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Full text of "A chronological history of electrical development from 600 B.C."

From the collection of the 

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o PreTinger 
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San Francisco, California 
2006 





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A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY 

OF 

ELECTRICAL DEVELOPMENT 

FROM 600 B.C. 



PRICE $2.00 



NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS 
ASSOCIATION 

155 EAST 44th STREET 
NEW YORK 17, N. Y. 



Copyright 1946 

National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Printed in U. S. A. 



Excerpts from this book may be used without permission 



PREFACE 

JN presenting this Electrical Chronology, the National Elec- 
trical Manufacturers Association, which has undertaken its 
compilation, has exercised all possible care in obtaining the 
data included. Basic sources of information have been search- 
ed; where possible, those in a position to know have been con- 
sulted; the works of others, who had a part in developments 
referred to in this Chronology, and who are now deceased, have 
been examined. 

There may be some discrepancies as to dates and data because 
it has been impossible to obtain unchallenged record of the per- 
son to whom should go the credit. In cases where there are 
several claimants every effort has been made to list all of them. 

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association accepts 
no responsibility as being a party to supporting the claims of 
any person, persons or organizations who may disagree with 
any of the dates, data or any other information forming a part 
of the Chronology, and leaves it to the reader to decide for him- 
self on those matters which may be controversial. 

No compilation of this kind is ever entirely complete or final 
and is always subject to revisions and additions. It should be 
understood that the Chronology consists only of basic data from 
which have stemmed many other electrical developments and 
uses. 

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association grate- 
fully acknowledges the generous assistance and advice received 
from its many member companies, and others, and the research 
services of E. S. Lincoln, Consulting Engineer, in the prepara- 
tion of this Chronology. 



FOREWORD 



WHETHER Hoang-ti, the mythical founder of the Chinese 
Empire, was, in 2634 B. C., the first to construct a magnetic 
compass ; or whether such an apparatus was not invented until 1110 
B.C. by Ki-tan, a Chinese minister of state ; or whether this inven- 
tion must be placed at a later date it may, nevertheless, be ac- 
cepted that to the Chinese belongs the honor of having made the 
first application of magnetism to a practical purpose, as well as 
having devised the first practical methods of inducing magnetism 
in iron and steel. The word magnet comes from the fact that lode- 
stones were first found near Magnesia, a city in Asia Minor. The 
word lodestone, an abbreviation for "leading stone" comes from the 
fact, probably discovered by sailors in the northern countries of 
Europe, that this mineral would point to the north if suspended 
like a compass. 

Whether Thales of Miletus, one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, 
who lived in 600 B.C., was the first to observe the electrical effect 
produced when amber is rubbed with a nonconducting substance, 
or whether this knowledge is of an earlier date, the fact remains 
that no practical consequences came from the discovery for more 
than twenty centuries. It was not until after the systems of reason- 
ing, which the Greek successors of Thales imposed for so many ages 
upon the intellect of Europe, began to be displaced by habits of 
thought that recognized nature herself as teacher and no longer 
rested content with the mere dicta of authority that electricity 
passed beyond the stage of metaphysical speculation and entered 
that of physical investigation. 

There is one exception to this statement, for physicians, the only 
representatives of practical science in the days of Greece and Rome, 
seem to have applied electricity to their uses. We read that Galen 
and other physicians referred to the therapeutic value of the electric 
shock from the torpedo fish, which was considered efficacious in the 
cure of gout, inveterate pains in the head, and so forth. In this con- 
nection it is noteworthy that Gilbert, a physician, was the founder 
of modern electrical science, and that the discovery from which sub- 
sequently that science took its greatest impetus, was that of a 
physician, Galvani of Bologna. 

To simplify the development and growth of electrical science 
and the electrical manufacturing industry, the subject may be 



divided into its seven basic principles. This is essential as all electrical 
equipment, devices, and applications fall into one or more of these 
groups. These basic principles are as follows : 



MAGNETIC 

HEATING 

ELECTROSTATIC 



ELECTROCHEMICAL 

ELECTROTHERMAL 

PHOTOELECTRIC 



ELECTRONIC 



In other words, devices operating by means of magnetism, such 
as a generator, motor, transformer, induction furnace, and so on, 
come under the magnetic principle. Under the heading of electric 
heating would come such devices as welding, resistance furnaces, 
heating appliances, thermostats, and many other devices including 
the filament incandescent lamp where the light is a by-product of the 
heat generated in the filament. The electrochemical principle would 
include batteries, electroplating, metal refining, and so on. A list of 
these principles and the types of electrical devices operating on them 
appear in Table I. 

TABLE I 
OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF COMMON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

HEATING 
MAGNETIC ELECTROTHERMIC ELECTRONIC 



Motors 

Generators 

Induction heating furnace 

Transformers 

Magnets (of all types) 

Lifting magnets 

Magnetic separators 

Solenoids 

Communication systems 

Clocks 

Measuring instruments 

Magnetic circuit breakers 

Magnetic brakes 

Annunciators 

Alarms 

Contactors 

Relays 

Oscillographs 

Voltage regulators 

Telephone, wire systems 

Telegraph, wire systems 

Timing devices 

Signal systems 

ELECTROSTATIC 

Smoke prevention 
Dust filtration 
Static voltmeters 



Incandescent lamp 
Heating appliances 
Water heaters 
Room heaters 
Space heaters 
Resistance welding 
Arc welding 
Fuses 

Thermal circuit breakers 
Arc furnaces 
Resistance furnaces 
Radiant type furnaces 
Measuring instruments, 

(hot wire types) 
Branding irons 
Lighters 
Pyrometers 
Thermocouples 



ELECTROMETALLURGICAL 
AND ELECTROCHEMICAL 

Metal refining 
Electroplating 
Storage batteries 
Primary batteries 
Production of chemicals 
Fertilizer production 
Copper oxide rectifiers 
Lightning arresters 



Fluorescent lamp lighting 

by ionized gases 
Ultra-violet lamps 
X-rays 

Mercury vapor lamps 
Mercury arc rectifiers 
Vacuum and gaseous tubes 

or valves 

Cathode ray tubes 
Microscopes 
Oscilloscopes 
Radio 
Television 
Radar 



PHOTOELECTRIC 

Light meters 

Light sensitive tubes 



In this chronology the dates of discovery of the above principles 
are of interest. From those dates it is also interesting to note when 
that discovery led to its actual use by mankind in the form of some 
particular device such as a motor, lamp, toaster, or hundreds of 
other things in common use today. 

It should be realized, moreover, that other discoveries, and inven- 
tions in other branches of science, such as chemistry and metallurgy, 
were important factors in the development and success of the elec- 
trical manufacturing industry. Thus, the perfection of insulating 
materials, alloy steels, and other metals, modern plastics, and so 
forth, all help to make better electrical equipment, motors, and gen- 
erators. Here again the electrical manufacturing industry is directly 
responsible for better metals, better chemicals, better and cheaper 
construction by means of such methods as electric welding. In fact, 
each and every branch of science and the industry that was founded 
on it depends on the other branches of science as progress and per- 
fection are reached for the benefit of all. 

Each science is a tree with a main trunk representing the fun- 
damentals and the branches and leaves the development and ap- 
plication of these fundamentals. Each scientist and engineer has his 
own tree to work with, but civilization is interested in the largest 
tree of all made from the combination of principles taken from all 
the trees of science. Therefore, as far as practicable, discoveries and 
dates in other branches of science of importance to the development 
of electrical devices will be given. This chronology may be considered 
as a large picture puzzle with each piece representing some discovery 
or invention and the date it was placed in the picture. The size and 
shape of each part of the puzzle will be given as far as possible ac- 
cording to its value as a whole in the picture up to the present writing. 
No man who has seen the present picture will ever live to see it com- 
pleted, since new pieces are being put in place and will continue to 
appear as long as civilization exists. In the following pages will be 
found a brief outline of an industry that has done more for mankind 
than any other industry in existence, the backbone of them all. 
Without electricity modern civilization could not exist. 



A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY 



600 THALES (640-546 B.C.) , Greek physical philosopher of Mile- 
B.C. tus, discovers that if amber is rubbed with a cloth it has the 
power to attract light bodies such as feathers, leaves, straw, 
and small bits of wood. This is the origin of static electricity, 
so-called because the particles of electricity "created" on the 
surface of the amber are static. Later Dr. William Gilbert (see 
1570) coined the word "electricity" from the Greek word for 
amber, "elektron." It was not until 2500 years later (1905) 
that static electricity was put to any practical use in the 
process of "smoke removal and dust prevention." (In 1904 
a patent was taken out for a device to neutralize static 
electricity.) 

400 DEMOCRITUS (460-357 B.C.) , Greek philosopher, propounds 
B.. the theory of atomic structure of matter, saying atoms are 
in perpetual motion and are indivisible. 

56 TITUS LUCRETIUS CARUS (98-55 B.C.) reiterates Demo- 
B.C. critus' statements on atomic theory, writes a poem, "De Rerum 
Natura," in which he explains and develops atomistic cos- 
mology. He makes allusions to magnet iron filings in brass 
basin with movable lodestone underneath: magnetic attrac- 
tion and repulsion. 

1000 THE COMPASS, possibly introduced from China, is used in 

A.D. navigation by Europeans. The pointing of the compass needle 

to north is attributed to the influence of the pole star. 

1268 Letter of PETER PEREGRINUS ( ) of Picard gives 
an acute study of the magnetic properties of lodestone. 

1269 ROGER BACON (1214-1292), English scientist, writes his 
famous treatises, with emphasis on experimental methods of 
attraction and repulsion. 

1558 JOHN PORTA (1540-1650) writes of "sympathetic needles" 
magnetized by the same lodestone, mounted on separate dials 
with letters around their margins. When one needle turns the 
other moves to the same letter. 

[The definitions with six-digit numbers appearing throughout this volume are taken from the 
American Standard Definitions of Electrical Terms C42-1941.] 



1570 DR. WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) of England, court phy- 
sician to Queen Elizabeth, discovers that many substances 
other than the already known amber and jet possess electrical 
properties. He shows that "a lodestone attracts only magnetic 
bodies, electrics attract everything." He makes a distinction 
between electric and magnetic bodies in that while all magnetic 
bodies come together by their joint forces, electric bodies 
attract the electric only. Gilbert found that the attractive 
power of the former is influenced by moisture and heat, thus 
leading to the invention of the first electrical instrument, a 
crude form of electroscope. From the term "electric" thus 
used by Gilbert, the word "electricity" and its derivatives 
have originated. 

1600 Dr. Gilbert (see 1570) publishes his "De Magnete, Magneticis- 
que Corporibus" ; Gilbert conceives that the earth itself pos- 
sesses the properties of a magnet. He demonstrated that the 
attractive powers of a magnet can be affected only by a screen 
of magnetic metal. In the case of electrics, any body, such as 
paper or cloth, will hinder its action. He established that the 
attraction of an electric was directed from the center, that 
of a magnet proceeded from the poles, emphasizing that an 
electrified body does not possess polarity. He discovered that 
if a magnet is separated into parts, each part becomes a 
magnet; upon reassembling, their forces are joined with a 
common polarity. He observed that iron, if hammered when 
in the magnetic meridian, becomes a magnet and assumes a 
polarity "from the direction in which it lies while being ham- 
mered, stretched, or pulled," or, "according to its position dur- 
ing heating and cooling." The principle of the "keeper" of 
magnets was observed when Gilbert found that a lodestone 
kept in iron filings lasts longer. 

1629 NICOLAUS CABEO (1585-1650) presents a theory of re- 
pulsion of similarly electrified bodies. 

1650 OTTO VON GUERICKE (1602-1686), German physicist, 
makes the first electrical machine consisting of a sulphur 
ball turned by a crank on an axis and excited by the friction 
of the hand. This crude apparatus was the means by which 
the first electric light was produced, or first recognized. By 
its means he established definitely the principle of electrical 
repulsion. The principle of electrification by induction was 

10 



observed but not established. Von Guericke's name is most 
closely associated with the discovery of producing light from 
electricity. Upon drawing a piece of amber swiftly through a 
woolen cloth and exerting pressure on it with his hand, crack- 
lings were heard and everyone of these produced a little flash 
of light ; drawing the amber gently through the cloth produced 
only light, no sound, but by holding his finger at a little dis- 
tance from the amber, a large crackling was produced with 
a larger flash of light succeeding it. 

1709 FRANCIS HAWKSBEE ( ), an Englishman, 

constructs an electrical machine. This machine consisted of 
a hollow glass sphere which was evacuated and rotated by 
means of a crank and belt arrangement. Hawksbee noticed 
that if he rotated the sphere at the desired speed and placed 
his hand on the surface of the revolving globe, the glass globe 
became filled with a light sufficient to read by. 

1726 JOHN WOOD ( ), an Englishman, discovers that 

static electricity can be conveyed by pieces of metal. 

1729 STEPHEN GRAY (1696-1736), English electrician, evolves 
the conception of conductors and nonconductors of electricity, 
which led to the discovery of electrical insulation, and sup- 
plants Dr. Gilbert's classification of "electrics and non- 
electrics." 

1730 GRANVILLE WHEELER ( ) and Stephen Gray 
(see 1729) in England, send electricity through 886 feet of 
wire. 

1733 CHARLES FRANCIS DE CISTERNAY DU FAY (1698-1739) , 
of Paris, discovers there are only "two kinds" of electric- 
ity vitreous (positive) and resinous (negative) ; announces 
the fundamental law of electricity that "like charges repel and 
unlike attract." Du Fay, continuing along the lines of Gray's 
experiments (see 1729) discovered that all bodies, solid and 
liquid, could be electrified, by first placing them on glass 
stands. This contradicted the former classification of electrics 
and nonelectrics. He found that moisture assisted the passage 
of current in pack thread, and that substances most easily 
electrified by friction were the worst conductors, and "vice- 
versa." The terms "conductors" and "nonconductors" were 
coined. 

11 



1745 E. G. VON KLEIST (died 1748) and PIETER VAN MUSS- 

CHENBROEK (1692-1761) independently discover the prin- 
ciple of the Ley den jar a jar in which charges of static 
electricity can be built up and stored. Von Kleist's discovery 
was brought about when he placed a liquid in a glass vial and 
electrified the glass. Holding the vial in one hand, he touched 
the liquid with the other hand and experienced a shock. 

1746 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-1790), American statesman 
and philosopher, advances the single-fluid theory of electricity 
and proposes the plus and minus designations (+and ) . 

1750 JOHN MICHELL (1729-1793), English philosopher and 
geologist, writes his "Treatise of Artificial Magnets," which 
contains the inverse-square law of force between poles. 

1752 Benjamin Franklin (see 1746) and many others conduct 
experiments on discharge from pointed rods during thunder- 
storms. In his famous kite experiment, Franklin identifies 
atmospheric with frictional electricity, i.e., he proves that 
electricity in the clouds and static electricity produced by a 
hand-cranked machine are the same. As early as 1749, Franklin 
is credited with inventing the first lightning rod. According 
to Franklin's celebrated theory of the lightning rod, a pointed 
rod gradually draws off the electricity in the atmosphere, thus 
dissipating a charge before it becomes formidable. As a 
lightning discharge is now considered to be due to the breaking 
down of the air between the object struck and a charged cloud 
through the existence of an enormous dielectric stress, this 
theory is no longer tenable. 

1753 GEORGE LOUIS LESAGE, JR. (1724-1803), Swiss philo- 
sopher, carries out in Geneva the idea of using a separate wire 
for each letter of the alphabet, and by attaching a pith-ball 
electroscope to each wire, he made the first electric telegraph 
(static electricity). 

1753 The first practical suggestion of telegraphy is made by a 
Scotchman who signs his proposals "C.M." A letter signed by 
'C.M." is published in "Scotts Magazine" entitled "An Expedi- 
tious Method of Conveying Intelligence," and refers to a 
method of transmitting messages by frictional electricity. It 
suggested the use of a separate wire for each letter of the 
alphabet. Later "C.M." is identified as CHARLES MORRISON. 

12 



1753 JOHN CANTON (1718-1772), English physicist, directs at- 
tention to and elucidates the phenomenon of electrostatic in- 
duction. He also invents an electroscope and electrometer. 

1759 FRANCIS AEPINUS (1728-1802), a German scholar, en- 
larges upon Franklin's theory (see 1746) . He states that "the 
particles of the electric fluid repel each other and attract and 
are attracted by the particles of all bodies with a force that 
decreases in proportion as the distance increases ; the electric 
fluid exists in the pores of bodies; it moves unobstructedly 
through non-electric (conductors), but moves with difficulty 
in insulators ; the manifestations of electricity are due to the 
unequal distribution of the fluid in a body, or to the approach 
of bodies unequally charged with the fluid." Aepinus is credited 
with being the first to realize the reciprocal relationship of 
electricity and magnetism. 

1759 ROBERT SYMMER (died 1763) advances the two-fluid theory 
of electricity. 

1766 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804), English philosopher and 
chemist, discoverer of oxygen, infers the inverse-square law 
for the force between charges. 

1767 JOHANN GEORG SULZER (1720-1779) of the Academic 
Royale des Sciences et Belleslettres de Berlin discovers that 
by placing two metals, one of silver and one of lead, on his 
tongue he can taste what is later known as voltaic action. 

1767 THOMAS LANE (1734-1807) devises his discharging- jar 
electrometer. 

1767 Priestley (see 1766) publishes his "History of Electricity". 

1771 LUIGI GALVANI (1737-1798), Italian physiologist, "father 
of galvanic electricity," discovers that legs severed from a 
newly killed frog contract when touched at different points by 
two pieces of dissimilar metals that also touch one another. 
Authorities disagree as to the dates of this discovery, one gives 
1780, another 1771, and a third 1790. 

1772 WILLIAM HENLEY (died about 1779), English electrician, 
devises his electroscope, a crude form of electrometer. 

13 



1775 ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745-1827), professor of natural 
history at the University of Pavia, Italy, invents the electro- 
phorus. Later, the volt, the unit of electrical pressure, is named 
for him. He invented the first absolute electrometer and in 
connection with the condenser, he produced a plate form as a 
substitute for the Leyden jars (condenser). The international 
"volt" is the voltage that will produce a current of one inter- 
national ampere through a resistance of one international ohm 
(Amer. Std. Def . 05.35.185) . The "Volta Effect," or the contact 
potential, states that "when two dissimilar uncharged metals 
are placed in contact with each other, one becomes positively 
charged and the other negatively charged, and a difference of 
potential, depending on the nature of the metals, is set up 
between them" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.40.045). 

1775 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) discovers the inductive 
capacity of dielectrics (insulators) and measures the specific 
inductive capacity for beeswax and other substances by com- 
parison with an air condenser. 

1778 Volta (see 1775) publishes his "Dissertation on the Capacity 
of a Conductor". 

1779 Volta (see 1775) announces his construction of the voltaic 
pile, the first electric battery, which transforms chemical 
energy into electrical energy (see also 1800) . Conversely, if an 
electric current is passed through water between platinum 
electrodes, oxygen is given off at one pole and hydrogen at the 
other. 

1785 CHARLES AUGUSTINE DE COULOMB (1736-1806) , French 
scientist, experimentally verifies the inverse-square law for 
charges and for magnetic poles. Coulomb's memoirs tell of his 
work with the torsion balance in verifying Priestley's law of 
electrical repulsion. He demonstrated that the internal surface 
of a conducting body cannot be charged with static electricity, 
proving that electricity only distributes itself by virtue of its 
own repulsion and showing that it can only be found in a state 
of equilibrium on the surface. Later, the "coulomb" unit of 
electrical quantity, is named in his honor and defined as fol- 
lows : "The international "coulomb" is the quantity of electric- 
ity which passes any section of an electric current in one 
second, when the current in the circuit is one international 
ampere" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.35.175). 

14 



"Coulomb's Law", or the law of electrostatic attraction, states 
that "the force of attraction or repulsion between two charges 
of electricity concentrated at two points in an isotropic medium 
is proportional to the product of their magnitudes and is inver- 
sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 
The force between unlike charges is an attraction ; between like 
charges a repulsion" (Am. Std. Def . 05.40.005) . 

1786 Galvani (see 1771) makes further observations on muscular 
contractions produced by electrical discharges in decapitated 
frogs and advances his theory of "animal electricity." 

1787 ABRAHAM RENNET (1750-1799), English electrician, in- 
vents the gold-leaf electroscope. 

1794 Volta (see 1775) demonstrates contact electrification by 
means of his condensing electroscope. 

1799 GIOVANNI VALENTINO MATTIA FABBRONI (1752- 

1822), Italian naturalist, of Florence, Italy, notes the chemical 
action of a current. 

1800 WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1735-1815), English writer on 
natural philosophy, and SIR A. CARLISLE (1768-1840), 
English physiologist, build the first voltaic pile in England, 
discover decomposition of a liquid by electrolysis. 

1800 Volta (see 1775) gains recognition as the discoverer of the first 
true battery (the Voltaic Pile) by publishing his paper "On the 
Electricity Excited by the Mere Contact of Condensing Sub- 
stances of Different Kinds." The discovery of Volta was that 
in multiplying couples formed of disks of copper and zinc 
soldered together in alternate relation, the couples being 
separated by damp bodies, such as disks of cloth soaked in 
saline or acid solution, and so placed that a zinc disk is always 
between two copper disks and vice versa, then a tension is 
produced between the terminal disks of the pile sufficient to 
produce effects similar to those obtained from the Ley den jar, 
which until then had been, with its static generator, the only 
considerable source of electricity. To this invention, whose 
greatest significance lies in the accompanying discovery of 
current electricity, we owe the development of modern 
electrical science and industry. 

15 



1800 JONATHAN GROUT, JR. ( ) takes out the first 

telegraph patent in the United States on October 24. 

1800 WILLIAM CRUICKSHANK (1745-1800) of England devises 
a trough to eliminate the difficulty of maintaining moisture 
in the spongy spaces of the voltaic pile. His researches lead 
to the process of electroplating. 

1800 SIR HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) , British scientist, notices 
that a brilliant spark appears when he breaks contact between 
two carbon rods connected to the two poles of a battery, and it 
is announced in "Nicholson's Journal." He develops a crude arc 
lamp (1808) which is not practical because he cannot main- 
tain a continuous arc (no battery that could supply a con- 
tinuous flow of current had been developed at this time) . 

1805 CHRISTIAN JOHANN DIETRICH GROTTHUSS (1785- 
1822) in Rome, advances his theory of electrochemical de- 
composition. 

1807 Sir Humphry Davy (see 1800) produces sodium and potassium 
by electrolysis. 

1808 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844), English chemist and physicist, 
announces his atomic theory that atoms are particles of 
matter, indestructible and incapable of further subdivision, a 
supposition supplanted by the study of atomic structure. 

1808 Sir Humphry Davy (see 1800) produces the first electric arc, 
using a battery of 2,000 voltaic cells. 

1809 SAMUEL THOMAS VON SOMMERING (1755-1830), Ger- 
man anatomist, constructs a telegraph at Munich using a wire 
for each letter and figure. His method employed voltaic or 
contact electricity for the transmission of telegraph signals. 

1811 SIMEON DENIS POISSON (1781-1840), French mathem- 
atician, explains his theory of electric and magnetic potential, 
publishes a paper on the mathematical theory of electrostatics 
which forms the basis of the modern theory of that branch 
of electricity. 

1811 AMEDEO AVOGADRO, Conte di Quaregma (1776-1856), 
Italian physicist, defines the smallest particle of a compound 

16 



as a molecule. Avogadro's Law : Under the same conditions of 
temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain 
the same number of smallest particles or molecules, whether 
three particles consist of single atoms or are composed of two 
or more atoms of the same or different kinds. 

1816 SIR FRANCIS RONALDS (1788-1873) , English meteorologist 
and electrician, operates a system by which disks at each end 
of a wire revolve slowly in unison, so that a signal sent when 
the desired letter appeared on one disk indicates the same 
letter on the other disk. 

1819 JAMES WATT (1736-1819), Scottish engineer and inventor, 
famous for his improvements in steam engine design, dies. In 
his honor the name "watt" is given to the unit of electric power. 
The American Standards Association defines the "watt" as 
follows : "The international watt is the power expended when 
one international ampere flows between two points having a 
potential difference of one international volt" (05.35.205) . 

1820 PROFESSOR ANDRE-MARIE AMPERE (1775-1836), 
French physicist, develops a terminology for electricity, pub- 
lishes papers explaining the nature of the electric current and 
its relation to magnetism, and develops his famous solenoid. 
The principles laid down by Ampere and Oersted (see 1826) 
established the science of measuring electricity by means of 
magnets. In recognition of Ampere's pioneer work, the "am- 
pere," the unit of electric current, is named in his honor. The 
American Standards Association defines the "ampere" as fol- 
lows: "The international 'ampere* is defined as the current 
which will deposit silver at the rate of 0.00111800 gram per 
second" (05.35.170). 

1820 Ampere places small magnets at the ends of 26 wires to signal 
the letters of the alphabet. 

1820 DOMINIQUE FRANCOIS JEAN ARAGO (1786-1853), 
French physicist, discovers that a magnet can be made by 
placing an iron or steel bar in the center of one of Ampere's 
solenoids when a current is passing through the solenoid. 

1820 Sir Humphry Davy (see 1801) independently discovers the 
magnetizing effect of the electric current on steel and iron. 
He later described how the electric arc may be deflected by 
a magnet. 

17 



1820 DE LA RUE ( ) makes a lamp with a coil of 

platinum wire for a burner. This was enclosed in a piece of 
glass tubing, the ends of which had brass caps. It was sup- 
posed to have had a vacuum, but how this was accomplished 
is not clear. This was the earliest record of any attempt to 
make an incandescent lamp. 

1820 JEAN BAPTISTE BIOT (1774-1862) and FELIX SAVART 

(1791-1841) announce their law by which the force produced at 
a given distance by a straight conductor of infinite length can 
be calculated. 

"Biot-Savart Law," or the magnetic intensity produced by an 
electric current, is as follows (Am. Std. Def . 05.40.100) : "The 
magnetic intensity at any point in the neighborhood of a cir- 
cuit in which an electric current is flowing can be computed on 
the assumption that every infinitesimal length of circuit 
produces at the point an infinitesimal magnetic intensity and 
the resulting magnetic intensity at the point is the vector sum 
of the contributions of all the elements of the circuit." (Note: 
This law is sometimes attributed to Biot-Savart, sometimes to 
Ampere, but neither gave it in its differential form.) 

1821 JOHANN CHRISTIAN POGGENDORFF (1796-1877), Ger- 
man physicist, evolves a condensator or multiplicator a crude 
form of galvanometer. 

1821 AUGUSTE ARTHUR DE LA RIVE (1801-1873), Swiss 
physicist, introduces another manifestation of electromagnetic 
effects with his floating battery: two electrodes supported by 
a cork so that they float in an electrolyte. He also discovers 
the process of electrogilding. 

1821 ROBERT HARE (1781-1858), professor of chemistry at the 
University of Pennsylvania, designs a battery in which copper 
and zinc plates are interleaved. 

1821 SIR CHARLES WHEATSTONE (1802-1875), physicist of 
Kings College, London, coins the word "telephone" after study- 
ing methods for transmitting sound. 

1821 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867), English chemist and 
physicist, working with Sir Humphry Davy in London, dis- 
covers magnetoelectricity, produces rotation of a wire carry- 

18 



ing a current around a pole (a crude electric motor) . Faraday 
established the theory that when electrification is produced by 
friction, by induction, or by any other means, the positive and 
negative charges so produced are always equal. He also estab- 
lished the fact that the charge on the outside of any closed 
conductor is distributed in such a way that it produces no 
electric field or electric force inside the closed conductor. The 
unit of electrical capacitance, the "farad," is named in his 
honor and defined as follows : "The international farad" is the 
capacitance of a capacitor if a charge of one international 
coulomb produces a potential difference between the terminals 
of one international volt" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.35.195). 

1823 PETER BARLOW (1776-1862) , mathematician and physicist 
of Woolwich Academy, England, in his "Essay on Magnetic 
Attractions," tells how he developed his electromagnetic wheel, 
assisted by James Marsh. 

1823 PROFESSOR JOHANN SALOMO CHRISTOPH SCHWEIG- 

GER (1779-1857), physicist, of Halle, Germany, introduces 
the first true galvanometer, which he calls a galvanic mul- 
tiplier and sometimes a rheometer, to measure the amount of 
current flowing in a circuit. 

1823 DR. THOMAS JOHANN SEEBECK (1770-1831), Berlin 
(or physicist, discovers thermal emf (electromotive force) ; 
earlier) announces that in building up on a conducting circuit of two 

different metals, a current will flow if heat is applied at the 
junction of the metals. The "Seebeck Effect," or thermo- 
electric effect, is defined as follows: "An electromotive force 
results from a difference of temperature between two junc- 
tions of dissimilar metals in the same circuit" (Am. Std. Def. 
05.40.055). 

1824 Arago (see 1820) causes a compass to rotate by rotating a 
copper disk near it. This is known as "Arago's Disk," and con- 
sists of a horizontal nonmagnetic disk capable of being rotated 
rapidly. Suspended above its center is a magnetic needle. Upon 
revolving the disk, the needle takes up the rotating motion. 
This is caused by the action on the needle of the induced current 
set up in the disk by the magnetism of the needle. 

1825 WILLIAM STURGEON (1783-1850), English physicist, con- 
structs his electromagnet by leaving a bar of magnetic material 
permanently in a solenoid. 

19 



1825 PROFESSOR ANTOINE CESAR BECQUEREL (1788-1878) 
of Paris designs a differential galvanometer ; it has two coils 
with a magnetic needle between them, and is used to measure 
small difference in current. Becquerel received a medal for his 
memoirs on electricity, particularly for those on the produc- 
tion of metallic sulphurets and sulphur by the long continued 
action of electricity of low tension. 

1826 PROFESSOR HANS CHRISTIAN OERSTED (1777-1851) of 
the University of Copenhagen discovers the deflection of a 
compass by a current, and the fact that the magnet exerts a 
force on the wire carrying the current. 

1826 Becquerel (see 1825) finds that in a closed circuit containing 
two dissimilar metals the amount of current that will flow 
due to heat is determined by the difference in temperature 
between the two points of contact of the metals. 

1827 PROFESSOR GEORG SIMON OHM (1787-1854), German 
physicist, announces the law (later called Ohm's law) that, in 
a given circuit, the current in amperes is equal to the pressure 
in volts divided by the resistance in ohms. The "ohm" is named 
in his honor and is defined as "the resistance at zero degree 
centigrade of a column of mercury of uniform cross-section, 
having a length of 106.300 centimeters and a mass of 14.4521 
grams" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.35.180). 

"Ohm's Law" is defined as follows (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.025) : 
"Ohm's law states that the current in an electric circuit is 
directly proportional to the electromotive force in the circuit. 
Ohm's law does not apply to all circuits. It is applicable to all 
metallic circuits and to many circuits containing an electro- 
lytic resistance. Ohm's law was first enunciated for a circuit 
in which there is a constant electromotive force and an unvary- 
ing current. It is applicable to varying currents if account is 
taken of the induced electromotive force resulting from the 
self inductance of the circuit and of the distribution of current 
in the cross-section of the circuit." 

1827 Probably the first commercial telegraph system in the United 
States is constructed by HARRISON G. DYAR ( ) 

to send results from a race course at Long Island City, N. Y. 

1827 PROFESSOR JACOB GREEN (1790-1841), Philadelphia 
teacher and chemist, in his book on electromagnetism discusses 

20 



a vertical bar magnet, supported on needle points, developed 
by DR. J. F. DANA (1793-1827), professor of chemistry at 
New York University. 

1827 DR. PETER MARK ROGET (1779-1869), English physician 
to and savant, devises a form of electromagnetic action that 
1831 produces a reciprocating motion, writes treatises on electricity, 
galvanism, magnetism, and electromagnetism. 

1829 ROBERT WILLIS (1800-1875), scientist of Cambridge, Eng- 
land, studies vowel sounds, lays the foundation for Wheat- 
stone's studies and the experiments of Helmholtz. 

1829 PROFESSOR JOSEPH HENRY (1797-1878) teacher of 
physics at the Albany Academy, Albany, New York, constructs 
the first electromagnetic motor, an oscillating machine with 
automatic pole changer. 

1830 REV. WILLIAM RITCHIE (1790-1837) , professor of natural 
philosophy at the Royal Institution of London, demonstrates 
in his classroom Ampere's idea (see 1820) that by using a 
separate wire to represent each letter of the alphabet, and by 
placing a magnetic needle at the terminal of each circuit, 
telegraphic messages can be transmitted. 

1831 Joseph Henry (see 1829) discovers the emf (lectromotive 
force) of self -inductance, invents the electric bell. Henry, noted 
for his research in electromagnetism, has many electrical firsts 
to his credit. He was the first to insulate iron for a magnetic 
coil and the first to work out the differing functions of two 
kinds of electromagnets, the one surrounded by numerous coils 
of no great length, the other surrounded by a continuous coil 
of very great length. Henry increased the lifting power of the 
magnet from nine pounds to 3,500 pounds. Every electric 
dynamo or motor now uses the electromagnet in virtually the 
same form in which Henry left it. In 1830 and 1831 Henry 
invented what appears to have been the first practical electro- 
magnetic telegraph, and developed a relay for electric circuits. 
In 1893 the International Congress of Electricians in Chicago 
gave Henry's name to the unit of inductive resistance, defined 
as follows : "The international 'henry' is the inductance which 
produces an electromotive force of one international volt when 
the current is changing at the rate of one international ampere 
per second" (Amer. Std. Def . 05.35.190) . 

21 



1831 Faraday (see 1821) develops his disk dynamo, announces that 
an electromotive force is set up in a conducting wire when it is 
moved at right angles to a magnetic field. He and Joseph Henry 
(see 1829) are credited with developing the first experimental 
electric motors. 

"Faraday's Law," or the law of electromagnetic induction, is 
defined as: "The electromotive force induced in a circuit is 
proportional to the time rate of change of the flux of magnetic 
induction linked with the circuit. When the change in flux 
linkages is caused by the motion, relative to a magnetic field, 
of a conductor forming part of an electric circuit, the electro- 
motive force induced in the circuit is proportional to the rate 
at which the conductor cuts the flux of magnetic induction" 
(Am. Std. Def. 05.40.010). 

1831 The first transformer was made by Faraday during his ex- 
periments on producing electricity by magnetism. The ap- 
paratus used consisted of an iron ring wound with two coils 
of bare wire, one about 72 feet and the other 60 feet long, the 
turns being separated by twine and the layers separated by 
calico. The longer coil was connected to a primary battery, 
and a loop of the other passed over a magnetic needle. When 
the battery circuit was made or broken, the needle was deflected 
one way or the other by the induced current set up. 

1832 HIPPOLYTE PIXII ( ) of Paris develops a com- 
mutator for direct current generators. One of his dynamos 
consists of a fixed horseshoe armature wound over with in- 
sulated copper wire, in front of which revolves a horseshoe 
magnet about a vertical axis. A replica of this generator is at 
the Edison Institute in Dearborn, Michigan. 

1832 BARON PAWEL LWOWITSCH SCHILLING ( ) 

of Cronstadt develops a telegraphic instrument using a sep- 
arate wire to represent each letter of the alphabet. By placing 
a magnetic needle at the terminal of each circuit, telegraphic 
messages can be transmitted. 

1833 JOSEPH SAXTON (1799-1873), American inventor, exhibits 
his magnetoelectric machine before the British Association. 
Saxton constructs the instrument by which Wheat stone (see 
1821) measures the velocity of electricity in its passage 
through a long wire. 

22 



1833 Ritchie (see 1830) is the first to use on a motor an arrange- 
(or ment similar to the commutator of a generator. 

earlier) 

1833 Faraday (see 1821) calls the process of decomposition by 
electricity, "electrolysis." The wire carrying the current into 
the solution is called the "anode," and the wire by which the 
current leaves, the "cathode." The solution itself is called the 
"electrolyte." He discovers the laws of electrochemical de- 
composition: the amount decomposed by an electric current 
is proportional to the current flowing and to the time during 
which it flows; and when an electrolyte, or a series of elec- 
trolytes, is decomposed by an electric current, the components 
into which it is separated are always chemically equivalent. 

1834 Faraday (see 1821) announces results of his study of self- 
induction. 

1834 PROFESSORS WILHELM EDUARD WEBER (1804-1891), 
German physicist and KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1777- 
1855), German physicist and mathematician, develop an 
electromagnetic telegraph system based on the experiments 
of Schilling (see 1832) . They used a single wire 9,000 feet long 
and a magnet needle to communicate with each other in Got- 
tingen. They demonstrated that combinations of only five signs 
are sufficient for communication. They also designed instru- 
ments for magnetic measurements, including the declination 
instrument and the bifilar magnetometer ; Gauss is the founder 
of the mathematical theory of electricity the unit of the 
magnetic field has been called the "gauss" in his honor. 

1834 Professor Atoine Becquerel (see 1825) observes the deposition 
of metal on one of two electrodes introduced into solutions 
of the salts of the various metals, and shortly after discovers 
that metals could be evenly deposited out of a solution upon an 
electrode by means of the electric current. This was the foun- 
dation for the discovery of electroplating. 

1834 The heating and cooling effect (the "Peltier Effect") of electric 
current at a junction of two dissimilar metals in a circuit 
carrying an electric current is discovered by JEAN CHARLES 
ATHANASE PELTIER (1785-1845), French physicist. The 
"Peltier Effect" is defined as follows: "When a current flows 

23 



across the junction of two dissimilar metals, it causes either 
an absorption or liberation of heat, depending on the direction 
of the current, at a rate proportional to the first power of the 
current" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.050). 

1834 HENRI FREDERIC EMILE LENZ (1804-1885), Russian 
physicist, announces his law on the direction of an induced 
current: "The current induced in a circuit as a result of its 
motion in a magnetic field is in such a direction as to exert 
a mechanical force opposing the motion" (Am. Std. Def. 
05.40.020). 

1835 FRANCIS WATKINS ( ) of London, designs a motor 
consisting of stationary coils facing a bar magnet mounted 
on a shaft. 

1835 EDWARD M. CLARKE ( ), English instrument 
maker, exhibits his generator. 

1836 SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE (1791-1872) makes his 
first telegraph instrument from an old picture frame, exhibits 
it in 1837 at the University of the City of New York. 

1836 Weber and Gauss (see 1834) transmit telegraph signals by 
means of an electromagnetic inductor instead of by a battery. 

1836 WILLIAM FOTHERGILL COOKE (1806-1879) , English elec- 
trician, designs a telegraph based on Schilling's experiments 
of 1832. 

1836 Wheatstone (see 1821) begins his studies of the velocity of 
electric propagation. 

1836 William Sturgeon (see 1825) makes the first application of 
Ampere's principle to a galvanometer, inaugurates the "An- 
nals of Electricity" the first electrical journal. 

1836 JOHN FREDERIC DANIELL (1790-1845), physicist and 
professor of chemistry at Kings College, London, produces a 
nonpolarizing battery consisting of an amalgamated zinc rod 
in dilute sulphuric acid. 

1837 PROFESSOR CLAUDE POUILLET (1791-1868) of Paris in- 
troduces his sine galvanometer and proposes the first tangent 
galvanometer. 

24 



1837 Faraday (see 1821) discovers that the intervening medium 
affects the force between charges. 

1837 Professor Wheatstone (see 1821) becomes a partner of William 
F. Cooke (see 1836) and both take out an English patent for 
a commercial telegraph system. They were granted a United 
States patent June 10, 1840, antedated June 12, 1837. 

1837 PROFESSOR CHARLES GRAFTON PAGE (1812-1868), 
physicist, of Salem, Massachusetts, invents a "galvanic multi- 
plier" with a vertical revolving electromagnet, an electric 
motor based on Ritchie's (see 1830) original design. He also 
developed several other types of motors, one a modification 
of Joseph Henry's (see 1829) electromagnetic machine. Page 
also experimented with sound waves, discovered that musical 
notes can be transmitted by electromagnetic means. 

1837 THOMAS DAVENPORT (1802-1851), inventor, of Brandon, 
Vermont, develops several types of electric motors for in- 
dustrial work and is generally credited with being the first 
to produce a commercially successful electric motor. His first 
motor consisted of a stationary, vertical-horseshoe, perman- 
ent magnet supporting a vertical shaft carrying a U-shaped 
electromagnet with a metal commutator and a pulley. Later, 
Davenport used an electromagnet instead of the permanent 
magnet. This motor weighed 50 pounds, made 450 revolutions 
per minute. Davenport received U. S. Patent No. 132, dated 
February 25, 1837, on "Improvements in propelling machinery 
by magnetism and electro-magnetism." The original machine 
constructed by Davenport is on exhibition at the Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. 

1838 Wheatstone (see 1821) and Cooke (see 1836) install a thirteen 
mile telegraph out of Paddington Railway Station, London, 
using six wires with five needles at the end of the line pointing 
to letters on a dial. Later, only a single needle was used. 

1839 PROFESSOR MORITZ-HERMANN DE JACOBI (1801-1874) 
of St. Petersburg, Russia, with a $2,500 grant from the Czar, 
uses an electromagnetic machine to propel a boat, "a ten-oared 
shallop furnished with paddle wheels." The boat carried as 
many as twelve passengers for several days at a time, but 
Jacobi apparently abandons his experiments because the cost 

25 



of the battery and other equipment made the use of motors 
unsuitable for that kind of service. 

1839 SIR WILLIAM ROBERT GROVE (1811-1896) , English scien- 
tist, improves Cruickshank's trough (see 1800) and develops 
his own battery. 

1839 The first electrotypes are produced from a wood engraving by 
JOSEPH A. ADAMS of New York City. They were published 
the following year in "Mapes Magazine." 

1839 ALEXANDER EDMOND BECQUEREL (1820-1891) , French 
scientist, discovers that light affects the resistance value of 
selenium. This gave the first photoelectric cell the means of 
changing light into electrical currents. 

1840 ROBERT DAVIDSON ( ) of Aberdeen, Scotland, 
receives a grant from the Scottish Society of Arts for his 
electrical experiments. He uses two electromagnets and a 
square foot of zinc surface to operate a lathe capable of turn- 
ing out small articles. To drive a carriage carrying two persons 
he uses "galvanic power." When he receives the grant, David- 
son equips a light carriage with eight electromagnets operating 
upon bars of soft iron set into wooden cylinders attached to 
the carriage axles. The electromagnets are attached to bat- 
teries through commutators connected in the proper sequence 
to produce a series of magnetic pulls upon the iron bars, 
causing the carriage axles to rotate. The carriage attains a 
speed of four miles an hour. 

1840 Samuel F. B. Morse (see 1836) is granted Patent No. 1,647 
for "Telegraph Signs." This telegraph makes possible instan- 
taneous communication between distant corners of the land. 

1840 Weber (see 1834), who collaborated with Gauss (see 1834) in 
Gottingen, shows how an electric current can be measured in 
absolute units by its action on the horizontal suspended 
needle of a "tangent galvanometer," after the horizontal com- 
ponent of the earth's local magnetic field in absolute measure- 
ment has been determined. From this date until about 1890 
precise measurements of electric currents were made either 
with an electrodynamometer or with some modification of the 
tangent galvanometer, so that a knowledge of the horizontal 

26 



intensity of the earth's local magnetic field was of some im- 
portance. Electrical laboratories during this period ordinarily 
did not use steel in their construction in order to avoid setting 
up irregularities in the earth's local magnetic field. ("A Trea- 
tise on Electricity & Magnetism," by J. Clerk Maxwell 1881, 
Vol. II, ch.X, p.322, "Electromagnetic Instruments") . 

1840 Wheatstone (see 1821) produces the first resistance box, or 
instrument for inserting or withdrawing definite numbers of 
resistance units in a circuit. His standard resistance unit was 
one foot of copper wire weighing 100 grains (6.48 gm) . 

1841 F. DE MOLEYNS ( ) was the first to obtain a 
patent (British) for an incandescent lamp. 

1841 JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE (1818-1889), English physicist, 
formulates the Joule law of electric current : "When a current 
of voltaic electricity is propagated along a metallic conductor, 
the heat evolved in a given time is proportional to the re- 
sistance of the conductor multiplied by the square of the 
electrical intensity." The "joule," the unit of electrical energy 
named in his honor is defined as "the energy required to trans- 
fer one international coulomb between two points having a 
potential difference of one international volt" (Amer. Std. 
Def. 05.35.200). 

"Joule's Law," or the heating effect of a current, states that 
"the rate at which heat is produced in an electric circuit of 
constant resistance is proportional to the square of the cur- 
rent" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.030). 

1842 PROFESSOR ROBERT WILHELM VON BUNSEN (1811- 
1899), University of Berlin chemist, modifies the Grove 
battery (see 1839) to make it cheaper, substituting a carbon 
rod for the platinum electrode. He uses a carbon-zinc cell to 
produce an electric arc. 

1842 Joseph Henry (see 1829) in a series of wireless experiments 
at Princeton University uses as his aerial a grounded tele- 
graph line stretched across the campus. He erects a second 
line parallel to it several hundred feet distant, and when he 
discharges a battery of Leyden jars into the aerial, an induc- 
tion effect is produced in the second line. 

27 



1843 SAMUEL COLT (1814-1862), American inventor, lays the 
first submarine cable, an insulated copper wire, in New York 
harbor between the Battery and Governor's Island. On the 
following day, while transmitting signals, the cable ceased to 
work ; a vessel raising its anchor had caught it, destroying 200 
feet of the cable. 

1843 Congress appropriates $30,000 to construct a telegraph line 
between Baltimore and Washington under the direction of 
Morse (see 1836) . 

1844 HENRY DANIEL RUHMKORFF (1803-1877) in Paris de- 
signs a sine galvanometer. 

1844 The first commercial telegraph line in the United States is 
opened (May 24) between Washington and Baltimore (40 
miles) . The first message, sent by Morse (see 1843) contains 
the words, "What hath God wrought!" 

1844 The first official paid message sent over the telegraph lines 
between Washington, D. C. and Baltimore gives the news of 
the nomination of James K. Polk for President of the United 
States. 

1845 The first public telegraph to be used by the English public is 
installed between London and Gosport. 

1845 LOUIS BREGUET (1804-1883) of Paris develops a telegraph 
system using a clock mechanism and two magnet needles oper- 
ated by an electromagnet. Later he adopted and improved 
Wheatstone's (see 1821) dial system. 

1845 Michael Faraday (see 1821) discovers what is called the "Fara- 
day Effect," relating to the magnetic rotation of polarized 
light and defined as follows : "When a plane polarized beam of 
light passes through certain transparent substances along the 
lines of a strong magnetic field, the plane of polarization of the 
emergent light is different from that of the incident light. On 
looking from north to south along a line of magnetic intensity, 
the rotation is clockwise" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.090). 

1845- Establishment of thermodynamics is accomplished by RU- 
1852 DOLPH JULIUS EMMANUEL CLAUSIUS (1822-1888), 

28 



German physicist, and LORD KELVIN (SIR WILLIAM 
THOMSON) (1824-1907), professor of natural history at the 
University of Glasgow. Clausius suggests that molecules in 
electrolytes are continually interchanging atoms, the electric 
force not causing but merely directing the change. 

1846 M. J. DUBOSCQ ( ), who was a co-worker with 

JEAN BERNARD L60N FOUCAULT of Paris, (1819-1868) 
introduces the use of electric light for stage lighting. At the 
Paris Opera a representation of the rising sun is produced by 
means of an arc light placed at the focus of a parabolic reflector 
and arranged to cast a beam of light on a silk screen. This 
device, developed by Duboscq, was the first contribution to 
the art of theater lighting. 

1846 ROYAL E. HOUSE ( ) of Vermont, receives Patent 

No. 4464 for the first practical printing telegraph system. 
This printer recorded messages in Roman characters on tape. 
It was not placed in operation until 1849. 

1846 The first electrotype manufactured for commercial use is 
started in Boston by JOHN W. WILCOX. 

1846 Weber (see 1834) announces his hypothesis concerning the 
molecular current system of electrodynamics. 

1846 The Magnetic Telegraph Company is incorporated (January 
14) under Maryland laws. Amos Kendall is president and 
offices are in New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and 
Washington. 

1846 JONATHAN HOMER LANE (1819-1880), American math- 
ematician, inventor of a visual telegraph system, publishes his 
"On the law of Electric Induction in Metals." 

1846 The first telegraph line extending from New York City to 
Washington, D. C. is installed. 

1847 BARON HERMANN LUDWIG FERDINAND VON HELM- 
HOLTZ (1821-1894), German physicist, publishes his "Mem- 
oirs on the Conservation of Force (Energy) ." He is one of the 
founders of the law of the conservation of energy. 

29 



1849 PROFESSOR GUSTAV ROBERT KIRCHOFF (1824-1887) in 
a series of papers applies Ohm's Law (see 1827) to groups of 
circuits, making possible the determination of the electrical 
characteristics of circuit networks. These laws, known as 
"Kirchoff* s Laws," are: "1. The algebraic sum of the currents 
flowing toward any point in a network is zero. 2. The algebraic 
sum of the products of the current and resistance in each of 
the conductors in any closed path in a network is equal to the 
algebraic sum of the electromotive forces in that path. These 
laws apply to the 'instantaneous* values of currents and elec- 
tromotive forces, but may be extended to the 'effective* values 
of sinusoidal currents and electromotive forces by replacing 
'algebraic sum' by 'vector sum* and by replacing 'resistance* 
by 'impedance'" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.035). 

1850 The first international telegraph cable is laid between Dover, 
England, and Calais, France. 

1850 Congress appropriates $20,000 to enable Professor Charles 
Graf ton Page (see 1837) to continue his electric motor experi- 
ments. He immediately constructs a large double-acting 
reciprocating motor weighing several hundred pounds. 

1850 ROBERT HUNT (1807-1888), English natural philosopher, 
analyzes the relative cost of power obtained from a steam 
engine and from a motor using a battery and finds that elec- 
trical power "must be nearly 25 times more expensive than 
steam power." He experiments on the action of light, 
publishes "Researches of Light." 

1851 Weber (see 1834) further shows how emf's and resistances 
might be measured in absolute measure. He measures and 
calibrates certain coils of wire deposited at the University of 
Leipzig having resistances corresponding to what we should 
now call 2.5, 5, and 10 ohms, respectively. The system of units 
used by Gauss and Weber in their absolute measurements (see 
1840) was the millimeter-milligram-second (mm.-mg.-s.) or 
M.M.S. system in direct decimal relation with the international 
metric system ("Inaugural Address," by Carey G. Foster, 
Society of Telegraph Engineers, Vol. X, London, January, 
1881). 

1851 Henry Daniel Ruhmkorff (see 1844) constructs an induction 
coil. 

30 



1851 Boston, Massachusetts, is the first city to adopt an electric fire 
alarm system. In June, 1851, it votes $10,000 with which to 
test the device. This installation is described in detail in an 
illustrated article by Dr. Channing in the "American Journal 
of Science and Arts," November 11, 1851. (A brief history of 
the fire alarm telegraph systems was written by John Galway 
and published in the "Municipal Signalling Journal," March, 
1933. Mr. Galway's article was based on information in the 
historical file of the Gamewell Co. of Newton Upper Falls, 
Massachusetts, the Boston Fire Department records, the U. S. 
Patent Office, and other sources.) 

1851 The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Co. 
is organized. 

1851 The first use of the Morse telegraph in train operation is on the 
Erie Railroad and heralds the end of various primitive methods 
of controlling trains in motion over the rails. 

1853 DR. WERNER SIEMENS (1816-1892) of Berlin, invents a 
recorder which is the predecessor of the modern siphon re- 
corder used on ocean cables. 

1853 Robert Wilhelm von Bunsen (see 1842) uses his carbon-zinc 
battery to experiment with electrolytical decomposition. 

1853 WILHELM JULIUS GINTL (1804-1883), Austrian telegra- 
phist and inventor, proposes the first system to make simul- 
taneous transmissions of telegraph signals in both directions 
possible. This "duplex" system involved the use of an artificial 
line with each real line. At the same time MOSES G. FARMER 
(1820-1893) of Salem, Massachusetts, proposes dividing the 
use of the line between two or more operators by means of 
synchronous distributors the basis of modern "multiplex" 
telegraph system. 

1854 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) (see 1845) discovers the 
"Thomson Eifect": "When a current flows from a hotter to a 
colder portion of a conductor, heat is liberated or absorbed 
depending on the material of which the conductor is made. 

A more general statement is : The heat liberated by a current 
in a conductor in which there is a temperature gradient de- 
pends on the direction of the current with respect to the 
direction of the temperature gradient" (Am. Std. Def. 
05.40.060). 

31 



1854 Lord Kelvin (see 1845) announces his complete mathematical 
treatment of condenser discharge. 

1854 Charles Grafton Page (see 1837) receives Patent No. 10,480 
on his design for an electromagnetic engine. 

1854 CHARLES BOURSEUL (1829-1912) of Paris predicts that 
speech may be transmitted by electricity. 

1855 Jean Bernard Leon Foucault (see 1846) discovers the "Fou- 
cault Currents," or eddy currents, as they are sometimes 
called. These currents are electric currents that occur in ma- 
terial subject to electro-induction. To eliminate such heating 
due to these currents, material is made into laminated sections. 
"Eddy currents are those currents which are inducted in the 
body of a conducting mass by a variation of magnetic flux. 
Note : The variation of magnetic flux may be the result of a 
varying magnetic field or of a relative motion of the mass 
with respect to the magnetic field" ( Amer. Std. Def . 05.40.120) . 

1855 DAVID HUGHES (1831-1900) invents a printing telegraph. 
The first line was installed between Worcester and Springfield, 
Massachusetts, in 1856. 

1855 SOREN HJORTH ( ) patents a dynamo having 
both permanent and electromagnetic field poles. This may be 
said to be the first "self-excited electromagnetic machine." 

1856 The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Co. 
(see 1851) becomes the Western Union Telegraph Company. 

1856 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879) , Scottish physicist, 
a professor at Cambridge, publishes the first findings of his 
research in electricity and magnetism, "Physical Lines of 
Force." 

1856 The Atlantic Telegraph Company is organized to establish 
telegraphic communication between England and the United 
States. The capitalization is 350,000 pounds, less than ten per 
cent of which is held in the United States. CYRUS W. FIELD 
(1819-1892) of New York is engaged in this enterprise. 

1857 WERNER SIEMENS (see 1853) designs a shuttle-wound 
armature that produces an alternating current. 

32 



1857 WILLIAM FRANCIS CHANNING ( ) of Boston 

and Professor Moses Gerrish Farmer (see 1853) are granted 
Patent No. 17,355 for an "electromagnetic fire alarm," May 19. 

1857 The first locomotive using electric power makes a trial trip 
(April 29) over the Washington and Baltimore branch of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It is the invention of Professor 
Charles G. Page (see 1837). 

1857 The first cable across the Atlantic Ocean is laid by the Ameri- 
can frigate "Niagara" and the British warship "Agamemnon," 
but after most of the distance between Valentia, Ireland, and 
St. Johns, Newfoundland, has been covered, the cable breaks 
250 miles from Valentia and the attempt is abandoned. 

1858 Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) (see 1845) patents his 
mirror galvanometer, which is used until 1870 to receive 
transatlantic messages. Then it is replaced by his siphon re- 
corder. Submarine telegraphy is entirely Lord Kelvin's work 
and he is a consultant in many submarine cable installations. 
In 1855 his theory of the speed of transmission of signals 
through submarine cables was presented to the Royal Society. 
He designed other electrical instruments, such as the quadrant 
and absolute electrometer, industrial electrometers, electro- 
dynamometers, and continuous and alternating current 
wattmeters. 

1858 The second attempt in June to lay a transatlantic cable fails 
after a series of cable breaks on the two ships carrying the 
line, the British battleship "Agamemnon" and the United 
States frigate "Niagara," each of which is carrying half the 
total length of cable. But a third attempt (in July-August) is 
made and completed August 5. The first transatlantic tele- 
graph messages are sent in both directions that same day; 
several hundred other messages are sent, but the faulty cable 
insulation fails and the service is suspended September 1. 

1859 GASTON PLANTE (1834-1889), French physicist of Paris, 
designs a storage battery using lead plates immersed in diluted 
sulphuric acid. 

1859 Professor Moses Gerrish Farmer (see 1853) of the Naval 
Training Station at Newport, Rhode Island, begins his studies 
of the incandescent light. Farmer is probably the first person 

33 



to use electric light to illuminate a house ; he arranges a series 
of lamps in his parlor, the current for which is supplied by a 
wet cell battery. He also invents an incandescent lamp which 
consists of a strip of sheet platinum operating in air. 

1859 GEORGE B. SIMPSON ( ) of Washington, D. C., is 
granted Patent No. 25,532, September 20, for the first electric 
hotplate suggesting a coil of platinum wire for the heating 
element. Only batteries were available at this time and they 
were not a practical source of electricity. This date may be 
considered as the beginning of electrical heating principle 
using resistance wires. 

1860 ANTONIO PACINOTTI (1841-1912), Italian scientist, is the 
first to use an iron ring with slots to receive the armature con- 
ductors for the magnetic circuit of the armature. He made 
several other important improvements on generators. 

1860 SIR JOSEPH WILSON SWAN (1828-1914), English electri- 
cian, begins his studies of the incandescent lamp, uses a 
U-shaped strip of carbonized paper as a filament for a vacuum 
lamp. 

1860 Maxwell (see 1856) formulates two general laws: 1. every 
change in an electric field produces a magnetic field in the 
same place ; 2. every change in a magnetic field produces an 
electric field. 

1860 HOPPEN ( ), an Englishman, originates vulcanized 
rubber insulation for wires and cables. 

1861 The first transcontinental telegraph message is sent October 
24 by STEPHEN J. FIELD (1861-1899) , Chief Justice of Cali- 
fornia, to President Lincoln. 

1861 PHILIPP REIS (1834-1874) of Friedrichsdorf, Germany, pro- 
duces his first telephone, improves it in 1863. 

1861 Maxwell (see 1856) treats a varying electrostatic flux as a 
displacement current and postulates the magnetic effect of 
displacement currents. 

1862 The first commercial application of arc lights is made in the 
Dungeness Lighthouse in England. 

34 



1863 Helmholtz (see 1847) publishes his "Sensations of Tone," 
showing how vowel sounds can be built up by a group of tuning 
forks. 

1863 Pacinotti (see 1860) makes important improvements in the 
design of generators, using an armature core with teeth, and 
announces that his machine can be operated either as a motor 
or a generator. A replica of this generator is in the Chicago 
Museum of Science and Industry. 

1864 Maxwell (see 1856) asserts the identity of light waves and 
electromagnetic waves. 

1865 A fourth attempt to lay a transatlantic cable, with the steam- 
ship "Great Eastern" carrying all of the cable, fails after re- 
peated cable breaks. 

1865 HERMANN JOHANN PHILLIP SPRENGEL (1834-1906), 
German chemist, invents the mercury vacuum pump and pro- 
duces a vacuum in an electric light bulb. 

1866 The fifth attempt to lay a transatlantic cable is doubly suc- 
cessful. The steamship "Great Eastern," carrying all of the 
cable leaves Valentia, Ireland, July 13 and arrived at New- 
foundland July 28. Then it starts eastward again, finds the 
end of the cable lost during the previous season, splices it to 
a new cable, and brings it to shore September 8. Thus the 
company has two successful transatlantic cables. 

1866 DR. HENRY WILDE (1833-1919), Manchester, England, 
Moses G. Farmer, (see 1853), and CROMWELL F. VARLEY, 
(1828- ) and SAMUEL ALFRED VARLEY ( ) 

of London discover at about the same time the principle of 
the self-exciting generator. SIR CHARLES WILLIAM SIE- 
MENS (1823-1883) and Werner Siemens (see 1853) and Sir 
Charles Wheatstone (see 1821) make announcements early 
in 1867 concerning the same principle. S. A. Varley. who 
applied for a British patent in 1866, is the first to use compound 
windings. 

1867 Soren Hjorth (see 1855) exhibits his magnetoelectric gener- 
ator at the Paris Exposition. This generator contained both 
permanent and electromagnets. 

35 



1867 THOMAS S. HALL (1827-1880) invents the automatic electric 
block system; the first installation is on the New York and 
Harlem Railroad. The wheels of the locomotive strike a lever 
pivoted to the rail and this in turn sets the signal at danger 
until the train is out of the block. 

1867 The first patent on Lord Kelvin's (see 1858) siphon recorder 
is taken out, and after three years of perfecting the instru- 
ment, it is now exclusively used in cable telegraphy. 

1867 The second oldest electrical publication and the first to be 
published in America is the monthly "Journal of the Tele- 
graph" appearing December 2. 

1867 Werner Siemens (see 1853) proposes the name "dynamo 
machine" in an address before the Berlin Academy January 17. 

1867 The Babcock & Wilcox Co. develops the first commercially 
successful "nonexplosive" water-tube type of steam boiler 
prototype of all our present-day large steam power generating 
units. Without large quantities of high pressure steam the size 
of generating units would be limited. 

1867 LUDWIG V. LORENZ (1829-1891) writes a mathematical 
paper tending to show that light vibrations are electrical 
currents. 

1869 DR. ISAAC ADAMS (1803-1883) of Boston, Massachusetts, 
invents the process of nickel plating. His patent was contested, 
but sustained by the U. S. Supreme Court. 

1869 CHARLES J. VAN DEPOELE ( ), a native of 

Lichtervelde, Belgium, arrives in Chicago, opens a wood- 
carving shop, uses his profits to develop an arc light system, 
and in 1880 organizes the Van Depoele Electric Manufacturing 
Company, a pioneer in the development of America's street 
electric railway system. 

1869 ELISHA GRAY (1835-1901), an inventor, ENOS M. BAR- 
TON (1844-1916), former telegraph operator, and GENERAL 
ANSON STAGER, industrialist ( ) establish the 

firm of Gray & Barton in Cleveland, Ohio, to manufacture the 
Gray Printer Telegraph instruments, electric gas lighting 

36 



equipment, electric bells, signal boxes, and fire and burglar 
alarms. Later they moved their business to Chicago and in 
1872 its name was changed to the Western Electric Manufac- 
turing Co. 

1869- DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEJEFF (1834-1907), Rus- 
1871 sian chemist, and JULIUS LOTHAR MEYER (1830-1895), 
German chemist, advance the periodic law of atoms, i.e., when 
elements are listed according to atomic weights, definite chemi- 
cal and physical properties recur periodically as functions of 
the atomic weights. 

1870 ZENOBE THEOPHILE GRAMME (1826-1901) , Belgian elec- 
trician, takes out a patent in France for a direct current 
generator using a ring winding similar to Pacinotti's (see 
1860). 

1871 Gramme (see 1870) exhibits his first hand-operated generator 
before the Academy of Sciences in Paris. 

1871 Elisha Gray (see 1869) transmits music from Milwaukee to 
Chicago over his harmonic telegraph. 

1871 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847-1922), Scottish edu- 
cator, comes by way of Canada to the United States. In 1872 
in Boston he opens a school for the deaf and others with 
defective speech. 

1872 DR. M. LODYGUINE ( ), Russian physician, pro- 
duces a lamp consisting of a graphite rod enclosed in a vacuum 
bulb. 

1872 The "Electrical Review" of London is established. 

1872 MARLON LOOMIS (1826-1886), American dentist, pioneers 
in aerial telegraphy. July 30 he receives Patent No. 129,971 
for his "Improvement in Telegraphing." This patent covers 
"aerial telegraphy employing an 'aerial' used to radiate or 
receive pulsations caused by producing a disturbance in the 
electrical equilibrium of the atmosphere." This is the first 
patent for wireless telegraphy issued in the U. S. 

1872 Helmholtz (see 1847) demonstrates at the International Ex- 
hibition in London how electrical impulses having a constant 

37 



time interval between them can be sent into a circuit by at- 
taching a contact maker to one of the arms of the tuning fork 
so that contact can be made through a battery with each 
vibration of the fork. 

1872 DR. EDWARD WESTON (1850-1936) is the first to apply 
the dynamo to electroplating to provide current, thus replacing 
the inefficient batteries in use. 

1873 LATIMER CLARK (1822-1898) publishes "On a Standard 
Voltaic Battery" (Philadelphia Transactions Royal Society, 
June 1873), a description of his standard zinc mercury cell as 
the outcome of electrochemical researches carried on since 
1867. This was apparently the first attempt to determine a 
standard measurement for the "volt." More recently (see 
1910) the "Weston" zinc cadmium cell has come to be used as 
a reliable secondary standard of emf in terms of the inter- 
national volt. Sometime, however, before the development of 
these refined voltaic standards, emf's employed in teleg- 
raphy were estimated in terms of such industrial units as 
Grove or Daniell cells. 

1873 Gramme (see 1870) introduces his first lighting generator, 
initiates the use of electric motors for industrial purposes. 

1873 Here's how television started: A telegraph operator named 
May, at Valentia, Ireland, notices that his instruments behave 
erratically when the sun shines on his selenium resistors. The 
principle involved inspires several inventors to propose 
methods of picture transmission during the next few years. 

1873 The C.G.S. fundamental system of units (centimeter-gram- 
second) is adopted by the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, generally known briefly as the B.A. 

1873 Gramme (see 1870) demonstrates at the Vienna Exhibition 
that his generators can be operated as electric motors; a 
Gramme motor, connected with a Gramme generator by wires 
nearly three-quarters of a mile long, operates a Dumont 
centrifugal pump that lifts water. 

1873 Maxwell (see 1856) publishes his "Treatise on Electricity and 
Magnetism," propounds the electromagnetic theory of light, 
founds the science of electro-optics, and advances the concep- 

38 



tion of electromagnetic waves, by which he lays the foundation 
for wireless telegraphy. 

1873 Werner Siemens (see 1853) introduces his universal galvan- 
ometer. 

1874 GUSTAV HEINRICH WIEDEMANN (1826-1899) develops a 
modified form of tangent galvanometer. 

1874 Dr. Lodyguine (see 1872) exhibits his graphite rod vacuum 
bulb lamp in London, demonstrates that the current can be 
subdivided (apparently several lamps are lighted in parallel) . 

1874 January 1 "The Operator" is published in New York. 

1874 THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847-1931), American electrician 
and inventor, develops the quadruplex telegraph system, per- 
mitting the sending of four messages over one wire simul- 
taneously, two in each direction. 

1875 WILLIAM E. SAWYER ( ) invents a nitrogen 
filled incandescent lamp, and with his patent attorney, Albon 
Man, develops several lamps consisting of a piece of graphite 
covered by a glass globe cemented to a metal holder. 

1875 SAMUEL F. O'REILLY operates the first electric tattoo 
machine in the Bowery, New York. 

1875 Professor Farmer (see 1853) sends the electric current pro- 
duced by a small generator into forty-two circuits, with a light 
in each circuit. 

1875 ELIHU THOMSON (1853-1937), American electrician, oper- 
ates Ihe first radio set in history, antedating Hertz and 
Marconi. 

1875 In December an article is published on the discovery by 
Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) of a new form of electricity 
which he named "Etheric Force." 

1875 Alexander Graham Bell (see 1871) verifies the principle of the 
electric speaking telephone at 109 Court Street, Boston, June 
2, 1875. This date is usually accepted as that of the invention 
of the telephone. 

39 



1875 Edison (see 1874) purchases ground at Menlo Park, New 
Jersey, on which to build his laboratory. 

1875 JOHN KERR (1824-1907) of Glasgow discovers the electro- 
static effect or electro-optical effect in dielectrics which is 
called the "Kerr Effect" : "Certain transparent dielectrics when 
placed in a strong electrostatic field become doubly refract- 
ing. The strength of the electro-optical effect for unit thickness 
of the dielectric varies directly as the square of the electric 
intensity" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.085). 

1875 It is generally believed that Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) 
is the first person in the United States to use an electric arc 
furnace industrially. Dr. Weston patents laminated pole pieces 
and cores for dynamos raising their efficiency from about 
forty-five to eighty-five per cent ; also patents an anode and 
develops a nickel solution containing boric acid for making a 
superior, dense, malleable plated nickel. 

1876 CHARLES FRANCIS BRUSH (1849-1929), American elec- 
trician, an employee of the Cleveland Telegraph Supply Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio, makers of telegraph instruments, electric 
bells, and fire alarm systems (organized in this year) , designs 
his first dynamo a one arc-light machine with an armature 
only nine inches in diameter. Brush is issued a patent for this 
dynamo in April, 1877. 

1876 EMILE BERLINER (1851-1929), German inventor of Wash- 
ington, D. C., invents the microphone twenty years before 
Marconi and his wireless, thirty years before De Forest and his 
three-element vacuum tube which makes radio possible, forty- 
four years before the first real broadcasting station is set up. 
Berliner was apparently the first to place in the battery circuit 
for telephones a loose contact close to the transmitter 
diaphragm. He applied for a United States patent for his 
microphone June 24, 1877. It was granted November 17, 1891, 
No. 463,569. 

1876 The Centennial Exhibition is held at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. The wonders of electrical progress of the last century 
are shown to the public. 

1876 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) designs his first generator for 
electroplating. It is rated at three-quarters of a horsepower 

40 



at eight hundred revolutions per minute, has a shunt field 
winding, and has the first laminated construction used in a 
rotating armature, thereby reducing the internal losses. 

1876 Two types of dynamos are exhibited at the Philadelphia Cen- 
tennial Exposition, the Gramme, of Belgium, and the Wallace, 
of the United States. Each supplies current to a single-arc 
lamp. 

1876 Gramme (see 1870) introduces a full line of electric machines 
that can be used as either motors or generators. 

1876 "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you" (March 10, 1876) is the 
first complete sentence transmitted by telephone. It is from 
Alexander Graham Bell (see 1871) to Thomas A. Watson, his 
assistant, in Bell's lodgings at 5 Exeter Place, Boston. Bell 
files an application February 14 for a patent on his telephone 
entitled "Telegraphy" (actually this invention is known as the 
telephone). Within a few hours, Elisha Gray (see 1869) files a 
caveat with the U. S. Patent Office covering virtually the same 
idea. Bell is granted the first telephone patent March 7, 
Patent No. 174,465. Bell demonstrates at the Centennial Ex- 
hibition in Philadelphia a liquid resistance type of telephone 
transmitter and a magneto type ; he also exhibits a multiple 
telegraph instrument, and wins awards for both his telephone 
and his telegraph. 

1876 Edison (see 1874) invents the carbon telephone transmitter 
and the carbon microphone. 

1876 HENRY AUGUSTUS ROWLAND (1848-1901), American 
physicist, furnishes experimental justification of Maxwell's 
postulates by demonstrating electromagnetic wave phe- 
nomena. 

1876 PAUL JABLOCHKOFF (1847-1894), Russian army engineer, 
develops in Paris the Jablochkoff Candle, an arc light consist- 
ing of two carbon rods placed near each other but separted 
by insulation except at the extreme tips, which are in contact 
and produce an arc when the circuit is closed. These are lights 
operated by alternating current to insure equal burning. 

1877 The Western Union Telegraph Company instructs one of its 
employees, Thomas Alva Edison (see 1874) , to make improve- 

41 



ment in the telephone, and employs Elisha Gray and AMOS 
E. DOLBEAR (1837-1910), American physicist and teacher, 
to perfect telephone apparatus. The Bell Company in 1878 
sued for infringement (the first of a long series of telephone 
cases in which the Bell patent was sustained) . The Western 
Union Telegraph Company settled the case out of court and 
withdrew from the telephone field in 1879. Edison obtained 
patents on his work on the telegraph and telephone. 

1877 Up to this date wire for transmitting electricity was generally 
of iron. It is during this year that hard drawn copper wire 
is invented and cable development also begins at this time. 

1877 The first experimental telephone line in the United States is 
built between the factory of Charles Williams, Jr., and his 
home in the suburbs of Boston, Massachusetts, after Williams, 
an electrical manufacturer, is given a contract to make the 
first Bell telephone instruments. 

1877 Charles F. Brush (see 1876) begins work in Cleveland, Ohio, on 
an electric arc light system, designs a single-light generator 
and an arc lamp. The carbons in his first lamp burned eight 
hours before they were consumed. Brush is granted a patent 
on his copper-coated carbons for arc lamps, No. 196,425, Octo- 
ber 23. He is also granted the first patent for an open-coil arc 
dynamo. Later Brush introduced the first successful electric 
street lighting system in the United States. 

1877 The first news dispatch by telephone is sent to the Boston 
"Globe," Boston, Massachusetts, by the Bell telephone. It is 
heralded by the "Globe" as follows : "This special dispatch to 
the 'Globe* has been transmitted by telephone in the presence 
of 20 people who have thus been witnesses to a feat never 
before attempted, the sending of news over the space of 16 
miles by the human voice." 

1877 Professor Elihu Thomson (see 1875) of Philadelphia, during 
the course of a lecture, boils eggs by electricity, using a coil of 
German silver wire immersed in the water as a heating 
element. 

1877 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) gives the first public exhibition 
of arc lighting in the United States when he installs a corner 
street light in Newark, New Jersey. He also used the arc 
light for general lighting purposes. 

42 



1878 SIR WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-1919) , English physicist and 
chemist, demonstrates the properties of cathode rays and 
invents the Crookes tube. 

1878 The Edison Electric Light Co., the start of the General Electric 
lineage, is organized October 15 by J. Pierpont Morgan and 
other financiers to finance Edison's experiments in the de- 
velopment of a commercially successful incandescent lamp, 
capital stock is $3,000,000 (3,000 shares with a par value of 
$100 each). 

1878 A platinum iridium incandescent lamp operating in nitrogen 
gas is produced by ST. GEORGE LANE-FOX in England. 

1878 Gramme (see 1870) designs an alternating current generator, 
initiates his system of lighting city streets by arc light. 

1878 SIR HIRAM STEVENS MAXIM (1840-1916), Anglo-Ameri- 
can inventor, designs an incandescent lamp in which a carbon 
rod operates in a rarefied hydrocarbon vapor. 

1878 The first electric arc lights in a store are installed December 26 
in the John Wanamaker store in Philadelphia. Using the 
Brush system (see 1876), twenty arc lights are used, five 
dynamos supplying the current (four arc lamps each) . 

1878 Probably the first street lighting by electricity is in the in- 
stallation in Paris of sixteen Jablochkoff Candles (see 1876) . 
They were placed on the Avenue de TOpera and created great 
excitement. 

1878 Brush (see 1876) is granted a patent (No. 203,411, May 7) on 
the first series arc lamp, open type. 

1878 PHILIP DIEHL (1847-1913) of Elizabeth, New Jersey, de- 
velops an improved type of arc lamp and was granted Patent 
No. 211,242 April 15 of the following year. 

1878 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) feeds the current generated 
by one dynamo to a second dynamo, using the second dynamo 
as an electric motor for industrial purposes. Weston uses soft 
metal cores for arc light carbons. He copperplates the ends of 
arc light carbons for better contact. 

43 



1878 Edison (see 1874) tests his microtasimeter at Rawlins, 
Wyoming, during an eclipse of the sun July 29. The micro- 
tasimeter was a very sensitive electrical instrument for 
measuring small changes in heat radiation. 

1879 Niagara Falls is illuminated for the first time (July 4) by a 
sixteen-light Brush dynamo and arc lamps. The dynamo is 
driven by a waterwheel. 

1879 Edison (see 1874) develops a dynamo with 3% foot magnets, 
joined at the top by an iron crosspiece, for his incandescent 
lighting system. The dynamo is jocularly called "long-waisted 
Mary Ann"; officially it is the Edison bipolar dynamo. The 
armature, of the drum type, is laminated. The dynamo is 
found to be ninety per cent efficient, surprising even Edison 
and Francis R. Upton, his mathematician. Later, Edison in- 
troduced three generators rated respectively at 60, 150, and 
250 lights. 

1879 Swan (see 1860) develops an all-glass, hermetically sealed 
electric light bulb. Later this design was universally accepted. 

1879 Charles F. Brush (see 1876) is granted a patent on his system 
of secondary distribution and a patent on compound winding. 

1879 Professor Elihu Thomson (see 1875) and EDWIN J. HOUS- 
TON (1847-1914) are issued a patent for a transformer having 
a closed magnetic circuit of cast iron with an adjustable center 
core by which the secondary voltage may be varied. 

1879 The first company in the United States, if not in the world, to 
enter the business of producing and selling electric service to 
the public is organized June 30 in San Francisco, located at 
Fourth and Market Streets and named the California Electric 
Light Co. George H. Roe is the organizer. The firm holds the 
Brush territorial license for California, Oregon, Washington, 
and Nevada. Its first plant consists of two Brush dynamos, one 
supplying six lamps, the other sixteen. A flat rate of ten dollars 
a week per lamp is charged. 

1879 Brush (see 1876) installs April 29 in the Public Square, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, the first electric lights to illuminate a street in 
the United States. Twelve lamps of the carbon arc variety are 
used. Brush develops a constant-current series generator. 

44 



1879 The first "iron box bell" introduced by Edwards and Co. is 
called the Lungen Bell, and replaces the bell with wood base 
and cover. 

1879 EDWIN H. HALL (1855-1938), American physicist at Har- 
vard University, discovers the potential gradient of a con- 
ductor carrying a current and placed in a magnetic field. This 
is known as the "Hall Effect" : "When a thin rectangular sheet 
of metal carrying an electric current in the direction of its 
length is subjected to a magnetic field normal to the sheet, an 
electromotive force is developed which is at right angles both 
to the direction of the current and to the magnetic field. 
A general statement of the Hall effect is: When a conductor 
in which a current is flowing is placed in a magnetic field, a 
potential gradient is developed which is, at each point, a 
function, of the vector product of the magnetic intensity and 
the current density" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.065). 

1879 Dr. Werner Siemens (see 1853) exhibits at the Berlin Exhibi- 
tion a small electric locomotive that hauls three passenger 
cars around a track. A stationary generating plant is used and 
power is carried through a third rail, the other rails being 
used for the return circuit. More than 100,000 passengers were 
carried during the exhibition. 

1879 CLEMENT ADER (1841-1925) , French engineer, develops his 
telephone transmitter. 

1879 Edison (see 1874) applies November 4 for his first incandes- 
cent lamp patent. This lamp consists of a platinum wire spiral 
in a vacuum chamber. Edison first carbonizes cotton filaments 
and October 21 produces a lamp that burns forty hours ; later 
he carbonized bristol board and it burned several hundred 
hours. The first public demonstration of the incandescent lamp 
is held December 31, 1879, with the Pennsylvania Railroad 
running special trains to Menlo Park, New Jersey, to enable 
the public to view the demonstration. 

1879 The first telephone exchange in any foreign country is installed 
in London, with SAMUEL INSULL (1859-1938) as the first 
telephone operator at the exchange and GEORGE BERNARD 
SHAW (1856- ) as one of the employees. Later Insull 
came to the United States and became Edison's secretary. 

45 



1880 Swan (see 1860) is granted a British patent for his all-glass, 
hermetically sealed electric light bulb. 

1880 Maxim (see 1878) develops an M-shaped carbon filament in- 
candescent lamp. 

1880 STEPHEN DUDLEY FIELD (1846-1913) , American inventor 
of the distance telegraph box, electric elevator, stock ticker, 
dynamo quadruplex telegraph, and the first person success- 
fully to apply dynamos to telegraphy, becomes involved in a 
patent interference controversy with Edison and Siemens, all 
having filed applications within a few months. Siemens' early 
testimony was rejected and priority for limited features 
awarded to Field, who had filed a caveat in 1879. In February 
of that year he had made plans for an electric railway to use 
current from a stationary generator through a conductor car- 
ried in a conduit with rail return. 

1880 The first electric light installation on board a steamboat is 
placed on the S.S. "Columbia" of the Oregon Railway and 
Navigation Company, built at Chester, Pennsylvania. The 
original equipment consists of three Edison dynamos, each 
capable of supplying sixty 100-volt lamps. A total of one hun- 
dred and fifteen lamps was used on the ship. One of the 
original machines is on exhibition at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion in Washington, D. C. 

1880 Brush (see 1876) obtains Patent No. 234,456 November 16 on 
his automatic cutout. 

1880 The Brush Electric Light and Power Company of New York 
is organized and Brush arc lamps are installed in December 
for three-quarters of a mile along Broadway, the first elec- 
trical illumination of that famous street. The company took 
over the Cleveland Telegraph Supply Co. (see 1876) . Brush 
also illuminates New York's Madison Square with arc lamps 
placed atop towers. 

1880 The Thomson-Houston arc dynamo is patented (No. 233,047, 
October 5) . 

1880 Edison (see 1874) is granted patents on a safety conductor 
(No. 227,226, May 4) for electric lights and on a brake (No. 
228,617, June 8) for an electromagnetic motor. 

46 



1880 Wabash, Indiana, installs March 31 a four-lamp (3,000 candle 
power each) Brush arc lamp system and becomes the first 
town wholly lighted by electricity from a single point (above 
the courthouse) and the first town with a municipally owned 
electric light plant. 

1880 CAMILLE FAURE ( ) of Paris develops a storage 

battery using an openwork grid for the plate. 

1880 April 3, Thomas Edison applies for a patent for his magnetic 
ore separator and June 1 he receives Patent No. 228,329. 

1880 The first telephone is installed in the White House, Washing- 
ton, D. C., during the term of President Rutherford B. Hayes. 

1880 GEORGE FRANCIS FITZGERALD (1851-1901) writes a 
paper in London on the magnetic theory of the reflection and 
refraction of light. The subject is treated by quaternion 
analysis. 

1880 Large-scale manufacture of generators and electric lamps is 
started by Edison (see 1874), the former at the Edison 
Machine Works in New York and the latter at the Edison 
Lamp Works at Menlo Park, New Jersey. This same year 
Edison develops the method for splitting and treating bamboo 
for incandescent lamp filaments. The first successful com- 
mercial incandescent lamp gave 1.6 lumens per watt. 

1880 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) receives Patent No. 223,898 
January 27, for "An Electric Lamp for Giving Light by In- 
candescence." 

1880 A constant-current, series-wound generator and an arc lamp 
are designed by Edwin J. Houston (see 1879) and Elihu 
Thomson (see 1875), teachers in the Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, Central High School. Under the name of the American 
Electric Co., they begin the manufacture of arc lighting 
systems at New Britain, Connecticut. Associated with them 
is EDWIN WILBUR RICE, JR. (1863-1935), a former pupil 
of Thomson. 

1880 Edison builds and operates two experimental railways, pas- 
1882 senger and freight, at Menlo Park, New Jersey. One attains 
a speed of twenty miles an hour. 

47 



1881 Edison builds his first practical "jumbo" dynamos, which are 
exhibited at the Paris Exposition. 

1881 An arc light machine installed in a paper mill on the Niagara 
Falls cliff supplies the first electric power for public use 
generated from Niagara's waters. 

1881 The New York Electrical Society is organized to interpret to 
its members and to the public by demonstration and lectures 
the advances in various fields of science and engineering. 
Membership in one year is 213, at the end of May 1945 
membership has increased to 344. 

1881 The first telautograph is manufactured by Elisha Gray (see 
1869). 

1881 Maxim (see 1878) introduces a self-regulating generator to 
maintain a constant potential on his circuits of incandescent 
lamps. 

1881 MARCEL DEPREZ (1843-1918) exhibits at the Paris Ex- 
hibition five motor-driven sewing machines, four woodcutting 
lathes, a chainmaker, a drilling machine, two watchmaker's 
lathes, and a printing press. 

1881 Edison (see 1874) is granted patents on apparatus for pro- 
ducing high vacuum (No. 248,433, October 18) and on his 
process for treating carbon for electric lamps (No. 239,148, 
March 22). 

1881 The Postal Telegraph Company is chartered. 

1881 JAMES JENNY ( ) and his son, CHARLES, of Ann 

Arbor, Michigan, invent an arc light, and RONALD T. MC- 
DONALD, an overall manufacturer, organizes the Fort Wayne 
Jenny Electric Light Company to manufacture the light. 
McDonald sold dozens of communities their first electric 
plants. 

1881 The Savoy Theatre, London, is illuminated with 1,200 in- 
candescent lights by Swan (see 1860) who sells his new 
electric light bulbs under the name of the Swan Electric 
Company, London. 

48 



1881 December 12, the first Edison theater lighting plant starts 
operation in the Bijou Theatre, Boston, Massachusetts. 

1881 Amos Emerson Dolbear (see 1877), patents his invention of 
the "electrostatic telephone." He first exhibited this invention 
April 1, 1882, at a meeting of the Society of Telegraph En- 
gineers and Electricians in London. 

1881 DR. WILLIAM JAMES MORTON (1845-1920), American 
physician, uses high-frequency electrical current in medical 
treatment. 

1881 Thomson develops a constant-current regulator for arc-light- 
ing generators. 

1881 LUCIEN GAULARD (1850-1888) and JOHN D. GIBBS 

1882 ( ) obtain English patents for a "series alternating 
current system of distribution." The Westinghouse Company 
purchases the rights to this system in 1885. 

1882 GUSTAF DE LAVAL (1845-1913), Swedish scientist, builds 
his first steam turbine. 

1882 FRANK JULIAN SPRAGUE (1857-1935) develops an under- 
running trolley for street railways. 

1882 January 12 the first commercial central station in the world 
for incandescent lighting starts operation at 57 Holborn 
Viaduct, London. 

1882 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) opens the first electric lighting 
plant in the United States the Pearl Street Station of the 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company, New York, Septem- 
ber 4. Original equipment is six "jumbo" dynamos, each light- 
ing 800 incandescent lamps. Among the first fifty-nine 
customers are the banking house of Drexel, Morgan & Co., 
with one hundred electric lights, "The New- York Times'' 
office, J. T. Pratt & Co., the Park Bank, "The New York 
Herald," and Sweet's Restaurant on Fulton Street. Six miles 
of wire enclosed in pipe are laid underground prior to the 
station's opening. Within fourteen months the company has 
508 customers using 12,732 electric lights. About this time, 
Edison is granted a patent on a chemical meter he invents 

49 



to measure the electricity used by his customers. Models of 
this station may be seen at the Smithsonian Institution in 
Washington, D. C., the Edison Institute, Dearborn, Michigan, 
the Museum of Science & Industry in Chicago, Illinois, and 
at the main office of Consolidated Edison Company in New 
York. 

1882 January 1 the magazine called "The Electrician" is established. 

1882 The first hydroelectric plant in the world, for incandescent 
lamps, is opened September 30 at Appleton, Wisconsin, a few 
weeks after Edison opened the first electric lighting plant in 
the United States on Pearl Street, New York. The original 
waterwheel measured 42 inches in diameter, operated under 
a ten-foot head, and had a speed of 72 rpm. Two Edison "K" 
dynamos were used, each being capable of lighting 250 candle 
power lamps, equivalent to a rating of 12% kilowatts. There 
were no voltage regulators and operators depended on their 
own eyes to gauge the brightness of the lamps. There was no 
fuse protection and no meters available, the customers being 
charged on a lamp basis regardless of the hours of use. 
Original customers paid about thirty-three cents per lamp 
per month and service was from dusk to dawn. Bare copper 
wire was used in the distributing lines. 

1882 The "Electrical Review" is founded by George Worthington 
in New York the first weekly magazine published in the 
United States, devoted to electrical interests. 

1882 DR. SCHUYLER SKAATS WHEELER (1860-1923) invents 
the electric fan. 

1882 Edison (see 1874) applies for a patent on his three-wire 
system. This system is still in common use (Patent No. 
274,290, March 20, 1883). 

1883 An electric railway with more than six miles of tracks starts 
operating out of Portrush, Ireland ; water power is used to 
drive the generator. 

1883 Edison (see 1874) demonstrates his third-rail trolley line to 
the public in Chicago. 

50 



1883 The first night baseball game is played at Fort Wayne, In- 
diana, using seventeen arc lights of 4,000 candle power each. 

1883 Edison (see 1874) discovers that electric current can flow 
through space, from a filament to a plate in an incandescent 
light bulb. Later this phenomenon was called the "Edison 
Effect," the basis of electronics, and November 15, Edison 
files a patent on an "electrical indicator," the first application 
in the field of electronics, and obtains a patent on it in 1884. 
For twenty years afterwards nothing was done to develop this 
idea. 

However, in 1889 SIR JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING (1849- 
1945) of England, studying this effect, came to the conclusion 
that "negative electricity can pass along the flame-like pro- 
jection of the arc from the hot negative carbon to the cooler 
third carbon but not in the opposite direction." 

1883 The first central station to use the Edison three-wire, double- 
voltage system begins operation at Sunbury, Pennsylvania. 

1883 The electrical exhibition at Vienna, Austria, is opened Aug- 
ust 16 and is lighted by both arc and incandescent lamps. One 
hundred and fifty dynamos and sixty-five motors were ex- 
hibited, ranging in size from % to 240 horsepower. 

1883 The first photograph ever made by incandescent lamps is made 
at Menlo Park, New Jersey. 

1883 The first elevated railroad in the United States is operated at 
the Chicago Railway Exposition June 9 to 23 by the Electric 
Railway Company of the United States. "The Judge," a 15 
horsepower electric locomotive, hauls the trains on a three- 
foot gauge track around the outer edge of a gallery of the 
main exhibition building. 

1883 The first underground three- wire system is installed at Brock- 
ton, Massachusetts, by the Edison Electric Light Co. 

1883 Swan (see 1860) sells the American rights of his incandescent 
lamp to the Brush Electric Co. 

1883 Arc lighting spreads in the United States. In three years one 
company alone, the Thomson-Houston Co., installed twenty- 
two arc lighting plants operating a total of 1,500 lights. 

51 



1883 The "Telegraph Age" is established in New York, a semi- 
monthly magazine with the first issue on June 1. 

1883 A crude electric locomotive, "The Ampere," equipped with 
electromagnetic brakes and built by LEO DAFT, an English- 
born inventor who heads the Daft Electric Co., at Greenville, 
New Jersey, and Saratoga, New York, pulls a full-sized rail- 
way car on an experimental third-rail line between Saratoga 
and Mt. McGregor, New York. Daft builds an electric elevator 
and in 1855 he equips a two-mile section of track on the Man- 
hattan Elevated in New York. 

1883 January 6, "The Operator" and "Electrical World" are com- 
bined and published weekly in New York. April 28 "The Oper- 
ator" is dropped from the title. 

1883 Edwards and Company is issued a patent for an electric gas- 
lighting burner. To operate the first gas-lighting equipment, 
the gas was turned on. Then by pulling a string which flicked 
a wire across the jet, a spark was produced which in turn 
ignited the gas. 

1883 Fitzgerald (see 1880) writes a paper "On the possibility of 
originating wave disturbances in the ether by means of 
electrical forces" (Dublin) . 

1884 Frank J. Sprague (see 1882), who pioneers in the industrial 
development of electric motors and electric railways, develops 
and exhibits his first direct-current motor. 

1884 Lord Kelvin (see 1845) expounds his electronic theory of 
matter. 

1884 EDWARD M. BENTLEY ( ) and WALTER H. 

KNIGHT ( ), electric railway pioneers, run their 

first electric car July 26 on Garden Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 
It is heralded as "the first electric railroad for public use in 
America." 

1884 ALFRED COWLES ( ) and EUGENE COWLES 

( ) , brothers, interested in producing aluminum by 

electric smelting, begin experiments that result in the pro- 
duction of the first alloy of aluminum obtained by this method 
in the United States. Later synthetic rubies and sapphires 
were produced in this furnace. 

52 



1884 The development of television takes another step forward as 
PAUL NIPKOW (1860-1940) introduces scanning. He in- 
vents a system involving a rotating disk fashioned with 
apertures arranged in spirals. 

1884 "Street Railway Journal" is published monthly in New York 
with its first issue appearing in January. 

1884 Experimental telephone line is completed between New York 
and Boston. 

1884 The American Institute of Electrical Engineers is organized, 
with headquarters in New York. Its objectives to advance 
the theory and practice of electrical engineering and of the 
arts and sciences, and to maintain a high professional stand- 
ard among members of the Institute. In 1945 it has a member- 
ship of more than 24,000. 

1884 The HONORABLE CHARLES A. PARSONS ( ) 

is granted a British patent for a reaction type of steam 
turbine. 

1884 J. C. HENRY ( ) installs a street railway system 

in Kansas City, Missouri, using a two-trolley system. 

1884 January 1, the "Electrician and Electrical Engineer" appears 
as a New York weekly. January 1, 1888, the "Electrician" is 
dropped from the title leaving the "Electrical Engineer." 

1884 The first electrical show in America, the Electrical Exhibition 
and National Conference of Electricians, is held in Philadel- 
phia, September 2 to October 11, sponsored by the Franklin 
Institute. With 216 exhibitors and 282,779 paid admissions, 
it is held at the Pennsylvania Railroad Station, 32 and Market 
Streets. 

1884 Gustaf de Laval (see 1882) was the first to conceive the idea 
of and to develop a formula for the flexible shaft which is of 
extreme importance in the field of high speed steam turbines, 
centrifugal pumps, compressors, and so on. 

1884 Edwards and Co. is assigned by Adam Liingen Patent No. 
303,579, August 12, covering door openers operated by 
electricity. 

53 



1884 J. J. C. SMITH ( ) of the New York Insulated Wire 

and Vulcanite Company invents a strip process for insulating 
wire. This new method makes possible faster and more uni- 
form application of a moisture resistant rubber insulation to 
conductors (Patent No. 308,209, November 18). ' 

1884 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents a variable-speed, direct- 
current motor which does not require rheostat control. Speed 
is varied by field pole regulation, the pole pieces being hinged 
for movement to or from the armature by means of a con- 
necting rod and treadle. This is the first motor ever produced 
for dental machine operation. It is also used for sewing 
machine drive. Patent No. 324,666 was granted August 18, 
1885. 

1884 SIR OLIVER HEAVISIDE (1850-1925) lays the mathematical 
foundation for induction heating when he publishes the re- 
suts of his investigations of the distribution of eddy currents 
in a cylindrical rod of conducting material subjected to an 
alternating magnetic field acting in an axial direction. At 
the time, investigators were concerned with the undesirable 
effect of eddy currents in electrical equipment, rather than 
utilization of them for induction heating. However, the same 
theory holds good in both cases. 

1884 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) is granted a patent (No. 307,819, 
November 11) on the use of a blowout for extinguishing arcs. 
This principle was later applied to contactors and is still a 
principal method of extinguishing arcs on contactors and 
magnetic circuit breakers. 

1885 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) develops the hydrocarbon 
flashing process for making uniform carbon lamp filaments 
(Patent No. 310,761, January 13) ; receives Patent No. 327,908, 
October 6, for a magnetic drag-type speedometer the first 
example of our present-day automobile speedometer. 

1885 The Cowles Brothers (see 1884) establish the first electro- 
chemical laboratory and plant on a commercial production 
basis. 

1885 The Association of Edison Illuminating Companies is organ- 
ized. A preliminary conference is held April 15 with five 
different operating properties represented, at which time of- 

54 



ficers were elected and the first meeting called for June 3, 
1885 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Membership for 1945 in- 
cluded fifty-two different companies. 

1885 The "Railroad Telegrapher" is published monthly in Peoria, 
Illinois, with its first issue dated August 1. 

1885 The first convention of the National Electric Light Associa- 
tion is held in Chicago, November 25. At this time there are 
six hundred lighting companies in the United States. 

1885 The Statue of Liberty is floodlighted by the use of arc lights, 
the installation being made by the Fort Wayne Electric Co. 
(see 1881). 

1885 The first commission to regulate electric light and power in- 
dustry is set up in Massachusetts. 

1885 GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE (1846-1914) of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, secures the Gaulard (see 1881) and Gibbs (see 
1881) patents by which the Westinghouse Electric Company 
develops and introduces alternating current in 1886. 

1885 EDWARD BRANLY (1844-1940) invents the "coherer" 
which is the first detector of wireless waves. This was used 
by Marconi and others in developing wireless telegraphy. 

1885 CHARLES GORDON CURTIS ( ), FRANCIS 

BACON CROCKER (1861-1921), and Schuyler Skaats 
Wheeler (see 1882) manufacture and sell one hundred motors 
exactly alike. 

1885 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) obtains patents (Nos. 322,138-9, 
July 14) on the grounded secondary, designs a direct-current 
dynamo for incandescent lamps, sets up an experimental 
alternating current system. 

1885 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) discovers a chemical process 
by which nitrocellulose is made into pure fiberless cellulose. 
This leads to the first successful homogeneous carbon lamp 
filament which is made by Dr. Weston and is known as the 
"tamadine" filament. 

1885 An electric drill is invented by Van Depoele (see 1869) and 

55 



its manufacture is begun by the Thomson- Van Depoele Elec- 
tric Mining Co. 

1885 J. J. C. Smith (see 1884) invents the first "hollow-core" cable 
in which the conductors are twisted about a central tube 
which is used to supply an impregnating material internally. 
Fifty-three years later this principle is revived and used in 
oil-filled and gas pressure paper-insulated cables for high 
voltage transmission (see 1938). 

1886 The Edison Machine Works (see 1880) moves to Schenectady, 
New York. 

1886 WILLIAM STANLEY (1858-1916) demonstrates the practi- 
cability of alternating current distribution (see Westinghouse 
1886) . The first commercial lighting system using alternating 
current is established at Great Barrington, Massachusetts. 

1886 Probably the first electric power is used in American homes 
as the Curtis, Crocker, Wheeler Co., better known as the C. & 
C. Electric Motor Co. (see 1885), turns out motors to operate 
sewing machines. The motors are operated by six-volt bat- 
teries, since few residences are wired for electricity. 

1886 Professor Elihu Thomson (see 1875) is granted a patent for 
the first electric resistance welding process, and receives Aug- 
ust 10, Patent No. 347,140 for "Apparatus for Electrical 
Welding." 

1886 The Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, builds the first commercially successful alternating- 
current generating station at Buffalo, New York, on Wilkeson 
Street. It is opened November 30, 1886, by the Brush Electric 
Light Co. Thus Buffalo, through the Westinghouse system, 
becomes the first city in the country to receive alternating 
current and electric light and power on a large scale. 

1886 The "Pacific Electric Monthly" begins publication in San 
Francisco. 

1886 The Edison Tube Co. and the Edison Shafting Co. are merged 
into the Edison Machine Works at Schenectady, New York, 
to manufacture complete lighting systems from dynamo to 

56 



lamp. In New York the Edison Electric Co. takes over the 
Edison Company for Isolated Lighting. 

1886 Sprague (see 1882) inaugurates metering system for elec- 
tricity consumed by electric motors. He installs the first 220- 
volt Sprague motor (15 hp) in a building in Boston to run a 
freight elevator. 

1886 The Postal Telegraph Company (see 1881) becomes the Postal 
Telegraph & Cable Co. 

1886 In this year, the 500 horse railways operating in the United 
States (gradually to be replaced by electric railways) utilize 
120,000 horses for 25,000 cars, or more than four horses to 
a car. 

1886 First New York to Philadelphia telephone line is built. 

1886 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents the first direct-connected 
sewing machine motor. The motor is a variation of the 
Gramme design, and is built integrally within the balance 
wheel of the sewing machine. Patent No. 356,576 is granted 
January 25, 1887. 

1887 A five-ton electric crane is put into use at Edison's Schenec- 
tady plant and excursion trains stop to let passengers see 
it work. 

1887 The "Western Electrician," a weekly publication, is estab- 
lished in Chicago. 

1887 NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943) works out the theory of the 
modern alternating-current induction motor and applies for 
patents. 

1887 The Woonsocket Electric Railway, first in New England, 
begins operation using the Bentley-Knight System (see 1884) . 

1887 George Westinghouse (see 1885) is granted Patent No. 
366,362 for his electric transformer, based upon a transformer 
invented by Lucien Gaulard (see 1881) and John Gibbs (see 
1881) whose patent rights Westinghouse buys. Manufacture 
of the transformer is begun by the Westinghouse Electric 

57 



Company. Working with the Westinghouse about this time 
are William Stanley (see 1886), an electrical engineer who 
develops an alternating-current constant potential generator, 
Oliver B. Shallenberger ( ), and GUIDO PANTE- 

LEONI ( ). 

1887 PROFESSOR HEINRICH RUDOLPH HERTZ (1857-1894), 
German physicist, discovers that certain metals give off elec- 
tric energy under the influence of light, establishes beyond 
doubt the electromagnetic nature of light. Hertz further ex- 
plains the phenomenon named "Etheric Force" by Edison (see 
1875) and it is known as "Hertzian Waves." (Science now uses 
this knowledge to make light produce electric current. This 
is the principle of the "electric eye," or phototube. A beam of 
light strikes a metal plate in the phototube and produces an 
electric current. This was the beginning of the photoelectric 
cell). 

1887 The first tracks for an electric railway in New York City are 
laid on Fulton Street by Bentley-Knight (see 1884). 

1887 GEORGE M. PHELPS ( ) of the Western Electric 

Company, and Thomas A. Edison (see 1874), assisted by 
Gilliland and Smith, patent a wireless induction system of 
communication between railway stations and moving trains. 

1887 NICHOLAS DE BENARDOS and STANISLAS OLSZEWSKI 

receive U. S. Patent No. 363,320 on carbon arc welding. 

1887 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) builds the first repulsion-induction 
motor. 

1887 A survey reveals there are fifteen well-known manufacturers 
of small electric motors in the United States and that they 
have produced more than 10,000 motors of 15 horsepower or 
less. 

1887 RUDOLPH EICKEMEYER ( ) , Yonkers, New York, 

starts manufacturing electric motors, including one with as 
short a magnetic circuit as possible in contrast to the long 
magnet poles of Edison's early type. He also develops form- 
wound armature coils to facilitate armature winding. 

58 



1887 Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler (see 1882) formerly of the 
United States Electric Lighting Co. and the Edison Company, 
but now with the C. & C. Company (see 1886), reads a paper 
before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers describ- 
ing the motors his company is manufacturing. Among them 
is a 110-volt motor designed to operate on incandescent light- 
ing circuits. 

1887 The first train fully equipped with electric lights is the Penn- 
sylvania Limited of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 
placed in service in June between Chicago and New York. 
Steam from the engine is carried to a turbine in the forward 
compartment of the baggage car where it drives an electric 
generator supplying current to the entire train. 

1887 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents and places in public operation 
what is believed to be the first electric ceiling fan. Patents 
Nos. 414,757 and 414,758 are granted November 12, 1889. 

1887 The first electrified underground mine haulage system is 
introduced into the mines of the Lukens Valley Coal Com- 
pany. Current for the mine locomotive is supplied by an 
inverted Tee rail. 

1887 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) compounds a workable Ger- 
man silver alloy containing thirty per cent nickel. He discovers 
an alloy, later known as "Constantan," in which it is shown 
for the first time that a metal can have a negative temperature 
coefficient of resistance, that is, its resistance becomes less 
with increasing temperature. The invention of "Manganin," 
the alloy now used universally for resistors of high accuracy, 
followed shortly thereafter. The resistance of "Manganin" is 
virtually constant within reasonable temperature limits. 

1887- Frank J. Sprague (see 1882) and Charles J. Van Depoele (see 

1888 1869) , working independently, demonstrate the practicability 
of using electricity to operate street cars. Sprague installs at 
Richmond, Virginia, the first practical trolley system in the 
United States; forty cars traverse twelve miles of streets. 
This system was almost a failure due to difficulties with 
copper brushes. 

1888 The Thomson-Houston Electric Co. installs on January 28 the 

59 



first industrial locomotive built for the Tremont & Suffolk 
Mills, Lowell, Massachusetts. 

1888 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) organizes the Thomson Welding 
Co. to commercialize the transformer for electric resistance 
welding he developed in 1885. 

1888 Oliver B. Shallenberger of Westinghouse (see 1887) invents 
the first induction meter for measuring alternating current. 

1888 The first electric freight locomotive is built by the Pullman 
Car Co. of Pullman, Illinois, for the Ansonia, Derby, and 
Birmingham electric line. The locomotive weighs 17% tons 
and hauls a train weighing about thirty-five tons at less than 
ten miles an hour. 

1888 The Thomson Houston Electric Company (see 1883) enters 
the electric railway field, acquiring the Bentley-Knight, Van 
Depoele and Sprague patents which give the company control 
of virtually all important patents in this field. By the end of 
1888 it had on order or had completed sixteen street railway 
installations. 

1888 Nikola Tesla of Westinghouse Company (see 1887) announces 
his discovery of the principle of the rotating magnetic field 
in a paper, "A New System of Alternating Current Motors 
and Transformers." His patents are developed by the West- 
inghouse Company, which brings out a line of induction 
motors based upon the new principle. Tesla invents new forms 
of dynamos, transformers, induction coils, condensers, arc 
and incandescent lamps, and other electrical apparatus. Later 
he headed the Tesla Laboratory in New York. The Westing- 
house Company purchased his patents covering alternating 
current and methods of distribution. One of the patents is 
entitled "Electrical Transmission of Power" (Patent No. 
382,280, May 1,1888). 

1888 Professor Hertz of Karlsruhe (see 1887) designs an oscillator 
for producing electrical waves and devises means for measur- 
ing and varying the wave lengths. 

1888 Professor Francis Bacon Crocker (see 1885) of Columbia Uni- 
versity and Schuyler Skaats Wheeler (see 1882), who re- 

60 



signed from the C. & C. Electric Motor Company, begin 
manufacturing small motors and a motor-driven ventilating 
fan with a controller for varying its speed, under the name 
of the Crocker- Wheeler Electric Motor Co., New York. 

1888 Van Depoele (see 1869) suggests carbon brushes for railway 
motors. 

1888 Carbon brushes are produced by the National Carbon Com- 
pany. This is one of the most important inventions ever 
made in the electric railway field and has much to do with 
the success of the railway motor, and in fact, the success of 
the direct-current motor. 

1888 John Royle & Sons produces the first extrusion machine for 
applying the rubber insulation continuously to a conductor 
in the form of a preformed tube, making possible a lower 
cost wire. 

1888 The Weston Electrical Instrument Co. is formed by Edward 
Weston. Dr. Weston (see 1872) formulates the design 
principle for a permanent magnetic system. The first perma- 
nent magnet, movable coil, direct reading electrical measur- 
ing instrument was developed and placed on the American 
market by Dr. Weston. 

1889 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) perfects the Thomson recording 
wattmeter, exhibits it at the Paris Electrical Exposition in 
1890. Later a factory was established in France to manufacture 
the meter and became the nucleus of the French Thomson- 
Houston Co. 

1889 CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ (1865-1923) of Germany 
arrives in the United States and starts work in Yonkers, 
New York, as a twelve-dollar-a-week electrical draftsman for 
Eickemeyer and Osterheld. 

1889 BENJAMIN G. LAMME (1864-1924), a mechanical-electrical 
engineer, enters the employ of Westinghouse. During his 
career he obtained more than one hundred important patents 
covering electrical apparatus. He designed, among other equip- 
ment, the 5,000 horsepower revolving field generators installed 
at Niagara Falls in 1895. 

61 



1889 Otis Bros. & Co. install the first two successful electrically 
operated passenger elevators in the Demarest Bldg., 33 Street 
at Fifth Avenue in New York. They use worm-geared drums, 
machines operated by direct-current motors. 

1889 "Electric Industries," a monthly magazine, is introduced in 
New York. 

1889 Westinghouse Electric Company (see 1886) develops the Still- 
well alternating-current feeder voltage regulator. 

1889 The Paris Exposition is the first one to be kept open success- 
fully during the evening due to the extended use of electric 
lighting. Over 10,000 incandescent lamps ranging in candle- 
power from four to fifty were used for lighting purposes. 

1889 The Edison General Electric Co. (later the General Electric 
Co.) is organized January 3 and incorporated by a consolida- 
tion of the Edison Light Co. ; Edison Machine Works ; Edison 
Lamp Co. ; Bergmann & Co. of New York City, manufacturers 
of switches and other appliances for Edison ; Canadian Edison 
Manufacturing Co. ; and Edison United Manufacturing Co., 
the sales organization for Edison's three American manu- 
facturing units. Later the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor 
Co. was absorbed by Edison General Electric. 

1889 Professor Francis Bacon Crocker (see 1885) of Columbia Uni- 
versity establishes the world's first electrical engineering 
course with MICHAEL IDVORSKY PUPIN (1858-1935) as 
his assistant. 

1889 Several dogs, four calves, and a horse are painlessly killed 
March 2 in the first electrocution experiment. 

1889 H. WARD LEONARD (1861-1915) installs in the offices of 
the United Edison Co. a system of dictation of letters on 
phonograph records from which the letters are transcribed 
by typewriter operators. 

1889 The Second International Electrical Congress is held at Paris, 
France, and adopts three more units and unit names in the 
practical system: the joule, the watt, and the quadrant. 

62 



1889 The first alternating-current power transmission system to be 
installed in the United States is placed in operation between 
Portland, Oregon, and Willamette Falls, a distance of thirteen 
miles. The installation consists of two 300 horsepower water 
wheels belted to single-phase generators rated at 720 kilo- 
watts. The transmission line operates at 4,000 volts. 

1890 The Westinghouse Electric Company and the Thomson- 
Houston Electric Company introduce independently their first 
four-pole railway generators. One of the Westinghouse gen- 
erators is rated at 125 horsepower, another at 250 horsepower. 
Later the same year Westinghouse introduced a six-pole gen- 
erator rated at 500 horsepower. 

1890 A convicted murderer, William Kemmler, alias John Hart, is 
electrocuted at Auburn Prison, Auburn, New York the first 
human being legally executed by electricity. 

1890 The Cataract Construction Co. is organized in New York with 
Edward D. Adams as president, J. Pierpont Morgan, Lord 
Kelvin, and others as members to develop hydroelectric power 
at Niagara Falls. In October, 1892, the company orders three 
5,000 horsepower generators as original equipment. The plant 
started operation in 1895. 

1890 Edison builds a large plant near Ogdensburg, New Jersey, for 
the magnetic concentration of low-grade iron ore. 

1890 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) produces a direct reading de- 
flection type electrodynamometer. 

1890 The Carpenter-Nervis Electro-Heating Co. is formed in St. 
Paul, Minnesota, to promote electric heating and cooking ap- 
pliances. The following year they had an exhibit at the Min- 
neapolis Industrial Exposition. 

1890 De Laval (See 1882) perfects the high-speed helical gear- 
making possible the realization of high efficiency of steam- 
turbine drives for low-speed electric generators, pumps, ship 
propellers, and so on. 

63 



1890- The West End Street Railway in Boston installs an electric 
1891 trolley car system and, as it grows, the street railway system 

displaces 9,000 horses from the city's crowded streets within a 

few years. 

1891 A five-year legal fight between the Edison Electric Lighting 
Co. and the United States Electric Light Co. over the 
legality of Edison's incandescent lamp patent is decided in 
favor of Edison, and the court decision is upheld in 1892 on 
an appeal. 

1891 Sprague (see 1882) and CHARLES E. PRATT, a Boston 
mechanic, organize the Sprague Electric Elevator Co., sell six 
elevators in 1892 to the Postal Telegraph Building in New York. 

1891 The "Street Railway Review" begins publication in Chicago 
in January. 

1891 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) is granted December 29 the 
first radio signalling patent issued in the United States: 
"Signalling between distant points can be carried on by induc- 
tion without the use of wires connecting such distant points" 
(Patent No. 465,971). 

1891 The manufacture of incandescent lamps is begun in Eind- 
hoven, Holland, by the Phillips Holland Co. Since 1920 the 
company has been manufacturing the gas-discharge lamp, 
the sodium lamp for lighting highways, and the ultra high- 
pressure mercury- vapor lamp, with water-cooled projector, 
by means of which surface lighting intensities in excess of 
those of the sun have been reached. Phillips also developed the 
wire-filled photo flash bulb. 

1891 The Westinghouse Electric Company installs the first elec- 
trical equipment for steel mills in the Edgar Thompson Works 
of the Carnegie Steel Co., Bessemer, Pennsylvania. 

1891 DR. G. JOHNSTON STONEY (1826-1911), Irish physicist 
and mathematician, gives the name of electrons to the smallest 
negative particles of electricity. 

1891 WILLIAM MORRISON ( ) of Des Moines, Iowa, 

designs an automobile operated by electric storage batteries. 

64 



1891 "Electric Age" is combined with "Telegraph Age" which be- 
gan publication in 1883. 

1891 The first alternating-current power transmission installation 
in the United States for industrial use is made at Telluride, 
Colorado, by the Westinghouse Co. A 100 horsepower, 3,000 
volt, synchronous motor is connected to an ore crushing ma- 
chine in a mine three miles from the generating station. 

1891 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) patents his kinetoscope for 
projection and his kinetographic camera for production of 
motion pictures. 

1891 Westinghouse introduces 60-cycle frequency which later 
came into almost universal use in the United States. 

1891 ALMON B. STROWGER ( ) of Kansas City, Mis- 

souri, patents an automatic telephone exchange whereby a 
person at one telephone can make connections with any other 
telephone in the system by aid of automatic switches at the 
central office and without the assistance of an operator. The 
Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange is organized to 
develop, manufacture, and install this system. 

1891 The American Institute of Electrical Engineers appoints a 
committee on Units and Standards with special reference to 
the study of magnetic circuit units. 

1891 "Electricity," a weekly magazine, begins publication in New 
York in July. 

1891 Steinmetz (see 1889) publishes his first paper on the law of 
hysteresis. 

1891 The first patent, No. 463,802, on the Ward Leonard System of 
Control is issued November 24. This is the first patent on 
the methods of control that are still used on elevators, mine 
hoists, steel rolling mills, many marine applications, and so on. 

1892 Westinghouse (see 1886) originates the rotary .converter, 
builds a successful nonarcing lighting arrester, produces 
the polyphase system of alternating-current generation and 
distribution. 

65 



1892 NATHAN B. STUBBLEFIELD ( ) demonstrates a 

radio broadcast. In 1902 he gave a public exhibition of his 
invention in Fairmont Park, Philadelphia, his voice being 
heard a mile from the transmitter. He was granted Patent 
No. 887,357, May 12, 1908. 

1892 The Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company exhibits 
its first "stopper lamp" two pieces of glass and a soft iron 
filament. 

1892 The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad becomes the first steam railway 
in the United States to use electric locomotives and power 
equipment. The first electrification covers about three miles 
of track, including a tunnel, through Baltimore. The first trip 
over the electrified line was made in 1894 and actual service 
began August 4, 1895. 

1892 Alexander Graham Bell (see 1871) opens a New York to Chi- 
cago telephone circuit in preparation for the Chicago World's 
Fair. 

1892 J. B. MCDONALD, president of the American Battery Com- 
pany, of Chicago, buys William Morrison's design for an 
electrically operated automobile (.see 1891). 

1892 The "Electrical Worker," a monthly magazine, begins publica- 
tion in St. Louis, Missouri. 

1892 The Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange, manufactured 
and installed in La Porte, Indiana, is the first automatic tele- 
phone switchboard to be used commercially. 

1892 The first automatic or push-button controlled elevators are 
installed. 

1892 The General Electric Company is organized and incorporated 
April 15 by a consolidation of the Edison General Electric Co. 
(formerly the Edison and Sprague interests) and the Thom- 
son-Houston Co. Charles Proteus Steinmetz leaves the Eicke- 
meyer Co. (see 1889) to join the new General Electric Com- 
pany and develops a system of mathematics for the solution 
of alternating-current problems. 

1892 Additional lighting of the Statue of Liberty in New York 
Harbor with incandescent lamps, in addition to arc lamps, 
is installed as part of the Columbian celebration (see 1885). 

66 



1893 Westinghouse starts building three 5,000 horsepower, alter- 
nating-current generators for Niagara Falls powerhouse. The 
generators are five times as large as the largest hitherto 
and the switches, instruments, busbars, and transmission are 
all unprecedented 2,000 volt, 2 phase, 25 cycles. 

1893 The first code covering the installation of electrical equipment 
is printed under the title of "Rules & Requirements for the 
Installation of Electric Light & Power," as revised and codi- 
fied by the Underwriters International Electrical Association. 
This is the beginning of the National Electrical Code. 

1893 Open and concealed work, wooden molding, and conduit wiring 
is recognized by the National Electrical Code. The use of con- 
duit was limited to what was later known as "lined" conduit. 

1893 De Laval designs, builds, and has in operation at the Colum- 
bian world's fair in Chicago the first high-speed, geared steam 
turbine in the United States. The turbine develops 10 horse- 
power at a turbine speed of 24,000 rpm, speed of generator 
2,400 rpm using a ten-to-one gear reduction. 

1893 The Fourth International Electrical Congress, notable in the 
history of electrical units, is held in Chicago. Its decisions 
in reference to electrical units and standards form the basis 
of much legislation in all parts of the world. Prior to this 
Congress, changes in the international electrical units might 
not have been possible because not many countries had enacted 
laws concerning electrical standards. 

1893 The external shunt type of ammeter is invented by Dr. Ed- 
ward Weston (see 1872). The shunt in connection with a 
millivoltmeter was first used especially for measuring high 
currents. A patent was issued on Weston standard cell and 
later was dedicated to the public. The standard cell is used 
as a reference basis for the "volt" and is found in every stan- 
dardizing laboratory in the world. 

1893 The World's Columbian Exposition is held in Chicago and 
gives the electrical industry an opportunity to show the prog- 
ress it has made in electrical generation and lighting up to 
this time. The Westinghouse Company, who is awarded the 
contract for lighting the exposition, demonstrates a complete 

67 



polyphase power system in operation using twelve 1,000 horse- 
power, 2,200 volt, 60 cycle, 2 phase generators, the largest 
alternating-current machines in America. In the electrical 
installation 483,882 feet of insulated copper conductors, rang- 
ing from to No. 6, B & S Gauge, are used for the primary 
service. It also requires 146,749 feet of duct. In the Electricity 
Building alone 15,000 incandescent lamps are used for light- 
ing. The total for the entire exposition is 92,622 lamps. A 
model electric kitchen is shown with a display of electrical 
appliances, including an electrically heated saucepan, chafing 
dish, coffeepot, and grill. 

1893 In June publication of "Electrical Engineering," a semi- 
monthly magazine, is begun in Chicago. 

1893 PROFESSOR LIONEL SIMEON MARKS ( ) of 

Harvard University publishes the results of the studies of 
enclosed arc lights and the effects on arc lights of varying 
the current and voltage. He develops a high-voltage lamp with 
enclosed carbons which, he says, will burn for a hundred and 
fifty hours. 

1893 LOUIS B. MARKS (1869-1939), an illuminating engineer of 
New York, designs an enclosed arc lamp and sells his patent 
rights to General Electric. 

1893 Incandescent lamps containing cellulose filament are intro- 
duced (3.3 lumens per watt) . 

1893 The first Wood electric automobile, built by the Chicago Elec- 
tric and Manufacturing Co. is tested on a Chicago street and 
creates "some excitement all along the route." 

1893 Elisha Gray (see 1869) is granted February 7 a patent for 
the telautograph. 

1893 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents the first combined electric fan 
and electrolier (lighting fixture) . The patent was issued June 
29, 1897. 

1894 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) patents the first resistance furnace. 

1894 SIR OLIVER LODGE (1851-1940) publishes an article in the 
"The Electrician" (London) in which he discusses the dis- 

68 



coveries of Hertz, describes his own experiments with elec- 
tromagnetic waves, and observes that "some circuits are per- 
sistent vibrators 'that is, they are able to sustain for long 
periods oscillations set up in them," while other "circuits are 
so constructed that their oscillations are rapidly damped." 

1894 What is claimed to be the first compensating winding and 
commutating pole generator is rated at 10 kilowatts, 91 
amperes, 110 volts, and 1,200 rpm. This is the Thomson- 
Ryan Dynamo "901" with copper brushes and interpole face 
windings. This machine is (in 1945) in the Edison Institute, 
Greenfield Village, Dearborn, Michigan. 

1894 A contract is let for twenty-six miles of 11,000 volt, 3 phase 
electric power transmission, one of the longest to this date, 
from Niagara Falls to Buffalo, New York. This line was not 
placed in service until November, 1896. 

1894 The first motion pictures are shown April 14 in a former shoe 
store at 1155 Broadway, New York. Ten of Edison's first kine- 
toscopes (see 1891) are used. 

1894 Pupin (see 1889) publishes his researches on "electric tuning" 
and obtains patents which were later licensed to the Marconi 
Co. in 1903. 

1895 PROFESSOR WILHELM KONRAD ROENTGEN (1845- 
1923) discovers rays which "emanate from the bombardment 
of a metallic plate by electrons in an evacuated tube." It is 
not understood what these rays are, so they are called X rays. 
Roentgen was awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1901. 

1895 ARTURO MALIGNANI ( ) , Italian engineer, evolves 

the use of red phosphorous vapor in producing the vacuum in 
an incandescent lamp, an important contribution. General 
Electric purchases the United States rights to the invention. 

1895 A 5.95-mile section of the New Haven Railroad's Nantasket 
Beach branch in Massachusetts is electrified. Service is sup- 
plied to motor-trailer trains from an overhead trolley system. 
This is the first example of standard railroad electrification 
in this country. 

69 



1895 GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874-1937), Italian electrician, 
inventor of wireless telegraphy, starts his experiments in his 
home in Bologna, transmits signals one mile without wires. 

1895 The constant-potential arc lamp, for 110 volt constant, mul- 
tiple circuits, is developed by Elihu Thomson (see 1875) . 

1895 The "Journal of Electricity" a monthly magazine is published 
in July in San Francisco. 

1895 Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company installs the 
first high-capacity hydroelectric system at Niagara Falls. 
This consists of three 5,000 horsepower, 2 phase, 2,200 volt, 
25 cycle, 250 rpm alternators having an external revolving 
field. This plant continued in commercial service until about 
1924. It was however, maintained as a standby plant until 
the summer of 1941 when it was again placed in service as a 
wartime measure. The first three machines installed in 1895 
were rebuilt in 1921 to operate at 12,000 volt, 3 phase. 

1895 PIERRE CURIE (1859-1906), French physicist, discovers 
what is later called the "Curie Point" and relates to variations 
of magnetic properties. His discovery was modified by later 
experimental results. The American Standards Association 
defines the "Curie Point" as follows: "The magnetic transi- 
tion temperature of a ferromagnetic material is the tempera- 
ture at which, with increasing temperature, the transition 
from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic appears to be complete. 
The change in magnetic properties with temperature extends 
over an appreciable temperature interval, so that the value 
obtained for the magnetic transition temperature depends 
upon experimental conditions" (05.40.095) . 

1896 Marconi (see 1895) applies for his original and basic (British) 
patent for wireless telegraphy June 2 (Patent No. 12,039). 
Equivalent American patent, No. 586,193, was granted July 
13, 1897. 

1896 DR. NIELS RYDBERG FINSEN ( ) discovers that 

violet rays are an enemy of disease, and inaugurates electric 
light therapy. 

1896 The Hartford Electric Light Company installs at Hartford, 
Connecticut, the first electric hydraulic plant to use a storage 
battery to meet peak load requirements. 

70 



1896 The first commercial projection on a motion picture screen 
takes place April 23. The films for the performance were made 
in the first motion picture studio at Edison's West Orange, 
New Jersey, plant. 

1896 ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL (1852-1908) , French physi- 
cist, experiments with minerals containing uranium. His re- 
search opens the way to radioactivity and Curie's discovery 
of radium. 

1896 The General Electric Company and the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company license each other to manufacture 
under its patents. General Electric holds the patents of Thom- 
son, Brush, Edison, Sprague, Van Depoele, Bradley, and 
others; Westinghouse holds those of Sawyer-Man, Maxim, 
Weston, Tesla, Stanley, and others. 

1896 "The Telephone," a monthly magazine, begins publication in 
March in Chicago. 

1896 EDWARD GOODRICH ACHESON (1856-1931), American 
inventor, receives Patent No. 560,291 for an "Electric Fur- 
nace." 

1896 The commercial steam turbine (based on exclusive Parson's 
license) is introduced into America by Westinghouse about 
1895. A 120 kilowatt direct-current set is built at Pittsburgh 
in 1896. 

1896 In May the "American Electrician" is published. This maga- 
zine was originally called the "Electric Industries" and was 
established in 1889. 

1896 De Laval (see 1882) designs, and the French De Laval Co. 
builds, the first steam turbines used in American central 
stations. There are two 300 horsepower, single-stage geared 
turbine generators installed in two plants of the New York 
Edison. Co. 

1896 The Ward Leonard Electric Co. manufactures the first elec- 
trically heated flatirons with several replaceable heater units. 

1896 Charles G. Curtis (see 1885) starts work on the development 
of his turbine at the Schenectady Works of General Electric 
(see 1900). 

71 



1896 Pupin (see 1889) discovers secondary X-ray radiation and 
"originates the use of the intensifying screen in making X-ray 
pictures. 

1896 Edison files a patent on the first fluorescent lamp May 19. 

1897 NICHOLAS SLAWIANOFF receives United States Patent 
No. 577, 329 on metallic arc welding February 16. 

1897 The first electric automobiles make their appearance. At the 
New York Auto Show in 1900, electrics far outnumber the 
steam and gasoline cars. 

1897 Westinghouse (see 1886) builds the first polyphase induction 
regulator for varying the voltage of a synchronous converter. 

1897 SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-1940), English physi- 
cist, advances his electronic theory. 

1897 SIR WILLIAM HENRY PREECE (1834-1913), Marconi's 
collaborator in England, engineer-in-chief of the British Post 
Office, publishes a paper, "Signaling Through Space Without 
Wires," in which he describes Marconi's experiments in Great 
Britain, mostly by means of Hertzian waves concentrated 
into a single beam by parabolic reflectors. Marconi transmits 
signals in the Morse code across the Bristol channel, a distance 
of nine miles. 

1897 Guglielmo Marconi (see 1895) receives Patent No. 586,193 
for "New and Useful Improvements in Transmitting Elec- 
trical Impulses and Signals and in the Apparatus Thereof . . . 
by means of oscillations of high frequency." This is commonly 
called wireless telegraphy. 

1897 DR. RUDOLPH DIESEL (1858-1913), German engineer, in- 
vents the engine that bears his name. The original Diesel 
engine weighed four hundred and fifty pounds to the horse- 
power. August 9, 1898, he received Patent No. 608,845 for 
"New and Useful Improvements in Internal Combustion En- 
gines." The Diesel engine has become an important factor in 
the generation of cheap electric power in comparatively small 
quantities. The largest engine to date (1945) is rated at 8,000 
horsepower. 

72 



1897 PROFESSOR WALTHER NERNST (1864-1941) of Berlin 
devises an incandescent lamp that requires no vacuum and 
consumes only half the power of the ordinary carbon filament 
for the same amount of light. The Nernst filament consists of 
a short rod of magnesium oxide, a poor conductor of electricity 
when cold, but a good conductor when heated. To start the 
light the filament is heated with an electrically heated plati- 
num wire. 

1897 ROBERT H. MACHLETT, founder of Machlett Laboratories, 
Inc., produces one of the first operable X-ray tubes in America. 

1898 Westinghouse (see 1886) builds a 100,000 volt test set for 
testing insulating material and insulators in the field. 

1898 Marconi, abandoning the single beam method of transmitting 
telegraphic signals without wires sends signals via aerials, 
the signals going out in all directions. With this system, 
Marconi transmits signals between Bournemouth and Alum 
Bay, Isle of Wight, about fourteen miles. 

1898 The first patented flashlights are produced and announced. 
Among the important contributors are the names of Bugg, 
Paget, Misell, and Hubert. Early patents were assigned to the 
American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co., predecessor of the 
American Ever Ready Co. which later became part of the Na- 
tional Carbon Co., Inc. The early flashlights were in the nature 
of toys and novelties. 

1898 HUGO BREMER ( ) of Germany and ANDREW 

BLONDEL ( ) of France independently discover that 

by incorporating metallic salts in the structure of lighting 
carbons it is possible to obtain a luminous or flaming arc of 
considerable intensity. The metallic salts volatilize in the arc 
stream thereby making it the principal source of energy emis- 
sion instead of the incandescent tips of the carbons as was the 
case with the pure carbon arc. Following this discovery many 
types of flaming arc lamps were introduced abroad and in this 
country. 

1898 The first use of electricity in war as a motive power for all 
turrets, ammunition hoists, and auxiliary machines, a Ward 
Leonard system of control, is July 3 on the U. S. cruiser 

73 



"Brooklyn," during the Battle of Santfago. Of the lessons of 
the Spanish-American War with respect to employment of 
electricity aboard men-of-war the most decisive result was 
the demonstration of the immense superiority of electricity 
over steam for the operation of turret training apparatus. 

1898 Sir Oliver Lodge (see 1894) receives Patent No. 609,154 
August 16 for "tuning." His system included an induction 
coil in the antenna circuit of a wireless transmitter or receiver, 
or both, making it possible to put the transmitter and receiver 
in tune with each other. 

1898 The constant-current transformer, permitting arc lamps to be 
linked into alternating-current supply systems and supplied 
with fixed or constant current is invented by Elihu Thomson 
(see 1875). 

1899 WALTER D'A. RYAN begins his systematic study of light- 
ing, opens a modest illuminating engineering laboratory at 
Lynn, Massachusetts, and conducts an educational campaign 
on the scientific planning of lighting installations. 

1899 In April Marconi transmits a wireless telegraph message from 
Folkestone to Boulogne, a distance of thirty-two miles the 
first international wireless transmission. 

1899 Michael Idvorsky Pupin (see 1889) invents the telephone 
"repeater," or "Pupin" coils. The patent for this was acquired 
by the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. in 1901. 

1899 The first comprehensive installation of steam turbine-driven 
generators is made with three Westinghouse 400 kilowatt, 
alternating-current turbine generator sets installed at Wilmer- 
ding, Pennsylvania. 

1899 In June the A.I.E.E. makes its first report on standardization. 
Recommended for trial by both manufacturers and users of 
electrical equipment, it is the ground work of all future elec- 
trical standardization. 

1899 Armored cable is first recognized as a wiring method in the 
National Electrical Code. 

74 



1899 The "lining" in conduit for wiring purposes is removed by the 
National Electrical Code. "Lined" conduit continued to have 
recognition for some years and was specified for conduit wir- 
ing in elevator shafts until 1928. 

1900 The Manhattan Elevated Railway is electrified. The first in- 
stallation includes 1,700 motors and the largest generators 
physical size) ever built, operating at 75 rpm and delivering 
current at 25 cycles. This current was changed to direct cur- 
rent by means of synchronous converters located in different 
substations throughout the city. 

1900 Ground is broken for the first subway in New York. 

1900 The General Electric Research Laboratory is established at 
Schenectady, New York. 

1900 Charles G. Curtis (see 1885) and WILLIAM LEROY EMMET 
(1859-1941) design their first turbines in the General Electric 
Laboratories in Schenectady. 

1900 The American Telephone & Telegraph Co. becomes the parent 
company of the Bell System. 

1900 S. H. STUPAKOFF, SR. ( ) manufactures and intro- 

duces the first pyrometers to industry in the United States. 

1900 Edwards and Co. introduces the "Carriage Call," used by 
Tiffany and Company, New York, and others. 

1900 The Fifth International Electrical Congress is held at Paris, 
France, in August. At this Congress the unit "gauss" is deter- 
mined for the C.G.S. unit of field intensity and the "max- 
well" for the C.G.S. unit of magnetic flux. 

1900 The first escalator, built by Otis Elevator Co. of New York City, 
is exhibited at the Paris Exposition, Paris, France. After the 
Paris Exhibition it was returned to the United States and in 
1901 installed in Philadelphia in the Eighth Street building of 
Gimbel Brothers department store. 

1900 Charles P. Steinmetz (see 1889) develops a new light source 
for arc lamps, an electrode made up partly of magnetite and 
partly of titanium, giving an illumination so brilliant that it 
is commercially named the luminous arc. 

75 



1901 The Hartford Electric Light Co., Hartford, Connecticut, places 
in operation a Westinghouse steam turbine rated at 1,500 
kilowatts, 2,400 volts, 2 phase, 60 cycles, 1,200 rpm the 
largest constructed to date. 

1901 PETER COOPER HEWITT (1861-1921) invents at Newark, 
New Jersey, a mercury-vapor arc lamp. 

1901 The National Electrical Contractors Association is organized 
July 17, with forty-eight delegates representing the contrac- 
tors in seven states. Membership in 1945 was about 1,300, 
including members in Canada, Mexico, South America, and 
Puerto Rico. 

1901 The National Bureau of Standards is established in March 
with a staff of about fourteen. The present (1945) electrical 
division has a staff of about one hundred and sixty members. 

1901 Radio rescues its first ship: The Royal Belgian steamer 
"Princess Clementine," one of the first ships equipped with 
Marconi's wireless apparatus, finds the barque "Medora" of 
Stockholm grounded on the Ratel Bank. The Belgian skipper 
immediately sends a wireless message to La Panne on the 
Belgian Coast, and within an hour a rescue vessel is on its 
way to aid the "Medora." 

1901 The single-phase commutator type motor with variable speeds 
is developed for traction service. 

1901 General Electric Company retains DR. WILLIS R. WHITNEY 

(1868- ) of Massachusetts Institute of Technology to head 
its new research laboratory (see 1900) . The first work, with 
Steinmetz (see 1892) , is done in an old barn at Schenectady. 

1901 Marconi sends the first radio signal October 12 the letter "S" 
across the Atlantic Ocean from Poldhu, Cornwall, to St. 
Johns, Newfoundland. 

1901 "Electrical Contracting," the magazine of electrical construc- 
tion and maintenance, is established. 

1902 The first conversation by long distance underground cable is 
held between New York City and Newark, New Jersey. 

76 



1902 The American Electrochemical Society is founded in April. 
Later the word "American" is dropped from the title. The 
Society is divided into seven important divisions : electrother- 
mic, electrodeposition, electronics, electro-organic, corrosion, 
industrial electrolytic, and theoretical electrochemistry. The 
Society was incorporated in 1930 and in 1945 has a member- 
ship of almost 1,700. 

1902 Peter Cooper Hewitt (see 1900) invents the mercury arc recti- 
fier used for converting alternating current into direct cur- 
rent. 

1902 Two of the largest engine-type generators built for Cincin- 
nati Gas & Electric Co. are placed in operation. The alternator 
is rated at 3,200 kva, 3 phase, 60 cycle, 2,400 volt alternators 
operating at 75 rpm, and has a rotor diameter of 30 feet. 
The direct-current, 250 volt generator of the same rating and 
speed has an armature 20 feet in diameter. 

1902 REGINALD AUBREY FESSENDEN (1866-1932) , American 
pioneer in wireless, invents the electrolytic or chemical de- 
tector which increases the range and effectiveness of wireless. 

1902 JOHN STONE STONE (1869-1943) receives Patent No. 714,- 
756 on tuning-in connection with wireless telegraph apparatus. 

1902 The first cable across the Pacific between San Francisco and 
Honolulu (2,600 miles) is played out by the cable ship "Silver- 
ton", leaving San Francisco December 14, 1902, and arriving 
at Honolulu January 1, 1903. The first message was sent that 
day ; the cable was open for public use four days later. 

1903 The first commercial installation of the luminous arc lamp 
(see 1900) is made at Jackson, Michigan. 

1903 The first experimental trolley coach line, whereby vehicles run 
on the street and collect current from a two-wire overhead 
system, is installed at Scranton, Pennsylvania. One twenty- 
passenger trolley coach is used in the experiment. 

1903 The Lackawanna and Wyoming Valley Railroad Rapid Transit 
Co. starts operating May 25 the first third-rail system at 
Scranton, Pennsylvania. 

77 



1903 The first practical demonstration of Peter Cooper Hewitt's 
mercury-vapor arc lamp is made in the composing room of 
the "New York Evening Post." 

1903 CLYDE J. COLEMAN ( ) is granted a patent on an 

automobile electric self-starter; the license is purchased by 
the Delco Company. 

1903 General Electric Company produces a vertical 5,000 kilowatt 
turbine, installs it in the Fisk Street Station of the Common- 
wealth Edison Company plant in Chicago. This is the largest 
steam turbine constructed at that time. 

1904 The first cable between Honolulu, Midway, Guam, and Manila 
(9,060 miles, San Francisco to Manila) is completed in July. 
President Theodore Roosevelt sends the first message west- 
ward around the world in eleven minutes. 

1904 Silicon steel is first used for transformer cores increasing 
their efficiency. 

1904 Westinghouse (see 1886) makes the first single-phase electric 
railway application for the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Co. 

1904 Dr. Schuyler S. Wheeler (see 1882) is awarded the John Scott 
medal by the Franklin Institute for his invention of the elec- 
tric fan. 

1904 The Shawinigan Water & Power Co. installs an 8,000 horse- 
power frequency changer (25 to 60 cycles, 2,300 volts, 3 phase, 
300 rpm). This was the largest electric motor built to date. 

1904 The Allis-Chalmers Company builds a 3,500 kva, 75 rpm, 
2,200 volt, 25 cycle generator and engine unit for lighting the 
St. Louis World's Fair. 

1904 D. McFARLAN MOORE establishes his vacuum-type lamp 
commercially. An experimental tube 186 feet long was ex- 
hibited a few years earlier in the foyer of the original Madison 
Square Garden. 

1904 Cutler-Hammer perfects an improved turning control system 
for battleships, a magnetic clutch gear shift combination. The 
system is installed on the U.S.S. "Indiana" and on the first 

78 



target practice run a record of ten hits in ten minutes is 
scored. 

1904 The first static neutralizer is installed commercially in Janu- 
ary at the Continental Paper Bag Co., Rumford, Maine. The 
object of the neutralizer is to remove static electricity from 
paper passing through a printing press. It can be applied to 
any moving object that creates static electricity, such as belt- 
ing, cloth, and so on. Static electricity is neutralized by elec- 
tricity of equal potential and opposite polarity. Patent No. 
777,598 for this process entitled "Method of Removing Static 
Electricity from Paper, Yarn, etc." is issued to WILLIAM H. 
CHAPMAN, December 13. 

1904 The Sixth International Electrical Congress is held in St. 
Louis, Missouri, and votes to invoke an international com- 
mission, representing various governments, to consider ques- 
tions relating to electrical units and standards upon which 
international agreement is desired. It also votes to take steps 
"to secure the cooperation of the technical societies of the 
world, by the appointment of a representative commission to 
consider the question of the standardization of the nomencla- 
ture and ratings of electrical apparatus and machinery." 

1904 ARTHUR KORN (1870- ) pioneers in electrical trans- 
mission of pictures by wire and wireless. By a system which 
he developed he sends telephone wirephotos over six hundred 
miles. His transatlantic radiophoto of Pope Pius XI appeared 
in "The World," (New York) June 11, 1922. 

1904 Sir John Ambrose Fleming (see 1883) invents the valve 
detector, or oscillation valve based on "Edison Effect" which 
is used to detect wireless waves. 

1905 Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company demon- 
strates its new electric locomotive, hauling fifty steel gondolas 
before a special meeting of the International Railway Con- 
gress at East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

1905 The Westinghouse Company develops the first single-phase, 
steam-driven, 25 cycle turbine generator for supplying power 
for single-phase railway electric locomotives three 3,750 
kilowatts, 1 phase, 11,000 volts, 1,500 rpm, 25 cycle, New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railway (see 1906) . 

79 



1905 First trade association in electrical manufacturing industry 
is organized August 16 in New York with twelve representa- 
tives of electrical manufacturers present. It is first called 
Electrical Manufacturers Alliance, changed September 25 to 
Electrical Manufacturers Club. 

1905 "Gem" metalized carbon filament incandescent lamp is intro- 
duced (4 lumens per watt) . 

1905 The International Conference on Electrical Units meets in 
Berlin, Germany, in October. The first conference of repre- 
sentatives of national laboratories, they were invited there 
by the Charlottenburg Reichsanstalt. 

1905 America's first ornamental electric street lighting system, 
using standards thirteen and one-half feet high with seven 
incandescent lamps in circular globes, is installed in Los 
Angeles. 

1905 FREDERICK GARDNER COTTRELL (1877- ), profes- 
sor of physical chemistry at the University of California, 
installs one of his electrically operated precipitators, which 
prevented escaping acid fumes from reaching the outside 
atmosphere, in a sulphuric acid plant located on the Pinole, 
on San Francisco Bay. 

1906 DR. LEE DE FOREST (1873- ) announces October 20 his 
first three-element vacuum tube (filament and two plate elec- 
trodes) described as an amplifier of feeble electrical currents. 
He receives a patent on the tube in 1907. 

1906 The Westinghouse Company electrifies the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad from New York to Stamford, 
Connecticut, using 11,000 volt, single-phase, 25 cycle current. 

1906 The International Electrochemical Commission has its first 
meeting in London. 

1906 The first telephone conversation is held by underground cable 
between New York and Philadelphia (ninety miles) . 

1906 The Illuminating Engineering Society is organized the latter 
part of this year. Membership after one year's operation was 
815 and in March, 1945, the membership is over 4,000. 

80 



1906 PROFESSOR BORIS ROSING ( ) of the Institute 

of Technology, St. Petersburg, Russia, conceives a cathode- 
ray receiving tube, to make television practical, but his years 
of research are fruitless because necessary implements for 
successful development of the tube had not yet been invented. 

1906 DR. WERNER VON BOLTON ( ) of Berlin renders 

tantalum pliable so that it can be drawn into a flexible wire 
and used as an incandescent lamp filament. General Electric 
obtains a license to manufacture the lamp in America. 

1906 ERNEST F. W. ALEXANDERSON (1878- ) develops his 
high frequency alternator, making possible a new advance in 
radio. A 200 watt alternator, completed in 1918, is the founda- 
tion of the first transoceanic radio system. 

1906 A. L. MARSH is granted a patent covering a new alloy com- 
posed of nickel and chromium for a heating resistor. Its use 
marked the permanent success of electric heating and cooking 
appliances. 

1906 The largest gas-engine generator installation is made at the 
U. S. Steel Corp., Gary, Indiana, with nine 2,000 kilowatt Allis- 
Chalmers generators and gas engines. This installation is 
notable for the number and size of the units and the fact that 
they operate in parallel with each other and other systems. 

1907 Walter d'A. Ryan (see 1889) illuminates Niagara Falls with 
powerful arc searchlights playing upon the cataract for thirty 
nights. 

1907 The tower of the Singer building in New York is floodlighted, 
the first instance of lighting the exterior of a large building 
in this manner. 

1907 The electric (single-phase, alternating-current) motor of vari- 
able speed is used for the first time by a steam railroad. This 
electrification is made on the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad between New York and Stamford, Connecticut, 
and operates at 11,000 volts, 25 cycle, single-phase circuit using 
series motors and overhead contact system. 

1907 The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers is 
organized with about thirty members (approximate member- 

81 



ship in 1945 was 3,000). In February, 1936, the name was 
changed to the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. 

1907 Metal moldings as a wiring method are first recognized in the 
National Electrical Code. 

1907 The first boats to be electrically propelled are fireboats, the 
"Graeme Stewart" and the "Joseph Medill", on the Chicago 
River. 

1907 Dr. Lee de Forest (see 1906) is granted January 15 Patent 
No. 841,387 for his "Device for Amplifying Feeble Electric 
Currents." 

1907 The first modern utility regulating commissions with broad 
powers are established in New York and Wisconsin. 

1907 Cutler-Hammer brings out a line of lifting magnets, from a 
ten-inch magnet for lifting plates, rails, small castings, and 
so on, to a fifty-two-inch magnet for handling pig iron, scrap, 
and the like. 

1907 General Electric commercially introduces in the United States 
the tungsten-filament lamp (giving 8 lumens per watt) after 
purchasing from Dr. Alexander Just of Vienna, Franz Hana- 
man, his colleague, Dr. Werner von Bolton, and Dr. Hanz 
Kuzel of Germany, their patent rights covering the tungsten- 
filament lamp. 

1907 HAROLD W. BUCK (1873), electrical engineer of the 
Niagara Falls Power Co., and EDWARD M. HEWLETT 
(1866-1934), General Electric switchboard engineer, obtain a 
joint patent on the suspension type of insulator and the strain 
insulator. 

1908 Dr. Lee de Forest (see 1906) announces February 18 his three- 
electrode tube on which he has obtained Patent No. 879,532. 
C. D. Babcock names the tube "audion." 

1908 The so-called flaming arc lamps are developed and introduced. 

1908 Nathan B. Stubblefield (see 1892) is granted a patent for his 
magnetic induction type radio broadcasting system, which 
requires that a conductor encircle the area to be covered by 
the broadcast. 

82 



1908 AUGUSTUS D. CURTIS (1865-1931) demonstrates electric 
indirect lighting before the Illuminating Engineering Society 
and the Opthalmological Society in Chicago. 

1908 The American Association of Electric Motor Manufacturers 
is organized with membership limited to companies engaged 
in the manufacture of electric motors. Its main purpose is to 
standardize sizes, types and characteristics of electric motors. 

1908 Edison puts on the market his improved "nickel-iron-alkaline" 
storage battery. 

1908 The first 100,000 volt long distance transmission line is in- 
stalled by the Great Western Power Co. from its Big Bend 
Plant at Las Plumas on the Feather River in Northern Cali- 
fornia to Oakland a distance of 155 miles. 

1908 The International Conference on Electrical Units & Standards, 
attended by official delegates of twenty-four countries, meets 
in London in October to decide upon mutually satisfactory 
definitions and specifications for the principal electrical stand- 
ards. 

1909 The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Canada, 
constructs a high-voltage power transmission line running 
from Niagara Falls to Toronto. This is the first 110 kv line 
to carry power out of the Niagara area. 

1909 Incandescent lamps replace carbide flame jets in automobile 
headlights. 

1909 LEO HENDRICK BAEKELAND (1863-1944) of Belgium 
receives Patent No. 942,809 December 7 for "New and Useful 
Improvements in Condensation Products and Method of Mak- 
ing Same." "Bakelite," whose first application was in the elec- 
trical manufacturing industry, is the direct result of this 
invention. It is the beginning of the modern plastics indus- 
try, so important to the electrical manufacturing industry. 

1910 Laurel Canyon, residential suburb of Los Angeles, installs 
what it claims is the first commercial trolley coach line, using 
one sixteen-passenger trolley coach. 

83 



1910 The first mercury arc manufactured as a source of ultra- 
violet rays is made in the United States by the Cooper Hewitt 
Electric Company, Hoboken, New Jersey. 

1910 The first automobile operated by a combination of gasoline and 
electricity is placed in service, equipped with the Owen mag- 
netic drive and a generator. 

1910 GEORGE A. HUGHES (1871-1944), a former electric utility 
operator, begins the manufacture of the first practical electric 
range following its exhibit at the National Electric Light 
Association convention at St. Louis the same year. 

1910 The first electrically driven washing machine is introduced. 

1910 The International Technical Committee meets at the Bureau 
of Standards in Washington, D. C. in the spring. Representa- 
tives of France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United 
States attend. At this meeting the "Weston" normal cell is 
recommended as a standard for the volt (1.0183 volts at 20C.) 
and is accepted by the various national laboratories in Jan- 
uary, 1911. 

1910 The American Association of Electric Motor Manufacturers 
(see 1908) becomes the Electric Power Club, with member- 
ship open to those connected with the manufacture of electric 
generators and motors. 

1910 DR. WILLIAM DAVID COOLIDGE (1873- ) , who left the 
faculty of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1905 to 
do research work for the General Electric Co., Schenectady, 
New York, makes tungsten ductile for incandescent lamp fila- 
ments. The manufacture of the ductile tungsten lamp, an- 
nounced in 1910, is begun in 1911, and a patent is granted in 
December, 1913. 

1911 Flexible conduit as a wiring method is first recognized in the 
National Electrical Code. 

1911 The Boston & Maine Railroad Co. electrifies the Hoosack 
Tunnel at North Adams, Massachusetts, approximately five 
miles long (25,081 feet), begun in 1851, and completed in 1875. 
The tunnel is electrified using single-phase, alternating-cur- 

84 



rent with overhead catenary construction, 11,000 volts, 25 
cycles. The motors in the locomotives are of the series com- 
mutator type, operating at 368 volts, designed for maximum 
safe speed of thirty-five miles per hour. Four motors on each 
locomotive develop continuously 1,352 horsepower. The tun- 
nel contains two tracks running from end to end and cost 
approximately twelve million dollars. 

1911 The Seventh International Electrical Congress is held at 
Turin, Italy. 

1911 Ornamental luminous arc lighting standards are installed in 
New Haven, Connecticut a new epoch in street lighting. 
The installation was copied widely and gave rise to the "White 
Way" movement in American cities. 

1911 Drawn tungsten filament incandescent lamps (see 1910) giv- 
ing 10 lumens per watt are introduced. 

1912 The City of Chicago makes contracts for 10,000 enclosed flam- 
ing arc lamps for street lighting. One of the largest installa- 
tions in the country, it was increased even more in the follow- 
ing years. 

1912 Western Union engineers and Western Electric Co. jointly 
develop the multiplex system whereby eight telegraph mes- 
sages are sent over one wire simultaneously. 

1912 The first electrically propelled ship of the U. S. Navy is the 
U. S. S. "Jupiter," built as a collier, launched August 24. 
The ship was commissioned April 7, 1913, converted to an 
aircraft carrier in 1919 and 1920, and her name changed from 
"Jupiter" to "Langley" April 21, 1920. 

1912 The largest vertical direct-current waterwheel generators are 
constructed. There are four units, each rated at 3,500 kilo- 
watts, 4,675 horsepower. 

1913 A gas-filled lamp using tungsten filament is introduced giving 
fourteen lumens per watt. This is thirteen times as much 
light per watt as obtained from the early carbon types. 

1913 Dr. William D. Coolidge (see 1910) produces a hot-cathode 
X-ray tube operating at 100,000 volts. Tubes developed by Dr. 
Coolidge and other researchers have been invaluable in diag- 

85 



nosis and in the treatment of disease. The electrocardiograph 
for analyzing heart conditions, the artificial fever machine for 
treating several crippling diseases, electrosurgical apparatus, 
diathermy, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, ionic ra- 
diation, surgical ionization, and other remedial equipment and 
measures have been made possible through electricity. 

1913 FREDERICK AUGUST KOLSTER (1883- ), radio engi- 
neer, brings about the installation of r'adio beacons at all 
important lighthouses and lightships after authorization by 
the Bureau of Lighthouses. First experimental radio beacons 
are installed on the Ambrose and Fire Island Lightships and 
at the Sea Girt Lighthouse on the Jersey Coast. He also 
developed the first practical radio compass. 

1913 EDWIN H. ARMSTRONG (1890- ), American electrical 
engineer, is the first to make use of the three-electrode tube 
for generating the continuous electric waves that made radio 
broadcasting possible. 

1913 The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America is or- 
ganized in the United States with the backing of the British 
Marconi Company. A station is erected at New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. 

1913 Nela Park (National Electric Lamp Association) is formally 
launched. 

1914 The Panama Canal, the "biggest electrical installation in the 
world," opens August 15, with 500 motors operating the huge 
locks and 500 other motors installed at the dams, spillways, 
and elsewhere along the canal. Their combined horsepower 
is nearly 30,000. There are also 4,000 telephones installed. 

1914 The first completely automatic substation starts operation at 
Union, Illinois, in December. It is built for the Detroit Edison 
Co. 

1914 New York to Washington underground telephone cable is 
placed in service. 

1915 SAUL DUSHMAN (1883- ) , research physicist at General 
Electric Company, produces the world's first high-voltage 
vacuum tube rectifier commonly known as a "genotron" tube. 

86 



1915 GEORGE S. CLAUDE ( ) of Paris is granted Janu- 

ary 19 United States Patent No. 1,125,476 for his neon tube. 

1915 The first transcontinental telephone line between New York 
and San Francisco is opened for service. 

1915 W. d'A. Ryan (see 1899) lights the Panama-Pacific Exposition, 
first great lighting spectacle of modern type. The following 
year he originates a brilliant "Path of Gold" lighting installa- 
tion for Market Street, San Francisco. 

1915 The U. S. S. "New Mexico", built in the Brooklyn Navy Yard 
(the keel is laid October 14, 1915, the ship was launched April 
3, 1917, and commissioned May 20, 1918) is the first battleship 
to be propelled by electricity. Two main generators, each rated 
at 5,000 horsepower, operate four propulsion motors with a 
5,000 horsepower capacity. 

1915 Speech is transmitted for the first time by radiotelephone 
from Arlington, Virginia, across the continent to San Fran- 
cisco, to Hawaii, and across the Atlantic to Paris by Western 
Electric Telephone and Telegraph engineers. 

1915 The Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies are or- 
ganized. 

1915 Western Electric Company develops for the British War Office 
a "sound barrage" to jam reception in German listening posts 
using a comparatively unknown valve (vacuum tube) detector 
to pick up telephone message concerning British operations. 

1916 Alexanderson (see 1906) develops a multiple-tuned antenna, 
demonstrates his two-way radiotelephone between Schenec- 
tady and Pittsfield. 

1916 The Electrical Manufacturers Council is organized (1916) and 
revised in 1921 to comprise the Electric Power Club, the Elec- 
trical Manufacturers Club, and the Associated Manufacturers 
of Electrical Supplies. 

1916 Publication of "Electrical Merchandising" is begun this year. 

1916 MARTIN HOCHSTADTER patents "type H" cable with 
electrostatic shield of metal tape that by reducing stresses 

87 



permits reduction in diameter and also use of insulated cable 
to super-high tension voltages. 

1916 E. H. Armstrong (see 1913) is the inventor of the widely used 
superheterodyne receiving circuit for radio. 

1916 Electric clocks, operated by self -starting synchronous motors, 
are developed. At this time frequency of alternating-current 
generators is accurately controlled by means of a master 
clock. 

1917 Bell System engineers demonstrate radiotelephony between 
the ground and planes in flight and between two planes. 

1917 The first fully automatic electric range is produced. 

1917 C. C. ABBOTT ( ) invents a radically new form of 

enclosed swaged, tubular heating element for electric range 
hot plates, in which the coiled resistor wire is embedded, insu- 
lated, protected, and supported by impacted magnesium oxide 
powder, which permits higher operating temperatures, faster 
cooking, better insulation, and longer operating life (Patent 
No. 1,376,341 issued 1921). 

1917 NIELS BOHR (1885- ), Danish scientist, visualizes the 
atom something like this: Around the nucleus, or center of 
the atom, are tiny particles which we call electrons, or nega- 
tive particles of electricity, identified by the minus sign ( ) . 

1917 The first fully automatic hydroelectric station is installed for 
the Cedar Rapids Railway & Light Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

1917 The national capitol in Washington is floodlighted. 

1918 Bell System introduces carrier telephony enabling a number of 
telephone and telegraph messages to be transmitted simul- 
taneously over a single set of wires. 

1918 The war period spurs the development by C. A. B. HALVOR- 

SON ( ) of the open-type military searchlight and 

the development of the horizontal spread projector for light- 
ing shipyards and other large areas. 

88 



1919 The General Electric Company in cooperation with the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company purchases the 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America, New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, after buying out British stock in the com- 
pany, and organizes the Radio Corporation of America. 

1919 Wireless is revolutionized by the development of the Alex- 
anderson alternator by E. F. W. Alexanderson (see 1906). 

1919 The automatic toaster is invented by CHARLES STRITE 



1919 Machine switching telephone equipment is installed in the 
Bell System. 

1919 The first R.C.A. Laboratory is set up in a tent at Riverhead, 
Long Island, later the site of R.C.A.'s "Receiving Station" for 
world- wide communication. 

1919 The American Electrical Standards Committee is organized 
and in 1928 is called the American Standards Association. 

1920 The world's first commercial radiotelephone service is opened 
between Long Beach, California, and Santa Catalina Island. 

1920 R.C.A. inaugurates "Radio Central" at Rocky Point, Long 
Island, featuring 200 kilowatt Alexanderson alternators. 

1920 Station KDKA, owned and operated by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, opens in Pittsburgh. The 
first radio station to broadcast regularly scheduled programs, 
its first broadcast is the election returns of the Harding-Cox 
presidential campaign November 2. 

1920 Transmission of pictures across the Atlantic by the Bartlane 
process is accomplished using Western Union cables. 

1921 First conversation by deep-sea cable takes place over a 115- 
mile route from Key West, Florida to Havana, Cuba. 

1921 The first panel-type dial telephone office in the Bell System 
is opened. 

89 



1921 The Western Electric public address system is used by Presi- 
dent Harding speaking to 100,000 people at Arlington Memo- 
rial Theatre on Armistice Day, November 11, as the nation 
buries its unknown soldier. 

1921 The first radio championship broadcast (the Dempsey- 
Carpentier fight, July 2) is put on the air by MAJOR J. 
ANDREW WHITE (1889- ) and DAVID SARNOFF 
(1891- ). 

1921 First conversation by submarine cable overhead and under- 
ground lines and radiotelephone takes place between Havana 
and Catalina Island, a distance of 5,500 miles. 

1922 The Queensboro Realty Co., Jackson Heights, New York, 
broadcasts August 28, radio's first commercial program over 
WEAF. 

1922 Ship-to-shore conversation by wire and wireless is carried on 
between Bell telephones at Deal Beach, New Jersey, and the 
S.S. "America" four hundred miles at sea in the Atlantic. 

1922 Six companies, including Western Electric Co., Marconi Co., 
British Thompson-Houston Co., Radio Communications Co., 
and General Electric Company, form the British Broadcasting 
Corp. under the supervision of the British Post Office. 

1922 The first broadcasting license under the call letters WLW is 
obtained by POWEL CROSLEY, JR. (1886- ). Later the 
increase of power to 500,000 watts made it the most powerful 
radio station in the country. 

1922 Steinmetz (see 1889) "manufactures" lightning. 

1922 General Electric establishes the Thomson Research Labora- 
tory and announces the Charles A. Coffin Foundation. 

1923 Successful one-way, transatlantic, radiotelephony is demon- 
strated by American Telephone and Telegraph and Western 
Electric from New York to London. 

1923 DR. GEORGE A. WYETH ( ) constructs and uses 

the first efficient radio knife to replace the scalpel in surgery. 

90 



1923 ROBERT ANDREW MILLIKAN (1868- ), American 
physicist, first to isolate and measure accurately the electric 
charge of an electron, receives the Nobel prize for his work 
in physics. 

1923 A presidential message to Congress is broadcast for the first 
time by President Coolidge. 

1923 The Hartford Electric Light Company, Hartford, Connecticut, 
installs in its South Meadow Station the first commercial 
mercury cycle turbine. This machine is rated at 10,000 kilo- 
watts. 

1923 The first chain broadcast is transmitted January 4 between 
WEAF, New York, and WNAC, Boston. 

1923 CHARLES FRANCIS JENKINS (1867-1934) , American tele- 
vision pioneer, transmits pictures of President Harding by 
radio from Washington to Philadelphia, a distance of 130 
miles. Earlier in his career (September 27, 1913) he had made 
a proposal of "wireless moving-picture news." 

1923 The first neon tube advertising sign is installed in July on 
the marquee at the Cosmopolitan Theatre, 59 Street and 
Columbus Circle, New York. 

1923 Continuous transcontinental air mail service is inaugurated 
by the Post Office Department, using a night route marked 
by searchlights. 

1923 Bell System engineers introduce a new magnetic material 
named "Permalloy." 

1924 Bell Telephone Laboratories is organized to assume responsibi- 
lity for all research, development, and design of the Bell 
System with ownership equally divided between the A. T. & 
T. Company and Western Electric Company. 

1924 First public demonstration of picture transmission over tele- 
phone circuits between New York and Cleveland takes place. 

1924 Large mercury arc rectifiers are first used for railroad instal- 
lations. 

91 



1924 During the Illuminating Engineering Society's Convention at 
Briarcliff Lodge, New York, one hole of the golf course there 
is lighted by means of searchlights and floodlighting pro- 
jectors. 

1924 The first "Permalloy" loaded submarine cable is laid between 
New York and the Azores. 

1924 The portable electrocardiograph employing vacuum tube am- 
plification for studying heart currents is introduced. 

1924 The first radiophoto is transmitted by R.C.A. across the 
Atlantic from New York to London where it is radioed back 
across the sea and recorded in New York. 

1924 VLADIMIR K. ZWORYKIN (1889- ) , a native of Mourom, 
Russia, who studied X-rays under Paul Langevin at the Col- 
lege of France with a grant from the Russian government, 
develops a complete television system in the research labora- 
tories of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Pittsburgh. Zworykin's system included the iconoscope, 
or television pickup eye, and the kinescope, or television 
receiving tube. Zworykin joined the research laboratory of 
the Radio Corporation of America in 1929 and later won more 
fame as the inventor of the electron microscope. 

1924 The first three-color electric traffic signal appears. 

1925 The electric phototube is exhibited at the electrical show at 
Grand Central Palace, New York. 

1925 The first two theatres in the world to be completely air-con- 
ditioned are the Rivoli and the Rialto, both in New York. 

1925 MARVIN PIPKIN ( ) of Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio, 

invents the first commercially successful electric lamp bulb 
to be frosted on the inside, and applies for patent. 

1925 Bell Telephone Laboratories, in collaboration with phonograph 
engineers, develop mechanism for electric recording of sound, 
its first commercial application resulting in the orthophonic 
talking machine. 

92 



1925 St. Louis, Missouri, is provided with the largest planned street 
lighting installation in the world. 

1925 Virginian Railway Company, using the most powerful electric 
locomotives in the world, is electrified. 

1925 The first automatic electric percolator is developed. 

1925 The first international radio program is transmitted from 
Chelmsf ord, England, picked up at Belfast, Maine, and relayed 
by short wave to New York for rebroadcast by R.C.A.'s station 
WJZ. 

1925 The first hermetically-sealed domestic refrigerator is an- 
nounced. 

1925 The New York to Chicago telephone cable is completed, 861 
miles in length with 144 miles in underground conduit. It re- 
quired seven years to build and install at a cost of twenty-five 
million dollars. This cable replaces ten heavily laden pole lines 
of ordinary communications and is twice as long as any other 
cable of its day. It is formally opened October 1. 

1925 Ryan (see 1899) installs a permanent illuminating system for 
Niagara Falls, using a battery of twenty-four thirty-six-inch 
projectors. 

1 926 Western Electric Company makes sound pictures commercially 
practical at "Don Juan" premiere in New York. 

1926 Picturegram of a check sent from London to New York by 
R.C.A. radiophoto is honored and cashed in New York. 

1926 National Broadcasting Company is organized September 9 
as a service of R.C.A. to conduct nationwide network broad- 
casting. 

1926 The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 
is organized September 1 by merging the Electric Power Club 
and the Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies. 
Other organizations in the industry have included : Electrical 
Manufacturers Alliance (see 1905) and Electrical Manufac- 

93 



turers Club (1905) which became the Electrical Manufac- 
turers Club (1911) ; American Association of Electric Motor 
Manufacturers (1908) which became Electric Power Club 
(1910) ; Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies 
(1915), Electrical Manufacturers Council (1916). The Council 
was revised in 1921 to include the Electric Power Club, The 
Electrical Manufacturers Club, and the Associated Manufac- 
turers of Electrical Supplies. A plan of reorganization was 
prepared in 1925, becoming effective in 1926, and Electrical 
Manufacturers Council is dissolved. The Electrical Manufac- 
turers Club continues as a social organization, but ties in in 
no way with the National Electrical Manufacturers Associa- 
tion (1926). 

1926 The first automatic toasters for use in the home are produced. 

1926 The first all-electric car dumper on the Great Lakes goes into 
operation at Toledo, Ohio. 

1926 Leland Stanford University's laboratory produces 2,100,000 
volts, the highest produced so far by man. 

1926 Successful test of two-way transatlantic radiotelephony be- 
tween New York and London takes place. 

1926 Keel of the S.S. "California", the first large passenger ship 
with electric drive, is laid at Newport News Shipbuilding 
and Dry Dock Co. 

1926 David Sarnoff (see 1921) begins puting together the present 
National Broadcasting Co., with WJZ as a foundation for the 
Blue network and WEAF as a foundation for the Red network. 

1927 The first overseas radiotelephone service is established to 
England. By 1944 it is extended to include more than seventy 
countries so that, except for the war, any Bell telephone can 
be connected with any one of ninety-three per cent of the tele- 
phones in the world. 

1927 Talking equipment for motion pictures, with action and sound 
simultaneous, is announced. 

1927 The United Independent Broadcasters, Inc., later the Columbia 

94 



Broadcasting System, is organized in New York by George A. 
Coats, Arthur Judson, Francis Marsh, Edward Ervin, and 
Major J. Andrew White. The first network program is broad- 
cast September 18, 1927, over sixteen stations, with DOR as 
the key station. In 1944 CBS has 146 stations. 

1927 An experimental night baseball game is played under incan- 
descent floodlights at Lynn, Massachusetts. 

1927 A mercury- vapor detector is announced. 

1927 The first Federal Radio Commission, created February 23, 
consists of five members: Eugene 0. Sykes, John F. Dillon, 
Orestes H. Caldwell, Admiral W. H. G. Bullard, U. S. N. Ret., 
and Henry A. Bellows. The commission is given authority to 
license broadcasting stations for one year and to fix wave 
lengths and hours of operation. 

1927 The first radio conversation between an engineer in a loco- 
motive cab and a brakeman in a caboose, one and a quarter 
miles distant, is demonstrated. 

1927 Radio receiving sets and tubes designed for complete alternat- 
ing-current operation are introduced by R.C.A. for home use. 

1927 The pentode tube for radio is developed, making possible un- 
limited audio-frequency amplification without distortion. This 
same year the world's first successful short wave long dis- 
tance broadcast is made when Queen Wilhelmina speaks from 
PC-J, a radio station in Holland, to the Netherlands East and 
West Indies. This same year the first all electric (non battery) 
radio receiving set is developed in Europe. In England and on 
the continent a television set with a large projected picture 
is demonstrated. 

1927 Telephone service is opened between the United States and 
Mexico. 

1927 Dr. W. D. Coolidge (see 1910) announces his cathode ray tube 
at Franklin Institute. 

1928 Underfloor raceways and electrical metallic tubing as a wiring 
method is recognized in the National Electrical Code. 

95 



1928 Radio transmission of photographs is publicly demonstrated. 

1928 Inside-frosted lamp patent is issued to Marvin Pipkin (see 
1925). 

1928 The first Diesel oil-electric freight locomotive built in the 
United States is constructed by the New York Central Lines 
and placed in operation in June. A Diesel oil-electric passenger 
locomotive is first used in March 1929. 

1928 The largest turbine installation in the world is placed in serv- 
ice by the United Electric Light & Power Company in its 
Hell Gate Station in New York December 27. This installation 
consists of two units with a total rating of 160,000 kilowatts, 
operating at 1,800 rpm, delivering 3 phase, 60 cycle current 
at 13,800 volts. 

1928 Nonmetallic sheathed cable is first recognized in the National 
Electrical Code (previously listed in a supplement to the code 
in 1926). 

1928 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to the principal 
countries of western Europe. 

1928 The first application of hydrogen cooling of synchronous con- 
densers of the New England Power Co. is installed in June 
at Pawtucket, Rhode Island. The machine is rated at 12,500 
kva and operated at 13,800 volts. The use of hydrogen for 
cooling purposes is superior to air as it conducts heat away 
from the condenser much faster than air, it reduces noise, 
and it creates less friction, thus reducing the losses of the 
machine. 

1928 Federal radio authority (see 1927) is placed under the juris- 
diction of the Department of Commerce March 15. 

1928 Radio Station WGY broadcasts September 11 the first televi- 
sion play, "The Queen's Messenger," by J. Hartley Manners. 
Station WGY is the pioneer television station with regular 
schedule of broadcasts. It also makes the first round-the-world 
broadcast. 

1928 General Electric announces it has produced 3,600,000 volts of 
artificial lightning at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, highest so far. 

96 



1928 The Consolidated Edison Co. installs the largest single-shaft 
generator ever built in its Hudson Avenue, Station, Brooklyn. 
This machine is rated at 200,000 kva, 160,000 kilowatts, 80 
per cent power factor. 

1928 A recording spectrophotometer is announced. 
1928 Underwater lighting is introduced. 

1928 E. F. W. Alexanderson (see 1906) makes the first demonstra- 
tion of home reception of television. 

1928 Louisville Hydro Electric Co. installs eight of the largest gen- 
erating units in existence. They have full automatic control, 
and each unit is rated at 13,500 horsepower. 

1928 Salt Lake City installs first successful trolley coach system. 

1928 What is hailed as the first large-scale electrification of open 
pit mines is completed at Bingham, Utah, by the Utah Power 
Co. 

1929 Bell Telephone Laboratories develop the coaxial cable for the 
transmission of broad band radio waves for multiplex tele- 
phony and national television networks. 

1929 American Telephone and Telegraph Company opens com- 
mercial ship-to-shore telephone service with largest American 
ship, the S.S. "Leviathan." 

1929 The first Diesel electric towboat is placed in service on the 
Warrior River, Alabama, by the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Rail- 
road Co. 

1929 The largest railroad tunnel in America, eight miles through 
Cascade Range, is opened by the Great Northern Railway Co., 
changing from steam to electric equipment. 

1929 5,000,000 volt lightning flash is produced at Pittsfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, and is broadcast over WGY. 

1929 Alexanderson's (see 1906) method of measuring airplane alti- 
tude by reflected radio waves is demonstrated in Detroit. 

97 



1929 An artificial fever machine is developed. 

1929 The Illinois Steel Co. of South Chicago installs two of the 
largest gas-engine generating units ever built, rated at 6,600 
kva. A third unit is installed in 1931. 

1929 The first automatic waffle iron is developed. 

1930 The first rivetless cargo vessel, built by the Charleston Dry 
Dock and Machine Co., Charleston, S. C., for the Texas Oil 
Company, is launched in February. The entire hull is put 
together by the arc welding process under a new system of 
dovetailed lock notched plates. A twenty to twenty-five per 
cent saving in hull construction cost is effected by using the 
welding process. 

1930 The first application of variable colored lighting is made in the 
St. George Hotel, Brooklyn. 

1930 Television images by radio are exhibited as part of a theater 
performance at Schenectady. 

1930 The first commercial electric shaver is placed on the market 
in July by Shick Incorporated. 

1930 A 500,000 volt X-ray machine is announced with more than 
twice any previous voltage. It uses the Coolidge (see 1910) 
cascading principle. 

1930 The first issue of the magazine "Electronics" is published in 
April. 

1930 Two-way television is demonstrated by Bell System engineers. 

1930 Transoceanic telephone service is opened to South America 
and Australia. 

1930 "Vinyl resin" plastics are introduced and used extensively in 
the electrical industry for insulating purposes. 

1930 Television on a six by eight foot screen is shown by R.C.A. 
at R.K.O. Proctors 58 St. Theater, New York. Pictures are 
transmitted from station W2XBS on Fifth Avenue. 

98 



1931 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to Java, Sumatra, 
Bermuda, Hawaii, Canary Islands. 

1931 New noiseless system of recording is introduced to the motion 
picture industry by R.C.A. along with a low-cost sound picture 
producer for alternating-current operation. 

1931 A water-cooled incandescent lamp, a portable fever machine, 
and transmission of television over a light beam are intro- 
duced. 

1931 In an office building at East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the first 
dual installation of an elevator where two cars operate sepa- 
rately in the same shaftway is made. 

1931 The Washington Monument is floodlighted. 

1931 "Neoprene," the first widely used rubber-like synthetic which, 
because of its noninflammability and resistance to oils and 
chemicals, soon finds many uses in the electrical manufactur- 
ing industry, especially on wires and cables. 

1931 The first direct-reading photoelectric "foot candle meter" is 
introduced. C. H. BARTLETT (1896- ) develops commer- 
cially the "selenium dry disc photoelectric cell" (photronic) . 
The first self-generating "photoelectric exposure meter" is 
developed by W. N. GOODWIN, JR. ( ) . 

1931 The first successful commercial production of glass in the 
form of pliable fibers takes place. Early application of glass 
fibers (fiberglas) are in the electrical field as insulation and 
as wafer-like sheets used in storage batteries to prevent shed- 
ding of the material from the positive plates. 

1931 The "alnico" permanent magnets are discovered by a Japanese 
named Mishima in March. He files applications in Japan cover- 
ing his discoveries and later obtains corresponding patents in 
the United States January 14, 1936. These patents are num- 
bered from 2,027,994 to 2,028,000 inclusive. The "alnico" per- 
manent magnets are the strongest ever produced. 

1932 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to South Africa, 
Egypt, Siam, and the Bahamas. 

99 



1932 A sonic locator to aid navigation and a sonic marker beacon 
for fog flying are announced. 

1932 The French superliner "Normandie" is launched, using the 
four largest motors ever built. These motors are rated at 
40,000 horsepower each. 

1932 10,000,000 volts of artificial lightning are produced at Pittsfield. 

1932 Heat resistant rubber insulation for 75 C. operation is intro- 
duced. For building wire it provides a method of carrying over 
one-third more current on a given-sized conductor. 

1932 First installation of an "oilostatie" transmission system car- 
ries electric power underground through welded steel pipe 
lines on supertension cables operating totally immersed in 
oil at two hundred pounds pressure. 

1932 The dirigible "Los Angeles" talks to the world via light beam 
and radio hookup at Schenectady. 

1932 The first gyro-stabilized vessel to cross the Atlantic Ocean, 
the "Conte di Savoia" of the Italian Line, arrives in New York 
December 7. 

1932 The Democratic National Committee uses television in a polit- 
ical campaign for the first time (CBS) from New York Octo- 
ber 11. 

1933 The first sodium-vapor lamps are installed on Balltown Road, 
near Schenectady, New York, by the New York Power & Light 
Co. The lamps are monochromatic and glow in one color, giving 
two and a half times the light output of incandescent lamps 
of the same wattage. 

1933 The National Electric Light Association changes its name to 
Edison Electric Institute January 12. 

1933 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to the Phillipines, 
Canal Zone, Central American Countries, Palestine, and India. 

1933 The highest speed passenger elevators in the world are in- 
stalled at Rockefeller Center, New York, using roto-control 
speed regulators. 

100 



1933 The high-intensity mercury- vapor lamp appears. 

1934 The Federal Communications Commission (seven members) 
is created by the Communications Act of 1934 to regulate 
"communication by wire and radio." 

1934 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to Japan. 

1934 The Mutual Broadcasting System is organized on a coopera- 
tive basis by four stations WOR, Newark ; WGN, Chicago ; 
WLW, Cincinnati; WXYZ, Detroit. Later other stations 
join, including those of the Don Lee Broadcasting System 
in California and the Yankee Network in Massachusetts, giv- 
ing Mutual a coast-to-coast network. In 1944 Mutual has 232 
stations operating on a co-operative basis. 

1934 The "Zephyr" a new type streamlined Diesel-electric train is 
turned over to the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. 

1934 Mobile two-way radio system is developed for the Boston Police 
Department and is demonstrated. 

1935 The first major-league night baseball game is played in Cin- 
cinnati under incandescent floodlights. 

1935 Two of the largest waterwheel generators in the world are 
built for Boulder Dam. 

1935 The largest single-shaft turbine generator unit in the United 
States is installed at the plant of the Philadelphia Electric Co. 
The generator is rated at 165,000 kilowatts, 183,333 kva, de- 
livers 3 phase, 60 cycle current at 13,800 volts, and is air cooled. 
The turbine operates at 1,800 rpm on a steam pressure of 
375 pounds per square inch. 

1935 The first round-the-world telephone conversation by wire and 
radio is held by Bell System officials in New York. 

1935 A new light wall, concentric-layer-type insulation of purified 
rubber applied by the dip or pass method is announced . . . ini- 
tiating the small diameter trend in modern electric wire. 

1935 The first electric cable insulated with heat resistant glass fiber 
(see 1931) making possible the redesign of electric motors for 

101 



higher temperature operation with substantial reductions in 
their weight and size is introduced. 

1936 First public demonstration of coaxial telephone cable is made. 

1936 First ultra-high-frequency automatic relay circuit is opened 
by R.C.A. between New York and Philadelphia, transmitting 
simultaneously facsimile and multiple radiotelegraph mes- 
sages. 

1936 Television outdoors is demonstrated by R.C.A. at Camden, 
New Jersey. 

1936 Production is begun of glass fibers sufficiently fine and pliable 
to be woven into fabrics. Glass fiber (fiberglas) tapes, braids, 
cloths, and sleevings impregnated with a varnish are used 
as insulation in motors, generators, transformers, and other 
heavy-duty electrical equipment. High-temperature resist- 
ance of the impregnated glass fiber insulation materials paves 
the way for design engineers to reduce size and weight of 
electrical units required to do a given job. 

1936 12,500,000 kilowatts of artificial lightning are produced at 
Pittsfield, Massachusets. 

1936 Broadcasting by frequency modulation is developed and an- 
nounced by E. H. Armstrong (see 1913) . This system elimi- 
ates static from broadcasting. 

1937 Sealed beam automobile headlamps, more than twice as effi- 
cient as former filament lamps, are introduced. 

1937 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to China, Bulgaria, 
Alaska, Haiti, and Iraq. 

1937 The first hydrogen-cooled turbo-generator is put in service at 
Dayton, Ohio, in October by the Dayton Power & Light Co. 
The generator is rated at 33,333 kva and runs 3,600 rpm. 
The use of hydrogen for cooling purposes is superior to air 
as it conducts heat away from the generator much faster than 
air; it reduces noise and creates less friction, thus reducing 
the loss of the machine (see 1928) . 

1937 The electron projection gun is demonstrated by R.C.A. engi- 
neers ; it projects television pictures on a screen eight by ten 
feet. 

102 



1937 The first automatic electrically operated washing machine is 
produced and displayed at the Blackstone Hotel in Chicago. 

1938 A direct radiotelephone circuit is established between San 
Francisco and Australia. 

1938 The terrain clearance indicator, through which radio echo in- 
dicates altitude of airplanes, is demonstrated. 

1938 The first steam-electric locomotive is demonstrated for the 
Union Pacific Railroad. 

1938 DR. CARL DAVID ANDERSON (1905- ), scientist at 
California Institute of Technology, declares for the existence 
of an X-particle prenamed "neutrino" (little neutron) . 

1938 Gas-filled cables are developed using a nonconducting gas 
under pressure for insulating purposes (see 1885) . 

1938 Fluorescent lamps are introduced, more than doubling the 
efficiencies obtained from corresponding wattages of filament 
lamps. Fluorescent lamps in some colors give more than one 
hundred times as much light per watt consumed as do colored 
filament type lamps. 

1939 Dr. Vladimir K. Zworykin (see 1924) announces he is develop- 
ing an electron microscope; in April 1940, he completes the 
instrument which attains magnifications up to 100,000 dia- 
meters. 

1939 A telephone cable containing 2,121 pairs of wires is manu- 
factured. 

1939 A million-volt X-ray unit is built for Memorial Hospital, New 
York City. The unit employs a continuously-evacuated multi- 
section X-ray tube. Freon gas, used as an insulating medium, 
permits material reduction in size of the transformer tank. 

1939 W6XBE, first international broadcasting station west of Mis- 
sissippi River, goes on the air March 2. 

1939 Color television is demonstrated to the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission by R.C.A. 

103 



1939 Ultraviolet light (black light) is used at San Francisco's 
Golden Gate International Exposition in combination with 
fluorescent paints to obtain unusual shades of color. 

1940 First use of coaxial cable by American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company is to transmit television signals to be broad- 
cast to the public. 

1940 During 1940 the index of electrical goods sales increases twice 
as fast as general business 25.2 per cent as against 12.6 per 
cent. The electrical manufacturing industry started 1941 with 
an all-time record backlog of orders. Almost 1,000,000 new 
electrical consumers were added during 1940, with about 90 
per cent in the residential group. The number of wired homes 
at this time is about 25,500,000. 

1940 The number of electrified farms in the United States is about 
2,000,000. There are an estimated two hundred uses of elec- 
tricity per farm. 

1940 The National Television Systems Committee is organized 
under the joint sponsorship of the Radio Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation and the Federal Communications Commission to draft 
standards for the television industry. 

1941 Telephone service to the public over First commercial coaxial 
cable between Stevens Point, Wisconsin, and Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, is opened. 

1941 Television progress demonstrated to the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission by R.C. A. includes : home television receiver 
with 13% by 18 inches translucent screen ; television pictures 
15 by 20 foot on New Yorker Theatre screen ; pictures relayed 
by radio from Camp Upton, Long Island, to New York ; also 
facsimile multiplexed with frequency modulation sound broad- 
cast. 

1941 R.C. A. "alert receiver" turned on and off by a special signal 
from broadcast transmitter rings bell, lights electric lamp, 
blows siren to summon listeners is demonstrated for possible 
use in civilian defense. 

1941 An electron microscope at the University of Pennsylvania 
magnifies the influenza virus 65,000 times, making possible 
the first photograph ever taken of the virus. 

104 



1941 The Federal Communications Commission authorizes com- 
mercial television broadcasting July 1. Several stations imme- 
diately start the transmission of such programs. 

1942 The largest waterwheel generator 108,000 kva for Grand 
Coulee, is installed. This is a 60 cycle, 13,800 volt, vertical, 
two-bearing type waterwheel machine operating at 120 rpm, 
3 phase. This generator has a net weight, including housing 
and coolers, of approximately 2,100,000 pounds, and has an 
overall diameter of forty-five feet. 

1942 First direct radiophoto circuit between Australia and the 
United States is opened by R.C.A. (1942) ; between New York 
and Cairo (1942) ; New York and Stockholm (1943) ; New 
York and Berne (1943) ; direct radiotelegraph circuits be- 
tween New York and Dakar (1943) ; between New York and 
Quito, Ecuador (1943) ; between New York and Naples, Italy 
(1944). For the New York-Italian circuit, R.C.A. sets up the 
first American owned and operated commercial station on 
the continent of Europe. 

1942 Underground telephone cables between Omaha, Nebraska, and 
Sacramento, California, are placed in service, providing the 
first all-cable transcontinental telephone route. 

1943 Overseas radiotelephone service (see 1927) is extended to 
Russia. 

1943 "Polyethylene," a plastic material well adapted for insulation 
of high frequency wires and cables, is introduced. 

1943 The electron microanalyzer, growing out of research on the 
electron microscope, is developed at R.C.A. laboratories ; this 
instrument makes possible the determination of the atomic 
composition of submicroscopic particles of matter. 

1944 As of July, television broadcasts are being made from nine 
stations in the United States three in New York, one each 
in Philadelphia and Albany-Schenectady, two each in Chicago 
and Los Angeles. 

1944 A new Buna-S insulation is first applied to wire by the dip or 
pass process. 

105 



1944 A striking example of the electrical industry's growth is 
given by the Consolidated Edison Company of New York, 
which has 1,001,942 customers. 

1944 The silicone insulating resins, suitable for binding inorganic 
insulating materials, are introduced, making possible insulat- 
ing materials that withstand high temperatures. 

1944 The first precision, sealed-off, 2,000,000 volt x-ray tube, a 
tube that brings to radiography the same sort of improvement 
that the electron microscope brought to optics, is developed 
and made commercially avilable. 

1944 Circuit integrity in aircraft lighting, power, and control is 
advanced by the introduction of a new fire-resistant aircraft 
wire. 



106 



APPENDIX 

The following list of member companies of the National Electrical 
Manufacturing Association as of January 1, 1946, provides historical 
data regarding each of them including the name of the original com- 
pany, the date of founding, the name and title of the founder, and the 
name of the first president. Some of the present companies are the 
outgrowth of numerous mergers, with many changes in corporate 
structure since pioneer days. The record here given is presented in 
its simplest form as an appendix to this Chronology. 



A-B STOVES DIVISION 
DETROIT-MICHIGAN STOVE 
COMPANY 

1. A-B Stove Company 

2. 1909 

3. F. K. Berry, Pres. 

J. A. Alexander, Vice-Pres. 

4. F. K. Berry 

ACCURATE INSULATED 
WIRE CORP. 

1. Accurate Insulated Wire Co. 

2. 1924 

3-4. J. T. Whalen, Propr. 

ACME ELECTRIC & MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY, THE 

1. The Acme Electric and Machine 
Company 

2. 1917 

3. C. H. Bunch, R. A. Lais, G. R. 
Hillstrom 

4. R. A. Lais 

ACME WIRE COMPANY, THE 

1. Acme Wire Company 

2. 1904 

3. V. M. Tyler and E. L. Hartpence 

4. V. M. Tyler 

ADALET MFG. CO., THE 

1. The Adalet Mfg. Co. 

2. 1930 

3-4. J. C. Boyton, Pres. 



ADAM, FRANK, ELECTRIC COM- 
PANY 
1-2. Jacob Blattner-1845 

Blattner & Adam-1870 
3. Jacob Blattner, Owner 

ADMIRAL CORPORATION 

1. Continental Radio & Television 
Corporation 

2. 1934 

3-4. Ross D. Siragusa, Pres. 

AIR REDUCTION SALES COMPANY 

1. Air Reduction Sales Company 

2. 1916 

3. Air Reduction Company, Incorpor- 
ated 

4. Walter W. Birge 

AIRCRAFT-MARINE PRODUCTS 
INC. 

1. Industrial Manufacturers Inc. 

2. 1940 

3. Stephen Buchanan 

AIRMASTER CORPORATION 

1. Airmaster Corporation 

2. 1928 

3-4. H. C. Hueglin, Pres. 

AKRON PORCELAIN COMPANY, 
THE 

1. Akron Smoking Pipe Company 

2. 1889 

3. Chas. Palmer, Curtis Fenton, F. 
W. Butler, Sr. 

4. Chas. Palmer 



KEY: Present name of company followed by 

1. Name of original company 

2. Date of founding 

3. Name of founder and title 

4. Name of first president 



ALLEN-BRADLEY COMPANY 

1. Compression Rheostat Company 

2. 1903 

3-4. Lynde Bradley, Pres. 

ALLIANCE MFG. CO., THE 

1. The Alliance Toy & Specialty Co. 

2. 1925 

3. O. L. Lewis, Pres. 

4. W. H. Purcell 

ALLIS, LOUIS, CO., THE 

1. The Mechanical Appliance Co. 

2. 1901 

3-4. Louis Allis, Pres. 

ALLIS-CHALMERS MANUFAC- 
TURING CO. 
1-2. *Mechanical, Decker and Seville- 

1847; Electrical, George F. Card 

Mfg. Co.-1884 

3. *Mechanical, Partnership 
Electrical, George F. Card 

4. George F. Card 

ALLOY RODS COMPANY 

1. Alloy Rods Company 

2. 1940 

3-4. E. J. Brady, Pres. 

AMERICAN DISTRICT TELE- 
GRAPH COMPANY, INC. 

1. National District Telegraph 
Company 

2. 1902 

3. Belvidere Brooks, John C. Barclay, 
George H. Fearons, Charles H. 
Bristol, Edward M. Mulford, 
Francis R. Stark, Albert T. 
Benedict, Incorporators 

4. A. B. Taylor 

AMERICAN ELECTRIC SWITCH 
CORPORATION 

1. American Electric Switch Corpora- 
tion 

2. 1934 

4. W. F. Kuehneman 

AMERICAN ELECTRICAL HEATER 
COMPANY 

1. American Electrical Heater 
Company 

2. 1894 

3. F. H. Date, Pres. 
John Heffron, Vice-Pres. 
Benjamin H. Scran ton, Sec. 
John Scudder, Treas. 

4. F. H. Date 

AMERICAN FIRE PREVENTION 
BUREAU 

1. American Fire Prevention Bureau 

2. 1912 

3-4. John Harper Derby, Pres. 



AMERICAN FLEXIBLE CONDUIT 
CO. 

1. American Flexible Conduit Co. 

2. 1926 

3-4. J. H. Abrams, Owner 

AMERICAN GAS ACCUMULATOR 
COMPANY 

1. American Gasaccumulator Com- 
pany 

2. 1909 

3. Svenska A/B Gasaccumulator, 
Stockholm, Sweden 

4. Frank H. Taylor 

AMERICAN LAVA CORPORATION 

1. American Lava Company 

2. 1902 

3. Paul John Kruesi, Treas. & Gen. 
Mgr. 

AMERICAN METAL MOULDING 
CO. 

1. American Metal Moulding Co. 

2. 1914 

3-4. G. A. Johnson, Pres. 

AMERICAN TRANSFORMER COM- 
PANY 

1. American Transformer Company 

2. 1901 

3-4. A. F. Harrold, Pres. 

AMPCO METAL, INC. 

1. American Metal Products Co. 

2. 1914 

4. Peter J. Weber 

AMPEREX ELECTRONIC CORPO- 
RATION 

1. Amperex Electronic Products Inc. 

2. 1932 

3. Nathan Goldman, Nicholas Anton 

4. Nathan Goldman 

ANCHOR MANUFACTURING CO. 

1. Anchor Manufacturing Co. 

2. 1936 

3-4. G. W. Armstrong, Pres. 

ANDERSON, C. J., & COMPANY 

1. C. J. Anderson & Company 

2. 1910 

3-4. Carl J. Anderson, Pres. 

ANDERSON BRASS WORKS, INC. 

1. Anderson Brass Works, Inc. 

2. 1925 

3. J. E. Anderson, Pres. & Sec. 
R. E. Schuler, Treas. 

4. J. E. Anderson 

ARCOS CORPORATION 

1. R. D. Thomas & Company 

2. 1919 

3-4. R. D. Thomas, Pres. 



ARROW-HART & HEGEMAN 

ELECTRIC CO., THE 

1-2. *The Hart & Hegeraan Mfg. Co.- 

1890 

The Arrow Electric Co.-1908 

3. *G. W. Hart 
E. R. Grier 

4. *G. W. Hart 
C. G. Perkins 

M. B. AUSTIN COMPANY, THE 

1. M. B. Austin and Company 

2. 1894 

3-4. Merritt B. Austin, Pres. 

AUTH ELECTRICAL SPECIALTY 
CO., INC. 

1. Auth Electrical Specialty Co., Inc. 

2. 1916 

3-4. Charles Auth 

AUTOCALL COMPANY, THE 

1. The Autocall Company 

2. 1908 

3-4. John C. Fish 

AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. The Strowger Automatic Tele- 
phone Exchange 

2. 1891 

3. M. A. Meyer, Pres. 

A. B. Strowger, Vice-Pres. 
Joseph Harris, Sec. & Treas. 
W. S. Strowger 

4. M. A. Meyer 

AUTOMATIC PRODUCTS COMPANY 

1. Automatic Products Company 

2. 1931 

3-4. Roy W. Johnson, Pres. 

AUTOMATIC SWITCH CO. 

1. Automatic Switch Co. of Balti- 
more City 

2. 1888 

BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY, 
THE 

1. Babcock & Wilcox 

2. 1867 

3-4. George Herman Babcock, Partner 

BALDOR ELECTRIC CO. 

1. Baldor Electric Co. 

2. 1920 

3-4. Edwin C. Ballman, Pres. 

BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, 
THE 

1. Matthias W. Baldwin 

2. 1831 

3. Matthias W. Baldwin 



BARKELEW ELECTRIC MFG. CO., 
THE 

1. The Barkelew Electric Mfg. Co. 

2. 1904 

3. Charles S. Barkelew, Pres. 
Charles H. Barkelew, Sec. 

4. Charles S. Barkelew 

BASTIAN-MORLEY CO., INC. 

1. Bastian-Morley Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. J. P. Morley, Pres. 

BAUER MFG. CORPORATION 

1. Bauer-French 

2. 1937 

3. Wm. T. Bauer, Partner 

BECKER BROTHERS CARBON CO. 

1. Becker Brothers Electrical Cor- 
poration 

2. 1890 

3-4. 0. E. Becker, Pres. 

BELDEN MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY 

1. Belden Manufacturing Company 

2. 1902 

3-4. Joseph Congdon Belden, Pres. 

BENJAMIN ELECTRIC MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY 

1. Benjamin Electric Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1901 

3. R. B. Benjamin, Vice-Pres. 

4. Walter D. Steele 

BODINE ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Bodine Electric Company 

2. 1905 

3. Carl D. and Paul J. Bodine 

4. Carl D. Bodine 

BOEHME, H. 0., INC. 

1. H. 0. Boehme 

2. 1917 

3-4. Herman 0. Boehme, Propr. 

BOSTON INSULATED WIRE & 
CABLE CO. 

1. Clark Insulation Co. 

2. 1905 

3. H. B. Burley, Treas. 

4. G. K. Bartlett 

BRANDYWINE FIBRE PRODUCTS 
COMPANY 

1. Brandywine Fibre Products Com- 
pany 

2. 1915 

3-4. Homer J. Davis, Sr., Pres. 



BRIDGEPORT SWITCH COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Bridgeport Switch Company 

2. 1925 

3. Neil G. Hayes, Pres. & Treas. 
A. R. Auray, Sec. & Asst. Treas. 

4. Neil G.Hayes 

BRIEGEL METHOD TOOL COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Briegel Method Tool Company 

2. 1934 

3-4. Theo. Briegel, Sole Owner 

BRIGHT LIGHT REFLECTOR COM- 
PANY, INC. 

1. Bright Light Reflector Company, 
Inc. 

2. 1921 

3-4. I. Litner, Pres. 

BRYANT ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Bryant Electric Company 

2. 1889 

3. Waldo C. Bryant, Treas. 

4. L. W. Eaton 

BUCK X-OGRAPH COMPANY 

1. Buck X-ograph Company 

2. 1918 

3-4. A. W. Buck 

BULLDOG ELECTRIC PRODUCTS 
CO. 

1. Mutual Electric & Machine Co. 

2. 1902 

4. H. S. Sands 

BURKE ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Burke Electric Company 

2. 1906 

3-4. James Burke, Pres. 

BURLINGTON INSTRUMENT COM- 
PANY 

1. Burlington Instrument Corporation 

2. 1936 

3-4. A. R. Kramer 

BURNDY ENGINEERING COM- 
PANY, INC. 

1. Burndy Engineering Company, 
Inc. 

2. 1924 

3. Bern Dibner, Vice-Pres. 

4. Philip Fried 

CAMDEN WIRE CO., INC. 

1. Camden Wire Co., Inc. 

2. 1929 

4. A. H. Maloney 

CARBON ENGINEERING CORP. 

1. Carbon Engineering Corp. 

2. 1929 

4. H. L. Kadish 



CARBONE CORPORATION, THE 
SOC. LE CARBONE LORRAINE 
(FRENCH) 

1. Lacombe et cie 

2. About 1860 

CENTURY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. H. E. Lindsey Electrical Supply 
Company 

2. 1900 

3. H. E. Lindsey, Owner 

CENTURY LIGHTING, INC. 

1. Century Lighting Equipment, Inc. 

2. 1929 

3. Joseph Levy, Pres. 
Edward F. Kook, Treas. 

4. Joseph Levy 

CERAMIC SPECIALTIES COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Adamant Porcelain Company 

2. 1915 

3-4. Harry W. Peach, Pres. 

CHAMPION RIVET COMPANY, 

THE 

1. The Champion Rivet Company 

2. 1895 

3. David J. Champion, Pres. 

CHANDEYSSON ELECTRIC CO. 

1. Panelectric S. & A. Co. 

2. 1902 

3. Pierre I. Chandeysson, Sec.-Treas. 

4. George McGann 

CHASE-SHAWMUT COMPANY, 
THE 

1-2. *L. A. Chase & Co., Inc.-1893 
Shawmut Fuse Wire Co.-1893 

3. * Stone & Webster 

Mass. Elec. Eng. Co., Stone & 
Webster, Mgrs. 

4. *Loren A. Chase 

CHICAGO FLEXIBLE SHAFT COM- 
PANY 

1. Stewart and Clark 

2. 1889 

3-4. John K. Stewart, Pres. 

CHICAGO TRANSFORMER DIVI- 
SION ESSEX WIRE CORPORATION 

1. Chicago Transformer Corporation 

2. 1928 

3. W. J. Leidy, Pres. 
Earle Knight, Vice-Pres. 
G. R. Blackburn, Treas. 
Ami Helgason, Sec. 

4. W. J. Leidy 



CIRCLE WIRE & CABLE CORP. 

1. Circle Flexible Conduit Co. 

2. 1920 

3. Sol Furst, Pres. 

M. B. Cohn, Vice-Pres. 

Sol Cohn, Treas. 

I. J. Furst, Asst. Sec. 

4. Sol Furst 

CLARK CONTROLLER COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Clark Controller Company 

2. 1925 

3-4. P. C. Clark, Pres. 

CLEVELAND HEATER CO., THE 

1. The Cleveland Heater Co. 

2. 1906 

4. Leo Friedman 

CLIFTON CONDUIT CO. INC. 

1. Clifton Mfg. Co. 

2. About 1905 

3. Col. Lincoln Green, Miss Amanda 
Lougee 

COLONIAL INSULATOR CO., THE 

1. The Akron Marble & Insulator Co. 

2. 1894 

3-4. J. P. Loomis 

COLUMBIA CABLE & ELECTRIC 
COMPANY 

1. Columbia Metal Hose Works 

2. 1912 

3-4. Samuel Daniels, Pres. 

COLUMBIA ELECTRIC MFG. CO. 

1. Columbia Electric Mfg. Co. 

2. 1928 

3-4. Adolph Friedman, Pres. 

CONNECTICUT TELEPHONE & 
ELECTRIC DIVISION OF GREAT 
AMERICAN INDUSTRIES, INC. 

1. Connecticut Telephone & Electric 
Company 

2. 1893 

3-4. Ernest Wilcox 

CONTINENTAL-DIAMOND FIBRE 
COMPANY 

1. *Diamond State Fibre Company 
The Continental Fibre Company 
Chicago Mica Company 
Delaware Hard Fibre Company 
Fibroc Insulation Company 

2. *1895 

4. Edward M. Taylor 

COOK ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Frank B. Cook Company 

2. 1897 

3-4. Frank B. Cook 



COPPERWELD STEEL COMPANY 

1. Copper Clad Steel Company 

2. 1915 

3. Copper Clad Steel Company 

4. S. E. Bramer 

CORDAGE, INCORPORATED 

1. Cordage, Incorporated 

2. 1943 

3. Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Com- 



pany 



4. Claude D. Manning 

CORNELL-DUBILIER ELECTRIC 

CORPORATION 

CORNING GLASS WORKS 

1. Union Glass Company 

2. 1851 

3. Amory Houghton, Sr., et al. 

CORY GLASS COFFEE BREWER 
CO. 

1. Glass Coffee Brewer Corp. 

2. 1933 

3. Harvey Cory 

H. G. Blakeslee, Sec. 

4. Harvey Cory 

COUCH, S. H., COMPANY, INC. 

1. Williams and Couch 

2. 1894 

3. Samuel H. Couch, Partner 

CRESCENT INSULATED WIRE & 
CABLE CO., INC. 

1. Crescent Insulated Wire & Cable 
Co. 

2. 1891 

3-4. C. Edw. Murray, Pres. & Sec. 

CROCKER WHEELER ELECTRIC 
MFG. COMPANY 
DIVISION OF JOSHUA HENDY 
IRON WORKS 

1. Crocker Wheeler Electric Motor 
Co. 

2. 1888 

3. Francis Bacon Crocker, Vice-Pres. 
& Treas. 

Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler, 
Pres. 

4. Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler 

CROSLEY CORPORATION, THE 

1. The Crosley Radio Corporation 

2. 1921 

3-4. Powel Crosley, Jr., Pres. 

GROUSE-HINDS COMPANY 

1. Grouse-Hinds Electric Company 

2. 1897 

3. H. B. Grouse, Pres. 
Jesse L. Hinds, Vice-Pres. 

4. H. B. Grouse 



CRUCIBLE STEEL COMPANY OF 
AMERICA 

1. Crucible Steel Company of Amer- 
ica 

2. 1900 

4. Charles H. Halcomb 

CURTIS LIGHTING, INCORPORAT- 
ED 

1. National X-Ray Reflector Com- 
pany 

2. 1897 

3-4. A. D. Curtis 

CUTLER-HAMMER, INC. 
1-2. Chicago Electric and Mfg. Co.-1892 
*American Rheostat Company-1896 

3. H. H. Cutler, E. W. Hammer, 
Partners 

*F. R. Bacon, Pres. 

4. H. H. Cutler 
*F. R. Bacon 

DALLAS ENGINEERING COMPANY 

1. Dallas Engineering Corporation 

2. 1929 

3. B. Sonntag, Pres., et al. 

DAUNT CORPORATION, THE 

1. The Daunt Corporation 

2. 1931 

3-4. William A. Daunt 

DAVIS TRANSFORMER COMPANY 

1. Davis Transformer Company 

2. 1926 

3-4. H. E. Stockwell, Pres. & Treas. 

DAY-BRITE LIGHTING, INC. 

1. Day-Brite Reflector Co. 

2. 1923 

3. D. J. Blller, Pres. 

0. W. Klingsick, Vice-Pres. & 
Treas. 

4. D. J. Biller 

DEAN HILL PUMP COMPANY, THE 

1. The Dean Hill Pump Company 

2. 1924 

3-4. Noble Dean, Pres. 

DE LAVAL STEAM TURBINE COM- 
PANY 

1. De Laval Steam Turbine Company 

2. 1901 

4. Francis J. Arend 

DELCO PRODUCTS DIV., GENERAL 
MOTORS CORP. 

1. Dayton Engineering Laboratories 
Co. 

2. 1909 

3. E. A. Deeds and C. F. Kettering, 
Owners 

4. Geo. W. Shroyer 



DELTA-STAR ELECTRIC COM- 
PANY 

1. Delta-Star Electric Company 

2. 1907 

3. H. W. Young, Pres. 

A. S. Pearl, Sec.-Treas. 

4. H. W. Young 

DETROIT LUBRICATOR COMPANY 

1. Detroit Lubricator Company 

2. 1877 

3-4. Henry Clay Hodges, Pres. 

DIEHL MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY 

1. Diehl & Co. 

2. 1888 

3. Philip Diehl 

4. Edwin H. Bennett, Jr. 

DONGAN ELECTRIC MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY 

1. Dongan Electric Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1909 

3-4. Lyle J. Hicks, Pres. 

DRAKE ELECTRIC WORKS, INC. 

1. Drake Electric Works 

2. 1917 

3. Wm. J. A. Kuehl, Owner 

DRIVER-HARRIS COMPANY 

1. Driver-Harris Wire Company 

2. 1899 

3-4. Frank L. Driver, Sr., Pres. 

DUMORE COMPANY, THE 

1. Wisconsin Electric Company 

2. 1913 

3. L. H. Hamilton, Pres. 
Chester Beach, Vice-Pres. 

4. L. H. Hamilton 

DUNCAN ELECTRIC MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY 

1. Duncan Electric Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1901 

3. Thomas Duncan 

4. Charles A. Brown 

DU PONT DE NEMOURS, E. I., & 
CO., INC. 

1. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

2. 1802 

3-4. Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de 
Nemours 

E-Z ELECTRIC MFG. CO. 

1. E-Z Electric Mfg. Co. 

2. 1943 

3. S. M. Ellman, J. S. Zuckerman 

4. S. M. Ellman 



EAGLE SIGNAL CORPORATION 

1. Harrington-Seaberg Corporation 

2. 1922 

3-4. Severin Seaberg, Pres. 

EASTERN TUBE & TOOL CO., INC. 

1. Eastern Flexible Conduit Co. 

2. 1907 

4. E. M. Sutliff 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

1. George Eastman 

2. 1880 

3. George Eastman, Treaa. 

4. Henry A. Strong 

ECONOMY FUSE AND MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY 

1. Economy Fuse and Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1911 

3-4. Alfred L. Eustice, Pres. 

EDISON, THOMAS A., INCORPOR- 
ATED 

1. Edison Phonograph Works, et al. 

2. 1888 

3-4. Thomas A. Edison 

EDISON GENERAL ELECTRIC 

APPLIANCE COMPANY, INC. 

1-2. Hotpoint Electric Heating Com- 
pany-1904. Hughes Electric Heating 
Company-1910. Heating Device Sec- 
tion of the General Electric Co.- 
1904. Above consolidated as Edison 
Electric Appliance Co., Inc.-1918. 

3-4. George A. Hughes, Pres. 

EDWARDS AND COMPANY, INC. 

1. Edwards and Company 

2. 1872 

3-4. Robert Edwards 

EICOR, INC. 

1. Eicor, Inc. 

2. 1938 

3. J. Nader, Pres. 

R. D. Wright, Vice-Pres. 

4. J. Nader 

ELECTRIC ARC, INC. 

1. Electric Arc Cutting & Welding 
Co. 

2. 1918 

3-4. Claude J. Holslag, Pres. 

ELECTRIC AUTO-LITE CO., THE 
WIRE DIV. 

1. American Enameled Magnet Wire 
Co. 

2. 1914 

3-4. M. P. Cromwell, Pres. 



ELECTRIC CONTROLLER & 
MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Electric Controller & Supply 
Company 

2. 1897 

3-4. Charles H. Wellman, Pres. 

ELECTRIC MACHINERY MFG. 
COMPANY 

1. Electric Machinery Company 

2. 1893 

3. James T. Boustead 
Charles H. Chalmers 

4. James T. Boustead 

ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING & 
REPAIR CO. 

1. Electric Manufacturing & Repair 
Co. 

2. 1915 

3-4. J. E. Strickler, Pres. 

ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT 
CORP. 

1. Lewis-Roth Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. L. R. Lewis, Pres. 

ELECTRIC PRODUCTS CO., THE 

1. The Electric Products Co. 

2. 1906 

3-4. Maxwell R. Berry 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY EQUIPMENT 
COMPANY, THE 

1. The Electric Railway Equipment 
Company 

2. 1892 

3. Chas. Andrew, Frank Andrew, 
William Andrew, Partners 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY IMPROVE- 
MENT COMPANY, THE 

1. The Electric Railway Improve- 
ment Company 

2. 1903 

3. William B. Cleveland 

4. Albert B. Herrick 

ELECTRIC SERVICE MANUFAC- 
TURING CO. 

1. Electric Service Supplies Co. 

2. 1906 

3. The Mayer & Englund Company 

4. Charles J. Mayer 

ELECTRIC SPECIALTY COMPANY 

1. Electric Specialty Company 

2. 1913 

3. Monroe L. Bickart, Sec. & Treas. 

4. J. M. Wright 



ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY 
COMPANY, THE 

1. The Electric Storage Battery Com- 
pany 

2. 1888 

3. Randal Morgan 
Samuel T. Bodine 
Waldron Shapleigh 

4. W. W. Gibbs 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS EQUIP- 
MENT CO. 

1. Electrical Engineers Equipment 
Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. F. Woodmansee 

ELECTRO DYNAMIC WORKS OF 
THE ELECTRIC BOAT COMPANY 

1. Electro Dynamic Company 

2. 1880 

ELECTRO MANUFACTURING CO. 

1. Electro Utilities 

2. 1930 

3-4. John R. Allen 

ELECTRO-TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, 
INC. 

1. Electro-Technical Coatings, Inc. 

2. 1932 

ELECTROMASTER INC. 

1. Electromaster Inc. 

2. 1929 

3. Warren Noble 
Edward T. Gushee 
R. B. Marshall, Pres. 

4. Warren Noble 

ELECTRONS, INC. 

1. Electrons, Inc. of Delaware 

2. 1930 

4. D. V. Edwards 

ELLIOTT CO. 

1. Elliott Co. 

2. 1901 

3-4. W. S. Elliott, Pres. 

EMERSON ELECTRIC MFG. CO., 
THE 

1. The Emerson Electric Mfg. Co. 

2. 1890 

3. J. W. Emerson, Pres. 
C. R. Meston, Sec. 

A. W. Meston, Supt. 

4. J. W. Emerson 

ENDER MANUFACTURING COR- 
PORATION 

1. Ender Manufacturing Corpora- 
tion 

2. 1928 

3-4. Abraham Ender, Pres. 



ENSIGN ELECTRIC & MFG. CO. 

1. Ensign Electric & Mfg. Co. 

2. 1938 

3-4. D. A. Ensign, Pres. 

ERIE ELECTRIC CO., INC. 

1. Erie Electric Co., Inc. 

2. 1929 

3-4. John H. Darby 

ESTATE STOVE COMPANY, THE 

1. Peebles Wood & Company 

2. 1842 

ESTERLINE-ANGUS COMPANY, 
INC., THE 

1. The Central Laboratory Supply Co. 

2. 1906 

3-4. J. W. Esterline, Chm. of Bd. 

EVERSON ELECTRIC COMPANY 
1-2. *Everson-Leidy Electric Co.-1926 
Elliott-Thompson Electric Co.-1897 

3. *Walter A. Everson, Austin W. 
Leidy 

J. N. Elliott 

4. Walter A. Everson 

FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO. 

1. E. and T. Fairbanks and Co. 

2. 1830 

3. Thaddeus Fairbanks, Owner & 
Partner 

FAIRCHILD CAMERA AND IN- 
STRUMENT CORPORATION 

1. Fairchild Aerial Camera Corpora- 
tion 

2. 1920 

3-4. Sherman M. Fairchild 

FARADAY ELECTRIC CORP. 
1-2. Stanley & Patterson-1884 

Schwarze Electric Co.-1904 
3-4. George Patterson 

Carl Schwarze 

FARIES MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY 

1. Robert Faries 

2. About 1880 

3. Robert Faries, Propr. 

FARLEY & LOETSCHER MFG. CO. 

1. Farley & Loetscher Mfg. Co. 

2. 1875 

3. Christian Loetscher, Supt. & Pres. 

4. Jesse P. Farley 

FEDERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
INC. 

1. Federal Electric Company 

2. 1901 

3. John F. Gilchrist 
John H. Goehst 
James M. Gilchrist 

4. John H. Goehst 



FEDERAL ELECTRIC PRODUCTS 
COMPANY, INC. 

1. Federal Electric Products Company, 
Inc. 

2. 1920 

FEDERAL TELEPHONE & RADIO 
CORPORATION 

1. Poulsen Wireless Telegraph & 
Telephone Company 

2. 1907 

3. C. F. Eldwell, Vice-Pres. & Chief 
Engr. 

4. Professor C. D. Marks 

FENWAL INCORPORATED 

1. Fenwal Incorporated 

2. 1935 

3. T. Legare Fenn 
Dr. Carl Walter 
W. J. Turenne 

4. T. Legare Fenn 

FIBRE CONDUIT COMPANY, THE 

1. The Fibre Conduit Company 

2. 1893 

3-4. S. R. Bradley 

FLUORES-0-LITE COMPANY 

1. Fluores-0-Lite Mfg. Co. 

2. 1938 

3. Meyer H. Silverman, Owner 

FORMICA INSULATION CO., THE 

1. The Formica Insulation Co. 

2. 1913 

3. H. A. Faber 
D. J. O'Conor 

4. H. A. Faber 

FOSTORIA PRESSED STEEL COR- 
PORATION 

1. Fostoria Pressed Steel Company 

2. 1917 

3-4. C. D. Pifer, Pres. 

FOWLER MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. Arthur Fowler Company 

2. 1918 

3. Guy Arthur 
Paul L. Fowler 

4. Guy Arthur 

FRIEZ INSTRUMENT DIVISION 
BENDIX AVIATION CORPORATION 

1. Julien P. Friez 

2. 1876 

3-4. Julien P. Friez 

FRIGIDAIRE DIVISION 
GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION 

1. Domestic Engineering Company 

2. 1916 

3. E. A. Deeds, Pres. 

C. F. Kettering, Vice-Pres. 

4. E. A. Deeds 



FRINK CORPORATION, THE 

1. I. P. Frink 

2. 1857 

3. Isaac Pendleton Frink, Sole Propr. 

FULLMAN MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY 

1. Brown Specialty Company 

2. 1924 

3-4. Geo. F. Brown 

G & W ELECTRIC SPECIALTY COM- 
PANY 

1. Gear & Williams 

2. 1905 

3-4. Paul F. Williams, Partner 

GAMEWELL COMPANY, THE 

1. John N. Gamewell & Company 

2. 1866 

3. John N. Gamewell, Senior Partner 

GENERAL CERAMICS AND 
STEATITE CORPORATION 

1. General Ceramics Company 

2. 1912 

3. German-American Stoneware Co. 

4. N. Jungeblut 

GENERAL DEVICES & FITTINGS 
CO. 

1. General Devices & Fittings Co. 

2. 1914 

3. J. M. Van Splunter 
A. D. Fonger 

E. O. Sessions 

4. J. M. Van Splunter 

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 
1-2. Thomson-Houston Co. 

Edison General Electric Co.-1878 
3-4. Thomas A. Edison 

GENERAL ELECTRIC X-RAY COR- 
PORATION 

1. Victor Electric Company 

2. 1895 

3. C. F. Samms, Pres. 

J. B. Wantz, Vice-Pres. 

4. C. F. Samms 

GENERAL INDUSTRIES COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Dean Electric Company 

2. 1902 

3-4. S. Rawson 

GENERAL LIGHTING PRODUCTS 
CO. 

1. General Lighting Products Co. 

2. 1944 

3. Nathan H. Eglowstein, Owner 

4. Nathan H. Eglowstein, Pres. 

GIBSON REFRIGERATOR COM- 
PANY 

1. Gibson Refrigerator Company 

2. 1908 

3-4. Frank S. Gibson, Pres. 



GILBERT A. C., COMPANY, THE 

1. Mysto Manufacturing Company 

2. 1909 

3-4. A. C. Gilbert, Pres. 

GILLINDER BROTHERS, INC. 

1. Gillinder glass industry 

2. 1861 

3. William Gillinder 

GLEASON-TIEBOUT GLASS CO. 

1. E. P. Gleason Mfg. Co. 

2. 1858 

3-4. Elliott Perry Gleason 

GLENN-ROBERTS COMPANY 

1. Glenn-Roberts Company 

2. 1934 

3-4. George G. Glenn 

GLOBE LIGHTING PRODUCTS 
COMPANY 

1. Globe Lighting Fixture Manufac- 
turing Company 

2. 1921 

3-4. Isidor Rosenblatt 

GLOBE-UNION INC. 
CENTRALAB DIVISION 

1. The Globe Electric Company 

2. 1919 

4. John I. Beggs 

GOODMAN MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY 

1. The Sperry Electric Mining Mach- 
ine Company 

2. 1889 

3. Elmer A. Sperry, Electrician 

4. A. L. Sweet 

GRAPHITE METALLIZING CORPO- 
RATION 

1. Graphite Metallizing Corporation 

2. 1913 

3. Frederick P. Fuller, Vice-Pres. 

4. Alexander Turner 

GREAT WESTERN FUSE COM- 
PANY 

1. Great Western Fuse Company 

<u. 1912 

3. F. C. LaMar 
P. J. Hopkins 

4. F. C. LaMar 

GRISWOLD MFG. COMPANY, THE 

1. Selden & Griswold Company 

2. 1865 

3. Matthew Griswold, Samuel Selden, 
Partners 

HAMILTON BEACH CO., DIVISION 
OF SCOVILL MANUFACTURING 
CO. 

1. Able Porter and Company 

2. 1802 

3-4. Able Porter 



HANLON & WILSON COMPANY 

1. Hanlon & Wilson Company 

2. 1910 

3-4. A. G. Wilson, Partner 

HANSON-VAN WINKLE-MUNNING 
COMPANY 

1. Mr. Stevens 

2. 1820 

3. Mr. Stevens, Owner & Propr. 

HARDWICK, KINDLE, INC. 

1. Hardwick, Hindle, Inc. 

2. 1924 

3-4. A. H. Hardwick 

HARNISCHFEGER CORPORATION 

1. Pawling & Harnischfeger 

2. 1884 

3. Alonzo Pawling, Henry Harnisch- 
feger, Partners 

HART MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Hart Manufacturing Company 

2. 1898 

3-4. George Waldo Hart, Pres. 

HEINEMANN CIRCUIT BREAKER 
COMPANY 

1. Heinemann Circuit Breaker Com- 
pany 

2. 1929 

3. Heinemann Electric Company 

4. Bernard S. Berlin 

HEINEMANN ELECTRIC CO. 

1. Heinemann Electric Co. 

2. 1888 

3. George Heinemann 

HEINZE ELECTRIC COMPANY 
HENRITE PRODUCTS CORPORA- 
TION 

1. Channel Packing & Rubber Co. 

2. 1914 

3. Ralph L. Henry 
Albert C. Henry 
Irving U. Eggert 

4. Ralph L. Henry 

HERTNER ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Hertner Electric Company 

2. 1901 

3-4. John H. Hertner, Pres. 

HEXAGON ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Hexacon Electric Company 

2. 1932 

3-4. A. L. Johnson, Partner 

HILL-SHAW COMPANY 

1. Hill-Shaw Company 

2. 1930 

3-4. Edward Perlman, Pres. 



HI-VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT COM- 
PANY 

1. Hi-Voltage Equipment Company 

2. 1920 

3-4. Lester C. Hart, Pres. 

HOBART MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Hobart Electric Manufactur- 
ing Company 

2. 1897 

3-4. C. C. Hobart, Pres. 

HOLDENLINE CO. 

1. Dean H. Holden 

2. 1936 

3. Dean H. Holden 

HOLLUP CORPORATION 

DIV. NATIONAL CYLINDER GAS 

CO. 

1. C. H. Hollup Corporation 

2. 1920 

3-4. H. R. Pennington, Pres. 

HOLOPHANE COMPANY, INC. 

1. Holophane Glass Company, Inc. 

2. 1898 

3-4. Otis A. Mygatt, Pres. 

HOLTZER-CABOT 

DIVISION OF FIRST INDUSTRIAL 

CORPORATION 

1-2. Charles W. Holtzer-1875 

The Holtzer-Cabot Electric Co.-1889 
3-4. Charles W. Holtzer, Propr. & Pres. 

HORNI SIGNAL MANUFACTURING 
CORPORATION 

1. Horni Signal Corporation 

2. 1920 

3-4. Paul P. Horni 

HOSKINS MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Hoskins Company 

2. 1906 

3. Wm. Hoskins, Pres. 

A. L. Marsh, Gen. Mgr. 

4. Wm. Hoskins 

HOTSTREAM HEATER CO., THE 

1. The Hotstream Heater Co. 

2. 1915 

3-4. L. R. Mendelson, Pres. 

HOWELL ELECTRIC MOTORS COM- 
PANY 

1. Howell Electric Motors Company 

2. 1915 

3. Henry N. Spencer, Pres. 
Carl F. Daun, Vice-Pres. 
William McPherson Spencer, Sec.- 
Treas. 

Charles F. Norton, Dir. 
W. McPherson Smith, Dir. 

4. Henry N. Spencer 



HUBBARD AND COMPANY 

1. Lippincott & Company 

2. 1843 

3. Mr. Lippincott 

HUBBELL, HARVEY, INC. 

1. Hubbell-Grier Electric Company 

2. 1888 

3-4. Harvey Hubbell, Sr., Pres. 

HUDSON WIRE COMPANY 

1. Royle and Akin 

2. 1902 

3. Joseph Royle, Robert M. Akin, 
Partners 

HUNTER FAN AND VENTILATING 
COMPANY, INC. 

1. Hunter Fan and Motor Company, 
Inc. 

2. 1886 

3-4. J. C. Hunter, Pres. 

HYNES ELECTRIC HEATING CO. 

1. Lee P. Hynes 

2. 1926 

3-4. Lee P. Hynes 

HYTRON RADIO & ELECTRONICS 
CORP. 

1. Hytron Company 

2. 1922 

3. Bruce A. Coffin, Pres. 

4. Lloyd H. Coffin 

I-T-E CIRCUIT BREAKER COM- 
PANY 

1. The Cutter Electrical Manufac- 
turing Company 

2. 1888 

3. Henry B. Cutter 

IDEAL ELECTRIC & MFG. COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Ideal Electric & Mfg. Com- 
pany 

2. 1903 

3. S. Glen Vinson, Pres. 

4. C. H. Voegele 

ILLINOIS ELECTRIC PORCELAIN 
CO. 

1. Illinois Electric Porcelain Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. C. W. Kettron, Pres. 

ILLINOIS TOOL WORKS 

1. Illinois Tool Works 

2. 1912 

3. Partnership 

IMPERIAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
THE 

1. Akron Electrical Company 

2. 1888 

3-4. L. C. Miles, Pres. 



IRVINGTON VARNISH & INSULA- 
TOR COMPANY 

1. Irvington Varnish & Insulator 
Company 

2. 1905 

3-4. Carl Berger, Pres. 

ITEN FIBRE COMPANY, THE 

1. The Iten Fibre Company 

2. 1922 

3-4. C. J. Iten, Pres. 

JANETTE MANUFACTURING CO. 

1. Janette Manufacturing Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. John T. Janette, Pres. 

JEFFERSON ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Jefferson Electric Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1915 

3-4. John A. Bennan, Chm. of Bd. 

JEFFERY-DEWITT INSULATOR 
CORPORATION 

1. Jeffery-Dewitt Insulator Company 

2. 1918 

3-4. Dr. J. A. Jeffery 

JEFFREY MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Lechner Mining Machine 
Company 

2. 1876 

3. Joseph Andrew Jeffrey, Treas. 

4. Francis C. Sessions 

JOHNSON FAN & BLOWER COR- 
PORATION 

1. Johnson Fan & Blower Corpora- 
tion 

2. 1933 

3-4. Arthur J. Johnson, Pres. 

JONES METAL PRODUCTS CO., 
THE 

1. The Jones Metal Products Co. 

2. 1923 

3-4. Frank E. Jones, Pres. 

JAMES R. KEARNEY CORPORA- 
TION 

1. James R. Kearney Corporation 

2. 1926 

3-4. James R. Kearney, Sr., Chm. of 
Bd. 

KELLEY-KOETT MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY, THE 

1. The Kelley-Koett Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1903 

3. J. Robert Kelley 
Albert B. Koett 

4. J. Robert Kelley 



KELLOGG SWITCHBOARD & SUP- 
PLY COMPANY 

1. Kellogg Switchboard & Supply 
Company 

2. 1897 

3-4. Milo G. Kellogg, Pres. 

KELVINATOR DIVISION, NASH- 
KELVINATOR CORPORATION 

1. Electro Automatic Refrigerator 
Company, Inc. 

2. 1914 

3. Arnold H. Goss 

4. E. J. Copeland 

KENNECOTT WIRE AND CABLE 

COMPANY 

1-2. Eugene F. Phillips-1870 

American Electrical Works-1882 
3-4. Eugene F. Phillips 

KENT METAL MANUFACTURING 
CO. INC. 

1. Kent Metal Manufacturing Co. 
Inc. 

2 1928 

3. Jos. H. Steinberg 
Samuel R. Gerber 

4. Jos. H. Steinberg 

KERITE COMPANY, THE 

1. A. G. Day Caoutchouc Company 

2. 1855 

3-4. A. G. Day 

KEYSTONE CARBON COMPANY, 
INC. 

1. Keystone Carbon Company, Inc. 

2. 1927 

4. B. R. Reuscher 

KIRKMAN ENGINEERING CORPO- 
RATION 

1. Kirkman Engineering Corpora- 
tion 

2. 1912 

3. Thomas W. Kirkman, Pres. 

4. R. P. Hart 

KLIEGL BROS., UNIVERSAL 
ELECTRIC STAGE LIGHTING CO., 

1. Universal Electric Stage Lighting 
Co. 

2. 1896 

3. Anton T. Kliegl 
John H. Kliegl 

4. Anton T. Kliegl 

KNAPP-MONARCH CO. 

1. A. S. Knapp & Company 

2. 1925 

3-4. A. S. Knapp, Pres. 



KNOX PORCELAIN CORP. 

1. Knox Porcelain Corp. 

2. 1923 

4. 0. A. Dorsett 

KUHLMAN ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Kuhlman Electric Company 

2. 1893 

3. Etna Kuhlman 
J. A. Johnson 

4. Etna Kuhlman 

KUTHE LABORATORIES, INC. 

1. Kuthe Laboratories, Inc. 

2. 1940 

3-4. Herman K. Kuthe, Pres. 

LAMB ELECTRIC COMPANY, THE 

1. The Domestic Electric Company 

2. 1915 

3. C. A. Duffner 
M. H. Spielman 
W. H. Poesse 
R. J. Lamb 

4. C. A. Duffner 

LANDERS, FRARY & CLARK 

1-2. Josiah Dewey-1822-24 

Dewey & Landers-1842, Partner- 
ship 
3. George M. Landers, Josiah Dewey 

LAPP INSULATOR CO., INC. 

1. Lapp Insulator Co., Inc. 

2. 1916 

3-4. John S. Lapp, Pres. 

LEIGH ELECTRIC CO. 

1. Eureka Electric Co. 

2. 1895 

LELAND ELECTRIC CO., THE 

1. The Leland Electric Co. 

2. 1921 

3-4. G. H. Leland, Pres. 

LIEBEL-FLARSHEIM COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Liebel-Flarsheim Company 

2. 1917 

3. G. H. Liebel, Pres. 

E. S. Flarsheim, Treas. 

4. G. H. Liebel 

LIGHTING PRODUCTS INC. 

1. Reflectors Inc. 

2. 1937 

3. J. Kirk, Pres. 

K. B. Lacy, Vice-Pres. 

4. James Kirk 

LIMA ELECTRIC MOTOR COM- 
PANY, INC., THE 

1. The Lima Electric Motor Com- 
pany, Div. of The Lima Armature 
Works, Inc. 

2. 1922 

3-4. Homer E. Reeder, Pres. 



LINCOLN ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Lincoln Electric Company 

2. 1895 

3-4. J. C. Lincoln 

LINE MATERIAL CO. 

1. Line Material Co. 

2. 1911 

3. W. D. Kyle 

4. Fred Sivyer 

LOCKE INSULATOR CORPORA- 
TION 

1. Fred M. Locke 

2. 1893 

3. Fred M. Locke, Owner 

LOUTHAN MFG. COMPANY, THE 

1. Louthan Supply Company 

2. 1901 

3. B. M. Louthan 
Wm. B. Louthan 

4. B. M. Louthan 

MACALLEN CO., THE 

1. W. T. C. Macallen Co. 

2. 1892 

3. Louis McCarthy, Treas. 

4. Thomas Allen 

MACHLETT LABORATORIES, IN- 
CORPORATED 

1. E. Machlett & Son 

2. 1897 

3-4. Robert H. Machlett, Pres. 

MALLEABLE IRON RANGE CO. 

1. Malleable Iron Range Co. 

2. 1896 

3. A. G. Hill, Pres. 

Fred W. Rogers, Vice-Pres. 
Silas McClure, Sec. 

4. A. G. Hill 

MANNING, BOWMAN & CO. 

1. Manning & Bowman 

2. 1858 

3. Thaddeus Manning 

4. Joseph Parsons 

MARATHON CORPORATION 

1. Marathon Paper Mills Co. 

2. 1909 

3. Neal Brown, Dir. 
Cyrus C. Yawkey 

4. Cyrus C. Yawkey 

MARATHON ELECTRIC MFG. COR- 
PORATION 

1. Marathon Electric Mfg. Corpora- 
tion 

2. 1914 

3. Neal Brown, Dir. 

4. Judson S. Alexander 



MARBLE CARD ELECTRIC COM- 
PANY 

1. Partnership 

2. 1917 

3. Webster L. Marble 
John F. Card 
James T. Jones 
Floyd W. Marble 

4. Webster L. Marble 

MARKEL ELECTRIC PRODUCTS, 
INC. 

1. Buffalo Chandelier Corp. 

2. 1920 

3-4. Joseph Markel, Pres. 

MASTER ELECTRIC COMPANY, THE 

1. The Master Electric Company 

2. 1920 

3-4. E. P. Larsh, Chm. of Bd. 

MATTHEWS, W. N., CORPORATION 

1. W. N. Matthews & Brother 

2. 1899 

3. Wm. N. Matthews, Partner 

MCGRAW ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. McGraw Electric Company 

2. 1900 

3-4. Max McGraw, Propr. 

MCKAY COMPANY, THE 

1. United States Chain & Forging Co. 

2. 1919 

4. Robert J. McKay 

MEMCO ENGINEERING & MFG. 
CO., INC. 

1. Maxwell Engineering & Mfg. Co. 

2. 1915 

3. M. P. Maxwell, Owner 

METAL & THERMIT CORPORATION 

1. Goldschmidt Thermit Company 

2. 1904 

3-4. Dr. Hans Goldschmidt, Pres. 

METROPOLITAN DEVICE CORPORA- 
TION 
METROPOLITAN ELEC. MFG. CO. 

1. Metropolitan Switchboard Co. 

2. 1892 

3-4. Joseph P. Hall 

MEYER CO., WM., THE 

1. The Wm. Meyer Co. 

2. 1904 

3-4. William Meyer 

MICA CO. OF CANADA (N. Y.) INC. 

1. Mica Co. of Canada (N. Y.) Inc. 

2. 1920 

3-4. E. G. Rykert, Pres. 



MICA INSULATOR COMPANY 

1. Mica Insulator Company 

2. 1893 

3. Eugene Munsell 
Lewis Kingsley 
Franklin Brooks 

4. Eugene Munsell 

MIEHLE PRINTING PRESS & MFG. 
CO. 

1. Kimble Electric Company 

2. 1906 

3. Austin Kimble 
E. M. Madden 

Alfred W. Craven, Comrs. 

4. Perkins B. Bass, Pres. & Treas. 

MILLER COMPANY, THE 

1. Edward Miller & Company 

2. 1844 

3-4. Edward Miller, Pres. 

MILLER ELECTRIC MFG. CO., INC. 

1. Miller Electric Mfg. Co., Inc. 

2. 1935 

3-4. Niels C. Miller, Pres. 

MINNEAPOLIS-HONEYWELL REG- 
ULATOR COMPANY 

1. Consolidated Temperature Con- 
trolling Company 

2. 1895 

3-4. William R. Sweatt 

MITCHELL MFG. COMPANY 

1. Mitchell Mfg. Company 

2. 1930 

3-4. Bernard A. Mitchell 

MITCHELL RAND MFG. COMPANY 

1. H. M. Howard & Co. 

2. 1889 

3. H. M. Howard 

W. E. G. Mitchell, Successor 

MOLONEY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Moloney Electric Company 

2. 1896 

3-4. T. O. Moloney, Chm. of Bd. 

MONITOR CONTROLLER CO., THE 

1. The Monitor Controller Co. 

2. 1911 

3. Geo. H. Whittingham, Chm. of Bd. 
Chas. R. Durling, Pres. 

4. Chas. R. Durling 

MORGANITE BRUSH COMPANY, 
INC. 

1. Morgan Crucible Company of 
America 

2. 1910 

3. Stanley Beeton 

4. Geo. W. Edward 



MOSEBACH ELECTRIC & SUPPLY 
CO. 

1. Mosebach Electric & Supply Co. 

2. 1924 

3-4. K. J. Mosebach, Mgr. 

MOTOR PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

1. Motor Products Corporation 

2. 1916 

3. Rands Mfg. Co., Diamond Mfg. 
Co., Superior Mfg. Co., Vanguard 
Mfg. Co., Universal Metal Co. 

4. W. C. Rands 

MULLENBACH ELEC. MFG. CO. 

1. Mullenbach Elec. Mfg. Co. Inc. 

2. 1927 

3. Jos. L. Mullenbach, Pres. 

MURRAY IRON WORKS COMPANY 

1. Murray Iron Works Company 

2. 1870 

3-4. Colonel George H. Higbee, Pres. 

NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, 

1. National Carbon Company 

2. 1886 

3-4. W. H. Lawrence 

NATIONAL CERAMIC COMPANY 

1. National Porcelain Company 

3. Bayard L. Dunkle, Pres. 

4. S. L. Dunkle 

NATIONAL ELECTRIC COIL COM- 

.t .A.IN JL 

1. National Armature & Electric 
Works 

2. 1917 

3. P. J. Kelley 

G. E. Stupalsky 
C. L. Brown 

B. Kelley 

C. L. Cruise 

4. P. J. Kelley 

NATIONAL ELECTRIC CONTROL- 
LER CO. 

1. National Electric Controller Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. Thomas Rhodus, Pres. 

NATIONAL ENAMELING AND 
STAMPING COMPANY 
1-2. Kieckhefer Brothers-1881 

Haberman Manufacturing Com- 
pany 

Matthai Ingram Company-1870 
St. Louis Stamping Company, 

3. F. A. W. Kieckhefer 
Frederick Haberman 
William H. Matthai 
Frederick G. Niedringhaus 
William F. Niedringhaus 

4. Frederick G. Niedringhaus 



NATIONAL VARNISHED PROD- 
UCTS CORPORATION, THE 

1. The National Varnished Products 
Corporation 

2. 1941 

3. V. Bator 

F. M. Damitz 

L. Schork 

P. H. Kempner 

4. F. M. Damitz 

NATIONAL VULCANIZED FIBRE 
COMPANY 

1. The Vulcanized Fibre Company 

2. 1841 

NEW ENGLAND MICA COMPANY, 
INCORPORATED 

1. New England Mica Company, 
Incorporated 

2. 1917 

3. William Cooper 

4. Edward Cooper 

NEW JERSEY PORCELAIN CO. 

1. New Jersey Porcelain Co. 

2. 1920 

3-4. Stephen Wenczel, Pres. 

NEW JERSEY WOOD FINISHING 
COMPANY, INC. 

1. New Jersey Wood Finishing Com- 
pany, Inc. 

2. 1907 

3-4. Ferdinand Wetterberg, Pres. 

NEWARK TRANSFORMER COM- 
PANY 

1. Newark Transformer Company 

2. 1923 

3-4. Dennis J. Norton, Pres. 

NOBLITT-SPARKS INDUSTRIES, 
INC. 

1. Indianapolis Pump & Tube 

2. 1919 

3. Q. G. Noblitt, Pres. 

Frank H. Sparks, Vice-Pres. 

4. G. Noblitt 

NORGE DIVISION, BORG-WARNER 
CORP. 

1. Norge Division, Borg-Warner 
Corp. 

2. 1928 

3-4. Howard E. Blood 

NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS 
COMPANY INC. 

1. North American Philips Company 
Inc. 

2. 1942 

4. P. F. S. Otten 

NORTH ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY, THE 

1. The North Electric Company 

2. 1884 

3-4. Charles H. North 



NORTHERN ELECTRIC COMPANY, 

LIMITED 

1-2. The Northern Electric & Mfg. 

Co. Ltd.-1895 

The Wire & Cable Company-1899 
4. C. F. Sise, Sr. 

NORTHWESTERN ELECTRIC 
COMPANY 

1. Northwestern Electric Company 

2. 1903 

3-4. Samuel H. Martin, Pres. 

NU-TONE LABORATORIES, INC. 

1. Nu-Tone Laboratories 

2. 1932 

3. Herbert W. Maltz 
Charles A. Butler 
Morris Maltz 

4. Herbert W. Maltz 

OHIO BRASS COMPANY, THE 

1. The Ohio Brass Company 

2. 1888 

3-4. Frank B. Black, Pres. 

OHIO CARBON COMPANY, THE 

1. The Acme Carbon Company 

2. 1915 

3. A. K. Moulton, Gen. Mgr. 
J. E. Schunck, Sec.-Treas. 

4. William H. Shepard 

OHIO ELECTRIC MFG. CO., THE 
1-2. The Cleveland Controller & Mfg. 

Co.-1917 

The Ohio Electric & Controller 

Co.-1918 
3-4. F. W. Jessop, Pres. 

OKONITE COMPANY, THE 

1. New York Insulated Wire and 
Vulcanite Co. 

2. 1878 

3. John Haven Cheever 
Henry F. Durant 

4. Charles Cheever 

OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY 

1. Elisha G. Otis 

2. 1852 

3. Elisha Graves Otis, Owner 

OVERBAGH & AYRES MFG. CO. 

1. Overbagh & Ayres Mfg. Co. 

2. 1902 

3-4. Franklin Overbagh, Pres. 

OWENS-CORNING FIBERGLAS COR- 
PORATION 

1. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corpora- 
tion 

2. 1938 

3. Owens-Illinois Glass Company 
Corning Glass Works 

4. Harold Boeschenstein 



PACIFIC ELECTRIC MANUFAC- 
TURING CORPORATION 

1. Pacific Electric & Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1906 

3-4. Jos. S. Thompson, Pres. 

PAGE STEEL AND WIRE DIVISION 
OF AMERICAN CHAIN & CABLE 
COMPANY, INC. 

1. Page Woven Wire Fence Com- 
pany 

2 1883 
3-4. J. Wallace Page, Pres. 

PALMER ELECTRIC & MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY, THE 

1. The Palmer Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company 

2. 1912 

3-4. Granville E. Palmer, Pres. 

PANELYTE DIVISION 

ST. REGIS PAPER COMPANY 

1. The Panelyte Corporation 

2. 1929 

4. F. L. Carlisle 

PARANITE WIRE & CABLE CORP. 
DIVISION OF ESSEX WIRE CORP. 

1. Essex Wire Corp. 

2. 1930 

3-4. A. E. Holton, Pres. 

PARTRICK & WILKINS COMPANY 

1. Partrick & Carter 

2. 1867 

3-4. James Partrick, Pres. 

PASS AND SEYMOUR, INCOR- 
PORATED 

1. Pass and Seymour 

2. 1890 

3. James Pass, Albert P. Seymour, 
Partners 

PAULDING, JOHN I., INC. 

1. John I. Paulding 

2. 1914 

3. G. A. Johnson 
John I. Paulding 
A. A. Johnson 
C. A. Johnson 
W. B. Nelson 

4. G. A. Johnson 

PEERLESS ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
THE 

1. Warren Electric and Specialty 
Company 

2 1893 
3-4! Elmer W. Gillmer 

PENN ELECTRIC SWITCH CO. 

1. Electro Specialty Company 

2. 1918 

3-4. Albert Penn, Pres. 



PENN MACHINE CO. 

1. Penn Machine Co. 

2. 1920 

3. John Gibson, Jr. 
Thruston Wright 

4. John Gibson, Jr. 

PENNSYLVANIA ELECTRIC COIL 
CORP. 

1. Pennsylvania Electrical Repair 
Co. 

2. 1917 

3-4. Ralph Close 

PENNSYLVANIA TRANSFORMER 
COMPANY 

1. Pennsylvania Transformer Com- 
pany 

2. 1929 

3. Samuel Horelick, Pres. 

W. E. Kerr, Vice-Free. 6- Treas., 
et al. 

4. Samuel Horelick 

PERFECLITE COMPANY, THE 

1. The Perfeclite Company 

2. 1912 

3-4. J. L. Jaff e, Pres. 

PERFEX CORPORATION 

1. Perfex Radiator Company 

2. 1934 

3-4. Julius K. Luthe, Pres. 

PHILADELPHIA ELECTRICAL & 
MFG. CO. 

1. Philadelphia Electrical & Mfg. Co. 

2. 1880 

3-4. A. H. Manwaring, Pres. 

PHOENIX GLASS COMPANY, THE 

1. The Phoenix Glass Company 

2. 1880 

3-4. Andrew Howard, Pres. 

PICKER X-RAY CORPORATION 

1. Waite and Bartlett Company 

2. 1879 

3-4. Dr. Henry E. Waite, Pres. 

PIERCE RENEWABLE FUSES, INC. 

1. Pierce Renewable Fuses, Inc. 

2. 1926 

PITTSBURGH REFLECTOR COM- 
PANY 

1. Prismatic Reflector & Mirror Co., 
Inc. 

2. 1909 

3-4. Eugene S. Simons, Pres. & Gen. 
Mgr. 

PLAINVILLE ELECTRICAL PROD- 
UCTS CO., THE 

1. The Plainville Electrical Products 
Co. 

2. 1922 

3-4. F. L. Benzon, Pres. 



PORCELAIN INSULATOR CORPORA- 
TION, THE 

1. The Porcelain Insulator Corporation 

2. 1920 

3-4. William F. Harvey, Pres. & Gen. 
Mgr. 

PORCELAIN PRODUCTS, INC. 

1. Brunt Porcelain Company 

2. 1895 

3-4. George F. Brunt, Pres. 

POTTER REFRIGERATOR COR- 
PORATION 

1. T. Irving Potter 

2. 1926 

3. T. Irving Potter 

PRINGLE ELECTRICAL MFG. CO., 
THE 

1. W. T. Pringle 

2. 1891 

3-4. William T. Pringle 

PROCTOR ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Proctor & Schwartz Electric Co. 

2. 1929 

3-4. Walter M. Schwartz, Pres. 

PURE CARBON CO., INC. 

1. Pure Carbon Co. 

2. 1909 

3-4. Colonel E. L. Dempsey, Pres. 

QUADRANGLE MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY 

1. Quadrangle Manufacturing 
Company 

2 1922 

3. D. E. Worrell, Pres. 
L. A. Bishop, Vice-Pres. 
Geo. Arras, Sec. 

E. Laymon, Treas. 

4. D. E. Worrell 

RCA VICTOR DIVISION OF RADIO 

CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

1-2. *Radio Corporation of America-1919 

Victor Talking Machine Company- 

1901 

3. *0wen D. Young 
Eldridge R. Johnson 

4. *Edward J. Nally 
Eldridge R. Johnson 

RAILWAY AND INDUSTRIAL EN- 
GINEERING CO. 

1. Railway and Industrial Engineer- 
ing Co. 

2. 1910 

3. A. W. Burke 
H. C. Stier 
B. W. Kerr 

4. A. W. Burke 



RANCO INCpRPORATED 

1. Automatic Reclosing Circuit- 
Breaker Company 

2. 1913 

3. E. C. Raney, Sec. & Gen. Mgr. 

4. J. T. Wolfley 

RATTAN MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. New Haven Folding Chair Com- 
pany 

2. 1857 

3-4. Isaac N. Dann, Pres. 

RAYTHEON MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY 

1. Raytheon Manufacturing Com- 
pany 

2. 1928 

3-4. Laurence K. Marshall, Pres. 

REID-AVERY COMPANY 

1. Reid Avery Company 

2. 1919 

3-4. Marshall E. Reid, Pres. 

RELIABLE ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Reliable Electric Company 

2. 1909 

3. Felix W. McMeal, Pres. 
George W. Rodormer, Vice-Pres. 
Oscar C. Jungle, Sec. & Treas. 

4. Felix W. McMeal 

RELIANCE ELECTRIC & ENGIN- 
EERING COMPANY, THE 

1. Lincoln Motor Works Company 

2. 1905 

3. Peter M. Hitchcock, Owner 

4. Charles W. Hitchcock 

REVERE ELECTRIC MFG. COM- 
PANY 

1. Revere Electric Company 
2 1919 

3-4! Van N. Marker, Pres. 

REYNOLDS ELECTRIC CO. 

1. Reynolds Electric Co. 

2. 1901 

3-4. C. F. Ziegler, Pres. 

RHEEM MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY, INC. 

1. Pacific Galvanizing Company 

2. 1925 

3. R. S. Rheem, D. L. Rheem, Part- 
ners 

4. Richard S. Rheem 

RICHARDSON CO., THE 

1. Haldeman Paper Co. 

2. 1858 

3-4. J. C. Haldeman, Pres. 



RITTENHOUSE, A. E., CO., INC., 
THE 

1. The A. E. Rittenhouse Co. 

2. 1903 

3-4. Arthur E. Rittenhouse, Pres. & 
Treas. 

ROBBINS & MYERS, INC. 

1. "Robbins & Meyers" 

2. 1878 

3. Chandler Robbins, James A. 
Myers, Partners 

4. Chandler Robbins 

ROBERTS & MANDER STOVE COM- 
PANY 

1. Roberts & Mander Stove Com- 
pany 

2. 1903 

3-4. Clarence V. Roberts 

ROCKBESTOS PRODUCTS CORPO- 
RATION 

1. Rockbestos Products Corporation 

2. 1920 

3. Marlin Rockwall Corporation 

4. George H. Houston 

ROEBLING'S, JOHN A., SONS COM- 
PANY 

1. John A. Roebling's Sons Company 

2. 1841 

3. John A. Roebling, Owner 

4. Washington A. Roebling 

ROLLER-SMITH DIVISION 
REALTY & INDUSTRIAL CORPO- 
RATION 
1-2. Whitney Electrical Instrument 

Co.-1891 

Switchboard Equipment Co.-1903 

Roller-Smith Co.-1908 
3-4. Frank W. Roller, Pres. 

ROME CABLE CORPPORATION 

1. Rome Cable Corporation 

2. 1936 

3-4. Herbert T. Dyett, Pres. 

ROWAN CONTROLLER COMPANY, 
THE 

1. The Rowan Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company 

2. 1914 

3-4. John S. Rowan, Pres. 

ROYAL ELECTRIC CO., INC. 

1. Royal Electric Co. 

2. 1920 

3. Joseph Riesman 
Myer Riesman 

4. Joseph Riesman 

RUBY LIGHTING COMPANY 

1. Ruby Lighting Company 

2. 1930 

3. Louis D. Phillips, See., et al. 



S & M LAMP COMPANY 

1. S & M Lamp & Radiator Co. 

2. 1909 

3. James R. Shirreffs, Sr., Partner 

4. Jim Shirreffs 

SAMPSEL TIME CONTROL, INC. 

1. Sampsel Time Control, Inc. 

2. 1935 

3-4. A. V. Sampsel, Pres. 

SAMSON UNITED CORPORATION 

1. Samson Cutlery Company 

2. 1924 

3-4. A. 0. Samuels, Pres. 

SANGAMO ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Sangamo Electric Company 

2. 1899 

3-4. R. C. Lamphier 

SANITARY REFRIGERATOR COM- 
PANY 

1. Fond du Lac Church Furniture 
Co. 

SAVORY EQUIPMENT, INC. 

1. Sidney Shepard & Co. 

2. 1836 

3-4. Sidney Shepard, Pres. 

SAXONBURG POTTERIES 

1. Saxonburg Potteries 

2. 1930 

3-4. George Aderhold, Owner 

SCHWEITZER & CONRAD, INC. 

1. Schweitzer & Conrad, Inc. 

2. 1911 

3. E. 0. Schweitzer, Pres. 

N. J. Conrad, Sec. & Treas. 

4. E. O. Schweitzer 

SEEGER-SUNBEAM CORPORATION 

1. Schroeder Headlight Company 

2. 1883 

3-4. Adam Henry Schroeder 

SEGIL, L. J., CO. 

1. L. J. Segil Co. 

Brook Electrical Supply Co. 

2. 1907 

3-4. Louis J. Segil 

SENSITIVE RESEARCH INSTRU- 
MENT CpMPANY 

1. Sensitive Research Instrument 
Corporation 

2. 1927 

3. David Wolf and Vincent P. Cronin 

4. David Wolf 

SHELDON SERVICE COMPANY 
DIVISION OF EDWARD ERMOLD 
COMPANY 

1. Sheldon Service Corporation 
2 1938 

3-4. Herbert C. Sheldon, Pres. & Gen. 
Mgr. 



SIGNAL ELECTRIC MFG. CO. 

1. Menominee Electric & Mechanical 
Co. 

2. 1892 

3-4. Henry Tideman 

SILEX COMPANY, THE 

1. The Silex Company 

2. 1924 

3-4. Frank E. Wolcott, Pres. 

SILVRAY LIGHTING, INC. 

1. Silvray Company, Inc. 

2. 1926 

3-4. M. B. Beck, Pres. 

SIMPLEX WIRE & CABLE CO. 

1. Morss & Whyte 

2. 1865 

3. Charles A. Morss, Oliver Whyte, 
Partners 

4. Charles A. Morss 

SMALL MOTORS, INC. 

1. Small Motors, Inc. 

2. 1941 

3-4. R. R. Cook, Pres. 

SMITH, A. L., IRON COMPANY 

1. The A. L. Smith Iron Works 

2. 1899 

3-4. Arthur L. Smith, Pres. & Treas. 

SMITH, A. 0., CORPORATION 

1. A. 0. Smith Company 

2. 1906 

3-4. A. O. Smith, Pres. 

SMITH, F. A., MFG. CO., INC. 

1. F. A. Smith Mfg. Co., Inc. 

2. 1911 

3-4. F. A. Smith, Pres. 

SMITH, S. MORGAN, COMPANY 

1. S. Morgan Smith Company 

2. 1876 

3. Rev. S. Morgan Smith, Propr. 

4. S. Morgan Smith 

SMOOT-HOLMAN COMPANY 

1. American Enameling & Stamping 
Company 

2. 1915 

3. C. E. Smoot, Pres. 
M. L. Houseman 

4. C. E. Smoot 

SOLA ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Sola Corporation 

2. 1930 

3. A. L. Myers 
Jos. G. Sola 
John R. Fischer 

4. A. L. Myers 



SOLAR LIGHT MANUFACTURING 
CO. 

1. Solar Light Co. 

2. 1905 

3-4. Abraham Lazerson, Mffr. 

SORGEL ELECTRIC CO. 

1. Sorgel Electric Co. 

2. 1916 

3-4. Wm. R. Sorgel, Pres. 

SOUTHERN ELECTRIC, INC. 

1. Southern Electric, Inc. 

2. 1938 

3-4. C. W. Munro, Pres. 

SOUTHERN STATES EQUIPMENT 
CORPORATION 

1. Southern States Electric Company 

2. 1916 

4. W. E. Mitchell 

SPAULDING FIBRE CO., INC. 

1. Spaulding Brothers 

2. 1877 

3. Jonas Spaulding, Waldo Spaul- 
ding, Partners 

SPEER CARBON COMPANY 

1. Speer Carbon Company 

2. 1899 

3. John S. Speer 
Louis Streuber 
Andrew Kaul 

4. John S. Speer 

SPENCER THERMOSTAT COM- 
PANY 

1. Spencer Thermostat Company 

2. 1921 

3. John A. Spencer 
Laurence K. Marshall, et al. 

4. Richard S. Aldrich 

SPERO ELECTRIC CORPORATION, 
THE 

1. Spero Electric Manufacturing Co. 

2. 1918 

3. S. M. Spero, Vice-Pres. 

4. B. E. Spero 

SPRAGUE ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Sprague Specialties Company 

2. 1926 

3-4. Robert C. Sprague, Pres. 

SQUARE D COMPANY 

1. McBride Manufacturing Company 

2. 1903 

3-4. B. D. Horton 

STACKPOLE CARBON CO. 

1. Stackpole Battery Co. 

2. 1906 

3. H. C. Stackpole, Treas. 

4. James K. P. Hall 



STANDARD ELECTRIC TIME CO., 
THE 

1. The Standard Electric Time Co. 

2. 1884 

3-4. George L. Riggs, Pres. & Treas. 

STANDARD INSULATION COMPANY 

2. 1920 
3-4. Louvern G. Lange, Pres. 

STANDARD TRANSFORMER COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Standard Transformer Com- 
pany 

2. 1919 

3-4. W. F. Parker, Pres. 

STANLEY ELECTRIC TOOL DIVI- 
SION, THE STANLEY WORKS 

1. The Stanley Works 

2. 1843 

3-4. Frederick T. Stanley, Pres. 

STAR ELECTRIC MOTOR COM- 
PANY 

1. Star Fan and Motor Works 

2. 1910 

3. Carl M. Peterson, Emil E. Hol- 
lander, Partners 

STAR PORCELAIN CO., THE 

1. The Star Porcelain Co. 

2. 1899 

3-4. Herbert Sinclair, Pres. 

STATE WIRE AND CABLE CO. 

1. State Wire and Cable Co. 

2. 1942 

3. F. Michaelson, R. Rausch, M. 
Michaelson, Partners 

STERLING ELECTRIC MOTORS, 
INC. 

1. Sterling Electric Motors, Inc. 

2. 1927 

3-4. Carl E. Johnson, Pres. 

STEWART-WARNER CORPORATION 
1-2. Stewart-Warner Speedometer Cor- 

poration-1912 

Stewart & Clark Manufacturing 

Company-1905 

3. John K. Stewart, Pres. 
Thomas J. Clark, Sec. & Treas. 

4. John K. Stewart 

STIMPLE & WARD COMPANY 

1. Stimple & Ward Company 

2. 1898 

3-4. William S. Peters, Pres. 

STROMBERG-CARLSON CO. 

1. Stromberg-Carlson Telephone 
Mfg. Co. 

2. 1895 

3. Alfred Stromberg 
Androv Carlson 

4. Alfred Stromberg 



STUPAKOFF CERAMIC & MFG. 
COMPANY 

1. Stupakoff Laboratories 

2. 1897 

3-4. Simon H. Stupakoff, Pres. 

SUPERIOR PORCELAIN COMPANY 

1. The Anderson Porcelain Company 

2. 1898 

3. Geo. 0. Anderson, Sec.-Treas. 

4. T. F. Anderson 

SURGES ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Surges Electric Company 

2. 1927 

3. John A. Surges, Pres. 
Jerome Lynch, Sec.-Treas. 

4. John A. Surges 

SWARTZBAUGH MANUFACTUR- 
ING COMPANY, THE 

1. Peerless Cooker Company 

2. 1884 

3-4. C. E. Swartzbaugh, Pres. 

SYLVANIA ELECTRIC PRODUCTS, 

INC. 

1-2. Novelty Incandescent Lamp Co.- 

1904 

*Bay State Electric Co.-1901 

3. B. G. Erskine, Pres. 
*F. A. Poor, Pres. 

SYNTHANE CORPORATION 

1. Synthane Corporation 

2. 1928 

3-4. R. R. Titus, Pres. 

TAYLOR FIBRE COMPANY 

1. Diamond State Fibre Company 

2. 1891 

3-4. Edward Mendenhall Taylor 

TERRY, ANDREW, COMPANY, THE 

1. Andrew Terry & Co. 

2. 1847 

3. Andrew Terry 

TERRY STEAM TURBINE CO., THE 

1. The Terry Steam Turbine Co. 

2. 1906 

3-4. Edward C. Terry 

THERMOGRAY COMPANY 

1. Thermogray Company 

2. 1926 

3. Percy Gray, Owner & Mgr. 

THOMAS & BETTS CO., THE 

1. The Thomas and Betts Company 

2. 1898 

3. Robert McKean Thomas 
Hobart D. Betts 
Adnah McMurtrie 

4. Robert McKean Thomas, Sr. 



THOMAS, R., & SONS COMPANY, 
THE 

1. American Knobs Works 

2. 1873 

3. Richard Thomas, Owner 

TRIANGLE CONDUIT & CABLE 
CO., INC. 

1. Triangle Conduit Company 

2. 1916 

3. John E. McAuliffe, Treas. 

4. James R. Strong 

TRICO FUSE MFG. CO. 

1. Arrow Fuse Mfg. Co. 

2. 1917 

3. Oscar H. Jung, Treas. & Gen. Mgr. 

4. Herbert Vihlein 

TRIPLETT ELECTRICAL INSTRU- 
MENT CO., THE 

1. Triplett Meter Co. 

2. 1904 

3. R. L. Triplett, Gen. Mgr. 

4. N. W. Cunningham 

TRUMBULL ELECTRIC MFG. COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Trumbull Electric Company 

2. 1899 

3. John Trumbull, Treas. 
Henry Trumbull, Sec. 

4. Frank T. Wheeler 

UNION INSULATING COMPANY, 
INC. 

1. Union Insulating Company, Inc. 

2. 1920 

3. J. H. Parker, Pres. 
W. M. Parker, Treas. 

4. J. H. Parker 

UNION METAL MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY, THE 

1. The Union Metal Manufacturing 
Company 

2. 1906 

3. C. C. Barrick & his two sons 

4. C. C. Barrick 

UNITED ELECTRONICS COMPANY 

1. United Electronics Company 

2. 1934 

3-4. R. H. Amberg, Pres. 

U. S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS INC. 

1. United States Electrical Manufac- 
turing Company 

2. 1908 

3. Timothy Mahoney 

4. W. J. Sheriff 



UNITED STATES GRAPHITE 
COMPANY, THE 

1. The United States Graphite Com- 
pany 

2. 1891 

3. Harry T. Wickes, William J. 
Wickes, Samuel A. Lynde, Albert 
M. Marshall, Sanford Keeler, 
Thomas A. Harvey, Stockholders 

4. E .C. Ewen 

U. S. MANUFACTURING CORP. 

1. U. S. Wire Mat Co. 

2. 1887 

3-4. J. L. Bennett, Pres. 

UNITED STATES RUBBER COM- 
PANY 

1. United States Rubber Company 

2. 1892 

3-4. W. L. Trenholm, Pres. 

UNIVERSAL CLAY PRODUCTS COM- 
PANY, THE 

1. The Universal Clay Products Com- 
pany 

2. 1919 

3-4. J. H. Parker, Pres. 

UPTEGRAFF, R. E., MFG. CO. 

1. R. E. Uptegraff Mfg. Co. 

2. 1925 

3-4. R. E. Uptegraff, Pres. 

VICTOR ELECTRIC PRODUCTS, 
INC. 

1. Cincinnati Victor Company 

2. 1923 

3. Charles L. Harrison, Vice-Pres. 
C. L. Harrison, Jr., Treas. 

4. H. W. T. Collins 

VICTOR INSULATORS, INC. 

1. Victor Insulators, Inc. 

2. 1935 

4. Bentley A. Plimpton 

VICTOREEN INSTRUMENT CO., 
THE 

1. The Victoreen Instrument Co. 

2. 1930 

3-4. J. A. Victoreen, Pres. 

VULCAN ELECTRIC COMPANY 
1. Vulcan Electric Heater Company 

VULCAN IRON WORKS 

1. Vulcan Iron Works 

2. 1849 

3-4. E. H. Jones, Pres. 



WADSWORTH ELECTRIC MFG. 
CO., INC., THE 

1. The Wadsworth Electric Mfg. Co., 
Inc. 

2. 1918 

3. George B. Wadsworth 
Harry W. Percival 
Richard J. Dibowski 

4. George B. Wadsworth 

WAGNER ELECTRIC CORPORA- 
TION 

1. Wagner Electric Mfg. Company 

2. 1891 

3. Herbert A. Wagner 
Ferdinand C. Schwedtman 

4. Herbert A. Wagner 

WAKEFIELD, F. W., BRASS CO., THE 

1. F. W. Wakefield Company 

2. 1907 

3-4. F. W. Wakefield, Pres. 

WALKER BROTHERS 
L Walker Electrical Construction 
Co. 

2. 1897 

3. Henry H. Walker 

4. F. D. Walker 

WALKER ELECTRICAL COMPANY 

1. Walker Electrical Company 

2. 1939 

3-4. Ralph M. Walker, Pres. 

WARD LEONARD ELECTRIC CO. 

1. Carpenter Enamel Rheostat Co. 

2. 1892 

3-4. H. Ward Leonard, Pres. 

WARING PRODUCTS CORPORA- 
TION 

1. Waring Mixer Corporation 

2. 1937 

3-4. Fred M. Waring, Pres. 

WATCO ENGINEERING, INC. 

1. Watco Engineering, Inc. 

2. 1940 

3-4. Frank W. Watkins, Pres. 

WATLOW ELECTRIC MFG. CO. 

1. Watlow Electric Mfg. Co. 

2. 1922 

3-4. Louis Desloge, Pres. 

WEBSTER ELECTRIC COMPANY 

1. Webster Electric Company 

2. 1909 

3-4. Towner K. Webster, Pres. 

WELLS MANUFACTURING CO. 

1. Wells Morris Mfg. Co. 

2. 1916 

3-4. Arthur F. Wells 



WELTRONIC CO. 

1. Weltronic Corp. 

2. 1937 

3-4. C. J. Collom, Gen. Mgr. 

WESCHE ELECTRIC, B. A., CO., 
THE 

1. B. A. Wesche Electric Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. Bjarne A. Wesche, Sole Propr. 

WEST VIRGINIA ARMATURE CO., 
INC. 

1. West Virginia Armature Co. 

2. 1910 

3-4. W. A. Bishop, Pres. 

WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY, 
INCORPORATED 

1. Gray and Barton 

2. 1869 

3. Elisha Gray 
Enos M. Barton 

4. General Anson Stager 

WESTERN INSULATED WIRE INC. 

1. Western Insulated Wire Co. 

2. 1937 

3. E. H. Lewis, Exec. Vice-Pres. 

4. A. D. Nast, Jr. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COR- 
PORATION 

1. Westinghouse Electric Company 

2. 1886 

3-4. George Westinghouse, Pres. 

WESTON ELECTRICAL INSTRU- 
MENT CORPORATION 

1. Weston Electrical Instrument 
Company 

2. 1888 

3-4. Dr. Edward Weston, Pres. 

WHEELER INSULATED WIRE 
COMPANY, INC., THE 

1. The Wheeler Insulated Wire Com- 
pany 

2. 1925 

3-4. Nathaniel Wheeler, Pres. 

WHEELER REFLECTOR CO. 

1. Wheeler Reflector Co. 

2. 1881 

3-4. General Wheeler, Pres. 

WHITE-RODGERS ELECTRIC CO. 

1. White-Rodgers Electric Co. 

2. 1937 

4. L. F. Blough 

WHITNEY BLAKE COMPANY, THE 

1. Whitney Blake Company 

2. 1912 

3-4. T. Whitney Blake, Pres. 
WIEGAND, EDWIN L., COMPANY 

1. Edwin L. Wiegand Company 

2. 1915 

3-4. Edwin L. Wiegand, Chm. of Bd. 



WILL-WELD MANUFACTURING 
CO., INC. 

1. Will-Weld Manufacturing Co., 
Inc. 

2. 1934 

3. D. Q. Carroll, Pres. 

J. W. Mobley, Vice-Pres. 

L. 0. Schneiderwind, Gen. Mgr. 

C. M. Dempsey, Sec. 

C. A. Semik, Treas. 

4. Don Q. Carroll 

WILMINGTON FIBRE SPECIALTY 
COMPANY 

1. Wilmington Fibre Specialty Com- 
pany 

2. 1904 

3-4. John W. Morris, Pres. 

WILSON WELDER & METALS CO., 
INC. 

1. Wilson Welder & Metals Co., Inc. 

2. 1915 

4. S. A. Megeath 

WIREMOLD COMPANY, THE 

1. American Interior Conduit Com- 
pany 

2. 1900 

3. D. Hayes Murphy, Sec. & Treas. 

4. Daniel E. Murphy 

WIRT COMPANY 

1. Charles Wirt & Company 

2. About 1900 
3-4. Charles Wirt 

WOOD, JOHN, MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY, INC. 

1. John Wood Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Inc. 

2. 1867 

3-4. John Wood, Jr., Pres. 

WOODHEAD, DANIEL, COMPANY 

1. Daniel Woodhead Company 

2. 1922 

3-4. Daniel Woodhead, Pres. 

WORTHINGTON PUMP AND 
MACHINERY CORPORATION 

1. Worthington and Baker 

2. Henry R. Worthington-1840 
Worthington and Baker-1845 

3. Henry R. Worthington, Partner 

WURDACK, WM., ELECTRIC MFG. 
CO. 

1. Wm. Wurdack 

2. 1897 

3-4. Wm. Wurdack 

ZINSMEYER CO. 

1. Zinsmeyer Co. 

2. 1931 

3-4. E. Zinsmeyer 



INDEX 



Abbott, C. C., 1917 
Acheson, Edward Goodrich, 1896 
Adams, Edward D., 1890 
Adams, Dr. Isaac, 1869 
Adams, Joseph A., 1839 
Ader, Clement, 1879 
Aepinus, Francis, 1759 
Aerials, 1898 
Air-conditioning, 1925 
Air mail, 1923 
Airplanes, 1944 

altitude measurement, 1929, 1938 
Alexanderson, Ernest F. W., 1906, 1916, 

1919, 1920, 1928, 1929 
Allis-Chalmers Company, 1904, 1906 
Alnico, 1931 
Alternators, 1895, 1902, 1906, 1919, 1920, 

1937 

Aluminum, alloy of, 1884 
American Association of Electric Motor 

Manufacturers, 1908, 1910, 1926 
American Battery Company, 1892 
American Electric Co., 1880 
American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co., 

1898 

American Electrical Standards Commit- 
tee, 1919 

"American Electrician," 1896 
American Electrochemical Society, 1902 
American Ever Ready Co., 1898 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, 1884, 1887, 1891, 1899 
American Standards Association, 1919 
American Telephone & Telegraph Co., 

1899, 1900, 1915, 1923, 1924, 1929, 1940 
Ammeter, 1893 
Ampere, 1820 
Ampere, Professor Andre-Marie, 1820, 

1830, 1836 

"Ampere, The," 1883 
Amplifier, 1906, 1907 
Anderson, Dr. Carl David, 1938 
"Annals of Electricity," 1836 
Anode, 1833, 1875 
Antenna, 1916 

Appalachian Electric Power Co., 1937 
"Apparatus for Electrical Welding," 1886 
Appliances, electric, 1890, 1893, 1896, 

1906, 1919, 1926 
Arago, Dominique Francois Jean, 1820, 

1824 
Arc, electric, 1808, 1820, 1842, 1875, 1877, 

1878, 1880, 1881, 1883, 1884, 1900; 

flaming lamp, 1908, 1912; 

lights, 1885, 1893, 1895; 

luminous, 1900, 1902, 1911; 

mercury, 1910; 

mercury rectifier, 1902, 1924; 



mercury-vapor lamp, 1901, 1903; 

and metallic salts, 1898 ; 

welding, 1897, 1930 
Armatures, 1860, 1863, 1876, 1879, 1887, 

1902; 

shuttle-wound, 1857 
Armstrong, Edwin H., 1913, 1916, 1936 
Associated Manufacturers of Electrical 

Supplies, 1915, 1916, 1926 
Association of Edison Illuminating Com- 
panies, The, 1885 
Association of Iron and Steel Electrical 

Engineers, 1907 
Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, 

1907 

Atlantic Telegraph Company, 1856 
Atomic theories 400 B.C., 95 B.C., 1808, 

1917, 1943; 

periodic law of, 1869 
Attraction, principle of, 1269 
Automobile, 1891, 1892, 1909, 1910; 

electric, 1893, 1897, 1903 
Avogadro, Amedeo (Conte di Quaregma), 

1811 



B 



Babcock, C. D., 1908 

Babcock & Wilcox Co., 1867 

Bacon, Roger, 1269 

Baekeland, Leo Hendrick, 1909 

Bakelite, 1909 

Barlow, Peter, 1823 

Bartlane process, 1920 

Bartlett, C. H., 1931 

Barton, Enos M., 1869 

Baseball, night, 1883, 1927, 1935 

Battery, electric, 1779, 1800, 1821, 1836, 

1839, 1842, 1851, 1853, 1872; 

nonpolarizing, 1836; 

storage, 1859, 1880, 1891, 1896, 1908, 

1931; 

voltaic, 1873 

Becquerel, Alexander Edmond, 1839 
Becquerel, Professor Antoine Caesar, 

1825, 1834 

Becquerel, Antoine Henry, 1896 
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1871, 1875, 1876, 

1892 

Bell Company, 1877 
Bell System, 1900, 1918, 1919, 1921, 1923 

1924, 1925, 1930, 1935 
Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1924, 1925 
Bellows, Henry A., 1927 
Bell, electric, 1831, 1869, 1876; 

iron box bell, 1879 ; 

Lungen Bell, 1879 
Bennet, Abraham, 1787 
Bentley, Edward M., 1884 
Bentley-Knight System, 1887, 1888 



Bergmann & Co., 1889 

Berliner, Emile, 1876 

Biot, Jean Baptiste, 1820 

Block system, automatic electric, 1867 

Blondel, Andrew, 1898 

Blowouts, 1884 

Bohr, Niels, 1917 

Boilers, 
steam, 1867 

Bolton, Dr. Werner von, 1906, 1907 

Boston "Globe," 1877 

Bourseul, Charles, 1854 

Boulder Dam, 1935 

Bradley, 1896 

Brakes, 1880 

Branly, Edward, 1885 

Brequet, Louis, 1845 

Bremer, Hugo, 1898 

British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, 1873 

British Broadcasting Corp., 1922 

Brush, Charles Francis, 1876, 1877, 1878, 
1879, 1880, 1896 

Brush Electric Light and Power Com- 
pany, 1880, 1883, 1886 

Brushes, carbon, 1888 

Buck, Harold W., 1907 

Buffalo, New York, 1886 

Bugg, 1898 

Bullard, Admiral W. H. G., 1927 

Buna-S, insulation, 1944 

Bunsen, Professor Robert Wilhelm von, 
1842 

Burglar alarms, electric, 1869 

Burners, gas-lighting, 1883 

Busbars, 1893 



Cabeo, Nicolaus, 1629 
Cable, 1928, 1931; 

armored, 1899; 

coaxial for telephone, 1929, 1936, 1940, 

1941; 

conduit wiring, 1893, 1911, 1938; 

copper wire, 1877, 1882; 

gas-filled, 1885, 1938; 

"hollow-core," 1885; 

insulation of, 1884, 1885, 1935, 1944; 

sheathed, 1928; 

submarine, 1843, 1850, 1853, 1902, 1904, 

1920, 1921, 1924; 

supertension, 1932; 

type "H," 1916; 

telephone, 1901, 1906, 1914, 1925, 1939, 

1942 

Caldwell, Orestes H., 1927 
California Electric Light Co., 1879 
Camera, 

kinetographic, 1891 
Canadian Edison Manufacturing Co., 

1889 
C. & C. Electric Motor Co., 1886, 1887, 

1888 



Canton, John, 1753 

Capacitance, 1821 

Car dumpers, 1926 

Carlisle, Sir A., 1800 

Carnegie Steel Co., 1891 

Carpenter-Nervis Electro-Heating Co., 

1890 

Carpentier, Georges, 1921 
"Carriage Call," 1900 
Carriages, electric, 1840 
Cataract Construction Co., 1890 
Cathode, 1833; 

rays, 1878, 1906, 1913, 1927 
Cavendish, Henry, 1775 
Cedar Rapids Railway & Light Co., 1917 
Cells, 

Grove, 1851; 

Weston standard, 1893, 1910; 

"Weston" zinc cadmium, 1873; 

zinc mercury, 1873 
Cellulose, 1885 
C. G. S. (centimeter-gram-second), 1873, 

1900 

Chainmaker, electric, 1881 
Channing, William Francis, 1851, 1857 
Chapman, William H., 1904 
Charles A. Coffin Foundation, 1922 
Charleston Dry Dock and Machine Co., 

1930 
Chicago Electric & Manufacturing Co., 

1893 

Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co., 1902 
Circuits, 

electrical characteristics of, 1849; 

magnetic units, 1891; 

relay, 1936; 

superheterodyne, 1916 
Clark, Latimer, 1873 
Clarke, Edward M., 1835 
Claude, George S., 1915 
Clausius, Rudolph Julius Emmanuel, 

1845 
Cleveland Telegraph Supply Co., 1876, 

1880 

Clocks, electric, 1916 
Coats, George A., 1927 
Coherer, 1885 
Coils, magnetic, 1831 
Coleman, Clyde J., 1903 
Colt, Samuel, 1843 
Columbia Broadcasting System, 1927, 

1932 

Columbia Phonograph Company, 1925 
Columbian celebration, 1892 
Commissions, 

for electric light and power industry, 

1885; 

for radio, 1927, 1933; 

utility regulating, 1907 
Commutators, 1832, 1833 
Compass, 1000, 1558, 1824, 1826; 

radio, 1913 
Condensator, 1821 



Condensers, 1745, 1775, 1888; 

discharge, 1854; 

synchronous, 1928 
Conductors, 1729, 1733, 1759, 1820, 1821, 

1884, 1888, 1893, 1908; 

potential gradient of, 1879; 

safety, 1880 

Consolidated Edison Company, 1928, 1944 
Constantan, 1887 
Contactors, 1884 
Continental Paper Bag Co., 1904 
Converter, 

rotary, 1892; 

synchronous, 1897, 1900 
Cooke, William Fothergill, 1836, 1837, 

1838 

Cooking, electric, 1890 
Coolidge, Calvin, 1923 
Coolidge, Dr. William David, 1910, 1913, 

1927, 1930 

Cooper Hewitt Electric Company, 1910 
Cosmology, Atomistic, 95 B.C. 
Cottrell, Frederick Gardner, 1905 
Conlomb, international, 1785 
Cowles, Eugene, 1884, 1885 
Cowles, Alfred, 1884, 1885 
Cranes, electric, 1887 
Crocker, Francis Bacon, 1885, 1888, 1889 
Crocker- Wheeler Electric Motor Co., 1888 
Crookes, Sir William, 1878 
Crosley, Powell, Jr., 1922 
Cruickshank, William, 1801. 1839 
Currents, electric, 1779, 1799, 1800, 1820, 

1823, 1826, 1827, 1834, 1839, 1854, 1867, 

1872, 1874, 1875, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1883, 

1887, 1893, 1906, 1907, 1938; 
alternating, 1857, 1876, 1881, 1885, 1886, 

1888, 1891, 1892, 1902; 
direct, 1870,1900, 1902; 
displacement, 1861 ; 
eddy, 1855; 

chemical action of, 1799; 

Foucault, 1855; 

high-frequency, 1881; 

induced, law of, 1834; 

Joule, law of, 1841; 

measuring, 1825, 1840; 

sinusoidal, 1849 
Curie, Pierre, 1895, 1896 
"Curie Point," 1895 
Curtis, Augustus D., 1908 
Curtis, Charles Gordon, 1885, 1896, 1900 
Curtis, Crocker, Wheeler Co. (C. & C. 

Electric Motor Co.), 1886 
Cutler-Hammer, 1904, 1907 
Cutout, automatic, 1880 



Daft Electric Co., 1883 
Daft, Leo, 1883 
Dalton, John, 1808 
Dana, Dr. J. F., 1827 



Dantell, John Frederic, 1836 

Davenport, Thomas, 1837 

Davidson, Robert, 1840 

Davy, Sir Humphry, 1800, 1807, 1808, 

1820, 1821 

Dayton Power & Light Co., 1937 
Deaf, schools for, 1870 
De Benardos, Nicholas, 1887 
Declination, measuring of, 1834 
Decomposition, electrolytical, 1853 
De Coulomb, Charles Augustine, 1785 
De Forest, Dr. Lee, 1876, 1906, 1907, 1908 
De Jacobi, Professor Moritz-Hermann, 

1839 

De la Rive, Auguste Arthur, 1821 
De Laval, Gustaf, 1882, 1884, 1890, 1893, 

1896 

Delco Company, 1903 
"De Magnete, Magneticisque Corpori- 

bus," 1600 

Democritus, 400 B.C. 
De Moleyns, F., 1841 
Dempsey, Jack, 1921 
Dental machines, 1884 
Deprez, Marcel, 1881 
"De Reum Natura," 95 B.C. 
Detector, mercury-vapor, 1927 
Detroit Edison Co., 1914 
Dictaphones, 1889 

Diehl, Philip, 1878, 1884, 1886, 1887, 1893 
Diesel, Dr. Rudolph, 1897 
Diesel equipment, 1928, 1929, 1934 
Dillon, John F., 1927 
"Dissertation on the Capacity of a Con- 
ductor," 1778 
Distribution, 

polyphase, 1892; 

secondary, 1879 

Dolbear, Amos Emerson, 1877, 1881 
"Don Juan," 1926 

Don Lee Broadcasting System, 1934 
Door openers, electric, 1884 
DOR, radio station, 1927 
Drexel, Morgan & Co., 1882 
Drilling machine, electric, 1881 
Drills, electric, 1885 
Drums, 1889 
Duboscq, M. J., 1846 
Du Fay, Charles Frances de Cisternay, 

1733 

Dumb, schools for, 1870 
Dungeness Lighthouse, 1862 
Du Pont de Nemours & Co., E. T., 1931 
Dushman, Saul, 1915 
Dyar, Harrison G., 1827 
Dynamo machine, 1867 
Dynamos, 1831, 1832, 1855, 1872, 1876, 

1878, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1885, 1886, 1888; 

Edison bipolar, 1879; 

efficiency of, 1875; 

"jumbo," 1881, 1882; 

open-coil arc, 1877; 

Thomson-Ryan "901," 1894 



Edgar Thompson Works of the Carnegie 

Steel Co., 1891 
Edison Company for Isolated Lighting, 

1886 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company, 

1882 

Edison Electric Institute, 1933 
Edison Electric Light Company, 1878, 

1883, 1891 

Edison General Electric Co., 1889, 1892 
Edison Institute, 1832 
Edison Lamp Works, 1880, 1889 
Edison Light Co., 1889 
Edison Machine Works, 1880, 1886, 1889 
Edison Shafting Co., 1886 
Edison, Thomas Alva, 1874, 1875, 1877, 

1878, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1887, 1891, 1894, 

1896, 1908 

Edison Tube Co., 1886 
Edison United Manufacturing Co., 1889 
Education, 1870; 

electrical engineering, 1889; 

lighting installations, 1899 
Edwards and Company, 1883, 1884, 1900 
Eickemeyer, Rudolph, 1887, 1889, 1892 
"Electric Age," 1891 
Electric and magnetic potential, theory of, 

1811 

"Electric Industries," 1889, 1896 
Electric Power Club, 1910, 1916, 1926 
Electric Railway Company of the United 

States, 1883 

"Electrical Contracting," 1901 
"Electrical Engineer," 1884 
"Electrical Engineering," 1893 
Electrical Manufacturers Alliance, 1905, 

1926 
Electrical Manufacturers Club, 1905, 1916, 

1926 
Electrical Manufacturers Council, 1916, 

1926 

"Electrical Merchandising," 1916 
Electrical Research Products, Inc., 1926 
"Electrical Review," 1872, 1882 
"Electrical Worker," 1892 
"Electrical World," 1883 
"Electrician, The," 1882 
"Electrician and Electrical Engineer," 

1884 
Electricity, 1831, 1859, 1936; 

animal, 1786; 

contact, 1809; 

in cooking, 1877, 1906; 

and electrons, 1891; 

Etheric force, 1875; 

frictional, 1750, 1753, 1759; 

galvanic, 1771; 

Hertzian waves, 1875; 

mathematical theory of, 1834; 

measuring by, 1878; 

measuring of, 1820, 1823, 1825, 1858, 



1886, 1888, 1893; 

and medicine, 1913, 1923, 1929; 

negative, 1883; 

on ships, 1898, 1904, 1912, 1915, 1926; 

single-fluid, theory of, 1746; 

static, 600 B.C., 1726, 1753, 1785, 1800, 

1904; 

three-wire system, 1882, 1883; 

two-fluid, theory of, 1759; 

velocity of, 1833; 

vitreous, 1733; 

in war, 1898 
"Electricity," 1891 
Electrification, 1709, 1794, 1846, 1865, 

1878, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1887, 1889, 1925; 

electric light bulbs, 1865, 1879, 1880, 

1881, 1883, 1925; 

farm, 1940; 

by friction, 1821; 

of houses, 1859, 1886; 

by induction, 1650, 1821; 

mines, 1928; 

railroad, first example of, 1895; 

of towns, 1880, 1881, 1905 
Electrocardiograph, 1913, 1924 
Electrochemical, 

decomposition, principle of, 1805, 1833; 

laboratory, 1885 
Electrochemistry, 1902, 1906 
Electrocution, 1889, 1890 
Electrodeposition, 1902 
Electrodes, 1900 

Electrodynamics, molecular current sys- 
tem of, 1846 

Electrodynamometers, 1840, 1858, 1890 
Electrogilding, 1821 
Electroinduction, 1855 
Electrolier, 1893 
Electrolysis, 1800, 1807, 1833 
Electrolytes, 1833, 1845 
Electrolytics, 1902 

"Electromagnetic Instruments," 1840 
Electromagnetic waves, 1864, 1873, 1876, 

1893 
Electromagnets, 1821, 1825, 1827, 1829, 

1831, 1834, 1836, 1837, 1839, 1840, 1845, 

1867, 1873, 1887; 

brakes, 1883; 

engines, 1854; 

motors, 1880; 

and reciprocating motion, 1827; 

self-excited electromagnetic machines, 

1855; 

wheel, 1823 
Electrometers, 1753, 1767, 1772, 1775, 

1858 
Electromotive force, 1823, 1827, 1831, 

1851 
Electrons, 1891, 1923, 1924, 1937, 1939, 

1941, 1943, 1944 
Electronics, 1883, 1897, 1902 
"Electronics," 1930 
Electro-optics, 1873, 1875 
Electrophorus, 1775 



Electrostatic, 

attraction, law of, 1785 

Electroplating, 1800, 1834, 1872, 1876 

Electroscope, 1570, 1753, 1772, 1787, 1794 
effects, 1875; 
flux, 1861; 
tape, 1916; 
telephone, 1881 

Electrostatics, 1811 

Eectrothermics, 1902 

Electrotypes, 1839, 1846 

Elevators, electric, 1880, 1883, 1886, 1889, 
1891, 1892, 1899, 1931, 1933 

Emmet, William Leroy, 1900 

Engines, Diesel, 1897 

Ervin, Edward, 1927 

Escalator, 1900 

"Essay on Magnetic Attractions," 1823 

Etheric force, 1875, 1919 

"Expeditious Method of Conveying In- 
telligence, An," 1753 

Expositions, 
Berlin, 1879; 
Chicago Railway, 1883; 
Electrical Exhibition and National Con- 
ference of Electricians, Philadelphia, 
1884; 

Fifth International Electrical Congress 
(Paris), 1900; 

Fourth International Electrical Con- 
gress (Chicago), 1893; 
International Conference on Electrical 
Units (Berlin), 1905; 
International Exhibition in London, 
1872; 

International Railway Congress (East 
Pittsburgh), 1905; 

Minneapolis Industrial Exposition, 1890; 
National Electric Light Association, 
1910; 

New York Auto Show, 1897; 
Panama-Pacific, 1915; 
Paris, 1867, 1881; 
Paris Electrical Exposition, 1889; 
Philadelphia Centennial, 1876; 
St. Louis World's Fair, 1904; 
San Francisco's Golden Gate Interna- 
tional Exposition, 1939; 
Second International Electrical Con- 
gress (Paris), 1889; 
Seventh International Electrical Con- 
gress (Turin, Italy), 1911; 
Sixth International Electrical Congress 
(St. Louis), 1904; 
Vienna, 1873, 1883; 

World's Columbian Exposition (Chi- 
cago), 1892, 1893 

Eye, electric, 1887 



F 



Fabbroni, Giovanni Valentino Mattia, 
1799 



Fans, electric, 1882, 1887, 1893, 1904 

Farad, international, 1821 

Faraday, Michael, 1821, 1831, 1833, 1834, 

1837, 1845 
Farmer, Professor Moses Gerrish, 1853, 

1857, 1859, 1866, 1875 
Faure, Camille, 1880 
Federal Communications Commission, 

1934, 1939, 1940, 1941 
Federal Radio Commission, 1927, 1928 
Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey, 1902 
Fever machine, 1929, 1931 
Field, Cyrus W., 1856 
Field, Stephen Dudley, 1880 
Field, Stephen T., 1861 
Field intensity, 1900 
Fields, 

electric, 1860; 

magnetic, 1860 
Filaments, 1860, 1879, 1880, 1883, 1885, 

1897, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1910, 1911, 1913, 

1938; 

cellulose, 1893; 

"tamadine," 1885 
Finsen, Dr. Niels Rydberg, 1896 
Fire alarm system, 

electric, 1851, 1869, 1876; 

electromagnetic, 1857; 

telegraph, 1851 
Fireboats, 1907 

Fitzgerald, George Francis, 1880, 1883 
Flashlights, 1898 
Flatiron, 1896 

Fleming, Sir John Ambrose, 1883, 1904 
Floodlighting, 1885, 1907, 1917, 1918, 1823, 

1925, 1927, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1935 
Fluorescent, 

lamps, 1896, 1938 
Fog, beacons, 1931 
Fort Wayne Electric Co., 1885 
Fort Wayne Jenny Electric Light Com- 
pany, 1881 

Foster, Carey G., 1851 
Foucault, Jean Bernard Leon, 1846, 1855 
Franklin, Benjamin, 1746, 1752, 1759 
Frequencies, 1891, 1936 
Furnaces, 

"electric," 1896; 

electric arc, 1875; 

resistance, 1894 



Galvani, Luigi, 1771, 1786 
Galvanism, 1827, 1840 
Galvanometer, 1821, 1823, 1836; 

differential, 1825; 

mirror, 1858; 

sine, 1837, 1844; 

tangent, 1837, 1840, 1874; 

universal, 1873 
Galway, John, 1851 
Gamewell Co., 1851 



Gas, 1938; 

Freon, 1939 
Gas lighting equipment, electric, 1869, 

1883 

Gaulard, Lucien, 1881, 1885, 1887 
Gauss, international, 1834, 1900 
Gauss, Karl Friedrich, 1834, 1836, 1840, 

1851 

Gear, helical, 1890 
General Electric Company, 1878, 1889, 

1892, 1893, 1895, 1896, 1901, 1903, 1906, 

1907, 1908, 1910, 1919, 1922, 1928 
General Electric Research Laboratory, 

1900 
Generators, 1832, 1833, 1835, 1860, 1863, 

1870, 1871, 1873, 1875, 1876, 1879, 1880, 

1889, 1890, 1893, 1900, 1902, 1906, 1910, 

1915; 

alternating current, 1886, 1887, 1893, 

1916; 

constant-current series, 1879, 1880; 

direct current, 1912; 

four-pole, 1890; 

gas-engine, 1929; 

magnetoelectric, 1867; 

polyphase system of, 1892; 

self-exciting, 1866; 

self -regulating, 1881; 

single-light, 1877; 

single-shaft, 1928; 

turbine, 1896, 1899, 1905, 1935; 1937; 

waterwheel, 1912, 1935; 1942; 

winding, 1894 

Gibbs, John D., 1881, 1885, 1887 
Gilbert, Dr. William, 600 B.C., 1570, 1600, 

1729 

Gilliland, 1887 

Gimbel Brothers, Philadelphia, 1900 
Gintl, Wilhelm Julius, 1853 
Glass, 

fibers, 1931, 1935, 1936 
Golf course, electrified, 1924, 1925, 1930, 

1932 

Goodwin, W. N., Jr., 1931 
Gradient, potential, 1879 
Gramme, Zenobe Theophile, 1870, 1871, 

1873, 1876, 1878, 1886 
Gray & Barton Co., 1869 
Gray, Elisha, 1869, 1876, 1877, 1881, 1893 
Gray, Stephen, 1729, 1733 
"Great Eastern," 1865, 1866 
Great Western Power Co., 1908 
Green, Professor Jacob, 1827 
Grotthuss, Christian Johann Dietrich, 

1805 

Grout, Jonathan, Jr., 1800 
Grove, Sir William Robert, 1839, 1842 
Guericke, Otto von, 1650 
Gyro, 1932 



Hall, Edwin H., 1879 
Hall, Thomas S., 1867 



Halvorson, C.A.B., 1918 

Hanaman, Franz, 1907 

Hare, Robert, 1821 

Harding, Warren, 1920, 1921, 1923 

Hartford Electric Light Company, 1896, 

1901, 1923 

Hayes, President Rutherford B., 1880 
Hawksbee, Francis, 1709 
Heat, 1854 

Heat radiation, measuring, 1878 
Heating, 

electric, 1859, 1890, 1906; 

induction, 1884 
Heaviside, Sir Oliver, 1884 
Helmholtz, Baron Hermann Ludwig 

Ferdinand von, 1829, 1847, 1863, 1872 
Henley, William, 1772 
Henry, J. C., 1884 
Henry, international, 1831 
Henry, Professor Joseph, 1829, 1831, 1842 
Hertz, Professor Heinrich Rudolph, 1887, 

1888, 1893 

Hertzian waves, 1887, 1897 
Hewitt, Peter Cooper, 1901, 1902, 1903 
Hewlett, Edward M., 1907 
"History of Electricity," 1767 
Hjorth, Soren, 1855, 1867 
Hochstadter, Martin, 1916 
Holland, 

incandescent lamps in, 1891 
Hoppen, 1860 
Hotplates, 1859, 1917 
House, Royal E., 1846 
Houston, Edwin J., 1879, 1880 
Hubert, 1898 
Hughes, David, 1855 
Hughes, George A., 1910 
Hunt, Robert, 1850 
Hydraulic plant, electric, 1896 
Hydrocarbon flashing process, 1885 
Hydroelectric, 

plant. 1882, 1895, 1917 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission, 1909 
Hydrogen, and cooling, 1928 
Hysteresis, 1891 



Iconoscope, 1924 

Illinois Steel Co., 1929 

Illuminating Engineering Society, 1906, 

1908, 1924 

Indicator, electrical, 1883 
Induction, 1888, 1891; 

coil, 1851; 

electromagnetic, 1831; 

electrostatic, 1753; 

heating, 1884; 

communication system between stations 

and trains, 1887; 

polyphase regulator, 1897 
Inductors, 1836 
Industry, commissions for regulating:, 

1885 



Installation, electrical, 1882, 1883, 1899, 

1914, 1924 
Insulation, 1759, 1860, 1885, 1893, 1930, 

1931, 1932, 1935, 1936, 1939, 1944; 

discovery of, 1729; 

for a magnetic coil, 1831; 

of wire, 1884, 1888, 1935 
Insulators, 

inductive capacity of, 1775; 

strain, 1907; 

suspension, 1907; 

testing of, 1898 
Insull, Samuel, 1879 

Intensity, magnetic, computation of, 1820 
International Conference on Electrical 

Units & Standards, 1908 
International Electrochemical Commis- 
sion, 1906 

International Technical Committee, 1910 
Inverse-square law, 1766, 1785 



Jablochkoff, Paul, 1876, 1878 
Jenkins, Charles Francis, 1923 
Jenny, Charles, 1881 
Jenny, James, 1881 
Joule, international, 1841, 1889 
Joule, James Prescott, 1841 
"Journal of Electricity," 1895 
"Journal of the Telegraph," 1867 
Judson, Arthur, 1927 
Just, Dr. Alexander, 1907 



KDKA, radio station, 1920 

Kelvin, Lord. See Sir William Thomson 

Kendall, Amos, 1846 

Kerr, John, 1875 

Kinescope, 1924 

Kinetoscope, 1891, 1894 

Kirchoff, Professor Gustav Robert, 1849 

Kleist, E. G. von, 1745 

Knight, Walter H., 1884 

Kolster, Frederick August, 1913 

Korn, Arthur, 1904 

Kuzel, Dr. Hanz, 1907 



Lamme, Benjamin G., 1889 

Lamps, 1872, 1880, 1881, 1886, 1893, 1906, 

1913; 

arc, 1800, 1846, 1869, 1877, 1878, 1879, 

1880, 1888, 1892, 1893, 1895, 1898, 1900, 
1902, 1903, 1908, 1912; 

for automobiles, 1937; 

electric light bulbs, 1865, 1879, 1880, 

1881, 1883, 1925, 1928; 
fluorescent, 1896, 1938; 
gas-discharge, 1891; 
graphite rod vacuum bulb, 1874; 
incandescent, 1820, 1841, 1859, 1860, 



1874, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 

1885, 1888, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1895, 1897, 

1905, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1931, 1933; 

mercury-vapor, 1891, 1901, 1903, 1933; 

single-arc, 1876; 

sodium, 1891; 

sodium-vapor, 1933; 

"stopper," 1892; 

tungsten-filament, 1907; 

vacuum, 1860, 1904 
Lane, Jonathan Homer, 1846 
Lane, Thomas, 1767 
Lane-Fox, St. George, 1878 
Langevin, Paul, 1924 
Lathes, 

watchmaker's, 1881; 

woodcutting, 1881 
Leland Stanford University, 1926 
Lenz, Henri Frederic Emile, 1834 
Leonard, H. Ward, 1889 
Lesage, George Louis, Jr., 1753 
Leyden jar, 1745, 1775, 1800 
Light, 1880, 1887; 

arc, 1869, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1881, 1885, 

1893; 

black, 1939; 

electromagnetic theory of, 1873; 

incandescent, 1859, 1881, 1882, 1883; 

polarized, 1845; 

reflection and refraction of, 1880; 

vibrations, 1867; 

waves, 1864 

Lighthouses, 1862, 1913 
Lighting, 1886, 1889, 1893, 1898, 1944; 

arc, 1877, 1880, 1883, 1911; 

colored, 1930; 

equipment, 1869; 

fixtures, 1893; 

incandescent, 1879, 1887; 

indirect, 1908; 

street, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1891, 

1905, 1911, 1912, 1915; 

theater, 1846, 1881; 

underwater, 1928 
Lightning, 1873, 1922, 1928, 1929, 1932, 

1936; 

nonarcing arrester, 1892; 

rods, 1752 

Lincoln, President Abraham, 1861 
Locator, sonic, 1931 
Locomotives, 1888; 

Diesel, 1928; 

electric, 1857, 1879, 1883, 1887, 1888, 

1892, 1905, 1911, 1925, 1938 
Lodestone, 95 B.C., 1268, 1558, 1600 
Lodge, Sir Oliver, 1894, 1898 
Lodyguine, Dr. M., 1872, 1874 
Loomis, Mahlon, 1872 
Lorenz, Ludwig V., 1867 
"Los Angeles," 1932 
Louisville Hydro Electric Co., 1928 
Lukens Valley Coal Company, 1887 
Liingen, Adam, 1884 
Lungen Bell, 1879 



M 



McDonald, T. B., 1892 
McDonald, Ronald T., 1881 
Machlett, Robert H., 1897 
Magnetic, 

drive, 1910; 

flux, 1900 

Magnetic Telegraph Company, 1846 
Magnetism, 1860, 1879, 1880, 1884, 1886, 

1887, 1888, 1890, 1891, 1895, 1900, 1910; 

and electric current, 1820, 1824, 1827, 

1831, 1861 

Magnetoelectricity, 1821, 1833, 1867 
Magnetometer, bifilar, 1834 
Magneto, 95 B.C., 1268, 1558, 1570, 1750, 

1759, 1811, 1820, 1826, 1827, 1832, 1867, 

1879, 1931; 

bar, 1835; 

lifting power of, 1831, 1907; 

and measuring electricity, 1820, 1834; 

permanent, 1888; 

polarity of, 1600 
Malignani, Arturo, 1895 
Man, Albon, 1875, 1896 
Manganin, 1887 
Manhattan Elevated, 1883 
Manners, J. Hartley, 1928 
Marconi Co., 1894, 1922 
Marconi, Guglielmo, 1875, 1876, 1894, 

1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1901 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of 

America, 1913, 1919 
Marks, Louis B., 1893 
Marks, Professor Lionel Simson, 1893 
Marsh, A. L., 1906 
Marsh, Francis, 1927 
Marsh, James, 1823 
Matter, atomic structure of, 400 B.C. 
Maxim, Sir Hiram Stevens, 1878, 1880, 

1881, 1896 

Maxwell, international, 1900 
Maxwell, James Clerk, 1856, 1860, 1861, 

1873, 1876 
"Memoirs on the Conversation of Force 

(Energy)," 1847 

Mendelejeff, Dmitri Ivanovich, 1869 
Metals, 1887; 

electric induction in, 1846 
Meters, electric, 1886, 1887, 1888; 

exposure, 1931; 

foot candle, 1931; 

photronic, 1931 
Meyer, Julius Lothar, 1869 
Michell, John, 1750 
Microanalyzer, 1943 
Microphone, 1876 

Microscope, 1924. 1939, 1941, 1943, 1944 
Microtasimeter, 1878 
Millikan, Robert Andrew, 1923 
Millivoltmeter, 1893 
Mills, steel rolling, 1891 
Mines, electrification of, 1887, 1891, 1928 



Misell, 1898 

Molecules, 1811 

Moore, D. McFarlan, 1904 

Morgan, J. Pierpont, 1878, 1890 

Morrison, Charles, 1753 

Morrison, William, 1891, 1892 

Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, 1836, 1840, 

1843, 1844, 1851 

Morton, Dr. William James, 1881 
Motion pictures, 1891, 1894, 1896, 1923, 

1927; 

recording, noiseless, 1931; 
Motors, 1833, 1834, 1885, 1886, 1900, 1932; 

alternating current, 1887, 1907; 

direct current, 1884; 

electric, 1821, 1831, 1837, 1850, 1851, 

1863, 1873, 1876, 1878, 1883, 1904, 1908, 

1911, 1935; 

electromagnetic, 1829, 1880; 

repulsion-induction, 1887; 

series, 1907; 

single-phase commutator, 1901, 1907; 

synchronous, 1916 
Multiplicator, 1821 
Multiplier, galvanic, 1837 
Mutual Broadcasting System, 1934 



N 



National Broadcasting Company, 1926 

National Bureau of Standards, 1901 

National Carbon Company, 1888, 1898 

National Electric Lamp Association, 1913 

National Electric Light Association, 1885, 
1933 

National Electric Code, 1893, 1899, 1907, 
1911, 1928 

National Electrical Contractors Associa- 
tion, 1901 

National Electrical Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation, 1926 

National Television Systems Committee, 
1940 

Navigation, 1000, 1932 

Neoprene, 1931 

Nernct, Professor Walthere, 1897 

Neutralizer, static, 1904 

"Neutrino," 1938 

Neutron, 1938 

New England Power Co.. 1928 

Newfoundland, 1857, 1865, 1901 

"New System of Alternating Current 
Motors and Transformers, A," 1888 

New York and Mississippi Valley Printing 
Telegraph Co., 1851, 1856 

New York Edison Co., 1896 

New York Electrical Society, The, 1881 

New York "Evening Post," 1903 

The New York "Herald," 1882 

New York Insulated Wire and Vulcanite 
Company. 1884 

New York Power & Light Co., 1933 

The New- York "Times," 1882 



New York "World," 1904 

Niagara Falls, 1881, 1889, 1890, 1893, 

1895, 1907, 1925 
Niagara Falls Power Co., 1907 
Nicholson, William, 1800 
Nickelplating, 1869, 1875 
Nipkow, Paul, 1884 
Nitrocellulose, 1885 



Oersted, Professor Hans Christian, 1820, 

1826 

Ohm, international, 1827 
Ohm, Professor Georg Simon, 1827, 1849 
Olszewski, Stanislas, 1887 
"On a Standard Voltaic Battery," 1873 
"On the Electricity Excited by the Mere 

Contact of Condensing Substances of 

Different Kinds," 1800 
"On the Law of Electric Induction in 

Metals," 1846 
"On the possibility of originating waves 

disturbances in the ether by means of 

electrical Forces," 1883 
"Operator, The," 1874, 1883 
Opthalmological Society, 1908 
Ore separator, 1880 

Oregon Railway and Navigation Com- 
pany, 1880 

O'Reilly, Samuel F., 1875 
Oscillators, 1888, 1893 
Otis Bros. & Co., 1889 
Otis Elevator Co., 1900 
Oxygen, 1766 



"Pacific Electric Monthly," 1886 
Pacinotti, Antonio, 1860, 1863, 1870 
Page, Professor Charles Grafton, 1837, 

1850, 1851, 1854, 1857 
Paget, 1898 
Panama Canal, 1914 
Panteleoni, Guido, 1887 
Park Bank, 1882 
Parsons, Honorable Charles A., 1884, 

1896, 1900 

Patents, 1800, 1837, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1866, 
1869, 1870, 1872, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 
1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 
1886, 1887, 1888, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896, 

1897, 1898, 1899, 1902, 1906, 1907, 1908, 
1909, 1915, 1917, 1925, 1928, 1931, 

Peltier, Jean Charles Athanase, 1834 
Peregrinus, Peter, 1268 
"Permalloy," 1923 
Phelps, George M., 1887 
Philadelphia Electric Co., 1935 
Phillips Holland Co., 1891 
Phonographs, 1889, 1925 
Photoelectric, 

cell, 1839, 1887; 

meter, 1931 



Photography, 1883, 1924, 1928, 1941, 1942; 

electrical transmission, 1904, 1920, 1924 
Phototubes, 1887, 1925 
"Physical Lines of Force," 1856 
Pipkin, Marvin, 1925, 1928 
Pius XI, 1904 
Pixii, Hippolyte, 1832 
Plante, Gaston, 1859 
Plastics, 1909, 1939, 1943; 

as insulation, 1888, 1930; 

"vinyl resin," 1930 

Poggendorff. Johann Christian, 1821 
Poisson, Simeon Denis, 1811 
Poldhu, Cornwall, 1901 
Polk, James K., 1844 
"Polyethylene," 1943 
Porta, John, 1558 

Postal Telegraph & Cable Co., 1886 
Postal Telegraph Company, 1881, 1886 
Pouillet, Professor Claude, 1837 
Power, 

electric, 1886, 1892, 1893, 1894; 

steam, 1867; 

water, 1883 

Pratt, Charles E., 1891 
Pratt, J. T., & Co., 1882 
Precipitator, 1905 
Preece, Sir William Henry, 1897 
Press, printing, 1881 
Priestley, Joseph, 1766, 1767, 1785 
Propagation, electric, velocity of, 1836 
Propellers, 1890 
Pullman Car Co., 1888 
Pumps, 1890; 

Dumont centrifugal, 1873; 

mercury vacuum, 1865 
Pupin, Michael Idvorsky, 1889, 1894, 1896, 

1899 
Pyrometers, 1900 



Q 



Quadrants, 1858, 1889 
"Queen's Messenger, The," 1928 
Queensboro Realty Co., 1922 



Radio, 1876, 1901, 1906, 1913, 1929; 

broadcasting, 1876, 1892, 1908, 1920, 

1921, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1936, 

1939, 1941; 

circuits, 1916; 

compass, 1913; 

frequency modulation, 1936, 1941; 

international, 1925; 

knife, surgery, 1923; 

patents, 1891; 

radiophoto, 1904, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1942; 

and rescues, 1901; 

sets, 1875, 1927; 

stations, 1920, 1922, 1926, 1927, 1928, 

1934; 

telegraphs, 1936; 



telephone, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921, 

1923, 1926, 1927, 1932, 1938, 1943; 
two-way, 1934; 

waves, 1929 

Radio Communications Co., 1922 
Radio Corporation of America, 1919, 1920, 

1924, 1926, 1927, 1931, 1935, 1939, 1941, 
1943 

Radio Manufacturers Association, 1940 
Radioactivity, 1896 
Radiography, 1944 
Radium, 1896 
Railroads, 1886, 1907; 

Ansonia, Derby, and Birmingham, 1888; 

Baltimore and Ohio, 1851, 1857, 1892; 

Boston & Maine Railroad Co., 1911; 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 

1934; 

electric, 1857, 1867, 1879, 1880, 1880- 

1882, 1883, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1890, 1892, 

1895, 1902, 1904, 1906, 1907, 1924, 1929; 

elevated 1883, 1900; 

Erie, 1851; 

Great Northern Railway, 1929; 

Indianapolis and Cincinnati Traction 

Co., 1904; 

Lackawanna and Wyoming Valley Rail- 
road Rapid Transit Co., 1903; 

Manhattan Elevated Railway, 1900; 

New Haven, 1895; 

New York and Harlem, 1867; 

New York, New Haven & Hartford, 

1905, 1906, 1907; 

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 1887; 

Union Pacific Railroad, 1938 

Woonsocket Electric Railway, 1887 
"Railroad Telegrapher," 1885 
Ranges, electric, 1910, 1917 
Recorders, 

syphon, 1853, 1858, 1867 
Recprdings, electric, 1925 
Rectifiers, 1915; 

mercury arc, 1883, 1902, 1924 
Refrigerators, 1925 
Regulators, 

constant-current, 1881; 

polyphase induction, 1897; 

Stillwell, 1889 
Reis, Philipp, 1861 
Relays, 1831 
Repulsion, principle of, 1269, 1629, 1650, 

1785, 1887 

"Researches of Light," 1850 
Resinous electricity, 1733 
Resistance, 1840, 1851, 1859, 1887; 

electric welding process, 1886, 1888 
Resistor, 1906 
Rheometer, 1823 
Rheostats, 1884 
Rice, Edwin Wilbur, Jr., 1880 
Ritchie, Rev. William, 1830, 1833, 1837 
Roe, George H., 1879 
Roentgen, Professor Wilhelm Konrad, 



1895 

Roget, Dr. Peter Mark, 1827 

Ronalds, Sir Francis, 1816 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 1904 

Rosing, Professor Boris, 1906 

Royle & Sons, John, 1888 

Rowland, Henry Augustus, 1876 

Ruber, as insulation, 1888, 1935 

Ruhmkorff, Henry David, 1844, 1851 

"Rules & Requirements for the Installa- 
tion of Electric Light & Power," 1893 

Ryan, Walter D'A., 1899, 1907, 1915, 1925 



St. Johns, Newfoundland, 1857, 1865, 1901 

Sarnoff, David, 1921, 1926 

Savart, Felix, 1820 

Saxton, Joseph, 1833 

Sawyer, William E., 1875, 1896 

Scanning, 1884 

Schilling, Baron Pawel Levowitsch, 1832, 

1834 
Schools, 

for deaf and dumb, 1870 
Schweigger, Professor Johann Salomo 

Christoph, 1823 

Seebeck, Dr. Thomas Johann, 1823 
Self-induction, principle of, 1834 
Self-starter, 1903 
"Sensations of Tone," 1863 
Sewing machines, electric, 1881, 1884, 

1886 

Shaft, flexible, 1884 
Shallenberger, Oliver B., 1887, 1888 
Shaver, electric, 1930 
Shaw, George Bernard, 1879 
Shawinigan Water & Power Co., 1904 
Shick Incorporated, 1930 
Ships, 

"Agamemnon," 1857; 

"America," 1922; 

"Brooklyn," 1898; 

"California," 1926; 

"Columbia," 1880; 

"Conte di Savpia," 1932; 

electric light installation aboard, 1880; 

"Graeme Stewart," 1907; 

gyro-stabilized, 1932; 

"Joseph Medill," 1907; 

"Jupiter," 1912; 

"Langley," 1912; 

"Leviathan," 1929; 

"Medora," 1901; 

"New Mexico," 1915; 

"Normandie," 1932; 

"Niagara," 1857; 

"Princess Clementine," 1901; 

rivetless, 1930; 

"Silverton," 1902 
Siemens, Sir Charles William, 1866 
Siemens, Dr. Werner, 1853, 1857, 1866, 

1867, 1873, 1879, 1880 



Signal boxes, electric, 1869 

"Signaling Through Space Without 

Wires," 1897 
Silicon, 1904, 1944 
Silver, alloy, 1887 
Simpson, George B., 1859 
Slawianoff, Nicholas, 1897 
Smith, J. J. C., 1884, 1885, 1887 
Smoke removal, 600 B.C. 
Society of Telegraph Engineers and Elec- 
tricians, 1881 
Solenoids, 1820, 1825 
Sommering, Samuel Thomas von, 1809 
Sounds, 1854; 

musical, 1837, 1871; 
recording of, 1925 
vowel, 1829, 1863 
Spanish- American War, 1898 
Spectrophotometer, 1928 
Speedometer, magnetic drag-type, 1885 
Sprague Electric Elevator Co., 1891 
Sprague Electric Railway and Motor 

Co., 1889 
Sprague, Frank Julian, 1882, 1883, 1886, 

1887-1888, 1891, 1892, 1896 
Sprengel, Hermann Johann Phillip, 1865 
Stage, lighting, 1846 
Standards, electrical, 1891, 1893, 1899, 
1901, 1904, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1919, 
1940 

Stanley, William, 1886, 1887, 1896 
Stations, railway, 1887 
Statue of Liberty, 1885, 1892 
Steam, 

boilers, 1867; 
engines, 1850 
Steinmetz, Charles Protens, 1884, 1889, 

1891, 1892, 1900, 1922 
Stillwell, 1889 
Stock tickers, electric, 1880 
Stoger, General Anson, 1869 
Stone, John Stone, 1902 
Stoney, Dr. G. Johnston, 1891 
"Street Railway Journal," 1884 
"Street Railway Review," 1891 
Street railways, electric, 1869 
Strite, Charles, 1919 
Strowger, Almon B., 1891 
Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange, 

1891, 1892 

Stubblefield, Nathan B., 1892, 1908 
Stupakoff, S. H., Sr., 1900 
Sturgeon, William, 1825, 1836 
Substations, 1914, 1946 
Subways, 

New York, 1900 
Sulphurets, metallic, 1825 
Sulzer, Johann Georg, 1767 
Surgery, and electricity, 1913 
Swan Electric Company, 1881 
Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson, 1860, 1879, 

1880, 1881, 1883 
Sweet's Restaurant, 1882 



Switches, 1893 
Sykes, Eugene O., 1927 
Symmer, Robert, 1759 
Synthetics, 1884, 1931 



Tantalum, 1906 

Tattoo machine, electric, 1875 

Telautograph, 1881, 1893 

Telegraph, 1753, 1800, 1809, 1816, 1820, 

1827, 1830, 1832, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 

1842, 1843, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1873, 1918; 

aerial, 1872; 

cable, 1850, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1865, 1866, 

1867; 

distance box, 1880; 

duplex system, 1853; 

dynamo quadruplex, 1880; 

electromagnetic, 1831, 1834; 

fire alarm, 1851; 

first commercial line in United States, 

1844; 

harmonic, 1871; 

instruments, 1869, 1876; 

"multiplex," 1853, 1912; 

printing, 1855; 

quadruplex system, 1874; 

radio, 1936; 

speed of transmission of, 1858 

systems of, 1846, 1851; 

transcontinental, 1861; 

visual, 1846; 

wireless, 1872, 1873, 1876, 1883, 1885, 

1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1902, 1904, 

1919, 1923 

"Telegraph Age," 1883, 1891 
Telephone, 1821, 1854, 1861, 1876, 1877, 

1880, 1884, 1886, 1892, 1906, 1914, 1915, 

1918, 1939, 1942; 

automatic exchange, 1891; 

coaxial cable, 1929, 1936, 1940; 

dial, panel-type, 1921; 

electric speaking, 1875; 

electrostatic, 1881; 

exchanges, 1879; 

long distance, 1901, 1921, 1925, 1927, 

1935; 

for news dispatching, 1877; 

radio, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1923, 

1926, 1927, 1932, 1938, 1943; 
repeater, 1899; 
ship-to-shore, 1922, 1929; 
switchboard, 1892; 
switching equipment, 1919; 
transmitter, 1876, 1879; 
transoceanic, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1932, 
1933, 1934, 1937; 

wirephotos, 1904, 1924 
"Telephone, The," 1896 
Television, 1873, 1884, 1906, 1923, 1924, 

1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1936, 
1937, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1944 



Temperature, differences in, 1826 
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co., 

1929 

Terrain clearance, indicator for, 1938 
Tesla, Nikola, 1887, 1888, 1896 
Textiles, 

from glass fibers, 1936 
Thales, 600 B.C. 
Therapy, electric light, 1896 
Thermodynamics, 1845 
Thermoelectric effect, 1823 
Thompson, J. J., 1884 
Thomson, Elihu, 1875, 1877, 1879, 1880, 

1881, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1889, 1893, 

1895, 1896, 1898 
Thomson - Houston Electric Company, 

1883, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1892; 

British, 1922 

Thomson, Sir Joseph John, 1897 
Thomson Research Foundation, 1922 
Thomson-Van Depoele Electric Mining 

Co., 1885 
Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin), 

1845, 1854, 1858, 1867, 1883, 1890 
Thomson Welding Co., 1888 
Titus Lucretius Carus, 95 B.C. 
Toaster, automatic, 1919, 1926 
Towboat, 1929 
Traffic signals, 1924 
Trains, railway, 1887; 

electrification of, 1887 
Transformers, 1831, 1879, 1886, 1887, 

1888, 1898, 1904, 1946 
Transmitters, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1898, 

1908; 

high voltage, 1885; 

"oilostatic," 1932; 

telephone, 1879 
"Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism, A," 

1840, 1873 
"Treatise 1750 of Artificial Magnets," 

1750 
Trolleys, electric, 1869, 1882, 1883, 1884, 

1887, 1888, 1890-1891,. 1895, 1902, 1910, 

1928 
Tubes, audion, 1908; 

cathode ray, 1927; 

"genotron," 1915; 

neon, 1915. 1923; 

pentode, 1927; 

radio, 1927; 

three-electrode, 1913; 

X-ray, 1897, 1913, 1944 
Tuning, electric, 1894, 1898, 1902 
Tunnels, electrified, 1911, 1929 
Turbine, 1928; 

mercury, 1923; 

steam, 1882, 1884, 1890, 1893, 1896, 1900, 

1903 



Ultraviolet, 
light, 1939; 
rays, 1910 



U 



Underwriters International Electrical As- 
sociation, 1893 

United Edison Co., 1889 

United Electric Light & Power Company, 
1928 

United Independent Broadcasters, Inc., 
1927 

United State Department of Commerce, 
1928 

United States Electric Lighting Co., 1891 

Upton, Francis R., 1879 

Uranium, 1896 

U. S. Steel Corp., 1906 

Utah Power Co., 1928 



Vacuums, 1820, 1881, 1895, 1897, 1915; 

lamps, 1874, 1879, 1897; 

mercury pumps, 1865; 

tubes, 1876, 1906, 1915, 1924 
Valentia, Ireland, 1857, 1865, 1873 
Valve, 

detector, 1904; 

oscillation, 1904 
Van Depoele, Charles T., 1869, 1885, 1887- 

1888, 1895 
Van Depoele Electric Manufacturing 

Company, 1869 

Van Musschenbroek, Pieter, 1745 
Varley, Cromwell F., 1866 
Varley, Samuel Alfred, 1866 
Victor Talking Machine Company, 1925 
Violet rays, 1896 

Virginian Railway Company, 1925 
Volt, international, 1775, 1893, 1926; 

standard measurement of, 1873, 1910 
Volta, Alessandro, 1775, 1778, 1779, 1794, 

1800 

"Volta Effect," 1775 
Voltaic, 

action, 1767, 1779, 1800; 

battery, 1873 

W 

W2XBS, television station, 1930 
W6XBE, radio station, 1939 
Waffle iron, automatic, 1929 
Wanamaker, John, 1878 
Ward Leonard Electric Co., 1896; 

system of control, 1891 
Washing machine, 1910, 1937 
Washington Monument, 1931 
Watkins, Francis, 1835 
Watson, Thomas A., 1876 
Watt, international, 1819, 1889 
Watt, James, 1819 
Wattmeters, 1858, 1889 
WEAF, radio station, 1922, 1923, 1926 
Weber, Professor Wilhelm Eduard, 1834, 

1836, 1840, 1846, 1851 
Weights, atomic, 1869 



Welding, 

arc, 1887, 1897, 1930; 

electric, 1886, 1887, 1888 
Western Electric Company, 1887, 1912, 

1915, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926 
Western Electric Manufacturing Co., 

1869 

Western Electric Sound System, 1926 
"Western Electrician," 1887 
Western Union Telegraph Company, 1851, 

1856, 1877, 1912, 1920 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 

Company, 1892, 1893, 1895, 1896, 1898, 

1904, 1905, 1920, 1924 
Westinghouse Electric Company, 1881, 

1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 

1892, 1893 

Westinghouse, George, 1885, 1887 
Weston, Dr. Edward, 1872, 1875, 1876, 

1877, 1878, 1885, 1887, 1888, 1890, 1893, 

1896 

Weston Electrical Instrument Co., 1888 
WGN, radio station, 1934 
WGY, radio station, 1928, 1929 
Wheatstone, Sir Charles, 1821, 1829, 1833, 

1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1845, 1866 
Wheeler, Cranville, 1730 
Wheeler, Dr. Schuyler Skaats, 1882, 1885, 

1887, 1888, 1904 

White, Major J. Andrew, 1921, 1927 
Whitney, Dr. Willis R., 1901 
Wiedemann, Gustav Heinrich, 1874 



Wilcox, John W., 1846 

Wilde, Dr. Henry, 1866 

Wilhelmina, Queen of The Netherlands, 

1927 

Williams, Charles, Jr., 1877 
Willis, Robert, 1829 
Windings, compound, 1866, 1879 
Wiring, 1893, 1907, 1911, 1928, 1940, 1944 
WIW, radio station, 1922 
WJZ, radio station, 1925, 1926 
WLW, radio station, 1934 
WNAC, radio station, 1923 
Wood, John, 1726 
WOR, radio station, 1934 
Worthington, George, 1882 
WXYZ, radio station, 1934 
Wyeth, Dr. George A., 1923 



X-rays, 1895, 1924, 1930, 1939; 
intensifying screen, 1896; 
secondary radiation, 1896; 
tubes, 1897, 1913, 1944 



Yankee Network, 1934 
Z 

"Zephyr," 1934 

Zworykin, Vladimir K., 1924, 1939