time (it will be noticed 
that the text chosen by the bishop of Winchester is that which Baker has given 
as the text of the bishop of Hereford's sermon at Oxford in the previous October) : 
'In crastino autem, scilicet, in festo sancti Hilarii, prasdicavit episcopus Her- 
fordias, et accepit pro themate illud Ecclesiastic! : " Rex insipiens perdet populum 
suum," et multum ponderavit insipientias et fatuitates regis et facta sua puerilia, 
si tamen puerilia dici debent, et multa et varia infortunia quae in Anglia suo 
tempore contigerunt; et respondit omnis populus una voce: "Nolumus hunc 
amplius regnare super nos." Die autem proximo sequent! praedicavit episcopus 
Wyntoniensis, et accepit pro themate contra regem illud quarti Regum : " Caput 
meum doleo," et ostendit dolens quod infirmum caput Anglia habuerat multis 

D d 2 



204 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

annis. Tertio die prasdicavit archiepiscopus Cantuariensis, et accepit illud pro 
themate : "Vox populi vox Dei"; et in fine denunciavit omnibus audientibus 
quod, de unanimi consensu omnium comitum et baronum, et archiepiscoporum 
et episcoporum, et totius cleri et populi, rex Edwardus fuit depositus a pristina 
dignitate, ita quod ulterius non regnaret, nee populum Anglise amplius guber- 
naret.' Articles for the deposition were drawn up by Stratford, bishop of Win- 
chester. Scriptores X., 2765. 

Page 26, I. 26. Ex parte tocius regni, etc. The chronicle of Lanercost, 258, names, as 
members of the commission, the bishops of Winchester and Hereford, the earls 
of Lancaster and Warren, the barons Ros and Courtenay, two abbats, two 
priors, two justices, two Dominicans, two Carmelites, two knights from the 
north and two from the south of Trent, two citizens of London, and two from the 
Cinque Ports twenty-four in all. Two deputations appear to have already been 
sent to Edward to demand his attendance in parliament : the first consisting 
of the bishops of Winchester and Hereford, which returned on the 1 2th January 
(Chron. Lanercost, 257) ; the second, of two earls, two barons, four knights, and 
four citizens and burgesses (Parl. Writs, ii. 354) ; if indeed the latter be not 
identical with the one described by Baker. See Stubbs, Const. Hist., chap. xvi. 

The following is an extract from the Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279), which 
refers to this parliament and also notices the two deputations sent to urge 
Edward's attendance. It will, however, be remembered that the great seal 
was surrendered at Hereford on the 2Oth November. 'And after j>is was done, 
)>e quene Isabelle and Edwarde hir sone and alle }>e grete lordes of P2ngelonde 
atte one assente sente to kyng Edwarde, to j>e castel of Kenelworth, )>er J>at f>e 
kyng was in kepyng under }>e warde of sir John Hutham, )>at was (;e bisshop 
of Ely, and of sir John of Parcy, a baroun, for encheson j>at he shulde ordeyne 
his parlement atte a certeyn place in Engelonde, for to redresse and amende 
J>e state of J>e reaume. And kyng Edwarde hem answerde and seide : " Lordes," 
quod he, "ye seeth ful wel how it is. So, haveth here my seal. I yeve yow 
my power to ordeyne a parlement where j>at ye wil." And )>ei nome hire leve 
of him and come ayein to j>e barouns of Engelond. And when }>ei had J>e kynges 
patent of J)is J)ing, and j>ei shewid hit to J>e lordes. And j>o was ordeynede )>at 
]>e parlement shulde ben atte Westmynstre, at utas of seynt Hillarie ; and alle 
J>e grete lordes of Engelonde lete ordeyne for hem {>er, ayens j>at tyme J>at J>e 
parlement shulde ben. And atte whiche daye J>at j>e parlement was, { kyng 
wold noujte come Jier for no maner J>ing, as [he] had sette him self and assignede. 
And non }>e les J>e barouns sente to him o tyme and oj>er ; and he swore by 
Goddis soule j>at he nolde come ther o fote. Wherfor hit was ordeynede by 
alle Jie grete lordes of Engelond j>at he shulde no lenger be kyng, but bene 
deposede ; and seide }>at )>ei wolde corone kyng Edwarde, his sone, j>e elder, 
)>at was duke of Gyene.' 

Page 27, 1. 6. Precesserunt ceteros, etc. ' The bishop of Winchester and the bishop 
of Lincolne went before the rest and talked secretly with the king, together with 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 205 

his keeper the earle of Leicester ; these three craftily compassed him, counselling 
him to make resignation of the crowne to his eldest sonne, promising him no 
lesse honor and renowne after the deposition of his royall dignitie, then his 
princelie estate was woont to have of all men before. They added also, what 
a great reward it woulde bee at the hands of God, for the peace and quietnes 
of his subjects, for him to refuse the governement of a temporall kingdome. In 
the other part they threatned him that, if he would not make resignation, the 
people withdrawing their homage and obedience, faith and friendship unto him, 
his sonnes also being forsaken, they would crowne another king, none of the 
royall blood. With these and other promises and threats, the king (not without 
sobbes and teares) agreed to the advertisements of the byshops. Finallie, that 
mischievous embassadour Adam de Orleton, bishop of Hereford, brought to 
the castell, wherein the king was shut up, the kings other enimies, whome he 
placed orderlie according to their dignities in the kinges chamber, reserving 
unto himselfe the thinges which hee had sought long time before. At length 
the king comming foorth of his secret chamber, being clothed in a mourning 
gowne, shewing himself to his servants, knowing the businesse for which they 
came, for verie sorrow beeing as it were distraught of his wittes, sodainelie 
swouned. The earle of Leicester and the bishop of Winchester did take him 
up, being almost dead ; and being called to his senses, Adam de Orleton, 
byshoppe of Hereforde, declaring the cause of the messengers comming, did 
adde that the king should make resignation of the crowne and realme to his 
eldest sonne, or else, after that himselfe was refused, hee shoulde suffer them 
to choose to their king another fitter man, whome they thought good for the 
defence of the kingdome. The king hearing this, with much mourning 
answeared that hee was verie sorie that the commons had conceived such 
wrath and indignation against him, that they disdained to bee governed under 
his rule, for the which hee asked them forgivenesse, and finallie added that hee 
would be very glad if they would receive his sonne to be their king.' Stow, 
Annales, 348. 

Page 28, 1. 12. Per manus Willelmi Trossel. The form of renunciation spoken 
by sir William Trussell was : ' Jeo W. Trussel, procuratour des prelas, contes 
et barouns et autres genz nomez en ceste procuracie, eyant a ceo pleyn poer et 
suffisant, les homages et fealtes a vous Edward roy d'Engleterre avant ces 
houres, et de par les dites persones en ma dite procuracie nomez, rend e rebaile 
sus a vous Edward, et delivre et face quites les persones avant dites en la 
meyloure manere que loy et costome doint. E fas protestacioun, en noun de 
eux touz et de chescun de eux, qeux ne voilent estre desore en votre feolte nen 
votre ligeaunce, ne clayment de vous com de roy ren tenir, eyns vous tegnent 
desore prive persone sanz nule manere de [reale] dignete.' Annal. Paulin., 324. 
It is also given by Knyghton, 2550, and copied thence in Fcedera, ii. 650. A 
Latin version is found in Gesta Edw. de Carnarvon auct. Bridlington, go. The 
date of these proceedings is the 2Oth January. The commission reported back 
to parliament four days after. 



206 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

According to the Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279), renunciation of homage 
was formally made, on the 25th January, by John Hotham, bishop of Ely, for 
the clergy ; by John Plantagenet, earl of Surrey (styling himself earl Warren), 
for the earls ; by Henry, lord Percy, for the barons ; and by sir William Trussell for 
the knights : ' And sire William Trussell seide Jiese wordes : " Sir Edwarde, for 
encheson j>at ye have trayede youre peple of Engelonde and have undone meny 
grete lordes of Engelonde withoute eny cause, but now ye bene withstonde, 
thankid be God, and also for encheson )>at ye wolde noujte come to )>e parlement 
as ye ordeyned atte Westmynstre, as in youre owne lettere patent is conteynede, 
for to trete with youre liege men as a kyng shulde, and therfor, thurgh alle Jie 
comon assente of alle j>e lordes of Engelonde, I telle unto yow these wordes : Ye 
shullej) understande, sire, }>at J>e barouns of Engelonde, atte one assente, will 
)>at ye be no more kyng of Engelonde, but oneliche have putte yow oute of 
youre realte for evermore." And j>e bisshop of Ely seide j>o to j>e kyng : " Sir 
Edward, here y yelde up feaute and homage for alle }>e erchebisshopes and 
bisshopes of Engelonde and for alle j>e clergie." po seide sir John, erle of 
Garrenne : " Sir Edward, I yelde up here unto yow feaute and homage, for me 
and for alle j>e erles of Engelonde." And sir Henrie }>e Percie yaf up also }>er 
his homage for him and for alle }>e barouns of Engelonde. And )>o seide sir 
William Trusselle : " I yelde up now, sir, unto yow myn homage, for me and 
also for alle J>e knyjtes of Engelonde, and for hem ]>at holden by sergeantrye 
or by eny o)>er maner jnng of yow, so j>at fro j>is day afterward ye shulle noujte 
be claymede for kyng, neyther for kyng ben holde, but fro this tyme afterwarde 
ye shul ben holde a singuler man of alle )>e peple." And so j>ei wente )>ens unto 
London, )>er j>at }>e lordes of Engelonde hem abode ; and sir Edward abode in 
prison under good kepyng. And }>at was J>e day of Conversion of seint [Paule].' 

Page 29, 1. 15. Cepit exfiavescere, etc. One of the charges to which Orleton an- 
swered in his apology was that the queen was prevented from returning to her 
husband through his influence : 'Ad tercium quod falso obicitur In dicto libello 
continetur quod per falsas et dolosas prasdicationes et asserciones meas dominas 
reginas, matri domini regis, apud Wallingford tantum timorem incussi, quod ad 
prasdictum regem, maritum suum, accedere non audebat ; cujus occasione bonum 
matrimonii, tarn quoad subolis procreationem quam in fide et sacramento, extitit 
impeditum Dico eciam et propono quod, cum dicta Isabella regina, cum domino 
rege qui nunc est, filio suo, apud Wallingford moram faciens, oblocutiones aliquas 
audivisset, de eo quod ad maritum suum personaliter non accessit, deliberate 
consilio cum reverendis patribus bonse memories Waltero tune Cantuariensi 
archiepiscopo, ac Johanne tune Wyntoniensi nunc vero Cantuariensi electo, 
Willelmo Norwycensi episcopo, ac nobilibus viris comitibus Lancastrian, Kancias, 
et aliis nobilibus de consilio suo, cui quia ego tune Herfordensis prassens 
interfui, injunctum fuit mihi quod, ad conservationem farna? suae, quasdam certas 
causas, ex quibus dicti regis sasviciam, quam saspius fuit experta, potuit et debuit 
merito formidare, publice proponerem et ipsam contra oblocutiones hujusmodi 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 207 

excusarem. Quod, juxta informacionem mihi super hoc factam, in prassencia 
domini Cantuariensis et nobilium prsdictorum feci, nichil addens de proprio vel 
minuens de injuncto. Postea insuper, me extra regnum Anglias agente, propter 
oblocutiones prasdictas praefata domina regina fecit apud Stamford [23-24 Apr. 
1327] congregari dictos praslatos et nobiles et alios multos praslatos, comites, 
barones et nobiles dicti regni in multitudine copiosa ; ubi, post diligentem 
tractatum super hoc habitum, deliberatum fuit unanimiter et dictae dominas 
reginas consultum quod nullo modo permitterent earn ad dictum regem accedere, 
licet ad id, si hoc tute facere posset, se paratam et voluntariam obtulisset. Haac 
omnia adeo sunt publica et notoria in regno Anglias quod nulli inficiacioni locus 
existit. Ex quibus apparet manifesto falsitas et malicia adinveniencium et confin- 
gencium ea quas tercio loco continentur in dicta appellatione sive libello famoso. 

' Praeterea praafata domina regina, longe ante dictam prasdicationem, dum adhuc 
esset in partibus Francias, justum timorem habuit de saevicia regis, mariti sui, 
prout patet per literas, super hoc directas bonas memoriae quondam reverendo 
patri domino W., Dei gratia Cantuariensi archiepiscopo, continencias infrascriptas. 
Nee cessavit causa dicti timoris per mortem dicti Hugonis le Dispenser, quern 
rex immoderate et inordinate amore dilexit ; et propter hoc magis fuit ejus 
sasvicia accensa ad vindicandum ipsius mortem. Tenor dicta; literas tails est : 
" Reverend piere en Dieu, nous avoms diligealment veu vos lettres, par les quex 
vous nous requerretz qe nous retornoms a la compaigne de nostre treschier seignur 
et amy, et nous signefietz qe sire Hughe le Despenser nest pas nostre mauvoillant, 
ainz voudroit nostre bien sicome vous dides. De qai moult nous mervailloms, 
car vous ne autre de seint entendement ne devetz crere qe nous lessisiems la com- 
paignie de nostre dit seignur saunz trop graunt cause et resonable, et si ceo ne 
fust pur le peril de nostre corps eschuver et pur la doute de dit Hughe, qad le 
governement de nostre dit seignur et de tout son roialme, et qi nous voudroit des- 
honurer a son poiar, sicome nous esumes bien certaings et bien lavoms esprove, 
coment qe nous layoms dissimule longement pur le peril eschuver. Et, certes, 
nous desyroms sur toute riens, apres Dieu et le sauvete de nostre alme, estre en 
la compaignie de nostre dit seignur et vivre et morir en ycele. Si vous prioms, 
tanqe nous pooms, qe vous nous ayets pur excuse de ceo qe nous ne pooms faire 
ceo qe vous nous requeretz en ceo cas, car en nule manyre nous ne porroms re- 
tourner en la compaignie de nostre dit seignur saunz nous mettre en peril de mort, 
dount nous sumes en plus graunt meschief qe escrivre ne pooms, etc. Done a 
Paris, Mesqerdy apres la Chaundelure [5 Feb. 1326]." Ad hoc, ex tenore appella- 
tionis prsedictaj et propositis in eadem, manifeste patet proponentem et appellantem 
esse perjurum.' Scriptores X., 2766-8. 

It has already been seen, from Dene's account (above, p. 203), that Orleton de- 
clared in the parliament of the 7th January that the queen would be murdered by 
her husband, if she returned to him. In the judgement passed upon Mortimer in 
the parliament of November 1330, one of the charges was : ' Le dit Roger fausse- 
ment et malitiousement mist descord entre le piere nostre seignur le roi et la roine 
sa compaigne, et la fist entendre qe, si ele feust venue a lui, q'il la eust tuez d'un 



208 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

cotel ou en autre manere murdre. Pas qoi, par cele cause et par ses autres soti- 
lites, si fist il tout qe la dite roine ne vynt poynt devers son dit seignur, a grant 
deshonur du roi et de la roigne sa miere, et grant damage de tut le roialme par cas 
en temps a venir, qe Dieux defend.' Rot. Par/., ii. 53. 

A touching passage of the Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) may also here be 
quoted : ' And this Edwarde of Carnarvon was in J>e castel of Barkelegh, under 
f>e kepyng of sir Morice of Berkelee and of sir John of Mautravers ; and to hem 
he made his compleynt of his sorowe and his disease. And ofte tymes he axede 
of his wardeyns what he had trespassed ayens dame Isabelle his wife and sir 
Edward his sone, j>at was newe made kyng, )>at j>ei wolde noujte visite him. 
Tho answerde on of his wardeynes : " Mi worthi lorde, displese yow nou;te j>at I 
shalle yow telle )>e incheson is, for hit is done hem to understonde )>at if my ladie 
your wife come eny thing nygh yow J>at ye wolde hire strangle and quelle ; and 
also }>at ye wolde done to my lorde youre sone." Then answerde he with simple 
chere and seide : " Alias ! alias ! Am I noujt in prison and alle atte youre owene 
wille ? Now God hit wote, I thoujte hit never ; and now I wolde )>at I were dede, 
so wolde God that I were, for than were alle my sorowe passede." ' 

Page 29, 1. 25. Constituit igitur femina, etc. ' It was therefore decreed by the cruell 
woman the queene, through the subtill devise of her said schoolemaster, that 
Thomas of Gorney and John Maltravers, knightes, having received him from the 
keeping of the earle of Leicester, shoulde carry Edwarde the olde king about 
whither they woulde, so that none of his well willers should have accesse unto 
him or understand where hee made anie long abode. And to these two wicked 
traittors authoritie was given by the highest sort that into whatsoever part of the 
kingdome they bent themselves, that all governours and keepers of the castles 
shoulde suffer them to enjoie their offices and roomes during their pleasure, upon 
paine of forfeiture of goods, landes, and life, if anie shoulde denie them.' Stow, 
Annales, 349. 

'Anno Gratiae m.ccc.xxvij., Edwardus quondam rex Angliae missus est ad 
castellum de Berkeleye moram trahere ibidem sub custodia domini Thomas 
de Berkeleye et domini Johannis Mautravers, qui apud Londonias deputati sunt 
ad ejus custodiam. Comes Lancastrias noluit ulterius habere custodiam illius, 
quia, ut rumor spargebatur, quidam de secretis antiqui regis nitebantur per 
machinamenta, dum comes aliunde circa sua facienda occupatus esset, furari et 
latenter eum abducere de castello de Kellyngworth.' Knyghton, 2552. 

Page 30, 1. il. Inhumanitate maiori, etc. 'These tormentors of Edward exercised 
towards him manie cruelties, unto whome it was not permitted to ride, unlesse it 
were by night, neither to see anie man or to be seene of anie. When he rode, 
they forced him to be bareheaded ; when he would sleepe, they would not suffer 
him ; neither when hee was hungry would they give him such meates as he desired, 
but such as he loathed ; everie word that he spake was contraried by them, who 
gave it out most slanderously that he was madde. And, shortly to speake, in all 
matters they were quite contrary to his will, that either by colde, watching, or un- 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 209 

wholesome meates, for melancholy, by some Infirmitie he might languish and die. 
But this man being by nature strong to suffer paines and patient thorow Gods 
grace to abide all griefes, hee endured all the devises of his enemies, for, as touching 
poysons which they gave him often to drinke, by the benefite of nature he dispatched 
away.' Stow, Annales, 350. 

Page 30, 1. 29. Turn abducitur Edwardus. ' These champions bring Edward towardes 
Barkeley, being guarded with a rabble of hel-houndes, along by the grange be- 
longing to the castle of Bristowe, where that wicked man Gorney, making a crowne 
of hay, put it on his head, and the souldiours that were present scoffed and mocked 

him beyond all measure saying . . . avaunt sir king : they feared to be met 

of anie that should knowe Edward, they bent their journey therefore towardes the 
lefte hand, riding along over the marish grounds lying by the river of Severne. 
Moreover, devising to disfigure him that hee might not bee knowne, they deter- 
mine for to shave as well the haire of his head as also of his beard : wherefore, as 
in their journy they travailed by a little water which ranne in a ditch, they com- 
manded him to light from his horse to be shaven, to whome, being set on a moale 
hill, a barber came unto him with a basen of cold water taken out of the ditch, to 
shave him withall, saying unto the king that that water should serve for that time. 
To whome Edward answered that, would they, noulde they, he would have warm 
water for his beard ; and, to the end that he might keepe his promise, he began 
to weepe and to shed teares plentifully. At length they came to Barkley castle, 
where Edward was shut up close like an anchor. Isabell his wife, taking it 
grievously that her husbands life (which she deadly hated) was prolonged, made 
her complaint to her schoolemaister Adam de Orleton, faining that she had cer- 
taine dreames, the interpretation whereof shee misliked, which if they were true, 
she feared lest, that if her husband be at anie time restored to his olde dignitie, 
that hee would burne her for a traytor or condemne her to perpetuall bondage. 
In like sort the bishop, being guiltie in his owne conscience, stoode in like feare. 
The like feare also strooke the hearts of others for the same offence : wherefore 
it seemed good to many of great dignitie and bloud, as well spiritual! as temporal!, 
both men and women, that all such fear should bee taken away, desiring his death: 
whereupon there were letters colourably written to the keepers of Edward, greatly 
blaming them for looking so slenderly to the king, suffering him to have such 
libertie and nourishing him too delicately. Moreover, there is a privie motion 
made unto them, but yet in such sorte as it might seeme halfe done, that the 
death of Edward would not bee misliking unto them, whether it were natural! or 
violent. And in this point the great deceit of sophisters stoode in force, set downe 
by the byshop who wrote thus : 

Eduardum occidere nolite timere bonunt est. 
Kill Edward doe not feare is a good thing: 

Or thus : 

To seeke to shead king Edwards bloud 
Refuse to feare I count it good. 
E e 



210 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Which sophisticall saying is to be resolved into two propositions, whereof the first 
consisting of three words, to wit, Eduardum occidere nolite, doe not kill Edward, 
and the second of other three, that is timere bonum est, feare is a good thing, do 
seeme to perswade subtilly from murthering of the king : but the receivers of these 
letters, not ignorant of the writing, changed the meaning thereof to this sense, 
Eduardum occidere nolite timere, to kill Edward doe not feare, and afterwards 
these wordes, bonum est, it is good; so that they being guiltie turned a good 
saying into evill. The bishop being thus determinately purposed touching the 
death of Edward, and warily providing for himselfe, if by any chance he should 
be accused thereof, craftely worketh that the authoritie which he gave by writing 
might seeme to be taken expressely contrary to his meaning, by reason of accenting 
and pointing of the same. To conclude, the murtherers of Edward hoping to have 
found both Isabel and the byshopp to be their trustie friendes, they found them 
earnest persecutors of their enterprise, quite denying whatsoever they had devised 
against Edward, yea, they were greatly busied in devising most cruell death for them, 
so that the murtherers, being quite dismayed, wist not what to doe, but shewing 
the letters of Isabel!, the byshoppe, and other conspiratours, being confirmed with 
their owne handes and seales ; which the byshoppe refused not, but confessed to 
be his and others, but construed them to an other sense, accusing them to be 
false interpreters of his letters, and of his owne authoritie threatened them, untill 
he forced them to runne away. Thus much touching the letters. Now when 
king Edward was brought unto the castle aforesaide, hee was courteously received 
by Thomas Barkeley, then lord of the fee, but after the tormentors had re- 
ceived their letters of a government over the castle, the said Thomas is commanded 
to use no familiaritie with Edward : wherefore Thomas Barkeley with heavie 
cheere departeth thence to other his dwelling places ; and Edwards persecution 
continuing to his death beganne to take effect. For after this he was shut up in 
a close chamber, where, with the stench of dead carkasses laide in a cellar under 
him, he was miserably tormented many daies together, in such sort that he was 
well nigh suffocated therewith. And that the paine was almost intollerable unto 
him, it appeareth by the complaint he made on a certaine day at the chamber 
window, certaine carpenters, then working on the right side therof *, hearing the 
same. But those tyrants perceiving that this terrible stench was not of a sufficient 
force to cause the death of this valiant man Edwarde, one night, being the 22 
of September, they came rushing in upon him sodainelie, as he laie in his bed, 
with great and heavie featherbeds, beeing in weight as much as 15 strong men 
coulde beare, wherewith they oppressed and strangled him by smoothering. Into 
whom also they thrust a plummers sodring yron, being made red hot, up into his 
bowelles, through a eertaine instrument like to the end of a trumpet or glister 
pipe, put in at the fundament, burning thereby his inward parts, providing thereby 
least anie wound being founde in the kings bodie might cause his tormenters to 
answeare for committing open treason, and therefore suffer just punishment. In 
this sort was this stoute knight oppressed, crying out with a lowd voice, so that 
1 A mistranslation, from reading a dextra instead of ad extra. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 211 

manie, as well within the castle as without, heard it, perceiving it to be the cry of 
one that suffred violent death, which caused manie of Barkley and also of the 
castle (as themselves affirmed) to take compassion thereof, and to praie for the 
soule of him that was then departing the world. And this was the end of Edwarde 
of Carnarvon, being betrayed as is aforesaid : but to colour the matter, that they 
might seeme guiltlesse in this case, Isabel and the bishop of Hereford laboured 
to cleare themselves by banishing and outlawing of Thomas Gorney and John 
Maltravers, laying as it were all the fault upon them. This Thomas Gorney, 
flying to Marsils and there lying hid privilie the space of three years, was at 
length espied and taken, and as he was brought towarde England, there to have 
received just and worthy punishment for his deserts, he was beheaded on the sea, 
fearing that, if he had becne brought into England, he would have accused divers 
other great personages. The other, to wit, John Maltravers, living in great con- 
trition and repentance, spent a long time in Dutchland.' Stow, Annales, 350- 
352- 

Page 34, 1. 6. Thomam de Corneye et lohannem de Maltravers. In the parliament 
held at the close of the year 1330, sir Thomas Gournay (or Gurney) and William 
Ocle were condemned as the actual murderers of Edward II., and a price was put 
upon their heads, as both had fled. Thomas, lord Berkeley, to whom, in associa- 
tion with sir John Maltravers, the custody of Edward v/as entrusted, was also 
proceeded against, but defended himself on the plea that he was detained by 
illness at his manor of Bradley when the murder took place. He was tried 
before a jury of knights, and acquitted of participation in the murder, but held 
guilty of deputing his trust to unworthy persons. Sir John Maltravers was 
likewise condemned in this parliament ; not, however, for the murder of Edward, 
but for his share in bringing about the death of the earl of Kent. He also had 
fled. Twenty years afterwards he prayed for the reversal of his attainder, and 
ultimately received pardon. Ocle disappears ; and there can be little doubt that he 
died abroad. The fate of Gournay has been traced in a valuable paper contributed 
by Mr. Hunter to Archaeologia, vol. xxvii. He was not arrested at Marseilles, as 
stated by Baker, following Murimuth ' ; but, in the first instance, at Burgos in 
Spain. News of his arrest reached England in the middle of the year 1331, and 
the king's messenger, Egidius de Ispannia, was despatched to take over the 
custody of the prisoner. The messenger was, however, kept dancing attendance 
on the king of Spain, who, perhaps from sheer dilatoriness, delayed the surrender. 
Meanwhile Gournay escaped. But at the close of the following year he was again 
arrested in Naples, news of his capture reaching England in January, 1333. A 
Yorkshire knight, sir William de Thweng, was sent out to Naples and received 
custody of the prisoner. After sundry adventures he reached Bayonne; but 
there Gournay, whose health had given way, died. The body was probably 
embalmed, as Thweng's compotus contains items of sums expended for two 

1 Murimuth, p. 54, in the earlier edition of his chronicle, names Marseilles as the place of 
Gournay's arrest (in one MS. it is added : ' ad procurationem cujusdam domino: de Anglia ') ; in 
the later edition this is altered to ' in partibus transmarinis.' 

E e 2 



21 z NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

preparations. Thweng brought it by sea to the king at Berwick, where he 
arrived on the 7th July, 1333. It is now impossible to say what led Murimuth 
(and, after him, Baker,) to assert that Gournay was beheaded at sea. It is not, 
however, improbable that the body was gibbeted (there are no charges for inter- 
ment in Thweng's compotus), and the traitor's punishment of beheading may 
actually have been inflicted on the dead body. 

With regard to the charge against the bishop of Hereford, whatever hand he 
may have had in instigating the crime, he can hardly have been directly concerned 
in the murder, as he was abroad at the time. 

Froissart, when visiting Berkeley castle in 1366, made some enquiries as to 
Edward's fate : ' Et ne vesqui puis li rois, que il fu venus a Bercler, trop longe- 
ment. Et comment euist il vesqu, par la maniere que je vous dirai ? car je 
Jehans Froissars, acteres de ceste histore, fui ens ou chastiel de Bercler, 1'an de 
grasce Nostre Signeur mille trois cens soixante six, ou mois de Septembre, en 
la compagnie de messire Edouwart le Espensier, liquels fu fits dou fil de ce 
mesire Hue le Espensier, dont je parlerai asse's tos ; et fumes dedens le chastiel, 
que ens es esbatemens la environ, trois jours. Si demandai de che roi, pour 
justifiier men histore, que il estoit devenus. Uns anciiens esquiers me dist que 
dedens le propre ane"e que il fu Ik amends, il fu mors, car on li acounja sa vie. 
Ensi fina chils rois d'Engleterre, et ne parlerons plus de li, mais de la roine et 
son fil.' Chroniques, i. 247. 

Page 34, 1. 18. Quindedm circiter annorum. Edward was just over fourteen years 
and two months old. The memorandum in the F&dera, ii. 683, relating to the 
coronation states that there were present the bishops of Ely, Hereford, Winchester, 
Chichester, Worcester, Durham, Lincoln, Llandaff, and Norwich ; the earls of 
Norfolk, Kent, Surrey, and Hereford ; Roger Mortimer, Henry Beaumont, and 
others. 

Page 35, 1. n. Versus Scociam transmeavit. 'And atte Ester next after his 
coronacioun }>e kyng ordeynede an huge oste, for to fijte ayens )>e Scottis ; and 
sir John, j>e erles bro}>er of Henaude, [came] fro biyonde }>e see, for to fighte and 
helpe kyng Edward, and broujte wij) him v. hundreth men of armes, and 
arryvede atte Dover ; and Jiei had leve for to gone furth til )>at fei comen unto 
Yorke, )>er J>at }>e kyng abode hem. And j>e Scottis come thider unto f>e kyng, for 
to make pees and accorde ; but \>e acordement betwene hem laste but a litel tyme. 
And atte J>at tyme j>e Englisshe men were clothede al in cotes and hodes payntede 
with lettres and with floures ful semely, with longe berdes ; and therfor the Scottis 
made a bille, j>at was fastenede up on the cherches dores of seint Petir towarde 
Stangate ; and J>us seide )>e scripture in despite of j>e E.ngHsshe men : 
" Longe berded, herteles, 

Peintid hode, witles, 

Gay cote, graceles, 

Makes Engelonde thrifteles.'" 

Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279.) 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 213 

Page 35, 1.13. Fuilgravis conflictus inter cives Eboracenses et Hanoniemes. Edward 
arrived at York towards the end of May and remained there till at least 
the 6th July (Fcedera, ii. 706, 708). The chronicler Jehan le Bel served 
through this campaign in the company of John of Hainault, and has left us the 
very full particulars which Froissart has embodied in his work. He mentions 
that his brother also served : 'des Hesbignois y vinrent Jehan li Beaulx, chanogne 
de Lie"ge, et en sa compaignie messire Henry son frere ' (i. 36). The Hainaulters 
joined Edward at York on the 28th May. Le Bel describes the riot as a fight 
between the foreigners and the English archers, arising out of a quarrel over dice : 
' Mais, tantost aprez disner, commenga ung grand hustin entre les garchons 
des Haynuiers et les archiers d'Angleterre qui entre eulx estoient hdbergiez, 
a 1'occasion du jeu de dez . . . . Et je mesmes qui fus la present ne peus en mon 
hostel entrer pour moy armer moy et mes compaignons, tant trouvay d'Angles 
devant nostre huys pour ddbriser et desrober tout; et tant vismes des saietes apres 
nous voler qu'il nous convint aultre part tirer et attendre 1'aventure avecques les 
aultres ' (i. 39). The archers were driven off with a loss of three hundred : ' et y en 
eust bien mors que Ik en la place que aux champs trois cent et seize, qui tous 
estoient de 1'eVesque de Lincolle' (i. 41). The feud lasted throughout the 
campaign down to the very day of the departure of the Hainaulters : ' et nous fist 
le roy conduire jusques a Douvres par douze chevaliers, pour la doubtance des 
Angles et des archiers, qui nous hayoient et nous avoient durement menachie' a 
la ddpartie' (i. 73). 

The Eulogium Historiarum by a monk of Malmesbury (Rolls Series), iii. 199, 
has this passage, which agrees with Baker in describing the fight as between 
the Hainaulters and the citizens of York: 'Hanuldi apud Eboracum combusserunt 
de suburbio civitatis fere unam parochiam quae vocatur Sancti Nicholai in 
Ousgate, propter contumelian motam inter burgenses et illos, quia ceperunt 
uxores burgensium et filias et ancillas per vim in suburbio civitatis ; bur- 
genses vero suburbii, indignati de tali facinore, congressi sunt cum Hunaldis 
modo bellico, et ex utraque parte bene armati una die Martis in Septembri 
ante solis ortum in Walingate, dormiente tola civitate, summo mane. Ibi 
ceciderunt in congressu de Hunaldis ad numerum quingentorum xxvij., prater 
eos qui lethaliter sunt vulnerati et obierunt in tertia die et in quarta sequenti. De 
Anglis ceciderunt ccxlj.: submersi sunt in Ouse fluvio de Hunaldis inventis cxxxvj.' 
Buchon, in his edition of Froissart, i. 22, quotes the passage out of Leland's 
Collectanea, i. 307. It will be noticed that the date is wrong. The Brute 
chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) has this passage: 'And j>e Trinite day [7 June] next 
comyng began J>e contak in }>e citee of Yorke bitwene )>e Englissh men and |>e 
Henoders. And in J>at debate were quellede of J>e erledome of Nicole and 
mordred iiij xx . ; and, after, )>ei were beried under a stone in Seint dementis 
cherchehaw in Fosgate. And, for incheson J>at the Henawders comen for to helpe 
J* kyng, her pees was criede, uppon payne of liif and lyme. And in j>at oj>er half 
hit was founde, by inqueste of J>e citee, )>at )>e Englissh men begonne )>e debate. 
See also Leland, Collect., i. 475. 



ZI4 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

That the English archers and not the citizens (although the latter may to some 
extent have joined in) were the chief actors is proved by the commission which 
was appointed on the Hth June to enquire into the cause of the fray, wherein the 
soldiers of the counties of Lincoln and Northampton are expressly named. 
Foedera, ii. 707. 

Page 35, 1. 23. Magnam pecuniam et multa iocalia. Le Bel, i. 72, tells a different tale : 
' Et nous demourasmes en la cite" [York] bien six jours aprez nostre revenue. 
Si furent haultement festiez et honnourez messire Jehan de Haynau, le gentil 
chevalier, et tous ceulx de sa compaignie, du roy, du royaume, de la royne, et de 
tous gdneralement, et mesmement des dames lesquelles Ik estoient; et fist chascun 
somme de ses chevaulx morts et vifs et de ses frais. Si en fist le roy sa debte 
envers le dit messire Jehan, et ledit messire Jehan s'en obligea envers tous ses 
compaignons, car le roy ne povoit si tost recouvrer argent tant que les chevaulx 
montoient. Maiz on nous de'livra assez argent par raison pour revenir en nos 
pays ; et puis aprez fusmes nous dedens l'anne"e tous payez de ce que nos chevaulx 
montoient.' 

John of Hainault held a pension of loco marks, granted by the king 7th Feb. 1327 
(Fcedera, ii. 686). For the present campaign and previous assistance he appears 
to have received the following payments : 38th June, I327 X a warrant was issued in 
his favour for .700 (ibid. 708) ; 2Oth August, 1327, the sum of ,4000 was ordered 
to be paid to him, the jewels in the Tower to be pledged, if needful (ibid. 713) ; 
6th March, 1328, the king undertook to pay him .14,406 6s. gd. in two instalments, 
for twice coming to his assistance (ibid. 733) ; and ordered part-payment amount- 
ing to .7000 on 28th June (ibid. 745) ; the other 7000 appears to have been paid 
in May, 1329, with money advanced by the Bardi of Florence (ibid. 764; 
Archaeologia, xxviii. 257). 

Page 36, 1. 6. Karolus de Valesio, etc. This curious story of the death of Charles of 
Valois, as my friend Monsieur Leopold Delisle informs me, is nowhere supported 
by the French chronicles. He is, however, said to have died stricken with deep 
remorse; and it is not impossible that some self-inflicted act of penance may have 
been popularly mistaken for a punishment for some crime such as that described 
in the text. The Grandes Chroniques de France, v. 291, thus describe his death : 
'Au mois de De"cembre accoucha malade griefment messire Charles, conte de 
Valois ; si fu la maladie si grieve qu'il perdi la moitie" de luy ; et cuidierent 
pluseurs que, en celle maladie, il feist conscience de la mort Enguerran de 
Marigny, lequel fu pendu, si comme aucunes gens dient, a son pourchas, par ce 
qu'on apperceust apres. Quant sa maladie engregea, il fist donner une aumosne 
parmi la ville de Paris, et disoient ceulx qui donnoient 1'aumosne aux personnes : 
" Priez pour messire Enguerran de Marigny et pour messire Charles de Valois ! " 
Et pour ce qu'il nommoient avant le nom de messire Enguerran que de messire 
Charles, pluseurs jugerent que de la mort messire Enguerran il faisoit conscience. 
Lequel, apres longue maladie mouru au Perche qui est en le dyocese de Chartres, 
le dixiesme jour devant Nouel ; et fu son corps enterre" a Paris aux Freres Pres- 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 215 

cheurs et son cuer aux Freres Meneurs.' See also the same account in the 
continuation of the chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis, ed. Ge"raud, 1843, p. 64. 

Page 40, 1. 2. Facia est turpis pax. The preliminaries were settled at a parliament 
held at York, in which, on the 1st March, 1328, Edward renounced all claim to 
superiority. Fcedera, ii. 730. This renunciation is evidently Baker's ' cartam, 
cuius tenons et continencie series communiter ignoratur.' The terms of the 
treaty which followed were : that there should be perpetual peace between the 
two kingdoms, that David Bruce should marry Edward's sister, Joan of the 
Tower, that all deeds touching the subjection of Scotland to England and the 
stone of Scone should be surrendered, and that Bruce should pay the sum 
of ,20,000, etc. The treaty was agreed to by Bruce, 1 7th March, and ratified by 
Edward in parliament at Northampton, 4th May, 1328. Fccdera, ii. 734, 741. 

' Rex Angliae . . . . de consilio pessimo matris suas et domini Rogeri de Mortuo 
mari, qui erant ductores prascipui regis, qui vix habuit annos quindecim in astate, 
remittere Scottis est compulsus per cartam suam publicam omnem exactionem, 
jus, et clameum seu demandam capitalis dominii Scotias a se et heredibus suis 
successoribus in perpetuum ; sine aliquo homagio regibus Angliae faciendo. 
Reddidit etiam eis partem crucis Christ!, quam vocant Scotti Blakerode, et 
similiter unum instrumentum, sive cartam subjectionis et homagii faciendi 
regibus Anglias, cui appensa erant sigilla omnium magnatum Scotias, quam 
fecerunt, ut dictum est superius, avo regis, et a Scottis, propter multa sigilla 
dependentia, Ragman vocabatur,' etc. Chron. Lanercost, 261. 

1. 15. Desponsata sorore regis. ' Dedit etiam juvenis rex prasdictus sororem 

suam juniorem, dominam Johannem de Turre, in uxorem David filio Roberti de 
Brus, regis Scotias, qui puertunc erat quinque annorum, sicut ordinaverat mater sua, 
regina Anglias, quae tune temporis totum regnum regebat. Celebrates vero sunt 
nuptias solemniter apud Berwicum, Dominica die proxima ante festum sanctas 
Marias Magdalenas [l7th July].' Chron. Lanercost, 261. The marriage, as well 
as the other articles of the treaty, was most unpopular in England: see Murimuth, 
p. 56, note ii. The princess was born in July, 1321 ; she was thus just seven 
years of age. The Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) thus refers to the event : 
'And so, thurgh hire cursede counsel, )>is David spousede, atte Berwyke, dame 
Johan atte )>e Toure, }>at was kyng Edwardis suster, as j>e geste telleth, uppon 
Marie Maudeleyn daye [22 July], the yeer of grace mcccxxviij., to grete harme 
and enpeyryng to alle j>e kynges blode J>at were of )>at gentil ladie come. Alias 
|>e tyme ! for wonder moche was J>at fayre damoseil dispergede, sith that she was 
mariede ayens alle )>e comone assente of j>e lordes of Engelonde." David's 
nickname 'drite on auter' is also given, but without explanation. Caxton 
(Cronicles of England) prints it ' dritonantier,' evidently without understanding 
the meaning. The Fructus Temporum has, more correctly, ' dritonautier." So 
also the chronicle of Lanercost, 349, speaking of David at the battle of Neville's 
Cross : ' Secundum exercitum duxit ipse rex David, non tamen de quo canebant 
in choro quod decem millia in bello fugavit, sed ille David de quo in foro firma- 



2i6 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

bant quod ejus fetor et faex altare fedavit.' The Scots nicknamed Joan of the 
Tower ' The Countesse Makepees.' 

Page 40, 1. 22. Lapis ille grandis. On the 1st July a writ was issued to the abbat and 
convent of Westminster to deliver the stone to the sheriffs who were to carry it to 
the queen mother, then preparing for her journey to Berwick. Ayloffe, Calendars 
of Ancient Charters, introd. Iviij. The chronicle of Lanercost, 261, states that 
the Londoners refused to surrender it : ' Lapidem tamen de Scone, in quo solent 
reges Scotiae apud Scone in creatione sua collocari, Londonienses noluerunt a se 
dimittere quoquomodo.' 

The stone is thus referred to in the Vita Edwardi II., 276, under the year 1324, 
when negotiations were going on between the two kingdoms : ' Petierunt etiam 
Scoti petram illam regalem sibi restitui, quam Edwardus rex senior quondam de 
Scotia tulerat et apud Westmonasterium collocaverat juxta tumbam Sancti 
Edwardi. Erat autem lapis ille apud Scotos Celebris memorise, eo quod super 
hunc reges Scotiae solebant gubernacula regni cum sceptro recipere. Scota filia 
Pharaonis hanc petram secum a finibus yEgipti eduxit cum in parte Scotias appli- 
cuit et terram subjugavit. Prophetaverat enim Moises quod qui petram illam 
secum afferret amplas terras suo dominio subjugaret.' 

Page 41, 1. 22. lacobus Dowglas adivit fronterium Ispanie. The romantic story of 
the delivery of Bruce's heart to the keeping of Douglas and of Douglas's death is 
well known from the pages of Froissart, who follows Jehan le Bel, and from 
Barbour's Brus. The closing scene may be quoted from Froissart, i. 81 : 
' Avint, asse"s tot apries $ou que li di messires Guillaumes de Douglas fu la venus, 
que li rois d'Espagne issi hors as camps, pour plus approcier ses ennemis. Li rois 
de Grenate issi hors ossi d'autre part, si ques li uns rois veoit 1'autre a tout ses 
banieres. Et se commencierent a rengier leurs batailles, li un contre 1'autre. Li 
dis messires Guillaumes de Douglas se traist a 1'un des coste"s, a toute se route, 
pour miex faire se besongne, et pour miex moustrer son effort. Quant il vei 
toutes les batailles rengies d'une part et d'autre et vei la bataille le roy un petit 
esmouvoir, il cuida que elle alast assambler. II, qui miex voloit estre des premiers 
que des daarains, feri des esperons, et toute se compagnie avoech lui, jusques 
a le bataille le roy de Grenate, et ala as ennemis assambler. Et pensoit ensi que 
li rois d'Espagne et toutes ses batailles le sievissent, mes non fisent, dont il en fu 
laidement deceus, car onques celi jour ne s'en esmurent. La fu li gentilz 
chevaliers, messires Guillaumes de Douglas enclos, et toute se route, des ennemis. 
Et y fisent merveilles d'armes, mes finablement il ne peurent durer, ne onques 
pies n'en escapa, que tout ne fuissent occis a grant meschief. De quoi ce fu pile's 
et damages et grant lasquete pour les Espagnolz, et moult en furent blasmet de 
tous chiaus qui en o'irent parler, car bien ewissent rescous le chevalier et une 
partie des siens, s'il vosissent. Ensi ala de ceste aventure et dou voiage mon- 
signeur Guillaume de Douglas.' 

It will be noticed that Froissart persistently gives Douglas the Christian name 
of William, a blunder which he adopts from le Bel. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 217 

Knyghton, 2559, mentions Douglas's cruelty to English prisoners : ' Eodem 
anno, in aestate, factum est bellum apud Frontem Bernarde inter Christianos et 
paganos ; et ibi occisus est dominus Jacobus Duglas Scoticus, qui in tempore suo 
multa mala intulerat Anglicis et prascipue post prcelium de Stryveline. Nam 
quemlibet sagittarium quem capere poterat, aut dextram manum abscidit aut 
oculum dextrum eruit, et adeo se crudelem erga Anglicos gerebat, propter arcus 
suos et sagittas, quod quantulamcunque enormem et intolerabilem vindictam 
capere posset de personis Anglicis minus brevem et levem excogitavit, non 
habens de aliquo pietatem." 

Page 42, 1. 9. Nupcie inter filias Rogeri de Mortuo man. His daughter Beatrix 
was married to Edward, son of Thomas of Brotherton ; and Agnes to Laurence, 
son of John, Lord Hastings, and afterwards earl of Pembroke. He had in all 
seven daughters, each of whom was married into some powerful family. 

1. 21. Parliamentum Sarisburie. This parliament sat from the l6th to the 

3 1st October. Lancaster's abortive attempt to throw off Mortimer's yoke is thus 
described by Knyghton, 2553-5 : 'Eodem anno captus est dominus Robertus de 
Holand in uno bosco citra Londonias. Iste Robertus erectus est de paupere 
milite in sublimem et divitem baronem per comitem Lancastrian Thomam. Eo 
tempore quo discordia increvit inter dominum suum Thomam et regem, ipse 
Robertus Holand, in summa necessitate domini sui, quando dominus suus maxime 
confidebat de ejus adventu cum auxilio populi promisso, relicto domino suo in 
sua angustia inevitabili, reddidit se regi, decipiens dominum suum ; quam ob 
infidelitatem omnes proceres et magnates regni odio eum habebant. Et cum 
maximo vituperio caput ejus abscissum est, ad comitem Lancastriae Henricum 
apud Waltham Sancti Crucis transmissum est per quendam militem, Thomam 
Wyther nomine, et alios secretos Thomas comitis Lancastriae. Apud Salusbury 
regina Isabella et Rogerus de Mortuo mari fecerunt novos comites, scilicet 
Johannem de Eltham comitem Cornubiae, Rogerum de Mortuo mari comitem de 
Marchia, Edmundum Botoler comitem de Ormund, qui omnes, cum suis 
adhasrentibus, congregaverunt magnum exercitum ad Isabellam reginam contra 
comitem Lancastrian Henricum et alios magnates de regno, qui non fuerant eorum 
nefariis operibus consentientes. Et equitaverunt viribus et armis super terras 
dicti comitis, et venerunt Leycestriam cum magno exercitu Anglicorum et 
Wallanorum, pridie nonas Januarii ; et morabantur in Leycestria et in circum- 
jacente patria octo diebus, et spoliaverunt undique patriam et boscos, parcos, 
vineas, stagna, piscinas, et secum abduxerunt quicquid preciosum aut vile manus 
eorum invenire potuerant, aurum, argentum, blada, utensilia, lectualia, mensualia, 
arma, vestimenta, bestias feras et domesticas, oves et boves, aucas, gallinas, 
et omamenta ecclesiastica, nihil in ecclesiis inventum vel alibi relinquendo, ac si 
esset in tempore guerran inter regna. Et hoc totum in opprobrium comitis 
Lancastriae, qui tune fuerat in veniendo de partibus australibus cum potestate 
magna, volens eis obviasse, habens in comitatu suo magnates qui fuerant cum 
Thoma comite Lancastrian, scilicet comitem Marchiae (sic, i.e. Marescallum), 

Ff 



8l8 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Edmundum comitem Canciae, fratrem suum et avunculum regis, episcopos 
Londoniarum, Wyncestriae, dominum le Wake, dominum de Bealmont, Hugonem 
Daudeleye, dominum Thomam Rossleyne, et multos alios. Et, cum isti. 
magnates parati essent ad invadendum, ut suspicabantur, Rogerum Mortymer, 
cujus consilio et excitatione rex conceperat indignationem contra quosdam legios 
suos fideles regni, duo avunculi regis, Thomas et Edmundus, reliquerunt comitem 
et se dederunt matri regis et Rogero Mortimer, procurantes comiti Lancastrian 
malum seditionis in quantum_ poterant. Hie comes Henricus sub spe fiduciae 
ceperat locum suum in campo juxta Bedforde, fixis tentoriis, proponens bellum 
committere cum Rogero de Mortymer et aliis suis adhaerentibus ; sed per supra- 
dictam proditionem suorum humiliter se subjecit regi in campo coram toto 
exercitu. Et fuit concordatum ibidem, coram Symone archiepiscopo Cantuariensi 
et aliis episcopis et multis de magnatibus regni, quod omnes errores emendarentur 
in proximo parliamento sequenti ; et hoc ne forte omnes surgerent communes in 
hac communi causa cum comite. Sed ab ista concordia quasdam personaa fuerunt 
exceptae, quas Rogerus le Mortymer noluit ut rex quoquo modo admitteret in 
praefata concordia : scilicet dominus Henricus de Bealmont, dominus Thomas 
Rosselyne, dominus Willelmus Trussel, dominus Thomas Wyther, qui occiderat 
dominum Robertum de Holande. Isti quatuor profecti sunt ultra mare in 
Franciam, ibique manserunt donee le Mortymer captus esset apud Notyngham, 
ut infra patebit, quia non audebant, propter metum mortis, faciem suam ostendere 
in terra Angliae, dummodo Mortymer floreret.' 

The Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) goes very fully into the story of 
Lancaster's attempt : 'And ]>e noble erle, sir Henry of Lancastre, had ofte tymes 
harde j>e comon clamour of )>e Englissh men of )>e mochel disease }>at was done 
in Engelonde, and also for diverse wronges }>at were done amonge }>e comon 
peple, of whiche j>e kyng bore } blame wij> wrong, for he was but ful yong and 
tendre of age ; and Jioujte, as a good man, for to done awaye and slake j>e sklander 
of )>e kynges persone, if Jiat he myjte in eny maner wise, so as ]>e kyng was j>erof no 
}>ing gilty, wherfore he was in parel of lyfe and of lyme. And so he assemblede 
alle his retenaunce, and went and spake unto hem of )>e kynges honour and also 
for to amend his state. And sir Thomas of Brotherton, erle Marsshal, and sir 
Edmunde of Wodstoke, }>at were f>e kynges uncles, and also men of London 
maden hire othe him for to mayntene in )>at same querel. And hire cause was 
}>us : pat j>e kyng shulde holde his housholde and his maynie, as perteynede unto 
a kyng for to done, and have also his realte ; and }>at )>e quene Isabelle shulde 
delyvere oute of hire honde unto j>e kynges honde almaner lordeshippes, rentes, 
tounes, and castellis, }>at perteynede unto |>e croune of Engelonde, and j>at she 
shulde lyve wi)> j>e )>irde parte of )>e rentes of Engelonde, as ofer quenes had 
done before hire, and with none o}>er j>ing. And also, )>at sir Roger Mortymer 
shulde dwelle uppon his owen landes, for J>e whiche landes he had holpen 
disherete moche peple ; so j>at }>e comone peple were noujte destroyed thurgh 
hire wrongful takyng. And also to enquere how and by whom J>e kyng was 
bitrayede and falseliche deseyvede atte Stanhope, and thurgh whos counseil )>at 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 219 

Tpc Scottis wente away by nyjte fro }>e kyng. And also, how and thurj whos 
counsel }>e ordenaunce ]>at was made atte )>e coronacion of kyng Edward were 
putte adoune, }>at is to sayn, J>at }>e kyng, for amendement and helpyng of J>e 
reame and in honour of him, shulde be governede and ruled by xij. of )>e grettest 
and wiseste lordes of j>e reame, and withoute hem shulde no f>ing be grauntede 
ne done, as bifore is seide ; the whiche governaunces maliciously were putte 
doune fro j>e kyng. Wherfore meny harmes, shames, and reproves han falle 
unto )>e kyng and to his reame. And j>at is to understonde, for as [moche as] 
Edward, somtyme kyng of Engelonde, was ordeynede, by assente of )>e comontee 
in pleyn parlement, for to ben under )>e warde and governaunce of Henry erle of 
Lancastre, his cosyn, for salvacioun of his bodie, he was taken oute of }>e castel 
of Kenelworthe j>er |>at he was in warde, and thurgh colour of quene Isabelle and 
of the Mortymer, withoute consente of eny parlement, )>ei nome and ladde him 
ther J>at never after none of his kynrede myjte with him speke ne see ; and, after, 
traytoursly nome and him mordred ; for whoos dethe a foule sklaunder aroos 
thurgh alle Cristendome, when hit was done. And also, alle } tresoure j;at sir 
Edwarde of Carnarvan had lefte in many places in Engelonde and in Walls were 
wastede and borne away, withoute the wille of )>e kyng Edwarde his sone, 
in destruccion of him and of his folk. Also, thurgh whos counsel )>at Jie kyng yaf 
up }>e kyngdome of Scotlande, for the whiche reame }>e kynges auncesters had ful 
sore travayl, and so dede many a noble man for hire right ; and was delyverede 
alle )>e right unto David, )>at was Robert le Brus his sone, )>at no right had unto 
J>at reame, as alle J>e worlde hit wiste. And also, by whom J>e chartres and j>e 
remembraunces )>at j>ei had of }>e right of Scotland were take oute of )>e tresorie 
and taken to )>e Scottes, the kyngis enemyes, to disheriteson of him and of his 
successours, and to grete harme to his lieges, and to grete reprove unto alle 
Englisshe men for evermore. Also, wharfor dame Johan of the Toure, j>e kynges 
suster Edward, was disparagede and mariede unto David, )>at was Robert |>e 
Brus his sone, )>at was a traytour and an enemye unto Engelonde ; and thurgh 
whos counsel she was take into our enemyes handis oute of Engelande. 

' And in j>e mene tyme, whiles }>e good erle Henry of Lancastre and 
his companye nomen counsel how )>es poyntes above seide myjte bene amen- 
dede, unto j>e worship of )>e kyng and to his profile, and to )>e prophite also 
of his lieges, the quene Isabelle, thurgh coniectyng and sotelte, and also of J;e 
Mortymere, lete ordeyne a parlement at Saylesbury. And atte )>e same parlement 
)>e Mortymer was made erle of the Marche, ayens alle ]>e barouns wille of 
Engelonde, in prejudice of J>e kyng and of his corone ; and sir John of Eltham, f 
kynges brother, was gerde with a swerde of Cornewayle, and )>o was callede J>e 
erle of Cornewayle. And evermore the quene Isabelle so moche procurede ayens 
hire son )>e king, )>at she had )>e warde of }>e forsaide sir Edwarde and of his 
landes. 

' And atte j>e parlement j>e erle of Lancastre wolde nojte come, but ordeynede 
alle his power ayens \>e quene Isabelle and )>e Mortemer; and men of London 
ordeynede hem for to helpe with vj. hundreth men of armes. When J>e quene 

rfa 



220 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Isabella wiste of j>e doyng, she swore bi God and by His names ful angrely |>at in 
evel tyme he thoujte on )>o poyntes. Tho sente )>e quene Isabelle after hire 
retenewe, so )>at )>ei had ordeynede amonges hem an huge oste ; and )>ei coun- 
celede j>e kyng, so j>at uppon a nyjte fi riden xxiij. mile toward Bedeford, ther 
J>at fe erle of Lancaster was with his companye, and jioujt to have him 
destroyede ; and j>at nyjte she rode besides }>e kyng hire sone as a knyjte 
armede, for drede of deth. And hit was done )>e kyng Edwarde to understonde 
j>at J>e erle Henry of Lancastre and his companye wolde have destroyede )>e kyng 
and his councele for evermore. Wherfor J>e kyng was somdele towardes him 
hevy and anoyede. When j>e erle Marshalle and }>e erle of Kente, J>e kynges 
brother (sit;), herde of J>is J>ing, )>ei riden so in message bitwene hem, J>at J>e kyng 
graunted him his pees to )>e erle of Lancastre for a certeyne raunsome of xj. 
thousand pounde ; but j>at was never payede afterwarde. And these were )>e 
lordes j>at helde with sir Henry of Lancastre : sir Henry Beaumonde, sire Fouk 
fitz Waryn, sire Thomas Reosely, sir William Trussel, sir Thomas Wither, and 
aboute an hundreth of knyjtes moo j>at were to hem consentyng. And alle }>o 
were exilede thurgh counsel of ]>e quene Isabel and of j)e Mortymer. For j>e 
Mortymer coveytede for to have hire landes, if he myjt thurj eny maner 
coniectyng ; for he was so coveytouse and had to moch his wil, and }>at was 
grete pitee.' 

Lancaster's submission took place about the I2th or 1 3th January, 1329. 
See also Annales Paulini, 343-4, and Bishop Stubbs's Introduction to Ckron. 
Edw. /., //., i. cxxi. 

Page 43, 1. 3. Rex mare transivit. Edward left England on the 26th May ; did 
homage at Amiens on the 6th June; and returned on the nth June. Fatiera, 
ii. 764, 765. 

1. 12. Tenuit concilium provinciate. Held at St. Paul's on the 27th January. 

See the Annales Paulini, 344. 

1. 22. Quidam experturi, etc. Stow's translation, 355-6, is as follows : ' Cer- 

taine men of this land, to the intent to trie what friends they had in England, 
craftily devised that Edward the second king of England was alive in the castle 
of Corffe, but not to be scene in the day time, and therefore they used many nights 
to make shewes and masking with dancing upon the towres and walks of the 
castle, which being perceived by people of the countrey, it was thought there had 
been some great king unto whome they did these great solemnities. This rumour 
was spred over all England, to wit, that the old king was alive ; whence it came 
to passe that the earle of Kent sent thither a fryer preacher, to try the truth of the 
matter, who, (as it was thought) having corrupted the porter of the castle with re- 
wards, is let in, where he lay all the day in the porters lodge very close ; and, 
when night was come, he was willed to put on the habit of a lay man, and then 
was brought into the hall, where he saw (as he thought) Edward, the father of the 
king, sitting royally at supper, with great majestie. This fryer, being thus per- 
swaded, returned againe to the earle of Kent, and reported, as he thought, what 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 221 

he saw : whereupon the earle said and affirmed with an oath that he would en- 
deavour by all the meanes he could to deliver his brother from prison. The same 
yeere, at the earnest request of some, the king held a parliament at Winchester, 
where, by procurement of the old queen and Roger Mortimer, the said earle of 
Kent and many other noble men and religious persons, to wit, the provincials of 
the white Carmelite fryers and of the blacke preaching friers, and frier Richard 
Wilton, weie accused of conspiracie, touching (as it was said) the deliverie of the 
kings father : which matter although it were but devised fantasie and a meere lye, 
yet the said earle, for certaine confessions which he made, and for certaine letters 
which were found about him, was there beheaded. The other, to wit, the provin- 
cials of the Predicants and Carmelites, were banished : but the bishop of London 
was set at libertie, Robert de Tauntone, priest, and some certaine Carmelite friers 
and Predicants were condemned to perpetuall prison. The death of the said earle 
was the lesse lamented, because his family and servants had above measure afflicted 
the commons, in taking up things (as they travailed) at the king's price, paying 
nothing or very little for it.' 

The Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) is very minute in its account of the 
plot against Kent : ' And uppon a tyme bifel hit so J>at sir Edmunde of Wode- 
stoke, erle of Kente, spake unto }>e pope, John J>e xxij., at Avignon, and saide }>at 
almyjti God had meny tymes done for Thomas love of Lancastre many grete 
myracles to meny men and women J>at were thurj diverse maladies undone as 
unto j>e worlde, and thurgh his prayer J>ei wer broujt unto hire hele. And so sir 
Edmunde prayeden )>e pope hertely J>at he wolde graunte him grace, that )>e for- 

said Thomas myjt ben translatede ; but j>e pope seide nay And when }>is 

Edmunde sawe )>at he myjte noujte spede of his purpos as toching the translacion, 
he prayed him tho of his councele, as toching sir Edward of Carnarvan, his broker, 
and said, noujt longe gone he was kyng of Engelonde, what )>ing my)>te best be 
done as toching his delyveraunce, sithen J>at a comone fame is thurghoute alle 
Engelonde )>at he was in life and hool and safe. Whenne )>e pope herde him telle 
)>at sir Edward was alife, he comaundid jje erle uppon his benesoun )>at he shulde 
helpe with alle his power )>at he myjte, that he were delyverede oute of prisoun 
and safe his bodie in all maner J>at he myjte ; and, for to bring J>is )>ing unto an 
ende, he assoylede him and his companye a pena et culpa, and alle )>o )>at helpyn 
to his delyveraunce. Tho nome Edmunde of Wodestoke, erle of Kente, his leve 
of J>e pope and come ayein into Engelonde. And whenne Edmunde was come, 
som of )>e frere prechours comen and seyde )>at sir Edward, his broj>er, yit was 
alife in )>e castel of Corf, under )>e kepyng of sir Thomas Gurnaye. Tho sped him 
j>e forsaide Edmunde as fast as he myjte til j>at he came unto j>e castel of Corf, 
and aqueyntede and spake so faire with sir John Daverill }>at was constable of f>e 
forsaide castel, and yaf him riche yeftis, for to have aqueyntaunce of him and to 
knowe of his councele. And jms hit bifelle )>at }>e forsaide sir Edmunde preyed 
specially for to telle him prively of his broker, sir Edwarde, if j>at he levede or 
were dede, and, if |>at he were alife, he preyed of him for to have ones a sight. 
And l>is sir John Daverell was an hertid man and ful of corage, and answerde 



222 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

shortely unto sir Edmunde and seide )>at sir Edward, his brother, was in heel and 
under his kepyng, and derste shewe him unto no man, sith hit was defendid him 
in }>e kyngis half Edward, J>at was Edwardus sone Carnarvan, and also thurgh 
the comaundement of quene Isabelle, )>e kynges moder, and of sir Roger J>e Mor- 
tymer, )>at he shulde shewe his bodie unto no maner man of j>e worlde, saf oneliche 
unto hem, uppon lost of life and lym and to dishereteson of his heires for evermore. 
But }>e fals treytour falsly lyede, for he was noujte in his warde, but he was take 
J>ennes and ladde unto ]>e castel of Berkelee thurj sir Thomas Gurnay thurj com- 
maundement of }>e Mortymer, til )>at he was dede, as bifore is seide more plenere. 
But sir Edmunde of Wodestoke wist no )>ing )>at Edward, his brother, was dede. 
Wher uppon he toke a lettre unto }>e for'saide sir John, and prayede him hertely 
}>at he wolde take hit unto kyng Edwarde, his brother, as to his worthi lorde. 
And he underfenge }>e lettre of him, and behight to sir Edmunde for to done his 
message withoute eny maner fayle. And with j>at sir Edmunde nome of him his 
leve, )>at is to seyn of }>e forseid John, and wente j>o into his owen cuntre and 
lordeship in Kente that he had ther. And anone, as J)is same John wiste }>at sir 
Edmunde of Wodestoke was gone into Kente his owen lordeship, anone he went 
in alle fie haste J>at he myjte fro )>e castelle of Corf and come unto sir Roger }>e 
Mortymer, and toke him J>e lettre )>at sir Edmunde of Wodstoke, erle of Kente, 
had taken him, closede and enselede with his owen scale. And when sir Roger 
had underfenge j>e lettre, he unclosede )>e lettre and saw what was conteynede 
therin, and gan hit for to rede. Wherof j>e begynnyng was )>is : " Worshippis and 
reverences, with brothers liegeaunce and subieccion, sir knyjt, worshipful and dere 
brother, if hit yow please, I pray hertely )>at ye ben of good comforte, for I shal so 
ordeyne for yow that sone ye shul come oute of prison and bene deliverede of )>at 
disease that ye beth inne. And understondeth of your greet lordeship }>at I have 
unto me assentant almoste alle )>e grete of Engelonde, with alle hire appariel, )>at 
is to seyn, with armure, with tresour, withoute nombre, for to mayntene and helpe 
youre querelle, so ferforth j>at ye shul ben kyng ayein as ye were beforne ; and J>at 
thei alle have sworne to me uppon a book, and as wel prelatis as erlis and barouns." 
When sir Roger of Mortymer sawe and understode j>e myjte and J>e strength of )>e 
lettre, anone for wrath his hert gan bolne and evel herte bare towarde sir Ed- 
munde of Wodestoke, j>at was erle of Kente. And so with alle j>e haste j>at he 
myjte he wente unto dame Isabel, )>e quene, }>at was j)e kynges moder, and shewed 
hire sir Edmundes lettre, erle of Kente, and his wille and his purpose, and how he 
had coniectede and ordeynede to putte adoune kyng Edwarde of Wyndesore, hir 
sone, of his realte and of his kyngdome. " Now certis, sir Roger," quo)) j>e quene, 
" hath Edmunde done so ? By my fader soule," quo{> she, " I wol bene therof 
avengede, if J>at God graunte me my life, and )>at in a shorte tyme." And anone 
with that the quene Isabel wente unto kyng Edwarde, hire sone, ther J>at he was 
atte fie parlement atte Wynchestre, for to have amendede )>e wronges and tres- 
passes )>at were done amonge )>e peple in his reame. And }>o nome she and 
shewid him }>e lettre }>at sir Edmunde of Wodestoke, erle of Kente, had made and 
ensealede with his seel ; and bade him, uppon hire benysoun, j>at he shulde ben 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 22$ 

avengede uppon him, as uppon his dedely enemy. Tho was )>e quene so wroth 
toward sir Edmunde, erle of Rente, and cessid never to pray unto hire sone )>at 
he shulde sende in haste after him. And uppon )>at )>e kyng sent by his lettres 
after sir Edmunde of Wodestoke, f>at he shulde come and speke with him atte 
Wynchestre, almaner thinges lefte. And when sir Edmunde sawe )>at )>e kyng 
sente after him with his lettre inseled, he hastid him in alle fiat he myjte, til j>at 
he come unto Wynchestre. But }>o )>e quene wiste fiat Edmunde was come unto 
Wynchestre, anone she prayede and so faste wente unto Edwarde, hire sone, }>at 
j>e good erle was arrestede anone and ladde unto j>e barre bifore Robert of Hamond 
(sic), f>at was coroner of )>e kynges householde ; and he associed unto him sir 
Roger f>e Mortymer. And )>o spake }>e forsaide John (sic, i.e. Robert) unto him and 
seide : " Sir Edmunde, erle of Kente, ye shal understonde j>at it is done us to wite, 
and principalliche unto oure liege lorde sir Edwarde, kyng of Engelonde, f>at almyjti 
God save and kepe, f>at ye beth his dedely enemy and his treytour and also a 
comune enemy unto )>e reame ; and }>at ye have bene aboute many a day for to make 
priveliche delyveraunce of sir Edwarde, somtyme kyng of Engelonde, your broker, 
f>e which was putte adoune of his realte by comone assent of alle )>e lordes of 
Engelonde, in pesyng of our lorde )>e kynges estate and also of his reame." Tho 
answerde the good man and seide : " Forsothe, sir, understonde)) wel )>at I was never 
assentyng for to enpeyre j>e state of oure lorde }>e kyng ne of )>e corone, and fiat 
I putte me to ben demede uppon my peers." And with fiat worde sire Roger f>e 
Mortymer shewed hem j>e erles lettres and his seal, and seide J>o to sir Edmunde, 
" Knowe ye oujte j>e prynte of )>is lettre ? " f>at he hadde take unto sir John 
Daverell. And he sawe J>e printe of his seal, but he sawe noujt what was con- 
teynede in }>e lettre. And )>e erle him selfe wende )>at hit had bene one of his 
lettres fiat had ben of no charge. Tho seide j>e erle to sir Roger Mortymer J>at he 
wolde noujte forsake )>e lettre, and J>at was fie printe of his seal. And anone with 
fiat worde the wily and the fals Mortymer began to undone f>e lettre, and gan hit 
for to rede in audience of alle )>e courte. And f>o seide sir Robert of Hauuille : 
" Sir Edmunde," quof> he, " sith fiat ye have made knowyng opinliche in f>is courte 
)>at fiis is your lettre, enselid with your seal, and )>e tenor of your lettre seith fiat 
ye wolde have bene aboute for to have delyvered fie bodie of fiat worshipful sir 
Edwarde, somtyme kyng of Engelonde, your broker, and for to have holpyn him 
fiat he shulde have bene kyng ayein and governede his peple as he wonede before 
tymes, in enpeyryng of our liege lorde fie kyng state, fiat is now, whom God kepe 
from alle disese and J>is court wol f>at ye bene undone of life and lyme, and fiat 
your heires ben disheritede for evermore, save f>e grace of our lorde f>e kyng." 
po was fie erle, sir Edmunde of Wodestoke, putte ayein into prison under ful save 
warde til uppon }>e morue. And }>o come fie Mortymer unto }>e kyng, fier fiat he 
sate atte his mete, and tolde him how }>e erle was dampnede by way of lawe and 
also of lyfe and lyme, and his heyres disheritede for evermore, thurgh opyn 
knowelegeyng in pleyn courte. Wherfore him thoujte good f>at )>e forsaide erle 
were hastly quelde, withoute wetyng of fie kyng, for els f>e kyng wolde foryeve him 
his deth, and fiat shulde turne hem unto moche sorwe so as he was empechede. 



224 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Anone )>e quene Isabel, Jmrj counsel of }>e Mortymere and withoute eny other 
counseile, sente in haste to }>e baillifes of Wynchestre f>at )>ei shulde smyte of sir 
Edmundes heede of Wodestoke, erle of Kente, without eny maner bidyng or re- 
spite, uppon peyne of life and lym. Tho nomen )>e baillifes sir Edmunde oute of 
prison and ladde him besides the castel atte Wynchestre, and ther they made a 
gonge fermer smyten of his hevede, for none other man durste hit done. And so 
deyde he ther, alias !, )>e tyme }>at is to seyn, f>e x. day of Octobre, )>e thirde yeer 
of kyng Edwardus regne. And when )>e kyng wiste therof, he was wonder sory, 
and lete entere him atte )>e frere minores atte Wynchestre.' 

The chronicle of Lanercost, 264, has the following : ' Eodem anno, decimo 
sexto die Martii, captus fuit apud Wyntoniam dominus Edmundus de Wodestok, 
comes Cantiae, avunculus regis, et filius quondam inclyti regis Edwardi filii Henrici, 
tanquam proditor regis, et fecit coram multis proceribus regni et aliis recogni- 
tionem publicam quod ipse (tarn ex mandato domini papae quam ex instigatione 
quorundam episcoporum Angliae, quos nominavit expresse, et ex consilio multorum 
magnorum de terra, quos etiam nominavit et per certa signa convicit, et specia- 
liter ex instigatione cujuSdam fratris Praedicatoris de conventu Londoniarum, 
fratris scilicet Thomae de Dunheved, qui dixerat dicto comiti quod ipse suscita- 
verat diabolum, qui asseruit dominum Edwardum regem quondam depositum 
esse vivum, et ex instigatione aliorum trium fratrum supradicti ordinis, Edmund! 
scilicet, Johannis, et Ricardi) voluit egisse et egit totis viribus ut dictus dominus 
Edwardus rex depositus fuisset liberatus et a carcere restitutus in regnum, et ad 
id faciendum promiserat sibi dominus papa et diet! domini episcopi et proceres 
supradicti pecuniam copiosam et consilium et auxilium in agendis.' 

The Dominican Thomas Dunheved, who is here stated to have been the friar 
who raised the devil for the occasion, is said to have been Edward ii.'s envoy to 
gain the pope's consent to his divorce from Isabella: 'Circa idem tempus[A.D. 1327] 
quidam frater de ordine Praedicatorum, nomine Thomas de Dunheved, qui ante 
duos annos praecedentes iverat ad curiam domini papas cum nunciis regis jam 
deposit! pro divortio inter ipsum et reginam faciendo, licet non obtineret intentum, 
jam non solum private sed etiam publice et audaci fronte circuivit Angliam, 
et concitabat populum in austro et aquilone ut insurgerent pro rege deposito 
et in custodia detente, et sibi restituerent regnum suum, promittens eis auxilium 
de proximo affuturum, sed implere non potuit quod promisit ; unde tandem 
captus est fatuus ille frater et career! mancipatus et in carcere est defunctus.' 
Chron. Lanercost, 260. The Brute chronicle has a partly similar account : ' But 
{ frere prechours to him [the imprisoned king] were good frendes evermore, and 
caste and ordeynede boj> nyjte and day how f>ei myjte bringe him oute of prison. 
And amonge hire companye }>at J>e freres priveleche had brought )>er was a frere 
}>at men callede Dunhevede; and he had ordeynede and gadered a grete companye 
of folke for to helpe atte )>at nede. Butte )>e frere was take and putte into a 
castelle of Pountfrete, and f>er he deide in prison.' 

Kent's confession will be found, in French, in the appendix to Murimuth, 253; 
and, in Latin, in Walsingham, Hist. Angl., ii. 351. Edward, in writing an 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 325 

account of his condemnation to the pope, quotes the terms of the confession, 
24th March, 1330. Fcedera, ii. 783. The earl was still a young man at the time 
of his death, having been born in 1301. His conduct in Lancaster's revolt (above, 
p. 218) as well as on the present occasion proves him to have been of remarkably 
weak character. 

The article in Mortimer's condemnation in the parliament of 1330, which 
accuses him of being the author of the plot against Kent, is as follows : ' Item, 
Par la ou le dit Roger savoit bien qe le piere nostre seignur le roi estoit mort et 
enterre, il par autres de sa covyne en deceyvante manere fist entendre au counte 
de Kent qe le dit piere nostre seignur le roi fust en vie. Par qoi le dit counte 
de Kent feust molt disirous de saver la verite, lequel il fust en vie ou nemye. 
Et ce fist espier par totes les bones voies qil savoit, tant qe le dit Roger, par son 
dit roial poer a lui acroche, fist prendre au parlement tenuz a Wyncestre le dit 
counte de Kent, et tant procurer et pursuyre par son dit roial poer qe le dit 
counte fust mis a la mort au dit parlement.' Rot. Part., ii. 52. 

Page 44, 1. 12. Parliamentum Wyntonie. This parliament was summoned on the 
25th January, 1330, and sat from the nth to the 23rd March. 

1. 14. Provinciates ordinwn, etc. The provincial of the Carmelites in England 

at this time was John Baconthorp, who died in 1346. 'He was little of stature, 
but great in wit, and writ such vast volumes that his body could not have borne 
what his brain produced.' Stevens, Hist. Ancient Abbeys (1723), ii. 159, 163. 
Richard Bliton was provincial from 1319 to 1326 tend died at Lincoln in 1330. 
He was confessor to Edward ii. Ibid., ii. 162. 

1. 21. Fuit decapitatus : ' Unde dictus Edmundus captus est et attachiatus et ad 

pcenam decollationis condempnatus : sicque stetit extra portam castelli, mortem 
exspectans, usque ad horam vesperarum, quia nemo voluit eum decollare propter 
pietatem quam habebant de eo, nam dampnatus erat absque communi consensu. 
Tandem venit unus ribaldus sceleratus de Marchalsia, et, pro sua vita inde 
habenda, decollavit eum die Lunse in vigilia sancti Cuthberti [19 March].' 
Knyghton, 2555. See also Hemingburgh, ii. 301. 

1. 23. Robertus de Tauntone. He is referred to in Kent's confession as the 

archbishop of York's messenger. Murimuth, 254, 256. 

Page 45, 1. 13. Fuit parliamentum, etc. 'There was a parliament holden at 
Nottingham, where Roger Mortimer was in such glory and honour that it was 
without all comparison. No man durst name him any other than earle of March ; 
a greater route of men waited at his heeles than on the kings person ; he would 
suffer the king to rise to him and would walke with the king equally, step by step 
and cheeke by cheeke, never preferring the king, but would go formost himselfe 
with his officers ; he greatly rebuked the earle of Lancaster, cousin to the king, 
for that without his consent he appointed certain lodgings for noblemen in the 
town, demanding who made him so bold, to take up lodgings so nigh unto the 
queen : with which words the constable, being greatly feared, appointed lodging 

Gg 



326 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

\ 

for the earle of Lancaster one myle out of the towne : and likewise were lodged the 
earle of Hereford, John de Bohune of Estsex, high constable of England, and 
others. By which meanes a contention rose among the noblemen and great 
murmuring among the common people, who said that Roger Mortimer, the 
queenes paragon and the kings master, sought all the means he could to destroy 
the kings blood and to usurpe the regall majestic : which report troubled much 
the kings friends, to wit, William Montacute and other, who, for the safegard of 
the king, sware themselves to be true to his person, and drew unto them Robert 
de Holland, who had of long time been chiefe keeper of the castle, unto whome 
all secret corners of the same were knowne. Then upon a certaine night, the king 
lying without the castle, both he and his friends were brought by torch-light 
through a secret way under ground, beginning far off from the said castle, till they 
came even to the queens chamber, which they by chaunce found open : they 
therfore, being armed with naked swords in their hands, went forwards, leaving the 
king also armed without the doore of the chamber, least that his mother should 
espie him : they which entred in slew Hugh Turpinton, knight, who resisted 
them, master John Nevell of Horneby giving him his deadly wound. From 
thence they went toward the queene mother, whome they found with the earle 
of March, readie to have gone to bedde ; and having taken the said earle, they 
ledde him out into the hall, after whom the queene followed, crying, Bel filz, bel filz, 
ayes pitie de gentil Mortimer, Good sonne, good sonne, take pitie upon gentle 
Mortimer: for she suspected that her sonne was there, though she saw him not. 
Then are the keyes of tHe castle sent for, and every place with all the furniture is 
yeelded up into the kings hands, but in such secret wise that none without the 
castle, except the kings friends, understood thereof. The next day in the morning 
very early they bring Roger Mortimer and other his friends taken with him, with 
an horrible shout and crying (the earle of Lancaster,"then blind, being one of them 
that made the shout for joy), towards London, where he was committed to the 
Tower, and afterwards condemned at Westminster, in presence of the whole 
parliament, on S. Andrewes eeven next following, and then drawne to the Elmes, 
and there hanged on the common gallowes . . . He was condemned by his peeres, 
and yet never was brought to answer before them, for it was not then the custome, 
after the death of the earles of Lancaster, Winchester, Glocester, and Kent : 
wherefore this earle had that law himselfe, which he appointed for other.' Stow, 
Annales, 356, 357. 

(It will be seen that Stow has quite misunderstood the passage : ' Quemdam 
officiarium,' etc.) 

By the side of this passage from Stow may be placed a chapter from the 
Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) : ' Of )>e deth of sir Roger Mortymer, erle of 
}>e Marche.' ' And so hit bifel atte }>at tyme fiat sir Roger Mortymer, erle of )>e 
Marche, was so proude and so hauten )>at he helde no lorde of f>e reame his pere ; 
and Jio bicome he so coveytous f>at he folvvede dame Isabel J>e quenes courte, fiat 
was )>e kynges moder Edwarde, and biset his penyworthis with j>e officers of fie 
quenes housholde, in )>e same maner as }>e kynges officers dede. And so he made 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 22J 

his takynges as touching vitailles and also of cariages ; and alle he dede for 
encheson of spenses, for to gadere tresour ; and so he dede withoute nombre in 
alle Jat he myjte. Tho made he him wonder privee with the quene Isabelle, and 
so moche lordeship and retenewe had, so fiat alle f>e grete lordes of Engelonde of 
him were adrad. Wherfor f>e kyng and his counsele towarde him were agrevede, 
and ordeynede amonges ham for to undone him thurgh pure reson and lawe, for 
encheson j>at kyng Edwarde, j>at was )>e kynges fader, treytoursly thurj him was 
mordred in J>e castel of Berkela, as bifore is seide more plenerly. And som f>at 
were of the kynges courte loveden J>e Mortymer, and tolde him in privetee how 
f>at j>e kyng and his counsel were aboute fro day to day him for to shende and 
undone. Wherfor }>e Mortymer was sore anoyede and angry as )ie devel ayens 
hem J>at were of j>e kynges councele, and seide }>at he wolde of hem bene avengede 
how so ever he toke on. Hit was nought longe afterwarde )>at kyng Edwarde and 
dame Philipe, his wife, and dame Isabel, f>e kynges moder, and sir Roger 
Mortymer wente unto Notyngham, }>er for to soiourne. And so hit fel j>at quene 
Isabelle, thurgh counselle of j>e Mortymer, toke to hire J>e keyes of }>e yates of }>e 
castel of Notyngham, so j>at no man myjt come noj>er in ne oute by nyjt, but 
thurgh }>e comaundement of fie Mortymer, ne }>e kyng ne none of his counsel. 
And |>at tyme hit fel so f>at the Mortymer as a devel for wrath bollede, and also 
for wrath }>at he had ayens towarde )>e kynges men Edwarde, and principally 
ayens hem f>at him had accusede to j>e kyng of j>e deth of sir Edwardes fader. 
And prively a councele was taken bitwen )>e quene Isabelle and Jie Mortymer and 
the bisshop of Lincoln and sir Symonde of Bereforde and sir Hugh of Trompetone 
and o)>er prive of her councele, for to undone hem alle }>at had accusede )>e 
Mortymer unto )>e kyng of his fadres deth, of tresoun and of felonye. Wherfor al 
)>o f>at were of j>e kynges counsel, whan }>ei wiste of fie Mortymeres castyng, 
prively come to }>e kyng Edwarde and seiden )>at f>e Mortymer wolden hem 
destroye for cause j>at )>ei had accusede him of kyng Edwardus deth his fader, and 
prayede him j>at he wolde mayntene hem in here trewe quarelle. And J>e kyng 
grauntede hem hire bone, and seide he wolde mayntene hem in hire rijte. And 
these were )>e lordes to pursewe }>is quarelle : sir William Mountagu, sir Humfrey 
de Boungh, sir William his broj>er, sir Rafe of Stafford, sir Robert of Hufforde, 
sir William of Clynton, sir John Nevile of Horneby, and meny other of hire 
consente; and alle {>ese sworen uppon a boke to mayntene the querel in as moche 
as )>ei myjte. And hit bifel so after )>at sir William Mountagu ne none of 
)>e kynges frendes moste noujte bene herburghede in fie castel for )>e Mortymer, 
but wente and tuke hire herburghe in diverse places in J>e toune of Notyngham ; 
and JK> were f>ei sore adrad leste } Mortymer shulde hem destroye. And in haste 
)>er come to f>e kyng Edwarde William Mountagu, }>er }>at he was in his castelle, and 
prively tolde him )>at he ne none of his companye shulde nought take J>e Mortymer 
withoute councel and helpe of William of Elande, constable of )>e same castel. 
" Now certis," quo)) j>e kyng, " I leve yow ful wel, and f>erfor I councel yow j>at ye 
gone to f>e saide constable, and comaundith him in my name f>at he be youre frende 
and helpe for to take )>e Mortymer, alle f>ing lefte, uppon perel of life and 

Gg2 



228 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

of lyme." "Sir," quoth Mountague }>o, "Sir, my lorde, graunt mercie." Tho 
wente furth )>e forsaide Mountagu and come to )>e constable of ) castelle and tolde 
him fie kynges wille ; and he answerde and seide j>e kynges wille shulde be done 
in as moche as he myjte, and wolde noujte spare for no maner deth, and so he 
swore and made his othe. Tho saide sir William of Mountagu to f>e constable, in 
heryng of alle hem J>at wer helpyng to )>e querell : " Now certis, dere frende, us 
behove)) for to werche and done by youre queyntyse to take )>e Mortymer, sith )>at 
ye ben keper of J>e castelle, and have)) j keyes in youre warde." " Sire," quoth 
j>e constable, " wile ye understonde )>at )>e gatis of )>e castel beth lokede with )>e 
lokis )>at dame Isabel sende hider; bi nyjte she hath )>e keyes )>erof, and leith 
hem under the chevisel of hire bedde unto )>e morue, and so I may noujte 
come into )>e castel by }>e yates in no maner wise. But I knowe an alee )>at 
stretcheth oute of )>e warde under erthe into )>e castel, j>at goth into )>e weste; 
whiche alee dame Isabel, )>e quene, ne none of hire men, ne )>e Mortymer, ne none 
of his company, knowith hit noujt; and so I shal lede yow thurgh )>at alee and so 
ye shulle come into )>e castelle, withoute aspics of eny man }>at beth youre enemyes." 
And )>e same nyjte sir William Mountagu and alle j>e lordes of his querelle and )>e 
same constable also wente hem to horse, and maden semblaunt as hit were for to 
wende oute of ]>e Mortymeris sijt. But anone, as )>e Mortymer herde )>is tithing, 
he wende )>at )>ei wolde have gone over )>e see for drede of him ; and anone he 
and his company nome councel amonges hem, for to lette hire passage, and sente 
lettres anone unto )>e portis, so )>at none of )>e grete lordes shulde wende home 
into hire centre, but if he were arreste and taken. And, amonge other Jiinges, 
William Elande, constable of }>e forsaide castel, priviliche ladde sire William 
Mountagu and his companye by }>e forsaide wey under erth, so til )>ei comen into 
)>e castel, and wente up into )>e toure, )>er }>at j>e Mortymer was in. But sir Hugh 
of Trompetone hem ascriede hidously and seide: "A ! treytours, it is al for noujte 
}>at ye beth come into j>is castel. Ye shulde die yit in evel deth everichone." 
And anone one of hem J>at was in Mountagues companye up with a mace and smote 
)>e same Hugh uppon )>e hede, )>at )>e brayne brake oute and fel on f>e ground ; 
and so was he dede in evel deth. Tho nomen )>ei )>e Mortymer, as he armede him 
at f>e toures dore, whan he herde )>e noyse of hem, for drede. And when }>e 
quene Isabel sawe }>at )>e Mortymer was taken, she made moche sorowe in herte 
and )>ese wordes unto hem seide: "Now, faire sires, I yow preye }>at ye done none 
harme unto his bodie, a worthi knyjte, our welbelovede frende, and cure dere 
cosyn." Tho wente )>ei )>ens and comen and broujte j>e Mortymer and presente 
him unto }>e kyng Edwarde ; and he comaunded to bring him into safe warde. 
But anone, as )*i )>at were consente unto )>e Mortymeris doyng herde telle )>at he 
was taken, )>ei wente and hid hem, and priveliche by nyjte wente oute of the toune 
everych on his side, with hevy herte and mournyng, and levede uppon hire landes 
as wel as )>ei myjte. And so that same yeer j>at ]>e Mortymer was take, he had 
atte his retenu ix. score knyjtes, withoute squyers and sergeauntes of armes and 
fote men. And }>o was }>e Mortymer lad to London, and sir Symound of Bere- 
forde was ladde with him, and was take to )>e constable to kepe. But afterward 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 229 

was }>e Mortymeris life examynede atte Westmynstre, bifore )>e kyng and bifore 
alle )>e grete lordes of Engelonde, for perel J>at myjte falle to }>e reaume ; and to 
inquere also whiche were assentyng to sir Edwardis deth, )>e kynges fader ; and 
also, thurj whome )>e Scottis ascaped fro Stanhope into Scotlande, withoute }>e 
wille of kyng Edwarde ; and also, how }>e charter of Ragman was delyvered unto 
}>e Scottis, wherin )>e homages and )>e feautees of Scotlande were conteynede )>at 
}>e Scottis shulde done evermore unto J>e kynges of Engelonde for |>e reame of 
Scotlande. Wherfor in his absence he was dempnede to bene drawe and hongede 
for his tresoun. And )>is meschief come unto him in Seint Andrewes eve 
and in )>e yeer of Incarnacion of our Lorde lesu Criste M.CCC. and xxx 1 '.' 

Page 45, 1. 14. Ubi nimio fulsit honore, etc. Compare what Knyghton, 2552, says 
(not, however, referring to this particular occasion), as regards Mortimer's pride : 
' Illis diebus regina Isabella et Rogerus de Mortuo mari unanimi assensu appro- 
priaverunt sibi regalem potestatem in multis et regni thesaurum, et subpedita- 
verunt regem in tantum, quod non erat quisquam qui pro regis aut regni commodo 
loqui auderet, quod si quis faceret, in magnam ignominiam sui persecutus est ab 
eis. Multa et gravia onera patrise intulerunt ; et semper simul in uno hospitio 
hospitati sunt, unde multa obloquia et murmura de eis suspectuosa oriuntur. In 
tantum isti duo, regina et Rogerus, asciverunt sibi potestatem, quod comes 
Lancastrias Henricus, qui deputatus et ordinatus est capitalis custos et supremus 
consiliarius regis, in tempore coronationis, per communem assensum procerum et 
magnatum regni, pro meliori gubernaculo regis et regni, non potuit ei appropin- 
quare nee quicquam consilium dare.' 

The Brute chronicle (Harley MS. 2279) has the following : ' And now shul 
ye here of sir Roger }>e Mortymer of Wygemore, )>at desirede and coveytede to 
bene atte an hie state, so }>at }>e kyng grauntid him to ben callede j>e erle 
of J>e Marche thurgh alle his lordeship. And he become jro so proude and so 
hauten that he wolde lese and forsake J>e name f>at his aunceters had evere before, 
and for J>at incheson he lete him calle erle of the Marche, and none of )>e comonis 
of Engelonde durste call him by none o)>er name, for he was callede so by { 
kynges crie, }>at men shulde calle him erle of f>e Marche. And )>e Mortymere )>o 
bore him so hauten and so proute, ]>at wonder hit was to wite ; and also disgisede 
him with wonder riche clothes, oute of almaner reson both of shapyng and of 
weryng. Wherof j>e Englisshe men had grete wonder how and in what maner he 
myjte contreve or fynde suche maner pride. And )>ei seiden amonges hem alle 
comonly )>at his pride shulde noujte longe endure. And J same tyme sir Geffray 
J>e Mortymer, the yong, |>at was )>e Mortymers sone, lete him calle " kyng 
of folye"; and so hit bifel afterward in dede.' 

Page 46, 1. 16. Ocdderunt Hugonem de Turpintone. A pardon was issued to 
Edward Bohun and others for the slaying of Hugh de Turpington and Richard 
de Monmouth ' qui una cum Rogero de Mortuo mari, comite Marchias, resistebant 
dicto Edwardo,' etc. Calend. Rot. Patent. (4 Edw. iii.), 108. 



230 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 47, 1. I. Aptid Westrnonasterium, etc. This parliament was summoned on 
the 23rd October, and sat from the 26th November to the 6th December. 

1. 2. Tractus et suspensus. Le Bel, i. 99, and Froissart, i. 89, tell us that the 

same details were followed in the execution of Mortimer as in that of the younger 
Despenser. 

1. 10. Cause vero mortis, etc. See the original articles in Knyghton, 2556, and 

in Rot. ParL, ii. 52. 

Page 48, 1. 8. Rex .... transfretavit. Edward sailed from Dover on the 4th April, 
1331, leaving John of Eltham guardian of the realm during his absence. He 
returned on the 2Oth April. Foedera, ii. 815, 818. The ostensible reason of his 
journey was the discharge of a vow ; the real reason was the adjustment of 
certain points in dispute with France. 

1. 13. Apud Derteford solempne torneamentum. This took place on the 

2nd May. See the account, in the Annales Paidini, 352, of the proceedings and 
of the king's escape from accident by a restive horse. 

1. 14. In Chepe pulcherrima hastilndia. On the 22nd September there was 

a masquerade wherein appeared the king and his companions ' omnes splendido 
apparatu vestiti et ad similitudinem Tartarorum larvati . . . . et habebat unus- 
quisque miles a dextris unam dominam, cum cathena argentea earn ducendo. 
Rex vero habebat a latere suo dominam Elianorem sororem suam, puellam 
pulcherrimam.' Annal. Paulin., 354. 

1. 16. Set illese. The Annales Patilini, 355, tell a different story : 'Accidit 

autem primo die hastiludii mirabile infortunium ; solarium namque quod fuerat 
in transversum, in quo residebant regina et omnes aliae dominas ad spectaculum 
intuendum, . subito cecidit solotenus ; unde multi tam dominas quam milites 
graviter laesi et vix periculum mortis evaserunt.' 

1. 21. Papa . . . concessit regi decimas. This grant was made in April, 

1330. Fadera, ii. 786. 

Page 49, 1. 14. Propterea domini predicti nacti navigium, etc. Balliol sailed from 
Ravenspur on the 3 1st July. He landed on the 6th August at Kinghorn, where 
he was attacked, on landing, by the earl of Fife, whom he defeated. He occupied 
Dunfermline and, after a rest of two days, marched to the river Earn, where he 
found the earl of Mar's forces ready to oppose his passage. Crossing the stream 
by night, he successfully drove in the Scottish outposts ; but Mar concentrated 
his army and attacked him, as he advanced, at Gaskmoor or Dupplin Moor. 
The Scots were completely routed, and Mar, Menteith, and other leaders were 
among the slain. Perth was immediately occupied, and after a futile siege the 
Scots submitted. Balliol was crowned on the 24th September. See Gesta 
Edwardi HI (in Cronicles of Edw. I and Edw. II, Rolls Series) 103 ; Knyghton, 
2560 ; Chron. Lanercost, 268 ; Brute chronicle. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 231 

Page 50, 1. II. Continuata guerra Scotica. Balliol was driven out by a sudden 
rising on the 1 3th December. With the assistance of the English he laid siege 
to Berwick on the I2th March, 1333. Baker's 'circa festum Nativitatis sancti 
Johannis Baptiste" is far too late, that festival falling on the 24th June. Again, 
he sets Edward's arrival at the siege also too late, St. Margaret's day falling on 
the 2oth July. In Gesta Edwardi III the event is placed ' after Easter,' which 
in this year fell on the 4th April. 

1. 26. Ubi obsessi multos cum rege Anglie, etc. The Brute chronicle 

(Harley MS. 2279) describes the negotiations : ' And ye shullefi understonde }>at 
)>o j>at were in j>e toune of Berwick, thurgh hire comon councele and hire 
assente, lete crie uppon f>e wallis J>at j>ei myjte have pees of j>e Englissh men, 
and {>erof )>ei preyden j>e kyng and of his grace, and prayed him of trewis for 
viij. dayes, uppon J)is covenaunt : if )>ei were nojt reskewed in )>at side of }* 
toune towarde Scotlande of the Scottis within viij. dayes, )>at J>ei wolde yelde 
hem unto J>e kyng and }>e toun also. And to hold jns covenaunte j>ei proferde 
to the kyng xij. hostages oute of |>e toune of Berwike. Whan j>e hostages were 
delyverede unto J>e kynge, anone }>o of the toune senten unto }>e Scottis and tolde 
hem of hire sorwe and meschief. And }>e Scottis comyn j>o priveliche, over 
j>e water of Twede, to (>e bought of J>e abbay. And sir William Dyket, )>at )>o 
was stiward of Scotlande, and meny o)r }>at comen with him putte hem }>er in 
grete perile of hem self atte j>at tyme of hire life ; for )>ei comen over a brugge 
}>at was tobroken and f>e stones away, and meny of hire companye were {>er 
drenchede. But J>e forsaide William wente over and o)>er of his companye and 
come by )>e shippes of Engelonde, and quelde in a barge of Hulle xij. men, and, 
after, J>ei wente into }>e toune of Berwike bi j>e water side. Wherfore )>e Scottis 
helde \>o )>e toune rescuede, and axede hire hostages ayein of J>e kyng of 
Engelonde. And ]je kyng sente hem worde ayein J>at j>ei askede fie hostages with 
wronge, sith j>at }>ei comen into j>e toune by Engelonde side ; for covenaunt was 
bitwen hem }>at j>e toune shulde ben rescuede by |>e half of Scotland. And 
. anone kyng Edwarde comaundede to yelde j>e toune or he wolde have f 
hostages. And )>e Scottis seiden J>at )>e toune was rescuede wel inowe, and f>erto 
J>ei wolde holde hem. When kyng Edwarde sawe ]>e Scottis breke )>e 
covenauntes }>at j>ei made, he was wonder wroth, and anone lete take sir Thomas 
Fitz [William] and sir Alexander of Setone, wardeyne of Berwyke, )>e whiche 
Thomas was person of Dunbarre, and lete ham be take firste before ]>e other 
hostages, for encheson )>at sir Alexandres fader was keper of }>e toune. And 
)>e kyng comaundid evere day for to take ij. hostages of J>e toune, til }>at J>ei were 
alle done unto j>e de}>, but if )>ei yelden the toune. When }>ei of }>e toune herde 
)>es tithinges, )>ei bicomen wonder sorye, and sente to j>e kyng of Engelonde ]>at 
he wolde graunte hem oj>er viij. dayes of respite, so )>at bitwene ij c . men of armes 
and xx tl . men of armes myjt by strength gone bitwene hem into )>e toune of 
Berwyk, hem for to vitaile, so {>at }>e toune moste be holde for rescued. And 
if hit so were f>at xxj. or xxij. or mo were slayne of jo cc. bifore seide, j>at }>e 



232 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

toune shulde noujt bene holde for reskewid. And j>is covenaunt to ben halden, 
Ji sente to him oj>er xij. of j>e toune in hostage.' 

Page 51, 1. 2. In festo sancte virginis Margarete. The battle was fought on the 
eve of St. Margaret's day, viz. the igth July. The Brute chronicle gives the 
array of the Scottish army in four ' battles ' ; the English array is described in 
Gesta Edwardi III. Edward's letter to the archbishop of York, announcing 
the victory, is printed in Gesta Ed-wardi III, 116. The duplicate letter to the 
archbishop of Canterbury appears in the Fcedera, ii. 866. 

1. 18. In principio certaminis, etc. 'Whereupon at length the two armies 

appoynted to fight, and setting out upon Halidowne hill, there commeth forth 
of the Scots campe a certaine stout champion of great stature, who, for a fact 
by him done, was called Turnebull : he, standing in the midst betwixt the two 
armies, challenged all the Englishmen, any one of them, to fight with him a 
combat : at length one Robert Venale, knight, a Norfolke man, requesting licence 
of the king, being armed, with his sword drawne, marcheth toward the champion, 
meeting by the way a certaine blacke mastiffe dogge, which waited on the 
champion, whom with his sword he sodanily strake and cut him off at his loynes ; 
at the sight whereof the master of the dogge slaine was much abashed, and in 
his battell more warie and fearefull : whose left hand and head also afterward 
this worthy knight cut off.' Stow, Annales, 359. Sir Robert de Benhale, the hero 
of this fight, was distinguished later in the reign in the foreign campaigns. He 
married Eva, daughter of sir John Clavering and widow of sir James Audley, 
and had with her the lordship of Horseford, co. Norfolk. He was summoned 
to parliament, as baron, in 1360. Blomefield's Norfolk, x. 434. 

Page 52, 1. 13. Rex ad obsidionem, etc. Berwick surrendered on the 2Oth July. 
The siege of Dunbar, referred to in the next sentence, is the famous siege of 
1338, when ' Black Agnes,' the earl of March's wife, so gallantly defended the 
fortress for some five months. March was not present. 

Page 53, 1. 10. Profectus Eboracum, tenuit parliamentum. The parliament of York 
sat from the zist February to the 2nd March. 

1. 17. Ad sequens festum sancti lohannis. Baker is again careless in his 

dating. Balliol did homage to Edward at Newcastle on the igth June. The 
Nativity of St. John Baptist falls on the 24th June. The form of homage, in 
French, is given in Gesta Edwardi III, 118. 

1. 22. Parliamentum Londoniis celebrandum. It sat I9th-23rd September. 

1. 27. Cepenmt R. de Talebot. He was taken by sir William Keith, of Galston, 

when attempting to pass, with a body of soldiers, into England, and was sent 
prisoner to Dumbarton. See also Gesta Edwardi HI, 1 19. 

Page 54, 1. 8. Sic metrificavit. A full copy of the verses will be found in 
Murimuth, 173 : 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 233 

' Trigamus est Adam, ductus cupidine quadam. 
Thomam neglexit : Wolstanum non bene rexit ; 
Swithunum maluit. Cur ? Quia plus valuit.' 
See also Wharton, Angl. Sacr., ii. 534. 

Page 55, 1. 9. lohannes archiepiscopus, etc. ' John, archbishop of Canterbury, went 
over the sea to Philip de Valoys, king of Fraunce, requesting of him the 
continuance of peace and amitie betwixt the two kingdomes to be maintained. 
Secondly, that all townes and castles taken before time by his father should 
be restored to the king of England. Thirdly, that the said French king should 
sweare never to give aid to the Scottes against the king of England : under 
which conditions the two kings of both realmes should prepare to travaile 
towards the Holy Land, and to fight against the enemies of Christ. But the 
French king accounted the king of England not worthie of his friendship, so 
long as he continued warres against the Scots, his friends, whome he said were 
just men. Unto the second petition he would not otherwise consent thereunto, 
than if all charges were repaid againe, which his father Charles de Valoys laid 
out in the warres of Gascoigne. Thirdly, he said that he was a friend and lover 
of justice and equitie, which he would never swarve from, neither for friendship 
nor affinitie, but he would, by all meanes he could, molest and vexe all breakers 
of the peace of the kingdome of Scotland : for (saith he) there shall never be 
perfect peace and quietnesse among Christians before the king of Fraunce sit in 
place of judgement for the right of the kingdomes of France, England, and 
Scotland.' Stow, Annales, 361. 

Page 56, 1. 13. Obsidionem fecit amoveri. This is incorrect. Beaumont was 
besieged in the castle of Dundarg on the Moray Firth, and was at length 
compelled to surrender. See Gesta Edwardi III, 121. 

1. 15. Tirannus Francorum misit suos nuncios. They were Jean Hautfrine, 

bishop of Avranches, and Pierre de Thierceleu. The king undertook to grant 
the truce by his letter to the ambassadors of the 4th April. Fcedera, ii. 904. 

1. 21. Parliamento apud Eboracum celebrato. It sat from the 26th May to 

the 3rd June. 

26. Comes de Morref. The earl of Moray was taken prisoner near the border 

when returning from escorting the count of Namur, who had been taken prisoner, 
to the English frontier. Gesta Edwardi III, 123. A safe-conduct was granted 
to sir William Keith and others bringing Richard Talbot, prisoner in Scotland, 
to the English marches, 2nd April, 1335. Fcedera, ii. 904. Atholl was attacked 
and slain on his march to besiege the castle of Kildrummie, 2gth November. 

Page 57, 1. 7. Edwardus le Bohun. Brother of John, earl of Hereford, and son of 
Humphrey, earl of Hereford, who was slain at Boroughbridge. 

1. 20. Multi tractatus pads. The abortive treaty with Atholl is given in 

Avesbury, 298. See the correspondence between Philip and Edward respecting 
negotiations, in Gesta Edwardi III, 124. 

Hh 



234 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 67, 1. 25. Parliamentum Northamptonie. The parliaments of 1336 were : at 
Westminster nth-2oth March; and at Nottingham 23rd-26th September. 
Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii. 412. A council appears to have been held at Northampton 
in the latter part of June. Foedera, ii. 940. A parliament was held at Northampton 
in July-August, 1338. 

Page 58, 1. 22. Pro sepultura. domini loannis Deltham. John of Eltham, Edward's 
younger brother, was born on the I5th August, 1315 ; created earl of Cornwall, 
1328 ; and died at Perth, October, 1336. 

1. 27. Dominum Henricum, etc. The six new earls were : Henry ' of Grosmont,' 

son of Henry, earl of Lancaster, born about 1299 ; summoned to parliament 
as Henry de Lancaster, 3rd Feb., 1335 ; created earl of Derby, i6th March, 
1337; succeeded as 4th earl of Lancaster, 22nd Sept., 1345 ; created earl of 
Lincoln, 2Oth Aug., 1349; and duke of Lancaster, 6th March, 1352 ; died I3th 
March, 1361. William de Bohun, son of Humphrey, 4th earl of Hereford, 
born about 1314 ; created earl of Northampton, i6th March, 1337 ; constable of 
England, I2th June, 1338 ; died l6th Sept., 1360. William de Montagu, son 
of William, baron Montagu, born in 1301 ; succeeded as 3rd baron Montagu, 
6th Nov., 1319; created earl of Salisbury, l6th March, 1337; marshal of 
England, 2Oth Sept., 1338 ; died 3oth Jan., 1344. Robert de Ufford, son of 
Robert, baron Ufford, born in 1298 ; succeeded as 2nd baron Ufford, 9th 
Sept., 1316 ; created earl of Suffolk, l6th March, 1337 ; died 4th Nov., 1369. 
Hugh de Audley, son of Hugh, baron Audley, born before 1298; succeeded 
as 2nd baron Audley in 1326; created earl of Gloucester, i6th March, 1337 ; 
died loth Nov., 1347. William de Clinton, son of John, 5th baron Clinton, 
born about 1304; created earl of Huntingdon, l6th March, 1337; died 3ist 
Aug., 1354. Doyle, Baronage. 

Page 59, 1. 16. Habitis Londoniis parliament o, etc. The parliament sat at West- 
minster from the 26th September to the 4th October. 

1. 27. Triginta milia saccorum. See documents relating thereto, under dates 

of 1st and l6th August, in Fosdera, ii. 988, 989. See also Knyghton, 2570. 

Page 60, 1. 4. Waltero le Magne. Sir Walter Mauny, or Manny, was the son of 
a knight of Hainault, and was born at Valenciennes, thus being a fellow towns- 
man of Froissart. He came to England in the train of queen Philippa. He was 
knighted in 1331, and rapidly rose to distinction, serving in the various cam- 
paigns of Edward's reign. He was summoned to parliament, as baron, in 1347 ; 
became K.G. in 1359 ; and died in January, 1372. He married Margaret, daughter 
of Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk. 

1. 6. Qiti omnes amiciciam, etc. The formal agreement with the counts of 

Hainault and Guelders and the marquis of Juliers, to levy troops, is dated 24th 
May, 1337. Fcedera, ii. 970. The principal ambassador, with whom however 
many others were associated, was Henry Burghersh or Burwash, bishop of Lincoln. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 235 

Page 60, 1. 8. Prefatus Walterus, etc. Baker here simply follows Murimuth. The 
attack on Cadzand, an island at the mouth of the western Scheldt, which was held 
by Guy, bastard brother of Louis of Flanders, was the object of an organized expe- 
dition under the earl of Derby. The garrison was routed on the loth November. 

1. 1 6. Duos cardinales. They were Pedro Gomez de Barroso, cardinal of 

St. Praxedes, and Bertrand de Montfavez, cardinal of St. Mary in Aquiro. They 
arrived in England at the end of November, 1337. On the 24th December 
Edward engaged himself to them not to invade France before the 1st March; 
and the time was afterwards extended to midsummer, but revoked on the 6th 
May. Foedera, ii. 1006, 1007, 1034. 

Page 61, 1. 4. Optulit, inguam, etc. Compare the schedule of negotiations, 28th 
August, 1337, in the Gesta Edwardi III, 131, and in Fcedera, ii. 994. 

1. 9. Secum habuerunt lohannem, etc. John Stratford, archbishop of Canterbury, 

Richard Bury, bishop of Durham, Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk, sir Geoffrey 
le Scrope, and John de Ufford, archdeacon of Ely, were the English envoys, 
appointed on the 2 1st June. Fcedera, ii. 1043. 

1. 25. Qui eraUxvij. kalendas Augusti. Edward sailed from Orwell (apparently 
in the ship ' Christopher ') between six and seven o'clock in the morning (' media 
hora inter horam primam et secundam') on the l6th July. Fcedera, ii. 1050. 

Page 62, 1. 3. Postea rex Coloniam adivit. Baker, following Murimuth, has here got 
into confusion. There was but one meeting, that at Coblentz, between Edward and 
Louis of Bavaria. Edward set out from Antwerp on the i6th August, 1338, 
reached Cologne on the 23rd, and Coblentz on the 3isL The ceremony of his 
installation as vicar of the empire took place on the 5th September. See Pauli, 
Pictures of Old England (English ed. 1861), pp. 151 sqq. ; and Murimuth, 84. 

1. 12. Concessa fuit regi lana. At the parliament of Northampton, 26th July 

2nd August. See Murimuth, 85, 86 ; and Knyghton, 2571. 

1. 22. Ceperunt v. magnas naves. Murimuth, p. 87, has the 2gth September 

as the date of their capture. The continuator of Nangis, ii. 161, gives the names 
of two of the ships : the ' Christopher ' and the ' Edward.' From Murimuth, 
106, we learn that two, the ' Christopher ' and the ' Black Cog,' were recap- 
tured at the battle of Sluys ; and Edward writing to his son after the battle 
(Nicolas, Hist, of the Navy, ii. 6l) also mentions the recovery of the ' Christopher.' 
Hemingburgh, ii. 356, states that three cogs, the ' Edward,' the ' Catharine,' and 
the ' Rose,' ' olim de manibus Anglorum in mari sublatos,' were retaken. Baker, 
69, it will be observed has, through misunderstanding Murimuth's narrative, 
assumed that the two great French ships, the 'Saint Denis' and the 'Saint George," 
also formed part of the English shipping which the French had previously captured. 
Minot (Poems, ed. J. Hall, 1887, p. 8) has gone completely wrong in laying the 
scene off Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight, and in making the king take part in the 
fight. 

H h 2 



236 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 62, 1. 24. Feria sexta, etc. Murimuth,87, dates the attack on Southampton on 
Monday after Michaelmas, that is, the 5th October. Baker's 'feria sexta' appears 
to mean the same thing : the sixth day after the feast. Froissart, i. 1 58, says that 
the French admiral, Hue Quie"ret, appeared before the place on a Sunday, when 
the people were at mass. He would thus place the event on the 4th October, 
a date followed by others. The son of the king of Sicily, who is here said to have 
been slain by the undiscriminating rustic, may have been a natural son of Robert 
of Anjou, king of Naples. As Minot says, p. 8 : 

'Sum was knokked on }>e hevyd 

pat J>e body }>are bilevid ; 

Sum lay stareand on j>e sternes, 

And sum lay knoked out j>aire hernes.' 

Stow, Annales, 365, translates thus : ' The fourth of October fiftie gallies, well 
manned and furnished, came to South-hampton about nine of the clocke, and 
sacked the towne, the townsmen running away for feare. By the break of the 
next day they which fled, by helpe of the countrey thereabout, came against the 
pyrats and fought with them, in the which skirmish were slaine to the number of 
three hundred pyrates, togither with their captaine, a young souldiour, the king of 
Sicils sonne. To this young man the French king had given whatsoever he got 
in the kingdome of England. But he, being beaten downe by a certaine man of 
the countrey, cryed "Rancon"; notwithstanding, the husbandman laid him on 
with his clubbe, till he had slaine him, speaking these words : " Yea (quoth he), 
I know well enough thou art a Francon, and therefore .shalt thou dye," for he 
understood not his speech, neither had he any skill to take gentlemen prisoners 
and to keepe them for ransome. Wherefore the residue of those Gennowayes, 
after they had set the towne a fire and burnt it up quite, fled to their galleyes, and 
in their flying certaine of them were drowned. And after this the inhabitants of 
the town compassed it about with a strong and great wall.' 

Knyghton, 2573, notices the attack: 'Et sic applicuerunt apud Suthamptoniam, 
et interfecerunt in ea quos repererunt, et rapuerunt, et plures de nobilioribus villae 
in domibus propriis suspenderunt, et in flammam ignis totam villam in circuitu 
immani crudelitate dederunt ; set, accurrentibus compatriotis, naves ascenderunt 
et ahum mare petierunt.' 

Page 63, 1. 14. Literas redargucionis. Pope Benedict's remonstrance was dated the 
I3th November, 1338. Fadera, ii. 1063. 

1. 1 8. In vigilia Annunciacionis. 'On the even of the Annunciation of our 

Lady, eleven gallies approching to the towne of Harwich, they cast fire therein : 
the force whereof by a contrary wind was staied, so that no great harm was done 
thereby. Furthermore, in the same yeere, about the feast of Pentecost, certaine 
pyrats of Normandie and Genoa (shipped in gallyes and pinnaces) made a shew 
on the sea about South-hampton, as they would have come aland, and threatened 
sore to spoile the town againe, but, perceiving the townsmen ready to resist them, 
they returned to the He of Wight, but entred not, being put backe by the inhabi- 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 237 

tants : whereupon they sailed about the coasts, seeking to land in places lesse 
defended, and after came to Hastings, where they brent fishers cottages, with their 
boats, and slew many men. Also, they made great shewes many times against the 
He of Thanet, Dover, and Fulkestone, but in those places they did little harme, 
except to poore fishermen : thence they sailed about to the havens of Cornwall 
and Devonshire, doing in all places much harme to the fishermen, and such ships 
as they found unmanned they fiered. At length they entred Plimmouth Haven, 
where they brent certaine great ships and a great part of the towne. These were 
met by Hugh Courtney, earle of Devonshire, a knight of fourescore yeeres old, 
being accompanied with many souldiours of his countrey, who, having lost at the 
first front a fewe of his men which were slaine by the quarels of the French, joyned 
to fight with them hand to hand, and, slaying many of the pyrates upon drie land, 
chased the residue which fledde to take their gallyes, and, being not able to come 
nigh them by wading, they were drowned in the sea to the number of five 
hundred.' Stow, Annales, 366. 

Page 63, 1. 20. Ulterius in anno, etc. Knyghton, 2573, reports a second attack on 
Southampton as earlier in the year, but it was probably the one here referred to : 
' Iterum, circa Pascha, redierunt Normanni, cum xj. galeis et viij. spinachiis, 
cum manu bene armata circiter iiij. mille virorum, et petierunt villam de Suthamp- 
tonia ad opus ducis Normannias; et, cum vidissent audaciam Anglorum sic 
paratam et defensionem resistibilem, non audebant terram Angliaa pede suo 
attingere, set altum mare tenuerunt pras timore ne Anglici eis insequerentur. 
Nam Anglici proferebant eis opportunum ingressum in terram Anglias, ad refocil- 
landum se et suos per duos dies, eo pacto quod post biduum pugnarent x. cum x. 
vel xx. cum xx. aut aliquo alio modo per assensum partium ; et noluerunt, set 
absque opere abierunt." 

1. 27. Apud Hastinghe. According to Knyghton, 2573, a great part of the town 

was burnt. Corpus Christi day in 1339 fell on the 27th May. 

Page 64, 1. 5. Hugo de Courtenay. His age is here a little exaggerated. He was 
born in 1275, became 5th baron Courtenay in 1291, was summoned to parliament 
5th Feb. 1299, was created earl of Devon 22nd Feb. 1335, and died before 
January, 1341. As chief commissioner of array for cos. Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, 
and Dorset, he would take command of the forces which repelled the French 
attack. See Doyle, Baronage, \. 574. 

Other details of the engagement are given in Harley MS. 1729, which was used 
by Hearne for his Anon. Hist. Edwardi HI. See Murimuth, 90. 

I. 12. Nova funesta, etc. ' Newes being brought to the king, lying in 

Brabant, that divers portes of England were spoyled with the pirates, hee declared 
to his friendes, to wit, the marques of Juliacense and a certaine cardinall, what 
great causes hee had to revenge himselfe upon them, and in the end was answered 
by the cardinall as followeth : " The kingdome of Fraunce (saide he) is compassed 
about with a threede of silke, which cannot bee broken by all the strength of 



238 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

the kingdome of England ; wherefore, my lord king, you must stay for the comming 
of the Dutchmen and other your friends and confederates, the greater part whereof 
you now lacke." The king taking great disdaine hereat, staying nothing at all, 
said that he would ride into the land of France with banner displaied, and that 
there he would looke for that mightie power of the French men, and that he would 
either win the same against any man that should withstand him, or else honestly 
die in the field.' Stow, Annales, 367. 

Page 64, 1. 29. In vigtlia sancti Mathei, etc. ' In the vigil of S. Matthy king Edward 
began to ride, with banner displaied and twelve thousand men of armes, against 
the French king, burning towns and castles whersoever he came. In the first 
night, being very darke, Geffrey lord Scrope, one of the kings justices, led one 
of the cardinals, to wit, Bertrand de Mount Faventine, of the title of our Lady, 
up into an high tower, shewing him the whole land about toward Fraunce, 
for the compasse of fifteene leagues, to be in every place on fire, saying these 
words : " Sir, doth not this silken threed, wherewith Fraunce is compassed, seeme 
to you to be broken ? " The cardinal, answering nothing, fell down as dead for 
sorow and feare. In this sort king Edward made journeyes into Fraunce daily, 
continuing the space of five weekes, and caused his armie to travell in such sort 
that they destroyed the whole countrey of Cambray, Tourney, Vermoden, and 
Laudenew, excepting those cities which were sworne to him, with churches and 
castles. The inhabitants of the countrey fled, neither was there any man that 
durst resist his enterprises, although the French king had gathered great armies 
within the walled cities, himselfe lying in the strong towne of Saint Quintines, 
what time the Brabanters had determined to returne home againe and were 
entred into their journey, being forced thereunto partly by want of victuals and 
partly by the coldnesse of winter which grew on fast. The French king, under- 
standing thereof, began to moove himselfe with his army toward the campe of the 
king of England, who, gladly looking for his comming, called backe againe 
the Brabanders, and, having received letters from the French king that he would 
joyne battell against him, he sent him word backe againe that he would stay 
for him three dayes. Wherefore oh the fourth day, the king looking for the 
French kings comming, which would come no neerer them then two miles off, 
breaking bridges and felling of trees, that the king of England might not follow 
him, hee fled to Paris ; whereupon king Edward returned by Hanonia into 
Brabant, where he continued almost the whole winter.' Stow, Annales, 367. 

Page 65, 1. I. Galfridus Scrap. Geoffrey le Scrope became justice of the Common 
Pleas in 1323, and chief justice of the King's Bench in 1324 ; after a brief removal 
at the beginning of Edward iii.'s reign, he was restored in 1328. He died at 
Ghent in 1340. He was a diplomatist and soldier, as well as lawyer. Foss, 
Judges of England, iii. 493. 

1. 8. Per quinque septimanas. Edward's incursion lasted just five weeks, from 

the 2oth September to the 25th October. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 239 

Page 65, 1. 27. Phi nota, etc. So in ' An Invective against France,' a poem printed in 
Political Poems, ed. Wright (Rolls Series), i. 26, is the line (21) 
' Phy fcetet, lippus oculis nocet, ergo Philippus.' 

I. 29. Cumqite Brabantini, etc. ' In vigilia sancti Lucas evangelists [i;th 

October] venit ad regem dux Brabantias, victualium allegans penuriam, simul 
frigus hyemale quasi prassens amplius morari suum non esse commodum assere- 
bat. Cui rex, tristis valde effectus, dixit : " Dilectissime consanguinee, procedamus 
ad perficiendum negotium inceptum supplico ; Deus enim sicut incepit ita et 
auxilium nobiscum continuabit. Copiam victualium nostrorum omnem tibi tuisque 
conferimus, carectas nostras onusque grande caragii, quod habemus, relinquimus, 
de peditibus equites faciemus, et, quousque inimicis nostris obviaverimus, equi- 
tando indies festinare debemus, et sic victualium abundantiam Deo propitio 
reperimus." Dux vero ceterique magnates, habito consilio, ulterius procedere 
suum nequaquam fore proficuum communiter inter se dicebant.' Hemingburgh, 
ii. 341. 

Page 66, 1. I. Movit se versus exerdtum. On Sunday, the i;th October, Etienne 
de la Baume, the master of the French crossbowmen, wrote, from St. Quentin, 
to Hugh of Geneva, in Edward's service, to arrange a battle, and enclosed a 
challenge, in Philip's name, to Edward, to fight on the following Thursday or 
Friday. Hugh replied on the next day, writing from Origny-sainte-Benoite, 
Edward's headquarters, which lies a little to the east of St. Quentin, and accept- 
ing the challenge. On Tuesday, the 1 9th October, the king of Bohemia and the 
duke of Lorraine wrote a confirmatory letter to Hugh of Geneva, still dating from 
St. Quentin. On Wednesday Edward prepared for battle, falling back and 
choosing his ground, apparently, in front of Flamengerie ; while Philip moved 
out to Buironfosse. The battle did not come off. Philip withdrew on the 
Saturday to St. Quentin ; and Edward, after waiting in the neighbourhood till 
the following Monday, also retired. The correspondence arranging the battle 
is given, in French, in Lettenhove's Froissart, xviii. 87 ; and, in a Latin form, 
in Hemingburgh, ii. 342. It is rather curious that the challenge should have 
been conveyed by this means instead of directly. But the correspondents held 
high rank. Etienne de la Baume, called ' le Gallois,' lord of Valusin, was of an 
ancient Burgundian house. He afterwards became lieutenant of Languedoc 
and lieutenant-general of the king's armies. He had served also under the 
count of Savoy, and in that service no doubt was the comrade of Hugh of 
Geneva, whom he also styles his cousin. The latter was the son of Ame" ii., 
count of Geneva, and was lord of Vareys and Authon. He enlisted in Edward's 
service in 1337, and was employed in many embassies and affairs of trust down 
to 1360. He was appointed Edward's lieutenant in Aquitaine in 1340. (Letten- 
hove's Froissart, xx. 267, xxi. 401 ; Diet, de la Noblesse, ii. 530 ; Ftedera, ii. 
291, etc.) Edward's own account of the campaign is contained in the letter 
which he addressed to his son Edward and his council from Brussels on the 
1st November (Avesbury, 304). From this source Knyghton has taken details 



240 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

for his history. Froissart expresses rather the French view of things. The 
continuator of Nangis, ii. 164, gives four reasons for Philip's delay in attacking : 
' primo, Deo reverentiam, quia, ut dictum est, dies Veneris erat ; secundo, quia 
cum exercitu suo jam per quinque leucas equitaverat ; tertio, quia ipsi nee equi 
sui de tota ista die comederant nee biberant; quarto, difficultatem cujusdam 
passus inter ipsum et inimicos suos positi.' To add to these rather lame excuses, 
Froissart also states, i. 182, that king Robert of Naples sent word that the stars 
were unpropitious : ' Et avoit trouve' en 1'astrologie et par experience que, se li 
rois de France se combatoit au roy d'Engleterre, il convenoit qu'il fust des- 
confis.' 

Page 66, 1. 6. Arboribus cesis. So in Edward's letter (Avesbury, 306) : ' Et fisrent fosses 
entour eaux, et couperent lez grosses arbres, pur nous tolir la venue a eaux.' 
Minot (p. 13) has the verse : 

' It semid he was ferd for strokes 
When he did fell his grete okes 

Obout his pauilyoune ; 
Abated was J>an all his pride, 
For langer }>are durst he noght bide, 
His bost was broght all doune.' 

1. II. Media tempore, etc. ' In this winter time king Edward grewe into great 

friendship with the Flemings, who prepared at all times to shewe their selves as 
good subjects unto him, swearing to doe homage and fealtie, upon condition that 
he would call himselfe king of Fraunce, and in token thereof would from thence- 
forth give armes with flouredeluces, for otherwise they durst not obey him, for 
feare of the pope's curse, which was to be laid upon them, if at any time they 
rebelled against the king of Fraunce. Wherefore, by the counsell of the Flemings 
and consent of his noblemen, he agreed thereunto, and tooke upon him both the 
name and armes of the king of Fraunce. He also tooke Flaunders under his 
government, the people whereof long after in all matters were to him obedient, as 
unto the king of Fraunce conquerour. Touching the title and armes aforesaid, the 
French king said to certaine Englishmen sent unto him : " Our cousin (quoth he) 
doth wrongfully beare quartered armes of England and Fraunce, which matter 
notwithstanding doth not much displease us, for that he is descended from the 
weaker side of our kinne, and therefore, as being a bachelor, we would be content 
to graunt him licence to beare part of our armes of Fraunce ; but, whereas in his 
scales and letters patents he nameth himselfe as well king of England as of 
Fraunce, and doth set the first quarter of his armes with leopards, before the 
quarter of lilies, it doth grieve us very much, making apparent to the beholders 
that the little iland of England is to be preferred before the great kingdome of 
Fraunce." To whom sir John of Shordich, knight, made answere that it was the 
custome of men in those dayes to set the title and armes of their progenitors 
before the armes and title of the right descending of their mother ; " and thus of 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 241 

dutie and reason (said he) doth my lord the king of England preferre his armes." '- 
Stow, Annales, 368. 

Page 66,1. 17. Assumptis nomine et armis regiis Francis. Edward is said to have 
assumed the title of king of France as early as the 7th October, 1337 ; but he did 
not add his French regnal year in dating documents until the beginning of 1340. 
The earliest instance occurs in a deed dated at Ghent on the 26th January of that 
year, 'anno regni nostri Francias primo,' etc. On the 2 1st February he made 
known to the sheriffs his assumption of the title and the adoption of a new seal, 
quartering the French arms, which was delivered to the Master of the Rolls on 
the 1st March. Bond, Handy Book for -verifying Dates, 281. 

1. 29. Johannes de Schordich. John of Shoreditch, a lawyer, was first employed 

in diplomatic affairs in the reign of Edward ii., and for his services was made 
chief clerk of the Common Bench and received the manor of Passenham, co. 
Northampton. He was, however, disturbed in the enjoyment of these honours by 
queen Isabella; but received compensation on petition to parliament in 1330. 
He was frequently employed on diplomatic missions in the reign of Edward Hi., 
and was appointed second baron of the Exchequer on the loth November, 1336, 
having been knighted about 1333 (Foss, Judges of England, iii. 506). He was 
murdered by four of his servants, at Ware, on the loth July, 1345: ' Dominus 
Johannes de Schordich, doctor legum advocatus et miles, de concilio regis ex'sistens, 
per quatuor familiares suos in quadam domo sua juxta Ware fuit clandestine 
suffocatus' (Murimuth, 171). 

Page 67, 1. 13. Rex in Angliam regressus. Edward returned on the 2ist February, 
1340. Parliament (the second of this year) met on the 2gth March. ' Instead of 
a tenth, a ninth sheaf, fleece, and lamb were granted by the prelates, barons, and 
knights of the shires, for two years : the towns granted a ninth of goods ; for the 
rest of the nation, who had no wool and yet did not come into the class of town 
population, a gift of a fifteenth was added : and besides all this a custom of forty 
shillings on each sack of wool, on each three hundred woolfells and every last of 
leather.' Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii. 415. 

1. 1 8. Quod nullus Anglicus, etc. One of the four statutes passed this year : 

that the English should not be rendered subject to the French crown by Edward's 
assumption of the title of king of France. 

1. 20. Cito post Pascha. ' Immediately after Easter the carles of Salisburie and 

Suffolke, being accompanied but with a fewe men, gave an assault unto the towne 
of Lile in Flaunders, which towne was confederate with the French king ; but they 
chasing the Frenchmen too farre within the gates, the percolices being let fall, 
they were beset with a multitude of men of armes, and being taken they were 
conveyed into France, fettered and shackeled with yron, although they had sworne 
to be true prisoners : they were drawne in a cart through the middest of every 
citie, towne, village, and hamlet, with great shoutes and cries, rayling on them : 
and at length being brought to the presence of the French king, he would have 

1 i 



242 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

most shamefully slaine them, had he not been otherwise perswaded by the counsell 
of the king of Boemia.' Stow, Annales, 369. 

Froissart's account of their capture is quite different. They were on their way 
to join Artevelde, but, approaching too near to Lille, they fell into an ambush 
which the garrison had set for them. Chroniques, ii. 5. There are extant, 
however, traces of a plot to betray Lille into the hands of Artevelde, which may 
have given rise to the statement that the two earls were actually attacking the 
town. See Lettenhove's Froissart, xviii. 130. Salisbury was chief captain, and 
Suffolk was marshal, of the English forces in Flanders. 

Page 68, 1. 3. Dominus rex tenuit festum. ' King Edward kept his Whitsontide at 
Ipswich, for that he intended from thence to make his passage into Flaunders ; 
but, being certified that the French king had sent a great navie of Spanish shippes 
and also the whole fleete of France to stoppe his passage, he caused his shippes 
of the Cinque Ports and other to be assembled, so that he had in his fleete, great 
and small, two hundred and threescore ships. Wherefore, on the Thursday before 
the nativitie of Saint John Baptist, having a prosperous wind, he began to sayle ; 
and the next day, in the even of the sayd feast, they escried the French fleete 
lying in Swine haven. Wherefore the king caused all his fleete to come to anker. 
The next day, being the feast of Saint John Baptist, earely in the morning, the 
French fleete divided themselves into three parts and remooved themselves as it 
were a mile, approching towards the kings fleete. Which when the king per- 
ceived, about nine of the clocke, having the wind and sunne on his backe, set 
forward and met his enemies as he would have wished ; wherewithall the whole 
fleete gave a terrible shoute, and a showre of arrowes out of long wooden bowes 
so powred downe on the Frenchmen that thousands were slaine in that meeting. 
At length they closed and came to hand blowes with pikes, polaxes, and swordes, 
and some threw stones from the toppes of shippes, wherewith many were brained. 
The greatnesse and height of the Spanish shippes caused many Englishmen to 
strike many a stroke in vaine. But, to be shorte, the French shippes being 
overcome and all the men spent of the first part, the Englishmen entred and tooke 
them. The French shippes were chayned together in such sort that they could 
not be separated one from another, so that a fewe Englishmen kept that parte of 
the fleete: Wherefore they set upon the second warde and with great difficultie 
gave the charge, which being done, was sooner overcome then the first, for that 
the Frenchmen, leaving their shippes, many of them leapt over boorde. The 
Englishmen having thus overcome the first and second part of the fleete, and now 
having night drawing on, partly for want of light and partly for that they were 
wearie, they determined to take some rest till the nexte morning ; wherefore that 
night thirtie shippes of the third crewe fledde away, and a great shippe called the 
James of Diepe, thinking to have carried away a certaine ship of Sandwich 
belonging to the prior of Canterbury, was stayed : for the sailers so stowtly 
defended themselves by the helpe of the earle of Huntingdon that they saved 
themselves and their ship from the Frenchmen. The fight continued all the night, 
and in the morning, the Normans being overcame and taken, there were found in 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 243 

the ship above foure hundreth men slaine. Moreover, the king understanding that 
the ships were fled, he sent fourtie ships well appointed to followe them, over the 
which he made John Crabbe governor : but what good speede he had is not 
knowen. In the first companie of shippes that were taken they found these 
conquered shippes, the Denis, the George, the Christopher, and the Blacke Cocke, 
all which shippes were taken by Frenchmen at Sluce and carried into Normandie. 
The number of ships of warre that were taken was about two hundred and thirtie 
barges ; the number of enemies that were slaine and drowned were about five and 
twentie thousand, and of Englishmen about foure thousand, among whom were 
foure knights, sir Thomas Mortimer the kings cousin, sir Thomas Latimer his 
sonne, sir William Butler of Seortkorne, and sir Thomas Poynings.' Stow, 
Annales, 369. 

Page 68, 1. 4. Apud Gippeswicum, Edward was at Shotley, co. Suffolk, at the junction 
of the Stour and the Orwell, at the end of May, and again in June to the date of 
his setting sail. Foedera, ii. 1125-1128. 

1. 14. Infesto vero sancti lohannis. Details, more or less full, of the battle of 

Sluys are to be found in Edward's own letters, in Murimuth, Avesbury, Heming- 
burgh, Knyghton, Minot, Nangis, Le Bel, and Froissart, and, later, in Walsingham. 
Among modern writers, sir N. Harris Nicolas, History of the Royal Navy, \\. 51, has 
given the most exact account. He has embodied all the information to be gathered 
from contemporary writers known to him, but, having found that which is given 
here in Baker's text and in Murimuth (whose chronicle was not then fully in print) 
only as quoted by Stow and other later historians, he excluded it from his narrative 
and placed it in a foot-note (p. 56) as being of an ' apocryphal character.' Muri- 
muth and Baker are the authorities for the statement that the French fleet sailed 
out the space of a mile to meet the English ; and the movement is also, though 
more obscurely, described by Knyghton (' divertit se de portu de Swyne '). The 
English fleet had lain the previous night off Blanckenberghe, some ten miles 
westward of the haven of Sluys. Edward would have therefore approached the 
enemy from nearly due west. But, before engaging, he executed a manoeuvre 
which is thus described by Froissart (ii. 35) : ' Quant li rois d'Engleterre et si 
mareschal eurent ordene leurs batailles et leur navies bellement et sagement, il 
fisent tendre et traire les voiles contremont, et vinrent au vent, de quartier, sus 
destre, pour avoir 1'avantage dou soleil, qui en venant lor estoit ou visage. Si 
s'aviserent et regarderent que ce les pooit trop nuire, et detriierent un petit, et 
tournierent tant qu'il 1'eurent a leur volente." That is to say, the wind blowing 
probably from the north or north-east, the English fleet went about and stood 
away to the north-west, thus getting the advantage of the wind for the attack. 
(The manoeuvre, as appears both from Froissart and Avesbury, was mistaken by 
the enemy for a retreat.) But the object of the movement was, further, to get the 
advantage of the sun and also of the tide. Baker's words (following Murimuth) 
are 'post horam nonam, quando habuit ventum et solem a tergo et impetum fluminis 
secum.' Edward himself also, in his letter to his son describing the battle (Nicolas, 

i i 2 



244 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

ii. 501), says that he attacked 'bien apres houre de nonne a la tyde.' High tide 
on this day at Sluys was at 11.23 A.M. (ibid. 51), and Nicolas, considering that the 
English ships could not have entered the haven except with deep water, has been 
at great pains to show that the attack was made at high tide and that therefore the 
' hora nona ' is to be translated ' noon.' He has not, however, taken into account 
the fact that the haven of Sluys was far deeper in the 1 4th century than now, and, 
more particularly, that it would have been a physical impossibility for the English, 
in the position which they occupied for attack, to get the sun on their backs at 
noon on Midsummer-day. Edward himself, Murimuth, Baker, and Knyghton, 
agree in fixing the time as near ' hora nona' ; Hemingburgh at 'parum ante horam 
vesperam.' (Froissart says that the battle lasted ' de prime jusques a haute nonne,' 
but the morning hours, with the sun in the east, are out of question.) There 
seems to be no reason why the more ordinary sense of the ninth hour or ' nones,' 
that is, from two to three o'clock in the afternoon, should not be accepted, when 
the sun was well past the meridian and declining to the west. Minot's statement 
that the battle began at half-ebb bears out this view : half-ebb would be at 
about 3 P.M. But there is yet another apparent difficulty. Edward, in his 
letter already quoted, says 'entrames en dit port.' If this meant that he had 
absolutely to enter a land-locked harbour, we should be forced to conclude that he 
could only have done so when the tide was running in, that is, before noon. But 
in the I4th century the harbour of Sluys was an open haven ; moreover, as we 
have seen, the French fleet had made a forward movement; indeed, it lay in open 
water enough, even the day before, to be visible to the English from Blanckenberghe 
('nous avioms la vewe de la flotte de nos enemys qi estoyent tut amassez 
ensemble en port del Swyne.' Edward's letter) ; and so large a number of ships 
could not have fought in close waters. Attacking in the afternoon from a position 
north-west of the enemy, Edward would bear down upon them with the tide running 
down channel, thus literally having the ' impetum fluminis,' the ebbing ocean stream, 
in his favour, and with the sun, not indeed actually ' a tergo ' but, rapidly drawing 
away behind him. 

Page 68, 1. 25. Quale vecors vidisse, etc. ' Ceste bataille dont je vous parolle fu moult 
felenesse et tres horrible, car batailles et assaus sus mer sont plus dur et plus fort 
que sus terre ; car Ik ne poet on reculer ne fuir, mais se fault vendre et combatre, 
et attendre 1'aventure, et cescun endroit de lui monstrer son hardement et se 
proece.' Froissart, ii. 37. 

Page 69, 1. 14. lohannem Crabbe. A Flemish engineer of this name was employed 
by the Scots at Berwick after its capture in 1318. The sailor here mentioned may 
be the same man or his son. On Balliol's invasion of Scotland in 1332, Crabbe 
attacked the English ships, but was beaten off with loss. Soon after, he was made 
prisoner, when, for reasons explained in the Lanercost chronicle, 270, this 'pirata 
crudelis et solemnis, cognomento Crab, qui per multos annos prascedentes vexaverat 
Anglicos in terra et mari,' changed sides : ' Ille tamen Crab, propter ingratitudinem 
Scottorum de Berwico, qui tempore obsidionis ejusdem villas postea noluerunt eum 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 245 

redimere, immo suum filium occiderunt, data sibi vita a rege Anglian, factus est 
postea persecutor acerrimus gentis suae.' He must have been a very skilful sailor, 
for not only do we hear of his being employed in the immediate pursuit of the 
French after the battle of Sluys, as described in the text, but also, before Edward 
sailed from England, his advice was taken regarding the risk of crossing the sea 
in the face of the powerful French fleet. Avesbury, 311. 

Page 69,1.23. Thomas de Mounthermer, etc. Thomas deMonthermer was son of Ralph 
de Monthermer, earl of Gloucester, and of Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward i. 
He was therefore the king's first cousin. William le Boteler of Northbourne (see 
Murimuth, 109), co. Kent, was no doubt a member of the family of Boteler of 
Eastry. The fourth knight, whose name was unknown to Baker, was Thomas de 
Poynings. Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 134. 

1. 27. Circa idem tetnpus Scoti, etc. ' David de Bruys de Francia rediens in 

Scotiam, cum exercitu collecto, Northumbriam ca;de et incendio usque ad fluvium 
Tyne devastavit et sine resistentia aliqua ad propria remeavit.' Chron. Lanercost, 
335- 
Page 70, 1. 6. Postea, circa festum, etc. This paragraph occurs only in certain MSS. 
of Murimuth (Murimuth, p. 109). The captain of the Isle of Wight was Theobald, 
not sir Peter, Russell. 

1. 16. Devota loca Anglie visitavit. Edward did not return to England. He 

landed in Flanders some days after the battle, not earlier than the 28th June 
(Nicolas, Hist. Navy, ii. 60), and went in pilgrimage to the church of Aardenburg 
(Froissart, ii. 39). 

Page 71, 1. 3. Scripsit rex Philippo. See the text of the challenge and reply in 
Murimuth, no, and in Avesbury, 314. 

1. 9. Comes Hanonie. For accounts of this raid, see Murimuth, 114 ; Avesbury, 

316 ; and Froissart, ii. 67. 

1. 15. Duravit obsidio Torneacensis. The siege of Tournay lasted nine 

weeks, from the 23rd July. The truce was signed on the 25th September.-^- 
Avesbury, 317. 

Page 72, 1. 9. Nacto navigio, etc. The Brute Chronicle [Egerton MS. 650] has 
the following curious passage concerning Edward's return : ' And whene he 
had done }>er )>at he come for, he dressed him over J>e see in to Englonde warde. 
And as he sayled toward Englond, in }>e hye see come }>e moost mysshappyn 
stormys and tempestes ; }>ondres and lyghttynynges fell uppon hym in }>e see, in 
so moche )>at it was said J>at it was done made and araysed jirogh evelle spretes, 
and made by sorcerye and nigramancye of j>aim of Fraunce. Wherfore )>e kynges 
hert was full of sorowe and anguysshe, waylyng, and sykeyng, and said to our lady 
one J>is wyse, kneleyng uppon hys kneis : " O blessed lady, saynt Marie, what is 
)* cause )>at ever more in my going in to Fraunce alle maner Binges fallen to me 
joyfull and lykyng and gladsome ; and now I wold have |>aim, I may not, but 



246 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

whene I turne in to Englond warde alle my j>inges fallen unprofiteable and 
harmefull unto me. Bot, dere lady, now mercye." And, j>onked be God, he 
escapit alle J>e perelle of j>e see, as God wolde, and come by nyght to )>e toure of 
Londone.' 

Page 72, 1. 14. Statim in aurora, etc. Robert Stratford, bishop of Chichester and brother 
of the archbishop, was chancellor; Roger de Northburgh, bishop of Coventry, 
treasurer. John Stonore was chief justice of the Common Pleas ; he was restored 
9th May, 1342. Richard Willoughby and William de Shareshull were justices of 
the Common Pleas. Nicholas de la Beche, constable of the Tower, became, 
in 1343, seneschal of Gascony. Michael Wath was Master of the Rolls, 1334- 
1337; and was succeeded by John of St. Paul, 1337-1340. Foss, Judges of 
England, iii. 

Page 73, 1. 5. Iterum in festo Purifications. 'Also at Candlemas he kept a great 
justing at Langley, for the honour of the noble men of Vasconia, which he trained 
up there in feates of warre. He made Robert de Boursier, knight, lord chancellour 
of England, and Robert Parnike, knight, treasurer, the one to succeede the other. 
Also he sent out justiciars that should sit in every shire, to enquire concerning the 
collectours of the tenths and fifteenths, and of woolles, and to oversee all officers. 
And because the citie of London would not suffer that any such officers should sit 
as justices within their citie, as inquisitours of such matters, contrary to their 
liberties, the king provided that those justices should hold their sessions in the 
Tower of London, to make inquisition of the domages of the Londoners : but, 
because the Londoners would not answere there, untill their liberties were fully 
confirmed, neither any such confirmation could be had either of the king or his 
chancellour touching writtes and charters in the Tower, there rose thereof such 
a great tumult that the justices, appointed there to sit, fained that they would 
hold no session till after Easter. Whereupon the king, being highly offended for 
the said tumult and desirous to knowe the names of them that had raysed it, 
could not understand but that they were certaine meane persons, who claimed 
their liberties : whereupon the king, being pacified of his troubled minde, forgave 
all the offences committed by the Londoners, the justices breaking up all their 
sitting touching the said place.' -Stow, Annales, 371. 

Sir Robert Bourchier was chief justice of the King's Bench in Ireland in 1334. 
He fought at Cadzand in 1337, and at Cre"cy in 1346. He was chancellor from the 
I4th December, 1340, to the 27th October, 1341. ' He was summoned to parlia- 
ment in 1342, and died of the plague in 1349. Robert Parning was a sergeant-at- 
law only at the beginning of Edward's reign, but in 1340 was rapidly promoted to 
be justice of the Common Pleas, 23rd May ; chief justice of the King's Bench, 
24th July ; and treasurer, I5th December. On Bourchier's resignation he became 
chancellor, 27th October, 1341 ; and died 26th August, 1343. Robert Sadington 
was chief baron of the Exchequer in 1337, and treasurer for a brief period, 2nd 
May to 2ist June, 1340. He became chancellor in 1343, on the death of Parning, 
resigned in 1345, and died in 1350. Foss, Judges, iii. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 247 

Page73,1.27. Parliament Londoniis. Parliament melon the 26th April, 1341. Edward 
revoked, on the 1st October, all the concessions he had made. See Stubbs, Const. 
Hist., ii. 424-5. 

Page 74, 1. 31. Comitatum Cantbriggie. William, marquis of Juliers, Edward's 
brother-in-law, was created earl of Cambridge on the 7th May, 1340. He died 
in 1361. Baker appears to have confused John of Hainault with the marquis. 
It is probably from this passage that Camden (Britannia) has compiled his state- 
ment that the earldom was conferred on John of Hainault, but taken from him 
when he deserted to the French. 

Page 75, 1. I. Apud Novum castrum. Edward was in the north in November; at 
Newcastle early in December ; at Melrose late in the month and in January ; 
and back in London in February, 1342. While he was collecting his forces, 
Stirling fell ; and his provision ships were scattered by a storm. He therefore 
agreed to a short truce. 

1. 7. Comes Sarisburie, etc. This conquest of the Isle of Man is attributed 

variously to the years 1340 and 1342. ' Howt hildes" may perhaps mean ' Outer 
isles,' if it is not rather some blundering misreading of ' Hebrides.' 

1. 15. Bourdis. O. F. behourdis, a tournament ; from behourt, a tilting lance. 

1. 17. Johannes archiepiscopus. The reconciliation took place on the 7th May, 

1341. See the account of the quarrel in Stubbs, Const. Hist., ii. 417-423. 

1. 24. Auream monetam. This is the gold coinage of nobles in 1344. On the 

27th January, 1344, Edward had made proclamation of a coinage of gold florins 
of three values : six shillings, three shillings, and eighteen pence the first 
gold coinage that had been struck since 1257. But it was found that they were 
valued at too high a rate, and they were therefore superseded by the coinage of 
nobles, and were finally recalled on the aoth August. The nobles were issued by 
proclamation of the gth July, and were of the values stated in the text. Ruding, 
Annals of the Coinage, i. 217; Fcedera, iii. I, 16, 21. One of the MSS. of 
Murimuth's chronicle thus notices the change : ' Circa idem tempus ordinavit rex 
primo florenos aureos pro moneta ad currendum in Anglia ; quod parum duravit, 
quia parum profuit .... Circa festum Assumptionis beatas Maria;, dominus rex ad 
utilitatem regni sui prohibuit antiquam monetam florenorum et ordinavit novam, 
scilicet majorem florenum de dimidia marca, minorem de iij. solidis iiij. denariis, 
et minimum de xx. denariis ; et vocantur nobiles, et digne, quia nobiles sunt, 
pulchri et puri.' Murimuth, 242. 

1. 27. Religiosi possessionati. On the l6th November, 1342, the king demanded 

loans from some sixty bishops, abbats, priors, and deans. Fcedera, ii. 1214. 

Page 76, 1. 2. Aliis eciam committebatur. The commons petitioned against com- 
missions of array in 1344 and in 1346. Rot. Part. ii. 149, 160 ; Stubbs, Const. 
Hist., ii. 430, 588-593. 

1. 10. In auxiliwn domini lohannis, etc. ' King Edward, in succour of John 



248 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Mountfort, duke of Brytaine, and of his wife and children, who then remained in 
the kings custody, sent the carles of Northampton and of Oxford, Hugh Spencer 
and Richard Talbot, knights, and master William Killesby, clearke, every one of 
them having under them many men of armes and archers, into Brytaine ; who 
entred thereinto, in despight of all their enemies which resisted them, making 
many conflicts. They tooke as well walled townes as other, with divers fortresses 
and castles, both by assault and surrender, by which meanes they had the whole 
countrey under their subjection, conquering till they came to the towneof Morleis, 
where Charles de Bloys met them with a great army. Therefore, in the champaine 
ground nigh unto Morleys, the two armies made great and most stoute battell, 
wherein the woorthinesse of both sorts did full appeare : for they fought so stoutly 
that in the first conflict it chaunced as the like had not been seene : for the chief 
captaines, Charles de Bioys, to whom the French king had given the dukedome 
of that countrey, and William de Bohune, earle of Northampton, who for the 
defence of the right of John de Mountfort, naturall heire and duke of that land, 
the king of England had made a general! over the armie of the Englishmen, 
fought so long with hand strokes in the fielde that day, that no man but a liar 
could give more praise to the one then to the other. Three times that day they, 
being wearied on both sides, withdrew themselves to take breath, and then fell to 
it againe with speare and shield, and sword and target. But in the end the right 
worthie and stout Charles de Bloys, his men fleeing away, was also forced to flee 
himselfe ; whereupon, after many slaine on both sides, the victory fel to the 
Englishmen.' Stow, Annales, 374. It is somewhat remarkable that this is the 
only event that Baker notices in the campaign in Brittany of 1342. But it is quite 
evident that he has received special knowledge regarding the battle from someone 
who had been present. Murimuth also obtained detailed information of the earl 
of Northampton's movements from the latter's despatches, and appears to have 
written an account of them and to have inserted it in his chronicle (126, 127) after 
he had already written a briefer notice (128). Northampton was appointed the 
king's lieutenant and captain in Brittany on the zoth July, 1342 (Faedera, ii. 1205). 
According to Murimuth, 125, he sailed on the I4th August; relieved Brest; 
marched on Morlaix, which he unsuccessfully assaulted ; and fought and defeated 
Charles of Blois on the 3oth September. Morice, Hist, de Bretagne (1750), i. 260, 
has an exact account of the battle. The English, who were under supreme 
command of Robert of Artois, adopted Bruce's tactics at Bannockburn in digging 
concealed trenches on their front, into which the French fell and suffered great 
slaughter. Charles of Blois, however, was not so badly beaten but that he could 
afterwards blockade the English, who only escaped with difficulty. 

Of Northampton's companions here named : John de Vere, who succeeded his 
uncle as earl of Oxford in April 1331, was born in 1313, served in the French wars, 
being one of the chief commanders both at Crecy and at Poitiers, and died on the 
24th January, 1360; Hugh Despenser, son of the younger Despenser who was 
executed in 1326, was summoned to parliament in 1338, and died in 1349; 
Richard Talbot was also a baron by writ in 1331, and died in 1356; William 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 249 

Kildesby, the king's clerk and keeper of the privy seal, was archbishop elect of 
York in 1340, but was set aside in favour of William de la Zouch. 

Page 70, 1. 1 8. Castra de Bruske et de Templo Correntyn. Baker's knowledge of the 
campaign is evidently very confused. ' Bruske ' is no doubt Brest. As to 
'Templum Correntyn,' there is a small place near Ploermel named Temple- 
le-Carentoir, which may have been the scene of some skirmish or assault during 
the war, perhaps after Edward landed, when operations were carried on in that 
direction. 

Page 77, 1. 7. Henricus comes Derbie, etc. He succeeded as earl of Lancaster, 22nd 
Sept. 1345, and was created duke on the 6th March, 1352. Hugh Courtenay 
succeeded as earl of Devon in 1341 ; died in 1377. Laurence de Hastings was 
created earl of Pembroke, I2th Oct. 1339 ; died in 1348. Ralph de Stafford 
succeeded as baron Stafford in 1308, and was created earl on the 5th March, 
1351 ; died in 1372. 

Baker is very confused as to the capture of the different places. Bergerac was 
first taken on the 24th August, 1345 ; Aiguillon, early in December; LaRdole, in 
January, 1346. The 'villa sancti Johannis,' Saint-Jean-d'Angely, was not taken 
till September, 1346. Derby did not go near Toulouse, although it is not impos- 
sible that some incursion was made thither. Baker says that he had his informa- 
tion from persons who were besieged there ; but he was quite capable of confusing 
events, and he is most probably referring to the expedition of 1349. See p. 108, 
1. 4, and the note on the same, p. 277. 

1. 24. Bernardo de Libreto. Bernard, sire d'Albret ; died 1358. 

1. 30. Per armorum errancias. This seems to mean : by the procession of his 

banner, on which the picture of the Virgin stood for his armorial device. 

Page 78, 1. 7. Obsessit villam de Aguyloun. The siege began some time between 
the 22nd March and the 15th April, 1346 (Luce's Froissart, iii. p. xxxii.), and was 
raised on the 2oth August, as appears from Lancaster's own despatch, printed in 
Avesbury. Baker makes it last till after the Decollation of St. John, 29th August. 

Page 79, 1. I. Godefridus de Harecourt. Godefroi d'Harcourt, son of Jean iii., comte 
d'Harcourt, was banished, in consequence of a duel, in July, 1344 ; and went over 
to Edward's side, doing homage to him in June, 1345. He went back to Philip 
at the time of the siege of Calais ; but changed sides again in 1356, in which year 
he was slain. Lettenhove's Froissart, xxi. 514. 

1. 7. Comes Norhamplonie et ceteri. The return of the English from Brittany 

after the campaign of 1345 is evidently confused by Baker ('ut descriptum est ') 
with that of 1342. 

1. 12. Postea dominus rex. The following is Stow's translation (Annales, 377) : 

' King Edward prepared to make a voyage into Normandy, his navy being ready to 
transport him from Portesmouth and Dorchester, with the earles of Northampton, 
Arundell, Warwicke, Harecourt, Huntingdon, Oxenford, and Suffolke, the bishop 

Kk 



250 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

of Durham, and master William Killesby, clearke, every one of these, leading 
a great army of souldiours well appointed, were embarqued, and waited for the 
winde from the first of June to the fift of July, and then, having a good winde, 
they beganne to make saile with the number of one thousand shippes of burthen 
and pinases, and on the thirteenth day of July they landed at Hogges in Nor- 
mandy, where on the shoare of the sea king Edward made his eldest sonne knight 
and also prince of Wales, and immediately the prince made knights, Mortimere, 
Montacute, Rose, and other. That night the king lodged in the towne of Hogges, 
and the next day the towne was brent by the army. The night following, king 
Edward lodged in Mercels, where he stayed five dayes, during which time all the 
countrey, with the towne of Barbefleete, was by his men consumed with fire. From 
thence they departed to Veloigns, which they set on fire ; then they went to Senet 
comb de Mount, which is nigh the sea, and to Garantam ; thence to Serins and 
to Saint Lewes, passing along unto the towne of Tourney, wasting all with fire, 
and that night the king lodged at Carmalin ; then to Gerin, being a religious 
house belonging unto Cane, leaving nothing behind them unspoyled. Afterward 
they made an assault and entred the city of Cane, making their entrance by 
a bridge which was strongly defended. There was slaine an hundreth three and 
fourtie knights, among the which was taken the earles of Ewe and Camberlin de 
Tankervill, with divers other captaines, and of them of the citie were slaine above 
one thousand three hundred. At this citie the armie remained sixe dayes, and the 
spoile thereof they sold to those mariners which followed the coast as the king 
went. Then they went to the monasterie in the towne of Toward, a verie strong 
thing and well defended. Afterward they came unto Argons by night, burning 
still as they went, till they came to the citie of Liceus, where they found the 
cardinalles of Clarimount and of Naples, and one archbishop, who offered the 
king a treatie of peace ; and there the king continued three dayes, refusing to 
treate of peace. Then they went to Lastentnoland and to the towne of Briue, and 
lodged at New Burge, and after at Lelelefe upon Sayne, and being resisted by the 
inhabitants they slewe many of them. Then they passed nigh to the towne and 
castell of Fount Darch, being strong places and not assaultable. This night he 
lodged at Lury upon Segan, nigh unto the good towne of Lovars, which they did 
burne. After, they passed by the towne and castell of Gailon, which they tooke 
and brent, and lodged at Lingevie, which is nigh the good towne and castle of 
Vernon, which they touched not ; and there they first entred into Fraunce. And 
the same night they brent the castell of Roche Blanch, which standeth on the 
other side of Segan, and lodged at Fremble upon Segan. After that, they passed 
by the towne of Maunt, lodging that night at Oporne. On the next day they 
passed to Frigmas, and the next day to the good towne of Poecie, where being 
a bridge to passe over the river of Segan, the French had spoyled it, but the king 
caused it to be reedified. And the next day they came to Amias, where were 
three armies appointed to keepe the king from passing that way ; but he slew 
three hundred of them at the first charge, put the residue to flight, and spoyled 
their tentes, burning three hundreth and two cartes and wagons laden with crosse- 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 251 

bowes, quarrels, armour and victualles. The king staying there two dayes, they 
went to Gresile nigh unto Pountoys ; then to Autell. The next day they passed 
by the citie of Wenneys, which they touched not ; and so by Trosolours at the 
water of Some, where they lodged. The next day they wanne the towne of Poys, 
and brent the castell. From thence they went to Aregnus ; then to Acheu, where 
they lodged. The nexte day they came to Noell upon the sea side ; the French 
men of Dabvile and the countrey came to the foorde side to hinder their passage, 
with whom the king had a sore conflict, but the enemies were put to the worse 
and more then two thousand slaine, and the towne of Croytoy taken and brent, 
and above three hundred Germaines slaine. The next day they followed the king 
on the river of Some, and on the banks side (where the king with his hoste were 
lodged) came traveling Philip de Valoys, the French king, with the kings of 
Boheme and Malegre, leading an armie of men innumerable, divided into eight 
great battelles. King Edward sent to the French king, offering him free passage 
over the foorde, if he would come and choose a place apt to fight a field in ; but 
this Philip went to another place of passage. On the morrow king Edward 
removed to Cresifield, where the armie of the French king met him. The king 
therefore set his sonne the prince of Wales to governe the vaward ; the middle 
warde the earle of Northampton ; the third he tooke to guide himselfe. The 
armie of the Frenchmen were devided into nine troupes. The vaward was com- 
mitted to the king of Boheme. The French king commaunded his banner called 
Oiliflame to be set up, after which time it was not lawfull under paine of death to take 
any man to save his life. [Side note : The French banner of oiliflame signified no 
mercy, more then fire in oile.] This banner, that it might differ from his standert, 
had in it lillies of gold very broad. On the other side king Edward commanded 
his banner to be erected of the dragon, which signified fiercenesse and cruelty to 
be turned against the lillies. These armies being thus appointed stoode in the 
fielde from one of the clocke untill the evening. About the sunne setting, after 
the armies had justed, they beganne by the sound of the trumpets to give signe 
of battaile, but they themselves felt the force of the English archers, and as for 
their quarrels, they fell short a great way. Moreover, their footemen, being placed 
among their owne horsemen, were by them (when they were gauled with the 
English shotte of arrowes) overrunne and troden upon, that a great outcry was 
made, as it were to the starres, and the whole forme of the array was broken, and 
they, fighting with the English armed men, are beaten downe with polaxes. In 
this so terrible a bickering the prince of Wales, being then but sixeteenth yeeres 
old, shewed his wonderfull towardnesse, laying on very hotely with speare and 
shielde. This battell dured three partes of the night, in the which time the 
Frenchmen gave five great assaults against our men, but at the length they being 
conquered ran away. On the morrow there came foure armies of fresh souldiours 
to the French side, and, making semblance as though their part had suffered no 
harme, they came against the Englishmen and gave them a fresh battell. On the 
other side, the Englishmen withstood them very stoutely, and, after a sharpe con- 
flict, they forced their foes to flie, and in chasing of them, together with them 

K k 2 



352 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

that were slaine in the conflict, they slew three thousand men in the said two 
dayes.' 

Page 79, 1. 25. Tandem die tertio decimo. The route of Edward's march in the Cre'cy 
campaign, across the north of France, from La Hougue to Calais, is here traced 
with great fulness, and there is no difficulty in identifying almost every place that 
is named. There is, however, a lack of dates, so that, were there no other means 
of checking the daily advance of the army, it would be hard, if not impossible, to 
make out the successive stages with perfect accuracy. Fortunately there is extant 
the journal of the king's kitchen, kept during the expedition, in which are recorded 
the names of the places where the king lodged, generally with accompanying 
dates. This document is quoted in ' Proofs of the early use of Gunpowder in the 
English Army,' by Mr. Joseph Hunter, printed in Archaeologia, xxxii. There is 
also a contemporary itinerary, copied in a hand of the I5th century, in the Cotton 
MS. Cleopatra D. vii. f. 179. From these two documents and Baker's route 
a perfect itinerary can be constructed. 

There are extant also several letters written during the campaign, which enter 
more or less into details. These are the letters of Edward to sir Thomas Lucy 
(Coxe, The Black Prince, by Chandos Herald, Roxburghe Club, 1842, p. 351), to 
the archbishop of Canterbury (Lettenhove's Froissart, xviii. 285), and to the arch- 
bishop of York (Chron. Lanercost, 342) ; of Bartholomew Burghersh (Murimuth, 
200, 202) ; of Thomas Bradwardin, chancellor of St. Paul's (ibid. 201) ; of Michael 
Northburgh (ibid. 212 ; Avesbury, 358, 367) ; and of Richard Wynkeley, the 
king's confessor (Murimuth, 215 ; Avesbury, 362). 

I here give the stages as they appear in the Kitchen Journal (see also Brit. Mus., 
Add. MS. 25461, f. n) ; and also print the itinerary from the Cotton MS : 

Kitchen Journal. 

12 July (Wednesday). Hok. 7 Aug. (Monday). Oil de Boef. 

18 (Tuesday}. Valognes. 8 (Tuesday}. Fount Vadreel. 

19 (Wednesday). Saint Comb du 9 (Wednesday). Longville. 

Mont. jo ., (Thursday). Frenose. 

20 (Thursday). Carentan. 11 (Friday). Appone. 

21 (Friday). Fount [Hubert]. 12 (Saturday). Ferelaguillon. 

22 ,, (Saturday). Saint Lo. 13 (Sunday). Poissy. 

23 (Sunday). Sevaunce. 1 6 (Wednesday). Grisy. 

24 (Monday). Torteval. 17 (Thursday). Auty. 

25 (Tuesday). Funtenay Paynel. 1 8 (Friday). Trussereux. 

26 (Wednesday). Caen. 19 (Saturday). Somerreux. 
31 (Monday). Treward. 20 (Sunday). Canseamyneux. 

1 Aug. (Tuesday). Leoperty. 21 (Monday). Assheu. 

2 (Wednesday). Lisieux. 24 (Thursday). Sub foresta de 

4 (Friday). Durenvile. Cressy. 

5 (Saturday). Limburgh. 25 (Friday). In foresta de Cressy. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 353 

26 Aug. (Saturday). Adhuc sub foresta 30 Aug. ( Wednesday). Saint Joce in 

de Cressy. Pountif. 

27 (Sunday). In campis sub foresta 31 (Thursday). Chastelnoef. 

de Cressy. 2 Sept. (Saturday). Vintevill. 

z8 (Monday). Valoles. 3 (Sunday). 

29 (Tuesday). Mauntenay. 4 (Monday). Coram Calais. 



Cotton MS. Cleopatra D. vii.,f. 179. 

Ceux sont les gistes et les descomfiturs que nostre seigneur le roi feat par my 
le roialme de France. Cest assaver : le xij e jour de Juylle il arriva a Hogges, pris 
de la Barflete, en Normandye ; et le prince a cele journe prist lordre de chivaler, 
et autres chivalers tut plein. Ou viendrent graunde poeple sour la rivee, pur 
defendre la terre ; le quex furent descomfitz et mortz graunde fuyson des genz. 
Et le roi demura illoqes v. jours, tanque sez gentz et ses vitailles fuerent arrivez. 
Le Mardy ensuant [i8_//y] le roy remua et gist a nut a Valoignes, la quele ville 
fuist arsz et destrutz et tute la pays enviroun. Le Mescerdy [^ July} le roi gist 
a Caueny [Coigny], Le Jeodi la fest de seint Margarete [20 July} le roi gist en les 
champs devant la ville de Carentan, ardant et destruant la pays enviroun. Le 
Venderdi [21 July} gist a Fount Hubert [Pont Hubert], ou yl trova que les 
Normans avoient desbrusee le pont, pur defendre la passage ; et le roy fist refaire 
le pount et passa lendemain. Le Semady le jour de la Magdalene [22 July] le roy 
gist a Seint Loo, quele ville estoit bien enfossez et barres et estufifez de genz 
darmes ; et quant ils vierent que noz genz lour presserent, ils fuyrent par un altre 
port aderere la ville ; fuist gayne et arsz la ville et tute la pays environ. Le 
Dymenge [23 July} gist a Cormale [Cormolain], Le Lundi ensuant [24 July} le 
roy gyst a Torteval. Le Mardy [25 July} gist a Malpertuz [Mauperthuis}, en la 
feste de seint Jame. Le Mescerdy, Jeody, Vendredy, Semady, et Dymenge [26-30 
July} le roy gyst a Came [Caen], ou il trova grant estouffure dez gentz darmes et 
a pee ; la quele ville fust pris et gayne de bataille, et morrerent eel jour graunde 
nombre des gentz et pris le counte de Eu, le conestable de Fraunce, et le cham- 
berleyn de Tankerville, et pris cvij. chivalers, saunz autre gentz questoient morz 
saunz nombre. Et viendrent illoqes le burgeys de la citee de Baieux a les pees, 
que ils net fuissent ars et destrutz. Le Lundy ensuant [31 July} le roy gist 
a Troard [Troarn}. Le Mardy [i Aug.] gist a seint Pier sour Dive [Saint-Pierre], 
le jour de seint Pier en August. Le Mescerdy et Joedy [2, 3 Aug.} le roy gist 
en la citee de Lysers [Lisieux], ou viendrent ij. cardinals au roi, pur treter la pees, 
et fuirent brevement responduz. Le Vendredy et le Semedy [4, 5 Aug.} le roi 
gist a la Tournalant juste Norburgh [Le Teil-Nollent near Le Neubourg}. Le 
Demenge [6 Attg.] gist a Elebeof sour Seyne [Elbeuf}, ou viendrent les cardinalx 
autre foiz au roi, et vient ove eux une ercevesque de France, et tantost fuirent 
responduz. Le Lundy [7 Aug.} ensuant le roi gist a Alere seur Seyne [Li'ry] ; et 
mesme le jour fuirent pris le chastel de la Roche et le chastel de Gyonne sour 



254 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Seyne [Gaillon], les quex furent ars et destrutz et tute la pays enviroun. Le 
Mardy [8 Aug.} le roy gist a Longevil juste Vernoun et avoit passe par le Fount 
de Archeiis \Pont-de-l 'Arche\ ; et en le chastelle de Longevil estoient toutz pleyn 
de gentz darmez, et defendirent bien le chastel ; mes au fyn il fuyt gayniez par 
force et morrerent toutz les gentz darmes dedeinz le chastelle trovez. Et quant 
lez gentz darmes que furent deinz la ville de Longevil vierentz [que] lez gens 
darmes estoient descounfitz dedeinz le chastel, its yssiierunt et fuyrent par une 
altre porte, et morrurent grant fuissoun de eux ; et prestrerent et ardirent la ville 
et tute la pays enviroun. Le Mescerdy [9 Aug.} le roy gist a Boneyis sour Seyne 
[Freneuse] en la douce France. Le Jeody en la jour de seint Laurence [10 Aug.} 
le roy gist a Epones sour Seyne \Epone\. Le Vendredy et le Samady [n, 12 
Aug.} le roi gist a Frenes sour Seyn \Fresnes}. Le Dymenge, Lundy et Mardy 
[13-15 Aug.} le roy gist a Poycy sour Seyne \Poissy}, ou il trova le pont debruse ; 
et le roi fist tantost mettre une blanche, tanque le pount fuist refait ; et viendrent 
illoeques graunt nombre des gentz, ove lour cariage, pur garder et defender le 
pount et le passage ; les quex fuirent mortz et descounfiz graunt nombre des gens, 
et arsz et destruiz, et la pays tanque a seint Jermayn pris de Parys. Le Mescerdy 
ensuant [16 Aug.} le roy remua et gist la nut a Grysyn en Vokezein \Grisy en 
Venn}. Le Joedy [17 Aug.} gist a Autoille {Auteuil}. Le Vendredy [18 Aug.} 
gyst a Troseres en Picardy [Troissereux}. Le Semady [19 Aug.} gist a Som- 
mereux. Dymenge [20 Aug.} gist a Canne en Amynoys \Camps-en-Amienois\. 
Lundy, Mardy [21, 22 Aug.} le roy gist a Arrens en Picardie [Airaines], et prist 
par le chymy le chastelle de Poys \Poix} par force, quele fuist ars et destrut et tute 
le pays. Le Mescerdy [23 Aug.} le jour de seint Barthelmu \Mern : St. Barthol- 
omew's day is the 24th Aug.] le roy gist a Assheu \Acheux}. Le Joedy [24 Aug.} 
le roy vien pur passer la rivere de Somme, que court outre Seyn Walri [Saint- 
Valery} a Crotoye, et trova tut la cost de lautre part sur la river abataillez de genz 
a chival et a pee, pur defendre la passage ; les quex fuirent descounfiz et mortz 
graunde nombre des genz, et mesme la nut le roy gist juste la foreste de Cressy 
en Pountyf. Le Vendredy [25 Aug.] le roy gist en un altre cost de la forest. Le 
Semady proschein apres la feste de seint Barthelmu [26 Aug.} nostre seignur le 
roy vient en les champs devaunt la ville de Cressy en Pountyf; ou il appercieut le 
roy de France devers ly, ove tute son poair et alliez a bataille. Parente nonne et 
vespres assemblerent et combatirent tute le jour et la nuyt tanque lendemain 
a demy prime, que, loyez en soil Dieu, les Franceys furent descunfiz, et durra la 
chasche plus que v. [milles]. Et en eel descounfiture morrerent le roy de Beame, 
le duk de Loreyne, lercevesque de Sauns, levesque de Noyoun, le haut priour del 
hospitalle de Fraunce, le counte Dalysoun, frere au roy de France, le counte de 
Bloys, le counte de Flandres, le counte de Nameur et son frere le counte de 
Harecourt, le counte de Monthbiliard, le counte de Sauves, le counte Dauncerre, 
le counte Daumarle, le counte de Mures, le counte de Grant Pree, le counte 
Damartyne, le counte de Baar, le seignour de Rosingburgh, que estoit le plus 
riche home de royalme apres le roy, le viscount de Tuard, monsire Jake de 
Borboun, frere au duk de Borboun, le seignour de Cayeu, le seignur de Seint 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 255 

Venant, et autres plusours que home ne soet nomer. Le Dymenge proschein 
ensuant [27 Aug.} le roi gist en mesme le champ juste la forest. Le Lundy 
ensuant [28 Aug.} le roy gist a Abbevile juste Maunteney \Valloire- Abbaye\. Le 
Mardy [29 Aug.} gist en la ville de Maunteney \Maintenay\. Le Mesqerdy [30 
Aug.] gist a Seint Josse en Pountyf. Le Jeody, Vendredy [31 Aug., I Sept.] le 
roi gist a Noef Chastell [Neufchate[\. Le Semady, Dymenge [2, 3 5<?/A] le roy 
gist entre Wytsand [Wissant]. Le Lundy suant [4 Sept.] le roy vient logger 
devaunt la ville de Caleys, le iiij. jour de Septembre ; et demura illoques tanque 
la ville serra gayne, al eyde de Dieu, ou rescours par sire Philippe de Valois. Et 
puis la venue a Caleys le countes de Warrewyk, de Arundell, et de Suffolk, ove 
la bone chivalerie de la chambre du roy, firent un chivache tanque a Torouwane ; 
fut descounfiz et la cite ars et destrut, et tute le pays enviroun et xxx. lieux, alant 
et venante, et mortz grant nombre des gentz, et pris lerce[d]akne de la citee, 
chivalers, et autres graund fuysoun. 



On comparing these two itineraries with that given in the text, it will be seen 
that there are certain discrepancies. In some instances these are no doubt due 
to mere blundering ; but others may be accounted for as variations of three dif- 
ferent statements written independently by persons marching with different 
divisions of the army. Putting the three itineraries together, we can lay down 
the following route : 

12 July ( Wednesday). Landing at Saint-Vaast-de-la-Hougue. Baker has in- 
advertently dated this event the I3th July ; but, as he speaks of the next day as 
Thursday, he is only wrong in the day of the month. 

13 July (Thursday). Headquarters at Morsalines, only two or three miles from 
St. Vaast. The Kitchen Journal does not notice the removal. Halt of five days. 
The country wasted, and Barfleur burnt [on Friday, I4th July]. 

18 July (Tuesday). To Valognes, 9 miles S.W. 

19 July (Wednesday). To Saint-C6me-du-Mont, just north of the river Douve, 
14 miles S. by E. Cott. MS. fixes the halt at ' Caueny, 1 no doubt Coigny, 5 miles 
W. of Saint-C6me-du-Mont. Probably one of the divisions lay there. 

20 July (Thursday). Across the Douve to Carentan, only two or three miles. 

21 July (Friday). The K. J. and Cott. MS. name Pont-He"bert, a town lying 
II miles S.E. of Carentan and about 4 miles N.W. of Saint-Lo, as the halting 
place for this day. Baker records the march to 'Serins,' Saint-Lo, and Torigni, 
and their destruction, and then gives Cormolain as the king's headquarters for 
the night. He has clearly compressed the events of two days into one. ' Serins ' 
is probably a clerical error for Sevins, Sept-Vents or Sevans, the place which 
K. J. calls ' Sevance.' If ' Serins ' were the correct reading, it might mean Ce"risy- 
la-Foret or Ce"risy-l'Abbaye, which however lies too much off the route. 

22 July (Saturday). To Saint-Lo (K. J. and Cott. MS.) 

23 July (Sunday). To Sept-Vents (K. J.) about 12 miles S.E. of Saint-Lo. 
Cormolain, mentioned by Baker and Cott MS., is not far from Sept-Vents, and 
may be reckoned as the halting-place of some part of the army. 



256 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

24 July (Monday). To Torteval (K. J. and Cott. MS.), only about 5 miles E. 
of Cormolain. Baker makes this day's halt at ' Gerin,' a monastic cell, which 
may be identical with Cairon or le Quezon, a little S. of Fontenay-le-Pesnel. 

25 July (Tuesday). To Fontenay-le-Pesnel (K. J.), 7 or 8 miles E. According 
to Cott. MS., only to Mauperthuis, just past Torteval. 

26 July (Wednesday). To Caen ; taken by assault. Halt of five days. Baker 
dates the capture of Caen on the day before, and makes the halt to last six days. 

31 July (Monday). To ' Troward ' (Troarn), 8 miles E. ; and Argences, 4 miles 
S. of Troarn. 

I Aug. (Tuesday). To Rumesnil, 9 miles E. K.J. fixes the stage at Leaupartie, 
which is quite close to Rumesnil ; Cott MS. on the other hand, at Saint-Pierre- 
du-Jonque on the left of the Dives, only about 5 miles E. by S. of Troarn. 

2, 3 Aug. (Wednesday and Thursday). To Lisieux, 9 miles E. by S. Halt of 
two days. Baker makes it three days. 

4 Aug. (Friday). To ' Lestintnoland ' (Le Teil-Nollent), 14 miles E., or to 
Duranville (K. J.) adjoining Le Teil-Nollent. 

5 Aug. (Saturday). Through Brionne, 9 miles, to Le Neubourg, 9 miles further 
E. The latter place appears as 'Limburgh' in K.J. Cott. MS. makes a halt on 
both the 4th and 5th at Le Teil-Nollent. 

6 Aug. (Sunday). Apparently a halt. 

7 Aug. (Monday). To Elbeuf on the Seine, 1 1 miles N.E. ' Celebeef,' in Baker ; 
' Oil de Boef," in K. J. Cott. MS. makes the march to Elbeuf fall on Sunday, and 
continues a day in advance down to the I ith. 

8 Aug. (Tuesday). Passing Pont-de-1'Arche, to Ldry, said to be on the Seine, 
but really on the Eure, 9 miles E. K. J. makes this stage halt at ' Fount Vadreel,' 
no doubt St.-Cyr-de-Vaudreuil, a little S. of Le"ry. 

9 Aug. ( Wednesday). Through Gaillon to Longueville, near Vernon. Longue- 
ville does not appear in the maps. Perhaps it was a suburb of Vernon; 17 
miles S.E. 

10 Aug. (Thursday?) Capture of the castle of Roche-blanche (not in the maps). 
This seems to be the 'chastel de la Roche,' of Cott. MS., there stated to have 
been captured on the 7th. Advance to Freneuse, 9 miles up the Seine, incorrectly 
called ' Frevile ' by Baker. 

11 Aug. (Friday). Through Mantes, to Epone, 12 miles S.E. 

12 Aug. (Saturday). To Fresnes, 5 or 6 miles E. K. J. has ' Ferelaguillon,' 
which is no doubt a corruption of Fresnes-Ecquevilly. 

13 Aug. (Sunday). To Poissy, 6 miles E. According to Baker, the march to 
Fresnes was on Friday, and the arrival at Poissy on Saturday. Skirmish with 
a detachment from Amiens. 

14, 15 Aug. (Monday and Tuesday). Halt. 

16 Aug. (Wednesday). To Grisy, 14 miles N. Baker calls this place ' Gersile. 1 

17 Aug. (Thursday). To Auteuil, 15 miles N. 

18 Aug. (Friday). To Troissereux, 10 miles N.W. 

19 Aug. (Saturday). To Sommereux, 15 miles N. In these last marches 



Cliron. Galf. le Baker. 



MARCH OF 

12* July! 



Eng] 



05 10 2O 



arfleur 




NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 257 

Baker still continues a day in advance, making the stage of Auteuil on Wednesday, 
and from thence to Sommereux on Thursday and Friday. 

20 Aug. (Sunday). Poix taken. Then to Camps-en-Amienois (K. J. and Cott. 
MS.), 8 miles N. Baker refers the capture of Poix alone to Sunday. 

21, 22 Aug. (Monday and Tuesday). To Airajnes, 6 miles N. of Camps-en- 
Amienois. Halt. K. J. has ' Assheu ' (Acheux) under date of the 2 1 st ; the 
king's kitchen must have been sent on far in advance. 

23 Aug. (Wednesday). To Acheux, 13 miles N.W. 

24 Aug. (Thursday). Passage of the Somme. Skirmish at Noyelle-sur-mer, 
8 miles N. Le Crotoy taken. Camp ' sub foresta de Cressy ' (K. J.). 

25 Aug. (Friday). Pass through the forest (Cott. MS.). ' In foresta ' (K. J.). 
Attempt by the French to cross the river. 

26 Aug. (Saturday). In the open field before Cre"cy (Cott. MS.), about 8 miles 
N.E. of Noyelle. ' Adhuc sub foresta ' (K. J.). The battle fought. 

27 Aug. (Sunday). On the field of battle. ' In campis sub foresta' (K. J.). 

28 Aug. (Monday). To 'Abbeville' (Cott. MS.) or 'Valoles' (K. J.), evidently 
Valloire-Abbaye, on the road to Maintenay. 

29 Aug. (Tuesday). To Maintenay, 8 or 9 miles N. of Cre'cy. 

30 Aug. (Wednesday). To Saint-Josse, 10. miles N.W. 

31 Aug., I Sept. (Thursday and Friday). To Neufchatel, 10 miles N. Halt. 
2, 3 Sept. (Saturday and Sunday). To Wissant (Cott. MS.), 18 miles N. 

K. J. says 'Vintevill,' i.e. Wimille, 10 miles N. Halt, 
4 Sept. (Monday). To Calais. 

Page 79, 1. 28. Statim princeps fecit milites. Of the three here mentioned, Roger 
Mortimer was born about the year 1327, was restored to the earldom of March in 
April 1354, and died in 1360 ; William de Montacute, the young earl of Salisbury, 
was born in 1328, and died in 1397 ; and William de Roos was summoned to 
parliament in 1350, and died in the Holy Land in 1352. 

Page 80, 1. ii. Comes de Ew, etc. Raoul ii. de Brienne, comte d'Eu, became con- 
stable of France, on the death of his father, in 1344. He remained prisoner in 
England for some years ; and, returning to France in 1350, was beheaded by king 
John about the igth November in that year. See note o'n p. 113, 1. 22, below. 
Villani states that he was suspected of a design to deliver the fortress of Guines 
to the English. Lettenhove's Froissart, xxi. 168. Jean de Melun, sire de Tancar- 
ville, grand chamberlain of France, died in 1350. The abbess of the Abbe" aux 
Dames (or of the Holy Trinity) at this time was Georgia de Mollay, who succeeded 
in 1336 and died in 1376. The letter of Bartholomew, lord Burghersh, written 
from Caen three days after the assault (Murimuth, 202) thus describes the losses 
of the French : ' Et tauntost le conestable de France se rendi a moun seignur 
Thomas de Holond ou tost pleyn de chivalers et equiers qe furunt ovesqe luy ; 
et le chambelen de Tankerville fust pris dun bacheler mon seignur le prince, si 
qil est le prison moun seignur. Et furunt pris et mortz entre vj xx et vij" chival- 
ers pruis et vailauns, dount i sount unqore vifs entour c. ; et desquiers, burgeys, 

Ll 



258 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

et de comune poeple pris et mortz entour v. mille.' Knyghton, 2586, gives pretty 
nearly the same account. Michael Northburgh (Avesbury, 359) says : ' Et 
adonqes furrent pris lez ditz conestable et chamberlain, et al mountance de c. 
chivalers, et dez esquiers vj* 1 od vij xx , et mortz chivalers, esquiers, et autres 
gentz de la ville graunt foisoun, en lez rues, mesouns, et es gardines." 

Page 80, 1. 20. Inveneruntcardinales. These were Etienne Aubert, who had been bishop 
of Clermont in 1340, but became a cardinal and bishop of Ostia in 1342 and pope 
Innocent vi. in 1352 ; and Annibale Ceccano, archbishop of Naples. The words 
' et unum archiepiscopum ' no doubt refer to the latter, some confusion in regard 
to his title causing Baker to create a third envoy. Their safe-conduct is printed 
in Fcedera, iii. 88, dated 3rd August. 

Page 81, 1. 8. Venerunt de Amy as, etc. Richard Wynkeley, in his letter on this 
part of the campaign (Murimuth, 215), thus describes the repair of the bridge and 
the skirmish : ' Protensis tamen iij. vel iiij. trabibus ultra pontem fractum, tran- 
sierunt quidam sagittarii, licet pauci. Interfectis secundum asstimationem homi- 
nibus mille vel circiter hostium, ceteri versi sunt in fugam.' 

Northburgh (Avesbury, 367) has the following : ' Et en refesance du pount 
vindrent gentz darmes a graunt nombre od les comunes du pais et de Amyas, bien 
armez. Et le counte de Northamtone et ses gentz issirent sur eaux, issint qe fus- 
rent mortz plus de D. de noz enemys, le mercie Dieux ; et lez autres fusrent as 
chivals. Et aultre foitz noz gentz passerent lea we et tuerent graunt plente de 
comunes de Fraunce et de la ville de Paris et aultre du pais, bien armez, del host 
de roy de Fraunce.' 

1. 1 6. Expugnaverunt villam de Pays. ' Et lendemain de lassumpcion nostre 

Dame nostre seignur le roy passa leawe de Seane et soi remua devers Poys, qest 
fort ville et enclose du mures et chastel tres fort dedeinz ; et fust tenu dez enemys. 
Et qant lavaunt garde et la secunde garde fusrent passez la ville, la rergarde fist 
assaut a la ville et la prist ; et fusrent mortz illesqes plus que ccc. hommes darmes 
de noz enemys.' Northburgh's letter (Avesbury, 368). 

1. 21. Gallici de civitate Dabevile. ' Et, fractis pontibus, via non patuit domino 

nostro regi nisi inter Croteye et Abbatis villam in refluxu maris, ubi totus exer- 
citus transivit illaesus, licet in loco a populo illius terrse nesciretur esse vadum 
tutum, nisi situm ubi sex vel decem transire poterant simul. Nostri tamen indif- 
ferenter quasi omni loco, tanquam in vado tuto, transierunt ; quod minim est in 
oculis omnium qui noverant locum ilium. Et adversarius domini nostri regis or- 
dinavit circiter M. equites et v. millia peditum vel ultra pro custodia illius pas- 
sagii, ad resistendum fortiter domino regi ; sed per dominum comitem Northamp- 
toniae et dommum Reginaldum de Cobham, cum c. armatis et quibusdam sagittariis 
exercitum praecedentes, viriliter sunt repulsi, et, interfectis eo die duobus millibus 
vel ultra, ceteri fugerunt usque ad Abbatis villam, ubi dictus adversarius cum 
exercitu suo fuit.' Wynkeley's letter (Murimuth, 216). 
'Et le roi de Fraunce avoit ordeigne D. hommes darmes et M'.M^M 1 . des 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 259 

comunes armez de avoir garde le passage ; et, mercie soil Dieux, le roi Dengle- 
terre et son host pristrent cele eawe de Somme, ou unqes homme ne passa avaunt, 
saunz perir nul dez gentz, et combateront od lour enemys et tueront plus qe M'.M 1 . 
gentz darmes, et lez remenantz enchacerent droit a la porte Dabbeville, et pris- 
trent de chivalers et esquiers a graunt nombre. Et mesme le jour monsire Hughe 
le Despenser prist la ville de Crotoye, et lui et sa gent tuerent illeosqes cccc. 
hommes darmes et tindrent la ville et troveront graunt plente du vitailles.' North- 
burgh's letter (Avesbury, 368). 

Page 81, 1.31. Reges Boemie et Malogrie. John of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia ; and 
James ii., king of Majorca, who had been driven from his throne by Peter of 
Aragon, and was slain in 1349 in an attempt to regain it. 

Page 82, 1. 3. Rex misit tiranno. Philip had already challenged Edward and the 
latter had replied, on the I4th and isth August, at the time of the passage of 
the Seine at Poissy. See the letters in Hemingburgh, ii. 423 ; Lettenhove's 
Froissart, iv. 496. Baker appears to be the only authority for the statement that 
Edward offered to allow the French to cross the Somme with a view to fighting a 
battle. 

1. 9. Igitur rex, etc. The English army was divided, as Baker says, into three 

divisions or ' battles ' : the first under the prince of Wales, the second under 
Arundel and Northampton, and the third under the king. They were posted on 
the plateau running from south-west to north-east between Crdcy and Wadicourt. 
The latest account of the battle will be found in Kohler, Die Enttuickelung des 
Kriegswesens in der Ritterzeit (1886), ii. 385-416. 

1. 15. In novem turmas divisus. The different accounts of the disposition of 
the French forces are most conflicting. The only point upon which all are per- 
fectly in accord is that the Genoese crossbowmen (6000 men under Carlo Grimani 
and Ottone Doria) led the van. As to the rest of the army, according to some, it 
was divided into two, according to others, into three or even more battles, the 
first being under Alengon, while Philip is variously placed in command of one of 
the others, but generally in the rear guard. The fact is, that the French advanced 
in such haste that the troops got quite out of hand and came into action, as 
Froissart says, ' sans arroy et ordonnance.' In the Rtcits (fun Bourgeois de Val- 
enciennes, ed. Baron Kervyn de Lettenhove, 230, the French army is thus divided : 
' Sy ordonna ses batailles, et charga le roy a monseigneur Othes Doire la pre- 
miere bataille, qui estoit capitaine de iiij". et x. hommes d'armes et de vj". 
[? vj m .] arbalestriers, tous Genevois et bonnes gens. La ij e . bataille eurent ceulx 
de Rains et les aultres communes a milliers et a cens. La iij e . bataille de gens 
d'armes mena le roy de Bohengne, Charles son fils, le conte d'Alenchon, le conte 
de Flandres et le conte de Blois. La iiij e . bataille eult le due de Loraine, le conte 
de Blans-Mons, le conte de Saumes, le conte de Sansoirre, le visconte de Thouart, 
le grant pryeur de France, et le visconte de Ventadour. La v e . bataile avoit le 
roy de France, monseigneur Jehan de Haynault et pluseurs barons, contes et 

Ll2 



26o NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

ducqs et chevaliers de son conseil que je ne sc.ay point tous nommer.' The Eng- 
lish, looking down upon the enemy from the high ground of their position, could 
no doubt form a good opinion of the French plan of attack. Froissart got his 
information chiefly from them and from John of Hainault, who was in the rear 
with the French king. Michael Northburgh, who was present (Avesbury, 369), 
says that the enemy advanced in four great battles. One of the MSS. of Muri- 
muth comes near to Baker's account by making the number of divisions to be 
seven. (Murimuth, 246). 

Page 82, 1. 16. Regi Boemie. Villani, Cronica, ed. 1823, vi. 164, states that the king of 
Bohemia and his son, with three hundred knights, took up their position with the 
Genoese. However this may be, it is certain that John of Luxemburg joined in 
the battle at an early period of the contest. The continuator of Nangis, ii. 203, 
unchivalrously declares that he did as much damage to friends as to foes : ' tam 
suos quam alios, quia non videns, gladio feriebat.' 

1. 29. Vocabatur inquam Oliflammum. Baker's ingenious derivation is unique. 

The Oriflamme is said to have received its name from its orange-red colour. 

Page 83, 1. 7. Ab horaprima. This should refer only to the English army, which 
took up its position early. The French did not come on to the ground until late 
in the day, and the battle did not begin till towards evening. 

1. 27. E contra Anglici. Froissart, iii. 168, speaks of Edward's devotions on 

the night before the battle. He and his son and most of their followers heard 
mass and communicated early in the morning. 

1. 28. Effodierunt multa foramina. This is not stated by others ; but is not an 

improbable proceeding. Le Bel describes a park, or lager, formed of the waggons, 
whereby Edward protected his left rear. The disposition of the archers on the 
flanks is also noticed only in Baker's narrative. Froissart says that the archers 
of the prince of Wales's battle were arranged in form of a harrow (' a maniere d'une 
herce'), that is, in open order, like the points of a harrow, and that the mounted 
men were placed ' ou fons de leur bataille.' Modern writers place the archers 
along the front (Kohler, plan), or even in the centre with the men-at-arms on 
the flanks (Oman, Art of War in the Middle Ages, 104). Baker's statement must 
not be rejected without being duly weighed. It is quite evident that he got his 
information of the details of the battle which he embodies in his story from some 
person who was present ; and his battle array is certainly best suited for the 
strictly defensive action which the English fought, scarcely moving a step from 
their position and yet slaughtering their enemies in great numbers with trifling 
loss to themselves. It will not be forgotten that it was to a fault in tactics in the 
disposal of the archers, ' prius armatorum a tergo stancium qui nunc a latere 
solent constare ' (p. 9), that he partly attributes the disaster of Bannockburn. 

Page 84, 1. 10. Edivardus de Wodestoke. From the prominence given to the part 
taken by the prince of Wales's division, it is evident that Baker had his informa- 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 361 

tion chiefly from one of the prince's followers. The general course of the battle 
after the destruction of the Genoese crossbowmen he does not follow. Wynkeley, 
who, like Northburgh, was a non-combatant, and probably watched the battle 
from the rear, with the king's division, speaks of three charges, the third being 
the most desperate (Murimuth, 216). His letter has evidently formed the basis 
of other accounts (Murimuth, 246). Knyghton also describes three main at- 
tacks. 

Page 84, 1. 23. Compellebatur genuflexus pugnare. ' Et la eult le prince de Galles tant 
a faire qu'il fut mis a genous par deux fois, et que monseigneur Richart Fils-de- 
Symon, qui portoit sa banniere, print sa banniere et le mist dessoubs ses pieds et 
passa sus pour garandir et pour son maistre rescourre, et print son espee a ij. 
mains, et commencha le prinche a deffendre et a cryer : " Edouart a saint Jorge, 
au fils du roy ! " Et a celle rescousse vint 1'evesque de Durames et maints vaillans 
chevaliers qui rescouyrent le prince, et Ik releva monseigneur Richart sa baniere.' 
Bourg. de Valenciennes, 232. Louandre, in his account of the battle, Histoire 
d 'Abbeville (1844), i. 238, draws from another source the same anecdote of the 
' young prince's rescue by his standard-bearer, whom however he names Richard 
de Beaumont. The knight who was despatched to the king to ask for help was, 
according to Froissart, iii. 183, Thomas of Norwich. The timely succour of 
twenty knights was a much more probable answer to the petition than the romantic 
words put into Edward's mouth by Froissart. The blank left by Baker for the 
name of the leader of the relieving force may, on the authority of the passage 
quoted above from the Bourgeois de Valenciennes, be filled up with that of the 
bishop of Durham. Froissart posts the bishop with the second division under 
Northampton, which he describes as advancing to the prince's support just when 
the message was sent to the king. The Bourgeois de Valenciennes is more prob- 
ably correct (232) in placing him with Edward. 

1. 30. Quindecies nostris insultum. This may be accepted as correct. Desul- 
tory attacks were no doubt made far into the night. Knyghton, 2588, confirms 
Baker almost to the letter : ' Rex Edwardus tola nocte cum exercitu suo stetit 
in campo, et Franci xvj. vicibus dederunt eis insultum antequam dies illuces- 
ceret." 

Page 85, 1. I. Quatuor acies recencium Gallicorum. 'Et lendemain matin, devaunt 
le solail leve, vint devaunt nous un autre bataille, graunt et fort. Et monsire le 
counte de Northamtone et lez countes de Northfolk et Warewyk isserount et lez 
descomfiteront, et pristrount de chivalers et esquiers a graunt nombre, et tueront 
M^M 1 . et pluis, et lez enchaceront iij. lieues de la terre.' Northburgh (Avesbury, 
369). It should be noted that there was no earl of Norfolk at this time. North- 
burgh perhaps meant the earl of Suffolk. 

I. 6. Ter mille -uiros. The total French loss has never been ascertained. They 

came into the field, according to Wynkeley and others, with about 12,000 men-at- 



2 63 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

arms and 60,000 infantry. This computation is probably fairly correct. North- 
burgh is very exact in one particular : ' La summe des bones gentz darmes qe 
fusrent mortz en la champ a ceste jour, saunz comunes et pedailles, amounte a 
mil D. xlij. acountez.' He probably got these figures from the officers who were 
appointed by Edward to examine the bodies. As we have seen, he counts the 
French loss in the fight on the morrow at upwards of 2000 ; this appears to be 
intended as a total of all ranks. One of the versions of Murimuth (248), in 
addition to the men of high rank who fell, computes ' de aliis militibus et armigeris 
plus quam duo millia, ac de hominibus de communi sine numero.' Knyghton 
also makes a total of 2000 men-at-arms ; but adds the improbable number of 
32,000 common soldiers slain. Wynkeley appears to be the first authority for the 
statement that the English lost only two knights and one squire ; he further adds 
that certain Welsh were also killed, ' quia se fatue exposuerunt.' It will be ob- 
served that lower down Baker estimates the French loss of ' virorum militarium 
et superioris dignitatis' at upwards of 4000, and that, as to the rest, ' nemo curavit 
numerare ' ; and the English loss at less than forty. Froissart's numbers are : 
about 1300 great people and knights, and 15,000 or 16,000 others, on the French 
side ; and three knights and twenty archers on the English side. 

Page 85, 1. 8. Fuerunt inprelio de Cressi peremti. The persons here enumerated are : 
Jean de Luxembourg, king of Bohemia ; Guillaume de Melun, archbishop of Sens 
(who, however, was not slain in the battle) ; Bernard Le Brun, bishop of Noyon 
(who was only taken prisoner) ; Raoul, duke of Lorraine ; Charles, comte d'Alen- 
gon, brother of the French king (the words ' et frater eius ' being no doubt a mis- 
reading for ' frater regis ') ; Jean (not Philippe) iv. comte de Harcourt ; Jean ii. 
comte d'Auxerre ; Jean v. de Harcourt, son of the comte de Harcourt, comte 
d'Aumale (who was only wounded) ; Simon, comte de Salm ; Louis de Chatillon, 
comte de Blois ; Louis de Cre"cy, comte de Flandre ; Henri de Montfaucon, comte 
de Montbeliard (who, however, did not fall in the battle) ; Louis ii. comte de 
Sancerre (this is probably the explanation of 'comes de Nauver' of the text); 
Jean ii (?), comte de Grandpre 1 ; Robert Bertrand, baron de Briquebecq, marshal ; 
Peter Ursini, styled ' the Bold,' count of Rosenberg, high chamberlain of Bohemia 
(Baker has taken him for an officer of the French king; so also the Lanercost 
chronicle calls him ' major totius Francias post regem.' He is said to have died 
on the I4th Oct. 1346 ; he may therefore have been only wounded) ; (Jean de 
Nanteuil ?), grand prior of France ; Hugues de Vers, abbat of Corbie (who, how- 
ever, according to the Gallia Christiana, survived till 1351) ; Thibaut de Moreuil; 
Jean (?) de Cayeu ; and Robert de Wavrin, seigneur de Saint-Venant, seneschal 
of Flanders. Particulars of most of them will be found in the useful indexes to 
Lettenhove's Froissart. 

1. 28. Corpus regis Boemie. The body was first laid in the abbey of VaUoires, 

but was afterwards removed to Luxemburg. In the French revolution the re- 
mains were disturbed and found their way into a private museum of antiquities 
near Treves, from which degraded position they were rescued by the king of 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 263 

Prussia, and were (in 1872) kept at Castel, near Saarburg. Luce's Froissart, 
iii. Ixi. 

Page 86, 1. 10. Afisit tirannus. ' The French king in this meanetime sent a number 
of Genowayes and other hired souldiours unto David king of Scots, earnestly 
requesting him that he would invade England with all his force : wherefore about 
the 7 of October he with a mighty power entred England, passing along by 
Berwicke, which was strongly defended by the Englishmen, and so, ranging over 
the forest of Alnewike, they wonne a certaine mannour place called Luden, 
belonging to the lord Walter Wake, who yeelded himselfe on condition to be 
ransomed, where (Selby a knight being desirous by law of armes to save his life) 
he was taken, which when it was known to David, he commanded him to be 
slaine : but Selby intreated for him that he might be brought alive to the 
presence of David, who having obtained his request, he falleth downe before 
David, requesting his life for ransotne, but he was againe adjudged to die. 
The malice of the tyrant was such, that he commanded two of the children of 
the poore knight to be strangled in sight of their father, and afterwards himselfe, 
being almost madde for sorrow, was beheaded. From thence the Scots passed 
forward, wasting along the countrey, wherein were many farmers belonging to 
the monasterie of Durham, and comming within two miles of Durham they tooke 
certaine of the monks, which they kept prisoners for their ransome, making 
covenant with the residue for a certaine summe of money and corne to redeeme 
their mannours from spoyling. The Englishmen of the marches fleeing before 
the face of the enemie, William de la Zouch, archbishop of Yorke, vicegerent to 
the king in the marches, calling together the bishop of Carleile, the earle of 
Anguise, the lord Mowbray, the lord Henry Percy, the lord Ralph Nevel, Ralph 
Hastings, with all their ayde, together with the archers of Lancashire, went 
towards the armie of the Scots, and on the eeven of saint Luke met them at a 
place called Bewre Parke, neere Nevils Crosse. The Scottish nation, not 
accustomed to flee, withstoode them stoutely, and having head-pieces on their 
heads and targets on their armes, preasing sore upon the Englishmen, they abode 
the brunt of the archers : but the men of armes, which were in the forefronts, 
gave their enemies many deadly wounds. The marshal! of the Scottes, earle 
Patrike, who had the charge of the rereward, when he perceived his men to be 
beaten downe, he fled away with other that were privie to his cowardlines : he 
being fled, the residue of the Scottes, continuing faithfully with their king, stoode 
about him like a round tower, keeping him in the middle, who so continued till 
there was scarce fortie of them left alive, of the which not one of them could 
escape away. At length, David their king valiantly fighting and sore hurt, an 
esquire of Northumberland, named John Copland, tooke him, who with eight of 
his servants rode straite out of the field with the king, and so rode fifteen leagues 
from that place to a castle called Orgalus, the residue about him being taken or 
slaine ; the Englishmen pursued the chase after them which were fled, slaying 
and taking them as farre as Prudihow and Corbridge." Stow, Annales, 380. 



264 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

It will be noticed that, owing to the corrupt state of the Latin text, Stow has 
fallen into great confusion regarding the death of Selby, substituting an imagi- 
nary ' lord Walter Wake ' for the unfortunate man. 

Page 86, 1. 12. Per suas literas. See a Latin version of Philip's letterto David, in Hem- 
ingburgh, ii. 422, bearing date 22nd July, in which he says : 'remansitque patria 
Anglias vacua prassidio et immunita, nam major pars exercitus sui cum ipso [Ed- 
wardo] est, altera pars in Vasconia, et altera in partibus Flandriae et Britannia? 
divisa est ; idcirco enim in Anglia fortium copia et armatorum esse non potest : 
cunctisque videtur quod in tota patria Anglias, si diligentiam vestram et curam 
apponere vultis, maximum sibi damnum inferre potestis.' 

' Sir Philip J>e Valais, suth for to say, 
Sent unto sir David, and faire gan him pray 
At ride thurgh Ingland, j>aire fomen to flay, 
And said none es at home to let hym J>e way, 
None letes him }>e way, to wende whore he will : 
Bot .with schipherd staves fand he his fill.' Minot, 31. 

1. 19. Oppugnarunt quoddam maneriitm. The small fortress or pele of Liddel 

stood on a cliff overhanging a stream of the same name, two miles north of 
Netherby. It belonged to Thomas, lord Wake, who was sometimes styled 
' Thomas de Wake de Lyddel.' It held out till the fourth day of the siege, when 
it was stormed : ' Tune dominus Walterus de Selby, custos fortalitii, videns sibi, 
proh dolor ! mortem imminere et nullo modo possibile se posse evadere, petiit 
a rege David suam pietatem, pluries implorando quod, ex quo mori debuit, sicut 
militem cum aliquo inimicorum posset prceliando ultimum diem vitas suas 
in campo finire. Sed hanc petitionem David, diu dolo demens, induratus ut 
alter Pharao, fremens, furibundus, vesania vexatus magis quam Herodes hostis 
Altissimi, nee prece nee pretio concedere volebat. Tune miles ultra addidit : 
" O rex reverende, ex quo voluistis me vestrum videre, ex mero more regio, 
aliquam guttam gratia? a fonte felicissimo vestrse bonitatis spero jam habere." 
O nefanda rabies regis reprobandi ! heu ! noluit promittere militem confiteri, 
sed ilium indilate jussit decollari.' Chron. Lanercost, 345. 

It will be seen that here there is no mention of the murder of Selby's sons ; so 
we may hope that the story is untrue. At all events Selby's eldest son was not 
slain ; he was made prisoner and kept in Scotland for eight years. Cal. Doc. 
Scotland, iii. 1670. 

Page 87, 1. 27. Convocatis cum eorum copiis. The English leaders here named 
are John Kirkeby, bishop of Carlisle ; Gilbert Umfreville, earl of Angus ; John, 
lord Mowbray ; Henry, lord Percy; and Ralph, lord Neville, of Raby. See the 
carefully written account of the battle in Archceologia & liana, new series (1856), 
i. 271. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 265 

Page 88, 1. 9. Comes Pa/rictus. Patrick Dunbar, gth earl of Dunbar and March, 
now over sixty years of age, with Robert Stewart, commanded the rear 
division. 

1. 18. lohannem de Copelond. For his services in the battle of Neville's Cross, 

John of Coupland was made a knight banneret, with an annuity of ,500, which 
however was afterwards commuted for a grant of land. See an account of him 
in Archaol. jEliana, n. s., i. 293. 

1. 22. In tanto certamine, etc. Dalrymple (Lord Hailes), Annals of Scotland 

(ed. 1797), iii. 106, has compiled a list of the Scottish losses, based chiefly upon 
the names given by Knyghton. Baker's list furnishes some new names and 
otherwise differs from that of Dalrymple. It is as follows : Prisoners : King 
David ; John Graham, earl of Menteith ; Duncan Macduff, earl of Fife ; Malcolm 
Fleming, earl of Wigton ; William Douglas (the knight of Liddesdale), William 
* Livingstone, Walter Haliburton (of Dirleton), John Douglas (probably younger 
brother of William Douglas, of Liddesdale), David Annand, John St. Clair, 
William Mowbray, David fitz Robert fitz Kenneth, William Ramsay (of Colluthy), 
Adam Moigne, John Stewart (of Dalswinton), Roger Kirkpatrick, John Hume, 
William More, knights ; and three squires. Killed : John Randolph, earl of 
Moray; Maurice Moray, earl of Strathern ; Alexander Strachan, John Hali- 
burton, Henry Ramsay and Ness Ramsay (among the prisoners, in Dalrymple), 
Adam Nicholson, Thomas Boyd, John Stewart (of Dreghorn), Alan Stewart (his 
brother), David de la Haye (constable), Edward Keith, John Crawford, John 
Lindesay, Philip Meldrum, Henry Ramsay (a prisoner, in Dalrymple), Alexander 
More, Humphrey Boys, Gilbert Inchmartin, Robert Maitland (of Thirlestane) 
and his brother, Humphrey Kirkpatrick, John Strachan, and Patrick Heron (a 
prisoner, in Dalrymple), knights. 

Page 89, 1. II. Dum hec in Anglia geruntur. 'While these things were done in 
England, the king was busied at the siege of Caleis, which towne is situated in 
the marches of Artoys, being closed about with a double wall and a double 
ditch, hard on the shore of the English sea, right over against the castle of 
Dover. And there is belonging to the same towne an haven wherein ships may 
lie very safe without danger. This towne was sometime, with the castle thereof, 
very strongly built by the force and valiantnes of the Romans, for, after that 
Julius Caesar had brought all Fraunce under his subjection, he built Caleis in 
Artoys, and the castle of Chepstow in Venedocia or Southwales, and the castle 
of Dover in Kent, what time he had conquered Brytaine (as saith mine author). 
King Edward cast a ditch about his campe, and laid his navie of ships against 
Caleis haven, to the intent that the Frenchmen should make no invasions upon 
his souldiours, neither they within receive any victuals by water. The Norman 
pirats at sundry times tooke 15 of his ships, whereof some of them they carried 
away for their owne occupying, the other they brent, and Sir Thomas Haclut 
with Sir William Borton, knights, as they were sailing into England, were taken 

M m 



266 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

prisoners on the sea. King Edward, having fortified the siege, lay without 
giving any assault, knowing that it was not possible to fight with his enemies 
without great losse of men, considering the depth of the ditches and height of 
the walles : neither would he erect any engines against the towne, for there 
wanted firme ground whereupon to place them. Besides that, if he should beate 
downe the walles, yet were the ditches so deepe and full of salte water let in on 
every side, that they were able to withstand all the world with little strength and 
defence.' Stow, Annales, 381. 

Page 89, 1. 21. Aut o&sessis victjialia per mare ministrarent. Knyghton, 2592, tells us 
that as late as the spring of 1347 the French relieved the besieged: 'Post 
Pascha, anno gratias m.ccc.xlvii, venerunt xxx. naves et galeas, et atrociter, sine 
impedimento regis Edwardi vel suorum, intulerunt victualia in villam Calesia?, 
et absque dampno recesserunt, cernente populo Anglicano. Et ab ea hora fecit 
rex obturare viam introitus navium in villam. Et comes Warwych cepit 
custodiam maris cum Ixxx. navibus.' This is perhaps dated too late, Edward 
having sat down before the place in September, 1346. The roll of the fleet which 
was assembled before Calais is printed in Archceologia, vi. 213, and by Nicolas, 
Hist. Navy, ii. 507. The English vessels were 700 in number, with 14,151 
mariners. 

1. 25. Edmundus Haclut, etc. Sir Edmund Hakluyt is perhaps the person of 

that name who died 34 Edw. Ill, seised of lands in cos. Hants and Wilts, and 
who married Emma, widow of John Berenger, with whom he had the moiety 
of the manor of Ebbesbourne, co. Wilts. Hoare, Modern Wilts, Chalk 
Hundred, 162. Sir William Burton appears at a later period in the Fcedera, 
as engaged in various diplomatic missions. 

1. 29. Parariorum. ' Pararium,' another form of the word ' petraria,' a 

catapult. 

Page 90, 1. 8. Ab arido ad mare profimdum. This passage appears to mean that 
the earl of Northampton set up a palisade, extending from the shore into deep 
water, to stop the people of Boulogne, who smuggled victuals into Calais, not in 
ships on the open sea, which was guarded, but in boats in shallow water along 
shore. 

1. 12. Et postmodum amirallo. This was no doubt the action of the 25th June, 

1347, described in a letter printed in Avesbury, 385. 

1. 1 8. Tirannus Francorum advenit. The date of Philip's arrival at Guines, 

as here stated, is the 23rd July. Edward, in his letter to the archbishop of 
Canterbury (in Avesbury, 391), describes the whole affair. Philip moved from 
Guines and took up a position near Sangatte on Friday, the 27th July. Then 
followed fruitless negotiations for four days, ending in a challenge from Philip to 
Edward, which was accepted. The French, however, drew off on Thursday, the 
2nd August. Of the three French envoys, Gauthier de Brienne, due d'Athenes, 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 367 

and Pierre, due de Bourbon, perished in the battle of Poitiers. The third, Jean, 
comte d'Armagnac, is not mentioned in Edward's letter; nor, on the English 
side, is the earl of Huntingdon. 

Page 90, 1. 28. Obsessi interea per signa. ' In the meane season, they which were 
besieged made known their state to the French king by signes and tokens, for 
at his first comming they within the towne set up his ancient on the chiefest 
tower of the castle, and also they set out banners of the dukes and earles of 
France, and a little after the shutting in of the evening they made a great light 
on the top of one of the highest towers which was towards the army of the 
Frenchmen, and therewithal they made a great shoute and noyse with trumpets 
and drummes. The second night they made the like, but some what lesse. The 
third night a very small fire, giving forth therewith a sorrowfull voyce, signifying 
thereby that their strength touching the keeping of the towne was quite spent 
and done. And the same night they tooke in all their flags and ancients, 
except their standart. At the last, the day of battell drew on, against which 
time there came out of England and Dutchland, toward the helpe of king Edward, 
17,000 fighting men, whereupon the French king betimes in the morning of the 
second daye of August, making fire in his tents, fledde, whose taile the duke of 
Lancaster and earle of Northampton cutting off, they slewe and tooke many of 
them. When they of Caleis perceived this, they tooke their standart downe, and 
with great sorrow cast it from the tower downe into the ditch, and on the 
Satterday following John de Vienna, their captaine, a man very skilfull in 
warlike affayres, opening the gates of the towne, came out to the king of 
England, sitting on a little nagge, for that hee being lame on his feete could not 
well goe, with an halter about his necke, with the other burgesses and souldiours 
following on foote, bare headed and bare footed, having halters about their 
neckes. The captaine, comming thus before the king, offered him a warlike 
sworde, as unto the chiefest prince of armes amongst all Christian kings and 
as one that had taken that towne from the mightiest Christian king by noble 
chivalry. Then he delivered to him the keyes of the towne. Thirdly he, re- 
questing of him pitte, asked pardon and delivered him the sworde of peace, 
wherewith he should give right judgement, spare and forbeare the humble and 
lowly, and chasten the proude hearted. The king receiving that which was 
offered him sent the captaine, with fifteene knights and as many burgesses, into 
England, enriching them with large gifts. The common sort of people and such 
as he found in the towne, being somewhat refreshed with the kings almes, he 
commaunded to be safe conducted to the castle of Guisnes.' Stow, Annales, 382. 
Avesbury dates the surrender of Calais on Friday the 3rd August, a day 
earlier than Knyghton and Baker. Knyghton's account, 2594, may be com- 
pared with our chronicle : ' Igitur cum vidissent cives Calesias vecordiam Fran- 
corum, subtraxerunt de muris vexilla Francis et vexilla regis Anglias quartilata 
de armis Anglias et Francias elevantes. Feceruntque ejulatum magnum, et voce 
lugubri clamaverunt ad regem Edwardum pro misericordia, tanquam gentes 

M m 2 



268 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

fame pereuntes sine subsidio ; et reddiderunt villam, se et cuncta sua ad gratiam 
regis Edwardi, scilicet iv. die Augusti, anno Domini m.ccc.xlvij, sub tali forma. 
Venerunt de Calesia reddere se et villam regi Edwardo dominus Joannes de 
Vienna capitanius cum aliis pluribus. Milites, villae custodes, veniunt dis- 
tinctim cum discoopertis capitibus, habentes gladios transversos in manibus ; 
quorum unus gladius significavit quod rex vi et armis villam conquisierat ; alter 
vero quod subiciebant se ad voluntatem regis mittere eos ad mortem, vel aliter 
de eis faceret votum suum. ' Burgenses vero procedebant cum simili forma, 
habentes funes singuli in manibus suis, in signum quod rex eos laqueo suspen- 
deret vel salvaret ad voluntatem suam ; et voce altisona regi clamabant quod 
false et proditiose villam tenuerant et defenderant contra eum. Rex vero miseri- 
cordia motus suscepit eos in gratiam suam, et gratiose eos tractabat. Statimque 
misit victualia in villam ad recreationem populi ; set illi erant adeo famelici et 
fame affecti et adnichilati ac debilitati, et tantum sumpserunt de victu et potu, 
[quod] nocte proxima sequenti moriebantur in dicta villa plusquam ccc. per- 
sonas.' 

During the sea-fight of 25th June, the letter which Jean de Vienne, the gallant 
captain of Calais, wrote to Philip, to tell him of the sore need of the town, was 
cast overboard the boat in which it was being conveyed, in order to prevent 
it falling into the hands of the English. But it was recovered and sent on by 
Edward to the French king. With grim humour the letter tells Philip how 
cats, dogs, and horses are all eaten, and nothing remains but human flesh ; 
but 'twere better to die with honour in the field than eat each other ; and so, 
' si briefment remedie et consail ne soit mys ; vous naverez jammes plusors 
lettres du moy, et serra la ville perdue et nous qe sumes dedeinz.' Avesbury, 386. 

Page 92, 1. 4, Maneria de Merk et de Hoye. Marck and Oye, between Calais and 
Gravelines. 

1. 10. Predones in Anglia. In the parliament of this year the commons 

petitioned against maintenance of traitors, robbers, felons, and trespassers against 

the peace. 
1. 23. Ordinantur treuge. The truce was signed on the 28th September, 1347, 

to last till the following 24th June. The comte d'Eu and the sire de Tancarville 

no doubt used their good offices, but they were not officially concerned in the 

negotiations. 
Page 96, 1. 4. Dominum I. de Montgomery. John, lord Montgomery, was appointed 

captain of Calais on the 8th October, 1347. Faedera, iii. 138. He died of the 

plague. 
1. 6. Versus Angliam. Edward landed at Sandwich on' the 1 2th October, 

and came to London on the I4th. Fcedera, iii. 139. 

1. H. Add^ict^ sunt ad turrim. David Bruce had been a prisoner in the 

Tower since the ist January, 1347. Fcedera, iii. 99. Charles of Blois was captured 
at the battle of Roche-Derien, 2pth June, 1347. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 269 

Page 96, 1. 15. lacobus Douglas. William (here wrongly called James) Douglas, the 
knight of Liddesdale, made his peace with, and engaged to serve, Edward ; and 
was set free on the I7th July, 1352. Fcedera, iii. 246. The next year he was 
murdered, when hunting in Ettrick Forest, by his kinsman William, afterwards 
earl Douglas. 

1. 25. Abbas de Donfermelyn. Alexander of Berwick, abbat of Dunfermline, 

I33I-I3S3- 

1. 25. Venerunt eciam episcopus. The members of this embassy, which arrived 

in April, 1348, were John Pilmore, bishop of Moray, Adam, bishop of Brechin, 
Robert Erskine of Erskine, and William Meldrum of Auchineve. Fcedera, iii. 
158. David was not restored to liberty till August, 1357. 

Page 97, 1. 8. Comes de Mentez. The earl of Menteith was executed early in 1347. 

1. 1 6. Eiis respondit. Edward's envoys declining the imperial crown were 

despatched on the loth May, 1348. Fosdera, iii. 161. 

1. 22. Domina lohanna. The princess Joan was betrothed to Pedro (afterwards 

known as Pedro the Cruel), now in his fourteenth year, son of Alfonso xi. of 
Castille. Her death at Bordeaux was formally announced by Edward to the 
Spanish court by letter of the I5th September, 1348. Fcedera, iii. 171. 

Page 98, 1. 7. Convenerunt apud Calesiam. The commission to the English envoys 
is dated 25th September, 1348. The French envoys were Hugues, bishop of 
Laon, Jean de Nesle, sire d'Offemont, Geoffroi de Charny, and the master of 
the crossbowmen. The prolongation of the truce to the ist September (not 
December) of the following year was agreed to on the 1 3th November. Fcedera, 
iii. 173, 177. Baker appears to have confused the negotiations of this and the 
next year. 

1. 19. Homagivm de comite Flandrie. A treaty was made with the count of 

Flanders on the 4th December, 1348. Fcedera, iii. 178. The negotiations were 
carried on at Dunquerque. See Lettenhove's Froissart, xviii. 317. 

1. 20. Missi quoque fuerunt nuncii. There is no notice in the Fcedera of this 

mission. Sir Robert Herle was lieutenant, and on the 9th March, 1350, became 
captain, of Calais. Fcedera, iii. 198. 

1. 29. Ab oriente Indorum. 'There began amongst the East Indians and 

Tartarians a certaine pestilence, which at length waxed so general, infecting 
the middle region of the ayre so greatly, that it destroyed the Saracens, Turks, 
Syrians, Palestinians, and the Grecians with a woonderfull or rather incredible 
death, in so much that those peoples, being exceedingly dismaid with the terrour 
therof, consulted amongst themselves and thought it good to receive the Chris- 
tian faith and Sacraments, for they had intelligence that the Christians which 
dwelt on this side the Greekish sea were not so greatly (more then common 
custome was) troubled with sicknesse and mortalitie. At length this terrible 



2 ;o NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

slaughter passed over into those countries which are on this side the Alpes, 
and from thence to the partes of Fraunce which are called Hesperia, and so 
by order along into Germany and Dutchland. And the seventh yeere after 
it began, it came into England and first began in the townes and ports joyning 
on the sea coasts, in Dorsetshire, where, even as in other countries, it made 
the country quite void of inhabitants, so that there were almost none left alive. 
From thence it passed into Devonshire and Somersetshire, even unto Bristow, 
and raged in such sort that the Glocestershire men would not suffer the Bristow 
men to have any accesse unto them or into their countrey by any meanes. But 
at length it came to Glocester, yea even to Oxford, and London, and finally it 
spred over all England, and so wasted and spoyled the people that scarce the 
tenth person of all sorts was left alive.' Stow, Annales, 384. 

The Black Death so called from the dark blotches which appeared on the 
skin, owing to the infiltration of the blood into the disorganized tissues was the 
Levant or oriental plague. This fearful outbreak is said to have had its origin 
in central China, in 1333. It reached Europe in 1347, and appeared at Avignon 
at the beginning of 1348. Thence it spread northwards through France and 
Germany, and reached England in August of that year. It is said to have 
extended even to Iceland and Greenland. After making the circuit of Europe 
it visited Russia in 1351, and seems to have been finally stopped at the 
Caucasus. Baker's account of its progress in England has formed the chief 
basis of all later notices, through the medium of Stow's Annales. According 
to Professor Thorold Rogers, from one-third to one-half the population of the 
country perished. See Hecker, Epidemics of the Middle Ages (Sydenham 
Society), 1846; Rogers, History of Agriculture and Prices in England, \. 292 
sqq. ; also, with regard to the extent of its ravages, see papers by Mr. Seebohm 
and Professor Rogers in The Fortnightly Review, ii. 149, 268, iii. 191 ; and 
The Black Death in East Anglia, by Dr. Jessopp, in The Nineteenth Century, 
xvi. 915, xvii. 599. 

It will be observed that Baker dates its appearance at Bristol on the festival 
of the Assumption of the Virgin (isth August) ; its first entry into the country 
on the Dorsetshire coast is placed by Avesbury, 406, at the beginning of the 
month. According to the Eulogium Historiarum (Rolls Series), iii. 213, it was 
imported at Melcombe. Baker states that London was attacked about Michael- 
mas ; Avesbury, about All Saints. The progress of the epidemic into the 
Eastern counties was remarkably slow, for it does not seem to have made its 
mark in Norfolk until about the end of March, 1349. Knyghton, 2599-2601, 
gives very interesting particulars of the social effects of the plague, particularly 
in regard to labour. 

Page 99, 1. 15. Episcopus Londoniensis. 'Ralph Stratford, bishop of London, in 
the year 1348, bought a piece of ground called No Man's Land, which he 
inclosed with a wall of brick and dedicated for burial of the dead ; built there- 
upon a proper chapel, which is now enlarged and made a dwelling-house. And 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 271 

this burying-place is become a fair garden, retaining the old name of Pardon 
Church-yard.' Stow, Survey of London, ed. 1754-5, ii. 60. Sir Walter Manny 
purchased an adjoining piece of land of more than thirteen acres, the site of 
the Charterhouse which he founded in 1371. Stow says that he had seen a 
stone cross which stood in Manny's cemetery, bearing an inscription which 
recorded the burial of 50,000 victims of the plague. 

Page 99, 1. 20. lohannes de Montgomurri. He died in 1348, for John Beauchamp was 
appointed captain of Calais on the 1st January, 1349. Owing to the transposition 
of words in the Bodleian MS. (or, at least, in the MS. which he used) Stow 
(Annales, 386) has made ' Lord Clisteles ' captain of Calais. Who this Clisteles 
was, does not appear. He was, however, probably of the family of the lords 
of Ghistelles in Flanders. Wulfart de Ghistelles was in Edward's service, and 
was the officer who captured Poix in the Cre"cy campaign (Bourgeois de Valen- 
ciennes, 225). The name is not found in the list of persons buried in the church 
of the White Friars, in Stow's Survey (i. 742). There is however an Elianor 
Gristles, or Gistles, who may have been one of his family. 

1. 27. In crastino defuncti. ' Pauci erant qui lectum occupabant ultra iij. dies 

vel duos dies et dimidium diem.' Knyghton, 2599. ' Nullum quidem quern 
mori voluit ultra tres vel quatuor dies vivere vix permisit, sine delectu etiam 
personarum, paucis divitibus dumtaxat exceptis.' Avesbury, 407. 

Page 100, 1. 10. Scott ga-visi. ' Scoti audientes de crudeli peste Anglorum suspi- 
cati sunt de manu Dei vindici hoc eis evenisse, et sumpserunt injuramentum, 
prout vulgaris rumor aures Anglorum personuit, sub hac forma, quando jurare 
volebant: Per fadam mortem Anglorum, Anglice "Be the foul deth of Enge- 
lond." Et sic Scoti, credentes vindictam Dei horribilem Anglos obumbrasse, 
convenerunt in foresta de Selfchirche in proposito invasisse totum regnum 
Anglias. Supervenit saeva mortalitas et ventilavit Scotos subita et immanis 
mortis crudelitas ; et moriebantur in parvo tempore circiter v. millia. Reliqui 
vero, quidam debiles, quidam fortes, repatriare se disponebant ; set Angligenre 
eos prseoccupaverunt insequentes, et occiderunt ex eis multos nimis.' Knyghton, 
2599-2600. 

1. 20. Transfretarunt episcopus, etc. The commissioners were the bishop of 

Norwich, the earls of Northampton and Huntingdon, the prior of Rochester, 
and others. On the 2nd May, 1349, the truce was prolonged to Whitsuntide, 
1350. Fadera, iii. 182, 184. 

1. 26. Ceterum comes Flandrie. Baker is here evidently referring to the treaty 

of December, 1348. He has, with some excuse, a very vague idea of what was 
going on in the Low Countries, and in this paragraph and in the one on page 102 
seems to have set down a confused statement of what he probably gathered from 
English solders who had served there. It was after the treaty of 1348 that Louis 
de Male returned to Ghent and the fight between the two factions of the fullers 
and the weavers took place, in which the latter were defeated. The count thus 



272 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

had the opportunity of repressing them stil! further and reducing them to obe- 
dience. Baker seems to have' in his mind the battle of Cassel, fought in 1347, 
in which the English archers helped the Flemings to win the day. 

Page 101, 1. 7. Johannes de Filebert. John de Saint-Philibert, baron by writ 1348, 
died 1359. 

1. 19. Sub ducatu Radulfhi de Caiix. Raoul de Cahors, who, after being 
lieutenant of Poitou and receiving various benefits in Edward's service, turned 
traitor and went over to the French ; and, as an earnest of his repentance, slew 
his old comrade Dagworth in the manner described. By a deed of the 4th 
January, 1350, he undertook to hand over to the French the towns of Vannes, 
Brest, Quimper, and other places in Brittany (Lettenhove's Froissart xviii. 334). 
The attack on Dagworth took place near Auray, in the month of August. 
Dagworth was a gallant soldier, who pushed his fortunes with his sword and 
was appointed the king's lieutenant in Brittany on the loth January, 1347. It 
does not appear what authority Baker had for calling Raoul de Cahors the son 
of a cobbler ; in any case, he was a mere adventurer. 

Page 102, 1. 13. Nee minus Gallici. In this paragraph Baker has again gone back 
to the events of 1348, before the treaty of December. Cf. Feyerabend, Annal. 
Belg. (1580), p. 178 : 'Turn Luodovicus precibus Brugensium ex Bruccella venit 
in Flandriam, in qua ubique prasterquam Gandavi et Hypris debita obedientia 
et honore acceptus est. . . . Idem autem cum Brugis tentaret, multosque perditos 
in carcerem conjecisset, textores aliique nonnulli plebeii armati in forum con- 
currunt, magnis clamoribus postulantes ut eorum socii captivitate dimitterentur : 
quorum conies improbitate exacerbatus, conversus in illos, multos interficit, reli- 
quam omnem turbam fugat et dissipat, capitaque conspirationis quotquot appre- 
hendere potest gladio punit et in rotas agit, multosque textores pellit in exilium. 
Profectus Hypram, postquam intelligit Gandavenses et Hyprenses pacem facere 
nolle absque rege Angliae, Henricum Flandrensem Henrici filium, cognatum 
suum, in Angliam ad regem de pace mittit, atque conventum indici apud Duyn- 
kercam curat, ut cum Anglo de consensu etiam Philippi regis paciscatur.' 

1. 22. Circa festum Omnium Sanctorum. Edward was in Calais in November 

1348, when the truce with France was prolonged and was followed by the 
treaty between Edward and Louis de Male. See above, p". 98, 11. 7, 19, and the 
notes on the same. 

1. 27. Deinde ad solempnitatem, etc. Thomas Cantelupe, bishop of Hereford, 
1275-1282, died at Orvieto. His bones and heart were brought to England, and 
his bones were buried in Hereford cathedral. He was canonized I7th April, 
1320. His day was the 2nd October. Nicholas, third baron Cantelupe, was 
the bishop's grand-nephew. The translation here spoken of is also referred to 
by Knyghton and Walsingham. Knyghton places it in 1348, and fixes the day 
as the 25th October, which, however, would be too early to connect it with the 
period of Edward's visit to Calais. It will be observed that Baker describes 



.VOTES AND 1LLUSTRATIOXS. 273 

the attempt on Calais as happening at this time, whereas we know that it took 
place a full year later. 

Page 103, 1. I. Instante prefata solempnitate. Stow, Annales, 387, translates thus, 
not always correctly : ' During which feast and solemnitie, it was signified to the 
king by the secretaries of Emericus of Padua, who was a feed man to the king of 
England, that on the fourteenth day of Januarie next comming Geffrey Charney, 
knight, and many other Frenchmen should be received into Caleis, unto whom 
the said towne was solde by the said Emericus. But the towne being presently 
rescued by king Edwarde, the said Emericus of Padua with other Genoways con- 
tinued in Caleis, being maintained there at the costs of the French king against 
the king of England, when he besieged it ; who also, after the yeelding of it to the 
king of England, being pardoned both of life and limme, from thenceforth con- 
tinued and dwelt as a feed man of the kings in the said towne for the defence 
thereof. At that time the said Geffrey was lord of Matas, a man more skilful in 
war than any French man in Fraunce. Wherfore he was greatly esteemed, even 
to the time of his death. This crafty deviser indevoured by his letters, wherein 
hee made promise of large giftes of gold and-other sophistical! perswasions, quite 
to subvert the faith and loyaltie of the said Emericus. Finally, this craftie de- 
viser agreed with this false man that for twentie thousand French crownes he 
should let in the French men to the town, and, as much as lay in him, deliver up 
to the French men both the towne and castle. This bargaine being most traiter- 
ously made by oath and breaking of the Sacrament betwixt them, yet, al this not- 
withstanding, he wrote letters unto the king touching the state of the whole matter, 
but very privily, how that he was readie to shew friendship to the French men, 
yet meaning to make frustrate their purpose, whereby they should be convicted of 
breaking the truce, and also many of them should bee taken to bee raunsomed. 
Wherefore king Edward speedily passed over, being accompanied with his eldest 
sonne, the earle of March, and a few other, comming before the time appointed 
for the yeelding of the towne certaine daies. Therefore, being come to Caleis, 
hee laid certaine men of armes within the vaultes which were betwixt the outter 
gate and the inner parte of the castle, building a thinne and slender wall before 
them newly set up, not made of plaister but of counterfaite matter, which joyned 
to the other wall, craftily devised and made like the olde woorke, so that no man 
would judge that any were enclosed therein. Also he caused the maine postes of 
the drawe bridge to bee sawed almost in sunder, yet in such sorte that armed 
horse-men might ride over it ; and for the purpose he had a great stone, which 
was laid up in a hole made in form of an arch, being in the forepart of the tower 
hanging over the bridge, in which he appointed a faithfull souldier should bee, in 
due time to throwe downe the said stone upon the bridge, that with the fall 
thereof the bridge being halfe cut in two should bee broken in sunder, and so that 
hole, where the stone was laid, should bee wrought in such sort that hee within 
shoulde perceive through the hole how many did enter in. Fewe we're made privie 
to this practise, neither did many know of the kings presence or of the prince of 

N n 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Wales, who, when they had wrought this feate, secretly conveied themselves into 
the towne. The day before the time of deliverie of this towne, Geffrey Cherney 
sent fifteene of his faithfullest men with the greater parte of the golde which was to 
bee paide, who should also trie the faith of Emericus and the order of the castle, 
who, searching everie where, in everie tower and corner which they could finde 
open, could perceive nothing contrarie to their liking, whereupon, on the next day 
in the morning, they set up the French kings standerde in the highest tower of the 
castle, and the ancients also of Geffrey and of other lords upon other towers and 
places. Then the people of the towne, who kept common watch and ward, not 
knowing of this secrete devise, were greatly terrified therewith, in so much that 
they, taking weapon in hand, began to give a charge against the castell : by and 
by the French men, who had entred the day before, tooke Thomas Kingstone, 
then fleeing away, quite ignorant of that which was devised, and forceably they 
set him in the stockes. Then certaine of them being sent out to the French men, 
their companions and masters, who lay without in ambushes, shewed them the 
ancients and standard set up, and all to be well, even as they would have it, 
hastening them forward to come to the defence of the castle against the townes 
men : wherefore they, rising from their lurking places, advanced themselves in 
pride and bragging, and came by heapes in at the gates of the castle. The townes 
people, perceiving this, had much adoe to forbeare their hands from them, had 
not their chiefe leaders withdrawen them from it, least some danger should have 
happened to them that lay hid. By and by those that lay hid closed under the 
arches of the walles prepared themselves to breake out upon their enemies. In 
like sort also he that with the great stone was shut up in the hole, after that he 
saw so many entred in, esteeming that his fellowes were sufficient to overthrow 
them, with that great stone put to his custodie he brake the drawbridge by the 
which the enemies had entred in, but being once in could not goe that way out 
againe. When the stone was thus downe and had discharged the thing for which 
it was laid up, and the French men deceived by that pollicie, they were enclosed 
safe ynough. At the noyse of this stone and the bridge that brake, these armed 
men, of whom before I spake, breaking downe their counterfaite wall, behinde the 
which all the deceite was hid, they presently set themselves in order to invade the 
French men, bitten (sic) to a bitter breakfast. The conflict was sharpe for a good 
season, but at length the enemies being overcom yeelded themselves to the plea- 
sure of the conquerours. They which were without and had not entred, as soone 
as they perceived their companions to be deceived, fled, after whom the king with 
scarce sixeteene men of armes and as many archers followed apace, the runnawayes 
not knowing what companie would follow them : many in this chase were wearied, 
and many mo slaine, and in a small time the king overcame daungerous and great 
labours : but at length, when it was understood by them that fled how few there 
were that chased them, fourescore armed men turned them against the king. I 
dare not ascribe this boldnesse of the king in chasing his enemies to his wisdome, 
but onely to the stoutnesse of his minde, the which is well knowen through Gods 
grace to be brought to good effect by his meanes, though the daunger were never 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 275 

so great : for, when he perceived that the French men had turned themselves to 
withstand him, he cast away the scaberd of his sword, and comforting his men 
about him, setting them in good order, exhorted them to play the men lustily. 
The archers, being placed in the marish against the sides of the enemies, stood on 
drie hilles, which were compassed about with quagge-myres and foggie places, 
that neither horse-men nor foote-men might approch them, but they should rather 
be drowned in mudde then come neere to hurt them : these also did the king 
comfort, saying to them " Doe well, you archers, play the men lustily, and knowe 
that ! am Edward of Windsore." Then the presence of the king and necessitie of 
the matter stirred up their hearts to doe well : the archers, uncovering their heads, 
stripping up their sleeves, bent themselves to bestow their arrowes in such sorte 
that they might not be lost : and, as the French men drew towards them, they 
saluted them after with their arrowes. The armed men of both parts stood in 
order to fight upon a long and narrowe causeway, the breadth whereof was not 
able to receive scarce twentie men of armes in a front, having on both sides thereof 
the marish, in the which the archers were placed, who gawled and wounded their 
enemies on the sides, fleeing as thicke as haile. The king and his men before 
with the archers on the side slewe and tooke a great many : and many of them 
stood stoutly to it, till at the length by the comming of the prince of Wales the 
French were put to flight. After a long chase in pursuing the enemies, they re- 
turning backe againe to Caleis numbred those which were fled, as well as those 
which were taken, and they found that for the taking of the castle (as the prisoners 
reported) there came a thousand men of armes and sixe hundred armed men, but 
they which served were above three thousand Thus by pollicie and de- 
vised treason the authors thereof came to death and destruction : neither Eusta- 
chius himselfe escaped scotfree from the snares, for he, within a while after, being 
taken by the French men, was burned alive with, a hot yron, and degraded from 
the order of knighthood by the cutting off of his heeles and depriving of his tongue 
by abscition : afterward, he. was hanged up, and last of all beheaded and quar- 
tered, receiving just punishment for his treason and false forswearing.' 

The story of the attempt on Calais is best known from Froissart's picturesque 
narrative, founded on Le Bel. It is curious that there should be confusion re- 
garding the date of the event. Le Bel gives the year 1348, and in this he is fol- 
lowed by certain MSS. of Froissart, while in others the more correct date 1349 is 
found. Baker also, as we have seen, inclines to 1348. The actual attempt took 
place in the night between the last day of 1349 and New Year's day 1350. The 
Grandes Chroniques'de France, v. 491, and Avesbury, 408, whose account of the 
affair is very well given, are both in the right as regards the year. The confusion 
between 1348 and 1349 may have arisen (as it does appear to have arisen in 
Baker's mind) from the fact that Edward was at Calais at about the same time in 
both years. 

Page 103, 1. 2. Emeriti de Padua. Americo di Pavia. The description here given of 
him seems to be a true one. He was apparently a Lombard mercenary (Avesbury 

N n 2 



276 NOTES AXD ILLUSTRATIONS. 

calls him a Genoese) ' de cui le roy Edowart tant se fioit qu'il 1'avoit fait chastel- 
lain et garde de Calays ' (Le Bel, ii. 147). Froissart, iv. 72, with his usual embel- 
lishment, represents him as having been reared by Edward : ' Li gentilz rois 
d'Engleterre eut pile" dou Lombart, que moult avoit amet, car il 1'avoit nouri d'en- 
fance.' Le Bel tells us that Edward discovered the intended treachery, not through 
the traitor's confession, but by some other means. Americo's position in Calais 
has been exaggerated. He is generally represented as captain of the castle ; 
Froissart also puts him in command of the town, whereas John Beauchamp had 
held that command since 1st January, 1349. He was probably nothing more than 
captain of one of the towers forming part of the walls of the town, as stated in the 
text. He had been appointed captain of the king's galleys, 24th April, 1348. 
Foedera, iii. 159. 

Page 103, 1. 3. Galfridus de Charny. Geoffroi de Charny, seigneur de Pierre-Perthuis, 
de Montfort et de Savoisy, a soldier, who was at this time captain of Saint- 
Omer. In 1352 he was made one of the knights of the newly-founded order of 
the Star. He fell at Poitiers. In the present affair he was taken prisoner by sir 
John de Potenhale (Devon, Issue Rolls of the Exchequer, 158). Baker gives him 
the title of ' dominus de Matas,' which however is not found attached to his name 
in the French accounts of him. But it is a coincidence, if nothing else, that Chandos 
Herald, the author of The Black Prince (Roxburghe Club), names ' Matas ' as 
one of the chief men who fell at Poitiers ; and that Bartholomew, lord Burghersh, 
in his letter describing the battle (ibid. 369), gives the two names ' mons. Geffray 
Charny; mons. Geffrey Matas ' in juxtaposition, in his list of the slain ; and also 
that, in the same manner, the two names ' Mounsire Geffray Charny; Le sire de 
Mathas' come together in the list at the end of Avesbury's chronicle. With 
Baker's statement confronting us, we are tempted to think that in the Poitiers lists 
two men have been made out of one. 

1. 18. Milibus scutatorum. The amount of the bribe was 20,000 ecus d'or. This 

coin was worth a little more than a half-noble, or about y. I od. 

Page 105, 1. 12. Thomam de Kyngestone. Sir Thomas Kingston must either have 
been carried away prisoner, or have surrendered unconditionally ; for in 1352 the 
king gave him .100 in aid of his ransom. Issue Rolls Excheq., 156. Baker seems 
to imply that he allowed himself to be taken in order to keep up the delusion of 
the French that they were effecting a surprise. He was afterwards, 13 June, 1361, 
made warden of the castle of Calais. Fcedera, iii. 619. 

1.13. In bogis ligneis. The stocks. ' Boga ' or ' boia,' a Latinized form. A.-S. 

' boga,' a bow. 

Page 106, 1. 8. Extranet qui non intrarunt. Froissart tells us that de Charny sent 
only a detachment of his men within the walls in company with Americo di 
Pavia, while he, leaving a strong body at the bridge of Nieuley, some little dis- 
tance from the town, himself advanced to one of the gates (the Porte de Boulogne) 
and waited for it to be opened. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 277 

Page 106, 1. 12. Cognita demum, etc. Avesbury, 410, says that Edward was left, by the 
action of the fight, with only thirty men-at-arms and a few archers : 'Hoc consi- 
derans prasdictus dominus Galfridus de Charny, modicum distans a rege, cum una 
magna acie nobilium hominum armorum equitum de Francigenis movebat se 
versus regem. Tune dictus dominus rex, in tali et tanto periculo constitutus, 
animum non submisit, sed, sicut miles strenuus et magnanimus, evaginavit gladium 
suum et alta voce protulit hasc verba : " A ! Edward, seint George ! A ! Edward, 
seint George ! " Et cum Francigeni hasc verba audissent, adeo fuerant attoniti 
quod perdiderunt animum, sicut unus nobilis de eisdem Francigenis ibidem captus 
postea narravit.' The fight along the causeway is nowhere told so well as by 
Baker. 

Page 107, 1. 10. Ex Mis fuerunt capti, etc. The list of French names here given 
differs considerably from that found in Froissart ; and many of them are so dis- 
guised by misspelling that their identification is hopeless. Geoffroi de Charny 
had a son of the same name. Oudart de Renty commanded the party which was 
sent forward and was admitted within the walls. In ' Garinus Baillof ' we recognize 
Gauvain de Bailleul, and in ' Ewstacius Rypplemont ' Eustache de Ribemont, the 
gallant knight, on whose head Edward placed his own cap (chapelet) as he gave 
him his liberty, and who afterwards fell at Poitiers. Jean de Mortagne, seigneur 
de Landas, appears among the prisoners in Froissart's narrative. He also fell at 
Poitiers. He married, in 1344, Jeanne de Fiennes, widow of Jean de Chatillon, 
comte de Saint-Pol. Baker is wrong in giving this lady the title of countess of 
Pembroke ; it was Marie, daughter of Gui de Chatillon, comte de Saint-Pol, and 
therefore sister of count Jean, who, in 1320, married Aylmer de Valence, earl of 
Pembroke. Robert, called Moreau, de Fiennes is also mentioned by Froissart as 
effecting his escape ; but, besides Henri du Bois, the same chronicler names Pepin 
de Wierre as slain. Who ' dominus Archebaud ' may have been does not appear. 
Among the other names ' de Banquilo ' may be a corruption of Boucicaut, and 
' Dargemole,' of d'Argeville ; ' dominus de Mountmarissi ' is possibly Charles de 
Montmorency ; and ' dominus de Planke ' may be the sire de Plancy. As to the 
' alius Eustacius de Ripplemont," Eustache de Ribemont had a son Waleran who, 
according to the Bourgeois de Valenciennes, 266, was badly wounded and made 
prisoner ; there appears to have been no second Eustache. 

1. 26. Set nee Emericus evasit. Froissart gives the story of Americo di Pavia's 

capture by Geoffroi de Charny at a small castle named Frethun, near Calais, and 
states that he was taken to Saint-Omer and there put to death. If this is correct, 
the date of the event must be early in 1352, when de Charny was again in those 
parts, after being ransomed in August, 1351. Luce's Froissart, iv. xxxviii. 

Page 108, 1. 4. Eodem anno comes Lancastrie. The earl of Lancaster was appointed 
lieutenant of Poitou on the l8th October, 1349. Fcedera, iii. 190. Knyghton de- 
scribes the campaign thus: ' Comes Lancastrias Henricusequitavit cum Vasconicis 
medio tempore ad numerum xxx. millium super inimicos decem dies et amplius, 
et misit igni et flammas totam patriam in circuitu per x. leucas ex omni parte, et 



378 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

conquisivit plusquam xlij. villas et castella. Et venit Tolosam cum exercitu suo, 
et petit villam nomine regis Anglias, vel aliter egrederentur dimicaturi cum eo. Et 
qui inibi fuerunt promiserunt ei bellum, si expectare vellet per v. dies. At ille 
concessit eis inducias iv. dierum et tamdiu moram traxit ibidem coram villa To- 
losas. Et cum vidisset quod nollent pugnare, omnia suburbia villas incendit igni, 
et quascumque potuit vastavit et igne succendit et abiit devastando et deprasdando 
cunctas patrias in regressu suo, adeo quod omnibus inimicis suis incussit magnum 
timorem.' See above, the note on page 77, 1. 7. William, lord Greystock, suc- 
ceeded in 1323 and died in 1358. The heirs of Percy and Nevill were Henry, 
afterwards 3rd lord Percy, 1352-1368, who had fought at Cre"cy, and was brother- 
in-law of Lancaster; and John Nevill, who had been present with his father at 
Nevile's Cross, married Percy's sister, ami became 3rd lord Nevill, 1367-1388. 
Thomas, lord Furnival, had also fought at Cre"cy, and died about 1364. Both 
Bartholomew, lord Burghersh, and his son, of the same name, served in this cam- 
paign. 

Page 108, 1. 10. Concilium regale ordinavit. Baker seems to be referring to the 
ordinance of 1 346. 

1. 29. Isto anno, etc. ' This yeere, on Saint Georges day, the king held a great 

and solemne feast at his castle of Windsor, where he had augmented the chappel 
which Henry the first and other his progenitors, kings of England, had before 
erected, of eight chanons. He added to those eight chanons a deane and fifteene 
chanons more, and 24 poore and impotent knights, with other ministers and 
servants, as appeareth in his charter dated the two and twentieth of his reigne. 
Besides the king, there were other also that were contributors to the foundation 
of this colledge, as followeth: i. The sovereigne king Edward the third, 2. Ed- 
ward, his eldest sonne, prince of Wales, 3. Henry, duke of Lancaster, 4. the earle 
of Warwicke, 5. Captaine de Bouch, 6. Ralph, earle of Stafford, 7. William 
Montacute, earle of Salisburie, 8. Roger, lorde Mortimer, earle of March, 9. sir 
John de Lisle, 10. sir Bartholomew Burwash, li.sir John Beauchampe, 12. sir 
John Mahune, 13. sir Hugh Courtney, 14. sir Thomas Holland, 15. sir John Grey, 
16. sir Richard Fitz Simon, 17. sir Miles Stapleton, 18. sir Thomas Walle, 19. sir 
Hugh Wrothesley, 20. sir Nele Loring, 21. sir John Chandos, 22. sir James de 
Audley, 23. sir Othes Holland, 24. sir Henry Erne, 25. sir Sechet Dabridgecourt, 
26. sir Wiliam Panell [Walter Paveley]. All these, together with the king, were 
clothed in gownes of russet, poudered with garters blew, wearing the like garters 
also on their right legges, and mantels of blew with scutcheons of S. George. 
In this sort of apparell they, being bare-headed, heard masse, which was cele- 
brated by Simon Islip, archbishop of Canterbury, and the bishops of Winchester 
and Excester, and afterwards they went to the feast, setting themselves orderly 
at the table, for the honor of the feast, which they named to be of S. George 
the martyr and the choosing of the knights of the Garter.' Stow, Annales, 390. 
It will be seen that Stow here alters the names to tally with the list of the 
original knights or First Founders of the order of the Garter. Baker seems to 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 279 

be anticipating. William Bohun, 1st earl of Northampton, and Robert Ufford, 
1st earl of Suffolk, and sir William Fitz-Warine became knights of the order at 
an early date ; but Roger Mortimer, here styled ' nunc comes Marchie,' did not 
have that title before 1352, and sir Walter Manny did not receive the garter till 
the end of 1359. 

The date of the foundation of the order of the Garter has never been exactly 
determined. Froissart, iii. 37, places it in the year 1344 ; but it is evident that 
the festival which he describes is the one in which Edward established the Round 
Table only. Murimuth, 155, gives a full account of this festival, which was cele- 
brated at Windsor and began on the igth Jan. ; the Round Table was established 
on the 28th Jan., and its first festival was appointed for Whitsuntide, 23rd May. 
The Brute chronicle (Egerton MS. 650) has this description, although under 
a wrong year: 'And in the xix. yere of his regne, anone aftre, in Jannuere, before 
Lenten, )>e same kyng Edward lete make fulle noble iustice and grete festes in )>e 
place of hys byrth, at Wyndsore, }>at }>er were never none suche seyne before 
J>at tyme, ne I trowe sythene. At whech iustice, festis and ryalte weryn ij. kinges, 
ij. quenys, and }>e prince of Wales and j>e duke of Cornewale, x. erles, ix. coun- 
tesse, many barons, knyghttes, and worthy burgesse, )>e whech myght not lyghtly 
be nombrede ; and also of dyverse londes as byyonde )>e see were many strangers. 
And at )>at tyme, whene |>e iustes had done, )>e kyng Edward made a grete 
souper, in } wheche he begone fyrst hys round table, and ordayned stedfastly 
the day of }>e forsayd table to be holde J>er at Wyndessore in j>e Whytesonwyke 
evermore yerely.' 

Relying on the date given in the statutes of the order and on this passage 
in Baker, writers on the subject have adopted 1349 or 1350 as the year of foun- 
dation. But an entry in the household-book of the Black Prince affords a reason 
for dating the event a year earlier, payment having been made on the 1 8th 
November, 1348, for twenty-four garters which were given by the prince ' militibus 
de societate garterias.' Beltz, Memorials of the Garter, pp. xxxii, 385. Proof 
however is not conclusive, as the ministers' accounts in the household-book 
were rendered between 1352 and 1365, and there is therefore room for error; 
moreover, the garters in question may have been prepared in anticipation. The 
date of 1349, which is given in the preamble to the earliest copies of the statutes, 
although it is true that those copies are not contemporary, is not to be lightly 
set aside. It is, indeed, most probable that the order was never solemnly 
instituted at an early period, but that it was gradually taking shape during 
the years following the foundation of the Round Table. Edward's patent, bearing 
date of 22nd August, 1348, whereby he instituted a chapel at Windsor, with 
a fraternity of eight secular canons and a warden, fifteen other canons, and 
four-and-twenty poor knights, appears to be the first formal document which 
can be quoted as a foundation-deed of the order. After this there is no direct 
reference to it 'until 1350, when robes were issued for the King against the 
coming Feast of St. George, together with a Garter containing the King's motto, 
Hony soyt qui mal y pense! Nicolas, Hist, of Orders of Knighthood, i. 24. 



28o NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 109, 1. 20. In estate sequenti, etc. ' In the sommer following, variance rising 
betweene the fleets of England and Spaine, the Spaniards beset the Brytaine 
sea with 44 great ships of warre, with the which they sunk ten English ships 
comming from Gascoigne towards England, after they had taken and spoyled 
them, and thus, their former injuries being revenged, they entred into Sluce in 
Flanders. King Edward, understanding heereof, furnished his navie of fiftie 
shippes and pinaces, forecasting to meete with the Spaniards in their return, 
having in his company the prince of Wales, the carles of Lancaster, North- 
hampton, Warwicke, Salisburie, Arundale, Huntington, Glocester, and other 
barons and knights with their servants and archers, and upon the feast of the 
decollation of S. John, about evensong time, the navies mette at Winchelsea, 
where the great Spanish vessels surmounting our ships and foystes, like as 
castles to cotages, sharpely assailed our men ; the stones and quarels flying 
from the tops sore and cruelly wounded our men, who no lesse busie to fight 
aloofe with launce and sword and with the fore ward manfully defend themselves, 
at length our archers pearced their arbalisters with a further retch than they 
could strike againe, and thereby compelled them to forsake their place, and 
caused other, fighting from the hatches, to shade themselves with tables of the 
ships, and compelled them that threw stones from the toppes so to hide them, 
that they durst not shew their heads but tumble downe. Then our men, entring 
the Spanish vessels with swords and halberds, kill those they meete, within a 
while make voyde the vessels and furnish them with Englishmen, untill they, 
beeing beset with darknesse of the night, could not discerne the 27 yet remayning 
untaken : our men cast anker, studying of the hoped battell, supposing nothing 
finished whilest any thing remained undone, dressing the wounded, throwing 
the miserable Spaniards into the sea, refreshing themselves with victuals and 
sleepe, yet committing the vigilant watch to the armed band. The night over- 
passed, the Englishmen prepared (but in vaine) to a new battell ; but when 
the sun began to appeare, they, viewing the seas, could perceive no signe of 
resistance, for 27 ships, flying away by night, left 17 spoiled in the evening to the 
kings pleasure, but against their will.' Stow, Annales, 391. 

Avesbury, 412, states that the attack by the Spaniards on English shipping 
took place on the feast of All Saints (ist November) in the previous year, in 
the Gironde. The battle of ' Les Espagnols sur Mer ' was fought off Winchelsea 
on Sunday, the 2gth August, 1350. The Spanish admiral was Carlos de la 
Cerda. Froissart's picturesque narrative of the action is the principal source 
of information. In Baker's account we have valuable details regarding the 
number and losses of the Spanish fleet and the prominent part taken in the 
struggle by the English archers. 

1.21. Cum xliiij. magnis navibus. Baker is here very exact in his numbers, 

and may no doubt be followed. Froissart, iv. 90, says that the Spaniards 
numbered 10,000 men, 'et estoient quarante grosses nefs tout d'un train, si 
fortes et si belles que plaisant les faisoit veoir et regarder.' 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 281 

Page 109, 1. 24. Rex, suo navigio, etc. Edward first issued orders for the gathering 
of ships at Sandwich on the 23rd July. See Nicolas, Hist, of the Navy, ii. 103. 
Baker is wrong in including the earl of Gloucester among those present. The 
title had become extinct with the death of Hugh de Audeley in 1347. 

Page 110, 1. 3. Magne buscee Ispanienses. ' Et estoient cil Espagnol en ces grosses 
nefs plus hautes et plus grandes asses que les nefs Englesces ne fuissent ; si 
avoient grant avantage de traire, de lancier et de getter grans bariaus de fier, 
dont it donnoient moult a souffrir les Engles.' Froissart, iv. 94. The busse 
was a large vessel, comparatively short, but broad in the beam and deep in 
the hold. 

1 19. Vasa plena Ispanis vacuabant. This was literally the case with the two 

ships which Edward and the Black Prince individually attacked, their own 
ships sinking from injuries done to them by collision with the heavier Spanish 
vessels. 

Page 111, 1. i. Muse cornubus. The cornemuse was a kind of bagpipe. 

1. 4. Decem et septem. Froissart states that the Spaniards lost 14 ships ; Aves- 

bury says 24 ; Walsingham, if he may be quoted as of any account, gives the 
number at 26. Baker's number is probably correct. 

Page 112, 1. 8. lohannem Bateman. The Christian name should be William. The 
bishop of Norwich was despatched, about Michaelmas of this year, with other 
envoys to negotiate at the papal court for a peace with France. Fcedera, iii. 201. 
The creation here referred to consisted of fifteen new cardinals, eleven of whom, 
as Baker correctly informs us, were Frenchmen. 

1. 17. Duo milites. 'Two hyred souldiers of the king of Armenia came into 

England, into the presence of the king, where they shewed the letters of the 
aforesaid king of Armenia, wherein it was signified that the one of them, to wit 
John de Viscount, a man borne in Cipres, had slanderously charged the other, 
that is, Thomas de la March, a French man borne and bastard sonne to Philip, 
late king of France, saying that the said Thomas should have received of the 
Turkes a certaine summe of gold, for the betraying the armie of the Christians 
unto the Emperour of the Turkes ; and, for the proofe of this slander, this John 
challenged a cotnbate with the said Thomas, to be tried by the judgement of 
Edward, king of England, and that by him (as by a most worthie prince) all 
strife should be ended. For this therefore were these two worthie souldiers 
appointed to fight, which they perfourmed within the listes of the kings palace 
at Westminster, on Munday next following after the feast of Saint Michael, 
where Thomas, in declaration of his innocencie, in that he was accused of, 
overcame his enemie, but yet killed him not, because he was not able to wounde 
him, being so armed, with any kinde of piercing weapon, except it were in his 
face, which was bare. For, after that they had runne at the tilte and fought 
on foote, as they were striving together on the ground, with certaine prickes 

o o 



282 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

both short and sharpe, then called gadlings, being closed in the joyntes of his 
right gauntlet, the said Thomas stroke the said John in the face and sore 
wounded him. But on the other side John had no such shorte kinde of weapon, 
wherewith he might hurt Thomas face, and therefore cryed out aloude most 
horribly ; whereupon by the kings commaundement the combate was ended and 
the victorie adjudged to Thomas, who gave the said John, being thus overcome, 
to the prince of Wales, for a captive, and offered uppe his owne armour to Saint 
George in Saint Pauls church at London, with great devotion. These matters 
being thus finished, the Cipres man is manumitted and set al libertie as a free 
man againe. And Thomas, thinking boldely to goe into the presence of his 
brother, the French king, tooke his journey thither, and at his comming found 
the said king arid the nobilitie of Fraunce greatly offended and in indignation 
against him, for that he agreed that the combate should be tried before the 
king of England. Wherefore Thomas, thinking secretly with himselfe how to 
winne the false friendship of his brother, being desirous to show that therein 
he had done well, among all other things he greatly praised the nobilitie of 
Edward and his worthie fame spread over al the world, and also the justice which 
he used in judging, " not accepting the person of the man of Cipres (yea, though 
hee loved the king himselfe very well), neither suffered him to be preferred 
before me, which am a Frenchman and brother and friend to thee, my. lord 
king of Fraunce, judge over the sayd king Edward my adversarie." Also the 
earle of Ewe highly praised the king of England, for that he had received great 
comfort and commoditie at his hands, during the time of his captivitie in 
England, shewing also how farre that good king had banished envie and hatred 
from his heart, who at a time of justing, being in the field at that exercise, and 
the king also, was commaunded by the king himselfe to beare away the price 
and pricke from them all. These commendations did the French king envie at, 
and for indignation hee most wickedly commaunded the setters forth of those 
prayses to bee beheaded. And for to colour the matter the better, hee fayned 
that the earle used too much familiaritie with the queene, his wife, and that 
his brother was guiltie of treason against the king of Fraunce, because he com- 
mitted his cause and the combat to be thus tryed by the judgement of the king 
of England. After hee had thus murdered his brother, hee tormented his wife 
to death by famine, who was daughter of the noble king of Boheme, lately slaine 
in battaile by Geffrey [i.e. Cressy].' Stow, Annahs, 392. It will be noticed that 
Stow is at fault in one or two places. 

On the 24th June, 1350, Edward issued a safe conduct for Thomas, bastard of 
France, to come to England with thirty followers, to fight the duel. On the 1 2th 
October he publicly announced the result of the combat. Fcedera, iii. 199, 205. 
From the latter document we are able to correct Baker's wild mistake about the 
Turks. Thomas de la Marche and Giovanni Visconti, both soldiers of fortune, 
were in the service of the king of Sicily, who was besieging Catania. Visconti 
brought a charge against de la Marche of conspiring to betray the king into the 
hands of the enemy ; and challenged him to combat. The ' gadelinges,' which 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 283 

de la Marche used to such good effect, were apparently the sharp-pointed edges 
of the steel plates which protected the knuckles. The larger sharp spikes which 
were affixed to different parts of defensive armour were called ' gads ' ( = goads). 

Thomas de la Marche was not put to death in the manner described. He is 
heard of as late as 1358. See Froissart, ed. Lettenhove, xxii. 157. 

Page 113, 1. 22. Comes de Eiv. Raoul de Brienne, comte d'Eu et de Guines, had been 
detained a prisoner in England since his capture at Caen in 1346. He did not 
regain his freedom until near the end of October, 1350. At first received with 
favour by the French king John, he was suddenly arrested and executed. The 
day of his death is usually stated to be the igth November, but there is reason 
for adopting the l8th. Luce's Froissart, iv. xlviii. The story of his intrigue 
with the queen, Bona of Luxemburg, is an idle tale. She had already died on the 
nth September, 1349. 
Le Bel, ii. 165, has the following: 'Le comte de Eu et de Ghynes et connes- 

table de France fit sa raenchon envers le roy Edowart parmi la somme 

de soixante mille escus, et cut congie" de venir en France pour faire la fin de la 
ditte somme, ou de retourner en prison dudit roy par sa foy promise a certain 
jour. Quant il fut venu en France, il s'en ala par devers le roy Jehan, de cui il 

cuidoit moult bien estre ame", ainsy qu'il estoit ainchoys qu'il fut roy Le roy 

Jehan le mena seul en une chambre et luy dit : " Regardez ceste lettre, la vistes- 
vous oncques aultre part que cy?" Le connestable fut merveilleusement esbauby, 
quant il vit la lettre, ce dit-on. Quant le roy le vit esbauby, il luy dit : " Ha ! 
mauvaiz traitre, vous avez bien mort deservi, si n'y fauldrez pas, par I'ame de mon 

pere." Si le fit tantost prendre Le roy jura lendemain, par devant les amez 

du connestable qui prioient pour luy, que jamais il ne dormiroit, ne ja pour ung ne 
pour aultre il ne le lairoit que il ne luy fist la teste copper ; et ainsy fut fait la nuit 
mesmes en la tour du Louvre, sans loy et sans jugement, de quoy toutes gens 
furent dolens et couroussiez, et le roy durement blasme" et moins ame" ; et ne 
sceut-on pour quoy ce fut fait, fors que les plus privez du roy ; mais aucunes gens 
adevinoient que le roy avoit estd infourme' d'aucunes amours, lesquelles avoient 
estd ou debvoient estre entre madame Bonne et le gentil connestable. Je ne scay 
se oncques en fust rien a la ve'rite', mais la manure du fait en fit pluseurs gens 
soupec.onner.' 

Page 114, 1. 21. In sequenti Quadragesima, etc. These raids are also briefly noticed 
by Knyghton, 2602. Sir Robert Herle was temporarily appointed captain of 
Calais from the ist April, 1350, probably during the absence of lord Beauchamp. 
When the latter was taken prisoner in 1351, Herle was appointed captain for a 
year, dating from the 24th June. Fadera, iii. 193, 222. 

Page 115, 1. 4. Circa festum sancti Georgii, etc. This action, which is here dated 
about the 23rd April, took place, according to Avesbury, 4'3) on tne 8th of the 
month. It was fought near Saintes, some distance south of Saint-Jean-d'Angdly, 
which was being besieged by the French. It was the result of an attempt to re- 

002 



284 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

lieve the city, which was too closely invested for the garrison to take any part in 
it. Although the English were victorious and made many prisoners, including 
Gui de Nesle, sire d'Offemont, marshal of France, they failed to raise the siege ; 
and the place fell early in September. 

Page 115, 1. 12. Eodem anno eventus bellicus. This combat was fought, according to 
Froissart, near Ardres, on Whitsun Monday, 1352. He is obviously wrong in the 
year ; but he is probably right in the day, which would be the 6th June. The 
French leaders here named were Edouard, sire de Beaujeu, marshal of France, 
who was slain, and Robert, called Moreau, de Fiennes, at this time captain of 
Saint-Omer. The French won the day by the arrival of reinforcements from the 
garrison of that place, probably led by Fiennes. The English leader, lord Beau- 
champ, captain of Calais, was made prisoner. He was a younger son of Guy, 
9th earl of Warwick, and was a famous soldier in his day; he carried the royal 
standard at Crecy. He was summoned to parliament as lord Beauchamp in 1350; 
was afterwards constable of Dover castle ; and died in 1360. 

Knyghton's account of this skirmish, 2602, is exact : ' Dominus Johannes de 
Beauchamp, capitaneus de Caleys, cum ccc. virorum armatorum et ij. sagittariorum 
perrexit de Calesia in Franciam, et prasdatus est patriam ad x. leucas ; et cum re- 
dirent cum prasda sua, dominus de Bealren cum ij. millibus virorum armatorum 
surrexit de insidiis, et fortiter pugnavit cum Anglis. Tandem Johannes de Beau- 
champ occidit dominum de Bealren et ceteros vicisset, set subito supervenit alia 
fortis acies Francorum in equis et ceciderunt super Anglos lassos et tesos, et de- 
bellaverunt eos, et ceperunt dominum Johannem de Beauchamp capitaneum cum 
xx. militibus, et ceteros omnes occiderunt. Et cito post redempti sunt et venerunt 
in Angliam." 

Page 116, 1. 12. Ordinate sunt treuge. The twenty years' truce with Spain was 
agreed to on the 1st August, 1351. Faedera, iii. 228. The truce with France was 
prolonged on the I ith September for a year. /&'</., iii. 232. 

1. 16. Mutatum est aurum optimum, etc. The indentures with the moneyers 

for the new issue of gold and silver coinage bear date 2Oth June, 1351. The pro- 
clamation announcing the change and forbidding export of coin was issued on the 
next day. Fadera, iii. 222, 223. The gold pieces were of the same pattern and 
value as those which were recalled, but were of less weight. The gross of four 
sterlings and the half-gross of two sterlings were new silver coins. Ruding, An- 
nals of the Coinage (1840), i. 226. 

1. 23. Circa principium mensis lanuarii. 'About the beginning of Januarie, 

the Frenchmen being occupied about the repayring of the walles of Guisnes towne, 
being afore that time destroyed by the Englishmen, some men of armes of Caleis, 
understanding their doings, devised how they might overthrow the worke, in this 
sort. There was an archer, named John Dancaster, in prison in the castle of 
Guisnes, before that time taken, who, not having wherwith to pay his ransome, was 
let loose, with condition that he should worke there among the Frenchmen. This 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 285 

fellow chanced to lye with a laundres, a strumpet, and learned of her where, be- 
yond the principal! ditch, from the bottome of the ditch, there was a wall made 
of two foote broade, stretching from the rampiers to the brimme of the ditch 
within forth, so that, being covered with water, it could not be seen, but not so 
drowned but that a man going aloft thereon should not be wet past the knees, it 
being made for the use of fishers : and therefore in the middest it was discon- 
tinued for the space of two foote : and so the archer (his harlot shewing it to him) 
measured the height of the wall with a threede. These things thus knowne, one 
day, slipping downe from the wall, he passed the ditch by that hidden wall, and, 
lying hidde in the marish till evening, came in the night neere unto Caleis, where 
tarying for the cleare day, he then went into the towne (for else he might not). 
Here he instructed them that were greedie of pray and to scale the castle, how they 
might enter the same : they caused ladders to be made to the length by the archer 
appoynted. Thirtie men conspiring together, clothing themselves in black armour 
without any brightnesse, went to the castle by the guiding of the said John de 
Dancaster, and climing the wall with their ladders they slew the watchmen and 
threw them down headlong beside the wall. After this, in the hall they slew many 
whom they found unarmed, playing at the chesse and hazard. Then they brake 
into the chambers and turrets upon the ladies and knights that lay there asleepe, 
and so were made masters of all that was within ; and shutting all the prisoners 
into a strong chamber, being bereft of all their armour, they tooke out the Eng- 
lishmen that had been taken the yeere before and there kept in prison, and, after 
they had relieved them well with meate and drinke, they made them guardeins 
over them that had them in custodie : and so they wan all the fortresses of the 
castle, unknown to them that were in the towne (appointed to oversee the 
repay ring of the broken walles) what had happened to them within the castle. In 
the morning they commanded the workemen in the towne to cease from their 
workes, who, thereupon perceiving that the castle was wonne, straightwaies fled, 
and the new castilians suffered the ladies to depart on horsebacke, with their 
apparell, writings, and muniments, where they ought to hold their fees. And the 
same day there came from Caleis to their ayde such persons as they sent for, by 
whose ayde they kept the castle : and about three of the clock there came two 
knights, sent from the earle of Guisnes, who demanding a truce willed to know of 
them that were thus entred the castle, who they were, to whom they belonged, 
and by whose authoritie they kept the castle so taken in the time of truce ; where- 
unto they answered that, being intruded, they would not declare to any man their 
purpose, till they had tryed a longer possession : and therefore on S. Mawrice day, 
the abbot, (the king being busie in parliament,) the Frenchmen being sent from 
the said earle of Guisnes declared how, in prejudice of the truce, the said castle 
was taken and therefore by right of mutuall faith it ought to bee restored to them. 
The king answered that without his knowledge that enterprise was made, and 
therefore he gave commandement to his subjects that none of them should deteine 
the castle of Guisnes, but deliver it unto the lawfull lords thereof. The messengers 
being returned home and reporting what they had done, the earle of Guisnes 



286 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

commeth to the castle, demaunding of them within, as at other times, in whose 
name they kept it. Who constantly affirming that they kept it in the name of 
John Dancaster, hee required to know if the same John were, the king of Eng- 
landes liegeman or would obey him ; who answering that hee knew not what 
messengers had been in England, the earle offered for the castle, besides all the 
treasure found in it, many thousands of crownes, or possessions for exchange, and 
a perpetuall peace with the king of Fraunce. To this they answered that, before 
the taking of that castle, they were Englishmen by nation, but by their demerites 
banished for the peace of the king of England, wherefore the place which they 
thus held they would willingly sell or exchange, but to none sooner then to their 
naturall king of England, to whom they said they would sell their castle, to obtaine 
their peace ; but if hee would not buy it, then they would sell it to the king of 
France or to whom soever would give most for it. The earle being thus shifted 
off from them, the king of England bought it in deede, arid so had that place which 
he greatly desired.' Stow, Annales, 394. 

Le Bel, Froissart, and other French historians ascribe the capture of the castle 
of Guines to the treachery of the warden, Hugues de Beauconroy. It was sur- 
prised between the 6th and the 22nd January, 1352. Froissart, ed. Luce, iv. xlviii; 
Avesbury,~4i4 ; Hall, Poems of Laurence Minot, 91. 

Page 117, 1. 31. Missi a comite de Gynes. Raoul de Brienne, comte d'Eu et de 
Guines, as noted above, p. 283, had been executed, leaving no heir of his body. 
Gautier, comte de Brienne, duke of Athens, who had married Raoul's sister Jeanne, 
may have adopted the title and be referred to in this place. 

Page 119, 1. 3. Galfridum de Charny nuper redemptum. Probably about August, 
1351, the French king having aided him in paying his ransom on the 3ist July. 
Froissart, ed. Lettenhove, xx. 543. 

Page 120, 1. 2. Dud Selandie Willelmo. William the Mad, count of Holland, son 
of Louis of Bavaria by his second marriage with Margaret of Hainault, queen 
Philippa's sister, married Maud, elder daughter of the duke of Lancaster, who had 
previously been married to Ralph, son of Ralph lord Stafford. She died in 1362. 

1. 5. In iiigilia Assumptions, etc. The information in the.first part of this 

paragraph is obtained from sir Walter Bentley's letter to the chancellor, the 
bishop of Worcester, describing the action, which was fought near Mauron 
on the I4th August, 1352. The letter is given in Avesbury, 416. The names 
of the killed and prisoners, which are so disguised in the text, are : Gui de Nesle, 
sire d'Offemont, marshal of France ; the sire de Quintin ; Jean, sire de Tin- 
teniac ; the sires de Rochemont, de Montauban, and de Raguenel ; Guillaume 
de Lannoy ; Aufray de Montbouchier ; Guillaume de Vielcastel ; and Guillaume 
de la Marche killed : and the sire de Briquebecq, son of Robert Bertrand, 
baron de Briquebecq, marshal ; Tristan de Maignelais ; the sire de Malestroit ; 
the vicomte de Coalmen; Geoffroi de Coeyghem ; Gui(?) de Laval; Charles 
d'Argeville ; and Jean de la Muce prisoners. The particulars of bringing the 
French to bay and punishing the runaway archers are not given elsewhere. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 287 

Page 120, 1. 21. De comitiva militum Stelle. ' Le roy Jehan de France ordonna une 
belle compaignie grande et noble sur la Table Ronde, qui fut jadis ou temps du 
roy Artus. De la compaignie debvoient estre trois cents chevaliers des plus 
souffisans du royaume de France ; et debvoit estre appelde celle compaignie 
la compaignie de 1'Estoille ; et debvoit un chascun chevalier tousjours porter 
une estoille d'or, ou d'argent doree, ou de perles, pour recongnoissance de la 
compaignie . . . . Et leur convenoit jurer que jamais ilz ne fuiroient en battaille 
plus hault de quatre arpens a leur advis, ainchoys morroient et se rendroient 
pris et que chascun aideroit et secourroit 1'aultre a toutes ses besongnes .... 
Mais il avint que Ian mil cccliij. [i.e. 1352] vinrent grand foison de gens d'armes 
d'Angleterre en Bretaigne, pour conforter et aydier la vaillant contesse de Mont- 
fort, et pour gaster le pays qui estoit de la part messire Charles de Bloys. 
Tantost que le roy de France le sceut, il y envoya grand foison de gens d'armes 
et des chevaliers de la compaignie; mais, quant les Anglois sceurent leur venue, ilz 
firent si soubtillement, par une embusche qu'ilz firent, [que] tous ces Francoys qui 
trop avant et trop folement s'embatirent furent tous tuez et desconfis, et y furent 
bien tuez quatre-vingt et neuf chevaliers de 1'Estoille, pour ce qu'ilz avoient jurd 
que jamais ne fuiroient ; car, se le serment ne fut, ilz se fussent bien retrais 
arriere .... Oncques puis ne fut parle 1 de celle noble compaignie, et m'est advis 
qu'elle soil allde a ndant, et la maison vague demoure'e ; si m'en tairay et 
parleray d'aultre matiere.' Le Bel, ii. 173, The order was founded on the i6th 
November, 1351. 

Page 121, 1. I. Comes Staffbrdie Vasconiatn intravit. Stafford was appointed lieu- 
tenant of Aquitaine on the 6th March, 1352. Fcedera, iii. 239. Nothing is 
known of the battle here mentioned as fought early in September with French 
forces from Agen. ' Brusegaudus ' is Jean le Meingre, called Boucicaut, whom 
Froissart (iv. 107) includes among the prisoners taken at the battle of Taillebourg 
(i.e. Saintes) in the previous year. The earl of Stafford received on the 22nd 
May, 1353, the sum of .1000 for his capture. Issues of the Exchequer, 159. 

1. 6. /. Dodianseles et T. Wale. Sir John de Odingsells, of Odingsells or Pirton 

Doddingsells, .co. Herts, had been outlawed in the previous year. He died 
seised of a moiety of the manor of Pirton, and of lands in cos. Stafford, Suffolk, 
Warwick, and Oxon. Clutterbuck, Hist. Herts, iii. 122; Calend. Ing. P. M., 
ii. 182. Sir Thomas Wale, one of the Founders of the Garter, died 26th October, 
1352. Beltz, Memorials of the Garter, 63. 

1. 10. T. Coke et R. Totlesham. Sir Thomas Coke appears at this time in 

command of a squadron to convoy merchantmen. Nicolas, Hist. Navy, ii. 115. 
Sir Richard Totesham was employed on various missions. 

1. 13. Dttm hec in mart, etc. ' Whilest these things were a doing by sea and 
land, Otto, sonne to the duke of Brunswike, the French kings feed man, sent 
letters to the duke of Lancaster, being returned out of Spruce, by the tenour 
wherof he accused him, affirming that, as he returned out of Spruce by Colein, 



288 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

he maliciously informed the Coloners that the said Otto went about by stealth 
to have taken him prisoner and to have presented him to the French king, adding 
hereunto that, because he never ment any such taking of him, he was ready, in 
declaration of his good name, by a singular combat onely in the French kings 
court, to proove the duke of Lancaster a Iyer, touching the said article. The 
letters were not sealed, and therefore, least it might have been thought folly 
to have given credite to the letter, delivered by a servant, the duke sent unto 
Otto two knights, to learne the cause of the chalenge and to demand thereof 
his letters patents, sealed with his seale of armes ; which knights accomplishing 
the effect of their journey and returning with speede, the duke sent to the French 
king for a safe conduct for himselfe and his men, and, with much adoe obteining 
it, he went to Paris, where in the lists, in presence of. the French king, the king 
of Navarre, and the duke of Burgoigne, and many peeres and other of the realme 
of Fraunce, he mounted on his steed in seemely wise, ready in all signes, without 
default, to trie the combate, and so staid till his adversary was ready, and the 
voyce of the herault and caution to be had by their common oath, for the assur- 
ance of his word and to obey the law. On the contrary part the said Otto 
scarcely was set on his horse and was not able decently to set on his helmet 
nor to weelde his speare (or else he fayned), whose unablenesse being perceived 
by the French king, the king of Navarre and other, the king tooke the quarrell 
into his hands ; whereupon Otto was commaunded first to depart the lists, and 
so went his way, but the duke abode still within them. After this, by com- 
maundement of the French king, Otto sware that he should never after that 
day appeach the duke of Lancaster of that article : and so from thence the duke 
returned home by Zeland.' Stow, Annales, 397. 

Knyghton has a very full account of the quarrel, and gives the text of Otho's 
challenge. Lancaster had licence to leave England, to meet his adversary, 
on the 23rd August (Fcedera, iii. 248), and crossed over to Calais with a retinue 
of fifty knights. He was met on P'rench territory early in December (' in quin- 
dena ante Natale Domini ') by the marshal Jean de Clermont and conducted in 
great state to Paris. Otho of Brunswick was the son of Henry ii. duke of 
Brunswick-Grubenhagen, and afterwards married queen Jane of Naples. He 
cut a very sorry figure in the lists : ' Tune ascendunt dextrarios, quasi parati 
ad pugnam. Et, ut dicebatur, non videres elegantiorem aut ferociorem militem 
quam dux de Bronneswyk extitit ante praestitum juramentum, quo facto, con- 
tabuit et inpalluit vultus ejus. De quo convitiati sunt plures querelam suam non 
esse veram, aut nimis prassumptuosam. Et equum tulit vultu pallido et tristi, 
et, ut dicebatur, non habuit hillaritatem nee potestatem gratiose se habere in 
carpendo gladium, scutum, et lanceam, et csetera quae ei attinebant, et quasi 
attonitus et perturbatus defesse cuncta palpitat, et trina vice scutum suum 
evertebatur in accipiendo.' After the submission of Otho, 'rex Franciae fecit 
convivium et fecit concordiam inter duces. Deinde rex Francias duxit ducem 
Lancastrise hue atque illuc, demonstrans ei multa delectabilia quae ei conferre 
proposuit, et nil horum voluit nisi solam spinam quae fuerat de corona Jesu 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATION'S. 289 

Christi, quam idem dux reliquit in ecclesia sua collegiali quam fundavit sub 
castro Leicestriae.' It is remarkable that Froissart does not mention the quarrel, 
which would have provided ample material for a picturesque description. 

Page 122, 1. 16. Fuit ordinatum, etc. There is" no record of this ordinance ; but 
it need not be therefore assumed that a proclamation or some official warning 
was not issued. It was in the parliament of 1350-1351 that proclamation was 
made against games played by children in Westminster, among others that of 
knocking off the hats of passers-by : ' come a oustier chaperons des gentz." 

I. 20. Bladi caristia. The price of wheat, which was high at the beginning 

of the year 1352, fell in some instances fifty per cent, in the course of six months. 
This fall, according to Professor Rogers, ' appears to have arisen in part at least, 
from anticipation of an abundant harvest.' Hist, of Agriculture and Prices, 
i. 209. It may also, in some measure, be attributed to the importation here 
recorded. * 

1.27. Sancti Mathei vel Mathie, etc. The parliament of 1353 was holden on 

the Monday after St. Matthew, the 23rd September. -By the statute which was 
then passed, staples were established at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, York, Lincoln, 
Norwich, Westminster, Canterbury, Chichester, Winchester, Exeter, and Bristol, 
in England ; at Caermarthen, in Wales ; and at Dublin, Waterford, Cork, and 
Drogheda, in Ireland. Rot. Parl. ii. 246. 

Page 123, 1. 8. Profectus est in Scociam. This incursion does not appear to be 
noticed elsewhere. The attempts to negotiate with the Scots by means of the 
personal intervention of their king is described by Knyghton under the years 
1352 and 1353: 'Rex Scotia; David Brus, adhuc prisonarius, missus est in 
Scotiam sub custodia cum fidelitate jurata ad revocandum Scotos in fidelitatem 
regis Angliae sicut solebant esse, et sicut idem rex David juratus fuerat esse 
legius homo regis Angliae, et sicut reges Scotias sclent esse. Scoti vero unanimi 
assensu sub una voce responderunt se velle regem suum redimere, set se subdere 
regi Angliae nequaquam velle : unde rex David reversus est ad turrim Londoni- 
ensem" (2603). 'David rex Scotiae transit apud Novum castrum super Tynam 
tractare de concordia inter Anglos et Scotos ; Scoti vero refutarunt regem suum 
nisi se in toto eximeret de consilio Anglorum et similiter de eorum subjectione. 
Et minati sunt ei se nolle ipsum redimere nee redemptionem pro eo facere, 
nisi pardonaret eis omnes querelas et gravamina per eos facta cunctaque delicta 
a tempore captionis ejus, et de hoc eis securitatem faceret. Sin aliter, mina- 
bantur se velle alium regem super se erigere ' (2606). 

1. 17. Obiit Clemens papa. Clement died on the 6th December, 1352. Baker 

at once plunges into the negotiations of 1354. The cardinal of Boulogne was 
Guidon de Boulogne, archbishop of Lyons, who was made cardinal in 1342, and 
bishop of Porto in 1350 ; he died in 1373. A truce was agreed to on the 6th 
April (Fcedera, iii. 276), to last for a year, and it was arranged that both sides 
should send ambassadors to negotiate a peace in presence of the pope. The 

pp 



390 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

English ambassadors, the bishops of Norwich and London, the duke of Lancaster, 
the earl of Arundel, and others were appointed on the 28th August (Ftedera, 
iii. 283). The French ambassadors were Pierre, due de Bourbon, and Pierre 
de la Foret, archbishop of Rouen. 

Knyghton, 2608, describes the reception of the English at Avignon : ' Henricus 
dux Lancastrian et cum eo comes de Arundel et caeteri venerunt Avinionem in 
vigilia Natalis Domini cum cc. equis, de quibus fuerunt xxxij. cum hernesiis 
cooperti, et moram traxit ibidem per vj. septimanas cum pleno honore. Et, eo 
appropinquante ad civitatem, occurrerunt ei de episcopis, proceribus, civibus, et 
communibus ad numerum ij. mille equorum ; et tanta extitit turba obviantium, 
quod ab hora diei tertia usque ad horam vesperarum vix potuerunt pontem villas 
pertransire. Et cum intrasset civitatem regratiabatur cunctis, et direxit iter suum 
usque palacium papa;. Quo cum pervenisset extra portam, descendit ab equo, 
et ingressus ad papam cum reverentia debita, prout bene sciebat, salutavit eum ; 
et ut brevitas temporis exigebat mutuo colloqmentes, abiit ad hospitium suum. 
Hillaritas dapium et poculentorum omnibus venire volentibus et refici cupien- 
tibus semper parata erat, quamdiu ibi moram traxit ; et talem providentiam ibi 
fecerat quod tota curia mirabatur. Providentia vini ante adventum suum in 
cellaria sua erat c. doliorum. Et tantam humanitatem omnibus exhibuit, et 
prascipue papas et cardinalibus, quod dicebant non esse ei parem in toto mundo. 
Post recessum suum de curia, Franci circumvenerunt eum insidiis, ut eum 
caperent, set, Deo adjuvante, per multas cautelas evasit et venit in Angliam cum 
honore.' See also Avesbury, 420. The negotiations had no better result than a 
prolongation of the truce to Midsummer. 

Page 125, I. 7. Rex Navarre, etc. Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, assassinated 
Charles de la Cerda on the 8th January, 1354. The story of his negotiations 
with Lancaster and of the result was told by sir Walter Manny in the parliament 
of November 1355 : 'Et durante la demoere des ditz missages a la court [the 
English ambassadors at Avignon] par la dite cause, si vient le roi de Navarre 
sovent au dit dues, se compleingnant des grevaunces, tortz et duresces qu'il avoit 
suffert du roi de Fraunce, affermant et par serment affiant qu'il ferroit volentiers 
alliance ove nostre seignur le roi contre son dit adversair ove tut son poair : et 
tant empressa le dit dues par ses somers parlances, qe le dues lui promist qe 
1'alliance se prendroit s'il plust a nostre dit seignur, et qe sur ceo il s'apparaillereit 
se enforciement come il purroit et des gentz et de navie, et se vendroit a les 
isles de Gernereye et Jereseye, pur affermer et assurer 1'alliance avant dite. Par 
quoi nostre dit seignur, a la revenue du dit dues en Engleterre, entendues les 
choses issint parlei et acordez, fist apparailler un grande armee des grosses niefs, 
et des gent? d'armes et des archiers, et s'adrescea hors de 1'eawe de Thamise 
devers les isles, mes totes voies le vent se monstra contrair a lui, si qe a grant 
peine il vient a Portesmuth, et y demora grant piece, tant qe certeins novels 
viendrent qe le dit roi de Navarre, entrelesse la dite alliance contre son promesse 
et serment, feust devenuz Fraunceys et adherdant au dit adversair nostre seignur 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 291 

le roi.' Rot. Par!., ii. 264. From Avesbury, 425, we learn that the English fleet 
set sail on the loth July, but did not get beyond Sandwich before the Assumption 
of the Virgin, I5th August. Charles patched up a peace with the French king 
at Valognes, loth September. 

Page 126, 1. 9. Dominus rex el dux Lancastrte, etc. To illustrate this short cam- 
paign, the rest of sir Walter Manny's speech in parliament may be quoted : 
' Quelles novelles oiez et entendues, nostre dit seignur se retourna ove sa navie 
et gentz, et par cause qu'il ne poast aver la pees, et qe la dite alliance ne se 
poast tenir, et aussint qe son dit adversair se fist fort des gentz d'armes et d'autres 
sur les marches de Caleys, meisme nostre seignur, pensant de y aver hastif batail, 
se ordina ove ses dites navie et gentz de passer la meer devers Caleys. Apres 
queu passage, par avis de son conseil, il ordeina 1'arraie de ses gentz et de ses 
alliez queux il y trova, come de monsr. Henry de Flaundres, monsr. Fraunk de 
Vanhale, et autres gentz d'Alemaigne en grant noumbre, et ce commencea de 
mesner hors de Caleys le jour de la feste des Almes [2 Nov.], et fist son progres 
en le roialme devers les lieux ou par espies et en autre manere il entendi qe son 
dit adversair estoit, s'il voleit aver eu la bataille ovesqe lui. Mes totes voies il 
fuist, et de nuyt et de jour, nient attendant la bataille, et nostre seignur le roi 
lui pursuyst, degastant, ardant, et bruillant le pais par tut, tant qe par assent 
de son conseil, par causes qe ses gentz furent molt lassez pur defaute de vyn, 
et ne beurent qe eawe bien par quatre jours, se retourna devers Caleys, et issint 
entendi d'avoir cue la bataille ovesqe lui, mes il ne y vient point. Et, a la revenue 
nostre dit seignur a Caleys, il fist paier ses alliez qi y avoient demorez par long 
temps bien et curtoisement, si qe ils se agrerent bien, et puis est revenuz en 
Engleterre ore a son parlement.' Rot. Part., ii 264. See also details of the 
campaign in Avesbury, 428 ; Knyghton, 2610; Froissart, iv. 139. 

1. 13. Ceperunt villam Bereivici. The town of Berwick was taken by surprise 

on the 6th November, 1355, but the castle held out. Edward returned to England 
in the latter part of November. He marched north towards the end of the yeai , 
was at Durham on the 23rd December, when he issued a proclamation to raise 
forces to meet him at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and arrived at the latter place early 
in the new year (Fcedera, iii. 314, 315). He appeared before Berwick on the 
1 3th January, 1356, and re-occupied it on the 24th. Three days later he advanced 
into Scotland. See Avesbury, 431, 432, 450. 

1. 20. 'Naves Novi castri. The victualling ships were wrecked or scattered by 

storms. Avesbury, 455 ; Froissart, iv. 155. 

1.21. Sequentibus in fine exercitus. Froissart, iv. 157, describes this skirmish 

as an attack made by Douglas on the English when marching through a mountain 
pass. Avesbury, 456, says that sir Robert Herje had retired with certain of his 
company to a manor of his, lying near the line of march, ' causa majoris recrea- 
tionis ibidem habendze quam in exercitu. Circa mediam noctem .... venit 
dictus Willelmus Douglas, cum Scotis suis bene armatis, infra dictum manerium, 
et tune, facto clamore, dictus dominus Robertus Erie, excitatus a sompno, nudus 

p p 2 



292 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

pedes, cum camerario suo, vix evasit, et ceteri homines Anglici nudi in lectis 
suis capiebantur a Scotis.' Baker's plausible excuse for the runaways can hardly 
be taken seriously. Sir Robert Herle held many manors and lands in North- 
umberland. Of his companions here mentioned, sir Almaric de St. Amand was 
justiciary of Ireland in 1357-1359, was summoned to parliament in 1371, and 
died in 1381 ; sir Robert de Hildesley was probably of a Gloucestershire family, 
one of his name being the royal escheator in that county in 1350 ; and sir John 
Brancestre may be identified with John de Branketre, who was afterwards 
treasurer of York. 

Page 127, 1. 5. Dtix Lancastrie, etc. The duke landed at La Hougue on the 1 8th 
June, 1356. His raid through Normandy extended from the 22nd June to the 
1 3th July. See the itinerary of his march given in Avesbury, 462 ; and the ac- 
count in Knyghton, 2611, and Froissart, iv. 186. 

1. 9. Regem Navarrorum, etc. Charles of Navarre and Jean v., comte 

de Harcourt, were arrested by the king in person at Rouen, when dining at the 
table of his son Charles, duke of Normandy, and Harcourt was instantly executed ; 
5th April, 1356. 

1. 23. A portu Suttone. The prince of Wales sailed from Plymouth, the old 

name of which was Sutton, on the gth Sept. Avesbury says the 8th. As to 
the date of his landing at Bordeaux, Baker is in accord with Froissart, who 
places it ' environ le Saint Michel ' ; but he was actually there as early as the 
2oth of the month, as appears from his comptroller's accompts. Beltz, Mem. 
Garter, 390. 

I. 29. Comes Arminiacensis. Jean i., comte d'Armagnac, who, at a later date, 

was reconciled to the prince of Wales and accompanied him in his Spanish 
campaign. He died in 1373. See the prince of Wales's letter to the bishop 
of Winchester (Avesbury, 434) : ' Accorde estoit par avys et conseil de toutz 
les seignurs esteauntz entour nous et de seignurs et barons de Gascoigne, par 
cause qe le counte Dermynak estoit chevetein des guerres nostre adversaria et 
soen lieutenaunt en tout le pais de Lange de. ok, et plus avoit greve et destruit 
les lieges gentz nostre tres honure seignur et piere le roy et son pais qe nulle 
autre en ycelles parties, qe nous deverons trere vers son pays Dermynak.' 

Page 128, 1. 12. Prima die Dominica, etc. Baker's itinerary of the prince of Wales's 
raid across the south of France, from Bordeaux to Narbonne and back, is by far 
the most complete one to be found anywhere. That it has not received more 
attention is, no doubt, chiefly due to the fact that the names of the various places 
on the line of march are a good deal disguised by uncouth and corrupt mispro- 
nunciation and spelling faults which Stow aggravated in his translation. Barnes 
refers to it as containing full details, ' tho' the names of the places are there most 
corruptly written ; for which reason, as well as for the dryness and prolixity 
thereof, we forbear to add the particulars here.' With the aid of the French maps 
published by the Depot de la Guerre there is not much difficulty in following the 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 293 

track ; although here and there a corruption, or perhaps the absolute disap- 
pearance of a place from the face of the country, may baffle all attempts at 
identification. 

It is not improbable that a certain document quoted by Beltz in his Memorials 
of the Garter, appendix iv. (p. 390), may contain information which would help to 
identify the doubtful places. This document is the roll of payments made by the 
prince's comptroller, John Henxeworth, from the 2oth September, 1355, to the 
3oth June, 1356, and is preserved among the records of the Duchy of Cornwall. 
I have not had access to these records ; and Beltz's extracts are unfortunately very 
meagre. I had hoped that possibly he might have taken a copy of Henxeworth's 
roll, which would be still in existence among his papers at the College of Arms ; 
but this is unhappily not the case, for an examination of the papers, which were 
kindly placed at my disposal by Sir Albert Woods, Garter, proved that Beltz 
contented himself with little more than the few extracts which he has printed. 

In the following outline of the expedition, it should be noticed that the writer 
of the itinerary marched with the prince of Wales's ' battle ' or division. In some 
instances he names the halting places of all three 'battles' into which the army 
was divided ; but generally he mentions only a single place, which, unless the 
whole force happened to be quartered there, would be the prince's bivouac. The 
distances between places, as given below, have been calculated by measurements 
from the maps ; they must not therefore be accepted as perfectly accurate, for no 
allowance is made for the inequalities of the surface of the country. For our 
present purpose, however, they may suffice. 

5 Oct. (Monday). The army marches from Bordeaux, south, having the 
Garonne on its left, and halts at ' Urnoun,' said to be at a distance of 2 miles 
from the city. This place is probably Villenave d'Ornon, a little more than 
4 miles from Bordeaux. Henxeworth's roll calls the place ' Ornoun.' 

6 Oct (Tuesday). Along the course of the Garonne to Langon, about 21 miles, 
and thence to the castle of ' Andert ' or ' Audert ' (Henxeworth calls it ' Andotte,' 
'Andorte,' and 'Endorte'), no doubt Castets-en-Dorthe, about 4 miles E. of 
Langon. 

7 Oct. ( Wednesday}. Halt. 

8 Oct. (Thursday). To Bazas, 9 miles S. of Langon. 

9 Oct. (Friday}. Halt. 

10 Oct. (Saturday). To ' castrum Nau ' (Castelnau), in the Landes, 1 1 
miles S.S.E. 

11 Oct. (Sunday). To Arouille : a long march of 21 miles S. by W. Here, 
being about to enter the enemy's country, the army was arrayed in ' battles,' the 
whole numbering more than 60,000 men. (It should be noticed that MS. C. 
confounds Arouille with La Rdole on the Garonne.) 

12 Oct. (Monday). Halt. Various forays. 

13 Oct. (Tuesday). To Monclar, a short march of 7 or 8 miles S.E., in a hilly 
country. Three neighbouring towns burnt, one being Estang, 4 miles S. of Monclar. 

14, 15 Oct. (Wednesday, Thursday). Halt. 



294 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

1 6 Oct. (Friday). To ' Logeron ' (Nogaro), 12 miles S.E., through hill country : 
a strong place which was not entered. 

17 Oct. (Saturday). To Plaisance, on the Arros, 12 miles S. by E. 

1 8 Oct. (Sunday). Halt. Capture and destruction of Galiax, 2 miles N.W. of 
Plaisance. 

19 Oct. (Monday). Plaisance burnt. March through hill country, leaving 
Beaumarchez 2^ miles on the right, and halting before 'le Basse' (Bassoues), 

10 miles E. by S. 

20 Oct. ( Tuesday). Surrender of Bassoues. 

21 Oct. (Wednesday). ' Escamont' (Montesquieu) passed on the left, 4 miles, 
to Mirande, 8 miles E. by S. ; the prince's quarters being in the Cistercian 
monastery of Berdoues, 2 miles S. of Mirande. 

22 Oct. (Thursday}. Halt. 

23 Oct. (Friday). Leaving the province of Armagnac, enter Astarac ; to 
' Saxante ' (Seissan), 10 miles' E. by S., which was burnt against the prince's 
orders. In this and the three following marches, near the ' lofty mountains of 
Aragon.' 

24 Oct. (Saturday). To ' Seint Morre' (Simorre), 8 miles S.E., quarters of 
the rear-guard ; Villefranche, 2 miles S. of Simorre, middle-guard ; and ' Tour- 
mayn' (Tournan), 3 miles S.E. of Simorre, van-guard. 

25 Oct. (Sunday). Cross a stream [the Gimone], leaving Sauveterre on the 
left, marching near ' Wynbers ' (Lombez), to ' Sotamon ' (Samatan) on the Save, 

11 miles N.E. of Villefranche. Samatan burnt. 

26 Oct. (Monday). Through a wide, level, fair country, passing through Saint- 
Foi (11 miles) to Saint-Lys, 13 miles E. 

27 Oct. (Tuesday). Halt. 

28 Oct. ( Wednesday). Cross the Garonne and the Ariege, probably some little 
distance S. of their confluence, and advance down-stream towards Toulouse. The 
prince's quarters at La-Croix-Falgarde, about 12 miles E. of Saint-Lys, and 
7 miles (not I mile, as stated in the text) S. of Toulouse. 

29 Oct. (Thursday). To Montgiscard, 8 miles S.E. 

30 Oct. (Friday). Through Baziege (2 miles) and Villefranche (7 miles) to 
Avignonet, 13 miles S.E. Burning of windmills. 

31 Oct. (Saturday). To Castelnaudary, destroying Mas-Saintes-Puelles on the 
way, 10 miles S.E. 

1 Nov. (Sunday). Halt. A town taken and ransomed. 

2 Nov. (Monday). Pass through ' S.-Marthe-le-Port ' (Saint-Martin-Lalande, 
3| miles) and ' Vilkapinche ' (Villepinte, 4 miles), entering the district of Carcas- 
sonne, to ' Alse' (Alzonne), 12 miles S.E. 

3 Nov. (Tuesday). To the ' bourg ' of Carcassonne, 9 miles E. by S. 
4, 5 Nov. ( Wednesday and Thursday). Halt. 

6 Nov. (Friday). The ' bourg ' burnt. Through a difficult country, leaving on 
the left the castle of ' Botenake ' (Bouillonac, i,\ miles), through the district of 
Rustiques, 6 miles E. of Carcassonne. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 295 

7 Nov. (Saturday). Passing on the left the great lake called ' Esebon,' i. e. the 
now dried-up lake of Marseillette, to 'Syloine' (Lezignan), 14 miles E. by S. ; 
the prince quartering at Canet, 5 miles N.E. of Lezignan. 

8 Nov. (Sunday). Cross the ' Saude ' (the Orbieu, near its junction with the 
Aude) by the ford of ' Chastel-de-terre ' and a bridge, to Narbonne, 9 miles S.E. 
(The river Aude flows north of Narbonne ; not through it, as stated in the text. 
A canal runs through the town.) 

9 Nov. (Monday). Halt. 

10 Nov. (Tuesday). The ' bourg ' burnt. Retreat from Narbonne, across the 
' torrens ' (the Aude), the prince quartering at ' Ambian ' (Aubian), a small place 
on the south-western shore of the Etang de Capestang, 8 miles N. of Narbonne. 

11 Nov. (Wednesday). Difficult march through a rocky and waterless country. 
Wine used in place of water. 

12 Nov. (Thursday). Through ' Ulmes ' (Homps), 16 miles N.W. of Narbonne, 
to Azille, 3 miles W. of Homps. Pdpieux, N. of Azille, destroyed. 

13 Nov. (Friday). Through a difficult country to ' Lamyane ' (probably 
Comigne), crossing the Aude, 9 miles S. by W. of Azille. 

14 Nov. (Saturday). March westward, leaving the lake of 'Esebon' and 
Carcassonne on the right, to ' Alieir ' (rear-guard), ' Puchsiaucier ' (middle- 
guard), and ' Pezence ' (van-guard). I cannot identify the first two places, unless 
they be Saint-Hilaire and Pech, both of which are on the small river Lanquet, a 
tributary of the Aude. ' Pezence ' is probably Preixan, beyond the Aude. 

15 Nov. (Sunday). Through a fair country to the abbey of ' Prolian ' (Prouille), 
near Fanjeaux, about 13 miles N.W. Towns burnt on this day : ' Lemoyns ' 
(Limoux), ' Falanges ' (Fanjeaux), ' Vularde,' and ' Serre ' (perhaps Lasserre, 
near Fanjeaux). 

16 Nov. (Monday). To ' Ayollpuhbone,' probably Pechluna, 1 1 miles N.W. of 
Prouille. 

17 Nov. (Tuesday). Cross the ' Besyle,' apparently a corruption of Vixiege, the 
name of one of the tributaries of the Hers. The passage, however, must have 
been lower down stream than the junction, in fact across the Hers. To the 
monastery of 'Burgbone' (Boulbonne), near Mazeres. [This monastery, destroyed 
by the Calvinists at the end of the i6th century, was rebuilt in its present 
position, further west.] Through ' Maselle ' (Mazeres) and Calmont, passing 
' Seint Cavele ' (Cintegabelle) and ' Hautripe ' (Auterive), across the Ariege 
to Miremont. A long day's march of 25 miles N.W. 

18 Nov. (Wednesday). Through Montaut ; across the Garonne to 'North' 
(Nod), which was taken by storm ; thence up the stream to Marquefave, which 
was captured ; across the river again, and thence further up to Carbonne, also 
taken by storm. 13 miles. 

19 Nov. (Thursday). Halt. 

20 Nov. (Friday). Skirmish with the French. To ' Muwos' (Mauvesin), 
15 miles N.W. 

21 Nov. (Saturday). To ' Oradrie' (Aurade), 14 miles N.E. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

22 Nov. (Sunday). Across the Save towards Gimont, where the enemy 
appeared in force. Skirmishing. Occupation of Aurimont and the small town 
of ' Celymont,' near Gimont. 1 1 miles. 

23 Nov. (Monday). At Aurimont, reconnoitring. 

24 Nov. ( Tuesday). March continued. Camp in the open. 

25 Nov. (Wednesday). March N.W., leaving Fleurance on the right, through 
' Silarde ' (probably Ste.-Radegonde, in the neighbourhood of which is the castle 
of Saint Lary, possibly the ' Silarde ' of the text), to ' Realmont ' (Re'jaumont) ; 
21 miles. 

26 Nov. ( Thursday). Halt. 

27 Nov. (Friday). Cross 'a great water,' no doubt the Bai'se, swollen by rains, 
to ' Le Serde,' said to be a league from Condom. This place may be Lagardere, 
west of the Baise. 

28 Nov. (Saturday). Cross a river, perhaps the Losse, to Mezin, 15 miles N. 
of Lagardere. Here a part of the troops dismissed, and the standards furled. 

29 Nov. (Sunday). Halt. 

30 Nov. (Monday). To ' Gelous > (Castel-Jaloux), 19 miles N. by W. 

1 Dec. (Tuesday). To ' Melan' (Meilhan) on the Garonne, 1 6 miles N. Part 
of the prince's household traverse the forest near the monastery of ' Montguilliam ' 
(Montpouillon). 

2 Dec. ( Wednesday). To La Rdole. 

Froissart's account of the raid differs materially from this. According to him, 
the Anglo-Gascon force crossed the Garonne from the northern bank at Port- 
Sainte-Marie, between Aiguillon and Agen, and thence marched on Toulouse, and 
so to Montgiscard, Villefranche, Avignonet, Castelnaudary, Carcassonne, Trebes, 
Homps, Capestang, Narbonne. It will be seen that here are several places not 
mentioned in our itinerary, but these may very well have been visited by one or 
other of the two divisions not immediately under the prince's command. The 
return route Froissart traces through Limoux, Montreal, 'Fougans,' 'Rodais,' re- 
crossing the Garonne at Port-Sainte-Marie. This, as we know, is totally insuffi- 
cient. ' Fougans ' and ' Rodais ' have caused some trouble. They have been 
identified with Fougax-et-Barrineuf and Bastide-de-Se"rou, in Foix. But these 
two places are much too far to the south. 'Fougans' is no doubt a corrupt reading 
of ' Fongaus,' which there is no trouble in recognizing as Fanjeaux; and ' Rodais ' 
is probably Routier, a town between Limoux and Fanjeaux. 

The letters of the prince of Wales and sir John Wingfield to the bishop of Win- 
chester (Avesbury, 434, 439), as far as they go, agree in detail with the itinerary. 
They mention the despatch of papal envoys from Avignon, who sought a safe- 
conduct from the prince at Narbonne, which he refused. 

Henxeworth's accompt-roll shows that the prince was at Saint-Macaire on 

the Garonne, opposite Langon, on the 5th, and back in Bordeaux on the 9th 

December. < 

Page 129, 1. I. In prima custodia, etc. The leaders here named are: Thomas 

Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, 1315-1369, K.G. (founder); Reginald, lord Cobham, 



Chrrai. Galf.le 





NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 297 

1342-1361, K.G. 1352; John, lord Beauchamp of Hache, 1343-1360 (son-in-law of 
Warwick) ; Roger, afterwards lord Clifford, 1357-1390 (another son-in-law of 
Warwick); sir Thomas Hampton, warden of the Channel Isles in 1341-2, and 
now seneschal of the Landes of Bordeaux ; John de Vere, earl of Oxford, 1331- 
1360 ; Bartholomew, lord Burghersh, 1355-1369, K.G. (founder) ; Robert, lord 
Lisle of Rougemont, 1342-1355, K.G. (founder), killed at Estang in this expedi- 
tion; John, lord Willoughby de Eresby, 1349-1372; Roger, lord de la Warr, 
I 347-I37! sir Maurice Berkeley, afterwards lord Berkeley, 1361-1368 (Dugdale 
is in error in stating that his father Thomas, lord Berkeley, was also present) ; 
John, lord Bourchier, 1349-1400, K.G. 1392 ; Thomas (not John), lord Roos, 
I 35 2 -i384, still a minor; the mayor of Bordeaux; Jean de Grailly, captal de 
Buch, K.G. (founder), died a prisoner of the French, 1377; Jean, sire de Cau- 
mont ; Aimeri de Biron, sire de Montferrand ; Robert Ufford, earl of Suffolk, 
1337-1369, K.G. 1348 ; William Montacute, earl of Salisbury, 1343-1397, K.G. 
(founder) ;' Guillaume de Pommiers. 

Page 129, 1.'i6. Biduers. Bidowers : light-armed troops. The bidowe was some kind of 
side arm ;' derived by some from ' bidubium,' a bill-hook, by others, from Welsh 
' bidog,' a dagger. Murray, New Engl. Diet. 

Page 130, 1. 6. Comts de Molasin. This name is perhaps a corruption of Montlezun. 

1. 8. Adam de Lowches. Adam de Louches appears as seised of lands in Essex, 

I Ric. ii. Calend. Ing. post Mortem, iii. 10. 

1. 13. Ric. de Stafford. Sir Richard Stafford, son of Edmund, lord Stafford, and 

brother of Ralph, 1st earl of Stafford. 

Page 131, 1. 7. Semotis nigris monachis. The diocese of Lombez was created by 
John xxii. in 1317. It was suppressed in 1801. The Benedictines had a mon- 
astery there until the I2th century, when they were succeeded by regular canons. 
Gallia Christ., xiii. 319. 

1. 24. Almerici de la Fossade. Called by Chandos Herald, The Black Prince, 

1. 695, Ameniou de Faussard. He fought at Poitiers. 

1. 28. Constabularium Francie. Jacques de Bourbon, comte de la Marche et de 

Ponthieu ; taken prisoner at the battle of Poitiers ; died 1361. 

Page 132, 1. 28. Filii domini de Libreto, etc. Bernard Ezi, sire d'Albret, took part 
in this expedition. Ralph, lord Basset of Drayton, I343- I 39. was at this time a 
young man of about twenty. 

Page 133, 1. I. Rolandtts Daveys. In the Calend. Ing. fast Mortem, ii. 231, Roland 
Daveys is found seised of the manor of Lyndon, co. Rutland, in 1361. 

1. 20. Ysidls de Britania. This lady cannot be identified. One naturally thinks 

of the Yseult de Bretagne of romance May not Baker have inadvertently written 
down the name for a real Yseult or Isold ? 

Page 135, 1. 19. Monasterio ordinis Cisterciensis, etc. The abbey of Boulbonne was 
founded in 1129 as a Benedictine house, but in 1150 it was transferred to the 
Cistercian order. Roger Bernard, comte de Foix, was a benefactor in 1160. 
Gallia Christ., xiii. 288. 

Qq 



298 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 135, 1. 21. Comes prefatus. Gaston Phcebus, comte de Foix, sided with his brother- 
in-law, Charles of Navarre, against king John, who thereupon imprisoned him ; 
but, on the prince of Wales's advance, he was liberated and sent to oppose it. 
Baker seems to be confusing Gaston with some younger man, for at this time 
he was quite in middle life. His son Gaston, who died before his father in 1381, 
may possibly be intended. 

Page 136, 1. 28. Illo die Bartholomews. The prince of Wales's letter to the bishop 
of Winchester (Avesbury, 434) describes the skirmish : ' Et sur ceo mandasmes 
hors mounsire Barthelemeu de Burwessche, mounsire Johan Chaundos, mounsire 
James Daudele, mounsire Baudewyn Botour, mounsire Thomas de Filtone, et 
aultres de nostres, a la mountance de xxx. gleyves, de noz certefier de certeinete 
des dits enemis. Les queux chivachoient devers eaux, tantqe ils vindrent a une 
ville ou ils troverent cc. hommes darmes de lour, ou les queux ils avoient affaire et 
pristerount de eaux xxxv. hommes darmes.' The two famous comrades of the 
Black Prince, sir John Chandos and sir James Audley, were both founders of the 
Garter. Chandos was mortally wounded in a skirmish near Lussac in Poitou, 
3ist December, 1369. Audley died about 1371. 

Page 137, 1. I. Comitem de Romenie. There was a seigneur de Romeny, but no 

count with that title. 
Page 138, 1. I. Lis non modica. In one of the editions of Froissart it is stated that 

the people of Toulouse rose against the count of Armagnac, in disgust at his 

supineness. Froissart, ed. Luce, iv. 380. The same story is told by the Bourgeois 

de Valenciennes, 283, 
1. 29. Crebro digressi. See, for example, the letter of sir John Wingfield to sir 

Richard Stafford, giving an account of military movements. Avesbury, 445. 

Page 139, 1. 17. Igitur offerens, etc. Baker is here going back upon Lancaster's 
raid, already referred to on p. 127. Sir Miles Stapleton was one of the founders 
of the Garter; he died in 1364. 

1. 24. Caslrum quoddam. Verneuil was the furthest point reached by Lan- 
caster. 

1. 26. Annali proximo. This would imply that Baker intended to carry on his 

chronicle. 

Page 140, 1. 2. Proinde congestis copiis. There are four contemporary documents which 
provide valuable particulars concerning the campaign of the prince of Wales, which 
culminated in the battle of Poitiers. They are : two letters of the prince, written 
to the bishop of Worcester and to the corporation of the city of London respec- 
tively, after his return to Bordeaux, on the 2oth and 22nd October (printed by sir 
N. H. Nicolas in his edition of the Chronicle of London, 1827, p. 204) ; the letter 
of Bartholomew, lord Burghersh, to sir John Montagu (printed by Rev. H. O. 
Coxe in his edition of Chandos Herald's Black Prince, Roxburghe Club, 1842, 
p. 369) ; and, above all, the itinerary of the campaign which is embodied in the 
Eulogium, a chronicle attributed to a monk of Malmesbury (ed. F. S. Haydon, 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 299 

Rolls Series, iii. 215). In his letter to the bishop of Worcester the prince says that 
he began the campaign on the eve of the Translation of saint Thomas of Canter- 
bury, that is, on the 6th July. Baker begins with the prince's arrival at Bergerac, 
which he entered on the 4th August. Marching almost due north, his object 
being to join hands with the duke of Lancaster, who commanded in Brittany, he 
reached Argenton on the 2ist, Chateauroux on the 23rd, and Vierzon on the 28th 
of the month. The combat with Philippe (called Grismouton) de Chambly took 
place on the latter day : ' Eodem die dominus Johannes Chaundos et dominus 
Jacobus de Audele .... fecerunt equitatum cum ducentis hominibus et obvia- 
verunt uni Franco nomine Gris Motoun qui secum habuit iiij x * lanceas, qui omnes 
fugarunt et occisi fuerunt ; capti tamen fuerunt xviij. milites et armigeri. Angli 
enim habebant x. lanceas tantum ; le Gris Motoun primus fuit qui fugam fecit.' 
Eulogium, iii. 218. 

Page 141, 1. i. Processerunt versus Romorentyn. Romorantin was reached on the 
3oth August and was captured next day, and the outworks of the castle were 
taken ; but Amauri de Craon and Boucicaut held the keep until the 3rd Septem- 
ber, when it was set on fire, and they, ' quod non possent bene ignem extinguere 
cum vino et aqua, quod in parva quantitate habebant intra se,' were forced to 
surrender. 

1. 29. Nimciantes quod coranatus Francortcin, etc. King John was at Meung- 

sur-Loire, below Orleans, on the gth September, and no doubt crossed the river at 
Blois on the following day. Froissart, ed. Luce, v. iv. 

Page 142, 1. 7. Princeps vero Ligerim sequens. The exact course of the prince of 
Wales's march immediately after leaving Romorantin is uncertain. Baker repre- 
sents him as following the course of the Loire to the westward (' orientem ' is a 
blunder for ' occidentem ') direct to Tours, before which he sat down for four days, 
and thence rose in pursuit of the French who had crossed the river behind his 
back at Blois. The prince's own account agrees with this : ' Et illeosqes estoions 
certifiez qe touz les pontz sur Leyre estoient debruses et qe nulle part purriens 
avoir passage ; sur qei nous prismes nostre chemyn tout droit a Tours et la de- 
mourasmes devant la ville quatre jours ' (letter to the corporation of London). 

Burghersh also states that ' le prince demorra devaunt le dit cite de Tours 

par iiij. joures.' The Evlogium, after describing obscurely the march of the 5th 
and 6th September, goes on to say : ' die Mercurii [7th Sept.] venit princeps ad 

Aumonk super Leir juxta Tours in Turonia ibi moratus est per dies Jovis, 

Veneris, et Sabbati.' This place has been taken to be Chaumont. But this is 
impossible, for Chaumont lies on the river not far below Blois, and very far away 
from Tours. ' Aumonk ' must have been some place near the latter city, possibly 
Amboise. Le Bel, ii. 196, may also be quoted : ' Puis ardirent les Angles la ville 
de Remorentin et s'en vinrent parmi celluy pays qu'on clame Salongne, par devers 
la riviere de Loyre ; mais quant ilz entendirent que le roy Jehan estoit a Bloys, ils 
sceurent bien que par la ilz ne purroient passer ; si s'adreschicrent par devers 
Amboise, et le roy Jehan ala a 1'encontre d'eulx par devers la cite de Tours ; et 

Qq2 



3CO NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

demourerent Ik le jour et lendetnain, puis s'en partirent, car ilz virent bien qu'ilz 
n'auroient pas la cit ne le passage a leur volentd ; si ardirent aucunes maisons 
des fausbours et se mirent au retour par devers Poytou, toudis ardant et exil- 
lant. 1 

Page 142, 1. 15. Viam transfers am. The two armies were now moving south on con- 
verging lines. Baker's ' torrentes tres ' are the Indre, the Creuse, and the Vienne. 
The prince of Wales broke up his camp on the nth September and passed that 
night and the next day at Montbazon on the Indre ; on the I3th he moved to La 
Haye on the Creuse ; and on the I4th to Chatellerault on the Vienne, where he 
halted the two following days. In the mean time king John had reached Loches 
on the 1 3th September, and the next day was at La Haye, which the prince had 
evacuated that morning. While the latter struck off rather to the west to Chatel- 
lerault, the king moved on due south to Chauvigny, where he arrived on the 
evening of Thursday the I5th. It seems incomprehensible how the two armies, 
each one being credited by its own historians with being in pursuit of the other, 
could have failed to come into collision during these days. From Chauvigny the 
French troops crossed the Vienne and marched westward on Poitiers, thus traver- 
sing the route of the English. The prince of Wales moved from Chatellerault on 
the morning of Saturday the i;th, and, marching up the left bank of the Vienne, 
came upon the French rear-guard at a place named La Chaboterie. In the skir- 
mish which ensued Jean de Noyers, comte de Joigny, Jean iii. de Chalon, comte 
d'Auxerre, and the marshal of Burgundy were made prisoners. The next day, 
Sunday the i8th, the English took up their position at Maupertuis. 

1. 26. Statim princeps, etc. Before reviewing the details of Baker's account 

of the battle, Stow's translation (Annales, 408) may be read : 

' The prince therfore committed the vaward of the armie to the earles of 
Warwicke and Oxford, the middle ward was guided by the prince, and the 
rereward was led by the earles of Salisburie and Suffolke. In all the whole armie 
of the prince there was not above foure thousand men of armes, one thousand 
armed souldiours, and two thousand archers. 

' The pompous nobility of the Frenchmen drew nigh, greatly disdaining the 
small company of the Englishmen, for they had in numbers eight thousand 
fighting souldiours, they had also seven antients. At this matter a great many of 
our men murmured, because of late a great part of our army was sent to defend 
Gascoigne. There was among the Frenchmen a certaine Scot, called William 
Douglas, a man of great force and practise in the warres : this man did the French 
king make knight, and, because he knew he would be a deadly enemie to the 
Englishmen, he gladly hearkned to his advices. This William was captaine over 
two hundred Scots : these men understood well that it was the custome of the 
Englishmen in those dayes to fight on foote, in which point they folowed the 
Scots, and the Scot also provoked the French king and other French men to 
fight in like manner. The French king, obeying his foolish counsel!, gladly 
agreed unto his sayings, whereupon he sent light horsemen into the citie, that 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 301 

they should suffer no man to make any chase, but only 500 horsemen, wel 
appointed, to come out against the archers in the beginning of the conflict, and to 
run them over and to tread them under their horse feete : but these performed 
not that which was commaunded them, as it appeared by the sequele thereof. 

' The armies being set in a readinesse on both sides for to fight earely on 
Sonday in the morning, which was notable fayre, behold there came the cardinal! 
of Petragoren, and charged the prince, in the name of God who was crucified, 
that it might please him to deferre the warre for a time, both for ecclesiasticall 
peace and also for the sparing of Christian blood, and to the end there might be 
a treatie had of peace, the which he promised should be performed with great 
honour on both sides. The prince neither feared nor refused peace, but modestly 
agreed to the request of this father. All this day now being appointed for the 
obtaining of peace, the armie of the Frenchmen encreased by the number of a 
thousand men of armes and also of 'other. On the morrowe after, the cardinall 
came againe from the French king, in his behalfe to request a truce which should 
endure for one whole yeere, the which the prince denyed, yet, at the importunate 
sute of that cardinall, he graunted a truce to continue till Christmas next comming. 
Therefore the cardinall, returning to the French king, requested him of pledges 
for the truce ; but the marshall Dawdenam, Geffrey de Charney, and Douglas the 
Scot perswaded him that by common reason it could not come to passe that the 
Englishmen should at that time prevaile, and especially because they were but 
fewe and in a strange countrey and wearied out miserably with their toyle in 
travel!, and therefore not able to indure so great a number of the Frenchmen of 
France who stood in defence of their owne land. 

' The prince of Wales being certified that the captaines of the French would 
have no kind of peace, but such as they could get by force of armes, and calling 
his men together, he made to them an oration, first in general and then to his 
archers, as foloweth : " Your manhood (saith he) hath bin alwaies known to me, 
in great dangers, which sheweth that you are not degenerate from true sonnes of 
English men, but to be descended from the blood of them which heretofore were 
under my fathers dukedome and his predecessors, kings of England, unto whom. 
no labor was paineful, no place invincible, no ground unpassable, no hill (were it 
never so high) inaccessible, no tower unscaleable, no army impenetrable, no 
armed souldiour or whole hosts of men was formidable. Their lively couragious- 
nesse tamed the Frenchmen, the Ciprians, the Syracusians, the Calabrians, and 
the Palestines, and brought under the stiffe necked Scots and unruly Irishmen, 
yea, and the Welchmen also, which could well endure all labor. Occasion, time, 
and dangers maketh of fearcfull very strong and stoute, and doth many times of 
dull wilted men make wittie : honour also, and love of the countrey, and the desire 
of the rich spoyle of the Frenchmen, doth stirre you up to follow your fathers 
steps. Wherefore followe your antientes and wholy be intentive to follow the 
commandement of your captaines, as well in minde as in body, that, if victorie 
come with life, we may still continue in firme frendship together, having ahvayes 
one will and one minde : but if envious Fortune (which God forbid) should let us 



302 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

at this present, to runne the race of all flesh, and that we ende both life and 
labour together, be you sure that your names shall not want eternall fame 
and heavenly joy, and we also, with these gentlemen our companions, will drinke 
of the same cuppe that you shall doe, unto whom it shall be an eternall glory and 
name to have wonne the nobilitie of France : but to be overcome (as God forbid) 
is not to be ascribed unto the danger of time but to the courage of the men." 

' Having spoken these words, he perceived that there was a hill hard by which 
was planted on the top with hedges and ditches, the inside whereof was very 
plaine, and a pasture fielde on the one side thereof, with many rough bushes, and 
on the other side it was all planted with vines, and the residue was plaine, in the 
top whereof he did imagine the armie of the French to lye. Betwixt our men and 
the hill there were great and lowe valleys, and a piece of marish ground. One 
company of the prince, finding out a narrowe passage, entred the valley and tooke 
the hill, where among the bushes they hid themselves, taking the advantage of 
the place. The fielde wherein our men lay, to witte, the vawarde and middle 
warde, was devided from the plaine where the French armie lay with a long 
hedge and ditch, the one end whereof did reach down to the marish aforesaid : 
that of the hill next the marish the earle of Warwicke kept, captaine of the vawarde. 
In the upper part of the hedge, toward the hanging of the hill, there was a great 
gap, from the which a stones cast stood our rereward, over the which the earle of 
Salisbury was captaine. 

' Our enemies perceyving our princes antient to be displayed and ofttimes to be 
remooved from place to place, and by reason of the hill to be sometime quite out 
of sight, they judged that the prince fled ; yet Douglas the Scot and marshall de 
Clarimount said that it was not so, but marshall Dawdenam, being deceived in his 
owne opinion, thought otherwise, crying out stil to follow and chase the prince 
now fleeing, and with him also Douglas, to the intent to gette preferment and a 
worthie name of his new warfare. But Clarimount, to wash away the evill 
opinion which was conceived of him touching his fidelitie, was the more vehement 
to perswade them forward, for unto them the charge of the vaward was deputed. 
Before these went out, the fashion was, certaine to chase and to juste, against 
whom certaine that were under the hill of our vaward came to meete marshall 
Dawdenam, who, staying to see the ende of the justing, kept himselfe from 
encountring. In the meantime Clarimount, thinking to come out by the gap in 
the hedge and so to come at the backe of our vawarde and to compasse them in, 
met with the earle of Salisburie, who, perceiving his comming and purpose, 
suspected his whole intent ; and so they which governed our rereward, making 
haste to take the gap and keepe the enemie from passing that way, sustained the 
first charge of the battell. Then began a terrible meeting betwixt the armed men, 
who laid on load with swordes and speares, neither did the archers slacke their 
dutie, but, lying in safe trenches, start up above the ditche and shot over the 
hedge, prevailing more with their arrowes then they did that fought in armes : 
thus our rerewarde, slaying the enemies who came stragling to the gap, and the 
vaward, which lay on the hanging of the hill toward the marish, being governed 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 303 

by the earle of Warwike, were alwayes readie and met with the Frenchmen, 
beating them downe. 

' The archers of the vawarde were placed in the marish out of daunger from the 
horsemen, yet for all that they did prevaile there somewhat, for the horsemen 
were appointed to no other purpose but to overrunne the archers. The earle of 
Oxford, considering the discommoditie that might ensue thereof, departed from 
the prince's warde, and leading with him the archers set them on the one side of 
the Frenchmen, commaunding them to shoote at the hinder parts of the horses, by 
meanes whereof the horses being gauld and wounded fell to tumbling with them 
that sate on their backes, or els turned backe and ran upon them that followed 
after, making great slaughter upon their owne masters. The horsemen being thus 
beaten backe, the archers retired towards the place from whence they came, 
shooting and gawling the sides of the Frenchmen which fought right over against 
them. 

' By this time the force and heate of the battell began to be in prime, when as 
the carles of Warwike and Salisbury, like fierce lions, endeavoured of purpose 
which of them should dung the land of Poyters most with Frenchmen's blood. 
Neither was the wise counsellor Thomas Dufford of Suffolke idle at that season, 
who right worthily in all his acts behaved himselfe, being expert and skilfull in 
activitie. For he, continually running from warde to warde and into all troupes 
and companies, comforted and stirred them up with good words to doe well, 
having a great regard that the youthfull sort of lustie souldiers, being too bolde 
upon their good hearts and courage, should not without regard goe out too farre, 
and placed the archers at sundry times to great advantages, and oftentimes, as 
leysure would suffer him, he would encourage up the minds of the souldiers. 
Clarimount was slaine, William Douglas also being wounded fled, having with 
him a fewe Scottes of his bande, with Archebald Douglas his brother. Our men 
retyring put themselves in good aray, and our vawarde and middle warde joyned 
themselves together. 

' By and by there marcheth forth a new armie of the Frenchmen, the which the 
eldest sonne of the French king, Dolphin of Vienna, brought forth. The order 
and aray of this armie'was more terrible and fierce then the show of that which 
was last oppressed, yet for al that could it not make our men afraid, who were 
sharpe set and very desirous of honour and also of revenge, both for themselves 
and their fellowes, which a little before were slaine and wounded. And therefore 
boldely they go to it on both sides, making showtes and noyses, crying out : 
" Saint George to borow," and " Saint Denis for us." Within a while they were 
come to fight man to man, and, every man ready to die, fight now to save their 
lives, neither doth the lion make the wolfe more afraid, as the tiger is more 
terrible to the simple beast, then our lusty gentlemen were to their enemies, who 
chased them and slue them like as the wolves chase and kill sheepe. And though 
that this battel withstood our men more then the first, yet, after they had lost a 
great many of their men, they had such a devise that they saved many, and yet 
not by running away but by a faire retreate, which the Frenchmen are accustomed 



304 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

to use. But our men considering that the victorie of the fielde was doubtfull, as 
long as the French king might be in presence with his armie who lay there halfe 
hid in a valley, they would not afterward, when they had chased any that fled, 
goe out of the fielde. 

' But the worthie man Maurice Barkeley, sonne of Thomas Barkley, had no 
regard thereunto, who for the space of two houres, together with his men, never 
spared, but would be still in the forefront of the battell, invading his enemies with 
the first. This Maurice, being in the middest of the Dolphins gard, sowed blowes 
among them, first with a speare, then with a sword, and at length, being all alone 
compassed with the multitude and sorely wounded, he was taken prisoner. 

' In the meane time our men caried those which were wounded of their campe 
and laid them under bushes and hedges out of the way, other, having spent their 
weapons, tooke the speares and swordes from them whom they had overcome : 
and the archers, lacking arrowes, made hast to drawe them from poore wretches 
that were but halfe dead : there was not one of them al, but either he was wounded 
or quite wearied with great labour, except 400 men who, keeping the chiefe stan- 
dert, were appointed to meete the French king. 

' The Dolphin being thus put to flight, one came to the French king and said : 
" My lord king, the field is fallen to the Englishmen, and your eldest son hath 
withdrawn himselfe '' ; unto whom the French king answered with an oth that 
he would not that day forsake the field, unlesse he were taken or slaine, and so 
by that meanes caried away by force. Wherefore the antient-bearers are com- 
manded to march forwards, after whom followed two great companies of armed 
men into a wide field, shewing themselves to our men, and stroke a great feare 
into their heartes, in so much that they were out of hope to conquer any more. 
The which thing a man of great wisdom, standing by the prince, signified with a 
howling voice (saying : " Alas, we poore wretches are overcome") ; but the prince, 
having a great trust and faith in Christ, checked him, saying : " Thou liest, 
thou dastardly fellow, for thou canst not say that we can be overcome as long 
as I live." 

' Captaine de la Buche, a noble man in all affaires, as soone as he perceived the 
armies of the French king marching forth of their tentes, asking licence of the 
prince, departed away with sixty souldiors and a hundred archers, whom many of 
our men thought to have fled away ; therefore our souldiors (excepting the chiefe 
captaines), being quite out of hope of victory, committed themselves wholy to the 
mercy of God. 

' Then the prince commanded his antient bearer, sir Walter Woodland, to march 
forward toward his enemies, and with a fewe fresh men he joyned battell with the 
great armie of the French king : by and by they sounde their trumpets, one giving 
answere to another, they made such a noyse that the walles of Poyters sounded 
with the eccho thereof like a wood, in such sort that a man would have thought 
that the hils had bellowed out to the valleis, and that the cloudes had given foorth 
a most terrible thunder, to the which there wanted no cruel lightnings, whilest the 
aire shone on the bright armour and speares dashing against shining harneis. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 305 

Then came on the cruell company of crosbowmen, making a darknes in the skies 
with the multitud of quarrels which they shot, against whom came a worthy com- 
pany of English bowmen; out flies also darts of ash which met with the enemie 
afar off: but the French armie, being ful of divers troupes and many armed men 
defending their brests with their shields, proceed forward against their enemies : 
wherefore our archers, having emptied their quivers in vaine, being armed onely 
with swordes and targets, are faine to encounter with them that were laden with 
armour. Then bestirreth himself the worthy prince of Wales, cutting and hewing 
the Frenchmen with a sharpe sword. 

' In the meane time captaine de la Buche marcheth a compasse about, under the 
hanging of the hill, which he with the prince a little before forsooke, and, privily 
compassing about the fielde, at the length commeth close under the place where 
the French campe lay; from thence he ascended to the toppe of the hill that way 
which the Frenchmen had beaten with their travaile, and so sodainly breaking 
forth unlocked for, and shewing by the ensigne of Saint George that he was our 
friend, the prince with great courage giveth a fresh charge on the French armie, 
being desirous to breake their rankes, before the captaine aforesayde should set 
on the side of the battayle. The prince, lustily encountring with his enemies, 
goeth into the middle of the throng, and where he seeth most company, there hee 
layeth about him on every side. 

' In the meane time, on every side, his friendes which served captaine de la Buche 
were at the backes of the enemies, beating downe and kiliing without pitte, and 
the archers also, placed for the purpose, shot so thicke, wounding the backes and 
sides of the Frenchmen, in such sort, that the fourme of the battaile was quite 
spoyled, neither could they put themselves in order or aray any more. This was 
the courage of the prince, who at the length thrusteth thorow the throngs of them 
that guarded the French king. Then should you see an antient beginne to nod 
and stumble, the bearers of them to fall downe ; the blood of slaves and princes 
ran mingled together into the waters which were nigh. In like sorte the bore of 
Cornewall rageth, who seeketh to have none other way to the French king's stan- 
dard then by blood onely : but, when they came there, they met with a company 
of stoute men to withstand them, the Englishmen fight, the Frenchmen also lay 
on, but at length, Fortune making haste to turne her wheele, the prince preaseth 
forward on his enemies, and, like a fierce lion beating downe the proud, he came 
to the yeelding up of the French king. 

' The Frenchmen being scattered abroad in the fieldes of Poyters, perceyving 
that the standard with the flowredeluce was beaten downe, fled with all speede to- 
wards the towne, which was not farre off : the English men, perceyving them to 
be fleeing, though themselves were either sore wounded or wearied, followed them 
in chase even to the gates of Poyters, where in a great skirmish and very daun- 
gerous they slew a great number of Frenchmen. 

'At the last, our men being called backe by retreate with the sound of trumpet, 
and assembling together, there were diverse pavilions and tents set up in the fields, 
and the whole company, being throughly comforted with this victorie, gave their 

R r 



306 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

whole endeavour to provide for them that were wounded, for the quiet rest of them 
that were wearied, for safe keeping of them that were taken prisoners, and for the 
refreshing of them that were almost famished, until they had ful understanding 
who and how many were wanting.' 

Baker's account of the battle of Poitiers is very valuable. His details are un- 
usually clear. They were evidently supplied by one who had taken part in the 
action, and they compare very favourably with the somewhat perplexed narrative 
of Froissart, the chief authority upon which all descriptions of the battle have 
been based. Following the story in our chronicle, one can draw a plan of the 
battle so well that, on comparing it with the actual surveys of the ground, one is 
quite satisfied that we have here no mere fanciful picture of what happened. It 
is seldom that one meets with so precise a description of a battle in the chronicles 
of the middle ages. The English army was divided into three battles : (l) the 
vanguard under Warwick and Oxford, (2) the main-guard under the prince, and 
(3) the rear-guard under Salisbury and Suffolk. The first and third (carelessly 
called the second) divisions were drawn up on ground ('campus,' p. 147), which 
was separated from the open space (' planicie ') occupied by the French by a long 
hedge and ditch ('sepe longa subterfossata '). The position was a plateau which 
sloped down on the right into a valley, the bottom marshy and watered by a 
stream ('torrente quodam irriguus'); the hedge following the slope and running 
down into the marsh. On this slope Warwick with the first division was posted ; 
higher up, on his left rear, stood the third division, drawn up on level ground and 
within reach of a gap in the upper part of the hedge ('a declivo bene remota'). 
This gap was an opening to allow the passage of carts, and, no doubt, was ap- 
proached by a road of some sort. It had an important bearing on the fortunes of 
the day, and its existence has apparently been the main cause why the battle has 
been so often described as a mere struggle in a deep lane. The prince's division 
(' principis turma') was led across the marshy valley on the right ('ad satis an- 
gustum vadum torrentem preterivit ') and took possession of a hill on the right 
front, partly covered with vines and brambles which concealed the movement 
from the enemy. The horsemen, with the exception of a small body reserved for 
skirmishing, were dismounted ; and archers of the first and third divisions were 
posted in the marshy ground in front of the first division, and along the hedge. 

Before proceeding to examine the French attack, let us see how far this state- 
ment of the English position agrees with that found in the pages of Froissart. 
The report brought back to the French king by Eustache de Ribemont, who had 
been sent out with others to reconnoitre, is put into these words : ' " Sire," respond! 
messires Eustasses, " il sont en tres fort liu, et ne poons veoir ne imaginer qu'il 
n'aient fait que une bataille ; mes trop bellement et trop sagement I'ont il ordonne". 
Et ont pris le lone d'un chemin fortefiiet malement de haies et de buissons, et ont 
vesti celle haie, d'une part et d'autre, de leurs archiers, telement que on ne poet 
entrer ne chevaucier en leur chemin, fors que parmi yaus : se convient il aler celle 
voie, se on les voet combatre. En celle vote n'a que une seule entre'e et issue, ou 
espoir quatre hommes d'armes, ensi que ou chemin, poroient chevaucier de fronth. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 307 

Au coron de celle haie, entrevignes et espinetes, ou on ne poet aler ne chevaucier, 
sont leurs gens d'armes, tout a piet ; et ont mis leurs gens d'armes tout devant 
yaus leurs arciers a maniere d'une herce : dont c'est trop sagement ouvre 1 , ce nous 
samble, car qui vodra ou pora venir par fait d'armes jusques a yaus, il n'i entera 
nullement, fors que parmi ces arciers, qui ne seront mies legier a desconfire " ' (ed. 
Luce, v. 21). 

For the moment it may be noted that, reading this passage by the light of an- 
other version, as given in the Amiens MS., it would seem that the italicized words 
vote and haie have been accidentally transposed. The Amiens version is as fol- 
lows : ' Li quattre chevalier dessus nomme's dissent enssi au roy qu'il avoient veu 
lez Engles, et pooient y estre environ douze mil hommez : troy mil hommez 
d'armes, cinq mil archiers, et quattre mil bidaus a piet, car tous les avoient vew 
entrer en leur ordounnanche et mettre en conroy de bataille, et avoient pris le 
lonch d'une haye et mis les archiers d'un Ids et de 1'autre. Et n'avoit en toutte 
celle haye qu'une seulle entree oil quatre hommez d'armes poroient chevauchier 
de froncq : et estoit ceste entre'e. trop bien gardee d'archiers et de gens a piet. 
Apries se tenoient ou fons de ce chemin les gens d'armes en bon couvenant, deux 
hayes d'archiers devant yaux, a manniere d'une herce ; et estoient tout a piet, lez 
cevaux derierre yaux. Et ne pooit on aller ne venir a yaux de nul les, fors par le 
chemin dont il estoient fortefiiet de le haye ; et avoient 1'avantaige d'une petite 
montaingne dessus quoy leurs chevaux et leur aroy estoient. A 1'autre les, sus 
senestre, avoit ung petit plain, mes il 1'avoient fortefiiet de fosses et de leur charroy, 
et ne leur pooit on porter nul dammaige de ce costet' (ed. Luce, v. 252). 

Although the two versions differ in certain expressions, the second being mani- 
festly the better written, the general meaning cannot be mistaken. Froissart 
plainly says that the English position could only be approached by a road which 
was flanked on either side by the archers who lined the hedge. But, although at 
the beginning of his first version he uses the words 'fortefiiet de hates et de buis- 
sons,' and although, in describing (p. 36) the charge of the French cavalry, he says 
that they ' entrerent dedens le chemin ou li grosse haie et espesse estoit de deux 
costes,' he nowhere mentions two distinct hedges bordering the two sides of the 
road ; in other words, he did not mean an ordinary road running between hedges. 
On the contrary, he distinctly speaks of one single hedge : ' le lonch d'une haye,' 
' celle haye,' etc., in agreement with Baker's single ' sepes subterfossata,' which 
covered the English front. This being so, we may reconcile the varying state- 
ments of the two chroniclers by assuming that at the gap spoken of by Baker a 
road entered the field from the country beyond, and that at this point the hedge 
trended back and so flanked the road on either side for some little distance into 
the field. 

If in Froissart's account we really have the actual words or substance of Ribe- 
mont's report, it seems that the French reconnoitring party must have taken their 
chief view of the English forces through the gap; and that the particulars given 
of the disposition of the dismounted men-at-arms and archers apply chiefly to 
Salisbury's division in the rear. The report says that at the crown or end of the 

R r 2 



308 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. . 

road, that is, facing the gap, the men-at-arms were placed, with a double rank of 
archers in their front, disposed ' a maniere d'une herce,' in other words, in open 
formation like the points of a harrow. The English divisions must indeed have 
lain very close to one another if we are to accept Ribemont's words that they 
seemed to form one ' battle': ' ne poons veoir ne imaginer qu'il n'aient fait que une 
bataille.' The occupation of the hill on the right is noticed, and the left flank is 
said to have been protected with trenches and waggons. Such entrenchments, 
Froissart tells us in another place (p. 29), were made during the fruitless negotia- 
tions on the Sunday : ' Le dimence, tout le jour, . . . fisent fosser et haiier leur 
arciers autour d'yaus, pour estre plus fort.' He also mentions the body of mounted 
men kept ready to meet the French cavalry ; and further describes in more detail 
the position of the prince's division : ' Et avoient encores, sus leur destre le"s, sus 
une montagne, qui n'estoit point trop haute ne trop roste a monter, ordonne trois 
cens hommes a chevaus et otant d'arciers, tout a cheval, pour costiier a le couverte 
ceste montagne et venir autour sus ele ferir en le bataille le due de Normendie 

qui estoit en se bataille a piet par desous celle montagne Et se tenoit li 

princes et se grosse bataille ou fons de ces vignes, tout a piet, leurs chevaus asse"s 
pries d'yaus pour tantost monter, se il leur besongnast ; et estoient fortefiiet et 
enclos, au plus foible Ids, de leur charoy et de tout leur harnas : si ne les pooit on 
approcier de ce coste" ' (ed. Luce, v. 31). 

With regard, however, to the body of horsemen and archers held ready to attack 
the flank of the duke of Normandy's division, the manoeuvre being almost the 
same as that described by Baker as executed against king John's division by the 
captal de Buch, it would seem that Froissart may be describing, though incor- 
rectly, the latter attack ; at the same time there may have been, though not prob- 
ably, two distinct movements. 

The French army attacked in three main divisions on foot, led by an advanced 
guard, or rather a forlorn hope of three hundred picked horsemen, chosen, by 
Ribemont's advice, to ride down the English archers and thus clear the way for the 
overwhelming weight of the three solid ' battles.' The first of these was commanded 
by the dauphin Charles, duke of Normandy; the second by Philip, duke of 
Orleans, the king's brother ; and the third by the king in person. The cavalry in 
advance was led, on the left, by the marshal Arnoul d'Audrehem, and, on the 
right, by the marshal Jean de Clermont, and was supported by a contingent of 
German horsemen. 

To resume Baker's narrative : The movement of the prince of Wales's division 
to occupy the hill on the right front led the French to think that the English were 
retreating. Accordingly, the French cavalry advanced to the attack and some 
jousting took place between their left and the English knights who rode out in 
front of Warwick's division. Awaiting the result of this skirmish d'Audrehem 
kept his men in hand ; Clermont on the right made straight for the gap in 
the hedge with the intention of taking Warwick in rear, but was met by 
Salisbury's 'battle,' which was moved forward, the English rear-guard thus 
coming first into action. Here the English archers (' insistentes aggeri tuto 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 309 

supra fossam et ultra sepem ') were terribly effective ; but those of Warwick's 
(first) division, posted in the marsh, though out of reach of the enemy, could 
do little against the armour-clad horsemen, until moved by Oxford into a 
position (probably on the slope of the hill on the right) whence their arrows 
could hit the horses' hind-quarters. Thus the French cavalry were repulsed, and 
driven back upon their own advancing infantry, Clermont being slain and Audre- 
hem a prisoner. Pursuit was restrained, and the English front consolidated by 
the union of the first and second divisions. From this statement we must under- 
stand that the. prince's division (or the main part of it) was brought down from the 
hill which it had occupied 1 and joined to that of Warwick ; but four hundred men 
were held in reserve. Then followed the onset of the second French line, or the 
first infantry division, under the dauphin, which, after a struggle, was repulsed 2 , 
the English again being held well in hand. We hear nothing from Baker of 
Orleans' division, which, as we learn from Froissart, retreated from the field 
without striking a blow, leaving only king John's ' battle ' to be accounted for. 
This division, the largest, now advanced to the attack, and it is said that some of 
the English began to lose courage at the sight, one of the faint-hearted bringing 
down upon himself a sharp rebuke from the prince. Then was executed a flank 
movement by a small body (the numbers here given being apparently too low) of 
mounted men and archers under the captal de Buch, who was despatched round 
the hill on the right to fall upon the French rear. This was the moment chosen 
by the prince for the advance of the English line. His banner was carried for- 
ward ; and, leading out his reserve, he charged down upon the enemy. The 
French, thus taken in front and reverse, were broken up ; and the battle was 
won. 

Froissart's account differs from this in many points. According to him, the 
duke of Normandy's division, after being shaken by the recoil of the French 
cavalry, was attacked in flank by the force posted on the hill on the English right, 
and was then driven from the field by the prince of Wales's advance ; while king 
John's division marched forward and engaged the first and third 'battles' under 
Warwick and Suffolk. 

Knyghton's account of the battle is of little or no value ; but he mentions the 
exhaustion of the English after the repulse of the Dauphin's attack, and also gives 
a list of the French killed and prisoners. The description to be found in the his- 
torical poem, ' The Black Prince,' by Chandos Herald 3 , demands a moment's 

1 That this was so, appears from the words used on p. 151, 1. 19: 'a monte quern cum 
principe nuper dimisit.' 

' The Frenchmen's ' non fugam sed pulcram retraccionem,' p. 149, 1. 18, is exactly the modern 
' strategic movement to the rear.' 

3 Edited, with a translation and notes, by the Rev. H. O. Coxe, for the Roxburghe Club, in 1 842. 
The work was again published by M. Francisque Michel in 1883, with a title in French and 
English, thus : Le Prince Noir, potme dtt Heraut Chandos, texte critique suivi de notes par 
Franrisque Michel, correspondant de F Institut de France, etc., etc. The Life and Feats of Arms 
of Edward the Black Prince, by Chandos Herald. A metrical chronicle with an English 
translation and notes by Francisque Michel, F.A.S. Load., Scot., and Normandy, etc., etc. It 
is worth while to quote the title in full, for it would h.irdly be believed that the introduction, 



310 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

notice. Here it appears at first sight that the prince was in retreat when the 
battle began, his rear-guard being first attacked, and his vanguard being already 
'outre la rivere ' (1. 1376). But, read by the light of Baker's chronicle and the 
manoeuvres therein so exactly described, the lines of Chandos take a different 
meaning ; and we see that he is only narrating, but not so clearly, the movements 
whereby Salisbury's division in the rear was brought into action at the gap and 
the prince of Wales first occupied and then withdrew from the hill across the 
valley. That the prince drew up his forces with a view either to retreat or fight, 
he himself announces in his letter to the city of London : ' Et par defaute des 
vitailles si bien par autres enchessons, acorde estoit qe nous deveriens prendre 
nostre chemyn encosteant par devant eux en tieu manere qe, sils voilont la bataille 
ou trere devers nous en lieu qe nestoit mye tres graundment a nostre desavaun- 
tage, qe nous le preindreins; et ensint estoit fait.' Nicolas, Chronicle of London, 
206. 

The battle of Poitiers was fought in the morning : 'Si commenga environ heure 
de prime et fu toute passe'e a nonne ' (Froissart, v. 60), on ' les plains de Maupertuis,' 
' es camps de Biauvoir et de Maupetruis,' ' asses pries de Poitiers es camps de 
Maupertuis,' 'es camps de Maupetruis k deux lieuwes de Poitiers ' (Froissart, v. 52, 
249, 279, 284). The spot has been exactly identified. The ancient Maupertuis is 
now a farm called La Cardinerie, lying on the road between Poitiers and Nouaille, 
and about two kilometres from this village. The Miausson, a small winding stream 
flowing into the river Clain which passes by Poitiers, forms, near its source, the 
southern boundary of the field of battle. It will be seen from the accompanying 
map ' that a long narrow valley passing from north-east to south-west and de- 
bouching on the stream, separates the position of La Cardinerie from a highland 
or ridge to which tradition has given the name of ' Champ de Bataille. 1 It was 
on this ridge that the battle was fought. Recent plans represent the line of the 
action to run north-west and south-east, the French advancing direct from 
Poitiers ; but, unless the identification of the ground is altogether at fault, Baker's 
account goes to prove that the direct attack on the English position was made 
from the north. In support of this view it will be seen that La Chaboterie, the 
place at which the English came in contact with the French rear-guard on the 
Saturday before the battle, lies north of La Cardinerie ; and again, Froissart tells 
us that the duke of Normandy retreated on Chauvigny, which he would have had 
some difficulty in doing, had he advanced direct from Poitiers. The French 

notes, and the bulk of the translation (even misprints included), are bodily, or almost bodily, 
taken by M. Michel from Mr. Coxe's edition. M. Michel makes the most of presenting a more 
correct French text. But when he goes on to state that ' in the English rendering I have striven 
to be literal and to employ the corresponding KngHsh word, when possible, as an equivalent,' 
and even apologizes for want of ' elegance of expression,' one is scarcely prepared to find that 
the translation is absolutely Mr. Coxe's rendering with a few alterations. 

1 Compiled from the map which accompanies a memoir on the battle by M. Saint-Hypolite 
in the Spcctatcur Militaire, vol. xxxvi (1843), P- 685, and which is repeated in Memoires 
de la Societe des Antiquaires de t Quest, annee 1844, p. 76 ; and from a plan by Capt. F. 
Vinet, which is to be found in Baissac's translation of Jamison's Bertram! du Guesclin, 
Paris, 1866. 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 311 

army being on the Poitiers-Chauvigny road, it would naturally march from that 
road as its base. Following Baker, then, we may venture to assume that 
Warwick's division was drawn up facing north, or nearly so, on the western slope 
of the valley just referred to ; and that Salisbury stood on his left rear ; their left 
being protected, as Froissart describes, by entrenchments, traces of which have 
been discovered. As regards the condition of the valley at the period of the 
battle, it is not too much to adopt Baker's description of it as marshy; and, 
although there is now no trace of a stream in it, the ' torrens ' of which our 
chronicle speaks may have been some tiny brook, perhaps not much wider than 
a ditch, yet sufficiently troublesome for the passage of baggage-waggons. At 
all events it is quite clear that Baker cannot be speaking of the Miausson, the 
only stream now laid down near the field. Across the valley is the hill, lying 
behind La Cardinerie, which the prince's division occupied at the opening 
of the battle, and round which the captal de Buch led his men. That the 
prince of Wales, before taking possession of this hill, thought that it was already 
held by the enemy, and that, when he had taken up position there, he was 
' hostibus altior incumbens,' is further proof that the French were approaching 
from the north. 

Page 143, 1. 5. In toto exercitu, etc. Baker's number of 7000, which he says is 
exact, may be accepted. The Bourgeois de Valenciennes (290) puts the English 
at 7000, and the French at 50,000. Froissart (v. 32) is nearly in agreement : 
' Car il [the English] n'estoient, tout compte", non plus de huit mil hommes ; et li 
Francois estoient bien cinquante mil combatans, dont il y avoit plus de trois mil 
chevaliers.' And again (v. 42) he states that ' li Francois estoient bien gens 
d'armes sept centre un ' ; although in the Amiens version, written under French 
influence, he reduces the proportion to ' cinq contre ung.' In all these calcula- 
tions the light armed men, the bidowers, brigands, and others, do not seem to be 
included. 

1. 22. Instigavit coronatum, etc. Le Bel, ii. 197, gives a very good reason for 

dismounting the French troops, which may in fact have had some effect : ' fut 
ordonne que tous se combateroient \ pye, pour la doubtar.ce des archiers qui 
tousjours tuoient leurs chevaulx, comme k la bataille de Cressy.' 

Page 144, 1. I. Cardinalis Petragorisensis. Talleyrand de Perigord, sometime 
bishop of Auxerre, became cardinal in 1331 ; died in 1364. See the account of 
his indefatigable endeavours to prevent the battle, as given in Le Bel and 
Froissart. 

1. 13. Concessit treugas. Le Bel, ii. 198, reports the terms offered by the prince 

as follows: 'Enfin fut tant traittie" que le prince de Galles, s'acordoit de laissier 
toutes les villes et chasteaulx qu'il avoit conquis, et quittier de prison le seigneur 
de Craon et pluseurs aultres prisonniers, mais que le roy Jehan le laissast issir 
hors de son pays ; et avecques ce il crdanteroit qu'il ne seroit arme" jusques a 
sept ans contre le royaume de France.' Froissart repeats this, v. 26, adding that 
he had it from the cardinal's attendants. 



312 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 144, 1. 15. Marescallode Claromonte, etc. Jean de Clermont, seigneur de Chan- 
tilly; marshal in 1352 ; lieutenant of Poitou in 1354 ; killed in this battle. Arnoul 
d'Audrehem, who became marshal in 1351, was one of the defenders of Calais in 
1346-7 ; lieutenant of Picardy in 1355 ; taken prisoner in this battle, when he 
undertook not to fight against the English until ransomed ; but was made prisoner 
again at Najara, and was in danger of being executed, but was acquitted by a jury 
of knights; died in 1370. 

1. 25. Efiiscpporum Senonensis et Chalonensis. Guillaume de Melun, son of 

Jean, vicomte de Melun ; archbishop of Sens in 1346 ; made prisoner in the 
battle of Poitiers ; died in 1378. Renaud Chauveau, bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne 
in 1352 ; killed in the battle of Poitiers. 

Page 148, 1. 29. Willelmusque Dcnvglas, etc. Sir William Douglas, afterwards earl 
Douglas, and his cousin (not brother) Archibald Douglas, natural son of 'the 
good sir James,' are placed by Froissart (Amiens MS.), v. 253, among the cavalry 
under marshal d'Audrehem. But they are also described as fighting in the final 
struggle, v. 271 : 'En une autre routte se combatoient messires Guillaumes, 
comtes de Douglas, d'Escoce, messires Archebaux, ses cousins, et bien deux cens 
de leur compaignie, qui y fissent mainte belle appertisse d'armes.' In the ordinary 
version Froissart says, v. 45 : ' Encores en le bataille dou roy estoit li contes de 
Duglas, d'Escoce, et se combati une espasse asse"s vaillamment ; mes, quant il vei 
que la desconfiture se contournoit dou tout sus les Francois, il se parti et se sauva 
au mieus qu'il peut, car nullement il ne volsist estre pris ne escheus ens es mains 
des Engles : il euist eu plus chier a estre occis sus le place.' 

Page 149, 1. 23. Maiiricius de Berkeleye. See the story of his capture in single 
combat, told by Froissart, v. 48, who calls him the ' sires de Bercler ' ; but the 
exploit of Eustache d'Aubrecicourt (v. 34) more closely resembles Berkeley's feat, 
as here described. 

Page 150, 1. 30. Walterum de Wodelonde. Walter de Wodelond appears in the 
prince's retinue in 1345. Faedera, iii. 47. 

Page 152, 1. 3. Ac rotat ejferus, etc. It is probable that Baker is here translating a 
verse of some ballad or song in honour of the victory. 

Page 153, 1. 28. Inter semivivos, etc. ' Among them which were found halfe dead 
was found the lord James Dawdley, by reason of his broad buckler, and, being 
carried in the armes of his souldiors, was brought to the princes lodging, and the 
prince himselfe rose from his supper, and came to him and caused him to be 
stripped and laid in a soft bed, and being somewhat better com to his remem- 
braunce, the prince comforted him, swearing to him that he had the French king 
yeelded unto him ; which newes when the languishing noble man heard, he 
straightwayes revived. The prince, returning to the French king, willed him not 
to denie that to be a worthie deede of his that rose from his supper to comfort 
him that was almost dead, who spared not his owne blood to purchase victorie. 
After that, they having had some talke concerning the warres which James 



NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 313 

Dawdeley made, the French king said that, amongst all stoute champions which 
valiantly that day behaved themselves, he did greatly wonder at the noble deedes 
of that knight ; and he spake not much more in all his supper but what he spake 
to the prince, who comforted his noble pray. Such like words it is said that 
the French king spake : "Although it be our chance -to fall into an everlasting 
sorow, yet for all that we thought it good to refraine from the same by a kind of 
measure, for, though we be under subjection by law and right of war under our 
noble cousin, yet are we not as rascals or faint hearted runne awayes, or taken 
lying hid close in a corner, but after the manner of the fielde by the ende and 
successe of warre, where we were as ready to dye as live for justice sake." And 
in the same field were many rich men taken, whose lives were reserved for 
ransome, the faint hearted and lewd chased away, but the woorthiest and stoutest 
were spoyled of their lives.' Stow, Annales, 414. It will be noticed that Stow 
does not include the last sentence among the king's words. 

The story of Audley's vow to strike the first stroke in the battle, of his 
desperate charge among the French cavalry, of his wounds, and of the prince's 
care for him, is so well known from Froissart's pages that it needs no repetition. 
But his interview with the prince is there placed immediately before the French 
king was brought in, and consequently there is no record of any words spoken by 
the latter. Baker's simple account rather mars the romance of the supper-scene 
in the French chronicle, in which the prince serves his royal prisoner and 
humbly refuses to sit at his table. 

Page 154, 1. 23. Connumerati sunt captivi. A list of the French killed and prisoners 
was enclosed in the letter announcing the victory from the prince of Wales to the 
bishop of Worcester, printed by Sir N. H. Nicolas, Chronicle of London (1827), 
p. 207 ; another is given by Avesbury, 469 ; and another is found in the letter of 
Bartholomew, lord Burghersh, printed by Coxe, The Black Prince, p. 369. 
Bouchet, Annales d'Acquitaine, also prints a list of the slain who were buried 
in churches at Poitiers, reprinted by Buchon in his edition of Froissart, i. 355. 
The prisoners here named, besides the king and his youngest son Philippe 
le Hardi, are : Guillaume de Melun, archbishop of Sens ; Jacques de Bourbon, 
comte de la Marche et de Ponthieu ; Jean d'Artois, comte d'Eu ; Charles d'Artois, 
comte de Longueville ; Jean de Melun, comte de Tancarville ; Jean de Chalon, 
comte d'Auxerre ; Bernard, comte de Ventadour ; Jean, comte de Sancerre ; 
Henri, sire de Joinville, comte de Vaudemont ; Jean, comte de Vendome ; Jean 
de Noyers, comte de Joigny; Charles de Trie, comte de Dammartin; John, count 
of Saarbruck ; John, count of Nassau ; Aimeri Manrique de Lara vicomte de 
Narbonne ; Louis d'Aubigny ; marshal Arnoul d'Audrehem ; Guichard d' Angle, 
seneschal of Saintogne ; Maurice Mauvinet, seneschal of Touraine ; Renaud de 
Guilhon, seneschal of Poitou ; Juan Fernandez de Heredia, castellan of Amposta 
(here called the grand preceptor or master of the Hospitallers in Spain) ; Geoffroi 
de Saint-Dizier ; Ingerger, sire d'Amboise, seneschal of Auvergne(P); Bertrand, 
sire de la Tour ; Guichard, sire d'Arx ; Bonabes de Rouge", sire de Derval ; 

S s 



314 NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

sire de Ville-Arnoul ; Jean de Maignelais ; Jean de Plaunche, or Blaunche ; 
Louis de Brienne, vicomte de Beaumont ; and Louis, sire de Sully. The 
list sent to the bishop of Worcester adds 1933 'gentz d'armes'; Avesbury, 
' plus qe MM. hommes darmes '; and Burghersh, 'ij. mille v. c. persones, des queux 
furent ij. mille hommes darmes.' 

Page 155, 1. 5. Corpora quoque, etc. The names of the killed, as here given, are : 
Pierre, due de Bourbon ; Gauthier de Brienne, due d'Athenes, constable ; Jean de 
Clermont, marshal ; Geoffroi de Charny, bearer of the oriflamme ; Renaud de 
Pons ; Renaud Chauveau, bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne ; Jean de Mortagne, 
sire de Landas ; Eustache de Ribemont ; Andrd de Chauvigny ; Jean de L'Isle ; 
Guillaume de Nesle ; Jean de Sancerre ; the sire de Montjouan ; the sire 
d'Argenton ; Louis de Chauvigny, vicomte de Brosse ; Robert de Duras ; Jean, 
vicomte de Rochechouart ; Jean de Thil-en-Auxois, sire de Chateau-Vilain. In 
addition, the list sent to the bishop of Worcester declares that 2426 'gentz 
d'armes ' were slain ; Avesbury, ' MM. hommes d'armes et aultres a nombre de 
DCCC. et plusours'; and Burghersh, 'outre ceo furent mortz ij. mille et viij. cent 
persones, des queux furent ij. milles hommes darmes.' 

1. 24. Blayves et Mirabel. Blaye, on the right bank of the Gironde, just 

below the junction of the Garonne and Dordogne ; and Mirambeau, a short 
distance north, between Blaye and Pons. 

1. 27. Neil de Lehereyn, etc. Sir Nigel Loryng, first distinguished at the battle 

of Sluys, and one of the founders of the Garter, who, besides serving in the 
various campaigns, was employed in many diplomatic missions ; died, 1386. Sir 
Roger Cotesford (not Totesford) is named as the bearer of the prince's letter to 
the bishop of Worcester. A certain sir Roger Cotesford, who is probably 
the same person, appears in the Calend. Ing. post Mortem, ii. 349, as tenant of 
lands in Blechesden [Blechingdon], co. Oxon., in 50 Edw. iii. 

1. 28. Nulla tamen pax, etc. These words prove that Baker was writing two 

full years after the battle of Poitiers, that is, late in 1358 ; and some eighteen 
months before the treaty of Brdtigny, which was concluded in May, 1360. 



INDEX. 



Aeheux, in Picardy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 81, 251, 252, 254, 257. 
Agenois, occupied by Charles of Valois, 15. 
Ages: the ages of the world, 157, 174. 
Aids and subsidies, 48, 230 ; 53, 57, 59 ; 62, 

235 ; 67, 2 4i ; 75, 247 ; 7 8 - 

Aiguillon, in Guienne, taken by the English, 
77, 249 ; besieged by the French, 78, 249. 

Airaines, in Picardy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 81, 251, 254, 257. 

Albano, cardinal of. See Aux, Amaud d'. 

Albret, Bernard Ezi, sire d', serves with the 
English in Aquitaine, 77, 249 ; his son aids 
in the defence of Aiguillon, 78 ; his sons 
knighted, 132, 297; he, with others, ap- 
pointed to defend Aquitaine, 140. 

Alenjon, Charles, comte d', slain at Crecy, 
85, 254, 262. 

Alieir [Saint-HHaire ?], in Langnedoc, taken 
by the Black Prince, 135, 295. 

Alzonne, in Languedoc, occupied by the Black 
Prince, 132, 294. 

Amboise, Ingerger, sire d', seneschal of Au- 
vergne, taken prisoner at Poitiers, 15;, 313. 

Amiens, meeting there of Edward ii. and 
Philip iv., 10 ; skirmish at Poissy of troo'ps 
from, with the English, 81, 250, 256, 258. 

Anagni, Boniface viii. made prisoner there, 

1,177- 
Angle, Guichard d', seneschal of Saintogne, 

taken prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Angus, earl of. See Umfreville, Gilbert de. 
Annand, sir David, taken prisoner at Neville's 

Cross, 88, 265. 
Antwerp, Edward iii. lands and is quartered 

there, 61, 62. 
Aquitaine : restored to England, I ; given to 

Edward ii. when prince, 3, 1 79 ceded by 

Edward ii. to his son Edward, 19, 195 ; 

S 



Edward iii. does homage for it, 43, 220; 
tournament in honour of Gascon knights, 
73, 246 ; Lancaster's campaigns in, 77, 78, 
249 ; 108, 277, 278 ; the French defeated by 
the earl of Stafford, 121, 287; the Black 
Prince sent thither, 127, 292; his march 
through, 128-138, 292-298 ; military activity 
of the English, 138, 298 ; new coinage, 139. 

Archebaud, dominus, slain at Calais, 107, 
277. 

Argences, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 80, 250, 256. 

Argentine, sir Giles de, slain at Bannock- 
bum, 8, 171, 189. 

Argenton, sire d', slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 

Argeville, Charles d', taken prisoner in Brit- 
tany, 1 20, 286. 

Argeville (?), Pierre d', taken prisoner at 
Calais, 107", 277. 

Ariege river, in Languedoc, crossed by the 
Black Prince, 131, 294; 135, 295. 

Armagnac, Jean, comte d', takes part in ne- 
gotiations, 90, 267 ; anger of the Black 
Prince against him, and his county in- 
vaded, 128, 292; quartered at Toulouse, 
I 3 I , 297; accused of cowardice, 138, 298. 

Arouille, in Gascony, surrendered to the Black 
Prince, 129, 293. 

Artois, Charles d', comte de Longueville, 
taken prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 

Aftois, Jean d', comte d'Eu, taken prisoner 
at Poitiers, 154, 313. 

Artois, Robert, comte d', accompanies Edward 
iii. to Flanders, 70. 

Arundel, earls of. See JPitz-Alan, Edmund ; 
Fitz-Alan, Richard. 

Arx, Guichard, sire d', taken prisoner at Poi- 
tiers, 155, 313. 

Athenes, due d'. See Brienne, Gauthier de. 



S 2 



316 



INDEX. 



Atholl, earl of. See Strathbogie, David. 

Aubert, Etienne, cardinal, attempts to inter- 
cede with Edward iii. at Lisieux, 80, 250, 
253, 258 ; and at Elbeuf, 253. 

Aubian, near Narbonne, occupied by the 
Black Prince, 134, 295. 

Aubigny, Louis d', taken prisoner at Poitiers, 

IS4.3I3- 

Aucle river, in Languedoc, crossed by the 
Black Prince, 134, 295. 

Audley, Hugh de (the elder), baron, submits 
to the king, and is sent prisoner to Walling- 
ford, 12, 172. 

Audley, Hugh de (the younger) , baron, created 
earl of Gloucester, 59, 173, 234; sent back 
to England from Flanders, 70 ; included in 
the list of those present in the sea-fight off 
Winchelsea [but then dead], 109, 281. 

Audley, sir James, skirmishes with the French, 
136, 298; accompanies the Black Prince 
into Poitou, 140; wounded at Poitiers and 
tended by the prince, 153, 154, 312, 313. 

Audrehem, Arnoul d', marshal of France, 
opposes mediation before the battle of Poi- 
tiers, 144, 301, 312; leads the attack, 147, 
302, 308 ; made prisoner, 148, 154, 309, 
313. 

Aumale, comte d'. See Hareourt, Jean de, 

Aunay, Philippe d', accused of adultery with 
the queen of France, 37. 

Aurade", in Gascony, taken and burnt by the 
Black Prince, 137, 295. 

Aurimont, in Gascony, skirmish near, 137, 
296 occupied by the Black Prince, ibid. 

Auterive, in Languedoc, passed on his march 
by the Black Prince, 135, 295. 

Auteuil, Isle of France, Edward iii. marches 
through, 81, 251, 252, 254, 256. 

Aux, Arnaud d', cardinal bishop of Albano, 
envoy to England, 6, 185. 

Auxerre, comte d'. See Chalon, Jean de. 

Avignonet, in Languedoc, taken by the Black 
Prince, 132, 294. 

Avranches, bishop of. See Hautfrine, Jean, 

Ayollpuhbone. See Pechluna. 

Azille, in Languedoc, taken by the Black 
Prince, 134, 295. 



Badlesmere, Bartholomew de, baron, declares 
against the Despensers, 1 1 ; attempts to stay 
the siege of his castle of Leeds, 1 2 ; members 



of his family made prisoners, 12, 190; he is 

executed, 171. 
Bailleul, Gauvain de, taken prisoner at Calais, 

107, 277. 
Baker, Geoffrey le, his shorter chronicle 

written at request of sir T. de la More, 

1 73- 

Baldock, Robert, chancellor, interferes in the 
matter of homage for Aquitaine, 1 5 ; accom- 
panies Edward ii. in his flight, 22, 196; 
taken prisoner, 25 ; his ill-treatment and 
death, 26, 202. 

Balliol, Edward, his expedition to Scotland, 
49, 230 ; defeats the Scots at Kinghorn and 
Dupplin moor, ibid. ; takes Perth, ibid. See 
Scotland. 

Bamborough castle, co. Northumb., Gaveston 
placed there for safety, 4, 181. 

Bannoekburn, battle of, 7-9, 171, 185-188. 

Banquilo [Boucicaut P], Robert de, taken 
prisoner at Calais, 107, 277. 

Barfleur, in Normandy, burnt by the English, 
80, 250, 255. 

Basset of Drayton, Ralph, baron, knighted, 
132, 294. 

Bassoues, in Gascony, taken by the Black 
Prince, 130, 294. 

Baston, Robert, Carmelite, his poem on the 
battle of Bannoekburn, 7, 186, 187. 

Bateman, William, bishop of Norwich, envoy 
in negotiations with France, 98, 269 ; loo, 
271; 124, 290; candidate for cardinalate, 
112, 281 ; his death, 125. 

Bath and Wells, bishops of. See Drokenes- 
ford, John de ; Shrewsbury, Ralph de. 

Bayeux, in Normandy, submits to Edward iii. 
253- 

Bazas, in Guienne, halting-place of the Black 
Prince, 128, 293. 

Baziege, in Languedoc, traversed by the Black 
Prince, 132, 294. 

Beauehamp, Ela de, countess of Warwick, 
buried at Osney, 169. 

Beauehamp, sir Giles de, accompanies Ed- 
ward iii. from Flanders, 72. 

Beauehamp, Guy de, earl of \Varwick, takes 
Gaveston prisoner, 5, 170, 182, 183. 

Beauehamp, sir John de, afterwards baron, 
accompanies Edward iii. from Flanders, 72 ; 
assists at the foundation of the Garter, 109, 
278 ; as captain of Calais, defeated and taken 
prisoner, 115, 116, 284. 



INDEX. 



317 



Beauohamp of Haehe, John de, baron, serves 
in Aquitaine, 129, 297. 

Beauchamp, Thomas de, earl of Warwick, 
takes part in the Crecy campaign, 79, 249 ; 
at Calais, 98 ; assists at the foundation of 
the Garter, 109, 278 ; in the sea-fight with 
the Spaniards, 109, 280 ; serves in Aqui- 
taine, 127, 129, 296; commands the van- 
guard at the battle of Poitiers, 143, 147, 300, 
302, 306; his prowess, 148, 303. 

Beaujeu, Edouard, sire de, marshal of France, 
slain, 115, i if), 284. 

Beaumarchez, in Gascony, passed on his 
march by the Black Prince, 130, 294. 

Beaumont, vicomte de. See Brienne, Louis 
de. 

Beaumont, Henry de, baron, joins the Lan- 
castrian party, 42, 218, 220; joins Edward 
Balliol's expedition to Scotland, 49, 173; 
deputy to excuse delay of Balliol's homage, 
53; besieged in Scotland, 56, 233. 

Beauville, sire de, envoy to England, 15, 193. 

Beche, Nicholas de la, constable of the Tower, 
removed and imprisoned, 72, 246. 

Bedford, submission of the earl of Lancaster 
there, 42, 218, 220. 

Benedict xi. and xii. popes. See Rome. 

Benhale, sir Robert de, slays a Scottish 
champion at Halidon Hill, 51, 232. 

Beutley, sir Walter, defeats the French near 
Mauron, 120, 286. 

Berdoues monastery, in Gascony, halting- 
place of the Black Prince, 1 30, 294. 

Bereford, sir Simon de, executed, 48. 

Berefort, Jartekin de, knighted, 129. 

Bergerac, in Perigord, ' camera Francorum,' 
taken by the English, 77, 249. 

Berkeley, co. Gloucester, Edward ii. removed 
to the castle, 30, 31, 209; murdered there, 
33, 172, 210, 211. 

Berkeley, James de, elected bishop of Exeter, 
35 ; his death, ibid. 

Berkeley, Maurice de, baron, declares against 
the Despensers, 1 1 ; submits and is sent 
prisoner to Wallingford, 12, 172. 

Berkeley, sir Maurice de [afterwards baron], 
serves in Aquitaine, 1 29, 297 ; his prowess 
at Poitiers, and is made prisoner, 149, 304, 

3". 

Berkeley, Thomas de, baron, receives charge 
of Edward ii. 33, 210; later proceedings 
against him, 211. 



Bertrand, obert, baron de Briquebecq, mar- 
shal of France, slain at Crecy, 85, 262. 

Berwick, taken by Bruce, 10 ; marriage of 
David Bruce there, 40 ; besieged and taken 
by the English, 50-52, 173, 231, 232 ; taken 
by the Scots, 126, 291 ; retaken, ibid. 

Beverley, co. York, pays ransom to the Scots, 

IS- 

Bicknor, Alexander, archbishop of Dublin, 

joins queen Isabella, 21, 196. 

Birmingham, sir John de, defeats Edward 
Bruce in Ireland, 9, 189. 

Biron, Aimed de, sire de Montferrand, serves 
in Aquitaine, 129, 297; takes prisoners at 
Plaisance, 130. 

' Black Cog,' an English ship, recaptured at 
Sluys, 69, 235, 243. 

Black Death, the, outbreak in France, 92 ; its 
ravages in England and neighbouring coun- 
tries, 98-100, 269-271. 

Blaokmoor forest, co. York, Edward ii. de- 
feated there by the Scots, 14, 193. 

Blaye, in Guienne, proposed as a place for 
peace negotiations, 155, 314. 

Bliton, Richard, Carmelite, implicated in 
Kent's plot, 44, 225. 

Blois, comte de. See Chatillon, Louis de. 

Blois, Charles of. See Charles of Blois. 

Blount, sir Thomas, seneschal of Edward ii., 
breaks his staff of office, 28. 

Bohemia, John, king of, mediates for the 
earls of Salisbury and Suffolk, 68, 242 ; at the 
battle of Crecy, 81, 82, 251, 259, 260; slain, 
85, 254, 262 ; his funeral, 85, 86, 262. 

Bohun, Edward de, joins in the plot against 
Mortimer, 46, 229; drowned, 57, 233. 

Bohun, Humphrey de, e.\rl of Hereford, takes, 
part in Gaveston's execution, 5, 170; taken 
prisoner at Bannockburn, 8, 171, 189; de- 
clares against the Despensers, 1 1 ; accom- 
panies the Lancastrians to the north, 12; 
defeated at Burton-on-Trent, 13, 190 ; his 
loyalty to his party, 13; slain at Borough- 
bridge, 14, 171. 

Bohun, William de, created earl of North- 
ampton, 58, 173, 234; sent with wool to 
Brabant, 59 ; accompanies Edward iii. from 
Flanders, 72 ; sent with an expedition to 
Brittany, 76, 248 ; defeats Charles of Blois 
at Morlaix, 76, 77, 248 ; returns to England, 
79, 249 ; takes part in the Crecy campaign, 
ibid, defeats attempts of the French to 



318 



INDEX. 



victual Calais, 90, 266; takes part in ne- 
gotiations, 90 ; attacks the rear of the French, 
91, 267; envoy to extend the truce, 100, 
271 ; assists at the foundation of the Garter, 
109; in the sea-fight with the Spaniards, 
109, 280 ; makes an incursion into Scotland, 

123, 289. 

Boniface viii., pope. See Rome. 
Bordeaux, the Black Prince there, 127, 128, 

292, 293 ; the mayor of, with the Black 

Prince in his march to Narbonne, 129, 

297. 
Boroughbridge, co. York, defeat of the rebel 

barons, 13, 171. 
Boston, co. Lincoln, plundered and partly 

burnt, 169. 
Boteler, James le, created earl of Ormond, 

42. 
Boteler, sir William le, of Northbourne, slain 

at Sluys, 69, 243, 245. 
Boucicaut, Jean (le Meingre), taken prisoner 

at Romorantin, 141, 299. 
Bouillonao, in Languedoc, passed on his 

march by the Black Prince, 133, 294. 
Boulbonne monastery, in Languedoc, passed 

on his march by the Black Prince, 135, 295. 
Boulogne, in Picardy, shipping and stores 

destroyed by sailors of the Cinque Ports, 

67 ; -the people of, attempt to victual Calais, 

90, 266 ; English envoys sent thither, 98 ; 

attacked by the duke of Lancaster, 114. 
Boulogne, Guidon de, cardinal, envoy to 

mediate between England and France, 123, 

124, 289. 

Bourbon, Jacques de, comte de la Marche et 
de Ponthieu, constable of France, quartered 
at Montauban, 131, 294 ; quarrels with the 
comte d'Armagnac, 138, 298 ; taken prisoner 
at Poitiers, 154, 313. 

Bourbon, Pierre, due de, envoy in negotia- 
tions with England, 90, 266; 98; 124, 290; 
slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 

Bourchier, John, baron, serves in Aquitaine, 
129, 297. 

Bourchier, sir Robert, appointed chancellor, 
73, 24 6 - 

Boyd, sir Thomas, slain at Neville's Cross, 
89, 265. 

Boys, sir Humphrey, slain at Neville's Cross, 
89, 265- 

Brabant : English wool sent thither, 59 ; 
Edward iii.'s expedition to, 61, 23 j; the 



Brabanters unwilling to continue the cam- 
paign, 65, 239. 

Brabant, John iii., duke of, in alliance with 
Edward iii., 90; [miscalled duke of Bur- 
gundy] joins in the siege of Tonmay, 70 ; 
unwilling to continue the campaign,. 71. 

Bradwardin, Thomas, consecrated archbishop 
of Canterbury and dies, 98, 108. 

Branketre, sir John de, taken prisoner by the 
Scots, 126, 292. 

Brechin castle, co. Forfar, taken by Ed- 
ward i., I. 

Brechin, Adam, bishop of [miscalled, of 
Glasgow], envoy to England, 96, 269. 

Brest, relieved by the English, 76, 248, 249. 

Bretagne, Isold de, 133, 297. 

Bridgnorth, co. Salop, Edward ii. storms 
the castle, 12. 

Brienue, Gauthier de, due d'Athenes, con- 
stable of France, envoy in negotiations with 
England, 90, 98, 266; slain at Poitiers, 155, 

3H- 

Brienne, Louis de, vicomte de Beaumont, 
taken prisoner at Poitiers, 155, 314. 

Brienne, Raoul de, comte d'Eu, constable of 
France, taken prisoner at Caen, So, 250, 
2 53, 2 57 > sa'd to have assisted in the truce 
after the fall of Calais, 92, 268 ; at a tour- 
nament at Windsor, 101 ; executed, 113, 
114, 283. 

Brionne, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 80, 250, 256. 

Briquebecq, baron de. See Bertrand, 
Robert. 

Briquebeeq, sire de, son of marshal Bertrand, 
taken prisoner in Brittany, 120, 286. 

Bristol, held by the elder Despenser, 22 ; he 
and the earl of Arundel executed there, 172 ; 
Edward ii. removed thither, 30, 31, 209; 
the Black Death there, 99, 270. 

Brittany : expedition thither, 76, 77, 247- 
249; defeat of Charles of Blois, 76, 77, 
248 ; invaded by the French, 101 ; death of 
sir T. Dagworth, 101, 272 ; victory of sir 
W. Bentley, 120, 286; the duke of Lan- 
caster appointed captain, and marches 
thither, 139. 

dukes of. See Dreur, Arthur de ; Dreux, 
John de ; Montfort, John de. 

Brosse, vicomte de. See Chauvigny, Louis 
de. 

Bruce, David. See Scotland. 



INDEX. 



Bruce, Edward, his expedition to Ireland, 9, 
189. 

Bruce, Robert, English by birth, 2, 38, 178; 
slays Comyn and is crowned king of Scot- 
land, 170. See Scotland. 

Bruce, Robert, son of Robert Bruce, de- 
feated with the Scots at Kinghorn, 49. 

Bruges, in Flanders, occupied by Louis de 
Male, 102, 272. 

Brute chronicle, its origin, 183. 

Buch, captal de. See Grailly, Jean de. 

Burghersh or Burwash, Bartholomew de, 
baron, serves in Aquitaine, 108, 278; 129, 
297; in a skirmish, 136, 298. 

Burghersh or Burwash, Henry de, bishop 
of Lincoln, enemy of the Despensers, 17, 
194 ; his plots with the queen, 19, 20 ; joins 
her army, 21 ; with the deputation to Ed- 
ward ii. on his abdication, 27, 204, 205; 
dies at Ghent, 72, 73. 

Burgundy, marshal of, taken prisoner at La 
Chaboterie, 142, 300. 

Burton-on-Trent, co. Stafford, defeat of rebel 
barons at, 13, 190. 

Burton, sir William, taken prisoner at sea, 
89, 266. 

Bury, Richard de, made bishop of Durham, 
55; envoy to France, 61, 235; proceeds to 
Arras, 62. 



Cadzand, island of, attack on, 60, 235. 

Caen, taken by the English, 80, 250, 252, 253, 
2 56, 257 ; the abbess of the Abbe aux Dames 
taken prisoner, 80, 257. 

Cahors, Raoul de, attacks and slays sir T. 
Dagworth, 101, 372. 

Cairou, or Le Gueron, in Normandy, Edward 
iii. marches through, 80, 250, 256. 

Calais, besieged by Edward iii., 86, 253, 255, 
257 ; progress of the siege, 89-91, 265-268 ; 
its surrender, 91, 267 ; removal of inhabit- 
ants to Guines, 92; fortified, 96; lord Mont- 
gomery made captain, 96, 268 ; truce re- 
newed there, 98, 269 ; attempt by the French 
to surprise it, 103-107, 273-277 ; raids 
thence into France, 114, 115, 283; defeat 
of part of the garrison, 115, 116, 284; the 
French make a fort to threaten it, which is 
destroyed, 119. 

Calmont, in I-anguedoc, traversed by the 
Black Prince, 135, 295. 



Cambresis, laid waste by Edward iii., 65, 
238. 

Camps-en-Amienois, Edward iii. marches 
through, 252, 254, 257. 

Canet, in Languedoc, occupied by the Black 
Prince, 133, 295. 

Cantelupe, Nicholas de, baron, accompanies 
Edward iii. from Flanders, 72 ; entertains 
the king at the festival of the translation of 
T. de Cantelupe, 102, 272. 

Cantelupe, Thomas de, bishop of Hereford, 
festival of his translation, 102, 272. 

Canterbury, a ship of the prior of Christ 
Church fights at Sluys, 69, 242. 

Canterbury, archbishops of, succession, 162- 
164. See Bradwardin, Thomas ; Islip, 
Simon ; Mepham, Simon ; Offord, John 
dej Reynolds, Walter; Stratford, John. 

Carbonne, in Languedoc, taken by the Black 
Prince, 136, 295. 

Carcassonne, taken and burnt by the Black 
Prince, 132, 133, 294. 

Cardinals, creation of, 112, 281. 

Carentan, in Normandy, occupied by Edward 
iii., 80, 250, 252, 253, 255. 

Carlisle, bishop of. See Kirkeby, John. 

Carmelites, foundation of a Carmelite monas- 
tery at Oxford, 9, 189 ; the provincial of 
England implicated in Kent's plot, 44, 
225. 

Castel-Jaloux, in Gascony, traversed by the 
Black Prince, 138, 296. 

Castelnau, in Gascony, traversed by the Black 
Prince, 128, 293. 

Castelnaudary, in Languedoc, taken by the 
Black Prince and burnt, 132, 294. 

Castets-en-Dorthe, in Guienne, halting-place, 
of the Black Prince, 128, 293. 

Castillo : Pedro, son of Alphonso xi., be- 
trothed to Joan of Woodstock, 97, 269 ; 
English ships taken by Spaniards, 109, 280 ; 
defeat of Spanish ships off Winchelsea, 109- 
m, 280, 281 ; truce with England, 116, 
284. 

Caumont, Jean, sire de, serves in Aquitaine, 
129, 297. 

Cayeu, Jean de, slain at Crecy, 85, 254, 262. 

Ceccano, Annibale, archbishop of Naples, 
attempts to mediate with Edward iii. at 
Lisieux, 80, 250, 253 ; and at Elbeuf, 253. 

Celymont, near Gimont, in Gascony, taken 
by the Black Prince, 137, 296. 



320 



INDEX. 



Cerda, Charles de la (Charles of Spain), assass- 
inated, 125, 290. 

Chaboterie, La, near Poitiers, skirmish there, 
142, 300. 

Chalon, Jean de (i.), comte d'Auxerre, slain 
at Crecy, 85, 254, 362. 

Chalon, Jean de (ii.), comte d'Auxerre, taken 
prisoner at La Chaboterie, 142, 154, 300, 

3I3- 

Chalons-sur-Marne, bishop of. See Chau- 
veau, Renaud. 

Chambly, Philippe (Grismouton) de, skir- 
mishes with the Black Prince. 140, 299. 

Chandos, sir John, in a skirmish with the 
French, 136, 298; accompanies the Black 
Prince into Poitou, 140. 

Charles iv. of France. See France. 

Charles, duke of Normandy and dauphin, 
afterwards Charles v., leads the second line 
at Poitiers, 149, 303, 308, 309. 

Charles of Blois, pretender to the duchy of 
Brittany, defeated at Morlaix, 76, 248 ; a 
prisoner in the Tower, 96, 268 ; at a tourna- 
ment at Windsor, 101. 

Charles of Luxemburg, emperor elect, ac- 
companies the king of France to relieve 
Calais, 90. 

Charles of Valois, present at Edward ii.'s 
coronation, 4, 181 ; occupies Ponthieu and 
Agenois, 15 ; his conspiracy and manner of 
his death, 36, 37, 38, 214. 

Charlton, Thomas de, made bishop of Here- 
ford, 42. 

Charny, Geoffroi de, envoy to extend the truce 
with England, 98, 269 ; attempts to surprise 
Calais, 103-107, 273-277 ; he and his son 
taken prisoners, 107, 276 ; ransomed arid 
employed on a fort to threaten Calais, 119, 
286; envoy to negotiate peace, 124, 290; 
opposes mediation before the battle of 
Poitiers, 144, 301 ; slain, 155, 314. 

Charterhouse, in London, founded by sir W. 
Manny, 99, 271. 

Chateau- Vilain, sire de. See Thil-en- Auxois, 
Jean de. 

Chatillon, Louis de, comte de Blois, slain at 
Crecy, 86, 254, 262. 

Chauveau, Renaud, bishop of Chalons-sur- 
Marne, present at the battle of Poitiers, 144, 
312; slain, 155,314. 

Chauvigny, Andr de, slain at Poitiers, 155, 
3I4- 



Chauvigny, Louis de, vicomte de Brosse, slain 

at Poitiers, 155, 314. 
Chepstow, co. Monmouth, Edward ii. flees 

thither, 22, 196. 

Chiohester, bishop of. See Stratford, Robert. 
Chipping-Norton, co. Oxon., monster found 

there, 108. 
'Christopher,' an English ship, re-taken at 

Sluys, 69, 235, 243. 
Chronicles: events from the Creation, 158; 

notes of sacred and ecclesiastical history from 

the birth of Christ, 158-164. 
Cinque-Ports, sailors of, destroy shipping at 

Boulogne, 67. 
Cintegabelle, in Languedoc, passed on his 

march by the Black Prince, 135, 295. 
Clare, Gilbert de, 8th earl of Gloucester, slain 

at Bannockburn, 8, 171, 188. 
Clare, Margaret de, daughter of Gilbert, 7th 

earl of Gloucester, married to Piers Gaveston, 

4, 170. 
Clarendon, co. Wilts, Edward iii. hunts there, 

101. 
Clavering, John de, baron, taken prisoner at 

Bannockburn, 8, 171, 189. 
Clemence of Hungary, wife of Louis x. of 

France, 37. 

Clement vi., pope. See Home. 
Clermont, cardinal of. See Aubert, Etienne. 
Clermont, Jean de, marshal of France, in 

favour of mediation before the battle of 

Poitiers, 144, 312; leads the attack, 147, 302, 

308 ; slain, 148, 155, 303, 309, 314. 
Clifford, Robert de, baron, slain at Bannock- 
burn, 8, 171, r88. 
Clifford, Roger de, afterwards baron, serves in 

Aquitaine, 129, 297. 

Clinton, William de, created earl of Hunting- 
don, 59, 173, 234 ; at the battle of Sluys, 69, 

242 ; sent back to England from Flanders, 

70; takes part in the Crecy campaign, 79, 

249; and in negotiations, 90 ; in the sea-fight 

off Winchelsea, 109, 280. 
Clisteles [Ghistelles?], lord of, dies of the 

Black Death, 99, 271. 
Cobharn, sir Reginald de, afterwards baron, 

accompanies Edward iii. from Flanders, 72 ; 

serves in Aquitaine, T 29, 296. 
Cobham, Thomas de, bishop of Worcester, 

his death, 42. 
Coblentz, meeting there of Edward iii. with 

the emperor, 62, 235. 



INDEX. 



331 



CoStmen, vicomte de, taken prisoner in 

Brittany, 120, 286. 
Coeyghem, Geoffroi de, taken prisoner in 

Brittany, 120, 286. 
Colgny, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 253, 255. 
Coinage : gold coinage of nobles, 75, 247 ; 

adjustment, and new silver pieces, 116, 284; 

new coinage in Aquitaine, 139. 
Coke, sir Thomas, sent against pirates, 121, 

287. 
Comigne, in Languedoc, taken by the Black 

Prince, 134, 295. 
Comyn, John, slain, 3, 170. 
Convocation, sessions of, 53, 59, 62. 
Corbie, abbat of. See Vers, Hugues de. 
Corf castle, co. Dorset, Edward ii. removed 

thither, 30 ; partly the scene of Kent's plot, 

43, 220-222. 

Cormolain, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 80, 250, 253, 255. 
Cornwall, county of, the coast attacked by the 

French, 63, 237. 
Cornwall, duke of. See Edward, prince of 

Wales. 
Cornwall, earls of. See Gaveston, Piers; 

John of Eltham. 
Cotesford, sir Roger, sent home with news of 

the Poitiers campaign, 155, 314. 
Councils, provincial, 12, 43, 220. 
Coupland, John de, takes David Bruce prisoner, 

88, 263, 265. 

Courteuay, Hugh (i.), earl of Devon, beats off 

a French attack, 64, 237. 
Courtenay, Hugh (ii.), earl of Devon, serves 

in Aquitaine, 77, 249. 
Coventry, bishops of. See Lichfleld and 

Coventry. 
Crabbe, John, sent in pursuit of the French at 

Sluys, 69, 243, 244. 
Craon, Amauri de, taken prisoner at Romor- 

antin, 141, 299. 
Crawford, sir John, slain at Neville's Cross, 

89, 265. 

Creation, the, account of, 156, 157. 

CrScy, battle of, 81-85, 251-254, 257, 259-262 

Croix-Falgarde, La, in Languedoc, taken by 

the Black Prince, 131, 294. 
Crotoy, Le, in Picardy, taken by the English, 

81, 251, 257. 
Crusade, proposed by Edward iii. to Philip of 

Valois, 53, 55, 233. 



Dagworth, sir Thomas, slain in Brittany, 101, 

102, 272. 

Bale, Theodoric, knighted, 134. 
Dammartin, comte de. See Trie, Charles de. 
D'Amory, Roger, baron, declares against 

the Despensers, 1 1 ; joins the Lancastrians, 

12. 

Dancaster, John de, takes the castle of Guines, 
116-118, 284-286. 

Dartford, co. Kent, tournament there, 48, 230. 

Daune, Philip. See Aunay, Philippe d'. 

Daveys, Roland, knighted, 133, 297. 

David fil. Robert fil. Kenneth, taken prisoner 
at Neville's ross, 88, 265. 

Dearth: in 1315-16 in England, 9; failure, in 
I 35 2 < ofharvest, 122, 289. 

Deddington, co. Oxon., Gaveston made pri- 
soner there, 5, 170, 182. 

Derby, earl of. See Plantagenet, Henry. 

Derval, sire de. See HougS, Bonabes de. 

Despenser, Hugh (the elder), baron, his 
character and indulgence of his son, 6, 7 > 
confederacy against him, 10, 11 ; his lands 
laid waste, ii, 190; banished, ibid.; the 
sentence reversed, 12, 190; made earl of 
Winchester, 14; enmity against him, 16-18; 
opposes the journey of Edward ii. to France, 
18, 194 ; accompanies the king in his flight, 
22, 196 ; placed in command of Bristol, 22 ; 
executed, 24, 172, 199. 

Despenser, Hugh (the younger), made 
chamberlain, 6, 185 ; his character, 7; con- 
federation against him, 10, n ; his lands laid 
waste, ii, 190; banished, ibid. ; the sentence 
reversed, 12, 190 ; interferes in the matter of 
homage for Aquitaine, 15 ; styled earl of 
Gloucester, 16; enmity against him, 16-18; 
opposes the journey of Edward ii. to France, 
1 8, 194 ; accompanies the king in his flight, 
22, 196; taken prisoner and executed, 25, 
172, 200, 201. 

Despenser, Hugh (iii.), in an expedition to 
Brittany, 76, 248 ; at the passage of the 
Somme, 81 ; takes Le Crotoy, 259. 

Deverel, John, executed, 48; said to have 
known particulars of Edward ii.'s murder, 
ibid. 

Devon, county of, the coasts attacked by the 
French, 64, 237. 

Devon, earls of. See Courtenay, Hugh. 

Dominicans : the provincial in England im- 
plicated in the earl of Kent's plot, 44. 



T t 



333 



INDEX. 



Dorset, cotmty of, the Black Death first 

appears there, 99, 270. 
Douglas, Archibald, at the battle of Poitiers, 

'48, 33. 3". 
Douglas, sir James, his scornful words of 

David Bruce, 40 ; his death, 41, 216 ; Bruce's 

dying charge to him, 41, 42. 
Douglas, sir John, taken prisoner at Neville's 

Cross, 88, 265. 
Douglas, sir William (the knight of Liddesdale), 

taken prisoner at Neville's Cross, 88, 265 ; 

makes his peace with Edward iii., 96, 269 ; 

his death, ibid. 
Douglas, sir William, afterwards earl, his 

advice to the French at Poitiers, 143, 300 ; 

opposes mediation, 144, 301 ; in the first 

attack, 147, 302 ; escapes wounded, 148, 303, 

312. 
Douve river, in Normandy, crossed by Edward 

iii., 80, 250, 255. 

Dover, threatened by the French, 63, 237. 
Dragon standard, unfurled at Crecy, 83, 251. 
Dreux, Arthur de, duke of Brittany and earl of 

Richmond, present at Edward ii.'s coronation, 

4- 
Dreux, John (i.) de, earl of Richmond, taken 

prisoner by the Scots, 14. 
Dreux, John (ii.) de, duke of Brittany, does 

homage for the earldom of Richmond, 53. 
Drokenesford, John de, bishop of Bath and 

Wells, his death, 45. 

Dublin, Archbishop of. See Bioknor, Alex- 
ander. 

Du Bois, Henri, slain at Calais, 107, 277. 
Dumfries, Comyn slain there, 3, 170. 
Dunbar, reference to the siege of, 52, 232. 
Dunbar, Patrick, earl of Dunbar and March, 

surrenders Berwick, 52 ; does homage to 

Edward iii., ibid. ; escapes from the battle 

of Neville's Cross, 88, 263, 265. 
Dunfermline, abbat of, envoy to England, q6, 

269. 
Dunquerque, in Flanders, negotiations there 

of Edward iii. and the count of Flanders, 98, 

269. 

Dunstable, co. Bedford, tournament there, 75. 
Duplessis, Guillaume, takes part in seizing 

Boniface viii., i, 177. 

Dupplin moor, co. Perth, battle of, 49, 230. 
Duranville, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 252, 256. 
Duras, Robert de, slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 



Durham, the country around wasted by the 

Scots, 87, 263. 
Durham, bishops of, See Bury, Richard de ; 

Hatfleld, Thomas de. 

Edingdou, William, bishop of Winchester, at 
Calais with the king, 98 ; officiates at the 
foundation of the Garter, 109, 278. 

Edmund of "Woodstock, earl of Kent, holds 
La Reole, 15 ; makes a truce, 15, 193; his 
plot for restoration of Edward ii., 43, 44, 
220-225; beheaded at Winchester, 44, 172, 
221, 224, 225 ; his death little regretted, 44, 

221. 

Edward i., ii., iii. See England. 

Edward, prince of Wales, the Black Prince, 
his birth, 45, 48 ; created duke of Cornwall, 
58, 173, 234; as guardian of the kingdom, 
holds a parliament, 62, 235 ; knighted at La 
Hougue and made prince of Wales [in 1343], 
79, 250, 253 ; commands the vanguard at 
Crecy, 82, 251, 259; his prowess, 84, 251, 
260, 261 ; accompanies the king to Calais, 
98 ; takes part in the defence of Calais against 
surprise, 104, 107, 273, 275 ; assists at the 
foundation of the Garter, 109, 278 ; in the 
sea-fight off Winchelsea, 109, 280; G. 
Visconti given captive to him, 113, 282; 
prepares to invade France, 125; lands at 
Bordeaux, 127, 292; determines to punish 
the count of Armagnac, 127, 128, 292 ; diary 
of his march to Narbonne and back, 1 28-138, 
292-298 ; coins gold for Aquitaine, 139 ; 
marches into Poitou, 140; skirmishes with 
Grismouton, 140, 299 ; takes Romorantin, 
141, 299; advances to Tours, 142, 299; 
follows the French army and attacks the 
rear, 142, 299, 300; defeats the French in 
the battle of Poitiers, 143-153, 300-311; 
number of his troops, 143, 300, 311; accepts 
the mediation of cardinal Perigood, 144, 301, 
311; addresses his troops, 145, 146,301,302; 
his prowess, 151, 152, 305 ; tends the 
wounded sir J. Audley, 154, 312 ; sends 
home despatches, 155, 314. 

Eland, sir Robert, warden of Nottingham 
castle, joins the plot against Mortimer, 46, 
227, 228. 

Elbeuf, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 80, 250, 252, 253, 256. 

Elms, at Tyburn, London, Mortimer executed 
there, 47. 



INDEX. 



323 



Ely, bishop of. See Hotham, John. 
England: brief chronology, 1065-1337, of 
succession of kings and other events, 164-1 73. 

Edward i. : his campaign in 1 303 in Scot- 
land, i, 177 ; peace with France, I ; reduces 
Stirling castle, 2, 177 ; keeps Christmas 1304 
at Lincoln, a ; issues commission of trail- 
baston, 2, 177; knights his son Edward and 
gives him Aquitaine, 3, 1 70, 1 79 ; advances 
to invade Scotland, 3 ; his death and burial, 

3. i? - 

Edward ii. : knighted and made duke of 
Aquitaine, 3, 170, 179; accession, marriage, 
and coronation, ibid. ; recalls Gaveston, 4, 
170; persons present at his coronation, 4, 181; 
birth of his son Edward, 6 ; mourns the death 
of Gaveston, ibid. ; defeated at Bannockburn, 
7-9, 171, 185-188; vows and founds a 
Carmelite monastery at Oxford, 9, 189 ; 
makes peace with the earl of Lancaster, 10, 
189; invades Scotland, 10; the Scots ravage 
the north of England, ibid. ; Edward visits 
France and receives back Ponthieu, 10, 190; 
confederation against the Despensers, 10, n, 
190; queen Isabella refused admission to 
Leeds castle, 1 1, 190 ; Edward reduces it, n, 
12, 1 90 ; marches west in pursuit of the 
rebel barons, 12, 190; defeats them at 
Burton-on-Trent, 13, 1 90 ; and at Borough- 
bridge, 13, 14, 171 ; executions, 14, 1711 
190-193 ; he invades Scotland, 14 ; defeated 
at Blackmoor forest, 14, 193; makes truce, 
'Si '93 ! summoned to do homage for Aqui- 
taine, ibid. ; English possessions in France 
invaded, 15; truce in Aquitaine, 15, 193; 
hostility of the queen to the Despensers, 17, 
18 ; she goes to France to treat for peace, 
18, 172, 194, 195; Edward awaits negotia- 
tions in Kent, 18 ; he transfers Aquitaine and 
Ponthieu to his son, 19, 195 ; prince Edward 
goes to France, 20 ; the king summons his 
wife and son to return, 20, 195 ; they retire 
to Hainault, 20 ; the prince betrothed to 
Philippa of Hainault, ibid.; the queen gathers 
forces, 21, 172 ; she lands in Suffolk, 21, 172, 
195 ; false reports in her favour, 21, 22, 196; 
Edward escapes to the west, 22, 196; he 
attempts to reach Lundy isle, ibid. ; takes 
refuge at Neath abbey, 23, 197 ; the queen 
advances to Oxford, ibid. ; and to Gloucester, 
23 ; general anarchy, 24 ; the queen takes 
Bristol, 24, 199; advances to Hereford, 25 ; 

T t 



Edward taken prisoner and sent to Kenil- 
worth, 25, 199, 200; proceedings to procure 
his abdication, 26-28, 172, 203-206; homage 
to him renounced, 28, 205, 206; dower 
allowed to the queen, 28 ; allowance for the 
king, ibid. ; his grief, 29, 208 ; the queen's 
fears, 29, 206-208 ; the king removed from 
Lancaster's custody, 29, 208 ; his brutal 
treatment, 30, 31, 208-2:0; the queen's 
alarm, and his death determined on, 31, 209 ; 
his murder, 33, 172, 210, 211 ; he is buried 
at Gloucester, 172 ; punishment of his mur- 
derers, 34, 211, 212. 

Edward iii. : his birth, 6, 171; Ponthieu 
and Aquitaine transferred to him, 19, 195 ; he 
goes to France to do homage, 20, 172; is 
betrothed to Philippa of Hainault, 20 ; his 
accession and coronation, 34, 172, 212; 
futile campaign against the Scots, 35, 212 ; 
riot at York in his army, 34, 213, 214; he 
holds a parliament at Northampton, 40 ; 
treaty with the Scots who get favourable 
terms, 40, 41, 215 ; the king's sister affianced 
to David Bruce, 40, 215 ; refusal to restore 
the stone of Scone, 40, 41, 216; the king 
present with his mother at the marriage of 
Mortimer's daughters, 42 ; holds a parliament 
at Salisbury, 42, 217 ; goes to France to do 
homage, 43, 220 ; Kent's plot for the restora- 
tion of Edward ii., 43, 44, 220-225 ; parlia- 
ment at Winchester, 44, 225 ; birth of the 
Black Prince, 45, 48, 173; parliament at 
Nottingham, 45, 225 ; Mortimer seized and 
executed, 46, 47, 226-230; papal grant on 
church goods,48, 230; Ed ward makes a secret 
journey to France, ibid. ; holds tournaments 
at Dartford and London, ibid; accident to 
the queen, ibid. ; Edward receives aid from 
church property, 148, 230; keeps Christmas 
1331 at Wells, 49; birth of his daughter 
Isabella, 173; refuses to allow the invasion 
of Scotland through England, 49 ; joins the 
siege of Berwick, 50, 231 ; defeats the Scots 
at Halidon Hill, 51, 173, 232 ; fall of 
Berwick, 52, 173 ; Edward keeps Christmas 
1333 at Wallingford, 53 ; holds a parliament 
at York, ibid. ; receives Balliol's homage at 
Newcastle, ibid. ; holds a council at Notting- 
ham, and parliament at London, and receives 
aids, ibid. ; proposes a crusade, 53, 54 ; his 
anger at Orleton's translation to Winchester, 
54 ; seizes his temporalities, 55 ; his negotia- 



INDEX. 



tions with France fail, 55, 56, 233 ; invades 
Scotland and keeps Christmas 1334 at 
Roxburgh, 56 ; French envoys arrive for 
peace between England and Scotland, 56, 
233 ; truce, 56 ; parliament at York, 56, 
2 33 i advance into Scotland and negotiations, 
56 ; Edward remains on the border, 57 : 
abortive negotiations, 57, 233 ; grant of sub- 
sidies, 57 ; parliament [council ?] at North- 
ampton, 57, 234 ; Edward fortifies Perth, 57; 
despatches certain barons to aid Balliol, ibid. ; 
French envoys return home, 58 ; Philip of 
Valois determines on war with Edward, ibid. ; 
the king returns to England for the funeral 
of John of Eltham, ibid. ; holds a parliament 
and creates peers, 58, 173, 234; parliament 
and subsidy, 59, 173; Philip of Valois 
attacks English subjects and possessions in 
France, 59 ; Edward sends wool to Brabant, 
59, 234 ; receives cardinal envoys and offers 
terms for peace with France, 60, 61, 235 ; 
sends envoys, 61, 235 ; sails for Antwerp, 
ibid.; is joined by Flemish princes, 61, 62 ; 
his conference with the emperor, 62, 235 ; 
subsidies, ibid. ; the French harry the English 
coasts, 62-64, 2 35~ 2 37 ; birth of Edward's 
son Lionel, 63 ; the king made vicar of the 
Empire, ibid. ; the pope protests, 63, 236 ; 
the cardinals advise delay, 64, 237 ; Edward 
invades France, 64, 238 ; he lays waste the 
country, 65, 238 ; awaits Philip who avoids 
battle, 66, 239, 240 ; returns to Brabant, 66 ; 
his close alliance with the Flemings, 66, 240 ; 
assumes the arms and title of king of France, 
66, 240, 241 ; remarks of Philip thereon, 66, 
240 ; Edward returns to England leaving the 
queen at Ghent, 67, 241 ; parliament and 
subsidy, 67, 241 ; statute to protect English- 
men from becoming subjects of Edward as 
king of France, ibid. ; Edward keeps Whit- 
suntide 1340 at Ipswich, 68, 242 ; assembles 
a fleet and sails for Flanders, ibid. ; defeats 
the French fleet at Sluys, 68, 69, 242-244 ; 
the Scots make a raid into England, 69, 245 ; 
the French attack the southern coast, 70, 245 ; 
Edward said to have returned to England, 
ibid. ; goes on pilgrimage, ibid. ; lays siege to 
Tournay, 70; challenges Philip, 71, 245; 
truce against Edward's wish, 71; he returns 
to Ghent, 7 2 ; -suddenly returns to England, 
72, 345 ; removes and imprisons certain 
officials, 72, 246; keeps Christmas 1340 at 



Guildford, and holds a tournament at Read- 
ing; 73 i aBd a tournament at Langley, 73, 
246 ; commission to enquire into the collec- 
tion of the aids, 73 ; parliament at London, 
73, 247 ; Edward resists a petition for reform 
of appointment of ministers, 73, 247 ; com- 
promise, 74 ; his appointment as vicar of the 
Empire revoked, ibid. ; keeps Christmas 1341 
at Newcastle, 75, 247 ; invades Scotland, 
ibid. ; returns to England and holds a tourna- 
ment at Dunstable, 75 ; reconciled with 
archbishop Stratford, 75> 2 47 ! Stratford's 
explanation regarding Edward's homage to 
Philip, ibid. ; new coinage, ibid. ; grant from 
endowed monasteries, etc., ibid. ; inquest for 
military service, etc., 75> 7*>> 2 47 i campaign 
of 1342 in Brittany, 76, 77, 247-249 ; cam- 
paign in Aquitaine, 77, 78, 249 ; subsidy and 
preparations for war, 78 ; Edward collects a 
fleet and invades Normandy, 79, 249 ; his 
march through north France, 79-81, 250-259; 
defeats the French at Creey, 81-86, 251, 
259-262 ; lays siege to Calais, 86 ; invasion 
by the Scots and battle of Neville's Cross, 
86-89, 263-265 ; progress of the siege of 
Calais, 89-91, 265-268 ; ships taken by the 
French, 89, 265 ; the French defeated at 
sea, 90, 266; Philip opens negotiations, ibid.; 
Edward accepts his challenge, ibid. ; retreat 
of the French, 91, 266, 267 ; fall of Calais, 
91, 267; punishment of robbers, 92, 268; 
truce with France, 92-95, 268 ; Edward 
fortifies Calais and returns to England, 96, 
268; regulations of purveyance, 96 ; Scottish 
envoys sent to negotiate for release of David 
Bruce, 96, 269 ; Edward elected to the 
Empire but refuses it, 97, 269 ; his daughter 
Joan betrothed to Pedro of Castille, but dies 
of the plague, ibid. ; envoys sent- to France to 
negotiate for peace, 98, 269 ; renewal of the 
truce, ibid. ; Edward at Calais for negotia- 
tions, 98 ; treaty with the count of Flanders, 
98, 100, 102, 271, 272 ; the Black Death, 
98-100, 269-271; the truce with France 
extended, 100, 271 ; Edward holds a tourna- 
ment at Windsor and hunts at Clarendon, 
101 ; crosses to Flanders [Calais ?], 102, 272 ; 
present at the festival of the translation of 
bishop Cantelupe, ibid. ; the French plot to 
betray Calais frustrated, 103-107, 273-277 ; 
Edward's part in the defence, 104-107, 273- 
375 ; expedition to Aquitaine, 108, 277 ; 



INDEX. 



325 



ordinance against gifts to judges, 108, 278 ; 
truce in Aquitaine, 108 ; foundation of the 
Garter, 109, 278, 279 ; defeat of the Spanish 
fleet off Winchelsea, 109-111, 280, 381; 
Edward asks for a cardinal's hat for an 
Englishman, in, 112; duel fought in his 
presence, lit, 281-283; parliament and 
creation of peers, 114; raids made from 
Calais, 114, 115, 283; the French defeated 
near Saintes, 115, 283 ; lord Beanchamp de- 
feated near Calais, 115, 116, 284; trace with 
Spain and with France, 116, 284; adjust- 
ment of coinage, ibid. ; Gnines castle surprised 
and sold to Edward, 116-118, 284-286; 
victory in Brittany, 120, 286 ; and in Aqui- 
taine, 121, 287; a fleet sent out against 
pirates, ibid. ; parliament, 122, 289; ordinance 
on dress of loose women, ibid. failure of the 
harvest and importation of com, ibid. ; parlia- 
ment, ibid. ; woolstaples established, ibid. ; 
incursion into Scotland and negotiations, 1 23, 
289 ; barren negotiations with French envoys 
at the papal court, 123-125, 289, 290; ex- 
pedition prepared to aid Charles of Navarre, 
but abandoned, 125, 290, 291 ; preparations 
for invasion of France, 125 ; short incursion 
into France from Calais, 126, 291 ; campaign 
in Scotland, 126, 291 ; expedition of Lan- 
caster to Normandy, 127, 292 ; 139, 298 ; 
the Black Prince sails for Bordeaux, 127, 
292 ; diary of his march to Narbonne and 
back, 128-138, 292-298; campaign of the 
Black Prince in Poitou and battle of Poitiers, 
140-155, 298-314 ; negotiations for peace 
with France proposed, 155, 314. 
Epone, Isle of France, Edward iii. marches 

through, 81, 250, 252, 254, 256. 
Esebon, lake of. See Marseillette. 
Estang, in Gascony, taken by the Black 

Prince, 150, 293. 
Staples, in Picardy, attacked by the duke of 

Lancaster, 114. 
Eu, comte d'. See Artois, Jean d' ; Brienne, 

Raoul de. 

Euse, Gaucelin d', cardinal, envoy to England, 
9, 189 ; robbed on his way to Scotland, 
ibid. 

Exeter, bishops of. See Berkeley, James 
de ; Graudison, John ; Stapleton, Walter. 

Fanjeaux, in Languedoc, burnt by the Black 
Prince, 135, 295. 



Fauquembergue, in Artois, attacked by the 
duke of Lancaster, 114. 

Faussard, Ameiiiou de, lord of Montgiscard, 
131, 297- 

Fernandez de Heredia, Juan, castellan of 
Amposta, taken prisoner at Poitiers, 155, 3:3. 

Fienues, Jeanne de, widow of Jean, comte 
de Saint-Pol, married to the seigneur de 
Landas, 107, 277. 

Fiennes, Robert [called Moreau] de, takes 
part in the attempt on Calais, 107, 277 ; 
aids in defeating lord Beauchamp, 115, 116 
284. 

Fieschi, Lndovico, cardinal, envoy to Eng- 
land, 9, 189; robbed on his way to Scotland, 
ibid. 

Fife, earl of. See Macduff, Duncan. 

Fitz-Alan, Edward, earl of Arundel, executed, 
25, 200. 

Fitz-Alan, Richard, earl of Arundel, sent 
back to England from Flanders, 70 ; takes 
part in the Crecy campaign, 79, 249 ; in the 
sea-fight off Winchelsea, 109, 280 ; envoy 
to negotiate with France, 124, 290. 

Fitz-Wariu [wrongly called Fitz-William], 
Fulk, baron, joins Edward Balliol's expe- 
dition, 49, 173. 

Fitz-Warin, sir William, assists at the foun- 
dation of the Garter, 109. 
Flanders : Edward iii.'s expedition to, 61-67, 
235-241 ; his alliance with the Flemings, 
66, 240. 

Louis de Crcy, count of, slain at Crcy, 
85, 254, 262. 

Louis de Male, count of: treaty with Ed- 
ward iii., 98, 269 ; submits to Edward, but 
afterwards invades Flanders with French aid, 
loo, 101, 102, 271, 272. 

Flanders, [Guy] bastard of, taken at Cadzand, 

but released, 60, 235. 
Fleming, Malcolm, earl of Wigton, taken 

prisoner at Neville's Cross, 88, 265. 
Fleuranoe, in Gascony, passed on his march 

by the Black Prince, 137, 296. 
Florence, Andrieu de, French envoy to Eng- 
land, 15, 193 
Foix, Gaston Phoebus, comte de, [his son?] 

joins the Black Prince, 135, 298. 
Folkestone, co. Kent, threatened by the 

French, 63, 237. 
Fontenay-le-Pesnel, in Normandy, Edward 

iii. marches through, 252, 256. 



INDEX. 



ForSt, Pierre de la, envoy to negotiate peace 

with England, 124, 290. 
Prance : descent of the crown from Philip the 

Fair, 37. 

Philip iv. : procures the seizure of Boni- 
face viii., I, iff", his daughter married to 
Edward ii., 3, 179 ; contrives the condemna- 
tion of the Templars, 5 ; restores Ponthieu 
to England, 10. 

Charles iv. : present at Edward ii's coron- 
ation, 4 ; summons Edward to do homage, 
X 5> J 93 ! truce with England in Aquitaine, 
ibid. ; queen Isabella comes to France to 
negotiate, 18, 194, 195 ; prince Edward does 
homage, 20 ; death of Charles, 39. 

Philip vi. (of Valois) : accession, 39 ; 
Edward iii. does homage, 43, 220; nego- 
tiations between him and Edward fail, 55, 
56, 233 ; sends envoys to mediate peace be- 
tween England and Scotland, 56, 233 ; return 
of his envoys, 58 ; he determines on war 
with England, 58; attacks English subjects 
and possessions in France, 59 ; refuses medi- 
ation of cardinal envoys and terms offered by 
Edward, 61 ; his privateers capture English 
ships at Sluys, 62, 235 ; harry the English 
coasts, 62-64, 235-237 ; English invasion of 
Cambresis, etc., 65, 238 ; Philip quartered at 
Saint-Quentin, ibid. ; insulting verses on him, 

65, 239 ; he offers battle, but retires to Paris, 

66, 239, 240 ; his remarks on Edward assum- 
ing the arms of France, 66, 240 ; defeat of 
the French fleet at Sluys, 68, 69, 242-244 ; 
Philip challenged by Edward before Tour- 
nay, 71, 245 ; defeat of the French at Saint- 
Amand, ibid. ; truce, 71 ; English campaign 
in Brittany, 76, 77, 247-249; campaign in 
Aqnitaine, 77> 7$, 249 ; the duke of Nor- 
mandy besieges Aiguillon, 78, 249; pre- 
parations in England for war, 78 ; the Crecy 
campaign, 79-86, 249-262 ; French losses at 
Crecy, 85, 254, 261, 262 ; Philp sends troops 
to Scotland, and urges the invasion of Eng- 
land, 86, 263, 264 ; siege of Calais, 89-91, 
265-268 ; French privateers capture English 
ships, 89, 265 ; the French defeated off 
Calais, 90, 266 ; Philip advances to relieve 
Calais and negotiates, ibid. ; challenges 
Edward, ibid. \ retreats, 91, 266, 267 ; out- 
break of the Black Death, 92 ; truce with 
England, 92-95, 268; English envoys sent 
to negotiate peace, 98, 269 ; renewal of the 



trace, 98, 269 ; 100, 271 ; attempt on Calais, 
103-107, 273-277 ; French losses, 107, 277 ; 
English expedition to Aquitaine resulting in 
a truce, 108 ; Philip said to have repented 
his injustice to Edward, and dies, III. 

John ii. : as duke of Normandy, besieges 
Aiguillon, 78, 249 ; accompanies his father 
to the relief of Calais, 90 ; acts against the 
English in Aquitaine, 108 ; his accession, 
in; puts to death his queen and the comte 
d'Eu, 114, 283; his evil life, ibid.; raids 
by the English from Calais, 114, 115, 283 ; 
siege of Saint-Jean-d'Angely, 115, 283; 
defeat of the French near Saintes, ibid. ; de- 
feat of Lord Beauchamp, 115, 116, 284; 
extension of the truce with England, 116, 
284 ; Guines captured and sold to Edward, 
116-118, 284-286; the French defeated in 
Brittany, 120, 286; and in Aquitaine, 121, 
287 ; barren negotiations between England 
and France at the papal court, 123-125, 
289, 290; Charles of Navarre makes peace, 
125, 290, 291 ; desertion of French troops, 
1 26 ; imprisonment of Charles of Navarre, 
and execution of the comte de Harcourt, 127, 
292 ; Lancaster's expedition into Normandy, 
127, 292; 139, 298; the Black Prince's 
march from Bordeaux to Narbonne and back, 
128-138, 292-298 ; rumour of an intended 
invasion of Normandy, 139 ; campaign in 
Poitou, and battle of Poitiers, 140-155, 298- 
314; John marches on Poitiers, 142, 299; 
his rear attacked, 142, 299, 300; he refuses 
mediation before the battle, 144, 301 ; leads 
the last attack, 150, 304, 309 ; taken prisoner, 
'53. J 54> 35 ; his words spoken to the 
Black Prince, 154, 313; negotiations for 
peace proposed, 155, 314. 

constables of. See Bourbon, Jacques de, 
comte de la Marche ; Brienne, Gauthier de, 
due d'Athenes ; Brienne, Raoul de, comte 
d'Eu. 

marshals of. See Audrehem, Arnoul d' ; 
Beaujeu, Edouard, sire de ; Bertrand, 
Robert; Clermont, Jean de; Nesle, Gui 
de. 

Preneuse, Isle of France, Edward iii. marches 
through, 81, 250, 252, 254, 256. 

Presnes, Isle of France, Edward iii. marches 
through, 81, 250, 252, 254, 256. 

Purnival, Thomas de, baron, serves in Aqui- 
taine, 108, 278; taken prisoner, 108. 



INDEX. 



327 



Oaillon, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 80, 250, 354, 256. 

Galiax, in Gascony, taken and burnt by the 
Black Prince, 130, 294. 

Garonne river, in Languedoc, crossed by the 
Black Prince, 131, 294; 136, 295. 

Garter, order of the, foundation, 109, 278, 
279. 

Gasoony. See Aquitaine. 

Gask moor. See Dupplin moor. 

Gaversike, near Warwick, Gaveston executed 
there, 5, 170, 183. 

Gaveston, Piers, banished, 3, 179; returns to 
England, 4, 170, 180 ; made earl of Corn- 
wall, and marries Margaret de Clare, 4, 

180 ; his character, ibid. ; his ostentation, 4, 

181 ; sent to Ireland, ibid.; returns, ibid.; 
placed in Bamborough castle, ibid. ; his 
nicknames for the barons, 183, 184; his 
capture and death, 5, 170, 182, 183 ; buried 
at Langley, 5, 170, 184. 

Ghent, the citizens appeal to Edward iii., 102. 

Gimont, in Gascony, held by the French but 
evacuated, 137, 296. 

Gloucester, Edward ii. passes through, 12; 
queen Isabella's army advances thither, 23 ; 
Edward ii. buried there, 172; the Black 
Death there, 99, 270. 

Gloucester, earls of. See Audley, Hugh de, 
Clare, Gilbert de ; Despenser, Hugh (the 
younger). 

Goldsborough, sir Richard, slain in the sea- 
fight off Winchelsea, in. 

Gomez de Barroso, Pedro, cardinal, envoy 
to England, 60, 235 ; departs for France, 
61 ; proceeds to Arras, 62. 

Gournay, or Gurney, sir Thomas de, re- 
ceives custody of Edward ii., 29, 208 ; his 
brutal treatment of the king, 30, 208-210; 
murders him, 33, 210, 211; his punishment 
and fate, 34, an, aia. 

Graham, John, earl of Menteith, taken pri- 
soner at Neville's Cross, 88, 265 ; executed, 
97, 269. 

Grailly, Jean de, captal de Buch, serves in 
Aquitaine, 129, 297 ; takes prisoners at 
Plaisance, 130 ; attacks the French in rear 
at Poitiers, 150, 151, 304, 305, 309. 

Grandison, John, appointed bishop of Exeter, 
36 ; his quarrel with archbishop Mepham, 
50 ; officiates at the foundation of the Garter, 
109, 278. 



GrandprS, Jean, comte de, slain at Crecy, 85, 
254, 262. 

Gravesend, Stephen de, bishop of London, 
envoy from the barons to the king, 12; im- 
plicated in Kent's'plot, 44. 

Greystoek, William de, baron, serves in 
Aquitaine, 108, 278 ; as governor of Ber- 
wick, he neglects his charge, 126. 

Grismouton. See Chambly, Philippe de. 

Grisy, Isle of France, Edward iii. marches 
through, 81, 251, 252, 254, 256. 

Guelders, Rainald, count and duke of, in 
alliance with Edward iii., 60, 234; receives 
him at Antwerp, 61 ; joins in the siege of 
Tournay, 70. 

Guildford, co. Surrey, Edward iii. keeps 
Christmas 1340 there, 73. 

Guilhon, Renaud de, seneschal of Poitou, 
taken prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 

Guines, in Picardy, Philip of Valois advances 
thither to relieve Calais, 90, 266 ; inhabit- 
ants of Calais removed thither, 92 ; capture 
of the castle by surprise, 116-118, 284-286. 

Guines (?), comte de, envoy at Calais to ex- 
tend the truce with England, 98 ; attempts 
to recover the castle of Guines, 117, 118, 
285, 286. 

Gule, Otto de, taken prisoner at Calais, 107. 

Hainault : queen Isabella retires thither, 20 ; 
riot at York between Hainaulters and English 
troops, 35, 213, 214; the Hainaulters dis- 
missed with rewards, 35, 214. 

William ii., count of, in alliance with Ed- 
ward iii., 60, 234 ; receives him at Ant- 
werp, 61 ; joins in the siege of Tournay, 70; 
defeats the French at Saint-Amand, 71, 245 ;' 
opposed to the continuance of the war, 71. 

Hainault, John of. See John of Hainault. 

Hakluyt, sir Edmund, taken prisoner at sea, 
89, 266. 

Haliburton, sir John, slain at Neville's Cross, 
88, 265. 

Haliburton, sir Walter, taken prisoner at 
Neville's Cross, 88, 265. 

Halidon Hill, defeat of the Scots at, 51, 173, 

232- 
Hampton, sir Thomas, serves in Aquitaine, 

129, 297. 
Harcla, Andrew, afterwards earl of Carlisle, 

aids in defeating the Lancastrians, 13, 14, 

171. 



INDEX. 



Haroourt, Godefroi de, takes refuge with 

Edward iii., 79, 249 ; takes part in the 

campaign in France, ibid. 
Harcourt, Jean i. [miscalled Philippe], comte 

de, slain with his sons at Crecy, 85, 254, 

262. 
Haroourt, Jean ii., comte de, executed, 127, 

292. 
Harcourt, Jean de, comte d'Aumale, slain 

[wounded] at Crecy, 85, 254, 262. 
Harwich, co. Essex, fired by the French, 63, 

236- 
Hastings, co. Sussex, attacked by the French, 

63, 237- 
Hastings, Laurence de, baron, afterwards earl 

of Pembroke, marries Mortimer's daughter, 

42, 217 ; serves in Aquitaine, 77> 2 49- 
Hatfield, Thomas de, bishop of Durham, 

takes part in the Crecy campaign, 79, 250 ; 

officiates at the burial of the king of Bohe- 
mia, 85. 
Hautfrine, Jean, bishop of Avranches, envoy 

to England, 56, 233. 
Haye, sir David de la, constable of Scotland, 

slain at Neville's Cross, 89, 265. 
Henry vii. of Luxemburg, emperor, present 

at Edward ii.'s coronation, 4. 
Hereford, queen Isabella advances thither, 

25 ; the younger Despenser executed there, 

25, 172, 200, 201 ; marriage of Mortimer's 

daughters there, 42, 217. 
Hereford, bishops of. See Cantelupe, 

Thomas de ; Chariton, Thomas de ; Orle- 

ton, Adam. 

Hereford, earl of. See Bohun, Humphrey de. 
Herle, sir Robert, envoy to France, 98 ; as 

captain of Calais, makes a raid thence, 114, 

383 ; surprised by the Scots, 126, 291, 292. 
Heron, sir Patrick, slain (?) at Neville's Cross, 

89, 265. 
Hers river, in Languedoc, crossed by the 

Black Prince, 135, 295. 
Hildesley, sir Robert, taken prisoner by the 

Scots, 126, 292. 

Holland, corn imported thence, 122, 289. 
Holland, William, count of, marries the duke 

of Lancaster's daughter, 120, 286. 
Homps, in Languedoc, traversed by the Black 

Prince, 134, 295. 
Hospitallers, endowed with the property of 

the Templars, 6 ; the grand prior of France 

slain at Crecy, 85, 254, 262. 



Hotham, John, bishop of Ely, joins queen 
Isabella, 21, 196. 

Hougue, La, in Normandy, Edward iii. lands 
there, 79, 250, 252, 253, 255. 

Household, royal, regulations concerning pur- 
veyance, 96. 

Hume, sir John, taken prisoner at Neville's 
Cross, 88, 265. 

Huntingdon, earl of. See Clinton, William 
de. 

Inchmartin, sir Gilbert, slain at Neville's 
Cross, 89, 265. 

Innocent vi., pope. See Home. 

Ipswich, co. Suffolk, Edward iii. keeps Whit- 
suntide 1340 there, 68, 242. 

Ireland: Gaveston made viceroy, 4, 181; ex- 
pedition of Edward Bruce, 9, 189 ; ravages 
of the Black Death, 100, 271 ; com imported 
thence, 122, 289. 

Isabella of France, married to Edward ii. 
and crowned, 3, 1 70, 1 79. See England. 

Isabella, daughter of Edward iii., her birth, 

173- 

Islip, Simon, archbishop of Canterbury, offi- 
ciates at the foundation of the Garter, 109, 
278. 

' James of Dieppe,' a French ship, taken at 

Sluys, 69, 242. 
Joan of the Tower, daughter of Edward ii., 

married to David Bruce, 40, 215. 
Joan of 'Woodstock, daughter of Edward iii., 

betrothed to Pedro of Castille, but dies of 

the plague, 97, 269. 
John ii., of France. See France. 
John xxii., pope. See Home. 
John of Eltham, made warden of the city 

and Tower of London, 24, 199 ; created earl 

of Cornwall, 42 ; guardian of the kingdom, 

43, 48 ; death and burial, 58, 234. 
John of Gaunt, created earl of Richmond, 

114. 
John of Hainault, sire de Beaumont, a leader 

in queen Isabella's expedition, 21, 172 ; 

payments made to him, 214; said to have 

been created earl of Cambridge, 74, 247. 
Joigny, comte de. See Noyers, Jean de. 
Joinville, Henri de, comte de Vaudemont, 

taken prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Judges, ordinance against gifts to them, 108, 

278. 



INDEX. 



329 



Juliers, William, marquis of, in alliance with 
Edward iii., 60, 234; receives him at Ant- 
werp, 61 ; joins in the siege of Tournay, 
70. 

Keith, sir Edward, slain at Neville's Cross, 
89, 265. 

Kenilworth, co. Warwick, Edward ii. impri- 
soned there, 26, 30, 172. 

Kent, earl of. See Edmund of Woodstock. 

Ker, Henry de, taken prisoner at Neville's 
Cross, 88, 265. 

Kildesby, William de, accompanies Edward 
iii. ( from Flanders, 72 ; in the expedition to 
Brittany, 76, 248 ; in the Cr<?cy campaign, 

79. 2 50- 
Kinghorn, co. Fife, Edward Balliol lands 

there, 49, 230. 
Kingston, co. Surrey, the confederate barons 

advance thither, 12. 
Kingston, sir Thomas, taken prisoner at 

Calais, 105, 274, 276. 
Kirkeby, John, bishop of Carlisle, at the 

battle of Neville's Cross, 87, 263, 264. 
Kirkpatrick, sir Humphrey, slain at Neville's 

Cross, 89, 265. 
Kirkpatrick, sir Roger, taken prisoner at 

Neville's Cross, 88, 265. 
Knollys, sir Robert, aids in the defeat of the 

French in Brittany, 1 20, 286. 

Lancaster, earls of. See Plautageuet, Henry; 

Plantagenet, Thomas. 
Landas, seigneur de. See Mortagne, Jean 

de. 
Iiangley, co. Herts, Gaveston buried there, 5, 

170, 184 ; tournament there, 73, 246. 
Langon, in Guienne, halting-place of the 

Black Prince, 128, 293. 
Lannoy, Guillaume de, slain in Brittany, 1 20, 

286. 
Laoii. district of, Isle of P'rance, laid waste by 

Edward iii., 68, 238. 
Laon [miscalled Lyon], Hngues, bishop of, 

envoy to extend the truce with England, 98, 

269. 
Lasserre, in Languedoc, burnt by the Black 

Prince, 135, 295. 
Latimer, sir Thomas, slain in the battle of 

Sluys, 69, 243, 245. 
Latimer, William de, baron, taken prisoner 

at Bannockburn, 8, 171, 189. 



La Tour, Bertrand, sire de, taken prisoner at 

Poitiers, 155, 313. 
Laval, Gui \\) de, taken prisoner in Brittany, 

1 20, 286. 
Laviugton, Thomas de, Carmelite, witness of 

the death of sir James Douglas, 4 1 . 
Leaupartie, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 252, 256. 
Le Brun, Bernard, bishop of Noyon, said to 

be slain at Crecy, 85, 254, 262. 
Leeds castle, co. Kent, queen Isabella refused 

admission, n, 190; besieged and taken by 

the king, n, 12, 190. 

Leicester, Mortimer passes through as a pri- 
soner, 46. 

Leicester, earl of. See Plantagenet, Henry. 
Le'ry, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 80, 250, 253, 256. 
Le Serde [Lagardere ?], in Gascony, taken 

by the Black Prince, formerly destroyed by 

the duke of Lancaster, 138, 296. 
Lezignan, in Languedoc, taken by the Black 

Prince, 133, 295. 
Lichfield and Coventry, bishop of. Set 

Northburgh, Roger de. 
Liddel castle, co. Cumberland, taken by the 

Scots, 86, 263, 264. 
Lille, in Flanders, the earls of Salisbury and 

Suffolk taken prisoners there, 67, 241, 242. 
Limoux, in Languedoc, burnt by the Black 

Prince, 135, 295. 
Lincoln, Edward i. keeps Christmas 1304 there, 

2 ; tournament there, 97. 
Lincoln, bishops of, succession, 163, 164. 

See Burghersh, Henry de. 
Lindesay, sir John, slain at Neville's Cross, 

89, 265. 
Lionel of Antwerp, son of Edward iii, his 

birth, 63 ; created earl of Ulster, 114. 
Lisieux, in Normandy, Edward iii marches 

through, 80, 250, 252, 253, 256. 
L'Isle, Jean de, slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 
Lisle, sir John de, assists at the foundation of 

the Garter, 109, 278. 
Lisle of Bougemont, Robert de, baron, 

serves in Aquitaine, 1 29, 297 ; slain, 130, 293. 
Livingstone, sir William, taken prisoner at 

Neville's Cross, 88, 265. 
Lochmaben castle, co. Dumfries, strengthened 

by the earl of Northampton, 123. 
Lombez, in Gascony, passed on his march by 

the Black Prince, 131, 294. 



U U 



33 



INDEX. 



London, provincial councils at, 12, 43, 220; 
parliaments at, 16 ; 26, 203 ; 34, 53 ; 58, 
173 ; 73, 247 ; murder of bishop Stapleton, 
23, 198 ; revolution, 23, 24 ; John of Eltham 
made warden of the city and Tower, 24, 
199 ; Mortimer executed at Tyburn, 47 ; 
tournament, and accident to the queen, 48, 
230 ; resistance of the citizens to a commis 
sion, 73 ; the Black Death, 99, 270 ; land 
bought for a burial place and foundation of 
the Charterhouse, 99, 270, 271. 

London, bishops of. See Oravesend, Stephen 
de ; Stratford, Ralph de. 

Longueville, near Vernon, in Normandy, 
Edward iii. marches through, 80, 250, 252, 

354. 256. 

Longueville, comte de. See Artois, Charles d'. 

Lorein, James, taken prisoner at Neville's 
Cross, 88, 265. 

Lorraine, Raoul, duke of, slain at Crecy, 85, 
254, 262. 

Loryng, sir Nigel, sent home with the ac- 
count of the Poitiers campaign, 155, 314. 

Louches, Adam de, takes prisoners at Plai- 
sance, and is knighted, 1 30, 297. 

Loughborough, co. Leicester, Mortimer 
passes through as a prisoner, 46. 

Louis of Bavaria, emperor, quarrels with 
the pope, 45 ; his conference with Edward 
iii., 62, 235 ; whom he makes vicar of the 
Empire, 63 ; but revokes the appointment, 

74- 

Lundy island, in the Bristol Channel, attempt 
of Edward ii. to escape thither, 22, 196; 
description of the island, ibid. 



Macduff, Duncan, earl of Fife, defeated at 
Kinghom, 49, 230; taken prisoner at Ne- 
ville's Cross, 88, 265. 

Maignelais, Jean de, taken prisoner at Poi- 
tiers, 155, 314. 

Maignelais, Tristan de, taken prisoner in 
Brittany, 120, 286. 

Maintenay, in Picardy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 86, 253, 255, 257. 

Maitland, sir Robert, he and his brother slain 
at Neville's Cross, 89, 265. 

Majorca, James ii., king of, at the battle of 
Crecy, 81, 82, 251, 259. 

Malestroit, sire de, taken prisoner in Brittany, 
120, 286. 



Malines, in Flanders, Edward iii. quartered 
there, 62. 

Maltravers, sir John, receives custody of 
Edward ii., 29, 208 ; his brutal treatment of 
the king, 30, 208-210; murders him, 33, 
210, 21 1 ; his banishment and proceedings 
against him, 34, 211. 

Man, Isle of, conquered by the earl of Salis- 
bury, 75, 247. 

Manrique de Lara, Aimeri, vicomte de 
Narbonne, taken prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 

3I3- 
Mantes, Isle of France, Edward iii. marches 

through, 81, 250, 256. 
March, earl of. See Mortimer, Roger. 
Marche, comte de la. See Bourbon, Jacques 

de. 
Marche, Guillaume de la, slain in Brittany, 

1 20, 286. 
Marche, Thomas de la, bastard of France, 

defeats G. Visconti in a duel, 112, 113, 281, 

282; said to have been put to death, 113, 

114, 282, 283. 
Marck, near Calais, fortified by the English, 

92, 268. 
Margaret of Burgundy, wife of Louis x. of 

France, put to death, 37. 
Marigny, Enguerrand de, put to death, 37. 
Marquefave, in Languedoc, taken by the 

Black Prince, 136, 295. 
Marseillette lake, in Languedoc, passed on 

his march by the Black Prince, 133, 134, 

2 95- 
Martyngham, baron de, taken prisoner at 

Calais, 107. 
Mary, the Virgin, festival of the Conception 

to be observed, 43. 
Mas-Saintes-Puelles, in Languedoc, taken 

by the Black Prince and burnt, 132, 294. . 
Mauley, Edmund de, slain at Bannockbum, 8, 

171, 188. 
Maiiny, or Manny, sir Walter, envoy to 

Flanders, 60 ; attacks Cadzand, 60, 235 ; 

serves in Aquitaine, 77, 249; envoy to ex- 
tend the truce with France, 98, 100, 269 ; 

founds the Charterhouse, London, 99, 271 ; 

assists at the foundation of the Garter, 109 ; 

makes a raid from Calais, 114, 283. 
Mauperthuis, in Normandy, Edward iii. 

marches through, 253, 256. 
Mauvesin, in Gascony, skirmish near, 136, 

295 ; taken by the Black Prince, 137, 295. 



INDEX. 



331 



Mauvinet, Maurice, seneschal of Touraine, 
taken prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 

Mazeres, in Languedoc, traversed by the 
Black Prince, 135, 295. 

Meilhan, in Guienne, halting-place of the 
Black Prince, 138, 296. 

Meldrum, sir Philip, slain at Neville's Cross, 
89, 265. 

Melun, Guillaume de, archbishop of Sens, 
said to be slain at Crecy, 85, 254, 262 ; 
present at the battle of Poitiers, 144, 312 ; 
taken prisoner, 154, 313. 

Melun, Jean de, sire de Tancarville, chamber- 
lain of France, taken prisoner at Caen, 80, 
250, 253, 257; said to have assisted in the 
truce after the fall of Calais, 92, 268 ; envoy 
to extend the truce, 98 ; at a tournament at 
Windsor, IOI. 

Melun, Jean de, comte de Tancarville, taken 
prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 

Menteith, earl of. See Graham, John. 

Mepham, Simon, elected archbishop of Can- 
terbury, 42 ; procures the submission of the 
earl of Lancaster, ibid. ; holds a provincial 
council, 43, 320; quarrels with the bishop 
of Exeter, 50; his death, 52. 

Mezin, in Gascony, traversed by the Black 
Prince, 138, 296. 

Mieheldever, Thomas, executed, 25. 
'Middleton, Gilbert de, executed for robbing 
papal envoys, 9, 189. 

Military service : inquest and commission of 
array, 75, 76, 247. 

Mirambeau, in Saintogne, proposed as head- 
quarters for French negotiating peace with 
England, 155, 314. 

Mirande, in Gascony, passed on his march by 
the Black Prince, 130, 294. 

Miremont, in Languedoc, taken and burnt by 
the Black Prince, 136, 295. 

Mohun, sir John de, assists at the foundation 
of the Garter, 109, 278. 

Moigne, sir Adam, taken prisoner at Neville's 
Cross, 88, 265. 

Molasiu [MontlezunP], comte de, taken 
prisoner at Plaisance, 130, 297. 

Molines, sir John de, imprisoned, 72. 

Monclar, in Gascony, taken by the Black 
Prince, 129, 293. 

Montagu, or Montaoute, William de, joins 
in the plot against Mortimer, 46, 226-228; 
accompanies Edward iii. to France, 48 ; be- 

U 



sieges Dunbar, 52 ; deputy to excuse the 
delay of Balliol's homage, 53; created earl 
of Salisbury, 58, 173, 234; taken prisoner 
at Lille, 67, 241, 242; conquers the Isle of 
Man, 75, 247. 

Montagu, or Montacute, William de, 2nd 
earl of Salisbury, knighted, 79, 257 ; assists 
at the foundation of the Garter, 109, 278; 
in the sea-fight off Winchelsea, 109, 280; 
serves in Aquitaine, 127, 129, 297; com- 
mands the rear-guard at Poitiers, 143, 147, 
300, 302, 306; his prowess, 148, 303. 

Montauban, sire de, slain in Brittany, 120, 
286. 

Montaut, in Languedoc, traversed by the 
Black Prince, 136, 295. 

Montb61iard, comte de. See Montfaucon, 
Henri de. 

Montbouchier, Aufray de, slain in Brittany, 
1 20, 286. 

Montesquieu, in Gascony, passed on his 
march by the Black Prince, 130, 294. 

Montfaucon, Henri de, comte de Mont- 
beliard, said to be skin at Crecy, 85, 254, 
262. 

Montfavez, Bertrand de, cardinal, envoy to 
England, 60, 235 ; departs for France, 61 ; 
proceeds to Arras, 62 ; retort of Geoffrey le 
Scrope to him, 65, 238. 

Montferrand, sire de. See Biron, Aimeri de. 

Montfort, John iv. de, duke of Brittany, ex- 
pedition sent to his aid, 76, 247. 

Montgiscard, in Languedoc, occupied by the 
Black Prince, 131, 294. 

Montgomery, John de, baron, captain of 
Calais, 96, 268 ; dies of the Black Death, 
99, 271. 

Monthermer, sir Thomas de, slain at Sluys, 

69, 243. HS- 

Montjouan, sire de, slain at Poitiers, 155, 

3'4- 

Montmorenoy, Charles (?) de, takes part in 

the attempt on Calais, 107. 
Montpouillon, monastery of, in Guienne, 

passed on the march by the Black Prince's 

household, 138, 296. 
Moray, bishop of. See Pilmore, John. 
Moray, earl of. See Randolph, John. 
Moray, Maurice, earl of Strathern, slain at 

Neville's Cross, 88, 265. 
More, sir Alexander, slain at Neville's Cross, 

89, 265. 



U 2 



332 



INDEX. 



More, sir William, taken prisoner at Neville's 
Cross, 88, 265. 

More, sir Thomas de la, present in company 
with the bishop of Winchester at the abdi- 
cation of Edward ii., 27 ; Baker's shorter 
chronicle written at his request, 173. 

Moreuil, Thibaut de, slain at Crecy, 85, 262. 

Morlaix, in Brittany, defeat of Charles of Blois 
at, 76, 248. 

Morsalines, in Normandy, Edward iii. quar- 
tered there, 80, 250, 252, 255. 

Mortagne, Jean de, seigneur de Landas, takes 
part in the attempt on Calais, 107, 277; 
slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 

Mortimer, Roger (of Chirke), baron, submits 
to the king and is sent to the Tower, 12, 
173. 

Mortimer, Roger (of Wigmore), baron, sub- 
mits to the king and is sent to the Tower, 
12, 172 ; escapes to France, 15-16, 193 ; 
his intrigue with queen Isabella, 20 ; joins 
her expedition, 21, 172; his sons knighted, 
35 ; favourable terms allowed to the Scots 
by his means, 41 ; marriage of his daughters, 
42, 217; created earl of March, 42; his 
overbearing pride, 45, 225, 229 ; seized and 
executed, 46, 47, 226-229; charges against 
him, 47, 229. 

Mortimer, Roger, afterwards earl of March, 
knighted, 79, 257 ; takes part in the defence 
of Calais, 104, 273 ; assists at the foundation 
of the Garter, 109, 278. 

Mortival, Roger, bishop of Salisbury, his 
death, 45. 

Mowbray, John de, baron, at the battle of 
Neville's Cross, 87, 263, 264. 

Mowbray, sir William, taken prisoner at 
Neville's Cross, 88, 265. 

Muoe, Jean de la, taken prisoner in Brittany, 
120, 286. 



Naples, archbishop of. See Ceccano, Anni- 

bale. 
Narbonne, in Languedoc, taken and burnt by 

the Black Prince, 133, 134, 295. 
Narbonne, vicomte de. See Manrique de 

Lara. 
Nassau. John, count of, taken prisoner at 

Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Navarre, Charles, king of, appeals to England 

for help, but makes peace with France, 1 25, 



290, 291 ; seized and imprisoned, 127, 
292. 

Navarre, Joan, queen of, her kingdom re- 
stored to her, 39. 

Navarre, Philip of. See Philip of Navarre. 

Neath abbey, co. Glamorgan, Edward ii. takes 
refuge there, 23, 197. 

Neckam, Alexander, description of cranes, 
22, 197. 

Nesle, Gui de, sire d'Offemont, marshal of 
France, slain in Brittany, 120, 286. 

Nesle, Guillaume de, slain at Poitiers, 155, 

SH- 
Neubourg, lie, in Normandy, Edward iii. 

marches through, 80, 250, 252, 253, 256. 
Neufohatel, in Picafdy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 86, 253, 255, 257. 
Nevill, sir John de, of Horneby, joins in the 

plot against Mortimer, 46, 226, 227. 
Nevill, John, afterwards baron, serves in 

Aquitaine, 108, 278. 
Nevill of Raby, Ralph de, baron, at the battle 

of Neville's Cross, 87, 263, 264. 
Neville's Cross, co. Durham, defeat of the 

Scots at, 87, 88, 263-265. 
Newoastle-upon-Tyne, Edward Balliol and 

the duke of Brittany do homage there, 53. 
Nicholson, sir Adam, slain at Neville's Cross, 

89, 265. 
No6, in Languedoc, taken by the Black Prince, 

136, 295- 
Nogaret, Guillaume de, chancellor of France, 

takes part in seizing Boniface viii., I, 177. 
Nogaro, in Gascony, passed on his march by 

the Black Prince, 130, 294. 
No-man's-land, in London, burial place in 

the Black Death, 99, 270. 
Norfolk, earl of. See Thomas of Brotherton. 
Normandy. See France. 
Normandy, John, duke of, afterwards John ii. 

of France. See Prance. 
Northampton, parliaments at, 40, 62, 235 ; 

parliament [council?], 57, 234; tournament 

there, 75, 247. 
Northampton, earl of. See Bohun, William 

de. 
Northburgh, Roger de, bishop of Coventry, 

removed from the treasurership, 72, 246. 
Norwich, bishop of. See Bateman, William ; 

Percy, Thomas. 
Nottingham, parliament at, 45, 225 ; council 

at, 23 ; truce made there with Scotland, 56. 



INDEX. 



333 



Nouveau, Arnaud de, cardinal, envoy to Eng- 
land, 6, 185. 

Noyelle-sur-Mer, in Picardy, skirmish at, 
81, 257. 

Noyers, Jean de, comte de Joigny, taken 
prisoner at La Chaboterie, 142, 154, 300, 

3J3- 
Noyon, bishop of. See Le Brun, Bernard. 

Odingselles, sir John de, his death, 121, 
287. 

Offemont, sire d'. See Nesle, Gui de. 

Offord, John de, chancellor, appointed arch- 
bishop of Canterbury but dies, 98. 

Olifant, William, defends Stirling castle, 2. 

Orbieu river, in Languedoc, crossed by the 
Black Prince, 133, 295. 

Oriflamme, the, unfurled at Crecy, 82, 251, 
260. 

Orleton, Adam, bishop of Hereford, tried by 
jury for treason and his temporalities seized, 
16, 194; his hatred of the king and the 
Despensers, 16; his plots with the queen, 
19, 20; joins the queen's expedition, 21; 
his sermon at Oxford, 23, 197 ; his ill-treat- 
ment of Baldock, 26, 202 ; one of the depu- 
tation to seek the abdication of Edward ii., 
27,28, 204,205; his ambiguous letter to the 
king's keepers, 32, 209, 210; favourable 
terms allowed to the Scots by his means, 
41 ; translated to Worcester, 42 ; translated 
to Winchester, 54 ; verses on him, 54, 233 ; 
his promotion attributed to French influence, 
54; his temporalities seized, 55. 

Ormond, earl of. See Boteler, James le. 

Orwell haven, co. Suffolk, queen Isabella lands 
there, 21. 

Osney abbey, co. Oxon., benefactions by John 
de Pagham, bishop of Worcester, 163 ; Ela, 
countess of Warwick, buried there, 169; 
Baker's shorter chronicle written there, 173- 
Otho of Brunswick, defeated in a duel at 
Paris by the duke of Lancaster, 121, 123, 
287-289. 

Oxford, foundation of a Carmelite monastery 
on the site of the King's Hall, 9, 189 ; 
queen Isabella's army advances thither, 23, 
197; the Black Death there, 99, 270; foun- 
dation of Merton college, 164. 
Oxford, earl of. See Vere, John de. 
Oye, near Calais, fortified by the English, 92, 
268. 



Pagham, John de, bishop of Worcester, bene- 
factor of Osney abbey, 163. 
Parliaments: in 1321 at Westminster, II, 
190; in 1322 at York, 14; in 1324 at 
London, 16 ; in 1327 at London, 26, 34, 
203; in 1328 at Northampton, 40; at York, 
40 ; at Salisbury, 42, 217 ; in 1330 at Win- 
chester, 44, 225; at Nottingham, 45, 225; 
at Westminster, 47, 230 ; in 1334 at London, 
53, 232 ; in 1335 at York, 56, 233 ; [? coun- 
cil] in 1336 at Northampton, 57, 234; in 
1337 at London, 58, 173; at Westminster, 
59, 234; in 1338 at Northampton, 62, 235 ; 
in 1340 at Westminster, 67, 241 ; in 1341 at 
London, 73, 247 ; at Westminster, 75 ; in 
1353 at Westminster, 122, 289. 
Parning, sir Robert, appointed treasurer, 73, 

246. 

Paveley, sir Walter de, assists at the foun- 
dation of the Garter, 109, 278. 
Pavia, Americo di, concerned in the plot to 
betray Calais, 103-107, 273-277 ; his death, 
107, 108, 277. 
Pechluna, in Languedoc, taken by the Black 

Prince, 135, 295. 

Pembroke, earls of. See Hastings, Lau- 
rence de ; Valence, Aymer de. 
Pepieux, in Languedoc, destroyed by the 

Black Prince, 134, 295. 

Percy, Henry de, baron, at the battle of 
Neville's Cross, 87, 263, 264; serves in 
Aquitaine, 108, 278. 

Percy, Thomas, appointed bishop of Nor- 
wich, 125. 

Ferigord, Talleyrand de, cardinal, attempts 
to mediate before the battle of Poitiers, 144, 
301, 311 ; excuses himself, 155. 
Perth, taken by Edward Balliol, 49, 130; 

Edward iii. visits it, 57. 
Philip iv., vi. See France. 
Philip (le Hardi), son of king John of France, 

taken prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Philip of Navarre, accompanies the duke of 
Lancaster in Normandy, 127, 293; does 
homage to Edward iii., 139. 
Philippa of Hainault, betrothed to Edward 

iii., 20. See England. 
Pilmore, John, bishop of Moray, envoy to 

England, 96, 269. 
Plague, 9. See Black Death. 
Flaisance, in Gascony, taken and burnt by 
the Black Prince, 130, 294. 



334 



INDEX. 



Planke [Plancy?], sire de, takes part in the 
attempt on Calais, 107, 277. 

Flantagenet, Henry, earl of Lancaster and 
Leicester, joins queen Isabella's army, 21, 
196 ; takes the king and his followers 
prisoners, 25 ; the king given into his cus- 
tody, 25, 200; present at his abdication, 
27, 204, 205 ; the king removed from his 
custody, 29; refuses to attend parliament, 
but submits, 42, 43, 217-220; stricken with 
blindness, 43; exults in the fall of Mor- 
timer, 46, 226. 

Flantagenet, Henry, earl of Derby and Lan- 
caster and duke of Lancaster : created earl 
of Derby, j8, 173, 234; his campaign in 
Aqnitaine, 77, 78, 249 ; takes part in nego- 
tiations before Calais, 90 ; attacks the rear 
of the French, 91, 267 ; holds a tournament 
at Lincoln, 97 ; envoy to extend the truce 
with France, 98, 269; receives at Dun- 
querque the homage of the count of Flan- 
ders, 98 ; accompanies the king abroad, 
102 ; his expedition to Aquitaine, 108, 277 ; 
makes a truce, 108 ; in the sea-fight off 
Winchelsea, 109, 280 ; made duke of Lan- 
caster, 114; attacks Boulogne and other 
places, 114, 115, .283; travels in Prussia 
and Poland, 119, 120; marriage of his 
daughter, 120, 286; defeats Otho of Bruns- 
wick in a duel, 121, 122, 287-289; envoy 
to negotiate peace with France, 124, 290; 
an expedition prepared under him to aid 
Charles of Navarre, 125, 290, 291 ; with the 
king in incursions into France, 126, 291; 
made captain of Brittany, 127; his expe- 
dition to Normandy, 127, 292; 139, 298; 
he marches into Brittany, 139. 

Plantageuet, Thomas, earl of Lancaster, 
takes part in Gaveston's execution, 5, 170, 
183 ; reconciled to the king, 10, 189; joins 
the confederacy against the Despensers, II, 
190; marches north, 12; defeated, 13, 14, 
190; taken prisoner and executed, 14, 171, 
190-193. 

Plaunche, or Blaunche, Jean de, taken 
prisoner at Poitiers, 155, 314. 

Plymouth, fired by the French, 64, 237 ; 
again threatened, 70 ; the Black Prince sails 
thence, 127, 292. 

Poissy, Isle of France, Edward iii. arrives 
there, 81, 250, 252, 254, 256; skirmish with 
troops from Amiens, 81, 250, 254, 256, 258. 



Poitiers, battle of, 143-153, 300-311. 
Foix, in Picardy, taken by the English, 8r, 

251, 254, 257, 258. 
Pole, Richard and William de la, merchants, 

imprisoned, 72. 
Fommiers, Guillaume de, serves in Aquitaine, 

129, 297. 

Pons, Renaud de, slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 
Pont-de-1'Arohe, in Normandy, passed on 

his march by Edward iii., 80, 250, 254, 

256. 
Pont-He'bert, in Normandy, Edward iii. 

marches through, 252, 253, 255. 
Ponthieu, county of, restored to England, 10 ; 

occupied by Charles of Valois, 15 ; trans- 
ferred by Edward ii. to his son, 19, 195; 

Edward iii. does homage for it, 43, 220. 
Ponthieu, comte de. See Bourbon, Jacques 

de. 
Porohester and Portsmouth, co. Hants, the 

fleet for invasion of France collected there, 

79, 249. 
Poynings, sir Thomas de, slain at Sluys, 69, 

243, 245- 

Frees, Henri de, taken prisoner at Calais, 107. 
Preixan, in Languedoc, taken by the Black 

Prince, 135, 295. 
Prouille abbey, in Languedoc, taken by the 

Black Prince, 135, 295. 
Puehsiaucier [Peeh ?], in Languedoc, taken 

by the Black Prince, 135, 295. 
Pulteney, John de, merchant, imprisoned, 72. 

Quintin, sire de, slain in Brittany, 120, 286. 

Baguenel, sire de, slain in Brittany, 120, 286. 
Ramsay, sir Henry (L), slain (?) at Neville's 

Cross, 88, 265. 
Ramsay, sir Henry (ii.), slain (?) at Neville's 

Cross, 89, 265. 

Ramsay, sir James, taken prisoner by the earl 
' of Northampton, 133. 
Kamsay, sir Ness, slain at Neville's Cross, 89, 

265. 
Kamsay, sir William, taken prisoner at 

Neville's Cross, 88, 265. 
Kandolph, John, earl of Moray, taken 

prisoner, 56, 233 ; slain at Neville's Cross, 

88, 265. 

Beading, co. Berks, tournament there, 73. 
Beading, Simon de, taken prisoner and ex- 
ecuted, 25, 172, 201. 



INDEX. 



335 



Eees ap Howel, sent in pursuit of Edward ii. 

in Wales, 25. 
Rejaumont, in Gascony, taken and burnt by 

the Black Prince, 137, 296. 
Kenty, Oudart de, taken prisoner at Calais, 

107, 277. 
R4ole, La, in Guienne, held by the earl of 

Kent, 15; taken by the English, 77, 249; 

halting-place of the Black Prince, 138, 396. 
Beymon, William de, captain of towns sur- 
rendered to the Black Prince, 129. 
Reynolds, Walter, archbishop of Canterbury, 

envoy from the barons, 12, 190; officiates 

at the coronation of Edward iii., 34; his 

death, 42. 
Bibemont, Eustache de, taken prisoner at 

Calais, 107, 277; slain at Poitiers, 155, 

3H- 

Bibemont, Eustache [Waleran?] de, takes 

part in the attempt on Calais, 107, 277. 
Richmond, earl of. See Dreux, Arthur de ; 

Dreux, John de ; John of Gaunt. 
Bipon, co. York, ravaged by the Scots, 15. 
Bobbers in England, punished, 92, 268. 
Kocheblanche castle, Isle of France, taken 

by the English, 81, 250, 253, 256. 
Bochechouart, Jean, vicomte de, slain at 

Poitiers, 155, 314. 
Bochemont, sire de, slain in Brittany, 120, 

286. 
Borne, popes of: early succession, 159-162. 

Boniface viii. : taken prisoner, i, 177; 
his death, 2, 177; excommunication of his 
enemies, 2. 

Benedict xi. : his election, 2 ; excom- 
municates the enemies of Boniface viii., 
ibid. ; his death, ibid. 

John xxii. : quarrels with Louis of Bavaria, 
45 ; sanctions taxation of church goods in 
England, 48, 230; his death, 57. 

Benedict xii. : his accession, 57 ; sends 
envoys for peace between England and 
France, 60, 235 ; protests against Edward 
iii.'s appointment as vicar of the Empire, 

63. 236- 

Clement vi. : his envoys attempt to me- 
diate with Edward iii. in Normandy, 80, 
258; negotiate the truce after the fall of 
Calais, 92 ; jubilee celebrated, 108 ; Ed- 
ward iii. asks for a cardinal's hat for an 
Englishman, in, :i2 ; creation of cardinals 
excluding English, 112 ; his death, 123, 289. 



Innocent vi. : his accession, 123 ; mediates 

between England and France, 123-125, 289, 

390. 
Bomeny, comte [seigneur?] de, taken prisoner, 

137, 298. 
Bomorantin, in Blaisois, taken by the Black 

Prince, 141, 299. 
Boos, Thomas de, baron, serves in Aquitaine, 

129, 297. 
Boos, William de, afterwards baron, knighted, 

79. 257- 
Bose, Edmund, of Norfolk, in command of 

Saint- Jean-d'Angely, 115. 
Rosenberg, count of. See TJrsini, Peter. 
Bouen, archbishop of. See For6t, Pierre 

de la. 
Bouge', Bonabes de, sire de Derval, taken 

prisoner at Poitiers, 155, 313. 
Roxburgh, Edward iii. keeps Christmas 1334 

there, 56. 
Rumesnil, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 80, 250, 256. 
Russell, sir Peter (?), slain in repulsing the 

French from the Isle of Wight, 70, 245. 
Bustiques, district of, in Languedoc, wasted 

by the Black Prince, 1 33, 294. 
Byuel, Pierre, taken prisoner at Calais, 107. 

Saarbruck, John, count of, taken prisoner at 

Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Sadingtou, sir Robert, appointed treasurer, 

73, 246. 
Sailly, Baudonin, taken prisoner at Calais, 

107. 
Saint-Amand, in Flanders, defeat of the 

French at, by the count of Hainault, 71, 

2 45- 

Saint-Amand. sir Almaric de, surprised by 
the Scots, 126, 292. 

Saint Botulph's. See Boston. 

Saint Clair, sir John, taken prisoner at Ne- 
ville's Cross, 88, 265. 

Saint-C6me-du-Mont, in Normandy, Ed- 
ward iii. marches through, 80, 250, 252, 

*55- 

Baint-Cyr-de-Vaudreuil, in Normandy, Ed- 
ward iii. marches through, 252, 256. 

' Saint Denis,' a French ship [erroneously 
called English], captured at the battle of 
Sluys, 69, 235, 243. 

Saint-Dizier, Geoffroi de, taken prisoner at 
Poitiers, 155, 313- 



336 



INDEX. 



Sainte-Foi, in Gascony, traversed by the Black 
Prince, 131, 294. 

' Saint George,' a French ship [erroneously 
called English], captured at the battle of 
Sluys, 69, 235, 243. 

Saint-Jean-d'Angely, in Saintogne, taken by 
the English, 77, 249 ; besieged by the 
French, 115, 283, 284. 

Saint-Josse abbey, in Picardy, Edward iii. 
marches through, 86, 253, 255, 257. 

Saint-Lo, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 80, 250, 252, 253, 255. 

Saint-Lys, in Gascony, taken by the Black 
Prince, 131, 294. 

Saint-Martin-Lalande, in Languedoc, tra- 
versed by the Black Prince, 132, 294. 

Saint-Omer, in Picardy, the duke of Lan- 
caster carries a raid as far as, 115. 

Saint Paul, John de, clerk in Chancery, im- 
prisoned, 72, 246. 

Saint PMlibert, John de, baron, aids in a 
defeat of the French in Flanders, 101, 272. 

Saint-Pierre-du-Jonque, in Normandy, 
Edward iii. marches through, 253, 256. 

Saint-Pol, countess of. See Fiennes, 
Jeanne de. 

Saint- Venant, sire de. See Wavrin, Robert 
de. 

Salisbury, parliament at, 43, 217. 

Salisbury, bishops of. See Mortival, Robert ; 
Wyville, Robert. 

Salisbury, earls of. See Montagu, or Mon- 
tacute, William de. 

Salm, Simon, comte de, slain at Crecy, 85, 
254, 262. 

Samatan, in Gascony, taken and burnt by the 
Black Prince, 131, 294. 

Sanoerre, Jean de, slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 

Sancerre, Jean, comte de, taken prisoner at 
Poitiers, 154, 313. 

Sancerre [miscalled Nauver and Nameur], 
Louis, comte de, slain at Crecy, 85, 254, 
262. 

Sandelflome, James, taken prisoner at Ne- 
ville's Cross, 88, 265. 

Sandwich, co. Kent, fight by a ship of, at 
Sluys, 69, 242 ; Edward iii. prepares to in- 
vade France from thence, 125. 

Sauveterre, in Gascony, passed on his march 
by the Black Prince, 131, 294. 

Scone, stone of, its restoration to Scotland 
refused, 40, 41, 216. 



Scotland: invaded by Edward i., I, 3, 177; 
execution of Wallace, 2,170,178; Bruce slays 
Comyn, 3, 1 70 ; conquests by Bruce, 6 ; battle 
of Bannockburn, 7-9, 185-188 ; expedition of 
Edward Bruce to Ireland, 9, 1 89 ; Bruce 
refuses admission of papal envoys and is 
excommunicated, 10 ; takes Berwick, ibid. ; 
invasion by Edward ii. and Scottish incur- 
sion into England, ibid. ; repeated English 
invasion, 14 ; the Scots defeat Edward ii. 
and waste the north of England, 14, 15 ; 
truce, 15, 193; campaign of Edward iii., 35, 
212 ; descent of the crown, 38, 39; peace 
with England, 40, 215 ; terms favourable to 
Scotland, 40, 41 ; surrender by England of 
the Ragman charter, 40, 215; David Bruce 
married to Joan of the Tower, ibid. ; his 
nickname, ibid. ; restoration of the stone of 
Scone refused, 40, 41, 216; Robert Bruce 's 
dying charge to Douglas, 41, 42 ; his death, 
and accession of David Bruce, 38 ; Edward 
Balliol's invasion and battle of Dupplin 
moor, 49, 173, 230; siege of Berwick and 
battle of Halidon Hill, 50-52, 173, 231, 
232 ; Balliol holds a parliament which 
English nobles attend, 53 ; he does homage 
to Edward iii., 53, 232 ; rising against the 
English barons, 53 ; invasion by Edward iii., 
56 ; French envoys mediate between Eng- 
land and Scotland, 56, 233 ; truce with 
England, 56 ; advance of Edward iii. into 
Scotland, and negotiations, ibid. ; abortive 
negotiations, 57, 233; English sent to sup- 
port Balliol, 57; raid into England, 69, 
245 ; invasion by Edward iii., 75, 247 ; 
French troops sent to Scotland, and inva- 
sion of England urged, 86, 263, 264; cruelty 
of David Bruce, 86, 87, 264; invasion of 
England and battle of Neville's Cross, 86- 
89, 263-265 ; losses, 88, 89, 265 ; David 
taken prisoner, 88, 263 ; in the Tower, 96, 
268 ; Edward Balliol sends an envoy to 
England, 96, 269 ; envoys sent for release of 
David Bruce, ibid. ; ravages of the Black 
Death, 100, 271 ; David Bruce at a tourna- 
ment at Windsor, 101 ; incursion by the earl 
of Northampton, and negotiations, 123, 289 ; 
invasion of Edward iii., 126, 291 ; the Scots 
attack his rear-guard, 126, 291, 292. 

Serope.Le, sir Geoffrey, judge, envoy to France, 
61, 235; his retort to cardinal Montfavez, 
65, 238 ; dies at Ghent, 73. 



INDEX. 



337 



Segrave, John de, baron, taken prisoner at 
Bannockburn, 8, 171, 189. 

Seine river, passage at Poissy by Edward Hi., 
81, 250, 254, 258. 

Seissan, in Gascony, taken by the Black 
Prince and burnt, 130, 294. 

Selby, sir Walter, put to death by the Scots, 
86, 87, 263, 264. 

Sens, archbishop of. See Melun, Guil- 
laume de. 

Sept- Vents, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 80, 250, 252, 255. 

Shareshull, William de, judge, removed and 
imprisoned, 72, 246. 

Shoreditoh, sir John de, envoy to France, 66, 
241. 

Shrewsbury, Edward ii. arrives there in pur- 
suit of the barons, 12. 

Shrewsbury, Ralph de, elected bishop of 
Bath and Wells, 45. 

Sicily, the son of the king of, slain at South- 
ampton, 63, 236. 

Silarde [Sainte-Badegonde P], in Gascony, 
taken by the Black Prince, 137, 296. 

Simorre, in Gascony, taken by the Black 
Prince, 130, 294. 

Sluys, in Flanders, English ships captured 
there, 62, 235 ; defeat of the French fleet, 
68, 69, 242-244. 

Somme river, in Picardy, passage of, and 
skirmish, 81, 251, 254, 257-259. 

Sommereux, in Picardy, Edward iii. marches 
through, 81, 251, 252, 254, 256. 

Southampton, sacked by the French, 62, 236 ; 
again threatened, 63, 236, 237 ; a fleet col- 
lected there, 125, 290, 291. 

Spain. See Castillo. 

Spain, Charles of. See Cerda, Charles de 
la. 

Stafford, Ralph, baron, joins Edward Balliol's 
expedition to Scotland, 49, 173 ; serves in 
Aquitaine, 77> 2 49 \ in command of Aiguil- 
lon, ibid. ; defends it against the French, 
78 ; envoy to extend the truce, i oo ; serves 
in Aquitaine, 108 ; created an earl, 114; 
defeats the French in Aquitaine, 121, 287. 

Stafford, sir Richard, serves in Aquitaine, 130, 
297. 

Stanhope park, co. York, the Scots elude 
Edward iii. there, 35. 

Stapleton, sir Miles, sent into Normandy, 
J39. 2 9 8 - 



Stapleton, Walter, bishop of Exeter, accom- 
panies prince Edward to France, 20 ; escapes 
to England, 20, 195 ; murdered, 23, 198 ; 
his murderers excommunicated, 43. 

Star, French order of the : knights slain and 
taken in Brittany and Aquitaine, 120, 121, 
287. 

Stewart, sir Alan, slain at Neville's Cross, 
89, 265. 

Stewart, sir John, taken prisoner at Neville's 
Cross, 88, 265. 

Stewart (of Dreghom\ sir John, slain at 
Neville's Cross, 89, 265. 

Stirling, the castle taken by the Scots, 1 ; 
reduced by Edward i., 2, 177. 

Stonore, sir John, judge, removed and im- 
prisoned, 72, 246. 

Straohan, sir Alexander, slain at Neville's 
Cross, 88, 265. 

Straehan, sir John, slain at Neville's Cross, 
89, 265. 

Stratford, Henry, clerk in Chancery, im- 
prisoned, 72. 

Stratford, John, bishop of Winchester, sent 
to Edward ii., to procure his abdication, 27, 
204, 205 ; accompanies Edward iii. to France, 
48 ; translated to Canterbury, 53 ; sent 
abroad to arrange a crusade, 54 ; his nego- 
tiations in France fail, 55, 56, 233; returns 
from Scotland to the funeral of John of 
Eltham, 58; envoy to France, 61, 235; 
proceeds to Arras, 62 ; reconciled with the 
king, 75, 247 ; his explanation of Edward's 
homage to Philip, ibid. ; his death, 97. 

Stratford, Ralph, bishop of London, buys a 
burial-ground for the victims of the Black 
Death, 99, 270; candidate for a cardinalate, 
112. 

Stratford, Robert, bishop of Chichester, re- 
moved from the chancellorship, 72, 246. 

Strathbogie, David, earl of Atholl, joins 
Edward Balliol's expedition to Scotland, 49, 
173; reported treason of, 56 ; makes peace 
with Edward iii., ibid. slain, 56, 233. 

Strathern, earl of. See Moray, Maurice. 

Stratton, Gilot de, knighted, 129. 

Subsidies. See Aids. 

Suffolk, earl of. See Ufford, Robert de. 

Sully, Henri de, taken prisoner by the Scots, 
14. 

Sully, Louis, sire de, taken prisoner at Poitiers, 
55, SH- 



X X 



INDEX. 



Sumptuary laws, against the use of foreign 

cloth and of furriery, 59. 
Button. See Plymouth. 

Talbot, sir Gilbert, with the Lancastrian 

party, 12 ; imprisoned, 173. 
Talbot, Richard, baron, joins Edward Balliol's 

expedition to Scotland, 49, 173; taken 

prisoner, 53, 232 ; ransomed, 56, 233 ; serves 

in Brittany, 76, 248 ; seneschal of the king's 

household, 96. 

Talbot, sir Richard, envoy to France, 100. 
Tancarville, comte de, and sire de. See 

Meluu, Jean de. 
Taunton, Robert de, implicated in Kent's 

plot, 44, 225. 
Teignmouth, co. Devon, burnt by the French, 

70. 
Teil-Nollent, Le, in Normandy, Edward iii. 

marches through, 80, 250, 253, 256. 
Templars : their condemnation, 5 ; suppressed 

in England, 170. 
Temple-le-Carentoir (?), in Brittany, taken 

by the English, 76, 249. 
Thauet, Isle of, threatened by the French, 63, 

'37- 
The>ouanne, in the Pas de Calais, attacked 

by the duke of Lancaster, 114. 
Thieroeleu, Pierre de, envoy to England, 56, 

233- 
Thil-en-Auxois, Jean de, sire de Chateau- 

Vilain, slain at Poitiers, 155, 314. 
Thomas of Brother-ton, earl of Norfolk and 

marshal, joins queen Isabella's army, 21, 

196 ; marriage of his son with Mortimer's 

daughter, 42, 217; joins Lancaster's party, 

but submits, 42, 43, 217-220. 
Thoresby, John, bishop of Worcester, chan- 
cellor, translated to York, 122. 
Thorp, John de, officer of the exchequer, 

imprisoned, 73. 
Tibetot, or Tiptoft, Pain de, baron, slain at 

Bannockburn, 8, 171, 189. 
Tint^niac, Jean, sire de, slain in Brittany, 

120, 286. 
Torigni, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 80, 250, 255. 
Torteval, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 252, 253, 256. 
Totesham, sir Richard, sent out against 

pirates, HI, 287. 
Toulouse, threatened by the earl of Lancaster, 



77, 249, 277 ; threatened by the Black Prince, 

131, 294. 
Tournaments, at Hereford, 42 ; at Dartford, 

48, 230; in London, ibid. ; at Reading, 73 ; 

at Langley, 73, 246; at Dnnstable and 

Northampton, 75, 247; at Lincoln, 97; at 

Windsor, 101. 
Tournan, in Gascony, taken by the Black 

Prince, 131, 294. 
Tournay, district of, laid waste by Edward 

iii., 65, 238; city of, besieged, 70, 71, 345. 
Trailbaston, commission of, 2, 170, 177. 
Trie, Charles de, comte de Dammartin, taken 

prisoner at Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Troarn, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 80, 250, 252, 253, 256. 
Troissereux, in Picardy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 81, 251, 252, 254, 256. 
Trussel, sir William, renounces homage to 

Edward ii., 28, 205, 206. 
Turnbull, , a Scottish champion at Hali- 

don Hill, slain, 51, 232. 
Turpington, sir Hugh de, slain at the arrest 

of Mortimer, 46, 226-228. 
Tyes, Henry de, baron, joins the confederacy 

against the Despensers, n; executed, 171, 

193- 

TJfford, Robert de, created earl of Suffolk, 59, 
234; taken prisoner at Lille, 67, 241, 242 ; 
serves in the Crecy campaign, 79, 249 ; 
envoy to renew the truce, 98, 269; accom- 
panies theMcing abroad, 102 ; assists at the 
foundation of the Garter, 109; serves in 
Aquitaine, 127, 129, 297; at the battle of 
Poitiers, 143, 300, 306; his prowess, 148, 

33- 

Ulster, earl of. See Lionel of Antwerp. 
TJmfreville, Gilbert de, earl of Angus, takes 

part in the battle of Neville's Cross, 87, 263, 

264. 
TTrsini, Peter, count of Rosenberg, high 

chamberlain of Bohemia, said to be slain at 

Cre'cy, 85, 254, 262. 

Valence, Aymer de, earl of Pembroke, has 
custody of Piers Gaveston, 5, i8a ; joins the 
confederacy against the Despensers, II, 
190; envoy from the barons to the king, 
12. 

Valloire - Abbaye, in Picardy, Edward iii. 
marches through, 86, 253, 255, 257. 



INDEX. 



339 



Valognes, in Normandy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 80, 250, 252, 253, 255. 
Vaudemont, comte de. See Joinville,- 

Henri de. 
Veuddme, Jean, comte de, taken prisoner at 

Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Ventadour, Bernard, comte de, taken prisoner 

at Poitiers, 154, 313. 
Verdon, sir Thomas de, envoy to France, 

98. 
Vere, John de, earl of Oxford, serves in 

Brittany, 76, 248 ; in the Crecy campaign, 

79, 249 ; in Aquitaine, 127, 129, 297 ; in the 

vanguard at the battle of Poitiers, 143, 300, 

306 ; leads the archers against the French 

cavalry, 148, 303. 
Vermandois, laid waste by Edward iii., 65, 

J 3 8. 
Vers, Hugues de, abbat of Corbie, reported 

slain at Crecy, 85, 262. 
Vielcastel, Guillaume de, slain in Brittany, 

1 20, 286. 

Vienne, in Dauphin^, council at, 5. 
Vienne, Jean de, captain of Calais, surrenders, 

91, 267, 268. 
Ville-Arnoul, sire de, taken prisoner at 

Poitiers, 155, 314. 
Villefranehe, in Gascony, taken by the Black 

Prince, 130, 294. 
ViUefranche, in Languedoc, traversed by the 

Black Prince, 132, 294. 
Villenave-d'Ornon, in Guienne, halting-place 

of the Black Prince, 128, 293. 
Villepinte, in Languedoc, traversed by the 

Black Prince, 132, 294. 
Visconti, Giovanni, defeated in a duel, 112, 

113, 281, 282; given captive to the Black 

Prince, 113, 282. 
Vularde, in Languedoc, burnt by the Black 

Prince, 135, 295. 

Wake, Thomas de, baron, refuses to attend 
parliament, but submits, 42, 43, 218; his 
castle of Liddel taken by the Scots, 86, 263, 
264. 

"Wale, sir Thomas, assists at the foundation of 
the Garter, 109, 278; his death, 121, 287. 

"Wales, ravages of the Black Death in, 100, 
371. 

Wallace, sir William, executed, 2, 170, 17". 

Wallingford, co. Berks, Edward iii. holds 
Christmas 1333 there, 53. 



Warr, Roger de la, baron, serves in Aquitaine, 

129, 297. 
Warwick, countess of. See Beauchamp, 

Ela de. 
Warwick, earls of. See Beauchamp, Guy 

de ; Beauchamp, Thomas de. 
Wath, Michael, clerk in Chancery, imprisoned, 

72, 246. 
Wavrin, Robert de, sire de Saint- Venant, 

seneschal of Flanders, slain at Crecy, 85, 

254, 262. 
Wells, co. Somerset, Edward iii. keeps 

Christmas 1331 there, 49. 
Westminster, the abbat of, refuses to sur- 
render the stone of Scone, 41 ; parliaments 

at, 47, 2 3; 59, 234:67, 2 4 X ; 75 ; i", 

289. 
Weston, Philip de, accompanies Edward iii. 

from Flanders, 72. 
Wight, Isle of, threatened by the French, 63, 

236 ; attacked, 70, 245. 
Wigton, earl of. See Fleming, Malcolm. 
Willoughby, Richard de, judge, removed and 

imprisoned, 72, 246. 
Willoughby de Eresby, John, baron, serves 

in Aquitaine, 129, 297. 
Wimille, in Picardy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 253, 257. 
Winchelsea, co. Sussex, defeat of a Spanish 

fleet off, 109-111, 280, 281. 
Winchester, parliament at, 44, 225. 
Winchester, bishops of. See Ediugdoii, 

William ; Orleton, Adam ; Stratford, 

John. 
Winchester, earl of. See Despenser, Hugh 

(the elder). 

Windsor, tournament at, 101. 
Wissant, in Picardy, Edward iii. marches 

through, 255, 257. 
Wodelond, Walter de, carries the standard of 

the Black Prince in the battle of Poitiers, 

15, 34, 3"- 
Woodstock, co. Oxon., the Black Prince 

born there, 45, 48. 
Wool, laws concerning, 59 ; sent to Brabant, 

59, 3 34 ; grants of, to the king, 62, 235 ; 78. 
Wool-staples, establishment of, 122, 289. 
Worcester, Edward ii. marches through, in 

pursuit of the barons, 12. 
Worcester, bishops of. See Cobham, Thomas 

de; Orletou, Adam; Pagham, John de; 

Thoresby, John. 



34 



INDEX. 



"Wrothesley, sir Hugh de, assists at the 
foundation of the Gaiter, 109, 278. 

Wyville, Robert, made bishop of Salisbury, 
45- 

York, parliaments at, 14, 40, 53, 232 ; 56, 
233 ; riot there between Hainaulters and 
English troops, 35, 213, 214. 



York, archbishops of. See Thoresby, John ; 

Zouche, William de la. 
Ypres, in Flanders, appeals to Edward iii. for 

aid, 102. 

Zouche, William de la, archbishop of, York,- 
defeats the Scots at Neville's Cross, 87, 88, 
263; his death, 122. 



THE END. 



o 



BINDING SECT. SEP 8 1965 



DA Baker, Geoffrey 

Ghronicon Galfridi le 
B26 Baker de Swynebroke 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY