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Full text of "A Chronological Survey Of Work"

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JNIVERSAI 
LIBRARY 



A CHRONOLOGICAL 
SURVEY OF WORK 
FOR THE BLIND 



A CHRONOLOGICAL 
SURVEY OF WORK 
FOR THE BLIND 

(WITH AN APPENDIX ON THE PREVENTION OF 
BLINDNESS, AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY) 

FROM THE EARLIEST RECORDS UP TO 
THE YEAR 1930 

BY 

HENRY J. WAGG, O.B.E. 

Honorary Secretary of the Barclay Workshops for Blind Women 

Honorary Treasurer of the Greater London Fund for the Blind 

Member of the Council of the National Institute for the Blind, etc. 

ASSISTED BY 

MARY G. THOMAS 

Information Officer, National Institute for the Blind 



" I have no confidence in any statesman who attempts to solve 
the problems of a country without a knowledge of its history, 
and of the lessons to be drawn from that history." DISRAELI. 



PUBLISHED FOR THE 

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE BLIND 
GREAT PORTLAND STREET, LONDON 

BY 

SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD., LONDON 
1932 



AT THE PITMAN PRESS, BATH 



FOREWORD 

BY 

THE RT. .HON. LORD BLANESBURGH, P.C., G.B.E. 

Chairman of the Ministry of Health A dvisory Committee 
on the Welfare of the Blind 

THE affliction of blindness makes an irresistible appeal. The 
blind can count all men amongst their friends. Their claim 
upon everything that is chivalrous and selfless in human 
nature can never be denied. 

The record of agencies established, of benefactions made (for 
the relief of blindness, for the training of the blind in every 
variety of useful work, for placing at their service the treasures 
of literature, and enabling them to exercise their musical, 
literary, and artistic gifts, for their medical and other care) is a 
long one, and is confined to no period of history, to no country 
or continent. The list of those choice spirits who have devoted 
their lives to the care and education of the blind is as long, and 
it, too, is limited by no distinctions of race or of creed. In the 
result, the blind to an astonishing degree have been, and are 
being, helped to help themselves to be self-reliant and inde- 
pendent, foremost in some walks of life, prominent in many 
others, efficient in all. The resources now at their service, 
helped by that strange inward light which seems to cheer and 
inspire their physically darkened lives, have made of our blind 
friends to-day the good citizens that they are. 

Of those who have spent years in the service of the blind 
none have been more devoted than the author of this book, and 
Mr. Wagg, by its compilation, which has plainly been to him a 
labour of love, has rendered a real service to the blind, and to all 
who wish to help them, but do not quite know where to begin. 

In these pages will be found a complete record of the work 
done for the blind throughout the world from the earliest times, 
an account of the progress of medicine and surgery in the 
treatment and cure of blindness, with a bibliography as com- 
plete as is the index to the whole work. The book will be indis- 
pensable as a work of reference on the subject with which it 
deals, while it is a trumpet call for still further effort in the 
cause of those who, in their affliction, are so responsive to 
every service rendered them. 



PREFACE 

I STARTED writing this book in order to show what had been 
done in Greater London for its eight thousand and more blind. 
Never having attempted to write a book before, I found the 
work interesting, and I wanted to learn more, realizing that 
although I had been amongst the blind for over twenty-five 
years I knew comparatively little of what had been done for 
them. Presuming that others might be equally lacking in this 
knowledge of the past, and of what is being done elsewhere, I 
decided to collect what information I could about the rest of 
Great Britain and Ireland, with its blind population of about 
56,000. 

The next thing that struck me was that to compile a history 
of blind work in Great Britain alone would be like drawing a 
picture of an object without any surroundings, and so failing 
to get true proportion ; so I decided to incorporate the main 
facts concerning work for the blind in other parts of the world, 
with its blind population of many millions. 

The history is intended to show primarily the foundation and 
growth of institutions and societies for the blind, the invention 
and production of apparatus and methods for enabling them to 
lead happier and more useful lives, as well as legislation for 
their benefit. It also includes a certain amount of what has 
been done by medical science to augment, save, and restore 
eyesight, and for the prevention of blindness. 

It is not intended to be a history of the blind men and 
women who have earned distinction in different walks of life, 
such as the poet Milton, Fawcett the Postmaster-General, and 
many others, including Helen Keller, a notable example of a 
deaf and dumb and blind girl who reached a high standard of 
learning. But I have attempted to record the names and 
valuable services of those numerous blind persons who have 
earned distinction in ameliorating the lot of those who suffer 
from the handicap of blindness. 

Though I have written of my book as a history, it would be 
more correctly described as a register of facts, gathered to- 
gether to enable those interested to get a general outline of 

vii 



viii PREFACE 

what has been and is being done for the blind; the date of 
any incident referred to will enable the reader to obtain further 
information from the numerous books and publications that 
have appeared from time to time. 

I should like to say that any success I may have attained in 
writing this book is largely due to Mr. Henry J. Wilson, late 
Secretary of Gardner's Trust for the Blind; for twenty-two 
years, until 1919, he published a quarterly magazine, The Blind. 
full of valuable information, of which I have made great use 
I am further indebted to Miss E. R. Scott's History of tfa 
Education of the Blind prior to 1830, for much useful informa- 
tion. I should also like to thank Mr. J. Herbert Fisher, M.B., 
F.R.C.S., who gave me numerous valuable facts about medical 
and surgical work; Dr. Alfred Eichholz, late Board of 
Education; Mr. E. D. Macgregor, Ministry of Health; Miss J. 
A. Merivale ; Mr. J. de la Mare Rowley; Mr. W. H. Tate, J.P. ; 
the managers of institutions, and secretaries of local societies 
throughout the country, and many others without whose help 
I should have been unable to compile this work. 

I do not claim for it that it is either complete or infallible. 
It is merely the best that I can give after studying all the 
information at my disposal. In conclusion, I think it may be of 
interest to quote an extract from a long article on the blind in 
The Encyclopedia Londincnsis (1798), which, written over a 
hundred and thirty years ago, is not out-of-date to-day 

Parents and relations ought never to be too ready in offering 
their assistance to the blind in any office which they can perform, 
or in any requisition that they can procure for themselves, whether 
they are prompted by amusement or necessity. If he has a 
mechanical turn, let him not be denied the use of edge-tools ; for it 
is better that he should lose a little blood, or even break a bone, 
than be perpetually confined to the same place, debilitated in his 
frame, and depressed in his mind. Scars, fractures, and disloca- 
tions are trivial misfortunes compared with imbecility, timidity, or 
fretf ulness of mind. 

H. J. WAGG 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

FOREWORD BY THE RT. HON. LORD BLANESBURGH, P.C., 

G.E.E. V 

PREFACE ......... vii 

CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY ...... I 

APPENDICES 

I. THE PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS .... 179 

II. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON 

THE BLIND, THE DEAF AND DUMB, ETC., 1889 . 187 

III. AGENDA OF CONFERENCES 

EDINBURGH, IQO5 ...... IQ3 

EXETER, igil ....... 194 

LONDON, I9O2, 1914 .... 192, 195 

MANCHESTER, 1908 ...... 193 

NORWOOD, 1890 ...... igi 

YORK, 1883 ....... igi 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........ 199 

LIST OF TRADES AND VOCATIONS NOTED IN CHRONOLOGY . 2Og 

LIST OF INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES IN LONDON . . 211 

INDEX 215 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Pag* 

Nicholas Saunderson ....... 6 

Edward. Rushton ........ 6 

John Stock 8 

John Stanley ......... 8 

First School for the Blind in Great Britain . . . .10 

Workshops, Gillespie Crescent . . . . .12 

Royal Blind Asylum and School, Edinburgh . . .12 

School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark . . . 14 

Charles Day 18 

Thomas William Wing . . . . . . .18 

Memorial to William Thwaytes . . . . .20 

Extension to Liverpool School for the Blind . . .24 

The Royal Institution for the Blind, Birmingham . . 24 

Hughes' Typograph ....... 26 

Louis IJraille ......... 28 

H. W. P. Pine 48 

Sir Francis and Lady Campbell . . . . .48 

Henry Gardner ........ 56 

Henry J. Wilson ........ 56 

Miss Elizabeth Gilbert 56 

Henry Martin Taylor, M.A., F.R.S 56 

Blind Pupils at the Royal Normal College . . . .66 

Thomas Rhodes Armitage, M.D. . . . . .68 

William Moon, LL.D. ....... 74 

Apparatus and Appliances . . . between 82 and 83 

Royal School for the Blind, Leatherhead . . . .88 

Embossed Diagram . . . . . . .90 

Preparing Originals for Embossed Pictures . . .90 

Worcester College Library . . . . , . 100 



xii ILLUSTRATIONS F *ci g , 

page 

Rev. H. G. Rosedale, D.D. 106 

Miss E. W. Austin 106 

Professor Malcolm McHardy, F.R.C.S . . . .106 
National Institute for the Blind . . . . .122 
Sergeant Nicholls (blind) Typewriting with Artificial Hands. 138 
Blind Boys Gardening . . . . . ' . 138 

Lessons with Embossed Apparatus . . . . .146 

Sir Arthur Pearson, Bart., G.B.E 148 

Henry Stainsby . . . . . . .160 

William H. Illingworth . . . . . . .160 

The Hon. Mrs. Campion . . . . . . .166 

Sir Washington Ranger, D.C.L. 166 

Embossed Periodicals . . . . . . .172 

Blind Delegates at Esperanto Conference . . . . 1 74 

Rotary Press for Braille Printing . . . . .176 

An Embossed Map . . . . . . . .176 



A CHRONOLOGICAL 
SURVEY OF WORK 
FOR THE BLIND 



CAPPADOCIA Fourth 

St. Basil established a " Hospital " for the blind at Caesarea Century 
in Cappadocia, and provided them with guides. 

SYRIA Fifth 

The Hermit of St. Lymnaeus established a Refuge for the Century 
blind at Syr in Syria, special cottages being erected for their 
use. 

FRANCE Seventh 

St. Bertrand, Bishop of Le Mans, founded an Institution for Century 
the blind, believed to be at Pontlieu in the north-west of France. 

FRANCE Eleventh 

William the Conqueror, in expiation of his sins, it was said, Century 
founded among other institutions Hospices for the blind and 
other infirm persons, at Cherbourg, Rouen, Bayeux and Caen. 

GERMANY 1178 

Duke Welf VII established a Home for the blind at 
Memmingen, Bavaria, in which it is believed some sort of 
instruction was given. 

FRANCE 1860 

Louis IX, the saintly King of France, took under his protec- 
tion an already existing institution for the care of the blind, 
which went by the name of L'Hopital des Quinze-Vingts. The 
legend that this institution was built and endowed for his 
three hundred Crusaders, who chose to have their eyes put out 
by the Saracens rather than swear never to bear arms again 
against the Infidel, has been refuted by the researches of the 



2 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1260 Abb Prompsault. He proves by ancient documents that the 

institution did exist, though its origin seems to have baffled 
inquiry, and Louis IX merely bought back the plot of ground in 
Paris on which it was built, which is proved by letters patent of 
June, 1260. King Louis also rebuilt the domicile for the 
blind and increased the number of pensioners to 300, and gave 
them an allowance of 30 a year from his privy purse oh condi- 
tion that this sum was used for making soup for the poor. 

Begging was encouraged on the part of the inmates, to help 
support the Home. 

1305 BELGIUM 

A Hospice for the blind was established at Bruges. 

1329 LONDON 

The first Asylum for the blind in this country was founded 
by William Elsing, a London mercer. This was known-' as 
" Elsing Spittle " or " Spital." It stood near London Wall, and 
provided shelter for one hundred blind men. "It was con- 
fiscated," says Mr. Charles Pendrill, "at the Reformation, on 
the excuse that in the Middle Ages all hospitals were religious 
foundations/' (See Concerning the Blind, by Dr. J. M. Ritchie.) 

1347 SWANSEA, S. WALES 

Death of Henry de Gower, Bishop of St. David's, who 
founded an Asylum for the aged blind and sick at Swansea, 
which he endowed liberally with his own private property as 
well as with the revenues of three parish churches. 

1350 FRANCE 

King John the Good founded a Home for the blind at 
Chartres, similar to the one in Paris, but smaller. 

1370 BELGIUM 

A Hospice for the blind was established at Ghent. 

1467 LONDON 

The Company of Paynter-Stayners was incorporated by 
Edward IV. This old City Company, now known as the Wor- 
shipful Company of Painter Stainers, at the present day dis- 
tributes about 10 a year each to two hundred blind persons, 
from Painters' Hall, E.C. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 3 

PRINT, RAISED c. 1517 

Early in the sixteenth century, Francisco Lucas of Saragossa, 
Spain, contrived a set of letters carved on thin tablets of wood. 
This is the first record of raised type for the blind. (See The 
Beacon, January, 1924.) 

LONDON 1528 

The Fullers' Company, incorporated by Edward IV in 1480, 
and the Company of Sheermen by Henry VII, were united as 
one corporation by Henry VIII under the title of the Cloth- 
workers' Company. 

This old City Company, now known as the Worshipful Com- 
pany of Clothworkers, distributes about 12,000 a year in 
pensions to the blind, including the Blind Man's Friend (Day's 
Charity) now administered from Clothworkers' Hall. 

PRINT, RAISED c. 1550 

Girolimo Cardano (1501-1576), a physician of Pavia in 
Italy, conceived the idea that the blind might be taught 
through the sense of touch, and attempted to procure to some 
extent instruction for them. His Natural History mentions a 
device for teaching the blind to read and write by sense of 
touch, not very different from the modern invention of Braille. 

KNITTING 

Joan Wast, one of the four blind martyrs of England, main- 
tained herself by knitting stockings. (See Blindness and the 
Blind, by W. Hanks Levy.) 

PRINT, RAISED c. 1575 

Rampazetto, of Rome, taught blind people to read by 
means of letters incised on thin wooden tablets. The dis- 
advantage of this system was that the letters were immovable, 
a fresh tablet was required for each page, and there was no 
means of duplicating. 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1601 

The Poor Law Act of Queen Elizabeth specifically mentions 
relief to be given, amongst others, to the destitute blind. 

Prior to the Reformation, the poor, including the blind poor, 
were relieved through the activity of the monks. 



4 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1601 After the destruction of the monasteries in the reign of 

Henry VIII, this mode of assistance necessarily came to an 
end, and was replaced, as soon as times became quiet and 
peaceful, by the Poor Law Act of Queen Elizabeth, which was 
the first statute enacting relief on national lines. 

1640 PRINT, RAISED 

Pierre Moreau, a notary of Paris, devised a system of mov- 
able raised letters cast in lead, and about the same time 
Schonberger of Konigsberg, in Prussia, employed letters made 
of tin. 

1651 PRINT, RAISED 

George Harsdorffer, of Nuremberg, recommended the use of 
tablets covered with a coat of wax, on which letters could be 
formed by means of a stylus. 

1660 PRINT, RAISED 

Elizabeth Waldkirch was born in Geneva. She was a blind 
girl of remarkable intelligence, and her father and his friend, 
Bernouilli, the Swiss "savant/' took a delight in teaching her. 

Bernouilli had the alphabet incised deeply on a thin wooden 
board ; Elizabeth traced out the form of the letters with her 
finger, then with a pencil, and by this means learnt to write 
correctly on paper with a pencil and even with ink. She learnt 
to speak and write Latin, French, and German, and kept up a 
voluminous correspondence with her family and friends in all 
three languages. We are also told she played several instru- 
ments, the violin, the flute, and the organ, with a delightfully 
vague "etc." at the end of the list ! 

1676 PRINT, RAISED 

Padre Francesco Lana Terzi advocated a kind of cipher 
code based upon a system of dots enclosed in squares or other 
figures, and further, an arrangement of knots tied in string. 

c. 1680 SCULPTOR 

Giovani Gonnelli (sometimes called Gambasius or Gam- 
basio) , who lost his sight at the age of 20, commenced work 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 5 

as a sculptor about 10 years later, and became well known c. 1680 
for his work in Italy. 1 

YORK, YORKSHIRE 1717 

Dorothy Wilson's Charity was founded by a bequest which 
provides eight annuities of 8, for blind persons resident in the 
city or suburbs of York. 

LONDON 1718 

In 1718 and subsequent years, the trusts known as "West's 
Trusts for the Blind" were created by John and Frances West, 
the funds being derived from various properties left to the 
Clothworkers 1 Company as trustees. 

APPARATUS 1720 

Nicholas Saunderson, blind from infancy, Lucasian Professor 
of Mathematics at Cambridge, invented a board for working 
problems in arithmetic and algebra. 

EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND 1721 

Thomas Blacklock was born at Annan in Scotland; blind 
from infancy, he became a talented pupil at the Grammar 
School, studied divinity, and for a short time had charge of the 
parish church of Kirkcudbright. Later he became a school- 
master, and was keenly interested in the education of the blind. 
His example paved the way for the founding of the Edinburgh 
Institution for the Blind. 

OUNDLE, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 1723 

John Clifton, by his will dated 1723, left 300 for two blind 
pensioners of Oundle. (The charity did not take effect till 
about 1785.) 

APPARATUS 1756 

Herr Weissembourg was born at Mannheim, Germany, in 
1756; he lost his sight at the age of five. He was a bright, 
intelligent child, and his parents, being well-to-do, procured for 
him a tutor, Christian Niesen, who devoted all his energies to 
developing his pupil's ardent intellect. He taught the boy to 

1 Extract from Blindness and the Blind, by W. Hanks Levy (1872) 
in which book other mention is made of sculptors and wood carvers. 

2 (2155) 



6 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1756 write in French, as well as in his native German, im- 

proved on Saunderson's arithmetical table, and invented 
various contrivances for teaching his pupil algebra, trigono- 
metry and geometry, for the boy had a marked talent for 
mathematics. The maps which the tutor prepared for his 
geography lessons especially excited the wonder of his con- 
temporaries. In them the boundaries were marked in silk 
knots on the paper or cardboard on which the map was drawn, 
the rivers were marked in wire, the mountains by wooden pegs, 
the cities and towns by pins of varying size. Weissembourg 
was a very expert chess player; he taught a deaf and dumb 
man to play, and the two were ever afterwards constant, but 
friendly, opponents at the game. 

1759-1822 PRINT, RAISED 

Maria Theresa von Paradis was born in Vienna, 1759 ; she 
lost her sight when two years old. Her father quickly r&og- 
nized his child's talent for music, and obtained the best teachers 
for her. She was taught to read by means of pins stuck into 
a cushion in the shape of the letters of the alphabet ; when she 
had learnt their forms by passing her fingers over the pinheads, 
she was able to read when the writing was pricked through 
stout paper or cardboard. Herr von Kempellen invented a 
press for her, by means of which she printed German characters 
in relief. She early made her debut as a singer in church choirs, 
and was a skilful organist while still a child. The Empress 
Maria Theresa was a lover of music, and perhaps even more, of 
a child musician; she soon took a fancy to her little blind 
namesake, and gave her a pension of 200 gulden a year. 

1774 LONDON 

The Rev. William Hetherington, a Governor of Christ's 
Hospital, in the hope that his example would be followed, gave 
20,000 to enable the Governors to pay annuities of 10 each 
to fifty aged blind persons. (The income in 1930 was 8,000, 
and the number of pensioners 514.) 

1777 LONDON 

Hugh Humston, by his will dated 1777, left a sum of money 
to provide pensions for the blind. The Humston Charity for 
the Blind, administered by the Aldgate Lordship Foundation, 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 7 

Whitechapel, E., provides pensions for five blind persons, who 1777 

receive about 14 8s. each per annum. 

PRINT, RAISED 1779 

Death of a man named "Blind Jacob/' at Netra, a Hessian 
village; he lost his sight when eighteen months old through 
smallpox. He reached a high standard of education by means 
of embossing characters on wooden staves. (See The Braille 
Review, March, 1903.) 

DUBLIN, IRELAND 

Simpson's Hospital for the Blind and Gouty was founded 
"to provide a home for blind and gouty men who have once 
been respectable merchants, traders, or professional men in 
Ireland." 

(In 1884 about 60 blind persons were benefited. It apparently 
ceased to exist as a blind charity soon after.) 

LONDON 1781 

John Stock signed his will, leaving 55,000 reduced 3 per 
cent to the Company of Painters and Stainers "to be dis- 
tributed to the Aged and Blind and other charitable purposes." 
Numerous other small sums have been bequeathed to this 
City Company for granting pensions since that date. 

(In 1930 the Company was granting annuities of 10 to 
two hundred blind persons, distributed throughout England; 
the blind in Scotland, Ireland, and Wales are excluded.) 

YORK 

York Emanuel Charity was founded for granting annuities 
of 10 to 20 to ministers, their wives, widows, or children, 
" blind, nearly blind, or idiotic." The income of the Charity is 
about 500 a year. 

BRISTOL, GLOUCESTERSHIRE 1784 

John Merlott, by his will dated January, 1784, bequeathed 
3,000 to the Corporation of Bristol, the interest of which was 
to provide pensions for blind persons over fifty years of age. 
John Merlott 's Charity, thus founded, has since been aug- 
mented by several gifts and bequests. (In 1930 there were 
thirty-eight pensioners, and the income amounted to 492.) 



8 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1784 FRANCE 

Valentin Haiiy founded, in Paris, the first School for the 
Blind L'Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles (Institu- 
tion for young blind people). He was born in Picardy in 1745, 
and became the first great pioneer in the education of the 
blind. 

The same year that the school was founded Haiiy placed the 
first embossed books within reach of blind people, his pupil % 
Francois Lesueur, having discovered by accident the value of 
embossing on paper. 

LONDON 

Jonathan Granger having bequeathed a sum of money to 
the Drapers' Company, Granger's Charity was founded, which 
now enables fourteen blind persons to receive 10 each, every 
alternate year. 

1786 STANLEY, JOHN 

Death of John Stanley (born 1731), in many respects one of 
the greatest blind musicians. In spite of the fact that there 
was no embossed literature, he became Mus.Bac., Oxon, at the 
age of sixteen, and afterwards organist at St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, and the Temple Church, London. A contemporary 
of Handel, he not only (in conjunction with J. Christopher 
Smith) conducted the oratorio performances initiated by 
Handel, but held the office of Master of the King's Band of 
Music. 

(The reason for the inclusion of John Stanley in this book is 
the fact that he was a pioneer in what has since become a 
recognized profession for the blind.) 

1787 FRANCE 

Valentin Haiiy at his school in Paris taught his pupils to 
make hemp into thread and cord, and then into nets and 
webbing. 

1789 FRANCE 

Valentin Haiiy secured for his blind orchestra a position in 
the chapel of the Tuileries in Paris. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 9 

APPARATUS 1790 

Dr. Moyes invented improvements to Nicholas Saunderson's 
Arithmetic Board. 

LIVERPOOL, LANCASHIRE jygj 

The first School for the Blind in England (and for the blind 
only, in the world) was opened at the instigation of Edward 
^Rushton, a blind poet, in two small houses in Commutation 
Row, Liverpool. (See The Blind, 1913, No. 64.) 

Basket -making was one of the first industries taught at this 
and most other institutions for the blind. l 

(In 1930 there were 210 blind persons in this Institution: 
96 elementary pupils, 100 technical pupils, 6 employed in the 
workshop, and 8 on the staff.) 

BRISTOL 1793 

A School for the Blind was founded by Messrs. Bath and Fox, 
two members of the Society of Friends, in Callow Hill Street. 

The first trades attempted were plaiting whips and spinning 
flax. Stay-lace manufacture was later tried for a short time, 
out was soon followed by basket-making. 

(In 1930 the Royal School of Industry for the Blind, Bristol, 
had 615 blind persons on the register, including 85 elementary 
and 22 technical pupils at its school at Westbury-on-Trym, 81 
employed in the workshops in Park Street, 55 home workers, 
and 7 otherwise employed; 17 women were residing in its 
Hostel, and 5 in its Home.) 

EDINBURGH 

The first Institution in Scotland, known as the Society for 
the Relief of the Indigent Blind, was opened at Edinburgh ; 
within two months of its foundation, workshops were opened 
under the name of The Asylum for the Industrious Blind. 
The Institution was founded by the Rev. David Johnston, 
D.D., a minister of Leith. 

(In 1930 there were 586 blind persons on the register of the 
Royal Blind Asylum and School, including 125 in the ele- 
mentary and secondary schools, 101 technical pupils, including 
those learning music, 122 employed in the workshops, 17 home 

1 It is interesting to note that this is one of the oldest known crafts. 
It is said to have been carried on by the Azilian people in the south of 
Spain about 15,000 to 12,000 B.C, 



io CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1793 workers, and 17 otherwise employed. There were 17 blind in 
the Institution's Hostel, 39 in its Home, and 148 pensioners.) 

1794 SUSSEX 

Fuller's Charity for the Blind of Sussex was founded by 
John Fuller. Pensions of 9 125. each are administered to six 
blind persons. 

1796 LONDON 

John Came left 18,200 reduced annuities to the Cord- 
wainers' Company for the provision of pensions for the blind. 
(In 1929, 104 blind persons received annuities of 5 each.) 

1797 LONDON 

Joanna Rashdale bequeathed 1,000 Consols to provide 
pensions for blind women. 

(Rashdale's Charity for Blind Women is now administered 
by Gardner's Trust, and provides four annual pensions of 
7 IQS. each.) 

1799 LONDON 

School for the Indigent Blind, St. George's Fields, South- 
wark, was founded. It owed its inception to the efforts of four 
gentlemen, viz. : Thomas Boddington, Samuel Bosanquet, 
James Ware, and William Houlston. 

It afterwards became the Royal School for the Blind, 
Leatherhead. 

(In 1930 there were 451 blind persons on the register of the 
Royal School, including 147 technical pupils, 42 workers and 
15 otherwise employed at Leatherhead; 139 workers and 9 
technical pupils at its workshop, the Blind Employment 
Factory, in London ; 61 persons in its Homes, and 38 pensioners. 
Forty-six of the blind were in the Institution's Hostels.) 

1800 LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool School was moved to Hotham Street, London 
Road, and began taking resident pupils. 

LONDON 

The School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark, decided that 
the purpose of the School was "to educate and maintain 
fifteen blind persons who should be taught a trade/' 



WORK FOR THE BLIND n 

t 

BRISTOL 1803 

Bristol School moved to larger premises in Lower Maudlin 
Street, and started taking female pupils as inmates. 

AUSTRIA 1804 

The first School for the Blind in Austria was opened at Vienna. 
ESSEX 

Chigwell United Charities started a Benevolent Fund. 
(In 1930 the income was 2, this amount being given 
annually to one or two blind women in the district.) 

GLASGOW, SCOTLAND 

John Leitch died, bequeathing 5,000 for the purpose of 
founding an Asylum for the Blind in Glasgow. (See 1826.) 

KENT 1805 

Miss Elizabeth Denward's Charity for the Blind of Kent was 
founded at Canterbury. It provided twelve pensions of about 
3 155. and twelve of about i 175. per annum, to widows. 

NORWICH, NORFOLK 

Norwich Asylum and School for the Blind was founded by 
Mr. Thomas Taw ell, a wealthy iron merchant, who had been 
blind, but partially recovered his sight. He purchased Lord 
Bradford's mansion in Magdalen Street, with four acres of 
land, and also presented 1,000 guineas ; he took a keen interest 
in the Institution until his death in 1820. 

(In 1930 the Norwich Institution for the Blind, 132 Magdalen 
Street, had 73 blind persons on the register, of whom 19 were 
in the workshops, 12 were trainees, and 13 were home workers ; 
and their Home accommodated n men and 18 women.) 

Note. In 1930 there were 318 blind persons on the register 
of the City of Norwich and 447 on the register of the County of 
Norfolk, and the welfare of the blind was being looked after 
by the respective local authorities. 

EDINBURGH 1806 

The Asylum for the Industrious Blind acquired premises in 
Nicolson Street, where the workshops remained until 1923. 
GERMANY 

The first School for the Blind in Germany was opened at 
Steglitz. 



12 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1806 OXFORD, OXFORDSHIRE 

William Haynes, by his will dated 1806, left about 1,266, 
the income of which was to provide pensions for four blind 
persons of Oxford. (See Oxford, 1875.) 

1807 RUSSIA 

The first Institution for the Blind in Russia was founded by 
Valentin Haiiy at St. Petersburg. (Now Leningrad.) 

1808 HOLLAND 

An Institution for the education of the blind was founded 
at Amsterdam. 

SWEDEN 

The first Institution for the Blind in Sweden was founded at 
Stockholm. 

1809 SWITZERLAND 

The first Institution for the Education of the Blind in Switzer- 
land was founded at Zurich. 

1810 DUBLIN 

The Richmond Institution for the Instruction and Employ- 
ment of the Industrious Blind, Upper Sackville Street, Dublin, 
was founded, and named after the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
the Duke of Richmond. 

(In 1930 there were 37 blind workers and 17 trainees, the 
latter residing in the Institution.) 

C. 1810 LONDON 

The School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark, moved to 
Blackfriars Road, opposite the Obelisk, where a commodious 
School House was built. 

Thomas Newnam bequeathed to the Clothworkers' Company 
10,000 Consols for providing pensions for the blind. 

MANCHESTER, LANCASHIRE 

Death of Thomas Henshaw of Oldham, who left a sum of 
20,000, for the purpose of establishing an Asylum for the 
Indigent Blind. The will was contested by the relatives, but 
after twenty-five years the Court of Chancery gave a verdict in 
accordance with the terms of the will, which provided that 
none of the money should be spent on building. (See 1837.) 





(2155) 



School and Women's Department, Craigmillar Park 

ROYAL BLIND ASYLUM AND SCHOOL, EDINBURGH 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 13 

DENMARK 1811 

The first Institution for the Blind in Denmark was founded 
at Copenhagen. 

HEMEL HEMPSTEAD. HERTFORDSHIRE 1813 

By his will, dated May, 1813, Benjamin Collett of Downing 
Street, Westminster, left a sum of money to provide pensions 
for four bfnd persons, preference being given to residents in or 
near Hemel Hempstead. Benjamin Collett 's Charity for the 
Blind was thus founded. 

(In 1930 there were four pensioners, and the income was 
11 i6s. per annum.) 

LONDON 

Rachel Farmer bequeathed 1,000 4 per cent Consols to the 
Goldsmiths' Company for the provision of pensions for the 
blind. 

LIVERPOOL 1814 

Death of Edward Rushton (born 1755). As mate in a vessel 
bound for Dominica he contracted malignant ophthalmia, but 
struggling bravely against difficulties he subsequently main- 
tained himself as a bookseller, and published poems and other 
literary efforts. 

He was the originator of the proposal for the first School 
for the Blind in England the School for the Indigent Blind, 
Liverpool. 

DUBLIN 1815 

The National Institution and Molyneux Asylum for the 
Blind of Ireland, Leeson Park, Dublin, was founded. There 
is a School for the young and a Home for the aged. Main- 
tenance is free. Female Protestants only are admitted. (In 
1904 there were 49 inmates, but since 1913 only adults have 
been admitted; in 1930 there were 32 inmates, 26 of whom 
were employed in the workshops.) 

APPARATUS 1817 

David Macbeath of Edinburgh made further improvements 
in Nicholas Saunderson's Arithmetic Board. 



14 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1819 LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool School for the Indigent Blind built a chapel, said 
to be an exact copy in its dimensions of the temple of Zeus 
Pan-Hellinus in the island of Aegina. (It was somewhat 
damaged when moved later to Hardman Street.) The Chapel 
became famous for the singing of its blind choir, and in twenty- 
six years handed over 12,000 surplus income to the r chool. 

LONDON 

Institution for the Relief of the Indigent Blind of the Jewish 
Persuasion, now known as the Jewish Blind Society, was 
founded at Aldgate, E. 

(In 1930 the Society's offices were at 135 Fordwych Road, 
N.W. 2. In 1929 4,339 was distributed to 144 pensioners.) 

PRINT, RAISED 

Captain Charles Barbier, a French artillery officer, invented 
an arrangement of cells containing two vertical rows of six 
points each, certain combinations of which could, on phonetic 
principles, be made to represent the letters of the alphabet 
The system did not prove practicable, but laid the foundation 
on which Louis Braille worked in perfecting his system of 
writing ten years later. 

1820 SPAIN 

The first Institution for the Education of the Blind in Spain 
a day school was founded in Barcelona. (There was no 
boarding school for the blind in Spain until one was opened 
twenty-one years later in Madrid.) 

1821 LONDON 

The School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark, gave its first 
Musical Exhibition. 

PRINT, RAISED 

The Lady Elizabeth Lowther brought from Paris some em- 
bossed books for the blind for the use of her son, afterwards 
Sir Charles Lowther, Bart. She procured some type, by which 
he might be enabled to emboss other books; as a result, 
Charles Lowther, aided by a clever manservant, embossed 
the Gospel of St. Matthew and several Epistles for his own use. 




SCHOOL FOR THE INDIGENT BLIND, SOUTHWARK 

(Removed to Leatherhead 1902) 
(2155) 14 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 15 

EDINBURGH 1824 

Death of the Rev. David Johnston, founder, and for. thirty 
years secretary, of the Asylum for the Industrious Blind. 

EDINBURGH 1826 

A Home for Blind Women, i Hill Place, to accommodate 
25 blind vomen, was opened. It remained there until 1876, 
and was the predecessor of the Thomas Burns Home. 

GLASGOW 1826 

The Glasgow Asylum for the Blind, 100 Castle Street, .4, 
later known as the Royal Glasgow Asylum for the Blind, was 
opened. 

(In 1930 it had 384 workshop employees, and 194 trainees. 
Its Hostel accommodated 99 of its trainees, and 17 blind men 
were in its Home.) 

LONDON 

The School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark, was incor- 
porated by Royal Charter. Mat -weaving was added to the list 
of trades taught. 

LONDON 1827 

Miss Susannah Bird, by her will executed in 1827, left 1,000 
Consols (reduced by legacy duty to 900), the income of which 
was to be distributed annually to six blind persons by the 
School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark. 

(In 1930 Susannah Bird's Annuities were given to six blind 
persons by the Royal School, Leatherhead.) 

PRINT, RAISED 

Books were printed in relief, for the first time Roman 
capital letters by James Gall of Edinburgh, who later intro- 
duced the art of embossed printing into England. In his early 
printing the letters had no curves, but were angular and with 
sharp edges. 

BERKSHIRE 1829 

Yarnold's Charity for the Blind, administered by the Clerk 
of the Wokingham United Charities, was founded, to administer 



i6 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1829 annual gifts not exceeding 5 each to two blind men and two 

blind women, preference being given to residents of Hurst and 
Ruscombe. 

PRINT, RAISED 

Louis Braille invented the embossed alphabet, in France, 
now in general use throughout the blind world. It was 
adopted by L'Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles 
in Paris in 1854, soon after his death, and by Dr. T. R. Armitage 
when founding the British and Foreign Blind Association, 
London, 1868. (For outline of Braille's life see 1852.) 

1880 PIANOFORTE-TUNING 

The first blind piano tuner is believed to have been Claude 
Montal, who, about this time, together with a fellow pupil at 
L'Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles in Paris, 
attempted to tune the piano on which they practised/ The 
success which attended their efforts resulted in the beginning 
of regular instruction in tuning, and the opening up of piano- 
forte-tuning as a new avocation for the blind. 

1831 BELFAST, IRELAND 

Ulster Institution for the Deaf and Blind was founded at 
Belfast. 

(In 1928 the Ulster Society for Promoting the Education of 
the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, Lisburn Road, had 25 
blind and 69 deaf and dumb inmates ; in 1930 the blind pupils 
numbered 18 and there was i blind teacher.) 

1832 AMERICA 

The first two Schools for the Blind in America were founded. 

(a) The New England Asylum for the Blind, now known as 
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts. School for the Blind, 
was opened in Boston. 

(b) The New York Institution for the Blind, now known as 
the New York Institute for the Education of the Blind, was 
opened in New York City. 

PRINT, RAISED 

Edinburgh Society of Arts offered a gold medal value 20 
for the best method of printing for the blind. There were 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 17 

nineteen competitors during the next few years. The medal 1832 

was awarded to Dr. Edmund Fry, whose alphabet consisted of 
the ordinary capital letters denuded of their small strokes ; it 
never attained any practical success. 

AMERICA 1833 

The Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the 
Blind was opened in Philadelphia. Perkins Institution, the 
New York Institution, and the Philadelphia Institution were 
the three "pioneer schools" of the United States. They are 
incorporated and endowed. 

YORK 

Yorkshire School for the Blind was founded at York in 
memory of William Wilberforce, M.P., the eminent philan- 
thropist, who died that year. It was he who led Parliament to 
abolish slavery in the British dominions. 

LIMERICK, IRELAND 1834 

The Limerick Asylum for Blind Females connected with 
Trinity Church, Limerick, was founded. 
(In 1930 there were three blind inmates.) 

LONDON 

The Indigent Blind Visiting Society was founded by Lord 
Shaftesbury and Lord Ebury, for the purpose of improving the 
condition of the blind resident in or near London by providing 
them with 

(a) Readers of the Scriptures at their own homes and else- 
where. 

(b) Guides when needed to take them to places of worship, 
and to the classes established by the Society. 

(c) Instruction. 

(d) Temporal relief. 

(In 1930 about 600 persons were benefited.) 

The School for the Indigent Blind built a wing on to the 
premises at Southwark, increasing the accommodation to 150. 
They decided that the pupils were only to be instructed in the 
Alston system of reading and writing. 



18 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1885 EDINBURGH 

A School for Blind Children was founded by James Gall in the 
South Bridge; it was afterwards moved to St. John Street. 
(See 1851.) 

LONDON 

William Thwaytes bequeathed 20,000, to the Clothworkers' 
Company for providing pensions for the blind. 

YORK 

The Yorkshire School for the Blind acquired property called 
The King's Manor; its first superintendent was the Rev. 
William Taylor, M.A., inventor of the Taylor Frame for 
Arithmetic and Algebra. Shortly afterwards the pupils started 
to make baskets, rope mats, knitted shawls, stockings, etc. 



1836 LONDON 

Blind Man's Friend, or Day's Charity, was founded by a sum 
of 100,000 left by Charles Day (of the firm of Day and Martin, 
blacking makers) for the benefit of persons suffering under the 
same affliction as he "deprivation of light." This Charity is 
now administered by the Clothworkers' Company, and 3,520 
is distributed annually in pensions. 

(A new scheme of administration was framed by the Charity 
Commissioners in 1908.) 

1837 MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum, later known as Henshaw's 
Institution for the Blind, was founded in a building erected by 
public subscription in Old Trafford ; it became one of the largest 
Institutions in the country. 

(In 1930 it had 118 school pupils, 155 technical pupils, 
194 workshop employees, 29 home workers, 64 residents in 
its Homes, and 19 blind instructors, teachers, or persons 
otherwise employed.) 

NORWICH 

Norwich Asylum and School for the Blind purchased a 
number of books in the Alston system. 




(2155) 



THOMAS WILLIAM WING 

Founder of the Wing Pensions (1889) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 19 

BRISTOL 1838 

Bristol School, etc., moved to larger premises at the top of 
Park Street, with a residential school for boys. (These premises 
were vacated in 1911.) 

EXETER, DEVON 

A meeting was called by John Bacon in Exeter for the 
purpose of endeavouring to establish a School in the city for 
teaching the indigent blind to read. A Mrs. Friend had already 
been teaching the Lucas System to a few blind persons, and it 
was largely through her that the School was founded; she 
remained its superintendent until her death in 1875. 

The Exeter Indigent Blind School started work in a room in 
the Athenaeum hired for twenty guineas a year. This became 
The West of England Institution for the Blind. 

(In 1930 there were 188 blind persons on the register of the 
Institution, including 73 elementary pupils, 8 technical pupils, 
20 workshop employees, 50 home workers, and 4 otherwise 
employed.) 

LONDON 

The London and Blackheath Association was founded for 
the production of books in the type invented by James 
Hatley Frere; the Association ceased to exist within a short 
time. (See Concerning the Blind, by Dr. J. M. Ritchie.) 

Harry Osborne Cureton gave by deed, and later bequeathed, 
sums totalling 5,000 Consols to the Goldsmiths' Company, the 
interest therefrom to be used for the relief of poor aged blind 
men. 

Mr. Lucas, a citizen of Bristol, invented an embossed type 
for the blind, and came to London to procure its more general 
use. The result was the founding of the London Society for 
Teaching and Training the Blind, in Hart Street, Bloomsbury. 
It moved shortly afterwards to Gloucester Street, Bloomsbury, 
and later to Swiss Cottage, N.W. 3. Within two years the work 
had expanded, and included the teaching of basket-making, 
knitting, and netting. 

(In 1930 it was responsible for the care of 600 blind persons : 
83 in the elementary School, 106 in the technical School, 173 



20 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1838 workshop employees, 3 typists, 230 home workers, and 5 
pensioners.) 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, NORTHUMBERLAND 

Early in the year the Asylum for the Blind of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne and the counties of Northumberland and Durham 
was founded at the Spital near Westgate Street. Owing to 
differences of opinion over religious instruction a second 
Asylum, known as the Northern Asylum for the Blind, Deaf, 
and Dumb, was established in June at Wellington Place, 
Pilgrim Street. The same year a public meeting was called, 
and it was resolved that in order to celebrate Her Majesty's 
Coronation a subscription be entered into for the purpose of 
erecting a suitable building for the accommodation of the blind, 
to be called The Royal Victoria Blind Asylum. 

PRINT, RAISED 

The Society of Arts for Scotland presented its silver medal 
to John Alston, " for his tables, with wood-cut illustrations, and 
his musical catechism, with tunes, printed in relief, and ex- 
hibited to the Society on the i6th and 30th May, 1838 ; and 
for his zealous, energetic, and benevolent exertions for the 
education of the blind." 

1839 EXETER 

Exeter Institution changed its name to the West of England 
Society for the Instruction and Employment of the Blind, and 
moved to Paul Street ; it was also decided that all new pupils 
were to be taught the Alston type. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Two of the Blind Institutions established in Newcastle the 
previous year were merged into the Royal Victoria Asylum for 
the Industrious Blind of the Counties of Northumberland and 
Durham and the town of Berwick-on-Tweed, but the Northern 
Asylum refused to come into the amalgamation as the differ- 
ences on points of religious teaching could not be agreed upon. 
(See 1848.) 

The books used for instruction were those of Mr. John 
Alston of Glasgow. Basket-making, mat-making, and knitting 
were the staple industries taught, but included in a lengthy 




MEMORIAL TO WILLIAM THWAYTES IN THE CLOTHWORKERS' 
(3155) HALL, LONDON 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 21 

list of articles made were " hair-friction gloves for the cure of 1839 

rheumatism, and for promoting the circulation of the blood." 

(In 1930 the Royal Victoria School for the Blind was looking 
after 156 blind persons, including 92 elementary pupils at 
Benwell Dene, 39 male technical pupils at Benwell Cottage, 
and 25 female technical pupils at Benwell Grange ; 49 of the 
above were in the Institution's Hostels.) 

AMERICA 1840 

The first Workshop for the Blind in America was started at 
Perkins Institution in Boston. 

CORK, IRELAND 

The City and County of Cork Asylum for the Industrious 
Blind, Infirmary Road, was founded. 

(In 1930 it had 48 blind persons on the register, including 
20 workshop employees, 6 trainees, and 22 in its Home. Its 
Hostel accommodated 20 of the blind.) 

DUNDEE, SCOTLAND 

A Fund was established for the benefit of blind persons of the 
name of Webster, Speed, Watt, & Johnston; this limitation 
was afterwards overcome by Mr. J. G. Davidson giving 6,000 
for helping others. 

(In 1930 the Webster & Davidson Mortification for the 
Blind amounted to about 18,000.) 

EXETER 

Exeter Blind School started spinning and basket-making as 
industries for the blind. 

PRINT, RAISED 

John Alston, Hon. Treasurer of Glasgow Asylum, who had 
been printing for three years in embossed Roman capitals, 
now printed the whole Bible; several other works followed, 
until his death in 1846, when this work ceased. He also in- 
vented the Alston writing frame, now non-existent. 

YORK 

The Yorkshire School for the Blind started weekly concerts 
by its pupils. 

3 (2155) 



22 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1841 BRIGHTON, SUSSEX 

Brighton School for the Blind, Eastern Road, was started 
for children of both sexes. 

(In 1887 there were 47 inmates. In 1930 the then Brighton 
School for Blind Boys had 60 blind pupils and I blind teacher.) 

LIVERPOOL 

The Catholic Blind Asylum was founded at 16 Islington ; it 
was then, and is still (in 1930), the only Blind Institute in 
England and Wales exclusively for Roman Catholics. 

(In 1930 there were 204 blind persons on its register, includ- 
ing 84 in the elementary school, 37 in the technical school, and 
83 in the Home.) 

LONDON 

The Hon. Frances Harley assigned a certain property (since 
sold) for the provision of pensions. Harley's Charity now pro- 
vides pensions of 20 each to thirteen blind persons. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Newcastle Asylum moved to larger premises in Northumber- 
land Street (purchased for 2,300), where it remained for over 
fifty years. 

NORWICH 

Norwich Asylum and School for the Blind, having now 
forty-nine blind persons, erected an additional building at a 
cost of 250. 

1842 EXETER 

The Committee of the Exeter Institution decided to acquire 
larger premises and issued a public appeal, with the result that, 
soon after, they were able to move to suitable buildings on St. 
David's Hill. 

LONDON 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
started a special fund for embossing books; from that time 
onwards the Scriptures and secular works in Lucas type were 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 23 

sent all over the country, as well as to India, China, and the 1842 

colonies. 

YORK 

The Yorkshire School for the Blind started hair-plaiting as 
an industry, but the work proved too fine for general use. 

ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND 1843 

Largely through the munificence of Miss Cruickshank, the 
Aberdeen Asylum for the Blind, Huntly Street, was founded, 
for looking after the welfare of the blind in the counties of 
Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine. Orkney and Shetland were 
added later. 

(In 1930 the Asylum had workshops and showroom at 50 
Huntly Street. There were 71 blind persons employed in the 
workshops and 34 trainees.) 

LONDON 

The Christian Blind Relief Society was founded. The name 
was changed about fifty years later to the National Blind 
Relief Society. (See 1926.) 

The Governesses' Benevolent Institution was founded. (In 
1860, 1863, 1865, 1872, 1876, the Institution received sums of 
money for provision of one pension each to five blind gov- 
ernesses.) 

MANCHESTER 

The Annual Report of Henshaw's Asylum stated that the 
blind choir had memorized the whole of the psalms. 

NOTTINGHAM, NOTTINGHAMSHIRE 

The Midland Institution for the Blind was founded in a house 
in Park Street ; later known as the Royal Midland Institution 
for the Blind, it looked after the welfare of the blind in the 
counties of Nottingham, Derby, Leicester, and Rutland. It 
had its origin in the gathering together of a few blind persons 
with the object of teaching them to read the Bible. Foremost 
in this pioneer work in founding the Institution were Miss 
Chambers (blind), and Miss Woods, a member of the Society 
of Friends, who took a deep interest in the Institution until 



24 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1843 her death fifty-five years later. Thomas Parr (blind) was 

appointed schoolmaster, and held that post for forty-nine 
years, and it was said of him "no one can exaggerate the good 
that his influence and teaching conferred on many generations 
of the young blind." 

(In 1930 there were 840 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 65 employed in the workshops, 76 trainees, 86 home 
workers, and 4 blind home teachers. Hostel accommodation 
was provided for 70 of the above.) 

1846 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

The Poor Law Amendment Act, 1845, enabled Parochial 
Boards to contribute towards any asylum for the blind. 
This law applied to Scotland as well as England and Wales. 

GLOUCESTER 

John Wintle, by his will, dated June, 1845, left a sum of 
money, the income of which is 8 a year. John Wintle's 
Charity is distributed every Christmas to blind persons in 
Gloucester by the Trustees of the Consolidated Charities of 
St. Michael's parish, Gloucester. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum added a new wing, including a 
concert hall and a workroom. 

1846 BIRMINGHAM, WARWICKSHIRE 

The Institution, later called the Birmingham Royal 
Institution for the Blind, was founded at Edgbaston. 

William Harrold, a Birmingham merchant, conceived the 
idea of establishing the Institution, but died before the scheme 
was carried out; however, his daughter, Elizabeth, and her 
friend, Miss Mary Badger, rented a small house in Ruston 
Street, where the Institution was started. It soon after 
removed to larger premises in Ryland Street, and in the 
first annual report in 1848, the address was 113 Broad Street. 
In addition to school subjects, knitting, straw-plaiting, and 
basket-making were taught. Miss Badger was the Hon. Lady 
Superintendent for forty-eight years. 

(In 1930 there were 1,900 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 176 residents, besides 30 in the Hostels, 40 day scholars, 




lix TENSION TO Tin-: SCHOOL FOR TUK BLIND, HARDMAN 

HTMl'KT, LIVERPOOL 
(Building in l*mt*rrs^ i("jo} 




(2155) 



ROYAL INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND, BIRMINGHAM 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 25 

203 workshop employees, 136 home workers, 28 other em- 1846 

ployees, and 44 adult trainees.) 

BRIGHTON , 1847 

Dr. William Moon founded Moon's Institute for the Blind 
at 104 Queen's Road, Brighton, for the printing and publish- 
ing of literature in "Moon Type" invented by him. 

(In 1914 the Society became a branch of the National Insti- 
tute for the Blind. In 1915 the title was changed to the Moon 
Society. In 1930 the number of "Moon" productions was 
over 69,000.) 

LONDON 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
acquired the 96 years' lease of its present site at Swiss Cottage 
at a cost of 4,500, including building, and moved in 1848. 

BIRMINGHAM 1848 

Mr. James Taylor presided at a meeting held with a view to 
establishing the Birmingham Institution as a public charity. 
He was elected its first President. Shortly afterwards the 
Institution was moved to larger premises, Islington House, 
Broad Street, Edgbaston. 

EXETER 

Mr. R. W. Wyllie was appointed musical instructor at the 
Exeter School for the Blind ; he introduced a plan of musical 
notation invented by himself, using Lucas's characters. 
Shortly afterwards the Institution acquired a printing press in 
order to extend its work. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

The Northern Asylum for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb trans- 
ferred all its blind to the Royal Victoria Asylum. 

LIVERPOOL 1849 

The Catholic Blind Asylum moved to 20 St. Anne Street. 

BATH 1850 

The Institution for the Blind and Deaf and Dumb was 
founded; pupils of both sexes were received for elementary 



26 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1850 education. (In 1930 this Institution had long ceased to exist. 
See 1857.) 

LONDON 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
decided not to admit boarders over fourteen years of age. 

MANCHESTER 

Mr. and Mrs. G. A. Hughes were for twenty years the first 
Governor and Matron of Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Manchester. 
In 1850 Mr. Hughes took out a patent for the Hughes Typo- 
graph, which he claimed to be the first typewriting machine, 
and which was designed primarily to enable the blind to com- 
municate with the seeing. 

(A Hughes Typograph was awarded a gold medal at the 
Great Exhibition in Hyde Park in 1851 ; one of these machines 
is in the Museum of the National Institute for the Blind/ and 
another in the Science Section of the South Kensington 
Museum, where it is the oldest English model the one older 
machine is American. M. Foucault exhibited a writing 
machine for the blind at the Paris Exhibition in 1855. 

The earliest patent for a typewriter was granted to Henry 
Mill in 1714 in England, and the first practical typewriters were 
made in America in 1873.) 

1851 CENSUS 

The census figures for the year showed i blind person per 979 
of the population in England and Wales, i per 960 in Scotland, 
and i per 864 in Ireland. 

EDINBURGH 

The School for Blind Children, founded in 1835, was moved 
to Gayfield Square, where it was known as The Edinburgh 
School for Blind Children. 

LIVERPOOL 
Liverpool School moved to Hardman Street. 

MANCHESTER 

Handel's "Messiah" was performed by the choir of 
shaw's Blind Asylum. 




(2155) 



THE HUGHES' TYPOGRAPH 

(1850) 

The oldest British Typewriter 
(Invented for the use of the blind) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 27 

BIRMINGHAM 1852 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind moved to new pre- 
mises in Carpenter Road, Edgbaston, built on a two-acre site 
at a cost of 7,000. 

BRAILLE, Louis 

Death of Louis Braille, born 1809, in the village of Coupvray, 
near Paris ; he lost his sight when three years of age. In 1819 
he entered L'Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles in 
Paris, and was a brilliant pupil, and a good player on the piano- 
forte and violoncello. The idea of a system of points based on 
Charles Barbier's invention occurred to him about 1825, when 
still a pupil at school. In 1829 a pamphlet was printed, setting 
forth the use and practice of his system of embossing, but it 
was not officially adopted until 1854. He became a professor 
at the Institution where he had studied, and organist at the 
Chapelle des Lazaristes. 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution for the Blind built an extension at a cost 
of 370- 

BIRMINGHAM 1853 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind provided a blind 
organist and blind choir for St. James's Church, Edgbaston. 
(In 1915 the records show that forty of their pupils had 
obtained posts as organists.) 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution for the Blind moved to larger 
premises in Chaucer Street, built to accommodate forty 
boarders. 

ARMAGH, N. IRELAND 1854 

The Macan Asylum for the Blind was founded by Mr. 
Arthur Jacob Macan, whose father was blind. 

(In 1904 there were sixteen blind men resident in the Asylum ; 
in 1930 there were only seven.) 



28 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1864 BRISTOL 

Bristol Institution for the Blind printed some books in 
raised Roman type. 

LONDON 

Miss Elizabeth Gilbert, the blind daughter of the Bishop of 
Chichester, started a scheme for helping seven blind men to 
make goods in their own homes. 

1855 BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind built a new basket 
shop at a cost of 846, and started weaving and mat-making. 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution for the Blind carried out a further 
extension. (The accommodation was then for twenty pupils.) 

LONDON 

A Home Teaching Society was started in London by Miss 
Graham of Clapham. (The management was transferred to 
the National Institute for the Blind in 1915, and later trans- 
ferred to the County Associations.) 

Howard's Charity for the Blind of St. Marylebone was 
founded by a bequest of 1,000 by Charlotte Rebecca Howard. 
The income is divided by the Rector of St. Marylebone, each 
Christmas Eve, amongst the poor blind persons of the parish. 

1856 BRISTOL 

The Rev. Edward Kempe's Trust Fund was founded for 
the benefit of unmarried women who had been pupils in the 
School of Industry for the Blind, Bristol. 

(In 1930, nine blind women received pensions, six of 3 155. 
each, and three of 2 los. each.) 

CARLISLE, CUMBERLAND 

Carlisle and Cumberland Association for Promoting the 
Reading of the Holy Scriptures amongst the Blind was founded 
in Carlisle by Miss Graham of Edmund Castle. (The title was 
changed later. See 1872.) 




<55) 



Louis BRAILLE 
(1809-1852) 

Inventor of the Braille System 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 29 

CORNWALL 1856 

Cornwall Home Teaching Society, now the Cornwall County 
Association for the Blind, was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 794 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 17 home workers, and about 290 pastime workers, and 
The Dowager Lady Robinson Fund provided pensions of 10 
each to 34 of the blind.) 

HUDDERSFIELD, YORKSHIRE 

Huddersfield and District Blind Society was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 157 blind persons on the register, 
including 12 home workers.) 

LIVERPOOL 

The Catholic Blind Asylum moved to 59 Brunswick Road, 
then on the outskirts of Liverpool. (There were twenty-one 
inmates.) 

LONDON 

Ebury Street Classes for the Blind were started by the late 
Capt. Alfred Chapman. (In 1907 weekly classes were still 
being held ; apparently discontinued about 1910.) 

Miss Gilbert's scheme developed and became the Association 
for the General Welfare of the Blind, with small premises in 
Bloomsbury. 

(Later it became the Incorporated Association for the 
General Welfare of the Blind, Tottenham Court Road, W. 
In 1887 there were 67 workers and pupils, in 1915, 97, whilst in 
1930 the total number benefited was about 200.) 

BATH , 1857 

The Blind School Home was founded for the support of 
twelve blind women, previously educated at the Institution 
for the Blind and Deaf and Dumb, Bath. (See 1897.) 

BRISTOL 

A Home Teaching Association was started at Bristol 
(amalgamated with School and Workshop in 1907). 



30 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1857 DUBLIN 

The Association for the Relief of the Indigent Blind, and 
Lending Library, Lower Sackville Street, was founded by Miss 
Pettigrew. 

(In 1930 the address was 22 South Frederick Street. The 
Association had one home visitor, and gave weekly grants to 
about nine or ten blind persons.) 

EDINBURGH 

Edinburgh and South-east of Scotland Society for Teaching 
the Blind to Read at their Own Homes, Howe Street, Edin- 
burgh, was founded. 

This was the first Home Teaching Society in Scotland. 

(In 1930 there were 1,059 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 5 home workers and 3 Braille copyists; 7,826 visits 
were paid to the blind in Edinburgh, the Lothians, Peebles, 
Roxburgh, Hawick, Selkirk, Galashiels, and Berwick. Ifhere 
was a Free Library with 4,346 Braille and Moon books, the 
Jamieson Pension Fund with an income of about 1,323 a 
year, and the Jamieson Holiday Home in Kirkliston.) 

LONDON 

The London Association for the Blind (at first known as the 
Surrey Association for the Blind) was founded at 90 Peckham 
Road, S.E., for teaching and employing blind persons in mat- 
making, basket-making, chair-caning, brush-making, etc. 
(In 1887 it na d 31 blind workers, in 1915, 38, in 1922, 104, and 
in 1930, 158 paid workers, 29 pupils, 16 in the "Ladder of 
Hope," 7 pensioners, and 16 in its Home at High Salvington.) 

1858 BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind appointed a blind 
home teacher to teach the Moon System of reading ; there were 
then about 80 blind to visit. 

(In 1930 there were 1,244 blind persons on the visiting list, 
and 26,227 visits were paid by the 13 Home visitors.) 

CHELTENHAM, GLOUCESTERSHIRE 

The Cheltenham Home Teaching Society was founded; it 
afterwards became the Cheltenham and Gloucestershire 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 31 

Society for the Blind, and later the Cheltenham Workshops for 1868 

the Blind. 

(In 1930 there were 610 blind persons on the register, 3 
home teachers, and 22 blind men and 4 women in the 
workshops, making baskets, brushes, and mats.) 

DENMARK 

An Institution for the Blind was started in Copenhagen, 
Denmark, by Johann Moldenhawer (1829-1908), who devoted 
most of his life to the service of the blind in his own and other 
countries. 

DUBLIN 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic Asylum for Female Blind 
was founded under the superintendence of Sisters of Charity. 
(In 1904 there were 180 inmates from six to eighty years of 
age ; in 1930 there were about 200 including a few young blind 
boys.) 

St. Vincent's Home, Cabra, Dublin, was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 4 blind children in its elementary school.) 

LEICESTER, LEICESTERSHIRE 

Leicester Association for Promoting the General Welfare 
of the Blind was established. Its name was later changed to 
the Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland Institution for the 
Blind. It was the outcome of a suggestion by Mr. Herbert 
Mackley (blind) to Mr. William Harris of Westcotes, Leicester, 
who called a meeting to consider the proposal, with the result 
that the Institution was started in a house in High Street. 
When the Institution was founded Mr. Harris became Hon. 
Secretary. 

(In 1930 there were 338 blind persons on the Leicestershire 
County Register, 360 on Leicester County Borough Register, 
and 28 in the County of Rutland ; 220 of the total received 
weekly monetary grants. There were 6 elementary and 30 
technical pupils, 60 employed in the workshops, 24 home 
workers, and 4 blind persons otherwise employed; 9 of the 
above were residing in the Institution's Hostels and 4 women in 
its Home.) 



32 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1868 LONDON 

The Society for Granting Annuities to the Poor Adult 
Blind was founded by Edmund Charles Johnson and his 
friend Viscount Cranborne. It commenced with an annual 
gift of 6 each to 3 blind persons. 

(In 1929 the annuitants numbered 216, and its income was 
1,604, * ne Chairman and Treasurer of the Fund being Mr. 
Stuart Johnson, son of the founder, who had died in 1895.) 

1859 BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind built a Master's house. 

DUBLIN 

St. Joseph's Asylum and School for Male Blind was founded 
in Drumcondra, Dublin, controlled by Carmelite Brothers. 
(In 1904 there were 93 inmates, mat-making and basket- 
making being the industries carried on there. In 1930 there 
were 83 blind persons on the register, 38 of whom were in the 
workshops, 16 trainees, 17 in the elementary school, and 12 in 
the Home; 25 of the blind men resided in the Institution's 
Hostel.) 

EXETER 

The Exeter Institution purchased nine cottages and a yard. 
Additional workrooms, sickroom, etc., were built at a cost of 

750. 

GLASGOW 

The Mission to the Out-door Blind for Glasgow and the 
West of Scotland, 201 Buchanan Street, was founded, covering 
the area of Glasgow and the Counties of Ayr, Argyll, Bute, 
Dumbarton, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lanark, Renfrew, and 
Wigtown. 

The Glasgow Ladies' Auxiliary, Bath Street, takes a special 
interest in visiting and helping the women and girls on the Roll 
of the Mission. 

(In 1907 there were 1,567 blind persons on its register; in 
1930 the number was increased to 3,570, including 202 pen- 
sioners. The Pension Fund income amounted to 1,206.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 33 

LIVERPOOL 1869 

The Catholic Blind Asylum purchased part of the premises 
in Brunswick Road, which became the permanent Asylum; 
the remainder was purchased in lots during succeeding years. 

Home Teaching Society was founded by Miss Wainwright 
for the area of Liverpool and Birkenhead. 

(In 1930 the Liverpool Workshops and Home Teaching 
Society for the Out-door Blind, and the Birkenhead Society for 
the Blind, under one management, had 1,808 blind persons on 
their register, in Liverpool, Birkenhead, Bootle, Wallasey, and 
other parts of Lancashire and Cheshire, including 174 elemen- 
tary and technical pupils, 183 employed in the workshops, and 
21 home workers ; 15 women were in their Home and 7 in their 
Hostel. The Cornwallis Street Blind Annuity Fund distri- 
buted 500 amongst 21 annuitants.) 

SHEFFIELD, YORKSHIRE 

A class was formed, by Mr. Heath, for teaching the blind to 
read by means of Moon type ; this developed and became the 
Workshops for the Blind of Sheffield, and later the Royal 
Sheffield Institution for the Blind. 

(In 1930 the Royal Institution had 80 elementary pupils in 
its School and 13 blind persons in its Home. The Work- 
shops, managed by the Sheffield corporation, had 73 blind 
workers, 36 trainees, and 4 home workers.) 

CARMARTHENSHIRE, SOUTH WALES 

1860 
Carmarthenshire Blind Relief Society was founded by 

Mrs. Naomi Morgan. 

(In 1922 the Society was reconstructed ; in 1930 there were 
350 blind persons on the register.) 

DEVON PORT, DEVON 

Devonport and Western Counties Association for the Blind 
opened the Manor Lodge, Devonport, as a Home for the un- 
employable blind. 

(In 1930 in the Home at Torr, Plymouth, there were 31 
blind men and 34 blind women.) 



34 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1860 LONDON 

The School for the Indigent Blind opened workshops for 
adults at their premises in St. George's Circus, Southward. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution for the Blind commenced brush- 
making, in addition to the trades of basket-making and mat- 
making hitherto carried on. 

PLYMOUTH, DEVON 

The Institution for the Instruction and Employment of the 
Blind was founded in a portion of the old Plymouth Work- 
house, with 15 pupils. Besides the usual school subjects, mat- 
and basket-making were taught. Amongst those who helped 
to start the Institution was Mr. James Gale, a blind man, who 
was one of the most enthusiastic workers on its behalf. ,The 
Institution soon grew, and the name was changed to the South 
Devon and Cornwall Institution for the Instruction and 
Employment of the Blind. 

(In 1930 the South Devon and Cornwall Institution for the 
Blind, North Hill, employed 37 blind persons in their work- 
shops, had 30 trainees and 30 home workers, and 6 were other- 
wise employed. Their Hostels accommodated 20 blind men 
and 3 women.) 

SHEFFIELD 

The class started the previous year was extended to teach 
mat- and basket-making, premises being secured in West 
Street, and some ten or twelve men employed. A Sunday class 
was also formed. 

The workshop, shortly afterwards named the North of 
England Manufactory for the Blind, was founded by Miss 
Elizabeth Harrison, of Weston Hall, Sheffield. 

1881 BRADFORD, YORKSHIRE 

A Home Teaching Society was founded by Mrs. Ray, wife of 
the Rev. Richard Ray, a Wesleyan minister, who got together 
a small committee for the purpose. This developed into the 
Royal Institution for the Blind, Bradford, later becoming one 
of the best in the country. (In 1870, 42 blind were employed ; 
in 1890, 76 ; in 1920, 128 ; in 1930 there were 700 blind persons 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 35 

on the register, of whom 150 were employed in the workshops, 1861 

16 were trainees, and 20 were home workers. Hostel accom- 
modation was provided for 16 women; and 15 men and 8 
women were in the Institution's Homes. About 600 a year 
was paid to 40 blind pensioners.) 

CANTERBURY, KENT 

A School for the Blind was founded. (In 1872 the school 
had 6 pupils, but it apparently ceased to exist shortly 
afterwards.) 

CENSUS 

The census figures for the year showed 19,352 blind persons 
in England and Wales, being a ratio of one in every 1037 f 
the population; 2820 blind persons in Scotland, being one in 
every 1086 ; 6879 in Ireland, being one in every 843. 

CHELTENHAM 

The Cheltenham Home Teaching Society started a small 
workshop in Grosvenor Street, with a blind instructor. 

LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool Workshops and Home Teaching Society opened 
its first workshop in a large room under Hope Hall. (The 
Society shortly after moved to 37 Bold Street.) 

LONDON 

The Braille system of reading and writing was introduced 
into the London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
by Professor Hippoylyte Van Landagen of the Belgian 
Institution. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum added workshop accommodation 
for brush-making ; this was soon discontinued, basket -making 
and mat-making being continued as before. Outside blind 
workers were now employed in addition to the inmates. 

PEMBROKESHIRE, SOUTH WALES 

Pembrokeshire Blind Relief Society, Haverfordwest, was 
founded. (The Society was reconstructed in 1921. In 1930 
there were 197 blind persons on the register.) 



36 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1861 PLYMOUTH 

Plymouth Institution moved to larger premises in Coburg 
Street. The first resident inmate was received, and organ- and 
piano-teaching commenced ; within four years, seven ex-pupils 
had obtained posts as church organists in the neighbourhood. 

1862 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

An Act of Parliament was passed enabling Boards of 
Guardians to maintain and educate blind children in certified 
schools. 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Home Teaching Society started a workshop in 
Rawson Place, where six men and four women were taught 
basket-making and knitting. 

BRIGHTON 

Brighton Blind Relief and Visiting Society was founded by 
William Moon, LL.D. Object : to send a missionary to the 
homes of the blind, to lend books and teach the blind to read, 
and to help the needy. 

(In 1930 the Brighton Society for the Welfare of the Blind 
had 405 blind persons on its register.) 

CHELTENHAM 

The Cheltenham Home Teaching Society moved its work- 
shop to Winchcombe Street. 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution acquired an additional two acres of 
ground at a cost of 600. 

YORK 

Yorkshire School for the Blind extended its workshops and 
started an ''Out -mates Department/* 

1863 LONDON 

The Alexandra Institution, 6 Queen Square, Bloomsbury, 
was founded by Edward Moore. It provided an industrial 
Home for the adult blind. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 37 

(In 1875 there were 21 inmates and 10 outworkers. The 1863 

Institution ceased to exist many years ago.) 

The Protestant Blind Society was founded by the late 
Thomas Pocock (Senior) ; the name of the Society was after- 
wards changed to the Protestant Blind Pension Society of the 
United Kingdom. In 1887 it became the Royal Blind Pension 
Society. 

(It is interesting to note that the work was carried on by the 
founder's two sons, Alfred and Ebenezer Pocock, by his 
grandsons, Thomas, George, and Percy, and by his great- 
grandson, P. Laurence Pocock, the two latter being respec- 
tively Chairman and Hon. Treasurer in 1930, in which year 
1,091 pensioners were benefited and the income of the Society 
amounted to 16,833.) 

South London Association for Assisting the Blind was 
started. (In 1887 classes were being held at Walworth Road, 
Brixton Road, and Kennington Road, and there were 228 
members; in 1930 classes were held in Walworth Road only, 
and the members numbered 166.) 

Sunday Afternoon Bible Classes were started. (In 1896 
classes were held in Drury Lane and Cleveland Street, Euston 
Road ; there were 90 members). 

HULL, YORKSHIRE 1864 

Hull Institution was founded as a Home Teaching Society 
by Alderman C. R. Lambert, a blind resident ; there were 90 
blind persons on the register, who were taught to read the 
Bible and other books in Moon. 

(This became the Hull and East Riding Institute for the 
Blind, Beech Holme, Beverley Road. In 1930 there were 
745 blind persons on the register, of whom 114 were employed 
in the workshops, 43 were trainees, 3 were home workers, and 
5 were otherwise employed; its Home and Hostel accom- 
modated 14 of their blind women.) 

LONDON 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
carried out considerable extensions to its building at Swiss 
Cottage, including a concert hall, printing shop, and additional 
dormitories. 

4 (2155) 



38 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1864 The Phoenix Home for Blind Women, St. John's Wood, was 

started ; the name was changed later to the Cecilia Home for 
Blind Women. 

(In 1930 there were fourteen blind inmates at the Home, 
in Abbey Road, N.W.) 

Somers Town Blind Aid Society (afterwards known as the 
Hepburn Starey Blind Aid Society) was founded by Mrs. 
Hepburn Starey. Objects: to influence the blind for good, 
provide pensions, medical advice, entertainments, excursions, 
etc. (In 1903 it had 320 members, in 1922 it had 400 members, 
and in 1927 about 395 were benefited.) 

SOUTHSEA, HAMPSHIRE 

Hampshire and Isle of Wight School for the Blind was 
founded. (In 1930 there were 23 blind pupils in the school.) 

1866 CARDIFF, SOUTH WALES 

Cardiff Association for the Blind was founded by Miss Shand, 
in a small private house in Severn Road, Canton, with three or 
four pupils. It later became the Cardiff Institute for the Blind. 
Miss Shand acted as Secretary for the first twelve years. 

DUNDEE 

Through the generosity of Mr. Francis Molison, Dundee 
Institution was founded, and provided with a new school and 
workshops at Dallfied House. 

(In 1930 there were 172 blind persons being benefited, 60 in 
the elementary school, 44 technical pupils, and 68 paid workers, 
and a Hostel accommodated 12 of their blind women.) 

KIRKCALDY, SCOTLAND 

The Fife and Kinross Society for Teaching the Blind at 
their own homes was established at Kirk Wynd, Kirkcaldy. 

(In 1930 the Fife and Kinross Society for the Blind, I 
Townsend Place, Kirkcaldy, had 332 blind persons on its 
register, including 14 home workers.) 

LONDON 

Mr. Jonathan Williams left 1,000 to the School for the 
Indigent Blind, Southwark, to provide annuities for six blind 
persons. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 39 

(In 1930 Jonathan Williams's Annuities, having been in- 1865 

creased by small purchases, amounted to 1,406 in 2,\ per cent 
annuities, the income of which was distributed by the Royal 
School, Leatherhead, to six blind persons.) 

NEWPORT, SOUTH WALES 

The Newport and Monmouthshire Home Teaching Society 
was founded. 

(In 1930 the Newport and Monmouthshire Blind Aid 
Society had 829 blind persons on its register, including 9 
employed in its workshops, 3 home workers, and 4 blind 
home teachers ; 3 blind women were in its Hostel.) 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Society for Teaching and Helping the Adult Blind 
of Swansea and Neighbourhood was founded to teach the 
Moon System ; there were then known to be about 70 blind 
persons in the neighbourhood. 

(In 1930 the Swansea and South Wales Institution for the 
Blind employed 54 blind workers, 40 trainees, and 17 home 
workers ; 12 were otherwise employed. Hostel accommodation 
was provided for 14 of the men and 17 of the women.) 

ALLOA, SCOTLAND 

The Stirling, Clackmannan, and Linlithgow Society, Fenton 
Street, was established. (In 1907 there were 104 blind persons 
on the register, including 34 persons engaged in some form 
of industry or trade, and there was a library of 1510 books ; in 
1930 the Society for Teaching the Blind at their Homes in 
the Counties of Stirling and Clackmannan, 25 Mill Street, 
Alloa, had 229 blind persons on its register, including 7 home 
workers.) 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind started brush-making. 

CHELTENHAM 

The Cheltenham Home Teaching Society moved its work- 
shop in Winchcombe Street to larger premises in the same 
street, No. 51. 



40 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1886 FRERE, JAMES 

Death of James Hatley Frere (born 1779), of Cambridge 
Terrace, London ; he held a commission in the Royal Artillery, 
and afterwards became chief clerk in the Army Pay Office. He 
was the author of several religious books, and invented a 
system of teaching the blind to read by means of raised type. 

HULL 

Hull Institution started a workshop in one room in Nile 
Street. (In 1870, eight blind men were employed, and sales 
amounted to 193.) 

LEEDS, YORKSHIRE 

Mr. John Wilkinson of Hafrogate, himself blind, founded an 
Institution for the Industrious and Indigent Blind at Leeds, 
which afterwards became the Leeds Incorporated Institution 
for the Blind, and the Deaf and Dumb. It was started with 6 
blind workers in Basinghall Street, but within a short time was 
moved to more suitable premises in Cookridge Street. 

(In 1930 there were 940 blind persons on its register, in- 
cluding 22 in the elementary school, 56 in the technical school, 
85 employed in the workshops, 29 home workers and 3 other- 
wise employed.) 

LONDON 

The Association for Establishing Workshops for the Blind 
was founded. 

(In 1875 about twelve blind persons were employed in its 
workshops in Bishopsgate Avenue, Camomile Street, chiefly 
occupied in making sacks and bags for coffee and rice. The 
Association ceased to exist many years ago.) 

The Association for the General Welfare of the Blind opened 
a shop in Oxford Street. (Its workrooms were then in 
Euston Road.) 

The Watercress and Flower Girls' Christian Mission was 
founded by John A. Groom. In 1907 the name was changed to 
John Groom's Crippleage and Flower Girls' Mission. It pro- 
vides a Home and industrial training for blind and crippled 
children at Clerkenwell. (In 1929 there were 20 blind children.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 41 

PERTH, SCOTLAND 1866 

Society for Teaching the Blind to Read in the County and 
City of Perth was founded in premises in Welshill Terrace, 
Perth ; this Society afterwards moved to South Methven 
Street. 

(In 1930 there were 142 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 8 home workers.) 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Corporation gave the use of a room in the Assembly 
Rooms to the Home Teaching Society, and seven men and boys 
were employed at basket- and mat-making; they shortly 
afterwards moved to 5 Caer Street. 

WORCESTER, WORCESTERSHIRE 

A College for the Blind Sons of Gentlemen was founded by 
the late Rev. R. S. Blair. It was first housed in an old building 
known as the Commandery, the ancient hospital of St. Wulf- 
stan. 

Although this Institution only lasted three years, it was 
reconstituted in 1872, and afterwards became the Worcester 
College for the Blind. 

(In 1930 there were 47 blind pupils in the College, besides 
two blind and two partially blind masters.) 

YORK 

The Yorkshire School for the Blind started brush-making as 
an industry. 

Mrs. Markham's Fund for the Blind was founded for aiding 
former pupils of the Wilberforce (Yorkshire) School for the 
Blind to establish themselves in positions of independent 
industry. The capital invested was 800. 

BOLTON, LANCASHIRE 1867 

Workshops for the Blind were founded. (In 1887 there 
were 30 workers, in 1927, 57 workers. In 1930 there were 
521 blind persons on the register, including 97 employed in the 
workshops, 6 home workers, and 14 living in the Institution's 
Home.) 



42 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1867 CARDIFF 

Cardiff Institute moved to Byron Street, Roath, and 
started basket-making, soon followed by mat-making. 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution erected a small organ. 

LEICESTER 

Leicester Institution founded a home-teaching branch. 

LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool Town Council gave a site of about a thousand 
square yards in Cornwallis Street, for the erection of a workshop 
for the blind, which was completed about three years later. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Workshops for the Blind, Breamish Street, were founded. 
(In 1930, 53 blind persons were employed.) 

Home Teaching Society for the Blind in Newcastle, Gates- 
head, and neighbourhood was founded. The first home 
teacher was Mr. Wilkinson blind. 

(In 1930 there were 707 blind persons on the register, includ- 
ing 522 in Newcastle and 185 in Gateshead ; there were 24 home 
workers and 2 blind home teachers.) 

PRESTON, LANCASHIRE 

Preston Industrial Institute for the Blind was founded as the 
result of the efforts of Mr. John Catterall, who for three years 
had been helping four blind men to be taught basket-making in 
a small cottage. 

Mr. Thomas Scholefield (blind) filled the post of Manager 
with success, until his death in 1912. 

(In 1930 there were 537 blind persons on the register, of 
whom 46 were in the elementary school, 43 employed in the 
workshops, 21 trainees, 12 home workers, and 2 otherwise 
employed. Nineteen of these were accommodated in the 
Institution's Hostel.) 

STOCKPORT, CHESHIRE 

Institute for the Blind, the Deaf, and the Dumb, St. Peters- 
gate, Stockport, was founded. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 43 

(In 1930 there were 198 blind persons on the register, of 1867 

whom 22 were employed in their workshop and 4 were home 
workers.) 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1868 

An Act of Parliament was passed enabling Boards of 
Guardians to send blind children to uncertified as well as 
certified schools. 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution built new premises at North Parade at 
a cost of 6,434. Later in the year, during a period of extreme 
financial anxiety, an anonymous gift of 2,000 was received. 
(A portion of the above premises was sold in 1926, but a large 
section of the original building is still devoted to social welfare 
work amongst the "outside blind.") 

CARDIFF 

Cardiff Institution moved to Longcross Street. 

INVERNESS, SCOTLAND 

The Society for Teaching the Blind to Read in the Northern 
Counties (afterwards known as The Northern Counties Insti- 
tute for the Blind), was founded for the care of the blind in 
Inverness and neighbourhood. 

(In 1930 there were 586 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 12 in the elementary school, 12 employed in the work- 
shops, 6 home workers, and 5 otherwise employed.) 

LONDON 

The British and Foreign Blind Association (now the 
National Institute for the Blind) was founded by Thomas R. 
Armitage, M.D., at his house, 33 Cambridge Square, W. At 
that time there was no work of national importance under- 
taken on behalf of the blind, and occasional relief was almost 
all that they could hope for. The primary object of the 
Association was the employment and education of the blind, 
and the provision of embossed literature. The Braille system 
was adopted, and the Association soon became the centre for 
supplying printed books, maps, music, frames for the writing 
of Braille, and other educational apparatus. 



44 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1868 (In 1930 the National Institute for the Blind was carrying on 
its chief work at 224, 226, and 228 Great Portland Street, W.i. 
Its many branch activities are mentioned in different parts of 
this book.) 

PRINT, RAISED 

William B. Wait, Superintendent of the New York In- 
stitution, devised what became known as the New York Point 
system of reading and writing, a variation of the Braille 
system. 

WORCESTER 

The Society for Promoting Cheap Literature for the Blind 
was founded by the Rev. W. Taylor. (This Society existed 
in 1884, but apparently ceased to exist soon after.) 

1869 BARNSLEY, YORKSHIRE 

Barnsley and District Association for Visiting, Teaching, 
and Training the Blind was founded. (In 1929 they had a 
shop and a depot in Market Street ; 2 home teachers were 
employed, and 194 blind were being visited in the area of its 
County Borough and in the West Riding of Yorkshire, includ- 
ing 6 blind persons employed in its workshop and 10 home 
workers. In 1930 the Association was taken over by the Barns- 
ley Corporation Blind Welfare Department. There were then 
79 blind persons on the register of the Barnsley county borough 
and 1,641 in the West Riding of Yorkshire.) 

EXETER 
Exeter Institution enlarged its workshops and kitchen. 

FORFAR, SCOTLAND 

Forfarshire Mission to the Blind (Angus and South Kin- 
cardineshire), West High Street, Forfar, was established. 

(In 1930 there were 215 blind persons on the register, of ' 
whom 121 were receiving financial help from the Mission, and 
there were 5 home workers.) 

GILBERT, Miss ELIZABETH 

Miss Elizabeth Gilbert played a leading part in the drafting 
of a memorial, pleading the cause of the blind child, for 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 45 

presentation to Mr. Gladstone's Government. When Mr. 1869 

Forster's Education Bill became law the following year the 
blind were not mentioned, but largely through Miss Gilbert's 
action they were not debarred from the right to compulsory 
education. 

LONDON 

A School and Home for Blind Children was started in 
Goldsmith's Place, Kilburn, N.W. (Records show that in 
1887 thirty children were being looked after; in 1896 this 
Institution no longer existed.) 

SHEFFIELD 

Sheffield Institution built commodious workshops and a 
retail shop in West Street, and bought some adjoining land 
for future needs. 

WAKEFIELD, YORKSHIRE 

A meeting was called by the Rev. C. J. Camidge, Vicar of 
Wakefield, to hear addresses by Dr. Moon, of Brighton, and 
Sir Charles Dodsworth, Bart, (both blind), with the result that 
a society was started and a Bible-woman was engaged to visit 
the twenty or so blind people in the neighbourhood ; a library 
of embossed books was provided. In due course the work 
developed, blind children being sent for instruction to the 
Schools at Leeds, Sheffield, and York. 

(In 1930 the Wakefield and District Institution and Work- 
shops for the Blind had 341 blind persons on the register, 
including 9 employed in the workshops, 5 home workers, and 
20 residing in the Institution's Homes.) 

WORCESTER 

Worcester College was converted into a Proprietary Insti- 
tution, but languished for two years, and the Company was 
then wound up. (See 1872.) 

A Home Teaching Society for the Blind was founded. 

HULL 1870 

Hull Institution started a reading class for boys and a 
knitting class for women ; the latter was discontinued in three 
years' time owing to the difficulty of disposing of the articles. 



46 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1870 LANARK, SCOTLAND 

St. Vincent's Schools and Hostel were founded at Smyllum, 
Lanark, but moved in 1911 to Tolcross, Glasgow. The Insti- 
tution is for Roman Catholics. 

(In 1930 there were forty blind children in the elementary 
school, and twenty women in the Hostel, these going to work 
daily at the Municipal Workshop, Possill Park, Glasgow.) 

LONDON 

Hampton's Mission for the Blind was started by James 
Hampton, a painter, who carried on the work practically 
single-handed till 1898, when a Committee was formed. 

Objects: to organize the work of charity among the blind 
poor of London by obtaining employment, and giving grants, 
pensions, and many other forms of assistance. 

(Became the South London Institute in 1907.) 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Newcastle Asylum built additional dormitories at a cost of 
456. 

ROCHDALE, LANCASHIRE 

The Rochdale and District Society for Visiting and Instruct- 
ing the Blind was started in May, in the Chapel of the Desti- 
tute, Whitehall Street, chiefly through the efforts of John 
Ashworth, the well-known Lancashire author of Strange Tales. 

The first Sunday in May is still observed, more than fifty 
years afterwards, by a special service for the blind at the same 
chapel. 

(In 1929 there were 189 blind persons on the register, 
including 14 home workers.) 

1871 BELFAST, IRELAND 



In 1870 Thomas Cathcarte, a labourer, on whom were 
dependent a wife and eight children, lost his sight during 
blasting operations in a quarry. Miss Mary Hodson, daughter 
of the Rev. J. Hodson, was unsuccessful in her efforts to secure 
him training and employment. She interested some influential 
residents in the question of care of the blind, with the result 
that in 1871 the Association for the Employment of the 
Industrious Blind was founded at 6 Howard Street. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 47 

(In 1930 there were 128 blind persons employed in the 1871 

workshops, and 21 home workers.) 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution erected a new workshop for chair- 
caning. 

CARDIFF 

Cardiff Association for the Blind became the Cardiff Work- 
shops for the Blind. 

(In 1930 there were 398 blind persons on the register, 95 
of whom were employed in the workshops.) 

CENSUS 

The census figures for the year showed 21,590 blind persons 
(or i per 1,052) in England and Wales, 3,021 blind persons (or 
i per 1,112) in Scotland, and 6,347 blind persons (or i per 852) 
in Ireland. 

CONFERENCE 

The first of the Biennial Blind Conferences ot the American 
Association of Instructors of the Blind, was held at Indiana- 
polis, America. 

DIRECTORY 

A Guide to Institutions and Charities for the Blind was pub- 
lished by M. Turner and W. Harris, in which they stated 

(a) That Moon type was being used by thirty-eight Insti- 
tutions, Lucas type by seven, Roman type by four, Alston type 
by four, Frere type by three, and Braille type by four. 

(b) That in all Institutions the same general difficulties 
appeared to exist, the principal being the difficulty of selling 
the goods manufactured at such prices as would procure a 
ready sale, and cover, the cost of production; consequently, in 
most instances there was a large surplus stock. In cases 
where the stock was wholly disposed of, observation led them 
to believe that sales had been secured by selling at a loss. 

LIVERPOOL 

The Catholic Blind Asylum was taken charge of by the 
Sisters of Charity. Sister Mary Maxwell, a cousin of the then 
Duke of Norfolk, was appointed Superior, and under her 



48 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1871 devoted supervision the Institution flourished until, in 1908, 
the inmates exceeded 200. She retired in 1922. 

Music 

The British and Foreign Blind Association published the 
first explanatory pamphlet on Braille Music Notation. 

PRINT, RAISED 

Braille books were printed for the first time from stereo- 
typed plates, by the British and Foreign Blind Association. 

1872 CARLISLE 

Workshops for the Blind of Cumberland and Westmorland 
were established in West Tower Street. 

(In 1930 the Cumberland and Westmorland Home and Work- 
shops for the Blind, 22 and 24 Lonsdale Street, had 333 blind 
persons on their register, including 19 employed in the work- 
shops and 10 home workers : of the former 6 were accommo- 
dated in their Hostel.) 

Note. In spite of the title there was no Home in existence. 

COCKERMOUTH, CUMBERLAND 

Hudson's Charity was founded by a bequest from Isabella 
Hudson, giving a pension of about 3 6s. 8d. to three persons 
resident in Cockermouth. 

EDINBURGH 

The Asylum for the Industrious Blind, having previously 
amalgamated with the Home for the Female Blind, H.M. Queen 
Victoria gave permission for the Institution to be known as 
the Royal Blind Asylum. 

MITFORD, NORTHUMBERLAND 

The Northern Counties Blind Society was founded at 
Mitford. (See North Shields, 1924.) 

NORWOOD, SURREY 

The Royal Normal College and Academy of Music for the 
Blind was founded by the late Francis J. Campbell (afterwards 
Sir Francis), with the assistance of Dr. Armitage and others. 
It was the first Institution of its kind in England. 




'" 





< 



= if 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 49 

(In 1930 there were 130 resident pupils, 90 of whom were 1872 

receiving training as shorthand typists, pianoforte tuners, 
organists, music teachers, school teachers, or preparing for 
matriculation. It can justly be proud of the many successes 
of its past pupils in music, literature, and law.) 

WORCESTER 

Worcester College was reconstituted as a private school 
under the principalship of the late Rev. S. S. Forster. 

YORK 

Yorkshire School for the Blind founded a free scholarship to 
commemorate the talents and services of the Rev. W. Taylor, 
F.R.S., the first superintendent of the school (1836 to 1845). 

CONGRESS 1873 

The first Congress of Teachers of the Blind was held in 
Vienna. 

DONCASTER, YORKSHIRE 

Doncaster and District Home Teaching Association for the 
Blind is believed to have been founded about 1873. 

(In 1930 there were 130 blind being visited within a radius 
of about eight miles from Doncaster.) 

INVERNESS 

The Northern Counties Institute extended the area of its 
work to include the care of the blind in Ross, Sutherland, and 
Caithness, and started a Home and Workshop in High Street, 
Inverness, for the education of blind children and the industrial 
training and employment of adults. 

SHEFFIELD 

Sheffield Institution took over the Sheffield Home Mission 
and Sabbath School. 

SWANSEA 

The Swansea Society acquired I and 2, South Hill Place (now 
known as Northampton Place) for 2,000, for an enlarged 
school and workshop, and took a showroom in Goat Street. 
(In 1878 there were 22 pupils, and 17 "out-mates" under 
instruction in the workshop.) 



50 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1873 YORK 

Yorkshire School for the Blind built an additional wing. 

1874 BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution erected additional buildings. 

BRISTOL 

A Home for Blind Women, presented by Miss Caroline Bush, 
was established in Aberdeen Road. (Moved in 1905.) 

CHARITY ORGANISATION SOCIETY 

The Charity Organisation Society appointed a committee to 
consider what could be done to improve the condition of the 
blind. After thirty-nine sittings, they pressed for the appoint- 
ment of a Royal Commission to secure the many reforms that 
they considered necessary in order to provide better education 
and more employment for the blind. (At this date there, were 
only 150 workshop employees in London, and 800 in the 
United Kingdom. In 1930 there were about 750 blind em- 
ployed in the London workshops and 3,000 in England and 
Wales.) 

IPSWICH, SUFFOLK 

Ipswich and Suffolk Institution was founded. (Changed, in 
1920, to the Ipswich Society for the Blind. In 1930 there 
were 127 blind persons on the register, 13 of whom received 
pensions.) 

LIVERPOOL 

A Home for Blind Children was established at Miller Street, 
Toxteth Park. (This was the first Home for blind babies of 
two years old or so ; it was closed in 1912.) 

LONDON 

The East London Home and School for Blind Children, 
Northumberland House, Warwick Road, Upper Clapton, E., 
was founded. 

(In 1887 there were 19 inmates ; in 1922, 38 ; and in 1930, 
55-) 

School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark, set apart the base- 
ment of about half the school for use as a workshop by ex-pupils. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 51 

NOTTINGHAM 1874 

The Midland Institution for the Blind began teaching 
Braille to its pupils. 

PRESTON 

Preston Institute opened new premises in Glover's Street, 
which enabled the work to be greatly expanded. 

SWANSEA 

The Swansea Society for Teaching and Training the Adult 
Blind changed its name to the Swansea and South Wales 
Institution for the Blind. 

WOLVERHAMPTON, STAFFORDSHIRE 

The Wolverhampton, Dudley and Districts Institution for 
the Blind, Waterloo Road, was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 499 blind persons on its register, in- 
cluding 39 employed in the workshops, 19 home workers, and 
5 otherwise employed.) 

ACCRINGTON, LANCASHIRE 1875 

Accrington and District Society for the Blind ws founded 
by Richard Bond and James Towson. On the occasion of a 
blind boy, Thomas Fielding, aged 13, being sent away to be 
trained, a tea-party of thirty-two blind persons in the district 
was organized to give him a ' 'send-off" ; this tea-party became 
an annual event each January, and led to other services for 
the welfare of the local blind. (Three of the original company 
were present at the Jubilee Tea-party in 1925.) 

Soon after the foundation of the Society Mr. John Ingham 
(blind) was appointed first visitor; he carried out his duties 
"ably and conscientiously" for thirty-two years. (See 1907.) 

CHESTER, CHESHIRE 

Chester Society for the Home Teaching of the Blind was 
founded. 

(In 1930 there were 800 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 53 home workers and 20 pastime workers, and over 
10,000 visits were paid to the blind in Chester, Cheshire, 
Denbighshire, and Flintshire.) 



52 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1875 LONDON 

Blind Female Annuity Society was founded by Mrs. Jameson. 
Annuities were granted to eight blind women. (This Society 
was taken over by the Royal Blind Pension Society in 1894.) 

MACCLESFIELD, CHESHIRE 

Macclesfield Society for the Home Teaching of the Blind 
was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 136 blind persons on the register, 
including 8 home workers and 7 otherwise employed, in 
Macclesfield, Congleton, and neighbourhood.) 

OXFORD 

Elizabeth Woodington, by her will dated 1875, left about 
271, the income of which was to provide a pension for one 
blind person of Oxford. 

(In 1930 the Oxford Municipal Charities, Haynes' and 
Woodington's, gave five pensions of 23 8s. each. See 1806.) 

YORK 

Death of Mr. Joseph Munby, who had been the Hon. 
Secretary to the Yorkshire School for the Blind since its 
foundation in 1833, and was largely responsible for its founda- 
tion and support. His son, Mr. F. J. Munby, was appointed 
his successor. 

1876 COLCHESTER, ESSEX 

Colchester Home Teaching Society for the Blind was 
founded for teaching the blind in their own homes. (In 1930 
there were 148 blind persons on the register, and the Society's 
activities covered 56 towns and villages.) 

CONGRESS 

A Congress of Teachers of the Blind was held in Dresden, 
Germany. 

DUBLIN 

The Richmond Institution received a legacy of 26,000, left 
by the Rev. E. Pepper, and shortly afterwards carried out 
considerable extensions. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 53 

EDINBURGH 1876 

The Royal Blind Asylum took over the Blind School, which 
had existed separately, and opened a splendid Institution at 
West Craigmillar the Royal Blind Asylum and School. 

The women from the Home were also taken over. 

LEEDS 

The Leeds Blind Institution amalgamated with the York- 
shire Association for the Adult Deaf and Dumb. 

LEICESTER 

Leicester Institution opened a Cottage Home for four 
elderly blind women. 

LONDON 

The Association for the Promotion of the General Welfare of 
the Blind moved to Berners Street, W. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum carried out further extensions. 

NORWOOD 

The Royal Normal College opened a large new building, with 
concert hall, schoolrooms, etc. 

(The property in 1930 consisted of sixteen-and-a-half acres 
of ground, and also included a gymnasium, skating rink, 
swimming-bath, and rowing lake, a building for pianoforte 
tuning containing 40 pianos, besides 46 pianos and 5 organs 
for practising.) 

LEEDS 1877 

The Institution for the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb 
moved to new premises in Albion Street, costing over 10,000, 
and providing accommodation for basket-making, brush- 
making, and chair-caning, besides a retail shop and a school for 
children. The blind workers numbered twenty-six. 

LONDON 

Workshop for the Blind of Kent was started at Greenwich 
by Major-General P. J. Bainbrigge, R.E., for the purpose 

5 (JI55) 



54 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1877 of employing blind men of Kent. (In 1887 it had 15 blind 
workers; in 1911, 20; and in 1930, 41.) 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
carried out further extensions at a cost of 4,300 ; also intro- 
duced into their School Braille musical notation, and Taylor's 
arithmetic by movable types. 

OXFORD 

Oxford Society for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 188 blind persons on the register of the 
county and 121 on the register of the county borough.) , 

PLYMOUTH 

Plymouth Institution moved to larger premises on a free- 
hold site on North Hill, containing 22,000 square feet of 
ground. 

SlJNDERLAND, DURHAM 

A workshop for the blind was opened at Villiers Street, 
Sunderland. 

(In 1930 the Sunderland and Durham County Incorporated 
Royal Institution for the Blind, 23 and 24 Villiers Street, had 
1,399 blind persons on the register, including 16 in the 
elementary school, 52 employed in the workshops, 17 trainees, 
ii home workers, and 2 otherwise employed.) 

1878 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

The Customs and Inland Revenue Act, 1878 (Section 21) 
exempted a blind person from the necessity of taking out a 
dog licence for a dog used as a guide. 

BRIGHTON 

Brighton Blind Missionary Fund was founded by Dr. W. 
Tindal Robertson (blind), M.P., of 9 Belgrave Terrace, 
Brighton. 1 (Amalgamated 1909 with the Brighton Blind 
Relief Society.) 

1 He became Sir Tindal Robertson; he and Henry Fawcett, LL.D., 
M.P., the well-known blind Postmaster-General, were both Members 
of Parliament for Brighton at the same time. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 55 

COVENTRY, WARWICKSHIRE 1878 

Coventry Society for the Blind was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 140 blind persons on the register.) 

JAPAN 

The first School for Blind and Dumb in Japan was opened in 
Kyoto, followed soon after by one at Tokyo ; for many years 
previously massage, acupuncture, and music had been set aside 
as occupations followed almost exclusively by blind persons 
in Japan. 

OLDHAM, LANCASHIRE 

Home Teaching Sopiety was founded at Oldham (Incorpor- 
ated 1920). 

(In 1929 there were 308 blind persons on the register; in 
1930 the Society ceased to exist, and the work was taken over 
by the Oldham Municipal Council.) 

PLYMOUTH 

Plymouth Institution built an additional workshop. 

PRINT, RAISED 

Joel W. Smith, of Perkins Institution, Mass., U.S.A., devised 
a second American point system of writing, modelled more 
closely after the original Braille. This system, with certain 
modifications, about fourteen years later became known as 
American Braille. It was a close competitor of New York 
Point, which seemed likely to become the accepted system of 
the Continent. 

ABERDEEN * 1879 

Aberdeen Town and County Association for Teaching the 
Blind at their homes was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 748 blind persons on the register: 
Aberdeen burgh 243, Aberdeen county 166, Banffshire 90, 
Kincardineshire 12, Orkney 85, and Shetland 152. There 
were 21 home workers and 2 other blind employees. The 
office and library were at 112 Crown Street.) 



56 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1879 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

An Act of Parliament was passed enabling Boards of 
Guardians to subscribe towards the support of Institutions 
and Associations for the Blind. 

BELFAST 

The Belfast Blind Association opened an additional shop in 
Castle Street. 

CARLISLE 

The Carlisle and Cumberland Association for the Blind built 
workshops in Lonsdale Road at a cost of 3,715. The work- 
shops were founded, and the greater part of the money raised, 
by Miss Harriet D. Johnson, the Hon. Secretary for thirty-one 
years, who died in 1903. 

CHINA 

The Rev. William Hill-Murray, an agent of the National 
Bible Society, started a school for the blind in Peking. (See 
The Braille Review, March, 1916.) 

One of the most difficult works that the Rev. Hill-Murray 
successfully undertook was the adaptation of Braille to the 
Chinese language, which consists of over 4,000 complicated 
characters. Dr. Morrison, the first missionary to China, had 
already noted that there were 420 distinct sounds in Mandarin- 
Chinese, the language of four-fifths of the whole Empire. Mr. 
Murray for his purpose found it possible to reduce the number 
to four hundred and eight sounds, each of which was repre- 
sented by one or more Braille numerals. (Four examples may 
be given : the numeral i stands for A, 2 for ang, 12 for chang, 
108 for hsiang.) 

CONGRESSES 
A Congress of Teachers of the Blind was held at Berlin. 

A Universal Congress for the Amelioration of the Blind and 
of Deaf Mutes was held at Paris. 

DUNDEE 

Dundee Mission to the Out-door Blind, Castle Street, was 
established. 




IKNKY G \RDXKR 

>1 G.mlwi's JTnisl h-r tin- Blind 



HKNKY JOSIAIJ \YIIS<N 




KLIZABKTH M. M. GILBERT 
(1826-1885) 

Founder of the Association for the General Welfare 

of the Blind 
(215?) 




HENRY MARTYN TAYLOR, M.A., F.R.S. 

(1842-1927) 

Founder of the Embossed Scientific Book Fund 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 57 

(In 1930 there were 563 blind persons on the register, 1879 

including 6 home workers, and the address of the Mission was 
Caird Rest, 172 Nethergate, Dundee. There was a lending 
library with Braille and Moon books.) 

GLASGOW 

Glasgow Asylum for the Blind started on an extensive re- 
building scheme. 

LONDON 

Henry Gardner, of i West bourne Terrace, W., died, and 
left 300,000, free of legacy duty, for the formation of a trust 
for the benefit of blind persons residing in England and Wales. 
Gardner's Trust for the Blind, 53 Victoria Street, S.W., was 
thus created. A scheme of administration was drawn up and 
approved by the Court of Chancery in 1882, indicating that the 
income should be distributed as follows : two-ninths in instruct- 
ing the blind in music ; two-ninths in instructing the blind in 
trades, handicrafts, professions; two-ninths for pensions; 
three-ninths at the discretion of the committee. 

Benefited in 1930: pensioners 247; by scholarships 84; 
other individuals no; institutions 31. Henry Gardner also 
left 10,000 each to three blind institutions in London. 

SHEFFIELD 

The Sheffield School for Blind Children, built at a cost of 
15,000, was opened in Manchester Road, Sheffield. Mr. 
Daniel Holy gave an endowment of 26,000. 

AUSTRALIA 1880 

An Industrial Blind Institution was founded at Sydney. 


BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind discarded Lucas's 
system of reading, and substituted that of Braille. 

LEEDS 

The Leeds Blind Visiting Society amalgamated with the 
Leeds Institution for the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb. 



58 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1880 LONDON 

The Kensington Institute for the Blind was started by Mrs. 
Arthur Cohen, from a nucleus of work that had been carried on 
for four years. 

(Thirty-three persons were employed in 1930, the Institute 
then being known as the West London Workshops for the 
Blind.) 

North London Home for Aged Christian Blind Men and 
Women was founded by Rev. Henry Bright and his wife ; the 
former was blind from birth. They continued in charge of the 
home till their deaths in 1919 and 1918 respectively. (In 
1887 there were 37 inmates, in 1896, 93 inmates, and in 1930, 
107 inmates at Hanley Road, Crouch Hill, N.4, and 28 at the 
branch Home at Southend.) 

The School for the Indigent Blind opened a junior branch 
school at Linden Lodge, Wandsworth Common. (Taken* over 
in 1902 by the London County Council.) 

1881 AUSTRALIA 

Mr. Alfred Hirst (blind), of Huddersfield, and later of 
Whit by, an enthusiastic Braillist, introduced Braille into 
Australia. 

BLACKBURN, LANCASHIRE 

The Blackburn and Darwen Society for the Blind was 
established as a small visiting society and for the religious 
instruction of the blind. (In 1930 there were 399 blind persons 
on the register, and 2 home teachers were employed.) 

CENSUS 

The census figures for the year showed 22,831 blind persons 
(or i per 1,137) m England and Wales. 

FRANCE 

Maurice de la Sizeranne (blind) devised an abbreviated sys- 
tem of orthography for the blind, which has since been 
generally employed in France, Switzerland, Belgium, and 
Canada, and has served as a basis for a similar method used 
in Germany, Italy, and France. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 59 

INVERNESS 1881 

The Northern Counties Institute purchased and adapted 
the old High School to provide increased space for school and 
workshop, and soon after they erected a shop and warehouse 
in Castle Street. 

LEEDS 

Death of John Wilkinson (aged 81) President and Founder 
of the Leeds Institution ; though himself blind, he was largely 
responsible for the development and success of the Institution 
for the first few years of its existence. 

LONDON 

Charles Randell left 450 to the School for the Indigent 
Blind, Southwark, to provide annuities. 

(In 1930 the Charles Randell Annuity Fund, administered 
by the Royal School, Leatherhead, provided annuities to 
three blind persons.) 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum introduced the Braille system into 
the school, one of the many improvements introduced by 
James McCormick (Governor 1876-1892). 

PERIODICALS 

Progress, a magazine in Braille type, the first monthly 
publication of its kind, was published by the British and 
Foreign Blind Association. (It is still produced by the National 
Institute for the Blind.) 

SHEFFIELD 

Sheffield Institution for the Blind rebuilt the premises in 
West Street at a cost* of 3,650, and bought further land. 

SOUTH AFRICA 

The Deaf and Blind Institute, Worcester, was founded by 
the Rev. W. Murray, under the auspices of the Dutch Reformed 
Church. 

(In 1930 there were 120 blind pupils, the older ones being 
taught the usual trades, There were three hostels provided 



60 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1881 for the pupils. The Institute had a Braille printing press, 

but also imported books from England.) 

AMERICA 

Home teaching was successfully introduced in Philadelphia 
by Dr. William Moon. 

BANGOR, CARNARVONSHIRE 

The North Wales Home Teaching Society for the Blind was 
founded. (In 1929 it looked after the blind of Anglesey, 
Carnarvonshire, Montgomeryshire, Merionethshire, and parts 
of Flintshire and Denbighshire.) 

BURNLEY, LANCASHIRE 

The Burnley and District Society for the Blind was founded 
for visiting and helping the blind in their own homes. 
(In 1929 there were 275 blind persons on the register.) 

CONGRESS 

A Congress of Teachers of the Blind was held at Frankfort, 
Germany. 

DUMFRIES, SCOTLAND 
< 

Dumfries and Galloway Society, Rae Street, was established, 
mainly for home teaching. (In 1907 there were 106 blind per- 
sons on the roll, and 800 books in the Library. In 1930 it 
existed, but no figures were available.) 

LEICESTER 

Leicester Institution moved to larger premises in Granby 
Street. 

LONDON 

Miss Blott (blind) started a school for children of the upper 
classes at Barnes. (In 1907 there were 'five pupils; in 1911, 
four ; it apparently ceased to exist soon after.) 

A Lending Library for adult blind readers was founded in 
Fairfax Road, Hampstead, by Miss Arnold (blind), and Miss 
Howden. 

This Library was so successful that in later years it became 
the nucleus of the National Library for the Blind, Great Smith 
Street, Westminster. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 61 

NORWOOD 1882 

The Royal Normal College for the Blind opened the first 
Kindergarten for blind pupils, 

WOLVERHAMPTON 

A Workshop for the Blind was opened by the Wolver- 
hampton, Dudley, and Districts Institution. 

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE, LANCASHIRE 1883 

Ashton-under-Lyne, Stalybridge, Dukinfield and District 
Home Teaching Society for the Blind was established. 
(In 1930 there were 280 blind persons on the register.) 

BELFAST 

Belfast Blind Association built new workshops and show- 
room, etc., in Royal Avenue, at a cost of about 6,000. 

CARDIFF 

Cardiff Workshops for the Blind changed its name to the 
Cardiff Institute for the Blind, and built additional workrooms, 
sales-rooms, and library. 



CONFERENCE 

An International Conference was held at York, the first of 
its kind in the United Kingdom. (For Agenda see "Appendix 
III," page 191.) 

FRANCE 

Maurice de la Sizeranne founded the Valentin Haiiy, a 
journal treating with questions relative to the blind systems 
of education, methods of teaching, schools, works, etc., also 
the Louis Braille, a monthly journal printed in relief, in point 
print, after the Braille system. 

NORWOOD 

The Royal Normal College was provided with a swimming- 
bath by the late Dr. T. R. Armitage. 

NOTTINGHAM. 
The Midland Institution for the Blind built a gymnasium. 



62 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1888 OLDHAM 

Workshops for the Blind, New Radcliffe Street, Oldham, 
were founded. 

(In 1930 there were 18 blind men employed, making brushes, 
baskets, and mats, in addition to the 15 blind women employed 
in the women's branch started in 1904.) 

YORK 

Yorkshire School for the Blind started an "Out-pupils" 
Department for teaching a handicraft to such as had lost their 
sight over the age of sixteen. 

1884 AUSTRALIA 

The Royal Institution for the Blind, North Adelaide, South 
Australia, was founded; Mr. Andrew Hendry was appointed 
manager. 

BELFAST 

Belfast Blind Association started a Home Teaching Society 
and a Library. 

BRADFORD 

The Mayor, Alderman F. Priestman, J.P., was elected 
Chairman of the Bradford Institution, a position which he 
held with much success for thirty-seven years. 

CENTRAL BUYING AND SELLING 

Mr. Richardson-Gardner, in conjunction with Gardner's 
Trust, drew up a "Central Aid" scheme for selling goods made 
by the Institutions and buying materials centrally. The 
scheme was, however, rejected by a large majority of the 
Institutions. 

DURHAM, Co. DURHAM 

The Northern Counties Blind Society moved from Mitford 
to Durham. 

HULL 

Hull Institution was rebuilt at a cost of 800 ; cork fender 
making and chair-caning were started, and employment was 
found there for the first time for three blind women. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 63 

ROYAL COMMISSION 1884 

A conference was called by the Duke of Westminster at 
Grosvenor House, London, for the purpose of discussing the 
condition and needs of the blind; this resulted in a Royal 
Commission being set up the following year. (See 1889.) 

SWANSEA 

The Swansea Institution, which had hitherto used the Moon 
system, adopted Braille. 

BRADFORD 1886 

Bradford School Board established a class for blind children 
at Carlton Street School. 

CONFERENCE 

An International Conference of Teachers and Friends of the 
Blind was held at Amsterdam, Holland. 

DUNDEE 

Through the generosity of Mrs. Molison, widow of the 
founder, Dundee Institution was provided with a splendid new 
building at Magdalen Green at a cost of over 10,000. 

EDINBURGH 

Edinburgh Asylum and School for the Blind adopted the 
Braille system to the exclusion of all others. 

Mrs. Jane Stobie Clark Pension Fund was established; it 
gives small annuities to thirty blind women. 

HULL 

Hull Institution ripened a retail shop, but owing to the 
expense involved it was closed in a few years 1 time. 

LONDON 

Death of Miss Elizabeth M. M. Gilbert (born 1826), daughter 
of Ashurst Turner Gilbert, afterwards Bishop of Chichester. 
She became blind when three years old, as the result of scarlet 
fever. For her work see 1854 an d 1856. 



64 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1888 APPARATUS 

Toothed wheel pencil and compasses for making raised 
diagrams were invented by Mr. Guy M. Campbell of the Royal 
Normal College. 

BELFAST 

The Belfast Society for Home Mission Work among the blind 
was founded by Mrs. R. B. Pirn. 

(In 1930, in addition to its home missionary work, the 
Society had a Home at Cliftonville with thirty-six blind in- 
mates and a Hostel with 15.) 

CARDIFF 

Shand Memorial Fund was founded by Miss Shand, the 
Foundress of the Cardiff Institution, for workers at the 
Institution. 

(In 1930 there were seven annuitants, each receiving 5.) 

LEICESTER 

Miss Sarah Barlow's Charity for blind women was founded. 
Miss Barlow left a bequest of 3,500 Consols and the sum 
provides grants for ten blind women. 

LONDON 

Kensington Institute for the Blind moved to Ball Street, 
Kensington. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Nottingham Corporation added embossed books for the 
blind to the public Free Library (believed to be the first 
municipality to do so) . 

PERIODICALS 

Dawn, a magazine in Moon type, was published quarterly by 
Mr. H. von Niederhausern, Secretary of the Northern Counties 
Association for the Blind, North Shields, who died in 1926 after 
fifty-five years of devoted service to the blind. 

(In 1930 the circulation of Dawn in Great Britain, Canada, 
the United States, etc., amounted to about 200 copies a 
quarter, and the embossing was still carried out by blind labour 
at North Shields, under the editorship of Miss Hunter. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 65 

YORK 1886 

Yorkshire School for the Blind purchased the freehold of its 
property and built additional workshops and schoolrooms. 

CORK 1887 

St. Raphael's Home for the Industrious Female Blind, was 
established, under the care of Catholic Sisters. 

(In 1915 it had fifty-six inmates. In 1919 it was closed 
owing to lack of funds, and most of the inmates were moved to 
St. Mary's Institution, Merrion, Dublin.) 

DIRECTORY 

The First Edition of Information with Regard to Institutions, 
Societies, and Classes for the Blind in England and Wales was 
published by Henry J. Wilson, Secretary of Gardner's Trust 
for the Blind. 

EXETER 

The West of England Institution began teaching pianoforte 
tuning. 

HALIFAX, YORKSHIRE 

Halifax Society for the Home Teaching and Assistance of 
the Blind, afterwards known as the Halifax Society for the 
Blind, was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 363 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 30 employed in the workshops, 14 trainees, i home 
worker, and 8 in the Institution's Home ; 4 were residing in 
its Hostel.) 

INVERNESS 

The Northern Counties Institute moved its Home, school, 
and workshops to 38 Ardconnel Street, built at a cost of 1,650. 

LEICESTER 

The Wycliffe Cottage Home and Hostel was founded for 
the blind of Leicester. (In 1921 there were thirty-four 
inmates.) 



66 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1887 LONDON 

By permission of H.M. Queen Victoria, the name of the 
Blind Pension Society of the United Kingdom was changed to 
the Royal Blind Pension Society. 

The Fawcett Memorial Scholarship, of which the Cloth- 
workers' Company are the Trustees, was founded. 

It provides one scholarship (50 per annum) for four years, 
tenable by a blind student of either sex, between 17 and 23 
years of age, at any University in the United Kingdom. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Old Trafford, as a result of a 
munificent bequest by Mr. J. Pendlebury, carried out a large 
extension known as the Pendlebury Extension, consisting of 
dormitories and workshops. (Inmates numbered 100.) 

NORWOOD 

Royal Normal College introduced roller-skating and cycling, 
and started a course of training for blind typists. 

1888 CLERK, BLIND 

W. H. Illingworth, Headmaster of the Edinburgh School for 
the Blind, introduced the use of the Edison Bell phonograph 
for recording, and trained the first correspondence clerk. 

(The phonograph used was similar to the modern dictaphone.) 

HOLLINS, ALFRED 

Mr. AlfredHollins (blind), Mus.Doc., F.R.C.O., was appointed 
Professor of Pianoforte and Organ at Norwood. Born at Hull 
in 1865, he was educated at York and Norwood, and at the 
age of nineteen was appointed organist of St. John's Church, 
Redhill. (An account of his brilliant career appears in The 
Beacon, August, 1924, with a portrait as he appeared seated 
at one of the largest organs in the world, built to his specifica- 
tion, and erected in the Town Hall, Johannesburg.) 

INDIA 

Shirreff Braille was invented by Mrs. Shirreff, wife of Rev. 
F. A. P. Shirreff, M.A., Fellow of the Punjab University. By 




Q 
O 
O 



t 
g-8 

& H 

p ! 

W~ M 

O ^ 

3 a 
,9 S 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 67 

a small alteration to ordinary Braille the Hindustani, Hindi, 1888 

and Telegu languages could be suitably embossed for the 
education of the blind of India. 

LONDON 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
built workshops for providing technical training and employ- 
ment. 

Music 

An International Congress was held at Cologne with the 
object of the standardization of Braille music notation. 
England, France, Denmark, and Germany came to an agree- 
ment. 

LONDON 1889 

Thomas William Wing bequeathed 70,000, 2j per cent 
annuities to the Clothworkers' Company for the provision of 
pensions. 

NEW ZEALAND 

The first effort was made to ameliorate the condition of 
the blind in New Zealand. Mr. J. W. Tighe (blind) was 
appointed teacher for the new Association, called "The 
Friends of the Blind/' 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution for the Blind, having purchased 
adjoining property, erected additional workshops on the 
Chaucer Street frontage. 

PERIODICALS 

Santa Lucia, a monthly magazine in the Braille type, 
edited by the Misses Hodgkin, was first published. 

ROYAL COMMISSION 

The Royal Commission on the Blind, Deaf and Dumb, etc., 
after sitting Tor four years, issued its Report. 
(See Appendix II, page 187.) 



68 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1889 SOUTHAMPTON, HAMPSHIRE 

Southampton Association for the Blind was founded, for the 
general assistance of the blind in the county borough of 
Southampton. (Reconstituted 1921 and 1930.) 

(In 1930 there were 228 blind persons on the register.) 

WORCESTER 

The Rev. S. S. Forster secured a small endowment for 
Worcester College ; a Trust Deed was drawn up on the lines of 
those of other public schools and a body of trustees and 
governors appointed. The College was moved three miles 
outside the city to Powyke. Worcester College practically 
owes its existence and success to the work of Mr. Forster 
during the last nineteen years of his life. He died in 1891. 

1890 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

The Education of Blind and Deaf Mute Children (Scotland) 
Act, 1890, made it compulsory for School Boards to make 
provision either in schools of their own, or in approved volun- 
tary schools, for the elementary education and industrial 
training of blind children up to the age of sixteen years, 
where the parent was unable to pay, and, where necessary, for 
the boarding of the children during such education and training. 

ARMITAGE, DR. T. R. 

Death of Thomas Rhodes Armitage, M.D., M.R.C.P. Born 
in 1824, he lost his sight at the age of thirty-six. He was the 
founder of the British and Foreign Blind Association (now the 
National Institute for the Blind) and was connected with 
several other institutions for the blind. There are few, if 
any, men who have left behind them a greater record of 
service to the blind, especially in the cause of education. 
(See Braille Review, May, 1915.) 

BACUP, LANCASHIRE 

The Rossendale Society for Visiting and Instructing the 
Blind was established in Bacup. 

(In 1930 there were 75 blind persons on its register, including 
8 home workers.) 



F 




THOMAS RHODES ARMITAGE, M.D. 

(1824-1890) 
Founder of the British and Foreign Blind Association, now the National Institute for the Blind 



(2155) 



68 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 69 

CONFERENCE 1890 

A Conference for the Blind and their friends was held at 
Norwood. (For Agenda see Appendix III, page 191.) 

LONDON 

The Association for the General Welfare of the Blind moved 
to its existing premises at 258 Tottenham Court Road. 

NORWICH 

Norwich Blind Asylum was rebuilt at a cost of 5,320. 

ST. LEONARDS-ON-SEA, SUSSEX 

Miss Hood opened a seaside Convalescent and Holiday Home 
for the Blind, at St. Peter's Road. It was a private enterprise 
of Miss Hood's, and never became registered under the Blind 
Persons Act. 

(In 1907 there were 12 inmates; in 1922, 20; in 1930 the 
Home still existed.) 

ARGENTINE 1891 

Blind welfare work was started in the Argentine by a blind 
man, Francisco Gatti. He afterwards opened a private school 
for the blind at Flores. 

BELFAST 

The Belfast Association again extended its workshops and 
started bamboo furniture-making as an industry for the blind. 

CENSUS 

The census figures for the year showed I blind person per 
1,235 m England and Wales. 

CONFERENCE 

A Conference of Teachers of the Blind was held at Kiel, in 
Germany. 

EDINBURGH 

The Royal Blind Asylum started its first Braille printing 
press at the instigation of its headmaster, W. H. Illingworth. 

6 (2155) 



70 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1891 LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool Children's Home was moved to Devonshire Road, 
Sefton Park. 

LONDON 

The Blind Tea Agency, Ltd., 37 Pratt Street, N.W.i, was 
started by Mr. C. E. Dustow (blind) in order to find employ- 
ment for blind persons, selling tea, etc., on commission. 

(In 1930 Mr. J. F. Mulley (blind) was managing the business, 
and several hundreds of blind and partially blind men and 
women were acting as agents. This is not a charitable insti- 
tution, but a commercial undertaking.) 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
discontinued the embossing of Lucas type. 

The Workshops for the Blind of Kent moved to larger 
premises in London Road, Greenwich, with accommodation 
for thirty-two workers. Mattress-making was added to the 
trades taught. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum opened workshops for the blind at 
the corner of Deansgate and Wood Street ; the building cost 
about 9,000, and provided splendid new workshops for the 
workers, who were formerly in Bloom Street. 

PERIODICALS 

Playtime, a Braille monthly magazine for children, was 
published by the British and Foreign Blind Association. 

PLYMOUTH 

Plymouth Blind Institution added another wing to the 
main building. 

1892 APPARATUS 

The Hall Braille Writer was devised by F. H. Hall, Super- 
intendent of the Illinois Institution for the Blind, Jackson- 
ville, U.S.A. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 7* 

LONDON 1892 

Deptford and District Society for the Welfare of the Blind 
was founded. It was afterwards absorbed as a branch of the 
Indigent Blind Visiting Society. 

The London School Board started special classes for blind, 
deaf and dumb, and imbecile children. This was largely 
brought about by the persistent energy of the late Major- 
General F. J. Moberly, R.E. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Old Trafford, having received a 
bequest of nearly 14,000 from Mr. James Nasmyth, built the 
Nasmyth extensions, consisting of a large concert hall to seat 
500 persons, and kitchens. Inmates 180. 

PERIODICALS 

The Weekly Summary, the first weekly newspaper for the 
blind printed in Braille, was published by Miss E. R. Scott and 
Miss L. T. Bloxam. 

READING, BERKSHIRE 

The Reading Blind Aid Society was founded by Mr. Hugh 
Walford, and carried on by him and Miss Burnett until her 
death in 1925. 

(An account of Mr. Hugh Walford's career appeared in The 
Beacon, July, 1925.) 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1893 

Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act passed. 
This was one of the most important Acts passed for the benefit 
of the blind, and brought about the compulsory education of 
blind children from the age of five to sixteen. 

All schools for the blind are certified under Section 2 of this 
Act. The Act defined the word " blind," as "too blind to read 
the ordinary school books used by children/' 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind completed a big 
extension at a cost of 12,500, thus increasing the accommoda- 
tion for resident pupils from 65 to 106. 



72 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1893 BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution for the Blind carried out further 
extensions. 

BRIGHTON 

The Barclay Home and School for Blind and Partially Blind 
Girls was founded by the late Gertrude Campion (the Hon. 
Mrs. Campion) in Brighton. The primary object was to give 
industrial training. (In 1896 there were 15 inmates; in 1903, 
39 inmates; in 1907, 74 inmates; 1911, 94 inmates; 1930, 112 
inmates, including 6 non-resident pupils and 21 non-resident 
workers.) 

HEMEL HEMPSTEAD, HERTFORDSHIRE 

Miss Godwin's Charity was started for giving pensions to 
blind persons in Hemel Hempstead. Five blind persons 
receive 10 each annually. 

ISLE OF WIGHT 

The Isle of Wight Society for the Benefit of the Indigent 
Blind and, Alleviation of Diseases of the Eye likely to lead to 
Blindness was founded. Objects: home teaching and general 
assistance and relief. 

(In 1930 there were 123 blind persons on the register.) 

LEICESTER 

The Wycliffe Society was founded for the general assistance 
of the blind in the town and county of Leicester. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF THE BLIND 

The National League of the Blind of Great Britain and 
Ireland was established. It conducted vigorous campaign for 
State aid, and freely criticized the voluntary institutions. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution for the Blind, in celebration of its 
Jubilee, set aside 3,000 to start an "Old Pupils' Scheme," for 
the assistance of ex-pupils in starting in a new career and 
carrying on business. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 73 

PERIODICALS 1898 

Hora Jucunda, a Braille monthly magazine, was published 
by the Edinburgh School for the Blind. 

BRIGHTON 1894 

Death of William Moon, LL.D. (born 1818), founder of the 
Moon Society and Brighton Blind Relief Society, and inventor 
of the Moon type. He was a great benefactor to the blind. 
Moon type is extensively used in the blind world by the aged, 
or those whose fingers are not sensitive enough to feel Braille, 

CONFERENCE 

A Conference was held at Birmingham. Discussions took 
place on the Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) 
Act, 1893. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE 

Gyde Charity, Stroud, was founded, to assist in the payment 
of school fees for blind, and deaf and dumb children. (Endow- 
ments 1,800.) 

LONDON ' 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
built an additional workroom for senior girls, and began print- 
ing in Braille. 

The Royal Blind Pension Society took over the Blind 
Female Annuity Society. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

The Royal Victoria Blind Asylum, Newcastle, moved to 
Benwell Dene, a beautiful house, with grounds of six acres, in 
the west of Newcastle; overlooking the river Tyne ; the total 
cost, including alterations and extensions, was over 11,000. 
The name of the Institution was changed to the Royal Victoria 
School for the Blind. 

NORTH SHIELDS, DURHAM 

The Northern Counties Blind Society moved from Durham 
to Howard Street, North Shields. 



74 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1894 NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution began to teach piano-tuning to 
some of the blind pupils. 

YORK 

The Yorkshire School for the Blind added a gymnasium and 
cloisters, and opened an Industrial Home for Blind Women at 
Scarborough. 

1895 CARDIFF 

Cardiff Institute, hitherto for men only, decided to assist 
blind women also ; a home teacher was engaged, a workroom 
set aside, and a start made with six girls. 

CONGRESS 

The Eighth General Congress of Teachers of the Blind was 
held in Munich, Bavaria. 

LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool Children's Home was enlarged by the purchase of 
the neighbouring house. 

LONDON 

The sum of 1,000 was left to the School for the Indigent 
Blind, Southwark, by Edmund C. Johnson (its late Chairman), 
for the provision of annuities. 

(In 1930 the Edmund Charles Johnson's annuities, adminis- 
tered by the Royal School for the Blind, Leatherhead, pro- 
vided annuities for five blind persons.) 

Kensington Institute for the Blind moved to 60 High Street, 
Netting Hill, W. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum started giving instruction in 
massage ; its pupils were the first in this country to follow 
this profession. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Newcastle School added another schoolroom in a temporary 
iron building. 




WILLIAM MOON, LL.D. 

(1818-1894) 
Inventor of the Moon System 



74 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 75 

NORWOOD 1895 

The Royal Normal College started a Training College De- 
partment for training blind people to become teachers. 

(By 1930 the College had supplied teachers to Blind Institu- 
tions throughout the United Kingdom, as well as to Australia, 
Canada, Burma, Ceylon, and South Africa.) 

PERIODICALS 

The Craigmillar Harp, a Braille musical magazine published 
monthly, was started by the headmaster of the Edinburgh 
School for the Blind. 

Gospel Light in Heathen Darkness was published in Braille 
type by Miss Lamb, Clapham Vicarage, Lancaster. 

The King's Messenger (for children), was published in Braille 
type by Miss Lamb. 

Recreation (for adults) published monthly in Braille by the 
British and Foreign Blind Association. 

PRESTON 

Preston Institution opened buildings on the Cottage Home 
principle at Fulwood, at a cost of about 8,000. , 

WHITBY, YORKSHIRE 

A Workshop for Blind Men was started by Mr. Alfred Hirst 
(blind) at 2 Brunswick Street. 

(In 1930 there were 13 blind persons on the register, 
including 3 employed in the workshop and 3 home workers. 
The address of the Institution was then Bagdale Mount, 
Whitby.) 

CHELTENHAM . 1896 

The Cheltenham Home Teaching Society changed its name 
to the Cheltenham and Gloucestershire Society for the Blind. 

JERUSALEM 

A Day School for the Blind was opened by Miss Ford, an 
American missionary; it afterwards became a Home for the 
Blind. 



76 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1896 LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool Workshops were overcrowded, and an additional 
house in Cornwallis Street was purchased. 

NORTHAMPTON, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 

Northampton and County Association for the General 
Welfare of the Blind was formed. 

NORWOOD 

The Board of Education recognized a department of the 
Royal Normal College, opened the previous year, as a training 
college for blind teachers of the blind, under the name of the 
Smith Training College. 

PERIODICALS 

The Church Messenger, published monthly in Braille, was 
started by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
It contains sermons and extracts from religious papers. 

ROCHDALE 

The Rochdale and District Society for Visiting and In- 
structing the Blind was reconstructed. Up till this date its 
work had been chiefly of a religious nature, with a certain 
amount of relief work and instruction in Moon type, but in 
1896 a committee was formed and a home teacher appointed, 
with a view to giving the blind fuller instruction. The first 
home teacher, Miss Renshaw, was replaced within a short time 
by Mr. A. Siddall (blind), who up till 1930 had completed over 
thirty years* work there as home teacher, and was then Chair- 
man of the Northern Branch of the College of Teachers 
of the Blind, and Vice-Chairman of the Northern Counties 
Association. 

SOUTHEND-ON-SEA, ESSEX 

Miss Gallagher started the Middleton Holiday Home for the 
Blind. (See "Maldon," 1921.) 

TAUNTON, SOMERSET 

The Taunton Home Teaching Society for the Blind was 
founded. (In 1930 it had 67 blind persons on the register.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 77 

BATH, SOMERSET 1897 

Bath Blind School Home was closed, and the Trust Fund, 
amounting to 7,127, was handed over to the Royal Blind 
Pension Society, London. 

EDINBURGH 

The Royal Blind Asylum extended its workshops in Nicolson 
Street, and gave up those in Abbey Hill. 

HANLEY, STAFFORDSHIRE 

The Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffordshire Institution for 
the Blind was founded in Victoria Road, Shelton, Hanley, by 
a combination of School Boards. 

(In 1930 the Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffordshire Com- 
mittee for the Care of the Blind, Victoria Buildings, Victoria 
Square, had 624 blind persons on their register, including 97 
employed in the workshops, 30 home workers, and n other- 
wise employed.) 

SUNDERLAND 

Sunderland and Durham County Institution for the Blind 
was granted the title " Royal " by H.M. Queen Victoria. 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Institution added schoolrooms, etc., enabling 
thirty-two pupils to be accommodated. 

TUNBRIDGE WELLS, KENT 

A Workshop for the Blind was founded at 75 Calverley Road. 
(In 1930, 10 blind men were employed, and 6 of these lived 
in the Institution's Hostel.) 

BIRMINGHAM 1898 

A Typewriting Office was opened in connection with the 
Institution at Edgbaston. Later in the year it was transferred 
to the centre of Birmingham; book-keeping and Braille- 
shorthand were also taught there. 

BRADFORD 

Bradford School Board built a special day school for the 
blind. 



78 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1898 CARDIFF 

Cardiff Institute for the Blind lost its manager, Mr. Hallet, 
who resigned after thirty-three years, and was succeeded by 
Mr. D. A. R. Jeffrey from Dundee Institute. 

A Guild of Social Work among the Blind was founded, for 
visiting and relieving the blind in sickness. 

CONGRESS 

The Ninth General Congress of Teachers of the Blind was 
held in Berlin. 

EDINBURGH 

Edinburgh Club was started for reading aloud to its blind 
members. 

EGYPT 

The first Egyptian school for the blind was opened at 
Alexandria, under the auspices of the Ministering Children's 
League. 

(In 1930 the school was still doing useful work.) 



HULL 

Hull Institute carried out considerable extensions, including 
the provision of new workshops, separating the men from the 
women, additional warehouse accommodation, and a Home for 
women. 

LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool School acquired Wavertree Hall and about three- 
and-a-half acres of land, and erected new buildings for a school 
to hold seventy-five children, at a cost of about 30,000, of 
which 10,000 was given by Miss Hornby; the old school 
building in Hardman Street was thus reserved for the use 
of adults only. 

LONDON 

Gardner's Trust started a lending library in Braille for 
Universitv students. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 79 

MIDDLESBROUGH, YORKSHIRE 1898 

Yorkshire Institution opened a workshop for the blind at 
Linthorpe Road, Middlesbrough, afterwards known as the 
Cleveland and South Durham Institute for the Blind. 

(In 1930 there were 897 blind persons on the register of the 
Institution: 206 in the county borough of Middlesbrough; 
220 in its Yorkshire area, and 471 in its Durham area. Of 
these there were 47 employed in workshops, 25 trainees, 6 
home workers, and 6 otherwise employed.) 

NORTHAMPTON 

A Workshop was opened by the Northampton and County 
Association for the General Welfare of the Blind. 

(In 1930 there were twenty-six blind persons employed in 
the workshops in addition to 10 home workers.) 

NORWOOD 

The Royal Normal College started a course for professional 
shorthand writers. 

PERIODICALS 

The Blind Advocate, a monthly paper, was published by the 
National League of the Blind for broadcasting its views on 
matters appertaining to the welfare of the blind. 

The Blind, a quarterly magazine in ink-print, giving in- 
formation regarding progress of work on behalf of the blind, 
was started by Mr. Henry J. Wilson, Secretary of Gardner's 
Trust. 

PLYMOUTH 

Plymouth Institution opened an additional wing at a cost 
of 2,500, for the education of blind children. 

PRESTON 
Preston Institution extended its workshops. 

SHEFFIELD 

Sheffield Institution opened Cottage Homes for nine blind 
persons in Selbourne Road, Crosspool ; this was made possible 
by a legacy from Mrs. Overend, after whom the cottages were 
named. 



8o CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1898 SOUTHEND-ON-SEA 

The North London Homes for the Blind opened a branch at 
Wilson Road, Southend-on-Sea. 

(In 1927 there were twenty inmates ; in 1929 the Home was 
removed to Westcliff-on-Sea.) 

1899 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

The Elementary Education (Defective Children) Act 
defines Defective Children, viz.: "Children not being imbecile 
and not merely dull or backward, who, by reason of mental or 
physical defects, are incapable of receiving proper benefit 
from the instruction in the ordinary public elementary school, 
but are not incapable by reason of such defect of receiving 
benefits in special classes or schools." This only affects the 
blind in so far as they are mentally or physically defective. 

ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

Farming was started by the Adelaide Institution, for the 
partially blind. 

BlRKENHEAD, CHESHIRE 

Birkenhetid Society for the Blind was founded, although at 
the time only sixteen blind persons were known in the district ; 
yet four years later there were 156 blind persons on the books. 
(The Society was amalgamated with the Liverpool Workshops, 
Cornwallis Street, in 1909.) 

BRIGHTON 

Hand-loom weaving was started as an industry at the 
Barclay Home for Blind Girls. 

GLA C GOW 

H.M. Queen Victoria conferred the title of " Royal " on the 
Glasgow Asylum. 

HULL 

Hull Institute opened the Rockliffe Home for Blind Women 
named after W. C. Rockliffe, M.A., M.D., an ophthalmic 
surgeon, and Hon. Secretary and Treasurer of the Institute 
for thirty-four years. (He died in 1930, aged 81.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 81 

LONDON 1899 

The Armitage Memorial Fund, of which the Clothworkers' 
Company are the Trustees, was founded, in memory of the late 
Dr. Thomas Rhodes Armitage. Pursuant to the terms of the 
Trust, the annual income of 122 is paid to the National 
Institute for the Blind for the purpose of cheapening or 
extending the publication of books, music, etc., in the Braille 
type. 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
built a new printing room. 

The School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark, having 
abandoned a scheme for moving the school to Caterham Valley, 
the money raised for this purpose (803) was invested and 
became the County Asylum Fund. 

(In 1930 the Royal School for the Blind, Leatherhead, which 
administered the Fund, distributed the interest to five blind 
annuitants.) 

The Young Women's Christian Association started a branch 
for befriending blind women. 

(In 1930 this branch no longer existed.) 



NORTHAMPTON 

George Phillips' Trust was founded, in connection with the 
local Association. Grants not exceeding 55. weekly are made to 
the blind in Northampton. 

(In 1930 there were 10 pensioners who received about 60 
between them.) 

Northampton Association for the Blind opened a retail shop 
in St. Giles' Street. 

NORTH SHIELDS 

Northern Counties Blind Society acquired adjoining pre- 
mises (4 and 5 Howard Street) for extension. 

PERIODICALS 

Channels of Blessing, a free religious monthly magazine in 
Braille, was started by Mr. Edwin Norris (blind and deaf). 



82 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1890 SHORTHAND 

The Braille shorthand system was formulated by a com- 
mittee of five officials of the Birmingham Institution for the 
Blind, under the Chairmanship of the superintendent, Mr. 
Henry Stainsby, who with the assistance of Mr. Alfred Wayne, 
designed the Braille shorthand typewriter, on which a speed of 
120 to 160 words a minute can be attained. (See 1911.) 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Institution built two wings, providing accommoda- 
tion for twenty additional beds, making fifty in all, at a cost 
of 615. They also rented a house as a Home for twenty blind 
workers. 

WOLVERHAMPTON 

Wolverhampton Institution opened new workshops. 

1900 AMERICA 

The first day centre for blind children, in the United States , 
was opened in Chicago. 

BRIGHTON c 

The Barclay Home and School for Blind Girls was moved to 
larger premises, 23 and 25 Wellington Road. 

CONGRESS 

An International Congress for the Amelioration of the 
Condition of the Blind was held in Paris. 

HUDDERSFIELD 

A Workshop for the Blind was started by blind men. 
(This workshop has since been closed.) 

INDIA 

An American Mission School for Blind Children was opened 
in Bombay. 

LONDON 

The Guild of Blind Gardeners was founded by Mrs. 
Adolphus Buncombe (blind) with the object of teaching 












A SPECIAL DRAUGHTBOARD WITH SPECIAL DRAUGHTS 

APPARATUS AND APPLIANCES FOR THE BLIND 



A REVERSIBLK TABLKT WITH PINS FOR 
TEACHING BRAILLE 



A PIANOFORTE 
TUNER'S BORISG 

TOOL 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 83 

gardening to the blind, not to enable them to earn their 1900 

living, but as a healthy and lucrative pastime. In 1925 it 
became affiliated to the National Institute for the Blind ; in 
1928 the name of the Society was altered to Guild for Promot- 
ing Gardening amongst the Blind and Partially Blind (Myopes), 
but a reversion was later made to the original title. 

The London Institute of Massage by the Blind was founded 
at 64 Lancaster Gate by Mr. Henry Power, F.R.C.S. (Chair- 
man), Mr. John Tennant (Treasurer), and Mrs. MacNicol (Hon. 
Secretary) . 

MANCHESTER 

The Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society, 30 Tonman 
Street, Deansgate, Manchester, was founded by Miss Isabel 
M. Heywood, of Pendleton, and a small Home opened at the 
Crescent, Salford. 

(In 1930 there were 1,390 blind persons on its register 
1,160 in Manchester and 230 in other parts of Lancashire; 
of these, 82 were in its Homes, of which there were four at 
Pendleton and a Holiday Home at Southport. Of the 
above blind 8 were employed, 5 as collectors and 3 as home 
teachers.) * 

Music 

A Revised Key to Braille Music Notation was published by 
The British and Foreign Blind Association. It was compiled 
by Miss Isabel C. Western (now Mrs. S. A. Gray), whose life- 
long Braille musical research is invaluable. 

NORTH SHIELDS 

The Northern Counties Blind Society opened new workshops. 

(In 1930 the Tynemouth Blind Welfare Society, Howard 
Street, North Shields, 'had 14 blind persons employed in its 
workshops and 4 trainees.) 

SHEFFIELD 

A Pension Fund was founded by the Blind Institution for 
residents of Sheffield. 

(In 1930 there were 90 blind persons receiving regular 
pensions or allowances.) 



84 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1900 YORK 

Death of Anthony Buckle. The following is a copy of the 
brass memorial plate in York Minster 

"In loving memory of Anthony Buckle, B.A., for thirty 
years Superintendent of the Wilberforce School for the Blind 
in this town. A graceful poet, an accomplished artist, a devout 
Christian, a sincere philanthropist, especially of those com- 
mitted to his charge, for he was truly eyes to the blind ; this 
tablet is erected by those who appreciate his work, and cherish 
his memory. June, A.D. 1900." 

1901 BELFAST 

Belfast Blind Association carried out extensions to its 
workshops at a cost of over 2,000. (no blind persons were 
then employed.) 

BIRMINGHAM 

Miss Edith Wood, a Gardner scholar at the Birmingham 
Blind Institution, obtained a situation as shorthand-typist 
with the Remington Typewriter Company. She was the first 
blind person to secure such a post. 

BOARD OP EDUCATION 

Dr. Alfred Eichholz, M.A., M.D. (later C.B.E.), was appointed 
by the Board of Education H.M. Chief Inspector of Schools 
for the Blind. (This was the first appointment of an officer 
solely for this purpose.) 

CENSUS 

The census figures for the year showed 25,317 blind persons 
(or i per 1,285) in England and Wales, 3,253 blind persons in 
Scotland, and 4,253 blind persons in Ireland. 

CONGRESSES 
An International Congress was held at Breslau, Germany. 

The Fourth Italian Congress for the Benefit of the Blind was 
held at Milan, Italy. 

EGYPT 

An Institution for Blind Boys was founded at Zeitoun by 
Mrs. Armitage, widow of Dr. Thomas Rhodes Armitage. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 85 

INDIA 1901 

A Deaf and Dumb and Blind School was opened at Mysore. 
A music class for the blind was started at Madras. 

LIVERPOOL 

The Catholic Blind Asylum opened a new branch school for 
sixty-five children (St. Vincent's School) at West Derby, near 
Liverpool, on a site of about twenty-five acres of land, and at a 
cost of about 15,000. 

MANCHESTER 

Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society acquired rooms in 
the old Eye Hospital. 

Music 

A Braille Music Lending Library was formed by Miss Isabel 
C. Western of Shortlands, Kent. (It was closed in 1904, and 
the books were purchased by the National Lending Library.) 

The first Tutor on the subject of Braille Music Notation in 
any language was compiled by Mr. Edward Watson, formerly 
Director of Music at the Liverpool School for the ^lind, and 
published in Braille by the British and Foreign Blind Associa- 
tion, and in letterpress by Messrs. Novello & Co. (No. 59 in the 
Music Primer Series). This Tutor, in its 1927 edition, is still 
the official school manual for the blind of the Empire. 

NORWICH 

Norwich Asylum closed its elementary school, but continued 
a school for those above sixteen years of age, and an asylum 
for the aged. 

NORWOOD 

The Royal Normal College started entering its pupils for 
the examinations of the Royal Academy of Music and the Royal 
College of Organists. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution discontinued elementary education, 
and discharged all pupils under the age of sixteen. It also 
started hand-loom weaving as an industry for girls. 

7 (2155) 



86 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1901 PORTSMOUTH 

By the will of Mr. George J. Scale, the Portsmouth Municipal 
Charities received 20,000, for granting annuities to nineteen 
blind persons. 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Institution built an additional workshop. 

WAKEFIELD 

The Wakefkld and District Institution and Workshops for 
the Blind, which had developed from the small Society 
started in 1869, opened a workshop at 158 Westgate. 

YORK 

The Yorkshire School for the Blind added an additional 
wing comprising a sanatorium, isolation block, and residence 
for the superintendent. 

Mr. A. B. Norwood, M.A., was appointed Principal of the 
School. 

1902 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

The Seccmdary Education Act, 1902, was of great importance 
to the blind as well as to the seeing. It briefly states that : 
The local Education Authority shall consider the educational 
needs of its area, and take such steps as seem desirable, after 
consultation with the Board of Education, to supply, or aid 
the supply of, education other than elementary. 

Vocational training for the blind as a Government and rate- 
aided activity was an important outcome of this Act. 

AMERICA 

A Library and Reading Room for the Blind was started at 
San Francisco. 

AUSTRALIA 

The Australian Government granted free postage for 
embossed literature for the blind. 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution carried out further extensions. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 87 

CHESS 1902 

A Braille Chess Club was started by Mr. Francis H. Merrick 
at Shepperton, Middlesex. 

CONFERENCE 

A conference was convened by the Committee of Gardner's 
Trust, and resulted in two committees being appointed, one 
on Uniform Braille and the other on Defective blind children. 

(For Agenda, see Appendix III, page 192.) 

CONGRESS 

An International Congress for the Amelioration of the Con- 
dition of the Blind was held at Brussels under the patronage of 
H.M. the King of the Belgians, and H.R.H. Duke Charles 
Theodore of Bavaria, the eminent oculist. 

HANLEY 

Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffordshire Institution for the 
Blind opened workshops. 

LLANDEVAUD, S. WALES 

The Newport and Monmouthshire Blind Aid Society started 
a Home at Llandevaud. 

(This Home was closed about seventeen years later.) 

LONDON 

The Blind Tuners' Federation was started. 
(In 1930 this no longer existed.) 

The British and Foreign Blind Association moved from 
Cambridge Square to 206 Great Portland Street. The same 
year it started an Employment Bureau. 

The Claremont Central Mission, Pentonville, was started by 
the late W. H. Brown of Woodford Green ; it works in conjunc- 
tion with the London Congregational Union. A certain num- 
ber of blind persons are taught basket-making and needlework, 
and the blind and others are brought together for a weekly 
meeting. 

(In 1930 the Mission was still continuing its good work.) 



88 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1902 LONDON 

"Eyes to the Blind Society'' was founded in Chelsea by the 
late Miss Laura Douglas-Hamilton. Blind women were 
employed in machine and hand-knitting. (Taken over by the 
Barclay Workshops in 1922.) 

The London County Council opened two schools for the 
blind, one for boys, at Linden Lodge, Wandsworth Common, 
accommodating forty resident and ten day pupils, the other at 
Elm Court, West Norwood, for girls, accommodating fifty 
resident and ten day pupils. 

The School for the Indigent Blind was moved from South- 
wark to Leatherhead, into a building designed to take 250 
pupils, and one of the finest of such buildings in the country. 
The workshops were removed to Waterloo Road, S.E.I, and 
became the Blind Employment Factory, with accommodation 
for about 100 workers. 

MANCHESTER 

Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society started a brush 
department, which it handed over to Henshaw's Institution 
twenty years later. 

PRINTING* 1 

The British and Foreign Blind Association started stereo- 
typing its Braille plates at 206 Great Portland Street ; 
hitherto this had been done in the workers' respective homes 
and sent to Cambridge Square when finished. This was the 
first important step towards getting a properly equipped 
Braille printing works. 

Hand presses were still in use, and it took about a week to 
emboss twelve volumes of twelve copies each. The staff then 
numbered about fifteen, but was doubled in the next three 
years. 

SUNBEAM MISSION 

Miss Beatrice Taylor, of Upper Norwood, started a blind 
branch of the Sunbeam Mission. 

(The Sunbeam Mission was founded in 1891 "to draw out 
the sympathy of the upper and middle class children to the 
poor, paralysed, and suffering children in our large towns." 
In 1906 there were in the blind branch 350 voluntary Braille 





The Main Front 

ROYAL SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND, LEATHERHEAD 



(2155) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 89 

writers, who undertook to write one letter a month each to a 1902 

blind child.) (See 1920.) 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Institution started machine-knitting as an industry 
for their girls, with a view to their being home workers. It 
also started a home workers' scheme for men. 

(In 1930 there were seventeen home workers on the 
register.) 

TEMPLE, ARCHBISHOP 

Death of Archbishop Temple, a keen worker in the interests 
of the blind. He was a member of the Royal Commission, 
1886-9, and of the Committee of Gardner's Trust, 1885-93. 

WORCESTER 

Worcester College moved to beautiful new premises standing 
in four acres of grounds, and one-and-three-quarter miles 
south-east of the city; it has accommodation for twenty 
students. The cost of 10,000 was chiefly met by Miss 
Warrington, who gave 8,000 in addition to the site. 

APPARATUS " 1903 

Henry Stainsby and Alfred Wayne invented a small portable 
Braille writer, designed for writing on both sides of the paper, 
and universally known as the Stainsby- Wayne Braille Writer. 
For the use of deaf-blind persons, a device can be added 
whereby, in place of the bell, the end of the line is indicated 
by a wire falling on the hands of the writer. 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution started machine-knitting, shampoo- 
ing, and boot- and shoe-making as industries for the blind. 

BOYLE, G. R. 

Death of Mr. G. R. Boyle (aged 59), private secretary to 
Dr. Armitage, and later to Mrs. Armitage. He was in their 
service for over forty years, and was constantly at work on 
inventions for the benefit of the blind, especially in the pre- 
paration of relief maps for sale at a low price ; he also recom- 
mended the publication, in Braille, by the British and Foreign 



90 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1903 Blind Association of Mr. Edward Watson's Braille Music 

Notation Primer. (See "Music, 1901.") 

(His son, Arthur, who died in 1930, continued his father's 
work for many years. (See The New Beacon, Nov., 1930.) 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution technical training was entirely re- 
organized, and a new classroom was built. 

COLNE, LANCASHIRE 
The Colne Blind Prevention and Aid Society was founded. 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution started a Home Teaching Society and 
erected a gymnasium. 

LONDON 

Kensington Institute for the Blind changed its name to 
West London Workshops for the Blind. 

MECHANIC BLIND 

Extract from The Blind: "William Parry, a resident of 
Blaenavon, Mon., blind from childhood, has had a useful life 
of 71 years. As a screw turner in the ironworks he has been 
regularly employed up till two years ago, and has been able 
to maintain himself respectably. He taught in the Sunday 
School for sixty years, and for thirty years was a member of 
the church choir." 

MIDDLESBROUGH 

The Workshops founded by the York Institution at Middles- 
brough were taken over by a local committee. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution acquired a new shop at Long Row 
West. 

PAISLEY, SCOTLAND 

Paisley and District Workshop was established. 




EMBOSSED OFAGKAM OK A HAJ,I.O<$N 




PREPARING THE ORIGINALS FOR EMBOSSED PICTURES 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 91 

PERIODICALS 1903 

The Braille Review, a monthly paper in ink-print, was started 
by the British and Foreign Blind Association. (Discontinued 
in December, 1916 The Beacon followed on in January, 1917.) 

The Hampstead Magazine, in Braille, was started by the 
London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind. 

POULTRY-REARING 

Captain F. Pierson Webber (blind) advocated poultry rear- 
ing as a profitable industry for the blind ; a few years later he 
recommended it more as a healthy occupation with a chance 
of profit. In 1907 he obtained a certificate from University 
College, Reading, as having passed the most comprehensive 
course of practical and scientific instruction in poultry culture. 

RHYL, FLINTSHIRE 

The North Wales School for Blind Children, Russell Road, 
Rhyl, was founded. 

(In 1930 there were fourteen blind children in the School.) 

ST. LEONARDS-ON-SEA 

* 

Miss Alice Meiklejon started a school for defective blind 
children. (In 1907 there were 2 pupils; in 1911, 22 pupils; 
in 1922, 24 pupils; since then this school has ceased to exist). 

WALTHAMSTOW, ESSEX 

Walthamstow Committee for the Welfare of the Blind was 
founded, and weekly classes for handicrafts were held. Later 
it became a sub-committee of the Essex Voluntary Association. 

ABERDEEN 1904 

The Aberdeen Asylum decided to close the educational and 
inmate department as insufficient children sought admission. 
(Henceforward the blind children were educated at Craigmillar 
School, Edinburgh, and myopes at Rubislaw Special School.) 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution opened a showroom off New Street, 
and moved its typewriting offices there. 



92 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1904 BRIGHTON 

The Barclay Home and School bought the neighbouring 
house, 27 Wellington Road, and all the girls (fourteen) from 
the older Blind School at Brighton were moved there. 

Brighton School for the Blind, Eastern Road, decided only 
to look after boys in future ; they had then about thirty-two. 

BRISTOL 

Bristol Institution opened its first Hostel for Blind Women 
in Woodland Road, Clifton. (See 1919.) 

DUBLIN 

The Richmond National Institution was enlarged, and 
brush-making was introduced. There were then thirty-one 
inmates and twenty-eight out-workers. 

LONDON 

The Lending Library for the Blind, founded by Miss Arnold, 
was moved to larger premises at Queen's Road, Bayswater. 

The London County Council started a school for defective 
blind boys, at Stormont House, Hackney Downs, with accom- 
modation for twenty residential and ten day pupils. 

MANCHESTER 

W. H. Illingworth, for twenty years Head Master at Edin- 
burgh, and author of History of the Education of the Blind (1910), 
was appointed Superintendent of Henshaw's Blind Asylum. 
(An account of his career appeared in The Beacon, December, 
1924.) 

NOTTINGHAM 
The Midland Institution started instruction in woodworking. 

OLDHAM 

Miss M. Lees started a workshop for women entitled the 
Blind Women's Industries, at Werneth Hall, Frederick Street. 
(In 1930 there were fifteen blind women employed there.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 93 

PERIODICALS 1904 

The Mission Field, a monthly missionary magazine in 

Braille, was published by the Society for the Propagation of 

the Gospel, London. 

The Braille Packet, a monthly paper, mainly literary, 

political, and scientific, was started by Miss Grimwood of 

Hove. 

POSTAL REGULATIONS 

The Postmaster-General agreed to allow "papers impressed 
for the use of the blind/' not exceeding two ounces in weight, 
to be sent for Jd. instead of id. 

In the same year free postage was granted in America, 
between library centres and readers. 

PRINT, RAISED 

Specimens of Moon type in 419 languages were sent to the 
St. Louis Exhibition. The Pennsylvania Home Teaching 
Society were awarded a gold medal. Dr. Robert C. Moon, son 
of the inventor, was secretary of the Society. 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Institution purchased for 8,000 the freehold on 
which the Institution stands. 

WAKEFIELD 

Wakefield and District Institution moved to 19 Queen 
Street. 

AMERICA , 1905 

Death of Mr. H. L. Hall, founder and Superintendent of the 
Pennsylvania Working Home for Blind Men, and of the 
American Printing House for the Blind. He lost his sight in 
the Civil War. 

The New York Association for the Blind was founded, its 
Secretary being Miss Winifred Holt (now Mrs. Mather) well 
known for her work in the prevention of blindness. 



94 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1905 BEXLEY, KENT 

A High School and Home for the blind of the upper and 
middle classes was started at Blendon Grove, Bexley. 
(In 1930 this school no longer existed.) 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution opened a Kindergarten at Harborne, 
built specially for the purpose, at a cost, including land, of 
18,750. The Institution also carried out extensions and im- 
provements at the principal school, Carpenter Road, at a cost 
of 3,000. 

(In 1930 it had forty-four resident pupils in the kindergarten.) 

BRIGHTON 

The Barclay Home and School bought the neighbouring 
house, 21 Wellington Road, and provided a new playroom and 
isolation block. 

BRISTOL 

The Blind Home was transferred from Aberdeen Road to 
Gordon Road, Clifton, and named the Clifton Blind Women's 
Home. 

CONFERENCE 

An International Conference for the Blind and an Exhibition 
were held at Edinburgh ; Mr. Henry J. Wilson was Chairman 
of the Conference Committee. 

(For full Agenda, see Appendix III, page 193.) 

CORBETT, DR. SAMUEL 

Dr. Samuel Corbett (blind) was appointed Professor of 
Music at the Midland Institution, Nottingham. At the age of 
fourteen he was appointed organist and choir-master at 
Christ Church, Wellington, subsequently taking the degrees 
of Doctor of Music (Cambridge), and F.R.C.O. Up to this date 
he was the only blind man who had taken a degree of Doctor 
of Music by examination. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 95 

CORNWALL 1905 

The Dowager Lady Robinson's Fund for the Blind was 
formed by a bequest of 15,000 for the relief of the blind in 
Penzance and district. 

(In 1930 there were thirty-four pensioners each receiving 

10.) 

EDINBURGH 

Mr. William M. Stone was appointed Superintendent and 
Head Master of the Royal Blind Asylum and School. 

(In 1930 Mr. Stone was still holding the above posts, and 
was also a member of the Scottish Advisory Committee and 
an examiner of the College of Teachers of the Blind.) 

EDINBURGH AND SOUTH-EAST SCOTLAND SOCIETY 

The Jamieson Fund, for granting annuities to blind persons, 
was founded by Andrew Jamieson and his sister, Elizabeth 
Jamieson. 

(In 1930 the income amounted to about 1,323.) 

GLASGOW 

The Royal Asylum rebuilt and enlarged its workshops and 
fitted apparatus for sterilization and purification in the bedding 
factory. 

LONDON 

The After-care Association for Blind, Deaf, and Crippled 
Children was founded, to "provide suitable wage-earning 
employment for physically defective children within the 
county of London, in order that as large a proportion as 
possible might become self-supporting." 

The Barclay Workshops for Blind Women were started in 
Praed Street, London, W., to give employment to blind women 
trained at the Barclay Home, Brighton, who wished to live in 
London. It was the first blind institution to make weaving 
the chief industry. All the workshops in London were asked 
to take the weavers, but as they refused to do so the Barclay 
Workshops were established. A joint committee was formed of 
members of the Barclay Home (Brighton) Committee, and the 
Barclay Workshops (London) Committee for dealing with 



96 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1905 matters of general policy. Mr. Godfrey F. Mowatt, J.P., was 

elected Chairman of this Committee. 

(In 1930 the Barclay Workshops, 19-21 Crawford Street, 
had 62 blind women on its register, including 55 paid workers, 
4 trainees, i pensioner, and 2 receiving free workroom accom- 
modation.) 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum received 10,000 from the trustees 
of the late James Holden, of Rochdale, forming The James 
Holden Trust, providing fifty-five weekly grants to blind 
persons in the area. 

(In 1930 the income from this fund was 380, half of which 
was used by Henshaw's Institution for general expenses, and 
the other half paid to the Rochdale and District Society.) 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Owing to a legacy of 10,000, by the late George Handyside, 
Newcastle Institution was able to build large new workshops 
facing Breamish Street. 

Newcastle School replaced the iron building erected in 1895 
by a stone building costing 6,000, consisting of classrooms, 
library, museum, etc.; the school was then certified for 
seventy-five pupils. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution for the Blind extended and built 
new workshops. It was the first Institution to be recognized 
by the Board of Education for grant-earning as a Technical 
School. 

OXFORD 

The "George Barker Memorial" was founded at Queen's 
College for blind students or those in danger of becoming blind, 
who intended to study for the Final Honours School of English 
Literature. 

The emoluments of the Memorial are 50 a year tenable for 
at least four years from the date of matriculation. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 97 

PRINT, RAISED 1905 

The Braille Rules for Literature, as revised by the British 
Braille Committee, were adopted and published. 

SOUTHPORT, LANCASHIRE 

Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society opened a Home 
of Rest for twenty men and twenty women, in place of the 
small Home at St. Anne's. It also opened a new Braille 
Library. 

WALSALL, STAFFORDSHIRE 

Workshops were opened at Wednesbury Road, Walsall, 
where 6 blind men were employed at basket-making. 

(In 1930 the Walsall, Wednesbury and District Society for 
the Blind had 228 blind persons on its register, including 
30 employed in the workshops and 6 home workers.) 

WORCESTER 

The Rev. Thomas Barnard, M.A. (blind) was appointed 
Head Master of Worcester College, in place of the Rev. J. B. 
Nicholson, resigned. 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1906 

The Post Office (Literature for the Blind) Act, 1906, was 
passed, by which books in raised type can be sent through the 
post at reduced rates. 

AMERICA 

Death of Michael Anagnos in Rumania (born at Epirus, 
Greece, 1837). ' A deep thinker, a wise counsellor, a prophet 
of good, a great-hearted lover of mankind, a true far-seeing 
leader of the blind* along the right paths." He became 
Director of Perkins Institution, Boston, U.S.A., in 1876, 
where he established the Howe Memorial Press and the special 
Reference Library in Blindness and the Blind. He was also 
the first person to realize the importance of Kindergarten 
training for blind children, and established such a school in 
1883, raising an endowment fund of a million dollars for the 
work. 



98 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1906 BACUP 

The Rossendale Society for Visiting and Instructing the 
Blind started a pension fund for the needy blind in the Rossen- 
dale Valley. 

(In 1930 there were thirty-four blind pensioners being 
helped, partly from this fund, and partly by the County 
Council.) 

BOTANIST, BLIND 

Mention is made in The Blind of an extraordinary man, 
John Grimshaw Wilkinson, of Burley, President of the Leeds 
Naturalist Club and Scientific Association; born in 1856, he 
became a tradesman in Leeds, and lost his sight through 
neuralgia when twenty-two years of age. He afterwards 
studied botany and wrote several volumes in Braille on the 
subject. He could recognize any tree by touching or tasting 
the bark or leaf. He labelled the trees in Roundhay Park, and 
compiled for the Royal Agricultural Society a list of a hundred 
most destructive weeds, with full details of how to detect and 
destroy them. In 1912 it was reported that he had complete 
acquaintance by touch and taste with over four thousand 
species of plants, and frequently had plants referred to him 
from all parts of the country and from abroad, with a request 
to state their classes and lineage. 

BRADFORD 

Death of Miss A. E. Holloway (born 1826), for forty-five 
years Hon. Secretary of the Bradford Institution, and very 
largely responsible for its growth and progress. 

Bradford Institution opened a training home in Springfield 
Place for teaching simple handicrafts to otherwise unemploy- 
able men. 

BRIGHTON 

Barclay Home and School built a wing on to 27 Welling- 
ton Road, providing additional workroom and dormitory 
accommodation. 

HULL 
The Hull Institute started training pupils in massage. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 99 

LONDON 1906 

Barclay Workshops for Blind Women moved to larger 
premises at 246 Edgware Road, W. 

The Viscount Cranborne Memorial Fund was founded by a 
gift of 500 from Lord Eustace Cecil, the interest of which is 
spent on cases on the waiting list of the Poor Adult Blind 
Pension Society. 

OLDHAM 

Oldham Council decided to allow blind people to travel on 
its trams for half-fare. 

PERIODICALS 

The Braille weekly edition of The Daily Mail started in 
December. This paper was later succeeded by The Braille 
Mail. 

The Moon Magazine, the first monthly magazine in Moon 
type, was produced by the Moon Society at Brighton. 

SHEFFIELD 

The Sheffield Institution opened large new workshops at a 
cost of about 5,000. * 

TELEPHONIST 

Mr. Henry Stainsby, Superintendent of the Birmingham 
Institution, secured for one of his pupils the post of telephone 
operator in a large manufacturing business in Birmingham. 

UNIONS 

A conference was held at Manchester on matters relating to 
the blind living outside Institutions and in their own homes, 
of which the outcome was the formation of the North of 
England Union of Institutions and Agencies for the Blind, 
embracing the six northern counties (Cumberland, Durham, 
Lancashire, Northumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire) . 
Chairman, Mr. F. J. Munby, Hon. Secretary, Miss Isabel 
Heywood. 

This was the beginning of a most important enterprise; 
six other Unions were formed during the next two years, 
covering the whole of England and Wales, and culminating in 



ioo CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1906 1909 in the formation of the Union of Unions, afterwards 
known as the Union of Counties' Associations for the Blind. 
The Associations in 1930 had voluntary agents in nearly every 
town or large village in the country, visiting the blind in their 
homes and reporting to their local secretaries any special 
needs of the blind whom they visited. The county secretaries 
have many and varied duties, and are responsible for registra- 
tion of blind persons, issuing of wireless licences, payment of 
weekly grants, etc. 

WHITBY 

Whitby Trust for the Blind was founded by Mr. Alfred 
Hirst with 500, which was invested for pensions for the blind 
of Whitby and neighbourhood. 

(In 1930 the income from investments amounted to about 

78.) 

WORCESTER 

Dr. Corbett, of Droitwich, bequeathed 10,000 to the 
Worcester Municipal Charities, providing twenty pensions of 
12 los. each, for the blind of Worcester. 

Gardner's Trust presented its Students' Library to the 
College for the Blind, Worcester. 

1907 ACCRINGTON 

Accrington Society for the Blind became the Accrington 
and District Institution for the Blind and Prevention of 
Blindness (including work for the blind of Accrington, 
Haslingden, Clayton-le-Moors, Church, and Oswaldtwistle). 

(In 1930 there were 107 blind persons on the register.) 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

The Education (Administrative Provision) Act abolished 
the obligation of voluntary schools to provide at least one- 
third cost of maintenance from voluntary sources. 

This for the first time enabled a local Education Authority 
to pay the whole cost of the maintenance and education of a 
blind child. Under the same Act the medical inspection of 
school children was first instituted. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 101 

APPARATUS 1907 

The Stainsby-Waync Braille Interpointing Machine was 
invented, and the Braille Interliner improved. 

BRISTOL 

Amalgamation of the Bristol School of Industry for the 
Blind with the Association for Home Teaching and Industrial 
Employment, thus bringing all the work for the blind in Bristol 
under the control of one committee. 

CAMBRIDGE 

H. M. Taylor, F.R.S. (blind) founded the Embossed Scien- 
tific Books Fund. He himself wrote the first copies of works 
in Braille on Algebra, Sound and Music, Astronomy, Geology, 
Trigonometry, Chemistry, Mechanics, Electricity and Mag- 
netism and other subjects. 

CASWELL BAY, SOUTH WALES 

Mr. Glyn Vivian (blind) erected a Home, The Glyn 
Vivian Home of Rest for the Blind, at Caswell Bay, near 
Swansea, and in addition gave 1,000 for its endowment. 
The lease for the land is for 990 years at a yearly rental of 
one shilling. The Home, which accommodates seven men and 
seven women, stands on two-and-a-half acres of land. 

CONGRESS 

The Twelfth Congress of Teachers of the Blind was held at 
Hamburg. 

DUNDEE 

Dundee Institution added a gymnasium and music classroom. 

EDINBURGH 

The Royal Blind Asylum built a new School and Women's 
Home at a cost of 15,000. 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution erected new workshops at a cost of 
i,55O. of which 1,350 was given by Mrs. Maria Nosworthy, 
and 200 by Gardner's Trust. The School was then certified 
for forty-five pupils. 



102 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1907 HANLEY 

Stoke-on-Trent Blind Institution opened additional work- 
shops at Hanley. 

LANCASTER, LANCASHIRE 

Lancaster Society for helping the blind of Lancaster and 
district was established. 

LONDON 

The Blind Women Workers' Annuity Fund, of which the 
Cloth workers' Company are the Trustees, was founded. It 
provides pensions to blind unmarried gentlewomen, who are 
striving to contribute to their own maintenance. Annual 
income about 133. 

The College and Association of Teachers of the Blind was 
founded "To quicken interest, stimulate thought, and en- 
courage research in education, and so benefit the education of 
the blind/' and generally to help teachers to find suitable posts, 
and schools to find suitable teachers. First Chairman, Henry 
J. Wilson. (In 1928 the title was changed to the College 
of Teachers of the Blind.) 

Death of Mrs. Dow at Betchworth. She (then Miss C. C. 
Howden) founded the National Lending Library in 1882, with 
Miss Martha Arnold. She also started the Arnold Carriage 
Fund, and the Dow Blind Writers' Fund to give employment 
to blind persons in copying Braille books. She always took the 
greatest interest in the work, and lived to see the Library 
possessed of 8,500 volumes. 

Julia Short Annuity Fund, of which the Clothworkers' 
Company are the Trustees, was founded; it provides a pension 
of 25 to a blind lady, who shall have been a teacher. 

South London Institute for the Blind, formerly Hampton's 
Mission, opened premises at Borough Road, S.E. The work 
consisted of: (i) An Employment Bureau; (2) A Polytechnic; 
(3) A Hostel for blind girls. At the opening ceremony the 
Rev. St. Clare Hill, Secretary, stated that it was the first 
institution of the kind in Europe. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 103 

NORWOOD 1907 

The Royal Normal College gave a concert and gymnastic 
display at the Royal Albert Hall, attended by the King and 
Queen, and the Prince and Princess of Wales. 

PERIODICALS 

The Matilda* Ziegler Magazine for the Blind (monthly) was 
established in New York by Mrs. W. Ziegler. 

The Outlook for the Blind, a quarterly inkprint periodical, 
was first published by Mr. Charles Campbell. 

(In 1930 both the above were still being published.) 

SOUTHEND-ON-SEA 

A new wing was added to the Southend Branch of the 
North London Homes, at a cost of about 1,600. 

STAFFORDSHIRE 

Alice Fenton, by her will dated November, 1782, left a 
twelfth part of the income derived from letting Cheddleton 
Grange Farm to form an annuity for one blind person in the 
county of Stafford. 

(Alice Fenton's Charity, administered by a Committee of the 
Staffordshire County Council, was not established till 1907, 
and in 1930 one blind person was receiving the income of 
5 43. a year.) 

SWEDEN 

An International Association of Blind Musicians was 
established at Stockholm, with Herr Thilander as Secretary. 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1908 



The Education (Scotland) Act, 1908, empowered School 
Boards which made special provision for the education of 
defective children to require the parents of such children 
to provide efficient education for them up to the age of 
sixteen years. (" Defective " children is generally interpreted 
as including blind children.) School Boards were also em- 
powered by this Act to make arrangements for the medical 
examination and supervision of school children. 



104 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1908 BELFAST 

The Belfast Blind Association Workshops and shop were 
partially destroyed by fire, but were rebuilt.. 

BIRMINGHAM 

Mr. William Henry Thurman was appointed Secretary of 
the Birmingham Institution in place of Mr. Henry Stainsby, 
Who, after twenty-eight years' valuable service, was appointed 
Secretary-General of the British and Foreign Blind Association. 

Birmingham Institution erected two new workshops at 
Harborne, each 100 ft. by 45 ft., at a cost of 3,000; twenty- 
three mat looms, besides other equipment, were transferred 
there. 

William Stevenson Trust was founded for the benefit of blind 
widows resident in Handsworth. 

(In 1930 there were thirteen pensioners receiving 10 each.) 

BLACKBURN 

Blackburn and District Workshops for the Blind was 
founded. (In 1930 there were 53 blind persons employed, as 
trainees in^the workshops, or as home workers.) 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution opened a Training Home in Spring 
Bank for the teaching of simple handicrafts to otherwise 
unemployable women. 

CANADA 

An Association, and Workshops for the Blind, were started in 
Montreal, chiefly through the enterprise of Mr. P. E. Layton 
(blind), a former student of Norwood. 

CHESTER 

Chester Home Teaching Society extended its work to 
include Runcorn, Northwich, Altrincham, Crewe, etc. 

CONFERENCE 

An International Conference was held at Manchester. 
Chairman, Henry J. Wilson. 

(For full Agenda, see Appendix III, page 193.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 105 

DARLINGTON, DURHAM 1908 

Darlington Blind Welfare Society was founded. (See 
1924.) 

LONDON 

Dr. Barnardo's Homes started a Home for Deaf, Dumb, and 
Blind at Downs Park Road, Clapton, E. 

(In 1930 there were about 20 inmates, including 3 blind 
women.) 

The Blind Self Aid Tea Company, Minories, London, was 
started by the late Alfred Carr (blind). 

(In 1920 the management was taken over by Mr. J. H. 
Kreamer (blind). In 1930, 88 blind persons were employed as 
canvassers, selling tea.) 

This is a commercial undertaking, not a registered charity. 

Rev. St. Clare Hill drew up a scheme for the amalgamation of 
London Workshops, which was approved by the majority, but 
the scheme never matured. 

The National Institute of Massage (formerly fche London 
Institute of Massage) became a tenant of the British and 
Foreign Blind Association, in Bolsover Street, W.i ; 21 trained 
masseurs and 36 masseuses were then on its register. 

Professor M. M. McHardy, F.R.C.S., became Chairman of 
both bodies. During his two years of office, he inaugurated a 
scheme for moving the Association to the large premises in 
Great Portland Street that it now occupies. He succeeded in 
raising a large sum of money, and lived to see the scheme for 
the building approved, but not completed. 

Edith and Norman .Lord Pension Fund founded, adminis- 
tered by Gardner's Trust. The amount of the pension is 26 
per annum. 

(In 1930 there were 30 pensioners.) 

The Norman Lord Dinner Fund has a capital of 1,000, and 
gives an annual dinner to about 200 blind guests. 

Mr. Henry Stainsby was appointed Secretary-General of the 
British and Foreign Blind Association. 



io6 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1908 MANCHESTER 

Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society moved their 
women to a larger home, The Elms, Eccles Old Road, Pendle- 
ton, with accommodation for thirty-five blind persons. 

SHROPSHIRE 

Shropshire Society for the Home Teaching of the Blind was 
founded. (See 1922.) 

SOUTHSEA 

Moody's Charity for the Blind was started for giving 
pensions to blind persons in the county of Southampton. Six 
blind persons receive 8 each, annually. 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Institution leased two houses in Picton Place, thus 
making accommodation for seventy pupils. 

UNIONS 

Eastern ^Counties Union for the Blind was founded (after- 
wards the Eastern Counties Association) for the care of the 
blind in the counties of Bedford, Cambridge, and the Isle of 
Ely, Huntingdon, Lincoln, Norfolk, and Suffolk. 

Midland Counties Union for the Blind was founded (after- 
wards the Midland Counties Association), for the care of the 
blind in the counties of Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, Leices- 
ter, Warwick, Worcester, Oxford, Buckingham, Hereford, 
Northampton, and Rutland. 

North-West Counties Union for the Blind was founded 
(afterwards the North- Western Counties Association), for the 
care of the blind in the counties of Cheshire, Shropshire and 
North Wales. 

South Wales and Monmouthshire Union for the Blind 
was founded (afterwards the South Wales and Monmouth- 
shire Association) for the care of the blind in the coun- 
ties of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan, Monmouth, and 
Pembroke, 





TtlR I?K\ r . HoNYKL (JoirclH UoSKDALiC, 

M.A., D.D., K.S.A., F.R.S.L, 
(1863 -1028} 

H"ji. Tivasnr.T, London Assorifiliou for the Bit ml 



1 IT 1 1 E L \Y r N i FK M o A USTI N 

S*vivhir\ Cinuf> Jl} i.S) K.ilir.iial Library for iho Hlim! 




PROFESSOR MALCOLM MCDONALD MC,HARDY, F.R.C.S. 

Chairman of the British and Foreign Blind Association and the National 
Institute of Massage (1908- 10) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 107 

Western Counties Union for the Blind was founded (after- 1908 

wards the Western Counties Association) for the care of the 
blind in the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Gloucester, 
Somerset, and Wiltshire. 

Union of Institutions, Societies and Agencies for the Blind in 
the Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties, later known as the 
Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties Association, was founded 
for the care of the blind in the counties of Berks, Essex, Hants, 
Hertford, Kent, London, Middlesex, Surrey, and Sussex. Mr. 
H. J. Wilson was elected first Chairman; Mr. Stuart Johnson, 
Treasurer ; Mr. Guy Campbell, Hon. Secretary. 

(In 1930 the name was changed to the South Eastern and 
London Counties Association for the Blind.) 

YORK 

Mr. F. J. Munby was presented with a testimonial to cele- 
brate the fact that the post of Hon. Secretary of the Yorkshire 
School for the Blind had been held by him and by his father, 
the late Joseph Munby, for a total period of 75 years. (He 
remained Hon. Secretary until his death in 1914.) 

j.c/1/y 

BATH * 

The Bath Home Teaching Society was established. 
(In 1930 there were 194 blind persons on the register.) 

BOLTON 

A technical school was added to the Blind Institution. 
(In 1927 there were nineteen pupils. In 1930 the school was 
under the control of the local Education Committee.) 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution occupied large additional workshop 
premises in Piccadilly as tenants under a 14 years' lease. 

Bradford Tramways Committee granted free passes to the 
blind for use on its cars. 

BRIGHTON 

The Brighton Blind Relief Society took over the Brighton 
Blind Missionary Fund. 



io8 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1909 CARDIFF 

Cardiff Institution built a new workshop at a cost of 700, 
providing accommodation for forty to fifty additional workers. 

CONGRESS 

An International Congress for the Improvement of the Con- 
dition of the Blind was held at Naples. 

DEVON 

The County Home Teaching Society for the Blind in Devon 
was established, mainly through the efforts of the Rev. S. F. 
Harris, Vicar of Cotleigh. (See 1918.) 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution increased the accommodation for ele- 
mentary education at a cost of 1,200, and took the children 
from the Plymouth Institution. 

HASTINGS, SUSSEX 

A fund was founded for the blind of Hastings and St. 
Leonards, /f which the Clothworkers' Company, London, are 
the Trustees. Annual income about 44. 

LIVERPOOL 

Liverpool Workshops, Cornwallis Street, were rebuilt, and 
amalgamated with the Birkenhead Society for the Blind. 

LONDON 

The Blind Social Aid and Literary Union was founded, to 
facilitate the employment of the blind and partially blind by 
giving publicity to their capacity and needs, and for the en- 
couragement of social intercourse. 

(In 1930 the membership numbered between thirty and 
forty.) 

The Lord Mayor (Sir Vesey Strong) presided at a meeting at 
the Mansion House in aid of the British and Foreign Blind 
Association. 

The National Library started a section for Esperanto books. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 109 

NEW ZEALAND 1909 

The Jubilee Institute for the Blind was opened at Auckland. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution erected a boarding-house for girls. 
(In 1930 there were 14 blind residents.) 

PERIODICALS 

The Braille Musical Magazine was started by the British and 
Foreign Blind Association (Editors, Mr. H. E. Platt, Mr. H. C. 
Warrilow, F.R.C.O., and Mr. W. Wolstenholme, Mus.Bac., 
Oxon, all of whom were blind). 

Mr. Wolstenholme, who was born at Blackburn in 1865, wa s 
educated at Worcester College; an account of his career 
appeared in The Beacon, November, 1924. More about Mr. 
Platt is recorded under date 1913, and about Mr. Warrilow 
under date 1916. 

PLYMOUTH 

Plymouth Institution closed the department for elementary 
education, but its resident school was continued, with accom- 
modation for 100 adult blind. 

% 

TRAVELLING 

A committee was formed to protect the interests of blind 
travellers. Hon. Secretary, T. H. Martin, Secretary, Society 
for Teaching and Training the Blind, London. 

The Great Eastern Railway issued an order that no blind 
person might travel on its lines without a guide. After much 
heated controversy the order was withdrawn. 

UNIONS 

The Union of Unions was founded as a nucleus controlling 
body for the seven County Unions in England and Wales. 
Henry J. Wilson was appointed Chairman, and Guy Campbell, 
Hon. Secretary. (It afterwards became the Union of Counties 
Associations for the Blind in England and Wales.) 

BERKSHIRE 1910 

Berkshire County Blind Society was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 355 blind persons on the register.) 



no CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1910 CONGRESS 

A meeting of the blind was held in connection with the 
Third Esperanto Congress at Cheltenham. 

DEVON 

North Devon Blind Society was founded. 

(In 1930 this Society existed as a local committee only.) 

EASTBOURNE, SUSSEX 

Eastbourne Blind Society was founded for the general 
assistance of the blind in the county borough of Eastbourne. 
(In 1930 there were 79 blind persons on the register.) 

HOVE, SUSSEX 

Mr. Brookfield started a Home for the Blind. (In 1911 there 
were four residents, and in 1915 two ; in 1922 it had apparently 
ceased to exist.) 

KEIGHLEY. YORKSHIRE 

Keighley and District Institution for the Blind was founded 
formally, although for many years the work had been carried 
on in an informal manner. 

(In 1930 there were 163 blind persons on the register, 
including 5 home workers ; i home teacher was employed.) 

LONDON 

The London County Council gave free passes for its trams 
to all blind persons, if accompanied by a guide. 

The London Society for Teaching ajid Training the Blind 
opened a machine-knitting department for the senior girls. 

Mr. H. C. Preece (blind), was appointed Travelling Secretary 
to the British and Foreign Blind Association, with the object of 
popularizing the Association and raising funds. 

The Surrey Association for the Blind enlarged its premises at 
90 Peckham Road. The name was changed to the London 
Association for the Blind, 



WORK FOR THE BLIND in 

MANCHESTER 1910 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum opened the Mary Ann Scott 
Memorial Home and Workshops, known as Hayesleigh ; a very 
valuable addition and not far from the main building in 
Chester Road. It was given by Mr. C. H. Scott, who after- 
wards left 3,000 for its endowment. 

NEWTON ABBOT, DEVON 

Newton Abbot Care of the Blind Society was founded. 
(In 1930 this Society existed as a local committee only.) 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution started bedding- and mattress- 
making as additional industries for its blind workers. 

PERIODICALS 

Comrades, a monthly magazine in Braille for boys and girls, 
was started by the British and Foreign Blind Association. 

PONTEFRACT, YORKS 

Pontefract-with-Osgoldcross Blind Visiting Society was 
established. 

(In 1930 this Society no longer existed.) 

ST. LEONARDS-ON-SEA 

Miss Alice Meiklejon started a Home for defective blind 
women in connection with the School she had started in 1903. 

(In 1915 there were five residents ; in 1922 it apparently no 
longer existed.) 

STOCKPORT 

Mr. George Walthew's Bequest was founded for persons 
over sixty years of age. The income of the fund is about 
23 ios., which is distributed to about fifty blind persons on 
Christmas Eve. 

TORQUAY, DEVON 

Torquay and District Society for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 194 blind persons on its register, and 
46 " border line " cases.) 



ii2 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

c, 1910 MUSEUMS 

Mr. Charlton Deas, M.A., Director of the Sunderland Public 
Libraries, Museum, and Art Gallery, was a pioneer in encour- 
aging and assisting the blind to study, by means of touch, the 
exhibits in the Sunderland Museum. Thanks to his example, 
many other museums throughout the country afterwards pro- 
vided similar facilities. 

1911 AMERICA 

Education Law in New York State made the education of 
the blind compulsory. 

BOURNEMOUTH, HAMPSHIRE 

Bournemouth and District Blind Aid Society was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 147 blind persons on the register.) 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution was granted the title " Royal " by H.M. 
King George on the occasion of its Jubilee. 

BRIGHTON* 

The "Moon" Pension Fund was established for the neces- 
sitous blind of Sussex. 

(In 1930 the Fund, under the management of the Brighton 
Society for the Welfare of the Blind, distributed five pensions 
of 6 each and three of 3 each, to eight blind persons.) 

BRISTOL 

The Bristol School was moved to a beautiful new building 
at Westbury-on-Trym, and the workshops to a large new 
factory in Museum Avenue. 

The Institution was given the title of " Royal " by H.M. King 
George, and became the Royal School of Industry for the 
Blind, Bristol. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE 

Buckinghamshire Blind Association was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 318 blind persons on the register.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 113 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE 1911 

Cambridge Society for the Blind was established by the 
efforts of Mr. H. M. Taylor, F.R.S. (blind). (Became the 
Cambridgeshire Society, 1921. In 1930 there were 203 blind 
persons on the register.) 

CENSUS 

The census figures for the year showed 26,366 blind persons 
in England and Wales, 3,317 blind persons in Scotland, and 
4,312 blind persons in Ireland. 

(These figures cannot be relied upon for purposes of com- 
parison, as the returns only asked for those who were totally 
blind.) 

CONFERENCE 

An International Conference for the Blind was held at 
Exeter; Mr. Henry J. Wilson (Chairman). 
(For full Agenda see Appendix III, page 194.) 

GLASGOW 

St. Vincent's Schools and Hostel were moved from Lanark; to 
Tollcross, Glasgow. 

GLOUCESTER, GLOUCESTERSHIRE 

Gloucester City Blind Society was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 101 blind persons on the register.) 

HARRIS, WILLIAM 

Death of Mr. William Harris. He had joined the Committee 
of the Leicester Institution in 1864, and from that time devoted 
the greater part of his life to the service of the blind. He 
visited Institutions all over the world, and became one of the 
greatest authorities on the subject. The International Congress 
in Paris in 1879 awarded him a gold medal. He brought out 
the first Guide to Institutions and Chanties for the Blind in 
1866 (privately), and for circulation in 1871 and 1884, an d did 
much other good work for the cause. 

INDIA 

The number of blind in India was stated to be 443,653, or 
142 per 100,000 of the population. 



H4 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1911 ITALY 

The number of blind in Italy was stated to be 28,357. 

LEATHERHEAD, SURREY 

The School for the Blind \vas given the title " Royal " by 
H.M. King George V. 

LONDON 

The first fast-running electrical press for the reproduction 
of Braille literature was installed at the British and Foreign 
Blind Association. Up till then, all paper had to be wetted 
before embossing, but with the new presses dry heat was used 
instead. 

East London Workshops for the Blind were started at 
Plaistow, E. (In 1915 there were seventeen workers making 
baskets and brushes; the workshops apparently ceased to 
exist a few years later.) 

James Mew's Charity for the Blind, of which the Cloth- 
workers' Company are the Trustees, was founded. It provides 
two pensions of 10 and one of 5 to poor blind persons between 
twenty and fifty years of age. 

Workshops for the Blind of London Federation Board was 
founded, with offices at 60 Great Portland Street, W. Seven 
out of the nine workshops for the blind joined the Federation. 

A traveller was appointed to obtain orders for these work- 
shops. 

Chairman: Mr. Henry J. Wilson; Hon. Secretary: the Rev. 
Dr. H. G. Rosedale. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Midland Institution, Nottingham, was granted the title 
of " Royal " by H.M. King George. 

PERIODICALS 

The Braille Literary Journal was started by the British and 
Foreign Blind Association. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 115 

SHORTHAND 1911 

The Braille Shorthand System was revised, and additional 
contractions added, by a committee appointed by the British 
and Foreign Blind Association, consisting of Miss H. C. 
Russell, Mr. Herbert D. Black, and Mr. Maurice J. Myers. 

(See Braille Shorthand, published by the National Institute, 
price 6d.) 

WARWICKSHIRE 

The Warwickshire Association for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 308 blind persons on the register.) 

WIMBLEDON, SURREY 

A Depot for the sale of work made by the blind was started 
by Miss Hastings at Church Road (has since ceased to exist). 

ACCRINGTON 1912 

Accrington Workshop was moved to 32 Bank Street. 

APPARATUS 

The Optophone, invented by Mr. E. E. Fournier d'Albe, of 
Paris, was exhibited at the Optical Exhibition, South Kensing- 
ton. * 

The object of this invention was to enable a totally blind 
person to read ordinary print by means of the ear. With the 
aid of a selenium cell and an intermittent source of light, the 
different shapes of the letters were made to produce different 
notes, which could be heard with the aid of head-phones. 

The apparatus was too costly, and too difficult to be 
practicable. 

GLASGOW 

The Royal Asylum completed the reconstruction of its 
buildings. * 

GORLESTON-ON-SEA, NORFOLK 

The Education Authoritiesof Norwich, Yarmouth, Lowestoft, 
Norfolk, East Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Isle of Ely, and Essex 
established the East Anglian Institution for Blind and Deaf 
children. The buildings cost 11,000, and stand in six acres of 
ground. 



n6 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1912 KIRKLISTON 

The Edinburgh and South-east Scotland Society opened 
Jamieson Cottage, Kirkliston, as a Holiday Home in place of 
a temporary house they had rented at Ratho for the previous 
nine years. 

(In 1930 the Home was still being used. From May to 
September six blind persons were sent in batches for a fort- 
night's stay.) 

LEATHERHEAD 

Mrs. Hawksley gave a sum of 5,000 to the Royal School, 
Leatherhead, to found the Arthur Hawksley Pension Fund. 
(In 1930 there were 12 pensioners.) 

LIVERPOOL 

The Home for Blind Children, Devonshire Road, Liverpool, 
founded in the year 1874, was closed. 

LONDON 

Barclay Workshops for Blind Women moved to larger 
premises, 233 Edgware Road, W. 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
built a showroom and carried out further extensions, at a cost 
of 4,000. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Bequest of 12,000 for the blind of Newcastle, Gateshead, 
and neighbourhood, from the late John McKie Elliott, who 
commenced life as a bricklayer's lad, and went blind early in 
life ; became a master, and amassed a large sum of money by 
courage and perseverance. 

The Charity of John McKie Elliott, deceased, for the blind, 
101 Rectory Road, Gateshead, was established. 

(In 1930 this private charity had 31 blind persons on its 
register.) 

NORWOOD 

Guy Marshall Campbell, F.C.T.B., F.R.G.S., was appointed 
Principal of the Royal Normal College, in place of his father, 
Sir Francis Campbell. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 117 

(An account of his life appeared in The Beacon, December, 1912 

1925-) 

PARLIAMENTARY BILLS 

Two Bills were introduced into Parliament to provide for 
the technical education, employment, and maintenance of the 
blind. 

PETERBOROUGH, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 

Peterborough Society for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 89 blind persons on the register.) 

SlTTINGBOURNE, KENT 

Sittingbourne Local Association for the Welfare of the Blind 
was founded for the assistance of the blind in Sittingbourne, 
Milton Regis and district. 

(In 1930 there were 35 blind persons on the register.) 

WORTHING, SUSSEX 

Worthing Society for Befriending the Blind, 93 Rowlands 
Road, was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 70 blind persons on its register, and a 
Social Centre had been established.) 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1913 

The Education (Scotland) Act, 1913, empowered School 
Boards to provide medical and surgical treatment for school 
children in need of such treatment. 

AMERICA. 

Day centres for partially sighted children were opened in 
Boston and Cleveland. The movement, now known as sight- 
saving, has since spread, widely in the States. 

BIRMINGHAM 

The Mary Hadley Pension Fund for Women was founded for 
the benefit of persons connected with the Royal Institution. 
(In 1929-30 the sum of 104 was paid in pensions.) 

The Royal Institution transferred its Brush Department to 
new workshops at Harborne, built at a cost of over 5,000. 
9 (2155) 



n8 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1913 BIRMINGHAM 

Mr. H. E. Platt (blind), assistant instructor of music since 
1902, was appointed chief instructor at the Birmingham 
Institution. Mr. Platt was born at Worcester in 1856, and 
was educated at the Birmingham Institution. (An account of 
his career appeared in The Beacon, April, 1925.) 

BOLTON 

Bolton Blind Institution built a new school and workshops 
at a cost of about 5,000. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE 

King Edward Memorial Pension Fund was founded. This 
provides 2s. a week to a blind person in each of the four 
divisions of the county. 

CARDIFF 

Cardiff Institution started making ships' cork fenders. 
(In 1929-30 it sold 5,828 fenders; seven of the blind were 
employed making coal-bags.) 

CLERGY 

The Blind (No. 63), published a list of twenty-eight blind 
clergy of the Church of England. 

CONFERENCE 

A Conference of Schools took place at Derby, at which it 
was decided to approach the Board of Education with a view 
to obtaining increased grants. 

EXETER 

Exeter Institution enlarged the classrooms, enabling seventy- 
five pupils to be accommodated instead of forty-five; other 
improvements increased the outlay to 3,000. 

LONDON 

Flat machine knitting was started as an industry by the 
London Association for the Blind, and in time became the 
Association's chief industry for employing blind women. 

(In 1930 it had 82 blind women engaged on this work, 78 of 
whom were paid workers and 4 pupils.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 119 

MANCHESTER 1913 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum took an additional house for a 
College for Music. 

MOSLEM 

A scheme on behalf of the blind in non-Christian and 
Moslem countries was set on foot by Miss I. M. Hey wood. 

NEWPORT 

Newport and Monmouthshire Blind Aid Society established 
workshops at Albert Terrace, Newport, and at Llandevaud. 
(See 1917.) 

NORTH SHIELDS 

The Northern Counties Blind Society carried out further 
extensions in Howard Street, North Shields. 

PERIODICALS 

The School Magazine (monthly), was published in Braille by 
the British and Foreign Blind Association. 

The Teacher of the Blind, a quarterly ink-print publication 
containing articles on the education of the blind, was started 
by the Association of Teachers. 

PRESTON 

A bequest of 5,000 was received by the Homes for the 
Blind, Fulwood, under the will of Alderman W. B. Roper, 
J.P. The sum of 2,000 was used for the erection of a 
boarding house and 3,000 for an endowment fund. 

WORCESTER 

Mr. G. C. Brown, M.A., was appointed Head Master of 
Worcester College. (An account of his career appeared in 
The Beacon, April, 1928.) 

WORCESTERSHIRE 

The Worcestershire Association for the Blind was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 388 blind persons on the county register 
and 114 on the Worcester county borough register. There 
were five handicraft classes and social centres established.) 



120 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1913 YORK 

The City Corporation granted free tram passes to the blind. 

1614 

BOARD OF EDUCATION 

Board of Education issued revised regulations by which 
they agreed to pay certified schools for the blind 7 a year for 
each day pupil who put in full attendance, and 13 for each 
boarder. 

BOURNEMOUTH 

Bournemouth and District Blind Aid Society started a 
pension fund. 

(In 1930 it had three pensioners receiving a total of 



BRIGHTON 

Death of Miss Adelaide Moon (69), daughter of the late Dr. 
William Moon. For many years she had carried on the work of 
the Moon Society established by her father ; she also founded 
the Moon pension Society. 

The Moon Society was taken over by the National Institute. 

The Barclay Home and School started a workshop for blind 
women at Brighton, and built an additional workroom and 
a chapel. 

CONFERENCE 

An International Conference for the Blind was held in 
London (Mr. H. J. Wilson, Chairman). 

(For full Agenda see Appendix III, page 195.) 


DEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE 

As a result of a motion by Mr. A. J. Wardle, M.P. for 
Stockport, a departmental committee was appointed in May by 
the President of the Local Government Board to consider the 
present condition of the blind in the United Kingdom, and 
the means available for (a) their industrial or professional 
training, and (b) their assistance ; and to make recommenda- 
tions. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 121 

DERBYSHIRE 1914 

The Derbyshire Association for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 683 blind persons on the county register 
and 174 on the register of Derby county borough.) 

DUNDEE % 

Their Majesties, King George and Queen Mary, visited the 
Dundee Institution for the Blind. 

The John Ferguson Bequest was founded by a legacy of 
5,000 from David Ferguson of Leith to the Institution, for the 
provision of pensions for the blind. 

LEEDS 

The Leeds Embossed Book Fund, of which the Clothworkers' 
Company are the Trustees, was founded, with money collected 
in Leeds. 

Pursuant to the terms of the Trust, the annual income of 
about 68 is paid to the National Institute for the Blind, for the 
provision of Braille literature, music, maps, apparatus, etc., 
for the benefit of the blind of Leeds and district. 

LINCOLNSHIRE 

The Lincolnshire Association for the Blind was founded. 
(Terminated 1920.) 

LONDON 

The Armitage Fund for the Employment of Blind Workers, 
of which the Clothworkers' Company are the Trustees, was 
founded by Miss Armitage, daughter of Dr. T. R. Armitage. 
Pursuant to the terms of the Trust, the annual income of 
about 112 is paid to the National Institute for the Blind. 

The Armitage Indigent Blind Visiting Society Fund, of 
which the Clothworkers' Company are the Trustees, was 
founded, with the object of promoting the education and em- 
ployment of the blind. Annual income about 62. 

H.M. King George V, accompanied by H.M. the Queen, 
opened the new premises of the British and Foreign Blind 
Association at 224, 226, 228, Great Portland Street, W. ; at 
the same time the name of the Association was changed to 
The National Institute for the Blind. 



122 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1914 LONDON 

Mr. C. Arthur (afterwards Sir Arthur) Pearson was elected 
the first President of the National Institute for the Blind. 

Death of John Fletcher Little, M.B., M.R.C.P. He took a 
prominent part in founding the National Institute for Massage 
by the Blind, and* in training blind persons to become mas- 
seurs or masseuses. 

London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind started 
boot-repairing as an industry for the blind. 

NORWICH 

Norwich Asylum built a new workroom for girls and a new 
salesroom. 

NORWOOD 

Death of Sir Francis Campbell, first Principal of the Royal 
College, Norwood; born in Tennessee, U.S.A., in 1832, he lost 
his sight owing to an accident when a young child. At the 
age of ten he was sent to a Blind School at Nashville, where he 
later became music teacher. At the age of twenty-two he 
narrowly escaped being lynched for his activities as an oppo- 
nent of slavery. 

After many adventures and hardships he met the late Dr. 
Armitage, and shortly afterwards with his help founded what is 
now the Royal College for the Blind, Norwood. Later he was 
made a Doctor of Laws by the Glasgow University. In 1909 he 
received a knighthood. In 1912 he relinquished his post of 
Principal of the College and was succeeded by his son, Mr. 
Guy Marshall Campbell. 

OXFORD 

Oxford Society started a Home Workers' and Sales Depot. 

PERIODICALS 

The Light Bringer, published quarterly in Braille, by the 
Margaret Dudley Braille Lodge of the Theosophical Society, 
was started. It contains articles on theosophical, philosophical, 
and kindred subjects. 







NATIONAL INSTITUTK FOR THE BLIND, HEADQUARTERS 
2155) 122 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 123 

SUFFOLK 1914 

East Suffolk Association was founded. (In 1930 there were 
373 blind persons on the register.) (See 1923, 1929.) 

West Suffolk Association was founded. (Terminated 1920.) 
(In 1930, 128 blind persons in the area were being cared for by 
the County Council.) 

TODMORDEN, LANCASHIRE 

Todmorden Society for the Blind was established for the 
general assistance of the blind of the district. (In 1914 there 
were 12 blind on the register, in 1929, 34.) 

YEOVIL, SOMERSET 

Yeovil Care of the Blind Society was established. 

(In 1930 this Society existed as a local committee only.) 

YORK 

Death of Mr. F. J. Munby (born 1837), Hon. Secretary of 
the Yorkshire School since 1875. The same post had been 
held by his father from the foundation of the school in 1833 
until his death in 1875. 

AMERICA , 1915 

A strong committee for "men blinded in battle " was formed 
in New York with the Hon. Joseph H. Choate as President. 
The work was under the direction of Miss Winifred Holt (later 
Mrs. Mather) with headquarters in Paris; she started by 
opening a "Lighthouse" or care-centre for the blind at Bor- 
deaux, followed by two more "Lighthouses/' one at Paris and 
one at Sevres. 

BRADFORD 

The Odsal School for the Blind, a residential school for 
blind children, was established by the Bradford Education 
Committee and opened by Mr. C. Arthur Pearson. (No longer 
used for the blind.) 

BRIGHTON 

The National Institute for the Blind opened a Home at 
Queen's Road, Brighton ; it was first used for soldiers blinded 
in the Great War, and afterwards for women. 

(In 1930 it had 18 blind women residents.) 



124 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1915 CARDIFF 

Cardiff Institute opened a new wing, consisting of 4 work- 
rooms, offices, etc., thus enabling the number of workers to be 
increased from 67 to about 100. That year 51 men and 20 

women were being employed. 

* 

CONFERENCE 

H. M. Taylor, M.A., F.R.S., presided at a Conference at the 
National Institute for the Blind, to consider the question of 
embossing suitable books of an educational character. 

DUNDEE 

H.M. King George granted the title of " Royal " to the 
Dundee Institution. 

EDINBURGH 

Scottish National Institution for Blinded Soldiers and 
Sailors, Newington House, Edinburgh, was opened by the 
Royal Blind Asylum and affiliated with St. Dunstan's, London. 

(By 1930 over 120 blinded ex-service men had been trained 
at Newington House, and in that year 6 were still under 
training, and 44 were employed in the workshop, in addition 
to 20 in its workshop at Glasgow.) 

HEBREW 

A Braille Hebrew Grammar was compiled, and the Book of 
Ruth, transcribed in Braille by the Rev. N. F. McNeile, M.A., 
and published by the National Institute. 

HERTFORDSHIRE 

Hertfordshire Association for the Blind was founded for the 
registration and general assistance of the blind in the county. 
(In 1930 there were 457 blind persons on the register.) 

LONDON 

The Association of Workers for the Blind was formed ; Miss 
M. M. R. Garaway and Mr. J. M. Ritchie were appointed joint 
Hon. Secretaries. 

(In 1930 this Association no longer existed.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 125 

LONDON 1915 

The London Home Teaching Society was moved to 228 
Great Portland Street, and affiliated with the National In- 
stitute for the Blind. 

The National Institute for the Blind tocfc over the National 
Institute of Massage, and founded the National Institute for 
the Blind School of Massage, Mrs. Chaplin Hall (formerly 
Secretary to the National Institute of Massage) being appointed 
Secretary to the newly formed organization. Blind students 
were henceforward prepared for the examinations of the 
Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics 
(formerly the Incorporated Society of Trained Masseuses). 

For the duration of the Great War the School devoted all 
its energies to training blinded soldiers and sailors. 

The London Society, Swiss Cottage, was incorporated under 
the Companies' Act with the title The London Society for 
Teaching and Training the Blind; Mr. J. M. Ritchie, M.A., 
of Henshaw's, was appointed Principal in place of Mr. T. H. 
Martin. 

St. Dunstan's Hostel for Blinded Soldiers and Sailors was 
founded by the National Institute for the Blind, under the 
personal management of that brilliant organizer, Mr. C. A. 
(later Sir Arthur) Pearson at Mrs. Lewis Hall's House, Bays- 
water Hill, in February. On 26th March, the sixteen blinded 
soldiers were moved to larger premises, St. Dunstan's, Regent's 
Park, generously lent by Mr. Otto Kahn. (The Institution took 
its name from the house, and the house from its clock, which 
was bought by the previous owner, the Marquis of Hertford, 
from the old church of St. Dunstan's in the city, when it was 
pulled down.) No. 21 Portland Place was also lent for blinded 
officers. Probably no other institution of its kind in the world 
has ever reached such large proportions and become so world- 
renowned in such a short space of time. Its blind leader never 
spared himself in encouraging the blinded soldiers and sailors 
and in raising money to provide for their training and needs. 

Somers Town Blind Aid Society changed its name to the 
Hepburn Starey Blind Aid Society. 



126 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1915 MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Old Trafford, opened the 
Gresham Home for thirty blind men, and the Birch Avenue 
Home for thirty blind women. 

NORWOOD 

H.M. Queen Alexandra opened a new Technical School and 
presented prizes at the Royal Normal College, Upper Norwood. 

NOTTINGHAM 

Mr. H. W. Pine resigned his post of Secretary and Superin- 
tendent at the Royal Midland Institution after thirty-six 
years. 

Mr. W. H. Bennett was appointed Trades Manager. (He 
became Secretary and Superintendent in 1917.) 

PERIODICALS 

St. Dunstan's Review, a monthly magazine in ink-print, was 
published by St. Dunstan's Hostel for Blinded Soldiers and 
Sailors. It contained articles chiefly about this Institution's 
work, and was for the amusement and interest of men blinded 
in the War.* 

The National Institute for the Blind published the Journal 
of the Incorporated Society of Trained Masseurs. 

RUSSIA 

Two Institutions for blinded soldiers were opened in 
Petrograd (now Leningrad). 

STOURBRIDGE, WORCESTERSHIRE 

Stourbridge Institution for the Blind opened workshops in 
Bank Street. (In 1930 ten men were employed.) 

SUNDERLAND 

Sunderland and Durham County Institute was in danger of 
having to close through lack of funds. Mr. C. A. Pearson 
attended a local meeting, and promised 1,000 from the 
National Institute for the Blind, provided that the 4,600 
required was raised. This was quickly done, and an additional 
2,600 was also collected to pay off its mortgage. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 127 

WAR PENSIONS 1915 

The following Royal Warrant was issued: "An officer who 
has lost the sight of both eyes as the result of wounds received 
in action shall be granted not less than 300 a year in wounds- 
pension and retired pay, taken together, provided that the 
total loss of vision occurs within five years af ter the wound, and 
is solely attributed to it." 

WORTHING 

The London Association for tfie Blind started a Convalescent 
Home at High Salvington, near Worthing, for blinded soldiers ; 
it was shortly afterwards used for the civilian blind. 

(In 1930 it had 16 blind inmates.) 

YORK 

Yorkshire School for the Blind suffered a heavy loss in the 
death of Mr. A. B. Norwood, who had been its Principal since 
1901. The Rev. C. F. Hardy, M.A., Principal of the Bristol 
School, was appointed as his successor. 

BRADFORD , 

Bradford Institution purchased 12 Spring Bank and extended 
its Women's Home, opened in 1908. 

CANADA 

The first School for the Blind in British Columbia was opened 
in Vancouver at the house of Mrs. C. E. Burke (blind). 

CHINA 

The First Annual Convention on the Education of the Blind 
and Deaf of the East was held in Korea. (The number of blind 
in China was estimated at over 1,000,000, a figure which 
probably would be even larger but for the infanticide of girl 
babies, and especially of those who are blind.) 

LIBRARY 

Association Valentin Haiiy, Paris, and the National Library, 
London, arranged for a free interchange of books. 



128 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1916 LONDON 

The National Library was moved to larger premises at 
Tuft on Street, Westminster. The Carnegie Trustees gave 
2,000 for books, 9,000 for building, 1,500 for furnishing, and 
1,500 towards the reduction of ground rent. The Library 
then possessed 23*000 volumes, and the circulation was about 
300 volumes a day. The Library (apart from the cost of 
postage) is now made free to all readers. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Shaw, of Dunfermline, was elected 
Chairman of the National Library. 

The National Institute handed over its 8,000 volumes from 
the Home Teaching Branch, and the Catholic Truth Society 
handed over its collection of embossed books to the National 
Library. 

St. Dunstan's Hostel carried out considerable enlargements. 

Music 

Mr. H. C. Warrilow, F.R.C.O. (blind), was appointed 
organist and supervisor of the Music Department at the 
National Institute for the Blind. He was previously organist 
at DartfcVd, and subsequently held the important post of 
organist at St. Barnabas' Church, Oxford. 

(An account of his career appears in The Beacon, June, 
1926.) 

UNIFORM TYPE 

A National Committee was formed and met under the 
Chairmanship of Mr. C. Arthur Pearson to consider the pro- 
posals made by the American Commission on Uniform Type 
for the Blind. 

r 

1917 BIRMINGHAM 

A Joint Trading Committee was formed for the Birmingham, 
Walsall, and Wolverhampton Societies to enable the three 
Institutions to trade in friendly co-operation. 

BOSTON, LINCOLNSHIRE 

Boston Society for the Blind was founded. (See 1920.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 129 

BRIGHTON 1917 

The National Institute started a Convalescent Home for 
Blinded Soldiers, at St. George's Road, Brighton, in connection 
with St. Dunstan's. 

BRISTOL 

Mrs. Rose Anna Leir left a sum of money, the income of 
which was to be given, at the discretion of the Trustees, 
primarily to poor soldiers, natives of Bristol, blinded or 
partially blinded during the Great War, 1914-18. 

(In 1930 the Bristol Municipal Charities, as Trustees of the 
Leir Fund, distributed the whole income of 93 to three 
charitable funds not connected with the blind, as there were 
no suitable blind cases.) 

BURY, LANCASHIRE 

The Bury and District Civilian Blind (Voluntary) Committee 
was formed. (It ceased to exist when the Bury Society was 
established in 1922.) 

COIL-WINDING 

The Crocker-Wheeler Co., of New York, started twenty 
blind workers on electrical coil-winding and insulating. 

DEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE 

The Report was published of the Departmental Committee 
appointed in 1914 ; this led, in December, to the appointment 
by the Rt. Hon. W. Hayes Fisher, M.P., President of the 
Local Government Board, of an Advisory Committee. This 
Committee, under the Chairmanship of Stephen Walsh, M.P. 
and Vice-Chairmanship of H. J. Wilson, was appointed to 
advise the Board on matters relating to the care and super- 
vision of the blind in England and Wales. A special depart- 
ment for the blind was created at the Local Government 
Board. (The latter was shortly afterwards renamed the 
Ministry of Health). 

LONDON 

The London Knitting Industries, Ltd., was started in Soho 
by Miss Rothwell, for employing blind girls trained at the Elm 



130 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1917 LONDON 

Court School, West Norwood. (In 1921, 35 were employed; 
the work was discontinued shortly afterwards, and most of the 
workers taken over by the London Association for the Blind.) 

The National Institute for the Blind started a Hostel for 
blind women, at Langham Street, W.I, chiefly for their own 
blind employees. (In 1921 there were 47 inmates; in 1927 
the Hostel was removed to Oval Road, N.W.I.) 

St. Dunstan's After-care Department was started under the 
management of Capt. Ian Fraser; St. Dunstan's also carried 
out further extensions. (An account of Capt. Fraser's career 
appears in The Beacon, May, 1925.) 

The Workshops for the Blind of London Federation Board 
decided to discontinue its work. 

NEWPORT (MoN.) 

Newport and Monmouthshire Blind Aid Society moved its 
workshops to Charles Street, Newport. (See 1926.) 

PERIODICALS 

The Beaaon, a magazine devoted to the interests of the blind, 
was published by the National Institute for the Blind. 

The Indian Association of Workers for the Blind started a 
quarterly magazine Light to the Blind published by Mr. 
P. N. V. Rau, Mysore. 

ST. HELENS, LANCASHIRE 

St. Helens and District Society for the Welfare of the Blind 
was established. (In 1930 there were 230 blind persons on the 
register, including 16 employed in the workshop, 4 home 
workers, and i home visitor.) 

SCOTTISH NATIONAL FEDERATION 

A Federation, called The Scottish National Federation of 
Institutions and Societies for the Blind, was formed of the 
fifteen Institutions and Societies for the Blind in Scotland. 

Since its inception the Federation has held conferences 
annually, and has played a prominent part in every movement 
for the welfare of the blind. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 131 

WAR PENSIONS, ETC. .1917 

A lecture was delivered by Sir Arthur Pearson at the Royal 
Society of Arts on blinded sufferers from the War and their 
future employment. The chair was taken by the Rt. Hon. 
W. Hayes Fisher, M.P., President of the Local Government 
Board, who stated that after the Egyptian War, blinded 
soldiers were granted 75. per week as pension, after the Boer 
War 175. 6d. per week. Men blinded in the Great War received 
not less than 273. per week irrespective of personal earnings, 
and an allowance of i weekly for a guide if necessary, to- 
gether with allowances for children. Officers blinded received 
not less than 300 a year. 

WIGAN, LANCASHIRE 

Wigan and District Workshops for the Blind were founded, in 
Millgate, Wigan. (In 1930 there were 22 employed in the 
workshops, 2 home teachers, and 270 blind persons on the 
register.) 

WORCESTER 

Mr. Godfrey F. Mowatt was appointed Hon. Secretary of 
Worcester College. 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1918 

The important Education Act (1918) restated and enlarged 
the powers of Local Education Authorities in regard to every 
type of education, including that of the blind. It reinforced 
the provisions for medical inspection and treatment of school 
children, thereby laying the foundation of much preventive 
work in blindness; further, the Government grant to blind 
schools was materially increased. Under this Act the voca- 
tional training of the blind became an obligation on the Local 
Education Authority. 

The Education (Scotland) Act, 1918, raised the age up to 
which provision had to be made under the Act of 1890, 
to eighteen years, and empowered Local Education Authorities 
to facilitate, e.g. by bursaries, the attendance of qualified 
children or young persons (including blind) at secondary 
schools, University, or other approved institutions. 



132 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1918 ADVISORY COMMITTEE, ENGLAND AND WALES 

Mr. Godfrey Mowatt and Mr. Ben Purse, both blind, were 
appointed on the Advisory Committee to the Local Govern- 
ment Board. 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE, IRELAND 

The Irish Advisory Committee on the Welfare of the Blind 
held its first meeting. (Sir Thomas J. Stafford, Bart, C.B., 
Chairman.) 

ADVISORY COMMITTEE, SCOTLAND 

The Scottish Advisory Committee on the Welfare of the 
Blind held its first meeting. (Sir David Paulin, Chairman.) 

APPARATUS 

Lady Algernon Percy invented a system of communicating 
with the deaf-blind, by using the Morse code and a series of 
small hammers which tap the fingers of the persons addressed. 

AUSTRALIA 

Death at^ the age of fifty-seven of Mr. Andrew W. Hendry, 
founder and manager of the Royal Institution for the Blind, 
North Adelaide. He lost the sight of one eye through an 
accident when thirteen years of age, and about ten years later 
he became totally blind. His handicap merely inspired him to 
greater things; his whole life was a triumph over his affliction. 

CANADA 

Dressmaking was started as an industry for the blind by the 
Canadian National Institute for the Blind. (See The Beacon, 
January, 1926.) 

CHORLEY WOOD, HERTFORDSHIRE 

The National Institute for the Blind opened its first Sun- 
shine Home for Blind Babies. 

COUNTIES UNIONS 

The President of the Local Government Board asked the 
seven Counties Unions to act as Local Advisory Committees. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 133 

DEVON 1918 

The Devon County Association for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 993 blind persons on the register.) 

DEWSBURY, YORKSHIRE 

Institution for the Blind of Dewsbury, Datley and District, 
was founded by Mr. Joe Kaye at Daisy Hill, Dewsbury, for 
teaching and training the blind of the district and enabling 
them to earn a livelihood. (In 1929 there were 260 blind 
persons on the register, 15 in the workshops and 7 pupils being 
trained.) 

DORSET 

The Dorset County Association for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 449 blind persons on the register.) 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE 

The Gloucestershire County Association for the Blind was 
founded. 

(In 1930 there were 610 blind persons on the register.) 

HARTLEPOOL, DURHAM 

A fund for the training and after-care of the blind was 
instituted by the Mayor of West Hartlepool. Useful work on 
behalf of the blind had previously been set on foot by the Rev. 
W. J. Knowlden, Vicar of St. Aidan's. 

LIFE INSURANCE 

Life Insurance Policies were granted by the Sun Life 
Assurance Company of Canada to the blind, on equal terms 
with the sighted. (Several other Insurance Companies have 

since followed its example.) 



LONDON 

The Braille and Servers of the Blind League was founded, 
by William Burgess 

(a) For the provision and maintenance of social clubs for 
the adult civilian blind throughout Great Britain. 

(b) For the provision of Homes for blind mentally defective 
children. 

io (2155) 



134 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1918 LONDON 

The name was later changed to the Servers of the Blind 
League. 

In addition to the social activities undertaken by the clubs, 
the League provides holidays, clothing, medical relief, bread 
and coal tickets, <and outings to the sea and country, for 
necessitous blind persons. 

(In 1930 there were 17 clubs open, including 9 in London, 
with a total membership of about 2,500. There was also a 
Home for mentally defective children at Reigate.) 

The London Association for the Blind took additional 
premises for showroom and workrooms in Rochester Row, 
Westminster, and started the first of a series of Hostels for Blind 
Women, at Bessborough Street, Westminster. 

(In 1930 there were 64 blind residents in its various Hostels.) 

Miss Ethel Winifred Austin died. She had been Secretary of 
the National Library for the Blind since 1906, and worked 
there up to the time of her death. During her secretaryship 
the Library was greatly improved and enlarged, and she was 
largely responsible for the many improvements effected. She 
organized lectures and concerts at the Library. By her efforts 
the collections of books belonging to the London Home 
Teaching Society, the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel and the Catholic Truth Society were incorporated in 
the National Library, and the Library of the Manchester and 
Salford Blind Aid Society was taken over and made a branch 
of the National Library. She organized the teaching of reading 
and writing Braille at St. Dunstan's, and was a member of the 
Advisory Committee on the Blind. 

The National Institute received 11,000 from the executors 
of the late H. F. Bailey. 

The Bailey Bequest was founded, and the income applied 
Five-elevenths to sick and poor blind persons. 
Five-elevenths to general purposes of the Institute. 
One-eleventh to blind knitters. 

Dr. Alfred Washington Guest Ranger, M.A., D.C.L. (blind), 
Chairman of the National Institute for the Blind since 1913, 
was knighted for his services to the blind. 

(Sir Washington was senior partner in the firm of Messrs, 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 135 

Ranger, Burton & Frost, Solicitors, and the first blind man to 1918 

earn the distinction of D.C.L. An account of his successful 
career appeared in The Beacon, June, 1924, and March, 1929, 
obiit.) 

St. Dunstan's work was extended; 1,500 blinded soldiers 
were being looked after. 

West London Workshop for the Blind purchased the free- 
hold of its premises, 60 High Street, and the neighbouring 
premises, 58 High Street, Notting Hill, W. 

MANCHESTER 

The National Library for the Blind established a northern 
branch in St. John Street, Manchester, at a cost of 5,000, of 
which the Carnegie Trust provided 3,000. This branch serves 
the eight northern counties of England, and supplies 65 public 
libraries. The Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society 
handed over its books to the Library. (In 1918 readers 
numbered 136, and volumes 8,000 ; in 1930 there were 33,364 
volumes in the Library, the circulation had reached 79,407 
volumes per annum, and the readers numbered over 3,000.) 

Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society openecf a Home, 
Oaklands, for thirty aged blind men, next to its Women's 
Home in the Eccles Old Road, Pendleton. 

PERIODICALS 

Nuggets, a popular weekly magazine in Braille, was pub- 
lished by the National Institute for the Blind. (It has since 
been discontinued.) 

SOMERSET 



The Somerset County Association for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 882 blind persons on the register.) 

SOUND LOCATING 

The War Office invited the services of blind men to use 
sound-locating instruments in connection with searchlight 
stations. 



136 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1S18 STAFFORDSHIRE 

The Staffordshire Association for the Welfare of the Blind 
was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 727 blind persons on the register.) 

UNION OF COUNTIES ASSOCIATIONS 

The title of the Union of Unions was changed to the Union 
of Counties Associations for the Blind, and the seven County 
Unions also changed their names to Counties Associations. 

1919 ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

G. Locker- Lampson, M.P., was appointed Chairman of the 
Advisory Committee on the Welfare of the Blind in place of 
Stephen Walsh, M.P. 

ARGENTINE 

The Argentine National Society for the Blind at Buenos 
Aires ceased to exist, leaving 8,000 blind persons uncared for. 

AUSTRALIA 
A Free Library for the Blind at Melbourne was opened. 

BEDFORDSHIRE 

Luton and District Committee was founded (renamed in 
1927 the South Bedfordshire Society.) 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution opened a Hostel to accommodate 
eighteen blind women. (In 1929 this was changed into a hostel 
for men, and in 1930 there were 13 blind residents.) 

BRISTOL 

The Royal School of Industry moved its Women's Hostel to 
larger premises at Tyndalls Park, Bristol. 
(In 1930 it had 18 residents.) 

CROYDON, SURREY 

The Bates's Charity was founded by a bequest of 9,000 from 
the late Edward George Bates. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 137 

The interest (about 450) provides pensions for about thirty- 1919 

five blind persons resident in the borough of Croydon. 
The charity is administered from the Croydon Town Hall. 

HEREFORDSHIRE 

The Herefordshire County Association for the Blind was 
founded. 

(In 1930 there were 170 blind persons on the register.) 

INDIA 

The estimated number of blind persons in Indian villages 
was 600,000, almost uncared for. 

LIVERPOOL 

The Liverpool Workshops and Home Teaching Society 
started a Home for Aged Blind Women at Aigburth Road. 
(In 1930 there were 15 inmates.) 

Death of Mr. Charles A. Hartley (born 1857), member of the 
Local Government Board Advisory Committee, Works 
Manager, and later General Manager of the Liverpool Work- 
shops. t 

During the last thirty-two years of his life he worked un- 
sparingly for the good of this Institution, and many of its 
developments were due to him. 

LONDON 

The Association for the General Welfare of the Blind was 
extended by the purchase of neighbouring premises, 257 
Tottenham Court Road. 

The Barclay Workshops moved to 21 Crawford Street, W., 
thus obtaining a showroom for the first time. 

Mr. P. M. Evans, LL.D., M.A., Clerk to the Clothworkers' 
Company, was appointed Chairman of the Union of Associa- 
tions and the Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties Association, 
in place of Mr. H. J. Wilson, resigned. The Clothworkers' 
Company allow the meetings of the Union to be held at its 
Hall in Mincing Lane, and have been most liberal with grants 
and hospitality. (An account of Mr. Evans's career appeared in 
The Beacon^ March, 1927.) 



138 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1919 LONDON 

London Association for the Blind took additional premises 
in Churton Street, Westminster. 

A Hostel for Blind Men was started in Waterloo Road, S.E., 
by the Royal School for the Blind, Leatherhead. 

Sergt. A. M. Nicholls, who was blinded in the War, and lost 
both hands, was taught at St. Dunstan's to typewrite effici- 
ently with artificial hands. 

London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind, built 
workshops in Eton Avenue, near by, at a cost of 4,000. 

MASSAGE 

The Association of Certificated Blind Masseurs was founded 
under the auspices of the National Institute for the Blind and 
St. Dunstan's Hostel for blinded soldiers and sailors ; President, 
Sir Arthur Pearson, G.B.E. ; Chairman, Mr. Percy L. Way, 
C.S.M.M.G., B.P.A., F.R.C.O. ; Secretary, Mrs. F. Chaplin Hall. 

For an account of the career of Mr. Way, a blind graduate of 
Durham University, see The Beacon, April, 1926. 

(In 1929 the number of certified masseurs and masseuses on 
the register of the Association was about 100 civilians and 112 
ex-soldiers.) 

MINISTRY OF HEALTH 

In August the Ministry of Health issued important new 
regulations authorizing grants to Registered Institutions for 
the Blind, for the following services 

Workshops, 20 per head per annum for each blind person 
fully employed. 

Home Workers, 20 per head per annum for each blind 
person fully employed. 

Homes, 13 per annum, per inmate. 

Hostels, 5 per annum, per inmate. 

Home Teachers, not exceeding 78 per head per annum. 

Book Production, 2s. 6d. per volume, 2d. per magazine, 
periodical, or sheet of music. 

County Associations to receive 20 for each 100 registered 
blind persons in their area. 

The Minister of Health instructed the secretaries of all 
County Associations to send him a monthly return, giving him 




SERGEANT A, M. Xicimu s (Buxu) TYPKAVRITI>;<; WITH 
\RTiKiciAi. I IAN us 




BLIND BOYS LEARNING GARDENING 



(2155) 



138 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 139 

names of new cases of blindness, particulars of deaths, changes 1918 

of address or occupation, children leaving school, etc. 

Mr. Miles Priestley, Bradford, and Mr. W. H. Thurman, 
Birmingham, were appointed the first two Inspectors of blind 
welfare of the Ministry of Health. 

(An account of Mr. Priestley's career* appeared in The 
Beacon, October, 1926.) 

PERIODICALS 

The ink-print magazine, The Blind, ceased to exist, after 
being a faithful chronicle of the work of the blind for twenty- 
two years. 

PONTYPRIDD, SOUTH WALES 

Pontypridd and District Institution for the Blind started 
work at Llano ver Road as a branch of the Swansea and South 
Wales Institution for the Blind. 

SWANSEA 

A Hostel for Blind Men was opened at Carlton Terrace. 
(In 1930 there were 14 blind residents.) 

TUNBRIDGE WELLS 

A Hostel for Blind Men employed in the workshop was 
opened at 75 Calverley Road. 

(In 1930 there were 6 blind residents.) 

WILTSHIRE 

The Wiltshire County Association for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 571 blind persons on the register.) 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1920 

The Blind Persons 'Act, 1920, will long be remembered, 
as it made it the duty of the County Boroughs and County 
Councils to provide for the welfare of the blind, and extended 
the Old Age Pension to blind persons at fifty years of age in- 
stead of seventy. It also made it illegal for any appeals to be 
made for the blind excepting by a charity registered by its 
local County or County Borough, and contained a defini- 
tion of blindness narrower than the definition applied to the 



140 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1920 children under the Education Acts. In addition it placed on 

Local Education Authorities the duty of providing or other- 
wise securing the technical education of capable blind persons. 
This Act, with slight modifications, also applies to Scotland. 

BATLEY, YORKSHIRE 

Institution for the Blind of Dewsbury, Batley, and District 
appointed two home visitors. A basket workshop was estab- 
lished in Batley, with two pupils, and a register of blind persons 
was compiled. 

BEDFORDSHIRE 

The Bedfordshire County Association and the Bedford and 
District Society were both founded. In 1927 the work was 
divided between the North Bedfordshire County Association 
and the South Bedfordshire Society for the Welfare of the 
Blind. 

(In 1930 the former had 185 blind persons on its register, and 
the latter 225, including n home workers.) 

BOSTON , 

Boston Society was reorganized to include the town of 
Holland (Lines.) and became the Boston and Holland Blind 
Society. 

(In 1930 there were 139 blind persons on the register.) 

BRADFORD 

Mr. W. H. Tate, J.P., was appointed Chairman of the Blind 
Institution. (Since 1891 he had been a member of the com- 
mittee, and the Hon. Choir Master of the Institution from 
1880 onwards. He became a member. of the Advisory Com- 
mittee of the Ministry of Health in 1921, and of the Council 
of the National Institute for the Blind in 1927.) 

BRIGHTON 

Brighton Blind Relief and Visiting Society started a training 
centre for basket-making, chair-caning, etc., (In 1921 there 
were 13 workers ; in 1923 this training centre was closed.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 141 

BRISTOL 1920 

The Royal School of Industry undertook the work of agency 
for the Blind Persons Act Committee, and started a Home 
Industries Scheme in Bristol and adjacent counties. 

The Home for Blind Women at Clifton was taken over by 
the National Institute for the Blind. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE 

The Tyringham Club Blind Pension Fund was founded. It 
provides a pension of 5 175. 6d. a week to one blind person 
residing in north Buckinghamshire. 

CARDIGANSHIRE, SOUTH WALES 

The Cardiganshire Blind Association was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 172 blind persons on the register.) 

CENTRALIZATION OF COLLECTIONS 

A Conference was held at the Clothworkers' Hall (Mr. H. J. 
Wilson in the Chair), to consider the desirability of the cen- 
tralization and unification of all collections made on behalf of 
the blind. 

CHELTENHAM 

St. Dunstan's opened Suffolk Hall, Cheltenham (given by 
Mr. W. A. Bankier) as a Hostel for blinded soldiers. 

DEMONSTRATION 

Two hundred blind men marched from Manchester to 
London and held a demonstration in Trafalgar Square, calling 
on the Government to take steps to improve the general con- 
dition of the blind. 

ESSEX 

Essex County Association for the Blind was founded. (It 
ceased its activities in 1922, was re-formed in 1924, and recon- 
structed in 1928.) (See 1924.) 

GRIMSBY, LINCOLNSHIRE 

The Grimsby Society for the Blind was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 120 blind persons on the register.) 



142 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1920 GUERNSEY 

The Guernsey Association for the Education and Welfare 
of the Blind was founded. (In 1930 there was no institution 
for the blind on the Island, but the Association provided 
pensions of 12 each to eight blind persons, besides making 
sundry grants, and paying for the education of several blind 
persons in Schools and Workshops. Prevention of blindness 
was not overlooked, 143 cases being dealt with under this head.) 

IPSWICH 

Ipswich and Suffolk Institution altered its title to the 
Ipswich Society for the Blind. 

KENT 

The Kent County Association for the Blind was founded, for 
the registration and general assistance of the blind in the 
county of Kent. 

(In 1930 there were 1,453 blind persons on the register.) 

KESTEVEN, LINCOLNSHIRE 

The Kesteven Blind Society was founded. 

(In 1930 'there were 153 blind persons on the register.) 

LEICESTER 

The Leicester Institution was incorporated and became the 
Leicester (Leicestershire and Rutland) Incorporated Institu- 
tion for the Blind. Its activities included training, technical 
education, employment, home teaching, supervision of home 
workers, relief and registration. 

LINCOLN, LINCOLNSHIRE 

The Lincoln Blind Society was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 93 blind persons on the register.) 

The Lincolnshire Blind Association was dissolved. 

LIVERPOOL 

A Hostel was opened in Kelvin Grove for women working 
at the Cornwallis Street Workshops. 
(In 1930 there were 7 inmates.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 143 

LONDON 1920 

Barclay Workshops for Blind Women purchased the lease 
and rebuilt the neighbouring premises, i Little Durweston 
vStreet. 

A Hostel for Men and Boys was started by the London 
Association for the Blind, at Denmark Hill, S.E. 

Massage Library started by the National Institute for the 
Blind ; its first Librarian was Dr. J. Lloyd Johnstone, M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P. (a qualified blind masseur). 

Mr. Ben Purse (blind), was appointed Head of the After- 
care Department at the National Institute for the Blind. (An 
account of his interesting career appeared in The Beacon, 
August, 1925.) 

The first Reading Competition was held at the National 
Library for the Blind, for the prize founded by Mr. W. H. 
Dixson, in memory of Miss Ethel Winifred Austin, the first 
Librarian. 

Turner House, a Hostel for Blind Women, was started by 
the Church Army at St. George's Square, N.W. 
(In 1930 there were 31 inmates.) 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Royal Victoria School for the Blind purchased and equipped 
Benwell Grange as a training centre for young women, at a 
cost of about 12,000. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Royal Midland Institution opened a Hostel in Chaucer 
Street. 

(In 1930, 36 blind youths resided there.) 

OLDHAM 

The Blind Women's Industries was taken over by the Home 
Teaching Society. 

RHONDDA, SOUTH WALES 

The Rhondda Institution for the Blind was founded in 
Pontrhondda Road, Llwynypia, S. Wales, the usual trades 
being carried on in the workshops. 



144 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1920 (In 1930, 27 men and 8 women were employed in the work- 
shops, besides 7 men and 5 women under training.) 

ST. LEONARDS-ON-SEA 

Bannow, a beautiful house, standing in its own grounds, was 
given by the Dickens Fellowship, and opened by St. Dunstan's 
as a Hostel for Blinded Soldiers. 

SUFFOLK 

The West Suffolk Blind Association was dissolved. 

SUNBEAM MISSION 

The Sunbeam Mission was taken over by the Church Army, 
with the exception of the blind branch; the management of 
this branch was still retained by Miss Beatrice Taylor, the 
foundress, under the name of "The Letter-Friend Society for 
Blind Children " until 1926, when, owing to Miss Taylor's 
leaving Norwood, the Society ceased to exist.) 

WESTON-SUPER-MARE, SOMERSET 

Weston-super-Mare Blind Society was founded. 

(In 1930 this Society existed as a local committee only.) 

1921 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

The whole of the Education Acts previously passed were 
consolidated into a single statute. Since this date all references 
to statute are made to the 1921 Act. 

AMERICA 

The American Foundation for the Blind was established 
in New York City. It is a national organization whose purpose 
is to collect information, to promote legislation, and to assist 
in increasing the efficiency in work for the blind in all par- 
ticulars. 

BOLTON 

A Home for the Blind was started by the Blind Institution 
at Bolton. 

(In 1930 there were 14 inmates.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 145 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE 1921 

Cambridge Society was re-organized and became the Cam- 
bridgeshire Society for the Blind. 

CARDIFF 

The Cardiff Institution opened a Hostel f o? Blind Women, in 
Howard Gardens. 

(In 1930 there were 7 blind residents.) 

CHESTER 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Hayes presented Hoole Bank, Chester, to 
the National Institute for the Blind, and it was opened as a 
Home for blind persons, of gentle birth, in reduced circum- 
stances. (See 1928.) 

CHORLEY WOOD 

The National Institute for the Blind opened a College for 
the education of blind girls on public school lines, at the 
Cedars, Chorley Wood, Hertfordshire, a beautiful mansion 
presented by Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Batty. Miss Phyllis Monk, 
M.A., was appointed Principal. (An account of her career 
appeared in The Beacon, February, 1929. In 1930 the pupils 
numbered thirty-eight.) 

DARLINGTON 

A workshop was opened, with six workers, at Wood's Yard, 
Blackwellgate. 

(Apparently ceased to exist before 1930.) 

DOG GUIDES 

An article appeared in the Swiss Messenger of the Blind 
stating that dogs were being trained to lead the war-blinded 
German soldiers, and that the German sheep dog, the Dober- 
mann, and the Airedale terrier were particularly amenable 
to training, bitches more so than dogs. (See The Beacon, 
February, 1921.) 

DUBLIN 

The Rochfort Wade Hostel for Blind Women was opened in 
Blackball Street, Queen Street. 

(In 1930 there were 18 blind women in this Hostel.) 



146 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1921 DUBLIN 

The Irish Association for the Blind was founded by Mr. H. 
J. P. Neary with an office at 35 North Great George's Street. 

The Association has carried out much press propaganda 
and distribution of leaflets, and publishes The Blind Citizen, a 
quarterly magazint in Braille. The Association helps the blind 
in other ways, which are necessarily of a limited character. 
(No report or accounts are published.) 

EASTBOURNE 

The Eastbourne Society for the Social Welfare of the Blind 
was reconstructed. 

HALIFAX 

Halifax Society for the Blind opened a workshop at Gibbet 
Street. 

(In 1930 the workshops were at Shircoat Moor Road, Savile 
Park, Halifax, and a showroom at 13 Bull Green). (See 1887.) 

HARROGATE, YORKSHIRE 

Harrogate and District (including Ripon) Society for the 
Blind was founded. 

(In i93O*about 150 blind persons were benefited.) 

HASTINGS 

Hastings Voluntary Association was founded for the 
registration and general assistance of the blind in the county 
borough of Hastings. 

(In 1930 there were 183 blind persons on the register.) 

LEEDS 

The Leeds Incorporated Institution for the Blind and the 
Deaf and Dumb started a Home Workers' Scheme with 12 
blind workers. 

(In 1930 it had 29 blind home workers.) 

LONDON 

The London Association for the Blind moved from Rochester 
Row and Churton Street to large new premises in Warwick 
Street, Westminster. The Committee decided to name the 
building Rosedale House, after the Rev. H. G. Rosedale, 
D.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.I., their Hon. Treasurer, who had been 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 147 

chiefly responsible for the enormous development of the work. 1921 

(An account of Dr. Rosedale's career appeared in The Beacon, 
October, 1927.) 

The Barclay Workshops started a Technical Training 
Department. 

The Greater London Fund for the Blind was started by the 
National Institute for the Blind in conjunction with the work- 
shops for the blind in London, for collecting money within a 
radius of twenty miles of Charing Cross. The money was 
administered by a joint committee. (In 1927 the County 
and County Borough Associations were brought into the 
scheme.) 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
started a Home Workers' Scheme for the counties of Middlesex, 
Herts, Berks, Bucks, and London (north side of Thames). 

(In 1930 there were 230 home workers on the register.) 

The National Institute for the Blind started a Home-workers' 
Scheme in the counties of Sussex, Surrey, Kent, Hampshire, 
and London (south side of the Thames) with headquarters 
first at Redhill, and afterwards at Reigate. 

(In 1930 there were 260 home workers on the register.) 

The National Union of the Professional and Industrial Blind 
of Great Britain and Ireland was formed, with the object of 
regulating the relationship between employer and employee, 
protecting the interests of the blind, and giving greater facili- 
ties for their employment. Mr. R. D. Smith was elected 
President, and Mr. Ben Purse, Hon. Secretary (both blind). 

The blind world suffered a great loss by the retirement of 
Mr. Henry J. Wilson from the secretaryship of Gardner's 
Trust, a post he had held since its foundation in 1882. He had 
been responsible for numerous activities for the benefit of the 
blind. (An account of his career appeared in The Beacon, 
March, 1926.) 

MALDON, ESSEX 

The Middleton Holiday Home for the Blind was moved 
from Southend-on-Sea to Maldon. 



148 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1921 MANCHESTER 

Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society moved to better 
premises in Tonman Street. 

The name of Herishaw's Blind Asylum was changed to 
Henshaw's Institution for the Blind. 

Music 

Selected Works of British Blind Composers was published in 
ink-print by the National Institute for the Blind on the sug- 
gestion of Sir Arthur Pearson. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

The Newcastle and Gateshead Home Teaching Society for 
the Blind started a Home Workers' Scheme. 
(In 1930 it had 24 home workers.) 

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 

The Northamptonshire Association for the Blind was 
founded. 

(In 1930 there were 345 blind persons on the register of the 
county and 132 on the register of Northampton County 
Borough.) 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE 

The Nottinghamshire County Association for the Blind was 
founded. (See 1927.) 

PEARSON, SIR ARTHUR 

Death of Sir Arthur Pearson, Bart, (born 1866), President 
of the National Institute for the Blind and Chairman of St. 
Dunstan's ; in 1917 he was in the first list of those receiving 
the honour of Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire. 
(See The Braille Review, October, 1915, and The Beacon, 
January, 1922.) 

PEMBROKESHIRE 

The Pembrokeshire Blind Relief Society was reconstructed. 
REGISTER OF THE BLIND 

The Register of the Ministry of Health showed 34,894 blind 
persons (or i per 1,082) in England and Wales, 4,528 blind 
persons (or i per 1,078) in Scotland. 




(2155) 



SIR ARTHUR PEARSON, BART., G.B.E. 
(1866-1921) 

President of the National Institute for the Blind, Chairman of St. Dunstau's 
Hostel for Blinded Soldiers and Sailors 



148 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 149 

SHEFFIELD 1921 

By command of His Majesty the King, the Sheffield Blind 
Institution became the Royal Sheffield Institution for the 
Blind. 

SOUTHAMPTON 

Southampton Association for the Blind was reconstructed. 

SUSSEX 

East Sussex County Association and West Sussex County 
Association were founded for the registration and general 
assistance of the blind within their areas. 

(In 1930 the former had 381, and the latter 2j6 blind persons 
on their respective registers.) 

WEST HARTLEPOOL 

A workshop was opened in Church Street. (See 1923.) 

YORK 

Thomas Jackson Trust was founded ; it provides pensions of 
15 per annum to six blind women resident in Yorkshire. 

ABERDARE, SOUTH WALES 1922 

The Aberdare Blind Welfare Committee was established to 
work in conjunction with Merthyr and Pontypridd. It became 
an independent Committee in 1925. 

(In 1930 there were 113 blind persons on its register.) 

BERKSHIRE 

The Berkshire County Blind Society was reconstructed, 
with its head office at Reading, and sub-committees for 
Newbury, Windsor, Maidenhead, and Wokingham. 

BRIGHTON 

Barclay Home and School moved its workshops to larger 
premises at 31 Wellington Road. 

BURY, LANCASHIRE 

The Bury Society for the Blind was founded. (In 1930 
there were 100 blind persons on the register.) 
ii (2155) 



15o CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1922 CARMARTHENSHIRE 

Carmarthenshire Blind Relief Society was reconstructed. 

HAMPSHIRE 

The Hampshire Association for the Care of the Blind was 
founded for the registration and general assistance' of the 
blind in the county. 

(In 1930 there were 553 blind persons on the register.) 

HUNTINGDONSHIRE 

The Huntingdonshire Society for the Blind was founded. 
(In 1930 there were 104 blind persons on the register.) 

LINDSEY, LINCOLNSHIRE 

The Lindsey Society for the Blind was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 262 blind persons on the register.) 

LONDON 

The Blind Employment Factory, Waterloo Road, S.E., was 
enlarged to take 140 workers. 

"Eyes to the Blind Society" amalgamated with the Barclay 
Workshops. 

The investments belonging to the Society became the 
nucleus of the Eyes to the Blind Pension Fund which was then 
established by the Barclay Workshops Committee. 

(The annual income of the Fund in 1930 amounted to 
171 los.) 

Sir Robert Jones Bart., K.B.E., C.B., F.R.C.S., etc., was 
elected President of the Association of Certificated Blind 
Masseurs. 

London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind and 
West London Workshops amalgamated. 

Mr. Godfrey F. Mowatt, J.P. (blind), was appointed 
Treasurer of the National Institute for the Blind, Chairman 
of its Standing Committee, and a member of the Central 
Council for the London Blind. (An account of his career 
appeared in The Beacon, February, 1925.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 151 

St. Dunstan's decided to separate from the National Insti- 1922 

tute for the Blind and carry on, independently, its work for 
soldiers and sailors blinded in the War. 

LUTON, BEDFORDSHIRE 

The Luton and District Committee started a workshop and 
training centre at Williamson Street, Luton. 

(In 1930 this workshop, belonging to the then South 
Bedfordshire Society for the Welfare of the Blind, had n 
blind workers.) 

MIDDLESEX 

The Middlesex Association for the Blind was formed, but 
not fully established till 1924. 

(In 1930 there were 1,371 blind persons on the register.) 

Music 

After many years of unremitting research and exhaustive 
experiment, the National Institute for the Blind announced 
that the music notation system had been perfected, and that it 
was possible to transcribe any music, however complicated, 
into Braille. 

NORWICH 

Norwich Asylum and School changed its name to the 
Norwich Institution for the Blind. 

PERIODICALS 

The Horizon, a monthly magazine in Braille type, on matters 
affecting the life and labour of sightless workers, was published 
by the National League of the Blind of England. 

The first weekly newspaper in Moon type, The Moon, was 
produced by the Moon Society, Brighton. 

PORTSMOUTH 

The Portsmouth Voluntary Association for the Blind was 
founded. 

(In 1930 there were 500 blind persons on the register.) 



152 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1922 ST. HELENS 

St. Helens and District Blind Society opened small work- 
shops. 

(In 1930, 1 6 blind persons were employed in the work- 
shops.) 

SHROPSHIRE 

The Shropshire Association for the Blind was founded, and 
took over the work of the Home Teaching Society, founded in 
1908. 

(In 1930 there were 316 blind persons on the register of the 
Association.) 

SOUTHEND-ON-SEA 

Southend-on-Sea Voluntary Care Committee was formed for 
the registration and general assistance of the blind in the 
county borough of Southend. 

(In 1930 there were 136 blind persons on the register.) 

SOUTH SHIELDS, DURHAM 

South Shields Institution for the Blind, 11-17 Keppel 
Street, was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 220 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 12 employed in the workshops and 8 trainees.) 

SURREY 

The Surrey Voluntary Blind Association was founded for 
the registration and general assistance of the blind in the 
county. 

(In 1930 there were 717 blind persons on the register.) 

TYNEMOUTH 

Tynemouth Social Committee for the Blind was formed by 
Mr. M. Pearey, whose son was blinded in the Great War. (See 
1924.) 

1923 BARROW-IN-FURNESS, LANCASHIRE 

Barrow and District Society for the Blind, Duke Street, was 
founded, for the care of the blind in North Lancashire and the 
south part of the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, 
although some organized work had been carried on since 1906. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 153 

(In 1930 there were 273 blind persons on the register, in- 1923 

eluding 17 home workers and 15 otherwise employed.) 

BOURNEMOUTH 

The Bournemouth and District Blind Aid Society was 
reorganized, and became the Bournemouth Blind Aid Society. 

BRIGHTON 

The Brighton Blind Relief and Visiting Society changed its 
name to the Brighton Society for the Welfare of the Blind, and 
closed its training centre. 

CENTRALIZATION OF COLLECTIONS 

Mr. P. M. Evans, Chairman of the Union of Counties 
Associations for the Blind, together with a number of prom- 
inent workers among the blind, drew up a scheme whereby 
there would be a new agency for collecting money for the 
whole of the blind Institutions and Societies in England and 
Wales. An agreed sum would be set aside for national pur- 
poses, and each county area would have to supply its quota 
for the "National Share" in proportion to the population of 
that area; the remaining portion, probably 70 per cent to 
80 per cent, would be distributed amongst local institutions and 
societies. 

The scheme, after many meetings and much discussion, was 
abandoned. (See 1926.) 

CHELTENHAM 

The Cheltenham and Gloucestershire Society for the Blind 
changed its name to the Cheltenham Workshops for the Blind. 

CROYDON 

The Croydon Voluntary Association for the Blind was 
formed started as a separate body in 1925. 

(In 1930 there were 319 blind persons on the register.) 

EAST HAM, ESSEX 

East Ham Welfare Association for the Blind was formed for 
the registration and general assistance of the blind in the 
County Borough of East Ham. 

(In 1930 there were 172 blind persons on the register.) 



154 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1923 EDINBURGH 

The Royal Blind Asylum built additional classrooms for 
technical training, at a cost of 3,500. 

GLAMORGAN, SOUTH WALES 

The Glamorgan Blind Association was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 1,400 blind persons on the register.) 

ISLE OF ELY, CAMBRIDGESHIRE 

Isle of Ely Society for the Blind was founded. 

(In 1930 there were 66 blind persons on the register.) 

LEEDS 

Leeds City Council purchased Chapeltown Barracks Estate 
for purposes connected with the welfare of the blind. 

LEICESTER 

Leicester Institution opened additional premises, Mr. 
Arthur Wakerley having given an acre of land on which to 
build. 

LONDON 

Barclay Workshops for Blind Women purchased the lease 
of the neighbouring premises, No. 20 Crawford Street, and all 
the "Eyes to the Blind " workers moved there and ceased to 
work under the latter name. 

The Ex-Service Men's Fund was started by Captain E. B. B. 
Towse, V.C., under the auspices of the National Institute for 
the Blind, for the training and after-care of men who are 
blind or may become blind on returning to civilian life after 
discharge from H. M. Forces, and for the blind dependants of 
serving and ex-Service men. The Board of Admiralty, the 
Army Council, and the Air Council, and many units of H.M. 
Forces have given this fund their support. (This Fund is only 
for men ineligible for help from St. Dunstans.) 

Death of Mrs. Hepburn Starey, aged eighty-two, founder of 
the Society named after her; for over fifty years she was its 
Hon. Secretary. 

Captain E. B. B. Towse, V.C., C.B.E., was appointed 
Chairman of the National Institute for the Blind in place of 
Sir Washington Ranger, D.C.L., M.A., resigned. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 155 

(An account of Captain Towse's career appeared in The 1923 

Beacon, July, 1924.) 

Mr. H. Michael Whitfield, B.A. (Lond.), C.S.M.M.G. (blind), 
elected Chairman of the Council of the Association of Certifi- 
cated Blind Masseurs. 

MALDON 

On the death of Miss Gallagher, the Indigent Blind Visiting 
Society took over the Middleton Holiday Home for the Blind, 
a combined permanent home for blind women and Holiday 
Home for blind men and women. 

(In 1930 there was accommodation for forty-three blind 
persons.) 

MERTHYR TYDFIL, SOUTH WALES 

The Merthyr Tydfil Institution for the Blind was founded ; 
men were employed in basket-making and mat-making at the 
workshops in New Road, Dowlais, South Wales. 

(In 1930 there were 210 blind persons on the register, and 
3 home teachers were employed.) 

NATIONAL UNION OF THE PROFESSIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL 
BLIND 

Mr. W. H. Dixson was elected President of the National Union 
of the Professional and Industrial Blind. (In 1899 he had 
been appointed lecturer in Political Science at Ruskin Hall.) 

OLDHAM 

Oldham Home Teaching Society's area was extended to 
include the districts of Middleton, Chadderton, Bardsley, Lees, 
and Shaw ; there were 269 blind on the register, and a third 

home teacher was appointed. 

* 

PEARSON, SIR ARTHUR (THE LATE) 

The Arthur Pearson Memorial Fund, inaugurated in 1921, 
was closed, after raising 28,738 (net). Two and a half per cent 
was given to Pearson's Fresh Air Fund, and of the balance one- 
third to the National Institute for the Blind, one-third to 
St. Dunstan's, and the remainder to other charities for the 
blind in Great Britain and the Colonies. 



156 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1923 PERIODICALS 

The Tribune, a monthly magazine in Braille, was published 
by the National Union of Professional and Industrial Blind of 
Great Britain and Ireland (Editor, Mr. Ben Purse). The 
object of the magazine was to improve the social and industrial 

conditions of the blind. 

n 

PRESTON 

Preston Institution opened the Roper Hostel for the Blind, at 
Fulwood, designed to accommodate twelve blind men and 
twelve blind women. 

(In 1930 the Hostel was occupied by ten men and nine 
women.) 

ST. JOHN'S GUILD 

St. John's Guild for the Blind was founded by the Rev. C. 
F. Waudby, "to bring the light and fellowship of the Catholic 
Faith into the lives of the blind." 

(In 1930 devotional books were sent out from its library, 
a Braille magazine was published, and besides the London 
branch, there were branches at Birmingham, Bristol, York- 
shire, Leigh-on-Sea, Bournemouth, Sunderland, Nottingham, 
St. Albans,, Watford, and Wednesbury, and a Guest House for 
blind ladies was being maintained at St. Albans.) 

SOUTHPORT 

The National Institute for the Blind opened its second 
Sunshine Home for Blind Babies, at Southport, Lanes. 

SOUTH SHIELDS 

South Shields Institution opened a workshop in Keppel 
Street. 

SUFFOLK 
East Suffolk Association and Ipswich Society amalgamated. 

WARRINGTON, LANCASHIRE 

The Warrington, Widnes, and District Society for the Blind 
was established, with workshops at Museum Street,Warrington. 

(In 1930, 15 blind persons were employed in the workshops; 
18 were being trained ; there were 281 on the register, and 3 
home teachers.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 157 

WEST HAM 1923 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
opened a branch workshop at Pelly Road. 
(In 1930 it employed 24 blind workers.) 

WEST HARTLEPOOL 

The Hartlepools Workshops for the Blind opened new 
workshops in Avenue Road, West Hartlepool, built at a cost 
of about 3,000. 

(In 1929 there were 82 blind persons on the register, 16 of 
whom were employed in the workshops and 4 under training ; 
there was one blind home teacher.) 

BARROW-IN-FURNESS 1924 

Barrow and District Society for the Blind undertook the 
Home Teaching services for the blind south of the river Esk, 
thus allowing the Cumberland Institution, Carlisle, to improve 
its services for the blind in its reduced area. 

BOSTON, LINCOLNSHIRE 

Sunniholm, a Home and Hostel for Blind Women, was 
opened at Boston. (In 1930 there were 7 permanent and 7 
temporary residents.) 

BRADFORD 

Bradford Institution erected magnificent new premises for 
men's workshops at Frizinghall, at a cost of 45,000, and also 
commenced a Home Workers' Scheme. 

CROYDON 

The Lansdowne Social Club, 23 Wellesley Road, was 
founded by the Croydon Voluntary Association for the Blind, 
with the object of providing a meeting-place and suitable 
recreation for the blind. 

DARLINGTON 

The Darlington Society for the Blind was founded, super- 
seding the Society established in 1908. 

(In 1930 there were 124 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 5 home workers, and 8 otherwise employed.) 



158 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1924 ESSEX 

The Essex Voluntary Association for the Blind was started 
again for the registration and general assistance of the blind 
in the county of Essex. 

(In 1930 there were 1,061 blind persons on the register.) 
(See 1928.) 

IPSWICH 

A Workshop for the Blind was opened by the Ipswich Blind 
Society. 

(In 1930, five blind persons were employed at the workshops, 
and 4 at home.) 

LEAMINGTON, WARWICKSHIRE 

The National Institute for the Blind opened its third 
Sunshine Home for Blind Babies, at Leamington. 

LONDON 

The London Association for the Blind started the manu- 
facture of stair-rods and knitting-needles as an industry for the 
blind. 

(In 1930, ii blind men were employed making knitting- 
needles, 9 as paid workers, and 2 as pupils. The manufacture 
of stair-rods had been discontinued.) 

MANCHESTER 

Manchester and Salford Blind Aid Society opened an 
additional house in Eccles Old Road, Pendleton, to accommo- 
date twenty blind women. 

MAT-MAKING 

Messrs. E. M. Downs & Son, Glemsford, produced a new 
form of mat loom specially useful for blind home workers. 

MERIVALE, Miss JUDITH 

Miss J. A. Merivale was appointed Chairman of the Midland 
Counties Association for the Blind ; she was the Association's 
first Hon. Secretary in 1908. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 159 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 1924 

The Newcastle and Gateshead Home Teaching Society 
opened a shop for home workers' goods in Pilgrim Street. 

NORTH SHIELDS 

The Northern Counties Blind Society, 4-16 Howard Street, 
North Shields, ceased to exist after over fifty years' work, 
the whole time under the management of Mr. H. von 
Niederhausern. 

STOURBRIDGE 

Stourbridge Institution opened a retail shop in Market 
Street. 

STRATFORD, ESSEX 

The London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind 
opened a branch workshop in Naples Street. 
(In 1930 it employed 15 blind persons.) 

TYNEMOUTH 

Tynemouth Social Committee for the Blind and the Northern 
Counties Blind Society, together with the Borough of Tyne- 
mouth Blind Persons Act Committee, formed a n$w Society, 
known as the Tynemouth Blind Welfare Society and Northern 
Counties Library, Howard Street, North Shields. 

(In 1930 there were 90 blind persons on the register, in- 
cluding 14 employed in the workshops and 4 trainees. The 
monthly magazine Dawn was being published, and the Free 
Lending Library contained 7,000 volumes for some 220 readers 
in Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland, and the North 
Riding of Yorkshire.) 

WAKEFIELD. 

The Child Memorial Home for the Blind, Sunny Lawns 
House, Sandy Walk, was founded by Miss Elizabeth Child, 
who gave the Home in memory of her brother, Thomas 
Child. The Home was opened two years later. 

(In 1930 there were 20 inmates, n men and 9 women.) 

BLACKPOOL, LANCASHIRE 1925 

Blackpool and Fylde Society for the Blind was formed. 
(In 1930 there were 275 blind persons on the register.) 



160 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1925 BRISTOL 

Bristol Institution started a Social Club for the unemploy- 
able blind of both sexes. 

(In 1930 there was a daily average attendance of seventy- 
five to eighty persons.) 

CARLISLE 

Cumberland and Westmorland Home and Workshops for 
the Blind started a Home Workers' Scheme. 
(In 1930 it had 10 home workers.) 

CROYDON 

Croydon Voluntary Association for the Blind, formed in 
1923, started registration and general assistance of the blind 
within the county borough of Croydon. 

DOG GUIDES 
Extract from the Westminster Gazette 

With characteristic thoroughness the Germans are now granting 
"degrees" to dogs that have qualified as blind men's leaders. 
The central training school for these animals, all of which are 
Alsatians, is at Potsdam. 

LIVERPOOL 

The Catholic Blind Asylum added a further twenty-five 
acres to St. Vincent's School, West Derby. 

LONDON 

Barclay Workshops purchased the lease of 19 Crawford 
Street and entirely rebuilt this property shortly afterwards. 

London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind opened 
a factory for Women's Industries at Belsize Crescent, Hamp- 
stead, and a Hostel for senior blind pupils at Belsize Park 
Gardens. 

Mr. H. C. Preece (blind), elected President of the National 
Union of the Professional and Industrial Blind. (An account 
of his career appeared in The Beacon, May, 1926.) 

The blind suffered a great loss in the death of Henry 
Stainsby (born 1859), Secretary-General of the National 
Institute for the Blind, and a great benefactor to the blind 




X ^ 
O ^ 



S 5; 

< <* 




WORK FOR THE BLIND 161 

through his invention of apparatus, and great knowledge of 1925 

the requirements of the blind. 

(An account of his very busy life appeared in The Beacon, 
February, 1926.) 

MIDDLESBROUGH 

Cleveland and South Durham Institute lor the Blind built 
new workshops, providing accommodation for 100 workers 
and twenty trainees, at Middlesbrough, at a cost of 12,000, 
including land and equipment. 

MINISTRY OF HEALTH 

Miss Winifred Bramhall was appointed Inspector on the 
Blind Department Staff of the Ministry of Health, and gave up 
her post of Secretary of the Northern Counties Association, 
and her membership of the Ministry of Health Advisory 
Committee. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE 

Royal Victoria School purchased and equipped Benwell 
Cottage at a cost of about 12,000, as a hostel and training 
centre for young men, and others, who had lost their sight late 
in life. ., 

PERIODICALS 

The Seeker, a quarterly magazine in Braille, devoted to 
Christian mysticism and comparative religion, was started 
by the Margaret Dudley Braille Lodge of the Theosophical 
Society. 

READING, BERKSHIRE 

Owing to the death of Miss Burnett, Mr. Hugh Walford 
decided to discontinue the Reading Blind Aid Society. The 
Reading Association for the Welfare of the Blind was then 
formed. 

(In 1930 there were 158 blind persons on the register.) 

REIGATE, SURREY 

The Braille and Servers of the Blind League opened the 
Ellen Terry National Home for Blind Mentally Defective 
Children, at Reigate, named after their first President. 

(In 1930 the Home was full, with 18 blind children.) 



162 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1925 ST. LEONARDS-ON-SEA 

The National Institute for the Blind opened a Convalescent 
and Holiday Home, Bannow, at Quarry Hill, with accommoda- 
tion for fifty men and women. (This building was previously 
used by St. Dunstan's.) 

1926 ACT OF PARLIAMENT 

Wireless licences were granted free of charge to blind 
persons. 

BURNLEY 

The Burnley and District Society for the Blind received a 
bequest of 2,385 from the late Thomas Clayton, and opened 
the Thomas Clayton Memorial Workshops for the Blind, which 
they handed over to the Burnley Corporation. 

CENTRALIZATION OF COLLECTIONS 

A scheme for the centralization of collections, drawn up by 
Mr. G. H. Roberts, Chairman of the Advisory Committee of the 
Ministry of Health, Dr. P. M. Evans, and Sir Michael O'Dwyer, 
Vice-Chairman of the National Institute for the Blind, and 
approved by the Advisory Committee, was agreed to by the 
National Institute. 

The scheme provided for enlarging the Council of the 
National Institute by electing additional representatives of 
local agencies throughout the country, and provided that 
agreements, where possible, be entered into in each area, 
deciding in each case whether the local society or the National 
Institute should be the collecting agent; the money thus 
collected to be distributed in agreed proportions. 

See the Sixth Report of the Ministry of Health Advisory 
Committee, Pars. 50 and 51. 

(In 1930 the number of local societies that had entered into 
agreements on the above lines was 89.) 

CORNWALL 

The Cornwall Home Teaching Society, now seventy years 
old, became the Cornwall County Association for the Blind. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 163 

DOG GUIDES 1926 

Mrs. D. Harrison Eustis started a school at Vevey in 

Switzerland for training dogs to lead blind men. 
(See The Beacon, September, 1929.) 

LEATHERHEAD 

Death of the Rev. James Wm. St. Clare Hill, F.R.A.S., 
F.C.T.B., for thirty-four years Principal of the Royal School 
for the Blind, Leatherhead. (An account of his life appeared 
in The Beacon, July, 1926.) 

The Rev. E. H. Griffiths, R.N., was appointed as his 
successor. 

LONDON 

The Charity Commissioners prepared a scheme, handing 
over the administration of the National Blind Relief Society to 
the Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties Association for the 
Blind. The income at this date was about 150 from endow- 
ment, and 800 from subscriptions and donations. 

(In 1930 the income from endowments had increased to 
over 1,000, subscriptions and donations amounted to about 
500, while the number of pensioners was 130.) 

Sir Alexander Diack, K.C.I.E., C.V.O., C.B.E., was ap- 
pointed Secretary-General of the National Institute for the 
Blind. (See The Beacon, July, 1928, August, 1929.) 

The National Library for the Blind bought adjoining pre- 
mises in Great Smith Street, and carried out a big extension. 

The Henry Stainsby Memorial Gift Fund for the Blind, 
administered by the National Institute for the Blind, was 
founded. The income, about 63, provides gifts to pupils of 
recognized Institutions and Colleges for the blind on comple- 
tion of their training. The gifts take the form of Braille 
writers, watches, ancl other useful appliances, suitably 
inscribed. 

MARKS TEY, ESSEX 

The London Association for the Blind started tile-making 
and brick-making at Marks Tey, as an industry for the blind. 

(In 1930 two blind men were employed making tiles at 
Marks Tey and two in brickfields at Dorking.) 



164 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY 'OF 

1926 MINISTRY OF HEALTH 

The Ministry of Health issued revised regulations regarding 
the definition of blindness. (Circular No. 68 1.) 

Mr. E. D. Macgregor relinquished his post as head of the 
Blind Department at the Ministry of Health. He was the 
first person to fill that post, and was previously secretary to the 
Local Government Board Advisory Committee on the Welfare 
of the Blind. In both positions he did invaluable work. 

Mr. F. R. Lovett was appointed to succeed him. 

Mr. W. H. Bennett was appointed an Inspector in the Blind 
Department of the Ministry of Health, in place of Mr. M. 
Priestley, who succeeded Mr. Bennett as Secretary and 
Manager of the Royal Institution, Nottingham. 

NEWPORT 

Newport and Monmouthshire Blind Aid Society moved its 
workshops to the present address, 199 Chepstow Road, New- 
port. The Swinnerton Memorial Home was opened in the 
same building, and named after the former President and 
Treasurer, the Rev. James Swinnerton. 

NORTHAMPTON 

Northampton and Northamptonshire Associations amal- 
gamated, forming the Northamptonshire (Town and County) 
Association for the Blind. 

NOTTINGHAM 

The Royal Midland Institution opened another Hostel. 
(In 1930, 20 blind men resided there.) 

POSTAGE RATE 

A reduction was made in postage rates for embossed litera- 
ture, making it possible to send 2 Ib. (instead of i Ib.) for |d., 
etc. This was of great value for the furtherance of literary 
study in schools for the blind, and very greatly increased the 
value of the National Library. 

SOUTH SHIELDS 

South Shields Institution acquired adjoining property and 
extended their workshops for mats, baskets, ships' fenders, 
bedding, etc., with suitable sale-shop and offices. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 165 

BEDFORDSHIRE 1927 

The Bedfordshire and District Blind Society was reorganized 
and named the North Bedfordshire Blind Society. 

The Luton and District Committee became the South 
Bedfordshire Blind Society. 

BRIGHTON 

Death of the Hon. Mrs. Campion, founder and for twenty- 
five years Chairman of the Barclay Home for Blind Girls, 
Brighton. (An account of her life appeared in The Beacon, 
February, 1928.) 

CHELTENHAM 

The Cheltenham Workshops for the Blind were taken over 
by the Gloucestershire County Association for the Blind, a 
body appointed by the County Council. 

LEEDS 

Leeds Blind Persons Act Committee assumed financial 
responsibility for the relief of all necessitous blind persons, but 
continued to work in conjunction with the Blind Institution. 

Leeds Blind Institution opened a Technical Trailing School 
for sixty blind students. 

LONDON 

The Association for the General Welfare of the Blind opened 
large additional workshops off the Euston Road, to accom- 
modate about 100 workers and pupils. 

The Braille and Servers of the Blind League separated the 
Braille portion of its work, and altered its name to the 
Servers of the Blind League. 

Death of Sir R. Ellis Cunliffe, M.A., Chairman of the London 
Society for Teaching and Training the Blind and for nearly 
forty years a leader of voluntary work amongst the blind. 
(An account of his life appeared in The Beacon, February, 
1927.) 

The Greater London Fund extended the scope of its work 
and was registered as a separate charity, administered by 
representatives of the National Institute for the Blind, 

12 (2155) 



166 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1927 National Library, the London workshops, and county and 

county borough associations within twenty miles of Charing 
Cross. 

The Harry Weedon Memorial Fund was inaugurated by the 
Greater London Fund for the Blind in compliance with the 
wishes of the Printing and Kindred Trades Blind Aid Com- 
mittee, to perpetuate the memory of Mr. Harry Weedon, its 
late Secretary, who was to a large extent the founder of the 
Blind Aid Committee. The purpose of the fund is the relief 
of blind printers and other persons reported from time to 
time by the Blind Aid Committee to the administrators of 
the Greater London Fund. The Committee has been a generous 
supporter of the Greater London Fund since 1922. 

The National Institute for the Blind opened a Hostel for 
seven blind women at 8 Oval Road, N.W. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Institution carried out large extensions to their 
premises, Hayesleigh. 

Music t 

A complete exposition of modern Braille Music Notation 
(1922 revision) entitled Key to the Braille Music Notation, 
1922, was published in Braille by the National Institute for 
the Blind, and in ink-print by Messrs. Novello & Co. 

NEWCASTLE- UPON-TYNE 

Royal Victoria School added a wing at a cost of about 
8,000, increasing the dormitory accommodation by 28 beds 
to a total of 145 ; play hall, reading room, etc., were also pro- 
vided. 



NORTHAMPTON 
Northampton Association Workshops were greatly enlarged. 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE 

Nottinghamshire County Association was dissolved, and the 
work taken over by the Royal Midland Institution,Nottingham. 





1 



ill 




WORK FOR THE BLIND 167 

PERIODICALS 1927 

The Braille Radio Times, the first wireless journal in the 
world for the blind, published weekly, was produced by the 
National Institute for the Blind. 

PONTYPRIDD 

Pontypridd and District Institution for the Blind was 
recognized by the Ministry of Health as a separate and inde- 
pendent body. 

(In 1930 there were 165 blind persons on the register; 31 
were employed in the workshops, 3 were otherwise employed, 
and there were 19 trainees.) 

REGISTRATION 

A uniform system of registration was adopted throughout 
England and Wales to determine the " actual " and "ordinary " 
residence of blind persons for registration purposes. 

SHEFFIELD 

Sheffield Corporation took over the workshop, sale-shop, 
home visiting, and the care of the unemployable blind. The 
work of the Sheffield Institution has since then been confined 
to the school, to social welfare work, and the Overend Cottage 
Homes, Selborne Road. 

SWANSEA 

Swansea Institution opened a Hostel and Workshop for 
blind women at Pentrcpoeth Road, Morriston, Swansea. 
(In 1930 the Hostel had 17 blind residents.) 

TAYLOR, H. MARTYN ' 

Death of Henry Martyn Taylor, J.P., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
F.C.T.B. (born 1842), the blind man who founded the Embossed 
Scientific Books Fund. He was an important member of the 
Braille Committee, invented useful apparatus for the education 
of the blind, and was a member of the Council of the British 
and Foreign Blind Association. (An account of his life ap- 
peared in The Beacon, July, 1927.) 



168 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY 'OF 

1927 TOWSE, SIR BEACHCROFT 

Captain E. B. B. Towse, V.C., C.B.E., was made a K.C.V.O. 
by H.M the King in recognition of his valuable services to the 
blind and to ex-service men. 

1928 ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

The Rt, Hon. Lord Blanesburgh, G.B.E>, was appointed 
Chairman of the Advisory Committee on the Welfare of the 
Blind, in place of the Rt. Hon. G. H. Roberts, deceased. 

BRECONSHIRE, SOUTH WALES 

The Breconshire Association for the Blind, established a few 
years previously, ceased to exist. 

(In 1930 there were 91 blind persons on the register 
being looked after by the South Wales and Monmouthshire 
Counties Association for the Blind.) 

BRIGHTON 

The Barclay Home for Blind Girls purchased the freehold 
property, 22 East Street, and opened a showroom there. 

CHESTER 

The National Institute for the Blind closed its Home for the 
Blind at Hoole Bank, Chester, and moved the male inmates 
to its Home at St. Leonards and the females to a new Home at 
Leamington, which was presented to the Institute by Mr. 
J. G. Wilson of Durham. 

(In 1930 the future use of Hoole Bank was still undecided.) 

CHORLEY WOOD 

The Sunshine Home for Blind Babies, Chorley Wood, was 
burnt down on 3oth September. As a result of an appeal by 
Sir Beachcroft Towse in the Press, Court Grange, Abbots- 
kerswell, a beautiful house in S. Devon, was promptly given 
to the National Institute for the Blind by the Rev. A. T. 
Dence. On 25th October the babies were moved there. 

(In December, 1930, the babies were moved to Sunshine 
Home, East Grinstead, and the future use of the Abbots- 
kerswell House was undecided.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 169 

ESSEX 1928 

The Essex Voluntary Association was re-formed and 
became the Essex County Association for the Blind. 

GLASGOW 

The Scottish National Institution for Blinded Sailors and 
Soldiers, Edinburgh, opened a branch workshop at 2 Queen's 
Street, Glasgow. 

(In 1930, 20 blind ex-service men were employed there.) 

LEEDS 

Large new buildings were provided by the City Council in 
Roundhay Road to accommodate 200 blind men and women 
workers and 60 trainees. The cost of the whole scheme, 
including site, buildings, and equipment was 45,000. 

LONDON 

Captain Sir Beachcroft Towse, V.C., K.C.V.O., C.B.E., 
broadcast an appeal from the B.B.C. Wireless Studio, on 
behalf of the Greater London Fund for the Blind, resulting in 
donations amounting to 3,143. 

Mr. W. McG. Eagar was appointed Secretary-General of the 
National Institute for the Blind in place of Sir Alexander 
Diack, who resigned through ill-health. (An account of Mr. 
Eagar 's career appeared in The Beacon, June, 1928.) 

The Macgregor Prize Fund, of which the Clothworkers' 
Company are the Trustees, was founded. It provides an 
annual prize of 4 45. to a blind or sighted home-teacher on the 
result of a competitive examination. 

The National Institute for the Blind opened a Hostel at 
9 Oval Road, N.W., for twelve blind women. 

Death of Rev. H. G. Rosedale, M.A., D.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., 
age sixty-five ; he was largely responsible for the great growth 
of the London Association for the Blind and for many of its 
activities. Captain G. Pollard, O.B.E., the Secretary of the 
Association, who for some years past had been jointly respon- 
sible with Dr. Rosedale for planning many of the improv^- 
ments, continued to carry on the work. 



170 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1928 LOWE, ARTHUR L. 

Death of Mr. A. L. Lowe, M.A., LL.B., C.B.E., F.C.T.B. 

(age sixty-six), for many years chairman of the Birmingham 
Institution and the Midland Counties Association for the 
Blind and a member of the Central Advisory Committee on 
the Welfare of tl} Blind. (An account of his life appeared 
in The Beacon, September, 1924.) 

PONTYPRIDD 

Pontypridd and District Institution for the Blind acquired 
new premises, Holly House, Merthyr Road, thanks to a grant 
of 2,500 from the Miners' Welfare Fund. 

REIGATE 

The National Institute for the Blind moved the head- 
quarters of its Home Industries Department from Redhill 
to Reigate and opened a showroom there. 

RITCHIE, DR. J. M. 

Edinburgh University conferred the Degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy upon Mr. J. M. Ritchie, M.A., F.C.T.B., Secretary 
of the London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind, for 
his thesis The History of the Education of the Blind. 

ST. ALBANS, HERTFORDSHIRE 

St. John's Guild for the Blind took over the management of 
St. Raphael's Guest House for Blind Ladies, at Blenheim Road, 
St. Albans, at the request of the Foundress, Sister Mary 
Elizabeth, S.S.J.D. 

(In 1930 it had six permanent blind residents, and beds 
were kept for temporary guests, of whom there were twenty- 
six during the year.) 

TYNEMOUTH 
Tynemouth Welfare Society rebuilt its workshops. 

WEST HAM, ESSEX 

West Ham Association for the Blind was founded for the 
registration and general assistance of the blind in the county 
borough of West Ham. 

(In 1930 there were 389 blind persons on the register.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 171 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT 1929 

The Local Government Act, 1929, effected changes in the 
Welfare of the Blind Grant System, whereby voluntary 
agencies, after ist April, 1930, should receive from the County 
or County Borough Councils the financial assistance hitherto 
received direct from the Ministry of Health 

The Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1929, made similar 
provisions, but for the purpose of the Blind Persons Act, the 
County of Kinross was combined with the County of Perth, 
and the County of Nairn with the County of Moray. 

BIRMINGHAM 

Birmingham Institution for the Blind opened a Home for 
blind women at Gravelly Hill, North Erdington, named 
Cowley Home, in memory of its late General Superintendent 
and Secretary, Mr. R. G. Cowley. 

(In 1930 there were 17 blind residents.) 

CONGRESS 

An International Congress in Vienna was organized by Dr. 
C. Strehl of Marburg-Lahn, attended by representatives of 
Institutions and Societies for the blind from abcjut twenty 
nations. 

EDINBURGH 

The Royal Blind Asylum opened the Thomas Burns Home 
for Blind Women, to accommodate forty inmates, at Alfred 
Place, May field Terrace. 

(In 1930 it had 39 blind inmates.) 

EFFINGHAM, SURREY 

The Royal School for the Blind, Leatherhead, opened a 
Home for blind womtfn at Effingham. (In 1930 it had 47 
blind inmates.) 

GLAMORGAN 

Glamorgan County Council Institution for the Blind was 
founded. 

(In 1930 there were 90 blind pupils 82 elementary and 
eight technical ; two Hostels were planned lor the near future.) 



172 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1929 LEAGUE OF NATIONS REPORT 

A Report on the Welfare of the Blind in various countries 
was compiled by the Health Section of the League of Nations ; 
Mr. F. R. Lovett of the Ministry of Health, London, and Mr. 
G. Hawley of the Department of Health for Scotland were 
responsible for th<^ major part of this work. 

LONDON 

The Association of Workshops for the Blind was formed 
to promote the co-operation of the workshops throughout the 
country and to help in joint marketing, etc. Dr. J. M. Ritchie, 
M.A., was appointed its first Chairman, and Captain H. 
Willans, D.S.O., M.C. (Secretary of the Association for the 
General Welfare of the Blind, London), its Hon. Secretary. 

The Metropolitan Society for the Blind was registered as a 
separate Society, but remained affiliated with the Metropolitan 
and Adjacent Counties Association for the Blind. 

(In 1930 there were 6,268 blind persons on the register in 
the County of London, and 15 in the City of London.) 

The Workshop for the Blind of Kent opened an additional 
workshop e in London Road, Greenwich, to accommodate 
twenty workers. 

MANCHESTER 

Henshaw's Institution started furniture-making as an 
additional industry for its blind workers. 

MERTHYR TYDFIL 

The Merthyr Tydfil Institution started a Machine Knitting 
Department and Salesroom at 33 High Street. 

MINISTRY OF HEALTH 

The Ministry of Health decided to recognize, for grant- 
earning purposes, a five-day week in Workshops for the blind, 
the Barclay Workshops, London, having found, after over a 
year's trial, that the output of work was greater, and the 
health of the workers better, as a result of the Saturday's 
complete rest. 





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(2155) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



173 



Music 

Monsieur Raverat arranged an International Congress in 
Paris to endeavour to secure international uniformity of 
practice as regards the meaning and use of the actual notation 
symbols used in Braille music. Mr. P. T. Mayhew (blind) 
and Mr. Edward Watson represented Gre^t Britain. As a 
result of the Congress, uniformity was established in fourteen 
countries in Europe and North and South America. 

PERIODICALS 

The American Foundation for the Blind, New York, pub- 
lished a list of 152 periodicals, produced in different countries 

Chinese Braille . . i 

English Braille, Grade i J 26 

English Braille, Grade 2 25 

English Moon Type . 4 

English New York Point 7 

English Ink-print 20 

Esperanto Braille 2 

Finnish Braille . i 

Finnish Ink-print i 

French Braille . 13 

French Ink-print 3 

German Braille . 28 

German Ink-print jo 
Italian Braille . >. 3 

Japanese Braille and Ink-print i 

Mexican Ink-print i 

Norwegian Braille 2 

Norwegian Ink-print i 

Polish Braille . i 

Rumanian Braille i 

Yugoslav Braille i 

Santa Lucia, the Braille Magazine started in 1889, was 
discontinued owing to the death of Miss Hodgkin, one of the 
Editors. 

The Teacher's Forum, a bi-monthly periodical in ink-print 
and Braille, was first published by the American Foundation 
for the Blind. 

PLYMOUTH 

The Devonport and Western Counties Association for 
Promoting the General Welfare of the Blind moved its Home 
from Manor Lodge, Devonport, to Torr, Plymouth, a large 
detached house standing in its own grounds, with accommo- 
dation for seventy inmates. 



1929 



174 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1929 RHONDDA 

The Rhondda Institution started coalbag-making and chair- 
upholstering as additional industries for their blind. 

ST. HELENS 

St. Helens Society opened new premises built at a cost of 
4,500, and comprising commodious workshops, sale-shop, 
offices, and a large social centre. 

SUFFOLK 

The East Suffolk Society and Ipswich Society were re- 
organized as separate bodies. 

(In 1930 there were 373 blind persons on the East Suffolk 
register and 127 on the Ipswich register.) 

WESTCLIFF-ON-SEA, ESSEX 

North London Homes for the Blind moved their seaside 
branch from Southend to Westcliff Crowstone Plome for 
the Blind, Chalkwell Esplanade. The new Home was designed 
to accommodate forty inmates. (In 1930 there were 28 
inmates). 

WIGAN 

Wigan opened new workshops to accommodate forty persons. 
The name of the Institution was changed to Wigan, Leigh and 
District Workshops for the Blind. 

WIRELESS SETS 

"British Wireless for the Blind Fund" was established, with 
the object of providing, as far as practicable, a wireless set 
for every blind person in the United Kingdom and Northern 
Ireland; President, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales; Hon. 
Treasurer, the Rt. Hon. Reginald McKenna; Chairman, Sir 
Beachcroft Towse ; Vice-Chairman, Captain Ian Fraser. 

An appeal was broadcast, from all stations of the British 
Broadcasting Company, on Christmas Day, by the Rt. Hon. 
Winston Churchill, with very encouraging results. (Mr. 
Churchill broadcast a second appeal on Christmas Day, 1930.) 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 175 

AMERICA 1930 

The degree of Doctor of Science, honoris causa, was con- 
ferred by the University of Pennsylvania on Edward Allen, 
Director of Perkins Institution, Mass., in recognition of 
nearly half a century's devoted work on behalf of the education 
of the blind. 

BRIGHTON 

The Barclay Home and School for Blind Girls built an 
additional playroom at a cost of about 1,500. 

BRISTOL 

The Royal School of Industry opened Southmead House as 
a Hostel for Technical Students. 

CONGRESS 

The ninth Congress of Esperantists took place at Oxford, in 
August. Forty-seven blind members from seven different 
countries were present. 

EAST GRINSTEAD, SUSSEX 

Frampost, East Grinstead, was purchased by the National 
Institute for the Blind for 6,500 as a Sunshine Home for 
Blind Babies, in place of the Home at Chorley Wt>od burnt 
down in 1928. The babies were moved from their temporary 
Home in Devonshire. 

EDINBURGH 

The Edinburgh Society for Teaching the Adult Blind to 
Read moved to larger premises at 4 Coates Crescent. 

GIBRALTAR 

Canon C. E. Bolam, F.R.Hist.S. (blind), Hon. Canon of 
Lincoln Cathedral, and Hon. Chief Chaplain of the National 
Institute for the Blind, t visited Gibraltar, and formed a small 
committee with a view to looking after the blind and found- 
ing a permanent Blind Society there. The civilian population 
was about 17,000, and 37 blind cases were already known. 

LIVERPOOL 

The Catholic Blind Asylum built a large new wing, providing 
a large playroom, classroom, etc. The cost, including furniture 
and equipment, was nearly 24,000. 



176 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

LONDON 

In the autumn of 1930, the London County Council passed 
a resolution that they would appoint no more blind teachers 
to their Schools for the Blind. The National Institute for 
the Blind, the College of Teachers of the Blind, and the 
National Union of the Professional and Industrial Blind 
strongly opposed the action of the Council, and the matter 
was subjudice at the close of 1930. 

The name of the Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties 
Association for the Blind was changed to the South Eastern 
and London Counties Association for the Blind. 

The National Institute for the Blind started a Museum in 
the Armitage Hall, at Great Portland Street. The Museum, 
although by no means complete, already contains several 
hundred exhibits of early and modern type, apparatus, games, 
maps, models, etc., collected from many different countries. 

MANCHESTER 

Mr. W. H. Thurman was appointed Director and Secretary 
of Henshaw's Institution for the Blind. 

NORWOOD 

The Royal Normal College announced that, since 1901, 
twenty-nine of their ex-pupils had been awarded the honour 
of F.R.C.O., and sixty-seven A.R.C.O., besides five first-class 
and seven second-class music prizes, in competition with 
seeing candidates. 

OLDHAM 

The Home Teaching Society founded in 1878 was taken 
over by the Municipal Council. 

PERIODICALS 

A Braille monthly edition of Punch was published by the 
National Institute for the Blind. 

The Venture, a Braille magazine for Scouts and Guides, 
edited by Miss Jean Robinson (blind) and Mr. W. J. Merridan 
of the Royal Normal College, Norwood, was published by the 
National Institute xor the Blind, 




THIC LOKI> MAYOR OF LONDON SPTTIXC; IN MOTION THK 

IMKST ROTARY PRESS IN RXOLAXD FOR I'RonnriNij 

UK \II.LF 




ONE OF A SKRIES OF ICMHOSSKD MAPS FOR THE BLIND 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 177 

PRINT, RAISED 1930 

The National Institute for the Blind started a high speed 
rotary printing press, the first used for embossed type in this 
country, the output of this machine of 4,000 sheets (i.e. 16,000 
pages) an hour being five times as fast as the platen machines 
previously in use. 

REGIONAL SUPERVISOR 

Mr. E. V. Bradshaw, the Secretary-manager of the North 
Staffordshire Workshops for the Blind, was appointed Joint 
Regional Supervisor of Blind Welfare in the six northern 
counties. The position was the first of its kind. 

REIGATE 



The Servers of the Blind League opened an extension of the 
Ellen Terry National Home for Blind Mentally Defective 
Children, to accommodate twelve girls between the ages of 12 
and 16, the old part of the Home being reserved for boys and 
girls under the age of 12. 

SHEFFIELD 

The City of Sheffield opened new workshops for tjie blind in 
Sharrow Lane. 

TENNANT, JOHN 

Death of Mr. John Tennant, age eighty-two, Chairman of 
the Indigent Blind Visiting Society, of whose Committee he 
had been a member for forty years. He was also Vice- 
President of the National Institute for the Blind, and one of the 
founders of the National Institute for Massage. 

WINTER, Miss 

Miss Agnes Winter retired from the post of Hon. Secretary 
(Counties Branch) of the Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties 
Association for the Blind, after over ten years of valuable 
service. During this period, owing very largely to her efforts, 
fourteen County and County Borough Associations were 
started, bringing the total to twenty-three out of a possible 
twenty-four required to cover the whole of the counties 
and county boroughs in the area. 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



NOTES 



APPENDIX I 

THE PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS 

ABBREVIATIONS 

c. = circa (about) ; the approximate date only can be 

given, 
fl. = floruit (flourished) ; the time at which he is thought 

to have reached his maximum. 

p. & T. = Power & Thompson (Sir D'Arcy Power, K.B.E., 
M.B. Oxon, F.R.C.S. Eng., and C. J. S. Thompson, 
M.B.E.), from whose book Chronologia Medica, a 
number of items have been copied. 

PTAH. "Father of the Mighty Fathers," "Father of Begin- Before 
nings," and " Creator of his own Image/' He was the chief god 3500 B.C. 
in Memphis, where a magnificent temple was erected to him, 
and where, with Sekhet and I-em-Hetep, he formed one of the 
great triad of deities. His healing powers are chiefly associated 
with the blind and deaf. (P. & T.) 

PEPI-ANKH OF IRI practised as oculist and magician at the 2500 B.C. 
court of one of the Kings of the Sixth Dynasty. His funeral 
"stele" was discovered near the Pyramids of Giza a few years 
ago. 

ALCMAEON (ALKMAION) OF CROTONA, a pupil of Pythagoras, fl. 500 
is said to have discovered the optic nerves and taught that the B.C. 
brain was the seat of the intellect. He was the first to extirpate 
the eyeball. (P. & T.) 

HEROPHILOS OF CHALCEDON (Alexandrian School of Medi- c. 300 
cine) a pupil of Praxagoras and Chrysippos, and the father of B.C. 
systematic anatomical investigation. He was the first to 
distinguish between the two coats of the eye, and probably 
the first to describe the lens. (P. & T.) 

APOLLONIOS OF MEMPHIS (Alexandrian School of Medicine), c. 250 
wrote on the pulse, surgery, and diseases of*the eye. (P. & T.) B.C. 

179 



ISO ChLKUINULCXjlCAL 5UKVH.Y (Jb 

c. 20 DEMOSTHENES THE OCULIST (Herophilan School of Medicine) 

B.C. wrote a liber ophthalmicus, which was greatly esteemed. 

(P. & T.) 

p. 300 LONDON. Caius Silvius Tetricus, a Roman oculist, practising 

A.D. in London, made preparations for the relief of granulation of 

the eyelids, inflammation of the eyes, and the removal of 
weals from the eyeball; one of Tetricus's tablets of "scented 
unguent," impressed with his stamp, was recently discovered 
fifteen feet below the surface of the soil near London Bridge. 
The eye trouble prevalent in his day in the Roman provinces 
was attributed, probably correctly, to the immoderate use of 
hot-air baths. 

(See The Daily Telegraph, 3ist July, 1931.) 

936-1013 ALBUCASIS, Spanish-Arabian physician born near Cordova. 
He wrote what was the leading surgical textbook until the 
time of William of Salicet (1201-77). Among the operations 
described in it is that for cataract. (P. & T.) 

fl. 1050 ALI BEN ISA or JESUS HALY (Arabian School of Medicine). 

Writer of a Book of Memoranda for Eye Doctors, which has 
been preserved entire. He was the leading ophthalmic surgeon 
of the eleventh century. (P. & T.) 

1284 VENICE. The Guild of Glass Makers was founded in Venice, 
providing against the use of glass instead of crystal in the 
manufacturing of spectacles (roide da ogli). (Prof. C. Foligno, 
Magdalen College, Oxford.) 

1285 SAL VINO DEGLI ARMATI AND SPINA of t Florence are said to 
have invented spectacles. (P. & T.) 

1535-1606 GEORG BARTISCH. Surgeon and court oculist to the Elector 
of Saxony. He was the author in 1583 of The Augendienst, an 
illustrated book on ophthalmic operations, and a skilful 
operator on the eye. He distinguished between the various 
forms of cataract, and operated in many ophthalmic diseases. 
He sought to show that many of the delusions about witch- 
craft were attributable to errors of the sight. (P. & T.) 

c. 1580 PROSPER ALPINO, a Venetian, gave the first exact records 

of the prevalence Si ophthalmia in Egypt. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 181 

MARIA COLLINET was the first to conceive the idea of re- c. 1800 
moving metallic particles from the eye by means of a magnet. 
She was the wife of Fabricus Hildanus (1560-1624), a surgeon 
of Hilden, near Dtisseldorf. (P. & T.) 

WILLIAM CHESELDEN, surgeon and oculist. Surgeon to 1688-175& 
Queen Caroline and to St. Thomas's and Chelsea Hospitals, 
introduced the formation of an artificial pupil by a simple 
incision of the iris made with a needle introduced through the 
sclera. (P. & T.) 

PIERRE BRISSEAU, OF TOURNAY, Professor at Douay, was 1705 

the first to demonstrate by dissection the clouded lens in 
cataract. (P. & T.) 

Operation first performed for the removal of an infected 1724 

tear-passage of an eye. 

JOSEPH BARTH, OF MALTA, oculist to Joseph II of Austria, 1745-1818 
the first to give separate lectures on ophthalmology. He 
founded an ophthalmic hospital. (P. & T.) 

JACQUES DAVIEL (France) introduced a new method of 1745 

dealing with senile cataract by the removal of the opaque 
lens (the cataract) from within the eyeball. 

DR. EDWARD JENNER (of Berkeley, Glos.), discovered 1798 

vaccination as a preventive of smallpox, a disease responsible 
for much blindness. 

(In 1849, Dr. Augustin Prichard, Hon. Surgeon to the 
Bristol Blind Asylum, inquired into the causes of blindness of 
a hundred of the inmates, and found that thirteen had lost 
their sight from smallpox.) 

THE ROYAL LONDON OPHTHALMIC HOSPITAL, Moorfields, 1804 

was founded by John ^ Cunningham Saunders, F.R.C.S. It 
was the first hospital 'in Great Britain devoted solely to 
diseases of the eye, and from it has sprung practically every 
eye hospital and school in the Empire, and the Ophthalmologi- 
cal Society of the United Kingdom. Its Hospital Reports were 
the first serial ophthalmic publications. 

W. T. G. MORTON (America) was one of the first persons to 1846 

use ether as an anaesthetic regularly, although Dr. C. W. 

13 (2155) 



182 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

1846 Long (America) had made some use of anaesthetics during the 

previous four years. The use of anaesthetics made certain 
operations to the eyes more practicable. 

(Although this is the first use of anaesthetics in modern 
surgery, Wa TO (221-264), father of Chinese surgery, is 
said to have used a mixture of Indian hernp and other sub- 
stances to produce anaesthesia for operating. P. & T.) 

1851 HERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ (Germany) introduced the 

Ophthalmoscope, the instrument by which the interior of the 
eyeball can be seen, and its diseases viewed and identified. An 
Englishman named Babbage is said to have invented a similar 
instrument four years earlier, but did not publish the fact. 

1856 VON GRAEFE introduced the operation of tridectomy for the 

treatment of glaucoma. This was an epoch-making event, 
although there have been many improvements in the treat- 
ment of this disease since. 

1885 SIR JOSEPH LISTER (later Lord Lister), introduced anti- 

septic methods in surgery. 

(Although this is the first use of antiseptics in modern sur- 
gery, Theodorius or Theodoric of Cervia (1205-1298), founder 
of the surgical school of Bologna, taught that pus was not 
necessary in the healing of wounds. He ranks as a pioneer 
in aseptic surgery. P. & T.) 

1879 ALBERT NEISSER discovered the organism gonococcus a 
venereal disease causing many cases of blindness from 
ophthalmia neonatorum. 

1880 THE SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS AND THE 
IMPROVEMENT OF THE PHYSIQUE OF THE BLIND was founded. 
(Dr. Roth, 48 Wimpole Street, W.i, was the Hon. Secretary in 

1887.) 

(In 1907 Mr. H. J. Wilson wrote : " It is much to be regretted 
that the Society for the Prevention of Blindness has ceased its 
beneficial work/' . . . Dr. Roth was then dead.) 

1882 CRED OF LEIPZIG introduced a method of curing ophthal- 

mia neonatorum by means of nitrate of silver. (Prior to the dis- 
covery, about 30 per cent of the pupils in blind schools were 
there by reason of this disease.) 



W6RK FOR THE BLIND 183 

HEREDITY. The following are extracts from a paper read 1883 

at the Conference at York, by Dr. Roth, Hon. Secretary of the 
Association for the Prevention of Blindness 

In twenty-one marriages in which one of the parents was 
blind, there were forty-nine children, eight either blind or with 
some defect of the eye. 

Dr. Daumas, in Paris, found among i,i68t>lind, 68 in whom 
the trouble was hereditary. 

Stratfield mentions a mother who had cataract in her 
second year; five out of her eight children had cataract in 
infancy. 

Cunier has known a family in which, since 1637, that is for 
246 years, spasmodic oscillation of the eyeball is hereditary ; 
125 members of the family have suffered from it. 

Regarding consanguinity, an American committee of medi- 
cal men found in 893 marriages amongst members of the same 
family, 40 per cent of the children to be deformed or diseased ; 
therefore it is probable that congenital blindness might be 
produced by a similar cause. 

AUREP and CARL ROLLER of Vienna used cocaine as a local 1884 

anaesthetic in eye diseases. 

THE OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, London, sent a deputa- 
tion to the President of the Local Government Board, urging 
him to issue instruction cards to those in charge of new-born 
children, pointing out the danger of purulent ophthalmia in 
the new-born and the necessity for prompt treatment. 

The request was refused on the ground of expense (estimated 
at the rate of 2d. a card, or 7,300 a year). This ill-placed 
economy probably cost the country the maintenance of a large 
number of blind persons. 

THE SPECTACLE MISSION SOCIETY, London, was founded by 1885 

the late Dr. Edward Waring, C.I.E., for providing free 
spectacles for the poor and aged. Dr. Waring died in 1891, and 
the work was then carried on by Miss C. Waring at Sutherland 
Avenue. 

ERNST FUCHS, of Liege, was awarded a prize for the best 
essay on the Prevention of Blindness, at the fifth Congress of 
Hygiene. 



184 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY-OF 

1886 BABES discovered that the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus was the 

cause of diphtheria. The use of anti-toxin has saved many 
lives and many eyes, as diphtheria may attack the lining 
membrane of the eyelids and eyeballs. 

1892 HAAB OF ZURICH produced a giant electric magnet for re- 

moving particles* of iron and steel from the eyes. (Small 
magnets had been of a certain amount of use before.) 

1895 PROFESSOR W. C. VON RONTGEN'S discovery of the now well- 

known X-rays was the means of facilitating many surgical 
operations, including the locating of, and removal of foreign 
bodies from the eyes. Improvements have been effected in 
X-ray apparatus by many scientists since its first discovery, 
notably by Dr. Mackenzie Davidson, who, by using the stereo- 
scopic principle made it possible to ascertain accurately the 
depth of any foreign body within the eyeball or orbit in the 
part to be operated upon. 

1902 THE MIDWIVES ACT, 1902, made the necessary connection 

between the public health departments of the State, and the 
attendants of the newly-born children, which would make any 
scheme of notification of disease possible. 

1905 SCHAUDINN and HOFFMANN discovered the organism of 

syphilis (spirochaeta pallida). (Dr. N. Bishop Harman, in his 
book published in 1907, stated that 17-6 per cent of blindness 
was caused by congenital syphilis.) 

1908 THE NEW YORK COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF 
BLINDNESS was formed. (In 1915, it became the National 
Committee for the Prevention of Blindness, and in 1928 the 
National Society for the Prevention, of Blindness, with a 
membership of over 20,000.) 

1909 STOKE-ON-TRENT was the first borough to make ophthalmia 
neonatorum a notifiable disease. 

1910 PAUL EHRLICH'S researches resulted in the production of 
salvarsan, the basis^of the modern treatment of syphilis. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 185 

OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM was made a compulsorily notifi- 1911 

able disease in the whole of the administrative county of 
London. (This brought the total of boroughs and districts 
where the disease was made notifiable up to 100.) 

COLNE SOCIETY started a School Clinic wjiere 588 children 1914 

were attended for defective sight. 

OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM was made a compulsorily noti- 
fiable disease throughout England and Wales by an order of 
the Local Government Board. (Dr. N. Bishop Harman, in his 
book published 1907, stated that 36 per cent of blindness in 
L.C.C. Schools was caused by this disease, and that Claisse of 
Paris considered irresponsible for 46 per cent of the blindness 
there, while in Berlin Katz put the figure at 41 per cent. A 
later report by Dr. Harman stated that between 1914 and 1920 
only 11-91 per cent of the 755 blind children in L.C.C. Schools 
were blind from this cause. 

The Council of British Ophthalmologists was formed to 1918 

act as an authoritative and representative body to assist 
Government Departments and their representative bodies in 
the preservation and welfare of the eyesight of the community. 

NEWCASTLE. A Doctor was fined 50 for not notifying a 1919 

case of ophthalmia neonatorum ; the child became blind. 

The Minister of Health appointed a committee to inquire 1920 

into the causes and prevention of blindness. 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT. By Clause 66 of the Public Health 1926 

Act, 1925, County Councils and County Borough Councils 
were given power to make such arrangements as they thought 
desirable to assist in the prevention of blindness, and in the 
treatment of persons suffering from disease or injury to the eye. 

In eight years the State of Pennsylvania paid out 15,000,000 1929 

dollars in compensation, in the metallurgical, electrical, and 
chemical industries ; of this sum, 6,000,000 dollars was awarded 
for the loss of one or both eyes. (Extract fifom the daily Press.) 



i86 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY 

1929 The International Association for the Prevention of Blind- 
ness was inaugurated. 

1930 Xhe death occurred at Vienna, at the age of seventy-nine, 
of Professor Ernst Fuchs, the renowned Austrian ophthalmo- 
logist. His treatise on diseases of the eye and that entitled 
The Causes and Prevention of Blindness are standard works, 
and have been translated into most languages. (See The 
Times, November 24th, 1930.) 

NATIONAL OPHTHALMIC TREATMENT BOARD. As a result of 
the recommendation in the Majority Report of the Royal Com- 
mission on National Health Insurance, an ophthalmic benefit 
service was set up, available to all State insured persons. 

THE LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES, Paris, published a 
Report on the Prevention of Blindness, containing statistics 
and valuable information concerning the number of blind 
persons, and probable causes of blindness, in most parts of the 
world. 

The appalling state of affairs in the Far East is emphasized 
in a Report on China (1925), by Dr. H. J. Howard, an oculist 
with many years experience in that country. He says : " There 
are probably not less than one-half million of people in China 
to-day who are blind in both eyes, probably five million more 
who are blind in one eye, and at least fifteen million who are 
nearly blind, many of whom will be blind within a few years." 
He points out that to the estimate of six million blind in the 
world should be added the much larger group with vision so 
seriously defective as to be handicapped vocationally, and 
threatened with ultimate loss of sight. 

Attention is called in the Report to the great saving in 
sight among infants by new methods of pre-natal treatment. 



APPENDIX II 

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE ROYA<L COMMISSION 
ON THE BLIND, ETC., 1889 

(Appointed 2oth January, 1886) 

STATE AID 

(i) THAT the provisions of the Education Acts be extended to 
the blind, and that the compulsory attendance at a school or 
institution be enforced from 5 to 16, in the following way 

(2) The education of the blind in the elementary school 
should commence at 5, in the infant department, and after 
passing through the ordinary standards, the technical or 
industrial training should begin at from 12 to 14, in an insti- 
tution or technical school, and that parents should not have 
the power of withdrawing the children before the age of 16. 
Such of the blind pupils as show exceptional promise should be 
encouraged by scholarships to qualify for education at a high- 
class college. Independently of the position of the parent, a 
capitation grant, equal to at least half the cost of instruction, 
should be given to all, in the same way as in ordinary ele- 
mentary schools. If intended to be trained in music, instruc- 
tion should be given as soon as possible. 

(3) Where the number is too small to form a class, or where 
the child is unable to attend an elementary school, the school 
board or school attendance authority should have the power 
and be required (a) to send a child to an institution, and to 
contribute to his education and maintenance such grant as 
would be equivalent to the contribution now allowed to be 
paid by guardians ; (bj if there should be no institution avail- 
able or willing to receive such child, the school authority 
should have the power to board out the child; or, either by 
itself or in combination with other school authorities, to 
establish an institution for the purpose and to educate the 
child under certificated teachers and proper inspection. 

(4) That the school attendance should be compulsorily 
enforced for at least eight years, without any existing limit 

187 



188 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

of distance from school, and power given to the local authority 
to pay the rail or tram fare of children when necessary. 

(5) That the grant on behalf of children, whether in a day 
school or in a boarding school, up to the age of 16, should be 
given under the certificate of a properly qualified inspector, 
who should certify the character of the teaching in the school, 
and the grant should depend, not only on the merits of each 
individual scholar, but on the aggregate proficiency of the 
blind pupils. 

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING 

(1) That the technical instruction in industrial handicrafts, 
as well as the educational training of the blind, should be 
placed under the Education Department ; an efficient inspec- 
tion of industrial work by a Government Inspector would tend 
to raise the standard of work, and to produce good instead of 
indifferent workmen, as is too often the case at present. 

(2) That from 16 to 21 the school authority should have the 
power and duty to give to all the necessitous blind a liberal 
grant to maintain themselves while they are learning a trade. 

(3) That a central shop and workshop for adult skilled 
workers should be established in every large centre where the 
same has not yet been started. But the State should not 
directly subsidize their work, and it should be left to private 
benevolence to start such central workshops and boarding 
houses, where the blind could be assisted to obtain work or be 
provided with materials at cost price, if they wish to live at 
their own homes, and where they would obtain a ready sale 
of their work. 

(4) That the adult blind and those who have become blind 
from 21 to 50 should equally receive either help from the 
school authority to learn a trade and to read some raised type, 
in the same way as if they were under 21, or if they have 
passed through an institution, the old pupils should be assisted 
and supervised on the Saxon system, as soon as the funds can 
be obtained for that purpose, and it should be the duty of the 
inspectors of Institutions for the Blind to ascertain what 
supervision is exercised, and to report accordingly, this being 
one of the regulations which might reasonably be imposed 
by the Education Department as a general condition of the 
grant. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 189 

PENSIONS 

The following recommendations made respecting pensions 
can be carried out without legislation, viz. 

(1) Co-operation amongst all the various pension societies 
should be established, whereby a united register should be 
kept of all recipients, and thus the possibility be avoided of 
undeserving cases being relieved, and of blind persons becom- 
ing recipients of more than one pension, except under special 
circumstances, and with the knowledge of the trustees. 

(2) The pensions, except for the aged and infirm, should be 
so distributed as to assist those who are assisting themselves. 

(3) The pensions should not be given quarterly in lump 
sums, as they are liable to be wasted and misused, either by 
the blind or by those who accompany them to the distributor 
of the money; but they should, as a rule, be paid weekly or 
monthly, through the agency of either a local magistrate, 
medical practitioner, or of the parochial clergy or minister, 
who might from time to time report on the conduct and 
deserts of the pensioners. 

TEACHERS 

We recommend 

That blind teachers should be placed under the same regula- 
tions as the seeing teachers in elementary schools before being 
allowed to teach, and in all cases should have such sighted 
assistance as may be necessary to ensure the efficiency of their 
teaching. 

MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 

We recommend 

(1) That greater attention should be paid generally to 
physical exercises and healthy out-door sports, and gymnasia 
and covered play shds should be attached to all schools for 
the blind. 

(2) That the supervision of the blind at night should be 
obtained by a sighted officer sleeping in a cubicle in the same 
room, or in one with a window looking directly into the 
dormitory. We attach great importance to this. 

(3) That there should be some sighted supervision of 
workshops. 



igo CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY' 

(4) That except in special cases, or where music is selected 
as a profession, or where a pupil is being prepared for one of 
the liberal professions, everyone not physically disqualified 
should receive manual training. 

(5) That boys up to 16 should not be employed in workshops 
with the adult blin^, 

(6) That the management of industrial work should be 
placed on a strictly commercial basis, and if it be found neces- 
sary to give any bonus it should be clearly shown in the books 
of the institution. 

We think 

(7) That the industrial work taught in many of the institu- 
tions is not sufficiently practical, and that, generally speaking, 
the manual dexterity is not sufficiently developed when the 
pupils are young. 

(8) That there should be greater solidarity among the insti- 
tutions and interchange of information and opinion between 
them, so that they should work harmoniously together; and 
in the management of the workshops each endeavour to take 
up some one branch of work, and purchase from other insti- 
tutions anything they may themselves have orders for, and 
that this policy should be reciprocal. 

We recommend 

(9) That the intermarriage of the blind should be strongly 
discouraged. 

(10) That information respecting the treatment of purulent 
ophthalmia should be circulated by the sanitary authority, 
or through the post office. 

(n) That children with defective sight in elementary 
schools should be periodically examined by a medical officer, 
and the use of glasses, etc., ordered, so as to preserve their 
sight as much as possible. 

(12) That greater attention to ophthalmic surgery should be 
encouraged among general practitioners. 



APPENDIX III 

AGENDA OF CONFERENCE OF MANAGERS, TEACHERS 

AND FRIENDS OF THE BLIND (YORK), 1883 

(i6th to 26th July) 

(i) "THE Best Means to be Adopted to Enable the Blind to 
Maintain Themselves," by Dr. Armitage. 

(2) "The Psychology of Blindness and the Education and 
Training of the Blind," by Mr. S. Neil, Edinburgh. 

(3) "A Plea for the Higher Culture of the Blind/' by Mr. 
S. S. Forster, M.A*., Worcester. 

(4) "Industrial Employments of the Blind Working in 
Institutions," by Mr. W. Martin, Edinburgh. 

(5) " The Sphere of Music in the Education of the Blind," by 
Heer Meijer, Amsterdam. 

(6) "The Duty of the Government and School Boards in the 
Education of the Blind," by Mr. F. J. Munby, York. 

(7) "Conference of Managers and Teachers of Blind Insti- 
tutions," by Herr Moldenhawer, Copenhagen. 

(8) "Amusements for the Blind," by Mr. W. Wood, 
Sheffield. 

(9) "The Prevention of Blindness," by Dr. Roth, London. 

(10) "The Physical Education of the Blind," by Dr. Roth, 
London. 

AGENDA OF NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE BLIND 

AND THEIR FRIENDS (NORWOOD), 1890. 

(22nd to 2$th July) 

"Primary Education, of the Blind," by Mr. W. H. Illing- 
worth, Edinburgh. 

"Technical Training and Education as a Preparation for 
Earning a Livelihood" 

(a) "Handicrafts," by Mr. H. W. P. Pine, Nottingham. 

(b) "Music/' by Mr. Barnes, Swiss Cottage, London, N.W. 

(c) "Professions," by the Rev. S. S. Forstr. 

" State Aid to Blind Institutions," by, Mr. W. R. Carter, 
Sheffield. 

191 



192 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

"Workshops for the Blind," by Mr. W. Martin, Edinburgh. 
"Assistance to, and Supervision of, the Blind after Leaving 
School/' by Dr. T. R. Armitage, London. 



AGENDA OF CONFERENCE ON MATTERS RELATING 
TO THEtBLIND (WESTMINSTER), 1902 

(22nd to 24th April) 

(1) "The Higher Education of the Blind," by the Rev. 
H. J. R. Marston, M.A. 

(2) "Provision for the Instruction of the Blind on Attaining 
Sixteen Years of Age, and of those Going Blind After that Age 
having Regard to the Act of 1893," by Rev. T. W. Sharpe, 
C.B. 

(3) "Provision for Defective Blind Children," by Mr. C. S. 
Loch. 

(4) " Physical Training of the Blind," by Dr. F. J. Campbell. 

(5) "Professions and Trades Best Adapted for the Blind, 
Including those not Usually Practised, and the Best Means of 
Helping the Blind to Carry on the Trades for which they have 
been Trained," by Mr. Henry Stainsby. 

(6) "Most Approved Methods of Conducting Workshops, 
Including fne Question of Wages and of Providing Lodging 
Accommodation for the Workers," by Rev. St. Clare Hill, 
M.A. 

(7) "The Need of More and Cheaper Literature for the 
Blind" 

(a) In Braille type, by Mr. Alfred Hirst. 

(b) In Moon type, by Miss Moon. 

(8) "Uniform Braille System," by Mr. W. H. Illingworth. 

(9) " Provision for the Aged, by Means of Pensions, Homes, 
or Otherwise," by Mr. W. S. Seton-Karr. 

(10) "Statistics Concerning Blindness," by Mr, R. MacLeod, 
C.B. 

(n) "Home Teaching Societies," by Miss E. M. Bainbrigge. 

(12) "Greater Solidarity and Interchange of Opinion 
among Institutions, the Need of a Central Bureau, and Uniform 
Plan of Keeping Accounts," by Mr. W. H. Tate. 

(13) " Preventio t n of Blindness," by Mr. R. Brudenell Carter, 
F.R.C.S. 

(14) "Intermarriage of Blind Persons," by Dr, Rockliffe. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 193 

AGENDA OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 
THE BLIND (EDINBURGH), 1905 

(igth to 2^th June) 

"The Primary Education of the Blind, and the Blind and 
Deaf Act of 1893," by Mr. H. Stainsby, General Superintendent 
and Secretary of the Institution for the BlirAl, Birmingham. 

"Secondary Education and the Act of 1902 with Special 
Reference to Education and Training for the Blind Above 
Sixteen Years of Age," by Mr. W. H. Illingworth, Superin- 
tendent of Henshaw's Blind Asylum, Manchester. 

"British Braille, and an Account of what has been Accom- 
plished by the British Braille Committee." Report read by 
Mr. H. W. P. Pine, Superintendent and Secretary of the 
Midland Institution for the Blind, Nottingham. 

"The Problem of the Better and More General Employment 
of the Blind," by Mr. C. Macdonald, Manager of the Institution 
for the Blind, Dundee. 

"A Central Bureau and a National Register, the Best Means 
of Bringing Them into Existence, and the Benefits to be 
Derived," by Mr. A. B. Norwood, M.A., Superintendent of the 
Yorkshire School for the Blind, York. 

"The Problem of the ' Defective ' Blind and its Best Solution, 
with Special Reference to the Report Issued by the Committee 
Appointed at the Last Conference," by Mr. H. J. Wilson, 
Secretary of Gardner's Trust for the Blind. 

"The Outdoor Blind of Scotland," by Mr. J. Frew Bryden, 
Superintendent of Mission to Outdoor Blind for Glasgow, and 
the West of Scotland. 

"Boards of Guardians, and their Relation to the Blind," by 
Mr. W. H. Tate, a member of the Committee of the Bradford 
Institution for the Blind. 

AGENDA OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 
THE BLIND (MANCHESTER), 1908 

(24th July to ist August) 

"The Housing of the Blind," by Miss I. M. Heywood, 
Founder and Hon. Secretary of Manchester and Salford Blind 
Aid Society. '* 

"Technical Education and Employment of the Blind in 



194 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY- OF 

the United States," by Mr. E. Green, Superintendent of the 
Missouri School for Blind, St. Louis, U.S.A. 

"Commercial Training of the Blind in Canada/' by Dr. 
Fraser, Superintendent, Halifax School for the Blind, N.S. 

"Pensions for the Blind," by Miss E. Massey. 

"Recreations for the Blind," by Mr. W. Littlewood, Head- 
master of Waverfrree School for the Blind, Liverpool. 

"The Blind of France," by Mile. Jacqueline Chevenin, 
LTnstitution Valentin Haiiy. 

"The Past, Present, and Future of the Blind of Japan," by 
Mr. Tadasu Yoshimoto, Tokyo, Japan. 

"Psychology of Blindness and Care of Blind Infants," by 
J. M. Ritchie, Henshaw's Blind Asylum. 

"The Blind of Ireland and How their Condition may be 
Improved," by Mr. Mulholland, Mission to Outdoor Blind, 
Belfast. 

"Music for the Blind," by Mr. H. E. Platt, Teacher of 
Music at the General Institution for the Blind, Edgbaston, 
Birmingham. 

Reports from Secretaries of the Northern and other Unions 
established since the last conference, including the "College 
of Teachers for the Blind" and " Superintendents' Association," 
"Co-ordination of London Workshops for the Blind." 

AGENDA OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR 
THE BLIND (EXETER), 1911 

($rd to ^th July) 

"Libraries for the Blind," Paper read by Miss E. W. Austin, 
Secretary and Librarian to the Incorporated National Lending 
Library for the Blind. 

"Teachers of the Blind: Their Training, Qualifications, and 
Reasonable Prospects of Employment," by the Rev. St. 
Clare Hill, F.C.T.B., Principal of the Royal Leatherhead 
School for the Blind. 

"A Retrospect of the More Recent Musical Education of the 
Blind, and Suggestions as to the Future," by Mr. H. C. 
Warrilow, F.R.C.O. 

"After-care, and the Better and More General Employment 
of the Blind," by Mr. H. Stainsby, F.C.T.B., General Secretary 
to the British and Foreign Blind Association. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 195 

Informal discussion on matters relative to the Education 
and Training of the Blind. 

" Training in the Requirements of Social Life at Home and 
in Society, and the Best Methods of Securing It," by Lady 
Campbell, Hon. Lady Superintendent, Royal Normal College 
for the Blind, Upper Norwood, London. 

"The General Pensioning of the Blind: The Raising of 
National Funds as the Best Way of Solving the Pensioning 
Problem/' by Mr. Alrik Lundberg (Stockholm), President of 
the Swedish Federation for the Blind. 

" Ophthalmia-Neonatorum and its Administrative Control," 
by Dr. George Reid, Medical Officer of Health, Staffordshire 
County Council. 

Lecture by Mr. H. C. Preece (Travelling Secretary to the 
British and Foreign Blind Association) on "The Comedy of 
Daily Life." 

AGENDA OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 
THE BLIND (LONDON), 1914 

(iSth to 24th June) 

"The Work of the Unions of Societies for the Blind in 
England and Wales: Their History and Possible Develop- 
ments," by Mr. H. J. Wilson, Secretary, Gardner's Trust for 
the Blind, London. 

"How to Improve the Attitude of the Public Towards the 
Employment of the Blind," and "Legislation (Past and Im- 
pending), on behalf of the Blind," by Sir Robert Ellis Cunliffe, 
Solicitor to the Board of Trade ; Chairman, West London 
Workshops for the Blind. 

"How to Deal with the Incompetent Blind," by Mr. W. H. 
Illingworth, Superintendent, Henshaw's Blind Asylum, 
Manchester. 

"Pianoforte Tuning, an Occupation for the Blind, and How 
to Make it One of the Most Successful," by Mr. P. E. Layton 
(Montreal). 

"Braille and Its Modifications " by M. Perouze, representing 
the Association Valentin Haiiy, Paris. 

"Work for the Blind in Australia," by Mr. Stanley 
Hedger, Industrial Blind Association, Syohiey, and Mr. Isaac 
Dickson, delegate from the Queensland Blind, Deaf and Dumb 



196 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

Institution, Brisbane, and the Royal Blind Asylum, N. 
Adelaide. 

"The Elementary Education of the Blind/' by Lady Camp- 
bell, Royal Normal College for the Blind. 

"Some Suggestions on Massage by the Blind," by Mr. F. R. 
Marriott (Harrow). 

"Scouting as an f Aid for the Blind to Healthy Independence 
and Good Citizenship," Captain F. P. Pierson Webber 
(Stratf ord-on-Avon) . 

"Work for the Blind in Uraguay," by Senora T. Santos de 
Bosch, Delegate of the Government of Uraguay. 

"Work for the Blind in Syria," by Mr. Charles Walker, 
Secretary of the British Syrian Mission. 

Brazil: "Work for the Blind in Brazil," by Col. J. da Silva 
Mello, Director of the Benjamin Constant Institution, Rio de 
Janeiro, and Delegate of the Brazilian Government. 

"Blindness in Adult Life: (a) The Totally Blind; (b) The 
Partially Blind," by Mr. M. Priestley, Manager and Secretary 
of the Royal Institution for the Blind, Bradford. 

Russia: "Work for the Blind in Russia," by Mr. M. J. 
Koloubovsky, Delegate of the Imperial Government, St. 
Petersburg. 

Denmark* "Work for the Blind in Denmark, by Mr. M. 
A. F. Wiberg (Copenhagen), Delegate of the Government of 
Denmark. 

India: "Work for the Blind in India," by Mr. A. K. Shah, 
Headmaster, School for the Blind, Calcutta. 

China: Lantern Lecture by Mrs. Wilkinson, School for the 
Blind, Foo Chow. 

"Work for the Blind in America in the Twentieth Century," 
Lantern Lecture by Mr. C. F. F. Campbell, Founder and 
Editor of Outlook for the Blind (Columbus, Ohio), and Mr. 
O. H. Burritt, Principal of the Pennsylvania Institution for 
the Blind. 

United States: "Sight-Saving and Light Through Work for 
the Blind," by Miss W. Holt, Secretary, New York Association 
for the Blind, New York. 

"The Problems of the Education of the High Myopes and 
the Partially-sighted," by Mr. N. Bishop Harman, F.R.C.S., 
London. 

"The Education and After-care of the Blind-Deaf," by Mr. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 197 

W. M. Stone, Head Master, Royal Blind Asylum and School, 
Edinburgh. 

"Esperanto for the Blind/' by Mr. W. Percy Merrick. 

" Salesmanship/' by Mr. P. A. Best, Managing Director, 
Messrs. Selfridge & Co., Ltd. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Alston', John. 

Education, and Employment at the Glasgow Asylum for the 
Blind (1846), 

Anagnos, M. 

Education of the Blind (1882). 

Helen Keller (1889). 

Thomas Stringer, His Development and Training (1900). 

Anderson, T. 

Observations on the Employment of the Blind (1837). 

Armitage, T. R. 

Education and Employment of the Blind (1871), 
Condition of the Blind in Great Britain and Ireland (1878). 

Bainbrigge, Major-General P. J. 

Training of the Blind. Extracts from the Report of the First 
European Congress of Teachers of the Blind, Vienna (1875). 

Barnhill, A. 

New Era in the Education of Blind Children (187^). 

Best, H. 

The Blind, Their Condition, and What is Being Done for 
Them in the United States (1920). 

Bird, J, 

Social Pathology: The Blind, Deaf, and Dumb (1862). 

The Deaf, Dumb, and Blind : A Letter to Rev. R. Maguire 

(1863). 
Essay, with Life of James Wilson (blind) (1856). 

Blair, R. H. 

Education of the Blind (1876). (Pamphlet.) 

Hints to Blind Home Students (1877). (Pamphlet.) 

Bowen, B. B. 

A Blind Man's Offering (1857). 

Bull, Thomas. 

The Sense Denied and Lost (1859). 

Carton, C. , 

Establishments for the Blind in England (1838). 

199 



200 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

Clare, J. W. 

The Present Condition and Future Improvement of the Blind 
(1862). 

Courtney, A. V. 

Anecdotes of the Blind (1835). 
Dark, S. 

Life of Sir Arthur Pearson (1922). 
Diderot, D. 

Essay on Blindness. Translation published by Dymott (1773). 
Downing, James. 

Life of James Downing (blind) (1813). 
Dudley, Charles. 

The Braille Conscience (1914). 
Dunning, T. J. 

Lecture on the Best Mode of Relieving the Blind (1866). 
Fenn, W. 

Half Hours of a Blind Man's Holiday (1879). 
Fison, Mrs. 

Darkness and Light (1859). 

Foster, S. S. 

The Future of the Blind (1875). 

What Shfcll we do with our Blind Boys? (1879). 

The Gardner Bequest for the Blind (1880). 

Fowler, R. 

The Mental State of the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb (1843). 
French, R. 

The Education of the Blind : An Historical and Critical Survey 

(1924). 
Frere, J. H. 

Type for the Blind (1840). 
Fuchs, Dr. E. 

Causes and Prevention of Blindness. Translated by Dudgeon 

(1885). 
Gall, J. 

Gospel of St. John for the Blind, with Some Historical Notices 
Regarding the Origin and Establishment of a Tangible 
Literature for Their Use (1834). 
Account of Glasgow Asylum for the Blind (1834). 
Literature for the Blind (1834). 

Account of Recent Discoveries for Facilitating the Education 
of the Blind (1837). 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 201 

Gordon-Gumming, C. 

Inventor of the Numeral Type for China (1898). 
Gray, J. 

What is Doing for the Blind ? (1862). 
Guillil, Dr. 

Essay on the Blind : The Instruction and Amusements of (1819) . 
Hammock. 

Census of the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb (1861). 
Hanway, J. 

Defeats of the Police, etc., with Observations on Mr. Hethering- 

ton's Charity for the Blind (1775). 
Harmon, B. 

Preventable Blindness (1907). 
Harris, W., and Turner, M. 

Guide to Institutions and Charities for the Blind (1871 and 
1884). 

Hauy, V. 

The Education of the Blind. Translated by Blacklock (1793). 
Hedger, H. 

Employment of the Blind (1899). 
Holt, W. 

A Beacon for the Blind Life of Henry Fawcett (1915). 

A Handbook for the Blind and Their Friends (19^5). 

Howe, M., and Hall, F. 

Life of Laura Bridgman (1904). 
Howlett, S. 

"They shall see His Face." Work Among the Blind in India 

(1898). 
Hughes, G. A. 

Punctiuncular Stenographic System of Embossing (1842). 
Illingworth, W. H. 

Education of the Blind (1910). 
Inchcliff, J. 

Life of Nicholas Satmderson (1747). 
Javal, E. 

The Blind Man's World. Translated by Thompson (1904). 

On Becoming Blind. Translated by Edson (1905). 

Johns, B. G. 

The Land of Silence, the Land of Darkness (1857). 
Blind People, Their Works and Ways (1867). 
Plain Sermons to the Blind (1853). > 



202 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

Johnson, E. C. 

Tangible Typography (1853). 

Musical Instruction of the Blind in France, Spain, and 

America (1855). 
The Blind of London (1860). 
The Irish Pauper Blind (1860). 
Paris Exhibition, 1867. Apparatus for the Blind, Report 

presented to Parliament. 
London International Exhibition. Official Report on Methods 

of Teaching the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb (1871). 
Annuities to the Blind (1876). Later editions revised by S. 

Johnson (1910). 

Keller, Helen. 

The Story of My Life (1903). 
The World I Live In (1908). 
My Religion (1927). 
Midstream (1929). 

Kitto, J. 

The Lost Senses (1845). 

Klein, J. W. 

The Relation of the Blind to the World Around Them. 
Translated by Taylor (1859). 

Knie, J. G. 

Guide to the Proper Management and Education of Blind 
Children. Translated by Taylor (1861). 

Landeghem, Mrs. H. 

Charity Misapplied (1864). 
Exile and Home (1865). 

Lawson, G. 

Diseases and Injuries of the Eye (1903). 

Lettsom, J. 

Hints Respecting the Employment of the Blind (1801). 

Levy, W. Hanks. 

Blindness and the Blind (1872). 

Lucas, T. 

Instructions for Teaching the Blind to Read with the Universal 
Alphabet (1837). 

MacGullock, G. 

A Blind Mute (1881). 

Macmillan, D. 

Life of George Mattfeson (1910). 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 203 

Maguire, R. 

The Deaf and Dumb and the Blind (1863). 
Mannix, J. B. 

Heroes of the Darkness (1911). 
Marston, H. J. 

England's Blind Sons and Daughters (i88iV 
Martin, F. 

Life of Elizabeth Gilbert (1887). 
Martin, W. 

The Education of the Blind: the Adaptation of Froebel r s 
Kindergarten System for the Blind (1881). 

Industrial Employment of the Blind Working in Institutions 
(1883). 

Maxfield, K. 

The Blind Child and His Reading (1928). 
Meldrum, R. 

Light on Dark Paths (1883). 
Metcalf, John. 

Life of John Metcalf (1795). 
Milburn, W. H. 

Songs in the Night, in The Rifle Axe and Saddlebags (1857). 
Mitchell, A. 

The Blind, Their Capabilities, Condition, and Claims (1860). 
Moon, William. 

Light for the Blind (1873). 

Consequences and Ameliorations of Blindness (1875). 

Moore, E. 

Facts and Figures (1864). 

A Few Remarks on the Blind Industrial Exhibition (1867). 

Munby, F. /., and Buckle, A . 

Two Reports: (i) On the Articles Exhibited at Blind Institu- 
tions at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1878; (2) The 
National Institute for the Young Blind in Paris (1879). 

Payne, A. 

The Education of the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb (1864). 

Pearson, C. Arthur. 

Victory over Blindness (1919). 
The Conquest of Blindness. 

Plummer, J. 

A Blind Inventor, Life of Dr. Gale (186$). 



204 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

Posey, W. 

Hygiene of the Eye (1918). 

Purse, B. 

Blind in Industry (1925). 
The British Blind (1918). 

Rainey, F. 

The Blind. Rdinan Letter (1893). 

Richards, Laura E. 

Laura Bridgman (1928). 

Ritchie, J. M. 

Concerning the Blind (1930). 

Rocheleau t C., and R. Mack. 

Those in the Dark Silence (1930). 

Romaine, J. 

Eyeless Sight. Translated by C. K. Ogden (1924). 

Ross, G. J. 

A Working Man's Blindness (1883). 

Roth. Dr. 

The Present State of the Physique of the Blind (1879). 
Prevention of Blindness ; a paper read at the Jubilee Celebra- 
tions of the Yorkshire School for the Blind, 1883. 

4 

Sarcey, F. 

Mind Your Eyes. Translated by Dudgeon (1886). 

Scapini, J. G. 

A Challenge to Darkness. Translated by Helen Keller (1929). 

Scott, Miss E. R. 

History of the Education of the Blind prior to 1830. 
(Pamphlet.) 

Sizeranne, Maurice de la. 

The Blind as Seen Through Blind Eyes. Translated by Lewis 

(1889). 

The Blind Sisters of St. Paul. Translated by L. M. Leggatt 
(1907). 

Stainsby, H. 

The Education, Training, and Employment of the Blind. 
(Pamphlet.) 

Stephens, L. 

Life of Henry Fa\cett (1886). 



, WORK FOR THE BLIND 205 

Taylor, Rev. W. 

The Education of the Blind and the Establishment of a College 

for those in the Opulent Classes (1859). 
Lecture on the Education of the Blind. (Transactions of the 

Royal Institution of Great Britain.) 
Short Sketch of the Life of Klein, Founder of the Institution 

.for the Blind at Vienna. Translated by Rev. W. Taylor 

(1859). 

Report on Printing for the Blind in the Transactions of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science (1863). 

Taylor, W. H. 

The Taylor Arithmetic for the Blind. 

Villey, P. 

The World of tne Blind. Translated by A. Hallard (1914). 

Wait, W. B. 

Tangible Muste Notation (1873). 

The True Structural Basis of Punctographic Systems (1892). 

Wilde, W. R. 

Number and Condition of the Blind in Ireland (1862). 
Wilson, Henry J. 

Information with Regard to Institutions in England and 
Wales (1887-96-1903-1907-11-15-22). 

Wilson, James. 

Biography of the Blind (1838). 

REPORTS OF CONFERENCES 

1883. York. 

1890. Norwood. 

1902. London. 

1905. Edinburgh. 

1908. Manchester. 

1911. Exeter. 

1914. London. 

ARTICLES IN BOOKS AND MAGAZINES AND 

OCCASIONAL PAPERS 
Armitage, T. R. 

Piano Tuning as Employment for the Blind (Journal of 
Society of Arts, January, 1871). 

Baker, C. 

The Blind. Essay in the English Cyclopedia, 1859. 
The Art of Relief Printing for the Blindfc Essay in the Poly- 
technic Journal, 1840. 



206 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

Blackstock. 

Plea for the Blind and Reprint of Evidence before Parliament- 
ary Committee of Inquiry into the Working of the Poor Law 
in Scotland (1856). 

Blair, H. R. 

The Education of the Blind. A paper read at a meeting of the 
Association for Promoting Social Science, at Birmingham. 

Buckle, A . 

Report made to the Managing Committee of the School for the 
Blind at York, on the International Congress for the 
Amelioration of the Blind, held at Paris in 1878. 

Dickens, Charles. 

Account of the Institution for the Blind at Boston, in 
American Notes, Vol. i (1842). 

Leifde, J. de. 

An Account of the Blind School at Illzach, near Mulhausen, 
in The Romance of Charity (1867). 

Prescott, W. H. 

The Blind, in Biographical and Critical Essays (1855). 

1774. The Education of the Blind, in The Edinburgh Magazine & 

Review. 

1825. Article in The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 95. 
1828. Article in The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 98. 
1828. Blindness, in the Oxford Encyclopedia, Vol. i. 
1833. Education of the Blind, in The North American Review. 
1837. Report on the Alphabets for the Blind in the Transactions 

of the Royal Society of Arts (by W. Taylor). 
1852. Report of the Jurors of the Great Exhibition of 1851, on 

Printing for the Blind. 
1854. The Blind, Their Works and Ways. Article in The 

Edinburgh Review, January, 

1860. The Blind. Article in the National Review for January. 
1863. Article in The Social Science Report for May. 
1865. Article in The Quarterly Review, No. 236. 

GOVERNMENT AND OTHER OFFICIAL REPORTS 
1873. Census of England and Wales. General Report, Vol. 4, page 

54- 

1876. Conclusions on the Instruction of Blind Children arrived at 
by the School Management Committee of the School 
Board for London. 

1876. Report of a Special Committee of the Charity Organization 
Society on the Training of the Blind. 

1879. Statement on the General Question of the Blind, prepared 
by a memb ( er of the Council of the Charity Organiza- 
tion Society. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 207 

1883. Census of England and Wales. General Report, Vol. 4, 
page 60. 

1889. Report of the Royal Commission on the Blind, Deaf, and 
Dumb. 

1917. Report of the Departmental Committee on the Welfare of 
the Blind. 

1922. Report of the Departmental Committee on the Causes and 
Prevention of Blindness. 

1918-19, 1919-20, 1921-22, 1922-23, 1923-24, 1924-26, 1926-27, 
1928-29, 1930. First nine Reports of the Advisory Com- 
mittee on the Welfare of the Blind, Ministry of Health. 

1927. Handbook on the Welfare of the Blind, Ministry of Health. 

1929. League of Nations Report on the Welfare of the Blind 
in Various Countries. 

1929. Report of the League of Red Cross Societies on the Pre- 
vention of Blindness. 

General 
1925. Handbook for Home Teachers of the Blind. 



LIST OF TRADES AND VOCATIONS 
. NOTED IN CHRONOLOGY 



BAMBOO Furniture Making 

Basket Making 

Book-keeping 

Boot Making and Repairing 

Botanist 

Brick Making 

Brush Making 

CHAIR Caning 

Clergy 

Clerk 

Coal Bag Making 

Coffee Bag Making 

Coil Winding 

Composers 

Cordmaking 

DRESSMAKING 
ELECTRICAL Coil Winding 

FARMING 
Furniture Making 

HAIR Friction Glove Making 

Plaiting 

KNITTING by Hand 
Needle Making 

on Machines 

MASSAGE 
Mat Weaving 



Mattress Making 

Mechanic 

Music 

NETTING 
ORGANISTS 

PIANO Tuning 
Poultry Rearing 

ROPE Mat Making 

SCULPTURE 

Shampooing 

Ship's Fenders 

Shorthand 

Solicitor 

Sound Locating 

Spinning 

Stair Rod Making 

Straw Plait Making 

TELEPHONE Operating 
Tile Making 
Typewriting 

UPHOLSTERING 

WEAVING 

Webbing, Manufacture of 

Whip Making 

Woodworking 



209 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS AND 
SOCIETIES IN LONDON 

(OR HAVING THEIR HEADQUARTERS IN LONDON) 

THOSE that are mentioned in the Chronology, but have now ceased 
to exist, are marked with an asterisk. 

After-care Association for Blind, Deaf, and Crippled Children. 

* Alexandra Institution. 

* Association for Establishing Workshops for the Blind. 

* Association of Workers for the Blind. 
Association of Workshops for the Blind. 
Barclay Workshops for Blind Women. 

Barnardo's Homes for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Children. 

Blind Employment Factory. 

*Blind Female Annuity Society. 

Blind Man's Friend Pension (or Day's Charity). 

Blind Self-aid Tea Company. 

Blind Social Aid and Literary Union. 

Blind Tea Agency, Ltd. 

*Blind Tuners' Federation. 

Blind Women Workers' Annuity Fund. 

Game's Charity. 

Cecilia Home for Blind Women (formerly Phoenix Home for the 

Blind). 

Church Army Hostel for the Blind (Turner House) . 
Clothworkers' Company. 
College of Teachers of the Blind. 
Cordwainers* Company. 
Cranborne Memorial Fund. 
Day's Charity (or Blind Man's Friend). 
Drapers' Company. 

East London Home and School for Blind Children. 
*East London Workshop for the Blind. 
*Ebury Street Classes for the Blind. 
Elm Court School for the Blind. 
*Elsing Spital. 

Eyes to the Blind Pension Fund. 

Eyes to the Blind Society (now part of the Barclay Workshops). 
*Federation of Workshops for the Blind. 
Gardner's Trust for the Blind. 
Goldsmiths' Company. 



212 CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 

Governesses' Benevolent Institution. 

Granger's Charity. 

Greater London Fund for the Blind . 

Groom's Crippleage (formerly Watercress and Flower Girls' 

Christian Mission). 
Guild of Blind Gardeners. 
Harley's Charity. 
Hepburn Starey Blind Aid Society (formerly Somers Town Blind 

Aid Society). 
Home Teaching Society. 
Howard's Charity. 
Humston's Charity. 

Incorporated Association for the General Welfare of the Blind. 
Indigent Blind Visiting Society. 
Institute of Massage. 
Jewish Blind Society. 
"Kilburn Home and School. 
Linden Lodge School for the Blind. 
* London and Blackheath Association for the Blind. 
London Association for the Blind (formerly Surrey Association for 

the Blind). 

London County Council Schools for the Blind. 
"London Knitting Industries. 

London Society for Teaching and Training the Blind. 
Lord Pension Fund. 
Massage, National Institute of (now part of the National Institute 

for the Blind). 

Masseurs, Association of Certificated Blind. 
Metropolitan Society for the Blind. 
Middlesex Association for the Blind (Offices) . 
National Blind Relief Society (formerly Christian Blind Relief 

Society). 
National Institute for the Blind (formerly British and Foreign 

Blind Association). 
National League of the Blind. 
National Library for the Blind. 

National Union of Professional and Industrial Blind. 
North London Homes for Aged Christian Blind Men and Women. 
Painter Stainers' Company. 
Poor Adult Blind Pension Society. 
Royal Blind Pension Society. 

St. Dunstan's Hostel for Blinded Soldiers, Sailors, and Airmen. 
"School for Children of the Upper Class, Barnes. 
School for the Indigent Blind, Southwark (now Royal School for 

the Blind, Leatherhead) . 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 213 

Servers of the Blind League (formerly Braille and Servers of the 

Blind League) . 
South Eastern and London Counties Association for the Blind 

(formerly Metropolitan and Adjacent Counties Association). 
South London Association for Assisting the Blind. 
South London Institute (formerly Hampton's Mission). 
Union 'of Counties Associations for the Blind (formerly Union of 

Unions). 
West London Workshops for the Blind (formerly Kensington 

Institute). 

West's Trust for the Blind. 
Workshop for the Blind, Greenwich (formerly Workshop for the 

Blind of Kent). 
Young Women's Clfristian Association (does not now assist the 

blind). 



INDEX 



The names of blind persons are marked with asterisks. 

The index gives only first records of trades carried out by the blind. 



AB BOTSKERS WELL Sunshine Home, 
1 68 

Aberdare Blind Welfare Com- 
mittee, 149 

Aberdeen Asylum for the Blind, 

23, 9i 

Town and County Associa- 
tion for Teaching trfe Blind, 55 
Accrington and District Institu- 
tion for the Blind, 51, 100, 115 
Acts of Parliament-*- 

Blind Persons Act (1920), 

139 
Customs and Inland 

Revenue Act (1878), 54 
Education Acts, 68, 71, 80, 
86, 100, 103, 117, 131, 
144 
Local Government Act 

(1929), 171 

Midwives Act (1902), 184 
Poor Law Acts, 3, 24, 36, 

43. 56 

Post Office (Literature for 

the Blind) Act (1906), 97 

Public Health Act (1925), 

185 

Wireless Telegraphy (Blind 
Persons Facilities) Act 
(1926), 162 

Advisory Committee on the Wel- 
fare of the Blind 

England, 129, 132, 136, 

162, 168 
Ireland, 132 
Scotland, 132 

After-care Association fqr Blind, 
Deaf, and Crippled Children, 
London, 95 

Albucasis of Cordova, 180 
Alcmaeon of Crotona, 179 
Alexandra Institution for the 

Blind, London, 36 
Ali, Ben Isa, 180 
Allen, Dr. Edward, 175 
Alloa, 39 
Alpino, Prosper, 180 



Alston, John, 20, 21 

type, 17, 1 8, 20, 47 

writing frame, 21 

America, 16, 17, 21, 44, 55, 60, 70, 

82, 86, 93, 97, 103, 112, 117, 123, 

M4. 175 

American Foundation for the 
Blind, 144, 173 

Printing House for the 

Blind, 93 

Amsterdam, Conference at, 63 

Institution, 12 

Anagnos, Michael, 97 
Apollonius of Memphis, 179 
Apparatus, 5, 9, 13, 1 8, 64, 70, 89, 

101, 115, 132 
Argentine, Work for the Blind in, 

69, 136 

Arithmetic Board, 5, 9, 13, 18 
Armagh, Macan Asylum, 27 
*Armitage, Dr., 16, 43, 48, 61, 68, 
81,89 

, Mrs. 84, 89 

, Miss, 121 

Fund for Employment of 

Blind Workers, London, 
121 

Indigent Blind Visiting 

Society Fund, 121 

Memorial Fund, 81 

- Arnold, Miss, 60, 92, 102 

Carriage Fund, 102 

Arthur Hawksley Pension Fund, 

Leatherhead, 116 
Ashton-under-Lyne, Stalybridge, 

Dukinfield, and District Home 

Teaching Society, 61 
Association of Certificated Blind 
Masseurs, 138, 150, 155 

for Establishing Work- 

shops for the Blind, 
London, 40 

for the General Welfare of 

the Blind. See Incorpor- 
ate^ Association, etc. 

of Workers for the Blind, 



124 



215 



2l6 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 



Austin, Ethel Winifred, 134, 143 
Australia, 57, 58, 62, 80, 86, 132, 

136 
Austria, n 

BAB&S, 184 

Bacup: Rossendale Society for 
Visiting and Instructing the 
Blind, 68, 98 < 

Bag-making, 40, 118, 174 

Bailey Bequest, 134 

Bainbrigge, Major-General, 53 

Bamboo furniture-making (Bel- 
fast), 69 

Bangor, North Wales Home 
Teaching Society, 60 

Barbier, Charles, 14, 27 

Barcelona, School at, 14 

Barclay Home and School, 
Brighton, 72, 80, 82, 92, 
94, 95, 98, 120, 149, 165, 
168, 175 

Workshops for Blind Women, 

London, 88, 95, 99, 116, 137, 
143, 147, 150, 154, 160, 172 

Barlow's Charity, Leicester, 64 

*Barnard, Rev. T., 97 

Barnardo's Homes for Deaf, 
Dumb, and Blind Children, 
London, 105 

Barnsley a^d District Associa- 
tion for the Blind, 44 

Barrow and District Society for 
the Blind, 152, 157 

Barth, Joseph, 181 

Bartisch, Georg, 180 

Basket-making (Liverpool), 9 

Bates Charity, Croydon, 136 

Bath Blind School Home, 29, 77 

Home Teaching Society, 107 

Institution for the Blind, 

Deaf, and Dumb, 25, 29 

Batley: Dewsbury, Batley, and 
District Institution for the 
Blind, 133, 140 

Batty, Mr. and Mrs. J. H., 145 

Bayeux, France, i 

Beacon, The, 130 

Bedfordshire County Association, 
140, 165 

Belfast Association for the Em- 
ployment of the Industri- 
ous Blind, 46, 56, 61, 62, 
69, 84, 104 t 

Society for Home Mission 

Work, 64 



Belfast, Ulster Society for Promot- 
ing the Education of the Deaf, 
Dumb, and Blind (formerly 
Ulster Institution for the Deaf 
and Blind), 16 
Belgium, 2 

Bennett, W. H., 126, 164 
Berkshire County Blind Society, 
109, 149 

, Yarnold's Charity, 15 

Berlin, Conference at, 56, 78 
Bexley School for the Upper and 

Middle Classes, 94 
Bible in Alston type, 21 
Bird Annuities, Leatherhead, 15 
Birkenhead Society for the Blind, 

80, 108 
Birmingham, Conference at, 73 

Royal Institution for the 

BlinJ, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 

32, 39, 47, 57, 7i> 77' 82 , 

84, 89, 91,94, 99, 104, 117, 

118, 136, 170, 171 
, Stevenson Trust, William, 

104 

, Walsall, and Wolverhamp- 

ton Joint Trading Committee , 
128 
Blackburn and Darwen Society 

for the Blind, 58 

and District Workshops for 

the Blind, 104 

*Blacklock, Thomas, 5 
Blackpool and Fylde Society for 

the Blind, 159 
Blair, Rev. R. S., 41 
Blanesburgh, Lord, 168 
Blind Advocate, The, 79 

Babies, 50, 70, 74, 116, 132, 

156, 158, 168, 175 

Citizen, The, 146 

Employment Factory, Lon- 
don, 10, 88, 150 

- Female Annuity Society, 
London, 52, 73 

Gardeners, Guild of, 82 

Man's Friend (Day's) Char- 
ity, 3, 18 

Persons Act (1920), 139 

Self -Aid Tea Company, 105 

Social Aid and Literary 

Union, 108 

Tea Agency, Ltd., London, 

70 

, The, 79 

Tuners' Federation, 87 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



217 



Blind Women Workers' Annuity 

Fund, 1 02 
Blinded Soldiers, Pensions for, 

131 

Blindness, definition of, 71, 164 
*Blott, Miss, 60 
Bloxam, Miss, 71 
Board .of Education, 84, 120 
*Bolam, Canon C. E., 175 
Bolton Workshops and Homes for 

the Blind, 41, 107, 118, 144 
Bombay, American Mission 

School, 82 

Book-keeping by the Blind (Bir- 
mingham), 77 
Boot-repairing, 89, 122 
Boston and Holland Blind Society 
(formerly Boston Blind 
Society), 128, 140 

Home for Women, 157 

Botanist, Blind, 98 
Bournemouth Blind Aid Society 
(formerly Bournemouth and 
District Blind Aid Society), 112, 
120, 153 
Boyle, Arthur, 90 

, G. R., 89 

Bradford, Day Schools for the 
Blind, 63, 77 

, Odsal School, 123 

Royal Institution for the 

Blind (formerly Bradford 
Home Teaching Society), 
34, 36, 43, 50, 62, 72, 
86, 90, 98, 104, 107, ii2, 
127, 140, 157 
Bradshaw, E. V., 177 
Braille and Servers of the Blind 
League (see Servers of the 
Blind League) 

, Louis, 14, 16, 27 

Packet, The, 93 

Radio Times, 167 

Review, The, 91 

System 

America, use in, 44, 55 
Australia, use in; 58 
British Committee, 97 
China, use in, 56 
Educational books, 101 
Electrical press, 114, 177 
Hall writer, 70 
Hebrew code, 124 
Interliner, 101 
Music, 48, 54, 67, 83, 85, 90, 
109, 151, 166, 173 



Braille System (contd.) 

Periodicals (see under 

"Periodicals" in index 

for detailed list) 
Printing press, 69, 114, 177 
Schools, early use in, 35, 

47. 5i, 57, 59, 63 
Shirreff, 66 
Shorthand system, 77, 82, 

Stainsby Wayne machines, 

82, 89, 101 

Stereotyped plates, 88 
Bramhall, Miss Winifred, 161 
Brecon Association for the Blind, 

168 

Breslau, conference at, 84 
Brick- and tile-making (Marks 

Tey), 163 

Bright, Rev. Henry, 58 
Brighton 

Barclay Home and School, 
72, 80, 82, 92, 94, 95, 98, 
120, 149, 165, 168, 175 
Blind Missionary Fund, 57, 

107 
Moon Pension Fund, 112 

Society (formerly 

Moon Institute), 25, 120, 

National Institute Home, 

123 

St. Dunstan's (Branch), 129 
School for the Blind, 22, 92 
Society for Welfare of the 
Blind (formerly Blind Re- 
lief and Visiting Society) , 
36,73, 107, 112, 140, 153 
Brisseau, Pierre, 181 
Bristol- 
Home for Blind Women, 
50, 94, 141 

Teaching Association, 

29, 101 

Kempe's Trust, 28 
Leir Fund, 129 
Merlott's Charity, 7 
Royal Blind Asylum or 
School of Industry, 9, n, 
19, 28, 29, 92, 101, 112, 
136, 141, 160, 175 
British and Foreign Blind 
Association (see National 
Institute for the Blind) 

Winftess for the Blind Fund, 

174 



218 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY -OF 



Broadcast appeal, 169 

Brown, G. C., 119 

Bruges, Hospice at, 2 

Brush -making, 30, 39, 41 

Brussels, conference at, 87 

Buckle, Anthony, 84 

Buckinghamshire Association for 
the Blind, 112 

King Edwarfl Memorial 

Fund, 118 

Buckinghamshire, Tyringham 
Club Blind Pension Fund, 141 

Burnley and District Society for 
the Blind, 60, 162 

Burnett, Miss, 71, 161 

Bury Society for the Blind (for- 
merly Bury, Civilian Blind Com- 
mittee), 129, 149 

CAEN, France, i 

Caius Silvius Tetricus, 180 

Cambridge Society for the Blind, 

ii3, M5 

Game's Charity, London, 10 
*Campbell, Sir Francis, 48, 116, 
122 

, Guy, 64, 107, 109, 116, 122 

Campion, Hon. Mrs., 72, 165 
Canada, 104, 127, 132 
Canterbury School for the Blind, 

35 

Cappadocia, f 

Cardano, Girolimo, 3 

Cardiff Institute for the Blind 
(formerly Cardiff Association 
for the Blind), 38, 42, 43, 47, 
61, 64, 74, 78, 108, 118, 124, 145 

Cardiganshire Association for the 
Blind, 141 

Carlisle, Cumberland and West- 
morland Home and Workshops 
for the Blind (formerly Carlisle 
and Cumberland Association for 
promoting the reading of the 
Holy Scriptures), 28, 48, 56, 160 

Carmarthenshire Blind Society, 

33, 150 

Caswell Bay, Glyn Vivian Home, 
101 

Catholic Blind Asylum, Liverpool, 
22, 25, 29, 33, 47, 85, 160, 175 

Causes and Prevention of Blind- 
ness, Committee on, 185 

Cecilia Home for Blind Women, 
London (formerly 1 Phoenix 
Home), 38 



Census (1851-1911), 26, 35, 47, 

58,69,84,113 

Central Buying and Selling, 62 
Centralization of Collections, 141, 

153, 162 

Chair-caning, 30 
Channels of Blessing, 81 
Charity Organization Society, 50 
Charles Randell Annuity Fund, 

Leatherhead, 59 
Chartres, France, 2 
Cheltenham, Workshops for the 
Blind (previously Chel- 
tenham Home Teaching 
Society), 30, 35, 36, 39, 
75, I53 165 

St. Duastan's Hostel, 141 

Cherbourg, France, i 
Chesleden, William, 181 
Chess, 6, 87 

Chester, National Institute Home, 
145, 168 

Society for the Home Teach- 
ing of the Blind, 51, 104 

Chigwell United Charities, Essex, 

ii 
Child Memorial Home, Wakefield, 

159 

China, 56, 186 
Choir, Blind, 14, 26 
Chorley Wood College, 145 
Sunshine Home, 132, 

168, 175 
Christian Blind Relief Society (see 

National Blind Relief Society) 
Church Army Hostel, London, 

H3 

Messenger, The, 76 

Claremont Central Mission, Lon- 
don, 87 

Clergy, Blind, 118 

Pensions, 7 

Clerk, Blind, 66 

Cleveland and Durham Institute 
for the Blind, Middlesbrough, 
79, 90, 161 

Clifton, John (Oundle), 5 

Clothworkers' Company, London, 
3, 5, 12, 18, 66, 67, 81, 102, 108, 
114, 121, 137, 169 

Coal-bags, making of, 118 

Cockermouth, Hudson's Charity, 
48 

Coil-winding (New York), 129 

Colchester Home Teaching Soci- 
ety, 52 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



219 



College of Teachers of the Blind, 

102 

Collett's Charity, Hemel Hemp- 
stead, 13 

Collinet, Maria, 181 
Colne Blind Prevention and Aid 
Society, 90 

Clinic for Children, 185 

Cologne, Conference at, 67 
Compulsory Education in New 

York State, 112 
Comrades, in 
Conferences- 
Amsterdam, 63 
Berlin, 56, 78 
Birmingham, 73 
Breslau, 84 * 
Brussels, 87 
China, 127 
Cologne, 67 * 
Derby, 118 
Dresden, 52 
Edinburgh, 94 
Exeter, 113 
Frankfort, 60 
Hamburg, 101 
Indianapolis, 47 
Kiel, 69 

London, 63, 87, 120, 124, 141 
Manchester, 99, 104 
Milan, 84 
Munich, 74 
Naples, 1 08 
Norwood, 69 
Paris, 56, 82, 173 
Vienna, 49, 171 
York, 6 1 
Copenhagen Institution for the 

Blind, 13, 31 
*Corbett, Samuel, 94 
Corbett's Charity, Worcester, 100 
Cord-making, 8 
Cordwainers' Company, London, 

10 

Cork City and County Asylum for 
the Blind, 21 , 

, St. Raphael's Home, 65 

Cornwall County Association for 
the Blind (formerly Corn- 
wall Home Teaching Soci- 
ety), 29, 162 

, Dowager Lady Robinson's 

Fund, 29, 95 

Counties Associations for the 
Blind (see Union of Counties 
Associations) 



County Asylum Fund, Leather- 
head, 8 1 

Coventry Society for the Blind, 55 
Cowley, R. G., 171 
Craigmillar Harp, The, 75 
Cranborne, Viscount, 32 

Memorial Fund, 99 

Cred6 of Leipzig, 182 
Croydon, Bales' Charity, 136 

Voluntary Association for 

the Blind, 153, 157, 160 

Cumberland and Westmorland 
Home and Workshops for tne 
Blind, Carlisle, 28, 48, 56, 160 
Cunliffe, Sir Ellis, 165 
Cureton, Harry Osborne, 19 
Customs and Inland Revenue Act 

(i8?8), 54 
Cycling for the blind, 66 

Daily Mail, The (Braille Edition), 

99 

d'Albe, Fournier, 115 
Darlington Society for the Blind, 

105, 157 

Workshop for the Blind, 145 

Daviel, Jacques (France), 181 
Dawn, 64, 159 

Day-centre for the blind (U.S.A.), 

82 

Day's Charity, 3, 18 
Deaf -blind, Morse c6de for, 132 
, Stainsby Wayne Writer for, 

89 

Deas, J. H. Charlton, 112 
Defective Blind, Schools and 
Homes for, 91, 92, in, 
161, 177 

Children, Committee on, 87 

Demonstration in Trafalgar 

Square, 141 

Demosthenes the Oculist, 180 
Dence, Rev. A. T., 168 
Denmark, 13, 31 
Den ward's Charity, Kent, n 
Departmental Committee, 1 20, 

129 
Deptford and District Society for 

the Blind, London, 71 
Derby Association for the Blind, 
121 

, Conference at, 118 

Devon County Association for the 

Blind (formerly Devon County 

Home Teaching Society), 108, 

133 



22O 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 



Devon (see North Devon and 

South Devon) 
Devonport and Western Counties 

Association for the Blind, 33, 

*73 

Dewsbury, Batley, and District 
Institution for the Blind, 133, 
140 

Diack, Sir Alexander 163, 169 
Dictaphone, Use of, 66 
Directory of agencies for the Blind, 

47, 65 

*Dixson, W. A., 143, 155 
Dog guides, 145, 160, 163 
license, exemption from, 54 
Doncaster and District Home 

Teaching Association, 49 
Dorothy Wilson's Charity, York, 5 
Dorset County Association for the 

Blind, 133 

Douglas-Hamilton, Miss L., 88 
Dow, Blind Writers' Fund, 102 

Mrs. (n&e Howden), 60, 102 

Dowager Lady Robinson's Fund, 

Cornwall, 29, 95 
Drapers' Company, London, 8 
Dresden, conference at, 52 
Dressmaking for the Blind 

(Canada), 132 
Dublin- 
Dublin Association for the 
Relief of the Indigent 
Blind, 30 
Irish Association for the 

Blind, 146 
National Institute and 

Molyneux Asylum, 13 
Richmond Institution, 12, 

52,92 

Rochford Wade Hostel, 145 
St. Joseph's Asylum, 

Drumcondra, 32 
St. Mary's Catholic Asylum 
for the Female Blind, 31, 

65 

St. Vincent's Home, 31 
Simpson's Hospital, 7 
Dumfries and Galloway Society 

for the Blind, 60 
*Duncombe, Mrs. Adolphus, 82 
Dundee 

Dundee Mission to the Out- 
door Blind, 56 
Royal Institution for the 
Blind, 38, 63, 78, 101, 
121, 124 



Dundee (contd.) 

Webster and Davidson 

Mortification, 21 

Durham, Northern Counties 
Blind Society, 62, 73 

EAGAR, W. McG., 169 
East Anglian School for Blind 
Children, Gorleston-on-Sea, 115 
East Grinstead Sunshine Home, 
168, 175 

Ham Welfare Association 

for the Blind, 153 

London Home and School 

for Blind Children, 
50 

Workshops for the 

Blind, 114 

Suffolk Association for the 
Blind 123, 156, 174 

Sussex Association for the 

Blind, 149 

Eastbourne Society for the Social 
Welfare of the Blind, no, 
146 

Eastern Counties Association for 
the Blind (formerly Eastern 
Counties Union), 106 
Ebury Street Classes for the 

Blind, London, 29 
Edinburgh 

Club for the Blind, 78 
Conference, 94 
Edinburgh and South-East 
Scotland Society for 
Teaching the Blind, 30, 
95, 116, 175 
Home for Blind Women, 15, 

53, i?i 

Royal Blind Asylum and 
School for the Blind 
(formerly Asylum for the 
Industrious Blind), 9, n, 
J 5, 4 8 53 6 3 66, 69, 
73, 75, 77, 9i, 92, 95, 

IOT, 124, 154, 171 

School for Blind Children, 

18, 26 

Scottish National Institu- 
tion for Blinded Soldiers 
and Sailors, 124, 169 
Society of Arts, 16 
Edison Bell Phonograph, use of, 

66 

Education (Blind and Deaf 
Children) Act (1893), 71, 73 



.WORK FOR THE BLIND 



221 



Education (Defective Children) 
Act (1899), 80 

Act, Secondary (1902), 86 

Act (1918), 131 

(1921), 144 

(Administrative Provision) 

Act (1907), 100 

f Blind and Deaf Children 

(Scotland), Act (1890), 68 

(Scotland) Acts (1908, 1913, 

1918), 103, 117, 131 

, Grants for, 120 

, Higher (see Chorley Wood, 

Norwood, Worcester) 

Effingham Home for Blind 
Women, 171 

Egypt, 78, 84 

Eichholz, Dr., 84 

Elliott Bequest, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 116 

Elm Court School for Girls, Lon- 
don, 88, 129 

Elsing Spital, London, 2 

Emanuel Charity, York, 7 

Embossed Scientific Books Fund, 
101, 167 

Employment bureau, 87 

Erlich, Paul, 184 

Esperanto, 108, iio.c' 

Essex, Chigwell United Charities, 
ii 

County Association for the 

Blind, 91, 141, 158, 169 

Eustis, Mrs. Harrison, 163 

Evans, Dr. P. M., 137, 153, 162 

Exeter, conference at, 113 

, West of England Institution 

for the Blind (formerly Exeter 
Indigent Blind School), 19, 20, 
21, 22, 25, 27, 28, 32, 36, 42, 44, 
65, 90, 101, 108, 118 

Ex-Service Men's Fund, 154 

Eyes to the Blind Pension Fund, 
London, 150 

to the Blind Society, Lon- 
don, 88, 150, 1^4 

FARMER, Rachel, 13 

Farming for the blind (Australia), 

80 
Fawcett, Henry, 54 

Memorial Scholarship, 66 

Fender-making, 62, 118, 164 
Ferguson Bequest, Dundee, 121 
Fife and Kinross Society for Teach- 
ing the Blind, Kirkcaldy, 38 



Forfarshire Mission to the Blind, 

44 

Forster, Rev. S. S., 49, 68 
Foucault, M., 26 
France, i, 2, 8, 58, 61, 123, 127 
Frankfort, conference at, 60 
*Fraser, Captain Ian, 130, 174 
Frere, James, 19, 40 

type, AO, 47 

Fry, Dr. K., 17 
Fry's type, 1 7 
Fuchs, Ernst, 183, 186 
Fuller's Charity, Sussex, 10 
Fullers' Company, London, 3 
Furniture-making (Manchester) , 

172 

*GALE, James, 34 

Gall, James, 15, 18 

type, 15 

Gallagher, Miss, 76, 155 

Garaway, Miss M. M. R., 124 

Gardeners, Guild of Blind, 82 

Gardner, Henry, 57 

Gardner's Trust, 10, 57, 62, 65, 78, 

79, 87, 89, 100, 101, 105, 147 
*Gatti, Francisco, 69 
George Barker Memorial, Oxford, 
96 

Phillips' Trust, Northamp- 

ton, 81 

Walthew Bluest, Stock- 
port, in 

Germany, i, n 
Ghent, Hospice at, 2 
Gibraltar, Blind of, 175 
*Gilbert, Elizabeth, 28, 29, 44, 

63 
Glamorgan Association for the 

Blind, 154 

Institution for the Blind, 171 

Glasgow Mission to the Outdoor 

Blind of Glasgow and the 
West of Scotland, 32 
Royal Asylum for the Blind, 

ii, 15, 57. So, 95. 115 
, St. Vincent's Schools, 46, 

H3 
Workshop for Ex-service 

Men, 169 
Glass-makers, Guild of (Venice), 

1 80 

Glaucoma, treatment of, 182 
Gloucester City Society for the 

BAnd, 113 
, Wintle's Charity, 24 



222 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY .OF 



Gloucestershire Association for the 
Blind, 133, 165 

, Gyde's Charity, 73 

Glyn Vivian Home, Caswell Bay, 
101 

Godwin's Charity, Hemel Hemp- 
stead, 72 

Goldsmiths' Company, London, 

13. 19 

Gonnelli, Giovani, 4' 
Gorleston-on-Sea, East Anglian 

School for Blind Children, 115 
Gospel Light in Heathen Darkness, 

75 

Governesses' Benevolent Institu- 
tion, 23 

Gower, Bishop Henry de, 2 

Granger's Charity, London, 8 

Gray, Mrs. (nee Western), 83, 85 

Greater London Fund, 147, 165, 
1 66, 169 

Greenwich Workshop (see Kent) 

Griffiths, Rev. E. IL, 163 

Grimsby Society for the Blind, 
141 

Grimwood, Miss, 93 

Groom's Crippleage and Flower 
Girls' Mission (formerly Water- 
cress and Flower Girls' Christian 
Mission), 40 

Guernsey Association for the 
Blind, 142 ( 

Guide to Institutions and Charities 
for the Blind, 47, 113 

Gyde Charity, Gloucester, 73 

HAAB of Zurich, 184 
Hair friction glove-making (New- 
castle), 21 

plaiting (York), 23 

Halifax Society for the Blind 

(formerly Halifax Society for 
Home Teaching and Assistance 
for the Blind), 65, 146 
*Hall, H. L., 93 

Braille-writer, 70 

Hallet, Mr., 78 

Hamburg, Conference at, 101 

Hampshire and Isle of Wight 

School for the Blind, 38 

Association for the Blind, 

150 

Hampstead Magazine, 91 
Hampton's Mission for the Blind, 

London (see South London 

Institute for the Blindji 



Hanley, Stoke-on -Trent and North 

Staffs. Committee for the Blind, 

77, 87, 102 

Hardy, Rev. C. F., 127 
Harley's Charity, London, 22 
Harman, Bishop, 185 
Harris, Rev. S. F., 108 

, William, 31, 47, 113 

Harrogate and District Society for 

the Blind, 146 
Harry Osborne Cureton Charity, 

19 
Harry Weedon Memorial Fund, 

1 66 

HarsdorfTer, George, 4 
Hartlepool, Care of the Blind in, 

133 

Workshop, 149, 157 

Hartley, Charles, 137 

Hastings, Fund for the Blind of, 
108 

Voluntary Association for 

the Blind, 146 

Haiiy, Valentin, 8, 12 

Hawksley Pension Fund, Leather- 
head, 116 

Hawley, George, 172 

Haynes Charity, Oxford, n 

Hemel Hempstead, Collet's Char- 
ity, 13 

, Miss Godwin's Charity, 



72 

*Hendry, Andrew, 62, 132 

Henshaw, Thomas, 12 

Henshaw's Institution for the 
Blind, Manchester, 12, 18, 23, 
24, 26, 35, 53, 59, 66, 70, 71, 74, 
88, 92, 96, in, 119, 126, 148, 
166, 172, 176 

Hepburn Starey Blind Aid Soci- 
ety, London (formerly Somers- 
Town Blind Aid Society), 38, 
125, 154 

Heredity and blindness, 183 

Hereford County Association for 
the Blind, 137 

Herophilos of Chalcedon, 179 

Hertfordshire Society for the 
Blind, 124 

Hetherington's Charity, London r 
6 

Heywood, Miss Isabel, 83, 99, 119 

High Salvington Home for the 
Blind, 127 

Hill, Rev. J. St. Clair, 102, 105, 
163 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



223 



Hill Murray, Rev. W., 56 

- Hirst, Alfred, 58, 75, 100 
Hodgkin, Misses, 67, 173 
Holden, James, 96 
Holland, 12 

"Hollins, Alfred, 66 

Home Teachers, Prize for, 169 

Teaching Society, London, 

28, 125, 128 

Hor a Jucunda, 73 
Horizon, The, 151 
Hove Home for the Blind, no 
Howard's Charity, London, 28 
Howe Memorial Press, 97 
Huddersfield and District Blind 
Society, 29 

Workshop for Mien, 82 

Hudson's Charity, Cockermouth, 

48 

Hughes' typograph, 26 
Hull and East Riding Institute for 
the Blind (formerly Hull 
Home Teaching Society), 
37, 40, 45, 62, 63, 78, 80, 
98 

, Rockliffe Home for Women, 

80 

Humston's Charity, London, 6 
Huntingdonshire Society for the 
Blind, 150 

ILLINGWORTH, W. H., 66, 69, 92 
Illinois Institution, U.S.A., 70 
Incorporated Association for the 
General Welfare of the Blind, 
London, 29, 40, 53, 69, 137, 

165 

India, 66, 82, 85, 113, 130, 137 

Indian Association of Workers, 
130 

Indianapolis, conference at, 47 

Indigent Blind Visiting Society, 
London, 17, 71, 155, 177 

Information with regard to In- 
stitutions, Societies, and Classes 
for the Blind, 65 

*Ingham, John, 51 

Ink-print periodicals (see under 
"Periodicals ") 

Inspectors, Ministry of Health, 
139, 161, 164 

Inverness, Northern Counties In- 
stitute for the Blind (formerly 
Society for Teaching the Blind 
to Read in the Northern Coun- 
ties), 43, 49, 59, 65 



Ipswich Society for the Blind 
(formerly Ipswich and Suffolk 
Institution), 50, 142, 156, 158, 

i?4 
Ireland (see Armagh, Belfast, 

Cork, Dublin, Limerick) 
Isle of Ely Society for the Blind, 

154 

of Wight Society for the 

Benefit of me Blind, 72 

Italy, 3, 114 

*JACOB of Netra, Blind, 7 
James Holden Trust, Manchester, 
96 

Mew's Charity, London, 114 

Jamieson Holiday Home, Kirklis- 
ton, 30, 116 

Pension Fund, 30, 95 

Jane Stobie Clark Pension Fund, 

Edinburgh, 63 
Japan, 55 

Jeffrey, D. A. R., 78 
Jenner, Edward, 181 
Jerusalem School for the Blind, 

75 

Jewish Blind Society, London 
(formerly Institution for the 
Relief of the Indigent Blind of 
the Jewish Persuasion), 14 
John the Good (France), 2 
Johnson, Edmund, ^2, 74 

(Edmund) annuities, 74 

, Harriet, 56 

, Stuart, 32, 107 

Johnston, Rev. D., 9, 15 
Jonathan Williams Annuities, 

Leatherhead, 38, 39 
Jones, Sir Robert, Bart., 150 
Journal of Incorporated Society of 

Trained Masseurs, 126 
Julia Short Annuity Fund, 102 

KAHN, Otto, 125 

Keighley and District Institution 

for the Blind, no 
Kempe's Trust, Bristol, 28 
Kensington Institute, London (see 

"West London Workshops") 
Kent County Association, 142 
, Elizabeth Denward's Char- 
ity, n 
, Workshop for the Blind of 

(Greenwich), 53, 70, 172 
Kesteven Blind Society, 142 
Key to Braille Music Notation, 166 



224 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 



Kiel, conference at, 69 

Kilburn Home and School, 

London, 45 
King Edward Memorial Fund, 

Buckingham, 118 
King's Messenger, The, 75 
Kirkcaldy : Fife and Kinross Soc- 
iety for Teaching the Blind, 38 
Kirkliston, 30, 116 
Knitting, hand, 3, 88 

, machine, 88, 89, 118 

Knitting-needle making, 158 
Koller, Aureb and Carl (Vienna), 
183 

LAMB, Miss, 75 
*Lambert, Alderman, 37 
Lanark, St. Vincent's Schools and 

Hostel, 46, 113 
Lancaster Society for the Blind, 

102 

*Layton, P. F., 104 
League of Nations Report on the 

Welfare of the Blind, 172 
Leamington Home for Women, 168 

Sunshine Home, 158 

Leatherhead, Royal School for the 

Blind (see also School for the 
Indigent Blind, London), 10, 
59, 74, 88, 114, 116, 138, 163, 
171 

Leeds Blind* Persons Act Com- 
mittee, 165 

Visiting Society, 57 

City Council, 154, 169 

Embossed Books Fund, 121 

Incorporated Institution for 

the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb 
(formerly Institution for the In- 
dustrious and Indigent Blind), 
40. 53, 57. 59, 146* 165 
Lees, Miss M., 92 
Leicester, Barlow's Charity, 64 

, Leicestershire and Rutland 

Incorporated Institution 
for the Blind (formerly 
Leicester Association for 
Promoting the General 
Welfare of the Blind), 
31, 42, 53, 60, 113, 142, 

*54 

, Wycliffe Cottage Home and 

Hostel, 65 



Leicester, Wycliffe Society, 72 
Leir Fund, Bristol, 129 
Leitch, John, n 
Lesueur, Franois, 8 
Letter-Friend Society for Blind 

Children, 144 
Library, Free Public, 64 

, Massage, 143 

, National (see National 

Library) 

, Students', 78, 100 

Life Insurance, 133 
Light Bringer, The, 122 

to the Blind, 130 

Lighthouses for the Blind, France, 

123 
Limerick Asylum for Blind 

Females, 17 

Lincoln Blind Society, 142 
Lincolnshire Blind Association, 

121, 142 
Linden Lodge School for the 

Blind, London, 58, 88 
Lindsey Society for the Blind, 

150 

Lister, Sir J., 182 
Literary Journal, The, 114 
Little, John Fletcher, 122 
Liverpool, Catholic Blind Asylum, 
22, 25, 29, 33, 47, 85, 160, 

175 
Home for Blind Children, 50, 

70, 74, 116 
School for the Indigent 

Blind, 9, 10, 13, 14, 26, 

78 
Workshops and Home 

Teaching Society, 33, 35, 42, 76, 

80, 108, 137, 142 
Llandevaud Home for the Blind, 

sy 

Workshops, IIQ 

Lloyd Johnstone, Dr. J., 143 
Llwynypia, Rhondda Institution, 

143, 174 

Local Government Act (1929), 171 

(Scotland), Act (1929), 

171 

Board, 120, 129 

Locker-Lampson, G., 136 

t London 

London and Blackheath Associa- 
tion, 19 



f Societies and Institutions in London are given throughout the Index 
in alphabetical order, but in addition a list is given on page 211. 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



225 



London Association for the Blind 
(formerly Surrey Associa- 
tion for the Blind), 30, 
no, 118, 127, 130, 134, 
!3 8 i43 M 6 . 158, 163, 
169 

conferences in, 63, 87, 120, 

124, 141 

County Council, 88, 92, no, 

176 ' 

Institute of Massage, 83, 105 

knitting industries, 129 

School Board, 71 

Society for Teaching and 

Training the Blind, 19, 22, 25, 
26, 35, 37. 54. 67 7. 73. 81, 

91, IIO, Il6, 122, 125, 138, 147, 

150, 157, 159, 160, 165, 170 
Lord Dinner Fund, 105 

Pension Func 1 , 105 

Louis Braille, Le, 61 
Louis IX of France, i 
Lovett, F. R., 164, 172 
Lowe, Arthur, 170 
*Lowther, Charles, 14 
Lucas, Francisco (of Spain), 3 

type, 19, 22, 47, 57, 70 

Luton, South Bedfordshire Soci- 
ety for the Blind (formerly 
Luton and District Committee) , 
136, 140, 151, 165 

MACAN Asylum, Armagh, 27 
Macclesfield Home Teaching 

Society, 52 
Macgregor, E. D., 164 

Prize Fund, 169 

McHardy, Prof., 105 
McNeile, Rev. N. F., 124 
Madras, Music Class for the Blind, 

85 

Magnet, use of, 181, 184 
Maldon, Middleton Home, 147, 

155 
Manchester 

Conferences at, 9,9, 104 
Henshaw's Institution for 
the Blind, 12, 18, 23, 24, 
26, 35. 53, 59. 66, 70, 71, 
74, 88, 92, 96, in, 119, 
126, 148, 166, 172, 176 
James Holden Trust, 96 
Manchester and Salford 
Blind Aid Society, 83, 
85, 88, 97, 106, 135, 148, 
158 



Manchester (contd. ) 

Mary Ann Scott Memorial 

Home, in 

National Library (North- 
ern Branch), 135 
Maps for the Blind, 6, 89 
Marks Tey, Essex, 163 
Martin, T. H., 109, 125 
Mary Had^y Pension Fund, 

Birmingham, 117 
Massage first taught, 74 

, Institute of, 83, 105, 122, 125 

Library, 143 

Masseurs, Association of Certifi- 
cated Blind, 138, 150, 155 
Mather, Mrs. (nie Holt), 93, 123 
Mat loom, 158 
- -making, 15 
Matilda Ziegler Magazine, 103 
Mattress-making, 95, in 
Maxwell, Sister Mary, 47 
*Mayhew, P. T., 173 
Mechanic, blind, 90 
*Meiklejon, Miss Alice, 91, in 
Melbourne Library for the Blind, 

136 

Memmingen, Bavaria, i 
Merivale, Miss Judith, 158 
Merlott's Charity, Bristol, 7 
*Merrick, Francis, 87 
Merridan, W. J., 176 
Merthyr Tydfil Institution for the 

Blind, 155, 172 

Metropolitan and Adjacent Coun- 
ties Association for the 
Blind (formerly Union of 
Institutions, Societies and 
Agencies for the Blind). 
See "South Eastern and 
London Counties Associa- 
tion for the Blind" 
Society for the Blind, Lon- 



don, 172 

Middlesbrough, Cleveland and 
South Durham Workshops for 
the Blind, 79, 90, 161 
Middlesex Association for the 

Blind, 151 

Middleton Home for the Blind, 
Sou then d-on-Sea (later Maldon) , 
76, 147, 155 

Midland Counties Association for 
the Blind (formerly Mid- 
land Counties Union), 106, 
15-$, 170 
Institution (see Nottingham) 



226 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 



Mid wives' Act, 184 

Milan, conference at, 84 

Ministering Children's League, 78 

Ministry of Health (see also "Ad- 
visory Committee"), 129, 138, 
148, 161, 164, 172, 185 

Mission Field, The, 93 

Mitford, Northern Counties Blind 
Society, 48, 62 < 

Moldenhawer, Johann, 31 

Molison, Mr. and Mrs., 38, 63 

Monk, Miss Phyllis, 145 

Montreal Association and Work- 
shops for the Blind, 104 

Moody 's Charity, Southsea, 106 

Moon, Adelaide, 120 

* , Dr. William, 25, 36, 60, 73, 

120 

, Robert, 93 

Pension Fund, 112, 120 

Society, Brighton, 25, 120, 

151 

type, 25, 47, 63, 73, 93 

Magazine, 99 

Newspaper, 151 

Moreau, Pierre, 4 

Moslems, Mission to Blind, 119 
*Mowatt, Godfrey, 96, 131, 132, 

150 

Moyes, Dr., 9 
Munby, F. J.^52, 99, 107, 123 

Joseph, 52, 107 

Munich, conference at, 74 
Museum of "Blindiana," 176 
Museums and the blind, 112 
Music, Braille notation, 48, 54, 67, 

83, 85, 90, 151, 166, 

!?3 

, International Congress in 

Paris (1929)* 173 
, Lucas notation, 25 

Tutor in Braille type, 85 

Musicians, International Associa- 
tion of, 103 

Mysore School for the Blind, 
Deaf, and Dumb, 85 

NAPLES, conference at, 108 

Nasmyth, James, 71 

National Blind Relief Society 
(formerly Christian Blind 
Relief Society), 23, 163 

Institute for the Blind 

(formerly British a^d Foreign 
Blind Association) 

After-care Department, 143 



National Institute for the Blind 
(contd.) 

*Armitage, Dr. T. R., 43, 
68 

Blind Visiting Society 

Fund, 121 

Fund for Employ- 

ment of Blind 
Workers, 121 

Memorial Fund, 81 

Bailey Bequest, 134 
*Bolam, Canon, 175 
Braille, introduction of, 

43 

music, 48, 90, 128, 

151, 166 

peripdicals, 59, 70, 

75, 99, 109, in, 114, 
119, 126, 135, 167, 176 

Brighton Home, 123, 129 
Chester Home, 145, 168 
Chorley Wood College, 145 
Clifton Home, Bristol, 141 
Collections, Centralization 

of, 162 
Conference on Educational 

Books, 124 

Diack, Sir Alexander, 163 
Eagar, W. McG., 169 
Employment bureau, 87 
Ex-service Men's Fund, 154 
Foundation (1868), 43 
Gardeners, Guild of Blind, 

82 
Greater London Fund, 147, 

165 

Headquarters, 87, 121 
H.M. King George V, 121 
Home Teaching Society, 

28, 125, 128 
Workers' Scheme, 

147, 170 

Hostels for Women, Lon- 
don, 130, 166, 169 
Ink-print music, 148, 166 
InVprint periodicals, 91, 

130 
Leamington Home for 

Women, 168 
Leeds Embossed Books 

Fund, 121 

McHardy, Prof., 105 
Mansion House Meeting, 

108 
Massage Department, 105, 

122, 125, 143 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



227 



National Institute for the Blind 
contd.) 

Moon Branch, 25, 120 
*Mowatt, G., 150 
Museumof"Blindiana,"i76 
*Pearson, Sir A., 122, 125, 

126, 148, 155 
Printing (High speed), 114, 

177 

*Ranger; Sir A. Washing- 
ton, 134, 154 
Rotary press, 177 
St. Dunstan's, 125, 129, 151 
St. Leonards Convalescent 

and Holiday Home, 162 
Shorthand, Braille, 115 
Stainsby, Hen*y, 105, 160 
Meniorial Gift Fund, 

163 

Stereotyped elates, 48, 88 
Sunshine Homes, 132, 156, 

158, 168, 175 
Taylor, H. M., 124, 167 
*Towse, Sir Beachcroft, 

X 54 J 55 168, 169 
Travelling secretary, no 
National Institute of Massage, 

105, 122 
League of the Blind, 72, 79, 

151 

Library for the Blind, 60, 

85, 92, 102, 108, 127, 128, 
134, 135, 143, 163, 166 

Ophthalmic Treatment 

Board, 186 

- Union of Professional and 
Industrial Blind, 147, 155, 156, 
1 60 

*Neary, H. J. P., 146 
Neisser, Albert, 182 
Netting, 8 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Elliott Bequest, 116 
Newcastle and Gateshead 
Home Teaching Society, 
42, 148, 159 t 
Northern Asylum for the 
Blind, Deaf, and Dumb, 
20, 25 

Royal Victoria School for 
the Blind (formerly 
Royal Victoria Blind 
Asylum), 20, 22, 25, 46, 
73, 74, 96, 143, 161, 166 
Workshops for the Blind, 
42, 96 



Newnam Pensions, 12 
Newport, Swinnerton Memorial 
Home, 164 

and Monmouth Blind Aid 

Society (formerly Newport and 
Monmouth Home Teaching 
Society), 39, 87, 119, 130, 164 

Newton Abbot Care of the Blind 

Society, 10 
New York 

Association for the Blind, 

93 

Committee for Men Blinded 
in Battle, 123 

for the Prevention of 

Blindness, 184 
Institute for the Education 
of the Blind (formerly 
New York Institution 
for the Blind), 16, 17, 44 
Point, 44, 55 
New Zealand, 67, 109 
*Nicholls, A. M., 138 
Nicholson, Rev. J. B., 97 
*Norris, Edwin, 81 
North Adelaide, Royal Institution 

for the Blind, 62, 80, 132 
Beds. Blind Society (for- 
merly Bedford and Dis- 
trict Blind Society), 140, 

165 

Devon Blind Society, no 

London Homes for Aged 

Christian Blind Men and 
Women, 58, 80, 103, 174 

Shields, Northern Counties 

Blind Society (see also 
"Tynemouth"),64, 73,81, 
83, 119, 159 

Wales Home Teaching 

Society, Bangor, 60 

Wales School for Blind 

Children, 91 

Northampton and County Associa- 
tion for the General Wel- 
fare of the Blind, 76, 79, 
81, 164 

(Town and County) Associa- 
tion for the Blind, 164, 1 66 

Northamptonshire Association for 
the Blind, 148, 164 

Northern Counties Association for 
the Blind (formerly North of 
England Union of Institutions 
and Ageftcies for the Blind), 99, 
161 



228 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY .OF 



Northern Counties Blind Society, 
48, 62, 64, 73, 81, 
83, 119, 159 

Institute, Inverness, 

43, 49, 59, 65 

North-Western Counties Associa- 
tion (formerly North-West 
Counties Union), 106 

Norwich Institution (formerly 
Norwich Asylum and School for 
the Blind), n, 18, 22, 69, 85, 
122, 151 

Norwood, A. B., 86, 127 

, conference at, 69 

, Royal Normal College, 48, 

53, 61, 64, 66, 69, 75, 76, 79, 
85, 103, 116, 122, 126, 176 

Nottingham County Associa- 
tion for the Blind, 148, 
1 66 

Public Library, 64 

, Royal Midland Institution 

for the Blind, 23, 27, 34, 51, 
61, 67, 72, 74, 85, 90, 92, 94, 96, 
109, in, 114, 126, 143, 164, 
1 66 

Nuggets, 135 

O'DwYER, Sir Michael, 162 
Oldham 

Blind Women's Industries, 
92, 143 

Home Teaching Society, 55, 

143, 155, 176 
Workshops, 62 

Ophthalmia neonatorum, notifi- 
cation of, 184, 185 
Ophthalmological Society, Lon- 
don, 183 
Ophthalmologists, Council of 

British, 185 
Ophthalmoscope, 182 
Optophone, 115 
Orchestra, blind, 8 
Organists, blind, 6, 8, 27, 36, 66, 

94, 128, 176 

Orthography, abbreviated, 58 
Oundle, 5 

Outlook for the Blind, 103 
Overend Cottage Homes, Sheffield, 

79 

Oxford- 
City and County Society 

for the Blind, 54, 122 
George Barker* Memorial, 
96 



Oxford (contd. ) 

Haynes Pensions, 12 
Woodington Pensions, 52 

PAINTER Stainers' Company, 2, 7 
Paisley and District Workshop 

for the Blind, 90 
Palestine, school in, 75 
Paris- 
Association Valentin Haiiy, 

127 

Conferences at, 56 V 2, 173 
L'hopital des quinze vingts, 

i 

L'institution nationale des 
jeunes aveugles, 8, 16, 
27 

Parliamentary Bills, 117 
*Parr, Thomas, 24 
*Pearson, Sir Arthur, 122, 123, 
125, 126, 128, 131, 138, 
148, 155 

Memorial Fund, 155 

Pembrokeshire Blind Relief 

Society, 35, 148 
Pennsylvania 

Accidents Causing Blind- 
ness in, 185 
Home Teaching Society, 

93 
Institution, Philadelphia, 

17 

Working Home for Blind 

Men, 93 

Pepi-Ankh of Iri, 179 
Percy, Lady Algernon, 132 
Periodicals in Braille 

Blind Citizen, The, 146 

Braille Mail, 99 

Musical Magazine, log 

Packet, 93 

Radio Times, 167 

Channels of Blessing, 81 

Church Messenger, The, 76 

Comrades, in 

Craigmillar Harp, The, 75 

Daily Mail (Braille Edi- 
tion), 99 

First monthly, 59 

First weekly, 71 

Gospel Light in Heathen 
Darkness, 75 

Hampstead Magazine, The, 

9i 

Hora Jucunda, 73 
Horizon, The, 151 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



229 



Periodicals in Braille (contd.) 

King's Messenger, The, 75 
Light B ringer, The, 122 
Literary Journal, The, 114 
Louis Braille, Le, 61 
Massage Journal, 126 
Matilda Zieglev Magazine 

- (U.S.A.), 103 
Mission Field, The, 93 
Nuggets, -135 
Playtime, 70 
Progress, 59 

Punch, 176 
Recreation, 75 
Santa Lucia, 67, 173 
School Magazine, The, 119 
Seeker, The, 161 
Tribune, The, 156 
Venture, The, 176 
Weekly Summary, The, 71 
in ink-print 

Beacon, The (later TA0 Afezu 

Beacon), 91, 130 
Blind, The, 79, 139 

Advocate, The, 79 

Braille Review, The, 91 
L?gM /o M* B//w^ (India), 

130 

Outlook, The (U.S.A.), 103 
St. Dunstan's Review, 126 
Teacher of the Blind, The, 

119 
Teachers' Forum, The 

(U.S.A.), 173 
Valentin Haiiy, Le, 61 

in Moon type 

Dawn, 64, 159 

Moon Magazine, The, 99 

Newspaper, The, 151 

, total number of, 1 73 

Perkins Institution, Boston, 

U.S.A. (formerly New England 
Asylum for the Blind), 16, 17, 

21, 55. 97. 175 
Perth Society for Teaching the 

Blind, 41 
Peterborough Society * for the 

Blind, 117 
Phoenix Home, London (see 

"Cecilia Home for Blind 

Women") 

Piano-tuning, 16, 65 
Pierson Webber, Captain, 91 
Pine, H. W., 126 
*Platt,H. E., 109, 118 
Playtime, 70 

1 6 (2155) 



Plymouth 

Devonport and Western 
Counties Association, 

173 

South Devon and Cornwall 
Institution (formerly In- 
stitution for the Instruc- 
tion and Employment of 

thelind),34,36, 54,55, 
70, 79, 108, 109 
Pocock, Thomas, 37 
Pollard, Captain G., 169 
Pontefract Blind Visiting Society, 

in 

Pontlieu, France, I 
Pontypridd and District Institu- 
tion for the Blind, 139, 167, 170 
Poor Adult Blind Pension Society, 
London, 32, 99 

Law 

Act (1879), 56 
Amendment Act (1845), 24 
Amendment Act (1868), 43 
(Certified Schools) Act 

(1862), 36 
Elizabethan, 3 
Portsmouth 

Scale's Charity, 86 
Voluntary Association fgr 

the Blind, 151 
Post Office (Literature for the 

Blind), Act (1906)^97 
Postal Regulations, 93, 97, 164 

Regulations in America, 93 

in Australia, 86 

Poultry-rearing, 91 

*Preece, H. C., no, 160 

Preston Industrial Institute for 

the Blind, 42, 51, 75, 79, 119, 

156 
Prevention of blindness, 182, 184, 

185, 186 

Priestley, Miles, 139, 164 
Priestman, Alderman, 62 
Print, raised, 3, 4, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 

20, 21, 25, 44, 55, 81, 88, 93, 97, 

114, 177 
Printing and Kindred Trades 

Blind Aid Committee, 166 
Progress, 59 
Protestant Blind Society (see 

Royal Blind Pension Society) 
Ptah of Memphis, 1 79 
Public Health Act (1925), 185 
Punch, 176 } 
*Purse, Een, 132, 143, 147, 156 



230 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY. OF 



RAMPAZETTO of Rome, 3 
*Rangcr, Sir Washington, 134, 

J 54 

Rashdale's Charity, London, 10 
Rau, P. N. V., 130 
Raverat, G. L., 173 
Reading Association for the Wel- 
fare of the Blind (formerly 
Blind Aid Society), 71, 161 
Reading Competition (National 

Library), 143 
Recreation, 75 
Regional Supervisor of Blind 

Welfare, 177 

Register of the Blind, 138, 148 
Registration, uniform, 167 
Reigate 

Ellen Terry National Home, 

134, 161, 177 

Home Industries Depart- 
ment (N.I.B.), 147, 170 
Removal of tear-passage, Opera- 
tion for, 181 
Rhondda Institution, Llwynypia, 

143, 174 

Rhyl, North Wales School, 91 
Richmond Institution, Dublin, 

12, 52, Q2 

Ritchie, Dr. J. M., 124, 170, 172 
Roberts, Rt. Hon. G. H., 162, 

1 68 
Robertson, Dl\ W. Tindal, 54 

* Robinson, Miss Jean, 176 
Rochdale and District Society for 

the Blind, 46, 76, 96 
Rochfort Wade Hostel, Dublin, 

H5 
Rockliffe, Dr. W. C., 80 

Home, Hull, 80 

Roller skating for the blind, 66 

Roman type, 47 

Rope mat-making, 18 

Rosedale, Dr. H. G., 114, 146, 169 

Rossendale Society for Visiting 
the Blind, Bacup, 68, 98 

Rothwell, Miss, 129 

Rouen, France, i 

Royal Blind Asylum and School 
for the Blind, Edin- 
burgh, 9, n, 15, 48, 
53. 63, 66, 69, 73, 

75. 77. 9i, 92, 95, 
101, 124, 154, 171 
Pension Society, Lon- 
don (formerly Protestant Blind 
Society), 37, 52, 66, 713, 77 



Royal Commission on the Blind, 

Deaf, and Dumb, 63, 67 
- Dundee Institution for the 

Blind, 38, 63, 78, 101, 121, 

124 
-- Glasgow Asylum for the 

Blind, u, 15, 57, 80, 95, 



- Institution for the Blind, 

Birmingham, 24, 25, 
27,28,30,32,39,47, 
57. 7L 77. 82, 84, 
89, Qi, 94, 99, 104, 
117, 118, 136, 170, 
171 

-- for the Blind, Brad- 
ford, 34, 36, 43, 50, 62, 72, 
86, 90, 98, 104, 107, 112, 
127, 140, 157 

- London Ophthalmic Hospi- 

tal, 181 

-- Midland Institution for the 
Blind, Nottingham, 23, 
27, 34, 51, 61, 67, 72, 74, 
85, 90, 92, 94, 96, 109, 
in, 114, 126, 143, 164, 
166 

-- Normal College, Norwood, 
48, 53, 61, 64, 66, 69, 75, 
76, 79, 85, 103, 116, 122, 
126, 176 

- School of Industry for the 

Blind, Bristol, 9, n, 
19, 28, 29, 92, 101, 
112, 136, 141, 160, 

175 

-- for the Blind, Leather- 
head, 10, 59, 74, 88, 114, 
116, 138, 163, 171 

- Sheffield Institution for the 

Blind, 33, 34, 45, 49, 57, 
59, 79, 83, 99, 149, 167 

- Victoria School, Newcastle, 
20, 22, 25, 46, 73, 74, 96, 143, 
161, 166 

Rubislaw Special School (Myopes), 

9i 

Rushton, Edward, 9, 13 
Russia, 12, 126 
Rutland, see Leicester 



ST. ALBAN'S Guest House for 

Blind Ladies, 156, 170 
St. Basil, i 
St. Bertrand of Mans, i 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



231 



St. Dunstan's Hostel for Blinded 
Soldiers and Sailors, London, 
124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 130, 135, 
138, 141, 144, 148, 151, 155, 162 
St. Dunstan's Review, 126 
St. Helen's and District Society 
for the Welfare of the Blind, 
130 152, 174 
St. John's Guild for the Blind, 156, 

170 

St. Joseph's Asylum, Dublin, 32 
St. Leonards-on-Sea 

Homef or Defective Women , 

in 
Hostel for Blinded Soldiers, 

144 

National Institute for the 
Blind Convalescent and 
Holiday Home, 162, 168 
Private Convalescent and 
Holiday Home (Miss 
Hood), 69 

School for Mentally Defec- 
tive Children, 91, in 
St. Louis Exhibition (U.S.A.), 93 
St. Lymnaeus, Hermit of, i 
St. Mary's Asylum, Dublin, 31, 65 
St. Raphael's Home, Cork, 65 
St. Vincent's House, Dublin, 31 
St. Vincent's Schools (Glasgow 

and Lanark), 46, 113 
Salvarsan, Use of, 184 
Sal vino degli Armati, 180 
San Francisco Library, 86 
Santa Lucia, 67, 173 
Saunders, J. C., 181 
*Saunderson, Nicholas, 5, 9, 13 
Scale Charity, Portsmouth, 86 
Scarborough Industrial Home for 

Women, 74 

School for Children of the Upper 
Class, Barnes, 60 

for the Indigent Blind, Lon- 

don (see also "Royal 
School for the Blind, 
Leatherhead"), 10, 12, 14, 
15, 17, 34. 38, !>o, 58, 59, 
74, 81, 88 

Magazine, The, 119 

Scotland (see Aberdeen, Alloa, 

Dumfries, Dundee, Edinburgh, 
Fife, Forfar, Glasgow, Inver- 
ness, Kirkcaldy, Kirkliston, 
Lanark, Paisley, Perth, Shet- 
land, Stirling) 
Scott, Miss E. R., 71 



Scottish National Federation of 
Institutions and 
Societies, 130 

Institution for Blinded 

Soldiers and Sailors, Edinburgh, 
124, 169 

Sculptor, blind, 4 

Seeker, The, 161 

Selected Works of British Blind 
Composers 'f 'i 48 

Servers of the Blind League, 
London (formerly Braille and 
Servers of the Blind League), 
133, 161, 165, 177 

Shampooing by the blind (Birm- 
ingham), 89 

Shand Memorial Fund, 64 

Shaw, Rt. Hon. Lord, 128 

Sheermen, Company of, 3 

Sheffield Home Mission and Sab- 
bath School, 49 

Royal Institution for the 

Blind (formerly Sheffield 
Workshops for the Blind), 
33. 34. 45. 49, 57. 59. 79, 
83, 99, 149, 167 

Workshops, 177 

Shorthand, braille, 79, 82, 115 

and typewriting, 77, 84 

Shropshire Association for the 

Blind (formerly Home Teaching 

Society), 106, 15 j 
*Siddall, A., 76 

Sight-saving classes (U.S.A.), 117 
Sittingbourne Association for the 

Welfare of the BJind, 117 
*Sizeranne, Maurice de la, 58, 61 
Smith, Joel, 55 

Training College, Norwood, 

75.76 

Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, 76 

for the Propagation of the 

Gospel, 93 

Solicitor, blind, 135 

Somers Town Blind Aid Society 

(see Hepburn Starey Blind Aid 

Society) 
Somerset County Association for 

the Blind, 135 

Sound locating by the blind, 135 
South Africa, 59 

Beds Society for the Blind 

(formerly Luton and District 
Committee), 136, 140, 151, 

165 



232 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY. OF 



South Devon and Cornwall Insti- 
tution for the Blind, 
Plymouth, 34, 36, 54, 55, 
70, 79, 108, 109 

Eastern and London Coun- 

ties Association for the 
Blind (see also "Metro- 
politan and Adjacent 
Counties Association for 
the Blind "), c i 07, 163, 172, 
176 

London Association for 

Assisting the Blind, 

37 

Institute (formerly 

Hampton's Mission), 46, 
102 

Shields Institution for the 

Blind, 152, 156, 164 

Wales and Monmouthshire 

Association (formerly South 
Wales and Monmouth Union), 
106, 168 

Southampton Association for the 

Blind, 68, 149 
Southend-on-Sea 

Holiday Home for the 

Blind, 76 
North London Homes 

(Branch), 80, 103 
Voluntary Committee for 
the Care of the Blind, 
152 
Southport 

Home of Rest for Women, 

97 

Sunshine Home, 156 
Southsea 

Hants and Isle of Wight 

School for the Blind, 38 
Moody 's Charity, 106 
Spain, 14 
Spectacle Mission Society, London, 

183 

Spectacles, invention of, 180 
Spinning, 9, 21 
Stafford- 
Alice Fenton's Charity, 

103 
Staffordshire Association 

for the Blind, 136 
Stainsby, Henry, 82, 89, 99, 104, 
105, 160 

Memorial Fund, 163 

Stainsby-Wayne BraiCle inter- 
pointing machine, IOIi 



Stainsby-Wayne shorthand ma- 
chine, 82, 89 

Stair-rod making, 158 

'Stanley, John, 8 

Starey, Mrs. Hepburn, 154 

Stay-lace making, 9 

Steglitz School for the Blind, Ger- 
many, ii 

Stereotyped plates, Braille, 48, 
88 

Stirling, Clackmannan, and Lin- 
lithgow Society, Alloa, 39 

Stock, John, 7 

Stockholm Institution for the 
Blind, 12 

Stockport 

George Walthew Bequest, 

in 

Institute for the Blind, 
Deaf, and Dumb, 42 

Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffs 
Committee for the Care of the 
Blind, Hanley, 77, 87, 102 

Stone, William, 95 

Stourbridge Institution for the 
Blind, 126, 159 

Straw plait-making, 24 

*Strehl, Dr. Carl, 171 

String alphabet, 4 

Stroud, Gyde Charity, 73 

Sunbeam Mission, 88, 144 

Sunday Afternoon Bible Class, 
London, 37 

Sunderland and Durham County 
Incorporated Royal Insti- 
tution for the Blind, 54, 
77, 126 

Museum, 112 

Sunshine Homes for Blind Babies, 
132, 156, 158, 168, 175 

Surrey Association for the Blind 
(see "London Association 
for the Blind") 

Voluntary Association for 

the Blind, 152 

Sussex, Fuller's Charity, 10 

Swansea and South Wales Institu- 
tion (formerly Swansea 
Society for Teaching the. 
Adult Blind), 39, 41, 49, 
5i> 63, 77, 82, 86, 89, 93, 
106, 139, 167 

Asylum for the Aged Blind, 

2 

Sweden, 12, 103 
Swimming for the blind, 61 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



233 



Swinnerton Memorial Home, New- I 
port, 164 

Swiss Cottage School for the Blind, 
London (see "London Society 
for Teaching and Training the 
Blind") 

Switzerland, 12, 163 

Sydney Industrial Blind Institu- 
tion, 57 

Syphilis, organism of, 184 

Syria, i 

TATE, W. H., 140 

Taunton Home Teaching Society, 

76 
Taylor, Miss Beatrice, 88, 144 

* , H. Martyn, icTi, 113, 124, 

167 ' * 
, Rev. William, 18 

Frame, 18 j 

Teacher of the Blind, The, 119 
Teachers, Employment of Blind, 

176 

, Forum, The, 173 

, training of, 75, 76 

Telephonist, blind, 99 
Temple, Archbishop, 89 
Tennant, John, 83, 177 
Theosophical Society, 122, 161 
*Thirlander, Herr, 103 
Thomas Burns Home, Edinburgh, 

171 

Clayton Workshops, Burn- 

ley, 162 

Jackson Trust, York, 149 

Thread -making by the blind, 8 
Thurman, W. H.,i04, 139, 176 
Thwaytes, William, 18 
*Tighe, J. W., 67 
Tile-making by the blind (Marks 

Tey), 163 
Todmorden Society for the Blind, 

123 

Toothed wheel pencil and com- 
passes, 64 
Torquay and District Spciety for 

the Blind, 1 1 1 
*Towse, Sir Beachcroft, 154, 155, 

168, 169 

Trading difficulties, 47 
Travelling facilities, 99, 107, 109 

no, 120 

Tribune, The, 156 
Tridectomy, 182 
Tunbridge Wells Workshops for 

the Blind, 77, 139 



Tynemouth Blind Welfare Society, 
and Northern Counties Library 
(formerly Tynemouth Social 
Committee), 83, 152, 159, 170 

Typewriting by the blind, 26, 66 

77. 138 

Tyringham Club Blind Pension 
Fund, 141 

ULSTER Society for Promoting the 
Education of the Deaf, Dumb, 
and Blind, Belfast, 16 

Uniform type, 87, 128 

Union of Counties Associations for 
the Blind (formerly Union of 
Unions), 99, 106, 107, 109, 136, 

137- 153 
Upholstery, 174 

VALENTIN Haiiy Association, 
Paris, 127 

Haiiy, Le, 61 

Vancouver, school in, 127 
Van Landagen, Hippoylyte, 35 
Venture, The, 176 

Vienna, conferences at, 49, 17 1 

School for the Blind, n 

Vivian, Glyn, 101 

Von Graefe, 182 , 

Helmholtz, Herman, 182 

Kempellen, 6 

Niederhausen, H., 64 159 

Paradis, Maria Theresa, 6 



WAIT, William, 44 

Wakefield and District Institution 
and Workshops for the 
Blind, 45, 86, 93 

, Child Memorial Home, 159 

Waldkirch, Elizabeth, 4 

Wales (see Aberdare, Bangor, 
Brecon, Cardiff, Cardiganshire, 
Carmarthenshire, Caswell Bay, 
Glamorganshire, Llandevaud, 
Llwynypia, Merthyr Tydfil, 
Newport, Pembrokeshire, 
Pontypridd, Rhondda, Rhyl, 
South Wales and Monmouth- 
shire, Swansea 

*Walford, Hugh, 71,161 

Walsall, Wednesbury, and District 
Society for the Blind, 97 

Walsh, Stephen, 129, 136 



234 



CHRONOLOGICAL SURVEY OF 



Walthamstow Committee for the 

Welfare of the Blind, 91 
War Pensions, Royal Warrant on, 

127, 131 

*Warrilow, H. C., 109, 128 
Warrington, Widnes, and District 

Society for the Blind, 156 
Warwickshire Association for the 

Blind, 115 
Wast, Joan, 3 
Watercress and Flower Girls' 

Christian Mission (see "Groom's 

Crippleage") 

Watson, Edward, 85, 90, 173 
*Waudby, Rev. C. F., 156 
*Way, Percy, 138 
Wayne, Alfred, 82, 89 
Weaving by the blind, 28, 80, 

85 

Webster and Davidson Mortifica- 
tion, Dundee, 21 

Weekly Summary, The, 71 

*Weissembourg, Herr, 5 

Westcliff-on-Sea, North London 
Homes, 174 

Western Counties Association for 
the Blind (formerly Western 
Counties Union), 107 

West Ham Association for the 
Blind, 157, 170 

Hartlep^ol (see Hartlepool) 

London Workshops for the 

Blind (formerly Kensing- 
ton Institute), 58, 64, 74, 
90, 135, 150 

of England Institution for 

the Blind, Exeter, 19, 20, 
21, 22, 25, 27, 28, 32, 36, 
42, 44, 65, 90, 101, 108, 
118 

Suffolk Blind Association, 

123, 144 

Sussex Association for the 

Blind, 149 

Weston-super-Mare Blind Society, 

144 

West's Trusts for the Blind, 5 
Whip-plaiting (Bristol), 9 
Whitby Trust for the Blind, 100 

Workshop for the Blind, 

75 

*Whitfield, H. Michael, 155 
Wigan, Leigh and District Work- 
shops for the Blind, 131, 174 
Wilberforce, William, 17 
Wilkinson, John GrimsHaw, 98 



- Wilkinson, John (Harrogate), 40, 

59 

Willans, Captain H., 172 
William the Conqueror, i 
Stevenson Trust, Birming- 
ham, 104 

Wilson, Henry J., 65, 79, 94, 102, 
104, 107, 109, 113, 114, 
120, 129, 137, 139, 141, 

147 

, J. G., 168 

Wilts County Association, 139 
Wimbledon Depot for Sale of 

Work, 115 
Wing pensions, 67 
Winter, Miss Agnes, 177 
Wintle's Charity, Gloucester, 24 
Wireless for the Blind Fund, 
British, 174 

Telegraphy (Blind Persons' 

Facilities) Act (1926), 162 

*Wolstenholme, William, 109 
Wolverhampton, Dudley and Dis- 
tricts Institution for the Blind, 
51, 61, 82 

Woodington's Charity, Oxford, 52 
Woodworking, 92 
Worcester 

Corbett's Charities, 100 
Home Teaching Society, 

45 

Society for Promoting 
Cheap Literature for the 
Blind, 44 

Worcester College for the 
Blind, 41, 45, 49, 68, 89, 
97, 100, 119, 131 
Worcestershire Association 

for the Blind, 119 
Workers for the Blind, Association 

of, 124 

Workshops for the Blind of Kent, 
Greenwich, 53, 70, 172 

for the Blind, Association of, 

172 

for the Blind of London, 

Federation Board of, 114, 
130 

, Scheme for Amalgamation 

of, 105 

Worthing Society for the Blind, 
117 

Wycliffe Home and Hostel, Leices- 
ter^ 

Society, Leicester, 72 

Wyllie, R. W., 25 



WORK FOR THE BLIND 



235 



YARNOLD'S Charity, Berkshire, 

15 

Yeovil Care of the Blind Society, 
123 

York- 
Conference, 6 1 
Dorothy Wilson's Charity, 

Emanuel Charity, 7 
Mrs. Markham's Fund, 41 
Thomas Jackson Trust, 149 
Travelling facilities, 120 



York (contd.) 

Yorkshire School for the 

Blind, 17, 18, 21, 23, 36, 

4i> 49, 50, 52, 62, 65, 74, 

79, 84, 86, 107, 123, 127 

Yorkshire Association for the 

Adult Deaf and Dumb, 53 
Young Women's Christian 
Association. 81 

ZEITOUN School for the Blind, 
Egypt, 84 



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