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From the collection of the
San Francisco, California
A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY
FROM 600 B.C.
NATIONAL ELECTRICAL MANUFACTURERS
155 EAST 44th STREET
NEW YORK 17, N. Y.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
Printed in U. S. A.
Excerpts from this book may be used without permission
JN presenting this Electrical Chronology, the National Elec-
trical Manufacturers Association, which has undertaken its
compilation, has exercised all possible care in obtaining the
data included. Basic sources of information have been search-
ed; where possible, those in a position to know have been con-
sulted; the works of others, who had a part in developments
referred to in this Chronology, and who are now deceased, have
There may be some discrepancies as to dates and data because
it has been impossible to obtain unchallenged record of the per-
son to whom should go the credit. In cases where there are
several claimants every effort has been made to list all of them.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association accepts
no responsibility as being a party to supporting the claims of
any person, persons or organizations who may disagree with
any of the dates, data or any other information forming a part
of the Chronology, and leaves it to the reader to decide for him-
self on those matters which may be controversial.
No compilation of this kind is ever entirely complete or final
and is always subject to revisions and additions. It should be
understood that the Chronology consists only of basic data from
which have stemmed many other electrical developments and
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association grate-
fully acknowledges the generous assistance and advice received
from its many member companies, and others, and the research
services of E. S. Lincoln, Consulting Engineer, in the prepara-
tion of this Chronology.
WHETHER Hoang-ti, the mythical founder of the Chinese
Empire, was, in 2634 B. C., the first to construct a magnetic
compass ; or whether such an apparatus was not invented until 1110
B.C. by Ki-tan, a Chinese minister of state ; or whether this inven-
tion must be placed at a later date it may, nevertheless, be ac-
cepted that to the Chinese belongs the honor of having made the
first application of magnetism to a practical purpose, as well as
having devised the first practical methods of inducing magnetism
in iron and steel. The word magnet comes from the fact that lode-
stones were first found near Magnesia, a city in Asia Minor. The
word lodestone, an abbreviation for "leading stone" comes from the
fact, probably discovered by sailors in the northern countries of
Europe, that this mineral would point to the north if suspended
like a compass.
Whether Thales of Miletus, one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece,
who lived in 600 B.C., was the first to observe the electrical effect
produced when amber is rubbed with a nonconducting substance,
or whether this knowledge is of an earlier date, the fact remains
that no practical consequences came from the discovery for more
than twenty centuries. It was not until after the systems of reason-
ing, which the Greek successors of Thales imposed for so many ages
upon the intellect of Europe, began to be displaced by habits of
thought that recognized nature herself as teacher and no longer
rested content with the mere dicta of authority that electricity
passed beyond the stage of metaphysical speculation and entered
that of physical investigation.
There is one exception to this statement, for physicians, the only
representatives of practical science in the days of Greece and Rome,
seem to have applied electricity to their uses. We read that Galen
and other physicians referred to the therapeutic value of the electric
shock from the torpedo fish, which was considered efficacious in the
cure of gout, inveterate pains in the head, and so forth. In this con-
nection it is noteworthy that Gilbert, a physician, was the founder
of modern electrical science, and that the discovery from which sub-
sequently that science took its greatest impetus, was that of a
physician, Galvani of Bologna.
To simplify the development and growth of electrical science
and the electrical manufacturing industry, the subject may be
divided into its seven basic principles. This is essential as all electrical
equipment, devices, and applications fall into one or more of these
groups. These basic principles are as follows :
In other words, devices operating by means of magnetism, such
as a generator, motor, transformer, induction furnace, and so on,
come under the magnetic principle. Under the heading of electric
heating would come such devices as welding, resistance furnaces,
heating appliances, thermostats, and many other devices including
the filament incandescent lamp where the light is a by-product of the
heat generated in the filament. The electrochemical principle would
include batteries, electroplating, metal refining, and so on. A list of
these principles and the types of electrical devices operating on them
appear in Table I.
OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF COMMON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
MAGNETIC ELECTROTHERMIC ELECTRONIC
Induction heating furnace
Magnets (of all types)
Magnetic circuit breakers
Telephone, wire systems
Telegraph, wire systems
Thermal circuit breakers
Radiant type furnaces
(hot wire types)
Production of chemicals
Copper oxide rectifiers
Fluorescent lamp lighting
by ionized gases
Mercury vapor lamps
Mercury arc rectifiers
Vacuum and gaseous tubes
Cathode ray tubes
Light sensitive tubes
In this chronology the dates of discovery of the above principles
are of interest. From those dates it is also interesting to note when
that discovery led to its actual use by mankind in the form of some
particular device such as a motor, lamp, toaster, or hundreds of
other things in common use today.
It should be realized, moreover, that other discoveries, and inven-
tions in other branches of science, such as chemistry and metallurgy,
were important factors in the development and success of the elec-
trical manufacturing industry. Thus, the perfection of insulating
materials, alloy steels, and other metals, modern plastics, and so
forth, all help to make better electrical equipment, motors, and gen-
erators. Here again the electrical manufacturing industry is directly
responsible for better metals, better chemicals, better and cheaper
construction by means of such methods as electric welding. In fact,
each and every branch of science and the industry that was founded
on it depends on the other branches of science as progress and per-
fection are reached for the benefit of all.
Each science is a tree with a main trunk representing the fun-
damentals and the branches and leaves the development and ap-
plication of these fundamentals. Each scientist and engineer has his
own tree to work with, but civilization is interested in the largest
tree of all made from the combination of principles taken from all
the trees of science. Therefore, as far as practicable, discoveries and
dates in other branches of science of importance to the development
of electrical devices will be given. This chronology may be considered
as a large picture puzzle with each piece representing some discovery
or invention and the date it was placed in the picture. The size and
shape of each part of the puzzle will be given as far as possible ac-
cording to its value as a whole in the picture up to the present writing.
No man who has seen the present picture will ever live to see it com-
pleted, since new pieces are being put in place and will continue to
appear as long as civilization exists. In the following pages will be
found a brief outline of an industry that has done more for mankind
than any other industry in existence, the backbone of them all.
Without electricity modern civilization could not exist.
A CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY
600 THALES (640-546 B.C.) , Greek physical philosopher of Mile-
B.C. tus, discovers that if amber is rubbed with a cloth it has the
power to attract light bodies such as feathers, leaves, straw,
and small bits of wood. This is the origin of static electricity,
so-called because the particles of electricity "created" on the
surface of the amber are static. Later Dr. William Gilbert (see
1570) coined the word "electricity" from the Greek word for
amber, "elektron." It was not until 2500 years later (1905)
that static electricity was put to any practical use in the
process of "smoke removal and dust prevention." (In 1904
a patent was taken out for a device to neutralize static
400 DEMOCRITUS (460-357 B.C.) , Greek philosopher, propounds
B.. the theory of atomic structure of matter, saying atoms are
in perpetual motion and are indivisible.
56 TITUS LUCRETIUS CARUS (98-55 B.C.) reiterates Demo-
B.C. critus' statements on atomic theory, writes a poem, "De Rerum
Natura," in which he explains and develops atomistic cos-
mology. He makes allusions to magnet iron filings in brass
basin with movable lodestone underneath: magnetic attrac-
tion and repulsion.
1000 THE COMPASS, possibly introduced from China, is used in
A.D. navigation by Europeans. The pointing of the compass needle
to north is attributed to the influence of the pole star.
1268 Letter of PETER PEREGRINUS ( ) of Picard gives
an acute study of the magnetic properties of lodestone.
1269 ROGER BACON (1214-1292), English scientist, writes his
famous treatises, with emphasis on experimental methods of
attraction and repulsion.
1558 JOHN PORTA (1540-1650) writes of "sympathetic needles"
magnetized by the same lodestone, mounted on separate dials
with letters around their margins. When one needle turns the
other moves to the same letter.
[The definitions with six-digit numbers appearing throughout this volume are taken from the
American Standard Definitions of Electrical Terms C42-1941.]
1570 DR. WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) of England, court phy-
sician to Queen Elizabeth, discovers that many substances
other than the already known amber and jet possess electrical
properties. He shows that "a lodestone attracts only magnetic
bodies, electrics attract everything." He makes a distinction
between electric and magnetic bodies in that while all magnetic
bodies come together by their joint forces, electric bodies
attract the electric only. Gilbert found that the attractive
power of the former is influenced by moisture and heat, thus
leading to the invention of the first electrical instrument, a
crude form of electroscope. From the term "electric" thus
used by Gilbert, the word "electricity" and its derivatives
1600 Dr. Gilbert (see 1570) publishes his "De Magnete, Magneticis-
que Corporibus" ; Gilbert conceives that the earth itself pos-
sesses the properties of a magnet. He demonstrated that the
attractive powers of a magnet can be affected only by a screen
of magnetic metal. In the case of electrics, any body, such as
paper or cloth, will hinder its action. He established that the
attraction of an electric was directed from the center, that
of a magnet proceeded from the poles, emphasizing that an
electrified body does not possess polarity. He discovered that
if a magnet is separated into parts, each part becomes a
magnet; upon reassembling, their forces are joined with a
common polarity. He observed that iron, if hammered when
in the magnetic meridian, becomes a magnet and assumes a
polarity "from the direction in which it lies while being ham-
mered, stretched, or pulled," or, "according to its position dur-
ing heating and cooling." The principle of the "keeper" of
magnets was observed when Gilbert found that a lodestone
kept in iron filings lasts longer.
1629 NICOLAUS CABEO (1585-1650) presents a theory of re-
pulsion of similarly electrified bodies.
1650 OTTO VON GUERICKE (1602-1686), German physicist,
makes the first electrical machine consisting of a sulphur
ball turned by a crank on an axis and excited by the friction
of the hand. This crude apparatus was the means by which
the first electric light was produced, or first recognized. By
its means he established definitely the principle of electrical
repulsion. The principle of electrification by induction was
observed but not established. Von Guericke's name is most
closely associated with the discovery of producing light from
electricity. Upon drawing a piece of amber swiftly through a
woolen cloth and exerting pressure on it with his hand, crack-
lings were heard and everyone of these produced a little flash
of light ; drawing the amber gently through the cloth produced
only light, no sound, but by holding his finger at a little dis-
tance from the amber, a large crackling was produced with
a larger flash of light succeeding it.
1709 FRANCIS HAWKSBEE ( ), an Englishman,
constructs an electrical machine. This machine consisted of
a hollow glass sphere which was evacuated and rotated by
means of a crank and belt arrangement. Hawksbee noticed
that if he rotated the sphere at the desired speed and placed
his hand on the surface of the revolving globe, the glass globe
became filled with a light sufficient to read by.
1726 JOHN WOOD ( ), an Englishman, discovers that
static electricity can be conveyed by pieces of metal.
1729 STEPHEN GRAY (1696-1736), English electrician, evolves
the conception of conductors and nonconductors of electricity,
which led to the discovery of electrical insulation, and sup-
plants Dr. Gilbert's classification of "electrics and non-
1730 GRANVILLE WHEELER ( ) and Stephen Gray
(see 1729) in England, send electricity through 886 feet of
1733 CHARLES FRANCIS DE CISTERNAY DU FAY (1698-1739) ,
of Paris, discovers there are only "two kinds" of electric-
ity vitreous (positive) and resinous (negative) ; announces
the fundamental law of electricity that "like charges repel and
unlike attract." Du Fay, continuing along the lines of Gray's
experiments (see 1729) discovered that all bodies, solid and
liquid, could be electrified, by first placing them on glass
stands. This contradicted the former classification of electrics
and nonelectrics. He found that moisture assisted the passage
of current in pack thread, and that substances most easily
electrified by friction were the worst conductors, and "vice-
versa." The terms "conductors" and "nonconductors" were
1745 E. G. VON KLEIST (died 1748) and PIETER VAN MUSS-
CHENBROEK (1692-1761) independently discover the prin-
ciple of the Ley den jar a jar in which charges of static
electricity can be built up and stored. Von Kleist's discovery
was brought about when he placed a liquid in a glass vial and
electrified the glass. Holding the vial in one hand, he touched
the liquid with the other hand and experienced a shock.
1746 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-1790), American statesman
and philosopher, advances the single-fluid theory of electricity
and proposes the plus and minus designations (+and ) .
1750 JOHN MICHELL (1729-1793), English philosopher and
geologist, writes his "Treatise of Artificial Magnets," which
contains the inverse-square law of force between poles.
1752 Benjamin Franklin (see 1746) and many others conduct
experiments on discharge from pointed rods during thunder-
storms. In his famous kite experiment, Franklin identifies
atmospheric with frictional electricity, i.e., he proves that
electricity in the clouds and static electricity produced by a
hand-cranked machine are the same. As early as 1749, Franklin
is credited with inventing the first lightning rod. According
to Franklin's celebrated theory of the lightning rod, a pointed
rod gradually draws off the electricity in the atmosphere, thus
dissipating a charge before it becomes formidable. As a
lightning discharge is now considered to be due to the breaking
down of the air between the object struck and a charged cloud
through the existence of an enormous dielectric stress, this
theory is no longer tenable.
1753 GEORGE LOUIS LESAGE, JR. (1724-1803), Swiss philo-
sopher, carries out in Geneva the idea of using a separate wire
for each letter of the alphabet, and by attaching a pith-ball
electroscope to each wire, he made the first electric telegraph
1753 The first practical suggestion of telegraphy is made by a
Scotchman who signs his proposals "C.M." A letter signed by
'C.M." is published in "Scotts Magazine" entitled "An Expedi-
tious Method of Conveying Intelligence," and refers to a
method of transmitting messages by frictional electricity. It
suggested the use of a separate wire for each letter of the
alphabet. Later "C.M." is identified as CHARLES MORRISON.
1753 JOHN CANTON (1718-1772), English physicist, directs at-
tention to and elucidates the phenomenon of electrostatic in-
duction. He also invents an electroscope and electrometer.
1759 FRANCIS AEPINUS (1728-1802), a German scholar, en-
larges upon Franklin's theory (see 1746) . He states that "the
particles of the electric fluid repel each other and attract and
are attracted by the particles of all bodies with a force that
decreases in proportion as the distance increases ; the electric
fluid exists in the pores of bodies; it moves unobstructedly
through non-electric (conductors), but moves with difficulty
in insulators ; the manifestations of electricity are due to the
unequal distribution of the fluid in a body, or to the approach
of bodies unequally charged with the fluid." Aepinus is credited
with being the first to realize the reciprocal relationship of
electricity and magnetism.
1759 ROBERT SYMMER (died 1763) advances the two-fluid theory
1766 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804), English philosopher and
chemist, discoverer of oxygen, infers the inverse-square law
for the force between charges.
1767 JOHANN GEORG SULZER (1720-1779) of the Academic
Royale des Sciences et Belleslettres de Berlin discovers that
by placing two metals, one of silver and one of lead, on his
tongue he can taste what is later known as voltaic action.
1767 THOMAS LANE (1734-1807) devises his discharging- jar
1767 Priestley (see 1766) publishes his "History of Electricity".
1771 LUIGI GALVANI (1737-1798), Italian physiologist, "father
of galvanic electricity," discovers that legs severed from a
newly killed frog contract when touched at different points by
two pieces of dissimilar metals that also touch one another.
Authorities disagree as to the dates of this discovery, one gives
1780, another 1771, and a third 1790.
1772 WILLIAM HENLEY (died about 1779), English electrician,
devises his electroscope, a crude form of electrometer.
1775 ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745-1827), professor of natural
history at the University of Pavia, Italy, invents the electro-
phorus. Later, the volt, the unit of electrical pressure, is named
for him. He invented the first absolute electrometer and in
connection with the condenser, he produced a plate form as a
substitute for the Leyden jars (condenser). The international
"volt" is the voltage that will produce a current of one inter-
national ampere through a resistance of one international ohm
(Amer. Std. Def . 05.35.185) . The "Volta Effect," or the contact
potential, states that "when two dissimilar uncharged metals
are placed in contact with each other, one becomes positively
charged and the other negatively charged, and a difference of
potential, depending on the nature of the metals, is set up
between them" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.40.045).
1775 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) discovers the inductive
capacity of dielectrics (insulators) and measures the specific
inductive capacity for beeswax and other substances by com-
parison with an air condenser.
1778 Volta (see 1775) publishes his "Dissertation on the Capacity
of a Conductor".
1779 Volta (see 1775) announces his construction of the voltaic
pile, the first electric battery, which transforms chemical
energy into electrical energy (see also 1800) . Conversely, if an
electric current is passed through water between platinum
electrodes, oxygen is given off at one pole and hydrogen at the
1785 CHARLES AUGUSTINE DE COULOMB (1736-1806) , French
scientist, experimentally verifies the inverse-square law for
charges and for magnetic poles. Coulomb's memoirs tell of his
work with the torsion balance in verifying Priestley's law of
electrical repulsion. He demonstrated that the internal surface
of a conducting body cannot be charged with static electricity,
proving that electricity only distributes itself by virtue of its
own repulsion and showing that it can only be found in a state
of equilibrium on the surface. Later, the "coulomb" unit of
electrical quantity, is named in his honor and defined as fol-
lows : "The international "coulomb" is the quantity of electric-
ity which passes any section of an electric current in one
second, when the current in the circuit is one international
ampere" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.35.175).
"Coulomb's Law", or the law of electrostatic attraction, states
that "the force of attraction or repulsion between two charges
of electricity concentrated at two points in an isotropic medium
is proportional to the product of their magnitudes and is inver-
sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
The force between unlike charges is an attraction ; between like
charges a repulsion" (Am. Std. Def . 05.40.005) .
1786 Galvani (see 1771) makes further observations on muscular
contractions produced by electrical discharges in decapitated
frogs and advances his theory of "animal electricity."
1787 ABRAHAM RENNET (1750-1799), English electrician, in-
vents the gold-leaf electroscope.
1794 Volta (see 1775) demonstrates contact electrification by
means of his condensing electroscope.
1799 GIOVANNI VALENTINO MATTIA FABBRONI (1752-
1822), Italian naturalist, of Florence, Italy, notes the chemical
action of a current.
1800 WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1735-1815), English writer on
natural philosophy, and SIR A. CARLISLE (1768-1840),
English physiologist, build the first voltaic pile in England,
discover decomposition of a liquid by electrolysis.
1800 Volta (see 1775) gains recognition as the discoverer of the first
true battery (the Voltaic Pile) by publishing his paper "On the
Electricity Excited by the Mere Contact of Condensing Sub-
stances of Different Kinds." The discovery of Volta was that
in multiplying couples formed of disks of copper and zinc
soldered together in alternate relation, the couples being
separated by damp bodies, such as disks of cloth soaked in
saline or acid solution, and so placed that a zinc disk is always
between two copper disks and vice versa, then a tension is
produced between the terminal disks of the pile sufficient to
produce effects similar to those obtained from the Ley den jar,
which until then had been, with its static generator, the only
considerable source of electricity. To this invention, whose
greatest significance lies in the accompanying discovery of
current electricity, we owe the development of modern
electrical science and industry.
1800 JONATHAN GROUT, JR. ( ) takes out the first
telegraph patent in the United States on October 24.
1800 WILLIAM CRUICKSHANK (1745-1800) of England devises
a trough to eliminate the difficulty of maintaining moisture
in the spongy spaces of the voltaic pile. His researches lead
to the process of electroplating.
1800 SIR HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) , British scientist, notices
that a brilliant spark appears when he breaks contact between
two carbon rods connected to the two poles of a battery, and it
is announced in "Nicholson's Journal." He develops a crude arc
lamp (1808) which is not practical because he cannot main-
tain a continuous arc (no battery that could supply a con-
tinuous flow of current had been developed at this time) .
1805 CHRISTIAN JOHANN DIETRICH GROTTHUSS (1785-
1822) in Rome, advances his theory of electrochemical de-
1807 Sir Humphry Davy (see 1800) produces sodium and potassium
1808 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844), English chemist and physicist,
announces his atomic theory that atoms are particles of
matter, indestructible and incapable of further subdivision, a
supposition supplanted by the study of atomic structure.
1808 Sir Humphry Davy (see 1800) produces the first electric arc,
using a battery of 2,000 voltaic cells.
1809 SAMUEL THOMAS VON SOMMERING (1755-1830), Ger-
man anatomist, constructs a telegraph at Munich using a wire
for each letter and figure. His method employed voltaic or
contact electricity for the transmission of telegraph signals.
1811 SIMEON DENIS POISSON (1781-1840), French mathem-
atician, explains his theory of electric and magnetic potential,
publishes a paper on the mathematical theory of electrostatics
which forms the basis of the modern theory of that branch
1811 AMEDEO AVOGADRO, Conte di Quaregma (1776-1856),
Italian physicist, defines the smallest particle of a compound
as a molecule. Avogadro's Law : Under the same conditions of
temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain
the same number of smallest particles or molecules, whether
three particles consist of single atoms or are composed of two
or more atoms of the same or different kinds.
1816 SIR FRANCIS RONALDS (1788-1873) , English meteorologist
and electrician, operates a system by which disks at each end
of a wire revolve slowly in unison, so that a signal sent when
the desired letter appeared on one disk indicates the same
letter on the other disk.
1819 JAMES WATT (1736-1819), Scottish engineer and inventor,
famous for his improvements in steam engine design, dies. In
his honor the name "watt" is given to the unit of electric power.
The American Standards Association defines the "watt" as
follows : "The international watt is the power expended when
one international ampere flows between two points having a
potential difference of one international volt" (05.35.205) .
1820 PROFESSOR ANDRE-MARIE AMPERE (1775-1836),
French physicist, develops a terminology for electricity, pub-
lishes papers explaining the nature of the electric current and
its relation to magnetism, and develops his famous solenoid.
The principles laid down by Ampere and Oersted (see 1826)
established the science of measuring electricity by means of
magnets. In recognition of Ampere's pioneer work, the "am-
pere," the unit of electric current, is named in his honor. The
American Standards Association defines the "ampere" as fol-
lows: "The international 'ampere* is defined as the current
which will deposit silver at the rate of 0.00111800 gram per
1820 Ampere places small magnets at the ends of 26 wires to signal
the letters of the alphabet.
1820 DOMINIQUE FRANCOIS JEAN ARAGO (1786-1853),
French physicist, discovers that a magnet can be made by
placing an iron or steel bar in the center of one of Ampere's
solenoids when a current is passing through the solenoid.
1820 Sir Humphry Davy (see 1801) independently discovers the
magnetizing effect of the electric current on steel and iron.
He later described how the electric arc may be deflected by
1820 DE LA RUE ( ) makes a lamp with a coil of
platinum wire for a burner. This was enclosed in a piece of
glass tubing, the ends of which had brass caps. It was sup-
posed to have had a vacuum, but how this was accomplished
is not clear. This was the earliest record of any attempt to
make an incandescent lamp.
1820 JEAN BAPTISTE BIOT (1774-1862) and FELIX SAVART
(1791-1841) announce their law by which the force produced at
a given distance by a straight conductor of infinite length can
"Biot-Savart Law," or the magnetic intensity produced by an
electric current, is as follows (Am. Std. Def . 05.40.100) : "The
magnetic intensity at any point in the neighborhood of a cir-
cuit in which an electric current is flowing can be computed on
the assumption that every infinitesimal length of circuit
produces at the point an infinitesimal magnetic intensity and
the resulting magnetic intensity at the point is the vector sum
of the contributions of all the elements of the circuit." (Note:
This law is sometimes attributed to Biot-Savart, sometimes to
Ampere, but neither gave it in its differential form.)
1821 JOHANN CHRISTIAN POGGENDORFF (1796-1877), Ger-
man physicist, evolves a condensator or multiplicator a crude
form of galvanometer.
1821 AUGUSTE ARTHUR DE LA RIVE (1801-1873), Swiss
physicist, introduces another manifestation of electromagnetic
effects with his floating battery: two electrodes supported by
a cork so that they float in an electrolyte. He also discovers
the process of electrogilding.
1821 ROBERT HARE (1781-1858), professor of chemistry at the
University of Pennsylvania, designs a battery in which copper
and zinc plates are interleaved.
1821 SIR CHARLES WHEATSTONE (1802-1875), physicist of
Kings College, London, coins the word "telephone" after study-
ing methods for transmitting sound.
1821 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867), English chemist and
physicist, working with Sir Humphry Davy in London, dis-
covers magnetoelectricity, produces rotation of a wire carry-
ing a current around a pole (a crude electric motor) . Faraday
established the theory that when electrification is produced by
friction, by induction, or by any other means, the positive and
negative charges so produced are always equal. He also estab-
lished the fact that the charge on the outside of any closed
conductor is distributed in such a way that it produces no
electric field or electric force inside the closed conductor. The
unit of electrical capacitance, the "farad," is named in his
honor and defined as follows : "The international farad" is the
capacitance of a capacitor if a charge of one international
coulomb produces a potential difference between the terminals
of one international volt" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.35.195).
1823 PETER BARLOW (1776-1862) , mathematician and physicist
of Woolwich Academy, England, in his "Essay on Magnetic
Attractions," tells how he developed his electromagnetic wheel,
assisted by James Marsh.
1823 PROFESSOR JOHANN SALOMO CHRISTOPH SCHWEIG-
GER (1779-1857), physicist, of Halle, Germany, introduces
the first true galvanometer, which he calls a galvanic mul-
tiplier and sometimes a rheometer, to measure the amount of
current flowing in a circuit.
1823 DR. THOMAS JOHANN SEEBECK (1770-1831), Berlin
(or physicist, discovers thermal emf (electromotive force) ;
earlier) announces that in building up on a conducting circuit of two
different metals, a current will flow if heat is applied at the
junction of the metals. The "Seebeck Effect," or thermo-
electric effect, is defined as follows: "An electromotive force
results from a difference of temperature between two junc-
tions of dissimilar metals in the same circuit" (Am. Std. Def.
1824 Arago (see 1820) causes a compass to rotate by rotating a
copper disk near it. This is known as "Arago's Disk," and con-
sists of a horizontal nonmagnetic disk capable of being rotated
rapidly. Suspended above its center is a magnetic needle. Upon
revolving the disk, the needle takes up the rotating motion.
This is caused by the action on the needle of the induced current
set up in the disk by the magnetism of the needle.
1825 WILLIAM STURGEON (1783-1850), English physicist, con-
structs his electromagnet by leaving a bar of magnetic material
permanently in a solenoid.
1825 PROFESSOR ANTOINE CESAR BECQUEREL (1788-1878)
of Paris designs a differential galvanometer ; it has two coils
with a magnetic needle between them, and is used to measure
small difference in current. Becquerel received a medal for his
memoirs on electricity, particularly for those on the produc-
tion of metallic sulphurets and sulphur by the long continued
action of electricity of low tension.
1826 PROFESSOR HANS CHRISTIAN OERSTED (1777-1851) of
the University of Copenhagen discovers the deflection of a
compass by a current, and the fact that the magnet exerts a
force on the wire carrying the current.
1826 Becquerel (see 1825) finds that in a closed circuit containing
two dissimilar metals the amount of current that will flow
due to heat is determined by the difference in temperature
between the two points of contact of the metals.
1827 PROFESSOR GEORG SIMON OHM (1787-1854), German
physicist, announces the law (later called Ohm's law) that, in
a given circuit, the current in amperes is equal to the pressure
in volts divided by the resistance in ohms. The "ohm" is named
in his honor and is defined as "the resistance at zero degree
centigrade of a column of mercury of uniform cross-section,
having a length of 106.300 centimeters and a mass of 14.4521
grams" (Amer. Std. Def. 05.35.180).
"Ohm's Law" is defined as follows (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.025) :
"Ohm's law states that the current in an electric circuit is
directly proportional to the electromotive force in the circuit.
Ohm's law does not apply to all circuits. It is applicable to all
metallic circuits and to many circuits containing an electro-
lytic resistance. Ohm's law was first enunciated for a circuit
in which there is a constant electromotive force and an unvary-
ing current. It is applicable to varying currents if account is
taken of the induced electromotive force resulting from the
self inductance of the circuit and of the distribution of current
in the cross-section of the circuit."
1827 Probably the first commercial telegraph system in the United
States is constructed by HARRISON G. DYAR ( )
to send results from a race course at Long Island City, N. Y.
1827 PROFESSOR JACOB GREEN (1790-1841), Philadelphia
teacher and chemist, in his book on electromagnetism discusses
a vertical bar magnet, supported on needle points, developed
by DR. J. F. DANA (1793-1827), professor of chemistry at
New York University.
1827 DR. PETER MARK ROGET (1779-1869), English physician
to and savant, devises a form of electromagnetic action that
1831 produces a reciprocating motion, writes treatises on electricity,
galvanism, magnetism, and electromagnetism.
1829 ROBERT WILLIS (1800-1875), scientist of Cambridge, Eng-
land, studies vowel sounds, lays the foundation for Wheat-
stone's studies and the experiments of Helmholtz.
1829 PROFESSOR JOSEPH HENRY (1797-1878) teacher of
physics at the Albany Academy, Albany, New York, constructs
the first electromagnetic motor, an oscillating machine with
automatic pole changer.
1830 REV. WILLIAM RITCHIE (1790-1837) , professor of natural
philosophy at the Royal Institution of London, demonstrates
in his classroom Ampere's idea (see 1820) that by using a
separate wire to represent each letter of the alphabet, and by
placing a magnetic needle at the terminal of each circuit,
telegraphic messages can be transmitted.
1831 Joseph Henry (see 1829) discovers the emf (lectromotive
force) of self -inductance, invents the electric bell. Henry, noted
for his research in electromagnetism, has many electrical firsts
to his credit. He was the first to insulate iron for a magnetic
coil and the first to work out the differing functions of two
kinds of electromagnets, the one surrounded by numerous coils
of no great length, the other surrounded by a continuous coil
of very great length. Henry increased the lifting power of the
magnet from nine pounds to 3,500 pounds. Every electric
dynamo or motor now uses the electromagnet in virtually the
same form in which Henry left it. In 1830 and 1831 Henry
invented what appears to have been the first practical electro-
magnetic telegraph, and developed a relay for electric circuits.
In 1893 the International Congress of Electricians in Chicago
gave Henry's name to the unit of inductive resistance, defined
as follows : "The international 'henry' is the inductance which
produces an electromotive force of one international volt when
the current is changing at the rate of one international ampere
per second" (Amer. Std. Def . 05.35.190) .
1831 Faraday (see 1821) develops his disk dynamo, announces that
an electromotive force is set up in a conducting wire when it is
moved at right angles to a magnetic field. He and Joseph Henry
(see 1829) are credited with developing the first experimental
"Faraday's Law," or the law of electromagnetic induction, is
defined as: "The electromotive force induced in a circuit is
proportional to the time rate of change of the flux of magnetic
induction linked with the circuit. When the change in flux
linkages is caused by the motion, relative to a magnetic field,
of a conductor forming part of an electric circuit, the electro-
motive force induced in the circuit is proportional to the rate
at which the conductor cuts the flux of magnetic induction"
(Am. Std. Def. 05.40.010).
1831 The first transformer was made by Faraday during his ex-
periments on producing electricity by magnetism. The ap-
paratus used consisted of an iron ring wound with two coils
of bare wire, one about 72 feet and the other 60 feet long, the
turns being separated by twine and the layers separated by
calico. The longer coil was connected to a primary battery,
and a loop of the other passed over a magnetic needle. When
the battery circuit was made or broken, the needle was deflected
one way or the other by the induced current set up.
1832 HIPPOLYTE PIXII ( ) of Paris develops a com-
mutator for direct current generators. One of his dynamos
consists of a fixed horseshoe armature wound over with in-
sulated copper wire, in front of which revolves a horseshoe
magnet about a vertical axis. A replica of this generator is at
the Edison Institute in Dearborn, Michigan.
1832 BARON PAWEL LWOWITSCH SCHILLING ( )
of Cronstadt develops a telegraphic instrument using a sep-
arate wire to represent each letter of the alphabet. By placing
a magnetic needle at the terminal of each circuit, telegraphic
messages can be transmitted.
1833 JOSEPH SAXTON (1799-1873), American inventor, exhibits
his magnetoelectric machine before the British Association.
Saxton constructs the instrument by which Wheat stone (see
1821) measures the velocity of electricity in its passage
through a long wire.
1833 Ritchie (see 1830) is the first to use on a motor an arrange-
(or ment similar to the commutator of a generator.
1833 Faraday (see 1821) calls the process of decomposition by
electricity, "electrolysis." The wire carrying the current into
the solution is called the "anode," and the wire by which the
current leaves, the "cathode." The solution itself is called the
"electrolyte." He discovers the laws of electrochemical de-
composition: the amount decomposed by an electric current
is proportional to the current flowing and to the time during
which it flows; and when an electrolyte, or a series of elec-
trolytes, is decomposed by an electric current, the components
into which it is separated are always chemically equivalent.
1834 Faraday (see 1821) announces results of his study of self-
1834 PROFESSORS WILHELM EDUARD WEBER (1804-1891),
German physicist and KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1777-
1855), German physicist and mathematician, develop an
electromagnetic telegraph system based on the experiments
of Schilling (see 1832) . They used a single wire 9,000 feet long
and a magnet needle to communicate with each other in Got-
tingen. They demonstrated that combinations of only five signs
are sufficient for communication. They also designed instru-
ments for magnetic measurements, including the declination
instrument and the bifilar magnetometer ; Gauss is the founder
of the mathematical theory of electricity the unit of the
magnetic field has been called the "gauss" in his honor.
1834 Professor Atoine Becquerel (see 1825) observes the deposition
of metal on one of two electrodes introduced into solutions
of the salts of the various metals, and shortly after discovers
that metals could be evenly deposited out of a solution upon an
electrode by means of the electric current. This was the foun-
dation for the discovery of electroplating.
1834 The heating and cooling effect (the "Peltier Effect") of electric
current at a junction of two dissimilar metals in a circuit
carrying an electric current is discovered by JEAN CHARLES
ATHANASE PELTIER (1785-1845), French physicist. The
"Peltier Effect" is defined as follows: "When a current flows
across the junction of two dissimilar metals, it causes either
an absorption or liberation of heat, depending on the direction
of the current, at a rate proportional to the first power of the
current" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.050).
1834 HENRI FREDERIC EMILE LENZ (1804-1885), Russian
physicist, announces his law on the direction of an induced
current: "The current induced in a circuit as a result of its
motion in a magnetic field is in such a direction as to exert
a mechanical force opposing the motion" (Am. Std. Def.
1835 FRANCIS WATKINS ( ) of London, designs a motor
consisting of stationary coils facing a bar magnet mounted
on a shaft.
1835 EDWARD M. CLARKE ( ), English instrument
maker, exhibits his generator.
1836 SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE (1791-1872) makes his
first telegraph instrument from an old picture frame, exhibits
it in 1837 at the University of the City of New York.
1836 Weber and Gauss (see 1834) transmit telegraph signals by
means of an electromagnetic inductor instead of by a battery.
1836 WILLIAM FOTHERGILL COOKE (1806-1879) , English elec-
trician, designs a telegraph based on Schilling's experiments
1836 Wheatstone (see 1821) begins his studies of the velocity of
1836 William Sturgeon (see 1825) makes the first application of
Ampere's principle to a galvanometer, inaugurates the "An-
nals of Electricity" the first electrical journal.
1836 JOHN FREDERIC DANIELL (1790-1845), physicist and
professor of chemistry at Kings College, London, produces a
nonpolarizing battery consisting of an amalgamated zinc rod
in dilute sulphuric acid.
1837 PROFESSOR CLAUDE POUILLET (1791-1868) of Paris in-
troduces his sine galvanometer and proposes the first tangent
1837 Faraday (see 1821) discovers that the intervening medium
affects the force between charges.
1837 Professor Wheatstone (see 1821) becomes a partner of William
F. Cooke (see 1836) and both take out an English patent for
a commercial telegraph system. They were granted a United
States patent June 10, 1840, antedated June 12, 1837.
1837 PROFESSOR CHARLES GRAFTON PAGE (1812-1868),
physicist, of Salem, Massachusetts, invents a "galvanic multi-
plier" with a vertical revolving electromagnet, an electric
motor based on Ritchie's (see 1830) original design. He also
developed several other types of motors, one a modification
of Joseph Henry's (see 1829) electromagnetic machine. Page
also experimented with sound waves, discovered that musical
notes can be transmitted by electromagnetic means.
1837 THOMAS DAVENPORT (1802-1851), inventor, of Brandon,
Vermont, develops several types of electric motors for in-
dustrial work and is generally credited with being the first
to produce a commercially successful electric motor. His first
motor consisted of a stationary, vertical-horseshoe, perman-
ent magnet supporting a vertical shaft carrying a U-shaped
electromagnet with a metal commutator and a pulley. Later,
Davenport used an electromagnet instead of the permanent
magnet. This motor weighed 50 pounds, made 450 revolutions
per minute. Davenport received U. S. Patent No. 132, dated
February 25, 1837, on "Improvements in propelling machinery
by magnetism and electro-magnetism." The original machine
constructed by Davenport is on exhibition at the Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D. C.
1838 Wheatstone (see 1821) and Cooke (see 1836) install a thirteen
mile telegraph out of Paddington Railway Station, London,
using six wires with five needles at the end of the line pointing
to letters on a dial. Later, only a single needle was used.
1839 PROFESSOR MORITZ-HERMANN DE JACOBI (1801-1874)
of St. Petersburg, Russia, with a $2,500 grant from the Czar,
uses an electromagnetic machine to propel a boat, "a ten-oared
shallop furnished with paddle wheels." The boat carried as
many as twelve passengers for several days at a time, but
Jacobi apparently abandons his experiments because the cost
of the battery and other equipment made the use of motors
unsuitable for that kind of service.
1839 SIR WILLIAM ROBERT GROVE (1811-1896) , English scien-
tist, improves Cruickshank's trough (see 1800) and develops
his own battery.
1839 The first electrotypes are produced from a wood engraving by
JOSEPH A. ADAMS of New York City. They were published
the following year in "Mapes Magazine."
1839 ALEXANDER EDMOND BECQUEREL (1820-1891) , French
scientist, discovers that light affects the resistance value of
selenium. This gave the first photoelectric cell the means of
changing light into electrical currents.
1840 ROBERT DAVIDSON ( ) of Aberdeen, Scotland,
receives a grant from the Scottish Society of Arts for his
electrical experiments. He uses two electromagnets and a
square foot of zinc surface to operate a lathe capable of turn-
ing out small articles. To drive a carriage carrying two persons
he uses "galvanic power." When he receives the grant, David-
son equips a light carriage with eight electromagnets operating
upon bars of soft iron set into wooden cylinders attached to
the carriage axles. The electromagnets are attached to bat-
teries through commutators connected in the proper sequence
to produce a series of magnetic pulls upon the iron bars,
causing the carriage axles to rotate. The carriage attains a
speed of four miles an hour.
1840 Samuel F. B. Morse (see 1836) is granted Patent No. 1,647
for "Telegraph Signs." This telegraph makes possible instan-
taneous communication between distant corners of the land.
1840 Weber (see 1834), who collaborated with Gauss (see 1834) in
Gottingen, shows how an electric current can be measured in
absolute units by its action on the horizontal suspended
needle of a "tangent galvanometer," after the horizontal com-
ponent of the earth's local magnetic field in absolute measure-
ment has been determined. From this date until about 1890
precise measurements of electric currents were made either
with an electrodynamometer or with some modification of the
tangent galvanometer, so that a knowledge of the horizontal
intensity of the earth's local magnetic field was of some im-
portance. Electrical laboratories during this period ordinarily
did not use steel in their construction in order to avoid setting
up irregularities in the earth's local magnetic field. ("A Trea-
tise on Electricity & Magnetism," by J. Clerk Maxwell 1881,
Vol. II, ch.X, p.322, "Electromagnetic Instruments") .
1840 Wheatstone (see 1821) produces the first resistance box, or
instrument for inserting or withdrawing definite numbers of
resistance units in a circuit. His standard resistance unit was
one foot of copper wire weighing 100 grains (6.48 gm) .
1841 F. DE MOLEYNS ( ) was the first to obtain a
patent (British) for an incandescent lamp.
1841 JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE (1818-1889), English physicist,
formulates the Joule law of electric current : "When a current
of voltaic electricity is propagated along a metallic conductor,
the heat evolved in a given time is proportional to the re-
sistance of the conductor multiplied by the square of the
electrical intensity." The "joule," the unit of electrical energy
named in his honor is defined as "the energy required to trans-
fer one international coulomb between two points having a
potential difference of one international volt" (Amer. Std.
"Joule's Law," or the heating effect of a current, states that
"the rate at which heat is produced in an electric circuit of
constant resistance is proportional to the square of the cur-
rent" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.030).
1842 PROFESSOR ROBERT WILHELM VON BUNSEN (1811-
1899), University of Berlin chemist, modifies the Grove
battery (see 1839) to make it cheaper, substituting a carbon
rod for the platinum electrode. He uses a carbon-zinc cell to
produce an electric arc.
1842 Joseph Henry (see 1829) in a series of wireless experiments
at Princeton University uses as his aerial a grounded tele-
graph line stretched across the campus. He erects a second
line parallel to it several hundred feet distant, and when he
discharges a battery of Leyden jars into the aerial, an induc-
tion effect is produced in the second line.
1843 SAMUEL COLT (1814-1862), American inventor, lays the
first submarine cable, an insulated copper wire, in New York
harbor between the Battery and Governor's Island. On the
following day, while transmitting signals, the cable ceased to
work ; a vessel raising its anchor had caught it, destroying 200
feet of the cable.
1843 Congress appropriates $30,000 to construct a telegraph line
between Baltimore and Washington under the direction of
Morse (see 1836) .
1844 HENRY DANIEL RUHMKORFF (1803-1877) in Paris de-
signs a sine galvanometer.
1844 The first commercial telegraph line in the United States is
opened (May 24) between Washington and Baltimore (40
miles) . The first message, sent by Morse (see 1843) contains
the words, "What hath God wrought!"
1844 The first official paid message sent over the telegraph lines
between Washington, D. C. and Baltimore gives the news of
the nomination of James K. Polk for President of the United
1845 The first public telegraph to be used by the English public is
installed between London and Gosport.
1845 LOUIS BREGUET (1804-1883) of Paris develops a telegraph
system using a clock mechanism and two magnet needles oper-
ated by an electromagnet. Later he adopted and improved
Wheatstone's (see 1821) dial system.
1845 Michael Faraday (see 1821) discovers what is called the "Fara-
day Effect," relating to the magnetic rotation of polarized
light and defined as follows : "When a plane polarized beam of
light passes through certain transparent substances along the
lines of a strong magnetic field, the plane of polarization of the
emergent light is different from that of the incident light. On
looking from north to south along a line of magnetic intensity,
the rotation is clockwise" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.090).
1845- Establishment of thermodynamics is accomplished by RU-
1852 DOLPH JULIUS EMMANUEL CLAUSIUS (1822-1888),
German physicist, and LORD KELVIN (SIR WILLIAM
THOMSON) (1824-1907), professor of natural history at the
University of Glasgow. Clausius suggests that molecules in
electrolytes are continually interchanging atoms, the electric
force not causing but merely directing the change.
1846 M. J. DUBOSCQ ( ), who was a co-worker with
JEAN BERNARD L60N FOUCAULT of Paris, (1819-1868)
introduces the use of electric light for stage lighting. At the
Paris Opera a representation of the rising sun is produced by
means of an arc light placed at the focus of a parabolic reflector
and arranged to cast a beam of light on a silk screen. This
device, developed by Duboscq, was the first contribution to
the art of theater lighting.
1846 ROYAL E. HOUSE ( ) of Vermont, receives Patent
No. 4464 for the first practical printing telegraph system.
This printer recorded messages in Roman characters on tape.
It was not placed in operation until 1849.
1846 The first electrotype manufactured for commercial use is
started in Boston by JOHN W. WILCOX.
1846 Weber (see 1834) announces his hypothesis concerning the
molecular current system of electrodynamics.
1846 The Magnetic Telegraph Company is incorporated (January
14) under Maryland laws. Amos Kendall is president and
offices are in New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and
1846 JONATHAN HOMER LANE (1819-1880), American math-
ematician, inventor of a visual telegraph system, publishes his
"On the law of Electric Induction in Metals."
1846 The first telegraph line extending from New York City to
Washington, D. C. is installed.
1847 BARON HERMANN LUDWIG FERDINAND VON HELM-
HOLTZ (1821-1894), German physicist, publishes his "Mem-
oirs on the Conservation of Force (Energy) ." He is one of the
founders of the law of the conservation of energy.
1849 PROFESSOR GUSTAV ROBERT KIRCHOFF (1824-1887) in
a series of papers applies Ohm's Law (see 1827) to groups of
circuits, making possible the determination of the electrical
characteristics of circuit networks. These laws, known as
"Kirchoff* s Laws," are: "1. The algebraic sum of the currents
flowing toward any point in a network is zero. 2. The algebraic
sum of the products of the current and resistance in each of
the conductors in any closed path in a network is equal to the
algebraic sum of the electromotive forces in that path. These
laws apply to the 'instantaneous* values of currents and elec-
tromotive forces, but may be extended to the 'effective* values
of sinusoidal currents and electromotive forces by replacing
'algebraic sum' by 'vector sum* and by replacing 'resistance*
by 'impedance'" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.035).
1850 The first international telegraph cable is laid between Dover,
England, and Calais, France.
1850 Congress appropriates $20,000 to enable Professor Charles
Graf ton Page (see 1837) to continue his electric motor experi-
ments. He immediately constructs a large double-acting
reciprocating motor weighing several hundred pounds.
1850 ROBERT HUNT (1807-1888), English natural philosopher,
analyzes the relative cost of power obtained from a steam
engine and from a motor using a battery and finds that elec-
trical power "must be nearly 25 times more expensive than
steam power." He experiments on the action of light,
publishes "Researches of Light."
1851 Weber (see 1834) further shows how emf's and resistances
might be measured in absolute measure. He measures and
calibrates certain coils of wire deposited at the University of
Leipzig having resistances corresponding to what we should
now call 2.5, 5, and 10 ohms, respectively. The system of units
used by Gauss and Weber in their absolute measurements (see
1840) was the millimeter-milligram-second (mm.-mg.-s.) or
M.M.S. system in direct decimal relation with the international
metric system ("Inaugural Address," by Carey G. Foster,
Society of Telegraph Engineers, Vol. X, London, January,
1851 Henry Daniel Ruhmkorff (see 1844) constructs an induction
1851 Boston, Massachusetts, is the first city to adopt an electric fire
alarm system. In June, 1851, it votes $10,000 with which to
test the device. This installation is described in detail in an
illustrated article by Dr. Channing in the "American Journal
of Science and Arts," November 11, 1851. (A brief history of
the fire alarm telegraph systems was written by John Galway
and published in the "Municipal Signalling Journal," March,
1933. Mr. Galway's article was based on information in the
historical file of the Gamewell Co. of Newton Upper Falls,
Massachusetts, the Boston Fire Department records, the U. S.
Patent Office, and other sources.)
1851 The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Co.
1851 The first use of the Morse telegraph in train operation is on the
Erie Railroad and heralds the end of various primitive methods
of controlling trains in motion over the rails.
1853 DR. WERNER SIEMENS (1816-1892) of Berlin, invents a
recorder which is the predecessor of the modern siphon re-
corder used on ocean cables.
1853 Robert Wilhelm von Bunsen (see 1842) uses his carbon-zinc
battery to experiment with electrolytical decomposition.
1853 WILHELM JULIUS GINTL (1804-1883), Austrian telegra-
phist and inventor, proposes the first system to make simul-
taneous transmissions of telegraph signals in both directions
possible. This "duplex" system involved the use of an artificial
line with each real line. At the same time MOSES G. FARMER
(1820-1893) of Salem, Massachusetts, proposes dividing the
use of the line between two or more operators by means of
synchronous distributors the basis of modern "multiplex"
1854 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) (see 1845) discovers the
"Thomson Eifect": "When a current flows from a hotter to a
colder portion of a conductor, heat is liberated or absorbed
depending on the material of which the conductor is made.
A more general statement is : The heat liberated by a current
in a conductor in which there is a temperature gradient de-
pends on the direction of the current with respect to the
direction of the temperature gradient" (Am. Std. Def.
1854 Lord Kelvin (see 1845) announces his complete mathematical
treatment of condenser discharge.
1854 Charles Grafton Page (see 1837) receives Patent No. 10,480
on his design for an electromagnetic engine.
1854 CHARLES BOURSEUL (1829-1912) of Paris predicts that
speech may be transmitted by electricity.
1855 Jean Bernard Leon Foucault (see 1846) discovers the "Fou-
cault Currents," or eddy currents, as they are sometimes
called. These currents are electric currents that occur in ma-
terial subject to electro-induction. To eliminate such heating
due to these currents, material is made into laminated sections.
"Eddy currents are those currents which are inducted in the
body of a conducting mass by a variation of magnetic flux.
Note : The variation of magnetic flux may be the result of a
varying magnetic field or of a relative motion of the mass
with respect to the magnetic field" ( Amer. Std. Def . 05.40.120) .
1855 DAVID HUGHES (1831-1900) invents a printing telegraph.
The first line was installed between Worcester and Springfield,
Massachusetts, in 1856.
1855 SOREN HJORTH ( ) patents a dynamo having
both permanent and electromagnetic field poles. This may be
said to be the first "self-excited electromagnetic machine."
1856 The New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Co.
(see 1851) becomes the Western Union Telegraph Company.
1856 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879) , Scottish physicist,
a professor at Cambridge, publishes the first findings of his
research in electricity and magnetism, "Physical Lines of
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph Company is organized to establish
telegraphic communication between England and the United
States. The capitalization is 350,000 pounds, less than ten per
cent of which is held in the United States. CYRUS W. FIELD
(1819-1892) of New York is engaged in this enterprise.
1857 WERNER SIEMENS (see 1853) designs a shuttle-wound
armature that produces an alternating current.
1857 WILLIAM FRANCIS CHANNING ( ) of Boston
and Professor Moses Gerrish Farmer (see 1853) are granted
Patent No. 17,355 for an "electromagnetic fire alarm," May 19.
1857 The first locomotive using electric power makes a trial trip
(April 29) over the Washington and Baltimore branch of the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It is the invention of Professor
Charles G. Page (see 1837).
1857 The first cable across the Atlantic Ocean is laid by the Ameri-
can frigate "Niagara" and the British warship "Agamemnon,"
but after most of the distance between Valentia, Ireland, and
St. Johns, Newfoundland, has been covered, the cable breaks
250 miles from Valentia and the attempt is abandoned.
1858 Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) (see 1845) patents his
mirror galvanometer, which is used until 1870 to receive
transatlantic messages. Then it is replaced by his siphon re-
corder. Submarine telegraphy is entirely Lord Kelvin's work
and he is a consultant in many submarine cable installations.
In 1855 his theory of the speed of transmission of signals
through submarine cables was presented to the Royal Society.
He designed other electrical instruments, such as the quadrant
and absolute electrometer, industrial electrometers, electro-
dynamometers, and continuous and alternating current
1858 The second attempt in June to lay a transatlantic cable fails
after a series of cable breaks on the two ships carrying the
line, the British battleship "Agamemnon" and the United
States frigate "Niagara," each of which is carrying half the
total length of cable. But a third attempt (in July-August) is
made and completed August 5. The first transatlantic tele-
graph messages are sent in both directions that same day;
several hundred other messages are sent, but the faulty cable
insulation fails and the service is suspended September 1.
1859 GASTON PLANTE (1834-1889), French physicist of Paris,
designs a storage battery using lead plates immersed in diluted
1859 Professor Moses Gerrish Farmer (see 1853) of the Naval
Training Station at Newport, Rhode Island, begins his studies
of the incandescent light. Farmer is probably the first person
to use electric light to illuminate a house ; he arranges a series
of lamps in his parlor, the current for which is supplied by a
wet cell battery. He also invents an incandescent lamp which
consists of a strip of sheet platinum operating in air.
1859 GEORGE B. SIMPSON ( ) of Washington, D. C., is
granted Patent No. 25,532, September 20, for the first electric
hotplate suggesting a coil of platinum wire for the heating
element. Only batteries were available at this time and they
were not a practical source of electricity. This date may be
considered as the beginning of electrical heating principle
using resistance wires.
1860 ANTONIO PACINOTTI (1841-1912), Italian scientist, is the
first to use an iron ring with slots to receive the armature con-
ductors for the magnetic circuit of the armature. He made
several other important improvements on generators.
1860 SIR JOSEPH WILSON SWAN (1828-1914), English electri-
cian, begins his studies of the incandescent lamp, uses a
U-shaped strip of carbonized paper as a filament for a vacuum
1860 Maxwell (see 1856) formulates two general laws: 1. every
change in an electric field produces a magnetic field in the
same place ; 2. every change in a magnetic field produces an
1860 HOPPEN ( ), an Englishman, originates vulcanized
rubber insulation for wires and cables.
1861 The first transcontinental telegraph message is sent October
24 by STEPHEN J. FIELD (1861-1899) , Chief Justice of Cali-
fornia, to President Lincoln.
1861 PHILIPP REIS (1834-1874) of Friedrichsdorf, Germany, pro-
duces his first telephone, improves it in 1863.
1861 Maxwell (see 1856) treats a varying electrostatic flux as a
displacement current and postulates the magnetic effect of
1862 The first commercial application of arc lights is made in the
Dungeness Lighthouse in England.
1863 Helmholtz (see 1847) publishes his "Sensations of Tone,"
showing how vowel sounds can be built up by a group of tuning
1863 Pacinotti (see 1860) makes important improvements in the
design of generators, using an armature core with teeth, and
announces that his machine can be operated either as a motor
or a generator. A replica of this generator is in the Chicago
Museum of Science and Industry.
1864 Maxwell (see 1856) asserts the identity of light waves and
1865 A fourth attempt to lay a transatlantic cable, with the steam-
ship "Great Eastern" carrying all of the cable, fails after re-
peated cable breaks.
1865 HERMANN JOHANN PHILLIP SPRENGEL (1834-1906),
German chemist, invents the mercury vacuum pump and pro-
duces a vacuum in an electric light bulb.
1866 The fifth attempt to lay a transatlantic cable is doubly suc-
cessful. The steamship "Great Eastern," carrying all of the
cable leaves Valentia, Ireland, July 13 and arrived at New-
foundland July 28. Then it starts eastward again, finds the
end of the cable lost during the previous season, splices it to
a new cable, and brings it to shore September 8. Thus the
company has two successful transatlantic cables.
1866 DR. HENRY WILDE (1833-1919), Manchester, England,
Moses G. Farmer, (see 1853), and CROMWELL F. VARLEY,
(1828- ) and SAMUEL ALFRED VARLEY ( )
of London discover at about the same time the principle of
the self-exciting generator. SIR CHARLES WILLIAM SIE-
MENS (1823-1883) and Werner Siemens (see 1853) and Sir
Charles Wheatstone (see 1821) make announcements early
in 1867 concerning the same principle. S. A. Varley. who
applied for a British patent in 1866, is the first to use compound
1867 Soren Hjorth (see 1855) exhibits his magnetoelectric gener-
ator at the Paris Exposition. This generator contained both
permanent and electromagnets.
1867 THOMAS S. HALL (1827-1880) invents the automatic electric
block system; the first installation is on the New York and
Harlem Railroad. The wheels of the locomotive strike a lever
pivoted to the rail and this in turn sets the signal at danger
until the train is out of the block.
1867 The first patent on Lord Kelvin's (see 1858) siphon recorder
is taken out, and after three years of perfecting the instru-
ment, it is now exclusively used in cable telegraphy.
1867 The second oldest electrical publication and the first to be
published in America is the monthly "Journal of the Tele-
graph" appearing December 2.
1867 Werner Siemens (see 1853) proposes the name "dynamo
machine" in an address before the Berlin Academy January 17.
1867 The Babcock & Wilcox Co. develops the first commercially
successful "nonexplosive" water-tube type of steam boiler
prototype of all our present-day large steam power generating
units. Without large quantities of high pressure steam the size
of generating units would be limited.
1867 LUDWIG V. LORENZ (1829-1891) writes a mathematical
paper tending to show that light vibrations are electrical
1869 DR. ISAAC ADAMS (1803-1883) of Boston, Massachusetts,
invents the process of nickel plating. His patent was contested,
but sustained by the U. S. Supreme Court.
1869 CHARLES J. VAN DEPOELE ( ), a native of
Lichtervelde, Belgium, arrives in Chicago, opens a wood-
carving shop, uses his profits to develop an arc light system,
and in 1880 organizes the Van Depoele Electric Manufacturing
Company, a pioneer in the development of America's street
electric railway system.
1869 ELISHA GRAY (1835-1901), an inventor, ENOS M. BAR-
TON (1844-1916), former telegraph operator, and GENERAL
ANSON STAGER, industrialist ( ) establish the
firm of Gray & Barton in Cleveland, Ohio, to manufacture the
Gray Printer Telegraph instruments, electric gas lighting
equipment, electric bells, signal boxes, and fire and burglar
alarms. Later they moved their business to Chicago and in
1872 its name was changed to the Western Electric Manufac-
1869- DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEJEFF (1834-1907), Rus-
1871 sian chemist, and JULIUS LOTHAR MEYER (1830-1895),
German chemist, advance the periodic law of atoms, i.e., when
elements are listed according to atomic weights, definite chemi-
cal and physical properties recur periodically as functions of
the atomic weights.
1870 ZENOBE THEOPHILE GRAMME (1826-1901) , Belgian elec-
trician, takes out a patent in France for a direct current
generator using a ring winding similar to Pacinotti's (see
1871 Gramme (see 1870) exhibits his first hand-operated generator
before the Academy of Sciences in Paris.
1871 Elisha Gray (see 1869) transmits music from Milwaukee to
Chicago over his harmonic telegraph.
1871 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847-1922), Scottish edu-
cator, comes by way of Canada to the United States. In 1872
in Boston he opens a school for the deaf and others with
1872 DR. M. LODYGUINE ( ), Russian physician, pro-
duces a lamp consisting of a graphite rod enclosed in a vacuum
1872 The "Electrical Review" of London is established.
1872 MARLON LOOMIS (1826-1886), American dentist, pioneers
in aerial telegraphy. July 30 he receives Patent No. 129,971
for his "Improvement in Telegraphing." This patent covers
"aerial telegraphy employing an 'aerial' used to radiate or
receive pulsations caused by producing a disturbance in the
electrical equilibrium of the atmosphere." This is the first
patent for wireless telegraphy issued in the U. S.
1872 Helmholtz (see 1847) demonstrates at the International Ex-
hibition in London how electrical impulses having a constant
time interval between them can be sent into a circuit by at-
taching a contact maker to one of the arms of the tuning fork
so that contact can be made through a battery with each
vibration of the fork.
1872 DR. EDWARD WESTON (1850-1936) is the first to apply
the dynamo to electroplating to provide current, thus replacing
the inefficient batteries in use.
1873 LATIMER CLARK (1822-1898) publishes "On a Standard
Voltaic Battery" (Philadelphia Transactions Royal Society,
June 1873), a description of his standard zinc mercury cell as
the outcome of electrochemical researches carried on since
1867. This was apparently the first attempt to determine a
standard measurement for the "volt." More recently (see
1910) the "Weston" zinc cadmium cell has come to be used as
a reliable secondary standard of emf in terms of the inter-
national volt. Sometime, however, before the development of
these refined voltaic standards, emf's employed in teleg-
raphy were estimated in terms of such industrial units as
Grove or Daniell cells.
1873 Gramme (see 1870) introduces his first lighting generator,
initiates the use of electric motors for industrial purposes.
1873 Here's how television started: A telegraph operator named
May, at Valentia, Ireland, notices that his instruments behave
erratically when the sun shines on his selenium resistors. The
principle involved inspires several inventors to propose
methods of picture transmission during the next few years.
1873 The C.G.S. fundamental system of units (centimeter-gram-
second) is adopted by the British Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science, generally known briefly as the B.A.
1873 Gramme (see 1870) demonstrates at the Vienna Exhibition
that his generators can be operated as electric motors; a
Gramme motor, connected with a Gramme generator by wires
nearly three-quarters of a mile long, operates a Dumont
centrifugal pump that lifts water.
1873 Maxwell (see 1856) publishes his "Treatise on Electricity and
Magnetism," propounds the electromagnetic theory of light,
founds the science of electro-optics, and advances the concep-
tion of electromagnetic waves, by which he lays the foundation
for wireless telegraphy.
1873 Werner Siemens (see 1853) introduces his universal galvan-
1874 GUSTAV HEINRICH WIEDEMANN (1826-1899) develops a
modified form of tangent galvanometer.
1874 Dr. Lodyguine (see 1872) exhibits his graphite rod vacuum
bulb lamp in London, demonstrates that the current can be
subdivided (apparently several lamps are lighted in parallel) .
1874 January 1 "The Operator" is published in New York.
1874 THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847-1931), American electrician
and inventor, develops the quadruplex telegraph system, per-
mitting the sending of four messages over one wire simul-
taneously, two in each direction.
1875 WILLIAM E. SAWYER ( ) invents a nitrogen
filled incandescent lamp, and with his patent attorney, Albon
Man, develops several lamps consisting of a piece of graphite
covered by a glass globe cemented to a metal holder.
1875 SAMUEL F. O'REILLY operates the first electric tattoo
machine in the Bowery, New York.
1875 Professor Farmer (see 1853) sends the electric current pro-
duced by a small generator into forty-two circuits, with a light
in each circuit.
1875 ELIHU THOMSON (1853-1937), American electrician, oper-
ates Ihe first radio set in history, antedating Hertz and
1875 In December an article is published on the discovery by
Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) of a new form of electricity
which he named "Etheric Force."
1875 Alexander Graham Bell (see 1871) verifies the principle of the
electric speaking telephone at 109 Court Street, Boston, June
2, 1875. This date is usually accepted as that of the invention
of the telephone.
1875 Edison (see 1874) purchases ground at Menlo Park, New
Jersey, on which to build his laboratory.
1875 JOHN KERR (1824-1907) of Glasgow discovers the electro-
static effect or electro-optical effect in dielectrics which is
called the "Kerr Effect" : "Certain transparent dielectrics when
placed in a strong electrostatic field become doubly refract-
ing. The strength of the electro-optical effect for unit thickness
of the dielectric varies directly as the square of the electric
intensity" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.085).
1875 It is generally believed that Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872)
is the first person in the United States to use an electric arc
furnace industrially. Dr. Weston patents laminated pole pieces
and cores for dynamos raising their efficiency from about
forty-five to eighty-five per cent ; also patents an anode and
develops a nickel solution containing boric acid for making a
superior, dense, malleable plated nickel.
1876 CHARLES FRANCIS BRUSH (1849-1929), American elec-
trician, an employee of the Cleveland Telegraph Supply Co.,
Cleveland, Ohio, makers of telegraph instruments, electric
bells, and fire alarm systems (organized in this year) , designs
his first dynamo a one arc-light machine with an armature
only nine inches in diameter. Brush is issued a patent for this
dynamo in April, 1877.
1876 EMILE BERLINER (1851-1929), German inventor of Wash-
ington, D. C., invents the microphone twenty years before
Marconi and his wireless, thirty years before De Forest and his
three-element vacuum tube which makes radio possible, forty-
four years before the first real broadcasting station is set up.
Berliner was apparently the first to place in the battery circuit
for telephones a loose contact close to the transmitter
diaphragm. He applied for a United States patent for his
microphone June 24, 1877. It was granted November 17, 1891,
1876 The Centennial Exhibition is held at Philadelphia, Pennsyl-
vania. The wonders of electrical progress of the last century
are shown to the public.
1876 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) designs his first generator for
electroplating. It is rated at three-quarters of a horsepower
at eight hundred revolutions per minute, has a shunt field
winding, and has the first laminated construction used in a
rotating armature, thereby reducing the internal losses.
1876 Two types of dynamos are exhibited at the Philadelphia Cen-
tennial Exposition, the Gramme, of Belgium, and the Wallace,
of the United States. Each supplies current to a single-arc
1876 Gramme (see 1870) introduces a full line of electric machines
that can be used as either motors or generators.
1876 "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you" (March 10, 1876) is the
first complete sentence transmitted by telephone. It is from
Alexander Graham Bell (see 1871) to Thomas A. Watson, his
assistant, in Bell's lodgings at 5 Exeter Place, Boston. Bell
files an application February 14 for a patent on his telephone
entitled "Telegraphy" (actually this invention is known as the
telephone). Within a few hours, Elisha Gray (see 1869) files a
caveat with the U. S. Patent Office covering virtually the same
idea. Bell is granted the first telephone patent March 7,
Patent No. 174,465. Bell demonstrates at the Centennial Ex-
hibition in Philadelphia a liquid resistance type of telephone
transmitter and a magneto type ; he also exhibits a multiple
telegraph instrument, and wins awards for both his telephone
and his telegraph.
1876 Edison (see 1874) invents the carbon telephone transmitter
and the carbon microphone.
1876 HENRY AUGUSTUS ROWLAND (1848-1901), American
physicist, furnishes experimental justification of Maxwell's
postulates by demonstrating electromagnetic wave phe-
1876 PAUL JABLOCHKOFF (1847-1894), Russian army engineer,
develops in Paris the Jablochkoff Candle, an arc light consist-
ing of two carbon rods placed near each other but separted
by insulation except at the extreme tips, which are in contact
and produce an arc when the circuit is closed. These are lights
operated by alternating current to insure equal burning.
1877 The Western Union Telegraph Company instructs one of its
employees, Thomas Alva Edison (see 1874) , to make improve-
ment in the telephone, and employs Elisha Gray and AMOS
E. DOLBEAR (1837-1910), American physicist and teacher,
to perfect telephone apparatus. The Bell Company in 1878
sued for infringement (the first of a long series of telephone
cases in which the Bell patent was sustained) . The Western
Union Telegraph Company settled the case out of court and
withdrew from the telephone field in 1879. Edison obtained
patents on his work on the telegraph and telephone.
1877 Up to this date wire for transmitting electricity was generally
of iron. It is during this year that hard drawn copper wire
is invented and cable development also begins at this time.
1877 The first experimental telephone line in the United States is
built between the factory of Charles Williams, Jr., and his
home in the suburbs of Boston, Massachusetts, after Williams,
an electrical manufacturer, is given a contract to make the
first Bell telephone instruments.
1877 Charles F. Brush (see 1876) begins work in Cleveland, Ohio, on
an electric arc light system, designs a single-light generator
and an arc lamp. The carbons in his first lamp burned eight
hours before they were consumed. Brush is granted a patent
on his copper-coated carbons for arc lamps, No. 196,425, Octo-
ber 23. He is also granted the first patent for an open-coil arc
dynamo. Later Brush introduced the first successful electric
street lighting system in the United States.
1877 The first news dispatch by telephone is sent to the Boston
"Globe," Boston, Massachusetts, by the Bell telephone. It is
heralded by the "Globe" as follows : "This special dispatch to
the 'Globe* has been transmitted by telephone in the presence
of 20 people who have thus been witnesses to a feat never
before attempted, the sending of news over the space of 16
miles by the human voice."
1877 Professor Elihu Thomson (see 1875) of Philadelphia, during
the course of a lecture, boils eggs by electricity, using a coil of
German silver wire immersed in the water as a heating
1877 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) gives the first public exhibition
of arc lighting in the United States when he installs a corner
street light in Newark, New Jersey. He also used the arc
light for general lighting purposes.
1878 SIR WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-1919) , English physicist and
chemist, demonstrates the properties of cathode rays and
invents the Crookes tube.
1878 The Edison Electric Light Co., the start of the General Electric
lineage, is organized October 15 by J. Pierpont Morgan and
other financiers to finance Edison's experiments in the de-
velopment of a commercially successful incandescent lamp,
capital stock is $3,000,000 (3,000 shares with a par value of
1878 A platinum iridium incandescent lamp operating in nitrogen
gas is produced by ST. GEORGE LANE-FOX in England.
1878 Gramme (see 1870) designs an alternating current generator,
initiates his system of lighting city streets by arc light.
1878 SIR HIRAM STEVENS MAXIM (1840-1916), Anglo-Ameri-
can inventor, designs an incandescent lamp in which a carbon
rod operates in a rarefied hydrocarbon vapor.
1878 The first electric arc lights in a store are installed December 26
in the John Wanamaker store in Philadelphia. Using the
Brush system (see 1876), twenty arc lights are used, five
dynamos supplying the current (four arc lamps each) .
1878 Probably the first street lighting by electricity is in the in-
stallation in Paris of sixteen Jablochkoff Candles (see 1876) .
They were placed on the Avenue de TOpera and created great
1878 Brush (see 1876) is granted a patent (No. 203,411, May 7) on
the first series arc lamp, open type.
1878 PHILIP DIEHL (1847-1913) of Elizabeth, New Jersey, de-
velops an improved type of arc lamp and was granted Patent
No. 211,242 April 15 of the following year.
1878 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) feeds the current generated
by one dynamo to a second dynamo, using the second dynamo
as an electric motor for industrial purposes. Weston uses soft
metal cores for arc light carbons. He copperplates the ends of
arc light carbons for better contact.
1878 Edison (see 1874) tests his microtasimeter at Rawlins,
Wyoming, during an eclipse of the sun July 29. The micro-
tasimeter was a very sensitive electrical instrument for
measuring small changes in heat radiation.
1879 Niagara Falls is illuminated for the first time (July 4) by a
sixteen-light Brush dynamo and arc lamps. The dynamo is
driven by a waterwheel.
1879 Edison (see 1874) develops a dynamo with 3% foot magnets,
joined at the top by an iron crosspiece, for his incandescent
lighting system. The dynamo is jocularly called "long-waisted
Mary Ann"; officially it is the Edison bipolar dynamo. The
armature, of the drum type, is laminated. The dynamo is
found to be ninety per cent efficient, surprising even Edison
and Francis R. Upton, his mathematician. Later, Edison in-
troduced three generators rated respectively at 60, 150, and
1879 Swan (see 1860) develops an all-glass, hermetically sealed
electric light bulb. Later this design was universally accepted.
1879 Charles F. Brush (see 1876) is granted a patent on his system
of secondary distribution and a patent on compound winding.
1879 Professor Elihu Thomson (see 1875) and EDWIN J. HOUS-
TON (1847-1914) are issued a patent for a transformer having
a closed magnetic circuit of cast iron with an adjustable center
core by which the secondary voltage may be varied.
1879 The first company in the United States, if not in the world, to
enter the business of producing and selling electric service to
the public is organized June 30 in San Francisco, located at
Fourth and Market Streets and named the California Electric
Light Co. George H. Roe is the organizer. The firm holds the
Brush territorial license for California, Oregon, Washington,
and Nevada. Its first plant consists of two Brush dynamos, one
supplying six lamps, the other sixteen. A flat rate of ten dollars
a week per lamp is charged.
1879 Brush (see 1876) installs April 29 in the Public Square, Cleve-
land, Ohio, the first electric lights to illuminate a street in
the United States. Twelve lamps of the carbon arc variety are
used. Brush develops a constant-current series generator.
1879 The first "iron box bell" introduced by Edwards and Co. is
called the Lungen Bell, and replaces the bell with wood base
1879 EDWIN H. HALL (1855-1938), American physicist at Har-
vard University, discovers the potential gradient of a con-
ductor carrying a current and placed in a magnetic field. This
is known as the "Hall Effect" : "When a thin rectangular sheet
of metal carrying an electric current in the direction of its
length is subjected to a magnetic field normal to the sheet, an
electromotive force is developed which is at right angles both
to the direction of the current and to the magnetic field.
A general statement of the Hall effect is: When a conductor
in which a current is flowing is placed in a magnetic field, a
potential gradient is developed which is, at each point, a
function, of the vector product of the magnetic intensity and
the current density" (Am. Std. Def. 05.40.065).
1879 Dr. Werner Siemens (see 1853) exhibits at the Berlin Exhibi-
tion a small electric locomotive that hauls three passenger
cars around a track. A stationary generating plant is used and
power is carried through a third rail, the other rails being
used for the return circuit. More than 100,000 passengers were
carried during the exhibition.
1879 CLEMENT ADER (1841-1925) , French engineer, develops his
1879 Edison (see 1874) applies November 4 for his first incandes-
cent lamp patent. This lamp consists of a platinum wire spiral
in a vacuum chamber. Edison first carbonizes cotton filaments
and October 21 produces a lamp that burns forty hours ; later
he carbonized bristol board and it burned several hundred
hours. The first public demonstration of the incandescent lamp
is held December 31, 1879, with the Pennsylvania Railroad
running special trains to Menlo Park, New Jersey, to enable
the public to view the demonstration.
1879 The first telephone exchange in any foreign country is installed
in London, with SAMUEL INSULL (1859-1938) as the first
telephone operator at the exchange and GEORGE BERNARD
SHAW (1856- ) as one of the employees. Later Insull
came to the United States and became Edison's secretary.
1880 Swan (see 1860) is granted a British patent for his all-glass,
hermetically sealed electric light bulb.
1880 Maxim (see 1878) develops an M-shaped carbon filament in-
1880 STEPHEN DUDLEY FIELD (1846-1913) , American inventor
of the distance telegraph box, electric elevator, stock ticker,
dynamo quadruplex telegraph, and the first person success-
fully to apply dynamos to telegraphy, becomes involved in a
patent interference controversy with Edison and Siemens, all
having filed applications within a few months. Siemens' early
testimony was rejected and priority for limited features
awarded to Field, who had filed a caveat in 1879. In February
of that year he had made plans for an electric railway to use
current from a stationary generator through a conductor car-
ried in a conduit with rail return.
1880 The first electric light installation on board a steamboat is
placed on the S.S. "Columbia" of the Oregon Railway and
Navigation Company, built at Chester, Pennsylvania. The
original equipment consists of three Edison dynamos, each
capable of supplying sixty 100-volt lamps. A total of one hun-
dred and fifteen lamps was used on the ship. One of the
original machines is on exhibition at the Smithsonian Institu-
tion in Washington, D. C.
1880 Brush (see 1876) obtains Patent No. 234,456 November 16 on
his automatic cutout.
1880 The Brush Electric Light and Power Company of New York
is organized and Brush arc lamps are installed in December
for three-quarters of a mile along Broadway, the first elec-
trical illumination of that famous street. The company took
over the Cleveland Telegraph Supply Co. (see 1876) . Brush
also illuminates New York's Madison Square with arc lamps
placed atop towers.
1880 The Thomson-Houston arc dynamo is patented (No. 233,047,
October 5) .
1880 Edison (see 1874) is granted patents on a safety conductor
(No. 227,226, May 4) for electric lights and on a brake (No.
228,617, June 8) for an electromagnetic motor.
1880 Wabash, Indiana, installs March 31 a four-lamp (3,000 candle
power each) Brush arc lamp system and becomes the first
town wholly lighted by electricity from a single point (above
the courthouse) and the first town with a municipally owned
electric light plant.
1880 CAMILLE FAURE ( ) of Paris develops a storage
battery using an openwork grid for the plate.
1880 April 3, Thomas Edison applies for a patent for his magnetic
ore separator and June 1 he receives Patent No. 228,329.
1880 The first telephone is installed in the White House, Washing-
ton, D. C., during the term of President Rutherford B. Hayes.
1880 GEORGE FRANCIS FITZGERALD (1851-1901) writes a
paper in London on the magnetic theory of the reflection and
refraction of light. The subject is treated by quaternion
1880 Large-scale manufacture of generators and electric lamps is
started by Edison (see 1874), the former at the Edison
Machine Works in New York and the latter at the Edison
Lamp Works at Menlo Park, New Jersey. This same year
Edison develops the method for splitting and treating bamboo
for incandescent lamp filaments. The first successful com-
mercial incandescent lamp gave 1.6 lumens per watt.
1880 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) receives Patent No. 223,898
January 27, for "An Electric Lamp for Giving Light by In-
1880 A constant-current, series-wound generator and an arc lamp
are designed by Edwin J. Houston (see 1879) and Elihu
Thomson (see 1875), teachers in the Philadelphia, Pennsyl-
vania, Central High School. Under the name of the American
Electric Co., they begin the manufacture of arc lighting
systems at New Britain, Connecticut. Associated with them
is EDWIN WILBUR RICE, JR. (1863-1935), a former pupil
1880 Edison builds and operates two experimental railways, pas-
1882 senger and freight, at Menlo Park, New Jersey. One attains
a speed of twenty miles an hour.
1881 Edison builds his first practical "jumbo" dynamos, which are
exhibited at the Paris Exposition.
1881 An arc light machine installed in a paper mill on the Niagara
Falls cliff supplies the first electric power for public use
generated from Niagara's waters.
1881 The New York Electrical Society is organized to interpret to
its members and to the public by demonstration and lectures
the advances in various fields of science and engineering.
Membership in one year is 213, at the end of May 1945
membership has increased to 344.
1881 The first telautograph is manufactured by Elisha Gray (see
1881 Maxim (see 1878) introduces a self-regulating generator to
maintain a constant potential on his circuits of incandescent
1881 MARCEL DEPREZ (1843-1918) exhibits at the Paris Ex-
hibition five motor-driven sewing machines, four woodcutting
lathes, a chainmaker, a drilling machine, two watchmaker's
lathes, and a printing press.
1881 Edison (see 1874) is granted patents on apparatus for pro-
ducing high vacuum (No. 248,433, October 18) and on his
process for treating carbon for electric lamps (No. 239,148,
1881 The Postal Telegraph Company is chartered.
1881 JAMES JENNY ( ) and his son, CHARLES, of Ann
Arbor, Michigan, invent an arc light, and RONALD T. MC-
DONALD, an overall manufacturer, organizes the Fort Wayne
Jenny Electric Light Company to manufacture the light.
McDonald sold dozens of communities their first electric
1881 The Savoy Theatre, London, is illuminated with 1,200 in-
candescent lights by Swan (see 1860) who sells his new
electric light bulbs under the name of the Swan Electric
1881 December 12, the first Edison theater lighting plant starts
operation in the Bijou Theatre, Boston, Massachusetts.
1881 Amos Emerson Dolbear (see 1877), patents his invention of
the "electrostatic telephone." He first exhibited this invention
April 1, 1882, at a meeting of the Society of Telegraph En-
gineers and Electricians in London.
1881 DR. WILLIAM JAMES MORTON (1845-1920), American
physician, uses high-frequency electrical current in medical
1881 Thomson develops a constant-current regulator for arc-light-
1881 LUCIEN GAULARD (1850-1888) and JOHN D. GIBBS
1882 ( ) obtain English patents for a "series alternating
current system of distribution." The Westinghouse Company
purchases the rights to this system in 1885.
1882 GUSTAF DE LAVAL (1845-1913), Swedish scientist, builds
his first steam turbine.
1882 FRANK JULIAN SPRAGUE (1857-1935) develops an under-
running trolley for street railways.
1882 January 12 the first commercial central station in the world
for incandescent lighting starts operation at 57 Holborn
1882 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) opens the first electric lighting
plant in the United States the Pearl Street Station of the
Edison Electric Illuminating Company, New York, Septem-
ber 4. Original equipment is six "jumbo" dynamos, each light-
ing 800 incandescent lamps. Among the first fifty-nine
customers are the banking house of Drexel, Morgan & Co.,
with one hundred electric lights, "The New- York Times''
office, J. T. Pratt & Co., the Park Bank, "The New York
Herald," and Sweet's Restaurant on Fulton Street. Six miles
of wire enclosed in pipe are laid underground prior to the
station's opening. Within fourteen months the company has
508 customers using 12,732 electric lights. About this time,
Edison is granted a patent on a chemical meter he invents
to measure the electricity used by his customers. Models of
this station may be seen at the Smithsonian Institution in
Washington, D. C., the Edison Institute, Dearborn, Michigan,
the Museum of Science & Industry in Chicago, Illinois, and
at the main office of Consolidated Edison Company in New
1882 January 1 the magazine called "The Electrician" is established.
1882 The first hydroelectric plant in the world, for incandescent
lamps, is opened September 30 at Appleton, Wisconsin, a few
weeks after Edison opened the first electric lighting plant in
the United States on Pearl Street, New York. The original
waterwheel measured 42 inches in diameter, operated under
a ten-foot head, and had a speed of 72 rpm. Two Edison "K"
dynamos were used, each being capable of lighting 250 candle
power lamps, equivalent to a rating of 12% kilowatts. There
were no voltage regulators and operators depended on their
own eyes to gauge the brightness of the lamps. There was no
fuse protection and no meters available, the customers being
charged on a lamp basis regardless of the hours of use.
Original customers paid about thirty-three cents per lamp
per month and service was from dusk to dawn. Bare copper
wire was used in the distributing lines.
1882 The "Electrical Review" is founded by George Worthington
in New York the first weekly magazine published in the
United States, devoted to electrical interests.
1882 DR. SCHUYLER SKAATS WHEELER (1860-1923) invents
the electric fan.
1882 Edison (see 1874) applies for a patent on his three-wire
system. This system is still in common use (Patent No.
274,290, March 20, 1883).
1883 An electric railway with more than six miles of tracks starts
operating out of Portrush, Ireland ; water power is used to
drive the generator.
1883 Edison (see 1874) demonstrates his third-rail trolley line to
the public in Chicago.
1883 The first night baseball game is played at Fort Wayne, In-
diana, using seventeen arc lights of 4,000 candle power each.
1883 Edison (see 1874) discovers that electric current can flow
through space, from a filament to a plate in an incandescent
light bulb. Later this phenomenon was called the "Edison
Effect," the basis of electronics, and November 15, Edison
files a patent on an "electrical indicator," the first application
in the field of electronics, and obtains a patent on it in 1884.
For twenty years afterwards nothing was done to develop this
However, in 1889 SIR JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING (1849-
1945) of England, studying this effect, came to the conclusion
that "negative electricity can pass along the flame-like pro-
jection of the arc from the hot negative carbon to the cooler
third carbon but not in the opposite direction."
1883 The first central station to use the Edison three-wire, double-
voltage system begins operation at Sunbury, Pennsylvania.
1883 The electrical exhibition at Vienna, Austria, is opened Aug-
ust 16 and is lighted by both arc and incandescent lamps. One
hundred and fifty dynamos and sixty-five motors were ex-
hibited, ranging in size from % to 240 horsepower.
1883 The first photograph ever made by incandescent lamps is made
at Menlo Park, New Jersey.
1883 The first elevated railroad in the United States is operated at
the Chicago Railway Exposition June 9 to 23 by the Electric
Railway Company of the United States. "The Judge," a 15
horsepower electric locomotive, hauls the trains on a three-
foot gauge track around the outer edge of a gallery of the
main exhibition building.
1883 The first underground three- wire system is installed at Brock-
ton, Massachusetts, by the Edison Electric Light Co.
1883 Swan (see 1860) sells the American rights of his incandescent
lamp to the Brush Electric Co.
1883 Arc lighting spreads in the United States. In three years one
company alone, the Thomson-Houston Co., installed twenty-
two arc lighting plants operating a total of 1,500 lights.
1883 The "Telegraph Age" is established in New York, a semi-
monthly magazine with the first issue on June 1.
1883 A crude electric locomotive, "The Ampere," equipped with
electromagnetic brakes and built by LEO DAFT, an English-
born inventor who heads the Daft Electric Co., at Greenville,
New Jersey, and Saratoga, New York, pulls a full-sized rail-
way car on an experimental third-rail line between Saratoga
and Mt. McGregor, New York. Daft builds an electric elevator
and in 1855 he equips a two-mile section of track on the Man-
hattan Elevated in New York.
1883 January 6, "The Operator" and "Electrical World" are com-
bined and published weekly in New York. April 28 "The Oper-
ator" is dropped from the title.
1883 Edwards and Company is issued a patent for an electric gas-
lighting burner. To operate the first gas-lighting equipment,
the gas was turned on. Then by pulling a string which flicked
a wire across the jet, a spark was produced which in turn
ignited the gas.
1883 Fitzgerald (see 1880) writes a paper "On the possibility of
originating wave disturbances in the ether by means of
electrical forces" (Dublin) .
1884 Frank J. Sprague (see 1882), who pioneers in the industrial
development of electric motors and electric railways, develops
and exhibits his first direct-current motor.
1884 Lord Kelvin (see 1845) expounds his electronic theory of
1884 EDWARD M. BENTLEY ( ) and WALTER H.
KNIGHT ( ), electric railway pioneers, run their
first electric car July 26 on Garden Street, Cleveland, Ohio.
It is heralded as "the first electric railroad for public use in
1884 ALFRED COWLES ( ) and EUGENE COWLES
( ) , brothers, interested in producing aluminum by
electric smelting, begin experiments that result in the pro-
duction of the first alloy of aluminum obtained by this method
in the United States. Later synthetic rubies and sapphires
were produced in this furnace.
1884 The development of television takes another step forward as
PAUL NIPKOW (1860-1940) introduces scanning. He in-
vents a system involving a rotating disk fashioned with
apertures arranged in spirals.
1884 "Street Railway Journal" is published monthly in New York
with its first issue appearing in January.
1884 Experimental telephone line is completed between New York
1884 The American Institute of Electrical Engineers is organized,
with headquarters in New York. Its objectives to advance
the theory and practice of electrical engineering and of the
arts and sciences, and to maintain a high professional stand-
ard among members of the Institute. In 1945 it has a member-
ship of more than 24,000.
1884 The HONORABLE CHARLES A. PARSONS ( )
is granted a British patent for a reaction type of steam
1884 J. C. HENRY ( ) installs a street railway system
in Kansas City, Missouri, using a two-trolley system.
1884 January 1, the "Electrician and Electrical Engineer" appears
as a New York weekly. January 1, 1888, the "Electrician" is
dropped from the title leaving the "Electrical Engineer."
1884 The first electrical show in America, the Electrical Exhibition
and National Conference of Electricians, is held in Philadel-
phia, September 2 to October 11, sponsored by the Franklin
Institute. With 216 exhibitors and 282,779 paid admissions,
it is held at the Pennsylvania Railroad Station, 32 and Market
1884 Gustaf de Laval (see 1882) was the first to conceive the idea
of and to develop a formula for the flexible shaft which is of
extreme importance in the field of high speed steam turbines,
centrifugal pumps, compressors, and so on.
1884 Edwards and Co. is assigned by Adam Liingen Patent No.
303,579, August 12, covering door openers operated by
1884 J. J. C. SMITH ( ) of the New York Insulated Wire
and Vulcanite Company invents a strip process for insulating
wire. This new method makes possible faster and more uni-
form application of a moisture resistant rubber insulation to
conductors (Patent No. 308,209, November 18). '
1884 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents a variable-speed, direct-
current motor which does not require rheostat control. Speed
is varied by field pole regulation, the pole pieces being hinged
for movement to or from the armature by means of a con-
necting rod and treadle. This is the first motor ever produced
for dental machine operation. It is also used for sewing
machine drive. Patent No. 324,666 was granted August 18,
1884 SIR OLIVER HEAVISIDE (1850-1925) lays the mathematical
foundation for induction heating when he publishes the re-
suts of his investigations of the distribution of eddy currents
in a cylindrical rod of conducting material subjected to an
alternating magnetic field acting in an axial direction. At
the time, investigators were concerned with the undesirable
effect of eddy currents in electrical equipment, rather than
utilization of them for induction heating. However, the same
theory holds good in both cases.
1884 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) is granted a patent (No. 307,819,
November 11) on the use of a blowout for extinguishing arcs.
This principle was later applied to contactors and is still a
principal method of extinguishing arcs on contactors and
magnetic circuit breakers.
1885 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) develops the hydrocarbon
flashing process for making uniform carbon lamp filaments
(Patent No. 310,761, January 13) ; receives Patent No. 327,908,
October 6, for a magnetic drag-type speedometer the first
example of our present-day automobile speedometer.
1885 The Cowles Brothers (see 1884) establish the first electro-
chemical laboratory and plant on a commercial production
1885 The Association of Edison Illuminating Companies is organ-
ized. A preliminary conference is held April 15 with five
different operating properties represented, at which time of-
ficers were elected and the first meeting called for June 3,
1885 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Membership for 1945 in-
cluded fifty-two different companies.
1885 The "Railroad Telegrapher" is published monthly in Peoria,
Illinois, with its first issue dated August 1.
1885 The first convention of the National Electric Light Associa-
tion is held in Chicago, November 25. At this time there are
six hundred lighting companies in the United States.
1885 The Statue of Liberty is floodlighted by the use of arc lights,
the installation being made by the Fort Wayne Electric Co.
1885 The first commission to regulate electric light and power in-
dustry is set up in Massachusetts.
1885 GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE (1846-1914) of Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, secures the Gaulard (see 1881) and Gibbs (see
1881) patents by which the Westinghouse Electric Company
develops and introduces alternating current in 1886.
1885 EDWARD BRANLY (1844-1940) invents the "coherer"
which is the first detector of wireless waves. This was used
by Marconi and others in developing wireless telegraphy.
1885 CHARLES GORDON CURTIS ( ), FRANCIS
BACON CROCKER (1861-1921), and Schuyler Skaats
Wheeler (see 1882) manufacture and sell one hundred motors
1885 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) obtains patents (Nos. 322,138-9,
July 14) on the grounded secondary, designs a direct-current
dynamo for incandescent lamps, sets up an experimental
alternating current system.
1885 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) discovers a chemical process
by which nitrocellulose is made into pure fiberless cellulose.
This leads to the first successful homogeneous carbon lamp
filament which is made by Dr. Weston and is known as the
1885 An electric drill is invented by Van Depoele (see 1869) and
its manufacture is begun by the Thomson- Van Depoele Elec-
tric Mining Co.
1885 J. J. C. Smith (see 1884) invents the first "hollow-core" cable
in which the conductors are twisted about a central tube
which is used to supply an impregnating material internally.
Fifty-three years later this principle is revived and used in
oil-filled and gas pressure paper-insulated cables for high
voltage transmission (see 1938).
1886 The Edison Machine Works (see 1880) moves to Schenectady,
1886 WILLIAM STANLEY (1858-1916) demonstrates the practi-
cability of alternating current distribution (see Westinghouse
1886) . The first commercial lighting system using alternating
current is established at Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
1886 Probably the first electric power is used in American homes
as the Curtis, Crocker, Wheeler Co., better known as the C. &
C. Electric Motor Co. (see 1885), turns out motors to operate
sewing machines. The motors are operated by six-volt bat-
teries, since few residences are wired for electricity.
1886 Professor Elihu Thomson (see 1875) is granted a patent for
the first electric resistance welding process, and receives Aug-
ust 10, Patent No. 347,140 for "Apparatus for Electrical
1886 The Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl-
vania, builds the first commercially successful alternating-
current generating station at Buffalo, New York, on Wilkeson
Street. It is opened November 30, 1886, by the Brush Electric
Light Co. Thus Buffalo, through the Westinghouse system,
becomes the first city in the country to receive alternating
current and electric light and power on a large scale.
1886 The "Pacific Electric Monthly" begins publication in San
1886 The Edison Tube Co. and the Edison Shafting Co. are merged
into the Edison Machine Works at Schenectady, New York,
to manufacture complete lighting systems from dynamo to
lamp. In New York the Edison Electric Co. takes over the
Edison Company for Isolated Lighting.
1886 Sprague (see 1882) inaugurates metering system for elec-
tricity consumed by electric motors. He installs the first 220-
volt Sprague motor (15 hp) in a building in Boston to run a
1886 The Postal Telegraph Company (see 1881) becomes the Postal
Telegraph & Cable Co.
1886 In this year, the 500 horse railways operating in the United
States (gradually to be replaced by electric railways) utilize
120,000 horses for 25,000 cars, or more than four horses to
1886 First New York to Philadelphia telephone line is built.
1886 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents the first direct-connected
sewing machine motor. The motor is a variation of the
Gramme design, and is built integrally within the balance
wheel of the sewing machine. Patent No. 356,576 is granted
January 25, 1887.
1887 A five-ton electric crane is put into use at Edison's Schenec-
tady plant and excursion trains stop to let passengers see
1887 The "Western Electrician," a weekly publication, is estab-
lished in Chicago.
1887 NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943) works out the theory of the
modern alternating-current induction motor and applies for
1887 The Woonsocket Electric Railway, first in New England,
begins operation using the Bentley-Knight System (see 1884) .
1887 George Westinghouse (see 1885) is granted Patent No.
366,362 for his electric transformer, based upon a transformer
invented by Lucien Gaulard (see 1881) and John Gibbs (see
1881) whose patent rights Westinghouse buys. Manufacture
of the transformer is begun by the Westinghouse Electric
Company. Working with the Westinghouse about this time
are William Stanley (see 1886), an electrical engineer who
develops an alternating-current constant potential generator,
Oliver B. Shallenberger ( ), and GUIDO PANTE-
LEONI ( ).
1887 PROFESSOR HEINRICH RUDOLPH HERTZ (1857-1894),
German physicist, discovers that certain metals give off elec-
tric energy under the influence of light, establishes beyond
doubt the electromagnetic nature of light. Hertz further ex-
plains the phenomenon named "Etheric Force" by Edison (see
1875) and it is known as "Hertzian Waves." (Science now uses
this knowledge to make light produce electric current. This
is the principle of the "electric eye," or phototube. A beam of
light strikes a metal plate in the phototube and produces an
electric current. This was the beginning of the photoelectric
1887 The first tracks for an electric railway in New York City are
laid on Fulton Street by Bentley-Knight (see 1884).
1887 GEORGE M. PHELPS ( ) of the Western Electric
Company, and Thomas A. Edison (see 1874), assisted by
Gilliland and Smith, patent a wireless induction system of
communication between railway stations and moving trains.
1887 NICHOLAS DE BENARDOS and STANISLAS OLSZEWSKI
receive U. S. Patent No. 363,320 on carbon arc welding.
1887 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) builds the first repulsion-induction
1887 A survey reveals there are fifteen well-known manufacturers
of small electric motors in the United States and that they
have produced more than 10,000 motors of 15 horsepower or
1887 RUDOLPH EICKEMEYER ( ) , Yonkers, New York,
starts manufacturing electric motors, including one with as
short a magnetic circuit as possible in contrast to the long
magnet poles of Edison's early type. He also develops form-
wound armature coils to facilitate armature winding.
1887 Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler (see 1882) formerly of the
United States Electric Lighting Co. and the Edison Company,
but now with the C. & C. Company (see 1886), reads a paper
before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers describ-
ing the motors his company is manufacturing. Among them
is a 110-volt motor designed to operate on incandescent light-
1887 The first train fully equipped with electric lights is the Penn-
sylvania Limited of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
placed in service in June between Chicago and New York.
Steam from the engine is carried to a turbine in the forward
compartment of the baggage car where it drives an electric
generator supplying current to the entire train.
1887 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents and places in public operation
what is believed to be the first electric ceiling fan. Patents
Nos. 414,757 and 414,758 are granted November 12, 1889.
1887 The first electrified underground mine haulage system is
introduced into the mines of the Lukens Valley Coal Com-
pany. Current for the mine locomotive is supplied by an
inverted Tee rail.
1887 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) compounds a workable Ger-
man silver alloy containing thirty per cent nickel. He discovers
an alloy, later known as "Constantan," in which it is shown
for the first time that a metal can have a negative temperature
coefficient of resistance, that is, its resistance becomes less
with increasing temperature. The invention of "Manganin,"
the alloy now used universally for resistors of high accuracy,
followed shortly thereafter. The resistance of "Manganin" is
virtually constant within reasonable temperature limits.
1887- Frank J. Sprague (see 1882) and Charles J. Van Depoele (see
1888 1869) , working independently, demonstrate the practicability
of using electricity to operate street cars. Sprague installs at
Richmond, Virginia, the first practical trolley system in the
United States; forty cars traverse twelve miles of streets.
This system was almost a failure due to difficulties with
1888 The Thomson-Houston Electric Co. installs on January 28 the
first industrial locomotive built for the Tremont & Suffolk
Mills, Lowell, Massachusetts.
1888 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) organizes the Thomson Welding
Co. to commercialize the transformer for electric resistance
welding he developed in 1885.
1888 Oliver B. Shallenberger of Westinghouse (see 1887) invents
the first induction meter for measuring alternating current.
1888 The first electric freight locomotive is built by the Pullman
Car Co. of Pullman, Illinois, for the Ansonia, Derby, and
Birmingham electric line. The locomotive weighs 17% tons
and hauls a train weighing about thirty-five tons at less than
ten miles an hour.
1888 The Thomson Houston Electric Company (see 1883) enters
the electric railway field, acquiring the Bentley-Knight, Van
Depoele and Sprague patents which give the company control
of virtually all important patents in this field. By the end of
1888 it had on order or had completed sixteen street railway
1888 Nikola Tesla of Westinghouse Company (see 1887) announces
his discovery of the principle of the rotating magnetic field
in a paper, "A New System of Alternating Current Motors
and Transformers." His patents are developed by the West-
inghouse Company, which brings out a line of induction
motors based upon the new principle. Tesla invents new forms
of dynamos, transformers, induction coils, condensers, arc
and incandescent lamps, and other electrical apparatus. Later
he headed the Tesla Laboratory in New York. The Westing-
house Company purchased his patents covering alternating
current and methods of distribution. One of the patents is
entitled "Electrical Transmission of Power" (Patent No.
382,280, May 1,1888).
1888 Professor Hertz of Karlsruhe (see 1887) designs an oscillator
for producing electrical waves and devises means for measur-
ing and varying the wave lengths.
1888 Professor Francis Bacon Crocker (see 1885) of Columbia Uni-
versity and Schuyler Skaats Wheeler (see 1882), who re-
signed from the C. & C. Electric Motor Company, begin
manufacturing small motors and a motor-driven ventilating
fan with a controller for varying its speed, under the name
of the Crocker- Wheeler Electric Motor Co., New York.
1888 Van Depoele (see 1869) suggests carbon brushes for railway
1888 Carbon brushes are produced by the National Carbon Com-
pany. This is one of the most important inventions ever
made in the electric railway field and has much to do with
the success of the railway motor, and in fact, the success of
the direct-current motor.
1888 John Royle & Sons produces the first extrusion machine for
applying the rubber insulation continuously to a conductor
in the form of a preformed tube, making possible a lower
1888 The Weston Electrical Instrument Co. is formed by Edward
Weston. Dr. Weston (see 1872) formulates the design
principle for a permanent magnetic system. The first perma-
nent magnet, movable coil, direct reading electrical measur-
ing instrument was developed and placed on the American
market by Dr. Weston.
1889 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) perfects the Thomson recording
wattmeter, exhibits it at the Paris Electrical Exposition in
1890. Later a factory was established in France to manufacture
the meter and became the nucleus of the French Thomson-
1889 CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ (1865-1923) of Germany
arrives in the United States and starts work in Yonkers,
New York, as a twelve-dollar-a-week electrical draftsman for
Eickemeyer and Osterheld.
1889 BENJAMIN G. LAMME (1864-1924), a mechanical-electrical
engineer, enters the employ of Westinghouse. During his
career he obtained more than one hundred important patents
covering electrical apparatus. He designed, among other equip-
ment, the 5,000 horsepower revolving field generators installed
at Niagara Falls in 1895.
1889 Otis Bros. & Co. install the first two successful electrically
operated passenger elevators in the Demarest Bldg., 33 Street
at Fifth Avenue in New York. They use worm-geared drums,
machines operated by direct-current motors.
1889 "Electric Industries," a monthly magazine, is introduced in
1889 Westinghouse Electric Company (see 1886) develops the Still-
well alternating-current feeder voltage regulator.
1889 The Paris Exposition is the first one to be kept open success-
fully during the evening due to the extended use of electric
lighting. Over 10,000 incandescent lamps ranging in candle-
power from four to fifty were used for lighting purposes.
1889 The Edison General Electric Co. (later the General Electric
Co.) is organized January 3 and incorporated by a consolida-
tion of the Edison Light Co. ; Edison Machine Works ; Edison
Lamp Co. ; Bergmann & Co. of New York City, manufacturers
of switches and other appliances for Edison ; Canadian Edison
Manufacturing Co. ; and Edison United Manufacturing Co.,
the sales organization for Edison's three American manu-
facturing units. Later the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor
Co. was absorbed by Edison General Electric.
1889 Professor Francis Bacon Crocker (see 1885) of Columbia Uni-
versity establishes the world's first electrical engineering
course with MICHAEL IDVORSKY PUPIN (1858-1935) as
1889 Several dogs, four calves, and a horse are painlessly killed
March 2 in the first electrocution experiment.
1889 H. WARD LEONARD (1861-1915) installs in the offices of
the United Edison Co. a system of dictation of letters on
phonograph records from which the letters are transcribed
by typewriter operators.
1889 The Second International Electrical Congress is held at Paris,
France, and adopts three more units and unit names in the
practical system: the joule, the watt, and the quadrant.
1889 The first alternating-current power transmission system to be
installed in the United States is placed in operation between
Portland, Oregon, and Willamette Falls, a distance of thirteen
miles. The installation consists of two 300 horsepower water
wheels belted to single-phase generators rated at 720 kilo-
watts. The transmission line operates at 4,000 volts.
1890 The Westinghouse Electric Company and the Thomson-
Houston Electric Company introduce independently their first
four-pole railway generators. One of the Westinghouse gen-
erators is rated at 125 horsepower, another at 250 horsepower.
Later the same year Westinghouse introduced a six-pole gen-
erator rated at 500 horsepower.
1890 A convicted murderer, William Kemmler, alias John Hart, is
electrocuted at Auburn Prison, Auburn, New York the first
human being legally executed by electricity.
1890 The Cataract Construction Co. is organized in New York with
Edward D. Adams as president, J. Pierpont Morgan, Lord
Kelvin, and others as members to develop hydroelectric power
at Niagara Falls. In October, 1892, the company orders three
5,000 horsepower generators as original equipment. The plant
started operation in 1895.
1890 Edison builds a large plant near Ogdensburg, New Jersey, for
the magnetic concentration of low-grade iron ore.
1890 Dr. Edward Weston (see 1872) produces a direct reading de-
flection type electrodynamometer.
1890 The Carpenter-Nervis Electro-Heating Co. is formed in St.
Paul, Minnesota, to promote electric heating and cooking ap-
pliances. The following year they had an exhibit at the Min-
neapolis Industrial Exposition.
1890 De Laval (See 1882) perfects the high-speed helical gear-
making possible the realization of high efficiency of steam-
turbine drives for low-speed electric generators, pumps, ship
propellers, and so on.
1890- The West End Street Railway in Boston installs an electric
1891 trolley car system and, as it grows, the street railway system
displaces 9,000 horses from the city's crowded streets within a
1891 A five-year legal fight between the Edison Electric Lighting
Co. and the United States Electric Light Co. over the
legality of Edison's incandescent lamp patent is decided in
favor of Edison, and the court decision is upheld in 1892 on
1891 Sprague (see 1882) and CHARLES E. PRATT, a Boston
mechanic, organize the Sprague Electric Elevator Co., sell six
elevators in 1892 to the Postal Telegraph Building in New York.
1891 The "Street Railway Review" begins publication in Chicago
1891 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) is granted December 29 the
first radio signalling patent issued in the United States:
"Signalling between distant points can be carried on by induc-
tion without the use of wires connecting such distant points"
(Patent No. 465,971).
1891 The manufacture of incandescent lamps is begun in Eind-
hoven, Holland, by the Phillips Holland Co. Since 1920 the
company has been manufacturing the gas-discharge lamp,
the sodium lamp for lighting highways, and the ultra high-
pressure mercury- vapor lamp, with water-cooled projector,
by means of which surface lighting intensities in excess of
those of the sun have been reached. Phillips also developed the
wire-filled photo flash bulb.
1891 The Westinghouse Electric Company installs the first elec-
trical equipment for steel mills in the Edgar Thompson Works
of the Carnegie Steel Co., Bessemer, Pennsylvania.
1891 DR. G. JOHNSTON STONEY (1826-1911), Irish physicist
and mathematician, gives the name of electrons to the smallest
negative particles of electricity.
1891 WILLIAM MORRISON ( ) of Des Moines, Iowa,
designs an automobile operated by electric storage batteries.
1891 "Electric Age" is combined with "Telegraph Age" which be-
gan publication in 1883.
1891 The first alternating-current power transmission installation
in the United States for industrial use is made at Telluride,
Colorado, by the Westinghouse Co. A 100 horsepower, 3,000
volt, synchronous motor is connected to an ore crushing ma-
chine in a mine three miles from the generating station.
1891 Thomas A. Edison (see 1874) patents his kinetoscope for
projection and his kinetographic camera for production of
1891 Westinghouse introduces 60-cycle frequency which later
came into almost universal use in the United States.
1891 ALMON B. STROWGER ( ) of Kansas City, Mis-
souri, patents an automatic telephone exchange whereby a
person at one telephone can make connections with any other
telephone in the system by aid of automatic switches at the
central office and without the assistance of an operator. The
Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange is organized to
develop, manufacture, and install this system.
1891 The American Institute of Electrical Engineers appoints a
committee on Units and Standards with special reference to
the study of magnetic circuit units.
1891 "Electricity," a weekly magazine, begins publication in New
York in July.
1891 Steinmetz (see 1889) publishes his first paper on the law of
1891 The first patent, No. 463,802, on the Ward Leonard System of
Control is issued November 24. This is the first patent on
the methods of control that are still used on elevators, mine
hoists, steel rolling mills, many marine applications, and so on.
1892 Westinghouse (see 1886) originates the rotary .converter,
builds a successful nonarcing lighting arrester, produces
the polyphase system of alternating-current generation and
1892 NATHAN B. STUBBLEFIELD ( ) demonstrates a
radio broadcast. In 1902 he gave a public exhibition of his
invention in Fairmont Park, Philadelphia, his voice being
heard a mile from the transmitter. He was granted Patent
No. 887,357, May 12, 1908.
1892 The Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company exhibits
its first "stopper lamp" two pieces of glass and a soft iron
1892 The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad becomes the first steam railway
in the United States to use electric locomotives and power
equipment. The first electrification covers about three miles
of track, including a tunnel, through Baltimore. The first trip
over the electrified line was made in 1894 and actual service
began August 4, 1895.
1892 Alexander Graham Bell (see 1871) opens a New York to Chi-
cago telephone circuit in preparation for the Chicago World's
1892 J. B. MCDONALD, president of the American Battery Com-
pany, of Chicago, buys William Morrison's design for an
electrically operated automobile (.see 1891).
1892 The "Electrical Worker," a monthly magazine, begins publica-
tion in St. Louis, Missouri.
1892 The Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange, manufactured
and installed in La Porte, Indiana, is the first automatic tele-
phone switchboard to be used commercially.
1892 The first automatic or push-button controlled elevators are
1892 The General Electric Company is organized and incorporated
April 15 by a consolidation of the Edison General Electric Co.
(formerly the Edison and Sprague interests) and the Thom-
son-Houston Co. Charles Proteus Steinmetz leaves the Eicke-
meyer Co. (see 1889) to join the new General Electric Com-
pany and develops a system of mathematics for the solution
of alternating-current problems.
1892 Additional lighting of the Statue of Liberty in New York
Harbor with incandescent lamps, in addition to arc lamps,
is installed as part of the Columbian celebration (see 1885).
1893 Westinghouse starts building three 5,000 horsepower, alter-
nating-current generators for Niagara Falls powerhouse. The
generators are five times as large as the largest hitherto
and the switches, instruments, busbars, and transmission are
all unprecedented 2,000 volt, 2 phase, 25 cycles.
1893 The first code covering the installation of electrical equipment
is printed under the title of "Rules & Requirements for the
Installation of Electric Light & Power," as revised and codi-
fied by the Underwriters International Electrical Association.
This is the beginning of the National Electrical Code.
1893 Open and concealed work, wooden molding, and conduit wiring
is recognized by the National Electrical Code. The use of con-
duit was limited to what was later known as "lined" conduit.
1893 De Laval designs, builds, and has in operation at the Colum-
bian world's fair in Chicago the first high-speed, geared steam
turbine in the United States. The turbine develops 10 horse-
power at a turbine speed of 24,000 rpm, speed of generator
2,400 rpm using a ten-to-one gear reduction.
1893 The Fourth International Electrical Congress, notable in the
history of electrical units, is held in Chicago. Its decisions
in reference to electrical units and standards form the basis
of much legislation in all parts of the world. Prior to this
Congress, changes in the international electrical units might
not have been possible because not many countries had enacted
laws concerning electrical standards.
1893 The external shunt type of ammeter is invented by Dr. Ed-
ward Weston (see 1872). The shunt in connection with a
millivoltmeter was first used especially for measuring high
currents. A patent was issued on Weston standard cell and
later was dedicated to the public. The standard cell is used
as a reference basis for the "volt" and is found in every stan-
dardizing laboratory in the world.
1893 The World's Columbian Exposition is held in Chicago and
gives the electrical industry an opportunity to show the prog-
ress it has made in electrical generation and lighting up to
this time. The Westinghouse Company, who is awarded the
contract for lighting the exposition, demonstrates a complete
polyphase power system in operation using twelve 1,000 horse-
power, 2,200 volt, 60 cycle, 2 phase generators, the largest
alternating-current machines in America. In the electrical
installation 483,882 feet of insulated copper conductors, rang-
ing from to No. 6, B & S Gauge, are used for the primary
service. It also requires 146,749 feet of duct. In the Electricity
Building alone 15,000 incandescent lamps are used for light-
ing. The total for the entire exposition is 92,622 lamps. A
model electric kitchen is shown with a display of electrical
appliances, including an electrically heated saucepan, chafing
dish, coffeepot, and grill.
1893 In June publication of "Electrical Engineering," a semi-
monthly magazine, is begun in Chicago.
1893 PROFESSOR LIONEL SIMEON MARKS ( ) of
Harvard University publishes the results of the studies of
enclosed arc lights and the effects on arc lights of varying
the current and voltage. He develops a high-voltage lamp with
enclosed carbons which, he says, will burn for a hundred and
1893 LOUIS B. MARKS (1869-1939), an illuminating engineer of
New York, designs an enclosed arc lamp and sells his patent
rights to General Electric.
1893 Incandescent lamps containing cellulose filament are intro-
duced (3.3 lumens per watt) .
1893 The first Wood electric automobile, built by the Chicago Elec-
tric and Manufacturing Co. is tested on a Chicago street and
creates "some excitement all along the route."
1893 Elisha Gray (see 1869) is granted February 7 a patent for
1893 Philip Diehl (see 1878) invents the first combined electric fan
and electrolier (lighting fixture) . The patent was issued June
1894 Elihu Thomson (see 1875) patents the first resistance furnace.
1894 SIR OLIVER LODGE (1851-1940) publishes an article in the
"The Electrician" (London) in which he discusses the dis-
coveries of Hertz, describes his own experiments with elec-
tromagnetic waves, and observes that "some circuits are per-
sistent vibrators 'that is, they are able to sustain for long
periods oscillations set up in them," while other "circuits are
so constructed that their oscillations are rapidly damped."
1894 What is claimed to be the first compensating winding and
commutating pole generator is rated at 10 kilowatts, 91
amperes, 110 volts, and 1,200 rpm. This is the Thomson-
Ryan Dynamo "901" with copper brushes and interpole face
windings. This machine is (in 1945) in the Edison Institute,
Greenfield Village, Dearborn, Michigan.
1894 A contract is let for twenty-six miles of 11,000 volt, 3 phase
electric power transmission, one of the longest to this date,
from Niagara Falls to Buffalo, New York. This line was not
placed in service until November, 1896.
1894 The first motion pictures are shown April 14 in a former shoe
store at 1155 Broadway, New York. Ten of Edison's first kine-
toscopes (see 1891) are used.
1894 Pupin (see 1889) publishes his researches on "electric tuning"
and obtains patents which were later licensed to the Marconi
Co. in 1903.
1895 PROFESSOR WILHELM KONRAD ROENTGEN (1845-
1923) discovers rays which "emanate from the bombardment
of a metallic plate by electrons in an evacuated tube." It is
not understood what these rays are, so they are called X rays.
Roentgen was awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1901.
1895 ARTURO MALIGNANI ( ) , Italian engineer, evolves
the use of red phosphorous vapor in producing the vacuum in
an incandescent lamp, an important contribution. General
Electric purchases the United States rights to the invention.
1895 A 5.95-mile section of the New Haven Railroad's Nantasket
Beach branch in Massachusetts is electrified. Service is sup-
plied to motor-trailer trains from an overhead trolley system.
This is the first example of standard railroad electrification
in this country.
1895 GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874-1937), Italian electrician,
inventor of wireless telegraphy, starts his experiments in his
home in Bologna, transmits signals one mile without wires.
1895 The constant-potential arc lamp, for 110 volt constant, mul-
tiple circuits, is developed by Elihu Thomson (see 1875) .
1895 The "Journal of Electricity" a monthly magazine is published
in July in San Francisco.
1895 Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company installs the
first high-capacity hydroelectric system at Niagara Falls.
This consists of three 5,000 horsepower, 2 phase, 2,200 volt,
25 cycle, 250 rpm alternators having an external revolving
field. This plant continued in commercial service until about
1924. It was however, maintained as a standby plant until
the summer of 1941 when it was again placed in service as a
wartime measure. The first three machines installed in 1895
were rebuilt in 1921 to operate at 12,000 volt, 3 phase.
1895 PIERRE CURIE (1859-1906), French physicist, discovers
what is later called the "Curie Point" and relates to variations
of magnetic properties. His discovery was modified by later
experimental results. The American Standards Association
defines the "Curie Point" as follows: "The magnetic transi-
tion temperature of a ferromagnetic material is the tempera-
ture at which, with increasing temperature, the transition
from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic appears to be complete.
The change in magnetic properties with temperature extends
over an appreciable temperature interval, so that the value
obtained for the magnetic transition temperature depends
upon experimental conditions" (05.40.095) .
1896 Marconi (see 1895) applies for his original and basic (British)
patent for wireless telegraphy June 2 (Patent No. 12,039).
Equivalent American patent, No. 586,193, was granted July
1896 DR. NIELS RYDBERG FINSEN ( ) discovers that
violet rays are an enemy of disease, and inaugurates electric
1896 The Hartford Electric Light Company installs at Hartford,
Connecticut, the first electric hydraulic plant to use a storage
battery to meet peak load requirements.
1896 The first commercial projection on a motion picture screen
takes place April 23. The films for the performance were made
in the first motion picture studio at Edison's West Orange,
New Jersey, plant.
1896 ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL (1852-1908) , French physi-
cist, experiments with minerals containing uranium. His re-
search opens the way to radioactivity and Curie's discovery
1896 The General Electric Company and the Westinghouse Electric
& Manufacturing Company license each other to manufacture
under its patents. General Electric holds the patents of Thom-
son, Brush, Edison, Sprague, Van Depoele, Bradley, and
others; Westinghouse holds those of Sawyer-Man, Maxim,
Weston, Tesla, Stanley, and others.
1896 "The Telephone," a monthly magazine, begins publication in
March in Chicago.
1896 EDWARD GOODRICH ACHESON (1856-1931), American
inventor, receives Patent No. 560,291 for an "Electric Fur-
1896 The commercial steam turbine (based on exclusive Parson's
license) is introduced into America by Westinghouse about
1895. A 120 kilowatt direct-current set is built at Pittsburgh
1896 In May the "American Electrician" is published. This maga-
zine was originally called the "Electric Industries" and was
established in 1889.
1896 De Laval (see 1882) designs, and the French De Laval Co.
builds, the first steam turbines used in American central
stations. There are two 300 horsepower, single-stage geared
turbine generators installed in two plants of the New York
1896 The Ward Leonard Electric Co. manufactures the first elec-
trically heated flatirons with several replaceable heater units.
1896 Charles G. Curtis (see 1885) starts work on the development
of his turbine at the Schenectady Works of General Electric
1896 Pupin (see 1889) discovers secondary X-ray radiation and
"originates the use of the intensifying screen in making X-ray
1896 Edison files a patent on the first fluorescent lamp May 19.
1897 NICHOLAS SLAWIANOFF receives United States Patent
No. 577, 329 on metallic arc welding February 16.
1897 The first electric automobiles make their appearance. At the
New York Auto Show in 1900, electrics far outnumber the
steam and gasoline cars.
1897 Westinghouse (see 1886) builds the first polyphase induction
regulator for varying the voltage of a synchronous converter.
1897 SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-1940), English physi-
cist, advances his electronic theory.
1897 SIR WILLIAM HENRY PREECE (1834-1913), Marconi's
collaborator in England, engineer-in-chief of the British Post
Office, publishes a paper, "Signaling Through Space Without
Wires," in which he describes Marconi's experiments in Great
Britain, mostly by means of Hertzian waves concentrated
into a single beam by parabolic reflectors. Marconi transmits
signals in the Morse code across the Bristol channel, a distance
of nine miles.
1897 Guglielmo Marconi (see 1895) receives Patent No. 586,193
for "New and Useful Improvements in Transmitting Elec-
trical Impulses and Signals and in the Apparatus Thereof . . .
by means of oscillations of high frequency." This is commonly
called wireless telegraphy.
1897 DR. RUDOLPH DIESEL (1858-1913), German engineer, in-
vents the engine that bears his name. The original Diesel
engine weighed four hundred and fifty pounds to the horse-
power. August 9, 1898, he received Patent No. 608,845 for
"New and Useful Improvements in Internal Combustion En-
gines." The Diesel engine has become an important factor in
the generation of cheap electric power in comparatively small
quantities. The largest engine to date (1945) is rated at 8,000
1897 PROFESSOR WALTHER NERNST (1864-1941) of Berlin
devises an incandescent lamp that requires no vacuum and
consumes only half the power of the ordinary carbon filament
for the same amount of light. The Nernst filament consists of
a short rod of magnesium oxide, a poor conductor of electricity
when cold, but a good conductor when heated. To start the
light the filament is heated with an electrically heated plati-
1897 ROBERT H. MACHLETT, founder of Machlett Laboratories,
Inc., produces one of the first operable X-ray tubes in America.
1898 Westinghouse (see 1886) builds a 100,000 volt test set for
testing insulating material and insulators in the field.
1898 Marconi, abandoning the single beam method of transmitting
telegraphic signals without wires sends signals via aerials,
the signals going out in all directions. With this system,
Marconi transmits signals between Bournemouth and Alum
Bay, Isle of Wight, about fourteen miles.
1898 The first patented flashlights are produced and announced.
Among the important contributors are the names of Bugg,
Paget, Misell, and Hubert. Early patents were assigned to the
American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co., predecessor of the
American Ever Ready Co. which later became part of the Na-
tional Carbon Co., Inc. The early flashlights were in the nature
of toys and novelties.
1898 HUGO BREMER ( ) of Germany and ANDREW
BLONDEL ( ) of France independently discover that
by incorporating metallic salts in the structure of lighting
carbons it is possible to obtain a luminous or flaming arc of
considerable intensity. The metallic salts volatilize in the arc
stream thereby making it the principal source of energy emis-
sion instead of the incandescent tips of the carbons as was the
case with the pure carbon arc. Following this discovery many
types of flaming arc lamps were introduced abroad and in this
1898 The first use of electricity in war as a motive power for all
turrets, ammunition hoists, and auxiliary machines, a Ward
Leonard system of control, is July 3 on the U. S. cruiser
"Brooklyn," during the Battle of Santfago. Of the lessons of
the Spanish-American War with respect to employment of
electricity aboard men-of-war the most decisive result was
the demonstration of the immense superiority of electricity
over steam for the operation of turret training apparatus.
1898 Sir Oliver Lodge (see 1894) receives Patent No. 609,154
August 16 for "tuning." His system included an induction
coil in the antenna circuit of a wireless transmitter or receiver,
or both, making it possible to put the transmitter and receiver
in tune with each other.
1898 The constant-current transformer, permitting arc lamps to be
linked into alternating-current supply systems and supplied
with fixed or constant current is invented by Elihu Thomson
1899 WALTER D'A. RYAN begins his systematic study of light-
ing, opens a modest illuminating engineering laboratory at
Lynn, Massachusetts, and conducts an educational campaign
on the scientific planning of lighting installations.
1899 In April Marconi transmits a wireless telegraph message from
Folkestone to Boulogne, a distance of thirty-two miles the
first international wireless transmission.
1899 Michael Idvorsky Pupin (see 1889) invents the telephone
"repeater," or "Pupin" coils. The patent for this was acquired
by the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. in 1901.
1899 The first comprehensive installation of steam turbine-driven
generators is made with three Westinghouse 400 kilowatt,
alternating-current turbine generator sets installed at Wilmer-
1899 In June the A.I.E.E. makes its first report on standardization.
Recommended for trial by both manufacturers and users of
electrical equipment, it is the ground work of all future elec-
1899 Armored cable is first recognized as a wiring method in the
National Electrical Code.
1899 The "lining" in conduit for wiring purposes is removed by the
National Electrical Code. "Lined" conduit continued to have
recognition for some years and was specified for conduit wir-
ing in elevator shafts until 1928.
1900 The Manhattan Elevated Railway is electrified. The first in-
stallation includes 1,700 motors and the largest generators
physical size) ever built, operating at 75 rpm and delivering
current at 25 cycles. This current was changed to direct cur-
rent by means of synchronous converters located in different
substations throughout the city.
1900 Ground is broken for the first subway in New York.
1900 The General Electric Research Laboratory is established at
Schenectady, New York.
1900 Charles G. Curtis (see 1885) and WILLIAM LEROY EMMET
(1859-1941) design their first turbines in the General Electric
Laboratories in Schenectady.
1900 The American Telephone & Telegraph Co. becomes the parent
company of the Bell System.
1900 S. H. STUPAKOFF, SR. ( ) manufactures and intro-
duces the first pyrometers to industry in the United States.
1900 Edwards and Co. introduces the "Carriage Call," used by
Tiffany and Company, New York, and others.
1900 The Fifth International Electrical Congress is held at Paris,
France, in August. At this Congress the unit "gauss" is deter-
mined for the C.G.S. unit of field intensity and the "max-
well" for the C.G.S. unit of magnetic flux.
1900 The first escalator, built by Otis Elevator Co. of New York City,
is exhibited at the Paris Exposition, Paris, France. After the
Paris Exhibition it was returned to the United States and in
1901 installed in Philadelphia in the Eighth Street building of
Gimbel Brothers department store.
1900 Charles P. Steinmetz (see 1889) develops a new light source
for arc lamps, an electrode made up partly of magnetite and
partly of titanium, giving an illumination so brilliant that it
is commercially named the luminous arc.
1901 The Hartford Electric Light Co., Hartford, Connecticut, places
in operation a Westinghouse steam turbine rated at 1,500
kilowatts, 2,400 volts, 2 phase, 60 cycles, 1,200 rpm the
largest constructed to date.
1901 PETER COOPER HEWITT (1861-1921) invents at Newark,
New Jersey, a mercury-vapor arc lamp.
1901 The National Electrical Contractors Association is organized
July 17, with forty-eight delegates representing the contrac-
tors in seven states. Membership in 1945 was about 1,300,
including members in Canada, Mexico, South America, and
1901 The National Bureau of Standards is established in March
with a staff of about fourteen. The present (1945) electrical
division has a staff of about one hundred and sixty members.
1901 Radio rescues its first ship: The Royal Belgian steamer
"Princess Clementine," one of the first ships equipped with
Marconi's wireless apparatus, finds the barque "Medora" of
Stockholm grounded on the Ratel Bank. The Belgian skipper
immediately sends a wireless message to La Panne on the
Belgian Coast, and within an hour a rescue vessel is on its
way to aid the "Medora."
1901 The single-phase commutator type motor with variable speeds
is developed for traction service.
1901 General Electric Company retains DR. WILLIS R. WHITNEY
(1868- ) of Massachusetts Institute of Technology to head
its new research laboratory (see 1900) . The first work, with
Steinmetz (see 1892) , is done in an old barn at Schenectady.
1901 Marconi sends the first radio signal October 12 the letter "S"
across the Atlantic Ocean from Poldhu, Cornwall, to St.
1901 "Electrical Contracting," the magazine of electrical construc-
tion and maintenance, is established.
1902 The first conversation by long distance underground cable is
held between New York City and Newark, New Jersey.
1902 The American Electrochemical Society is founded in April.
Later the word "American" is dropped from the title. The
Society is divided into seven important divisions : electrother-
mic, electrodeposition, electronics, electro-organic, corrosion,
industrial electrolytic, and theoretical electrochemistry. The
Society was incorporated in 1930 and in 1945 has a member-
ship of almost 1,700.
1902 Peter Cooper Hewitt (see 1900) invents the mercury arc recti-
fier used for converting alternating current into direct cur-
1902 Two of the largest engine-type generators built for Cincin-
nati Gas & Electric Co. are placed in operation. The alternator
is rated at 3,200 kva, 3 phase, 60 cycle, 2,400 volt alternators
operating at 75 rpm, and has a rotor diameter of 30 feet.
The direct-current, 250 volt generator of the same rating and
speed has an armature 20 feet in diameter.
1902 REGINALD AUBREY FESSENDEN (1866-1932) , American
pioneer in wireless, invents the electrolytic or chemical de-
tector which increases the range and effectiveness of wireless.
1902 JOHN STONE STONE (1869-1943) receives Patent No. 714,-
756 on tuning-in connection with wireless telegraph apparatus.
1902 The first cable across the Pacific between San Francisco and
Honolulu (2,600 miles) is played out by the cable ship "Silver-
ton", leaving San Francisco December 14, 1902, and arriving
at Honolulu January 1, 1903. The first message was sent that
day ; the cable was open for public use four days later.
1903 The first commercial installation of the luminous arc lamp
(see 1900) is made at Jackson, Michigan.
1903 The first experimental trolley coach line, whereby vehicles run
on the street and collect current from a two-wire overhead
system, is installed at Scranton, Pennsylvania. One twenty-
passenger trolley coach is used in the experiment.
1903 The Lackawanna and Wyoming Valley Railroad Rapid Transit
Co. starts operating May 25 the first third-rail system at
1903 The first practical demonstration of Peter Cooper Hewitt's
mercury-vapor arc lamp is made in the composing room of
the "New York Evening Post."
1903 CLYDE J. COLEMAN ( ) is granted a patent on an
automobile electric self-starter; the license is purchased by
the Delco Company.
1903 General Electric Company produces a vertical 5,000 kilowatt
turbine, installs it in the Fisk Street Station of the Common-
wealth Edison Company plant in Chicago. This is the largest
steam turbine constructed at that time.
1904 The first cable between Honolulu, Midway, Guam, and Manila
(9,060 miles, San Francisco to Manila) is completed in July.
President Theodore Roosevelt sends the first message west-
ward around the world in eleven minutes.
1904 Silicon steel is first used for transformer cores increasing
1904 Westinghouse (see 1886) makes the first single-phase electric
railway application for the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Trac-
1904 Dr. Schuyler S. Wheeler (see 1882) is awarded the John Scott
medal by the Franklin Institute for his invention of the elec-
1904 The Shawinigan Water & Power Co. installs an 8,000 horse-
power frequency changer (25 to 60 cycles, 2,300 volts, 3 phase,
300 rpm). This was the largest electric motor built to date.
1904 The Allis-Chalmers Company builds a 3,500 kva, 75 rpm,
2,200 volt, 25 cycle generator and engine unit for lighting the
St. Louis World's Fair.
1904 D. McFARLAN MOORE establishes his vacuum-type lamp
commercially. An experimental tube 186 feet long was ex-
hibited a few years earlier in the foyer of the original Madison
1904 Cutler-Hammer perfects an improved turning control system
for battleships, a magnetic clutch gear shift combination. The
system is installed on the U.S.S. "Indiana" and on the first
target practice run a record of ten hits in ten minutes is
1904 The first static neutralizer is installed commercially in Janu-
ary at the Continental Paper Bag Co., Rumford, Maine. The
object of the neutralizer is to remove static electricity from
paper passing through a printing press. It can be applied to
any moving object that creates static electricity, such as belt-
ing, cloth, and so on. Static electricity is neutralized by elec-
tricity of equal potential and opposite polarity. Patent No.
777,598 for this process entitled "Method of Removing Static
Electricity from Paper, Yarn, etc." is issued to WILLIAM H.
CHAPMAN, December 13.
1904 The Sixth International Electrical Congress is held in St.
Louis, Missouri, and votes to invoke an international com-
mission, representing various governments, to consider ques-
tions relating to electrical units and standards upon which
international agreement is desired. It also votes to take steps
"to secure the cooperation of the technical societies of the
world, by the appointment of a representative commission to
consider the question of the standardization of the nomencla-
ture and ratings of electrical apparatus and machinery."
1904 ARTHUR KORN (1870- ) pioneers in electrical trans-
mission of pictures by wire and wireless. By a system which
he developed he sends telephone wirephotos over six hundred
miles. His transatlantic radiophoto of Pope Pius XI appeared
in "The World," (New York) June 11, 1922.
1904 Sir John Ambrose Fleming (see 1883) invents the valve
detector, or oscillation valve based on "Edison Effect" which
is used to detect wireless waves.
1905 Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company demon-
strates its new electric locomotive, hauling fifty steel gondolas
before a special meeting of the International Railway Con-
gress at East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1905 The Westinghouse Company develops the first single-phase,
steam-driven, 25 cycle turbine generator for supplying power
for single-phase railway electric locomotives three 3,750
kilowatts, 1 phase, 11,000 volts, 1,500 rpm, 25 cycle, New
York, New Haven & Hartford Railway (see 1906) .
1905 First trade association in electrical manufacturing industry
is organized August 16 in New York with twelve representa-
tives of electrical manufacturers present. It is first called
Electrical Manufacturers Alliance, changed September 25 to
Electrical Manufacturers Club.
1905 "Gem" metalized carbon filament incandescent lamp is intro-
duced (4 lumens per watt) .
1905 The International Conference on Electrical Units meets in
Berlin, Germany, in October. The first conference of repre-
sentatives of national laboratories, they were invited there
by the Charlottenburg Reichsanstalt.
1905 America's first ornamental electric street lighting system,
using standards thirteen and one-half feet high with seven
incandescent lamps in circular globes, is installed in Los
1905 FREDERICK GARDNER COTTRELL (1877- ), profes-
sor of physical chemistry at the University of California,
installs one of his electrically operated precipitators, which
prevented escaping acid fumes from reaching the outside
atmosphere, in a sulphuric acid plant located on the Pinole,
on San Francisco Bay.
1906 DR. LEE DE FOREST (1873- ) announces October 20 his
first three-element vacuum tube (filament and two plate elec-
trodes) described as an amplifier of feeble electrical currents.
He receives a patent on the tube in 1907.
1906 The Westinghouse Company electrifies the New York, New
Haven & Hartford Railroad from New York to Stamford,
Connecticut, using 11,000 volt, single-phase, 25 cycle current.
1906 The International Electrochemical Commission has its first
meeting in London.
1906 The first telephone conversation is held by underground cable
between New York and Philadelphia (ninety miles) .
1906 The Illuminating Engineering Society is organized the latter
part of this year. Membership after one year's operation was
815 and in March, 1945, the membership is over 4,000.
1906 PROFESSOR BORIS ROSING ( ) of the Institute
of Technology, St. Petersburg, Russia, conceives a cathode-
ray receiving tube, to make television practical, but his years
of research are fruitless because necessary implements for
successful development of the tube had not yet been invented.
1906 DR. WERNER VON BOLTON ( ) of Berlin renders
tantalum pliable so that it can be drawn into a flexible wire
and used as an incandescent lamp filament. General Electric
obtains a license to manufacture the lamp in America.
1906 ERNEST F. W. ALEXANDERSON (1878- ) develops his
high frequency alternator, making possible a new advance in
radio. A 200 watt alternator, completed in 1918, is the founda-
tion of the first transoceanic radio system.
1906 A. L. MARSH is granted a patent covering a new alloy com-
posed of nickel and chromium for a heating resistor. Its use
marked the permanent success of electric heating and cooking
1906 The largest gas-engine generator installation is made at the
U. S. Steel Corp., Gary, Indiana, with nine 2,000 kilowatt Allis-
Chalmers generators and gas engines. This installation is
notable for the number and size of the units and the fact that
they operate in parallel with each other and other systems.
1907 Walter d'A. Ryan (see 1889) illuminates Niagara Falls with
powerful arc searchlights playing upon the cataract for thirty
1907 The tower of the Singer building in New York is floodlighted,
the first instance of lighting the exterior of a large building
in this manner.
1907 The electric (single-phase, alternating-current) motor of vari-
able speed is used for the first time by a steam railroad. This
electrification is made on the New York, New Haven & Hart-
ford Railroad between New York and Stamford, Connecticut,
and operates at 11,000 volts, 25 cycle, single-phase circuit using
series motors and overhead contact system.
1907 The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers is
organized with about thirty members (approximate member-
ship in 1945 was 3,000). In February, 1936, the name was
changed to the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers.
1907 Metal moldings as a wiring method are first recognized in the
National Electrical Code.
1907 The first boats to be electrically propelled are fireboats, the
"Graeme Stewart" and the "Joseph Medill", on the Chicago
1907 Dr. Lee de Forest (see 1906) is granted January 15 Patent
No. 841,387 for his "Device for Amplifying Feeble Electric
1907 The first modern utility regulating commissions with broad
powers are established in New York and Wisconsin.
1907 Cutler-Hammer brings out a line of lifting magnets, from a
ten-inch magnet for lifting plates, rails, small castings, and
so on, to a fifty-two-inch magnet for handling pig iron, scrap,
and the like.
1907 General Electric commercially introduces in the United States
the tungsten-filament lamp (giving 8 lumens per watt) after
purchasing from Dr. Alexander Just of Vienna, Franz Hana-
man, his colleague, Dr. Werner von Bolton, and Dr. Hanz
Kuzel of Germany, their patent rights covering the tungsten-
1907 HAROLD W. BUCK (1873), electrical engineer of the
Niagara Falls Power Co., and EDWARD M. HEWLETT
(1866-1934), General Electric switchboard engineer, obtain a
joint patent on the suspension type of insulator and the strain
1908 Dr. Lee de Forest (see 1906) announces February 18 his three-
electrode tube on which he has obtained Patent No. 879,532.
C. D. Babcock names the tube "audion."
1908 The so-called flaming arc lamps are developed and introduced.
1908 Nathan B. Stubblefield (see 1892) is granted a patent for his
magnetic induction type radio broadcasting system, which
requires that a conductor encircle the area to be covered by
1908 AUGUSTUS D. CURTIS (1865-1931) demonstrates electric
indirect lighting before the Illuminating Engineering Society
and the Opthalmological Society in Chicago.
1908 The American Association of Electric Motor Manufacturers
is organized with membership limited to companies engaged
in the manufacture of electric motors. Its main purpose is to
standardize sizes, types and characteristics of electric motors.
1908 Edison puts on the market his improved "nickel-iron-alkaline"
1908 The first 100,000 volt long distance transmission line is in-
stalled by the Great Western Power Co. from its Big Bend
Plant at Las Plumas on the Feather River in Northern Cali-
fornia to Oakland a distance of 155 miles.
1908 The International Conference on Electrical Units & Standards,
attended by official delegates of twenty-four countries, meets
in London in October to decide upon mutually satisfactory
definitions and specifications for the principal electrical stand-
1909 The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Canada,
constructs a high-voltage power transmission line running
from Niagara Falls to Toronto. This is the first 110 kv line
to carry power out of the Niagara area.
1909 Incandescent lamps replace carbide flame jets in automobile
1909 LEO HENDRICK BAEKELAND (1863-1944) of Belgium
receives Patent No. 942,809 December 7 for "New and Useful
Improvements in Condensation Products and Method of Mak-
ing Same." "Bakelite," whose first application was in the elec-
trical manufacturing industry, is the direct result of this
invention. It is the beginning of the modern plastics indus-
try, so important to the electrical manufacturing industry.
1910 Laurel Canyon, residential suburb of Los Angeles, installs
what it claims is the first commercial trolley coach line, using
one sixteen-passenger trolley coach.
1910 The first mercury arc manufactured as a source of ultra-
violet rays is made in the United States by the Cooper Hewitt
Electric Company, Hoboken, New Jersey.
1910 The first automobile operated by a combination of gasoline and
electricity is placed in service, equipped with the Owen mag-
netic drive and a generator.
1910 GEORGE A. HUGHES (1871-1944), a former electric utility
operator, begins the manufacture of the first practical electric
range following its exhibit at the National Electric Light
Association convention at St. Louis the same year.
1910 The first electrically driven washing machine is introduced.
1910 The International Technical Committee meets at the Bureau
of Standards in Washington, D. C. in the spring. Representa-
tives of France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United
States attend. At this meeting the "Weston" normal cell is
recommended as a standard for the volt (1.0183 volts at 20C.)
and is accepted by the various national laboratories in Jan-
1910 The American Association of Electric Motor Manufacturers
(see 1908) becomes the Electric Power Club, with member-
ship open to those connected with the manufacture of electric
generators and motors.
1910 DR. WILLIAM DAVID COOLIDGE (1873- ) , who left the
faculty of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1905 to
do research work for the General Electric Co., Schenectady,
New York, makes tungsten ductile for incandescent lamp fila-
ments. The manufacture of the ductile tungsten lamp, an-
nounced in 1910, is begun in 1911, and a patent is granted in
1911 Flexible conduit as a wiring method is first recognized in the
National Electrical Code.
1911 The Boston & Maine Railroad Co. electrifies the Hoosack
Tunnel at North Adams, Massachusetts, approximately five
miles long (25,081 feet), begun in 1851, and completed in 1875.
The tunnel is electrified using single-phase, alternating-cur-
rent with overhead catenary construction, 11,000 volts, 25
cycles. The motors in the locomotives are of the series com-
mutator type, operating at 368 volts, designed for maximum
safe speed of thirty-five miles per hour. Four motors on each
locomotive develop continuously 1,352 horsepower. The tun-
nel contains two tracks running from end to end and cost
approximately twelve million dollars.
1911 The Seventh International Electrical Congress is held at
1911 Ornamental luminous arc lighting standards are installed in
New Haven, Connecticut a new epoch in street lighting.
The installation was copied widely and gave rise to the "White
Way" movement in American cities.
1911 Drawn tungsten filament incandescent lamps (see 1910) giv-
ing 10 lumens per watt are introduced.
1912 The City of Chicago makes contracts for 10,000 enclosed flam-
ing arc lamps for street lighting. One of the largest installa-
tions in the country, it was increased even more in the follow-
1912 Western Union engineers and Western Electric Co. jointly
develop the multiplex system whereby eight telegraph mes-
sages are sent over one wire simultaneously.
1912 The first electrically propelled ship of the U. S. Navy is the
U. S. S. "Jupiter," built as a collier, launched August 24.
The ship was commissioned April 7, 1913, converted to an
aircraft carrier in 1919 and 1920, and her name changed from
"Jupiter" to "Langley" April 21, 1920.
1912 The largest vertical direct-current waterwheel generators are
constructed. There are four units, each rated at 3,500 kilo-
watts, 4,675 horsepower.
1913 A gas-filled lamp using tungsten filament is introduced giving
fourteen lumens per watt. This is thirteen times as much
light per watt as obtained from the early carbon types.
1913 Dr. William D. Coolidge (see 1910) produces a hot-cathode
X-ray tube operating at 100,000 volts. Tubes developed by Dr.
Coolidge and other researchers have been invaluable in diag-
nosis and in the treatment of disease. The electrocardiograph
for analyzing heart conditions, the artificial fever machine for
treating several crippling diseases, electrosurgical apparatus,
diathermy, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, ionic ra-
diation, surgical ionization, and other remedial equipment and
measures have been made possible through electricity.
1913 FREDERICK AUGUST KOLSTER (1883- ), radio engi-
neer, brings about the installation of r'adio beacons at all
important lighthouses and lightships after authorization by
the Bureau of Lighthouses. First experimental radio beacons
are installed on the Ambrose and Fire Island Lightships and
at the Sea Girt Lighthouse on the Jersey Coast. He also
developed the first practical radio compass.
1913 EDWIN H. ARMSTRONG (1890- ), American electrical
engineer, is the first to make use of the three-electrode tube
for generating the continuous electric waves that made radio
1913 The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America is or-
ganized in the United States with the backing of the British
Marconi Company. A station is erected at New Brunswick,
1913 Nela Park (National Electric Lamp Association) is formally
1914 The Panama Canal, the "biggest electrical installation in the
world," opens August 15, with 500 motors operating the huge
locks and 500 other motors installed at the dams, spillways,
and elsewhere along the canal. Their combined horsepower
is nearly 30,000. There are also 4,000 telephones installed.
1914 The first completely automatic substation starts operation at
Union, Illinois, in December. It is built for the Detroit Edison
1914 New York to Washington underground telephone cable is
placed in service.
1915 SAUL DUSHMAN (1883- ) , research physicist at General
Electric Company, produces the world's first high-voltage
vacuum tube rectifier commonly known as a "genotron" tube.
1915 GEORGE S. CLAUDE ( ) of Paris is granted Janu-
ary 19 United States Patent No. 1,125,476 for his neon tube.
1915 The first transcontinental telephone line between New York
and San Francisco is opened for service.
1915 W. d'A. Ryan (see 1899) lights the Panama-Pacific Exposition,
first great lighting spectacle of modern type. The following
year he originates a brilliant "Path of Gold" lighting installa-
tion for Market Street, San Francisco.
1915 The U. S. S. "New Mexico", built in the Brooklyn Navy Yard
(the keel is laid October 14, 1915, the ship was launched April
3, 1917, and commissioned May 20, 1918) is the first battleship
to be propelled by electricity. Two main generators, each rated
at 5,000 horsepower, operate four propulsion motors with a
5,000 horsepower capacity.
1915 Speech is transmitted for the first time by radiotelephone
from Arlington, Virginia, across the continent to San Fran-
cisco, to Hawaii, and across the Atlantic to Paris by Western
Electric Telephone and Telegraph engineers.
1915 The Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies are or-
1915 Western Electric Company develops for the British War Office
a "sound barrage" to jam reception in German listening posts
using a comparatively unknown valve (vacuum tube) detector
to pick up telephone message concerning British operations.
1916 Alexanderson (see 1906) develops a multiple-tuned antenna,
demonstrates his two-way radiotelephone between Schenec-
tady and Pittsfield.
1916 The Electrical Manufacturers Council is organized (1916) and
revised in 1921 to comprise the Electric Power Club, the Elec-
trical Manufacturers Club, and the Associated Manufacturers
of Electrical Supplies.
1916 Publication of "Electrical Merchandising" is begun this year.
1916 MARTIN HOCHSTADTER patents "type H" cable with
electrostatic shield of metal tape that by reducing stresses
permits reduction in diameter and also use of insulated cable
to super-high tension voltages.
1916 E. H. Armstrong (see 1913) is the inventor of the widely used
superheterodyne receiving circuit for radio.
1916 Electric clocks, operated by self -starting synchronous motors,
are developed. At this time frequency of alternating-current
generators is accurately controlled by means of a master
1917 Bell System engineers demonstrate radiotelephony between
the ground and planes in flight and between two planes.
1917 The first fully automatic electric range is produced.
1917 C. C. ABBOTT ( ) invents a radically new form of
enclosed swaged, tubular heating element for electric range
hot plates, in which the coiled resistor wire is embedded, insu-
lated, protected, and supported by impacted magnesium oxide
powder, which permits higher operating temperatures, faster
cooking, better insulation, and longer operating life (Patent
No. 1,376,341 issued 1921).
1917 NIELS BOHR (1885- ), Danish scientist, visualizes the
atom something like this: Around the nucleus, or center of
the atom, are tiny particles which we call electrons, or nega-
tive particles of electricity, identified by the minus sign ( ) .
1917 The first fully automatic hydroelectric station is installed for
the Cedar Rapids Railway & Light Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
1917 The national capitol in Washington is floodlighted.
1918 Bell System introduces carrier telephony enabling a number of
telephone and telegraph messages to be transmitted simul-
taneously over a single set of wires.
1918 The war period spurs the development by C. A. B. HALVOR-
SON ( ) of the open-type military searchlight and
the development of the horizontal spread projector for light-
ing shipyards and other large areas.
1919 The General Electric Company in cooperation with the West-
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company purchases the
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America, New Bruns-
wick, New Jersey, after buying out British stock in the com-
pany, and organizes the Radio Corporation of America.
1919 Wireless is revolutionized by the development of the Alex-
anderson alternator by E. F. W. Alexanderson (see 1906).
1919 The automatic toaster is invented by CHARLES STRITE
1919 Machine switching telephone equipment is installed in the
1919 The first R.C.A. Laboratory is set up in a tent at Riverhead,
Long Island, later the site of R.C.A.'s "Receiving Station" for
world- wide communication.
1919 The American Electrical Standards Committee is organized
and in 1928 is called the American Standards Association.
1920 The world's first commercial radiotelephone service is opened
between Long Beach, California, and Santa Catalina Island.
1920 R.C.A. inaugurates "Radio Central" at Rocky Point, Long
Island, featuring 200 kilowatt Alexanderson alternators.
1920 Station KDKA, owned and operated by the Westinghouse
Electric & Manufacturing Company, opens in Pittsburgh. The
first radio station to broadcast regularly scheduled programs,
its first broadcast is the election returns of the Harding-Cox
presidential campaign November 2.
1920 Transmission of pictures across the Atlantic by the Bartlane
process is accomplished using Western Union cables.
1921 First conversation by deep-sea cable takes place over a 115-
mile route from Key West, Florida to Havana, Cuba.
1921 The first panel-type dial telephone office in the Bell System
1921 The Western Electric public address system is used by Presi-
dent Harding speaking to 100,000 people at Arlington Memo-
rial Theatre on Armistice Day, November 11, as the nation
buries its unknown soldier.
1921 The first radio championship broadcast (the Dempsey-
Carpentier fight, July 2) is put on the air by MAJOR J.
ANDREW WHITE (1889- ) and DAVID SARNOFF
1921 First conversation by submarine cable overhead and under-
ground lines and radiotelephone takes place between Havana
and Catalina Island, a distance of 5,500 miles.
1922 The Queensboro Realty Co., Jackson Heights, New York,
broadcasts August 28, radio's first commercial program over
1922 Ship-to-shore conversation by wire and wireless is carried on
between Bell telephones at Deal Beach, New Jersey, and the
S.S. "America" four hundred miles at sea in the Atlantic.
1922 Six companies, including Western Electric Co., Marconi Co.,
British Thompson-Houston Co., Radio Communications Co.,
and General Electric Company, form the British Broadcasting
Corp. under the supervision of the British Post Office.
1922 The first broadcasting license under the call letters WLW is
obtained by POWEL CROSLEY, JR. (1886- ). Later the
increase of power to 500,000 watts made it the most powerful
radio station in the country.
1922 Steinmetz (see 1889) "manufactures" lightning.
1922 General Electric establishes the Thomson Research Labora-
tory and announces the Charles A. Coffin Foundation.
1923 Successful one-way, transatlantic, radiotelephony is demon-
strated by American Telephone and Telegraph and Western
Electric from New York to London.
1923 DR. GEORGE A. WYETH ( ) constructs and uses
the first efficient radio knife to replace the scalpel in surgery.
1923 ROBERT ANDREW MILLIKAN (1868- ), American
physicist, first to isolate and measure accurately the electric
charge of an electron, receives the Nobel prize for his work
1923 A presidential message to Congress is broadcast for the first
time by President Coolidge.
1923 The Hartford Electric Light Company, Hartford, Connecticut,
installs in its South Meadow Station the first commercial
mercury cycle turbine. This machine is rated at 10,000 kilo-
1923 The first chain broadcast is transmitted January 4 between
WEAF, New York, and WNAC, Boston.
1923 CHARLES FRANCIS JENKINS (1867-1934) , American tele-
vision pioneer, transmits pictures of President Harding by
radio from Washington to Philadelphia, a distance of 130
miles. Earlier in his career (September 27, 1913) he had made
a proposal of "wireless moving-picture news."
1923 The first neon tube advertising sign is installed in July on
the marquee at the Cosmopolitan Theatre, 59 Street and
Columbus Circle, New York.
1923 Continuous transcontinental air mail service is inaugurated
by the Post Office Department, using a night route marked
1923 Bell System engineers introduce a new magnetic material
1924 Bell Telephone Laboratories is organized to assume responsibi-
lity for all research, development, and design of the Bell
System with ownership equally divided between the A. T. &
T. Company and Western Electric Company.
1924 First public demonstration of picture transmission over tele-
phone circuits between New York and Cleveland takes place.
1924 Large mercury arc rectifiers are first used for railroad instal-
1924 During the Illuminating Engineering Society's Convention at
Briarcliff Lodge, New York, one hole of the golf course there
is lighted by means of searchlights and floodlighting pro-
1924 The first "Permalloy" loaded submarine cable is laid between
New York and the Azores.
1924 The portable electrocardiograph employing vacuum tube am-
plification for studying heart currents is introduced.
1924 The first radiophoto is transmitted by R.C.A. across the
Atlantic from New York to London where it is radioed back
across the sea and recorded in New York.
1924 VLADIMIR K. ZWORYKIN (1889- ) , a native of Mourom,
Russia, who studied X-rays under Paul Langevin at the Col-
lege of France with a grant from the Russian government,
develops a complete television system in the research labora-
tories of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com-
pany, Pittsburgh. Zworykin's system included the iconoscope,
or television pickup eye, and the kinescope, or television
receiving tube. Zworykin joined the research laboratory of
the Radio Corporation of America in 1929 and later won more
fame as the inventor of the electron microscope.
1924 The first three-color electric traffic signal appears.
1925 The electric phototube is exhibited at the electrical show at
Grand Central Palace, New York.
1925 The first two theatres in the world to be completely air-con-
ditioned are the Rivoli and the Rialto, both in New York.
1925 MARVIN PIPKIN ( ) of Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio,
invents the first commercially successful electric lamp bulb
to be frosted on the inside, and applies for patent.
1925 Bell Telephone Laboratories, in collaboration with phonograph
engineers, develop mechanism for electric recording of sound,
its first commercial application resulting in the orthophonic
1925 St. Louis, Missouri, is provided with the largest planned street
lighting installation in the world.
1925 Virginian Railway Company, using the most powerful electric
locomotives in the world, is electrified.
1925 The first automatic electric percolator is developed.
1925 The first international radio program is transmitted from
Chelmsf ord, England, picked up at Belfast, Maine, and relayed
by short wave to New York for rebroadcast by R.C.A.'s station
1925 The first hermetically-sealed domestic refrigerator is an-
1925 The New York to Chicago telephone cable is completed, 861
miles in length with 144 miles in underground conduit. It re-
quired seven years to build and install at a cost of twenty-five
million dollars. This cable replaces ten heavily laden pole lines
of ordinary communications and is twice as long as any other
cable of its day. It is formally opened October 1.
1925 Ryan (see 1899) installs a permanent illuminating system for
Niagara Falls, using a battery of twenty-four thirty-six-inch
1 926 Western Electric Company makes sound pictures commercially
practical at "Don Juan" premiere in New York.
1926 Picturegram of a check sent from London to New York by
R.C.A. radiophoto is honored and cashed in New York.
1926 National Broadcasting Company is organized September 9
as a service of R.C.A. to conduct nationwide network broad-
1926 The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
is organized September 1 by merging the Electric Power Club
and the Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies.
Other organizations in the industry have included : Electrical
Manufacturers Alliance (see 1905) and Electrical Manufac-
turers Club (1905) which became the Electrical Manufac-
turers Club (1911) ; American Association of Electric Motor
Manufacturers (1908) which became Electric Power Club
(1910) ; Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies
(1915), Electrical Manufacturers Council (1916). The Council
was revised in 1921 to include the Electric Power Club, The
Electrical Manufacturers Club, and the Associated Manufac-
turers of Electrical Supplies. A plan of reorganization was
prepared in 1925, becoming effective in 1926, and Electrical
Manufacturers Council is dissolved. The Electrical Manufac-
turers Club continues as a social organization, but ties in in
no way with the National Electrical Manufacturers Associa-
1926 The first automatic toasters for use in the home are produced.
1926 The first all-electric car dumper on the Great Lakes goes into
operation at Toledo, Ohio.
1926 Leland Stanford University's laboratory produces 2,100,000
volts, the highest produced so far by man.
1926 Successful test of two-way transatlantic radiotelephony be-
tween New York and London takes place.
1926 Keel of the S.S. "California", the first large passenger ship
with electric drive, is laid at Newport News Shipbuilding
and Dry Dock Co.
1926 David Sarnoff (see 1921) begins puting together the present
National Broadcasting Co., with WJZ as a foundation for the
Blue network and WEAF as a foundation for the Red network.
1927 The first overseas radiotelephone service is established to
England. By 1944 it is extended to include more than seventy
countries so that, except for the war, any Bell telephone can
be connected with any one of ninety-three per cent of the tele-
phones in the world.
1927 Talking equipment for motion pictures, with action and sound
simultaneous, is announced.
1927 The United Independent Broadcasters, Inc., later the Columbia
Broadcasting System, is organized in New York by George A.
Coats, Arthur Judson, Francis Marsh, Edward Ervin, and
Major J. Andrew White. The first network program is broad-
cast September 18, 1927, over sixteen stations, with DOR as
the key station. In 1944 CBS has 146 stations.
1927 An experimental night baseball game is played under incan-
descent floodlights at Lynn, Massachusetts.
1927 A mercury- vapor detector is announced.
1927 The first Federal Radio Commission, created February 23,
consists of five members: Eugene 0. Sykes, John F. Dillon,
Orestes H. Caldwell, Admiral W. H. G. Bullard, U. S. N. Ret.,
and Henry A. Bellows. The commission is given authority to
license broadcasting stations for one year and to fix wave
lengths and hours of operation.
1927 The first radio conversation between an engineer in a loco-
motive cab and a brakeman in a caboose, one and a quarter
miles distant, is demonstrated.
1927 Radio receiving sets and tubes designed for complete alternat-
ing-current operation are introduced by R.C.A. for home use.
1927 The pentode tube for radio is developed, making possible un-
limited audio-frequency amplification without distortion. This
same year the world's first successful short wave long dis-
tance broadcast is made when Queen Wilhelmina speaks from
PC-J, a radio station in Holland, to the Netherlands East and
West Indies. This same year the first all electric (non battery)
radio receiving set is developed in Europe. In England and on
the continent a television set with a large projected picture
1927 Telephone service is opened between the United States and
1927 Dr. W. D. Coolidge (see 1910) announces his cathode ray tube
at Franklin Institute.
1928 Underfloor raceways and electrical metallic tubing as a wiring
method is recognized in the National Electrical Code.
1928 Radio transmission of photographs is publicly demonstrated.
1928 Inside-frosted lamp patent is issued to Marvin Pipkin (see
1928 The first Diesel oil-electric freight locomotive built in the
United States is constructed by the New York Central Lines
and placed in operation in June. A Diesel oil-electric passenger
locomotive is first used in March 1929.
1928 The largest turbine installation in the world is placed in serv-
ice by the United Electric Light & Power Company in its
Hell Gate Station in New York December 27. This installation
consists of two units with a total rating of 160,000 kilowatts,
operating at 1,800 rpm, delivering 3 phase, 60 cycle current
at 13,800 volts.
1928 Nonmetallic sheathed cable is first recognized in the National
Electrical Code (previously listed in a supplement to the code
1928 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to the principal
countries of western Europe.
1928 The first application of hydrogen cooling of synchronous con-
densers of the New England Power Co. is installed in June
at Pawtucket, Rhode Island. The machine is rated at 12,500
kva and operated at 13,800 volts. The use of hydrogen for
cooling purposes is superior to air as it conducts heat away
from the condenser much faster than air, it reduces noise,
and it creates less friction, thus reducing the losses of the
1928 Federal radio authority (see 1927) is placed under the juris-
diction of the Department of Commerce March 15.
1928 Radio Station WGY broadcasts September 11 the first televi-
sion play, "The Queen's Messenger," by J. Hartley Manners.
Station WGY is the pioneer television station with regular
schedule of broadcasts. It also makes the first round-the-world
1928 General Electric announces it has produced 3,600,000 volts of
artificial lightning at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, highest so far.
1928 The Consolidated Edison Co. installs the largest single-shaft
generator ever built in its Hudson Avenue, Station, Brooklyn.
This machine is rated at 200,000 kva, 160,000 kilowatts, 80
per cent power factor.
1928 A recording spectrophotometer is announced.
1928 Underwater lighting is introduced.
1928 E. F. W. Alexanderson (see 1906) makes the first demonstra-
tion of home reception of television.
1928 Louisville Hydro Electric Co. installs eight of the largest gen-
erating units in existence. They have full automatic control,
and each unit is rated at 13,500 horsepower.
1928 Salt Lake City installs first successful trolley coach system.
1928 What is hailed as the first large-scale electrification of open
pit mines is completed at Bingham, Utah, by the Utah Power
1929 Bell Telephone Laboratories develop the coaxial cable for the
transmission of broad band radio waves for multiplex tele-
phony and national television networks.
1929 American Telephone and Telegraph Company opens com-
mercial ship-to-shore telephone service with largest American
ship, the S.S. "Leviathan."
1929 The first Diesel electric towboat is placed in service on the
Warrior River, Alabama, by the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Rail-
1929 The largest railroad tunnel in America, eight miles through
Cascade Range, is opened by the Great Northern Railway Co.,
changing from steam to electric equipment.
1929 5,000,000 volt lightning flash is produced at Pittsfield, Mas-
sachusetts, and is broadcast over WGY.
1929 Alexanderson's (see 1906) method of measuring airplane alti-
tude by reflected radio waves is demonstrated in Detroit.
1929 An artificial fever machine is developed.
1929 The Illinois Steel Co. of South Chicago installs two of the
largest gas-engine generating units ever built, rated at 6,600
kva. A third unit is installed in 1931.
1929 The first automatic waffle iron is developed.
1930 The first rivetless cargo vessel, built by the Charleston Dry
Dock and Machine Co., Charleston, S. C., for the Texas Oil
Company, is launched in February. The entire hull is put
together by the arc welding process under a new system of
dovetailed lock notched plates. A twenty to twenty-five per
cent saving in hull construction cost is effected by using the
1930 The first application of variable colored lighting is made in the
St. George Hotel, Brooklyn.
1930 Television images by radio are exhibited as part of a theater
performance at Schenectady.
1930 The first commercial electric shaver is placed on the market
in July by Shick Incorporated.
1930 A 500,000 volt X-ray machine is announced with more than
twice any previous voltage. It uses the Coolidge (see 1910)
1930 The first issue of the magazine "Electronics" is published in
1930 Two-way television is demonstrated by Bell System engineers.
1930 Transoceanic telephone service is opened to South America
1930 "Vinyl resin" plastics are introduced and used extensively in
the electrical industry for insulating purposes.
1930 Television on a six by eight foot screen is shown by R.C.A.
at R.K.O. Proctors 58 St. Theater, New York. Pictures are
transmitted from station W2XBS on Fifth Avenue.
1931 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to Java, Sumatra,
Bermuda, Hawaii, Canary Islands.
1931 New noiseless system of recording is introduced to the motion
picture industry by R.C.A. along with a low-cost sound picture
producer for alternating-current operation.
1931 A water-cooled incandescent lamp, a portable fever machine,
and transmission of television over a light beam are intro-
1931 In an office building at East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the first
dual installation of an elevator where two cars operate sepa-
rately in the same shaftway is made.
1931 The Washington Monument is floodlighted.
1931 "Neoprene," the first widely used rubber-like synthetic which,
because of its noninflammability and resistance to oils and
chemicals, soon finds many uses in the electrical manufactur-
ing industry, especially on wires and cables.
1931 The first direct-reading photoelectric "foot candle meter" is
introduced. C. H. BARTLETT (1896- ) develops commer-
cially the "selenium dry disc photoelectric cell" (photronic) .
The first self-generating "photoelectric exposure meter" is
developed by W. N. GOODWIN, JR. ( ) .
1931 The first successful commercial production of glass in the
form of pliable fibers takes place. Early application of glass
fibers (fiberglas) are in the electrical field as insulation and
as wafer-like sheets used in storage batteries to prevent shed-
ding of the material from the positive plates.
1931 The "alnico" permanent magnets are discovered by a Japanese
named Mishima in March. He files applications in Japan cover-
ing his discoveries and later obtains corresponding patents in
the United States January 14, 1936. These patents are num-
bered from 2,027,994 to 2,028,000 inclusive. The "alnico" per-
manent magnets are the strongest ever produced.
1932 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to South Africa,
Egypt, Siam, and the Bahamas.
1932 A sonic locator to aid navigation and a sonic marker beacon
for fog flying are announced.
1932 The French superliner "Normandie" is launched, using the
four largest motors ever built. These motors are rated at
40,000 horsepower each.
1932 10,000,000 volts of artificial lightning are produced at Pittsfield.
1932 Heat resistant rubber insulation for 75 C. operation is intro-
duced. For building wire it provides a method of carrying over
one-third more current on a given-sized conductor.
1932 First installation of an "oilostatie" transmission system car-
ries electric power underground through welded steel pipe
lines on supertension cables operating totally immersed in
oil at two hundred pounds pressure.
1932 The dirigible "Los Angeles" talks to the world via light beam
and radio hookup at Schenectady.
1932 The first gyro-stabilized vessel to cross the Atlantic Ocean,
the "Conte di Savoia" of the Italian Line, arrives in New York
1932 The Democratic National Committee uses television in a polit-
ical campaign for the first time (CBS) from New York Octo-
1933 The first sodium-vapor lamps are installed on Balltown Road,
near Schenectady, New York, by the New York Power & Light
Co. The lamps are monochromatic and glow in one color, giving
two and a half times the light output of incandescent lamps
of the same wattage.
1933 The National Electric Light Association changes its name to
Edison Electric Institute January 12.
1933 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to the Phillipines,
Canal Zone, Central American Countries, Palestine, and India.
1933 The highest speed passenger elevators in the world are in-
stalled at Rockefeller Center, New York, using roto-control
1933 The high-intensity mercury- vapor lamp appears.
1934 The Federal Communications Commission (seven members)
is created by the Communications Act of 1934 to regulate
"communication by wire and radio."
1934 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to Japan.
1934 The Mutual Broadcasting System is organized on a coopera-
tive basis by four stations WOR, Newark ; WGN, Chicago ;
WLW, Cincinnati; WXYZ, Detroit. Later other stations
join, including those of the Don Lee Broadcasting System
in California and the Yankee Network in Massachusetts, giv-
ing Mutual a coast-to-coast network. In 1944 Mutual has 232
stations operating on a co-operative basis.
1934 The "Zephyr" a new type streamlined Diesel-electric train is
turned over to the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.
1934 Mobile two-way radio system is developed for the Boston Police
Department and is demonstrated.
1935 The first major-league night baseball game is played in Cin-
cinnati under incandescent floodlights.
1935 Two of the largest waterwheel generators in the world are
built for Boulder Dam.
1935 The largest single-shaft turbine generator unit in the United
States is installed at the plant of the Philadelphia Electric Co.
The generator is rated at 165,000 kilowatts, 183,333 kva, de-
livers 3 phase, 60 cycle current at 13,800 volts, and is air cooled.
The turbine operates at 1,800 rpm on a steam pressure of
375 pounds per square inch.
1935 The first round-the-world telephone conversation by wire and
radio is held by Bell System officials in New York.
1935 A new light wall, concentric-layer-type insulation of purified
rubber applied by the dip or pass method is announced . . . ini-
tiating the small diameter trend in modern electric wire.
1935 The first electric cable insulated with heat resistant glass fiber
(see 1931) making possible the redesign of electric motors for
higher temperature operation with substantial reductions in
their weight and size is introduced.
1936 First public demonstration of coaxial telephone cable is made.
1936 First ultra-high-frequency automatic relay circuit is opened
by R.C.A. between New York and Philadelphia, transmitting
simultaneously facsimile and multiple radiotelegraph mes-
1936 Television outdoors is demonstrated by R.C.A. at Camden,
1936 Production is begun of glass fibers sufficiently fine and pliable
to be woven into fabrics. Glass fiber (fiberglas) tapes, braids,
cloths, and sleevings impregnated with a varnish are used
as insulation in motors, generators, transformers, and other
heavy-duty electrical equipment. High-temperature resist-
ance of the impregnated glass fiber insulation materials paves
the way for design engineers to reduce size and weight of
electrical units required to do a given job.
1936 12,500,000 kilowatts of artificial lightning are produced at
1936 Broadcasting by frequency modulation is developed and an-
nounced by E. H. Armstrong (see 1913) . This system elimi-
ates static from broadcasting.
1937 Sealed beam automobile headlamps, more than twice as effi-
cient as former filament lamps, are introduced.
1937 Transoceanic telephone service is extended to China, Bulgaria,
Alaska, Haiti, and Iraq.
1937 The first hydrogen-cooled turbo-generator is put in service at
Dayton, Ohio, in October by the Dayton Power & Light Co.
The generator is rated at 33,333 kva and runs 3,600 rpm.
The use of hydrogen for cooling purposes is superior to air
as it conducts heat away from the generator much faster than
air; it reduces noise and creates less friction, thus reducing
the loss of the machine (see 1928) .
1937 The electron projection gun is demonstrated by R.C.A. engi-
neers ; it projects television pictures on a screen eight by ten
1937 The first automatic electrically operated washing machine is
produced and displayed at the Blackstone Hotel in Chicago.
1938 A direct radiotelephone circuit is established between San
Francisco and Australia.
1938 The terrain clearance indicator, through which radio echo in-
dicates altitude of airplanes, is demonstrated.
1938 The first steam-electric locomotive is demonstrated for the
Union Pacific Railroad.
1938 DR. CARL DAVID ANDERSON (1905- ), scientist at
California Institute of Technology, declares for the existence
of an X-particle prenamed "neutrino" (little neutron) .
1938 Gas-filled cables are developed using a nonconducting gas
under pressure for insulating purposes (see 1885) .
1938 Fluorescent lamps are introduced, more than doubling the
efficiencies obtained from corresponding wattages of filament
lamps. Fluorescent lamps in some colors give more than one
hundred times as much light per watt consumed as do colored
filament type lamps.
1939 Dr. Vladimir K. Zworykin (see 1924) announces he is develop-
ing an electron microscope; in April 1940, he completes the
instrument which attains magnifications up to 100,000 dia-
1939 A telephone cable containing 2,121 pairs of wires is manu-
1939 A million-volt X-ray unit is built for Memorial Hospital, New
York City. The unit employs a continuously-evacuated multi-
section X-ray tube. Freon gas, used as an insulating medium,
permits material reduction in size of the transformer tank.
1939 W6XBE, first international broadcasting station west of Mis-
sissippi River, goes on the air March 2.
1939 Color television is demonstrated to the Federal Communica-
tions Commission by R.C.A.
1939 Ultraviolet light (black light) is used at San Francisco's
Golden Gate International Exposition in combination with
fluorescent paints to obtain unusual shades of color.
1940 First use of coaxial cable by American Telephone and Tele-
graph Company is to transmit television signals to be broad-
cast to the public.
1940 During 1940 the index of electrical goods sales increases twice
as fast as general business 25.2 per cent as against 12.6 per
cent. The electrical manufacturing industry started 1941 with
an all-time record backlog of orders. Almost 1,000,000 new
electrical consumers were added during 1940, with about 90
per cent in the residential group. The number of wired homes
at this time is about 25,500,000.
1940 The number of electrified farms in the United States is about
2,000,000. There are an estimated two hundred uses of elec-
tricity per farm.
1940 The National Television Systems Committee is organized
under the joint sponsorship of the Radio Manufacturers Asso-
ciation and the Federal Communications Commission to draft
standards for the television industry.
1941 Telephone service to the public over First commercial coaxial
cable between Stevens Point, Wisconsin, and Minneapolis,
Minnesota, is opened.
1941 Television progress demonstrated to the Federal Communica-
tions Commission by R.C. A. includes : home television receiver
with 13% by 18 inches translucent screen ; television pictures
15 by 20 foot on New Yorker Theatre screen ; pictures relayed
by radio from Camp Upton, Long Island, to New York ; also
facsimile multiplexed with frequency modulation sound broad-
1941 R.C. A. "alert receiver" turned on and off by a special signal
from broadcast transmitter rings bell, lights electric lamp,
blows siren to summon listeners is demonstrated for possible
use in civilian defense.
1941 An electron microscope at the University of Pennsylvania
magnifies the influenza virus 65,000 times, making possible
the first photograph ever taken of the virus.
1941 The Federal Communications Commission authorizes com-
mercial television broadcasting July 1. Several stations imme-
diately start the transmission of such programs.
1942 The largest waterwheel generator 108,000 kva for Grand
Coulee, is installed. This is a 60 cycle, 13,800 volt, vertical,
two-bearing type waterwheel machine operating at 120 rpm,
3 phase. This generator has a net weight, including housing
and coolers, of approximately 2,100,000 pounds, and has an
overall diameter of forty-five feet.
1942 First direct radiophoto circuit between Australia and the
United States is opened by R.C.A. (1942) ; between New York
and Cairo (1942) ; New York and Stockholm (1943) ; New
York and Berne (1943) ; direct radiotelegraph circuits be-
tween New York and Dakar (1943) ; between New York and
Quito, Ecuador (1943) ; between New York and Naples, Italy
(1944). For the New York-Italian circuit, R.C.A. sets up the
first American owned and operated commercial station on
the continent of Europe.
1942 Underground telephone cables between Omaha, Nebraska, and
Sacramento, California, are placed in service, providing the
first all-cable transcontinental telephone route.
1943 Overseas radiotelephone service (see 1927) is extended to
1943 "Polyethylene," a plastic material well adapted for insulation
of high frequency wires and cables, is introduced.
1943 The electron microanalyzer, growing out of research on the
electron microscope, is developed at R.C.A. laboratories ; this
instrument makes possible the determination of the atomic
composition of submicroscopic particles of matter.
1944 As of July, television broadcasts are being made from nine
stations in the United States three in New York, one each
in Philadelphia and Albany-Schenectady, two each in Chicago
and Los Angeles.
1944 A new Buna-S insulation is first applied to wire by the dip or
1944 A striking example of the electrical industry's growth is
given by the Consolidated Edison Company of New York,
which has 1,001,942 customers.
1944 The silicone insulating resins, suitable for binding inorganic
insulating materials, are introduced, making possible insulat-
ing materials that withstand high temperatures.
1944 The first precision, sealed-off, 2,000,000 volt x-ray tube, a
tube that brings to radiography the same sort of improvement
that the electron microscope brought to optics, is developed
and made commercially avilable.
1944 Circuit integrity in aircraft lighting, power, and control is
advanced by the introduction of a new fire-resistant aircraft
The following list of member companies of the National Electrical
Manufacturing Association as of January 1, 1946, provides historical
data regarding each of them including the name of the original com-
pany, the date of founding, the name and title of the founder, and the
name of the first president. Some of the present companies are the
outgrowth of numerous mergers, with many changes in corporate
structure since pioneer days. The record here given is presented in
its simplest form as an appendix to this Chronology.
A-B STOVES DIVISION
1. A-B Stove Company
3. F. K. Berry, Pres.
J. A. Alexander, Vice-Pres.
4. F. K. Berry
1. Accurate Insulated Wire Co.
3-4. J. T. Whalen, Propr.
ACME ELECTRIC & MANUFAC-
TURING COMPANY, THE
1. The Acme Electric and Machine
3. C. H. Bunch, R. A. Lais, G. R.
4. R. A. Lais
ACME WIRE COMPANY, THE
1. Acme Wire Company
3. V. M. Tyler and E. L. Hartpence
4. V. M. Tyler
ADALET MFG. CO., THE
1. The Adalet Mfg. Co.
3-4. J. C. Boyton, Pres.
ADAM, FRANK, ELECTRIC COM-
1-2. Jacob Blattner-1845
Blattner & Adam-1870
3. Jacob Blattner, Owner
1. Continental Radio & Television
3-4. Ross D. Siragusa, Pres.
AIR REDUCTION SALES COMPANY
1. Air Reduction Sales Company
3. Air Reduction Company, Incorpor-
4. Walter W. Birge
1. Industrial Manufacturers Inc.
3. Stephen Buchanan
1. Airmaster Corporation
3-4. H. C. Hueglin, Pres.
AKRON PORCELAIN COMPANY,
1. Akron Smoking Pipe Company
3. Chas. Palmer, Curtis Fenton, F.
W. Butler, Sr.
4. Chas. Palmer
KEY: Present name of company followed by
1. Name of original company
2. Date of founding
3. Name of founder and title
4. Name of first president
1. Compression Rheostat Company
3-4. Lynde Bradley, Pres.
ALLIANCE MFG. CO., THE
1. The Alliance Toy & Specialty Co.
3. O. L. Lewis, Pres.
4. W. H. Purcell
ALLIS, LOUIS, CO., THE
1. The Mechanical Appliance Co.
3-4. Louis Allis, Pres.
1-2. *Mechanical, Decker and Seville-
1847; Electrical, George F. Card
3. *Mechanical, Partnership
Electrical, George F. Card
4. George F. Card
ALLOY RODS COMPANY
1. Alloy Rods Company
3-4. E. J. Brady, Pres.
AMERICAN DISTRICT TELE-
GRAPH COMPANY, INC.
1. National District Telegraph
3. Belvidere Brooks, John C. Barclay,
George H. Fearons, Charles H.
Bristol, Edward M. Mulford,
Francis R. Stark, Albert T.
4. A. B. Taylor
AMERICAN ELECTRIC SWITCH
1. American Electric Switch Corpora-
4. W. F. Kuehneman
AMERICAN ELECTRICAL HEATER
1. American Electrical Heater
3. F. H. Date, Pres.
John Heffron, Vice-Pres.
Benjamin H. Scran ton, Sec.
John Scudder, Treas.
4. F. H. Date
AMERICAN FIRE PREVENTION
1. American Fire Prevention Bureau
3-4. John Harper Derby, Pres.
AMERICAN FLEXIBLE CONDUIT
1. American Flexible Conduit Co.
3-4. J. H. Abrams, Owner
AMERICAN GAS ACCUMULATOR
1. American Gasaccumulator Com-
3. Svenska A/B Gasaccumulator,
4. Frank H. Taylor
AMERICAN LAVA CORPORATION
1. American Lava Company
3. Paul John Kruesi, Treas. & Gen.
AMERICAN METAL MOULDING
1. American Metal Moulding Co.
3-4. G. A. Johnson, Pres.
AMERICAN TRANSFORMER COM-
1. American Transformer Company
3-4. A. F. Harrold, Pres.
AMPCO METAL, INC.
1. American Metal Products Co.
4. Peter J. Weber
AMPEREX ELECTRONIC CORPO-
1. Amperex Electronic Products Inc.
3. Nathan Goldman, Nicholas Anton
4. Nathan Goldman
ANCHOR MANUFACTURING CO.
1. Anchor Manufacturing Co.
3-4. G. W. Armstrong, Pres.
ANDERSON, C. J., & COMPANY
1. C. J. Anderson & Company
3-4. Carl J. Anderson, Pres.
ANDERSON BRASS WORKS, INC.
1. Anderson Brass Works, Inc.
3. J. E. Anderson, Pres. & Sec.
R. E. Schuler, Treas.
4. J. E. Anderson
1. R. D. Thomas & Company
3-4. R. D. Thomas, Pres.
ARROW-HART & HEGEMAN
ELECTRIC CO., THE
1-2. *The Hart & Hegeraan Mfg. Co.-
The Arrow Electric Co.-1908
3. *G. W. Hart
E. R. Grier
4. *G. W. Hart
C. G. Perkins
M. B. AUSTIN COMPANY, THE
1. M. B. Austin and Company
3-4. Merritt B. Austin, Pres.
AUTH ELECTRICAL SPECIALTY
1. Auth Electrical Specialty Co., Inc.
3-4. Charles Auth
AUTOCALL COMPANY, THE
1. The Autocall Company
3-4. John C. Fish
AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. The Strowger Automatic Tele-
3. M. A. Meyer, Pres.
A. B. Strowger, Vice-Pres.
Joseph Harris, Sec. & Treas.
W. S. Strowger
4. M. A. Meyer
AUTOMATIC PRODUCTS COMPANY
1. Automatic Products Company
3-4. Roy W. Johnson, Pres.
AUTOMATIC SWITCH CO.
1. Automatic Switch Co. of Balti-
BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY,
1. Babcock & Wilcox
3-4. George Herman Babcock, Partner
BALDOR ELECTRIC CO.
1. Baldor Electric Co.
3-4. Edwin C. Ballman, Pres.
BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS,
1. Matthias W. Baldwin
3. Matthias W. Baldwin
BARKELEW ELECTRIC MFG. CO.,
1. The Barkelew Electric Mfg. Co.
3. Charles S. Barkelew, Pres.
Charles H. Barkelew, Sec.
4. Charles S. Barkelew
BASTIAN-MORLEY CO., INC.
1. Bastian-Morley Co.
3-4. J. P. Morley, Pres.
BAUER MFG. CORPORATION
3. Wm. T. Bauer, Partner
BECKER BROTHERS CARBON CO.
1. Becker Brothers Electrical Cor-
3-4. 0. E. Becker, Pres.
BELDEN MANUFACTURING COM-
1. Belden Manufacturing Company
3-4. Joseph Congdon Belden, Pres.
BENJAMIN ELECTRIC MANUFAC-
1. Benjamin Electric Manufacturing
3. R. B. Benjamin, Vice-Pres.
4. Walter D. Steele
BODINE ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Bodine Electric Company
3. Carl D. and Paul J. Bodine
4. Carl D. Bodine
BOEHME, H. 0., INC.
1. H. 0. Boehme
3-4. Herman 0. Boehme, Propr.
BOSTON INSULATED WIRE &
1. Clark Insulation Co.
3. H. B. Burley, Treas.
4. G. K. Bartlett
BRANDYWINE FIBRE PRODUCTS
1. Brandywine Fibre Products Com-
3-4. Homer J. Davis, Sr., Pres.
BRIDGEPORT SWITCH COMPANY,
1. The Bridgeport Switch Company
3. Neil G. Hayes, Pres. & Treas.
A. R. Auray, Sec. & Asst. Treas.
4. Neil G.Hayes
BRIEGEL METHOD TOOL COM-
1. The Briegel Method Tool Company
3-4. Theo. Briegel, Sole Owner
BRIGHT LIGHT REFLECTOR COM-
1. Bright Light Reflector Company,
3-4. I. Litner, Pres.
BRYANT ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1. The Bryant Electric Company
3. Waldo C. Bryant, Treas.
4. L. W. Eaton
BUCK X-OGRAPH COMPANY
1. Buck X-ograph Company
3-4. A. W. Buck
BULLDOG ELECTRIC PRODUCTS
1. Mutual Electric & Machine Co.
4. H. S. Sands
BURKE ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Burke Electric Company
3-4. James Burke, Pres.
BURLINGTON INSTRUMENT COM-
1. Burlington Instrument Corporation
3-4. A. R. Kramer
BURNDY ENGINEERING COM-
1. Burndy Engineering Company,
3. Bern Dibner, Vice-Pres.
4. Philip Fried
CAMDEN WIRE CO., INC.
1. Camden Wire Co., Inc.
4. A. H. Maloney
CARBON ENGINEERING CORP.
1. Carbon Engineering Corp.
4. H. L. Kadish
CARBONE CORPORATION, THE
SOC. LE CARBONE LORRAINE
1. Lacombe et cie
2. About 1860
CENTURY ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. H. E. Lindsey Electrical Supply
3. H. E. Lindsey, Owner
CENTURY LIGHTING, INC.
1. Century Lighting Equipment, Inc.
3. Joseph Levy, Pres.
Edward F. Kook, Treas.
4. Joseph Levy
CERAMIC SPECIALTIES COM-
1. The Adamant Porcelain Company
3-4. Harry W. Peach, Pres.
CHAMPION RIVET COMPANY,
1. The Champion Rivet Company
3. David J. Champion, Pres.
CHANDEYSSON ELECTRIC CO.
1. Panelectric S. & A. Co.
3. Pierre I. Chandeysson, Sec.-Treas.
4. George McGann
1-2. *L. A. Chase & Co., Inc.-1893
Shawmut Fuse Wire Co.-1893
3. * Stone & Webster
Mass. Elec. Eng. Co., Stone &
4. *Loren A. Chase
CHICAGO FLEXIBLE SHAFT COM-
1. Stewart and Clark
3-4. John K. Stewart, Pres.
CHICAGO TRANSFORMER DIVI-
SION ESSEX WIRE CORPORATION
1. Chicago Transformer Corporation
3. W. J. Leidy, Pres.
Earle Knight, Vice-Pres.
G. R. Blackburn, Treas.
Ami Helgason, Sec.
4. W. J. Leidy
CIRCLE WIRE & CABLE CORP.
1. Circle Flexible Conduit Co.
3. Sol Furst, Pres.
M. B. Cohn, Vice-Pres.
Sol Cohn, Treas.
I. J. Furst, Asst. Sec.
4. Sol Furst
CLARK CONTROLLER COMPANY,
1. The Clark Controller Company
3-4. P. C. Clark, Pres.
CLEVELAND HEATER CO., THE
1. The Cleveland Heater Co.
4. Leo Friedman
CLIFTON CONDUIT CO. INC.
1. Clifton Mfg. Co.
2. About 1905
3. Col. Lincoln Green, Miss Amanda
COLONIAL INSULATOR CO., THE
1. The Akron Marble & Insulator Co.
3-4. J. P. Loomis
COLUMBIA CABLE & ELECTRIC
1. Columbia Metal Hose Works
3-4. Samuel Daniels, Pres.
COLUMBIA ELECTRIC MFG. CO.
1. Columbia Electric Mfg. Co.
3-4. Adolph Friedman, Pres.
CONNECTICUT TELEPHONE &
ELECTRIC DIVISION OF GREAT
AMERICAN INDUSTRIES, INC.
1. Connecticut Telephone & Electric
3-4. Ernest Wilcox
1. *Diamond State Fibre Company
The Continental Fibre Company
Chicago Mica Company
Delaware Hard Fibre Company
Fibroc Insulation Company
4. Edward M. Taylor
COOK ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Frank B. Cook Company
3-4. Frank B. Cook
COPPERWELD STEEL COMPANY
1. Copper Clad Steel Company
3. Copper Clad Steel Company
4. S. E. Bramer
1. Cordage, Incorporated
3. Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Com-
4. Claude D. Manning
CORNING GLASS WORKS
1. Union Glass Company
3. Amory Houghton, Sr., et al.
CORY GLASS COFFEE BREWER
1. Glass Coffee Brewer Corp.
3. Harvey Cory
H. G. Blakeslee, Sec.
4. Harvey Cory
COUCH, S. H., COMPANY, INC.
1. Williams and Couch
3. Samuel H. Couch, Partner
CRESCENT INSULATED WIRE &
CABLE CO., INC.
1. Crescent Insulated Wire & Cable
3-4. C. Edw. Murray, Pres. & Sec.
CROCKER WHEELER ELECTRIC
DIVISION OF JOSHUA HENDY
1. Crocker Wheeler Electric Motor
3. Francis Bacon Crocker, Vice-Pres.
Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler,
4. Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler
CROSLEY CORPORATION, THE
1. The Crosley Radio Corporation
3-4. Powel Crosley, Jr., Pres.
1. Grouse-Hinds Electric Company
3. H. B. Grouse, Pres.
Jesse L. Hinds, Vice-Pres.
4. H. B. Grouse
CRUCIBLE STEEL COMPANY OF
1. Crucible Steel Company of Amer-
4. Charles H. Halcomb
CURTIS LIGHTING, INCORPORAT-
1. National X-Ray Reflector Com-
3-4. A. D. Curtis
1-2. Chicago Electric and Mfg. Co.-1892
*American Rheostat Company-1896
3. H. H. Cutler, E. W. Hammer,
*F. R. Bacon, Pres.
4. H. H. Cutler
*F. R. Bacon
DALLAS ENGINEERING COMPANY
1. Dallas Engineering Corporation
3. B. Sonntag, Pres., et al.
DAUNT CORPORATION, THE
1. The Daunt Corporation
3-4. William A. Daunt
DAVIS TRANSFORMER COMPANY
1. Davis Transformer Company
3-4. H. E. Stockwell, Pres. & Treas.
DAY-BRITE LIGHTING, INC.
1. Day-Brite Reflector Co.
3. D. J. Blller, Pres.
0. W. Klingsick, Vice-Pres. &
4. D. J. Biller
DEAN HILL PUMP COMPANY, THE
1. The Dean Hill Pump Company
3-4. Noble Dean, Pres.
DE LAVAL STEAM TURBINE COM-
1. De Laval Steam Turbine Company
4. Francis J. Arend
DELCO PRODUCTS DIV., GENERAL
1. Dayton Engineering Laboratories
3. E. A. Deeds and C. F. Kettering,
4. Geo. W. Shroyer
DELTA-STAR ELECTRIC COM-
1. Delta-Star Electric Company
3. H. W. Young, Pres.
A. S. Pearl, Sec.-Treas.
4. H. W. Young
DETROIT LUBRICATOR COMPANY
1. Detroit Lubricator Company
3-4. Henry Clay Hodges, Pres.
DIEHL MANUFACTURING COM-
1. Diehl & Co.
3. Philip Diehl
4. Edwin H. Bennett, Jr.
DONGAN ELECTRIC MANUFAC-
1. Dongan Electric Manufacturing
3-4. Lyle J. Hicks, Pres.
DRAKE ELECTRIC WORKS, INC.
1. Drake Electric Works
3. Wm. J. A. Kuehl, Owner
1. Driver-Harris Wire Company
3-4. Frank L. Driver, Sr., Pres.
DUMORE COMPANY, THE
1. Wisconsin Electric Company
3. L. H. Hamilton, Pres.
Chester Beach, Vice-Pres.
4. L. H. Hamilton
DUNCAN ELECTRIC MANUFAC-
1. Duncan Electric Manufacturing
3. Thomas Duncan
4. Charles A. Brown
DU PONT DE NEMOURS, E. I., &
1. E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.
3-4. Eleuthere Irenee du Pont de
E-Z ELECTRIC MFG. CO.
1. E-Z Electric Mfg. Co.
3. S. M. Ellman, J. S. Zuckerman
4. S. M. Ellman
EAGLE SIGNAL CORPORATION
1. Harrington-Seaberg Corporation
3-4. Severin Seaberg, Pres.
EASTERN TUBE & TOOL CO., INC.
1. Eastern Flexible Conduit Co.
4. E. M. Sutliff
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY
1. George Eastman
3. George Eastman, Treaa.
4. Henry A. Strong
ECONOMY FUSE AND MANUFAC-
1. Economy Fuse and Manufacturing
3-4. Alfred L. Eustice, Pres.
EDISON, THOMAS A., INCORPOR-
1. Edison Phonograph Works, et al.
3-4. Thomas A. Edison
EDISON GENERAL ELECTRIC
APPLIANCE COMPANY, INC.
1-2. Hotpoint Electric Heating Com-
pany-1904. Hughes Electric Heating
Company-1910. Heating Device Sec-
tion of the General Electric Co.-
1904. Above consolidated as Edison
Electric Appliance Co., Inc.-1918.
3-4. George A. Hughes, Pres.
EDWARDS AND COMPANY, INC.
1. Edwards and Company
3-4. Robert Edwards
1. Eicor, Inc.
3. J. Nader, Pres.
R. D. Wright, Vice-Pres.
4. J. Nader
ELECTRIC ARC, INC.
1. Electric Arc Cutting & Welding
3-4. Claude J. Holslag, Pres.
ELECTRIC AUTO-LITE CO., THE
1. American Enameled Magnet Wire
3-4. M. P. Cromwell, Pres.
ELECTRIC CONTROLLER &
1. The Electric Controller & Supply
3-4. Charles H. Wellman, Pres.
ELECTRIC MACHINERY MFG.
1. Electric Machinery Company
3. James T. Boustead
Charles H. Chalmers
4. James T. Boustead
ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING &
1. Electric Manufacturing & Repair
3-4. J. E. Strickler, Pres.
ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT
1. Lewis-Roth Co.
3-4. L. R. Lewis, Pres.
ELECTRIC PRODUCTS CO., THE
1. The Electric Products Co.
3-4. Maxwell R. Berry
ELECTRIC RAILWAY EQUIPMENT
1. The Electric Railway Equipment
3. Chas. Andrew, Frank Andrew,
William Andrew, Partners
ELECTRIC RAILWAY IMPROVE-
MENT COMPANY, THE
1. The Electric Railway Improve-
3. William B. Cleveland
4. Albert B. Herrick
ELECTRIC SERVICE MANUFAC-
1. Electric Service Supplies Co.
3. The Mayer & Englund Company
4. Charles J. Mayer
ELECTRIC SPECIALTY COMPANY
1. Electric Specialty Company
3. Monroe L. Bickart, Sec. & Treas.
4. J. M. Wright
ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY
1. The Electric Storage Battery Com-
3. Randal Morgan
Samuel T. Bodine
4. W. W. Gibbs
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS EQUIP-
1. Electrical Engineers Equipment
3-4. F. Woodmansee
ELECTRO DYNAMIC WORKS OF
THE ELECTRIC BOAT COMPANY
1. Electro Dynamic Company
ELECTRO MANUFACTURING CO.
1. Electro Utilities
3-4. John R. Allen
1. Electro-Technical Coatings, Inc.
1. Electromaster Inc.
3. Warren Noble
Edward T. Gushee
R. B. Marshall, Pres.
4. Warren Noble
1. Electrons, Inc. of Delaware
4. D. V. Edwards
1. Elliott Co.
3-4. W. S. Elliott, Pres.
EMERSON ELECTRIC MFG. CO.,
1. The Emerson Electric Mfg. Co.
3. J. W. Emerson, Pres.
C. R. Meston, Sec.
A. W. Meston, Supt.
4. J. W. Emerson
ENDER MANUFACTURING COR-
1. Ender Manufacturing Corpora-
3-4. Abraham Ender, Pres.
ENSIGN ELECTRIC & MFG. CO.
1. Ensign Electric & Mfg. Co.
3-4. D. A. Ensign, Pres.
ERIE ELECTRIC CO., INC.
1. Erie Electric Co., Inc.
3-4. John H. Darby
ESTATE STOVE COMPANY, THE
1. Peebles Wood & Company
1. The Central Laboratory Supply Co.
3-4. J. W. Esterline, Chm. of Bd.
EVERSON ELECTRIC COMPANY
1-2. *Everson-Leidy Electric Co.-1926
Elliott-Thompson Electric Co.-1897
3. *Walter A. Everson, Austin W.
J. N. Elliott
4. Walter A. Everson
FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO.
1. E. and T. Fairbanks and Co.
3. Thaddeus Fairbanks, Owner &
FAIRCHILD CAMERA AND IN-
1. Fairchild Aerial Camera Corpora-
3-4. Sherman M. Fairchild
FARADAY ELECTRIC CORP.
1-2. Stanley & Patterson-1884
Schwarze Electric Co.-1904
3-4. George Patterson
FARIES MANUFACTURING COM-
1. Robert Faries
2. About 1880
3. Robert Faries, Propr.
FARLEY & LOETSCHER MFG. CO.
1. Farley & Loetscher Mfg. Co.
3. Christian Loetscher, Supt. & Pres.
4. Jesse P. Farley
FEDERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1. Federal Electric Company
3. John F. Gilchrist
John H. Goehst
James M. Gilchrist
4. John H. Goehst
FEDERAL ELECTRIC PRODUCTS
1. Federal Electric Products Company,
FEDERAL TELEPHONE & RADIO
1. Poulsen Wireless Telegraph &
3. C. F. Eldwell, Vice-Pres. & Chief
4. Professor C. D. Marks
1. Fenwal Incorporated
3. T. Legare Fenn
Dr. Carl Walter
W. J. Turenne
4. T. Legare Fenn
FIBRE CONDUIT COMPANY, THE
1. The Fibre Conduit Company
3-4. S. R. Bradley
1. Fluores-0-Lite Mfg. Co.
3. Meyer H. Silverman, Owner
FORMICA INSULATION CO., THE
1. The Formica Insulation Co.
3. H. A. Faber
D. J. O'Conor
4. H. A. Faber
FOSTORIA PRESSED STEEL COR-
1. Fostoria Pressed Steel Company
3-4. C. D. Pifer, Pres.
FOWLER MANUFACTURING COM-
1. Arthur Fowler Company
3. Guy Arthur
Paul L. Fowler
4. Guy Arthur
FRIEZ INSTRUMENT DIVISION
BENDIX AVIATION CORPORATION
1. Julien P. Friez
3-4. Julien P. Friez
GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION
1. Domestic Engineering Company
3. E. A. Deeds, Pres.
C. F. Kettering, Vice-Pres.
4. E. A. Deeds
FRINK CORPORATION, THE
1. I. P. Frink
3. Isaac Pendleton Frink, Sole Propr.
1. Brown Specialty Company
3-4. Geo. F. Brown
G & W ELECTRIC SPECIALTY COM-
1. Gear & Williams
3-4. Paul F. Williams, Partner
GAMEWELL COMPANY, THE
1. John N. Gamewell & Company
3. John N. Gamewell, Senior Partner
GENERAL CERAMICS AND
1. General Ceramics Company
3. German-American Stoneware Co.
4. N. Jungeblut
GENERAL DEVICES & FITTINGS
1. General Devices & Fittings Co.
3. J. M. Van Splunter
A. D. Fonger
E. O. Sessions
4. J. M. Van Splunter
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
1-2. Thomson-Houston Co.
Edison General Electric Co.-1878
3-4. Thomas A. Edison
GENERAL ELECTRIC X-RAY COR-
1. Victor Electric Company
3. C. F. Samms, Pres.
J. B. Wantz, Vice-Pres.
4. C. F. Samms
GENERAL INDUSTRIES COMPANY,
1. The Dean Electric Company
3-4. S. Rawson
GENERAL LIGHTING PRODUCTS
1. General Lighting Products Co.
3. Nathan H. Eglowstein, Owner
4. Nathan H. Eglowstein, Pres.
GIBSON REFRIGERATOR COM-
1. Gibson Refrigerator Company
3-4. Frank S. Gibson, Pres.
GILBERT A. C., COMPANY, THE
1. Mysto Manufacturing Company
3-4. A. C. Gilbert, Pres.
GILLINDER BROTHERS, INC.
1. Gillinder glass industry
3. William Gillinder
GLEASON-TIEBOUT GLASS CO.
1. E. P. Gleason Mfg. Co.
3-4. Elliott Perry Gleason
1. Glenn-Roberts Company
3-4. George G. Glenn
GLOBE LIGHTING PRODUCTS
1. Globe Lighting Fixture Manufac-
3-4. Isidor Rosenblatt
1. The Globe Electric Company
4. John I. Beggs
1. The Sperry Electric Mining Mach-
3. Elmer A. Sperry, Electrician
4. A. L. Sweet
GRAPHITE METALLIZING CORPO-
1. Graphite Metallizing Corporation
3. Frederick P. Fuller, Vice-Pres.
4. Alexander Turner
GREAT WESTERN FUSE COM-
1. Great Western Fuse Company
3. F. C. LaMar
P. J. Hopkins
4. F. C. LaMar
GRISWOLD MFG. COMPANY, THE
1. Selden & Griswold Company
3. Matthew Griswold, Samuel Selden,
HAMILTON BEACH CO., DIVISION
OF SCOVILL MANUFACTURING
1. Able Porter and Company
3-4. Able Porter
HANLON & WILSON COMPANY
1. Hanlon & Wilson Company
3-4. A. G. Wilson, Partner
1. Mr. Stevens
3. Mr. Stevens, Owner & Propr.
HARDWICK, KINDLE, INC.
1. Hardwick, Hindle, Inc.
3-4. A. H. Hardwick
1. Pawling & Harnischfeger
3. Alonzo Pawling, Henry Harnisch-
HART MANUFACTURING COM-
1. The Hart Manufacturing Company
3-4. George Waldo Hart, Pres.
HEINEMANN CIRCUIT BREAKER
1. Heinemann Circuit Breaker Com-
3. Heinemann Electric Company
4. Bernard S. Berlin
HEINEMANN ELECTRIC CO.
1. Heinemann Electric Co.
3. George Heinemann
HEINZE ELECTRIC COMPANY
HENRITE PRODUCTS CORPORA-
1. Channel Packing & Rubber Co.
3. Ralph L. Henry
Albert C. Henry
Irving U. Eggert
4. Ralph L. Henry
HERTNER ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1. The Hertner Electric Company
3-4. John H. Hertner, Pres.
HEXAGON ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Hexacon Electric Company
3-4. A. L. Johnson, Partner
1. Hill-Shaw Company
3-4. Edward Perlman, Pres.
HI-VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT COM-
1. Hi-Voltage Equipment Company
3-4. Lester C. Hart, Pres.
HOBART MANUFACTURING COM-
1. The Hobart Electric Manufactur-
3-4. C. C. Hobart, Pres.
1. Dean H. Holden
3. Dean H. Holden
DIV. NATIONAL CYLINDER GAS
1. C. H. Hollup Corporation
3-4. H. R. Pennington, Pres.
HOLOPHANE COMPANY, INC.
1. Holophane Glass Company, Inc.
3-4. Otis A. Mygatt, Pres.
DIVISION OF FIRST INDUSTRIAL
1-2. Charles W. Holtzer-1875
The Holtzer-Cabot Electric Co.-1889
3-4. Charles W. Holtzer, Propr. & Pres.
HORNI SIGNAL MANUFACTURING
1. Horni Signal Corporation
3-4. Paul P. Horni
HOSKINS MANUFACTURING COM-
1. The Hoskins Company
3. Wm. Hoskins, Pres.
A. L. Marsh, Gen. Mgr.
4. Wm. Hoskins
HOTSTREAM HEATER CO., THE
1. The Hotstream Heater Co.
3-4. L. R. Mendelson, Pres.
HOWELL ELECTRIC MOTORS COM-
1. Howell Electric Motors Company
3. Henry N. Spencer, Pres.
Carl F. Daun, Vice-Pres.
William McPherson Spencer, Sec.-
Charles F. Norton, Dir.
W. McPherson Smith, Dir.
4. Henry N. Spencer
HUBBARD AND COMPANY
1. Lippincott & Company
3. Mr. Lippincott
HUBBELL, HARVEY, INC.
1. Hubbell-Grier Electric Company
3-4. Harvey Hubbell, Sr., Pres.
HUDSON WIRE COMPANY
1. Royle and Akin
3. Joseph Royle, Robert M. Akin,
HUNTER FAN AND VENTILATING
1. Hunter Fan and Motor Company,
3-4. J. C. Hunter, Pres.
HYNES ELECTRIC HEATING CO.
1. Lee P. Hynes
3-4. Lee P. Hynes
HYTRON RADIO & ELECTRONICS
1. Hytron Company
3. Bruce A. Coffin, Pres.
4. Lloyd H. Coffin
I-T-E CIRCUIT BREAKER COM-
1. The Cutter Electrical Manufac-
3. Henry B. Cutter
IDEAL ELECTRIC & MFG. COM-
1. The Ideal Electric & Mfg. Com-
3. S. Glen Vinson, Pres.
4. C. H. Voegele
ILLINOIS ELECTRIC PORCELAIN
1. Illinois Electric Porcelain Co.
3-4. C. W. Kettron, Pres.
ILLINOIS TOOL WORKS
1. Illinois Tool Works
IMPERIAL ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1. Akron Electrical Company
3-4. L. C. Miles, Pres.
IRVINGTON VARNISH & INSULA-
1. Irvington Varnish & Insulator
3-4. Carl Berger, Pres.
ITEN FIBRE COMPANY, THE
1. The Iten Fibre Company
3-4. C. J. Iten, Pres.
JANETTE MANUFACTURING CO.
1. Janette Manufacturing Co.
3-4. John T. Janette, Pres.
JEFFERSON ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Jefferson Electric Manufacturing
3-4. John A. Bennan, Chm. of Bd.
1. Jeffery-Dewitt Insulator Company
3-4. Dr. J. A. Jeffery
JEFFREY MANUFACTURING COM-
1. The Lechner Mining Machine
3. Joseph Andrew Jeffrey, Treas.
4. Francis C. Sessions
JOHNSON FAN & BLOWER COR-
1. Johnson Fan & Blower Corpora-
3-4. Arthur J. Johnson, Pres.
JONES METAL PRODUCTS CO.,
1. The Jones Metal Products Co.
3-4. Frank E. Jones, Pres.
JAMES R. KEARNEY CORPORA-
1. James R. Kearney Corporation
3-4. James R. Kearney, Sr., Chm. of
ING COMPANY, THE
1. The Kelley-Koett Manufacturing
3. J. Robert Kelley
Albert B. Koett
4. J. Robert Kelley
KELLOGG SWITCHBOARD & SUP-
1. Kellogg Switchboard & Supply
3-4. Milo G. Kellogg, Pres.
KELVINATOR DIVISION, NASH-
1. Electro Automatic Refrigerator
3. Arnold H. Goss
4. E. J. Copeland
KENNECOTT WIRE AND CABLE
1-2. Eugene F. Phillips-1870
American Electrical Works-1882
3-4. Eugene F. Phillips
KENT METAL MANUFACTURING
1. Kent Metal Manufacturing Co.
3. Jos. H. Steinberg
Samuel R. Gerber
4. Jos. H. Steinberg
KERITE COMPANY, THE
1. A. G. Day Caoutchouc Company
3-4. A. G. Day
KEYSTONE CARBON COMPANY,
1. Keystone Carbon Company, Inc.
4. B. R. Reuscher
KIRKMAN ENGINEERING CORPO-
1. Kirkman Engineering Corpora-
3. Thomas W. Kirkman, Pres.
4. R. P. Hart
KLIEGL BROS., UNIVERSAL
ELECTRIC STAGE LIGHTING CO.,
1. Universal Electric Stage Lighting
3. Anton T. Kliegl
John H. Kliegl
4. Anton T. Kliegl
1. A. S. Knapp & Company
3-4. A. S. Knapp, Pres.
KNOX PORCELAIN CORP.
1. Knox Porcelain Corp.
4. 0. A. Dorsett
KUHLMAN ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Kuhlman Electric Company
3. Etna Kuhlman
J. A. Johnson
4. Etna Kuhlman
KUTHE LABORATORIES, INC.
1. Kuthe Laboratories, Inc.
3-4. Herman K. Kuthe, Pres.
LAMB ELECTRIC COMPANY, THE
1. The Domestic Electric Company
3. C. A. Duffner
M. H. Spielman
W. H. Poesse
R. J. Lamb
4. C. A. Duffner
LANDERS, FRARY & CLARK
1-2. Josiah Dewey-1822-24
Dewey & Landers-1842, Partner-
3. George M. Landers, Josiah Dewey
LAPP INSULATOR CO., INC.
1. Lapp Insulator Co., Inc.
3-4. John S. Lapp, Pres.
LEIGH ELECTRIC CO.
1. Eureka Electric Co.
LELAND ELECTRIC CO., THE
1. The Leland Electric Co.
3-4. G. H. Leland, Pres.
1. The Liebel-Flarsheim Company
3. G. H. Liebel, Pres.
E. S. Flarsheim, Treas.
4. G. H. Liebel
LIGHTING PRODUCTS INC.
1. Reflectors Inc.
3. J. Kirk, Pres.
K. B. Lacy, Vice-Pres.
4. James Kirk
LIMA ELECTRIC MOTOR COM-
PANY, INC., THE
1. The Lima Electric Motor Com-
pany, Div. of The Lima Armature
3-4. Homer E. Reeder, Pres.
LINCOLN ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1. The Lincoln Electric Company
3-4. J. C. Lincoln
LINE MATERIAL CO.
1. Line Material Co.
3. W. D. Kyle
4. Fred Sivyer
LOCKE INSULATOR CORPORA-
1. Fred M. Locke
3. Fred M. Locke, Owner
LOUTHAN MFG. COMPANY, THE
1. Louthan Supply Company
3. B. M. Louthan
Wm. B. Louthan
4. B. M. Louthan
MACALLEN CO., THE
1. W. T. C. Macallen Co.
3. Louis McCarthy, Treas.
4. Thomas Allen
MACHLETT LABORATORIES, IN-
1. E. Machlett & Son
3-4. Robert H. Machlett, Pres.
MALLEABLE IRON RANGE CO.
1. Malleable Iron Range Co.
3. A. G. Hill, Pres.
Fred W. Rogers, Vice-Pres.
Silas McClure, Sec.
4. A. G. Hill
MANNING, BOWMAN & CO.
1. Manning & Bowman
3. Thaddeus Manning
4. Joseph Parsons
1. Marathon Paper Mills Co.
3. Neal Brown, Dir.
Cyrus C. Yawkey
4. Cyrus C. Yawkey
MARATHON ELECTRIC MFG. COR-
1. Marathon Electric Mfg. Corpora-
3. Neal Brown, Dir.
4. Judson S. Alexander
MARBLE CARD ELECTRIC COM-
3. Webster L. Marble
John F. Card
James T. Jones
Floyd W. Marble
4. Webster L. Marble
MARKEL ELECTRIC PRODUCTS,
1. Buffalo Chandelier Corp.
3-4. Joseph Markel, Pres.
MASTER ELECTRIC COMPANY, THE
1. The Master Electric Company
3-4. E. P. Larsh, Chm. of Bd.
MATTHEWS, W. N., CORPORATION
1. W. N. Matthews & Brother
3. Wm. N. Matthews, Partner
MCGRAW ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. McGraw Electric Company
3-4. Max McGraw, Propr.
MCKAY COMPANY, THE
1. United States Chain & Forging Co.
4. Robert J. McKay
MEMCO ENGINEERING & MFG.
1. Maxwell Engineering & Mfg. Co.
3. M. P. Maxwell, Owner
METAL & THERMIT CORPORATION
1. Goldschmidt Thermit Company
3-4. Dr. Hans Goldschmidt, Pres.
METROPOLITAN DEVICE CORPORA-
METROPOLITAN ELEC. MFG. CO.
1. Metropolitan Switchboard Co.
3-4. Joseph P. Hall
MEYER CO., WM., THE
1. The Wm. Meyer Co.
3-4. William Meyer
MICA CO. OF CANADA (N. Y.) INC.
1. Mica Co. of Canada (N. Y.) Inc.
3-4. E. G. Rykert, Pres.
MICA INSULATOR COMPANY
1. Mica Insulator Company
3. Eugene Munsell
4. Eugene Munsell
MIEHLE PRINTING PRESS & MFG.
1. Kimble Electric Company
3. Austin Kimble
E. M. Madden
Alfred W. Craven, Comrs.
4. Perkins B. Bass, Pres. & Treas.
MILLER COMPANY, THE
1. Edward Miller & Company
3-4. Edward Miller, Pres.
MILLER ELECTRIC MFG. CO., INC.
1. Miller Electric Mfg. Co., Inc.
3-4. Niels C. Miller, Pres.
1. Consolidated Temperature Con-
3-4. William R. Sweatt
MITCHELL MFG. COMPANY
1. Mitchell Mfg. Company
3-4. Bernard A. Mitchell
MITCHELL RAND MFG. COMPANY
1. H. M. Howard & Co.
3. H. M. Howard
W. E. G. Mitchell, Successor
MOLONEY ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Moloney Electric Company
3-4. T. O. Moloney, Chm. of Bd.
MONITOR CONTROLLER CO., THE
1. The Monitor Controller Co.
3. Geo. H. Whittingham, Chm. of Bd.
Chas. R. Durling, Pres.
4. Chas. R. Durling
MORGANITE BRUSH COMPANY,
1. Morgan Crucible Company of
3. Stanley Beeton
4. Geo. W. Edward
MOSEBACH ELECTRIC & SUPPLY
1. Mosebach Electric & Supply Co.
3-4. K. J. Mosebach, Mgr.
MOTOR PRODUCTS CORPORATION
1. Motor Products Corporation
3. Rands Mfg. Co., Diamond Mfg.
Co., Superior Mfg. Co., Vanguard
Mfg. Co., Universal Metal Co.
4. W. C. Rands
MULLENBACH ELEC. MFG. CO.
1. Mullenbach Elec. Mfg. Co. Inc.
3. Jos. L. Mullenbach, Pres.
MURRAY IRON WORKS COMPANY
1. Murray Iron Works Company
3-4. Colonel George H. Higbee, Pres.
NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY,
1. National Carbon Company
3-4. W. H. Lawrence
NATIONAL CERAMIC COMPANY
1. National Porcelain Company
3. Bayard L. Dunkle, Pres.
4. S. L. Dunkle
NATIONAL ELECTRIC COIL COM-
.t .A.IN JL
1. National Armature & Electric
3. P. J. Kelley
G. E. Stupalsky
C. L. Brown
C. L. Cruise
4. P. J. Kelley
NATIONAL ELECTRIC CONTROL-
1. National Electric Controller Co.
3-4. Thomas Rhodus, Pres.
NATIONAL ENAMELING AND
1-2. Kieckhefer Brothers-1881
Haberman Manufacturing Com-
Matthai Ingram Company-1870
St. Louis Stamping Company,
3. F. A. W. Kieckhefer
William H. Matthai
Frederick G. Niedringhaus
William F. Niedringhaus
4. Frederick G. Niedringhaus
NATIONAL VARNISHED PROD-
UCTS CORPORATION, THE
1. The National Varnished Products
3. V. Bator
F. M. Damitz
P. H. Kempner
4. F. M. Damitz
NATIONAL VULCANIZED FIBRE
1. The Vulcanized Fibre Company
NEW ENGLAND MICA COMPANY,
1. New England Mica Company,
3. William Cooper
4. Edward Cooper
NEW JERSEY PORCELAIN CO.
1. New Jersey Porcelain Co.
3-4. Stephen Wenczel, Pres.
NEW JERSEY WOOD FINISHING
1. New Jersey Wood Finishing Com-
3-4. Ferdinand Wetterberg, Pres.
NEWARK TRANSFORMER COM-
1. Newark Transformer Company
3-4. Dennis J. Norton, Pres.
1. Indianapolis Pump & Tube
3. Q. G. Noblitt, Pres.
Frank H. Sparks, Vice-Pres.
4. G. Noblitt
NORGE DIVISION, BORG-WARNER
1. Norge Division, Borg-Warner
3-4. Howard E. Blood
NORTH AMERICAN PHILIPS
1. North American Philips Company
4. P. F. S. Otten
NORTH ELECTRIC MANUFACTUR-
ING COMPANY, THE
1. The North Electric Company
3-4. Charles H. North
NORTHERN ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1-2. The Northern Electric & Mfg.
The Wire & Cable Company-1899
4. C. F. Sise, Sr.
1. Northwestern Electric Company
3-4. Samuel H. Martin, Pres.
NU-TONE LABORATORIES, INC.
1. Nu-Tone Laboratories
3. Herbert W. Maltz
Charles A. Butler
4. Herbert W. Maltz
OHIO BRASS COMPANY, THE
1. The Ohio Brass Company
3-4. Frank B. Black, Pres.
OHIO CARBON COMPANY, THE
1. The Acme Carbon Company
3. A. K. Moulton, Gen. Mgr.
J. E. Schunck, Sec.-Treas.
4. William H. Shepard
OHIO ELECTRIC MFG. CO., THE
1-2. The Cleveland Controller & Mfg.
The Ohio Electric & Controller
3-4. F. W. Jessop, Pres.
OKONITE COMPANY, THE
1. New York Insulated Wire and
3. John Haven Cheever
Henry F. Durant
4. Charles Cheever
OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY
1. Elisha G. Otis
3. Elisha Graves Otis, Owner
OVERBAGH & AYRES MFG. CO.
1. Overbagh & Ayres Mfg. Co.
3-4. Franklin Overbagh, Pres.
OWENS-CORNING FIBERGLAS COR-
1. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corpora-
3. Owens-Illinois Glass Company
Corning Glass Works
4. Harold Boeschenstein
PACIFIC ELECTRIC MANUFAC-
1. Pacific Electric & Manufacturing
3-4. Jos. S. Thompson, Pres.
PAGE STEEL AND WIRE DIVISION
OF AMERICAN CHAIN & CABLE
1. Page Woven Wire Fence Com-
3-4. J. Wallace Page, Pres.
PALMER ELECTRIC & MANUFAC-
TURING COMPANY, THE
1. The Palmer Electric & Manufac-
3-4. Granville E. Palmer, Pres.
ST. REGIS PAPER COMPANY
1. The Panelyte Corporation
4. F. L. Carlisle
PARANITE WIRE & CABLE CORP.
DIVISION OF ESSEX WIRE CORP.
1. Essex Wire Corp.
3-4. A. E. Holton, Pres.
PARTRICK & WILKINS COMPANY
1. Partrick & Carter
3-4. James Partrick, Pres.
PASS AND SEYMOUR, INCOR-
1. Pass and Seymour
3. James Pass, Albert P. Seymour,
PAULDING, JOHN I., INC.
1. John I. Paulding
3. G. A. Johnson
John I. Paulding
A. A. Johnson
C. A. Johnson
W. B. Nelson
4. G. A. Johnson
PEERLESS ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1. Warren Electric and Specialty
3-4! Elmer W. Gillmer
PENN ELECTRIC SWITCH CO.
1. Electro Specialty Company
3-4. Albert Penn, Pres.
PENN MACHINE CO.
1. Penn Machine Co.
3. John Gibson, Jr.
4. John Gibson, Jr.
PENNSYLVANIA ELECTRIC COIL
1. Pennsylvania Electrical Repair
3-4. Ralph Close
1. Pennsylvania Transformer Com-
3. Samuel Horelick, Pres.
W. E. Kerr, Vice-Free. 6- Treas.,
4. Samuel Horelick
PERFECLITE COMPANY, THE
1. The Perfeclite Company
3-4. J. L. Jaff e, Pres.
1. Perfex Radiator Company
3-4. Julius K. Luthe, Pres.
PHILADELPHIA ELECTRICAL &
1. Philadelphia Electrical & Mfg. Co.
3-4. A. H. Manwaring, Pres.
PHOENIX GLASS COMPANY, THE
1. The Phoenix Glass Company
3-4. Andrew Howard, Pres.
PICKER X-RAY CORPORATION
1. Waite and Bartlett Company
3-4. Dr. Henry E. Waite, Pres.
PIERCE RENEWABLE FUSES, INC.
1. Pierce Renewable Fuses, Inc.
PITTSBURGH REFLECTOR COM-
1. Prismatic Reflector & Mirror Co.,
3-4. Eugene S. Simons, Pres. & Gen.
PLAINVILLE ELECTRICAL PROD-
UCTS CO., THE
1. The Plainville Electrical Products
3-4. F. L. Benzon, Pres.
PORCELAIN INSULATOR CORPORA-
1. The Porcelain Insulator Corporation
3-4. William F. Harvey, Pres. & Gen.
PORCELAIN PRODUCTS, INC.
1. Brunt Porcelain Company
3-4. George F. Brunt, Pres.
POTTER REFRIGERATOR COR-
1. T. Irving Potter
3. T. Irving Potter
PRINGLE ELECTRICAL MFG. CO.,
1. W. T. Pringle
3-4. William T. Pringle
PROCTOR ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Proctor & Schwartz Electric Co.
3-4. Walter M. Schwartz, Pres.
PURE CARBON CO., INC.
1. Pure Carbon Co.
3-4. Colonel E. L. Dempsey, Pres.
1. Quadrangle Manufacturing
3. D. E. Worrell, Pres.
L. A. Bishop, Vice-Pres.
Geo. Arras, Sec.
E. Laymon, Treas.
4. D. E. Worrell
RCA VICTOR DIVISION OF RADIO
CORPORATION OF AMERICA
1-2. *Radio Corporation of America-1919
Victor Talking Machine Company-
3. *0wen D. Young
Eldridge R. Johnson
4. *Edward J. Nally
Eldridge R. Johnson
RAILWAY AND INDUSTRIAL EN-
1. Railway and Industrial Engineer-
3. A. W. Burke
H. C. Stier
B. W. Kerr
4. A. W. Burke
1. Automatic Reclosing Circuit-
3. E. C. Raney, Sec. & Gen. Mgr.
4. J. T. Wolfley
RATTAN MANUFACTURING COM-
1. New Haven Folding Chair Com-
3-4. Isaac N. Dann, Pres.
1. Raytheon Manufacturing Com-
3-4. Laurence K. Marshall, Pres.
1. Reid Avery Company
3-4. Marshall E. Reid, Pres.
RELIABLE ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Reliable Electric Company
3. Felix W. McMeal, Pres.
George W. Rodormer, Vice-Pres.
Oscar C. Jungle, Sec. & Treas.
4. Felix W. McMeal
RELIANCE ELECTRIC & ENGIN-
EERING COMPANY, THE
1. Lincoln Motor Works Company
3. Peter M. Hitchcock, Owner
4. Charles W. Hitchcock
REVERE ELECTRIC MFG. COM-
1. Revere Electric Company
3-4! Van N. Marker, Pres.
REYNOLDS ELECTRIC CO.
1. Reynolds Electric Co.
3-4. C. F. Ziegler, Pres.
RHEEM MANUFACTURING COM-
1. Pacific Galvanizing Company
3. R. S. Rheem, D. L. Rheem, Part-
4. Richard S. Rheem
RICHARDSON CO., THE
1. Haldeman Paper Co.
3-4. J. C. Haldeman, Pres.
RITTENHOUSE, A. E., CO., INC.,
1. The A. E. Rittenhouse Co.
3-4. Arthur E. Rittenhouse, Pres. &
ROBBINS & MYERS, INC.
1. "Robbins & Meyers"
3. Chandler Robbins, James A.
4. Chandler Robbins
ROBERTS & MANDER STOVE COM-
1. Roberts & Mander Stove Com-
3-4. Clarence V. Roberts
ROCKBESTOS PRODUCTS CORPO-
1. Rockbestos Products Corporation
3. Marlin Rockwall Corporation
4. George H. Houston
ROEBLING'S, JOHN A., SONS COM-
1. John A. Roebling's Sons Company
3. John A. Roebling, Owner
4. Washington A. Roebling
REALTY & INDUSTRIAL CORPO-
1-2. Whitney Electrical Instrument
Switchboard Equipment Co.-1903
3-4. Frank W. Roller, Pres.
ROME CABLE CORPPORATION
1. Rome Cable Corporation
3-4. Herbert T. Dyett, Pres.
ROWAN CONTROLLER COMPANY,
1. The Rowan Electric & Manufac-
3-4. John S. Rowan, Pres.
ROYAL ELECTRIC CO., INC.
1. Royal Electric Co.
3. Joseph Riesman
4. Joseph Riesman
RUBY LIGHTING COMPANY
1. Ruby Lighting Company
3. Louis D. Phillips, See., et al.
S & M LAMP COMPANY
1. S & M Lamp & Radiator Co.
3. James R. Shirreffs, Sr., Partner
4. Jim Shirreffs
SAMPSEL TIME CONTROL, INC.
1. Sampsel Time Control, Inc.
3-4. A. V. Sampsel, Pres.
SAMSON UNITED CORPORATION
1. Samson Cutlery Company
3-4. A. 0. Samuels, Pres.
SANGAMO ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Sangamo Electric Company
3-4. R. C. Lamphier
SANITARY REFRIGERATOR COM-
1. Fond du Lac Church Furniture
SAVORY EQUIPMENT, INC.
1. Sidney Shepard & Co.
3-4. Sidney Shepard, Pres.
1. Saxonburg Potteries
3-4. George Aderhold, Owner
SCHWEITZER & CONRAD, INC.
1. Schweitzer & Conrad, Inc.
3. E. 0. Schweitzer, Pres.
N. J. Conrad, Sec. & Treas.
4. E. O. Schweitzer
1. Schroeder Headlight Company
3-4. Adam Henry Schroeder
SEGIL, L. J., CO.
1. L. J. Segil Co.
Brook Electrical Supply Co.
3-4. Louis J. Segil
SENSITIVE RESEARCH INSTRU-
1. Sensitive Research Instrument
3. David Wolf and Vincent P. Cronin
4. David Wolf
SHELDON SERVICE COMPANY
DIVISION OF EDWARD ERMOLD
1. Sheldon Service Corporation
3-4. Herbert C. Sheldon, Pres. & Gen.
SIGNAL ELECTRIC MFG. CO.
1. Menominee Electric & Mechanical
3-4. Henry Tideman
SILEX COMPANY, THE
1. The Silex Company
3-4. Frank E. Wolcott, Pres.
SILVRAY LIGHTING, INC.
1. Silvray Company, Inc.
3-4. M. B. Beck, Pres.
SIMPLEX WIRE & CABLE CO.
1. Morss & Whyte
3. Charles A. Morss, Oliver Whyte,
4. Charles A. Morss
SMALL MOTORS, INC.
1. Small Motors, Inc.
3-4. R. R. Cook, Pres.
SMITH, A. L., IRON COMPANY
1. The A. L. Smith Iron Works
3-4. Arthur L. Smith, Pres. & Treas.
SMITH, A. 0., CORPORATION
1. A. 0. Smith Company
3-4. A. O. Smith, Pres.
SMITH, F. A., MFG. CO., INC.
1. F. A. Smith Mfg. Co., Inc.
3-4. F. A. Smith, Pres.
SMITH, S. MORGAN, COMPANY
1. S. Morgan Smith Company
3. Rev. S. Morgan Smith, Propr.
4. S. Morgan Smith
1. American Enameling & Stamping
3. C. E. Smoot, Pres.
M. L. Houseman
4. C. E. Smoot
SOLA ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Sola Corporation
3. A. L. Myers
Jos. G. Sola
John R. Fischer
4. A. L. Myers
SOLAR LIGHT MANUFACTURING
1. Solar Light Co.
3-4. Abraham Lazerson, Mffr.
SORGEL ELECTRIC CO.
1. Sorgel Electric Co.
3-4. Wm. R. Sorgel, Pres.
SOUTHERN ELECTRIC, INC.
1. Southern Electric, Inc.
3-4. C. W. Munro, Pres.
SOUTHERN STATES EQUIPMENT
1. Southern States Electric Company
4. W. E. Mitchell
SPAULDING FIBRE CO., INC.
1. Spaulding Brothers
3. Jonas Spaulding, Waldo Spaul-
SPEER CARBON COMPANY
1. Speer Carbon Company
3. John S. Speer
4. John S. Speer
SPENCER THERMOSTAT COM-
1. Spencer Thermostat Company
3. John A. Spencer
Laurence K. Marshall, et al.
4. Richard S. Aldrich
SPERO ELECTRIC CORPORATION,
1. Spero Electric Manufacturing Co.
3. S. M. Spero, Vice-Pres.
4. B. E. Spero
SPRAGUE ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Sprague Specialties Company
3-4. Robert C. Sprague, Pres.
SQUARE D COMPANY
1. McBride Manufacturing Company
3-4. B. D. Horton
STACKPOLE CARBON CO.
1. Stackpole Battery Co.
3. H. C. Stackpole, Treas.
4. James K. P. Hall
STANDARD ELECTRIC TIME CO.,
1. The Standard Electric Time Co.
3-4. George L. Riggs, Pres. & Treas.
STANDARD INSULATION COMPANY
3-4. Louvern G. Lange, Pres.
STANDARD TRANSFORMER COM-
1. The Standard Transformer Com-
3-4. W. F. Parker, Pres.
STANLEY ELECTRIC TOOL DIVI-
SION, THE STANLEY WORKS
1. The Stanley Works
3-4. Frederick T. Stanley, Pres.
STAR ELECTRIC MOTOR COM-
1. Star Fan and Motor Works
3. Carl M. Peterson, Emil E. Hol-
STAR PORCELAIN CO., THE
1. The Star Porcelain Co.
3-4. Herbert Sinclair, Pres.
STATE WIRE AND CABLE CO.
1. State Wire and Cable Co.
3. F. Michaelson, R. Rausch, M.
STERLING ELECTRIC MOTORS,
1. Sterling Electric Motors, Inc.
3-4. Carl E. Johnson, Pres.
1-2. Stewart-Warner Speedometer Cor-
Stewart & Clark Manufacturing
3. John K. Stewart, Pres.
Thomas J. Clark, Sec. & Treas.
4. John K. Stewart
STIMPLE & WARD COMPANY
1. Stimple & Ward Company
3-4. William S. Peters, Pres.
1. Stromberg-Carlson Telephone
3. Alfred Stromberg
4. Alfred Stromberg
STUPAKOFF CERAMIC & MFG.
1. Stupakoff Laboratories
3-4. Simon H. Stupakoff, Pres.
SUPERIOR PORCELAIN COMPANY
1. The Anderson Porcelain Company
3. Geo. 0. Anderson, Sec.-Treas.
4. T. F. Anderson
SURGES ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Surges Electric Company
3. John A. Surges, Pres.
Jerome Lynch, Sec.-Treas.
4. John A. Surges
ING COMPANY, THE
1. Peerless Cooker Company
3-4. C. E. Swartzbaugh, Pres.
SYLVANIA ELECTRIC PRODUCTS,
1-2. Novelty Incandescent Lamp Co.-
*Bay State Electric Co.-1901
3. B. G. Erskine, Pres.
*F. A. Poor, Pres.
1. Synthane Corporation
3-4. R. R. Titus, Pres.
TAYLOR FIBRE COMPANY
1. Diamond State Fibre Company
3-4. Edward Mendenhall Taylor
TERRY, ANDREW, COMPANY, THE
1. Andrew Terry & Co.
3. Andrew Terry
TERRY STEAM TURBINE CO., THE
1. The Terry Steam Turbine Co.
3-4. Edward C. Terry
1. Thermogray Company
3. Percy Gray, Owner & Mgr.
THOMAS & BETTS CO., THE
1. The Thomas and Betts Company
3. Robert McKean Thomas
Hobart D. Betts
4. Robert McKean Thomas, Sr.
THOMAS, R., & SONS COMPANY,
1. American Knobs Works
3. Richard Thomas, Owner
TRIANGLE CONDUIT & CABLE
1. Triangle Conduit Company
3. John E. McAuliffe, Treas.
4. James R. Strong
TRICO FUSE MFG. CO.
1. Arrow Fuse Mfg. Co.
3. Oscar H. Jung, Treas. & Gen. Mgr.
4. Herbert Vihlein
TRIPLETT ELECTRICAL INSTRU-
MENT CO., THE
1. Triplett Meter Co.
3. R. L. Triplett, Gen. Mgr.
4. N. W. Cunningham
TRUMBULL ELECTRIC MFG. COM-
1. The Trumbull Electric Company
3. John Trumbull, Treas.
Henry Trumbull, Sec.
4. Frank T. Wheeler
UNION INSULATING COMPANY,
1. Union Insulating Company, Inc.
3. J. H. Parker, Pres.
W. M. Parker, Treas.
4. J. H. Parker
UNION METAL MANUFACTURING
1. The Union Metal Manufacturing
3. C. C. Barrick & his two sons
4. C. C. Barrick
UNITED ELECTRONICS COMPANY
1. United Electronics Company
3-4. R. H. Amberg, Pres.
U. S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS INC.
1. United States Electrical Manufac-
3. Timothy Mahoney
4. W. J. Sheriff
UNITED STATES GRAPHITE
1. The United States Graphite Com-
3. Harry T. Wickes, William J.
Wickes, Samuel A. Lynde, Albert
M. Marshall, Sanford Keeler,
Thomas A. Harvey, Stockholders
4. E .C. Ewen
U. S. MANUFACTURING CORP.
1. U. S. Wire Mat Co.
3-4. J. L. Bennett, Pres.
UNITED STATES RUBBER COM-
1. United States Rubber Company
3-4. W. L. Trenholm, Pres.
UNIVERSAL CLAY PRODUCTS COM-
1. The Universal Clay Products Com-
3-4. J. H. Parker, Pres.
UPTEGRAFF, R. E., MFG. CO.
1. R. E. Uptegraff Mfg. Co.
3-4. R. E. Uptegraff, Pres.
VICTOR ELECTRIC PRODUCTS,
1. Cincinnati Victor Company
3. Charles L. Harrison, Vice-Pres.
C. L. Harrison, Jr., Treas.
4. H. W. T. Collins
VICTOR INSULATORS, INC.
1. Victor Insulators, Inc.
4. Bentley A. Plimpton
VICTOREEN INSTRUMENT CO.,
1. The Victoreen Instrument Co.
3-4. J. A. Victoreen, Pres.
VULCAN ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Vulcan Electric Heater Company
VULCAN IRON WORKS
1. Vulcan Iron Works
3-4. E. H. Jones, Pres.
WADSWORTH ELECTRIC MFG.
CO., INC., THE
1. The Wadsworth Electric Mfg. Co.,
3. George B. Wadsworth
Harry W. Percival
Richard J. Dibowski
4. George B. Wadsworth
WAGNER ELECTRIC CORPORA-
1. Wagner Electric Mfg. Company
3. Herbert A. Wagner
Ferdinand C. Schwedtman
4. Herbert A. Wagner
WAKEFIELD, F. W., BRASS CO., THE
1. F. W. Wakefield Company
3-4. F. W. Wakefield, Pres.
L Walker Electrical Construction
3. Henry H. Walker
4. F. D. Walker
WALKER ELECTRICAL COMPANY
1. Walker Electrical Company
3-4. Ralph M. Walker, Pres.
WARD LEONARD ELECTRIC CO.
1. Carpenter Enamel Rheostat Co.
3-4. H. Ward Leonard, Pres.
WARING PRODUCTS CORPORA-
1. Waring Mixer Corporation
3-4. Fred M. Waring, Pres.
WATCO ENGINEERING, INC.
1. Watco Engineering, Inc.
3-4. Frank W. Watkins, Pres.
WATLOW ELECTRIC MFG. CO.
1. Watlow Electric Mfg. Co.
3-4. Louis Desloge, Pres.
WEBSTER ELECTRIC COMPANY
1. Webster Electric Company
3-4. Towner K. Webster, Pres.
WELLS MANUFACTURING CO.
1. Wells Morris Mfg. Co.
3-4. Arthur F. Wells
1. Weltronic Corp.
3-4. C. J. Collom, Gen. Mgr.
WESCHE ELECTRIC, B. A., CO.,
1. B. A. Wesche Electric Co.
3-4. Bjarne A. Wesche, Sole Propr.
WEST VIRGINIA ARMATURE CO.,
1. West Virginia Armature Co.
3-4. W. A. Bishop, Pres.
WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY,
1. Gray and Barton
3. Elisha Gray
Enos M. Barton
4. General Anson Stager
WESTERN INSULATED WIRE INC.
1. Western Insulated Wire Co.
3. E. H. Lewis, Exec. Vice-Pres.
4. A. D. Nast, Jr.
WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COR-
1. Westinghouse Electric Company
3-4. George Westinghouse, Pres.
WESTON ELECTRICAL INSTRU-
1. Weston Electrical Instrument
3-4. Dr. Edward Weston, Pres.
WHEELER INSULATED WIRE
COMPANY, INC., THE
1. The Wheeler Insulated Wire Com-
3-4. Nathaniel Wheeler, Pres.
WHEELER REFLECTOR CO.
1. Wheeler Reflector Co.
3-4. General Wheeler, Pres.
WHITE-RODGERS ELECTRIC CO.
1. White-Rodgers Electric Co.
4. L. F. Blough
WHITNEY BLAKE COMPANY, THE
1. Whitney Blake Company
3-4. T. Whitney Blake, Pres.
WIEGAND, EDWIN L., COMPANY
1. Edwin L. Wiegand Company
3-4. Edwin L. Wiegand, Chm. of Bd.
1. Will-Weld Manufacturing Co.,
3. D. Q. Carroll, Pres.
J. W. Mobley, Vice-Pres.
L. 0. Schneiderwind, Gen. Mgr.
C. M. Dempsey, Sec.
C. A. Semik, Treas.
4. Don Q. Carroll
WILMINGTON FIBRE SPECIALTY
1. Wilmington Fibre Specialty Com-
3-4. John W. Morris, Pres.
WILSON WELDER & METALS CO.,
1. Wilson Welder & Metals Co., Inc.
4. S. A. Megeath
WIREMOLD COMPANY, THE
1. American Interior Conduit Com-
3. D. Hayes Murphy, Sec. & Treas.
4. Daniel E. Murphy
1. Charles Wirt & Company
2. About 1900
3-4. Charles Wirt
WOOD, JOHN, MANUFACTURING
1. John Wood Manufacturing Com-
3-4. John Wood, Jr., Pres.
WOODHEAD, DANIEL, COMPANY
1. Daniel Woodhead Company
3-4. Daniel Woodhead, Pres.
WORTHINGTON PUMP AND
1. Worthington and Baker
2. Henry R. Worthington-1840
Worthington and Baker-1845
3. Henry R. Worthington, Partner
WURDACK, WM., ELECTRIC MFG.
1. Wm. Wurdack
3-4. Wm. Wurdack
1. Zinsmeyer Co.
3-4. E. Zinsmeyer
Abbott, C. C., 1917
Acheson, Edward Goodrich, 1896
Adams, Edward D., 1890
Adams, Dr. Isaac, 1869
Adams, Joseph A., 1839
Ader, Clement, 1879
Aepinus, Francis, 1759
Air mail, 1923
altitude measurement, 1929, 1938
Alexanderson, Ernest F. W., 1906, 1916,
1919, 1920, 1928, 1929
Allis-Chalmers Company, 1904, 1906
Alternators, 1895, 1902, 1906, 1919, 1920,
Aluminum, alloy of, 1884
American Association of Electric Motor
Manufacturers, 1908, 1910, 1926
American Battery Company, 1892
American Electric Co., 1880
American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co.,
American Electrical Standards Commit-
"American Electrician," 1896
American Electrochemical Society, 1902
American Ever Ready Co., 1898
American Institute of Electrical Engi-
neers, 1884, 1887, 1891, 1899
American Standards Association, 1919
American Telephone & Telegraph Co.,
1899, 1900, 1915, 1923, 1924, 1929, 1940
Ampere, Professor Andre-Marie, 1820,
"Ampere, The," 1883
Amplifier, 1906, 1907
Anderson, Dr. Carl David, 1938
"Annals of Electricity," 1836
Anode, 1833, 1875
Appalachian Electric Power Co., 1937
"Apparatus for Electrical Welding," 1886
Appliances, electric, 1890, 1893, 1896,
1906, 1919, 1926
Arago, Dominique Francois Jean, 1820,
Arc, electric, 1808, 1820, 1842, 1875, 1877,
1878, 1880, 1881, 1883, 1884, 1900;
flaming lamp, 1908, 1912;
lights, 1885, 1893, 1895;
luminous, 1900, 1902, 1911;
mercury rectifier, 1902, 1924;
mercury-vapor lamp, 1901, 1903;
and metallic salts, 1898 ;
welding, 1897, 1930
Armatures, 1860, 1863, 1876, 1879, 1887,
Armstrong, Edwin H., 1913, 1916, 1936
Associated Manufacturers of Electrical
Supplies, 1915, 1916, 1926
Association of Edison Illuminating Com-
panies, The, 1885
Association of Iron and Steel Electrical
Association of Iron and Steel Engineers,
Atlantic Telegraph Company, 1856
Atomic theories 400 B.C., 95 B.C., 1808,
periodic law of, 1869
Attraction, principle of, 1269
Automobile, 1891, 1892, 1909, 1910;
electric, 1893, 1897, 1903
Avogadro, Amedeo (Conte di Quaregma),
Babcock, C. D., 1908
Babcock & Wilcox Co., 1867
Bacon, Roger, 1269
Baekeland, Leo Hendrick, 1909
Barlow, Peter, 1823
Bartlane process, 1920
Bartlett, C. H., 1931
Barton, Enos M., 1869
Baseball, night, 1883, 1927, 1935
Battery, electric, 1779, 1800, 1821, 1836,
1839, 1842, 1851, 1853, 1872;
storage, 1859, 1880, 1891, 1896, 1908,
Becquerel, Alexander Edmond, 1839
Becquerel, Professor Antoine Caesar,
Becquerel, Antoine Henry, 1896
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1871, 1875, 1876,
Bell Company, 1877
Bell System, 1900, 1918, 1919, 1921, 1923
1924, 1925, 1930, 1935
Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1924, 1925
Bellows, Henry A., 1927
Bell, electric, 1831, 1869, 1876;
iron box bell, 1879 ;
Lungen Bell, 1879
Bennet, Abraham, 1787
Bentley, Edward M., 1884
Bentley-Knight System, 1887, 1888
Bergmann & Co., 1889
Berliner, Emile, 1876
Biot, Jean Baptiste, 1820
Block system, automatic electric, 1867
Blondel, Andrew, 1898
Bohr, Niels, 1917
Bolton, Dr. Werner von, 1906, 1907
Boston "Globe," 1877
Bourseul, Charles, 1854
Boulder Dam, 1935
Branly, Edward, 1885
Brequet, Louis, 1845
Bremer, Hugo, 1898
British Association for the Advancement
of Science, 1873
British Broadcasting Corp., 1922
Brush, Charles Francis, 1876, 1877, 1878,
1879, 1880, 1896
Brush Electric Light and Power Com-
pany, 1880, 1883, 1886
Brushes, carbon, 1888
Buck, Harold W., 1907
Buffalo, New York, 1886
Bullard, Admiral W. H. G., 1927
Buna-S, insulation, 1944
Bunsen, Professor Robert Wilhelm von,
Burglar alarms, electric, 1869
Burners, gas-lighting, 1883
Cabeo, Nicolaus, 1629
Cable, 1928, 1931;
coaxial for telephone, 1929, 1936, 1940,
conduit wiring, 1893, 1911, 1938;
copper wire, 1877, 1882;
gas-filled, 1885, 1938;
insulation of, 1884, 1885, 1935, 1944;
submarine, 1843, 1850, 1853, 1902, 1904,
1920, 1921, 1924;
type "H," 1916;
telephone, 1901, 1906, 1914, 1925, 1939,
Caldwell, Orestes H., 1927
California Electric Light Co., 1879
Canadian Edison Manufacturing Co.,
C. & C. Electric Motor Co., 1886, 1887,
Canton, John, 1753
Car dumpers, 1926
Carlisle, Sir A., 1800
Carnegie Steel Co., 1891
Carpenter-Nervis Electro-Heating Co.,
Carpentier, Georges, 1921
"Carriage Call," 1900
Carriages, electric, 1840
Cataract Construction Co., 1890
rays, 1878, 1906, 1913, 1927
Cavendish, Henry, 1775
Cedar Rapids Railway & Light Co., 1917
Weston standard, 1893, 1910;
"Weston" zinc cadmium, 1873;
zinc mercury, 1873
C. G. S. (centimeter-gram-second), 1873,
Chainmaker, electric, 1881
Channing, William Francis, 1851, 1857
Chapman, William H., 1904
Charles A. Coffin Foundation, 1922
Charleston Dry Dock and Machine Co.,
Chicago Electric & Manufacturing Co.,
Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co., 1902
electrical characteristics of, 1849;
magnetic units, 1891;
Clark, Latimer, 1873
Clarke, Edward M., 1835
Claude, George S., 1915
Clausius, Rudolph Julius Emmanuel,
Cleveland Telegraph Supply Co., 1876,
Clocks, electric, 1916
Coats, George A., 1927
Coils, magnetic, 1831
Coleman, Clyde J., 1903
Colt, Samuel, 1843
Columbia Broadcasting System, 1927,
Columbia Phonograph Company, 1925
Columbian celebration, 1892
for electric light and power industry,
for radio, 1927, 1933;
utility regulating, 1907
Commutators, 1832, 1833
Compass, 1000, 1558, 1824, 1826;
Condensers, 1745, 1775, 1888;
Conductors, 1729, 1733, 1759, 1820, 1821,
1884, 1888, 1893, 1908;
potential gradient of, 1879;
Consolidated Edison Company, 1928, 1944
Continental Paper Bag Co., 1904
synchronous, 1897, 1900
Cooke, William Fothergill, 1836, 1837,
Cooking, electric, 1890
Coolidge, Calvin, 1923
Coolidge, Dr. William David, 1910, 1913,
Cooper Hewitt Electric Company, 1910
Cosmology, Atomistic, 95 B.C.
Cottrell, Frederick Gardner, 1905
Conlomb, international, 1785
Cowles, Eugene, 1884, 1885
Cowles, Alfred, 1884, 1885
Cranes, electric, 1887
Crocker, Francis Bacon, 1885, 1888, 1889
Crocker- Wheeler Electric Motor Co., 1888
Crookes, Sir William, 1878
Crosley, Powell, Jr., 1922
Cruickshank, William, 1801. 1839
Currents, electric, 1779, 1799, 1800, 1820,
1823, 1826, 1827, 1834, 1839, 1854, 1867,
1872, 1874, 1875, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1883,
1887, 1893, 1906, 1907, 1938;
alternating, 1857, 1876, 1881, 1885, 1886,
1888, 1891, 1892, 1902;
direct, 1870,1900, 1902;
displacement, 1861 ;
chemical action of, 1799;
induced, law of, 1834;
Joule, law of, 1841;
measuring, 1825, 1840;
Curie, Pierre, 1895, 1896
"Curie Point," 1895
Curtis, Augustus D., 1908
Curtis, Charles Gordon, 1885, 1896, 1900
Curtis, Crocker, Wheeler Co. (C. & C.
Electric Motor Co.), 1886
Cutler-Hammer, 1904, 1907
Cutout, automatic, 1880
Daft Electric Co., 1883
Daft, Leo, 1883
Dalton, John, 1808
Dana, Dr. J. F., 1827
Dantell, John Frederic, 1836
Davenport, Thomas, 1837
Davidson, Robert, 1840
Davy, Sir Humphry, 1800, 1807, 1808,
Dayton Power & Light Co., 1937
Deaf, schools for, 1870
De Benardos, Nicholas, 1887
Declination, measuring of, 1834
Decomposition, electrolytical, 1853
De Coulomb, Charles Augustine, 1785
De Forest, Dr. Lee, 1876, 1906, 1907, 1908
De Jacobi, Professor Moritz-Hermann,
De la Rive, Auguste Arthur, 1821
De Laval, Gustaf, 1882, 1884, 1890, 1893,
Delco Company, 1903
"De Magnete, Magneticisque Corpori-
Democritus, 400 B.C.
De Moleyns, F., 1841
Dempsey, Jack, 1921
Dental machines, 1884
Deprez, Marcel, 1881
"De Reum Natura," 95 B.C.
Detector, mercury-vapor, 1927
Detroit Edison Co., 1914
Diehl, Philip, 1878, 1884, 1886, 1887, 1893
Diesel, Dr. Rudolph, 1897
Diesel equipment, 1928, 1929, 1934
Dillon, John F., 1927
"Dissertation on the Capacity of a Con-
Dolbear, Amos Emerson, 1877, 1881
"Don Juan," 1926
Don Lee Broadcasting System, 1934
Door openers, electric, 1884
DOR, radio station, 1927
Drexel, Morgan & Co., 1882
Drilling machine, electric, 1881
Drills, electric, 1885
Duboscq, M. J., 1846
Du Fay, Charles Frances de Cisternay,
Dumb, schools for, 1870
Dungeness Lighthouse, 1862
Du Pont de Nemours & Co., E. T., 1931
Dushman, Saul, 1915
Dyar, Harrison G., 1827
Dynamo machine, 1867
Dynamos, 1831, 1832, 1855, 1872, 1876,
1878, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1885, 1886, 1888;
Edison bipolar, 1879;
efficiency of, 1875;
"jumbo," 1881, 1882;
open-coil arc, 1877;
Thomson-Ryan "901," 1894
Edgar Thompson Works of the Carnegie
Steel Co., 1891
Edison Company for Isolated Lighting,
Edison Electric Illuminating Company,
Edison Electric Institute, 1933
Edison Electric Light Company, 1878,
Edison General Electric Co., 1889, 1892
Edison Institute, 1832
Edison Lamp Works, 1880, 1889
Edison Light Co., 1889
Edison Machine Works, 1880, 1886, 1889
Edison Shafting Co., 1886
Edison, Thomas Alva, 1874, 1875, 1877,
1878, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1887, 1891, 1894,
Edison Tube Co., 1886
Edison United Manufacturing Co., 1889
electrical engineering, 1889;
lighting installations, 1899
Edwards and Company, 1883, 1884, 1900
Eickemeyer, Rudolph, 1887, 1889, 1892
"Electric Age," 1891
Electric and magnetic potential, theory of,
"Electric Industries," 1889, 1896
Electric Power Club, 1910, 1916, 1926
Electric Railway Company of the United
"Electrical Contracting," 1901
"Electrical Engineer," 1884
"Electrical Engineering," 1893
Electrical Manufacturers Alliance, 1905,
Electrical Manufacturers Club, 1905, 1916,
Electrical Manufacturers Council, 1916,
"Electrical Merchandising," 1916
Electrical Research Products, Inc., 1926
"Electrical Review," 1872, 1882
"Electrical Worker," 1892
"Electrical World," 1883
"Electrician, The," 1882
"Electrician and Electrical Engineer,"
Electricity, 1831, 1859, 1936;
in cooking, 1877, 1906;
and electrons, 1891;
Etheric force, 1875;
frictional, 1750, 1753, 1759;
Hertzian waves, 1875;
mathematical theory of, 1834;
measuring by, 1878;
measuring of, 1820, 1823, 1825, 1858,
1886, 1888, 1893;
and medicine, 1913, 1923, 1929;
on ships, 1898, 1904, 1912, 1915, 1926;
single-fluid, theory of, 1746;
static, 600 B.C., 1726, 1753, 1785, 1800,
three-wire system, 1882, 1883;
two-fluid, theory of, 1759;
velocity of, 1833;
in war, 1898
Electrification, 1709, 1794, 1846, 1865,
1878, 1879, 1880, 1882, 1887, 1889, 1925;
electric light bulbs, 1865, 1879, 1880,
1881, 1883, 1925;
by friction, 1821;
of houses, 1859, 1886;
by induction, 1650, 1821;
railroad, first example of, 1895;
of towns, 1880, 1881, 1905
Electrocardiograph, 1913, 1924
decomposition, principle of, 1805, 1833;
Electrochemistry, 1902, 1906
Electrocution, 1889, 1890
Electrodynamics, molecular current sys-
tem of, 1846
Electrodynamometers, 1840, 1858, 1890
Electrolysis, 1800, 1807, 1833
Electrolytes, 1833, 1845
"Electromagnetic Instruments," 1840
Electromagnetic waves, 1864, 1873, 1876,
Electromagnets, 1821, 1825, 1827, 1829,
1831, 1834, 1836, 1837, 1839, 1840, 1845,
1867, 1873, 1887;
and reciprocating motion, 1827;
self-excited electromagnetic machines,
Electrometers, 1753, 1767, 1772, 1775,
Electromotive force, 1823, 1827, 1831,
Electrons, 1891, 1923, 1924, 1937, 1939,
1941, 1943, 1944
Electronics, 1883, 1897, 1902
Electro-optics, 1873, 1875
attraction, law of, 1785
Electroplating, 1800, 1834, 1872, 1876
Electroscope, 1570, 1753, 1772, 1787, 1794
Electrotypes, 1839, 1846
Elevators, electric, 1880, 1883, 1886, 1889,
1891, 1892, 1899, 1931, 1933
Emmet, William Leroy, 1900
Engines, Diesel, 1897
Ervin, Edward, 1927
"Essay on Magnetic Attractions," 1823
Etheric force, 1875, 1919
"Expeditious Method of Conveying In-
telligence, An," 1753
Chicago Railway, 1883;
Electrical Exhibition and National Con-
ference of Electricians, Philadelphia,
Fifth International Electrical Congress
Fourth International Electrical Con-
gress (Chicago), 1893;
International Conference on Electrical
Units (Berlin), 1905;
International Exhibition in London,
International Railway Congress (East
Minneapolis Industrial Exposition, 1890;
National Electric Light Association,
New York Auto Show, 1897;
Paris, 1867, 1881;
Paris Electrical Exposition, 1889;
Philadelphia Centennial, 1876;
St. Louis World's Fair, 1904;
San Francisco's Golden Gate Interna-
tional Exposition, 1939;
Second International Electrical Con-
gress (Paris), 1889;
Seventh International Electrical Con-
gress (Turin, Italy), 1911;
Sixth International Electrical Congress
(St. Louis), 1904;
Vienna, 1873, 1883;
World's Columbian Exposition (Chi-
cago), 1892, 1893
Eye, electric, 1887
Fabbroni, Giovanni Valentino Mattia,
Fans, electric, 1882, 1887, 1893, 1904
Farad, international, 1821
Faraday, Michael, 1821, 1831, 1833, 1834,
Farmer, Professor Moses Gerrish, 1853,
1857, 1859, 1866, 1875
Faure, Camille, 1880
Federal Communications Commission,
1934, 1939, 1940, 1941
Federal Radio Commission, 1927, 1928
Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey, 1902
Fever machine, 1929, 1931
Field, Cyrus W., 1856
Field, Stephen Dudley, 1880
Field, Stephen T., 1861
Field intensity, 1900
Filaments, 1860, 1879, 1880, 1883, 1885,
1897, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1910, 1911, 1913,
Finsen, Dr. Niels Rydberg, 1896
Fire alarm system,
electric, 1851, 1869, 1876;
Fitzgerald, George Francis, 1880, 1883
Fleming, Sir John Ambrose, 1883, 1904
Floodlighting, 1885, 1907, 1917, 1918, 1823,
1925, 1927, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1935
lamps, 1896, 1938
Fog, beacons, 1931
Fort Wayne Electric Co., 1885
Fort Wayne Jenny Electric Light Com-
Foster, Carey G., 1851
Foucault, Jean Bernard Leon, 1846, 1855
Franklin, Benjamin, 1746, 1752, 1759
Frequencies, 1891, 1936
electric arc, 1875;
Galvani, Luigi, 1771, 1786
Galvanism, 1827, 1840
Galvanometer, 1821, 1823, 1836;
sine, 1837, 1844;
tangent, 1837, 1840, 1874;
Galway, John, 1851
Gamewell Co., 1851
Gas lighting equipment, electric, 1869,
Gaulard, Lucien, 1881, 1885, 1887
Gauss, international, 1834, 1900
Gauss, Karl Friedrich, 1834, 1836, 1840,
Gear, helical, 1890
General Electric Company, 1878, 1889,
1892, 1893, 1895, 1896, 1901, 1903, 1906,
1907, 1908, 1910, 1919, 1922, 1928
General Electric Research Laboratory,
Generators, 1832, 1833, 1835, 1860, 1863,
1870, 1871, 1873, 1875, 1876, 1879, 1880,
1889, 1890, 1893, 1900, 1902, 1906, 1910,
alternating current, 1886, 1887, 1893,
constant-current series, 1879, 1880;
direct current, 1912;
polyphase system of, 1892;
self -regulating, 1881;
turbine, 1896, 1899, 1905, 1935; 1937;
waterwheel, 1912, 1935; 1942;
Gibbs, John D., 1881, 1885, 1887
Gilbert, Dr. William, 600 B.C., 1570, 1600,
Gimbel Brothers, Philadelphia, 1900
Gintl, Wilhelm Julius, 1853
fibers, 1931, 1935, 1936
Golf course, electrified, 1924, 1925, 1930,
Goodwin, W. N., Jr., 1931
Gradient, potential, 1879
Gramme, Zenobe Theophile, 1870, 1871,
1873, 1876, 1878, 1886
Gray & Barton Co., 1869
Gray, Elisha, 1869, 1876, 1877, 1881, 1893
Gray, Stephen, 1729, 1733
"Great Eastern," 1865, 1866
Great Western Power Co., 1908
Green, Professor Jacob, 1827
Grotthuss, Christian Johann Dietrich,
Grout, Jonathan, Jr., 1800
Grove, Sir William Robert, 1839, 1842
Guericke, Otto von, 1650
Hall, Edwin H., 1879
Hall, Thomas S., 1867
Halvorson, C.A.B., 1918
Hanaman, Franz, 1907
Hare, Robert, 1821
Harding, Warren, 1920, 1921, 1923
Hartford Electric Light Company, 1896,
Hayes, President Rutherford B., 1880
Hawksbee, Francis, 1709
Heat radiation, measuring, 1878
electric, 1859, 1890, 1906;
Heaviside, Sir Oliver, 1884
Helmholtz, Baron Hermann Ludwig
Ferdinand von, 1829, 1847, 1863, 1872
Henley, William, 1772
Henry, J. C., 1884
Henry, international, 1831
Henry, Professor Joseph, 1829, 1831, 1842
Hertz, Professor Heinrich Rudolph, 1887,
Hertzian waves, 1887, 1897
Hewitt, Peter Cooper, 1901, 1902, 1903
Hewlett, Edward M., 1907
"History of Electricity," 1767
Hjorth, Soren, 1855, 1867
Hochstadter, Martin, 1916
incandescent lamps in, 1891
Hotplates, 1859, 1917
House, Royal E., 1846
Houston, Edwin J., 1879, 1880
Hughes, David, 1855
Hughes, George A., 1910
Hunt, Robert, 1850
Hydraulic plant, electric, 1896
Hydrocarbon flashing process, 1885
plant. 1882, 1895, 1917
Hydro-Electric Power Commission, 1909
Hydrogen, and cooling, 1928
Illinois Steel Co., 1929
Illuminating Engineering Society, 1906,
Indicator, electrical, 1883
Induction, 1888, 1891;
communication system between stations
and trains, 1887;
polyphase regulator, 1897
Industry, commissions for regulating:,
Installation, electrical, 1882, 1883, 1899,
Insulation, 1759, 1860, 1885, 1893, 1930,
1931, 1932, 1935, 1936, 1939, 1944;
discovery of, 1729;
for a magnetic coil, 1831;
of wire, 1884, 1888, 1935
inductive capacity of, 1775;
testing of, 1898
Insull, Samuel, 1879
Intensity, magnetic, computation of, 1820
International Conference on Electrical
Units & Standards, 1908
International Electrochemical Commis-
International Technical Committee, 1910
Inverse-square law, 1766, 1785
Jablochkoff, Paul, 1876, 1878
Jenkins, Charles Francis, 1923
Jenny, Charles, 1881
Jenny, James, 1881
Joule, international, 1841, 1889
Joule, James Prescott, 1841
"Journal of Electricity," 1895
"Journal of the Telegraph," 1867
Judson, Arthur, 1927
Just, Dr. Alexander, 1907
KDKA, radio station, 1920
Kelvin, Lord. See Sir William Thomson
Kendall, Amos, 1846
Kerr, John, 1875
Kinetoscope, 1891, 1894
Kirchoff, Professor Gustav Robert, 1849
Kleist, E. G. von, 1745
Knight, Walter H., 1884
Kolster, Frederick August, 1913
Korn, Arthur, 1904
Kuzel, Dr. Hanz, 1907
Lamme, Benjamin G., 1889
Lamps, 1872, 1880, 1881, 1886, 1893, 1906,
arc, 1800, 1846, 1869, 1877, 1878, 1879,
1880, 1888, 1892, 1893, 1895, 1898, 1900,
1902, 1903, 1908, 1912;
for automobiles, 1937;
electric light bulbs, 1865, 1879, 1880,
1881, 1883, 1925, 1928;
fluorescent, 1896, 1938;
graphite rod vacuum bulb, 1874;
incandescent, 1820, 1841, 1859, 1860,
1874, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883,
1885, 1888, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1895, 1897,
1905, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1931, 1933;
mercury-vapor, 1891, 1901, 1903, 1933;
vacuum, 1860, 1904
Lane, Jonathan Homer, 1846
Lane, Thomas, 1767
Lane-Fox, St. George, 1878
Langevin, Paul, 1924
Leland Stanford University, 1926
Lenz, Henri Frederic Emile, 1834
Leonard, H. Ward, 1889
Lesage, George Louis, Jr., 1753
Leyden jar, 1745, 1775, 1800
Light, 1880, 1887;
arc, 1869, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1881, 1885,
electromagnetic theory of, 1873;
incandescent, 1859, 1881, 1882, 1883;
reflection and refraction of, 1880;
Lighthouses, 1862, 1913
Lighting, 1886, 1889, 1893, 1898, 1944;
arc, 1877, 1880, 1883, 1911;
incandescent, 1879, 1887;
street, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1891,
1905, 1911, 1912, 1915;
theater, 1846, 1881;
Lightning, 1873, 1922, 1928, 1929, 1932,
nonarcing arrester, 1892;
Lincoln, President Abraham, 1861
Locator, sonic, 1931
electric, 1857, 1879, 1883, 1887, 1888,
1892, 1905, 1911, 1925, 1938
Lodestone, 95 B.C., 1268, 1558, 1600
Lodge, Sir Oliver, 1894, 1898
Lodyguine, Dr. M., 1872, 1874
Loomis, Mahlon, 1872
Lorenz, Ludwig V., 1867
"Los Angeles," 1932
Louisville Hydro Electric Co., 1928
Lukens Valley Coal Company, 1887
Liingen, Adam, 1884
Lungen Bell, 1879
McDonald, T. B., 1892
McDonald, Ronald T., 1881
Machlett, Robert H., 1897
Magnetic Telegraph Company, 1846
Magnetism, 1860, 1879, 1880, 1884, 1886,
1887, 1888, 1890, 1891, 1895, 1900, 1910;
and electric current, 1820, 1824, 1827,
Magnetoelectricity, 1821, 1833, 1867
Magnetometer, bifilar, 1834
Magneto, 95 B.C., 1268, 1558, 1570, 1750,
1759, 1811, 1820, 1826, 1827, 1832, 1867,
lifting power of, 1831, 1907;
and measuring electricity, 1820, 1834;
polarity of, 1600
Malignani, Arturo, 1895
Man, Albon, 1875, 1896
Manhattan Elevated, 1883
Manners, J. Hartley, 1928
Marconi Co., 1894, 1922
Marconi, Guglielmo, 1875, 1876, 1894,
1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1901
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of
America, 1913, 1919
Marks, Louis B., 1893
Marks, Professor Lionel Simson, 1893
Marsh, A. L., 1906
Marsh, Francis, 1927
Marsh, James, 1823
Matter, atomic structure of, 400 B.C.
Maxim, Sir Hiram Stevens, 1878, 1880,
Maxwell, international, 1900
Maxwell, James Clerk, 1856, 1860, 1861,
"Memoirs on the Conversation of Force
Mendelejeff, Dmitri Ivanovich, 1869
electric induction in, 1846
Meters, electric, 1886, 1887, 1888;
foot candle, 1931;
Meyer, Julius Lothar, 1869
Michell, John, 1750
Microscope, 1924. 1939, 1941, 1943, 1944
Millikan, Robert Andrew, 1923
Mills, steel rolling, 1891
Mines, electrification of, 1887, 1891, 1928
Moore, D. McFarlan, 1904
Morgan, J. Pierpont, 1878, 1890
Morrison, Charles, 1753
Morrison, William, 1891, 1892
Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, 1836, 1840,
1843, 1844, 1851
Morton, Dr. William James, 1881
Motion pictures, 1891, 1894, 1896, 1923,
recording, noiseless, 1931;
Motors, 1833, 1834, 1885, 1886, 1900, 1932;
alternating current, 1887, 1907;
direct current, 1884;
electric, 1821, 1831, 1837, 1850, 1851,
1863, 1873, 1876, 1878, 1883, 1904, 1908,
electromagnetic, 1829, 1880;
single-phase commutator, 1901, 1907;
Multiplier, galvanic, 1837
Mutual Broadcasting System, 1934
National Broadcasting Company, 1926
National Bureau of Standards, 1901
National Carbon Company, 1888, 1898
National Electric Lamp Association, 1913
National Electric Light Association, 1885,
National Electric Code, 1893, 1899, 1907,
National Electrical Contractors Associa-
National Electrical Manufacturers Asso-
National Television Systems Committee,
Navigation, 1000, 1932
Nernct, Professor Walthere, 1897
Neutralizer, static, 1904
New England Power Co.. 1928
Newfoundland, 1857, 1865, 1901
"New System of Alternating Current
Motors and Transformers, A," 1888
New York and Mississippi Valley Printing
Telegraph Co., 1851, 1856
New York Edison Co., 1896
New York Electrical Society, The, 1881
New York "Evening Post," 1903
The New York "Herald," 1882
New York Insulated Wire and Vulcanite
New York Power & Light Co., 1933
The New- York "Times," 1882
New York "World," 1904
Niagara Falls, 1881, 1889, 1890, 1893,
1895, 1907, 1925
Niagara Falls Power Co., 1907
Nicholson, William, 1800
Nickelplating, 1869, 1875
Nipkow, Paul, 1884
Oersted, Professor Hans Christian, 1820,
Ohm, international, 1827
Ohm, Professor Georg Simon, 1827, 1849
Olszewski, Stanislas, 1887
"On a Standard Voltaic Battery," 1873
"On the Electricity Excited by the Mere
Contact of Condensing Substances of
Different Kinds," 1800
"On the Law of Electric Induction in
"On the possibility of originating waves
disturbances in the ether by means of
electrical Forces," 1883
"Operator, The," 1874, 1883
Opthalmological Society, 1908
Ore separator, 1880
Oregon Railway and Navigation Com-
O'Reilly, Samuel F., 1875
Oscillators, 1888, 1893
Otis Bros. & Co., 1889
Otis Elevator Co., 1900
"Pacific Electric Monthly," 1886
Pacinotti, Antonio, 1860, 1863, 1870
Page, Professor Charles Grafton, 1837,
1850, 1851, 1854, 1857
Panama Canal, 1914
Panteleoni, Guido, 1887
Park Bank, 1882
Parsons, Honorable Charles A., 1884,
Patents, 1800, 1837, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1866,
1869, 1870, 1872, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878,
1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885,
1886, 1887, 1888, 1891, 1893, 1894, 1896,
1897, 1898, 1899, 1902, 1906, 1907, 1908,
1909, 1915, 1917, 1925, 1928, 1931,
Peltier, Jean Charles Athanase, 1834
Peregrinus, Peter, 1268
Phelps, George M., 1887
Philadelphia Electric Co., 1935
Phillips Holland Co., 1891
Phonographs, 1889, 1925
cell, 1839, 1887;
Photography, 1883, 1924, 1928, 1941, 1942;
electrical transmission, 1904, 1920, 1924
Phototubes, 1887, 1925
"Physical Lines of Force," 1856
Pipkin, Marvin, 1925, 1928
Pius XI, 1904
Pixii, Hippolyte, 1832
Plante, Gaston, 1859
Plastics, 1909, 1939, 1943;
as insulation, 1888, 1930;
"vinyl resin," 1930
Poggendorff. Johann Christian, 1821
Poisson, Simeon Denis, 1811
Poldhu, Cornwall, 1901
Polk, James K., 1844
Porta, John, 1558
Postal Telegraph & Cable Co., 1886
Postal Telegraph Company, 1881, 1886
Pouillet, Professor Claude, 1837
electric, 1886, 1892, 1893, 1894;
Pratt, Charles E., 1891
Pratt, J. T., & Co., 1882
Preece, Sir William Henry, 1897
Press, printing, 1881
Priestley, Joseph, 1766, 1767, 1785
Propagation, electric, velocity of, 1836
Pullman Car Co., 1888
Dumont centrifugal, 1873;
mercury vacuum, 1865
Pupin, Michael Idvorsky, 1889, 1894, 1896,
Quadrants, 1858, 1889
"Queen's Messenger, The," 1928
Queensboro Realty Co., 1922
Radio, 1876, 1901, 1906, 1913, 1929;
broadcasting, 1876, 1892, 1908, 1920,
1921, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1936,
frequency modulation, 1936, 1941;
knife, surgery, 1923;
radiophoto, 1904, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1942;
and rescues, 1901;
sets, 1875, 1927;
stations, 1920, 1922, 1926, 1927, 1928,
telephone, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921,
1923, 1926, 1927, 1932, 1938, 1943;
Radio Communications Co., 1922
Radio Corporation of America, 1919, 1920,
1924, 1926, 1927, 1931, 1935, 1939, 1941,
Radio Manufacturers Association, 1940
Railroads, 1886, 1907;
Ansonia, Derby, and Birmingham, 1888;
Baltimore and Ohio, 1851, 1857, 1892;
Boston & Maine Railroad Co., 1911;
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad,
electric, 1857, 1867, 1879, 1880, 1880-
1882, 1883, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1890, 1892,
1895, 1902, 1904, 1906, 1907, 1924, 1929;
elevated 1883, 1900;
Great Northern Railway, 1929;
Indianapolis and Cincinnati Traction
Lackawanna and Wyoming Valley Rail-
road Rapid Transit Co., 1903;
Manhattan Elevated Railway, 1900;
New Haven, 1895;
New York and Harlem, 1867;
New York, New Haven & Hartford,
1905, 1906, 1907;
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 1887;
Union Pacific Railroad, 1938
Woonsocket Electric Railway, 1887
"Railroad Telegrapher," 1885
Ranges, electric, 1910, 1917
syphon, 1853, 1858, 1867
Recprdings, electric, 1925
mercury arc, 1883, 1902, 1924
polyphase induction, 1897;
Reis, Philipp, 1861
Repulsion, principle of, 1269, 1629, 1650,
"Researches of Light," 1850
Resinous electricity, 1733
Resistance, 1840, 1851, 1859, 1887;
electric welding process, 1886, 1888
Rice, Edwin Wilbur, Jr., 1880
Ritchie, Rev. William, 1830, 1833, 1837
Roe, George H., 1879
Roentgen, Professor Wilhelm Konrad,
Roget, Dr. Peter Mark, 1827
Ronalds, Sir Francis, 1816
Roosevelt, Theodore, 1904
Rosing, Professor Boris, 1906
Royle & Sons, John, 1888
Rowland, Henry Augustus, 1876
Ruber, as insulation, 1888, 1935
Ruhmkorff, Henry David, 1844, 1851
"Rules & Requirements for the Installa-
tion of Electric Light & Power," 1893
Ryan, Walter D'A., 1899, 1907, 1915, 1925
St. Johns, Newfoundland, 1857, 1865, 1901
Sarnoff, David, 1921, 1926
Savart, Felix, 1820
Saxton, Joseph, 1833
Sawyer, William E., 1875, 1896
Schilling, Baron Pawel Levowitsch, 1832,
for deaf and dumb, 1870
Schweigger, Professor Johann Salomo
Seebeck, Dr. Thomas Johann, 1823
Self-induction, principle of, 1834
"Sensations of Tone," 1863
Sewing machines, electric, 1881, 1884,
Shaft, flexible, 1884
Shallenberger, Oliver B., 1887, 1888
Shaver, electric, 1930
Shaw, George Bernard, 1879
Shawinigan Water & Power Co., 1904
Shick Incorporated, 1930
"Conte di Savpia," 1932;
electric light installation aboard, 1880;
"Graeme Stewart," 1907;
"Joseph Medill," 1907;
"New Mexico," 1915;
"Princess Clementine," 1901;
Siemens, Sir Charles William, 1866
Siemens, Dr. Werner, 1853, 1857, 1866,
1867, 1873, 1879, 1880
Signal boxes, electric, 1869
"Signaling Through Space Without
Silicon, 1904, 1944
Silver, alloy, 1887
Simpson, George B., 1859
Slawianoff, Nicholas, 1897
Smith, J. J. C., 1884, 1885, 1887
Smoke removal, 600 B.C.
Society of Telegraph Engineers and Elec-
Solenoids, 1820, 1825
Sommering, Samuel Thomas von, 1809
musical, 1837, 1871;
recording of, 1925
vowel, 1829, 1863
Spanish- American War, 1898
Speedometer, magnetic drag-type, 1885
Sprague Electric Elevator Co., 1891
Sprague Electric Railway and Motor
Sprague, Frank Julian, 1882, 1883, 1886,
1887-1888, 1891, 1892, 1896
Sprengel, Hermann Johann Phillip, 1865
Stage, lighting, 1846
Standards, electrical, 1891, 1893, 1899,
1901, 1904, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1919,
Stanley, William, 1886, 1887, 1896
Stations, railway, 1887
Statue of Liberty, 1885, 1892
Steinmetz, Charles Protens, 1884, 1889,
1891, 1892, 1900, 1922
Stock tickers, electric, 1880
Stoger, General Anson, 1869
Stone, John Stone, 1902
Stoney, Dr. G. Johnston, 1891
"Street Railway Journal," 1884
"Street Railway Review," 1891
Street railways, electric, 1869
Strite, Charles, 1919
Strowger, Almon B., 1891
Strowger Automatic Telephone Exchange,
Stubblefield, Nathan B., 1892, 1908
Stupakoff, S. H., Sr., 1900
Sturgeon, William, 1825, 1836
Substations, 1914, 1946
New York, 1900
Sulphurets, metallic, 1825
Sulzer, Johann Georg, 1767
Surgery, and electricity, 1913
Swan Electric Company, 1881
Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson, 1860, 1879,
1880, 1881, 1883
Sweet's Restaurant, 1882
Sykes, Eugene O., 1927
Symmer, Robert, 1759
Synthetics, 1884, 1931
Tattoo machine, electric, 1875
Telautograph, 1881, 1893
Telegraph, 1753, 1800, 1809, 1816, 1820,
1827, 1830, 1832, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840,
1842, 1843, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1873, 1918;
cable, 1850, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1865, 1866,
distance box, 1880;
duplex system, 1853;
dynamo quadruplex, 1880;
electromagnetic, 1831, 1834;
fire alarm, 1851;
first commercial line in United States,
instruments, 1869, 1876;
"multiplex," 1853, 1912;
quadruplex system, 1874;
speed of transmission of, 1858
systems of, 1846, 1851;
wireless, 1872, 1873, 1876, 1883, 1885,
1895, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1902, 1904,
"Telegraph Age," 1883, 1891
Telephone, 1821, 1854, 1861, 1876, 1877,
1880, 1884, 1886, 1892, 1906, 1914, 1915,
1918, 1939, 1942;
automatic exchange, 1891;
coaxial cable, 1929, 1936, 1940;
dial, panel-type, 1921;
electric speaking, 1875;
long distance, 1901, 1921, 1925, 1927,
for news dispatching, 1877;
radio, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1923,
1926, 1927, 1932, 1938, 1943;
ship-to-shore, 1922, 1929;
switching equipment, 1919;
transmitter, 1876, 1879;
transoceanic, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1932,
1933, 1934, 1937;
wirephotos, 1904, 1924
"Telephone, The," 1896
Television, 1873, 1884, 1906, 1923, 1924,
1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1936,
1937, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1944
Temperature, differences in, 1826
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co.,
Terrain clearance, indicator for, 1938
Tesla, Nikola, 1887, 1888, 1896
from glass fibers, 1936
Thales, 600 B.C.
Therapy, electric light, 1896
Thermoelectric effect, 1823
Thompson, J. J., 1884
Thomson, Elihu, 1875, 1877, 1879, 1880,
1881, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1889, 1893,
1895, 1896, 1898
Thomson - Houston Electric Company,
1883, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1892;
Thomson, Sir Joseph John, 1897
Thomson Research Foundation, 1922
Thomson-Van Depoele Electric Mining
Thomson, Sir William (Lord Kelvin),
1845, 1854, 1858, 1867, 1883, 1890
Thomson Welding Co., 1888
Titus Lucretius Carus, 95 B.C.
Toaster, automatic, 1919, 1926
Traffic signals, 1924
Trains, railway, 1887;
electrification of, 1887
Transformers, 1831, 1879, 1886, 1887,
1888, 1898, 1904, 1946
Transmitters, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1898,
high voltage, 1885;
"Treatise on Electricity & Magnetism, A,"
"Treatise 1750 of Artificial Magnets,"
Trolleys, electric, 1869, 1882, 1883, 1884,
1887, 1888, 1890-1891,. 1895, 1902, 1910,
Tubes, audion, 1908;
cathode ray, 1927;
neon, 1915. 1923;
X-ray, 1897, 1913, 1944
Tuning, electric, 1894, 1898, 1902
Tunnels, electrified, 1911, 1929
steam, 1882, 1884, 1890, 1893, 1896, 1900,
Underwriters International Electrical As-
United Edison Co., 1889
United Electric Light & Power Company,
United Independent Broadcasters, Inc.,
United State Department of Commerce,
United States Electric Lighting Co., 1891
Upton, Francis R., 1879
U. S. Steel Corp., 1906
Utah Power Co., 1928
Vacuums, 1820, 1881, 1895, 1897, 1915;
lamps, 1874, 1879, 1897;
mercury pumps, 1865;
tubes, 1876, 1906, 1915, 1924
Valentia, Ireland, 1857, 1865, 1873
Van Depoele, Charles T., 1869, 1885, 1887-
Van Depoele Electric Manufacturing
Van Musschenbroek, Pieter, 1745
Varley, Cromwell F., 1866
Varley, Samuel Alfred, 1866
Victor Talking Machine Company, 1925
Violet rays, 1896
Virginian Railway Company, 1925
Volt, international, 1775, 1893, 1926;
standard measurement of, 1873, 1910
Volta, Alessandro, 1775, 1778, 1779, 1794,
"Volta Effect," 1775
action, 1767, 1779, 1800;
W2XBS, television station, 1930
W6XBE, radio station, 1939
Waffle iron, automatic, 1929
Wanamaker, John, 1878
Ward Leonard Electric Co., 1896;
system of control, 1891
Washing machine, 1910, 1937
Washington Monument, 1931
Watkins, Francis, 1835
Watson, Thomas A., 1876
Watt, international, 1819, 1889
Watt, James, 1819
Wattmeters, 1858, 1889
WEAF, radio station, 1922, 1923, 1926
Weber, Professor Wilhelm Eduard, 1834,
1836, 1840, 1846, 1851
Weights, atomic, 1869
arc, 1887, 1897, 1930;
electric, 1886, 1887, 1888
Western Electric Company, 1887, 1912,
1915, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926
Western Electric Manufacturing Co.,
Western Electric Sound System, 1926
"Western Electrician," 1887
Western Union Telegraph Company, 1851,
1856, 1877, 1912, 1920
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing
Company, 1892, 1893, 1895, 1896, 1898,
1904, 1905, 1920, 1924
Westinghouse Electric Company, 1881,
1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891,
Westinghouse, George, 1885, 1887
Weston, Dr. Edward, 1872, 1875, 1876,
1877, 1878, 1885, 1887, 1888, 1890, 1893,
Weston Electrical Instrument Co., 1888
WGN, radio station, 1934
WGY, radio station, 1928, 1929
Wheatstone, Sir Charles, 1821, 1829, 1833,
1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1845, 1866
Wheeler, Cranville, 1730
Wheeler, Dr. Schuyler Skaats, 1882, 1885,
1887, 1888, 1904
White, Major J. Andrew, 1921, 1927
Whitney, Dr. Willis R., 1901
Wiedemann, Gustav Heinrich, 1874
Wilcox, John W., 1846
Wilde, Dr. Henry, 1866
Wilhelmina, Queen of The Netherlands,
Williams, Charles, Jr., 1877
Willis, Robert, 1829
Windings, compound, 1866, 1879
Wiring, 1893, 1907, 1911, 1928, 1940, 1944
WIW, radio station, 1922
WJZ, radio station, 1925, 1926
WLW, radio station, 1934
WNAC, radio station, 1923
Wood, John, 1726
WOR, radio station, 1934
Worthington, George, 1882
WXYZ, radio station, 1934
Wyeth, Dr. George A., 1923
X-rays, 1895, 1924, 1930, 1939;
intensifying screen, 1896;
secondary radiation, 1896;
tubes, 1897, 1913, 1944
Yankee Network, 1934
Zworykin, Vladimir K., 1924, 1939