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THE CHRONOLOQY 



OF 



ANCIENT NATIONS 



AN ENGLISH VEB8I0N OF TUB 

. ARABIC TEXT OF THE ATHAR-UL-BAkIYA OF ALBfRtfNf, 

OB '"'^ 

" VESTIGES OF THE PAST," 

w 
COLLECTED AND BEDUCBD TO WBITINO BT THE ATTTHOB 

IN A.H. 390—1, A.D. 1000. 



TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES AND INDEX, BY 



De. C. EDWARD SACHAU 

FROFESflok IN THE ROYAL L'MVRRRlTV OF BKRT.IN. 
9'9 




LONDON : 

PUBLISHED FOR THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND 
By WILLIAM H. ALLEN AND CO. 

13 WATEHLOO PLACE, PALL MALL. 

FDBUSHIRS TO THl IVSU OrnCE. 

* 1879. 



A( 



I 

I 



PmMTFt> BT W. H. Al.I.KN AMI Ct). 



ERRATA. 

p. 383, delete the first ftTO lines and insert — 

Saw&r. Perhaps identical with tho ^fl.p€ipoi of Byzantine anthora, from Trhom 
Siberia derived its name. 
p. 451, col. 2, last line, delete Chiua, 266, 10, 
p. 452, col. 1. line 1, after Chinese insert 266, 10. 
p. 460, after lino 42 *»i8cr( — 

Poison -mountain (rarefied atmosphere), 263, 17. 
p. 462, col. 2, after line 18 insert — 
Tibetans, 263, 17. 



DIRECTION TO THE BINDBB. 
Table of Kebl'Atli .... to face p. 154. 



LATE PBDFISSOB 07 BANSKBIT IN THI UNITKBatTT Of LONDOW. 



/ 



DEDICATED 

TO THE UEHBEBS 

OF THB 

COMMITTEE OF THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND (1878). 

OSMOND DB BEAUVOIR PEIAULX. 
EDWARD THOMAS, F.R.S. 
JAMES FERGUSSON, P.R.S, 
REINHOLD ROST, LL.D., Seceetaet. 

AND TO THE HEMOBY OP 

THEODOR GOLDSTtrCKER, D.C.L., 

LATE PBOFISSOB OF SAJfSKBIT IN THE UNITEEISITY OF LONDON. 



PREFACE. 



It was Sir Henry Rawlinson who first directed public 
attention to this work of Albirftni, in hia celebrated article 
on Central Asia in the "Quarterly Review" for 1866, in 
which he gave some valuable information derived from hia 
own manuscript copy, now the property of the British 
Museum. In offering the book, both in text and trans- 
lation, to the learned world, I feel bound to premise 
that it is scarcely of a nature to attract the interest of 
the general reader. It appeals to minds trained in the 
schools of various sciences. Even competent scholars will 
find it no easy matter to follow our author through all the 
mazes of his elaborate scientific calculations. Coutaining, 
as it does, aU the technical and historical details of 
the various systems for the computation of time, invented 
and used by the Persians, Sogdians, Chorasmians, Jews, 
Syrians, Harrdnians, and Arabs, together with Greek 
traditions, it offers an equal interest to all those who study 
the antiquity and history of the Zoroastrian aud Jewish, 
Christian and Muhammadan religions.* 

The work of AJbirftni has the character of a primary 
source. Oriental philologists are accustomed to see one book 
soon superseded by another, Barhebraeus by Ibn-al'athir, 
Ibn-al'athir by Al-Tabarl. Although it is likely enough 

* By OhristiauB, I undontaiid Ike MeUdte aad Nestorian Churches, 
whilst the author dws not neem to have known much more of the 
Jacobites than the name. 



Tl 



PRBFAOR. 



tliat on many subjects in tbis book we shall one day find 
better authenticated and more ancient information, I 
venture to say, that, aa a whole, it will scarcely ever be 
superseded. It is a standard work in Oriental literature, 
and has been recognised as such by the East itself, repre- 
senting in its peculiar lino the highest development of 
Oriental scholarship. Perhaps we shall one day find the 
literary sources themselves from which Albiriini derived his 
information, and shall be enabled to dispense with his 
extracts from them. But there are other chapters, e,g, 
those on the calendars of the ancient inhabitants of Central 
Asia, regarding which wo shall, in all likelihood, never find 
any more ancient information, because the author had 
learned the subject fi*om hearsay among a population 
which was then on the eve of dying out. As the first 
editor and translator of a book of this kind, T venhire to 
claim the indulgence of the reader. Generations of scholars 
have toiled to carry the understanding of Herodotus to 
that point where it is now, and how much is wanting still I 
The work of generations will be required to do full justice 
to Albirftui, A classical philologist can edit a Greek text in 
a correct form, even though he may have no complete 
understanding of the subject-matter in all possible relations. 
Not so an Arabic philologist. The ambiguity of the Arabic 
writing — ^roh dolor I — is the reason why a manuscript 
expresses only three-quarters of the author's meaning, 
whilst the editor is compelled to supply the foiui.h quarter 
from his own knowledge and discernment. No number in 
any chronological table can be considered correct, as long 
as it is not proved by computation to be so, and even in 
the simplest historical narrative the editor and translator 
may most lamentably go astray in his interpretation, if 
there is something wrong with the method of his research. 



PBBFACB. 



TU 



I have boldly att-ncked the sometimes rather enigmatic 
stylo of the author, and if I have missed the mark, if the 
bewildering variety and multiplicity of the subject-matter 
have prevented me reaching the very bottom of every 
question, I must do what more or less every Oriental 
author does at the end of his work, — humbly ask the gentle 
reader to pardon my error and to correct it. 

I. The Author, 

The full name of the author is Ahit-Raihdn Muhamm-ad 
6. 'Ahmad Albiriini. Ho quotes himself as AbA-Raikdn 
{vide p. 134, 1, 29), and so he is generally called in Eastern 
literature, more rarely Albtrani. 

The latter name means, literally, extraneoust being a 
derivative from the Persian ^^^^ which means the outside 
as a noun, and outside as a preposition. In our time the 
word is pronounced Btriln (or Beeroon)^ e.g, in Teheran, 
but the vowel of the first syllable is a y&i-majhCdy which 
means that in more ancient times it was pronounced Benin 
(or Bayroon). This statement rests on the authority of 
the Persian lexicographers. That the name was pronounced 
in this way in Central Asia about the author's time, we 
leam from an indisputable statement regarding our author 
from the pen of Alsam'fini, a philologist and biograj)her of 
high repute, who wrote only one hundred years after the 
author's death {mde Introduction to my edition of the toxt, 
p. rviii.). 

He was a native of Khwtlrizra, or Chorasraia, the modern 
Khiva; to speak more accurately, a native cither of a suburb 
(Bertln) of the capital of the country, both of which bore 
the same name Khwdrkvit or of the country 'district (also 
called BMn) belonging to the capital. 

Alblrdni was born a.h. 362, 3. DhCL-alhijja (a.d. 973, 



Vlll 



PBBFACB. 



4th September), and died a.h. 440, 2. Rajab (a.d. 1048, 
11th December), aged seventy-five years. 

The first part of his life he seems to have spent in 
KhwArizm, where he enjoyed the protection of the House 
of Ma^itiuiij the rulers of the country. Originally vassals 
of the kings of Central Asia of the House of Sdmdut they 
became independent when the star of their masters began 
to sink, i.e. between a.h. 384-390. They were, however, not 
to play a great part in the history of the East, for so early as 
A.H. 407 their power was crushed by the great MahmAd of 
Ghazna, and their dominions annexed to his empire. Like 
Albiriint, other scholars also of high standing received 
protection and favours at the court of the Ma'miini 
princes. 

The author is known to have lived some years also in 
Jurjiln, or Hyrcania, on the southern shores of the Caspian 
sea, under the protection, and perhaps at the court, of 
K3,b{ls ben Washmgir Shams-alma*ftli, who ruled over 
Hyrcania and the adjoining countries at two different 
periods, A.u. 366-371 and 388-403. To this prince ho has 
dedicated the present book, apparently about a.h, 390-391, 
(a.d. 1000). 

During the years a.h. 400-407 he stayed again in his 
native countrv at the court of Ma*m(in b. Ma*m{in, as his 
friend and counsellor. Ho was a witness of the rebellion 
that broke out a.h. 407, of the murder of Ma'mftn, and of 
the conquest of the country by MahmAd of Ghazna, who, 
on returning, carried off him and other scholars to Afghan- 
istan in the spring of a.h. 408. 

Among his numerous works, we find mentioned a 
"Chronicle of Khwarizm," in which he probably had re- 
corded aU the traditions relating to the antiquity of his native 
country, and more especially the history of those events of 



FEtfFACB. 



IX 



Tvhicli ho had himself been a witness. This work seems to 
be lost. However, an extract of it has come down to us 
as the last part of the great chronicle of the royal house 
of Mahmftd, composed by Albaihalfi, the edition of which 
we owe to the industry and learning of the late W. H, 
Morley (" Bibliotheca Indica," Calcutta, 1862, pp. 834, &c.). 

"With A.H. 408 begins a new period in the author's life, 
when he enlarged the circle of his researches on mathe- 
matics, astronomy, geography, chronology, and natural 
sciences by his study of India, its geography and history, 
of the language and literature, manners and customs, of 
the Hindfls. It was the period when he gathered all those 
materials which he deposited towards the end of his life in 
his famous " Memoir on India." 

After Albirftui had settled in Ghazna, he paid at least 
one more visit to his native country. He died, probably, at 
Ghazna. Whether he travelled much in other countries 
besides India, I have no means of proving. From the 
present book we can only infer that, besides his native 
country and Hyrcania, be also knew parts of Media, €,g» 
Rai (Bhagse). 

II. His Work 

Albirftnl calls his work Aldthdr Albdkiya 'an-U-Kilf^ii 
Alkhdliya, i.e. monuments or vestiges of generations of the 
past that have been preserved up to the author's time, 
moaning by tnonuments or vestiges the rehgious institutes 
of various nations and sects, founded in more ancient 
times, and, more or less, still practised and adhered to by 
the Oriental world about a.d. 1000. 

With admirable industry the author gathers whatever 
traditions he can find on every single fact, he confronts 
them with each other^ and inquires with critical acumen 



PRBPACB, 



into the special merits or demerit^s of each single tradition. 
Mathematical accuracy is his last gauge, and wherever the 
nature of a tradition admits of such a gauge, he is sure to 
verify it by the help of careful mathematical calculation. 
To speak in general, there is much of the modem spirit and 
method of critical research in our author, and in this respect 
he is a phenomenon in the history of Eastern learning 
and literature. Authors of the first centuries of the Hijra 
sometimes betray a great deal of common sense and good 
method, sometimes also unmistakable ti-aces of a marked 
individuality, whilst the later centuries are characterised by 
the very opposite. Then the author entirely disappears 
behind his book j all literary work sinks down to the level 
of imbecile compilation from good and bad sources ; the 
understanding of the life and literature of the preceding 
centuries becomes rare and distorted. Common sense has 
gone never to return, and very seldom do wc meet with a 
trace of scientific method or of the individuality of the 
author. 

The fourth century is the turning-point in the history of 
the spirit of Islftm, and the establishment of the orthodox 
faith about 500 sealed the fate of independent research for 
ever. But for Alash'arl and Alghazz&lt the Arnbs might 
have been a nation of Galileos, Keplers, and Newtons. 

Originally I intended to give a complete appose of the 
sources whence Albirflni has drawn his manifold informa- 
tion, but the material hitherto available for researches on 
the literary history of the east is stQl so scanty that I 
had to desist from my plan. This applies in particular to 
the east of the Khalifate, to KhurAs&n. We are com- 
paratively well informed regarding the literature of 
Mesopotamia, Syria, Egypt, and the farther west of Islam, 
whilst we have very little information regarding the scion- 



PBEFAOB, 



XI 



tifio and literary life east of Bagdad as it developed itself 
during the first three centuries of Abbaside rule, under the 
protection of the imperial governors and the later inde- 
pendent princes, e.g. the House of S&m&n. 

It is to be hoped that Central Asia and Afghanistan, 
when once in the grasp of European influence, will yield 
us rich collections of valuable literary monuments. 
Hitherto manuscripts coming from those countries are 
seldom met with in the great libraries of Europe. 

As for the written material which the author had at his 
disposal, he quotes many a book of which I elsewhere 
can scarcely find a trace. All the books, e,g* on Persian 
and Zoroastrian history and traditions, composed in early 
times, not only by Zoroastrians but also by Muslims, 
convert-s from the Zoroastrian creed, arc altogether un- 
known in Europe ; and it seems very probable that the 
bigoted people of later times have spared very little of this 
kind of literature, which to them had the intolerable 
smell of filthy idolatry. 

As regards Persian history, Albirftni had an excellent 
predecessor in Alisfahftni, whom he follows frequently, and 
whom he was not able to surpass in many points. 

From oral information Albirftnt seems to have learned 
all he knows of the chronology and calendar of the 
Zoroastrian populations of Persia, of his native country, 
and of Sogdiana (or Bukhdri). In his time the majority 
of the country-people still adhered to Ahuramazda, and in 
most towns there must still have been Zoroastrian commu- 
nities, 80 that Albirflnt did not lack the opportunity for 
studying the manners and institutes of the then existing 
followers of Zoroaster. Unfortunately, the Zoroastrian 
creed had lost its clericid and political unity and constitu- 
tion. The people practised their customs as they had seen 



Xll 



FiCEFAOE. 



their parents do, but they had no longer a correct under- 
standing of their origin and meaning. Certainly a Mobe- 
diin-Mobed of the time of Ardaahir BftbeMn would have 
been able to give a more accurate and complete account of 
Zoroastriaii life and religion; but still we must be thankful 
to Albirfini for his having preserved to posterity the festal 
calendars as used by Zoroastrians of his time when their 
religion was on the eve of dying out. 

To oral information I ascribe also the author's admirable 
knowledge of the Jewish calendar. Jewish scholars will 
bo able to say whether his informants were Ananites 
(Karaites) or Rabbanitos, My critics do not seem to have 
noticed that Albirftni, a Muslim, is the first of all the 
scholars we know who has composed a scientific system of 
the Jewish chronology. He is much anterior to Moees 
Maimonides, also t« Abraham bar Chi3rya, being a contem- 
porary of R. Sherira and Hai Ga6n, who seem to play a 
prominent part in the history of Jewish chi'onology. 

With Nestorian Christians he must have been acquainted, 
as he speaks of the Nestorian communities of his native 
country. His report of the Melkite feasts, &c., may have 
been communicated to him by Nestorian priests from Syriac 
sources. 

Albirftnt wrote both in Arabic and PcrsiaUj as he has 
edited his " Kit^b-altafhim " in both languages. There is 
a possibility of his having had a smattering of Hebrew and 
Syriac (mde pp. 18, 19j, but of Greek he seems to have 
been ignorant, and whatever he relates on the authority of 
Greek authors — Ptolemy, Gralen, Eusebius, &c. — must 
have been communicated to him by the ordinary channel 
of SyriaoArabic translation. His study of Sanskrit falls 
into the latter half of his life. 

From occasional notes in the book a description of the 



PBEPAOB. 



X11I 



author's character may be glcanod. He seems to have 
been a truth-loving man, attacking all kinds of shams with 
bitter sarcasms. He was not without a humoristic vein, 
and his occasional ironical remarks offer a curious contrast 
to the pervading earnestness of the tenor of his speech. 
As a Muslim he inclined towards the Shi'a, but he was not 
a bigoted Muslim. He betraya a strong aversion to the 
Arabs, the destroyers of Sasanian glory, and a marked 
predilection for all that is of Persian or Kranian nationality. 
Muslim orthodoxy had not yet become so powerful as to 
imperil the life of a man, be he Muslim or not, who would 
study other religions and publicly declare in favour of 
them. Dafetki. a poet not long anterior to Albirdnt, a 
favourite of the Muslim house of S^mAn, was allowed to 
sing— 

"Of all that 18 good and bad in the world, 
Da^i^i has chosen four thinijB to himself : 
A woman's lips as rod as rubies, the melody of the lute, 
The blood-coloured wine, and the religion of Zoroaster." 

Not long afterwards, at the court of the great MahmAd 
of Ghazna, these verses would probably have proved fatal 
to their author. 

Habent sua fata lihelli, and I may add, the fate of this 
book, from the time of its composition till the time when I 
began to study it, has not been a fortunate one. Only a 
few were able to understand it, few had an interest in 
having it copied , 

In the form in which I offer the book to the reader it is 
not complete. Many most essential parts, both large and 
small, are missing, e.g. the chapter on Zoroaster, a most 
deplorable loss, arising probably from Muslim bigotry. 
However, 1 should think it does not require an apology 
from me to have edited the book in this mutilated form in 



XIV 



PRBFAOB. 



which I have found it in the manuscripts. Should the 
favour of time bring t-o light one day a complete copy, T 
shaU be happy if circumstances will allow me at once to 
edit the hitherto missing parts in text and translation. 

The basis of my edition consists of two manuscripts of 
the seventeenth and one of the nineteenth century, all full 
of faults, and — what is worse ! — agreeing with each other 
almost in every particular. In fact, all three copies repre- 
sent one and the same original. Fortunately a chronolo- 
gical work offers this advantage, that in many cases 
mathematical examination enables the editor to correct the 
blunders of the tradition, e.g, in the numerous tables. 

My notes are in the first place intended to give the calcu- 
lations on which the tables rest. Besides, they contain 
contributions to the explications of certain difficult passages, 
short information on points of literary history, and, lastly, 
a few remarks on the text and corrections. 

For all other introductory questions I refer the reader to 
the German preface to my edition of the text. 

In offering my translation to the English reader, I desire 
to thank my friend, the Rev, Robert Gwynne, Vicar of 
St. Mary's, Soho, London, who not only corrected the 
whole manuscript, but also read the proof-sheets of the 
entire book. 

EDWAKD SACHAU. 



Berliny 24ih May, 1879. 



CONTENTS. 



Pago 
TbaV8LATOB*S Fbbfacb ... - - - t 

Fbbfagb ...-----1 

Chaptbb I.— On the Nature of Day and Night, of their Totality 

and of their Beginnings - - - • - 5 

Chaptbb H. — On the Nature of that which is composed of Days, 

viz. Months and Years - - - - - 11 

Chaptbb m. — Qn the Nature of the Eras and the different 

Opinions of the Nations regarding them - - - 16 

Chaptbb IV. — ^The different Opinions of various Nations re- 
garding the King called Dh{l-al-^amaini or Bicomutus - 43 

Chaptbb V, — On the Nature of the Months which are used in 

the preceding Eras - - . - - - - 52 

Chaptbb VI. — On the Derivation of the Eras from each other, 
and on the Chronological Dates, relating to the Commence- 
ments and the Durations of the Heigns of the Kings, 
according to the various Traditions - - - 84 

Chaptbb VH. — On the Cycles and Year-points, on the Moleds of 
the Years and Months, on their various Qualities, and on 
the Leap-months hoth in Jewish and other Years • - 141 

Chaptbb Viil. — On the Eras of the Pseudo-prophets and their 
Communities who were deluded by them, the curse of the 
Lord be upon them ..... Igg 

Chaptbb IX. — On the Festivals in the Months of the Persians - 199 

Chaptbb X. — On the Festivals in the Months of the Sughdians - 220 

Chaptbb XI. — On the Festivals in the Months of the Khw&riz- 

mians ------- 223 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Chapter XII. — On Ehw&rizm-Shah'a Eefonu of the Khw&Tizm> 

ian Festal Calendar ..-..- 229 

Chapteb Xm. — On the Days of the Greek Calendar as known 

both among the Greeks and other Kations - - - 231 

Chapteb XIY. — Of the Festivals and Fast-days in the Months of 

the Jews 268 

Chapteb XV. — On the Festivals and Memorable Days of the 

Syrian Calendar, celebrated by the Melkite Christians - 282 

Chapteb XVI. — On the Christian Lent, and on those Feasts and 
Festive Days which depend upon Lent and revolve parallel 
with it through the Year, regarding which all Christian 
sects agree among each other .... 299 

ChIpteb XTII. — On the Festivals of the Nestorian Christians, 

their Memorial and Fast Days _ . - - 306 

Chapteb XVill. — On the Feasts of the ancient Magians, and on 

the Fast and Feast Days of the Sabians - - - 314 

Chapteb XIX. — On the Festivals of the Arabs in the time of 

Heathendom • - - - - - 321 

Chapteb XX.— On the Festivals of the Muslims • - 325 

Chapteb XXI. — On the Lunar Stations, their rising and setting, 

and on their Images ..... 335 

Annotations - - - - - - -367 

Index .__..--. 449 



PREFACE. 



nr ram VKum or ooo, thb cohpabbiohati, the HSRoimx. 



Pbaisi be to QoA who is high above all things (lU. those which are 
unlike, and those which R-rc like to each other), and blessing be on 
Mubiunmad, the elected, the best of all created beings, and on his family, 
the guides of righteousness and truth. 

One of the exquisite plans io Gk>d's management of the affairs of his 
ct^ation, one of the glorious benefits which he ha^ bestowed upon the 
entirctj of his creatures, is that categorical decree of his, not to leave in 

10 his world any period without a just guide, whom he consiitatcs as a 
protector for his creaturca, with whom to taJie njfuge in unfortunate and 
sorrowful cases and accidents, and upon whom to devolve their affairs, 
when they seem indissolubly perplexed, so that the order of the world 
should rest upon — and its existence be supported by — bis ^nius. And 
this decree (that the affairs of mankind should be governed by a prophet) 
haa been settled upon them as a religioiia duty, and has been linked 
together with the obedience towards God, and the obedience towards his 
Prophet, through which alone a reward iu future life may be obtained — 
in accordance with the word of him, who is the truth and Justice — and 

20 his word is judgment and decree, " O ye believers, obey God, and obey 
the prophets, and those among yourselves who are invested with the 
command." (Sfira iv. 62.) 

Therefore, thiuiks be to God for those blessings, which he has bestowed 
uiK»n his servanta, by exalting our master, the commander, the prince, 
the glorious and victorious, the benefactor, Shams-alma'ali, may God 



ALBtR^N!. 



p. 4. 



give him a long life, and give duratiun to his power and majestv, preserve 
through the course of time his excellence and his splendour, protect his 
whole house (lit. the areas inside and outside his house), prostrate all 
those who envy him, and all his enemies, (by exalting himj as a guide, 
who justly rules over his creatures, who furthers religion and truth, who 
fights for the altar and the hearth of the Muslims, and who protects their 
country against the misfhief of evil-doers. And Ood has supported him 
by giving him a cluiract<er similar to that with which he has hlosaed his 
Prophet, the bearer of his revelation ; for he, whose uame be praised, baa 
said : '* To thee has been given a high character." (Siiw. Ixviii. 4.) 10 
How wonderfully has he, whose name is to be exalted and extolled, 
combined with the glorj' of hJa noble extraction the graces of his generous 
character, with his valiant soul all huidahte qualities, such as piety and 
righteousness, carefulness in defending and observing the rites of re- 
ligion, justice and equity, hiunility and beneficence, firmness and deter- 
mination, liberality and gentleness, the talent for ruling and governing, 
for managing and deciding, and other qualitios, which no fancy could 
comprehend, and no human being enumerate ! And how should a man 
wonder at this, it being imdimiahle that God Iulk the power to combine 
the whole world in one individual (i.e. to create a microcosmos) I There- 20 
fore, may God i>ermit the Muslims still for a long jicriod to enjoy the 
kindness of his intentions, the ingenuity of his plans, and his evidently 
merciful and pitiful mind, with which he cares for them ! May they from 
day to day derive more benefits from the i)erpetual shade of his majesty, 
to which they are accustomed! And may God assist by his kindDcss 
and mercy, high and low, to fulfil the works of obedience towards God, 
which are imposed upon them ! 

Dedication.— The Author's Method. — A learned man once asked me 
regarding the ei-as used by (lififerent nations, and regai'ding the difference 
of their roots, i.e. the epochs where they begin, and of their branches, i.e. 30 
the months and years, on which they are based ; further regarding the 
causes which led to such difference, aud the famous festivals and com- 
memoration-days for certain times and events, and regarding whatever 
else one nation practises differently from another. He urged me to give 
an explanation, the clearest possible, of all this, bo as to bo eaaUy intelli- 
gible to the mind of the reader, and to free him from the necessity of 
wading through widely scattered books, and of consulting their authors. 
Now I was quite an-arc that this was a tjisk diUlcult to handle, an object 
not easUy to be attained or managed by anyone, who wants to treat it as 
a matter of logical sequence, regarding which tlie miud of the student is 40 
not agitated by doubt. However, from the majesty of our master, the 
prince, the glorious and victorious, the bonefcictor, Shams-alma'uU — may 
God make his power to endure I — I derived strength in exerting my 
capabilities, and trying to do my utmost in order to explain the whole 
anbject on the basis of that information which I have gathered either as 



PB^FAOE. 



tok ear- or eye-witness, or by cogitation and study. Besides, T whs 
encouiaged by that robe of blessed service, in which I hare dressed 
myself, to compose such an explanation for him, who oconpies a high 
throne, that he may see herein a new sign of my service, and that thereby 
I may obtain thu f^arments of such a glory, the memory and splendour of 
which will last as my heirloom in posterity through the flood of ages and 
geueratiuns. If, therefore, he — whose noble mind may God preserve ! — 
will favour hia servant by overlooking his audacity, and accepting his 
excuses, be follows the right idea, if it pleases Qod. And now I 

10 commence and say : 

The best and nearest way leading to that, regarding which I have been 
asked for information, is the knowledge of the history and tradition of 
former nations and generations, because the greate-st part of it consists 
of matters, which have come down from them, and of remains of their 
customs and institutes. And this object cJinnot be obtained by way of 
ratiocination with philosophical notions, or of inductions liased upon the 
observatioDs of our senses, but solely by adopting the information of those 
who have a written tradition, and of the members of the different 
religions, of the adherents of the different doctrines and religious sects, 

20 by whom the institutes in question are used, and by making their opinions 
a basis, on which afterwords to build up a system ; besides, we must 
compare their traditions and opinions among themselves, when we try to 
establish our system. But ere that we must clear our mind from all 
those aecidental circumstances which deprave most meu, from all causes 
which are liable to make people blind against the truth, e.g. inveterate 
custom, party-spirit, rivalry, being addicted to ane's |>aBsionB, the desire 
to gain influeuce, etc. For that which 1 have mentioned, is the nearest 
way you could take, that leads to the true end, and the most efficient help 
towards removing all the clouds of uncertainty aud doubt, wliich beset 

30 the subject. It is imjK>ssiblc in any other way to reach the same purpose, 
notwithstanding the greatest care and exertion. On the other hand, we 
confess that it is by no means easy to act upon that principle and that 
method, which we have laid down, that on the contrary from its recondite 
nature, aud its difficulty, it might seem to be almost unattainable — on 
account of the numerous lies which are mixed up with all historical 
records and traditions. And thos*' lies do not all on the face of it appear 
to be impossibilities, so that they might be easily distinguished and 
eliminated. However, that which is within the limits of possibility, has 
been treated as true, as long as other evidence did not prove it to be 

40 false. For ws witness sometimes, and others hav« witnessed before us, 
physical appearances, wliich we should simply declare to be impossible, 
if something similar were related from a far remote time. Now the lifo 
of man is not sufficient to learn thoroughly the traditions of one of the 
many nations. How^ therefore, cuuld he learn the traditions of all of 
them ? That is impossible. 

1 • 



p. 6. 



4 alb!b^!. 

The matter standing thus, it is our duty to proceed from wliat is near 
to the more distant, from what is known to that which is less known, to 
gather the traditions from those who have reported them, to correct them 
as much as possible, and to leave the rest as it is, in order to make our 
work help him, who seeks truth and loves wisdom, in making independent 
researches on other subjects, and guide him to find out that which was 
denied to us, whilst we were working at this subject, by the will of God, 
and with his help. 

In conformity with our plan, we must proceed to explain the nature of 
^y and night, of their totality, i.e. the astronomical day, and assumed 10 
beginning. For day and night are to the months, yeare, and eras, what 
one is for the numerals, of which they are composed, and into which they 
are resolved. By an accurate knowledge of day and night, the progress 
towards learning that which is composed of them and built upon them, 
becomes easy. 



I 



CHAPTER I. 



OH THB AATUaE OT DAT AMD HIOHT, OF TBEIB TOrtALITT AND 09 

THGIB B£aiNKINOB. 



I 8AT : Day and night (i.«. w)(9i^fupov) are one revolution of the auu in 
the rotiLtion. of the universe, starting from and returning to a circle, 
vhich has been assumed as the be^nning of this same Nyehthemeron, 
whichsoever circle it may be, Jt being determined by general conaeuL 
This circU is a " great " circle ; for each great circle is dvnamicallj an 
horizon. By '* djfnamieaUy " (r^ SwafAti), I mean that it (this circle) 
10 may be the horizon of any phice on the earth. By the " rotation of the 
univerte*' I mean the motion of the celestial sphere, and of all that is 
in it^ which we observe going round on its two poles from east to west. 

The Setting of the Sun as the beginning of the Day.— Now, the 

Aral>8 aasumod as the Iveginniiig of their Nychtliemerou the point where 
the setting sun intersects the circle of the horizon. Therefore their 
Nyehthemeron exttinds from tlm moment when the sun disappears from 
the horizon till his disappearance on the following day. They were 
induced to adopl this system by the fact that their mouthti are baaed 
upon the course of the moon, derived from her various motions, and 

20 that the beginnings of the months were fixed, not by calculation, but 
by the appearance of the new moons. Now, full moon, the appearance 
of which is, with them, the beginning of the month, becomes visible 
towards sunset. Therefore their night preceded their day ; and, there- 
fore, it is their custom to let the nights precede the days, when they 
mention them in connection with the oames of the seven days of 
the week. 

Those who herein agree with them plead for this system, saving that 
darkness in the order (of the creation) precedes light, and that light 
suddenly came forth when darkness existed already ; that, therefore, 

30 that which wua anterior in existence is the most suitable to be adopted 



6 



ALBtR^Nt. 



M the bediming. And, thcrnfore, thoj considered absence of motion 
&a guperior to motion, comptLring rest and traoqiiillity with darkness, 
and because of tbe fact that motion is always produced by some want 
and noccBfiity ; tlmt weiirineas follows uptm the necessity ; thai, there- 
fore, weariness is the consequence of motion. IJaatlj, because rest (the 
absence of motion), wlion remaining in the elements for a time, does not 
produce decay ; whilst motion, when remaining iu the elements and 
taking bold of them, produces corruption. As instances of this they 
adduce earthquakes, storms, waves, Ac. 

The Bising of the Sim as the beginning of the Day.— As to tlie 10 

oiher nations, the Greeks and Romans, and those who follow with them 
the like theory, they have a^freed among themselves that the Nych- 
themeron should be reckoned from the moment when the sun rises 
above the eastern hori2on till the same moment of the following day, 
as their months are derived by calculation, and do not depend upon the 
phases of the moon or any other star, and as the months begin vitb 
the beginning of the day. Therefore, with them, the day precedes the 
night; and, in favour of this view, they argue that light is an Eiu^ 
whihit darkness is a Non-cM. Those who think that light wss anterior 
in existence to darkness consider motion as superior to rest (the absence 20 
of motion), because motion is an Ens, not ii Non-ens — is life, not death. 
They meet the arguments of their opponents with similar ones, saying, e,g. 
that heaven is something more excellont than the earth ; that a working 
man and a. young man arc the healthiest ; that running water dues not, 
like standing water, become putrid. 
Noon or Midnight as the beginning of the Day.— The greater 

part and thu must eminent of the k'arued meu amung astruuomere 
reckon the Nychthemeixm from the moment when the sun arrives on the 
plane of the meridian till the some moment of the following day. This 
is an intermediate view. Therefore their Nychthemera begin from the 30 
visible half of the plane of the meridian. Upon this system they h%ve 
built their calculation in the astronomical tables (the Canons), and have 
thereby derived the phices of the stars, along with their equal motions 
mid their corrected places, in the almanacks (lit. year-books). Other 
Mtronomers prefer the invisible half of the plane of the meridian, and 
begin, therefore, their day at midnight, as e.g. the author of the Canon 
(Zij) of ShahriyAran Sbnb. This does not alter the case, aa both 
methods are based upon the same principle. 

People were induced to prefer the meridian to the horizon by many 
circumstances. One was, that they had discovered that the Nych- 40 
themera vary, and are not always of the same length; a variation 
which, during the eclipses, is clearly apparent even to the senses. 

The reason of this variation is the fact that the course of the sun in 
the ecliptic varies, it being accelerated one time and retarded another ; 
and that the single sections of the ecliptic cross the circles (the horizons) 



ON THE NATUBl OP DAY AND NIOHT. 



ftt a different rate of velocity. Therefore, in order to remove tliat 
Taxiation which attaches to the Nychthemora, they wanted some kind 
of equation j and the eqiiation of the Nychthemera by means of the 
riBinp of the ecliptic ahove the meridian is eoiistont and regular every- 
where on tijo earth, because this circle is one of the liorizona of the 
globe which form a right angle (with the meridian) ; aad because its 
conditions and qualities remain the same in every part of the cartb. 
This quality they did not find in the horizontal eirclea, for they vary 
for each place ; and every latitude has a particular horizon of its own, 

10 different from that of any other place, and because the single sections 
of the ecliptic cross the horizons at a different rate of velocity. To use 
the horizons (for the equation of the Nychthemera) is a proceeding both 
imperfect and intricate. 

Another reason why they preferred the meridian to the horizon is 
thia, that the distances between the meridians of different places 
correspond to the diBtances of their meridians on the equator and the 
parallel circles ; whilst the distances between tho horizontal circles are 
the same with the addition of their northern and southern decliuatioD. 
An accurate description of everything couuccted with stars and their 

20 places is not possible, except by means of that direction which depends 
upon the meridian. This direction is called "longitude," which has 
nothing in common with the other direction, which depends upon the 
horizon, and ia called " latitude." 

Therefore they have chosen that circle which might serve as a regular 
and constant basis of their calculations, and have not used others ; 
although, if tbey bad wished to use the horizons, it would have been 
possible, and would have led them to the same results as the meridian, 
but only after a long and roundabout process. And it is the greatest 
mistake posBible purjKtsAly to deviate from the direct route in order to 

30 go by a long roundabout. 

Day, Night, and the Duration of the Day of Fast.— This is the 

general dehnition of the day which we give, the night being included. 
Now, if we proceed tu divide and to distinguish, we have to state that 
the words " Yaum " (day) in its restricted signification, and " Nahdr '* 
(day), mean the same, viz., the time from the rising of the body of the 
sun till its setting. On the other hand, night means the time from the 
setting of the body of the sun till its rising. Thus these two terms are 
used among all nations by general consent, nobody disputing their 
meanings, except one Muslim lawyer, who has defined the beginning of 
40 the day to be the rise of dawn, and its end to be the setting of the sim, 
because be presumed that the day and the duration of fasting were 
identical. For this view of his he argues from the following word of 
God (S&ra ii. 183) : " Bat and drink till you can distinguish a white 
thread from a black thread at the light of davm. Thereupon faat the 
entire day till the night.'^ Now, be has maintained that these two terms 



8 



albIbOn!. 



(daunt and nigJif) are the two limits of the day (beffinnivy and end). 
Between this view, however, and this verse of the Coran there ia not the 
slightest connpction whatsoever. For if the bepiuoing of fasting waa 
identical with the beginning of the day, his (God*B) definition of some- 
thing that 18 quite evident and well Iruown to everj-body, in mich tonna, 
would be like a pains-takinfj attempt to exphiin something void of sense. 
Likewise he has not defined the end of day and the beginning of night 
in similar terms, because this is generally known among all mankind. 
God ordeni that fasting tihould commeuue af the rise of dawn; liut the 
end of fasting he does not describe in a similar way, hut simply says 10 
that it should end at ''night" because everybody knows that tbis means 
the time when the globe of the sun disappears. Hence it is evident that 
God, by the words of the first sentence (i.«. eat and drinli till you can 
distingnish a white thread from a blaek thread at the light of dawn), 
does not mean the I>eginuiug of day. 

A further proof of the correctness of our interpretation is the word of 
God (Sura il 183) : " It has been declared as lawful to you during the 
p. 8. night of fasting to have intercourse {lit. bo Bi>eak obscene things) with 
your wivw," Ac., to the passage, "Thereupon fast the entire 'lay till the 
night." Thereby he extends the right of having intercourse with one's 20 
wife, and of eating and drinking, over a certain limited time, not over 
the entire night. Likewise it had been forbidden to Muslims, before 
this verso had been revealed, to eat and drink after night-prayer (the 
time when the darkness of night commences). And still jMwple did not 
reckon their fasting by days and parts of the night, but simply by days 
(although the time of fasting was much longer than the day). 

Kow, if people say that God, in this verse (S&ra ii. 183), wanted to 
teach mankind the beginning of the day, it would necessarily follow 
that before that moment they were ignorant of the beginning of day and 
night, which ia simply absurd. 30 

Now, if people say the legal day is different from the natural day, 
this is nothing but a. difference in words, and the calling something by 
a name, which, according to the usage of the language, means something 
else. And, besides, it must be considered that tiiere is not the slightest 
mention in the verse of the day and of its beginning. We keep, how- 
ever, aloof from pertinacious disputation on this subject, and we are 
willing to agree with our opponents as to the expressions if they will 
agree with us regarding the subject-matter. 

And how could wo believe a thing the contrary of which is evident to 
our senses? For evening-twilight in the west corresponds to morning. 40 
dawn in the east ; both arise from the same cause, and are of the same 
nature. If, therefore, the rise of morning-dawn were the beginning of 
the day, the disappearance of evening-twilight would be its end. And 
actually some Shiites have been compelled to adopt such a doctrine. 

Let UB take it for granted that those who do not agree with us 



OK THB NATtTBB OP DAY AND NIOHT. 



ngarding that which we have previously pxplainpd, agree with us as to 
the fact that twice a year iiij^ht and day an; equal — onc« in spring and 
Quce in autumn, l^irther, that he thinks, like ua, that we hare the 
longest day when the 8un stands nearost to the north pole ; the shortest 
day when the sun is at the greatest distance from the north pole ; that 
the shortest summer night ia equal to the shortest winter day ; and that 
the same meaning is expressed by the two verses of the Coran : " God 
makes night enter int^i day, and he makes day enter into night" 
(Sikra XKXv. 14), and " He wraps night around day, and he wraps day 
10 around night" (SAra xxiix. 7). Now, if tht^v do not know this, or 
pretend not to know it, at all events they cannot help admitting that 
the first half of the day is six hours long, and likewise the latt«r half. 
Against tliis they cannot pretend to be blind, because of the well known 
and well authenticated tradition which relates to the prerogjitives of 
those who hasten to the mosque on a Friday, and which shows that 
their wages are the highest, although their time of work in the six hours 
from the beginning of the day till the time of the decline of the sun is 
the shortest. This ia to be understood of the Hora ieinporalce obliqwx 
(wptu KaipiKoi), not of the Hor(P rectm, which are also called cequinoctialea 

Now, if we should comply with their wish, and acknowledge their 
assertions as truth, we should have to believe tliat an equinox takes 
place when the sun moves on either side of the winter solstice {i.e. near 
to the p*»int of the winter-solstice I'ithtT arriving there or leaving it) ; 
that this takes place only in some parts of the earth to the exclusion of 
others ; that the winter night is not equal to the summer day, and that 
n(K)U is not then when the sun reaches the midst between his rising and 
setting points. Whilst just the contrary of these necessary inferences 
80 from their theory is the conclusion generally accepted even by those who 
have only a slight insight into the matter. That, however, similar 
absurdities must follow out of their reafiouing he only will thoroughly 
comprehend who ia to some degree acquaintod with the motions of the 
(celestial) globes. 

If somebody will stick to what people say at dawn-rise, " morning hot 
come, night ha* youe ;" what is he to think of what they say when the sun 
is near setting, and bec^mies yellow — " evening has come, day has gone, 
night has come?" Such expressions merely indicate the approaching, 
the advancing, imd the reccdiog of the precise time in which people just 
40 happen to be. These phrases are to bo c-xplained as metaphors and 
metonymies. They are allowed in the usage of the language, ef. e.g. the 
word of God (Sftra ivi. 1) : " The order of God has come ; therefore do 
not hurry it." 

Another argument in favour of our view is the following saying, 
which is attributed to the Prophet, to whom and to whose family may 
God be merciful : " The prayer of the day is silent." And the ^t that 






10 ALBtsM. 

people call the noon-pmytt the ** first " pr&^r, beo&use it is the firtt of 
the two daily prayers ; whilst they call the afternoon-prayer the " middle " 
prayer, because it is in the midst, between the first of the two daily 
prayers and the first of the prayers of the night. 

My only object in aJI I hare discussed in this place is to refute the 
opinion of those who think that those things which are necessary for 
certain philosophical or physical causes prove the contrary of that which 
is indicated by the Coran, and who try to support their opinion by the 
doctrine of one of the lawyers and commentators of the Coran. Qod 
helps to the right insight 1 10 



11 



CHAPTER II. 



out THS NATraa 07 THA.T WHICH IS COMPOSED OF Di.T8, TIZ., MONTHS 

AND TEAB8. 



I BAT: Year means one revolution of the fmn m the ecliptic, moTing in a 
direction opposite to that of the uniTersal motion, and returning to the 
same |K)int whieh haa ht'cn aesumed as the starting-point of kit motion, 
whichsoever point this may be. In this wuv the sun incluJoa in his 
course the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, winter, and their four 
different natures ; and returns alwars to the point whence he commenced. 

10 According to Ptolemy these revolutions are equal, because he did not 
find that the apogee of the aun moves; whilst they arc unequal according 
to the authors of Sindhind and the modem astronomers, because their 
observations led them to thint that the apogee of the sun moves. In 
each CAse, however, whether they be equal or different, these revolntions 
Include the four seasons and their natures. 

As to the length of such a revolution in days and fractions of a day, 
the results of the astronomical obsen'ations do not agree, but differ 
considerably. According to some observations it is larger ; according to 
others less. However, in a short space of time this difference scarcely 

20 becomes perceptible ; but in the' loug run of time, when this difference 
is being redoubled and multiplied many times, and is then summed up 
into a whole, a very great error becomes clearly manifest, on account 
of which the sagoa have strongly recommended us to continue making 
obscrvatiuus, and to guard against errors which possibly might have 
entered into them. 

The difference of the observations regarding the length of one annual 
revolution of the sun does not arise from this cause, that people do not 
know how properly to institut* such observations, and to gain thereby 
an accurate knowledge of the real state of the thing ; but from this 

SO eauae, that it is impossible to fix tho parti of the greatest circle by 



p. 10. 



12 



ALBtBCNt. 



means of tbe parte of the smalleBt circle. I refer to the emaUxiess of 
the instruments of obserrations in eompaiison with the vastness of the 
bodies which ure to be observed. On this subject I have enlarged in my 
boot, callwl Kitab-aligtighhiid hiicJitildf.aVaradd. 

During this time. t.«. during one Fevolntioo of the sun in the ecliptic, 
the moon comi>letea a little less than 12J rcrolutions, and has 12 
limationa. This space of time, i.e. the 12 revolutions of the moon in 
the ecliptic, is. technically, the limar year, in which the fraction (beyond 
the 12 revolutions), which is nearly 11 days, is disregarded. The same 
fact, further, ia the reason why the ecliptic was divided into 12 equal 10 
parts, aa I have explained in my book on the investigation of rays and 
lights ; the same which I had the honour to present to Uia Highness. 
May God increase his majeety ! 

In consequence, people distinguish two kinds of years — the Solar year 
and the Lunar year. They have not used other stars for the purpose of 
deriviug years from them, because their motions are comi>arativoly 
hidden, and can hardly ever be found out by eyesight ; but only by 
astronomical observations and ei]>erimeuts. Further (they used only 
sun and moon for this purpose), because the changes of the particles of 
the elements and their mutual metamorphoses, as far as time and the 20 
state of the air, phuits and animals, etc., are concerned, d<!poud entirely 
i»jK)n the motions of these two celestial bodies, because they are the 
greatest of all, and because they excel the other stars by their light and 
appearance ; and because they resemble each other. Afterwards people 
derived from these two kinds of years other years. 

The Solar Year. — According to the statement of Theon, in his Canon, 
the pooplt; of C'oustan tine pie, and of Alexandria, and the other Greeks, 
the Syrians and Chaldteans, the Egyptians of our time, and those who 
have adopted the year of Almu'ta-did-biilah, all uso the solar year, 
which consists of nearly 365| days. They reckon their year as 365 30 
days, and add the quarters of a day in everj' fourth year as one complete 
day, when it has summed up thereto. This year they call an intercalary 
year, because the quarters arc intercalated therein. The aucii-ut E^'yp^ 
tians followed the same practice, but with this difference, that they 
neglected the quarters of a day tilt they had summed up to the number 
of days of one complete year, which took place in 1,460 years; then they 
intercalated one year, and agreed with the people of Alexandria and 
Constantinople as to the beginning of the year. So Theon Alexandrinus 
relates. 

The Persians followed the some rule as long as their empire lasted ; 40 
p. 11. but they treated it differently. For they reckoned their year as 865 
days, and neglected the following fractions until the diiy-quorters bad 
Bummed up in the course of 120 years to the number of days of one 
complete month, and until the fifth parts of an hour, which, according 
to their opinion, follow the fourth parts of a day {i.e. they give the 



ON THE NATCEE OF MONTHS AND YBAE8. 



13 



•o]&r year the length of 365| days and Jl hour), had summed up to 
one day j then they added the complete month to the year in each llGth 
year. This ^ras doue for a reason which I shail eiplain hereafter. 

The examjile of the Persians was followed by the ancient inhabitants 
of Khwiiriziu and Sogdiana, and by all who had tho same religion as the 
Persians, who were subject to them, and were considered as their 
kinsmen, during the time when their empire flouriahpd. 

I have heard tJiat the Pesbdfidian kin^s of the Persians, those who 
ruled over the entire world, reckoned the year as 360 days, and each 

10 month as 30 days, without any addition and subtraction ; that thoy 
intercalated one month in every sixth year, which they called " intercalary 
month," and two months in every 120th year; the one on account of 
the five days (the Epugomenuj). the uther on actiuunt of the quarter of a 
day ; that they held this year in high honour, and called it the "blessed 
yeftr," and that in it they occupied themselves with the affairs of divine 
worship and matters of public interest. 

The character of the system of the ancient Egyptians, according to 
what the Almagest relates regarding the years on which its own system of 
computation was bused, and of the systemn of th« Persians in Isl&m, and 

20 the people of Khwfirizni and Sogdiana, is their aversion tv the fractious. 
I.e. the \ day and what follows it, and their neglecting them altogether. 

The Luni-Solar Year. — The Hebrews, Jews, and all the laradlites, 
the Sabiona, and Harranians, used an intermediate system. They 
derived their year from the revolution of the sun, and its months from 
the revolution of the moon — with this view, that their feast and fast 
days might be regulated by lunar computation, and at the same time 
keep their places within the year. Therefore they intercalated 7 months 
in 19 lunar years, as I shall explain hererafter in the derivation of their 
cycles and tht.- differoat kinds of their years. 

SO The Christians agreed with them in the mode of the computation of 
their fasting and of some of their festivals, the cardinal point in all this 
being thePassover of the Jews ; but they differed from them in th« use of 
the raonths,"wt5fein they followed the system of the Greeks and Syrians. 
In a similar way the heathen AjTibs proceeded, observing the 
difference between their year and the solar year, whicli is 10 days 
21^ hours, to speak roughly, and adding it to the year as ont> month 
as soon as it completed the number of days of a month. They, however, 
reckoned this difference as 10 days and 20 hours. Tliis business was 
administered by the Nasa'a (the interralatora) of the tribe of Kinaua, 

40 known as the Kalamit, a plural form of ^uhmviast which signifies a 
/%Ul-Jiioieing $ea. These were 'Abu Thuniama and his ancestors : 
I. 'Ab6 ThumAma Jun&da. ben 
*Auf ben 
TJmayya ben 
Kala' ben 



p. 12. 



u 



AIBtBi)Nt. 



y. 'Abbftd ben 
Kala' bon 
VII. Rudhaifa. 

Thej were ail of them intercalators. The first of them who held^ 
office was — 

VH. Hudhaifabea 
'Abd ben 
Fu^im ben 
X. 'Adiyy bea 

*Ainir ben 10 

Xha'hiba ben 
MUikben 
XIV. Kin&na. 

The last of them, whn held it, was 'Abft-ThumAma. The poet, who 
celebrates them, describes him in the followiiij;^ terms : — 

" There is Fu^im ! He was called A-lVolaiumas, 
Aud ho was one of the founders of their religion, 
His word being obeyed, he being reoognisod as a chieftain." 

And another poet says : 

" (He was) famous among the foreranners of Ein^a, 20 

A celebrated man, of uxaltod rank. 
In this way he 8|>ent his time." 

Another poet says: 
*• Tho difference between the revolution of the Bun and new<moon 
He adds t/)gether and sums it up, 
Till it makeB out a complete month." 

He (i.e. Ijudbaifa) had taken this system of intercalation from the 
Jews nearly 200 years before IslMn ; the Jews, however, intercalated 
9 months in 24 lunar years. In consequence their months were fixed, 
and came always in at their proper times, wELndering in a imiform course 30 
through the year without retrograding and without adTancing. This 
state of things remained till the Prtiphet made his Farewell pilgrimage, 
and the following verse was revealed to him : " Intercalation is only an 
increase of infidelity, by which the infidels load astray (people), 
admitting it one year and prohibiting it in another." (SAra ix. 37.) 
The Prophet delivered an address to the people, and said : " Time has 
come round as it was on the day of God's creating the heavens luid the 
earth," and, continuing, he recited to them tho (just mcntioued) verse 
of the Coran on the prohibition of the Na*C, i.e. intercalation. Ever 
since they have neglected intercalation, so that their months have 40 
receded from their original places, and the names of the months ore no 
longer in conformity with their original meanings. 



ON THE NATUBE OP MONTHS AND TEARS. 



15 



Ab to the other natioiu, their opinions on this subject are well known. 
They are likely to have no other syeteme besides those we have men- 
tioned, and each nation seems to foUow the example of the system of 
their neighbours. 

Tears of the Indians. — X have heard that the Indians use the 
appearance of new-moon in their months, that they intercalate one Innar 
month in every 976 days, and that they fix the befj^inuing of their era 
to the moment when a conjunction takes place in the first minute of any 
zodiacal sign. The chief object of their searching is that this con- 
10 junction sliould take place iu one of the two equinoctial [Kiiiits. The 
leap-year they call AdkimtUa. It is very possible that this is really the 
case; because, of all stars, they use specially the moon, her mansions 
and their subdivisions, in their astrological dctenniuations, and not 
the zodiacal signs. However, I have not met with anybody who had 
an accurate knowledge of this subject ; therefore I turn away from what 
I cannot know for certain. And God is my help ! 

'Abii- Muhammad AlmVib Al&mul! relates in his Kitdb-alghurra, on 
tho authority of Ta'Ijftb ben Tarilj, that the Indians use four different 
kinds of spaces of time : 

20 L One revolution of the sun, starting from a |K)int of the ecliptic 

and returning to it. This is tho solar year. 

n. 360 risings of the sun. This is called the middle-year, because it 
is longer than the Iujuit year aud shorter than the solar year. 

m. 12 revolutions of tho moon, starting from tho star AUkaraidn 
(i.e. the head of Aries) and returning to it. This is their 
lonar year, which consists of 327 days and nearly 7| hours. 

TV. 12 lunations. This is the lunar year, which they use. 



p. 18. 



16 



ALBtaftNl. 



CHAPTER III. 



OS THE NATUBE OF THS CRAB, AND THE DIVFEBENT OPIffZOVB OF TQK 
NATIONS BEOAHDINO THEU. 



Eba meaDs a defixiite space of time, rcckooed from the beginning of 
8ome paat year, in wLicb either a prophet, with sigua aud wonders, and 
with a proof nf his divine mission, wa« sent, or a great and i)owi?rful 
king rose, or in which a nation perished by a universal di^structiTe 
dduge, or bj a violent earthquake and sinking of the earth, or a 
sweeping pestilence, or by intense drought, or in which a ohanpe of 
dynasty or religion took place, or any grand event of the celestial and 10 
the famous tellurian miraculous occurrences, which do not happen save 
at long intervals and at times far distajit from each otht^r. By such 
events the fixed moments of time (the epocha) are recognised. Now, 
such an era cannot be dtsitensed with in all secular and religious 
affairs. Each of the nations scattered over the different parts of the 
world has a special era, which they count from the times of their kinjgs 
or prophets, or dynasties, or uf some of those events which we have just 
now mentioned. And thenr« they derive the dat^^s, which they want in 
social intercourse, in chronology, and in every institute {i.e. fesUvals} 
which is eiclusively ]>eciiliar to them. 20 

Era of the Creation. — The first and most famous of the beginnings 

I of antiquity is the fact of the creation of mankind. But among those 
who have a book of divine revelation, au<rh as the Jews, Christians, 
Magians, and their various sects, there exists such a differeuee of 
opinion as to the nature of this fiict, and as to the question how tu date 
p. 14. from it, the bke of which is not allowable for ems. Everything, the 
knowledge of which Is connected with the beginning of creation and 
with the history of bygone generations, ie mixed up with falsifications 
and myths, because it belongs to a Ear remote age; because a long 
interval separates us therefrom, and because the student is incapable of 30 



ON THB NATUEE Of THE EttAS. 



17 



keeping it in mi'iiiorvr and of fixing it (bo as to prt^f^erTe it from cuu- 
fusion). God says : " Have they not got the stories al>out those who 
were before them? None but Goil kiiowa tiiem." (Sftra ix. 71.) There- 
fore it is becoming uot to admit any account of a simlUr subject, if it 
is not attested by a book, the correctness of which is relied upon, or by 
a tnniition, for which the conditions of authenticity, according to the 
prevalent opinion, furnish grounds of proof. 

If we now first consider this era, we find a considerable divergence 
of opinion rc'gardiug it among these nations. For the Persians and 

10 Magians thiuk that the duration of the world is 12,000 years, corre- 
sponding to the number of the signs of the zodiac and of the months ; 
and that Zoroaster, the founder of their law, thought that of those there 
had [Kissed, till the time of his appeaiunce, 3,000 years, intercalated 
with the day -quarters ; for he himself had made Iheir computation, and 
had token into acooim.t that defect, which had accrued to them on 
account of the day-quarters, till the time when they were intorcahited 
and were made to agrt-e with real time. From his appearance till the 
beginning of the Mm Aleiandri, they count 258 years ; therefore they 
count from the begiiuiing of the world till Alexander 3,258 years. 

20 However, if we compute the years from the creation of Gay6marth, whom 
they hold to be the tirst man. and sum up the years of the reign of each 
of his successors — for the rule (of Iran) remained with his descendants 
without interruption — this number is, for the time till Alexander, the 
siun total of 3,354 years. So the specification of the single items of the 
addition does not agree with the sum total. 

Further, the Persians and Greeks disagree as to the time after 
Alexander. For they count from Alexander till the beginning of the 
reign of Yazdajird P+2 yars 257 days. If we deduct therefrom the 
duration of the rule of the Sosanian kings as far as the beginning of 

30 the reign of Yaxdajird, as they compute it, via,, nearly 415 years, we 
get a remainder of 528 years as the time during which Alexander and 
the Mtiltik-ai'fawit'if reigned. But if we sum up the years of the reign 
of each of the Asbkaiiian kings, as they have settled it, we get only the 
sum of 280 years, or,— tailing into regard their difference of opinion as to 
the length of tlie reign of each of them, — the sum of not more tlian 300 
years. This difference T shall heri'After try to settle to some extent. 

A section of the Persians is of opinion that those past 3,000 years 
which we have mentioned are to be counted from the creation of 
Qnyfimarth ; because, before that, already ti.OOO years bad elapsed — a 

40 time during which the celestial glol>e stood motionless, the natures (of 

created beings) did not interchange, the elements did not mix — during p. 16. 
wliich there was no growth, and no decay, and the earth was not cultivated. 
Thereupon, when the celestial globe was set a-going, the first man came 
into existence on the equator, so that part of him in longitudinal 
direction was on the north, and [tort south of the line. The animals 



18 



ALBtB^Kt. 






5. 16. 



were produced, and mtinkiud commenced, to ruprodure ilieir own speoiee 
and to multiplj ; the atoms of the elemeDta mixed, so as to give 7*ise to 
growth and decaj ; the earth was cultivatt^d, and the world was 
arranged in coufonnity with fiied tiorms. 
•^ — The Jews and Christians differ widely on this suhjwt ; for, acirording 
to the doctrine of the Jewa, the liiiie between Adam and Alexander is 
3.448 years, whilst, according to the CHirisliaii doetrinc, it ia 5,180 ycare. 
The ChriHtiana reproach the Jews with having diminiiihed the number of 
years with the view of making the appearant-^? of Jesus fall into the 
fourth milleuiii\ini ia the middle of the seven millennia, whit/h are, 10 
according to their view, the time of the duration uf the world, su as not 
to coincide with that time at which, as the prophets after Moses had 
prophesied, the birth of Jesus from a pure virgin at the end of time, 
was to take place. Both parties depend, in their bringing forward of 
arguments, upon certain modes uf interpretation derived from the 
yiguh-aUjummal. So the Jews expect the coming of the Messiah who 
was promised to them at the end of 1,335 years after Alexander, ex> 
pecting it like something which they know for certain. In consequeuce 
of which many of tlic pseudo-prophets of their sects, a« e.g. Al-rA'i/ 
'AbA-Tsa Al-isfabiUu, and others, claimed to be his messengers to them. 
This expectation was based on the assumption thai the beginning of 
this era (.^ra Alexandri) coincided with the time when the Bucrifices 
were abolished, when no more divine revelation was received, and no 
more prophets were sent. Then they referred to the Hebrew word of 
God in the 5th book of the Thora (IVut. xxxi. 18), n"'nD«nnon ■':D3H 
fcV)nrT DVn DiTQ ^25? which means: '*!, God, shall conceal my 
being till that day." And they counted the letters of the words 
■>^nDM ^riDrr, the word for *' euncealing," which gives the sum of 1,335- 
This they declared to be the time during which no inspiration from 
heaven waa received and the sacrifices were abolished, which is meant 
by God's coTUealing hinudf. The word "being" (^^^ = •'35) is here 
synonymous vrith " affair" (or "order, command"). In order to 
support what they maintain, they quote two jrassages in the Book 
of Daniel (xii. 11): P^^M 0''^!'' Or^ttJ ^nptS"inV» "r?2nn -^Dnn H^TO 
CyG^m D'^nW?D1t which means: "Since the time when the sacrifice 
was abolished until impurity comes to destruction it is 1,290." 
and the nt-xt following passage (Dan. xii. 12) : V^T^ 7l2TV2il "^V^t^ 
nfem D^Ur^iSri m^n iri^Ch Pl*rS D'^'h which means: "Thcro. 
fore happy he who hopes to reach to 1,335.*' Some people explain 
the difference of forty-five years in these two passages so as to refer 40 
the former date (1,290) to the beginning of the rebuilding of Jerusalem ; 
and the latter (1,335) to the time when the rebuilding would l>e finished. 
According to others, the first number is the date of the birth of Alessiah, 
whilst the latter is the date of his public appearance. Further, the Jews 
say, when Jacob bestowed his blessing upon Judah (Gen. xlix. 10), he 



A*^ 



v-i 



20 /^.Jl^"'* 






30 



ON THE NATPBE OP THE ERAS. 



19 



iuforraed him that the rule shonld always remain with hia sons till the 
time of the coming of him to whom tho nile bfilongs. So in these wpnls 
be told him that the rule should remaio trith his descendants until the 
appearance of the nipect-ed Messiah. And now the Jews add that this 
ifl reallj the case ; that the rule hus not been taken from them. For the 
Nni73 tCNIi i-e. "the head of the eiUes" who bad been banished 
from thfir liomPH in Jernsaleni, is the master of every Jew in the world ; 
the nder whom tlioy obey in all countries, whose order is carried out 
under most eircuai stances. 

10 The Christiana use certain Syriac words, v'lr.., Ido;£} I*^*^ >a^rt ^q^^ 
fs>, which mean " Jesus, the Messiah, the greatest redeemer." Com- 
puting the value of the letters of these words, they get the sum of 1,335. 
Now, they think that it was these words which Daniel meant to indicate 
by those numbers, not the above-mentioned years ; because in the text 
of his words they are nothing but numbers, without any indication 
whether they mean years, or days, or something else. It ia a prophecy 
indicative of the name of the Messiah, not of the time of his coming. 
Further, they relate that Daniel once dreamt in Babylonia, some years 
after the accessluu of Cyrus to the throne, on the 24th of the first 

20 month, when he had prayed to God, and when the Israelites were the 
priaonera of the Persians. Then God revealed to him the following 
. (Dan. ix. 24^26): '"Crishllm, i.e. Jerusalem, will bo rebuilt ?0 S<iM% 
and will remimt in the prtssession of thy people. Then the Messiah will 
come, but he will he killed. And in consequence of his coming 
'Crishltm will undergo its last destruction, and it will remain a ruin till 
the end of time." The word Siibu* (Hebrew J?'l!2CS) means a Septennium. 
Now, of the whole time (indicated in this passage) seven Septennia refer 
to the rebuilding of Jerusalem, which time is also mentioned in the 
- Book of ZekharyA ben Ber»^khya ben 'IddA' (Zechariah iv. 2) : " I have 

30 beheld a candlestick with seven lamjis thereon, and with seven pipes to 
each lamp." And before this he says (iv. 9): " The hands of Zerubbabel 
have laid the foundation of this house, his hands also shall finish it." 
The time from the bojriiming of his rebuilding of the house (i.e. Joru- 
salem) till its end is 49 years, or 7 Septennia. Then, after 62 Septen- 
nia, they think, Jesus the son of Mary came ; and in the last Septennium 
the sacrifiees and offerings were abolished, and Jerusalem underwent its 
above-men tiuned destruction, insomuch that no more divine revelation 
nor prophets were sent, as the Israelites were scattered all over the 
world, utterly neglected, not practising their sacrifices, nor having a 

40 place where to practise them. 

In respect of all we have mentioned, each of the two parties makes 
assertions which they cannot support by anything but interpretations 
derived from tlie Uitiih.al-jnmmai, and fallacious subtilties. If the 
student would try to establish something else by the same means, and 
refute wliat they (each of the two parties) maintaiu, by similar argumenta, 



p. 17. 



20 



ALBtE^Ni. 



it would not he difficult for him to search for them. Ab to what the 
Jews think of the continuance of the rule in the family of Juda, and 
which they transfer to the leadership of the exiles, we must remarlc that, 
if it was correct to eit<>nd iho word "rule" to a similar leadership bj 
way of analogy, the Magians, the Soibians, and others would partake 
of this, and neither the other Israelites nor any other nation would be 
exempt therefrom. Because no class of men« not even the lowest, are 
without a sort of rule and leadership with relation to others who are 
still inferior to them. 

If we referred the numerical value of the word "concealing" in the 10 
Thora to that period fri:>m the earliest date which the Israelites assign to 
their exodus from Eg'vpt till Jesus the son of Mary, this interpretation 
would rest on a better foundation. For the time from their exodus from 
Egypt till the accession of Alexander is 1,000 years according to their 
own view ; and Jeaus the son of Mary was born Anno Aleiandri 304s 
and God raised him to himself Anno Alexandri 336. So the sura of the 
years of this complete period is 1,335 as the time during which the law 
of Moees ben 'ImrAn existed, till it was carried to perfection by Jeaua 
the son of Mary. 

Ab to that which they derive from the two passages of Daniel, wg can 20 
only say that it would he possihle to refer them to something different, 
and to explain them in a differeut way ; and more than that — that 
neither of their modes of interpretation is correct, excojit we suppose 
that the beginning of that number precedes the time when they were 
pronounced (by Daniel). For if it is to be understood that the begin* 
ning of both numbers (1,290 and 1,335) is one and the same time, be it 
past, presHtit, nr future, you cannot reasonably explain why the two 
passages should have been pronounced at differi^nt times. And, not to 
speak of the difference between the two numbers (1,290 and 1,335) the 
matter can in no way bo correct ; because the second passage ("Happy 30 
he who hopes to reach 1,335 ") admits, first, that the beginning of the 
number precedes the time when the passage was pronounced ; so that it 
(the nnraber) may reach its end one year, or more or less, after the 
supposed time ; secondly, that the beginning of that number may be 
the very identical time when the [Kissage was prouoimced ; or, thirdly, 
that it may be after this moment by an indefinite time, which may be 
smaller or greater. Now, if a chronological statement may be referred 
to all three spheres of time (past, present, and future), it cannot be 
referred to any one of them except on the basis of a clear text or an 
indisputable argument. 40 

The first passage ("Since the time when the sacrifice was abolished, 

until impurity comes to destruction, it is 1,21)0 ") admits likewise of being 

referred, first, to the first destruction of Jerusalem ; and, secondly, to 

p. 18. its second destruction, which happened, however, only 885 years after 

the accession of Alexander. 



ON THE NATUEB OF THE ERAS. 



21 



Therefore the Jow< hjive not the slij^hU'st reason to rommeuce (in 
their calculations us t<j the coming of tho Messiah) with that d&tc with 
which they have commenced (viz., the epoch of the JBra AJexaiidri). 

These are doubts and diffifultieB which boset the assertions of the 
Jews. Those, however, which u*tiLch to thf st-henies cf the Cbristiiuui 
are even moi-o numerous and conspicuous. For even if the Jews granted 
to them that th# coming of Messiah was to take place 70 Septennia after 
the vision of Daniel, we must remark that the apjiearance of Jesua the 
son of Mary did not take place at that time. The reason is this: — The 

10 Jews have agreed to fis the interval between the exodus of the Israelites 
from Egypt and the Mm Alexandri at 1,(X)0 complete years. From pas- 
sages in the books of the Prophets they have inferred that the interval 
between the exodus of the Israeliti's from Egypt and the building of 
Jerusalem is 4S0 years; and the interval between the building and 
the destruction by Nobiuadnezar 410yeairfl; and that it remained in a 
mined state 70 years. Now this giv<>s the sum of 960 years (after the 
exodus from Egypt) as the date for the visiuu of Daniel, and as a 
remainder of the above-mentioned millennium (from the exodus till .^ra 
AJexandri) 40 years. Further, Jews iind Christians unanimously suppose 

20 that the birth of Jeans the son of Mary took place Anno AJexandri 304. 
Therefore, if we use their own chronology, the birth of Jesus the son of 
Mary took place 344 years after the vision of Daniet and the rebuilding 
of Jerusalem, j.e about 49 Septennia. From his birth till the timewh-^n He 
began preaching iu public are 4^ Septennia more. Hence it iff evident 
that the birth (of Jesus) precedes the date which they have assumed 
(as the time of the birth of the Messiah). 

For the Jews there follow nu such consequences from their chrono- 
logical system ; and if the Christians should accuse the Jews of telling 
lies regarding the length of the [»eriod between the rebuilding of 

80 Jerusalem anil the epoch of the ^Era Aleiandri, the Jews would meet 
them with similar accusations, and more than ttiat. 

If we leave aside the arguments of the two parties, and consider the 
table of the Chaldjcan kings, which we shall hereafter explain, we find 
the interval between the begimilng of the reign of Cyrus and that of 
the reign of Alexander to be 222 years, and from the latter date till the 
birth of Jesus 304 years ; so that the sum total is 526 years. If we 
now deduct therefrom 3 years, for the rebuilding (of Jerusalem) com- 
menced in the third year of the reign of Cyrus, and if wo reduce tho 
remainder to Septennia, we get nearly 7fi Septennia for the interval 

40 between the vision (of Daniel) and the birth of Messiah. Therefore the 
birth of Messiah is later than the date which they (the Christiana) 
have assumed. 

If the Christians compute the Syriac words (1-OOj.a ) ..^ . .^n \n m , 
|s^), and believe that because of the identity of their numerical value 
with the number (1,335, mentioned by Daniel), these worda were meant 



22 



ALBiaONt. 



(by Daniol) and not a certain numTver of rears, wg can only say that 
we cannot accept such an opinion eicept it be confirmed by an argument 
as indubitable as ocular inspection. For tf you computed the numerical 
value of the following words: J^*^ /d i^ ,3tsi4^ SV ('*Me deliver- 
ance of the ctratk>n from iafidelity by Muhumnmd"), you would get 
the sum of 1,335. Or if you computed the words ^^^^ 4^ ^^y 'jM 
p. 19. ***■'< g g— *^^j - u ^^r (" the prophecy of Moses ben ^Irnrdn regarding Mu- 
hammad; the prophecy of Hie Mc«eia}i regarding ^ Ahmad"), you would get 
the same sum, i.e. 1,335. Likewise, if you coimted theae words: j^ 
^^^\ \ 7^1) ^\JU £i^ (" The plain of Fdrdn akinee with the illiterate 10 
Muhammad"), yoa would again get the same sum (1,335). If, now> a 
man asserts that thoHc numbers are meant to indicate a prophecy on 
account of the identity of tlie niimt'rical valuoa of Ibeee phrases with 
that of the Syriac words (}s) }oo;a ]M.*aV) ^QAa), the value of his 
argument would be exactly the same as that of the Cbristtans regarding 
those passagps (in Daniel), the one case closely resembling the other, 
even if he should produce as a testimony for Muhammad and the truth 
of the prophecy regarding Lim a passage of the prophet Isaiah^ of wliich 
the following is the meanings or like it (Isaiah xxi. 6-9) : " God ordered 
him to set a vatchmAin on the vxUehtower, Uuit he tnighi declare lohai he ahovld 20 
$ee. Then he aaid : I tee a man riding oh an ase, and a man riding on a 
eanuL And the one of them cameforicard crying and speaking: Babylon is 
fallen, and its grawn images are broken" This is a prophecy regarding 
the Messiah, '* the man riding on an ass" and regarding Muhammadi 
" the nuxn riding on a camel," because in consequence of his appearance 
Babylon has fallen, its idob have teen broken, its ^astlcg hare been 
shattered, and its empire has perished, There are many passages in the 
book of the prophet Isaiah, predicting Mubamiuad, being rather hints 
(than clearly out<spokeu words), but easily admittiug of a clear inter- 
pretation. And with all this, their obstino^jy in clinging to their error 30 
induoes them to devise and to maintain things which arc nut acknow- 
ledged by men in general, viz. : that '* thr- man riding ow Ute aimel" i* 
Moses, not Muhammad. But what connection have Mo»es and his 
people with Babel ? And did that happen to Muses and to his people 
after him, which happened to Muhamnmd and his companions in Babel V 
By no means! If they (the Jews) had one after the other escaped from 
the Babylonians, they would have considered it a BUJficient prize to carry 
off to return (to their country), even though in a desperate couditiuo. 

This testimony (Isaiah xxi. 6-9) is confirmed by the word of God to 
Moses in the fifth book of the Thora, called Almatlimi (Deuteronomy 40 
xviii. 18, 19) : "/ vnU raise Ihem up a prophet from among their brethren 
like unto thee, and will put my word into his mowiA. And lie shall speak 
unto them all titat I shall command him. And whosoever wiU not hearken 
%7ito the UJord of him who speaks in vty nutne, I shall take revenge on him." 
Kow I should like to know whether there are other brethren of the sous 



ON THB JJATUEE OP THE KRAS. 



23 



of iJMaOf except the f-^ns of Ishmael. If thev say. that tbu Livlhren of 
the noM of lanel an thu childreu of Esau, we ask only : Has there then 
risen amonf; them a man like Moses — in the times after Moses — of the 
same description and resembling him ? Does not also the following 
passage of the same book^ of which this is the tranBhttion (Beut ixxiii. 
2), bear testimony for Mui>ammud : " TJur Lord came, from Mount Sinaif 
and rote up unto us from Seir, and fm shined forth from Mount P(iran, 
accompanied by ten Ihousand of eainig ai hit right hand? " The terms of 
this passage are hinti for the establishing of the proof, that the 

10 (anthropomorphic) descriptions, which are inherent in them, cannot be 
referred to the essence of the Creator, nor to hia qualities, he being high 
above such things. His coming from M(mnt Sinai means his secret 
oonreraation with Moses there ; his rising up from Seir means the 
appearance of Messiah, and his shining forth from Paran, whore Ishmae] 
grew up and married, means the coming of Muhammad from thence aa 
the last of all the founders of religions, accompanied hy legions of 
saints, who were seut down from heaven to help, being marked with 
certain badges. He who refuses to accept this interpretation, for which 
all evidence has borne testimony, is required to prove what kinds of 

20 mistakes there are in it. " Bui he wfuMe companion i« Saian, woe to Aim 
for guch a comjtanion! " (Sura iv. 42.) 

Now, if the Christians do not allow us to use the numerical values of 
Arabic words, we cannot allow them to do the same with the Syriac 
words which they quote, becaustj the Thora and the books of those 
prophets were revealed in the Hebrew language. All they have brought 
forward, and all we are going to propound, is a decisive proof, and a clear 
argument, showing that the words in the holy books have been altered 
from their projHjr meauinga, and that the text has undergone modilica- 
lions contrary to its original condition. Having recourse t^ thiR sort of 

30 computing, and of using false witnesses, shows and proves to evidence, 
that their authors purposely deviate from the path of truth and right- 
eousness. If we could open them a door in heaven, and they ascended 
thereby, they would say : " Our eye» are only drunJcen. Nay, «w are 
fascinated people." (Silia XT. 15.) But such is not the case. The fact 
is that they are blind to the truth. We pray to God, that he may help 
and strengthen us, that he may guard us against sin, and lead us by the 
right path. 

As to the doctrine of abrogation (of one holy book by another), and as 
to their fanciful pretension uf having pastiages of the Thora which order 

40 him who claims to be a prophet after Moses to be put to death, we must 
state, that the groundlessness of these opinions is rendered evident by 
other passages of the Thora. However, there are more suitable places to 
speak of these opinions than this, and so we return to our subject, as we 
Lave already become lengthy in our exposition, one matter drawing us to 
another. 



p. 20. 



24 



ALBtuf^l. 



p. 21. 



Now I procewl to Btato that both Jews and CliriBtians hare a copv of 
the Thora, the contents of which agree with, the doctrines of either sect. 
Of the Jewish copy people think that it is comparatively free from 
cocfueion. The Christ-ioii t-opy i» called tlie " Tkora of (/«• Seventy,^* for 
the following reason : Aftor Nebukadnezar had conquered and destroyed 
Jerusalem, part of the Israelites emigrated from their countTj, took 
refuge with the king of Egypt, and lived thero under his protection till 
the time when Ptolemieus Philiidelphiuj ascended the throne. This king 
heard of the Thora, and of its divine origin. Therefore he gave orders to 
search for this commnnity. and found them at list in a place nurobj^^g 10 
about 50,000 men. He afforded tliera prot4?ctioo, and took them int^is 
favour, he treated them with kindness, and allowed them to return to 
Jerusalem, which in the meanwhile had been rebuilt by Cyrus, Bahmau's 
governor of Biibel, who had also n?vived the culture of Syria. They left 
Egypt, accompanied by a body of his (Ptolemteus Philadeljihus') servants 
for their protection. The king said to thorn : " I want to ask you for 
something. If you grant me the favour, you aoquit yourselves of all 
obligations towards mc. Let me have a copy of your took, the Thora." 
This the Jews promised, and confirmed their promise by an oath. Having 
arrived at Jerusalem, they fulfilled their promise by sending him a copy 20 
of it, but in Hebrew. He, however, did not know Hebrew. Therefore he 
addressed himself agjiiu to them asking for [>eople who knew both 
Hebrew and Greek, who might translate the book for him, promising 
them gifts and presents in reward. Now the Jews selected seventy-two 
men out of their twelve tribes, six men of each tribe from among the 
Rabbis and priests. Their names are known among the Christians. 
These men translated the Thom into Greek, aftor they had been housed 
separately, and each couple had got a servant to take care of them. 
This went on till they had finished the transhition of the whole book. 
Now the king had in his hands thirty-six translations. These be com- SO 
pared with each other, and did not find any differenced in them, ejcccpt 
those which always occur in the rendering of the same ideas. Then the 
king gave them what ho had promised, and provided them with every- 
thing of the best. 'X*he Jews asked hiiu to make them a pi-e^eut of one 
of those copies, of which they wished to make a boast before their own 
people. And the king complied with their wish. Now tliis is the copy 
of the Christians, and people think, that in it no alteration ur traus[X)si- 
tion has taken place. The Jews, however, give quite a diflforent account, 
riz. that they made the translation under a>mpuUioD, and that they 
yielded to the king's demand only from fear of violence and mnltivat- 40 
ment, and not before having agreed upon inverting and confounding the 
text of the book. There is nothing in the report of the Christ.ians which, 
even if we should take it for granted — removes our doubts (as to the 
authenticity of their Bible) ; on the contrary, there is something in it 
which strengthens them greatly. 



ON THE NATURE OP THB ERAS, 



25 



10 



Besides these two co|>iea of the Thora, there is a third one that exists 
among the Samaritans, also known by tlie name of Al-ldvuMasiyya. To 
them, as the auhstitutes for the Jews, Neburadnezar had giv»m the 
coimtrv of Svria, when he led the Jews into captivity, and cleared 
the country of them. The Samoritana had helped him (in the war 
against the Jews), and had pointed out to him the weak points of 
the Isroelitea. Therefore, he did not disturb them, nor kill them, uor 
make them prisoners, hut he made them inhabit Palestine under his 
protettiou. 

TJktv doctrines are a syncretism of Judaism and ZoroastrianiBm. The 
bulE'of their enmraunity is living in a town of Palestine, called Ndbulvs, 
whero they have their churches. They have never entered the precincts 
of Jerusalem since the days of David the prophet, because they main- 
tain that he committed wrong and injustice, and tmnsferred the holy 
temple from NabuLua to Aelia, i.e. Jerusalem. They do not touch 
other people j but if they happen to be touched by anyone, they wash 
themselves. They do not acknowledge any of the prophets of the 
Israelites after Moses. 

Now as to the copy which the Jews have, and on which they rely, we 
20 find that according to its account of the lives of the immediate descend- 
ants of Adam, the interval between the expulsion of Adam from Paradise 
till the deluge in the time of Noah, is 1,656 years; according to the 
Christian copy the same interval is 2,242 years, and according to the 
Samaritan copy it is 1,307 years. According to one of the hiatoriana, 
Anianus, the interval between the creation of Adam and the night of 
the Friday when the deluge commenced, is 2,226 years 23 days and 
4 boors. This statement of Anianus is reported by Ihn-Albibyar in 
his KH^U^-alkir^lr^<'rt (Botik of the Conjunctions) ; it conies very near that 
of the Christiiins. Uowover. it makes me think that it is baaed upon 
80 the methods of the astrologers, because it betrays evidently an arbitrary 
and too subtle mode of research. 

Now, if such is the diversity of opinions, as we have described, and 
if there is no possibility of distiuguishing^by means of analogy — 
between truth and fiction, where is the student to search for exact 
information r* 

Not only does the Thora exist in several and diifercnt copies, but 
something similar is the case with the Gospel tcjo. For the Christians 
hare four copies of the Gospel, being collected into one code, the first by 
Matthew, the second by Mark, the third by Luke, and the fourth by 
John ; each of these four disciples having composed the Qospel in con- 
formity with what he (Christ) had preached in his country. The reports, 
contained in these four copies, such as the descriptions of Messiah, the 
relations of him at the time when he preached and when he was crucified, 
as they maintain, differ very widely the one from the other. To begin with 
his genealogy, which ia the genealogy of Joseph, the bridegroom of Mary 



40 



.22. 



2« 



ALBlRftsf. 



and step-father of Jgbub. For aoconling to Matthew (L 2-16), hia pedigree 



p. 28. 



is this: — 










I. Joseph. 


Zorobahel. 




Joram. 


Salmon. 


Jacob. 


Salathiel. 




Josaphat. 


Naosson. 


Matthan. 


Jechonias. 




Ana. 


Amiaadab. 


Eleazar. 


JoBias. 




Abia. 


Aram. 


V. Eliud. 


XV. Araou, 


XXV 


. Boboam. 


XXXV.Esrom. 


Achin. 


Haaaeses. 




Solomon. 


Pharea. 


Zadok. 


Ezekiaa. 




David. 


Judas. 


Azor. 


Ahoz. 




Jesse. 


Jacob. - 


Elyatim. 


Joatham. 




Obed. 


Isaac. 


X. A Mud. 


XX.07ia9. 


xx\ 


. Booz. 


XL. Abraham. 



I, Joseph. 


Esli. 




Salathiel. 


Heli. 


Nagge. 




Neri. 


Matthat. 


Maath. 




Melchi. 


Levi, 


Mattathias. 




Addi. 


V. Melchi. 


A V . SenieL 


XXV, 


. Cosam. 


Janna 


Joseph. 




Elmodam. 


Joseph. 


Judas. 




Er. 


Mnttathias. 


Joanna. 




Joseph. 


Am4>a. 


Rhesa. 




EUeser. 


X. Naum. 


XX.Zorobabel. 


XXX 


. Jorim. 



10 



Matthew in stating this genealogy comraences with Abraham, tracing 
it downward (as far as Joseph). According to Luke (iii. 2S-31) the 
pedigree of Joseph is this : — 

Matthat. 

Levi. 

Simeon. 

Juda. 
XXXV.Joseph. 20 

Joiiani. 

Elyaldm. 

Melea. 

Menau. 
XL. Matathl 

Nathan. 
XLIL David. 
This difference the Christians try to excuse, and to accoimt for it, 
Baying, that there was one of the laws prescribed in the Thora. which 
ordered that, if a man died, leaving behind a wife but no male children, 30 
the brother of the deceased was to marry her instead, in order to raise 
up a progeny to the deceased brother ; that, in consequence, liis children 
were genealogicaUy referred to the deceased brother, whilst as to real 
birth they were the children of the living brother; that, therefore, 
Joseph was referred to two different fathers, that Hell was his father 
genealogically, whilst Yakob was his father in realUy. Further, they 
Bay, that when Matthew bad stat-ed the real podign«! of Joseph, the 
Jews blamed him for it, saying: " Hia pedigree is not correct, because it 
has been made without regard to bis genmiogical relation." In order to 
meet this rci)roach, Luke stat(^d his pedigree in conformity with the 40 
genealogitral ordinances of their code. Both pedigrees go back to David, 
and that was the object (in stating them), because it had been predicted 
of the Messiah, that he would be " the son of David." 
Finally^ the fact that only the pedigree of Joseph has been adduced 



ON TEE NATDRE OF THE E&KS. 



27 



for SleBsiah, aod not that of NTary, is to be explained in this way, that 
according to the law of the Israelitoa, nobody was allowed to marry any 
but a wife of his own tribo and clan, whereby they wanted to prevent 
confusion of the pedigrees, and that it was the custom to mention only 
the pedi^eoji of the men, not those of the women. Now Joseph and 
"Mary being both of the same tribe, tbcir descent must of necessity go 
back to the same origin. And this was the object in their statement 
and account of the pedigree. 

Ereryone of the sects of Marcion, and of Bardesanes, has a sp<>cial 

10 Gospel, which in some parts differs from the Gos|)eIs we have men- 
tioned. Also the Maiiicb»an.»i have a (JoBpel of their own, the contents 
of which from the first to the last are opposed to the doctrines of the 
Cbritstians ; but the Manicheeans consider them as their religious law, 
and believe that it is the correct OospeU that its contents are really that 
which Messiah thought and taught, that every other Qospel is false, and 
its followers are liars against Messiah. Of this Gospel there is a copy, 
called, "The Gospel of the Seventy ,'* which is attributed to one BalamUy 
and in the beginning of which it is stated, that Sallum ben 'Abdallah ben 
Salldm wrote it down as ho heard it from Salman Alf&rist. Ho, how- 

20 ever, who looks into it, will see at once that it is a forgery ; it is not 
acknowledged by Christians and others. Therefore, we come to the 
conclusion, that among the Gospels there are no books of the Prophets 
to be found, on which you may with good faith rely. 

Era of the Deluge. — The next following era is the era of the great 
deluge, in which evurylhing jjerinbed at the time of Noah. Here, too, 
there is such a difference of opinions, and such a confusion, that you 
have no chance of deciding as to the correctness of the matter, and do 
not even feel iuclined to itivestigato thoroughly its histtjrk-al truth. The 
reason is, in the tirst instance, the difference regarding the period between 

30 the Mrtk Adami and the Deluge, which we have mentioned already ; and 
secondly, that difference, which wo shall have to mention, regarding the 
period between the Deluge and the jiilra Alexandri. For the Jews derive 
from the Thora, and the following books, for this latter period 1,792 
years, whilst tlie Christians derive from Oieir Thora for the same period 
2,938 years. 

The Puruians, and the great mass of the Magians, deny the Deluge 
altogether ; they believe that the rule (of the* world) has remained with 
them without any interruption ever since Gay6marth Oilshah, who was, p. 24. 
according to them, the first man. In denying the Deluge, the Indians, 

40 Chinese, aod the various nations of the cast, concur with them. Some, 
however, of the Persians admit the foct of the Deluge, but they describe 
it in a different way from what it is described in the books of the 
prophets. They say, u partial deluge occurred in Syria and the west at 
the time of Tahmijrath, but it did not extend over the whole of the then 
civilized world, and only few nations were drowned in it j it did not 



26 



ALBtR^^t. 



p. 25. 



extend bcvond the peftk of Hulwan, and did not reach the empires of the 
east. Further, they relate, that the inhahitimtt) of the west, when they 
were warned hy their sages, ooostructed huildings of the kind of the two 
pyramids which have bwn built in Egypt, saying: "If the disaster 
comes from heaven, we shall go into them ; if it comes from the earth, 
we sliall ascend above them." People are of opinion, that the traces of 
the water of the Deluge, and the effects of the wares are still visible od 
these two pyramids half-way up, ahovo which the water did not rise. 
Another report says, that Joseph had made them a magazine, where ho 
deposited the bread and victuals for the years of drought. 10 

It is related, that Tahnmrath on receiving the warning of the Deluge 
— ^231 years before the Deluge — ordered his people to select a placa of 
good air and soil in bis realm. Now they di<l not find a place that 
answered better to this description than Ispahan. Thereupon, he ordered 
all scientific books to be preserved for posterity, and to be buried in a 
part of that place, least exposed to obnoxious influences. In favour of 
this report wo may state tliat in our time in Jay, the city of Ispah&n, 
there have been discovered hills, which, on being excavated, disclosed 
houses, filled with many loads of that tree-hark, with which arrows and 
shields are covered, and which is called T^k, bearing inscriptions, of 20 
which no one was able to say what they are, and what they mean. 

These discrepancies in their reports, inspire doubts in the student, and 
make lum inclined to believe what is related in some books, viz. that 
Gayomarth was not the first man, but that he was Glomer ben Taphet 
bon Noah, that he was a prince to whom a long life was given, that he 
settled on the Mount Dunbawand, where he founded an empire, and 
that finally his power became very great, whilst mankind was still living 
in (elementary) conditions, similar to those at the time of the creation, 
and of the first stage of the development of the world. Then he, and 
some of his children, took possession of the KXifmra of the world. 30 
Towards the end of his life, he became tyrannical, and called himself 
Adam, saying: "If anybody calls me by another name than this, I 
shall cut off his head." Others are of opinion that Ghiy6marth was 
Emtm (D'^H'^N ^ ben Lfld ben 'Aram ben Sem ben Noah. 

The astrologers have tried to correct these years, beginning from the 
first of the conjunctions of Saturn and Jupiter, for which the sages 
among the inhabitants of Babel^ and the Chaldceans have constructed 
astronomical tables, the Deluge having originated in their country. For 
people say, that Noah built the ark in Kufa, and that it was there that 
*' the well poured forth iU leatera" (Siira xi. 42 ; xiiii. 27) ; that the ark 40 
rested upon the mountain of Aljfidt, which is not very far from those 
regions. Now this conjunction occurred 229 years 108 days before the 
Deluge. This date they studied carefidly, and tried by that to correct 
the subsequent timoB. So they found as the interval between the Deluge 
and the begiuuiug uf the reign of the first Nebukadnezar {Nabontutar), 



ON THE NATUBE OF THE ERAS. 



29 



2.6<H years, and as the mterraJ between Nelnikadnczar and Alexander 
436 years, a result which comes pretty near to that one, which is derived 
from the Thora of the Clirintians. 

This was the era which 'Abii-Ma'shar Alhalkh! wanted, upon which to 
base his statements regardinj^ the mean places of the stars in his Canon. 
Now he supposed that the Deluge had taken place at the conjunction of 
the stars in the la^t part of Pisces, and the first part of Aries, and be 
tried to compute their places for that time. Then he found, that they — 
all of them — stood in conjunction in the apace between the twenty -seventh 

10 degree of Pisces, and the end of the first degree of Aries. Further, he 
supposed that between that time and the epoch of the ^ra Alexandri, 
there is an interval of 2,790 intercalated years 7 months and 26 days. 
This computation comes near to that of the Obristiaus, being 249 years 
and 3 months less than the estimate of the astronomers. Now, when he 
thought that he had well established the computation of this sum 
according to the method, which he has explained, and when be had 
arrived at the result, that the duration of those periods, which as- 
tronomers call " aiar-eycks," was 360,000 years, the beginning of which 
was to precede the time of the Deluge by 180,000 years, he drew the 

20 inconsiderate conclusion, that the Deluge had occurred once in every 
180,000 years, and that it would aguin occur in future at similar 
intervals. 

This man, who is so proud of his ingenuity, had computed these star- 
uycles only from the motions of the stars, ixa they had been fixed by the 
observations of the Persians ; but they (the cycles) differ from the 
cycles, which have been based upon the observations of the Indians, 
known as the " cycU^n of SinHhhtd" and likewise they differ from the day$ 
of ArjabJiaz, and the days of Arkand. If anyliody would construct such 
cycles on the basis of the observations of Ptolemy, or of the modern 

30 Rstronomer.s, he might do so by the help of the welJ known methods of 
such a calculation, as in fact many people have done, e.g. Muhammad ben 
'Ishlik ben 'UstAdh Bund^h Alsarakhsi, 'AbA-al-wafA Muhammad ben 
Muhammad Albftzajaui, and I myself iu many of my books, particularly 
in the Kitiih-al-istUhhAd hikhtihlf aVarg'id. 

In each of these cycles the stars come into conjunction with each other 
in the first [>ar1. of Aries once, viz. when they stiirt upon and return 
from their rotation, however, at different times. If he ('Abu-Ma'shar) 
now would maintain, that the stars were created st-anding at that time in 
the first. |)art of Aries, or that tlv> conjunction of the stars in that place 

40 is identical with the beginning of the world, or with the end of the 
world, such an assertiim wnuld be utterly void of proof, although the 
matter be within the limits of possibility. But such conclusions can 
never be admitted, except they rest on an evident argument, or on the 
report of some one who relates the origines of the world, whose word is 
relied upon, and regarding whom in the mind (of the reader or hearer) 



30 



ALBtnONt. 



this persniuion is established, that he had rcceired dirine inspiration 
and help. 
. 26. For it is quite posgiblc that these (celestial) bodies were scattered, not 
uniti?d ai the time when the Creattir deaigned and created them, they 
having thcfte motione, \)y whicli — oa cAlciilation Hhows — they must meet 
each other in one point m such a time (as abore mentioned). It would 
be the same, as if we^ e.g. siijiposed a circle, in different separate places 
of which we put living beings, of whom some more fast, others slowly, 
each of them, however, being carried on in equal motions — of its peculiar 
sort of motion — in equal times ; further, suppose that we knew their 10 
distances and pIa<;eB at a certain time, and the measure of the distance 
over which each of them travels in one Nychthomcron. If you then ask 
the mathematician as to the length of time, after which they would meet 
each other in a certain point, or hf/ore which they had met each other in 
that identical point, nn blame atUwihcs to him, if hi" Kjteaks nf billions of 
years. Nor does it follow from his account that thuae beings exieUd at 
that (past) time (when they met each other), or that they would ttill 
exist at that (future) time (when they are to meet aguiu) ; but this only 
follows from his account, if it is properly explained, that, i/ these beings 
really existed (in the past), or would still exist (in future) in that same 20 
condition, the result (as to their cunj unctions) could b© no other but 
that one at which he hitd arrived by calculation. But then the verifica- 
tion of this subject is the task of a science which was not the science of 
'Aba-Ma'shar. 

If, now, the man who uses the cycles (the star-cycles), would conclude 
tliat they, viz. the stars, if they stood in conjunction in the first part of 
Aries, would again and again pass through the same cycles, i^ecause, 
according to his opinion, everything conneotod with the celestial globe is 
exempt from growth and decay, and that the condition of the stars in 
the past was exactly the same, his conclusion would be a mere assumption 30 
by which he quiets his mind, and which is not sup[)OTted by any orgu- 
meut. Fur a proof does not equally apply to the two sides of a contra- 
diction; it applies only to the one, and excludes the other. Besidea 
it is well known among philosophers and others, that there is no such 
thing as an infiniie evolution of power (Sum/us) into action (jrpci^ts:), 
until the latter comes into real existence. The motions, the cycles, and 
the periods of the past were computed whilst they in reality exiKt4'd ; 
thcj have decreased, whilst at the same time increasing in ntunlier; 
therefore, they are not infiniie. 

This exposition will be sufficient for a veracious and fair-minded 40 
student. But if he remains obstinate, and inclines to the tricks of over- 
bearing people, more explanations will be wanted, which exceed the 
com[>ass of this book, in order to remove these ideas from bis mind, to 
heal what is feeble in his thoughts, and to plant the truth in his souL 
However, there are other chapters of this book where it will be more 



ON THE NATOBB OP THE EBA8. 



31 



•aitable to speak of this subject than here. The diacrepancT of the 
cycles, not the discrepancy of the observations, is a sufficient argument 
for — and a powerful help towards — repudiating the follies committed bj 
'Ahd-Ma'shar, and relied upon by foolish people, who abuse all reli^ons, 
who make the cycles of Sindhind, and others, the nieaua by which to 
revile those who warn them that the hour of judgment is coming, and 
who tell them, that on the day of resurrection there will be reward and 
pnntshmeni in voiidpr world. It is the some set of (>eople who excite 
suspicions against — and bring discredit upon — astronomers and mathe- 

10 maticianSr by countin|> themselves amoii^ their ranks, and by representinic 
themselves as professors of their art, although they cannot even impose 
upon anybody who has only the slightest degree of scientific training. 

Era of Nabonassar. — The next following era is the Era of the first 
NebukaJnezai* (Nabonassar). The Persian fonn of this word (Bukh- 
tanoifar) is Bukht-narti, and jwople say that it means *' one who weeps 
and lamentB much"; 'u\ Hebrew, " Nebukivlnezar," which is said to 
mean " Mercury sfieaking," this being combined with the notion that 
he cherished science and favoured scholars. Then when the word was 
ArabiKcd, and its form was aiiuplified. people said " Bukhianassar." 

20 This is not the same king who devastated Jerusalem, for between these 
two there is an interval of about 143 years, as the following chronological 
tables will indicate. 

The era of this king is based upon the Egyptian years. It is employed 
in the Almagest for the computation of the places of the planets, because 
Ptidemy preferred this era to others, and fixed thereby the mean places 
of the staxB. Besides he uses the cycles of CaUippus, the beginning 
of which is in the year 418 aft^T Bukhtanaf^ar, and each of which consists 
of seventy-sii solar years. Those who do not know them (these cycles), 
hy to prove by what they find mentioned in Almagest, that they are of 

30 Egyptian origin; for nipjxirchus and Ptolemy fix the times of their 
observations by Egyptian days and mouths, and then refer them to the 
corresponding cycles of Callippus. Such, however, is not the case. The 
first cycle, employed by those who compute the months by the rcTolution 
of the moon and the years by the revolution of the sun, was the cycle of 
eight years, and the second that of nineteen years. Callippus was of the 
number of the mathematicians, and one who himself — or whose people — 
considered the use of this latter cycle as part of their laws. Thereupon, 
he computed this cycle (of seventy-six years), uniting for that purpose 
four cycles of nineteen years. 

40 Some people think that in these cycles the beginning of the months 
was fixed by the ap[>earancie of new moon, not by calculation, as people 
at that (remote) age did not yet know the calcuhition of the eclipses, by 
which alone the length of the lunar month is to be determined, and these 
calculations ore rendered perfect; and that the first who knew the theory 
of tiie eclipsos was Tlialiii of Uiletus. Fur after having frequently 



p. 27. 



32 



ALBiBf)yt. 



attended the le^^tur^ of the mathematicians, and harlng learned from 
tbem the scieai^ of form and motlonj (ustroaomy), he proceeded to dis- 
coTer the calculation of the eclipses. Then he happened to come to 
Egypt, where he warned people of an impending eclipse. When, then, 
his prediction had been fulfilled, people honoured him highly. 

The matter, as thus reported, does not belong to the impossible. For 
each art goes hack to certain original sources, and the nearer it is to its 
origin, the more simple it is, till you at last arrive at the very origin 
itself. However, this account, that eclipses were not known before 
Thales, must not be underst'Ood in this generality, but with certain local 10 
restrictions. For some people refer this scholar (Thales) to the time of 
Ardashir ben B&bak, others ta that of Kaikubadh. Now. if ho lived at 
p. 28. the time of Ardashir, he was preceded by Ptolemy and TlipparehiiB; and 
these two among the aatronomers of that age knew the subjeet quite 
flufiiciently. If, on the other hand, ho lived at the time of KailtubAdh, 
he stands near to Zoroaster, who belonged to the sect of the HarriVnianfl, 
and to those who already before hira (Zoroaster) excelled in science, and 
had carried it to such a height as that they could not be ignorant of the 
theory of fche eclipses. If, therefore, their report (regarding the dis- 
covery of the theory of the eclipses by Thales) be tnie, it is not to be 20 
understood in tliis generality, but with certain restrictions. 

Era of Philippus AridSBUS. — The era of Philip, the father of 
Alexander, is based upon Egyptian years. But this era is also frequently 
dated from the death of Alexander, the Macedonian, the Foxuider. In 
both eases the matter is the same, and there is only a difference in the 
expression. Because Alexander, the Founder, was succeeded by Philip, 
therefore, it is the same, whether you date from the death of the former, 
or the accession of the latter, the epneh being a connecting link common 
to both of them. Those who employ this era are called Alt'-jundrirus. 
On this era Theon Alexaudriuus has based his so-called " Oanon." 30 

Era of Alexander. — Then follows the era of Alexander the Greek, to 
whom sume people give the surname Bicornvhis. On the difference of 
opinions regarding this personage, I shall enlarge is the next following 
chapter. This era is based upou'Qreek years. It is in use amontf most 
nations. Wlien Alexander ha.d left Greece at the age of twenty-six years, 
prepared to fight with Darius, the king of the Persians, and marching 
upon his capital, he went doi\*n to Jerusalem, which was inhabited by the 
Jews ; then he ordered the Jews to give up the era of Moses and David, 
and to use his era instead, and to adopt that very year, the twenty- 
seventh of his life, as the epoch of this era. The Jews obeyed his 40 
command, and accepted what ho ordered ; for the Rabbis allowed them 
such a change at the end of each millennium after Moses. And at that 
time just a millennium had become complete, and their offerings and 
sacritices had ceased to be practised, as they relate. So they adopted his 
era, and used it for fixing all the occurrences of their months and days. 



ON TlIE NATTIBB OF THE ERAS. 



33 



[IS they had already doue in the twenty-sixth year of his life, when he 
first started from homo, with tho view of finishing thu miUeunium (i.e. 
BO as not to enter upon a new one). When, then, tho first thousand 
years of the ^ra Alexandri hod pa«8t'd, the end of which did not coin- 
cide with any striking event which people arc m'-oustouied to make the 
epoch of an era, they kept the Mm. Alexandri, and continued to nse it. 
The Greeks also use it, But according to the report of a book, which 
HabJb ben Bihriz, the metropolitan of Mosul, has translated, the Gre^ka 
used to date^before they adopted the JEra. Alexaaidri — from the migration 
10 of Yunac hfn Paris from Babel towards the west. 

Era of AugTlstus. — Next follows the era of tho king Augustus, the 
first of the Roman emperors (Casares). The word " C<egar*' means in 
, Fraukiah {i.e. Latin) " ho has been drawn forth, after a cutting has been 
made." The explanation is this, that. bi» mother died in kbour-palns, 
whilst she was pregnant with him ; then her womb was opened by the 
" CGesarofln opi-nitiim," and he was drawn forth, and got the suniamo 
" C<B8ar." He used to boast before the kings, that he had not come out 
of the pudendum mulu^^re of s. woman, as also 'Ahmad ben Sahl ben 
Hiiahim ben Alwalid ben Hamla ben KamkAr ben Yazdajird ben 
20 Shahryjir used to boast, that the same bad happened to him. And he 
(Augustus) used to revile people calling them " eon of the ptide7idum 
muliehre." 

The historians relate, that Jesus, the son of Mary, was bom in tho 
forty-third year of his reign. This, however, doea not agre« with tho 
order of the years. The chronological titblea, in which we shall givy a 
corrected sequenco of events, necessitate that his birth should have taken 
place in the seventeenth year of his reign. 

It was Augustus who caused the people of Alexandria to give up their 

system of reckoning by non- intercalated Egyptian years, and to adopt 

30 the syst^-m of the Chaldffiana, which in our time is used in Etjypt- This 

he did in the sixth year of his reign ; therefore, they took this year oa 

the epoch of this era. 

Era of Antoninus.—Tho em of Ant/minus, one of the Roman kings, 
was baaed upuu Greek years. Ptolemy corrected the places of the fixed 
stars, dating from the beginning of his reign, and not-ed them in the 
Almagest, directing that their positions should be advanced one degree 
every year. 

Era of DiocletianilS. — Then follows the em of Ditwletian, the last of 
the Koman kings who worshipped the idols. After the sovereign power 
40 had been transferred to him, it remained among his descendants. After 
him reigned Oonstantine, who was the first Koman king who became a 
Christian, The years of this era are Oreek. Several authors of Canons 
liaye used this era, and have fixed thereby the necessary paradigms of 
the prognostics, the Tevip&ra naiaUda, and the conjunctions. 

Era of the Flight.— Then follows the era of the Plight of the 

3 



p. 29. 



84 



AtBtR^t. 



Prophet Muhammad from Makka to Madina. It is based upon Lunar 
jears, in which tho com men consents of tho months are determined by the 
appearance of Now Moon, not by calculation. It is used by the whoU 
Muhauimadan world. The circumstoDoes under vbicb this Tory point 
was adopted as an epoch, and not the time when the Propbet was eitbdr 
bom or entrusted with bis diirine mission or died, were the following : — 
MaimuQ ben Mlhr4n relates, that Omar ben Alkhattitb, when people one 
day bfinded oy(!r to him a cheque payable in the month Sha'hdn, said :— 
" AVTiich Sha*ban ie meant ? that one in which we ore or the next 
Sha'biin?" Thereupon he assembled the Comjjanions of the Propbet, 10 
and asked their adTico regardingthematterof chronology, which troubled 
his mind. They answered : *' It ie necessary to inform ourselves of the 
practice of the Persians in this respect." Then they fetched Hurmiizftn^ 
and asked him for information. He said : " We have a computatioik 
which we call MiIK'Tuk, i.e. the computation of months and days." People 
arabized this word, and jjrouomieed tjy* {Un'uiTakh), and coined aa 
p. 80. its inftnitive the word " ruV/iA." HurmuzAU explained to them how 
they used this M&h-r&z, and what the Greeks used of a similar kind. 
Then Omar spoke to the Companions of the Propbet : *' Establish a mode 
of dating for the intercourse of people." Now some said : " Date ac- 20 
cording to the era of the Greeks, for they date according to the era of 
Alexander." Others objected that this mode of dating was too lengthy, 
and said : *' Date according to the era of the Persians." But then it was ob- 
jected, that as soon as a new king arises among the Persians he abolishes 
the era of his predecessor. So tbey could not come to an agreement. 

Alsha'b! relates, that 'AbO-M(t6& Ara8h*ait wrote to Omar ben 
AlkbuU'^l' : " Toil send us letters without a date." Omar had already 
organized the registers, had established the taxes and regulations, and 
was in want of an era, not liking the old ones. On this occasion be 
assembled the Companions, and t<.iok their advice. Now the most au- SO 
thentJc date, which involves no obscurities nor possible mishaps, seemed 
to be the date of the flight of the Prophet, and of his arrival at Madtna 
on Monday the 8th of the month Rabi' I., whilst the beginning of the 
year was a Thursday. Now he adopted this epocb, and fixed thereby the 
dates in all his aftairs. This happened A.H. 17. 

The reason why Omar selected this event as an epoch, and not the 
time of the birth of the Prophet, or the time when he was entrusted with 
his divine mission, is this, that regarding those two dates there existed 
such a divergency of opinion, as did not allow it to be made the basis of 
something wliich must be agreed upon tmiveraally. 40 

Further he (Alsha'b!) says : People say that He was born in the night 
of Monday tho 2nd, or the 8th, or the 13th of Eabi' I. ; others say that 
he was bom in the forty-sixth year of the reign of KisrA AndshtrwAn. 
In consftquencp thero is also a difference of opinions regarding the length 
of bia ife,correBp«inding to the different statements regarding his birth. 



OK THE NATUSE OP THE ERAS. 



35 



Besides, the single years were of different length, some having been 
intercalated, others not, about the time when intercalation was prohibited. 
Considering further tliat aftur the FUght, the aflaira of IbUui were 
thoroughly established, while heathenism decreased, that the Prophet 
was saved from the calamities prepared for him by the infidels of Makka, 
and that after the Flight his conquests followed each other in rapid 
Bnocession, we come to the conclusion that the Flight was to the Prophet, 
what to the kings is their accession, and their taking possession of the 
whole sovereign power. 

10 As regards the well known date of his death, people do not like to 
date from the death of a prophet or a king, except the prophet be a liar, 
or the king an enemy, whose death peo[tle enjoy, anrl wish to make a 
festival of; or be be one of those with whom a dynasty is extinguished, 
80 that his followers among themselves make this date a memorial of 
him, and a mourning feast. But tliis latter case has only happened very 
seldom. E.g. the era of Alexander the Founder is reckoned from the 
time of his death, he having been considered as one of those from whom 
the era of the kiugn of the Chaldsans and the western kings was trans< 
ferred to the era of the Ptolemsian kings, of whom each is called P/o?fmy, 

20 which means warlike. Therefore, those to whom the empire was trans- 
ferred, dated from the time of his death, considering it as a joyful event. 
It is precisely the same in the case of the era of Tazdajird ben ShahryAr. 
For the Bfa^ians date from the time of his death, because when he 
perished, the dynasty was extinguished. Therefore they dated from bia 
death, mourning over him, and lamenting for the downfal of their 
religion. 

At the time of the Prophet, people had given to each of the years 
between the Flight and his death a special name, derived from some 
event, which had happened to him in that identical year. 



SO The Ist year after 
The 2nd year 
The 3rd year 
The 4th year 

The 5th year 
The 6th year 
The 7th year 
The 8th year 
The 9th year 
40 The 10th vear 



the Flight is " the year of the permission." 
„ "the year of the order for fighting.** 

„ " the year of the triaU" 

„ "the year of the congratulation on the 

occasion of marriage." 
„ " the year of the earthquake." 

n " the year of inquiring." 

„ " the year of gaining victory." 

„ " the year of equality." 

„ " the year of exemption." 

„ " the year of farewell." 

By these names it was rendered superfluous to denote the years by the 
numbers, the Ist, the 2nd, etc.. after the Flight 

Bra of Yazd^ird. — Next follows the era of the reign of Tazdajird 
ben Shahryiir ben Kittrn ParwiK, which is l)ttsed upon Persian non- 

3 • 



p. 31. 



36 



ALBfB<h«t. 



p. 32. 



intercalated yean. It faas been employed in the Canons, because it is 
eaay and simple to use. The reason why precisely the era of this Iting 
amoufr all the kings of Ppraia has become so generally known, is this 
that he ascended the throne, when the empire had been shattered, when 
the women had got hold of it, and usurpers had seized all power. 
Besides, he was the last of their kings, and it was he with whom Omar 
ben AlkhattAb fought most of those famous wars and battles. Finally, 
the empire suc<:ujubod, and he was put to Sight and was killed in the 
house of a miller at Marw-i-Shahijan. 

Eefonn of the Calendar by the Khalif Almu'tadicL— Lastly, lo 

the era of 'Ahmad ben Talha AJmu'tadid-billah the Khalif was baaed 
upon Greek years and Persian months ; however, with this difference, 
that in ever}- fourth year one day was intercalated. The following is the 
origin of this era, as reported by 'Abf^-Bakr Alsiili in his Kitdb-araurd^t 
and by HEunza l>en Alhasau AlisfahAui in his book on famous poems, 
relating to Nauriiz and Mihrjin, Almutawakkil, while wandering about 
over one of his hunting-grounds, observed com that had not yet ripened, 
and not yet attained its proper time for being reaped. So he said; 
" Ubaid-allilh ben Yahya has asked my permission for levying the taxes, 
whilst I observe that the com is still green. Prom what then are people 20 
to pay their taxea ? " Thereupon he was informed, that this, in fact, had 
done a great deal of harm to the jieople, so that they were compelled to 
borrow and to incur debts, and even to emigrate from their homes ; that 
they had many complaiuts and wrongs to recount. Then the Khalif 
said : " Ha^ this arisen lately duriug my reign, or has it always been ao ?" 
And people answered : " No. This is going on according to the regula- 
tions established by the Persian kings for the levying of the taxes at the 
time of NaurOz. In this their example has been followed by the kings 
of the Arabs." Then the Khalif ordered the Maubadh to be brought 
before him, and said to him : " This has been the subject of much re- 30 
search on my part, and I cannot find that I violate the regulations of 
the Persians. How, then, did they levy the taxes from their subjects — 
considering the beneficence and good will which they observed towards 
them ? And why did they allow the taxes to be levied at a time like 
this, when the fruit and com are not yet ripe ? " To this the Maubadh 
replied : " Although they always levied the taxes at Nauriiz, this never 
happened except at the time when the corn was ripe." The Khalif 
asked : " And how was that ? " Now the Maubadh explained to him the 
nature of their years, their different lengths, and their need of intercala* 
tion. Then he proceeded to relate, that the Persians used to intercalate 40 
the years ; bnt when IslAm had been established, intercalation was 
abolished ; and that did much harm to the ]>eople. The landholders 
assembled at the time of HishJun ben *Abdahualik and called on Khiilid 
AlkiLsri ; they explained to liim the subject, and asked him to postpone 
Naurtlz l>y a month. Khalid declined to do so, but reported on the 



ON THE NATtTEB OP THE EBA8. 



37 



subject bo Hishilm, who said : " I am afraid, that tn this fiubjnct may he 
applied the word of God: " Intercalation Uoni^an increase of heathenism ** 
(Sura ii. 37). Afterwards at the time of Alraehid the laudholders ae- 
sombled again and colled on Tal;iyu ben £h&lid ben Barmak, aekiug bim 
to postpoue Nauriiz by about two months. Now, Yaby^ l^twl the inten- 
tion to do so, but then his enemies began to speak of the subject, and 
Baid : " He is partial to Zoroafltrianism." Therefore he dropped the 
subject, and the matter remained as it was before. 
Now Almutawakkil ordered 'Ibrahim ben Al'abbAs Al?fili to bcbrooght 
10 before Mm, and told him, that in accordance with what the Maubadh had 
related of Nauruz, be should compute the days, and compose a fixed 
Canon (Calendar); that he should compose a paper on the postponement 
of Nauriiz, which wae to be sent by order of the Khalif to all the 
prorincea of the empire. It was determined to postpone Naurflz till tho 
17th of Haziran. AJ^iili did 'as he was ordered, and the letters arrivud 
in the provinces in Muljarram a.h. 243. The poet, Albubturi has com- 
posed a Kaftda on the subject in praise of Almutawakkil, where he 
says : — 

" The day of NaurAx has returned to that time, on which it waa fixed by 
20 Ardashir. 

Thou hast transferred Nauriiz to its original condition, whilst before 

thee it was wauderiug about, circulating. 
Now thou hast levied tho taxes at Naur0z, and that wa^ a memorable 

benefit to tho people. 
They bring the© praisti and tliauks, and thou bringest them justice 
and a present, well deserving of thauks." 

However, Almutawakkil was killed, aud his plan was not carried out, 
until Alinu'ta^id aswnded the thron*^ of the Khalifate, delivered the 
provinces of the empire from their usurpers, and gained sufficient leisure 

30 to study tho affairs of his subjects. He attributed the greatest imports 
ancc to intercalation and to the carrying out of this measure. He 
followed the method uf Aluiutawakkil re^rirding the postponemeut of 
Nauruz ; however he treated tho subject differently, inasmuch as Almu- 
tawakkil hod made the botcis of bis computation the interval between Kit 
year (i.e. that year, in which he then happi-ued to live), and the beginning 
of the reign of Yazdajird, whilst Almu'Ui'^id took the inten-al between 
Am year and that year in which the Persian empire perished by the deatJi 
of Tazdajird, because he — or those who did the work for him — held this 
opinion, th.al since thai time intercalation had been neglected. Thia 

40 interval he found to h*i 24!) years and 60 days + a fra<!tion, arising from 

the day-quarters (exceeding the 365 days of the Solar year). These 60 p. 33. 
days he added at Nauriiz of bJs year, and put Naurtix at tho end of 
them, which fell upon a Wednesday, the lat KhurdHdh-Miihof that year, 
coinciding with the 11th of t^azihin. Thereupon he fixed NaorUz in the 



38 



AI.BtB^t. 



Greek months for this purpose, that the months of hit year shouM be 
intercalated at thu uojuu time when the Greoks intercalatu blwir years. 
The mau who wus entrusted with carrying out hia orders, was his Waztr 
'Abfi-alk&sim 'TJhaid-allah ben Sukiimin ben Walib. To this subject 
the following verses of the astrouomer 'Alt ben Tahya refer:— 

" O thou restorer of the untaruished gloiy, reuoTator of the shattered 

empire ! 
Who hast again established among us the pillar of religion, after it had 

been tottering ! 
Thou hast surpassed all the kings like the fort-most horse in a race. 10 
How blessed is tliat Nauri^, when thou hast earned thanks besides 

the reward (duo to thee for it in heaven) ! 
By postponing Naur&z thou haat justly made precede, what they had 

postponed." 

On the same subject *Ali ben Yaljya says: — 

" The day of thy Naurtlz is one and the same day, not liable to moving 
backward, 
Always coinciding with the 11th of HaztrAn." 

Now> although in bringing about this measure much Ingenuity has 
been displayed, Naurftz has not thereby returned to that place which it 20 
occupied at the time when interL-alation was still practised in the Persian 
empire. For the Persians had already begun to neglect thflir intercalation 
nearly seventy years before the death of Tazdajird. Because at the 
time of Yazdajird ben Shiipttr they had intercalated into their year two 
mouths, one of them as the necessary compensation for that space of 
time, by which the year bad moved backward (it being too short). The 
five Epagomenae thpy put as a mark at the end of this inttrealary month, 
and the turn had just vonu'. to Aban-Mah, as we shall explain hereafter. 
The second month they intercalated with regard to the future, that no 
other Intercahiiion might be needed for a long period. 30 

Now, if you subtract from the sum of the years between Tazdajird ben 
Shjipur and Yazdajird ben Shahryar 120 ytars, you get a remiiinder of 
nearly— but not exactly — 70 years ; there is much uncertainty and con- 
fusion in the Persian chronology. Tbe Portio ini*rcaiattda of these 70 
years would amuuat to nearly 17 days. Therefore it would have been 
necessary, if wo calculate without mathematical accuracy, to postpone 
Naturdz not 60, but 77 days, in order that it might coincide with the 
28th of Haztriin. The man who worked out this reform, was of opinion, 
that the Persian method of intercalation was similar to the Qreek method. 
Therefore he compnted the days since the extinction of their empire. 40 
Whilst in reality the matter is a different one, as we have already ex* 
plained, and shall more fully explain hereafter. 

This is the last of those eras that hare become celebrated. But 



ON THE NATTTEB OF THE ERAS. 



39 



perhaps some other nations, whoso countries ore far distant from onra, 
have eras of their own, which have not been handed down to posterity, p. 84. 
or auch eras as are now obaolet**. For instance, the Persians in the lime 
of Zoroastrianism nsed to date sucoessivelj by the years of tho roign of 
each of their kings. When a king died, they dropped his era, and 
adopted that of his successor. The duration of the roiji^iiB of their kings 
we have stated in the tables which will follow hereafter. 

Epochs of the Ancient Arabs. — As a second instance we mention 
the Ishmaelito Arabs. For tht-'y usod to date from the oonstruntion of 

10 the Ka'ba by Abraham aud Ishmael till the time when they wore dis- 
persed and left Tihuma. Tliose who wont away dated from the time of 
their exodus, whilst those who remained in the country dated from the 
time when the last party of the emigrants bad left. Sut afterwards, 
after a long course of time, they dated from the year when the chieftain- 
ship devolved upon 'Amr ben Rjibt'a, known by tho name of *Ajnr ben 
Yahya, who is said to have changed the religion of Abraham, to have 
brought from the city of Bal^a the idol Hubal, and to have himself made 
the idols 'Is&f and N&'ila. This is said to hare happened at the time of 
Shapur Dhu-araktaf. This synchronism, however, is not borne out by 

20 the comparison of the chronological theories of both aides (Arabs and 
Peraiana). 

Afterwards they dated from the death of Ka'b ben Lu'ayy — till the 
Year of Trfxuon, in which the Banft-Yarbft' stole certain ganncnts which 
some of the kings of liimyar sent to the Ka'ba, and when a general 
fighting among the people occurred at the time of the holy pilgrimage. 
Thereupon they dat«d from the Year of Treason till the Year of the Ele- 
phanta, in which the Lord, when the Ethiopians were coming on with the 
intention of destroying the Ka'ba, brought down tho consequences of 
their cunning enterprise upon their own necks, and annihilated them. 

80 Thereupon they dated from the era of the Hiji-a. 

Some Arabs used t« date from famous accidents, and from celebrated 
days of battle, which they fought among themselves. As such epochs 
the Banft-Knraish, e.g. had the following ones : — 

1, The day of AHjiir in the sacred month. 

2. The day of the Confederacy of AlfuijfU, in which the contracting 
parties bound themseUeB to assist all those to whom wrong was done. 
Because the BanA-^uraish committed wrong and violence against each 
other within the holy precinct of Makka. 

8. The year of the death of Hish&m ben Almughtra AlmakhK&mi, 
40 for the celebration of his memory. 

(4) The year of the reconatniction of the Ka'ba, by order of the 
Prophet Muhammad. 

The tribes 'Aus and Khaxraj used the following daya as epochs : — 
1. The day of Alfa<^i. 



40 



ALBtfif^Nt. 



p. 35. 



2. The day of Alrab^. 

3. Tho day of AlruhAba. 
•4 Tlie day o£ Alsarura. 

5. The day of Dahis find Gfaabr&. 

6. The dity of BuphAth. 

7. Tlie day of Hil^ib. 

8. The day of Marlria and Mti'abbis. 

Among the tribes Bakr and Taghlib, the two sons of Wd'il, the 
following epochs were used : — 

1. Tho day of 'ITnaiza. 10 

2. Tho da} of AJhinw. 

8. The day of Tnbl&k-allimam. 

4. The day of Al^uQaibiU. 
6. Tho day of Alfa^tl. 

These and other " war-daye '* were used a« epochs amon^ the different 
tribes aud chins of tho Arabe). Their uamefl refer to the places where 
they were fought, and to their causes. 

If, now, thoBo eras wen? kejit in tho proper order in which chronological 
aubjocta are to be treated, we should do with them the sama that we 
intend to do with all the other subjects connected with eras. Howerer, 20 
people say that between the year of the death of Ka'b ben Lu'ajy and 
the year of Treason there is an interval of 520 years, and between the 
year of Treason and the year of the Elephants an interval of 110 years. 
The Prophet wan horn SO years after the invaaion of the Ethiopians, 
and between his birth and the year of Alfijflr there were 20 years. At 
this battle the Prophet was present, as he has said himself : " I was 
present nn the day of Allijar. Then I shot at my uncles." Between 
the day of Alfijar aud the reconstruction of the Ka'l>a there ore 15 years^ 
and 5 years betweeu the reconstruction of the Ka'ba aud the time 
when Mul;iaD)iiiad was entrusted with lus divine mission. 80 

Likewise the Himyarites and the BiLuA KahfAn used to date by the 
reigns of their Tubba's, as the Persians by the reigns of their KieriU, 
and the Greeks by the rei^B of their Caesars. However, tho rule of 
the ^imyariten did not always proceed in complete order, and in their 
chronology there is much coofusion. Notwithstanding, wo hare stated 
the duriition of the reigns of their kings in our tables, as also tbow 
of the kings of tho Banfi-Lakhm, who inhabited Htra, and were settled 
there, ami liad made it their home. 

Chorasmian Antiquities. — In a similar way the people of Ehwft- 
rizm proceeded. For they dated from tho beginning of the colonization 40 
of their country, A. 980 before Alexander. Afterwards they adopted 
as the epoch of an era the event of the coming of Siyawuah ben 
Eaik&'Os down to Khwarizm, and the rule of Eaikhusrit, and of his 



ON THB NATURE OF TUB KRAS. 



41 



duBcendants over the oouutrf, dating from the Lime when he immigrated 
and extended his swaj over the empire of the Turks. This happened 
92 years after the colonization of the country. 

At a later time they imitated the example of the Persians in dating 
by the years of the reign of each king of the line of Kaikhuarfi, who 
ruled OTer the country, and who was called by the title of SMhi^. 
This wont on down to the reign of Afrigh, one of the kings of that 
family. His name was considered a ba^l omen like that of Tazdajird 
the Wicked, with the FersianB. His son succeeded him in the rule of 
10 the country. He (Afrigh) built his castle behind AJfir, A. Alexandri 
616. Now people began to date from him and his children (i.e. by the 
years of his reign and that of his desceudauts). 

This Alfir was a fortress on the outskirts of the city of KhwArizm, 
built of clay and tiles, consisting of three forts, one being built within 
the other, and all three being of equal height ; and rising above the 
whole of it were the royal palaces, very much like Qhiimdttn in Y&man 
at the time when it was the residence of the Tubba's. For this Ghum- 
dan was a castle in ^an's, opposite the great mosque, founded upon a 
rock, of which j>eople sa^- that it was built by Sem ben Noah after the 
20 Deluge. In the castle there is a cistern, which he (Sem) had digged. 
Others think that it was a temple built by Alclabhak for Venus. Thia 
Alfir was to bo seen from the distance of 10 miles and more. It was 
broken and shattered by the Oxus, and was swept away piece by piece 
every year, till the last remains of it had disappeared A. Alexandri 
1305. 

Of this dynasty was reigning at the time when the Prophet was 
entrusted with his di^nnc mission — 

10- Artliamukh ben 
9. Buzkar ben 
80 8. KhAmgr! ben 

7. Sbawush ben 
6. Sakhr ben 
5. Axkajawar ben 
4. AskajamAk ben 
3. Sakhadsak ben 
2. Baghra ben 
1. Afrigh. 

When ^utoiba ben Muslim had conquered Khwfirizm the second time, 
after the inhabitants had rebelled, ho confitituted as their king — 
40 14, Askajamuk ben 

13. AzkAjawdr ben 
12, S&briben 
11. Sakhr ben 
10. Artham^kh, 



42 



ALBtBOwt. 



p. 36. and appointed him as their Sh^h. The descendantB of the KisrA* lost 
the office of the " Wait" (the governorship), but thej relaiued the 
offioe of the Sfidh, it being hereditary among them. And they accommo- 
dated themBelves to dating from the Hijra according to the use of the 
Muslims. 

Kutoiba bon Muslim hod cictinguishcd and mined in every jjossible 
way all those who knew how to write and to read the Khwftrizml writing, 
who knew the history of the country and who studied their scienoea. 
In consequence these things are involTed in so much obscurity, that it is 
impossible to obtain an accurate knowledge of the history of the 10 
country since the time of Isl&m (not to speak of pre-Muhammad&n 
times). 

The Wilftya (governorship) remained afterwards alternately in the 
bauds of this family and of others, till the time when they lost both 
Wiliiya (governorship) and Shilhiyya (Shahdom), after the death of the 
martyr 

'22. 'Abft 'Abdallah Muljammad ben 
21. 'Ahmad ben 
20. Mui^ammad ben 

19. 'Irfijf ben 80 

18. Man f fir ben 
1?. 'Abdall&hben 
16. Turkaabfitha ben 
15. Shjlwushfar ben 
14. Askajami^k ben 
13. AzkAjawJir ben 
12. Sabrt ben 
11. Sakhrbeu 
10. Artbamukh, in whose time, as I have said, the Prophet was 

entrusted with his divine mission. 30 

This is all I could ascertain regarding the celebrated ems -, to know 
them all is impossible for a human being. Qod helps to the right 

insight. 



43 



CHAPTER IV. 



THB SIFFRBENT OPINIOKB OF TXBI0TT8 NATIONS BSOABDINO THB KI3V0 
OALLXD BHC-AXKASNAIKI OS BIC0BVDTU8. 



Wc must explain in a separate chapter what people think of the ]>earer 
of thia name, of Dhu-alkarnaUii, for the subject interrupts, in this 
part of the course of our expoaition, the order in which our chronology 
would have to proceed. 

Now it has been said, that the story about him as contained in the 
Koran, ia well-known and int«lligilile tu everybody who reads the verses 

10 specially devoted to his history. The pith and inarrow of it ia thia, that 
he was a f»ood and powerful man, whom Clod luul gifted with extra- 
ordinary authority and power, and whose plans he had crowned with 
success both in east and west ; he conquered cities, subdued countries, 
reduced his aubjectti to submission, and united the whole emjjtrc under 
his single sway. He is generally assumed to have entered the darkness 
in the north, to have seen the remotest frontiers of the inhabitable 
world* to have fought both against men and demons, to have passed 
between Gog and Magog, so as to cut off their communication, to have 
marched out towards the countries adjoining their territory in the east 

20 and north, to have restrained and repelled their mischievous inroads by 
means of a w^, constructed in a mountain -pass, whence they used to 
pour forth. K was built of iron-blocks joined by molten brass, at is 
still now the practice of artisans. 

Wlien AJexauder, the son of Philip, Alyftnani {i.e. the Ionian, mean- 
ing the Greek) had united under his sway the Greek empire (lit. the 
empire of the Bomans), which bad previously consisted of single prin- 
cipalitieH, be marched agaiust the princes of the west, overpowering and 
subduing them, going as far as the Green. Sea. Thereupon he returned 
to Egypt, where he founded AJexandria, giving it his own name. Then 

80 he inarched towards Syna and the Israelites of the country, went down 



.37 



u 



ALB?RiyNt. 



fco Jcniaalem, iMwrifieed in ita temple and made offerings. Thence lio 
turned to ArmoiilB. and Bilb-aJ'abwab, and passed even beyond it. The 
Copt«, Berbers, and H^^brews obeyed him. Then he marched against 
T>Krk, the son of DArA, in order to take revenge for all the wrongs which 
Syria had suffered at the hands of Bukhtana^^ar (Nebukadnezzar) and 
the Babyloniane. He fought with him and put him to flight aeveraJ 
times, and in one of those battles D&rh was killed by the chief of his 
body-guard, called Naujusbanaa ben Adharbakht, whereu|>on Alexander 
took possofisinn of the Pereian empire. Then he went to India and 
China, making war upon the most distant nations, and subduing all the 10 
tracts of country through which he passed. Thence be returned to 
Khurusiin, conquered it, and built soveral towns. On returning to 
'Iralf he became ill Ln ShahrazCir, and died. In all his enterprises he 
acted under the guidance of philosophical principles, and in all bis plans 
he took the advice of his teacher, Aristotle. Now, on account of all 
this he has been thought to be Dhu-alkarnaiiii, or Blcomutus. 

As to the interpretation of this sunuime, people say he was called so 
because he reached the two " horns " of the sun, i.e. his risiug and 
setting places, just as Ardashir Bahman was called Longimanus, because 
liis command was omm{)oteut, wherever he liked, as if he had only to 20 
stretch out hia hand in order to set things right. 

According to others ha was called so because he descended from two 
different " generations" (lU. horns) i.e. the Greeks and Persians. And 
on this subject they have adopted the vague opinions which the Persians 
have devised in a hostile spirit, viz. that Dura the Great had married 
hia mother, a daughter of King Philip, but she had an offensive odour, 
which ho could not endure, and so he scut hor back to her father, she 
being preguaut ; that he was called a sou of Philip, simply because the 
latter hod educated him. This story of theirs they try to prove by the 
fact, that Alexander, when ho reached Daro, who was expiring, put his 30 
head on bis lap and spoke to Lim : " my brother, tell me, who did this 
to you, that I may take revenge for you ? " But Alexander so addressed 
him only because he wanted to be kind towards him, and to represent 
him (BAni) and himself as brethren, it being impossible to address hira 
afi king, or to call him by his name, both of which would have betrayed 
a high degree of rudeness unbecoming a kmg. 

On B^al and Forg'ed Pedigrees. — However, enemies are always 
eager to revile the parentage vi people, to detract from their reputation, 
and to attack their deeds and merits, in the same way as friends and 
partisans are eager to em1>ellish that which is ugly, to cover up the weak 40 
ports, to proclaim publicly that which is noble, and to refer everything 
to great virtues, as the poet describes them in these words ; — 

*' The eye of benevolence is blind to every fault. 
But the eye of hatred discovers every vice." 



THE KINO CALLED BICOBNTITUB. 



itinac.T in tliie direction frequently leads people to invent laudatory 
Btori«8, and to forge genealo^es which gu bock to glorious ancestors, as p. 38. 
has been done, e.g. for Ibn-'Abdalrazz&k AHusi, when he got mode for 
himBelf a genealogy out of the Shahnanm, which makes him descend 
from Minflahoihr, and also for the house of Bnwaihi. For 'Abti-'Is^&k 
'Ibriihtm ben HilJil AlsAbi, in his book called Altaj (the crown), makes 
Buwaihi descend from BaLrAm Giir by the following line of ancestors: — 
I. Buwaihi. 
FanfikhusrA. 
10 Thamajj. 

Kuhi. 
V. Shirzil junior. 
Shirkadha. 
ShtrzSl senior. 
ShirSnshrLh. 
Shirfana. 
£. SiLsnnriiishiVb. 
Sasank hurra. 
Sbuzil. 
20 Saaanudhar. 

XIV. Bahram Giir the king. 

'Abfl-Muhammad Alhasan ben 'Al! ben N&nfl in his epitome of tlie 
Listcry of the BuwailiidcB, says that — 
I. Buw^nilii was the son of 
Fantikhusra, the son of 
Thamiln. 

Then some jieople continue — 
ThamAn, the son of 
KftM, the son of 
30 V. Shirzil junior ; 

whilst others drop Kuht. 

Then they continue — 

Shirzjl senior, the son of 
ShiriinshAh, the son of 
Sbirfana, the son of 
Sasananshnh, the son of 
X. Sasankhurra, the son of 
Shftztl, the son of 
Sajianftdhar, the son of 
40 XrH. Bahr&m. 

Further, people disagree regarding this Bahr&m. Those who ^re the 
Buwaibides a Persian origin, contend that he waa BahrAm Our, and 
continue the enumeration of his ancestors (dowu to the origin of the 



45 



AlBtBdvt. 



family Sftft&ii)^ whilst others who give them an Arabic origin, say that 
heiraB— 

Bahr&m ben 

Alijahhak ben 

Al'abyad ben 

Mu'Awiya bea 

Aldailum ben 

BAsil ben 

Pabba ben 

'Udd. 10 

Others, again, menttou among the series of ancestors — 
Liihfi ben 
Aldailani ben 
Basil, 
and maintain tbat from this name his son LayAhaj derived his name. 

He, bowever, who considers what I hare laid down at the beginning 
of this book, as the eonditio tint qvd non for the knowledge of the 
proper mean between dispamgement and cxa^eration, and the necessity 
of the greatest carefulness for everybody who wants to give a fair 
judgment, will be aware of the fact, that the first member of this family 20 
who became celebrated was Buwaihi ben FanAkhnsra. And it is not at 
all known that those tribes were particularly careful in proaerving and 
contiuuiug their genealogical traditions, nor that they knew anything 
like this of tlie family Buwaihi, before they came into power. It very 
rarely happens that genealogies are preserved without any interruption 
during a long period of time. In such cases the only possible way of 
distinguishing a just claim to some noble descent from a ^so one is 
the agreement of all, and the assent of the whole generation in ques- 
tion regarding that subject. An instance of this is the lord of 
mankind) — 30 

I. Muhammad, for he is the sou of 
*Abd-alUh ben 
*Abd-alinut^alib ben 
H&shim ben 
V. 'Abd-Miuiaf ben 
Kusayy ben 
Kilab ben 
Murra ben 
Ka'b ben 
X. Lu'ayy ben 40 

Qh&lib ben 
Fihrbeu 
HUik ben 
Alna^r ben 



THE KING CALLED BICOBNUTUS. 



47 



XY. Kinana ben 
Kbuzaima ben 
Mudrika. ben 
'Bj-As ben 
Mu^AT ben 
XX. Nizar ben 
Ma'add ben 
XXn. 'Adn&n. 

Nobody in tho world doubts tbis lineage of ancestors, as they do not 
10 doubt either, that be descends from Ishmael, the son of Abraham. The 
ancestry beyond Abraham is to be found in the Thora. However, 
regarding the link of parentage between 'Adn&n and Ishmatd there is a 
considerable divergence of opimons, inasmuch as some people consider 
as the father the person whom others take for the eon, and vice versd^ 
and OS they add considerably ia some places, and leave out in others. 

Further as to our master, the commander, the prince, the glorious and 
victorious, the l>enef8Lctor, Shams-alma' illl, may GK>d give him a lung 
life, not one of his friends, whom may God help, nor au^' of his 
opponents, whom may Qod desert, denies his noble and ancient descent, 
20 well estabUshod on both sides, although his pedigree back to the origin 
of his princely family has not been preserved without any interruption. 
On the one side he descends from WardanBhiih, whose nobility is 
well-known throughout Ghilan ; and this prinoe had a son, besides 
the prince, the martyr Mardawij. People say, that the son of Ward&n- 
sh&h obeyed the orders of 'Asfiir ben Shtrawaihi, and that it was he, 
who suggested to him (bis brother Mardawij) the idea of delivering the 
people from the tyranny and oppreBsion of ^Asfar. On tho other 
side he descends from the kings of Media, called the Ispahbads of 
Khurasan and the FarkhwArjarsbahis. And it has never been denied 
30 that those among them, who belonged to the royal house of Persia, 
claimed to have a pedigree which unites them and the Kisras into one 
family. For his uncle is the Ispahbad — 

I. Bustam ben 
0»ji;A ben 
BuHtaui ben 
K&rin ben 
V. ShahryAr ben 
i^^ ben 
Surkh&b ben 
40 j^ ben 

ShApftr ben 
X. Kajfia ben 
XL Kub&dh, who was the father of AndshirwfiD. 

May Qod give to our master the empire from east and west over all 



p. 39, 



48 



ALBtBCNt. 



the parts of the world, aa he hafl asftif^i^^d Inm a noble origin on both 
sides. God's ia the power to do it, aud all good comes from him. 

The samo applif.*a to the Idogs of KlmrasJin. For nobodjr contosU the 
fifcct, that the first of this djTiasty — 

I. 'Isma'il was the son of 
'Ahmad ben 
'Asad beu 
SAmuu-khudah ben 
T. c)** » ^ ^^^ 

wvUa1> ben 10 

*y»y ben 

BahrAm ShAbin ben 
IX. Bahnim Jualianas, the commander of the marches of Adhar* 
baijun. 

The same applies further to the original ShAhs of Khwiirizm, who 
belonged to the rojal house (of Persia), and tn the Shilhs of ShirwAn, 
becaube it is believed bv common consent, that thejr are descendants of the 
Kisras, although their pedigree has not been preserved nnintormptfldly. 

The fact that claims to some noble lineage, and also to other matters, 
are just and well foundad, always becomes known somehow or other, 20 
even if people try to conceal it, being like rauHk, which spreads its odour, 
although it be hidden. Under such circumstances, therefore, if people 
want to settle their gonealofyj, it is not necessary to si>cnd money and to 
make presents, as 'in>aid-alMh ben Alhasim ben 'Ahmud ben 'AbdallJUi 
ben Maimun Al^addiiU did to the genealogists among the jiarty of the 
p. 40. AlidcB, when they declared lus claim of descent from them to be a lie, 
at the time when he came forward in Maglirib ; finally he succeeded in 
contenting them and in making them silent. Notwithstanding the truth 
ia well known to the student, although the fabricated talc has been far 
spread, and although hia descendant's are powerful enough to suppress SO 
any contradiction. That one of them, who reigns in our time, is 'Abft- 
'Alt ben Niznr ben Ma*add bon *lBm£*il ben Mul^onunad ben 'Ubaid- 
allAh the usurper. 

I have enlarged on this subject only in order to ahow how jiortial 
people are to those whom thej like, and how hostile towanls those whom 
they hate, so that frequently their exaggeration in either direction leads 
to the discovery of their infamous designs. 

That Alexander was the son of Philip is a fact, too evident to be 
concealed. His pedigree is stated by the most celebrated genealogiata 
in this way : — 40 

L tHM Philip, 
i_r-*^ Hermes, 



THE KENG CALLED BICORNtrrCS. 



49 



10 



20 



30 






Meton. 
Rome. 

TAnAn. 
Yafeth. 



X. 



XV. >uSt 



Bflmiya. 

Byzantium. 

Tiu-ophil. 
Bomo. 
Al'aAfar. 
Elifoz. 
^/ittfllt E(*au. 

«J»«1 ItMUlk. 

XIX. f*e^^ Altmluim. 

Aecordlug to another tradition Dhu-alkamaiui wek a man, called 
4j-i^\, who niftrched against SSmiruB, one of the kings of Bal>el, fought 
with him, made him a prisoner and killed him; then he stripped o£f 
the skin of his head together with his hair and his two curls, got it 
Umned, and need it aa a crown. Therefore, he was called Dhft-alVaniaini 
(Bicoruutus). According to another version he is identical with 
Almuudhir heu Mii-alsainn, i.e. Almundhir ben Imru'ulkais. 

Altogether the moat curious opinions are afloat regarding the bearer 
of this namer that, e.<j., his mother was a demon, which is likewise 
believed of Bilkts, for people say that her mother wns a demon, and of 
'Abdallih ben Hilal the juggler, for he waa thought to be the devil's 
Bou-in-law, being married to his daughter. Such and similar ridieulous 
stories people produce, and they are far known. 

It is related, that ^Uniar heu AlkhattJib, when he heard one clay people 
entering into a profound discussion on Dhu-alkarnaini, said, " Was it not 
enough for you, to plunge into the stories on human beings, that you 
must [lass into another field and draw the angtOs into the diacwssion 't " 

Some Bay, as Ibu Duruid mentions In his Kifah-ahchhiih, that Dhii- 
alkarnaiui was Alsa'h ben Alhammal AlJ^imyari, whilst otJiers take him 
for 'Abu-karib Shammar Yur'iah ben 'Itrtkis All^imyari, and believe 
that be was called so on account of two curls which hung down ui>on 
his shoulder*, that he reached the eaat and west of the earth, and 
traversed its north and south, that he subdued the countries, and 
reduced the people to complete subjeetion. It is this prince about whom 
40 one of the princes of Taman, 'As'ad ben 'Amr ben Babi'a Ijcu MAUk 
heu §ubail.i ben 'Abdallah bon Zaid ben YAsir ben Yun'im All^imyar! 
boasts in his poems, in which he says : — 

" Dhii-alkamaini was before me, a true believer, an exalted king on p. 41. 
the earth, never subject to anybody. 

4 



50 



ALBtBfrNt. 



He went to the countries of the east and west, aJwajs seeking 

imperial power from & liberal and bountiful (Lord). 
Then be saw the uettiug- place of the sun, at. the time when besets 

in the well of fever-water and of badly amelling mud. 
Before him there was Bilkis, mj annt, until bcr empire como to an 
end hj the boopoo." 

Now it seems to mc that of all these Tcreione the last is the true one, 
be<!ausc the princes, whose names begin with the word Dhfl, occur only 
in the history of Yanian and nowhere else. Their names are always a 
compound, the first part of which is the word DhO, e.g., Bhti-almanar, 10 
X)hu-nJ:'adh*!ir, Dhu-alshaniitir, Dbu-Nuwas, Bhi'i-Jadan, DhA-Yazan, 
and others. Bi^sides, the traditions regarding this Yaman pruice, DhA- 
alkornaini, resemble very much that which is related of him in the 
Koran. As to the rampart wbieh he construcl'ed between tho two 'wollfli 
it must be stated that tho wording of the Koran does not indicate its 
geographical situation. We learn, however, from the geographical 
works, as Jighrrifiya and the Itinemria (the books called Ma»4lik too- 
matndiih, i.e. Itinera et rcgna), that this nation, ink. YAjftj and MfijA] 
are a tribe of the eastern Turks, who lire in the moat southern parts of 
the 5th and 6th «V/iaTa. Besides, Hubamiuad ben Jortr Altabart 20 
relates in his chronicle, that the prince of Adharbaijfin, at the time 
when tho country was conquered, had sent a man to find the rampart, 
fr4im the direction of the country of the Khazars, that this man saw the 
rampart, and described it as a very lofty building of dark colour, 
situided behind a moat of solid structure and impregnable. 

'Abdallah bon 'Abdalliih hen Klmrdadhbih relat<?s, on the authority of 
the dragoman at the court of the Khalif, that Almu'tof im dreamt one 
night, that tbis rampart had been opened (rendered accessible). Tbere- 
fore he sent out fifty men to inspect it. They set out from the road 
which lends to Bab-al'abwAb, and to the countries of the Lan and 30 
Khazfir ; finally they arrired at the rampart, and found that it wtw con- 
Btructed of iron tiles, joined together by molten brass, and with a bolted 
gate. Its garrison consisted of people of the neighbouring countries. 
Then they rttumed, and tbe guide led them out into the district 
opi)OBite SamarlkLaud. 

From these two reports, it is evident that tlie ramjNirt must be 
situated in tho north-west quarter of tlic inliabitable earth. However, 
especially in this latter report, there is something which renders its 
authenticity doubtful, viz. the description of the inhabitants of that 
country, that they are Muslims and speak Arabic, although they are 40 
without the slightest connection with tho civilized world, from which 
they are separated by a black, badly smelling country of the extent of 
many days' travelling ; further, that they were totally ignorant afl to 
both Khalif and the Khalifate. Whilst we know of no other Muslim 
nation which is separated from the territory of Iil&m, except tbe 



THE KING CALLED BICORN0TUS. 61 

Bulghar and the Sawar, who live towards the end of the civilized world, 
in the most northern part of the 7th KAi/m.. And these people do not 
make the least mention of such a rampart, and they are well acquainted 
with the Khalifate and the Khalifs, in whose name thej read even the p. 42. 
Khufba; they do not speak Arabic, but a language of their own, a 
mixture of Turkish and Khazari. If, therefore, this report rests on 
testimonies of this sort, we do not wish to investigate thereby the 
truth of the subject. 
This is what I wished to propound regarding Dhti-alVamaini. A]I4h 
10 knows best \ 



4> • 



52 



ALBtR^t. 



CHAPTER V. 



ON THS XATUSB OP THE MONTHS WBICH 1.RE USED IN THE PKECEDINO 

ERAS. 



Heretofobe I have meutioned already that every nation iiaes a special 
era of its ovm. And in the same degreo as they differ in the use of the 
eras, they differ rogardiag the beginning of the mouths, regarding the 
numbt^r of davH uf each uf them, and th<! reiiHona antiigned therefor. 
Of this subject, I mention what I have Icamt, and do not attempt to find 
out what I do not know for certain, and regarding which I liave no 
information from a truatworthy peruou. And first wc give the months 10 
of the Persians. 

Months of the Persians. — The number of the months of one year 
is iwelfo, ii8 Gud liiis sa,id lit hirt Ixwjk (Sura ix, 36) : "With God the 
number of the months was twelve months, in tlie book of God, on the 
day when God created the heavens and the eajth." On this subject 
there is no difference of o]>inion between the nations, ex<<ept in the Icap- 
yeara. So the PerMians have twelve months of the following muues : — 

Parwardtn MAh. Mihr MAh, 

Ardibahisht MAh. Ab&u Milh. 

Kburdadh Mah. Idhar Mah. jK) 

Ttr MAh. Dai MAh. 

Murdudh Mub. Bahman Mnh. 

Shabrfiwar MAli. IsfandAmiadh Mah. 

I have beard the geometrician *Ah(i Sa'id 'A^mad ben Mul)atiimad 
ben 'Abd-aljalil Alsijzi relating of the ancient iuhahilantH of SijistAu. 
that they called these mouths by other names and commenced likewise 
with Farwardin MAh. The names ore thest— 



ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. 



53 






V. tjuij- IX. 

Every one of the Persian months ha« 30 days, and to each day of a p. 43. 
month they give a special name in their language. Tbeflo are the 
names — 



10 



I. Hurmuz. 


XT. Khar. 


XXT 


Fjtm. 


Bahman. 




M&h. 




B&dh. 


Ardibahisht. 




Tir. 




Dai-bo-dSn. 


Shahrewar. 




GSsh. 




Din. 


Isfandannadh. 




Dai-l>a-mihr. 




Ard. 


VI. Kburdiidh. 


iVl 


. Mihr. 


XXVI. 


AshtAdh. 


Murdadb. 




Srdsh. 




Aamiln. 


Dai- ba- adhar. 




Rashn. 




ZAmyddh. 


Adbar. 




Parwardln. 




MArasfand. 


Ablin. 




BahrAm. 




Aniran. 



There is no difference among the Persians as to the names of these 
days ; they are the same for erery mouth, and they follow in the aame 

20 order. Only the days Hurmuz and Anfran are called by some, the 
former Famtkh, the latter Bih-rox. 

The sum total of the days is 3(J0, whilst, as we have already observed 
heretofore, the real year {i.e. the mean soUu* or tropical year) ha« 
365J days. Those additional five days they called Fanji (Fanji) and 
Andiirfjtihj araliizt'd AniJarJnh ; they are a.Uo CAlled Aluttufnti^n and Almvs- 
taraka (i.e. jjfUpai KXtnrifmiai) , on account of their not being reckoned 
aa part of any one of the months. They added them between Abiln 
M&h and Adhar MAli, and gave them names, which are different from 
those of the days of each month. These names I never read in two books, 

80 nor heard them from two men, in the same way ; they are these— 

I. fii^uA^ n. si^ASA.) m. aifjLiiu^ IV. «tfi*Au»^ y. ft\.<.t.7,t,|i 

In another book I foxmd them in the following form : 

I. .ijAAt n. ifA\ m. Jk-Ai*-l IV. jSAtl V. o.ajg..*^ 

The author of the Kitdb-alghurrat Alnft'ib AlamuU gives them these 
names — 

I. ^y^ n. ^f^\ HL X*AiMJ\ IV. r*/'j*> V. tf-t»^.,tA j p. 44, 

Zidawaihi ben ShShawaihi in his book on the causes of the feetivals 
of the Persians, mentions them in this form-^ 

I. isi^} i.^^ n. «^;JJl &^Ai m. ■<T..,^ft\ d^ 

40 IV. «**J,ju3^ 4^ V. o^tf,ja\ i.fM 



64 



ALBtECNt. 



p. 45. 



I mysplf heard 'Abfi-alfaraj hen 'Alimad lH?n Khalaf Alzanjitnt say 
that the Mubad in Shtr/lz bad dictated tbem to him in this tonn — 

1. b\s^jM\ n. i^'ifA,\ m. fttfj^o^i rv. »\i^^j v. >tfo.j<,T,t.A, 

And lastly, I have heard them from tbo geometriciau 'Abd-alliutuLU 
Adharkbura, the son of Yazd&nkbasiB, In this form — 

I. Jy* n. ^f*^ Ul. y*«-l rv. jsi^A, 

(AliunaTaiti.) (Uatavaiti.) (Spentamainyu.) (VohukbsliatUra.) 

(VahiBWiati.) 

The sum total of their days, therefore, was 365. The quarter of a 10 
day (T>cyond the 365 days) they neglected in their computation, till these 
quartors of a day had summed up to the days of one complete month, 
which happened in 120 years. Then they added this month to the other 
months of the year, so that tht; numlM^r of its montlis Ixxamc thirteen. 
This month they called Kabiea (intercalary month). And the days of 
this additional month they called by the same names as those of the 
other months. 

In this mode the Persians proceeded till the time when both their 
empire and their religion perished. Afterwards the day-qnarters were 
neglt'ttted, and the years were no longer intercalated with them, and, 20 
therefore, they did not return to their original condltiuu, and remained 
considerably behind the fixed points of time (1.6. real time). The 
reason was this that intercahition was an affair settled under the special 
patronage of their kings at a meeting of the mathematicians, literary 
celebrities, historiographers, and chroniclers, priests, and judges,— on the 
baus of an agreement of all thoKu n^gardiug the correctutwii ctf the 
calculation, after all the persona I have mentioned had been summoned 
t<.) the royal court from all parts of the empire, and after they had held 
councils in urdcr to come to uu agreement. On this occasion money was 
s}»ent profusely to sucli an extent, that a man who nrndn a low estimate 30 
said, the cost had sometimes amounted to one million of demirs. This 
same day was obsyrvcd as the moat imfxirtant and the mobt glorious of 
all ft^stivals ; it was called the Fexist of InfercakUion, and on that day the 
king used to remit the taxes to his subject*. 

The reason why they did not add the quarter of a day ©very fourth 
year as one complete day to one of the months or to the Epagomente, 
was this, that according to their views, not the days, but only the months 
are liable to l^eing interc^alated, because they had an aversion to increasing 
the number of the days; this was impossible by reason of the pre- 
Bcription of the law regarding the days on which xamsama (whispering 40 
prayer) must be said, if it is to be valid. If the number of days bo 
increased by an additional day (the order of the days of aanaama 
according to the law, is disturbed). 

It was a rul** that on each day a special sort of odoriferous phuits and 



ON THE NATUKE OP MONTHS. 



55 



flowers WM put before the Kigrdt, and likewise a special drink, in a well 
regulated order, regarding wliicb there was no difference of opmion. 

The reason why they put the Epagomcnro at tbc end of Aliau Muh, 
between this month and Adluu* Mih (Jacuyta). 



The Persians believe that the bc(?inninK of their year waa fixed by the 
creation of the first man, and that this took phicc on the day Hurmux 
of Parwardin MAh, whilst the sun stood in the point of the Tpmal 
equinox in the middle of heavon. This occurred at tho beginning of 
10 the aeventh millenium, according to their view of the millennia of the 
world. 

The astrologers hold similar opinions, vis. that Cancer is the horo- 
scope of the world. For in the first cycle of Sindhind (he sun stands 
in th<) beginning of Aries above the middle between the two ends of tho 
inhabitable world. In that caae, Cancer is tlie honwi^ope, which sign 
according to their tenets, as we have mentioned, siguifiea the conuneucc- 
ment of rotation and growth. 

Others say, that Cancer was called tho horoscope of the world, because 
of all tho zodiacal signs, it stands nearest to the zenith of the inhabit- 
20 able worid, and because in the same sign - is the infrmtxa of Jupiter, 
which is a star of vwderafe ttalnre ; and as no growth is possible, except 
when moderate heat acts upon inniRt subfttonces, it (i.e. Cancer) is fit to 
be the horoscope of the growth of the world. 

According to a third view. Cancer wae called so, because by its creation 
the creation of the four elements became complete, and by their 
becoming complete all growth became complete. 

And other comparisons besides of a similar kind are brought forward 
by the astrologers. 

Further, people relate : When Zoroaster arose and intc?rcalatcd the 
30 years with the mouths, which up to that time had summed up from the 
day-quarters, time returned to its original condition. Timv he ordered 
people in lUl future times to do with the day-quarters the name as he 
had done, and they obeyed his command. They did not call the inter- 
calary month by a special name, nor did thoy repe-at the name of another 
month, but they kept it simply in memory from one turn to onothor. 
Being, however, afniid that there mi^ht arise uncertainty as to the place, 
where the intercalary mouth would have again to bo inserted, they 
transferred the five Epagomense and put them at the end of that 
month, to which the turn of intercalation had proceeded on the last 
40 occasion of intercalating. And as this subject was of great imi>ortauce 
and of (general use to high and low, to the king and to the subjecte^ and 
as it is required to be treated with knowledge, and to be carried out in 
conformity with nature (i.e. with real time), they used to postpone 
intercalation, when its time happened to occur at a period when the 
condition of the empire was disturbed by calamities; then they neglected 



56 



AI.Btfi^t. 



intercalatiuu so loug, luiiU the dav-quarteri) summed up to two months. 
Or, on the other hand, they anticipated intenialating the year at once by 
two montliH, when they ex[>e<:tcd that at the time of the next coming 
iiitercalatiuu clrcumatauces would distract their attention therefrom, as 
it has hoen done in the time of Yazdajird bcu Sabfir, for no other motive 
but that of precaution. That waa the last intercahition which they 
carritx! out, under the superiiitendeuce of a Dostur, i.-alled Yazdajird 
Alhi/ArJ. Hiziir was an estate in the district of I^t^khr in Fars, from 
which he received his name. In that iuterealation the turn had come to 
AbAn Mflh ; therefore, the Epagomenge were added at its end, and 10 
there tLey have remained ever since on account of their neglecting 
iutyrcalation. 

Months of the Sogdians. — Now I shall mention the months of the 
Ma^^iaua of Tranaoxiaoja, the people of Khwiirizm and of Sughd. Their 
months have the same number, and the same uumbt<r of days as tbose 
of the Persians. Only between the beginning of the Persian and the 
Transoxanian months there ift a difference, because the Transoxonians 
p. 46. append the five Ei>iigomenfe to the end of their year, and commence the 
year with tho 6th day of the Persian month Farwardin, Klmrdiidhroz. 
So the beginning of the months is different until Adluir Mah ; afterwards 20 
they have the same beginnings. 

These are the names of the months of the Sughdians. 

I. J^y of 30 days. VU, ji** of 80 days. 

Some people add a Jim (e) at the end of i^~^ and |*j^^t f^Qd pronounce 
gA^ig* and cr*^>^ ; ^hey add a NAn and a Jira {^) at the end of *ft!U.f 30 
and ^-utj and pronounce ^^^ iind ^^^. They ctiU each day by a 
special name, as is the custom with the Persians. These are the names 
of the thirty days — 

" '^ •' 22. J\, 

23. u^*> 

24. (>^J 

25. 6*»^ 

26. ^U-\ 

27. y*- 40 

28. Jw-^lj 

29. J^itr" 

30. y» 



ON THE KATUBE OP MONTHS. 



67 



10 



ae people give the day ^^ the name jv*. The names of the fire 
EpEbgomonee are the following : — 

I. u^-,4*jU. n. yju** ra. ^j-u-j iv. ^ju, v. y-e»^^t p. 47. 

Begarding these oaraes the same difference exists among the &ugh< 
dians as among the Pcrftians. llioy arc alno called by the t'oUowiug 
names : — 

I. Ojy) n. ^j^ m. OjO;- TV. JjpU V. »Ji;w- 

Tliese five days Ihcy add at the end of the last month f^y*-^. 
The Siighdian system of intercalation agreed with the practice of the 
Persians, as also did thoir aeglecting intercalation. The ruUBon why 
there arose a difference between the beginnings of the Sughdian and the 
Persian years I shall describe heivafter. 

Months of the Chorasmians. — The Khw^rizmians, although a 
braucli of the gi-eat tree of the Persian nation, imitated the SughdiauH 
as to the beginning of the year and the place whore they add the 
Epagomenee. These ari"! the names of their months — 



20 






'*^*9^\) y^j 



vu. c»W 

^\^\ jjty ,^^\ 



Others abbreTiate these utimes and use them in this form — 



30 The thirty days they call by the following names .■ — 



40 



1. 

2. 
3. 




4. 
6. 
6. 

7. 




8. 


j^J 


9. 
10. 





11. ;«*"\ 

12. *U 

13. (.^y-h 

14. sM-fA^ 

15. jiJ 

16. ^ 

17. ^^1 

18. t^j 

19. e>*aj 

20. i:>*ij\ 



.t 



21. f.\, 

22. i^j 

23. ,iJ 

24. ,^J 

25. ^^j\ 

26. 3UA\ 

27. t)U-^ 

28. «A*tj 

29. X4-^ 

30. fy^l 



p. 48. 



I have found that they begin the Epagomenee, which are appended at 



58 



ALCtRONt. 



p. 49. 



the end of the inuutb IspaurUrmajt, wilh ihtt tuiino name L<v which tlio^ 
begin the days of the month ; the second day they call Azmm, the third 
Ardawaaht, and so on till the fifth day lapandArmaji. Then they refcurn 
and couuucnco anew with the first day 'iynj, the lat of the month 
I^ftwoa&rjt. They do not ase or ercn know special names for the 
Epagomenee, but I believe that this fact simply arises from the same 
oonfnsion, regarding these names, which prevails among the Persians 
and Sughdians. For after Kutaiba bi^n Muslim AlbAhilt had Idllcd their 
learned men and priestst and had burned their books and writings, tUey 
became entirely illiterate (forgot writing and rcatliug), and relied in 10 
every knowknlge or scioneo which they required solely upon memory. 
In the long course of time they forgot that on which there had been a 
divergence of opinion, and kept by memory only that which Utui been 
generally agreed upon. But Alluh knows beat ! 

As to the three identical names of days (the 8ih, 15th, and 23rd, — 
Dai in Persian, Dcut in Sughdion, Dadhu in Khwarizmian), the Persians 
refer them to tho following, and compound them with these, saying 
Vai'ba-Adar, and Dai-ha-Mihr^ and Zhi-bii-Din. Of the Sughdians and 
Kbwarizmians some do the same, and others connect the words in their 
language for " the first, the second, the third," with each of them. 20 

In the early times of their empire the Persians did not use the week. 
Por, first, it was in use among the nations uf the west, and more [lartieu- 
larly among the jieople of Syria and the neighbouring countries, because 
there the prophets appeared and made people acquainted with the first 
week, and that in it the world had been created, in uoiifonnity with the 
iHiginoiu^ of the Thora. From these the use of the week spread to the 
other nations. The pure Arabians adopted the week in consequence of 
the vicinity of their country to that of the Syrians. 

We have not heard that anybody has imitated the example of the 
Persians, Sughdians, and Khwurizmiaus, and has adopted their usage (of 30 
giving special names to the thirty days of the month, instead of dividing 
them into weeks), except the Copts, i.e. the ancient inhabitants of 
Egypt. For they, as we have mentioned, used the names of the thirty 
days till the time when Augustus, the son of (Jajua, ruled over them. 
He wanted to induce them to intercalate the years, tliat they might 
always agre« with the Greeks and the people of Alexandria. Into this 
subject, however, it would be necessary to inquire more closely. At that 
time precisely five years were wanting till the end of the great inter- 
calation period. Therefore, he waited till five years of his rule had 
elapsed, and then he ordered people to intercalate one day in the months 40 
in every fourth year, in the same way as the Greeks do. Thereujton 
they dropped the use of the names of the single days, because, as people 
say, those who used and knew tliem would have required Vo invent a 
name for the intercalary day. Thoy (the names of the days of tho 
month) have not been handed down to posterity. 



ON THE NATtTRB OP MONTHS. 



5d 



Honths of the Egyptians. — The following an? tho names of their 

months : — 



I. Thot 30 (Jays. 
PaopH 30 „ 
Athyr 30 „ 
Choiak 30 ;, 
Tybi 80 „ 
Mechir 30 „ 



Vn. Pharaenoth 30 day*. 
Phannuthi 30 „ 
Paclion 30 „ 

Payni 30 „ 

Epiphi 30 „ 
\»6i\ 30 „ 



These are the ancient names of the months. In the following we give 
10 the names which were modernized by one of their princes, after inter* 
calation had been adoptod: — 



20 



30 



Some people call the months i^^, *tt»W*j», tj-**^, and tjjy-^ by the 
namt'-R aJUf, l<>^;t, ^J-iU^ and vSjr**^- These are the forms on which 
|>eople aprt'c ; in somo books, however, those names are foxind in forms 
somewhat difftreiit from those we have mentioned. 

The five a^ilditional days thoy call, 'Eirayo/tcww, which means *' ths 
gmaU month ;" they are appended at the end of Meson, and at the same 
place the intercalary day is added, in whicli case the Epf^omenee ai« 
six days. The leap-y<^ar thoy call loiOt, which means " tA*: sign" 

Months of the People of the West, — 'AbM-al'ah)»'i« AlilmuU relates 

in his Kitul'dahVil-tilkihla, that the Wt:»iern peo^ilt (of Spain?) use 
months, tiie beginning's of which agree with those of the Coptic niunihs. 
They call them by the following names : — 

I. 



p. 50. 



May 30 days. 


VU 


Novombor 30 days. 


June 30 „ 




Decomher 30 „ 


July 30 „ 




January 30 „ 


August 30 „ 




Pohmary 30 „ 


September 30 „ 




March 30 „ 


October 30 „ 




April 30 „ 



Then follow the five Epagomcnee at the end of the year. 
Months of the Greeks. — The mouths of the Greeks itfe always 
twelve in number. Their names are those* : — 



40 



I, *\avm>a(iicK 31 days. 
Moprtof 31 „ 



IV. 'AwptAw 30 dayi. 
Uawi 31 „ 
lowtoc 30 „ 



60 



ALBtsCNf. 



Vn. "lovXw 31 days. 



X. *0Krw/7ptoc 31 dajs. 
No^fHOf 30 „ 

AeKifjiftpuK 31 „ 



The sum of the daya of tlieir year is 866, and a« ui all four years the 
four quartera of a day are summed up, th(*y ajipond it as one complete 
day to the mouth February, so that this month has iu every fourth year 
29 days. He who first induced people to intercalate the years was 
Julius, called Dictator, who nilod over them in hygone times, long 
before Moses. He gave tliem the months with such a distribution (of 
the da)'B). and with suuh uamefl as we Iuitc mentioned. He induced 10 
them to intercalate the day-quarters into them (the months) iu every 
14'_>lst year, wheu the day-quarters had summed tip to one complete 
year. So that (this intercjilation) preanrved tht^ae (the months, keeping 
them in agreement with real time). This intercalation they called the 
" ^reai one" after they had called the intea-alatiou, which takes place 
every four years, the " ftnall one." This " small " intercalation, however, 
they did uut introduce until a long i>oriod had elapsed after the death 
of the king (Julius Cffisar). A characteristic of their system is the 
division of tho days of the months into weeks, for reasons which we 
have mention&cl before. 20 

p. 61. The author of the Kit'ih-ma'A-haiik-almawakU (method for the deduc- 
tion of certain times and dates) thinks that the Greeks aud other nations, 
who arc in the habit of tnter<;alating the day-'juarler, had fixed the sun's 
entering Aries ujwn tho beginning of April, which corresponda to tho 
Syrian Nistiin, aa the beginning of their era. And we coni'ess that in 
his account he comes pretty near the truth. For astronomical observa- 
tion has taught that the fraction which follows the (365) days of the 
solar year, is less than one complete quarter of a day, and we ourseWee 
have observed that the sun's entering tho first part of Arica precedes 
the beginning of Nisnu. Therefore that which he mentions is possible, 80 
and nven likely. 

Further on he says, speaking of the Greeks, that " they, on perceiving 
that the beginning of their year had changed its place, had recourse to 
the years of the Indians ; that they then intercalated Into their year the 
difference between the two years (viz., the Greek year and tho solar 
year), and that in couBe<iuenco the sun*s entering the Urst jmrt of Aries 
again took place at the beginning of Nisfln. If we on our side do the 
same, Nisitu returns to its original [)lac!e." He has tried to give an 
example, but lias not finished it, being incapable of doing so. On this 
occasion he has shown his ignorance, as he, in his account of the Greeks, 40 
hBs also rendered it evident that he is inimical to tho Greeks, und partial 
to others. The fact is, that according to the Indian system he has con- 
Terted the difference between the Greek year and the solar year into 
fractions, putting it down as 729 seconds. Then he changes also the day 



ON THB NATURE OF MONTHS. 



61 



into Be<.-ond8, and divides them hj that difference. So ha gets 118 rears 
6 months and 6| days. This would be the space of time in which the 
ealendiu* wouLd neeesEitate tbo intercalation of one complete daj, on 
account of thia plus-difference. Fiirt.her, he says, " Now, if we inter- 
calate the past years of the Qreek era," wliich were at his time 1,225 
years, " the sim's entering' the first part of Aries again takes place at the 
beginning of NisAn." But he has dropjicd hia example, and hu^ not 
intercalated the years. If he had done so, his conclusions woiild hare 
bnl to the contrary of what he says and maintains, and the beginning of 

10 Ntsin would come near the sun's entering the first part of Taurus. For 
that date, which he wanted to treat aa au example, would necessitate 
the intercalation of 10^ days. Now the Greek year being too short 
(according to him), the beginning of Nisan prcccdcB the sun's entering 
the first part of Aries, and the time which it would be necessary to 
intercalate (poriio iniercalanda)^ would have to be added to the first of 
Nisiln, 80 as to proceed as far as to the lllth of it. 

Now I should like to kiiuw which equinox this luau, who is so partial 
to the Indians, meant. For the vcmal equinox took place according to 
their system at that time six or seven days before the first of XisAn. I 

20 should further like to know at what time the Greeks did what he relates 
of them. For they are so deeply imbued with, luid so clever ui (.feometry 
and astronomy, and tlicy adhere so Htrictly to logical arguments, that 
they are far from having recourse to the theories of those who derive 
the bases of their knowledge from divine inspiration, when their artifices 
desert them and they arc required to come forward with an argument ; 
not to mention the sciences of philosophy and theology, phyiics and 
arts, cultivated among the Greeks. '* Huwevor, everybody acta a<con3ing 
to his own mode, and each community enjoys what they have got of 
their own." (Sura ivii. 86.) That man had not read the Alma^st, and 

30 had not com[>arcd it with the moat famous book of the Indians, called 
the Canon Shulhind. The difference between them must bo evident to 
anybody in whom the slightest 8[>ark of Bagacity i& left. 

To something similar Hiimza bon Alt^asan Alisfalulnt ba^ applied him- 
self in his treatise on the Naurdz, at the time when he was partial to the 
Persian mode of trcatiug the solar year, because they reckoned it as 
365 days and C^Vs hours, while the Greeks neglected in their intercala* 
tiou the fraction following the six hours. As a [>roof he adduied that 
Muhammad ben ATi^sA ben Shakir, the astronomer, bad explained this 
subject, and had enlarged un it in one of his books on the soUr year, 

40 and that he had produced the arguments for it, and pointed uul the 
errors of the ancients, who had held eiTonoous views in this respect. 

Now, we have examined the astronomical observations of Muhammad 
ben MftsA, and of his brother 'Ahmad, and we have foimd thai they 
prove only that these fractions are less than six hours. The bcok, to 
which Alisfahuu refers, is attributed to Th4bit ben Kurra, because he 



,52. 



62 



ALBtRONf, 



was a proftvjo of those people, entirely mixed ap with them, aud because 
it wiiK hii who [wlishcd for them their acientific work. He had collected 
the materials of this book with the ohject of explaining the fact of the 
solar years not being always equal to each other, on account of the 
motion of tbe apogee. With all this he was compelled to oaanme equal 
cirelea, aud equal motions along with their timeu, in order to derive 
thereby the mean motion of the sim. But he did not find equal circles, 
except those which more in an excectric plane, deacrlbod (vu. the cirelea) 
round a point within it, which point is assumed exclusively for these 
circles. And this circle, which was sought for^ extends tho six hours by 10 
additional fractions (t.e. its time of rerolution is 365 days 6 houra+a 
fraetion), as Hamza has related. However, such a circle is not called a 
solar year, for the solar year is, as we have defined already, that one, in 
which all natural occurrences which are liable to growth aud to decay 
return t^ thoir original condition. 

Jewish Months.— The Hebrews and all the Jews, who claim to be 
related to Hoses, have the following twelve mouths : — 



L Nisan of 30 days. 
Jyar of 29 „ 
Siwiln of 30 „ 
Tommftz of 29 „ 
Abh of 30 „ 
EliU of 29 „ 



VT. Tishri 

MarbeshvJln 

Kialew 

Tabeth 



of 30 day*, 
of 29 „ 
of 30 „ 
of 29 „ 



20 



Shefa( (Shebhat) of 30 
Adh&r of 29 



p. 68. The sum total of their days is 354, being identical with the number 
of days of the lunar year. If they simply used the lunar year aa it is, 
the Buni of tha days of th«ir year and the number of their months 
would be identical. However, after having left Egypt for the desert 
Al-tih, aiter having ceased to be the slaves of the Egyptians, having 
been delivered from their oppression, and altogether separated from 
them, the Israelites received the ordinances and the laws of Grod, 30 
described in the second book of tho Thora. And this event book place 
in the night of the 15th Nison ai full mooit and »pring iivie. They 
were ontered to observe this day, as it is said in the second book of the 
Thora (Exodus xii. 17, 18) : " Ye shall observe this day aa an ordinance 
to your generations for ever on the fourteenth of the first month." By 
the *'JiTat month " the Lord does not mean Tishri, but Nisan ; because in 
the game book he commands Moses and Aaron, that the month of i>ass- 
over should be the first of their months, and the beginning of the year 
(Exodus xii. 2). 

Further, Hoses spake onto the people : " Romombcr the day when ye 40 
came out from bondage. Therefore ye shall not cat leavened bread on 
this day in that month when the trees blossom." In consequence, they 
were eompelled to use the solar year and the lunar months ; the solar 
year m order that the 14th Nis&n should fall in the beginning of spring. 



ON THE NATUBE OF MONTHS. 



63 



when the leaves of the trees and the blossoms of tin! fniit trees oome 
forth'; the luuur months in order that, on the siune day . the body of 
the moon should be lit up complt^tely, staiidiu^; in the HJpn of Libra. 
And as the time in question would naturally advance for a certain 
number of days (the eum of the days of twelve lunar months not being 
a complete year), it was necessary for the same reason to append to the 
other months those days, aa soon as they made up one complete month. 
They added these days as a complete month, which they called the 
Firtit Adh'tfy whilst they called the ori^niil month of this name the 
10 Second AdJtar, because of its following iumicdiately behind its namesake. 
The leap-year they called 'IbbiW 0^3J^)> which is to be derived from 
Me'ubbereih (PTi^V^)* meaiiin^ in Hebrew, " a prcgtmnl womaji" For 
they compared the insertion of the Buperiuiraerary month into the year, 
to a woman's bearing in her womb a foreign organism. 

According to another opinion, the First Adiiilr is the original month*, 
the uame of which without any addition was used in the common year, 
and the Second Adhilr is to be the luap-muutb, in order that it should 
have its place at the end of the year, for this reason, that according to , 
the command of the Thfiru, Nisun was to be the first of their mouths. 

Thia, however, is not the ease. That the Seeoml AdhAr is the original 
mouth, is evident from the fiict, that ita place and length, the number of 
its days, the feast- and fast-days which occur in it, are not liable to any 
changes. And of all these days nothing whatsoever occurs in the First 
Adhar of a leap-year. Further, they make it a rule that, during the 
Second Adlu'ir, the sun should always stand in the sign of Pisces, whilst 
in the First Adhar of a leap-year he must be in the sign of Amphora. 

Five Cycles. — Now for the leap-years they wanted a certain principle p. SAt. 
of arrangement as a help to facilitate their practical use. Therefore 
they looked out for cycles which were baeed ujwu solar years, consisting 
of lunar months. Of those cycles they found the following five: — 



20 



30 



40 



I. The cycle of 8 years consisting of 99 mouths, of which there arc 
3 leap-months. 
TI, The cycle of 19 years, called the Minor Cycle, consisting of 235 
months, of which there are 7 leap-months, 
ni. The cycle of 76 years, consisting of 9-40 mouths, of which there 

are 28 leap-months. 
IV. The cycle of 95 years, called the Middle Cycle, consisting of 1,176 

months, of which there are 35 leap-months. 
V. The ^-ycle of 532 years, called the Jfajor Cycle, consisting of 6,580 
months, of which there are 196 leap-months. 

Of these cycles they choose that <ine, the observation of which would 
be the easiest and simplest. This quality is [fcculiar to the cycles of 8 
and of 19 years, with this difierentHi, however, that the latter one agrees 



albtb^kI. 



more closely with Bolar years. For thiH cycle contAins, according to 
them, 6,939 days Ifi^ oV o tours. Those small particles of au hour they 
call Halaku (D'^pTH), of which 1,080 nmke one hour. If, therefore, you 
have got miuutes, i.e. the GOtb parte of an hour, and you want to change 
thcni into Halaks, you .multiply them by 18, and you get the corru- 
ai-ouding number of Halaks. And if you want the converse operation, 
you multiply the number of Halaks by 200, and you get a sum of thirds 
of an hour (i.e. the 60th parts nf a second) ; these fractions you can 
thcu raise to wholes. 

Now, if we reduce this cycle (of 19 years) to fractions and change it 10 
into Hahtks, we get the following sum of Halaks: — 

179,876,755, expressed in Indian ciphers. 

The solar year is, according to them, 365 days Sff^ hours long; this 
latter fraetlou is nearly identical with 990 Halaks. If we now also 
reduce the solar year into Halal^s, we get the sum of — 

9,407,190 Halaks. 

If you finally divide by this nuinluT th« number of the IlalaVs of the 
cycle of 19 years, you get as the quotient, 19 solar years, with a remainder 
. 55. of 145 Hahiks, which is nearly the 7th part of an hour and a fraction. 

If we perfurni the same operation with the cycle of 8 years containing 20 
2,923 days 12 hours and 747 Halaks, we get as the sum of its Halaks 
the number — 

75,777,867 

If wo divide this sum by the sum of the Halaks of the solar year, we 
get 8 solar years, and a remainder of 1 day 13 hours and 387 Itahiks, 
which is nearly \-\-\ (i.e. \^) hour. 

Huuce it is evident that the cycle <^ 19 years comes nearest to real 
time, and is the best of all cycles which have been used. The other 
cycles ftre simply composed of duplications of the cycle of 19 ye.ur8. 
Therefore the Jews preferred this cycle, and regulated thereby inter- 80 
culatiou. 

The three Ordines Intorcalationis.— Now, although they agreed 
on the quality of the year as to the order of intercahttion in the MaJkxor 
(^^THD cycle), wlieu it has to take place, and when not, they diflfered 
among each other regarding the nature uf the lieginning of the Mahzdrs. 
And this has also produced a difference regarding the order of inter- 
calation in the Mal.izur. For some lake the current year of the jEra 
Aibimi, of which you want to know whether it is a common year or a 
leap-year, and reduce the number of years to Ma^zors by dividing them 
by 19 ; then you get complete Maliz6ra, and as a remainder, the years of 40 
the Mabzdr not yet finished, including the current year. And then the 
order of the leuji-years is fixt^ ai'c*»r(ling to Ihu formula pnjl^rQ *•*■ 
the 2nd, 5th, 7lh, loth, 13th, 16th, and 16th years. 



ALBtROwt. 

The first (outer) circle indicates the quality of the year, whether it ii 
& common year or a leap-year. The three other circles contain the three 
formuke, indicating the order of the leap-years in the MiLhz6rflj the 
p. 56. second ci rcle, the formula myinS! the third circle, the formula 
imtD'nN • ^^^ '^^^ inner circle, the formula ;Qt323- 

The cycles which we hare mentioned hitherto, are derived from the 
moon, though not exclusively. The solar cycle consists of 28 years, 
and serves to indicate on what days of the week the solar years com- 
mence. For if the Jewish year had simply 365 days without the quarter- 
day, the beginning of the year would iu every seven years return to the 10 
same week-day. Since, however, they are intercalated once in four years, 
the beginning does not return to the same day, except in 28 years, i.e. 
■4x7 years. Likewise the other cycles, heretofore mentioned, do not, on 
being completed, return to the same week-day, except the largest cycle, 
on account of its arising from a duplication of the cycle of 19 years with 
the solar cycle. 

The three kinds of the Jewish Year. — 1 say further : If the Jewish 

years had Him])ly thi.' first two qualities, i.e. were either common years 
or leap-years, it would be easy to learu their begiuuings, and to dis- 
tinguish between the two qualities which are proper to them, prorided 20 
the above-mentioned formula of computation for the years of the 
Mahz6r be known. The Jewish year, however, is a threefold one. For 
they have made an arrangement among theraaolvos, that New Tear shall 
not iaW on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday, i.e. on the days of the 
aim and his two stars (MerL-ury and Venus) ; and that Passover, by 
which the beginning of Nisiin is regulated, shall not fall on the days of 
the inferior stars, i.e. on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, for reasons 
on which wc shall hereafter enlarge as mtich as possible. Thereby they 
were compelled either to postpone or to advance New Year and Passover, 
when they happened to fall on one of the days mentioned, 30 

For this reason their year consists of the following three species : — 

I. The year called (:Hj^-*-t •■«- the imperfect one (mpn), in which 
the months Marl^eshwan and Eislew have only 29 days. 

11. The year called t)\;Ju-X, i.e. the intermediate (]'l*Tp5). lit. ttcwi- 
dnm &rd\n4:m mum, in which Marheshwan baJs 29 days, and 
Kislcw 30 days. 

m. The year called /m^^, i.e. the perfect one (t^^"*^!!^)) in which 
troth Marbeshw&n and Kialew have 30 days. 



Each of those three species of years may be either a common year or 
a leap-year. So we get a combination of six species of years, as we 40 
have here illustrated in the form of a genealogical diagram, and dis- 
tributed in the following representation. 



ON THB KATURE OF MONTHS. 



67 



Tbb Ykab. 



p. 67. 



Common year of 12 months. 



Leap-year of 13 months. 



Perfect, of 355 days. 

Marheshwan, 30 days. 

Ki'slfiw, 30 daya. 

Intermediate, of 354 days. 

Marbcehwan, 21) dayct. 

Kisiew, 30 days. 



Perfect, of 385 days. 

Harl^esliwAu, 30 days. 

Kislew, 30 days. 



Intermediate, of 384 days. 

Marljeshwan, 29 days. 
Kisl^w, 30 daya. 



10 



Imperfect, of 353 days. 

MarbeshwAn, 29 days. 

KisUw, 29 days. 



Imperfect, of 883 days. 

Marljfcshw&n, 29 days. 

Kislew, 29 days. 



For the deduction of those differences they have many tnodca of com- 
putation as well as tables, which wo shall not fail to explain hereaXter. 

Detemiiltation of New Uoon. — Rejjarding their knowledj^o of the 
beginning of the month, and the mode in which it is computed and used, 
the Jews are divided into two sects, one of which are the Rabbanites. 
They derive the beginning of the month by means of calculation from 
the mean motions of the two luminaries (huu and moon), no regaj'd being 
had as to whether new moon is risible already ur not. For it was their 

20 object to have a conventional time, that was to begin from the conjunc- 
tion of Sim and moon. By the following accident they were, as they 
relate themseheB, induced to adopt this system : at the time when they 
returned to Jerusalem, they posted guards upon the tops of the 
mountains to observe new moon, and they ordered them to light a fire 
and to make a smoke, which was to be a signal for them that new moon 
in fact bad been seen. Now, on account of Iho enmity which existed 
between them and the Samaritans, these tatter went and sent up the 
smoke from, the mountain one day before new moon was seen. This 
practice they continued during several months, at the beginnings of 

80 which heaven always happened to be clouded. Finally, penj*le in 
Jerusalem found out this, observing that new moon, on the 3rd and 4th 
of the month, rose above the horizon from the coat. Hence it was 
evident that the Samaritans had deceived them. Therefore they had 
recourse to the scholars of their time, in order to be protected by a 
system of calculation against the deceitful practices of their enemies, to 
which they were exposed by their present methtjd. 

In order to prove that it was legally permitted to fix the beginning of 
the month by calculation instead of observation, they referred to the 
duration of the deluge. For they assert that Noah computed and lixed 

40 the beginiungs of the months by calculation, because heaven was covered 



p. 68. 



68 



ALBtBfixf. 



and clonded for so long as aU months, during which time neither new 
moon nor any other phase of the moon could be observed. 

The inathematiciana, therefore, computed for them the cycles, and 
taught them how to find, by calculation, the conjunctions and the 
appearance of new moun, viz. that between new moon and the con- 
junction the time of 2+ hours must elapae. And this comes near the 
truth. For if it was the corrected conjunction, not the mean one, the 
moun would in these hours move forward about 13 degrees, and her 
elongation from the sun would be about 1*2 degrees. 

This reform was brought about nearly 200 years after Alexander. 10 
Before that time they used to observe the TeJciiffiih (HiD^'pri), i.e. the 
year- quarters, on the computation of which we shall enlarge hereafter, 
and to compare them with the conjunction of that month, to which 
the Tcltufn in question was to be referred. If they found that the con- 
junction preceded the Telf^Afa by about 30 days, they intercalated a 
month in this year, e.g. if they found that the couj unction of TammftE 
preceded the TelfiifA of Tammdz, i.e. the summer- solstice by about 
30 days, they intercalated in that year a month Tammiiz, so that it had 
one Tammiiz and a second Tammuz (WSn*) TIGH). In the same way 
they acted with the other Tekufoth. 20 

Some Babbanitea, however, deny that such guards were posted, and 
that they raide a smoke as a signal According to their opinion, the 
cause of the deduction of this system of calculation was the following; 
the scholars and the priests of the Israelites, feeling convinced that their 
people would be scattered and dispersed in consequence of the last 
destruction of Jci-usalem, as they thought, wero afraid that their com- 
patriots, being scattered alt over the world, and solely relying ui>ou the 
aopearanco of uew ^uoou, which of course in different countries would be 
different for thom, might, on account of this, fall into dissensions, and 
a schism in their doctrine might take place. Therefore they invented 80 
theso calculations, — a work which was particularly attended to by 
Eliezer ben Pilruat,i, and ordered jieoplo to adhere to them, to use them, 
to return to theui, wherever and under whatever circumstances tbey 
lived, so that a schism among thcui might bt: avoided. 

The second sect are the Mildditvs, who derive the )>egiuning of the 
month fnjiii the ooujuiiction j they ai"e also called Alkyrrii and AVuh- 
ma'iyya, bi.vauiie thuy demand that i*ople shall only follow the wording 
of the text, >iu regard being bad to considerations and analogies, etc, 
even if it may be illogiml and impracticable. 

One |>ai'ty of them is called the 'Awinitt^, who derived their name 40 
from *AnAu. the bead of the emigration (MrT^TJ 11JM"», who lived between 
100 and 110 years ago. A head of the emigration must of necessity \ie 
one of the descendants of David ; an offspring of another family would 
not be fit for this office. Their common people relate, that only he is 
qualified who, standing upright, can reach his knees with the tops of hid 



OS THB NATU&E OF MONTHS. 



69 



10 



20 



811 



40 



fingers ; just as people relate such tliiugB of the pnnce of the true 
believerB, 'Alt hen 'Ab! TAlib, and of tlioe« of his deucendants who are 
qualified for the Imama and the rule of the eommumtj (the Muham- 
madan world). 

The genealogy of this 'Anan is the following : — 

Ti-r '1 p^r 'i ^iMtt? 's h^^:i p py -i 

ID NQN 'n jrc 'n M:!-in n rr'coctr 'n M:in ai 'n -^i 

wyti*^ 'i py 'i «n"'ain b jrnv 'n u-^n^t 'n -^^i 
N''-nDi 'n w^^n 'n nip;r n N''3*^n a wn^i 'n -xxvi 

UT\7v 3 w"*TnN '1 n*'c:N'' '1 TnNirr '1 D'-p^rr 'n -XXXVi 
rTD*?c? 'n cynm '3 n''3N '3 hdm '2 lacchn"' '1 -XLi 

-nil XLVI 

He opposed a community of Babbanites in many of their observanceB. 
He fixed the beginning of the month by the appearance of the new 
moon in a sirnilar way, as is prescribed in TkIhiii, not caring on what day 
of the week the beginning of the month happened to fall. He gave up 
the eyat^m of comjmtation of the Rabbanites, and made the intercalation 
of a month depend upon the observation of barley-soed in 'Iriik and 
Syria between the 1st and the lith Ntban. If he found a first-fruit fit 
for friction and reaping, ho left the year as a common year ; if he did 
not find that, he intercalated the year. The mode of prognosticating the 
state of the com was practically this, that one of his followers went out 
on the 23rd ShebA^, to examine — in Syria and the countries of a similar 
climate — the state of the barley-scud. If he found that the Saf&, i.e. the 
prickles of the beard of the ear of oom, had already come out, he 
counted frnm that day till Passover SO days; if he found that it had 
not yet come out, he intTt-alated a mouth into the year. And some 
added the intercalary month to Shefat, bo that there was a Shefaf and an 
U-Shefaf ; whilst others added it to Adhilr, so that there was an Adhtr 
and a Wi-Adluir. The Ananites mostly use Shefaf, not Adh&r, whilst 
the Babbanites use exclusively Adhar. 

This system of prognosticating the slaU- uf the com is a different one 
according to the difference of the air and the climate of the countries. 
Therefore it would be necensaTy to make a special rule for every place, 
and not to rely upon the rule made for one certjiin place, because this 
would not he applicable elsewhere. 

Syrian Months.— The Christians in Syria, 'IrAlf, and KliurAsAn have 
eombinod Greek and Jewish months. For they use the months of the 
Greeks, but have adopted the let of the Greek October as thi- beginning 



P- 



59. 



70 



AtBtB<yNt. 



p. 60. 



of their jear, that it might be nearer to the Jewish uew-year, because 
Tishri of the Jews always preoedes that date a little. And they call 
their months by Syrian namos, some of which a^eo with the Jewish 
names, whilst others differ. People have derived these names from the 
Syrians, i.e. the Nabatseans, the inhabitants of SawAd ; the Suwad of 
*Iralf being called S^rist^n. But I do not see why they derive these 
months from them, because in Islam they use the months of the Arabs, 
and at the time of heathenism they used the months of the Persians. 
Others say that Surietau means Syria. If that be the case, the inhabi- 
tants of this country were Christians before the time of IsUm, and held 
a middle position between Jewish and Qreek theories. 
The names of their months are these : — 



I. Tishrin Vedim of 31 days. 
Tishrin br»" of 80 „ 
KAnfin kcdim of 31 „ 
Kantin hrAi of 31 „ 
Sheb4t of 28 „ 

Adhar of 31 „ 



VI. Nisan of 30 days. 
lyAr of 81 „ 
IJaztran of 30 „ 
Tammaz of 31 „ 
Ibh of 31 „ 
TKil Of 30 „ 



10 



In the month SbebAt they intercalate one day every four years, bo that 
it then has 29 days. Regarding the quality of their year they agree 
with the Greeks. 

These months have become widely known, so that even the Mualima 
adopted tjiem, and fixed thereby the dates of practical life. The words 
Kedim (primus) and Hr(U (postrenius) have been translated into Arabic, 
and in the word jt\ they have added an Elif, so as to make it j^i^ 
because a single ytt (without Tashdid) is disagreeable to the organ of the 
Arabs, if this Elif is not itddfd. 

Monthfl of the Arabs. — The Arabs have the following twelve 
months : — 



I. Almuharram. 
Safar. 
Rabi* I. 
Kabi' U. 
Jumada I. 
Jom^da IL 



Vn. Hajab. 

Sha'bftn. 

Kamuditn. 

Shawwttl. 

Phil.alka'da. 

Dha-albijja. 



20 



80 



Eegarding the etymology of these names various opinions have been 
advanced, AlmtiAarramf e.g. wa« called so, because it was one of the 
^urum, i.e. the four sacred months. 

Safar was called so, because in it people used to procure their pro- 
visions, going out in a company of men which was called ^afariyya. 

The two moDths Babi' were called so on arcount of the coming forth 
of the flowers and blosioma and of the continual fall of dew and rain. 



40 



ON THE NATUBE OP MONTHS. 



All of irKicIi refers to the nature of that season which we call " autumn," 
but which the Arabs called ** spring " (Rabi*}. 
The two months Jumtldii wero called so, because in them the water 

Rajah was called so, because in it people formed the intention of 
travelling, there being no fear of the evils of war. For " rujha " means 
gurimlacvlum (a thing by means of which a tree ia propped up), and 
hence people say, " a propped up fmurajjab) paim-ty^e which heart a A«»try 
loadoffruitr 
10 Bha*bdn was called so, because in it the tribes were dispersed. 

RamAddn was called so. because of the stones being roasU*4 by the 
intense heat. 

Shawwdl was called so^ because of the Increasiug and the decreasing 
of the heat. 

Dhl-alkd'da waa called so, because in it people stayed in their homes. 

Dhu-alhijja waa called so, because in it people performed the ^ajj, i.6. 
the pilgrimage. 

We found, however, also other names of the months of the Arabs, 
which were given to them by their ancestors. They are the fol- 
20 lowing: — 



I. Almu't&mir. 


vu, 


. Al'a^amm. 


N&jir. 




'AdU. 


Khitww&n. 




NAfik. 


$uwan. 




Wilghil. 


^antam. 




Huwa'. 


ZabbA. 




Burak. 



p. 61. 



The forms as well as the order of these names sometimes differ from 
what we have given. One of the poets, e,g. has comprised them in the 
following verses : — 

80 " We have commenced with Jfu'tamiV, Ndjira, and Khawwdn^ to 

which follows Su-u?dn. 
And with Zabbd comes Bd*ida, ita next follower. Then comes the 

turn of 'Asamm, in which hatred was deaf. 
And Wdghila, Ndtila, and *Adila^ all three are uoble and beautiful. 
Then comes Rannaj and after it Bnrak. Kow are complete the 

months of the year, as you may count with your fingers." 



In the following we shall explain the meanings of these names 
according to the lAatemcnts of the dictionaries : — 

Almu'taynir means that it " c^eys** all the decrees of fortune, which 
40 the year is going to bring. 



72 



ALBtKf^Jjt, 



Ndjir is derived from najV, which means " intense heat," 
in the following verse: — 



as it is used 



10 



p. 62. 



" A stinking wat«r, on account of which ft man tuniB his face aside, 
Ercn he who is tortured b; thirst, if he tasted it in a * boiling 
hot * month." 

Khawmin is the form JUi of the verb " to deceive,*' and Suwdn is the 
form jUi of the verb " to preserve, to take rare." And these significations 
agreed with the natures of the months at the time when thoy wore first 
employed us namt's for them. 

babbit mpana a " yr«w( and frequently ocnirring calamity** The month 
was calltHJ so, beijanse in it there was much aud frequent fighting. 

Bd'id, ttJo, ryceived its name from the fighting in it. for many people 
used to "perish " In it. This circumstance is expressed in the following 
proverb : " All that i* portentous happens between Jumtida arui Rajah*' 
For in this month people were in great haste and eagerness to cany out 
whatevL'r blood revenge or warlike expeditions they were upon, before 
the month Eujab came in. 

'Aiamvt was called so. because in it people abstained from fighting, 
so that the clash of weapons was not heard. 

Wiiyhil means " one tvho conifin tfi a drinkxTig-party wiihoui having been 20 
invited." Thia mouth was called so, because it suddenly comes in after 
Ramadfiu, and because in EaraadAn there was much wine>drinking, on 
account of the uext following months being tht; mouths of pilgrimage. 

Nd[il means '* a measure, a pot of ici'ne." The month was called so, 
because in it people indulged in drinking debauches, and frequently 
used that pot. 

*Adil is derived from " 'atll" (which means either " to be just *' or 
** to turn aside"). The mouth was called so, because it was one of the 
montha of pilgrimagt;, when they used to abstain from the use of the 
NAtil, i.e. the wine-pot. 

Banna was called so, because the sheep were '* crying " on account of 
the drawing near of the time when they were to l>e killed. 

Burak was called so, because of the kneeling down of the camels on 
being led to the slaughtering.place. 

A better versification of these names than the above-mentioned one is 
that by the WazTr 'iBmu'i! ben 'AbbAd :— 

" Ton wanted to know the months of the pagan Arabs. Take them 

according to the order of Mul^arram (Safar, etc.), of which they 

partake. 
First comes AFu'tamir, then Ndjir ; and Khavnedn and Sitwdn are 40 

connected by one tie. 
ffanin, Zahbd, 'Asamm, 'Adil, NdfiA with Waghl, and Banna with 

BuraJt." 



80 



ON THl NATUBB 0? MONTHS. 



73 



If the etjmologries of tb^s«) two clajsses of names of the months fire 
euch as we have related, wo must suppose that between the two periods 
of giving the names there was a great interval of time. Or else our 
explanations and etymologies would not he correct. For in one claas of 
the months the highest pitch of the heat ia $afar, whilst in the other it 
is Hamadjln ; and this (that the greatest heat should be either in ^afar 
or in Bamajan) is not possible at one and the samo period, or at two 
periods which are not very far distant from each other. 
Intercalation of the Ancient Arabs. — At the time of paganiam 

10 the Arabs used their months in a similar way to the Muslims ; their 
pilgrimage went wandering around through the four seasons of the year. 
But then they desired to perform the pilgrimage at such time aa their 
merchandise (hides, skins, fruity etc.) was ready for the markt't. and to 
fix it according to an invariable rule, sn that it should occur in the most 
agreeable and abuutlant season of the year. Therefore they learned the 
system of intercalation from the Jews of their neighbourhood, about 
200 years before the Hijra. And they used interoilation in a similar 
way to the Jews, adding the difference between their year and the solar 
year, when it had summed up to one complete month, to the months of 

20 their year. Then their intorcalatora themselves, the so-called Kalamut 
of the tribe Kiuaua, rose, aft*r pilifrimage had been finished, delivered a 
speech to the people at the fair, and intercalated the month, calling the 
next following month by the name of that month in which they were. 
Thu Arabs consented to this arrangement and adopted the decision of 
the Jfalammaa. This proceeding they called '* ytuC," i.e. postpoticment, 
because in every second or third year they postponed the begiDcing of 
the year for a month, as it was required by the progression of the year. 
One of their poets has said : — ^ 

" We have an intercalator, under whose banner we march ; 
80 He declares the months profane or sacred, as he likes/' 

The first intercalation applied to Muharram ; in consequence Safar 
was called Mul^ar^Mpilj^T' I. was called t^afar, and so on ; and in this 
way all the names of all tliL' mouths were changed. The second inter- 
calation applied to ^afar ; in couaequenee the next following month 
(Bab! I.) was called Safar. And this went ou tiU intercalation had 
passed through all twelve months of the year and returned to Muharram. 
Then they commenced anew what they had done the first time. 

The Arabs counted the cycles of intercalation and fixed thereby their 
dates. They said for instance : ** From the time Jt till the time y the 
40 years have turned round one cycle." 

But now, if notwithstanding intercalation it became evident that a 
month progressed beyond its proper plare in the four seasons of the 
year, in conaectuence of the accumulation of the fractions of the solar 
year, and of the remainder of the plut-diferenee between the solar year 



74 



ALBtROx!. 



and the lunar year, to which latter they had added this plas<difference, 
they made a eecoud iutercalation. Such a pn^ression they were able to 
recognize from the rising and setting o{ the Lunar MaosioDS. Thi&nrent 
on till the time vhen the Prophet fled from Makka to Madtna, when the 
turn of intercalation, as wc hare mentioned, had come to Sha'b^n. 
p. 68. Now, this month was called Mul^arram, and Kamadun was called 
^far. Then the Prophet waited till the " fareuxU pU^image," on which 
occasion he addressed the people, and said : " The season, the time has 
gone round as it was on the day of God's creating the heavens and the 
earth." (Silra ii. 38.) By which he meant that the months had returned 10 
to their original places, and that they had been freed from what the Arabs 
used to do with them. Therefore, the "farewell pilgrimage," was also 
called " the correct pihjrinm-ge." Thereupon intercalation was proliibited 
and altogether neglected. 

MontllS of the Themudeni. — 'Abfl-Bakr Muhammad ben Ihiraid 
Al'azdi relates in his Kihib-alxcUhdh^ that the people Thamiid called the 
months by the following names : — 

I. MAjib I.e. Mu^arram. VIL Haubal. 
H&jir. MauhA. 

Milrid. Daimur. 20 

Mulzim. Dubir. 

Mttfdir. Haifal. 

Haubar, Musbil. 

He says that they commenced their year with the month Daimur, i.e. 
RamadAn. The following is a rersification of these names by 'AbA-Sahl 
'TsA bon TahyS. Ahnasi^S: — 

"The months of Thamiid are Miijib, 3fii;tr, Mdridt then follow 
Mvhlm and Miisdir. 
Then come Haubar and Haubal, followed by Mauhd and Daimur. 
Then come Dtibir, and Haifal, and Muihil, till it is finished, the most 80 

celebrated araorg them." 

Arabic Names of Bays. — The Arabs did not, like the Persians, give 

special names to the single days of the mouth, but they had special 
names for each three nights of every month, which were derived from 
the state of tbe moon and her light during them. Beginning with the 
first of the month, they called — 

The first three nights (Ist-Srd) ghurar, which is the plural of ghurrth 
and means ths Jirtt of everything. According to others they were 
called so, because during them the new moon appeared like a blaze 
on ihe forehead of a horee. 40 

The second three nights (4th-6th) nufaJ, from tanaffaJa, which means, 
"beginning to make a pretent ivith&ut any neceanty." Others call 
them skuhb, i.e. the wlute nights. 



76 



ALBtE^Nf. 



Or the following day, Dubdr^ or if 1 get beyond that, either Mtt'nu 
or 'Aruba or Shiydr." 

Afterwards the Ankbe gave them the following new noznes :-- 

Al-'aliad, I.e. one. 

Al-ithnJln. „ two. 

Al4buIathH, „ three. 

AJ-'arbi'A, „ four. 

Al-khiLDiia ,, five. 

At-jum*il, „ guthering. 

Al-sabt, „ sabbatb. 10 



65. 



20 



The Araba fixed the beginniDg of the month by the appearance of 
new moon, and the same has been cstabUsbcd as a law in IslAm, as the 
Lord has said (Sura ii. 185} : " They will ask thf ri regarding the new 
moons. Speak : they arc certain momfnts of time for the use of man- 
kind (in general) and for pilgrimage." 

Determination of the length of Ramadan, the Iffonth of 

Fasting. — S^'nio years ago, however, a jiogan sect started into existence 
somehow or other. Tbey eoiisiderod how best to *Muploy the interpre- 
tation (of the Koran), and to attach themselves to the system of the 
exoteric school of interpreters who, as they maintain, are the Jews and 
Christians. Fur these latter have astronoinioal tables and calculations, 
by means of which they compute their months, and derive the knowledge 
of their fast days, whilst Muslims are compelled to observe new moon, 
and to inquire into the difierent phases of the light of the moon, and 
into that which is common to both lier visible and invitiible halves. But 
then they found that Jews and Christians have no certainty on this 
subject, that they differ, and that one of them blindly follows the other, 
although they had done their utmost iu the study of the places of the 
moon, and in the researches regarding her motions {lit expeditions) and 
stations. 

Thereupon tbey had recourse to the astronomers, and composed their 
Canoim anil honks, beginning them with dissiTtalioiis on the elements of 
the knowledge of the Arabian montlw. adding vai'ioua kinds of compu- 
tations and chronological tables. Now, people, thinking that these 
calculations were hosed upon the observation of the new-moons, adopted 
some of them, attributed their authorships to Ja'far Al-^adik, and 
believed that they were one of the mysteries of prophecy. However, 
these calculations are based not upon the apparent, but upon the mean, i.«. 
the corrected, motions of sun and moon, upon a lunar year of 354& days, 
and upon the supposition that six months of the year are complete, six ^0 
incomplete, and that each complete month is followed by an incomplete 
one. So we judge from the nature of their Canons^ and from the bookn 
which are intended to establish the bases on which the Can&m rest. 



30 



78 



ALBtEfiN!. 



and tables for every single degree of longitude. Therefore, now, their 
theory is quite utopiau, vix. that tho month of Baniat^un should always 
be complete, and that both its beginning and end should be identical in 
the whole of the inhabited world, as would follow from that table which 
they use. 

If they contend that from, the (abore-mentioned) tradition, which ifl 
traced back to Muhammad himself, the obligation of making the 
beginning and end of fasting precede the appearance of new-moon, 
follows, wo must say that such an interpretation is unfounded. For the 
particle L&m (la-eSydl (.S) relates to future timCj as they hare mentioned, 10 
and relates to past time, as you say, e.g. : — j^\ (^ ^ji^ \m h-=» 
{'* dated from this or that day of the month"), i.e. from that moment when 
X days of the month were paat already, in which, case the writing does 
not precede the past part of the month. And this, not the first 
mentioned, is the meaning of that tradition. Compare with this the 
following saying of tho Prophet : " We are illiterate people, we do not 
write nor do we reckon the month thus and thus and thus," each time 
showing his ten fingers, meaning a complete month or thirty days. Then 
he repeated his words, saying, " and thus and thus and thus," and at 
the third time he held back one thumb, mt^aniug au incomplete month 20 
or twenty-nine days. By this generally known sentence, the Prophet 
ordained that the month should be one time complete, and incomplete 
another time, and that this is to be regulated by the appearance of new- 
moon, not by calculation, as he says, " we do not vfriie, nar do toe reckon 
{caiculaie}." 

But if they say that the Prophet meant that each complete month 
should be followed by an incomplete one, as the cbrouologists reckon, 
they are refut.ed by the plain facts, if they will not disregard them, and 
their trickery in both small and groat things, in all they have committed, 
is exposed. For the conclusion of the first-mentioned tradition proves 30 
the impoBsibility of their assertion, viz. "Fast when site (new'moon) 
appeargy and cease fasting when she re-appears, but if heaven be clottded w 
as to prevent your observation, recJcon the month Sha'hdn as thirty days" 
And in another tradition, the Prophet says, " If a cloud or black dust 
should prevent you from observing the new moon, maJte the number thirty 
complete." For if the appearance of new-moon be known either from 
their tables and calculations, or from the statements of the authors of 
the canons, and if the beginning and end of fasting is to precede the 
appearance of new-moon, it would not be necessary to give full thirty 
days to the month Sha'bitn, or to count the month Banuuijan as full 40 
thirty days, in case the horizon should be covered by a cloud or by dust. 
And this (i.e. to give full thirty days to Ramadan) is not possible, except 
by performing the fasting of the day in the evening of which the new- 
niDon is first seen. 



ON THE NATORB OF MONTHS. 



K, further, the month Ramadan were ftlways complete, and its 
beginning were known, people might do without the observation of 
new-moon for the month Sbawwiil, In the same way, the word of 
the Prophet : '* and cease fasting when she (fuw-moon) re-appears" is to be 
interpreted. 

However, party spirit makes clear^seeing eyes blinds and makes sharp- 
hearing ears deaf, and instigates people to engage in things which ho 
mind is inclined to adopt. But for this reason, such ideas would not 
have entered their heads, if you consider the traditions which occur in 

10 the books of the 8k p'a Zaidiyi/a, — may God preserve their community ! — 
and which have been corrected by their authorities, — may God bless 
them ! — as for instance, the following: In the time of the Prince of the 
Believers (*AJi) i>eople had been fasting twenty -eight days in the month 
of JKaomdan. Then he ordered them still to perform the fasting of ojie 
day, which they did. The fact was that both consecutive months, 
Sha'bAnand RamaHau, were imperfect, and there had been some obstacle 
which had prevented them from observing new-moon at the beginning 
of Rimatjan ; they gave the month the full number of thirty days, and 
at the end of the month the reality of the case became evident. Then 

30 there is the foLlowing saying, related to have been pronounced by 'AbA 
*Abd-AJlAh Aljiidik : " The month of Bajnaddrt is liable to the same, increase 
and decrease as (Ae olhcr months** Also the following is reported of the 
same : " If you observe the month Sha*bdn imthotit bein^ able to see the «*«> 
mo&njcouni thirty and then fast.'* The same 'Abu-'Abd-AJlah Al^i^dik, on 
being asked regarding the new-moon, said: '* If you see the new moon, 
fast, and if you see her again, cease fasting." All these traditions in the 
code of the Sbi'a refer only to the fasting. 

It is astuoisbing that our masters, the family of the Prophet, listened 
to such doctrines, aud that they adopted them as a uniting link for the 

80 minds of the community of the believers who profess to follow them, 
instead of imitating the example of their ancestor, the Pi-ince of the 
Believers CAH), in his aversion to conciliating the obstinate sinners, 
when he spoke : " I did not hold out an arm to those who lead astray " 
(i.e. I did not lend support to them). 

As regards the following saying, ascribed by tradition to Alf&dik : 
" When you observe the new-moon of Hajab, count fifty-nine days, and 
then begin fasting ;" and the following saying ascribed to the same : " If 
you see the new-moon of the month of Rama<;^an at the time when she 
appears, count 354 days, and then begin fasting in the next following 

40 year. For the Lord has created the year as consisting of StiO days. 
But from these he has excepted six days, in which he created the heavens 
and the earth ; therefore they (these six days) are not comprehended 
in the number (of the days of the year) " — regarding these traditions we 
say. that, if they were oorroct, his (Al^fidik's) stnt^mput on this subject 
wouJd rest on the supposition, that it (the month Eama^anj was reaily 



67, 



80 



ALBtEtxt. 



greater in ono place, and did not follow the same nile everj-whcre, a« we 
hare heretofore nientiouod. Such a method of accounting for the six 
doys 16 something bo subtle, that it proves the tr&dition to b«^ false, and 
renders it void of authenticity. 

In a chronicle I have read the foUowing : 'Abfl-Ja'far Mut^animad ben 
Sulaimnn, Gtoremor of KMa, under the Khalif Man^iir, had imprisoned 
'Abd-alkarim ben 'Abt-al'auja, who was the uncle of Ma*n ben Zii'ida, 
one of tho Manichroans. This man, howoTor, had many protectors in 
Baghdad, and these urged Man^ur in his favour, till at last he wrote to 
Mul^ammad ordering him not to put 'Abd-alkartm to death. Meanwhile, 1" 
'Abd-alkarim was expecting the arrival of the letter in hiB cause. He 
said to 'Abu-aljabliar coufideutially : " If the 'Amir gives me respite for 
three days, I shall give him 100,000 dirhams." 'Abu-aljabbar told this 
to Muhammad, who replied : " Tou have reminded me of him, whilst I 
P- 6S- had forgotten him. Remind me of him when 1 return from the mosque." 
Then, wheu he returned, 'Abu-aljabbir reminded him of tho prisoner, 
whereupon he (Mul^anim^id) ordered him to be brought and to be 
beheaded. And now, knowing for certain that he wa^ tu be killed, 
he said, *' By God, now that you are going to kill me, I tell you that 
I have put down 4,000 traditions (in my books), in which 1 forbid 20 
that which is allowed, and allow that which is forbidden. And 
verily, I have made you break your fast when you ought to have 
fasted, and 1 have mode you fast when you ought not to have fasted." 
Thereupon he was beheaded, and afterwards the letter in his cause 
arrived. 

How thoroughly did this heretic deserve to be the author of this 
subtle interpretation which they have adopted, and of its original (i.«. 
the text to which the interpretation refers) 1 

I myself have had a discussion with the origiaator of this sect, 
regarding the Musiiad-tradition (i.e. such a tradition as is carried back by W) 
an uninterrupted chain of witnesses to Muhammad himself). On which 
occasion I comjielled bim to admit that consiKjuences, similar to those 
hero mentioned, follow from his theories. But then in the end he 
declared, tbat the subject was one that of necessity resulted from the 
language (i.e. from the interpretation of the Ldm-aUaukU), and that the 
language has nothing whatever to do with the law and its corollaries. 
Thereupon, I answered ; " May God have mercy upon you ! Have not 
God and his Prophet addressed us in the language generally known among 
the Arabs ? But the thing is this, that you have nothing whatever to do 
with the Arabic language; and also in the science of the law you are utterly 40 
ignorant. Leave the law aside and address yourself to the astronomers. 
None of them would agree with you regarding your theory of the per< 
petual completeness of the mouth of Kamat^an ; none of them thinks 
that the celestial globe and sun and moon distinguish the moon of 
Bama^on from among the others, so as to move faster or slower just in 



ON THE NATITBB OF MONTHS. 



81 



this particular month. The luminaries do not mark out this month in 
particular as do the Muslims, who distinguish it by performing their 
fasting in it. 

However, arguing with people who are obstinate on purpose, and per- 
severe in their obstinacy on account of their ignorance, is not productive 
of anv good, either for the student or for the object of his researchea. 
God speaks (Sura lii. 44) ; " If they saw a piece of heaven falling down, 
they would say, ^It is only a conglomerated cloud.*" And further 
(Sdra vi. 7) : "If we seat duwn to you a book (written) on paper, and 
10 they touched it with their bands, verily the unbelieving would say, 
' This i^ nothing but evident witchcraft.' " God grant that we may 
always belong to those who follow and further the truth, who crush and 
expose that which is false and wrong! 

Months of the Eeformed Calendar of Almu*tadid.— The months 

of Aliiiu'tudiil lire tbt* Persiitn iiionthfi, with the- same names and the 
same order. But the Persian days are cot used in these months, because 
to the Epagomeuffi in every fourth year one day is added by way of 
intercalation ; and so for that reason which wo baro mentioned, when 
speaking of the months of the Egyptians, the (Persian) names of the 

20 single days have been dropped. The order of intercalation used in these 
months agrees with that of the Greeks and Syrians. 

As to the montbs of the other nations, Hindus, Cbine«e, Tibetans, 
Turks, Khazars, Ethiopians, and Negroes, we do not intend, although 
we have managed to learn the names of some of them, to mention them 
here, postponing it till a time when we shall know them all, as it does 
not agn;e with the method which we have followed hitherto, to connect 
that which is doubtful and unknown with that which is certain and 
known. 

We have collected in the following table the names of the monthe 

90 which have been mentioned in tho preceding part of this book, iu order 
to facilitate the study of the various kinds of them. God leads to the 
truth! 



84 



ALBtfiCNt. 



p. 72. 



CHAPTER VI. 



Ulf TBE DKStTATION OF TBG ERAS PBOH EACH OTHBB, AKD ON TSB 
CBRONOLOOICAL DATB8, KBLATFIfO TO VWK COMMENCBKIKTS AITO 
THE DtTHATIOSa OP THE EBIONa OF THE KIKOS, AOCOEDING TO THB 
VABIOUS TRADITIONS. 

It is the Bpcciol object at which I aim in thia book, to fix the durations 
(of the reigns of the kings) by the most correct and per8i>icaoiis method. 
Bat, now, wishing to Gxplnin the derivation of tho eras from, each other 
in confuniiity witli the usual mode of the canojm, wliii-h spncify the 
varifins kinds of calculation and of derivation (e.g. stating one em in 10 
the terms of another), and which contain ru]>e8 and pnradiglus, T find 
this subject to be a very wide one, and the wish tn embrace this whole 
Bcienco compels me to cause trouble both to myself and to the reader. 

Agreeably to the method which I liavo adhered to from the be^aning 
of this book, I shall explain the intervals between the epochs of the 
usual eras by a measure which is counted in the same way by all nations, 
i.e. by dayu ; for, as we have already mentioned, both years and months 
are differently measured. Everything else is generally mentioned in 
years, but for tho knowledge of the intervals between the epochs of the 
eras the statement in day* is quite sufficient, since it has been impossible 20 
to obtain a knowledge of the real quiUity of the years of the Tarious 
eras, and there has been but little need for the use of them. 

Now, if we in some places wander about through various branches of 
science, and plunge into subjects which are not very closely connected 
with the order of our discussion, we must say that we do not do this 
because we seek to be lengthy and verbose, but as guided by the desire 
of preventing the reader from getting tired. For if the mind is oon- 
tinually ac<!upied with the study of one single science, it gets easily 
tired and impatient ; but if the mind wanders from one science to 
another, it is as if it were wandering about in gardens, where, when it 30 
is roving over one, another oue already presents itself ; in consequence 
of which, the mind has a longing for them, and enjoys the sight of 
them ; as people say, " Everything thai is new offers enjoyment." 



ERAS, DATES, AND BE1U^S OF KINGS. 



85 



Now let us begin with the traditioDB of those to whom a divine hook 
was sent (Jewa and Chrislians) rcf^rdin^r Adam, his children and their 
descendants. All this we shall &x in tables, in order to bicilitate the 
pronunciation of their naniea. and the study of the differpnt traditions 
regarding theju. On tbts subject we cumbine the traditions of the Jews 
and Christians, placing tbem opposite to each other (in the same table), 
We commence b)- the help of God, imder his guidance, and with his 
gracious support. 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



Tbe Name* ul tho rtesc^tdanw 

of Ad«m, whu form the 

duonolnt^cat Ouiui <if llic Kra, imd 

the Cbroaolo^cnl I>UTer«Doea 

betweoo diristijuia 

ftnd Jam refudLoc Uiem. 



23? 



I. — ^Adatn tbe fntborof mankind — till 

the birtb of his aon Beth . 
Seth ben Adrun — till the birth of 

hii Boii Eiios .... 
EnoH ben Setb — tilt the birth of 

bia noa Caiaau .... 
Cainan ben Eqch — till tbe birth of 

hU Bon Miiholaleel . . 

V. — Mahaloleol b«n Caioan — till tlie 

birtb of bis sou Jarfrd 
Jarod beu MaLiiLoIeet — tiU the 

birth of bt« ttou Euoch 
Enoch bon Jnrod — till the birth of 

his son MetliQRolah . 
MothuseUb b«n Knooh — till tbe 

birth of Yiia mm Lamech . 
Lftinech ben Metbaaelab — till the 

birth of bis sen Noah 
X. — Noah ben Lameoh — till the birth 

of bis flon Bbem 
Shem ben Noali — till tha Deluge . 
From the Deluge till the hirlh of 

Arpbaxad ben Shorn 
Arpbaxad ben Shem — till tho birtb 

of bin HOit 3alah 
Salah bvn Arpbaxad — tilt the birtb 

of bis Kuii Ebor , 

XV.— Eber ben SiUah— till tbe birtb of 

his »oii Peleg .... 
Feleg b«u Gber— till the birth of 

hif son Hon .... 
Beu ben Peleg — till tha birtb of 

hia Hon Serng .... 
Semg ben Boo — till the birth of 

hia son Nabor .... 
Nahor beo Serug — till the birth of 

hii aon Terah 
XX.— Terah bon Nahor— till the birth 

of his eou Abraham . 



165 



162 I 1122 



1287 



167 1454 

188 1642 

600 2142 
100 , 2242 

2 22U 

185 2879 

180 2609 

184 2643 



600 
100 



■"35 



0% 



450 
fiOO 



960 
6tX> 



p. 78. 



15&6 
1666 



86 



ALBtB^Nt. 



. 74. Now, he who studies the numbera of years of this table, till the birth 
of Abraham, will become aware of the difference between the two 
BjstemB (that of the Christiana and that of the Jews). 

The Jewish copy of the Thora, although stating the duration of ths 
lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Kohath, and Moses, does not 
specify how old they were when a son waa bom to each of them, nor 
how long they lived after that ; except in the case of Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. For it is stated that Isaac was bom unto Abraham when 
he was 100 years of age, and that he afterwards lired 76 years more; 
that Jacob was born unto It^aac when he was 60 years of age ; that 10 
Jacob entered Egypt together with his sons, when he was 130 years of 
ag«, and that he after that lived 17 years more. 

Now, the Israelites stayed in Egypt 210 years, according to the state- 
ment of the Jews, that between the birth of Abraham and that of Mosea 
there was an interval of 420 years, and that Moses was SO years of a^, 
when he led the Israelites out of Egypt. From the second book of the 
Thorn, however, we learn that the entire length of the sojourning of the 
Israelites in Egypt was 430 years. If, now, the Jews arc onkod to 
account for this difference, they maintain that that space of time is to be 
counted from the day when God made the treaty with Abraham, and 20 
promised him to make him the father of many nations, and to give to 
his descendants the country of Canaan as an inheritance. But we leave 
ths matter to God, who knows best what they mean. 

The chronological differences regarding the later jH-'riods of Biblical 
history, arising out of the three different copies of the Thora, are of the 
same kind as we have already explained. 

How little care the Jews bestow upon their chronology is shown to 
evidence, by the fact, that they, all of them, believe in the first instance, 
that between their exodus from Egypt and Alexander there is an interval 
of 1,0CK) years, corrected (i.e. made to agree with the sun or real time) 30 
by intercalation, and that they rely on this number in their computation 
of the qualities of the years (whether they bo perfect or imperfect or 
intermediate). But if we gather from their books which follow after 
the Thora, the years of every one of their rulers after Moses, the son of 
Amram, and add them together, we get a sum which already at the 
buiUliug of Jerusalem goes beyond the millennium by such a space of 
time as cannot be tolerated in chronological computations. If this sum 
were too small (less than a millennium), thediiTerence might be accounted 
for by assxuniug that an interval between two persons might have been 
omitted. But a surplus in this case does not admit of any interpretation 40 
whatsoever. 

Being unable to give a satisfactory answer to such a question, some of 
them assert that the accurate speci^catiou of these years was found in 
the records of the family of Juda, and that those records are no longer 
at their disposal, but have been carried off to the countries of the 



EBAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF EINOS. 87 

G-reeks. For after the death of Solomon, the Israelites were split into 
two parties. The tribes of Juda and Benjamin elected as their king the 
son of Solomon, whilst the ten tribes elected as their king Jeroboam, 
the client of Behoboam, the son of Solomon. And thereupon he led 
them astray (to idolatry), as we. shall mention hereafter in the chapter 
on the Jewish festivalB. His children reigned after him, and both 
parties made war upon each other. 

The following is a synopsis of the years of their rulers, who ruled 
over them after their exodus from Egypt, when they marched towards 
10 Ba^r-cU-fiubnim. (the Bed Sea) in order to pass it, and to march to AUihf a p> 75. 
desert in Al^ij&z, in the direction of Jerusalem ; all of which rests on 
the authority of their chronicles. But they have another book which 
they call SSder-'oldm (DTl^ TTD), t.«. the years of the world, which 
contains a less sum of years than that of the books which foUoto after the 
Thoray whilst in some respects it comes near to their original system. 
The statements of both these kinds of their historical records we have 
collected in the following synopsis. 



BBAB, DATES, AXD BEIONS OF KTN08. 



89 



Tba Names of the King* and other 

Bulcrs of the lernAlit-OB from 

the Foandaliou of tbo TumplB till it:* flrit 

Deatruciion, wkioh U ■ space uf 

410 years, 



Solomon ben David — after the Temple 

was finished 
Behab'ftm ben Solomon 
*AhiTyA ben Bcl^ab'Am . 
10 'isa ben 'AbiryS . 

T*^b6shaffit ben 'Ask . 

Yphoram ben YetiosbAfilt 

'Ahazyfi bon Ynhorain . 

'AthaiyA— till she wn„s killed by T6'Ash 

Yo'asti ben 'A^azya — till he was killed 

by his people ..... 
^Amazyii ben Yo'ash — till he was killed 
'Uzziyfi ben "Amazya — till he died 
YolhSm ben 'Uzzivyfi— till he died 
20 'Abas ben Yolham— till he died . 

Hizkiyyfi ben 'A^Az, the king of all the 

tribes 

Menashsh& ben HizViyyA 
'Ammon ben MenasltsbS 
YdshiyyA bcu 'Aiumdn — till he was killed 

by the king of Egypt 
Yoho'&^Az ben YA'shiyyft — till he was 

made a prisoner by the king of Egypt 

Yehoynkim ben Ycbo'aliilz, set up by 

SO the king of Egypt .... 

YehoyukhJn ben VehfWiikini, till he was 

made a prisitner by ^chucadnnzar 
9idlfiyyA — till he rebelk'd agiunsl Nebu- 

cadnezar, when he was kiiled and the 

Temple destroyed .... 

The Temple remained in ruins 

But according to another view between 

the time when they were led into 

4/0 captirity and Daniel there was an 

interval of 

From Daniel till the birth of the Mes- 
siah ....... 

From the birth of the Messiah till the 
epoch of the flight of Muhammad 



-=■=3 



70 



?90 
819 
8/1 
887 
903 

932 
987 
939 



1042 



1112 



p. 77. 



ill 



81 



11 



11 
70 



522 
S39 
541 
582 
605 
611 
622 
628 

668 
697 
749 
765 
773! 

802 
857 
859 

890 



912 
982 



90 



ALBtR^t. 



p. 79. 



It cannot bo thought strange that yon should find similar dis- 
crepanciea with people who hare sevonil timoft aufferod so much from 
captiTitr and war a« the Jews. It is quite natural that they were dis- 
tracted by other matters from preserving their historical traditions, 
more particularly at times of such diatresa, " when each woman who 
suckled a child forgot her child, and each pregnant woman gave birth to 
the burthen of her womb." (Sura xxii. 2.) 

Besides, the governorships and headships were not always held by one 
and the same trilw, but coxae to be divided (among several tnlies) after 
the death of Solomon the son of David ; then one part of them was 10 
held by the tribes of Juda and Benjamin, another part by the other 
tribes of the Israelites. 

Further, their rule was not organized so well ; nor their empire and 
government handed over from one to the other in such good order as to 
render it necesBary for them both to preserve the dates when each of 
their rulers ascended the throne, and to rt'c«rd the duration of his reign, 
except by a rough method of computation. For some people maintain 
that, after the death of Joshua, Kt^shtln, the King of Mesopotamia, of 
the family of Lot, overpowered them, and held them under his sway 
during eight years ; that then Otlmiel rose. And some people attribute 20 
to his rule more years, others less. 

Frequently, one author thinks that some ruler reigned over them so- 
and-so many years, whilst another assigns to his rule a less number of 
years, and maintains that the fomitr number represents the duration of 
his whole life (not that of bis rule) ; or a third possibility is this, that 
by adding the two spaces of time, mentioned by the two authors, you 
get a common space of time for two rulers, during which they ruled 
simultaneously. 

The chronological system of the Sfider-*6Um, although coming near to 
the sum (assumed by the generality of the Jews), differs considerably 30 
from the stat.*^.ment8 in detail ; this applies specially to the time of the 
first building of the Temple, not to mention the uncertainty which hangs 
over those points of their history which we have spoken of before. 

The length of the Hnman Life. — Some one among the ineiperienced 
and foolish peojilc of the //flMiriiyyo and Dahritfya sects, have rejected 
as incredible the long duration of life which has been ascribed to certain 
tribes in the past, specially to the patriarchs before the time of Abraham. 
Likewise they consider as monstrous what has been related of the huge 
size of their bodies. They maintain that all this lies altogether beyond 
the limit of possibility, drawing their conclusions from objects which 10 
they are able to observe in their own ago. They have adopted the doc- 
trine of astrologers, regarding the greatest possible gift (of years of 
life) which the stars are supx>osed to bestow upon mankind in the 
nativities, if the following constellation occurs : The sun must be at 
such a nativity both maier /amiliat and paier/amilia*, i.e. he must stand 



BEAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OP KINGS. 



91 



in his domi49 (olKQ<i), or in his altUudo (vi/ztDpi), in a eardo, and in a eon' 
cordant maaculiue quarter. In that case he beatowB his greaitti yean, 
i.e. 120 jcars, to which the 



Moon 

Venus 

Jupiter 



adds 25 yeari. 

M 8 »t 

M 12 .. 



These are the smaUeti y«an of eaoh of these three stars, for they are 
not able to odd a greater nnmber of years, if they hare a coneordanl 
aspeei (in relation to the horoscope). Further, the two unlucky oraotig 
10 the stars (Saturn and Mars) must hare no aspect to the horoHcoiw, bo as 
not to exercise any diminishing intluence. The Caput Ihaconit must 
stand with the sun in the same aii^n of the ecliptic, hut still sufficiently 
far from hiia, so as not to stand within the opoi tKktiirrtxol. 

If this constellation occurs, it increases the gift (of years of Life) of 
the sun by one fourth, i.e. 80 years. So the whole siun of years makes 
215 years, which they maintain to he the Innffcst duration of life which 
mortal man may reach, if it is not cut short by any accident. The 
natural duration of life is to be 120 years, because the existence of the 
world depends upon tbe sun ; and this number of years represents the 
20 great^t years of the sun. 

Those people hare settled this question as it best pleases them. And 
if reality followed their desire, heaven and earth would be greatly the 
worse for it. They hare built their theory on a basis, the contrary of 
which is approTod of by astronomers, in so far as they ascribe " greatest 
years " to these planets. They say in their books that these planets 
used to bestow their " greatest years " in the millennia of the Jienj eigne 
of the zodiac, when in them the rule was exercised by the superior 
planets (Saturn, Jupiter, Mam), and when the years of the sun and of 
Venus were made to exceed by fiir the longest duration of life ascribed 
30 to any one of the patriarchs. 

This man is their master in chronology ; they trust in his word, and 
do not oppose his audacity. He actually maintains that man may live 
during the years of a. " middle conjunction" (of Saturn and Jupiter), 
when the nativity t'oiiicides with the IranaUm of the conjunction from 
one trigon to another, whilst the aet^^ndetw is one of the two hmisea of 
either Saturn or Jupiter, when the sun is mater famUiat in day-time, and 
the moon at night, exercises the greatest power ; that the same is 
possible, if this same constellation occurs at the transitus of the con- 
junction to Aries and its trigone. 
40 And the argument for the assertion, that the new.bom human being 
may live during the years of the " greatest conjunction," i.e. aboitt 
960 years, until the conjunction returns to its original place, is of the 
samo description. 



92 



AXB?B<hjt. 



/ 



He baa explained and propounded ibis subject in tbo beginning of bis 
book, " J)e Nativitatibus.*' 

This, DOW, is their belief in the gifts (of years of life) of the stars. 

BcgardtDg these years, which the single planets are supposed to 
bestow upon mankind, we have had a discussion with the astronomers 
who uso them, in the Kitdb altanbih 'aid find'at aliamwih (i.e. the book in 
which the swindling profession is exposed), and we have given a direction 
bow to use the best method in all questions where these years occur in 
the book entitled, Kitdb alshumile aUhljiya UlnvfH*. 

Now, personal observation alone, and conclusions inferred therefrom, 10 
do not prove a long duration of the human life, and the huge size of 
human bodies, and what else has been related to be beyond tho limits 
of possibility. For similar matters appear in the course of time in 
manifold sba]ies. There are certain things which are bound to certain 
times, within which they turn round in a certain order, and which 
undergo transformations as long as there is a possibility of their existing. 
If they, now, are not observed as long as they ars in existence, people 
think them to be improbable, and hasten to reject them as altogether 
p. 80. impossible. 

This ap]>]ie8 to all cyclical oct-urreuces, such as the mutual impreg- 20 
nation of animals and trees, and the fortbcomiug of the seeds and their 
fniitB. For, if it were possible that men did not know these occurrences, 
and then were led to a tree, stripped of its loaves, and wore told 
wbut uecurs to the tree of getting green, of producing blossoms and 
fruits, etc., they would certainly think it improbable, till they saw it with 
their own eyes. It is for the same reason that people, who come from 
northern countries, are filled with admiration when they see palm-trees, 
olive-trees, and myrtle-treea.and others standing in full-bloom at winter- 
time, siuce they never saw anything like it in their own country. 

Further, there are other things occurring at times in which no cyclical 30 
order is apparent, and which seem to happe-n at random. If, then, the 
time in which the tiling occurred has gone by, nothing remains of it 
except the report about it. And if you find in such a report all the 
conditions of authenticity, and if the thing might have already occurred 
before that time, you must accept it, though you have no idea of the 
nature nor of the cause of the matter in question. 
j^^. IrregTilar Formations of Nature.— There ore still other things 
A' which occur in like mannt-r, but whioh are called "fauiU of nature " 

^ K\ (tusnt naiura), on account of their trancgressing that order which is 

T-A^ characteristic of their species. I, however, do not call them "fattlU of 40 

,^ nature" but rather a superfluity of material beyond the due proportions 

of the measure of everything. To this category belong, e.g. animals 
with supernumerary limbs, which occur sometimes, when nature, whose 
task it is to preserve the species as they are, finds some superfluous sub- 
stance, which she forma into some shape instead of throwing it away ; 



rS» DATFS, AND EBIGN8 OF KINGS. 



98 



likewise animals with imperfect limbs, when nature does not find the 
substance by which to complete the form of that animal in conformitj 
with the structure of the species to which it belongs ; in that case she 
forms the animal in such a shape, as that the defect is mode to lose its 
obnoxious character, and she gives it vital ponur as much ae possible. 

This is illustrated hj an example, which Thabit ben Sinan ben Th&bit 
ben l^urra relates in his chronicle, ri'«. that bo had seen near Burraman- 
ra'a an Indian cbickeu that had come out of the egg without a defect, 
and of complete structure ; but its head had two beaks and three eres. 

10 The same author reports, that to Tiiziin, in the days of his reign, people 
brought a dead kid with thy round face, the jaws aud teeth like those of 
man ; but it bad only one eye, and something like a tail on its forehead. 
Further, he relates that in the district Abuukharrini, of Baghdild, there 
was bom a child, which died instantly ; it was brought before Ghurfir- 
aldaula Bakhtiyar at the time when his father Mu'izz-aldaula was still 
alive, and he examined it. It was one complete body without a defect, 
and without an addition, except that two pratu1)e ranees rose from it, and 
upon these there were two complete heads, with complete lineaments, 
with eyes, ears, two nostrils, and two mouths ; between the loins were 

20 genitals like those of a woman, out of which the orifice of the penis of 
a man was apparent. 

Another report of his says, that one of the nobles of the Greeks sent 
to Ntiflir.aldaula, in the winter of a.b. 352, two men grown together by 
the stomach ; they were Anunsans, and twenty-five years of age. He 
says, they were called Multahiyani (i.e. two bearded men). They were 
accompanied by their father. They turned their faces towards each 
other, but the skin, which formed the common connecting liidf between 
them, was long, and besides sustMptible of extonding so far as to jiermit 
the one to rise from the side of the other. People describe them as 

SO having, each of them, separate and complete organs of generation ; that 
they did their eating and drinking, and the exoneraiio ahi at different 
times - that they used to ride on one animal, the one closely behind the 
other, but so as to turn their faces towards each other ; that the one had 
an incliDation^or wom en, the other for boys^ 

There is no doubt that the Vis Katiiralu (the creative power of 
nature), in all work it is inspired and commissioned to carry out, never 
drops any material unused, if it meets with such ; and if there is abun- 
dance of material, the Vu Naturalis redoubles ita creating work. Such 
a double-creation sometime* proceeds in this way, that one being comes 

40 into existence in close proximity to another, being at the same time 
something separate by itself, as, e.^. in the case of twins ; sometimes a 
being comes into existence tied up to another being, as. e.g. tu the case 
of the two Arammans ; at other times, again, a being comes into existence 
inserted into and mixed up with another one, as in tbat case which we 
mentiuued before speaking of the two Aramaeans. 



^"-j^^ni^ 



p. 81. 



Tun**^ 



94 



ALB?B^Nt. 



p. 82. 



The Tarions kinds of double-creations of this and other deecriptiona 
are also found among the other animals (besides nmn). There are, e.g. 
■aid to be certain species of sea-fishes that are double ones. I mean to 
say, if you opon such a fish, you find a similar one inside. 

Frequently, too, the reduplication of formation may pass into a multi- 
pHoation. All of which is also found among the plants. Look, for 
instance, at the dnuhle.fruita that are grown togethpr, at the fniitB with 
double kernels, which are included in one shell. An exanij>k ot such a 
double* formation, of which the one tiling is inserted into the other, is 
an orange, in the interior of wliich you find another orange of the same 10 
kind. 

Frequently the T")V NatymJis lias not succeeded in finishing the double- 
creation, and produt^ing a complete whole. In which cruie, she increases 
the number of limbs, either in their proper places, as e.g. supernumerary 
fingers — for although tbey are more than usual and than is necessary, 
still they are found in that place which is appropriated to fingers, — or not 
in their proper places. And in this case it would be correct to call such 
a fonnfttioD an Error of Nature. An instance of this is the cow that 
was in Jurjftn at the time of the SAljib, and when the family of Buwaibi 
held the country under their sway. Everybody, both young and old, 20 
had seen it, and they related to me that it had on the bunch close to the 
neck a foreleg like its other two forelegs, quite complete, with its 
shoulder, its joint-s, and hoof ; and that she moved it about as she liked, 
contracting and extending it. 

This case may justly be considered an error (of nature)^ because that 
supernumerary limb was quite useless, and because it had neither its 
proper place nor direction. 

Now, all these and similar c-lasses (of uncommon creations), on which 
I have composed special books, would not be admitted as possible by 
anyone who did not witness them, because he would not find in them the »0 
conditions of authenticity. 

Length of the Human Life. — The length of human life is taught 
by eiporionce to he regulated by a genealogical ratio. For iustancej 
with the Himyarites and others, long life is a peculiarity. Besides long 
life occurs in one place to the exclusion of others, e.g. in Fargbftna and 
Tamama. For well-informed people relat^^ that in those coimtries some 
people grow older than anywhere else. And in this respect they are still 
surpassed by the Arabians and Indians. 

Of this same 'Abii-Ma'ahar Albalkhi, the following atorj- is related by 
*Abu-Sa*id Shudhrm in his KiV'tb-aimudh'ik^ra'biVnerdT {i.e. the book in 40 
which he brings mysterious subjects before the mind of the reader) : — 
The nativity of a son of the King of Serendib (Ceylon) was sent to him. 
His A$eendeiis was Gpinini II, whilst Saturn stood in Cancer ffi> and the 
Sun in Capricorn Vf . Now, 'Abi^-Ma'shar gave his judgment that he 
would live during the middle cycle of Saturn. Thereupon, I said to 



96 



ALBfRfiNl. 



Now, 'Abfl-Ma'Bhar o^in admits in thin place that the duration of 
life la regulated bj a geucalogieal ratio. ThercforD, that astrological 
theory, to which they cling, is deroid of sense, since they admit such a 
genealogical ratio as not impossible. On the contrary, it is necessary, aa 
we have ah*eady mentioned. 

If this sect will reject everything that docs not occur in their time or 
place, 80 as to fall under their personal observation, if they do not them- 
•elves find this everlasting acepticism of theirs absurd, if they will not 
admit anything that has happened in their absence, we can only say that 
extraordinary occurrences do not happen at all times; and if they, 10 
indeed, happen in some one age, they have in the course of time and 
the passing of generations no other tie which connects them with pos- 
terity except the iminterrupted chain of tradition. Nay, if they would 
draw the last conclusions from their theory, they would be mere sophists, 
and would be compelled to disbelieve anybody who would toll theiu that 
there are still other countries in the world besides those in which they 
are living ; and other absurdities of a similar kind would follow. 

If you would listen to them on the subjects which they propound, you 
, 83. would find that they refer to the traditions of the Indians, and rely on 

various sorts of tricks which they attribute to them. By way of argu- 20 
ment they always mention an Indian idol, cut out of stone, the neck of 
which is surrounded by numerous iron collars, which represent the 
Indian eras of 10,000 years, and, if counted, would amount to an enor- 
mous sum of years. But if you then tell thorn what they, i.e. the 
Indians, maintain, vi*. that the King of JamalAbadbra, that touni whence 
the AfT/robalana, the Phtjllanihua enibUca, and the }fyrobal<tnit hellerica are 
exported, even at the age of 250 years, rode and hunted and married, 
and behaved altogether like a young man, and that all this was the 
consequence of a dietetic treatment, they will reject it, and declare that 
the Indians are evident liars, not really learucd men, because they base 30 
their sciences upon inspiration, and that therefore their doctrines are 
not trustworthy. Besides, they will begin to speak of the subtlety of 
all the tenets of the Indians in all questions of law and religion, of 
reward and punishment (eachatology), and they will dwell on the varioua 
sorts of torture which they practise in castigating their own bodies. 

It is this sect whom God means in the verse of the Koran (S&ra x. 
40): "Nny. they have declared to be a lie something, the science of 
which they did not comprehend "; and in the other verse (Stkra xlvi. 10) : 
" And as they would not be guided thereby, verily, they will aay: That 
is an old lie." They admit only that which suits them, although it be 40 
feeble, and they avoid everything that differs from their dogma, although 
it be true. 

I have read a book of 'Abft-*AbdalUh AJl.mBain ben 'Ibr&htm AJtabari 
Aln&tili, a treatise on the duration of natural life, where he maintains 
that it-a greatest length is 140 solar years, beyond which no increase is 



£RASy' DAT£S, AND EBIGXS OF KINQS. 



97 



10 



so 



30 



40 



poesible. He, however, who denies this so categorically, is required to 
produce a proof, which the mind is obliged to accept, and in which it 
aoquioscos. But ho has not established the least proof for his asRertion, 
excojft that in his pn^mises ho lays down the following theory ; — 
Threti Siahis PerfecUows are ptxmliar to man — 

I. Hie ftttaining to manhood (or womanhood), the time when he 
becomes able to propagate liis own race. That is the beginning 
of the second Seventh. 

n. When his thinking power ripens, and his intellect proceeds from 
Swa/iis to iratTjiTi^. That is the l>eginning of the sixth Seventh. 
m. When he becomes able to govern himself, if ho be unmarried ; 
his family affairs, if he be marriod ; hia public affairs, if he 
exercise some public authority. 

The sum of these three Status Perfecthnia is to be 140 years. 

We do not sec by what proportion 'AbA>'AbdalUh has calculated thoso 
numbers. For there is no proportion nor progression ap]»arent among 
them. Verily, if we conceded to him that there arc three such Status 
Perfectionie, if wo then counted them in the way he has done, and 
declared finally, pre-supposing we did not apprehend being required to 
establish a proof, that the sum of theso Status is 100 or 1,000 or some- 
thing like it, his method and ours would be quite the same. However, 
there is this difference, that ice find, that in our time man attains those 
phases of development, which he represents as the characteristic signs 
of the Stains Perfectionis, In quite other Sevet^ths and times than those 
which he mentions. God Icnows best his meaning ! 

As regards the (superhuman) size of the bodies (of former genera- 
tions), we say, if it be not nwftssMjy to believe it for this reason, that 
we cannot obscr\'c it in our time, and that there is an enormous iut-erral 
between us and that time, of which such things arc related, it is there- 
fore by no moans impossible. It is tho aamo, the like of which is related 
in the Thoraof the bodies of the giants (NephiHm, Repha'im, 'Knakini), p. 84. 
and the belief in this has not been abandoned since the time when the 
Israelites saw them with their own eyes. Therefore everybody may 
attack and ridicule this subject, if he likes ! If the Thora was read to 
them, and they read it themselves, though up to that moment they had 
not declared the readers of the Thora to be liai-s, yet even if the giants 
were something quite different from what they are described to be (i.e. 
less extraordiimry), they would deckre the reader of the Thora to be a 
liar, in case he related anything that is not borne out by their experience 
and observation. If, indeed, there had never been classes of men with 
bodies of an extraordinary vastness, God having given them an imcom- 
mon lize (vide Koran, ii. 24), no recollection of them would have remained 
in the iminterrupted chain of human tradition, and people would not 
compare with them everybody who in size exceeds their genus, as it is 



98 



AUBiB^Nt. 



tnown to U8. For Inatanco, the people of *A.d have become proverbial 
in this sense. But how can I expect them t-o believe me regarding the 
jieoplo of 'Ad, since they reject even that which is much nearer to our 
time and much more apparent ? Thejr produce? such arguments as do not 
counterbalance the very weaikest of those argiinients which arc urged 
ag&inat them. They shim accepting the striking arguments, flying 
before them lite fugitive assea that fly before a lion (Koran, Ixxiv. 51). 
What would they say of the monuments of larger races of men which 
exist still at the [iresent time, such a*i the houses which were cut into the 
solid rocks in the mouutainB of Mjdian,of the graves built in the rocks, 10 
and of bonea buried in their interior, which are as large as camel-bones 
and even larger, of the bad smell of those localities, which is so strong 
that you cannot eptcr there without covering the nose with something ? 
And it is tho common consent of all who inhabit those places that they 
(the authors of those monuments) are " the 2'f^pl^ of darhnesa." But, 
when they hear of *' tlw. day of dtirknejiti" they only laugh in a mocking 
way, make grimaces in haughty disdain, turn up their noses in joy over 
their theories, and in the fHersuasion that they are intinitely superior to, 
and altogether distinguished from aJI common jieople. But (ik»d ia 
sufficient for them ; they will get tho reward of their doings, and we 20 
that of ours ! 

Chronological Tables. — In some book I have found tables illustrative 
of the durations of the reigns of the kings of the AssyrianB, i.e. the 
people of Mo^ul, of the kings of the Copts, who reigned in Egypt, and 
of the Ptoleinieau princes, each of whom was called Ptolcmicus. For 
Alexander, wUt-u dying, ordered that every king of the Greeks after him 
should be calK'd PtolMmaeus, in order to frighten the enemies, because 
the word means " the warlike." In the same book I have found the 
chronology of the later kings of the Greeks. 

In this book, the intor^nl between tho birth of Abi*aham and 30 
Alexander was reckoned as 2,096 years, which is more than Jews, 
Christians, and astrologers (those who apply the conjunctions of Saturn 
and Jupiter to history) reckon. 

Now I have transferred those identical tables into this place of my 
book. Time has not enabled me to correct the names of the kings on 
the basis of their true pronunciation. 1 hope, therefore, that everyone 
will endeavour to correct and amend them, who like myself wishes to 
facilitate the subject for the student, and to free him from fatigue of 
research. And nobody ought to transcribe these tables and the other 
ones except him who is well acquaiut-ed with the Hunlf-al-jumnuil^ and 40 
honestly endeavours to preserve them correct. For they are corrupted 
by the tradition of the copyists, whon they pass from hand to hand 
among them. Their emendation is a work nf many years. 



100 



ALBtnCNt. 



p. 87* Weetorn anihora relate that, during tlie reign of this liwi king 
(Th6nos Konkoleros, nh'at Sardanapahift), the prophet Jonah was sent t<> 
Niniveh, and that a foreigner, called Ar^a^ (Arbacos) in Hebrew, Dah-dJ: 
in Persian, and Dohhak in Arabic, came forward }^;ainst this kin^. made 
war upon him, put him to flight, killetl him, and took poasoflsiou iȣ the 
empire, holding it till the time when the Kajanians, the kings of 
Babjlonia, whom weetem authors are in the habit of calling Ohaldteans, 
brought the empire under their sway.' The reign of Arbapei lasted 
eerenty-two years. 

Here we must remark that the ChaldieanB are not identical with the 
Blavaniaus, but were their gnvemors of Babylonia. For the original 
refiidence of the Kayi'miana was Balkh, and when they came down t-o 
Mesopotamia, people took to calling them t>y the same name which fchey 
had fonnerly applied to their govomors, i.e. Chaldajans. 

According to some chronicler, Nimrod ben Kftah lien HAm ben Noah, 
founded a kingdom in Bal>y Ionia twenty-three years aft,er the Confusion 
of Languages. And that was the earliest kingdom established ou earth. 
The Oonfusion of Languages happc-ned contemporaneously with the birth 
of the patriarch R»;'u. The same chronicler mentions other kings that rose 
after Nimrod, until the empire passed into the bands of the Assyrian 
kings, the chronology of whom has been illustrated by the preceding 
table. The chronology of the kings that have been recorded, is repre- 
sented by the following table : — 



10 



20 



Thb Enfos or BiBTunru. 


Bow long 

they 
reigned. 


Sam of 

tfae 
year*. 


Nimrdd ...... 

Samlrus ...... 

Arpakhshadh ..... 

Babylonia A^aa-^txvr^St ^^^ i^ ^^ occupied by the 
Assyrians ..... 


69 
85 
72 
10 

£ 


69 
154 
226 
236 

241 



30 



p. 88. For the kings of Babylonia, we hare also found another chronological 
tradition, beginning with Kebukadnezar the First (i.e. Nahonassar), and 
ending with the time when in cousequeuce of the death of Alexander 
A KTttm/s, people began to date by the reigns of the Ptolcmcean princes. 
This tradition, now, we have transferred into this book, having corrected 
the numbers for the durations of their reigns. As to the names, how- 
ever, I have simply transcribed them letter hy letter, since I have not 
had an iri[iportumty to correct them aeiiording to their pronunciation. 
The following table contains this chronological tradition. 



40 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



101 







How long 






Table of thk Kings ot thi Ohaldaanb. 


each 
of them 


The nun 
of the 






reigned. 


yeaTB. 




Bukhtana^^ar Primus. With him the era in 


■ 






the AlmageBt begins 


14 


14 




Nebucadnezar. Nadioa 


2 


16 




OhJnzeroB ..... 


5 


21 




Ilulaios ..... 


6 


26 


10 


Mardokempad .... 


12 


38 




Arceamis ..... 


5 


43 




*AficuriXtvT(K ..... 


2 


45 




Bilibes ..... 


8 


48 




Aparanadios ..... 


6 


54 




ErigebaloB ..... 


1 


55 




Mesesimordakoa .... 


4 


69 




* A^atriX.€VT09 Scvr^os .... 


8 


67 




Asaridinos ..... 


13 


80 




Saosduchinos . . ... 


20 


100 


20 


Nabopolassaros and EiniladanoB 


22 


122 




Nebucadnezar .... 


21 


143 




Bukbtana^far, who conquered Jerusalem 


43 


186 




j^^y 


2 


188 




Beltesha^^ar ..... 


4 


192 




Darius the Median, the First 


17 


209 




Cyrus, who rebuilt Jerusalem 


9 


218 




Cambyses ..... 


8 


226 




Darius 






36 


262 




Xerxes 






21 


283 


30 


Artaxerxes Primus 






43 


326 




Darius 


. 


. • • 


19 


345 




Artaxerxes Secundus 


, 


. • . 


46 


391 




Ochus 






21 


412 




o>r* • 






2 


414 




I)arius 






6 


420 




Alexander ben Macedo, i KTump 


8 


428 




Henceforward people commenced to date 








from the reign of Fhilippus. 







p. 89 



w 


102 ^^V ALBlaONt. 


^ 


1 


1 


^ p. 90. 








^^^^ 


^^^^^^H 


Names or Tia Coptic Kings in Eoypt. 


now long 

VBCll 
rtr tliam 


^10 sniD 


^^H 


^^^^^^^^H 


They aro M in uonibor, bceidofi tbci Persians, ftod 


of tho 


^^^^1 


^1 


ihoy reigned duriug 8t)-l years. 


reigned. 


Tttua. 


■ 


I. Dio8palitG& 


178 


178 


^^^^^^^^H 


Sincmdis 




26 


204 


^^^^1 


^^^^^^^^r 


Siiftonnt'S 




101 


305 


^^^H 


^ 


Ni^ijhercherSs . 




4 


309 


^^^H 


^^^^^1 


V. Aiiienophthin . 




9 


318 


^^^1 


^^^^^^H 


Os'T'chor 




6 


324 


fl 


^^^^^H 


Peinachfia 




9 


333 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Psi^sennSs 




35 


368 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


SesoDchosiB 




21 


389 


^^^H 


^^^^^B 


X. OsorthAu 




15 


404 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


TaktflfitluB . 




•13 


417 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Petiibafitis 




25 


442 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Osorth6a 




9 


451 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Psaumioa 




10 


461 


^^^H 


^^^^^B 


XV. u-V^/ (Euphaniae?) 




44 


505 


^^H 


^^^^^H 




12 


517 


20 ^^1 


^^^^^H 


Sol>i(:h[>s 




12 


529 


^^^H 


^^^^H 


Tarakos ^thiops . 




20 


549 


^^^1 


^^^^^H 


AmineriB uSCtliiops 




12 


561 


^^^H 


^^^H 


XX. StepbiuatliiB . 




7 


568 


^^^H 


^^^^^^ 


Nenhflpai^a 




6 


574 


^^^H 


^^^^^^p 


NechaA 




8 


582 


^^^^1 


^^^^^H 


Paammeticbos 




44 


626 


^^^H 


^^^^H 


Nechepso (V) Nechao (?) 




6 


632 


^^^B 


^^^^^^B 


XXV. Paammiithjfl . 




17 


649 


^H 


^^^^^1 


Vaphria 




25 


674 


80 ■ 


^^^^^H 


Amaais 




42 


716 


^H 


^^^^^H 


TLo Persians till Darius 




114 


830 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Amvrtaios 




6 


836 


^^^H 


^^^^^V 


TXX NepheritfiH . 




6 


842 


^^^H 


^^^^^K 


Aeharia . . 




12 


854 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


PsammtitluB and Aluth&tos ( 


) 


2 


856 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


NektauebCe . 




13 


869 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Tofla . 




7 


876 


^^^H 


^H 


XXXY. Nektaaebos . 




18 


894 


1 


Henceforward [)eoi>le ceased to dat 


e by the 


^^^^^B* 


reigns of t\ieae and the Cbaldean klnge 








^^^^^H 


and commonced to nse the era of Alex- 






^^^H 


1 


ander the Qreek. 






j 


* P. adds 66, L. adds S, u the reading of u 


lothor manoscn 


pt. 



EUAS, DATES, AND UfilONB OF KINGS. 



108 



Here we add thu cbronolngica] tables of the PlDlemteanti and the 
Komau Emporors. Chronology sinc^ the time of Pbilippus (Aridteas) 
oonaiflta of three part* ;— I. of Anni PhUippii II. of Anni Augiuii ; 
III, of Anni Divcleiiani. The first iire the uou- intercalated years of the 
Alexandrians ; the second are the int<'rcalated years of the Greeks ; and 
of thu aanie kind as the seooud are the Anni DiocUiianL With this 
king a new era commences, because, when the empire had derolved upon 
him, it remained with his descendants, and because after his death the 
Christian faith was generally adopted. Anothfr (1'*'^'') era than the 
10 ^na Dwcletiani has not been mentioned, although the rule several times 
slipped out of the hands of his family. God knows best ! Here follow 
Um tables : — 





Kamks or THX KmoB of Macboonu, 


How long 


Sum of 




who &ro the Greeks (loouins), also c&Uod 


tbey 


tbo 




THolomvaodit. 


reigned. 


years. 




Philippns ...... 


7 


7 




Alexander 11. filius Alexandri 


12 


19 




Ptolemffiiia filius Lagi o Aoyt»coff. Hp confjiiered 








Palestine, went u]> to Jerusalem and led the 






20 


Isnailitea into c^jitivity. Afterwards ht; restored 
them to liberty and made them a present of the 








rases of their Temi)lo .... 


20 


39 




PtolemEeuB Philadelphus. He caused the Thorn 








to be translated into Greek 


38 


77 




PtolemaauB Euergetes Phutikon Primus 


26 


102 




Ptolenueus Philometor .... 


ir 


119 




Ptolemseus Epiplianes Phuskon Secundus . 


24 


143 




Ptolemeeus Philopator the Delirerer 


35 


178 




Ptolemieus Eut-rg^tes Aluxiuider Secuudus 


29 


207 


80 


Ptolemteus y^^ler the Irun-smith, Arttvm Fautor . 


36 


243 




Plolvuiseus Diuuysius Optimus 


29 


272 




Cleopatra, till the time when Gajus, in Latin 
Julius, became Dictator .... 










275 




Cleopatra, till the death of Gajus and the succes- 








sion of his son Augustus .... 


4a. 6m. 


279 




Cleopatra, till the time when he (Augustas) killed 








her ...... 


14£L. 6m. 


294 



p. 92. 



The calling Cleopatra by the name of Piol'cmwua is a point of dis- 
coBsion, on oecount of her being a woman. But as she resided in 
40 Alexandria, and was the queen of it, she was called by that name. Gajus, 
in Latin Julius^ means " JErm^ of the world." 



p 


104. ALBtB^Nt. " 


1 


1 


B 


■ p. 93. 


Nakis or THs Rosux Kings, 


How long 


8am uf 
iho 


^^^1 


^^^^L 


i.«. the OmuLm who re(iid«tl in Rnmn. They are 


eaob of 


^^^^^1 


^^^^M 


the BaziA.ft1*Mfar, i.«. tho descendants 


them 


^^^^^1 


■ 


of ^ephO ben 'Eltph&i bi'D Esau bun IitaiLk ben AhrahAm. 


reigned. 


yean. 


_l 


Augustus Cfesar, after be hiid killed Cleopatra 


43 


43 


^^^B 


Tiberiua filius August! .... 


22 


65 


^^^^B 


^^^B 


Gajus ...... 


4 


69 


^^^^B 


^^^H 


Clauilius, who killed tho Apostle Paul and Simeon 






^^M 


^^^B 


Petms ...... 


14 


83 


^^^H 


^^^B 


Nero, wha killed the believers 


14 


97 


^^M 


^^^B 


Ycapasiiuius. One year after bis accession to the 








^^^m 


throne he conquered Palestine, and having be- 






^^^^B 


^^^B 


sieged the Jews in Jerusalem for three years, he 






^^^^B 


^^^B 


destroyed it> lulled many, scattered the rest over 






^^^^1 


^^^B 


the empire, and abolished their religious rites . 


10 


107 


^^^^B 


^^^B 


Titus ...... 


3 


110 


^^^^B 


^^^B 


Dumitianus. In tho 9th year of his reign Jobiinnes 






^^^^^H 


^^^B 


the Evangelist was banished. Tberoupou ho hid 






^^^^^^M 


^^^B 


himself on an island tiU the em.peror'8 death. 
Tlien he left the island and dwelt in Epheaus 






^^^^H 


^^^B 


15 


125 


^^H 


^^^B 


Nerva ...... 


1 


126 


^^^^1 


^^^B 


Trajanus ...... 


10 


146 


^^^H 


^^^B 


Hiulriaiius. It was ho who destroyed Jerusalem 






^^^^M 


^^^B 


and forbade anyone entering it in tho 18th year 






^^^H 


^^^B 


of hia rcit^ ..... 


21 


166 


^^M 


^^^B 


Antoninus. It was he who rebuilt Jerusalem. 






^^^H 


^^^B 


Ghileuus savs that he comjHised a book on ana- 






^^^H 


^^^B 


tomy in the beg;iuuing of his reig:ii 


23 


1B9 


^^^H 


^r 


Cortimodns ...... 


32 


221 


^^^^H 


■ p. 94. 


Severus and Antoninus .... 
Antoninus alone. Towards the end of his reign 


26 


246 


^^H 


H 


GalenuB died ..... 


4 


250 


^^^^1 


^^ 


Alexander filius Mammtese. Mamnuea means 






^^1 


^^^H 


" ity:ak " 


13 


263 


^^^^^M 


^^^B 


Maximinna ...... 


3 


266 


fl^^^^l 


^^^B 


GordianuB ...... 


6 


272 


^^^^H 


^^^B 


Philippus ...... 


6 


278 


^^^H 


^^^B 


BeciuB, who occurs in the story of the Seven 






^^^^B 


^^H 


Sleepers ... 


1 


279 


^^^H 


^^^B 


Qallua ...... 


3 


282 


40 ^^M 


^^^B 


ViiluriaQua ...... 


15 


287! 


^^^H 


^^^B. 


Claudius ...... 


1 


288 


^^^^B 


^^^B 


Aurelianus ...... 


6 


294 


^^^^B 


^^^B 


Probus .,.,., 


7 


301 


^^1 


1 


Cams and CarinuB ..... 


2 


303 


J 








^^^^^^^^^H 




^^^^^M 


^^^^^B 


^^^^^^^^^^^1 



^^^^^^^^^^^^V BEIQNB OF 


los 


^^^^^^^1 










p. ^^M 






Howtoiv 


Arml 


^^^^M 




Naxxb or TBI Kaaa or CiKnTivbOJL 


eodiof 

tlMm 

reiffned. 


Diocbs 

ttaal. 


m 


ninclnKanoB ...... 


21 


21 




Coii9taulimu. Tliu Ortt king wlio otlaptdd Chriittinnit}-. He 




^^^^M 




bnilt the Tmllil <if ConHtantinoplo. In tho let Tear of hi« 




^^^^M 




ruifni liiH mother, Uelpiie, fioii>{ht fcjr the wood of the Croas 


1 




^^M 




vrliich nhe tinally fouiid. In the 10th j-t-ur the hiehufis | 




^H 


^^m. 


auiivmblL^d in Nicica antl oiiablished the chdoiw of Chrifi 


. 




^H 




tiauitjr ...... 


82 


f>3 


^^1 




Con-tantina# (CoiiBtantios) .... 


Zi 


77 


^^1 




JolianoB Apoetata ..... 


2 


79 


^H 




Vulwitiiiiiuiua ...... 


1 


SO 


^^H 




Valciitt. lie wftA bmraed, in Moapiog, in a bam 


14 


fl4 


^H 




ThcodoRins the Ureal ..... 


17 


111 


^^M 




Arcadian, his bdm ..... 


iA 


124 


^^M 




Tbpodosias Minor. In his tjme Nestorhta was excommnni 






^^M 




cittod ....... 


42 


166 


^H 


^^L, 20 


Marvianos and his wif u Pulchuria. In thuir tiino tho JocobiCo 






^H 




were (•xcomiDanicnt«d .... 


6 


172 


^H 




Leo the QroAt. He bclon^d to the mudcr&te pari^ . 


18 


190 


^H 




Z«uu AJttrmtn&ki. Hu whs a Jactibita . 


17 


207 


^^H 




AtuMtairinii. Uo bnilt Ammorinm, and waa a Jacobita 


27 


£34 


^H 




Jnfltinofl ....... 


9 


&4S 


^H 




JtutiiiiAniu. Uo boilt tho choroh in BuhA (EdcHsa) . 


zi 


2S0 


^H 




TiburiuH ....... 


U 


2M 


^^1 




Manrioinft. He helped KisrA n^inst BahrAtn Shilbtn . 


Ul 


298! 


^1 




PhocoB, who wik8 V^cfliof^d in Confllimtmoplc by SluLhrbor&z 






p. 96. ■ 


^^H 30 


the firciierai of KisHL ..... 


8 


SIH! 




HeifvcUaR the wise ..... 


31 


ai9 


^1 




CnniitJintiiinH. Ho wa« mnrdored in tho bath . 


1 


a.'io 


^H 




Coii!<taiitinn« ...... 


27 


377 


^H 




CiiiiHtanCiuuR ...... 


16 


SD8 


^H 




JiiMtiiiiunuH. The GreijkH ent ufF hiH nnae 


14) 


408 


^H 




Lcootius. Ue was found to be a weak man, being' docrvpit 






^^^^M 




Bo ho vrno detliroood .... 


a 


406 


^^^^H 




Tib»nu8. Apsiiuams ..... 


7 


413 


^^^^H 




JastinianoB Biuuoniitos .... 


6 


419 


^^^^H 


^^^^ 


rhilippioua ...... 

Aiiu«ta8iii8. AtUmns (Ariomiiut). Ho was dothroued, when 


3 


422 


^H 




he cjdold not carrj' on tho wnt 


2 


424 


^^1 




ThoiKlusiiLH. Ue vtaa besieged hy Maalama beu 'Abd<alnialik 


1 


426 


^H 




Loo tho Great. Ho dooeivod Maalama and repolsed him from 






^H 




Constantinople ..... 


24 


449 


^^1 




CoastantiiiOB, the boo of XjOo tho Groat 


>4 


468 


^^1 




Leo Jonior, the son of Constautiuos 8ouior . . 


4 


487 


^^^^1 




Constantinua Jonior, the ttoo of Leo Junior 


18 


606 


^^^^H 




AnguHta (Irono) mlud the Greek empire 


6 


610 


^^^^H 


^H 


Nioophorns nnd Slaomciiu tbo son of Nicophonu 


18 


628 


^^^^H 




Michael tho ion of Qeurgiiu .... 


a 


— 


^^^^H 




Len. till lie vraa mnrdored by Michnol in the ohoroh 


7 


— 


^^^^H 




Michaol ConstAntinnpolitaiins, tho murderer of Leo ben Then* 






^^^^H 




phllofl beu MicbMi Cuufituntiudpolitanafl 


7a. 6m. 


. — 


^^^^1 




BoBilias tho Slaronian, the laat of their kings . 


Sa. 8m. 


— 


^^^^^^^1 




^^^^^H 



105 



ALBtaONt. 



p. 9?. 



p. 98. 



Tbb KtNuit or CovnAirmtort.t. 


•S^f'tO. ' .s™-"' 1 


M QtiiitMt AluTftliitat tTt.-orTli thaiB on Uie 


•^^" Uwymm. 


wiUiuniy of th« Jadfro AJwaki*. who t<K>k tbom 
m»u ft bouk tiut bslotigvd to tb« 


™tJ 














UTMk Emporor. 


Tmn. 


Hontiu. 

- 




■ 


HeDCha. 




Con8tantinn«, the eon of HeloDo, tho Victorious 


SI 


81 


CoiisLaiitiiius, )us BOD .... 


S^t 





E5 





Jiitiauus hit! nephew ..... 


2 


6 


67 


6 


Theodoftins ...... 


10 


9 


68 


8 


Grmtianns. Valoutiniauos .... 








74 


3 


Aroadios, tho Hou of Tkoodontiia 


IS 


3 


87 


6 


Theodotitu, tho ion of Arcactiiu 


42 





129 


6 


Marcifuiai ...... 


29 





163 


6 


Leo Senior ...... 


16 





174 


6 


Leo Jtuiior ...... 


1 





17S 


6 


Zeno ....... 


17 





li»2 


6 


AzuurtAsiiut ...... 


27 


4 


219 


10 


AntllB ....... 


11 


9 


SSI 


7 


J^trdndiu. During liis raign tlie Prophet wai born 


as 


3 


269 


10 


Rtephiuina ...... 


■1 


a 


273! 


1 


Marcianas (Maoricliu). Dnriux bw reign tho Fro- 










pbet recoiviKl bia Dtviue miaaioD . 


20 


4 


293 


5 


PhofaiA. Dnring bin reign tho flight of tbe Prophet 










oconrred ...... 


8 





aoi 


6 


Uoraciiua auil Us son. During thoir roigu the Fro* 










ph(<t Uiud ...... 


ai 





832 


6 


Constiuitinns, tbo af>n r.f TIenicles . . . 


2S 





8f!7P 


6 


ConsUiitiiiua, tbo aon of Qera^lcs' wUe 


17 





881 


6 


(JoiistaDiiniiM, th<> bod uf Heracles 


10 





8H1 


6 


L(H] or Loon (L&wl or EljrAo} 


8 





397 


6 


Tiherins ...... 


7 





411? 


6 


KAtlnnB (JustiniaDua) ..... 


6 





417 


5 


Annflt:ni4in8 ...... 


6 





423 


6 


TllE>IMl{)Hil15 ...... 


2 





425 


6 


Loo. Daring his roign tho empire of tlio Bant^- 










'Umayya wai dJBmomhflrod 


26 


a 


460 


8 


Leo, t-hu noil of Cotifttuntinoii. Peoplo think that he 










was ft worthless chomotor, notwithstandiog the 










length uf his roifcu ..... 


6 





466 


8 


Constant! 11 lis, the non of Loo .... 


D 


10 


465 


6 


nnnntAntinns ...... 


6 


s 


471 


n 


Irene, who reoeired tbo empire from ber futber 


6 





476 


11 


NieopboniB, at tho time of H^Ckn Alraahtd . 


8 


11 


485 


10 


Btaoracins, bin non ..... 





8 


486 





Michael, his aon ..... 


7 


6 


[476 P] 


6 


Tb(*opbiluB, biB sou ..... 


22 


8 


409 


8 


Miclinel, tlia eon of Tfaeophilaa. With this kinpr tho 










dyrinaty expires — at the time of the KhaUf Al- 










Tnntim; ...... 


28 





626 


8 


DnailioB the Slaronian .... 


20 





646 


a 


Leo tbe Bim of BaKilinH. Anno Hijm 273 al tlie 










time of Almntadid ..... 


28 





E672] 


8 


Alexandor, tbe son of Baailiua. He diod from a 










tumunr in tbe belly, a.h. 200 


1 


a 


C673J 


10 


ConatantiauB, tho aon of Leo, a.h. 901. 


__ 


~~" 




~" 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



ERAS, DATES, AXD EBI0N8 OP KINGS. 



107 



Chronology of the Persians. — The Persiana call the first man 
Qay^marih, witb tho surname Ginhdh, i.e. " kin^ of the mountain," or, as 
others say, OiUhih, i.e. " kin^ of the clay" bocause at that time there waa 
no other man in existonce (but himself, therp l)eiug notUiugbut clay). 
People saj that his name (Ghiyomarth) means " a living^ rational^ mortal 
bein^." 

The chronology of tho Persians beginning with Gay6marth is divided 
into three parts : — 

A. Part I. Prom GayAmarth till the timo when Aleiandor killed 
10 Darius, seized upon the prorincu^a of the Persians, and traasferred their 

Bcieutific treasures to his own country. 

B. Part n. Prom tlint time till the time when Ardaahtr ben BAbaJc 
came forward, and the Persian empire was re- established. 

C. Part m. From that time till tho time when Tazdajird ben 
Shahryar waa killed, when the empire of the Sasauian dynasty was 
dissolved and Jsi&m arose. 

Regarding tho boginnmg of tho world, the Persians relate many 
curious tnulitions, buw Ahriman, i.e. tho devil, was bom out of the 
thought of G-od and of his pride in the world. And also regarding 

20 Gayomarth : for God, being bewildered at the sight of Ahriman, was 
covered with sweat on the forehead ; this he wipfd off and thr«w away ; 
and out of this sweat Qay6marth was bom. Then God sent him to 
Ahriman, who overpowered him, and began to travel about in the world, 
always riding upon him. At laat, Ahriman asked him what was tho 
most odious and horrible thing to him. Wliereupon he said, that on 
arriving at the gato of hell he would suffer a painful terror. On having 
arrived, then, at the gate of hell, he became refractory, and managed by 
various coutrivanccs to throw off the rider. But now Ahriman re- 
mounted him, and asked him from what sido ho was to begin devouring 

30 him. Gayomarth answered : " From tho side of the foot, that I may 
atill for some time look at the beauty of the world," knowing quite well 
that Ahriman would do the contrary of what he told liim. Then Ahriman 
commenced devouring him from the head, and when he had come as far 
as the testicles and the spermatic vessels in the loina, two drops of 
Bperma fell down on the earth. And out of these drops grew two ' 
Btbas bushes (Wteum ribes), from among which M£sh& Eind MSsbAna 
sprang up, i.e. the Persian Adam and Eve. They are also eaUed Malha 
and MalhayAna. and the Zoroastrians of KhwArizm call them Hard and 
Mardaua. 

40 This is what I have heard from the geometrician, 'Abft-alhasan 
AdharkhAr. 

In a different form this tradition, regarding the origin of mankind, la 
related by *Ab&-'Alt Mubammad ben 'Ahmad Albalkhi, the poet, in the 



.99. 



u-1^ 






108 



ALBtEfixt. 



Sfajlhni^ma, who premiees that he has corrected his report on the basis <d 
the foUowittg sources : — 

I. KiUib'giyar-almuluk by 'Abdallfth ben Almukaffici'. 
IL „ „ by MutjoJuiuad ben Aljabin Albarmaki. 

m. ,» „ bv Kish&m ben Alkasitii. 

rV. „ „ by BahrAm ben Mardfinsb^, the MauHadh 

of thf city of Sui'ur. 
V. „ „ by Bahram ben Mibran AlisbabAnf. 

Besides he has compared his accoqnt with that of the Zoroastrian 
Bahram of Horilt. Ho says : Gayfiniarth stayed in Paradise 3,000 years, IQ 
i.e. the milleniua of Aries, Taurus, and Gemini. Then he fell down on 
the earth and lived there safely and quietly three other millennia, those 
of Cancer, Leo, and Virgo, till the time when all that is evil in the world 
was brought about by Ahriman. The story is as follows : that Gayfi- 
^7' marth, who was called GireMh, because Oir means in Pahlavi *' mouH' 

tain," dwelt in the mountains (AljibAl-fifedia), being endowed with so 
p.lOO. much beauty that no living being oould view him without becoming 
terrified and losing the control of its Hensos. 

Now, Ahriman had a son called Kkrura, who one day met with GayA- 
marth, and was killfd by him. Whereupon, Ahrimaii complained to God 20 
of GayAniarth ; and God resolved to punish him in ordt^r to keep thoao 
covenants that existed between him and Ahrimau. So he showed him 
first the puuishments of this world and of the day of resurrection and 
other things, so that Gayr^morth at last desired to die, whereupon Qrod 
killed him. At the same moment two drops of sperma fell down out of 
his loins on the mount^n Damdfidh in Istakhr, and out of them grew 
two RibAs-bushes, on which at the beginning of the ninth month the 
limbs (of two lutmau bodies) began 1o apj>ear, which by tlie end of that 
mnnth had become complete and asstimed human shape. These two ore 
Heshu and Meshyilna. Fifty years they lived without any necessity for 30 
eating and drinking, joyfully and without any i>ain. But then Ahriman 
ajtpoared to them in the shaix; of an old man, and induced them to take 
the fruit of the trees. He himself commenced eating them, whereu|Kin 
he at once again became a young man. And now they (M£sh£ and MS- 
shy&na) began to eat. Then they were plunged into misfortunes and evils. 
Lust arose in them. In consequence of which they copuhited. A child 
was born unto them, but thoy devoured it from sheer ravenousness. 
But then G(k1 inspired their hearts with mildness. Afterwards the wife 
gave birth to six other children, thtj names of whom are known in the 
AvastA. The seventh birth produced Siynmak and FnlT&k, who married 40 
and begot a son H6shang. 

Regarding the chronology of this first part, the lives of the kings and 
their famous deods, they relate things which do not seem admissible to 
the mind of the reader. However, the aim of our undertaking being to 



EBA8» DATES, AN'D REIGNB OF KINGS. 



109 



10 



oolleot and to commnnicate chronological material, not to criticize and 
correct hiittorical accounta, wo record that on which the scholars of the 
Porsiuus, the HcrluulIiH, and M»ul>adb8 of the ZuruastrianB atjrw amoug 
themselves, and which is receiyed on their authority'. At the same time 
ve collect the materials in tables, as we hare done heretofore, in order 
that our work may proceed on the saiue plan which wo have Itud down 
for the chronologies of the other nations. 

To the names of the kings wc add their epithets, because they are 
distinguished by individual epithets, whilst as to the other kings, if they 
hare any epithet at all, it is ono commoTi to their whole class, by which 
he as well as everybody else who reigns in his place is called. Those 
common epithets oorrespcnd to the Shfih&nshAh of the Persians. A list 
of them we give in the following table : — 

Tho KpithetB 



20 



SO 



40 



The SIsAnian kings of the Persians . 




ShrihAnsluih and KiHn'i. 


The Greek kings .... 




Basil!, I.e. Ccesar. 


The kings 


of Alexandria . 




Ptolemajus. 


w 


Yamaii 




Tubba'. 


M 


the Turks, Chazar, and 


Ta- 






gbargbuz . 




KhAkhan. 


If 


the GhiizK-Tiirks . 




flan ft ta. 


M 


the Chinese . 




Baghbftr. 


It 


India .... 




BalliarJt 


" If 


Kannflj 




Bflbi. 


If 


tho Ethiopians 




AlnajAeht 


If 


the Nubiana 




KahlL 


II 


the islands in the eastern 






ocean 


. 


ilaharnj. 


» 


tho mountains of f abariatAn 


Ispahbadh. 


» 


Dunbdwaud 




Masniftghan. 


If 


Qharjist&n . 




ShAr. 


n 


Sorakhs 




ZHdhawaihi. 


If 


NasH and Abiwatd . 




BAhmium. 


It 


Kasb .... 




Nidun. 


if 


Fargh&na 






IkhRhid. 


n 


Asri^sliana 






Afshiu. 


If 


Shash . 






TuduH. 


ff 


Marw . 






Mahawalhi 


ft 


Nishapftr 
Samarkand 






Kanbar. 
Tarkhfln. 


H 


Sarir . 






Albajjaj. 


n 


Dahist^n 






S{iL 


I* 


Jurjiia 






AnAhpadh. 



p.l01. 



■ 


1 


ERAS, DATES, AND RT^XONS OV KINGS. 


1 


1 

111 


^H 


^^^^^H 




1 








^^^^^H 


*na 






How 




^^^H 


■ 


ekMM 
of the 

Klugv. 


of P«Br L 


Thcix 
Eplthetji. 


long 
cnohof 

th«m 
relened. 


Slim 
oS the 
yean. 


■ 




GiyAmm-rA ..... 


Qinhik . 


ao 


30 


^^^^^H 


Ig 


Till the binh of M^h& and MSaUna, vrlia la 








^^^H 


^^^^^^ 


cjiUcii " Mater /iliorum et filinrum" Thoao 








^^^1 


^^H^ 


£ B 


two are thp Porsi&n Adam and Eve . 





40 


70 


^^^H 


^H 


■A 


Till MAfliiA oiul Mf^b&na mnrried 


— 


60 


IZO 


^^^1 


■ 




Till thu birth uf HAeliuug 


— 


99 


SIS 


■ 




HAshang bon AfrHn-Ak bon Siy&mak hen M^shft 


F^ahdAdh 


40 


2&9 


^^H 




TahmHrath ben WtjnliAn ben tiikaliadh bon Hd> 








^^^H 


^^H 




Bhang — till ttiD cninin^-forwanl of BAdAaaf . 


Z^bAwand 


1 


254 


^^^H 


^^H 




The Bamo — after thai event 


— 


2S 


289 


^^^H 


^^H 




Jam ben Wtjahin. From tbo time whan he 








^^^H 


^^H 




ordered [leople to fnbriciilo wi?n(>onH till the 








^^^H 


^^H 




time when he onlored thorn to spin and 








^^^H 


^^H 




WOftVO ...... 


SbMh . 


60 


333 


^^^H 


^m 




Till the time when ho onlerwl people to dtride 








^^^1 


^^^L^^ 




tbemsplvi-B into foor claaAea . 


— 


&0 


3S8 


^^^1 


^^^^^^ 


, 


Till the time when he made war upon the 








^^^1 


^^^^^H 


1 


demons and Buhdoed tbcm 


— 


GO 


488 


^^^1 


^^^^^H 


Till tbn tinio when ho ordered the demonR to 








^^^H 


^^^^^B 


C 


bniilt roclcn out of tho mountains and to carry 








^^^1 


^^^^^H 


H 


thom ...... 


— 


100 


683 


^^^1 


^^^^^H 


M 


Till tlw timo wbon ho ordorod a whaolud- 








^^^H 


^^^^^V 


oarriago to be conitruct^d. It wax oon- 








^^^1 


^ 


2 


Btrarted, and ha rmle upon it . 


— 


66 


698 


^^^1 


^1 




After that, people livodin health and happinosa 








^^^1 




?! 


— -till tUn lime when he hid htmanlf . 


— 


300 


8M 


^^^1 


^^^ 


He fontinuMd to be liidden — till hi> waji neixed 








^^^H 


^^^^H 


1 


bj AtiUbl^fLlc, who loto out his bowels and 








^^^1 


^^^^^B 


inwed him with a saw 


— > 


100 


D&9 


^^^H 


^^^^^B 




AtdahfvMi bun 'Dlwiti of tbii Amalfkiuiii or — 








^^^1 


^^^^^H 




w*ith another nunio — BAvaraap bon Arwand- 








^^^1 


^^^^^H 




aap beti ZIu^Ab ben Bartshund ben Ubar, who 








^^^1 


^^^^^H 




wna tbo father of tim pure Ambiujis, bun 








^^^H 


^^^^^B 




Afriwftk ben Siylmak ben M^h& 


AzlidahUc 


1000 


\99& 


^^^1 


^^^ 40 




Afrtd^n ben Atbi);&a OAo bru Athfiy&n Nt^Ao 
ben AthfijAn ben Sbahrgio beu AthGyln 
AlthnnbagAo ben AthfiyAn SipAdhfcA^ h«n 
Athfly&n DtzafiAo ben AthByAn Ntgio b«n 








p.l04. ^M 


^^^^^H 










^^^1 


■ 




NAfnrAih ben Jiun tho King , 


AlmaubodJi 


200 


2ie9 


■ 


•s 


Iraj. Ho wtti killed by his brothom Balm and 








^^^^^H 


« 


r^*, who rcijfned after him. They were all 








^^^H 


^^^^^B 


! 


throe Bons of AfrMAn 


ATmnftafft 


800 


2494 


^^^1 


^^^^^B 


Mindthjihr ben ti(Lzan, the damrhtcr of Ira — 
till the tiiDR u-hpn bo IuUchI X^j Aud Sa m. 








^^^H 


■ is 








^^^H 


i.ff. Kharm in rnrginii .... 


Fftrflz . 


20 


2519 


^^^H 


Till the time when the vm of Tdj occnpiod 
firlnabahr, and drove MindshjiliT ont of the 








^H 


country ..... 


.» 


60 


2579 


^^^^1 


FirintfAb ben Basbanf; hen tnat ben Rlshman 








^^^1 


bOD Turk ben Kabonuspbon AxHhnHp bouT^j 








^^^1 


^M J 


— till tbo timo whpn MinfiBhjLhr giiiriud the 








^^^H 




victory over him and drovo bim away. Then*. 








^^^M 


upon thoy mode a treaty on the baaia of tba 








^^^H 


well-known arrow-shot 




12 


SG91 


■ 


^^^^hfl 


1 ■■•■«■, - 






^^^ 


^^^ 


■■■■IMHitf^^^^B 



112 



ALBtB<b.'i. 



p.lOS. 



oliumt 

<>r tfae 



Tmi Nakbh or nn Vrntteixs Knaei 
of Pun L 



Hdw 



MinAshjihr — tUI Ills doatb 

yfi/i tlif Tnrk ncrupyinfl- AlSrik 

7.Ab bf-ii Tuhmasp ht-n KnmjahAbftr bon ZA boo" 

ntt^liflli bfii WliltUfLk hon DAur ban Mi- 

nAahjilir tojfMther with — 
QargMiip. 1.0. S&m bnn Nnrtmfta bcii TaliuiAsp 

bnn Ashak bon N6sb ben DAbot bon Mi- 

nfishjihr ..... 



FirAaij-Al) 



Tbe two 

oompanioni. 



Kaikf.b6tih ben Za^b bon NddbagA ben M^hA 

bi>D >'fldbiLr ben MiDdihjihr . 
Kaik-iH* ben KniniTA bon KaJlcobidh — till ho 

rp^llnd, wherf^u[inn be wan tnkBii pritfaner 

by Shttrnmar and afterwartJti fielireretl by 

Boetam bou Diuit&n boo QarabHap tho King . 
The same — from tbo latter oront till bin death 
KaikintsrA Wn Bijr&wnflb ben Kailtfiaa — till tbe 

tinin when h<? wont away aa n holy pilgrim 

And hid btiuauLf .... 

KailuhrUp ben Kaiwajt bet) Kaimauisb ban 

KjuknhAHb — till hi^ iHinfc Bnkhtanasaur to 

Jerusalem, who deetroyed it . 
Tbe same after that erout . . . 

KaiwiahtAgp bco LobriUifi — till the appoatanoe 

Df Zoroaiiter ..... 
Tho 8&me after that event 
Koi Ardtuhtr — BaAnwiit btni lafandtyAr bt^n 

WiabtJUp ..... 

Oiimin* tho dftii^tiiter of Ardaalilr— Bahman . 
ZMrd bon Ardashlr—Bahman 
D^ri &OT1 DdrA — till he waa killed by Alexander 

tbe Greek ..... 



TbeFint 



Nimrnd . 



Hamiy^i 



TheBnotrian 



A1h«rbadh 

C Tall in ^ 
t the body, i 

OibrUAd . 

The great 

Tbe second 



100 



eo 



112 



14 



S6I9 



2686 



8786 



2811 
2886 



2946 



S006 
S066 

S096 

3298 

S826 

S310 

6854 



10 



ao 



30 



"Hie ftocotmt of tho chronologj^ of this Part I., whicli wc haTo pven, 
is stated verj differeuilj In the Kitdh-aUiyar. Our accoimt, bowercr, 
comofi nearest to that view regarding which people agree. The chro- 
nology of this same part, Imt in a different shape, I have also found in 40 
the liook of Hamza ben Alliiisaiit Alisfahaiii, which he calls '* Chronolmjy 
of ijreai ttationt of the past and yretettV He says that he has endeavoured 
to correct bis account by means of the AbagfA, which is the religious 
code (of the Zoroastrions). Therefore I have transferred it into this 
place of my book. 




ERAS, DATES, AND REIONS OF KINGS. 



113 



TABLE n. OF PAET I. 





Nahbs of the Pbshdj^dhian EiNas, 

caken from the Abastft, beginning with 

Gaj&marth. 


How long 

each of 

them 

reigned. 


Snm of 

the 
Years. 




Gta.yttn3xth the first man .... 


40 


40 




An interregnum of 170 yean. 


— 


— 




Hdshang ...... 


40 


80 




Tahmjirath ...... 


30 


110 


10 


Jam ....... 


616 


726 




BSwarasp ...... 


1000 


1726 




Afrfidftn 


500 


2226 




Mindshcihr ...... 


120 


2346 




Fir&sy&b ...... 


12 


2358 




An interregnum of unknown length. 


— 


— 




zab 


9 


2367 




Garsh&sp together with Zftb 


S 


2370 




An interregnum. 


— 


— 




Nakes or THE KatJLnuv Eikob. 






20 


Kaikob&dh . 




1 • 


126 


2494 




Zaiki^ 






150 


2646 




Kaikhusrau . 






80 


2726 




Kailuhr&sp . 






120 


2846 




Kaibishtaap . 






120 


2966 




SaiardasMr . 






112 


3078 




Cihrftzdd 






30 


3108 




Dftr& ben Bahman 






12 


8120 




Dftrft ben Dkik 






14 


3134 



p.106. 



p.l07. 



8 



114 



AliBifilhft. 



p.108. Purther, IJamKa relat«8 that he baa found aUo this part of Persian 
chTonologj in the copy of the Maubadh. such aa ia exhibited in the 
following table : — 

TABLE in. OF PAET I 



p.l09. 



KaHES or THE Pi(lllDJLDHU» KlNOK, 


How long 

each of 

thorn 

Migved. 


Sam of 

th« 
Yflart). 


Uken from the Copj of the Maabftdb. 
QaV^niarth ...... 






30 


80 


M<!iha and Mt^ahanfi — till they got children 


50 


80 


Till their death . . ' . 


50 


130 


Interregnum 






94 


224 


Hfishang 






40 


264 


Tahmnrath . 






30 


294 


Jam — till he hid himself 






616 


910 


He remained hidden 






100 


1010 


Bewarasp 






1000 


flOlO 


FrSdAn 






600 


2510 


Mindshcihr . 






120 


2630 


Zii and QarshAsp 






4 


2634 


NaHZS or THI KAriKUK KlBTOS. 






KaikobAdh ...... 


100 


2784 


TTaikAus 






160 


2884 


Kaikbuaraa . 






60 


294* 


Luhrasp 






120 


3064 


Biulltj'iBp 

Ardashir 






120 


3184 






112 


3296 


CibrazAd 






30 


3326 


BArA benBahman . 






12 


3338 


BurA ben DArA 






14 

( 


8352 



10 



20 



80 



p.llO. Ill the biographical and historical books that have been translated 
from the works of Westem authors, you fiud an account of the kings of 
Persia and Babylonia, beginning with FrSdfin, whom they oall, as people 
say, YAfAl (Pul ?), and ending with DAn'i, the last of the Persian kings. 
Now, wc find that these records differ greatly (from Eastern records) as 
to the number of the kings and their names, as to the durations of their 
reigns, their history, and their description. I am inclined to think that 
they confounded the kings of Persia with their governors of Bahylonia, 
and put both aide by side. But if wo altogether refrain from mention- 
ing those records, we should deprive this book of something that forms 
ft due part of it, and we should turn away the mind of the reader there- 
from. We, now, exhibit this tradition in a special table of ite own, is 



4U 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^ERAS, DATES, AIO) EIION'S OF KECOS^^^^llS ^^^^^H 


^^^^^V order to prevont confusion getting into the arnrngcmRnt of the various ^^^| 


^^^^^B 


lystems and traditions of this book. Here it follows : — 


^ 




Twt Kinas op Pibsia, 


How lODg 

•«oh<tf 

tliem 

reigned. 


Snm of 


J 




beginning with Fn&dfln, iu^c5ording to 


th9 


^^^H 




Western aathors. 


Tears. 


■ 


TAfAl, i.e. Fr^ddn 


35 


36 




Tighlatb Filesar ..... 
Salraaniuwar, i.^ Salm .... 


35 


70 


^^^1 




14 


84 


^^H 


^^^^ 10 


Sanherib ben Salmanasaar, t.«. in Persian : Sanfi- 






^^H 




raft ..... . 


9 


93 


^^^H 




Sardtim (Ezarhaddon), i.e. 7A ben TCimAsp 


3 


96 


^^H 


^^^^H 


After him the foUowing powerful kings 






^^H 




reigned: — 






fl^H 




KaikobAdh ...... 


49 


145 


^H 




Sanherib II. .... 




31 


176 


'^H 


^^^^^^K 


MAjam . . 




33 


209 


^H 




Bu it htana^jar, i.e. KaikaHls 




67 


266 


^1 




£vilad ben Bukhtana^^ar . 




1 


267 


^1 


^■~ 20 


Beltosbaffar ben Evilad 




2 


269 


^M 




DAra Almaht I., i.e. DariuB , 




9 


278 


^^H 




Eorosh, i.e. Kaikhuarau 




8 


286 


j^^M 




Cyrus, i.e. Luhrasp . 




34 


820 


^^1 




Cambvses .... 




eo 


400 


^^^H 




DAra 11. . 




SG 


436 


^^1 




Xeries ben BArA, %.€. Khusrau I. . 




26 


462 


^1 




Ardosblr ben Xerxes, called ftajcpox*ip, i>c 


Longi- 






^H 




miums .... 




41 


503 


^1 


^^^^^^1 


Khusrau II. . 




30 


533 


^M 


^^L^ 30 


ScRdianus, Notos ben Khusrau 




9 


542 


^M 




Ardaahir bon DArA II. 




41 


583 


^M 




Ardasbir HI. 




27 


610 


^M 


^^^^^^^^H 


Arses ben Ochus 




12 


622 


^M 


^^^^^^^^^H 
^^^^^^^H 


DAra, the laat king of Persia 




Iti 


638 


■ 




The Jews, Zoroastrians, Christians, and the various sects of them, 


p.ll2. I 


^^^^^H relate the origines mu7idi and carry chronology down from them, haviBg ^M 


^^^^^H preTiously admitted the truth of such origmes, and having gained certain ^| 


^^^^^H views regarding them, on which people either agree or differ. He, bow* ^H 


^ ever, who denies such origines, cannot adopt that whi<:h is built upon ^^^M 


^^H 40 them, cxcopt after producing various sorts of interpretations which be ^^^^ 


^^^^ adds of bis own. ^^^H 


^^^^K Huwever, tho6« origins mvndi, i.e. Adam and Eve, have been used &« ^^^| 


^^^^^1 the epoch of an era. And some people maintain that time consists of ^^^H 


^^^^^B cycles, at the end of which all created beings perish, whilst tbej grow ^H 


^^^^^H at their beginning ; tliat each euch cycle haa a special Adam oixd Eve of ^M 


^^^^^B its own, and that the chronology of thi« cycle depends upon them. ^M 


^^H M 



116 



ALBtB^l. 



p.ll3. 



Other people, again, maintain that in each cycle a special Adam and 
Eve exist for each country in particular, and that hence the difference of 
human structure, nature, and language is to be derived. 

Other people, besides, hold this foolish persuasion, vix. that time has 
no iermintu a qjto at all ; they tnke some dogmas from thn founders of 
religious, in order to construct some system by means of them. Many 
philosophers of this class have built up such systems. Tou could 
hardly find a prettier talc of this kind than that one produced by Sa'id 
ben Muhanima^i Aldhuhli in his book. Forhesaya: *' People lived in 
bitter enmity and strife with each other; the better among them were 10 
maltreated and oppressed by the worse. But then, at last, the just 
king, Peshdridh, transplanted thorn to a place, called Firdaus (Paradise), 
situated between Adan and Serendib. It was a place where aloe, cloves, and 
various sorU of [lerfumes were growing, and all kinds of delicious things 
were to bo found. There they dwelt, till one day a demon (^Ifrii) came 
upon ihem, the Wng of the wicked, and began qimrrelling with them. 
In the same place Ptshditdh found a boy and girl, the parents of whom 
were unknown. These he educated and called them Meshd and Mfithdna, 
and made them marry each other. Thereupon they committed sin, and 
BO he drove them out of that country." The tale as it has been related, 20 
is ertremely long. He says that the interval between the time of their 
st^ttlement in Paradise, the beginning of all chronology, and their 
meeting the demon was one year; till the time when M.t:sha aud Meshana 
were found, two more years elapsed ; till their marriage, forty-one years ; 
tiU their death, thirty years ; and till the death of Peshdndh, ninety-nine 
years elapsed. But then he ceases from going on with his chronological 
account and does not carry it on. 

Chronology of the AshkaniaDS. — As to Part II. of Persian chro- 
nology from Alexander till the rise of Ardashir ben Bnbak, it must be 
known that during this period the " Petty Princes " existed, i.e. those 30 
princes whom Alexander had installed as rulers over certain sjwcial dis- 
_ trictSj who were all totally independent of each other. To the same 
period belongs the empire of the AshkAnians, who held 'IrAlj a»d the 
coiintry of Milh, i.e. AljibAl. under their sway. They were the most 
valiant among the '* Petty PriTicea ;" still the others did not obey them, 
but only honoured them for this reason, that they descended fram the 
royal Persian house, Por the first prince of the AshkAnians was Aehk 
ben Ashkjin, called AfghftrshAh ben BalAsh ben Shflpftr ben AshkAn ben 
jUit^ y*^ ben SiyAwush Uen KaikauB. 

Most Persian chroniclers have connected the reign of Alexander 40 
immediately with that of the first AshkAnian prince, by which that 
period was moat improperly curtailed. Others say that the Ashkanians 
came into power some time after Alexander, whilst others go on blunder- 
ing without any knowledge of the matter. 

I shall relate in this place such of their traditions as I have learned. 



^^^^^^^^1 ERAS, DATES, REIGNS OF ^^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^and iiTiall eDdeaTour, as much ae is in mv poTtrrr, to amcntl that which ia ^^^H 


^^^^^H wrong, to refute that which is false, and to estabUuh the truth, heginniog ^^^H 


^^^^^H with that which corrosponds most nearly to the Tahle I. of Hirtl., I also ^^| 


^^^^^^^^H 


call it Table I. (of Part II.) :— 


■ 




Tabu or nu Naucs of thb AsnsANiArf Kirtan, How lonct ' „ | 


■ 




oorroeponding to the Table I. of Part I. 


each ^"^ 
of tbem of thB 
reigned. ^«""- 


■ 






Their Sunukiues. 


1 


Alexander the Greek . 


, 


14 14 


^H 


Ashk ben Ash kiln 




Khdshdih 




13 27 


■ 




Ashk ben Ashk ben Ashk 


AsLkao 




25 52 


■ 




ShapOr ben Aahk 


i Zarrin 




80 82 


^M 




Bahram ben ShApftr . 




Khi^rfin 




21 103 


^M 




Narsi ben Bahram 




GisOwa-r 




25 128 


^H 




Hurmuz ben Narsi . 




SalfLr 




40 168 


^H 




Bahrain ben Hurmuz 




Rnshan 




25 193 


■ 




Tiro?, ben Bahram 




Balad 




17 210 


■ 


^^^^^H Kisrik ben Ftraz 




Banidib 




20 230 


■ 




Narsi ben Periiz 




Shik&ri 




80 260 


■ 


^^^ 20 


Ardawan ben Narst . 




The last 


, 


20 1 280 ' 


1 




Next follows what corresponds to the Talile II. of the same Part I., 


p.114. ■ 


^^^^^H that which tjamza has taken trom the AbaatA. This, again, I call the ^| 


^^^^^B Tabula II., for the purpose of connecting those portions of the three ^^^ 


^^^^^H parts of Persian chronology that bear the same name (as Table I., II., ^^^^| 


^^^^^H HI. of Parts I., II., III.) with each other, and to bring the tables, ^^^^| 


^^^^^H thereby, into a good order. It will not be necessary to mention this ^^M 


^^^^^H another time : — ^| 




TABLE n. OP PAKT II. in the Abbanobment of the Tables. 


■ 




NaXKA of tub AslIGHANlA.f Kl.VGS 


How loDK „ 

each*! _?''.^ 


J 


^^^^^ 30 


according to Ijamza. 


of tbem 


Teus. 


1 


Alexander the Qreek .... 


14 


14 




Ashk ben BalAsh ben Shaptkr ben Ashkan ben Ash 










the hero ...... 


52 


66 


^H 




Shapur ben Ashk ..... 


24 


90 


^H 




Judhar ben "VVijan bon Shilpur 


50 


140 


^H 




VVijan ben BalJish ben Shapur, the nephew of the 






^1 




preceding ...... 


21 


161 


^H 


^^^^ 40 


Judhar ben Wijau beu Balueh 


19 


180 


^1 




Narsa ben Wijan ..... 


SO 


210 


^1 




Hurmuz&n ben BaUsh, the tmch; of the preceding 


17 


227 


^M 




Feroz&n ben Hurmuzan . , , . ' 12 


239 






Khusrau ben Feroziin .... 


40 


279 


^^^H 




Balash ben F£r6zAn .... 


24 


303 


^^^H 




Ardaw&n ben BaJaah ben F^rdzka . 


55 


358 


■ 




^^^^^^^^^ 


J 



118 



ALBtEfiNt. 



To this I add that which in the order of th(» tahloa is the third one, 
which Hamza savs he haa taken from the copy of the Maiibadh, in order 
that the Babject may be carried on, »a it has been done in the two pre- 
ceding tobies. Here follows the Table HI. of Part II. .— 



TABLE m. OP PAET U. 



p.ll6. 



NaU£s of the Asbkakun Kiicgs, 


How long 
each 


Bam 
of the 
Teats. 


taken by lilanuft from tho Copy of tho Maubadh. 


of ttiem 




rtfigtiutl. 




Alexander the Greek .... 


14 


14 


After bim reigned a class of Greek princes, with 






their Persian rizirs, altogether 14 in number . 


68 


82 


■Ashk ben DAra ben Daru ben Dkri 


10 


92 


Ashk ben Ashkan . 




20 


112 


ShiipAr ben Asliknn 






m 


172 


B-ihrilm ben Shiipiir 






u 


183 


B.ilAsh bcQ Slinju'ir . 






11 


194 


Huriiiuz ben Balash 






40 


234 


Ft*r5z ben Hurmuz . 






17 


261 


Baliiah ben I'iJroz 






12 


263 


Kliusrau ben MaUdh&n 






40 


303 


BaliiJjhim 






24 


327 


Ardawi'iu ben Bilaaban 






13 


S49 


Ardawan the Great, ben ABbk&nln 






23 


863 


KhuBrau ben Ashkitailn 






15 


378 


BahH&nd bfu Ashk&uan 






15 


393 


Jfidhar ben Aahknnan 






22 


415 


Baldsh ben Ashkanftn 






80 


US 


Narut ben AshkAnAn 






20 


465 


Ardawan, the last 






81 


496 



10 



20 



80 



p.ll6. Next I shall produce what I found in the chronicle of 'Ab1i>a]faraj 
'Ibnlhim ben 'Ahmad ben Khalaf Alzanjani the mathematician. This 
man, on having taken pains to compare the discordant traditions with 
each other, gives the following account of tlie " Peity Princtt" and the 
durations of their reigns, as ia exhibited in the following table. He 
maiutains tliat tbe Persians fiied only the historical tradition regarding 
the Aahkanian princes, not regarding the other " Peity Princes,** and 
that the Ashk&nians first brought 'Ir&l^ and Jibal under their sway Anne 
AUxandri 246. 



■ 


^^H ERAS, DATES, AND HEIGXS OF RINGS. IIQ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^P 

^^^H 


^^r 


The AsavXNiAits, 


How long 
each of 


Bun 
of tha 
TeMs. 


H 


^^^^^H 


acoording to Che Chronicle of 'Abft-alfunj. 


them 


^1 


■ 




reigned. 




J 


Alexander the Greek .... 


14 


14 


^^^^^M 


The *' FeUy Princet " 








246 


260 


^^^p 


^^^^^H 


Af ghftrshAh . 
ShftpAr ben Ashk&n 








10 


270 


^1 


^^^^^H 








60 


830 


^1 


^^^^^P 


Jlidhar, Senior 








10 


340 


^p 


^ 10 ' Bi^an the AslikAniun 








21 


861 


^p 


^^^^^ 


J^idhar the Aahkftnian 








19 


360 


^p 


^^^^^L 


Narsi the Asbkunian 








40 


420 


^p 


^^^^^1 


Hurmuz 








17 


437 


^1 


^^^^^H 


Ardaw4n 








12 


449 


^1 


^^^^^P 


Kbusrau 








40 


489 


^p 


^^^^^H 


BaUsh 








24 


613 


^p 


^H 


ArdawAn, Junior 








13 


526 


H 


^^^^^H Wo have also found a chronological synopsis of this same Part H. in ^^^H 


^^^^^P the ShAhnama bj 'Abu-Manqur 'Abd-alrazzal^, auch an we exhibit in the j^^^| 


^ 20 


following table :■ — 


■ 


^^^^^^m 






^H 


^^H 


Tbb Asuka.vukb, 


How long g 
reigned. ''^^ 


^H 


^^^^^^M 


Bocording to the ShAkiiAuiA. 


^^^H 


■ 




1 


Ashk ben DArA, according to others a descendant 


i 
1 


^^^^^B 


of Arish 13 13 


^P 


^^^^^M 


Ashk ben Ashk 








25 38 


^M 


^^^^H 


Shaptlr bon Aihk 








30 68 


^1 


^^^^^^ 


Bahrfini ben Shiipur 








fil 119 


^P 


^K^ so 


Narsi ben Bahrain . 
Hurmuz ben Narsi , 








25 ! 144 
40 ! 184 


■ 


^^^^^B 


Bahriim ben Hurmuz 








5 


189 


^P 


^^^^^B 


Hurmuz 








7 


196 


^P 


^^^^^B 


Feroz ben Hurmuz . 






* 


20 


216 


^P 


^^^^^H 


Narsi ben Ferdz 








30 


246 


^M 


^H 


Ardaw&n 








20 


266 


■ 


^^^^^H The nature of this Part IL is brought to light bj a comparatiTe ^M 


^^^^^P examiuation of these tables. It is a period that begins with Alexander's ^M 


^^^^^^ conquest of Persia, and ends with the rising of Ardashir ben Babak ^^^H 


^^^^^ 40 aiOd his seizing the empire out of the bands of the Aahkanians. Both ^^^| 


^^^^^B these limitB are well known, and generally agreed upon. How, tlien, ^^^H 



120 



ALBtaO^'t. 



can the int«n'al between them be a matter of doubt to us? However, 
it must bo kept la mind that we arc not able to mako out by a mere 
course of reasoning the duration of the rule of each of the AshkHiiian 
princes, nor of the other " Petty Princes," nor the number of the persons 
who occupied the throne. For all this depends upon historical tr.idition , 
ank it is well-known to what mishap traditioa has been subject. The 
least, now, we must try to do is to amend this Part II. as much as is in 
our power. 

It is evident and not unknown to anybody, that the year in which 
Tazdajird came to the throne was A, Alex. 943. This undeniable date 10 
we shall kcej) in mind as a basis, and establish it as a gauge by which 
to measure all their records. 

Let U3 first take the sum of years which we get from the Table I. of 
Part IL, i.e. 280 years. Hereto we add that sum which we shall 
p.118. exhibit in the Table I. of Part IH. for the time from the beginning of 
the reign of Ardashir till that of the reign of Yozdajird, in order to 
combine the like tables (i.e. Table I., II., HI. of Part H. respectively, 
with Table I., U., III. of Part III.) with each other. This latter period 
is about 410 years. So we get a sum of 

690 years, 20 

which is less than our gauge by about 253 years. We shall drop this 
calculation and nut take further notice of it. 

Next we consider the sum of years contained in the Table II. of 
Part II., i.e. 358 years. Hereto we add the sum which will bo exhibited 
by Table U. of Part m., corresponding to the sum that occurs in the 
first calculation, and we get the sum total of 

818 years, 

which is again less than our gauge by about 125 years. 

We shall drop this calculation, too, and proceed to the Tables HI. in 
Parts n. and HI., and add thym together in the same way as we have 80 
done with Table I. and H. Then we get the sum of 

930 years, 

vhich is again below our gauge by about thirteen years. 

We drop this calculation, and do not further notice it. For chronology 
docs not admit of this difference, although it may be so slight as nearly 
to approach the truth. 

If we make the same calculation with the years exhibited in the book 
of 'Ab6-alfaraj, combining the corresponding tables with each other, we 
get the sum of 

949 years, 40 

which exceeds our gauge by six years. 



ERAS, DATES, AND EETGVS OP KIX08. 



121 



If we pass bj this and add together the years as reported in the 
Sbiihniima for this Part 11., with the result of any of the tables of 
Part m., this calcuUitioii would still Inss agree with our gauge (than the 
preceding ones). 

Now we shall put aside all these calculations, and try to derire an 
emendation of them from the book of Mani, called Shdbtirkdn, siuce, of 
all Persian books, It is one that may be n;lied upon (as a witness) for the 
time immediately following the rise of Ardashir (ben Bubak). Besides, 
Miinl in his law has forbidden telling lies, and he bad no need what- 
10 soever for falsifying history. 

Mani, now, says in this book in the chapter of the coming of the 
prophet, that he was bom in Babylonia Anno Aatronamorum BabylotiUB 
527, i-c Anno Alex. 527, and four years after the beginning of the 
reign of the king Adharhdn, whom I believe to be Ardawftn the Lut. 
In the same chapter he says that lie first received divine revelation when 
he was thirteen yrjirs of age, or Anno Asironomorum Bnhyhnia; 539, two 
yeara after the beginning of the reign of Ardashir the king of kings. 

Hereby Miini states that the interval between Alexander and Ardashir 

is 537 years, and that the interval between Ard:i8hir and the succession 

20 of Yazdajird is 406 years. And this result is correct, being based upon 

the testimony of a book, favoured by God with a long duratiou, which 

is used aa a religious code. 

Further, we are informed by traditions, the correctness of which is 
proved by their mutual agreemeut, that the last intercalation waa carried 
out at the time of Yazdajird ben ShApftr, and that the Epagomenie were 
put at the end of that month, to which the turn of intercalation had p.ll9. 
come, VIM. the eighth month (Abnn-Mah). If, now, we count the interval 
between Alexander and Ardashir as 537 years, we find the interval 
between Zoroaster and Yazdajird ben Shapflx to be nearly 970 years, in 
80 which eight leap months are due, since it was their custom to inter- 
calate one month in every 120 yeiira. But if we count that interval 
(between Alexander and Ardashir) as 260-270 years,or something more, 
as 300 years, aa most authors do, we get a sum of about 600 years, in 
which only five leap months would be due, whilst we have already men- 
tioned their report stating that eight leap months are due in that 
period. The latter is therefore an irreconcileable supposition (vist. that 
the interval between Alexander and Ardashir is not more than 260-300 
years). 

Likewise it is written in the books of astrologers, that the horoscope 
40 of the year in which Ardashir (ben Babak) ruse waa about half of 
Gemini, and the horoscope of the year in which Yazdajird rose was the 
sixth degree of Cancer. If, now, we multiply 93^ degrees, which is the 
surplus of the solar cycle over the whole days according to the Persians, 
by 407 years, we get the sum of 152} degrees. If we subtract this from 
the rising-place of the degree of the horoscope of that year, in which 
Yazdajird came to the throne, and take the arc of the remainder for the 



122 



ALBlE<JNt, 



p.l20. 



rismj^-plftce of the region of 'IrfiV. which was the reflidence of the 
KisrAs, the horoscope ia half of Gemini close to the place, which the 
Bstrologers mention. If the rears, however, are either more or less, the 
horoscope docs not agree (with what it is reported to Iiave been). So, of 
course, that which is coniirmed bjr two witnesses is more truatworthj 
than that which is contradicted by manj. 

If we add to the 407 years, mentioned by the astrologers, the 637 
jeaxB which are reported by the Sh4bArk&ii, we get the sum of 944 
years. And that is the year of the Mn, AJeiandri for Tazdajird's 
accession to the throne. The surplus of one year is only possible in the 10 
reports of such authors as do not (pve detailed statements regarding the 
months and minor fractions of time, in consequence of the fact that 
the years of the Persians and Greeks commence at different times. 

Kamza, relates that Mi!ig& ben 'Isil Alkisrawi, on baring studied this 
«nbjoct, and perceived the confusion we have mentioned, said : *' The 
interval between Alexander and Yazdajird's accession to the throne is 
942 years. If we subtract therefrom 266 years for the period of the 
reign of the Ashkinians, we get for the rule of the Sasanians, from 
Ardashir till the accession of Yazdajird, 676 years. In their own 
traditions the Persians have uo such chronological system." 20 

Further, he says ; " Thereupon we studied and examined the number 
of their kings. And here be it noticed that they hare forgotten the 
names of some of them, whom the chroniclers have not mentioned, 
blending together some of their names on account of their similarity. 
I shall enumerate them as they really are." Accordingly, he, t.e. K&Ba, 
has increased the durations of their reigns and their number, as we 
shall explain, when the order of our exposition comes to that subject, if 
God permits. 

Chronology of the SasaniailB,— Now we proceed to treat of the 
third part of Persian chronology, the beginning of which is the rising 80 
of Ardashir ben Bilbak of the fimiily of Bahman ben Isfandiy&r. For 
he was the son of Btibak Shah ben S&san ben Babak ben SusAn ben 
Bahafirid ben Mihmiiish ben Sftsiln senior ben Bahman ben Isfandiy&r. 
This part of chronology also is not free from the same defect-s that beset 
the former two parte, but still they are less considerable. I commence 
this part with the Table I., corresponding to the (first) tables of each of 
the two preceding parts, and I shall proceed hereafter with Table II. 
and m. If you gather the dates from the single tables of the three 
parts, you get the consecutive course of Persian chronology. Here 
follows Table I. 40 



^^^^H ^^B ^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 


^H 


The following Table II. rests on the authority of Hamza, who saja ^^^H 


^^M 


that he baa amended it by means of the Abaati, and transcribed it from ^^^^ 


^^H 


the Kitdb-alnyar-Alkabir. ^^^B 




TABLE TT, of PART III. 


J 




How long each of Uiani 
reigned. 


Sam of th« Tears. 


^B 




NAJtSS or TBK SASAXIAN 
KlNUS. 




H 




Tears. 


Mod the. 


I>a7B. 


Tears. 


Hontha. 


Dar>. 


■ 


AfdMlitr BAbak . 


14 


6 





14 


6 







Shftpflr ben Ardashlr . 


30 





28 


44 


6 


28 


^^^^ 




Hurmuz ben Shilpur 


1 


10 





4€ 


4 


28 


^^M 




Bahrtitn ben Hurmuz 


3 


s 


3 


49 


8 


1 






6* Bahrani ben BahrAm 


17 








66 


8 


1 


^^^H 




Bahruiu ben Bahram boD 


1 








^^^H 




BahrAm 


, 4 





67 







^^^H 




Narsi ben Bahrilm 


9 1 





76 







^^^H 




Hurmuz ben Narsi 


7 


5 





83 


5 




^^^^1 




Shnp^r ben Hurmus 














^^^^1 




Dhfl.araktrtf 


72 








155 


6 




^^^H 




10. Aidashir ben Hurmuz 


4 





159 


5 




20 H 




Shapur ben Shapiir 


50 4 





209 


9 




^H 




Babram ben Sbnpl^r 


11 





220 


9 




^H 




Tazdagird ben Baliram 












^1 




Sceteratus , 


21 


5 


e 


242 


2 


9 


^^1 




Bahr&m ben Yazdagird, 














^^^H 




Gar ... . 


23 1 





265 


2 


9 


^^^^1 


^H p.124. 


IS. Tazdagird ben Bahram 


18 1 4 


23 


288 


7 


7 


^^^H 




Fcroz, ben Yazdaginl 


27 





1 


310 


7 


8 


^^^H 




Balasb ben Feroz . 


4 








314 


7 


8 


80 ^^B 




Kobad ben Ftr6z . 


43 








357 


7 


8 


^H 




Anoshirwan ben KobAd . 


47 


7 





405 


2 


8 


^^^H 




20, Hurmuz beo Anoshir- 














^^^H 




wan .... 


11 


7 


10 


416 


9 


18 


^^^H 




Farwiz Ueu Hurmuz 


38 








454 


9 


18 


^^^^M 




Shirawaihi ben Parwiz . 


8 





455 


5 


18 


^^^H 




Arda&hir ben Shirawaihi 


1 ! 6 





456 


11 


18 


^^^H 




PiirAndukht, daughter of 














^^^1 




Parwiz 


1 


4 





458 


3 


18 


^^^^M 




25. Quskaoasptadha . 
Azarmidukht, daughter 


; 2 





458 


5 


18 


40 V 




1 










^H 




of Parwiz . 


1 1 4 





459 


9 


18 


^H 




Khurziid Khusra . 


1 





459 


10 


18 


^H 


^^^^^H 


Yaidagird beu Shahry&r 


20 





479 


10 


18 


^1 




J 



^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^^^vWIHI^i^l 


^M 


^^^^1 ^^^V DATES, AMD SEIGNS 


KIXG8. 


125^^^^^^B 


^^^^^^^^ The foHowin^ Table III. in this P&rt is that one 


which Hamza 


aays he p.l25. ^B 


^^^^^1 transcribed from the copy of the Maubadh. 




1 




Kjuras ov Tm 8XsAzciA.f EiKea, 


How long each of them 
reigned. 


finm of the Tears. 


■ 




such an Hamza iajs be haa 

token from the Copy of 

the Maabftdb. 






H 




Tmti. 


Uonthi. 


Daji. 


YeaiB, 


Monthfl. 


Day a. 


1 


Ardnfihtr b. BAba^ (after 














haring made war upon 














^H 




th& *' Petty Prince*") . 


; 14 


10 





14 


10 





^H 


^^L ^^ 


ShApflr ben Ardasbir 


30 





Ifi 


44 


10 


15 


^1 




Hurmnz ben ShApiir 


i 3 


3 





48 


1 


15 


^1 




BahriUn ben Hurmuz 


1 17 








6£ 


1 


15 


^H 




5. Bahram Sakan-shnh 


1 40 


4 





105 


5 


15 


^H 




Narsa ben Babram 


i 9 








114 


5 


15 


^1 




Hurmuz ben Norsa 


; 7 


1 


121 


6 


15 


^1 




Shapiir Dhti-al'aktfif . 


' 72 





193 


5 


15 


^1 




Ardasbir ben Ilunnuz . 


' 4 


1 


197 


5 


15 


^1 




10. ShApfir ben ShApfir 


5 








202 


5 


15 


^1 




BahrAm ben ShApt^r 


1 11 








213 


5 


15 


^1 


^H 


Tazdagird Sceleratun 


21 


s 


18 


234 


11 


3 


^1 




Babram Gar . 


19 


11 





254 


10 


3 


^M 




Tazdagird ben BahrAm . 


14 


4 


18 . 


269 


2 


21 


^M 




15. Ferdz ben Tazdagird . 


17 








286 


2 


21 


^M 




BalAsh ben Fcroz . 


4 








290 


2 


21 


^M 




KobAd ben Feroz . 


41 








331 


2 


21 


^M 




Anoshirwau . 


48 








879 


2 


21 


p. 126. ^1 




Hurmuz ben An^Bbirwan 


12 








891 


2 


21 


H 


^^^^^^^^^^^H 


20. PanviK 


38 








429 


2 


21 


^m 


^^^^ 


KobAd Sbirawaihi . 





8 





429 


10 


21 


^M 


^^^^ 80 


Ardaehir ben Sbirawaihi 


1 


6 





431 


4 


21 


^M 




POrAu , daughter of Parwiz 1 


4 





482 


8 


21 


^M 




Feroz .... 


1 





432 


9 


21 


^M 




25. Azarmidukht 


6 





433 


3 


21 


^M 




KburradAdb Khusra 1 








434 


3 


21 


^M 




Yazdagird ben Shahiy&r 20 

I 








454 


3 


21 


■ 









■ 


126 ^^^^^^B ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


^^H 


In the book of 'Abft-alfaraj Alzanjrmt we have found the chronologj ^^^| 


^^^^^^^^H of tHs Peirb differing from our accounts in tlic preceding three tables ; ^^^| 


^^^^^^^^^1 


ire hare added Uis account in this place, in conformitj with what we ^H 


^^^^^H 


liaTe done in the preceding two Parts. And herewith the Chronological ^| 


^^^^^^^^^^^^K 

^^^m 


rable ends. 


J 




1 


^^^^B 


^^^^^H 




How long each of them , 


^^^H 


^^^^^^K 


Names or mi BJlsXiruK Kates, 


eeignea. 


^^^^B 


^^^1 


according to the Tradilioo of 
'AbA-&1FnrKJ AlzAnjdTi!. 




^H 










H 




Tears. Months. 


I>»T». Tean. 


Vonths. 


DaT*. 


■ 


Ardasbir ben Babak 


14 10 





14 


10 





^^^^^B 


ShiipOr ben Ardaahtr . 


31 


6 


18 


46 1 4 


18 


^^H 


^^^^^H 


Hurmuz ben ShApflr 


1 


6 


47 : 10 


18 


^H 


^^^^^H 


Bahr&m ben Hurmuz 


3 


8 


8 51 1 


21 


^H 


^^^^^H 


£. Bahriim ben Baliriim 


17 


68 ' 1 


21 


^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Bahriim ben Bahrum hen 


' 




^^^^1 


^^^^^H 


BalirAm 


4 4 72 , 5 


21 


'^^^H 


^^^^^H 


Norsi ben Bahrnm. 


9 1 





81 


6 


21 


^H 


^^^^^H 


Hunnuz ben Narst 


9 ' 





90 


6 


91 


^H 


^^^^^p 


ShApur ben Hurmuz 












^H 


^^^^^^ 


Dhual'aktftf 


72 


162 


5 


SI 


^H 


^^^B 


10. Ardashir ben Hurmuz 


4 


166 


5 


21 


20 ■ 


^^H 


ShApur Len ShApflr 


5 4 


171 


9 


21 


^B 


^^^H 


Bahrani ben Shfipdr 


11 


182 


9 


21 


^^^B 


^^^H 


Tazdagird SccUratua 


21 5 18 


204 


3 


9 


^^^H 


^^^H 


Bahrlim Gftr . 


18 11 3 


223 


2 


12 


^^^H 


^^^v 


15. Yazdagird ben BahrAm 


18 4 18 


241 


7 





^^^1 


^^^1 


Hunnuz . . .17 


248 


7 





^H 


^^H 


F^rAz ben Yazdagird . 1 27 


275 


7 





^B 


^^^B 


EaUsh ben Ft-roz . . ! 4 


279 


7 





^^^H 


^^H 


Eobnd and Tamasp, sons 








^^^B 


^^^H 


of FerAz ... 43 


322 


7 





^^H 


^^^m 


20. An68hirwAnbonK'obad 47 7 5 


870 


2 


6 




^H 


Hurmuz ben Anfiahirwan 11 , 7 16 


881 


9 


20 


^^^^^H 


^^^1 


Parwiz ben Hurmuz . ' 38 


419 


9 


20 


^^^^^H 


^^^H 


Shirawaihi ben Parwiz . ' 7 


420 


4 


20 


^^^^^H 


^^^H 


Ardaehtr ben Shtrawaihi '05 


420 ; 9 


20 


^^^^M 


^^^P 


25. EhuhAu, who besieged i i 




^^^H 


^^^H 


the Greeks . .,0,0 22 


420 


10 


12 


^^^H 


^^^H 


Kisrn ben Kob&d - .0 


3 


421 


1 


12 


^^^H 


^^^B 


P^rAn,daughter of Parwiz 1 


6 


423 


7 


12 


^H 


^^^B 


Gushanas ttadha . .0 2 
Azarmidukbi, daughter 


422 


9 


12 


40 ■ 


^^H 








^^H 


^^^H 


of Parwiz ... 4 


423 


1 


12 


^^^^M 


^^^1 


80. FarrukbzAd EhuErau . 1 1 423 


2 


12 


^^^H 


L 


Yazdagird ben ShahrjAr ,20 . 448 


2 


12 


^B 




J 



BRAS, DATES, AND RBIONg OP KINGS. 



127 



Next we return to fulfil our promiao of explaining tlie way in which p.l29. 
Allcisrawi works out the chronology of this Part. ITT-, having perceived 
the confusion of the former two parts, although we cannot help wonder- 
ing verj' much at him and at his method. For, whilst trying and experi- 
menting, he has subtracted from the period between Alexander and 
Yazdagird 266 years for the period of the Ashghanian rule. Haraza, 
however, records only that tradition, which he says he has taken from 
and amended by means of the Ahastd, and the other tradition which he 
aays he has taken from the copy of the Maubadh. And according to 

10 both these traditions, this period is longer even than 350 years (Hamza- 
AbaatA, 858 years ; Hamza-Maubadh, 496 years). Now it is neeessary 
for us to use either of these two traditions, or to add to them that one 
which Alkismwi holds to be correct (ae a third tradition), in order not 
to use any other tnulitJon but those which he himself mentions. Or did 
he possibly place his confidence in that one which we have mentioned, 
and derived from the Shabniima (266 years) r* 

Further, now, as Alkisrawi has done this, and thinks that the existence 
of such confusion is an established fact, I should like to know why he 
refers it to the period of the SasRuian, not to that of the Ashghfiniau 

20 rule. For there was much more opportunity for mistakes creeping ioto 
the chronology i f the Ashghiinians (than into that of the SAsaniana), 
because during their period the Persian empire was disorganized, every- 
one minded only his own affairs, and people were prevented by various 
circumstances from preserving their chronology. Such were, e.g. the 
calamities which Alexander and his Greek lieutenants brought upon 
them, further the conflagration of all the literature in which people 
ddlighled, the ruin of all hue arts whic^h were the recreation and the 
desire of the people. And more than th.at. He (Alexander) burned the 
greatest part of their religious code, he destroyed the wonderful archi- 

30 tectuml monuments, e.g. those in the mountains of Istakhr, now-a-days 
knowu as the Mosque of Solomon bcu David, imd delivered them up to 
the flames. People even say that even at the present time the traces of 
the fire are visible in some places. 

This is the reason why they have neglected a certain spac© of time in 
the first part of the period, between Alexander and Ardashir, viz. when 
the Greeks reigned over them. And they did not begin to settle their 
chronology until their fright and tt^rror had subsided in consequence of 
the establishment of the Ashkuntan rule over them. Therefore the 
period preceding this event was much more liable to confusion (than the 

40 later period of the Silsanians), because under the SAsauians the empire 
was in good order, aud the royal dignity was trnnsmittod in their family 
in uninterrupted succession, whilst iu the time of those (their predecea- 
sors^ there was much confusion. This is proved by all the testimonies 
which we have produced in support of this our view. 

Hero follows the table containing the so-called emendation of 
Alkjsrawi. 



128 



ALBlBdNt. 



IlISO. 



p.l31. 



Naue8 or THE 8a6^mA7< Kings 


How long each of them 

mitrnt*A. 


Sam of the Teais. 


lu reported by Ilamza. 














according to the Emeudfttinn 














oTAIkisrawt. 


ToftTB. 


BfontJia. 


DajB. 


Yean. 


MontbB. 


Hajt. 


Ardashtr ben BAbak 


19 


10 





19 


10 





Subur-aljuuud 


32 


4 





52 


2 





Hurmuzb. Sabftr-aljunfid 


1 


10 





54 








Bahrain ben Hurmuz 


9 


3 





63 


3 





6. Babratu beu B-iUriiin . 


23 








86 


3 


• 


Bahr)i)n ben Bahrain ben 














Bahrum 


13 


4 





99 


7 





Narsa ben Bj.hram 


9 








108 


7 





Hunnuz ben Narsa 


13 








121 


7 





Shiipur DhU'al'akt&f 


72 








193 


7 





10. Ardasbir, brother of 














the preceding . 


4 








197 


7 





ShArur ben ShApurDhA- 
araktaf . 














82 








279 


7 





Bahrain, soQ of the pre- 














ceding 


12 








291 


7 





Yazdagird ben BabrAm, 














Clement, Princ« of 














Sharnin 


82 








878 


7 





Yazdaj^ird ben Yazda- 














gird, Atroz. 


23 








396 


7 





15. Babraii) Our, son of 














the preceding , 


23 








419 


7 





Tazdag^rd b. Bahriim Q-ur 


18 


5 





437! 








Bahrain ben Yazdaglrd . 


26 


1 





463 


1 





Feroz beu Bahrain 


29 





1 


492 


1 


_ 


BaUah ben Fcroz . 


8 








495 


1 




20. Kubud,brotbcrofBalAsh 


68 








563 


1 




An6Bhirwau beu KubAd 


47 


7 





610 


8 




Hurmuz ben AnAsbirwau 


23 








633 


8 




Parwiz hpn Hiinnuz 


38 








671 


8 




Shirawaibi ben Uurmuz 





8 





672 


4 




25. Ardashtr ben Shirawaibi 


1 








673 


4 




Sbahrbaraz . 





1 


8 


673 


5 


9 


Buran, daughter of Ktsrft 














Parwiz 


1 








674 


5 


9 


Kbushnushbanda (Qush- 














anasptadha) 





2 





674 


7 


9 


Kbusrau b«n Kub&d ben 














HlUTllUZ 





10 





675 


5 


9 


30. Feroz, a descendant of 














Ardashir ben Babak . 





2 





675 


7 


9 


Azarin!dukht, daughter 














of Parwiz . 





4 





675 


11 


9 


Farnikbziid ben Khusrau 














b. Parwiz. His mother 














waa Girawaibi, sister 














of Bahrain ShQbtn 





1 





676 





9 


84. Tazdagird ben Shahryfir 


20 








696 





9 



10 



so 



80 



40 



fiO 



BRAP, PATB8, AND RBIGNfiOPKTNOSr 



129 



On Titles in the Khalifats. — It is a theory of the aetrologers that 
none of the khalif» of IsliVm and the other kinpg of the Muslims roigna 
longer than tveuty-four yearn. As to the roi^ of Aluiu^i* that extended 
to nearly thirty years, tboy account for it in tfale way, saying that already 
at the end of the reign of Almuttak!, and at the beginning of that of 
AimuBtakfi, the empire aud the rule had been transferred from the hands 
of the family of 'Abbas into those of the family of Buwaihi (Buya, 
Boya), and that the authority which remained vrith the Bani*'Abb^ 
wae only a juridical and relig^ious, not a political and secular affair, in 
!• fact something like the dignity of the Rosh-tjtih'ithti with the Jews, who 
exercises a sort of religious authority without any actual rule and 
empire. Tlierefore the 'AbbiUide prince, who at present occupies the 
throne of the Khihi/a, is held by the astrologers to bo only the (spiri- 
tual) head of Islam, but not a king. 

Already in ancient times astrologers ueed to prophesy this state of 
affairs. Such a prophecy you find, e.g. in the book of 'Ahmad hen 
Altayyib AlsarakUsi, where he speaks of the eonjunolion of Saturn and 
Mara in the sign of Cancer. The same was distinctly declared by the 
Hindu Kanaka, the astrologer of Alrashtd, for he maintained that the 
20 reign of the Hani 'Abbas would be transferred to a man who would come 
from Ispahfin. He determined, also, the time when 'All bt-n Buwaihi, 
called *Imnd-aldaula, should come forward in Ispahan (as a claimant to 
supreme power). 

When the Bant-'Abbas had decomted their aHsistants, friends and 
enemies indiscriminately, with vain Litlea, compounded with the word 
Daula (i.e. empire, such as Helper of the Empire, Sword of the Empire, 
etc.), their empire perished ; for in this they went beyond all reasonable 
limits. This went ou so long till those who were especially attached to 
their court claimed something new as a distinction between themselves 
30 and the others. Thereupon the khalifs liestowed double titles. But then 
also the others wanted the same titles, aud knew how to carry their 
point by bribery. Now it became ncccsBary a second time to create a 
distinction between this class and those who were directly attached to 
their court. So the khalifs l)eatowed triple titles, abiding besides the 
title of Shahiiashah. In this way the matter became utterly opposed to 
common sense, and cUuusy to the highest degree, so that he who men- 
tions them gets tired before he has scarcely commenced, that he who 
writes them loses his time and writing, and he who addresses them runs 
the risk of missing the time for prayer. 
40 It will not do any harm, if we mention here the titles which, np to 
our time, have been bestowed by their majesties the khalifs. We shall 
comprise them in the following table. 



p.132. 



^^^^^1 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


^^^^^^^r p.l33> The Karnea of tboie on whom 


Hie Titloi wbioh were bestowed ^^^^^^^^^| 


^^^^^^^H Titlos wcro bestowed. 


by Tbf?ir MaJBHtiea the Khnlifa. ^^^^^^^^^^^| 


^^^^H AU^m ben 'Ubaid-all&h. 


WaUyj-al-dau]a. ^^^^^^| 


^^^^^H His son. 


*Am!d-aI-dan1a. ^^^^| 


^^^^^^H 'Abu^Muhanunad ben HamdAn 


Nofir-al-daula. ^^^H 




Sa'd>ai>daula. ^^^H 


^^^^^H 'Abii-alhasau 'Ali ben Hamd^ 


Saif-aUdaula. ^^^H 


^^^^^^P 'All ben Bunaibi .... 


'Inu'id-al-daula. ^^^H 


^^^^^H 'AbO-nU^asan 'Al^mad bon Buwaihi 


Mu'izK-aUdaula. ^^^^ 


^^^^^^H Alhasan ben Buwaihi 


Kiikn-a%daula. 10 ^^^H 


^^^^^B 'Abi!t-Mau9ur Biikhtiyar ben *Abi- 


'Izz-ul-daula. ^^^H 


^^^^^H all^asan. 


^^^1 


^^^^^1 'AbA-'IshAV bon Alhusnin 


'tJmdat-aUdaula. ^^^H 


^^^^^H 'Ab(i-Harb All^iabufibi ben *Abi- 


Sauad-al-daula. ^^^H 


^^^^^H alhusain. 


^^^1 


^^^^^^ 'AbA-Manf £ir Bisuttin ben Wasbm* 


^bir-ol-daula. ^^^^| 


^^H 


^^^1 


^^^H 'Ab^-MannAr Buwaihi bc-n Allmean 


Mu'ajyid-al-daula. ^^^^| 


^^^H Aimarzubau ben Bakblij&r . 


'I'zaz-aUdaula. ^^^H 


^^^H KabuB ben Waabmf^ir . 


Shams -a! -ma* all, 20 ^^^H 


^^^H 'Abu-' Ahmad Harith ben 'Abmod 


Waliyy-al-dttula. ^^^H 


^^^1 'Abil-Shujii* Fanakhusra ben AU 


'A^lud-al-daula wa Taj-aJ-railla. ^^ 


^^^^1 hasan. 


^H 


^^^H *Abu-Kalinjar ben Fanakhusra 


Fakhr-aldaula wa Falak-aU'ununa. ^^^H 


^^^H 'Abft'Kiiliiijar MarzubAu ben 


^am^iim-al-daula wa Shams-al- ^^^H 


^^^H Fanakhusra. 


milla. ^^^^H 


^^^H 'Abu-alfawnns ben Fanakhusra 


8haraf-al-dau1a wa Zaman-al •milla. ^^^H 


^^H 'Ati{)-Ta1ib RuRtam Iten 'Alt . 


Majd-al-milla wa kahf-al-'umma. ^^^H 


^^^H p»134» 'Abib*alViiBim MaUmiid ben Sabuk- 


Yamtn-al-daula wa 'Amtu-al-milla. ^^^H 


^^H tag^u. 


^^M 


^^^1 'Ab^-No^r Khnrra FerAz ben 


BahA-al<daula wa Diya-al-roilla wa ^^^H 


^^^H Fanakhusra. 


Ghijath-al-'umma. ^^^^| 


^^^H *Ab^-all;aHan Muhflmmad ben 


K^ir-al-daula. ^^^^| 


^H 


^^H 


^^H 'Ab&-al'abbaij Tash Alhajib . 


HusAm-aJ^daula. ^^^^| 


^^^H 'AbA-alhason FA*ik-a]k1iiiRRa ■ 


'Amid-al-daula. ^^^^| 


^^^1 'Abu-* All Mutammad ben Mubam- 


f^A^ir-nl-daula. ^^^H 


^^^B mad ben 'IbrHhtm. 


^^^1 


^^^H Sabuktagin, first .... 


Mu'!n-al-daula. ^^^H 


^^^^H Afterwards he received the title of 


Na?ir-al-din wal-ilaula. ^^^^| 


^^^H Ma^mfid ben Sabuktagtn 


Saif-al-daula. 40 ^^^H 


^^^1 'Abi^'alfawarit) BektdKun Al^fijib 


Sinan-al-daula. ^^^^| 


^^^H 'Ab^-aUfiiaim Hahammad ben 


Naftr-aUdanla. ^^^^| 


^^M *Ibr&Mm. 


^^^B 


^^^1 'Ab^-Mansur Alp Arsbin Albillawi 


Mu'iU'al'danla. ^^^H 



HBA9, DATBR, ANO REIONS OP KINGS. 



131 



Also the Wozirs of the Klialifa have received certain titles, com- 
pounded with the word DM, as e.g. DkiUai^yaminain, BhA-al-ri'dsatain, 
Dhil'al-kifi'njafain, Dhn-al'Sai/ain, Dhu-al-kalamam, etc. 

The Buwaihi family, when, as we have mentioned, the power pasBed 
into their handa, imitated the example of the khalifs ; nay, they made 
it still worse, and their title-giring was nothing but one great lie, when 
they called their Wazfrs, e.g. KafUal'-kufiU, AVcAfi AVaw^ad, 'Atthad- 
aUm/dt. 

The family of SamAn, the rulers of Eliurasiiu, had no desire for such 
10 titles, contcutiug themselves with their kunffoa (such na 'Abii-Na^r, 'Abu- 
at-hasaut 'Abd-Sittih, *Ahii-al-kdgim, 'Abu-ai-hdritJi). In their lifetime 
they were called Atmalik, Atmu'ay^ad, AlmvwaffaJf, Almaniur, Almu^ai- 
iam, Abnuntasir, and after their death, Alhamid, Ahliahid, Alta'id, 
AUadid^ Alraiii, dc. To their field -marsbalB, however, they gave the 
titles of Niiair-aldaula, *Iitiiid-aliiitul<iy Ifusdm'aldtiula, 'Amid-aldavUt, 
8aif-alda\da, Sindn-atdaulaj Mu'in-aldatUa, Ndsir-aidaiila, in imitation of 
the ways of the kbalifs. 

The same was done by Bughrakban, when he had come forward (to 
claim supreme power) a.h. 382, calling hiuisflf Skihdb-aldaula. 
20 Some of them, however, have gone Iieyond this limit, tailing them- 
selves 'Amir-aU'dlani and Sayyid'aWumard. May God inflict on them 
ignominy in this world, and show to them and to others their weakness ! 
Ab to the 'Amir, the glorious Prince, may God give a long duration 
to his reign ! (to whom this book is dedicated), His Majesty the Khalif 
addressed him in a letter, and offered to him titles, auch as those com- 
pounded with the word Daula (e.g. Saif-al'daula, J^tudm-al-^tUaf etc.). 
But then he considered himself superior to them, and abhorre<l the idea 
of being comiiared with those wlio were called by such titles but only 
in a very metaphorical way. He, therefore, selected for himself a title 
80 the full meaujng of which did not exceed his merits {Shanu-al-ma'dli, p.135. 
i.e. 8nn of the Heujkts). He haa berorae — may God give a long 
duration to his power ! — among the kings of the world like the sun, who 
illuminates the darkness, in whirh they live, by the rays of his Iteujhta. 
Ho has come into high favour with the khalifs as a prince of the 
Believers. They wanted to redouble and to increase his title, but his 
noble mind declined it. May God give him a long life ; may he enlighten 
ail the parts of the world by his justice, and bless them by his look ; may 
He raise hit affairs and those of the subjects who dwell in his shadow 
to perfection, increasing them evorhistingly. God is almighty to do this, 
40 and sees and knows all the affairs of his slaves [ 

Intervals between the Eras. — After this digression we now return 
to the poiut whence we sUirtt-d, and proceed, after having finished the 
collection of chronological dates in the preceding tables. Next we must 
turn our attention towards fulfilling our promifi*> of tflarhing the reader 
that knowledge by means of which he may compute the eras that are 



134 



albSb^I 



'i>138. The Chess Problem. — For the solution of the chess proUem (7i/. for 
the redupUciitiou i>f the chess and its caLcuhition) there arn two £ujida- 
montal rales. The one of thom is this : — 

The equuro of the number of a check jr of the 64 checks of the chess- 
board is eqiiEkl to the number of that chock the distance of which from 
the check x is cqun.1 to the distance of the check x from the 1st check. 

For example : take the square u£ the number of the 5th check, T.e. 
the square of 16(1t)'-) = 2o0, which is tho number belonging to the 9th 
check. Now, the distance of the 9th check from the 5th is equal to the 
distance of the 5th check from the first one. 



10 



The secotid rule is this : — 

Tho number of a check le minus 1 is equal to the sum total of the 
numbers of all the preceding checks. 

Example: The number of tho 6th check is 32. And 32 — 1 is 31, 
which is equal to the sum of the numbers of all the preceding checks* 
i.e. of— 

1 + 2+4+8+16 (=31). 

If we takd the square of the square of the square of 16, multiplied hy 
itself {i.e. S[(16"^)']^}* or 16i*), this is identical with taking Ihesquareof 
the number of the 33rd check, by which operation the number of the 65th 20 
check is to be found. If you diminish that number by 1, you get the 
sum of the numbers of all the checks of the chessboard. The number of 
the 33rd thc'ck is wjiial to the square of the number of the 17rh check. 

Tho number of the 17th check is equal to the square of the number 
of the 9th check. 

The namber of the 9th check is equal to the square of the number of 
the 5th check. And this (i-e. the number of the 5th cdieck) is the above- 
mentioned number 16. 

'Abfi-Raihan says in hia KiVrb-aWarkitm (Book of the Ciphers) : "I 
sball explain the method of the calculation of the chess problem, that 30 
the reader may get accustomed to apply it. But first wc must promise 
that you should knnw, that in a progression of powers of 2 the single 
numbers are distant from each other according to a similar ratio, 
{LacuTia /) If the number of the reduiilications, %,€. tho number of the 
single members of a progression is an even one, it has two middle 
numbers. But if the number of the reduplications is an odd one, the 
progression has only one middle number. 

The multiplicalion of the two ends by each other is equal to the 
multi)ilication of the two middle numbers. (In case there is only one 
middle number, its square \r equal to the multiplication of the two end 40 
numbers.) Tills is one thing you must know beforehand. The other is 
this :— 

If we want to know the sum total of any progression of powers of % 
we take the double of the largest, t.e. the last number, and subtract 



SBAS, DATES, AMD BEIGNS OP EIXG8. 



135 



Ih the medium, the fifth 
18 the meditun, the sixth 



therefrom the sinalleet, i.e. the firat number. The remainder is the sum 
total of these reduplications {i.e. of this progrossiou). 

Now, after having CBtablished this, if wo add to the checks of the 
chessboard one check, a 65th one, then it is evident that the number 
which belongs to this 65th check, in consequence of the reduplications 
of powers of 2, beginning with 1, is equal to the sum of the numbers 
of all the checks of the chessboard minus the Ist cheek, which is the 
number 1, the first membor of the progression. If, therefore, 1 is 
subtracted from this sum, the remainder is the sum of the numbers of 
10 all the checks of the chessboard. 

If, now, we consider the 65th check and the Ist as the two ends of a. 
progression, their medium is the 33rd check, the first medium. 

Between the checks 33 and 1, the check 17 is the medium, the second 
medium. 

Between the checks 17 and 1, the check 9 is the medium^ the third 
medium. 

Btjtween the checks 9 and I, the check 5 is the medium, the fourth 
medium. 

Between the checks 5 and 1, the check 
20 medium. 

Between the checks 3 and 1, the check 
medium, to which belongs the number 2. 

Taking the square of 2 (2^), we got a sum which is a product of the 
multiplication of the number of the Ist check by that of the 3rd check 
(1 x4=2^). The number of the let check is 1. This product, then, Is 
the fifth medium, the number of the 3rd cheek, i,e, 4. 

The square of 4 is 16, which is the fourth medium iu the 5th che*-k. 

The square of 16 is 256, which is the third medium in the 9th chock. 

The square of 256 is 65,536, which is the second medium in the 17th 
80 check. 

The square of 65,536 is 4,294,967,296, which is the first medium in the 
83rd check. 

The square of 4,294,967,296 is 18,446.744,073,709,551,616. 

If we subtract from this sum 1, i.e. the number of the first check, the 
remainder is the sum of the numl»ci-8 of all the checks of the chess- 
board. I mean that number which at the beginning of this digression we 
have used ikS an example (of the threefold mode of numeral rotation). 

The immensity of this number cannot be fixed eicept by dividing it 
by 10,000. Tliereby it is changed into Bidar (sums of 10,000 dirhams). 
iO The Bidar are divided by 8. Thereby they are changed into 'Aukdr 
(loads). 

The 'Aufcdr are divided by 10,000. Thereby the mules, that carry 
them, are formed into Kuf'dn (herds), each of them consisting of 10,000. 

The /Tu^'t^n are divided by 1,000, that,a8it were, they (the herds) might 
gnue on the borders of Wddie, 1,000 kids on tho border of each WmH. 



p.l39. 



BKA8, DATB8, AND EEIGN8 OP KINGS. 



187 



The reaaon of this ia, that intormlation prccodcd the epoch of this 
era by two yeare, so that at tbo beginning of the era two fourth-parts of 
a day had already Btimmed up. If, therefore, at the end of the era there 
ia a remainder nf two fourth- partti, theai;, together with the two fourth- p.l41. 
parts at the beglaiiing of the era, make up one uomplete day. In that 
case the year is a leap year. 

(In thia calcutatiun the Syrian year and months arc used.) 

If we, liowover, compute this era according to the method of the 
Greeks, we subtract 92 from the number of its Dies Paratce, because 
10 the beginning of the Greek year differs from that of the Syrian year. 
The remainder wc compute in the same way as we have done aocording 
to the method of the Syriana, The remairiing fourth-parts we raiae to 
whole days, and distribute tbeni over the single months, to each month 
its proper portion, commencing with Jamtariu*, i.e. OnAn the tost. 

The leap year is ascertained in the same way that we have mentioned 
before. 

If we want to find the jEro Atufuiti, we compute its Dies Paraia in 
the same way aa we hare done with the JEra Alexandri, so as to get 
complete years and a remainder of fourth-parts of a day. These latter 
20 we change into days, and distribute them orer the single months, to 
each month its proper portion, beginning with Tdt. If the year is a 
leap year, we count the Epa^mnenie, i.e. the itmall month, &a six days, 
whilst in a common year we count it as five days. 

The leap year is recognized by there being no remainder of fourth- 
part* of a day after we have converted them into whole days. Of which 
the reason is this, tliat the leap year preceded the beginning of the era. 
On this subject (the Epagoviena^) there cannot be much uncertainty, since 
they are placed at the end of the year, and the lat of Tot always 
coincides with the 2dth of the Syrian month ^bh. 
30 Of the j'Era Antonini, we compute the complete years in the same 
way that we have explained for the ^ra Att^iuti. The remainder (of 
fourth-ports of a day) we divide by 4, and distribute the whole daya 
over the single months, to each mouth its pro]>er portion, beginning with 
TAt. In a leap year we count the Eimgora^eoffi as six days. 

The leap year is recognized by there being one quarter of a day as a 
remainder of the fourth-ports (of a day). 

Of the ^ra Diocleiiani, wc compute the Diet Parat<B in the same way 
as we have done with the JEra Anguati, etc., so as to got complete years 
and to convert the fourtb-i>art8 again into complete days. Thereupon 
40 we distribute them over the single months, beginning with Janttariut, 
i.e. KftnAn the Last. In a leap year wo give to Pobruarius, i.e. Shubilt, 
twenty-nine days, in a common year twenty-eight days. 

The leap year is recognized in the same way as for the ^ra AUxandrit 
by there being two fourth-ports as the remainder of the fourth-parts of 
a day. 



138 



AIBtEfllrt, 



As rcpards tho eras of the Araba and their months, how thcv intor- 
calated theiu, and in what order tbej arranged them in pagan times, 
this is a subject that has been utterly neglected. The Arabs were totally 
illiterate, and as the means for the perpetuation of their traditions they 
relied solely upou memory and poetry. But afterwards, when the 
generation of those who practised these things bad died out, there was 
no further mention of them. There is no possibility of finding out such 
matters. 
p.142. ^ we want to find the Era of the Hijra as used in Islam, we diride its 

Dies Paraic» by tlie lueau length of the lunar year, i.e. 854^^ + ^ days 10 
(3544^ days), which is effected by multiplying the number of days by 
80, the smallest common denominator for both fractions, fifth and sixth 
part*. The sum we divide by 10,f>31, which is the product of 354. multi- 
plied by 30, pliM ii=i+^. 

The quotient represents complete lunar years, and the remainder con- 
sists of thirtieth-parts of a day. If we diTide these by 30, we get again 
whole days, which we distribute orer the single months, giring to one 
month thirty days, to the other twenty-nine alternately, beginning with 
Aimu^arram. The rcDiainder of days that does not make up one com- 
plete month, represents the date of that identical month. 90 

This is the method for the computation of the eras used in the Canons. 
But if there are still other methods which people adopt for this pur- 
pose, they all gu back to one and the same principle. 

As for the calculation which is based upon tho appearance of new 
moon, it must be remarked that two imperfect months (of twenty-nine 
days) may follow each other as well as three perfect ones (of thirty days) , 
that the lunar year may exceed the above-mentioned measure (of 354^ 
days), whilst it may not attain this length at other limes^ the reason of 
which is tho Tariation in tho rotation of the moon. 

Of the M.i}ra Yaxdagirdi, we divide the Dies ParaUB by 365, whereby 80 
we get complete years. The remainder we distribute over the single 
months, to each month its proper portion, beginning with Farwardin- 
Mah. In this way we come to know the era, the epoch of which is the 
bogiuuing of his reign, that era which is used in the Canojts. 

If we, however, want to find the Era of Oie Zoroastrtans, we subtract 
twenty years from the jEra Yazdagirdi. The remainder is the Era of 
the Zoroftstrians. For they date from the year in which Yazdagird waa 
billed and their national empire ceased to exist, not from the year in 
which he ascended the throne. 

The Era of Almii'tadidL-biUaJi we compute in the same way as the 40 
JEm Alexandri. We give to each month its proper portion, as to the 
Persian months, beginning with Farwardin-Mah, and proceeding as £ar 
as tho beginning of Adhar-Mab. If, then, the year is a leap year, which 
is recognized in tho same way as in the Mra Aloxandri, by there being 
a remainder of tw fourth-parts of a day, (we coimt the Andargdhs or 



ERAS, DATRB, AND REIGNS OP KINGS. 



139 



SpagomerUB between AMn-Miih and Adbarmub) a« six days, wbilst in a 
common year we count them only as five days. New-Year (Nauroz) 
always coincides with the lUh of Hazirun, for those reasons which we 
have already mentioned by the help and the support of God ! 

Now it would seom proper to add a chapter which is wanting in the 
CajWHs, and lias not been treated by anybody except by 'AbCt-al'abbaa 
AtfatJI ben Hutim Ainairizt, in his oommootary on Almagest. And stiU 
it is a suhjoct of froquent occurrence, and those who have to employ it 
may not always know what to do with it. The thing is this, that you 
10 may be required to compute a date for a certain time, the known parte p.l43. 
of which arc rariotis specie* that do not belong to one and the same 
genu*. There is, e.g. a day the date of which within a Greek, Arabic, 
or Persian month is known; but th*- name of this month is unknown, 
whilst you know the name of another month that corresponds with it. 
Further, you know an era, to which, however, these two mouths do iwi 
belong, or such an era, of which the name of the month in question is 
not known. Exiunple : — 

(a) On the day Hurmuz 
(6) in the month Tammj^z 
SO (c) in the year of the Hijra 391. 

In this case the proper method is to compute the Jika Alexandri for 
the IbI of Muharraui of a.ii. 391. Thert'lty we Icam with what muuth 
and day of the Arabian months the let of Tammfiz coiacidee. Further, 
wo compute the j¥^ra Yazdagirdl for the 1st of Tamnifiz, whereby we 
learn on what day of TammAz the dav Hurmuz falls. In this way the 
three eras together with thoir gpeciea and genera are found out. 

If besides these elements the name of the week-day is known, this la 
an aid and a help for obtaining a correct result, £xample : — 

(a) On Friday 
80 (P) ^ ^be first third of Eamad^n 

(c) in the year of Yazdagird 370. 

Here the right method would be first to compute the Arabic era for 
the Naur6z of this year of the ^ra Yaxdagirdi, and thereby to compute 
the first third of HamadlnQ. Then we consider the week-days, to find 
which of them are the beginnings of the months. Thereby we find what 
wo wanted to find. 

Likewise, if the week-day and its place within some month, together 
with some era, are known, and if also the name of the month is known, 
you can find this out in the same way as we have mentioned. 
40 The student who thoroughly knows all these methods will be able to 
solve whatever question of this sort be put to him ; be will find out 
everything, if he considers the subject as it otight to be considored. If 
those parts of such dates, the numerical values of which arc known, 



140 ALBtE^t. 

should be composed of diverse elements, so that their tmUs mean some- 
thing different from what the deeadet (tenths) mean, — e.g. you say of a 
day : the 25th, referring the 5 to a Persian month and the 20 to a 
Greek month, of which either one is known, or of which the two are 
unknown ; or if you say : Anno 345, referring the 5 to a Greek, the 4^ 
to an Arabian, and the 300 to a Persian era, — in such cases the clerer- 
ness of the student will manage to soWe the problem, although the 
calciUations necessary for such a derivation may be very long. 

God helps to find the truth ! 



141 



CHAPTER VII. 

OW THE CYCLES AJTD YEAR POINTS, ON THE M^LftCS OP THE TEABS p.l44. 
AND MONTHS, OK THEIK VAJtIODS QUALITIES, AND ON TBE LEAF 
MONTHS BOTH IN JEWISH AND OTHER TEARS. 

Hating in the preceding pages explained the durivation of the eras from 
each other, with the exception of the jEra Adami and .^hra DUuviit 
according to the systems of Jews and Christians, we shall now liav(> to 
explain the method by which we may obtain a knowledge of these two 
eras. To this we shall prefix a treatise on the Jewish years and months, 
10 their cycles and the MoUds of their years, followed by an investigation of 
the commencemenU of the years of other nations. And hereto we shall add 
such things as may prove a ready help towards obtaining the object in view. 

Now we proceed to state that the ..^a Adami is used by the Jews, the 
^rn Dilvvii by the Christians. If the 1st of TisHri coincided with the 
1st of Tighrin Primtu, the JSra Alesrandri would be equal to the ^ra 
Mundi, pUu 3,448 years, which is, according to Jewish doctrine, the 
interval between Adam and Alexander. 

However, the Ist of Tishr? always falls between the 27th of Abh and 

the 24th of Il61, on an averaye. Tlierefore, the /Era Alexandrit minnt 

20 that time by which the beginning of the Jewish yi'ur precedes the 

beginning of the Christian one, is equal to the complete ^ra Adami, 

plu* tlie interval betwuea Adam and Alexander. 

The reastm why tho Ist of Tishri always varies within those days 
(27th Abh — 24th 1161), is this, that on an average the Jewish passover 
always varies betwe(>n the 18th of the Syrian month Adhar and the 
15th of NfeAn, which ia the time of the sun's moving m the sign of Aries. 
For it is the opposiUun occurring within this time, on which all those oir- 
cumstances depend which form the conditio sine (pid non for passover. 

This, however, is only an approximate calculation. For if the solar 
;]Q year went on parallel with the days of the Greek year {tacunatf). 
But this is impossible, since we have found by astronomical observation 
that this fraction (beyond the 365 complete days of the year) is 
5h. 46' 20" 56"'. Therefore the sun, rotating at the mte of velocity 
found by astrunomical observalioo, reaches any place whatever of the 



CYCLES, rEAH POlirT~MOLtDS, ANT LBAP MONTHS. 143 

If the Enneadecaims, on being complete, rctomed to the same day of 
the week whence it started, which, as we have already mentioned, is not 
the case, we should have added in the Assaying CircU a circle V., (or the 
indication of the days of the weeks on which the Kew-Year days of the 
single years of the Enneadecateris would fall. Under these circom- 
stances, however, it is impractU^ble. 

If wo want to find the week-day with which the day indicated in 
Circle III. correBponda, we cnnipiite, by methods which will be hereafter 
eiplained, the coinmencemeutfi of either Abh or llul of the year in 

10 question, in whichsoever of these two months that day may fall. On 
having carried out this, wc leAm what we wanted to know. 

This, our calculation reparding the Ist of Tishri, is an average cal- 
culation, without any other correction being employed. But now the 
beginning of Tishr! frequently falls on such days which the Jews, as 
we have already mentioned, do not allow to be New- Tear's day. There- 
fore it becomes necessan* to fix it on a day earlier or later. 

If we, now, want to acquaint ourselves with this correction {Hi. 
equation), we must first know the conjunction of sun and moon at the 
beginning of Tishri, according to the theory of the Jews themselves, 

20 not that of the astronomers. For between these two theories there are 
certain divergencies : — 

I. They give to the lunar month, extending from conjunction to con- 
juQction^ the length of — 

29d. 12h. 793 Hakks, 
which is equal to 

(29d. 12h.) 44' 3" 20'", 

[whilst modem observers have found it to be 

29d. 12h. 44' 2" 17'" 211^-] I2v 

Therefore the difference between the two computations ia 

30 1" 2" 38IV. 48^ 

II. They give the solar year, if they reckon with mathematical accu- 
racy, the length of 

S65d. 5^ih. 

whilst modem astronomers have found it to be shorter. 

III. Astronomers teach that that portion of the NycMhtmeroTi which 
elapses between the time of conjunction and that moment when new 
moon becomes visible, varies according to the differences of both the 
longitudes and latitudes of the places, whilst the Jews compute it every- 
where according to one and the same rule. We do not know for which 

40 particular place this mode of computation was originally calculated, but 
it seems rather likely that it was made for Jerusalem or its environs, for 
there was their central seat. 



p.l46. 



144 



ALBtaONt. 



IV. Thej dotcrmine this space of time (between the conjunction and 
the appearance of new moon) by upat Katfitxai. Whilst it is well known 
that it is not allowed to use them for the compntation of conjunction, 
except on the equator. 

V. Thoy compute the conjunctions by the mean, not the apparent 
motion. Therefore passoTcr frcqueutlv falls two complete daya later 
than the real opposition — one day in consequence of the -E9««/io««, another 
day in conaequenco of their po6t|>ouing pasBOver from a DUi iUicUa to a 
Viea liciift^ 

Computation of the Moled of a Year according to the Jewish 10 

System.— If we, now, want to fiud the MoUii of a year, which term 
tlie Jews apply to the conjunction at the beginning of each month 
as well as the conjunction at the beginning of erery cycle, wo take 
the complete years of the .^h-a Adatm, i.€. till the end of the year 
■which iH preceded by the mooth Tiehri in question. We convert the 
nuoiher of years into Minor Cycles, and multiply the number of cyclea 
by 2d. 16h. 695" , which you pet as a remainder if you convert the days 
of the minor cycle into weeks. The product which arises we keep in 
mind. 

Thereupon, we consider the remainder of years that do not fiU up one 20 
complete minor cycle. How many of them are conmion years, how many 
leap years, we learn by the Ordo interealatlonig, 

mrtnn 

(i.e. the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, ICth, and 18th years of the cycle are 
leap years). 

The number of common years we multiply by 4d. 8h. 876^, the 
numi)or cif leap years by 6d. 21h. 589 . The product of these two 
multiplications we add to the sum we hare kept in mind. 

To the sum we always add 

5<1. Uh., 80 

which represents the interval between the time of the conjunction and 
the beginning of the night of Sunday that was the oommaucement of 
the first year of the ^Ero Adami. 

Then we raise each 1,080 Halal^a to 1 hour, and odd it to the other 
houra ; ejioh 24 houre we convert into 1 day, and add it to the other 
days. The sum of days that arises wo convert into weeks, and the re- 
mainder of days that ore less than a week is the distauoe of the Moled 
from the Ijcginning of the night of Sunday. Now, that time to which 
in the last instance our culeulation leads us, is the time of the conjunc* 
p.l47. tion at the beginning of Tishri, 40 

We have made such a computation for a year of the JBra Alexandri, 
in order to fnciUtate the process and to simplify the apparatus. 

If you want to find the conjunction at the beginning of TishrS, take 
the years of the Mra AUxandri, and subtract therefrom always 12 years, 
which are the remainder of the minor cycle at the epoch of the Mtd, 



CTCLE6, SEAE-POIXTS, M6liDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 145 



AlexBudii, accordini:; to the Ordo inUrcalationU ^U23- The remainder 
of yevn divide by 19 ; the quotient you get is the number of minor 
cycles. 

Conrert tliefle nunor cycles into great cycles, if they are of a sufficient 
number to give complete great cycles, and keep in mind what remainder 
of yeaxs you have ^ot. They are the curri-' iit yea rs of the cycle in 
question, according tx> the Onio inf^ealationu ^QUU- 

The great cycles, if you get such, compare with the table of the great 
cyclefl, and take the Duniber of days, hours, and l^ala^im which you &nd 
10 opjwsitc them. 

The small cycles compare with the table of the smaU cycles, and the 
number of days, hours, and Halaljun which you find opposite them, 

These two numbers add together, days to days, hours to hours, and 
^aln^tm to HaUkim. 

This sum add to the Bams, which is written in the table uppermost, 
and which is the MdlM of the 12th year of the *^a Atexandri. Con- 
vert each 1 ,080 HaUktm into an hour, each 24 hours into a day , and the 
days into weeks. The remainder of days you get is the distance between 
the beginning of the night of Sunday and the time of the conjunction. 
20 This is according to Jewish calculation. 

We have used as the starting-point in this our calculation the begin- 
ning of the night for no other reason but this, that they commence the 
Nychtfiemeron with sunset, ae we have mentioned In the first part of this 
book. 

Here follows the table, computed by that method of calculation which 
we have eiplained in the preceding pages : — 



p.i4e. 



80 



The Numbers 


TheTsara 








of the 


ortbo 


DftJB. 


Hours. 


i^l&^tm. 


Small Cycles. 


Small Cfoloa. 








1 


19 


2 


16 


595 


2 


38 


5 


9 


110 


3 


67 


1 


1 


706 


4 


76 


3 


18 


220 


5 


95 


6 


10 


815 


6 


114 


2 


S 


330 


7 


138 


4 


19 


925 


8 


152 





12 


440 


9 


171 


8 


4 


1,085 


10 


190 


5 


21 


550 


11 


209 


1 


14 


65 


12 


228 


4 


6 


660 


13 


247 


6 


23 


175 


14 


266 


o 


15 


770 


15 


285 


5 


8 


285 



10 



146 



ALBtB^Ni. 



Tbe Nnmbers 


The Tears 








of the 


of the 


Days. 


Hoars. 


^aU^m. 


Small Cjolea. 


Small Cyoles. 








16 


304 


1 





880 


17 


323 


3 


17 


395 


18 


342 


6 


9 


990 


19 


361. 


2 


2 


505 


20 


380 


4 


19 


20 


21 


399 





11 


615 


22 


418 


3 


4 


130 


23 


437 


5 


20 


726 


24 


456 


1 


13 


240 


25 


475 


4 


5 


835 


26 


494 


6 


22 


350 


27 


513 


2 


14 


945 


28 


532 


5 


7 


460 



10 



p.l49. 



The Single 










Yeara of the 


DajB. 


HOOTB. 


9al&^lm. 


Leap Years. 


Small Cyole. 










1 


5 


21 


589 




2 


3 


6 


385 





3 





15 


181 


L 


4 


6 


12 


770 





5 


3 


21 


566 


L 


6 


2 


19 


75 





7 





3 


951 





8 


4 


12 


747 


L 


9 


3 


10 


256 


— 


10 





19 


52 





11 


5 


3 


928 


L 


12 


4 


1 


437 





13 


1 


10 


233 


_ 


14 


5 


19 


29 


L 


15 


4 


16 


618 





16 


2 


1 


414 


L 


17 





22 


1003 


^_ 


18 


5 


7 


799 





19 


2 


16 


595 


L 



20 



SO 



OTOLES, YEA-Il-POIN'TS, MdLftOS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 147 



10 



The Nnmbors 


Tho Yourt 








of tho 


of the 


Daya. 


Uoois. 


yal&^m. 


Qreai Cyciei. 


Great CjcIm. 








1 


532 


5 


7 


460 


2 


1064 


3 


14 


920 


3 


1596 


1 


22 


300 


4 


2128 





£ 


760 


5 


2t>60 


5 


13 


140 


6 


3192 


3 


20 


600 


7 


3724 


2 


3 


1060 


8 


4256 





U 


440 


9 


4788 


5 


18 


900 


10 


5320 


4 


2 


280 


11 


6852 


- 2 


9 


740 


12 


6384 





17 


120 


13 


6916 


6 





680 



p.l50. 



! 



Astronomical Computation of the Moled of a Year — U a. m&the- p.i51, 
znatician wauts to know tho time of conjunction as determined by 
ostrononiical observation, not that oue which is found by the rules of 

20 the Jewish chronologers, he may use tho (following) table, which we 
have tried to compute in the same way as the preceding ones, on the 
basis u£ the corrected observatiooB that hare been made not long before 
our time. For this purpose we have consulted the view of Ptolemy 
regarding the mean length of the mouth, tho view of Khalid ben *Abd- 
almalik of Marwarildh, according to his measurements made at Damas- 
cus, the Tiew of the sons of MAbA hen ShAkir, and of others. Of all 
these, we found the most deserving to be adopted and followed that of 
the sons of Miisi ben Shukir, because they 8]^at their whole energy in 
endeavouring to find the truth ; because they were unique in their age 

30 fur their knowledge of, and their skill iu, the methods of astronomical 
observations ; because seholars bore witness of them to this effect, and 
warranted t he correctness of their observations ; and lastly, because there 
is a long interval between (heir obsei'vations and those of the ancients 
(Ptolrmy, Hipparchua, etc.), whilst our time is not far distant from 
theirs (i.e. from the time when the sons of Mush ben Sh&kir made their 
observations). 

Now we have computed the Batis according to their view, viz. the date 
of the conjunction at the b»'ginning of the^ 13th year of the ^ra Al^^ 
andri. It occurrod ut Baghdad, 21h. 20' 50" 14"' 29*^- after noon on a 

40 Tuesday. And because the meridian of Jerusalem, on account of 
its more western longitude, is behind the meridian of Baghdad by 
14 Timesy we have subtracted the corregponding e|>ace of time, i.«. 
56 minutes from the date of the same conjunctioa at Baghdad. So we 
get as a remainder the Batia for Jemsalem, i.e> — 

20h. 24' 50" 14'" 2d^- after noon. 

10 • 




148 



ALBtR<>Nt. 



..152. 



He who calculates on tlus basie Bubtracte always 12 from the incom- 
plete years of the Mm Alcxandri (i.e. from the ^ra Alexandri, including 
the current year), and convert 8 the remainder into great and email cycles. 
He takes that portion of hours, minutes, seconds, etc. which corresponds 
in the tables to each of these numbers of great anJ suiaU cycles. The 
remainder of single years be coni[.«are8 with the table of the conaecutlve 
years of the small cycle ; he takes tho values which he finds in the table 
oppnsiite this number of years, and adds these three CfiaTficiert (of the 
Ortai CycUg, the S-niaU Cycles, and the Consecutive Years of the latter) 
together. This sum he adds to the Basis, and raises the hours and 
fractious of au hour to days and the oorresi'onding wholes. Thereupon 
he converts the days into weeks, and tho remainder which he gets is that 
time which has elapsed Ixitween the noon of Sunday at Jerusalem and 
the conjunction at the beginning of Tishrt. 

Here follows the table as based upon asironomical observaiions: — 



The 1^ tint bo re 


The Yean 














of tbo 


of tho 


Duya. 


Honn. 


|Utnut«R. 


Beccmda. 


Thirds. 


Fonrths. 


SnuII Cyclen 


Small Ojcloa. 














The Satis. 


1 ^ 


2 


20 


£4 


GO 


14 


20 


1 


19 


2 


16 


28 


57 


57 


58 


2 


38 


5 


8 


57 


55 


55 


46 


3 


57 


1 


1 


26 


53 


53 


39 


4 


76 


3 


17 


55 


51 


51 


32 


5 


95 


6 


10 


24 


49 


49 


25 


6 


114 


2 


2 


53 


47 


47 


18 


7 


133 


4 


19 


22 


45 


45 


11 


3 


152 





11 


51 


43 


43 


4 


9 


171 


3 


4 


20 


41 


40 


57 


10 


190 


5 


20 


49 


39 


38 


50 


11 


209 


1 


13 


18 


37 


36 


48 


12 


228 


4 


5 


47 


35 


34 


36 


13 


247 


6 


22 


16 


33 


32 


29 


14 


266 


2 


14 


45 


31 


30 


22 


15 


285 


5 


7 


14 


29 


28 


15 


16 


804 





23 


43 


27 


26 


8 


17 


823 


8 


16 


12 


25 


24 


1 


18 


342 


6 


8 


41 


23 


21 


54 


19 


361 


2 


1 


10 


21 


19 


47 


20 


380 


4 


17 


39 


19 


17 


40 


21 


399 





10 


8 


17 


15 


33 


22 


418 


3 


2 


87 


15 


13 


26 


23 


437 


5 


19 


6 


13 


11 


19 


24 


456 


1 


11 


35 


11 


9 


12 


25 


475 


4 


4 


4 


9 


7 


5 


26 


494 


6 


22 


33 


7 


4 


58 


27 


513 


2 


13 


2 


5 


2 


51 


. 1 


532 


5 


5 


31 


3 





44 



10 



20 



80 



40 



CY0LB8, TBAB-P0INT8, MdlfeDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 149 



10 



20 



The Singlo 














Tears of the 


Dayi. 


Honn. 


Minn tea. 


Seconds. 


Thirria. 


Fonrthg. 


Small CjoiM. 














1 


5 


21 


32 


29 


45 


85 


2 


3 


6 


20 


57 


13 


49 


8L 


Q 


IS 


9 


24 


42 


3 


4 


6 


12 


41 


54 


27 


38 


5L 


3 


21 


80 


21 


55 


52 


6 


2 


19 


2 


51 


41 


27 


7 





3 


SI 


19 


9 


41 


8L 


4 


12 


39 


46 


37 


S5 


9 


3 


10 


12 


16 


23 


80 


10 





19 





43 


51 


44 


11 L 


5 


3 


49 


11 


19 


58 


12 


4 


1 


21 


41 


5 


33 


13 


1 


10 


10 


8 


33 


47 


UL 


6 


18 


S8 


36 


2 


1 


15 


4 


16 


31 


5 


47 


86 


16 L 


2 


1 


19 


33 


15 


50 


17 





22 


52 


3 


1 


25 


18 


fi 


7 


40 


30 


29 


39 


19 L 


2 


16 


2d 


S7 


57 


58 



p.l53. 



80 



The Nnmbera 
















of tho 


Their Years, 


DBja. 


Honn. 


Hiimtea. 


Seoondti. 


Thirda. 


Fotuihi. 


Qreat Cycles. 
















1 


682 


£ 


6 


81 


8 





44 


2 


1064 


3 


11 


2 


6 


1 


28 


8 


1S96 


1 


16 


83 


9 


2 


12 


4 


2128 


6 


22 


4 


12 


2 


56 


S 


2660 


6 


3 


35 


15 


3 


40 


6 


8192 


8 


9 


6 


18 


4 


24 


7 


3724 


1 


14 


87 


21 


5 


8 


8 


4256 


6 


20 


8 


24 


5 


52 


9 


4788 


5 


1 


89 


27 


6 


86 


10 


5320 


8 


7 


10 


80 


7 


20 


11 


S852 


1 


12 


41 


88 


8 


4 


12 


6384 


6 


18 


12 


36 


8 


48 


13 


6916 


4 


23 


43 


39 


9 


32 



p.154. 



(In this OUT calculation of the conjunction) we have used noon as p.l55. 
40 termimu a (pto for no other reason but tliis, that we may moro cosily find 
the equation for the mdlcd by this method thau by using the horizons 
(i.e. reckoning from suneet, as the Jews do). 

The hours of the longest day for the latitude of Jerusalem are 13h. 
plua a fraction. Therefore the calculation of the Jews hy £p(uitaipucat 



150 



ALB5flONt, 



ifl incorrect, except in case the conjunction at the beginning of Tishri 
■hould coincide with the autamnal equinox. This, however, never hap- 
pens. On the contrary, the conjunction atthe bogimiing of 'Pishri aJwaya 
either precedes or follows the autumnal equinox bj a considerable space 
of timp, as we have explained hcretnforo. 

Kelation between the beginning of the Tear and its Character. 
— Tf we, now, make out the time of the conjunction by the tnulitional cal- 
culation of the Jews, or by means of the table which we have constructed 
according to their theory, we arrive at the knowledge of the beginning 
of the year and of its chiiract:*^r, whether it be imperfect, intermediate, 
or perfect, whilst wo have already previously learnt how to know whether 
the year be a common or a leap year. Thereujwn we look in the Table 
of Limits for a spaee of time in the week within the limits of which 
the conjunction as found by our calculation falls. If (.he year be a leap 
year, we look into the column of leap years ; if it be a common year, we 
look into the column of cummon years. HavLovT nia'^le out this, we find 
opposite the indication of the week-day on which the year commences, 
and of the quality of the year. Once knowing the hegiuuing of the 
year (its precise date in the week) and its quality, and combining with 
it our knowledge a« to whether the year is a common or a leap year, we 
come to know the beginning of the next following year. 

Her© follows the Table of the Limits : — 



10 



20 



p.l56. 



The Limits of tbc lime Sphorea qb dietributcd 
over the Week, iu Cummuu Ye&ra. 


Now- Year's 
Day. 


Chanctor 
of the Yoar. 


From noon of Saturday 

till 
9h. 204H. in the night of Sunday 


- 2 

J 


Imperfect. 


• 

From 9h. 204H. in the night of Sunday 

till 
3h. 589H. in the day of Monday, if the 
preceding year is a leap vear; 

till 

Koon of Monday, if the preceding year is 
a common year 


■ 2 

J 


Perfect 


From 3h. S89H. in the day of Monday* 

or 
From noon of Monday, 

till 
9h. 204U. in the night of Tuesday 


- 3 


Intermediate. 



80 



1 



t 



. t 



OrOLES, TEAK-POINTS, MdLfeDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 151 



10 



20 



The Limits of the Time-Spheres as distribnted 
over the Week, in Common Tears. 


S'ew-Tear's 

Day. 


Character 
of the Year. 


From 9h. 204H. in the night of Tuesday 

tiU 
9h. 204H. in the night of Thursday 


}' 


Intermediate. 


From 9h. 204H. in the night of Thursday 

tiU 
Noon of Thursday 


}' 


Perfect. 


From noon of Thursday '^ 

tiU 
Oh. 208H. in the night of Friday, if the 

following year is a common year ; - 7 

9h. 204H. in the night of Friday, if the 
following year is a leap year J 


Imperfect. 


From Oh. 208H. in the night of Friday, 

or 
From 9h. 204H. in the night of Friday, 

till 
Noon of Saturday. 


- 7 


Perfect. 



( ■ 

i4; 



80 



The Limits of the Time Spheres as distribnted 
over the Week, in Leap Tears. 


New-Year's 
Day. 


Character 
o£ the Years. 


From noon of Saturday 

tiU 
8h. 491H. in the day of Sunday 


]' 


Imperfect. 


From 8h. 491H. in the day of Sunday 

till 
Noon of Monday 


h 


Perfect. 


From noon of Monday 

till 
Noon of Tuesday 


) 

1 ' 


Intermediate. 



p.l67. 



152 



ALBtfiONt. 



p.158. 



Tbo Limits of tho Tinio SpheroB as dislributod 
over tho Week, in TinapTtiftra. 


Naw-Teu'a 
Day. 


Charaoter 
of the Tears. 


From noon of TueBd&y 

-till 
llh, 695H. in the night of Wednesday 


i' 


Intermediate. 


From 1 lb . 695H. in the night of Wednesday 

till 
Noon of Thursday 


h 


Perfect. 


From noon of Thursday 

tiU 
8h. 491H. in the day of Friday 


]' 


Imperfect. 


From 8h. 491H. in the day of Friday 

till 
Noon of Saturday. 


1' 


Perfect. 



10 



Further, of those conditionB and rjnalitit's there are certain ones which 
eiclusively attach to the year in u-ase its beginning falls on a cortain day 
of tho week, the other conditionB being eicliade*!. If you call this cir- 
cumstance to help, it will prove an aid towards obtaining the object in 
view. 

In the following figure we represent this subject by means of divisions 20 
and roinilications : — 

The Teab 

is either 

or 



a common year 

Thur«<Uiy (i.e. if New-Year's day 

is a Thursilay). 
The year cannot be Imperfect. 



a leap year. 
Thursday, 

It cannot be Intermediate. 
In both CoMifOis amc Lkap Tkabs. 



Titesday. 

It is always 
In termed iato. 



Monday. 

It can never be 

Intormcdiate. 



Salurdatf. 

It can never be 
Intermediate. 



80 



p.lfi9. Further, of these conditions there are certain ones which may happen 
in two consecutive years, whilst others cannot. If we comprise them in 
a failasnit, it will afford a help towards utilizing this circumstance, and 
will £acilitate the method. We must look into the square which belongs 



CYCLES, TBAB-POrNTS» M6LfiD8, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 153 

in common to the two qualities of the two years ; in that sqiuure it ia 
indicated whether the two years of two such qualities can follow each 
other or not. 



• 


- 


3 2 1 
Imperfect. 

^ ~ t 

Cannot follow 
each other. 


Qualities 
of the jeaxs. 

1 
Imperfect. 




& 4 
Intermediate. 


6 

Perfect, 


4 
Cannot follow 
each other. 


2 

Can follow 
each other. 


4 2 

Intermediate. 


6 Can follow 
^ach other. 


5 

Can follow 

each other. 


8 

Can Yollow 
each other. 


5 
6 Perfect. 3 



10 



The reason why two intermediate years cannot follow each other is pJgQ. 
this, that their ends and beginnings cannot be brought into concord with 
each other, as the Tahle of Equation at the end of this book will show. 

The reason why two imperfect years cannot follow each other ia this, 
that the perfect months among the months of the cycle (Enncado- 
catcria) preponderate over the imperfect ones. For the small cycle com- 
prises 6,940 days, i.e. 125 perfect mouths and only 110 imperfect ones. 

For the same reason, three months which are perfect according to the 
20 appearand cf new moon, can follow each other, whilst of the imperfect 
months not more than two can follow each other. And their following 
each other is yx)s&ible only in consequence of tlie rariation of the motions 
of the two great luminaries (sun and moon), and of the variation of the 
Betting of the zodiacal signs (i.e. the varying velocity with which the 
•un moves through the various ai^ns of the Ecliptic). 

In what Period the begimiing of the Jewish Tear retorns to 

the same Bate. — If ^1>*J conjiuictions at the bogimiiugs of two con- 
secutive great cycles (of 532 years) coincided with each other (t.c. if they 
were cyclical in such a way as to begin always at the same time of the 
80 week), we should l>e able U* compute the qualities of the Jewish years 
by means of tables, coraprisiug the years of a great cycle, similar to the 
Chronicon of the Christiana. However, the moleds of these cycles do 
not return to the same time of the week except in 689,472 years, for the 
following reason : 

The Characifjr of the small cycle, i.e. the remainder which yon get by 
dividing its number of days by 7, is 2d. IGh. 595H. This fraction is 
not raised to one whole, except in a number of cycles, wliich is equal to 
the nuxnber of Halakim of one Nychihemeron, i,e. 25,920. Because 



154 



ALBlEflNl. 



fractionB ai^ not raised to wholes, except vhen multiplied by a number 
which ia equal to the complete number of the same kind of froctionB of 
one whole (i.e. hy the deiiom^inator). 

But as both the number of the llairkl^un of the Nyehthemeron (*25,92Q) 
and the number of the remainder of the Halilktm of the cyelcs (595) 
may be divided by 5, the fractiouft will be miBwl to whulea if multiplied 
by a number of cycles, which ia equal to ^ of the ^aUVim of the 
Nychthemeron, i.e. 5184. 

Now, the conjunction (at the beginning of the year) does not return 
to the samn time of the week except in a number of cycles which is the 10 
sevenfold of this number (5184), i.e. 36,288. And this is the number of 
cycles which represent the above-mentioned number of years (t?a. 
689.472). 

In general, conjimction and opposition return to the same place (i.«. 
hapj>6n again at the same time of the week) in each 181,440 munths, 
which is the product of the multiplication of the number of Hal&lfim of 
one Ntfchtfiemeron (25,920) by 7. 

Comparison between the Jewish Era and the Era of Alexander. 

— Since it is not possible to use this method for chronological purposes, 
we have not thought it proj>er to deviate from the traditional method, 20 
inasmuch as it tries to bring nuarthat which is distant, and simpliiies and 
faciUtates that which is difficult and intricate. It is sufficient for us to 
know the beginnings and the qualities of the years, and the corrosjKinding 
days of the Syrian months on which the days of New Tear &ill, for such a 
number of years as that the student will not require more in the majority 
of cases. This information wo have recorded in three tables : — 

I, The first represents the day of the week on which the year com- 
mences ; the Tabula Sujnorum. 

II. The second, or TahttJti Qualitatunit shows the qualities ofthe years. 
The letter c (n^ designates an Impotfect year, because in their 30 

language it is cnllml 1^"^Dn- 
The letter >£ (2) means an Intermediate year, because they call it 

pTDIJ- ' 

p.l61. The letter ^fi (2*) means a Perfect year, because they call it D^D'^tCJ- 

in. The Tabnla Iniegriiatum et Quautitatvni, representing the days on 
which the Jcwiflh New Tear falls, the days of Abb in red ink, the days 
of tlftl in black ink. 

Using these tables you take the ^a Alexandri for the current year, 
beginning with Tiahrin I., which falls always (a little) later than Tishrt. 
The whole number of years you compare with the vertical column of 40 
years ; the single years (of the periods of nineteen years) you compare 
with the horizontal column of years. Then you find in the square which 
is common to both, that which you wanted, if God permits ! 

pp.162 [Here follow the three tables, which I have united into one.] 
-167. 



CTCLBS, TEAR-POINTS, MftL^DS, AND LEAP-MOXTHS. 155 



Tlio b^nniugs of tlie Jewish Months. — I*t ns Buppose we did p.l63. 
not know by moans of the Tabula Quantitatum on what precise date in 
the months Abh or llul thu Jewish New Tear falls, but we knew from 
the Tiiinila Si^nomnt ou wha-t day of the we«lc it fulls, and we baxl pre- 
vioualr learnt from the AKmyimj Circle on what date of Abb or llAl on 
an average it falls (no r^^ard being had to the Dahiijyoth). In this casd 
wo should bo sufficiently informed to know in what way to advance op 
to postpone the date of the Syriitn month if this day of the week should 
be incompatible with Both-hagJuihtinil, so as to get at last the legitimato 

10 New-Year's day (lacuna) more particularly aa the thre« festivals are to 
be found with perfot-t accuracy in the preceding three tables. 

(In this way) we obtain a knowledge of the era of the Jews, of the 
beginning of their year, and of its complicated nature. Hence we pro- 
ceed to learn the beginnings of the single mouths of their year, either 
by distributing over the mcmtha their profter portions of days in con- 
formity with the two qualities of the year iu question (whether it be 
ttJ» 3 or n or tt common or leap year), or by means of the Tabula 
luiliontm Men»ium. You compare the liosh-hashshttnd with the Table of 
the Signum (week-day) of Tishri ; in the table of common years, if the 

20 year be a common year ; in the table of leap years, if the year be a leap 
year. At the side of this column you find another, wliicb indicates 
whether the year be imperfect, intermediate, or perfect. After having 
made out thifi, you find in the corresponding squares the beginning of 
each complete month, and the two beginnings of each incomplete month. 
For the Jews ajunign to each month which is preceded by a complete 
month two beginnings (two first days), viz. one day which is in reality 
the beginning of the month, and the preceding day, or the 30th day 
of the preceding complete month. This you must keep iu miiid, for it 
is part of their bewildering terminology. God is allwise and almighty ! 

30 Table SHOwtHo on what Bats op the Week tbe BEotxNnra of p. 169. 

THS MOHTHS FALLS THROUOHOUT TBS YeAS. 

Table of Common Years. 



40 



i 



Pex<«a( . . 
XmpsifMt 
Latoraudiito 
F«rfMt . 



166 



ALBtR^Nt. 



p.l70. 



Table of Leap Tear*. 



i 



PerfMt. 

ZaporfMt 
Ptrtoot. 
ImperfHt . 

Faf«ot. . 
Impsrfoot * 



10 



P'i-fi* Tlief were induced to oasume two Boeh-ffodaht aA I am inclmed to 

think, by the uircunietauce that originally they counted the com- 
plete mouth aa *29 days pure {i.f.. without any fraction), and that is 
in fact the correct time of the interval between two consecutive conjuno- 
' lions. Into the 30th day, however, fall the fractions of the synodic 
month (i.e. the first 12 hours 793 Ualakim of the 30tU day belong to 
the pre<.-eding month, whilst the latter llh, 287H, belong to the 
following month). Therefore they referred this 30th day to the month 
that had passed, so that thereby it became in reality complete, and to 20 
the incomplete month (just commencing), so that this latter one got two 
beginnings (i.e. the latter llh. 287H. of the 30th day, and the first 
whole day of the new month). But Qod knows beet what they 
intended ! 

Computation of the beginning and middle of the Konths 
according to Jewish and Astronomical Systems.— H we now waut 
to know the time of conjunction ai the l >t>ginning of a month, or the 
time of opposition in the middle of the month, according to the system 
of the Jews, we derive them from the Tahle nf Mol^'tls and Fortnights, 
where we find the Conjunction ojjpositc the m61M of each month, and SO 
the Opposition opposite its Fortnight ; for the common year in the 
column of common years ; for the leap years in the column of leap years. 
The number we find wn add to the M61§d Tishri, i.f.. to the conjunction 
at the beginning of Tishrl ; the fractions we convert into wholes, the 
days into weeks. In this way we find what we wanted to know. 



^^^^^^^^^^1 OTCLES, YEAR-POINTS, Mf^T.^DR, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 157 ^^^| 


^^^^^^^^^^V If we want to learn the same according' to the doctrine of the ostrono- ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^B men, we make the same calculation with the Tal>Ie of Conjunctions and ^^^^| 


^^^^^^^^B Oppositions, using the table of comiDon years if the year in question be ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^H a common year, and the table of leap years if the year in queatiun be a ^^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H leap year, and with the conjunction at the lieginning; of Tishri as com.- ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H pnted by the a«tronomeni. In this way we arrive at the knowledge of ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H both conjunctions and oppoaitious which we wanted. ^^^H 


^^^^^^^H Here follow the tablea :— ^^^| 


^^^^H I 


^^^^^^^H Table op the M<)l£db ako Fortitiohts. 173. H 


H 


Th«H6lMfl 
nod Fortniichta 


Coiutos Tijut, 


TtMHAlMa 

and Fannights 


LiAT Taka. 


J 












1 




o( iho Months. 


I>*Or». 


Hours, 


«bn- 


of Uie MoDth*. 


Devi. 


Houn. 




1 




MAIM Tishri 











M6IM Tishrf . 













1m fortnight 





IS 


39€i 


ltd fortnight . 


18 


S96I 


^^^^1 




Ut\td Mnr]}e8hwiii 


1 


12 


793 


M6tM Har)>e8hwftti 


1 ; 12 


708 


^^^^H 




lU f oirttii){ht 


B 


7 


109* 


ItA fortnight 


2 7 


10B| 


^1 




HM«d Kieldw 


8 


I 


508 


M6IM KislAfr 


8 


1 


506 


^H 




Ita fortoight 


8 


19 


W2i 


Itfi fortnight 


8 


19 


902i 


^H 




Udldd T^beth 


4 


14 


219 


MAIM T^beth 


4 


14 


219 


^1 


^M 


Its fortnight 


6 


8 


616i 


Its fortnight 


6 


8 


GlSft 


^H 




HdlM SbebbAt 


6 


2 


1012 


MAlAd Sheh&th . 


6 


2 


1012 


^H 




Its fortnigbt 
U6l«d 'Adhir 


a 


21 


&28i 


It« fortnight 


6 


21 


828i 


^H 







15 


725 


MAIAd 'AdhAr I. . 





15 


726 


^H 




Us fortnight 


1 


10 


414 


Its fortnight 
MAlftd 'Adhlr U. . 


1 


10 


4U 


^H 




Udl«d NUin . 


2 


4 


4SS 


a 


4 


438 


^H 




ItH fortnight 


S 


22 


B3ti 


Itft fortnight 


2 


22 


834i 


^H 




XdlM'1/Ar . 


8 


17 


151 


MAlAd Nt»&n . 


8 


17 


161 


^1 




Ita rortnigbt 


4 


11 


U74 


Its fortnight 


4 


11 


&47i 


^1 




MAUd SiwiD . 


6 


6 


044 


MAlAd 'lyAr . 


6 


S 


941 


^H 


^m 


Its fortnight 


6 





260} 


Ita fortnight 


6 





260i 


^^^^H 


^^^^H 


UAlM Tummaz . 


6 


18 


6S7 


MAIM 8iwAn . 


6 


18 


657 


^^^^H 




Ita fortnight . 





12 


10A31 


Its fortnight 





12 


10&3I 


^^^^H 




Mdl«d Abh . 


1 


7 


870 


MAIM Tammnx . 


1 


7 


370 


^^^^H 




Its fortnight 


2 


1 


7G6| 


Iw fortnight 


S 


I 


766^ 


^H 




Hdl£d'K1tll . 


2 


SO 


83 


MAl^ Abb . 


3 


20 


83 


^^^^^k 




Ita fortnight 


8 


14 


479J 


\{b fortnight 
UAUd'EId) . 


8 

4 


14 
8 


479t 
876 


^H 


L 










Ita f ortaigbt 


5 


3 


19H 


1 



0TOLE8, TEAB-POINTS, MflLftDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 159 



Wc also find what we want to know regarding the Jewish years, by p.l 76. 
computing the next opposition (or full moon) after the Tpmal equinox, 
occurriug in that Bpat.'e of time within the limits of which the Jewish 
pa«80ver varies ; then wo consider on what day within this time it falls, 
reckoning the day from one sunrise to the next one. If the opposition 
uecurs on one of Diea Licitee, that day is the day of passover ; if, how- 
ever, it occurs on ono of the Die* iUieitm, i.e. the days of the throe inferior 
planets, we poBt|K(ne pasaovor to the second (the noxt following) day. 
This p08t[ioucuieut of jmssover they call in their language ^JTT Da^t. 

10 Then yon make the same computation m order to And the passoTer of 
the preceding year. To the Siyjium (i.e. week-day) of this latter jmss- 
over you add two, whereby yon get the day of the lat of Tisbri that lies 
in the middle between the two passoTcrs. Then you C'Ount the days in- 
tervening between the two passovers j if they exceed the number of days 
of a solar year, that year in which the latter passover lies is a leap 
year; if thuy are less, the year is a iH>mmon year. 

In this cha])ter you may learn the primary qualities of the year (its 
being common or intercalary), but not ita secondary qiialities (its being 
perfect, inti'rmediat<?, or imperfect). For frequently paasovor has been. 

80 postponed, when it ought to have been advanced according to the thwry 
of the Jews, or it has been advanced when, occxirding to thom, it ought 
to have been postiH>aed. Therefore, you get no exact information as to 
the quality of tho year, whether it be perfect, intermediate, or im|>erfect. 
Frequently, even the opposition occurred near to one of the limita of 
that space of time, witliin which passover varies, whilst eaeh of the 
places of van and moon, as made out from appearance, was at variance 
with ita mean place, on account of the alternate acceleration and retarda- 
tion of the motion of sun and moon, iji conformity with tho total sum 
of their UMtvcrml Equati<^m. Therefore, such an opposition not being 

80 fi^ to be employed, either the preceding or the following oppoaitloa was 
adopted. 

For this reason there is a difference between tho Jewish computation 
and this (astronomical) method, to such a degree that frequently 
according to the Jews the year was a leap year, whilst this astronomical 
calculation proves it to have been a common year, and vice vertd. 

Likewise there is a difference between Jews and Christians regarding 
the leap year, as wc shall explain in the chapter on the Christian Fast, if 
God permits. If, now, there is a difference between them, and they are 
willing to accept our decision, we shall consider the two oppositions of 

40 their two passorers, and shall say, that that opposition at which the 
moon moves in the middle part of Spicji or of Cancer, or the sun is about 
to leave Aries, is to be rejected according to both systerae, whilst the con- 
trary is to be adopted. To the lover of truth, the correctness of those 
two assertions wilt be apparent, if the conditions we have mentioned are 
observed. 



160 



ALBtKfiNt. 



p.l77. 



The Cycles of Tobel and Shaba'. — The Jews have Btill other cjclest 
e.tf. the cycle of Yuh''I and the cycle of Shnbn'j i.e. of seven years. Tho 
first years of both cycles are called " retiiiniwn yeare." For God says, 
regarding the cycle of seven years, in the third book of the Thom 
(Levit. XXV. 2-7) : " When ye come into this land of Canaan, yo xhall 
BOW and reap aod prune your vineyards six years. But in the seventh 
year ye shall not sow nor gather your grapes, but leave them to your 
servants and maids, and to those who sojourn with yon, and to the cattle 
and the birds." 

The same command God repeats in the second book of theThora (Exodus 10 
xxiii. 10, 11) : "And six years thou shall sow thy laud, and gather in 
the produce thereof. But the seventh year thou sholt let it rest, and 
shalt leave thy product? during that year to the poor and the cattle," 

Likewise their religion and law allow a poor man to sell his child to a 
rich nmn, i.e. to give it in hire to him, to do service unto him ; but not 
for sexual intercourse, for that rerjuin^s a mairiage-portion and a niar- 
riage-coutraft. The child does him service during tho cycle of Shdbu\ 
and it is set free, unless it diws not choose to be set free. For God says 
in the second boolcuf tho Thom (Exod. xxi. 2-G) : "If anyone of you buy 
a servant from amung the Israeliti^s, six years he shall serve, but in the 20 
seventh year he will go out of his possession, and will be free to go 
where he pleases, he and his wife, if he have got one. But if the 
servant say, I love my uiast^r and will not leave hit* aer\'ice, then his 
master shall bring him near the door-post, and shall bore his ears with 
an awl, and shall keep him as a servant as long as he pleases." 

The cycle of Y6bel was wanted on account of the following command 
of God in the third bnok of the Thora ("Levit. ixv. 8-13) : " You shall 
sow the land seven times seven, which is forty-nine years. Then you 
shall cause the trumpet to sound throughout all your land, and you shall 
hallow it for the fiftieth year. You shall not sow nor reap. And in the 30 
fiftieth year the restitution shall take place." " The land shall not be 
sold for ever, for the land is mine and you arc its inhabitants and 
sojourners with me " (Le«t. xxv. 23). *' Everything that has been sold 
is to be restored in the fiftieth year. You shall sell according to the 
number of years," ije. the remaining years of the cycle of Tdbfi! (Xjevit. 
XXV. 13-15). 

In the same book (Levit. xxv. 39, 40), God says : " If thy brother be 
waxen poor, and be sold unto thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve 
as a bond servant, but as a hired servant and as a sojourner imtU the 
year of restitution." ^ 

Because of the circumstances brought about by these regulations they 
required these two cycles, in order that in their sales the higher and 
lower prices should always correspond to the remaining number of years 
of the cycle. There are still other religious regulations of theirs whioh 
rendered them necessary. If, e.g. a servant does not wish to be set free, 



^^^^^^^^0P OTOIES, YEAR-POINTS, mSlAds, A5D LKAP-M0NTU8. 161 ^^H 


^^^^^^^^B &nd remains in the condition of a s^rraiit durin*^ the wliolo cycle of ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H TobJl, he cannot be retained after that period. ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^r Kow, if jnn want in Imow how many ycara have elapsed of each of ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^L the ti70 cycles (at a c^^rtaiu timo). take the years of the .Era Adami, ^^^H 


^^^^^^^H including the current year, subtract therefrom 1,010, or add thereto ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H 740 ; divide the oum by 350, and neglect the quotient. The remainder, ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H however, compare v?ith the column of uunibers in the Tabula Legum, ^^^H 


^^^^^^^H opposite which you find the atatoment of the number of years which ^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^ have elapsed in each of iho two cycles. ^^^H 


^^^^^H 10 Here follows the Tabuia Legum i ^^^H 


^^^^H Tabitla Leqxju. p.178, ^1 






179 ^M 










1 






























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i 


































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1 

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1 


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88 




m 


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188 


M 


r 


in 


I 




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t 


s 


S 


V 


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n 8 




n 


87 




108 


s 




1S7 87 


1 


158 


8 




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» 


s s 


« 


IB 




98 8 

1 




78 


88 




108 


8 




138 88 


i 


199 


3 




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i 


41 4 


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IS 




HI 4 




rs 


IS 




IM 


4 




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194 


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80 




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180 , 80 


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81 


SI 




88 ^ 4 




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109 


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181 , 81 


9 


196 


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7 


7 




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87 


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81 




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7 




188 


88 


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197 


7 




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^^^F^ fio 


B 


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8S 


8S 




88 


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108 


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138 


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8 




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P 


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35 




80 


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89 


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39 


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180 


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88 


80 




m 


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U 9 


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87 


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88 


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las 


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84 


14 




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5 


114 


14 


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130 


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8 


1S4 


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a 


^^H 




is 


15 1 


40 


40 




4S 


19 




90 


40 


6 


119 


15 


a 


140 1 40 


7 


169 


U 




^^H 




u 


le fl 


41 


41 




•8 


IS 


8 


91 


41 


7 


114; 


\6 


4 


141 I4I 


1 166 


18 




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17 


17 8 


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87 17 




S8 


48 1 1L7 


17 


a 


142 M 


£ in? ' 17 




^^H 


^^^H 


u 


IS 4 


48 


48 




6S' 18 


9 


W 


43 8 

1 


118 


". ' 


148 ta 


3 168 18 




^^1 




IS 


IS 


44 


44 


a 


m\ IS 




Si 


44* S 


US 


1» 




U4|4» 


4il6S 


18 




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*> 


SO 9 


49 


45 


s' to' 80 




99 


49' 4 


ISO 


90 




146 49 


9 


170 


BO 




^^H 




n 


tl 7 


46 


48 


4 ; 71 « 




96 


M 9 


in 


91 


9 146 46 

J 1 


8 


171 


n 




^^H 




n 


» I 


47 


47 




71 


sa 




«7 


47 • 


IS 


tt 




147 {47 


7 


17> 


■ 




^^H 




n 


s>| t 


48 


4S 




78 


88 




88 


48 7 


188 


SO 




146' 48 


1 


178 


13 




^^H 




M 


mI b|40 


49 




74 


84 




08 


40 1 


ISi 


a4 




140,49 


8 


174 


84 




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■ 


u\ i m 


M 




n 


as 




VOO 


90 . a 


lis 


SB 


1 


80 


S 


17B 


SI 




^1 




11 


J 



^^^H 


^^^p ^^^^^^^^1 


■ 








































^^H 


^^H 181 


i 

a 


i 




1 


1 




. 


1 

a 


1 


1 


1 


■c 


1 


1 


-J 
1 


i 


1 


3 


i 


H 


^1 




H 


s 


K 


>* 


S 


188 


86 


8 


981 


1 





878 


so 


8 


801 


►< 


— 


888 


98 


— 


1 


M 


1 


801 


1 


^^^^^L 


177 


S7 


s 


an 


9 


6 


SS7 


97 


3 


968 


8 


7 


877 


87 


4 808 






taff 


87 




^^H 


^^^^^^^ 


us 


SB 


3 


SOS 


8 


7 


988 


86 




9BB 


8 


1 


878 


38 


aos 






898 


88 




^^H 


^^^^^^B 


U9 


» 


4 


8D4 


4 


1 


S9S 


98 




394 


4 


8 


87« 


29 


6 904 






398 


38 




^^H 


^^^^^^V 


uo 


» 


S 


aw 


S 


S 


380 


30 




29B 


8 


8 


980 


» 


7 305 






880 


80 




^^H 


^^^^^H^ 


in 


n 


4 


MS 


< 


8 


331 


81 




2a 


S 


4 


881 


31 


1 806 






881 


SI 




^^H 


^^^^^H 


in 


n 


7 


807 


7 


4 


838 


SB 




2S7 


7 


S 


S88 


83 


3 807 






888 


S9 




^^H 


^^^^^^ 


188 


a 


1 


90S 


8 


« 


388 


89 




SSS 


8 


6 


88S 


S3 


9 308 






888 


18 




^^H 


^^^^B 


ISi 


M 


2 


800 





6 


334 


84 


8 


3SB 


8 


7 


SM 


84 


4 


300 






894 


84 




^H 


^^^^H 


185 


32 


3 


210 


10 


7 


838 


88 




seo 


10 


1 


988 


as 


i 


SIO 






38S 


88 




^^H 


^^^^H 


386 


» 


4 


m 


11 


1 


330 


86 


- 


801 


11 


2 


988 


8S 


e 


3U 






SSS 


88 




^^H 


^^^^1 


187 


S7 


5 


218 


12 


8 


987 


87 




268 


18 


S 


287 


87 


7 


812 






S37 


87 




^^H 


^^^^1 


168 


as 


6 


SIS 


IS 


8 


838 


88 




ass 


IS 


4 


288 


38 


1 


SIS 






388 


SB 


a 


^^H 


^^^^1 


1» 


S8 


7 


304 


14 


4 


338 


38 




264 


14 


S 


988 


SB 


2 au 






3BB 


88 


a 


^^^^M 


^^^^H 


ISO 


40 


1 


SU 


U 


S 


840 


40 




asB 


U 


e 


880 


40 


s su 


IS 




810 


40 




^^^^M 


^^^^P 


in 


41 


fl 


ae 


Ifi 


e 


341 


41 


S 388 


16 


7 


sn 


41 


4 818 


IS 




841 


4] 




^^^M 


^^^^H 


IM 


tt 


3 


817 


17 


7 


3pI3 


4S 


4 897 


17 


1 


888 


48 


8 817 


17 




843 


48 




^^H 


^^^^1 


U8 


U 


4 


218 


18 


J 


348 


4S 


9 888 


IB 


3 


888 


43 


e 818 


18 9 


843 48 




^^H 


^^^^B 


IM 


u 


5 


81» 


1» 


« 


344 


44 


S 26B 


18 


3 


8M 


44 


7 8t» 


U 4 


»H M 




^H 


^^^^^ 


U6 


46 


6 


3W 


90 


3 


8tS 


4fi 


7 270 


30 


4 


a» 


45 


1 830 


80 S 


S4S 48 




^^H 


^^H 


IM 


41 


7 


m 


31 


4 


340 


46 


1 371 


SI 


5 


386 


40 


3 381 


81 8 


340 46 




^^H 


^^H 


U7 


47 


1 


8S3 


29 


6 


347 


47 


a 378 


S2 


6 987 


47 


3 888 


88 7 


347 


47 




^^H 


^^H 


ue 


48 


8 


893 


98 


6 


318 


46 


8 878 


98 


7 


886 


48 


4 388 


88 1 


348 


48 




^^H 


^^H 


ue 


m 


8 


894 


94 


7 


3tt 


48 




S74 


U 


1 


8M 


48 


8 384 


84 8 


340 


40 




^^H 


H 


soo 


M 


4 


88S 


8S 


I 


180 


80 




879 


18 


a 


800 


80 


« |39e 

i 


95| 8 


810 


SO 




^1 


^H 


On the Tekufoth or Year-points. — Besides the cycles we have ^^^H 


^^1 


mentioned, the Jews hare other cveleH called Ta^H^th HiC^pp. Tekilfa ^^^H 


^^H 


lueaiiB with them the coiumenctiment of each of the quarters of the year. ^^^H 


^^^^^^B 


rherefore 80 ^^H 


^H 


the Tekufd of NU6n is the vemal equinox, ^^^H 


^^H 


the Tekufd of TVzmmux, the summer solstice, ^^^^| 


^^H 


the Tekufd of Tigfiri^ the autumnal equinox^ ^^^^| 


^H 


and the Tehljd of Tebetk, the winter solstice. ^^^H 


^H 


The interr&l between two conseeutive Tel; Moth thoy determine equally ^^^H 


^^^H 


i,t one-fourth of the days of the year, i.e. 91 d. 7^ h. And on this rule ^^^H 


^^H 


liey have based their calculatjons for the dete*niinatioD of the Tel^&foth, ^^^H 



CYCLES, fBAR-POlNTS, M6LfiDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 163 

(whioh were rendered neocasarj- for this reason, that) the Jewish priesU 
forbade the comman people (the laitj) to take any food at the hour of 
the TelfiftfA, maiiitaimn^ that this would prove injurious to the body. 
This, howevtjr, is nothing but one of the snares and neta which the 
Babbis have laid for the people, and by which they hav« managed to 
catch them and to bring them under their away. The thing has come 
to this, tliat pooply do not start on any undertaking} unless they are 
guided by Rabbinical opinions and Rabbinical directious, without asking 
any other person's advice, as if tho Rabliis were Lords beside the Lord, 
10 But God makes his aceount with them ! 

The Jews maintain, too, that at the hours of the \f''l'iU of the months 
the water becomes turbid ; and one Jew, who is considered a wise and 
learned man, told me that be himself had witnessed it If this be the 
truth, it must, of course, be explained by the results of astronomical 
observation, not by means of their traditionoJ system of chronological 
computation. On the whole, we do not deny the abstract possibility of 
such a fact. For the students of physical sciences maintain that marrow 
and brain, eg^s, and most moist substances increase and decrease with 
the increase and decrease of the moonlight ; that the wine in casks and 
20 jugs begins to move so as to get turbid with Sfdiment; and that the 
blood during the increasp of moonlight runs froui flii^ interior of the 
body towards the outer parts, whilst during its decrease it sinks book 
into the iuterior of the body. 

The nature of the Lapin Luius is still more strange than all this ; for 
it is, as Aristotle says, a stone with a yellow dot on the surface. This 
dot increases together with the increasing moonligLt, so as to eiteud 
over the whole surface of the stone when the moon has become full ; 
afterwards it decreases again in the same proportion as the moonlight. 

The Jew who told me this is a trustworthy authority, to whose account 
30 no suspicion attaches. Therefore these apf>earancos, as related by the 
Jews, are not impossible in the abstract. 

The intervals between the Tpkiifdth, as reckoned hy the Jewish 
scholars, are identical with those of Ptolemy, i.e.. 



From the Te^ufa of Tishri to the TeVufa of Tebeth=88id. 
T^beth „ „ N.'sJbi=i>o;d. 
„ „ Nisiln „ „ Tammuz=944d. 

„ „ Tammuz „ „ Ti8hri=92|d. 

This gives a sum of 365J^ days. 

In the computation of the TeVi^f6th they do not reckon the year with 
40 mathematical accuracy. For, as we have slready mentioned, if they 
reckon with mathematical accuracy, they fix he solar year at 



365d. -Hmi* 



U 



164 



ALBtfli^t. 



p. 183 Computation of the Distance of the Apogee ft-om the Vernal 

Point. — If wo, now, know the Hays of the veiur- quart*? rM, we know also 
the place of the apogee of the Holar sjihere. 

If we want ki kuow the place of the tti.»ogee, such as it was at the time 
of their ohscrvutions, we must find the mean motion of the Bun for 
one da J. 

We multiply the fractione of one Nychthemeron, 

i.e. 98,406, 

which they call the Solar Cycle, by 360 ; and the product we divide by 
the length of the solar year, after it has been converted into the same 10 
kind of fractions, 

i.e. 35,975,351, 

, which number they call the Basie. 

By this tnethod, as they have described it, you find the mean motion 
of the Bun for one Nychthemeron to be about 

0° 69' 8' 17'" 7^' 46^-. 

For one day stands in the same pro]H3rtioD to all the days of the boIot 
year as that portion of degrees of the sphere, which the sun traverses in 
cue day, to the whole circle. 

Now we draw the circle ah c dy ivpre^entiug the solar sphere as 20 
homoteutric with the Ecliptic, around the centre h. Then you make 

a the beginning of Aries ; 
6 the beginning of Cancer j 
e the beginning of Libra ; 
3 the beginning of Capricorn. 



Further we draw the two diameters a h c and b k d. 

Already before, in recording their theory, we have mentioned that the 
sun requires more time to traverse the quarter a h than the other 
quarters, Therefore the centre of the Exeentrt'C Sphere must lie in this 
quarter. 

Let * be the centre of the Ezeeniric Sphere. Around it we draw the 
circle g t/n, touching the homoceutric sphere, as a representatloD. of the 
Ezeentric Spttere. The point of contact is t. 

Then we draw the line ( i-, the diameter r xm k parallel with the 
diameter a h e through the centre x, and finally the radius I t, which we 
prolong ae a straight line as far aa * , parallel with the diameter h h d. 

Because, now, the sun in his mean motion traverses the half circum- 



30 



PYCLES, YKAR-rOLNTS, M^l.ftos, AM) hPAr-HoNTilS. 165 

fereuce ab c, i.e. the aiua of the Tenml and summer quarters, in 187 days, 
the section zf h of the Etce/Uru'. Sphere is equal to 

184° 18' 52" 43'" IS""-. 



If we Buhtract from this the half circle Ttfk, i.e. 180 degrees, we get 
am a remainder the sum ot z r and k n, i.e. 

4,^ 18' 62" 43'" IS""-. 

However, these two (77 and Fir) are equal, since the two diameters are 
parallel. Therefore each of them is 

2° 9' 26" 21'" Z6^: 

10 And the siue of each of them, i.e. the line z s, is equal to 

0° 2' 15" 30"' 57IV-, 

if you take the radius 2 z as 1 degree. 

Since tJie sun traverses the quarter a & in 94| dajs» the section % if ot 
the Excentric Sphere is equal to 

93" 8' 34" 38"' 44^ . 

And because « / is the stun of s r, which is known, and of r I, which is 
the quarter of a circle, we find, on subtracting 1 1 from i/^ // to be equal 
to the remainder, i.e. 

0''59'8" IT' 8^-. 

SO The sine of If according to the same measure it 

0° 1' 1" 55"' 35^^-. 

IHm is the line x m, which is equal to h. 

Therefore, in the rectangular triaugtc x »\ tb !wo sides x e and 8 k 
are known, whilst the longest side Is unknown. Now, we take the p. 184 
squares of each of the two aides x and a h and add thorn together. 
This gives 

287, 704, 4^6, ti74 eighths. 

If we take the root of this number, we get 

0° 2' 28" 59'" 40"-, 

30 which is the distance between the two centres, equal to the sine of the 
Oreaiest Equation. 
If we look for the corresponding arc in the Sine Tables, we get 

2* 22' 19" 12"' \G^, 



166 



ALBkCKl. 



which is the Qrcategt Equation (hewia) one degree. For half (I) oi h x, 
measured hj xt aa 1 degree, stands in tho same proportion to z f as 
(lacuna) . 

If we, now, want to know how long the line a A ia, if measured by 
the line kg: I aal degree, we multiply x h hj I degree and divide the 
stun by A a; plus 1 degree. Thereby we find x A, as measured by the line 
f A, as 1 degree. 

For h z, if measured by A < as 1 degree, stands in the same proportion 
to 2 < as z A, if measured by x f as 1 degree, to the sum of Hz plus 
1 degree, i.e. x t. 10 

hi this way the dtstiuicQ between tho two centres in its proportion to 
each of the two diameters, that of the homoceatric and that of the ex- 
centric sphere, becomes known. 

Further we draw the line / u at right angles to the diameter a he. 
Now tho two triangles i u h and x t'k are similar, and their corresponding 
sides are proportional to each other. 

Now, everybody who knows trigonometry knows that in a triangle the 
side a stands in the same proportion to the side $ as the sine of the 
angle opposite the side a to the sine of the angle opposite the side /3. 

Therefore A x, which is known, stands in this same proportion to « ir, 20 \ 
which is also known, as the sine of the right angle x g h, i.e. A ( the 
Sintu TotU9t to tho sine of tho angle s A ;r, i.e. the line ( u, which we 
wanted to find. 

Finally we compute this line, OM we compute the unknown number 
out of four numbers which stand in proportion to each other. So we get 

0' 54' 34" 19'^' 48*v. 30^-. 

The corresponding arc is 

66" 26' 29" 82'", 

which is the line a U or the distance of the apogee from the remal 



oquinox. And that is what we wanted to demonstnite. 
Here follows the figure of the circle. 



80 



OTOLES, TEAIt-POIN'TS, >Ml,feDS, AND I.EAl'-MONTHB. 167 



m 



/ 



a 



a/ 



Tkia is the method of the ancient astronomers for the caloulation of 
the apogee. Modem astronomers, knowing that it is extremely difficult 
and next to impossibte to determine the times of the two solsticea, pre- 
ferred in their obaervationa of the four points abed tho middle parts 
of the year-quarters, i.e., the middle parts of the Firm Signs (i.e. of 
Taurus, Leo^ Scorpio, Amphora). The method, however, which my 
matiter 'AbA-Na^r Man^Ar b. *AJI b. *Ir&k, a frccdman of the 'Amtr- 
almn'minin, has found out for the solutiuu of the preceding problem, 
requires the determination of three points of the ecliptic, chosen ad 
10 Ubiiuptt ajid an accurate knowledge of the length of the solar year. In 
my Ktl4b'€diMti^hfutd bikhtiUf-aJaWsdd I have shown that this meUiod is aa 
much superior to that of modem astronomers as the method of the latter 
is 8Uj>crior to that of the ancient astronomers. 

If I plunge into subjects foreign to the plan of this book, it is only 
for the purpose of leading the reader, as it were, about in the gardens of 
wisdom. 80 as to prevent his mind and eye becoming weary and getting 
a dislike (to continue the reading of this book). Let me hope that the 
reader will accept this apology of mine. 



185 



li>8 



ALBtliCNf. 



Computation of the Tekufoth according to the Jewish System. 
— Now we retaro to our subject and say : H the Jewe want to find tlie 
year-quarters, i.e. the TehifOth of some year, they take the years of the 
i£Va Adamit the current yeai' included, and convert theui into Solar 
Cycles (dividing them by 28). As for the remaining years, they take 
for cTery single year 30 hom*B, i.e. 1 j day. The number of weeks which 
are contained in this sum they disregard, so as to ^t finally a. number 
of days less than seven. These days thej count either from the Ix'gin- 
ning of the night of Wednesday, or they increase them by 8 and count 
the aura from the heginniug of the night of Sunday. This brings them ILI 
fco the Teljdfu of Nisan. i.e. the vernal equinoi of the year in question. 

In the preceding we liave already explained the iuierrals between the 
single Tekfif Ath according to both views, the common and the learned 
one. If, therefore, one of the Te^&f6th is known, thereby the other ones 
are known too. 

Their counting the sum of days from the beginning of the night of 
Wednesday is for no other reason but this, that some of them maintain 
that the sun was created on Wednesday the 27th of Tldl, and that the 
Tckufa of Tishri (autumnal equinox) took place at the end of the third 
hour of the day of Wednesday the 5th of Tishri. Further, they make 20 
the sun traverse the two year-quarters of spring and summer in 
182d. 15h., in case they do nut reckon with matbematiual accuracy, as 
we have l>efore nientiom?d. Now, if we convert these 182d. 15h. into 
weeks, the days disapi>ear, and we get only a remainder of 15 h. If we, 
further, reckon from the TekflfA of Tishri backward, and we count 
these hours, we come as far aa the beginning of the first hour of the 
night of Wednesday. And that is the moment whence the oomputAtion 
we hare mentioned starts. 

Others among the Jews maiat«,in that the sun was created in the first 
part of Ariea at this same moment whence the computation of the 30 
Te^uf^th starts ; that he was In conjunction with the moon, so as to 
form the Moled of Nisiin, 9h. 642H. after the creation. The solar year, 
if not computi'cl with mathematical accuracy, is 365| days. If we convert 
it into weeks, we get as a remainder Ij day, whic-h is the surplus of each 
Tel^jifa over the correB]x>nding one of the preceding year (the Character 
of the Teltilfft). Therefore wo take this Character for each of the 
remaining years. If we begin (in the computation of the Teljiifdth) from 
the beginning of the Solar Cycle either from the beginning of day or 
night, we come back at the end of the cycle to the same moment whence 
we started. 40 

According to this mode of calculation we have computed the TekiifAth 

of a Solar Cycle, Now take the years of the ASra Adami, the current 

p. 186 y^^^ included, convert them into Solar Cycles which you disregard ; the 

remainder of yearn compare with the column of the Cycle till you find 

the corresponding number. Then you find opposite, the interval l>e- 



rTriiEW, YEAIt-POINTR, M6LfeDS, AND LEAP-irONTHP. 160 



tween the Te^t^fn of NisAd and the beginning of the night of Sund&y 
in the current yoar in (jueation ; then; you find, too, the next fnllowing 
three Tel^i^fAth and the J)ominu« fforts, i.e. the presiding planet of that 
hour in which the TekufA falU. For they mention these Domini 
together with the TokufMh and call them " HoroBcopti* of t/ie Hours." If 
the hours you get are loss than 12, they are hours of the night ; if they 
are more, thpy aro hijurs of the day. So you may subtract therefrom 
12 hours, and thti romainder represents the corresponding hour of the 
day. 

Tablb op TkkOfAth. 



10 






Th« rotnrrals 






Ooluma of the 
Solivr Cyole. 


Tbe Months of the 
P.inr TekAfAth. 


between tbe 
Te^«th and 

the beginning 

of tlio Ni^ht of 

Sunday. 


in which the Te|^M&th 
uccar. 








d. h. H. 






Ist year 


KtsSn . 


4 18 


Sbabbethai. 






Tammuz 


$ I 540 


>t 






Tishri 


5 9 


9MeV. 


ao 




TSheth 


5 16 540 


M 




2nd year 


NisAu . 
Tammuz 


6 
6 7 540 


Ma'adhim. 






Tishri 


6 15 


llammi. 






T5beth 


6 22 540 


u 




3rd year 


Nisan . 


6 


Ndgah. 






Tamniuz 


13 540 


*t 






Tishri 


21 


Knkhabh HammA. 






TSheth 


1 4 540 


rt 




4fth year 


Nisaii . 


I 12 


Lebheua. 


so 




Tammuz 


1 19 640 


t> 






Tishri 


2 3 


Shabbethai. 






T^bcth 


2 10 540 


11 




fith year 


Ntsau . 


2 18 


^det 






Tammuz 


8 1 540 


>» 






Tifthn 


3 9 


Ma'adhim. 






TSbeth 


3 16 540 


I) 




6th year 


Nls&n . 


4 


Hammft. 






Taiumuz 


4 7 540 


tt 






Tishri 


4 15 


Kdgah. 


40 




Tt^l>eth 


4 22 540 


t) 




7th year 


NtBiin . 


5 6 


Kdkbabh Uamm&. 






Tammuz 


5 13 540 


» 






Tishri 


6 21 


Lebh^nA. 






TfibeUi 


6 4 540 






8th year 


Kisiln . 


6 12 


Sh;ibb<ithiS. 


" 


Tammuz 


6 19 540 


1* 


1 


Tishri 


3 


^eV. 






TcbeUi 


10 540 


>i 



p. 187 
-191 



■ 


V7^^^^ 


AT.BtB^Nt. 


P 


■ 


^^^^^^B 






The interrali 




H 


CoJamn of fhe 
Solar Cr«le. 


The MuDthM uf Lite 
Foar T«^ftf6Ui. 


Ijotwoou ike 
Ti-kAfdth ftud 

of tlio Night of 
Sunday. 


77m lSati0n of the houn 
in wbioh tliu To^df6th 

DConr. 


^^H 






d. h. chl. 




^^^^^^^H 


9th year 


Nis&n . 


18 


Mu'adhim. 


^^^P 


^^^^^^^^H 




TaniTiiuz 




1 1 540 


It 


^^^^^^1 


^^^^^^^^H 




Tishn 




19 


HjLmm&. 


^^1 


^^^^^^^^H 




Tebeth 




1 16 540 


ti 


j^^^H 


^^H 


10th year 


NiB&n . 

Tammuz 

Tiahri 




2 

2 7 540 
2 15 


Nogah. 
Kukhabh Hamma. 


H 


^^^^^^^^B 




Tebeth 




2 22 540 


>t 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^H 


llth year 


Kisan. 




3 6 


Lebh^nA. 


^H 


^^^^^^^^H 




Tammuz 




3 13 540 


>i 


^H 


^^^^^^^^1 




Tishri 




3 21 


Shabbeth&i. 


^H 


^^^^^^^^H 




T6beth 




4 4 540 


i» 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^H 


12t]i year 


Nisan . 




4 12 


^de\. 


^^M 


^^^^^^^^^H 




Tammuz 




4 19 540 


>r 


^^^^1 


^^^^^^^^H 




Tishri 




5 3 


Ma'adhim. 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^H 




TSbeth 




5 10 540 


i» 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^B 


13th year 


ma&n. 




5 18 


Hamznil. 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^B 




Tammuz 




6 1 540 


i» 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^B 




Tishri 




6 9 


Ndgah. 


^^^B 


^^^^1 


Tfibeth 




6 16 540 


II 


^^^H 




14th year 


Kisau . 
Tammuz 





7 540 


K6kbabh Hammo. 


^H 


^^^^^^^^1 




Tiahri 




15 


Lebh^&. 


^^1 


^^^^^^^^1 




TSbeth 




22 540 


M 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^H 


16th year 


Nisan . 




16 


Shabbethai. 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^H 




Tammuz 




1 13 540 


>T 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^H 




Tishri 




1 21 


^ek. 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^B 




Tebeth 




2 4 640 


It 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


I6th year 


Nisau . 

Tammuz 

Tishri 




2 12 

2 19 640 

3 3 


Ma'adhtm. 

It 
HammA. 


H 






Tebeth 




3 10 540 


11 


^^^H 


^^^H 


17th year 


Nisan . 
Tammuz 




3 18 

4 1 640 


NAgah. 

't 


^^1 


^^^^^^^^B 




Tishri 




4 9 


Edkhabh Hammft. 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^B 




Tfibeth 




4 16 540 


11 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^H 


18th year 


Ntsan . 




5 


LobbdnS. 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^B 




Tammuz 




5 7 540 


- 
It 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^fl 




Tishri 




5 16 


ShabtiethJU. 


^^^H 


^^^^^^^^B 




7%beth 




5 22 540 


t* 


^^^H 


^^^H 


19th year 


Nti&n. 

^hxnmuz 




6 6 
6 13 540 


9edelF. 

It 


^H 


^^^^^^^^B 




Tishri 




6 21 


Ma'adhim. 


^^1 


I 




Tfebeth 


■ 


4 540 


ti 


1 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


1 CYOLKS, YBAR-POiNTS, JlAhftDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 171 


M 




1 1 
1 . Tbe intervalB | 




1 
Colamn of the The Uooths of bhe 


tW beginning "» which the Te*:lif6tli 
of tbo Nigbt of 


■ 




Solar Cycle. 


Foot Te^Ath. 


^1 








Saaday. 




1 


20th year 


NiHita . 


12 


J^ammft. 






Tarn muz 




19 540 


n 


^H 






Tishri 




13 


Nogah. 


^1 


^^F 




Tt^bflth 




1 10 540 


n 


^H 




21at year 


Niain . 
Tainmuz 
Tishri 
Ta.eth 




1 18 

2 1 540 
2 9 
2 16 540 


Kdkhabh UammA. 

*> 
Lebhen^ 


1 




22nd year 


Niaan . 
Tauimuz 
Tijshri 
T^beth 




3 
3 7 540 
8 15 
3 22 540 


Shabbothiii. 

Scdet. 

11 


1 




23rd year 


NisHD . 




4 6 


Ma'adhim. 


^1 


^H 




Tammuz 

Tisbri 

Teheth 




4 13 540 

4 21 

5 4 540 


Hamm&. 


1 




24th year 


Nisiin . 
Tammuz 
Tishri 
Tcbelh 




5 12 

5 19 540 

6 8 
6 10 540 


Ndgah. 
Kdkbabh l^ammSu 


1 


^^^^B 


25th year 


NisAn . 

Tammuz 

Tiahrt 




6 18 
1 540 
9 


Lehhfina. 
Shabbebh&S. 


I 


^^K 




Tebeth 




16 540 


*i 


^H 




26th rear 


Ntsan . 
Tammuz 
TiBhi! 
T&b«th 




10 
1 7 540 
1 15 
1 22 540 


§£dek. 

Ma'adh?m. 

ft 


1 




27th year 


N!8&n. 




2 6 


Hamm&. 


^H 






Tammnz 

Tiahrt 

Tt'belh 




2 13 540 

2 21 

3 4 540 


N6gah. 


1 




28lh year 


Niaan . 




3 12 


S61vhabh Hamrai. 


^1 


^B 




Tammuz 
Tiahil 




3 19 540 

4 3 


Lebhgnft. 


1 






TSbeth 




4 10 540 


» 


192 H 




Names of the Planets and the Signs of the Zodiac.— The namec 


^^^H of thn planets nhich we have mentioneti in the TahU' of the Tfkilj"ith are 


^M 


^^^H Hebrew aameB, in which form the^' are used hj them. Each uatiou 


^^^M 


^^^P howeTor, if thej want to mention the planets, must call them by the 


^H 


^^^1 names of their own language. Therefore here follows a tabic exliibiting 


^1 


^^^H the names of the planets in various lajif^ingea. The reader will find 


^1 


^^^H here the Hebrew oameB which we hftVd mentioned a« well as the namei 


^H 


^^^H 60 in other languages. 





CrrLRS, THAE-POTNTS, wALftDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 173 



And now natural relationship (between the planets anfl the si(2;ii8 of 
the zodia<c) demands, althouf^h it is not necessarr in this place of oar 
book, nor is it requisite, that we should do the same with regard to the 
signs of the zodiac which we have done for the planets, i.e. construct a 
table containuij^ all that we know of their names in various languages. 
For he who waata this for the planets, wants something of the same 
kind for the signs of tlie zodiac. 

Here follows the table eonluining the names of the signs of the 
sodiac in various languages. 



p. 193 



10 


Arabic. 


Greek. 


Fernan- 


^yriao- 


Hebrew. 


Swrnctii. 


OborU' 
miao. 




Alhamal 
Alkabsh 


> Kpios 


Bara 


1;icl 


iTvtS 


M&ihft 


CU} 




Althaur 


Tavpoi 


QkM 


l>oZ 


■ntf 


ViBha 


,u 




AIjanz& 
Altau'am&n 


> AiBvfiot 


D&pukar 


lii)12 


D^Mn 


Mithuna 


*^jiy^^\ 




AlsamtAii 


KapKivo^ 


Karzang 


U'^ 


]t3"lD 


Karka(a 


ab*.j& 


20 


Al'asad 


Aiatv 


Shir 


U} 


nK 


Sihha 


6- 




Alsuubula 
Al'adhrA 


^ HapBtvo^ 


Khdaha 




n'nra 


Kanjfi 


»«M,3 




Almt^An 


Zwyos 


TarAzfl 


IZlmSo 


a"':nD 


Tula 


•*bv 




Al'a^rab 


%§copino% 


Kashdum 


la;nL 


a-\py 


Vys'c'ika 






Alkaus 
AlrAmi 


i Toinmjs 


Ntma«p 




|ntt?p 


Dhanu 


*4Wi 




Aljady 


^AiyAtttpUK 


Baht 


^^ 


••nJi 


Makara 


»*Wj\f 


80 


AldaJw 


'YSpoxooi 


Ddl 


Voi 


^hi 


Eumba 


yy" 




AltjiCkt 

Alsamaka 


i 'Ix^s 


Mahi 


iidJ 


rt 


Mlna 


•T-of 



J174 



ALBtE^t. 



p. 194 The Author criticizeslthe Jewish computation of the Tekufoth.— 

We return to our sabject and say : The calealation and tables, given 
in the preceding, enable the student to find the week daj on which 
the Te^AfA fails; the corresponding day of the Syrian month, however, 
to which they bring us, differs from real time to an intolerable extent. 

Let us fi.g. take the ^>ra Adami for the Ist of Tishri, the m61ud of 
which falls on Sunday the Ist of TUll in the year 131 L of Aleiander. 
The number of complete years of the ,^!ra Adami is 

4759 

or Sgr/ai cyda (8x532=4256), 26 small cycles (26x19=494), and 9 10 
coffy>fa/e year*, arranged according to the Ordo InUrcalathnit XT^T^TO. 
10 that six out of these nine years are comnion<years and three leap- 
years. 

If we convert this sum of cycles and years into days, we get the 
sum of 

l,738,200d. 7h. 253^ 

This is the interval between the m6led of the first year of the Mra, 
Adami and the moled of the present abuve-meutioued year (^A. Adami 
4759). 

We hare already stated before that according to Jewish dogma the 20 
TekafAth-Tishri, i.e. the autumnal equinox, occurred at the beginning 
of tbe ^ra Adami, 5 days and 1 hour after the moled of the year. 

If we subtract these fid. Ih. from the sum we have got, we get as 
remainder the interval between the Teljilt'ath-Tishri of the first year of 
the era and the moled of the present year. 

If we divide this interval by SGS^d, wo get 

4,758 years 
and a remainder of 

335J days. 

Till this Solar year is complete, ajid night and day are again equaJ» 80 
29d. lib. 827" more are required. If we add this number of days, 
hours, and Halakim to tbc mdlSd of the present year, i.e. to Sunday 
7h. 253^ of daytime, we advance as far as the night of Tuesday 9h. 
on the 1st day of the month Tiahrin Prtniue. 

Now, this TeV^fA falls by 14 days later than the equuiox as deter- 
mined by astronomical observation. Such a difference, even if it be 
much less, is quite intolerable, although popular use may be based 
upon it. This popular use we have illustrated by our table according 
to the theory of the Jews. 

If we, further, take this interval between the first TelfMA and the 40 
ni61^ of the present year, i.e. 

l,738,195d. 6h. 2533, 



CTCLB8, TEAB-POINTS, Md^ftoS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 175 

and multiply it bj 

98,406, 

which is the number of fractions of one day of their Sol&r yeu* (of 
B. Addn), we g«t the sum of 

171,280,306 

(Qrmi lacnna.) 

Methods showing how to find the beginning" of a year of any P- 19* 
era. 

Tabli or TVS Bcarmnwofl or tbs Stsiac anb Grskt Koittbb. 



10 



20 



80 





i 

^ ll 


S3 

« 

1 


It 

"-a 


r 

.A 
O 


1 


"2 


i 


• 

1 


•-1 


5 


1 

3 

a. 




h 


m 


1 








< 




5 


1 


1 




s 

A 


1 

1 


1 


2 


£ 


7 


3 


6 


6 


2 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 




2 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


7 


3 


5 


1 


3 


6 2 




8 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


1 1 4 


L 


4 i 6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 ' 5 




5 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 


4 


7 


2 


& 


7 


8 ' 6 




6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


5 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 ! 7 




? 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


7 


3 


5 


1 


8 


6 


2 


L 


3 


4 


7 


2 


£ 


1 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


8 







5 


I 


8 


6 


2 


2 


5 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 




10 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 5 




11 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 


5 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 1 7 


L 


12 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


6 


2 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 




13 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


7 


3 


£ 


1 


3 


6 


2 




14 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 




15 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


L 


16 


7 


3 


6 


1 


4 


4 


7 


2 


6 


7 


3 


6 




17 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


5 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 




18 


2 


5 


7 


8 


6 


6 


a 


4 


7 


2 


6 


1 




19 


8 


6 


1 


4 


7 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


8 


t 


20 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


2 


5 


7 


3 


5 


I 


4 




21 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


£ 




22 


7 


8 


6 


1 


4 


4 


7 


2 


5 


7 


8 6 




23 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


6 


2 


4 


7 


2 


5 1 


L 


24 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


7 


3 


5 


1 


3 


6 2 




25 


4 


7 


2 


S 


1 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 8 




26 


5 


1 


8 


6 


2 


2 


5 


7 


3 


5 


1 4 




27 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


4 


7 


2 


5 


7 


8 


6 


L 


28 


1 


4 


« 


2 


5 


6 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


1 



176 



ALUtttfixt. 



p. 196 If we wajil to know the sftme for the ^-Era AuyuMi (ie. to find the 
wt«k-daT on which a year of this era commences), we take ita com- 
plete years and add thereto | of them. To this sum we add 6 and 
diridc the whole by 7. Thereby wo get the Signum (of the week-day) 
of the 1st of That. 

To this Sujtmm we add 2 for each complete month that haa elapsed 
before the date you want to fiud, and the sum we divide by 7. Thereby 
we find the Sij^num of the mouth we seek. 

The leap-years are in this era aarertained in this way, that we add 
1 to the number of the complete yeajs and divide the sum by 4. If 10 
there is a remainder, the current year is not a leap-year ; if there is 
bo remainder, it is a leap-year. 

If we want to know the same for the J^a Anionini, we increase its 
complete years by ^ of them, and to the sum we add 4{. Then we 
make the same calculation (as for the ^^a Auguait). 

The leap-years in this era are aacertadned iu this way, that we add 3 
to its complete years and divide the sum by 4. If there is do remainder, 
the year is a leap-year; if there is a remainder, it is a common-year. 

As regards the ^ra Diocletiani, we add to its years \ of them, and to the 
sum we add 4^. With the remainder, and in order to find the be- 20 
ginnings of the single months, wc reckon in the same way as we have 
done for the JBra Alexandri according to the Greek system. 

The leap-year in the JBra Diocletiani is ascertained in this way, that 
we add 2 to its complete ^-eara and divide the sum by 4. If there is no 
remainder, the year is a leap-year ; if there is a remainder, it is a 
common -year. 

If we want t« learn the beginnings of the years and months of the 
^ra Fugte by chronological computation, we take its complete years 
and write them down in three places. The first we multiply by 354 days, 
the second by 22 minutes, and the third by 1 second. To the number of 30 
minutes we add 34 minutes. Then we convert the three sums in the 
three places into wholes. If the minutes are more than 15, we odd 
them as one wholt^ ; if they are loss, we drop them. The sum wo get 
represents the time which baa elapsed between the begiuning of the 
^a Fttgm and the beginning of the year in question, consisting of 
days. We add 5 to them and divide the sura by 7. Now, the re- 
mainder of less than 7 is the Signum of Muharram. 

If we want to learn the Sigitum of another month, we take for the 
months, which have ekpsed before the month in question, alternately 
for one month 2 days, for the otlier 1 day, and the sum we add to the 40 
Signum of Mal>Arrani- The whole we divide by 7, and the remainder is 
the Signum of the month in question, aa determined by chronological 
computation which is based upon the mean motion of the moon. 

The computation according to the appearance of new-moon is a subject 
the exposition of which would be both uf great length and difficulty and 



OTCLES, YEAR-POINTS, M^L^DS, WD LEAP-MONTHS. 177 



would reqiiirc difficult calculations and numerous tables. It is sufficient 
to know what on thia subject is said in the Canon of Muhammad b. 
Jftbir Albattnnt, and in that one of Ha^aah the mathematiciau. In case 
of nooessitT the student may consult them. 

The same principle we have explained has been adopted by the sect 
who claim to have esoti^rie doctrines and represent themselves as the 
party of the Family (of 'All). So they have produced a calculation 
which they maintain to be one of the mysterit-a of prophecy. It ia this : 

If you want to know the bepnoing of Ramadun, take the coinp]eto 
10 years of the Hijra, multiply them by 4 and add to the sum J and I 
(ije. ^) of the number of yt ivrs. If in both these portions (in J and ^ of 
the year of the Hijra) you get a fra<;tion, add it as one complete day to 
the other days, if one of them or both together are mure tbin half the 
denominator of either of the two fractions (^ and ^). Then add to the 
sum 4 and divido the whole by 7. The remainder beyond 7, which you 
get, is the Signum Maniaddni. 

This calculation is based upon what we have mentioned. For if 
you divide the days of each Lunar year, i.e. 354 days, by 7, you get as 
remainder 4. If therefore the years of the Hijra are multiplied by 
20 4, it is the same as if the days of each year and the remainders (i.e. 
the 4 days which remain, if you divide <J54 by 7) were converted into 
weeks. 

Further, to take ^ and ^ of tbe years of the Hijra is the same 
as if you would take -J- day and ^ day for each single year. So thia 
method of taking | and J of the years comes to the same thing as if you 
multiplied each year by ^ and ^ day and divided the products by the 
denominators of the two fractions (i.e. 5 x6~30). 

If, therefore, the whole is divided by 7 and the remainder is counted 
from Friday, which is the beginning of the ^ra Fugiv^ we come to 
80 the Signum Sfuharrami. And if we add thereto 6 and count the sum 
from Sunday, the matter comes to the same result. 

Further, the reason why those people add 4 ia this, that you get — 
by alternately taking 2 days for one mouth and 1 day for the next one — 
till the beginning of Ramad&n the sum of !> days. If you add these to 
the Signum Mvharrami, you g<*t the Signum Ranuiddni. Having already 
added 6 for Mul.iarram and combining with it the 5 days, which are 
necessary for the timo till Bimidiln, you get a total of 11 days. Sub- 
tract 7 and you L;et as remainder 4 ; this is what remains of the sum 
of the two additions {i.e. the addition of G days for thtj purpose of 
40 postponing the ejiocb of the era from Friday to Sunday, and the 
addition of 5 days for the purpose of converting the Signum Afuiiarrami 
into the Signum Hamaddni). 

The two computations, the one which is counted from Friday, the 
other — mentioned shortly before — which is counted from Thursday, agree 
with each other, tor this reason, that in the former case the 34 minutes are 

12 



p.l97. 



178 



&LBtR<^t. 



summed to one day, whilst in the latter cage none of the fractions are 
raified to a whole. 

This and similar modes of computation have been adopted bj the 
followers of this new theory in this sect, who an? known in Khwarizm 
as the Boxfhdddiifija sect, so called from their founder, a Shaikh who 
lives in BaghdAd. I have found that one of their leaders has taken the 
Jadwat-Mxtjarrad (i.e. the pure table, divested of any accessory), wiiich 
was constructed by Habasb in his Cancn for the purpose of correcting 
the method of dating employed in astronomical calculations. Now this 
sectarian has added to each number of the talile, i.e.lhe Siynum Muharrami, 10 
fi, for the reason just mentioned ; further he has altered the shape of the 
table, giving it — instead of the perpendicular form of a table — the form 
of a 8crew<like train, similar to a wound-up serpent, as some people in 
T&baristan have given it the form of a circle, in which the beginning 
and the end of the numbers meet together. 

He has also followed the example of the people (of the same sect) in 
composing a book in which he abuses those who want to find the new- 
p.l98. moon by obsei-ration ; he attacks them and blames them, saying that for 
both Christians and Jews it is rendered superfluous by their tables 
to observe new-moon for the determination of their fast-days and the ^^ 
beginnings of their months, whilst Muslims trouble themselves with a 
subject of so dubious a character (as the observation of new-moon). 
But if he had read farther (in the book of Habash) beyond that place 
where the JadwaUMtijarrad occurs, as far as the chapter of the astrono- 
mical methods for the observation of new-moon, if he had acquainted 
himself with their nature and with the real character of the practices of 
both Jews and Christians, he would have learned that that which they 
have adopted is obscurity itself. 

Perhaps he who is acquainted with our preceding explanations will 
find out the truth of this. For astronomers agree that the assumed ^^ 
measures in the most difficxilt parts of the practice of the observation of 
new-moon are certain distances which cannot be ascertained except by 
experiment. Besides, the observations themselves are subject to certain. 
circumstances of a geometrical nature, in consequence of which that 
which is observed by the eye diffi^rs in greatness and smallness. A 
man who considers astronomical aCfairs with an unbiassed mind could 
not decide against the necessity of tho observation of new-moon aor 
against it^ possibility, particularly when now-moon occurs near the 
end of that distance which has been assumed. 

Here follows the screw. figure (here given in the form of a common 40 
table) which has beeti transformed out of the Jadvxil'Mujarrad^ 



OYOLBS, rBAR-POINTS, MdlftoS, AND LEAP-MONTHS, 179 



Table showing on what Week-Days the Sinole Yea&s of the Ctcle 
of 210 IitTNAR Years commence. 





s 


































A 


B 


A 


q 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


D 


A 


B 




-4 


cd 




























1 


IV 


81 


n 


61 


vn 


91 


V 


121 


ni 


161 


I 


181 


VI 




S 


I 


82 


TT 


62 


IV 


92 


II 


122 


vn 


162 


V 


182 


ni 




8 


VI 


83 


IV 


63 


II 


93 


VII 


123 


V 


153 


in 


ibd 


1 




4 


in 


3i 


I 


61 


VI 


9i 


IV 


124 


n 


164 


vn 


1S4 


V 




5 


vu 


86 


V 


65 


in 


95 


I 


125 


VI 


166 


IV 


185 


n 




6 


V 


36 


III 


66 


I 


96 


VI 


126 


IV 


166 


n 


186 


vn 


10 


7 


u 


87 


VII 


67 


V 


97 


III 


137 


I 


157 


VI 


187 


IV 




8 


VI 


88 


IV 


68 


n 


98 


vn 


128 


V 


158 


ni 


188 


I 




9 


IV 


89 


n 


69 


vn 


99 


V 


129 


m 


159 


I 


IfiD 


VI 




10 


I 


40 


VI 


70 


IV 


100 


II 


130 


VII 


100 


V 


190 


in 




11 


V 


41 


III 


71 


1 


101 


VI 


131 


rv 


161 


11 


191 


vn 




Ifi 


in 


42 


I 


72 


VI 


102 


IV 


132 


n 


162 


VII 


192 


V 




18 


VII 


4a 


V 


73 


III 


UJ3 


I 


133 


VI 


163 


IV 


193 


II 




li 


V 


-i4 


III 


71 


I 


104 


VI 


134 


rv 


164 


II 


191 


vn 




15 


n 


4fi 


vn 


75 


V 


105 


in 


135 


I 


165 


VI 


196 


IV 




16 


VI 


46 


IV 


7B 


II 


106 


VII 


136 


V 


166 


III 


196 


I 


so 


17 


IV 


47 


IT 


77 


VII 


107 


V 


137 


ni 


167 


I 


197 


VI 


18 


I 


48 


VI 


78 


IV 


108 


II 


138 


vn 


168 


V 


19S 


III 




19 


V 


48 


III 


79 


I 


109 


VI 


130 


rv 


169 


II 


199 


vn 




20 


ra 


60 


I 


80 


vr 


no 


rv 


140 


II 


170 


vn 


£00 


V 




21 


vn 


61 


V 


81 


III 


111 


I 


141 


VI 


171 


IV 


201 


II 




80 


V 


62 


III 


82 


I 


112 


VI 


142 


IV 


172 


u 


202 


VII 




88 


n 


68 


VII 


83 


V 


113 


in 


ltd 


I 


178 


VI 


203 


IV 




8i 


VI 


61 


IV 


84 


11 


lU 


VII 


144 


V 


174 


ra 


20-1 


I 




2B 


IV 


66 


II 


85 


VII 


115 


V 


146 


UI 


176 


I 


206 


VI 




86 


I 


66 


VI 


86 


IV 


116 


II 


146 


vn 


176 


V 


206 


in 


80 


27 


V 


B7 


m 


87 


1 


117 


VI 


117 


IV 


177 


II 


207 


vn 




28 


ni 


68 


I 


88 


VI 


118 


IV 


148 


n 


178 


Vll 


208 


V 




29 


VII 


69 


V 


89 


in 


119 


I 


1-10 


VI 


179 


IV 


209 


n 




80 


IV 


60 


n 


90 


vn 


120 


V 


ISO 


ni 


ISO 


I 


210 


VI 



In the onjzinal Arabic thia table is arr&fifrod in tho form of a ocreir. Iq t1i« 
longitQtUnal Qcltla of the ncrow there in a xtead^ prnKTOSHion uf both uuinbon, the 
nnmbara of thi> voait Hriinf; hy 21, the numbers of the week-days rising by 1. For 
inttAlirf*! in tbe 8eld of the first years tho years rUe in thin way : — 

1. 22. 48. 64. 65. 106. 127. 148. 169. 190. {1. £2. 43. ato.) ; 
and Ui« week-daya rise in thii way : — 

40 IV. V. V. VL vn. vn. i. n. n. in. (iv. v. etc.). 



12 • 



180 



ALRtntNt. 



Considering that in the JadiPol Mujarrad produced by Habash tho 
sage in his canon knovn as the Canon Probaius (lacuna). This man 
whom we hare mentioned, transferred thence the !icrew<figuro (into his 
work), adding^ five in places where Ijabash had added the fractions as a 
whole day to the other days, which ho ought not to have done. His 
method is the same for the TaluJ-a Mediommf so that by this he was 
preserved from error. 

Let him who wonts to ascertain the tmth of our words compare this 
screw-figure — for it is the Jadical-Mnjarrad itself, only increased by 5 so 
as to represent the Si^nvm Eama4(ini — with the Corrected Table which 10 
we have computed for the Signum Mvharrami. The fractions following 
after the whole days we have also noticed, wishiug that they skouid 
come under occular inspection, and so afford a help also for other 
things. 

If you use this corrected table, subtract always 210 from the years of 
the Hijra, including the current year, if their number be more than 210. 
With the remainder compare the column of tbe numbers and take the 
days and miuutes which you find op[>o8ite in the corresponding square. 
Add to the minutes 5 days and 34 miuutea, and convert them into 
whole days. Eliminate the 7, if tho number is raoi'o than 7, and you 20 
get the Signum for the 1st of Mut^rram. If you add thereto 5, you 
get the Signum of Ramadiln. 

The result of this computation compare with tho screw-figure. For 
in some dates there is a difference ou account of the conversion of the 
minutes under 60 into days. 

It will be clear to the reader why the table has been constructed for 
210 years, and not for a less or larger number of years, if he studies the 
subject thoroughly. 

Ood IB all-wise. He is our fiufficiency and our help ! 



OTCLBS, TBAB-POIKTS, MOlfeCS, AND LEAP-M0NTH9. 181 



Thb Cobrectet> Tabz.v. 





^ 

a" 




i 


11 

"a 
§3 


1 


5 

a 


11 

33 




i 


|| 


1 


1 

1 


11 


1 


1 

( 


P 


1 


1 

1 




1 


J 

s 
i 




I 


* 


88 


ai 


8 


ss 


CI 


t 


88 


n 


5 


83 


181 


a 


29 


151 


1 


88 


im 


6 


SB 




i 


1 


44 


38 


9 


44 


48 


4 


44 


98 


8 


44 


129 





44 


152 


5 


44 


183 


8 


44 




9 


S 


6 


33 


4 


6 


69 


8 


6 


93 





6 


131 


s 


6 


158 


S 


6 


183 


1 


S 




4 


3 


28 


34 


1 


88 


64 


6 


28 


M 


4 


38 


184 


8 


9S 


154 





36 


184 


5 


88 




S 





60 


35 


5 


80 


65 


a 


50 


HI 


t 


50 


US 


6 


SO 


155 


4 


50 


185 


3 


SO 




s 


5 


U 


36 


3 


12 


66 


1 


18 


H 


6 


13 


188 


4 


18 


ISO 


3 


IS 


188 





13 




7 


8 


3i 


37 





S4 


67 


5 


84 


97 


8 


81 


187 


1 


84 


1S7 


6 


S4 


187 


4 


84 


10 


B 


6 


SS 


33 


4 


SS 


flS 


8 


56 


86 





56 


188 


6 


56 


158 


8 


56 


ISS 


1 


66 




9 


i 


IH 


38 


9 


la 


» 





16 


80 


5 


16 


138 


3 


IS 


190 


1 


16 


189 





18 




10 


1 


40 


40 


« 


40 


70 


4 


40 


100 


8 


40 


180 


t> 


40 


160 


5 


40 


180 


a 


46 




u 


8 


8 


41 


4 


8 


n 


8 


8 


101 





8 


m 


5 


8 


161 


3 


8 


191 


1 


3 




13 


" 


34 


48 


1 


84 


78 


6 


34 


103 


4 


34 


us 


3 


24 


162 





34 


193 


5 


24 




U 





4S 


48 


5 


46 


78 


8 


40 


103 


1 


46 


138 





46 


163 


4 


46 


198 


8 


46 




u 


& 


8 


M 


a 


8 


74 


1 


e 


104 


6 


6 


I3i 


4 


8 


164 


S 


3 


104 





8 




u 


2 


30 


4S 





30 


73 





80 


105 


3 


30 


139 


1 


30 


IGS 


6 


30 


1» 


4 


ao 




16 


6 


88 


46 


4 


83 


76 


8 


88 


106 





53 


136 


B 


68 


166 


3 


53 


186 


I 


53 




17 


4 


14 


47 


a 


14 


77 





14 


107 


5 


14 


137 


8 


14 


167 


t 


14 


197 


6 


14 


20 


IS 


1 


99 


46 


6 


36 


78 


4 


36 


108 




36 


1S8 





SS 


168 


5 


36 


198 


3 


as 




10 


5 


a 


46 


8 


« 


79 


1 


a 


108 




SB 


180 


4 


8S 


188 


8 


8J 


199 





58 




90 


9 


ao 


SO 


1 


90 


80 


6 


20 


no 




90 


140 


9 


80 


170 





90 


800 


6 


30 




81 





43 


a 


9 


43 


81 


8 


48 


Ul 




48 


141 


e 


48 


171 


4 


43 


801 


8 


48 




a 


S 


4 


» 


9 


4 


83 


1 


4 


lU 




4 


148 


4 


4 


178 


8 


4 


803 





4 




ss 


8 


89 


88 





86 


88 


5 


20 


113 




99 


143 


I 


36 


173 


6 


36 


903 


4 


99 




H 


6 


46 


M 


4 


48 


Si 


9 


46 


114 




46 


144 


5 


48 


174 


S 


48 


904 


1 


48 




SS 


4 


10 


M 


8 


10 


65 





10 


115 




10 


145 


8 


10 


175 


1 


10 


808 


S 


10 




96 


1 


38 


Sfl 


6 


33 


88 


4 


38 


116 


3 


38 


146 





88 


179 


6 


83 


306 


3 


83 




97 


8 


M 


57 


3 


84 


87 


1 


54 


117 




54 


147 


4 


51 


177 


2 


U 


909 





54 


80 


9B 


8 


16 


88 


1 


16 


68 


6 


16 


lie 




16 


148 


8 


16 


ITS 





16 


806 


5 


16 




IB 





98 


8B 


5 


38 


88 


3 


38 


IIB 




38 


14B 


6 


86 


179 


4 


as 


90B 


3 


SS 




10 


5 





ao 


8 





90 


1 





180 







150 


4 





180 


8 





810 









pp.199, 

200. 



182 



ALBtRGxt. 



p.201. Further, I have found witt 'Aljmad h. Muhammad b. ShifaUb, who 
wad counted among tho leaders of the Haruriyva-sect and one of the 
greatest of their misaionarieB, the following table, which, he says, is to 
be used in this way : Ta.ke the complete years of the .^£Va Fugm, add 
thereto 4 and divide the sum by 8. The remainder under 7 you compare 
with the columu of numbers, and opposite you find the week-day of the 
beginning of whatever month you like. 



Tablb op the Months. 



^ . 



10 



This tablet too, is certainly derived from the Jadwai-Mujarrad. If the 
student would consider the Oclaeieris on which this table is based, he 
would find that the ncw-year-daya <}f the years of this cycle return to 20 
tbe same day of the week, that tbey, however, fall short (of a complete 
revolution and return t^ the same day) by a fraction of 4 minutes. 
Therefore this tabic does not dififer from the corrected Jadvfal-Mvjarrad, 
except when the Octaeteri& in the course of time recurs many times. In 
this caiie the minus- difference of 4 minutes causes a very disagreeable 
oonfusion. 

This same trickster of a missionary relates that this table wa« the 
work of Ja'far b. Muhammad AJfladik at the time when he — so that 
man says — explained the difference of opinion and the uncertainty that 
exists among Muslims regarding the month Kamatjlan. According to 80 
him Ja'far said : " I swear by him who in truth has sent Muhammad 
p.202. lUi a prophet, that He (the prophet) did not leave his people, before 
he had disclosed before our eyes both the past and the future till the 
end of the world. And tho least of this is the knowledge of fasting for 
every year and every day." Further, he is reported to have said: 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, m6l£i>3, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 183 



" Sba'bftn has never been more — and Rama4An baa never been lew— 
than 30 dajB." 

Thia malefactor baa invented tales about that wise Lord, the noblest 
of the nobles, the wisest of tho Im&ma — God's blessing be upon their 
names ! — bjr making him responsible for something that is inconsistent 
with the religion of hia ancestor (i.«. 'Alt). It has been proved that the 
contrary of these Eiascrtiona is the truth. That pious ImAm was far from 
sallying himself hy traditiouH like those, and never dreamt that he 
would be defiled by their insolence in referring them to his authority 
10 — God's blessing be ujwn him ! — 

There are two methods for the finding of the i^i^num iftMarramt, men- 
tioned by 'Abfi-Ja'far Alkhazin in his Great Introduction to Astronomy: 

I. Take for each complete 80 years of the ^ra Hijrm which have 
elapsed, 5 days. As regards the remainder of less than 30 years, take 
for each 10 years 1| days, t.^. 1 day 16 hours. For each 5 years of the 
further remainder take 20 hours, and for each complete single year 
take 4 days 8{ hours. To the sum you get in this way add b or subtract 
2. The remainder divide by 7, and the remainder you get is the 
Si^utn, MxJiamxmi. 

20 This method is correct, and proceeds in the same way as the before^ 
mentioned methods. For the days and fractions of days that are taken 
for certain numbers of years are the remainders which you get, if you 
convert those years into days and divide them by 7, as the Corrected 
Tahle shows. 

To the sum we add 5, in order to make the days begin with Sunday, 
as we have mentioned before. It is tho same whether you add 5 or 
subtract 2, i.e. 7 minus 5, as long as you use the hebdomadal cycle^ which 
must be adhered to. 

If you want the Si^num. of any other month (hut Muljarram), add to 

80 the Signum Muhanumi 2 days fojr each month whose number in the 
order of months is an otid oue, and 1 day for each month whose number 
is an even one. Divide tho sum by 7, and the remainder ia the Signum 
of the mouth in question. 

II. The second method is this : Take half of the number of years, if 
it is an ewn number; if it is an odd one, subtriK't 1 therefn)m, and keep 
in mind for it 4d. 22min. (i.e. make a mental note of it). Then take 
the half of this remainder of years and put it into two different places. 
Multiply this number in one place by 3, and divide it by 4. So you get 
days. In the other place multiply it by 8, and add the sum to the 

Aj[\ number of days, with the addition of 5. From ths sum subtract a 
number of day-minuieg which is equal to half the number of the years. 
With the remainder combine that which you have kept in mind (4d. 22.), 
if the years are without a fraction. But if there is a fraction of more 
than 30 minutes, count it as a whole ; if it is less, omit it. Divide the sum 
by 7, and the remainder is the Signt^m Mu^arrami, 



184 



ALBifiONt. 



This method) toOi is correct, and baaed on the circumRtAnces we hare 
mentioned. 

That which you keep in mind (4A. 2*2') ia the intcrcalntorj portion of 
the year which you Bubti-act from the total sum of year«, the remainder 
p.203. which you get after having divided 354rtl. 22' by 7. 

To maltiply the lialf of the remaining years (i.e. after the anb- 
traction of 1, in case the number of years bo an odd one) by 8, a the 
same as to divide the whole by 4. These 4 days are the whole days 
which you get by dividing the Lunar year by 7 (354d. 22': 7, tc- 
mainder 4). 10 

Finally you take | and ^ day, i.e. ^ or J« day for each year. How- 
ever, the half of I (i.e. |) of any niuiiljcr is nioru than ^ + ^ (i.e. ij) of the 
whole number by a. measure (a quantity) which amounts for the whole 
number to the same oa a corresponding number of sixtieth parts (or 
minutes) for half the number (i.e. for the whole number x this plus- 
dilTerence is xhi^* which is the same as g'g of ^x). If you, therefore, 
multiply half of the number uf years by 3 and divide the product by 4, 
you get f of the number, which is more than i+ j^ (H) ^^ ^^'^ whole 
number of years by a number of minutes which is equal to half the 
number of years. If they, now, are counted in 60th parts, i.e. in minutes, 20 
and you subtract them from the sura, you get | and ^ (J^) of the years. 
Tlie analogy of the other parts of this calculation with what we liave 
before mentioned is evident. 

If wo want to find the Signum of the new-year's day of a year of the 
^ira Yazdagirdi, we take the number of complete years and add thereto 
always 3. The sum we divide by 7, and the remainder of this division 
is Siynum of Farwardin-Miih. 

If we want to know the Signum of another month, we take for each of 
the complete months, that have passed, 2 days, except Aban-Muh, for 
which we take nothing. The sum we add bo the Signum of Farwardin- 30 
Miih, and subtract 7, if the number be more than seven. The re- 
mainder is the Signum of the month in question. 

For the jf^ra Magorum, the epoch of which is the death of Tazdagird, 
wo add always 5 to the number of complete years, and the remainder 
we compute in the same waj aa we have done for the preceding era, 
in case we use for this era the Persian months. But if we use the months 
of the ^ughdians or Khwurizmians, we always add 3 to the number of 
complete years, and divide the sum by 7. As remainder we get the 
Signum of Nau«ard or Nduadtji. For each following month we add 2 
days to the Signum Navtardi. In this way we find the Sigmtm of 40 
the month in c^uestiou. 

If we want to know the intercalation, as practised by the Peraiajis 
before the decline of their empire, we take the Persian years from the 
end of the reigu of Yazdagird, which event is the epoch of the .i£Va 
Magorum, and add thereto 70, for the reason which we have mentioned 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, Mdl^DS, AND LEAP-MoNTHS. 185 

in the first part of this book. The sum we divide "by 120. The quotient 
is the number of intercalations that ought to have been carried out 
since the time when thev commenced to neglect intercalation. Now we 
take for the total sum of the years of the era a number of months 
corresponding to the number of intercalations. If, then, these months 
make up complete years, without giving a remainder, the year is a leap- 
year approximately, for there is confusion in their chronology. But p.204. 
if there is a remainder of months, the year is a common year. There- 
upon we add the leap-months we have got to the beginning of the year 
10 in question, and we find Naur6z on that day to which this calculation 
brings us. So Kaurdz comes again to be there, where it used to be 
in the time of the Kisras, when it used to coincide with the summer- 
solstice as calculated by their astronomical tables. 

For the JEhra of Almu'tadid we find the Signum of Farwardin-MAh by 
adding to the complete years J of them, and to the sum 4J. The whole 
we divide by 7, and the remainder is the Signum of Farwardln-Mah. 
Knowing the Signum of New-year's day of a year, and wishing to find 
the Signum of some other month, we add for each month that has 
passed 2 days, except Aban-Kah, for which we take 1 in a leap-year and 
20 nothing in a common year. The sum we divide by 7, and the remainder 
is the Signum of the month in question. 

The leap-years of this era you find by dividing its complete years 
by 4. If there is no remainder the year is a leap-year ; if there is a 
remainder it is a common-year. 

Now we think that this long exposition will be sufficient. Much 
praise be unto God, as is due to Him ! 



186. 



ALB!E©Nt. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



OV TBB BBAS OP TS£ PS£UD0-PE0?BET8 A^D THEIB C03I3StINITIB8 
WHO WERE DELUDED BY THEU, TOE CtTRSE OF THE LORD BE UPON 
TBKM ! 



We shall explain the method of dating the eras b; the peeudo-propheta. 
For in the intorrals betweon the prophets and kings whom we have 
menbioQed, pseudo- prophets ca.uie forward, the number and history' of 
whom it would be impossible to detail in this booi^. Some of them 
perished without haring gained adherents, not leaving anything behind 
them but a place in history. Whilst others were followed by a lO 
communitj- who kept up their institutes aud used their method of 
dating. It is necessary, therefore, to mention the eraa of the most 
notorious among them, for ttuB affords a help, also, for the knowledge 
of their history. 

Budhasaf. — Tlie first mentioned is Budhdtaf, who came forward in 
India atU'r the 1st year of Tahmurath. He introduced the Persian 
writing and called people to the religion of the Sahians. Whereupon 
mauy ])eopIe followed him. The Pcshdildhian tings and some of the Kayi- 
nians who resided in Balkh hold in great veneration the sun and moon, 
the planets and the primal elements, and worshipped them as holy 20 
beings, until the time when Zaradnsht appeared thirty years after the 
accesaion of BishtSsf. 

The rcnmonta of those ^^bians are living in Harrdn, their name (i.e. 
Al^arrdnitfya) being derived from their place. Othei*8 derive it from 
HarAn b. Terah, the brother of Abraham, saying that ho among their 
chiefs was the moat deeply imbued with their religion and its most 
p.SO£. tenacious adherent. /6n SaniriM (SynccUus), the Christian, relates in hia 
book which he, intending to refute their creed, Btulted with Ilea and 



ON THE EEA.8 OP THB PSBUDO-PEOPHETS. 



187 



futile fttories, that Abraham left their commnnity simplr because leproey^ 
Appeared on his foreskin, and that everybody who suifered from this 
disease waa considered impure, and excluded from all society, Theire- 
foro he cut off his foreskin, i.e. ho circumcised himself. In this statQ 
he entered one of their idol-temples, when he heard a voice speaking 
to him : " Abraham, you went away from us with one sin, and yoa 
return to ua with two sins. Go away, and do not agaia come to us." 
Thereupon Abraham, seized by wrath, broke the idols in pieces, and left 
their community. But, after harin^ done it, he repented and wished 

10 to sacrifice his son to the planet Saturn, it being their custom to sacrifice 
their children, as that author maintains. Saturn, however, on seeing 
him truly reimutant, let him go free with the sacrifice of a ram. 

Also 'Abd-almasili b. 'IsliAk Alkindi, the Christian, in hia reply to 
the book of *AbdaUuh b. 'Xsmii'il Alhtishimt, relates of them, that they 
arc notorious for tbeir sacrificing humau beings, but that at present 
they are not allowed to do ft m puTilic. 

All, however, we know of them is that they profess monotheism and 
describe Gknl as exempt from anything that is bad, using in their 
description the Via Netjalionlg, not the Via Positumie. E.g. they say "he is 

20 indeterminable, he is invisible, he does noi wrong, he is noi unjust." 
Tliey call him by the Nomina Piikherrima, but only metaphorically, since a 
real description of him is excluded according to them. The rule of the 
universe they attribute to the celestial globe and it« bodies, which they 
consider as living, speaking, hearing, and seeing beings. And the fires 
they hold in great consideration. 

One of their monuments is the cupola over the Mihrdb beside the 
MakfAra in the great Mosque of Damascus. It was tboir place of 
worship as long as Greeks and Romans professed their religion ; after- i 
wards it passi'd into the hands of the Jews, who made it their synagogue. I 

80 Then it was occupied by the ChristiauB, who used it as their church till the 
time of the rising of Islam, when the Muslims made it their Mosque. 

They had temples and images, called by the namca of the sun, the 
forms of which are loiown, and the like of which are mentioned by 
'Abu-Ma'shar Alhiilkhl in his boot on the houses of worship. For 
instance, the temple of Ba'al-bek was sacred to the idol of the Sun. 
The city of HarrAn was attributed to the moon, it being built in the 
shape of the moon like a T^aiYfuan. Close to Harnln there are another place 
called Seletntin, its ancient name being Sanam-etn, i.e. iviayo I/ua/e, and 
another village called Tera'-*t'«, i.e. Porta Veneris. People say, too, that 

40 the Ea'ba and its images originally belonged to them, and that the 
worshippers of those images belonged to their community, and that 
AWih was called Kuhal and At'tutzd, Alzubara. 

They have many prophets, most of whom wore Greek philosophers, e.g. 
Hermes the Egyptian, Agathodsemon, Wdlit, Pythagoras, BAbi, and 
Sawar the grandfather of PUto on the mother's side, aud others. Some 



ti'i 3 



I 



188 



albJeOnI 



of tbem did not allow thcmselTcs to eat fieb, fearing it might be a 
BiluruK EleetricuSf nor chickens because thny are always feverish, nor 
garlic because it produces bea<lai.'bti and Ijiirna the blood or tbo spenna 
geniiale on which the existence of the world depends, nor peas because 
they siupify and iuipair the intellect and originally grew in the skull of 
man. 
p.206. They have three prayers in writing, one for the time of sunrise with 
eight inclinations, the second immediately before the sun leaves the 
centre of heaven (the meridian) with 6ve inclinations, the third at sun- 
iet with fire inelinations. Each of the incliTtaiiott^ at their prayer 10 
consists of three prostrations. Besides, tbey have voluntary prayers, 
one in the second hour of the day, another in the ninth hour of the 
day, and a third one in the third hour of the night. Thi-ir prayer is 
preceded by purifiiition and waabiug. They also wash themselves after 
a pollution. They do not circumcise ibemselvea, not being ordered to 
du BO, as they maintain. 

Most of their rf^fpilationa about women and their penal law are 
similar to those of the Muslims, whilst others, relating to pollution 
caused by touching dead bodies, etc., arc simitar to thuse of the Thora. 

They offer offerings to the stars, their images and temples, and 20 
practise sacrifices carried out by their priests and seducers. By this 
means they elicit the knowledge of the future of the man who offers the 
offering, and the answer to his inquiries. 

Idris, who is meutioaed in the Thora as Henokh, tbey call Hermes, 
whilst according to others Hermes is identical with BiidbHsaf. 

Again, others maintain that the Hurnmiaua are not the real Sabians, 

(but tliose who are called in the books HeatJiau and Idvlatert. For 
the Sabiaus are tbo remnant of the Jewish tribes who remained in 
Babylonia, when the other tribes left it for Jerusalem in the days of 
1 Cyrus and Artaxerxes. Those remaining tribes felt themselves at- 80 
I tracted to the rites of the Magians, and so they inclxTied (were inclined^ 
i.e. Piibl) towards the religion of Nebukadnezzar, and adopted a system 
mixed up of Kagism and Judaism like that of the Samaritans in Syria. 

The greatest number of tbem are settled at Wa^it. in SawAd-al'irAlf;, 
in tbe districts of Ja'far, Aljnmida, and the two Nahr-a)?ila- They 
pretend to be the descendants of Enos the son of Seth. They differ 
from the Harrnnians, blaming their doctrines and not agreeing with 
them except in few matters. In praying, even, they turn towards the 
north pole, whilst the Harr&nians turn towards the south pole. 

Some of those to whom God has given a divine code (Jews and 40 
Christians) say that Methuselah had another eon besides Lamech, who 
called himself ?dhi', and that the ^abians derive their name from him. 

Before the first establishment of their rites and the appearance of 
BudhAsaf people were £a/uivau», inhabiting the eastern part of the 
world and worshipping idols. Tbe remnants of them are at pre- 



ON THE ERAS OP THE PSEUI 



189 



sent in India, Cliina, and among the Taghazgliari the people of 
Kburdsaa call them Skamandn. Their monumeuta, the Bahdras of their 
idols, thfir FarkMras are bIiU to be seen on the frontier countries 
between Khurnsun and Indui. They heliovf in the eternity of time and 
the migration of souls ; they think that the globe of the unirerse ifl 
flying in an infinite vacwivi, that therefore it has a rotatory motion, 
since anything tluit is round, when thrown off its place, goes downward 
in a circular motion, as they say. But others of thera beiiove that the 
world has been created (within time), and maintain that its duration ia 
10 one million of yeara, which they divide into four periods, the first of 
four hundred thousand years, the Attrea ^ttu. 

{Cfreai lacuna. The end of the chapter on Bfldh&sof. the 
whole chapter on SHaradnsht, and the beginning of the 
chapter on Bardaifi&n are missing.) 

So he gets the sum of 3,457. We think they will dispute with us on 
the astronomical inter pre tjition we pro])ose, for we, as well as themselves, p,2Q7. 
are familiar with the science uf the subject Therefore any arguing on 
the subject and any interpretation are altogether devoid of sense. 

What we have just mentioned regarding the division is a proof in 
20 favour of the Egyptians in the matter of the Termini. For according to 
them the duration of the Tenninva of Tenus in Pisces is 400 years, 
whilst Ptolemy reckons it as 266 years. We have already ssid before 
that the time between Alexander and Ardasbir is longer than 400 years, 
and have endeavoured to settle this question of chronology. 

We return now to our subject, and go on to state that the Persians 
adhered to the Magian religion of Zaradusht, that they had no schism 
or dissension in it till the time came when Jesus rose, and his pupiU 
spread through all the world preaching the Gospel. When they thus 
spread through the countries, one of them came to Persia, and both 
30 Bardaifiin and Marcion were among those who followed his call and 
beard the word of Jesus. Pirt they took from him, part from what 
they had heard from Zaradusht. So each of them derived from both 
systems a separate doctrine, containing the dogma of the eternal 
existence of the two Principia. Each of them produced a gospel, the 
origin of which he traced back to the Messiah, and declared everything 
else to be a lie. Ibn-Daisan maintained that the Idgki of God was 
residing in his own heart. 

The difference, however, did not go so far as to separate them and 
40 their followers from the bulk of the Christians, nor wore their gospels 
in all matters different from that of the Christians ; in some reganlA 
they contained more, in others loss. Ood knows liest ! 

Mani. — After BardaisAn and Marcion. Mdiu the pupil of FAdarfln 
came forwanl. On having acquainted himself with the doctrines of 
the Magians, Christians, and Dualists, he proclaimed himself to be a 



190 



ALBtB^t. 



prophet. Tn the beginning of hia hook called Shdhiirkdn, which he 
composed for Shiip&r b. Ai'da.8hlr, he says : " Wisdom and deeds hare 
always from time to time been brought to mankind by the messengers 
of God. So in one ago they havo been brought by the messenger, 
called Buddha, to India, in another by Zaradusht to Persia, in another 
by Jesus to the West. Thereupon this revelation has come down, this 
prophecy in this last age through me, Miint, the messenger of the God 
of truth to Biibylonia." In bis gospel, which he arranged according 
to the twenty-two letters of the alphabet, he says that he is the Paraclete 
announced by Messiah, and that he is the seal of the prophets (i.e. the 10 
last of them). 

His doclriiies regarding the existence and the form of the world are con. 
tradicted by the results of scientific argumcnta and proofs. He preached 
of the empire of the worlds of light, of the n/>wT09 'Affl/Kuffos, and of 
the spirit of life. He taught that liglit and darkness are without 
beginning and end. He absolutely forbade his followers to slaughter 
animals and to hurt them, to hurt the fire, water, and planU. He 
ealablished laws which are obligatory only for the Siddiks, i.e. for the 
saints and ascetics among the Manichaeans, riz. to prefer poverty to 
riches, to suppress cupidity and lust, to abandon the world, to be 
~p.208. abstinent in it, continually to fast, and to give alms as much as possible. 
He forbtulc them to acquire any property except food for one day 
and dress for one year; hejfurther fqrlnde sexual^iatercourse] and 
ordered them continually to wander about in the world, preaching his 
doctrines and guiding people into the right path. 

Other laws he imposed upon the Sammd* (lajTuen), i.e. their followers 
and adherents who have to do with worldly affairs, viz. to give as alms 
the tithe of their property, to fast during the seventh part of life-time, 
to live in oiouogamy, to befriend the Siddika (saints), and to ivmore 
everything that troubles and pains them. ■ 80 

Some people maintain that ho allowed pederasty, if a man felt m^ ^'*' 
clined, and as proof of this they relate that every Manichu»m used 
to be accompanied by a young, beardless and hairless servant. I, how- 
ever, have not found in what I have read of his books a word indicating 
anything of this kind. Nay, oven his life proves the contrary of thia 
assertion. 

Maui was bom in a villi^ called Mardinii on the upper canal of 
KfithA, according to his own statement in his book Sbabt\rkan, in the 
chapter on the coming of the prophet, in the year 527 of the era of 
the Babylonian astronomers, i.e. the A^ Alexandri, in the 4th year of 40 
the king Adharb&n. He received the first divine revelation in his 
13th year, Anno Astronomontm Bahifloniw 539, in the 2nd year of 
Ardashir, the King of Kings. This part of chronology we have 
already tried to correct in the chapter preceding that of the duration 
of the rule of the AshkAnians and theifn/iiX: iUfawd'i/. 



20 



V 



X 



as THE ERAS OP THE PSET7D0- PROPHETS. 



191 



According to TahjA b. AIaii*man, th<i Christian, in his book on 
the Magians, MtLnl was called by the Christians Corbiciua the son of 
Pateciua, 

When he came forward, many people believed in him and followed 
him. He composed many books, his gosjvel, the ShribOrkfin, Kavz-atikyd 
(Theeaurut Sevivicaiionii), the Book of the Giants, the Book of Books, 
and many treatises. He maintained that he had explained in eatenso 
what had only been hinted at by the Messiah. 

Manichjeism inorflased by degrees under Arda«hir, his son ShApflr 
jQ and Hurmuz h. Shapiir, until the time when Bahram b. Hurmuz 
ascended the throne. He gave 'orders to search for MAnt, and when 
he had found him, he said : " Thin man has come forward calling 
people to destroy the world. It will be necessary to begin by de- 
stroying him, before anything of his plans should be realized." 

It is well known that ho killed Mdni, stripped oS his skin, filled it 
with grass, and hung it up at tlie gate of Gundisapftr, which is even 
Btill known as the " Munt-gate." Hurmuz also killed a number of the 
Manichoeans. 

Jibra'Il b. N4h, the Christian, says in his reply to Yazdanbakht's 
20 refutation of the Christians, that one of M&ni's pupils composed a book, 
in which he relates the fate of Maui, that he was put in prison on 
account of a relative of the king who believed that he was possessed hj 
the devil; Maui had piromised to cure hirn, but when he could not «ffect 
it, he was chained hand and foot, and died iu prison. His head was 
exposed before the entrance of the royal tent, and his body was thrown 
into the street, that hu shotild be a warning example to others. 

Of his adherents, some remnants that ore considered as MaDicbeean 
are still extant : they are scattered throughout the world and do not 
live together in any particular place of Muhammadan countries, except 
30 the community in Samarkand, known by the name of Sdbiant. As 
regards non-Muhammadan coimtries, we have to state that moBt of 
the eastern Turks, of the people of C*hina and Thibet and some of the 
Hindus, adhere still to his hiw and doctrine. 

B«garding their prophet MAni they hold two different opinions, 
one party maintaining that he never worked a mircle, and relating that 
he only informed people of the signs and wonders indicative of the 
coming of the Messiah and tiis companions, wliilst the other party 
maintains that he tn fact worked signs and miracles, and that the king 
Sh&p&r came to believe in him when he bad ascended with him tows^rds 
^ heaven, and they hod been standing in the air between heaven and 
earth. M4u}, thereby, mode him witness a miracle. Besides, they 
relate that he sometimes used to rise to heaven from among his com- 
panions, to stay there for some d.ay.'*, and then to rfdesccnd to them. 

I have heard the Ispahbadh Marzuban ben Rustam say that Sh&ptb* 
banished him out of his empire, faithful to the law of Zaradusht which 



p.209. 



ALBtR^^Nt. 



«*^ 



demands the expulsion of pscudo-propheta from the country. Ho 
imposed upon him the obligation never to return. So Mani went oS to 
India, China, and Thibet, and preached there hie gospel. Afterwards 
he returned, was seized hr Bahrilm and killed for having broken the 
Btipiiliiiion, us he had thereby forfeited his life. 

Mazhdak. — Tliereupon came forward a man called Mashdak hen XTawio- 
ddddn,a native of NasA. He wan Mauhadhdn-Maubadh, i.e. chjof-justice 
during the reign of Kobadh ben FerAz. He preached Dualism and 
opposed ZarAdusht in many points. He taught that both property 
and women belonged in common to all So he found innumerable XQ 
followers. 

Kobndh, too, believed in liim. But some of the Persians maintain 
that his adhesion was a compulsory one, since his reign was not safe 
against the mnaa of the followers of Mazhdak. According to others, 
again, this Mazhdak was a cunning sort of man, who managed to 
concoct this system, and to come forward with it simply because he 
knew that Kubndh waa charmed by a woman who was the wife of his 
cousin ; and that for this reason Kobndh hastened to adopt it. Mazhdak 
ordered him to abstain from sacrificing cattle before the natural term of 
their life had come. Kobadh said : " Your enterprise shall not succeed 20 
unless you make me mast«r of the mother of AnAshirwi'm, that I may 
enjoy her." Mazhdak did as ho wished, and ordered her to be handed 
over 

(Lacvna. Missing, the end of Mazhdak and beginning 
of Musailima.) 

Mnsailima. — "To Mub^mmad the Prophet of God. Greeting unto 
thee ! etc. Ood has mado me partake with thee in the rule. One half of 
the catib belongs to us and one half to Kuraish But the ^uraish 
are evil-doing people." This letter he sent off with two mesBengers. 
To these the Prophet said : " What is it you are speaking ? " They 80 
auBwi^rcd : " "We are speaking just as He spoke." Thereujx)u the 
Prophet said : *' H it was not the custom nut to kill messengers, I 
should behead both of you." Then he gave them his answer : " From 
Muhammad tho Prophet of God to Musailima the liar. Greeting unto y j 
those who follow the right guidance ! etc. v The earth belongs to God, 
he gives it as an inheritance to whomsoever of his servants he pleases. , JVf-^^<j^ 
And the end will be in favour of the pious." 

The people of yamiiuia let thetiiselves bo deluded by him by such 
tricks as introducing an egg that had been soaked in vinegar into a glass- 
bottle, by fitting tog<:ther the wings of birds, which he had previously ^ 
p^lO. cut off, by means of similar feathers; and by 8uch<Iike humbug and 
swindle. 

The Banu Hanifa kept possession of Yamfima until Musailima was 
killed by Khulid b. AlwaliJ in the year when 'AbA-Bakr Al^iddl^ 



v«i 



"^^ 






I**" 



ON THE ERAS OF THE P8EU DO- PROPHETS. 



193 



10 



Buooeeiled. Tliou thev lAiiiontcd hia doath in verses ; one of the BonA 
Hant^ saja : 

"Alas for thee, o' Ahft-ThimiJima! 
[Thou wikit] like the sxin bcajniug forth from a cloud." 

Before Musoilima in the time of hefttbendom the Banik Hanifa had 
got an idol of HaU ()>. amixtun^of dates, butter, and dried curd), which 
they wor8hip|>ed for a long time. Bet onoe, boing pressed hy hunger, 
they devoured it. So a poet of the Bonil Tanum said : 

" The Bani'i l^anifa have eaten their Lord for hunger, 
From which they were suffering already a long time, and from want." 



Another said : 

" The Hanifas have eaten their Lord 
At tb-^ time of want and hunger. 
They did not guard against the punishment, 
^Hiieh their iKird might inflict upon them.'* 

Bahafirid b. Mahfunidhin. — Thereupon in the days of 'Abft-MusUm, 
the founder of the 'Abbaslde dynasty, came forward a man called 
Bahiijir'nl hen il'ih/nnidhin in Kliwfif, one of the districts of Nishapur, 
iu a plaee called Siriiwand, being a native of Zuzau. In the beginning 

20 of his career he disappeared and betook himself to China for seven 
years. Then he returned, and brought with him among other Chinese 
curit»itie8 a green shirt which, when folded up, could be held in the 
grasp of a human hand ; so thin and flexible was it. He went up to a 
temple during the uight, and when he thence deHceaded iu the 
morning, he was oliserved by a peasant who was ploughing part of 
his field. This man ho told thai he had been in heaven during his 
absencti from them, that heaven and hell had been shown imto him, 
that God had inspired him, had dreswid him in that shirt, and ha«l 
sent him dovru upon earth in that same hour. The jveaaaut believed his 

80 words, aud told people that he had witnessed hiin descending from 
heaven. So he fonnd many adherents among the Magians, when he 
came forward as a prophet and preached his k-new doct^rine. 

He differed from the Magians in most rites, but he believed in 
Zar&dusht, and claimed for his followers all the institutes of /amdusht. 
He maintained that he secretly received divine rcvclationB, and ho 
established aeven prn^v^ra for his followers, one in praise of the one 
Gk>d, one relating tu the creation of heaven and earth, one relating to 
the creation of the animals and to their nourishment, one relating 
to death, one relating to the resurrection and last judgment, one 
40 relating to those in heaven and hell and what is prepared for them, 
and one in praise of the people of paradise. 

He composed for them a book in Persian. lie ordered them to 
worship the substance of the snii, ku.-»^ling on one knee, and in praviug 

i:3 






Ifh^f/^^ 



albIkGn?. 



always to ttim towards the sun wherever he might be, to let their hair and 
locks grow, to give up the Zamzuma at dinner, not to sacrifice enmll 
eattle eicept thej be already decrepit, not to drink wine, not to eat 
the flesh of animals that have died a sudden death as not having 
p.311. ^^^^ killed according to prescription, not to marry their mothers, daugh- 
ters, sisters, nieces, not to exceed the sum of four hundred dirhnms as 
dowry. Further, he ordered them to keep roads and bridges in good 
condition by means of the seventh part of their property and of the 
revenue of their labour. 

When 'Abii-Mualim came to Kishiipnr, the Mauba<lba and Herbadhs 10 
assembled before him telling him that this man had iul'ectod Islam 
as well as their own religion. So he sent 'Abdallilh b. Shu'ba to fetch 
him. He cau;;ht him in the mountains of Badagliia and broiiglit him 
before 'Abfi-Mualim, who put him to death, and all his followers of 
whom he could get hold. 

His followers, called the Bahd^Tidiyya, keep still the institutes of 
their founder and strongly oppose the Zaitizamit among the Magians. 
They maintain that the servant of their prophet had told them that 
the prophet had ascended into heaven on a common dork-brown horse, 
and thnt ho will again come down to theiii iu the same way as he 20 
ascended and will take vengeauce on bis enemies. 

Almnkanna'. — Thereupon came forward Hiishim b. Haldm, known 
by the name of Almukanna\ iu Marw, in a village called Kawakimar- 
diln. He used to veil himself in green silk, because be had only one 
eye. He maintained that he was God, and that he hod incarnated 
himself, since before incarnation nobody could see Qod. 

He passed the river Oxus and went to the distrii-ts of Kash and 
Nasaf. He entered into correspondence with the Khakan and solicited 
bis help. Tlie sect of the Mvhapjida and the Turks gathered round 
hinij and the property and women (of his enemies) ho delivered up to 3Q 
them, killing everybody who opposed him. He made obligatory for 
them all the laws and institutes which Mazhdak bafl established. 

He scattered the armies of Almahdi, and ruled during foui-teen yearSi 
but finally he was besieged and killed a. a. 169. Being surrounded 
on all sides he burned himself, that his body might bcaimiliilated, and, 
in couseqacQcc, his followers might see therein a confirmation of his 
claim of being GhxI. However, he did not succeed in annihilating his 
b-nly ; it was found in the oven, and his head was cut oS and sent 
to the Khalif Almahdi, who was then in I^alab. 

There is still a sect iu Trausoxiana who practise his religion, but 40 
only secretly, whilst in public they profcBS IslAm. The history of 
Almukanna* I have translated from the Persian into Arabic; the 
subject has been eihaostively treated in my history of the Mubayyl^a 
and the J^iuinatians. 

AlhallaJ. — Thereupon came forward a $iiil of Persian oiigla, called 



ON THB EEA8 OF THE PBBDDO-PROPnETS. 



195 



Al^vtain ben 3f'Jn»wr Alhallaj. He waa the firet to preach the coming of 
Almahd!, maintAiulag that he would come fram '{^illakjiii in Dailam. 
They sclzod upon him and led him into Baghdnd, parading him through 
the streets. Then ho wiw put into prison, hut he contrived to get out 
of it 'again. He was a juggler and artful sort of man, mixing himself 
up with every human being according to his belief and hia yiews. 
Further, he preached that the Eoly G-host was dwelling in him, and 
he called himself God. His letters i^o hia followers bore the following 
Buporscription : " From the He, the eternal, the first Uct the beaming 

10 and shilling light, the originaJ origin, the proof of all proofs, the Ijord 
of the Lords, who raises the clouds, the window from which the light 
shines, the Lord of the Mountain (Sinai), who is represeuted in every 
shape- — to his slave N. N." And his followers began their letters 
to him in this way: "Praiae unto thee, being of all beings, the 
perfection of all delights, great, O sublime being, I bear witness 
that thou art the eternal creator, the Ught-giirer, who revoals him- 
self in everj* time and age, and in this our time in the figure of 
Alhusain b. Man^tir ! Thy slave, thy wretched and pt)or one, who 
seeks help with thee, who flies for refuge to thee, who hopes for 

20 thy mercy, O thou who liDOWost all mysteric* ! — speaks thus and 
thus." 

He composed books on the subject of his preaching, e.g. the KiUtb' 
Nfir-AVaal, the KUAh.Jamjn-AVakitar and the KUab-Jamm'AVaf- 
ghar. 

A.H. 301, the Klialtf AlmuktAdir-billiih laid hands u^ion him ; he 
ordered the executioner to give him a thousand lashes, to cut off hia 
hands and feet and to behead him ; tben they beaprinkled him with 
naf ta and burnt hia body, and thn^ w the ashes into the Tigris. 
During the whole execution he did not utter u sylUible nor distort hia 

SO face nor move his lips. 

A remnant of hia followers who are called after him is still extant ; 
they preach the coming of Almahdi, and say that he will issue from 
TillaVi^Q< Of this same Mahdt it is said in the KiUil-Almaldhim 
that be will fiil the earth with justice as it heretofore has been 
filled with injustice. Somewhere in the book it in said that he will be 
Muhammad b. 'Abdalliih, elsewhere tliat he will l>e Muhammad b. 
'All. Nay, when Almukht&r b. 'Abi-'TJbaid Althakiifi called people 
to rally round Muhammad b. Al^anafiyya, he 2>roduced as a testimony 
an authentic tradition, and maintained that this was the predicted 

40 Mahdl. 

Eren in onr time people expect the Mahd! to come, believing that 
ho is alire and resides in the mountain Ba^wA. Likewise the Banft- 
'TTmayya expect the coming of Alsufyani who is mentioned in the MatdMnu 
In that book it is also mentioned that AldajjS.lj the seducer, will issue 
from the district of Isfahan, whilst aslrologers maintain that he will 

13 » 



p.212. 






albJuOn}. 



r 



iisne from the island of Barl>Vi1 four hitndrud and Bixty-sii ycam after 
Yaxrlagird ben Shnliryar. Also in the (Jospel you find mentioned the 
Bigns that will foreshow his coming. In Greek,. in Christian books, he is 
called 'An-ixpwTWj HM we learn from MAr Theodorus, the Bishop of 
Mopsuesto, in his commentary on tht:' Go8i>el. 

Historians relate timt 'tJmur ben Allchatt&b on entering Syria was 
met by the Jews of Damascus. They spoke thus : " Greeting to thee, 
O Furuk ! Thou art the Lord of MWa.. We adjure thee by God, do not 
return until you conquer it." He asked them jw to Aldujjat, whereupon 
they answered: "He will be one of the tril^e of Benjamin, By God, 10 
you, nation of the Arabs, you will kill him at a distance of ten to 
twenty yards from the gate of Lyddu." 

In the times after AlhaUAj the Kamiatjaus rose into power, 'Abfl- 
Tahir Snlaimiin b. 'Ahi-Sa'id Alhasan b. Babr/im Aljannabi marched out 
and reached Makka a..h. 318 ; he killed in an atrocious way the people 
who were imssing round the cirLUiit of the Ka'ba, and threw the ccirpses 
into the well Zamzam ; he carried oif the (janneiits and the golden 
implements of the Holy House, and destroyed its aqueduct ; he took 
away the black stone, smashed it, suspended it afterwards in the Mosque 
of Kufa, and then he returned home. 20 

g Ibn Abi-Zakari3ry3..-~t)n the lat Bamadun A.H. 319 came forward 
Ihn *Ahi'Z{ilmriijyyi, a native of Tamam, a young man of bad character, 
a male prostitute. He called ui)on people to recognise him &s the Lord, 
'fvand they followed him. He ordered them to cut open the stomachs of 
4 / the dead, to wash them and to fill them wiili wine j to cut off the hand of 
everybody who cxtinguishod the fire with his hand, the tongue of every- 
body who extinguished it by blowing ; to have inteiTourse with young 
men, — but with this restriction, ne Justo wayis penevi xmmtitereyit. If 
anybody infringed this rnle, he should be dragged ou his face over a 
distance of forty yar<la. Those who would not practise pederasty wore 30 
killed by the butcher. He ordered them to worsliip and honoiir the 
fires, ho cursed all the prophets of former times and their companions, 
for they were " artful deceivers and on the wrong j)ath," and mure of that 
sort, which I have suffiL-iently related in my history of the Mubayyida 
and the ^armatians. 

In such a conditou they remained during eighty days, till God gave 
him into thr power of that man who had originally brought him 
forward. He slaughtered him, and so their schemes turned back upon 
their own necks. 

If, nuw, this be the time which JilmAsp and ZarAdusht meant, they 40 
are right as ia.r as chronology is concerned. For this happened at the 
end of ^ra Alexandri 1242, i.e. 1,500 years after Zan'idusht. They are 
wrong, however, as regards the restoration of the empire to the 
Magions. Likewi^ie 'AbA-'Abdallah AI'Adi hae been mistaken, a man 
who is stupidly partial to Magisui and who hopes for an age in which 



ON THE EUAS OF THE PfiRIinO-PBOrnKTS. 



197 



Alka'itn is tu iipiwar. For he has composed a book on the cycles and 
conjunctions, in whit^h be says that the 18th mnjnnction since the 
birth rif Mul.iainiuail coiufitles with the lOih uiillennium, which id 
presided over hy Saturu and Sagittarius. Nuw be maintains that 
then a man will come forward who will restore the rule of Ma^sm ; 
he will occupy the whole world, will do away with the rule of the 
Arabs and others, he will unib<> all mankind in one religion and under 
one rule ; he will do away with all evil, and will rule during 7^ con- 
junctions. Besides he asserts that no Arabian prince will rule after 
10 tlmt one who is ruling in the 17th conjiinction. 

That time which this man indicates must of necessity refer to 
Aliuulitafi and Almuktadir, but it has not brought about those erents 
whitib, a4:cording to his prophecies, were to have taken place after their 
time. 

People say that the Saaanian rule existe^I during Jiery conjunctions. 
Now, the rule over Dailam was seixed by 'All b. Buwaihi called 'Imiid- 
aldaula during; ^^ry conjunctions. This is what piHiplf used to pro- 
mise each other regarding the restoration of the rule to the Persians, 
although the doings of the Buwaihi family were not like those of the 
20 ancient kings. 

I do not know why they preferred the Dallamite dynasty, whilst the 
tact of the tranaitUB into a fiery Triy&noa is the most evident proof 
indicatiTO of the Abbaside dynasty, who are a KhurasAnl, an eastern 
dynasty. Besides, both dynasties (Dailamites as well as Ahbasides) are 
alike far from renewing the rule of the Persians and farther still &om 
restoring their ancient religion. 

Before the appearance of that youth (Ibn *Abi Zakariyya) the 
|Carma(ians believed in some dogmas of the Esoterics, and they were p.2l4. 
considered as adherents of the family of the blessed House (of 
30 'All). Tliey promised eaeh other the eoming of him who is ex- 
pected to come during l!ie 7th conjunction under a Jiery Trigonon, 
so that 'Abti-Tahir Sulatman b. A1},iasan says on t'l! \ subject: 

"The most glorious benefit X I)e8tow on you will be my return to 

Hajar. 
Then, after a while, verily the news will reach you. 
When Mors rises from Babylonia, 

When the Tiro Starg have left hiui, then beware, beware! 
Is it not I who is mentioned in all the scriptures ? 
, Is it not I who is described in the Sflra AUnmarf 

40 T 9\\fkW nile the jfcople of the earth, east and west^ 

As far as the FCairaw&n of the Greeks, to the Turks and Chazara. 
And I shtUl live until the coming of Jesus the son of Mary. 
Then he will praise my exploits and approve of what he ordered. 
Then, no doubt, my dwelling-place will be in paradise, 
Whilst the others will burn in fire and hell." 



198 ALBtpfyNl. 

Thereupon came forward a man called Ihn *Ahi-AVazdkir h. *Alt b. 
Sbalmaghan. He maintained that the Holy Ghost was dwelling in 
him, and composed a book which he called The 6ih Sense, relating 
to the abrogation of the rites. 

(The end of this cha/pier and (Ae heginning of the following are miasing.') 



199 



CHAPTER IX. 



ON THB PBSTIVJLLB Uf THB MONTHS OF TRE PERSIANS. 



p.215. 



(Farwardm- Mall.) 



Naurftz.) 

. . . and be divided the cup among hift compauiona, and said, 
" tlmt we had Nauroz every day ! " 

A philosopher of the Hasbwiyya-school relates that when Solomon the 
SOD o{ David had lost hie seal and his empire, hut wan reinstated after forty 
days, he at once regained his former majesty, the prinees came before 
JQ him, and tlie birds were biiay in his service. Then the Persians said, 
" Nauwz dmadh," i.e. the new day has come. Therefore that day was 
called Nanrflz. Solomon ordered the wind to carry him, and so it did^^ 
Then a swallow met him, and said, "O king, 1 hare got a nest with 
little eggs in it. Plejise, turn aside and do not smash them." So 
Solomon did, and when he again descended to earth thu swalluw came 
bringing some water in his teak, which he sprinkled liet'oro the king, 
and made him a present of the foot of a loeust. This is the cause of the 
water-sprinkling and of the presents on Nauroz, 

Persian scholars say that in the day of NaurAz there is an hour in 
20 which the sphere of F£r6z ia driven on by the spirits for the purpose of 
renovating the creation. 

The happiest hours of this day are the hours of the sun. On its 
morning, dawn is the shortest possible, nud it is considered as a good 
omen to look at this dawn. It ia a "preferable*' day because It is 
called Hurumz, which is the luuue of God who has created, formed, 
produced, and reared the world and its inhabitants, of whose kindness 
and charity nobody could describe even a part. 

Sa'id 1>. Alfadi relates : Oti the iiioiintain Dama in Filra every night 
of Naur6z there is observed a far-spruading and strong- sltiuing light- 



rr 



200 



AL6lftD.Ni. 



/ 



1).216; 



/ 



\. 



• -v 



< 



ning, whether the sky he doar or covered with cIoihIb, to every state 
of the wcatiier. 

' Still more carioua than this are the fires of Kalwadha, although 
one does not feel inclined to believe the thing without Imving aeeu it. 
'Abfi-alfiiraj Alzanjtlni, the mathomutician, told mo that ho had 
witnessed it together with a nximb«?r of other people who went to KalwAdha 
in that year when 'Adud-aMauIa entered Ba^hdadh, and that there 
are iuniiuierable firfs and lights which apjiear on the west side of 
the Tiffria, opposite Kalwridlm, in that night with the morning of which 
Nauroz hogina. The SuUAn had there posted hia guards to find out 10 
the truth in order not to be deceived by the MagiauB. All, however, 
they found out was this, that aa 1000 as they came nearer to the fires 
they went farther off, and aa soon as they went away the fires c^uuu 
nearer. Now I said to 'AbiVAlfaraj, "The day of Naurftz recedes 
from its proper place in consequence of the Persians neglecting 
intercalation. Why, then, does not this phenouieuon remain back behind 
Naurdz ? Or if it is not necessary that it should remain behind, did 
it then fall earlier at the time when they practised intort-alation ? " 
Upon which he could not give a satisfactory auawer. 

The charm-mongers say : Ho who thrice sips honey ou Kaurfiz iu 20 
the morning before speaking, and perfumes his room with thi-ee pieces 
of wax, will be safe against all diseases. 

One Persian scholar adduces as the reason why this day was called 
Naurdz, the following: viz. that the Sabians arose during the reign of 
Tahmurath. When, then, Jamshtd succeeded, he renovated the religion, 
and hia work, the date of which was a Naur6z, was called Ntw-Day. 
Then it was made a feast day, having already Ix^fcre been held iu great 
veneration. 

Another account of the reason why it was made a feast day is this, 
thitt JaniBhid, on liaving obtained the carriage, ascended it on this 30 
day, and the Jinns and D^ws carriud him in one day through the air 
from Dabawand to Bubel. New peo]ile made this day a ft^H^t day 
on account of the wonder which they had seen during it, and they 
amused themselves with swinging in order to imitate Jamshtd. 

Another rei>ort says that Jam was going about in the country, — that ho, 
when wishing to imtt-r Adharl-nijiin, sat on a golden throne aiid was 
thus carried away by the men on their neeks. When, theu, the rays of 
the sun fell ou him and people saw him, Ihey did homage to him and 
were full of joy and mad« that day a feast day. 

On^NauroK it was the custom for jK^^ple to present etich other sugar. 40 
According to AdharbJidh, the Mauladh of Baghdadh, the reason is this, 
that the sugar-cane was first discovered during the reign of Jam on 
th«' day of Nauro?,, having Ixjfore been unknown. For Jam un seeing 
a juicy cane which dropjx'd some of iU juice, tasted it, and found that 
it had an agreeable sweetness. Then he ordered, the juice of the sugar- 



ON THK FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OP THE PERSIANS. 201 



cane to be pressed out and sugar to be made thereof. It was ready 
on the fifth day, and then they made each other presents of sugar. 
The some was alec the custom on Mihrj^. 

They huve adopt«d the time of the summer-solstice as the bef^iimiug 
of the year fur lliis rea»uu in particular, tliat the two solstitial -points 
are easier to be ascertained by the help of ingtrnmcnts and by observa- 
tion than the equinoctial points, for the furmur are the beginning of 
the advance of the sun towards one of the two poles of the uuiverso 
and of his turning away from the same pole. And if the perpendicular 
10 shadow at the summer-solstioe is observed, and the level shadow at the 
winter- solstice, in whatsoever place uf the earth the observation be m;ulo, 
tbe observer cannut possibly mistake the day of the solstice, though he 
may be entirely ignorant in geometry and astronomy, because a varia- 
tion of the level shadow takes place notwithstanding the small amount 
of declination, if the Heitjld is considerable. On the other hand the 
two equinoctial days rannot be ascertained, unless you have found 
beforehand the latitude of the plot^e and the Qcnrral DtxUmitiott. And 
this nobody ,wiU find oat unless he studies ostrunomy and has profited 
something thereby, and knows how to place and how to use the instru- 
20 ments of observation. 

Tlierefore the solstitial points are better adapted for marking the 
beginning of the year than the equinoctial points. And aa the summer- 
solstice is nearer to the zenitli of the northeru couutrii-s, people 
preferred it to the winter-solstice; for this reason, moreover, that it is 
the time of the ripening of the com. Therefore it ia more pro|)©r to 
gather the taxes at this time than at any other. 

Many of the scholarB and sages of the Qrecks observed the horosco[)e 
at the time of the rtsiiig of Sirius aud comnieueed the year at tbat time, 
not with the vernal equinox, because the rising of Sirius coincided in 
30 bygone times with, this solstice, or occurred very near it. 

Tliia day, 1 mean Naur^z, liaa receded from its original proper place, 
80 tliat in our time it coincides with the sun's entering the sign of Aries, 
which is the beginning of spring. Whence it has become the custom 
of the princes of Khurasan on this day to dress their warriors in spring 
— and summer — dresses. 

On the 6th of Farwardin, the day Khurdadh, is the Great Naurfiz, 
for the Persians a feast of great imix>rtance. On this day — ^they say^ 
God finished the creation, for it is the last of the six days, mentioned 
before. Oa this God created Saturn, therefore its most lucky hours 
40 are those of Saturn. On the same day — they say — the S&n Zara- 
tku^ra came to hold commuuion with God. and Koikhusrau ascended 
into the air. On the same day the hapi)y lots ore distributed among 
the people of the earth. Therefore the Persians call it *' thu day of 
h&per 

The cluirm-mougerif say : hte who tastes sugar on the morning of 



p.217. 



mM^ 



202 



ALBtR^Nt. 



/- 



this day before spealdug, and anoints himself with oil, will keep off all 
sorta of mishap during the greater part of this same year. 

On the morning of this d^y, a silent person with a bundle of fragTant 
flowers in his hand is seen on the mountain Bushanj ; he is risihle for 
. one hour and then disappears, and does not reappear until the same 
t if- time of the next year. 

Z&dawaihi says that the cause of this was the rising of the sun from 
the southern rwgion, i.e. AMhiar. For the cursed 'Iblis had deprived 
eating and drinking of thelrliene&cial effect, so that people could not 
satisfy their hunger nor quench tht^ir thirst ; and he hail prevented the 
wind from blowing. So the trees withered up and the world was near 
to utter decay. Then came — by the command and under the guidance 
of (}od — Jam to the southern region. He marched towards the 
residence of 'Iblis and of his followers, and remained there for some 
time until he hod extinguished that plague. Then people returned into 
a staU^ of justice and prosperity and wore freed from that trial. Under 
such circumstances Jam returned to the world (i.e. Eran) and rose on 
that day like the sun, the light l]eaming forth from him, as though he 
shone like the sun. Now people were aatonished at the rising of two 
suns, and all dried-up wood became green. So people said roz-i-nau, 
i.e. a new day. And everybody planted barley in a TeBsel or somewhere 
' ebie, considering it as a good omen. Ever since, it has been the custom 
on this day to sow around a plate seven kinds of groin on ftoven 
columns, and frnm their growth they drew cimclusiona regarding the 
corn of that year, whether it wuuld be good or bad. 

On the same day Jamshid issued a proclamation to those who were 
present, and wrote to those who were absent, ordering thorn to destroy 
the old t^'iiiples and not to build a new one on that day. 

His l>ehaviour towards the people was such as pleased God, who 
rewarded him by delivering his people from diseases and decrepitude, 
from envy and frailty, and sorrows and disasters. No being was sick 
or died, as long as he ruled — uutil the time when Bcwarasp, his sister's 
son, appeared, who killed Jam and subdued hie realm. In the time of 
Jam the population increased at such a rate that the earth could co 
longer contain them ; therefore God made the earth thrioe as lui^ oa it 
bad been before. Ho (Jam) ordered people to wash themselves with 
water in order to clean themselves of their sins, and to do so every year 
that God might keep them aloof from the calamities of the year. 

Some people maintain that Jam ordered channels to be dug, and that 
the water was led into them on this day. Therefore people rejoiced at 
their prosperity, and washed themselves in the water that was sent 
them (by the channels), and in this respect the later gcnemtious have 
considered it a good omen to imitate the former ones. 

Others, again, mtuntoin that he who let the water into the channels 
was Z6, after Afrasinb hod ruined oil the dwellings of Ernnshahr. 



p.21d. 



>^*^ 
W 



10 



^t! 



20 



30 



40 



ON THE PE8TIVAT-S IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 203 






According to another view, the cause of the washing ia this — that this , . 

day is sacred to Harudhn, the angel of the water, who stands in relation ^*«L^ 

to tho water. Therefore people rose on this day early, at the rising o£ 
dawn, and went to the water of tho aqin^dncts and wnlla. Frcriueutly, 
too, they drew rtuming water in a vase, and pt»ured it over themselves, 
considering this a good omen and a means to keep off hurt. 

On tlie same day people sprinkle water over ea^h other, of which the 
cause is said tc\ bo the same aft that of the washing. According to another 
report, the reason was this — that during a long time the rain was with- 
10 held from ErAnshahr, but that they got copious rain, when Jamshid, 
having ascended the throne, bmught thorn the good news of which wo 
have spoken. Therefore they considered the rain a good omen, and 
poured it over each other, which has remained among them as a 
custom. 

According to another eiplanatiou, this water-sprinkling simply holds 
tho place of a purification, l>y which people cloansod their bodies from 
the smoke of the fire and from the dirt connected with attending to the 
fires. Besides it serves the purjMDse of removing from the air that 
corruption which produces epidemic and other diseases. 
20 On the same day Jam brought forward all kinds of measures ; there- 
fore the kingu considered his way of counting as of good omen. On the 
same day they used to prepare all the necessary paper and the hides 
on which their despatches to the provinces of the empire were written, 
and all the documents to which the royal seal was to be applied were 
sealed. Such a document was called Etpuiatittmaht. 

Aft«r the time of Jam the kings made this whole month, i.e. 

Farwardin-Mah, one festival, distributed over its six parts. The first 

five days were feast days for the princes, the second for the nobility, 

the frliird for the servants of the princes, the fourth for their clients, 

30 the fifth for the people, and the sisth for the herdsmen. 

The man who connected the two Naurdz with each other is said to 
have been Honnuz Ixtn Shapftr the Hero, fur he raisetl Ui festivals all the 
days between the two Nauroz. Besides he ordered fires to be kindled 
on high places, because he considered it a good omen, and for the 
purpose of purifying the air, since they consume all unwholesome 
elements in the air and dissolve and scatter those miasmata that 
produce corruption. 

In these five days it was the custom of the Kisras that the king 
opened the Naur6z and then proclaimed to all that he would hold a 
40 session for them, and bestow benefits upon them. Ou the second day 
the session was for men of high rank, and for the members of the great 
£amilios. On the third day the session was for his warriors, and for the p.219. 
highest Maubadha. On the fourth day it was for his family, his re- 
lations and domestics, and on the fifth day it was for his children and 
clients. So evezjbody received the rank and distinction ho was en- 






titled to, and obtainod tbose remtmerationa aud benefits which he had 
deserved. When the sixth day mme and be had done jaatice U> ail 
of them, be ctlubrated Naiirdz for hiiuaelf and i^onveraed only with liis 
Biwtiial frieuda and those who were admitted into his privd^:y. Then 
he ordered to l>e brou^jht before him the whole amount of presents, 
arranged according to those who had presented them. He considere*] 
them, distributed ot them what he liked, and deposited what he liked in 
his treasury. 

The 17tb is the day of Serosh, who first ordered the Zamzamn, i.e. 
expressing yourself by whisjiering, not by clear speech. For they said 10 
prayers, praised and celebrated God, whilst handing to each other the 

tP" food; now, speaking not being allowed during prayer, they express 

•^ ihc'in.selvcs by whispers and aitjus. Thus I was told by the geometrician 

AdharkbAra. According to another authority, the Zamzama is intended 
to prevent the breath of the motith from touching the food. • A 

This day is a blessed day in every month, becnuse SerAsh is the 
name of that angel who watches over the night. He is lUso said to be 
Gabriel. He ts the most powerful of all angels against the Jinus and 
floroerers. Thrice in the night he rises above the world ; thou he smiles 
the Jinns and drives off the sorcerers ; he makes the night shine 20 
brilliantly by his appearance. The air is getting cold, the watr.:*r sweet ; 
the cocks begin crowiug, and the Inst of sexual intercourse l>eginB 
to bum in all animals. One of his three risings is the rising of dawn, 
wlien the ])lauU beffiu to thrive, the flowers to grow, and the binls to 
sing; when the sick man begins to rest, and thu sorrowful to feel some- 
what relieved ; when the traveller travels in safety ; when the time is 
agreeable ; when such dreams oceui' as will be fulfilled one day ; and 
when all angels and demons enjoy themselves. 

On the 19tb, or Farwardtn-Roz, there is a feast called Fanvanhgdn 
on account of the identity of the name of the day and of the month in 30 
which it lies. A similar feast-day they have got in every mouth. 

Ardtbahisht-MAh. 

On the 3rd, cr AnUbahisht-Rdz, there ia a feast, Ardibahithtagdn, 
80 called on account of the identity of the name of the month and the 
day. The word Ardlbahisht means " truth ie the hest" or according to 
another explanation, " /Af utmost of good" 

Ardtbaliisht is the genius of fire and light ; both elements stand in 
relation tu him. God lias ordered him to wateh over these elements ; 
to remove the weaknesses and diseases by drugs and nourishments ; 
to distinguish truth from falsehood, the true man from the liar, by £0 
means of those oaths that arc manifest in the AvostA. 

Tlie 26th, or Ashtadh-R6z, is the first day of the third Gahanbar; 
it lasts fire days, the la^t of which in the last day of the month. In 
these days God created the earth. This Gahanbar is ejiUed raiHiJuthim- 



/ 



ON THE PBSTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OP THE PBBSUK8. 205 



Qdh. The six Qa)ianl>ars, each of which lasba five days, have been 
established by Zorooater. 

Khurdiltlh-Mtth. 
The 6th day, or Khurdadb-Rdz. is a feast Khi)Tdadbag&n, so ttSM tm 
account of the identity of the name of the luoiith and the day. The 
meaning of the name ie " the etabihty of the creation." Hariidhi i» 
the genius instructed to watoh over the (rrowi-h of the crcatiuu, of the 
trees and phuitu, and to kcpp off all impure Hubstauces from the water. 
The 26th, or Ajshtndh-Roz, is the first day of the fourth Gahanbiir, the 
10 last day of which is the last of the month. During this Galianbar God 
created the trees and plants. It is called Ayathretnti-Gdh. 

Tir-M&h. 
On the 6th, or Khurdadb-BSz, there is a feast called Catini-i-nilu/ar, 
considen'd tn be of recent ori|jin. 

On the 13tb, ur TJr-Roz, there is a feast Tirag^, so called on account 
of the identity of the name of the month and the day. Of the two causes 
to which it ia traced back, one is this, that AfnisiAb after having 
sulxhied ErwUBbahr, and while besieging Minticihr in Tabaristau, asked 
him somo favour. Min6cihr compbed with his wish, on the condition 

20 that he (AfrusiAb) should restore to him a part of Eransbahr as long and 
as broad as an arrow-shot. On that occasion there was a genius 
present, called Isfaudariuadh ; he ordered to be brought a bow and an 
arrow of such a size as ho himself had indicated to the arrow-maker, 
in conformity with that which is manifeti in the Avaata. Then he sent 
for Arish, a noble, pious, and wise man, and ordered him to take the bow 
and to shoot the arrow. Ariah st*?p[>ed forward, t<ink off his clothes, 
and said: " king, and ye others, look at my body. I am free from 
any wound or disease. I know that when I shoot with this bow and 
arrow I shall fall to pieces and my life will bo gone, but 1 have deter- 

30 mined to sacrifice it for you." Then he applied himself to the work, and 
bent the bow with all the power God had given him ; then he shot, and 
fell asunder into pieces. By order of (Sod the wind bore the arrow 
away from the mountain of Ruy&n and brought it to the utnio»t 
frontier of Khurasan between Farghana and Tabaristiin ; there it hit the 
trunk of a nut-ti-ee that was so large that there had never teen a tree 
like it in the world. The distance between the place where the arrow 
was shot and that where it fell was 1,000 Farsakh. Afrasiab and 
Minocihr made a treaty on the basis of this shot that was shot on this 
day. Tn conse<|uence people made it a feast-day. 

40 During this siege Min6cihr and the people of Eranshahr had been 
suffering from want, not being able to grind the wheat and to bake the 
broad because the wheat was late in ripenitig; finally thoy took the 
wheat and the fruits, unripe as they were, ground them and ate them. 
Thence it haa become a rule for this day to cook wheat and fruits. 



p.220. 



206 



ALBtsdNt 



According to another roport, the arrow was shot on this day, i,e. 
Tir-li6z, and the festira] of this day is the small Tirag&n ; on the other 
hand the 14th. or Gdsh-Roz, is the ^oat Tiragiiu, thut clay on which the 
news arrived tihat the arrow had fallen. 

On TIr-Roz people break their cooking-vcasels and fire-grates, sine© 
on this day they were liberated from AfruiAb aad everybody was free 
to go to his work. 

The second cause of the feast TiragAn is the following : The DahiU 
/aiMi'yya, which means "the office of guarding and watching over the 
world and of reigning in it," and tho Dahkana, which means " the office 10 
of cultivating the world, of sowing in it, and of distributing it " — theee 
two are twins on whom rest the civilization of tho world, and its 
p.221. duration, and the setting right of anything that is wroug in it 
The KiliJba (the office of writer) follows neit to them and is connected 
with both of them. 

The DiUiufadhiifya was founded hy HAshang, the Dah^ana by his 
brother Waikard, The name of this day is Tir or Mercury, who is the 
star of tho scribes. Now Hoabang spoke in jiraiso of his brother on 
this same day, and gave to him as his share the Dahkana, which is 
identical with the KiWiha. Therefore people made this day a feast In 20 
praise and honour of him (Waikard). On this day ho (Hdshaag) 
ordered peuplf ti> dress in tho dress of the Scribes oJidDthkans. There- 
fore the princes, DihVans, i^Liubadhs, etc., continued to wear the dress 
of the Scribes until the time of Gushtasp, in praise and honour of both 
the Kii'iha and Dohkava. 

On the aamo day tho PersiauB used to wash themselves, of which the 
reason is this — that Katkbusrau, on returning from the war against 
Afrasiab, passed ou thia day through the territory of 3&na. He went up 
the mountain which overhangs the town, and sat down at a fountain 
quite alone at some distance from his encamjiment. There an ougol 80 
appeared unto him, whereby he was so terrified that ho swooned. About 
that timeWijan ben Judarz arrived, when the king had already recovered 
himself ; so ho sprinklod some of that water on his face, leaned him against 
•a rock, and said (j£<>ifU i.o. do not he afraid. Thereupon the king ordered 
a town to U; built around that fountain, and ciUled it ifam?(«A, which 
afterwards was altered and mutilated into Andieh. Ever 8inc4>, it has 
been the custom of people to wash themaelves in this water and in all 
fountain. waters, this being (considered a good omcm. The inhabitants of 
Amul go out to the Bahr-alkhiuar, play in the water, and make fun, and 
try to dip each other ou this day the whole day long. 40 

MardAdh-M4h. 

Ou the 7th, or Murdfidh-ROz, there Is Ihe feast Murdadhagan, so 
called on account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. 
The meaning of the word Murdidh in" the everUuting duration of the 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THB PEE3UN3. 207 



iwrld without death and detiruciion." Murdiidh is the angol apjioiiited to 
guard the world and to produce vegetable food and drugs that are 
remedies agiunst hunger, tniBery, aud diaeaae. God knows best ! 

ShahrSwar- If dii . 

On the 7th, or Shahrenar-Roz, is the feast Shahrewaragau, so called on 
account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. Shah- 
n;wur meami spcrma aud love. It is the angel who is appointed to 
watch over the seven substances, gold, silver, aud the other uiotals, on 
which rests all handicraft, and ui consequence all the world and its 
10 inhabitants. 

Ziidawaihi relates that this feast was called Adhar-eashn, i.e. the feast 
of thi< Hres that are tVnind in the human dwelliiig-phices. It was the be- 
ginning of winter, therefore people used to make great fires in their 
houses, and were deeply engaged in the worship and praise of God ; 
also they used to oasemhlu for eating and mcrhmont. They maintained 
that this was done for the purpose of banishing the cold and dryness 
that arises in winter-time, and that the spreading of the warmth would 
keep o£f the attacks of all that which is obnoxious to the plants in the 
world. In all this, their proceeding was that of a man who marches out p-222. 
20 to fight his enemy with a largo army. 

According to the JSIaubadh. Khurahi-d Adhar'Caahn was the first day of 
this month, and only a feast for the nobility. It does, however, not 
Ixdong to the feast-days of the Persians, although it was used in their 
months. For it is one of the feaat-days of the peojjle of TukhAristan, 
aud is a custom of theirs based on the fact that about this time the 
Bcosun altered and winter act in. In this oiu: time the people of Khura- 
a&n have mode it the begiuniug of autumn. 

This day, i.e. Mihr-R^V-, is the first day of the fifth Gahanbar, the 
last of which is Bahnim-Koz. During this Gahanbar Qod created the 
80 cattle. It is called Maidhynirim-Qdh. 

Mihr-Mfth. 

On the Ist of it, or Hurmuzd-Rdz, falls the Setfonrf Autmnn, a feast 
for the common people, agreeably with what haa been before mentioned. 

Ou the Itith, or Mihr-Bdz, there is a feast of great imjiortance, called 
Mihrajiin. The name of the day is identical with that of the mouth ; 
it means '* the love of the tpirit." According to others, Mihr is the name 
of the sun, who is said to have for the first time appeared to the world 
on this day ; that therefore this day was called Mihr. This is indicated 
by the custom of the Kisraa of crowning themselves on this day with a 
^ crown on which was worked an ima^e of the sun and of the wheel on 
which he rotates. Ou this day the Persians hold a fair. 

People maintain that the special veneration in which this day is held 
ia to be traced to the joy of mankind when they heard of FrSdOn'a 



208 



albIrOkI. 



p.228. 



coming forward, titter Kain hiui attacked Alda)ibJlk Bemrofip, cxp(?Ued 
him and called upon people to do homage to FrSdiui. Kkh\ is the 
same whose etandard the Persian kings adopted, considoriug it a good 
omen ; it was made of the skin of a bear, or, ae others say, of tliat of a 
lion ; it was cailed Dirafik-i-Kdbiydn^ and woe in later times adorned 
with jewels and gold. 

On the same day the angels aro said to have come down to help 
Fred^. In conacquenco it has become a custom in tho houses of the 
longs, that at the time of dawn a raliant warrior was posted in the 
court of the palace, who called at the highest pitch of his roiee : 10 
'* je angels, come down to the world, strike the Dews and evil-doers 
and expel them from the world." 

On the same daj, they say, God spread out the earth and cre&t<Kl the 
bodies as manslonH for the souls. In a certain hour of this day the 
sphere of I/rajijawi breathes for the purjtoso of rearing the bodies. 

On the same day God is said to bare clod the moon in her splendour 
and to have illuminated her with her light, after He had created heraa a 
black ball without any light. Therefore, they say, on Mihrajan the 
moon stands higher thou the sun, and the luckiest hours of the day are 
those of the moon. 20 

Salin^ Alf&risi hns said : In Persian times we used to say that God 
bos created an ornament for his slaves, of rubies on Nauroz, of emeralds 
on Milirajiin. Therefore these two days excel all other days in the same 
way as these two jewels excel all other jewels. 

Alcrnmihahrt says: God has umde the treaty between Light and 
Darkness uu Naurdz and Mihrajan. 

Sa^td b. Alfa^l used to say : Persian scholars relate, that the top of 
the mountain Shuhiu appears always black during the whole length of 
summer, whilst on the morning of Mihrajan it appeal's white as if 
covered with snow, whether the sky be clear or clouded, in any weather 30 
whatsoever. 

Alkisrawi relates :— 1 heard the Maubadh of Almutawakkil say : On 
the day of Mihrajan the sun rises in UAniin, in the midst between light 
and darkness. Then the souls die within the bodieH ; therefore the 
Persians called this day Miratjaa. 

The charm-mongers say : He who eats on the day of Mihraj&n a jjiece 
of pomegranate and smells rose-water, will be free from much mishap. 

The Persian theologiaus Irnve derive<l various symbolic interpretations 
from these days. So they consider Mihrajan as a sign of resurrection 
and the end of the world, because at Milurajan that which grows roaches 40 
its ]>erfection and has no more material for further growth, and because 
animals cease from sexual intercourse. In the same way they make 
Naur6z a sign for the beginning of the world, because the contrary of 
all these things happens on Naur6z. 

Some people have given the preference to MihrajAu by as much &a 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OP THE PEB8UNS. 209 



they prefer autmnn to spring. In their arg^uincnts they chiefly rely 
upon what Aristotle said in reply to Alexander, when he watt ^ked by 
him regarding them: "0 king, in apriny the reptiles hegin growing, in 
autumn they begin to die away. Prom this point of view autumn la 
preferable." 

This day used in former times to coincide with the beginning nf 
winter. Afterwards it advanced, when j*eople began to neglect inlor- 
cahition. Therefore it is still in our time the custom of the kings of 
KhtiriUAn, that on this day they dress their worriora in autumn — and 

10 winter — dresses. 

On the 21 at, or RAra-Rrlz, is the Ch-mt Mihra^dn in commemoration of 
Frfidun's autMluln^ and binding ^U-Pahhak. People aay, that when he 
waa brought liefore FrWftn he spoke : " Do not kill rae in retaliation for 
thy ancestor." Upon which Frcdun answered* refusing hia entreaty, 
"Do you want to be consii^ered as equal to Jam b. Wijah&n in the 
way of retaliation ? By no meauH. T shall punish you for an ox, that 
was in the house of my ajipestor." Thereupon he put Uim in fetters 
and imprisoned him in the mountain DubAwaud. Thereby people 
were freed from his wickednt'ss, and they celebrated this event as a 

20 feast. Frt-dun ordered them to gird theraaolves with Kusttka, to use the 
Zanaama (speaking in a whispering tone) and to abstain from speaking 
loud during dinner, as a tribute of thanks to God fur having again 
made them their own masters with regard to their wholo behaviour and 
to the times of their eating and drinking, aiter they had been living in 
fear so long as 1,000 years. This has come down to posterity as a rule 
and custom on the day of Mihraj&n. 

All the Persians agree that Bi^vara^p lived l.OOO years, although some 
of them say that he lived longer and that the 1,000 years are only the 
time of hia rule and tyranny. People think that the Persian mode of 

30 salutation, according to which the one wishes the other to live as long 
as 1,000 years— I mean the words ^* HanJr mil hazi" — comes down from 
that time, because they thought it was allowed and poasible (that a man 
should live 1,000 years) from what they had seen of Al-Pa)>l>i1k. God 
knows bt'gt ! 

Zarddusht has ordered that both MihrajAn and Bam-Roz should be P'224. 
held in equal veneration. In consequem^e, they celebrated both days 
as feast-days, until Hurmuz b. Shiipur, the Hero, connected the two 
days with each other, and raised to feast-days all the days between 
them, as he had done with the two Kaurftz. Afterwards the kings and 

40 the people uf Eraushahr celebrated uh feast-days all the days from 
31ihrajan till thirty days afterwards, distributing them over the several 
classes of the popuhition in the same way as wo have heretofore ex- 
plained regarding Naurdz. Ejwb class celebrated its feast for five 
days. 

14 



210 



TLBtRC^t. 



On the lOtfa, or Ab^.K6z, there is a feast AhSnajAn, so called on 
account of tbc ideutitj of the iiamo of the month aucl the day. On 
this daj Zau b. TahmAsp aeuendcd the throne ; he ordered the channels 
to ho dug and to !.►*? kept in good jireeervation. 

On the same day the news reached all the Beven KXtjuora of the world 
that Fr^dtln had put in fetters Berarasp ; that he had assumed the royal 
dignity ; that he hod ordered [people to take posaession uf their 
houses, their families and children, and to call themselves Kadhkhuda, 
1.0. master of thirt house ; that h« ruled over his family, his children, and 10 
his empire with supreme authority ; whilst before that, in the time of 
B^varasp, they had been in a desert4;d state, and Di^ws and -nheU had 
alternately been haunting their houses, without their being able to 
ke'^-p thorn off. This institute (that of a KatUtkhud*!) has been abolished 
by Alndair AVutrtUh, who made again the rebeU [mrtake of the 
Kadbkhudadom together with the people. 

The last five days of this mouth, tho first of which is Ashtildh, are 

called Farwuxdaj4u. During this time people put food iu the halls of 

the dead and drink on the roofs of the houses, believing that the spirits 

of their dead during these days come out from the places of their 20 

I reward or their punishment, that they go to the dishes hud out for 

them, imbibe their strength and suck their taste. They fumigate 

their homes with juniper, tLat the dead may i^njuy its smell. The 

j Bpirits of the piuua men dwell among their families, children, and 

' relations, and occupy themsclTos with their affairs, although invisible 

to them. 

Kogarding these days there has been among the Persians a contro- 
versy. According to some thoy are' the lust five days of the month 
AbAn, according to others they are the Anderg&h, i.e. the five EjM^ometUB 
which ore added between Ab4n and Adhilr-MAh. When the controversy 30 
and dispute increased, they adopted all (ten) days in order to esta- 
blish the matter on a firm l>asiB, as this is one of the chief institutea 
of their religion, and because they wished to be careful, since they 
were unable to ascertain the real facts of the caae. So they called the 
first five daya the first Farwardajan, and tho following five days tho 
second Farwardaj&u ; the latter, however, is more important than 
the former. 

The first day of these Epagomenat is tho first day of the sixth 
GahanbAr, in which Ood created man. It is called Hama^a4maAikaSm- 
gdh. 40 

The reason of the Parwardajan is said to be this — that when Cain 
hod killed Abel, and the pareuts were lost iu grief, they implored God 
to restore his soul to him. Qoddid bo nn the diiy Ashtadh of Abiitt-Mih, 
and the soul remained in him for ten days. Abel was sitting erect and 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OP THE PERSIAiJS. 211 



Then his P-225. 



10 



looking at his parents, but it was not allowed to him to speak, 
parents collected — (Misgiruf, the fr/id of Abd/i-J[dh). 

[Adhdr.Mah.'] 

[X. Bakdr-ca»hn, the feast of the Riding of AUcaumj. This daj was 
the beginning of spring at the Ume of the Kisrfis. Then a thin-boarded 
(Kausaj) man used to riilo ubont, fanniug biiiiR<.'lf with a fan to express 
his rejoicing at the end of the cold season and the ooining of the warm 
season. This custom is in Persis still kept up for fun.] 

Its moet lucky hours are those durin^f which Aries is the horoscope. 
People consider the hour of morning as of good omen — I mean the 
charm-mongers — imd they maintain that everythiuj^ that is mentioned 
during this hour exists absolutely. Besides they say that he who tastes 
a quince and snii^Us an orange in the morning of tliis day l»ofore speaking 
will be happy duiing that same year. 

According to Tahir b. Tnbir, the Persians, in old times, used to drink 
honey on this day if the moon happened to etand in a fiery station, and 
to drink water if it stood in a watery station, always adapting them- 
selves to the character of the stations of the moon. 

AlirAnahahri says : I heard a number of Armenian leamecl men relate 
20 that on the morning of the Fox-day there appears on the highest moun* 
tain, between the Ititerioraud the Exterior country, a white ram that is 
not seen at any other time of the year except about this time of this day. 
Now the inhabitants of that country infer that the year will be prosperous 
if the ram bleats; that it will be eti>hle if he does not bleat. 

On the morning of the FoX'day the Persians thought it to be a good 
omen to look at the clouds ; and from the fact whether they were clear 
or dark, thin or dense, they drew conclusions as to nhether the year 
would be prosperous or not, fertile or barren. 

On the 9th, the day of A.dhar, is a feast called AdhareoMkn^ so called 
on account of the identity of the name of the day and the month. On 
that day people want to warm themselves by the fire, for this is the end 
of the winter months, when the cold, at the end of the season, is most 
biting and the frost is most mtense. It is the feast of the fire, and is 
called by the name of the genius who has to watch over all the fires. 

ZaHdueht has given the law that on this day people should visit the 
fire-temples, and that they should there offer offerings and duliberute on 
the affairs of the world. 



30 



Dai-Miih, also called "^kur-Mah. 
The first day of it is called Khurram-Ji»-'Z. This day and the month 
^ are both called by the name of God, 1.0. (Hormuzd), i.e. a wise king, 
gifted with a creative mind. 

On this day the king used to descend from the throne of the empire, to 
dress in white dresses, to sit on white carpets In the plain, to suspend 
for a time the duties of the chamberlains and all the pomp of royaltr, 

14 • 



212 



AT.IttTlfKt. 



and fiX(?1naivMy to give himself up to the consideration of the affairs of 
the realm and its inhabitants. "Whosoevor, high or low, wanted to speat to 
him in any matter, went into his preaence and addressed him, nobody pre- 
Tentinp him from doinp; ao. Besides, he held a meeting with the DihkAns 
and agriculturists, eating and drinking with them, and then he used to 
Bay : '* To-day I am like one of you. I am your brother; for the exist- 
once of the world depi-nds ui)on that culture which is wrought by your 
hands, and the eiistence of this culture depends upon goremment; the 
one cannot exist without the other. This being the eaae, we are like twin 
brothers, more particularly am this (royalty and agriculture) proceeds 10 
from twin hrothorfl, from HAshang and Waikard." 
This day is also called Nuwdd-^'/x (90 dayg), and is celebrated as a 
p.226. feast, betaiuse Ihi^re art- 90 days between this day and NaurAsi. 

The dth, 15th, and 23rd days of this month are feast-days on account 
of the identity of the names of these days with that of the month, aa 
we have heretofore explained. 

The nth, or Khur-RAz, is the first day of the (first?) Gahanb4r; its 
last day is the 15th, ur I)ai-ba-Mihr. This GahanbAr is called Maidhy6- 
zarcmaya-gAh. During it God created hearon. 

On the I4th. or GSsb-Rdz, there is a feast called Str.sawA, when people 20 
eat garlic and drink wine, and cook the vegetables with pieces of meat, 
by which they intend to protect thomselTes against the devil. The 
original purpose of tho thing was to rid themselvea of their affliction 
when they were oppressed in consequence of Jamshid's being kilted, and 
were in sorrow and sworo that thi*y woulil never touch any fat. This has 
remained aa an usage among theoL. By that dish they cure themselves 
of tho diseases which they attribute to the influence of the evil spirits. 

The 15th, or Dai-bo-Mihr-Rfiz, is called (j^*—j, when they used to make 
a human-liko figure of paste or clay and posted it at the gateways. This, 
however, was not practised in the houses of tho kings. At present this 30 
custom has been abuhshed on account of its resemblance to idolatry and 
heathendom. 

The night of the 16th, or Mihr-Koz, is called. cjWy«^j'*, and also ^y^. 
Its origin is this, that l^ranshahr was 8G[>arated and liberated from tho 
country of the Turk, and that they drove their cows, which the enemy 
had driven away, back to their bouses. Further: when FrMiln had put 
B^varasp out of the way, he let out the cows of Athfiydn (Athwyana) 
that had been hidden in some place during the siege, whilst Athfiy&n 
defended them. Now they returned to his house. AthfiyAn was a man 
of high standing and noble character, a benefactor of the poor, 40 
busying himself with the affairs of the poor and taking care of them, 
and liberal towards all who appiiod to him. When Fr^dAn had freed 
his property, people celebrated a feast in hope of hia gifts ajod presents. 
On the same day the weaning of Frfidun took place. It was the firet 
day when he rode on tho ox in a night when the ox appears which drags 



ON THK FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PBBSIANS. 213 



tbfl carriage of the nmnn. It is an ox of tight, with two golden boms 
and silver feet, which is Tisible for an hour and then disappears. The 
wish of him who looks at the ox when it is Tisible will be fulfilled in tbe 
same hour. 

In the same night there appears on the highest mountain, as they 
maintain, the spectre of a white ox, that bellows twice if the /ear is to 
be fertile, and once (if the year is to bd barren). {Hert foUow* a 
laeuna), 

[23. Fcoat of the third day, Dai.] 

1* Bahman-Mdh. 

[2. Bahmai^a. 

5. Barsadhak, or Nansadhak. 

10. The Night of Alsadhak.] 

They fumigate their houses to keep off mishap, so that finally it has 
become (>nu of the custunis of the kings to light Grea on this night and 
to make them blaze, to drive wild beasts into them, and to send the birds 
flying through the flames, and to drink and amnse themselTca round the 
fires. 

May Qod take vengeance on all who enjoy causing jmin to another 

20 being, gifted with sensation and doing no harm ! 

ASieT the Persians had neglect^jd intercalation iu their months, they 
hoped that thi' coU\ would cfase at this tinip, as they reckoned as the p.227. 
beginning of winter the 5tU of AbAn-Mnh, and as the end the 10th 
of BalLmau-Milh. The people of Karaj called this day a>^ ^^-^^ i.e. 
the biting night, on acconnt of its being so cold. 

Another report accounts for the lighting of the tires during this night 
in the following way : When Bevamsp had ordered people to provide him 
every day with two men, that he might feed his two serpents with their 
brains, be comnusaioncd immediately after his arrival a man called 

30 Asmd'il to attend to this. Now„ thia man always used to set free one of 
the two, giving him food, and ordering him to settle in the western part 
of monnt Duubawand and there to build himself some sort of house, 
whilst he fed the two serpents with the brains of a ram iosteud of that 
prisoner whom ho had sot free, mixing them with the brains of the other 
victim who was killed. Wheu Preduu had conquered Bt-varaap, he 
ordered AzmiVil to be fet4>hed and punished iu revenge for those whom he 
had killed. Thereupon AzmA'il told him the talc of those whom he bad 
set free, speaking the truth, and asked the king to send out a messenger 
with him that lie might show them to him. So the king did, and Azmii'il 

40 ordered those whom he had set free to light fires on the roofs of their 
houses, in order that their number might be seen. 
This happened in the 10th night of Bahmaii. Therefore tbe messenger 



214 



ALBfR^Nt. 



p.228. 



-^f 



iv^ 



\t-f 



it , 



BBJd to Azmti'il : *' Wliat a namber of them thou hast set free ! Aby 
God give thee a good reward I " He returned to Frediin and broagbt Mm 
his report. Fri'diin eiceedingly rejoiced at the matter, and set out 
himself for DuutAwaud to aeo tJie thing himself. Thereupon he con- 
ferred great honour upon Azraa'tl, he gare him DimbiWaiid as a fief, 
made him sit on a golden throne, and called him Masmaghdn. 

Regarding the two serpents of Bevaraap, people say that they came 
out of his shoulders, feeding upon brains; whilat according to another 
riew, they were two painful wounds which he besmeared with brains, 
hoping to get relief from them. 10 

The two serpents are something wonderful — possible, indeed, but 
hardly likely. For wonna are? produired out of flush, and in flesh lioe 
and other aninmls are living. Further, there are otber animals that do 
not entirely leave their bLrtbplaiio, like that one of which pe<iple relate 
that it, living in India, peeps out of the womb of its mother to eat grau 
and then {o return, that it does not leave the womb of its mother 
entirely until it has grown strong and thinks itself able to run faster 
than its mother, even if the mother should run after it; then it jumps 
out and runs away. People say that the young animal fears the tongue 
of its mother, which is the roughest thing imaginable. For the mother, 20 
if she Ends the young one, licks it couttniially, until the flesh is severed 
from the bones. And out of the hair of the head that has been torn 
out together with its white root which originally is fiied in the flesh, 
snakes grow, in case the hair falls into water or some wet place in the 
midst of summer, grcpwing within the time of three weeks or less. 

This fact cannot be denied, since it has been witnessed, and the forma- 
tion of other animals out of other materials has also been witnessed. 

'Abia-'Uthniun Aljuhiz relates, that he saw at 'irk>>ani a piece of clay, 
one half of which was a part of the body of a field-mouse, whilst the 
other half was still a ix^mmon and unchanged piece of clay. I have 30 
heard this also from a number of people in Jurjan who had observed 
something similar in that country. 

Aljaihnnt relates that in the Indian Ocean there are the roots of a tree 
which spread along the sea-qoast in the sand, that the leaf is rolled up 
and gets separated from the tree, and that it then changes into a king- 
bee and flies away. 

The formation of scoquous out of figs and mountain-balm, that of 
bees from the flesh of oxen, that of wasps from the flesh of horses, is 
well known to all naturalists. We ourselves hare observed many 
animals, capable of propagating their species, that had originally grown 40 
out of plants and other materials by a clear process of formation, and 
who afterwards continued their species by sexual intercourse. 



The 22ud, or Badh-B6z, is colled by this name (Uuvna). 



ON THB FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OP THE PKHSUN8. 215 



On tbat day certain usogoe are practised in Kumm and neigbboiirhood 
that havu a iikenesa to those festive cu»iomR of drinkiDg and making 
fun whii'h are practised at IspiLbun in the days of Naurfiz, when ^»eiiple 
hold a fair and celebrate a feast. At lapahAn people call it (jt^. How- 
ever, Budh*Ru£ is oulj 07te day, whilst i^^ lasts a whole week. 

The 3Dth, or Aneran, is called Afrijatjan at Isiiahan, which means 
" pouring out the water." Its origin is this ; that once in the time of 
Ffiroz, the grandfather of AndshirwAn, the rain was kept back, and 
people in EraaKhithr Buffered from barrf?nm»Ei. Therefor© F4rdz remitted 

10 them the taxes of these years, opened tJie doors of his storehousea, 
borrowed money from the properties of the fire-templee, and gave all to 
the inhabitants of fininsbahr, taking care of his subjects as a parent 
does for bis children; and the eonHe<^jiience was that during those years 
nobody died of hunger. Now, Fcroz went to the fanions firH-temple in 
AdKarkMrd in F&rs ; tbt^re be said prayers, prostrated himself, and asked 
God to remove that trial from the inbiibitauts of the world. Then he 
went lip to the altar and found there the mlnistiirs and pricHta standing 
before it. They, however, did not greet him as is due to kings. So be 
felt that there was something the matter with the priests. Then he went 

20 near the fire, turned his band and arms round tht* tlame, and pressed it 
thrice to his bosom, aa one friend does with another when asking after 
each other's health ; the flame reached his beard, but did not hnrt him. 
Thereupon Ftiroz spoke ; " O my Lord, thy names be blessed ! if the rain 
is held back for my sake, for any fault of mine, reveal it to me that I 
may divest myself of my dignity ; if something else is the cause, remove 
it, and make it known to me and tc the people of the world, and give 
tliem eopioua rain." Then he descended from the altar, left the cupida, 
and sat down on the X^tj nuule of gold, similar to a throne, but smaller. 
It was a custom for a famous fire*t«mple to have a golden ^^J for the 

80 pu'T'^^^ ^^'^^ '^^^ ^'"P should sit upon it when he came to the temple. 
Now the ministiTs and priests came near him and greeted him as is due 
to kings. The king spoke to them : " What has hardened your hearto, 
what has offended you and made you suspicious, that you did not greet 
me bcjfore V " They replied; " Because we wore standing before another 
king more sublime than you. We were not allowed to greet you whilst p.229 
standing before him." The king believed them and niade them presints. 
Then he started from the town Adharkhi^rii in the direction of the town ^, /i*rs/r.1r 
Diir^.. But having come q£ far as the place where is now the village tj^^ 
called Kim-Ftroz in Fars — it was at that time an uncultivated plain — a /T. 

4fl cloud rose and brought such copious rain as bad never b«M*n witnessed 
before, till the water ran into all the tents, the royal tent as well as the 
other ones. Feroz recognized that God had granted his prayer ; he 
praised Qod, and ordered that on that spot bis tents should bo pitched. 









tfL( 



Y^\^A.»>> ' 



He gave alms, made Uberal presents, held assemblies, and was full of joy. f^uJ-^ i ^'if'' ^ 
He did not leave this place before be had built the famous village which ^-j^^J^J }^^^—wK H 



216 



ALBtaCNi. 



y.>- 



10 



20 



he called Kilm-F^roi:. Fftroz ia his name, and kdm means " with ; '^ »o it 
Bif^uties " that he had obtained kis tmsh." In the joy which everybody 
felt over this event, they poured the water over earh other. In conae- 
quence this has become a. custom in Erimshahx ever since. In every 
town they celebrate this feast on tliat day when they got the rain, and 
the people of lapuhun got the rain on this day. 

I^3,ndd.rmadJi-Mdh, 

On the 5th, or Isfandarmodh-Kdz, there is a feast on account of the 
identity of the names of the month and the day. The word means 
" intelligence " and " ripeness of mind." 

lafandarmadh is charged with the care of the earth and with that of 
the good, chaste, and beneficent wife who loves her husband. In post 
times this was a special feast of tlie women, when the men used to make 
them liberal presents. This custom is still flourishing at Ispahan, Rai, 
and in the other districts of Fahta. In Persian it is called MuzhdgirAn. 

This day is famous for the inscribing of pieces of paper. For on thia 
day common people cat sun-raisins and the kernels of pomegranates un- 
moisteued and not kneaded with water, but pulverized, believing that to 
be an antidote against the bite of the scorpions, and, besides, they write 
in the time between dawnriae and sunrise upon square pieces of paper 
the following charm : " In the name of God the gracious, the merciful — 
lafaTidarmadhmah and Isfandarmadhr6z — I have bound (by tbe charm) 
the going and coming — below and above — except the cows — in the name 
of the Tazatas and in tbe name of Jam and Frcd&n — in the name of 
God^(I swear) by Adam and Eve, God alone is sufficient unto me ! " 
Three such paper pieces they fix on tbia day on three walls of the house, 
whUat they leave unmarked the wall opposite to the front of the bouse, 
believing that if they fix something also on this fourth wall tbe reptiles 
get bewildered and do not find on nutlet, and raise their beodi} towards 
the window, pre|j(iring to leave the house. Somctimos you find places 30 
influenced by some chaiia where scorpions do not bite, as, e.g. Dtn&r- 
Bfizi in Jurj&n^ ten miles beyond the frontier towards KborAsan. For 
there you find under every stone a number of large black acorpiona, 
p.230. which people touch and plnv with, and which do not bite. But when 
they are taken away and brought over the frontier of that district, which 
is a bridge not farther off than a bowshot, then they bite, causing 
inatantaneoua death. 

In the district of T"s there is said to be a village where the scorpions 
do not bite. And 'Abii-alfarnj AlzanjAnt has told me that in the city of 
Zanjau there are scorpions only in one place, colled the *' CemeUry of 40 
the TabaristiUiis*' and that a man when he goes there at night and 
gathers some uf them in a [xit and leaves the pot somewhere else, finds 
that ihvy hurriedly return to their former places. 

Now, as regards these pieces of paper we have mentioned, they are 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN TEE MONTHS OP THE PERSIANS. 217 



evidently Ttseless, becaTisc tho power of the incantAtion cannot affect the 
object of incantatjou, tliougb its influence be strong, because the plane- 
tary cycles do not agree- with the Persian year, and because the conditions 
of taliamans are not fultiUod in them. Perhaps wc shall speak of the 
incantations, channs, and talismans in the Book of physical and technical 
icondere and curionlie^, gi^i^g Buch explanations as will plant certain 
persuasions in the minds of intelligent men and remove doubt from the 
minds of those who seek for information, if God wUl mercifully postpone 
the end of my Life and by His grace remove mental calamities. He has 
\Q the power to do so. 

The 11th, or Khur-Rdz, is the first day of the second Oahanb^, the 
last of which is Doi-ba-mihr-fioz. It is called Maidhyc'»hema-gdh. During 
this (JahanbAr God created the water. 

The next following day, the 16th, or Mihr-Bdz, is called Miak-i-tdta 
(fresh musk). 

The 19th, or Parwardin-K6z, is called NautvM of the rivers and of aU 
runmng waters, when people throw perfumes, roac-watcr, Ac. into 
them. 

Tlie Zoroastriang have do fasting at all. He who fasts commits a sin, 

20 and must, by way of expiation, give food to a number of poor people. 

They have fairs in the days of the months we have mentioned, but as 

they differ in different places, we cannot fix them, as little as we can the 

watercourses of a torrent, it being impossible to count them. 

'A^ud-aldaula has founded two feast-days, each of which is called 
6ashn-i-Kard.i-Fanakhu8rau. The one is the day Serdsh in Parwardin- 
MAh, when the water of the aqueduct coming from a distance of four 
farsakh reiurbed the town, which he had built one farsakh below the 
citadel of ShtrAz, and which ho had called Kard-i-Fannkhusra. The 
other is the day Hormuz in Aban-Mah, the day when he commenced 
go building that same town, A. Yazd. 333. On both days people hold 
fairs of seven days duration, and they assemble for merriment and 
drinking. 

The Persians divide all the days of the year into preferable and lucky 
days and into imlucky and detested ones. Besides they have other days, 
bearing names which arc common to them in every month, which are 
festival days for one class of the people to the exclusion of the other. 

Further, they have certain rules regarding the appearance of snakas 
on the different days of the month, which we unite in the following 
JadttxU-alikhiiydTdt (Table of Selections) : — 



ON THK PBSTIVAL8 IN THE MONTHS OP THE PEESIAN8. 219 



The day Mnh thev consider to be a prcferahU day from its boing called p.238. 
by tlie name of the moon, which Qod created for the purpose of distri- 
buting what is good and a^eeable orer the norM. Thorcforo the waters 
increaae, and animals, tree's, and plants grow from new-moon till the 
time when the moon begins to wane. 

The two days of conjunction and opposition they hold to be unlueky 
days. 

On the day of conjunction the Demons and Satans feel' the Inst of 
intenningling ricionsly with the things in the world. Then ma4ness ^ 
10 a^<i epilepsy are brought about. The seas begin to ebb, the waters ,''''* 
to dccpeiasc, the nmlo turtle-doves are suffering from epilepsy. The 
sperma which on this day settles in the uterus is bora as a child 
of imperfect structure ; hair which is torn out of the body will 
be replaced only sparsely ; everything that is planted will only produce 
scanty fruit, more particularly so if there be an eelipse on the same day. 
If a heu sita^batching her eggs at new-moon, the egga will be bad ; at 
new-moon a narcisBos is sure to wither. 

Al-Kindi says : Conjunction is detetted becjiuee then the moon is being 
burned, who is tho guide of all bodies ; and therefore people dread de- 
20 struction and ruin for them. 

At the time of opposition, people say, the Obula and sorcerers feel 
the lust to mix with impure spirits. In consequence there is much 
epilepsy. The seas begin to flow, the waters to increase ; the she-turtle- 
doves are becoming epilepticaJ. The sperma which settles in the uterus 
on the day of opposition is bom as a child of more than common st-ruc- 
ture. The hair which is torn out will be replaced abundantly. All that 
is planted on this day will produce worm-eaten fruits aud will be very 
impure, more particularly so if there be an eclipse on the same day. 

Al-Kindt says: FuU-moon is dei^sied because then the light of the 
SO moon requires help from the light of the sun, who is the guide of the 
spirits. Therefore people fear lest the spirits should leave the bodies. 



220 



albIbOn!. 



CHAPTER X. 



ON THB rSBTrriJA IN TRB MONTHS 09 THE aUORDLLNS. 



Th» mouths of tho inhabitants of Sogdiaua were likewise distributed 
over the four quarters of the year. The first day of the Sughdian 
mouth Nautiard wad the first day of summer. Th«re wus no difference 
between them and the Persians regarding the beginning of the year and 
the beginnings of aonie of the months, but there was a differcace regard* 
ing the pla^-e of the five Epayoinetux, aa we hiive heretofore explained. 
And they did so for no other reason but this, that they honoured their 
kings to such a degree that they would not do the same things which the 10 
tings did. They preferred to use as new-year that moment when Jam 
returned successful, whilst the kings preferred oa new-year that moment 
when Jam started (set out). 

Some people maintain that these two different new-years were to be 
traced to a difference that was discovered in tho astronumicnl obserrations. 
For the ancient Persians used a solar year of 365 days 6 hours 1 minute, 
and it was their uuiversal practice to reckon these 6 hours plus the 1 
p.234. minute as a unit (i.e. to disregard the 1 minute in reckoning). 

But afterwards when Zoroaster appeared and introduced the religion 
of the Magi, when the kings transferred their rpsidenee from Balkh to 20 
Perais and Babel and occupied themselves with the affairs of their reli- 
gion, they ordered new observations to be made, and then they found that 
the suuuner-Bolstice preceded by five days tho beginning of thi; year, which 
was the third year after intercalation. In consequence, they gave up 
their former system and adopted what astronomical observation had 
taught them, whilst the people of Traiiaoxiana kept the old system and 
disregarded the state of that same year (i.e. its deviation from realtime), 



ON THE FESTtVALR IN THR MOXTHS OP THE SUOTIDIANS. 221 



on wliich tbeir calendar was based. Hence the differcnce of the begin- 
nings of the Persian and Sugbdian years. 

Other people maintain that originally both the Persian and Sughdion 
years bad the same beginning, until the time when Zoroaater appeared. 
But when after Zoroaster the Persians began to transfer the five Epago- 
me^nxe to each of the leap-months, as we have before mentioned, the 
Sughdians left them in their original plact? and did not transfer them. 
So they kept them at the end of the months of tbeir year, whilst the 
Persiane, after they began to neglect intercalation, retained them at the 
10 end of Aban-Mah. God knows best I 

The Sughdians have many festivals and famous memorial days in the 
same way as the Persians. ^Tiat we have leame^d of them, regarding 
this subject, is the following: — 

Nausard. The lat day is their Nauroz, which ia the Grmi Naitrvz. 

The 28th is a feast for the Magians of BukharA, called IlUnvgh-Agh^m, 
during which they assemble in a fire-temi"le in the Tillage HAmusb. 
These Aghilras art? the niost important of their festivals, which they cele- 
brate alternately in each village, assembling in the house of each chief- 
tain, eating and drinking. 
20 Jrirjln. Nothing mentioned. 

Nisauaj. The 12th is the first Makhtraj. 

Basiikanaj. The 7th is the ^ Aghamt a feast of theirs at Baikand, 
where they aasenjble. 

The 12th is the second Makhimj. 

The 15tb la the fejist u-** Khtmra, when they eat leavened bread after 
abstaining from eating and drinking und from everything that is touched 
by th<! fire exci'pt fruits and vegetables. 

AshnfikhaudA. The 18th is the feast BAba-KhwAra, also called BArat- 
Khwara, i.e. drinking the good, pure must. 
30 The 20th is Kami-KhwAra. 

MftzhikhandA. The 3rd is the feast Kishmfn, when they hold » fair 
in the village ^a. < i»» < . On the 15th they hold a fair in Al-tawnwis. 
There the merchants of all countries gather and hold a fair of aeren 
days duration. 

Faghakuu. The Ist is called Nitn-tardat i.e. the half of the year. 

The 2nd is a feast called J^e* (j^ KhwAra, when they assemble in their p.235. 
fire-temples and eat a certain dish which they prepare of the flour of 
millet, of butter and sugar. Some people put Nim-$arda five days 
earlier, i.e. on the Ist of Mihr-Mah, to make it agree with the Persian 
40 calendar, whilst, in fact, the middle of the year ought to be celebrated 
when after its beginning 6 munths and 2^ days have [josaed. 

The 9th is the feast (j-e— ' .^ghAm. 

The 25th is the first day of Karm-KhwH.ra. 



223 



CHAPTER II. 



ON THE rEHTITJLLS IN THE UONTBS OF THB KHWIbIZMUNS. 



The Kliwurizinians agree with the 8uf^1i<lianB regarding llwr beginnings 
of tht> jear and tbe montha, and they disagree with the Persians in the 
same subjects. Tbe cause of this is the same which we have described 
when s^ieaking of the Sughdians. Their usages in their months are 
simihir tu those of the Sughdians. The beginning of their summoT was 
the Ist of NAuB&rji. Tbny had festivals in their months which thej 
celebrated before the time of Ishlin. They maintiiin that God Almighty 
10 ordered them to celebrate those festirals. Besides they celchrat« other 
days in commemoration of the deeds of their ancestors. But at the 
present time there are only very few of the HagiauB among the Khw&- 
hzmians left, who do not particularly oaro for their religion ; they . know 
nothing of it except its outward forms, and they do not inquire into its 
spirit and real meaning. lu consequence, thoy regulate their festivals 
by the knowledge of their distances from each other, not according to 
their real places which they occupy in the single months. 

Those, now, of their days and festivals that are not connected with 
their religion are tbe following : 

Niiusitrji. The 1st day is the feast of new-year, the new-day, ai we 
have aln-ady mentioned. 

Aj-diwisht. Nothing mentioned. p.236. 

HarildAdh. The 1st day is called (^Xy WijV Tn ant«.MuhanunadAii 
times this day was the time of extreme heat ; therefore, tb(*y siiy, it was 
originally colled e^}^ u>^«^j^ which means : the dreu wiU be put off^ signi- 
fying that it was the time for baring and undressing themselves. 



20 



224 



ALTttnCNt. 



In ntir time this day coincideH witli the time of tho sowing of seuune 
and what is sown together with it. So people have come to use it as an 
epoch. 

Ciii. The 15th is called Ajghdr, which means : tJie firewood and the 
fiame. In bygone times it was the beginning of that season when people 
felt the noed nf warming theinBelves at the fire, because the air was 
changing in autumn. In our time It coincides with the middle of 
summer. From this day tbey count 70 days, and then commence sowing 
the autumn wheat. 

Hamditdh. Nothing mentioned. 10 

IkhaharewarT. The Ist day is called iijt*i ; but originally, they say, 
it was called Fa^ffimlahy i.e. the exiivs of the Shiih. For about this time 
the kings of Khwarizm used to march out, because the hr^it was then 
decreasing and the cold drawing near; then they went into winter- 
quarters outside th*?ir rcaidenco, driring away the Ghuzz-Turka from 
their frontiers and defending the limits of their empire against their 
inroads. 

timri. The Ist day is the feast Astid Kami KkwtiT, i.e. the day of 
eating the hretui pn-pared unth fat. On that day they sought protection 
from the cold, and assembled for the purpose of eating the bread prepared 20 
with fat, around the burning fire-grates. 

The 13th is the feast Ciri-Boj, which the Kliwarizmians hold in tbe 
same veneration as the Persians their Mihrajan. 

The 21st is likewise a feast, called Rdm-Roj. 

Yiimikkun. Nothing mentioned in this month. 

Aili'i, Nothing mentioned. 

kriiuazUii. The 11th is called Nhnkhab. People say that it was 
originally called Miruic AJthib, which was then wrongly altered for the 
sake of easier pronunciation, as it was frequently used. It means : M« 
nujiit of M'tna. Now, some of them maintain that Mina was one of their 30 
queens or chieftains, that she left her castle intoxicated, dressed in a 
silk dresSf at spring time. She fell down outside tho castle and lost all 
self-control; she fell asleep, was smitten by the cold of the night, and 
died. Now people were astonished that the cold had killed a human 
being about this lime in spring. So they used it as an epoch for some- 
p.237. thing miraculoiw, extraordbaxy, that does not happen at its proper 
time. 

This day has been advancing beyond its proper time to such a degree, 
that now-a-days people consider it as the middle of winter. 

On this day and about this time the |>eople of iLhw&rizm use perfumes 40 
and incense, and they make the smells rise up from the dishes which 
they lay out for the purpose of keeping ofE all the injuries of the demons 
and evil spirits. 

This proceeding is necessary, by way of careful precaution, if some 



ON THU FESTIVALS IX THE MONTHS OP THE KHW^RIZMIANS. 225 

Bpiritaal matters are connected with it. I mean charms, incantationB, 
and prayers, which the most distinguished philosophers liave acknow- 
ledged and allowed, after having witnessed their effects, e.g. Galenus, and 
others like him, though they are few. These j-ireiiautiuns are likewise to 
bo recommended if people in doing so derive some help from astronomical 
occurrences, as, e.g. the Tempora Paraia and the Tempora Selecta, with 
the constellations that are mentioned for such purposes. We caxmot 
help taking notice of those who try to prove that all such precaution ia 
futile and false by no other arguments but by mockery, derision, and 

10 sneers. 

The existence of jinns and demons haa been ac-.knowledged by the 
most famous philosophers and scholars, e.g. by Aristotle, when he de- 
scribes them as beings uf air and fire and calls them *' human beings." 
lakewise Yal^ya Gramniaticus and others have acknowledged them, 
describing them as the impure parts of the erring souls, after they have 
been separated from their bodies^, who (the souls) are prevented from 
reaching their primal origin, becauije they did not End the knowledge of 
the truth,, but were living in confusion and stupofo^^tion. Something 
similar to this is what Milni indicates In hia books, although his indica- 

20 tions are expressed in subtle words and phrases. 

Akhamioau. Nothiug mentioned in this month. 

Ispandftrmaji. The 4th is called Kh'zk, i.e. the rising. 

The lOtb is a feast called Wakhth-Angdm. Wakhsh is the name of the 
angel who has to watch over the water and especiaily over the river 
Oxus. 

The 20th is called H^l, which means : houses that are built close 
together. 

Besides they have other festivals which they want for the afEairs of 
their religion ; they are the following six :^ 

80 I. The first is called Mj o^Wab*f on the Uth of N&usarjt. Common 
people call it Nduadrjakdnik by the month in which it occurs. 

n. The second is called ■M) {;>*— «^.*#.« on the 1st of Ciri. It ia also 
called JduMrdaminik, i.e. o*/^^ ^^"^ Ajgkdrminik, so called from the 
month Ajghiir, because it falls 16 days before that feaat (on the I5th of 
Ciri). 

m. The third is called oij (j^Ju on the 15th of Hamd&dh. It is 
also called «ae»tfi;«VV 

IV. The fourth is called J4j ^j-j^-J^** on the 16th of Oron, also called p.238. 

40 V. The fifth is called (Imujui) on the 1st of Rlmaehd, also called 
VI. The sixth is called -kj {:^^\ on the Isi of Akhamman, also called 

15 



226 



ALBtBdNi. 



In the five last days of Ispanddnnaji and the following five Epa^- 
tnetifsihey do tlie same which the Forsians do in Farwardajiiu, i.e. tbey 
lay out food in the temples for the spirits of the dead. 

(The Lunar Stations with the Chorasmians).— They were In the 
habit of using the stations of the moon and dt^riving from them tho 
rules of astrology. The names of the stations in tboir language they 
have preserved, but those who made nao of them, who knew how to 
ohserre them and howto draw conchiBions from ihem, have died out. Their 
using tho lonar stations ia clearly prored by the fact that In the 
Khwarizml dialect an astronomer is called Akhlnr-wrnih, i.c. iooJeing to |0 
tfie lunar statu>n», for Akhtar means a station of tho moon. 

They used to distribute these statiotis over the twelve signs of the 
Zodiac, for which they also had special names iii their language. They 
knew them (the signs of Zodiac) even, better than the Arabs, as you 
learn by the fact that their nomenclature of them agrees with the names 
given to them by the original designer of their figures, whilst the names 
of the Arabs do not agree, and they represent these signs as quit« 
different figures. 

For instance, they count AljauzA among the number of the Zodiacal 
signs instead of Qemini, whilst AJjauza is the figure Orion. The people of 20 
KhivHrizm call this sign (Qeijurai) Adkti^ckarik, i.e. having two jt^rett 
which means the same as Gemini. 

Further, the Arabs represent the figure of Leo as composed of a 
number of figures. In consequence, Loo extends in longitude over some- 
thing more than three signs, not to mention its extension in latitude. For 
they consider the two bcadi* of Gemini a« bis outstretched forefoot, and 
the nebula, in the foremost part of which is Cancer, I mean Alnaihra^ 
as his nose. The breast of Virgo, I mean Al*au*w<i, they consider as his 
two loins; the hand of Virgo, I mean AUimalc ACa'eal, as one of his 
shanks ; and Alri'imil^ as bis other shank. According to their opinion, the 30 
figure of Leo extends over the signs Cancer, Leo, Virgo, and part of 
Libra, and a number of ctmstellations buth of the northern and southern 
hemispheres, whilst in reahty the matter is not what they assume. 

If you, likewise, inquire into the names of the Arabs for the fixed 
stars, you will see that they were very far from an accurate knowledge 
of tho Zodiacal signs and the star-figures, although ' A ln'i. Mu hamma d 
'Abdalbih b. Muslim b. ^utaiha AJjabaJi used to make a great to-do 
and to be very verbose in all bis books, and specially in his book 
ou the superiority of the Arabs over the Persians, maintaining that 
the Arabs were the best-informed nation regarding the stars and 40 
the times of their rising and setting. X do not know whether he 
was really ignorant, or only pretended to be ignorant, of what 
the agriculturists and peasants in every place and district have got 
in the way of knowledge regarding the beginning of the agricultural 
works and other things, and of knowledge of the proper times for similar 



ON THK FESTIVALS IN TEE MONTHS OP THE KHWABIZMIAN8. 227 

subjects. For be wbose roof ia liearen, who has no other cover, oTor 
whom the stars continually rise and set in one and the same conrse, p.239. 
makes the be^uiugs of his affairs and bis knowledti;e of time depend 
upon thorn. But the Arabs had, moreover, one ftdvantagc in which others 
did Dot share ; this is the porpetiution of wliat thej knew or belioTed, 
right or wrong, praise or blame, by means of their poetry (Ka^tdas), by 
Kajaz poems, and by compositious in rhymud prose. These things one 
generation inherited from the other, so as to remain among them and 
after them. If you study those traditions in tho ^Antod books, and 

10 specially his book which he called " TA* Science of the A;^>earance of the 
Stars" part of which we have communicated to the reader at the end of 
this book, you will find that tho Arabs had no particular knowledge on 
this subject beyond that which is familiar to the peaaants of every 
country. The man (i.e. 'Ahdallah b. Muatim AljalsiU), however, iaextra^ 
vagant in the subject into which he |>lange8, and not free from Jabali 
{%.e. mountaineer) character, as far as obstinacy of opinion is concerned. 
The style of his book which we have mcntioued shows that there must 
have been enmities and grudges between him and the Persians. For he 
is not satisfied at exalting the Arabs at the expanse of the Persians, but 

20 he must needs make the Persians the meanest, vilest, and most degraded 
of all nations, attribute to them even more want of belief and obstinacy 
against Islam than God attributes to the Arab Bedouins in the SAra 
Altauba (Siira ix, 98), and heap upon them all that is abominable. If he 
had only taken a moment's consideration and had called to mind the 
first pcridd of those whom he preferred to the Persians, he would have 
given the Ue to himself in most of what he says about both parties from 
sheer want of moderation and equity. 

In the following we give tho names of tho lunar stations in the dia- 
lect both of the Sughdians and the KhwiLrizmians. Afterwards we shall 

SO describe the constellations in which they appear, when we speak of tho 
times of their rising and setting. 



Ta^le of the LoHAfi Stations. 



p.240. 



40 



Their Names in Arabic. 


In Sogdian. 

• 


Is Cboraamisn. 


1. Althurayy& 

Aldabarftn 
Alhalf'a 
Alban'a 
6. AldhirA* 
Alnathra 
Altarf 
Aijabha 
Alzubra 


-r-UA 


USyt 



15 



228 



ALBtfitNt. 



Their Namei in Arabic. 



10. Alfarfa 
Al'aww& 
AJaim&k 
Alghafr 
Alzubanij&n 

15. Ai'ikm 

AUalb 

Alalia-nla. 

Alna'&*im 

Albalda 
20. Sa'd ftldh&bi^ 

Sa'd buU* 

Sa'd alsu'ftd 

Sa'd al'akbbija 

Al&j'gh almu^addam 
25. Alfargh almn'akhkliar 

Batnal^iit 

Alsharatfin 

Albutain 



In SogHian. 


In Choraamiftn. 


ykf 


ta^ — n 


i^..,t.x..i 


jU* 


0/l-.\ 


jy- 


«cUy» 


JW** 


•tVw^tjiX 


•k^ui 


ayi^ 


•i*y*» 


jJyA» 


U-«_J*- t)** 


J^jU 


C*^ 


^V 


-iijj^ 


»aWt*j^ 




"^^ 


j«A«Ali 




^^ 


Jiyuu 


«A>^ tf^y 


*a-*t.ju.j* 


**^yj» 


/»»> 


•«A 


iU; 


ut«A4 


AJyj 


JW* 


ju*y 



10 



20 



229 



CHAPTER XII, 



p.241. 



02T KHWASXEX-SHJUB's SEVOBH of Ta% KOWkaJZKtAH VKSTAL 
0AI<SMDA.B. 



'Abu-9a*id 'Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Irak followed the example of 
Almu'ta^id-billAh regarding the intercalation of the Chorasniian months. 
For on liaTing been freed from his fetters at Bukhara, and baring re- 
turned to big residence, he aakcd the mathematlciauu at his court 
regarding the feast AjghUr, whereupon they pointed out to him its place 
in the calendar. Further, he asked with what diLy of Tamm&z it corre- 

XO spondcd, and this also they told him. This date he kept in memory, 
and when seve^i years later at the same time of the year he again came 
to think of it, he rejected this sort of calculation. He was not as yet 
acquainted with the intercalations and all matters connected with them. 
Then he ordered AlkharAjJ and Alhamdaki and other aatronomors of his 
time to be brought before him, and asked them as to what va^ the 
reality of the case. These scholars then gave him a minute explanation 
and told him how the Persians and Chorasmians had managed their 
year. Thereupon he said : " This is a system whinh hoM hei'omo oonfus^^d 
and forgotten. The people rely upon these days (i.e. certain feast*dayB, 

20 Ajghdr, Nimkhab, etc.), and thereby they find the cardinal points of the 
four seasons, siuce they beliere that they never change their places in the 
year ; that Ajgkdr is always the middle of snmmer, Nimkhab the middle 
of winter ; certain distaDces from these days they use as the proper times 
for sowing and ploughing. Something like this (i.e. the deviation of the 
Chorasmian year from proper time) is not perceived except in the coarse 
of nmny years. And this is one of the reasons why they disagree among 
each other regarding the fixing of those distances, so that some main- 
tain that 60 days after AjghAr is the proper time for sowing the wheat, 
whilst others put this time earlier or later. The pro]>er thing would be 
that we should fiud some meazu to fix those things uniformly and to 



ALPtBflK!. 



inToriable times of the year, so that the proper times for these tlungs 
should never differ." 

Now, the scholars told him ih^t the best way in this matter would be 
to fix the beginninf^s of the Ohorasmian months on certain days of the 
Greek and Syrian months — in the same way as Almu'tadid had done — 
and aft*r that to intercalate them as the Greeks and Syriana do. This 
plan they carried ont A. Alex. 1270, and they arranged that the Ist of 
Nuufliirji should fall on the third of the Syrian Ntsnn, so that Aj^hdr 
would always fall in the middle of Tammftz. And accordingly they 
regulated the times of agricultural works, c.y. the time of gathering 10 
grapes for the purpose of making raisins is 40-50 days after Ajgkttr ; 
the time of ^thcring grapus for the purpose of hanging them up, 
and the time of gathering pears, is 55-65 days after AjgJtdr. In the 
same way they fixed all the times for sowing, for the impregnation of 
the palm-trees, for phuiting and binding together, etc. If the Greek year 
is a lea[>-year, the Epagojwna at the end of Ispandarmaji are six days. 
If people had made this reform of Khwarizm-Shah the epoch of an 
era, we should have added it to the other ems which we have before 
menttoued. 



p.242. Regarding the festivals in the non-intercalated months of the Egyp- 20 
tians, although it is likely that they had similar ones with the other 
nations, we hare not received any information. Likewise we have no 
information regarding their festivals in the intercalated months which 
they use now-a-days, except this, that people say that new-year of the 

' Egyptians is the Ist of Thoth, and that the water of the Nile begins to 

swell and to increase on the 10th of Payni, according to another report 
on the 20th of Pajni. It is likely that they would celebrate the same 
festivals as the Greeks and Syrians, because Egypt lies in the midst 
between, them and l^ecauae they all ubb the same kind of year. Some 
matters, however, are quite j/eculiar to the Egyptians, e.g. their country, gQ 
Egypt, has certain peculiarities, in which no other country shares— 
appcaraaoee of the water, the air, the min, etc. 

The famous days of tlie Greeks and Syrians are of two kinds, one for 
the affairs of any sort of scfcular life, for certain aerial appearances, etc., 
u we have already mentioned, and another kind for the matters of their 
religion, which is Christianity. We shall describe in it-s proper place as 
much as we have learned about both kinds, and as has been reported to 
us, if Qod permits ! 



231 



CHAPTER XIII. 



ON THB DAYS 09 TBB GBBEK CALBNDAK AS KNOWN BOTH AMONG THZ 
OBBIKS AND OTHER NATIONS. 



Tbb Greek rear agrees with the solar year; its seuoos retain their 
proper places like the natural seasons of the solar year ; it revolves 
parallel with the latter, and ity single parts never cease to correspond 
■with those of the latter, except by that qnantity of time (the Portio 
Iniercalaiwni*) which, before it becomes perceptible, is appended to the 
year and added to it as one whole day (in every fourth year) by means 
10 of intercalation. Therefore the Greeki) and Syrians and all who follow 
their example fix and arrange by this kind of year all annual, conneeu* 
tive oceurrenoes, and also the meteorological and other qualities of the 
single days that experience lias taught them in the long run of time, 
which are called *Anwd and Bawdrih. 

Regarding the caube of these 'Anwd^ scholars do not agree among each 
other. Some derive them from the rising and setting of the fixed stars, 
among them, the Aiaba. (Some poet ttayu) : 

"Those are my people (a bad set) like the BanAt-Na'sh, 
Who do not bring rain like the other stars ; " 

OQ t.e. they arc good-for-nothing people like the Bandt-Na'sh, whose rising 
and setting do not bring rain. 

Others, again, derive them from the days themselves, maintaining that 
they are peciiliarities of them, that such is their nature, at least, on an 
average, and that besides they are increased or diminished by other 
eanaet. They say, for instance : The nature of the season of summer is 
heat, the nature of the seasuu of winter is cold, sometimes in a higher 
degree, sometimes less. The excellent Galenus says : " To decide between 



p.243. 



232 



ALBlEO*Nt. 



l!*^JiCi'' *" 



^■' 



these parties is only possible on the bftsis of experiment and examination. 
But to examine this difference of opinion is not possible except in a long 
space of tirne^ because the motion of the fixed stare is verr little known 
and because in a short space of time wo find ^ery tittle difference in their 
rising and setting." 

Now, this opinion has filled SiuAn b. Tliibit b. ^urra w ith surprise. 
He says in his boot on the 'Anv?a, whinh he composed for the Khalif 
Aimu'tatjid : " I do not know bow Galeuus came tu make such a mistake, 
skilled aa he was in astronomy. For the rising and setting of the 
•tars differ greatly and evidently in different countries. E.g. Suhail rises 10 
at BaghdAd on the 5th of TlU, at WAoit two days later, at Baf m somewhat 
earlier than at W&si^ . People say : * ike *Anwd differ in different 
countries.' But that is not the case. On the contrary, they occur always 
on one and the same day (everywhere) ; which proves that the stars and 
their rising and setting have nothing to do with this matter." 

Afterwards he has given the lie t<» himself, though it is correct what he 
said, viz., that the rising and setting of the stars art> not to be coa- 
sidered as forming one of the causes of the 'Anwu, if you limit his 
assertion by certain conditions and do not understand it in that generality 
in which he ha^ proclaimed it. 20 

Further he (Sin^n h. ThAbit) says : " The 'Anwd of the Arabs are mostly 
correct for Al^ijaz and the neighbourhood, those of the Egyptians for 
Egypt and the coasts of the sea, those of Ptolemy for Greece and the neigh- 
bouring mountains. If anybody would go to one of those coiuitriesand 
examine them there, he would find correct what Galenus says regarding 
the difficulty of an examination of the 'Anwd in a short space of time." 
In this respect he (SinAn) is right. Galenus mentions and believes only 
what he considers as a truth, resting on certain arguments, and keeps 
aloof from everything that is beset with doubt and obscurity. 

Sinau relates of hiu father, that he examined the 'Anwd in 'Ira^ about 80 
thirty years with the view of finding certain principles with which to 
compare the 'Anmi of other countries. But fate overtook him before he 
could accomplish his plan. 

Whichever of the two theories may be correct, whether the * Anted are 
to be traced back to the days of the year or to the rising and setting of 
the Lunar Staiiong, in any case there is do room for a third theory. To 
each of these theories, whichever you may hold to be correct, certain 
conditions attach, on which the correctness of the 'Anwd depends, i.e. to 
prognosticate the character of the year, the season, the mouth, whether 
it will be dry or moist, whether it will answer to the expectations of 40 
people or not, to prognosticate it by means of the signs and proofs, of 
which the astronomical books on meteorology are full. For if the *Anv)d 
agree with those signs and proofs, they are true and will be fulfilled in 
their entire eitent ; if they do not agree, something different will occur. 

Thus the matter stands bctwi;en these two theories. 



ON THE DATS OF THE OBBEK CALENDAR. 



233 



Sitian b. ThAbit prescribee that we should take into regard whether the 
Arabs and Peraiaos agree on a Nau'. If the;r do agrocs its probability 
is ■trengthoned and it is sure to take pla,c« ; if they do not agree, the 
contrary is the case. 

I shall mention in this book the comprehensJTe account of Slnin in 
his book on the 'Anwd and the proper tixncs for secular affairs occurring 
in the Greek months. Of the rising and setting of the Lunar 
Stations I shall lipeak in a special chapter at the end of this book. For 
since the astronomers have found that their rising and setting proceed 
10 according to one and the same uniform order in these months, they have 

assigned them to their proper days, in order to unite them and prevent p.24rl. 
them from getting into confusion. Qod lends support and help I 

Tiahrin L (October.) 

1. People eiiwct rain (Euctemon and Philippus) ; turbid air (l^gyp- 
tians and Callippus). 

2. Turbid winterly air (Callippus, Egyptians, and Euctemon) ; rain, 
(Eudoxns and Metrodoms). 

3. Nothing mentioned. 

4. Wearing wind (Eudoxus) ; winterly air (Egyptians). 

20 5. Winterly air (Democritus) ; beginning of the time of sowing. 

6. North wind (Egyptians). 

7. South wind (Hipparchus). 

8. Nothing mentioned. Winterly air, according to Sinan. 

9. 'Eirunj/iau'u (Eudoxus) ; east wind (Hipparchus) ; west Miind (Kgjp- 
laiuui). 

10. Nothing mentioned. 

11. Episemasia (Eudoxus and Dositfaeus). 

12. Rain (the Egyptians). 

13. Unsteady wind, Episemaaia, thunder, and rain (Callippus) ; north 
30 wind or south wind (Eudoxus and Dositheus). Sinan attests that this 

is frequently true. On this day the wares of the sea are sure to be in 
great commotion. 

14. Episemasia and north wind (Eudoxus). 

15. Change of the winds (Eudoxus). 

16. Nothing mentioned. 

17. Kain and Episemasia (Dositheus); west wind or south wind 
(Egyptians). 

18. Nothing mentioned. 

19. Bain and Episemasia (Dositheus); west wind or south wind 
4Q (Egyptians). 

20. 21. Nothing mentioned. 

22. Unsteady, changing winds (Egyptians). On this day the air 
begins to get cold. It is no longer time for drinking medicine and for 



234 



ILB^BdNt. 



p.246. 



phlebotomy eic«pt in case of need. For the Favourable Timea for each 
things are always then, when you intend thereby to preserve the health 
of the body. For if you ar« compelled to use such means, you cannot 
wait for a night or day, for heat or cold, for a lucky or unlucky day. On 
the contrary, you use it as soon as possible, before the evil takes root, 
when it would be difficult to eradicate it. 

23. Epiaomasia (Eudorua) ; north wind or south wind (Cmsar). 

24. Episemasia (Callippus and E^-ptians). 

25. Episemasia (Metrodorus) ; change in the air (Callippus and Eucte- 
mon). 

26. Nothing mentioned. 

27. Winterly air CEgyptians). 

28. Nothing mentioned. It is a farourable day for taking a warm 
bath and for eating things that ore uf a sharp, biting taste, nothing that 
is salt or bitter. 

29. Hail or frost (Democritus) ; continual south wind (Hipparchus) ; 
tempest and winterly air (Egyptians). 

30. Heavy wind (Euctemon and Philippus). The kites, the white 
carrion* vultures {vultur p€rcnojiferu4)t and the swallows migrate to the 
lowlands, and the ants go into their nest. 

31. Violent winds (Callippus and Kuctemon) ; wind and winterly air 
(Metrodorus and Ciesar); south wind (Egyptians). Qod knows best! 



10 



20 



TiMhrin II. (November.) 

1. Clear ({if. imoiiKed) winds (Eudoxus and Conon). 

2. Clear air with cold north wind and south wind. 

8. South wind blows (IHolemseas) ; west wind (Egyptians) ; north or 
south wind (Eudoxus) ; rain (Euctemon, Philippus, and Hipparchus). 
4. Episemasia (Euf-temon) ; rain (Philippus). 
6. Winterly air and rain {Egyj»tians). 

6. South or west wind (Egyptians) ; winterly air (Dositheus). Sin&n 90 
says that this is l3ome out by practical experience. 

7. Bain with whirlwind (Meton) ; cold wind (Hipparchus). This ie 
the first day of the rainy seaeon, when the sun enters the 2l8t degree of 
Cancer. Astrologers take the horoscope of this time and derive there- 
from an indication as to whether the year will have much rain or little. 
Herein they rely upon the condition of Venus at the times of her rising 
and setting, I Injlievc, however, that this is only peculiar to the climate 
of 'Irftlp and Syria, not to other countries, for very &equently it nuns with 
us in KhwArizm even before this time. 'Abti-alV&sim *TTbaid-Alirih b, 'Abd- 
allah b. Khurdadhbih relates in his KiWt-aima^SUk walmatndlik that in 40 
^ij&z and Yaman it zains during Hazirun, Tanunuz, and |)art of IllU. I 
myself have been dwelling in Jurjan during the summer mouths, but there 
never passed ten consecutive days Uui-iug which the sk^i' was clear and 



ON THB OATS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 



235 



free from clonds, and vhen it did not min. It is a nxaj ootmtry. 
People relate that one of the khalifit, I think it was Alma'mitn, stayed 
there during forty days whilst it rained withont any tuterruption. So be 
•aid : " Lead ns out of this plsaing, eplaehing cnuntr}* ! " 

The nearer a district is to Tabarist&n, the more iU air is moist, the 
more rainy it is. The air of the mountaios of '("abaristan is so moist 
tliat if people break and pound garlic on the tops of the mountains, rain 
is sure to set in. As the cause of this subject, the vice-judge, AlamMt, 
the author of the Kif'ih'AUjhurra, mentiuas this, that the air of the 

10 country ie moist and dense with stagnant vapours. If, now, the smell of p.24)6. 
garlic spreads among these vapours, it dissolves the vapours by its sharp* 
nesB and compresses the density of the air, in consequence of which rain 
follows. 

Granted, now, that this be the cause of this appearance produced by 
the pounding of garlic, how do you, then, account for the famous well 
in the mountains of Fargh&na, where it begins to rain as soon as you 
throw something dirty into this well ? 

And how do you account for the place called " the thop of Solomon Ike 
ion of David," in the cave called IspahbadhAn in the mountain of T&If 

20 in Tabaristan, where heaven becomes cloudy as soon as you defile it by 
filth or by milk, and where it rains until you clean it again P 

And how do you account for the mountain in the country of the 
Turks? For if the sheep pass over it, people wrap their feet in wool to 
prevent their touching the rock of the monnt^n. For if they touch it, 
heavy r^ immediately follows. Piewjs of this rock the Turks carry 
about, and contrive to defend themselves thereby against all evil coming 
from the enemy, if they are surrounded by them. Now, those who are 
not aware of these facte consider this as » ' T:it-of-e«rcery^n the part of 
the Turks. 

80 Of a similar character is a fountcii^ called ** tfie pure vne " in Egypt in 
the lowest pt^. Lvi » niOuuuiui which adjoins a church. Into this fountain 
sweet, nicely -smelling water is flowing out of a source in the bottom of the 
mountain. If, now, an individual that is impuse through pollution or 
menstruation touches the water, it begins at once to stink, aud does not 
cease until you pour out the water of the fountain and clean it ; then it 
regains its nice smell. 

Further, there is a mountain between Her&t and Sijistau, In a sandy 
country, somewhat distant from the road, where you hear a clear murmiur 
and a deep sound as soon as it is defiled by human excrements or urine. 

40 These things are natural peculiaritiea of the created beings, the causes 
of which are to be traced back to the simple elements and to the begin- 
ning of all composition and creation. And there is no possibility that 
our knowledge should ever penetrate to subjects of this description. 

There are other districts of quite another character from that of the 
mountains of Tabaristilu, e.g. FaB\k\ in Egypt, and the adjacent parts, for 



236 



ALBteONt. 



there it rains very geldom. And if it raina, the air is iafectod, b«comea 
pestilentiul and hurts both animals and plants. Such thinj;^ (i,e, such 
climatical dtiferencett) depend u|«n the nature of the iiloco and its 
situation, whether it lien in the mountains or on the sea, whether it is a 
place of great deration or a low country; further, upon the dcg^c of 
northern or southern latitude of the pLice. 

8. Rain and winterlj air (Enct«raon) ; wiiit.erly air and wliirlwinds 
(Metrodorus) ; south wind or tvpa, i.e. south-paet wind (Euctemon) ; cast 
wind (Egyptians). 

9. Nothing mentioned. jq 

10. Winterly air and whirlwinds (Euctemon and Philippus); north 
wind, or cold south wind and rain (Hipparchus). 

11. Episemosia (Callippus, Conon, and Metrodorus). SinAn says that 
this is home out by experience. 

12. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Dositheus). 

13. EpiHemasia (Eudoxus) ; winterly air on land and sea (Democritus). 
Ships that are at sea on this day put in to shore, and naTigation to 
Persia and Alexandria is suspended. For the sea has certain days when 

p.247. i^ is ill uproar, when the air is turbid, the wares roll, and thick darkness 

liefl orer it. Therefore nayigation ia impracticable. People say that at 20 
this time there arises the wind at the bottom of the sea that puts the 
sea in motion. This they conclude from the appearuice of a certain sort 
of fishes which then swim iu the upper regions of the sea and on ita 
surface, showing thereby that this storm is blowing at the bottom. 

Frequently, people say, this submarine storm rises a day earlier. 
Erery sailor recognizes this by certain marks in his special sea. For 
instance, in the Chinese sea this submarine storm is recognized by 
~tfae figfa rng-TreU-riaiug^ of thtrnaelves from the bottom of the sea to its 
■nrface. On the contrary, they "include that the sea bottom is qniet if 
a certain bird sits hatching her ej,g« — for they hatch in a bundle of 30 
chips and wood ou the sea, if they do not gu «■*« l2T*d n*"? r'* d-wn there. 
They hiy their eggs only at that time when the sea ia quiet 

Further, people maintain that any wood which is cut on this day does 
not get worm-eaten, and that the white ant does not attack it. This 
peculiarity perhaps stands in connection with the nature of the miihire 
of the air on this special day. 

14. Winterly air (Gsaar) ; south wind or Eurus. i.e. south-east wind 
(Egyptians). 

15. Nothing mentioned. 

16. Winterly air (Cesar). 40 

17. Rain (Eudoxus) ; winterly air (Cmar) ; north wind during night 
and day (Ciesar). 

18. Nothing registered. 

19. Sharp winterly air (Eudoxua). 

20. North wind (Eudoxus) ; soTcre winterly air (Egyptians). People say 



ON THE DATS OF THE GRKEK CALENDAR. 



237 



that on this dar all animals that have no hones perish. This, howeror, 
ia different in different countries. For I used to be molested by the 
gnats, \.e. animals without bones, in Jtirj^, whilst the sun was moving 
in the sign of Capricorn. 

21. Winterly air and rain (Euctemon and Doeithcns). 

22. Very winterly air (Eudoxus). On this day people forbid to drink 
cold water during the night, for fear of the Yellow Water, 

23. Bain (Philippus) ; winterly air (Eudoxus and Conon) ; continual 
south wind (Hipparchus and Kgyptians). On this day falls the feaitt of 

10 gathering the olives, and tho fresh olive-oil is pressed. 

24. Light rain (Kgyptians). 

25. 26. Nothing mentioded. 

27. In most cases a disturbance of the air on land and sea (Demo- 
critus) ; Episemaaia (Dositheus) ; south wind and rain (Egyptians). 

28. Nothing mentioned. People say that on this day the waves of 
the sea roll heavily and that there is very little fishing. 

29. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Conon) ; west or south wind and rain 
(Egyptians). 

30. Nothing mentioned foy the antlioritiefl hitherto quoted, nor bj 
20 others. 



KdnUn L (December.) 



p.248. 



1. Winterly air (Callipptis, Eudoxus, and Ceesar). On this day people 
hold a fair in Bamaficus, which is called '* the fair of the cutting of the 
ben-nut," i.e. Nux unyneniarta. 

2. Pure winds (lU. not mixed) (Euctemon and Philippus); sharp, 
winterly air (Metrodorus). 

3. Winterly air (Conon and C»sar) ; light rain (Egyptians). 

4. (Missing.) 

5. Winterly air (Democritus and Dositheus). The same is confirmed 
80 by Sin&n. 

6. Winterly air (Eudoxus) j vehement north wind (Hipparchus). 

8. Nothing mentioned. 

9. Winterly air and rain (Callippus, Euctemon, and Eudoxus). 

10. Sharp winterly air (CalUpi>us, Euctemon aud MetrodorusJ ; thunder 
and lightning, wind and rain (Democritus). 

11. South wind and Episemasia (Callippus); winterly air and rain 
(Eudoxus aud Egyptians). According to SinAn this is borne out by 
practical experience. Continued sexual intercourse on this day is objected 
to, which I do not quite understand. For sexual intercourse is not ap> 

4^ proved of in autumn, in the beginning of winter, and at the times of 
epidemic disease ; on the contrary, at such times it is most noxious and 
pernicious to the body. Although we must say that the conditions of 
sexual intercourse depend upon a great many other things^ aa, e.g. ag«, 



238 



ALBtRt^Nl. 



tiine> place, custom, character, nouriahment, the fulness or «mptineu of 
the Btomach, th« desire, the female genitals, etc. 

12. Winterly air (Egrptiana). 

13. Vehement south wind or north wind (Hipparchus). 

14. Winterly air (Eudoxus) ; rain and wind (Egyptians). 
16. Cold north wind or south wind and min (EgyptiauB). 

16. Winterly air (C»8ar). 

17. Nothing mentioned. People forbid on this day to take of the 
fiatb of C0W8, of oranges, and mountain balm, to drink water after yon 
lie down to sleep, to smear the camoU with Nura (a depilatory unguent 10 
made of arsenic uid quick-lime), and to bleed anybody except him whose 
blt>od is ft>veri8b. The n>a«uu of all this is the cold and the moistness 
of the season. This day people avll the " GreeU Biiih,'* meaning the 
winter'Solstioe. People say that on this day the liglit leares those limits 
within which it decreases, and enters those limits within which it in- 
creases, that human beings begin growing and increasing, whilst the 
demons begin withering and perishing. 

Ka'b the Bnbbi relates that on this day the sun was kept back for 
Tosua the son of KAn during three hours on a clouded day. The same 
story is told by the simpletons among the Shi'a regarding the prince Qf 20 
the believers, 'Alt b. 'Abl Jklih. Whether, now, this story hare any 
foundation or not, we must remark that those who are beset by calamity 
find its duration to be very long and think that the moment of liberation 
is very slow in coming. So, e.g. 'Alt b. Aljahm said in a sleepless night, 
when he had gone out to war against the Greeks^ oppressed by wounds 
and fatigue : 

pj^4/^, ** Has a stream swept away the morning, 

Or has another night been added to the night? " 



Afterwards on being released he indulged in hallucinations and lying 
reports. 80 

Something similar frequently happens on fast-days, if heaven during 
the latter part of them be clouded and dark ; then people break their 
fast, whilst shortly afterwards, when the sky or part of it clears up, the 
sun appears still standing above the horizon, having not yet set. 
The charm-mongers say that it is a good omen on this day to lise from 
sleeping on the right side, and to fumigate with frankincense in the 
morning before speaking. It is also considered desirable to walk twelve 
Gonseoative steps towards the east at the moment of sunrise. 

YabyA h, *AU, the Christian writer of 'Anbar, says that the rising-place 
of the sun at the time of the winter<solstico is the true east, that he -40 
rises from the very midst of paradise ; that on this day the sages lay the 
foundations of the altars. It was the belief of this ,man that paradise 
is situated in the southern regions. But he hod no knowledge of the 



ON THE OATS OF THB ORKEE CALENDAR. 



239 



difference of the z^iniths. Besides^ the dogma of his own reUgion prorea 
hie theory to be erroneous, for their law orders thorn to turn in prajing 
towards tho east (i.e. the riaing.plaoe of the eun), whilst he told them that 
the sun nsea in panidist! (i.e. iu the south aocordiug to his theory). 
Therefore the Christians tiim to no other rising-place but to that one of 
the oqnator, and thoy tix the direction of their churches accordingly. 

This theory is nut more curiuus than his view of the suu. For he 
maintains that the degrees through which the sun ascends and descends 
are 360 in number, corresponding to the days of the year; that during 

10 the 5 days which are the complement of the year the sun is neither 
ascending nor descending. Those arc 2^ days of Hazir£,n and 2^ days of 
KdniinL 

A similar idea hovered in the mind of 'Abii-al'abhas Aliimnl! when he 
said in his book On the Proof a for tJu KibJa that the son has 177 rising 
and setting places, thinking evidently that the solar year has got 354 
days. He, however, who undertakes what he does not understand, incurs 
ignominy. Those crotchets of his are brought into connection with 
the argument regarding the 5 supernumerary days of the solar year 
and the 6 deficient days of the lunar year, of which we have already 

20 spoken. 

18. Nothing mentioned. 

19. South wind (Eudoius, Dositbeus, and Egyptians). 

20. Winterly air (Eudoxos). 

21. Episemasia (Egyptians). ^ 

22. Nothing mentioned. 

23. Nothing mentioned. 

24. "Wint*^rly air (C»sar and Egyptians) ; Kpiseroasia and rain (Hip- 
parchus and Meton). 

25. Middling winterly air (Democritua). 
30 26. (Missing.) 

27. Nothing mentioned. 

28. Winterly air (Dositbeus). 

29. EpiBema8ia(CallippU8,Eucteraon,and Democritua). People forbid p.260. 
on this day the drinking cold water after rising from sleep. They say 

that the demons vomit into the water, and that therefore he who drinks 
of it is affected by stupidity and phlegm. This serves as a warning to 
people against that which tbey dread most. The cause of all this is the 
coldness and moisture of the air. 

80. Winterly air on the sea (Egyptians). 
40 31. Winterly air (Eactomon). 

Kdniin II. (Jannazy.) 

1. Nothing mentioned by the Parapegmatitis. 

2. Episemasia (Dositheus). Some people say that wood which is cut 
en this day will not soon get dry. 



240 



ALBteCKt. 



p^51. 



3. Chtmgeable air (K^fptlans). 

4. Epiaemasia (Egyptians) ; south wind (Bemocritus), which obsoira- 
tion is confirmed by Siuon. 

5. 6. Nothing mentioned. People say that on the 6th there is an hour 
during which all salt water of the earth is getting sweet. All the 
qualities o^rurring in the water d*?pead exclusively upon the nature of 
that aoil by which the water is enclosed, if it be standing, or over which 
the water flows, if it be running. Those qualities are of a stable nature, 
not to be altered except by a process of transformation from degree to 
degree by means of certain media. Therefore thia statement of the 10 
waters getting sweet in this one hour is entirety unfounded. Continual 
and leisurely experimentation will show to any one tho futility of this 
assertion. For if the water were sweet it would remain sweet for some 
space of time. Nay, if you would place — in this hour or any other — in a 
well of salt water some pounds of pure dry wax, possibly the saltishness of 
the water would diminish. This haa been meulioued by the experimenters, 
who go so far as to maintain that if you make a thin vaae of wax and 
place it in sea water, so that the mouth of the vase emerges above the 
water, those drops of water which splash over into the vase become sweet. 

If all salt water were mixed with so much sweet water as would over- 20 
power its nature, in that case their theory would be realized {i.e, all salt 
waters would become sweet). An example of this process is afforded by 
the lake of Tinnia, the water of which is sweet in autumn and winter in 
consequence of the great admixture of the water of the Kile, whilst at 
the other seasons it is salt, because there is very little admixture of Nile 
water. 

7. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Hipparchus). 

8. South wind (Callippus> Euctemon^ Fhilippus, and Metrodorus) ; 
south wind and west wind and winterly air on the sea (Egyptians). 

9. Violent south wind and rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). 30 
The authors of talismans say that if you draw the figiu^s of grapes 

on a table, between the 9th and the 16th of the month, and place it 
among the vines as a sort of offering [at the Lime of the setting of the 
Tortoiset i.e. Alnatr Alwdki*, the fruit will not be injured by anything. 

10. Violent south wind and Episemasia (Csesar and Egyptians). 

11. South wind (Eudoxus and Bositheus) ; mixed winds (Hipparchus). 

12. Nothing mentioned. 

13. Winterly air (Hipparchus); a north wind or a south wind blows 
(Ptolemy). 

14 Nothing mentioned. 4A 

16. East wind (Hipparchus). 

16. Nothing mentioned. 

17. Violent wind (Cffiaar). 

18. Winterly air (Euctemouand Philippui) ; change of the air (Metro- 
dorus). 



ON THE DAYS OF TEE OEEEK CALBNDAE. 



241 



19. Wint*rl_r air (Endoxu8 ftnd Csesar); siiffocating air (ELtyptians). 

20. Clear sky (Euctemou aud Democritua) ; north wind (Hipjwirchus) 
winterlT air and rain (figjptians). 

21. MiddUi:^ winterly air (Eadozus). 

22. Epiaemasia (Hipparcbus) ; rain (Egyptians). 

23. Nothing mentioned. On this day people do not smear the oameli 
with Niira (a depilatory ungiient of arsenic and quicklime), nor Weed 
anybody except in cases of special need. 

24. Clear sky (CaUippus aud Euctemon) ; middling winterly air (Demo- 
10 critus). Besides, the rule of tiie preceding day as regards the use of 

Nura and phlebotomy refers also to this day. 

25. East wind (Hippari'hus). 

26. Bain (Euduxus and Metrodorus) ; winterly air (Dositheus). 

27. Severe winter (Egyptians). 

28. South wind blows and Episemaaia (Ptolemy). 

29. Nothing mentioned. 

30. South wind (Hipparcbus). 
81. Nothing mentioned. 



SItMhdt. (Febmary.) 

gQ It is the leap>month. It appears to me that the following is the reason 
— but God knows beat ! — why people have shortened this mouth in parti- 
cular so that it has only 28 days, and why it has not had assigned to it 
29 or 30 or 31 days : If it were assigned 29 days and were then to be 
increased by the leap-day, it would have 30 days aud would no longer be 
distinguishable from the other months in u leajvyear. The same would 
bo the case if it had 30 days, whether the year be a leap-year or not. 
Likewise if it bad 31 days, the same stmiJiU-ity with the other nioulhs in 
all sorts of years would exist. For this reason the l*'ap-month has been 
assigned 28 days, that it might be distinguished from the other months 

80 I'wth in leap and common years. 

For the same reason it was ueoeseary that in the Greek year two 
months of more than 30 days should follow each other. For at the 
beginning they intentionally gave to each month 30 days and took away 
2 from Shubst. So they got 7 supernumerary days (i.e. the 6 Epago- 
mense and the 2 days nf Shubat), which they had to distribute over 11 
months, because Sbtibat had to le left out. Now, it was not possible to p.2£2 
distribute the complete months of 30 days so as to fall each of them 
between two months of 31 days, for the latter (i.i?. the months of 31 
days) arc more in number than the former. Therefore it was necessary 

40 to let several months of more than 30 days follow each other. But the 
most important subject of thoir deliberation was to add them in the 
places which would be the most suitable to them, so that the sum of the 
days of both spring and summer is more than the sum of the days of 

16 



242 



ALstB^. 



p.263. 



autumn and winter, a ^t wbicfa is the result of both ancient and znodem 
obsenratioos. 

Further, their mouths are proportional to each other in most caaes i I 
mean to saj -. the sum of each mouth and of the seventh foUoving one 
is 61 days, which is nearly equal to the time of the sun's mean motion 
through two signs of the zodiac. However, the sum of the dajs of Ab 
and Shiibft^ is 69 davB, This could not have been otherwise, for the 
reasou we have mentioned for Shubut- For if Ab had been assigned 
more than 31 davs, it would have been different from all the other 
months, and people would have thought that this in particular was the 10 
leap-month. As for TammOr. and Kanftn the Last, the sum of their dava 
is 62. This, again, was necessarr, because the number of the months of 
more than 30 dajs is greater than that of the months of 30 days. 
Wherever the supernumerary day is placed the circumstances ore always 
the same. And, further, intercalation has been applied to ShubA( to the 
exclusion of the other months only for this reason, that Adh&r I., 
which is the leap-month in the Jewish leap-year, falls on Shab&t and 
near it. 

1. Bain (Eudoxus). The cold decreases a tittle. 

2. West wjud or south wind intermixed with hail (Egyptians). SinAn 20 
■ays that this is frequently the case. 

3. Clear sky and frequently the west wind blows (Eudorua). 

4. Clear sky and frequently the west wind blows (Dositheus); severe 
winterly air, rain and unmixed winds (Egyptians). 

5. Kothing mentioned. People say that the four winds are in uproar. 
6- Rain (Ca)sar) ; winds (Egyptians); the west wind begins blowing 

^>emocritu8). 

7. Beginning of the blowing of the west wind, frequently the air is 
winterly (Eudoxus and Egyptians). On this day the first Coal falls, 
called the minor one. 30 

8. The time of the blowing of the west wind (Callippus, Metrodorus, 
and Hipparchus) ; rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). This is confirmed by 
Sin&n OS borne out by his observations. 

9. 10. Nothing mentioned. 

11. Winterly air (Pbilippus and Metrodonu) ; ireat wind (Eudoxufl 
and Egyptians). 

12. North and east wind (Hipparchus) ; east wind alone (Egyptians). 

13. 14. Nothing mentioned. On the 14th falls the second Coal, called 
the middle one. As the poet says : 

*' When ChrisLnms has passed and Epiphany after it, «a' 

And ten days and ten days and five complete days. 
And five days and six and four of Sbubu.(, 
Then, no doubt, the greatest cold vanishes. 
That is the time of the falling of the two Coals ; afterwards 
The cold remains only a few nights." 



ON THE DATS OF THE ORBEK OALBNDAK. 



245 



16. Winterly air (Euctemon, Philippua, and Dositheua) ; changing 
wind (Egyptians) ; south wind (Hipparchne), This day is cold (Arabs), 
during which the coal is kindled. The Persians say : "The Summer has 
put his hands into the water." On this day the moisture of the wood is 
flowing from the lowest parts of the trees to the highest, and the frogs 
begin croaking. 

16. A change in the winds and rain (Egyptians). People say that on 
this day the interior of the earth is getting warm. In Syria the mush- 
rooms are coming forth ; those which stand near the root of the olive-tree 

10 are deadly poison, as people maintain. Thia may lie true, fur it is not 
approved of to take much of the mushroom and fungus, nor of that which 
is prepared from them. It« pharmacological treatment is mentioned in 
most of the medical compihitions in the chapter of preparing poisons 
from these materials. 

17. Nothing mentioned. 

18. West wind, and hail &Ub, or nun (Egyptians). 

19. (?old Dorth wind (Hipparchus). 

20. Winds (Egyptians). 

21. Nothing mentioned. On this day the third Co<U falls, called the 
20 great one. Between the falling of each of the two CoaU there is an 

inteiral of one complete week. They were called Coais because they are 
days characterised by the spreading of the heat from the interior of the 
earth to the surface, according to those who hold this theory. According 
to those who hold the opposite view, this change is brought about by the 
air's receiving heat instead of cold from the body of the sua, for the 
body of the sun and the uear approach of a column of rays are the 6rst 
cause of the heat. With this subject also the question is connected 
why the earthen jars or pipes of wjiich sabterranean channels are 
formed, and the water of wells, arc warm in the winter and cold in the 

30 summer- 
Between 'Abft-Bakr b. ZakariyyA Alr^zl and *AbA-Bakr F[usun 
AltanunAr several questions and answers, expustulatious aod refutations 
have been exchanged that will satisfy the curiosity of the reader and 
inform him of the truth. 

The Arabs nsed these three days (the so-called CoaU) in their months 
until they got into confusion, as we have mentioned, and these days no 
longer fell at their proper times. Thereupon they were transferred into 
(i.e. fixed on certain days of) the Qreek months which keep always their 
proper places. On the first day, people say, the Ist and 2nd KKifmnx are 

40 getting warm, on the second the 3rd and 4tb, on the third the remaining 

fcAiVara. Further, they say that on the CoaZ-days vapours are rising p.2&4. 
from the earth which warm the earth on the Ist CooZ-day, the water on 
the 2nd, and the trees on the 3rd. 

According to another view, they are days noticeable for the rising of 
Ltinar Stations, or some special ports of them ; whilst other subtle people 

16 • 



244 



AtBtBftjrt. 



p.2£5. 



20 



maintain that thov are the fcnnini of the cold in winter, and Berre to 
d^noto the differences in the beginning of heat and cold as known in 
the different oountriea. Some inconsiderate and OTer>zea!ouB people of 
our ancestors have introduced these Coa^-days into Kliw»rizm, so that 
the first fell on the 21st of Shubil^, the second a week later, and the 
third two weeks after the second one. 

22. A cold north-eaflt wind begins blowing and the swallows appear 
(Euct«mon and Hipparcbus). 

23. Winds are Mowing and the swallows appear (Callippus, Philippufl, 
and the Egyptians) ; rain at the time of the appearance of the swallows, 10 
north-east wind during four days (Eudoxus, Conon, Callippus, and 
Philippus). 

24f. Cold north wind and west wind (Hipparcbus); north-east wind 
with other winds (Egyptians) ; days with changeable air (Bemocritos). 

25. Winterly air (CiBHar and Dositheus). 

26, 27, Nothing mentioned. 

28. Cold north wind (Hipparcbus). 

In this month fall the Days of the Old Woman, i.e. seven consecutiTC 
days beginning with the 26th ; if the year is a leap-year, four days fall 
into Shub&( and three into Adhftr; if it is a common year, three fall 
into ShubA^ and four into AdbAr. They arc called by the Arabs by 
6|>ecial names ; the Ist is called AUsiun, i.e. the severity of the cold, the 
2nd is called AUfinrutbr, i.e. a man who leaves things as ^anhara, i.e. as 
something that is coarse and thick. The Nun in this word is not radical^ 
the some as in ,_y*»i» bahnsS, the plural of ij'y^ halasiU. The third is their 
brother Al-ieahr, so called from the verb JIJ, i.e. he followed the trace of 
ihete dayt. The ith is called Aliimtr (commanding), h<^ca.use he eommatidt 
people to beware of liim. The 5th* is Al-mu'tamir, i.e. he has au impulse 
of doing barm to mankind. The 6th ia Al'mu^allil, i.e. he diverts people 
by some relief which he affords. 

The 7th is JHufJV -aljamr (the extinguisher of coals), the moat severe 
of them, when the coals used to be extinguished. It is also called 
MnkfV -alkidr (who turns the kettle upside down) in consequence of the 
cold wind of this day. Some poet has connected these names in a 
ver$ug memorialie tn this way : 

'* The winter is closed by seven dusty (days). 
Our Old Woman'* Vaya of the month ; 
When her days come to an end, 
Siritt, Sinnabr, and Wabr, 
Amir, and his brother Afu'tomtr, 
Mu'alltly and Mutji'-a^amr^ 

Then the cold retires, passing away with the end of the month, 
And a burning (wind) comes to thee from the beginning of the next 
month." 



SO 



40 



ON THE DATS OF THE OBEEE CALENDAR. 



245 



The 6th dav is also called Shaibtin, and the 7th Mil^dn. These daja 
are scarcely ever free from cold and winds, the ekj being dark and 
▼ariously coloured, MostW during these daya the cold is most vehement, 
because it is about to turn away (i.e. to cease). And hence the Lunar 
Station Alfarfa has got its name, because its setting occurs about this 
time. 

Kobody need be astonished at the fact that the cold towards its end. 
when it is about to cease, is the most severe and vehement. Quito the 
same is the case with the heat, as we shall mention hereafter. Similar 

10 observations you may make in quite coinmOD physical appearances. E.g. 
if the lamp is near the moment of extinction, because there is no more 
oil« it bums with an intense light, and flickers repeatedly, like iha 
quivering (of human limbs). Sick people furnish another example, 
specially those who perish by hectic fever or consumption, or the disease 
of the belly, or similar diseases. For they regain power when they are 
near death ; then those who are not familiar with these things gain new 
hope, whUst those who know them from experience despair. 

I have seen a treatise of Ya'kflb b. TshAk Alkindi on the cause of this 
appearance in these days (i.c. of the vehcmenco of the cold during them). 

20 His whole argument comes to this, that the sun then reaches the quadra- 
ture of his apogee, which is the place of all chanf^a, and that the sun's 
influence upon the atmosphere is greater than that of anything else. 
In that cafie it would be necessary that tliat change which the sun effects 
in its own sphere should be proportional to that one which it effects in 
the atmosphere, and that this effect should on an average continue as 
long OS the moon stands in that quarter (of her own course) in which the 
effect commenced, and in that quarter of the sun in which the effect took 
place. 
I have been told that 'Abdalblh b. 'Ali, the mathematician, in BukhArA, 

80 oo having become acquainted with this treatise of Alkiudi, transferred 
these days into the caleiular of his people in conformity with the amount 
of the progression of the apogee. Therefore they were billed the Dayi 
of the Old Woman of 'AbdaUdh. 

[Lacuna.] 

Regarding the reason why these days were called the Dayit of thr Old 
Woman, the ancients relate the following : Tliey are the days which God 
mentions in his Book (Siira Ixix. 7), '* awen niglttsand eigld dat/g, unlucky 
ones" and the people of 'Ad perished by their cold wind, their whirlwinds, 
and the other terrors which happened during them. Of all of them only 
^ one old woman remained, lamenting the fate of her nation. Her story 
is well known. Therefore these days are said to have been called the 
Dayt of the Old Woman. 

People say that the wind which destroyed them was a west wind, for 
the prophet says : " I hav^ been assisted by the east wind — viz. on the 



246 



ALBtfit^Nt. 



Taum-alkhandaif — and'Ad hai been destroyed by the west wind." A 
poet sajs: 

" The west wind bos destroyed the sandy tracts of 'Ad ; 
So they perished, thrown down like the trunkB of palm-treea." 

Further, people say that the u?ilw!ky dayi mentioned in the Coran (SAra 
xli. 15) coincide, each set of four of them, with a day of the mouth in 
the date of which there is a 4, i,e. the 4th, or the 14th, or the 24tb from 
beginning or end of the month. 
p.256. Some people maintain that the Days of ike Old Woman received their 

name from this, that an old woman, thinking that it wa« warm, threw 10 
off her Mifysha! (a sort of garment) and perished in the cold of these 
days. 

Some Ajubs maintain that the Daya of the Old Woman (AVajuz) were 
given this name because they are the 'Ajta, i.e. pars posiica, of the 
winter. 

"We find that the Arabs have names for the five Epagomenai' between 
AbAn-Milh and Adhar-MAh like those of the Days of the Old Woman. 
The 1st is called Hinnahr, the 2nd ^in«air, both words meaning the 
injury from cold ; the 3rd ia called Knliit-alfihr (i.e. turning the braying- 
stone upside down), viz. through the vehemence of the wind ; the 4th, 20 
fidUk-aliufr (i.e. cutting the nail), for they mean that the wind is so 
sharp as e.g. to cut the nail; the 5th is called Mudahrij-alla'r (whirling 
about the dung), viz. in the plains, so that the vehemence of the wind 
carries it to hanaan habitations. Somebody has brought them into a 
verse in this way : 

" The first of them is ffinnahr, an excessive day, 
After him cornea SinMabr, one who strikes with the fore-foot, 
Striking till he comes who exercises justice. 
And Kdlib-aifihr is justly called thus ; 

And ffdlik-aliufr who evidently cuts 30 

And splits the rocks by the cold. 
After them the last of them, the fifth, 
Mudahrij-aWa'r, the biting and licking one. 
There is no sixth name after it." 



Adhdr. 

1. Nothing mentioned by the Parapegmatists. People say that on 
this day the locusts and all creeping animals c<:>me forth, and that the heat 
of heaven and the heat of the rarth mM each other. This is a somewhat 
hyperbolioil expressioD for the beginning of the heat, its increase and 
spreading, and for the air's preparing itself for the reception of the 40 
heat. For the heat is nothing but the rays of the sun detached from 



OK THE DA7S OF THE QB£EK CALENDAR. 



247 



the bod^ of the sun towartls the earth or from the warm t>od,v which 
touches the inside of the Lunar sphere, which is called Fire. 

Regarding the rays of the sun many theories hare been brought for- 
ward. Some saj that thej are fiery particles similar to the essence of 
the sun, going out from his body. Others saj that the air is getting warm 
bj Ha being situated opposite to the sun, in the same waj as the air is 
getting warm by being opposite to the fire. This is the theory of those 
who maintain that the sun is a hot, fiery substance. 

Others, again, say that the air is getting warm by the rapid motion of 
10 the rays iu the air, which is so rapid as to seem tim^esg, i.e. without time 
{"teitloa "). This is the theory of those who maintain that the nature of 
the sun has nothing in common with the natures of the four elements. 

Further, there is a difference of opinion regarding the motion of the 
rays. Some say this motion is timeleaa, since the rays are not bodies. 
Others say this motion proceeds in very short time ; that, however, there 
is nothing more rapid in existence by which you might measure the 
degree of its rapidity. E.g. the motion of the sound in the air is not po 
fa«t as the motion of the rays ; therefore the former has been compared 
with the latter, and thereby its time (i.e. the degree of its rapidity) has 
20 been determined. 

As the reason of the heat which exists in the ruys of the sun, people 
Ewsign the acuteness of the angles of their reflexion. Tliis, however, is 
not the case. On the contrary, the heat exists in the rays (is inherent in 
them). 

Begarding the body that touches the inside of the sphere, i.e. the fire, 
people maintain that is a simple element like earth, water, and air, and 
that it is of a globular form. According to my opinion, the warmth of 
the air is the result of the friction and violent contact between the 
Bphere> moviug rapidly, and his body, and that its shape is like a body p.257. 
30 which you get by making a crescent-like figure revolve around its chord. 
This explanation is in conformity with the theory, viz. that none of the 
existing bodies is in its natural place, that all of them are where they 
ore only in consequence of some force being employed, and that force 
must of necessity have had a beginning. 

On this subject 1 have spoken in a more suitable place tluin this book 
is, specially in my correspondence with the youth 'Abii-'AJi All^usoin b. 
'Abdallah b. Sinii, eoDsisting of discussions on this subject. 

Both sorts of heat are brought to bear upon the earth iu an equal manner 
during the four seasons. The heat of the earth consists either of the 
40 Bolar rays that are reflected from its surface, or of the vapours that are 
produced — according to one theory — by the heat of the interior of the 
earth, or — ^according to another — by that heat which accidentally comes 
to the earth from outside, for the motion of the vapours in the air causes 
them to get warm. 

The heat of the fire (».«. the body touching the inside of the sphere) 



248 



ALBtR^. 



p^&8. 



remains always at the same distance (from ua, i.e, is always of the same 
degree), because the rotation of the celestial sphere proceeds alwaja at 
the same rate. And the reflected rays arc not to be referred to the earth 
{■Le. the earth is not to be considered as their source), and the Tapours 
reach only to a certain limit which they do not go beyond. 

The author of this theory, I think, must believe that within the earth 
heat is contained which proceeds from the interior to the outside, whilst 
the air has become warm through the rays of the sun. Thv« the two 
torts of heat meet eocA other. This, at all events, u a theory, if there is 
any ; one must accept it. 10 

2. Cold north wind (Hipparchua) ; south wind and taM of hail 
(Egyptians). 

8. Nothing mentioned. 

4. Cold north wind (£uctemon). Sinftn says that this is mostly true. 

b. Winterly air (Egyptians). Beginning of the XtXiBovUi (Csssar) : 
they blow during ten days. 

6. Troubled air (Egyptians). Beginning of the cold 6pvi6iai, which 
blow during nine days (Democritus), 

7. Nothing mentioned. Some people say that a change of the riolent 
wiods takes place. 20 

8. Episemasia and cold north wind (Euctemon, Fhilippus, and Metro- 
dorus) ; swallows and kites appear (Eudoxus). On the same day is the 
feast of the Small Lake of Alexandria. 

9. North wind (Euctemou and Metrodorus) ; violent south wind (Hip- 
parchus) ; light rain (Egyptians) ; the kites apjiear (Dositheus). 

10. Nothing mentioned. 

11. The ancients do not mention an apparent change on this day. 
Sinan says that there is frequently winterly air. 

12. Moderate north wind (Callippus). People say that on this day the 
traces of the winter disappear, and that phlebotomy is advisable. 30 

13. 'Opviffiat begin blowing; the kite appears (Euctemon and 
Riilippus). 

14. Cold north wind (Euctemon and Uipparchus) ; west or south wind 
(Egyptians) ; 6pv^uu begin blowing (Eudoxus). 

l.S. Cold north wind (Euctemon and Egyptians), 

16. North wind (Callippus). This Sinan confiLrms from hii ex- 
perieoce. 

17. Nothing mentioned. People uy that on this day it is agreeable 
to go out ou the sea. The snakes open their eyes, for during the cold 
season, as I have found them myself in Khwhrizm, they gather in the 4,q 
interior of the earth and roll themselves up one round the other so 
that the greatest part of them is visible, and they look like a ball. In 
this condition they remain during the winter until this time. 

On this day (the 17th) in a leap-year, and on the 18th in a common 
year, takes place the equinox, called the first equinox. It is the first day 



ON THI BATS OP THK OBEES CALENDAE. 



249 



o{ the Persian sprmg aad of the CKiuese aatunm. fts we have mentioned. 
This, however, is impossible, for spring aiid autumn or winter and 
summer cannot at one and the same time alternately exchange their - 
places except in countries uorth or south of the equator. And China, 
having only few degrees of latitude, does not lie south, but north of the 
equator, in the farthest end of the inhabited world towards the east. 

The country south of the Line is not known, for the equatorial part of 
the earth is too much burned to be inhabitable. Parts of the inhabited 
world do not reach nearer the eqnat4>r than to a distance of several dajs* 

10 journey. There the water of the sea is dense, because the sun so 
intensely vaporises the small particles of the water, that fishes and other 
animals keep away from it. Neither we nor any of those who care for 
those things have ever heard that any one has reached the Line or even 
[xassed the Line to the south. 

Some people have been beguiled by the expressions "JSquatifr Diei" 
and " Linea ^JguUatis" so as to think that there the air is eqtuU 
(moderate), just as day and night there are equal. So they have made 
the equator the basis of their fictions, describing it as a sort of paradise 
and as being inhabited by creatures like angels. 

20 As to the country beyond the Line, someone maiotaics that it is not 
inhabitable, because the sun, when reaching the perigee of his eccentric 
sphere, stands nearly in its utmost aouthern declination, and then bums 
all the countries over which he culminates, whilst all the countriea of 
66 degrees of southern latitude have the climate of the middle sone of 
the north. From that degree of latitude to the poh* the world is again 
inhabitable. But the author of this theory must not represent this as 
necessary, because excessive heat and cold arc not alone the causes which 
render a country uninhabitable, for they do not exist in the second 
quarter of the two northern quarters, and still that part of the world is 

30 not inhabited. So the matter is (and will be), because the apogee and 
perigee of the eccentric sphere, the sun's greater and less distance from 
the earth, are necessitated eiclusively by the difference in the sun's 
rotation. 

'Abu-Ja'far has designed a 6gure different from the eccentric sphere p^69 
and the epicycle, in which the sun's distance from the earth, notwilb- 
Btanding the difference of its rotation, is always identical. Thereby he 
gets two regions, a northern and a southern one, equal to each other in 
heat and cold. 

The day of the equinox, as calculated by the Hindfls according to their 

40 Canon, — of which they are impudent enough to pretend that it is eternal, 
without beginning and end, whilst all the other Canons are derived 
therefrom, — is their Nauroz, a great feast among them. In the first hour 
of the day they worship the sun and pray for happiness and bliss to the 
Spirits (of the deceased). In llic middle of the day they worship the 
■un again, and pray for the resurrection and the other world. At the 



250 



albIbM. 



p.260. 



end of the day they^ worship the sim again, aad prar for health and 
happiness for their bodies. On the same day they make presents to each 
other, consisting of precious objects and domestic animals. Thej maintain 
that t.hfi winds blowing on this day are spiritual beings of great use for 
mankind. And the people in heaven and hell look at each other 
affeotionately, and light and darkness are eqiial to each other. In the 
hour of the equinox they light fires in sacred plaoes. 

The omina of this day are the following, tIz. : to rise from sleep lying on 
the back, the tree Saiix ^Igyytia and to fumigate with its wood before 
speaking. For he who performs this will be free from all sorts of 10 
pain. 

People say that a man who has no children, on looking to the star 
AUSuhd in the night of this day and then having intercourse with his 
wife, will get children. 

Mubanuuad b. Mi^yAr maintains that in the hour when this day begins 
to decline, {i.e. after noon,) the shadow of everything is half its size. 
This, however, is only partially the case, not in general. It is true only 
for such places of which the latitude is about 27 degrees. 

Ou this day the crocodile in Egypt is thonght to be dangerous. The 
crocodile is said to be the water-lizard when it has grown up. It is an 20 
obnoxious animal peculiar to the Nile, as the theaking is peculiar to 
other rivers. People say that in the mountains of Fust^t there was a 
talisman made for that district. Around this talisman the crocodile 
could not do any harm. On the contrary, when it came within its limits, 
it turned round and lay on its back, so that the children could play with 
it. But on reaching the frontier of the district it got up again and 
carried all it could get bold of away to the water. But this talisman, 
they say, has been broken and lost its power. 

18. Winterly air and' cold winds (Democritus and the Egyptians). 

19. North wind (Hipparchus) ; winds, and cold in the morning 80 
(Egyptians). 

20. North wind (Ctesar). 

21. North wind (Eudoxus). 

22. Nothing mentioned. 

23. North wind (Caesar) ; rain (Hipparchus). 

24. Kain and mizzle (Callippus, Euctemon, and Fhilippus) ; Episcmasia 
(Hipparchus) ; thunder and Episemasia (Egyptians). Ou this day people 
like to purify the children by circumcision. The fecundating winds are 
said to blow. 

25. North wind (Eudoxus); Episenuisia (Meton, Conon, and the 40 
Egyptians). 

26. Rain and snow-storm (Callippus) ; wind (Egyptians). 

27. Rain (Callippus, Eudoxus, and Meton). 

Of the rest of the month nothing is mentioned. Sin&n says thftt 
the SOth frequently brings an Episemosia. God knows best ! 



ON THE DATS OF THE GSESK CALENDAB. 



251 



NUdn. 

1. Bain (Callippus, Euctemoo, Meton, and Meirodorui). 

2. Nothing mentioned. 

3. Wind (Eudoxos) ; ram (Egyptians and Conon). 

4. West wind or south wind ; hail falls. Sinin vaji that this ia 
frequently the case. 

5. South wind and changing winds (Hipparchus). 

6. Episemaeia (Hipparchus and Bositheus). This is confirmed by 
Siniln. 

10 7. Nothing mentioned. 

8. Bain (Eudoxus) ; south wind (Egyptians). 

9. Rain (Hipparchus) ; unmixed winds (Egyptians). 

10. Unmixed winds (Euctemon and Philippua) ; rain (Hipparchus and 
Egyptians). The raining is confirmed by the experience of Siniji. 

11. West wind and mizzle (Eudoxus). 

12. Nothing mentioned. 

13. Bain (Ctesar and Dositheus). 

14. South wind, rain, thunder, and mizzle (Egyptians). 3in&n says 
that this is frequently the cose. 

20 15. Rain and hail (Euctemon and Eudoxus) ; unmixed winds 
(Egyptians), 

16. West wind (Euctemon and Philippus) ; hail falling (Metrodorus) . 

17. West wind and rain (Eudoxus and Cffisar) ; hail falling (Conon 
and Egyptians). 

18. Winds and mizxle (Egyptians). 

19. Nothing mentioned. 

20. Wind, south wind or another one, the air unmixed (Ptolemy). 

21. Cktld eoatfa wind (Hipparchus). Sinan maintains that this is 
frequently the case. The water begins to increase. 

30 22, Bain (Eudoxus) ; winterly air (Csesar and Egyptians), People 
fear for the ships at sea. 

23. South wind and rain (Egyptians). People hold a fair at Dair- 
'Ayyiib. 'Abfl-Yahya b. Kunasa says that the Pleiades disappear imder 
the raye of the sun during 40 days, and this fair is held when the 
Pleiades appear. So the Syrians molcc them rise 15 days earlier than 
in reality they rise, because they are in a Lurry to settle their affairs. 
This fair lasts 7 days. Then they count 70 days until the fair of Bu9r£. 
Through these fiurs, that are^held alternately in certain places, the com- p.261. 
mercc of the people of these countries has been promoted and their 

40 wealth been Increased. They hare proved profitable to the people, to 
both buyers and sellers. 

24. FrequentJy hail falls (Callippus and Metrodorus) ; Episemasia 
(Demochtus) ; south wind, or a wind akin to it, and rain (Egyptians). 
The Euphrates begins to rise. 



252 



ALBtR^N}. 



p.262 



25. Mizzle and rain (Etidoius and Eprptians), 

26. Eoin and frequently hall (Callippus and Euctomon) ; Episemasia 
and west wind (Egyptians). 

27. Dew and moisture (Csesor) ; winds (Egyptians). 

28. Wind (Egyptians) ; raiu (Eudoxus). Siudn confirms tlie rain 
from his own obserrations. On this, they say, the south wind blows, 
and then the streams and rivers begin to rise. This increase of the 
water, however, does not apply to all streams and rivers uniformly ; on 
the coQtiary, they greatly differ from each other in this respect E.g. the 
OxuB has high wat«r when there is little wator in the Tigris, Euphrates, 10 
and other rivers. The fact is this, that those rivers the sources of which 
are situated in cold places, have more water in summer and less in winter. 
For the greatest part of the ordinary volume of their water is gathered 
from springs, and an increase and decrease of them exclusively depend 
upon the fall of dew in thosf mountains where the rivers originate or 
through which they flow ; thereupon the springs pour their volumes into 
the rivers. Now it is well Icnown that dew-fall is more frequent In winter 
and beginning of spring than at any other season. In the countries far 
up to the north, where the cold is intense, this dew>water freezes at those 
seasons. But when the air is getting warm and the snow melts, at that 20 
time the Oxus rises. 

As for the water of the Tigris and Euphrates, their sources are not so 
high up in the north. Therefore they have high water in winter and 
spring, because the dew that falls flows instantaneously into the rivers, 
and that portion of water that may have been frozen melts away in the 
beginning of spring. 

The Nile, again, has high water when there is low water in both Tigris 
and Euphrates, because its source lies in the Mone Luna, as has been 
said, beyond the Abyssinian city Assuan in the southern region, coming 
either exactly from the e^iuator or from countries south of the equator. 80 
This is, however, a matter of doubt, because the equatorial zone is not 
inhabited, as we have before mentioned. It is evident that in those 
regions there is no freezing of moist substances at all. If, therefore, the 
high wator of the Nile is caused by falling dew, it is evident that the 
dew does not stay where it has fallen, but that it directly flows off to 
the Nile. But if the high water is caused by the springs, these have the 
most abundant water in spring. Therefore the Nile has high wat«r in 
summer, for when the sun is near us and our zenith, it is far distant from 
the zenith of those places whence the Nile originates, and which in 
consequence have winter. 40 

As to the question why the springs have the most copious water in 
winter, we must observe : the all-wise and almighty Creator, in creating 
the mountains, destined th^m for various purposes and uses. Some of 
them have been mentioned by Th&bit b. Jjkurra in his book on the 
reason why the mountains were created. It is the same cause which 



OM THE DATS OP THB GRKKK CAtENDAB. 



253 



renders complete the intentioa (of the Creator) irhich he liad in making 
the sea-water Bait. 

Evidently more wet falls in winter than in summer, in the mountains 
more than in the plains. When, now, the wet falls and part of it flows 
away in the torrents, the remaining part sinks down into the channels in 
the mountain caves, and there it is stored up. Afterwards it begins to 
flow out throuph the holes, called springs. Therefore the springs have 
the most copious water in winter, because the substance by which they 
are nourished is then most copious. If, further, these mountain caves 

10 are dean and pure, the water fiows out just as it is, i.e. sweet. If that 
is not the case, the water acquires different qoalitics and pceuliartties, 
the caases of which arc not known to us. 

The bubbling of the fountains and the rising of the water to a certain 
height are to be explained in this way, that their reservoirs lie higher 
than they themselves, as is the case with artificial well-springs, for this 
Is the only reason why water rises upward. 

Many peojile who attribute to God's wisdom all they do aot know of 
physical sciences (i.e. who excuse their ignorance by saying '* Allah is 
aU'Wiee!"), have argued with me on this subject. In support of their 

20 view they relate that they have observed the water rise in rivers and 
other watercourses, that the water the more it flows away (from its 
source) the more it rises. This they assert in complete ignorance of 
the physical causes and l>ecau8e they do not sufficiently distinguish 
between the higher and lower situatious (of the springs of rivers and of 
the rivers themselves). The matter is this, that they observed water 
flowing in mountain streamlets, the bed of which was going downward ut 
the rate of 60-100 yards and more for the diatauee of one mile. If the 
peasants dig a channel somewhere in this terrain, and this channel is 
made to incline a little towards the country {i.e. if the channel is rising), 

30 at first the water flows only very little, until it rises to lui enormous 
height above the vrater of the river; (then it commences to flow 
strongly). 

If, now, a man who has no training in these things believes that the 
natural direction of the river is to flow in a horixontal line or with a 
small inclination (upwards), he must of necessity iitiagine that the river 
is rising in height. It is impossible to free their mind frL»m tliJs illusion 
unless they acquaint themselves with the instruments by which pieces of 
soil are weighed and determined, and by which rivers are dug and 
excavated — for if they weigh the earth through which the water flows, 

40 the reverse of what they believe becomes evident to them ; — or unless 
they study physical sciences, and learn that the water moves towards the 
centre of the earth and to any place which is nearest to the centre. 
There is no doubt that the water may rise to any place where you want 
to have it, even if it were to the tops of the mountains, if previously it 
descends to a place which is lower than its maximum of ascent (which it 



254 



ALBtB^Kt. 



altimatcly reaches), and if you keep away from it any substance 
which might oci:upy the place instead of the water when it Ends the 
place empty. Now, the water in its natural function is only assisted by 
the co-operation of something forcible which act« like an instrument, and 
that is the air. This has frequently been carried out in canals, in the 
midst of which there were mountains which it was impossible to 
perforate, 

An illustration of this principle ia the instrument called Water'thief, 
ukalnSpa. For if you fill it with water and put both its ends into two 
p.263. vessels, in both of which the water reaches to the same level, then the 10 
water in the kAc^u^ stands still eren for a long time, not flowing off 
into either of the two vessels. For the one vessel is not nearer (to the 
water) than the other, and it is impo8sil>le that the water should flow off 
equally into both vessels, for in that case the instrument would get 
empty. Now, emptiness is either a nort'ena, as most philosophers 
suppose, or it is an »u which attracts bodies, as others believe. If, now, 
the vacuum cannot exist, the matter is impossible, or if it is something 
which attracts bodies, it keeps back the water and does not let it flow off, 
except its place be occupied by some other body. But if you then place 
the one end of the xXal^vSpa a little lower (than the other), the water 20 
flows immediately off mlo that direction. For if its place has once 
become lower, it has come nearer to the centre of the earth, and so it 
flows towards it, flowing continually in consequence of the adhesion and 
connection of the water-atoms amongst each other. It flows so long 
until the water of that vessel, whence the water is drawn, is finished, or 
until the level of the water in the vessel where it flows is equal to the 
level of the water in the vessel whence it is drawn. So the question 
returns to ita original condition. On this principle people have proceeded 
in the mountains. 

Sometimes even the water rises in artificial fountains out of wells, in 30 
case they have got springing water. For one sort of well. water, which is 
gathered from droppings from the aides, does not rise at all ; it is 
taken from neighbouring masses of water, and the level of the water 
which is gathered in this way is parallel to the level of those waters by 
which it is nourished. On the other hand there is one kind of water 
which bubbles (springs) already at the bottom. Of this water people 
hope that it may rise to the earth and flow ou over it^ surface. This 
hitter kind of water is mostly found in countri<;« nrar to mountAius, 
in the midst of which there are no lakes or rivers with deep water. 
If the source of sucb wat4^r is a reservoir much above the level of the 40 
earth, the wutor rises springing, if it Is confined (to a narrow bed or 
channel) ; but if its reservoir be lower, the water does nut succeed in 
rising to the earth. Frequently tlje reservoir is higher by thousands of 
yards in the mountains; in that case the water may rise up to the 
castles, and, e^g., to the tops of the minarets. 



ON THE DATS OF TH£ OBEEK CALENDAR. 



255 



I have "been told tliat poople in Taman often dig until thej come to a 
certain rock under which they know that there is water. Then they 
knock upon this rock, and by the sound of the knocking they ascertain 
the quantity of the water. Then they 1>oro a small hole and eianiine it ; 
if it is all right, they let the water bubble out and flow where it likes. 
But if they hare some fear about the hole, they hasten to stop it up 
with gypsum and quicklime and to close it over repeatedly. For 
frequently they fear that from such a hole a spring similar to the 
Toimnt of Al'arim might originate. 
10 As to the water on the top of the mountain between Abrashahr and 
T^. ft smaU lake of one fareang in circumference, called Sabzardd, one 
of the following three things must be the case : 

1. Either its material is derived from a reservoir much higher than 
the lake itself, although it may be far distant, and the water flows into 
it in snch a quantity as corresponds to that which the sun absorbs and 
vaporises. Therefore the water of the lake remains in the same 
condition, quietly standing. 

2. Or its material is derived from a reservoir which lies on the same 
level with the lake, and therefore the water of the lake does not rise 

20 above that of the reservoir. 

3. Or, lastly, the condition of its sources in some way resembles that 

of the water of the instrument called Ai-dahj, and the telf-feeditig lamp. p.2d4. 
The case is this : You t^e a watcr<jug, or an oil-vase -, in several 
places of the edge or lip of the vase you make fine splits, and you bore s 
narrow hole in it deeper than the mouth by so much as you wish the 
water to remain in the jug and the oil in the vase (ue. the hole is to 
represent the line to which i>eople wish the water or oil to rise). 
Thereupon you turn the jug upside down in the cup and the vase in the 
lamp. Then both water and oil flow out through the splits, until they 

30 reach the level of the hole. When, then, so much has been consumed as 
the hole allows to [jass, then comes forth that which lies next to the 
hole. In this way both oil and water keep the same level. 

Similar to this little lake is a sweet-water well in the district of 
the Etmak in a mountain calk'd Mankur. as lari,'e as a grout shield. The 
mrface of its water is alwavB on a level with ita margin. Frequently a 
whole army drinks out of this well, and still it does not decrease as much 
as the breadth of a finger. Close t.o this well there are the traces of the 
foot, two hands with the fingers, and two knees of a man who had been 
worshipping there; also the traces of the foot of a child, and of the hoofs 

40 of an ass. The Ohuzzi Turks worship those traces when they see them. 
Moreover, similar to this is a small lake in the mountains of BAmiynn, 
one mile square^ on the top of the mountain. The water of the village 
which lies on the slope of the moiuitain comes down from that lake 
through a small hole in such a quantity as they require ; but they are 
not able to make it flow more copiously. 



256 



ALBtBCyJ. 



p.265. 



Frequently the flpringing (risiag of water) occurs also in a plain 
country which geta its water from a reservoir in a high situation. If 
the riaing power of the water were kept down by an ohetacle, and then 
this obstacle ia remoTcd, the water begins at once to spring (rise). 
E.g. AljaihAoj has mentioned a Tillage between Bukhara and Alkarya 
Ai^aditha, where there is a hill that was perforated by diggers for hidden 
treaeurcB. Suddenly they hit up<m water which they were unable to 
keep back, and it has Iteen flowing erer sinne till this day. 

If you are inclined to wonder, you may well wonder at a place called 
FUawIn (Failaw&n) in the neighbourhood of Almihrjan. Tliis place is 10 
like a portico dug out in the muimtaiu, from the roof of which water is 
always dropping. If the air gets cold, the water freezes and hangs 
down in long icicles. I bare heard the])eoplcof Almihrjiui maintain that 
they frequently knock the place with pjekaxes, and that in conserjuence 
the spot which they knock becomes dry ; but the water never increased, 
whilst reason would demand that it should always remain in the same 
condition if it does not increase. 

More wonderful even than this is what Aljaihiini relates in his 
Kitah-Almamdlik uxtC-maaiiUk of the two columns in the grand mosque 
of ^airawiVn, the material of which people do not know. People main- 20 
tain that on every Friday before sunrise they drop water. It ia curious 
that this should take place just on a Friday. If it occurred on any 
week-day in general, it would be combined with the moon's reaching 
such and such a place of the sun's orbit, or with the like of it This, 
however, is not admisuible, since Friday is a conditio sine qud non of this 
occurrence. The Greek king is said to have sent to buy them. He 
Bfttd : *' It is better for the Muslims to utilize their prize than to have 
two stones in the mosque." But the people of ItCairawAn refused, saying: 
" We shall not let them pass out of the bouse of God into that of the 
devil." 30 

Still more marvellous than this is the self-moving column in Al]Faira- 
wAn. For it inclines towards one side. People put something under* 
neath when it inclines, and this yon can no longer take away if the 
column again stands erect ; if glaaa ia put underneath, you hear the 
sound of breaking and crushing. This is no doubt a got-up piece of 
artifice, as also the place where the column stands seems to indicate. 

We return to our subject, and say : 

29. Winterly air (Ciesar) ; winds, or moisture of the ground, and rain 
(Egyptians). 

80. Episemosia (Egyptians) ; winds and dew, moisture and mizzle 4iO 
(Callippus and Euctemon). 

A yifdr. 

1. Mizzle (Egyptians). 

2. Notbing mentioned. 

3. Wmd, mizzle, dew, moisture, and thunder (Egyptians). 



as THK DATS OP THB QBEEK CALENDAE. 



257 



4. "BiaXi (Eudoxus), mizzle (Egyptians). 

5. Bain (Dosithr^us). SinnQ savs that this is frequently the case and 
that it l)ringa a strong episemasia. 

6. Wind (Egyptians), rain(EudoiH8), mizzle and episomaaia. (Lacuna.) 
Some people extend the rainy season as for an this day. ft is the 

time when the sun passes the (first) 20 degrees of Leo. In this re8[>ect 
the matter stands as wo bare czphiincd it at the beginning of the rainy 
season, when the sun moves in Cancer. 

7. Winds (Egyptians). Sin&n says that this is frequently the case, 
10 more particularly so if on the preceding day heaven has a rainy 

appearance. 

8. Q^ushes of rain (Eudoxns and IX>aithcu8), raiu (Egyptians). 

9. Bain (Egyptians). 

10. Episemasia and wind (Callippus and Euctemon), rain (Egyp- 
tians). 

11. Episemasia (Dositheua). Siniiu says that it is true. 

12. EptBeniasia (Eudoxus, iletrodoniu, and Hipparchus) ; raiu 
(Ctesar) ; west-wind (Egyptians). People say that on this and the 
following day there is no fear of frost doing barra to the fruits. This 

20 remark can, howcTer, only apply to one iiarticular 2>Iace ; it cannot be 
meant in general. 

13. Rain (Eudoxus) ; north wind and hail (Egyptians). 

14. Episemasia (Callippus, Etictemon, and Egyptians). 
U. Rain (Caesar). 

16. Episemasia (Csesar), People aay that on this day the first 
Samiim is blowiDg. 

17. South wind or east wind and rain (Hipparchus and Egyptians). 

18. Episemasia (Eudoius) ; rain and tbxinder (Egyptians). 

19. Episemasia and miz'/le (Hip[karchus and Egyptians). 
SO 20. Nothing mentioned. 

21. Episemasia (Cwsar); south wind (Bosithcus), west wind (Egyp- 
tians). 

22, 23. Nothing mentioned. 

24. Episemasia (Callippus, Euctemon, and Philippus) ; winds (Egyp- P-266. 
tiatis). 

25. Episemasia (Euctemon, Philippus, and Hii>parchus). 

26. Episemasia (Callippus and Euctemon) ; cold north wind (Egyp- 
tians). 

27. Dew and moisture (Callippus and Euctemon) ; episemasia 
40 (Egyptians). 

28. Bain (Metrodonis and Egyptians). 

29. South wind or west wind (Hipparchus). 

30. South wind (Cffisar). 

31. Nothing mentioned. 

17 



258 



ALBtB^xt 



^Mirdn, 



p.367. 



1. Dqw and moisture (Eudoxiu and DoBitheux) ; west wind 
(EBjrptians). 

2. West wind (Egrptians). 

3. Wind and mizzle (Egyptians), and thunder. 

4. Bain (Csraar). 

5. Mizzle (Egyptians). Confirmed by SinAn. 

6. 7, 8. Nothing mentioned. 

9. West wind and thunder (Egyptians). 

10. 11, 12. Nothing mentioned. The 11th is theN&urdzof the Khalif, 10 
when people in Baghdad splnsb in the water, strew about dust, and play 
other games, as is woU known. 

12. SinAn saya that frequently a change of the weather takes place. 

13. West wind and mizzle (Egyptians). 
1^ Nothing mentioned. 

15. Mizsle (Egyptians). 

16. Nothing mentioned. People say that on this day the water sinks 
into the earth, whilst the Nile begins to rise. The reason of this is, as 
WR have mentioned before, the difFerence of their sources and of other 
circumstances, those of the Nile standing in direct opposition to those of 20 
all other rirerB. 

On this day in a leap-year, and on the 17th in a common year, the 
PlenUudo Maxima takes place, which is celebrated by Arabs and 
Pencians. They call it }Hrin, which means the 8un'e gdtitig fuU^ i.e. the 
8ummer<8ol8tice. On this day tight subdues darkness. The light of the 
sun is falling into the wells, as Muhammad b. Mj(ynr mentions ; but this 
is only possible in ^rountries the latitude of which is like the greatest 
declination, over which, therefore, the sun culminates. 

The Hat/aufdniyya -Hect maintains that on this day the sun takes 
breath in the midst of heaven ; that, therefoie, the spirits recognise each 80 
other in the greatest heat. It is considered as a good omen to look into 
the intense heat- People eat pomegranates before having eaten anything 
elso. and Hippocrates is said to have taught that ho who eat« a pome- 
granate on this day before having eaten anything else, enlightens his 
conBtitntion and his x^^*^ ^ puxe during forty mornings. 

People rehite, on the authority of Hanna the Hindii, that Kisra F&rwtz 
has said : " Sleeping in the shadow of,a |»omegranate cures a man of bad 
diaease and makes bini safe from the demons." 

It belongs to the omina of this day to rise in the morning from sleep 
on the left sidt-, and to fumigate with saffron Viofore speaking. 40 

17. Episcmaaia (Bositheus) ; heat (Egyptians). 

18. West wind and heat (Egyptians). 

19. Rain (Egyptians). 



ON THE DAYS OP THE OREEK OALENDAIt. 



259 



20. West wind, raia, and thundur(£g}'ptiau8). 

21. Nothing mentioned 

22. Episemosia. (Democritus). 

23. South wind or west wind (Hipparchtis). 

24. Nothing mentioned. People say that on this daj the Samiinii 
begin blowing daring fifty*one days. The Ozus riAes and frequently 
injures the shores and their inhabitants. 

25. West wind and heat (Egyptians). 

26. West wind (I>emocritu8 and EgyptiajQs). 
10 27. Nothing mentioned. 

28. Episemnsia (Eudoxus) ; west wind and south wind and rain. 
(Democritus) ; then the north wind Ivegins to blow during seven days. 

29. Nothing mentioned. People 8*y that pra^lii-al observers examine 
on this day the dew ; if it is copions, the Nile risea ; if it is not copious, 
the Nile does out rise, and they get a Iwirren year. 

30. Winds (Egyptians) and unmixed air. 
SI. Nothing mentioned. 

ZVimmiU. 

I, 2. Nothing mentioned by our authorities. 

SO 3. South wind and ht^at (Cseaar and Egyptians). 

4. Wind (Egyptians) \ frequently it rains in their country. 
£. South wind (Caltippus, Metrodorus^ and Hipparchue) ; west wind 
and thunder (Egyptians). 

6. South wind (Callippus and Metrudorus) ; weal wind and thunder 
(Egyptians). 

7. Episemasia (PtolemyJ. According to Sinan the weR.ther frequently 
changes. 

8. Dew and moisture, according to Meton, in his country. 

9. Dew (Euctfmon and Fhilippus); west-by-west wind (Egyptians). 
80 10. Bad air (Egyptians). On this day they begin to hold the fair of 

Biifrii during 25 tlays ; in the time of the Bauik-'Umayya this fair used 
to last 'dO-40 days. 

II. Nothing mentioned- 

12. West wind (Metrodorus) ; winds (EgyX'tians). 

13. Unmixed winds (^pparchus). Aci-ording to Siuan the weather 
frequently changes. 

14. Heavy wind (Ciesar) ; the north wind begins to blow (Hipparchus) ; 
heat (Egyptians). 

15. Nothing mentioned. 

40 16. Frequently it rains in rainy countries (Ptolemy); rain and whirl- p.268. 
winds (Democritua) ; heavy wind (Egyptians). 

17. Dew and heat (Dositheus and Egyptians). 

18. The Etesian winds (irrjfrtaA) l)egin to blow (Hipparchus). Ac- 
cording to the general consent of seamen and peasants, and all those who 

I? • 



260 



ALBtR^Nt. 



haTO experience in this subject, thie is the first day of the dog-ilay«, {,«. 
Beveo consecutive dajs, the last of which is the 24th of this mouth. On 
each of these days they driiw conclusions from certain changes of thd 
weather regarding the months of the autumn and winter and part of 
spring; these changes mostly occur in the evening and morning. 
Peiiple niaiutaiti that these days are to the year what the erUical days 
arc to acutu diseases, when their criteria appear, in cansi>quence of 
which f»eople conceive either hope or fear as to the end in which they 
will jsnue. Both words bdhUr and buhrdn in the Greek and Syriao 
la&gnagCB are derived from a word which means the decision of the 10 
rulers (v. Kpia-t^ and Kpunfitt^ ^ffit/M). According to another Tiew, hvhnin 
is derived from hahr (the Arabic fur nm), hecause the critical state of a 
nok person resembles the motion of the sea, called ebb and flow. This 
derivation is very likely correct, because of both appearances the motions 
of the moon, her cycles and phases, are the cause, whether the moon 
revolves in a Qtvat Circle^ as it is in the case of the (low, for the flow sets 
in when the moon reaches the western and eastern point of the horizon. 
The same is the case with the ebb, fur it sets in when the moon reaches 
tlje sphere of the meridian of noon and midniglit. Or whether it be 
that the moon revolves from one certain point of her cycle hock to Ibe 20 
same, or from the buii to that p<)int. So the flow is the strongest in the 
first half of the lunar month, the weakest in the second half. Besides, 
also, the sun has an influence upon this. It is curious what people relate 
of the Weatem Sea, viz. that there is flow from tho side of Andalusia 
always at aimset, that then the sea decreases at the rate of about &-6 
farsang in one hour and then it ebbs. And this appearance takes 
place always precistdy at this time. 

If on the evening of the 18th there is a cloud on the horizon, people 
expect cold and rain at tho beginning of Tishrtn I. If the same is tho 
case at midnight, the cold and rain will como in the middle of Tishrin I. ; 80 
and if it is the case towards morning, the same will come in the end of 
that month. Tho matter is the same, if you observe a cloud on the 
horizon during daytiinei however, the changes of tho sky in the night are 
more evident. And if you observe those changes on all four aides of the 
compasst the same, too, will occur in Tishrin I. Uercin the nights 
are oounted after the days, as we have meutioued in the beginning 
of this book, in consequence of which those who count the nights before 
the days think that the night of the ISth is the I9th ; therefore they 
consider the 19th as the first of the dog-days and the 25th at the last of 
them. 40 

The Ist of these seven days serves to prognosticate the character of 
Tishrin I., the 2nd that of Tishrin 11., the 3rd that of Kunfln L, etc etc,, 
and lastly, the 7th, that of Nisun. 

Practical observers prescribe the following : Take a plate some time 
before the dog-days, sow upon it all sorts of seeds and plants, and let it 



ON THB DATS OF THB OBEBK CALENDAR. 



261 



■land until the 25tb aight of Tammuz, i.e. the last night of the dog- p,269. 
days ; then put the plate soinewbore outside at the time when the etara 
rise and set, and expose il uucorered to the open air. All scedii, then, 
that will grow in the year will be yellow in the morning, aud all whose 
growth will not prosper will remain green. Thia experiment the 
Egyptians used to make. 

Practical obserrerB hare produced many contrirancos for the purpose 
of prognosticating the character of the year by help of these (the dog) 
days ; they have even gone as far as to use incantations and charms. So 

10 some people maintain that if you take the leaves of twelve different olive- 
trees, and write upon each leaf the name of some Syrian month, if vou 
then put them, in the night we have mentioned, somewhere in a wet place, 
yon will find that, if a leaf has dried up in this night, the month which 
was written upon it will be rainless. 

According to others, you learn whether the year will have much rain 
or little, by this method ; You look out for a level place, around which 
there is nothing that might keep off the dew, wind, and light rain; then 
you take two yards of a cotton dress, you weigh it and keep in mind its 
weight. Then you spread it over that jilaoe and leave it there during 

20 the first four hours of the night. Thnreupon you weigh it a second time ; 
then each MUhkdl which it weighs more the second time than the first 
time signifies one rainy day in that month which stands in relation with 
this particular dog-day of wliich we have heretofore spoken. 

These dog-days are the time of the rising of Sinus {KaUt-aljahbdr or 
AUhi'Ta Atifamiiniya Al'abrlr). Hippoerates, in bis book of the seaaons, 
forbids taking hot drugs and bleeding twenty days before and after the 
rising of this sta.r, Ix-ca\i8e it is the hottest time of summer aud the 
beat reaches its maximum, and because summer time by itself warms, 
dissolvee, and takes away all moist substancefl. However, Uipj>ocrate8 

SO does not forbid those things if you take hut very little of them. After- 
wards, when autumn comes with its cold and dryness, you cannot be sure 
whether the natural warmth may not be entirely extinguished. 

Some people who Itave no practice in physical sciences and no knowledge 
of the /MTcufia, think that the iotluence we have mentioned must be 
attributed to the body of this star, to its rising and revolution. They 
go even as far as to makt* people imagine that the air is warmed by its 
great man ; that, therefore, it is necessary to indicate and to exjtlain its 
proper place and tu determine the time of its rising. The same opinion 
ia indicated by the verse of 'AbA-Nu'^s : 



40 



" tlfil has gone and the hot night-wind passed away, 
And Sirius has extinguished his fire." 



For this reason *Ali b. 'AU, tlie Christian secretary, maintains that the 
first of the dog-days is the 22nd of Tammuz, suggesting that the dog- 



262 



ALBtsCNt. 



days have changed their place along nith the star it«elf, whilst I mamtain 
that Sinus always revolves during the whole year in one and the same 
orbit parallel to the equator. Hippocrates, however, meant by this time 
the central portion of the summer, the period when the heat is greatest 
"^.^70. in consequence of the sun's being near to our zenith, whilst he at the 
same time begins in his eccentric sphere to descend from the apogee of 
bis orbit. And this event wa« in the time of Hippocrates contemporaneous 
with the rising of Sirius. Therefore he has only said in general ai the 
time ichm Striuv rtsfs, knowing that no 8cienti6c man could miaunder- 
stand the truth. For if Sirius changed its place so as to advance 10 
even as far as the beginning of Capricorn or Aries, the time during 
which ho forbids taking drugs would not therefore advance in the 
same way. 

Sinon says in his KiMb-aramnff that the shepherds have seven 
special days of their own, beginning with the Ist of Tanunftz, which 
they use like the dog-days, drawing from them conclusions regarding the 
•ingle vrinter months. They are known as " tJte dog-days o/ the ah^herds." 
The weather of these days is always different from that of the time 
immediat«ly preceding and following. During all or at least some of 
them heaven is never free from a speck of clouds. ^ 

19. West wind or heat (Egyptians). The ^eaierdoge are getting strong 
and do much damage. 

20. West wind or a similar one (Egyptians). Practical observers say 
that on this day frequent ca«es of inflammation of the eyes occur, 

21. The Etesian winds are blowing TEtictemon); the heat begins 
(Callippus, Euctemon. and Metrodorus). 

22. BaA air (Euctemon) ; beginning of the beat (Hipparchus) ; west 
wind and heat (Egyptians). 

23. Winterly air on sea, winds (Philippus and Metrodonis) ; beginning 
of thy blowing of the Et^'sian winds (Egyptians), On this day *Abfl- 80 
Ja'far Almauf&r began to build Baghd&d, that part which is called 
Afanf ur'c-foum, on the western side of the Tigris in the present BaghdAd. 
This was A. Alexandri. 1074. Astrologers are obliged to know dates 
like this, and must dat« from such an epoch by means of their knowledge 
of the PcrmuiaHonea, TermintUione*^ CyeUs, and DirecHones, until they find 
the horoscopes of those people who were bom at those times. It was 
Naubalcht who determined the time (for the commencement of building). 
The constellation which heaven showed at the time, and the stations of 
the planets which appeared on heaven, were such as arr indicated in 
the following figure. 



ON THB PATS OF THE GBEBK CALENDAR. 



»>*. 

A 



Caprieorrtus 



Scorpio 



Caput />raami r 

^ 25. ^ 



i. 



-A 



t/upiter* 



Mows Z. so 



19.10 



San/ 






Tatu>UM 



Grmani 



Canoer^ 



I 



p.271 



24. Winds (Philippus and Metrodorus) ; the Etesian vinds blow 
(Hipparchus). 

25. South wind (EudoxuH and Csesar) ; west or aoutb wind (Egyptians). 
Sexual intorcnnrse and all exertion aro forbidden, because it is the tlrao 
of the greateet beat. The river Oxus l>egina to rise. 

26. South wind and beat (PhilippuB, Sleton, Metrodorus, Democritus, 
and Hipparchns). 

27. Dew and wet, and oppreesire air (Euctemon and Dositheus). This 
oppreaaive air moatlv occurs when heaven is covered and the air ia in 

10 perfect repoae. But often, too, thia is peculiar to a place where thia 
cause does not exist, e.g. to the region beyond that bridge which, 
according to AljaihAni, was in old times built by the Chinese, reaching 
from the top of one mountain to that of another on the road that leads 
from Khotan to the region of the reaidenc** of thc^ KhA^nn. For those 
who paaa thia bridge comn into an air which niakea breathing difficult 
and the tongue heavy, in conscfjuence of which many travellers pcnah 
there, whilst others are saved. The Tibetans call it the ^* poUon- 
motintain'* 

28. Nothing mentioned. 

20 29. Beginning of the Etesian winds (Dositheus) ; heat (Egyptians). 
They hold the fair of Bu^rA for a whole month, and that of Salamiyya 
for two weeks. 

30. The Eteeian winds blow (Eudoxus) ; west wind and heat 
(Egyptians). 

31. South wind (Ceesar). 

1. He&t (Hipparchus). 

2. Nothing mentioned. 
8. Dew [alts (Endoxas and Dositheus) ; episemasia (Cceaar). 

'80 4. Great heat (Eudoxus). 

6. Heat, still and oppresaive air, then blowing of winds (Dositheus 



p.272. 



ALfitsfiKt. 



p.273. 



and Egyptians). They bold a fair at 'Adhri'nt during fifteen days, also 
in Al'urditiin, and in several districts of Palestine. 
6, 7. Not-hing mentioned. 

8. The air is still and oppressive (Callippus) ; wind> and intense heat 
(Egyptians). According to SinAu, frequently there occurs a change of 
the air. 

9. Heat and still air (Euctemon and Cesar) ; south wind and turbid 
air (Egyptians). 

10. Hnat and still air (Euduxus, Metrodorus, and Dositheus); * 
episfmaaia (Deniocritus). At this time the heat is very intense. 10 

11. The northerly vinds cease to blow (CatHppus, Euctomon, and 
Fhilippus) ; btsLvy wind (Eudorufl) ; different winds blow together 
(Hipparchua) ; thunder (Egyptians). According to Sinan there is 
always a change of the weather uu this day. He says : I do not know 
whether we, I and all those who make meteorological observations, are 
conect in describing a day like this. On this day there is almost always 
a change of the weatht^r for the better. It is the first day when the air 
of Al^rak begins to be agreeable. Sometimes this change is most 
evident, whilst at other times it is only slightly perceptible. But that the 
day should be free from such a change, almost never occurs. 20 

Some of the ancients consider this day as the beginning of the 
autumnal air, whilst others take as such the following day. 

Sin&n says : Thnbit used to say : If in a rare year that which we have 
described does not take place on this day, it is not likely to take place 
on the I3th or 14th, but rather in the middle of Ab. If it takes place 
on the Ilth. a season of agreeable air is sure to return about the middle 
of the month, though it may only be short. 

12. Heat (Euctemon and Egyptians). 

13. Episemasia and still air (Csesar). Sinan says that on this day an 
trregalar change of the air frequently occurs. SO 

14. 15. Nothing mentioned. 

16. Episomasia (Coesar). 

17. Episemasia (Eudoxus). 

18. Nothing mentioned. The Samums are said to cease. 

19. Episemasia, rain, and wind (Domocritus) ; west wind (Egyptians). 

20. Episemasia (Dositheus) ; heat and density in the air (Egyptians). 

21. Nothing mentioned. 

22. West wind and thunder (Kudoxus) ; episemasia and bad air (Csesar 
mad Egyi'tiana). 

23. West wind (Egyptians). 40 

24. Episemasia (Eudoxus and Metrodorus). The heat relaxes a little 
at tlie time when the sun passes the first 6 degrees of Virgo. 

25. Episemasia (Kudoxus) ', south wind (Hipparchus) ; heat (Egyp- 
tians). 

26. Botating winds (Hipparchus). Between this day and the first of 



ON TUE DATS OF THE OSE£K CALENDAB. 



the Dayt of the Old Woman (i.e. 26 Sbub&t) lies one half of a complete 
jear. On this day the heat, at the time vhen it is abotit to diHappcar, 
returns once more with renewed force, aa does also the cold at the time 
when it is about to disappear. It is a time of seven days, the last of 
which is the Ist of tliU, called bj the Arabs Wak<lat-Suhail {i.e. the 
burning of Suhail). It is the time of the winds that accompanr the 
rising of Aljahka (Ftom Leonis, the 10th Lunar Station), but as Suhail 
rises in its neighbourhood, it haa become the prevailing use to call the 
time hy Suhail and not by Alj<tbha, The heat of these days is more 
10 intense than at any time before or afterwards. But after this time the 
nights begin to be agreeable. This is an occurrence ^uerally known 
among people, which scarcely ever fails. Mo^^ammad b. 'Abd-alnmlik 
AlzayyAt says : 

" The water had become cold and the night long, 
And the wine was found to be sweet ; 
Haziran had left you, and l^ammuz and Ab." 

27. Episemasia (Philippna). 

28. West wind (Egyptians). 

29. Bain and thunder ; the Etesian winds are about to ceaae (Eudoxui 
20 luid !ffipparchua). 

30. Episemasia (Hipparchns). 

31. The Etesian windu are about to cease (Ftolemmus) ; changing 
winds (Eudorus) ; winds, rain, and thunder (Osesar) ; east wind 
(Hipparchua). 



80 



40 



M. 



A 



1. Episemasia and the Etesian winds are getting quiet (Callippns). 
fair is held at Manbtj (Mabbug). 

2. Density in the air (Ketrodorus). Conon says that on this day the 
Etesian winds caase. 

3. Wind, thunder, and density in the air (Eudoxus) ; wet and dew 
(Hipparchua) ; fog, heat, rain, and thunder (Egyptians). On this day 
people begin to light their firca in cold countries. 

4. Dense and changing air (Callippus, Eucteraon, Philippus, and 
Hetrodorus) ; rain, thunder, and clianging wind (Eudoxus). 

6. Changing winds and rain, and the Etesian winds are getting quiet 
(CfBsar) ; rains and winterly air at sea, and south wind (Egyptians). On 
this day midsummer ends, and a time comes which is good for bleeding p.274. 
and fur taking drugs during forty days. 

6. West wind (Egyptians). 

7. Density in the air (Philippus) ; episemasia (Dositheus). 

8. Weat wind and episemasia (Egyptians). 

9. Nothing mentioned. 

10. The air is not troubled (mixed) (Doiith«us). 



266 



ALBtEONt. 



11. The north winds arc ceasing (Ciesar). 

12. South wind (Eudoxus). 

13. Episemasia (CalUppuB and Conon), 

14. Tho north winds are ceasing (Eudoxus) j episemasia (Democritof 
and Metrodoros). After this time no swallow is seen. 

15. Wet and dew (Dositheus) ; rains and episemasia (Egyptians). 

16. Density in the air, and rain at sea (Hipparchus). 

On the 16th in a common year and on the 17th in a leap-yeajr occurs 
the second eqoinox, which is the first day of the Persian autuiun and 
the Chinese spring:, as people maintain. But we have already explained 10 
that this IB iiiipossihle. 

The winds, now, blowing on this day are said to be of a psychical 
nature. To look towards the clouds that rise on this day emaciates the 
body and affects the soul with disease. I think tho reason of this is 
that people conceive fear on account of the cold and the disappearance 
of the agreeable time of the year. 

It is one of the omina of this day to lise from sleep in a worshipping 
attitude, and to fumigate with tamarisks before speaking. 

People say that if a woman who is sterile looks ou this day at the star 
AUuJui and theu has intercourse with her husband, she is sore to 20 
conceive. 

Further, they say, that in the night of this day the waters are getting 
sweet. We hiive already heretofore shown the impossibility of such a 
thing. 

This second equinox is, according to the Canon StTidAind, a great 
festiral with the Hindtis, like the Mihrjiin with the Persians. People 
make each other presents of all sorts of valuable objects and of precious 
stones. They assemble in their temples and places of worship until 
noon. Then they go out to their pleasure-grounds, and there they 
assemble in parties, showing their devotion to the (Deity of) Time and 30 
humbling themselves before Ood Almighty, 

17. Hain at sea and density in the air (Metrodorus). 

18. West, then cast wind (Egyptians). 

19. Wet and dew (Eudoxus) ^ west wind, mizzle, and rain (Egyptians). 
On this day the water returns from the upper parts of the trees to the 
roots. 

20. 21. (Missing.) 

22. Nothing mentioned. 

23. Bain (Eudoxuti) ; west wind or south wind (Hipparchus). 

24. Nothing mentioned. On this day the fair of Thu'&liba is held. 40 
Practioil obst-rvers say that people mark on this day what wutd is con- 
stantly blowing until night or until the time when the sun begins to 
decline ; for this will be the most constant of all the winds of the 
year. This day they called tho T^rntn^ of the mnd9. The white-and- 
black crows appear on this day in most countries. 



ON THE BATS OF THE QBEEK OALENDAB. 267 

25. EpiBemuia (Hipparchos and Endoxna) ; west wind or south wind p.275. 
(Egyptians). 

26, 27, 28. (Missing.) 

29. Episemasia (Euctemon and Eudoxns) ; west wind or south wind 
(Hipparchus). 

30. Nothing mentioned by the ancients, either about the air or anything 
else. 

This, now, is the calendar used by the Greeks, to which we have added 
all that SinAn has mentioned in his KUah-ctTantDd. This is the concise 
10 summary of his book. We hare not kept back anything which we have 
learned regarding the days of the calendar. We quote them by the 
names of the Syrians (i.e. as the Ist of Tishnn, E^&n, etc.) only, because 
they are generally known among people, and because this serves the same 
purpose (as if we were to call them by the Greek names). 

Next we shall speak of the memorable days in the months of the 
Jews, if Gk>d Almighty permits ! 



268 



albTrOnI. 



CHAPTER XJV. 



or THE FB8TITALS AXD FAffT-DATB IN THE BtOHTaS OT THX JIWB. 



ArrxR having explained the method how to leam the beginning of the 
year of the Jews, and its charucler, — after haTing solved this problem bj 
the help both of computation and tablAn, — afUT baring shown the 
arrangement of the months according to their beginnings and to the 
nunilxT of their days, — we hold ib now to be necessary to explain their 
festivals and memorable dajs. For getting acquainted witb them we 
shall at the same time leam the reason why they, even Kew- Year's Day 
itself, are not allowed to fall on certain daya of the week. We begin 10 
with the first month, i.e. 

It has 30 days and only one Mosh'flddegh. Aa we have explained 
before, the 1st Tishri cannot fall on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday 
"ITH. When, according to calculation, it ought to fall on one of thew 
days, it is disregarded, and Now- Year's Day is either the following day, 
if it is a Die* licUa, or the preceding day, in case the following one is not 
a Die* licita according to the conditions that have l»ecn laid down in the 
TtUntia Terminorwn in the first part of tbis book. This proceeding of 
theirs they call TH- Tbe Ist is the feast of New- Year, when they blow 20 
the trumpets and trombones, which ore rams-horns. All work ceas(» on 
this day as <in Sabbath. On this day, they maintain, Abraham offered 
his son Isaac, but then Isaac was ransfimod by means of a ram. 
According to Jews and Christians, the person offered was Isaac, whilst 
there is a passage in the Coran in the SAra Wfil-fdffdt (SiVra xxxvii. 99- 
113), showing that it was Ishnuel. And, according to tradition, the 
Prophet is reported to bare said : " I am the son of the two sacrificed 
ones," meaning 'Abdalluh b. Almut^alib and lahmael However, the 
discussion of this question is a subject of great extent. Qod knows 
best ! 30 



ESTTVAtS AND FABT8 OP THE J1 



269 



3. Futing^ of Oedalyft b. *Al>tlfAm, the goremor of Nebucadnezar 
OTer Jerusalem. Ou tliis daj he waa killed, together with eighty-two p.276. 
people, in a cistom in which the water collwted until it rose above their 
heada. In conaequence the Israelites were striukca with sorrow, and have 
ever siDce fasted on the day of his death. 

5. Fasting of 'Aktbhd. People wanted to compel him to worship the 
idol; he, however, did not submit. So they put him into a cage where 
he died of hanger, surrounded by twenty fellow prisoners. 

7. Fasting tif punishment. Its origin is this, that David, on having 
to ooonted the Israelites, rejoiced in their number, and people themselves 
were puffed up on account of their great number, so as to go astray. 
Therefore Gk>d became angry with them, and sent the prophet Nathan to 
David and the assembly of the tribes t-o threaten them with the sword, 
with famine, and sudden death. His threattining was fulfilled. So they 
were strickeo with fright, and have ever since fasted on this day. 

On the same day the Israelites killed each other on account of the 
worship of the calf. They say that it was Aaron who made the calf, aud 
so it is related in the Thnra. 

The Jew Ya^lf^iib b. MfisA Alnikrisi (i.e. the physician) told me in 
20 Jurjan the following : Moses wanted to leave Egypt together with the 
Israeliti^a, but Joseph the prophet had ordered that tiey should 
take his coffin along with them. As he, however, was buried in the 
bottom of the Nile and the water 6owed over him, Moses could not get 
him away. Now, Moses took a piece of a paf>pr and ctit it into the 
figure of a fish ; over thin he recited some sentvuce, breathed upon it, 
wrote something ujxm it, and threw it into the Nile. Waiting for the 
result he stayed there, following the course of the river, but nothing 
appeared. So Mosee took another piece of paper aud cut it into the 
figure of a calf, wrote upon it, recited over it, hrcrathod upon it, but then, 
30 when he was just about to throw it into the water, as he hod done the 
fiiHt time, the coffin appeared. So be threw away the figure of the calf which 
he just held in his hand, but it was taken up by one of tlio bystanders. 

Afterwards, when Moses disappeared on the mountain to speak with 
the Lord, and when the Israelites became anxious at his staying there so 
long, they pressed Aaron and demanded of him that he should give them 
a viceregent instead of Moses. Aaron, no doubt, did not know what to 
do ; so he said : " Bring me all the precious omamont« of your women." 
So he spoke in order to gain time, knowing that the women would not be 
in a hurry to part with their ornaments. Possibly Moses might return 
40 before that. But it happened that the women gave iip their omamenta 
most speedily. They fetched Aaron and ^i; melted the omamentii aud 
poured them into a mould ; but the result was nothing but broken 
pieces of ingots. The same work he repeated in a hnrry, hoping for the 
return of Mosea aud for news of him. Now he happened to have with 
himself the figure of that calf (which Mosea had cut out of paper). So 



270 



ALBtaCNt. 



he aaid to himself: **Bj the figure of the fish onoe n wonderfnl miracle 
haa been wrought. Npw, let mo see what the fi^gure of the calf will 
produce ! " He took the figure and threw it into the molten gold ; when 
then the liquid moss- was poured into a mould, it was formed into a calf 
which roared. Thereby the people were at that time seduced from the 
true belief without Aaron's having intended it. 
p.277. 10. Fasting of Kippnr, also called AU'dihiir'i. This fast-day it 
obligatory, whilst all other ones are Toluotary. fifi/rHr^fasting begins 
half an hour before sunset of the 9th and lasts until half an hour after 
sunset uf the 10th during 25 hours. In this way, too, all the voluntary 10 
fast-days are held. Therefore it is impossible that two of their fast. 
days should immediately follow each other, because one hour would 
belong to both uf them in common, aud because there would be no 
possibility of breaking the fast between them. Ya'Vub. however, main* 
tains that this is a pfculiarity only of this fast-day, whilst in the case 
of all the other fast-days it ii* allowed to fast in the same way (i.e. the 
■ame length of time) that the Muslims do. 

On this day God addressed Moses the son of Amram. The fasting of 
this day is an atonement for uU sins that are committed by mistake. 
The Jewish law orders everybody to be killed who does not fast on this 20 
day. They recite five prayers on this davt prostrating themselves upon 
the earth, which is not the custom on the other festivals. 

15. The /cast of Tabernacks, lasting seven consecutive days, during 
which they rest under the shadow of willows and reeds and other branches 
on the roofs of their houses. This is obligatory only for him who dwells 
at h^me, not for the traveller. On these days all work ceases, as God 
says in the third book of the Thora (Levit. iiiii. 34-43) ; " And on the 
fifteenth of the seventh month is the feast of Tabernacles. Then you 
shall not work during seven days. You shall celebrate a feast before God 
and you shall sit in the tents, the whole house of Isnu;!, (luring seven 30 
days, that your (future) generations should know that it was I who 
made the Israelites dwell in tabernacles, when I led them out of Egypt." 
This feast is celebrated by the whole Jewish nation, whilst 'Ab&-*lsa 
AlwarrAk says in his Kiidb-aimafcdiai of the Samaritans that they do not 
celebrate it. 

The last or seventh day of the feast of Tabernacles, the 21«t of the 
month, is called 'Arabhd. On this day the clouds stood over the heads 
of the Israelites in the desert Altlh. 

On the same day is the fea^t of the Congregation, when the Jews 
assembl*^ in Hdrhard of Jerusalem, carrying around in procession the ^f 
Ark of the Covenant, which in their synagogues is like the pulpit 
{Uinhar) in a mosque. 

22. The feast of Benediction, by which this feast'time is completed. 
All work ceases. They maintain that on this day the communication of 
the Thora was finished, and that the Thora was handed over to their 



PBSTIVALS AKD PASTS OF THE JEWS. 



271 



chiefs to bo deposited in their sjnaf^o^es. On this day they take the 
Thora out of ita ahrizie, they bleas themselves by it, and try to derive 
angtines from anfoldiDg and reading it. 



Marheahwan. 

It hu always tvo Soth-ffod^sk, and it has 30 days in a Perfect year 
and 29 days in an Intenncdiate year or in an Imperfect one. On these 
two Bosh-Hodesli there is no ieaat. 

6. Feutiny of Zedekia. Its origin is this, that Nebukadnezar killed the 

children of Zedekio, whilst he stood before them, patient and enduring, 

10 not weeping nor manifesting any sign of despair. Tbtn both his eyes 

were put out. Therefore the Israelites were stricken with sorrow, and 

have ever since fasted on this day. 

Bifferin;; herefrom, other people fix this fast-daj on the Monday falling 
between the 8th and the 13th of this month. This, however, is not like 
a method suitable ^Jewish ways; it is rather like Christian theories. 
The generality of Jews fix their fast-days on certain dates in the months, 
not on week-dars. 



p.278. 



It has only one Rosh-Hodesh in a Perfect year. It has 80 days in a 
20 Perfect and Intermediate year ; 29 in an Imperfect year. 

8. A fast-day. Its origin is this, that Tohoyakim burned the papers, 
called mi^p »■«• the Lameniafioru, They contained a promise of God, and 
were brought by the prophet Jcreraia. They treated of the condition of 
the Isnu^lites in future times and of the calamities that would befall them. 
Jcremia sent the book through Barukh b. Neriyya, but Yehoyakim 
threw it into the fire, and the^^fo^! there aroHe manifold lamentations. 

Other people fix this fasting on the Thursday falling between the 19th 
and the 25th of this month. 

25. Beginning of the feast ffanukkdj i.e. piiriJUafion. It lasts eight jkutc«:A# fbs^^tMX 
80 days, during which they light lamps at the door of the hall ; on the first ^ y^j /./ii .r 3 
night one lamp for each inhabitant of the house, on the second night " - V* 'jli 
two lamps, in the third three, etc. etc., and finally eight lamps on the (r'^ 0^ v^\**^''' 
eighth niffht, by which they mean to express that they incrcoae their {g'^ ?4i 
thanks towards Go<l from day today by the j9url)£ca<io» and sauctification 
of Jerusalem. The origin is this : Antiochns. the king of the Greeks, 
had subdued and maltreated them during a long period. It was his 
custom to violate the women, l>efore they were led to their spouses, in a 
subterranean vault. Prom this vault two tvirds led outside, where two 
bells were fixed at their ends. When, now, he wanted a woman, he rung 
40 the right bell, and the woman entered; when he hud done with her, he,y. ?»./,. i^fr. a 
rung the left bell and dismissed her. Further, there was an Israelite/ l i . •/ ^'. 
who bad eight sons, and one daughter whom another Israelite had ("^ *^" -■ f^ 
demanded in marriage, Kow, wanting to marrj her, the father of his?^/^ '^Iw.J -^U^i 






272 



lIBtRONf. 



bride said: " Give me time; for I stand hptwe^en two things. Tf we 
lead my daughter to jou, she will ho dishonoured by the cursed tjrant, 
and she then is no longer a lawful wife for you. And if she does not 
Bubtnit to him, he will make me perish." For this state of things he 
blamed and reviled his sons, who became (p-eatly excited and angry. 
But the youngest of them jumj>ed up, dressed like a woman, hid a 
dagger in his parmenta, and went to the gate of the king, behaving like 
the whores. Now, the tyrant raag the ri^t bell, and he was ushered 
into his presence ; there, being alone with him, he killed him and cut off 
his head ; then he rang the left bell and was let out, and stuck up the 
head (somewhere). Therefore the Israelites celebrate a feast on that and 
the following days {i.e. seven days), corresponding to the number of the 
brothers uf this youth. Qod knows best ! 



10 



p.279. Tebeth. 

It has one Bosh-Hodesfa in an Imperfect year, two in a Perfect and 
Intermediate year. It has 29 days. 

6. Fir§t appearance of darkness. Ptolemy, the king of the Greeks, 
had asked them for the Them, compelled them to translate it into Qreek, 
and deposited it in his treasury. They maintuin that this is Ihe version 
of the Seventy. In consequence darkness spread over the world during 
three days and nights. 

8. A &st-day, the laat of the three Dark days, so called for the reason 
just mentioned. 

9. A fo«t-day which they are ordered to keep, tbe origin of whicb they 
are ignorant of. 

10. A fa«t-day, the day on which Nebukadnezar arrived before 
Jerusalem and laid siege to it. 

It has only one Bosh-Hodcsh and 30 days. 

5. A fast-day on account of the death of the saints in the time of 
JToBua b. Nftn. Other people fix this fast-day on the Monday between 
the 10th and 15tb of this month. 

23. Fasting of the Rebellion. Its origin is this: The tribe of Benjamin 
wore a godless and lawless set of people, who behaved like the people of 
Lot. Now, there came a man who wanted to pass through their coimtry 
with bis wife and maid-senrant, making his pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 
Some countryman of his received him in his house; but scarcely bad 
darkness fallen when the people of the place surrounded the door of hit 
house, demanding his guest for their lust. Now, the master of the 
bouse offered to tbem his own daughter ; but they said : '* We do not 
want her." Tlien he gave up to Uiera the servant-girt of bis guest, and 
then they raped her the whole night. The girl expired towards dawn. 
Then her master cat her into pieces (12) according to the number of the 



20 



80 



40 



FESTIVAX8 AVD FASTS OP THB JEWS. 



tribes of Israel ; and to each tribe he sent one of her limbs, in order to 
rouse their wrath. Now, they assembled and made war upon that tribe, 
but they could not conquer theui. Thereupon they fasted on this day 
and humiliated thcmaclTes before God. Finally He gave them victory 
orer Benjamin ; forty thousand men of this tribe were killed and seventy 
thousand of the others. 

It is the leap-month in the leap-year. It does not exist in common 
years, and is not counted among their months. It has two Boah-Hodeeb 
10 and 30 days. There is not &st or feast day in this month, 

Adhar U. 

This is the original Adhar, which is railed so in general (without the 
addition of L or H.) in common years. There cannot be any ambiguity 
about what wejust mentioned, speaking of another Adhar preceding this 
one (because this only relates to leap-years). It has two Rosh-Hodesh 
and 29 days. 

7. A fast-day, because on this day Moses b. Amram died, and because 
with bis death the manna and the quails ceased to appear. 

9. A fast-day which the Israelites established for themselves at the 
20 time when the war between the i>eople of ShauimHi and of Hillel took 
place, in whi^h twenty-eiglit thousand men wore killed. 

Others fix this fa«t-day on the Monday between the 10th and 15th of 
this month. 

13. Thefaaiing of Alhtlrx (Pftrim), i.e. casting lots. Its origin is this : 
Once a man called Haman, a man of no importiince, travelled to Tustar 
in order to undertake some office. But on the way thither he mot with an ^ ^*^ t . 
obstacle which prevented him from reaching the end of his journey, and \»> ^A^ tCu "* *^^ 
this happened on the identical day on which the offices (in Tustar) were 'i/^tj^ A^fl^ 
bestowed. So he missed this opportunity and fell into utter distress. > » .^ // " 
Now, he took his seat near the temples and demanded for every dead ,. \ , !./' 



p.280. 






80 



body (that was to be bnripd) 3| dirhams. This went 



every 
on until 



40 



daughter of King Ahashworosh died. ^Vlien people came with \i^vi>'^/i '^^ J*' 2. ^ 
body, he demanded something from the bearers, and on being refused he jj ■- t. ^. gj<?*'j 
did not allow them to pass, until they yielded and wore willing to ^b.J ^ , m 
him what he asked for. But then he was not content with bis first ^** t M- 
demand ; he asked for more and more, and they paid hira more and 
more, till at hvst it reached an enormous sum. The king was informed 
of the matter, and he ordered them to grant him his desire. But after a 
week he ordered him into his presence, and asked him : " Who invested 
you with such an office P " But Haman simply answered this : *' And 
who forbade me to do so?" Wben the king rejwated his question, 
Hainan said : " If I am now forbidden to do so, I shall cease and give it 
np, and I shall give you with the greatest pleasure so and so many ten 

18 






274 



sIrCsI. 



p.281. 



thousands of den&rs." The king was astonished at the great sum of 
mone^y which he meQiioned, betiaase he with all Lis supreme power had 
nothiug like it. So ho said : " A man who gathered so much money from 
the rale orcr the dead, is worthy to be made wazir and oouDcillor." So 
he entrusted him with all his affairs, and ordered his subjects to obey 
him. 

This Hamau was an enemyof the Jews. He asked the Hanuptceg and 
Attgurea which wati the moat unlucky time for the Jews. They said : "In 
Adh&r their master Musa died, and the most unlucky time of this month 
is the 14th and 15th." Now Haman wrote to all parts of the empire, 10 
ordering people on that day to seize upon the Jews and to kill them. 
The Jews of the empire prostrated themselves before him, and appeared 
before him, crossing their hands upon their breasts, except one man, 
Mordekbai, the brother of Ester, the kiug's wife. Hamau hated her, and 
planned her destruction on that day ; bat the king's wife understood 
him. Now she received (in her palace) the king and his wazir, enter- 
taining them during three days. On the fourth day she asked the king 
permission to lay 1>ofore him her wishes. And then she asked him to 
spare her life and that of her brother. The king said : " And who dares 
to attempt anything against you both ? " She pointed to Uaman. Now 20 
the king rose from his seat in great wrath ; Haman dashed towards the 
queen, prostrating himself before her, and then kissing her head, but she 
pushed him back. Now the king got the impression that he wanted to 
■educe her; so he turned towards him and said : " Hast thou in thy im- 
pudence come so far as to raise thy desire to her? " So the king ordered 
him to be killed, and Ester asked him to have him crucified on the same 
tree which he had prepared for her brother. So the king did, and wrote 
to all parts of the empire to kill the ftartisans of Haman. So they were 
killed on the same day on which be had intended to kill tlie Jews, i.c. on 
the 14th. Therefore there is great joy over the death of TTji-Tn aTi on go 
this day. 

This feast is also called the Fvasi of Megilin, and further H(jmdn*84r. 
For on this day they make figures which they beat iuid then bum, 
imitating the bumiug of Haman. The same they practise on the 15th. 

Nisan. 

It has only one Bosh-Hodesh and 30 days. 

1. Fasting over the death of Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, 
who died because they introduced foreign fire into the temple of Qutl. 

10. Fasting over the death of Moryam, the daughter of Amram, and 
OTer the sinking and disapi'caringof the water, a miracle which occurred 4^ 
onaccount of her deatb.as the manna and the quails ceased to appear in 
consequence of the death of Aloses b. Amram. Some people fix this day 
un Monday between the 5th and tbo ItN-h of the month. 

15. PawMver- feast, of which wo have already treated at such length 



FESTIVALS AND PASTS OF THE JEWS. 



275 



that there is no necessitj for a repetition. This day 'ia the first of the 
Day» of Unleavened Breid, during which they are not allowed to eat 
leaveoed bread. For such is the command of God in the third book of the 
Tliora (Lovit. xxiii. 6), where He savB : " On the fifteenth of thia month is 
the feast of the unlearened bread unto God. Then joii shall eat un- 
leavened bread during seven days, and you shall not work during them." 
These days end with sunset of the 'ilst. On this day God drowned 
Pharao ; it is also called i.rJUl\. 

^. 

10 It baa two Bosh-Hddesh and 29 days. 

10. Fagtiiuf over the Ark. It is the day when the Israelites were 
deprived of the ark, and when thirty men of them were killed. The 
priest Eli thpn managed their affairs. His gall-bhuldcr split, and he 
fell dead from his seat, when he heard the news. Others fix this fasting 
on the Thursday between the 6th and llthof the month. 

28. Fasting, because on thia day the prophet Samuel died. 



It has only one Bosh-Hodesh and 30 dayi. 

6. The Feast of the CongregaUonf a great festival, and one of the 
20 D'^^n of the IsraelittiH. On thia day their elders were jireseut at 
MuiiuL Sinai, where they heard the voice of Ood from the mountain 
speaking to Moses, ordering and forbidding, promising and threatening. 
They were ordered to celebrate a feost on this day as a thiuiksgiving to 
God for having preserved them from all mishap in their country, and 
their crops from thunder, cold, and rain. God says in the second book of 
the Thora : "And you shall make a pilgrimage tome thrice in every 
year: first, at the time of the unleavened bread; secondly > when the Thora 
was sent down, this is the pilgrimage of iha FfMst uf Olc ConyrGgalicn ; 
and the third time, at the end of the year, when you bring in your fruit 
30 from the fields. Your feasting and your devotion to God shall be in. 
eacred houses." 

On this day they offer the first-fruits. Then they read prayers over 
them and invoke the blessing of Ood upon them. 

Between the first of the Days of the Unltavemd Bread and the Feaet of 
the C<mgrf.gat\on there are fifty days. These are the celebrated weeks 
during which they received their commandments, when their law was 
completed, and tliey were taught all knowledge relating to God. 

Fasting on the Monday between the 9th and 14th. 

23. Fasting. They say that on this diy Jerobeam b. Ncbat ordered the 
40 ten tribes to worship two golden calves, and that th»?y obeyed him. His 
cbildroo ruled over thorn about two hundred and fifty years, until Salmus 

18 • 



p.282. 



276 



ALfltU^t. 



Al'a'Bhar, the king of Kobu], conquered thorn and led them into cap- 
tivity. Then they were muted with the other tribes in the time of 
Hizkia. 

Yepobeam b. Neba^ was one of the slaves of Solomon, the eon of 
David ; he floJ from his master, and the Israelites made him their king. 
Then he kept them from making pilgrimages to Jerusalem bj tho worship 
of thf!8R two calves, knowing that if tboy went to Jerusalem thej would 
come to consider why tbey hod made him their king ; thejr would learn 
the reality of his case, and would depose and kill him. 

25. Fasting over tho death of Simeon, Samuel, and Hauanya. 

27. Fasting, for this reason : one of the Greek kings wanted to force 
RabbS, Hananya b. TeradhyAn to worship the idol ; he, however, did not 
yield. Therefore the king ordered a Thora to be wrapped round him, 
and him to be burned in it. Besides he put in prison Babba 'AkibA, and 
forbade people to follow bim, and be strove to abolish the Sabbath. 



10 



Xammuz. 

It has two Rosh-Hadesh and 29 days. It has no feast. 

17. Fasting, for on this day Moses broke the tables, and the fortificft* 
tions of Jerusalem began to be dcKtroycd at the time when Nebukadnezar 
besieged them. Further, on this day they put up an idol for worship in 
Jerusalem, and placed it in the altar-place of the temple, from sheer in- 
solence and rebellion against God. On this day the Thora was burned, 
and the sacrifices ceased to be practised. 



20 



It has only one Rosh-Hodesh and .30 days. 

1. Fasting, l>ecauHe on thin day An-ron b. Aniram died, and the cloud 
WM raised as a miracle in his honour. 

9, Fasting, because on this day they were told in the desert that they 
should not enter Jemaalem, and were sorry in consequence. On this day 
Jerusalem wa-i eonquervd and unterud by Nebukadnezar, who destroved 
it by fire. On this day it wa« destroyed the second time, and its soil 
ploughed over. 

25. Fasting, because the fire was extinguished in the temple. On this 
day Nebuka<lno7,ar left Jerusalem, and the conflagration of its storehouses 
and temples was put an end to. 

28. Fasting, because the lamp of the temple was extinguished in the 
days of the prophet Ahas, which was a sign of Gkid's wrath against 
them. 



30 



It has two Rosh-I^odesh and 29 days, but no fe&at. 



40 



FBSTITALS AXD FASTS OP THK JEWS, 



277 



7. Feutintf of the Spies. Oa tKis d&j the spies returned to Moses, and 
brought him Ibt? report of the giantfl. Therefore the Israelitoa were 
Borry, hut Josua b. Nun refuted them. For this reason the fiist-dav was 
cstahlishcd. Other Jews, however, phKv this fast-day on the Moudav or 
Thui-adaj which falU within the lost seven daya before the beginmng 
of the next year. 

(On the nvm of the Jewish Calendar.)— Tlie reason why they 

did not allow that — 



p.288. 



10 The first of TisUri should ever be ITN (I. IV. VI. days of the week), 

Kippiir be ^^^ (I- HI. VI.), 

Purim or Haman SOr n2 0-^ IV^- Vn.), 

RiafloTer 'n^ (D. IV. VI.), 

*A9er«th TTO (IH. V. Vn.), 



was this, that they wanted to prevent a day for any wort falling on a 
Sabbath ; for in that case they would not have been able to celebrate it, 
flinoo they are not allowed to work on a 3abl«ath. For Gud says iu the 
second book (Exod. xxxv. 2) : " He who works on a Sabbath shall be killed." 
Asid in the fourth book (Num. xv. 32-36) it is related that they found a 

20 man of the Israelites in the desert working on a Sabbath and gathering 
wood. Ho was brought before Moses and Aaron, and they put him in 
prison. But God said to Moses, " Kill him," and so he was atoned to 
death. 

A second reason (why they did not allow the feasts to fall on the days 
mentioned) was this, that they wished to prevent a Sabbath and annther 
day ou which all work ceases following each other. 

Aa for Sunday, ^, they did not allow it to be New-Tear's Day, because 
Gk)d says in the third book (Levit. xxiii. 24-25) ; *' On the Jirtt dny of the 
$evenih month you shall have rest, and a memorial of blowing of trumpets. 

SO Then you shall not work on that day, but you shall offer sacrifices." If, 
■ now, this day follows a Sabbath, the Jew gets two conaeoutive days of 
rest ; the means of his maintenance are getting scanty, and he is brought 
to a condition in which it is difficult for him to make good the deficiency. 
In this case. *Ardhhit falls on a Sabbath, and almsgiving, and the other 
works prescribed for tliis day, could not be carried out. For the same 
reason Kippnr could not fall on a Tuesday, nor the preceding Passover 
on a Friday, nor the preceding 'Aseretk on a Sabbath, because if this 
were the case the Ist of Tishri would fall on a Sunday. 
The reason why they do not allow New-Tear's Day to be a Wednesday 

40 {if), ia that God says in the third t-ook (Levit. xxiii. 27-32) : "On the 
tenth day of theseventh month shall be remission. On this day you shall 
not do the least work from the evening of the ninth of the month till the 
(next) evening." Therefore all work is suspended on Kippur (the 10th, 



iLBtBfhct. 



in this cose a Friday), and the following Sabbath ia likewise a da^ of 
rest. So KippAr cannot fall on a Friday, nnr the preceding PaAftovcr on 
a Monday, nor the preceding ^Asereth on a Tuesday. 

The reason why they do not allow New-Year*a Day to Call on u Friday 
(l) is this, that Friday is followed by Sahhath, and because in that c&M 
KippAr would fall on n Sun<lay, following upon a Sabbath, and the Feast 
of Benediction would fall on a Friday preceding a Sabbath, an order of 
days which In forbidden by the law. For the same reason KippAr cannot 
fall on a Sunday, nor the preceding Passover on a Wednesday, nor the 
preceding 'Aeereth on a Thursday, because all this would necessitate 10 
p.284. New- Year's Day being a Friday, and thence would result those con- 
eequencea which we have mentioned. 

Therefore people endeavoured to construct the calendar in such a way 
as to prevent two days of rest following each other, and 'Artibhi^ falling 
on a Sabbath, because ou this day they must give alms and must mak« 
a pilgrimage around the pulpit, which they call 'Ar6n, ]p">Mi or Kilu-ddh. 
Further, they had to prevent Fiirim falling on a Sabbath, which would 
keep them from burning Hamau and uttering their joy thereat. And 
lastly, they had to prevent ^Agerelh falling on a Sabbath, Iwcause in that 
case they could not bring their seeds and their first-fruits, and other 20 
things that are prescribed for this day. 

'Abfl-'TsiL Alwarri'ik spf^kn in liis KiUih-Almakdhtl of a Jewish sect 
called the Maghribis, who maintain that the feasts are not legal unleu 
the moou rises in Palestine aa a full moon in the niijhi of Wednesday, 
which follows after the day nf Tuesday, at the time of sunset. Such 
is their New. Year's Day. From this point the days and months 
are counted, aud here t>egias the roUitiou of the aunual festivals. For 
Qod created the two great lights on a Wednesday. Likewise they do not 
allow Passover to fall on any other day except on Wednesday. And the 
obligations and rit+'s i>rescribt>d for Passover they do not hold to be 30 
necessary, except for those who dwell in the country of the Israelites. 
All this stands in opposition to the custom of the majority of the Jews, 
and to the prescriptions of the Thora. 

The Auanites fix the )>eginniug of tlie months by the obaervation of the 
appearance of new moon, and settle intercalation by that sort of prognos> 
tiration which wh luive mentioned. They do not mind on what days of 
the week the feasts fall, except as regards Sabbath. For in this case 
they postpone the feasts to the following Sunday. This |>OBti>onement 
they call M*rn- On a Sabbath they do not touch any work whataoevcr; 
even the circumcision of the childreo they postpone till the following ifi 
day, in opposition to the practice of the Hubbauites. 

With the suspension of work on a Sabljath certain curious aifairs are 
connected. In tlie first instanec God says in theCoron (Sihu vii. 163); 
" Then their fishes appearing on the surface of the water come to them 
on the day when they celebrate Sabbath i but un a day ou which thay 



PBSTTVALS AND FA8TS OP THE JKW8. 



279 



do not celobmtc Sabbath the fishee do not come to them." Further, 
Aljaihani relat^n in his Lih/'r R&fHorum fit Viarttm., that eastward of 
Tiberiao lies the eitj of Baliniis (Aiwllonias':'), where tho Jordan ha» its 
source. There the river drires milhi, that stand »till on a Sabbath aud 
do not work, bocause the water disapjiieara beneath the earth until the 
end of Sabbath. For this occurrence I am unable to find a phyaiL-al ei- 
plauatton, because its repetition and' revolntion is ba^edupon the davsof 
the week. Annual occurrences are accounted for by the sun and his rays, 
monthly occurrences by the moon and her light, a» e.g. the altar in Greet^e 

10 which of itself burned the sacrifices on one certain day of the year^ under 
the influence of the reflected solar rays which were couccutratcd on a 
certain spot of the altar, etc. 

'AbOi-'tsA Alwarrak relat^ea in his JrjV'£&-^i»miAi»7'i( that a Jewish sect, 
the AlfAniyya {MilletuD'H), rejtjct the whole of the Jewish feasts, aud p.285. 
maintain that they cannot be learned except through a prophet, aud that 
they keep no other feast-day but Sabbath. 

The following table, the Tahula Arijum^niatlonia,J\\\i8tTa.tca what we 
have stated before ref^arding the feasts, and shows that New- Year's Day 
cannot fall on the days mentioned, i.e. the days of the sun, of Mercury 

20 D-nd TenuB. The red ink indicates a Diet iUtcita, the black ink a Diet 
lieUa. If, now, the traiiBversal line of numbers which correspond to the 
feasts mentioned at the tops of the single columns is black from bei;in- 
ning to end, all these numbers signify Die« licit*e ; if, however, some of 
those numbers, or all of them, are wrritten in rt*d iuk, these eome or all of 
them are Dies illiciUn. Op[>o8)te the numbers we have placed a special 
column for the terms " Nccff^ary" " PotsibU,'* and " ImjtosnilAe." The 
terras necesMary and impoaihU do not need an explanntioD. The term 
jtoaaible means that if New- Year's Day falls on a Die« licilu, but some of 
the numbers indicatinn; the single feast-days in the transversal Uue are 

SO written in red iuk, those days are Dies Ulicike in common years, whilst 
they are Dieg lieitee in a leap-year of the same quality, and vice verad. 
This table shows clearly why some of the (three) kinds of Jewish years 
can follow each other, whilst others cannot, as we have mentioned before. 
For if Rosh-hashshAna of a year following; after a year of a certain 
quality (3 or Cj) is such as could not be the beginning of a year of 
another quality, theae two kinds may follow eat'h other; in any other 
case they cannot follow each other. From this rule, however, we must 
except the Imperfect years (n). because the fact that two years 
n cannot follow each other rest* on another ground ; hereof we have 

40 already spoken in the preceding part. 



282 



ALStRfiNt. 



CHAPTER XV. 

p.d88. OH TH« PSSTITJLLS AKD UEKORA.BLE DATS OP THE BTBIAS CAXESDAA, 
OELSBBATSD BT THE MKLKITB CRBISTIANft. 



The Christians are divided into various sects. The first of them are 
the MeUut^s (BoyaJiete), i.e. the Greeks, so called because the Greek king 
is of their persuasion. In Greece there is do other Ohristiau sect beside 
theui. 

The seeond sect are the Neetoriazis, so called after Nestorius, who 
brought forward tboir doctrine between A. Alex. 720 and 780. 

The third sect are the Jacobites. ^q 

These ai'e their principal sects. Thef differ among each other on the 
dogniftfl of their faith, as e.g. on the persons (t^ irpwntma in Christ), on 
the divine nature, the human nature, and their union (u-uxris). There is 
another sect of them, the Ariani, whose theory regarding Christ comes 
more near that of the Munlimti, whilst it is most different from that of 
. the generality of Christians. Besides there are many other sects, but 
this is not the place to enumerate them. This subject Itas been ex- 
haustively treated and followed up into its moat recondite details in the 
books treating of philosophical and religious categories and doctrines, 
and which at the same time refute those sects. gO 

The most numerous of them are the Melkites and Kestorians, because 
Greece and the adjacent countries are all inhabited by Melkitea, whilst 
the majority of the inhabitants of Syria, 'IrA.k and Khuriisdn are 
Kestorians. The JaeobilCB mostly live in Egypt and arutmd it. 

Certain days of the Syrian months are celebrated among them ; on 
some of them they agree, on others they differ. The reason of their 
agreeing is this, that those days wore spread through the Christian 
world before the schism in their doctrines was brought about. The 
reason of the difference is this, that some days belong to one sect and to 
one province in particular. 30 



THE PRSTIVALS, ETC. OP THE fiVRUN CALENDAR. 283 



Besides tfaej haTei>ther days depending upon their Great Fast, und 
weeks depending upon the must famous days. On this category of days^ 
aa on the former, they partly agr^> partly disagree. 

I shall now ennmerate the calendar days of the Melhites inKhwurizm 
according tu the Syrian calendar. You find very rarely that the 
Christians, Jews, and Zoroaatrians in different countries agroo among 
each other in the use of festivaU and memorial days. Only regarding 
the greatest and most famous feasts they agree, whilst generally on all 
others they diflFer. 
10 Secondly, I shall speak of their fasting, and all the days connected 
with it, on which the rarioas aecU agree. 

lastly, I shall treat of the feasts and memorable days of the Neatorians, 
if God permits ! 

1. Commemoration (jtv^rj) of the bishop and martyr Ananias, the 
pupil of St. Paul. It is a Christian custom on these commemoration 
days to celebrate the memory of the saint to whom the day is dedicated ; 
they pray to God for bini, and praise him, and humble themselves before 
God in his namL*. To every child which is bora on this day or later, 

20 until the next commemoration day, they give the name of the aaintof the 
day. Frequently, too, they give each other the names of two commemo- 
rations, so ae to say \^ also called N from the coinm[>moratioa of the 
saint N. When this commemoration comes, people assemble in his 
house, aud he receives them aa his guests, and gives tbem a repast. 

2. Arethaa (Hiirith) of Najran, martyr with the other martyrs. 

3. Mary the nun, who wore man's dress ; she lived like a monk, and p.289. 
oonoeoled her seic before the monks. Being accused of fornication with 

a woman, she bore this wrong patiently, and her sex did not become 
known before her death. When they, then, wanted to wash her body, 
30 and saw the genitals, they found out the reaUty of the case, and — her 
innocence. 

4. DionysiuB, the bishop aud astronomer, the jiupil of St. Paul. 

Those titles (like bishop, etc.) indicate clerical degrees, of which they 
in their religion have nine : — 

1. Cantor, rpaX-nfi, 

2. Reader, liO;A 

3. Hyi»odiacouns. 

4. l>iacouu8, in Aj^bic ShammiU. * 

5. Presbyter, in Arabic Kaa». 

4/0 6. Bishop, in Arabic ^Uafruf. He stands under the vieiropolUa. 

7. Mciropolita, who stands uuder the calkolicut. The residence of the 
metropolita of the Melkites in KhurHwVn is Marw. 

8. l/'atholicus, in Arabic Jdikelik. The residence of the catbolious of 



284 



ALBtECxf. 



p.290. 



10 



the MeUcitc8 in Muhanunadan countries is Baghdad. He Btands under 
the Patriarch of Antiochia. The Nestorian eatholicus is appointed by 
the Khalif on tho presontation of the Nest^rian communitr. 

9. Patriarch, in Arabic Bafrik. This dignity exists only amon(^ the 
Sfelkites, not among the Ncstorians. Tliore are always four patriarchs 
in Christendom j as soon aa one dies, at once a successor is created, being 
chosen by the remaining patriarchs, the caihoUei, and by the other 
dignitaries of the Church. One patriarch resides in Cons tantiuo pie, 
another in Bomo, the third in Alexaudria, and the fourth iu Antiochia. 
These towns are called Opovot. 

There is no degree beyond tliat of the patriarch, and none below that 
of the cantor. Frequently they count only from the diaconus upwards, 
and do not reckon the Pingers and altar-sen'ants among the officials of 
the Church. To each degree attach certain rules, usages, and conditions, 
on which this is not the proper place to enlarge. 

'AbA-Alhusatn 'A^mad b. Alhusain Al'ahwiUi, the secretary, rp[»orta in 
his Book of the Sciences nf the Gr^ek^, what heluraBi^lf has learned in Con- 
stantinople of the degrees of the service both of Church and State. His 
report is this : — 

I. Patriarch, highest Chiu^rh dignitary, supreme authority throughout 20 

the empire. 
II. Xpvfr^i (?) the prefect of the greatest monastery. 
m. 'EirufKOTTos, i.e. bishop. 
IV. MiTTpoToAi'TT/s, i.e. the governor [or ruler]. 
V. 'Hyav/jLtvoi, prefect of a mouastery, highly revered by them. 
VI. KakoyTjpfy^. His degree comes near to that of the Hegoumenoi. 
Vli, Ilairof, in Arabic Jfas9. 
VIll. AtctKovof, in Arabic Shamtnd^. 

However, the more trust worthy account of the matter is the one given 
above. Because 'Abfi-All^usaiii has mixed up with the men of the official 30 
degrees other people, who, although imp4^>rtant personages, are not exactly 
dignitaries of such and such degree ; or perhaps thuy belong to one of 
those degrees, bnt then his description does not tit. 

The laic degrees cf the State service are the following : — 

I. BamXtvij i.e. Ccesar, king of tho Greeks. 
II. Aoyo^en;?, his vazir and dragoman. 
m. napaxM/iw/icKos, the tirttt of the rhamberlnins. 
rV. Ao/jtarrwof, commander of the army. 
V. Axtrum (?). a man iu the king's special confidence in the army, 

similar to the domett icue, both being of the same rank. 40 

VT. Apxy^^X*' {^)* ^*^ head of the irar^tot. 

VI 1, DaTpUuK, in Arabic hafrik. These Iw^ri^ts are tn the nnny some- 
thing like chtef-commundor, not to lie eonfonniled with the 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OP THE STEIAIT CALEKD.Ul. 



2m 



batriks whom we hare mentioned as clerical dignitaries. 
Those who fear the ambig^aity of the words call the clerical 
dignitary ba^rak, 
V Mi. 'PoydTWfi, who has to review the armj and to pay the stipends of 
the soldiers. 
IX. Zrparfjyo?. His rank Is half that of a narputuK. 
X. UpunwrraOaptoiy a man in the king's confidence in the army of 

the UarpiKto^, whom the XlaTptKiQ^ consults in e?ery affair. 
XL Muy\a^iTi/s, the officer of the royal whip {PrcEfeeim lictorum). 
10 XIL. 'E^apxo^, an officer over 1,000 men. 

Qll. 'EKaTovTOfiioi, a commander of 100 men. 
XiV, UtiTqKovrapioi, a commander of 50. 
XV. Toroia^oaKorrapwi^, a commander of 40. 
XVI. TpuiiTaptof, a commander of 30. 
XVII. 'EixocriToptoc, a commander of 20. 
XVIU. Awapjfo^, a commander of 10. 

Now we return to our subject. 

6. Commemoratiou of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, who are men- 
tioned in the Coran. The Khalif Almu'ta^im had sent along with bis 

20 ambassador another person who saw the place of the Seven Slcepors with 
his own eyes, and touched tht-m witb his owu hands. This report is 
known to everybody. We must, however, observe that he who touched 
them, i.e. Muhammad b. MAs& b. Shakir himself, makes the reader rather 
doubt whether they are reaUy the corpses of those seven youths or other 
people, — in fact, some sort of deception. 

'All b. Yahyn, the astronomer, relates that on returning from his 
expedition, be entered that identical place, a small mountain, the diameter 
of which at the bottom is a little less than one thousand yards. At the 
outside you see a subterranean chaunel which goes into the interior of 

30 the mountain, and paaaea through a deep cave in the earth for a distance 
of three hundred paces. Then the channel runs out into a sort of half- 
opt-n hall in the mountain, the roof being supported by perforated 
columns. And in this hall there is a number of separate compartments. 
There, he says, he saw thirteen people, amoug them a beardless youth, 
dressed in woollen coats and other woollen garments, in boots and shoes. 
He t^iuchtKl Home hairs on the forehead of one of them, and tried to 
flatten tliem, but they did not yield. That their number is more than 
seven, which is the Muhammadan, and more than eight, which is the 
Christian tradition, is perhaps to be explained in this way, that some 

40 monks have been added who died there in the same spot. For the corpses 
of monks last jjarticularly long, because they tort,ure themselvi'S to such 
a degree that finally all their moist substances perish, and between bones 
and skin only very little flesh remains. And therefore their life is ex- 
tinguished like a lamp when it has uo more oil Frequently they remain 



2Q6 



alb!r&n!. 



for generations in the same posture, leaning on their sticks. Snob a 
tbin^ joxi may witness in redoes where monks live. 

According to tho ChristianH these youths slept in their e*ve three hun* 
dred and nerpnty-two years ; according to us (MusUma) three hundred 
solar years, as God says in the Corau in the chapter which specially treats 
of their history (i.e. SAraxriii.), As for the addition of nine years (Siira 
rriii. 24: " And they remained in their cave three hundred years and 
nine years more "), we explain them us those nine years which you must 
&dd if you change the three hundred solar years into lunar years. To 
speak accurately, this addition would be 

9 years, 75 days, 16^ hours. 



10 



HowcTer, according to the way in which people reckoned at that time, 
p.291. they countA.'d tho 300 years as 15 Minor Cycks(ot 19 years) plus 15 years 
of the 16th cycle. The number of months that were to be intercalated 
for such a space of time was 1 10 aeconiiug to anyone of the Ordinea 
Interealaiionis which they may have applied to the rt-st uf the (15) years. 
And 110 months amount to 9 years and 2 months. Such fractions, 
however, (as 2 months or ^ year) are neglected in a Iiisturical account. 

7. Commemoration of Sergins and Bacchus. 

10. Commemoration of the prophet Zachorias. On this day the angels 20 
announced to him the birth of his son John, as it is mentioned in the 
Coran, and in greater detail in the Gospel. 

11. Gyprianus, tbc bishop, the martyr. 
14. Gregory of Kyssa, the bishop. 

17. Cosmas and Daraianus, the physicians, the mortyra. 

18. Lucas, author of the third Gospel. 
23. Anastasia, the martyr. 

26. Commemoration of the sepulture of the head of John the son of 
Zachanas, 



Tishrin U. 



30 



I. Cornutus, martyr. 

II. Menas (Mti'o?), martyr. 

15. Samouas, Guria£, and Abibos, the martyrs. 

16. Be^nning of the fasting for the nativity of Jesus, the son of 
Mary. Messiah. People fast forty consecutiTe days before Christmas 
(16 NOV.-25 Dec). 

17. GregoriuB Thaumaturgos, 

18. RumauuH, the martyr. 

20. Isaac, and his pupil Abraham, the martyrs. 

25. Fetrus, bishop in Aleiandria. 40 

27. Jacob, who was cut to pieces. 

30. Andreas, martyr, and Andreas the apostle. 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SyRIAiT CALEVDAB. 287 



gftnftn I. 

1. Jacob, the first bishop of ^lia. 

3. Johannefl, the Fatherj who collected in a book the rites and laws of 
Christiaaitj. Tu address a man by the title of " Father," is with them 
the highest mark of veneration, because thereupon (upon the Teneration 
towards their spiritual fathers?) thfir dogmas are based. There is no 
orif^nal le^slatioa in Christianitj ; their laws are derived and developed 
by their most venerated men from the canonical sayings of Mcaaiah and 
the apostles. So they represent the matter themselves. 
10 4. Barbara and Juliana, the martyrs. 

5. 3&bA, abbot of the monastery iu Jerusalem. 

6. NicolaiiB, patriarch of Autiochia. 
13. The five martyrs. 

17. Moflestus, patriarch of ^Elia. 

18. Sisln, the catbolicus of Khurasdn. 
20. Ignatius, third patriarch of Antiochia. 

22. Joseph of Arimathia « PovXtvrrjv, who buried the body of the 
Messiah in a grave which he bad prepared for himself, as is related 
towards the end of all four Oospels. Atma'mun b. Ahmad Alealami 

20 Alharawi maintains that he has seen it in the Church of the Resum^ction 
in Jerusalem, in a vault as a grave cut into the rock in a gibbous form, 
and inlaid with gold. To this grave attaches a curious story, which we 
shall mention when speaking of the Christian Lent. People say that the 
king does not allow the Greeks to visit the grave, 

23. Gelasius, mart,yr. 

25. In the night after the 25th of this month, i.e. in the night of the 
2dth according to the Gretrk system, is the feast of the Nativity (f,^), 
the birth of the Messiah, which t^ok place on a Thursday night. Meet 
people believe that this Thursday was the 25Lh, bnt that is a mistake ; it 

SO wa« the 26th. If anybody wants to make the calculation for this year 
by means of the methods mentioned in the preceding part, he may do so. 
For the Ist of Kiin^n I. in that year was a Sunday. 

26. David, the prophet, and Jacob, the bishop of .£llia. 

27. Steplianus, head of the deacons. 

28. Herodes killed the ciiilren and infants of Bethlehem, searching for 
the Messiah, and hoping to kill Him among the others, as is related in the 
beginning of the Gospel. 

29. Antonius, martyr. Christians believe him to be identical with 
'Abii'Euh, tlie cousin of Harun Alraahid. He left Ishim, and became a 

40 convert to the Christian Church, wherefore HArtin crucified him. Thoy 
tell a long and miraculous tale about him, the like of which we never 
heard nor read in any history or chronicle. Christians, however, on the 
whole are very much inclined to acce]>t and to give credit to such things, 
more particularly if they relate to their creeds, not at all endeavouring by 



p.292. 



2S8 



ALBtfiONt. 



the means at th<?ir disposal to criticise bistorical traditions, and to find 
out the truth of bjgoue times. 

KAnfln 11. 

1. BaaUius, also feast of the Cahnd^e {Calendtu). Oalendas means 
"may U he good*' {KoXiv plus'r). On this daj the Christian children 
usemble and go round through the houses, crying with the highest roice 
and some sort of melody *' Caieiuias.^' Therufore they receive iu everv 
house something to cat, and a cup of wine to drink. As the reason 
of this custom some iMK)ple assert that this is the Greek New-Tear's 
Daj, i.e. one week after Mary had given birth to Christ. Others relate 10 
as its reason the following story : Arius on having come forward with his 
theory, and haring found adherents, took pusaesHion of one of ihn Chris* 
tiao churches, hat the people of that church protested against it. Finally 
they arranged with each other, and came to this agreement : That they 
would shut the door of the cliurch for thi-ee days j then they would pro- 
ceed together to the church, and read before it alternately. That p^Crty, 
then, to whom the door would open of itself, should be its legal owner. 
So they did. The church dc>c>r did ngt open of itself to Arius, but it 
opened to the other party. So they say. Therefore their children do 

p.293. such things in imitation of the lucky message which they received at that 20 
time. 

2. Silvester, the metropolitan, through whom the people of Constan- 
tinople became christianized. 

5. Pasting for the feast of Epiphany, 

6. Epiphany ((mJ?) itself, the day of baptism, when John, the son 
of Zacharias, baptized Mijssiab, and made him dive under the baptismal 
water of the river Jordan, when the Messiah was thirty years of ago. 
The Holy Ohost came over him in tbe form of a dove that descended 
from heaven, according to the relation of the Oospel. 

Th« tame, now« Christians practise with their children when they are 30 
three or four years of age. For their bishops and presbyters fill a vessel 
with water and read over it, and then they make the child dive into it. 
This being done, the child is christened. This is what our Prophet 
says : '* Every child is boru in the state of original purity, but then its 
parenU make it a Jew, or Cliristiaw, or Magian." 

'AbA-All^UBain Al'ahwAz! describes in his book of the Sciences of the 
Greeks the process of christening. First they read, prayers for the child 
in the church during seven days, early and late ; on the seventh day it is 
undressed, and its whole body anointed with oil. Then they pour warm 
water into a marble vessel which stands in the middle of the church. On 40 
the surface of the water tbe priest makes five dots with oil in the figure 
of a cross, four dots and one in the middle. Then the child is raised, its 
feet are placed so as completely to cover the dot in the middle, and it is 
put into tbe water. Then the priest takes a handful of water from one 



THE FESnVALa, ETC. OF THE STBIAN CALBNDAK. 289 



Bide, and pours it over the head of the child. This he does four timna, 
taking the water raccesaivolv from all four sides corresponding to the 
four sides of the exuiis. Then the priest steps l>a<?kward, and that pt-rson 
comes who wants to take the child uut of the water, the sfime who has 
placed it there. Then the priest waches it, while the whole congregation 
of the church is pra}'in^. Then it is dcftmtivi^ly taken out of the water, 
is adorned with a shirt, aud carried away to prevent its feet from touch- 
ing the ground, whilst the whole church cries seven times : Kvpu iXaja-ov, 
ue. " Lord, have mercy upon utl" Then the child is completely dressed, 
10 always heing borne in the arms ; then it is put down. Thereafter either 
it remains in the church, or it goes there again and again during seven 
days. On the seventh day the priest washes it again, but this time 
without oil, and not in the baptism^ veesel. 

11. Theodosins, the monk, who tortured himself, and loaded himself 
with chains. 

13. End of thu feast of Epiphany. On this day the noble saints on 
Mount Sinai were killed. 

15. Petrtis, Patriarch of Damascus. 

17. Antonius, the first of the mouks, and their head. 
20 20. EuthymiuB. the monk, the teacher. 

21. Maximus, the uncburite. 

22. Cosmas, author of Chrisiiau canons and laws. 

26. Polycarpus, the bisbup, the martyr, who was burned with fire. 
26. Johannes, called Chrysostomus. '\atayvrpt is the Greek form for 
John. 

31. Johannes and Oyrus, the martyrs. 



p.294. 



SliubAt. 

1. Ephraem, the teacher. 

2. Wax FeaMy in recollection of Mary's bringing Jesus to the temple of 
30 Jerusalem, when he was forty days of age. This is a Jacobite feast, held 

in great veneration among tiieni. People say that on this day the Jews 
introduce their children intfl the temples, and makr tluin read the Thura. 
If this is the case, it is in Shebat (the Jewish form of the name) not in 
Sbubiit (the Syrian form), since the Jews do not use the Syrian names. 

Between the 2nd Shublit and the 8th Adhar the beginning of their 
IiMit varies, of which we shall speak hereafter. When fasting thoy never 
celebrate the commemoration -days we mention, except those that fall on 
a Sabbath ; those and only those are celebrated. 

8. Belesys, martyr, killed by \\i.c Magiana. 
40 5. 8tB Catholicus, who first brought Christianity down to Khurasan. 

14. Commemoration in recollection of the finding of the head of the 
Baptist, i.tf. John, the son of Zacharias. 



19 



sw 



ALBtB<}^-t. 



Adhlr. 

9. The forty martyrs who were tortiired to death by fire, oold, and 
frost. 

11. Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem. 

25. Annunfiatio SanctUaimee Deipar^x. Gabriel came to Maiy an- 
notmctng to her the Messiah. From this day until the day of His birth 
is a little more than 9 months and 5 days, which ia the natural space of 
time for a child's sojourn in the mother's womb. Jesus, though he had 
no human father, and though supported by the Holy Ghost, wa« in His 
earthly life subject to the laws of nature. And so it is only proper that 10 
also His sojourn in the womb of His mother should hare been in agreement 
with nature. 

The mean place of the moon at noon of this day, Monday the 25tb 
Adhar A. Alei. 303, for Jerusalem, was about 50 minutes in the first 
degree of Taurus. Tlioae, now, who fuUow in the matter of the Numu- 
dkdr (i.e. a certain method of inrestigation for the purpose of Ending 
the oK^ndcTu or horoscope undor which a child is bom) the theory of 
Hermes the Egyptian, must assume the last pari of Aries and the 
beginning of Taurus us the oKendent of the Messiah. Howexer, Aries 
and Taurus were ascending at the time Christ was horn, during the day- 20 
timet because the mean place of the sun for Jerusalem for noon of 
Thursday following after the night in which Christ was bom, is about 
2 degrees and 20 minutes of Capricorn, The aboye-mentioned time of 
p.295. Christ's sojourning in His mother's womb (9 months 5 days) is, according 
to their theory, a conditio sine qiut non for every child that is bom in 
the night of Christmas, when the moon is standing under the earth at a 
distance of ^^ circuraforence from the degree of the horoscope. Kow, 
knowing so much about the moon's place on the day of the Annuncia- 
tion, we find that the horoscope (of the hour of Christ's birth) was near 
24 degrees of Pisees. And if we compute the mean place of the moon 30 
for the 25th of Kftnfin I. for the time when she stands under the earth 
at the distance of ^^ circumference, we find the horoscope to hare been 
nearly 20 degrees in Aries. 

Both calculations, however, (that of the astrologers and Albirfint's 
own) are worthless, becanse those who relate the birth of Christ relate 
that it occurred at night, whilxt our calculations would lead to the 
assumption tliat it occurred in the day. This is one of the considera- 
tions which clearly show the worthlessness of the NumndJidra. We shall 
dedicate a special book to the genera and 9pec\e$ of ih.e Numudlnlrat where 
we shall exhaust the subject and not conceal the truth, if God permits 40 
me to live so long as that, and if He by His mercy delivers me from the 
remainder of pain and illness. 



THE PBSTrVALS, ETC. OP TUB STtllAJf OALEXDAB. 291 



NiBan. 

1. ACary the Egrptian, who £iuted 40 consocatiTe dnja without aay in- 
terruption. As a rule, this commemoration- day is celebrated on the first 
Friday after breaking fast ; therefore, Friday being a conditio tint qua 
non, it falls ou the Ut of Ntsan only four times in a Solar Cycle, viz. in 
the 4th, 10th, 15th, and tilst years, if you count the cycles from the 
beginning of the ^ra AUxandri, the current yeajr included. 

15. The 150 martyrs. 

21. The six synods. Sjfnod means a meeting of their wite mtn, of 
10 their priests, bishops, and other church dignitiLries, for the purpoflo of 
anathematizing some innovation, and for something like cursing each 
other, or for the consideration of some important religious subject. Such 
synods are not convoked except at long intervals, and if one takes place, 
people keep its date in memory and frequently celebrate the day, hoping 
to obtain a blessing thereby, and wanting to show their derotion. 

1. The first of the six synods was that of the 318 bishops at Nicieaf 
JLD. 325, under the king Constantine, convoked on account of Arius, who 
opposed them in the question of the PerMotis, and for the purpose of per- 
petuating the dogma which they all agreed upon regarding the two 

20 Persons of the Father and the Son, and their agreement regarding this 
subject that Fast-breaking should always fall on Sunday after the re- 
surrection of the Messiah ; for there ha<l come forward some people 
proposing to break the fast on the 14th of the Jewish Passover month 
(TcfftrapctrmuScjcttT^rat, or QHartodecimani). 

2. Synod of the 150 bishops in Constantinople, a.d. 381, under the 
king Theodosius, son of Arcadius the Elder, tonvolied on account of a 
man called " enemy of the Spirit " {wvtvfiarofiaxov), because he opposed 
the Cktholic Church in the description of tbe Holy Ghost, and for the 
purpose of perpetuating their dogma regarding this Third Pergon. 

80 3. Synod of the 200 at Ephesus, a.d. 431, under the king Theodosius 

Junior, convoked on account of Nestorius.the Patriarch of Constantinople, p.296. 
the founder of Nestorian Christianity, because he opposed the Catholic 
Church regarding the Person of the Son. 

4. Synod of the 630 at Chalcedon, a.d. 451, under the king Marcianua, 
on account of Eutyches, because he taught that the body of the Lord 
Jesus consisted, before the ivtao-ee, of two natures, afterwards only of one 
nature. 

5. Synod under Justinian I., a.d. 553, convoked for the purpose of 
condemning the bishops of Mopsuestia, of Edessa, and others, who 

40 opposed the Chui-ch in its fundamental dogmas. 

6. Synod of 187 bishops in Constantinople, a^d. 680, under Constan- 
tine (Pogonatus) the Believer, convoked on account of Cynis and Simon 
lilagas. 

19 • 



292 



albIb^n?. 



23. Mftr Georgiofi, the martyr, tortured repeatedly and ^y TariouB 
torturca, till he died. 

24:. Marcos, author of the second Qoapel. 

25. Eliafl, CathoUciLB of Ehuras&D. 

27. Christophonis. 

30. Simeon b. ^abbi'e Catholicui, killed in Khuzist&n, together with 
other Christians. 

Ayydr. 

1. Jeremia, the prophet. 

2. Athanasius, the patiiareh. 10 

3. The Feast of Eosee according to the ancient rite, as it is celebrated 
in Khwtirizm. On this day tbey bring Jflrt-roses to the churchee, the 
reason of which is thiit, that Mary presented on this day the first roses 
to Elizabeth, the mother of John. 

6. Hiob, the prophet. 

7. Feast of the Apparition of the Cruss in Hearen. Christian scholars 
relate : — In the time of Conatautine the Victorious there appeared iu 
beaTen the likeness of a cross of fire or light. Now people said to the 
king ConfitantiDe, " Make this sign jrour emblem, and thereby you will 
conquer the kings who surround you." He followed their advice, he 20 
conquered, and therefore became a Christian. His mother Helena he 
sent to Jerusalem to search for the wood of the Cross. She found it, 
but together with the two crosses on which, as they maintain^ the two 
robbers had been crucified. Now they were uncertain, and did not know 
how to find out which was the wood of the Cross of Christ. Finally 
they placed each cross upon a dead body : when^ then, it was touched by 
the wood of the Cross of Christ, the dead man became alive again. 
Thereby, of course, Helena knew that this cross was the right one. 

Other Christians, who are not learned people, speak of the cross in 
the constellation of the Dolphin, whioh the Arabs call ^a'ud (riding- SO 
camel), i.e. four stars close to Altiujrr Alwdfti', the situation of which is 
Like the angles of a quadrangle. They say that at that time this cross 
in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place whore Messiah bad been 
crucified. Now, it is very strange that those people should not reflect a 
little and find out that there are nations in the world who consider it as 
their business to observe the stars and to examine everything connected 
with the stars for ages and agws, one generation inheriting from the 
p.297. other at least this knowledge, that the stars of the Dolphin are fixed 
tiart, which in this quality of theirs had long ago been recognized by 
their ancestors who cared for such things. ^ 

And more than thia. This Christian sect indulges in majorem Crucia 
ijhrrinm in all sorts of tricks and hallufinationa, e.g. Ood orderpj the 
Israelites to make u serjient of brass and to hang it on a beam, which 
wa« to be erected, for the purpose of keeping off the injurr done by the 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OK THE STRrAN CALBNnAR. 293 



20 



serpents when they had become very numerous among them in the desert. 
Now from this fact they infer and maintain that it was a prophecy and 
a hint indicative of the Cross (of Christ). 

Further they say that the nitjn of Mijses (i.e, the dirine ^t by which 
he wrought miracles) was his staff, and a staff is a longitudinal line. 
Now when Christ came. He threw His staff over such a line, and a cross 
was formed, which is to be indicatiTe of the fact that the Uiw of Moses 
was computed (finished) by Christ. But I should thiuk that that which 
ii perfect in itself docs not admit of auy increase or decrease, which you 

10 might prove In this way, that if you threw a third staff over the eross, 
from whatever side you like, you get the lines of the word X (no), which 
means no increase and no decrease. 

This is certainly the same sort of hallucination frequently occurring 
among those Muftlims who try to derive mystical wisdom from the com- 
parison of the name of Muhammad (•>»•»**) with the human figure. 
According to them the M$m is like his head, the Hii like his body, the 
second Mtm like his belly, and the Diil like his two feet. Theee people 
seem to be completely ignorant of lineaments, if they compare the mea- 
sure of the head and the belly (both expressed by the same letter Mim) 
and the quantity of the Itmbs which project out of the mass of the body, 
forgetting at the same time the means for the perpetuation of our race. 
Perhaps, however, they meant individuals of the feminine, not of the 
masculine sex. I should like to know what they would say of such 
namee aa in their outward form, but for the addition or omission of one 
letter, resemble the form of the name of Muhammad, for instance, jsj*» 
or A?** {^amid or Majid), and others. If you would compare some of 
tbt^m according to their method, the matter would simply become ridicu- 
lous and ludicrous. 

More curious still than this is the fact that this Christian sect, in the 
matter of the Cross and it« verification, refers to the wood of Fcetmia. 
For, if you cut this wood, you ohsf rve in the plane of the cut lineaments 
which resemble a cross. They go even so far as to maintain that this 
fact originated at the time when Christ was cruci£ed. This wood ii 
frequently used in this way, that a piece of it is attached to a man who 
suffers from epilepsy, being considered as a symbol of the resurrection 
of the dead. Now, I should like to know whether they never study 
medical books and never hca.r of those authors who lived long before 
Christ, and on whose authority the excellent Galenus gives the descrip- 
tion of this wood. Those who use the works of soul and nature as 

40 arguments regarding physical appearances, from whatever theory they 
start, and how widely soever discordant their theories may ho, will 
always manage to find that the starting-point of their argument agrees 
with that wbich they maintain, and that their first sentence resembles 
that at which they aim. However, uuch arguments can never be 
accepted, unless there be a reason which properly connects that which is 



30 



294 



ALBtE^Nl. 



measured witli that by which you measure, the proof with that, which is 
to be proved. There exiet, e.g. double formations or correlations in 
things opposite to each other (p..g. bla<:k and white, &c.), triple formations 
in many leaves of plants and in their kernels, quadrupUcations in the 
motions of the stars and in the fever days, quintuplieations in the bells 
of the flowers and in the leaves of most of their blossoms, and in their 
veins ; acxtu plications are a natural form of cycles, and occur also in bee- 
p.298. hives and snow-flukes. So all numbers are found in physical appear- 
anccs of the works of soul and life, and Hjfecially in flowers and blossoms. 
For the leaves of each blossom, their belU and veins, show in their 10 
formation certain numbers (numerical relations) peculiar to each species 
of them. Now, if anybody wants to support his theory by referring to 
one of these species, be can do so (i.e. there is material enough for doing 
■o), but who will believe him ? 

Also in minerals you find sometimes wonderful physical peculiarities. 
People relate, e.rf. that in the ^faksiira (altar-place) of the Moeque in 
Jerusalem there is a white stone, with a nearly- obliterated inscription to 
this effect : " Muhammad ia the prophet of God^ may God he merciful to 
Kim ! " And behind the Kibia there is another white stone with this 
obliterated inscription : "In the name of God the clement, the merciful ! 20 
Muhammad is the prophet of God, Hamza is his help," Further, stones 
for rings, with the name M/i, the Prince of the Believers, are of frequent 
occurrence, because the figure of the name 'AH is frequently found in 
the veins of mountains. 

To this category, too, belong certain foi^erice, e.g. some Shi*a preacher 
once asked me to teach him something which he might utilize. So I 
produced to him from the KItdb-aiialwlijt of Alkindi the recipe of (an 
information how to make) an ink composed of various ptmgent materials. 
This ink you drop upon an agate and write with it ; if you then hold the 
■tone near the fire the writing upon the stone becomes apparent in white 30 
colour. Now, in this manner he wrote (upon stones) the names Ma- 
l^aminad. 'Alt, etc., even wtUiout doing the thing very carefully or under- 
standing it particularly well, and then he proclaimed that these stones 
were formations of nature itnd had rome from such and such a place. 
And for such forgeries he gut much money from the Shi'a people. 

Among the peculiarities of the flowers there is one really astonishing 
fact, viz. the number of their leavoe, the tops of which form a circle 
when tliey begin to open, is in most cases conformable to the laws of 
geometry. In most cases they agree with the chords that have l^eeo 
found by the laws of geomt.-try, not with conic sections. Tuu scarcely 40 
eTer find a flower of 7 or 9 leaves, for yon cannot construct them 
according to the laws of geometry in a circle as isoscele (triangles). The 
number of their leaves is always 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 18. This is a matter 
of frequent occurrence. Possibly one may find one day some species of 
flowers with 7 or 9 leaves, or one may &nd among the spedes hitherto 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OP THE SYHIAN CALENDAR. 295 

known Buch a number of leaves ; but, on the whole, one must saj nature 
preserrcs ittt genera aud epecia such aK they are. For if you would, e.g. 
count the number of seeds of ono of the (many) pomegriuiates of a tree, 
you would find that all the other pomegranates contain the same number 
of seeds an tbat one the needs of which you have counted tirst. So, too, 
nature proceeds in all other matters. Frequently, however, you find in 
the functions (actions) of nature which it is her office to fulfil, some 
fault (some irregularity), but this only serves to show tbat the Creator 
who had desigiied something deriattng from the general tenor of things, 
10 ia infinitely snblime beyond ererything which we poor sinners may 
conceive and predicate of Him. 

Now we return to our subject. 

8. Commemoration of John, anthor of the fourth Qospel, and of 
Anenius, the monk. 

9. lesaia, the prophet. DadhtshA', in his commentary on the Gospel, p. 299. 
calls him W*^, God knows best (which is the right form). 

10. Dionysius, the bishop. 

12. Epiphanius, the archbishop. 

13. Julianas, martyr. 

iK) IS. FeaH o/Boset according to the new rite, (postponed to this date) 
because on the 4th the roses are still very scarce. On the same date it 
ii celebrated in Khurasan, not on the original date. 

16. Zachariaa, the prophet. 

20. Cyriacua, the anchorite. 

22. Constantine the Victorious. He was the first king who resided in 
Byzantium and surrannded it with walls. The town waa after him 
called Constantinople ; it is the residence of his successors. 

24. Simeon, the monk, who wrought a great miracle. 



i^aziran. 

30 1. FeaH of Bare, when people bring ears of the wheat of their fields, 
read prayers over them, and invoke the blessing of Orod for them. 

On the same day commemoration of John the son of Zakaria, through 
which they purpose gaining the favour of Ood for their wheat. This 
feast they i:elebrate instead of the Jewish 'Axereth. 

3. Commemoration of Nebukadnezar's burning the children, 'Azaryi, 
Hananyi, and Michael. Also commemoration of the renovation of the 
temple. 

5. Athanasiufi, the patriarch. 

8. Cyrillus, the patriarch, who drove Nestorius, the author of 
40 Nestorianism out of the Church, and excommunicated him. 

12. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the four evangelists. 

18. LeontiuB, martyr. 



296 



ALBffiCht. 



21. BerethvA, the presbyter, who brought ChriRtianitjr to Manr about 
two hundred yciira after Chriat. 

22. CJabriel ant] Michool, the archangels. Their commemoration they 
consider as a means to gain tho favour of God, and they ask Grod to 
protect the creation from any injury done by the lieat. 

25. Birth of John b. Zacliariab. Between the annunciation of his 
birth and his larth itself there elapaed 258 days, i.e. 8 months and 
18 days. 

26. Febronia, the martyr, who was tortured to death. 

29. Death of Paul, the teacher, the apostle of Christianity. 

30. Peter, i.e. Simeon Ke]>has, the head of the measengors, i.e. apostloB. 



10 



Tammuz. 

I. The twelve apostles, the pupils of Chriat. 
3. Thomas, the apostle, who did not believe in Christ when he ha4 

returned after His crueifixion, until he touched the ribs of His side. There 
he felt the trace of the wound, where the Jews had pierced Uim. Ue is 
the same apostle through whom India waa Christianized, 
p.300. 5. Dometius, martyr. 

7. Procopius, martyr. 

8. Martha, the mother of Simeon Thaumaturgus. 

9. Commemoration of Nebukadnezar's burning the three uhildren. 
They aitRert that, if they did not ki*ep this commemuratiou, they would 
suffer from the heat of Tammnz. 

10. The forty-five martyrs. 

II. Pbooas, martyr. 

13. Thuthael, martyr. 

14. John of Marw. the younger, who was killed in our time. 

15. Cyricus, and his mother, Julitta. Cyricus is said to have ai^rued, 
when a child of three years, with decisive argumt-nts against some king. 
Through him fourteen thousand men were converted to Christianity. 

20. Feast of thi Orapet, when they bring the first grapes, and pray to 
God that He may give blessing and increase, rich thriving and growing. 

21. Faphnutiuflf martyr. 

26. Pantelecmon. martyr, the physieizm. 

27. Simeon Stylites, the monk. 

30. The seventy^two disciplea of Christ. 



20 



30 



K 

I. Fasting on account of the illness of Mary, the mother of Christ; it 
lasts fifteen days, and the Uat day is the day of her death. 

On the same day, commemoration of Solomonis the Makkabean. The 40 
magians killed her seven children, and roosted them in roast ing-pons. 



THR FESTIVALS, FTT. OF THE SYRIAN CALBKDAB. 297 



5. Moaes, the son of Amram. 

6. Feast of Mount Tabor, regarding whicTi the Gospel relates ttatonc* 
the prophets, Moses, the son of Amram, ami Elias, appt^ared to Christ on 
Mount Tabor, when three of Uis disciples, Simeon, Jacob, and John, were 
with Him, but slept. Wlien they awoke and saw tliis, they were frightened, 
and spoke: "May otir Lord. i.e. Messiah, pi^rmit iih to build throe tenta, 
one for Thee, and the other two for Moses and Elias.*' They had not yet 
finished si>eaking when three clouds standiDi^ liif^h above them covered 
tfaftm with their shadow ; then Moses and Elios entered the cloud and 

10 diaap|K?ared. Moses was dead already a long time before that, whilst 
Elias was alive, and is still living, as they say ; but ho does not show 
himself to mankind, hiding liimself from their eyes. 

7. Eliaa, the erer-Hving, whom we mentioned just now. 

8. Elisho, the prophet, disciple of Elias. 

9. Rabula, the bishop. 
10. Mamas, martyr. 
15. Feast in commemoration of the death of Mary. The Christians 

make a difference between " Uommem&ration" and " Fea$t" ; the latter is 
an affair of more importance than the former. 
20 16. lesaia, Jeremia, Zakuria, and Hezekiel, the prophets. 

17. The martyrs Seleucos and Uis bride Stratooice. p.301. 

20. Samuel, the prophet. 

21. Lucius, martyr. 
26. Saba, the monk, weak from age. 
29. Decapitation of John. Alma'miln b. 'Ahmad Alsalami Alharawi 

relates that be saw in Jerusalem some heaps of stones at a gate, called 

Oafc of the Colnmn ; they had been gathered so as to form something 

like lulls and mountains. Now people said that those were thrown over kJf^ S^ ^ 

the blood of John the son of Zacharias, but thai the blood rose over ' . 

30 them, boiling and bubbling.K This went on till Nebukadnezar killed the Jv^ ^i^i 
people, and made their blood flow over it ; then it was quiet. / 

Of this story there is nothing in the Gospel, and I do not know what 
I am to say of it. For Nebukadnezar came to Jerusalem nearly four 
hundred and forty<five years before the death of John ; and the second 
destruction was the work of the Greek kings, Vespasian and Titus. But 
it BLvms that the j>eoi)le of Jerusalem call evcrj-body who destroyed their 
town Nebukadnezar, ; for I have heard some historian say that in this 
caie ia meaut J6darz b. Shupfir b. Aiki^nthnb, one of the Ashkanian 
longs. 

40 30. Commemoration of all the prophets. 

fTJT 

1. FeiAum eoroiue anni. They pray and iuToke God's blessing for the 
end of the year, and the beginning of the new one because with this 
moulh the year reaches its end. 



299 



CHAPTER XVI, 



on TWK C-BSJBTlAlf LETTT, AND ON THOSE FIABT8 AND FESTITE DATS 
WHICH DEPEND UPON LENT AND ftETOLTE PABALLEL WITH IT 
TRfiOVOB THE TEAS, BEOABDIHO WHICH ALL CH&ISTL&.N SECTS 
AOBBK JlXOVO EACH OTBEB. 



HxBETOPOBE we hav« explained Id such a manner as will suffice for everj 
want, and more than that, all the particulars relating to the Passover of 
the Jtiwtt, its couditious, the mode iu which it is calculated, and the 
reason on which this calculation rests. Christian Lent is one of the 
10 institutions dependent on Passover, and is in more than one way con- 
nected with it. We now present such information regarding Lent as 
correaponds to the purpose for which the practices of Lent are intended 
— bjr the help of God and His mercy. 

ChristiaD Lent always lasts forty-eight days, beginning on a Monday 
and ending on a Sunday, the forty-ninth day after its beginning. The 
last Sunday before the end of Lent (or Fast-breaking), is that one which 
they call Sa'^nfn (i.e. Hosanna or Palm Sunday). 

Now, one of the conditions which they hare established is this, that 
PassoTer (Enster) must, always fall in the time between Palm Sunday 
20 and Fast-breaking, i.e. in the last week of Lent. It cannot fall earlier 
than Palm Sunday, nor later than the last day of Lent. 

The limits within which the Jewish Passover revolves, we have already 
heretofore xnontioned. Begarding these the Christians do not agree with 
them, nor regarding the beginning of the cycles (Gigal). The word 
Jijalt or cycle, la an Arabized Syriuo word, in Syriac Gigal, meaning the 
same as the Jewish Mahtor. But it is only proper that we should mention 
the Termini peculiar to each nation. So they call the Greai CycUt 
Indielio {tie) ; but as it is troublesome to pronounce this word so 



soo 



ALB?EONt. 



frequentlj in our discount, we shall use the temi Great Jijal (Le. Great 
Cycle). 

The difference regarding the crclee hiia this origin : According to the 
Jews the first year of the /JSra Ahvaiulri is the tenth year of the Cycle 
{Enntxi4ieeaien»), whilst according to the Christiana it is the 13th year. 
For some of them count the i&tenr&l between Adam and Alexander a« 
5069 years, others as 6180 years. The majority aseis the latter 
number ; it is also well kuowu among scholars (of other nntions). 
It occurs e.g. in the following verses of KhAlid b. Yacid b. Mu'&wiya b. 
'Abi-Sufyrm, who was the first ]>biloi)opher in Islam; people say even 10 
that the source of his wisdom waa that learning which Daniel had derived 
from the Trmeure-Cavfythe aame one where Adam the father of mankind 
had deposited his knowledge. 

"When 10 years had elapsed besides other 3 complete yoarSf 
And further 100 single years, which were joined in right order to 

6 times 1000, 
He manifested the religion of his lord, IsUm, and it was consolidated 
and established by the Flight (Hijra) ; " i.e. Anna Adanti 6113. 

p.803. The Hijra occurred A. Alexandri 933. If you subtract this from the 

just mentioned 6113 years of the JSra Mundi, you get as remainder 20 

5180 years 

(as the interval between Adam and Alexander). Now they converted 
this number of years into Small CijcUi, and got as remainder 

12 years, 

I.e. at the beginning of the ^ra Alexandri 12 years of the current 
Enneadecfttpris had already elapsed. 

Further they urrang^'d the yeant of the £nn«(u/eeu/en< according t*! the 
Ordo Intercalation ig mj^TTD (>-c. 2. 6. 7. 10. 13. 16. 18.). iKJcause this 
arrangement stands by itself, aa not requiring you to subtract anything 
from the years of the era. $0 

In the flrat year of the cycle they fixed Paasover on the 25th of Adh&r, 
because in the year when Christ was crucified it must have fallen on this 
date. Starting from this \toini they arranged the Fas&overs of all the 
other years. Ita earliest date is the 21 at Adh&r, its lati-at date the 
18th Niailn. So the TerminHS Pcuehalii extends over 28 days. 

Therefore the earliest date of Passover falls always by two Jays later 
than the vernal equinox as observed by eye^sight {i.e. the 19th Adhilr). 
And this is to serve as a help and precaution againnt tliut which is men- 
tioned in the 7th Canon of the Cauoutt Ajtoglolorum : " Whatever bishop, 
or presbyter, or diaconua celebrates the feast of Pasaover before the 40 
equinox together with tlie Jews, shall be deposed from bis rank." 



ON THE PHEISTIAN LENT. 



301 



If the Ftui-hrfaiing (Pitr) of iHe Cliristians were identical witli their 
Paasover, or if it fell always at one and the same inToriablo distance from 
FassoTer, both would revolve through the years either on the same days, 
or parallt'! with each other on oorrespondiug days. Since, however, 
Fast-breakiug- can never precede Passover, its earliest possible date falls 
by one day lat4>r than the eiu-Iti>Ht 2>osHiblo (\sXe of Passover, i.e. on the 
22nd AdhAr (the 21flt AdhAr being the earliest date of Passover). And 
the latest date of Fant^breaking falla by one week later than the latest 
date of Passover ; because if one and the same day should hapi>en (to be 

10 Fast-breaking and Passover, i.e. a Sunday), Fast-breaking would fall on 
the next following Sunday. In this case it would fall by one week later 
than Passover. If, therefore, Passover falls on its latest possible date 
(18th Nisftn), Fast<breaking also falls on its latest possible date, i.e. on 
the 26th Nisau. 

Therefore the days within which Fast-breaking varies are 35. And 
for th>.' same reason the beginning of fasting varies parallel with Fast- 
breaking on the corresponding days, the earliest being the 2nd Shub&t* 
the latest the 8th AdhAr. Accordingly the greatest interval between the 
beginning of Lent and Passover is 49 days, the smallest interval 

20 42 days. 

Between the full moon of Piiasover and the new moon of Adh^ in a 
common year, of Adhar Sccimdus in a leap-year, is an interval of 

44 days. 7 hours, 6 minutes. 



*S!bSB new moon falls always between the beginning of the smallest in- 
terral and the greatest interval (between the beginning of Lent and 
Passover), and falls near the beginning of Lent. And this new moon 
has been made the batiia of the whoh? calculatioo in this way ; You 
observe the new moon of Shubat and consider which Monday is the 
nearest to it, the preceding one or the following. If this Monday lies 

3Q within the Terminvs Jejunti, »'.(■. between the 2nd Shubat and the 8th 
Adhilr, it is the beginning of Lent. If, however, this Monday docs not 
reach the Terminus Jejunii, and lies in the time before it, that new moon 
is disregarded, and you repeat the same consideration with the following 
new moon. In this way you find the beginning of Lent. 

As we have mentioned already, Passover may proceed towards the 
beginning of the year as far as the 2l8t Adhir, which is its earliest 
possible date. If fall moon falls on this day and it is a Sabbath, the 
year is a common year, the new moon by which you calculate falls on 
the 4th Shubat a^d the preceding Monday, which is the nearest Monday 

■iO to this date, and therefore the begiuniug of the TtrmiuM Jejunii is the 
Ist Shubat, if the year bo a leap-year, but the 2nd Shuba( if the year 
it a common year. This date lies within the Terminus JejuuH, and so it 
is the beginning of Lent. 



p.304. 



302 



ALBtEtst. 



p.805. 



The latest possible date of PaasoTer is the 18th of NisiLn. If full 
moon falls on this da;, and it lb a Sunday, the year is a leap-jear, the 
new moon by which you calculate, i.e. the new moon of Adhdr Secundut, 
falls on the 5th of the Syrian Adh&r, and the 8tb of the same month is 
that Monday which follows afUr this new moon and falls the nearest to 
it, because in this case the 1st of the Syrian Adhar is a Monday. There- 
fore the beginning of Lent is the 8th Adhar. which is at the tame time 
the latest posaible date for the beginning of the Terminue Jejunii. 

If wc wore to go back upon the new moon of AdhAr Primus, we should 
find that it falls on the 5th Sbnbat in a common year, whilst the 1st Shub&t 10 
is a Sonday. In that case the preceding Monday would bo nearest to it 
(the 2nd ShubAt), which is the beginning of the Termintts Jejunii. Now, 
this day would be suitable to be the beginning of Lent, if it also corre- 
sponded to all the other conditions (hut that is not the case) ; viz. if we 
make this day the beginning of Lent, Fast-breaking would fall about 
one month earlier than PassoTer; and this is not permitted, according to 
a dogma of theirs. And if tfau year wore a leap-year, new moon would 
fall on the 4th Shubat, and then the preceding Monday, being the 
nearest to it, would be the 1st ShubA^, and this date does not lie within 
the Terminus Jfjvnii (2nd ShubAt — 8th Adhiir). Therefore we must 20 
disregard this new moon and fall back upon the following one. 

The followers of Christ wanted to know before-hand the Passover of 
the Jews, in order to derive thence the beginning of their Lent. So they 
consulted the Jews, and asked them regarding this subject, bnt the Jews, 
guided by the enmity which exists between the two parties, told them 
lies in order to lead them astray. And besides, the eras of both parties 
differed. Finally, many of the Christian mathematicians took the work 
in hand and made calculations with the various cycles and different 
methods. Now, that method which they at lost agreed to 'adopt, is the 
table called XpovcKov, of which they maintain that it was calculated by 80 
Fusebius, Bishop of Cassarea, and the 318 bishops of the Synod of 
Nicssa. 



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ALBtRfNt. 



p.806. Festivals depending upon Lent. 

[Laeuna.] 

to g-ivo up their reli^jiun. Then thuj fled one night and pcriahed to the 
laflt of theui. This FrifUj^ thej call tdso The Smati Homnna. 

The first Sunday after Past-breaking is called the Neuf Sunday, on 
which day Messiah dressed in wLito. They use it as the commencem^Dt 
of all kinds of work, and as a date for commercial agreements and 
written contracts. For it is, as it were, the first Sunday, because the 
prweding one is specially known by a more famous name, i.e. Fast- 
breaking. 10 

All Sundays are highly celebratoil by the Christians, l^ocaase Hosanna 
and Resurrection fall on Sundays. Likewist* the Sabbaths are celebrated 
by the Jews because, as is said in the Thora, God rested on this duy on 
haTing finished the creation. And, according to some scholars, Muslims 
celebrate their Fridav liecause on that day the Creator finished the 
creation of the world and breathed His spirit into Adam. According to 
the astrologers, in all religious certain week-days arc celebrated, because 
the horoscopes of their prophets and the constellations indicative of 
their coming stood under the influence of the planets that reign orer 
these respective days. 20 

Forty days after Fast-breaking is the feast of ^*cc«*«<n, always falling 
ou a Thursday. On this day Messiah ascended to heaven from thn Mount 
of Olires, and He ordered His disciples to stay in that room where He 
had celebrated Paisover in Jerusalem, until He should send them the 
Paraclete, ».c, the Holy Ghost. 

Ten days aft«r Ascension is WhUtttn Day, always ou a Sunday. It is 
the day when the Paraclete came down and Messiah revealed Himself to 
His disciples, >.e. the Ajx^tles. Then thoy began to speak different 
tongues ; they separated from each other, and each part^' of them went 
to that country with the language of which the^ were inspired and 30 
which they were able to speak. 

On the evening of this day the Christians j*rostrato themselTes upon 
the earth, which they do not do between Fast-breaking and this day, for 
during this time they say their prayers standing erect, all in conse- 
quence of some biblical commandment to this cfifect. The same (pros- 
tration) is proclaimed for all the (other) Sundays by the last Canon of 
the first Synod. 

The beginning of the FaMin^ of the Aporiiea, according to the MelkiteSf 
is a Wednesday, ten days after Whitsunday. It is broken always on a 
Sunday, 46 days aft^r i1« begiuning, 40 

The third day of this fasting, a Friday, is called the Oolden Friday. 
For on this day the Apostles passed a lame man in Jerusalem, who 
asked people for a gift. He invoked the name of God, asking them for 
alms. They answered : " We have neither gold nor silver. However, 



306 



iXStB^Nt. 



p.309. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



ON THE FESTITALS OP THE ITSSTOTLtAN CIIRISTUJrS, THXIR KSItOSIAI. 

AlTD FAST DATS. 



Nestorius, from whnm this snct dfirivea its origin and mimp, opputied 
the MelktUjs ami brouglil forward a theory oq tU« dogmas of Cbria- 
tianity which necossl tilted a sdtisin l>etwfien them. For he instigiif«d 
people to examine and to iDTestigato for thcmsclTcs, to use the means of 
logic, Byllogism., and analogy for the purpose of being pref«ared to 
oppose their adversarji^, and to argue with them ; in fact, to give up 
the Jurare in verba magittri. This was the method of Nngtorius himself. 
He established as laws for his adherents those things in which he 
differed from the Mclkitca, differences to which ha had been led by his 
investigation and unwearying study. 

Now I shall proceed to propound all I hare been able to learn 
regarding their festivals and memorial-days. 

KestorianB and Mcltites agree among caoh other regarding some 
memorial -days, whilst they disagree regarding others. 

Those days, regarding whicii they differ, arc of two kinds : 

1. Days altogether abuUsbed by the Nestorians. 

2. Bays not abolished by them, but celebrated at a time and in a 

maimer different from that of the Melkit«B. 

Further, sutJi Nestorian festivals, not oelebrati'd by the Mollrites, 
which are derived from the feaat-timeB oouunon to both sects (Lent, 
Christmas, Epiphany). 

Besides, there is a fourth class of Nestorian feast-days, not used by 
the MelkJtes, which are not derived from the (common) feast*times alao 
used by the Melkites. 

A. Feasts regarding which Nestorians and Melkites agree among each 
other: Christmas, Epiphany, the Feast of Wax^ the begiuning of the 



10 



20 



TffB FEA8T8 AND PASTS OP THE NBSTOIUAK OHftlSTIANS. 307 



Fasting, the Q-rcat Hosanna, the Washing of the Feet of tfao Apostles, 
the Passover of the Messiah, the Friday of Crucifiiiou, Besnrrpction, 
Fui-breatdng, the New Sunday, Ascension, and Whitaunday, the fasting 
of Our IJady Mary, and some of the memorial- days which we hare 
mentioned heretofore. 

B. Feasts common to both sects, but celebrated by the Neatorians at 
a time and in a manner different from that of the Mcllritea :— 

1. Ma*aVthd {Ingrttnus). Ou thia feast they wander from the naves 
of the churches up to their roofs, in commemoration of the returning of 

10 the Israelites to Jerusalem. It is also called |Za ««>ao (Sanctijitation 
of ihe Church). It is celebrated ou \h^firat Sunday of Tishrtn H., if the 
Ist of thifl month falls on a Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, or 
Sunday ; but if it falls on a Monday or Tuesday, the feast is celebrated 
on the lagi Sunday of Tiahrin I. The characteristic mark of the day, as I 
hare heard John the Teacher say, is this, that it is the Sunday falling 
between the 30th of Tishrin I. and the 5th of Tishriu EL 

2. Suhhdr (AnnvHiiatio)^ Feast of the annunciation to Mary that sho 
■was pregnant with the Messiah, celebrated on the Jirgt Sunday in 
K^Qn I., if the first of the month falls ou a Friday, Saturday, or Sun- 

20 day; but if it falls on a Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, 
the feast is celebrated on the last Sunday of Tishrin IT. In every case 
it is the 5th Sunday after the Sunday of Ma'alih}. 

In the year when the Messiah was Ixirn, the Ist of KiinAn I. was a 
Sunday. Between this day and that of His birth there are 25 days. 
Now, Christians say : Messiah differs from mankind in so far as He 
has not originated through an act of begetting; likewise the period of p.310. 
His sojourmng in the womb of His mother is coutrary to the ways of 
human nature. The aununciation (of the pregnancy) may already have 
occurred at a time when the embryo (or growing child) was already 

80 settled in the womb; it may also have occurred earlier or later. I 
have been told that the Jacobites celebrate Stihhar on the lOtb of the 
Jewish Nisan ; this day fell, in the year preceding the year of Christ's 
birth, on the 16th of the Syrian AdhAr. 

3. The Fasting of Our Lady Mary. It begins on Monday after the 
Sunday of Subhdr, and it ends on Christmas -day. 

4. The DeeoUation of John (A* Baptist. The Neatorians celebrate it on 
the 24th of Ab. 

5. Cfunnifimoraiion of Simeon h. I^ai^d**?^ i.e. son of the dyers, on the 
17th Ab. 

40 6. The Featl of the Cross, celebrated by the Nestorians on the 13th 
tlAl. For on this day Helcnn found the Cross, and she showed it to the 
people on the following day, the 14th. Th.ircfore the Christians came 
to an agreement among each other, the Nestorians adopting the day of 
the finding, the others the day when it was shown to the people. 

20 • 



306 



ALBlRfiN?. 



0. Feasts celelirated by the Mellrites onlj, and fixed by them on 
certain dates of their own, are, cy. ; — 

1. Commemoration of John of Kashkar, on the Ist Tiahrtn I. 

2. Commemoration of Mar Phetion, on the 26th of Tishrin I. 

3. The feuet of the Slouae^tcry of John, on the 6th of Konf^n I. 

4. The feast of the Church of Mary in Jerusalem, on the 7th of 
E&nun EL 

5. Commemoration of Mar W^, on the 25ih of HazlrSn. 

6. Beginning of the Feast of ReveUition, on the 6th of Ah ; it is the 
last day on which Christ appeared to men. On the same day the feast 10 
of Dair-AlntU. The end of the Fnast of Revelation ia on the 16tb Ab. 

7. Feast of Mar MAri, on the 12th Ab. 

8. Commemoration of Crispinus and Crispinianus, on the 3rd tlftl. 

D. Feasts fixed by the Nestoriana on certain week-days, rej^arding 
which the two sects have nothing' in common. For instance ; — 

1. Commemoration of the monk Kut* or Mar Sergius, on the 7th 
Tiahrin I., if the Ist of the month is a Sunday ; in any other cose it is 
postponed to the Sunday following next after the 7th. 

2. Commemoration of Solomonis, on the following Sunday, according 

to the practice of the Christians of Baghdad. 20 

3. The Feaat of Dair-Abl Khalid, on the first Friday in Tishriu II. 

4. Feast of the Monastery of AlkAdisiyya, on the third Friday of 
Tishrin il. 

6. Feast of Dair-Alkahhal, on the fourth Friday of Tishrin II. 

6. Commemuration of U-ji (Mar Saba ?), on the last Sunday of lift). 

7. Feast of Bair-Altha'iilib, on the laat Sabbath of Ilftl ; hut if the Ist 
of Tishrin L of the neit year be a Sunday, the feoiit ia postponed to 
this day, and falls no longer in tlul. In that case the feast does not at 
all occur in the year in question, whilst it occurs twice in the following 
year, once at the beginning and once at the end. 30 

p.81I. E. Of tho«e feasts, depending on certain days, which are common to 
both sectfi, there are three claases : — 

I. Those depending on the Lent or Fast* breaking. 
II- Those dejK*ndinj; on Christmas. 
HL Those de|>euding on Epiphany. 

I. Feasts depending on the beginning or end of Lent are, eg. : — 

1. The Friday of ;jW\, the 12th day after beginning of Lent. 

2. Alfdrilira, i.e. liberation, on Thursday, the 24th day after beginning 
oi fasting. 

3. Commemoration of Mar ^/ and commemoration of M4r OyriacuB, 40 
the Child who preferred death to apostasy, on Friday the 20th day after 
Fast-breaking. 



THE FEASTS AND FASTS OP THE NESTORIAN CHEISTIANS. 309 

4. Commemoration of S&rtn aud Di^ran the Arin^nuuis, vho were 
killed by tbo king Sbapilr, on Sundav tlie 29tb dny after Fast- breaking. 

5. luting of tbe Apostles, ftceording to the Nestorians, always 
beginning on Monday, seven weeks after tbc Great Fajst-breaking 
foUowing after Wbitsuuday. It lasts during 46 day», and it is broken 
always on a Friday, 

6. Commemoration of Mar AbdA,tbe pupil of MarMari, on Tbursday, 
the 14th day after the end uf tbo Fasting of tbo Apostles, wbicb again 
depends on the Great Faat-breakiu^. 

10 7. Conunemoratiou of Mar M&ri on Friday, the 16ih day after the end 
of the Fasting of the Apostles. 

8. Fasting of Dlias, beginning on Monday, 21 weeks after tbe Great 
Fast-breakuig ; it ta«ts during 48 days, and it ends on a Sunday. 

Fasting of Nimv«, on Monday, 22 days before the beginning of 
Lent, bwLiug tbree ilays. Tradition says that ibe people of tbe prtjpbet 
Joua, after puniabment bad come u^joq them, aud after God bad again 
released them and they were in safety, fasted these three days. 

10. The Night of Almdeh^h (the spy) is the nigbt of a Friday, in 
which — as people say — they seek Messiah. There is, however, a diffe- 
20 rence ; according to some it is tbe night of Friday, tbe lOth day after 
tbe Fasting of Ellas ; aceording to others it is tbe Friday on wbicb 
Cbrist was crucified, called Alsaiabtlt ; according to others it is tbe 
Friday of the Martyrs, one week after Alsalabut. Tbe prefeience we 
give to the first of these tbree opinions. 

If, now, you know tbe beginning of Lent of a year in question, com- 
pare the column of tbe common year, if tbe year be a common year, or tbe 
column of tbe leap-year, if the year be a leap-year, and opposit*, in 
the table of tbe feasts depending on licnt, you will find the date of 
every feaat in question, and also the date of tbe Fasting of Ninive, 
80 which precedes Lent. 

Here follows the table. 



THB FEASTS AND PASTS OP THE N-ESTORTAN CHRISTIANS. 311 



n. The feasts depending on Christmas ajm these : — The Feast of the p.314. 
Temple on Sunday after Christmas ; tho Commemoration of Onr Lady^ 
Mary, lii. Mart Martjam — Mdrt means midier nohilU, domina — on Friday 
after Christmas. If, however, Christmas falls on Thursday, it is post- 
poned until the second Friday, for this purpose, that Christmas and this 
Commemoration should not follow each other immediately. For only 
the nighi of Thursday lies in the middle between the day of Tliursday 
and the day of Friday (not one complete day). 

III. Feasts depending on Epiphany : — The Fast of the Virgins on 
10 Monday after Epiphany ; it lasts tbree days, and is broten on Thursday. 
It IB also in use among the 'Ibsdites and the Arab Christians, who relate 
this story : Once the King of Al-hira, before the time of Islilm, chose a 
number of women from among the rii^ns of the 'Ibtldites, whom he 
wanted to take for himself. Now, they fasted three days without any 
interruption, and at the end of them the king died without having 
touched them. 

According to another report, this fast was kept by the Cliristian 

virgine among the Arabs as a thanksgiving to Qod for the victory which 

tho Arabs gained over the Persians on the day of Dhu K&r. So they 

20 were delivered from the Persians, who did not get into their power the 

virgin Al'anVaflr, tho daughter of Alnu'mJin. 

Frequeutly this fast is connected with the Ninlve-Fast. For if Lent 
falls on its earliest date, the Monday after Epiphany is the Fast of the 
Virgins. Then there are twenty-two days between tliis fast and Lent. 
In that cjvse this day is also the beginning of the Fast of Ninive. Both 
fasts (Jejunium Virffinum et J^unium Ninivitieum) last three days. 

Thereupon they celebrate the Commemoration of M^ Johannes on 
Friday after Epiphany. 

The Commemoration of Peter and Paul on the second Friday after 
SO Epiphany, that one which follows after the Commemoration of Mar 
Johannes. Paulus was a Jew. Now, they maintain that Messiah worked 
a miracle in blinding his eyes and making them see again, whcrcu[)oa 
he believed in Him. Then Messiah sent him as an apostle to the 
nations. Petrus is the same as Simeon Kephas. 

The Commemoration of the Four Evangelists, on the third Friday. 

The Commemoration of Stephanus, martyr, on the fourth Friday. 
Some people place it on Thursday, one day earlier. 

The Commemoration of the Syrian Fathers, on the fifth Friday. 

The Commemoration of the Greek Fathers, i.e. Diodonis, Theodoms, 
40 and Nestorius, the bishops, on the sixth Friday. 

The Commemoration of Mar AbbA CathoUcus, on the seventh Friday. 

The Commemoration of the Children of Adam, i.e. of all mankind 
that have died up to that date, on the eighth Friday. But if there are 
not enough Fridays, and Lent is near, they drop the Commemoration of 
the Syrian Fathers, and celebrate instead the Commemoration of Mar 




ON THE FEASTS OF THK AlfCIEKT HAQIAJfS AND ON THE FAST AND 
TSABT DATS OP THE 8ABIAN8. 

The ancient M^ians oxisted already before the time of Zoroaster, but 
now there is no pure, unmuced portion of them who do not practise the 
religion of Zoroaster. In fact, they belong now cither to the Zoroaatrians 
or to the Shanmifya sect (sun^worBhippers). Still, they have uome 
ancient traditioni and institutes, which they tnu:e back to their original 
creed ; but in reality those things have been derived from the laws of 
the sun-worship pers and the ancient people of l^orrin. 

As regards the Sabians, we have already explained that this name 
applies to the real Sabians, i.«. to the remnants of the captive Jews in 
Babylonia, whom Kebukadnezar had tnuisferred from Jerusalem to that 
country. After having freely moved about in Babylonia, and having 
acclimatized themselves to the country, they found it inconvenient to 
return to Syria ; therefore they preferred to stay in Babylonia. Their 
religion wanted a certain solid foundation, in consequence of which they 
listened to the doctrinoB of the Magiana, and inclined towards some of 
them. So their religion became a mixture of Mugian and Jewish elements 
like that of the so-called Samaritans who wure transferred from 
Babylonia to Syria. 

The greatest part of this sect is living in Sawitd-al-'Irak. These are 
the real Sabians. They live, however, ver^' much scattered and nowhere 
in places that belong exclusively to them alone. Besides, they do not 
agree among themselves on any subject, wanting a solid ground upon 
which to base their religion, such as a direct or indirect divine revelation 
or the like. Qoncalogically they trace themselves bock to Enos, the son, 
of Beth, the son of Adam. 

The same name is also applied to the Harrlinians, who are the remains 
of the followers of the ancient religion of the West, separated (cut off) 
from it, since the Ionian Greeks (ie. the ancient Greeks, not the Ptofuutu 
or Byzantine Graeks) adopted Chriatianity. They derive their syiteza 



« 



10 



I 




THB FEASTS AKD FASTS OF THB MAOIANS AND SABIANB. 315 



from AghadUiiuun (Agatbodsemou), Heiines, Wnlis, M&bA, Sawar. Tboj 
beliere that these men and olher eagcs like them were prophets. This sect 
u much more known bv the name of Sabians than the otb«?rs, although 
they themselves did not adopt this name before A. H. 228 ander 
Abbaaide mlc, solely for the purpose of >>eing reckoned among those 
from whom the duties of Dhimnta (fttrouda) are accepted, and towards 
whom the laws of Bhimma are observed. Before that time thej were 
called heatheoBi idolaters, and Harr&uiaus. 

They call the months by the Syrian names and use them in a similar 

10 way to the Jews, whom they ijoitate, the Jews l^ing the more ancient 

and having a great<'r idnim to originality. To the names of the months 

they add the word Hiiui (new moon), no they say HiliU Tuhrin /., HOdl 

Tishrtn the Lasty etc. 

Their New Year is Hildl KtlnAn the Last, bat in counting the months 
they be^n with HiUl Tishrin I. 

Their day begins with sunrise, whilst all others, who use lunar months, 
make it begin with sunHot. 

Their lunar month begins with the second day after conjunction (new 

moon). If, now, conjunction ])roccdc« sunrise only by one minute, the 

20 third following day is the beginning of the month. But if conjunction 

coincides with sunrise or falls only a little later, the second day after 

conjunction ia the beginning of the month. 

When in the course of three years, one month and some days have 
summed up, they add this time as one mouth to their mouths after Hil&l 
Shubn( and call il TliUl AdUr I. 

Muhammad b. 'Abd^Al'aziz Alhashim! has given in his Canon called 
Aiidmil a short notice of the feasts of the Sabians, simply relating the 
facte without investigating and criticising their origin and causes. His 
report I have transferred into this chapter, adding thereto whatever 
30 I have learned from other sources. Regarding the more external part of 
this feast-calendar (i.e. the purely chronological part) I have made com- 
putations on my own account, only by way of induction, since I have 
not the same moans to investigate this subject which I had for the 
others. Qod helps to what is right ! 

HUill TisLrin I. 

6. Feast of Al-BhahbSna. 

7. Beginning of the celebration of the feast. 
13. Feast of FudJ IlAhi. 

U. Feast of Hit! Ffldi. 
■iO 15. Feast of the Lots (Fegium SGrtium). 

HiUl Tiskrln It. 

1. The Great Bakkl (i.e. Fainm). 

2. M&rSheUma. 



p.319. 



rf ) 



316 



ALBtRCst. 



6. Feast of ^ yU for the shaving of the head. 
9. U)» the idol of Venus. 

17. Feast of U/ (TarsH). Oa the same day they go out of town to] 
Ba^Tue. 

18. Feast of Sarflg ; it is the day of the renewal of the dresses. 
According to 'AbO-alfarag Alzanjiiui, they celebrate the Feast of Tentfl 

in this month, beginning with the 4th and ending on the 18th. 



p.320. 



UiUl KHDfm 1. 
7. Feaat of the addressing (^^I^) to (^U^ the idol of Yenus. 
10. Feast of the idols for Mars. 

20. Feast of the Demons. 

21. Beginning of the first fast* which is broken on the next following 
day of conjunction (new-moon*8 day). During this time they are not 
allowed to eat meat. At the time when they break their fast they arc 
wont to practise abnsgiring and chantahle work. 

28. Feaat of tlic invocation of the Demons. 

29. Feast of the Fata for the Deniona. 

30. Feast of consultation. 
According tu *Abu-alfuraj AlzanjAni they celebrate on the 24itlil 

of this month the feast of the Nativity. 2( 



Hilttl Ksuuu 11. 

AH the invocations, fast and feast days of this month are sacred 
the Demons. 

1. Feast of New- Year's Day, like the calendar of the Greeks. 

4. Feast of Dair-aljabal, and the feast of BaUl, i.«. Yenus. 

8. Fast of seven days : it is broken on the 15th. 

12. Invocation of 'iy-^. 

20. They pray to the Bel of Harriin. 

25. Feast of the idol of TirrathA (Tir'athfi, Atergatis). 

26. Feast of the nuptials (wedding) of the year. 



JK 



Hiliil Shuba^. 

9. Beginning of the minor fast ; it lasts seven days and is broken on 
the 16th. During that time they do not taste any fat, nor anything o| 
the feast-meals or what is taken from them. 

10. Feast of the House of the Bridegroom for the Sun. 
22. Feast of ^r^^ ^or the Sun. 

24. Feast of the Venerable OH Man^ i,e, Saturn. 

25. Feast of the nuptials of l«UJb. 



Him Adb^r. 

1. Fast of i^ ; it Usts three days, and is broken on the 4th. 
7. Feast of Hermes-Mercury. 



.- «>0 PASTS OP THE MAGIAN8 AND 8ABIAXS. 317 

8. Beginning of the Great Fast-, during which only meat ta forbidden. 
Its Stgnum is this, thai they begin to lament on a day of this month, 
when the sou stunda in the sign of Pisces (and the moon ?^aeutm). 
They contimic their lanioutations until the Slst (hiy, when the bud 
stands in the sign of Aries, and the moon in the sign of Cancer, both 
, standing in the same degree. The former day is the beginning of the 
fast, the latter is its breaking. Frequently this fast tosts uuly 29 days, 
when HU41 Adhar has less than 30 days. 
10. Weaning of the children. 

10 Hi]41 K!s&n. 

2. Feast of Damis. 
8. Feast of the Stibium. 

4. Celebration of IlXovnx. 

5. Feast of <^U4, the idol of Venus. 

6. Feast of jU. and of the Living Being of tlie Moon. On the same 
day is the feast of Dair-kiidhi. 

8. The breaking of the Great Fast falls in most cases on the 8th of 
this month. On the same day is the feast of the birth of the spirits. 

9. Feast of the Lords of the Hours. 

20 15* Feast of the mysteriefl of Alsim&k (Spica). 

20. Feast of the assembly at Dair-KadM. P-821. 

28. Feast of Dair-Sinl 



«1U1 Ayyir. 

2. Feast of SalOghft, prince of the Satans. 

3. Feast of a Baghd&dian house. 

4. Feaat of the vows. 
3. Feaat of eW*V or feast of baptism, 
7. Feast of Pa^^ak, the idol of the Moon. 

11. Feasft of Dahdik and ^j/y*-. 
80 12. Feast of \«Aj^. 

13. Feast of Barkhushya. 
15. FeAst of Barkhuruahya. 
17. Feast of Bdb-altihn (the straw-gate). 
20. Feast of perfection fur Pab^aVr & blind idol. 
ihe feast of Tera'Az. 

SU^l Uazin^n. 
7. Commemoration of Tammiizft with lamenta,tion and weeping. 
24. Feast of Alkurmfts or feast uf genuflection. 
27. Feast of the butcher's bouse. 



On the same day 



4(» 



HiUl Tammuz. 

15. Feast of the youths. 

17. Feast of the nuptials of the elements. 




318 



ALBtfiM. 



p.322. 




18. Feaxt of the elemenU. 

19. Also feast of the elements. 

HUil Ab. 

8. Feaat of Dailafatan, the idol of Ventt«. 

7. Also feast of Dailafataa. 
24. Feaut of bathing in the TKerma of Strug. 
26. Another feast. 
2a Feast of EephiLrmts&. 
30. End of the feaet of bathing in the Th*rm(B of Sertlg. 

Hilal TIM. 

13. Feast of the Colamn of our Houses for the women, the end of 
fasting, 

14. fUsting of UUj. 

24. Foast of the Lords of the coming forth of the New Moons. 

25, Feast of the candle on the hill of ^arr&n. 

In each of these months there is a fast of certain days which is 
gatory for their priests. I think, either it lasts 14 days of each month, 
or it falls on the 14th. I cannot make ont the truth. ^h 

One of those who record their doctrines says, that on the 17th ol| 
each month they celebrate a feast, the reason of which is the beginning 8( 
of the deluge on the 17th of the month [Zocupmj] ; further, that the days 
of the equinoxes und solstices are festivals with them, and that the 
winter- solstice is the l^ginning of their year. ^ 

This is all that Alhushimi and others have related. We have collected V 
these materials as we foimd them, simply transcribing the names as 
they were written. When we shall be in a position to hpar these things 
from thi! people thenutclveH (the Harranians),and tu distiuguiKh between 
what is peculiar to the Sabiaus, the I;larraniaue, and the ancient Magians, 
we shall follow in this chapter the same method which we have followed 
elsewhere, if God permits ! SK 

(The author tries to form his informatiou regarding the 
Harranian calendar into a system.)— Because their groat faatiug 

falltj into the first ]>haae (quadnitur*.') of Hilal Adhir, whilst sun 
and moon stand in two double-botiied signs (Pisces and Gemini ?), 
and because the end of the fiuting falls into the first phase of HiliU 
Nisun, whilst sun and moon stand in certain two inclining signs 
(Aries and Cancer), their months must of necessity revolve in the 
solar year in a similar way to the Jewish months, that is to say : on 
an average. And between the causes of each of these two tilings 
there is a connection. For the Jewish Pusover demands that ntm 4( 
and moon shonld stand in the firtt opposition in two signs of the 
equinoxes — ^for they may stand in opposition, and not only once, 



THE FEASTS AND PASTS OF THE HA0IAN8 AND 8ABIANS. 319 



twice — aod the Harranlan fast-breaking demands that which we have 
mentioned (in Hil&l AdhAr). Hence foUowR that the phase (quadrature) 
next preceding the Jewish Passover is the fast-breaking of the HarrA- 
njans, and that the conjunction which falls next to the autumnal equinox 
is the beginning of their year, never falling beyond tlAL 

If we oompnt« these elements for a cycle of 19 years, we get a rough 
sort of computation, hat only a rough one, for they themselves try to 
correct it bj means of ^e time of the conjunction, as we have men- 
tioned. 

10 The methods of both Jews and Christians for the computation of 
Passover are based upon such motions of the luminaries, of wliich wo 
have found out that they remain back behind real time, ospo(!ially as 
regards the sun (the precession of the equinoxes having been neglected). 
If we examine the oppositions according to the motions that have been 
found by recent observations, we find that some of tbcra precede the 
JSniufer-Itinti according to both Jewish and Christian systems ; they, how- 
ever, disregard this precession, whilst it is really the case, and we find 
that others of them (the oppositions) fall near the end of the Eaeier- 
livtil; these latter oppositions they adopt and rely upon them, whilst 

20 *hey are utterly wrong ; for the real time (or opposition) precedes that 
time already by one month. 

Now, since it has been our object hitherto to point out scientific 
truth, to mediate between the two parties (Jews and Christians), and to 
adjust their differences, we have put forward the mpthods of each of the 
two sects according to their own theory as well as that of othurs, so as 
to show to each of them the pro and the conira of the case. And from 
our side we have proved that we candidly adopt their tradition and 
lean upon their theory, in order to make the truth clear to them. In 
all of which we are guided by the wish that both parties should dis- 

80 miss from their roinds the suspicion that wo are partial t^ any aide or 
try to mystify them ; that thetr minds should not shrink back from our 
opposition, when we pass in review the (chronological) canons which 
th<^ produce. For if they are left such as they are, they are not free 
from confusion and mistakes, most of which we have already pointed 
out. 

Now we shall assume as the earliest date of the Terminiur PatchalU the 
16th of AdhAr ; wo sliaU let the day of opposition in reality fall into 
the two signs of the equinoxes ; upon this basis we shall arningc the 
Passovers of the cycle that none of them precedes this tenniuus, and 

40 that each of them falls so that sun and moon stand in opposition to 

each other in the maouer prescribed ; the end of the terminus is to P'323. 
be the 13th NJsAn, and within this space the sun must once have stood 
in opposition to the moon, although the sun may also after this 
terminus still stand in Aries without standing in opposition to the 
moon. 



321 



CMPTER XIX. 



p.325. 



ON THE FESTIVALS OP THE A.BA.OS IK TUE TIME OF UEATUENDOM. 



We hare already raentionefl that the Arabs had 12 months, that they 
usod to iut«>rcalato Lhum ao as to make them rerolvc with the solar year 
in one and the same order, that the Bit^nlficaiionii of the names of the 
months seem to indicate the reiisons why they agreed amonij each 
other regarding this order, aome uf thoin indicating tlie coiTeajiuiidiiig 
tiinefi of the year, others indicatinfr what the people did during them. 
We have already tfiren the theory of some etyiuulo^tsU and historiaus 
10 of the Arabs regarding them ; we shall now atld another thi^ry. 

Al-Mukarram., so called becatue four of their mouths were //-unim, 
i.e. $acred onea, one a »eparale one, i.e. Rjtjals and three rotteimthe ones, 
I.e. DbO-alka'da, Dhii-alhijja and Almuliarnuii, during which fighting 
was forbidden. 

^/ar, 80 called on account of a contagions disease that used to befall 
them, when they became ill and their colour became yellow. 

liabi^ Priitiits et Podrcmiu ; they fell into the season of autumn, which 
the ancient Arabs called Rabi*. 

Juinddd Privfui et Potirema, the time when the cold mornings, rime 
20 and hoar frost appeared, and when 'the wat*ir iMSgau to freest, — the 
season of winter. 

Bajab, so caUtd because then people said itjahSt i.«. abstain from 
fiffhting and warlike expeditions, because it was a sacred month. Accord- 
ing to others, 40 cjillod because j»eople immediately before it made haste, 
beimj afraid of it ; for you say rajibtuhu, i.e. I wu afraid of him. 

Sha'bdn, so called because then people dUperaed to their camps and 
went out in Hearch of booty. 

liamaddn, the time when the heat conuncnocd and the soil was 
burning hot. Thi« month waa held in high veneration 'in heathendom 
30 5Aa«^ufd/, 80 called because then }>eople said ghawvyilu^ i.e, breakup; 
according to another view : because about that time the she-cjimels throw 
about their toils, wanting to be covered. Therefore the Aniba did not 
Like to marry their children in this month. 

21 



322 



AT.BtnCNt. 



DM-anca*da,hficaxise then people s&id,gUd&wn and absUin from fighting. 
DhU'al^ijja, so called because in this month the/ used to hold their 

pilgrimagtB. 

(The seasons with different nations.) — Their months were dia- 
tribiited OTtr the four seasons, beginning with autumn, which tbej 
called Babi* ; then winter ; then spring, called Saif, or by others SabV 
Seeundiu; then summer, culled Kaii. This uomeuckiure, however, 
has altogether been dropped and forgotten. Of the way in which 
they divided the neaflODB, wc l^now only bo much that the beginning 
of Rahi* or autumn fell on the 3rd tlul, the beginning of wiut«r on 10 
tlie 3rd E&nfin L, the beginning of Saif or spring on the 6th Adh&r, 
and the beginning of tiCaiz or summer on the 4th Hazirun. This 
you learu by the way in which they distribute the risings and 
settings of the lunar stations over the seasons. 

Regarding the beginnings of these four seasons there has been a oon- 
trovunty. Ptolemy says, in his Introduction to the Spherical Art, that 
the ancient Greeks fijted their beginnings on the momenta when the sun 
p.S26. enters the e<iuinoi!tiaI and solstitial points, whilst the Chaldeans are 
said to hare commenced the seasons 8 degrees after the equinoxes and 
solstices. The reason of this is, as it seems to mc, lliat the computations 20 
in the Chald<^an canons are back behind the computations to which the 
obserrations and canons of the ancient Greeks have led, and that just 
8 degrees were assumed as the measure of this difference because they 
found such a difference in tho progressive and retrograde motion of the 
sphere, the greatest extent of which is 8 degrees. But God knows best 
what they meant ! Tho explanation of this motion you find in the Zij- 
aZfq/u'tAof AbQ-Ja'far Alkhilzin,andintheBuokof theMotionsof theSun 
by Ibrrdiim b. Sinsn, tlie hetit and most appnipriate explanation jiossible. 

The Byzantine Greeks and Syrians fixed the beginnings of the seasoDS 
earlier, one half sign (i.e. 15 degrees) before the etjuinoctial and solstitial SO 
points. In connequence, their seasons commence when the sun enters 
the middle of the signs that lie before the year-jwints. Therefore these 
signs were called the corporeai ones (G«mini, Virgo, Arciteoens, Pisces). 

Sin&n ben Th&bit relates two theories on this subject on the authority 
of the Egyptians and of Hipparchus, both nearly to this effect, that 
they fix the beginnings of the seasons one whole sign before the four 
year-points. The radicals among physical scholars make them precede 
the year-points by one sign and a half, and those of them who more 
than all dcriate from the truth fix them on the times when the suo 
stands towards tho equator at the half of his total inclination {lb'' Am- 40 
phora, 15° Taurus, 15^ Leo, IS'' Scorpio). Such a division stands in 
direct opposition to common usage of mankind, and is in no way to be 
harmonized with the significations of the names of the seasons. 

These theories in all their varieties arc represented in the following 
table. 



324 



albUCn!. 



p.328. (On the fairs of the ancient Arabs.) — The Amhs used to hold fairs 
in certain places and on certain dates of their montliB which were inter- 
calated 80 as to agree with the solar year. Some of them have been 
meutioned by Abu-Ja'far Muhaumiad ben Habib Albaghdudi in the 
Kitdb-Almnjir. He says: 

The fair of Bumat-aljand&l wafl held from the Ist of Bahi' I. till the 
middle of the month. There a bargain was concluded by th* throwing 
of a etone, viz. if people gatherml round an article of raerchandJeo, he 
who lited to have it threw a etone. Now, frofjuoiitly scfvcral people 
gathered around the Bomo article, then the owner had to sell it to that 10 
man who threw the stone. 

The fair of Alniuabakkar commenced on the Ist of Jumadfi IL There 
f/u! touching was tlu' mode of bargaining, viz. only to hint and to whi8[>er, 
which they did for fear of swearing and lying. 

The fair of Suhnr, from the 10th till loth of Kajab. 

The fair of Daba. on the last uf Kajali. There the mode of bargaining 
was Almvsnwovta (i.f. chaffering). 

The fair of Al-shibr, in the middle of Sha'bfin. There the mode of 
Imrgainin'p' was tin- tftrowin/j of a gtontt. 

The fair of 'Adan, from the lat till 10th of Ramn^JAn. 20 

The fair of i^an'A, from the middle of Eamadiin till the end. 

The fairs of AlrAbiya in Hadramaut, and of 'UkAz in the biprheut ]fart 
of AInajd, not far from 'Arafat, fell on the same day, viz. the middle of 
DhA-alka'da. The fair of ' Ukiti was one of the most important, being 
frequented by the tribes Kuraish. Hawnziii, Qha^,fiin, 'Aslam, 'Ulcail, 
Almu9talilf, the 'Ahabish, and hy a motli^v crowd of other people. The 
fair wns held from the middln of Bhtk-alka'da till the end. As soon aa 
the new moon of PhiValbijja was observed, [M^ople went to DhA-almajAz, 
a place in the neighbourhood of 'Utai. Then thoy held there a fair 
until the day of Altanviya (the 8th of Dhn-all.iijja). Then they went up 3Q 
toMinA. 

The fair of NatA in Ehaibar and that of Ijajr in Alyam&ma were held 
from the 1st till the 10th of Almnliarnim. Since God has sent Islim, 
most of these customs have been abandoned. 



825 



CHAPTER XX. 



ON TH£ PE8TIVJLL8 OF TRX MUSLIXS. 



HuBLiua use the months of the Arabs without any mtorcalatiou, for a, 
reason whieh we have heretofore mentioned. They declared the four 
sacred mouths aa sacru-Hauct in cunsuijuouco of the divino wrjrd (dAra 
ix. 36) : " Four of them are sacred ones (such is the right law). 
Therefore you shall not wronj? yourselves in them." 

The months StiawwAl, Dhu-alka*da, and the first ten dajs of Dhu- 
al^ijjathej call the Months of PiUfHmtuje, of which Qod says (Siira ii. 

10 193) ; " Pilgrimage lasts for certain months. Therefore those on whom 
He has imposed the duty of pilgrimage shall nut sjteak indeceutly, nor 
commit any wrong, nor quarrel during pilgrimage." They were called 
the Uonths of Piljjfrimage because before this time the pilgritn is not 
allowed to enter the holy precincts. There are controversies regarding 
them between the lawir'ers of the four orthodox law-schools ; they belong, 
however, to the science of law, and would swell this book too much if 
we were to propound them. These (two and one-third) months are 
named with the Pluralie Paucitatis (not dual), because the fraction, i.e. 
the third of a month, is added to the other months as one complete 

SO mouth. 

The Montha of the Trmiy, which God describes iu the following words 
(Silra if. 2) : '• Therefon? ye shall go about on earth during four tnonths," 
are the time from the Day of Sucrijtce (the 10th of Dhi'i-All,iijja) till the 
10th of Eabi* II., for the Prince of the Believers ('All) recited this Sura 
to the jieopLe (as a messenger of the Prophet) on the Dies mactoHonia {ue. 
the 10th of Dhu-Alhijja) on the fair. 
The Arabs celebrate the following days of their calendar. 

Almnharram. 
The Ist is celebrated because it is the beginning and opening of the 
30 year. 



p.329. 



326 



ALDfK^Nt. 



The 9th is called TasiVd, a word like *Askurd. It is a day on which 
the devotees of the Shi'a say prayers. 

The 10th is called 'A$hilrd, a most distinguished day. The Prophet is 
reported to have said : " O ye men, ha8t4»n to do good works on this day, 
for it is a. graiid and blessed day, on which God had nterey ou Adam." 

People celebrated this day until the murder of Alhuaain b. 'Ali b. 
'Abi>Tiilib occurred on it, when he and his adherents were treated in 
such a way as never in the whole world tbo worst criminals have been 
treated. They were killed by hunger and thirst, through the sword ; 
they were burned and their heads roasted, and horses were made to 
trample over their bodies. Therefore people came to consider this day 
as an unlucky one. 

On the contrary, the Bantl 'Umayya dressiKl themsolvcs on this day in 
new garments, with various kinds of ornaments, and painted their eyes 
with stihtmn; thoy celebrated a feast, and gave banquetK and parties, eating 
■wcctmcatB and various kinds of conJUeriea. 

Such was the cuutum in the uatiou during the rule of the Banft 
'ITmayya, and so it has remained also after the downfall of this dynaaty. 

ITie Shi'a people, however, lament and weep on this day, mouminf^ 
over the protomartyr (All^usaiu) iu public, as, e.g. in Baghd&d and in 
other cities and villages ; an<l they make a pilgrimage to the blessed soil 
(the tomb of Alhusaiii) in Karbalu. As this is a mourning-day, their 
common people have au aversion to renewing the vessels and utensils of 
the household on this day. 

When the news of the murder of Alhusain reached Medtna, the 
daughter of *Akil b. Abi-TAlib came forward aud said : 

" WTiat will you say, if once the Prophet speaks to you: 
* What have you done, you, the last of ail nations. 
With my next relations and my family, if I inquire for them? * 
One hall' of them are imsoners and one half tinged with blood. 
It was not the proper reward for the advice I gave you, 
That you, in playing the part of my successors, should bring woe 
over those whu had sprung from my loins." 

On the same day IbrSblm b. Arachtar, the helper of the Prophet's 
family, was killed. 

People say that ou this day God took compassion ou Adam, that the 
ark of !Noah stood still on the mountain Aljiidl, that Jeeus was bom, 
thiit Muses WHS saved (from Pharao), and Abraham (from the fire of 
Nebukadnezar), that the fire around him (which wa« to burn him) 
became cold. Further, on this day Jacob regained his eye<8igbt, Joseph 
was drawn out of the ditch, Solomon was invested with the royal power^ 
the punishment was taken away from the people of Jona, Hiob was freed 
from bis plague, the prayer of Zacharias was granted and John was 
given to him. 



10 



20 



30 



iO 



THE FESTIVALS OP THE MOSLEMS. 



327 



P^pld maintfiin that the Diea omatianit, which is the time for the 
renderrous of the sorcerers of Pharao, ia this day 'Ashnrn, e8[«ciany 
the time after noon. 

Althoug^h it be possibk- that all these events should have occurred on 
this day, we must stat^ that all this rests only on thu authority of popular 
story -tellers, who do not dmw ujm»u learned Boarocs nor U|K>n the 
agreement U-twof.'!! the owiiera of a divine writ (i.e. Jews and Christians). 
Some people say thai 'Ashura is au Arabized liebrew word, riz. 
'Ashur, i.e. the 10th of the Jewish month Tishri, in which falls the fasting 

10 Kippur ; that the date of this fasting was comi>an>d with the muuths of 
the Arabs, and that it was fixed od the lOtb duj of their ^rsi month, as 
it with the Jews fsiUs ou the 10th of their fint month. 

The Prophet ^avo orders to faat on this day in the first year of the Hijra, 
biit afterwards this law was abrogated by the other law, to fast during 
the month of Itama^an, which falls Iat«r in the year. People relate 
that the Prophet of Qod on arriving in Medina saw the Jews fasting 
'Aahura. On inquiring of them, he was told that this was the day on 
which God had drowned Phaiao and his jteople and had siived. Moses 
and the Israelites. Then the Prophet said : " We have a nearer claim to 

20 Moses than they." In eonjjequeuee he fauted on that day and ordered 
his fullowrrs to do the same. But when he afterwards issued the law 
regarding the fasting of Hania^an, hu no longer ordered them to fast 
on 'AsLui'H, but neither did he forbid them. 

This tradition, however, is not correct, since acientilic examination 
proves against it. For the Ist of Hu^arram in the year of the Hijr& 
was a Friday, the 16th Tammftz, A. Alexandri 933. But if we compute 
the Jewish New- Year's Day for the same year, it was a Sunday, the 12th 
of Elul, coiTespouding to the 2iHh of J^far. Therefore the fasting 
'Ashjini fell on Tuesday, the t»th of Rabt* I., and the flight of the 

30 Prophet occurred in the first lialf of Rabi* 1. 

^Vhen tbe Prophet was asked regarding the fasting of Monday, he 
•aid : " On this day I was bom, I received my prophetical mission and 
diviuo revelation, and on this day I iled." 

Further, it is a question ou lohich Monday the ilight occurred. Ac- 
cording to some, it was the 2iid of Rabi* I., according to others the 8th, 
according to others the 12th of £abi* I. However, according to the 
geuerally-adopt-ed view, it was the 8th of Babi' I. Both the 2nd and 
the 12th are excluded, since they were not Mondays, because the Ist of 
Babi* I. of this year was a Monday (iu consequeuce the 2nd was a 

40 Tuesday and the 12th a Fnday). Kow, for this reason the arrival of 
the Prophet in Medina (on Monday, the Sth of HahV 1.) falls one. day 
before the Jewish 'Ashura (on Tuesday, the 9th of Babl* I.), and 'Ashi^a 
did not fall in Mu^arrara, except at the time 3-10 years 6e/(>r6 the year of 
the flight, or 20-30 years after the year of the flight. 
Therefore you could not maintain that the Prophet fasted 'Ashura oq 



p.330. 



a28 



ALBtnONt. 



account of its coinciding with the 10th in this year, unless rou transfer 
'AshflrA from the first of the Jewish months to the first of the Arabian 
months, bo aa to make them fall together. (In tho first year of the flight 
the 1st of Muharram was a Friday, and therefore the 10th or 'AuhArA, 
Monday). Also in the 8*.HX)nd year of the flight the Jewish 'Aehftrit aud. 
the dato of Muhammad's arrival in Medina cannot have coincided. 

The aflsertion of the Jews that on this day God drowned Pharao is 
refuted by the Thora itst'lf. For this took place on the 21ak of Nislin, 
p331. the seventh of the days of unleavened bread. Now, the beginning 

of the Jewish Paesover after the arrival of the Prophet in Medina was a lo 
Tuesday, the 22nd AdhiVr, A. Alex. 933, coinciding with the 17th Ramaditn, 
and the day on which God drowned Pharao was the 23rU Kama4aA< 
Therefore this tradition is altogether unfounded. 

The 16th, Jerusalem was made the l^ibla of the Muslims. 

The I7th, the Compainons of the Elepftani* (Ethiopians from the south 
of Arabia) arrived before Mekka. 



1. The head of Alhusain was brought to Damascus. Then he (Yaztd 
b. Mu'Awiya) placed it before himself, and with a. stick in his hand be 
struck out the fore-teeth (the ceutnil four incisors), reciting these verses: 20 

" I am not a descendant of Khindif, if I do not revenge 
On the sons c>f Ahmad wUut he hati done. 
O that my chieftains in the battle of Badr had witnessed 
The ^»aiu of Kliazraj, caused by the hitting of the spears. 
They would have praised God, and their faces would have beamed 

with joy, 
And then they would say: 'O Yaxld, do not uk for anything 

more! 
We have killed the generation of their chieftains ; 
We have tried to take vengeance on him for Badr, and we have 30 

got it.'" 

On this day the IniAm Zaid b. 'Al! was kilkd and cmcified on the 
border of the Euphrates ; then his body was i>umed, and the ashes 
thrown into the water. 

Iti. First appearance of the illness in the Prophet. This was the 
illness in which he died. 

20. The head of Alhusain was again laid lo the Ivody, aud both 
were buried together. 

On this day the pilgrimage of the forty men occurred, when they 
entered the holy district after their return from Syria. 40 

23. Alma*nn"in b. Alrashid (the Abl)a8ide Klwlif) gave up again 
the green dress, after he had dressed in it during five aud a half months.. 



THE FESTIVALS OK THE MUSLIMS. 



S29 



He again adoptcl the hlock colours, the colonra of the Abbaside party, 
after they hiui become eicitod against him. 

24. Mut;innuna<1 left Mckka and concealed himself in a care together 
with Abii-Bakr. 

SahP I. 

L Death of the Prophet. 

8. The Prophet arrives in MiHlinu on the flight. 

12. The Prophet is bum uu a Muudu)- io the Year of the £lephaut«. 

Bahi* n. 

10 3- ^hc Ka'ba was burned at the time when All^ajj&j besieged 'Abd- 
alUb h. Zul>air. 

15. Birth of 'AiS b. Abt-Talib. 



20 



30 



JumddA I. 

3. The Battle of the Camel in Ba9ra with'A'isha, X^lha,and Alzubair. 
8. The death of the virgin FAfima, the Prophet's daughter. 

Jwnddii U. 

2. Death of AbA-Bakr. 

4. Futuna was bom of Kba<lija bint Khuwailid. 

Rajah. 

4i. 'All and Mn'dwiya meet at ^iffin. 

26. God made Kul^amiuad His Prophet to all mankind. 

27. Night af ABcension and the night-journey to Jerusalem. 

8ha*hdfL 

8. Birth of AJ^usain b. 'A13. 

15. The great Liberation-night, al&u callod Lailat-alfokk. 

16. The Ka'ba waa made the Kibla inHteAd of Jenisaleni. The 
HarrAniaiis turn in praying towards the south pole, the Sabians towards 
the north pole. I believe that the Manichaeans, too, turn towards the 
north pole, because this is, according to tbem, the middle of tho dome of 
heaven and Its highest place. I find, howtver, that the author of the 
Book on Marriage, who is a Maniclia^au and one of their missionaries, 
reproaches the people of the three religions with turning to one direction 
to the exelnsion of another. With this hu reproaches them, besides other 
things, and he seems to iudicate that a oma who prays to God does not 
need any Kibia at all. 



330 



albIkCn!. 



Bamaifdn, 

the month of the obligatory fasting. 
p.332. 6. Bii*th of Alhusain b. 'All according to all authoritiea except 
AlsalAnu. 

7, Alnm'mun adopted the green colours. 

10. Death of Khadija. 

17. TLti cursed 'Abd*almhman b. Muijim Almur&di struck 'AU b. Abt- 
I'&lib on the head so as to injure the brain. 

On the morning of the 17th the battle of Badr occurred ; according to 
another rejxirt, it occurred on the litth. But this is not correct, becaiiBe 10 
there is an nnintermpted tradition saying that it occurred on a Mondaj 
in the second year of the flight. If we compute the Ist of Eama4iui for 
this year^ we find that it wus a Saturday, and the Monday in question 
falls upon tho 17th. 

19. Mekka was conquered. The Prophet did not perform the 
pilgrimage, because tho Arabian mouths were back Lehind R-al time in 
consequence of the NaeV (poBtpoucment of certain mouths in the times of 
heathendom). Therefore he waited till the months returned to their proper 
places, and then he performed the fare well- pilgrimage, and forbade to 
use the Na*i'. 20 

21. Death of the Prince of the Believers, 'Alt b. Abi-Talib ; also death 
of 'Alt-Alrii;lA Ibn MAsil AlkAzim b. Ja'far Al9Adilf b. Mut^ommad 
AJb&!f.ir b. 'All Alsajjiid Zain-al'abidin b. Alhuaain. the protiimartyr, son 
oi the Prince of the Believers 'All b. Abl-Talib. According to others, 
his death (that of *Ali-Alri^ft) occurred on the 23rd Dhu-Allca'da. 

22. Birth of *Ali b. Ahi-TiUib, acf^ording to Alsuliimi. 

25. 'Abu-Muslim 'Ahd-alnibmtln b. Muslim first raised the standard 
of the 'Abbasides in Khurasan. 

26. Revolt of Alburku'i ui Ba^ra ; according to some, he wa< 'AU b. 
Muhammad b. 'Abnmd b. 'tsa b. Zaid b. 'All h. Albusain b 'All b. Ab!- 80 
TAlib ; according to others, he was 'Alt b. Mubammad h. 'Abd-almhtin 

b. 'Abd-alkaifi. There is a report saying that Al^asan b. Zaid, the 
Prince of Tsbaristdn, wrote to him at the time when he came forward in 
Ba^ra, asking for bis genealogy, in order to learn the truth of the 
matter, whereupon he received this answer : '* Do jou mind my business 
as much as X mind yours {i.e. as little). My compliments." A wonderfully 
short and cutting answer, very much Ukc that which Wali-aldaula 'Ab6- 
'A^mad Khalaf b. 'Ahmad, the Prince of SijistAn. gave, when Nh)} b. 
Man?ur, the Prince of Khurasan, had written to him threatening him 
with Tarious things. He answered : ** O Ntih, you have quarrelled with us ^ 
a great deal. Now carry out that with which jou threaten us, if you 
are a true>speaking man." 

27. The night of this day is called Lailai-al^adar (Night of Fate), of 
which Qod «ay8 (Sura xcvU. 3) that it is better than a thousand months. 



THK FESTIVALS OF THE MUSLIMS. 



331 



The date of tliia night rests on uniTeraaJ agreement, l)«ause its real 
date is not known. People Bay : " Sc«, this night is the night of the 
17tb or the 19ih, for it was between these two nights that the battle 
of Badr ocnirred, the conquest of MelcVa, the descending of the angeU 
as a belp, marked with certain ba<lges (Sflra iii. 121).*' Tliis may be 
correct, for God says (Sdra icrii. 4) : "The angels descend and the 
Spirit. There is freedom from everything in that night by the permission 
of their Lord." 
People say that on the following days the holy books were communicated 
10 to the Prophet— 

on the let of Ramatji&u, the kavei to Abraham, p.333. 

the 6th the Thorn to Moses, 
the 12th the Psalms to David, 
the 18th the Cfospel to Jesus, and 
the 24tb the Fur^dn to Muhammad. 

As regards the Coran, God says (Sflra ii. 181): "The month of 
Bamadftn in which the Coran wa« sent down." Thereby we learn that it 
was revealed in this month. Some people quote besides the pussage 
(8&ra viii. 42): "And that which we hare sent down upon our servant 

20 on the day of the deciaion (AlfurljRn), on the day when tJie two hosts 
met," inferring from this pas»age that the Coran was revealed on the 
17th of Boma^An, because on this day the two ho»l» (that of Muhammad 
and his Disponents) met at Badr. But God knows best! 

Regarding the Thora, we have already mentioned that it was revealed 
on the 6th of Siwan, on the feast of coHgregaiion ('Asiereth). If, at that 
time, Ramacjian coincided with Siwan, the matter is so as has been said. 
But there is no possibility of settling this qnestion, because the year in 
which the Thora was revealed is not known ; if it were known, we should 
inquire into the subject by chronological computations. The reijort 

30 regarding the Gospel is the saying of a man who does not know its 
character, nor arrangement, nor composition, and the revelation of tlie 
other books is altogether unknown and cannot be found out. God 
knows best ! 



8hav}v>dl. 

1. Feast of fast- breaking, also called the day of mercy. God selected 
Gabriel as the bearer of His revelation. He inspired the bees and taught 
them how to make iWney (Sura ivi. 70), 

People maintain that on this day God created Paradise. But why 

do they mention in their re|»ort sueh a thing with all that it may be 

40 8upi>osed to indicat'e and that may bf inferretl therefrom? They go 

eT<'n so far as to attribute to Him an uglv antbrtq-omorpliism — as to say 

that on this day He planted the tree T^bA witb His own hand. And this 



832 



aibIrOx!. 



they have not tried to explain in any way ; on the contnu^, 
it juBt as it stands, from sheer ignorance. 

2. Beginuiag of a voluntary iaflting of six conaecutive days. 

4. Mol^aminad and the Christians of NajrAn argued with each other. 
Mnhammad installed Hasan and Husain in the right of sons of his, and 
Fit^inia in tho right of his wives, and 'Ali b. 'Abi-Tilib he made his 
intimate friend, complying with the order of God in the verte of the 
ewtijig. 

17. Battk of 'Ubud ; according to others, it occurred in the middle of 
the month. In this battle I^amza was killed, aud Muhammad lamented 
over his loss. 

19. Death of Abu-Tiillb. 

28. Ou this day, they say, Tonafi was devoured by the fish. 



DhA-Alka*da. 

5. The Ka'ba was sent down. God took compassion on Adam. 
Abraham and Ishmael raised the bases of the temple of Mekka. 

14. Jonas, they say, came forth from the belly of the fish. According 
to this view he must have stayed there twenty -two days, whilst according 
to the Christians he stayed only three days, as is mentioned in the 
Gospel. 

29. On this day, they say, the tree TaJcfin grew over Yonas. 

Dhu-Alhijja. 

1. The Prophet of Ood married his daughter Fd^ima to bis cousin, 
p.834. •Ali b. Abi-'falib. The first 10 days of this month are also called Diet 
noii and DUi sacri. According to some, they are the time by which God 
completed the time which He had promised to Mosea, saying (Sura vii. 
138): "And we have jironuscd Moses thirty nights— which are the 
nights of Dhi^-alka'da — and we have completed their number by ten " — 
which arc the Vies aacri, 

8. Tliis day is called AUarviya, because the pilgrim's-well in the holy 3Q~ 
moequc of Mekka used tu be full of wator about this sl'usou in the time 
of both heathendom and Islilm, and the pilgrims drank from it so much 
as to qvench Oieir thirst. According to another view, it was called so 
because they used to carry the water from Mekka ou Uawtiyd, i.t. camels 
which are usecl to draw water from a woll. Accordingtoa third opinion, 
because God made spring forth for Ishmael the well Zamzam, from which 
he drank so much as to quench his thirst. According to a fourth 
opinion, l>ecause on this day God revealed Himself to the mountain, as 
has been mentioned in the history of Moses. 

9. This day is called *Araj'a^ the day of the great pilgrimage on 40 
*Arafdi. It is 80 called because on that day people recognise each other 

at the time when they assemble for the performance of the rites of 



4 

i 



TVALS OF THB MDSUMS. 



338 



^ deentifle AHain nnd Eve recnpni8o<l oaob other aftor thev 
iufeti i>£'cn •Irivcn out of Paradise in the place whore people assembled, 
i.e. ill 

On tiiis iluv God selected Abraham aa a fiiend (Khalil). It is also 
called the day of Jonfiviti^. 

10. It ia called Ihe day of the victims, also Die* vuiciaii&nis, because on 
this day the animalu, that ha<l been brought to Mekka to be sacrificed, 
were slaughtered. It is the last day of the days of the pilgrimage. On 
this day Isaak was ranAOined with the raw. On thie day, too, the Road 

10 {via strata) to Ute Last Jud^rmtU is eaid to hare been created. 

11. The day of eojouminy, because on this day people sojourn in 
MioA. 

12. Thf. day of goi^g au\ty, because on this day people go away from 
the holy district hurrying. 

11, 12, 13, The days of TasArM. bo called because on these days the 
meat of the sacrificed animals was cut to pieces and exjwsod to ihe sun 
for drying. The name is also derived from the saying, " 'Ashrik thabir 
kainul nughir" {i.e. Shine forth. O mountain Tbabir, that we may break 
up). According to Iljn-Al'a'rflbi they were so called because the victims 
20 (hogtite) were not killed before the sun had men.. 

Tlieee are the days which Gkid means in His words (Sfira ii. 1E^9) : 
" And ye shall remember God on certain counted days." 

Ill the time immediately before and after these days people say A^hth 
aJchar after every prayer. Among the theologians there are differences 
regarding the beginuiiig, the end, and the limits of the prayer of TaJcbtr 
(i.e. AUtth akhar), differences peculiar to their science. 

17. 'Utiiman b. 'Affan the Khalif was killed. 

18. It is called Ghadir Khnrnviy which was the name of a station on 
the road-side where Muhamma^l alighted whi^n returning from the fare- 

30 well ].ilgrinmge. lie gave orders to collect the saddles and all the riding- 
Instruments into one heap ; this he ascended, supported by the arm of 
•AM b. 'AbJ-jAlib, and said : '' men, am I not nearer to you than you 
yourselves?" They answered, "Yes." Then he said: "To every man 
whose friend I am, also 'All is a friend. God, befriend him who 
befriends 'Ali, and oppose him who opposes 'Alt, help him who helps 
*Ali, and desert him who deserts 'Ali. Let truth go about with him 
'herevcr he goes." Then he is said to have raised his head towards 
laven and said 

{Lacuna.) 



40 24. 'All gave away his seaUring as alms, in praying. p.335. 

26. 'Unmr b. AlkhoUAb was killed, and the Sftm HaVAid (Sttra 
Ixxvi.) was revealed. 
26. David was inspired to ask for jtardon (SAra xxxviii. 23). 



AT-EMNt. 



29. Battle of At^arra, in whicB the Baiiii-'TTinayya killed tlie people 
of Medtaa, when the honotii of the MnMjir^n (companions of the flight 
of Muhammad) and of the ^Aiisdr (his paLrtisaiiB in Medina) was ataiiied 
Bjnd their wives w^re given up to the enemies. Therefore tnaj God 
curse aJl those whom Hia Prophet curaedj of those who rebelled in 
Medina against the law of Qod, and may He Let ub belong- to those who 
do not lilfe wiclcednesi on earth. QuA ie the beet Helper, and infinite^ 
thaaki are Hia due ! 




335 



CHAPTER XXI. 



P.33G, 



ON TH£ LUNAK STATIONS, THEIR RISING AND SBTTIIfO, AND ON 
THETR THAOES. 



Sv is now time for ua to finish, aft«r we have, at) best we could, 
fulfillerl our promiflo in explaining the science of that subject which 
our friends wanted to know, and in relating all we know regarding it. 
But above every knowing man there is God all-wJee ! To complete the 
representation of this science, onljr one more chapter is required, that 
of the rising of the Lunar Stations in the da.vs of the solar year. For 
10 this science is practised on account of its general usefulness for the 
purj>ose of prognosticating all meteorological occiurencea which revolve 
together with the Lunar Stations. Therefore wc shall now proceed to 
explain this subject both at large and in detail, and we sball add some 
of the proverbial sayings relating to them, which we gather from the 
literature of this kind, e.g. from the book of Alkulthumi, that of IbriU 
htm b. Alsarrt Alzajjaj, that of Yahya b. KunAsa, of AbA-Hanifa Ald?- 
uawari on the 'Anwa, Ihe book of 'Ab&>Mu^animad Aljabali on the 
science of the configurations of the stars, the book of AbA-Alhusain on 
the fixed stiLni, and fn>m other l>ooks. 

The Hiudiks divided tlie globe, in conformity with their 27 Lunar 
Stations, intrj 27 parts, each Station occupying nearly 13| degrees of the 
ecliptic. From tbe stars entering these Stations, which are called Jufilr, 
they derived their astrological dogmas as required for every subject and 
circumataTioe in particular. The description of these Astro! ogoumAua 
would entail a long explication of things, foreign to our purpose, all of 
which may l>e foimd in— and lt;amed Iroiii — the books on Astrologou- 
tnena. 

The Arabs divided the celestial globe into 2H parts, so that each Station 



3S6 



ALBtBdNt. 



occupies nearly 12| de^ees of the ecliptic, and each zodiacal ngu con- 
tains 2^ Statiuns. Some poet sayi : 

"Their number is, if you want to count them, 
Twenty stars, and a nimiber 8 after them. 
In each of the zodiacal signs there are 
Two Stations and one complete third of a Station. 
A perultar system of computation belongs to them, and they hare 

their heliacal risings and settings, 
Which ore the reason that winter and summer revolve." 

The Arabs used the Lunar Stations in another way than the Hindis, 10 
as it was their object to loam thereby all meteorological chaoges in 
tlie seasons of the year. But the Arabs, being illiterat* i)ef>ple, could 
not recognise the Lunar Stations except by certain marks, visible to the 
p.337. eye. Therefore they marked the Stations by those fixed stars which lie 
within them. And tho rising of the fixed stars in the east early oftor 
the rise uf dawn they couaid(?red as a sign of the sun's entering some 
one of the Stations, and so they euuld do, since the stars do not rece<1e 
from thtiir places except after the lapse of long sjhiocs of time, and, 
besides, the Arabs were not educated enough to notice sueh a variation. 
Further, they composed VLtraes and rhymed poetry, so that these things 20 
eould easily be remembered by illiterate people, and ret'orded therein 
the aunual physical influences which, ai-cording to their observation and 
experience, coincided with the rising of oiich particular Station. These 
sayings and verses they use to indicate certain circumstances of 
theirs, e.y. : 

" When the moon joins (i.e. stands in conjunction with) the 
Pleiades, 
In a third night (of a month), then the winter is gone." 

For the Pleiades occupy the place from 10*^ of Timrug till about 15" of 
Taurus. When, therefore, the moon joins the Pleiades in the 3rd night 30 
of a month, the distance between sun and moon is about 40 degrees. 
Then the sun stands in the first part of Aries. Further: 

" When full-moon is complete and stands with the Pleiades, 
Then you get the beginning of the cold season, the winter." 

For when the moon stands in opposition to the Pleiades, the sun stands 
in the middle of Scorpio, and that time is the beginning of the cold 
■eaaon. Further : 

" When full-moon joins AidabarAu 
In the 14th night of a month, 

Then winter encircles the whole earth, 40 

Being like riders who ride about, telling people to warm them- 
selves. 



OW THK LFNAB STATIONS. 



3^7 



And full moon rises in heaven high overhead, so that 
The shadow of the tent-pnles disappears, 
When the nij^ht ha^ rea«hi>d its middle 
And the air la free from dark cloudis.*' 

For at that time the sun stands in Scorpio close to AiJtaib (the 18th 
Lunar Station) ; it is the time of cold and of morning frosts. The 
moon stands in some degree of nurtht-rn deoliuutiun, and frequently 
fthe stands in such a latitude from th^ ecliptic towards the direction of 
the declination, that she culminat-es (stands right) over the heads of the 
10 Arabs. In eon^equence, the sliadows of all bodies disappear at the time 
when she roaches the middle of heaven, i.e. at the time of midnight. 
Further : 

" When the new moon of a month first appears 
To the oves of people at the beginning of a night, standing in 

Alna'dUm^ 
Then you get eold winds from every aide, 
And you find it agreeahle a little Iwfore dawn to wrap a tnrl>an 

round the head." 

For at that time the snu stands in the first part of Sagittirins. 
20 Further: 

*' The complete night, with oil that belongs to it, has become cold, 
And the sun stands iu the Station of Al^avnod** 

For the stars of Al'awwfl (the 13th Lunar Station) lie aroimd the p-338. 
vernal equinox, as the table of the Lunar Stations will show. 

However, if I were to communicate to the reader all the verses 
and sayings in rhymed prose which relate to the rising of each Lunar 
Station, I should also have to interpret their meanings, and to oxplain 
the rare words that occur iu them. This, however, we may omit, since 
it has been sufficiently done by the authors of the books of Muicrt, whom 

80 we mentioned above. 

Since the Arabs attribute aU meteorological changes to the influence 
of the r-R-ng and setting 4if thi- stars, in C(pnisc((ui'urp of their ignnmnce 
of physical sciences, tliinking that all changes of the kind depHud n^on 
the bodies of the stara and their rising, not upon certain parU of the 
celestial glolw and tlie sun's marching therein, they bcliovo a great 
many things similar to that which we have mentioned of the Siriut 
Jemenicut, during the rising of which Hippocrates in his time forbade 
taking hot drugs and phlebotomizing. 

And this subject reminds me of an uccurreuco in my life which serves 

40 to confirm the verses of Ahmad b. F&ris : 



*' A wise man of by-gone times has said : 
* The importance of a man lies in his two smallest things.' 

22 



338 



aib!eOn?. 



I on jnj part also speak tilco a wise maD, saying: 

* Tho importance of a man lies only in hie two dirbams.' 

If be has not his two dirhams with him. 

His bride does not care for him. 

In conHequence of his poverty he is despised, 

80 that people's cats piss at him." 

For when I was separated from the court of His Highness, and was 
bereft of the happiness of the royal service, I met a man in Eoi (Khagm) 
who was counted among the learned astronomers. He had studied the 
conjunctions of the stars which form the Limar Stations, and he had 10 
commended to collect them in order to derive certain sentences (astrolo- 
goumena) from the Stations and their single partB, and thereby to prog- 
nosticate all changes of tho air. Now, I toW him that the truth is the 
very reverse of his theory, that the nature and peculiarities which are 
attributed to the first Station, and aU that which the Hiudfls relate of 
the connection of this Station with others, are peculiar to the first part of 
Aries, and never leave this place, although the star (or stars which form 
the Lunar Station) may leave it. In a similar way, all that is peculiar to 
Aries does not move away from the place of Aries, although the constel- 
kition of Aries does move away. But then the man lienarae very haughty, 20 
and treated me sli^htinj^ly, though he was inferior to me in all his 
knowledge. He told me my theory was a lie, and behaved very rudely 
to me, being very lengthy about the diffc-ronco between us in wealth 
and poverty, which changes subjects for glor^- into subjects for blame. 
For at that time I wits in a miserable condition, tried (troubled) on 
all sides ; afterwards, however, when my troubles had subsided (ceased) 
to some eitent, he chose to Iw^bive in a friendly way towards me. 

It is evident that, if the science of meteorology were to depend npon 
the rising of tho bodies of the stars, as observed by eye-sight, the times 
and seasons of the Mdwra would differ in the same proportion as the 30 
vtHt obftnge their places ; besides, thoy would be different in different 
p.339. countries, and we should require for them as well as for the appearing 
and disappearing of the planets various kinds of tiresome methods of 
calculations. 

In reality the rising of the Lunar Stations means this, that the sun 
on entering one of them covers it and the preceding one too, whilst the 
third one, according to the inverted order of the zodiacal signs, rise* 
between the rise of dawn and that of the sun, at that time which Ibn 
Aln^l^' describes in the following verses : 



"The observers saw Sinus distinctly, 
As he turned away, when the morning prayer approached. 
I recognize Sinus shining red, whilst the momiug ia becoming 

whit«. 
The night, fading away, has risen and left him. 



-iO 



ON THE rtTNAR STATIONS. 

The night is not afraid to lose him, since he follows her, 
But ihi: night is not willing to acknowledge that he helouga to 
the night." 

The risinf; of a Lunar Station ther called its JVau', i.e. rising. The 
influence of the rising thoj called BdriJk, the influence of the setting 
thoT called again Nan'. The interval between the risings of two con- 
seontiTe Lonar Stations is 13 days, except the interval ht^tweeu the rising 
of Aljabka (the 10th Station) and of the following Station, which ia 14 
days. So the following rerses : 

\ 10 *' All time, you must know, consiata of fourths, 

And each fourth consists of sevenths. 
A complete seventh belongs to the rising of a star, 
And to the influence (Nau*) of a star setting in the west. 
Between the rising of each star 
And that of the following star there are /our nights 
And nine nights more." 

There ia a difference of opinion regarding the ^Anvni. Some maintain 
that each influcnct> (of a Lunar Station) is brought alniut betwe«^n the 
risings of two consecutive Stations, that therefore the influence is attri- 
20 buted to the former of these two Stations. Ac<:ording to others, a 
certain space of time is peculiar to the rising and setting of each Lunar 
Station, and everything that occurs in this time is attribut*>d to the 
Station in question ; occurrences which fall aflL-r the end of this space 
of time are no longer attributed to it. The last view is the generally 
adopted one. 

Besides, there are differences about the length of these spaces of time, 
which we shall afterwards describe. 

When the influence of some Station has been found out and is known, 
and nothing hapfiens at its time, [leople say : the star was empty; or; 
SO the Station was empty ^ i,e. the time of it« Nan* has gone by without there 
being any rain, or heat, or cold, or wind. 

(On the Winds.) — Eegarding the directions of the winds, the planes 
over which they blow, and their number, there are different opinions. 
Some maintain that the directions of the wind are six, as Ibn Knnilsa 
relates, on the authority of 'Aba-Muljammad Ja'fcw b. Sa'd b. Samura b. 
Juudub Alfazftri, whilst, according to most Dthers, there are only four, 
as Khalid b. Suiwiin relates ; the latter is the opinion of must nations, 
although they differ regarding the planes of the blowing of the winds. 
Both these opinions of the Arabs are comprised in the following two 
40 circles ; the former view is represented in the inner cii'cle, the latter in p.340. 
the outer circle. There yon also find the names of the winds and the 
directions of their planes. Here follows the circle. 



22 • 




In the first theory the author (Ibn KunAsa) places the wind Mahwa 
near the south wind, whiUt it is wo'l known that ifoAira is the north 
wind, because it fxlhigviskes (destroys) the clouds when they are empty, 
after i.he south wind has driven them on, full of rain. In the same 
theory he assigns a separate ;)TaEe lo the wind Nakhd, whilst it is well 
known that NakbA is every wind, the plane of which lies Iw^tween the 
phues of any two other winds of the four cardinal winds. UhA-alnumna 
mentions the windw, Nabkd included, iu this way: 

" Heavy nun-shnweTs of some Anted and the two ffaif (south wind 

and west wind), 
Which drove the sand-masses of the dnsty-colonred mountains 

away over the house. 
And a third wind, blowing from the side of Syria, a cold one, 
Blowing: with whirlwinds along its road over the sand. 
And a fourth irind coming from the rising-place of the sox^ 

driving 
The fine dost of Almi'A and of |;CurA.Vir over the bouse. 



10 



d42 



ALBjR(^Nt. 



i tne 



influences (^iirrjfuxoia) of the rising and the setting of Uic Tin 
Statioaa: Take the time from the l«t of lliil till that day the nature 
which yon want to find out, and diTide the sum of davs by 13. If ther 
is no remainder, proceed in this war : If the moun staudB opposite; the 
•un or in one of her quadratures, you get rain, if it is the season fa 
rainj or some change of the air in eousoquencti of wind, or beat, or cold 
For if tliere is no remainder (as in this case), it is the time of the risix 
of one Lunar Station and the setting of the opposite Station. On the" 
Ist of Tlui falls the linriA (influence of the rising) of Ai-farfa (the 12th 
Station) and the Nau* (iDflucuc« of the setting) of Sa^d-aCakiAiya (the 1^ 
25th Station). From this date you Iwjgin coonling, for this specii 
reason, that it is the first of a month and the heginning of autumn. 
besides, the moon hapiM;na to he in one of her Foundation*, the inllueuc 
(of the Lunar Station) will come out very strong. 

AbiVBfa'shar says : '* We have tried this method A. H. 279 in Shawwd 
p.341. ^^ ^^*^ ^^^ °^ ^'^ moon. Wo coimted the days from the 1st tlAI til] thiiq 
full moon. They were 130 days; dividing them by 13 you get no : 
maindcr, and the Aaatidfju of the full moon (or opposition) v&sAmph 
So we got rain on that day, nnd when the moon stood in her right quad>l 
rature, also on that day we had rain." 

Further, ho says: **We tried it also in the following year. W« 
counf«4l the days from the Ist Ilul till Thursday the 13*h of KAnun 1. 11 
the sum of days we divided hy 13, and there was no remainder; the 
distance between sun and moon was as much as half a zodiacal sign 
(i.e. 16 degrees), the moou had turned away from the hexagon of Mara 
and stood in conjimction with Vonus. At that very time we got rain." » 

Now, this is a testimony of AbiVMa'shar, showing that through tbi^H 
method you obtain correct results. If, besides, you take to help the^' 
mansions (the places of the Lunar Stations) of the Hindus and their 
single parts, you are pretty sure in your calculation to come near the ^ 
truth. 

People roUt<' that among the Anibs the BauU'Mahya b. KaJb and thi 
Bunu-Murni b. llummiim b. Sbaibtin had the most accurate knowledi 
of the rouli^uratiuus of the stars. 

In enumerating the Nvjilrn'oTakhdhf i.e. the Lunar Stations, the Arabs 
commenced with AlsKaraliin, since in their time they stood in the first 
part of Ariee. Other nations begin with the Pleiades. 1 do not know 
whi'lber they do this because the Pleiades arc more easily and clearlj 
visible without any study or research than the other Stations, or because, 
as I have found in some books of Hermes, the vernal equinox coincides 4(] 
with tlie rising of tb<.- Pleiades. This stat^'ment must have been made 
al>out three thousand and more years before Alexander. God knows best 
what thoy intended! 

We lihall adopt the Arabian system in eniunerating the Lunar Stations, 
ud thaU begin, aa they do, with 






ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



343 



1. Abharafdn (fi, y Arietia), 

ue. the two tigns. Thej are called so for the some reason that the 
soldiers of the bodj-goard of a prince aa-e called Skuraf, since thoy 
mark th**msclTeB by si^me gign, by the black colour, or sonmthing else. 
It consista of two stan beloagiug to Aries (fi aud y). Sometijues, also, 
a third star near them is added, aud then this Station is calXed AVashrdf 
(plural instead of the dual Shara^An). Bet^reen the two stars, when 
standing in the middle of heaven, there is on interval of two yards 
according to eye-sight ; one of them belongs to the northern half, the 

10 other to the southern. 

All measures of distances between the stars according to eje^sight are 
to be understood only for that time when thcj stAod in the middle of 
heaven, fur these distances appear greater near the horizon in cousmiuence 
of the intense refraction of the ray of light in the watery vapours that 
surround the earth. This has been explained in the books on the geo- 
metrical en ntigu rations (of the stars). Further, the distance between 
two stars increases iii the direction from north towards the south ; 
frequently, too, when the stara march towards the horizon, it lucroases 
in the direction from east to west, or pretty nearly iu the dirtK-tion of one 

20 of the cycles of altitude. The reason of this is that the spheres decline 
from the perpendicular direction which they have on the equator. 

The Station Araskrdf is oIko ealknl Abuifh {i.e. borti), heeautte the two 
Sharaf are placed on the root of the two Kotm of Aries. The meteoro- 
logical influences of this Station are peculiar to the first {i.e. original) 
position of Aries, and in no way doficnd upon the stars from which 
the Station has got its name. These stars have migrated from their 
original plaee (in consequence of the precession of the equinoxes) aud have 
in our time come to occupy a second |x}sition (different from the former), p.342. 

2. Albufain (c, 8, ir Arietis). 

30 It consists of three stars at the end of the womb of Aries, forming an 
isosceles triangle. The word is the diminutive of Ba{n, so as to mean 
the lUtle Tpombf so called in comparison with liafn-alhtU (the womb of the 
fish), which is the 2dth Station. 



8. Alihurat/tiit (Pleiades) 

consists of six stars close to each other, very similar to a cluster of 
grapes. According to the Arabs they form the clunie of Aries, but that 
is wrong, because they stand on the hump of Taurus. 

The word is a diminutive of Tlutnod, which is originally identical with 
Tharwa, i.e. a collection and great number of something. Some people 
40 main t a i n they were called so because the raia, which is brought by theix 



344 



ALBtRf^Nt. 



Ifau't produces Thanoa, ue. abuodancc. Thej ore also called Alnojm 
(i.e. The Star). 

Ptolemy mcntiong only four stare of tlie Pleiades, since he had not 
observed more of thnra, Ix^yiuao to ere-sii^ht they seem t« lie quite close 
together. 

Tlie forty days during which, this Station disap]Kair8 under the rays 
of the sun, are, according to the Arabs, the worst and most unhealthy of 
the whole year. Al'aaadI says : " AHhurayyA never rises nor tn.'ts unless 
bringing some harm." And one of their medical men says : ** Warrant 
me the time between the disappearing and the rising of AlthurayyA, and 10 
I shall warrant you all the remainder of the year." The Propht-t ia 
related to liave said : " When the Star rises, all harm (miahap) rises from 
the earth ; " and according U> another tradition : •' When the Star rises, 
all mishap is raised from every place." 

4. AMabartin (a Tauri), 

a bright red star, so called because it foVowt after the Pleiades, standing 
over the southern eye of Taturus. It is also called Alfanik, i.e. a great 
camel-stalliun (not serving for riding), l>ocause they call the stars around 
it KiliUf i.e. young she-camels (serving for riding). Other names of it 
are " ThefoUouxr of the Star" because iu rising and setting it follows 20 
immediately after the Pleiades, and Almuhhdij (i.e. a ehe-camel giving 
birth to a young one of imperfect formation). 



5. Alhak'a (A, f , 4," Ononis) 

consists of three small stars close to each other, looking like so many 
dots impro8s»?d u|)on the earth by the thumb, the fore-fingiT, and the 
middle-finger, the fingers being closely pressed together. They were so 
called iKvrtuse they were compared with a circle of hairs on the side of 
the home at the Joint of the foot ; such a horse ia called Maftku'. They 
are also called AUahd'i (or AUahfiyi). Ptolemy considers them as one 
cloudy star, and culls them the uebula on the head of Aljabbur, i.e. 
AljauzA (Orion). 



30 



6. .^Man'a (y, i Geminorum) 

consists of two bright stars in the Milky Way between Orion and the 
head of Gemini, distant from eai-h other as far as the length of a whip. 
The one is called Zirr (button), the other Afaindn (walking along 
proudly) ; they stand on the foot of the second twin. According to 
AlzajjAj, Hayi'a is derived finni the verb TTaua'n, i.e. fx> wind and twiue 
one thing round the other, as if etich of them were winding and 
twining round the other. According to others, this name is to be 
uodarstood of a third star, standing behind tbuir middle, which gives 40 



ON THE LU^AB STATIONS. 



345 



them the appearance of an inclined neck. The Arabs consider Alhan'a 

lind six other etars as the bow of Orion, with which he shoots at the p.343. 

Lion. 

7. Aldhird' (a, )3 Qeminomm) 

consists of two stars, one yard distant from each other. The one is tho 
blear-eyecl Sirius or Siriua Syriacus, according to the Arabs, the out- 
■tretched arm of Leo; the other is Sirius 'Abdr or Sirius Temenicus, tho 
arm of Leo which is not stretched out. According to the astronomers, the 
outstretched arm is the bead of Qemini, and the other arm belongs to 
10 the stars of AlkaW Almvtakaddim (Proeyon). But people differ greatly 
rc?gardinj; these stars aud produc* yarioua futile traditions and stories 
in support of tho names which they give them. The rising of Ghumaifa 
(the blear-eyed Sirius) in the year 1300 of Alexander took pl&ce on the 
10th Tammfiz, and that of Sirius Temenicus on the 23rd Tammfts. 

8. AWuUhm (Prtesepe (c) et duo Aselli (y, S) Cancri) 

is the place between the mouth and the nostrils of the Lion. It is also 
called AUahd (the uvula), and consists of two stars, between which there 
U ft nebula, the whole belonging bo the figure of Cancer. 

9. AUarf, 

20 the eye of Leo, two stars close to each other, one belonging to Leo, the 
other to the stars outside the figure of Cancer. In front of them there 
are stars called AVa^h/tir, i.e. the eyebrowa of Leo. 

10. Aljahha ({, ft iji a Leonis), 

the front of Leo, four stars, each star distant from the other by the length 
of a whip, lying athwart from north t<» south In a curve, cot in a straight 
line. According to astrouomers, they stand on the mane of Leo. The 
most southern star of them they call the Heart of the Royal Lion ; it 
rises when Suhail rises in All^ijaz. Subail is the 44th star of Ai^ 
Navis, standing over Ita oar. Its latitude is 75 degrees in the southern 
80 half. Therefore it does not rise very high above the horizon, m conse- 
quence of which it has something unsteady for the eye. People say that 
a man, if his eye falls on this star, dies, a^ they also relate that on the 
island of Ramiu, Ijelonging to Ceylon, there is an animal the sight of 
which kills a man within forty days afterwards. The most curious 
instance of the connection between auiuial life aud its material influence 
is the fish called Silurus E/rt-fnVua. For the hand of the fiahoniuin who 
has caught it takes care not to touch it as long as it is in the net still 
living. If you take a reed and touch the living fii^h with one end aud keep 
the other end in your hand, the hand becomes feeble and drops the reed. 



846 



ALBtE^Nt. 



Forihor, the worms in Raghad, one of the districtfl of eastern Jurj£n. 
For there you find in certain places small worms ; if a man carrying 
wat«r trwwlfl u^K>n thorn, the water becomes biid and foul ; if he does 
not tread upon them, the water remains good and keeps its nice odour 
and Hwiwt biutte. 

Tbo death of a man bitten b^ a panther, wh«u a field-mouse pisaea at 
him 

[Lacuna,^ 

p^44. 11, Ahubra (S, 6 Leonia), 

I.e. the shoulder of the Lion, the place where the neck begins. According \Q 
to AlzajJHJ, it is the place of the mane on his neck, because the mane 
hristUs up when he ia in wrath. According to Aln&'ib Al&mulJ, Zuhra is 
a picct! of iron by which the two uhoulder- blades of a lion are imitated. 
Thia station consists of two stars, distant from each other by the 
length of a whip. They arc also culled tbc Tvio Khurt, i.e. holes, as if each 
of them were penetniting into the interior of the Lion, hut in reality 
they stand upon tbc shank of the Lion, one of them on the root of the 
tail. When they rise, Suhail is seen in Al'irAIf. 

12. Alfarfa (fi Leonis), 

a bright star near to aume very dim ones, called the CJaw of Oi« Lion. 20 
It stands on the end of the Lion's tail, and ia called ao because the heat 
iurtu away when it rises, and the cold turns atoay when it disappears. 



13. AVawwd (fi, Tft y, 5, c Virginia) 

consists of five stars in a line, the end of which is turned. And there- 
fore the Station ia called so because the verb 'Ami means Ut turn, 
Alzajjaj says: "I do not know of anybody else besides nie who haa 
explained the word in this way. Those who say that these abara are 
dogs nmuing behind the Lion and harking are wrong." They stand on 
the breast and wing of Virgo. 

14. AUimdk Ara'zal{Syica.), 80 

It is aiso called the Ca^ of tA« Lion, and AUimdk Alrdmi^ is his other 
calf. 

Thia Simak is called 'A'bcU (t.e. bare), because whilat the other Sim^k 
Alrami^ (the shooter) ia accompanied by a star, said to he hia lauce, 
thiB uue has no such accessory, and ia therefore said to be bten of 
weapons. 



ON THB LUNAB STATIONS. 



347 



According to Stbawailii, SitnAk is cailed so' on a<KOxmt of it« rising 
high, or, according to others, becaase the moon does not enter this 
Station. But if that were the ca«e, AlsiinaJt AVa'sal would not dcfierre 
the name of a Lunar Station, for, of course, the moon enters it and 
frequently coTers it (so bjb to make it disappear). 

It is a brilliant star on the left palm of Virgo, which some people call 
Sunbula (the ear). But this is wrong, hecaus<? the Ear (SpJca) ia 
AlhuBxi {i.e. hog*8 bristle), which Ptolemy calls Al^a/irar i.e. Orines plexi. 
This is a number of small stars behind the tail of the Great Bear, Tory 
10 much like the leaf of LubMbt i.e. belxinc. The whole zodiacal sign is 
also called so {i.e. Spica). 

According to the Arabs, Athulba (the hog's bristle) stands on the end 
of the Lion's tail, being the small hairs on the end of the taiL 

15. Alghafr (s k, X Virginis) 

consists of three not very brilliant stars on the train and the left foot of 
Virgo. According to the Arabs, it is the best of the Lunar Stations, 
because it stands behind Leo and before Scorpio. Tlie evil of the Lion 
Ues in his teeth and claws, the evil of the Scorpion lies in its venom and 
the sting of its iaSL A Bajaz poet says : 

90 " The best night fur ever 

laea between AkahAaA and Al'asad (Leo)." 

People say that the horoscopes of all the prophets lie in this Station j 
but this does not seem to be true except in the caae of Messiah, the 
Prophet who keeps off all mishap. The birth of Moeos — according to 
the report of the Jews — must have coincided with the rising of the 
tooth of Leo and the moun'ei entering the claws of Leu. p.345. 

It ie called Qhafrt because the light of its stars is imperfect, from the 

verb Ghafara, i.e. to cover a thing, or, because it rises above the claws of 

Scorpio and becomes to it like a Mighfar (i.e. coat of mail). According 

30 to Alzajjaj, the name is derived from Qhc^ar, i.e, the hMr on the end of 

ih» Lion's tail. 

16. AUmbdnd (a, ^ Librro) 

consists of two brilliant stars, separated from each other as far as five 
yards, and standing in a place where the two claws of Scorpio might be; 
they belong, however, to Libra. The word is also derived from tahajia 
(i.e. tojmsh), as if the one of them were being pushed away from the 
other, not united with it 

17. AVikia 03, S, w Scorpii) 

is the head of Scorpio, consisting of three stars which form one line. 
40 Ibn-Ali&fi declares this to be impossible, and maintains that it consists 




of the 8th star of TAhra and the 6th one of the stare onti»i(lo T<ihrm aa 
also Ptolenij? ha» it Ju h-H Almagt-st. According tt) Ibu-Al^ufi, those 
who consider the three bright stars in one line as AFOtUl arc mistaken, 
for he says that the Crown, (i.e. Ariklil)conld not be anywhere but upon 
the head. However, the general view of the Arabs— in opi>08it.ion to that of 
Ibn^AlfAfi — is this, that tho three stars in one line are AVikUL The 
Arabs have a proverb applicable to this subjwrt, saving: "The two 
contending parties were cuutent, but the judge declined to give a 
judgment" 

[18. AlValb (a Scorpii) 

is a red star behind Al'iklfl and between two stars called Alnij&( 
(priecordia).] 



19. Alshaula (X, v Scorpii) 

is the sting of Scorpio, so called because it is always mvjthdla, i.e. raised. 
It consists of two bright stars near each other on the top of the tail of 
Scorpio. 



20. Alna^d'im (y, 6, i, ij, Vy ^, r, ( Sagittarii) 

consists of eight stars, four of them Ijingin the Milky Way in a square, 
wliich are the DegcenHiitg OtfricficSf descending to tho water, which is the 
Alilky Way ; and four of them lying outside the Milhf Wat/, also in a 30 
square, which are the A&cending Ostriches, asceuding and returning from 
the water. 

Alzajjiij reads the word Alnu'dHm, i.«. the beams placed above tlie 
mouth of a well, where the sheaves of the pulley and the buckets are 
axed (attached). 

The stars were compared to ostriches, u« if four of them were 
descending, four ascending. The Desamding Ostrichu* stand on the bow 
and arrow of Sagittarius, and the Ascending Ostriches stand on his 
shoulder and breast. 



21. Albaida 

is a desert district of heaven without any stars, at tho side of the Horse, 
belonging to Sagittarius. According to Alzajjaj, this station was com- 
pared to tht' interstice between the two eyebrows, which are not connected 
with each other. You say of a man *ahlad, which means that his eyebrows 
do not run into each other. 



to 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



349 



22. 8a'd-AldhdbiA (a, fi Capricorai) 

conaista of two stars, the one to the north, the other to the south, distant 
from each other about one yard. Close to the northern one there is a p.346. 
small star. coDsidfrcd as the sheop which he (Sa'd) shiughtcrs. Tbe two 
■tors stand on the horn of Capricorn. 



23. Sa'd-BuJa' (jt, v, c Aquarii) 

consists of two stars with a third and hardly visible one between 
them, wh*ch looks aa if one of them had devoured it, so that it glided 
down from the throat to the breast. According to others, it was called 
10 80 because Sa'd is considered as he who devoured the middle star, robbed it 
of iU light and concealed it. According to Abu-Tahyjl b. Kunasa, this 
Station was called so because it rose at the time when God said : " 
earth, devour thy water " (Siira li. 4*>). This is a rather subtle derivation. 
These stars stand on the left hand of Aquarius or Amphora. 



24. Sa'd AUu'^d 03, i Aqu&ru) 

consists of three stars, one of which is more bright than tbn two ofehcra. 
It is called so because people consider its rising lis a luckt/ omen, becauso 
it rises when the cold decreases, when the winter is ixwt aud the 
season of the continuoiis rains sets in. Two of these stars stand on the 
20 l^ft shoulder of Aquarius ; the third one standa on the tail of Capricorn. 



25. Sa^d-AFakhbiya {y, {, r, ij Aquarii) 

consists of four stars, three forming an acute-angled trigone, and one 
standing in the middle, as it were the centre of a circumscribed circle. 
The central stjir is Sa'd, and tho three surrounding stars are his tenis. 
According to others, this Station was called so because at the time when 
it riiieH all reptiles that had beeu hidden in the earth come furth. These 
■tara stand on tbe right hand of Aquarius. God is all-wise I 



26. Al/argh AVawvxU (a, j9 Pcgasi), 

also eallcd the Upper Handle (of the bucke;-), aT»d the First Two who 
30 move Ote Jtuthel in the Well (in order to fill v). )t consists of two bright 
stars, Befiarated from each other, standing on the spine and shoulders of 
Pegasus. 



350 



AIxBtB^vt. 



27. Alfargh AUMnt (y Pogasi and a Andromedje), 

also called tht; Lower Handle (of the bucket), and the Later Two who 
mttve the Bucket in th^ Well (in order tu fill it). It consist* of two stars 
similar to Alfarijh AVawwal, According to the Arabs Am^thora consists 
of thesd four stars. 

28. Bafn-Alhiii (^ Andromedse), 

also called ^a3)-AIhuf, is a bright star in the one half of the womb of 
a fish (a star) called Bibbim, which must not be confounded with the 
Two Fiahet^ one (the 12th) of the zodiacal signs. These stars stand 
above Libra and belong to Andromeda (lit. the chaint^d wife who had 10 
not sc«n a husband). 



The preceding notes wc have condensed and have added thereto oUiot 
notes relating to Lunar Stations ; this wc have arranged in the form of 
a table, showing the nature of the Lunar Stations aroordtng to the 
diflferent theories. We have also noted the rising of the stars of the 
Stations for the year 1300 of Alexander according to mean calculation; 
this we have also deposited in a table of the conditions of the stars of 
the Lunar Stations. If jou look into these two tables you will find that 
the superscriptions at the top of each column render it superfluous to 
consult anybody beforehand as to their use. Here follow the two 
tables. 



20 



ON THH LONAB STA1I0N8. 



353 



(On the interstices between the' Lunar Stations.)— The moon's 
Btanding in conjunction with, a star or with stars which give the name 
to a. T. iinftr SititioQ and beh>ng to it, is call<)d her SluJe/tlaha ; it is disliked 
OB foreboding evil. 

If the moon, &ccolerating her course, passes by (beyond) a Station, or 
if her course is slackened and she has not ret reached the Station, ao 
that she is seen standing, as it were, in an interstice between two Lunar 
Stations, this is called the moon's 'UdiU; and this phase is liked as fore- 
boding something good. 
10 Some of these interstices are called by sjxrial names, e.g. the iiiKTstice 
between the Pleiades and Aldabaran is called Ai4ai^a. This interstice 
thoj consider as a bad omen, foreboding evil. It is called Daika^ 
beoatue it sets very rapidly, for between the degree of the setting of the 
Pleiades and the degtx^e of the setting of Aldaban^n there are «t> 
degrees on the ecliptic, and nearly aeoen degrees on the equator. 
According to some authors of ^Anwit-books Daikn consists of the 2l8t 
and 22nd stars of Taums, which the Arabs call the Dot) of AUiohardtty 
bat this is not correct. 

Sometimes the moon, not reaching Alhan*a stands in AUtahdyi, i.e. the 
20 24th, 25th, and 26th of the stars of Gemini. According to others Alta- 
hittfi ia identical with Alhafc'a; whilst others again maintain that it is 
neither the one nor the other. 

Sometimes the moon, not reaching Alsimuk (Spica), stands iu her 
throne of Alsimak, which some Arabs call the BacJcsuh' of the Lion, i.«. 
the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th of the stars of AhjJiuriih (Corvus). 

Sometimes, not reaching Alshavfa (Aculeus Scorpii), the moon stands 
among the KharaxtH, i.e. the vfirtehrm of the tail of Scorpiiis. 

Further, not reaching Alhalda, the moon stands in Alkihida (Monile), 
also called AT uilhxyy {^\A\X9 Struthiocameli) U. the 9th, 10th, llth, 12th, 
30 13tb, 14th, of the stars of Sagittarius. Some j-eople take theao stars to 
be the bow, but they are the head of Sagittarius and his two locks. 

Sometimes, not reaching 5a'(f-(iJ>tt''f](f, the moon stands in Sa'd-Waaftira, 
i.e. the 23rd and 24th of the stars of Capricomus. 

Sometimes, not reaching Alfargh Althani, the moon stands in Alkaraht 
which moans the place where the two cross-woods of the bucket meet, 
where the string is fastened, i.e, the 5th and 7th of the stars of the 
Great Horse (Pegasus). Or (not reaching Alfargh Althani), the moon 
stands in the JiaUUi nf the. Fox, i.e. an empty starless region between 
Alfargh Alth&ttt and Alsainaka (Pisces). 
40 Some one of the authors of 'AnwA.book8 thinks that AVaniean, i.e. the 
1st and 2ad of the stars of the Triangulum, utaud between liafn-aihut and 
Altharafdn, where he saw them setting after AUharatiln ; therefore he main- 
tains that the moon, not reaching AJsharutan, stands in Al'anisan. But this 
is wrong, for Al'onisilu stands in Aries more westward (lit. at more degrees) 
than Alaharatan. However, the retardation of the setting uf Aranisan 

23 



p.351. 



354 



ALBtB^Nt. 



(that they set after AUliaratAn) was caused by their northern latitude. 
For it is peculiar to the stars that those wliich have much northern lati- 
tude nse earlier than those that have less, that in consequence the 
former set earlier than the latter, and vice ven<i in the south. 

Because, now, the fixud stars which give the forms and names to the 
p.352. Lunar Stations move on in one and the sanie slow motion, you must add one 
d&j to the days of their ri§ingand setting in every €6 sohu* years, since in 
such a period they move on one degree. We have represented in a table 
the plELces of the stars of the Lunar Stations for A. Alex. 1300, along 
vith the names given to them by the astronomers, with their longitudes 10 
and latitudes, and the six degrees of magnitude to which each star 
beloDgs. Now, if the reader wants to know thu reality about the Lunar 
Stations, he must correct their places for his time according to the pro- 
gresaioQ we have mentioned, i.e. adding one degree for every 66 years. 
Further, as to their disappearing in the rays (of the sun) and their 
coming out of the rays, he uses the rules mentioned in the Canons. The 
demonstration of these things is found in the Almagest. The eastward 
and westward motions of the Lunar Stations d ifFcr at the same rate as 
the latitudi^s of the countries, further according to the six classes of 
magnitude to which the stars belong, and according to their distances 20 
from the ecliptic. In so doing ho will arrive at certain astonishing facts 
when he has to do with high degrees of latitude north of the ecliptic; 
e.g. when Venus stands in conjunction with the sun in -the sign of 
Pisces, the time of its being concealed uudur the rays is one day or 
nearly two days, whilst it is nearly 16 days when she stands in conjunc- 
tion with the sun in the sign of Yirgo. 

Mercury is observed in the sign of Scorpius in the mornings as pro- 
gressing towards tlie sun, whiltjt the interstice betweeu them is as much 
as Jths of a sign (i.«. 24°), and receding from the sun, whilst he is not 
at all seen in the eveiiiugs. The reverse of this takes place when he 30 
moves in the sign of Taurus, for then ho is observed in tlie evenings 
progressing towards the sun and receding from him, whilst he is not 
seen in the mornings. All these particulars are explained and accounted 
for in Ptolemy's Almagest. 

Here follows the table of tho places of the stars of the Lunar Stations. 



dMii 



ON THB LUNAB STATIONS. 



357 



(On projection, and the construction of star-maps.)— I ^^^^ p.357. 

follow«i iu this book a method which the tttudcat of this science will 
not disapprove, treating in each chapter the subject as fuUj as pos- 
sible, and not referring the reader to other bookti until I had inyaeU 
nearly exhausted the subject. Now, I must add to the book another 
chapter on the representation of the Lunar Stations and of other 
constoUationB on even planes, for the human mind, once knowing at 
what different times the different stars rise, forms an idea as to the 
positions which they occupy in the ecliptic. Our remarks in the pr&- 

10 ceding pages will enable the student to recognise the stars of the Lunar 
Stations by eye-sight, and to p*>int them out. However, not everyone 
who requires these things knows the positions of the ecliptic. Besides, 
the representation of the Lunar Stations as well as the other stars 
comprehended by the 4@ constellations (on an even plane), offers many 
convenipwtes in iKtmmou Uj all L-biSses of scholars. The same applies to 
the representation of countries, cities, and what else there is on earth, 
on an even plane. Therefore, not knowing any special treatise on this 
subject, I shall treat it myself, mentioning whatever occurs to my 
mind. The reader, I hope, will excuse ! 

20 Tlie projection of great and small circles and poinU on globes may 
be done in this way, that you make one of the two poles the top of 
ooncft, tlic envelopes of which pass through them (the circles and 
points), and cut a certain plane which is assumed. For the parts 
(lines or ]K>int8) which are common to this plane and the envelopes 
of these cones if they pass through circles, or common to this plane 
and the lines (of this cone) if they pass through points, are their 
projections on this even plane. 

This is the method of the astrolabe (stereographic polar projection), 
for in the north the southern polo Is made the top of the cones, and 

SO in the south the northern pole is made the top of the cones, and the 
plane which we want to find (the plane of projection) Is one of the planes 
parnlU'l with the plane of the equator. Then they (i^. the cones) ropro- 
sent themselves as circles and straight lines. 

'Abft-H&mid Al^aghan! has transferred the tops of the cones from the 
two poles, and has placed them inside or outside the globe in a stiuight 
line with the axis. In consequence the cones represent themselves as 
straight lines and circles, as elli[>8es, parabolas, and hyperbolas, as be 
(Abi^-H&mid) wants to have them. However, people have not been in 
a hurry to adopt such a curious plane. (Tliis is the central projec- 

4iQ tion, or the general perspective projection.) . 

Another kind of projection is what I have called the eylindrieal pro^ 
Jeeiwti (orthographic projection), which I do not find mentioned by any 
former mathematician. Tt is carried out lu this way : You dniw 
through the circles and lines of the globe lines and planes parallel to 
the tuii. So you get in the day-plane straight tines, circlet, and ellipses 



£)5d 



ALbiiiONi. 



p.858. 



(no par&1>olas and hrpcrbolas). All this is explained in my boolc, which 
gires a complote representation of all posaible methods of the construc- 
iiou of the astrolabe. 

However, lines, circles, and points do not represent themselves in the 
same way on a plane as on a globe ; for the diutaucefl which are equal 
on a globe differ greatly in a plaue, especially if soma of them are 
near to the one pole and others tu the other pole. But it is not the 
purpose of the aatrolabe to represent them (the lines, circles, points) 
as agreeing with eye-sight, but to let some of them revolve whilst the 
others are at rest, ao that the result of this process agrees with the 10 
appearan^'es in heaven, including the difference of time. On the other 
hand, the purpose of the representation of the stars and countries 
(on even planes) is this, to make them correspond with their position 
in heaven and earth, so that in looking at them you may form an 
idea of their situation, always keeping in mind that the straight 
lines are not like the revolving (circular) lines, and that the spherical 
phines have no likeness to the even planes that are equal among each, 
other. 

We must give an illustration to make the reader familiar with these 
methods. One way serving for this purpose is the construction of the 20 
&at astrolabe. 

Draw a circle as you like it, the greater the better. Divide it into four 
parts by two diamctors which cut each other at right angles. Divide 
one of the radii into 90 equal parts. Then we make the centre of 
the circle a new centre, and describe round it circles with the distances 
of each of the 90 parts. These circlos will bo parallel to each other, 
and will be at equal distances from each other. Divide the circumference 
of the greatest circle into the (360) i>arts of a circle, aud connect each 
part of them and the centre by straight linos. 

In doing this we imagine the periphery of this first circle to be the 30 
ecliptic, and its centre to be one of the i>ole8 of the ecliptic. On the 
ecliptic we mark a point as the beginning of Aries. Then we fix the 
places of the stars according to Almagest, or to the Canon of Mul^ammad 
b. Jabir Albattilni, or to the Sooh of Fixed Start, by 'Ab^-Alhusain 
Alfufi, taking into account the amount of precession up to our time, and 
t-haiigiug accordingly the places of the stars as determined by our pr«- 
decessora. Take one of the stars of that half (of heaven) for which you 
have constructed this circle, and count from this aasumed |>oint (the 
beginning of Aries), proooeding from right to left, as many degrees as 
the star is distant from Aries. That place where you arrive is the 40 
degree of this star in lomjitvde. 

Further count, from the same jwiut iu a straight line which extends 
to the centre, the corresponding number of the starts latitude in the ^0 
circles. ThL*n the place you arrive at is the place of the body of the 
stars (1.0, the point determined by both the degrees of longitude and 



OK THE LUNAB STATIONS. 



359 



I&titnde). There you make a dot of yellow or white colour, according to 
the cla«a of magnitude and brilliancy to which in the six dassoB the itar 
may belong. 

The same process you repeat with every star the latitude of which 
liee in the same direction, till you have fioiahed all the Htars of this 
direction. The same you continue to do with the stare of another direc- 
tion, until you have fixed the stars of the whole sphere in two circles. 
We mark these circles with the blue of lapis lazuli, in order to distin- 
guish tbem from the stars, and we draw round the stars of each con- 
10 stellation the iniage which the stars are belieTed to represent, after 
having fixed all the stars in their proper positions. In this way tha 
object we faiid in view is realized. 

This method, however, we do not like, because the figures on tlie 
ecliptic cannot completely be represented, since some parts of them fall 
into this half, some into the other half. If ydu drew round the circle p.359. 
of the ecliptic, outside of it, 90 circles, parallel to and distant from 
each other as far as in the former construction, in the same way as is 
done with the flat astrolabe, the matter would evidently proceed in the 
some order. Further, we do not like this method, as the places of the 
20 stars In heaven and those in the design (drawing) greatly differ from 
each other. For the more southern the stars are, the distances between 
them which appear equal to the eye axe the greater and wider in the 
figure, if its centre l»o the north pole, till at last they assume quite 
intolerable dimensions. The same applies to the method of him who 
wonts to represent the stars in the plane of a circle which passes through 
the two poles of the ecliptic, in those points where the straight lines of 
their heights touc-h the plane {Le. the foot-points of the verti^ails), which 
method is similar to the astrohibic projection ; for then the figures of 
the stars are in an undue manner compressed towards the i>eriphery,and 
30 they become too largo about the centre. 

We shall now try to find another method, which is free from the in- 
conveniences of the process just mentioned. 

Wu draw a circle, divide it into four ports (by two diameters cutting 
each other at right angles), and upon the points of the four parts (i.«. 
where the diameters touch the jMiriphery) we write the names of iha 
directions {i.e. north, west, south, east). 

Wo continue the two diameters that divide the circle into fonrtha, 
atraight on in their directions in infinitum. 

Each radius we divide into 90 equal parts, and the periphery, into 360 
40 parts. 

Next we try to find on the line of the east and west the centres of 
circles, each of which passes through one of the parts (degrees) of the 
diameter and through both the north and south poles. 

When these centres have been fixed, and we draw oil the possibla 
eiicles round them within that first (and largest) circle, we get 180 arcs, 



860 



ALBtKCNt. 



wKich divide the diameter into equal parts, and which cut each other at 
each of the two jwints, the north and south points. 

Those circles are the circleti of longitude. 

Then wo return to that line which proceeds from the north point as 
the straight coniinuation of the diameter. On this line we try to And 
the centre of a circle, passing through those points of the periphery 
which are distant from the eaut luid west, points 1 degree, 2 degrees, etc 
tuitil 90 degrees, and through those points of the diameter which are 
distant from the centre 1 degree, 2 degrees, etc. until 90 degrees. 

The same wo do in the southern half, on the line which proceeds from jg 
the south [>oint as the straight continuation of the diameter. 

The circles we get in this way are the cireles of latitude, 180 in nnmber, 
which divide each of the circles of longitude into 180 parts. 

Further, we assume the west point to be the beginning of Aries, and 
the line from cast to west to be the ecliptic. From the beginning of 
Aries we count the distaoioe of each star; so we find its degree (of 
longitude). 

Then we count the latitude of the star in the proper direction on the 
circle of longitude. Thereliy we find the place of the star. 

We make another figure similar to the first one, where we assume the 20 
west point to be the beginning of Libra.. In this way we can gire a 
complete map of all the stars in the two figures. Laatlr, in representing 
the single star-groups or constellations, we draw those imagt'S which we 
have heretofore described. 

If we want to make a map of the earth, we conBtruct a similar figure 

as described in the preceding. We count the assumed longitude of a 

place from the west point, and then we count the degrees of latitude of 

p.8€0. the place on the circle of longitude. So wc find the jioaition of t}ie place. 

The same we continue to do with uther places. 

This is the technical (graphic) method for the solution of this 30 
problem. 

As some people have a predilection for calculations, and like to 
arrange them iu tables, and prefer them to technical (graphic) methods, 
we shall also have to show how wc may find, by calculation, the dia- 
meters of the circles of longitude and latitude, and the distances of their 
centres from the centre of the (great) circle. And with that we shall 
fini«h our work. 

We draw the circle ABCD round the centre H, and divide it into four 
parti by means of the two diameters AHC and BHP. 



A is to be the west. 
B „ south. 

„ east. 

I> ,, north. 



40 



OS THE LUNAB STATIONS. 



361 



The radii wo dirido into 90 partB, and tlie whole circle into 360 
ports. 

Now, e.g. we want to find the radius of tb« circle BZD, which is one 
of the circles of longitude, and the diRtance of its centre (from the 
centre H). 

Now, it is evident that HZ is known, being determined by the 
degrees, of which the radius HC aa well aa the nulii BH and HD 
hold 90. 

The multiplication of HZ, which is known, by the unknown sum of 
10 HK + KZ, which is the diameter we want to find, minu* Zfi, 

ia equal to 

the multiplication of HB by HD, t.e. the square of one of them. 

Wo take tho square of HB, i.e. 8,100, and divide it by ZH, which is 
known. Thereby we get the som of HK + KZ. To this we add ZH, 
and take the half of the whole sum. That is ZK, the radius of that 
circle to which BZD belongs. 

Now, afUir having found out so much, we open the compasses to such 
an extent as the new>fouud radius is long ; one of the legs of the com- 
passes we place on the point Z, which is known, and the other leg we 
20 place on the continuation of the line HA, to whatever point it reaches. 
Tho latter point is tho centre of the circle, i.e. K. 

In this way we can dispense with the knowledge of the distance 
between the two centres. 

(In the following the text is corrupt.) 
This is the solution of the problem by means of calculation. 

If you want to find the distance of the passage, i.e. that |>oint on the 
periphery of the circle where the line which connects the two points B 
and K cuts the j«riphery, viz. the arc AT, draw the line BK which cuts 
the peripliory in T, draw the vertical (i.e. Loth-Innie, the line which 
30 represents the height of a trapeza or cone) TS upon BB, and dra^w the 
lineTD. 

Because, now, in the triangle BHK the sides are known according 
to the parts, of which the radius counts 90, we change each side into 
that measure, according to which the radius counts 60 degrees, i.e. we 
multiply it by 60 and divide it by 90. So it ia changed into the seiage- p.361. 
simal system. 

The triangles BHK and BTD and BST are similar to each other. 
Therefore we multiply KH by BD, and the product we divide by KB. 
So we get DT as the quotient. 
40 Next wc multiply T>T by HK, and divide the product by KB. So 
we get DS as quotient (changed into that measure, according to which 
DT holds 60 parts). 



364 



albIkM. 



which MQL belongs, according to the measure of which the radius of the 
circle ABCD holds 60 parts. 

If we want to find the distance of the paesage (T) from A, we draw 
the line AK, which cuts the periphery of the circle in T. 

Further, we draw the line TO and draw the Tertical (Loth-Linw) 
T8 upon AC. 

Then we multiply AO by hk and diride the product by AK. 
Thereby wo get TC. 

If we multiply this divisor by HK, and divide the product by AK, we 
getSC. 

Multiply it by AS, and the root of the product ia TS, which is the 
sine of the arc of the passage (i.e. of the arc AT). 

Likowiao, if we change AH into the measure according to which AK 
holds 120 parts, and we take ibc are from the tables of whole chords, we 
get the arc AT, t.e. the distance of the jtasaage (from A). 

This method applies in the same way to the direction of C as to the 
direction of A, to that of B aa to that of D, without the slightest 
difference. 

And here ends my work. Here follows Figure IIL 

C 



s 



10 



-^ 



p,3G2. (Conclusion.) — Now I have fulfilled ray promise, and I have compre- 
hended in my exposition idl thu parts of this science, agreeably to the 
wishes of my friends, exerting myself to the best of my capability. 
Every man acts according to his Eoabion, and the value of a man lies in 
that which hp undersfands. I hope that the element* whirh I have laid 
down are lufficient to train the mind of th« student, and to lead him to 



SO 



ON TITB LUNAR STATIONS. 



365 



a correct consideration of the originee of xnankind, sudScient to lay open 
all that is doubtful in the eras of prophets and kings, and to give a cor- 
rect idea of their ovn system to those of the Jews and Christiana 
who are led astray. 

If the reader be like me (in knowledge), he will thauk me for the task 
I haTe carried oat ; if he be sui>erior to me (in knowledge), be will bo ao 
kind afl to correct my errors and to pardon whatever mistakes I may 
have made. If he be inferior to me in knowledge, he will not do me any 
harm, because he will either acquiesce in being led by me for the purpose 

10 of his instruction, or, in case he opposes me, he will offer opposition to 
thingti which he has not the power of mind Ui handle sufcessfully. 

But why should I mind — or be afraid of — the enmity of any adversary, 
since my badge is, wherever I am, the power of our lord, the noble 
prince, the glorious and victorious, the benefactor, Sfianu-alma'dti^—m&y 
God give loug duration to his power! Its firm uolumu is my trust; from 
the fact that it spreads secretly and openly I derive strength; its briJliaut 
light is the guide of my path ; his undisturbed happiness is my trust 
and my hope. May God teach me and all Muslims to be truly thankful 
for his benefits by fulfilling all the duties of obedience as prescribed by 

20 the law, and by continually praying to God that He may reward hiwr 
according to His mercy and grace. 

Let ufl finish our book with the praise of God, who afforded m© help 
and guidance, and who taught me to distinguish the path of truth from 
the path of blindness. " Let those who want to perish (as infidels, 
idolaters.) ]»erish, after a clear proof (of the irue religion) has been pre- 
sented to thum, and on the strength of it, and lut those who want to live 
(the life of the (rwi religion) live, after a dear proof (of the true religion) 
has l>een preaeut4.'<l to them, and on the strength of it" (Coran, S. 
viii. 44), 

30 The mercy and blessing of God be in all eternity upon the Prophet 
who was sent to the best of nations, and upon his holy family E 



367 



ANNOTATIONS. 



p. 1, 1. 25. 8hams-<dmo*dli. Tliia prince, Eabtla ben Wailimgir ben 
M&rdawij, who had rcucivcd from tho Kholif the honorary name of 
Sham^-almn'dlt, i.e. Sun of the HeitjfUe, belonged to the family of the 
BanA-Zij&d, who ruled orer JorjAn (Hjreama), Tabaristftn, and other 
countriee south of the Caspian Sea during 155 years, viz. a.h. 315-470. 
Kabi^, after having reigned a.h. 3GG-371, was driven away and fled into 
the dominions of the S&m&nian dynasty, where he lived as an exile, 
whilst his country was occupied by a prince of the family of Buwaihi 
A.H. 371-388. To this period tho author alludes, p. 94, 1. 19 ("at the 
time of the ^ahib (i.e. ^ahib Ibn-'Abbi\d the Vazir of the Buyide prince) 
and when the family of Buwaihi held the country under their away"). 

K&bua returned to the throne a.h- 388, and was killed 403. This 
book was dedicated to him according to all probability a.h. 390 or 391 
=A.i>. 1000. The history of this prince is found in Sehir-eddin's " G«- 
schichte von Tabaristan/' etc., ed. Dom, pp. 185-198. 

p. 2, 1. 27. Wading. Although all tJiroc MSS. have ^, I think it 
would have been more idiomatic to read c*>**'' The second form occurs 
T^.ir; ^^,7; M9. 

p. 3, 1. 14. Which have come down froni ihem. The words ,**ifi <^f^ 
are very bad Arabic, next to impossible. It seems rather likely that 
between them a word has fallen out, e.g. Sj*^U, or some lynouym of 

p. 5, 1. 15. NycMhemeron. To meet the inconvenience that the word 
day means the totality of day and night as well as the light half alone, I 
have ventured to adopt for the former meaning the word Nychlhemeron, 
for wliifh I lnjg the reader's i>ardon. 



368 



AimOTATIONS. 



p. 6, h 87. Canon, of Shahriydrdn AUhdh. The word Canon (so I 
translate the word Zij) means a collection or handbook of astronomical 
tables of various kinds. They were always the tlepoaitories of the latest 
discoTerics of GaAtorn astronomy. For more information on these 
Canone I refer to the excellent work of L. A. Scdillot, *' ProU'gorafinea de« 
Tables Aatronomiquea d'OIough-Beg," Paris, 1817, p. viii. ff. (Table 
vmijuie^ etc.) 

A Canon, of Shahriydrdn Ahhdh is not known to me. However, there 
is a Zij-i-Shahrifdr and a Zij-AUhdh, with either of which this Cauon 
may bo identical. 

Tlie former was of Persian origin, and was translated into Arabic by 
Altamimi, vide " Hamzas Ispahaneusis Anualiuin," libri x., p. r*, and 
"Kitab-alfihrist," ed. Flugel, p. 241, 244, and notes. 

The second, with sovoral other canonB, was composed by the famous 
mathematician and astronomer, a native of Marw, IJabash ('Abmad ben 
'Abd-Allab), who lived in Bagdad, end of the second and beginning of 
the third century. Cpr. S<;dillot, "ProltSgomfenes," p. x., note 3, and the 
" Kitab-Alfihrist," ed. by G. Flugel, p. ^v*, and the aimotations. 

p. 6, 1. 42. A variation which duriTig the ecUpseg^ etc. I have not been 
able to ascertain what rf^liLtionshlp betwet^n the eclipHes and the different 
length of the days is meant by the author in this passage. 

p. 7, 1. 39. Except one Mmlim lawyer. The following discussion is of 
mure interest to a Muhammadan theologian than to us. The canonical 
time of fast was from the rise of dawn till sunset, and some too pious 
people mistook this day of fast for the astronomical day. 

p. 8, line 22. Likewise it luid been forbidden, etc. This |)aa8age refers 
to a custom which existed among the Muslims m the time before the 
verse Sftra 11., 183, was pronounced by Muhammad. We leam from the 
commentaries of Alzamakhshuri and Albaidnwi that the lime uf fast 
extended over the whole Nychthomeron, except the time from sunset till 
the second or last night-prayer, i.e. about midnight, or till a man fell 
asleep, during which eating and drinking and women were allowed. 
Omar once had iutercourse ^ith one of his wives after he had said the 
last night-prayer ; this breach of the custom made him feel penitent, 
and he apologized to the Prophet, Thereupon the Prophet abolished 
the old custom, and pronounced the vene in question, allowing bis 
people to eat and drink and have inti^rcourHe with their women not only 
from sunset till the second night-prayer, but also farther till the rise of 
dawn, i.e. nearly the whole night. For the traditions concerning this 
subject vide " Bokhari," ed. Krehl. I., 'P"^, f"*. 

In my translation, p. 8, 1. 23, read ** ctfJer the last ni^ht-prayer ** instesd 
of ** q/l«r night-prayer." 



AKNOTATIOVS. 



m^ 



p. 9, 1. 14. Tradition which reiatea, etc. It u not qiiiio clear to what 
tradition the author refers in this passage. Prof. L. Krehl kindly directed 
my attention to a tradition which occutb Sf>Tera.) times in Albokh&rt 
(" Beeueil lUs TradUiont Mah<nn^t<me$,** publii^ par L. Krohl), e.g. u 149, 
ii. 50, etc. Here Muhammad compares Jews, Christiaas, and Alualinis 
to workmen. The Jews work from sunrise to noon, and reeoive ona 
I^lrftt as wages. The ChnstiauD work from uoon till the afternoon- 
prayer, j^\ 5jU and receive one Kiriit- The Muslims work from the 
afternoon- pray or till sunset, and receive two ^LicAi. So the Muslims 
receive twice the wages of the Jews, whilst they only work half the 
time. 

To a similar tradition the author seems to refer. He calls the Mus- 
lims " fhoee who haeteri to the moaque &» a Friday" thereby distinguishing 
them from Jews and Christians. 

In any case this tradition must have proved, according to the author, 
that Muhammad rppresented the day, whether it be short or long, as 
divided into twelve equal ports, the so-called wpat taupucai. 



p. 9t 1. S6. What tir Jte, etc. The reading of the MSS. iai\) I hare 
changed into (^V It seems preferable, however, to read (^U, as Prof. 
Fleischer suggests. 



p. 9, 1. 46. The prayer of the day ie $\leni (or, rather, mute^. 

The two prayers of the night (w^^ ^J^ ^^^ t.U^\ Ey^) are o^;**- 
t.«. these prayers are spoken with a clear audible voice. The two prayers 
of the day (jflU\ S^ and y^\ S^) are <;)l»^ i.e. these prayers are not 
Bpokeu with au audible voice or whisper ; the lips move, but no sound 
is produced. Therefore they are called (jtjU^\ i.e. the two eiletU or 
mute onett which name is derived from the tradition quoted by the 
author. 

Hiia division does not comprehend the morning-prayer ^r^\ l^. 
Bat it can be proved from tra<1ition that this ]»rayer is to be spoken with 
an audible voice. In the Muiwffa* of MAlik ben 'Anas (published 
with the commentary of Alzurkuut ut B&IAV. ah. 1279, torn. i. p. ^**), 
Alfur&fi^a hen 'Umair AJbanafi relates that he learned the Sunit-YAsuf, 
i.e. Siha xii. by hearing it from Omar, who recited it repeatedly as his 
momiTtg prayer. 

The author wants to prove that the {-^\ 5^ is uot a day-prayer, 
because it is spoken at the rise of dawn, i.e. before the beginning of the 
day. According to holy tradition the prayer of the day m titeni (or mvte)t 
whilst the morning prayer is not 

24 



370 



ALBtB&Mt. 



p. 10, I. 1. The "Jirst " prayer, etc. The five canonical prayers of the 
Nychthemeron ore these : 

vyuJ\ i^ or ^j5l »U«J1 ijU -v 

•UjO^ £jU or S/-31 eUiJ\ 8yu V Prajers of the night. 

The aulhur'tf argumeut ia thin, that ^^\ i^ or monuag-])rayer la 
not a prayer of the day, Ijecnuse the j^\ t/« is called the first, i.e. the 
first of the two day-prayers, and becauBo the j-^\ S^L. ig called the 
middle prayer, i.e. the middle between the first day-pmyor and the first 
night-prayer. If the ^^^ i^ belonged to the day-prayers, the JjU 
y^\ would not be the exact middii in the way we have described, for in 
that ease the /iti\ £^ as well as the j^\ i<^ would l>e in the iikidst 
between the first dny-pmyor and the first night-prayer. 

p. 11, I. 12. Sindhind, An astronomical hand.hook of Indian origin, 
edited the first time by Alfaz.'in, a.h. 154, and a second time by Albfi- 
rftni's famous countryman Muhammad ben MnsA Alkhw&rizmi. Alb^rfint 
wrote a book (commentary ?) on the Sindhind with the title •>j*-^\ fi^^j* 
^^e^^\ v*^—^ o* ''y^^ ^^S^' For the literature on this subject I refer to 
Flugel's " Kitab-alfilirist," p. 274, notes. 

The word SindAind is supposed to be the Sanskrit Siddhdnta, I mast, 
however, observe that AlberQni writes this word in the mortt correct form 
of •i»Uj->, e.g. in the title of his book, " On the mathematical methods of 
the Briihmatiddhiinta" v-U^J^ jjla y-« j*Uju. fjb\jt ^J U i^p. 



p. 11, 1. 15. The four eeaeone. Eeod £»j31 instead of J*»j!H. 



orhia 



p. 12, L :{d. The quotation of Theon refers to the introduction or his 
npox^ifiot. Hoyoi-fSf where he speaks of the Julian year of the people of 
Alexandria, of the Egyptian year of 365 days, and of the Sothis period 
of 1460 years ; vide *' Cuuunentaire dc Thcon d'Alexandrie but les tables 
mauuelles astronomiques de Ptolerndt?," par M. I'AbbtS Halma ; PariSf 
1822, p. 30. On the Sothis period, vide E. Lepsius, "Chronologic der 
Aogyptcr," BerUn, 1849, p. 165 ff. 

p. 12, I 40. On the year of the Persians, cf. a short treatJM of 
A. T. Outschmid, Veber dat iranische yaAr, "Sitzungsberichtti der Kgl. 
SachBischen Gesellschaft der Wisaenschaften," 1862, 1 July. 

p. 13, L 22. Th« HArev^, Jetm, and all the Itraeiiteg. It is difficult to 
explain what differenott the author meant to exjiress by these throe 
words, which to us muan all the same. Perhaps he meant by Hehrtwt 
the ancient Jews, Samaritans, and other kindred nations ; by /new, the 



ANNOTATIONS. 



371 



monotheistic people in particular ; and by aU the Bant-Iarael, the totality 
of the Jewifih Becis. Rabbanites, 'AnAnites (Karaer), and others. Vuie 
a ttimilar expression on p. 62, U. 16, 17. 

p. 13, 1. 34. Tn a nmilar xoay the heathen Ambi, etc CI with Alb^ 
Hinl'fi theory, the* deacription of ancient Arabic chronology by A. 
Sprenger, " Lebeu und L«hn: dtii Mohammiu:!," iii. p. 530 ff., and 
« Zeitechrift der Deutechen Morgenlindiechen GeeeUschaft," torn. xiii. 
p. 134, and torn. xxxi. p. 5&2. 

p. 13, 1. 42. The gcnt^alogy of the KalAmis occurB also, hot with some 
differences, in Ihn UUfidm, " Life of Muhammad,** ed. Wusteofeld, i. pp. 
29, 30. 

p. 14, 1. 16. The text of this verse is incorrect, for, according to the 
context, it does not contain a description of Fukaim, but of 'Abu Thu- 
mkma, ; and, secondly, the metre is disturbed, fur I do not think that 
the ItMftMa po«f tea allowed a poet to distort the word ^ ■ S i ^ \ into \ i U^ \. 

p/l5, 1. 13. The Itap-year they caU Adhimasa. According to the 
double construction of the vt^rb ^j»-, the Indian word may either be 
A-UJi or *-l-J. It Beems preferable to rea<l i-U.iW, and to explain i-UJl. 
as AdhinuUa, although it must be obsco'cd that this means "intercalary 
month," not "intercalary year," aa the author maintains. Of. Bf>inaud, 
" M^raoire sur I'lnde," p. 352. 

p. IS, 1. 15. And their eubdioiiiotu. Bead ^jV^ (£» depending on 
^Uax.-!!), ue. the Jufilr of the Lunar Stations. 

Our dictionaries do not expLiin the muuning which the word /o/r, pi. 
Jufilr, has in this passage. It is a term peculiar to the Indian systtim of 
astrology ('0tarid ben Muhammad wrote a book On thf Indian Jafr, 
^Si^\ yk^l ^IsS', vide " Kitab-olfihrist," p. 278), and it melius something 
conncctt^d with the Lunar Stations, perhaps certain gubdivisiona (but 
this translation of mine is entirely conjectural). 

The word occurs in four other places in this book :— p. 336, 1. 9. 
The Indians deriTe their aarpoXvyuvfixva from the fact of the stars 
entering the R!biUCd (i.e. resting-places, rood-side iunsj of the Lunar 
Stations. These Riifdfdt are called Jii/'^r, and each of them is 
thonght to refer to some special matter or event (life, death, travelling, 
victory, defeat, etc.). Their number must have been very great, be- 
cause the author says that he will refrain from enumerating them, as 
this would detain him too long from the subject of his book. p. 338, 
1,14: The author, speaking of the same subject, mentions the KibafAt 
Ukd the Jufdr of the Lunar Stations side by side; also, p, 341, 
1. 7. On p. 347, both words occur in the superscription of column 5, 



372 



ALBtfiONt. 



"but here the writing of the manuscript is such a bad ecraw! that I do 
not feel sure of baring uia4o out a correct text. 

As the dubjeet-matt'or seems to be of Indian origin, one may presume 
that the word also is derived from tlie same source. 

p. 15, 1. 17. Abu Mvhammad AhuVib AhhnuU (i.e. a native either of 
Aniul in Tabariatsn or of Amul or Am(i on the Oius), tbc author of 
a Kitiib-tUghurra is mentioned four times, vide p. 53^ 1. 34; p. 285, 1. 8; 
p. Sil, 1. 2. He is not known to me from other sources. 

p. 16, 1. 14, Cannot be dispensed mth. Bead ^j^ instead of ,jA* 
(Fleischer). 

p. 17, 1. 6. A IradiiioH /or tvKieh, etc. Inirtead of *» fyU^ (\f, 4), 

read £;*■*-• or ^ £/-*-• (Fleischer). 

p. 17, 1. 8. Perhaps we shall facilitate the understanding of the 
following pages, if we state the order of the author's arguments. 

A. Notions of the Persians regarding the Era of Creation, p. 17, 1. 8. 

B. Notions of the Jews on the same subject, p. 18, L 5. 

C. Notions of the Christiaus, p. \V, \. 10. 

D. Refutation of the Jenish theory, p. 19, 1. 41. 

£. Bcfutation of the Christian theory, p, 21, 1. 5, and Biblical pro- 
phecies relating to MuJijiammud, p. 22, 1. 17. 

F. On the Thora of Jews, Christians, and Samaritans, p. 24, 1. 1. 

G. On the difference of the Gospels, p. 25> 1. Si>. 
H. On sectarian Gospels, p. 27, 1. 9. 

p. 17, 1. 9. For the Persians, etc. Cf. with the following traditions, 
chapter xxxir. of Biindeheschf cd. F. Justi, 1868. 

p. 18, L 5. The Jews and Ohrisiians differ, etc. An extract of the 
following hj Almaljrizi has been published by S. de Sacy, "Chresto- 
mathie Arabo," torn. i. p. 284. 

p. 18, L 16. By HisiiUaljuminal the author understands the notation 
of the numerals V>y mt.'aus of the letters of the Arabic alphabet, arranged 
according to the sotjuence of the Hebrew alphabet. 

p. 18, 11. 19, 20. Aird'it AbH-'Imt Alis/ahdni. Of these two pscndu-Mes- 
siafas the latter Is well known. For his history, vide H. Graets, 
" Geachichte der Juden," 2nd edition, t<»m. v. p. 167 and p. 438. Of the 
former name there is no }>8eudo-Mossmh known in Jewish history. 
Howevei*, Graetz reports of a pseudo-Messiah (loc. eU. p, 162), whom 
ho calls Serene. The oldest Hehrew report concerning this man 
begins : 

rnm lau? ynuh 'C-'m^os Tcjnr nyoo V'aan on^TMtftth 



ANNOTATIONS. 



878 



" What you have asked regarding the deoeiTer (or heretic) who has 
riwD in our exile, and whosp name is y^/' etc. Whether this name 
has any connection with the Arabic! ^V^* whether the reading yv^ 
is to be changed into ^^, otudente of Jewish history may decide. 
Certainly a later Latin chronicle calls him SorenuB (Gnwitz, loc. cit. 
{t. 4:^- ff.) A psendo- Prophet, jRt**, in Tiljeriae. in also mentioned by 
Ai'jAubari in "Zeitschrift der Deutfiohen Morgenlandischen QeaeU- 
Bchoft;' XX. 490. 

p. 18, L 25. The author's transliteration of Hebrew words resembles 
very much the present pronunciation of the Jews of Galizia. Between 
the words QTVZ *id DV2 the Arabic has the signs i>U^, and the last 
word Nim is written f»iy^\* for both of which variations I am unable 
to account 

p. 18, 1. 35. Since the time tphen. The Arabic translation of this 
passage is not quite correct, and next to unintelligible. It betrays a 
certain likeness to the translation of the Syriac Bible (Peshi^a), where 
this passage is rendered by — 

1^^"^ yioaxl ^aikll U^yQo ',mj? U^l ^o 

"And from the time when the sacrifice ftasses away, impurity will 
be given to destruction." 
Accordingly I read the Arabic text : 

although I am aware that this is biul and ungramnmtituil Arabic. On 
p. **, 1. 20, read j«^ with PL instead of jo-i. 

p. 19, 1. 12. Sum of 1335. Head e>»^j instead of U^ t^^^ on p. '<'\ 
I 8. 

p. 19, 1. 22. VrisWiTit i.e. Jerusalem, etc.. The author gives to this pro- 
phecy of Daniel a wrong date. It falls into the first year of Darius, 
c. Dan. ix. 1, not in the time Bome yeare after (he accfSfwn of Cyntu to the 
t/trone. This latter date the author has taken from Dan. x, 1 (" in the 
third year of Cyrus," etc.), and Dan. x. 4. 

Perhaps in the Arabic text (p. ^% 1. 11) the word *i>^ has fallen out 
between the words J*« and ye*-- 



1. 19, p. 31. And before this, etc. This is a blunder of the author's. 
It ought to be, " And afler this" etc. 

I 20, p. 48. Jerutalem. Hero, p. 17, I. 21, and in all other passages 
(p. 16, 11. 1,18, etc.) the correct reading is ^/•aAj^ u^ according to Yalf At, 



874 



ALIlfBCNt. 



"Oeographisches Worterbuch," iv. 590, not ^j-ja*H i*-rt. 
ing line, p. 18, 1. 1, read t^\ instead of i\ (Fleischer) . 



In the foliow- 



p. 22, 1. 17. For Mui^ammad, ete. Bead 
p. 19, 1. 3. 



instead of 



on 



p. 22. 1. 40. Almathnd. Bead ,jAjUJW instead of ..^^W ; and in the 
following line read V ^y instead of M y-* (p. 19| L 18). 

p. 23, 1. 16. Legions of gainU who, eto. This passage is of Koranic 
origin, and formed up*>n the pattern of Sftra iti. 121. The idea of war- 
riors wearing certain badges (as e.g. the cross of the Crusaders) occurs 
also in a tradition, vide Albait^awt od Sura iii. 121, and Lane, Arabic 
Diet. e.v. fiy^. 

p. 24, 1. 6. After Nehukadnexar had atnqueredj etc. The last source of 
this tradition regarding the origin of the version of the Seventy is the 
letter of AristtMis, well known to Biblical scholars, and now generally 
admitted to be apoehrjphal, vide De Wette, "Lehrbuch der historisch- 
kritischen Einleitung," edited by E. Schrader, part i. p. 92. 

p. 24, 1. 28. And each coupU, etc. Bead " and every one of them had 
got a tervani to take care of Him.** And in the Arabic, t\ 2, read J*j 
instead of ^;^s^;, **^ instead of ^h^W, and 1. 3, W^Mh/ instead of **»♦/. 
On the same page, 1. 6, read Jyff instead of Jy^. 

p. 25, 1. 2. AUdmatdtiyya. This name is derived from the expression 
^U»« ) (" do not touch "), in Siira \x. 97 ; vida S. de Sacy, " Chrestomathie 
Arabe," i. pp. 339, 342, 344. It is identical with 'AOtyym^ot, the Greek 
name of a heretical soet, vide Du Conge, " Lexicon indmse Grsocitatis," 
and *' Etymologicum Magnum," ed. Ckusford. 

p. 25, 1. 25. Aniantie. The Arabic manuscripts give the name ij*)e^ 
Le. Athtnwut ; but the well-known Athenieus cannot be meant here. I 
prefer to read u*}*^^, Anianus. This author, an Egyptian monk, con- 
temporary of PunodoruB, is known as a chronographer ; he is quoted in 
the fragmentary chronology of Elios Nisibenus, cf. Forshall, " Cata- 
logue of the Syriac MSS. of the British Museum," p. 86, col. 2, no. 5. 

p. 25, t. 28. Ibn^atbaaydr, from whose Kit4b-al^ir&nAt the author has 
taken the statement of Anianus, was a pupil of ^abash, and lived in Uie 
9th century, vide " Eitab-alfihrist, p. 'ZIQ. 



p. 26, 1. 30. 
p. rr, 20. 



But no vuUe children, etc. Bead t^t^i S instead of 0ft S, 



1NU0TATI0N8. 



375 



p. 27, 1. 5. SotB Joeeph and hfary, otc. Head JU iii8t«ad of UU, on 
p. rr, 6, and Ul. instead of ^, 1 16 (Fleischer). 

p. 28, 1. 11. It is related Ouxl TahmHrath, etc. The laBt scarce of this 
report is the Book on the Di^erences of the Canons (aatronomical band- 
books), by Abfl.Ma'ahar, cf. " KitAh-alfihrist," p. 240, iind also 
" HamzsB Ispahouensis Ajinalium," libri x. ed. GbUwaldt, p. 107. The 
word (BjU in thia report, p. 24, 1. 9, meana itt.umlijic bookn, as ahio in the 
"Kitnb-aLfihriBt," p. 2-10, 1. 28: " And he orderiKl a great quantity of 
scientific books {^ys^ U^) to be transported from his storehoases to that 
place." 

p. 28, 1. 16. Leasl eajpoted, etc Bead W instead of &a«, on p. 24, 1. 10. 

p. 28, 1. 23. Thai QayStaarth vxxs nol^ etc. Tlie same tmdition occurs 
in the chronicle of Ibn-ALxthir, ed. Tombcrg, i. p. 34, 1, 5. 

p. 2d» 1. 34. Some genealogists make the LM of Qencsis x. (in Arabic 
JjS) the father of the Persians, Hyrcanians, of Ta-am and Amalek, etc. 
(Ibn-Aliitbir, i. 56). The Arabs have niistaken the Hebrew D''DM 
{Emaei, the original inhabitants of the conntry of Moab) for a singular, 
and for the name of a man ('Amim ben L&d, Ibn-Alathir, i. £6). 

p. 29, 1. 4. Aht'-Arn'ghir, a native of Balkh, one of the fathers of 
astrology among the Arabs. He wrote numerous books on all branches 
of astrology, many of which are still extant in the libraries of Europe. 
He lived in Bagdad, was a contemporary of Alkindi, and died a.u. 272, 
at Wasit. Cf. " Kitab-aiahrisl," p. tvv and notes ; Otto Loth, " Alkindt 
als Astrolog," p. 205. In the middle-ages he was well known also in 
Europe as AUtumai&r, and many of his works have been translated into 
Latin ; whilst modern philology has hitherto scarcely taken any notice 
of him. Wherever Alb&rOnt quotes him, he wages war against him, and, 
to judge by the quotations from, his books which our author gives, it 
seems that the literary work of Abu-Ma'shar does not rest on scientific 
bases. 

p. 29, 1. 18. On the gtar-eycles, cf. J. Narrien, " Historical account 
of the Origin and Progress of Astronomy," London, 1833, p. 112. 

p. 29, 1, 28. Days of Arjabkax and days of ArJcand. According to 
Keinaud, "M^moire sur I'lndt;," p. 322, the correct form of the former 
name would be AryablmtUi, and the latter would be the Sanskrit ahargana. 
Alb£r(kn! made a new edition of the Days of Ar/tand, putting it into 
clearer words and moro idiomatic Arabic, since tlie then existing trans- 
lation was unintelligible, and followed too closely the Sanskrit original, 
vide my ** Einleitung," p. xl., in the edition of the Arabic text. 



376 



albIbCn!. 



p. 29, 1. 31. Muhammed ben Isl^Ak ben Uetjidh Bund&dh Alsorakhs?, 
and Ahik.alwafJt Mul^anuuad ton Muhammad Albuzj&nt. 

The latter wae bora at Buzjan in the diatriut of NJahAjiftr, a.h. 328, he 
settled in 'IrAlf, A.n. 348, and dicnl 387. Cf. SMillot, " Proidgomfinos," 
p. S8 ; " Kitnb-alfihriat," p. 283 ; Ibn-Al'athSr, ix. •»*, 3. 

The former scholar is not known to me. 

p. 31, 1. 15. Th JTchrcxo, " Nebukadnezar." In the Arabic, '^, 3* read 
jid^yti instead of ^UtJA^^j (De Goeje, Noddeke). 

p. 31, 1. 35. CaUippM wa* one of the num&?r, otc. Bohind the words 
4*«ys ^ ^^Je y^j there socms to lurk a gross blunder of the copyista. 

p. 32, 1. 16. Zoroaster, teho belonged to Oie sect, etc. The passage, 
2^U^^ «-A«» y^j^ x\ 2, aeems hopelessly corrupt. Mj translation is 
entirely conjectural (*JLu ^^ ybj). 

p. 32, I. 22. Philip fA« faiher of Alexander. This is a mistake of the 
author's. He ought to have said : Philip thr. brother of Atfjrander. The 
Bource of this statement regarding the era of Philippus Arridteus is 
Theon AlezandrinuSf Upo^npoi KavovK^ eil. Halmti, p. 26 : cf, L. Ideler, 
" Handbuch der mathematischGn und techuischen Chronologie," ii. 630. 

p. 33. 1. 6. ffab3> ben Bihrie^ meiropolHan of Mo$ul, is known as one 
of those scholars who translated Q-reek V>ookg into Arabic at the time of 
the Khalif Alma'mftn (a.h. 198-218). Cf. "Kitab-aiahrist," p. 244, 
1. 7 ; p. 248, 1. 27 ; p. 249, 1. 4. 

p. SS. 1. 18. 'A^mad hen 8ahl. This man of Sasaoian origin was a 
Difikdn (t.«. great landholder) in the district of Marw. He played a 
great r*?* in the history of his time, and was command er-iii-chi of to 
several priuces of the house of SuniAn. His bistorv is related by Ibn- 
Alathir, viii. 86 ; " Histoire des Samanidos," par M. Defrcmery, PuriB, 
1846. p. 134. 

p. 33. 1. 28. It uxw Auguetw whoj etc. On the origin of the ^ra 
Au^eii, cf. Theon Alexandrinus, Upoxtipot Kav6y(^, ed. Hal ma, p. 30, 
I. 32 ; Ideler, " Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chrono- 
logie," i. 153 fiF. 

p. 33, 1. 34. Ptotemy correct^d^ etc. The source of tliis information ts 
Pt<ileuiy, fUL&rffutTucrj ormtfis, book vii. ch. 4 (ed. Halma, torn. ii. p. 80). 

p. 33, I. 44. The proyrwttiet, JTU^^ arc questionB relating to ttie 
decrees of the stars ((•^V^l i*^^^ ^)* The hooka on this subject con- 
tain the astrological answers to all eorte of queations, and the methods by 
which tlu'se answers are fuond. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



377 



p. 34, L 7. Jfai'mwn hfn Mikntn, a dealer in oloibs and stufFfl nf 
linen and cotton, was at the bead of the administration of the taxes of 
Northern Mesopotamia (AJjazfra) under the Khalif Omar ben 'Abd- 
ai'aziz, and died a.u. 117 ; vide Ibn<Kutaiba, '* Kitab>abna'arif " ed. Wu8< 
leufeld, p. 228. 

p. 34, 1. 26. AUha*bt, i.e. *Amir ben Sharahil ben *Abd Alsha'bt, of 
South-Arabian origin, was bom in the second year of the reign of *TJth. 
man ; he was secretary to seToral great men of his time, e.g. to 'Abdall&h 
hen Yazid, the governor of Alkufa, for the KhaUf Ibn-alzubair, and 
died A.H. 105 or 104 ; vide Ibn-K«taiba, " Kitub-alma'arif," p. 229. 

p. 36, 1. 10. B^orm of the eakttdar fry ike Khalif Ahnu'ta4id. Cf. 
Ibn-AIatbir, rii. p. 325. 

p. 36, 1. 14. Abu-Bakr Alfuli, i.e. Mubamniad ben Tahya beji 'Abdal- 
lAb ben Al'abhas, most famous as a chess-player in bis time, the com- 
panion of several Klialifs, died A.n. 335 or 336, at Ba^ra. In bis Kitdh- 
afauTok he related the history of the Khalifs, and gave a collection 
of their poems and those of other princua and great men. Cf. Ibn- 
KhaUiidn, ed. Wustenfeld, nr. 669, and " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 150. 

p. 36, 1. 19. 'Ubaid-alUh ben Tahya ben KliakJtn was made the Vazir 
of the Khalif Almutawakkil, jl h. 236 (Ihn-Alathir, vii. 37), and died 
JLH. 263 Qoc. eiL p. 215). 

p. 36, 1. 42. Kb&lid ben 'Ahdallah AlkaHr? watt made governor nf AlHrAV 
by the KhaUf Hisb&m ben 'Abd-almalik a-h. 106 (Ibn-Alathir, v. 93), 
and held this office during 16 years, till a.h. 120, (loc. eii. p. 167). Of. 
Ibn-Kutaiba, « Kitdb-a!ma*flrif," p. 203. 

p. 37, 1. 6. The Barmak family were accused of adhering secretly to 
the religion of Zoroaster^ cf. " Kitab-aliihrittt," p. 338, 1. 14. 

p. 37, 1. 9. Ibrd^m bm AVtihbdi Al^'ili, an uncle of the father of 
AbA-Batr Al^lilt (on p. 36, L 14), a moat famous poet and high official 
of the Khalif in Surra-man-ra'a, died a.h. 243, The family of $uU, a 
family of poets, of eloquent and learned men, of whom several acquired 
a great fame, descended from a prlnr-ely hnuae of Hyrcania. According 
to our author, p. 109, K 44, the princes of Bahistan were called Sfil. For 
the biography of Ibrahim and thu history of his family, vide Ibu-KhalU- 
Mn, nr. 10 (ed. Wustenfeld). 

p. 37, 1. 19. These verses of Albu^turi form part of a larger iKX?m in 
the poet's diwnn which exists in the Imperial Court-Library at Vicuna 
(Milt. 125 f. 293, 294), vide Flugel'a Catalogue, i. 436. 

p. 38, I. 5. *Ali ben Yahyd was famous in bis time as an astro- 
nomer and poet, and aa a friend uf several Kholifs. He died a.u. 275 at 
Surra-man>ra*&. Ibn.KhalltlcAn, nr. 479, He was one of a whole family 

25 



878 



ALBtnONt. 



of (liBting^ulHhetl poet« and H(-lioliir8 who tnu'e<3 their origin hack to 
Yazd^rd, the last Safiauian kiog. Cf . " Kitab-aJfihriat," p. 143. 

p. 39, 1. 16. On these mythological traditions, cf. L. Krehl, ''Die 
Heligion dor VoriBlBDiischen Araher," Leipzig, 1863, p. 83 ; Almaa'Adi, 
" Prairie6 d'or," ed. B. de Meynard, \r, 46 ; Ibn-Alathir, ed. Tornberg, 
ii, 80. 

p. 39, .1. 33. Baml-KuraUh. In the Arabic, p. 34, I. 12, read CMj^ 
instead of ^£4^21 ; and p. 34, line 13, read J^ji instead of ^^^ 
(Fleischer). 

p. 39, 1, 34. The following famous battle-days of the ancient Arabs aro 
well known to Arab historians. For more detailed information I refer to 
the chronicle of Ibn-AlathSr, of which nearly one half of torn. i. 
(p. 320 fif.) is dedicated to this subject. Cf . also Ibn ?utaiba,* " KitAb- 
alma'arif ," p. 293 ; " Arabum Proverbia," ed. Freytag, torn. iii. 
p. 553ff. 

The pronunciation of the word A^add (p. 39, I. 44) seems doubtful. 
Takfit, iii. 804, mentions Algfuufdt a pkce in the district of the Banft- 
Kilib, where once a battle toot place. Therefore it would perhaps bo 
preferable to rend " The day of Al^ha4A" 

p. 40, 1. 26. On this war of AlfijAr, in which Mubammad took part, 
cf . A. Sprengcr, " Dos Lehen und die Lehrc des Mohammad," i. 351, 423. 

p. 40, L 35. Notwithstanding, we have stated, etc. This passage proves 
that there is a tacuiia in the order of the chronological tables, such as 
exliibited by the manuscripts. According to the author, his work con- 
tained also the tables of the princes of South-Arabia and of Albira. but 
no such tables arc found iu the manuscripts. Their proper place would 
have been between the Saaanmns and the Khalifa (after p. 128), but the 
table of the Khalifs is lost, too. 

I am inclined to believe that the author had scarcoly any other in- 
formation hut that of IJfamza Aliafahilui (trausL by Gottwaldt, pp. 73 
and 96). The manuscript of the UoiverBity Library of Leyden proves a 
oonBiderablc help for the emendation of Hamza's work, but more manu- 
scripts will be wanted before a reliable and clear text can be made out. 

p. 40, 1. 39. For the following report on the antiquities of Chorasmia 
I refer to my treatise, Zvr Qeechicktt uttd Chronologic von Khwdrvsm /., 
published in the " Sitzungsberiehte der Kius. Academie de Wissen- 
Bchaften in Wien," Philosophise h-historische Classe, 1873, p. 471 fE. 

p. 41, 1. 7. On the name of Afrigb, vide my treatise Conjectur tm Ven- 
didad, i. 34, in " Zeitschrift dor Doutschen MorgenlRndiscben GkselU 
Bohaft," xxviii. p. 450. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



379 



p. 41, L 23. Piece hy piece. Bead UUd instead of UC4 (text, p. 35. 
L 16 (Fleiacher). 

p. 41, 11. 33» 4]. I prefer to read AzhSkhwdr m6t«ad of Askajawar; 
also p. 42, 1. 26. 

p. 43, 1. 24. The chief source of all information of eastern authors 
regarding AJexander is the book of Pseudo-Callisthenes (edited by C. 
Milllor, I^ris, 1846, Didot). The book has been treated with the same 
libertj both in east and weet, aud it seems that the eastern transla- 
tions have not less differed from each other than tho various Greek 
maauscripts of the book. The passage p. 44, 1. 30 ff. does not occur so 
in the Greet original, but something like it, cf. book ii. ch. 20, 
p. 77. The murderer of Darius, p. 44, 1. 8, has a Sasanian name (Nau- 
jushauas), whilst iu the origiual there are two murderers, Bessus and 
Artabarzanes (ii, 20). That Nebukadnezar is introduced into the tale, 
occurs also elsewhere — Moa'Adl, " Prairies d'or," ii. 247 ; Tabar! (Zoten- 
berg), i. 516. That Alexander was originally a son of Ihirius, is the 
tradition of the Sh&hnama of Firdauei, vids also Tabari, i. 512; Ibn- 
Alathir, L 199, 1. For more information I refer to Fr. Spiegel, " Die 
Alcxanders^e bei den Orieotalen," Leipzig, 1851. 



p. 45, I. 3. Ihn-'Ahd'Ahasxdk AlftUt. A man of this name, i.e. Ibn 
'Abd<alnizzak is mentioned in the history of the Buyide prince Rukn- 
aldaula, by Ibn-al'atlur, viii. p. 39G, among the events of a.b. 349. 

p. 45, 1. 5. AbA-l8hak TbrAhim ben HilAl, the Salbian, was the secre- 
tary of the Buyide jirtnce *Izz-aldaula Bakhtiyiti, famous as an eloquent 
writer in prose and verse. He died A.a. 384, or, according U> auothor 
statement, Iwforo a.h. 380. Cf. " KitAh-alfibrist," p. 134 ; Ibn-Kliallikan, 
ur. 14 ; F. Wilken, Mirchond'u " Geschichte der Sultane aua dem Gk- 
Bchlechte Bujeh," Berlin, 1835, p. 105. 

The title of his book (p. 45. 1. 6) r^ad AMji instead of AUdj. 

On the pedigree of the family of Buwaihi, cf. Ibn-Kutaiba, " Sitab- 
alma*Arif," p. 36; Ibn-Alathir, viii. 197; P. Wustenfeld, Genealogische 
TabeUen T. 10 and Register, p. 152. Most of the names wliicb occur 
in this pedigree are also foand in Sehir-eddin's ** Geschichte von 
Tabaristan, Bujau und Hazandaran," ed. Dom, p. 101, and tho whole 
pedigree, foe. cit. p. 175. 

p. 45, 1. 9. Head JJ-<i.U instead of }^\jI (text, p. 38, 1. 8). 

p. 45, 1. 22. Abft-Muj^ammad Al^asan ben 'Al! ben Nana, mentioned 
ai the author of a history of the Buyide prlncesi is not known to me. 



380 



ALBtRdNt. 



p. 46, 1. 8. Read J-^ instead of J-W (text, p. 38, 1. 10) ; and J-V 
instead of J-\» (p. 38, 1. U). Bead JUs instead of Ji-4 (p. 38, 1. 11). 

p. 46, 1. 12. The names of L&bft and Lay&haj (p. 15) are unknown to 
me ; perhaps they have some sort of relation with the word Ldhijdn, 
^l%*3, which ia the name of one of the two capitals of GhiUn, of. Dom, 
** Sehir-eddiu's OescbicLte von Taharistau," etc. Vorwort, p. 11, 
note 1. 

p. 47, 1 23. OhMn. Read ^\ instead of J^\ (teit, p. 39, 1. 5). 



p. 47, !. 25. Asfitr hm Sh'tratmihi. Under the Kliatifate of Almulj- 
tadir (a.h. 295-320) the party of the Alidea tried to occupy the cowntriea 
south of the Oospiaa Sea, TabaristAn, Dailam, GhilAu and Jurj&n, 
fi^htin^f against the troops of the Samaaiau piinces of Khurnsan and 
those of the KhaUf. The first Alide whose efforts wore crowned with 
success was Hasan ben 'AU, called AhuSfir Al'utrwh, about a. a. 302. 
Soon, however, the generals of the Alide princes, Lailil ben AlQU'mftn, 
lOkAu ben Kjiki, A.sfar Leu Shirawaihi, were more HU<>ce8Hful tltaa they 
themselves. The latter, Asfitr, who abandoned the party of the Alidos, 
succeeded, a.h. 315, in occupying Tabaristan, and in rendering himself 
an independent ruler. He did not long enjoy the fruits of his labouiv. 
After having made himself thoroughly unpopnlar, he was killed by his 
generals, at the head of whom was Mardawij, a.u. 316. Marduwij was 
now the ruler of Tabaristiln and Jurj4n, and tried to extend his sway 
over the ueighhuuring countries. He was the fouuder of a dynasty who 
held the supreme jwwer in those countries during one hundred and 
fifty years. He abanduued the party of the Alides, and adopted the 
bUck colour of tbo Abbaaides. To the Khalif he made himself so 
formidable that he was invested and proclaimed as the legitimate 
governor of all the provinces whieb his sword had conquered. Of. 
Weil, " Gesehichte der Khalifen," ii. 613-621. A history of this man 
and of his descendants is found in Sehir-eddin's " Gkschichte von 
Jabaristun, Bujan und Mazaudaran," ed. by Dom, 1850, on pp. 171-201 
and 322. 

MardAwij was a ,jw, i«. native of Qhilan (not ^JW, native of Aljabal 
or Media). The name of his father is written J^) and o^|, and I have 
not been able to make out which form is the correct one. In Sehir* 
eddiii'a chronicle, the name is always written j^y 

In the text, ^, 6, read JeV^ instead of J^t. Between the words *lj 
and ^ (line 6), there seems to be a Ukkjm which I have no means of 
filling up. This lacuna is the reason why the following words do not 
offer a clear meaning. It is not dear who was the ton of Warddiuhdh 
who instigated Marduwtj to free the people trom the tyranny of Aaf&r. 



INXOTATIONB. 



S81 



p. 47, 1. 29. Khwd»An. Read o^^^i ^t 8, instead of yU-;,!. 

The name Farkkvtdtjirtkdh may possibly be identical with that name 
whicb AndehirwAn is said to have bad as the governor of Tabaristan in 
tlie lifetime of his father, Hamr.a lefaliiVui, ed. Gottwaldt, *V 3, 4. Cf. 
^ 'i\y^/ and 4W ^ J^y^y in Sehir-eddin'a "Chronik von Tabarietan," ed. 
Dom. pp. 19, 31, 42; P. de lagarde, "Beitrage zur B&ktrischen Lexiko* 
graphio/' p. 50 £E. 

p. 47, 1. 30. In tbe text on p. 39, read J^) instead of oUJI, 1. 9 ; 
JX«r inst«ad of Jil^, 1. 13 ; and ii^\ instead of ^}»i\ I. 19 (Fleischer). 

p. 47, 1. 32. The Ispalibad Bustam, the uncle of Sbams-a]ma*a]i is 
also mentioned by Ihn-Ai'attur, viii. 506. To a son of tbis Bustam, 
IJbkrauban ben Rustam, the Ispahbad of Jiljil&n, our author has dedi- 
cated one of his books, vide my edition of the text, Einleitung, p. xl. 
nr. 7. 

The history of tbe ancestors of the Ispahbad Rustam is related in 
Sehir-eddin's " Gescbicbte von Tabaristan," etc., ed, Dom, pp. 201-210, 
270, 322. Thoy arc called *' the family of Bdwand." 

In p. 47, 11. 34 and 38, read (ji^ instead of ,^)^, Cf. TAVftt, " Geo- 
grapbiscbes Worterbuch," iii. 283. 

p. 48, 1. 5, The same pedigree of the bouse of SAm^n is also given 
by Ibn-arathir, yij. 192, and in the geography of Ibn*H&ukal, pp. 344, 
345. 

p. 48, L 16. The Shihs of Shinvttn. According to Kazwint, " Athilr- 
albilad," p. 403, Shirwaa was first colonized by Kisra AnoBhirwau. The 
kings of the country were called (jU-^l, An^sbirffdn is said to have 
installed the first goremor and prince of Shirwan, a relative of his 
family. Cf. Born, " Verauch einer Qescbichte der Shirw&nflhabe," p. 12 
and 25. Mas'ftd!, " Prairies d'or," ii. 4, makes tbe SbirwansUah of his 
time descend from Babram-Giir. 



p. 48, 1. 24. Vhaid-AUdh, etc., founded the empire of the F&timide 
dynasty in Kairaviin and Egypt, a.h. 296. He pretended to bo a 
descendant of *A11 ben Abi-T&lib. Cf. n)n.Arathlr, viii. 27; Ibn- 
^Cutaiba, « Kitab-alma'arif," p. 57 ; Weil, " Geschichte der Chalifen," ii, 
598. 

That prince of this dynasty who ruled at the time of our author, Abfl- 
'Ali ben Nizar, et*. (p. 48, 1. 31) was Kbalif of Egypt, a.h. 386-411, and 
is better known under the name of Al^akim, cf. Ibn-Al'athir, ix. 83, 2 ; 
82,14; 221,14. 



382 



iiaJEftNl. 



p. 48, 1. 41. I feel inclined to suppose thai in this pedigree there is 
a lacuna 1>etweeu *i^'^ and 0f^y^, that ^^-^k the son of Noah was ori- 
ginally the end of the first pedigree, and that the second commencod 
with Alexander ben Barka, etc. This opinion is supported by Mas'itdi, 
" Prairies d'or,'* ii. 248, and Spiegel, *' Alexandersage," i>. GO. HowoTer, 
I must HtaN; that the pedigree — swch as it is given by AlberAni — also 
occurs in Mas'iidi, ii. 293, 294, and Ibu-Al'athir, i. 200, 5-9. If, there- 
fore, there is a lacuna, a« I suppose, it is a blunder of older date, and 
must hare occarred already in the source whence all, MaB*fidi, Alb^ 
r(ax\, and Ihu-araUur have drawn. 

Some of the names of this pedigree exbibit rather suspicious forms. 
II. j»^, perhaps ^^** Egyptue ? Of. Ibn-AkthTr, i. p. 200, 1. 6. 
VI. J^. Read ^ Lalinug. 

XV. /*S\ is a corniptioii of ^D^. Gknesis, ixxvi. 11, 15; vide AacoM, 
" Zeitschrift der DeutscheQ Morgenliindischen (Jesellschaft," 
XV. 143. 

p. 49, 1. 22. Tlie combination of Bh^-alltaroain with Almundhir ben 
Imni'alkais, vide Hamza Isfahjlni, ti-anslated by Oottwaldt, p. 82. 



p. 49, 1. 26. 
"Kit&b-alfihrist," 



'AbdaUiih ben ffildl 
p. 310, and note. 



On this famous juggler, vido 



p. 49, 1. 37. On the supposed South- Arabian origin of Dhii-alkamain, 
vide Mas'Adt, " Prairies d'or," ii. 244, 249 ; A. v. Kremcr, "SiidarabiscbQ 
Sage " pp. 70-76 ; J^amza, transl. p. 100. 

p. 49, 1. 41. The name Subaih occurs also in Ibn-Hi^hdm. The life 
of Muhammad, i. 486. It seems to be the diminutive of rr>1 'AthaM 
(lbn>Duraid, " Kitub-alishtiVnlf.," p. 41), as Nu*aim f^e»i is the diminu- 
tive of 'An'am ^\ according to Ibn-Duraid, lor. cit. p. 85, 1. 14. Another 
name of the same root is c^ in Hamza, ed. Gottwaldt, p. 132. 

The spelling of the name Alhamntdlf \. 34; is uuct^rtain. 

l''or the spelling of the name Tan^um^ vide Ibn-Duraid, he. eit. p. 84, 
note. 

p. 50, 1. 4. FeveT'toater. Bead muddy wai-er. Bead Ua. instead of ^J•^ 
(text, p. 41, 1. 3), and read ^31 instead of ^-S^ (tcxt,'p. 41, 1. 5) (Flei- 
Bcher). 

p. £0, 1. 7. The following reasoning occurs idreody in Hamza, transl. 
p. 100. 

p. 50, 1. 26. Tbn-Khurdudhbih was poetmast«r in Media, and wrote 
about the middle of the third century of the Flight (between 240-260). 
His geographical work has been edited and translated by B. de Mey- 
n.'l, "Journal Aaiati^ue," 1865. 



AHNOTATIONS. 



383 



p. 51, L 1. W&SBKk This nation is mentioned by Byzantine auiboro 
under the name of So^i/xx. 

p. 52, 1. 24. Abi^'Sa'td *AI.imad bon Mul^ammad, a. native of StjistAn, 
is not known to me from any other source. 

p. 53, 1. 31- The same names occur in Mas'ftdi, iti, 415. These days 
have also Arabic names {loc. cit. p. 416» and this book, p. 246, 1. IG). 

p. 53, L 34. Bead w-AJ^ instead o£ u^\^\ (text, p. 43, 1. 22). 

p, 53, L 37. Zddawaiki hen Sh^hawaihi, a native of Isfahnn, is men- 
tioned in " KitAb-alfihrist," p. 245, as one of those who translated Per- 
sian works into Arabic. He is also mentioned on p. 202, 1. 7, and p. 207, 
Ml. 

p. 54, 1. 1. Abft-alfaraj A|imad ben Khalaf Alzan juni ; " KitAb^fihrist," 
p. 284, mentions an Alimad b. Klialaf among those who made astrono- 
mical and other instruments ; also mentioned p. 118, 1. 31. 

p. 54, 1. 4. Abti-alhasan Adharkhur ben Yazdankhasts is not known 
to me from any other source ; vide p. 107, 1. 40 and p. 204, 1. 14. 
Bead ^ ^y^,-^^ instead of o^j^^ (text, p. 44, 1. 6). 

p. 54, 1. 29. Bead j\tt\^ instead of jWI, (text, p. 44, 1. 15). 

p. 54, 1. 39. The reason why the Persians did not like to increase the 
number of days of the year was. according to Mas'ftdl, iii. 41t), that 
thereby the established sequence of lucky and unlucky days would have 
been disturbed. 

p. 55, 1. 3. The words 1. 5-27 do not in the least harmonize with the 
preceding, which makes me believe that after the word Adhar'M^Jh there 
is a gap, although the manuscripts do not indicate it. The explanation 
which is conunenced in 11. 3, 4, is continued in 1. 28 ff. 

p. 56, 1. 7. ToMdajird Alhisdrt is also me-ntioned by Y&kut, " Geogra- 
phisches Worterbuch," iv. 970. YaJ^ut may have drawn his information 
from this book. 

p. 56, 1. 22. Ab these names, the scanty remnants of a long<lost 
Eranian dialect, are of considerable philological interest, 1 shall add the 
readings of the Canon Majsudicus of Alb£r&uS according to two manu- 
soripta, MS. Elliot (uow the property of the British Museum, dated 



MM 



384 



ALBlndKl. 



Bagdad, a.b. 570, B&b^ L), aud MS. Berliii (Uie property of ihe Bojftl 
Library^ aoc du. 10, 311, or MSS. Orr. 8°. 275). 



MS. Elliot, f, 14a. 


Ma Berlin. 


^y 


•Vj* 


arr- 


e»r^ 


CJ— i 


U-' 


i«3L-> 


• 


^x&Ukl 


)x;d.UA^ 


lj.;4fcj'^ 


^JJaij- 


tj^^ 


t)^i«» 


£lWn 


I^W 


5^ 


f^ 


fyu- 


«J*\— 


a*|; 


•H 


rr-^ 


u^y^ 



Whoever wants to explain these names will also have to consult the 
six manuBuripts of the Kitdh-aUafhim of our author, and the most anciiont 
copy of the Canon Maaudicus in the Bodleiau Library. 

In this book AlbSrfini does not mention the months of the Armemans, 
but I have found them in a copy of the ^ Eitib-altafhlm " (MS. of the 
Bodleian Librair) in the following form (p. 165) : 

cs>j^ i^^^ it&iA u-»tr)U) u-iJ^^ (MS. . . J^yfc) 

Cf. £, DulauHer, " Rccherches sur la chronologie Armenienne," 
p. 2. 

p. 57, 1. 17. I am sorry to state that there are no tables of these 
Chorasmian names in the Canon Masadicus, nor in the " KitAb- 
alUfh'im." 

The form (^*J>>\ (p. 57, 1. 2) reminds one of the Cappadocian name 
Oaiukv, vide Benfey und Stem, " Ueber die Monatsnamen einiger alter- 
Viilker," Berlin, 1836, pp. 110-113. 

The oamo ^.l*i (name of the 6tb, 15th, and 23rd days) is. like the 
PeriiiaQ Dai, to be retraced to Dadhvdo (Benfey and Stem, i&. pp. 109, 
UO). 

The correspouding Sogdian name (p. hQ) is written <4->«i, which is, 
perhaps, a metathesis for {^•>, which would be equal to Diiihtuho, the 
genitive of Dadkvlo, and would resemble the Cappodocian Aotfuwra (Ben. 
fey und Stem, ih. p. 79). 

The reader will easily recognize the reUtionship between the Sogdian 
and Chorasmian nomos of the days of the muuth and the Persian 
DAittM; this IB more difficult in the case of some of the names of the 
montha. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



p. 58, 1. 10. And relied, oie. Bead (^^fi ioBtoad of ^jjl;* (text, p. 48, 
L14). 

p. 58, 1. 16. Daiy vide note ad p. 57, t. 17. 

p. 58, 1. 33. It Is not known that the Eg^tiana called the einglo 
da^s of the month by special names. 

p. 59, 1. 3. On the names of the Egyptian monthti, their forms and 
meanings, vide B. Lepsius, ''Ohronologie der Aegypter," pp. 134-142. 

p. 59, 1. 22. The tmaU month. The Coptic noma for the Epagomenig 
is p abol n koujiy " the small month," cf. R. Lepsius, " Chronolagie 
der Aegypter," p. 145; and this book, p. 137, 1. 22. On the Egyptian 
names of the 5 Epagomense, cf. B. Lepsius, loc. cU. pp. 146, 147. 

p. 59, 1. 25. UJ\. It seema, one must read this word Uo3^, since the 

Coptic word for leap-year ia TA-TTOKtI' t ••«. "Erojcr^, as Mr. L. Stem 

kindly informed me. In that case the author was wrong in translating 
the word by i-*tc i.e. »i^um. 

p. 59, I. 26. Ahft-al'abbfis A14mull, the author of a book on the 
mbla, is mentioned by Ijdji i£hali&, iu. p. 236. His full name is Ab&- 
al'abbtU 'Alun^ b. Abf-'A^mad Altabari Alniuuli, known as Ibn-oH^A??, 
and he died a.u. 335. 

The months which this author aacribos to the People of the West 
are our names of months in forms which can hardly bo tract;d back 
to a Latin source (ancient Spanish ?). I suppose that by the Fnopte 
of the We$t he means the inhabitants of Spain. 

p. 60, I. 21. Kitdb-ma'khadJi'almawditit. This book ia not known 
to me. 

p. 61, 1. 1. Twenty-four hours are ==j 86,400 seconds, which, divided 
l>y 729, give a quotient of 118} Jg. 

p. 61, 1. 13. Bead 'f>^if^\ inatead of J^J^xJt (text, p. 51, 1. 17). 

p. 61, 1. 46. Thiibit Iwn ^furra was bom a.h. 221 and dii;d 288 ; vide 
" Kitttb-alfihrist," p. 272, and notes. On his astronomical theories, vide 
Delambre, " Hiatoire de Taatroaomie du moyeu age," p. 73. 

On the family of the Bana-MtkB& vide " KitAb-alfihriat," p. 271. Mu- 
l^anunad died a.h. 259. 

p. 62, 1. 16. ThcBArewt andall the Jews. The word 'Artini=He6rew, 
was a learned name, known only to scholars ; tt meant that people of 

26 



386 



ALBtB^Ni. 



antiquity wbo spoke the Hebrew tongue and who lived in Syria nnder 
the law of Moses. Jew iu a jiopular name which meajia the descen- 
dants of that people, wbo no longer live in Syria, but are scattered all 
OTerthe world, who no longer speak Hebrew, but who still live under the 
law of Moees. 

p. 62, 1. 18. The names of the months of the Jews occur also in 
ABBjrian, cf. E. Norris, " ABsyriau Dictionary," p. 50. 

Part of the following chapter has been edited by S. de Sarfr^, " Chreeto- 
mathie Arabe/' i. p. '^ (taken from Almakrizi). 



p. 62, 1. 40. " Bemember the day" etc. This quotation is an extract 
&om Exodus xiii. 3, 4 (Deut. xvi. 1). The words in that month when the 
trees blossom ore the rendering of the Hebrew S^iNH OnTD- The 
montli *Abib has always been identified with Nia&n by the whole exege- 
tical tradition of both Jews and Christians, but I do not see for what 
reason. 

p. 63, L 15. This view, that Adhar II. is the leap-month, was held by 
the Karaeans, according to ELiah ben Moao in Selden, " Dissertatio de 
civili anno Judaico," cap. v. p. 166 022? n"T« imM pajTO VH). 

p. 63, 1. 31. On the invention of the Octacteris by Cleostratoa of 
Tenedus (about 500 n.c.) vide Ideler, " Haudbuch der m&thcmatischon 
und technischoQ Chronologie," ii. C05. 

The cycle of 19 years is the cycle of Meton, invented about 432 B.c.» 
vide Ideler, lor. cit. i. 297 ff. 

The cycle of 7Q years ia the improvement of the Mctouian cycle by 
Callippus of Cyzicus (about 330 b.c.)i Ideler, loc. cit, i. 299, 344. 

The cycle of 95 years (5 x 19) bos been used by Cyrillus for the com- 
putation of Eaater, vide Ideler, Ivc. cit. p. 259. 

The cycle of 532 (=19x28) was invented by the Egyptian monk 
Anianus, vide Ideler, loc. cit pp. 277, 451. 

p. 63, 1. 37. In the author's statement regarding the 4th cycle of 95 
ycara there is a mistake ; wc must read 1,175 moniht instead of 1,176 
nwntfig. 

The synodical month or one lunation is=29 d. 12h. 793 i^. 

1,176 lunation8=34,727 d. 23 h. 528 11 = 900,149,208 H. 

If we divide this sum by the length of the solar year, i.e. 365 d. 
-^^ b. =9,467,190 i^, we get as quotient 95 (years), and a remainder of 
29 J. 13 h. 438 i^, i,e. 1 lunation plus 725 ^., i.0. one lunation too 
much. 

If wc reckon 1,175 lunations, we get as the remainder 725 El^ and 



ifoiinpQns. 



387 



tliis resnlt is correct, because it U five times the remainder of the 
cycle of 19 jeare, of which this cycle is a five times multiplication. 

95 years = 5 x 19 

1,17.5 lunatiuna = 5 x 235 

36 leap-iuontlis = 5x7 

725 U.remainder= 5 x 145 

This remainder represents the difference between the rotations of the 
son and the moon at the end of the cycle. 

p. 64, 1. 3. Hala^, as I have written, according to the Arabic, is the 
Hebrew word n^n* which in the Canon Masudicus is aometimos rendered 
by fc3ls*. Of the still smaller division of time, of the D"'5^3^ (one Ruga' 
= 76 l;[ahiJ^), I have not found any trace in the works of AlbSrflni. 

For the convenience of those who want to examine the following 
computations, I give a comparison between the Halaks and the other 
measures of time : 

L Ihour = 1,080 ?. 
18 H. 
AH- 



H. 



m. 1,080 HaiaVs = 
1 Hala^ : 
IB^ga' : 



T ¥ ffa 9- 

^ TT^ tour. 
: -j^ minute. 

- 2^ seconds, 
200™- 
12,000 !▼• 
720,000 ^■ 

: 1 hour. 

- nhjs^- 

= TrUv ^' 



In Jewish chronology there occur two kinds of years, the Julian year 
(in the calculation of B. 8amuel), and a scientific year derived from 
the researches of Hipparchus, which is the basis of the calculation of 
E. 'Adda bar 'AIiabA. 

The year which Alberuni mentions, consisting of 365 d. 5^f^ h., is 
the year of R. 'Add&, equal to 

365 d. 5h. 997 H. 48 R£g. 

Cf. Lazarus Bendavid, " Zur Berecbnong und Qcschichte des Judischen 
Kalendors," Berlin, 1817, p. 32. 
Regarding the origin of this year there cannot be any doubt. The 



388 



ALBkONt. 



Jewish chronologists fouud it by dividing by 19 the Enncadecateris of 
Meton, which consists of 235 Uipparchicol synodieal monthi (i.^. 6,939 d. 

16h. 595H.)- 

It will not be snperfluoua for the raluation of the following calcu- 
latiotiB to puiat out tho difference between the ancient Greek ostrono 
mtTfl and the Jewieb Rabbis who couslructed the Jewish calendar. 

The elements for the comparison of the iptations of aun and moon 
are two measures: that of the length of tho sjnodical mouth and that 
of the leu^ of tho eolar year. When Meton and Callippus con- 
structed their cycles, these two measures had not yet been defined 
with a great degree of accuracy. Hence the deficiencies of their cycles. 

Centuries later, when the sagacity of Hipparchus had defined these 
two measures in such a way that modem astronomy bos found rory 
little to correct, compariaons between the rotations of sun and moon 
could bo carried out with a much higher degree of accuracy. Thereby 
the Jewish chronologistB were much better situated than Meton and 
Callippus, and tho following calculations prove that they availed them- 
selves of this advantage. 

p. 64} 1. 10. Computation of the Octaetcris and Eoneadeoat^ris. 

I. OctaeUrU. 

The ancient Greeks counted the solar year as 365^ days (i.e. too 
long), and the synodical month as 29| days (t.s. too short). The Jews 
counted — 

the solar year as 365 d. S^f^ h. 

and the synodical mouth as 29 d. 12 h. 783 t^. 

The 99 lunations of the Octaeteris, each lunation at 29 d. 12 h. 783 H., 
give the mm of — 

2,923 d. 12 h. 747 14. 

wbicfa is equal to the sum of — 

76,777,867 ?. 

If we divide this sum by the length of the solar year, i.e. 365 d. 
6^%\ h.=9,467,L90 II., wc get as quotient 8 (years) and a remainder 
of— 

1 d. 13 h. 387 y. 

This would be the difference between the rotations of the sun and 
moon at the end of tho first Octaot«ris, t,e. the moon reached the end 
of her 99th rotation, when the sun bad still to march during 1 d. 
13 h. 387 H., till he reached the end of his 8th rotation. 
According to the calculations of the ancient Oreeks^ this difference 



ANNOTATIONS. 



389 



WM leaB, Tiz. 1} days. Of. L. Idcler, " Handbuch der matbcmatischeo 
uad tcchnischen Chnmologie/' i. p. 294 ff. 

As the author aays, 387 Halaka do not correspond to J^ h. with mathe- 
matical accuracy (p. 64, U. 24, 25). There is a. difference of ytjs ^'i ^^^ 

V^h. = A'flh. 
whilst 

II. Enntadecaierit. 

MetoQ discorered that 235 sjrnodical mouths pretty nearly correspond 
to 19 solar years. In construciiDg his cycle ojf 19 years, he reckoned 
the solar year at 365^^ d., i.*;. by ^ d. longer than it hod been reckoned 
in the Octaeteris (a mistake which afterwards Callippus strove to 
letrieve). More correct was the following Jewish calculation with Hip- 
^porchic measures : 

235 lunations, each = 29 d. 12 b. 793 H., giro the sum of— 

6,939 d. ICtVbti *»• = 179,87C,755 ^, 

If we divide this sum of Halaks by the leng:th of the solar year of — 

365 d. 5l^l[ h. = 9,467,190 H.. 

wo get as quotient 19 (years), and a remainder of only 145 H. 

According to this computation, the difference between the rotations 
of sun and moon at the end of the first Enneadccatoris would not be 
more than 145 H., or ^^ h., x,e, a little more than | h., or than -^ d., 
whilst, according to Callippus, this difference was greater, viz. fj d. 

=id. 

This reform of the Metonic Enneadecateris enabled the Jews to 
dispense with the 76 years cycle of Callippus, which he constructed of 
four-times the EnneadeL-ateris with the omisaiou of one day. The 
Jemsh calculation is more correct than that of Calllp})ua, who reckonod 
the solar year too long. 

p. 64, 1. 33. On the meaning of the word "^ITrTO cf- *n interesting 
cliapter in the "lli^yn 1ED of Abraham Bar Chyiah, edited by H. 
Filipowski, Loudou, 1851, book ii. ch. iv. (l^trTOn DUJ tlTT^^Dl)- 

At the beginning of this exposition (p. 64, 1. 31, text, p. 55, 1. 8) there 
seems to bo a lacuna. It is not likely that the author should intro- 
duce a technical foreign work (like Malizor) without having previously 
explained what it means (and this is not the case). 

p. 65. The difference of the Ordines intercalationU is caused and 
accounted for by the difference of the beginning of the Jewish ^u 
iXundi. 



890 



ALBtRflNt. 



The world waa created at the time of the vernal equinox, i.e. the 
Te^ftfat-NtaAn. But the year as reckoned by the Jewish chronologiBts 
does not commence at the time of the vernal equinox, but at that of 
the autumnal equinox, i.e. the Tekflfat-TiBhri. Now, the queetion 
whence to begin the first year of the ^ra Mundi, has been answered 
in various ways. Some comnence with the vemaJ equinox preceding 
the creation of the world, others with the first vernal equinox following 
after the creation of the world. Some counted the year in the middle of 
which the creation took place as the first, others counted the following 
year as the jirst year of the first Enneadecateris. Cf. m3i?n "^DO 
of Abraham bar Chyiah, iii. 7, p. 96. In conformity with this diffe- 
rence also the order of the leap-years within the Enneadecateris haa 
been fixed differently. 

The Ordo inUrcalaiioni* 31U13. which reckons the second (complete) 
year of the creation a« the first year of the first Enneadecateris, 
occurs also in the valuable TesK^hd (Kt»spongum) of R. Hfii QtMia. 
ben SherirA, a contemporary of the author, v\<U Abraham bar Chyiah, 
p. 97, I. 86. 

The Ordo intercalations Qn^mj which has become canonical since 
and through Maimonides, is not mentioned by Albirfini. 

The three Ordin^ intercalattonis which the author has united in tfae 
circular figure, arc constructed upon this principle : 

Of >the seven intervals between each two leap<years, there are five 
intervals each of 2 years, and two intervals each of 1 year. 

p. 66, L 7. The solar cycle (TTOn^ nitn?2) of 28 years conaists of 
Julian years of 365^ days. At the end of this cycle time returns to the 
same day of the week. Cf. L. Idoler, " Handbuch," etc., i. 72. 

p. G6, 1. 23. Of the five Dehij/y'iUi of the Jewish calendar ^7^4 " IT " 
ITN rr* " T^tSU 'tDEpmOi which are certain rules ordering a date, e.g. 
New-year's-day, to be transfciTed from one week-day to another, our 
author mentions only the first one, viz. *^*tH> *'•«• the rule that New- 
year's-day can never be a Sunday or a Wednesday or a Friday. 

The words ituU Poitover btj which the he^nning of NUdn is regulated I 
understand in this way, that PasHOver, i.e. the 15th NtsAn, and the Ist 
Ktsfin always fall on the same week-day. 

The rule •nti is connected with the rule TH i,«. that Passover shall 
never fall on a Monday, Wodncaday, or Friday, in the following way ; 

Passover must be the 163rd day from the end of the year. The divi- 
sion of 163 by 7 gives the remainder of 2. 

If New-year's-day were a Sunday, the last day of the preceding year 
would be a Saturday, and the IGSrd day from the end would be a 
Friday. 

If Ncw-yeor's-day were a Wednesday, the 163rd day from the end 
would be a MoTiday. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



391 



rlTew-ye«j's-dfty were n Friday, the 163rd day from tlie end would 
be ft Wedneaday. Cf. Lewisohn* ''Geschicbte nnd System desJudisclien 
EAlenderweeens," Leipzig, 1856, § 92, § 127. 

On the coiTcapondeiice hetween the four days that can bo New-year'a- 
days (called DnyC? nynTN) and Pasaover, of, Abraham bar Chyiah, 
iL ch. 9. 

p. 67, U. 28, 35. I should prefer to read JW instead of JfVl and 
(^ ^U^ ^y instead of i^ ^U^ i^ (text, p. 67, 11. 18 and 21). 

p. 68, 1. 4. On the calculation of the arc of vUion TVi^'yTl JnttJp »'f* 
that part of the moon's rotation between conjunction and the moment 
of her becoming Tisible at some place, vide Selden, *' Dissertatio de 
iLunu civili Judaico,** cap. xiii. ; Lazarus Bendavid, " Zur Gesohichto und 
Bcrcchnung des JudischenKaleuders/' § 36. 

The mean motion of the moon is called in Hebrew >M!ff2M "^THOt *=be 
real motion ^JTDM '!|^i"1T J , vide Maimonides, tJTinrt tTfp, ^i. 1 ; li. 16. 

p. 68, 1. 32. PdrAah t]^ is a Biblical name, vide 1 Kings iv. 17. 

p. 68, 1. 35. If the Miludites commenced the month with the moment of 
the conjunction, they differed from the Babbanites in this, that the latter 
made the beginning of the month (e.g. the beginning of the first monUi 
or New-year*s-day) depend not ahite upon conjuuctian, but also upon 
certain other conditions, e,g. the condition rp (Lazarus Bcnda-vid, § 36). 
The Kabbauites tried in CTerything to assimilate their calendar, based 
up:>n the astronomical determination of conjunction, to the more ancient 
calendar which had been based upon the obserralion of Xow Moon. The 
const-rratiTe tendency of this reform of the Jewish calendar is {Ktintcd 
out by A. Schwarz, "Dor Judischo Kalender," pp. 59-61. Cf. also 
Abraham bar Chyiah "^IIVH "IDD' P- 68, 1 6; p.69, L 21. 

p. 68, 1. 36. Bead •^tt instead of J(^\ as plural of JjU (text, p. 68, 
LIT). 

p. 69, 1. 5. *Andn, the founder of the great schism in the Jewish V t/»« lkm^-Jv% 
world, Ured in Palestine in the second half of the 8th century. For bis j[/ * ^^ IV| 
history, vide Qraetz, " GJcschichte der Juden," ii. ed., torn. v. p. 174; for 
'Anin's reform of the calendar, ib. p. 454. 

The jwdigree of 'Anun has been the subject of much discussion, vide 
Graetz, 3j. pp. 417, 418, and J. Triglandii, "Notitia Karaeorum," Ham- 
burg, 1714, p. 46. 

p. 69, 1. 25. Bead i^ instead of '^\ (text, p. 59, 1. 9). 

p. 70, 1. 16. Bead *S instead of 3 (text, p. 60, 1. 4, after ^Y wy^- 



392 



ALBlR^Nt. 



p. 72, 1. 86. ImmVil hen 'Ahhdd, born a.h. 326, was Vazir to the 
Bujide princoe Mu'ayvid-oldaula, and afterwards to Faklir-aldaula. He 
died A,H. 365. Cf. rbn-Al*athir, ix. p. 77. Tlio same man is quoted by 
AJb^runi as the i^iUibt p. 94, 1. 19. On thia title, vide IIammcr,"Lander- 
▼erwaltung unter dem Khalifat," px>. 34, 35 ; " Abulfedee Annaloa Mos- 
lemici," ii. p. 586. 

p. 74, 1. 7. The farevfeU pilgrimage is described by A. Sprenger, "Leben 
and Lchre dcs Mol^ammad," iii. p. 515 ff. On Mu^aumiad'e prohibiting 
intercalation, etc., ib. p. 534 ft 

Bead i^ instead of i^ (text, p. 63, U. 1, 3). (Fleiacher.) 

p. 74, 1. 15. Ibn-Duraid, a famous philologist of the school of Ba^ra, 
died A.H. 331, in Bagdad. Cf. G. Fliigel, " GrammatiHche Schulen der 
Arabcr," p. 101. 

p. 74, 1. 25. Abft-Sahl 'ts^ ben Ta^jA Almast^j, a Christian phrsician, 
waa a contemporary of AlWrftni, who lived at the court of *Ali ben 
Ma'mfln and Ma*m{in ben Ma'mun, princes of Khwiirizni. The year 
of his death is not known; probably he died between a.h. 4(10-403. 
Cpr. Wustenfeld, " Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte und Naturfor- 
■cher," p. 59, nr. 118. 



p. 75, I 26. 



Bead ^ instead of W (text, p. 64, 1. 6, (/m4^\ ^ 



p. 76, 1. 36. AbQ-'AbdxJUh Ja'far ben Muhammad AlflAdiV is one of 
the twelve ImnmB of the Shi'a. Ho was bom a.h. 80, and died a.h. 
146. On the sect who derived their name from him, vUie Shahristan], 
ed. Cureton, p. 124. Cf. also Wustenfeld, " Geschichte der Arabischen 
Aerzte und Naturforscher," nr. 24. 

p. 77, L 4. This tradition occurs in Bukh&ri, " Recueil dee traditions 
Hahom^tanes," ed. L. Krehl, i. p. 474. The other traditions to which 
the author refers in the course of his discussion (p. 78) are also men- 
tioned by Bukh&ri, i. 476 ff. Cf. the Muwaffa' of MUik ben 'Anas. ed. 
Bulal^ ii. chap. 84. 

p. 77, 1. 22. Bead Ejt^ instead of S^^^^ (text, p. 65, 1. 14), and ^\ 
instead of \i\ (p. 65, 1. 15). (Fleischer.) 

I*. 80, 1. 4. Bead J^> instead of ^j (text, p. 67^ 1 17). 

p. 80, 1. 6. The same fact is related by Ibn-Al'athir, vi. p. 8. In con- 
sequence of his killing 'Abd-oUcarim, the governor of K&fa, Mul>ammad 
waa removed from his office a.h. 155 (or 153). The story HhuwH that the 



ANNOTATIONS. 



393 



falsification of tradition has at certain times been practised wholesale in 
the Haalim world. Ibn-'abi>al'aujil,al8o montionod in "Kitab-alfiUrist," 
p. 838, L 9. 

p. 80, 1. 27. Bead and iU origin instead of and of its original, etc. 
Eead «i*\) instead of tlA^ (text, p. C8, 1. 4). (Fleischer.) 

p. 80. 1. 84. Bead »vWy« instead of wW^ (text, p. 68, 1. 6), and 
y^ - &^i^ - J»a*Jt, (text, p. 68, 11. 9, 10), as in the manuscripta. 

p. 82, col. 1. ^jLuba was the second hLrgesttown of Farghana, not far 
from Shfish. It is described by Ibn-Haukal, p. 394; T&^ut, iv. 24. 

The word oUjVck? (oii^V^i) I have not been ab!e to explain hitherto. 
Perhaps the word bears some relation to \ji^ i.e. Bnkh&ri. 

p. 82, oolL 1, 8. The names of col. 1 are in use among the eastern 
Turin (of £ashghar and Tarkand), vide K 6. Shaw, " A Sketch of the 
Tarki Language as spoken in Eastern Turkistan," Lahore, 1875* 
p. 77; J. Grave, "Epochte celebriores," London, 1650, p. 5. 

The names of col. 6 seem to bo in disorder ; they mean : The Great 
Month, the Small Month, the First Month, the Second Month, the 
Sixth Month, the Fifth Month, the Eighth Month, the Ninth Month, 
tho Tenth Month, the Fourth Month, the Third Month, the Seventh 
Month. Cf. Shaw, « Sketch," etc., p. 75. 

Both columns are of particular intcrast in so far a« they exhibit tho 
most ancient specimen of the Turkish language. 

p. 82, col. 5. Oetomhriiu. Perhaps it would be better to read 
Ootemhrius, in conformity with Octemhre, which occurs in ProTonpil 
beside Oci^hre, vide Beynouard, " Lexiq^ae Koman ou dictionnairo do la 
langue des troubadours," torn vi p. 390. 

p. 86, 1. 13. The 210 years for the stay of the Jews in Egypt Me found 
in this way : 

Interval between the birth of Abraham and that of 
Moses ...... 420 years. 

Mows was 80 years of age when he left Egypt - 80 „ 

Interval between the birth of Abraham and the 

Exodua - - - - - 500 „ 

Further : 

Abraham was 100 years of age when Isaak was bom 100 „ 

lauak was 60 years of ago when Jacob was born - 60 „ 

Jacob entered Egypt when he was 130 years of age 130 „ 

Interval ^between the birth of Abraham and 
Jacob's entering Egypt ... 290 „ 



394 ALBiE^Nt. 

Nov, the diflference between the two niunbers (600 — 290), i.e. 210 
years, ivpresents the time during which the Jews stajed in Egjpt. 

p. 87, 1. 11. Bead i=t^ instead of ^^ (text, p. 75, 1. 1). (Fleischer.) 

p, 87, 1. 13. The 8eder''0ldm, i.e. OrSo Mundi, is a well known He- 
brew book on the Chronology of Jewish history, carrying it down as 
far as 22 years after the destruc^on of the Temple by Titus. It is the 
^T DTiV ITD to which our author refers, not the MU1T D71V "^TO* 
Cf. " Chronicon Hebneorura Majus et Minus," ed. Job. Meyer, Am- 
Btelodami, 1699. I am, however, bound to state tthat some of the 
numbers which Alb^riini quotes on the authority of this book are not 
found in — or do not agroo with — the text as given m the edition of 
Meyer. 

pp. 88, 89. In these tables there are three blunders in the addition. 

The last three numbers in the addition of the years of the SMer* 
'OUm ought to be 460, 500, 503 (on p. 88) ; and in the same column 
on p. 89 the eleron Ifut numbers of the addition ought to be; 781, 
810, 865, 867, 898, 909, 920, 990, 1080, 1563, 2163. 

p. 90, I. 18. On EOahAn, vide Judges, iii 8, 10. 

p. 90, 1. 35. ffcuhvntfya and Dakriyya. The I^ashwiyya or Hasha- 
wiyya are a heterodox sect of Muslim philosophers who adhere to an 
ezoterie interpretation of the divino revelation, and consider God as a 
bodily being, vide " Dictionary of Technical Terms," L p. 396. 

The word Bahr seems nearly to correspond to the Zrvdnem aJcerenmn 
(*' endlegs time**) of the Avasta. The Dahriijya are a heathenish school 
of philosophers who believe the Bohr (time) to be eternal, and who trace 
everything to the Bahr as last cause, vide " Dictionary of Technical 
Terms," i. p. 480. 

p. 90, I. 44. In the following the author attacks 'Abii.Ma*shar, the 
author of the book De tuUivHalihtu (p. 92, 1. 2; p. 91, 1. 31 ; p. 94, L 44 j 
p. &6, L 1). Cf. note ad p. 29. 1. 4. 

The subject of the discussion is the Dona ostTorum (vide Delambre, 
" Histoire de rastronomie ancieune," ii. 546), i.e. the question how long 
a man may live, if at the moment of his birth the planets occupy such 
places and stand in such relations to each other as are considered the 
most ^vourable. 

For a detailed explication of the astrological terms which occur in the 
following, and all of which are of Qrcek origin, I refer to the Dictionary 
of the Technical Terms used in the Sciences of the JfiualmaM, Calcutta, 
1862. 

The MaUrr/amilJas (yW^) is the indicium corp<m$f the PcU«rfamiUa$, 
the indicium animus (p. 90, L 45). 



ANNOTATIONS. 



395 



The bonso of the Snn is Leo, his nUUudo is the 19th degree of Aries. 
Cardinea are four points of the ecliptic : 
I. C^rdo horoaeopi, or Cardo primtia, that point which rises in the 

cant at the moment of the birth, 
n. Cardo occasuM or Cardo aeptimug, that point which at the eame 
moment sets in the west. 
UL, Cardocoeli or Cardo deeimut, tho point between the preceding two 

pointe, but above the earth. 
TV. Cardo terrce or Cardo quarinSj the point between the points I. and 
n., bat under the earth. Cf. " Dictionary of Technical Terms," 
i.465. 
/n a amcordanl mascuUne quarter. By qvart^r I understand the divi. 
non of the si^ns of the Zodiac into four trigones, the trigonum igneum, 
irigonum ierrmun, etc,, which are either maaculine or feminine. Cf. 
M. Uhlemann, " Qrundzuge der Astronomie und Astrologie der Alten," 
pp. 66, 67. 

The term concordant is applied to any two places of the ecliptic which 
lie at equal distances from one of the two equinoctial points so as to 
form with each otlier the eonfitellalious called Tasdia or Tatkl'Uh or Afu- 
kdbala. Cf. " Dictionary of Technical Terms," u. 1392, a. v. >U. 

p. 91, 1. 10. Have no asptcf. The word U- ia the contrary of jb. 
There are five aspects : 

Tas^, 1.6. the planets are distant from each other by 60 degrees. 

TarbVf ».e. the distance between them is 90 degrees. 

TathtUhj t.«. the distance between them is 120 degrees. 

Mu^dbaiaj i.e. the distance between them is 180 degrees. 

J^bdt, is the Mukahala of Sun and Moon. Any other relation be- 
tween two planets is called Sukilf (i.e. falling out). 

Cf. " Dictionary of Technical Terms," il 1385, s.v. yH. 

p. 91, 1- 13. The Caput Draeonis is that point of tho ecliptic which a 
planet cuts when moving northward. If sun and moon meet at this 
point in the same zodiacal sign and degree, they are said to stand within 
the opoi ixXfurrutoi (Ptolcmy, '* Almagest," vi. cap. R ; limitea eeliptiquetf 
tnde DeUmbre, " Histoire de I'aatronomie ancienne," ii. 226), and an 
eclipse takes place. Every eclipse is considered as unlucky. 

p. 91, 1. 16. The elements of this sum (215 years) are not quite clear. 
If the Sun gives 120 and ;30 years, Moon, Venus, and Jupiter, 25, 8 and 
12 years, we get the sum of 195 years. Wheuoe the astrologers derive the 
missing 20 years is not stated. They are hardly to be considered as a 
gift of Saturn or Mars, since they are unlnch/ stars ; perhaps they arc 
traced to the influence of Mercury. One may suppose that there is 
Bomewhero a lacuaa in the text. 



390 



ALBisfiNi. 



p. 91, 1. 31. Read J,%\ ijU-Jl *4j ^ ,H**att inatead of u-i, ^ 
^l».\ j> J,S1 5,WJ\ (u^xt. p. 78. 1 19). 

p. 91, L 34. Ilic mui(22e conjunctum of Saturn and Jupitor is 240 
years, the minor conjunction 20 years, the major conjunction 960 
years. Cf. O. Loth, " Al-Kind! als Astrolog in Morgenlandiache For- 
schuugen," Leipzig. 1876, p. 268. 

p. 93, 1. 10. TUMHn was *Amir-aramar& in Baghdad JL.n. 331-334, at 
the time of the Khalif Almutta^i, whose eyes he put out. He was 
of Turkish origin, and commander of the Turkiflh troops who held 
Baghdild and some other parts of central Mesopotamia. 

p. 93, 1. 15. Ohurur-aldaula. Bead'X»-a/ciau/a. MuMzz-aldaula died 
A.H, 356. and *Izz-aldaula died a.h. 367, both princes of the family of 
Buwaihi. 

p. 93, L 23. Ndsir-aJdatUa, prince of HoquI and the north of Meso- 
potamia, of the family of Hamdau, died a.h. 358. 

p. 93, L 42. Bead «Jtf instead of ytf (text, p. 81, 1. 7), J>iy^ Jw^? 
(p. 81, 1. 9), and ,.^*!«j inatead of ^US^, (p. 81, 1. 12). (Fleischer.) 

p. 94, 1. 19. 5^*1*6. The author means 'JamA'il ben 'Abbad, Vaz!r of 
the Buyide prince Fakhr-aldaula. Vide note ad p. 72, L 36- The time 
during which Fakhr-aldaula held the country of Jurj&n under his sway 
was A.H. 372-388. 

p. 94, 1. 40. *Ahi Sa'id SluidMn is not known to me from other 
sources. A man called Sh&dhan is mentioned by TAV^t, i* p. <304, 
1. 20. and IJAji KUaUfo, v. p. 102. 

p. 95, 1. 2. According to ** Dictionary of Technical Terms," i. p. 568, 
retrograde motion is any motion which doos not, like that of the 
planets, proceed conformably with the order of the zodiacal signs. 

The ecliptic is divided into twelve equal parts, called Housa. The 
12th. 2nd. 6th, and 8th houses are called Domus eadejUe§> 

p. 95, 1. 22. *Abii-'Tsma, A man of this name was general to the 
Khalif AJhadi. and was killed by Hiirun Alrashid a.h. 170. Cf. Ibn- 
Al'athir, vi. p. 74. The epithet l^n^ib alfaj^dr I cannot explain. 

p. ^S, 1. 12. Head J^ instead of J-5i (text, p. 82, I. 21), and 
U e» ? .>**j instead of (^ 8» ' ** (p. 83, L 1). 

p. 96, L 25. Jamdlabadkra, a town iu India, is not known to me*, 
the word can be read iu various ways. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



897 



p. 9$, \. 43. Aba-'AbdalUh AHjuoain, etc. AlniUUt. a natiTe of 
NitUa, a town in Tabarist&n, is sometimes mentioned afl the teacher of 
'Abu-'AJj ben Sina. Hi* lived in Bukhara, and afterwards at the court 
of the prince Ma'mim ben Muhammad of Khwarizui. Cf. my edition 
of the text, ** Emleituiig," p. zxxir. 



p. 98, 1. 13. 
(Fleischer.) 



Covering. Bead ,3tt instead of Ji' (text, p. 84, 1 10). 



p. 98, 1. 22. Tn some hook. Alb^Hin! does not mention the author of 
the work whence he took the chronological tables of the kings of Assyria j 
m any ease it must have been derived from the " Chronicon " of Euse- 
bius. Cf. A. Schoene, ** Eusobii Cbrouicomm Ubri duo, Berolini, 1866 
and 1875 " ; vol, i. p. 63, and vol ii. p. 11 flE. 

p. 100, 1. 24. Another table of succesaors of Nimrod is given by 
Maa*adl, " Prairiee d'or," pp. 96-100. 

A similar table is also found in Alberi^m's Canon MiWudicut (MS. 
Elliot, foL 28a). 

Tean of reign. Anni AdotnL 



Nimrod - - - . 

Interval after the confusion of 
langn&ges and the destruction 
of the tower . • • 



Interval 



59 



2951 



4S 


2994 


85 


3079 


72 


3151 


42 


3193 


18 


3211 


7 


3218 



Then follow the Assyrian kings, Bclos, Ninos, etc. 

p. 101. Table of the Kimfs of tfui Chaldeav^. It is the tabic nf Pto- 
lemy. Cf. "Chronologic de Ptolemie," par I'abbe Halma, Paris, 1819, 
2de Partie, p]). 3, 4, and " Qeorgiue SynceUus," ed. Bindorf, Bonn, 1839, 
p. 390 fr. 

p. 102. This table of kin;^ of Egypt begins with the 20th dynasty 
of Manetho. Cf. " Eusebii Chronicorum. Ubri duo," vol. L p. 145 \ vol. ii. 
p. 63. 

p. 103, 1. 13. This table of Ptolemscans is bftsed upon that of 
Ptolemy. " Chronologie de Ptolemeu," par Hahua, 2de Partie, p. 4. In 
L 32 read: Cleopatra^ tiU (he time when Gtijtu Julius obtained auprcjite 
fOioer in Rome. Bead i^^j^ instead of 4^)/l (test, p. 92, L. 15). 



398 



ALBtfif^t. 



p. 104. The last source of this table of the Bonmn emperors seems to 
be the " Chronicon of Eusebius." Cf. alao " Hanusm Ispahanenais 
annaUura," Libri x., translation, pp. 51, 54. In the additioa of the years 
there ts a mistake ; the huit sum is 813, not 303. 

p. 105. Part of this table of Bjrzantine emperorB seems to hare been 
takeo from Homza IsCahani, translation, p. 52 and 55 ff. lu this table 
tike sum of the years is 526, not 528. In the text (p. 96^ 1. 12), read &«i— « 
instead of W--" (De Goeje). 

p. 106. The tradition of the judge Alwaki^, see in Hamza Isfahani, 
translation, p. 57-59- Alwakt' seems to have lived in the first half of 
the 4th century of the Flight, nVfo *' Kitiib-alfihrist," p. 114. 

The addition of the years of this table is in great confusion, and Albe- 
rt! has not made an attempt at correcting it. 

In the text (p. 98^ 1. 10), read Uu instead of ImL. 

p. 107, 1. 1. The following chapter on Persian chronology bears a 
close resemblance to that of I^amza Isfahani, translation, p. 6 ff. 
The explication of the word Oaydmarth, 1. 5, see in I^amza, p. 48. 

p. 107, 1, 43. Abq^-'Ali Mutianimnd ben *A|^mad Albolkhi, mentioned 
only in this place, is not known to me from other sources. HAji Khalifa, 
ir. p. 13, quotes from Alb£r{^. 

p. 108, 1. 3. The following sources of ancient Persian history are 
also quoted by Hamza, p. 7. 

■Abdall&h b. Almukaffa' was killed in Alba^ra, probably a,h. 145. Cf. 
'* Kilab-aliihriat,'* p. 118 ; Ibn-KhallikAn, nr. 186. 

Mtibammad b. Aljahm, of the family of Barmak, lived under the 
Khalif Almu'taflim (a.h. 218-227). Cf. " Kitab-alfihrist," pp. 81, 245, 
277, and notes ; Ibu-Khallikiin, nr. 31, p. 40. 

Hisham b. Alkasim and Bahram b. Mardilnshah, Zoroastrian priest in 
ShApdratown, in Persis, are mentioned in the " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 245, 
among those who translated Persian books into Arabic. 



p. 108, 1. 19. The manuscripts have khailra. My reading, khrHra, 
is a conjecture. The word may be identical with khntra of the Avasta 
(vide Justi, " Handhucb der Zendspnutho," p. 92), and also with Wjj* 
mentioned by Mas'fldt, " Prairies d'or," ii. 88, in a very curious chapter, 
where the author enumerates Ahriman and his son Utlriifd in a table of 
kings of the Syrians. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



399 



p. 108, 1. 34. A young man, latest (p. 100, L 7^ read Cv*^^ instead 
of 4>V^^ ; '/n-s^ (1. 11) instead of '^=^', and JmaJ^ instead of .MUSl 
(h 12). (Fleischer.) 

p. 109, 1. 14. Similar tables of tlio words for king, emperor, prince, 
etc. in variouB langimgea are given by serpral authors, c.y. by Tbn- 
Khurdadhbih, " Journal ABiatique," 18C5, p. 249-257. 

Tadan, Perha4)6 we must read Twlunt and compare the following 
note of the " Etymologicum Magnum," ed. Goisford, p. 763: Tol'Soi/voi : 

On Sii/, vide note at p. 37, 1. 9, 

The wordjCi ^a66df (p. 110, 1. 1) ia auppoaed by my learned friends 
P. Lerch, of St. Petersburgh, and W. Tomaschek, of Gratz, to be a mis- 
spelling for jUf, i.e, Ktuus, Knaez (a deriratlon from the Teutonic 
eHttinga), a conjecture which I recommend to the students of Slavonian 
antiquities. 

The title Bukkdrd-Khudtth has been found by P. Lerch on the coins 
of the satraps of BukhArA under Sasanian rule and later (as far as the 
time of Almahdi). The coins offer an original writing of Semitic origin ; 
the legend is without any doubt to be read Bukhara Khudddl (or 
Khuddoikt Kkndddi). A number of those coins aro found in the coin- 
collection of the Boyal Museum of Berlin. 

p, 110, 1. 26. The following verses are also found in Mas'Adt, 
" Prairies d'or," ii. p. 116- 

p. 111. On the pedigree and family relations of the PSshdAdhians 
from H6shang till Fr^di^, cf. Bundihish, chap, xrxii. On the chrono- 
logy of the PeshdAdhians and Kayflnians, ih. chap, xxxiv. 

In the text (p. 103, 11. 11, 15), read i^ instead of l^. 

p. 112. On the descendants of Kawi Kawtlta or Kail^ubudh and their 
names, cf. Noldeke, " Kayanier im Awestii, Zcitschrift der Beutschea 
Morgenlindischea Oesellschaft," torn, xxxii. p. 570. 

p. 113, With this table compare that of Hanua, translation, pp. 
9, 10. 



p. 114, 1. 4. With this table, compare ITamza, pp. 17, 18. 

p. 115, 1. 3. A similar table occurs also in the author's Canon ifosu- 
dxcue (MS. Elliot, fol. 29a). 



400 ^^V ALBisONt. 


1 


^1 


H After tha Idngs of Assyria and Arboces the Median follow the Icingt ^^^^^| 


^^^^ of BabtfloHta and Media. 




^^H 


^^^B Yetn of reign. Atuii Hondi. ^^^^H 


^^^H P^l J/, a dcBconrlant of Sardanapal 


35 


4709 ^^H 




35 


4744 ^^H 


^^^H Salmanassar (^,>m*X.) i,e. Bukbtanaf- 




^^H 




14 


4758 ^^B 


^^^B Sanhcrib Sargon c^^tr* "— '>W» 


9 


^^M 


^^^H Ezarhaddon ^-^j^ .... 


3 


4770 ^^H 


^^^1 Merodakh Baladan ben Baladan, i.e. 




^^^1 




48 


4818 ^^M 




31 


4849 ^^H 


^^^H Kiniladan ^>ULwj .... 


17 


4866 ^^B 


^^^1 Nahopolasaar tbe Magian - . - 


21 


4887 ^^M 


^^^P His aon Kebukadnezar, i.e. Bnkhtanaa- 




^^^M 


^^^H Bar II., wbo desiroved Jerusalem 


43 


^^H 


^^^1 ETilmerodakh bon Nebukadnczar - 


2 


^^H 


^^H His brotber B>>lte8ba9i^ar ... 


4 


^^M 


^^^H Darius the Median .... 


[17] 


^^M 


^^^1 Then follow the kings of the Persians : 




^^M 




9 


4962 ^^M 


^^^H His son CambyscB . - . . 


8 


^^M 


^^^1 Darius the son of Vishtaap • 


36 


^^H 


^^^B Xorzes, i.e. Xerxes KisrA b. Darius 


20 


5026 ^^H 


^^^1 Artaxerxes (cyjU^»sjLj^), i.e. Ardashtr 




^^^^t 




41 


5067 ^^^H 




18 


5085 ^^H 


^^^H Artaxerxes ;ei^Ja)\ ^ - - . - 


40 


5125 ^^M 


^^^H Artaxerxes Oebus, i.e. the black 


27 


5152 ^^H 


^^^H Arses ben Ocbus ..-»•. 


4 


5156 ^^B 


^^^H Darius ben Arsak .... 


6 


5162 ^^B 


^^^B Then follow Alexander and the Ptolemaeana. 


In a special column the ^^^H 


^^^B author mentions some contemporary erents of Jewish, Egyptian, Greek ^^^| 


^^^1 and Roman history. 




^H 


^^B p. 115, L 45. In the text (p. 112, 1. 4) 


read 


ft^ instead of ^W ^^^| 


^^^^^H (Fleischer). 




^^^^^^^^H 


^^^^B p. 116, 1. 8. Sa'id b. Muhammad Aldhubl! is 


perhaps the same ^^^B 


^^^^1 Dhuhli Trith whom Bukh&ri (died A.H. 256) 


had 


a controrersy, vide ^^^B 


^^^^1 Hajt Khalifa, ill 172. 




^^B 


^^^^H p. 116, 1. 34. Mah is Media or Aljibdl or Aljahal 


D iho later geogra- ^^^| 


^^^^^B phical terminology. K«ad JW^I instead of the mis 


irint JW«|V ^^^1 



ANNOTATIONS. 



401 



They vfere one of the famiUet, etc. is a litoml translation of the 
reading of the manuscripts, but I do not believe that this reading is 
correct, not that Arabic grammar allows such a construction. 

tij conjecture, ^jf} instead uf ^•^^ is not aatisfactorj, as it ib not 
oonform&ble to the usual coustruotion of this word. 

One might think of reading f*-4-i ("They were the most daring 
and onterjiriBing of the petty y>rin«>e8," etc.), but this, too, does not 
seem to settle the difficulty. 

I am sorry to state that I have not been able to fiud the original 
npon which the term Muh'tk-aUattsVif^ "Petty prinoea,*' baa been 
coined. 

Cf. with this passage Hamza, p. 30; T*!^*''!, ed. Zotenberg, i. 523 ff. ; 
Ibn-AIathir, i. 208-210, 271, 272 ; Maa^Adi, '^ Prairies d'or," ii. 136. 

The pedigree of Ashk is earned back to a son of Siyiiwuah, whose 
name I do not know how to pronouncp, Aniither Ron of Siyiiwush is 
mentioned by Ibn'Alathir, L 173 (F£r6zad •>j>;e^) and Tabari, ed. Zoten- 
berg, i. 467 (Afroad). 

For another poJijfreo of Ashk, vide B. Dom, " Sehir-eddin's Qe- 
schichte ron Tabaristaii, Rujan uud Masauderan," p. 152. 

For the chronology of the Ashkanians, cf. Milhlau-Qutschmid in 
"Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandiaehen Gesollschaft," torn. xv. 
p. 664; Blau, i7». torn, rriii. p. 680; Gobiueau, r&. torn. xi. p. 700; Muj- 
mil-altawArikh in "Journal Asiatiqae," 1841, p. 164: H. Schueiderwirlh, 
" Die Farther;* Heiligenstadt, 1874. 

]>. 117t 1. 9. On the samames of the Ashkanians I offer a few 
conjectures : 

Kkdihdih, i.e. well-horn, de rate pure = setHvahya, vide Oobiueau, 
*' Zeitschrif t der Beutschen Morgenlandisehen Oesellachaft," tom. xi, 
p. 702. 

Zarrin, i.e. goldeti, 

KhurUn seems to be a mistake for jj^^ i.e. Ootarzes. 

Qi'adwar, i.e. curled, cf. the Persian word Gc8udnr=a man of au- 
thority. 

Barddih^iJ t\y happij^born . 

Baldd=^ 1\t high-horn ; but see not^e at p. 118, I. 21. 

p. 117, 1. 30. See this table in Hamza, translation, p. 10. 
p. 118, 1. 5. See this table in Hamza, p. 18. 

p. 118, I. 21. Besides the name iialadhdn there occurs a Parthian 
niune Milady in Mujmil-altawftrtkh, " Journal Asiatique," 1843, pp. 
393| 415, 416, Perhaps there is some connection Ijetween •>V* -^^ 
and the surname of FSr6z ben Bahrnm, mentioned p. 117, L 17 (A). 

28 



402 



ALBtB^Nt. 



p. 119, ]. 19. AM-Man^ftr 'Ahd-alrazzak is not known to me from 
other souroea. 

p. 119, 1. 37. In the text (p. 117, i. 13) read tr >» ^ instead of 

p. 120, 1. 22. In the text (p. 118, 1. 3) read a^^ instead of ^, 

p. 121, L 6. ShdMrkdn. Of this work of MAni's very little is known, 
vide O. Fliigel, " Moni, seine Lehre und seine Schriften," Leipzig, 1862, 
pp. 866-S67, 

p. 121, L 86. In the text (p. 119, 1 5) read ^ with the M5S., instead 
of U V 

p. 121, 1. 40. The following calculation ia known in astrology by the 
name of Tasyir^mf— ^ (Directio). The calculation is this : 

407x931 =37,925 J. 
If you divide this product by 360, you get a remainder of 152} degrees. 
The meaning of the 93f degrees, the nature of the solar cycle here men- 
tioned, and the further details of the calculation, I do not understand, 
and cannot, therefore, guarantee the correctness of the text. 

p. 122, 1. 14. MAsa ben 'ts& Alkisrawt ia also mentioned in the 
" Kitab-al^hrist," p. 123. His chronological theory is stated by I^amza, 
translation, pp. 11-16- 

p. 122, 1. 32. For the pedigree of ArdaMhlr ben BAbak, cf. B. Dom, 
" Sehir-eddin's Geschichte von Tabaristan, Rujan und Masander&n," 
pp. 146, 151. 

p. 123. With this table, cf. the history of the Sasaniaus aeeording to 
Mircbond, translated by S. de Sacy in Memoira rur divergea antiquiiSe cU 
la Perge, p. 273 ff. 

Instead of <*>jt read bj^ TiridattSf surname of ShApflr I. 

The word ftJutU is explained by Mirchond as ;^y4t bien/atMni (Saojr, 
p. 296). 

Instead of uk^^^U Mirchond has >a^j^i\-~ 

Instead of ajU^U^ Mirchond has ^U^1j£ 

Bead Jlj»a)ji instead of '>^}Jy with " Mujmil-altawfirikh " (see " Journal 
Asiatiqne," 1841. p. 265 ; 1843, p. 403). 

I have to add iu this place that opposite the name of Ardashlr ben 
B&bak the MSS. have the following note : 

I have not been able to make out the meoning of the last word. 
In the note which is written opposite the name of Sh«pi\r ben Aida- 



ANNOTATIONS. 



408 



shir, the M83. bare the reading o -^ j ai-K^^ which I hare altered into 
Zfi^ as the word >>>^ is in the masculine. 

The somame of ShahrbarAs o^f^ is perhaps to be read (a^y*- or to be 
considered as a corruption of ij^f- He is also called Far/chdn. 

In the text (p. 122, 1. 7) read jj*-j instead of ,>^. 

p. 124. With this table compare Hamza, translation, pp. 10, 11. 

p. 125. With this table, cf. Hamza, pp. 18, 19. 

p. 126, L 27. Jushanasptadha or Jushonaatadha ia the correct reading 
of the signs »a*— — » G. Hoffmann read first the becrinning of the word 
as Jxishanat or Jughanmtp (v—^ tiH^i Armenian form Veehnasp, vide 
Iianglois, " Collection des historiouii," etc., ii. p. 345). The second part 
of the compound I read Tada or Tadha (a word t^f unknown etymology), 
and found the whole name in the Armenian form of Vishmuptad {vide 
Langlois, "Collection des bistoriens de rArm^nie." torn. ii. p. 387). G. 
Hoffmann added a further support of this identification by pointing out 
the Qreek form of tho name, viz. rova-twatrra^rfi (cf. F. de LagardOi 
«• Gesammelte Abhandlungeu," p. 185). 

p. 127, 1. 23. In the text (p. 129, 1. 9), read fji^ instead of ,W^ i 
JitJt (1. 11) instead of (.r**^ ; and ij^ (1. 14) instead of ,jSa- 

p. 128. With tbis table, cf. I;(amza, pp. 14, 15. 

p. 129, i. 16. 'At^mad b. Altajjib Alsarakhs?, a pupil of Alkindi and 
companion of the Khalif AImu'ta4id, was killed a.h. 286. Cf. " Kitab- 
alfihrist," pp.261, 300, and Wustenfeld, " Geschichte der Arabischen 
Aerzte und Naturforscher," nr. 80. 

p. 129, L 19. On the Indian astrologer I;Canuka, vide "Kitdb-alfihrlst," 
p. 270f and note. 

p. 129, 1. 24. In the text (p. 132, I. 10), read ^sjU^JIj J\^\ instead 
of ^t>U*]1^ i^^y*^^ > &»«>U ^%ii (L 12) instead of aj^W ^^-^ and •S<>SV( 
(1. 13) instead of »5j^ (Fleischer). 

p. 130. This table contains a number of mostly well-known princes, 
stateHmeo, and generals : 

No. 1 was Vazir to the Khalif Almu'tatiid, and died a.h. 291. Cf. 
Weil, " Geschichte der Chalifen,'* iii. pp. 514, 539. 

His son, 'Ami d>ald aula, is not knowo to me. 

No. 3-5 are princes of the house of Hanidan in Syria (Mosul). 

No. 6-11, 13, 14, 17-21, 23, are princes of the house of Buwaihi or 
B&ya, vide the pedigree of this family in F. WiUcen, " Mirchoud's Qe- 



404 



ALBilldN!. 



scliichte rler Sviltano aua ik-in Haiiee Biijph," [). 12 ; the Turkish chronicle 
of Muuajjim Bashv, ii. pi>. 484, 488, 495, 501. 

No. 12, 15, a,re two (jrincos of the family of the Banu-Zi^ad of Jurj&u. 

No. 16 is not known to me. 

No. 22, 28, 29, are the two founders of the famous Qhaznawt dynasty. 

No. 24, 27, 32, belong to the family of Simjxir, govei-nor of Khur&aAn 
under the Samanidc dynasty. Cf. Defrumery, " Histoire dea Samanides," 
pp. 261,169,188,201,203. * 

No. 25. AbO-al'ahbAs Tftsh waa governor of NishApar onder Sama- 
nide rule, and died a.h. 379. Cf. Dofr^mcry. t6. p. 168. 

No. 26. Abu>al]jasan AlfA'ik, a general of the la«t Sauianidc prinooB, 
disappears before a.h. 389. Cf. Defremery, ib. p. 196. 

No. 31. Abfi-alfawAris Begtftzftn was governor of KhurAsftn and 
Vaztr to the last Sanianide jirincM^s ; h** ueema to have died before a.h. 
389. 

No. 33, Abu-Man^ur Alp-Arslan AlbAlawi was Vaztr to the last 
Samanido pi*inc« MuntoHir, and was still alive when this book was com- 
posed. Cf. Defremery, ib. p. 202. 

p. 131, 1. 18. On Bu^''hriikhjin, prince of Kftahghar, the conqueror of 
Transoxiana, vide Weil, " Geschichte der Chalifen/' iii. Anhang 1. 

p. 131, 1. 23. Here the author speaks of the prince of Jttrjan, K«^*^s 
ben Washmgir, to whom he has dedicated bis book, vitU note at p. 1, 
1.25. 

p. 131, 1. 41. In the text (p. 135, 1. 6) read U^ instead of \iU,\ 
(Fleischer). 

p. 132, 1. 3. TailathU. (Cf. p. 152, 1. 34.) By the term tivo/old (or 
redoubled) f^ihiKan^ the author means an oblong quadrangular field, 
<livided into two equal parts by a diagonal. T^Iasnn is the name of a 
piece of dress, vide Bozy, " Dictionnaire dee noma desvetements chez Ics 
Arabea," p. 278, and Lane, " Arabic Dictionary " under this word. 

p. 132, 1. 7. The Qreek name of the sexagesimal system is I^kooto., 
prr7o Delambre, " Histoire do Tastronomie ancienne," ii. pp. 577, 608 
(HcxL-costades). There is a chapter on the sexagesimal system of calcu- 
Ution in Barl&am's Xoyurrfdj aarpovofuK^ (Oehimbre, ib. i. 320). 

p. 133. A similar table of intervals Ijetween the epochs of the various 
eras is also given by Delambre, " Histoire de rastronomie dn moyeo 
Age/* p. 9f&, un the authority of Ibn-Ytlnns. In the text of this table I 
bad to correct some mistakes; 

At notea a, r. PL have the forreet reading, 101 4933, guaranteed bj 
^^J^a^0^. The corresponding sexagi^imul numbers 54, 7, 43, 4, are wrong 
iu all nianudcripts, for they repreaent the erroneous number 101, 9274. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



405 



I haTc printed inBtcad of them the sexagesimal atunbers which represent 
the Qtuaber 101. 4933, It, 

33,55.41,4. 

At notea b, f, f?. The reading of the luiuiiiscripis 123,8523 is wrong, 
for the addition of the constituent numbers gives the snm of 123,8516. 
Accordingly also <i»>iin must be changed into W^^^t; 

The sexagesimal numbers have also been derived from the wrong 
number, for 3 (not 43). 2, 44, 5, represent the number 1233523. whilst 
we must read 

56, 1. 44. 5 
as representing the nimaber 123,8516. 

Ai df read y \ jm « instead of y ^^ Jm t 

p. 184. The chapter on the ehess problem 1 have separately edited 
and explained in the "Zeitschrift der DeuttK^faeD Morgonlandischen 
Gesellsrhaft;* tom. xxix. pp. 148-156. 

Begarding the English tenninologv of this chapter. I must say a 
word to justify the use of the word check. If I had used the com- 
mon expresfrion for a field on the chess-board, i.e. tquare, my translation 
would have become very ambiguous, as frequently in one sentence I 
should have had to 8[)eak of a equate (in the mathematical meaning) 
and a $guare (a field on a chess-board). The square (former meaning) 
of th4i numbtrr af » iquarv (latter meaning) would have been intoler- 
able. To avoid this ambiguity I have adopted the word ckctk in the 
common meaning of sqwir^-^ as check seems to be the next synonymous 
term, meaning a quadrangular field in a piece of Scotch cloth or tartan 
plaid. 

p. 136, I. 7. The days of the epochs of the various eras according 
to Ibn-Tfinus have buen communicated by Delambre, " Histoire de I'aa- 
tronomie du moyen age," p. ^^. 

AlbAtini's rules for tbe comparison of era« between each other, see t&. 
p. 41. 

p. 136, 1. 20. The epochal day of the Mra Diluvii is a Friday, vide 
Ideler, " Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie," 
ii. p. 627. 

p. 136, 1. 26. The epochal day of tbe j£ra Nabonaasari is a Wed- 
nesday, that of the jEm PhUippi is a Sunday ; Ideler, ih. ii. pp. 627, 
628. The correspondence between the I. Tfit and the I. DaimAh, is also 
stated by AifarghAnI, " Elomenta astrouomica." ed. GK>Uus, p. 5. 

p. 136. I. 30. The epochal day of the Mra AUxandH is a Monday; 
Farghuni, p. 6 ; Idclur, ii. 628. 



406 



ALBMnt. 



p. 187, 1. 9. The Syrian year commenoeB witli the 1 Oct., the Greek 
year with the 1 January. The interval between Ihoso two New Yoar'a 
Days is 92 days. 

p. 137» p. 17. The epochal day ot the .^ra Augiati a a Thursday ; 
Ideler, ii. p. 628. 

p. 137, 1. 37. The epochal day of the .^ra DtoeUtiani is a Wednesday, 
Bee Meier, ii. 628. 

p. 138, 1. 9. The epochal day of the Sra of the Flight is a Thursday ; 
Ideler, ii. 629. 

p. 138, 1. 30. The epochal day of the .^h-a Ttadagirdi is a Tuesday, 
eet! FarghAnJ, p. 6, and Ideler, ii. 629. 

p, 139, 1. 7. Read Alnairki instead of AU^nxi (also iu the text, p. 
142, 1. 22). In the teit, p. U2, 1. 21, road ^\^\ yl instead of 

p. 141, I. 29. The following lines (till p. 142, 1. 2), are a Unto of 
which I do not know a proper restoration. It seems the author gave an 
exposition of the length of the Jewish, the Christian, and the astro- 
nomical years, and pointed out some incongruity between Jewish and 
Bnientilic .istrouomy. Both Jewish Years, that of R. Samuel (the Julian 
year), of 365 d. 6 h. and that of R. 'Adda of 365 d. 5 h. 997 y. 48 
Reg. arc too long, vide Dr. A. Schwarz, "Der Jiidische Kalender," 
pp. 65, 120, In the present state of the text I am not able to say 
what the 165 days (p. 142, 1, 2) mean. 

p. 142, 1. 12. The subtraction of two years in this calculation is neces- 
sitated by the Babylonian Ordo inhrcaUUicHUf 321313. which the author 
uses in this place. Cf. p. 65, 1. 6. 

p. 142, 1. 20. The Anaying Circle is based on the assuinpHoD that 
the Enncadecateris correapouds to 19 solar yt^ra (whilst there in a dif- 
ference between them of 145 HaliLUm, vide p. 64, 1. 16), and that the 
mean Lunar year has 354 days in a common year and 384 days in a leap 
year. The former, if compared with the Julian year, is too short by 11 
days ; the latter is too long by 19 days. 

In the squares of the thirteenth year of the cycle read 7^2 7, instead 
of fWl 6 (also in the text). 

No regard has been had of the intercalation of the Julian years. 

p. 143, 1. 28. In the text (note i, last line,) read ^^ ^^^^ instead of 
p. 144, L 5. By the apparent motion the author means that motion 



ANNOTATIONS. 



407 



which at any time is found hj agtroDomical obBerration, no equation or 
correction being usecL 

p. 144. 1. 17. This opace of time, U. 2 d. 16 h. 595 ^ ie the so-called 
Character of the £nneadecatenB. 

p. 144, L 26. The 4 d. 8 h. 876 H. are the Character of the Common 
Tflor, the 5 d. 21 h. 589 I^. the Character of the Leap-year. Cf. T^azarua 
Bendarid, " Zur G^schichte und Berechnung dcs Jiidigfrhen Kolenders," 
Berlin, 1817. § 32. 

p. 144, 1. 30. These 5 d. 14 h. are the M61cd of the Crmtion (-p '^) 
M, Friday morning, 8 o'clock. Cf. Dr. A. Scbwarz, " Der Judiache 
Kalender," p. 50, note 2. 

p. 145, 1. 15. With the ]2tb year of the ^tn Alexandri begins a new 
Enneadecateris of the Jemsh ^Era Adami, the 182 d. one. 

The Basia, i.e. the M6I£d of ^. Alex. 12 (i.e. £. Adami 3460) hne been 
omitted in the tables of all manuBcripts. It is, howcror, easy to find by 
the help of the tables on pp. 145-117. 3460 years are : 



6 Great Cycles 

14 Small Cycled 

2 single years 



d. h. H. 

= 3 20 600 

= 2 15 770 

= 3 6 385 



9 18 675 



Therefore the M6tM of the 12th year of Alexander is 2 d. 18 h. 676 y. 
(cf. the astronomical calculation of this MAled on p. 148, 1. 19). 

p. 145, 1. 30. The numbers of days, hours, and l^akim of this table 
the reader may check by always adding the Character of the Enueade- 
cateris, i.e. 2 d. 16 h. 595 H., and by subtracting 7, as soon as the addition 
of the days gives more than seven days. 

p. 146, 1. 20. The number of days, hours, and UalA^m the reader 
may check by always adding for a common year 4d. 8h. 876 ^., tor a 
leap-year 5 d. 21 h. 589 H., and by subtracting 7, as soon as the addition 
of the days goes beyond this number. 

p, 147, 1. 1. The Character of the Great Cycle is 5 d. 7 h. 460 H., 
which you get by multiplying the Character of the Euneadecateris, i.e. 
2 d. 16 h. 595 ii. by 28, dividing the sum by 7, and taking the re- 
mainder. 

p. 147, 1. 42. 2Vm««. One lime is equal to four minates. 



408 



AiBtBfrlft, 



p. 148. I. IS. In the following t&bles tbese measuFes hsre been 
used: 

Character of the Enneadeeaterit 2 d. 16h. 28 '• 57 " 57 nt. 53 ^^ 

Aooordmgly the length of the Enneadecateris according to the sons of 
MAsa bon Shakir waa 

6939 d. 1« h. 28 '■ 57 "• 57 m. 53 iv. 

The dirision of this sum by the number of the laaationa of the Enne^ 
decateris, >.«. 235, gives the length of the sjnodical month as assumed by 
the sons of KAbA beu ShAkir, i.e. 

29 d. 12 h. 44'- 2"- 17^.21^7. iqv. 

Cf. p. Ii3t 1. 28, where the eame measure is mentioned, with this dif> 
ference, that there the number of fiftba is stated to be 12. Cf. note at 
p. 158. 
The Character of the Common Year is 

4d. 8h. 48^ 27n-28mU«v. 

The Character of the Leap- Year ia 

5 d. 21 h. 32 1- 29 "- 45 ™- 35 IV. 

The Character of the Great Cycle is 

6i5h.8li-8n.0™.44iv. 

p. 150, 1. 22. The Limits within which the H61ed of a year may fall 
ar« determined by the four Deljiyyflth, i.e. ns* "ITNTP* Tyi^^ and 
I2Dpmi:S* Cf. Lazarus Bendavid, " Zur Berechuung und Geachichtc 
des Judiachen Kalcudcrs," §§ 35-39. 

On the relations between New Yearns Day and the character or nature 
of the year, cf. Lazarus Bendavid, §§ 46-48. 

p. 152, 1. 34. Tailasdn, vide note at p. 132, 1. 3. Perhaps it would bo 
better to read UU^*. instead of \A\iy^\ (text, p. 169, 1. 1). 



p. 153, 1. 4. In this table as it occurs in the MSS. there is a mistake. 
Qj and 2 can follow each other, as the Table of ^^iVtth (at p. 154) 
plainly shows. Therefore, road in the text, in the corresponding field, 
xj^j'* (j^ t>3^ instead of J^y* cj^ C«^. 

The three values of the table give the following six permutatioDs ; 



n+n} 



cannot follow each other. 



3 + n r can follow each other. 

3+0); 

p. 158. L 14. The Table of Eptaiian, vide pp. 280, 281. 



ANXOTATIONS, 



109 



p, 153, 1. 18. Tho nnmb*»r of 6,940 days is a. round numhiir, for in 
reality the Eniuadwatoris Una only t>,939 J. 16 h. 595 IL Regarding the 
preponderance of the Perfect yean over the Imperfect ones in the Ennea- 
decateris, cf. Lewisohn, '* GkRchichte nnd Brstom dcR Jiidi»ohcn Kalun- 
derweaens," Leipzig, 1856, § 90. 125 months of 30 days each, and 110 
mouthB of 29 days each, gire the sum of 6,940 days. 

JViJfc at p. 154, There was a fatal mistake in the first square of tliu 
table. The MS3. hare the 20lk tlM instt^ad of the \Qth tUl (text. pp. 
166,167). Dr. Schramm, of Vienna, kindly settled the question for me 
by computing the date in question by means of tho formula of Gauss. 

The Kow-Tear's Day of the Jewish A. Adami 4754 was the 
19(A to A. Alea. 1304. 
However, according to AlbfirAni, the corresponding Greek year is A. Alex. 
1305, not 1304. This difference is to be explained in the following 
way: 

The Jewish year 4754 falls together or runs parallel with A, Alex. 
1305, with one difference : The New- Year's Day (or Ist Tishri) of 
A. Adami 4754 was the I9th Tiai A. Alex. 1304. The Jewish New- 
Year's Day (Ist of Tishri) fell 11 days earlier than the Greek New- Year's 
Day (or Ist of Tiahrin Primus). 

Therefore — to speak accurately — the beginning (i.e. the first 11 days) 
of the Jewish year 4754 falls into the Greek year 1304, but the whole 
remainder of the year corresponds with A. Alex. 1305. 

This seems to be the reason why the author has in this table com- 
pared the Jewish year 4754 with the Greek year 1305. 

The Jewish New-Year always precedes the Greek Now-Yeorbya small 
number of days, vide the Assaying Circle on p. 142. 

The table comprises the years of Alexander 1305-1818, i.e. 532 years, 
or one Great Cycle of 28 Small Cycles. 

The Ordo Iniercalationia in each Small Cycle is ;Qoi3 »■«• tl^e 3rd, 5th, 
8th, 11th, 14th, 16th, 19th years of the cycle are leap-years. 

It is a noteworthy fa»;t that in every 247 years (i.e. 13 Small Cycles) 
nearly (not accurately) the same ^ebl'6th return, which tJio reader will 
find confirmed if he compares the years 1305 ff. with 1552 ff . and 1 799 ff. 
On this subject, ef . lAzanis Beadarid, *' Zur Bcrcchntmg and Gesobichte 
des Judischen Ealenders," § 4o. 



p. 155, t 26. On the two beginnings of a Jewish month, or the two 
Bfish-Hodesh, cf. Lazarus Bendavid, § 11. 

In the following tables I hare printed the real Ist of a month in 
Arabic numerals, and the fictitious first of a month, i.e. tho last day of 
the preceding ci>mplei€ month in Latin numerals. 

29 



410 



ALBtfiONt. 



p. 157, 1. 10. The computation of tWe table Te«t8 on the theory thai 
b(!twcy>n the Mt^Ivd of one munth aud that of itio following there is an 
interval of 29 d. 12 h. 793 9- The half of this (the Fortnight) is 14 d. 
18h. 39eiH. 

The Character of the month is 1 d. 12 h. 793 H. i.e. the M616d of a 
month falls by 1 d. 12 h. 793 1^. later in the week than the Mdl&d of the 
preceding month. 

The Character of the Fortnight ie d. 18 li. 392| y. The table cou- 
siflta of additions of these two values, 



p. 158. The checking of this table gare some difficulty, as in the 
column of the fourths the fractions have been omitted in all the 
manuscripts of the t«xt, whilst in the computation thej have not been 
disregarded. 

This table shows that AlMrflni reckoned the interval between two con- 
secutive conjuuetious (after the sons of MAs& b. Shfikir) at 
29 d. 12 h. 441- 2^. 17™. 21 rr. 12^. 

The half of this is 

14 d. 18 h. 22 J- 1 n- 8 III- 40 rv. 36 V. 
or 
Ud. 18 h. 22^ 1 IL gni. 40|rv. 

With this measure, cf. my conjecture on p. 143, 1. 28, and note at p. 
148, 1. 15. 
Accordingly the Character of this synodical month is 
1 d. 12 h. 44' 2 « 17 tn. 21 iv. 12 v. 

i.e, the beginning of a month falls by so much later in the week than 
tlial of the preceding month. The half of this Character is 

d. 18 h. 22 !• 1 n- 8 ™- 40J ^■ 

The table consists of additions of these two values. 

p. 159, I. 11. The reason of the following calculation is this, that 
Passover always falls on the 163rd day from the end of the year. The 
diviaioQ of 168 by 7 gives 2 as remainder. 

If, therefore, yon add 2 to the week-day of the Passover of a year, 
you get the we«k-day on which the New- Year's Day of the following 
year falls. 



p. 159, 1. 29. The univereaitgiuMoMltSeT to the various inequalities 
in the rotation of both sun and moon, and they aerre the purpose of 
changing their real motion into mean motion. 



ANK0TATI0N8. 411 

p. 160, L 6. In the teit (p. 176, 1. 21), read lyJ^^J instead of \fU\} 

p. 160, 1. 29. In the text (p. 177, 1. 10), road \fi$^ instead of \y^ 

p. 161, 1. 4. The number 350 is the multiplication of the 7 years of 
the Cycle of Shfibft* by the 50 years of tbe Cycle of T6bcl. After this 
cycle of 350 years the aiugle years of both <7cles in question return 
again iu the same order. 

p. 163, L 20. With $ediment. Read *r4*» instead of it^jH (teit, p. 182, 
1. 12). 

p. 163, L 38. The solar year of 365J days, i.e. the Julian year, is 
called the year of Eabbi Samuel, whilst tbe year of 365 d. 55-f4i *»■» the 
second of the two kinds of solar years vhich occur in Jewish ehroaology, 
is called the year of R. 'Adda bar 'Ahabit Converting this latter space 
of time into Jewish mcatiurea we get 

365 d. 5 h. 997 H. 48 Beg^^im. 
This length of the solar year has been found by ilividing by 19 the 
Knneadecateris of Moton (6,939 d. 16 h. 595 1,1.), which comprehends 
236 synodical months of Hipparchus, and which has Iveen adopted by the 
Jewish chronolo gists. Cf. Dr. Ad. Schwarz, " Der Judiscbe Kaleuder," 
p, 65 ff. 

p. 164, 1. 1. For an astronomical examination of the following chapter 
(aa far as p. 167), I refer the reader Ut Einc Berechnuruf dcr Ent/emung 
de* Sonnen-Apvgaeum'a von dem Frdklirnjspunkte bet Alb*'ruiit Mitgeiheitt 
von Prof. Ed. Saehau und Dr. Joh, Holetachek (p. 19 S), in the " Sitz- 
imgsberichte der Kaiserlichen AJcademie der Wiseenschaften in Wien, 
Phil.-hist. ClflBse," 1876, February. 



p. 167, 1. 7. AbA-Na^r Idanfilr, etc., a mathematician and aatronomer, 
lived in Khw&nzm and Ghazua and died, as it seems, in the latter place 
in the first quarter of the 5tb century of the Flight Of. tbe text, " Ein- 
leitong," p. TTxiii. 

p. 168. The Telf^ufoth are the chronologic^.!, not the astronomical 
year-points. Their calculation is based upon the Julian years of Rabbi 
Samuel. 

The following arc the elements of this calculation : 

1. The year contains four quarters, each of 91 d. 7 h. 540 H. Dividing 
this by 7, you get tbe remainder of 7 b. 540 H., i.e. 7\ hours. 



412 



AliB^fiONt. 



2. The Character of the Te^ufA is 7^ hours, which is the amouut of 
the precession of each je&r-poixit within the week. This precession 
amounts for one complete year to 30 hours or 1^ day. 

3. If joa multiplj 30 hours by 28 and divide the product by 24, you 
get no remainder, which means that after a cycle of 28 such years the 
year-points foil a^in on the timo within the week. 

4 The question is: whence to begin with this calculation ? with the 
TelfiifA of Tiahri or that of NIsfin ? 

The author fixes the To^tik of Tishrt on the 5th Tishri. a WedceB- 
dsy, 9 o'clock in the morning, \.e. 4d. 15 h. after the Molfid of TishrL 

By sttbtmcting herefrom the amount of tho weekly precession of two 
Tekiifoth (i.e. IS hours), the author finds tho first hour of tho night 
of Wednesday (or, aooording to our method, Tuesday, 6 o'clock in the 
CTuning,) as the time of the TekufA of N!s&n, i.e. 4 d. Oh. after the 
Moled of Nisan. 

5. In the Table of Teicii/oih the author has assumed as the beginning 
of his calculation the time of noon (of Wednesday), i.e. 4d. 18 b. instead 
of the sunset (of Tuesday) or 4 d. h. 

On this subject, cf. Dr. Ad. Schwarz, " Dor Judisehe Kolondcr," pp. 
65-69. 

p. 169, 1. 10. The names of the planets as giren by the author are 
well known in later Hobruw. As a matter of interest for the history of 
Hebrt^w proQimctatiott, 1 mention the spelling of j**-=rTOn and j**- ^^ 
—TV2n 22^3 which reminds one of the pronunciation of tho Jews of 
Galicia. 

p. 172, Begording Oriental names of the planets, I refer tho reader 
to Ohwolsohn, "Sabier und Sabismus," ii, pp. 156-175. 

In the square of the Syrioc names of Venus there occur two other 
names, which I have not been able to decipher. The one, /^i is, perhaps, 
a corruption for *^y»tt 



p. 174. The author shows that a year- point, as ctloobted by the 
Te^fifoth of Rabbi Samuel (i.e. according to the Julian year), in no way 
agrees with reality, i.e. with a year-point as determined by astronomical 
obsenration, aud that on the other band the TekOfSth, as calculated by 
the system of Rabbi Adda, come pretty near reality. The proof for this 
atter assertion has fallen out, as the chapter is a torw. 

Here (1. 21) the author sUtes that the first Tc^Afa of Tishri fell 5 d. 
1 b. after the Moled of the year, whilst on p. 168, 1. 19, he has said that 

fell 4 d. 15 b. after the same 3Idlcd. I cannot account for thia 
diTcrgeney. 



ANNOTATIONS, 



413 



p. 174, 1. 16. The coostituent ports of this sum are tho following: 



8 Great Cycles 
26 Small CycleB 

9 jears or 111 months 



d. h. H. 

1,654,490 n 440 

180,431 22 350 

8,277 21 643 



Sam 



Remainder 



1,738,200 
-5 



253 



1,738,195 6 253 



Thia is the interval between the Tek&fA of Tishri of the first year of 
the JEra Adami and the MAled of A. Alex. 1311. 

The dJriaioD of this sum by 364|- days gives 4,758 Jtilian years, and a 
remainder of 335f d. 253 H. i.e. one year minus 29 d. U h. 827 H. 

Sunday, 7h. 253 H. of daytime is Od. 19h. 253 H., which, added to 
29 d. 11 h. 827 1^., gives the sum of 

30 d. 7h. 

If we ooimt 30 d. 7h. from the beginning of a Sunday {\.e. the pre- 
ceding snnset), the Ist of Kl&l, wo come as far as a Tuesday night, 7 h., 
the first of Tishrtu Primus. 

In 1. 33, read 7 h. instead of 9 h., and in the text, p. 194, 1. 15, road 
44»\bU gt— ij\ instead of «*»UU g— * ^\ 



p. 175, 1. 2. The year of Rabbi Add& contains 365 d. 5H^ h. Of 
this kind of fractions (i.e. 4104th parts of an hour) one day contains 
98,496. 

The following is the oonvorsion of 

1,738,195 d. 6 b. 253 ^ 
into these fractions : 

1,738,195 d. =171,205,254,720 
6k= 24,624 

253.9.= 961f 

Sum - 171,206,280,3051. 

Henoo it is evident that in tho number 

171,280,305} (line 5, for so it is to be road) 
205 millions have fallen out. 

If we divide this sum of 4104tfa parts of an hour by 35,975,351 (which 
is the solar year of R. Adda, reduced into the same kind of fractious), 
we get as quotient 4,758 years, and a remainder of 350 d. 21^^Vs ^■ 

If we compare this remainder with that of the former calculation, %,e. 



414 AXBtflM. 

335 d, 18 h. 2S3H., we get a difference of IS d. 3 h Jj^ H., which means 
that, according to Rabbi Addfi, the TeVfiW of Tishri of A. Alex, 1311 
falla by IS A. 3 h. -Ji^ H. earlier than that of Rabbi Samuel. 

Thia difference shows that the system of Rabbi AddA comes pretty 
Dear astrononiical truth, for, whilst his autiunnai equinox fell 15 d. 
3^1^ h. earlier than that of R. Samuel, the astronomical equinox fell 
14 days earlier, an the author says himself on p. 174, I. 35. 

p. 174, L 21. Read ^s^ instead of u^ in the text, p. 194, 1. 9. 

p. 176) 1. 5. Thai part of the text which is missing in this place (».«. 
between the words UU*-j and ci>Ule^ in the text, p. 194, I. 21, not be- 
tween the number and ^ J •..t*y') originally contained niloa by which to find 
the week-days on which the years of the eras of the Deluge, NalMjuaesar, 
and Philippus commence. Of the chapter rehiting to the Era of Alex- 
ander only the end is extant. 

The tabic on p. 175 contains a cycle of 28 Julian years, after which 
the single years begin again on the same week-days. 

The reason why the be^nning of Tishrin I. in the first year of the 
cycle is fixed upon 2, i.e. Monday, is this, that Monday is the epochal 
day of this era. Cf. L. Ideler, " Handhuch," ii. p. 628. 

p. 176, 1. 1 ff. Similar rules for the deriTation of the beginnings of 
the years of the different eras are also given by Delambre, " HLstoire de 
rastronomie du moyen age," p, 41. 

The epochal days of the single eraa are also given by Delambre, p. 96. 

p. 176, 1. 27. This rule for the derivation of the Signtim ]^uharrami 
of any year of the Flight is very intricate, and the author does not 
explain the principle upon which it is based. 

Most people take Thursday, others Friday, as the epochal day of the 
era of the Flight. 

The lunar year of this era is generally reckoned at 

354iAd.=354d. 8h. 48', 
but in reality the mean lunar year is longer. Ideler ('* Handbuch," ii. 
p. 479) reckons it as 

364d. 8h.48'36^ 
and tbe author seems to reckon it as 

364 d. 22* 1"=354 d. 8 h. 48 min. 24 sec. 
(It must be noticed that in the former number minuiea are 60tfa 
jiarts of a day, tecontU 60th parts of a 60th part of a daif, whilst in the 
second number minutes are 60th parts of an Aour, seconds 60th parts of 
a 60th part u£ an how.) 



ANNOTATIONS. 



415 



The antfaor does not explain whj he adds 34 to the rainutos. To add 
5 days and S4 minutes is thu same as if jou add 6 days. In this case 
we must assume Friday (6) as the epochal day of the era, and the addi- 
tion of 6 days briaga us back to Sundaj, the hcgiuniug of the week in 
which the Flight occurred (cf. p. 177. 1. 43 ff., and p. 180, 1. 19). 

Further : why does the author count all minutes abovo 15 as one hour, 
whiLit, according to the general practico» the minutes beloW 30 ought to 
he disregarded, and those above 30 to bo counted as one hour? 

The intricacies of this rule havo not revealed to me the mystery of 
their mathematical ratio. As it seems, the author intonded by some 
onntrivanoo to meet the incorrectness of the common year (of Z5^^ d.) 
being too short. 

p. 176, I. 38. The aom of the days of two months is 59, which, 
diTided by 7, gires the remainder of 3, i.e. the day on which a month 
heginsi advances in two months as far as 3 days within the week. 

p. 177, 1. 2. Muhammad ben J&bir AlbattAnt, a famous astronomer of 
narrSnian origin, died a.h. 317 ; ride " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 279. 

Habasb the mathematician, a native of Marw, author of famous astro- 
aomical tables, tm2e"Eitab-aIEhrist/* p. 275, audnote£, and H&ji Khalifa, 
T. p. 515. 

p. 177, L 44. Read j«i instead of Jeti in the text, p. 197. 1. 15. 



p. 179. This table is the invention of the mathematician Habaah, 
indicating the Si^na Muharrami for 210 yoars ; but some sectarian has 
in every place added 5 to the number of days, and thereby changed it 
into a table indicative of the Si^iia Jiaaiaddni for the cycle of 210 years. 
In this form the table is given by Alb^rAat. 

The title of the table, as given by mo, must be corrected : " Table 
showing on what week-days the Kamxi^ans of the single years of the 
cycle of 210 years commence." Accordingly also the superscription of 
col. B. is to ho altered. 

For the intercalary system of the lunar calendar I refer the reader to 
L. Ideler, ti. p. 479 ff. As the lunar year is reckoued as 354 days. 11 days 
mnst be intercalated within 30 years. 

After the cycle of 30 years the New- Year days do not again fall on the 
same week days, as there is a remainder of 5 days. There is no 
remainder of days if this cycle is repeated seven times, i.e. after a cycle 
of 210 years the New-Year days fall again on the same week-day. 

This is the reason why the table was coDstructed for a period of 210 
years, cf. p. 180, 1. 26. 



416 ALBlstNt. 

The following [is the Ordo iniercalationia according to which JHahaah 
has constructed his table. 

Cycle of 80 Portio Cycle of 80 Portio 

years. interoalanda. yean. intercalanda. 

d. 

L. 16 U 

L. 2 H 17 A 

18 « 

L. 19 H 

L. 5 H 20 i« 

t. 21 tt 

22 A 

I<. 8 H 23 « 

,L. 24 « 





d. 


1 


H 


2 


U 


S 


^ 


4 


H 


5 


u 


6 


A 


7 


a 


8 


H 


9 


iftr 


10 


n 


11 


U 


12 


U 


13 


u 


14 


A 


15 


H 



25 



TV 



I- Hi* 26 « 

L. 27 H 

L. 13 i* 28 A 

29 it 

L. 80 I* 

According to Habash, the following years of the cycle of 30 years are 
leap-years : 

2, 6, 8, 11, 13, 16, 19, 21, 24, 27, 30, 
whilst, according to the common Ordo iTUercalationU, the following years 
are leap-years : 

2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, 29, 

or 
2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 18, 21, 24, 26, 29. 
The principle of Habash is obvious : He intercalates the portio inter- 
eaUtnda as one whole day, when the fraction has risen to more than if, 
t.e. f rds of a whole day. 

Habash has used Friday as the epochal day, because IV. (Signnm 
Sama^&m) minus 5 gives YI. (Friday) as the Signum Mu^arrami. 
In the text (vide the screw-figure, p. 198) there are four mistakes : 

1. In the first square ^ (the Signum of the first Bamad4n) has fallen 

out. 

2. The Signum BamatJ&ni for the year 9 has fallen out, viz. >> 

3. The Signum of the year 25, read ^ instead of y 

4. The Signum of the year 131, read •* instead of ^ 

p. 180, 1. 7. Tabula mediorum. The word Wagaf or Medium means 
the corrected or mean motion of any celestial body. 



ANNOTATIONS. 417 ' 

p. 180, 1, 27. Read Ji\ instead of ^^\ in the text, p. 198, 1. 22 
(Fleiacher). 

p. 181. The Corrected Table of the author containB the Charaetera of 
the single jears of the cycle of 210 years, i.e. the remainders which you 
get if you divide the sum of the days of the years by 7. 

The addition of 5 d. 34' showB that the table is calculated for Friday 
as the epochal-day. 

It most be kept in mind that in order to find the Bignum Muharrami 
for any year, we must look out in the Corrected Table for the Signum of 
the preceding year ; e.g. to find the Signum Muharrami of a.h. 100, we 
take the Signvm of the year 99, 

viz. 5d. 18' 

+5d.34' 



lOd. 52' 
-7d. 



3 d. 52'=rV. or Wednesday. 
The author does not explain what system of intercalation he follows. 



p. 182, 1. 1. The following passage and table are also found in the 
Kotmographie of Alkazwini, ed. Wustenfeld, p. 74. 

The Octaeteris of lunar years is the basis of the Turkish calendar, vide 
Ideler, ii. p. 564. It rests on the observation that the beginnings of 
consecutive cycles of eight years fall nearly on the same identical time 
of the week, but there is a difference of four minutes, i.e. the beginning 
of one Octaeteris, falls by four minutes later than that of the preceding 
one. 

If we compute the beginnings of the first Octaeteris by the help of 
the corrected table, we get the following Signa : 



Tears of 


Signa 






the Cycle. 


Mnl^arrami. 




1 


3 


= 


4H + 6 


2 


7 


= 


m+6 


3 


6 


= 


6A+6 


4 


2 


= 


3i^ + 6 


6 


6 


^ 


ou+e 


6 


4 


= 


5A+6 


7 


1 , 


= 


2^+6 


8 


6 


= 


6H+6 



30 



418 



ALBtllGNt. 



I do not see the reason whr the author orders 4 to bo added to the 
complete years of the Mra Fugas (IL 4, 5). 

The first Signum Muharrami of the table belongs to the second year 
of the Flight. In 1. 7, read under 8 instead of under 7. 

'Ahmad l)en Mubammod ben Shihab is not known to me from other 
Bourocs. The " ICitAb-alfihrist," p. 282, mentions a mathematician Ahmad 
ben MiLbammad, a contemporaxr of Muhammad ben Mtisfi, who died 
A.H. 259. 

p. 133, 1. 12. *AbA-Ja*far Alkhfizin, a famous astronomer and mathe- 
matician, vide " KitAb-alfihrist," p. 282. He was a contemporary of 
Aba-Zaid AlbalkhJ, who died A.n. 322. Cf. " KitAb-al6hrist," p. 138, 
and Or. Flugel, " Grammatische Schulen der Araber," p. 204. 

p. 183, 1. 13. The Characters of 30, 10, 5 years, and of 1 year, as 
given by the author, will he found to agree with the Corrected Table, if 
oonrerted into the sexagesimal system. 

Character of 30 years=6 d. =5 i C 

„ 10 year8=l d. 16 h.=l d. 40" 

„ 5year8=0d. 20h. = 0d. 50* 

„ 1 year=4d. 8jh.=4d. 22' 

The remainder of the rule does not require an explanation. 



p. 183, 1. 34. The second rule of Alkhazin is as correct as the first 
one, bat it is unnecessarily compUcatod. 

The character of the lunar year is 4J^J d. It is easy to multiply any 
number of years by 4 (or half the number by 8), but for the multiplica- 
tion by ^ Allchazin liaa sought for a simplified method. 

44 of a number is nearly eqoal to f of it, i.e. f of a number are more 
than xh o^ it ^7 tts *^^ ^^^ number, or ^ of half the number, e.^. : 

f of 60 =22 J 
■H of 00=22 

The difference between both numbers is },*.«. t^ of 60 (or ^ of 80). 

If, therefore, wo mnltiply a number of years by | {i.e. if we multiply 
half the number by 3 and divide the product by 4), we must subtract 
from the product rkv ^^ ^^>^ number (or ^ of half the number), in order 
to get ^ of the same number of years. 

Example : a.b. 90. 

The number of complete years is 89 , an odd number. 



ANNOTATIONS. 419 

We subtract 1 jear, and write down ito ckaractert ■•0< 4 d. 22', 
Half of thfi remainder (68)=44. 
I.) 4ix8=352d. 
n.) 44x3=132 : 4=33d. 

352 d. 
33 d. 

6d. (we add 6, taking Friday aa epochal day, 

in agreement with \Vu8t*;n£eld'8 Tables, 

sum 391 d. whilst Allchazin adds 6, taking Thurs- 
day 08 epochal day.) 
— Od. 44' (60th parts to the amount of half the 
number.) 



390 d. 16' 

+ 4d. 22' {charaeUr of the one year.) 



394 d. 38' (these 38' are counted as one day.) 



Therefor© 395 : 7 = remainder 3= C. 
i.c. A.H. 90 oommencod on a Tuesday (cf. Wiistenfeld, " Vergleichongs- 
Tabellen "). 

p. 164, 1. 24. The same rule for the ,r£ra Tazdagirdi, vide in Delambre, 
" Histoire de raatn^uomie du moyen Age," p. 41. 

p. 184, 1. 33. On the Mu Magorum, cf. Ed. Sachau, " Zur Get)cbichte 
und Cbronologie tou KhwArizm I." (** Sitzungsberichte der Kais. 
Wiouor Akodemio der WiBscnsehaften, phiL-hist. Olasse/* 1873, torn. 93, 
p. 485). 

p. 184, 1. 42. The author's report on the int«realation of the ancient 
Persians, vide on p. 38. 

p. 186, 1. 27. Ibn-Sankili (the aon of Syncellua ?) ie not known to 
me from other sources. 

p. 187, 1. 13. 'AbdallAh b. 'Isma'il is unknown to me, but 'Abd- 
almasih Alkindi soi^ms to be the famous philosopher of this name. As 
an authority od Sabiana he is also quoted by the " Kitab^alfihriat/' p. 
S18, vide also Chwolsohn, " Sabier und Sabisnius," ii. pp. 3 and 56. 

p. 187, 1. 37. faiUudnj name of a piece of dress, cf. note at p. 132, 
1.8. 

p. 188, L 35. A^dmida was a large Tillage in the district of Wisi), 
b«tween this town and Ba^ra. Yalf&t, ii. p. 10. 

A Nahr-alfila in WtUit is mentioned by YatfAt, It. p. 841. 



420 



ALBtR^Nt. 



A place, AUJa'/aT, I do not know, but Al-jafari woe a castle in the 
neighbourhood of Samarrft, built by the Khalif Aimutawakkil, vide 
YA^&t, ii. p. 86. 

p. 188, 1. 44. On the tafumiuK, vide a note in " KitAb^lfihriat," p. 
345. 

p. 189, 1. ± Bahiir \b the Sanatrit word mtidra; of FarJcKdra I do not 
know the ori^. The author Bcetns to think of the Buddhistic monu- 
ments of the Kabul rallej. 

p. 189( 1. 14. On th<> sects of Bardesanes and Marcion, of. " Kit&b- 
alfitirist," i. pp. 338, 339, O. Flu^l, M&ni, " Seine Lehre und seine 
Schriften," 1862, pp. 159, 161. 

p. 189, L 20. The Termini Sptn are an astrological term, meaning the 
dirision of each zodiat^l sign into five parts. These parts stand under 
the influent'c of the planets (except Sun and Moon). They are deter- 
mined differently in different systems (that of the Egyptians and that 
of Ptolemy). 

p. 189, 1. 43. The chapter on HAnS, cf. with O. Flugel, M&ni, " Sein 
Leben und seine Schriften," Leipzig, 1862. 

p. 190, 1. 37. YuVut (iv. p. 317) mentions the canal of K&tha, but he 
docs not mention the name of Mardinii (sic). 

p. 191, 1. 1. Yal^ya b. Alnu'man, the Christian, is not known to me 
from other sourcea. 

p. 191, 1. 19. Jibrn'il h. NAh is not known t4> me. Yazd&nbakht was 
a Manicheaan chief in the time of the Khalii Ma'miin, vide Flugel, 
Mani, pp. 108 and 99, etc. 

p. 191, L 44. On this prince Marzuban b. Rustam, vide note at p. 47, 
1.32. 

p. 192, 1. 6. The "KitAb-alfihrist" mentions two hooke on MaadaMt 
one by Ibu-atmuko^a' (p. 118), and one by 'AbAn b. 'Abd-al^am2d 
(p. 163). In the same book, p. 342, a chapter on Mazdak. 

p. 192, 1. 26. This correspondence took place A..H. 10, cf. Ibn-Hish&m, 
pp. 965. 946; Ibn-al'athir, ii. 227 j Ibn-^utaiba, " Kitab-alma'Arif," 
p. 206. 

p 193, 1. 3. In a different form this verse is quoted by Ibn-^utaiba, 
"Ma'arif,"p. 206. 



ANK0TATI0X8. 



421 



p. 19S, 1. 6. The story of the idol that wob eaten by its worshippers 
is told by many Arab authors. Cf. " MubJt-*li'i'ibH>" »•»■ C^- 

p. 193, I. 1(5. On BahaOrM, cf. ShahrUUnt, ed. Cureton, p. 187 j 
« KitAb-alfihrirt," p. 344. 

Thi^ Tillage or towu of Sir&waud U also meatioued by T&l^&t, a.v. ^tj^ 
u. p. 486. 

p. 194,1. 12. i do not know an^AbdalliVb b. Shu'ba In the early history 
of the Abbasides. In the " KitAb-alfihriat," p. 344. 1. 24, one of the two 
officers who were sent out in pursuit of Babafirid, is called 'AbdallftU 
b«n Sa'td, and a man of this name is known as prorincial governor of 
the Khalifs Harun and 'Amin, vide Ibn-al'athtr, ri. pp. 156, 214. 

p. 194, 1. 22. Ibn-al*ftthtr, vi. pp. 25, 35, relates the coining forward 
of AlmuVanna* under a.h. 159, and his death under a.q. 161. 

p. 194, L 45. The history of All^allAj is told by Ibn-al'athir, riii. pp. 
57, 92. 

p. 195, 1. 33. On the literature of tlie Kuiuh-atmaldhim, cf. M. Stoin- 
Schneider, Apokftlypecn mit polemiseher Tendenz (" Zeitschrift der 
I>eut6chen Morguolandiscben Qcsellschaft," xxriii. p. 627 S.). 

p. 195, L 37. On AlmulchtAr, who was killed A.n. 67, cf. Ibn-?utaiba, 
" Ma'firif," p. 204, and rbn-al'athir, ir. p. 220. 

p. 195, 1. 42. Radwji is a mountain in AlbijAz, between Yanbu* and 
Medina, also mentioned by YAl^t^t (iL p. 790, 1. 20) as the residence of 
Almahdi. Cf. also Alkiuwtm, " Kosmographie," ii. p. 160. 

p. 196, 1. 1. On the island of Bart&'tl, cf. Ail^azwlni, " Kosmogrepbie," 
i.p.53. 

p. 196, 1. 13. On the history of the ^miatians, cf. De GKwje, " Mu- 
moire but les Carmathcs du Bahrain," Leyde, 1362. 

p. 196, 1. 21. TamAm is mentioned byT&lfiflt, iii. p. 547, as a town near 
^a^ramaut. 

p. 196, 1. 44. Abfl-'Abdallah Al'udi is not known to me from other 
sources. An Abu-*Abdallah Aldd'i (^oUl^ a mistake for ^t^lf) is 
known in history as a chief of the Sbi'a iu Bailam, vide Ibn-al'athir, 
riii. p. 424, at a.h. 355, and viii. p. 443. 

p. 197, 1. 39. The Sflura called Aixumar is Sftra 39, These Torses were 
also translated by de Gkeje, " M^moire but les Carmathes," p. 51. 



422 



AtBtE<hft. 



p. 198, 1. 1. Read ji\^\ Al'azAVir instead of /\jiii\ AlghurAlfir, and 
fr&m Shalmayhdn 0\*^ (^ iusit^ of b. ShalmaAdn (^\iuiA (^ (text, 
p. 214, 1. 9). Cf. YAkflt, iii. p. 314, and Ibn.al'atMr, viii. p. 216. Shal- 
maghAn was the name of a district belonging to WAsif. 

p. 199^ 1. 1. An extract from the anthor'a chapter on the featirala of 
the Persians is given bj Alkazwtni, " Koamographie," ii. pp. 79-84; $ee 
aJso Alfargh&ni, " Elementa aatronomin," nots, pp. 20^2. 

p. 199, 1. 20. I am unable to toll what the author means by the sphere 
of Fer6z (not Fdroza^ and by the sphere of Afranjavi (or Ifranjawi) ou 
p. 208, 1. 15. 

p. 199, 1 28. Said b. Alfa^l. (vide aUo p. 208, 1. 27) is not known to 
trie from other sources. 



T&VAt, ii. p. 584, mentions a place, DummA^ below Baghdad. Per- 
haps it would bo preferable to read " On the mountain of Dumma," etc. 

p. 200, 1. 3. Ka1wadh&, a place not far south from Baghdad. Y&^ftt, 
iv. 301. 
The year in which 'A^ud-aldaula entered Baghdad was x.h. 364. 
On Abft-alfar&j AlzanjAnt, cf. note at p. 54, 1. 1. 

p. 201, 1. 4 ff. If popular use may more easily determine the sol- 
stices than the equinoxes, it is just the reverse for their scientific deter, 
mination, as the author himself obserres on p. 167, 1. 2. Cf. Sachau 
and Holetscfaek, " Berechnung der Entfernung des Sonnenapogaeumt 
von dem Fruhlingspunlct," p. 25. 

p. 202, L 4. Buthanj. It would be better to translate " on the moun- 
tain of Bikshanj," as BAshanj is a village in the district of Herat, not far 
from the road to Kiahilpfir, vidt Y&lrAt, i. p. 758. 

p. 203, I. 32. With this mnovation of Shap^ the Hero, cf. p. 209, 
1.37. 

p. 204, 1. 8. AjiOdat' ApAkhtara means in the Avesti norikt not 

p. 201, 1. 51. Manifeei in ike Aveuid {vid« aho p. 205, 1. 24) is the 
common mode of quotation in Parsee books, vide "Bundihiah," ed. Justi, 
Glossary, f.v. >^\*t^. 

p. 204. L 52. On the O&hanbirs, cf. F. Spiegel. " Avesta," ii. p. c. 
and p. 4, note 1 ; on the etymologies of their names, vide A. Bezzon- 



UmOTATTONS. 

berger, " Einigo Avestische Worter und Formen in Gottinger Gelehrte 
Anzeigen," 1878, p^ 251. 

p. 205, 1. 13. Cu&n-i-ti0d/ar means the feast o/ih$ iaaler-7«^. 

p. 205, 1. 25. ArUh. The older form of this name is Arehan, vide 
Koeldelce, " Zeitscbrift der I>eut»ch«n Morgeniandischen Gesellschaft,*' 
xxiii. p. 570. 

p. 206, 1. 28. SSiffa voa a town half-way between Rai and HamadAn. 
vide Takike, iii. p. 24. A town of the name of Andish or M^andish i« not 
known to me. 

p. 207, 1. 11. Here Aometbing seems to be misaing, viz. that Adhar- 
cuhn fell ou Mihr-R6Zj i.e. the 16th of the month. 

p. 208, I. 21. Salm&n Alfftrist, originally a slave of Persian descent, 
afterwards ouu of Muhammad's companions. He died In the beginning 
of the reign of *Uthm&n. 

p. 208, 1. 25. AUraHtKahri (also p. 211, 1. 19) is not known to me 
from other sources, 

p. 208, 1. 28. Shdhin. A. mountain of this name ia not known to me. 

p. 208, 1. 32. AUosrawi, vide note at p. 122, 1. 14. 

p. 208, 1. 33. Hilmin. This place seems to be something like the 
Hame^tagdn, an intermediate plaiie between bearen and hell, oide West, 
" Mainyo-i-Khard," Glossary, p. 97. 

p. 209, 1. 20. Kiutik means girdle, attU an essential part in the 
costome of a Zoroaetrian. 

p. 210, 1. 15. Alu&fir Al'utrflsh was a dcsccndaut of Ali, who ruled 
for some years in Dailam and Tabaristdn, and was killed a.h. 304. As 
a missionary he had endearoored to spread IslAm among the Zaroastrian 
people of these countries. Weil, " Qeschichto der Khali fen," ti. pp. 
613-615. 

In the text, p. 224, 1. 9, read^U\ Alndfir instead of>U\ Alndiir. 

p. 210, L 18. For a description of the feast of Farwardagiin, vide 
F. Spiegel, ** Avesta," ii.. " Einleitung," p. ci. 

p. 211, 1. 3-8. The lines between brackets have been taken from the 
Canon Ma»u<lieiu of AlbcrAnl, 918. Elliot (British Museum), foL 50x. 

p. 211, 1. 16. jBhir b. T^hir, unknown bo me. 



424 



ALBtB^Nt. 



p. 212, L 28. The name of the feast of the 15th i.b&iL is also in the 
Canon Mttsudictu {f£. 49a, fiOa) written (^UCw. 

p. 212, 1. 33. The second name of this feast is wriiteD in the Canon 
MaeudicuB (ff. 49a, 60a) J^^^ which is certainly more correct than ys\£. 

p. 213, 11. 11-13, Od those festiTols, of. Canon Mamnlicvs, fol. 50tt, 11. 
18-22 : " On the day of Bahinanja they cook in caldrons all »ort« of 
planU, kerueU, blossoms, and all sort's of eatable meat. They drink the 
white Bahman-root, mixed with the purest white milk, maintainintr that 
thin helps to preserve the body and to defend it against evil. 

" Baraadhak means above gadJuik, because it precedes Sadhalf by five 
days. It is also called Navtadka, i.e. the new Sadliak. 

" SadhaJc. They say that oo this day the creation of a hvndrcd souls of 
the family of Mcsha and Mi^shaua bad become perfect, and that there- 
fore the day waa called Saddak, i.e. Sundrrd'day. Accordui^ to others 
there is an interval of 100 days between this day and Naur6z, if yon 
count days and nights separattjly, and therefore the day was called 
Hundred-day in the same way as I^uwad-R6z " (vide p. 212, 1. 12). 

p. 213, 1. 24. Karaj, a town midway between Hamxul&n and IspahAn, 
also a vill^e near Eai, and another between Hamad&n and Nahawaud. 
Yfikut, iv. p. 251. 

p. 214, L 28. Abfl-TTthm&u AljAbiz ia the well-known zoologist, 
author of a Liber antmalium, KUdt'olhayawdn, who died at Ba^ra a..h. 
265. 

p. 214, 1. 28. 'TTkbara. a village in the district of Dujail, near ^rSfin 
and 'Aw&Du. Yakftt, iii. p. 705. 

p. 214, I. 33. Aljaih&ni, a famous polyhistor, vezir to the dynasty of 
the Samanidee, begiDuiog of the 4th century of the Flight, vwie Beiuoud, 
** Ocographie d'AbouUMa/* i. p. Uiii. 

p. 215, 1. 15. Adharkhi)r& is not mentioned by Y&l^&t, nor does he 
know anything about EAm-F£r6z (L 39). Dara (1. 38) is not known as 
a place in Persia ; perhaps Darfibjird waa meant. 

p. 216, 1. 22. In the text, p. 229, 1. 16, read jy instead of ^j as in the 
manuscripts. 

p. 216, 1.31. Dtnir-BAzt. The spelling of this name is not quits 
certain. It is mentioned by Ibu-llauVal, ed. dc Clocje, p. 275, L pen. 
It is a place ou the road from JurjAn to Khur&san. 

p. 21G, 1. 40. Zanjfin, a town in Media towards Adh&rboijAn, not tar 
from ^azwiu. Yal^At, ii. p. 948. 



ANNOTATIONS, 



425 



p. 217, 1. 25. On the Fetui of Kardfartruikkiutraf and the city of this 
name, cf. Y&l^i^t, ir. p. 258. 

p. 221, 1. 6. Ramusb u mentioned hj Ya^M, ii 737, as a Tillage in 
the diBirict of BukhlrA. 

p. 221, 1. 21. The festiTala called MAkhtraj f^ll, according to the 
anthor'fl " Kitab-altafhim " fMS. of the Eojal Library in Berlin, Peterm. 
67, fol. 62b.), always on the 13th. 

p. 221, 1. 22. Instead of f»\t\ ^ the " KitiLh-altaibtm " has fM ^^ 
{.«>. the Agh&m or feast of Bailaind, cf. KamuBh.Aghrim, 1. 15. 

p. 221, 1. 52. Al-tawawi8, a town in the district of Bukhara, between 
this place and Samarkand, vide Yk^dt, iii. 555. ^±^<>%«S' ia not known 
to me. 

p. 222, 1. 5. Sharffh (" Kitfib-altafhim," fol. G2b), called tjt ^y ^n- 
tiaakal, p. 360, 11. 5, 6> waa a large village near Bukhikra, vide Yiikiit, iii. 
p. 276. 

p. 224. 1. 4. According to the " Eitab-altafhim " (fol. 63a) the 
feetiral AjghAr fell on the lOth of Girt. 

p. 224, 1. 12. Faghrubah is haga= Qod, aud some derirative from the 
root rrp ((^j). 

p. 224, 1. 18. Bead Azdd instead of Azdd, and of. ltuiii=/at in the 
AvesU. 

p. 224, 1. 22. Instead of art-BAj the " KitAb-altafhlm " has Otr-rAz 

p. 224, L 28. Instead of AJehtb «v«<l one may think of reading 
Ikhthab s-**\=*i-* the night (as jjyys-t\ =^yjjfc). 

p. 225i I. 14. Yabya Gr&mmaticus, a Jacobite bishop in Egypt who 
translated from the Greek and wroto philosophical and polemical books, 
lived in the first half of the 7th century of our era. 

p. 225, L 22. KJwth I hold to be a derirative from the same root 
whenoe ^^U ha« sprung (cf.^U^j and laqaezamiha in the Aresta). 

p. 225, 1. 30. The following ChorasmiaQ names of the (Hhanbars are 
dialect-Tarietie« of the names of the AvcstA in the following order : 
Paiiis'hahya (26-30 Shahruwar), 
Maidhyo'ehenia (11-15 Tit). 

81 



426 ALBtBCNt. 

Maidhtfdirya (16-20 Bahman). 
Maidhy'i-xaremaya (11-15 AnliljahiBlit). 

Hama^pathmutdaya, which is omittcKl in this plact?, the five interealoiy 
days at the end of Si>endurmat. 
Aymnftna (26-30 Mihr). 

p. 225, 1. 83. What the author moaxw by ^yilf I do not know. 
^_^ meaiiB young cameU, and ^^ji means rekding io gottrda {t^). 

p. 226, 1. 10. Whaterer the truo Chorasmian form may be, Akhar, 
AJvhkhax, or Akhlar, it in certainly iflcnticiil with the Persian ^\ Akhtar 
= star. 

p. 226, 1. H. The author's criticismB on the coastellatioDS of the 
BiDj^le 2c»diacal Bigns as represented by Arabians aud Chora«mian8, 
may bo comparod with the book of L. Ideler, '* tJntersuchungen iiber 
den Ursprung iind die Bedeutung der Steronamen/' Berliiii 1809. 

p. 226, I. 21. AdhiipackartJc is a Bahuvrihi compound of two worda 
corresponding to the Persian dt'i ^j=two, and /KztJt»ir^^= figure. 

p. 226, 1. 37. Abik.Mul^ammad 'AbdalUh b. Muslim b. Kutoiba Aldl- 
nawori is in Europe knuwn aa Ibn-KuLailm. He was a native of KA&, 
and lived as judge in Dinawar. He died a.h. 270. 

According to " Kitab-alfihrist,*' p. 77, his books were highly esteemed, 
es|}ecially in Aljabal, i.e. Media, and to his Jabnli or Median character 
Albcruu! seems to have certain objections (p. 227, 1. 16). That one of 
his books which our author quotes is perhaps identical nith that 
mentioned by " Kitab-alfihriat." p. 78, L 3 (i^^\y v>y«J\ t^rt kr^\ •^\^. 

p. 227, 1. 23. In Silraii. v. 98, Muhammad blamw the 'A'rdb, i.e. the 
Arab Bedouins, in the strongest terms : " The 'A'rab are the worst 
infidels and hypocrites, they do not deserve to learn the taws which 
God reveals unto His prophet, but God is all-knowing, all-wise," etc. 

p. 227, 1. 32. Three of the Sogdian names resemble the corresponding 
Sanskrit names : 

Proeh(hapadd=^\i v*-*/ (No. 24). 
Revati^si Afyj (No. 26). 

Maghd= ^ (No. 8.) 

Cf. E. Burgess, SArya-SiddhADta (" Journal of the American Oriental 
Society," vol. vi. p. 327 ff.), and A. Weber, *' Jenaer Literatur-Zeitimg," 
1877 (7 April), p. 211. 



AKNOTATIONS. 



427 



The name ^J^J•^ in Ko. 7 is tho ^aiavac'^a of the Ave«t«; the 
name •uij in Ko. 20, cf. with the vananf of the AvestA. 



p. 229, L 3. Ahmad was the last prince hut one of the ancient 
hoose of the Shahs of Ehwarizm^ who undertook a reform of the 
calendar A. Alt'x 1270=a.d. 959, i.e. 13 yoan* before the author was 
bom. Cf. Saohau, Zur OuKehichto uud Chronolo(^e tou Khw&rizm I. 
(" Sitzungaberichte der Wiener Alademie," phil. hist. Classe, 1873, 
p. 503). A short report of this reform is also found in the "Kit^b- 
altafhim/' foL 63. 



p. 229, 1. 13. 
other sources. 



AlkhaHiji and AU^amdakt are not known to me from 



p. 230, L 8. According to the " KitAb-altafhim " the Ut NftusArjJ waa 
filed so aa to fall on the 2nd Niaiia ((jU** fj^ ^^\ f*p^\ ,^). 

p. 230. I. 26. According to p. 258, 1. 18, the Nile begins to rise on 
the Itith Hazirun, i.e. the 16th Pu^'tii. 



p. 233, 1. 5. Sinnu b. ThAbit died at Baghdad a.u. 331, and his father, 
Thabit b. Kurni, a.h. 288. They were both famous as philosophers, 
mathematicians, and physicians, both Harrilnians, the last representa- 
tives nf ancient Groek learning, through whom Greek sciences were 
communicated to the illiterate Arabs. Cf. " KitAb-alfihrist," pp. 302, 
272. 

Sin&n had made a collection of meteorological obserrations, called 
Kiidh-aranwcl, compiled from ancieut sources, and enriched by the 
observations of his father and his own. The work of Sio&n has been 
incorporated by Albcri'ud into his chronology, and thereby he has pre- 
served to us the most complete Para^eyma of the ancient Greek world. 

With the works of Sin&n other works of a similar character may be 
compared: 

OeminfiB, 'Eumyidyij m to fftatvofitvoj tho 16th chapter, edited by Halma 
in " Chronologie de Ptolemce," Paris, 1819. pp. 79-87. (Cf. Boeckh, 
*• XTel>er die vierjahrigeu Souuenkretse," p. 22 flf.) 
Ptolenuewr, 0<uruc aizXaywv atrripiM kou trwaytirp} ivuijjfujuj'iCjv edited by 

Halma, ** Chronologie de Ptolcm^." 
Johannea Lydtta (*' Corpus scriptorum Historiee Byzautina)," Bonn, 
1837), De mentibutf cap, iv., and Ik otieniit, in the same volume, 
pp. 357-382. 
For caleudaria of more recent times, vide 

J. Seiden, " Do synedriis ct pnefecturis juridicis vetenun Ebr»orum 
17S4 (contains three calendaria). 



42S 



ALB!B^\t. 



Lohgtein^ " Kachrichtpen und Auszu^ aus den Handschriften der KgX. 

fiibliotbek in Faru," i. pp. 415-424 
Vide HammeTt " Geschichte der Osmanischen DichtkuMt," i. pp. 

76-81. 
FUUcher, " AbulfedsD Hutona anteialamica^" p. 163 ff. 
^azn!ni, " Kosinof^raphie," ii. p. 76 ff. (extract from AlbdrAnt). 
A calendarium of Spanish- Arabic origin has been edited by B. Dozy, 

■* Tie Calendrier de Cordone/' Leyde, 1873. 
Regarding the authoritioH quoted by SiD&n, as Euctemon, Eudoxus, 
Philippus, MetrodoniB, Doalthaus, Couon, Cmsar, etc., I refer the 
reader to the excellent work of A. Boeck, " Uebcr die rierjahrigen 
8(MmeukrieBe der Alten^ rorzugUcU den Eudoxiscben/' Berlin, 1863. 

p. 233, 1. 9. By EpUemaeia iirurqttaiTia I have translated the word 
Nau' -y. 

According to Alb^rAni, p. 839, 1.4, Nau' meoiu the rising of a Lunar 
Station. The meteorologii^al influence of this rising is called BuriA; the 
influence of the sinking of a Iiunar Station is called Nau*. Alb^runt 
uses the word Nau' in either of these two moaningB. 

Comparing the conflicting opinions of the Arab philologists on this 
word {vide W. Lane, " Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandisohen 
Gesellschaft," iii. p. 97 ff.). I am led to bclievo that Nau* is an ancient 
Arabic word, probably much used in anto-lfu^ammadan times, the 
meaning of which was no longer fully and distinctly understood by 
the Muslim Arabs. Afterwards when the Greek calendars were to bo 
translated into Arabic, the word Nau' was UAed to render the Greek 
hnaijfiaivtt, as the comparison of SinAn's compilation with Gemlnus, Pto- 
lemy, and Johannes Lydus shows. The sitiglfj days of thecu) cnlendars 
do not correspond with each other, but the technical terms are every- 
where the same. 

p. 234, 1. 40. Ibn.Khardadhbili, vide note at p. 50, 1. 26. 

p, 23d, 1. 19. Ispahbadh&n, a town in Tabarist&n, two milos distant 
from the Caspian Sea. Further inland in the mouutains the castle 
Tdk, with caves and wells in the neighbourhood. Cf. T&l^&t, iiL pp, 
490, 491 ; ^azwtnJ, ii. p. 270, 1. 10 ab inf. 



p. 238, L 24. 'All b. Aljahm was a famous poet at the time of 
the Khalif Almutawakkil, who died a.h. 249. Aa he had made 
satirical verses on the Khalif, he fled, and was hunted about. At 
last, after having been wounded in a fight with his pursuers, in the 
agonies of expiring he is said to have recited this verse. Cf. Ibn- 
KhalUk^n, ed Wiistenfeld, No. 473. 



'-t" 



^ ANNOTATIONS. 429 

p. 238, 1. 39. Yol^yi b. 'Alt is not known to me trom other lourcos. 

p. 248, 1. 31. Abii-Bakr (.Insain AltammAr, a coxttcmporuy of RAzt, 
who died k.n. 820» is also mrntionod bj- Wustcnfeld, " Geaohichto dcr 
Arabischen A«nte tmd Natorforsoher/* p. 46, [. 3. 

p. 245, 1. 29. 'AbdalUh b. *Ali. a mathomatieian of BukhAr&, it not 
known to me. 

p. 247, 1. 2. On the fire as a spherical bod? within the lunar spliore, 
cf. also Ipuwtni, " Eoamographiti," ii. p. 90 ; trausUivd hy Dr. Bih6, 
p. 185. 

p. 247, L 37. On the eorreepondoncc of Albjirftni with Ibn-SinA. of. 
my edition of the text, " Einleitung," p. xxxr, 

p. 248, II. 17, 31, 34. In the text, p. 357, 11. 16. 28, and p. 258. 1. 2, 
read WMjjl inBt49ad of U^j^^ The word ijfj^'^j^ if it (jonuiuo Greek 
word, might be read in rarioos ways, but I hold it to l>o a imstoke 
for ^^•Ijl Eudc0iti, 

p. 250, L 15. Kuhaminnd b. HifyAr (also p. 258, 1. 26) is not 
known to me from other sotireos. 

p. 251, 1. 38. AbtVTabvA b. KunAio, the anthor of a famous KitAb- 
ai'anwa, was bora at Etifa a.b. 123, and died at Bagdad a.h. 207 ; 
mifa " KitAb^ahriat," p. 70. 

p. 252, 1. 6ff. The following discussion on the circumstanoes undor 
which water rises, is of a teobuieal uaturo, the due appreciation of 
which I must l«ayo to physical scholars. 

p. 256, 1. 23. The word DahJ does nut occur in any Arabio dic- 
tionary. If the writing is correct, it is probably a word of foreign 
origin. 

p. 255, 1. 34. Kimak, or KaimAk, a proTinc« ot ilui OUmh empira, 
inhabited by Turkish uoraados. vide I:Ca«wtn}, " Kosmographie," ii. 
p. 895, and Ibn-Khui-d&dbih, iu ** Journal Asiatiquo," ldG5, pp. 267- 
263. 

p. 256, 1. 5. Ali^arya AlhadUka is not known from other sources. 

p. 256, I. 10. Mihrjftu was the ancient uamu of IsfarA'tn, a rilhige 
between Jurjnu auj NishupAr, also tho uamo of a village in the diatriot 
of Isfar4'iu and of another village between Ispah&n and Tabs. Cf. 
Yu^&t, i. p. 246 i iv. p. 699. 



ALBtEdNt. 

p. 258, 1. 29. Hajawaniyyiwsect, not koowu to me. 

p. 261, 1. 39. AbA-Ku'&s, the famous poet at the time of the Khalif 
H&riin, died k,h. 199. 

p. 261, 1. 42. 'Ai! b. 'AH is not koowD to me from other 
sources. 

p. 262, I, 37. Naiihakhl. If tho text is correct, and we must not 
rather Tea<l Ihn-NatthokiU, this maja may have been tho father of Abfl- 
Sabl Alfa^l b. Naubakht, librarian to tho Khalif UArdu, and a great 
astrologer. Cf. " Kitab-alfihiist," p. 274. 

p. 263, 1. 21. Salamiy/a, a village in the district of Hims, YAk&t, iii 
p. 123, 1. 18 ; p. 124, 1. 1. 

p. 266, 1. 40. Thu*diiba, This reading may Hcom doubtful, as no 
place of this name is mentioned anywhere. Tlie nearest approach is 
Tku'dlibdi, inXAk&t, i. p. 925. 

p. 268, 1. 1. As useful material for the explication of the festal 
calendar of the Jews the followiug works have been used : 
Canon Mandiewf, MS. EUiot (British Museum, S. 37b-38a). 
AhuyedeBf " Hitttoria ante isl arnica," ed. Fleischer, p. 156 S. 
Bartohcei, " Bibliotheca Rabbinica," ii. 553 fl. 

A. (?. Waehner, " AutiquiUtes Ebraeorum," Gottingen, 1742, sect. t. 
T. C. 0. Bodengchalz, ** Kirchlichc Verfasaung der hcutigon, sonderlich 

der teutschen Juden," Erlangen, 1748, toI. ii. pp. 87, 105. 
M. Briick, " Babbiuischti Caeremonialgebrauche," Brealau, 1837. 
n''3yn Tr^yo <^- J^*- Mayer, Amstelodami, 1724 (cap. xii.). 
Xy^lVTy rCDQ '<^ **'• "Codex Talmudieus de Jejunio, ex Hobneo 

Sermone in I^tinum Tersus commeutariisque illustratus a Daniele 

Lundio Succo." Trajecti ad Bhenum, 1694. 

p. 268, 1. 20. Bead ^m instead of ''m. It is a Hebrew form ^ 
va.(^ojxm%protm»nt,\.e' advanced ox po9tfoned; feminine: 1 PM'-|. 



p. 269, 1. 1. 
Jerem. xli. 2. 



For the fasting of Oedaly&, cf. 2 Kings xxr. 25, and 



p. 269, 1. 20. The followiug story in a Hebrew garb is found in J. Zed- 
ner's " Auswahl historischer Stucke aus hebraeischen Schriftstellcm," 
Berlin, 1640, pp. 6-11, as was pointed out to mu by Prof. H. Strack. 

p. 269, L 27. Bead " q}LieUy " instead of "following Ike coune of Uu 
rwer." 



ANXOTATIONS. 

p. 270, L 29. Tou thaU eel^tratf. a feast, etc. The words ^ ^yi^} 
(text, p. 277, I. 11), can only be explained as a too UteraJ translation of 

p. 270, 1. 33. Abft.'TsS AlwurrAk (also p. 278, 1. 22) is mentioned in 
" Kitub-aJiihriBt," p- 338, aa one of those who in public professed lalam, 
but in reality were heretics. 

p. 270, 1. 89. On the aamo day {Le. the 2l8t) m the Feast of Congrega- 
tion. This is a mistake. Congregation, or H^^^ falls on the 22nd 
Tishri, i.e. the following day. Canon Siasudiciu gives the following 
series: 

21 St Tiahri=rQ'V 

22nd „ =^ri">:{y 

28rd „ =^^\jefi 
Of. Bodenschatz, ii. p. 235. 

The word Hdrhdm (1. 40) I cannot explain. The court of the temple 
is called rntj^ and the place where the willows are gathered is called 

fc^yiQ (Mishna) or M^3TDD (Talmud PaliBStinensis), 
Canon Masudieus (fol. 38a) nays : 

I.e. "The f(?ast of Ar&bbit consists of a procession round the altar." The 
Oi»^ of the text is the Hebrew li'^M- 

p. 270, I. 43. The feast of benediction is called m^n nnptPi vide 
Waehner, v. p. Ill, and Bodenachats, ii. p. 245. 

p. 271, 1. 14. Between tJte 8tt and Idtk of this month. As possibly 
between the 8tb and 13th there is no Monday at all, it may happen that 
this fast-day does not occur in some year (if the rule is correct). 

p. 271, 1. 21. This faat-day falls according to Mcgillath-Ta'auitb on 
the 7th Kislew, according to Waehner and Bodenschatz on the 28th 
£isl£w. Cf. on the origin of this fasting, Jerem. xxxvi. 27-32. 

p. 271, 1. 35. The following story occurs also in Abulfeds, " Hist, 
anteislamica," pp. 160-162. Instead of the t_y. y,: lfl t <\ of the manu- 
acripts, Canon Masudieus (fol. 38a) has ,^^U>\ i.e. Antiocbus, and bo 
I bave translated. 

In the text (p. 278, 1. 11) the words Ju^-Wll ^ y^ ^^\ J\ are a rather 
short and incorrect expression for ^^\ ^^ S^US c/-^^ -'•^ oy^ O^ o^^ 



432 ALBfEftNt. 

p. 272, 1. 17. Ptolemy is here colled Taimd, ae if the ioitial p were 
the Coptic article. In the Megillath-Ta'onith, which files this faat-day 
on the 8th Tebeth, he is called "^H ^hn (cap- 12). 

p. 272, 1. 30. According to Megillath-Ta'antth, cap. 12, this fast-day 
falls CD the 8tb ShubHt. 

p. 273, 1. 17. In the text, p. 279, 1. 20, there is a Utcuna, which I 
have filled up with the help of Canon Mtuudieut, fol. 37b. and 
Waehuer, v. p. 112. 

p. 275, 1. 8. In the " Kitiib-altafhim " (Ood. Berolin. foL 58b), the 
author says : ^.r^W f*yi^\ \^ ^j*i3 i '^^ i° ^^ Onnoii Manidieut (fol. 3dv) 
he says: ^\i;-JV) J^t yb^ ,j^\ f»y^\ M^ ij*^^y In the same work, 
fol. 37t, the f«ast is called ij-^\ •!«£. Accordingly the reading (^ seems 
to bo preferable to that of (j-^. 

This word Km seems in soine way to be connected with the Syrioc 
Ifioa which means middle of the pionthy indicating the 15th, on which 
this feaat foils. 

p. 275, 1 12. Thirty men^ a mistake for thirttf thousand. The Canon 
Matiidicm (f. 38b) has correctly J*j ud\ y^j;. Cf . 1 Sam. It. 10. 

p. 275, 1. 15. Canon Ma$udicra (f. 37b) mentions a feast also for 
the 15th ly&r : 

Ji^l iUj Uit ^j jt*^\ cr-i»t ab* 

" The feast of the Small PassoTor, also the day of &At in commemo- 
ration of the death of Samuel," 

p. 275, 1. 19. The plural ti^' (text, p. 281, 1. 16) seems to be a form 
coined by Albcr&ni from a singular ^ i.e. the Hebrew JTli for the pure 
Arabic word go- has the plural fg^^ 

111 the Canon MaaudicM the author ^ves two days to the Fea$i of 
Con^e^ioKy the second of which is called ijj^ Wll (^ i.e. Ptuting of 
ih9 First-fruit, 

p. 275, 1. 26. Witii this biblical quotation, cf. Exod. xxiii. 14-17; 
Exod. xxxir. 22. 28 ; Deut. xri. 16. 

The reading of the MS. (text, p. 261, 1. 20), fJ^\^^ is unintelligible 
to me. My conjecture ,*<»l»* must be explained as the infinitive of 
a rerb |^ a denonunative formation from q»=;u1. 



AJINOTATiONS, 



4:^3 



p. 276, 1. 12. The Megillath-Ta'anitb, cap. xii., has the fullowiui,' 
note on this SoMt-daj : 

•ray rmn ->ddi pmn p M^Djn '•a^ F)*^t2JD 

p. 276, 1. 18. There are two imluckj days in the Jewish calendar, 
the 17th Tmnmuz and the 9th Abh. A short review of the disasters 
that hare happened on these two days is given in the Mas^fkhetK- 
Ta'anith, p. 65. 

The text (p. 282, 1. 11) is not quite correct in the manuaoripts. With 
tiie text aa given bj me, cf. Canon M(t*udicu« (ft. 37b 3db) i 

p. 276, 1. 37, With the story of the lamp, cf. 2 Cbron. xxix. 7, 
and MegiUaiK-Ta'anithtCA^. xii. pp. 113, 122. 

The name of the prophet as given in the manuacript, (^yt^ etc, seems to 
be corrupt. There was at that time a prophet H'ided (2 Chron. xxviii. 9), 
and laaia (Isaia vii. and viii.), but no prophet of such a name. 

In the Canon ^atudictu (f. 39a), the author relates that it was the 
king Ahaz fn^f^ jW who extinguished the lamp. Therefor© I have 
changed (^yn\ into }f-\ and " Ahoi the prophet " seems to be a mistake 
for " AhoM the king.'' 

p. 277, 1. 4. There is no lacuna as I have indicated in the text, 
p. 283, 1. 3. 

This fast-daj is fixed by some on the 7th EliU, by others on the I7th 
{vide Bodcnachatz, Waohner, and MegiUath-Ta'autth). If, therefore, the 
author says that some people place this fast-day within the lost week of 
the month, I know Dothing by which to test this asserlion. 

In later times there was a fast-day on the last of Elut as an atonement 
for the sins of the past year, but this is an institute of modem timefl. Of» 
BodenschatE, p. 88, § 2, 1. 1. 

Also in the Canon Mofudieiu the FaaUng of the Spiet (on the 7th £!&!) 
is the last of the feast- and £ast-days of the Jewish year. Therefore the 
words (text, p. 283, 1. 3) " Liicke," etc. are to be cancelled. 



p. 277, K 10. To this table of Del^iyyuth may be added that *Aribh& 
can never be ^ i>. Saturday. 

The reason why the feast-day cannot fall on certain days of the week 
is this, that they wanted to prevent two non-working days from imme- 
diately following each other, aa this might interfere with the practical 
welfare of the people. Besides, certain feasts cannot fall on a Sabbath, 
because they require a certain amount of work {e.g, the burning of 
Haman, utc.). 

82 



434 



ALBtRtx!. 



p. 277, 1. 29. The words kji\ /i (text, p. 283, L 11) are the rendering 
of the bible-worda tI^"trX?p rt:^'M^ ]^15V Cf. P. de lAgarde, 
" Materialieu zur Kritik und Qefichichte des Pentat^uchs," n. p. 134. 
The PenhHin has transbited thus : loou |>S>n» Im^-^S W}-*^ r**^ 
^^MO ■03^ loou ]— Ajir^O U->*r^ l^'r^? )— JpO'O ] Mil . n^ 



p. 280. In the text, pp. 286, 287, I read the c in the fourth columns, 
M JW" i.e. impossible. 

It standR always with ^ which the MSS. write with black ink. It 
ought, however, to have been written with red ink, since a year beginning 
with 1 is impoMiifc. Therefore, in order to indicate what elsewhere is 
indicated by the red ink, the letter c = JUr« has been a<ldod. 

Impottible mcacs that a year beginning on such a day is a calen- 
dariaji impossibility. 

Keeesaary means that in a year beginning on such a day there \a 
no possibility of a rT^rn, i.e. of postponing or advancing. 

PoetibU meauH that a year beginning on such a day is possible, if the 
year be n ilmperfect) and a common year, whibt it is impossible, if it 
be n a.nd a leap-year, and vice versa. 

The single numbers of the table may easily be checked in this way : 

1. The liniervals between Kew- Year's Bay and KippClr, i.e. the 10th 
Tishrt and 'Ar&bhA, i.e. the 2l0t Tishri, are the same in every kind of 
year. 

2. The intervals between New- Year's Bay and the other three festivals, 
P4rfm, PSsoM, and *A8^th, are different in different years. 

In a common year— 

P4lr%m is in n the IGlst, in ^ the 162nd, in Ij) the 163rd day of the 
year. 

P^tah, in pT ibo ISlst, in 3 the I92nd, in q^ the 193rd day. 

^AeSreth, in n the 241st, in ^ the 242nd, in \^ the 243rd day. 

In a kap-ymr — 

PtirJm is in n the 191st, in 3 the 192nd, in nj the 193rd day of the 
year. 

Pcsa^, in n the 22l8t, in 3 the 222nd, in ^J the 223rd day. 

*AfSreth, in n the 27l8t, in 3 the 272nd, in tfi the 273rd day. 

These sums of days arc to be divided by seven, and the remainders 
represent the distances from New- Year's Day. 

To this table the author has referred, the reader already on p. 153, 
1 . 15. It shows why two intermediate years, t.0. ^ cannot follow each 
other, in this way : 

Of the seven years 3 only those two are possible that begin with m, 
andV. 

1. If, now, after a common year J3 beginning with HL, another year 3 



ANNOTATIONS, 



485 



were to follow, it would begin with a Vll., Saiurdayt and that is impos- 
sible, B» the table shows. 

If ait«r a leap-year 3 beginning jwith IH., another year 3 were to 
follow^ it would be^n with IL, which is again impossible, as the table 
shows. 

2. If after a year 3 beginning with V. another year 3 were to follow, 
it would begin with IL in a common year, with IV. in & leap-year ; and 
both cases arc impossible, as the table shows. 

p. 2i33, 1. 14. For the emendation of the names of saints in the 
following chapter^ I hare used the Menologivm (Trnvontm, jussu Baailii 
Imperatorifl olim editmn Onsce et Latine. Studio et opera AJbani. 
Urbiai, 1727. 

p. 283, 1. 35. Kegarding the degrees of the clergy of the Oriental 
churches, cf. Aasemani, " Bibliotheca Orientalis," iii. pp. 788-790 ; also 
Ami Bou^, " La Turquie d'Europe," iii. p. 421 ; Maurcr, ** Das Grie- 
chische Tolk," Heidelberg, 1835| L pp. 3S9, 403, 410. 



p. 284, 1. 16. AbiL-al^usain 'Al^mad b. AU^usain Al'ahw&zt. 
author of this name is mentioned by I^sji Khalifa, iv. p. 81. 



An 



p. 284, 1. 20. There are certain Greek names which I have not been 
able to decipher, Xpytrx;; (1. 22), oko-mts (1* ^9), and some others. The 
answer to these questions I must leave to those who are intimately 
acquainted with the archaeology of the Byzantine empire. 

The word u -at-^^ might be a corruption for y-fj-j^ ;^(iy>cirt<rKoir(», but 
in that case the explic