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Full text of "The chronology of ancient nations; an english version of the Arabic text of the Athâr-ul-Bâkiya of Albîrûnî, or "Vestiges of the past""

Q^ SWirttvmi 




THE CHRONOLOGY 



OF 



ANCIENT NATIONS 



AN ENGLISH VERSION OF THE 



ARABIC TEXT OF THE ATHIB-UL-BAEITA OF ALBtE^Nt, 



y 

"VESTIGES or THE PAST," 



, OR 



5 



COLLECTED AND REDUCED TO WRITING BY THE AUTHOR 
IN A.H. 390—1, A.D. 1000. 



TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES AND INDEX, BY 



De. C. EDWARD SACHAU 

PROFESSOE IN THE ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN. 




LONDON : 

PUBLISHED FOR THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND 
By W. H. ALLEN & CO., 13 WATERLOO PLACE, 

PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE. 

1879. 




LONDOK : 
PBINTKD BY W. H. AL^N AKD CO. 



,^c' 



/^/t?/ 



n 



V ^ / 



3^s 



DEDICATED 

TO THE MEMBERS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE OP THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUND (1878). 

OSMOND DE BEAUVOIR PRIAULX. 
EDWARD THOMAS, E.R.S. 
JAMES EERGUSSON, E.R.S. 
REINHOLD ROST, LL.D., Seceetaey. 

AND TO THE MEMORY OF 

THEODOR GOLDSTtrCKER, D.C.L., 

LATE PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 



PEEFACE. 



It was Sir Henry Rawlinson who first directed public 
attention to this work of Albiruni, in his celebrated article 
on Central Asia in the " Quarterly E,eview " for 1866, in 
which he gave some valuable information derived from his 
own manuscript copy, now the property of the British 
Museum. In offering the book, both in text and trans- 
lation, to the learned world, I feel bound to premise 
that it is scarcely of a nature to attract the interest of 
the general reader. It appeals to minds trained in the 
schools of various sciences. Even competent scholars will 
find it no easy matter to follow our author through all the 
mazes of his elaborate scientific calculations. Containing, 
as it does, all the technical and historical details of 
the various systems for the computation of time, invented 
and used by the Persians, Sogdians, Chorasmians, Jews, 
Syrians, Harranians, and Arabs, together with Greek 
traditions, it offers an equal interest to all those who study 
the antiquity and history of the Zoroastrian and Jewish, 
Christian and Muhammadan religions.* 

The work of Albiruni has the character of a primary 
source. Oriental philologists are accustomed to see one book 
soon superseded by another, Barhebraeus by Ibn-al'athir, 
Ibn-al'athir by Al-Tabari. Although it is likely enough 

* By Christians, I understand the Melkite and Nestorian Churches, 
whilst the author does not seem to have known much more of the 
Jacobites than the name. 



VI PEEFACE. 

that on many subjects in this book we shall one day find 
better authenticated and more ancient information, I 
venture to say, that, as a whole, it will scarcely ever be 
. superseded. It is a standard work in Oriental literature, 
and has been recognised as such by the East itself, repre- 
senting in its peculiar line the highest development of 
Oriental scholarship. Perhaps we shall one day find the 
literary sources themselves from which Albiruni derived his 
information, and shall be enabled to dispense with his 
extracts from them. But there are other chapters, e.g. 
those on the calendars of the ancient inhabitants of Central 
Asia, regarding which we shall, in all likelihood, never find 
any more ancient information, because the author had 
learned the subject from hearsay among a population 
which was then on the eve of dying out. As the first 
editor and translator of a book of this kind, I venture to 
claim the indulgence of the reader. Generations of scholars 
have toiled to carry the understanding of Herodotus to 
that point where it is now, and how much is wanting still ! 
The work of generations will be required to do full justice 
to Albiruni. A classical philologist can edit a Greek text in 
a correct form, even though he may have no complete 
understanding of the subject-matter in all possible relations. 
Not so an Arabic philologist. The ambiguity of the Arabic 
writing — ])roh dolor I — is the reason why a manuscript 
expresses only three-quarters of the author's meaning, 
whilst the editor is compelled to supply the fourth quarter 
from his own knowledge and discernment. No number in 
any chronological table can be considered correct, as long 
as it is not proved by computation to be so, and even in 
the simplest historical narrative the editor and translator 
may most lamentably go astray in his interpretation, if 
there is something wrong with the method of his research. 



PREFACE. Vll 

I have boldly attacked the sometimes rather enigmatic 
style of the author, and if I have missed the mark, if the 
bewildering variety and multiplicity of the subject-matter 
have prevented me reaching the very bottom of every 
question, I must do what more or less every Oriental 
author does at the end of his work, — humbly ask the gentle 
reader to pardon my error and to correct it. 

I. The Author. 

The full name of the author is Abu-Baihdn Muhammad 
h. ^ Ahmad Alhirum. He quotes himself as Abu-Baihdn 
(vide p. 134, 1. 29), and so he is generally called in Eastern 
literature, more rarely ATbirum. 

The latter name means, literally, extraneous, being a 
derivative from the Persian ^^^^ which means the outside 
as a noun, and outside as a preposition. In our time the 
word is pronounced Birun (or Beeroon), e.g. in Teheran, 
but the vowel of the first syllable is a ydi-majhul, which 
means that in more ancient times it was pronounced Berun 
(or Bayroon). This statement- rests on the authority of 
the Persian lexicographers. That the name was pronounced 
in this way in Central Asia about the author's time, we 
learn from an indisputable statement regarding our author 
from the pen of Alsam'ani, a philologist and biographer of 
high repute, who wrote only one hundred years after the 
author's death (vide Introduction to my edition of the text, 
p. xviii.). 

He was a native of Khwarizm, or Chorasmia, the modern 
Khiva; to speak more accurately, a native either of a suburb 
(Berlin) of the capital of the country, both of which bore 
the same name Khiudrizm, or of the country-district (also 
called B^rdn) belonging to the capital. 

Albiruni was born a.h. 362, 3. Dhu-alhijja (a.d. 973, 



Vlll PEEFACB. 

4th September), and died a.h. 440, 2. Rajab (a.d. 1048, 
11th December), aged seventy-five years. 

The first part of his hfe he seems to have spent in 
Khwarizm, where he enjoyed the protection of the House 
of Ma^mun, the rnlers of the country. Originally vassals 
of the kings of Central Asia of the House of Sdmdn, they 
became independent when the star of their masters began 
to sink, i.e. between a.h. 384-390. They were, however, not 
to play a great part in the history of the East, for so early as 
a.h. 407 their power was crushed by the great Mahmud of 
Ghazna, and their dominions annexed to his empire. Like 
Albiruni, other scholars also of high standing received 
protection and favours at the court of the Ma' muni 
princes. 

The author is known to have lived some years also in 
Jurjan, or Hyrcania, on the southern shores of the Caspian 
sea, under the protection, and perhaps at the court, of 
Kabus ben "Washmgir Shams-alma'ali, who ruled over 
Hyrcania and the adjoining countries at two different 
periods, a.h. 366-371 and 388-403. To this prince he has 
dedicated the present book, apparently about a.h. 390-391, 
(a.d. 1000). 

During the years a.h. 400-407 he stayed again in his 
native country at the court of Ma'mun b. Ma'mim, as his 
friend and counsellor. He was a witness of the rebellion 
that broke out a.h. 407, of the murder of Ma'mun, and of 
the conquest of the country by Mahmud of Ghazna, who, 
on returning, carried off him and other scholars to Afghan- 
istan in the spring of a.h. 408. 

Among his numerous works, we find mentioned a 
" Chronicle of Khwarizm," in which he probably had re- 
corded all the traditions relating to the antiquity of his native 
country, and more especially the history of those events of 



PKEPACE. IX 

which he had himself been a witness. This work seems to 
be lost. However, an extract of it has come down to us 
as the last part of the great chronicle of the royal house 
of Mahmud, composed by Albaihaki, the edition of which 
we owe to the industry and learning of the late W. H. 
Morley (" Bibhotheca Indica," Calcutta, 1862, pp. 834, &c.). 

With A.H. 408 begins a new period in the author's life, 
when he enlarged the circle of his researches on mathe- 
matics, astronomy, geography, chronology, and natural 
sciences by his study of India, its geography and history, 
of the language and literature, manners and customs, of 
the Hindus. It was the period when he gathered all those 
materials which he deposited towards the end of his life in 
his famous " Memoir on India." 

After Albiruni had settled in Grhazna, he paid at least 
one more visit to his native country. He died, probably, at 
Ghazna. "Whether he travelled much in other countries 
besides India, I have no means of proving. From the 
present book we can only infer that, besides his native 
country and Hyrcania, he also knew parts of Media, e.g. 
Rai (EhagEe). 

II. Eis Work. 

Albiruni calls his work Aldthdr Alhdhiya ^an-il-Kilrun 
Alhhdliya, i.e. monuments or vestiges of generations of the 
past that have been preserved up to the author's time, 
meaning by monuments or vestiges the religious institutes 
of various nations and sects, founded in more ancient 
times, and, more or less, still practised and adhered to by 
the Oriental world about a.d. 1000. 

With admirable industry the author gathers whatever 
traditions he can find on every single fact, he confronts 
them with each other, and inquires with critical acumen 



X PREFACE. 

into the special merits or demerits of each single tradition. 
Mathematical accuracy is his last gauge, and wherever the 
nature of a tradition admits of such a gauge, he is sure to 
verify it by the help of careful mathematical calculation. 
To speak in general, there is much of the modern spirit and 
method of critical research in our author, and in this respect 
he is a phenomenon in the history of Eastern learning 
and literature. Authors of the first centuries of the Hijra 
sometimes betray a great deal of common sense and good 
method, sometimes also unmistakable traces of a marked 
individuality, whilst the later centuries are characterised by 
the very opposite. Then the author entirely disappears 
behind his book ; all literary work sinks down to the level 
of imbecile compilation from good and bad sources ; the 
understanding of the life and literature of the preceding 
centuries becomes rare and distorted. Common sense has 
gone never to return, and very seldom do we meet with a 
trace of scientific method or of the individuality of the 
author. 

The fourth century is the turning-point in the history of 
the spirit of Islam, and the establishment of the orthodox 
faith about 500 sealed the fate of independent research for 
ever. But for Alash'ari and Alghazzalt the Arabs might 
have been a nation of Gralileos, Keplers, and Newtons. 

Originally I intended to give a complete expose of the 
sources whence Albiruni has drawn his manifold informa- 
tion, but the material hitherto available for researches on 
the literary history of the east is still so scanty that I 
had to desist from my plan. This applies in particular to 
the east of the Khalifate, to Khurasan. We are com- 
paratively well informed regarding the literature of 
Mesopotamia, Syria, Egypt, and the farther west of Islam, 
whilst we have very little information regarding the scien- 



PEEFACE. XI 

tific and literary life east of Bagdad as it developed itself 
during the first tliree centuries of Abbaside rule, under the 
protection of the imperial governors and the later inde- 
pendent princes, e.g. the House of Saman. 

It is to be hoped that Central Asia and Afghanistan, 
when once in the grasp of European influence, will yield 
us rich collections of valuable literary monuments. 
Hitherto manuscripts coming from those countries are 
seldom met with in the great libraries of Europe. 

As for the ivritten material which the author had at his 
disposal, he quotes many a book of which I elsewhere 
can scarcely find a trace. All the books, e.g. on Persian 
and Zoroastrian history and traditions, composed in early 
times, not only by Zoroastrians but also by Muslims, 
converts from the Zoroastrian creed, are altogether un- 
known in Europe ; and it seems very probable that the 
bigoted people of later times have spared very little of this 
kind of literature, which to them had the intolerable 
smell of filthy idolatry. 

As regards Persian history, Albiruni had an excellent 
predecessor in Alisfahani, whom he follows frequently, and 
whom he was not able to surpass in many points. 

From oral information Albiruni seems to have learned 
all he knows of the chronology and calendar of the 
Zoroastrian populations of Persia, of his native country, 
and of Sogdiana (or Bukhara). In his time the majority 
of the country-people still adhered to Ahuramazda, and in 
most towns there must still have been Zoroastrian commu- 
nities, so that Albiruni did not lack the opportunity for 
studying the manners and institutes of the then existing 
followers of Zoroaster. Unfortunately, the Zoroastrian 
creed had lost its clerical and political unity and constitu- 
tion. The people practised their customs as they had seen 



Xll PEEFAOE. 

their parents do, but they had no longer a correct under- 
standing of their origin and meaning. Certainly a Mobe- 
dan-Mobed of the time of Ardashir Babekan would have 
been able to give a more accurate and complete account of 
Zoroastrian life and religion; but still we must be thankful 
to Albiruni for his having preserved to posterity the festal 
calendars as used by Zoroastrians of his time when their 
religion was on the eve of dying out. 

To oral information I ascribe also the author's admirable 
knowledge of the Jewish calendar. Jewish scholars will 
be able to say whether his informants were Ananites 
(Karaites) or Rabbanites. My critics do not seem to have 
noticed that Albiruni, a Muslim, is the first of all the 
scholars we know who has composed a scientific system of 
the Jewish chronology. He is much anterior to Moses 
Maimonides, also to Abraham bar Chiyya, being a contem- 
porary of R. Sherira and Hat Gaon, who seem to play a 
prominent part in the history of Jewish chronology. 

With Nestorian Christians he must have been acquainted, 
as he speaks of the Nestorian communities of his native 
country. His report of the Melkite feasts, &c., may have 
been communicated to him by Nestorian priests from Syriac 
sources. 

Albiruni wrote both in Arabic and Persian, as he has 
edited his " Kitab-altaf him " in both languages. There is 
a possibility of his having had a smattering of Hebrew and 
Syriac {vide pp. 18, 19 j, but of Greek he seems to have 
been ignorant, and whatever he relates on the authority of 
Greek authors — Ptolemy, Galen, Eusebius, &c. — must 
have been communicated to him by the ordinary channel 
of Syriac- Arabic translation. His study of Sanskrit falls 
into the latter half of his life. 

From occasional notes in the book a description of the 



PREFACE. XIU 

author's character may be gleaned. He seems to have 
been a truth-loving man, attacking all kinds of shams with 
bitter sarcasms. He was not without a humoristic vein, 
and his occasional ironical remarks offer a curious contrast 
to the pervading earnestness of the tenor of his speech. 
As a Muslim he inclined towards the Shi'a, but he was not 
a bigoted Muslim. He betrays a strong aversion to the 
Arabs, the destroyers of Sasanian glory, and a marked 
predilection for all that is of Persian or Eranian nationality. 
Muslim orthodoxy had not yet become so powerful as to 
imperil the life of a man, be he Muslim or not, who would 
study other religions and publicly declare in favour of 
them. Dakiki, a poet not long anterior to Albiruni, a 
favourite of the Muslim house of Saman, was allowed to 
sing — 1 

" Of all that is good and bad in the world, 
Dakiki has chosen four things to himself : 
A woman's lips as red as rubies, the melody of the lute. 
The blood-coloured wine, and the religion of Zoroaster." 

Not long afterwards, at the court of the great Mahmud 
of Grhazna, these verses would probably have proved fatal 
to their author. 

Rabent sua fata libelU, and I may add, the fate of this 
book, from the time of its composition till the time when I 
began to study it, has not been a fortunate one. Only a 
few were able to understand it, few had an interest in 
having it copied. 

In the form in which I offer the book to the reader it is 
not com^^lete. Many most essential parts, both large and 
small, are missing, e.g. the chapter on Zoroaster, a most 
deplorable loss, arising probably from Muslim bigotry. 
However, I should think it does not require an apology 
from me to have edited the book in this mutilated form in 



XIV PREFACE. 

which I have found it in the manuscripts. Should the 
favour of time bring to light one day a complete copy, I 
shall be happy if circumstances will allow me at once to 
edit the hitherto missing parts in text and translation. 

The basis of my edition consists of two manuscripts of 
the seventeenth and one of the nineteenth century, all full 
of faults, and — what is worse ! — agreeing with each other 
almost in every particular. In fact, all three copies repre- 
sent one and the same original. Fortunately a chronolo- 
gical work offers this advantage, that in many cases 
mathematical examination enables the editor to correct the 
blunders of the tradition, e.g. in the numerous tables. 

My notes are in the first place intended to give the calcu- 
lations on which the tables rest. Besides, they contain 
contributions to the explications of certain difficult passages, 
short information on points of literary history, and, lastly, 
a few remarks on the text and corrections. 

For all other introductory questions I refer the reader to 
the Grerman preface to my edition of the text. 

In offering my translation to the English reader, I desire 
to thank my friend, the Rev. Robert Gwynne, Yicar of 
St. Mary's, Soho, London, who not only corrected the 
whole manuscript, but also read the proof-sheets of the 
entire book. 

EDWARD SACHAU. 

Berlin, 24<th May, 1879. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Translator's Preface ------ v 

Preface -..-.---1 

Chapter I. — On the Nature of Day and Niglit, of tlieir Totality 

and of tlieir Beginnings - - - - - 5 

Chapter EC. — On tlie Nature of tliat which is composed of Days, 

viz. Months and Years - - - - - 11 

Chapter III. — On the Nature of the Eras and the different 

Opinions of the Nations regarding them - - - 16 

Chapter IV. — The different Oj)inions of various Nations re- 
garding the King called Dhu-al-karnaini or Bicornutus - 43 

Chapter V. — On the Nature of the Months which are used in 

the preceding Eras - - - - - - 52 

Chapter VI. — On the Derivation of the Eras from each other, 
and on the Chronological Dates, relating to the Commence- 
ments and the Durations of the Keigns of the Kings, 
according to the various Traditions - - - 84 

Chapter VII. — On the Cycles and Year-points, on the Moleds of 
the Years and Months, on their various Qualities, and on 
the Leap-months both in Jewish and other Years - - 141 

Chapter VIII. — On the Eras of the Pseudo-prophets and their 
Communities who were deluded by them, the curse of the 
Lord be upon them ..... 186 

Chapter IX. — On the Festivals in the Months of the Persians - 199 

Chapter X. — On the Festivals in the Months of the Sughdians - 220 

Chapter XI. — On the Festivals in the Months of the Khwiiriz- 

mians .---..- 223 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Chaptee XII. — On Khwarizm- Shah's Eeform of the Khwarizm- 

ian Festal Calendar - - - - - -229 

Chapter XTTI. — On the Days of the Greek Calendar as known 

both among the Greeks and other Nations - - - 231 

Chapter XIV. — Of the Festivals and Fast-days in the Months of 

the Jews ....... 268 

Chapter XV. — On the Festivals and Memorable Days of the 

Syrian Calendar, celebrated by the Melkite Christians - 282 

Chapter XVI. — On the Christian Lent, and on those Feasts and 
Festive Days which depend upon Lent and revolve parallel 
with it through the Year, regarding which all Christian 
sects agree among each other _ . . . 299 

Chapter XVII. — On the Festivals of the Nestorian Christians, 

their Memorial and Fast Days .... 306 

Chapter XVIII. — On the Feasts of the ancient Magians, and on 

the Fast and Feast Days of the Sabians ... 314 

Chapter XIX. — On the Festivals of the Arabs in the time of 

Heathendom - - - - - -321 

Chapter XX. — On the Festivals of the Muslims - - 325 

Chapter XXI. — On the Lunar Stations, their rising and setting, 

and on their Images . . - . . 335 

Annotations - - - - - - -367 

Index ---..-.- 449 



E R RATA. 



p. 383, delete the first two lines and insert — • 

Saiudr. Perhaps identical with the ^apeipot of Byzantine authors, from whom 
Siberia derived its name, 
p. 451, col. 2, last line, delete China, 266, 10. 
p. 452, col. 1, line 1, after Chinese insert 266, 10. 
p. 460, after line 42 insert — 

Poison-mountain (rarefied atmosphei'e), 268, 17. 
p. 462, col. 2, after line 18 insert — 
Tibetans, 263, 17. 



DIEECTION TO THE BINDER. 

Table of Kebi'oth . . . .to face p. 154. 



PREFACE. 



IN THE NAME OF GOD, THE COMPASSIONATE, THE MERCIFUL. 

Praisb be to God who is high, above all things (lit. those which are 
■unlike, and those which are like to each other), and blessing be on 
Muhammad, the elected, the best of all created beings, and on his family, 
the guides of righteousness and truth. 

One of the exquisite plans in God's management of the affairs of his 
creation, one of the glorious benefits which he has bestowed upon the 
entirety of his creatures, is that categorical decree of his, not to leave in 
in his world any period without a just guide, whom he constitutes as a 
protector for his creatures, with whom to take refuge in unfortunate and 
sorrowful cases and accidents, and upon whom to devolve their affairs, 
when they seem indissolubly j^erplexed, so that the order of the world 
should rest upon — and its existence be supported by — his genius. And 
this decree (that the affairs of mankind should be governed by a proj^het) 
has been settled upon them as a religious dvity, and has been linked 
together with the obedience towards God, and the obedience towards his 
Prophet, through which alone a reward in future life may be obtained — 
in accordance with the word of him, who is the truth and justice — and 
20 his word is judgment and decree, " ye believers, obey God, and obey 
the prophets, and those among yourselves who are invested with the 
command." (Sura iv. 62.) 

Therefore, thanks be to God for those blessings, which he has bestowed 
upon his servants, by exalting our master, the commander, the prince, 
the glorious and victorious, the benefactor, Shams-alma'ali, may God 

1 



Z ALBIRUNI. 

give kim a long life, and give duration to his j)ower and majesty, preserve 
through the course of time his excellence and his splendour, protect his 
whole house (lit. the areas inside and outside his house), prostrate all 
those who envy him, and all his enemies, (by exalting him) as a guide, 
who justly rules over his creatures, who furthers religion and truth, who 
fights for the altar and the hearth of the Muslims, and who protects their 
country against the mischief of evil-doers. And Grod has supported him 
by giving him a character similar to that with which he has blessed his 
Prophet, the bearer of his revelation ; for he, whose name be praised, has 
said : " To thee has been given a high character." (Sura Ixviii. 4.) 10 
How wonderfully has he, whose name is to be exalted and extolled, 
combined with the glory of his noble extraction the graces of his generous 
character, with his valiant soul all laudable qualities, such as piety and 
righteousness, carefulness in defending and observing the rites of re- 
ligion, justice and equity, humility and beneficence, firmness and deter- 
mination, liberality and gentleness, the talent for ruling and governing, 
for managing and deciding, and other qualities, which no fancy could 
comprehend, and no human being enumerate ! And how should a man 
wonder at this, it being undeniable that Grod has the power to combine 
the whole world in one individual (i.e. to create a niicrocosmos) ! There- 20 
fore, may God permit the Muslims still for a long period to enjoy the 
kindness of his intentions, the ingenuity of his plans, and his evidently 
merciful and j^itiful mind, with which he cares for them ! May they from 
day to day derive more benefits from the j)erpetual shade of his majesty, 
to which they are accustomed ! And may God assist by his kindness 
and mercy, high and low, to fulfil the works of obedience towards God, 
which are imposed npon them ! 

Dedication. — The Author's Method. — A learned man once asked me 
regarding the eras used by different nations, and regarding the difference 
of their roots, i.e. the epochs where they begin, and of their branches, i.e. 30 
the months and years, on which they are based ; further regarding the 
causes which led to such difference, and the famous festivals and com- 
memoration-days for certain times and events, and regarding whatever 
else one nation practises differently from another. He urged me to give 
an explanation, the clearest possible, of all this, so as to be easily intelli- 
gible to the mind of the reader, and to free him from the necessity of 
wading through widely scattered books, and of consulting their authors. 
Now I was quite aware that this was a task difficult to handle, an object 
not easily to be attained or managed by anyone, who wants to treat it as 
a matter of logical sequence, regarding which the mind of the student is 40 
not agitated by doubt. However, from the majesty of our master, the 
prince, the glorious and victorious, the benefactor, Shams-alma'ali — may 
God make his power to endure! — I derived strength in exerting my 
capabilities, and trying to do my utmost in order to explain the whole 
subject on the basis of that information which I have gathered either as 



PEEFAOE. 3 

an ear- or eye-witness, or by cogitation and study. Besides, I was 
encouraged by that robe of blessed service, in which I have dressed 
myself, to compose such an explanation for him, who occupies a high 
throne, that he may see herein a new sign of my service, and that thereby 
I may obtain the garments of such a glory, the memory and splendour of 
which will last as my heirloom in posterity through the flood of ages and 
generations. If, therefore, he — whose noble mind may God preserve ! — 
will favour his servant by overlooking his audacity, and accepting his 
excuses, he follows the right idea, if it pleases God. And now I 
10 commence and say : 

The best and nearest way leading to that, regarding which I have been 

asked for information, is the knowledge of the history and tradition of 

former nations and generation's, because the greatest part of it consists 

of matters, which have come down from them, and of remains of their 

customs and institutes. And this object cannot be obtained by way of 

ratiocination with philosophical notions, or of inductions based upon the 

observations of our senses, but solely by adopting the information of those 

who have a written tradition, and of the members of the different 

religions, of the adherents of the different doctrines and religious sects, 

20 by whom the institutes in question are used, and by making their opinions 

a basis, on which afterwards to build up a system ; besides, we must 

compare their traditions and opinions among themselves, when we try to 

establish our system. But ere that we must clear our mind from all 

those accidental circumstances which deprave most men, from all causes 

which are liable to make people blind against the truth, e.g. inveterate 

custom, party-spirit, rivalry, being addicted to one's passions, the desire 

to gain influence, etc. For that which I have mentioned, is the nearest 

way you could take, that leads to the true end, and the most efficient help 

towards removing all the clouds of uncertainty and doubt, which beset 

30 the subject. It is impossible in any other way to reach the same purpose, 

notwithstanding the greatest care and exertion. On the other hand, we 

confess that it is by no means easy to act upon that principle and that p. 5. 

method, which we have laid down, that on the contrary from its recondite 

nature, and its difficulty, it might seem to be almost unattainable — on 

account of the numerous lies which are mixed up with all historical 

records and traditions. And those lies do not all on the face of it appear 

to be impossibilities, so that they might be easily distinguished and 

eliminated. However, that which is within the limits of possibility, has 

been treated as true, as long as other evidence did not prove it to be 

40 false. For we witness sometimes, and others have witnessed before us, 

physical appearances, which we should simply declare to be impossible, 

if something similar were related from a far remote time. Now the life 

of man is not sufficient to learn thoroughly the traditions of one of the 

many nations. How, therefore, could he learn the traditions of all of 

them ? That is impossible. 

1 * 



4 ALBIRUNI. 

The matter standing thus, it is our duty to proceed from what is near 
to the more distant, from what is known to that which is less known, to 
gather the traditions from those who have reported them, to correct them 
as much as possible, and to leave the rest as it is, in order to make our 
work help him, who seeks truth and loves wisdom, in making independent 
researches on other subjects, and guide him to find out that which was 
denied to us, whilst we were working at this subject, by the will of God, 
and with his help. 

In conformity with our plan, we must proceed to explain the nature of 
day and night, of their totality, i.e. the astronomical day, and assumed 10 
beginning. For day and night are to the months, years, and eras, what 
one is for the numerals, of which they are composed, and into which they 
are resolved. By an accurate knowledge of day and night, the progress 
towards learning that which is composed of them and built upon them, 
becomes easy. 



CHAPTER I. 

ON THE NATURE OF DAY AND NIGHT, OF THEIB TOTALITY AND OF 
THEIR BEGINNINGS. 

I SAY : Day and night (i.e. wx^^/Acpov) are one revolution of the sun in 
the rotation of the universe, starting from and returning to a circle, 
which has been assumed as the beginning of this same Nychthemeron, 
whichsoever circle it may be, it being determined by general consent. 
This circle is a " great " circle ; for each great circle is dynamically an 
horizon. By ''dynamically" (ttJ Swa/Act), I mean that it (this circle) 
10 may be the horizon of any place on the earth. By the " rotation of tie 
universe" I mean the motion of the celestial sphere, and of all that is 
in it, which we observe going round on its two poles from east to west. 

The Setting of the Sun as the beginning of the Day— Now, the 

Arabs assumed as the beginning of their Nychthemeron the point where 
the setting sun intersects the circle of the horizon. Therefore their 
Nychthemeron extends from the moment when the sun disappears from 
the horizon till his disappearance on the following day. They were 
induced to adopt this system by the fact that their months are based 
upon the course of the moon, derived from her various motions, and 
20 that the beginnings of the months were fixed, not by calculation, but 
by the appearance of the new moons. Now, full moon, the appearance 
of which is, with them, the beginning of the month, becomes visible 
towards sunset. Therefore their night preceded their day ; and, there- 
fore, it is their custom to let the nights precede the days, when they p. 6. 
mention them in connection with the names of the seven days of 

the week. 

Those who herein agree with them plead for this system, saying that 

darkness in the order (of the creation) precedes light, and that light 

suddenly came forth when darkness existed already; that, therefore, 

30 that which was anterior in existence is the most suitable to be adopted 



6 ALBiRUNt. 

as the beginning. And, therefore, they considered absence of motion 
as superior to motion, comparing rest and tranquillity with darkness, 
and because of the fact that motion is always produced by some want 
and necessity ; that weariness follows upon the necessity ; that, there- 
fore, weariness is the consequence of motion. Lastly, because rest (the 
absence of motion), when remaining in the elements for a time, does not 
produce decay ; whilst motion, when remaining in the elements and 
taking hold of them, produces corruption. As instances of this they 
adduce earthquakes, storms, waves, &c. 

The Rising" of the Sun as the beginning of the Day.— As to the 10 
other nations, the Greeks and Eomans, and those who follow with them 
the like theory, they have agreed among themselves that the Nych- 
themeron should be reckoned from the moment when the sun rises 
above the eastern horizon till the same moment of the following day, 
as their months are derived by calculation, and do not depend upon the 
phases of the moon or any other star, and as the months begin with 
the beginning of the day. Therefore, with them, the day precedes the 
night; and, in favour of this view, they argue that light is an Ens, 
whilst darkness is a Non-ens. Those who think that light was anterior 
in existence to darkness consider motion as superior to rest (the absence 20 
of motion), because motion is an Ens, not a Non-ens — is life, not death. 
They meet the arguments of their opponents with similar ones, saying, e.g. 
that heaven is something more excellent than the earth ; that a working 
man and a young man are the healthiest ; that running water does not, 
like standing water, become putrid. 

Noon or Midnight as the beginning of the Day.— The greater 

part and the most eminent of the learned men among astronomers 
reckon the Nychthemeron from the moment when the sun arrives on the 
plane of the meridian till the same moment of the following day. This 
is an intermediate view. Therefore their Nychthemera begin from the 30 
visible half of the plane of the meridian. Upon this system they have 
built their calculation in the astronomical tables (the Canons), and have 
thereby derived the places of the stars, along with their equal motions 
and their corrected places, in the almanacks (lit. year-books). Other 
astronomers prefer the invisible half of the plane of the meridian, and 
begin, therefore, their day at midnight, as e.g. the author of the Canon 
(Zij) of Shahriyaran Shah. This does not alter the case, as both 
methods are based upon the same principle. 

People were induced to prefer the meridian to the horizon by many 
circumstances. One was, that they had discovered that the Nych- 40 
themera vary, and are not always of the same length ; a variation 
which, during the eclipses, is clearly apparent even to the senses. 

The reason of this variation is the fact that the course of the sun in 
the ecliptic varies, it being accelerated one time and retarded another ; 
and that the single sections of the ecliptic cross the circles (the horizons) 



ON THE NATUEE OF DAY AND NIGHT. 7 

at a different rate of velocity. Therefore, in order to remove that 
variation which attaches to the Nychthemera, they wanted some kind 
of equation ; and the equation of the Nychthemera by means of the 
rising of the ecliptic above the meridian is constant and regular every- 
where on the earth, because this circle is one of the horizons of the 
globe which form a right angle (with the mei'idian) ; and because its 
conditions and qvialities remain the same in every part of the earth. 
This quality they did not find in the horizontal circles, for they vary 
for each place ; and every latitude has a particular horizon of its own, 

10 different from that of any other j^lace, and because the single sections 
of the ecliptic cross the horizons at a different rate of velocity. To use 
the horizons (for the equation of the Nychthemera) is a proceeding both 
imperfect and intricate. 

Another reason why they preferred the meridian to the horizon is 
this, that the distances between the meridians of different places 
correspond to the distances of their meridians on the equator and the 
parallel circles ; whilst the distances between the hoi'izontal circles are 
the same with the addition of their northern and southern declination. 
An accurate description of everything connected with stars and their 

20 places is not possible, except by means of that direction which depends 
upon the meridian. This direction is called "longitude," which has 
nothing in common with the other direction, which depends upon the 
horizon, and is called " latitude." 

Therefore they have chosen that circle which might serve as a regular 
and constant basis of their calculations, and have not used others ; 
although, if they had wished to use the horizons, it would have been 
possible, and would have led them to the same results as the meridian, 
but only after a long and roundabout process. And it is the greatest 
mistake possible purposely to deviate from the direct route in order to 

30 go by a long roundabout. 

Day, Night, and the Duration of the Day of Fast.— This is the 

general definition of the day which we give, the night being included. 
Now, if we proceed to divide and to distinguish, we have to state that 
the words" Yaum" (day) in its restricted signification, and "Nahdr" 
(day), mean the same, viz., the time from the rising of the body of the 
sun till its setting. On the other hand, night means the time from the 
setting of the body of the sun till its rising. Thus these two terms are 
used among all nations by general consent, nobody disputing their 
meanings, except one Muslim lawyer, who has defined the beginning of 
40 the day to be the rise of dawn, and its end to be the setting of the sun, 
because he presumed that the day and the duration of fasting were 
identical. For this view of his he argues from the following word of 
God (Sura ii. 183) : " Eat and drink till you can distinguish a white 
thread from a black thread at the light of dawn. Thereupon fast the 
entire day till the night." Now, he has maintained that these two terms 



8 ALBIRUNI. 

(dawn and night) are the two limits of the day (heginnincj and end). 
Between this view, however, and this verse of the Coran there is not the 
slightest connection whatsoever. For if the beginning of fasting was 
identical with the beginning of the day, his (God's) definition of some- 
thing that is quite evident and well known to everybody, in such terms, 
would be like a pains-taking attempt to explain something void of sense. 
Likewise he has not defined the end of day and the beginning of night 
in similar terms, because this is generally known among all mankind. 
Grod orders that fasting should commence at the rise of dawn ; but the 
end of fasting he does not describe in a similar way, but simply says 10 
that it should end at " night" because everybody knows that this means 
the time when the globe of the sun disappears. Hence it is evident that 
God, by the words of the first sentence (i.e. eat and drink till you can 
distinguish a white thread from a black thread at the light of dawn), 
does not mean the beginning of day. 

A further j)roof of the correctness of our interpretation is the word of 
God (Sura ii. 183) : " It has been declared as lawful to you during the 
p. 8. night of fasting to have intercourse (lit. to speak obscene things) with 
your wivep," &c., to the passage, " Thereupon fast the entire day till the 
night." Thereby he extends the right of having intercourse with one's 20 
wife, and of eating and drinking, over a certain limited time, not over 
the entire night. Likewise it had been forbidden to Muslims, before 
this verse had been revealed, to eat and drink after night-prayer (the 
time when the darkness of night commences). And still people did not 
reckon their fasting by days and parts of the night, but simply by days 
(although the time of fasting was much longer than the day). 

Now, if people say that God, in this verse (Sura ii. 183), wanted to 
teach mankind the beginning of the day, it would necessarily follow 
that before that moment they were ignorant of the beginning of day and 
night, which is simply absurd. 30 

Now, if people say the legal day is different from the natural day, 
this is nothing but a difference in words, and the calling something by 
a name, which, according to the usage of the language, means something 
else. And, besides, it must be considered that there is not the slightest 
mention in the verse of the day and of its beginning. We keep, how- 
ever, aloof from pertinacious disputation on this subject, and we are 
willing to agree with our opponents as to the expressions if they will 
agree with us regarding the subject-matter. 

And how could we believe a thing the contrary of which is evident to 
our senses ? For evening-twilight in the west corresponds to morning- 40 
dawn in the east ; both arise from the same cause, and are of the same 
nature. If, therefore, the rise of morning-dawn were the beginning of 
the day, the disappearance of evening-twilight would be its end. And 
actually some Shiites have been compelled to adopt such a doctrine. 

Let U8 take it for granted that those who do not agree with us 



ON THE NATUEE OF DAY AND NIGHT. 9 

regarding tliat wliicli we have previously explained, agree with us as to 
the fact that twice a year night and day are equal — once in spring and 
once in autumn. Further, that he thinks, like us, that we have the 
longest day when the sun stands nearest to the north pole ; the shortest 
day when the sun is at the greatest distance from- the north pole ; that 
the shortest summer night is equal to the shortest winter day ; and that 
the same meaning is expressed by the two verses of the Goran : " Grod 
makes night enter into day, and he makes day enter into night" 
(Sura XXXV. 14), and " He wraps night around day, and he wraps day 

10 around night" (Sura xxxix. 7). Now, if they do not know this, or 
pretend not to know it, at all events they cannot help admitting that 
the first half of the day is six hours long, and likewise the latter half. 
Against this they cannot pretend to be bhnd, because of the well known 
and well authenticated tradition which relates to the prerogatives of 
those who hasten to the mosque on a Friday, and which shows that 
their wages are the highest, although their time of work in the six hours 
from the beginning of the day till the time of the decline of the sun is 
the shortest. This is to be understood of the Horce temporales obliquce 
(wpat KaipiKai), not of the Horce rectce, which are also called cequinoctiales 

20 (oipat IcrrjfJLepLvai). 

Now, if we should comply with their wish, and acknowledge their 
assertions as truth, we should have to believe that an equinox takes 
place when the sun moves on either side of the winter solstice (i.e. near 
to the point of the winter- solstice either arriving there or leaving it) ; 
that this takes place only in some parts of the earth to the exclusion of 
others ; that the winter night is not equal to the summer day, and that 
noon is not then when the sun reaches the midst between his rising and 
setting points. Whilst just the contrary of these necessary inferences 

30 from their theory is the conclusion generally accepted even by those who 
have only a slight insight into the matter. That, however, similar 
absurdities must follow out of their reasoning he only will thoroughly 
comprehend who is to some degree acquainted with the motions of the 
(celestial) globes. 

If somebody will stick to what j^eople say at dawn-rise, " morning has 
come, night has gone ;^' what is he to think of what they say when the sun 
is near setting, and becomes yellow — " evening has come, day has gone, 
night has come?" Such exj^ressions merely indicate the aj^proaching, 
the advancing, and the receding of the precise time in which people just 

40 happen to be. These phrases are to be explained as metaphors and 
metonymies. They are allowed in the usage of the language, cf. e.g. the 
word of God (Sura xvi. 1) : " The order of Grod has come ; therefore do 
not hurry it." 

Another argument in favour of our view is the following saying, 
which is attributed to the Prophet, to whom and to whose family may 
God be merciful : " The prayer of the day is silent." And the fact that 



10 ALBIRUNI. 

people call tlie noon-prayer the " first " prayer, because it is the first of 
the two daily prayers ; whilst they call the afternoon-prayer the "middle" 
prayer, because it is in the midst, between the first of the two daily 
prayers and the first of the prayers of the night. 

My only object in all I have discussed in this place is to refute the 
opinion of those who think that those things which are necessary for 
certain philosophical or physical causes prove the contrary of that which 
is indicated by the Coran, and who try to support their opinion by the 
doctrine of one of the lawyers and commentators of the Coran, G-od 
helps to the right insight ! 10 



11 



CHAPTER II. 

ON THE NATURE OF THAT WHICH IS COMPOSED OF DATS, VIZ., MONTHS 

AND TEARS. 

I SAT : Tear means one revolution of the sun in tlie ecliptic, moving in a 
direction opposite to that of the universal motion, and returning to the 
same point which has been assumed as the starting-point of his motion, 
whichsoever point this may be. In this way the sun includes in his 
course the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, winter, and their four 
different natures ; and returns always to the point whence he commenced. 

10 According to Ptolemy these revolutions are equal, because he did not 
find that the apogee of the sun moves ; whilst they are unequal according 
to the authors of Sindhind and the modern astronomers, because their 
observations led them to think that the apogee of the sun moves. In 
each case, however, whether they be equal or different, these revolutions 
include the four seasons and their natures. 

As to the length of such a revolution in days and fractions of a day, 
the results of the astronomical observations do not agree, but differ 
considerably. According to some observations it is larger ; according to 
others less. However, in a short space of time this difference scarcely 

20 becomes perceptible ; but in the long run of time, when this difference 
is being redoubled and multiplied many times, and is then summed up 
into a whole, a very great error becomes clearly manifest, on account 
of which the sages have strongly recommended us to continue making 
observations, and to guard against errors which possibly might have 
entered into them. p. 10. 

The difference of the observations regarding the length of one annual 
revolution of the sun does not arise from this cause, that people do not 
know how properly to institute such observations, and to gain thereby 
an accurate knowledge of the real state of the thing ; but from this 

80 cause, that it is impossible to fix the parts of the greatest circle by 



12 ALBiRUNi. 

means of tlie parts of the smallest circle. I refer to the smallness of 
the instruments of observations in comparison with the vastness of the 
bodies which are to be observed. On this subject I have enlarged in my 
book, called Kitdh-alistishhdd bikhtildf-al'arsdd. 

During this time, i.e. during one revolution of the sun in the ecliptic, 
the moon completes a little less than 12| revolutions, and has 12 
lunations. This space of time, i.e. the 12 revolutions of the moon in 
the ecliptic, is, technically, the lunar year, in which the fraction (beyond 
the 12 revolutions), which is nearly 11 days, is disregarded. The same 
fact, further, is the reason why the ecliptic was divided into 12 equal 10 
parts, as I have explained in my book on the investigation of rays and 
lights ; the same which I had the honour to present to His Highness. 
May Grod increase his majesty ! 

In consequence, people distinguish two kinds of years — the Solar year 
and the Lunar year. They have not used other stars for the purpose of 
deriving years from them, because their motions are comparatively 
hidden, and can hardly ever be found out by eyesight ; but only by 
astronomical observations and experiments. Further (they used only 
sun and moon for this purpose), because the changes of the particles of 
the elements and their mutual metamorphoses, as far as time and the 20 
state of the air, plants and animals, etc., are concerned, depend entirely 
upon the motions of these two celestial bodies, because they are the 
greatest of all, and because they excel the other stars by their light and 
appearance ; and because they resemble each other. Afterwards people 
derived from these two kinds of years other years. 

The Solar Year. — According to the statement of Theon, in his Canon, 
the people of Constantinople, and of Alexandria, and the other Greeks, 
the Syrians and Chaldseans, the Egyptians of our time, and those who 
have adopted the year of Almu'ta-did-billah, all use the solar year, 
which consists of nearly 365j days. They reckon their year as 366 30 
days, and add the quarters of a day in every fourth year as one complete 
day, when it has summed up thereto. This year they call an intercalary 
year, because the quarters are intercalated therein. The ancient Egyp- 
tians followed the same practice, but with this difference, that they 
neglected the quarters of a day till they had summed up to the number 
of days of one complete year, which took place in 1,460 years; then they 
intercalated one year, and agreed with the people of Alexandria and 
Constantinople as to the beginning of the year. So Theon Alexandrinus 
relates. 

The Persians followed the same rule as long as their empire lasted ; 40 
11. but they treated it differently. For they reckoned their year as 365 
days, and neglected the following fractions until the day-quarters had 
summed up in the course of 120 years to the number of days of one 
complete month, and until the fifth parts of an hour, which, according 
to their opinion, follow the fourth parts of a day (i.e. they give the 



ON THE NATUEE OP MONTHS AND YEAES. 13 

solar year the length of 365^ days and ^ hour), had summed up to 
one day ; then they added the complete month to the year in each 116th 
year. This was done for a reason which I shall explain hereafter. 

The example of the Persians was followed by the ancient inhabitants 
of Khwarizm and Sogdiana, and by all who had the same religion as the 
Persians, who were subject to them, and were considered as their 
kinsmen, during the time when their empire flourished. 

I have heard that the Peshdadian kings of the Persians, those who 
ruled over the entire world, reckoned the year as 360 days, and each 
10 month as 30 days, without any addition and subtraction ; that they 
intercalated one month in every sixth year, which they called "intercalary 
month," and two months in every 120th year ; the one on account of 
the five days (the Epagomense), the other on account of the quarter of a 
day ; that they held this year in high honour, and called it the " blessed 
year," and that in it they occupied themselves with the affairs of divine 
worship and matters of public interest. 

The character of the system of the ancient Egyptians, according to 

what the Almagest relates regarding the years on which its own system of 

computation was based, and of the systems of the Persians in Islam, and 

20 the people of Khwarizm and Sogdiana, is their aversion to the fractions, 

i.e, the j day and what follows it, and their neglecting them altogether. 

The Luni-Solar Year. — The Hebrews, Jews, and all the Israelites, 
the Sabians, and Harranians, used an intermediate system. They 
derived their year from the revolution of the sun, and its months from 
the revolution of the moon — with this view, that their feast and fast 
days might be regulated by lunar computation, and at the same time 
keep their places within the year. Therefore they intercalated 7 months 
in 19 lunar years, as I shall explain hereafter in the derivation of their 
cycles and the different kinds of their years. 
30 The Christians agreed with them in the mode of the computation of 
their fasting and of some of their festivals, the cardinal point in all this 
being the Passover of the Jews ; but they differed from them in the use of 
the months, wherein they followed the system of the Greeks and Syrians. 

In a similar way the heathen Arabs proceeded, observing the 
difference between their year and the solar year, which is 10 days 
21-|- hours, to speak roughly, and adding it to the year as one month p. 12. 
as soon as it completed the number of days of a month. They, however, 
reckoned this difference as 10 days and 20 hours. This business was 
administered by the Nasa'a (the intercalators) of the tribe of Kinana, 
40 known as the Kaldmis, a plural form of Kalammas, which signifies a 
fidl-flowing sea. These were 'Abu Thumama and his ancestors : 
I. 'Abu Thumama Junada ben 
'Auf ben 
'TJmayya ben 
Kala' ben 



14 ALBIEIJNf. 

V. 'Abbadben 
Kala' ben 
VII. Hudhaifa. 

They were all of them intercalators. The first of them who held this 
office was — 

VII. Hudhaifa ben 
'Abd ben 
Fukaim ben 
X. 'Adijy ben 

'Amir ben 10 

Tha'laba ben 
Malik ben 
XIV. Kinana. 

The last of them, who held it, was 'Abu-Thumama. The poet, who 
celebrates them, describes him in the following terms : — 
" There is Fukaim ! He was called Alkalammas, 
And he was one of the founders of their religion, 
His word being obeyed, he being recognised as a chieftain." 

And another poet says : 

" (He was) famous among the forerunners of Kinana, 20 

A celebrated man, of exalted rank. 
In this way he spent his time." 

Another poet says : 
" The difference between the revolution of the sun and new-moon 
He adds together and sums it up, 
Till it makes out a complete month." 

He (i.e. Hudhaifa) had taken this system of intercalation from the 
Jews nearly 200 years before Islam ; the Jews, however, intercalated 
9 months in 24 lunar years. In consequence their months were fixed, 
and came always in at their proper times, wandering in a uniform course 30 
through the year without retrograding and without advancing. This 
state of things remained till the Prophet made his Farewell 2:)ilgrimage, 
and the following verse was revealed to him : " Intercalation is only an 
increase of infidelity, by which the infidels lead astray (people), 
admitting it one year and prohibiting it in another." (Sura ix. 37.) 
The Prophet delivered an address to the people, and said : " Time has 
come round as it was on the day of God's creating the heavens and the 
earth," and, continuing, he recited to them the (just mentioned) verse 
of the Goran on the prohibition of the Nasi', i.e. intercalation. Ever 
since they have neglected intercalation, so that their months have 40 
receded from their original places, and the names of the months are no 
longer in conformity with their original meanings. 



ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS AND YEARS. 15 

As to the other nations, their opinions on this subject are well known. 
They are likely to have no other systems besides those we have men- 
tioned, and each nation seems to follow the example of the system of 
their neighbours. 

Years of the Indians. — I bave heard that the Indians use the 
appearance of new-moon in their months, that they intercalate one lunar 
month in every 976 days, and that they fix the beginning of their era 
to the moment when a conjunction takes place in the first minute of any p, 13. 
zodiacal sign. The chief object of their searching is that this con- 
10 junction should take place in one of the two equinoctial points. The 
leap-year they call Adhimdsa. It is very possible that this is really the 
case ; because, of all stars, they use specially the moon, her mansions 
and their subdivisions, in their astrological determinations, and not 
the zodiacal signs. However, I have not met with anybody who had 
an accurate knowledge of this subject ; therefore I turn away from what 
I cannot know for certain. And God is my help ! 

'Abu-Muhammad Alna'ib Alamuli relates in his Kitdb-alghurra, on 
the authority of Ta'kub ben Tarik, that the Indians use four different 
kinds of spaces of time : 

20 I. One revolution of the sun, starting from a point of the ecliptic 

and returning to it. This is the solar year. 

II. 360 risings of the sun. This is called the middle-year, because it 
is longer than the lunar year and shorter than the solar year. 

III. 12 revolutions of the moon, starting from the star Alsharatdn 

(i.e. the head of Aries) and returning to it. This is their 
lunar year, which consists of 327 days and nearly 7f hours. 

IV. 12 lunations. This is the lunar year, which they use. 



16 ALBiEUNl. 



CHAPTER III. 



ON THE NATURE OP THE ERAS, AND THE DIFFERENT OPINIONS OF THE 
NATIONS REGARDING THEM. 

Era means a definite sj)ace of time, reckoned from the beginning of 
some past year, in which either a prophet, with signs and wonders, and 
with a proof of his divine mission, was sent, or a great and j)owerful 
king rose, or in which a nation perished by a universal destructive 
deluge, or by a violent earthquake and sinking of the earth, or a 
sweeping pestilence, or by intense drought, or in which a change of 
dynasty or religion took place, or any grand event of the celestial and 10 
the famous tellurian miraculous occurrences, which do not happen save 
at long intervals and at times far distant from each other. By such 
events the fixed moments of time (the epochs) are recognised. Now, 
such an era cannot be dispensed with in all secular and religious 
affairs. Each of the nations scattered over the different parts of the 
world has a special era, which they count fi-om the times of their kings 
or prophets, or dynasties, or of some of those events which we have just 
now mentioned. And thence they derive the dates, which they want in 
social intercourse, in chronology, and in every institute {i.e. festivals) 
which is exclusively peculiar to them. 20 

Era of the Creation. — The first and most famous of the beginnings 
of antiquity is the fact of the creation of mankind. But among those 
who have a book of divine revelation, such as the Jews, Christians, 
Magians, and their various sects, there exists such a difference of 
opinion as to the nature of this fact, and as to the question how to date 
P- 14. from it, the like of which is not allowable for eras. Everything, the 
knowledge of which is connected with the beginning of creation and 
with the history of bygone generations, is mixed up with falsifications 
and myths, because it belongs to a far remote age ; because a long 
interval separates us therefrom, and because the student is incapable of 30 



ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. 17 

keeping it in memory, and of fixing it (so as to preserve it from con- 
fusion). God says: "Have they not got the stories about those who 
were before them ? None but God knows them." (Sura ix. 71.) There- 
fore it is becoming not to admit any account of a similar subject, if it 
is not attested by a book, the correctness of which is relied upon, or by 
a tradition, for which the conditions of authenticity, according to the 
prevalent opinion, furnish grounds of proof. 

If we now first consider this era, we find a considerable divergence 
of opinion regarding it among these nations. For the Persians and 

10 Magians think that the duration of the world is 12,000 years, corre- 
sponding to the number of the signs of the zodiac and of the months ; 
and that Zoroaster, the founder of their law, thought that of those there 
had passed, till the time of his appearance, 3,000 years, intercalated 
with the day-quarters ; for he himself had made their computation, and 
had taken into account that defect, which had accrued to them on 
account of the day-quarters, till the time when they were intercalated 
and were made to agree with real time. From his appearance till the 
beginning of the ^ra Alexandri, they count 258 years ; therefore they 
count from the beginning of the world till Alexander 3,258 years. 

20 However, if we compute the years from the creation of Gayomarth, whom 
they hold to be the first man, and sum up the years of the reign of each 
of his successors — for the rule (of Iran) remained with his descendants 
without interruption — this number is, for the time till Alexander, the 
sum total of 3,354 years. So the specification of the single items of the 
addition does not agree with the sum total. 

Further, the Persians and Greeks disagree as to the time after 
Alexander. For they count from Alexander till the beginning of the 
reign of Tazdajird 942 years 257 days. If we deduct therefrom the 
duration of the rule of the Sasanian kings as far as the beginning of 

30 the reign of Tazdajird, as they compute it, viz., nearly 415 years, we 
get a remainder of 528 years as the time during which Alexander and 
the Muluk-al-tawa if reigned. But if we sum up the years of the reign 
of each of the Ashkanian kings, as they have settled it, we get only the 
sum of 280 years, or,^ — taking into regard their difference of opinion as to 
the length of the reign of each of them, — the sum of not more than 300 
years. This difference I shall hereafter try to settle to some extent. 

A section of the Persians is of oj^inion that those past 3,000 years 
which we have mentioned are to be counted from the creation of 
Gayomarth ; because, before that, already 6,000 years had elapsed — a 

40 time during which the celestial globe stood motionless, the natures (of 

created beings) did not interchange, the elements did not mix — during p. 15. 
which there was no growth, and no decay, and the earth was not cultivated. 
Thereupon, when the celestial globe was set a-going, the first man came 
into existence on the equator, so that part of him in longitudinal 
direction was on the north, and part south of the line. The animals 

2 



18" ALBIEUNi. 

were produced, and mankind commenced to reproduce their own species 
and to multiply ; the atoms of the elements mixed, so as to give rise to 
growth and decay ; the earth was cultivated, and the world was 
arranged in conformity with fixed norms. 

The Jews and Christians differ widely on this subject ; for, according 
to the doctrine of the Jews, the time between Adam and Alexander is 
3,448 years, whilst, according to the Christian doctrine, it is 5,180 years. 
The Christians rejDroach the Jews with having diminished the number of 
years with the view of making the appearance of Jesus fall into the 
fourth millennium in the middle of the seven millennia, which are, 10 
according to their view, the time of the duration of the world, so as not 
to coincide with that time at which, as the prophets after Moses had 
prophesied, the birth of Jesus from a pure virgin at the end of time, 
was to take place. Both parties depend, in their bringing forward of 
arguments, upon certain modes of interpretation derived from the 
Hisdb-al-jummal. So the Jews expect the coming of the Messiah who 
was promised to them at the end of 1,335 years after Alexander, ex- 
pecting it like something which they know for certain. In consequence 
of which many of the pseudo-prophets of their sects, as e.g. Al-ra'i, 
'Abu-lsa Al-isfahani, and others, claimed to be his messengers to them. 20 
This expectation was based on the assumption that the beginning of 
this era (iEra Alexandri) coincided with the time when the sacrifices 
were abolished, when no more divine revelation was received, and no 
more prophets were sent. Then they referred to the Hebrew word of 
God in the 5th book of the Thora (Deut. xxxi. 18), "^^MD^ "^ilDrr ^r]i« 
b^inn DVn Dn^ '^^Dj which means : " I, God, shall conceal my 
being till that day." And they counted the letters of the words 
"^'^nOi^ "^JnOn, the word for " concealing," which gives the sum of 1,335- 
This they declared to be the time during which no inspiration from 
heaven was received and the sacrifices were abolished, which is meant 30 
by God's concealing himself. The word "being" (^\j=i^q) is here 
synonymous with "affair" (or "order, command"). In order to 
supjDort what they maintain, they quote two passages in the Book 
of Daniel (xii. 11) : f]^« 0^72^ 072^ yiptrnn^l T^Mn *lDin r^yl2 
D^i^tlJm D'^ni^?21) which means: "Since the time when the sacrifice 
was abolished until impurity comes to destruction it is 1,290." 
and the next following passage (Dan. xii. 12) : V^T*) TTDTV^iTl "^'lUJt^ 
ntrnni D^trbtri ni^^n ^^h^^ ^h^ n^r^'h which means: "There- 
fore happy he who hopes to reach to 1,335." Some people explain 
the difference of forty-five years in these two passages so as to refer 40 
p. 16. the former date (1,290) to the beginning of the rebuilding of Jerusalem ; 
and the latter (1,335) to the time when the rebuilding would be finished. 
According to others, the first number is the date of the birth of Messiah, 
whilst the latter is the date of his public appearance. Further, the Jews 
say, when Jacob bestowed his blessing upon Judah (Gen. xlix. 10), he 



ON THE NATUEB OF THE EEAS. 19 

informed him that the rule should always remain with his sons till the 
time of the coming of him to whom the rule belongs. So in these words 
he told him that the rule should remain with his descendants until the 
appearance of the expected Messiah. And now the Jews add that this 
is really the case ; that the rule has not been taken from them. For the 
t^ni/^ tr^^"^^ i.e. " the head of the exiles " who had been banished 
from their homes in Jerusalem, is the master of every Jew in the world ; 
the ruler whom they obey in all countries, whose order is carried out 
under most circumstances. 

10 The Christians use certain Syriac words, viz., JOOJS ]m.j.aLo IQaj 
yo'y, which mean " Jesus, the Messiah, the greatest redeemer." Com- 
puting the value of the letters of these words, they get the sum of 1,335. 
Now, they think that it was these words which Daniel meant to indicate 
by those numbers, not the above-mentioned years ; because in the text 
of his words they are nothing but numbers, without any indication 
whether they mean years, or days, or something else. It is a prophecy 
indicative of the name of the Messiah, not of the time of his coming. 
Further, they relate that Daniel once dreamt in Babylonia, some years 
after the accession of Cyrus to the throne, on the 24th of the first 

20 month, when he had prayed to God, and when the Israelites were the 
prisoners of the Persians. Then God revealed to him the following 
(Dan. ix. 24-26) : " 'IJrishlim, i.e. Jerusalem, will be rebuilt 70 SctbiV, 
and will remain in the possession of thy people. Then the Messiah will 
come, but he will be killed. And in consequence of his coming 
'IJrishlim will undergo its last destruction, and it will remain a ruin till 
the end of time." The word Sdbii' (Hebrew )^''Qt!?) means a Septennium. 
Now, of the whole time (indicated in this passage) seven Septennia refer 
to the rebuilding of Jerusalem, which time is also mentioned in the 
Book of Zekharya ben Berekhya ben 'Iddo' (Zechariah iv. 2) : "I have 

30 beheld a candlestick with seven lamps thereon, and with seven pipes to 
each lamp." And before this he says (iv. 9) : " The hands of Zerubbabel 
have laid the foundation of this house, his hands also shall finish it." 
The time from the beginning of his rebuilding of the house (i.e. Jeru- 
salem) till its end is 49 years, or 7 Septennia. Then, after 62 Septen- 
nia, they think, Jesus the son of Mary came ; and in the last Septennium 
the sacrifices and offerings were abolished, and Jerusalem underwent its 
above-mentioned destruction, insomuch that no more divine revelation 
nor prophets were sent, as the Israelites were scattered all over the 
world, utterly neglected, not practising their sacrifices, nor having a p. 17. 

40 place where to practise them. 

In respect of all we have mentioned, each of the two parties makes 
assertions which they cannot support by anything but interpretations 
derived from the Hisclb-al-jummal, and fallacious subtilties. If the 
student would try to establish something else by the same means, and 
refute what they (each of the two parties) maintain, by similar arguments, 

. 2 * . 



20 ALBfE^JN!. 

it would not he difficult for him to search for them. As to what the 
Jews think of the continuance of the rule in the family of Juda, and 
which they transfer to the leadership of the exiles, we must remark that, 
if it was correct to extend the word "rule" to a similar leadership by 
way of analogy, the Magians, the Sabians, and others would partake 
of this, and neither the other Israelites nor any other nation would be 
exempt therefrom. Because no class of men, not even the lowest, are 
without a sort of rule and leadership with relation to others who are 
still inferior to them. 

If we referred the numerical value of the word " concealing " iu the 10 
Thora to that period from the earliest date Avhich the Israelites assign to 
their exodus from Egypt till Jesus the son of Mary, this interpretation 
would rest on a better foundation. For the time from their exodus from 
Egypt till the accession of Alexander is 1,000 years according to their 
own view ; and Jesus the son of Mary was born Anno Alexandri 304, 
and God raised him to himself Anno Alexandri 336. So the sum of the 
years of this complete period is 1,335 as the time during which the law 
of Moses ben 'Imran existed, till it was carried to perfection by Jesus 
the son of Mary. 

As to that which they derive from the two passages of Daniel, we can 20 
only say that it would be possible to refer them to something different, 
and to explain them in a different way ; and moi'e than that — that 
neither of their modes of interpretation is correct, except we suppose 
that the beginning of that number precedes the time when they were 
pronounced (by Daniel). For if it is to be understood that the begin- 
ning of both numbers (1,290 and 1,335) is one and the same time, be it 
past, present, or future, you cannot reasonably explain why the two 
passages should have been pronounced at different times. And, not to 
speak of the difference between the two numbers (1,290 and 1,335) the 
matter can in no way be correct; because the second passage ("Happy 30 
he who hopes to reach 1,335 ") admits, first, that the beginning of the 
number precedes the time when the passage was pronounced ; so that it 
(the number) may reach its end one year, or more or less, after the 
supposed time ; secondly, that the beginning of that number may be 
the very identical time when the passage was pronounced ; or, thirdly, 
that it may be after this moment by an indefinite time, which may be 
smaller or greater. Now, if a chronological statement may be referred 
to all three spheres of time (past, present, and future), it cannot be 
referred to any one of them except on the basis of a clear text or an 
indisputable argument. 40 

The first passage ("Since the time when the sacrifice was abolished, 

until impurity comes to destruction, it is 1,290 ") admits likewise of being 

referred, first, to tlie first destruction of Jerusalem ; and, secondly, to 

p. 18. its second destruction, which happened, however, only 385 years after 

the accession of Alexander. 



ON THE NATURE OF TFE ERAS. 21 

Therefore the Jew.^ have not the slightest reason to commence (in 
their calculations as tu the coming of the Messiah) with that date with 
which they have commenced (viz., the epoch of the ^Era Alexandri). 

These are doubts and difficulties which beset the assertions of the 
Jews. Those, however, which attach to the schemes of the Christians 
are even more numerous and conspicuoiis. For even if the Jews granted 
to them that the coming of Messiah was to take place 70 8eptennia after 
the vision of Daniel, we must remark that the appearance of Jesus the 
son of Mary did not take place at that time. The reason is this: — The 
10 Jews have agreed to fix the interval between the exodus of the Israelites 
from Egypt and the ^ra Alexandri at 1,000 complete years. Prom pas- 
sages in the books of the Prophets they have inferred that the interval 
between the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and the building of 
Jerusalem is 480 years ; and the interval between the building and 
the destruction by Nebucadnezar 410 years ; and that it remained in a 
ruined state 70 years. Now this gives the sum of 960 years (after the 
exodus from Egypt) as the date for the vision of Daniel, and as a 
remainder of the above-mentioned millennium (from the exodus till ^Era 
Alexandri) 40 years. Purther, Jews and Christians unanimously suppose 
20 that the birth of Jesus the son of Mary took place Anno Alexandri 304. 
Therefore, if we use their own chronology, the birth of Jesus the son of 
Mary took place 344 years after the vision of Daniel and the rebuilding 
of Jerusalem, i.e about 49 Septennia. Prom his birth till the time when he 
began preaching in public are 4^ Septennia more. Hence it is evident 
that the birth (of Jesus) precedes the date which they have assumed 
(as the time of the birth of the Messiah). 

For the Jews there follow no such consequences from their chrono- 
logical system ; and if the Christians should accuse the Jews of telling 
lies regarding the length of the period between the rebuilding of 
30 Jerusalem and the epoch of the ^ra Alexandri, the Jews would meet 
them with similar accusations, and more than that. 

If we leave aside the arguments of the two parties, and consider the 
table of the Chaldsean kings, which we shall hereafter explain, we find 
the interval between the beginning of the reign of Cyrus and that of 
the reign of Alexander to be 222 years, and from the latter date till the 
birth of Jesus 304 years ; so that the sum total is 526 years. If we 
now deduct therefrom 3 years, for the rebuilding (of Jerusalem) com- 
menced in the third year of the reign of Cyrus, and if we reduce the 
remainder to Septennia, we get nearly 75 Septennia for the interval 
40 between the vision (of Daniel) and the birth of Messiah. Therefore the 
birth of Messiah is later than the date which they (the Christians) 
have assumed. 

If the Christians compute the Syriac words (\oO'r£i ] ..^ . « Vn vn » .. 
io5), and believe that because of the identity of their numerical value 
with the number (1,335, mentioned by Daniel), these words were meant 



22 ALBIEUNI. 

(by Daniel) and not a certain number of years, we can only say that 
we cannot accept such an oj)inion except it be confirmed by an argument 
as indubitable as ocular inspection. For if you computed the numerical 
Talue of the following words: Xi.i&^. yiS2\ ^^ ,3lsJ\ SW (^' the deliver- 
ance of the creation from infidelity hy Muhammad''), you would get 
the sum of 1,335. Or if you computed the words (^yj*^ (:>? i^f* T^- 
19. jc*^U ^y^.^\^ Ju<&-*4 (" the projohecy of Moses hen 'Imrdn regarding Mu- 
hammad; the prophecy of the Messiah regarding 'Ahmad"), you would get 

J C -» 

the same sum, i.e. 1,335. Likewise, if you counted these words : o/^ 
^_^% ji—*<s-*i (^\)\-« ^^ (" The plain of Farcin shines with the illiterate 10 
Muhammad"), you would again get the same sum (1,335). If, now, a 
man asserts that these numbers are meant to indicate a prophecy on 
account of the identity of the numerical values of these phrases with 
that of the Syriac words ("i^J \oQ\£i \m.^»^ lQ«-i), the value of his 
argument would be exactly the same as that of the Christians regarding 
those passages (in Daniel), the one case closely resembling the other, 
even if he should produce as a testimony for Muhammad and the truth 
of the prophecy regarding him a passage of the prophet Isaiah, of which 
the following is the meaning, or like it (Isaiah xxi. 6-9) : " God ordered 
him to set a watchman on the watchtower, that he anight declare what he should 20 
see. Then he said : I see a man riding on an ass, and a man riding on a 
camel. And the one of them came forward crying and speahing : Babylon is 
fallen, and its graven images are hrohen." This is a prophecy regarding 
the Messiah, " the man riding on an ass," and regarding Muhammad, 
" the man riding on a camel," because in consequence of his appearance 
Babylon has fallen, its idols have teen broken, its castles have been 
shattered, and its empire has perished-. There are many passages in the 
book of the prophet Isaiah, predicting Muhammad, being rather hints 
(than clearly out-sj)oken words), but easily admitting of a clear inter- 
pretation. And with all this, their obstinacy in clinging to their error 30 
induces them to devise and to maintain things which are not acknow- 
ledged by men in general, viz. : that " the man riding on the camel," is 
Moses, not Muhammad. But what connection have Moses and his 
people with Babel ? And did that happen to Moses and to his people 
after him, which happened to Muhammad and his companions in Babel ? 
By no means ! If they (the Jews) had one after the other escaped from 
the Babylonians, they would have considered it a sufficient prize to cany 
off to return (to their country), even though in a desperate condition. 

This testimony (Isaiah xxi. 6-9) is confirmed by the word of God to 
Moses in the fifth book of the Thora, called Almathnd (Deuteronomy 4Q 
xviii. 18, 19) : "J will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren 
like unto thee, and will put my word into his mouth. And he shall speaJc 
unto them all that I shall command him. And whosoever will not hearhen 
unto the word of him who speaJcs in my name, I shall take revenge on him." 
Now I shoTild like to know whether there are other brethren of the sons 



ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. 23 

of Isaac, except the s ms of Isliniael. If they say, that the brethren of 
the sons of Israel are the children of Esau, we ask only : Has there then 
risen among them a man like Moses — in the times after Moses — of the 
same description and resembling him ? Does not also the following 
passage of the same book, of which this is the translation (Deut. xxxiii. 
2), bear testimony for Muhammad : " The Lord came from Mount Sinai, 
and rose up unto us from Seir, and he shined forth from Mount Paran, 
accompanied by ten thousand of saints at his right hand?'' The terms of 
this passage are hints for the establishing of the proof, that the 

10 (anthropomorphic) descriptions, which are inherent in them, cannot be 
referred to the essence of the Creator, nor to his qualities, he being high 
above such things. His coming from Mount Sinai means his secret 
conversation with Moses there ; his rising up from Seir means the 
appearance of Messiah, and his shining forth from Paran, where Ishmael 
grew up and married, means the coming of Muhammad from thence as 
the last of all the founders of religions, accomjDanied by legions of 
saints, who were sent down from heaven to help, being marked with 
certain badges. He who refuses to accept this interpretation, for which p- 20. 
all evidence has borne testimony, is required to prove what kinds of 

20 mistakes there are in it. " But he whose companion is Satan, woe to him 
for such a companion! " (Sura iv. 42.) 

Now, if the Christians do not allow us to use the numerical values of 
Arabic words, we cannot allow them to do the same with the Syriac 
words which they quote, because the Thora and the books of those 
prophets were revealed in the Hebrew language. All they have brought 
forward, and all we are going to propound, is a decisive proof, and a clear 
argument, showing that the words in the holy books have been altered 
from their proper meanings, and that the text has undergone modifica- 
tions contrary to its original condition. Having recourse to this sort of 

30 computing, and of using false witnesses, shows and proves to evidence, 
that then* authors purposely deviate from the path of truth and right- 
eousness. If we could open them a door in heaven, and they ascended 
thereby, they would say : " Our eyes are only drunlcen. Nay, we are 
fascinated people." (Sura xv. 15.) But such is not the case. The fact 
is that they are blind to the truth. We pray to God, that he may help 
and strengthen us, that he may guard us against sin, and lead us by the 
right path. 

As to the doctrine of abrogation (of one holy book by another), and as 
to their fanciful pretension of having passages of the Thora which order 

40 him who claims to be a prophet after Moses to be put to death, we must 
state, that the groundlessness of these opinions is rendered evident by 
other passages of the Thora. However, there are more suitable places to 
speak of these opinions than this, and so we return to our subject, as we 
have already become lengthy in our exposition, one matter drawing us to 
another. 



24 ALBIEUNI. 

Now I proceed to state tliat both Jews and Christians have a coj^y of 
the Thora, the contents of which agree with the doctrines of either sect. 
Of the Jewish copy people think that it is conij)aratively free from 
confusion. The Christian copy is called the " Thora of the Seventy, ^^ for 
the following reason : After Nebukadnezar had conquered and destroyed 
Jerusalem, part of the Israelites emigrated from their country, took 
refuge with the king of Egypt, and lived there under his protection till 
the time when Ptolemseus Philadelphns ascended the throne. This king 
heard of the Thora, and of its divine origin. Therefore he gave orders to 
search for this community, and found them at last in a place numbering 10 
about 30,000 men. He afforded them jDrotection, and took them into his 
favour, he treated them with kindness, and allowed them to return to 
Jerusalem, which in the meanwhile had been rebuilt by Cyrus, Bahman's 
govei'nor of Babel, who had also revived the culture of Syria. They left 
Egypt, accompanied by a body of his (Ptolemseus Philadelphus') servants 
for their protection. The king said to them : " I want to ask you for 
something. If you grant me the favour, you acquit yourselves of all 
obligations towards me. Let me have a copy of your book, the Thora." 
This the Jews promised, and confirmed their promise by an oath. Having 
arrived at Jerusalem, they fulfilled their promise by sending him a copy 20 
of it, hut in Hebrew. He, however, did not know Hebrew. Therefore he 
addressed himself again to them asking for people who knew both 
Hebrew and Greek, who might translate the book for him, promising 
them gifts and presents in reward. Now the Jews selected seventy-two 
21. men out of their twelve tribes, six men of each tribe from among the 
Rabbis and priests. Their names are known among the Christians. 
These men translated the Thora into Greek, after they had been housed 
separately, and each couple had got a servant to take care of them. 
This went on till they had finished the translation of the whole book. 
Now the king had in his hands thirty-six translations. These he com- 30 
pared with each other, and did not find any differences in them, except 
those which always occur in the rendering of the same ideas. Then the 
king gave them what he had promised, and provided them with every- 
thing of the best. The Jews asked him to make them a present of one 
of those copies, of which they wished to make a boast before their own 
people. And the king complied with their wish. Now this is the cojjy 
of the Christians, and people think, that in it no alteration or transposi- 
tion has taken place. The Jews, however, give quite a different account, 
viz. that they made the translation under compulsion, and that they 
yielded to the king's demand only from fear of violence and maltreat- 40 
ment, and not before having agreed upon inverting and confounding the 
text of the book. There is nothing in the report of the Christians which, 
even if we should take it for granted — removes our doubts (as to the 
authenticity of their Bible) ; on the contrary, there is something in it 
which strengthens them greatly. 



ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. 25 

Besides these two coi^ies of the Thora, there is a third one that exists 
among the Samaritans, also known by the name of Al-ldmasdsiyya. To 
them, as the substitutes for the Jews, Nebucadnezar had given the 
country of Syria, when he led the Jews into captivity, and cleared 
the country of them. The Samaritans had helped him (in the war 
against the Jews), and had pointed out to him the weak points of 
the Israelites. Therefore, he did not disturb them, nor kill them, nor 
make them prisoners, but he made them inhabit Palestine under his 
protection. 

10 Their doctrines are a syncretism of Judaism and Zoroastrianism. The 
bulk of their community is living in a town of Palestine, called Ndbulus, 
where they have their churches. They have never entered the precincts 
of Jerusalem since the days of David the prophet, because they main- 
tain that he committed wrong and injustice, and transferred the holy 
temple from Nabulus to Aelia, i.e. Jerusalem. They do not touch 
other people ; but if they haj)pen to be touched by anyone, they wash 
themselves. They do not acknowledge any of the prophets of the 
Israelites after Moses. 

Now as to the copy which the Jews have, and on which they rely, we 

20 find that according to its account of the lives of the immediate descend- 
ants of Adam, the interval between the expulsion of Adam from Paradise 
till the deluge in the time of Noah, is 1,656 years ; according to the 
Christian copy the same interval is 2,242 years, and according to the 
Samaritan copy it is 1,307 years. According to one of the historians, 
Anianus, the interval between the creation of Adam and the night of 
the Friday when the deluge commenced, is 2,226 years 23 days and 
4 hours. This statement of Anianus is reported by Ibn-Albazyar in 
his Kitdh-alHrdndt (Book of the Conjunctions) ; it comes very near that p. 22. 
of the Christians. However, it makes me think that it is based ujjon 

30 the methods of the astrologers, because it betrays evidently an arbitrary 
and too subtle mode of research. 

Now, if such is the diversity of opinions, as we have described, and 
if there is no possibility of distinguishing — by means of analogy — 
between truth and fiction, where is the student to search for exact 
information ? 

Not only does the Thora exist in several and different copies, but 
something similar is the case with the Gospel too. For the Christians 
have four copies of the Grospel, being collected into one code, the first by 
Matthew, the second by Mai'k, the third by Luke, and the fourth by 

40 John ; each of these four disciples having composed the Gosjtel in con- 
formity with what he (Christ) had preached in his country. The reports, 
contained in these four copies, such as the descriptions of Messiah, the 
relations of him at the time when he preached and when he was crucified, 
as they maintain, differ very widely the one from the other. To begin with 
his genealogy, which is the genealogy of Joseph, the bridegroom of Mary 



ALBIEUNI. 



23. 



and step.father of Jesus, 
is this : — 



For according to Matthew (i. 2-16), his pedigree 



I. Joseph. 

Jacob. 

Matthan. 

Eleazar. 
V. Eliud. 

Achin. 

Zadok. 

Azor. 

Elyakim. 
X. Abiud. 



Zorobabel. 

Salathiel. 

Jechonias. 

Josias. 
XV. Amon. 

Manasses. 

Ezekias. 

Ahaz. 

Joatham. 
XX.Ozias. 



XXV. 



XXX. 



Joram. 




Salmon. 


Josaphat. 




Naasson. 


Asa. 




Aminadab 


Abia. 




Aram. 


Roboam. 


XXXV.Esrom. 


Solomon. 




Phares. 


David. 




Judas. 


Jesse. 




Jacob. 


Obed. 




Isaac. 


Booz. 


XL 


. Abraham. 



Matthew in stating this genealogy commences with Abraham, tracing 



it downward (as far as Joseph), 
pedigree of Joseph is this : — 



According to Luke (iii. 23-31) the 



I. Joseph. 


Esli. 




Salathiel. 


Heli. 


Nagge. 




Neri. 


Matthat. 


Maath. 




Melchi. 


Levi. 


Mattathias. 




Addi. 


V. Melchi. 


XV. Semei. 


XXV. 


, Cosam. 


Janna 


Joseph. 




Elmodam. 


Joseph. 


Judas. 




Er. 


Mattathias. 


Joanna. 




Joseph. 


Amos. 


Ehesa. 




Elieser. 


X. Naum. 


XX. Zorobabel. 


XXX 


. Jorim. 



Matthat. 

Levi. 

Simeon. 

Juda. 
XXXV. Joseph. 

Jonam. 

Elyakim. 

Melea. 

Menan. 
XL. Matatha. 

Nathan. 
XLII. David. 
This difference the Christians try to excuse, and to account for it, 
saying, that there was one of the laws prescribed in the Thora which 
ordered that, if a man died, leaving behind a wife but no male children, 
the brother of the deceased was to marry her instead, in order to raise 
up a progeny to the deceased brother ; that, in consequence, his children 
were genealogically referred to the deceased brother, whilst as to real 
hirth they were the children of the living brother ; that, therefore, 
Joseph was referred to two different fathers, that Heli was his father 
genealogically, whilst Yakob was his father in reality. Further, they 
say, that when Matthew had stated the real pedigree of Joseph, the 
Jews blamed him for it, saying : " His pedigree is not coi-rect, because it 
has been made without regard to his genealogical relation." In order to 
meet this reproach, Luke stated his pedigree in conformity with the 
genealogical ordinances of their code. Both pedigrees go back to David, 
and that was the object (in stating them), because it had been predicted 
of the Messiah, that he would be " the son of David." 

Finally, the fact that only the pedigree of Joseph has been adduced 



10 



20 



30 



40 



ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. 27 

for Messiali, and not that of Mary, is to be explained in this way, that 
according to the law of the Israelites, nobody was allowed to marry any 
but a wife of his own tribe and clan, whereby they wanted to prevent 
confusion of the pedigrees, and that it was the custom to mention only 
the pedigrees of the men, not those of the women. Now Joseph and 
Mary being both of the same tribe, their descent must of necessity go 
back to the same origin. And this was the object in their statement 
and account of the pedigree. 

Everyone of the sects of Marcion, and of Bardesanes, has a special 

10 Gospel, which in some parts differs from the Gospels we have men- 
tioned. Also the Manichseans have a Gospel of their own, the contents 
of which from the first to the last are opposed to the doctrines of the 
Christians ; but the Manichseans consider them as their religious law, 
and believe that it is the correct Gospel, that its contents are really that 
which Messiah thought and taught, that every other Gospel is false, and 
its followers are liars against Messiah. Of this Gosj^el there is a copy, 
called, " The Gospel of the Seventy," which is attributed to one Baldmis, 
and in the beginning of which it is stated, that Sallam ben ' Abdallah ben 
Sallam wi'ote it down as he heard it from Salman Alfarisi. He, how- 

20 ever, who looks into it, will see at once that it is a forgery ; it is not 
acknowledged by Christians and others. Therefore, we come to the 
conckision, that among the Gospels there are no books of the Prophets 
to be found, on which you may with good faith rely. 

Era of the Delug'e. — The next following era is the era of the great 
deluge, in which everything perished at the time of Noah. Here, too, 
there is such a difference of opinions, and such a confusion, that you 
have no chance of deciding as to the correctness of the matter, and do 
not even feel inclined to investigate thoroughly its historical truth. The 
reason is, in the iirst instance, the difference regarding the period between 

30 the iEra Adami and the Deluge, which we have mentioned already ; and 
secondly, that difference, which we shall have to mention, regarding the 
period between the Deluge and the ^ra Alexandri. For the Jews derive 
from the Thora, and the following books, for this latter period 1,792 
years, whilst the Christians derive from their Thora for the same period 
2,938 years. 

The Persians, and the great mass of the Magians, deny the Deluge 
altogether ; they believe that the rule (of the world) has remained with 
them without any interruption ever since Gayomarth Gilshah, who was, p- 24. 
according to them, the first man. In denying the Deluge, the Indians, 

40 Chinese, and the various nations of the east, concur with them. Some, 
however, of the Persians admit the fact of the Deluge, but they describe 
it in a different way from what it is described in the books of the 
prophets. They say, a partial deluge occurred in Syria and the west at 
the time of Tahmurath, but it did not extend over the whole of the then 
civilized world, and only few nations were drowned in it ; it did not 



28 ALBinUNi. 

extend beyond the peak of Hulwan, and did not reach the empires of the 
east. Further, they relate, that the inhabitants of the west, when they 
were warned by their sages, constructed buildings of the kind of the two 
pyramids which have been built in Egypt, saying : " If the disaster 
comes from heaven, we shall go into them ; if it comes from the earth, 
we shall ascend above them." People are of opinion, that the traces of 
the water of the Deluge, and the effects of the waves are still visible on 
these two pyramids half-way up, above which the water did not rise. 
Another report says, that Joseph had made them a magazine, where he 
deposited the bread and victuals for the years of drought. 10 

It is related, that Tahmurath on receiving the warning of the Deluge 
— 231 years before the Deluge — ordered his people to select a place of 
good air and soil in his realm. Now they did not find a place that 
answered better to this description than Ispahan. Thereupon, he ordered 
all scientific books to be preserved for posterity, and to be buried in a 
part of that place, least exposed to obnoxious influences. In favour of 
this report we may state that in our time in Jay, the city of Ispahan, 
there have been discovered hills, which, on being excavated, disclosed 
houses, filled with many loads of that tree-bark, with which arrows and 
shields are covered, and which is called Tilz, bearing inscriptions, of 20 
which no one was able to say what they are, and what they mean. 

These discrepancies in their reports, inspire doubts in the student, and 
make him inclined to believe what is related in some books, viz. that 
Gayomarth was not the first man, but that he was Gomer ben Taphet 
ben Noah, that he was a prince to whom a long life was given, that he 
settled on the Mount Dunbawand, where he founded an empire, and 
that finally his power became very great, whilst mankind was still living 
in (elementary) conditions, similar to those at the time of the creation, 
and of the first stage of the development of the world. Then he, and 
some of his children, took possession of the KXcfxara of the world. 30 
Towards the end of his life, he became tyrannical, and called himself 
Adam, saying : " If anybody calls me by another name than this, I 
shall cut of£ his head." Others are of opinion that Gayomarth was 
Emim (D'^T^'^fc^ ?) ben Lud ben 'Ai'am ben Sem ben Noah. 

The astrologers have tried to correct these years, beginning from the 
first of the conjunctions of Saturn and Jupiter, for which the sages 
among the inhabitants of Babel, and the Chaldseans have constructed 
astronomical tables, the Deluge having originated in their country. For 
people say, that Noah built the ark in Kufa, and that it was there that 
"the well 'poured forth its tvaters" (Sura xi. 42 ; xxiii. 27) ; that the ark 40 
rested upon the mountain of Aljudi, which is not very far from those 
regions. Now this conjunction occurred 229 years 108 days before the 
Deluge. This date they studied carefully, and tried by that to correct 
25. the subsequent times. So they found as the interval between the Deluge 
and the beginning of the reign of the first Nebukadnezar (Nabonassar) , 



ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. 29 

2,604 years, and as the interval between Nebukadnezar and Alexander 
. 436 years, a result which conies pretty near to that one, which is derived 
from the Thora of the Christians. 

This was the era which 'Abu-Ma' shar Albalkhi wanted, upon which to 
base his statements regarding the mean places of the stars in his Canon. 
Now he supposed that the Deluge had taken place at the conjunction of 
the stars in the last part of Pisces, and the first part of Aries, and he 
tried to compute their places for that time. Then he found, that they — 
all of them — stood in conjunction in the space between the twenty- seventh 

10 degree of Pisces, and the end of the first degree of Aries. Further, he 
supposed that between that time and the epoch of the ^ra Alexandri, 
there is an interval of 2,790 intercalated years 7 months and 26 days. 
This computation comes near to that of the Christians, being 249 years 
and 3 months less than the estimate of the astronomers. Now, when he 
thought that he had well established the computation of this sum 
according to the method, which he has explained, and when he had 
arrived at the result, that the duration of those periods, which as- 
tronomers call " star-cycles," was 360,000 years, the beginning of which 
was to precede the time of the Deluge by 180,000 years, he drew the 

20 inconsiderate conclusion, that the Deluge had occurred once in every 
180,000 years, and that it would again occur in future at similar 
intervals. 

This man, who is so proud of his ingenuity, had computed these star- 
cycles only from the motions of the stars, as they had been fixed by the 
observations of the Persians ; but they (the cycles) differ from the 
cycles, which have been based upon the observations of the Indians, 
known as the " cycles of Sindhind," and likewise they differ from the days 
of Arjdbhaz, and the days of ArJcand. If anybody would construct such 
cycles on the basis of the observations of Ptolemy, or of the modern 

80 astronomers, he might do so by the help of the well known methods of 
such a calculation, as in fact many people have done, e.g. Muhammad ben 
'Ishak ben 'Ustadh Bundadh Alsarakhsi, 'Abu-al-wafa Muhammad ben 
Muhammad Albuzajani, and I myself in many of my books, particularly 
in the Kitdb-al-istishhdd hikhtildf aVarsdd. 

In each of these cycles the stars come into conjunction with each other 
in the first part of Aries once, viz. when they start upon and return 
from their rotation, however, at different times. If he ('Abu-Ma'shar) 
now would maintain, that the stars were created standing at that time in 
the first part of Aries, or that the conjunction of the stars in that place 

40 is identical with the beginning of the world, or with the end of the 
world, such an assertion would be utterly void of proof, although the 
matter be within the limits of possibility. But such conclusions can 
never be admitted, except they rest on an evident argument, or on the 
report of some one who relates the origines of the world, whose word is 
relied upon, and regarding whom in the mind (of the reader or hearer) 



30 ALBiEXyNf. 

this persuasion is established, that he had received divine inspiration 
and help, 
26. For it is quite possible that these (celestial) bodies were scattered, not 
united at the time when the Creator designed and created them, they 
having these motions, by which — as calculation shows — they must meet 
each other in one point in such a time (as above mentioned). It would 
be the same, as if we, e.g. supposed a circle, in different separate places 
of which we put living beings, of whom some move fast, others slowly, 
each of them, however, being carried on in equal motions — of its peculiar 
sort of motion — in equal times ; further, suppose that we knew their 10 
distances and places at a certain time, and the measure of the distance 
over which each of them travels in one Nychthemeron. If you then ask 
the mathematician as to the length of time, after which they would meet 
each other in a certain point, or before which they had met each other in 
that identical point, no blame attaches to him, if he speaks of billions of 
years. Nor does it follow from his account that those beings existed at 
that (past) time (when they met each other), or that they would still 
exist at that (future) time (when they are to meet again) ; but this only 
follows from his account, if it is properly explained, that, if these beings 
really existed (in the past), or would still exist (in future) in that same 20 
condition, the result (as to their conjunctions) could be no other but 
that one at which he had arrived by calculation. But then the verifica- 
tion of this subject is the task of a science which was not the science of 
'Abu-Ma'shar. 

If, now, the man who uses the cycles (the star-cycles), would conclude 
that they, viz. the stars, if they stood in conjunction in the first part of 
Aries, would again and again pass through the same cycles, because, 
according to his opinion, everything connected with the celestial globe is 
exempt from growth and decay, and that the condition of the stars in 
the past was exactly the same, his conclusion would be a mere assumption 30 
by which he quiets his mind, and-which is not supported by any argu- 
ment. For a proof does not equally apply to the two sides of a contra- 
diction ; it applies only to the one, and excludes the other. Besides 
it is well known among philosophers and others, that there is no such 
thing as an infinite evolution of power (8vm/xts) into action (TrpS^ts), 
until the latter comes into real existence. The motions, the cycles, and 
the periods of the past were computed whilst they in reality existed ; 
they have decreased, whilst at the same time increasing in number; 
therefore, they are not infinite. 

This exposition will be sufficient for a veracious and fair-minded 40 
student. But if he remains obstinate, and inclines to the tricks of over- 
bearing people, more explanations will be wanted, which exceed the 
compass of this book, in order to I'emove these ideas from his mind, to 
heal what is feeble in his thoughts, and to plant the truth in his soul. 
However, there are other chapters of this book where it will be more 



ON THE NATUEE OF THE ERAS. 31 

suitable to speak of this subject than here. The discrepancy of the 
cycles, not the discrepancy of the observations, is a sufficient argument 
for — and a powerful help towards — repudiating the follies committed by 
'Abu-Ma'shar, and relied upon by foolish people, who abuse all religions, 
who make the cycles of Sindhind, and others, the means by which to 
revile those who warn them that the hour of judgment is coming, and 
who tell them, that on the day of resurrection there will be reward and 
punishment in yonder world. It is the same set of people who excite 
suspicions against — and bring discredit upon — astronomers and mathe- 

10 maticians, by counting themselves among their ranks, and by rej)resenting 

themselves as professors of their art, although they cannot even impose p. 27. 
upon anybody who has only the slightest degree of scientific training. 

Era of Nabonassar. — The next following era is the Era of the first 
Nebukadnezar (Nabonassar). The Persian form of this word (BuJch- 
tanassar) is Bukht-narsi, and people say that it means " one who weeps 
and laments much"; in Hebrew, " Nebukadnezar," which is said to 
mean " Mercury speaking," this being combined with the notion that 
he cherished science and favoured scholars. Then when the word was 
Arabized, and its form was simplified, people said " Buhhtanassar." 

20 This is not the same king who devastated Jerusalem, for between these 
two there is an interval of about 143 years, as the following chronological 
tables will indicate. 

The era of this king is based upon the Egyj)tian years. It is employed 
in the Almagest for the computation of the places of the planets, because 
Ptolemy preferred this era to others, and fixed thereby the mean places 
of the stars. Besides he uses the cycles of Callippus, the beginning 
of which is in the year 418 after Bukhtanassar, and each of which consists 
of seventy-six solar years. Those who do not know them (these cycles), 
try to prove by what they find mentioned in Almagest, that they are of 

30 Egyptian origin ; for Hipparchus and Ptolemy fix the times of their 
observations by Egyptian days and months, and then refer them to the 
corresponding cycles of Callippus. Such, however, is not the case. The 
first cycle, employed by those who compute the months by the revolution 
of the moon and the years by the revolution of the sun, was the cycle of 
eight years, and the second that of nineteen years. Callippus was of the 
number of the mathematicians, and one who himself — or whose people — 
considered the use of this latter cycle as part of their laws. Thereupon, 
he computed this cycle (of seventy- six years), uniting for that purpose 
four cycles of nineteen years. 

40 Some people think that in these cycles the beginning of the months 
was fixed by the apjiearance of new moon, not by calculation, as people 
at that (remote) age did not yet know the calculation of the eclipses, by 
which alone the length of the lunar month is to be determined, and these 
calculations are rendered perfect ; and that the first who knew the theory 
of the eclipses was Thales of Miletus. For after having frequently 



3.2 alb!e^tni. 

attended the lectures of the mathematicians, and having learned from 
them the science of form and motions (astronomy), he proceeded to dis- 
cover the calculation of the eclipses. Then he happened to come to 
Egypt, where he warned people of an impending eclipse. When, then, 
his prediction had been fulfilled, people honoured him highly. 

The matter, as thus reported, does not belong to the impossible. For 
each art goes back to certain original sources, and the nearer it is to its 
origin, the more simple it is, till you at last arrive at the very origin 
itself. However, this account, that eclipses were not known before 
Thales, must not be understood in this generality, but with certain local 10 
restrictions. For some people refer this scholar (Thales) to the time of 
Ardashir ben Babak, others to that of Kaikubadh. Now, if he lived at 
p. 28. the time of Ardashir, he was preceded by Ptolemy and Hipparchus ; and 
these two among the astronomers of that age knew the subject quite 
sufiiciently. If, on the other hand, he lived at the time of Kaikubadh, 
he stands near to Zoroaster, who belonged to the sect of the Harranians, 
and to those who already before him (Zoroaster) excelled in science, and 
had carried it to such a height as that they could not be ignorant of the 
theory of the eclipses. If, therefore, their rej)ort (regarding the dis- 
covery of the theory of the eclipses by Thales) be true, it is not to be 20 
understood in this generality, but with certain restrictions. 

Era of Philippus Aridseus. — The era of Philip, the father of 
Alexander, is based upon Egyptian years. But this era is also frequently 
dated from the death of Alexander, the Macedonian, the Founder. In 
both cases the matter is the same, and there is only a difference in the 
expression. Because Alexander, the Founder, was succeeded by Philip, 
therefore, it is the same, whether you date from the death of the former, 
or the accession of the latter, the epoch being a connecting link common 
to both of them. Those who employ this era are called Alexandrines. 
On this era Theon Alexandrinus has based his so-called " Canon." 30 

Era of Alexander. — Then follows the era of Alexander the Greek, to 
whom some people give the surname Bicornutus. On the difference of 
opinions regarding this personage, I shall enlarge in the next following 
chapter. This era is based upon Greek years. It is in use among most 
nations. When Alexander had left Greece at the age of twenty-six years, 
prepared to fight with Darius, the king of the Persians, and marching 
upon his capital, he went down to Jerusalem, which was inhabited by the 
Jews ; then he ordered the Jews to give up the era of Moses and David, 
and to use his era instead, and to adopt that very year, the twenty- 
seventh of his life, as the epoch of this era. The Jews obeyed his 40 
command, and accepted what he ordered ; for the Rabbis allowed them 
such a change at the end of each millennium after Moses. And at that 
time just a millennium had become complete, and their offerings and 
sacrifices had ceased to be practised, as they relate. So they adopted his 
era, and used it for fixing all the occurrences of their months and days, 



ON THE NATURE OP THE BEAS. 33 

as they had already done in the twenty-sixth year of his life, when he 
first started from home, with the view of finishing the millennium (i.e. 
so as not to enter uj^on a new one). When, then, the first thousand 
years of the ^ra Alexandri had passed, the end of which did not coin- 
cide with any striking event which people are accustomed to make the 
epoch of an era, they kept the ^ra Alexandri, and continued to use it. 
The Grreeks also use it. But according to the report of a book, which 
Habib ben Bihriz, the metropolitan of Mosul, has translated, the Greeks 
used to date — before they adopted the ^ra Alexandri — from the migration 
10 of Tunan ben Paris from Babel towards the west. 

Era of Aug'UStus. — Next follows the era of the king Augustus, the 
first of the Roman emperors (Ccesares). The word " Ccesar " means in 
Frankish {i.e. Latin) "he has been drawn forth, after a cutting has been 
made." The explanation is this, that his mother died in labour-pains, 
whilst she was pregnant with him ; then her womb was opened by the 
" Csesarean operation," and he was drawn forth, and got the surname 
" Ccesar." He used to boast before the kings, that he had not come out 
of the jjudendum muliebre of a woman, as also 'Ahmad ben Sahl ben 
Hashim ben Alwalid ben Hamla ben Kamkar ben Yazdajird ben 
20 Shahryar used to boast, that the same had happened to him. And he 
(Augustus) used to revile people calling them " so7i of the pudendum 
muliebre." 

The historians relate, that Jesus, the son of Mary, was born in the 
forty-third year of his reign. This, however, does not agree with the 
order of the years. The chronological tables, in which we shall give a 
corrected sequence of events, necessitate that his birth should have taken 
place in the seventeenth year of his reign. 

It was Augxistus who caused the peoj^le of Alexandria to give up their 

system of reckoning by non-intercalated Egyptian years, and to adopt 

30 the system of the Chaldseans, which in our time is used in Egypt. This 

he did in the sixth year of his reign ; therefore, they took this year as 

the epoch of this era. 

Era of Antoninus. — The era of Antoninus, one of the Roman kings, 
was based upon G-reek years. Ptolemy corrected the places of the fixed 
stars, dating from the beginning of his reign, and noted them in the 
Almagest, directing that their positions should be advanced one degree 
every year. 

Era of Diocletianus. — Then follows the era of Diocletian, the last of 
the Roman kings who worshipped the idols. After the sovereign power 
40 had been transferred to him, it remained among his descendants. After 
him reigned Constantine, who was the first Roman king who became a 
Christian. The years of this era are Greek. Several authors of Canons 
have used this era, and have fixed thereby the necessary paradigms of 
the prognostics, the Tempora natalicia, and the conjunctions. 

Era of the Flight.— Then follows the era of the Flight of the 

3 



29. 



34 ALBiRUNt. 

Prophet Muhammad from Makka to Madina. It is based upon Lunar 
years, in which the commencements of the months are determined by the 
appearance of New Moon, not by calculation. It is used by the whole 
Muhammadan world. The circumstances under which this very point 
was adojDted as an epoch, and not the time when the Prophet was either 
born or entrusted with his divine mission or died, were the following : — 
Maimun ben Mihran relates, that Omar ben Alkhattab, when people one 
day handed over to him a cheque payable in the month Sha'hdn, said : — 
" Which Sha'ban is meant ? that one in which we are or the next 
Sha'ban?" Thereupon he assembled the Companions of the Prophet, 10 
and asked their advice regarding the matter of chronology, which troubled 
his mind. They answered : " It is necessary to inform ourselves of the 
practice of the Persians in this respect." Then they fetched Hurmuzan, 
and asked him for information. He said : " We have a computation 
which we call Mdh-rnz, i.e. the computation of months and days." People 
arabized this word, and pronounced tjy* (Mu' arrahh) , and coined as 
p. 30. its infinitive the word " TaWiMi." Hurmuzan explained to them how 
they used this Mah-ruz, and what the Greeks used of a similar kind. 
Then Omar sj)oke to the Companions of the Prophet : " Establish a mode 
of dating for the intercourse of people." Now some said : " Date ac- 20 
cording to the era of the Greeks, for they date according to the era of 
Alexander," Others objected that this mode of dating was too lengthy, 
and said : " Date according to the era of the Persians." But then it was ob- 
jected, that as soon as a new king arises among the Persians he abolishes 
the era of his predecessor. So they could not come to an agreement. 

Alsha'bi relates, that 'Abu-Musa Al'ash'ari wrote to Omar ben 
Alkhattab : " Tou send us letters without a date." Omar had already 
organized the registers, had established the taxes and regTilations, and 
was in want of an era, not liking the old ones. On this occasion he 
assembled the Companions, and took their advice. Now the most au- 30 
thentic date, which involves no obscurities nor possible mishaps, seemed 
to be the date of the flight of the Prophet, and of his arrival at Madina 
on Monday the 8th of the month Eabi' I., whilst the beginning of the 
year was a Thursday. Now he adopted this epoch, and fixed thereby the 
dates in all his affairs. This happened A.H. 17. 

The reason why Omar selected this event as an epoch, and not the 
time of the birth of the Prophet, or the time when he was entrusted with 
his divine mission, is this, that regarding those two dates there existed 
such a divergency of opinion, as did not allow it to be made the basis of 
something which must be agreed upon universally. 40 

Further he (Alsha'bi) says : People say that He was born in the night 
of Monday the 2nd, or the 8th, or the 13th of Eabi' I. ; others say that 
he was born in the forty-sixth year of the reign of Kisra Anoshirwan. 
In consequence there is also a difference of opinions regarding the length 
of his ife, corresponding to the different statements regarding his birth. 



ON THE NATUEE OF THE ERAS. 35 

Besides, the single years were of different length, some having been 
intercalated, others not, alDOut the time when intercalation was prohibited. 
Considering further that after the Flight, the affairs of Islam were 
thoroughly established, while heathenism decreased, that the Prophet 
was saved from the calamities prepared for him by the infidels of Makka, 
and that after the Flight his conquests followed each other in rapid 
succession, we come to the conclusion that the Flight was to the Prophet, 
what to the kings is their accession, and their taking possession of the 
whole sovereign power, 

10 As regards the well known date of his death, people do not like to 
date from the death of a prophet or a king, except the prophet be a liar, 
or the king an enemy, whose death people enjoy, and wish to make a 
festival of ; or he be one of those with whom a dynasty is extinguished, 
so that his followers among themselves make this date a memorial of 
him, and a mourning feast. But this latter case has only happened very 
seldom. E.g. the era of Alexander the Founder is reckoned from the 
time of his death, he having been considered as one of those from whom 
the era of the kings of the Chaldseans and the western kings was trans- 
ferred to the era of the Ptolemaean kings, of whom each is called Ptolemy, 

20 which means warlihe. Therefore, those to whom the empire was trans- 
ferred, dated from the time of his death, considering it as a joyful event. 
It is precisely the same in the case of the era of Yazdajird ben Shahryar. 
For the Magians date from the time of his death, because when he 
perished, the dynasty was extinguished. Therefore they dated from his 
death, mourning over him, and lamenting for the downfal of their p. 31. 
religion. 

At the time of the Prophet, people had given to each of the years 
between the Flight and his death a special name, derived from some 
event, which had happened to him in that identical year. 

30 The 1st year after the Flight is " the year of the permission." 

The 2nd year „ " the year of the order for fighting." 

The 3rd year „ " the year of the trial." 

The 4th year „ " the year of the congratulation on the 

occasion of mamage." 
The 5th year „ " the year of the earthquake." 

The 6th year „ " the year of inquiring." 

The 7th year „ " the year of gaining victory." 

The 8th year „ " the year of equality." 

The 9th year „ " the year of exemption." 

40 The 10th year „ " the year of farewell." 

By these names it was rendered superfluous to denote the years by the 
numbers, the 1st, the 2nd, etc., after the Plight. 

Era of Yazdajird. — Next follows the era of the reign of Yazdajird 
ben Shahryar ben Kisra Parwiz, which is based upon Persian non- 

3 * 



36 ALBfRUNi. 

intercalated years. It has been employed in tlie Canons, because it is 
easy and simple to use. The reason why precisely the era of this king 
among all the kings of Persia has become so generally known, is this 
that he ascended the throne, when the empire had been shattered, when 
the women had got hold of it, and usurpers had seized all power. 
Besides, he was the last of their kings, and it was he with whom Omar 
ben Alkhattab fought most of those famous wars and battles. Finally, 
the empire succumbed, and he was put to flight and was killed in the 
house of a miller at Marw-i-Shahijan. 

Reform of the Calendar by the Khalif Almu'tadid.— Lastly, lo 

the era of 'Ahmad ben Talha Almu'tadid-billah the Khalif was based 
upon Greek years and Persian months ; however, with this difference, 
that in every fourth year one day was intercalated. The following is the 
origin of this era, as reported by 'Abii-Bakr Alsuli in his Kitdb-aVaurdk, 
and by Hamza ben Alhasan Alisfahani in his book on famous poems, 
relating to Nauruz and Mihrjan. Almutawakkil, while wandering about 
over one of his hunting-grounds, observed corn that had not yet ripened, 
and not yet attained its proper time for being reaped. So he said : 
" Ubaid-allah ben Tahya has asked my permission for levying the taxes, 
whilst I observe that the corn is still green. From what then are people 20 
to pay their taxes ? " Thereupon he was informed, that this, in fact, had 
done a great deal of harm to the people, so that they were compelled to 
borrow and to incur debts, and even to emigrate from their homes ; that 
they had many complaints and wrongs to recount. Then the Khalif 
said : " Has this arisen lately during my reign, or has it always been so ? " 
And people answered : " No. This is going on according to the regula- 
tions established by the Persian kings for the levying of the taxes at the 
time of Nauruz. In this their example has been followed by the kings 
of the Arabs." Then the Khalif ordered the Maubadh to be brought 
before him, and said to him : " This has been the subject of much re- 30 
search on my part, and I cannot find that I violate the regulations of 
the Persians. How, then, did they levy the taxes from their subjects — 
considering the beneficence and good will which they observed towards 
them ? And why did they allow the taxes to be levied at a time like 
32. this, when the fruit and corn are not yet ripe ? " To this the Maubadh 
replied : " Although they always levied the taxes at Nauruz, this never 
happened except at the time when the corn was ripe." The Khalif 
asked : " And how was that ? " Now the Maubadh explained to him the 
nature of their years, their different lengths, and their need of intercala- 
tion. Then he proceeded to relate, that the Persians used to intercalate 40 
the years ; but when Islam had been established, intercalation was 
abolished ; and that did much harm to the people. The landholders 
assembled at the time of Hisham ben 'Abdalmalik and called on Khsilid 
Alkasri ; they explained to him the subject, and asked him to postpone 
Nauruz by a month. Khalid declined to do so, but reported on the 



ON THE XATUEE OF THE EEAS. 37 

subject to Hishfim, who said : " I am afraid, that to this subject may be 
applied the word of God : " Intercalation is only an increase of heathenism " 
(Sura ix. 37). Afterwards at the time of Alrashid the landholders as- 
sembled again and called on Tahya ben Khalid ben Barmak, asking him 
to postpone Nauruz by about two months. Now, Tahya had the inten- 
tion to do so, but then his enemies began to speak of the subject, and 
said: "He is partial to Zoroastrianism." Therefore he dropped the 
subject, and the matter remained as it was before. 

jN"ow Almutawakkil ordered 'Ibrahim ben Al'abbas Alsuli to be brought 
10 before him, and told him, that in accordance with what the Maubadh had 
related of Nauruz, he should compute the days, and compose a fixed 
Canon (Calendar) ; that he should compose a paper on the postponement 
of Nauruz, which was to be sent by order of the Khalif to all the 
provinces of the empire. It was determined to postpone ISTauruz till the 
17th of Haziran. Alsuli did [as he was ordered, and the letters arrived 
in the provinces in Muharram a.h. 243. The poet, Albuhturi has com- 
posed a Kasida on the ^subject in praise of Almutawakkil, where he 
says : — 

" The day of Nauruz has returned to that time, on which it was fixed by 
20 Ardashir. 

Thou hast transferred Nauruz to its original condition, whilst before 

thee it was wandering about, circulating. 
Now thou hast levied the taxes at Nauruz, and that was a memorable 

benefit to the people. 
They bring thee praise and thanks, and thou bringest them justice 
and a present, well deserving of thanks." 

However, Almutawakkil was killed, and his plan was not carried out, 
until Almu'tadid ascended the throne of the Khalifate, delivered the 
provinces of the empire from their usurpers, and gaiaed sufiicient leisure 

30 to study the affairs of his subjects. He attributed the greatest import- 
ance to intercalation and to the carrying out of this measure. He 
followed the method of Almutawakkil regarding the postponement of 
Nauriiz ; however he treated the subject differently, inasmuch as Almu- 
tawakkil had made the basis of his computation the interval between his 
year (i.e. that year, in which he then happened to live) , and the beginning 
of the reign of Yazdajird, whilst Almu'tadid took the interval between 
his year and that year in which the Persian empire perished by the death 
of Yazdajird, because he — or those who did the work for him — held this 
opinion, that si7ice that time intercalation had been neglected. This 

40 interval he found to be 243 years and 60 days + a fraction, arising from 
the day-quarters (exceeding the 365 days of the Solar year). These 60 
days he added at Nauruz of his year, and put Nauruz at the end of 
them, which fell upon a Wednesday, the 1st Khurdadh-Mah of that year, 
coinciding with the 11th of Haziran. Thereupon he fixed Nauruz ia the 



38 ' ALBfEUNI. 

Greek montlis for this purpose, that the months of his year should be 
intercalated at the same time when the Greeks intercalate their years. 
The man who was entrusted with carrying out his orders, was his Wazir 
'Abu-alkasim 'Ubaid-allah ben Sulaiman ben Wahb. To this subject 
the following verses of the astronomer 'Ali ben Tahya refer : — 

" thou restorer of the untarnished glory, renovator of the shattered 

empire ! 
Who hast again established among us the pillar of religion, after it had 

been tottering ! 
Thou hast surpassed all the kings like the foremost horse in a race. 10 
How blessed is that Nauruz, when thou hast earned thanks besides 

the reward (due to thee for it in heaven) ! 
By postponing Nauruz thou hast justly made precede, what they had 

postponed." 

On the same subject 'Ali ben Yahya says :— 

" The day of thy Nauruz is one and the same day, not liable to moving 
backward, 
Always coinciding with the 11th of Haziran." 

Now, although in bringing about this measure much ingenuity has 
been displayed, Nauruz has not thereby returned to that place which it 20 
occupied at the time when intercalation was still practised in the Persian 
empire. Tor the Persians had already begun to neglect their intercalation 
nearly seventy years before the death of Tazdajird. Because at the 
time of Yazdajird ben Shapur they had intercalated into their year two 
months, one of them as the necessary compensation for that space of 
time, by which the year had moved backward (it being too short). The 
five Epagomense they put as a mark at the end of this intercalary month, 
and the turn had just come to Aban-Mah, as we shall explain hereafter. 
The second month they intercalated with regard to the future, that no 
other intercalation might be needed for a long period. 30 

Now, if you subtract from the sum of the years between Yazdajird ben 
Shapur and Yazdajird ben Shahryar 120 years, you get a remainder of 
nearly— but not exactly — 70 years ; there is much uncertainty and con- 
fusion in the Persian chronology. The Portio intercalanda of these 70 
years would amount to nearly 17 days. Therefore it would have been 
necessary, if we calculate without mathematical accuracy, to postpone 
Nauruz not 60, but 77 days, in order that it might coincide with the 
28th of Haziran. The man who worked out this reform, was of opinion, 
that the Persian method of intercalation was similar to the Greek method. 
Therefore he computed the days since the extinction of their empire. 40 
Whilst in reality the matter is a different one, as we have already ex- 
plained, and shall more fully explain hereafter. 

This is the last of those eras that have become celebrated. But 



ON THE NATUEE OP THE ERAS. 39 

perhaps some other nations, whose countries are far distant from ours, 
have eras of then- own, which have not been handed down to posterity, p. 34. 
or such eras as are now obsolete. For instance, the Persians in the time 
of Zoroastrianism used to date successively by the years of the reign of 
each of their kings. When a king died, they dropped his era, and 
adopted that of his successor. The duration of the reigns of their kings 
we have stated in the tables which will follow hereafter. 

Epochs of the Ancient Arabs.— As a second instance we mention 
the Ishmaelite Arabs. For they used to date from the construction of 

10 the Ka'ba by Abraham and Ishmael till the time when they were dis- 
persed and left Tihama. Those who went away dated from the time of 
their exodus, whilst those who remained in the country dated from the 
time when the last party of the emigrants had left. But afterwards, 
after a long course of time, they dated from the year when the chieftain- 
ship devolved upon 'Amr ben Eabi'a, known by the name of 'Amr ben 
Tahya, who is said to have changed the religion of Abraham, to have 
brought from the city of Balka the idol Hubal, and to have himself made 
the idols 'Isaf and Na'ila. This is said to have happened at the time of 
Shapur Dhu-al'aktaf. This synchronism, however, is not borne out by 

20 the comparison of the chronological theories of both sides (Arabs and 
Persians). 

Afterwards they dated from the death of Ka'b ben Lu'ayy — till the 
Year of Treason, in which the Banu-Yarbu' stole certain garments which 
some of the kings of Himyar sent to the Ka'ba, and when a general 
fighting among the people occurred at the time of the holy pilgrimage. 
Thereupon they dated from the Tear of Treason till the Year of the Ele- 
phants, in which the Lord, when the Ethiopians were coming on with the 
intention of destroying the Ka'ba, brought down the consequences of 
their cunning enterprise upon their own necks, and annihilated them. 

30 Thereupon they dated from the era of the Hijra. 

Some Arabs used to date from famous accidents, and from celebrated 
days of battle, which they fought among themselves. As such epochs 
the Banu-Kuraish, e.g. had the following ones : — 

1. The day of Alfijar in the sacred month. 

2. The day of the Confederacy of Alfudul, in which the contracting 
parties bound themselves to assist all those to whom wrong was done. 
Because the Banu-Kuraish committed wrong and violence against each 
other within the holy precinct of Makka. 

3. The year of the death of Hisham ben Almughira Almakhzumi, 
40 for the celebration of his memory. 

(4) The year of the reconstruction of the Ka'ba, by order of the 
Prophet Muhammad. 

The tribes 'Aus and Khazraj used the following days as epochs : — 
1. The day of Alfa^a. 



40 ALBlEUNi. 

2. The day of Alrabi*. 

3. The day of Abuhaba. 

4. The day of Alsarara. 

5. The day of Dahis and Ghabra. 

6. The day of Bughath. 

7. The day of Hatib. 

8. The day of Madris and Mu'abbis. 

Among the tribes Bakr and Taghlib, the two sons of Wa'il, the 
following epochs were used : — 

1. The day of 'Unaiza. 10 

2. The day of Alhinw. 

3. The day of Tahlak-allimam. 

4. The day of Alkusaibat. 

5. The day of Alfasil. 

These and other " war-days " were used as epochs among the different 
tribes and clans of the Arabs, Their names refer to the places where 
they were fought, and to their causes. 

If, now, these eras were kept in the proj)er order in which chronological 
subjects are to be treated, we should do with them the same that we 
intend to do with all the other subjects connected with eras. However, 20 
people say that between the year of the death of Ka'b ben Lu'ayy and 
the year of Treason there is an interval of 620 years, and between the 
year of Treason and the year of the Elephants an interval of 110 years. 
The Prophet was born 50 years after the invasion of the Ethioj)ians, 
and between his birth and the year of Alfijar there were 20 years. At 
p. 35. this battle the Prophet was present, as he has said himself : " I was 
present on the day of Alfijar. Then I shot at my uncles." Between 
the day of Alfijar and the reconstruction of the Ka'ba there are 15 years, 
and 5 years between the reconstruction of the Ka'ba and the time 
when Muhammad was entrusted with his divine mission. 30 

Likewise the Himyarites and the Banu Kahtan used to date by the 
reigns of their Tubba's, as the Persians by the reigns of their Kisras, 
and the Greeks by the reigns of their Caesars. However, the rule of 
the Himyarites did not always proceed in complete order, and in their 
chronology there is much confusion. Notwithstanding, we have stated 
the duration of the reigns of their kings in our tables, as also those 
of the kings of the Banu-Lakhm, who inhabited Hira, and were settled 
there, and had made it their home. 

Chorasmian Antiquities.— In a similar way the peoj)le of Khwa- 
rizm jjroceeded. For they dated from the beginning of the colonization 40 
of their country, a. 980 before Alexander. Afterwards they adopted 
as the epoch of an era the event of the coming of Siyawush ben 
Kaika'us down to Khwarizm, and the rule of Kaikhusru, and of his 



ON THE NATTJEE OF THE EEAS. 41 

descendants over tlie country, dating from tlie time when he immigrated 
and extended his sway over the empire of the Turks. This happened 
92 years after the colonization of the country. 

At a later time they imitated the example of the Persians in dating 
by the years of the reign of each king of the line of Kaikhusru, who 
ruled over the country, and who was called by the title of 8hdhiya. 
This went on down to the reign of Afrigh, one of the kings of that 
family. His name was considered a bad omen like that of Tazdajird 
the Wicked, with the Persians. His son succeeded him in the rule of 
10 the country. He (Afrigh) built his castle behind Alfir, A. Alexandri 
616, Now people began to date from him and his children (i.e. by the 
years of his reign and that of his descendants). 

This Alfir was a fortress on the outskirts of the city of Khwarizm, 
built of clay and tiles, consisting of three forts, one beiag built within 
the other, and all three beiag of equal height ; and risiag above the 
whole of it were the royal palaces, very much like Grhumdan in Yaman 
at the time when it was the residence of the Tubba's. Por this Grhum- 
dan was a castle in. San'a, opposite the great mosque, founded upon a 
rock, of which people say that it was built by Sem ben ISToah after the 
20 Deluge. In the castle there is a cistern, which he (Sem) had digged. 
Others think that it was a temple built by Aldahhak for Venus. This 
Alfir was to be seen from the distance of 10 miles and more. It was 
broken and shattered by the Oxus, and was swept away piece by piece 
every year, till the last remains of it had disappeared A. Alexandri 
1305. 

Of this dynasty was reigning at the time when the Prophet was 
entrusted with his divine mission — 

10. Arthamukh ben 
9. Buzkar ben 

30 8. Khamgri ben 

7. Shawush ben 
6. Sakhr ben 
5. Azkajawar ben 
4. Askajamuk ben 
3. Sakhassak ben 
2. Baghra ben 
1. Afrigh. 

When Kutaiba ben Muslim had conquered Khwarizm the second time, 
after the inhabitants had rebelled, he constituted as their king — 
40 14. Askajamuk ben 

13. Azkajawar ben 
12. Sabriben 

11. Sakhr ben 
10. Arthamukh, 



42 ALBiR-DNi. 

p. 36. and appointed him as their 8Mh. The descendants of the Kisras lost 
the ofl&ce of the " Walt" (the governorship), but they retained the 
office of the SMh, it being hereditary among them. And they accommo- 
dated themselves to dating from the Hijra according to the use of the 
Muslims. 

Kutaiba ben Muslim had extinguished and ruined in every possible 
way all those who knew how to write and to read the Khwarizmi writing, 
who knew the history of the country and who studied their sciences. 
In consequence these things are involved in so much obscurity, that it is 
impossible to obtain an accurate knowledge of the history of the 10 
country since the time of Islam (not to speak of pre-Muhammadan 
times). 

The Wildya (governorship) remained afterwards alternately in the 
hands of this family and of others, till the time when they lost both 
Wildya (governorship) and Shahiyya (Shahdom), after the death of the 
martyr 

22. 'Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad ben 

21. 'Ahmad ben 

20. Muhammad ben 

19. 'Irak ben 20 

18. Mansur ben 

17. 'Abdallahben 

16. Turkasbatha ben 

15. Shawushfar ben 

14. Askajamuk ben 

13. Azkajawar ben 

12. Sabri ben 

11. Sakhr ben 

10. Arthamukh, in whose time, as I have said, the Proj^het was 

entrusted with his divine mission. 30 

This is all I could ascertain regarding the celebrated eras ; to know 
them all is impossible for a human being. God helps to the right 
insight. 



43 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE DIFFERENT OPINIONS OF VARIOTTS NATIONS REGARDING THE KING 
CALLED DHfr-ALKARNAINI OR BICORNUTUS. 

We must explain in a separate chapter what people think of the bearer 
of this name, of Dhu-alkarnaini, for the subject interrupts, in this 
part of the course of our exposition, the order in which our chronology 
would have to proceed. 

Now it has been said, that the story about him as contained in the 
Koran, is well-known and intelligible to everybody who reads the verses 

10 specially devoted to his history. The pith and marrow of it is this, that 
he was a good and powerful man, whom God had gifted with extra- 
ordinary authority and power, and whose plans he had crowned with 
success both in east and west ; he conquered cities, subdued countries, 
reduced his subjects to submission, and united the whole empire under 
his single sway. He is generally assumed to have entered the darkness 
in the north, to have seen the remotest frontiers of the inhabitable 
world, to have fought both against men and demons, to have passed 
between Gog and Magog, so as to cut off their communication, to have 
marched out towards the countries adjoining their territory ia the east 

20 and north, to have restrained and repelled their mischievous inroads by 
means of a wall, constructed in a mountain-pass, whence they used to 
pour forth. It was built of iron-blocks joined by molten brass, as is 
still now the practice of artisans. 

When Alexander, the son of Philip, Alyunani (i.e. the Ionian, mean- 
ing the Greek) had united under his sway the Greek empire (lit. the 
empire of the Eomans), which had previously consisted of single prin- p 37 
cipalities, he marched against the princes of the west, overpowering and 
subduing them, going as far as the Green Sea. Thereupon he returned 
to Egypt, where he founded Alexandria, giving it his own name. Then 

30 he marched towards Syria and the Israelites of the country, went down 



44 ALBIRUNI. 

to Jerusalem, sacrificed in its temple and made offerings. Thence lie 
turned to Armenia and Bab-al'abwab, and passed even beyond it. Tbe 
Copts, Berbers, and Hebrews obeyed Hm. Then he marched against 
Dara, the son of Dara, in order to take revenge for all the wrongs which 
Syria had suffered at the hands of Bukhtanassar (Nebukadnezzar) and 
the Babylonians. He fought with him and put him to flight several 
times, and in one of those battles Dara was killed by the chief of his 
body-guard, called Naujushanas ben Adharbakht, whereupon Alexander 
took possession of the Persian empire. Then he went to India and 
China, making war upon the most distant nations, and subduing all the 10 
tracts of country through which he passed. Thence he returned to 
Khurasan, conquered it, and built several towns. On returning to 
'Irak he became ill in Shahrazur, and died. In all his enterprises he 
acted under the guidance of philosophical principles, and in all his plans 
he took the advice of his teacher, Aristotle. Now, on account of all 
this he has been thought to be Dhu-alkarnaini, or Bicornutus. 

As to the interpretation of this surname, people say he was called so 
because he reached the two " liorns " of the sun, i.e. his rising and 
setting places, just as Ardashir Bahman was called Longimanus, because 
his command was omnipotent, wherever he liked, as if he had only to 20 
stretch out his hand in order to set things right. 

According to others he was called so because he descended from two 
different " generations " {lit. horns) i.e. the Greeks and Persians. And 
on this subject they have adopted the vague opinions which the Persians 
have devised in a hostile spirit, viz. that Dara the Great had married 
his mother, a daughter of King Philip, but she had an offensive odour, 
which he could not endure, and so he sent her back to her father, she 
being pregnant ; that he was called a son of Philip, simply because the 
latter had educated him. This story of theirs they try to prove by the 
fact, that Alexander, when he reached Dara, who was expiring, put his 30 
head on his lap and spoke to him : " my brother, tell me, who did this 
to you, that I may take revenge for you ? " But Alexander so addressed 
him only because he wanted to be kind towards him, and to represent 
him (Dara) and himself as brethren, it being impossible to address him 
as king, or to call him by his name, both of which would have betrayed 
a high degree of rudeness unbecoming a king. 

On Real and Forged Pedigrees. — However, enemies are always 
eager to revile the parentage of people, to detract from their reputation, 
and to attack their deeds and merits, in the same way as friends and 
partisans are eager to embellish that which is ugly, to cover uj) the weak 40 
parts, to proclaim publicly that which is noble, and to refer everything 
to great virtues, as the poet describes them in these words : — 

" The eye of benevolence is blind to every fault, 
But the eye of hatred discovers every vice." 



THE KING CALLED BICOENUTUS. 45 

Obstinacy in this direction frequently leads people to invent laudatory 
stories, and to forge genealogies which go back to glorious ancestors, as 
has been done, e.g. for Ibn-'Abdalrazzak Altusi, when he got made for 
himself a genealogy out of the Shahnama, which makes him descend 
from Minosheihr, and also for the house of Buwaihi, For 'Abu-'Ishak 
'Ibrahim ben Hilal Alsabi, in his book called Altdj (the crown), makes 
Buwaihi descend from Bahram Gur by the following line of ancestors : — 
I. Buwaihi. 
Fanakhusru, 
10 Thaman. 

Kuhi. 
V. Shirzil junior. 
Shirkadha. 
Shirzil senior. 
Shiranshah. 
Shirfana. 
X. Sasananshah. 
Sasankhurra. 
Shuzil. 
20 Sasanadhar. 

XrV. Bahram Grur the king. 

'Abu-Muhammad Alhasan ben 'Ali ben Nsma in his epitome of the 
history of the Buwaihides, says that — 
I. Buwaihi was the son of 
Fanakhusra, the son of 
Thaman. 

Then some people continue — 
Thaman, the son of 
Kuhi, the son of 
30 V. Shirzil junior ; 

whilst others drop Kuhi. 

Then they continue — 

Shirzil senior, the son of 
Shiranshah, the son of 
Shirfana, the son of 
Sasananshah, the son of 
X. Sasankhurra, the son of 
Shuzil, the son of 
Sasanadhar, the son of 
40 Xin. Bahram. 

Further, people disagree regarding this Bahram. Those who give the 
Buwaihides a Persian origin, contend that he was Bahram Gur, and 
continue the enumeration of his ancestors (down to the origin of the 



46 ALBtRUNi. 

familj Sasan), whilst others who give them an Arabic origin, say that 
he was — 

Bahram ben 

Aldahhak ben 

Al'abyad ben 

Mu'awiya ben 

Aldailam ben 

Basil ben 

Dabba ben 

'IJdd. - 10 

Others, again, mention among the series of ancestors — 
Lahu ben 
Aldailam ben 
Basil, 
and maintain that from this name his son Layahaj derived his name. 

He, however, who considers what I have laid down at the beginning 
of this book, as the conditio sine qua non for the knowledge of the 
proper mean between disparagement and exaggeration, and the necessity 
of the greatest carefulness for everybody who wants to give a fair 
judgment, will be aware of the fact, that the first member of this family 20 
who became celebrated was Buwaihi ben Fanakhusra. And it is not at 
all known that those tribes were particularly careful in preserving and 
continuing their genealogical traditions, nor that they knew anything 
like this of the family Buwaihi, before they came into power. It very 
rarely happens that genealogies are preserved without any interruption 
during a long period of time. In such cases the only possible way of 
distinguishing a just claim to some noble descent from a false one is 
the agreement of all, and the assent of the whole generation in ques- 
tion regarding that subject. An instance of this is the lord of 
mankind, — 30 

I. Muhammad, for he is the son of 
'Abd-allah ben 
'Abd-almuttalib ben 
Hashim ben 
V. 'Abd-Manaf ben 
Kusayy ben 
Kilab ben 
Murra ben 
Ka'b ben 
X. Lu'ayy ben 40 

Ghalib ben 
Fihr ben 
Malik ben 
Alnadr ben 



THE KING CALLED BICOENUTUS. 47 

XV. Kinana ben 
Khuzaima ben 
Mudrika ben 
'Ilyas ben 
Mudar ben 
XX. Nizar ben 
Ma'add ben 
XXn. 'Adnan. 

Nobody in the world doubts this lineage of ancestors, as they do not 
10 doubt either, that he descends from Ishmael, the son of Abraham. The p. 39. 
ancestry beyond Abraham is to be found in the Thora. However, 
regarding the link of parentage between 'Adnan and Ishmael there is a 
considerable divergence of opinions, inasmuch as some people consider 
as the father the person whom others take for the son, and vice versa, 
and as they add considerably in some places, and leave out in others. 

Further as to our master, the commander, the prince, the glorious and 
victorious, the benefactor, Shams-alma'ali, may God give him a long 
life, not one of his friends, whom may Grod help, nor any of his 
opponents, whom may God desert, denies his noble and ancient descent, 
20 well established on both sides, although his pedigree back to the origin 
of his princely family has not been preserved without any interruption. 
On the one side he descends from Wardanshah, whose nobility is 
well-known throughout Ghilan ; and this prince had a son, besides 
the prince, the martyr Mardawij. People say, that the son of Wardan- 
shah obeyed the orders of 'Asfar ben Shirawaihi, and that it was he, 
who suggested to him (his brother Mardawij) the idea of delivering the 
people from the tyranny and oppression of 'Asfar. On the other 
side he descends from the kings of Media, called the Ispahbads of 
Khurasan and the Farkhwarjarshahis. And it has never been denied 
30 that those among them, who belonged to the royal house of Persia, 
claimed to have a pedigree which unites them and the Kisras into one 
family. For his uncle is the Ispahbad — 

I. Eustam ben 
(j>>j5/* ben 
Eiustam ben 
Karin ben 
V. Shahryar ben 
(^^^ ben 
Surkhab ben 
40 jV> ben 

Shapur ben 
X. Kayus ben 
XI. Kubadh, who was the father of Anoshirwan. 

May God give to our master the empire from east and west over all 



48 ALBIRUNI. 

the parts of the world, as he has assigned him a noble origin on both 
sides. God's is the power to do it, and all good comes from him. 

The same applies to the kings of Khurasan. For nobody contests the 
fact, that the first of this dynasty — 

I. 'Isma'il was the son of 
'Ahmad ben 
'Asad ben 
Saman-khudah ben 
y. (jU*-*.^ ben 

ui;.U«L ben 20 

OjA>y ben 

Bahram Shubin ben 
IX. Bahram Jushanas, the commander of the marches of Adhar- 
baijan. 

The same applies further to the original Shahs of Khwarizm, who 
belonged to the royal house (of Persia), and to the Shahs of Shirwan, 
because it is believed by common consent, that they are descendants of the 
Kisras, although their pedigree has not been preserved uninterruptedly. 

The fact that claims to some noble lineage, and also to other matters, 
are just and well founded, always becomes known somehow or other, 20 
even if people try to conceal it, being like musk, which spreads its odour, 
although it be hidden. Under such circumstances, therefore, if people 
want to settle their genealogy, it is not necessary to spend money and to 
make presents, as 'Ubaid-allah ben Alhasan ben 'Ahmad ben 'Abdallah 
ben Maimun Alkaddah did to the genealogists among the party of the 
40. Alides, when they declared his claim of descent from them to be a lie, 
at the time when he came forward in Maghrib ; finally he succeeded in 
contenting them and in making them silent. Notwithstanding the truth 
is well known to the student, although the fabricated tale has been far 
spread, and although his descendants are powerful enough to suppress 30 
any contradiction. That one of them, who reigns in our time, is 'Abu- 
'Ali ben Nizar ben Ma'add ben 'Isma'il ben Muhammad ben 'Ubaid- 
allah the usurper. 

I have enlarged on this subject only in order to show how partial 
people are to those whom they like, and how hostile towards those whom 
they hate, so that frequently their exaggeration in either direction leads 
to the discovery of their infamous designs. 

That Alexander was the son of Philip is a fact, too evident to be 
concealed. His pedigree is stated by the most celebrated genealogists 
in this way : — 40 

I. ^J.JLi Philip, 
w^ji^ Hermes, 



THE KING CALLED BIGOENUTUS. 49 



V. (^J^a-^ 


Meton. 


i^i) 


Rome. 


J^ 




o^y. 


Yunan. 


(.i^U 


Yafetli. 


X. yy5>^ 




^i) 


Rumiya. 


^y. 


Byzantium. 


J*iy 


Theophil. 


^!» 


Rome. 


Y. /*^\ 


Al'asfar. 


•aJ\ 


Elifaz. 



10 



^_/u*3\ Esau, 
(j*--.^ Isaak. 
XIX. f^^ji^ Abraham. 

According to another tradition Dhu-alkarnaini was a man, called 
{j^^\ who marched against Samirus, one of the kings of Babel, fought 
with him, made him a prisoner and killed him ; then he stripped off 
the skin of his head together with his hair and his two curls, got it 

20 tamied, and used it as a crown. Therefore, he was called Dhu-alkarnaini 
(Bicornutus). According to another version he is identical with 
Almundhir ben Ma-alsama, i.e. Almundhir ben Imru'ulkais. 

Altogether the most curious opinions are afloat regarding the bearer 
of this name, that, e.g., his mother was a demon, which is likewise 
believed of Bilkis, for peoj)le say that her mother was a demon, and of 
'Abdalhih ben Hilal the juggler, for he was thought to be the devil's 
son-in-law, being married to his daughter. Such and similar ridiculous 
stories people produce, and they are far known. 

It is related, that 'Umar ben Alkhattab, when he heard one day people 

30 entering into a profound discussion on Dhu-alkarnaini, said, " Was it not 
enough for you, to plunge into the stories on human beings, that you 
must pass into another field and draw the angels into the discussion ? " 

Some say, as Ibn Duraid mentions in his Kituh-alwisMh, that Dhu- 
alkarnaini was Alsa'b ben Alhammal Alhimyari, whilst others take him 
for 'Abu-karib Shammar Yur'ish ben 'Ifrikis Alhimyari, and believe 
that he was called so on account of two curls which hung down upon 
his shoulders, that he reached the east and west of the earth, and 
traversed its north and south, that he subdued the countries, and 
reduced the people to complete subjection. It is this prince about whom 

40 one of the princes of Yaman, 'As'ad ben 'Amr ben Rabi'a ben Malik 
ben Subaih ben 'Abdallfih ben Zaid ben Yasir ben Yun'im Alhimyari 
boasts in his poems, in which he says : — 

" Dhu-alkarnaini was before me, a true believer, an exalted king on p. 41. 
the earth, never subject to anybody. 

4 



50 ALBtRUNf. 

He went to the countries of the east and west, always seeking 
imperial power from a liberal and bountiful (Lord). 

Then he saw the setting- j)lace of the sun, at the time when he sets 
in the well of fever- water and of badly smelling mud. 

Before him there was Bilkis, my aunt, until her empire came to an 
end by the hoopoo." 
Now it seems to me that of all these versions the last is the true one, 
because the princes, whose names begin with the word Dhu, occur only 
in the history of Taman and nowhere else. Their names are always a 
comjjound, the first j)art of which is the word Dhu, e.g., Dhu-almanar, 10 
Dhu-al'adh'ar, Dhu-alshanatir, Dhu-Nuwas, Dhu-Jadan, Dhu-Yazan, 
and others. Besides, the traditions regarding this Taman prince, Dhu- 
alkarnaini, resemble very much that which is related of him in the 
Koran. As to the ramj)art which he constructed between the two walls, 
it must be stated that the wording of the Koran does not indicate its 
geograj)hical situation. We learn, however, from the geographical 
works, as JigJirdfiya and the Itineraria (the books called Masdlih wa- 
mamcUik, i.e. Itinera et regna), that this nation, viz. Tajuj and Majuj 
are a tribe of the eastern Turks, who live in the most southern parts of 
the 5th and 6th KkifxaTa. Besides, Muhammad ben Jarir Altabari 20 
relates in his chronicle, that the prince of Adharbaijan, at the time 
when the country was conquered, had sent a man to find the rampart, 
from the direction of the country of the Khazars, that this man saw the 
rampart, and described it as a very lofty building of dark colour, 
situated behind a moat of solid structure and impregnable. 

'Abdallah ben 'Abdallah ben Khurdadhbih relates, on the authority of 
the dragoman at the court of the Khalif, that Almu'tasim dreamt one 
night, that this rampart had been oi^ened (rendered accessible). There- 
fore he sent out fifty men to inspect it. They set out from the road 
which leads to Bjib-al'abwab, and to the countries of the Lan and 30 
Khazar ; finally they arrived at the rampart, and found that it was con- 
structed of iron tiles, joined together by molten brass, and with a bolted 
gate. Its garrison consisted of people of the neighbouring countries. 
Then they returned, and the guide led them out into the district 
opposite Samarkand. 

From these two rejjorts, it is evident that the rampart must be 
situated in the north-west quarter of the inhabitable earth. However, 
especially in this latter rejiort, there is something which renders its 
authenticity doubtful, viz. the description of the inhabitants of that 
country, that they are Muslims and speak Arabic, although they are 40 
without the slightest connection with the civilized world, from which 
they are separated by a black, badly smelling country of the extent of 
many days' travelling ; further, that they were totally ignorant as to 
both Khalif and the Khalifate. Whilst we know of no other Muslim 
nation which is separated from the territory of IsLim, except the 



THE KING CALLED BICORNUTUS. 51 

Bulghar and the Sawar, who live towards the end of the civilized world, 
in the most northern part of the 7th KXcfxa. And these people do not 
make the least mention of such a rampart, and they are well acquainted 
with the Khalifate and the Khalifs, in whose name they read even the p. 42. 
Khutba; they do not speak Arabic, but a language of their own, a 
mixture of Turkish and Khazari. If, therefore, this report rests on 
testimonies of this sort, we do not wish to investigate thereby the 
truth of the subject. 

This is what I wished to propound regarding Dhu-alkarnaini. Allah 
10 knows best ! 



4 * 



52 ALBfRUNt. 



CHAPTER V. 

ON THE NATURE OP THE MONTHS WHICH ARE USED IN THE PRECEDING 

ERAS. 

Heretofore I have mentioned already that every nation uses a special 
era of its own. And in tlie same degree as they differ in the use of the 
eras, they differ regarding the beginning of the months, regarding the 
number of days of each of them, and the reasons assigned therefor. 
Of this subject, I mention what I have learnt, and do not attempt to find 
out what I do not know for certain, and regarding which I have no 
information from a trustworthy person. And first we give the months 10 
of the Persians. 

Months of the Persians.^ — The number of the months of one year 
is twelve, as God has said in his book (Sura ix. 36) : "With God the 
number of the months was twelve months, in the book of God, on the 
day when God created the heavens and the earth." On this subject 
there is no difference of oj)inion between the nations, except in the leap- 
years. So the Persians have twelve months of the following names : — 

Farwardin Mah. Mihr Mah. 

Ardibahisht Mah. Aban Mah. 

Khurdadh Mah. Adhar Mah. 20 

Tir Mah. Dai Mah. 

Murdadh Mah. Bahman Mah. 

Shahrewar Mah. Isfandarmadh Mah. 

I have heard the geometrician 'Abu Sa'id 'Ahmad ben Muhammad 
ben 'Abd-aljalil Alsijzi relating of the ancient inhabitants of Sijistan, 
that they called these months by other names and commenced likewise 
with Farwardin Mah. The names are these — 

I. o\/ III. JU^^ 



ON THE NATUEE OE MONTHS. 



53 



VV> xn. \jyU 

Every one of the Persian months has 30 days, and to each day of a p. 43. 
month they give a sj)ecial name in their language. These are the 
names — 



10 



I. Hurmuz, 


XI. 


Khur. 


XXI. 


Eam. 


Bahman. 




Mah. 




Badh. 


Ardibahisht. 




Tir. 




Dai-ba-din. 


Shahrewar. 




Gosh. 




Din. 


Isfandarmadh. 




Dai-ba-mihr. 




Ard. 


VI. Khurdadh. 


XVI. 


Mihr. 


XXVI. 


Ashtadh. 


Murdadh. 




Srosh. 




Asman. 


Dai-ba-adhar. 




Eashn. 




Zamyadh. 


Adhar. 




Farwardin, 




Marasfand. 


Aban. 




Bahram. 




Aniran. 



20 



30 



There is no difference among the Persians as to the names of these 
days ; they are the same for every month, and they follow in the same 
order. Only the days Hurmuz and Aniran are called by some, the 
former FarruJch, the latter Bih-roz. 

The sum total of the days is 360, whilst, as we have already observed 
heretofore, the real year (i.e. the mean solar or tropical year) has 
365| days. Those additional five days they called Fanji (Panji) and 
Andargdh, arabized Andarjdh ; they are also called Almasruka and Almus- 
taraka (i.e. rjixipat KXo7ri/x.atat), on account of their not being reckoned 
as part of any one of the months. They added them between Aban 
Mah and Adhar Mah, and gave them names, which are different from 
those of the days of each month. These names I never read in two books, 
nor heard them from two men, in the same way ; they are these — 

I. 8l^AAjBi\ II. 5l^Ja&.\ III, fi^JUft-.^ rV. 5V^A<«Jw!A-\ V. 6\XA;vA.9> 



40 



In another book I found them in the following form : 

I. iy^\ II. S^\ III. J^JUft...^ IV, f^i^ V. et-JsyiwJi^ 

The author of the Kitdb-alghurra, Alna'ib Alamuli gives them these 
names — 

I. jyy=» II. i.>yi>»\ III. •X^JUa~.\ IV. jXJ^^Jbt V. (j. •.■>> <} > (j:. - *' ^ ^ p. 44. 

Zadawaihi ben Shahawaihi in his book on the causes of the festivals 
of the Persians, mentions them in this form — 

I. &xi^\ dstfJi n. 6Ai'jJk>\ A^eii III. <!Un«>^\ (^^ 

IV. O^^J)))^ '^^ V. yV^y^J^^ &j^ 



54 . ALBIEUNI. 

I myself heard 'Abu-alfaraj ben 'Ahmad ben Khalaf Alzanjani say 
that the Mobad in Shiraz had dictated them to him in this form — 

I. sl^oyui\ II. S^jy;».\ III. 6^1*,x^\ IV. i,\^jSJi>s.^j V. i>\^<j>J^yxJuJbj 

And lastly, I hare heard them from the geometrician 'Abu-alhasan 
Adharkhura, the son of Yazdankhasis, in this form — 

I. JyA II. JyLA.\ III. (^^.4ji.fM\ IV. yi.AN^-&^ 

(Ahunavaiti.) (Ustavaiti.) (Spentamainyu.) (Vohukhshathra.) 

(Vahistoisti.) 

The sTim total of their days, therefore, was 365. The quarter of a 10 
day (beyond the 365 days) they neglected in their computation, till these 
quarters of a day had summed up to the days of one complete month, 
which happened in 120 years. Then they added this month to the other 
months of the year, so that the number of its months became thirteen. 
This month they called Kabisa (intercalary month). And the days of 
this additional month they called by the same names as those of the 
other months. 

In this mode the Persians proceeded till the time when both their 
empire and their religion perished. Afterwards the day-quarters were 
neglected, and the years were no longer intercalated with them, and, 20 
therefore, they did not return to their original condition, and remained 
considerably behind the fixed points of time {i.e. real time). The 
reason was this that intercalation was an affair settled under the special 
patronage of their kings at a meeting of the mathematicians, literary 
celebrities, historiographers, and chroniclers, priests, and judges, — on the 
basis of an agreement of all those regarding the correctness of the 
calculation, after all the persons I have mentioned had been summoned 
to the royal court from all parts of the empire, and after they had held 
councils in order to come to an agreement. On this occasion money was 
spent profusely to such an extent, that a man who made a low estimate 30 
said, the cost had sometimes amounted to one million of denars. This 
same day was observed as the most important and the most glorious of 
all festivals ; it was called the Feast of Intercalation, and on that day the 
king used to remit the taxes to his subjects. 

The reason why they did not add the quarter of a day every fourth 
year as one complete day to one of the months or to the Epagomense, 
was this, that according to their views, not the days, but only the months 
are liable to being intercalated, because they had an aversion to increasing 
the number of the days ; this was impossible by reason of the pre- 
scription of the law regarding the days on which zamzama (whispering 40 
prayer) must be said, if it is to be valid. If the number of days be 
increased by an additional day (the order of the days of zamzama 
according to the law, is disturbed). 

It was a rule that on each day a special sort of odoriferous j^lants and 



ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS. 55 

flowers was put before the Kisrcis, and likewise a special drink, in a well 
regulated order, regarding whicli there was no difference of opinion. 

The reason why they put the Epagomenae at the end of Aban Mah, 
between this month and Adhar Mah (lacuna). 

The Persians believe that the beginning of their year was fixed by the 
creation of the first man, and that this took place on the day Hurmuz 
of Farwardin Mah, whilst the sun stood in the point of the vernal 
equinox in the middle of heaven. This occurred at the beginning of 

10 the seventh millenium, according to their view of the millennia of the 
world. 

The astrologers hold similar opinions, viz. that Cancer is the horo- 
scope of the world. For in the first cycle of Sindhind the sun stands 
in the beginning of Aries above the middle between the two ends of the 
inhabitable world. In that case. Cancer is the horoscope, which sign 
according to their tenets, as we have mentioned, signifies the commence- 
ment of rotation and growth. 

Others say, that Cancer was called the horoscope of the world, because 
of all the zodiacal signs, it stands nearest to the zenith of the inhabit- 

20 able world, and because in the same sign is the vipwfxa of Jupiter, 
which is a star of moderate nature ; and as no growth is possible, except 
when moderate heat acts upon moist substances, it (i.e. Cancer) is fit to 
be the horoscoj)e of the growth of the world. 

According to a third view. Cancer was called so, because by its creation 
the creation of the four elements became complete, and by their 
becoming complete all growth became complete. 

And other comparisons besides of a similar kind are broxight forward 
by the astrologers. 

Further, people relate : When Zoroaster arose and intercalated the 

30 years with the months, which up to that time had summed up from the 
day-quarters, time returned to its original condition. Then he ordered 
people in all future times to do with the day-quarters the same as he 
had done, and they obeyed his command. They did not call the inter- 
calary month by a special name, nor did they repeat the name of another 
month, but they kept it simply in memory from one turn to another. 
Being, however, afraid that there might arise uncertainty as to the place, 
where the intercalary month would have again to be inserted, they 
transferred the five Epagomenss and put them at the end of that 
month, to which the turn of intercalation had proceeded on the last 

40 occasion of intercalating. And as this subject was of great importance 
and of general use to high and low, to the king and to the subjects, and 
as it is required to be treated with knowledge, and to be carried out in 
conformity with nature (i.e. with real time), they used to postpone 
intercalation, when its time happened to occur at a period when the 
condition of the empire was disturbed by calamities ; then they neglected 



56 ALBIRUNI. 

intercalation so long, until the day-quarters summed up to two months. 
Or, on the other hand, they anticipated intercalating the year at once hy 
two months, when they exjjected that at the time of the next coming 
intercalation circumstances would distract their attention therefrom, as 
it has been done in the time of Yazdajird ben Sabur, for no other motive 
but that of precaution. That was the last intercalation which they 
carried out, under the superintendence of a Dastur, called Yazdajird 
Alhizari. Hizar was an estate in the district of Istakhr in Ears, from 
which he received his name. In that intercalation the turn had come to 
Aban Mah ; therefore, the Epagomense were added at its end, and 10 
there they have remained ever since on account of their neglecting 
intercalation. 

Months of the Sogdians. — Now I shall mention the months of the 
Magians of Transoxiana, the j)eo]Dle of Khwarizm and of Sughd. Their 
months have the same number, and the same number of days as those 
of the Persians. Only between the beginning of the Persian and the 
Transoxanian months there is a difference, because the Transoxanians 
p. 46. append the five Ej)agomen8e to the end of their year, and commence the 
year with the 6th day of the Persian month Farwardin, Khurdadhroz. 
So the beginning of the months is different until Adliar Mah ; afterwards 20 
they have the same beginnings. 

These are the names of the months of the Sughdians. 

I. jj-y of 30 days. 

(;)~*^ JJ 

^^^^ ,, 

Some people add a Jim (g) at the end of i;y^ and fj^^, and pronounce 
gj^-^-j* and ^^f^ ; they add a Nun and a Jim (g>) at the end of k^L-i 30 
and ^>u.>j and pronounce g.*^^ and ^■^fy They call each day by a 
special name, as is the custom with the Persians. These are the names 
of the thirty days — 

11. >!^ 21. ^:r\ 

12. e^ ■ 22. o\, 

13. J^ 28. c:-«^ 

14. Ji-t^ 24. (^.J 

15. «:—<.> 25. c-J)^ 

16. jji^-ai^ 26. »i\-i-.\ 

17. u5y 27. c>*- 40 

18. 0--) 28. '^s-i*^) 
9. u-^\ 19. J^ 29. 

10. e>v^ 20. yklt; 30. ^ 



VII. jUi of 30 days. 


e'^\ 


>> 


tf 


» 


gyVw 


J) 


\^i 


» 




ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS. 67 

Some people give the day j>.f^ the name ^. The names of the five 
Epagomense are the following : — 

I. ctwiij^U- II. (jOiiy III. i^yi^^ IV. (y JUj V. (,./-A*|«<^j\ P- 47. 

Regarding these names the same difference exists among the Sugh- 
dians as among the Persians. They are also called by the following 
names : — 

I. Jj^Jj II. Oj^> III. OjJ^ IV. Jje;^ V. fiJJ;^ 

These five days they add at the end of the last month ^y^^. 

The Sughdian system of intercalation agreed with the practice of the 

10 Persians, as also did their neglecting intercalation. The reason why 

there arose a difference between the beginnings of the Sughdian and the 

Persian years I shall describe hereafter. 

Months of the Chorasmians. — The Khwarizmians, although a 
branch of the great tree of the Persian nation, imitated the Sughdians 
as to the beginning of the year and the place where they add the 
Epagomense. These are the names of their months — 

I. (.5^^^ ^ f^i) ^11- iJ>f^ 

S\i.^ ^\io\ Jji^ y.*A\ 

Others abbreviate these names and use them in this form — 
I. o^;S^ VII. ^yi\ 

30 The thirty days they call by the following names : — 

1. ^^*ij 11. ^\ 21. f,\j 

2. o:yj\ 12. 2U 22. 3\j 

3. ct^^O;\ 13. 4j)^ 23. ^^J 

4. ^^Jj>,J.^^^ 14. c>A^ 24. ^yi>i 

5. ^_3.^-«j\.x;-— \ 15. yj 25. (^fi-j\ 

6. ^UjjJb 16. Qui 26. 'iU4.\ 

7. ^\o^ 17. ^jy-\ 27. (:)i*^\ p. 48. 

8. jJo 18. i^j 28. >^\) 
9- j)j^ 19. c:>=^jy 29. Ju^y 

40 10. e^u^ 20. e>«;^ 30. gyj\ 

I have found that they begin the Epagomense, which are appended at 



58 albIeuni. 

the end of the montli Ispandarmaji, with the same name by which they 
begin the days of the month ; the second day they call Azmin, the third 
Ardawasht, and so on till the fifth day Ispandarmaji. Then they return 
and commence anew with the first day ^y*ij, the 1st of the month 
Nawasarji. They do not use or even know special names for the 
Epagomense, but I believe that this fact simply arises from the same 
confusion, regarding these names, which prevails among the Persians 
and Sughdians. For after Kutaiba ben Muslim Albahili had killed their 
learned men and priests, and had burned their books and writings, they 
became entirely illiterate (forgot writing and reading), and relied in 10 
every knowledge or science which they required solely uj)on memory. 
In the long course of time they forgot that on which there had been a 
divergence of oj)inion, and kept by memory only that which had been 
generally agreed uj)on. But Allah knows best ! 

As to the three identical names of days (the 8th, 15th, and 23rd, — 
.Dai in Persian, Dast in Sughdian, DadJm in Khwarizmian),the Persians 
refer them to the following, and compound them with these, saying 
Dai-ha-Adar, and Dai-ha-Mihr, and Dai-ha-Din. Of the Sughdians and 
Khwarizmians some do the same, and others connect the words in their 
language for "the first, the second, the third," with each of them. 20 

In the early times of their empire the Persians did not use the week. 
For, first, it was in use among the nations of the west, and more particu- 
larly among the people of Syria and the neighbouring countries, because 
there the j)rophets appeared and made people acquainted with the first 
week, and that in it the world had been created, in conformity with the 
beginning of the Thora. From these the use of the week spread to the 
other nations. The pure Arabians adopted the week in consequence of 
p. 49. the vicinity of their country to that of the Syrians. 

We have not heard that anybody has imitated the example of the 
Persians, Sughdians, and Khwarizmians, and has adopted their usage (of 30 
giving special names to the thirty days of the month, instead of dividing 
them into weeks), except the Copts, i.e. the ancient inhabitants of 
Egypt. For they, as we have mentioned, used the names of the thirty 
days till the time when Augustus, the son of Gajus, ruled over them. 
He wanted to induce them to intercalate the years, that they might 
always agree with the Greeks and the people of Alexandria. Into this 
subject, however, it would be necessary to inquire more closely. At that 
time precisely five years were wanting till the end of the great inter- 
calation period. Therefore, he waited till five years of his rule had 
elapsed, and then he ordered people to intercalate one day in the months 40 
in every fourth year, in the same way as the Greeks do. Thereupon 
they dropped the use of the names of the single days, because, as people 
say, those who used and knew them would have required to invent a 
name for the intercalary day. They (the names of the days of the 
month) have not been handed down to posterity. 



ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. 



59 



Months of the Egyptians.- 

months : — 

I. Thot 30 days. 
Paophi 30 
Athyr 30 
Choiak 30 
Tybi 30 
Mechir 30 



-The following are tlie names of their 

VII. Phamenoth 30 days. 
Pharmuthi 30 
Pachon 30 
Payni 30 

Epiphi 30 

\a^\ 30 



These are the ancient names of the months. In the following we give 
10 the names which were modernized by one of their princes, after inter- 
calation had been adopted : — 

I. «i>y VII. <^W*;» 

\fcX fr flMI.X.WM> 



20 



30 



Some people call the months «^i^, y^\^j>, jj---^, and <^7-~* by the 
names u^^, ^^f., (j~i\-^ and <^jj— 1>». These are the forms on which 
peoj^le agree ; in some books, however, these names are found in forms 
somewhat different from those we have mentioned. 

The five additional days they call, 'ETrayo/AeVai, which means " tlie 
small month ;" they are appended at the end of Mesori, and at the same 
place the intercalary day is added, in which case the Epagomense are 
sis days. The leap-year they call ^^\, which means " the sign." 

Months of the People of the West. — 'Abu-al'abbas Alamuli relates 
in his Kitdh-dald'il-alkibla, that the Western people (of Spain?) use 
months, the beginnings of which agree with those of the Coptic months. 
They call them by the following names : — 

I. 



50. 



May 30 days. 


VII. 


November 30 days. 


June 30 „ 




December 30 „ 


July 30 „ 




January 30 „ 


August 30 „ 




February 30 „ 


September 30 ,, 




March 30 „ 


October 30 „ 




April 30 „ 



Then follow the five Epagomense at the end of the year. 
Months of the Greeks. — The months of the Greeks are always 
twelve in number. Their names are these : — 



40 



'lavovdpLos 31 days. 

^€J3pOvdpLO<S 28 ,, 

Mdtprios 31 „ 



IV. 'A-TrptXis 30 days. 
Mato? 31 „ 
lovvtos 30 „ 



60 ALBlRTJNf. 

VII. 'lovXios 31 days. X. 'OKTw/?ptos 31 days. 

AvyovaTo<i 81 „ No€/^/3pios 30 „ 

2e7rTe/x,^ptos 30 „ ^eKe/x/SpLOS 31 „ 

The sum of the days of tlieir year is 365, and as in all four years the 
four quarters of a day are summed up, they append it as one complete 
day to the month February, so that this month has in every fourth year 
29 days. He who first induced people to intercalate the years was 
Julius, called Dictator, who ruled over them in bygone times, long 
before Moses. He gave them the months with such a distribution (of 
the days), and with such names as we have mentioned. He induced 10 
them to intercalate the day-quarters into them (the months) in every 
1461st year, when the day-quarters had summed up to one complete 
year. So that (this intercalation) preserved these (the months, keeping 
them ia agreement with real time). This intercalation they called the 
" great one," after they had called the intercalation, which takes place 
every four years, the " small one." This " small " intercalation, however, 
they did not introduce until a long period had elapsed after the death 
of the king (Julius Csesar). A characteristic of their system is the 
division of the days of the months into weeks, for reasons which we 
have mentioned before. 20 

p. 51. The author of the Kitdh-ma'kJiadh-almawdMt (method for the deduc- 
tion of certain times and dates) thinks that the Greeks and other nations, 
who are in the habit of intercalating the day -quarter, had fixed the sun's 
entering Aries uj^on the beginning of April, which corresponds to the 
Syrian Kissin, as the beginning of their era. And we confess that in 
his account he comes pretty near the truth. For astronomical observa- 
tion has taught that the fraction which follows the (365) days of the 
solar year, is less than one comjjlete quarter of a day, and we ourselves 
have observed that the sun's entering the first part of Aries precedes 
the beginning of Nisan. Therefore that which he mentions is possible, 30 
and even likely. 

Further on he says, si)eaking of the Greeks, that " they, on perceiving 
that the beginning of their year had changed its place, had recourse to 
the years of the Indians ; that they then intercalated into their year the 
difference between the two years (viz., the Greek year and the solar 
year), and that in consequence the sun's entering the first part of Aries 
again took place at the beginning of Nisan. If we on our side do the 
same, Nisan returns to its original place." He has tried to give an 
example, but has not finished it, being incapable of doing so. On this 
occasion he has shown his ignorance, as he, in his accovmt of the Greeks, 40 
has also rendered it evident that he is inimical to the Greeks, and partial 
to others. The fact is, that according to the Indian system he has con- 
verted the difference between the Greek year and the solar year into 
fractions, putting it down as 729 seconds. Then he changes also the day 



ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. 61 

into seconds, and divides them by that difference. So he gets 118 years 
6 months and 6-| days. This would be the space of time in which the 
calendar would necessitate the intercalation of one complete day, on 
account of this plus-difference. Further, he says, " Now, if we inter- 
calate the past years of the G-reek era," which were at his time 1,225 
years, " the sun's entering the first part of Aries again takes place at the 
beginning of Nisan." But he has dropped his example, and has not 
intercalated the years. If he had done so, his conclusions would have 
led to the contrary of what he says and maintains, and the beginning of 

10 Msan would come near the sun's entering the first part of Taurus. For 
that date, which he wanted to treat as an example, would necessitate 
the intercalation of 10^ days. Now the Greek year being too short 
(according to him), the beginning of Nisan precedes the sun's entering 
the first part of Aries, and the time which it would be necessary to 
intercalate (joortio intercalanda) , would have to be added to the first of 
Nisan, so as to proceed as far as to the 10th of it. 

Now I should like to know which equinox this man, who is so partial 
to the Indians, meant. For the vernal equinox took place according to 
their system at that time six or seven days before the first of Nisan. I 

20 should further like to know at what time the Greeks did what he relates 
of them. For they are so deej^ly imbued with, and so clever in geometry 
and astronomy, and they adhere so strictly to logical arguments, that 
they are far from having recourse to the theories of those who derive 
the bases of their knowledge from divine inspiration, when their artifices 
desert them and they are required to come forward with an argument ; 
not to mention the sciences of philosophy and theology, physics and p. 52. 
arts, cultivated among the Greeks. " However, everybody acts according 
to his own mode, and each community enjoys what they have got of 
their own." (Sura xvii. 86.) That man had not read the Almagest, and 

30 had not compared it with the most famous book of the Indians, called 
the Canon Sindhind. The difference between them must be evident to 
anybody in whom the slightest spark of sagacity is left. 

To something similar Hamza ben Alhasan Alisfahani has applied him- 
self in his treatise on the Nauroz, at the time when he was partial to the 
Persian mode of treating the solar year, because they reckoned it as 
365 days and &-i^ hours, while the Greeks neglected in their intercala- 
tion the fraction following the six hours. As a proof he adduced that 
Muhammad ben Musa ben Shakir, the astronomer, had explained this 
subject, and had enlarged on it in one of his books on the solar year, 

40 and that he had produced the arguments for it, and pointed out the 
errors of the ancients, who had held erroneous views in this respect. 

Now, we have examined the astronomical observations of Muhammad 
ben Musa, and of his brother 'Ahmad, and we have found that they 
prove only that these fractions are less than six hours. The book, to 
which Alisfahani refers, is attributed to Thabit ben Kun*a, because he 



62 ALBiEI^Ni. 

was a protege of those people, entirely mixed up with them, and because 
it was he who polished for them their scientific work. He had collected 
the materials of this book with the object of explaining the fact of the 
solar years not being always equal to each other, on account of the 
motion of the aj^ogee. With all this he was compelled to assume equal 
circles, and equal motions along with their times, in order to derive 
thereby the mean motion of the sun. But he did not find equal circles, 
except those which move in an excentric plane, described {viz. the circles) 
round a point within it, which point is assumed exclusively for these 
circles. And this circle, which was sought for, extends the six hours by 10 
additional fractions (i.e. its time of revolution is 365 days 6 hours + a 
fraction), as Hamza has related. However, such a circle is not called a 
solar year, for the solar year is, as we have defined already, that one, in 
which all natural occurrences which are liable to growth and to decay 
return to their original condition. 

Jewish Months. — The Hebrews and all the Jews, who claim to be 
related to Moses, have the following twelve months : — 

I. Nisan of 30 days. VI. Tishri of 30 days. 

Jyar of 29 ,, Marheshwan of 29 

Siwan of 30 „ Kislew of 80 ., 20 

Tammuz of 29 „ Tebeth of 29 

Abh of 30 „ Shefat (Shebhat) of 30 

Elul of 29 „ Adhar of 29 

p. 53. The sum total of their days is 354, being identical with the number 
of days of the lunar year. If they simply used the lunar year as it is, 
the sum of the days of their year and the number of their months 
would be identical. However, after having left Egypt for the desert 
Al-tih, after having ceased to be the slaves of the Egyptians, having 
been delivered from their oppression, and altogether separated from 
them, the Israelites received the ordinances and the laws of God, 30 
described in the second book of the Thora. And this event took place 
in the night of the 15th Nisan at full moon and spring time. They 
were ordered to observe this day, as it is said in the second book of the 
Thora (Exodus xii. 17, 18) : " Te shall observe this day as an ordinance 
to your generations for ever on the fourteenth of the first month." By 
the "first month " the Lord does not mean Tishri, but Msan ; because in 
the same book he commands Moses and Aaron, that the month of pass- 
over should be the first of their months, and the beginning of the year 
(Exodus xii. 2). 

Further, Moses spake unto the people : " Remember the day when ye 40 
came out from bondage. Therefore ye shall not eat leavened bread on 
this day in that month when the trees blossom." In consequence, they 
were compelled to use the solar year and the lunar months ; the solar 
year in order that the 14th Nisan should fall in the beginning of spring. 



ON THE NATUEE OP MONTHS. 63 

when the leaves of the trees and the blossoms of the fruit trees come 
forth'; the lunar months in order that, on the same day, the body of 
the moon should be lit up completely, standing in the sign of Libra. 
And as the time in question would naturally advance for a certain 
number of days (the sum of the days of twelve lunar months not being 
a complete year), it was necessary for the same reason to append to the 
other months those days, as soon as they made up one complete month. 
They added these days as a complete month, which they called the 
First Adhdr, whilst they called the original month of this name the 

10 Second Adhdr, because of its following immediately behind its namesake. 
The leap-year they called 'Ibbur (1^!13^), which is to be derived from 
Me'tihhereth (rV)'3,^72), meaning in Hebrew, "a pregnant woman. ''^ For 
they comj)ared the insertion of the supernumerary month into the year, 
to a woman's bearing in her womb a foreign organism. 

According to another opinion, the First Adhar is the original month, 
the name of which without any addition was used in the common year, 
and the Second Adhar is to be the leap-month, in order that it should 
have its j^lace at the end of the year, for this reason, that according to 
the command of the Thora, Nisan was to be the first of their months. 

20 This, however, is not the case. That the Second Adhar is the original 
month, is evident from the fact, that its place and length, the n\unber of 
its days, the feast- and fast-days which occur in it, are not liable to any 
changes. And of all these days nothing whatsoever occurs in the First 
A.dhar of a leap-year. Further, they make it a rule that, during the 
Second Adhar, the sun should always stand in the sign of Pisces, whilst 
in the First Adhfir of a leap-year he must be in the sign of Amphora. 

Five Cycles. — Now for the leap-years they wanted a certain principle p. 54. 
of arrangement as a help to facilitate their practical use. Therefore 
they looked out for cycles which were based upon solar years, consisting 

30 of lunar months. Of those cycles they found the following five: — 

I. The cycle of 8 years consisting of 99 months, of which there are 
3 leap-months. 
II. The cycle of 19 years, called the Minor Cycle, consisting of 235 
months, of which there are 7 leap-months. 

III. The cycle of 7Q years, consisting of 940 months, of which there 

are 28 leap-months. 

IV, The cycle of 95 years, called the Middle Cycle, consisting of 1,176 

months, of which there are 35 leap-months. 
V. The cycle of 532 years, called the Major Cycle, consisting of 6,580 
40 months, of which there are 196 leap-months. 

Of these cycles they choose that one, the observation of which would 
be the easiest and simplest. This quality is j)eculiar to the cycles of 8 
and of 19 vears, with this diffei'enee, however, that the latter one agrees 



20 



64 ALBlR^JNt. 

more closely with solar years. For this cycle contains, according to 
them, 6,939 days 16/^%%- hours. Those small particles of an hour they 
call Halaks (D'^pT'll), of which 1,080 make one hour. If, therefore, you 
have got minutes, i.e. the 60th parts of an hour, and you want to change 
them into Halaks, you multiply them by 18, and you get the corre- 
sponding number of Halaks. And if you want the converse operation, 
you multiply the number of Halaks by 200, and you get a sum of thirds 
of an hour {i.e. the 60th parts of a second) ; these fractions you can 
then raise to wholes. 

Now, if we reduce this cycle (of 19 years) to fractions and change it 10 
into Halaks, we get the following sum of Halaks : — 

179,876,755, expressed in Indian ciphers. 

The solar year is, according to them, 365 days 5-|-f§^ hours long ; this 
latter fraction is nearly identical with 990 Halaks. If we now also 
reduce the solar year into Halaks, we get the sum of — 

9,467,190 Halaks. 

If you finally divide by this number the number of the Halaks of the 

cycle of 19 years, you get as the quotient, 19 solar years, with a remainder 

55. of 145 Halaks, which is nearly the 7th part of an hour and a fraction. 

If we perform the same operation with the cycle of 8 years containing 
2,923 days 12 hours and 747 Halaks, we get as the sum of its Halaks 
the number — 

If we divide this sum by the sum of the Halaks of the solar year, we 
get 8 solar years, and a remainder of 1 day 13 hours and 387 Halaks, 
which is nearly \-\-\ (i.e. -i^) hour. 

Hence it is evident that the cycle of 19 years comes nearest to real 
time, and is the best of all cycles which have been used. The other 
cycles are simj)ly composed of duplications of the cycle of 19 years. 
Therefore the Jews preferred this cycle, and regulated thereby inter- 30 
calation. 

The three Ordines Intercalationis. — Now, although they agreed 

on the quality of the year as to the order of intercalation in the Mahzor 
(lITn^ cycle), when it has to take place, and when not, they differed 
among each other regarding the nature of the beginning of the Mahzors. 
And this has also produced a difference regarding the order of inter- 
calation in the Mahzor. For some take the current year of the ^ra 
Adami, of which you want to know whether it is a common year or a 
leap-year, and reduce the number of years to Mahzors by dividing them 
by 19 ; then you get complete Mahzors, and as a remainder, the years of 40 
the Mahzor not yet finished, including the curi'ent year. And then the 
order of the leap-years is fixed according to the formula nin'^THH *-^- 
the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, and 18th years. 



ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. 



6b 



10 



Others take the years of the same .^ra Adami, subtract one year, and 
fix the order of the leap-years in the remainder of the years of the 
incomplete Mahzor according to the formula 'jnni^llt^' ^'■^" ^^® ^^^' ^^^' 
6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 17th years. These two cycles are attributed to the 
Jews of Syria. 

Others again subtract from the sum of years two years, and compute 
the order of the leap-years by the formxda i^^^jj) i-^- the 3rd, 5th 
(5=3+2), 8th, 11th, 14th (5-h3-f3 + 3), 16th (16 = 14-i-2), and 19th 
(19=16 + 3) years. 

This latter mode of arrangement is the most extensively diffused 
among the Jews ; they prefer it to others, because they attribute its 
invention to the Babylonians. All three modes of computation are to 
be traced back to one and the same principle, on which there cannot be 
any difference of opinion, as is illustrated by the following circular 
figure : — 




66 ALBfEt^Ni. 

The first (outer) circle indicates tlie quality of the year, whether it is 

a common year or a leap-year. The three other circles contain the three 

formulcB, indicating the order of the leap-years in the Mahzors ; the 

p, 56. second ci rcle, the formula ni^^THl 5 *-^® third circle, the formula 

lillIO'Tli*^ ; and the inner circle, the formula ;}^t:3^;i- 

The cycles which we have mentioned hitherto, are derived from the 
moon, though not exclusively. The solar cycle consists of 28 years, 
and serves to indicate on what days of the week the solar years com- 
mence. For if the Jewish year had simply 365 days without the quarter- 
day, the beginning of the year would in every seven years return to the 10 
same week-day. Since, however, they are intercalated once in four years, 
the begianing does not return to the same day, except in 28 years, i.e. 
4x7 years. Likewise the other cycles, heretofore mentioned, do not, on 
being completed, return to the same week-day, except the largest cycle, 
on account of its arising from a duplication of the cycle of 19 years with 
the solar cycle. 

The three kinds of the Jewish Year. — I say further : If the Jewish 
years had simply the first two qualities, i.e. were either common years 
or leap-years, it would be easy to learn their beginnings, and to dis- 
tinguish between the two qualities which are proper to tliem, provided 20 
the above-mentioned formula of computation for the years of the 
Mahzor be known. The Jewish year, however, is a threefold one. For 
they have made an arrangement among themselves, that New Year shall 
not fall on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday, i.e. on the days of the 
sun and his two stars (Mercury and Venus) ; and that Passover, by 
which the beginning of Msan is regulated, shall not fall on the days of 
the inferior stars, i.e. on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, for reasons 
on which we shall hereafter enlarge as much as possible. Thereby they 
were compelled either to postpone or to advance New Year and Passover, 
when they happened to fall on one of the days mentioned. 30 

For this reason their year consists of the following three species : — 

I. The year called ^^j^jU^, i.e. the imperfect one (rTlpn), in which 
the months Marheshwan and Kislew have only 29 days. 

II. The year called y\).x^, i.e. the intermediate (I'l'lpS), lit. secun- 
dum ordinem suum, in which Marheshwan has 29 days, and 
Kislew 30 days. 

III. The year called f^t^"^, i.e. the perfect one (^^^^tZJ)' ^^ which 
both Marheshwan and Kislew have 30 days. 

Each of these three species of years may be either a common year or 
a leap-year. So we get a combination of six species of years, as we 40 
have here illustrated in the form of a genealogical diagram, and dis- 
tributed in the following representation. 



ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS. 



Q1 



The Tear. 



p. 57. 



10 



Common year of 12 montlis. 



Leap-year of 13 months. 



Perfect, of 355 days. 

Marheshwan, 30 days. 

Kislew, 30 days. 



Intermediate, of 354 days. 

Marheshwan, 29 days. 

Kislew, 30 days. 



Perfect, of 385 days. 

Marheshwan, 30 days. 

Kislew, 30 days. 



Intermediate, of 384 days. 

Marheshwan, 29 days. 

Kislew, 30 days. 



Imperfect, of 353 days. 

Marheshwan, 29 days. 

Kislew, 29 days. 



Imperfect, of 383 days. 

Marheshwan, 29 days. 

Kislew, 29 days. 



For the deduction of these differences they have many modes of com- 
putation as well as tables, which we shall not fail to explain hereafter. 

Determination of New Moon.— Regarding their knowledge of the 
beginning of the month, and the mode in which it is computed and used, 
the Jews are divided into two sects, one of which are the Rabbanites. 
They derive the begixming of the month by means of calculation from 
the mean motions of the two luminaries (sun and moon), no regard being 
had as to whether new moon is visible already or not. For it was their 

20 object to have a conventional time, that was to begin from the conjunc- 
tion of stin and moon. By the following accident they were, as they 
relate themselves, induced to adopt this system : at the time when they 
returned to Jerusalem, they posted guards upon the tops of the 
mountains to observe new moon, and they ordered them to light a fire 
and to make a smoke, which was to be a signal for them that new moon 
in fact had been seen. Now, on account of the enmity which existed 
between them and the Samaritans, these latter went and sent up the 
smoke from the mountain one day before new moon was seen. This 
practice they continued during several months, at the beginnings of 

80 which heaven always happened to be clouded. Finally, people in 
Jerusalem found out this, observing that new moon, on the 3rd and 4th 
of the month, rose above the horizon from the east. Hence it was 
evident that the Samaritans had deceived them. Therefore they had 
recourse to the scholars of their time, in order to be protected by a 
system of calculation against the deceitful practices of their enemies, to 
which they were exposed by their present method. 

In order to prove that it was legally permitted to fix the beginning of 
the month by calculation instead of observation, they referred to the 
duration of the deluge. For they assert that Noah computed and fixed 

40 the beginnings of the months by calculation, because heaven was covered p. 58. 



68 ALBlRUNi. 

and clouded for so long as six months, during whicli time neither new 
moon nor any other phase of the moon could be observed. 

The mathematicians, therefore, computed for them the cycles, and 
taught them how to find, by calculation, the conjunctions and the 
appearance of new moon, viz. that between new moon and the con- 
junction the time of 24 hours must elapse. And this comes near the 
truth. For if it was the corrected conjunction, not the mean one, the 
moon would in these hours move forward about 13 degrees, and her 
elongation from the sun would be about 12 degrees. 

This reform was brought about nearly 200 years after Alexander. 10 
Before that time they used to observe the Tekufdth (niD^pri), i.e. the 
year-quarters, on the computation of which we shall enlarge hereafter, 
and to compare them with the conjunction of that month, to which 
the Tekufa in question was to be referred. If they found that the con- 
junction preceded the Tekufa by about 30 days, they intercalated a 
month in this year, e.g. if they found that the conjunction of Tammuz 
preceded the Tekufa of Tammuz, i.e. the summer- solstice by about 
30 days, they intercalated in that year a month Tammuz, so that it had 
one Tammuz and a second Tammuz (t^^n*! t^^ri). In the same way 
they acted with the other Tekufoth. 20 

Some Eabbanites, however, deny that such guards were posted, and 
that they made a smoke as a signal. According to their opinion, the 
cause of the deduction of this system of calculation was the following : 
the scholars and the priests of the Israelites, feeling convinced that their 
people would be scattered and dispersed in consequence of the last 
destruction of Jerusalem, as they thought, were afraid that their com- 
patriots, being scattered all over the world, and solely relying upon the 
anpearance of new moon, which of course in different countries would be 
different for them, might, on account of this, fall into dissensions, and 
a schism in their doctrine might take place. Therefore they invented 30 
these calculations, — a work which was particularly attended to by 
Eliezer ben Paruah, and ordered people to adhere to them, to use them, 
to return to them, wherever and under whatever circumstances they 
lived, so that a schism among them might be avoided. 

The second sect are the Milddites, who derive the beginning of the 
month from the conjunction ; they are also called Alkurrd and AVisli- 
ma'iyya, because they demand that people shall only follow the wording 
of the text, no regard being had to considerations and analogies, etc., 
even if it may be illogical and impracticable. 

One party of them is called the 'Andnites, who derived their name 40 
from 'Anau, the head of the emigration (^^r\17^ t!^fc^"l), who lived between 
100 and 110 years ago. A head of the emigration must of necessity be 
one of the descendants of David ; an offspring of another family would 
not be fit for this office. Their common people relate, that only he is 
qualified who, standing upright, can reach his knees with the tops of his 



ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS. 69 

fingers ; just as people relate such tilings of the prince of the true 
believers, 'Ali ben 'Abi Talib, and of those of his descendants who are 
qualified for the Imama and the rule of the conimunity (the Muham- 
madan world). 

The genealogy of this 'Anan is the following : — 

Til 'n pv 'n ^"li^tij 'n ^i>^^:-T p p:^^ -i 

^^^iion 'n ^^iin 2 mpi^ 'n t^^3"in '1 b^^^iiDt 'n -xxvi 
]^:]^in^ 'n ^t^^n^^tr 'n ^mt 'n h^-id '1 ^^^t'-i^Q '1 -xxxi 
Q"^in"^ 'n t^nnh^ '1 n^tr^^^ 'n tn^^in^ 'n n^p^in^ 'n -xxxvi 
nn^tr '1 Di^nm 'n n^n« '2 hd^ '1 t^Qtrin*' '1 -Xli 

^^T n XLVI 

He opposed a community of Eabbanites in many of their observances. 
He fixed the beginning of the month by the appearance of the new 
moon in a similar way, as is prescribed in Islam, not caring on what day 
of the week the beginning of the month happened to fall. He gave up 

20 the system of computation of the Rabbanites, and made the intercalation 
of a month depend upon the observation of barley-seed in 'Irak and 
Syria between the 1st and the 14th Nisan. If he found a first-fruit fit 
for friction and reaping, he left the year as a common year ; if he did 
not find that, he intercalated the year. The mode of prognosticating the 
state of the corn was practically this, that one of his followers went out 
on the 23rd Shebat, to examine — in Syria and the countries of a similar 
climate — the state of the barley-seed. If he found that the Safa, i.e. the 
prickles of the beard of the ear of corn, had already come out, he 
counted from that day till Passover 50 days ; if he found that it had 

30 not yet come out, he intercalated a month into the year. And some 
added the intercalary month to Shefat, so that there was a She/at and an 
U-Shefat ; whilst others added it to Adhar, so that there was an Adhdr 
and a We-Adhdr. The Ananites mostly use Shefat, not Adhar, whilst 
the Eabbanites use exclusively Adhar. 

This system of prognosticating the state of the corn is a different one 
according to the difference of the air and the climate of the countries. 
Therefore it would be necessary to make a special rule for every place, 
and not to rely upon the rule made for one certain place, because this 
would not be applicable elsewhere. 

40 Syrian Months. — The Christians in Syria, 'Irak, and Khurasan have 
combined Greek and Jewish months. For they use the months of the 
Gi-eeks, but have adopted the 1st of the Grreek October as the lieginning 



70 ALBtEl^Nt. 

of their year, that it might be nearer to the Jewish new-year, because 
Tishri of the Jews always precedes that date a little. And they call 
their months by Syrian names, some of which agree with the Jewish 
names, whilst others differ. People have derived these names from the 
Syrians, i.e. the Nabatseans, the inhabitants of Sawad ; the Sawad of 
'Irak being called Suristan. But I do not see why they derive these 
months from them, because in Islam they use the months of the Arabs, 
and at the time of heathenism they used the months of the Persians. 
Others say that Suristan means Syria. If that be the case, the inhabi- 
tants of this country were Christians before the time of Islam, and held 10 
a middle position between Jewish and Greek theories. 
p. 60. The names of their months are these : — 

I. Tishrm kedim of 31 days. VI, Nisan of 30 days. 



Tishrin hrai of 30 
Kanun kedim of 31 
Kanun hrai of 31 
Shebat of 28 

Adhar of 31 



lyar of 31 

Haziran of 30 
Tammuz of 31 
Abh of 31 
Imi of 30 



In the month Shebat they intercalate one day every four years, so that 
it then has 29 days. Eegarding the quality of their year they agree 20 
with the Greeks. 

These months have become widely known, so that even the Muslims 
adopted them, and fixed thereby the dates of practical life. The words 
Kedim (primus) and Hrcli (postremus) have been translated into Arabic, 
and in the word ji\ they have added an Elif, so as to make it ;^\, 
because a single yd (without Tashdid) is disagreeable to the organ of the 
Arabs, if this Elif is not added. 

Months of the Arabs. — The Arabs have the following twelve 
months : — 

I. Almuharram. VII. Rajab. 80 

Safar. Sha'ban. 

Eabi' I. Eamadan. 

B.abi' II. Shawwal. 

Jumada I. Dhu-alka'da. 

Jumada II. Dhu-alhijja. 

Regarding the etymology of these names various opinions have been 
advanced, Almuharram, e.g. was called so, because it was one of the 
Hurum, i.e. the four sacred months. 

Safar was called so, because in it people used to procure their pro- 
visions, going out in a company of men which was called Safariyya. 40 

The two months BabP were called so on account of the coming forth 
of the flowers and blossoms and of the continual fall of dew and rain. 



ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS. 71 

All of which refers to the nature of that season which we call " autumn," 
but which the Arabs called " spring" (Bahi'). 

The two months Jumddd were called so, because in them the water 
froze (;_^). 

Bajab was called so, because in it people formed the intention of 
travelling, there being no fear of the evils of war. For " rujba " means 
sustentaculum (a thing by means of which a tree is propped up), and 
hence people say, " a propped up (murajj ah) palm-tree which hears a heavy 
load of fruit." 
10 Sha'hdn was called so, because in it the tribes were dispersed. 

Ramadan was called so, because of the stones being roasted by the 
intense heat. 

Shawwdl was called so, because of the increasing and the decreasing 
of the heat. 

Dhu-alkd'da was called so, because in it people stayed in their homes. 

Dhu-alhijja was called so, because in it people performed the Hajj, i.e. 
the pilgrimage. 

We found, however, also other names of the months of the Arabs, 
which were given to them by their ancestors. They are the fol- 
20 lowing : — 

I. Almu'tamir. YII. Al'asamm. p. 61. 

Najir. 'Adil. 

Khawwan. Nafik. 

Suwan. Waghil. 

Hantam. Huwa'. 

Zabba. Burak. 

The forms as well as the order of these names sometimes differ from 
what we have given. One of the poets, e.g. has comprised them in the 
following verses : — 

80 " We have commenced with Mu'tamir, Ndjira, and Khawwdn, to 

which follows Suwan. 
And with Zahhd comes Bd'ida, its next follower. Then comes the 

turn of *Asamm, in which hatred was deaf. 
And Wdghila, Ndtila, and 'Adila, all three are noble and beautiful. 
Then comes Banna, and after it Burak. Now are complete the 

months of the year, as you may count with your fingers." 

In the following we shall explain the meanings of these names 
according to the statements of the dictionaries : — 

Almu'tamir means that it " obeys " all the decrees of fortune, which 
40 the year is going to bring. 



72 ALBtnUNI. 

Ndjir is derived from najr, wMcli means " intense heat," as it is used 
in the following verse : — 

" A stinking water, on account of which a man turns his face aside, 
Even he who is tortured by thirst, if he tasted it in a ' boiling 
hot' month." 

Khawwdn is the form JUi of the verb " to deceive,'" and Suwdn is the 
form JU* of the verb " to preserve, to take care.'" And these significations 
agreed with the natures of the months at the time when they were first 
employed as names for them. 

Zabhd means a " great and frequently occurring calamity." The month 10 
was called so, because in it there was much and frequent fighting. 

Baid, too, received its name from the fighting in it, for many people 
used to "perish " in it. This circumstance is expressed in the following 
proverb : "All that is portentous happens between Jumddd and Rajab." 
For in this month people were in great haste and eagerness to carry out 
whatever blood revenge or warlike expeditions they were upon, before 
the month Eajab came in. 

'Asamm was called so, because in it people abstained from fighting, 
so that the clash of weapons was not heard. 

Wdghil means " one who comes to a drinJcing -party without having been 20 
invited." This month was called so, because it suddenly comes in after 
Ramadan, and because in Ramadan there was much wine -drinking, on 
account of the next following months being the months of pilgrimage. 

Ndtil means " a measure, a pot of wine." The month was called so, 
because in it people indulged in drinking debauches, and frequently 
used that pot. 

'Adil is derived from " 'adl " (which means either " to be just " or 
" to turn aside"). The month was called so, because it was one of the 
months of pilgrimage, when they used to abstain from the use of the 
Natil, i.e. the wine-pot. 80 

Banna was called so, because the sheep were " crying " on account of 
the drawing near of the time when they were to be killed. 

Burah was called so, because of the kneeling down of the camels on 
being led to the slaughtering-place. 

A better versification of these names than the above-mentioned one is 
that by the Wazir 'Isma'il ben 'Abbad : — 

" You wanted to know the months of the pagan Arabs. Take them 
according to the order of Muharram (Safar, etc.), of which they 
partake. 
g2. First comes MuHamir, then Ndjir ; and Khawwdn and Suwdn are 40 

connected by one tie. 
Hanin, Zabbd, 'Asamm, 'Adil, Ndfik with Waghl, and Banna with 
Burah." 



ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. 73 

If the etymologies of these two classes of names of the months are 
such as we have related, we must suppose that between the two periods 
of giving the names there was a great interval of time. Or else our 
explanations and etymologies would not he correct. For in one class of 
the months the highest pitch of the heat is Safar, whilst in the other it 
is Eamadan ; and this (that the greatest heat should be either in Safar 
or in Eamadan) is not possible at one and the same period, or at two 
periods which are not very far distant from each other. 

Intercalation of the Ancient Arabs. — At the time of paganism 

10 the Arabs used their months in a similar way to the Muslims ; their 
pilgrimage went wandering around through the four seasons of the year. 
But then they desired to perform the pilgrimage at such time as their 
merchandise (hides, skins, fruit, etc.) was ready for the market, and to 
fix it according to an invariable rule, so that it should occur in the most 
agreeable and abundant season of the year. Therefore they learned the 
system of intercalation from the Jews of their neighbourhood, about 
200 years before the Hijra. And they used intercalation in a similar 
way to the Jews, adding the difference between their year and the solar 
year, when it had summed up to one complete month, to the months of 

20 their year. Then their intercalators themselves, the so-called Kaldmis 
of the tribe Kinana, rose, after pilgrimage had been finished, delivered a 
speech to the people at the fair, and intercalated the month, calling the 
next following month by the name of that month in which they were. 
The Arabs consented to this arrangement and adopted the decision of 
the Kalammas. This proceeding they called " Nasi," i.e. postponement, 
because in every second or third year they postponed the beginning of 
the year for a month, as it was required by the progression of the year. 
One of their poets has said : — 

" We have an intercalator, under whose banner we march ; 
30 He declares the months profane or sacred, as he likes." 

The first intercalation applied to Muharram; in consequence Safar 
was called Muharram, Eabi' I. was called Safar, and so on ; and in this 
way all the names of all the months were changed. The second inter- 
calation applied to Safar ; in consequence the next following month 
(Eabi I.) was called Safar. And this went on till intercalation had 
passed through all twelve months of the year and returned to Muharram. 
Then they commenced anew what they had done the first time. 

The Arabs counted the cycles of intercalation and fixed thereby their 
dates. They said for instance : " From the time x till the time y the 
40 years have turned round one cycle." 

But now, if notwithstanding intercalation it became evident that a 
month progressed beyond its proper place in the four seasons of the 
year, in consequence of the accumulation of the fractions of the solar 
year, and of the remainder of the plus-difference between the solar year 



74 ' ALBiEUNt. 

and the lunar year, to which latter they had added this plus-difference, 
they made a second intercalation. Such a progression they were able to 
recognize from the rising and setting of the Lunar Mansions. This went 
on till the time when the Prophet fled from Makka to Madina, when the 
turn of intercalation, as we have mentioned, had come to Sha'ban. 
p. 63. Now, this month was called Muharram, and Eamadan was called 
Safar. Then the Prophet waited till the " fare^vell pilgrimage," on which 
occasion he addressed the people, and said : " The season, the time has 
gone round as it was on the day of God's creating the heavens and the 
earth." (Sura ix. 38.) By which he meant that the months had returned 10 
to their original places, and that they had been freed from what the Arabs 
used to do with them. Therefore, the " farewell pilgrimage," was also 
called " the correct pilgrimage." Thereupon intercalation was prohibited 
and altogether neglected. 

Months of the Themudeni. — 'Abu-Bakr Muhammad ben Duraid 
Al'azdi relates in his Kitdb-alwisMh, that the people Thamud called the 
months by the following names : — 

I. Mujib i.e. Muharram. VII. Haubal. 
Mujir. Mauha. 

Murid. Daimur. 20 

Mulzim. Dabir. 

Musdir. Haifal. 

Haubar. Musbil. 

He says that they commenced their year with the month Daimur, i.e. 
Eamadan. The following is a versification of these names by 'Abu-Sahl 
'Isa ben Yahya Almasihi : — 

" The months of Thamud are Mujib, Mujir, Murid ; then follow 

Mulzim and Musdir. 
Then come Haubar and Haubal, followed by Mauhct and Daimur. 
Then come Ddbir, and Haifal, and Musbil, till it is finished, the most 30 

celebrated amoug them." 

Arabic Names of Days. — The Arabs did not, like the Persians, give 
special names to the single days of the month, but they had special 
names for each three nights of every month, which were derived from 
the state of the moon and her light during them. Beginning with the 
first of the month, they called — 

The first three nights (lst-3rd) ghurar, which is the plural of ghurra, 
and means the first of everything. According to others they were 
called so, because during them the new moon appeared like a Maze 
on the forehead of a horse. 40 

The second three nights (4th-6th) nufal, from tanaffala, which means, 
" beginning to make a present without any necessity." Others call 
them shuhb, i.e. the white nights. 



ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS. 76 

The third three nights (7th-9th) tusa', because the ninth night is the 
last of them. Others call them buh7', because in them the darkness 
of the night is particularly thick. 

The fourth three nights (10th-12th) 'tishar, because the tenth night is 
the first of them. 

The fifth three nights (13th-15th) hid, because they are 7vhite by the 
shining of the moon from the beginning of the night till the end. 

The sixth three nights (16th-18th) dtira^ because they are black at 

the beginning like the sheep with a hlach head and a white body. p. 64. 
10 Originally the comparison was taken from a coat of mail in which 

people are clad, because the colour of the head of him who is 
dressed in it, differs from the colour of the rest of his body. 

The seventh three nights (19th-21st) zulam, because in most cases 
they were dark. 

The eighth three nights (22nd-24th) handdis (from hindis-=extrera.Q\Y 
dark). Others call them duhm, on account of their being dark. 

The ninth three nights (25th-27th) da'ddi', because they are remain- 
ders (or last parts). Others derive it from the mode of walking of 
the camels, viz., stretching forth the one foot, to ivhich the other is 
2" quicTdy following. 

The tenth three nights (28th-30th) mihdk, on account of the waning 
of the moon and the month. 

Besides, they distinguished certain nights of the month by special 
names, e.g. the last night of the month was called sio-dr, because in it the 
moon hides herself ; it was also called fahama on account of there being 
no light in it, and hard' , because the sun has nothing to do with it. 
Likewise the last day of the month was called nahir, because it is in the 
nahr (throat) of the month. The 13th night is called saivd, the 14th the 
night of " hadr," because in it the moon is full, and her light complete, 
30 For of everything that has become comj)lete you say hadara; e.g. 10,000 
dirhams are called one hadra, because that is supposed to be the most 
complete and the last number, although it is not so in reality. 

The Arabs used in their months also the seven days of the week, the 
ancient names of which are the following : — 

1. 'Awwal, i.e. Sunday. 

2. 'Ahwan. 

3. Jubar. 

4. Dubar. 

5. Mu'nis. 
*0 6. 'Aruba. 

7. Shiyar, 

They are mentioned by one of their poets in the following verse : — 
" I strongly hope that I shall remain alive, and that my day (of 
death) will be either 'Awwal, or ^ Ahwan, or Jubdr, 



Or the following day, Buhdr, or if I get beyond that, either Munis 
or 'Aruba or Shiydr." 

Afterwards the Arahs gave them the following new names : — 

Al-'ahad, i.e. one. 

Al-ithnan, „ two. 

Al-thulatha, „ three. 

A.l-'arbi'a, „ four. 

Al-khamis „ five. 

Al-jum'a, „ gathering. 

Al-sabt, „ sabbath. 10 

The Arabs fixed the beginning of the month by the appearance of 
new moon, and the same has been established as a law in Islam, as the 
Lord has said (Sura ii. 185) : " They will ask thee regarding the new 
moons. Speak : they are certain moments of time for the use of man- 
kind (in general) and for pilgrimage." 

Determination of the leng-th of Ramadan, the Month of 

Fasting. — Some years ago, however, a pagan sect started into existence 
somehow or other. They considered how best to employ the interpre- 
tation (of the Koran), and to attach themselves to the system of the 
exoteric school of interpreters who, as they maintain, are the Jews and 
Christians. For these latter have astronomical tables and calculations, 
by means of which they compute their months, and derive the knowledge 
of their fast days, whilst Muslims are compelled to observe new moon, 
and to inquire into the different phases of the light of the moon, and 
into that which is common to both her visible and invisible halves. But 
then they found that Jews and Christians have no certainty on this 
subject, that they differ, and that one of them blindly follows the other, 
although they had done their utmost in the study of the places of the 
moon, and in the researches regarding her motions (lit. expeditions) and 
stations. 30 

Thereupon they had recourse to the astronomers, and comj^osed their 
Canons and books, beginning them with dissertations on the elements of 
the knowledge of the Arabian months, adding various kinds of compu- 
65. tations and chronological tables. Now, jDeople, thinking that these 
calculations were based upon the observation of the new-moons, adopted 
some of them, attributed their authorships to Ja'far Al-sadik, and 
beheved that they were one of the mysteries of prophecy. However, 
these calculations are based not upon the apparent, but upon the mean, i.e. 
the corrected, motions of sun and moon, upon a lunar year of 364^ days, 
and upon the supposition that six months of the year are complete, six 40 
incomplete, and that each complete month is followed by an incomplete 
one. So we judge from the nature of their Canons, and from the books 
which are intended to establish the bases on which the Canons rest. 



20 



ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. 77 

But, when tliey tried to fix thereby the beginning and end of fasting, 
their calculation, in most cases, preceded the legitimate time by one day. 
Whereupon they set about eliciting curious things from the following 
word of the Prophet : " Fast, when she (new-moon) appears, and cease 
fasting when she re-appears." For they asserted, that the words " fast, 
when she appears " (<i;a«jJ \^^), mean the fasting of that day, in the 
afternoon of which new-moon becomes visible, as people say, " prepare 
yourselves to meet him " ((3j\,;.fl;u.S ^^j-;^*), in which case the act of preparing 
precedes that of meeting. 

10 Besides, they assert that the month of Eamadan has never less than 
thirty days. However, astronomers and all those who consider the sub- 
ject attentively, are well aware that the appearance of new-moon does 
not proceed regularly according to one and the same rule for several 
reasons : the motion of the moon varies, being sometimes slower, some- 
times faster ; she is sometimes near the earth, sometimes far distant ; 
she ascends in north and south, and descends in them ; and each single 
one of these occurrences may take place on every point of the ecliptic. 
And besides, some sections of the eclij)tic sink faster, others slower. 
All this varies according to the different latitudes of the countries, and 

20 according to the difference of the atmosj)here. This refers either to 
different places where the air is either naturally clear or dark, being 
always mixed up with vapours, and mostly dusty, or it refers to different 
times, the air being dense at one time, and clear at another. Besides, 
the power of the sight of the observers varies, some being sharp-sighted, 
others dim-sighted. And all these circumstances, however different 
they are, are liable to various kinds of coincidences, which may happen 
at each beginning of the two months of Ramadan and Shawwal under 
innumerable forms and varieties. For these reasons the month Ramadan 
is sometimes incomplete, sometimes complete, and all this varies accord- 

30 ing to the greater or less latitude of the countries, so that, e.g. in 
northern countries the month may be complete, whilst the same month 
is incomplete in southern countries, and vice versa. Further, also, these 
differences in the various countries do not follow one and the same rule ; 
on the contrary, one identical circumstance may happen to one month 
several consecutive times or with interruptions. 

But even supposing that the use which they make of those tables and 
calculations were correct, and their computation agreed with the appear- 
ance of new-moon, or preceded it by one day, which they have made a 
fundamental principle, they would require special computations for each 

40 degi-ee of longitude, because the variation in the appearance of new- 
moon does not depend alone upon the latitudes, but to a great extent p. 66. 
also upon the longitudes of the countries. For, frequently, new-moon 
is not seen in some place, whilst she is seen in another place not far to 
the west ; and frequently she is seen in both places at once. This is one 
of the reasons for which it would be necessary to have special calculations 



78 ALBtEUNf. 

and tables for every single degree of longitude. Therefore, now, their 
theory is quite Utopian, viz. that the month of Eamadan should always 
be complete, and that both its beginning and end should be identical in 
the whole of the inhabited world, as would follow from that table which 
they use. 

If they contend that from the (above-mentioned) tradition, which is 
traced back to Muhammad himself, the obligation of making the 
beginning and end of fasting precede the appearance of new-moon, 
follows, we must say that such an interpretation is unfounded. For the 
particle Ldvi («:^yj^ ,«S) relates to future time, as they have mentioned, 10 
and relates to past time, as you say, e.g. '.—jq^\ (j^ ,_j^ \aS3 •..-^ 
(" dated from this or that day of the month"), i.e. from that moment when 
X days of the month were past already, in which case the writing does 
not precede the past part of the month. And this, not the first 
mentioned, is the meaning of that tradition. Compare with this the 
following saying of the Proj>het : " We are illiterate people, we do not 
write nor do we reckon the month thus and thus and thus," each time 
showing his ten fingers, meaning a complete month or thirty days. Then 
he repeated his words, saying, " and thus and thus and thus," and at 
the third time he held back one thumb, meaning an incomplete month 20 
or twenty-nine days. By this generally known sentence, the Prophet 
ordained that the month should be one time complete, and incomplete 
another time, and that this is to be regulated by the appearance of new- 
moon, not by calculation, as he says, " we do not write, nor do we reckon 
(calculate).'" 

But if they say that the Prophet meant that each complete month 
should be followed by an incomplete one, as the chronologists reckon, 
they are refuted by the plain facts, if they will not disregard them, and 
their trickery in both small and great things, in all they have committed, 
is exposed. For the conclusion of the first-mentioned tradition proves 30 
the impossibility of their assertion, viz. "Fast when she (new-moon) 
appears, and cease fasting when she re-appears, but if heaven be clouded so 
as to prevent your observation, reckon the month Sha'bdn as thirty days." 
And in another tradition, the Prophet says, " If a cloud or black dust 
should prevent you from, observing the new moon, make the number thirty 
complete." For if the appearance of new-moon be known either from 
their tables and calculations, or from the statements of the authors of 
the canons, and if the beginning and end of fasting is to precede the 
appearance of new-moon, it would not be necessary to give full thirty 
days to the month Sha'ban, or to count the month Eamadan as full 40 
thirty days, in case the horizon should be covered by a cloud or by dust. 
And this {i.e. to give full thirty days to Ramadan) is not possible, except 
by performing the fasting of the day in the evening of which the new- 
moon is first seen. 



ON THE NATUEE OF MONTHS. 79 

If, further, the month Ramadan were always complete, and its 
beginning were known, people might do without the observation of 
new-moon for the month Shawwill. In the same way, the word of 
the Prophet : "and cease fasting when she (new-moon') re-apjpears" is to be 
interpreted. 

However, party spirit makes clear-seeing eyes blind, and makes sharp- 
hearing ears deaf, and instigates people to engage in things which no 
mind is inclined to adopt. But for this reason, such ideas would not p. 67. 
have entered their heads, i£ you consider-the traditions which occur in 

10 the books of the 8hi^a Zaidiyya, — may God preserve their community ! — 
and which have been corrected by their authorities, — may God bless 
them ! — as for instance, the following : In the time of the Priace of the 
Believers ('Ali) people had been fasting twenty-eight days in the month 
of Eamadan. Then he ordered them still to perform the fasting of one 
day, which they did. The fact was that both consecutive months, 
Sha'ban and Ramadan, were imperfect, and there had been some obstacle 
which had prevented them from observing new-moon at the beginning 
of Eamadan ; they gave the month the full number of thirty days, and 
at the end of the month the reality of the case became evident. Then 

20 there is the following saying, related to have been pronounced by 'Abu 
'Abd-Allah Alsadik : " The month of Ramadan is liable to the same increase 
and decrease as the other months.'" Also the following is reported of the 
same : " If you observe the month Sha'bdn without being able to see the new- 
moon, count thirty and then fast.'' The same 'Abu- 'Abd- Allah Alsadik, on 
beiag asked regarding the new-moon, said : " If you see the new moon, 
fast, and if you see her again, cease fasting .'' All these traditions in the 
code of the Shi'a refer only to the fasting. 

It is astonishing that our masters, the family of the Prophet, listened 
to such doctrines, and that they adopted them as a uniting link for the 

30 minds of the community of the believers who profess to follow them, 
instead of imitating the example of their ancestor, the Prince of the 
Believers ('Ali), in his aversion to conciliating the obstinate sinners, 
when he spoke: "I did not hold out an arm to those who lead astray" 
(i.e. 1 did not lend support to them). 

As regards the following saying, ascribed by tradition to Alsadik : 
" When you observe the new-moon of Eajab, count fifty-nine days, and 
then begin fasting ;" and the following saying ascribed to the same: "If 
you see the new-moon of the month of Eamadan at the time when she 
appears, count 354 days, and then begin fasting in the next foUowiag 

40 year. For the Lord has created the year as consisting of 360 days. 
But from these he has excepted six days, in which he created the heavens 
and the earth ; therefore they (these six days) are not comprehended 
in the number (of the days of the year) " — regarding these traditions we 
say, that, if they were correct, his (Alsadik's) statement on this subject 
would rest on the supposition, that it (the month Eamadan) was really 



80 ALEiEUNi. 

greater in one place, and did not follow the same rule everywhere, as we 
have heretofore mentioned. Such a method of accounting for the six 
days is something so subtle, that it proves the tradition to be false, and 
renders it void of authenticity. 

In a chronicle I have read the following : 'Abu-Ja'far Muhammad ben 
Sulaiman, Governor of Kufa, under the Khalif Mansur, had imprisoned 
*Abd-alkarim ben 'Abi-al'auja, who was the uncle of Ma'n ben Za'ida, 
one of the Manichseans. This man, however, had many protectors in 
Baghdad, and these urged Mansur in his favour, till at last he wrote to 
Muhammad ordering him not to put 'Abd-alkarim to death. Meanwhile, 10 
'Abd-alkarim was expecting the arrival of the letter in his cause. He 
said to 'Abu-aljabbar confidentially : " If the 'Amir gives me respite for 
three days, I shall give him 100,000 dirhams." 'Abu-aljabbar told this 
to Muhammad, who replied : " You have reminded me of him, whilst I 
68. bad forgotten him. Eemind me of him when I return from the mosque." 
Then, when he returned, 'Abii-aljabbar reminded him of the prisoner, 
whereupon he (Muhammad) ordered him to be brought and to be 
beheaded. And now, knowing for certain that he was to be killed, 
he said, " By God, now that you are going to kill me, I tell you that 
I have put down 4,000 traditions (in my books), in which I forbid 20 
that which is allowed, and allow that which is forbidden. And 
verily, I have made you break your fast when you ought to have 
fasted, and I have made you fast when you ought not to have fasted." 
Thereupon he was beheaded, and afterwards the letter in his cause 
arrived. 

How thoroughly did this heretic deserve to be the author of this 
subtle interpretation which they have adopted, and of its original (i.e. 
the text to which the interj^retation refers) ! 

I myself have had a discussion with the originator of this sect, 
regarding the Musnad-tradition (i.e. such a tradition as is carried back by 30 
an uninterrupted chain of witnesses to Muhammad himself). On which 
occasion I compelled him to admit that consequences, similar to those 
here mentioned, follow from his theories. But then in the end he 
declared, that the subject was one that of necessity resulted from the 
language (i.e. from the interpretation of the Ldm-altaukit) , and that the 
language has nothing whatever to do with the law and its corollaries. 
Thereupon, I answered : " May God have mercy upon you ! Have not 
God and his Prophet addressed us in the language generally known among 
the Arabs ? But the thing is this, that you have nothing whatever to do 
with the Arabic language ; and also in the science of the law you are utterly 40 
ignorant. Leave the law aside and address yourself to the astronomers. 
None of them would agree with you regarding your theory of the per- 
petual completeness of the month of Eamadan ; none of them thinks 
that the celestial globe and sun and moon distinguish the moon of 
Eamadan from among the others, so as to move faster or slower just in 



ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. 81 

this particular month. The luminaries do not mark out this month in 
particular as do the Muslims, who distinguish it by performing their 
fasting in it. 

However, arguing with people who are obstinate on purpose, and per- 
severe in their obstinacy on account of their ignorance, is not productive 
of any good, either for the student or for the object of his researches. 
Grod speaks (Sura lii. 44) : " If they saw a piece of heaven falling down, 
they would say, ' It is only a conglomerated cloud.' " And farther 
(Sura vi. 7) : " If we sent down to you a book (written) on paper, and 
10 they touched it with their hands, verily the unbelieving would say, 
' This is nothing but evident witchcraft.' " God grant that we may 
always belong to those who follow and further the truth, who crush and 
expose that which is false and wrong ! 

Months of the Reformed Calendar of Almu'tadid.— The months 
of Almu'tadid are the Persian months, with the same names and the 
same order. But the Persian days are not used in these months, because 
to the Epagomense in every fourth year one day is added by way of 
intercalation ; and so for that reason which we have mentioned, when 
speaking of the months of the Egyptians, the (Persian) names of the 
20 single days have been dropped. The order of intercalation used in these 
months agrees with that of the Greeks and Syrians. 

As to the months of the other nations, Hindus, Chinese, Tibetans, 
Turks, Khazars, Ethiopians, and Negroes, we do not intend, although 
we have managed to learn the names of some of them, to mention them 
here, postponing it till a time when we shall know them all, as it does 
not agree with the method which we have followed hitherto, to connect 
that which is doubtful and unknown with that which is certain and 
known. 

We have collected in the following table the names of the months 
30 which have been mentioned in the preceding part of this book, in order 
to fardlitate the study of the various kinds of them. God leads to the 
truth ! 



82 



ALBtEi^Nt. 



p. 69. 



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<?^ ,-d f^ 


d 


rd 

<cS 

u 
ce 


<ct 


<ce 

d 
ce 


J4_l F=H 


.s« 


p.* 


^ 


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S-l 

d 


<CS 




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© M 
©^ 
^g 

a 






-li 


M H 


^ 


s g 


<^ 


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P 


M 


02 
1— 1 


•ill 


•1 


c 


It 


i 


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5> 


3^ 

3 


! 


^ 


1 
^ 


of their 

the 

iroz. 


1 

f3 


1 


1 


u 


I 


it 


I) 




4 


r 


1 


The beginning 
months is 
second Nat 


m 








lO 














fe.S 


:3 
J 


r 


1^ i 

•1 


j 






'^ 


% 


1 


1 



ON THE NATdRB OP MONTHS. 



83 













d 




























cS 




























rd 












M 




c^ 




CO 


s 






r^ 




d 








d 




d 




u 








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S 


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rd 

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d 




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't:* 




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o 


d 


~o 


c3 








S 


O 


P^ 


^ 


h; 


H 


>H 


M 


s 


H 


S 


The beginning of 
these months is an 
assumed day 
which is not in rela- 
tion to anything 
else. 


GO 

i 


-(-=1 

o 

1 -tJ 


05 

rd 
-1-2 


4^ 

=d 


0) 




















PI 

m 


rd 
OS 


d 

<d 

d 

M 


<d 
d 

<ce 

M 


rd 




d 

<si 

02 


^1 




1 


rd 
r^ 


<HH 


1 

1 a> 




















02 








of these mont 
day of the 
h Kanun the 

St. 




1 s 


d 

1 

d 


02 

.5 


02 

d 

1 


02 

.2 

<I1 


02 

d 

'd 
d 


02 

.2 

d 


02 

d 

02 

d 

d 
< 


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rS 

a 

CD 

pL, 

0) 


02 

d 

'S 

a 

o 

o 

o 


CO 

.2 

1 

> 

o 

I2; 


02 

.d 

'?H 

■a 



CD 
fi 


bo ui a ^ 






















































a >-i o 




























The beginni: 

is the fi 

Syrian m 


C IE 

P 


02 


05 

a; 


to 

d 

-1-2 


02 

d 
o 

1 


02 

• r-t 

1 


03 

.2 

'Sq 


02 

d 


02 

d 


03 

d 
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o 


2 

pi 

1>^ 


02 

d 
3 d 


02 

d 




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fi 


X 


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fi 


Ph 


Hi 


i) 


w 


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u 
















rd 


<^ 










d ID 
















+3 


rd 










(D --H 
















<o 


■u 












m 

o 
O 








1 




td 


d 


<d 


d 

<o 


"d 


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r^ 





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d 


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o 


^ 


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rd 


rd 


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rd 


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rd 


rd 


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^ 


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lii 


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EH 


PM 


-< 


Q 


H 


pLn 


Pm 


PM 


CM 


H 


^ 
























































beginning 
is the 29 

e beginnin 

year is t 

Dai- 




























<D 


























■Sis 

-J 








-^3 

02 

d 


a 

0) 






rO 




d 


rd 




o :3 






d 
d 


'd 

1-5 


be 

d 
< 


a; 

m 


O 

o 

o 


iX> 

o 


a; 
fi 


1 


1 


'?H 


'inning of 
months 
3n junction 
g place 
he vernal 
linox. 




D 




J 


J. 
'3 


4^ 


1 




4 

i 


■? 


J 






«j g o a-f^ £, 


M 


























a)d,ij d S 




























H .2 -d 
























































leen ab 
how 
month 
what 
, nor 
hey ar 














>^, 


t>^ 






>-. 






m 1 


rd 


:d 
:d 

M 


>^ 




< 
I 


<< 


<^ 


•1— J 


>^ 


«< 


>^ 


>-> 


I have not t 

to learn 

long these 

are, nor 

they mean 

what kind t 


Eh 


<< 

'd* 

• rH 


<-< 
M 


Id 

02 

<D 


•I— s 

_d 

'r^ 

0) 

GO 


d 

d 


1 

d 
O 


I 

-4-3 


«1 

••d 


<< 

'a 

0) 



71. 



6 * 



84 ALBtR^Nt. 



p. 72. CHAPTER VI. 

ON THE DERIVATION OF THE ERAS FROM EACH OTHER, AND ON THE 
CHRONOLOGICAL DATES, RELATING TO THE COMMENCEMENTS AND 
THE DURATIONS OF THE REIGNS OF THE KINGS, ACCORDING TO THE 
VARIOUS TRADITIONS. 

It is the special object at which I aim in this book, to fix the durations 
(of the reigns of the kings) by the most correct and perspicuous method. 
But, now, wishing to explain the derivation of the eras from each other 
in conformity with the usual mode of the canons, which specify the 
various kinds of calculation and of derivation (e.g. stating one era in 10 
the terms of another), and which contain rules and paradigms, I find 
this subject to be a very wide one, and the wish to embrace this whole 
science compels me to cause trouble both to myself and to the reader. 

Agreeably to the method which I have adhered to from the beginning 
of this book, I shall explain the intervals between the epochs of the 
usual eras by a measure which is counted in the same way by all nations, 
i.e. by days ; for, as we have already mentioned, both years and months 
are differently measured. Everything else is generally mentioned in 
years, but for the knowledge of the intervals between the epochs of the 
eras the statement in days\s quite sufficient, since it has been impossible 20 
to obtain a knowledge of the real quality of the years of the various 
eras, and there has been but little need for the use of them. 

Now, if we in some places wander about through various branches of 
science, and plunge into subjects which are not very closely connected 
with the order of our discussion, we must say that we do not do this 
because we seek to be lengthy and verbose, but as guided by the desire 
of preventing the reader from getting tired. For if the mind is con- 
tinually occupied with the study of one single science, it gets easily 
tired and impatient ; but if the mind wanders from one science to 
another, it is as if it were wandering about in gardens, where, when it 30 
is roving over one, another one already presents itself ; in consequence 
of which, the mind has a longing for them, and enjoys the sight of 
them J as people say, "Everything that is new offers enjoyment." 



EEAS, DATES, AND EEIGNS OF KINGS. 



85 



Now let us begin with the traditions of those to whom a divine book 
was sent (Jews and Christians) regarding Adam, his children and their 
descendants. All this we shall fix in tables, in order to facilitate the 
pronunciation of their names, and the study of the different traditions 
regarding them. On this subject we combine the traditions of the Jews 
and Christians, placing them opposite to each other (in the same table). 
We commence by the help of Grod, under his guidance, and with his 
gracious support. 







03 A 


O) J, 


C3 1 


m o ^ 


■" o 


<» ..; 






hen 
n— ac 

ans. 


of th 
Chris 


Si 


I live 
orn t 
Jews 


)gethereach c 
-according t 








fc S-J3 


0) 


^^ m 


a-^ 2 


Z 2 


10 


The Names of the Descendants 

of Adam, who form the 

Chronological Chain of the Era, and 


w old they were 
on was born to th 
ording to the Chris 


CU O 

2^ 


fe » 


L of the 
ad been 
ing to tl 


ai o ' 




the Chronological Ditferences 

between Christians 

and Jews regarding them. 


e sum of tl 
ra — accordi 
ians. 


K. fl O 

goo 


ow long each 
after a son h 
him — accord 


w long alt( 
hem lived- 
he Jews. 


:S3 ' 

o| 

If 






o w o 


^.^ 


O OQ CS 


O-M-M 


^"^ 






w 


W 


w 


w 




I. — Adam the father of mankind — till 
















the birth of his son Seth . 


230 


230 


130 


800 


930 


130 




Seth ben Adam — till the birth of 
















his son Enos .... 


205 


435 


105 


807 


912 


235 




Enos ben Seth — till the birth of 














20 


his son Cainan .... 
Cainan ben Enos — till the birth of 


190 


625 


90 


815 


905 


325 




his son Mahalaleel . 


170 


795 


70 


840 


910 


395 




V. — Mahalaleel ben Cainan — till the 
















birth of his son Jared 


165 


960 


65 


830 


895 


460 




Jared ben Mahalaleel — till the 
















birth of his son Enoch 


162 


1122 


162 


800 


962 


622 




Enoch ben Jared — till the birth of 
















his son Methuselah . 


165 


1287 


65 


300 


365 


687 




Methuselah ben Enoch — till the 














30 


birth of his son Lamech . 
Lamech ben Methuselah — tUl the 


167 


1454 


187 


782 


969 


874 




birth of his son Noah 


188 


1642 


182 


595 


777 


1056 




X. — Noah ben Lamech — till the birth 
















of his son Shem 


500 


2142 


500 


450 


950 


1556 




Shem ben Noah — till the Deluge . 


100 


2242 


100 


500 


600 


1656 




From the Deluge till the birth of 
















Arphaxad ben Shem 


2 


2244 


2 








1658 




Arphaxad ben Shem— till the birth 
















of his son Salah 


135 


2379 


35 


463 


498 


1693 


40 


Salah ben Arphaxad — till the birth 
















of his son Eber 


130 


2509 


30 


460 


49U 


1723 




XV.— Eber ben Salah— till the birth of 
















his son Peleg .... 


134 


2643 


34 


396 


430 


1757 




Peleg ben Eber— till the birth of 
















his son Reu .... 


130 


2773 


30 


179 


209 


1787 




Reu ben Peleg — till the birth of 
















his son Serug .... 


132 


2905 


32 


175 


207 


1819 




Serug ben Reu — till the birth of 
















his son Nahor .... 


130 


3035 


30 


170 


200 


1849 


60 


Nahor ben Serug — till the birth of 
















his son Terah .... 


79 


3114 


29 


119 


148 


1878 




XX. — Terah ben Nahor— till the birth 
















of his son Abraham . 


75 


3189 


70 


135 


205 


1948 



73. 



86 albIe^nI. 

74. Now, he wlio studies the numbers of years of this table, till the birth 
of Abraham, will become aware of the difference between the two 
systems (that of the Christians and that of the Jews). 

The Jewish copy of the Thora, although stating the duration of the 
lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Kohath, and Moses, does not 
specify how old they were when a son was born to each of them, nor 
how long they lived after that ; except in the case of Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. For it is stated that Isaac was born unto Abraham when 
he was 100 years of age, and that he afterwards lived 75 years more ; 
that Jacob was born unto Isaac when he was 60 years of age ; that 10 
Jacob entered Egyj)t together with his sons, when he was 130 years of 
age, and that he after that lived 17 years more. 

Now, the Israelites stayed in Egypt 210 years, according to the state- 
ment of the Jews, that between the birth of Abraham and that of Moses 
there was an interval of 420 years, and that Moses was 80 years of age, 
when he led the Israelites out of Egypt. Prom the second book of the 
Thora, however, we learn that the entire length of the sojourning of the 
Israelites in Egypt was 430 years. If, now, the Jews are asked to 
account for this difference, they maintain that that space of time is to be 
counted from the day when God made the treaty with Abraham, and 20 
promised him to make him the father of many nations, and to give to 
his descendants the country of Canaan as an inheritance. But we leave 
the matter to God, who knows best what they mean. 

The chronological differences regarding the later periods of Biblical 
history, arising out of the three different copies of the Thora, are of the 
same kind as we have already explained. 

How little care the Jews bestow upon their chronology is shown to 
evidence, by the fact, that they, all of them, believe in the first instance, 
that between their exodus from Egypt and Alexander there is an interval 
of 1,000 years, corrected (i.e. made to agree with the sun or real time) 80 
by intercalation, and that they rely on this number in their computation 
of the qualities of the years (whether they be perfect or imperfect or 
intermediate). But if we gather from their books which follow after 
the Thora, the. years of every one of their rulers after Moses, the son of 
Amram, and add them together, we get a sum which already at the 
building of Jerusalem goes beyond the millennium by such a space of 
time as cannot be tolerated in chronological computations. If this sum 
were too small (less than a millennium) , the difference might be accounted 
for by assuming that an interval between two persons might have been 
omitted. But a surplus in this case does not admit of any interj)retation 40 
whatsoever. 

Being unable to give a satisfactory answer to such a, question, some of 
them assert that the accurate specification of these years was found in 
the records of the family of Juda, and that these records are no longer 
at their disposal, but have been carried off to the countries of the 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 87 

Greeks. For after the death of Solomon, the Israelites were split into 
two parties. The tribes of Juda and Benjamin elected as their king the 
son of Solomon, whilst the ten tribes elected as their king Jeroboam, 
the client of Eehoboam, the son of Solomon. And thereupon he led 
them astray (to idolatry), as we shall mention hereafter in the chapter 
on the Jewish festivals. His children reigned after him, and both 
parties made war upon each other. 

The following is a synopsis of the years of their rulers, who ruled 
over them after their exodus from Egypt, when they marched towards 
10 Bahr-al-kulzum (the Eed Sea) in order to pass it, and to march to AlWi, a p- 75. 
desert in Alhijaz, in the direction of Jerusalem; all of which rests on 
the authority of their chronicles. But they have another book which 
they call Seder-'oldm (ch^y ")"1D), i-e. the years of the world, which 
contains a less sum of years than that of the hooJcs which follow after the 
Thora, whilst in some respects it comes near to their original system. 
The statements of both these kinds of their historical records we have 
collected in the following synopsis . 



88 



albIr^n!. 



76. 



The Names of the Rulers, Governors, 


•g be" 


i 


to ^ 


1 


Priests, and Judges of the 
Israelites till the Foundation of the 




1A 


111 


en 


Temple, which is a space of 




o 


be '^O 
PI "l 


O 


480 years. 


lTf;2 


CQ 


^nS-^ 


QQ 




^^a 


0) 




© 




° Sw 


rC| 


° um 


^ 




W 


H 


W 


H 


The Israelites left Egypt and dwelt in 










tlie desert till the death of Moses 


40 


40 


40 


40 


Yehoshu'a ben Nun, the successor of 










Moses 


27 


67 


27 


67 


'Othni'el ben Kenaz .... 


40 


107 


40 


107 


'Eglon the king of Mo'ab and the Ama- 










lekites of the Bani-' Amnion 


18 


125 


— 


— 


'Ehud ben Grera, the left-handed, of the 










Ephraimites 


80 


205 


80 


187 


Shamgar ben 'Anath .... 


20 


225 


— 


— 


Debora the prophetess and her lieu- 










tenant Barak ..... 


40 


265 


40 


227 


The Midianites, the oppressors 


7 


272 


7 


234 


Grid' on ben 'Ofra,of the tribe of Manasseh 


40 


312 


|43 


277 


'Abimelekh ben Gid'on .... 


3 


315 


Tola' ben Pu'a, of the tribe of Ephraim 


23 


338 


) 




Ya'ir from Gil'ad, of the tribe of Ma- 






U4 


321 


nasseh ...... 


22 


360 


) 




The sons of 'Ammon the Philistine, i.e. 










the people of Palestine 


18 


378 


18 


339 


Yiftah from Gil'ad .... 


6 


384 


6 


345 


'Ibsan, also called Nahshon, from Beth- 










lehem 


7 


391 


7 


352 


'Elon 


10 


401 


10 


362 


'Abdon ben Hillel 


8 


409 


8 


370 


The Philistines 


40 


449 


— 


— 


Shimshon the giant of the tribe of Dan 


20 


469 


20 


390 


The people without a ruler , 


10 


479 


— 


— 


'£]li the priest ..... 


40 


519 


40 


430 


The ark in the hands of the enemies. 










until Samuel was sent 


10 


529 


10 


440 


Samuel, till they asked him to give them 










a king, whereupon he made Talut 










their king 


20 


549 


— 


— 


Saul, i.e. Talut 


20 


569 


20 


442! 


David ; he commenced building the 










Temple in the 11th year of his reign . 


40 


609 


40 


482 


Solomon ben David — till he finished the 










Temple 


3 


612 


3 


485 



10 



20 



30 



40 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



89 





The Names of the Kings and other 


1 fl <^ 


i 




i 




Rulers of the Israelites from 


''S-IS 




-5^ ^ 


ID 




the Foundation of the Temple till its first 


; ^1^ 

® 8 o 




eac 
ceo 

Ian: 


«f-i 




Destruction, which is a space of 


PI 03 d 


o 

a 


"i 


o 

a 




410 years, 


l^';2 




°f - 


pi 






^1;^ 


® 




» 






o Sfp 


rd 


O SCQ 


r^ 






W 


H 


W 


H 




Solomon ben David — after the Temple 












was finished .... 


37 


649 


37 


522 




Rehab'am ben Solomon 






17 


666 


17 


539 




'Abiyya ben Rehab'am . 






3 


669 


2 


541 


10 


'Asa ben 'Abiyya . 






41 


710 


41 


582 




Yehoshafat ben 'Asa 






25 


735 


23 


605 




Yehoram ben Yehoshafat 






8 


743 


6 


611 




'Ahazya ben Yehoram . 






1 


744 


11 


622 




'Athalya — till she was killed by Yo'ash 


6 


750 


6 


628 




Yo'ash ben 'Ahazya — till he was killec 












by his people .... 


40 


790 


40 


668 




'Amazya ben Yo'ash — till he was killed 


29 


819 


29 


697 




'Uzziya ben 'Amazya — till he died 


52 


871 


52 


749 




Yotham ben 'Uzziyya— till he died 


16 


887 


16 


765 


20 


'Ahaz ben Yotham — till he died . 
Hizkiyya ben 'Ahaz, the king of all the 


16 


903 


16 


773! 




tribes 


29 


932 


29 


802 




Menashshe ben Hizkiyya 


55 


987 


55 


857 




'Ammon ben Menashshe 


2 


989 


2 


859 I 




Yoshiyya ben 'Ammon — till he was killec 












by the king of Egypt 


31 


1020 


31 


890 




Yeho'ahaz ben Yo'shiyya — till he was 








1 




made a prisoner by the king of Egypi 


3 


1023 


— 


— 




Yehoyakim ben Yeho'ahaz, set up by 








1 


80 


the king of Egypt 
Yehoyakhin ben Yehoyakim, till he was 


10 


1033 


11 


901 i 




made a prisoner by Nebucadnezar 


3 


1036 


— 


— 




Sidkiyya — till he rebelled against Nebu- 








' 




cadnezar, when he was killed and the 












Temple destroyed 


6 


1042 


11 


912 




The Temple remained in ruins 


70 


1112 


70 


982 




But according to another view between 












the time when they were led intc 










40 


captivity and Daniel there was an 


L 










interval of 


I 90 


1202 


90 


1052! 




From Daniel till the birth of the Mes- 


■ 










siah 


. 483 


1685 


483 


1536 




From the birth of the Messiah till the 












epoch of the flight of Muhammad 


600 


2285 


600 


2135 



p. 77. 



p. 78. 



90 ALB$R^t. 

It cannot be thought strange that you should find similar dis- 
crepancies with people who have several times suffered so much from 
captivity and war as the Jews. It is quite natural that they were dis- 
tracted by other matters from preserving their historical traditions, 
more particularly at times of such distress, " when each woman who 
suckled a child forgot her child, and each pregnant woman gave birth to 
the burthen of her womb." (Sura xxii. 2.) 

Besides, the governorships and headships were not always held by one 
and the same tribe, but came to be divided (among several tribes) after 
the death of Solomon the son of David ; then one part of them was 10 
held by the tribes of Juda and Benjamin, another part by the other 
tribes of the Israelites. 

Further, their rule was not organized so well ; nor their empire and 
government handed over from one to the other in such good order as to 
render it necessary for them both to preserve the dates when each of 
their rulers ascended the throne, and to record the duration of his reign, 
except by a rough method of computation. For some people maintain 
that, after the death of Joshua, Kushan, the King of Mesopotamia, of 
the family of Lot, overpowered them, and held them under his sway 
during eight years ; that then Othniel rose. And some people attribute 20 
to his rule more years, others less. 

Frequently, one author thinks that some ruler reigned over them so- 
and-so many years, whilst another assigns to his rule a less number of 
years, and maintains that the former number represents the duration of 
his whole life (not that of his rule) ; or a third possibility is this, that 
by adding the two spaces of time, mentioned by the two authors, you 
get a common space of time for two rulers, during which they ruled 
simultaneously. 

The chronological system of the Seder-'olam, although coming near to 
the sum (assumed by the generality of the Jews), differs considerably 30 
from the statements in detail ; this applies specially to the time of the 
first building of the Temple, not to mention the uncertainty which hangs 
over those points of their history which we have spoken of before. 

The length of the Human Life. — Some one among the inexperienced 
and foolif^h people of the Hashwiyya and Dahriyya sects, have rejected 
as incredible the long duration of life which has been ascribed to certain 
tribes in the past, specially to the patriarchs before the time of Abraham. 
Likewise they consider as monstrous what has been related of the huge 
size of their bodies. They maintain that all this lies altogether beyond 
the limit of possibility, drawing their conclusions from objects which 40 
they are able to observe in their own age. They have adopted the doc- 
trine of astrologers, regarding the greatest possible gift (of years of 
life) which the stars are supposed to bestow upon mankind in the 
79. nativities, if the following constellation occurs : The sun must be at 
such a nativity both mater familiaa and paterfamilias, i.e. he must stand 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 9tl 

in his domus (o'lko<;), or in his altituclo (vi//-co/;ta) , in a cardo, and in a cori' 
cordant masculine quarter. In that case he bestows his greatest years, 
i.e. 120 years, to which the 

Moon - - adds 25 years. 

Venus - - „ 8 „ 

Jupiter - - „ 12 „ 

These are the smallest years of each of these three stars, for they are 
not able to add a greater number of years, if they have a concordant 
aspect (in relation to the horoscope). Further, the two unlucky among 

10 the stars (Saturn and Mars) must have no aspect to the horoscope, so as 
not to exercise any diminishing influence. The Caput Braconis must 
stand with the sun in the same sign of the eclij)tic, but still sufficiently 
far from him, so as not to stand within the opoi iKXuirrLKol. 

If this constellation occurs, it increases the gift (of years of life) of 
the sun by one fourth, i.e. 30 years. So the whole sum of years makes 
215 years, which they maintain to be the longest duration of life which 
mortal man may reach, if it is not cut short by any accident. The 
natural duration of life is to be 120 years, because the existence of the 
world depends upon the sun ; and this number of years represents the 

20 greatest years of the sun. 

Those people have settled this question as it best pleases them. And 
if reality followed their desire, heaven and earth would be greatly the 
worse for it. They have built their theory on a basis, the contrary of 
which is approved of by astronomers, in so far as they ascribe ' ' greatest 
years " to these planets. They say in their books that these planets 
used to bestow their " greatest years " in the millennia of the fiery signs 
of the zodiac, when in them the rule was exercised by the superior 
planets (Saturn, Jupiter, Mars), and when the years of the sun and of 
Venus were made to exceed by far the longest duration of life ascribed 

30 to any one of the patriarchs. 

This man is their master in chronology ; they trust in his word, and 
do not oppose his audacity. He actually maintains that man may live 
during the years of a, " middle conjunction '' (of Saturn and Jupiter), 
when the nativity coincides with the transitus of the conjunction from 
one trigon to another, whilst the ascendens is one of the two houses of 
either Saturn or Jupiter, when the sun is mater familias in day-time, and 
the moon at night, exercises the greatest j^ower ; that the same is 
possible, if this same constellation occurs at the transitus of the con- 
junction to Aries and its trigons. 

40 And the argument for the assertion, that the new-born human being 
may live during the years of the " greatest conjunction," i.e. about 
960 years, until the conjunction ret\u-ns to its original place, is of the 
same description. 



92 ALBiRUNi. 

He has explained and propounded this subject in the beginning of his 
book, " De Nativitatihus." 

This, now, is their belief in the gifts (of years of life) of the stars. 

Regarding these years, which the single planets are supposed to 
bestow upon mankind, we have had a discussion with the astronomers 
who use them, in the Kitdb altanbih 'aid sind'at altamwih (i.e. the book in 
which the swindling profession is exposed), and we have given a direction 
how to use the best method in all questions where these years occur in 
the book entitled, Kitdb alshumus alshdfiya lilnufus. 

Now, personal observation alone, and conclusions inferred therefrom, lo 
do not prove a long duration of the human life, and the huge size of 
human bodies, and what else has been related to be beyond the limits 
of possibility. For similar matters appear in the course of time in 
manifold shapes. There are certain things which are bound to certain 
times, within which they turn round in a certain order, and which 
undergo transformations as long as there is a possibility of their existing. 
If they, now, are not observed as long as they are in existence, people 
think them to be improbable, and hasten to reject them as altogether 
80. impossible. 

This applies to all cyclical occurrences, such as the mutual impreg- 20 
nation of animals and trees, and the forthcoming of the seeds and their 
fruits. For, if it were possible that men did not know these occurrences, 
and then were led to a tree, stripped of its leaves, and were told 
what occurs to the tree of getting green, of producing blossoms and 
fruits, etc., they would certainly think it improbable, till they saw it with 
their own eyes. It is for the same reason that people, who come from 
northern countries, are filled with admiration when they see palm-trees, 
olive-trees, and myrtle-trees, and others standing in full-bloom at winter- 
time, since they never saw anything like it in their own country. 

Further, there are other things occurring at times in which no cyclical 30 
order is apparent, and which seem to happen at random. If, then, the 
time in which the thing occurred has gone by, nothing remains of it 
except the report about it. And if you find in such a report all the 
conditions of authenticity, and if the thing might have already occurred 
before that time, you must accept it, though you have no idea of the 
nature nor of the cause of the matter in question. 

Irregular Formations of Nature.— There are still other things 

which occur in like manner, but which are called ^' faults of nature" 
(lusus natures), on account of their transgressing that order which is 
characteristic of their species. I, however, do not call them "faults of 40 
nature," but rather a superfluity of material beyond the due proportions 
of the measure of everything. To this category belong, e.g. animals 
with supernumerary limbs, which occur sometimes, when nature, whose 
task it is to preserve the species as they are, finds some superfluous sub- 
stance, which she forma into some shape instead of throwing it away ; 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 93 

likewise animals with imperfect limbs, when nature does not find the 
substance by which to complete the form of that animal in conformity 
with the structure of the species to which it belongs ; in that case she 
forms the animal in such a shape, as that the defect is made to lose its 
obnoxious character, and she gives it vital power as much as possible. 

This is illustrated by an example, which Thabit ben Sinan ben Thabit 
ben Kurra relates in his chronicle, viz. that he had seen near Surraman- 
ra'a an Indian chicken that had come out of the egg without a defect, 
and of complete structure ; but its head had two beaks and three eyes. 

10 The same author reports, that to Tuzun, in the days of his reign, people 
brought a dead kid with the round face, the jaws and teeth like those of 
man ; but it had only one eye, and something like a tail on its forehead. 
Further, he relates that in the district Almukharrim, of Baghdad, there 
was born a child, which died instantly ; it was brought before Ghurur- 
aldaula Bakhtiyar at the time when his father Mu'izz-aldaula was still 
alive, and he examined it. It was one complete body without a defect, 
and without an addition, except that two protuberances rose from it, and 
upon these there were two complete heads, with complete lineaments, 
with eyes, ears, two nostrils, and two mouths ; between the loins were 

20 genitals like those of a woman, out of which the orifice of the penis of 
a man was apparent. 

Another report of his says, that one of the nobles of the Greeks sent 
to Nasir-aldaula, in the winter of a.h. 352, two men grown together by 
the stomach ; they were Aramaeans, and twenty-five years of age. He P- 81. 
says, they were called Multahiydni (i.e. two bearded men). They were 
accompanied by their father. They turned their faces towards each 
other, but the skin, which formed the common connecting link between 
them, was long, and besides susceptible of extending so far as to permit 
the one to rise from the side of the other. People describe them as 

30 having, each of them, separate and complete organs of generation ; that 
they did their eating and drinking, and the exoneratio alvi at different 
times ; that they used to ride on one animal, the one closely behind the 
other, but so as to turn their faces towards each other; that the one had 
an inclination for women, the other for boys. 

There is no doubt that the Vis Naturalis (the creative power of 
nature), in all work it is insj^ired and commissioned to carry out, never 
drops any material unused, if it meets with such ; and if there is abun- 
dance of material, the Vis Naturalis redoubles its creating work. Such 
a double-ci'eation sometimes proceeds in this way, that one being comes 

40 into existence in close proximity to another, being at the same time 
something separate by itself, as, e.g. in the case of twins ; sometimes a 
being comes into existence tied up to another being, as, e.g. in the case 
of the two Aramaeans; at other times, again, a being comes into existence 
inserted into and mixed up with another one, as in that case which we 
mentioned before speaking of the two Aramaeans. 



94 ALBtR^Nt. 

The various kinds of double-creations of this and other descriptions 
are also found among the other animals (besides man). There are, e.g. 
said to be certain species of sea-fishes that are double ones. I mean to 
say, if you open such a fish, you find a similar one inside. 

Frequently, too, the reduplication of formation may pass into a multi- 
plication. All of which is also found among the j^lants. Look, for 
instance, at the double-fruits that are grown together, at the fruits with 
double kernels, which are included in one shell. An example of such a 
double-formation, of which the one thing is inserted into the other, is 
an orange, in the interior of which you find another orange of the same 10 
kind. 

Frequently the Vis Naturalis has not succeeded in finishing the double- 
creation, and producing a complete whole. In which case, she increases 
the number of limbs, either in their proper places, as e.g. supernumerary 
fingers — for although they are more than usual and than is necessary, 
still they are found in that place which is appropriated to fingers, — or not 
in their proper places. And in this case it would be correct to call such 
a formation an Error of Nature. An instance of this is the cow that 
was in Jui'jan at the time of the Sahib, and when the family of Buwaihi 
held the country under their sway. Everybody, both young and old, 20 
had seen it, and they related to me that it had on the bunch close to the 
neck a foreleg like its other two forelegs, quite complete, with its 
shoulder, its joints, and hoof ; and that she moved it about as she liked, 
contracting and extending it. 

This case may justly be considered an error (of nature), because that 
supernumerary limb was quite useless, and because it had neither its 
proper place nor direction. 

Now, all these and similar classes (of uncommon creations), on which 
I have composed special books, would not be admitted as possible by 
anyone who did not witness them, because he would not find in them the '^O 
conditions of authenticity. 

Length of the Human Life.— The length of human life is taught 
by experience to be I'egulated by a genealogical ratio. For instance, 
with the Himyarites and others, long life is a peculiarity. Besides long 
life occurs in one place to the exclusion of others, e.g. in Farghana and 
Yamama. For well-informed people relate that in those countries some 
people grow older than anywhere else. And in this respect they are still 
surpassed by the Arabians and Indians. 

Of this same ' Abu-Ma'shar . Albalkhi, the following story is related by 
'Abu-Sa'id Shadhan in his Kitdb-almudhakara-MV asrdr (i.e. the book in 40 
which he l)rings mysterious subjects before the mind of the reader) : — 
p. 82. The nativity of a son of the King of Serendib (Ceylon) was sent to him. 
His Ascendens was Gemini n , whilst Saturn stood in Cancer s , and the 
Sun in Caj)ricom Vf . Now, 'Abu-Ma'shar gave his judgment that he 
would live during the middle cycle of Saturn. Thereupon, I said to 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OP KINGS. 96 

him, " God forbid ! The otKoSco-TroTiys moves backward in the crisis of 
retrograde motion in a domiis cadens of the cardines, so as not to give 
more than its small cycle. Tou must subtract fifty years therefrom on 
account of the retrograde motion." 

'Abu-Ma'shar : " Those peoj^le are the inhabitants of a KXijxa, of whom 
one knows beforehand that they live very long, so that they frequently 
live on in a decrepit state, whilst Saturn is their comjpanio7i. I have been 
told that, if a man dies before reaching the middle cycle of Saturn, 
people wonder that he has died so soon. If, therefoi'e, Saturn occupies 
10 the dignity of ot/coSto-TroTT^s in a KXifxa of his own, he does not, in most 
cases, give less than his great and middle cycles, except he be in cadente 
domo." 

I : " But, surely he is in cadente domo." 

'Abu-Ma'shar : " Quite so ! He (Saturn) is falling out of the figure 
of the Aspectus, but he is not falling out of the Directio." 

(Here is a lacuna.) 

The mysteries of the second are numerous. It is likewise in a well 
beneath the earth. In this circumstance there is curious matter for 
astonishment. Now, in this place, they have admitted that in one KAt/xa 
20 people live longer than in another. 

In another place he ('Abu-Sa'id Shadhan) relates of the same 'Abu- 
Ma'shar, that he was in his company when he was asked by 'Abu-'Isma, 
the Wazir of Saifar, regarding something in the signs of his nativity, 
which he ('Abu-'Isma) was alarmed about. 

'Abu-Ma'shar : " Do you know of what age your father died ? " 

'Abu-'Isma: "Yes." 

'Abu-Ma'shar : " Have you already reached the same age ? " 

'Abu-'Isma : " I have passed it already." 

'Abu-Ma'shar : " Do you know at what age your mother died ? " 
30 'Abu-'Isma : " Yes. That age, too, I have passed already." 

'Abu-Ma'shar: "Do you know how long your paternal grandfather 
lived ? " 

'Abu-'Isma : " Yes. But that I have not yet reached." 

'Abu-Ma'shar : " Then consider whether that difference, which is 
indicated by your nativity, agrees with the life of your grandfather f " 

'Abu-'Isma : " Yes, it does agree." 

'Abu-Ma'shar : " In that case you are right to be alarmed." Then he 
proceeded to explain : " Nature is most powerful. For in any mishap that 
befals a man when he is as old as his father or mother or his paternal 
40 grandfather were at the time of their death, he is certain to perish, 
except there be strong evidence (to the contrary). This is clear, too, in 
plants and seeds. For there are certain species of them which are 
known to exist very long, whilst others soon meet with mishaps and 
exist only a short time." 



96 ALBtEf^Nl. 

Now, 'Abu-Ma' sliar again admits in this place that the duration of 
life is regulated by a genealogical ratio. Therefore, that astrological 
theory, to which they cling, is devoid of sense, since they admit such a 
genealogical ratio as not impossible. On the contrary, it is necessary, as 
we have already mentioned. 

If this sect will reject everything that does not occur in their time or 
place, so as to fall under their personal observation, if they do not them- 
selves find this everlasting scepticism of theirs absurd, if they will not 
admit anything that has happened in their absence, we can only say that 
extraordinary occurrences do not happen at all times ; and if they, 10 
indeed, happen in some one age, they have in the course of time and 
the passing of generations no other tie which connects them with pos- 
terity except the uninterrupted chain of tradition. Nay, if they would 
draw the last conclusions from their theory, they would be mere sophists, 
and would be compelled to disbelieve anybody who would tell them that 
there are still other countries in the world besides those in which they 
are living ; and other absurdities of a similar kind would follow. 

If you would listen to them on the subjects which they propound, you 
83.' would find that they refer to the traditions of the Indians, and rely on 

various sorts of tricks which they attribute to them. By way of argu- 20 
ment they always mention an Indian idol, cut out of stone, the neck of 
which is surrounded by numerous iron collars, which represent the 
Indian eras of 10,000 years, and, if counted, would amount to an enor- 
mous sum of years. But if you then tell them what they, i.e. the 
Indians, maintain, viz. that the King of Jamalabadhra, that town whence 
the Myrohalana, the Phyllanthus emblica, and the Myrobalana hellerica are 
exported, even at the age of 260 years, rode and hunted and married, 
and behaved altogether like a young man, and that all this was the 
consequence of a dietetic treatment, they will reject it, and declare that 
the Indians are evident liars, not really learned men, because they base 30 
their sciences upon inspiration, and that therefore their doctrines are 
not trustworthy. Besides, they will begin to speak of the subtlety of 
all the tenets of the Indians in all questions of law and religion, of 
reward and punishment (eschatology), and they will dwell on the various 
sorts of torture which they practise in castigating their own bodies. 

It is this sect whom God means in the verse of the Koran (Sura x. 
40) : " Nay, they have declared to be a lie something, the science of 
which they did not comprehend"; and in the other verse (Sura xlvi. 10) : 
" And as they would not be guided thereby, verily, they will say : That 
is an old lie." They admit only that which suits them, although it be 40 
feeble, and they avoid everything that differs from their dogma, although 
it be true. 

I have read a book of 'Abu-'Abdallah Alhusain ben 'Ibrahim Altabari 
Alnatili, a treatise on the duration of natural life, where he maintains 
that its greatest length is 140 solar years, beyond which no increase is 



EEAS, DATES, A?^D EEIGNS OF KINGS. 97 

possible. He, however, wlio denies this so categorically, is required to 
produce a proof, which the mind is obliged to accept, and in which it 
acquiesces. But he has not established the least proof for his assertion, 
except that in his premises he lays down the following theory : — 
Three Status Perfectionis are peculiar to man — 

I. His attaining to manhood (or womanhood), the time when he 
becomes able to propagate his own race. That is the beginning 
of the second Seventh. 
II. When his thinking power ripens, and his intellect proceeds from 
1^ Swa/xts to 7roti7crts. That is the beginning of the sixth Seventh. 

III. When he becomes able to govern himself, if he be unmarried ; 
his family affairs, if he be married ; his public affairs, if he 
exercise some public authority. 

The sum of these three Status Perfectionis is to be 140 years. 

We do not see by what proportion 'Abii-'Abdallah has calculated these 
numbers. For there is no proportion nor progression apparent among 
them. Verily, if we conceded to him that there are three such Status 
Perfectionis, if we then counted them in the way he has done, and 
declared finally, pre-supj^osing we did not apprehend being required to 

20 establish a proof, that the sum of these Stat^ls is 100 or 1,000 or some- 
thing like it, his method and ours would be quite the same. However, 
there is this difference, that we find, that in our time man attains those 
phases of development, which he rej^resents as the characteristic signs 
of the Status Perfectionis, in quite other Sevenths and times than those 
which he mentions. God knows best his meaning ! 

As regards the (superhuman) size of the bodies (of former genera- 
tions), we say, if it be not necessary to believe it for this reason, that 
we cannot observe it in our time, and that there is an enormous interval 
between us and that time, of which such things are related, it is there- 

30 fore by no means impossible. It is the same, the like of which is related 

in the Thora of the bodies of the giants (Nephilim, Eepha'im, 'Enakim), p. 84. 
and the belief in this has not been abandoned since the time when the 
Israelites saw them with their own eyes. Therefore everybody may 
attack and ridicule this subject, if he likes ! If the Thora was read to 
them, and they read it themselves, though up to that moment they had 
not declared the readers of the Thora to be liars, yet even if the giants 
were something quite different from what they are described to be (i.e. 
less extraordinary), they would declare the reader of the Thora to be a 
liar, in case he related anything that is not borne out by their experience 

40 and observation. If, indeed, there had never been classes of men with 
bodies of an extraordinary vastness, God having given them an uncom- 
mon size (vide Koran, ii. 24), no recollection of them would have remained 
in the uninterrupted chain of human tradition, and j)eople would not 
compare with them everybody who in size exceeds their genus, as it is 

7 



98 ALBtE^Nf. 

known to us. For instance, the people of *Ad have become proverbial 
in this sense. But how can I expect them to believe me regarding the 
j^eople of 'Ad, since they reject even that which is much nearer to our 
time and much more apparent ? They produce such arguments as do not 
counterbalance the very weakest of those arguments which are urged 
against them. They shun accepting the striking arguments, flying 
before them like fugitive asses that fly before a lion (Koran, Ixxiv. 51). 
What would they say of the monuments of larger races of men which 
exist still at the present time, such as the houses which were cut into the 
solid rocks in the mountains of Midian, of the graves built in the rocks, 10 
and of bones buried in their interior, which are as large as camel-bones 
and even larger, of the bad smell of those localities, which is so strong 
that you cannot enter there without covering the nose with something ? 
And it is the common consent of all who inhabit those places that they 
(the authors of those monuments) are " the peojple of darJcness." But, 
when they hear of " the day of darhness," they only laugh in a mocking 
way, make grimaces in haughty disdain, turn up their noses in joy over 
their theories, and in the persuasion that they are infinitely sujoerior to, 
and altogether distinguished from all common people. But God is 
sufficient for them ; they will get the reward of their doings, and we 20 
that of ours ! 

Chronolog'ical Tables. — In some book 1 have found tables illustrative 
of the durations of the reigns of the kings of the Assyrians, i.e. the 
people of Mosul, of the kings of the Copts, who reigned in Egypt, and 
of the Ptolemaean princes, each of whom was called Ptolemaeus. For 
Alexander, when dying, ordered that every king of the Greeks after him 
should be called Ptolemaeus, in order to frighten the enemies, because 
the word means " the warlike.'" In the same book I have found the 
chronology of the later kings of the Greeks. 

In this book, the interval between the birth of Abraham and 30 
Alexander was reckoned as 2,096 years, which is more than Jews, 
Christians, and astrologers (those who apply the conjunctions of Saturn 
and Jupiter to history) reckon. 

Now I have transferred those identical tables into this place of my 
book. Time has not enabled me to correct the names of the kings on 
the basis of their true pronunciation. I hope, therefore, that everyone 
will endeavour to correct and amend them, who like myself wishes to 
facilitate the subject for the student, and to free him from fatigue of 
research. And nobody ought to transcribe these tables and the other 
ones except him who is well acquainted with the Hurilf-al-jummal, and 40 
honestly endeavours to preserve them correct. For they are corrupted 
by the tradition of the copyists, when they pass from hand to hand 
among them. Their emendation is a work of many years. 



ERAS, DATES, AND EEIGNS OP KINGS. 



99 





Names of the Kings of the Assyrians, 


How long 


The sum 




i.e. the people of Mosul. 


eacii 01 


of the 




They are 37 in number, and they reigned during 1305 years. 


tjiieni 
reigned. 


years. 




I. Belos ..... 


62 


62 




Ninos. HebuiltNiniveinMosul. Abra- 








ham was born in the [43rd year] of 








his reign .... 


52 


114 




Semiramis the wife of Ninos. She 






10 


founded the ancient Samarra west of 








Surra-man-ra'd 


42 


156 




Zames the son of Nines. Abraham was 








tried by him, and fled therefore to Pa- 








lestine in the [23rd year] of his reign 


38 


194 




V. Areios ..... 


30 


224 




Aralios . 






40 


264 




Xerxes . 






30 


294 




Armamithres 






38 


332 




Belochos 






35 


367 


20 


X. Balaios . 






52 


419 




Altadas . 






32 


451 




Mamythos 






30 


481 




Manchaleus 






30 


511 




Sphairos 






20 


531 




XV. Mamylos 






30 


561 




Sparethus 






40 


601 




Askatades 






40 


641 




Amyntes 






45 


686 




Belochos 






25 


711 


30 


XX. Balatores 






30 


741 




Lamprides 






32 


773 




Sosares . 






20 


793 




Lampares 






30 


823 




Panyas . 






45 


868 




XXV. Sosamos 






19 


887 




Mithraios 






37 


924 




Tautanes. In his time Hion was taken 








by the Greeks, who had made war 








upon it ... . 


31 


955 


40 


Teutaios .... 


40 


995 




Thinaios .... 


30 


1025 




XXX. Derkylos .... 


40 


1065 




Eupales. In his time David reigned 








over Israel .... 


38 


1103 




Laosthenes. In his time the Israelites 








were divided into two kingdoms 


40 


1143 




Piritiades .... 


30 


1173 




Ophrataios .... 


20 


1193 




XXXV. Ophratanes. On the 167th day of the 






60 


42nd year of his reign Homer was 
born, who is with the Greeks the first 








poet, as Imru'ul-Kais with the Arabs 


50 


1243 




Akraganes .... 


42 


1285 




XXXVII. Thonos Konkoleros 


20 


1305 



7 * 



100 



ALBiRI^Ni. 



87, Western authors relate that, diiring the reign of this last king 
(Thonos Konkoleros, alias Sardanapalus), the prophet Jonah was sent to 
Niniveh, and that a foreigner, called Arhdk (Arbaces) in Hebrew, Bah-ak 
in Persian, and Dahlidk in Arabic, came forward against this king, made 
war upon him, put him to flight, killed him, and took possession of the 
empire, holding it till the time when the Kayanians, the kings of 
Babylonia, whom western authors are in the habit of calling Chaldseans, 
brought the empire under their sway. The reign of Arbaces lasted 
seventy-two years. 

Here we must remark that the Chaldseans are not identical with the 
Kayanians, but were their governors of Babylonia. For the original 
residence of the Kayanians was Balkh, and when they came down to 
Mesopotamia, people took to calling them by the same name which they 
had formerly applied to their governors, i.e. Chaldseans. 

According to some chronicler, Nimrod ben Kush ben Ham ben Noah, 
founded a kingdom in Babylonia twenty -three years after the Confusion 
of Languages. And that was the earliest kingdom established on earth. 
The Confusion of Languages happened contemporaneously with the birth 
of the patriarch Ee'u. The same chronicler mentions other kings that rose 
after Nimrod, until the empire passed into the hands of the Assyrian 
kings, the chronology of whom has been illustrated by the preceding 
table. The chronology of the kings that have been recorded, is repre- 
sented by the following table : — 



10 



20 



The Kings of Babylonia. 


How long 

they 
reigned. 


Sum of 

the 
years. 


Nimrod 

u-jr^ ...... 

Samirus ...... 

Arpakhshadh ..... 

Babylonia aftaa-iXivros, till it was occupied by the 
Assyrians . 


69 

85 
72 
10 

6 


69 
154 
226 
236 

241 



30 



p. 88. I'^oi' the kings of Babylonia, we have also found another chronological 
tradition, beginning with Nebukadnezar the First (i.e. Nabonassar), and 
ending with the time when in consequence of the death of Alexander 
6 Ktio-ttj';, people began to date by the reigns of the Ptolemaean princes. 
This tradition, now, we have transferred into this book, having corrected 
the numbers for the durations of their reigns. As to the names, how- 
ever, I have simply transcribed them letter by letter, since I have not 
had an opportunity to correct them according to their pronunciation. 
The following table contains this chronological tradition. 



40 



EEAS, DATES, AND EEIGNS OF KINGS. 



101 







How long 








eacli 


The stun 




Table of the Kings of the Chaldeans. 


of them 


of the 






reigned. 


years. 




Bukhtanassar Primus. With him the era in 








the Almagest begins 


14 


14 




Nebucadnezar. Nadios 


2 


16 




Chinzeros ..... 


5 


21 




Ilulaios ..... 


5 


26 


10 


Mardokempad . . . . 


12 


38 




Arceaniis ..... 


5 


43 




'A/3ao■tAe^;TOS ..... 


2 


45 




Bilibes ..... 


3 


48 




Aparanadios ..... 


6 


. 54 




Erigebalos ..... 


1 


55 




Mesesimordakos .... 


4 


59 




' AfSao-iXevTo? Sevrepos .... 


8 


67 




Asaridinos ..... 


13 


80 




Saosduchinos .... 


20 


100 


20 


Nabopolassaros and Kiniladanos 


22 


122 




Xebucadnezar .... 


21 


143 




Bukhtanassar, who conquered Jerusalem 


43 


186 




J^'^J^ 


2 


188 




Belteshassar ..... 


4 


192 




Darius the Median, the First 


17 


209 




Cyrus, who rebuilt Jerusalem 


9 


218 




Cambjses . . . . . 


8 


226 




Darius 






36 


262 




Xerxes 






21 


283 


30 


Artaxerxes Primus 






43 


326 




Darius 






19 


345 




Artaxerxes Secundus 






46 


391 




Ochus 






21 


412 




WiT* • 






2 


414 


^ 


Darius 






6 


420 




Alexander ben Macedo, 6 kticttt^s 


8 


428 




Henceforward people commenced to date 








from the reign of Philippus, 







p. 89 



102 



ALBIRUNt. 



90. 



p. 91. 



Names of the Coptic Kings in Egypt. 


How long 


The sum 


They are 34 in number, besides the Persians, and 


of "tllSIH 


of the 


they reigned during 894 years. 


reigned. 


years. 


I. Diospolitse .... 


178 


178 


Smendis 






26 


204 


Susennes 






101 


305 


Nepherclieres 






4 


309 


V. Amenoplitliis 






9 


318 


Osoclior 






6 


324 


Psinaches 






9 


333 


Psusennes 






35 


368 


Sesoncliosis 






21 


389 


X. Osorthon 






15 


404 


Takelothis 






*13 


417 


Petubastis 






25 


442 


Osorthon 






9 


451 


Psammos 






10 


461 


XV. u-V^J^ (Euphanias ?) 




44 


505 


Sabakon ^tbiops 




12 


517 


Sebicbos 




12 


629 


Tarakos ^tbiops 




20 


549 


Ammeris ^tbiops 




12 


561 


XX. Stepbinatbis . 




7 


568 


Necbepsos 




6 


574 


Necbao 




8 


582 


Psammeticbos 




44 


626 


Necbepso (?) Necbao (?) 




6 


632 


XXV. Psammutbis . 




17 


649 


Vapbris 




25 


674 


Amasis 




42 


716 


Tbe Persians till Darius 




114 


830 


Amyrtaios 




6 


836 


XXX. Nepberites . 




6 


842 


Acboris 




12 


854 


Psammutbis and Mutbatos ( 


) * 


2 


856 


Nektanebes . 




13 


869 


Teos . 




7 


876 


XXXV. Nektanebos . 




18 


894 


Henceforward people ceased to dat 


e by tbe 


reigns of tbese and tbe Cbaldean kings 






and commenced to use tbe era of Alex- 






ander tbe Greek. 







* p. adds 58, L. adds 3, as the reading of another manuscript. 



EEAS, DATES, AND EEIGNS OE KINGS. 



103 



Here we add the chronological tables of the Ptolemaeans and the 
Roman Emperors. Chronology since the time of Philij)pns (Aridseus) 
consists of three parts : — I. of Anni Philippi ; II. of Anni Augusti ; 
III. of Anni Diocletiani. The first are the non-intercalated years of the 
Alexandrians ; the second are the intercalated years of the Greeks ; and 
of the same kind as the second are the Anni Diocletiani. With this 
king a new era commences, because, when the empire had devolved upon 
him, it remained with his descendants, and because after his death the 
Christian faith was generally adopted. Another (later) era than the 
10 ^ra Diocletiani has not been mentioned, although the rule several times 
slipped out of the hands of his family. God knows best ! Here follow 
the tables : — 



20 



30 



Names of the Kings of Macedonia, 

wlio are the Greeks (loiiians), also called 

Ptolemseans. 



Philippus ...... 

Alexander II. filius Alexandri 

Ptolemgeus filius Lagi 6 XoytKos. He conquered 
Palestine, went uj) to Jerusalem and led the 
Israelites into captivity. Afterwards he restored 
them to liberty and made them a present of the 
vases of their Temple .... 

Ptolemaeus Philadelphus. He caused the Thora 
to be translated into Greek 

Ptolemaeus Euergetes Phuskon Primus 

Ptolemaeus Philometor 

Ptolemaeus Epiphanes Phuskon Secundus 

Ptolemaeus Philopator the Deliverer 

Ptolemaeus Euergetes Alexander Secundus 

Ptolemaeus Soter the Iron-smith, Artium Fautor . 

Ptolemaeus Dionysius Optimus 

Cleopatra, till the time when Gajus, in Latin 
Julius, became Dictator .... 

Cleopatra, till the death of Gajus and the succes- 
sion of his son Augustus .... 

Cleopatra, till the time when he (Augustus) killed 
her ...... 



How long 


Snm of 


they 


the 


reigned. 


years. 


7 


7 


12 


19 


20 


39 


38 


77 


25 


102 


17 


119 


24 


143 


35 


178 


29 


207 


36 


243 


29 


272 


— 


275 


4a. 6m. 


279 


14a. 6m. 


294 



p. 92. 



The calling Cleopatra by the name of Ptolemceus is a point of dis- 
cussion, on account of her being a woman. But as she resided in 
4,0 Alexandria, and was the queen of it, she was called by that name. Gajus, 
in Latin Julius, means " king of the world." 



104 



ALBIEUNI. 



p. 93. 



p. 94. 



Names of the Eoman Kings, 

i.e. the Caesars wlio resided in Rome. They are 

the Banu-arasfar, i.e. the descendants 

of Sepho ben 'Eliphaz ben Esau ben Isaak ben Abraham. 



Augustus Caesar, after lie had killed Cleopatra 

Tiberius filius August! .... 

Gajus ...... 

Claudius, who killed the Apostle Paul and Simeon 
Petrus ...... 

Nero, who killed the believers 

Vespasianus. One year after his accession to the 
throne he conquered Palestine, and having be- 
sieged the Jews in Jerusalem for three years, he 
destroyed it, killed many, scattered the rest over 
the empire, and abolished their religious rites . 

Titus ...... 

Domitianus. In the 9th year of his reign Johannes 
the Evangelist was banished. Thereupon he hid 
himself on an island till the emperor's death. 
Then he left the island and dwelt in Ej)hesus . 

Nerva ...... 

Trajanus ...... 

Hadrianus. It was he who destroyed Jerusalem 
and forbade anyone entering it in the 18th year 
of his reign .... 

Antoninus. It was he who rebuilt Jerusalem 
Galenus says that he composed a book on ana- 
tomy in the beginning of his reign 

Commodus ..... 

Severus and Antoninus ... 

Antoninus alone. Towards the end of his reign 
Galenus died 

Alexander filius Mammsese. Mammsea means 
" weak " 

Maximinus 

Gordianus 

Philippus 

Decius, who occurs 
Sleepers 

G alius 

Valerianus 

Claudius 

Aurelianus 

Probus 

Carus and Carinus 



in the story of the Seven 



How long 

each of 

them 

reigned. 



43 

22 

4 

14 
14 



10 
3 



15 

1 

19 



21 



23 
32 

25 



13 
3 

6 
6 

1 

3 

15 

1 

6 
7 
2 



Sum of 

the 
years. 



43 

65 
69 

83 
97 



107 
110 



125 
126 
145 



166 



189 
221 
246 

250 

263 
266 

272 
278 

279 

282 

287! 

288 

294 

301 

303 



10 



20 



30 



40 



EEAS, DATES, AND EEIQNS OF KINGS. 



105 



10 



20 



30 



40 



60 



Names op the Kings of Christendom. 



Diocletianns ....... 

Constantinus. The first king -sviio adopted Christianity. He 
bnilt the walls of Constantinople. In the 1st year of his 
reign his mother, Helene, sought for the wood of the Cross, 
which she finally found. In the 19th year the bishops 
assembled ta Niceea and established the canons of Chris 
tianity ...... 

Constantinus (Constantius) .... 

Julianus Apostata ..... 

Valentinianus ...... 

Valens. He was burned, in escaping, in a barn 
Theodosius the Great ..... 

Arcadius, his son ..... 

Theodosius Minor. In his time Nestorius was excommuni 
Gated ........ 

Marcianns and his wife Pulcheria. In their time the Jacobites 
were excommunicated .... 

Leo the Great. He belonged to the moderate party . 
Zeno Alarminaki. He was a Jacobite . 
Anastasius. He built Ammorium, and was a Jacobite 
Justiaus ....... 

Justinianus. He built the church in Ruha (Edessa) . 
Tiberius ....... 

Maui'icius. He helped Kisra against Bahram Shiibin . 
Phocas, who was besieged in Constantinople by Shahrbaraz 

the general of Kisra . 
Heraclius the wise . 

Constantinus. He was murdered in the bath 
Constantinus .... 

Constantinus .... 

Justinianus. The Greeks cut off his nose 

Leontius. He was found to be a weak man, being decrepit 

So he was dethroned 
Tiberius. Apsimarus 
Justinianus Ehinometos 
Philippicus ...... 

Anastasius. Atlimus (Artemius). He was dethroned, when 
he could not carry on the war .... 

Theodosius. He was besieged by Maslama ben 'Abd-almaKk 
Leo the Great. He deceived Maslama and repulsed hun from 

Constantinople 
Constantinus, the son of Leo the Great 
Leo Junior, the son of Constantinus Senior 
Constantinus Junior, the son of Leo Junior 
Augusta (Irene) niled the Greek empire 
Nicephorus and Stauracius the son of Nicephorus 
Michael the son of Georgius .... 

Leo, till he was murdered by Michael in the church 

Michael Constantinopolitanus, the mm-derer of Leo ben Theo 

phUus ben Michael Constantinopolitanus 
Basilius the Slavonian, the last of their kings . 



How long 

each, of 

them 

reigned. 



21 



32 

24 
2 
1 
14 
17 
13 

42 

6 

18 
17 
27 
9 
37 
14 
14! 



31 

1 

27 

16 

10 

3 

7 
6 
3 

2 
1 

24 
34 

4 
18 

5 
18 

2 

7 

7a. 5m. 
3a. 5m. 



p. 96. 



Anni 
Diocle- 
tiani. 



21 



53 

77 
79 
80 
94 
111 
124 

166 

172 
190 
207 
234 
243 
280 
294 
298! 

318! 

349 

350 

377 

393 

403 

406 
413 
419 
422 

424 
425 

449 
483 
487 
505 
510 
528 



p. 96. 



106 



ALBfEUNt. 



97. 



p. 98. 



The Kings of Constantinople, 


How long 
each ""*'" 


Sum of 


as Hamza Alisfahani records them on the 




'j 


the. 


rears. 


authority of the judge Alwaki', who took them 


reigiicu.. 






from a book that belonged to the 
Greek Emperor. 






1 




Tears. 


Months. 


Tears. 


Months. 


Constantinus, the sou of Helene, the Victorious 


31 





31 





Constantinus, his son .... 


24 





55 





Jalianus his nephew ..... 


2 


6 


57 


6 


Theodosius ...... 


10 


9 


68 


3 


Gratianus. Valentinianus .... 


6 





74 


3 


Arcadius, the son of Theodosius 


13 


3 


87 


6 


Theodosius, the son of Arcadiua 


42 





129 


6 


Marcianus ...... 


29 





158 


6 


Leo Senior ...... 


16 





174 


6 


Leo Junior ...... 


1 





175 


6 


Zeno ....... 


17 





192 


6 


Anastasius ...... 


27 


4 


219 


10 


Antlis ....... 


11 


9 


231 


7 


Kastrondas. During his reign the Prophet was born 


38 


3 


269 


10 


Stephanus ...... 


4 


3 


273! 


1 


Marcianus (Mauricius). During his reign the Pro- 










phet received his Divine mission . 


20 


4 


293 


5 


Phocas. During his reign the flight of the Prophet 










occurred ...... 


8 





301 


5 


Heraclius and his son. During their reign the Pro- 










phet died ...... 


31 





332 


5 


Constantinus, the son of Heracles 


25 





367.? 


5 


Constantinus, the son of Heracles' wife 


17 





384 


5 


Constantinus, the son of Heracles 


10 





394 


5 


Leo or Leon (Lawi or Elyun) 


3 





397 


5 


Tiberius ...... 


7 





411? 


5 


Bstinus (Justinianus) ..... 


6 





417 


5 


Anastasius ...... 


6 





423 


5 


Theodosius ...... 


2 





425 


5 


Leo. During his reign the empire of the Banu- 










'Umayya was dismembered 


25 


3 


450 


8 


Leo, the son of Constantinus. People think that he 










was a worthless character, notwithstanding the 










length of his reign ..... 


5 





455 


8 


Constantinus, the son of Leo .... 


9 


10 


465 


6 


Constantinus ...... 


6 


5 


471 


11 


Irene, who received the empire from her father 


5 





476 


11 


Nicephorus, at the time of Harun Alrashid . 


8 


11 


485 


10 


Stauracius, his son ..... 





2 


486 





Michael, his son ..... 


7 


5 


[476 ?] 


5 


Theophilus, his son ..... 


22 


3 


498 


8 


Michael, the son of Theophilus. With this king the 










dynasty expires — at the time of the Khalif Al- 










mu'tazz ...... 


28 





526 


8 


Basilius the Slavonian .... 


20 





546 


8 


Leo the son of Basihus. Anno Hijrse 273 at the 










time of Almu'tadid ..... 


26 





[572] 


8 


Alexander, the son of Basilius. He died from a 










tumour in the belly, a.h. 299 


1 


2 


[573] 


10 


Constantinus, the son of Leo, A.H. 301. 


— 


— 




— 



EEAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 107 

Chronolog'y of the Persians. — The Persians call the first raan p. 99. 
Gayomarth, with the surname Girshdh, i.e. " hing of the mountain," or, as 
others say, Gilshah, i.e. " hing of the clay" because at that time there was 
no other man in existence (but himself, there being nothing but clay). 
People say that his name (Grayomarth) means " a living, rational, mortal 
being." 

The chronology of the Persians beginning with Gayomarth is divided 
into three parts : — 

A. Part I. From Grayomarth till the time when Alexander killed 
10 Darius, seized upon the provinces of the Persians, and transferred their 

scientific treasures to his own country. 

B. Part II. From that time till the time when Ardashir ben Babak 
came forward, and the Persian empire was re-established. 

C. Part III. From that time till the time when Tazdajird ben 
Shahryar was killed, when the empire of the Sasanian dynasty was 
dissolved and Islam arose. 

Regarding the beginning of the world, the Persians relate many 
curious traditions, how Ahriman, i.e. the devil, was born out of the 
thought of God and of his pride in the world. And also regarding 

20 Gayomarth : for God, being bewildered at the sight of Ahriman, was 
covered with sweat on the forehead ; this he wiped off and threw away ; 
and out of this sweat Gayomarth was born. Then God sent him to 
Ahriman, who overpowered him, and began to travel about in the world, 
always riding uj)on him. At last, Ahriman asked him what was the 
most odious and horrible thing to him. Whereupon he said, that on 
arriving at the gate of hell he woidd sufiEer a painful terror. On having 
arrived, then, at the gate Of hell, he became i-efractory, and managed by 
various contrivances to throw off the rider. But now Ahriman re- 
mounted him, and asked him from what side he was to begin devouring 

30 him. Gayomarth answered : " From the side of the foot, that I may 
still for some time look at the beauty of the world," knowing quite well 
that Ahriman would do the contrary of what he told him. Then Ahriman 
commenced devouring him from the head, and when he had come as far 
as the testicles and the sjDermatic vessels in the loins, two drops of 
sperma fell down on the earth. And out of these drops grew two 
Eibas bushes {Wie^im rihes), from among which Mesha and Meshana 
sprang up, i.e. the Persian Adam and Eve. They are also called Malha 
and Malhayana, and the Zoroastrians of Khwarizm call them Mard and 
Mardana. 

40 This is what I have heard from the geometrician, 'Abu-alhasan 
Adharkhur. 

In a different form this tradition, regarding the origin of mankind, is 
related by 'Abu-'Ali Muhammad ben 'Ahmad Albalkhi, the poet, in the 



108 albiri^n}. 

Shahnama, who premises that he has corrected his report on the basis of 
the following sources : — 

I. Kitdh-siyar-almuluk by 'Abdallah ben Almukaffa*. 
II. „ „ by Muhammad ben Aljahm Albarmaki. 

III. „ „ by Hisham ben Alkasim. 

IV. „ „ by Bahram ben Mardanshah, the Maubadh 

of the city of Sabur. 
V. „ „ by Bahram ben Mihran Alisbahani. 

Besides he has compared his account with that of the Zoroastrian 
Bahram of Herat. He says : Gayomarth stayed in Paradise 3,000 years, 10 
i.e. the millennia of Aries, Taurus, and Gemini. Then he fell down on 
the earth and lived there safely and quietly three other millennia, those 
of Cancer, Leo, and Virgo, till the time when all that is evil in the world 
was brought about by Ahriman. The story is as follows : that Gayo- 
marth, who was called GirsMh, because Gir means in Pahlavi "moun- 
tain," dwelt in the mountains (Aljibal-Media), being endowed with so 
p.lOO. much beauty that no living being could view him without becoming 
terrified and losing the control of its senses. 

Now, Ahriman had a son called Khrura, who one day met with Gayo- 
marth, and was killed by him. Whereupon, Ahriman complained to God 20 
of Gayomarth ; and God resolved to punish him in order to keep those 
covenants that existed between him and Ahriman. So he showed him 
first the punishments of this world and of the day of resurrection and 
other things, so that Gayomarth at last desired to die, whereupon God 
killed him. At the same moment two drops of sperma fell down out of 
his loins on the mountain Damdadh in Istakhr, and out of them grew 
two Ribas-bushes, on which at the beginning of the ninth month the 
limbs (of two human bodies) began to appear, which by the end of that 
month had become complete and assumed human shape. These two are 
Mesha and Meshyana. Fifty years they lived without any necessity for 30 
eating and drinking, joyfully and without any pain. But then Ahriman 
appeared to them in the shape of an old man, and induced them to take 
the fruit of the trees. He himself commenced eating them, whereupon 
he at once again became a young man. And now they (Mesha and Me- 
shyana) began to eat. Then they were plunged into misfortunes and evils. 
Lust arose in them, in consequence of which they copulated, A child 
was born unto them, but they devoured it from sheer ravenousness. 
But then God inspired their hearts with mildness. Afterwards the wife 
gave birth to six other children, the names of whom are known in the 
Avasta. The seventh birth produced Siyamak and Fravak, who married 40 
and begot a son Hoshang. 

Regarding the chronology of this first part, the lives of the kings and 
their famous deeds, they relate things which do not seem admissible to 
the mind of the reader. However, the aim of our undertaking being to 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



109 



collect and to communicate chronological material, not to criticize and 
correct historical accounts, we record that on which the scholars of the 
Persians, the Herbadhs, and Mauhadhs of the Zoroastrians agree among 
themselves, and which is received on their authority. At the same time 
we collect the materials in tables, as we have done heretofore, in order 
that our work may proceed on the same j)lan which we have laid down 
for the chronologies of the other nations. 

To the names of the kings we add their epithets, because they are 
distinguished by individual epithets, whilst as to the other kings, if they 
10 have any epithet at all, it is one common to their whole class, by which 
he as well as everybody else who reigns in his place is called. Those 
common epithets correspond to the Shahanshah of the Persians. A list 
of them we give in the following table : — 



20 



30 



40 









The Epithets 




The Classes of Princes. 




that apply to the 
Princes of these Classes. 


The Sasanian kings of the Persians . 


Shahanshah and Kisra. 


The G-reek kings .... 




Basili, i.e. Caesar. 


The kin 


gs of Alexandria . 




Ptolemseus. 


,, 


Yaman 




Tubba'. 


>) 


the Turks, Chazar, and 


Ta- 






gharghuz . 




Khakhan. 


)) 


the Grhuzz-Turks . 




Hanuta. 


5J 


the Chinese . 




Baghbur. 


5J 


India . . . 




Balhara. 


)5 


Kannuj 




Eabi. 


)5 


the Ethiopians 




Alnajashi. 


55 


the Nubians 




Kabil. 


)J 


the islands in the eastern 






ocean 




Maharaj. 


5) 


the mountains of Tabaristan 


Ispahbadh. 


)» 


Dunbawand 




Masmaghan. 


J) 


Gharjistan . 




Shar. 


5J 


Sarakhs 




Zadhawaihi. 


JJ 


Nasa and Abiward 




Bahmana. 


)> 


Kash .... 




Nidun. 


)J 


Far gh ana 




Ikhshid. 


5J 


Asrushana . 




Afshin. 


5> 


Shash .... 




Tudun. 


)> 


Marw .... 




Mahawaihi. 


55 


Nishapur 




Kanbar. 




Samarkand . 




Tarkhun. 


»J 


Sarir .... 




Alhajjaj. 


J» 


Dahistan 




Sul. 


>J 


Jurjan 




Anahpadh, 



p.lOl. 



110 



ALBtRI^Nt. 



The Classes of Princes. 



The Epithets 

that apply to the 

Princes of these Classes. 



p.l02. The kings of tlie Sclavonians 

„ tlie Syrians . 

„ the Egyptians 

„ Bamiyan 

Egypt . 
„ Kabul . 

„ Tirmidh 

„ Khwarizm 

„ Shirwan 

„ Bukhara 

„ Guzganan 



Kabbar. 
Nimrodh. 
Pharaoh. 
Shir- i- Bamiyan. 
Al'aziz. 
Kabul- Shah. 
Tirmidh- Shah. 
Khwarizm- Shah. 
Shirwan- Shah. 
Bukhara- Khudah. 
Guzgan-Khudah. 



10 



Individual epithets (of princes) were not in use before the reign of 
Islam, except among the Persians. 
Part I. is divided into three parts : — 

1. Peshdddhians, those who ruled over the whole world, founded cities, 
discovered mines and produced the metals, and found out the elements 

of handicrafts and arts ; who practised justice on earth, and worshipped 20 
God as is his due. 

2. Kings of J^ldn, which mesins " people of the highlands." They did 
not rule over the whole earth. The first who divided the empires of the 
world was Fredun the Pure, for he divided them between his sons, as a 
poet, a descendant of the family of the Kisras, says — 

" Then we have divided our empire in our time, 

Just as people divide meat on a meat-board. 
Syria and Greece as far as the setting-place of the sun 

We have given to a champion, to Salm. 
To Toz the Turks were given, and so a cousin 30 

Holds the country of the Turks. 
And to ^rdn Al'irak was given by dint of force. He has 

Obtained the rule, and we have obtained the benefits thereof." 

3. Kaydnians, the heroes. In their days the rule over the world 
became divided between the various nations. 

Between these parts (of ancient Persian chronology) there are gaps, 
on account of which the order and progress of chronology are much 
troubled and obscured. 

Here follow the kings of Part I., according to the opinion of the 
generality of the Persians. 4q 



EEAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



Ill 





The 






How 






classes 
of the 
Kings. 


The Names of the Persian Kings 
of Part I. 


Their 

Epithets. 


long 
each of 

them 
reigned. 


Sum 
of the 
years. 






Oaydmarth ..... 


Girshah . 


30 


30 




CO 


Till the birth of Mesha and Meshana, who is 










^i 


called " Mate?- fiUorum et filiarum." These 










s i 


two are the Persian Adam and Eve . 





40 


70 


10 




Till Mesha and Meshana married 


— 


50 


120 






Till the birth of H6shang 


— 


93 


213 






Hoshang ben Afrawak ben Siyamak ben Mesha 


Peshdadh 


40 


253 






Tahinurath ben Wijahan ben Inkahadh ben H6- 












shang — till the coming-forward of Budasaf . 


Zebawand 


1 


254 






The same — after that event 





29 


283 






Jam ben Wijahan. From the time when he 












ordered people to fabricate weapons till the 












time when he ordered them to spin and 












weave ...... 


Shedh . 


50 


333 


20 




Till the time when he ordered people to divide 












themselves into four classes . 


— 


50 


383 






Till the time when he made war upon the 










1 


demons and subdued them 


— 


50 


433 




Till the time when he ordered the demons to 












^ 


break rocks out of the mountains and to carry 










-+J 


them ...... 


— 


100 


533 




oT 


Till the time when he ordered a wheeled- 












carriage to be constructed. It was con- 










<e3 


straoted, and he rode upon it . 


— 


66 


599 


30 


n3 


After that, people lived in health and happiness 










m 

?? 


— till the time when he hid himself . 


— 


300 


899 




P-l 


He continued to be hidden — till he was seized 










J 


by Aldahhak, who tore out his bowels and 










H 


sawed him with a saw 
Aldahhak ben 'Ulwan of the Amalekites or — 
with another name — Bevarasp ben Arwand- 
asp ben Zingas ben Barishand ben Ghar, who 
was the father of the pure Arabians, ben 




100 


999 






Afrawak ben Siyamak ben Mesha 


Azhdahak 


1000 


1999 


40 




AfrecMn ben Athfiyan Gao ben Athfiyan Nigao 












ben Athfiyan ben Shahrgao ben Athfiyan 












Akhnnbagao ben Athfiyan Sipedhgao ben 












Athfiyan Dizagao ben Athfiyan Nigao ben 












Nefurush ben Jam the King . 


Almaubadh 


200 


2199 




O 


Iraj. He was killed by his brothers Salm and 










» 


Toj, who reigned after him. They were 'all 










o 


three sons of Afredun . . ^ . 


Almustafa 


300 


2499 






Minoshjihr ben Guzan, the daughter of Iraj — 










Q) m 


till the time when he killed Toj and Salm, 








50 




i.e. Sharm in Persian .... 


Fer6z 


20 


2519 




S3 


Till the time when the son of Toj occupied 












Eranshahr, and drove Minoshjihr out of the 










country ..... 


— 


60 


2579 




°^ 


Firdsiydh ben Bashang ben Inat ben Eishman 










S)-" 


ben Turk ben Zabanasp ben Arshasp ben Toj 










.a 

44 


— till the time when Minushjihr gained the 










<D 


victory over him and drove him away. Thex-e- 












upon they made a treaty on the basis of the 












well-known arrow-shot 


— 


12 


2591 



p.l03. 



p.l04. 



112 



ALBlE^^Nt. 



p.l05. 



The 
classes 
of the 
Kings. 


The Names of the Persian Kings 
of Part I. 


Their 
Epithets. 

i 


How 

long 

each of 

them 

reigned. 


Sum 
of the 
years. 


The kings of Elan, 
the people of 
the highlands. 


Min6shjihr — till his death 

Tozh the Turk occupying Al'irak 

Zdh ben Tahmasp ben Kamjahubar ben Zu ben~" 

Hushab ben Widinak ben Diisar ben Mi- 

noshjihr together with — 
Garshdsp, i.e. Sam ben Nariman ben Tahmasp 

ben Ashak ben Nosh ben Dusar ben Mi- 

noshjihr . . . . .^ 


Firasiyab 

The two 
companions. 


28 
12 


2619 
2631 

2636 


03 



2 

00 

1 


Kaikobddh ben Zagh ben Nudhaga ben Maishu 

ben Nudhar ben Min6shjihr . 
Kaikdus ben Kainiya ben Kaikobadh — till he 

rebelled, whereupon he was taken prisoner 

by Shammar and afterwards delivered by 

Rustam ben Dastan ben Garshasp the King . 
The same — from the latter event till his death 
Kaikhusru ben Siyawush ben Kaikaus — till the 

time when he went away as a holy pilgrim 

and hid himself .... 
Kailuhrdsp ben Kaiwaji ben Kaimanish ben 

Kaikubadh — till he sent Bukhtanassar to 

Jerusalem, who destroyed it . 
The same after that event 
Eaiwishtdsp ben Luhrasp — till the appearance 

of Zoroaster ..... 
The same after that event 
Kai Ai'dasMr — Bahnian ben Isfandiyar ben 

WishtasiJ ..... 
Khumdnt the daughter of Ardashir — Bahman . 
Bdrd ben Ardashir — Bahman 
Bard hen Bdrd — till he was killed by Alexander 

the Greek ..... 


The First 

Nimrud . 

Humayun 
TheBactrian 

Alherbadh 

(- Tall in | 
i the body, i 

Cihrazad . 

The great 

The second 


100 

75 
75 

60 

60 
60 

30 
90 

112 

30 
12 

14 


2736 

2811 
2886 

2946 

3006 
3066 

3096 
3186 

3298 

3328 
3340 

3354 



10 



20 



30 



The account of the chronology of this Part I., which we have given, 
is stated very differently in the Kitdh-alsiyar. Our account, however, 
comes nearest to that view regarding which people agree. The chro- 
nology of this same part, but in a different shape, I have also found in 
the book of Hamza ben Alhusain Alisfahani, which he calls " Chronology 
of great nations of the past and present." He says that he has endeavoured 
to correct his account by means of the Abasia, which is the religious 
code (of the Zoroastrians). Therefore I have transferi'ed it into this 
place of my book. 



40 



ERAS, DATES, AXD REIGNS OF KINGS. 



113 



TABLE II. OF PART I. 



10 



20 



Names of the Peshdadhian Kings, 
taken from the Abasttl, beginning with 
Gay 6 mar th. 

Gayomarth the first man .... 


How long 

each of 

them 

reigned. 


Sum of 

the 
Years. 


40 


40 


An interregnum of 170 years. 


— 


— 


Hoshang ...... 


40 


80 


Tahmurath ...... 


30 


110 


Jam ....... 


616 


726 


Bewarasp ...... 


1000 


1726 


Afredun ...... 


500 


2226 


Minoshcihr ...... 


120 


2346 


Firasyab ...... 


12 


2358 


An interregnum of unknown length. 


— 


— 


Zab . . 


9 


2367 


Garshasp together with Zab 


3 


2370 


An interregnum. 


— 


— 


Names of the Kayanian Kings. 






Kaikobadh . . . . 


126 


2494 


Kaikaus . ... 


150 


2646 


Kaikhusrau ...... 


80 


2726 


Kailuhrasp ...... 


120 


2846 


Kaibishtasp ...... 


120 


2966 


Kaiardashir ...... 


112 


3078 


Cihrazad ...... 


30 


3108 


Dara ben Bahman . 


12 


3120 


Dara ben Dara ..... 


14 


3134 



p.l06. 



p.l07. 



114 



ALBfEUNt. 



p. 108. Further, Hamza relates that he has found also this part of Persian 
chronology in the copy of the Maubadh, such as is exhibited in the 
following table: — 

TABLE III. OP PAET I. 



p.l09. 



Names of the Peshdadhian Kings, 


How long 

each of 

them 

reigned. 


Sum of 

the 
Years. 


taken from the Copy of the Maubadh. 
Gayomarth ...... 






30 


30 


Mesha and Meshana — till they got children 


50 


80 


Till their death ..... 


50 


130 


Interregnum 








94 


224 


Hoshang 








40 


2G4 


Tahmrirath . 








30 


294 


Jam — till he hid himself 








616 


910 


He remained hidden 








100 


1010 


Bewarasp 








1000 


2010 


Fredun 








500 


2510 


Minoshcihr . 








120 


2630 


Zu and Garshasp 








4 


2634 


Names of the Kayanian Kings. 






Kaikobadh ...... 


100 


2734 


Kaikaus 










150 


2884 


Kaikhusrau . 










60 


2944 


Luhrasp 










120 


3064 


Bishtasp 










120 


3184 


Ardashir 










112 


3296 


Cihrazad 










30 


3326 


Dara ben Bahman 










12 


3338 


Dara ben Dara 










14 


3352 



10 



20 



30 



p. 110. 1^ the biographical and historical books that have been translated 
from the works of Western authors, you find an account of the kings of 
Persia and Babylonia, beginning with Fredun, whom they call, as people 
say, Yaful (Pul ?), and ending with Dtira, the last of the Persian kings. 
Now, we find that these records differ greatly (from Eastern records) as 
to the number of the kings and their names, as to the durations of their 
reigns, their history, and their description. I am inclined to think that 
they confounded the kings of Persia with their governors of Babylonia, 
and put both side by side. But if we altogether refrain from mention- 
ing those records, we should deprive this book of something that forms 
a due part of it, and we should turn away the mind of the reader there- 
from. We, now, exhibit this tradition in a special table of its own, in 



40 



EEAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



115 



order to prevent confusion getting into the arrangement of the various 
systems and traditions of this book. Here it follows : — 





The Kings of Persia, 


How long 
each of 


Sum of 




beginning with Fredun, according to 


the 




Western authors. 


reigned. 


Years. 




Taful, i.e. Fredun ..... 


35 


35 




Tighlath Pilesar ..... 


35 


70 




Salmanassar, i.e. Salm .... 


14 


84 


10 


Sanherib ben Salmanassar, i.e. in Persian : Sana- 








raft ...... 


9 


93 




Sardum (Ezarhaddon), i.e. Zu ben Tumasp 


3 


96 




After him the following powerful kings 








reigned : — 








Kaikobadh ...... 


49 


145 




Sanherib II. .... 




31 


176 




Majam ..... 




33 


209 




Bukhtanassar, i.e. Kaikaus 




57 


266 




Evilad ben Bukhtanassar . 




1 


267 


20 


Belteshassar ben Evilad 




2 


269 




Dara Almahi I., i.e. Darius . 




9 


278 




Koresh, i.e. Kaikhusrau 




8 


286 




Cyrus, i.e. Luhrasp . 




34 


320 




Cambyses .... 




80 


400 




Dara II. . 




36 


436 




Xerxes ben Dara, i.e. Khusrau I. 




26 


462 




Ardashir ben Xerxes, called /xaKpox^ip, i-e 


Longi- 








manus .... 




41 


503 




Khusrau II. . 




30 


633 


30 


Sogdianus, ISTotos ben Khusrau 




9 


542 




Ardashir ben Dara II. 




41 


583 




Ardashir III. 




27 


610 




Arses ben Ochus 




12 


622 




Dara, the last king of Persia 




16 


638 

i 



The Jews, Zoroastrians, Christians, and the various sects of them, 
relate the origines mundi and carry chronology down from them, having 
previously admitted the truth of such origines, and having gained certain 
views regarding them, on which people either agree or differ. He, how- 
ever, who denies such origines, cannot adopt that which is built upon 
40 them, except after producing various sorts of interpretations which he 
adds of his own. 

However, those origines mundi, i.e. Adam and Eve, have been used as 
the epoch of an era. And some people maintain that time consists of 
cycles, at the end of which all created beings perish, whilst they grow 
at their beginning ; that each such cycle has a special Adam and Eve of 
its own, and that the chronology of this cycle depends upon them. 



p.m. 



p.ll2. 



116 ALBfRUNt. 

Other people, again, maintain that in each cycle a special Adam and 
Eve exist for each country in particular, and that hence the difference of 
human structure, nature, and language is to be derived. 

Other people, besides, hold this foolish persuasion, viz. that time has 
no terminus a quo at all ; they take some dogmas from the founders of 
religions, in order to construct some system by means of them. Many 
philosophers of this class have built up such systems. You could 
hardly jB.nd a prettier tale of this kind than that one produced by Sa'id 
ben Muhammad Aldhuhli in his book. For he says : " People lived in 
bitter enmity and strife with each other ; the better among them were 10 
maltreated and oppressed by the worse. But then, at last, the just 
king, Peshdildh, transplanted them to a place, called Firclaus (Paradise), 
situated between Adan and Serendib. It was a place where aloe, cloves, and 
various sorts of perfumes were growing, and all kinds of delicious things 
were to be found. There they dwelt, till one day a demon ('Ifrit) came 
upon them, the king of the wicked, and began quarrelling with them. 
In the same place Peshdadh found a boy and girl, the parents of whom 
were unknown. These he educated and called them Meshd and Meshdna, 
and made them marry each other. Thereupon they committed sin, and 
so he drove them out of that country." The tale as it has been related, 20 
is extremely long. He says that the interval between the time of their 
settlement in Paradise, the beginning of all chronology, and their 
meeting the demon was one year; till the time when Mesha and Meshana 
were found, two more years elapsed ; till their marriage, forty-one years ; 
till their death, thirty years ; and till the death of Peshdadh, ninety-nine 
years elapsed. But then he ceases from going on with his chronological 
account and does not carry it on. 

Chronology of the Ashkanians.— As to Part II. of Persian chro- 
nology from Alexander till the rise of Ardashir ben Babak, it must be 
known that during this period the " Petty Princes " existed, i.e. those gQ 
princes whom Alexander had installed as rulers over certain special dis- 
tricts, who were all totally independent of each other. To the same 
period belongs the empire of the Ashkanians, who held 'Irak and the 
p. 113. country of Mah, i.e. Aljibal, under their sway. They were the most 
valiant among the " Petty Princes ;" still the others did not obey them, 
but only honoured them for this reason, that they descended from the 
royal Persian house. For the first prince of the Ashkanians was Ashh 
ben Ashkan, called Afghurshah ben Balash ben Shapur ben Ashkan ben 
jU^\ ^jA ben Siytlwush ben Kaikaus. 

Most Persian chroniclers have connected the reign of Alexander 40 
immediately with that of the first Ashkanian prince, by which that 
period was most improperly curtailed. Others say that the AshkJinians 
came into power some time after Alexander, whilst others go on blunder- 
ing without any knowledge of the matter, 

I shall relate in this place such of their traditions as I have learned, 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



117 



20 



30 



40 



and shall endeavour, as much as is in my power, to amend that which is 
wrong, to refute that which is false, and to establish the truth, beginning 
with that which corresponds most nearly to the Table I. of Parti., I also 
call it Table I. (of Part n.) :— 



10 



Table of the Names of the Ashkanian Kings, How long ' 

corresponding to the Table I. of Part I. each ^^°^ 




Their Surnames. reigned. Years. 


Alexander the Greek . 
Ashk ben Ashkan 
Ashk ben Ashk ben Ashk 
Shapur ben Ashk 
Bahi-am ben Shapur . 
Narsi ben Bahram 
Hurmuz ben Narsi . 
Bahram ben Hurmuz 
Feroz ben Bahram 
Kisra ben Feroz 
Narsi ben Feroz 
Ardawan ben Narsi . 




Kloshdih 

Ashkan 

Zarrin 

Khurun 

Gisuwar 

Salar 

Roshan 

Balad 

Baradih 

Shikari 

The last 




14 14 
13 27 
25 52 
30 82 
21 103 
25 128 
40 168 
25 193 
17 210 
20 230 
' 30 260 
20 280 



Next follows what corresponds to the Table II. of the same Part I., 
that which Hamza has taken from the Abasta. This, again, I call the 
Tabula II., for the purpose of connecting those portions of the three 
parts of Persian chronology that bear the same name (as Table I., II., 
III. of Parts I., II., III.) with each other, and to bring the tables, 
thereby, into a good order. It will not be necessary to mention this 
another time : — 

TABLE II. OF PAET II. in the Arrangement of the Tables. 



p.ll4. 



Names of the Ashghanian Kings, 
according to Hamza. 



Alexander the Greek . . . . 

Ashk ben Balash ben Shapur ben Ashkan ben Ash 

the hero ..... 
Shapur ben Ashk .... 
Judhar ben Wijan ben Shapur 
VVijan ben Balash ben Shapiir, the nephew of the 

preceding ..... 
Judhar ben Wijan ben Balash 
JSTarsa ben Wijan . . . . . 

Hurmuzan ben Balash, the uncle of the preceding 
Ferozan ben Hurmuzan 
Khusrau ben Ferozan 
Balash ben Ferozan 
Ardawan ben Balash ben Ferozan . 



How long 

each 
of them 
reigned. 



i 14 

! 

I 

I 52 

I 24 

j 50 

21 
19 
30 
17 
12 
40 
24 
55 



Sum 
of the 
Years. 



14 

66 

90 

140 

161 
180 
210 
227 
239 
279 
303 
358 



118 



albIrun!. 



To this I add that which in the order of the tables is the third one, 
which Hamza says he has taken from the copy of the Maubadh, in order 
that the snbject may be carried on, as it has been done in the two pre- 
ceding tables. Here follows the Table III. of Part II. : — 



TABLE in. OP PAET II. 



p.115. 





How long 


Sum 


Names of the Ashkanian Kings, 


each 


of the 
Years. 


taken by Hamza from the Copy of the Maubadh. 


of them 




reigned. 




Alexander the Greek .... 


14 


14 


After him reigned a class of Greek princes, with 






their Persian vizirs, altogether 14 in number 


68 


82 


Ashk ben Bara ben Dara ben Dara 


10 


92 


Ashk ben Ashkan . 




20 


112 


Shapur ben Ashkan 






60 


172 


Bahram ben Shapur 






11 


183 


Balash ben Shapur . 






11 


194 


Hurmuz ben Balash 






40 


234 


Feroz ben Hurmuz . 






17 


251 


BaLish ben Feroz 






12 


263 


Khusrau ben Maladhan 






40 


303 


Balashan 






24 


327 


Ardawan ben Balashan 






13 


340 


ArdawJin the Great, ben Ashkanan 






23 


363 


Khusrau ben Ashkanan 






15 


378 


Bahafirid ben Ashkanan 






15 


393 


1 Judhar ben Ashkanan 






22 


415 


1 Balash ben Ashkanan 






30 


445 


Narsi ben Ashkanan 






20 


465 


Ardawan, the last . 






31 


496 



10 



20 



30 



p.ll6. Next I shall produce what I found in the chronicle of 'Abu-aHaraj 
'Ibrahim ben 'Ahmad ben Khalaf Alzanjani the mathematician. This 
man, on having taken pains to compare the discordant traditions with 
each other, gives the following account of the " Petty Princes," and the 
durations of their reigns, as is exhibited in the following table. He 
maintains that the Persians fixed only the historical tradition regarding 
the Ashkanian princes, not regarding the other " Petty Princes," and 
that the Ashkanians first brought 'Irak and Jibal under their sway Anno 
Alexandri 246. 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OE KINGS. 



119 



10 



1 
How long 


Sum 
of the 


The Ashkanians, I each of 


according to the Chronicle of 'Abli-alfarai. them 


reigned. 

1 




Alexander the Greek .... 


14 


14 


The " Petty Princes " 










246 


260 


Af ghurshah . 










10 


270 


Shapur ben Ashkan 










60 


330 


Judhar, Senior 










10 


340 


Bizan the Ashkanian 










21 


361 


Judhar the Ashkanian 










19 


380 


Narsi the Ashkanian 










40 


420 


Hurmuz 










17 


437 


Ardawan 










12 


449 


Khusrau 










40 


489 


Balash 










24 


613 


Ardawan, Junior 










13 


526 



We have also found a chronological synopsis of this same Part II. in 
the Shahnama by 'Abu-Mansur 'Abd-alrazzak, such as we exhibit in the 
20 following table : — 



30 





How long 


Sum 
of the 


The Ashkanians, 


each of 


according to the Shahnama. 


them 




reigned. 




Ashk ben Dara, according to others a descendant 






of Arish ...... 


13 


13 


Ashk ben Ashk 










25 


38 


Shapur ben Ashk 










30 


68 


Bahram ben Shapur 










51 


119 


Narsi ben Bahram . 










25 


144 


Hurmuz ben Narsi . 










40 


184 


Bahram ben Hurmuz 










5 


189 


Hurmuz 










7 


196 


Feroz ben Hurmuz . 










20 


216 


Narsi ben Feroz 










30 


246 


Ardawan 










20 


266 



p.ll7. 



The nature of this Part II. is brought to light by a comparative 

examination of these tables. It is a period that begins with Alexander's 

conquest of Persia, and ends with the rising of Ardashir ben Babak 

40 and his seizing the empire out of the hands of the Ashkanians. Both 

these limits are well known, and generally agreed upon. How, then, 



120 ALBiRUNt. 

can the interval between them be a matter of doubt to us ? However, 
it must be kept in mind that we are not able to make out by a mere 
course of reasoning the duration of the rule of each of the Ashkilnian 
princes, nor of the other " Petty Princes" nor the number of the persons 
who occupied the throne. For all this depends upon historical tradition, 
ank it is well-known to what mishap tradition has been subject. The 
least, now, we must try to do is to amend this Part II. as much as is in 
our power. 

It is evident and not unknown to anybody, that the year in which 
Yazdajird came to the throne was A. Alex. 943. This undeniable date 10 
we shall keej) in mind as a basis, and establish it as a gauge by which 
to measure all their records. 

Let us first take the sum of years which we get from the Table I. of 
Part II., i.e. 280 years. Hereto we add that sum which we shall 
p.ll8. exhibit in the Table I. of Part III. for the time from the beginning of 
the reign of Ardashir till that of the reign of Yazdajird, ia order to 
combine the like tables {i.e. Table I., II., III. of Part II. respectively, 
with Table I., II., III. of Part III.) with each other. This latter period 
is about 410 years. So we get a sum of 

690 years, 20 

which is less than our gauge by about 253 years. We shall drop this 
calcu^lation and not take further notice of it. 

Next we consider the sum of years contained in the Table II. of 
Part II., i.e. 358 years. Hereto we add the sum which will be exhibited 
by Table II. of Part III., corresponding to the sum that occurs in the 
first calculation, and we get the sum total of 

818 years, 

which is again less than our gauge by about 125 years. 

We shall drop this calculation, too, and j^roceed to the Tables III. in 
Parts II. and III., and add them together in the same way as we have 30 
done with Table I. and II. Then we get the sum of 

930 years, 

which is again below our gauge by about thirteen years. 

We drop this calculation, and do not further notice it. For chronology 
does not admit of this difference, although it may be so slight as nearly 
to ai)i)roach the truth. 

If we make the same calculation with the years exhibited in the book 
of 'Abu-alfaraj, combining the corresjjonding tables with each other, we 
get the sum of 

949 years, 40 

which exceeds our gauge by six years. 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 121 

If we pass by this and add together the years as reported in the 
Shahnama for this Part 11., with the result of any of the tables of 
Part in., this calculation would still less agree with our gauge (than the 
preceding ones). 

Now we shall put aside all these calculations, and try to derive an 
emendation of them from the book of Mani, called ShdbilrMn, since, of 
all Persian books, it is one that may be relied upon (as a witness) for the 
time immediately following the rise of Ardashir (ben Babak). Besides, 
Mani in his law has forbidden telling lies, and he had no need what- 
10 soever for falsifying history. 

Mani, now, says in this book in the chapter of the coming of the 
prophet, that he was born in Babylonia Anno Astronomorum Babylonice 
527, i.e. Anno Alex. 527, and four years after the beginning of the 
reign of the king Adharbdn, whom I believe to be Ardawan the Last. 
In the same chapter he says that he first received divine revelation when 
he was thirteen years of age, or An7io Astronomorum Bdbyloni(B 539, two 
years after the beginning of the reign of Ardashir the king of kings. 

Hereby Mani states that the interval between Alexander and Ardashir 

is 537 years, and that the interval between Ardashir and the succession 

20 of Yazdajird is 406 years. And this result is correct, being based upon 

the testimony of a book, favoured by God with a long duration, which 

is used as a religious code. 

Further, we are informed by traditions, the correctness of which is 
proved by their mutual agreement, that the last intercalation was carried 
out at the time of Yazdajird ben Shapur, and that the Epagomense were 
put at the end of that month, to which the tui'n of intercalation had p. 119. 
come, viz. the eighth month (Aban-Mah). If, now, we count the interval 
between Alexander and Ardashir as 537 years, we find the interval 
between Zoroaster and Yazdajird ben Shapur to be nearly 970 years, in 
30 which eight leap months are due, since it was their custom to inter- 
calate one month in every 120 years. But if we count that interval 
(between Alexander and Ardashir) as 260-270 years, or something more, 
as 300 years, as most authors do, we get a sum of about 600 years, in 
which only five leap months would be due, whilst we have already men- 
tioned their report stating that eight leap months are due in that 
period. The latter is therefore an irreconcileable supposition {viz. that 
the interval between Alexander and Ardashir is not more than 260-300 
years) . 

Likewise it is written in the books of astrologers, that the horoscope 
40 of the year in which Ardashir (ben Babak) rose was about half of 
Gemini, and the horoscope of the year in which Yazdajird rose was the 
sixth degree of Cancer. If, now, we multiply 93j degrees, which is the 
surplus of the solar cycle over the whole days according to the Persians, 
by 407 years, we get the sum of 152| degrees. If we subtract this from 
the rising-place of the degree of the horoscope of that year, in which 
Yazdajird came to the throne, and take the ai'c of the remainder for the 



122 ALBfET^Nf. 

rising-place of the region of 'Irak, which was the residence of the 
Kisras, the horoscope is half of Gemini close to the place, which the 
astrologers mention. If the years, however, are either more or less, the 
horoscope does not agree (with what it is reported to have been). So, of 
course, that which is confirmed by two witnesses is more trustworthy 
than that which is contradicted by many. 

If we add to the 407 years, mentioned by the astrologers, the 537 
years which are reported by the Shaburkan, we get the sum of 944 
years. And that is the year of the ^Era Alexandri for Yazdajird's 
accession to the throne. The surplus of one year is only possible in the 10 
reports of such authors as do not give detailed statements regarding the 
months aud minor fractions of time, in consequence of the fact that 
the years of the Persians and Greeks commence at different times. 

Hamza relates that Musa ben 'Isa Alkisrawi, on having studied this 
subject, and perceived the confusion we have mentioned, said : " The 
interval between Alexander and Yazdajird's accession to the throne is 
942 years. If we subtract therefrom 266 years for the period of the 
reign of the Ashkanians, we get for the rule of the Sasanians, from 
Ardashir till the accession of Yazdajird, 676 years. In their own 
traditions the Persians have no such chronological system." 20 

Further, he says : " Thereupon we studied and examined the number 
of their kings. And here be it noticed that they have forgotten the 
names of some of them, whom the chroniclers have not mentioned, 
blending together some of their names on account of their similarity. 
I shall enumerate them as they really are." Accordingly, he, i.e. Musa, 
has increased the durations of their reigns and their number, as we 
shall explain, when the order of our exposition comes to that subject, if 
God permits. 
p.l20. Chronology of the Sasanians. — Now we proceed to treat of the 

third part of Persian chronology, the beginning of which is the rising 30 
of Ardashir ben Babak of the family of Bahman ben Isfandiyar. For 
he was the son of Babak Shah ben Sasan ben Babak ben Sasan ben 
Bahafirid ben Mihrmish ben Sasan senior ben Bahman ben Isfandiyar. 
This part of chronology also is not free from the same defects that beset 
the former two parts, but still they are less considerable. I commence 
this part with the Table I., corresponding to the (first) tables of each of 
the two preceding parts, and I shall proceed hereafter with Table II. 
and III. If you gather the dates from the single tables of the three 
parts, you get the consecutive course of Persian chronology. Here 
follows Table I. 40 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



123 



KO (MNU5Ui»flU5lO>niO»nW5eq(MOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQO 
^ i-lrHi-Hi-ii-lrHi-Hr-lrHi-li— I i— l^i— li-(rH>-(T— I 



00 00 00 00 00 00 



-gO-*(M>0»OOS05N(M(MtOtOOO(MN(MIMN(MlN01'#-*iOT?Ottit» r-l05i-'»a«0<0 
g 1-1 1-1 i-l rH 

s 



g-'^USt^Ot^t^CD-rfltDOiOtDOOCOVO-MCD-^CDO'-iOOQO^i-lCDt^OOOO 
Si— l-<7(T:J<U5CDCDi>-00m^COl>Oii— ICOCDCOOO'-^VftlOCOOOOOOO 

jH t-irHi-Hi— iiM(jq(M(M(MeocowcococO'*TTiT7<^-'*i# 



05 O O 1-1 1-1 1-1 

O 1-^ i-H 1— I 1— I CO 



o o o o o o 



tao'3 



-gOt0Oe0O'*Ovr5OO'*O»OO00OOOOOOt>i>Oi-iO«C0r-( -^OrHCO^O 

o 1-1 rH rH r-l ,-1 



S-#Oi-ICCii*00>t>iM'<?>Oi-li-lOOOOX>-*QOO<l-*i-lt»05COO'*Oi-<0 
0)1—103 rH t> 1— IS<lrHrH<MCO -^ CO 



o o o o o 






M - 



O 



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s* s M <^ 

<c3 .iJ ^ c3 ^ '^ ce fO 'O J ;2 c3 o '^ 3 ^ =« 






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ri r3 g 



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&1> J 






j-H X "^ '43 



PM 






tHg 



P^Er 






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13 " -d 

5 ;? M OC <i 



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w 



i^ d c3 
d ^ ^ ■ 



d -d ti^ 



a> , 



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g g 



<d CD g 



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h m m (D 

p .^ _:- _r1 



hW 



tt) .^,^ tc ^ nj 

3 |g^ s d 

1 g d °^-^ 

<d -I o s-i jd t3 

2 ^ ^ -S ^ ^ 

^ " N- d t. M 
" •" <3S cS © - 

© t, tH ra +3 d 

-o <-! c3 ^ g • 
^ -2 -S ^- bD-=5 
<2 2 t3 d ,^ N 
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I— I 



124 



ALijtRUNt. 



p,123. The following Table II. rests on tlie authority of Hamza, who says 
that he has amended it by means of the Abasta, and transcribed it from 
the Kitdb-alsiyar-Alkabir. 

TABLE II. OF PAET III. 



p. 124. 





How long each of them 


Sum of the Years. 


Names of the Sasanian 
Kings. 




IClgllCU. 










Years. 


Months. 


Days. 


Years. 


Months. 


Days. 


Ardashir Babak 


14 


6 





14 


6 





Shapur ben Ardashir 


30 





28 


44 


6 


28 


Hurmuz ben Shapur 


1 


10 





46 


4 


28 


Bahram ben Hurmuz 


3 


3 


3 


49 


8 




6. Bahram ben Bahram . 


17 








6& 


8 




Bahram ben Bahram ben 














Bahram 





4 





67 







Narsi ben Bahram 


9 








76 







Hurmuz ben Narsi 


7 


5 





83 


5 




Shapur ben Hurmuz 














Dhu-al'aktaf 


72 








155 


5 




10. Ardashir ben Hurmuz 


4 








159 


5 




Shapur ben Shapur 


50 


4 





209 


9 




Bahram ben Shapur 


11 








220 


9 




Yazdagird ben Bahram 














Sceleratus . 


21 


6 


8 


242 


2 


9 


Bahram ben Yazdagird, 














Gur . 


23 








265 


2 


9 


15. Yazdagird ben Bahram 


18 


4 


28 


283 


7 


7 


Feroz ben Yazdagird 


27 





1 


310 


7 


8 


Balash ben Feroz . 


4 








314 


7 


8 


Kobad ben Feroz . 


43 








357 


7 


8 


Anoshirwan ben Kobad . 


47 


7 





405 


2 


8 


20. Hurmuz ben Anoshir- 














wan .... 


11 


7 


10 


416 


9 


18 


Parwiz ben Hurmuz 


38 








454 


9 


18 


Shirawaihi ben Parwiz . 





8 





455 


5 


18 


Ardashir ben Shirawaihi 


1 


6 





456 


11 


18 


Purandukht, daughter of 














Parwiz 


1 


4 





458 


3 


18 


25. Guskanasptadha . 





2 





458 


6 


18 


Azarmidukht, daughter 














of Parwiz . 


1 


4 





459 


9 


18 


Khurzad Khusra . 





1 





459 


10 


18 


Yazdagird ben Shahryar 


20 








479 


10 


18 



10 



20 



30 



40 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



125 



The following Table III. in this Part is that one which Hamza says he p.l25. 
transcribed from the copy of the Maubadh. 





Names of the Sasanian Kings 


1 How long each of them 

'» ' rpicrnfifl. 


Sum of the Years. 




such as Hamza says he has 

taken from the Copy of 

the Maubadh. 


j 














Years. 


Months. 


Days. 


Years. 


Months. 


Days. 




Ardashir b. Babak (aftei 
















having made war upoi 
















the "Petty Princes") 


. 14 


10 





14 


10 





10 


Shapur ben Ardashir 


. 30 





15 


44 


10 


15 




Hurmuz ben Shapur 


3 


3 





48 


1 


15 




Bahram ben Hurmuz 


17 








65 


1 


15 




5. Bahram Sakan-shah 


. 40 


4 





105 


5 


15 




Narsa ben Bahram 


9 








114 


5 


15 




Hurmuz ben Narsa 


7 








121 


5 


15 




Shapur Dhu-al'aktaf 


. 72 








193 


5 


15 




Ardashir ben Hurmuz 


4 








197 


5 


15 




10. Shapur ben Shapur 


5 








202 


5 


15 




Bahram ben Shapur 


11 








213 


5 


15 


20 


Yazdagird Sceleratus 


21 


5 


18 


234 


11 


3 




Bahram Grur . 


19 


11 





254 


10 


3 




Yazdagii'd ben Bahrilm 


14 


4 


18 


269 


2 


21 




15. Feroz ben Yazdagird 


17 








286 


2 


21 




Balash ben Feroz . 


4 








290 


2 


21 




Kobad ben Teroz . 


41 








331 


2 


21 




Anoshirwan . 


48 








379 


2 


21 




Hurmuz ben Anoshirwan 


12 








391 


2 


21 




20. Parwiz 


38 








429 


2 


21 




Kobad Shirawaihi . 





8 





429 


10 


21 


30 


Ardashir ben Shirawaih; 


1 


6 





431 


4 


21 




Pur an, daughter of Parw 


LZ 1 


4 





432 


8 


21 




Feroz . 





1 





432 


9 


21 




25. Azarmidukht 





6 





433 


3 


21 




Khurradadh Khusra 


1 








434 


3 


21 




Yazdagird ben Shahryai 


20 








454 


3 


21 



p.l26. 



126 



ALBfRUNi. 



In the boot of 'Abu-alfaraj Alzanjani we have found the chronology 
of this Part differing from our accounts in the preceding three tables ; 
we have added his account in this place, in conformity with what we 
have done in the preceding two Parts. And herewith the Chronological 
Table ends. 



p.l27. 



p.l28. 





1 
How long eacli of them , 


Sum of the Years. 


Names of the Sasanian Kings, 


reigned. 










according to the Tradition of 














'Abu-alfaraj Alzanjani. 


] 














Years. Months. 


Days. 


Years. '. 


ilonths. 


Days. 


Ardashir ben Babak 


14 


10 





14 ^ 


10 





Shapur ben Ardashir . 


31 i 


6 


18 


46 


4 


18 


Hurmuz ben Shapur 


1 i 


6 


i 


47 


10 


18 


Bahram ben Hurmuz 


3 


3 


3 


51 


1 


21 


5. Bahram ben Bahram . 


17 








68 


1 


21 


Bahram ben Bahram ben 


! 












Bahram 


4 


4 





72 


5 


21 


Narsi ben Bahram . 


9 








81 1 


5 


21 


Hurmuz ben Narsi 


9 








90 j 


5 


21 


Shapur ben Hurmuz 














Dhual'aktaf 


72 








162 


6 


21 


10. Ardashir ben Hurmuz 


4 








166 


6 


21 


Shapur ben Shapur 


5 


4 





171 


9 


21 


Bahram ben Shapur 


11 








182 


9 


21 


Yazdagird Sceleratus 


21 


5 


18 


204 


3 


9 


Bahram Gur . 


18 ; 


11 


3 


223 


2 


12 


15. Yazdagird ben Bahram 


18 


4 


18 


241 


7 





Hurmuz 


7 








248 


7 





Feroz ben Yazdagird 


27 








275 


7 





Balash ben Feroz . 


4 








279 


7 





Kobad and Tamasp, sons 














of Feroz 


43 








322 


7 





20. AnoshirwanbenTTobad 


47 


7 


6 


370 


2 


6 


Hurmuz ben Anoshirwan 


11 


7 


15 


381 


9 


20 


Parwiz ben Hurmuz 


38 








419 


9 


20 


Shirawaihi ben Parwiz . 





7 


' 


420 


4 


20 


Ardashir ben Shirawaihi 





5 


1 ^ 


420 


9 


20 


25. Khuhan, who besieged 






■ 








the Greeks 








22 


420 


10 


12 


Kisra ben Kobad . 





3 





421 


1 


12 


Puran, daughter of Parwiz 


1 


6 





422 


7 


12 


Gushanasptadha . 





2 





422 


9 


12 


Azarmidukht, daughter 














of Parwiz . 





4 





423 


1 


12 


30. Farrukhzad Khusrau . 





1 


1 


423 


2 


12 


Yazdagird ben Shahryar 


20 








443 


2 


12 



10 



20 



30 



40 



EEAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 



127 



Next we return to fulfil our promise of explaining the way in which p. 129. 
Alkisrawi works out the chronology of this Part III., having perceived 
the confusion of the former two parts, although we cannot help wonder- 
ing very much at him and at his method. For, whilst trying and experi- 
menting, he has subtracted from the period between Alexander and 
Yazdagird 266 years for the period of the Ashghanian rule. Hamza, 
however, records only that tradition, which he says he has taken from 
and amended by means of the Abastd, and the other tradition which he 
says he has taken from the copy of the Maubadh. And according to 

10 both these traditions, this period is longer even than 350 years (Hamza- 
Abasta, 358 years ; Hamza-Maubadh, 496 years). Now it is necessary 
for us to use either of these two traditions, or to add to them that one 
which Alkisrawi holds to be correct (as a third tradition), in order not 
to use any other tradition but those which he himself mentions. Or did 
he possibly place his confidence in that one which we have mentioned, 
and derived from the Shahnama (266 years) ? 

Further, now, as Alkisrawi has done this, and thinks that the existence 
of such confusion is an established fact, I should like to know why he 
refers it to the period of the Sasanian, not to that of the Ashghanian 

20 rule. For there was much more opportunity for mistakes creeping into 
the chronology of the Ashghanians (than into that of the Sasanians), 
because during their period the Persian empire was disorganized, every- 
one minded only his own affairs, and people were prevented by various 
circumstances from preserving their chronology. Such were, e.g. the 
calamities which Alexander and his Greek lieutenants brought upon 
them, further the conflagration of all the literature in which people 
delighted, the ruin of all fine arts which were the recreation and the 
desire of the jjeople. And more than that. He (Alexander) burned the 
greatest part of their religious code, he destroyed the wonderful archi- 

30 tectural monuments, e.g. those in the mountains of Istakhr, now-a-days 
known as the Mosque of Solomon ben David, and delivered them up to 
the flames. People even say that even at the present time the traces of 
the fire are visible in some places. 

This is the reason why they have neglected a certain space of time in 
the first part of the period, between Alexander and Ardashir, viz. when 
the Greeks reigned over them. And they did not begin to settle their 
chronology until their fright and terror had subsided in consequence of 
the establishment of the Ashkanian rule over them. Therefore the 
period preceding this event was much more liable to confusion (than the 

40 later period of the Sasanians), because under the Sasanians the empire 
was in good order, and the royal dignity was transmitted in their family 
in uninterrupted succession, whilst in the time of those (their predeces- 
sors) there was much confusion. This is proved by all the testimonies 
which we have produced in support of this our view. 

Here follows the table containing the so-called emendation of 
Alkisrawi. 



128 



ALBIEiyNt. 



p.l30. 



p.l31. 



Names of the Sasanian Kings, 


How long each of them 
reis-ned. 


Sum of the Years. 


as reported by Hamza, 1 
according to the Emendation 






1 




















of Alkisrawi. 


Years. 


Months. 


Days. 


Years. 


Months. 


Days. 


Ardashir ben Babak 


19 


10 





19 


10 





Sabur-aljunud 


32 


4 





62 


2 





Hurmuz b. Sabur-aljunud 


1 


10 





54 








Babram ben Hurmuz 


9 


3 





63 


3 





6. Bahram ben Babram 


23 








86 


3 





Babram ben Babram ben 














Babram 


13 


4 





99 


7 





Narsa ben Bahram 


9 








108 


7 





Hurmuz ben Narsa 


13 








121 


7 





Sbapur Dbu-al'aktaf 


72 








193 


7 





10. Ardasbir, brother of 














the preceding . 


4 








197 


7 





Sbapur ben Sbapur Dbu- 














al'aktaf 


82 








279 


7 





Babram, son of the pre- 














ceding 


12 








291 


7 





Yazdagird ben Babram, 














Clemens, Prince of 














Sbarwin 


82 








373 


7 





Yazdagird ben Yazda- 














gird, Atrox . 


23 








396 


7 





15. Babram Gur, son of 














tbe preceding . 


23 








419 


7 





Yaz dagird b . Babram Gur 


18 


5 





437! 








Babram ben Yazdagird . 


26 


1 





463 


1 





Feroz ben Babram 


29 





1 


492 


1 




Balasb ben Feroz . 


3 








495 


1 




20. Kubad,brotberof Balasb 


68 








663 


1 




Anoshirwan ben Kubad 


47 


7 





610 


8 




Hurmuz benAnosbirwan 


23 








633 


8 




Parwiz ben Hurmuz 


38 








671 


8 




Sbirawaibi ben Hurmuz 





8 





672 


4 




25. Ardasbir ben Sbirawaibi 


1 








673 


4 




Sbabrbaraz . 





1 


8 


673 


5 


9 


Buran, daughter of Kisra 














Parwiz 


1 








674 


5 


9 


Khushnushbanda (Gush- 














anasptadba) 





2 





674 


7 


9 


Khusrau ben Kubad ben 














Hurmuz 





10 





675 


5 


9 


30. Feroz, a descendant of 














Ardasbir ben Babak . 





2 





675 


7 


9 


Azarmidukht, daughter 














of Parwiz , 





4 





675 


11 


9 


Farrukhz ad ben Khusrau 














b. Parwiz. Hismother 














was Girawaibi, sister 














of Bahram Shubin 





1 





676 





9 


34. Yazdagird ben Shahryar 


20 








696 





9 



EEAS, DATES, AND EEIGNS OF KINGS. 129 

On Titles in the Khalifate. — It is a theory of the astrologers that p.l32. 
none of the khalifs of Islam and the other kings of the Muslims reigns 
longer than twenty- four years. As to the reign of Almuti' that extended 
to nearly thirty years, they account for it in this way, saying that already 
at the end of the reign of Almuttaki, and at the beginning of that of 
Almustakf i, the empire and the rule had been transferred from the hands 
of the family of 'Abbas into those of the family of Buwaihi (Buya, 
Boy a), and that the authority which remained with the Bani-' Abbas 
was only a juridical and religious, not a political and secular affair, in 

10 fact something like the dignity of the Bosh-gdliWid with the Jews, who 
exercises a sort of religious authority without any actual rule and 
empire. Therefore the 'Abbaside prince, who at present occupies the 
throne of the KMldfa, is held by the astrologers to be only the (spiri- 
tual) head of Islam, but not a king. 

Already in ancient times astrologers used to prophesy this state of 
affairs. Such a prophecy you find, e.g. in the book of 'Ahmad ben 
Altayyib Alsarakhsi, where he speaks of the conjunction of Saturn and 
Mars in the sign of Cancer. The same was distinctly declared by the 
Hindu Kanaka, the astrologer of Alrashid, for he maintained that the 

20 reign of the Bani 'Abbas would be transferred to a man who would come 
from Ispahan. He determined, also, the time when 'Ali bt^n Buwaihi, 
called 'Imad-aldaula, should come forward in Isj)ahan (as a claimant to 
supreme power). 

When the Bani- 'Abbas had decorated their assistants, friends and 
enemies indiscriminately, with vain titles, compounded with the word 
Daula (i.e. empire, such as Heljier of the Empire, Sword of the Empire, 
etc.), their empire perished ; for in this they went beyond all reasonable 
limits. This went on so long till those who were especially attached to 
their court claimed something new as a distinction between themselves 

30 and the others. Thereupon the khalifs bestowed double titles. But then 
also the others wanted the same titles, and knew how to carry their 
point by bribery. Now it became necessary a second time to create a 
distinction between this class and those who were directly attached to 
their court. So the khalifs bestowed triple titles, adding besides the 
title of Shahinshah. In this way the matter became utterly opposed to 
common sense, and clumsy to the highest degree, so that he who men- 
tions them gets tired before he has scarcely commenced, that he who 
writes them loses his time and writing, and he who addresses them runs 
the risk of missing the time for prayer. 

40 It will not do any harm, if we mention here the titles which, up to 
our time, have been bestowed by their majesties the khalifs. We shall 
comprise them in the following table. 



130 



ALBiRUNi. 



p.l33. The Names of those on whom 

Titles were bestowed. 

Alkasim ben 'Ubaid-allali. 

His son. .... 

'Abu-Muhammad ben Hamdan 

His son .... 

'Abu-alhasan 'Ali ben Hamdan 

'All ben Buwaihi . 

'Abu-alhasan 'Ahmad ben Buwaihi 

Alhasan ben Buwaihi 

'Abu-Mansur Bakhtiyar ben 'Abi- 
alhasan. 

'Abu-'Ishak ben Alhusain 

'Abu-Harb Alhabashi ben 'Abi- 
alhusain. 

'Abu-Mansur Bisutun ben Washm- 
gir. 

'Abu-Mansur Biiwaihi ben Alhasan 

Almarzuban ben Bakhtiyar . 

Kabus ben Washmgir . 

'Abu-'Ahmad Harith ben 'Ahmad 

'Abu-Shuja' Fanakhusra ben Al- 
hasan. 

'Abu-Kalinjar ben Fanakhusra 

'Abu-Kalinjar Marzuban ben 
Fanakhusra. 

'Abu-alfawaris ben Fanakhusra 

'Abu-Talib Eustam ben 'Ali . 
p.l34. 'Abu-alkasim Mahmud ben Sabuk- 
tagin. 

'Abu-Nasr Khurra Feroz ben 
Fanfikhusra. 

'Abu-alhasan Muhammad ben 
'Ibrahim. 

'Abu-al'abbas Tash Alhajib . 

'Abu-alhasan Fa'ik-alkhassa . 

'Abu-'Ali Muhammad ben Muham- 
mad ben 'Ibrahim. 

Sabuktagin, first . 

Afterwards he received the title of 

Mahmud ben Sabuktagin 

'Abu-alfawaris Bektuzun Alhajib 

'Abu-alkasim Muhammad ben 
'Ibrahim. 

'Abu-Mansur Alp Arslan Albalawi 



The Titles which were bestowed 
by Their Majesties the Khalifs. 

Waliyy-al-daula. 

*Amid-al-daula. 

Nasir-al-daula. 

Sa'd-al-daula. 

Saif-al-daula. 

'Imad-al-daula. 

Mu' iz z - al- daula . 

Eukn-al-daula. 10 

'Izz-al-daula. 

'Umdat-al-daula. 
Sanad-al-daula. 

Zahir-al- daula. 

Mu'ayyid-al-daula. 

'I'zaz-al-daula. 

Shams-al-ma'ali. 20 

Waliyy-al-daula. 

'Adud-al-daula wa Taj-al-milla. 

Fakhr-aldaula wa Falak-al-'umma. 
Samsam-al-daula wa Shams-al- 

milla. 
Sharaf-al- daula wa Zaman-al-milla. 
Majd-al-milla wa kahf-al-'umma. 
Yamin-al- daula wa 'Amin-al-milla. 

30 

Baha-al-daula wa Diya-al-milla wa 

Ghiyath-al-'umma. 
Nasir-al-daula. 

Husam-al-daula. 

'Amid-al-daula. 

Nasir-al-daula. 

Mu'in-al-daula. 

Nasir-al-din wal-daula. 40 

Saif-al-daula. 

Sintin-al-daula. 

Nasir-al-daula. 

Mu'in-al-daula. 



EEAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 131 

Also tlie Wazirs of tlie Klialifs have received certain titles, cora- 
pounded with the word Bhu, as e.g. DJiu-al-yaminain, Dhu-al-ri' dsatain, 
Dhu-al-Jcifdyatain, Dhu-al-saifain, Dhil-al-kalamain, etc. 

The Buwaihi family, when, as we have mentioned, the power passed 
into their hands, imitated the example of the khalifs ; nay, they made 
it still worse, and their title-giving was nothing but one great lie, when 
they called their Wazirs, e.g. Kdfi-al-hufdt, AlMfi AVazihad, 'Auhad- 
alkufdt. 

The family of Saman, the rulers of Khurasan, had no desire for such 
10 titles, contenting themselves with their hunyas (such as 'Abit-Nasr, 'Ahil- 
al-hasan, 'Ahil-Sdlih, 'Ahu-al-kdsim, 'Ahu-al-hdrith). In their lifetime 
they were called Almalih, Ahnu' ayyad, Ahnuwaffak, Almansiir, Almu'az- 
zam, Almuntasir, and after their death, Alhamid, Alshahid, Alsa'id, 
Alsadid, Alradi, etc. To their field-marshals, however, they gave the 
titles of Ndsir-aldaula, 'Imdd-aldaula, Husdm-aldaula, 'Amid-aldaula, 
Saif-aldaula, 8indn-aldaula, Mu^in-aldaida, Ndsir-aldaula, in imitation of 
the ways of the khalifs. 

The same was done by Bughrakhan, when he had come forward (to 
claim supreme power) a.h. 382, calling himself Shihdb-aldaula. 
20 Some of them, however, have gone beyond this limit, calling them- 
selves ' Amir-al-'dlam and Sayyid-al-umard. May God inflict on them 
ignominy in this world, and show to them and to others their weakness ! 
As to the 'Amir, the glorious Prince, may God give a long duration 
to his reign ! (to whom this book is dedicated), His Majesty the Khalif 
addressed him in a letter, and offered to him titles, such as those com- 
pounded with the word Daula (e.g. 8aif-al-daula, Husdm-al-daula, etc.). 
But then he considered himself superior to them, and abhorred the idea 
of being compared with those who were called by such titles but only 
in a very metaphorical way. He, therefore, selected for himself a title 
80 the full meaning of which did not exceed his merits (SJiavis-al-ma'cdi, p.l35. 
i.e. Sun of the Heights). He has become — may God give a long 
duration to his power ! — among the kings of the world like the sun, who 
illuminates the darkness, in which they live, by the rays of his heights. 
He has come into high favour with the khalifs as a prince of the 
Believers. They wanted to redouble and to increase his title, but his 
noble mind declined it. May God give him a long life ; may he enlighten 
all the parts of the world by his justice, and bless them by his look; may 
He raise his affairs and those of the subjects who dwell in his shadow 
to perfection, increasing them everlastingly. God is almighty to do this, 
40 and sees and knows all the affairs of his slaves ! 

Intervals between the Eras. — After this digression we now return 
to the point whence we started, and proceed, after having finished the 
collection of chronological dates in the preceding tables. Next we must 
turn our attention towards fulfilling our promise of teaching the reader 
that knowledge by means of which he may compute the eras that are 

9 * 



132 ALBtRUNi. 

used in the Canons, for astronomical observations, and elsewhere, e.g. in 
commercial stipulations and contracts. To this we shall prefix a twofold 
Tailasdn, which will indicate the intervals between the single eras in a 
constant measure, i.e. in days. In the lower half under the diagonal, 
you find the distances computed in days and written in Indian ciphers. 
In the upper half you find two kinds of numbers ; the upper ones are 
these identical days written according to the sexagesimal system, whilst 
the lower ones are the same days in their various degrees (units, tenths, 
hundreds, etc.) transcribed from the Indian ciphers into the Huruf- 
aljummal. 10 

The following well-known calculation is an example of this system of 
notation. If we take {[(16^)^]^}^ or 16^^, and subtract 1 from the 
sum, we get the total sum of the reduplications of all the checks of the 
chessboard, if we commence with one for the first check. This sum, 
noted ia Indian ciphers, is the following : 18,4<46,744,073, 709,551,615 ; 
noted according to the sexagesimal system : 30. 30. 27. 9. 5. 3. 50. 40. 
31. 0. 15. ; and transcribed into the Huruf-aljummal : 

If you transcribe these characters one after the other into Indian 
ciphers, you get the above-mentioned number. 20 

Now, in the same way as this example, our Tailasdn is to be under- 
stood. This threefold system of notation we use for no other purpose 
but this, that each mode should bear testimony to the other in case a 
doubt should arise regarding some of the characters and figures that 
denote the numbers. 

We mention our method only in a summary way, and not at full 
p.l36. length, because the reader of this book must be more than a beginner in 
mathematics. We say, if a man wants to find an (unknown) era by the 
help of a known one, let him reduce the whole of the known era into 
days, and this sum is called " The Basis." Then he must take the 30 
interval between the two eras, viz. the known and the unknown ones. 
This we call " The Equation." 

If, then, the known era (i.e its epoch) precedes the unknown one, he 
subtracts the equation from the basis. If, on the other hand, the known 
era (i.e. its epoch) follows the unknown one, he adds the equation to the 
basis. And the sum which he gets is the number of days of the 
unknown era. 

Thereupon he must divide this sum of days by the number of days of 
that kind of year which is ascribed to the era in question. By this 
division he gets complete years. And the remainder of days is to be 40 
distributed over the months of the year according to the proper lengths 
which we have mentioned as peculiar to each of the different kinds of 
them. 

Here are the days of the intervals between the epochs of the various 
eras represented in the twofold Tailasdn. God is allwise ! 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OE KINGS. 



133 



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134 albIeukJ. 

p. 138. Tll9 CbeSS Problem. — For the solution of tlie chess problem (lit. for 
the reduplication of the chess and its calculation) there are two funda- 
mental rules. The one of them is this : — 

The square of the number of a check x of the 64 checks of the chess- 
board is equal to the number of that check the distance of which from 
the check x is equal to the distance of the check x from the 1st check. 

For example : take the square of the number of the 5th check, i.e. 
the square of 16 (162) = 256, which is the number belonging to the 9th 
check. Now, the distance of the 9th check from the 5th is equal to the 
distance of the 5th check from the first one. 10 

The second rule is this : — 

The number of a check x minus 1 is equal to the sum total of the 
numbers of all the preceding checks. 

Example: The number of the 6th check is 32. And 32 — 1 is 31, 
which is equal to the sum of the numbers of all the preceding checks, 
i.e. of — 

l + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16(=31). 

If we take the square of the square of the square of 16, multiplied by 
itself (i.e. {[(163)2]2}2 or 16i6), this is identical with taking the square of 
the number of the 33^<i check, by which operation the number of the 65th 20 
check is to be found. If you diminish that number by 1, you get the 
sum of the numbers of all the checks of the chessboard. The number of 
the 33rd check is equal to the square of the number of the 17th check. 

The number of the 17th check is equal to the square of the number 
of the 9th check. 

The number of the 9th check is equal to the square of the number of 
the 5th check. And this (i.e. the number of the 5th check) is the above- 
mentioned number 16. 

'Abu-Raihan says in his Kitdb-al- arkdm (Book of the Ciphers) : " I 
shall explain the method of the calculation of the chess problem, that 80 
the reader may get accustomed to apply it. But first we must premise 
that you should know, that in a progression of powers of 2 the single 
numbers are distant from each other according to a similar ratio. 
(Lacuna T) If the number of the reduiDlications, i.e. the number of the 
single members of a j)rogression is an even one, it has two middle 
numbers. But if the number of the reduplications is an odd one, the 
progression has only one middle number. 

The multiplication of the two ends by each other is equal to the 
multiplication of the two middle numbers. (In case there is only one 
middle number, its square is equal to the multiplication of the two end ^(>^ 
numbers.) This is one thing you must know beforehand. The other is 
this : — 

If we want to know the sum total of any progression of powers of 2, 
we take the double of the largest, i.e. the last number, and subtract 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OF KINGS. 136 

therefrom the smallest, i.e. the first number. The remainder is the sum 
total of these reduplications (i.e. of this progression). 

Now, after having established this, if we add to the checks of the 
chessboard one check, a 65th one, then it is evident that the number 
which belongs to this 65th check, in consequence of the reduplications 
of powers of 2, beginning with 1, is equal to the sum of the numbers 
of all the checks of the chessboard minus the 1st check, which is the 
number 1, the first member of the progression. If, therefore, 1 is 
subtracted from this sum, the remainder is the sum of the numbers of 
10 all the checks of the chessboard. 

If, now, we consider the 65th check and the 1st as the two ends of a 
progression, their medium is the 33rd check, the first medium. 

Between the checks 33 and 1, the check 17 is the medium, the second 
medium. 

Between the checks 17 and 1, the check 9 is the medium, the third 
medium. p. 139. 

Between the checks 9 and 1, the check 5 is the medium, the fourth 
medium. 

Between the checks 5 and 1, the check 3 is the medium, the fifth 
20 medium. 

Between the checks 3 and 1, the check 2 is the medium, the sixth 
medium, to which belongs the number 2. 

Taking the square of 2 (2^), we get a sum which is a product of the 
multiplication of the number of the 1st check by that of the 3rd check 
(1x4=2"). The number of the 1st check is 1. This product, then, is 
the fifth medium, the number of the 3rd cheek, i.e. 4. 

The square of 4 is 16, which is the fourth medium in the 5th check. 

The square of 16 is 256, which is the third medium in the 9th check. 

The square of 256 is 65,536, which is the second medium in the 17th 
30 check. 

The square of 65,536 is 4,294,967,296, which is the first medium in the 
33rd check. 

The square of 4,294,967,296 is 18,446,744,073,709,551,616. 

If we subtract from this sum 1, i.e. the number of the first check, the 
remainder is the sum of the numbers of all the checks of the chess- 
board. I mean that number which at the beginning of this digression we 
have used as an example (of the threefold mode of numeral rotation). 

The immensity of this number cannot be fixed except by dividing it 
by 10,000. Thereby it is changed into Biclar (sums of 10,000 dirhams). 
40 The Biclar are divided by 8. Thereby they are changed into 'Aukdr 
(loads). 

The 'AziMr are divided by 10,000. Thereby the mules, that carry 
them, are formed into Kut'dn (herds), each of them consisting of 10,000. 

The Kut'dn a.re divided by 1,000, that, as it were, they (the herds) might 
graze on the borders of Wddis, 1,000 kids on the border of each WddL 



136 ALBiEUNi. 

The Wddis are divided by 10,000, that, as it were, 10,000 mountains 
should rise out of each Wddi. 

In this way, by dint of frequently dividing, you find the number of 
those mountains to be 2,305. But these are (numerical) notions that the 
earth does not contain. 

God is allwise and almighty ! 
p.l40. Rules for the Reduction of the different Eras.— Now we shall give 

a detailed exposition of the subject of this chapter (i.e. the derivation 
of the eras one from the other), which cannot be dispensed with. We 
must, however, postpone our exposition of the derivation of the ^ra 10 
Adami and ^ra Diluvii according to Jews and Christians, because they 
are connected with the years and months of the Jews. And these are 
very intricate and obscure, and offer many difficulties for calculation, — 
a chapter, part of which we have already mentioned before. For which 
reason we must direct our attention exclusively to this subject, and 
explain it in a special chapter. And now we commence with the detailed 
exposition of the eras, pre- supposing the number of days which form 
the intervals between the epochs of the eras and that day which is 
sought to be known. These days we call Dies Paratce. 

If we want to find the ^ra Diluvii, according to 'Abu-Ma'shar, who 20 
uses it in his Canon (or calendar), we divide its Dies Paratce by 365, 
whereby we get complete years. If there is a remainder of days, we 
change them into Egyptian months. The 1st of Tot of this JEra 
Diluvii always coincides with the 18th of Bahman-Mah in the non-inter- 
calated jEra Yazdagirdi. 

If we want to find the jEra Nabonassari or the ^ra Philippi, we 
divide its Dies Paratce by 365, whereby we get complete years. The 
remainder of days is distributed over the single months, to each month 
its proper portion. We begin with Tot, the 1st of which always coin- 
cides with [the 1st of] Dai-Mah in the non-intercalated JEra Yazdagirdi. 30 

If we want to find the jEra Alexandri, we divide its Dies Paratce by 
365j days, i.e. we multiply the Dies Paratce by 4, changing them into 
fourth-parts, and the sum total we divide by 1,461, i.e. by the days of the 
year reduced into fourth-parts. Thereby we get complete years. The 
remaining fourth-parts we raise again to whole days, dividing them 
by 4. Then we distribute them over the single months, to each month 
its proper portion, beginning with Tishrin I. If there is a remainder of 
days that do not fill up one month, this remainder represents the date of 
that identical month. To the month Shubat we must give twenty -nine 40 
days in a leap year, and twenty-eight days in a common year. 

The leap year is recognized in this way, that we consider the remainder 
which we get after dividing the fourth-parts (of the Dies Paratce) by 4. 
If the remainder is 2, the currrent year is a leap year. If the remainder 
is less or more (i.e. 1, or 3, 4), the year is a common year. 



ERAS, DATES, AND REIGNS OP KINGS. 137 

The reason of this is, that intercalation preceded the epoch of this 
era by two years, so that at the beginning of the era two fourth-parts of 
a day had already summed up. If, therefore, at the end of the era there 
is a remainder of two fourth-parts, these, together with the two fourth- p. 141. 
parts at the beginning of the era, make up one complete day. In that 
case the year is a leap year. 

(In this calculation the Syrian year ar d months are used.) 

If we, however, compute this era according to the method of the 
Greeks, we subtract 92 from the number of its Dies Paratce, because 
10 the beginning of the Greek year differs from that of the Syrian year. 
The remainder we compute in the same way as we have done according 
to the method of the Syrians. The remaining fourth-parts we raise to 
whole days, and distribute them over the single months, to each month 
its proper portion, commencing with Januarius, i.e. Kanun the Last. 

The leap year is ascertained in the same way that we have mentioned 
before. 

If we want to find the ^ra Augusti, we compute its Dies Paratce in 
the same way as we have done with the ^ra Alexandri, so as to get 
complete years and a remainder of fourth-parts of a day. These latter 
20 we change into days, and distribute them over the single months, to 
each month its proper portion, beginning with Tot. If the year is a 
leaj) year, we count the Epagomence, i.e. the small month, as six days, 
whilst in a common year we count it as five days. 

The leap year is recognized by there being no remainder of fourth- 
parts of a day after we have converted them into whole days. Of which 
the reason is this, that the leap year preceded the beginning of the era. 
On this subject (the Epagomena;) there cannot be much uncertainty, since 
they are placed at the end of the year, and the 1st of Tot always 
coincides with the 29th of the Syrian month Abh. 
30 Of the ^ra Antonini, we compute the complete years in the same 
way that we have explained for the ^ra Augusti. The remainder (of 
fourth-parts of a day) we divide by 4, and distribute the whole days 
over the single months, to each month its proper portion, beginning with 
Tot. In a leap year we count the Epagomense as six days. 

The leap year is recognized by there being one quarter of a day as a 
remainder of the fourth-parts (of a day). 

Of the jEra Diocletiani, we compute the Dies Paratce in the same way 
as we have done with the jEra Augusti, etc., so as to get complete years 
and to convert the fourth-parts again into complete days. Thereupon 
40 we distribute them over the single months, beginning with Januarius, 
i.e. Kanun the Last. In a leap year we give to Februarius, i.e. Shubat, 
twenty -nine days, in a common year twenty-eight days. 

The leap year is recognized in the same way as for the JEra Alexandri, 
by there being two fourth-parts as the remainder of the fovirth-parts of 
a day. 



138 albIeunI. 

As regards the eras of the Arabs and their months, how they inter- 
calated them, and in what order they arranged them in pagan times, 
this is a subject that has been utterly neglected. The Arabs were totally 
illiterate, and as the means for the perpetuation of their traditions they 
relied solely upon memory and poetry. But afterwards, when the 
generation of those who practised these things had died out, there was 
no further mention of them. There is no possibility of finding out such 
matters. 
p. 142. If we want to find the Era of the Hijra as used in Islam, we divide its 

Dies Paratce by the mean length of the lunar year, i.e. 354-1-+ -i- days 10 
(354-i-i days), which is effected by multiplying the number of days by 
30, the smallest common denominator for both fractions, fifth and sixth 
parts. The sum we divide by 10,631, which is the product of 354 multi- 
plied by SO, plus U=^+h 

The quotient represents complete lunar years, and the remainder con- 
sists of thirtieth-parts of a day. If we divide these by 30, we get again 
whole days, which we distribute over the single months, giving to one 
month thirty days, to the other twenty-nine alternately, beginning with 
Almuharram. The remainder of days that does not make up one com- 
plete month, represents the date of that identical month. 20 

This is the method for the computation of the eras used in the Canons. 
But if there are still other methods which people adopt for this pur- 
pose, they all go back to one and the same principle. 

As for the calculation which is based upon the appearance of new 
moon, it must be remarked that two imperfect months (of twenty-nine 
days) may follow each other as well as three perfect ones (of thirty days), 
that the lunar year may exceed the above-mentioned measure (of 354^^ 
days), whilst it may not attain this length at other times, the reason of 
which is the variation in the rotation of the moon. 

Of the jEra Yazdagirdi, we divide the Dies Paratce by 365, whereby 30 
we get complete years. The remainder we distribute over the single 
months, to each month its proper portion, beginning with Farwardin- 
Mah. In this way we come to know the era, the epoch of which is the 
beginning of his reign, that era which is used in the Canons. 

If we, however, want to find the Era of the Zoroastrians, we subtract 
twenty years from the ^ra Yazdagirdi. The remainder is the Era of 
the Zoroastrians. For they date from the year in which Yazdagird was 
killed and their national empire ceased to exist, not from the year in 
which he ascended the throne. 

The Era of Almu'tadid-hilldh we compute in the same way as the 40 
JEra Alexandri. We give to each month its proper portion, as to the 
Persian months, beginning with Farwardin-Mah, and proceeding as far 
as the beginning of Adhar-Mah. If, then, the year is a leap year, which 
is recognized in the same way as in the ^Era Alexandri, by there being 
a remainder of tw fourth-parts of a day, (we count the Andargdhs or 



EEAS, DATES, AND EEIGNS OF KINGS. 139 

Epagomence between Aban-Mali and Adharmali) as six days, wHlst in a 
common year we count them only as five days. New-Tear (Nauroz) 
always coincides with the 11th of Haziran, for those reasons which we 
have already mentioned by the help and the support of Grod ! 

Now it would seem proper to add a chapter which is wanting in the 
Canons, and has not been treated by anybody except by 'Abu-al'abbas 
Alfadl ben Hatim Alnairizi, in his commentary on Almagest. And still 
it is a subject of frequent occurrence, and those who have to employ it 
may not always know what to do with it. The thing is this, that you 
10 may be required to compute a date for a certain time, the known parts p. 143. 
of which are various species that do not belong to one and the same 
genus. There is, e.g. a day the date of which within a Greek, Arabic, 
or Persian month is known ; but the name of this month is unknown, 
whilst you know the name of another month that corresponds with it. 
Further, you know an era, to which, however, these two months do not 
belong, or such an era, of which the name of the month in question is 
not known. Example : — 

(a) On the day Hurmuz 

(b) in the month Tammuz 

20 (c) in the year of the Hijra 391. 

In this case the proper method is to compute the vEra Alexandri for 
the 1st of Muharram of a.h. 391. Thereby we learn with what month 
and day of the Arabian months the 1st of Tammuz coincides. Further, 
we compute the ^Era Yazdagircli for the 1st of Tammuz, whereby we 
learn on what day of Tammuz the day Hurmuz falls. In this way the 
three eras together with their species and genera are found out. 

If besides these elements the name of the week-day is known, this is 
an aid and a help for obtaining a correct result. Example : — 

(a) On Friday 
30 (V) in the first third of Eamadan 

(c) in the year of Yazdagird 370. 

Here the right method would be first to compute the Arabic era for 
the Nauroz of this year of the ^ra Yazdagircli, and thereby to compute 
the first third of Ramadan. Then we consider the week-days, to find 
which of them are the beginnings of the months. Thereby we find what 
we wanted to find. 

Likewise, if the week-day and its place within some month, together 
with some era, are known, and if also the name of the month is known, 
you can find this out in the same way as we have mentioned. 
40 The student who thoroughly knows all these methods will be able to 
solve whatever question of this sort be put to him ; he will find out 
everything, if he considers the subject as it ought to be considered. If 
those parts of such dates, the numerical values of which are known, 



140 ALBfRUNt. 

should be composed of diverse elements, so that their units mean some- 
thing different from what the decades (tenths) mean, — e.g. you say of a 
day : the 2Bt7i, referring the 5 to a Persian month and the 20 to a 
Greek month, of which either one is known, or of which the two are 
unknown ; or if you say : Anno 345, referring the 5 to a Greek, the 40 
to an Arabian, and the 300 to a Persian era, — in such cases the clever- 
ness of the student will manage to solve the problem, although the 
calculations necessary for such a derivation may be very long. 

God helps to find the truth ! 



141 



CHAPTER VII. 

ON THE CYCLES AND YEAR POINTS, ON THE M6L:fiDS OF THE YEARS p.l44. 
AND MONTHS, ON THEIR VARIOUS QUALITIES, AND ON THE LEAP 
MONTHS BOTH IN JEWISH AND OTHER YEARS. 

Having in the preceding pages explained the derivation of the eras from 
each other, with the exception of the jEra Adami and ^ra Diluvii, 
according to the systems of Jews and Christians, we shall now have to 
explain the method by which we may obtain a knowledge of these two 
eras. To this we shall prefix a treatise on the Jewish years and months, 
10 their cycles and the Moleds of their years, followed by an investigation of 
the commencements of the years of other nations. And hereto we shall add 
such things as may prove a ready help towards obtaining the object in view, 

Now we proceed to state that the yEra Adami is used by the Jews, the 
jEra Diluvii by the Christians. If the 1st of Tishri coincided with the 
1st of Tishrin Primus, the ^ra Alexandri would be equal to the j^ra 
Mundi, plus 3,448 years, which is, according to Jewish doctrine, the 
interval between Adam and Alexander. 

However, the 1st of Tishri always falls between the 27th of Abh and 

the 24th of llul, on an average. Therefore, the ^ra Alexandri, minus 

20 that time by which the beginning of the Jewish year precedes the 

beginning of the Christian one, is equal to the complete ^ra Adami, 

plus the interval between Adam and Alexander. 

The reason why the 1st of Tishri always varies within those days 
(27th Abh — 24th llul), is this, that on an average the Jewish passover 
always varies between the 18th of the Syrian month Adhar and the 
15th of Nisan, which is the time of the sun's moving in the sign of Aries. 
For it is the opposition occurring within this time, on which all those cir- 
cumstances depend which form the conditio sine qua non for passover. 

This, however, is only an approximate calculation. For if the solar 
30 year went on parallel with the days of the Greek year {lacuna??). 
But this is impossible, since we have found by astronomical observation 
that this fraction (beyond the 365 complete days of the year) is 
5h. 46' 20" 56'". Therefore the sun, rotating at the rate of velocity 
found by astronomical observation, reaches any place whatever of the 



142 



ALBIEUNt. 



ecliptic earlier tlian lie would reacli it by tliat rotation on which their 
method is hased, in each 165 complete days (sic /) 
p.l45. We shall use, however, their own system, and shall now explain how 
we may find the beginning of their year, and how we may ascertain its 
nature, whether it be a common or a leap year, imperfect, intermediate, or 
perfect. Now, if we want to find this, we add to the date of the ^ra Alex- 
andri, for the 1st of the Syrian Tishrin Primus, 3,448 years. Thereby we 
get the corresponding date of the ^ra Adami for the 1st of (the Jewish) 
Tishri, that falls either in the end of Abh or in llul, both of which months 
precede that Tishrin Primus whence we started in this calculation. 10 

If we, further, want to know whether the year of which we have 
found the beginning be a common year or a leap year, we subtract 2 
from the number of years, and divide the remainder by 19 ; the quotient 
we get represents the number of complete Minor Cycles. The remainder 
we compare with Circle I. of the Assaying Circle. There we find in 
Circle II., opposite to the year of the cycle, an indication of its nature, 
whether it be a common or a leap year. Further, we find in Circle III. 
the date of the Syrian month on which the beginning of the year in ques- 
tion falls. And lastly, we find in Circle IV. the narae of this Syrian month. 

Here follows the diagram of the Assaying Circle : — 20 




CYCLES, YEAE POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP MONTHS. 143 

If the Enneadecateris, on being complete, returned to the same day of 
the week whence it started, which, as we have already mentioned, is not 
the case, we should have added in the Assayincj Circle a circle V,, for the 
indication of the days of the weeks on which the New- Year days of the 
single years of the Enneadecateris would fall. Under these circum- 
stances, however, it is impracticable. 

If we want to find the week-day with which the day indicated in 

Circle III. corresponds, we compute, by methods which will be hereafter 

explained, the commencements of either Abh or llul of the year in 

10 question, in whichsoever of these two months that day may fall. On 

having carried out this, we learn what we wanted to know. 

This, our calculation regarding the 1st of Tishri, is an average cal- 
culation, without any other correction being employed. But now the 
beginning of Tishri frequently falls on such days which the Jews, as 
we have already mentioned, do not allow to be New- Year's day. There- 
fore it becomes necessary to fix it on a day earlier or later. 

If we, now, want to acquaint ourselves with this correction {lit. 

equation), we must first know the conjunction of sun and moon at the 

beginning of Tishri, according to the theory of the Jews themselves, 

20 not that of the astronomers. For between these two theories there are 

certain divergencies : — 

I. They give to the lunar month, extending from conjunction to con- 
junction, the length of — 

29d. 12h. 793 Halaks, 
which is equal to 

(29d. 12h.) 44' 3" 20'", 
[whilst modern observers have found it to be 

29d. 12h. 44' 2" 17'" 21iv.] I2v 
Therefore the difference between the two computations is 
30 1" 2'" 38IV- 48V - ^^43^ 

II. They give the solar year, if they reckon with mathematical accu- 
racy, the length of 

365d. 5A|^ih. 
whilst modern astronomers have found it to be shorter. 

III. Astronomers teach that that portion of the NycUhemeron which 
elapses between the time of conjunction and that moment when new 
moon becomes visible, varies according to the differences of both the 
longitudes and latitudes of the places, whilst the Jews compute it every- 
where according to one and the same rule. "We do not know for which 

40 particular place this mode of computation was originally calculated, but 
it seems rather likely that it was made for Jerusalem or its environs, for 
there was their central seat. 



144 ALBtnUNI. 

rV. The J determine this space of time (between the conjunction and 
the appearance of new moon) by wpat KaipiKai. Whilst it is well known 
that it is not allowed to use them for the computation of conjunction, 
except on the equator. 

V. They compute the conjunctions by the mean, not the apparent 
motion. Therefore passover frequently falls two complete days later 
than the real opposition — one day in consequence of the liquations, another 
day in consequence of their postponing passover from a Dies illicita to a 
Dies licita. 

Computation of the Moled of a Year according to the Jewish 10 

System. — If we, now, want to find the Moled of a year, which term 
the Jews apj)ly to the conjunction at the beginning of each month 
as well as the conjunction at the beginning of every cycle, we take 
the complete years of the ^ra Adami, i.e. till the end of the year 
which is preceded by the month Tishri in question. We convert the 
number of years into Minor Cycles, and multiply the number of cycles 
by 2d. 16h. 595^, which you get as a remainder if you convert the days 
of the minor cycle into weeks. The product which arises we keep in 
mind. 

Thereupon, we consider the remainder of years that do not fill up one 20 
complete minor cycle. How many of them are common years, how many 
leap years, we learn by the Ordo inter calationis, 

(i.e. the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, and 18th years of the cycle are 
leap years). 

The number of common years we multiply by 4d. 8h. 876"'^, the 
number of leap years by 5d. 21h. 589 . The product of these two 
multiplications we add to the sum we have kej)t in mind. 

To the sum we always add 

5d. 14h., 30 

which represents the interval between the time of the conjunction and 
the beginning of the night of Sunday that was the commencement of 
the first year of the ^ra Adami. 

Then we raise each 1,080 Halaks to 1 hour, and add it to the other 
hours ; each 24 hours we convert into 1 day, and add it to the other 
days. The sum of days that arises we convert into weeks, and the re- 
mainder of days that are less than a week is the distance of the Moled 
from the beginning of the night of Sunday. Now, that time to which 
in the last instance our calculation leads us, is the time of the conjunc- 
p.l47. tion at the beginning of Tishri. 40 

We have made such a computation for a year of the jEra Alexandri, 
in order to facilitate the process and to simplify the apparatus. 

If you want to find the conjunction at the beginning of Tishri, take 
the years of the JEra Alexandri, and subtract therefrom always 12 years, 
which are the remainder of the minor cycle at the epoch of the iEra 



CYCLES, TEAR-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 145 



Alexaudri, according to the Ordo intercalationis Xlt^'lX The remainder 
of years divide by 19 ; the quotient you get is the number of minor 
cycles. 

Convert these minor cycles into great cycles, if they are of a sufl&cient 
number to give complete great cycles, and keep in mind what remainder 
of years you have got. They are the curre nt yea rs of the cycle in 
question, according to the Ordo intercalationis y^1^'2.X 

The great cycles, if you get such, compare with the table of the great 
cycles, and take the number of days, hours, and Halakim which you find 
10 opposite them. 

The small cycles compare with the table of the small cycles, and the 
number of days, hours, and Halakim which you find opposite them. 

These two numbers add together, days to days, hours to hours, and 
Halakim to Halakim. 

This sum add to the Basis, which is written in the table uppermost, 
and which is the Moled of the 12th year of the ^ra Alexandri. Con- 
vert each 1,080 Halakim into an hour, each 24 hours into a day, and the 
days into weeks. The remainder of days you get is the distance between 
the beginning of the night of Sunday and the time of the conjunction. 
20 This is according to Jewish calculation. 

We have used as the starting-point in this our calculation the begin- 
ning of the night for no other reason but this, that they commence the 
Nychthemeron with sunset, as we have mentioned in the first part of this 
book. 

Here follows the table, computed by that method of calculation which 
we have explained in the preceding pages : — 



p.l48. 



30 



40 



The Numbers 


The Years 








of the 


of the 


Days. 


Hours. 


Halakim. 


Small Cycles. 


Small Cycles. 








1 


19 


2 


16 


595 


2 


38 


5 


9 


110 


3 


57 


1 


1 


705 


4 


76 


3 


18 


220 


5 


95 


6 


10 


815 


6 


114 


2 


3 


330 


7 


133 


4 


19 


925 


8 


152 





12 


440 


9 


171 


3 


4 


1,035 


10 


190 


5 


21 


550 


11 


209 


1 


14 


65 


12 


228 


4 


6 


660 


13 


247 


6 


23 


175 


14 


266 


2 


15 


770 


15 


285 


5 


8 


285 



10 



146 



ALBiEdNt. 



The Numbers 


The Years 








of the 


of the 


Days. 


Hours. 


Halakim. 


Small Cycles. 


Small Cycles. 








16 


304 


1 





880 


17 


323 


3 


17 


395 


18 


342 


6 


9 


990 


19 


361 


2 


2 


505 


20 


380 


4 


19 


20 


21 


399 





11 


615 


22 


418 


3 


4 


130 


23 


437 


5 


20 


725 


24 


456 


1 


13 


240 


25 


475 


4 


5 


835 


26 


494 


6 


22 


350 


27 


513 


2 


14 


945 


28 


532 


5 


7 


460 



10 



p.l49. 



The Single 










Years of the 


Days. 


Hours. 


Halakim. 


Leap Years. 


Small Cycle. 










1 


5 


21 


589 




2 


3 


6 


385 


— 


3 





15 


181 


L 


4 


6 


12 


770 


— 


5 


3 


21 


566 


L 


6 


2 


19 


75 


— 


7 





3 


951 


— 


8 


4 


12 


747 


L 


9 


3 


10 


256 


— 


10 





19 


52 


— 


11 


5 


3 


928 


L 


12 


4 


1 


437 


— 


13 


1 


10 


233 


— 


14 


6 


19 


29 


L 


15 


4 


16 


618 


— 


16 


2 


1 


414 


L 


17 





22 


1003 


— 


18 


5 


7 


799 


— 


19 


2 


16 


595 


L 



20 



30 



CYCLES, YEAR-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 147 



10 



The Numbers 


The Year3 








of the 


of the 


Days. 


Hours. 


Halakim . 


Great Cycles. 


Great Cycles. 








1 


632 


5 


7 


460 


2 


1064 


3 


14 


920 


3 


1596 


1 


22 


300 


4 


2128 





5 


760 


6 


2660 


5 


13 


140 


6 


3192 


3 


20 


600 


7 


3724 


2 


3 


1060 


8 


4256 





11 


440 


9 


4788 


5 


18 


900 


10 


5320 


4 


2 


280 


11 


5852 


2 


9 


740 


12 


6384 





17 


120 


13 


6916 


6 





580 



p.l50. 



Astronomical Computation of the Moled of a Year- If a matlie- 

matician wants to know the time of conjunction as determined by 
astronomical observation, not that one which is found by the rules of 

20 the Jewish chronologers, he may use the (following) table, which we 
have tried to compute in the same way as the preceding ones, on the 
basis of the corrected observations that have been made not long before 
our time. For this purpose we have consulted the view of Ptolemy 
regarding the mean length of the month, the view of Khalid ben 'Abd- 
almalik of Marwarudh, according to his measurements made at Damas- 
cus, the view of the sons of Musa ben Shakir, and of others. Of all 
these, we found the most deserving to be adopted and followed that of 
the sons of Musa ben Shakir, because they spent their whole energy in 
endeavouring to find the truth ; because they were unique in their age 

30 for their knowledge of, and their skill in, the methods of astronomical 
observations ; because scholars bore witness of them to this effect, and 
warranted the correctness of their observations ; and lastly, because there 
is a long interval between their observations and those of the ancients 
(Ptolemy, Hipparchus, etc.), whilst our time is not far distant from 
theirs (i.e. from the time when the sons of Musa ben Shakir made their 
observations). 

Now we have computed the Basis according to their view, viz. the date 
of the conjunction at the beginning of the 13th year of the yEra Alex- 
andri. It occurred at Baghdad, 21h. 20' 50" 14'" 291^- after noon on a 

40 Tuesday. And because the meridian of Jerusalem, on account of 
its more western longitude, is behind the meridian of Baghdad by 
14 Times, we have subtracted the corres]Donding space of time, i.e. 
66 minutes from the date of the same conjunction at Baghdad. So we 
get as a remainder the Basis for Jerusalem, i.e. — 

20h. 24' 60" 14'" 29iv. after noon. 

10 * 



p.l51. 



148 



ALBiR^JNi. 



.152. 



He wlio calculates on tHs basis subtracts always 12 from tbe incom- 
plete years of tlie jEra Alexandri (i.e. from tlie ^ra Alexandri, including 
tbe current year), and converts the remainder into great and small cycles. 
He takes that portion of hours, minutes, seconds, etc. which corresponds 
in the tables to each of these numbers of great and small cycles. The 
remainder of single years he compares with the table of the consecutive 
years of the small cycle ; he takes the values which he finds in the table 
opposite this number of years, and adds these three Characters (of the 
Great Cycles, the Small Cycles, and the Consecutive Years of the latter) 
together. This sum he adds to the Basis, and raises the hours and 
fractions of an hour to days and the corresponding wholes. Thereupon 
he converts the days into weeks, and the remainder which he gets is that 
time which has elapsed between the noon of Sunday at Jerusalem and 
the conjunction at the beginning of Tishri. 

Here follows the table as based upon astronomical ohservations: — 



The Numbers 


1 

The Tears 














of the 


of the 


Days. 


Hours. 


,Minutes. 


Seconds. 


Thirds. 


Fourths. 


Small Cycles. 


Small Cycles. 














The Basts. 


12 


2 


20 


24 


50 


14 


29 


1 


19 


2 


16 


28 


57 


57 


53 


2 


38 


5 


8 


57 


55 


55 


46 


3 


57 


1 


1 


26 


53 


53 


39 


4 


"76 


3 


17 


55 


51 


51 


32 


5 


95 


6 


10 


24 


49 


49 


25 


6 


114 


2 


2 


53 


47 


47 


18 


7 


133 


4 


19 


22 


45 


45 


11 


8 


152 





11 


51 


43 


43 


4 


9 


171 


3 


4 


20 


41 


40 


57 


10 


190 


5 


20 


49 


39 


38 


50 


11 


209 


1 


13 


18 


37 


36 


43 


12 


228 


4 


5 


47 


35 


34 


36 


13 


247 


6 


22 


16 


33 


32 


29 


14 


266 


2 


14 


45 


31 


30 


22 


15 


285 


5 


7 


14 


29 


28 


15 


16 


304 





23 


43 


27 


26 


8 


17 


323 


3 


16 


12 


25 


24 


1 


18 


342 


6 


8 


41 


23 


21 


54 


19 


361 


2 


1 


10 


21 


19 


47 


20 


380 


4 


17 


39 


19 


17 


40 


21 


399 





10 


8 


17 


15 


33 


22 


418 


3 


2 


37 


15 


13 


26 


23 


437 


5 


19 


6 


13 


11 


19 


24 


456 


1 


11 


35 


11 


9 


12 


25 


475 


4 


4 


4 


9 


7 


5 


26 


494 


6 


22 


33 


7 


4 


58 


27 


613 


2 


13 


2 


5 


2 


51 


28 


532 


5 


6 


31 


8 





44 



10 



20 



30 



40 



CYCLES, YEAE-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 149 



10 



20 



The Single 








1 






Years of the 


Days. 


Hours. 


Minutes. 


Seconds. 


Thirds. 


Fourths. 


Small Cycles. 














1 


5 


21 


32 


29 


45 


35 


2 


3 


6 


20 


57 


13 


49 


3L 





15 


9 


24 


42 


3 


4 


6 


12 


41 


54 


27 


38 


5L 


3 


21 


30 


21 


55 


52 


6 


2 


19 


2 


51 


41 


27 


7 





3 


51 


19 


9 


41 


8L 


4 


12 


39 


46 


37 


55 


9 


3 


10 


12 


16 


23 


30 


10 





19 





43 


51 


44 


11 L 


5 


3 


49 


11 


19 


58 


12 


4 


1 


21 


41 


5 


33 


13 


1 


10 


10 


8 


33 


47 


14 L 


5 


18 


58 


36 


2 


1 


15 


4 


16 


31 


5 


47 


36 


16 L 


2 


1 


19 


33 


15 


50 


17 





22 


52 


3 


1 


25 


18 


6 


7 


40 


30 


29 


39 


19 L 


2 


16 


28 


57 


57 


53 



p.l58. 



30 



The Numbers 
















of the 


Their Years. 


Days. 


Hours. 


Minutes. 


Seconds. 


Thirds. 


Fourths. 


Great Cycles. 
















1 


532 


5 


5 


31 


3 





44 


2 


1064 


3 


11 


2 


6 


1 


28 


3 


1596 


1 


16 


33 


9 


2 


12 


4 


2128 


6 


22 


4 


12 


2 


56 


5 


2660 


5 


3 


35 


15 


3 


40 


6 


3192 


3 


9 


6 


18 


4 


24 


7 


3724 


1 


14 


37 


21 


5 


8 


8 


4256 


6 


20 


8 


24 


5 


52 


9 


4788 


5 


1 


39 


27 


6 


36 


10 


5320 


3 


7 


10 


30 


7 


20 


11 


5852 


1 


12 


41 


33 


8 


4 


12 


6384 


6 


18 


12 


36 


8 


48 


13 


6916 


4 


23 


43 


39 


9 


32 

i 



p. 154. 



(In this our calculation of the conjunction) we have used noon as p.l55. 
40 terminus a quo for no other reason but this, that we may more easily find 
the equation for the moled by this method than by using the horizons 
(i.e. reckoning from sunset, as the Jews do). 

The hours of the longest day for the latitude of Jerusalem are 13h. 
'plus a fraction. Therefore the calculation of the Jews by Jipat KaipiKaC 



150 



ALBIEI^Nt. 



is incorrect, except in case the conjunction at the beginning of Tishri 
should coincide with the autumnal equinox. This, however, never hap- 
pens. On the contrary, the conjunction at the beginning of Tishri always 
either precedes or follows the autumnal equinox by a considerable space 
of time, as we have explained heretofore. 

Relation between the beg^inning- of the Year and its Character. 

— If we, now, make out the time of the conjunction by the traditional cal- 
culation of the Jews, or by means of the table which we have constructed 
according to their theory, we arrive at the knowledge of the beginning 
of the year and of its character, whether it be imperfect, intermediate, 
or perfect, whilst we have already previously learnt how to know whether 
the year be a common or a leap year. Thereupon we look in the Table 
of Limits for a space of time in the week within the limits of which 
the conjunction as found by our calculation falls. If the year be a leap 
year, we look into the column of leap years ; if it be a common year, we 
look into the column of common years. Having made out this, we find 
opposite the indication of the week-day on which the year commences, 
and of the quality of the year. Once knowiag the beginning of the 
year (its precise date in the week) and its quality, and combining with 
it our knowledge as to whether the year is a common or a leap year, we 
come to know the beginning of the next following year. 
Here follows the Table of the Limits : — 



10 



20 



p.l56. 



The Limits of the Time Spheres as distributed 
over the Week, in Common Years. 


New- Year's 
Day. 


Character 
of the Year. 


From noon of Saturday 

till 
9h. 204H. in the night of Sunday 


'r 


Imperfect. 


From 9h. 204H. in the night of Sunday 

till 
3h. 589H. in the day of Monday, if the 
preceding year is a leap year; 
till 
Noon of Monday, if the preceding year is 
a common year 


> 2 


Perfect. 


From 3h. 589H. in the day of Monday, 

or 
From noon of Monday, 

till 
9h. 204H. in the night of Tuesday 


> 3 


Intermediate. 



30 



CYCLES, YEAE-POINTS, MOLIIDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 151 



10 



20 



The Limits of the Time-Spheres as distributed 
over the Week, in Common Years. 


New- Year's 
Day. 


Character 
of the Year. 


From 9h. 204H. in the night of Tuesday 

till 
9h. 204H. in the night of Thursday 


} ' 


Intermediate. 


From 9h. 204H. in the night of Thursday " 

till 
Noon of Thursday 


}• 


Perfect. 


From noon of Thursday 

till 
Oh. 208H. in the night of Friday, if the 
following year is a common year ; 
till 
9h. 204H. in the night of Friday, if the 
following year is a leap year 


- 7 


Imperfect. 


From Oh. 208H. in the night of Friday, 

or 
From 9h. 204H. in the night of Friday, i 

till 
Noon of Saturday. 


' 7 


Perfect. 



30 



The Limits of the Time Spheres as distributed 
over the Week, in Leap Years. 


New- Year's 
Day. 


Character 
of the Years. 


From noon of Saturday 

till 
8h. 491 H. in the day of Sunday 


^ 


Imperfect. 


From 8h. 491II. in the day of Sunday 

till 
Noon of Monday 


1' 


Perfect. 


From noon of Monday 

till 
Noon of Tuesday 


!• 


Intermediate. 



152 



ALBiE^N!. 



The Limits of the Time Spheres as distributed 
over the Week, in Leap Years. 


New- Year's 
Day. 


1 
Character 
of the Years. 


From noon of Tuesday 

till 
llh. 695H. in the night of Wednesday 


!• 


Intermediate. 


From llh. 695H. in the night of Wednesday 

till 
Noon of Thursday 


!' 


Perfect. 


From noon of Thursday 

till 
8h. 491H. in the day of Friday 


!' 


Imperfect. 


From 8h. 491H. in the day of Friday 

till 
Noon of Saturday. 


1' 


Perfect. 



10 



p.l58. 



Further, of these conditions and qualities there are certain ones which 
exclusively attach to the year in case its beginning falls on a certain day 
of the week, the other conditions being excluded. If you call this cir- 
cumstance to help, it will prove an aid towards obtaining the object in 
view. 

In the following figure we represent this subject by means of divisions 20 
and ramifications : — 

The Tear 
is either 
a common year or 



a leap year. 
Thursday. 

It cannot be Intermediate. 
In both Common and Leap Years. 
Tuesday. Monday. Saturday. 



Thursday {i.e. if New- Year's day 

is a Thursday). 
The year cannot be Imperfect. 



It is always 
Intermediate. 



It can never be 
Intermediate. 



It can never be 
Intermediate. 



30 



p. 159. Further, of these conditions there are certain ones which may happen 
in two consecutive years, whilst others cannot. If we comprise them in 
a Tailasdn, it will afford a help towards utilizing this circumstance, and 
will facilitate the method. We must look into the square which belongs 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, MOLEDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 153 



10 



20 



in common to the two qualities of the two years ; in that square it is 
indicated whether the two years of two such qualities can follow each 
other or not. 



30 







3 2 1 

Imperfect. 


Qualities 
of the years. 

1 
Imperfect. 




5 4 
Intermediate. 


1 

Cannot follow 
each other. 


6 

Perfect. 


4 
Cannot follow 
each other. 


2 
Can follow 
each other. 


4 2 
Intermediate. 


1 5 
6 Can follow ] Can follow 
each other. each other. 


3 

Can follow 
each other. 


5 
6 Perfect. 3 



The reason why two intermediate years cannot follow each other is 
this, that their ends and beginnings cannot be brought into concord with 
each other, as the Table of Equation at the end of this book will show. 

The reason why two imperfect years cannot follow each other is this, 
that the perfect months among the months of the cycle (Enneade- 
cateris) preponderate over the imperfect ones. For the small cycle com- 
prises 6,940 days, i.e. 125 perfect months and only 110 imperfect ones. 

For the same reason, three months which are j)erfect according to the 
appearance of new moon, can follow each other, whilst of the imperfect 
months not more than two can follow each other. And their following 
each other is possible only in consequence of the variation of the motions 
of the two great luminaries (sun and moon), and of the variation of the 
setting of the zodiacal signs (i.e. the varying velocity with which the 
sun moves through the various signs of the Ecliptic). 

In what Period the beginning' of the Jewish Year returns to 

the same Date. — If the conjunctions at the beginnings of two con- 
secutive great cycles (of 682 years) coincided with each other (i.e. if they 
were cyclical in such a way as to begin always at the same time of the 
week), we should be able to compute the qualities of the Jewish years 
by means of tables, comprising the years of a great cycle, similar to the 
Chronicon of the Christians. However, the moleds of these 3ycles do 
not return to the same time of the week except in 689,472 years, for the 
following reason : 

The Character of the small cycle, i.e. the remainder which you get by 
dividing its number of days by 7, is 2d. 16h. 595H. This fraction is 
not raised to one whole, except in a number of cycles, which is equal to 
the number of Halakim of one Nychthemeron, i.e. 25,920. Because 



p.l60. 



154 ALBintNi. 

fractions are not raised to wholes, except wten multiplied by a number 
which is equal to the complete number of the same kind of fractions of 
one whole (i.e. by the denominator). 

But as both the number of the Halakim of the NychtJiemeron (25,920) 
and the number of the remainder of the Halakim of the cycles (595) 
may be divided by 6, the fractions will be raised to wholes if multiplied 
by a number of cycles, which is equal to ^ of the Halakim of the 
Nychthemeron, i.e. 5184. 

Now, the conjunction (at the beginning of the year) does not return 
to the same time of the week except in a number of cycles which is the 10 
sevenfold of this number (5184), i.e. 36,288. And this is the number of 
cycles which represent the above-mentioned number of years (viz. 
689,472). 

In general, conjunction and opposition return to the same place (i.e. 
happen again at the same time of the week) in each 181,440 months, 
which is the product of the multiplication of the number of Halakim of 
one Nychihemeron (25,920) by 7. 

Comparison between the Jewish Era and the Era of Alexander. 

— Since it is not possible to use this method for chronological purj)0ses, 
we have not thought it proper to deviate from the traditional method, 20 
inasmuch as it tries to bring near that which is distant, and simplifies and 
facilitates that which is difficult and intricate. It is suflicient for us to 
know the beginnings and the qualities of the years, and the corresponding 
days of the Syrian months on which the days of New Tear fall, for such a 
number of years as that the student will not require more in the majority 
of cases. This information we have recorded in three tables : — 

I. The first rej)resents the day of the week on which the year com- 
mences ; the Tabula Signorum. 

II. The second, or Tabula Qualitatum, shows the qualities of the years. 
The letter c (pj) designates an Imperfect year, because in their 30 

language it is called p"^DrT- 

The letter <j^ (2) means an Intermediate year, because they call it 

p.l61. The letter v> (^) means a Perfect year, because they call it D^72''7t2?- 

III. The Tabula Integritatum et Quantitatum, representing the days on 
which the Jewish New Year falls, the days of Abh in red ink, the days 
of llul in black ink. 

Using these tables you take the JEra Alexand/ri for the current year, 
beginning with Tishrin I., which falls always (a little) later than Tishri. 
The whole number of years you compare with the vertical column of 40 
years ; the single years (of the periods of nineteen years) you compare 
with the horizontal colunrn of years. Then you firui in the square which 
is common to both, that which you wanted, if God permits ! 

pp.162 [Here follow the three tables, which I have united into one.! 
-167. -^ 

































































05 


o 


1 i 


1 


1 


o 


to 




2 


2 




III 




1 


CD 

rH 
CO 


CO 


CO 


K 


2 




1 


2 
2 


X (^ 

1 g 


to 

O 


ii^S 






i 


i 


1 


1 




t» 


1 


1 


1 


CO 


1 1 


1 


1 


i 


ts. 

1 


i 


s 


2 

lO 


2 




i-H 

in 


o 
in 


o> X 


1 

in 


S 


J 






B^ 
■n M 




C>-i Ci-i 


B^ 

M CO 


B*^ B"^ _ 

mm t- co' 


"S 




«5o 


Ci-i. 


B^ 

1- CO 


s 


m° 


CM, 


ni-i 




B^ 


B^, 

m CO ' 


B^ 


CO o 




c;<, c^ B^ 

Mm m CO »- m 




S 




■QW 




.S 


n" 1 B" ■S" 

«2'k2 «^ 


n'-' 


B"_ 


CO ^ 


."S 


B" 


in «* 


B^ 


o)2 


in t^ 


«S- 


in '^ 


B" 




n" 


.^2 


«2 


Cl-H 


'K,. 
«rt 


in '^ 


:e2 


B« 












B" 


in M 


^r 


"II t-S? 


B'^ 




B'^ 


B^ 


n'-< 


nS?' 






B^ 


n'-' 

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i-« ! "S 




Bm 




B^ 


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n« 


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in "* 


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^ CO 1 CO CO 






in ^ i> " 


B". 


B" 
in " 




ni-H 

CO M 


C'-' 

t,^* 


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B« 
lO =0 


B« 


CO CO* t, ^ ' « CO 


C-- 

in CO 


BHH 


Bhh 


B" 

in "^ 


ojco 


ni-H 

CO «' 


C" B^ 

t^co „« 

a*^ n" 

«2 ""2 


3 






in ■" 


.^2 


"2 


s- 


B" 

« 12 


IT-* 

in ;£5 


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in ;2 


t-2 «3 


fT-i 


1^2 "S t-2 


n3 


■"3 


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B^ 
« 2 


ni-H 

in CO 


S 


ni-i 

in m> 


."^ 


S 


J 


n<1 








B^ 


B<^ 

in« 


«!• 


"S 


J^S 
t-^ 


B-^ 


in« 


B^ 


n<t; 


.^s 




mw 




B< 


•S<1 

in M 


fS 






B< 


B-^ 

in c< 


a" 


"S 


.^^- 


9 




C" 
w* 


■a" 


in X* 


Bi-i i 'B^ 


ni-H 

in ^ 


CM 


nw n" Bi-^ 

in 00 ^ t^ c-j to 


in t- • 


B^-i 


ni-H 

CO to 


Bw . -gw 
in-o j«t-' 


ni-H 
in t- 


B« 


BM 


in to* 




riM 

in t- 




B« 


ni-H 

in to 


B" 

1:^ m 


CO in in m • 


■B^ 


3 




«2 


"2- 


B" 

t^2 




in ^ 


«2 


inS 


B" B" 
w2 c»S 


in *'• 


B" 


CO J5 


m2 




lO °° 


s 


«2 


n" 

■"S' 


S 


in* 


S 


S- 


in *- 


s 


"2 


B" 

in 2* 


«J5 


in *- 


s 


- 


■3^ 


■n CO 


=^ CO 


"m 1 t-co" 


«g 


mco 


•S^ 
t-g 


n-«i 1 B"^ n^ 


C< 


l- CO 


■9^ 
o<^ 






"§*' 


t-eo 


B^ B^ ■B< 
oig ing t^g- 


"§ 


a-^ tz< 


ft 






mg5 


« 




in O 








B« 


n" B" 

"2' in"^ 


.S 


n'-' a'"' 

■"2 t-2- 


B« 


ino 


M 2 1 « :ii "1 1- 2 


Bi-i 


ni-i B*-! 1 T-i 
in 05 j^ oi *i CO o> 


a« 

in* 


;,( OS in 2" 


B" 


Bi-i 


ni-H 

in X 


«S- 


„ 




«S 


iT-i 


B" 




ni-i 


■8S 




B^ 








o , .« o 


t-2 


in «• 


B^ 




ni-i 

lO O 






05' 




ni-i 




B'-' n« 1 B" 
«2 '"2 |t-2' 




- 






B>-i 


ni-H 

eo « 


Bw 






B-i 


BHH 

in« 


C" 

«« 


CO rH 




B" 
in =^ 


B^ 

1^ '^ 


ni-H 

eo rH 


B", 


C« 1 CM 

M« in« 




B". 


B« B-=^ 


«m 


C-i 


« rH 


a« 


« 








"2 


o2 


C'-' 1 n'-' 


t-2 


B" 


in "• 


S 




^ CO 


«2 


in CO 


B" 


iT-i 

co2 


m2 


c^2 


in " 




«2- 


in "^ 


B^ 


rt-' 

eo ;nl 


1-2 


S 


n*-i B"^ 


„ 




n^ 

"S 






n" 


■9" 






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«S 








„ CO _ CO' 

CO M in^ 










1- w 




'=^. 

t- M 




n*-' 1 B^ 

^ CO /^« 


cog?' 


* ^i 


M«0 


in =o 




Bw -B*-* 
M in u, in 


Bi-^ nt-i 
t^ ^ CO L-. • 






C<-' 
in m 


B« 
t^ in' 


riM 

CO m 


B« 
in ■* 


« in 


in to' 




Bi-i B« 
c<i "^ in ■** 


B« 


CO ^ 




C^-i 


C-i, 


B" 


CO ■* 


B« 
in CO 


CM C" 
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„ 






B" 






" 2 'i »- £:; 


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B" n" 

^2- "2 


'^m 


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n'-' 


S 


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nr 


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CO 2 


s 


B" 

« 2 


'n2' 


1> 1— i 


=02 


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m3 


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in ^ 


■9" 
t- 2 


«■ 4 


« OS • 

in N 


B<1 












=0-1 


in c^ 


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m « 


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B<! 


B-< 

m?5 


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n< 

CO « 




X 


in oj 






a^ 

io« 










?^ 


B^ 


" 


■Qi-i riM 
t^ » cooo 


Cl-H 


B" 


ni-i 

in OS 


B>-| ni-H 

l^ 00 CO CO 


B-i 

in 00* 




inCJ 


Bi-i 


B« 


ni-H 

in X 


Bi-i 


CO »>• 


Ci-i 
b,=»* 


B-i 


m-H 

in X 


Bhh 


nrn a>^ 

eo X' in t- 


C« 


ni-H 

in X 


B". 


BM 


riHH 

in 1- 


B" 


ni-H 

eo «-' 


O 






inO 


B« 

1-2 


it! s'-' c" 

«2 o2-c!rs 




t>2 «2 


n>-' 

■02 


1-2 


co2 




S 


■"2 


B" 

t-2 


co2' 


a'"' 

X 


«2 


in °^ 


S- 


B" 


■"2 


.^E 


„ X> ^05 


ml 


i 


i 


'ji 


to 


CO 


1 o 2 


00 


b. 

3 


to in -^ 

^ § s 


CO 
CO 


M 


— 1 o 


1 


X 

to 


1^ 

to 


to in 
2 2 




eo 


?? 
t^ 


to X 


r-H 


X 
00 



s a j2 



I lil 






' liil 
s IIP 

fas « sl'^ 



•all 



caS 



^ EH^ 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 155 



The beginning's of the Jewish Months.— Let us suppose we did p.l68. 

not know by means of the Tabula Quantitatuvi on what precise date in 
the months Abh or llul the Jewish New Year falls, but we knew from 
the Tabula Signorum on what day of the week it falls, and we had pre- 
viously learnt from the Assaying Circle on what date of Abh or llul on 
an average it falls (no regard being had to the Dahiyyoth). In this case 
we should be sufficiently informed to know in what way to advance or 
to postpone the date of the Syrian month if this day of the week should 
be incompatible with Bosh-hashshdnd, so as to get at last the legitimate 

10 New-Tear's day (lacuna) more particularly as the three festivals are to 
be found with perfect accuracy in the preceding three tables. 

(In this way) we obtain a knowledge of the era of the Jews, of the 
beginning of their year, and of its complicated nature. Hence we pro- 
ceed to learn the beginnings of the single months of their year, either 
by distributing over the months their proper portions of days in con- 
formity with the two qualities of the year in question (whether it be 
tL% D or n or a common or leaj) year), or by means of the Tabula 
Initiorum Mensium. You compare the Bosh-hashsMnd with the Table of 
the Signum (week-day) of Tishri ; in the table of common years, if the 

20 year be a common year ; in the table of leap years, if the year be a leap 
year. At the side of this column you find another, which indicates 
whether the year be imperfect, intermediate, or perfect. After having 
made out this, you find in the corresponding sq^^ares the beginning of 
each complete month, and the two beginnings of each incomplete month. 
For the Jews assign to each month which is preceded by a complete 
month two beginnings (two first days), viz. one day which is in reality 
the begianing of the month, and the preceding day, or the 30th day 
of the preceding complete month. This you must keep in mind, for it 
is part of their bewildering terminology. God is allwise and almighty ! 

30 Table showing on what Days or the Week the beginning of p.l69. 
THE Months falls throughout the Year. 
Table of Common Years. 



40 























a 




:S'd 






















% 


Qtiality 


^^ 


i 

4in. 






1 




1 


« 


i 




i 


1 


of the 
Tear. 


ft 
ma 

7 


2 


1 VI. 


6 


5 rv. 


3 


2 I. 


7 


6V. 


4ni. 


2 I. 


Perfect . 


2 I. 


7 


6 V. 


4 


3 n. 


1 


7 VI. 


5 


4 


3 


2 I. 


Imperfect 


7 


6 V. 


4 


3 n. 


1 


7 VI. 


5 


4 ni. 


2 


1 vn. 


6 V. 


4 m. 


Perfect . 


2 


4 m. 


2 


1 vn. 


6 


5 IV. 


3 


2 I. 


7 


6 


5 


4 m. 


Imperfect 


2 


6 V. 


4 


3 n. 


1 


7 VI. 


5 


4 in. 


2 


1 VII. 


6 


5 IV. 


Intermediate 


3 


2 I. 


7 


6 v. 


4 


3 n. 


1 


7 VI. 


5 


4in. 


2 I. 


7 VI. 


Perfect . 


5 


1 vn. 


6 


5 IV. 


3 


2 I. 


7 


6 V. 


4 


3n. 


1 


7 VI. 


Intermediate 


5 



156 



ALBiEUNt. 



p.l70. 



Table of Leap Years. 















^ 










g 














S 


"i^ 








^ 






N 








m 


P4 


Hi"- 






1 


g 

^ 


1 


^ 


m 


1 


1 






1 


5 


1 

"a 
M 


t 


6 V. 


4 


3 II. 


1 


7 VI. 


5 


4 III. 


2 I. 


7 


6 V. 


4 III. 


2 I. 


4 III. 


2 


IVII. 


6 


6 rv. 


3 


2 I. 


7 VI. 


6 


4 


3 


2 I. 


IVII. 


6 


6 IV. 


3 


2 I. 


7 


6 V. 


4 III. 


2 


IVII. 


6 V. 


4 III. 


6 V. 


4 


3 II. 


1 


7 VI. 


5 


4 III. 


2 I. 


7 


6 


5 


4 ni. 


ivn. 


6 


5 IV. 


3 


2 I. 


7 


6 V. 


4 III. 


2 


IVII. 


6 


5 IV. 


4 III. 


2 


IVII. 


6 


5 IV. 


3 


2 I. 


7 VI. 


5 


4 III. 


2 I. 


7 VI. 


2 I. 


7 


6 V. 


4 


3 II. 


1 


7 I. 


5 IV. 


3 


2 


1 


7 VI. 



Quality 
of the 


11 
'A. 


Year. 


11 


Perfect . 


7 


Imperfect . 


7 


Perfect . 


2 


Imperfect . 


2 


Intermediate 


3 


Perfect . 


5 


Imperfect • 


5 



10 



p. 171. They were induced to assume two Rosh-HodesTi, as I am inclined to ' 
think, by the circumstance that originally they counted the com- 
plete month as 29 days pure (i.e. without any fraction), and that is 
in fact the correct time of the interval between two consecutive conjunc- 
tions. Into the 30th day, however, fall the fractions of the synodic 
month {i.e. the first 12 hours 793 Halakim of the 30th day belong to 
the preceding month, whilst the latter llh. 287H. belong to the 
following month). Therefore they referred this 30th day to the month 
that had passed, so that thereby it became in reality complete, and to 20 
the incomplete month (just commencing), so that this latter one got two 
beginnings (i.e. the latter llh. 28 7H. of the 30th day, and the first 
whole day of the new month). But God knows best what they 
intended ! 

Computation of the beginning and middle of the Months 
according" to Jewish and Astronomical Systems.— if we now want 

to know the time of conjunction at the beginning of a month, or the 
time of opposition in the middle of the month, according to the system 
of the Jews, we derive them from the Table of Moleds and Fortnights, 
where we find the Conjunction oj^posite the moled of each month, and 80 
the Opposition opjDOsite its Fortnight ; for the common year in the 
column of common years ; for the leaj^ years in the column of leap years. 
The number we find we add to the Moled Tishri, i.e. to the conjunction 
at the beginning of Tishri ; the fractions we convert into wholes, the 
days into weeks. In this way we find what we wanted to know. 



CYCLES, TEAR-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 157 

If we want to learn the same according to the doctrine of the astrono- 
mers, we make the same calculation with the Tahle of Conjunctions and 
Oppositions, using the table of common years if the year in question be 
a common year, and the table of leap years if the year in question be a 
leap year, and with the conjunction at the beginning of Tishri as com- 
puted by the astronomers. In this way we arrive at the knowledge of 
both conjunctions and oppositions which we wanted. 

Here follow the tables : — 



Table of the MolIids akd Fortnights. 



Pp.172, 
173. 



10 



20 



30 





Common Year. 




Leap Teab. 


The Moleds 
and Fortniglits 








The Moleds 
and Fortnights 




















of the Months. 


Days. 


Hours. 


Hala- 
kim. 


of the Months. 


Days. 


Hoiirs. 


Hala- 
kim. 


Moled Tishri 











Mol^d Tishri . 











lt3 fortniglit 





18 


396i 


Its fortnight 





18 


396^ 


Moled Marlieshwan 


1 


12 


798 


Moled Marheshwan 


1 


12 


793 


Its fortnight 


2 


7 


109i 


Its fortnight 


2 


7 


109i 


M6led Kislew 


3 


1 


506 


Moled Kislew 


3 


1 


506 


Its fortnight 


3 


19 


902i 


Its fortnight 


3 


19 


9021 


Moled Tebeth 


4 


14 


219 


Moled Tebeth 


4 


14 


219 


Its fortnight 


5 


8 


615i 


Its fortnight 


5 


8 


6151 


Moled Shebh^t 


6 


2 


1012 


Moled Shebath 


6 


2 


1012 


Its fortnight 


6 


21 


328i 


Its fortnight 


6 


21 


328i 


Moled 'Adhar 





15 


725 


Moled 'Adhar I. 





15 


725 


Its fortnight 


1 


10 


4H 


Its fortnight 


1 


10 


4U 


Moled Nisan . 


2 


4 


438 


Moled 'Adhar IL . 


2 


4 


438 


Its fortnight 


2 


22 


884i 


Its fortnight 


2 


22 


834i 


Moled 'Iy4r . 


3 


17 


151 


Moled Nisan . 


3 


17 


151 


Its fortnight 


4 


11 


547i 


Its fortnight 


4 


11 


547^ 


Moled Siwan . 


5 


5 


944 


Moled 'lyar . 


5 


5 


944 


Its fortnight 


6 





260i 


Its fortnight 


6 





260i 


Moled Tammuz . 


6 


18 


657 


Moled Siwan . 


6 


18 


657 


Its fortnight 





12 


10531 


Its fortnight 





12 


1053i 


Moled Abh . 


1 


7 


370 


Moled Tammuz 


1 


7 


370 


Its fortnight 


2 


1 


766i 


Its fortnight 


2 


1 


766i 


M6led'Elul . 


2 


20 


83 


Moled Abh . 


2 


20 


83 


Its fortnight 


3 


14 


479i 


Its fortnight 


3 


14 


479i 










Moled 'Eliil . 


4 


8 


876 










Its fortnight 


5 


3 


192^ 



168 



ALBlRtNl. 



pp.174, 
176. 



Table of Conjunctions and Oppositions. 







Common Yeae. 










Leap Tear. 




The Con- 
junctions and 
Oppositions 
of the 
Months. 














The Con- 
junctions and 
Oppositions 
of the 
Months. 














m 

1 




18 


1 



22 


1 

s 

02 



1 


1 



8 


1 

o 



40f 


CO 

i 





1 


18 


m 

<i> 

1 


22 


-a 
a 


a 

m 



1 


.a 



8 


1 



40f 


Conjunction of 

Tishri. 
Its full moon . 






Conjunction of 

Tishri. 
Its full moon . 


Conjunction of 

Marheshwan. 

Its full moon . 


1 
2 


12 

7 


44 
6 


2 
3 


17 
26 


21i 
1| 


Conjunction of 

Marheshwan. 

Its full moon . 


1 

2 


12 

7 


44 
6 


2 
3 


17 

26 


211 
If 


Conjtinction of 

Kislew. 
Its full moon . 


3 
3 


1 
19 


28 
50 


4 
5 


34 

43 


42| 
23 


Conjunction of 

Kislew. 
Its full moon . 


3 
3 


1 
19 


28 
50 


4 
5 


34 
43 


42f 
23 


Conjunction of 

Tebeth. 
Its full moon . 


4 
5 


14 

8 


12 
34 


6 

8 


52 



44i 


Conjunction of 

Tebeth. 
Its' full moon . 


4 
5 


14 
8 


12 
34 


6 

8 


52 



3| 
441 


Conjunction of 

Shebhat. 
Its full moon . 


6 
6 


2 
21 


56 
18 


9 
10 


9 
18 


24f 
5| 


Conjunction of 

Shebhat. 
Its full moon . 


6 
6 


2 
21 


56 
18 


9 
10 


9 

18 


24f 
5| 


Conjunction of 

'Adhar. 
Its fuU moon . 



1 


15 
10 


40 
2 


11 

12 


26 
35 


46 
26f 


Conjunction of 

'Adhar I. 
Its full moon . 



1 


15 
10 


40 
2 


11 

12 


26 
35 


46 

26f 


Conjimction of 

Nisan. 
Its full moon . 


2 
2 


4 
22 


24 
46 


13 
14 


44 
52 


7i 
47i 


Conjunction of 

'Adhar II. 
Its full moon . 


2 
2 


4 
22 


24 
46 


13 
14 


44 
52 


47| 


Conjunction of 

'lyar. 
Its full moon . 


3 

4 


17 
11 


8 
30 


16 

17 


1 
10 


28| 
9 


Conjunction of 

Nisan. 
Its full moon . 


3 

4 


17 
11 


8 
30 


16 
17 


1 
10 


28f 
9 


Conjunction of 

Siwan. 
Its full moon . 


5 
6 


5 



52 
14 


18 
19 


18 

27 


49a 
30i 


Conjunction of 

'lyar. 
Its lull moon . 


5 
6 


5 



52 
14 


18 
19 


18 
27 


49i 
30i 


Conjunction of 

Tammuz. 
Its full moon . 


6 



18 
12 


36 

58 


20 
21 


36 

44 


51f 


Conjunction of 

Siwan. 
Its full moon . 


6 



18 
12 


36 

58 


20 
21 


36 

44 


51| 


Conjunction of 

Abh. 
Its full moon . 


1 
2 


7 
1 


20 
42 


22 
24 


53 
2 


32 

12f 


Conjunction of 

Tammuz. 
Its fuU moon . 


1 
2 


7 
1 


20 

42 


22 
24 


63 
2 


32 

12| 


Conjunction of 
Its full moon . 


2 
3 


20 
14 


4 
26 


25 

26 


10 
19 


53i 
334 


Conjunction of 

Abh. 
Its full moon . 


2 
3 


20 
14 


4 
26 


25 
26 


10 
19 


53i 
33| 
















Conjunction of 

'Elul. 
Its full moon . 


4 
5 


8 
3 


48 
10 


27 
28 


28 
36 


14f 
55 



10 



20 



30 



40 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, MOl^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 159 

We also find what we want to know regarding the Jewish years, by p,176. 
computing the next opposition (or full moon) after the vernal equinox, 
occurring in that space of time within the limits of which the Jewish 
passover varies ; then we consider on what daj within this time it falls, 
reckoning the day from one sunrise to the next one. If the opposition 
occurs on one of Dies Licitce, that day is the day of jDassover ; if, how- 
ever, it occurs on one of the Dies illicitce, i.e. the days of the three inferior 
planets, we postpone passover to the - second (the next following) day. 
This postponement of passover they call in their language ^r\1 Daht. 

10 Then you make the same computation in order to find the passover of 
the preceding year. To the Signum (i.e. week-day) of this latter pass- 
over you add two, whereby you get the day of the 1st of Tishri that lies 
in the middle between the two passovers. Then you count the days in- 
tervening between the two passovers ; if they exceed the number of days 
of a solar year, that year in which the latter passover lies is a leap 
year ; if they are less, the year is a common year. 

In this chapter you may learn the primary qualities of the year (its 
being common or intercalary), but not its secondary qualities (its being 
perfect, intermediate, or imperfect). For frequently passover has been 

20 postponed, when it ought to have been advanced according to the theory 
of the Jews, or it has been advanced when, according to them, it ought 
to have been postponed. Therefore, you get no exact information as to 
the quality of the year, whether it be perfect, intermediate, or imperfect. 
Frequently, even the opposition occtirred near to one of the limits of 
that space of time, within which passover varies, whilst each of the 
places of sua and moon, as made out from appearance, was at variance 
with its mean place, on account of the alternate acceleration and retarda- 
tion of the motion of sun and moon, in conformity with the total sum 
of their Universal Equations. Therefore, such an opposition not being 

30 fit to be employed, either the preceding or the following opposition was 
adopted. 

For this reason there is a difference between the Jewish computation 
and this (astronomical) method, to such a degree that frequently 
according to the Jews the year was a leap year, whilst this astronomical 
calculation proves it to have been a common year, and vice versa. 

Likewise there is a difference between Jews and Christians regarding 
the leap year, as we shall explain in the chapter on the Christian Fast, if 
G-od permits. If, now, there is a difference between them, and they are 
willing to accept our decision, we shall consider the two oppositions of 

40 their two passovers, and shall say, that that opposition at which the 
moon moves in the middle part of Spica or of Cancer, or the sun is about 
to leave Aries, is to be rejected according to both systems, whilst the con- 
trary is to be adopted. To the lover of truth, the correctness of these 
two assertions will be apparent, if the conditions we have mentioned are 
observed. 



160 ALBIRUNf. 

The Cycles of Yobel and Shabu'.— The Jews have still other cycles, 
e.g. the cycle of YohSl and the cycle of Shdbu', i.e. of seven years. The 
first years of both cycles are called " restitution years." For God says, 
regarding the cycle of seven years, in the third book of the Thora 
(Levit. XXV. 2-7) : " When ye come into the land of Canaan, ye shall 
sow and reap and prune your vineyards six years. But in the seventh 
year ye shall not sow nor gather your grapes, but leave them to your 
servants and maids, and to those who sojourn with you, and to the cattle 
and the birds." 
p.177. The same command God repeats in the second book of the Thora (Exodus 10 
xxiii. 10, 11) : " And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and gather in 
the produce thereof. But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest, and 
shalt leave thy produce during that year to the poor and the cattle." 

Likewise their religion and law allow a poor man to sell his child to a 
rich man, i.e. to give it in hire to him, to do service unto him ; but not 
for sexual intercourse, for that requires a marriage-portion and a mar- 
riage-contract. The child does him service during the cycle of SMhiV, 
and it is set free, unless it does not choose to be set free. For God says 
in the second book of the Thora (Exod. xxi. 2-6) : " If anyone of you buy 
a servant from among the Israelites, six years he shall serve, but in the 20 
seventh year he will go out of his possession, and will be free to go 
where he pleases, he and his wife, if he have got one. But if the 
servant say, I love my master and will not leave his service, then his 
master shall bring him near the door-post, and shall bore his ears with 
an awl, and shall keep him as a servant as long as he pleases." 

The cycle of Yobel was wanted on account of the following command 
of God in the third book of the Thora (Levit. xxv. 8-13) : " Tou shall 
sow the land seven times seven, which is forty-nine years. Then you 
shall cause the trumpet to sound throughout all your land, and you shall 
hallow it for the fiftieth year. You shall not sow nor reap. And in the 30 
fiftieth year the restitution shall take place." " The land shall not be 
sold for ever, for the land is mine and you are its inhabitants and 
sojourners with me " (Levit. xxv. 23). " Everything that has been sold 
is to be restored in the fiftieth year. You shall sell according to the 
number of years," i.e. the remaining years of the cycle of Yobel (Levit. 
xxv. 13-15). 

In the same book (Levit. xxv. 39, 40), God says : " If thy brother be 
waxen poor, and be sold unto thee, thou shalt not compel him to serve 
as a bond servant, but as a hired servant and as a sojourner until the 
year of restitution." 40 

Because of the circumstances brought about by these regulations they 
required these two cycles, in order that in their sales the higher and 
lower prices should always correspond to the remaining number of years 
of the cycle. There are still other religious regulations of theirs which 
rendered them necessary. If, e.g. a servant does not wish to be set free, 



CYCLES, YEAR-POINTS, MOLEDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 161 



10 



and remains in the condition of a servant during the whole cycle of 
Tobel, he cannot be retained after that period. 

Now, if jou want to know how many years have elapsed of each of 
the two cycles (at a certain time), take the years of the ^'Era Adami, 
including the current year, subtract therefrom 1,010, or add thereto 
740 ; divide the sum by 350, and neglect the quotient. The remainder, 
however, compare with the column of numbers in the Tahula Legum, 
opposite which you find the statement of the number of years which 
have elapsed in each of the two cycles. 

Here follows the Tabula Legum : 

Tabula Legitm. 



20 



30 



3'd 


a 


<3 

1 


2 


i 


1 


2 

ID 


<o 


<3 


1 

^25 






J2 

'A 






"a 

|25 


<o 




t 

1 


■I 
•o 


1 


1 


1 


1 


26 


26 


5 


51 


1 


2 


76 


26 


6 


101 


1 


3 


126 


26 


7 


151 


1 


4 


2 


2 


2 


27 


27 


6 


52 


2 


3 


77 


27 


7 


102 


2 


4 


127 


27 


1 


152 


2 


5 


3 


3 


3 


28 


28 


7 


53 


3 


4 


78 


28 


1 


103 


3 


5 


128 


28 


2 


153 


3 


6 


4 


4 


4 


29 


29 


1 


54 


4 


5 


79 


29 


2 


104 


4 


6 


129 


29 


3 


154 


4 


7 


5 


5 


5 


30 


80 


2 


55 


5 


6 


80 


30 


3 


105 


5 


7 


130 


30 


4 


155 


5 


1 


6 


6 


6 


31 


31 


3 


56 


6 


7 


81 


31 


4 


106 


6 


1 


131 


31 


5 


156 


6 


2 


7 


7 


7 


32 


32 


4 


57 


7 


1 


82 


32 


5 


107 


7 


2 


132 


32 


6 


157 


7 


3 


8 


8 


1 


33 


33 


5 


58 


8 


2 


83 


33 


6 


108 


8 


3 


133 


33 


7 


158 


8 


4 


9 


» 


2 


34 


34 


6 


59 


9 


3 


84 


34 


7 


109 


9 


4 


134 


34 


1 


159 


9 


5 


10 


10 


3 


35 


35 


7 


60 


10 


4 


85 


35 


1 


110 


10 


5 


135 


35 


2 


160 


10 


6 


11 


11 


4 


36 


36 


1 


61 


11 


5 


86 


36 


2 


111 


11 


6 


136 


36 


3 


161 


11 


7 


12 


12 


5 


37 


37 


2 


62 


12 


6 


87 


37 


3 


112 


12 


7 


137 


37 


4 


162 


12 


1 


13 


13 


6 


38 


38 


3 


63 


13 


7 


88 


38 


4 


113 


13 


1 


138 


38 


5 


163 


13 


2 


14 


14 


7 


39 


39 


4 


64 


14 


1 


89 


39 


5 


114 


14 


2 


139 


39 


6 


164 


14 


3 


15 


15 


1 


40 


40 


5 


65 


15 


2 


90 


40 


6 


115 


15 


3 


140 


40 


7 


165 


15 


4 


16 


16 


2 


41 


41 


6 


66 


16 


3 


91 


41 


7 


116 


16 


4 


141 


41 


1 


166 


16 


5 


17 


17 


3 


42 


42 


7 


67 


17 


4 


92 


42 


1 


117 


17 


5 


142 


42 


2 


167 


17 


6 


18 


18 


4 


43 


43 


1 


68 


18 


5 


93 


43 


2 


118 


18 


6 


143 


43 


3 


168 


18 


7 


19 


19 


5 


44 


44 


2 


69 


19 


6 


94 


44 


3 


119 


19 


7 


144 


44 


4 


169 


19 


1 


20 


20 


6 


45 


45 


3 


70 


20 


7 


95 


45 


4 


120 


20 


1 


145 


45 


5 


170 


20 


2 


21 


21 


7 


46 


46 


4 


71 


21 


1 


96 


46 


5 


121 


21 


2 


146 


46 


6 


171 


21 


3 


22 


22 


1 


47 


47 


5 


72 


22 


2 


97 


47 


6 


122 


22 


3 


147 


47 


7 


172 


22 


4 


23 


23 


2 


48 


48 


6 


73 


23 


3 


98 


48 


' 


123 


23 


4 


148 


48 


1 


173 


23 


5 


24 


24 


3 


49 


49 


7 


74 


24 


4 


99 


49 


1 


124 


24 


5 


149 


49 


2 


174 


24 


6 


25 


25 


4 


50 


50 


1 


75 


25 


5 


100 


50 


2 


125 


25 


6 


150 


50 


3 


175 


25 


7 

I 



p.l78, 
179 



11 



162 



ALBmUNI. 



p.l80, 

181 



t 
1 


i 


i 


1 
1 


1 


i 

•si 

II 

02 


1 


3 




g 
1 


1 




i 

"A 






2 


1 


m 


'A 1 


■O 




176 


26 


1 


201 


1 


5 


226 


26 


2 


251 


1 


6 


276 


26 


3 


301 


1 


7 


326 


26 


4 


177 


27 


2 


202 


2 


6 


227 


27 


3 


252 


2 


7 


277 


27 


4 


302 


2 


1 


327 


27 


5 


178 


28 


3 


203 


3 


7 


228 


28 


4 


253 


3 


1 


278 


28 


5 


303 


3 


2 


328 


28 


6 


179 


29 


4 


204 


4 


1 


229 


29 


6 


254 


4 


2 


279 


29 


6 


304 


4 


3 


329 


29 


7 


180 


30 


5 


205 


5 


2 


230 


30 


6 


255 


5 


3 


280 


30 


7 


305 


5 


4 


330 


30 


1 


181 


31 


6 


206 


6 


3 


231 


31 


7 


256 


6 


4 


281 


31 


1 


306 


6 


5 


331 


31 


2 


182 


32 


7 


207 


7 


4 


232 


32 


1 


257 


7 


5 


282 


32 


2 


307 


7 


6 


332 


32 


3 


183 


33 


1 


208 


8 


5 


233 


33 


2 


258 


8 


6 


283 


33 


3 


308 


8 


7 


333 


33 


4 


184 


34 


2 


209 


9 


6 


234 


34 


3 


259 


9 


7 


284 


34 


4 


309 


9 


1 


334 


34 


5 


185 


35 


3 


210 


10 


7 


235 


35 


4 


260 


10 


1 


285 


35 


5 


310 


10 


2 


335 


35 


6 


186 


36 


4 


211 


11 


1 


236 


36 


5 


261 


11 


2 


286 


36 


6 


311 


11 


3 


336 


36 


7 


187 


37 


5 


212 


12 


2 


237 


37 


6 


262 


12 


3 


287 


37 


7 


312 


12 


4 


337 


37 


1 


188 


38 


6 


213 


13 


3 


238 


38 


7 


263 


13 


4 


288 


38 


1 


313 


13 


5 


338 


38 


2 


189 


39 


7 


214 


14 


4 


239 


39 


1 


264 


14 


5 


289 


39 


2 


314 


14 


6 


339 


39 


3 


190 


40 


1 


215 


15 


5 


240 


40 


2 


265 


15 


6 


290 


40 


3 


315 


15 


7 


340 


40 


4 


191 


41 


2 


216 


16 


6 


241 


41 


3 


266 


16 


7 


291 


41 


4 


316 


16 


1 


341 


41 


5 


192 


42 


3 


217 


17 


7 


242 


42. 


4 


267 


17 


1 


292 


42 


5 317 


17 


2 


342 


42 


6 


193 


43 


4 


218 


18 


1 


243 


43 


5 


268 


18 


2 


293 


43 


6 318 


18 


3 


343 


43 


7 


194 


44 


5 


219 


19 


2 


244 


44 


6 269 


19 


3 


294 


44 


7 


319 


19 


4 


344 


44 


1 


195 


45 


6 


220 


20 


3 


245 


45 


7 270 


20 


4 


295 


45 


1 


320 


20 


5 


345 


45 


2 


196 


46 


7 


221 


21 


4 


246 


46 


1 271 


21 


5 


296 


46 


2 


321 


21 


' 


346 


46 


3 


197 


47 


1 


222 


22 


5 


247 


47 


2 272 


22 


6 


297 


47 


3 


322 


22 


7 


347 


47 


4 


198 


48 


2 


223 


23 


6 


248 


48 


3 273 


.23 


7 


298 


48 


4 


323 


23 


1 


348 


48 


5 


199 


49 


3 


224 


24 


7 


249 


49 


4 


274 


24 


1 


299 


49 


5 


324 


24 


2 


349 


49 


6 


200 


50 


4 


225 


25 


1 


250 


60 


5 


275 


25 


2 


300 


50 


6 


325 


25 


3 


350 


50 


7 



p. 182 On the Tekufoth or Year-points.— Besides the cycles we have 
mentioned, the Jews have other cycles called Tekufoth HiD^pp. Tekufd 
means with them the commencement of each of the quarters of the year. 
Therefore 

the Tekufd of Nisdn is the vernal equinox, 
the TeMfd of Tammuz, the summer solstice, 
the Tekufd of TisJiri, the autumnal equinox, 
and the Tekufd of Teheth, the winter solstice. 

The interval between two consecutive Tekufoth they determine equally 
at one-fourth of the days of the year, i.e. 91 d. 7|h. And on this rule 
thev have based their calculations for the determination of the Tekufoth, 



10 



20 



30 



CYCLES, rBAR-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 163 

(which were rendered necessary for this reason, that) the Jewish priests 
forbade the common people (the laity) to take any food at the hour of 
the Tekufa, maintaining that this would prove injurious to the body. 
This, however, is nothing but one of the snares and nets which the 
Rabbis have laid for the people, and by which they have managed to 
catch them and to bring them under their sway. The thing has come 
to this, that people do not start on any undertaking unless they are 
guided by Eabbinical opinions and Eabbinical directions, without asking 
any other person's advice, as if the Eabbis were Lords beside the Lord. 

10 But God makes his account with them ! 

The Jews maintain, too, that at the hours of the Moleds of the months 
the water becomes turbid ; and one Jew, who is considered a wise and 
learned man, told me that he himself had witnessed it. If this be the 
truth, it must, of course, be explained by the results of astronomical 
observation, not by means of their traditional system of chronological 
computation. On the whole, we do not deny the abstract possibility of 
such a fact. For the students of physical sciences maintain that marrow 
and brain, eggs, and most moist substances increase and decrease with 
the increase and decrease of the moonlight ; that the wine in casks and 

20 jugs begins to move so as to get turbid with sediment; and that the 
blood during the increase of moonlight runs from the interior of the 
body towards the outer parts, whilst during its decrease it sinks back 
into the interior of the body. 

The nature of the Lapis Limce is still more strange than all this ; for 
it is, as Aristotle says, a stone with a yellow dot on the siirface. This 
dot increases together with the increasing moonlight, so as to extend 
over the whole surface of the stone when the moon has become full ; 
afterwards it decreases again in the same proportion as the moonlight. 
The Jew who told me this is a trustworthy authority, to whose account 

80 no suspicion attaches. Therefore these appearances, as related by the 
Jews, are not impossible in the abstract. 

The intervals between the Tekufoth, as reckoned by the Jewish 
scholars, are identical with those of Ptolemy, i.e., 

From the Tekufa of Tishri to the Tekufa of Tebeth=88|d. 
), „ Tebeth „ „ Msan=90|d. 

„ „ Nisan „ „ Tammuz=94|d. 

„ „ Tammuz „ „ Tishri = 92^ d. 

This gives a sum of 365^ days. 

In the computation of the Tekufoth they do not reckon the year Avith 
40 mathematical accuracy. For, as we have already mentioned, if they 
reckon with mathematical accuracy, they fix he solar year at 



365d. 5|4^h 



11 * 



164 albiex^nI. 

p. 183 Computation of the Distance of the Apogee from the Vernal 

Point. — -[f we, now, know the days of tlie year-quarters, we know also 
the place of the apogee of the solar sphere. 

If we want to know the place of the apogee, such as it was at the time 
of their observations, we must find the mean motion of the sun for 
one day. 

We multiply the fractions of one NycMhemeron, 

i.e. 98,496, 

which they call the Solar Cycle, by 360 ; and the product we divide by 
the length of the solar year, after it has been converted into the same 10 
kind of fractions, 

i.e. 35,975,351, 

which number they call the Basis. 

By this method, as they have described it, you find the mean motion 
of the sun for one Nychthemeron to be about 

0° 59' 8" 17'" 71V. 46V-. 

For one day stands in the same proportion to all the days of the solar 
year as that j)ortion of degrees of the sphere, which the sun traverses in 
one day, to the whole circle. 

Now we draw the circle abed, representing the solar sphere as 20 
homocentric with the Ecliptic, around the centre li. Then you make 

a the beginning of Aries ; 
b the beginning of Cancer ; 
c the beginning of Libra ; 
d the beginning of Capricorn. 

Further we draw the two diameters a h c and b h d. 

Already before, in recording their theory, we have mentioned that the 
sun requires more time to traverse the quarter a b than the other 
quarters. Therefore the centre of the Excentric Sphere must lie in this 
quarter. 30 

Let X be the centre of the Excentric Sphere. Around it we draw the 
circle z tf n, touching the homocentric sphere, as a repi'esentation of the 
Excentric Sphere. The point of contact is t. 

Then we draw the line t x, the diameter r x m Jc parallel with the 
diameter ah c through the centre x, and finally the radius I x, which we 
prolong as a straight line as far as s, parallel with the diameter b h d. 

Because, now, the sun in his mean motion traverses the half circum- 



CYCLES, YEAR-POINTS, MOLEDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 1G5 

ference ah c, i.e. the sum of the vernal and summer quarters, in 187 days, 
the section zfn of the Excentric Sphere is equal to 

184° 18' 52" 43"' 121^-. 



If we subtract from this the half circle r tfJc, i.e. 180 degrees, we get 
as a remainder the sum of z r and h n, i.e. 

4° 18' 52" 43'" 12IV.. 

However, these two (a r and k n) are equal, since the two diameters are 
parallel. Therefore each of them is 

2° 9' 26" 21'" 36IV.. 

10 And the sine of each of them, i.e. the line x s, is equal to 

0° 2' 15" 30"' 571V., 

if you take the radius I x a,s 1 degree. 

Since the sun traverses the quarter a h in 94| days, the section z tfoi 
the Excentric Sphere is equal to 

93° 8' 34" 38'" 44iv.. 

And because s Z is the sum of z r, which is known, and of r I, which is 
the quarter of a circle, we find, on siibtracting z I from zf, If to he equal 
to the remainder, i.e. 

0° 59' 8" 17'" 8IV.. 
20 The sine of Z / according to the same measure is 

0° 1' 1" 55'" 351^-. 
This is the line x m, which is equal to s h. 



Therefore, in the rectangular triangle x s h, th iwo sides x s and s h 
are known, whilst the longest side is unknown. Now, we take the p. 184 
squares of each of the two sides x s and s h and add them together. 
This gives 

287, 704, 466, 674 eighths. 

If we take the root of this number, we get 

0° 2' 28" 59'" 40IV., 

30 which is the distance between the two centres, equal to the sine of the 
Ch^eatest Equation. 

If we look for the corresponding arc in the Sine Tables, we get 

2° 22' 19" 12'" I6IV., 



166 ALBiiirai. 

which is the Greatest Equation (lacuna) one degree. For half (!) of h x, 
measured by a; ^ as 1 degree, stands in the same proportion to ce ^ as 
(lacuna). 

If we, now, want to know how long the line x h is, if measured by 
the line h x t as 1 degree, we multiply a; ^. by 1 degree and divide the 
sum by ^ a; plus 1 degree. Thereby we find x h, as measured by the line 
/ ^, as 1 degree. 

For h X, if measured by ^ ^ as 1 degree, stands in the same proportion 
to X t a.s X h, if measured by a; f as 1 degree, to the sum of h x plus 
1 degree, i.e. x t. 10 

In this way the distance between the two centres in its proportion to 
each of the two diameters, that of the homocentric and that of the ex- 
centric sphere, becomes known. 

Further we draw the line t u Sit right angles to the diameter ah c. 
Now the two triangles t ti h and x s h are similar, and their corresponding 
sides are proportional to each other. 

Now, everybody who knows trigonometry knows that in a triangle the 
side a stands in the same proportion to the side /8 as the sine of the 
angle opposite the side a to the sine of the angle opposite the side ft. 

Therefore h x, which is known, stands in the same proportion to x s, 20 
which is also known, as the sine of the right angle x s h, i.e. h t the 
Sinus Totus, to the sine of the angle s h x, i.e. the line t u, which we 
wanted to find. 

Finally we compute this line, as we compute the unknown number 
out of four numbers which stand in proportion to each other. So we get 

0° 54' 34" 19'" 48IV. 30^-. 

The corresponding arc is 

66° 26' 29" 32'", 

which is the line a t, or the distance of the apogee from the vernal 
equinox. And that is what we wanted to- demonstrate. 30 

Here follows the figure of the circle. 



CYCLES, YEAR-POINTS, MOLEDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 1G7 




10 



This is tlie method of the ancient astronomers for the calculation of 
the apogee. Modern astronomers, knowing that it is extremely difl&cult 
and next to impossible to determine the times of the two solstices, pre- 
ferred in their observations of the four points ah c d the middle parts 
of the year-quarters, i.e., the middle parts of the Firm Signs (i.e. of 
Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Amphora). The method, however, which my 
master 'Abu-Nasr Mansur b. 'Ali b. 'Irak, a freedman of the 'Amir- 
almu'minin, has found out for the solution of the preceding problem, 
requires the determination of three points of the ecliptic, chosen ad 
libitum, and an accurate knowledge of the length of the solar year. In 
my Kitdb-alistishhdd hiJchtildf-ala'rsdd I have shown that this method is as 
much superior to that of modern astronomers as the method of the latter 
is superior to that of the ancient astronomers. 

If I plunge into subjects foreign to the plan of this book, it is only 
for the purpose of leading the reader, as it were, about in the gardens of 
wisdom, so as to prevent his mind and eye becoming weary and getting 
a dislike (to continue the reading of this book). Let me hope that the 
reader will accept this apology of mine. 



185 



1G8 ALBtKl)^!. 

Computation of the Tekufoth according to the Jewish System. 

— Now we return to our subject and say : If the Jews want to find the 
year-quarters, i.e. the Teknfuth of some year, they take the years of the 
^ra Adami, the current year included, and convert them into Solar 
Cycles (dividing them by 28). As for the remaining years, they take 
for every single year 30 hours, i.e. \\ day. The number of weeks which 
are contained in this sum they disregard, so as to get finally a number 
of days less than seven. These days they count either from the begin- 
ning of the night of Wednesday, or they increase them by 3 and count 
the sum from the beginning of the night of Sunday. This brings them 10 
to the Tekufa of Nisan, i.e. the vernal equinox of the year in question. 

In the preceding we have already explained the intervals between the 
single Tekufoth according to both views, the common and the learned 
one. If, therefoi'e, one of the Tekufoth is known, thereby the other ones 
are known too. 

Their counting the sum of days from the beginning of the night of 
Wednesday is for no other reason but this, that some of them maintain 
that the sun was created on Wednesday the 27th of llul, and that the 
Tekufa of Tishri (autumnal equinox) took place at the end of the third 
hour of the day of Wednesday the 6th of Tishri. Further, they make 20 
the sun traverse the two year-quarters of spring and summer in 
182 d. 15 h., in case they do not reckon with mathematical accuracy, as 
we have before mentioned. Now, if we convert these 182 d. 15 h. into 
weeks, the days disapj^ear, and we get only a remainder of 15 h. If we, 
further, reckon from the Tekufa of Tishri backward, and we count 
these hours, we come as far as the beginning of the first hour of the 
night of Wednesday. And that is the moment whence the computation 
we have mentioned starts. 

Others among the Jews maintain that the sun was created in the first 
part of Aries at this same moment whence the computation of the 30 
Tekufoth starts ; that he was in conjunction with the moon, so as to 
form the Moled of Nisan, 9h. 642 H. after the creation. The solar year, 
if not computed with mathematical accuracy, is 365j days. If we convert 
it into weeks, we get as a remainder Ij day, which is the sxirplus of each 
Tekufa over the corresponding one of the preceding year (the Character 
of the Tekufa). Therefore we take this Character for each of the 
remaining years. If we begin (in the computation of the Tekufoth) from 
the beginning of the Solar Cycle either from the beginning of day or 
night, we come back at the end of the cycle to the same moment whence 
we started. 40 

According to this mode of calculation we have comj)uted the Tekufoth 

of a Solar Cycle. Now take the years of the JEra Adami, the current 

p 186 y©^^ included, convert them into Solar Cycles which you disregard ; the 

remainder of years compare with the column of the Cycle till you find 

the corresponding number. Then you find opposite, the interval be- 



CYCLEIS, YEAR-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-J[ONTHS. 169 



tween the Tekufa of Nisan and the beginning of the night of Sunday 
in the current year in question ; there you find, too, the next following 
three Tekufoth and the JDominus Horce, i.e. the presiding planet of that 
hour in which the Tekufa falls. For they mention these Domini 
together with the Tekufoth and call them " Horoscopes of the Hours." If 
the hours you get are less than 12, they are hours of the night ; if they 
are more, they are hours of the day. So you may subtract therefrom 
12 hours, and the remainder represents the corresponding hour of the 
day. 

Table op Tekufoth. 



10 






The intervals 






Column of the 
Solar Cycle. 


The Months of the 
Four Tekufoth. 


between the 

Tekufoth and 

the beginning 

of the Night of 

Sunday. 


The Masters of the hours 
in which the Tekufoth 

OCCUl". 








d. h. H. 






1st year 


Nisau . 


4 18 


Shabbethai. 






Tammuz 


5 1 540 


jj 






Tishri 


5 9 


Sedek. 


20 




Tebeth 


5 16 540 


)j 




2nd year 


Nisan . 


6 


Ma'adhim. 






Tammuz 


6 7 540 


5» 






Tishri 


6 15 


Hamma. 

■ 






Tebeth 


6 22 540 


5J 




3rd year 


Msan . 


6 


Nogah. 






Tammuz 


13 540 


)) 






Tishri 


21 


Kokhabh Hamma. 






Tebeth 


1 4 540 


3J 




4th year 


Msan . 


1 12 


Lebhena, 


30 




Tammuz 


1 19 540 


?) 






Tishri 


2 3 


Shabbethai. 






Tebeth 


2 10 540 


55 




5th year 


Nisan . 


2 18 


Sedek 






Tammuz 


3 1 540 


jj 






Tishri 


3 9 


Ma'adhim. 






Tebeth 


3 16 540 


5> 




6th year 


Msan . 


4 


Hamma. 






Tammuz 


4 7 540 


>j 






Tishri 


4 15 


1^6 gah. 


40 




Tebeth 


4 22 540 


J3 




7th year 


Nisan . 


5 6 


Kokhabh Hamma. 






Tammuz 


5 13 540 


)> 






Tishri 


5 21 


Lebhena. 






Tebeth 


6 4 540 


9 J 




8th year 


Nisan . 


6 12 


Shabbethai. 






Tammuz 


6 19 540 


3J 






Tishri 


3 


Sedek. 






Tebeth 


10 540 


5> 



p. 187 
-191 



170 



ALBfRTJNi. 







The intervals 




Column of the 
Solar Cycle. 


The Months of the 
Four Tek4f6th. 


between the 

Tekufoth and 

the beginning 

of the Night of 

Sunday. 


The Masters of the hours 

in which the'Tekuf6th 

occur. 






d. h. chl. 




9tli year 


Nisan . 


18 


Ma'adhim. 




Tammuz 


1 1 540 


j> 




Tishri 


19 


Hamma, 




Tebeth 


1 16 540 


>) 


loth year 


Msan . 


2 


Nogah. 




Tammuz 


2 7 540 


J5 




Tishri 


2 15 


Kokhabh Hamma, 




Tebeth 


2 22 540 


j> 


llth year 


Nisan , 


3 6 


Lebhena. 




Tammuz 


3 13 540 


)) 




Tishri 


3 21 


Shabbethai. 




Tebeth 


4 4 540 


5» 


12th year 


Nisan , 


4 12 


Sedek. 




Tamrauz 


4 19 540 


5J 




Tishri 


5 3 


Ma'adhim. 




Tebeth 


5 10 540 


j> 


13tli year 


Nisan . 


5 18 


Hamma. 




Tammuz 


6 1 540 


>» 




Tishri 


6 9 


Nogah. 




Tebeth 


6 16 540 


5> 


14tli year 


Nisan . 





Kokhabh Hamma. 




Tammuz 


7 540 


j> 




Tishri 


15 


Lebhena. 




Tebeth 


22 540 


5> 


15tli year 


Nisan . 


16 


Shabbethai. 




Tammuz 


1 13 540 


j> 




Tishri 


1 21 


Sedek. 




Tebeth 


2 4 540 


j> 


16tli year 


Nisan . 


2 12 


Ma'adhim. 




Tammuz 


2 19 540 


5> 




Tishri 


3 3 


Hamma. 




Tebeth 


3 10 540 


>j 


17tli year 


Nisan , 


3 18 


Nogah. 




Tammuz 


4 1 540 


jj 




Tishri 


4 9 


Kokhabh Hamma. 




Tebeth 


4 16 540 


)j 


18tli year 


Nisan . 


5 


Lebhena. 




Tammuz 


5 7 540 


j> 




Tishri 


5 15 


Shabbethai. 




Tebeth 


5 22 540 


j> 


19th year 


Nisan . 


6 6 


Sedek. 




Tammuz 


6 13 540 


j> 




Tishri 


6 21 


Ma'adhim. 




Tebeth 


4 540 


>> 



10 



20 



30 



40 



60 



CYCLES, TKAR-POiXrS, MOlIiDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 171 









The intervals 






Column of the 
Solar Cycle. 


The Months of the 
Pour Tekufoth. 


between the 

Tekufoth and 

the beginning 

of the Night of 

Sunday. 


The Masters of the hours 

m which the TeMfoth 

occur. 




20tli year 


Nisan . 


12 


Hamma. 






Tammuz 






19 540 


5) 






Tishri 






13 


Nogah. 


10 




Tebeth 






1 10 540 


» 




21st year 


Nisan . 
Tammuz 
Tishri 
Tebeth 






1 18 

2 1 540 
2 9 
2 16 540 


Kokhabh Hamma. 

Lebhena. 

J) 




22nd year 


Nisan . 
Tammuz 
Tishri 
Tebeth 






3 
3 7 540 
3 15 
3 22 540 


Shabbethai. 
Sedek. 




28rd year 


Nisan . 






4 6 


Ma'adhim. 


20 




Tammuz 

Tishri 

Tebeth 






4 ]3 540 

4 21 

5 4 540 


>5 

Hamma. 

5> 




24th year 


Nisan . 
Tamm.uz 
Tishri 
Tebeth 






5 12 

5 19 540 

6 3 
6 10 540 


Nogah. 

?) 
Kokhabh Hamma. 




25tli year 


Nisan . 

Tammuz 

Tishri 






6 18 
1 540 
9 


Lebhena . 
Shabbethai. 


30 




Tebeth 






16 540 


j> 




26th year 


Nisan . 
Tammuz 
Tishri 
Tebeth 






1 
1 7 540 
1 15 
1 22 540 


Sedek. 

55 

Ma'adhim. 

55 




27th year 


Nisan . 
Tammuz 
Tishri 
Tebeth 






2 6 
2 13 540 

2 21 

3 4 540 


Hamma. 

55 

Nogah. 

55 




28th year 


Nisan . 






3 12 


Kokhabh Hamma. 


40 




Tammuz 

Tishri 

Tebeth 






3 19 540 

4 3 
4 10 540 


55 

Lebhena, 

55 



Names of the Planets and the Signs of the Zodiac— The names 

of the planets which we have mentioned in the Table of the Tekufoth are 
Hebrew names, in which form they are used by them. Each nation, 
howeyer, if they want to mention the planets, must call them by the 
names of their own language. Therefore here follows a table exhibitiag 
the names of the planets in various languages. The reader will find 
here the Hebrew names which we have mentioned as well as the names 
50 in other languages. 



192 



172 



ALSfR^Nt. 



Hi 





!Z! 




w 




> 




H 


H 


CO 






<1 


fe 


H 


O 



w 

O 



H 








<oS 






1 






1 


d 
-d 


I 




1 — 1 
< 


'a3 

m 


^ 


«r» 






3 

X) 










«A 




























c3 








m 






ffi- 






rS 


2 






r^ 


ca 




'S 


a 






ce 


rd 










C 
d 




d 
PQ 


^ 

^ 








,_ 














^ 




, 






"^ 




• #N 








ca 


+3 















o 

rd 


S 
2 








^ 




-< 


^ 
^ 


< 
1 




d 


1 






^ 




























3 














05 














^ 














d 
























GO 

1 


o 


^. 


II 


a 


c3 




CO 


J — 1 


rd 


5 


a 

ca 

ffi- 




\ 










J 






^C 




a 




3 


'eg 




^ 




<ce 




rri 


&C 




"a 


<1 




> 


c3 


1 


X 
















c3 




nS 






•43 




-g 




N 






ei 




rd 




1=1 






P^ 




CO 

a 


03 




c 






t 










<rH 














<CS 


cS 






EC 


d 






o 






^ 


o 


<rt 




rO 


• Sh' 






-sa- 
cs 


g 






CQ 


Q" 
















Pj 














cS 
















o 

^ 




d 

03 




^ 

2 


o 
m 


'a 

03 


o3 


© 


;h 


"?H 


i-Q 


ri 


o 




5 








M 


rd 

O 


.S 


.a 


.9 


.g 


.9 


.a 


.a 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 173 

And now natural relationship (between the planets and the signs of 
the zodiac) demands, although it is not necessary in this place of our 
book, nor is it requisite, that we should do the same with regard to the 
signs of the zodiac which we have done for the planets, i.e. construct a 
table containing all that we know of their names in various languages. 
For he who wants this for the planets, wants something of the same 
kind for the signs of the zodiac. 

Here follows the table containing the names of the signs of the 
zodiac in various languages. 



p. 193 



10 


Arabic. 


Greek. 


Persian. 


Syriao. 


Hebrew. 


Sanscrit. 


Choras- 
mian. 




Alhamal 
Alkabsh 


> Kptds 


Bara 


VAdI 


n^t^ 


Mesha 


m 




Althaur 


Tavpos 


Oau 


lJo2 


"nti? 


Vrsha 


^^- 




Aljauza 
Altau'aman 


|- AtSuyLtOt 


Duj^aikar 


l^U 


D''nfc^n 


Mithuna 


«^»&>y\ 




Alsaratan 


K.apKivo'i 


Karzang 


U'^ 


Jt^^lD 


Karkata 


«dU^jr£. 


20 


Al'asad 


AeW 


Shir 


U] 


^-^t^ 


Sihha 


er- 




Alsunbula 
Al'adhra 


> Uapdevo? 


Khosha 




n^ni 


Kanya 


«^^; 




Almizan 


Zuyos 


Tarazu 


]1]SQL0 


D^inn 


Tula 


^jV 




Al'akrab 


^KOpTTiOS 


Kazhdum 


Id'rClL 


n^pi^ 


Vrs'c'ika 


udls«s&^jO 




Alkaus 
Alrami 


/■ To^€VT-^<S 


Nimasp 


r lAmo 


[ntyp 


Dhanu 


Ui)jj> 




Aljady 


AiyoKcpcos 


Bahi 


^rA 


^i> 


Makara 


^^j\S 


30 


Aldalw 


YSpo^oos 


D61 


Uo? 


^hi 


Kumba 


J}^ 




Alhut 
Alsamaka 


i 'Ix^ves 


Mahi 


Ijqj 


:n 


Mina 


-^ 



174 ALBtEtjXf. 

p. 194 The Author criticizeslthe Jewish computation of the Tekufoth.— 

We return to our subject and say : The calculation and tables, given 
in tlie preceding, enable tlie student to find the week day on which 
the Tekufa falls ; the corresponding day of the Syrian month, however, 
to which they bring us, differs from real time to an intolerable extent. 

Let us e.g. take the jEra Adami for the 1st of Tishri, the moled of 
which falls on Sunday the 1st of llul in the year 1311 of Alexander. 
The number of complete years of the ^ra Adami is 

4759 

or 8 great cycles (8x532=4256), 26 small cycles (26x19=494), and 9 10 
complete years, arranged according to the Ordo Intercalationis ni^^til!! 
so that six out of these nine years are common-years and three leap- 
years. 

If we convert this sum of cycles and years into days, we get the 
sum of 

l,738,200d. 7h. 253H 

This is the interval between the moled of the first year of the JEra 
Adami and the moled of the present above-mentioned year (A. Adami 
4759). 

We have already stated before that according to Jewish dogma the 20 
Tekufoth- Tishri, i.e. the autumnal equinox, occurred at the beginning 
of the ^ra Adami, 5 days and 1 hour after the moled of the year. 

If we subtract these 5d. Ih. from the sum we have got, we get as 
remainder the interval between the Tekufath-Tishri of the first year of 
the era and the moled of the present year. 

If we divide this interval by 365jd, we get 

4,758 years 
and a remainder of 

335| days. 

Till this Solar year is complete, and night and day are again equal, 30 
29d. llh. 82 7^ more are required. If we add this number of days, 
hours, and Halakim to the moled of the present year, i.e. to Sunday 
7h. 253^ of daytime, we advance as far as the night of Tuesday 9h. 
on the 1st day of the mouth Tishrin Primus. 

Now, this Tekufa falls by 14 days later than the equinox as deter- 
mined by astronomical observation. Such a difference, even if it be 
much less, is quite intolerable, although popular use may be based 
upon it. This popular use we have illustrated by our table according 
to the theory of the Jews. 

If we, further, take this interval between the first Tekufa and the 40 
moled of the present year, i.e. 

l,738,195d. 6h. 253^, 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 175 

and multiply it by 

98,496, 

which is the number of fractions of one day of their Solar year (of 
R. Adda), we get the sum of 

171,280,306 

(Great lacuna.) 

Methods showing how to find the beginning^ of a year of any P- 19^ 
era. 

Table of the Beginnings of the Striac and Greek Months. 



10 



20 



30 



the Solar 


u 

s 

o 

O 




1 

® 
o 


pi 

1-5 


1 


1 
1 




^ 
3 


i-s 




02 

PI 

3 
<1 


i 

a 
® 

ft 

eg 




Column of 
Cycle. 


l-H 

.2 


(-1 


M 


. 
M 
l-H 

Pi 

a 

<o3 

M 


!=( 

.id 

CO 




00 


.13 

l-H 


t 

SI 


a 


<< 


<3 




1 


2 


6 


7 


3 


6 


6 


2 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 




2 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


7 


3 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 




3 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


2 


5 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 


L 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 




5 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 


4 


7 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 




6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


5 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 




7 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


7 


3 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


L 


8 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 




9 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


2 


5 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 




10 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 




11 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 


5 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


L 


12 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


6 


2 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 




13 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


7 


3 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 




14 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 




15 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


L 


16 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 


4 


7 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 




17 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


5 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 




18 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


6 


2 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 




19 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


L 


20 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


1 


4 




21 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


3 


6 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 




22 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 


4 


7 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 




23 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


6 


2 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


L 


24 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 


7 


3 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 




25 


4 


7 


2 


5 


1 


1 


4 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 




26 


5 


1 


3 


6 


2 


2 


5 


7 


3 


5 


1 


4 




27 


6 


2 


4 


7 


3 


4 


7 


2 


5 


7 


3 


6 


L 


28 


1 


4 


6 


2 


5 


6 


1 


3 


6 


1 


4 


7 





176 ALBtE-^Nt. 

p. 196 If we want to know the same for the jEra Augusti (i.e. to find the 
week-day on which a year of this era commences), we take its com- 
plete years and add thereto j of them. To this sum we add 6 and 
divide the whole by 7. Thereby we get the Signum (of the week-day) 
of the 1st of Thot. 

To this Signum we add 2 for each complete month that has elapsed 
before the date you want to find, and the sum we divide by 7. Thereby 
we find the Signum of the month we seek. 

The leap-years are in this era ascertained in this way, that we add 
1 to the number of the complete years and divide the sum by 4. If 10 
there is a remainder, the current year is not a leap-year ; if there is 
no remainder, it is a leap-year. 

If we want to know the same for the yEra Antonini, we increase its 
complete years by \ of them, and to the sum we add 4|. Then we 
make the same calculation (as for the JEra Augusti). 

The leap-years in this era are ascertained in this way, that we add 3 
to its complete years and divide the sum by 4. If there is no remainder, 
the year is a leap-year ; if there is a remainder, it is a common-year. 

As regards the ^ra Diocletiani, we add to its years j of them, and to the 
sum we add 4^. With the remainder, and in order to find the be- 20 
ginnings of the single months, we reckon in the same way as we have 
done for the ^ra Alexandri according to the Greek system. 

The leap-year in the JSV-a Diocletiani is ascertained in this way, that 
we add 2 to its complete years and divide the sum by 4. If there is no 
remainder, the year is a leap-year ; if there is a remainder, it is a 
common-year. 

If we want to learn the beginnings of the years and months of the 
JEra Fugce by chronological computation, we take its complete years 
and write them down in three places. The first we multiply by 354 days, 
the second by 22 minutes, and the third by 1 second. To the number of 30 
minutes we add 34 minutes. Then we convert the three sums in the 
three places into wholes. If the minutes are more than 15, we add 
them as one whole ; if they are less, we drop them. The sum we get 
represents the time which has elapsed between the beginning of the 
^ra FugcB and the beginning of the year in question, consisting of 
days. We add 5 to them and divide the sum by 7. Now, the re- 
mainder of less than 7 is the Signum of Muharram. 

If we want to learn the Signum of another month, we take for the 
months, which have elapsed before the month in question, alternately 
for one month 2 days, for the other 1 day, and the sum we add to the 40 
Signum of Muharram. The whole we divide by 7, and the remainder is 
the Signum of the month in question, as determined by chronological 
computation which is based upon the mean motion of the moon. 

The computation according to the appearance of new-moon is a subject 
the exposition of which would l)e Ijoth of great length and difficulty and 



CYCLES, YEAR-POINTS, MOL^IDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 177 

would require difficult calculations and numerous tables. It is sufficient 
to know what on this subject is said in the Canon of Muhammad b. 
Jabir Albattani, and in that one of Habash the mathematician. In case 
of necessity the student may consult them. 

The same principle we have explained has been adopted by the sect 
who claim to have esoteric doctrines and represent themselves as the 
party of the Family (of 'Ali). So they have produced a calculation 
which they maintain to be one of the mysteries of prophecy. It is this : p.l97. 

If you want to know the beginning of Ramadan, take the complete 
10 years of the Hijra, multiply them by 4 and add to the sum \ and ^ 
(i.e. -|^) of the number of years. If in both these portions (in \ and \ of 
the year of the Hijra) you get a fraction, add it as one complete day to 
the other days, if one of them or both together are more than half the 
denominator of either of the two fractions {\ and -L). Then add to the 
sum 4 and divide the whole by 7. The remainder beyond 7, which you 
get, is the Signum Ramaddni. 

This calculation is based upon what we have mentioned. For if 
you divide the days of each Lunar year, i.e. 354 days, by 7, you get as 
remainder 4. If therefore the years of the Hijra are multiplied by 
20 4, it is the same as if the days of each year and the remainders {i.e. 
the 4 days which remain, if you divide 354 by 7) were converted into 
weeks. 

Further, to take \ and ^ of the years of the Hijra is the same 
as if you would take \ day and \ day for each single year. So this 
method of taking \ and ^ of the years comes to the same thing as if you 
multiplied each year by \ and ^ day and divided the products by the 
denominators of the two fractions (i.e. 5 X 6 = 30). 

If, therefore, the whole is divided by 7 and the remainder is counted 
from Friday, which is the beginning of the jEra Fugce, we come to 
30 the Sigmim Muhavrami. And if we add thereto 6 and count the sum 
from Sunday, the matter comes to the same result. 

Further, the reason why those people add 4 is this, that you get — 
by alternately taking 2 days for one month and 1 day for the next one — 
till the beginning of Ramadan the sum of 5 days. If you add these to 
the Signum Muharrami, you get the Sigmim Ramaddni. Having already 
added 6 for Muharram and combining with it the 5 days, which are 
necessary for the time till Ramadan, you get a total of 11 days. Sub- 
tract 7 and you get as remainder 4 ; this is what remains of the sum 
of the two additions (i.e. the addition of 6 days for the purpose of 
40 postponing the epoch of the era from Friday to Sunday, and the 
addition of 5 days for the purpose of converting the Sigmim Muharrami 
into the Signum Ramaddni). 

The two computations, the one which is counted from Friday, the 
other — mentioned shortly before — which is counted from Thursday, agree 
with each other, for this reason, that in the former case the 34 minutes are 

12 



178 A.LB!R^Ni. 

summed to one day, whilst in the latter case none of the fractions are 
raised to a whole. 

This and similar modes of computation hare been adopted by the 
followers of this new theory in this sect, who are known in Khwarizm 
^ as the Bdghdddiyya sect, so called from their founder, a Shaikh who 

lives in Baghdad. I have found that one of their leaders has taken the 
Jadwal-Mujarrad (i.e. the pure table, divested of any accessory), which 
was constructed by Habash in his Canon for the purpose of correcting 
the method of dating employed in astronomical calculations. Now this 
sectarian has added to each number of the table, i.e. the Signum Muharrami, 10 
6, for the reason just mentioned ; further he has altered the shape of the 
table, giving it — instead of the perpendicular form of a table — the form 
of a screw-like train, similar to a wound-up serpent, as some people in 
Tabaristan have given it the form of a circle, in which the beginning 
and the end of the numbers meet together. 

He has also followed the example of the people (of the same sect) in 
composing a book in which he abuses those who want to find the new- 
p.l98. moon by observation ; he attacks them and blames them, saying that for 
both Christians and Jews it is rendered superfluous by their tables 
to observe new-moon for the determination of their fast-days and the 20 
beginnings of their months, whilst Muslims trouble themselves with a 
subject of so dubious a character (as the observation of new-moon). 
But if he had read farther (in the book of Habash) beyond that place 
where the Jadwal-Mujarrad occurs, as far as the chapter of the astrono- 
mical methods for the observation of new-moon, if he had acquainted 
himself with their nature and with the real character of the practices of 
both Jews and Christians, he would have learned that that which they 
have adopted is obscurity itself. 

Perhaps he who is acquainted with our preceding explanations will 
find out the truth of this. For astronomers agree that the assumed °" 
measures in the most difficult parts of the practice of the observation of 
new-moon are certain distances which cannot be ascertained except by 
experiment. Besides, the observations themselves are subject to certain 
circumstances of a geometrical nature, dn consequence of which that 
which is observed by the eye differs in greatness and smallness. A 
man who considers astronomical affairs with an unbiassed mind could 
not decide against the necessity of the observation of new-moon nor 
against its possibility, particularly when new-moon occurs near the 
end of that distance which has been assumed. 

Here follows the screw-figure (here given in the form of a common 40 
table) which has been transformed out of the Jadwal-Mujarrad. 



CYCLES, YEAR-POINTS, MOLEDS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 179 



Table showing on what Week-Days the Single Teaes of the Cycle 
of 210 Lunar Tears commence. 



10 



20 



30 



A. The Single Years 
of the Cycle of 
210 Years. 


B. The Week-Days 
on which the Sin- 
gle Years com- 
mence. 


A 


B 


A 


<i 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


1 


IV 


31 


II 


61 


VII 


91 


V 


121 


III 


151 


I 


181 


VI 


2 


I 


32 


VI 


62 


IV 


92 


II 


122 


VII 


152 


V 


182 


III 


3 


VI 


33 


IV 


63 


II 


93 


VII 


123 


V 


153 


III 


183 


I 


4 


III 


34 


I 


64 


VI 


94 


IV 


124 


II 


154 


VII 


184 


V 


5 


VII 


35 


V 


65 


III 


95 


I 


125 


VI 


155 


IV 


185 


II 


6 


V 


36 


III 


66 


I 


96 


VI 


126 


IV 


156 


II 


186 


VII 


7 


II 


37 


VII 


67 


V 


97 


III 


127 


I 


157 


VI 


187 


IV 


8 


VI 


38 


IV 


68 


II 


98 


VII 


128 


V 


158 


III 


188 


I 


9 


IV 


39 


II 


69 


VII 


99 


V 


129 


III 


159 


I 


189 


VI 


10 


I 


40 


VI 


70 


IV 


100 


II 


130 


VII 


160 


V 


190 


III 


11 


V 


41 


III 


71 


I 


101 


VI 


131 


IV 


161 


II 


191 


VII 


12 


III 


42 


I 


72 


VI 


102 


IV 


132 


II 


162 


VII 


192 


V 


13 


VII 


43 


V 


73 


III 


103 


I 


133 


VI 


163 


IV 


193 


II 


14 


V 


44 


III 


74 


I 


104 


VI 


134 


IV 


164 


II 


194 


VII 


15 


II 


45 


VII 


75 


V 


105 


III 


135 


I 


165 


VI 


195 


IV 


16 


VI 


46 


IV 


76 


II 


106 


VII 


136 


V 


166 


III 


196 


I 


17 


IV 


47 


II 


77 


VII 


107 


V 


137 


III 


167 


I 


197 


VI 


18 


I 


48 


VI 


78 


]V 


108 


II 


138 


VII 


168 


V 


198 


III 


19 


V 


49 


III 


79 


I 


109 


VI 


139 


IV 


169 


II 


199 


VII 


20 


III 


50 


I 


80 


VI 


110 


IV 


140 


II 


170 


VII 


200 


V 


21 


VII 


51 


V 


81 


III 


111 


I 


141 


VI 


171 


IV 


201 


II 


22 


V 


52 


III 


82 


I 


112 


VI 


142 


IV 


172 


II 


202 


VII 


23 


II 


53 


VII 


83 


V 


113 


III 


143 


I 


173 


VI 


203 


IV 


24 


VI 


54 


IV 


84 


■ II 


114 


VII 


144 


V 


174 


III 


204 


I 


25 


IV 


55 


II 


85 


VII 


115 


V 


145 


III 


175 


I 


205 


VI 


26 


I 


56 


VI 


86 


IV 


116 


II 


146 


VII 


176 


V 


206 


III 


27 


V 


57 


III 


87 


I 


117 


VI 


147 


IV 


177 


II 


207 


VII 


28 


III 


58 


I 


88 


VI 


118 


IV 


148 


II 


178 


VII 


208 


V 


29 


VII 


59 


V 


89 


III 


119 


I 


149 


VI 


179 


IV 


209 


II 


30 


IV 


60 


II 


90 


VII 


120 


V 


150 


III 


180 


I 


210 


VI 



In the oripfinal Arabic this table is arranged in the form of a screw. In the 
longitudinal iields of the screw there is a steady progression of both numbers, the 
numbers of the years rising by 21, the numbers of the week-days rising by 1. For 
instance, in the field of the first years the years rise in this way : — 

1. 22. 43. 64. 85. 106. 127. 148. 169. 190. (1. 22. 43. etc.) ; 

and the week-days rise in this way : — 
40 IV. V. V. VI. VII. VII. I. II. II. III. (IV. V. etc.). 



12 * 



180 ALBIRUNI. 

Considering that in the Jadwal Mujarrad produced by Habash the 
sage in his canon known as the Canon Prohatus (lacuna). This man 
whom we have mentioned, transferred thence the screw-figure (into his 
work), adding five in places where Habash had added the fractions as a 
whole day to the other days, which he ought not to have done. His 
method is the same for the Tabula Mediorum, so that by this he was 
preserved from error. 

Let him who wants to ascertain the truth of our words compare this 
screw-figure — for it is the Jadwal- Mujarrad itself, only increased by 5 so 
as to represent the Signum Bamaddni — with the Corrected Table which 10 
we have computed for the Signum Muharrami. The fractions following 
after the whole days we have also noticed, wishing that they should 
come under occular inspection, and so afford a help also for other 
things. 

If you use this corrected table, subtract always 210 from the years of 
the Hijra, including the current year, if their number be more than 210. 
With the remainder compare the column of the numbers and take the 
days and minutes which you find opposite in the corresponding square. 
Add to the minutes 5 days and 34 minutes, and convert them into 
whole days. Eliminate the 7, if the number is moi'e than 7, and you 20 
get the Signum for the 1st of Muharram. If you add thereto 5, you 
get the Signum of Ramadan. 

The result of this computation compare with the screw-figure. For 
in some dates there is a difference on account of the conversion of the 
minutes under 60 into days. 

It will be clear to the reader why the table has been constructed for 
210 years, and not for a less or larger number of years, if he studies the 
subject thoroughly. 

God is all-wise. He is our sufficiency and our help ! 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 181 



The Corrected Table. 



10 



20 



30 



H 

6« 


1 
Pi 


-2 


n 






a <o 


1 


1 


og 
a a> 


1 


03 

PI 


CM • 

O m 

a 01 

SI 

6« 


oj 




il 
11 


1 


1 


« 9. 


1 


"5 

1 


1 


4 


22 


31 


2 


22 


61 





22 


91 


5 


22 


121 


3 


22 


151 


1 


22 


181 


6 


22 


2 


1 


44 


32 


6 


44 


62 


4 


44 


92 


2 


44 


122 





44 


i52 


5 


44 


182 


3 


44 


3 


6 


6 


33 


4 


6 


63 


2 


6 


93 





6 


123 


5 


6 


153 


3 


6 


183 


1 


6 


4 


3 


28 


34 


1 


28 


64 


6 


28 


94 


4 


28 


124 


2 


28 


154 





28 


184 


5 


28 


5 





50 


35 


5 


50 


65 


3 


50 


95 


1 


50 


125 


6 


50 


155 


4 


50 


185 


2 


60 


6 


5 


12 


36 


3 


12 


66 


1 


12 


98 


6 


12 


126 


4 


12 


158 


2 


12 


186 





12 


7 


2 


34 


37 





34 


67 


5 


34 


97 


3 


34 


127 


1 


34 


157 


6 


34 


187 


4 


34 


8 


6 


58 


38 


4 


56 


68 


2 


58 


98 





53 


128 


5 


56 


158 


3 


53 


188 


1 


56 


9 


4 


18 


39 


2 


18 


69 





18 


99 


5 


18 


129 


3 


18 


159 


1 


18 


189 


6 


18 


10 


1 


40 


40 


6 


40 


70 


4 


40 


100 


2 


40 


130 





40 


160 


5 


40 


190 


3 


40 


11 


6 


2 


41 


4 


2 


71 


2 


2 


101 





2 


131 


5 


2 


161 


3 


2 


191 


1 


2 


12 


3 


24 


42 


1 


24 


72 


6 


24 


102 


4 


24 


132 


2 


24 


162 





24 


192 


5 


24 


13 





46 


43 


5 


48 


73 


3 


46 


103 


1 


46 


133 


6 


46 


163 


4 


46 


193 


2 


46 


14 


5 


8 


44 


3 


8 


74 


1 


8 


104 


6 


8 


134 


4 


8 


164 


2 


8 


194 





8 


15 


2 


30 


45 





30 


75 


5 


30 


105 


3 


30 


135 


1 


30 


165 


6 


30 


195 


4 


30 


16 


6 


52 


46 


4 


52 


76 


2 


52 


108 





52 


136 


5 


52 


166 


3 


52 


196 


1 


52 


17 


4 


14 


47 


2 


14 


77 





14 


107 


5 


14 


137 


3 


14 


167 


1 


14 


197 


6 


14 


18 


1 


36 


48 


6 


36 


78 


4 


36 


108 


2 


36 


138 





36 


168 


5 


36 


198 


3 


36 


19 


5 


58 


49 


3 


58 


79 


1 


58 


109 


6 


58 


139 


4 


58 


169 


2 


5i 


199 





58 


20 


3 


20 


50 


1 


20 


80 


6 


20 


110 


4 


20 


140 


2 


20 


170 





20 


200 


5 


20 


21 





42 


51 


5 


42 


81 


3 


42 


111 


1 


42 


141 


6 


42 


171 


4 


42 


201 


2 


42 


22 


5 


4 


52 


3 


4 


82 


1 


4 


112 


6 


4 


142 


4 


4 


172 


2 


4 


202 





4 


23 


2 


28 


53 





26 


83 


5 


26 


113 


3 


26 


143 


1 


26 


173 


6 


23 


203 


4 


26 


24 


6 


48 


54 


4 


48 


84 


2 


48 


114 





48 


144 


5 


48 


174 


3 


48 


204 


1 


48 


25 


4 


10 


55 


2 


10 


85 





10 


115 


5 


10 


145 


3 


10 


175 


1 


10 


205 


6 


10 


26 


1 


32 


56 


6 


32 


86 


4 


32 


116 


2 


32 


146 





32 


176 


5 


32 


208 


3 


32 


27 


5 


54 


57 


3 


54 


87 


1 


54 


117 


6 


54 


147 


4 


54 


177 


2 


54 


207 





54 


28 


3 


16 


58 


1 


16 


88 


6 


16 


118 


4 


16 


148 


2 


16 


178 





16 


208 


5 


16 


29 





38 


59 


5 


38 


89 


3 


38 


119 


1 


38 


149 


6 


38 


179 


4 


38 


209 


2 


38 


SO 


5 





60 


3 





90 


1 





120 


6 





150 


4 





180 


2 





210 









pp.199, 
200. 



182 



ALB!EUNi. 



p.201. Further, I have found with 'Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Shihab, who 
was counted among the leaders of the Haruriyya-sect and one of the 
greatest of their missionaries, the following table, which, he says, is to 
be used in this way : Take the complete years of the ^ra Fugce, add 
thereto 4 and divide the sum by 8. The remainder under 7 you compare 
with the column of numbers, and opposite you find the week-day of the 
beginning of whatever month you like. 



Table of the Months. 



II 



§^ 



10 



p.202. 



This table, too, is certainly derived from the Jadwal-Mujarrad. If the 
student would consider the Octaeteris on which this table is based, he 
would find that the new-year-days of the years of this cycle return to 20 
the same day of the week, that they, however, fall short (of a complete 
revolution and return to the same day) by a fraction of 4 minutes. 
Therefore this table does not differ from the corrected Jadwal-Mujarrad, 
except when the Octaeteris in the course of time recurs many times. In 
this case the minus-difference of 4 minutes causes a very disagreeable 
confusion. 

This same trickster of a missionary relates that this table was the 
work of Ja'far b. Muhammad Alsadik at the time when he — so that 
man says — explained the difference of opinion and the uncertainty that 
exists among Muslims regarding the month Ramadan. According to 30 
him Ja'far said : " I swear by him who in truth has sent Muhammad 
as a prophet, that He (the prophet) did not leave his people, before 
he had disclosed before our eyes both the past and the future till the 
end of the world. And the least of this is the knowledge of fasting for 
every year and every day." Further, he is reported to have said : 



CYCLES, YEAR-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 183 

" Sha'ban Las never been more — and Eamadan laas never been less— 
than 30 days." 

Tbis malefactor has invented tales about that wise Lord, the noblest 
of the nobles, the wisest of the Imams — God's blessing be upon their 
names ! — by making him responsible for something that is inconsistent 
with the religion of his ancestor (i.e. 'Ali). It has been proved that the 
contrary of these assertions is the truth. That pious Imam was far from 
sullying himself by traditions like those, and never dreamt that he 
would be defiled by their insolence in referring them to his authority 
10 — God's blessing be upon him ! — 

There are two methods for the finding of the Signum Muharrami, men- 
tioned by ' Abu- Ja'f ar Alkhazin in his Great Introduction to Astronomy : 

I. Take for each complete 30 years of the ^ra Hijrce which have 
elapsed, 5 days. As regards the remainder of less than 30 years, take 
for each 10 years If days, i.e. 1 day 16 hours. For each 5 years of the 
further remainder take 20 hours, and for each complete single year 
take 4 days 8-|- hours. To the sum you get in this way add 5 or subtract 
2. The remainder divide by 7, and the remainder you get is the 
Signum Muharrami. 

20 This method is correct, and proceeds in the same way as the before- 
mentioned methods. For the days and fractions of days that are taken 
for certain numbers of years are the remainders which you get, if you 
convert those years into days and divide them by 7, as the Corrected 
Table shows. 

To the svim we add 5, in order to make the days begin with Sunday, 
as we have mentioned before. It is the same whether you add 5 or 
subtract 2, i.e. 7 minus 5, as long as you use the hebdomadal cycle, which 
must be adhered to. 

If you want the Signum of any other month (but Muharram), add to 

30 the Signum Muharrami 2 days for each month whose number in the 

order of months is an odd one, and 1 day for each month whose number 

is an even one. Divide the sum by 7, and the remainder is the Signum 

of the month in question. 

II. The second method is this : Take half of the number of years, if 
it is an even number ; if it is an odd one, subtract 1 therefrom, and keep 
in mind for it 4d. 22min. (i.e. make a mental note of it). Then take 
the half of this remainder of years and put it into two different places. 
Multiply this number in one place by 3, and divide it by 4. So you get 
days. In the other place multiply it by 8, and add the sum to the 

Af\ number of days, with the addition of 5. From the sum subtract a 
number of day-minutes which is equal to half the number of the years. 
With the remainder combine that which you have kept in mind (4d. 22.), 
if the years are without a fraction. But if there is a fraction of more 
than 30 minutes, count it as a whole ; if it is less, omit it. Divide the sum 
by 7, and the remainder is the Signum Muharrami. 



1 84 ALBiEf)N!. 

This method, too, is correct, and based on the circumstances we have 
mentioned. 

That which you keep in mind (4d. 22') is the intercalatory portion of 
the year which you subtract from the total sum of years, the remainder 
p. 203. which you get after having divided 354d. 22' by 7. 

To multiply the half of the remaining years (i.e. after the sub- 
traction of 1, in case the number of years be an odd one) by 8, is the 
same as to divide the whole by 4. These 4 days are the whole days 
which you get by dividing the Lunar year by 7 (354d, 22' : 7, re- 
mainder 4). 10 

Finally you take \ and |- day, i.e. ^ or f |- day for each year. How- 
ever, the half of f (i.e. f ) of any number is more than \+^ (i.e. ^) of the 
whole number by a measure (a quantity) which amounts for the whole 
number to the same as a corresponding number of sixtieth parts (or 
minutes) for half the number (i.e. for the whole number x this plus- 
difference is Y^o^j which is the same as -^ of ^x). If you, therefore, 
multiply half of the number of years by 3 and divide the product by 4, 
you get f of the number, which is more than ^+^ (^) of the whole 
number of years by a number of minutes which is equal to half the 
number of years. If they, now, are counted in 60th parts, i.e. in minutes, 20 
and you subtract them from the sum, you get ^ and ^ (^^) of the years. 
The analogy of the other parts of this calculation with what we have 
before mentioned is evident. 

If we want to find the Signum of the new-year's day of a year of the 
JEra Yazdagirdi, we take the number of comi^lete years and add thereto 
always 3. The sum we divide by 7, and the remainder of this division 
is Signum of Farwardin-Mah. 

If we want to know the Signum of another month, we take for each of 
the complete months, that have passed, 2 days, except Aban-Mah, for 
which we take nothing. The sum we add to the Signum of Farwardin- 30 
Mah, and subtract 7, if the number be more than seven. The re- 
mainder is the Signum of the month in question. 

For the ^ra Magorum, the epoch of which is the death of Yazdagird, 
we add always 5 to the number of complete years, and the remainder 
we compute in the same way as we have done for the preceding era, 
in case we use for this era the Persian months. But if we use the months 
of the Sughdians or Khwarizmians, we always add 3 to the number of 
complete years, and divide the sum by 7. As remainder we get the 
Signtim of Nausard or Ndusdrji. For each following month we add 2 
days to the Signum Nausardi. In this way we find the Signum of 40 
the month in question. 

If we want to know the intercalation, as practised by the Persians 
before the decline of their empire, we take the Persian years from the 
end of the reign of Yazdagird, which event is the epoch of the ^ra 
Magorum, and add thereto 70, for the reason which we have mentioned 



CYCLES, TEAE-POINTS, MOL^DS, AND LEAP-MONTHS. 185 

in the first part of this book. The sum we divide by 120. The quotient 
is the number of intercalations that ought to have been carried out 
since the time when they commenced to neglect intercalation. Now we 
take for the total sum of the years of the era a number of months 
corresponding to the number of intercalations. If, then, these months 
make up complete years, without giving a remainder, the year is a leap- 
year approximately, for there is confusion in their chronology. But p.204. 
if there is a remainder of months, the year is a common year. There- 
upon we add the leap-months we have got to the beginning of the year 
10 in question, and we find Nauroz on that day to which this calculation 
brings us. So ISTauroz comes again to be there, where it used to be 
in the time of the Kisras, when it used to coincide with the summer- 
solstice as calculated by their astronomical tables. 

For the ^ra of Almu'tadid we find the Signum of Farwardin-Mah by 
adding to the complete years j- of them, and to the sum 4j. The whole 
we divide by 7, and the remainder is the Signum of Farwardin-Mah. 
Knowing the Signum of New-year's day of a year, and wishing to find 
the Signum of some other month, we add for each month that has 
passed 2 days, except Aban-Mah, for which we take 1 in a leap-year and 
20 nothing in a common year. The sum we divide by 7, and the remainder 
is the Signum of the month in question. 

The leap-years of this era you find by dividing its complete years 
by 4. If there is no remainder the year is a leap-year ; if there is a 
remainder it is a common-year. 

Now we think that this long exposition will be sufiicient. Much 
praise be unto Grod, as is due to Him ! 



186 ALBiRl^NL 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ON THE BRAS OF THE PSEUDO-PROPHETS AND THEIR COMMUNITIES 
WHO WERE DELUDED BY THEM, THE CURSE OF THE LORD BE UPON 
THEM ! 

We shall explain tlie method of dating the eras by the pseudo-prophets. 
For in the intervals between the prophets and kings whom we have 
mentioned, pseudo-prophets came forward, the number and history of 
whom it would be impossible to detail in this book. Some of them 
perished without having gained adherents, not leaving anything behind 
them but a place in history. Whilst others were followed by a 10 
community who kept up their institutes and used their method of 
dating. It is necessary, therefore, to mention the eras of the most 
notorious among them, for this affords a help, also, for the knowledge 
of their history. 

Budhasaf. — The first mentioned is BudMsaf, who came forward in 
India after the 1st year of Tahmurath. He introduced the Persian 
writing and called people to the religion of the Sdhians. Whereupon 
many people followed him. The Peshdadhian kings and some of the Kaya- 
nians who resided in Balkh held in great veneration the sun and moon, 
the planets and the primal elements, and worshipped them as holy 20 
beings, until the time when Zaradusht appeared thirty years after the 
accession of Bishtasf . 

The remnants of those Sabians are living in Harran, their name (i.e. 
Alharrdniyya) being derived from their place. Others derive it from 
Haran b. Terah, the brother of Abraham, saying that he among their 
chiefs was the most deeply imbued with their religion and its most 
p.205. tenacious adherent. Ibn Sankild (Syncellus), the Christian, relates in his 
book which he, intending to refute their creed, stuffed with lies and 



ON THE ERAS OF THE PSEUDO-PEOPHETS. 187 

futile stories, tliat Abraham left their community simply because leprosy 
appeared on his foreskin, and that everybody who suffered from this 
disease was considered impure, and excluded from all society. There- 
fore he cut off his foreskin, i.e. he circumcised himself. In this state 
he entered one of their idol-temples, when he heard a voice speaking 
to him : " Abraham, you went away from us with one sia, and you 
return to us with two sins. Go away, and do not again come to us." 
Thereupon Abraham, seized by wrath, broke the idols in pieces, and left 
their community. But, after having done it, he repented and wished 
10 to sacrifice his son to the planet Saturn, it being their custom to sacrifice 
their children, as that author maintains. Saturn, however, on seeing 
him truly repentant, let him go free with the sacrifice of a ram. 

Also 'Abd-almasih b. 'Ishak Alkindi, the Christian, in his reply to 
the book of 'Abdallah b, 'Isma'il Alhashimi, relates of them, that they 
are notorious for their sacrificing human beings, but that at present 
they are not allowed to do it in public. 

All, however, we know of them is that they profess monotheism and 
describe God as exempt from anything that is bad, using in their 
description the Via Negationis, not the Via Positionis. E.g. they say " he is 
20 indeterminable, he is invisible, he does not wrong, he is not unjust." 
They call him by the Nomina Pulcherrima, but only metaphorically, since a 
real description of him is excluded according to them. The rule of the 
universe they attribute to the celestial globe and its bodies, which they 
consider as living, speaking, hearing, and seeing beings. And the fires 
they hold in great consideration. 

One of their monuments is the cupola over the Mihrdh beside the 
Maksura in the great Mosque of Damascus. It was their place of 
worship as long as Greeks and Romans professed their religion ; after- 
wards it passed into the hands of the Jews, who made it their synagogue. 
30 Then it was occupied by the Christians, who used it as their church till the 
time of the rising of Islam, when the Muslims made it their Mosque. 

They had temples and images, called by the names of the sun, the 
forms of which are known, aud the like of which are mentioned by 
'Abu-Ma' shar Albalkhi in his book on the houses of worship. For 
instance, the temple of Ba'al-bek was sacred to the idol of the Sun. 
The city of Harrsin was attributed to the moon, it being built in the 
shape of the moon like a Tailasdn. Close to Harran there are another place 
called Selemsin, its ancient name being Sanam-sm, i.e. imago Lunce, and 
another village called Tera'-'nz, i.e. Porta Veneris. People say, too, that 
40 the Ka'ba and its images originally belonged to them, and that the 
worshippers of those images belonged to their community, and that 
Allah was called Zuhal and AVuzzci, Alzuhara. 

They have many prophets, most of whom were Greek philosophers, e.g. 
Hermes the Egyptian, Agathodaemon, Wdlis, Pythagoras, Baba, and 
Sawar the grandfather of Plato on the mother's side, and others. Some 



188 ALBtRUNl 

of them did not allow themselves to eat fish, fearing it might be a 
Silurus Electricus, nor chickens because they are always feverish, nor 
garlic because it produces headache and burns the blood or the sperma 
genitale on which the existence of the world depends, nor peas because 
they stupify and imjDair the intellect and originally grew in the skull of 
man. 
V 206. They have three i^rayers in writing, one for the time of sunrise with 
eight inclinations, the second immediately before the sun leaves the 
centre of heaven (the meridian) with five inclinations, the third at sun- 
set with five inclinations. Each of the inclinations at their prayer 10 
consists of three prostrations. Besides, they have voluntary prayers, 
one in the second hour of the day, another in the ninth hour of the 
day, and a third one in the third hour of the night. Their prayer is 
preceded by purification and washing. They also wash themselves after 
a pollution. They do not circumcise themselves, not being ordered to 
do so, as they maintain. 

Most of their regulations about women and their penal law are 
similar to those of the Muslims, whilst others, relating to pollution 
caused by touching dead bodies, etc., are similar to those of the Thora. 

They offer offerings to the stars, their images and temples, and 20 
practise sacrifices carried out by their priests and seducers. By this 
means they elicit the knowledge of the future of the man who offers the 
offering, and the answer to his inquiries. 

Idris, who is mentioned in the Thora as Henokh, they call Hermes, 
whilst according to others Hermes is identical with Budhasaf. 

Again, others maintain that the Harranians are not the real Sabians, 
but those who are called in the books Heathens and Idolaters. For 
the Sabians are the remnant of the Jewish tribes who remained in 
Babylonia, when the other tribes left it for Jerusalem in the days of 
Cyrus and Artaxerxes. Those remaining tribes felt themselves at- 30 
tracted to the rites of the Magians, and so they inclined (were inclined, 
i.e. Sabi) towards the religion of ISTebukadnezzar, and adopted a system 
mixed up of Magism and Judaism like that of the Samaritans in Syria. 

The greatest number of them are settled at Wasit, in Sawad-al'irak, 
in the districts of Ja'far, Aljamida, and the two Nahr-alsila. They 
pretend to be the descendants of Enos the son of Seth. They differ 
from the Harranians, blaming their doctrines and not agreeing with 
them except ua few matters. In praying, even, they turn towards the 
north pole, whilst the Harranians turn towards the south pole. 

Some of those to whom God has given a divine code (Jews and 40 
Christians) say that Methuselah had another son besides Lamech, who 
called himself Sdbi', and that the Sabians derive their name from him. 

Before the first establishment of their rites and the appearance of 
Budhasaf people were Sajuavatot, inhabiting the eastern part of the 
world and worshipping idols. The remnants of them are at pre- 



ON THE ERAS OF THE PSEUDO-PROPHETS. 189 

Bent in India, China, and among the TagJiazghar ; the people of 
Khurasan call them Shamandn. Their monuments, the Bahdras of their 
idols, their Farhhdras are still to be seen on the frontier countries 
between Khurasan and India. They believe in the eternity of time and 
the migration of souls ; they think that the globe of the xmiverse is 
flying in an infinite vacuum, that therefore it has a rotatory motion, 
since anything that is round, when thrown off its place, goes downward 
in a circular motion, as they say. But others of them believe that the 
world has been created (within time), and maintain that its duration is 
10 one million of years, which they divide into four periods, the first of 
four hundred thousand years, the Aurea Mtas. 

{Great lacuna. The end of the chapter on Budhasaf, the 
whole chapter on Zaradusht, and the beginning of the 
chapter on Bardaisan are missing.) 

So he gets the sum of 3,457. We think they will dispute with us on 
the astronomical interpretation we projDOse, for we, as well as themselves, p.207. 
are familiar with the science of the subject. Therefore any arguing on 
the subject and any interjDretation are altogether devoid of sense. 

What we have just mentioned regarding the division is a proof in 
20 favour of the Egyptians in the matter of the Termini. For according to 
them the duration of the Terminus of Venus in Pisces is 400 years, 
whilst Ptolemy reckons it as 266 years. We have already said before 
that the time between Alexander and Ardashir is longer than 400 years, 
and have endeavoured to settle this question of chronology. 

We return now to our subject, and go on to state that the Persians 
adhered to the Magian religion of Zaradusht, that they had no schism 
or dissension in it till the time came when Jesus rose, and his pupils 
spread through all the world preaching the Gospel. When they thus 
spread through the countries, one of them came to Persia, and both 
30 Bardaisan and Marcion were among those who followed his call and 
heard the word of Jesus. Part they took from him, part from what 
they had heard from Zaradusht. So each of them derived from both 
systems a separate doctrine, containing the dogma of the eternal 
existence of the two Principia. Each of them produced a gospel, the 
origin of whicb he traced back to the Messiah, and declared everything 
else to be a lie. Ibn-Daisan maintained that the Light of God was 
residing in his own heart. 

The difference, however, did not go so far as to separate them and 
40 their followers from the bulk of the Christians, nor were their gospels 
in all matters different from that of the Christians ; in some regards 
they contained more, in others less. God knows best ! 

Mani. — After Bardaisan and Marcion, Mdni the pupil of Fadarun 
came forward. On having acquainted himself with the doctrines of 
the Magians, Christians, and Dualists, he pi^oclaimed himself to be a 



190 ALBiRUNt. 

prophet. In the beginning of his book called Shdburkdn, which he 
composed for Shapur b. Ardashir, he says : " Wisdom and deeds have 
always from time to time been brought to mankind by the messengers 
of God. So in one age they have been brought by the messenger, 
called Buddha, to India, in another by Zaradusht to Persia, in another 
by Jesus to the West. Thereupon this revelation has come down, this 
prophecy in this last age through me, Mani, the messenger of the God 
of truth to Babylonia." In his gospel, which he arranged according 
to the twenty-two letters of the alphabet, he says that he is the Paraclete 
announced by Messiah, and that he is the seal of the prophets (i.e. the 10 
last of them). 

His doctrines regarding the existence and the form of the world are con- 
tradicted by the results of scientific arguments and proofs. He preached 
of the empire of the worlds of light, of the HpcoTos "Ai^^ptoTros, and of 
the spirit of life. He taught that light and darkness are without 
beginning and end. He absolutely forbade his followers to slaughter 
animals and to hurt them, to hurt the fire, water, and plants. He 
established laws which are obligatory only for the Siddiks, i.e. for the 
saints and ascetics among the Manichseans, viz. to prefer poverty to 
riches, to suppress cupidity and lust, to abandon the world, to be 20 
p.208. abstinent in it, continually to fast, and to give alms as much as possible. 
He forbade them to acquire any property except food for one day 
and dress for one year ; he further forbade sexual intercourse, and 
ordered them continually to wander about in the world, preaching his 
doctrines and guiding people into the right path. 

Other laws he imposed upon the Sam^nd' (laymen), i.e. their followers 
and adherents who have to do with worldly affairs, viz. to give as alms 
the tithe of their property, to fast during the seventh part of life- time, 
to live in monogamy, to befriend the Siddiks (saints), and to remove 
everything that troubles and pains them. 30 

Some people maintain that he allowed pederasty, if a man felt ni- 
clined, and as proof of this they relate that every Manichaean used 
to be accompanied by a young, beardless and hairless servant. I, how- 
ever, have not found in what I have read of his books a word indicating 
anything of this kind. Nay, even his life proves the contrary of this 
assertion. 

Mani was born in a village called Mardinu on the upper canal of 
Kutha, according to his own statement in his book Shaburkan, in the 
chapter on the coming of the prophet, in the year 527 of the era of 
the Babylonian astronomers, i.e. the yEra Alexandri, in the 4th year of 40 
the king Adharban. He received the first divine revelation in his 
13th year, Anno Astronomorum Bahyhnice 539, in the 2nd year of 
Ardashir, the King of Kings. This part of chronology we have 
already tried to correct in the chapter preceding that of the duration 
of the rule of the Ashkanians and the Muluk alfawdHf. 



ON THE ERAS OF THE PSEUDO-PROPHETS. 191 

According to Yahya b. Alnu'man, the Christian, in his book on 
the Magians, Manx was called by the Christians Corhicius the son of 
Patecius. 

When he came forward, many people believed in him and followed 
him. He composed many books, his gospel, the Shaburkan, Kanz-al'ihyd 
(Thesaurus Bevivicationis) , the Book of the Giants, the Book of Books, 
and many treatises. He maintained that he had explained in extenso 
what had only been hinted at by the Messiah. 

Manichaeism increased by degrees under Ardashir, his son Shapur 

[Q and Hurmuz b. Shapur, until the time when Bahrtim b. Hurmuz 
ascended the throne. He gave "orders to search for Mam, and when 
he had found him, he said : " This man has come forward calling 
people to destroy the world. It will be necessary to begin by de- 
stroying him, before anything of his plans should be realized." 

It is well known that he killed Mani, stripped off his skin, filled it 
with grass, and hung it up at the gate of Gundisapur, which is even 
still known as the " Mani-gate." Hurmuz also killed a number of the 
Manichseans. 

Jibra'il b. Nuh, the Christian, says in his reply to Yazdanbakht's 

20 refutation of the Christians, that one of Manx's pupils composed a book, 
in which he relates the fate of Mani, that he was put in prison on 
account of a relative of the king who believed that he was possessed by 
the devil ; Mani had promised to cure him, but when he could not effect 
it, he was chained hand and foot, and died in prison. His head was 
exposed before the entrance of the royal tent, and his body was thrown 
into the street, that he should be a warning example to others. p.209. 

Of his adherents, some remnants that are considered as Manichsean 
are still extant : they are scattered throughout the world and do not 
live together in any particular place of Muhammadan countries, except 

30 the community in Samarkand, known by the name of Sdbians. As 
regards non-Muhammadan countries, we have to state that most of 
the eastern Turks, of the people of China and Thibet and some of the 
Hindus, adhere still to his law and doctrine. 

Regarding their prophet Mani they hold two different opinions, 
one party maintaining that he never worked a mircle, and relating that 
he only informed people of the signs and wonders indicative of the 
coming of the Messiah and his companions, whilst the other party 
maintains that he in fact worked signs and miracles, and that the king 
Shapur came to believe in him when he had ascended with him towards 

Af) heaven, and they had been standing in the air between heaven and 
earth. Mam, thereby, made him witness a miracle. Besides, they 
relate that he sometimes used to rise to heaven from among his com- 
panions, to stay there for some days, and then to redescend to them. 

I have heard the Ispahbadh Marzuban ben Eustam say that Shapur 
banished him out of his empire, faithful to the law of Zaradusht which 



192 ALBiRUNi. 

demands the expulsion of pseudo-propliets from the country. He 
imposed upon him the obligation never to return. So Mani went off to 
India, China, and Thibet, and preached there his gospel. Afterwards 
he returned, was seized by Bahrani and killed for having broken the 
stipulation, as he had thereby forfeited his life. 

Mazhdak. — Thereupon came forward a man called Mazlidak hen Harna- 
ddddn, a native of Nasa. He was Mauhadhdn-Mauhadh, i.e. chief -justice 
during the reign of Kobadh ben Peroz. He preached Dualism and 
opposed Zaradusht in many points. He taught that both j)roperty 
and women belonged in common to all. So he found innumerable IQ 
followers. 

Kobadh, too, believed in him. But some of the Persians maintain 
that his adhesion was a compulsory one, since his reign was not safe 
against the mass of the followers of Mazhdak. According to others, 
again, this Mazhdak was a cunning sort of man, who managed to 
concoct this system, and to come forward with it simj)ly because he 
knew that Kobadh was charmed by a woman who was the wife of his 
cousin ; and that for this reason Kobadh hastened to adopt it. Mazhdak 
ordered him to abstain from sacrificing cattle before the natural term of 
their life had come. Kobadh said : " Tour entei'prise shall not succeed 20 
unless you make me master of the mother of Anushirwan, that I may 
enjoy her." Mazhdak did as he wished, and ordered her to be handed 
over 

(Lacuna. Missing, the end of Mazhdak and beginning 
of Musailima.) 

Musailima. — " To Muhammad the Prophet of God. Greeting unto 
thee ! etc. God has made me partake with thee in the rule. One half of 
the earth belongs to us and one half to Kuraish But the Kuraish 
are evil-doing people." This letter he sent off with two messengers. 
To these the Prophet said : " What is it you are speaking ? " They 30 
answered : " We are speaking just as He spoke." Thereupon the 
Prophet said : " If it was not the custom not to kill messengers, I 
should behead both of you." Then he gave them his answer : " From 
Muhammad the Prophet of God to Musailima the liar. Greeting unto 
those who follow the right guidance ! etc. The earth belongs to God, 
he gives it as an inheritance to whomsoever of his servants he pleases. 
And the end will be in favour of the pious." 

The people of Yamama let themselves be deluded by him by such 
tricks as introducing an egg that had been soaked in vinegar into a glass- 
bottle, by fitting together the wings of birds, which he had previously ^q 
p.210. cut off, by means of similar feathers ; and by such-like humbug and 
swindle. 

The Banu Hanifa kept possession of Yamama until Musailima was 
killed by Khulid b. Alwalid in the year when 'Abu-Bakr Al§iddi]^ 



ON THE ERAS OP THE PSEUDO-PEOPHETS. 193 

succeeded. Then they lamented liis death in verses ; one of the Banu 
Hanifa says : 

"Alas for thee, o' Abu-Thumama ! 
[Thou wa.st] like the sun beaming forth from a cloud." 

Before Musailima in the time of heathendom the Banu Hanifa had 
got an idol of Hais (i.e. a mixture of dates, butter, and dried curd), which 
they worshipped for a long time. But once, being pressed by hunger, 
they devoured it. So a poet of the Banu Tamim said : 

" The Banu Hanifa have eaten their Lord for hunger, 
10 From which they were suffering already a long time, and from want." 

Another said : 

" The Hanifas have eaten their Lord 
At the time of want and hunger. 
They did not guard against the punishment, 
Which their Lord might inflict upon them." 

Bahafirid b. Mahfarudhin. — Thereupon in the days of 'Abu-Muslim, 
the founder of the 'Abbaside dynasty, came forward a man called 
Bahafirid hen Mdhfurndhm in Khwaf, one of the districts of Nishapur, 
in a place called Sirawand, being a native of Zuzan. In the beginning 

20 of his career he disappeared and betook himself to China for seven 
years. Then he returned, and brought with him among other Chinese 
curiosities a green shirt which, when folded up, could be held in the 
grasp of a human hand ; so thin and flexible was it. He went up to a 
temple during the night, and when he thence descended in the 
morning, he was observed by a peasant who was ploughing part of 
his field. This man he told that he had been in heaven during his 
absence from them, that heaven and hell had been shown unto him, 
that Grod had inspired him, had dressed him in that shirt, and had 
sent him down upon earth in that same hour. The peasant believed his 

80 words, and told people that he had witnessed him descending from 
heaven. So he found many adherents among the Magians, when he 
came forward as a prophet and preached his knew doctrine. 

He differed from the Magians in most rites, but he believed in 
Zaradusht, and claimed for his followers all the institutes of Zaradusht. 
He maintained that he secretly received divine revelations, and he 
established seven prayers for his followers, one in praise of the one 
God, one relating to the creation of heaven and earth, one relating to 
the creation of the animals and to their nourishment, one relating 
to death, one relating to the resurrection and last judgment, one 

40 relating to those in heaven and hell and what is prepared for them, 
and one in praise of the people of paradise. 

He composed for them a book in Persian. He ordered them to 
worship the substance of the suu, kneeling on one knee, and in praying 

13 



194 albIruni. 

always to turn towards the sun wherever he might be, to let their hair and 
locks grow, to give up the Zamzama at dinner, not to sacrifice small 
cattle except they be already decrepit, not to drink wine, not to eat 
the flesh of animals that have died a sudden death as not having 
p.211. l^esn killed according to prescription, not to marry their mothers, daugh- 
ters, sisters, nieces, not to exceed the sum of four hundred dirhams as 
dowry. Further, he ordered them to keep roads and bridges in good 
condition by means of the seventh part of their property and of the 
revenue of their labour. 

When 'Abu-Muslim came to Nishripur, the Maubadhs and Herbadhs 10 
assembled before him telling him that this man had infected Islam 
as well as their own religion. So he sent 'Abdallah b. Shu'ba to fetch 
him. He caught him in the mountains of Badaghis and brought him 
before 'Abu-Muslim, who put him to death, and all his followers of 
whom he could get hold. 

His followers, called the Bahcifiridiyya, keep still the institutes of 
their founder and strongly oppose the Zamzamis among the Magians. 
They maintain that the servant of their prophet had told them that 
the prophet had ascended into heaven on a common dark-brown horse, 
and that he will again come down to them in the same way as he 20 
ascended and will take vengeance on his enemies. 

Almukanna'. — Thereupon came forward Hashim b. Hakim, known 
by the name of Almukanna', in Marw, in a village called Kawakimar- 
dan. He used to veil himself in green silk, because he had only one 
eye. He maintained that he was God, and that he had incarnated 
himself, since before incarnation nobody could see God. 

He passed the river Oxus and went to the districts of Kash and 
Nasaf. He entered into correspondence with the Khakan and solicited 
his help. The sect of the Muhayyida and the Turks gathered round 
hinij and the property and women (of his enemies) he delivered up to 39 
them, killing everybody who opposed him. He made obligatory for 
them all the laws and institutes which Mazhdak had established. 

He scattered the armies of Almahdi, and ruled during fourteen years, 
but finally he was besieged and killed a.h. 169. Being surrounded 
on all sides he burned himself, that his body might be annihilated, and, 
in consequence, his followers might see therein a confirmation of his 
claim of being God. However, he did not succeed in annihilating his 
body ; it was found in the oven, and his head was cut off and sent 
to the Khalif Almahdi, who was then in Halab. 

There is still a sect in Transoxiana who practise his religion, but 40 
only secretly, whilst in j)ublic they profess Islam. The history of 
Almukanna' I have translated from the Persian into Arabic ; the 
subject has been exhaustively treated in my history of the Mubayyida 
and the Karmatians. 

Alhallaj. — Thereupon came forward a Sufi of Persian origin, called 



ON THE EEAS OF THE PSEUDO-PEOPHETS. 195 

Alhusain hen Mdnsur Alhalldj. He was the first to preach the coming of 
Almahdi, maintaining that he would come from Talakan in Dailam. 
They seized upon him and led him into Baghdad, parading him through 
the streets. Then he was put into prison, but he contrived to get out 
of it 'again. He was a juggler and artful sort of man, mixing himself 
up with every human being according to his belief and his views. 
Further, he preached that the Holy Ghost was dwelling in him, and 
he called himself God. His letters to his followers bore the following 
superscription : " From the He, the eternal, the first He, the beaming 
10 and shining light, the original origin, the proof of all proofs, the Lord 
of the Lords, who raises the clouds, the window from which the light 
shines, the Lord of the Mountain (Sinai), who is represented in every 
shape — to his slave N. IST." And his followers began their letters 
to him in this way : " Praise unto thee, being of all beings, the 
perfection of all delights, great, sublime being, I bear witness p.212. 
that thou art the eternal creator, the light- giver, who reveals him- 
self in every time and age, and in this our time in the figure of 
Alhusain b. Mansur ! Thy slave, thy wretched and poor one, who 
seeks helj:) with thee, who flies for refuge to thee, who hopes for 
20 thy mercy, thou who knowest all mysteries ! — speaks thus and 
thus." 

He composed books on the subject of his preaching, e.g. the Kitdb- 
Niir-AVasl, the Kitdb-Jamm-AVa'kbar and the Kitdb-Jamm-AVas- 
' ghar. 

A.H. 301, the Khalif Almuktadir-billah laid hands upon him; he 
ordered the executioner to give him a thousand lashes, to cut off his 
hands and feet and to behead him ; then they besprinkled him with 
nafta and burnt his body, and threw the ashes into the Tigris. 
During the whole execution he did not utter a syllable nor distort his 
80 face nor move his lips. 

A remnant of his followers who are called after him is still extant ; 
they preach the coming of Almahdi, and say that he will issue from 
Talakan. Of this same Mahdi it is said in the Kitdh-Almaldhim 
that he will fill the earth with justice as it heretofore has been 
filled with injustice. Somewhere in the book it is said that he will be 
Muhammad b. 'Abdallah, elsewhere that he will be Muhammad b. 
'All, Nay, when Almukhtar b. 'Abi-'Ubaid Althakafi called people 
to rally round Muhammad b. Alhanafiyya, he produced as a testimony 
an authentic tradition, and maintained that this was the predicted 
40 Mahdi. 

Even in our time people expect the Mahdi to come, believing that 
he is alive and resides in the mountain Radwa. Likewise the Banu- 
'Umayya expect the coming of Alsufyani who is mentioned in the Maldhim. 
In that book it is also mentioned that Aldajjal, the seducer, will issue 
from the district of Isfahan, whilst astrologers maintain that he will 

13 » 



196 ALBfR^Nt. 

issue from the island of Bartall four hundred and sixty-six years after 
Yazdagird ben Shahryar. Also in the Gosj^el you find mentioned the 
signs that will foreshow his coming. In G-reek, in Christian books, he is 
called 'AvTtxptcTTos, as we learn from Mar Theodorus, the Bishop of 
Mopsueste, in his commentary on the Gospel. 

Historians relate that 'Umar ben Alkhattab on entering Syria was 
met by the Jews of Damascus. They spoke thus : " Greeting to thee, 
O Faruk ! Thou art the Lord of ^lia. We adjure thee by God, do not 
return until you conquer it," He asked them as to Aldajjal, whereupon 
they answered : " He will be one of the tribe of Benjamin. By God, 10 
you, O nation of the Arabs, you will kill him at a distance of ten to 
twenty yards from the gate of Lydda." 

In the times after Alhallaj the Karmatians rose into power. 'Abu- 
Tahir Sulaiman b. 'Abi-Sa'id Alhasan b. Bahram Aljannabi marched out 
and reached Makka a.h. 318 ; he killed in an atrocious way the people 
who were passing round the circuit of the Ka'ba, and threw the corpses 
into the well Zamzam; he carried off the garments and the golden 
implements of the Holy House, and destroyed its aqueduct ; he took 
away the black stone, smashed it, suspended it afterwards in the Mosque 
of Kufa, and then he returned home. 20 

■n 213 I^^ Abi-Zakariyya. — On the 1st Ramadan A.H. 319 came forward 
Ihn 'Abi-ZaTcariyyd, a native of Tamam, a young man of bad character, 
a male prostitute. He called upon people to recognise him as the Lord, 
and they followed him. He ordered them to cut open the stomachs of 
the dead, to wash them and to fill them with wine ; to cut off the hand of 
everybody who extinguished the fire with his hand, the tongue of every- 
body who extinguished it by blowing ; to have intercourse with young 
men, — but with this restriction, ne justo magis penem immitterent. If 
anybody infringed this rule, he should be dragged on his face over a 
distance of forty yards. Those who would not practise pederasty were 30 
killed by the butcher. He ordered them to worship and honour the 
fires, he cursed all the prophets of former times and their companions, 
for they were " artful deceivers and on the wrong path," and more of that 
sort, which I have sxifficiently related in my history of the Mubayyida 
and the Karmatians. 

In such a conditon they remained during eighty days, till God gave 
him into the power of that man who had originally brought him 
forward. He slaughtered him, and so their schemes turned back upon 
their own necks. 

If, now, this be the time which Jamasp and Zaradusht meant, they 40 
are right as far as chronology is concerned. For this happened at the 
end of ^Era Alexandri 1242, i.e. 1,500 years after Zariidusht. They are 
wrong, however, as regards the restoration of the empire to the 
Magians. Likewise 'Abu-'Abdallah Al'adi has been mistaken, a man 
who is stupidly partial to Magism and who hojjes for an age in which 



ox THE ERAS OF THE PSEUPO-PROPHETS. 107 

AlkiVim is to appear. Foi* he has composed a book on the cycles and 
conjunctions, in which he says that the 18th conjunction since the 
birth of Muhammad coincides with the 10th millennium, which is 
presided oyer by Saturn and Sagittarius. Now he maintains that 
then a man will come forward who will restore the rule of Magism ; 
he will occupy the whole world, will do away with the rule of the 
Arabs and others, he will unite all mankind in one religion and under 
one rule ; he will do away with all evil, and will rule during 7i con- 
junctions. Besides he asserts that no Arabian prince will rule after 
10 that one who is ruling in the 17th conjunction. 

That time which this man indicates must of necessity refer to 
Almuktafi and Almuktadir, but it has not brought about those events 
which, according to his prophecies, were to have taken place after their 
time. 

People say that the Sasanian rule existed during fienj conjunctions. 
Now, the rule over Dailam was seized by 'Ali b. Buwaihi called 'Imad- 
aldaula during fiery conjunctions. This is what people used to pro- 
mise each other regarding the restoration of the rule to the Persians, 
although the doings of the Buwaihi family were not like those of the 
20 ancient kings. 

I do not know why they preferred the Dailamite dynasty, whilst the 
fact of the transitus into a fiery Trigonon is the most evident proof 
indicative uf the Abbaside dynasty, who are a Khurasani, an eastern 
dynasty. Besides, both dynasties (Dailamites as well as Abbasides) are 
alike far from renewing the rule of the Persians and farther still from 
restoring their ancient religion. 

Before the appearance of that youth (Ibn 'Abi Zakariyya) the 
Karmatians believed in some dogmas of the Esoterics, and they were p.214. 
considered as adherents of the family of the blessed House (of 
30 'All). They promised each other the coming of him who is ex- 
pected to come during the 7th conjunction under a fiery Trigonon, 
so that 'Abu-Tahir Sulaiman b. Alhasan says on V.i; subject: 

" The most glorious benefit I bestow on you will be my return to 
Hajar. 

Then, after a while, verily the news will reach you. 

When Mars rises from Babylonia, 

"When the Two Stars have left him, then beware, beware 1 

Is it not I who is mentioned in all the scriptures ? 

Is it not I who is described in the Sura Alzumar ? 
40 I shall rule the people of the earth, east and west, 

As far as the Kairawan of the Greeks, to the Turks and Chazars. 

And I shall live until the coming of Jesus the son of Mary. 

Then he will praise my exploits and approve of what he ordered. 

Then, no doubt, my dwelling-place will be in paradise. 

Whilst the others will burn in fire and hell." 



198 ALBtRUNl. 

Theretipon came forward a man called Ihn 'Ahi-Al'azdkir b. 'Ali b. 
Shalmagban. He maintained that the Holy Ghost was dwelling in 
him, and composed a book which he called The 6th Sense, relating 
to the abrogation of the rites. 

(The end of this chapter and the beginning of the following are missing.') 



199 



CHAPTER IX. 

ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. p.215. 

(Farwardin-Mali.) 

(1. Nauroz.) 

. . . and he divided the cup among his companions, and said, 

" that we had Nauroz every day ! " 

A philosopher of the Hashwiyy a- school relates that when Solomon the 
son of David had lost his seal and his empire, but was reinstated after forty 
days, he at once regained his former majesty, the princes came before 
IQ him, and the birds were busy in his service. Then the Persians said, 
" Nauroz dmadh," i.e. the new day has come. Therefore that day was 
called Nauroz. Solomon ordered the wind to carry him, and so it did. 
Then a swallow met him, and said, "O king, I have got a nest with 
little eggs in it. Please, turn aside and do not smash them." So 
Solomon did, and when he again descended to earth the swallow came 
bringing some water in his beak, which he si^rinkled before the king, 
and made him a present of the foot of a locust. This is the cause of the 
water- sprinkling and of the presents on Nauroz. 

Persian scholars say that in the day of Nauroz there is an hour in 
20 which the sphere of Feroz is driven on by the spirits for the purpose of 
renovating the creation. 

The happiest hours of this day are the hours of the sun. On its 
morning, dawn is the shortest possible, and it is considered as a good 
omen to look at this dawn. It is a "preferable" day because it is 
called Hurmuz, which is the name of G-od who has created, formed, 
produced, and reared the world and its inhabitants, of whose kindness 
and charity nobody could describe even a part. 

Sa'id b. Alfadl relates : On the mountain Dama in Pars every night 
of Nauroz there is observed a far-spreading and strong-shining light- 



200 ALBIRUWi. 

ning, whether the sky be clear or covered with clouds, in every state 
of the weather. 

Still more curious than this are the fires of Kalwadha, although 
one does not feel inclined to believe the thing without having seen it. 
'Abu-alfaraj Alzanjani, the mathematician, told me that he had 
witnessed it together with a number of other people who went to Kalwadha 
in that year when 'Adud-aldaula entered Baghdadh, and that there 
are innumerable fires and lights which appear on the west side of 
the Tigris, opposite Kalwadha, in that night with the morning of which 
Nauroz begins. The Sultan had there posted his guards to find out 10 
the truth in order not to be deceived by the Magians. All, however, 
they found out was this, that as soon as they came nearer to the fires 
they went farther off, and as soon as they went away the fires came 
nearer. Now I said to 'Abu-Alfaraj, " The day of Nauroz recedes 
from its proper place in consequence of the Persians neglecting 
intercalation. Why, then, does not this phenomenon remain back behind 
Nauroz ? Or if it is not necessary that it should remain behind, did 
it then fall earlier at the time when they practised intercalation?" 
Upon which he could not give a satisfactory answer. 
p.216. The charm-mongers say : He who thrice sips honey on Naur 6 z in 20 
the morning before speaking, and perfumes his room with three pieces 
of wax, will be safe against all diseases. 

One Persian scholar adduces as the reason why this day was called 
Nauroz, the following : viz. that the Sabians arose during the reign of 
Tahmurath. When, then, Jamshid succeeded, he renovated the religion, 
and his work, the date of which was a Nauroz, was called New- Day. 
Then it was made a feast day, havuig already before been held in great 
veneration. 

Another account of the reason why it was made a feast day is this, 
that Jamshid, on having obtained the carriage, ascended it on this 30 
day, and the Jinns and Dews carried him in one day through the air 
from Dabawand to Babel. Now people made this day a feast day 
on account of the wonder which they had seen during it, and they 
amused themselves with swinging in order to imitate Jamshid. 

Another report says that Jam was going about in the country, — that he, 
when wishing to enter AdharbaijA,n, sat on a golden throne and was 
thus carried away by the men on their necks. When, then, the rays of 
the sun fell on him and people saw him, they did homage to him and 
were full of joy and made that day a feast day. 

On Nauroz it was the custom for people to present each other sugar. 40 
According to Adharbadh, the Maul adh of Baghdadh, the reason is this, 
that the sugar-cane was first discovered during the reign of Jam on 
the day of Nauroz, having before been unknown. For Jam on seeing 
a juicy cane which droj)i)ed some of its juice, tasted it, and found that 
it had an agreeable sweetness. Then he ordered the juice of the sugar- 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 201 

cane to be pressed out and sugar to be made thereof. It was ready 
on the fifth day, and then they made each other presents of sugar. 
The same was also the custom on Mihrjan. 

They have adoj^ted the time of the summer- solstice as the beginning 
of the year for this reason in particular, that the two solstitial-points 
are easier to be ascertained by the help of instruments and by observa- 
tion than the equinoctial points, for the former are the beginning of 
the advance of the sun towards one of the two poles of the imiverse 
and of his turning away from the same pole. And if the perpendicular 
10 shadow at the summer- solstice is observed, and the level shadow at the 
winter-solstice, in whatsoever place of the earth the observation be made, 
the observer cannot possibly mistake the day of the solstice, though he 
may be entirely ignorant in geometry and astronomy, because a varia- 
tion of the level shadow takes place notwithstanding the small amount 
of declination, if the Height is considerable. On the other hand the 
two equinoctial days cannot be ascertained, unless you have found 
beforehand the latitude of the place and the General Declination. And 
this nobody will find out unless he studies astronomy and has profited 
something thereby, and knows how to place and how to use the instru- 
20 ments of observation. 

Therefore the solstitial points are better adapted for marking the 
beginning of the year than the equinoctial points. And as the summer- 
solstice is nearer to the zenith of the northern countries, people 
preferred it to the winter- solstice ; for this reason, moreover, that it is 
the time of the rijDening of the corn. Therefore it is more proper to p. 21 7. 
gather the taxes at this time than at any other. 

Many of the scholars and sages of the Greeks observed the horoscope 
at the time of the rising of Sirius and commenced the year at that time, 
not with the vernal equinox, because the rising of Sirius coincided in 
30 bygone times with this solstice, or occurred very near it. 

This day, I mean ISTauroz, has receded from its original proper j^lace, 
so that in our time it coincides with the sun's entering the sign of Aries, 
which is the beginning of spring. Whence it has become the custom 
of the princes of KhurtisiXn on this day to dress their warriors in spring 
— and summer — dresses. 

On the 6th of Farwardin, the day Khurdadh, is the G-reat Nauroz, 
for the Persians a feast of great importance. On this day — they say — 
Grod finished the creation, for it is the last of the six days, mentioned 
before. On this God created Saturn, therefore its most lucky hours 
40 are those of Saturn. On the same day — they say — the Sors Zara- 
tJiustrcB came to hold communion with God, and Kaikhusrau ascended 
into the air. On the same day the happy lots are distributed among 
the people of the earth. Therefore the Persians call \t " the day of 
hope." 

The charm-mongers say : He who tastes sugar on the morning of 



202 ALBtE^Nt. 

this day before speaking, and anoints himself with oil, will keep off all 
sorts of mishap during the greater part of this same year. 

On the morning of this day, a silent person with a bundle of fragrant 
flowers in his hand is seen on the mountaia Bushanj ; he is visible for 
one hour and then disappears, and does not reapj)ear until the same 
time of the next year. 

Zadawaihi says that the cause of this was the rising of the sun from 
the southern region, i.e. AfdMar. For the cursed 'Iblis had deprived 
eating and drinking of their beneficial effect, so that people could not 
satisfy their hunger nor quench their thirst ; and he had prevented the 10 
wind from blowing. So the trees withered up and the world was near 
to utter decay. Then came — by the command and under the guidance 
of God — Jam to the southern region. He marched towards the 
residence of 'Iblis and of his followers, and remained there for some 
time until he had extinguished that plague. Then people returned into 
a state of justice and prosperity and were freed from that trial. Under 
such circumstances Jam returned to the world (i.e. Eran) and rose on 
that day like the sun, the light beaming forth from him, as though he 
shone like the sun. Now people were astonished at the rising of two 
suns, and all dried-up wood became green. So people said roz-i-nau, 20 
i.e. a new day. And everybody planted barley in a vessel or somewhere 
else, considering it as a good omen. Ever since, it has been the custom 
on this day to sow around a j)late seven kinds of grain on seven 
columns, and from their growth they drew conclusions regarding the 
corn of that year, whether it would be good or bad. 

On the same day Jamshid issued a proclamation to those who were 
present, and wrote to those who were absent, ordering them to destroy 
the old temples and not to build a new one on that day. 

His behaviour towards the people was such as pleased God, who 
rewarded him by delivering his people fi"om diseases and decrepitude, 30 
p. 218. fj^oi^ envy and frailty, and sorrows and disasters. No being was sick 
or died, as long as he ruled — until the time when Bewarasp, his sister's 
son, appeared, who killed Jam and subdued his realm. In the time of 
Jam the population increased at such a rate that the earth could no 
longer contain them ; therefore God made the earth thrice as large as it 
had been before. He (Jam) ordered peoj)le to wash themselves with 
water in order to clean themselves of their sins, and to do so every year 
that God might keep them aloof from the calamities of the year. 

Some people maintain that Jam ordei'ed channels to be dug, and that 
the water was led into them on this day. Therefore peoj^le rejoiced at 40 
their prosperity, and washed themselves in the water that was sent 
them (by the channels), and in this respect the later generations have 
considered it a good omen to imitate the former ones. 

Others, again, maintain that he who let the water into the channels 
was Zu, after Afrasiab had ruined all the dwellings of Eranshahr. 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 208 

According to anotlier view, the cause of the washing is this — that this 
day is sacred to Harudha, the angel of the water, who stands in relation 
to the water. Therefore people rose on this day early, at the rising of 
dawn, and went to the water of the aqueducts and wells. Frequently, 
too, they drew running water in a vase, and poured it over themselves, 
considering this a good omen and a means to keei> off hurt. 

On the same day people sprinkle water over each other, of which the 
cause is said to be the same as that of the washing. According to another 
report, the reason was this — that during a long time the rain was with- 
XO held fiom Eranshahr, but that they got copious rain, when Jamshid, 
having ascended the throne, brought them the good news of which we 
have spoken. Therefore they considered the rain a good omen, and 
poured it over each other, which has remained among them as a 
custom. 

According to another explanation, this water- sprinkling simply holds 
the place of a purification, by which people cleansed their bodies from 
the smoke of the fire and from the dirt connected with attending to the 
fires. Besides it serves the purpose of removing from the air that 
corruption which produces epidemic and other diseases. 
20 On the same day Jam brought forward all kinds of measures ; there- 
fore the kings considered his way of counting as of good omen. On the 
same day they used to prepare all the necessary paper and the hides 
on which their despatches to the provinces of the empire were written, 
and all the documents to which the royal seal was to be applied were 
sealed. Such a document was called Esptddnuwisht. 

After the time of Jam the kings made this whole month, i.e. 

Farwardin-Mah, one festival, distributed over its six parts. The first 

five days were feast days for the princes, the second for the nobility, 

the third for the servants of the princes, the fourth for their clients, 

30 the fifth for the people, and the sixth for the herdsmen. 

The man who connected the two Nauroz with each other is said to 
have been Hormuz ben Shapur the Hero, for he raised to festivals all the 
days between the two Nauroz. Besides he ordered fires to be kindled 
on high places, because he considered it a good omen, and for the 
purpose of purifying the air, since they consume all unwholesome 
elements in the air and dissolve and scatter those miasmata that 
produce corruption. 

In these five days it was the custom of the Kisras that the king 
opened the Nauroz and then proclaimed to all that he would hold a 
40 session for them, and bestow benefits uj^on them. On the second day 
the session was for men of high rank, and for the members of the great 
families. On the third day the session was for his warriors, and for the p.219. 
highest Maubadhs. On the fourth day it was for his family, his re- 
lations and domestics, and on the fifth day it was for his children and 
clients. So everybody received the rank and distinction he was en- 



204 ALBtRUNf. 

titled to, and obtained those remunerations and benefits wliich he had 
deserved. When the sixth day came and he had done justice to all 
of them, he celebrated Nauroz for himself and conversed only with his 
special friends and those who were admitted into his privacy. Then 
he ordered to be brought before him the whole amount of presents, 
arranged according to those who had presented them. He considered 
them, distributed of them what he liked, and deposited what he liked in 
his treasury. 

The 17th is the day of Serosh, who first ordered the Zamzama, i.e. 
expressing yourself by whisj^ering, not by clear speech. For they said 10 
prayers, praised and celebrated God, whilst handing to each other the 
food ; now, speaking not being allowed during prayer, they express 
themselves by whisj)ers and signs. Thus I was told by the geometrician 
Adharkhura. According to another authority, the Zamzama is intended 
to prevent the breath of the mouth from touching the food. 

This day is a blessed day in every month, because Serosh is the 
name of that angel who watches over the night. He is also said to be 
Gabriel. He is the most powerful of all angels against the Jinns and 
sorcerers. Thrice in the night he rises above the world ; then he smites 
the Jinns and drives off the sorcerers ; he makes the night shine 20 
brilliantly by his appearance. The air is getting cold, the water sweet ; 
the cocks begin crowing, and the lust of sexual intercourse begins 
to burn in all animals. One of his three risings is the rising of dawn, 
when the plants begin to thrive, the flowers to grow, and the birds to 
sing ; when the sick man begins to rest, and the sorrowful to feel some- 
what relieved ; when the traveller travels in safety ; when the time is 
agreeable ; when such dreams occur as will be fulfilled one day ; and 
when all angels and demons enjoy themselves. 

On the 19th, or Farwardin-Roz, there is a feast called Farwardagdn 
on account of the identity of the name of the day and of the month in 30 
which it lies. A similar feast-day they have got in every month. 

Ardibahisht-Mah. 

On the 3rd, or Ardibahisht-Eoz, there is a feast, Ardibahishtagdn, 
so called on account of the identity of the name of the month and the 
day. The word Ardibahisht means " truth is the best," or according to 
another explanation, " the utmost of good." 

Ardi]:)ahisht is the genius of fire and light ; both elements stand in 
relation to him. God has ordered him to watch over these elements ; 
to remove the weaknesses and diseases by drugs and nourishments ; 
to distinguish truth from falsehood, the true man from the liar, by 50 
means of those oaths that are manifest in the Avasta. 

The 26th, or Ashtjidh-Eoz, is the first day of the third Gahanbar; 
it lasts five days, the last of which is the last day of the month. In 
these days God created the earth. This Gahanbar is called Paitishahim- 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 205 

Gdh. The six Gahanhars, each of which lasts five days, have been 
established by Zoroaster. 

Khurdadh-Mah. P-220. 

The 6th day, or Khurdadh-Eoz, is a feast Khurdadhagan, so called on 
account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. The 
meaning of the name is " the stability of the creation." Harudha is 
the genius instructed to watch over the growth of the creation, of the 
trees and plants, and to keep off all impure substances from the water. 

The 26th, or Ashtadh-Eoz, is the first day of the fourth Gahanbar, the 
10 last day of which is the last of the month. During this Gahanbar God 
created the trees and plants. It is called Ayathrema-Gdh. 

Tir-Mah. 
On the 6th, or Khurdadh-Eoz, there is a feast called Gashn-i-nUufar, 
considered to be of recent origin. 

On the 13th, or Tir-Eoz, there is a feast Tiragan, so called on account 
of the identity of the name of the month and the day. Of the two causes 
to which it is traced back, one is this, that Afrsisiab after having 
subdued Eranshahr, and while besieging Minocihr in Tabaristan, asked 
him some favour. Minocihr comj^lied with his wish, on the condition 

20 that he (Afrasiab) shoiild restore to him a part of Eranshahr as long and 
as broad as an arrow-shot. On that occasion there was a genius 
present, called Isfandfirmadh ; he ordered to be brought a bow and an 
arrow of such a size as he himself had indicated to the arrow-maker, 
in conformity with that which is manifest in the Avasta. Then he sent 
for Arish, a noble, pious, and wise man, and ordered him to take the bow 
and to shoot the arrow. Arish stepped forward, took off his clothes, 
and said : " king, and ye others, look at my body. I am free from 
any wound or disease. I know that when I shoot with this bow and 
arrow I shall fall to pieces and my life will be gone, but I have deter- 

30 mined to sacrifice it for you." Then he applied himself to the work, and 
bent the bow with all the power God had given him ; then he shot, and 
fell asunder into pieces. By order of God the wind bore the arrow 
away from the mountain of Ruyan and brought it to the utmost 
frontier of Khurasan between Farghana and Tabaristan ; there it hit the 
trunk of a nut-tree that was so large that there had never been a tree 
like it in the world. The distance between the place where the arrow 
was shot and that where it fell was 1,000 Farsakh. Afrasiab and 
Minocihr made a treaty on the basis of this shot that was shot on this 
day. In consequence people made it a feast-day. 

40 During this siege Minocihr and the people of Eranshahr had been 
suffering from want, not being able to grind the wheat and to bake the 
bread because the wheat was late in ripening ; finally they took the 
wheat and the fruits, unripe as they were, ground them and ate them. 
Thence it has become a rule for this day to cook wheat and fruits. 



206 ALBtEUNt. 

According to another report, the arrow was shot on this day, i.e. 
Tir-Eoz, and the festival of this day is the small Tiragan ; on the other 
hand the 14th, or G6sh-E6z, is the great Tiragan, that day on which the 
news arrived that the arrow had fallen. 

On Tir-Eoz people break their cooking-vessels and fire-grates, since 
on this day they were liberated from Afrasiab and everybody was free 
to go to his work. 

The second cause of the feast Tiragan is the following : The Bahu- 
fadhiyya, which means "the office of guarding and watching over the 
world and of reigning in it," and the Bcihkana, which means " the office 10 
of cultivating the world, of sowing in it, and of distributing it " — these 
two are twins on whom rest the civilization of the world, and its 
p.221. duration, and the setting right of anything that is wrong in it. 
The Kitdba (the office of writer) follows next to them and is connected 
with both of them. 

The DaMfadhiyya was founded by Hoshang, the Dahkana by his 
brother Waikard. The name of this day is Tir or Mercury, who is the 
star of the scribes. Now Hoshang s]3oke in praise of his brother on 
this same day, and gave to him as his share the Dahkana, which is 
identical with the Kitdha. Therefore people made this day a feast in 20 
praise and honour of him (Waikard). On this day he (Hoshang) 
ordered peoj)le to dress in the dress of the Scribes SindDihkdns. There- 
fore the j)rinces, Dihkans, Maubadhs, etc., continued to wear the dress 
of the Scribes until the time of Gushtasp, in praise and honour of both 
the Kitdba and Dahkana. 

On the same day the Persians used to wash themselves, of which the 
reason is this — that Kaikhusrau, on returning from the war against 
Afrasiab, passed on this day through the territory of Sawa. He went up 
the mountain which overhangs the town, and sat down at a fountain 
quite alone at some distance from his encampment. There an angel 30 
appeared unto him, whereby he was so terrified that he swooned. About 
that time Wijan ben Judarz arrived, when the king had already recovered 
himself ; so he sprinkled some of that water on his face, leaned him against 
a rock, and said ^j^^J^U i.e. do not be afraid. Thereui>on the king ordered 
a town to be bviilt around that fountain, and called it Mandish, which 
afterwards was altered and mutilated into Andish. Ever since, it has 
been the custom of people to wash themselves in this water and in all 
fountain-waters, this being considered a good omen. The inhabitants of 
Amul go out to the Bahr-alhhazar, play in the water, and make fun, and 
try to dip each other on this day the whole day long. 40 

Murdadh-Mfih. 

On the 7th, or Murdadh-Eoz, there is the feast Murdadhagan, so 
called on account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. 
The meaning of the word Murdadh is " the everlasting duration of the 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 207 

world without death and destruction." Murdadh is the angel appointed to 
guard the world and to produce vegetable food and drugs that are 
remedies against hunger, misery, and disease. God knows best 1 

Shahrewar-Mah. 

On the 7th, or Shahrewar-Eoz, is the feast Shahrewaragan, so called on 
account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. Shah- 
rewar means sjierma and love. It is the angel who is appointed to 
watch over the seven substances, gold, silver, and the other metals, on 
which 2 ests all handicraft, and m consequence all the world and its 
10 inhabitants. 

Zadawaihi relates that this feast was called Adhar-cashn, i.e. the feast 
of the fires that are found in the human dwelling-places. It was the be- 
ginning of winter, therefore people used to make great fires in their 
houses, and were deeply engaged in the worship:) and praise of God ; 
also they used to assemble for eating and merriment. They maintained 
that this was done for the purpose of banishing the cold and dryness 
that arises in winter-time, and that the spreading of the warmth would 
keep off the attacks of all that which is obnoxious to the plants in the 
world. In all this, their proceeding was that of a man who marches out p-222. 
20 to fight his enemy with a large army. 

According to the Maubadh, Khurshed Adhar-cashn was the first day of 
this month, and only a feast for the nobility. It does, however, not 
belong to the feast-days of the Persians, although it was used in their 
months. For it is one of the feast-days of the people of Tukharistan, 
and is a custom of theirs based on the fact that about this time the 
season altered and winter set in. In this otir time the people of Khura- 
san have made it the beginning of autumn. 

This day, i.e. Mihr-Roz, is the first day of the fifth Gahanbar, the 
last of which is Bahram-Eoz. During this Gahanbar God created the 
30 cattle. It is called Maidhydirim-Gcih. 

Mihr-Mah. 

On the 1st of it, or Hurmuzd-Roz, falls the Second Autumn, a feast 
for the common people, agreeably with what has been before mentioned. 

On the 16th, or Mihr-Eoz, there is a feast of great importance, called 
Mihrajan. The name of the day is identical with that of the month ; 
it means " the love of the spirit.'" According to others, Mihr is the name 
of the sun, who is said to have for the first time appeared to the world 
on this day ; that therefore this day was called Mihr. This is indicated 
by the custom of the Kisras of crowning themselves on this day with a 
40 crown on which was worked an image of the sun and of the wheel on 
which he rotates. On this day the Persians hold a fair. 

People maintain that the special veneration in which this day is held 
is to be traced to the joy of mankind when they heard of Fredun's 



208 ALBfR^t. 

coming forward, after Kabi had attacked Aldahhak Bevarasp, expelled 
him and called upon people to do homage to Fredun. Kabi is the 
same whose standard the Persian kings adoj)ted, considering it a good 
omen ; it was made of the skin of a bear, or, as others say, of that of a 
lion; it was called Dirafsh-i-Kdhiydn, and was in later times adorned 
with jewels and gold. 

On the same day the angels are said to have come down to help 
Fredun. In consequence it has become a custom in the houses of the 
kings, that at the time of dawn a valiant warrior was posted in the 
court of the palace, who called at the highest pitch of his voice : 10 
" O ye angels, come down to the world, strike the Dews and evil-doers 
and expel them from the world." 

On the same day, they say, God spread out the earth and created the 
bodies as mansions for the souls. In a certain hour of this day the 
sphere of Ifranjawi breathes for the purpose of rearing the bodies. 

On the same day God is said to have clad the moon in her splendour 
and to have illuminated her with her light, after He had created her as a 
black ball without any light. Therefore, they say, on Mihrajan the 
moon stands higher than the sun, and the luckiest hours of the day are 
those of the moon. 20 

Salman Alfarisi has said : In Persian times we used to say that God 
has created an ornament for his slaves, of rubies on Nauroz, of emeralds 
on Mihrajan. Therefore these two days excel all other days in the same 
way as these two jewels excel all other jewels. 

Aleranshahri says: God has made the treaty between Light and 
Darkness on Nauroz and Mihrajan. 

Sa'id b. Alfadl used to say : Persian scholars relate, that the top of 
p.223. the mountain Shahin appears always black during the whole length of 
summer, whilst on the morning of Mihrajan it appears white as if 
covered with snow, whether the sky be clear or clouded, in any weather 30 
whatsoever. 

Alkisrawi relates : — I heard the Maubadh of Almutawakkil say : On 
the day of Mihrajan the sun rises in Hamin, in the midst between light 
and darkness. Then the souls die within the bodies; therefore the 
Persians called this day Miragdn. 

The charm-mongers say : He who eats on the day of Mihrajfin a piece 
of pomegranate and smells rose-water, will be free from much mishap. 

The Persian theologians have derived various symbolic interpretations 
from these days. So they consider Mihrajan as a sign of resurrection 
and the end of the world, because at Mihrajan that which grows reaches 40 
its perfection and has no more material for further growth, and because 
animals cease from sexual intercourse. In the same way they make 
Nauroz a sign for the beginning of the world, because the contrary of 
all these things happens on Nauroz. 

Some people have given the preference to Mihrajan by as much as 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 209 

they prefer autumn to sj)riiig. In their arguments they chiefly rely 
upon what Aristotle said in rej)ly to Alexander, when he was asked by 
him regarding them : " O king, in spring the reptiles begin growing, in 
autumn they begin to die away. From this point of view autumn is 
preferable." 

This day used in former times to coincide with the beginning of 
winter. Afterwards it advanced, when people began to neglect inter- 
calation. Therefore it is still in our time the custom of the kings of 
Khurasan, that on this day they dress their warriors in autumn — and 

10 winter — dresses. 

On the 21st, or Ram-Eoz, is the Gh-eat Mihrajdn in commemoration of 
Fredun's subduing and binding Al-Dahhak. People say, that when he 
was brought before Fredun he spoke : " Do not kill me in retaliation for 
thy ancestor." Upon which Fredun answered, refusing his entreaty, 
"Do you want to be considered as equal to Jam b. Wijahan in the 
way of retaliation "? By no means. I shall punish you for an ox, that 
was in the house of my ancestor." Thereupon he put him in fetters 
and imj)risoned him in the mountain Dubawand. Thereby people 
were freed from his wickedness, and they celebrated this event as a 

20 feast. Fredun ordered them to gird themselves with EustiJcs, to use the 
Zamzaiyia (speaking in a whispering tone) and to abstain from speaking 
loud during dinner, as a tribute of thanks to God for having again 
made them their own masters with regard to their whole behaviour and 
to the times of their eating and drinking, after they had been living in 
fear so long as 1,000 years. This has come down to posterity as a rule 
and custom on the day of Mihrajan. 

All the Persians agree that Bevarasp lived 1,000 years, although some 
of them say that he lived longer and that the 1,000 years are only the 
time of his rule and tyranny. People think that the Persian mode of 

30 salutation, according to which the one wishes the other to live as long 
as 1,000 years — I mean the words " Hazctr sal hazi " — comes down from 
that time, because they thought it was allowed and possible (that a man 
should live 1,000 years) from what they had seen of Al-Dahhak. God 
knows best ! 

Zaradusht has ordered that both Mihrajan and Eam-Eoz shoiild be P-224. 
held in equal veneration. In consequence, they celebrated both days 
as feast-days, until Hurmuz b. Shapur, the Hero, connected the two 
days with each other, and raised to feast-days all the days between 
them, as he had done with the two Nauroz. Afterwards the kings and 

40 the people of firanshahr celebrated as feast-days all the days from 
Mihrajan till thirty days afterwards, distributing them over the several 
classes of the population in the same way as we have heretofore ex- 
plained regarding Nauroz. Each class celebrated its feast for five 
days. 

14 



210 ALBtRf^Nf. 

Ahdn-MoJi. 

On the lOtt, or Aban-E6z, there is a feast Ahdnajdn, so called on 
account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. On 
this day Zau b. Tahmasp ascended the throne ; he ordered the channels 
to be dug and to be kept in good preservation. 

On the same day the news reached all the seven Kkiixara of the world 
that Fredun had put in fetters Bevarasp ; that he had assumed the royal 
dignity ; that he had ordered people to take possession of their 
houses, their families and children, and to call themselves Kadhhhudd, 
i.e. master of this house ; that he ruled over his family, his children, and 10 
his empire with supreme authority ; whilst before that, in the time of 
Bevarasp, they had been in a deserted state, and Dews and rebels had 
alternately been haunting their houses, without their being able to 
keep them off. This institute (that of a Kadhhhudd) has been abolished 
by Alndzir AVutrush, who made again the rehels partake of the 
Kadhkhudadom together with the people. 

The last five days of this month, the first of which is Ashtadh, are 
called Farwardajan. During this time people put food in the halls of 
the dead and drink on the roofs of the houses, believing that the spirits 
of their dead during these days come out from the places of their 20 
reward or their punishment, that they go to the dishes laid out for 
them, imbibe their strength and suck their taste. They fumigate 
their houses with juniper, that the dead may enjoy its smell. The 
spirits of the pious men dwell among their families, children, and 
relations, and occupy themselves with their affairs, although invisible 
to them. 

Eegarding these days there has been among the Persians a contro- 
versy. According to some they are the last five days of the month 
Aban, according to others they are the Andergah, i.e. the five Epagomenm 
which are added between Aban and Adhar-Mah. When the controversy 30 
and dispute increased, they adopted all (ten) days in order to esta- 
blish the matter on a firm basis, as this is one of the chief institutes 
of their religion, and because they wished to be careful, since they 
were unable to ascertain the real facts of the case. So they called the 
first five days the first Farwardajan, and the following five days the 
second Farwardajan; the latter, however, is more important than 
the former. 

The first day of these Epagomence is the first day of the sixth 
Gahanbar, in which Grod created man. It is called HamaQpatmaedhaem- 
gdh. 40 

The reason of the Farwardajan is said to be this — that when Cain 
had killed Abel, and the parents were lost in grief, they implored God 
to restore his soul to him. God did so on the day Ashtadh of Abiin-Mah, 
and the soul remained in him for ten days. Abel was sitting erect and 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 211 

looking at his parents, but it was not allowed to him to speak. Then his p-225. 
parents collected — {Missing, the end of Abdn-Mdh). 

[AdMr-Mdh.'] 

[1. BaJidr-cashn, the feast of the Biding of Alhausaj. This day was 
the beginning of spring at the time of the Kisras. Then a thin-bearded 
(Kausaj) man used to ride about, fanning himself with a fan to express 
his rejoicing at the end of the cold season and the coming of the warm 
season. This custom is in Persis still kept up for fun.] 

Its most lucky hours are those during which Aries is the horoscope. 
10 People consider the hour of morning as of good omen — I mean the 
charm-mongers — and they maintain that everything that is mentioned 
during this hour exists absolutely. Besides they say that he who tastes 
a quince and smells an orange in the morning of this day before speaking 
will be happy during that same year. 

According to Tahir b. Tahir, the Persians, in old times, used to drink 
honey on this day if the moon happened to stand in a fiery station, and 
to drink water if it stood in a watery station, always adapting them- 
selves to the character of the stations of the moon. 

Aleranshahri says : I heard a number of Armenian learned men relate 
20 that on the morning of the Fox-day there appears on the highest moun- 
tain, between the Interior and the Exterior country, a white ram that is 
not seen at any other time of the year except about this time of this day. 
Now the inhabitants of that country infer that the year will be prosperous 
if the ram bleats ; that it will be sterile if he does not bleat. 

On the morning of the Fox-day the Persians thought it to be a good 
omen to look at the clouds ; and from the fact whether they were clear 
or dark, thin or dense, they drew conclusions as to whether the year 
would be prosperous or not, fertile or barren. 

On the 9th, the day of Adhar, is a feast called Adharcashn, so called 
80 on accotint of the identity of the name of the day and the month. On 
that day people want to warm themselves by the fire, for this is the end 
of the winter months, when the cold, at the end of the season, is most 
biting and the frost is most intense. It is the feast of the fire, and is 
called by the name of the genius who has to watch over all the fires. 

Zaradusht has given the law that on this day people should visit the 
fire-temples, and that they should there offer offerings and deliberate on 
the affairs of the world. 



40 



Dai-Mah, also called Khur-Mah. 
The first day of it is called Khurram-Boz. This day and the month 
are both called by the name of G-od, i.e. (Hormuzd), i.e. a wise king, 
gifted with a creative mind. 

On this day the king used to descend from the throne of the empire, to 
dress in white dresses, to sit on white carpets in the plain, to suspend 
for a time the duties of the chamberlains and all the pomp of royalty, 

14 * 



212 ALBIEUNI. 

and exclusively to give himself up to tlie consideration of the affairs of 
the realm and its inhabitants. Whosoever, high or low, wanted to speak to 
him in any matter, went into his presence and addressed him, nobody pre- 
venting him from doing so. Besides, he held a meeting with the Dihkans 
and agriculturists, eating and drinking with them, and then he used to 
say : " To-day I am like one of you. I am your brother ; for the exist- 
ence of the world depends upon that culture which is wrought by your 
hands, and the existence of this culture depends upon government ; the 
one cannot exist without the other. This being the case, we are like twin 
brothers, more particularly as this (royalty and agriculture) proceeds 10 
from twin brothers, from Hoshang and Waikard." 

This day is also called Nuwdd-Boz (90 days), and is celebrated as a 
p.226. feast, because there are 90 days between this day and Nauroz. 

The 8th, 15th, and 23rd days of this month are feast-days on account 
of the identity of the names of these days with that of the month, as 
we have heretofore explained. 

The 11th, or Khur-Eoz, is the first day of the (first ?) Gahanbar ; its 
last day is the 15th, or Dai-ba-Mihr. This Gahanbar is called Maidhyo- 
zaremaya-gah. During it God created heaven. 

On the 14th, or G6sh-E6z, there is a feast called Sir-sawa, when people 20 
eat garlic and drink wine, and cook the vegetables with pieces of meat, 
by which they intend to protect themselves against the devil. The 
original purpose of the thing was to rid themselves of their affliction 
when they were oppressed in consequence of Jamshid's being killed, and 
were in sorrow and swore that they would never touch any fat. This has 
remained as an usage among them. By that dish they cure themselves 
of the diseases which they attribute to the influence of the evil spirits. 

The 15th, or Dai-ba-Mihr-E6z, is called (j^^-^, when they used to make 
a human-like figure of paste or clay and posted it at the gateways. This, 
however, was not practised in the houses of the kings. At present this 30 
custom has been abolished on account of its resemblance to idolatry and 
heathendom. 

The niglit of the 16th, or Mihr-Eoz, is called, (j^y*\)'^, and also J^^. 
Its origin is this, that firanshahr was separated and liberated from the 
country of the Turk, and that they drove their cows, which the enemy 
had driven away, back to their houses. Further : when Predun had put 
Bevarasp out of the way, he let out the cows of Athfiydn (Athwyana) 
that had been hidden in some place during the siege, whilst Athfiyan 
defended them. Now they returned to his house. Athfiyan was a man 
of high standing and noble character, a benefactor of the poor, 40 
busying himself with the affairs of the poor and taking care of them, 
and liberal towards all who applied to him. When Predun had freed 
his property, people celebrated a feast in hope of his gifts and presents. 

On the same day the weaning of Predun took place. It was the first 
day when he rode on the ox in a night when the ox appears which drags 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 213 

the carriage of the mooB. It is an ox of light, with two golden horns 
and silver feet, which is visible for an hour and then disappears. The 
wish of him who looks at the ox when it is visible will be fulfilled in the 
same hour. 

In the same night there appears on the highest mountain, as they 
maintain, the spectre of a white ox, that bellows twice if the year is to 
be fertile, and once (if the year is to be barren). (Here follows a 
lacuna). 

[23. Feast of the third day, Dai.] 

1" Bahman-Mdh. 

[2. Bahmanja. 

5. Barsadhak, or Nausadhak. 
10. The Night of Alsadhak.] 

They fumigate their houses to keep off mishap, so that finally it has 
become one of the customs of the kings to light fires on this night and 
to make them blaze, to drive wild beasts into them, and to send the birds 
flying through the flames, and to drink and amuse themselves round the 
fires. 

May God take vengeance on all who enjoy causing pain to another 
20 being, gifted with sensation and doing no harm ! 

After the Persians had neglected intercalation in their months, they 
hoped that the cold wotild cease at this time, as they reckoned as the p.227. 
beginning of winter the 5th of Aban-Mah, and as the end the 10th 
of Bahman-Mah. The people of Karaj called this day ^^ "t-^, i.e. 
the biting night, on account of its being so cold. 

Another report accounts for the lighting of the fires during this night 
in the following way : When Bevarasp had ordered people to provide him 
every day with two men, that he might feed his two serpents with their 
brains, he commissioned immediately after his arrival a man called 
30 Azma'il to attend to this. Now, this man always used to set free one of 
the two, giving him food, and ordering him to settle in the western part 
of mount Bunbawand and there to build himself some sort of house, 
whilst he fed the two serpents with the brains of a ram instead of that 
prisoner whom he had set free, mixing them with the brains of the other 
victim who was killed. When Fredun had conquered Bevarasp, he 
ordered Azma'il to be fetched and punished in revenge for those whom he 
had killed. Thereupon Azma'il told him the tale of those whom he had 
set free, speaking the truth, and asked the king to send out a messenger 
with him that he might show them to him. So the king did, and Azma'il 
40 ordered those whom he had set free to light fires on the roofs of their 
houses, in order that their number might be seen. 

This happened in the 10th night of Bahman. Therefore the messenger 



214 albIrt^n!. 

said to Azma'il : " What a number of tliem thou hast set free ! May 
God give thee a good reward ! " He returned to Fredun and brought him 
his report. Fredun exceedingly rejoiced at the matter, and set out 
himself for Dunbawand to see the thing himself. Thereupon he con- 
ferred great honour upon Azma'il, he gave him Dunbawand as a fief, 
made him sit on a golden throne, and called him MasmagMn. 

Regarding the two serpents of Bevarasp, people say that they came 
out of his shoulders, feeding upon brains ; whilst according to another 
view, they were two painful wounds which he besmeared with brains, 
hoping to get relief from them, 10 

The two serpents are something wonderful — possible, indeed, but 
hardly likely. For worms are produced out of flesh, and in flesh lice 
and other animals are living. Further, there are other animals that do 
not entirely leave their birthplace, like that one of which people relate 
that it, living in India, peeps out of the womb of its mother to eat grass 
and then to return, that it does not leave the womb of its mother 
entirely until it has grown strong and thinks itself able to run faster 
than its mother, even if the mother should run after it ; then it jumps 
out and runs away. People say that the young animal fears the tongue 
of its mother, which is the roughest thing imaginable. For the mother, 20 
if she finds the young one, licks it continually, until the flesh is severed 
from the bones. And out of the hair of the head that has been torn 
out together with its white root which originally is fixed in the flesh, 
snakes grow, in case the hair falls into water or some wet place in the 
midst of summer, growing within the time of three weeks or less. 

This fact cannot be denied, since it has been witnessed, and the forma- 
tion of other animals out of other materials has also been witnessed. 

'Abu-'TJthman Aljahiz relates, that he saw at 'Ukbara a piece of clay, 
p.228. ^^e ^a-lf of which was a part of the body of a field-mouse, whilst the 

other half was still a common and unchanged piece of clay, I have 30 
heard this also from a number of people in Jurjan who had observed 
something similar in that country. 

Aljaihani relates that in the Indian Ocean there are the roots of a tree 
which spread along the sea-coast in the sand, that the leaf is rolled up 
and gets separated from the tree, and that it then changes into a king- 
bee and flies away. 

The formation of scorpions out of figs and mountain-balm, that of 
bees from the flesh of oxen, that of wasps from the flesh of horses, is 
well known to all naturalists. We ourselves have observed many 
animals, capable of propagating their species, that had originally grown 40 
out of plants and other materials by a clear process of formation, and 
who afterwards continued their species by sexual intercourse. 

The 22nd, or Badh-K6z, is called by this name (lacuna). 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. 215 

On that day certain usages are practised in Kumm and neighbonrhood 
that have a likeness to those festive customs of drinking and making 
fun which, are practised at Ispahan in the days of Nauroz, when people 
hold a fair and celebrate a feast. At Ispahan people call it (^j^. How- 
ever, Badh-Eoz is only 07ie day, whilst ^j^ lasts a whole week. 

The 30th, or Aneran, is called Afrijagdn at Ispahan, which means 
" pouring out the water." Its origin is this : that once in the time of 
Feroz, the grandfather of Anoshirwan, the rain was kept back, and 
people in Eranshahr suffered from barrenness. Therefore Feroz remitted 

10 them the taxes of these years, opened the doors of his storehouses, 
borrowed money from the properties of the fire-temples, and gave all to 
the inhabitants of firanshahr, taking care of his subjects as a parent 
does for his children ; and the consequence was that during those years 
nobody died of hunger. Now, Feroz went to the famous fire-temple in 
AdharTclmrd in Fars ; there he said prayers, prostrated himself, and asked 
God to remove that trial from the inhabitants of the world. Then he 
went up to the altar and found there the ministers and priests standing 
before it. They, however, did not greet him as is due to kings. So he 
felt that there was something the matter with the priests. Then he went 

20 near the fire, turned his hand and arms round the flame, and pressed it 
thrice to his bosom, as one friend does with another when asking after 
each other's health ; the flame reached his beard, but did not hurt him. 
Thereupon Feroz spoke : " O my Lord, thy names be blessed ! if the rain 
is held back for my sake, for any fault of mine, reveal it to me that I 
may divest myself of my dignity ; if something else is the cause, remove 
it, and make it known to me and tc the people of the world, and give 
them copious rain." Then he descended from the altar, left the cupola, 
and sat down on the ^^J made of gold, similar to a throne, but smaller. 
It was a custom for a famous fire-temple to have a golden \^>i for the 

QQ purpose that the king should sit upon it when he came to the temple. 
Now the ministers and priests came near him and greeted him as is due 
to kings. The king spoke to them: "What has hardened your hearts, 
what has offended you and made you suspicious, that you did not greet 
me before? " They replied: "Because we were standing before another 
king more sublime than you. We were not allowed to greet you whilst p.229 
standing before him." The king believed them and made them presents. 
Then he started from the town Adharkhura in the direction of the town 
Dara. But having come as far as the place where is now the village 
called Kam-Feroz in Fars — it was at that time an uncultivated plain — a 

4Q cloud rose and brought such copious rain as had never been witnessed 
before, till the water ran into all the tents, the royal tent as well as the 
other ones. Feroz recognized that God had granted his prayer ; he 
praised God, and ordered that on that spot his tents should be pitched. 
He gave alms, made liberal presents, held assemblies, and was full of joy. 
He did not leave this place before he had built the famous village which 



216 ALBiEUNi. 

he called Kam-Feroz. Feroz is his name, and Mm means " wish ; " so it 
signifies " that he had obtained his wish." In the joy which everybody 
felt over this event, they poured the water over each other. In conse- 
quence this has become a custom in firanshahr ever since. In every 
town they celebrate this feast on that day when they got the rain, and 
the people of Ispahan got the rain on this day. 

IsfanddrTnadh-Mdh. 

On the 5th, or Isfandarmadh-Eoz, there is a feast on account of the 
identity of the names of the month and the day. The word means 
" intelligence " and " ripeness of mind." 1^ 

Isfandarmadh is charged with the care of the earth and with that of 
the good, chaste, and beneficent wife who loves her husband. In past 
times this was a special feast of the women, when the men used to make 
them liberal presents. This custom is still flourishing at Ispahan, Eai, 
and in the other districts of Fahla. In Persian it is called Muzhdgiran. 

This day is famous for the inscribing of pieces of paper. For on this 
day common people eat sun-raisins and the kernels of pomegranates un- 
moistened and not kneaded with water, but pulverized, believing that to 
be an antidote against the bite of the scorpions, and, besides, they write 
in the time between dawnrise and sunrise upon square pieces of paper 20 
the following charm : " In the name of Grod the gracious, the merciful — 
Isfandarmadhmah and Isfandarmadhroz — I have bound (by the charm) 
the going and coming — below and above — except the cows — in the name 
of the Tazatas and in the name of Jam and Fredun— in the name of 
God — (I swear) by Adam and Eve, God alone is sufficient unto me ! " 
Three such paper pieces they fix on this day on three walls of the house, 
whilst they leave unmarked the wall opposite to the front of the house, 
believing that if they fix something also on this fourth wall the reptiles 
get bewildered and do not find an outlet, and raise their heads towards 
the window, preparing to leave the house. Sometimes you find places 80 
influenced by some charm where scorpions do not bite, as, e.g. Dinar- 
Eazi in Jurjan, ten miles beyond the frontier towards Khorasan. For 
there you find under every stone a number of large black scorpions, 
p.230. which people touch and play with, and which do not bite. But when 
they are taken away and broiight over the frontier of that district, which 
is a bridge not farther off than a bowshot, then they bite, causing 
instantaneous death. 

In the district of Tus there is said to be a village where the scorpions 
do not bite. And 'Abu-alfaraj Alzanjani has told me that in the city of 
Zanjan there are scorpions only in one place, called the " Cemetery of 40 
the Tabaristdnis," and that a man when he goes there at night and 
gathers some of them in a pot and leaves the pot somewhere else, finds 
that they hurriedly return to their former places. 

Now, as regards these pieces of paper we have mentioned, they are 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PEESIANS. 217 

evidently useless, because the power of the incantation cannot affect the 
object of incantation, though its influence be strong, because the plane- 
tary cycles do not agree with the Persian year, and because the conditions 
of talismans are not fulfilled in them. Perhaps we shall speak of the 
incantations, charms, and talismans in the Book of physical and technical 
wonders and curiosities, giving such explanations as will plant certain 
persuasions in the minds of intelligent men and remove doubt from the 
minds of those who seek for information, if God will mercifully postpone 
the end of my life and by His grace remove mental calamities. He has 
10 the power to do so. 

The 11th, or Khur-Eoz, is the first day of the second G-ahanbar, the 
last of which is Dai-ba-mihr-E<6z. It is called Maidhyoshema-gdh. During 
this G-ahanbar God created the water. 

The next following day, the 16th, orMihr-Roz, is called MisJc-i-tdza 
(fresh mtisk). 

The 19th, or Parwardin-Eoz, is called Nauroz of the rivers and of all 
running waters, when people throw perfumes, rose-water, &c. into 
them. 

The Zoroastrians have no fasting at all. He who fasts commits a sin, 

20 and must, by way of expiation, give food to a number of poor people. 

They have fairs in the days of the months we have mentioned, but as 

they differ in different places, we cannot fix them, as little as we can the 

watercourses of a torrent, it being impossible to count them. 

'Adud-aldaula has founded two feast-days, each of which is called 
Cashn-i-Kard-i-Fanakhusrau. The one is the day Serosh in Farwardin- 
Mah, when the water of the aqueduct coming from a distance of four 
farsakh reached the town, which he had built one farsakh below the 
citadel of Shiraz, and which he had called Kard-i-Fanakhusra. The 
other is the day Hormuz in Aban-Mah, the day when he commenced 
30 building that same town, A. Tazd, 333. On both days people hold 
fairs of seven days duration, and they assemble for merriment and 
drinking. 

The Persians divide all the days of the year into preferable and lucky 
days and into unlucky and detested ones. Besides they have other days, 
bearing names which are common to them in every month, which are 
festival days for one class of the people to the exclusion of the other. 

Further, they have certain rules regarding the appearance of snakes 
on the different days of the month, which we unite in the following 
Jadwal-alikhtiydrdt (Table of Selections) : — 



218 



ALBiEUNl. 



pp.231, 
232. 





o 




^ 




'fl 




o fl 












and victory 
versaries. 
n of theft, 
nd disease, 
lisition of mo 
blamable. 


valesce 
lie acq 
thing 
before 


as 




7J 
3 


ourney 
the ad 
uspicio 
Iness a 
lie acqi 
ad and 


H 




t-jhs 




<JC/J 




1-5 CCMt-lW 



Ql'O 



fl.O 



a> _fl 
:;- a c3 a ^ .2 

P -g o 03 « a 



MW<I <1 



PM 



CO w 






.g 



"H .1^ M-^ 

-2fl^ 



.g 
9 . 






59 



!=§ 



. Qu on 

^g fl 

I §11 1 



fig 






.3 g.3l 






.3 

, a.3 



.g .g 



^ 






-a 



!3 . 



^% 



.g .g 



bD 

.g 
.3 a 




Q) to O 

a^a 






,c8 <g "a 7 g , , 



5 I 
fi g 



ii n a 



.g 

.0 



5 -d 

Ira's fl-oj 

-o .ill a a 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PEESIANS. 219 

The day Mali they consider to be a preferable dav from its being called p.233. 
by the name of the moon, which God created for the purpose of distri- 
buting what is good and agreeable over the world. Therefore the waters 
increase, and animals, trees, and jjlants grow from new-moon till the 
time when the moon begins to wane. 

The two days of conjunction and opposition they hold to be unlucky 
days. 

On the day of conjunction the Demons and Satans feel the lust of 
intermingling viciously with the things in the world. Then madness 

10 and epilepsy are brought about. The seas begin to ebb, the waters 
to decrease, the male turtle-doves are suffering from epilepsy. The 
sperma which on this day settles in the uterus is born as a child 
of imperfect structure ; hair which is torn out of the body will 
be replaced only sparsely ; everything that is planted will only produce 
scanty fruit, more particularly so if there be an eclipse on the same day. 
If a hen sits hatching her eggs at new-moon, the eggs will be bad ; at 
new-moon a narcissus is sure to wither. 

Al-Kindi says : Conjunction is detested because then the moon is being 
burned, who is the guide of all bodies ; and therefore people dread de- 

20 struction and ruin for them. 

At the time of opposition, people say, the Grhuls and sorcerers feel 
the lust to mix with impure spirits. In consequence there is much 
epilepsy. The seas begin to flow, the waters to increase ; the she-turtle- 
doves are becoming epileptical. The sperma which settles in the uterus 
on the day of opposition is born as a child of more than common struc- 
ture. The hair which is torn out will be replaced abundantly. All that 
is planted on this day will produce worm-eaten fruits and will be very 
impure, more particularly so if there be an eclipse on the same day. 
Al-Kindi says : Pull-moon is detested because then the light of the 

80 moon requires help from the light of the sun, who is the guide of the 
spirits. Therefore people fear lest the spirits should leave the bodies. 



220 ALBfRUNi. 



CHAPTER X. 

ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OP THE SUOHDIANS. 

The montlis of the inhabitants of Sogdiana were likewise distributed 
over the four quarters of the year. The first day of the Sughdian 
month Nausard was the first day of summer. There was no difference 
between them and the Persians regarding the beginning of the year and 
the beginnings of some of the months, but there was a difference regard- 
ing the place of the five Ejoagomence, as we have heretofore explained. 
And they did so for no other reason but this, that they honoured their 
kings to such a degree that they would not do the same things which the 10 
kings did. They preferred to use as new-year that moment when Jam 
returned successful, whilst the kings preferred as new-year that moment 
when Jam started (set out). 

Some people maintain that these two different new-years were to be 

traced to a difference that was discovered in the astronomical observations. 

For the ancient Persians used a solar year of 365 days 6 hours 1 minute, 

and it was their universal practice to reckon these 6 hours plus the 1 

p.234. minute as a unit (i.e. to disregard the 1 minute in reckoning). 

But afterwards when Zoroaster appeared and introduced the religion 
of the Magi, when the kings transferred their residence from Balkh to 20 
Persis and Babel and occupied themselves with the affairs of their reli- 
gion, they ordered new observations to be made, and then they found that 
the summer- solstice preceded by five days the beginning of the year, which 
was the third year after intercalation. In consequence, they gave up 
their former system and adopted what astronomical observation had 
taught them, whilst the people of Transoxiana kej^t the old system and 
disregarded the state of that same year (i.e. its deviation from real time), 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE SUGHDIANS. 221 

on which their calendar was based. Hence the difference of the begin- 
nings of the Persian and Sughdian years. 

Other people maintain that originally both the Persian and Sughdian 
years had the same beginning, until the time when Zoroaster appeared. 
But when after Zoroaster the Persians began to transfer the five Epago- 
mence to each of the leap-months, as we have before mentioned, the 
Sughdians left them in their original place and did not transfer them. 
So they kept them at the end of the months of their year, whilst the 
Persians, after they began to neglect intercalation, retained them at the 
10 end of Aban-Mah. God knows best ! 

The Sughdians have many festivals and famous memorial days in the 
same way as the Persians. What we have learned of them, regarding 
this subject, is the following : — 

Nausard. The 1st day is their Nauroz, which is the Great Nauroz. 

The 28th is a feast for the Magians of Bukhara, called Bdmush-Aghdm, 
during which they assemble in a fire-temple in the village Eamush. 
These Aghams are the most important of their festivals, which they cele- 
brate alternately in each village, assembling in the house of each chief- 
tain, eating and drinking. 
20 Jirjin. ISTothing mentioned. 

Nisanaj. The 12th is the first Makhiraj. 

Basakanaj. The 7th is the ^ Agham, a feast of theirs at Baikand, 
where they assemble. 

The 12th is the second Makhiraj. 

The 15th is the feast (j-^ Khwdra, when they eat leavened bread after 
abstaining from eating and drinking and from everything that is touched 
by the fire except fruits and vegetables. 

Ashnakhandii. The 18th is the feast Baba-Khwara, also called Bami- 
Khwara, i.e. drinking the good, pure must. 
30 The 26th is Karm-Khwara. 

Mazhikhanda. The 3rd is the feast Kishmin, when they hold a fair 
in the village c:-Xs=^. On the 15th they hold a fair in Al-tawawis. 
There the merchants of all countries gather and hold a fair of seven 
days duration. 

Paghakan. The 1st is called Ntm-sarda, i.e. the half of the year. 

The 2nd is a feast called a^ (^ Khwara, when they assemble in their p.235. 
fire-temples and eat a certain dish which they prepare of the flour of 
millet, of butter and sugar. Some people put Nim-sarda five days 
earlier, i.e. on the 1st of Mihr-Mah, to make it agree with the Persian 
40 calendar, whilst, in fact, the middle of the year ought to be celebrated 
when after its beginning 6 months and 2^ days have passed. 

The 9th is the feast (j««~-* Agham. 

The 25th is the first day of Karm-Khwara. 



222 albMnJ. 



Abhanaj. The 9th is the last day of Karm-Khwara. 

Fugh. Nothing mentioned. 

Marsafugh. From the 5th till the 15th of this month they have a 
feast. After that the Muhammadans hold a fair of seven days in 
Alshargh. 

Zhimadanaj. The 24th is the Badh-Amgham. 

Zhshum. On the last day of this month the Sughdians cry over those 
who died in past times, they lament over them and cut their faces. They 
lay out for them dishes and drinks, as the Persians do in Farwardajan, 
For the five days, which are the rjiiipai Kkomjxalai to the Sughdians, they 10 
fix at the end of this month, as we have mentioned before. 

Besides, they hold fairs in the villages in the districts of Bukhara and 
Sughd on those days that have only one name in every month (i.e. the 
8th, 15th, 23rd, which are called Dast). 



223 



CHAPTER XI. 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE KHWARIZMIANS. 

The Khwarizmians agree with the Sughdians regarding the beginnings 
of the year and the months, and they disagree with the Persians in the 
same subjects. The cause of this is the same which we have described 
when speaking of the Sughdians. Their usages in their months are 
similar to those of the Sughdians. The beginning of their summer was 
the 1st of Nausarji. They had festivals in their months which they 
celebrated before the time of Islam. They maintain that God Almighty 

10 ordered them to celebrate those festivals. Besides they celebrate other 
days in commemoration of the deeds of their ancestors. But at the 
present time there are only very few of the Magians among the Khwa- 
rizmians left, who do not particularly care for their religion ; they know 
nothing of it except its outward forms, and they do not inquire into its 
spirit and real meaning. In consequence, they regulate their festivals 
by the knowledge of their distances from each other, not according to 
their real places which they occupy in the single months. 

Those, now, of their days and festivals that are not connected with 
their religion are the following : 

20 Nausarji. The 1st day is the feast of new-year, the new-day, as we 
have already mentioned. 

Ardiwisht. Nothing mentioned. p.236. 

Harudadh. The 1st day is called (^\)~* Utj;^. In ante-Muhammadan 
times this day was the time of extreme heat ; therefore, they say, it was 
originally called o^J^ (j-W«r»j^ which means : the dress will be ^ut off, signi- 
fying that it was the time for baring and undi'essing themselves. 



224 ALBIRfjNf. 

In our time this day coincides with the time of the sowing of sesame 
and what is sown together with it. So people have come to use it as an 
epoch. 

Ciri. The 15th is called AjgMr, which means : the firewood and the 
flame. In bygone times it was the beginning of that season when people 
felt the need of warming themselves at the fire, because the air was 
changing in autumn. In our time it coincides with the middle of 
summer. From this day they count 70 days, and then commence sowing 
the autumn wheat. 

Hamdadh. Nothing mentioned. 10 

Ikhsharewari. The 1st day is called ^„j^ ; but originally, they say, 
it was called Faghrubah, i.e. tJie exitus of the Shah. For about this time 
the kings of Khwarizm used to march out, because the heat was then 
decreasing and the cold drawing near ; then they went into winter- 
quarters outside their residence, driving away the Ghuzz-Turks from 
their frontiers and defending the limits of their empire against their 
inroads. 

tJmri. The 1st day is the feast Azdd Kand Khwdr, i.e. the day of 
eating the bread jprejjared with fat. On that day they sought protection 
from the cold, and assembled for the purpose of eating the hreadprepared 20 
with fat, around the burning fire-grates. 

The 13th is the feast Cirt-Boj, which the Khwarizmians hold in the 
same veneration as the Persians their Mihrajan. 

The 21st is likewise a feast, called Bdm-BSj. 

Ydndkhun. Nothing mentioned in this month. 

Adu. Nothing mentioned. 

Eimazhd. The 11th is called Nimhhah. People say that it was 
originally called Minac Ahhih, which was then wrongly altered for the 
sake of easier pronunciation, as it was frequently used. It means : the 
night of Mina. Now, some of them maintain that Mina was one of their 30 
queens or chieftains, that she left her castle intoxicated, dressed in a 
silk dress, at spring time. She fell down outside the castle and lost all 
self-control ; she fell asleep, was smitten by the cold of the night, and 
died. Now people were astonished that the cold had killed a human 
being about this lime in spring. So they used it as an epoch for some- 
p 237. thing miraculous, extraordinary, that does not happen at its proper 
time. 

This day has been advancing beyond its proper time to such a degree, 
that now-a-days people consider it as the middle of winter. 

On this day and about this time the people of Khwarizm use perfumes 40 
and incense, and they make the smells rise up from the dishes which 
they lay out for the purpose of keeping off all the injuries of the demons 
and evil spirits. 

This proceeding is necessary, by way of careful precaution, if some 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE KHWAEIZMIANS. 225 

spiritual matters are connected with. it. I mean charms, incantations, 
and prayers, which the most distinguished philosophers have acknow- 
ledged and allowed, after having witnessed their effects, e.g. Galenus, and 
others like him, though they are few. These precautions are likewise to 
be recommended if people in doing so derive some help from astronomical 
occurrences, as, e.g. the Tempora Parata and the Tempora Selecta, with 
the constellations that are mentioned for such purposes. We cannot 
help taking notice of those who try to prove that all such precaution is 
futile and false by no other arguments but by mockery, derision, and 

10 sneers. 

The existence of jinns and demons has been acknowledged by the 
most famous philosophers and scholars, e.g. by Aristotle, when he de- 
scribes them as beings of air and fire and calls them " human heings." 
Likewise Yahya Grammaticus and others have acknowledged them, 
describing them as the impure parts of the erring souls, after they have 
been separated from their bodies, who (the souls) are prevented from 
reaching their primal origin, because they did not find the knowledge of 
the truth, but were living in confusion and stupefaction. Something 
similar to this is what Mani indicates in his books, although his indica- 

20 tions are expressed in subtle words and phrases. 

Akhamman. Nothing mentioned in this month. 



Ispandarmaji. The 4th is called KMzh, i.e. the rising. 

The 10th is a feast called WaJchsh-Angdm. Wakhsh is the name of the 
angel who has to watch over the water and especially over the river 
Oxus. 

The 20th is called ^^s^^, which means : houses that are built close 
together. 

Besides they have other festivals which they want for the affairs of 
their religion ; they are the following six : — 

30 I. The first is called »^j ^^^Us^^i? on the 11th of Nausarji. Common 
people call it NdusdrjaJcdnik by the month in which it occurs. 

II. The second is called -^.j (:>*?- ^^>-^ on the 1st of Ciri. It is also 
called Jdwardaminik, i.e. i^^^ and Ajghdrminik, so called from the 
month Ajghar, because it falls 15 days before that feast (on the 15th of 
Ciri). 

III. The third is called •^j (j\4>^ on the 15th of Hamdadh. It is 
also called t£V^Jj.»^\. 

IV. The fourth is called j^j ^jj^»-w» on the 15th of tTmri, also called p.238. 
40 V. The fifth is called (lacuna) on the 1st of Rimazhd, also called 

VI. The sixth is called J«j i:^j\ on the 1st of Akhamman, also called 

15 



226 albMnI. 

In the five last days of Ispandarmaji and the following five Epago- 
mencethej do the same which the Persians do in Farwardajan, i.e. they 
lay out food in the temples for the spirits of the dead. 

(The Lunar Stations with the Chorasmians).— They were in the 

habit of using the stations of the moon and deriving from them the 
rules of astrology. The names of the stations in their language they 
have preserved, but those who made use of them, who knew how to 
observe them and how to draw conclusions from them, have died out. Their 
using the lunar stations is clearly proved by the fact that in the 
Khwarizmi dialect an astronomer is called Ahhtar-wemh, i.e. looking to 10 
the lunar stations, for AJcUar means a station of the moon. 

They used to distribute these stations over the twelve signs of the 
Zodiac, for which they also had special names in their language. They 
knew them (the signs of Zodiac) even better than the Arabs, as you 
learn by the fact that their nomenclature of them agrees with the names 
given to them by the original designer of their figures, whilst the names 
of the Arabs do not agree, and they represent these signs as quite 
different figures. 

For instance, they count Aljauza among the number of the Zodiacal 
signs instead of Gremini, whilst Aljauza is the figure Orion. The people of 20 
Khwarizm call this sign (Gemini) AdhupachariJc, i.e. having two figures, 
which means the same as Gemini. 

Further, the Arabs represent the figure of Leo as composed of a 
number of figures. In consequence, Leo extends in longitude over some- 
thing more than three signs, not to mention its extension in latitude. For 
they consider the two heads of Gemini as his outstretched forefoot, and 
the nebula, in the foremost part of which is Cancer, I mean Alnathra, 
as his nose. The breast of Virgo, I mean AVawwd, they consider as his 
two loins ; the hand of Virgo, I mean AlsimdJc AVa'zal, as one of his 
shanks ; and Alramih as his other shank. According to their opinion, the 30 
figure of Leo extends over the signs Cancer, Leo, Virgo, and part of 
Libra, and a number of constellations both of the northei'n and southern 
hemispheres, whilst in reality the matter is not what they assume. 

If you, likewise, inquire into the names of the Arabs for the fixed 
stars, you will see that they were very far from an accurate knowledge 
of the Zodiacal signs and the star-figures, although 'Abu-Muhammad 
'Abdalhih b. Muslim b, Kutaiba Aljabali used to make a great to-do 
and to be very verbose in all his books, and specially in his book 
on the superiority of the Arabs over the Persians, maintaining that 
the Arabs were the best-informed nation regarding the stars and 40 
the times of their rising and setting. I do not know whether he 
was really ignorant, or only pretended to be ignorant, of what 
the agriculturists and peasants in every place and district have got 
in the way of knowledge regarding the beginning of the agricultural 
works and other things, and of knowledge of the proper times for similar 



ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OP THE EBWARIZMIANS. 227 

Bubjects. For he whose roof is heaven, who has no other cover, over 
whom the stars continually rise and set in one and the same course, p. 239. 
makes the beginnings of his affairs and his knowledge of time depend 
upon them. But the Arabs had, moreover, one advantage in which others 
did not share ; this is the perpetuation of what they knew or believed, 
right or wrong, praise or blame, by means of their poetry (Kasidas), by 
Eajaz poems, and by compositions in rhymed prose. These things one 
generation inherited from the other, so as to remain among them and 
after them. If you study those traditions in the 'Anwd books, and 

10 specially his book which he called " The Science of the Appearance of the 
Stars," part of which we have communicated to the reader at the end of 
this book, you will find that the Arabs had no particular knowledge on 
this subject beyond that which is familiar to the peasants of every 
country. The man (i.e. 'Abdallah b. Muslim Aljabali), however, is extra- 
vagant in the subject into which he plunges, and not free from Jabali 
(i.e. mountaineer) character, as far as obstinacy of opinion is concerned. 
The style of his book which we have mentioned shows that there must 
have been enmities and grudges between him and the Persians. For he 
is not satisfied at exalting the Arabs at the expense of the Persians, but 

20 he must needs make the Persians the meanest, vilest, and most degraded 
of all nations, attribute to them even more want of belief and obstinacy 
against Islam than God attributes to the Arab Bedouins in the Sura 
Altauba (Sura ix. 98), and heap upon them all that is abominable. If he 
had only taken a moment's consideration and had called to mind the 
first period of those whom he preferred to the Persians, he would have 
given the lie to himself in most of what he says about both parties from 
sheer want of moderation and equity. 

In the following we give the names of the lunar stations in the dia- 
lect both of the Sughdians and the Khwarizmians. Afterwards we shall 

30 describe the constellations in which they appear, when we speak of the 
times of their rising and setting. 



Table of the Lunar Stations. 



p.240. 



40 



Their Names in Arabic. 


In Sogdian. 


In Chorasmian. 


1. Althurayya 
Aldabaran 
Alhak'a 
Alhan'a 

5. Aldhira' 
Alnathra 
Altarf 
Aljabha 
Alzubra 


83^ 





15 



228 



ALBfRf^Nf. 



Their Names in Arabic. 



10. Alsarfa 

Al'awwa 

Alsimak 

Alghafr 

Alzubaniyan 
15. Al'iklil 

Alkalb 

Alshaula 

Alna'a'im 

Albalda 
20. Sa'd aldhabih 

Sa'd bula' 

Sa'd alsu'ud 

Sa'd al'akhbiya 

Alfargh almukaddam 
25. Alfargh almu'akhkhar 

Batn alhut 

Alsharatan 

Albutain 



In Sogdian. 



S'^-} 




In Chorasmian. 



csX^ji 



•^)\'^ 



10 



20 



229 



CHAPTER XII. 



p.241. 



ON KHWARIZM-SHAH S REFORM OF THE KHWARIZMIAN FESTAL 
CALENDAR. 

'Abxj-Sa'id 'Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Irak followed tbe example of 
Almu'tadid-billah regarding the intercalation of the Chorasmian months. 
For on having been freed from his fetters at Bukhara, and having re- 
turned to his residence, he asked the mathematicians at his court 
regarding the feast Ajghar, whereupon they pointed out to him its place 
in the calendar. Further, he asked with what day of Tammuz it corre- 

10 sponded, and this also they told him. This date he kept in memory, 
and when seven years later at the same time of the year he again came 
to think of it, he rejected this sort of calculation. He was not as yet 
acquainted with the intercalations and all matters connected with them. 
Then he ordered Alkharaji and Alhamdaki and other astronomers of his 
tim.e to be brought before him, and asked them as to what was the 
reality of the case. These scholars then gave him a minute explanation 
and told him how the Persians and Chorasmians had managed their 
year. Thereupon he said : " This is a system which has become confused 
and forgotten. The people rely upon these days (i.e. certain feast-days, 

20 Ajghar, Nimkhab, etc.), and thereby they find the cardinal points of the 
four seasons, since they believe that they never change their places in the 
year ; that Ajghar is always the middle of summer, Nimkhab the middle 
of winter ; certain distances from these days they use as the proper times 
for sowing and ploughing. Something like this {i.e. the deviation of the 
Chorasmian year from proper time) is not perceived except in the course 
of many years. And this is one of the reasons why they disagree among 
each other regarding the fixing of those distances, so that some main- 
tain that 60 days after Ajghar is the proper time for sowing the wheat, 
whilst others put this time earlier or later. The proper thing would be 
that we should find some means to fix those things uniformly and to 



230 ALBiE^Nt. 

invariable times of the year, so that the proper times for these things 
should never differ." 

Now, the scholars told him that the best way in this matter would be 
to fix the beginnings of the Chorasmian months on certain days of the 
G-reek and Syrian months — in the same way as Almu'tadid had done — 
and after that to intercalate them as the Greeks and Syrians do. This 
plan they carried out A. Alex. 1270, and they arranged that the 1st of 
Njiusarji should fall on the third of the Syrian Nisan, so that Ajghdr 
would always fall in the middle of Tammuz. And accordingly they 
regulated the times of agricultural works, e.g. the time of gathering 10 
grapes for the purpose of making raisins is 40-60 days after Ajghdr ; 
the time of gathering grapes for the purpose of hanging them up, 
and the time of gathering pears, is 55-65 days after Ajghdr. In the 
same way they fixed all the times for sowing, for the impregnation of 
the palm-trees, for planting and binding together, etc. If the Greek year 
is a leap-year, the Epagomence at the end of Ispandarmaji are six days. 
If people had made this reform of Khwarizm-Shah the epoch of an 
era, we should have added it to the other eras which we have before 
mentioned. 



p. 242. Regarding the festivals in the non-intercalated months of the Egyp- 20 
tians, although it is likely that they had similar ones with the other 
nations, we have not received any information. Likewise we have no 
information regarding their festivals in the intercalated months which 
they use now-a-days, except this, that people say that new-year of the 
Egyptians is the 1st of Thoth, and that the water of the Nile begins to 
swell and to increase on the 16th of Payni, according to another report 
on the 20th of Payni. It is hkely that they would celebrate the same 
festivals as the Greeks and Syrians, because Egypt lies in the midst 
between them and because they all use the same kind of year. Some 
matters, however, are quite peculiar to the Egyptians, e.g. their country, 80 
Egypt, has certain peculiarities, in which no other country shares — 
appearances of the water, the air, the rain, etc. 

The famous days of the Greeks and Syrians are of two kinds, one for 
the affairs of any sort of secular life, for certain aerial appearances, etc., 
as we have already mentioned, and another kind for the matters of their 
religion, which is Christianity. We shall describe in its proper place as 
much as we have learned about both kinds, and as has been reported to 
us, if God permits ! 



231 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR AS KNOWN BOTH AMONG THE 
GREEKS AND OTHER NATIONS. 

The Greek year agrees witli tlie solar year ; its seasons retain their 
px-oper places like the natural seasons of the solar year ; it revolves 
parallel with the latter, and its single parts never cease to correspond 
with those of the latter, except by that quantity of time (the Portio 
Intercalationis) which, before it becomes perceptible, is appended to the 
year and added to it as one whole day (in every fourth year) by means 
10 of intercalation. Therefore the Grreeks and Syrians and all who follow 
their example fix and arrange by this kind of year all annual, consecu- 
tive occurrences, and also the meteorological and other qualities of the 
single days that experience has taught them in the long run of time, 
which are called 'Anwd and Bawdrih. 

Regarding the cause of these 'Anwd, scholars do not agree among each 
other. Some derive them from the rising and setting of the fixed stars, 
among them the Arabs. (Some poet says) : 

'* Those are my jDcople (a bad set) like the Banat-Na'sh, 
Who do not bring rain like the other stars ; " 

OQ i.e. they are good-for-nothing people like the Bandt-Na'sh, whose rising 
and setting do not bring rain. 

Others, again, derive them from the days themselves, maintaining that 
they are peculiarities of them, that such is their nature, at least, on an 
average, and that besides they are increased or diminished by other 
causes. They say, for instance : The nature of the season of summer is 
heat, the nature of the season of winter is cold, sometimes in a higher 
degree, sometimes less. The excellent Galenus says : " To decide between p.243. 



232 ALBiRf)Ni. 

these parties is only possible on the basis of experiment and examination. 
But to examine this difference of opinion is not possible except in a long 
space of time, because the motion of the fixed stars is very little known 
and because in a short space of time we find very little difference in their 
rising and setting." 

Now, this opinion has filled Sinan b. Thabit b. Kurra with surprise. 
He says in his book on the 'Anwd, which he composed for the Khalif 
Almu'tadid : " I do not know how Galenus came to make such a mistake, 
skilled as he was in astronomy. For the rising and setting of the 
stars differ greatly and evidently in different countries. E.g. SuJiail rises 10 
at Baghdad on the 5th of llul, at Wasit two days later, at Basra somewhat 
earlier than at Wasit . People say : ' the 'Anwd differ in different 
countries.' But that is not the case. On the contrary, they occur always 
on one and the same day (everywhere) ; which proves that the stars and 
their rising and setting have nothing to do with this matter." 

Afterwards he has given the lie to himself, though it is correct what he 
said, viz., that the rising and setting of the stars are not to be con- 
sidered as forming one of the causes of the 'Anwa, if you limit his 
assertion by certain conditions and do not understand it in that generality 
in which he has proclaimed it. 20 

Further he (Sinan b. Thabit) says : " The 'Anwd of the Arabs are mostly 
correct for Alhijaz and the neighbourhood, those of the Egyptians for 
Egypt and the coasts of the sea, those of Ptolemy for Greece and the neigh- 
bouring mountains. If anybody would go to one of those countries and 
examine them there, he would find correct what Galenus says regarding 
the difiiculty of an examination of the 'Anwd in a short space of time." 
In this respect he (Sinan) is right. Galenus mentions and believes only 
what he considers as a truth, resting on certain arguments, and keeps 
aloof from everything that is beset with doubt and obscurity. 

Sinan relates of his father, that he examined the 'Anwd in 'Irak about 80 
thirty years with the view of finding certain principles with which to 
compare the 'Anwd of other countries. But fate overtook him before he 
could accomplish his plan. 

Whichever of the two theories may be correct, whether the 'Anwd are 
to be traced back to the days of the year or to the rising and setting of 
the Lunar Stations, in any case there is no room for a third theory. To 
each of these theories, whichever you may hold to be correct, certain 
conditions attach, on which the correctness of the 'Anwd depends, i.e. to 
prognosticate the character of the year, the season, the month, whether 
it will be dry or moist, whether it will answer to the expectations of 40 
people or not, to prognosticate it by means of the signs and proofs, of 
which the astronomical books on meteorology are full. For if the 'Anwd 
agree with those signs and proofs, they are true and will be fulfilled in 
their entire extent ; if they do not agree, something different will occur. 

Thus the matter stands between these two theories. 



ON THE DATS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 233 

Sinan b. Thabit prescribes that we should take into regard whether the 
Arabs and Persians agree on a Nau\ If they do agree, its probability- 
is strengthened and it is sure to take place; if they do not agree, the 
contrary is the case. 

I shall mention in this book the comprehensive account of Sinan in 
his book on the 'Anwd and the proper times for secular affairs occurring 
in the Greek months. Of the rising and setting of the Lunar 
Stations I shall speak in a special chapter at the end of this book. For 
since the astronomers have found that their rising and setting proceed 
10 according to one and the same uniform order in these months, they have 

assigned them to their proper days, in order to unite them and prevent p. 244. 
them from getting into confusion. God lends support and help ! 

Tishrin I. (October.) 

1. People expect rain (Euctemon and Philippus) ; turbid air (Egyp- 
tians and Callippus). 

2. Turbid winterly air (Callippus, Egyptians, and Euctemon) ; rain, 
(Eudoxus and Metrodoras). 

3. Nothing mentioned. 

4. Wearing wind (Eudoxus) ; winterly air (Egyptians). 

20 5. Winterly air (Democritus) ; beginning of the time of sowing. 

6. North wind (Egyptians). 

7. South wind (Hipparchus). 

8. Nothing mentioned. Winterly air, according to Sinan. 

9. 'ETTicriy/xatvet (Eudoxus) ; east wind (Hipparchus) ; west wind (Egyp- 
tians). 

10. Nothing mentioned. 

11. Episemasia (Eudoxus and Dositheus). 

12. Rain (the Egyptians). 

13. Unsteady wind, Episemasia, thunder, and rain ^(Callippus) ; north 
80 wind or south wind (Eudoxus and Dositheus). Sinan attests that this 

is frequently true. On this day the waves of the sea are sure to be in 
great commotion. 

14. Episemasia and north wind (Eudoxus). 

15. Change of the winds (Eudoxus). 

16. Nothing mentioned. 

17. Eain and Episemasia (Dositheus); west wind or south wind 
(Egyptians). 

18. Nothing mentioned. 

19. Eain and Episemasia (Dositheus) ; west wind or south wind 
40 (Egyptians). 

20. 21. Nothing mentioned. 

22. Unsteady, changing winds (Egyptians). On this day the air 
begins to get cold. It is no longer time for drinking medicine and for 



234 ALBiR^N}. 

phlebotomy except in case of need. For the Favourable Times for such 
things are always then, when you intend thereby to preserve the health 
of the body. For if you are compelled to use such means, you cannot 
wait for a night or day, for heat or cold, for a lucky or unlucky day. On 
the contrary, you use it as soon as possible, before the evil takes root, 
when it would be difficult to eradicate it. 

23. Episemasia (Eudoxus) ; north wind or south wind (Caesar). 

24. Episemasia (Callippus and Egyptians). 

25. Episemasia (Metrodorus) ; change in the air (Callippus and Eucte- 
mon). 10 

26. Nothing mentioned. 
p.246. 27. Winterly air (Egyptians). 

28. Nothing mentioned. It is a favourable day for taking a warm 
bath and for eating things that are of a sharp, biting taste, nothing that 
is salt or bitter. 

29. Hail or frost (Democritus) ; continual south wind (Hipparchus) ; 
tempest and winterly air (Egyptians). 

30. Heavy wind (Euctemon and Philippus). The kites, the white 
carrion- vultures (vultur joercnopterus) , and the swallows migrate to the 
lowlands, and the ants go into their nest. 20 

31. Violent winds (Callippus and Euctemon) ; wind and winterly air 
(Metrodorus and Caesar) ; south wind (Egyptians). Grod knows best ! 

Tishrin II. (November.) 

1. Clear (lit. unmixed) winds (Eudoxus and Conon). 

2. Clear air with cold north wind and south wind. 

3. South wind blows (Ptolemaeus) ; west wind (Egyptians) ; north or 
south wind (Eudoxus) ; rain (Euctemon, Philippus, and Hipparchus). 

4. Episemasia (Euctemon) ; rain (Philippus). 

5. Winterly air and rain (Egyptians). 

6. South or west wind (Egyptians) ; winterly air (Dositheus). Sinan 30 
says that this is borne out by practical experience. 

7. Eain with whirlwind (Meton) ; cold wind (Hipparchus). This is 
the first day of the rainy season, when the sun enters the 21st degree of 
Cancer. Astrologers take the horoscope of this time and derive there- 
from an indication as to whether the year will have much rain or little. 
Herein they rely upon the condition of Venus at the times of her rising 
and setting, I believe, however, that this is only peculiar to the climate 
of 'Irak and Syria, not to other countries, for very frequently it rains with 
us in Khwarizm even before this time. ' Abu-alkasim 'Ubaid-Allah b. 'Abd- 
allah b. Khurdadhbih relates in his Kitdb-almasdliJc walmamdlik that in 40 
Hijaz and Yaman it rains during Haziran, Tammuz, and part of llfil. I 
myself have been dwelling in Jurjan during the summer months, but there 
never passed ten consecutive days during which the sky was clear and 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GEEEK CALBNDAB. 236 

free from clouds, and wlien it did not rain. It is a rainy country. 
People relate that one of the khalifs, I think it was Alma'mun, stayed 
there during forty days whilst it rained without any interruption. So he 
said : " Lead us out of this pissing, splashing country ! " 

The nearer a district is to Tabaristan, the more its air is moist, the 
more rainy it is. The air of the mountains of Tabaristan is so moist 
that if j)eople break and pound garlic on the tops of the mountains, rain 
is sure to set in. As the cause of this subject, the vice-judge, Alamuli, 
the author of the Kitdh-Alghurra, mentions this, that the air of the 
10 country iii moist and dense with stagnant vapours. If, now, the smell of p.246. 
garlic spreads among these vapours, it dissolves the vapours by its sharp- 
ness and compresses the density of the air, in consequence of which rain 
follows. 

Granted, now, that this be the cause of this appearance produced by 
the pounding of garlic, how do you, then, account for the famous well 
in the mountains of Farghana, where it begins to rain as soon as you 
throw something dirty into this well ? 

And how do you account for the place called " the shop of Solomon the 
son of David," in the cave called Ispahbadhan in the mountain of Tak 
20 in Tabaristan, where heaven becomes cloudy as soon as you defile it by 
filth or by milk, and where it rains until you clean it again ? 

And how do you account for the mountain in the country of the 
Turks ? For if the sheep pass over it, people wrap their feet in wool to 
prevent their touching the rock of the mountain. For if they touch it, 
heavy rain immediately follows. Pieces of this rock the Turks carry 
about, and contrive to defend themselves thereby against all evil coming 
from the enemy, if they are surrounded by them. Now, those who are 
not aware of these facts consider this as a bit of sorcery on the part of 
the Turks, 
30 Of a similar character is a fountain called " the pure one " in Egypt in 
the lowest part of a mountain which adjoins a church. Into this fountain 
sweet, nicely-smelling water is flowing out of a source in the bottom of the 
mountain. If, now, an individual that is impure through pollution or 
menstruation touches the water, it begins at once to stink, and does not 
cease until you pour out the water of the fountain and clean it ; then it 
regains its nice smell. 

Further, there is a mountain between Herat and Sijistan, in a sandy 
country, somewhat distant from the road, where you hear a clear murmur 
and a deep sound as soon as it is defiled by human excrements or urine. 
40 These things are natural peculiarities of the created beings, the causes 
of which are to be traced back to the simple elements and to the begin- 
ning of all composition and creation. And there is no possibility that 
our knowledge should ever penetrate to subjects of this description. 

There are other districts of quite another character from that of the 
mountains of Tabaristan, e.g. Fustat in Egypt, and the adjacent parts, for 



236 ALBtR^Nl. 

there it rains very seldom. And if it rains, tlie air is infected, becomes 
pestilential and hurts both animals and plants. Such things (i.e. such 
climatical differences) depend upon the nature of the place and its 
situation, whether it lies in the mountains or on the sea, whether it is a 
place of great elevation or a low country; further, uj)on the degree of 
northern or southern latitude of the place. 

8. Rain and winterly air (Euctemon) ; winterly air and whirlwinds 
(Metrodorus) ; south wind or eupos, i.e. south-east wind (Euctemon) ; east 
wind (Egyptians). 

9. Nothing mentioned. jq) 

10. Winterly air and whirlwinds (Euctemon and Philippus) ; north 
wind, or cold south wind and rain (Hipparchus). 

11. Episemasia (Callippus, Conon, and Metrodorus). Sinan says that 
this is borne out by experience. 

12. Wiaterly air (Eudoxus and Dositheus). 

13. Episemasia (Eudoxus) ; winterly air on land and sea (Democritus). 
Ships that are at sea on this day put in to shore, and navigation to 
Persia and Alexandria is suspended. For the sea has certain days when 

p. 247. it is in uproar, when the air is turbid, the waves roll, and thick darkness 

lies over it. Therefore navigation is imj)racticable. People say that at 20 
this time there arises the wind at the bottom of the sea that puts the 
sea in motion. This they conclude from the appearance of a certain sort 
of fishes which then swim in the upper regions of the sea and on its 
surface, showing thereby that this storm is blowing at the bottom. 

Frequently, people say, this submarine storm rises a day earlier. 
Every sailor recognizes this by certain marks in his special sea. For 
instance, in the Chinese sea this submarine storm is recognized by 
the fishing-nets rising of themselves from the bottom of the sea to its 
surface. On the contrary, they conclude that the sea bottom is quiet if 
a certain bird sits hatching her eggs — for they hatch in a bundle of 30 
chij)s and wood on the sea, if they do not go on land nor sit down there. 
They lay their eggs only at that time when the sea is quiet. 

Further, people maintain that any wood which is cut on this day does 
not get worm-eaten, and that the white ant does not attack it. This 
peculiarity perhaps stands in connection with the nature of the mixture 
of the air on this special day. 

14. Winterly air (Csesar) ; south wind or Eurus, i.e. south-east wind 
(Egyptians). 

16. Nothing mentioned. 

16. Winterly air (Caesar). 40 

17. Rain (Eudoxus) ; winterly air (Csesar) ; north wind during night 
and day (Csesar), 

18. Nothing registered. 

19. Sharp winterly air (Eudoxus). 

20. North wind (Eudoxus) ; severe winterly air (Egyptians). People say 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 237 

that on this day all animals that have no bones perish. This, however, 
is different in different countries. For I used to be molested by the 
gnats, i.e. animals without bones, in Jurjan, whilst the sun was moving 
in the sign of Capricorn. 

21. Winterly air and rain (Euctemon and Dositheus). 

22. Very winterly air (Eudoxus). On this day people forbid to drink 
cold water during the night, for fear of the Yellow Water. 

23. Eain (Philippus) ; winterly air (Eudoxus and Conon) ; continual 
south wind (Hipparchus and Egyptians). On this day falls the feast of 

10 gathering the olives, and the fresh olive-oil is pressed. 

24. Light rain (Egyptians). 

25. 26. Nothing mentioned. 

27. In most cases a disttu'bance of the au- on land and sea (Demo- 
critus) ; Episemasia (Dositheus) ; south wind and rain (Egyptians). 

28. Nothing mentioned. People say that on this day the waves of 
the sea roll heavily and that there is very little fishing. 

29. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Conon) ; west or south wind and rain 
(Egyptians). 

30. Nothing mentioned by the authorities hitherto quoted, nor by 
20 others. 

Kdnun I. (December.) p.248. 

1. Winterly air (Callippus, Eudoxus, and Csesar). On this day people 
hold a fair in Damascus, which is called " the fair of the cutting of the 
ben-nut," i.e. Nux unguentaria. 

2. Pure winds {lit. not mixed) (Euctemon and Philippus); sharp, 
winterly air (Metrodorus). 

3. Winterly air (Conon and Csesar) ; light rain (Egyptians). 

4. (Missing.) 

6. Winterly air (Democritus and Dositheus). The same is confirmed 
30 by Sinan. 

6. Winterly air (Eudoxus) ; vehement north wind (Hipparchus). 

8. Nothing mentioned. 

9. Winterly air and rain (Callippus, Euctemon, and Eudoxus). 

10. Sharp winterly air (Callippus, Euctemon and Metrodorus) ; thunder 
and lightning, wind and rain (Democritus). 

11. South wind and Episemasia (Callipj)us); winterly air and rain 
(Eudoxus and Egyptians). According to Sinan this is borne out by 
practical experience. Continued sexual intercourse on this day is objected 
to, which I do not quite understand. For sexual intercourse is not ap- 

40 proved of in autumn, in the beginning of winter, and at the times of 
epidemic disease ; on the contrary, at such times it is most noxious and 
pernicious to the body. Although we must say that the conditions of 
sexual intercourse depend upon a great many other things, as, e.g. age, 



238 ALBtRf^Nl. 

time, place, custom, character, nourishment, the fulness or emptiness of 
the stomach, the desire, the female genitals, etc. 

12. Winterly air (Egyptians). 

13. Vehement south wind or north wind (Hipparchus). 

14. Winterly air (Eudoxus) ; rain and wind (Egyptians). 
16. Cold north wind or south wind and rain (Egyptians). 

16. Winterly air (Caesar). 

17. Nothing mentioned. People forbid on this day to take of the 
flesh of cows, of oranges, and mountain balm, to drink water after you 

lie down to sleep, to smear the camels with Nura (a depilatory unguent 10 
made of arsenic and quick-lime), and to bleed anybody except him whose 
blood is feverish. The reason of all this is the cold and the moistness 
of the season. This day people call the " Great Birth" meaning the 
winter- solstice. People say that on this day the light leaves those limits 
withiu which it decreases, and enters those limits within which it in- 
creases, that human beings begin growing and increasing, whilst the 
demons begin withering and perishing. 

Ka'b the Rabbi relates that on this day the sun was kept back for 
Yosua the son of Nun during three hours on a clouded day. The same 
story is told by the simpletons among the Shi'a regarding the prince of 20 
the believers, 'Ali b. 'Abi Talib. Whether, now, this story have any 
foundation or not, we must remark that those who are beset by calamity 
find its duration to be very long and think that the moment of liberation 
is very slow in coming. So, e.g. 'Ali b. Aljahm said in a sleepless night, 
when he had gone out to war against the Greeks, oppressed by wounds 
and fatigue : 

p.249. " Has a stream swept away the morning, 

Or has another night been added to the night ? " 

Afterwards on being released he indulged in hallucinations and lying 
reports. 3q 

Something similar frequently happens on fast-days, if heaven during 
the latter part of them be clouded and dark ; then people break their 
fast, whilst shortly afterwards, when the sky or part of it clears up, the 
sun appears still standing above the horizon, having not yet set. 
The charm-mongers say that it is a good omen on this day to rise from 
sleeping on the right side, and to fumigate with frankincense in the 
morning before speaking. It is also considered desirable to walk twelve 
consecutive steps towards the east at the moment of sunrise. 

Tahya b. 'Ali, the Christian writer of 'Anbar, says that the rising-place 
of the sun at the time of the winter-solstice is the true east, that he 40 
rises from the very midst of paradise ; that on this day the sages lay the 
foundations of the altars. It was the belief of this ,man that paradise 
is situated in the southern regions. But he had no knowledge of the 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 239 

difference of the zeniths. Besides, the dogma of his own religion proves 
his theory to be erroneous, for their law orders them to turn in praying 
towards the east (i.e. the rising-place of the sun), whilst he told them that 
the sun rises in paradise (i.e. in the south according to Ms theory). 
Therefore the Christians turn to no other rising-place but to that one of 
the equator, and they fix the direction of their churches accordingly. 

This theory is not more curious than his view of the sun. For he 
maintains that the degrees through which the sun ascends and descends 
are 360 in number, corresponding to the days of the year ; that during 

10 the 5 days which are the complement of the year the sun is neither 
ascending nor descending. Those are 2| days of Haziran and 2| days of 
Kanun I. 

A similar idea hovered in the mind of 'Abu-arabbas Alamuli when he 
said in his book On the Proofs for the Kibla that the sun has 177 rising 
and setting places, thinking evidently that the solar year has got 364 
days. He, however, who undertakes what he does not understand, mcurs 
ignominy. Those crotchets of his are brought into connection with 
the argument regarding the 5 supernumerary days of the solar year 
and the 6 deficient days of the lunar year, of which we have already 

20 spoken. 

18. Nothing mentioned. 

19. South wind (Eudoxus, Dositheus, and Egyptians). 

20. Winterly air (Eudoxus). 

21. Episemasia (Egyptians). 

22. Nothing mentioned. 

23. Nothing mentioned. 

24. Winterly air (Caesar and Egyptians) ; Episemasia and rain (Hip- 
parchus and Meton). 

25. Middling winterly air (Democritus). 
30 26. (Missing.) 

27. Nothing mentioned. 

28. Winterly air (Dositheus). 

29. Episemasia (Callippus,Euctemon, and Democritus). People forbid p.250. 
on this day the drinking cold water after rising from sleep. They say 

that the demons vomit into the water, and that therefore he who drinks 
of it is affected by stupidity and phlegm. This serves as a warning to 
people against that which they dread most. The cause of all this is the 
coldness and moisture of the air. 

30. Winterly air on the sea (Egyptians). 
40 31. Winterly air (Euctemon). 

Kdnun II. (January.) 

1. Nothing mentioned by the Parapegmatists. 

2. Episemasia (Dositheus). Some people say that wood which is cut 
on this day will not soon get dry. 



240 ALBlRf^Nl. 

3, Cliangeable air (Egyptians). 

4, Episemasia (Egyptians) ; south wind (Democritus), which observa- 
tion is confirmed by Sinan. 

5, 6. Nothing mentioned. People say that on the 6th there is an hour 
during which all salt water of the earth is getting sweet. All the 
qualities occurring in the water depend exclusively upon the nature of 
that soil by which the water is enclosed, if it be standing, or over which 
the water flows, if it be running. Those qualities are of a stable nature, 
not to be altered except by a process of transformation from degree to 
degree by means of certain inedia. Therefore this statement of the 10 
waters getting sweet in this one hour is entirely unfounded. Continual 
and leisurely experimentation will show to any one the futility of this 
assertion. For if the water were sweet it would remain sweet for some 
space of time. Nay, if you would place — in this hour or any other — in a 
well of salt water some pounds of pure dry wax, possibly the saltishness of 
the water would diminish. This has been mentioned by the experimenters, 
who go so far as to maintain that if you make a thin vase of wax and 
place it in sea water, so that the mouth of the vase emerges above the 
water, those drops of water which splash over into the vase become sweet. 

If all salt water were mixed with so much sweet water as would over- 20 
power its nature, in that case their theory would be realized (i.e. all salt 
waters would become sweet). An example of this process is afforded by 
the lake of Tinnis, the water of which is sweet in autumn and winter in 
consequence of the great admixture of the water of the Nile, whilst at 
the other seasons it is salt, because there is very little admixture of Nile 
water. 

7. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Hipparchus), 

8. South wind (Callippus, Euctemon, Philippus, and Metrodorus) ; 
south wind and west wind and winterly air on the sea (Egyptians). 

9. Violent south wind and rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). 30 
' The authors of talismans say that if you draw the figures of grapes 

on a table, between the 9th and the 16th of the month, and place it 
among the vines as a sort of offering [at the time of the setting of the 
Tortoise, i.e. Alnasr Alwdki', the fruit will not be injured by anything. 
p.261. 10- Violent south wind and Episemasia (Csesar and Egyptians). 

11. South wind (Eudoxus and Dositheus) ; mixed winds (Hipparchus). 

12. Nothing mentioned. 

13. Winterly air (Hipparchus) ; a north wind or a south wind blows 
(Ptolemy). 

14. Nothing mentioned. 40 

15. East wind (Hipparchus). 

16. Nothing mentioned. 

17. Violent wind (Csesar). 

18. Winterly air (Euctemon and Philippus) ; change of the air (Metro- 
dorus). 



ON THE DATS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 241 

19. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Caesar); suffocating air (Egyptians). 

20. Clear sky (Euctemon and Democritus) ; north wind (Hipparchus) 
winterly air and rain (Egyptians). 

21. Middling winterly air (Eudoxus). 

22. Episemasia (Hipparchus) ; rain (Egyptians). 

23. Nothing mentioned. On this day people do not smear the camels 
with Nura (a depilatoiy unguent of arsenic and quicklime), nor bleed 
anybody except in cases of special need. 

24. Clear sky (Callippus and Euctemon) ; middling winterly air (Demo- 
10 critus). Besides, the rule of the preceding day as regards the use of 

Nura and phlebotomy refers also to this day. 

25. East wind (Hipparchus). 

26. Eain (Eudoxus and Metrodorus) ; winterly air (Dositheus). 

27. Severe winter (Egyptians). 

28. South wind blows and Episemasia (Ptolemy). 

29. Nothing mentioned. 

30. South wind (Hipparchus). 

31. Nothing mentioned. 

Shubdt. (February.) 

20 It is the leap-month. It appears to me that the following is the reason 
— but God knows best ! — why people have shortened this month in parti- 
cular so that it has only 28 days, and why it has not had assigned to it 
29 or 30 or 31 days : If it were assigned 29 days and were then to be 
increased by the leap-day, it would have 30 days and would no longer be 
distinguishable from the other months in a leap-year. The same would 
be the case if it had 30 days, whether the year be a leaj^-year or not. 
Likewise if it had 31 days, the same similarity with the other months in 
all sorts of years would exist. For this reason the leap-month has been 
assigned 28 days, that it might be distinguished from the other months 

30 both in leap and common years. 

For the same reason it was necessary that in the GTreek year two 
months of more than 30 days should follow each other. For at the 
beginning they intentionally gave to each month 30 days and took away 
2 from Shubat. So they got 7 supernumerary days (i.e. the 5 Epago- 
menae and the 2 days of Shubat), which they had to distribute over 11 
months, because Shubat had to be left out. Now, it was not possible to p.262 
distribute the complete months of 30 days so as to fall each of them 
between two months of 31 days, for the latter (i.e. the months of 31 
days) are more in number than the former. Therefore it was necessary 

40 to let several months of more than 30 days follow each other. But the 
most impoi'tant subject of their deliberation was to add them in the 
places which would be the most suitable to them, so that the sum of the 
days of both spring and summer is more than the sum of the days of 

16 



242 - ALB^RUNf. 

autumn and winter, a fact whicli is the result of both ancient and modern 
observations. 

Further, their months are proportional to each other in most cases ; I 
mean to say : the sum of each month and of the seventh following one 
is 61 days, which is nearly equal to the time of the sun's mean motion 
through two signs of the zodiac. However, the sum of the days of Ab 
and Shubat is 59 days. This could not have been otherwise, for the 
reason we have mentioned for Shubat. For if Ab had been assigned 
more than 31 days, it would have been diffex'ent from all the other 
months, and people would have thought that this in particular was the 10 
leap-month. As for Tammuz and Kanun the Last, the sum of their days 
is 62. This, again, was necessary, because the number of the months of 
more than 30 days is greater than that of the months of 30 days. 
Wherever the supernumerary day is placed the circumstances are always 
the same. And, further, intercalation has been applied to Shubat to the 
exclusion of the other months only for this reason, that Adhar I., 
which is the leap-month in the Jewish leap-year, falls on Shubat and 
near it. 

1. Eain (Eudoxus). The cold decreases a little. 

2. West wind or south wind intermixed with hail (Egyptians). Sinan 20 
says that this is frequently the case. 

3. Clear sky and frequently the west wind blows (Eudoxus). 

4. Clear sky and frequently the west wind blows (Dositheus); severe 
winterly air, rain and unmixed winds (Egyj^tians). 

5. Nothing mentioned. People say that the four winds are in uproar, 

6. Eain (Csesar) ; winds (Egyptians); the west wind begins blowing 
(Democritus). 

7. Beginning of the blowing of the west wind, frequently the air is 
winterly (Eudoxus and Egyptians). On this day the first Coal falls, 
called the minor one. 30 

8. The time of the blowing of the west wind (Callippus, Metrodorus, 
and Hipparchus) ; rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). This is confirmed by 
Sinan as borne out by his observations. 

9. 10. Nothing mentioned. 

11. Winterly air (Philippus and Metrodorus) ; west wind (Eudoxus 
and Egyptians). 

12. North and east wind (Hipparchus) ; east wind alone (Egyptians). 

13. 14. Nothing mentioned. On the 14th falls the second Coal, called 
{).253. the middle one. As the poet says : 

" When Christmas has passed and Epiphany after it, ^q 

And ten days and ten days and five complete days, 
And five days and six and four of Shubat, 
Then, no doubt, the greatest cold vanishes. 
That is the time of the falling of the two Coals ; afterwards 
The cold remains only a few nights." 



ON THE DATS OF THE GREEK CALENDAB. 243 

15. Winterly air (Euctemon, PMlippus, and Dositheus) ; changing 
wind (Egyptians) ; south wind (Hipparchus). This day is cold (Arabs), 
during which the coal is kindled. The Persians say : " The Summer has 
put his hands iuto the water." On this day the moisture of the wood is 
flowing from the lowest parts of the trees to the highest, and the frogs 
begin croaking. 

16. A change in the winds and rain (Egyptians). People say that on 
this day the interior of the earth is getting warm. In Syria the mush- 
rooms are coming forth ; those which stand near the root of the olive-tree 

10 are deadly poison, as people maintain. This may be true, for it is not 
approved of to take much of the mushroom and fungus, nor of that which 
is prepared from them. Its pharmacological treatment is mentioned in 
most of the medical compilations in the chapter of preparing poisons 
from these materials. 

17. Nothing mentioned. 

18. West wind, and hail falls, or rain (Egyptians). 

19. Cold north wind (Hipparchus). 

20. Winds (Egyptians). 

21. Nothing mentioned. On this day the third Coal falls, called the 
20 great one. Between the falling of each of the two Coals there is an 

interval of one complete week. They were called Coals because they are 
days characterised by the spreading of the heat from the interior of the 
earth to the surface, according to those who hold this theory. According 
to those who hold the opposite view, this change is brought about by the 
air's receiving heat instead of cold from the body of the sun, for the 
body of the sun and the near approach of a column of rays are the first 
cause of the heat. With this subject also the question is connected 
why the earthen jars or j^ipes of which subterranean channels are 
formed, and the water of wells, are warm in the winter and cold in the 

30 summer. 

Between 'Abu-Bakr b. Zakariyya Alrazi and 'Abu-Bakr Husain 
Altammar several questions and answers, ex^jostulations and refutations 
have been exchanged that will satisfy the curiosity of the reader and 
inform him of the truth. 

The Arabs used these three days (the so-called Goals) in their months 
until they got into confusion, as we have mentioned, and these days no 
longer fell at their proj^er times. Thereupon they were transferred into 
(i.e. fixed on certain days of) the Greek months which keep always their 
proper places. On the first day, people say, the 1st and 2nd KAt/xara are 

40 getting warm, on the second the 3rd and 4th, on the third the remaiaing 

KXifxara. Further, they say that on the OoaZ- days vapours are rising p. 254. 
from the earth which warm the earth on the 1st Coal-da,j, the water on 
the 2nd, and the trees on the 3rd. 

According to another view, they are days noticeable for the rising of 
Lunar Stations, or some special parts of them ; whilst other subtle people 

16 * 



244 ALBtR^Nt. 

maintain that they are the termini of the cold in winter, and serve to 
denote the differences in the beginning of heat and cold as known in 
the different countries. Some inconsiderate and over-zealous people of 
our ancestors have introduced these Coa^days into Khwarizm, so that 
the first fell on the 21st of Shubat, the second a week later, and the 
third two weeks after the second one. 

22. A cold north-east wind begins blowing and the swallows appear 
(Euctemon and Hipparchus). 

23. Winds are blowing and the swallows appear (Callippus, Philippus, 
and the Egyptians) ; rain at the time of the appearance of the swallows, 10 
north-east wind during four days (Eudoxus, Conon, Callippus, and 
Philippus). 

24. Cold north wind and west wind (Hipparchus) ; north-east wind 
with other winds (Egyptians) ; days with changeable air (Democritus). 

25. Winterly air (Caesar and Dositheus). 

26. 27. Nothing mentioned. 

28. Cold north wind (Hipparchus). 

In this month fall the Days of the Old Woman, i.e. seven consecutive 
days beginning with the 26th ; if the year is a leap-year, four days fall 
into Shubat and three into Adhar ; if it is a common year, three fall 20 
into Shubat and four into Adhar. They are called by the Arabs by 
special names ; the 1st is called Al-sinn, i.e. the severity of the cold, the 
2nd is called Al-sinnabr, i.e. a man who leaves things as Sanhara, i.e. as 
something that is coarse and thick. The Niln in this word is not radical, 
the same as in ^_^<^ halansd, the plural of (jo^ balasus. The third is their 
brother Al-wabr, so called from the verb J^, i.e. he followed the trace of 
these days. The 4th is called Aldmir (commanding) ,'becSbn^e he commands 
people to beware of him. The 5th is Al-mu'tamir, i.e. he has an impulse 
of doing harm to mankind. The 6th is Al-mu'allil, i.e. he diverts people 
by some relief which he affords. 30 

The 7th is MutfV -aljamr (the extinguisher of coals), the most severe 
of them, when the coals used to be extinguished. It is also called 
MukfV-alkidr (who turns the kettle upside down) in consequence of the 
cold wind of this day. Some poet has connected these names in a 
versus memorialis in this way : 

" The winter is closed by seven dusty (days), 
Our Old Woman's Days of the month ; 
When her days come to an end, 
Sinn, Sinnabr, and Wabr, 

Amir, and his brother Mu'tamir, 40 

Mu'allil, and MutfT-aljamr, 
p. 255. Then the cold retires, passing away with the end of the month. 

And a burning (wind) comes to thee from the beginning of the next 
month," 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 245 

The eth day is also called SJiaibdn, and tlie 7tli Milhdn. These days 
are scarcely ever free from cold and winds, the sky being dark and 
variously coloured. Mostly during these days the cold is most vehement, 
because it is about to hern aioay {i.e. to cease). And hence the Lunar 
Station Alsarfa has got its name, because its setting occurs about this 
time. 

Nobody need be astonished at the fact that the cold towards its end, 
when it is about to cease, is the most severe and vehement. Quite the 
same is the case with the heat, as we shall mention hereafter. Similar 
10 observations you may make in quite common physical appearances. U.g. 
if the lamp is near the moment of extinction, because there is no more 
oil, it burns with an intense light, and flickers repeatedly, like the 
quivering (of human limbs). Sick people furnish another example, 
specially those who perish by hectic fever or consumption, or the disease 
of the belly, or similar diseases. For they regain power when they are 
near death ; then those who are not familiar with these things gain new 
hope, whilst those who know them from experience despair. 

I have seen a treatise of Ya'kub b. 'Ishak Alkindi on the cause of this 
appearance in these days (i.e. of the vehemence of the cold during them). 
20 His whole argument comes to this, that the sun then reaches the quadra- 
ture of his apogee, which is the place of all changes, and that the sun's 
influence upon the atmosphere is greater than that of anything else. 
In that case it would be necessary that that change which the sun effects 
in its own sphere should be proportional to that one which it effects in 
the atmosphere, and that this effect should on an average continue as 
long as the moon stands in that quarter (of her own course) in which the 
effect commenced, and in that quarter of the sun in which the effect took 
place. 

I have been told that 'Abdallah b. 'Ali, the mathematician, in Bukhara, 

30 on having become acquainted with this treatise of Alkindi, transferred 

these days into the calendar of his people in conformity with the amount 

of the progression of the apogee. Therefore they were called the Days 

of the Old Woman of 'Ahdalldh. 

[Lacuna.] 

Regarding the reason why these days were called the Days of the Old 
Woman, the ancients relate the following : They are the days which God 
mentions in his Book (Sura Ixix. 7), " seven nights and eight days, unluchy 
ones," and the people of 'Ad perished by their cold wind, their whirlwinds, 
and the other terrors which happened during them. Of all of them only 
40 one old woman remained, lamenting the fate of her nation. Her story 
is well known. Therefore these days are said to have been called the 
Days of the Old Woman. 

People say that the wind which destroyed them was a west wind, for 
the prophet says : " I have been assisted by the east wind — viz. on the 



246 ALBtRUNi. 

Yaum-alkhandak — and 'Ad has been destroyed by tbe west wind." A 
poet says : 

" The west wind has destroyed the sandy tracts of *Ad ; 
So they perished, thrown down like the trunks of palm-trees." 

Further, people say that the unlucky days mentioned in the Coran (Sura 
xli. 15) coincide, each set of four of them, with a day of the month in 
the date of which there is a 4, i.e. the 4th, or the 14th, or the 24th from 
beginning or end of the month. 
p.256. Some people maintain that the Bays of the Old Woman received their 

name from this, that an old woman, thinking that it was warm, threw 10 
off her Mihsha' (a sort of garment) and perished in the cold of these 
days. 

Some Arabs maintain that the Bays of the Old Woman (Al'ajuz) were 
given this name because they are the 'Ajuz, i.e. ;pars jpostica, of the 
winter. 

We find that the Arabs have names for the five Epagomence between 
Aban-Mah and Adhar-Mah like those of the Bays of the Old Woman. 
The 1st is called Hinnabr, the 2nd Hinzabr, both words meaning the 
injury from cold ; the 8rd is called Kdlib-alfihr (i.e. turning the braying- 
stone upside down), viz. through the vehemence of the wind ; the 4th, 20 
Hdlik-alzifr (i.e. cutting the nail), for they mean that the wind is so 
sharp as e.g. to cut the nail ; the 5th is called Mudahrij-alba'r (whirling 
about the dung), viz. in the plains, so that the vehemence of the wind 
carries it to human habitations. Somebody has brought them into a 
verse in this way : 

" The first of them is Hinnabr, an excessive day, 
After him comes Hinzabr, one who strikes with the fore-foot, 
Striking till he comes who exercises justice. 
And Kdlib-alfihr is justly called thus ; 

And Hdlik-alzufr who evidently cuts 30 

And splits the rocks by the cold. 
After them the last of them, the fifth, 
Mudahrij-alba'r, the biting and licking one. 
There is no sixth name after it." 



Adhdr. 

1. Nothing mentioned by the Parapegmatists. People say that on 
this day the locusts and all creeping animals come forth, and that the heat 
of heaven and the heat of the earth meet each other. This is a somewhat 
hyperbolical expression for the beginning of the heat, its increase and 
spreading, and for the air's preparing itself for the reception of the 40 
heat. For the heat is nothing but the rays of the sun detached from 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GEEEK CALENDAR. 247 

the body of the sun towards the earth or from the warm body which 
touches the inside of the Lunar sphere, which is called Fire. 

Regarding the rays of the sun many theories have been brought for- 
ward. Some say that they are fiery particles similar to the essence of 
the sun, going out from his body. Others say that the air is getting warm 
by its being situated opposite to the sun, in the same way as the air is 
getting warm by being opposite to the fire. This is the theory of those 
who maintain that the sun is a hot, fiery substance. 

Others, again, say that the air is getting warm by the rapid motion of 
10 the rays in the air, which is so raj^id as to seem timeless, i.e. without time 
(" zeitlos "). This is the theory of those who maintain that the nature of 
the sun has nothing in common with the natures of the four elements. 

Further, there is a difference of opinion regarding the motion of the 
rays. Some say this motion is timeless, since the rays are not bodies. 
Others say this motion proceeds in very short time ; that, however, there 
is nothing more rapid in existence by which you might measure the 
degree of its rapidity. E.g. the motion of the sound in the air is not so 
fast as the motion of the rays ; therefore the former has been compared 
with the latter, and thereby its time (i.e. the degree of its rapidity) has 
20 been determined. 

As the reason of the heat which exists in the rays of the sun, people 
assign the acuteness of the angles of their reflexion. This, however, is 
not the case. On the contrary, the heat exists in the rays (is inherent in 
them) . 

Regarding the body that touches the inside of the sphere, i.e. the fire, 
people maintain that is a simple element like earth, water, and air, and 
that it is of a globular form. According to my oj^inion, the warmth of 
the air is the result of the friction and violent contact between the 
sphere, moving rapidly, and his body, and that its shajte is like a body p.257. 
30 which you get by making a crescent-like figure revolve around its chord. 
This explanation is in conformity with the theory, viz. that none of the 
existing bodies is ia its natural place, that all of them are where they 
are only in consequence of some force being employed, and that force 
must of necessity have had a beginning. 

On this subject I have spoken in a more suitable place than this book 
is, specially in my correspondence with the youth 'Abu-'Ali Alhusain b. 
'Abdallah b. Sina, consisting of discussions on this subject. 

Both sorts of heat are brought to bear upon the earth in an equal manner 
during the four seasons. The heat of the earth consists either of the 
40 solar rays that are reflected from its surface, or of the vapours that are 
produced — according to one theory — by the heat of the interior of the 
earth, or — according to another — by that heat which accidentally comes 
to the earth from outside, for the motion of the vapours in the air causes 
them to get warm. 

The heat of the fire (i.e. the body touching the inside of the sphere) 



248 ALBfEUNi. 

I'emains always at the same distance (from us, i.e. is always of the same 
degree), because the rotation of the celestial sphere proceeds always at 
the same rate. And the reflected rays are not to be referred to the earth 
(i.e. the earth is not to be considered as their source), and the vapours 
reach only to a certain limit which they do not go beyond. 

The author of this theory, I think, must believe that within the earth 
heat is contained which proceeds from the interior to the outside, whilst 
the air has become warm through the rays of the sun. Thus the two 
sorts of heat meet each other. This, at all events, is a theory, if there is 
any ; one must accept it. 10 

2. Cold north wind (Hipparchus) ; south wind and fall of hail 
(Egyptians). 

3. Nothing mentioned. 

4. Cold north wind (Euctemon). Sinan says that this is mostly true. 
6. Winterly air (Egyptians). Beginning of the XeAiSovtai (Caesar) : 

they blow during ten days. 

6. Troubled air (Egyptians). Beginning of the cold opviOiaL, which 
blow during nine days (Democritus). 

7. Nothing mentioned. Some people say that a change of the violent 
winds takes place. 20 

8. Episemasia and cold north wind (Euctemon, Philippus, and Metro- 
dorus) ; swallows and kites appear (Eudoxus). On the same day is the 
feast of the Small Lake of Alexandria. 

9. North wind (Euctemon and Metrodorus) ; violent south wind (Hip- 
parchus) ; light rain (Egyptians) ; the kites appear (Dositheus). 

10. Nothing mentioned. 

11. The ancients do not mention an apparent change on this day. 
Sinan says that there is frequently winterly air. 

12. Moderate north wind (Callippus). People say that on this day the 
traces of the winter disappear, and that phlebotomy is advisable. 30 

p.258. 13. 'OpvtOiaL begin blowing; the kite appears (Euctemon and 
PhilijDpus). 

14. Cold north wind (Euctemon and Hipparchus) ; west or south wind 
(Egyptians) ; opviOiat begin blowing (Eudoxus). 

15. Cold north wind (Euctemon and Egyptians). 

16. North wind (Callippus). This Sinan confinns from his ex- 
perience. 

17. Nothing mentioned. People say that on this day it is agreeable 
to go out on the sea. The snakes open their eyes, for during the cold 
season, as I have found them myself in Khwarizm, they gather in the 40 
interior of the earth and roll themselves up one round the other so 
that the greatest part of them is visible, and they look like a ball. In 
this condition they remain during the winter until this time. 

On this day (the 17th) in a leap-year, and on the 18th in a common 
year, takes place the equinox, called the first equinox. It is the first day 



ON THE DATS OF THE GEEEK CALENDAR. 249 

of the Persian spring and of the Chinese autumn, as we have mentioned. 
This, however, is impossible, for spring and autumn or winter and 
summer cannot at one and the same time alternately exchange their 
places except in countries north or south of the equator. And China, 
having only few degrees of latitude, does not lie south, but north of the 
equator, in the farthest end of the inhabited world towards the east. 

The country south of the Line is not known, for the equatorial part of 
the earth is too much burned to be inhabitable. Parts of the inhabited 
world do not reach nearer the equator than to a distance of several days' 
10 journey. There the water of the sea is dense, because the sun so 
intensely vaporises the small particles of the water, that fishes and other 
animals keep away from it. Neither we nor any of those who care for 
those things have ever heard that any one has reached the Line or even 
passed the Line to the south. 

Some people have been beguiled by the expressions " yEquator Diei" 
and " Linea ^quitatis," so as to think that there the air is equal 
(moderate), just as day and night there are equal. So they have made 
the equator the basis of their fictions, describing it as a sort of paradise 
and as being inhabited by creatures like angels. 
20 As to the country beyond the Line, someone maintains that it is not 
inhabitable, because the sun, when reaching the perigee of his eccentric 
sphere, stands nearly in its utmost southern declination, and then burns 
all the countries over which he culminates, whilst all the countries of 
65 degrees of southern latitude have the climate of the middle zone of 
the north. From that degree of latitude to the pole the world is again 
inhabitable. But the author of this theory must not represent this as 
necessary, because excessive heat and cold are not alone the causes which 
render a country uninhabitable, for they do not exist in the second 
quarter of the two northern quarters, and still that part of the world is 
30 not inhabited. So the matter is (and will be), because the apogee and 
perigee of the eccentric sphere, the sun's greater and less distance from 
the earth, are necessitated exclusively by the difference in the sun's 
rotation. 

'Abu-Ja'far has designed a figure different from the eccentric sphere p.259 
and the epicycle, in which the sun's distance from the earth, notwith- 
standing the difference of its rotation, is always identical. Thereby he 
gets two regions, a northern and a southern one, equal to each other in 
heat and cold. 

The day of the equinox, as calculated by the Hindus according to their 
40 Canon, — of which they are impudent enough to pretend that it is eternal, 
without beginning and end, whilst all the other Canons are derived 
therefrom,— is their Nauroz, a great feast among them. In the first hour 
of the day they worship the sun and pray for happiness and bliss to the 
spirits (of the deceased). In the middle of the day they worship the 
sun again, and pray for the resurrection and the other world. At the 



250 ALBiRUNi. 

end of the day they worship the sun again, and pray for health and 
happiness for their bodies. On the same day they make presents to each 
other, consisting of precious objects and domestic animals. They maintain 
that the winds blowing on this day are spiritual beings of great use for 
mankind. And the people in heaven and hell look at each other 
affectionately, and light and darkness are equal to each other. In the 
hour of the equinox they light fires in sacred places. 

The omina of this day are the following, viz. : to rise from sleep lying on 
the back, the tree Salix ^gyjptia and to fumigate with its wood before 
speaking. For he who performs this will be free from all sorts of 10 
pain. 

People say that a man who has no children, on looking to the star 
Al-Suhd in the night of this day and then having intercourse with his 
wife, will get children. 

Muhammad b. Mityar maintains that in the hour when this day begins 
to decline, (i.e. after noon,) the shadow of everything is half its size. 
This, however, is only partially the case, not in general. It is true only 
for such places of which the latitude is about 27 degrees. 

On this day the crocodile in Egypt is thought to be dangerous. The 
crocodile is said to be the water-lizard when it has grown up. It is an 20 
obnoxious animal j)eculiar to the Nile, as the the skin g is peculiar to 
other rivers. People say that in the mountains of Pustat there was a 
talisman made for that district. Around this talisman the crocodile 
could not do any harm. On the contrary, when it came within its limits, 
it turned round and lay on its back, so that the children could play with 
it. But on reaching the frontier of the district it got up again and 
carried all it could get hold of away to the water. But this talisman, 
they say, has been broken and lost its power. 

18. Winterly air and cold winds (Democritus and the Egyptians). 

19. North wind (Hipparchus) ; winds, and cold in the morning 30 
(Egyptians). 

20. North wind (Csesar). 

21. North wind (Eudoxus). 

22. Nothing mentioned. 

23. North wind (Caesar) ; rain (Hipparchus). 

24. Eair) and mizzle (Callippus, Euctemon, and Philippus) ; Episemasia 
(Hipparchus) ; thunder and Episemasia (Egyptians). On this day people 
like to purify the children by circumcision. The fecundating winds are 
said to blow. 

p.260. 25. North wind (Eudoxus); Episemasia (Meton, Conon, and the 40 
Egyptians). 

26. Rain and snow-storm (Callippus) ; wind (Egyptians). 

27. Rain (Callippus, Eudoxus, and Meton). 

Of the rest of the month nothing is mentioned. Sinan says that 
the 30th frequently brings an Episemasia. God knows best ! 



ON THE DAYS OP THE GREEK CALENDAR. 251 

Ntsdn. 

1. Eain (Callippus, Eiictemon, Me ton, and Metrodorus). 

2. Nothing mentioned. 

3. Wind (Eudoxus) ; rain (Egyptians and Conon). 

4. West wind or south wind ; hail falls. Sinan says that this is 
frequently the case. 

5. South wind and changing winds (Hipparchus) . 

6. Episemasia (Hij^parchns and Dositheus). This is confirmed by 
Sinan. 

10 7. Nothing mentioned. 

8. Eain (Eudoxus) ; south wind (Egyptians). 

9. Rain (Hipparchus) ; unmixed winds (Egyptians). 

10. Unmixed winds (Euctemon and Philippus) ; rain (Hipparchus and 
Egyptians). The raining is confirmed by the experience of Sinan. 

11. West wind and mizzle (Eudoxus). 

12. Nothing mentioned. 

13. Rain (Caesar and Dositheus). 

14. South wind, rain, thunder, and mizzle (Egyptians). Sinan says 
that this is frequently the case. 

20 15. Rain and hail (Euctemon and Eudoxus) ; unmixed winds 
(Egyptians). 

16. West wind (Euctemon and Philippus) ; hail falling (Metrodorus). 

17. West wind and rain (Eudoxus and Csesar) ; hail falling (Conon 
and Egyptians). 

18. Winds and mizzle (Egyptians). 

19. Nothing mentioned. 

20. Wind, south wind or another one, the air unmixed (Ptolemy). 

21. Cold south wind (Hijiparchus). Sinan maintains that this is 
frequently the case. The water begins to increase. 

30 22. Rain (Eudoxus) ; winterly air (Csesar and Egyptians). People 
fear for the ships at sea. 

23. South wind and rain (Egyptians). People hold a fair at Dair- 
'Ayyub. 'Abu-Yahya b. Kunasa says that the Pleiades disappear under 
the rays of the sun during 40 days, and this fair is held when the 
Pleiades appear. So the Syrians make them rise 15 days earlier than 
in reality they rise, because they are in a hurry to settle their affairs. 
This fair lasts 7 days. Then they count 70 days until the fair of Busra. 
Through these fairs, that are^held alternately in certain places, the com- p.261. 
merce of the people of these countries has been promoted and their 

40 wealth been increased. They have proved profitable to the people, to 
both buyers and sellers. 

24. Frequently hail falls (Callippus and Metrodorus) ; Episemasia 
(Democritus) ; south wind, or a wind akin to it, and rain (Egyptians). 
The Euphrates begins to rise. 



252 ALBtRT^N?. 

25. Mizzle and rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). 

26. Eain and frequently hail (Callij)pus and Euctemon) ; Episemasia 
and west wind (Egyptians). 

27. Dew and moisture (Caesar) ; winds (Egyptians). 

28. Wind (Egyptians) ; rain (Eudoxus). Sinan confirms the rain 
from his own observations. On this, they say, the south wind blows, 
and then the streams and rivers begin to rise. This increase of the 
water, however, does not apply to all streams and rivers uniformly ; on 
the contrary, they greatly differ from each other in this respect. E.g. the 
Oxus has high water when there is little water in the Tigris, Euphrates, 10 
and other rivers. The fact is this, that those rivers the sources of which 
are situated in cold places, have more water in summer and less in winter. 
For the greatest part of the ordinary volume of their water is gathered 
from springs, and an increase and decrease of them exclusively depend 
upon the fall of dew in those mountains where the rivers originate or 
through which they flow ; thereupon the springs pour their volumes into 
the rivers. Now it is well known that dew-fall is more frequent in winter 
and beginning of spring than at any other season. In the countries far 
up to the north, where the cold is intense, this dew- water freezes at those 
seasons. But when the air is getting warm and the snow melts, at that 20 
time the Oxus rises. 

As for the water of the Tigris and Euphrates, their sources are not so 
high up in the north. Therefore they have high water in winter and 
spring, because the dew that falls flows instantaneously into the rivers, 
and that portion of water that may have been frozen melts away in the 
beginning of spring. 

The Nile, again, has high water when there is low water in both Tigris 
and Euphrates, because its source lies in the Mons Lunce, as has been 
said, beyond the Abyssinian city Assuan in the southern region, coming 
either exactly from the equator or from countries south of the equator. 30 
This is, however, a matter of doubt, because the equatorial zone is not 
inhabited, as we have before mentioned. It is evident that in those 
regions there is no freezing of moist substances at all. If, therefore, the 
high water of the Nile is caused by falling dew, it is evident that the 
dew does not stay where it has fallen, but that it directly flows off to 
the Nile. But if the high water is caused by the springs, these have the 
most abundant water in spring. Therefore the Nile has high water in 
summer, for when the sun is near us and our zenith, it is far distant from 
the zenith of those places whence the Nile originates, and which in 
consequence have winter. 40 

p,262 As to the question why the springs have the most copious water in 
winter, we must observe : the all-wise and almighty Creator, in creating 
the mountains, destined them for various purposes and uses. Some of 
them have been mentioned by Thjibit b. Kurra in his book on the 
reason why the mountains were created. It is the same cause which 



ON THE DATS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 253 

renders complete the intention (of the Creator) which he had in making 
the sea- water salt. 

Evidently more wet falls in winter than in summer, in the mountains 
more than in the plains. When, now, the wet falls and part of it flows 
away in the torrents, the remaining part sints down into the channels in 
the mountain caves, and there it is stored up. Afterwards it begins to 
flow out through the holes, called springs. Therefore the springs have 
the most copious water in winter, because the substance by which they 
are nourished is then most copious. If, further, these mountain caves 

10 are clean and pure, the water flows out just as it is, i.e. sweet. If that 
is not the case, the water acquires different qualities and peculiarities, 
the causes of which are not known to us. 

The bubbling of the fountains and the rising of the water to a certain 
height are to be explained in this way, that their reseiwoirs lie higher 
than they themselves, as is the case with artificial well-springs, for this 
is the only reason why water rises upward. 

Many people who attribute to Grod's wisdom all they do not know of 
physical sciences (i.e. who excuse their ignorance by saying " Allah is 
aZZ-wise.'"), have argued with me on this subject. In support of their 

20 view they relate that they have observed the water rise in rivers and 
other watercourses, that the water the more it flows away (from its 
source) the more it rises. This they assert in complete ignorance of 
the physical causes and because they do not sufficiently distinguish 
between the higher and lower situations (of the springs of rivers and of 
the rivers themselves). The matter is this, that they observed water 
flowing in mountain streamlets, the bed of which was going downward at 
the rate of 50-100 yards and more for the distance of one mile. If the 
peasants dig a channel somewhere in this terrain, and this channel is 
made to incline a little towards the country (i.e. if the channel is rising), 

30 at first the water flows only very little, until it rises to an enormous 
height above the water of the river; (then it commences to flow 
strongly) . 

If, now, a man who has no training in these things believes that the 
natural direction of the river is to flow in a horizontal line or with a 
small inclination (upwards), he must of necessity imagine that the river 
is rising in height. It is impossible to free their mind from this illusion 
unless they acquaint themselves with the instruments by which pieces of 
soil ai-e weighed and determined, and by which rivers are d\ig and 
excavated — for if they weigh the earth through which the water flows, 

40 the reverse of what they believe becomes evident to them ; — or unless 
they study physical sciences, and learn that the water moves towards the 
centre of the earth and to any place which is nearest to the centre. 
There is no doubt that the water may rise to any place where you want 
to have it, even if it were to the tops of the mountains, if previously it 
descends to a place which is lower than its maximum of ascent (which it 



254 ALBiRUNi. 

ultimately reaches), and if you keep away from it any substance 
which might occupy the place instead of the water when it finds the 
place empty. Now, the water in its natural function is only assisted by 
the co-operation of something forcible which acts like an instrument, and 
that is the air. This has frequently been carried out in canals, in the 
midst of which there were mountains which it was impossible to 
perforate. 

An illustration of this principle is the instrument called Water-thief, 
KXeij/vSpa. For if you fill it with water and put both its ends into two 
p.263. vessels, in both of which the water reaches to the same level, then the 10 
water in the KXeij/vSpa stands still even for a long time, not flowing off 
into either of the two vessels. For the one vessel is not nearer (to the 
water) than the other, and it is impossible that the water should flow off 
eqxially into both vessels, for in that case the instrument would get 
empty. Now, emptiness is either a non-ens, as most philosophers 
suppose, or it is an ens which attracts bodies, as others believe. If, now, 
the vacuum cannot exist, the matter is impossible, or if it is something 
which attracts bodies, it keeps back the water and does not let it flow off, 
except its place be occupied by some other body. But if you then place 
the one end of the KXcif/vSpa a little lower (than the other), the water 20 
flows immediately off into that direction. For if its place has once 
become lower, it has come nearer to the centre of the earth, and so it 
flows towards it, flowing continually in consequence of the adhesion and 
connection of the water-atoms amongst each other. It flows so long 
until the water of that vessel, whence the water is drawn, is finished, or 
until the level of the water in the vessel where it flows is equal to the 
level of the water in the vessel whence it is drawn. So the question 
returns to its original condition. On this principle people have proceeded 
in the mountains. 

Sometimes even the water rises in artificial fountains out of wells, in 30 
case they have got springing water. For one sort of well-water, which is 
gathered from droppings from the sides, does not rise at all ; it is 
taken from neighbouring masses of water, and the level of the water 
which is gathered in this way is parallel to the level of those waters by 
which it is nourished. On the other hand there is one kind of water 
which bubbles (springs) already at the bottom. Of this water people 
hope that it may rise to the earth and flow on over its surface. This 
latter kind of water is mostly found in countries near to mountains, 
in the midst of which there are no lakes or rivers with deep water. 
If the source of such water is a reservoir much above the level of the 40 
earth, the water rises springing, if it is confined (to a narrow bed or 
channel) ; but if its reservoir be lower, the water does not succeed in 
rising to the earth. Frequently the reservoir is higher by thousands of 
yards in the mountains ; in that case the water may rise up to the 
castles, and, e.g., to the tops of the minarets, 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 255 

I have been told that people in Taman often dig until they come to a 
certain rock under which they know that there is water. Then they 
knock upon this rock, and by the sound of the knocking they ascertain 
the quantity of the water. Then they bore a small hole and examine it ; 
if it is all right, they let the water bubble out and flow where it likes. 
But if they have some fear about the hole, they hasten to stop it up 
with gypsum and quicklime and to close it over repeatedly. For 
frequently they fear that from such a hole a spring similar to the 
Torrent of AVarim might originate. 
10 As to the water on the top of the mountain between Abrashahr and 
Tus, a small lake of one farsang in circumference, called Sabzarod, one 
of the following three things must be the case : 

1. Either its material is derived from a reservoir much higher than 
the lake itself, although it may be far distant, and the water flows into 
it in such a quantity as corresponds to that which the sun absorbs and 
vaporises. Thei'efore the water of the lake remains in the same 
condition, quietly standing. 

2. Or its material is derived from a reservoir which lies on the same 
level with the lake, and therefore the water of the lake does not rise 

20 above that of the reservoir. 

3. Or, lastly, the condition of its sources in some way resembles that 

of the water of the instrument called Al-dahj, and the self-feeding lamp. p. 264. 
The case is this: You take a water- jug, or an oil- vase ; in several 
places of the edge or lip of the vase you make fine splits, and you bore a 
narrow hole in it deeper than the mouth by so much as you wish the 
water to remain in the jug and the oil in the vase (i.e. the hole is to 
represent the line to which people wish the water or oil to rise). 
Thereuj)on you turn the jug upside down in the cup and the vase in the 
lamp. Then both water and oil flow out through the splits, until they 

30 reach the level of the hole. When, then, so much has been consumed as 
the hole allows to pass, then comes forth that which lies next to the 
hole. In this way both oil and water keep the same level. 

Similar to this little lake is a sweet- water well in the district of 
the Kimak in a mountain called Maukur, as large as a great shield. The 
surface of its water is always on a level with its margin. Frequently a 
whole army drinks out of this well, and still it does not decrease as much 
as the breadth of a finger. Close to this well there are the traces of the 
foot, two hands with the fingers, and two knees of a man who had been 
worshipping there; also the traces of the foot of a child, and of the hoofs 

40 of an ass. The Ghuzzi Turks worshij) those traces when they see them. 
Moreover, similar to this is a small lake in the mountains of Bfimiyan, 
one mile square, on the top of the mountain. The water of the village 
which lies on the slope of the mountain comes down from that lake 
through a small hole in such a quantity as they require ; but they are 
not able to make it flow more copiously. 



256 ALBtEUNf. 

Frequently the springing (rising of water) occurs also in a plain 
country which gets its water from a reservoir in a high situation. If 
the rising power of the water were kept down by an obstacle, and then 
this obstacle is removed, the water begins at once to spring (rise). 
I].g. Aljaihani has mentioned a village between Bukhara and Alkarya 
Alhaditha, where there is a hill that was perforated by diggers for hidden 
treasures. Suddenly they hit upon water which they were unable to 
keep back, and it has been flowing ever since till this day. 

If you are inclined to wonder, you may well wonder at a place called 
Filawan (Failawan) in the neighbourhood of Almihrjan. This place is 10 
like a portico dug out in the mountain, from the roof of which water is 
always dropping. If the air gets cold, the water freezes and hangs 
down in long icicles. I have heard the people of Almihrjan maintain that 
they frequently knock the place with pickaxes, and that in consequence 
the spot which they knock becomes dry ; but the water never increased, 
whilst reason would demand that it should always remain in the same 
condition if it does not increase. 

More wonderful even than this is what Aljaihani relates in his 
Kitab-AlmamdliJc wal-masdlih of the two columns in the grand mosque 
of Kairawan, the material of which people do not know. People main- 20 
tain that on every Friday before sunrise they drop water. It is curious 
that this should take place just on a Friday. If it occurred on any 
week-day in general, it would be combined with the moon's reaching 
such and such a place of the sun's orbit, or with the like of it. This, 
however, is not admissible, since Friday is a conditio sine qua nan of this 
occurrence. The Greek king is said to have sent to buy them. He 
said : " It is better for the Muslims to utilize their prize than to have 
two stones in the mosque." But the people of Kairawan refused, saying : 
" We shall not let them pass out of the house of God into that of the 
devil." 30 

Still more marvellous than this is the self -moving column in Alkaira- 
p.265. wan. For it inclines towards one side. People put something under- 
neath when it inclines, and this you can no longer take away if the 
column again stands erect ; if glass is put underneath, you hear the 
sound of breaking and crushing. This is no doubt a got-up piece of 
artifice, as also the place where the column stands seems to indicate. 

We return to our subject, and say : 

29. Winterly air (Caesar) ; winds, or moisture of the ground, and rain 
(Egyptians). 

30. Episemasia (Egyptians) ; winds and dew, moisture and mizzle 40 
(Callippus and Euctemon). 

Ayydr. 

1. Mizzle (Egyptians). 

2. Nothing mentioned. 

3. Wind, mizzle, dew, moisture, and thunder (Egyptians). 



ON THE DATS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 257 

4. Eain (Eudoxus), mizzle (Egyptians). 

5. Eain (Dositheus) . Sinan says that this is frequently the case and 
that it brings a strong episemasia. 

6. Wind (Egyptians), rain (Eudoxus), mizzle and episemasia. (Lacuna.) 
Some people extend the rainy season as far as this day. It is the 

time when the sun passes the (first) 20 degrees of Leo. In this respect 
the matter stands as we have explained it at the beginning of the rainy 
season, when the sun moves in Cancer. 

7. Winds (Egyptians). Sinan says that this is frequently the case, 
10 more particularly so if on the preceding day heaven has a rainy 

appearance. 

8. Gushes of rain (Eudoxus and Dositheus), rain (Egyptians). 

9. Eain (Egyptians). 

10. Episemasia and wind (Callippus and Euctemon), rain (Egyp- 
tians). 

11. Episemasia (Dositheus). Sinan says that it is true. 

12. Episemasia (Eudoxus, Metrodorus, and Hipparchus) ; rain 
(Caesar) ; west-wind (Egyptians). People say that on this and the 
following day there is no fear of frost doing harm to the fruits. This 

20 remark can, however, only apply to one particular place ; it cannot be 
meant in general. 

13. Eain (Eudoxus) ; north wind and hail (Egyptians). 

14. Episemasia (Callippus, Euctemon, and Egyptians). 

15. Eain (Caesar). 

16. Episemasia (Caesar). People say that on this day the first 
Samum is blowing. 

17. South wiod or east wind and rain (Hipparchus and Egyptians). 

18. Episemasia (Eudoxus) ; rain and thunder (Egyptians). 

19. Episemasia and mizzle (Hipparchus and Egyptians). 
30 20. Nothing mentioned. 

21. Episemasia (C«sar) ; south wind (Dositheus), west wind (Egyp- 
tians). 

22, 23. Nothing mentioned. 

24. Episemasia (Callippus, Euctemon, and Philippus) ; winds (Egyp- P-266. 
tians). 

25. Episemasia (Euctemon, Philippus, and Hipparchus). 

26. Episemasia (Callippus and Euctemon) ; cold north wind (Egyp- 
tians). 

27. Dew and moisture (Callippus and Euctemon) ; episemasia 
40 (Egyptians). 

28. Eain (Metrodorus and Egyptians). 

29. South wind or west wind (Hipparchus). 

30. South wind (Caesar). 

31. Nothing mentioned. 

17 



258 ALBtR^Nt 



Hazirdii. 



1. Dew and uioistui'e (Eudoxus and Dositheus) ; west wind 
(Egyptians). 

2. West wind (Egyptians). 

3. Wind and mizzle (Egyptians), and thunder. 

4. Rain (Csesar). 

5. Mizzle (Egyptians). Confirmed by Sinan. 

6. 7, 8. Nothing mentioned. 

9. West wind and thunder (Egyptians). 

10, 11, 12. Nothing mentioned. The 11th is the Nauroz of the Khalif , 10 
when people in Baghdad splash in the water, strew about dust, and play 
other games, as is well known. 

12. Sinan says that frequently a change of the weather takes place. 

13. West wind and mizzle (Egyptians). 

14. Nothing mentioned. 

15. Mizzle (Egyptians). 

16. Nothing mentioned. People say that on this day the water sinks 
into the earth, whilst the Nile begins to rise. The reason of this is, as 
we have mentioned before, the difference of their sources and of other 
circumstances, those of the Nile standing in direct opposition to those of 20 
all other rivers. 

On this day in a leap-year, and on the 17th in a common year, the 
Plenitudo Maxima takes place, which is celebrated by Arabs and 
Persians. They call it Mirin, which means the Sun's getting full, i.e. the 
summer-solstice. On this day light subdues darkness. The light of the 
sun is falling into the wells, as Muhammad b. Mityar mentions ; but this 
is only possible in countries ' the latitude of which is like the greatest 
declination, over which, therefore, the sun culminates. 

The Hayawdniyya-sect maintains that on this day the sun takes 
breath in the midst of heaven ; that, therefoie, the spirits recognise each 30 
other in the greatest heat. It is considered as a good omen to look into 
the intense heat. People eat pomegranates before having eaten anything 
, else, and Hippocrates is said to have taught that he who eats a pome- 
granate on this day before having eaten anything else, enlightens his 
constitution and his x»^Atos is pure dui'ing forty mornings. 

People relate, on the authority of Hanna the Hindu, that Kisra Parwiz 
has said : " Sleeping in the shadow of a pomegranate cures a man of bad 
disease and makes him safe from the demons." 

It belongs to the omina of this day to rise in the morning from sleep 
on the left side, and to fumigate with saffron before speaking. 40 

p. 267. 17. Episemasia (Dositheus) ; heat (Egyptians). 

18. West wind and heat (Egyptians). 

19. Rain (Egyptians). 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 259 

20. West wind, rain, and thimder (Egyptians). 

21. Nothing mentioned 

22. Episemasia (Democritus) . 

23. South wind or west wind (Hipparchus). 

24. Nothing mentioned. People say that on this day the Samunia 
begin blowing during fifty-one days. The Oxus rises and frequently 
injures the shores and their inhabitants. 

25. West wind and heat (Egyptians). 

26. West wind (Democritus and Egyptians). 
10 27. Nothing mentioned. 

28. Episemasia (Eudoxus) ; west wind and south wind and rain 
(Democritus) ; then the north wind begins to blow during seven days. 

29. Nothing mentioned. People say that practical obververs examine 
on this day the dew ; if it is copious, the Nile rises ; if it is not copious, 
the Nile does not rise, and they get a barren year. 

30. Winds (Egyptians) and unmixed air. 

31. Nothing mentioned. 

Tammuz. 

1,2. Nothing mentioned by our authorities. 
20 3. South wind and heat (Caesar and Egyptians). 

4. Wind (Egyptians) ; frequently it rains in their country. 

5. South wind (Callij^pus, Metrodorus, and Hipparchus) ; west wind 
and thunder (Egyptians). 

6. South Avind (Callippus and Metrodorus) ; west wind and thunder 
(Egyptians). 

7. Episemasia (Ptolemy). According to Sinan the weather frequently 
changes. 

8. Dew and moisture, according to Meton, in his country. 

9. Dew (Euctemon and Philippus) ; west-by-west wind (Egyptians). 
80 10. Bad air (Egyptians). On this day they begin to hold the fair of 

Busra during 25 days ; in the time of the Banu-'Umayya this fair used 
to last 30-40 days. 

11. Nothing mentioned. 

12. West wind (Metrodorus) ; winds (Egyptians). 

13. Unmixed winds (Hipparchus). According to Sinfin the weather 
frequently changes. 

14. Heavy wind (Caesar) ; the north wind begins to blow (Hipparchus) ; 
heat (Egyptians). 

15. Nothing mentioned. 

40 16. Frequently it rains in rainy countries (Ptolemy); rain and whirl- p.268. 
winds (Democritus) ; heavy wind (Egyptians). 

17. Dew and heat (Dositheus and Egyptians). 

18. The Etesian winds (iTrjcrtat) begin to blow (Hipparchus). Ac- 
cording to the general consent of seamen and peasants, and all those who 

17 * 



260 ALBtR^Nt. 

have experience in this subject, this is the first day of the dog-days, i.e. 
seven consecutive days, the last of which is the 24th of this month. On 
each of these days they draw conclusions from certain changes of the 
weather regarding the months of the autumn and winter and part of 
spring ; these changes mostly occur in the evening and morning. 
People maintain that these days are to the year what the critical days 
are to acute diseases, when their criteria appear, in consequence of 
which peoj)le conceive either hope or fear as to the end in which they 
will issue. Both words bdhur and huhrdn in the Greek and Syriac 
languages are derived from a word which means the decision of the 10 
rulers (y. KpiVts and KpLcniJio^ rjjxipa). According to another view, huhrdn 
is derived from hahr (the Arabic for sea), because the critical state of a 
sick person resembles the motion of the sea, called ebb and flow. This 
derivation is very likely correct, because of both appearances the motions 
of the moon, her cycles and phases, are the cause, whether the moon 
revolves in a Ghreat Circle, as it is in the case of the flow, for the flow sets 
in when the moon reaches the western and eastern point of the horizon. 
The same is the case with the ebb, for it sets in when the moon reaches 
the sphere of the meridian of noon and midnight. Or whether it be 
that the moon revolves from one certain point of her cycle back to the 20 
same, or from the sun to that point. So the flow is the strongest in the 
first half of the lunar month, the weakest in the second half. Besides, 
also, the sun has an influence upon this. It is curious what people relate 
of the Western Sea, viz. that there is flow from the side of Andalusia 
always at sunset, that then the sea decreases at the rate of about 5-6 
farsang in one hour and then it ebbs. And this appearance takes 
place always precisely at this time. 

If on the evening of the 18th there is a cloud on the horizon, people 
expect cold and rain at the beginning of Tishrin I. If the same is the 
case at midnight, the cold and rain will come in the middle of Tishrin I. ; 30 
and if it is the case towards morning, the same will come in the end of 
that month. The matter is the same, if you observe a cloud on the 
horizon during daytime ; however, the changes of the sky in the night are 
more evident. And if you observe those changes on all four sides of the 
compass, the same, too, will occur in Tishrin I. Herein the nights 
are counted after the days, as we have mentioned in the beginning 
of this book, in consequence of which those who count the nights before 
the day s think that the night of the 18th is the 19th; therefore they 
consider the 19th as the first of the dog-days and the 25th as the last of 
them. 40 

The 1st of these seven days serves to prognosticate the character of 
Tishi'in I., the 2nd that of Tishrin II., the 3rd that of Kanun I., etc. etc., 
and lastly, the 7th, that of Nisan. 

Practical observers prescribe the following : Take a plate some time 
before the dopf-days, sow upon it all sorts of seeds and plants, and let it 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALENDAR. 261 

stand until the 25th night of Tammuz, i.e. the last night of the dog- p.269. 
days ; then put the plate somewhere outside at the time when the stars 
rise and set, and expose it uncovered to the open air. All seeds, then, 
that will grow in the year will be yellow in the morning, and all whose 
growth will not prosper will remain green. This experiment the 
Egyptians used to make. 

Practical observers have produced many contrivances for the purpose 
of prognosticating the character of the year by help of these (the dog) 
days ; they have even gone as far as to use incantations and charms. So 

10 some people maintain that if you take the leaves of twelve different olive- 
trees, and write upon each leaf the name of some Syrian month, if you 
then put them, in the night we have mentioned, somewhere in a wet place, 
you will find that, if a leaf has dried up in this night, the month which 
was written upon it will be rainless. 

According to others, you learn whether the year will have much rain 
or little, by this method : You look out for a level place, around which 
there is nothing that might keep off the dew, wind, and light rain ; then 
you take two yards of a cotton dress, you weigh it and keep in mind its 
weight. Then you spread it over that place and leave it there during 

20 the first four hours of the night. Thereupon you weigh it a second time ; 
then each Mithkdl which it weighs more the second time than the first 
time signifies one rainy day in that month which stands in relation with 
this particular dog-day of which we have heretofore spoken. 

These dog-days are the time of the rising of Sirius (Kalb-aljabhdr or 
Alshi'rd Alyamdniya Al'abilr). Hippocrates, in his book of the seasons, 
forbids taking hot drugs and bleeding twenty days before and after the 
rising of this star, because it is the hottest time of summer and the 
heat reaches its maximum, and because summer time by itself warms, 
dissolves, and takes away all moist substances. However, Hippocrates 

80 does not forbid those things if you take but very little of them. After- 
wards, when autumn comes with its cold and dryness, you cannot be sure 
whether the natural warmth may not be entirely extinguished. 

Some people who have no practice in physical sciences and no knowledge 
of the fjL€Teoipa, think that the influence we have mentioned must be 
attributed to the body of this star, to its rising and revolution. They 
go even as far as to make people imagine that the air is warmed by its 
great mass ; that, therefore, it is necessary to indicate and to explain its 
proper place and to determine the time of its rising. The same ojjinion 
is indicated by the verse of 'Abu-Nu'as : 

40 " ^lul has gone and the hot night-wind passed away, 

And Sirius has extinguished his fire." 

For this reason 'Ali b. 'Ali, the Christian secretary, maintains that the 
first of the dog-days is the 22nd of Tammuz, suggesting that the dog- 



262 ALBlRiyNl. 

days have changed their place along with the star itself, whilst I maintain 
that Sirius always revolves during the whole year in one and the same 
orbit parallel to the equator. Hippocrates, however, meant by this time 
the central portion of the summer, the period when the heat is greatest 
p.270. inconsequence of the sun's being near to o^^r zenith, whilst he at the 
same time begins in his eccenti'ic sphere to descend from the apogee of 
his orbit. And this event was in the time of Hippocrates contemporaneous 
with the rising of Sirius, Therefore he has only said in general at the 
time when Sirius rises, knowing that no scientific man could misunder- 
stand the truth. For if Sirius changed its place so as to advance 10 
even as far as the beginning of Capricorn or Aries, the time during 
which he forbids taking drugs wovild not therefore advance in the 
same way. 

Sinan says in his Kitdh-al'anwd that the shepherds have seven 
special days of their own, beginning with the 1st of Tammuz, which 
they use like the dog-days, drawing from them conclusions regarding the 
single winter months. They are known as " the dog-days of the shepherds." 
The weather of these days is always different from that of the time 
immediately preceding and following. During all or at least some of 
them heaven is never free from a speck of clouds. 20 

19. West wind or heat (Egyptians). The water dogs are getting strong 
and do much damage. 

20. West wind or a similar one (Egyptians). Practical observers say 
that on this day frequent cases of inflammation of the eyes occur. 

21. The Etesian winds are blowing (Euctemon); the heat begins 
(Callippus, Euctemon, and Metrodorus). 

22. Bad air (Euctemon) ; beginning of the heat (Hipparchus) ; west - 
wind and heat (Egyptians). 

23. Winterly air on sea, winds (Philippus and Metrodorus) ; beginning 

of the blowing of the Etesian winds (Egyj)tians). On this day 'Abu- 30 
Ja'far Almansur began to build Baghdad, that part which is called 
MansTir's-town, on the western side of the Tigris in the present Baghdad. 
This was A. Alexandri, 1074. Astrologers are obliged to know dates 
like this, and must date from such an epoch by means of their knowledge 
of the Permutationes, Terminationes, Cycles, and Directiones, until they find 
the horoscopes of those people who were born at those times. It was 
Naubakht who determined the time (for the commencement of building). 
The constellation which heaven showed at the time, and the stations of 
the planets which appeared on heaven, were such as are indicated in 
the following figure. 



ON THE DATS OF THE GREEK CALENDAE. 



263 






Capricomus 



Arciteaens 
Ascendene 



Scorpio 



Xaput Draconis 
25. 



Jupiter' 




Mars Z ■ 50 



'orv 
19.10 



'^ 



^ 



:4^ 



Svm/ 

MercuT'iU'S 25-7 



I 



p.271 



h 



Tcuznue 



QiZTWirtC 



CoTLC^r 



24. Winds (Philippus and Metrodorus) ; the Etesian winds blow 
(Hipparchus) . 

25. South wind (Eudoxus and Caesar) ; west or south wind (Egyptians). 
Sexual intercourse and all exertion are forbidden, because it is the time 
of the greatest heat. The river Oxus begins to rise. 

26. South wind and heat (Philippus, Meton, Metrodorus, Democritus, 
and Hipparchus). 

27. Dew and wet, and oppressive air (Euctemon andDositheus). This 
oppressive air mostly occurs when heaven is covered and the air is in 

10 perfect repose. But often, too, this is peculiar to a place where this 
cause does not exist, e.g. to the region beyond that bridge which, 
according to Aljaihani, was in old times built by the Chinese, reaching 
from the top of one mountain to that of another on the road that leads 
from Khotan to the region of the residence of the Khakan. For those 
who pass this bridge come into an air which makes breathing diflacult 
and the tongue heavy, in consequence of which many travellers perish 
there, whilst others are saved. The Tibetans call it the "poison- 
mountain.'* 

28. Nothing mentioned. 

20 29. Beginning of the Etesian winds (Dositheus) ; heat (Egyptians). 
They hold the fair of Busra for a whole month, and that of Salamiyya 
for two weeks. 

30. The Etesian winds blow (Eudoxus) ; west wind and heat 
(Egyptians). 

31. South wind (Csesar). 

Ah. 

1. Heat (Hipparchus). 

2. Nothing mentioned. 

3. Dew falls (Eudoxus and Dositheus) ; episemasia (Caesar). 
30 4. Great heat (Eudoxus). 

6. Heat, still and oppressive air, then blowing of winds (Dositheus 



p.272. 



264 ALBtE^^Nt. 

and Egyptians). They hold a fair at 'AdhriTit during fifteen days, also 
in Al'urdunn, and in several districts of Palestine. 
6, 7. Nothing mentioned. 

8. The air is still and oppressive (Callippus) ; wind, and intense heat 
(Egyptians). According to Sinan, frequently there occurs a change of 
the air. 

9. Heat and still air (Euctemon and Caesar) ; south wind and turbid 
air (Egyptians). 

10. Heat and still air (Eudoxus, Metrodorus, and Dositheus) ; 
episemasia (Democritus). At this time the heat is very intense. 10 

11. The northerly winds cease to blow (Callippus, Euctemon, and 
Philippus) ; heavy wind (Eudoxus) ; different winds blow together 
(Hipparchus) ; thunder (Egyptians). According to Sinan there is 
always a change of the weather on this day. He says : I do not know 
whether we, I and all those who make meteorological observations, are 
correct in describing a day like this. On this day there is almost always 
a change of the weather for the better. It is the first day when the air 
of Al'irak begins to be agreeable. Sometimes this change is most 
evident, whilst at other times it is only slightly perceptible. But that the 
day should be free from such a change, almost never occurs. 20 

Some of the ancients consider this day as the beginning of the 
autumnal air, whilst others take as such the following day. 

Sinan says : Thabit used to say : If in a rare year that which we have 
described does not take place on this day, it is not likely to take place 
on the 13th or 14th, but rather in the middle of Ab. If it takes place 
on the 11th, a season of agreeable air is sure to return about the middle 
of the month, though it may only be short. 

12. Heat (Euctemon and Egyptians). 

13. Episemasia and still air (Caesar). Sinan says that on this day an 
irregular change of the air frequently occurs. 30 

14. 15. Nothing mentioned. 

16. Episemasia (Caesar). 

17. Episemasia (Eudoxus). 

18. Nothing mentioned. The Samums are said to cease. 

19. Episemasia, rain, and wind (Democritus) ; west wind (Egyptians). 
p.273. 20. Episemasia (Dositheus) ; heat and density in the air (Egyptians). 

21. Nothing mentioned. 

22. West wind and thunder (Eudoxus) ; episemasia and bad air (Caesar 
and Egyptians). 

23. West wind (Egyptians). 40 

24. Episemasia (Eudoxus and Metrodorus). The heat relaxes a little 
at the time when the sun passes the first 6 degrees of Virgo. 

25. Episemasia (Eudoxus) ; south wind (Hipparchus) ; heat (Egyp- 
tians). 

26. Rotating winds (Hipparchus). Between this day and the first of 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GBEEK CALENDAE. 265 

the Days of the Old Woman (i.e. 26 Shubat) lies one half of a complete 
year. On this day the heat, at the time when it is about to disappear, 
returns once more with renewed force, as does also the cold at the time 
when it is about to disappear. It is a time of seven days, the last of 
which is the 1st of llul, called by the Arabs Wakdat-Suhail (i.e. the 
burning of Suhail). It is the time of the winds that accompany the 
rising of Aljahha (Frons Leonis, the 10th Lunar Station), but as Suhail 
rises in its neighbourhood, it has become the prevailing use to call the 
time by Suhail and not by Aljabha. The heat of these days is more 
IQ intense than at any time before or afterwards. But after this time the 
nights begin to be agreeable. This is an occurrence generally known 
among people, which scarcely ever fails. Muhammad b. 'Abd-almalik 
Alzayyat says : 

" The water had become cold and the night long, 
And the wine was found to be sweet ; 
Haziran had left you, and Tammuz and Ab." 

27. Episemasia (Philippus). 

28. West wind (Egyptians). 

29. Rain and thunder ; the Etesian winds are about to cease (Eudoxus 
20 and Hipparchus). 

30. Episemasia (Hipparchus). 

31. The Etesian winds are about to cease (Ptolemseus) ; changing 
winds (Eudoxus) ; winds, rain, and thunder (Caesar) ; east wind 
(Hipparchus). 

!lM. 

1. Episemasia and the Etesian winds are getting quiet (Callippus). A 
fair is held at Manbij (Mabbug). 

2. Density in the air (Metrodorus). Conon says that on this day the 
Etesian winds cease. 

30 3. Wind, thunder, and density in the air (Eudoxus) ; wet and dew 
(Hipparchus) ; fog, heat, rain, and thunder (Egyptians). On this day 
people begin to light their fires in cold countries. 

4. Dense and changing air (Callippus, Euctemon, Philippus, and 
Metrodorus) ; rain, thunder, and changing wind (Eudoxus). 

5. Changing winds and rain, and the Etesian winds are gettmg quiet 
(Caesar) ; rains and winterly air at sea, and south wind (Egyptians). On 

this day midsummer ends, and a time comes which is good for bleeding p.274. 
and for taking drugs during forty days. 

6. West wind (Egyptians). 

40 7. Density in the air (Philippus) ; episemasia (Dositheus). 

8. West wind and episemasia (Egyptians). 

9. Nothing mentioned. 

10. The air is not troubled (mixed) (Dositheus). 



266 albIrt^n!. 

11. The north winds are ceasing (Caesar). 

12. South wind (Eudoxus). 

13. Episemasia (Callippus and Conon). 

14. The north winds are ceasing (Eudoxus) ; episemasia (Democritus 
and Metrodorus). After this time no swallow is seen. 

15. Wet and dew (Dositheus) ; rains and episemasia (Egyptians). 

16. Density in the air, and rain at sea (Hipparchus). 

On the 16th in a common year and on the 17th in a leap-year occurs 
the second equinox, which is the first day of the Persian autumn and 
the Chinese spring, as people maintain. But we have already explained 10 
that this is impossible. 

The winds, now, blowing on this day are said to be of a psychical 
nature. To look towards the clouds that rise on this day emaciates the 
body and affects the soul with disease. I think the reason of this is 
that people conceive fear on account of the cold and the disappearance 
of the agreeable time of the year. 

It is one of the omina of this day to rise from sleep in a worshipping 
attitude, and to fumigate with tamarisks before speaking. 

People say that if a woman who is sterile looks on this day at the star 
Alsulid and then has intercourse with her husband, she is sure to 20 
conceive. 

Further, they say, that in the night of this day the waters ai'O getting 
sweet. We have already heretofore shown the impossibility of such a 
thing. 

This second equinox is, according to the Canon Sindkind, a great 
festival with the Hindus, like the Mihrjan with the Persians. People 
make each other presents of all sorts of valuable objects and of precious 
stones. They assemble in their temples and places of worship until 
noon. Then they go out to their pleasure-grounds, and there they 
assemble in parties, showing their devotion to the (Deity of) Time and 30 
humbling themselves before God Almighty. 

17. Rain at sea and density in the air (Metrodorus). 

18. West, then cast wind (Egyptians). 

19. Wet and dew (Eudoxus) ; west wind, mizzle, and rain (Egyptians). 
On this day the water returns from the upper parts of the trees to the 
roots. 

20. 21. (Missing.) 

22. Nothing mentioned. 

23. Rain (Eudoxus) ; west wind or south wind (Hipparchus). 

24. Nothing mentioned. On this day the fair of Thu'aliba is held. 40 
Practical observers say that people mark on this day what wmd is con- 
stantly blowing until night or until the time when the sun begins to 
decline ; for this will be the most constant of all the winds of the 
year. This day they called the Turning of the winds. The white-and- 
black crows appear on this day in most countries. 



ON THE DAYS OF THE GEEEK CALENDAR. 267 

25. Episemasia (Hipparchus and Eudoxus) ; west -wind or south wind p.275. 
(Egyptians). 

26, 27, 28. (Missing.) 

29. Episemasia (Euctemon and Eiidoxus) ; west wind or south wind 
(Hipparchus). 

30. Nothing mentioned by the ancients, either about the air or anything 
else. 

This, now, is the calendar used by the G-reeks, to which we have added 
all that Sinan has mentioned in his Kitdb-aV anwd. This is the concise 
10 summary of his book. We have not kej^t back anything which we have 
learned regarding the days of the calendar. We quote them by the 
names of the Syrians (i.e. as the 1st of Tishrin, Kanun, etc.) only, because 
they are generally known among people, and because this serves the same 
purpose (as if we were to call them by the Greek names). 

Next we shall speak of the memorable days in the months of the 
Jews, if God Almighty permits ! 



268 ALBtRf^Ni. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

or THE FESTIVALS AND FAST-DATS IN THE MONTHS OF THE JEWS, 

After having explained the method how to learn the beginning of the 
jear of the Jews, and its character, — after having solved this problem by 
the help both of computation and tables, — after having shown the 
arrangement of the months according to their beginnings and to the 
number of their days, — we hold it now to be necessary to explain their 
festivals and memorable days. For getting acquainted with them we 
shall at the same time learn the reason why they, even New- Year's Day 
itself, are not allowed to fall on certain days of the week. We begin IQ 
with the first month, i.e. 



Tishri. 



It has 30 days and only one Bosh-Hodesh. As we have explained 
before, the 1st Tishri cannot fall on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday 
"nt^. When, according to calculation, it ought to fall on one of these 
days, it is disregarded, and New- Year's Day is either the following day, 
if it is a Dies licita, or the preceding day, in case the following oae is not 
a Dies licita according to the conditions that have been laid down in the 
Tabula Terminorum in the first part of this book. This proceeding of 
theirs they call "^rT^.- The 1st is the feast of New- Year, when they blow 20 
the trumpets and trombones, which are rams-horns. All work ceases on 
this day as on Sabbath. On this day, they maintain, Abraham offered 
his son Isaac, but then Isaac was ransomed by means of a ram. 
According to Jews and Christians, the person offered was Isaac, whilst 
there is a passage in the Goran in the Sura Wal-sdffdt (Sura xxxvii. 99- 
113), showing that it was Ishmael. And, according to tradition, the 
Prophet is reported to have said : " I am the son of the two sacrificed 
ones," meaning 'Abdallah b. Almuttalib and Ishmael However, the 
discussion of this question is a subject of great extent. God knows 
best ! 30 



FESTIVALS AND FASTS OF THE JEWS. 269 

3. Fasting of G-edalya b. 'Ahikam, tlie governor of Nebucadnezar 
over Jerusalem. On tbis day be was killed, togetber witb eigbty-two p.276. 
people, in a cistern in wbicb tbe water collected until it rose above tbeir 
beads. In consequence tbe Israelites were stricken witb sorrow, and bave 
ever since fasted on tbe day of bis deatb. 

5. Fasting of 'Akibba. People wanted to compel bim to worsbip tbe 
idol ; be, bowever, did not submit. So tbey put bim into a cage wbere 
be died of bunger, surrounded by twenty fellow prisoners. 

7. Fasting of punishment. Its origin is tbis, tbat David, on baving 
10 counted tbe Israelites, rejoiced in tbeir number, and people tbemselves 
were puffed up on account of tbeir great number, so as to go astray. 
Tberefore God became angry witb tbem, and sent tbe propbet Natban to 
David and tbe assembly of tbe tribes to tbreaten tbem witb tbe sword, 
witb famine, and sudden deatb. His tbreateniug was fulfilled. So tbey 
were stricken witb f rigbt, and bave ever since fasted on tbis day. 

On tbe same day tbe Israelites killed eacb otber on account of tbe 
worsbip of tbe calf. Tbey say tbat it was Aaron wbo made tbe calf, and 
so it is related iu tbe Tbora. 

Tbe Jew Ta'kub b. Musa Alnikrisi {i.e. tbe pbysician) told me in 
20 Jurjan tbe following : Moses wanted to leave Egypt togetber witb tbe 
Israelites, but Josepb tbe propbet bad ordered tbat tbey sbould 
take bis coffin along witb tbem. As be, bowever, was buried in tbe 
bottom of tbe Nile and tbe water flowed over bim, Moses could not get 
bim away. Now, Moses took a piece of a paper and cut it into tbe 
figure of a fisb ; over tbis be recited some sentence, breatbed upon it, 
wrote sometbing upon it, and tbrew it into tbe Nile. Waiting for tbe 
result be stayed tbere, following tbe course of tbe river, but notbing 
appeared. So Moses took anotber j^iece of paper and cut it into tbe 
figure of a calf, wrote upon it, recited over it, breatbed upon it, but tben, 
80 wben be was just about to tbrow it into tbe water, as be bad done tbe 
first time, tbe coffin appeared. So be tbrew away tbe figure of tbe calf wbicb 
be just beld in bis band, but it was taken up by one of tbe bystanders. 

Afterwards, wben Moses disappeared on tbe mountain to speak witb 
tbe Lord, and wben tbe Israelites became anxious at bis staying tbere so 
long, tbey pressed Aaron and demanded of bim tbat be sbould give tbem 
a viceregent instead of Moses. Aaron, no doubt, did not know wbat to 
do; so be said : "Bring me all tbe precious ornaments of your women." 
So be spoke in order to gain time, knowing tbat tbe women would not be 
in a burry to part witb tbeir ornaments. Possibly Moses migbt return 
40 before tbat. But it bappened tbat tbe women gave up tbeir ornaments 
most speedily. Tbey fetcbed Aaron and he melted tbe ornaments and 
poured tbem into a mould ; but tbe result was notbing but broken 
pieces of ingots. Tbe same work be repeated in a burry, boprug for tbe 
return of Moses and for news of bim. Now be bappened to bave witb 
himself tbe figure of tbat calf (wbicb Moses bad cut out of paper). So 



270 albIrOn!. 

he said to himself : " By the figure of the fish once a wonderful miracle 
has been wrought. Now, let me see what the figure of the calf will 
produce ! " He took the figure and threw it into the molten gold ; when 
then the liquid mass was poured into a mould, it was formed into a calf 
which roared. Thereby the people were at that time seduced from the 
true belief without Aaron's having intended it. 
p.277. 10. Fasting of Kippur, also called Al-'dshurci. This fast-day is 
obligatory, whilst all other ones are voluntary. Kippur-id^^im^ begins 
half an hour before sunset of the 9th and lasts until half an hour after 
sunset of the 10th during 25 hours. In this way, too, all the voluntary 10 
fast-days are held. Therefore it is impossible that two of their fast- 
days should immediately follow each other, because one hour would 
belong to both of them in common, and because there would be no 
possibility of breaking the fast between them. Ya'kub, however, main- 
tains that this is a peculiarity only of this fast-day, whilst in the case 
of all the other fast-days it is allowed to fast in the same way (i.e. the 
same length of time) that the Muslims do. 

On this day God addressed Moses the son of Amram. The fasting of 
this day is an atonement for all sins that are committed by mistake. 
The Jewish law orders everybody to be killed who does not fast on this 20 
day. They recite five prayers on this day, prostrating themselves upon 
the earth, which is not the custom on the other festivals. 

15. The feast of Tabernacles, lasting seven consecutive days, during 
which they rest under the shadow of willows and reeds and other branches 
on the roofs of their houses. This is obligatory only for him who dwells 
at home, not for the traveller. On these days all work ceases, as God 
says in the third book of the Thora (Levit. xxiii. 34-43) : " And on the 
fifteenth of the seventh month is the feast of Tabernacles. Then you 
shall not work during seven days. You shall celebrate a feast before God 
and you shall sit in the tents, the whole house of Israel, during seven 30 
days, that your (future) generations should know that it was I who 
made the Israelites dwell in tabernacles, when I led them out of Egypt." 
This feast is celebrated by the whole Jewish nation, whilst 'Abii-'lsa 
Alwarrak says in his Kitdb-almakdldt of the Samaritans that they do not 
celebrate it. 

The last or seventh day of the feast of Tabernacles, the 21st of the 
month, is called 'Ardbhd. On this day the clouds stood over the heads 
of the Israelites in the desert Altih. 

On the same day is the feast of the Congregation, when the Jews 
assemble in Hdrhard of Jerusalem, carrying around in procession the ^^ 
Ark of the Covenant, which in their synagogues is like the pulpit 
(Minhar) in a mosque. 

22. The feast of Benediction, by which this feast-time is completed. 
All work ceases. They maintain that on this day the communication of 
the Thora was finished, and that the Thora was handed over to their 



FESTIVALS AND PASTS OF THE JEWS. 271 

chiefs to be deposited in their synagogues. On this day they take the 
Thora out of its shrine, they bless themselves by it, and try to derive 
auguries from unfolding and reading it. 



Marheshwan. 



It has always two Bosh-HodesJi, and it has 30 days in a Perfect year 
and 29 days in an Intermediate year or in an Imperfect one. On these 
two Eosh-Hodesh there is no feast. 

6. Fasting of Zedekia. Its origin is this, that Nebukadnezar killed the 
children of Zedekia, whilst he stood before them, patient and enduring, 
10 not weeping nor manifesting any sign of despair. Then both his eyes p,278. 
were put out. Therefore the Israelites were stricken with sorrow, and 
have ever since fasted on this day. 

Differing herefrom, other people fix this fast-day on the Monday falling 
between the 8th and the 13th of this month. This, however, is not like 
a method suitable to Jewish ways ; it is rather like Christian theories. 
The generality of Jews fix their fast-days on certain dates in the months, 
not on week-days. 



Kislew. 

It has only one Eosh-Hodesh in a Perfect year. It has 30 days in a 
20 Perfect and Intermediate year ; 29 in an Imperfect year. 

8. A fast-day. Its origin is this, that Tehoyakim burned the papers, 
called nii^p i-e- the Lamentations. They contained a promise of God, and 
were brought by the prophet Jeremia. They treated of the condition of 
the Israelites in future times and of the calamities that would befall them. 
Jeremia sent the book through Barukh b. Neriyja, but Tehoyakim 
threw it into the fire, and therefore there arose manifold lamentations. 

Other people fix this fasting on the Thursday falling between the 19th 
and the 25th of this month. 

25. Beginning of the feast Hamikhd, i.e. pxirification. It lasts eight 
30 days, during which they light lamjjs at the door of the hall ; on the first 
night one lamj) for each inhabitant of the house, on the second night 
two lamps, in the third three, etc. etc., and finally eight lamps on the 
eighth night, by which they mean to express that they increase their 
thanks towards Grod from day to day by the purification and sanctification 
of Jerusalem. The origin is this : Antiochus, the king of the Greeks, 
had subdued and maltreated them during a long period. It was his 
custom to violate the women, before they were led to their spouses, in a 
subterranean vault. From this vault two cords led outside, where two 
bells were fixed at their ends. When, now, he wanted a woman, he rung 
40 the right bell, and the woman entered; when he had done with her, he 
rung the left bell and dismissed her. Further, there was an Israelite 
who had eight sons, and one daughter whom another Israelite had 
demanded in marriage. Now, wanting to marry her, the father of his 



p.279. 



272 ALBfR^Nt. 

bride said : " Grive me time ; for I stand between two things. If we 
lead my daughter to you, sbe will be dishonoured by the cursed tyrant, 
and she then is no longer a lawful wife for you. And if she does not 
submit to him, he will make me perish." For this state of things he 
blamed and reviled his sons, who became greatly excited and angry. 
But the youngest of them jumped up, dressed like a woman, hid a 
dagger in his garments, and went to the gate of the king, behaving like 
the whores. Now, the tyrant rang the right bell, and he was ushered 
into his presence ; there, being alone with him, he killed him and cut off 
his head ; then he rang the left bell and was let out, and stuck up the 10 
head (somewhere). Therefore the Israelites celebrate a feast on that and 
the following days (i.e. seven days), corresponding to the number of the 
brothers of this youth. God knows best ! 



Tebeth. 



It has one Rosh-Hodesh in an Imperfect year, two in a Perfect and 
Intermediate year. It has 29 days. 

5. First appearance of darJcness. Ptolemy, the king of the Greeks, 
had asked them for the Thora, compelled them to translate it into Greek, 
and deposited it in his treasury. They maintain that this is the version 
of the Seventy. In consequence darkness spread over the world during 20 
three days and nights. 

8. A fast-day, the last of the three Dark days, so called for the reason 
just mentioned. 

9. A fast-day which they are ordered to keep, the origin of which they 
are ignorant of. 

10. A fast-day, the day on which Nebukadnezar arrived before 
Jerusalem and laid siege to it. 



She bat. 



It has only one Eosh-Hodesh and 30 days. 

6. A fast- day on account of the death of the saints in the time of 30 
Josua b. Nun. Other people fix this fast-day on the Monday between 
the 10th and 15th of this month. 

23. Fasting of the Behellion. Its origin is this : The tribe of Benjamin 
were a godless and lawless set of people, who behaved like the people of 
Lot. Now, there came a man who wanted to pass through their country 
with his wife and maid-servant, making his pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 
Some countryman of his received him in his house ; but scarcely had 
darkness fallen when the people of the place surrounded the door of his 
house, demanding his guest for their lust. Now, the master of the 
house offered to them his own daughter ; but they said : " We do not 40 
want her." Then he gave up to them the servant-girl of his guest, and 
then they raped her the whole night. The girl expired towards dawn. 
Then her master cut her into pieces (12) according to the number of the 



FESTIVALS AND FASTS OF THE JEWS. 273 

tribes of Israel ; and to each tribe he sent one of her limbs, in order to 
rouse their wrath. Now, they assembled and made war upon that tribe, 
but they could not conquer them. Thereupon they fasted on this day 
and humiliated themselves before God. Finally He gave them victory 
over Benjamin ; forty thousand men of this tribe were killed and seventy 
thousand of the others. 



Adhar I. 



It is the leap-month in the leap-year. It does not exist in common 
years, and is not counted among their months. It has two Eosh-Hodesh 
10 and 30 days. There is not fast or feast day in this month. 



Adhar II. 



This is the original Adhar, which is called so in general (without the 
addition of I. or II.) in common years. There cannot be any ambiguity 
about what we just mentioned, speaking of another Adhar preceding this 
one (because this only relates to leap-years). It has two Rosh-Hodesh 
and 29 days. 

7. A fast-day, because on this day Moses b. Amram died, and because 
with his death the manna and the quails ceased to appear. 

9. A fast-day which the Israelites established for themselves at the 
20 time when the war between the people of Shammai and of Hillel took p,280. 
place, in which twenty-eight thousand men were killed. 

Others fix this fast-day on the Monday between the 10th and 15th of 
this month. 

13. TJie fasting of Albiiri (Purim), i.e. casting lots. Its origin is this : 
Once a man called Haman, a man of no importance, travelled to Tustar 
in order to undertake some office. But on the way thither he met with an 
obstacle which prevented him from reaching the end of his journey, and 
this happened on the identical day on which the offices (in Tustar) were 
bestowed. So he missed this opportunity and fell into utter distress. 
80 Now, he took his seat near the temples and demanded for every dead 
body (that was to be buried) 3-1- dirhams. This went on until the 
daughter of King Ahashwerosh died. When people came with her 
body, he demanded something from the bearers, and on being refused he 
did not allow them to pass, until they yielded and were willing to pay 
him what he asked for. But then he was not content with his first 
demand ; he asked for more and more, and they paid him more and 
more, till at last it reached an enormous sum. The king was informed 
of the matter, and he ordered them to grant him his desire. But after a 
week he ordered him into his presence, and asked him: "Who invested 
40 you with such an office ? " But Haman simply answered this : " And 
who forbade me to do so ? " When the king repeated his question, 
Haman said : " If I am now forbidden to do so, I shall cease and give it 
up, and I shall give you with the greatest pleasure so and so many ten 

18 



274 albirunI. 

thousands of denars." The king was astonished at the great sum of 
money which he mentioned, because he with all his supreme power had 
nothing like it. So he said : " A man who gathered so much money from 
the rule over the dead, is worthy to be made wazir and councillor." So 
he entrusted him with all his affairs, and ordered his subjects to obey 
him. 

This Haman was an enemy of the Jews. He asked the Haruspices and 
Aucjures which was the most unlucky time for the Jews. They said : "In 
Adhar their master Musa died, and the most unlucky time of this month 
is the 14th and 15th." Now Haman wrote to all parts of the empire, 10 
ordering people on that day to seize upon the Jews and to kill them. 
The Jews of the empire prostrated themselves before him, and appeared 
before him, crossing their hands upon their breasts, except one man, 
Mordekhai, the brother of Ester, the king's wife. Haman hated her, and 
planned her destruction on that day ; but the king's wife understood 
him. Now she received (in her palace) the king and his wazir, enter- 
taining them during three days. On the fourth day she asked the king 
permission to lay before him her wishes. And then she asked him to 
spare her life and that of her brother. The king said : " And who dares 
to attempt anything against you both ? " She pointed to Haman. Now 20 
the king rose from his seat in great wrath ; Haman dashed towards the 
queen, prostrating himself before her, and then kissing her head, but she 
pushed him back. Now the king got the imjDression that he wanted to 
seduce her ; so he turned towards him and said : " Hast thou in thy im- 
pudence come so far as to raise thy desire to her ? " So the king ordered 
him to be killed, and Ester asked him to have him crucified on the same 
tree which he had prepared for her brother. So the king did, and wrote 
to all parts of the emj)ire to kill the partisans of Haman. So they were 
killed on the same day on which he had intended to kill the Jews, i.e. on 
the 14th. Therefore there is great joy over the death of Haman on §0 
this day. 

This feast is also called the Feast of Megilld, and further Hdmdn-Sur. 
p.281. For on this day they make figures which they beat and then burn, 
imitating the burning of Haman. The same they practise on the 16th. 

Nisan. 

It has only one Eosh-Hodesh and 30 days. 

1. Easting over the death of Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, 
who died because they introduced foreign fire into the temple of God. 

10. Fasting over the death of Maryam, the daughter of Amram, and 
over the sinking and disappearing of the water, a miracle which occurred 4,9 
on account of her death, as the manna and the quails ceased to appear in 
consequence of the death of Moses b. Amram. Some people fix this day 
on Monday between the 5th and the 10th of the month. 

15. Passover-feast, of which we have already treated at such length 



FESTIVALS AND PASTS OF THE JEWS. 275 

that there is no necessity for a repetition. This day is the first of the 
Bays of Unleavened Bread, during which they are not allowed to eat 
leavened bread. For such is the command of God in the third book of the 
Thora (Levit. xxiii. 6), where He says : " On the fifteenth of this month is 
the feast of the unleavened bread unto God. Then you shall eat un- 
leavened bread during seven days, and you shall not work during them." 
These days end with sunset of the 21st. On this day God drowned 
Pharao j it is also called (j«*SU5\. 

lyar. 

10 It has two Eosh-Hodesh and 29 days. 

10. Fasting over the Arh. It is the day when the Israelites were 
deprived of the ark, and when thirty men of them were killed. The 
priest Eli then managed their affairs. His gall-bladder split, and he 
fell dead from his seat, when he heard the news. Others fix this fasting 
on the Thursday between the 6th and 11th of the month. 

28. Fasting, because on this day the prophet Samuel died. 



Siwan. 



It has only one Eosh-Hodesh and 30 days. 

6. The Feast of the Congregation, a great festival, and one of the 
20 D'^^n of the Israelites. On this day their elders were present at 
Mount Sinai, where they heard the voice of God from the mountain 
speaking to Moses, ordering and forbidding, promising and threatening. 
They were ordered to celebrate a feast on this day as a thanksgiving to 
God for having jDreserved them from all mishap in their country, and 
their crops from thunder, cold, and rain. God says in the second book of 
the Thora : " And you shall make a pilgrimage to me thrice in every 
year : first, at the time of the unleavened bread; secondly, when the Thora 
was sent down, this is the pilgrimage of the Feast of the Congregation ; 
and the third time, at the end of the year, when you bring in your fruit 
80 from the fields. Tour feasting and your devotion to God shall be in 
sacred houses." 

On this day they offer the first-fruits. Then they read prayers over 
them and invoke the blessing of God upon them. 

Between the first of the Bays of the Unleavened Bread and the Feast of 
the Congregation there are fifty days. These are the celebrated weeks 
during which they received their commandments, when their law was 
completed, and they were taught all knowledge relating to God. 

Fasting on the Monday between the 9th and 14th. p. 282. 

23. Fasting. They say that on this day Jerobeam b. Nebat ordered the 

40 ten tribes to worship two golden calves, and that they obeyed him. His 

children ruled over them about two himdred and fifty years, imtil Salman 

■ 18 * 



276 albieun!. 

Al'a'sliar, the king of Mosul, conquered them and led them into cap- 
tivity. Then they were united with the other tribes in the time of 
Hizkia. 

Yerobeam b. Nebat was one of the slaves of Solomon, the son of 
David ; he fled from his master, and the Israelites made him their king. 
Then he kept them from making pilgrimages to Jerusalem by the worship 
of these two calves, knowing that if they went to Jerusalem they would 
come to consider why they had made him their king ; they would learn 
the reality of his case, and would depose and kill him. 

25. Fasting over the death of Simeon, Samuel, and Hananya, 10 

27. Fasting, for this reason : one of the Greek kings wanted to force 
Eabba Hananya b. Teradhyon to worship the idol ; he, however, did not 
yield. Therefore the king ordered a Thora to be wraj^ped round him, 
and him to be burned in it. Besides he put in prison Eabba 'Akiba, and 
forbade people to follow him, and he strove to abolish the Sabbath. 



Tammuz. 



It has two Rosh-Hodesh and 29 days. It has no feast. 

17. Fasting, for on this day Moses broke the tables, and the fortifica- 
tions of Jerusalem began to be destroyed at the time when Nebukadnezar 
besieged them. Further, on this day they put up an idol for worship in 20 
Jerusalem, and placed it in the altar- place of the temple, from sheer in- 
solence and rebellion against Grod. On this day the Thora was burned, 
and the sacrifices ceased to be practised. 

Tbh. 

It has only one Eosh-Hodesh and 30 days. 

1. Fasting, because on this day Aaron b. Amram died, and the cloud 
was raised as a miracle in his honour. 

9. Fasting, because on this day they were told in the desert that they 
should not enter Jerusalem, and were sorry in consequence. On this day 
Jerusalem was conquered and entered by Nebukadnezar, who destroyed 30 
it by fire. On this day it was destroyed the second time, and its soil 
ploughed over. 

25. Fasting, because the fire was extinguished in the temple. On this 
day Nebukadnezar left Jerusalem, and the conflagration of its storehouses 
and temples was put an end to. 

28. Fasting, because the lamp of the temple was extinguished in the 
days of the prophet Alias, which was a sign of God's wrath against 
them, 

ETuT 
It has two Rosh-Hodesh and 29 days, but no feast. 40 



FESTIVALS AND FASTS OF THE JEWS. 277 

7. Fasting of the Spies. On this day the spies returned to Moses, and 
brought him the report of the giants. Therefore the Israelites were 
sorry, but Josua b. Nun refuted them. For this reason the fast-day was p.283. 
established. Other Jews, however, place this fast-day on the Monday or 
Thursday which falls within the last seven days before the beginning 
of the next year. 

(On the nVIlT of the Jewish Calendar.) — The reason why they 

did not allow that — 

10 The first of Tishri should ever be 11^^ (I. lY. VI. days of the week), 
Kippur be i;i^ (I. ni. VI.), 

„ Pui-im or Haman Sur ni (H- IV. VII.), 

Passover i-yi (II. IV. VI.), 

'Asereth Tm (III. V. VII.), 

was this, that they wanted to prevent a day for any work falling on a 
Sabbath ; for in that case they would not have been able to celebrate it, 
since they are not allowed to work on a Sabbath. For God says in the 
second book (Exod. xxxv. 2) : "He who works on a Sabbath shall be kiUed." 
And in the fourth book (Num. xv. 32-36) it is related that they found a 

20 man of the Israelites in the desert working on a Sabbath and gathering 
wood. He was brought before Moses and Aaron, and they put him in 
prison. But God said to Moses, " Kill him," and so he was stoned to 
death. 

A second reason (why they did not allow the feasts to fall on the days 
mentioned) was this, that they wished to prevent a Sabbath and another 
day on which all work ceases following each other. 

As for Sunday, j^, they did not allow it to be New- Year's Day, because 
God says in the third book (Levit. xxiii. 24-25) : " On the first day of the 
seventh month you shall have rest, and a memorial of blowing of trumpets. 

30 Then you shall not work on that day, but you shall offer sacrifices." If, 
now, this day follows a Sabbath, the Jew gets two consecutive days of 
rest ; the means of his maintenance are getting scanty, and he is brought 
to a condition in which it is difficult for him to make good the deficiency. 
In this case, 'Ardbhd falls on a Sabbath, and almsgiving, and the other 
works prescribed for this day, could not be carried out. For the same 
reason Kippur could not fall on a Tuesday, nor the preceding Passover 
on a Friday, nor the preceding 'Asereth on a Sabbath, because if this 
were the case the 1st of Tishri would fall on a Sunday. 

The reason why they do not allow New- Year's Day to be a Wednesday 

40 (-f), is that God says in the third book (Levit. xxiii. 27-32) : " On the 
tenth day of the seventh month shall be remission. On this day you shall 
not do the least work from the evening of the ninth of the month till the 
(next) evening." Therefore all work is suspended on Kippur (the 10th, 



278 alb!rx)n!. 

in this case a Friday), and tlie following Sabbath is likewise a day of 
rest. So Kippur cannot fall on a Friday, nor the preceding Passover on 
a Monday, nor the preceding 'Ase^-eth on a Tuesday. 

The reason why they do not allow New-Tear's Day to fall on a Friday 
(\) is this, that Friday is followed by Sabbath, and because in that case 
Kippur would fall on a Sunday, following upon a Sabbath, and the Feast 
of Benediction would fall on a Friday preceding a Sabbath, an order of 
days which is forbidden by the law. For the same reason Kippur cannot 
fall on a Sunday, nor the preceding Passover on a Wednesday, nor the 
preceding 'Asereth on a Thursday, because all this would necessitate 10 
p. 284. New- Tear's Day being a Friday, and thence would result those con- 
sequences which we have mentioned. 

Therefore people endeavoured to construct the calendar in such a way 
as to prevent two days of rest following each other, and 'Ardhhd falling 
on a Sabbath, because on this day they must give alms and must make 
a pilgrimage around the puli:)it, which they call 'Aron, p^l^^, or Kilwddh. 
Further, they had to prevent Piirim falling on a Sabbath, which would 
keep them from burning Haman and uttering their joy thereat. And 
lastly, they had to prevent 'Asereth falling on a Sabbath, because in that 
case they could not bring their seeds and their first-fruits, and other 20 
things that are prescribed for this day. 

'Abu-'lsa Alwarrak speaks in his Kitab-Almakdldt of a Jewish sect 
called the Maghribis, who maintain that the feasts are not legal unless 
the moon rises in Palestine as a full moon in the night of Wednesday, 
which follows after the day of Tuesday, at the time of sunset. Such 
is their New-Tear's Day. From this point the days and months 
are counted, and here begins the rotation of the annual festivals. For 
God created the two great lights on a Wednesday. Likewise they do not 
allow Passover to fall on any other day except on Wednesday. And the 
obligations and rites prescribed for Passover they do not hold to be 30 
necessary, except for those who dwell in the country of the Israelites. 
All this stands in opposition to the custom of the majority of the Jews, 
and to the prescriptions of the Thora. 

The Ananites fix the beginning of the months by the observation of the 
appearance of new moon, and settle intercalation by that sort of prognos- 
tication which we have mentioned. They do not mind on what days of 
the week the feasts fall, except as regards Sabbath. For in this case 
they postpone the feasts to the following Sunday. This postponement 
they call fc^^TTl- On a Sabbath they do not touch any work whatsoever ; 
even the circumcision of the children they postpone till the following 40 
day, in oj^position to the practice of the Rabbanites. 

With the suspension of work on a Sabbath certain curious affairs are 
connected. In the first instance God says in the Coran (Sura vii. 163) : 
" Then their fishes appearing on the surface of the water come to them 
on the day when they celebrate Sabbath; but on a day on which they 



FESTIVALS AND FASTS OF THE JEWS. 279 

do not celebrate Sabbath the fishes do not come to them." Further, 
Aljaihani relates in his Liber Regnorum et Viarum, that eastward of 
Tiberias lies the city of Balinas (Apollonias ?), where the Jordan has its 
source. There the river drives mills, that stand still on a Sabbath and 
do not work, because the water disapj)ears beneath the earth until the 
end of Sabbath. For this occurrence I am unable to find a physical ex- 
planation, because its repetition and revolution is based upon the days of 
the week. Annual occurrences are accounted for by the sun and his rays, 
monthly occurrences by the moon and her light, as e.g. the altar in Greece 

10 which of itself burned the sacrifices on one certain day of the year, under 
the influence of the reflected solar rays which were concentrated on a 
certain sj^ot of the altar, etc. 

'Abu-'lsa Alwarrak relates in his Kitab-Almakdldt that a Jewish sect, 
the Alfaniyya (Millenarii), reject the whole of the Jewish feasts, and p. 285. 
maintain that they cannot be learned except through a prophet, and that 
they keep no other feast-day but Sabbath. 

The following table, the Tabula Argumentationis, illustrates what we 
have stated before regarding the feasts, and shows that New- Year's Day 
cannot fall on the days mentioned, i.e. the days of the sun, of Mercury 

20 and Venus. The red ink indicates a Dies illicita, the black ink a Dies 
licita. If, now, the transversal line of numbers which correspond to the 
feasts mentioned at the tops of the single columns is black from begin- 
ning to end, all these numbers signify Dies licitce ; if, however, some of 
those numbers, or all of them, are written in red ink, these some or all of 
them are Dies illicitce. Opposite the numbers we have placed a special 
column for the terms " Necessary," " Possible," and " Impossible." The 
terms necessary and impossible do not need an explanation. The term 
possible means that if New- Year's Day falls on a Dies licita, but some of 
the numbers indicating the single feast-days in the transversal line are 

80 written in red ink, those days are Dies illicitce in common years, whilst 
they are Dies licitce in a leap-year of the same quality, and vice versa. 
This table shows clearly why some of the (three) kinds of Jewish years 
can follow each other, whilst others cannot, as we have mentioned before. 
For if Rosh-hashshana of a year following after a year of a certain 
quality (2 or UJ) is such as could not be the beginning of a year of 
another quality, these two kinds may follow each other ; in any other 
case they cannot follow each other. From this rule, however, we must 
except the Imperfect years (n)? because the fact that two years 
n cannot follow each other rests on another ground ; hereof we have 

40 already spoken in the preceding part. 



280 



ALBiET^Nt. 



Tabula Argumentation is I. 
3. 4. 5. 6. 



10. 



p.286. 



73 


a* 

(>> 

o 

§ 


i 

m 

•r-t 

o 


1st of Tiehri, upon 
which the other 
feasts depend. 


O 

M 


N't; 


«4H 

o 


1ft . 

--1 fl 

eS 
Ph 


'Asereth, 6th of 
Siwan. 


Beginning of the' 
following year, 
1st of Tishri. 




Imperfect - 


Impossible 


I. 


III. 


VII. 


VII. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 




>> 


Necessary 


2 


4 


1 


1 


3 


4 


6 




» 


Impossible 


3 


5 


2 


n. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 




3> 


Impossible 


IV. 


VI. 


3 


3 


6 


6 


7 




>> 


Possible 


5 


7 


4 


IV. 


VI. 


VII. 


I. 




>» 


Impossible 


VI. 


I. 


6 


5 


7 


1 


2 




» 


Necessary- 


7 


2 


6 


6 


1 


2 


3 




Intermediate 


Impossible 


I. 


III. 


VII. 


1 


3 


4 


6 




>> 


Impossible 


2 


5 


1 


II. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


QQ 


» 


Necessary- 


3 


4 


2 


3 


5 


6 


7 


1 

s 


j> 


Impossible 


IV. 


VI. 


3 


IV. 


VI. 


VII. 


I. 


)> 


Possible 


6 


7 


4 


5 


7 


1 


2 


O 


» 


Impossible 


VI. 


I. 


6 


6 


1 


2 


3 




>> 


Impossible 


r 


2 


6 


VII. 


II. 


in. 


IV. 




Perfect 


Impossible 


I. 


III. 


VII. 


II. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 




» 


Necessary 


2 


4 


1 


3 


5 


6 


7 




j> 


Possible 


3 


5 


2 


IV. 


VI. 


VII. 


I. 




jj 


Impossible 


IV. 


VI. 


3 


6 


7 


1 


2 




>> 


Necessary 


5 


7 


4 


6 


1 


2 


3 




>> 


Impossible 


VI. 


I. 


6 


VII. 


VI. 


III. 


IV. 




»> 


Necessary- 


7 


2 


6 


1 


3 


4 


5 



* The Diea Licitm, in the Arabic original written in black ink, are here written in 
Arabic numerals, whilst the Dies IHiciti", written in the original in red ink, are hero 
written in Latin numerals. 



FESTIVALS AND FASTS OF THE JEWS. 



281 



Tabula Aegumentationis II. 

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 



9. 10. 



10 



20 



i 

Ah 


o 
o 

0) 


m 

'> 

Q 


Istof Tishri, upon 
which the other 
feasts depend. 

Kippur, 10th of 
Tishri. 


<1 


o 

rd . 

Ah 


T— 1 rt 
^ OH 


rid 

CO a 


Beginning of the 
following year, 
let of Tishri. 




Imperfect - 


Impossible 


1 

' I. 

1 


III. 


VII 


II. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 




>> 


Necessary 


1 

2 


4 


1 


3 


5 


6 


7 




» 


Impossible 


3 


5 


2 


IV. 


VI. 


VII. 


I. 




>» 


Impossible 


IV. 


VI. 


3 


5 


7 


1 


2 




» 


Possible 


5 


7 


4 


6 


1 


2 


3 




)> 


Impossible 


VI. 


I. 


5 


VII. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 




»> 


Necessary 


7 


2 


6 


1 


3 


4 


5 




Intermediate 


Impossible 


I. 


ni. 


V. 


3 


5 


6 


7 




>» 


Impossible 


2 


4 


1 


IV. 


VI. 


VII. 


I. 




>> 


Necessary 


3 


5 


2 


5 


7 


1 


2 




>> 


Impossible 


IV. 


VI. 


3 


6 


1 


2 


3 


1-^ 


>» 


Possible 


5 


7 


4 


vn. 


n. 


III. 


IV. 




>> 


Impossible 


VI. 


I. 


5 


1 


3 


4 


5 




j> 


Impossible 


7 


2 


6 


II. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 




Perfect 


Impossible 


I. 


ni. 


VII. 


IV. 


VI. 


VII. 


I. 




»> 


Necessary 


2 


4 


1 


5 


7 


1 


2 




>> 


Possible 


3 


5 


2 


6 


1 


2 


3 




>> 


Impossible 


IV. 


VI. 


3 


VII. 


n. 


III. 


IV. 




)> 


Necessary 


5 


7 


4 


1 


3 


4 


5 




>> 


Impossible 


VI. 


I. 


5 


II. 


IV. 1 


V. 


VI, 




>> 


Necessary 


7 


2 


6 


3 


5 


6 


7 



















p.287. 



282 



ALBIEUJ^I. 



CHAPTER XV. 

p.288. ON THE FESTIVALS AND MEMOEABLE DATS OP THE SYRIAN CALENDAR, 
CELEBRATED BY THE MELKITE CHRISTIANS. 

The Christians are divided into various sects. The first of them are 
the Melkites (Boyalists), i.e. the Greeks, so called because the Greek king 
is of their persuasion. In Greece there is no other Christian sect beside 
them. 

The second sect are the Nestorians, so called after Nestorius, who 
brought forward their doctrine between A. Alex. 720 and 730. 

The third sect are the Jacobites. 10 

These are their principal sects. They differ among each other on the 
dogmas of their faith, as e.g. on the persons (ra Trpoo-wira in Christ), on 
the divine nature, the human nature, and their union (eVcocris). There is 
another sect of them, the Ariani, whose theory regarding Christ comes 
more near that of the Muslims, whilst it is most different from that of 
the generality of Christians. Besides there are many other sects, but 
this is not the place to enumerate them. This subject has been ex- 
haustively treated and followed up into its most recondite details in the 
books treating of philosophical and religious categories and doctrines, 
and which at the same time refute those sects. 20 

The most numerous of them are the Melkites and Nestorians, because 
Greece and the adjacent countries are all inhabited by Melkites, whilst 
the majority of the inhabitants of Syria, 'Irak and Khurasan are 
Nestorians. The Jacobites mostly live in Egypt and around it. 

Certain days of the Syrian months are celebrated among them ; on 
some of them they agree, on others they differ. The reason of their 
agreeing is this, that those days were spread through the Christian 
world before the schism in their doctrines was brought about. The 
reason of the difference is this, that some days belong to one sect and to 
one province in particular. 30 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SYEIAN CALENDAR. 283 

Besides they have other days depending upon their Great Fast, and 
weeks depending upon the most famous days. On this category of days, 
as on the former, they partly agree, partly disagree. 

I shall now enumerate the calendar days of the Melkites in Khwarizm 
according to the Syrian calendar. You find very rarely that the 
Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians in different countries agree among 
each other in the use of festivals and memorial days. Only regarding 
the greatest and most famous feasts they agree, whilst generally on all 
others they differ. 
10 Secondly, I shall speak of their fasting, and all the days connected 
with it, on which the various sects agree. 

Lastly, I shall treat of the feasts and memorable days of the Nestorians, 
if God permits ! 



Tishrin I. 



1. Commemoration (fivi^yu,?;) of the bishop and martyr Ananias, the 
pupil of St. Paul. It is a Christian custom on these commemoration 
days to celebrate the memory of the saint to whom the day is dedicated ; 
they pray to God for him, and j)raise him, and humble themselves before 
God in his name. To every child which is born on this day or later, 

20 until the next commemoration day, they give the name of the saint of the 
day. Frequently, too, they give each other the names of two commemo- 
rations, so as to say ;(, also called N from the commemoration of the 
saint I^. When this commemoration comes, people assemble in his 
house, and he receives them as his guests, and gives them a repast. 

2. Arethas (Harith) of Najran, martyr with the other martyrs. 

3. Mary the nun, who wore man's dress ; she lived like a monk, and p.289. 
concealed her sex before the monks. Being accused of fornication with 

a woman, she bore this wrong patiently, and her sex did not become 
known before her death. When they, then, wanted to wash her body, 
30 and saw the genitals, they found out the reality of the case, and — her 
innocence. 

4. Dionysius, the bishop and astronomer, the pupil of St. Paul. 

These titles (like bishop, etc.) indicate clerical degrees, of which they 
in their religion have nine : — 

1. Cantor, i/'aA.Tvys. 

2. Reader, ]ijO;jO 

3. Hypodiaconus. 

4. Diaconus, in Arabic Shammds. 

5. Presbyter, in Arabic Kass. 

40 6. Bishop, in Arabic ' JJskuf. He stands under the metropoUta. 

7. MetropoUta, who stands under the catJiolicus. The residence of the 
metropolita of the Melkites in Khurasan is Marw. 

8. Catholicus, in Arabic Jdthelik. The residence of the catholicua of 



284 ALBMNi. 

the Melkites in Muhammadan countries is Baglidad. He stands under 
the Patriarch of Antiochia. The Nestorian catholicus is appointed by 
the Khalif on the presentation of the Nestorian community. 

9. Patriarch, in Arabic Batrik. This dignity exists only among the 
Melkites, not among the Nestorians. There are always four patriarchs 
in Christendom ; as soon as one dies, at once a successor is created, being 
chosen by the remaining patriarchs, the catJiolici, and by the other 
dignitaries of the Church. One patriarch resides in Constantinople, 
another in Eome, the third in Alexandria, and the fourth in Antiochia. 
These towns are called OpovoL. 10 

There is no degree beyond that of the patriarch, and none below that 
of the cantor. Frequently they count only from the diaconus upwards, 
and do not reckon the singers and altar-servants among the officials of 
the Church. To each degree attach certain rules, usages, and conditions, 
on which this is not the proper place to enlarge. 

'Abu-Alhusain 'Ahmad b. Alhusain Al'ahwazi, the secretary, reports in 
his BooJc of the Sciences of the Greeks, what he himself has learned in Con- 
stantinople of the degrees of the service both of Church and State. Hia 
report is this : — 

I. Patriarch, highest Church dignitary, supreme authority throughout 20 
the empire. 

II. Xpvo-^s (?) the prefect of the greatest monastery. 

III. 'ETTtcTKOTros, i.e. bishop. 

IV. Mr^rpoTroAtTTys, i.e. the governor [or ruler]. 

V. 'Hyou/tei/os, prefect of a monastery, highly revered by them. 

VI. Ka\6yr]po<;. His degree comes near to that of the Hegoumenos. 
VII. HciTras, in Arabic Kass. 

VIII. Ata/covos, in Arabic Shammds. 

However, the more trustworthy account of the matter is the one given 
above. Because 'Abu-Alhusain has mixed up with the men of the official 30 
degrees other people, who, although important personages, are not exactly 
dignitaries of such and such degree ; or perhaps they belong to one of 
those degrees, but then his description does not fit. 

The laic degrees cf the State service are the following : — 

I. BacrtXei;?, i.e. Csesar, king of the Greeks. 
p.290. II- AoyoOeTrjs, his vazir and dragoman. 

III. IlapaKOLix(])fj.€vo<s, the first of the chamberlains. 

IV. ^ofj.ecTTiKO's, commander of the army. 

V. Ak(tiot<s (?), a man in the king's special confidence in the army, 

similar to the domestictis, both being of the same rank. 40 

VI. Kpxvripxv (?), the head of the TrarptKiot. 

VII. ITaTpiKto?, in Arabic batrik. These batriks are in the army some- 

thing like chief-commander, not to be confounded with the 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SYRIAN CALENDAR. 285 

batriks whom we have mentioned as clerical dignitaries. 
Those who fear the ambiguity of the words call the clerical 
dignitary hat rah. 
VIII. 'Poyarwp, who has to review the army and to pay the stipends of 
the soldiers. 
IX. Srjoarr^yos. His rank is half that of a IlaT/otKtos. 
X. TIpwToo-Tra^aptos, a man in the king's confidence in the army of 

the liaTpiKLos, whom the IlaT/atKtos consults in every affair. 
XI. MayXa/3tT7?s, the officer of the royal whip (Prcefectus lictorum). 
10 XII. "E^ap^os, an officer over 1,000 men. 

XIII. 'EKOTovTapios, a commander of 100 men. 
XIY. IlevTT^Kovraptos, a commander of 50. 
XV. T€o-(TapaKoi/Tapto5, a commander of 40. 
XVI. Tpmi/raptos, a commander of 30. 
XVII. 'EiKocrtTapto?, a commander of 20. 
XVm. AeKapxo?, a commander of 10. 

Now we return to our subject. 

5. Commemoration of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, who are men- 
tioned in the Goran. The Khalif Almu'tasim had sent along with his 

20 ambassador another person who saw the place of the Seven Sleepers with 
his own eyes, and touched them with his own hands. This report is 
known to everybody. We must, however, observe that he who touched 
them, i.e. Muhammad b. Musa b. Shakir himself, makes the reader rather 
doubt whether they are really the corpses of those seven youths or other 
people, — in fact, some sort of deception. 

'All b. Yahya, the astronomer, relates that on returning from his 
expedition, he entered that identical place, a small mountain, the diameter 
of which at the bottom is a little less than one thousand yards. At the 
outside you see a subterranean channel which goes into the interior of 

30 the mountain, and passes through a deep cave in the earth for a distance 
of three hundred paces. Then the channel runs out into a sort of half- 
open hall in the mountain, the roof being supported by perforated 
columns. And in this hall there is a number of separate compartments. 
There, he says, he saw thirteen people, among them a beardless youth, 
dressed in woollen coats and other woollen garments, in boots and shoes. 
He touched some hairs on the forehead of one of them, and tried to 
flatten them, but they did not yield. That their number is more than 
seven, which is the Muhammadan, and more than eight, which is the 
Christian tradition, is perhaps to be explained in this way, that some 

40 monks have been added who died there in the same spot. For the corpses 
of monks last particularly long, because they torture themselves to such 
a degree that finally all their moist substances perish, and between bones 
and skin only very little flesh remains. And therefore their life is ex- 
tinguished like a lamp when it has no more oil Frequently they remam 



286 ALBtRI^Ni. 

for generations in the same posture, leaning on their sticks. Such a 
thing you may witness in regions where monks live. 

According to the Christians these youths slept in their cave three hun- 
dred and seventy-two years ; according to us (Muslims) three hundred 
solar years, as God says in the Coran in the chapter which specially treats 
of their history (i.e. Suraxviii.). As for the addition of nine years (Sura 
xviii. 24 : " And they remained in their cave three hundred years and 
nine years more "), we explain them as those nine years which you must 
add if you change the three hundred solar years into lunar years. To 
speak accurately, this addition would be 10 

9 years, 75 days, 16f hours. 

However, according to the way in which people reckoned at that time, 
p.291. they counted the 300 years as 15 Minor Cycles (of 19 years) plus 15 years 
of the 16th cycle. The number of months that were to be intercalated 
for such a space of time was 110 according to anyone of the Or dines 
Inter calationis which they may have applied to the rest of the (15) years. 
And 110 months amount to 9 years and 2 months. Such fractions, 
however, (as 2 months or ^ year) are neglected in a historical account. 

7. Commemoration of Sergius and Bacchus. 

10. Commemoration of the prophet Zacharias. On this day the angels 20 
announced to him the birth of his son John, as it is mentioned in the 
Coran, and in greater detail in the Gospel. 

11. Cyprianus, the bishop, the martyr, 

14. Gregory of Nyssa, the bishop. 

17. Cosmas and Damianus, the physicians, the martyrs. 

18. Lucas, author of the third Gospel. 
23. Anastasia, the martyr, 

26. Commemoration of the sepulture of the head of John the son of 
Zacharias. 

Tishrin II. 30 

I. Cornutus, martyr. 

II. Menas (M-qvas), martyr. 

15. Samonas, Gurias, and Abibos, the martyrs. 

16. Beginning of the fasting for the nativity of Jesus, the son of 
Mary, Messiah. Peoi^le fast forty consecutive days before Christmas 
(16 NOV.-25 Dec). 

17. Gregorius Thaumaturgos. 

18. Eomanus, the martyr. 

20. Isaac, and his pupil Abraham, the martyrs. 

25. Petrus, bishop in Alexandria. 40 

27. Jacob, who was cut to j^ieces. 

30. Andreas, martyr, and Andreas the apostle. 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SYEIAN CALENDAR. 287 

Kanun I. 

1. Jacob, the first bishop of ^lia. 

3. Johannes, the Father, who collected in a book the rites and laws of 
Christianity. To address a man by the title of " Father," is with them 
the highest mark of veneration, because thereupon (upon the veneration 
towards their spiritual fathers ?) their dogmas are based. There is no 
original legislation in Christianity ; their laws are derived and developed 
by their most venerated men from the canonical sayings of Messiah and 
the apostles. So they represent the matter themselves. 
10 4. Barbara and Juliana, the martyrs. 

5. Saba, abbot of the monastery in Jerusalem. 

6. Nicolaus, patriarch of Antiochia. 
13. The five martyrs. 

17. Modestus, patriarch of ^lia. 

18. Sisin, the catholicus of Khurasan. 

20. Ignatius, third patriarch of Antiochia. p.292. 

22. Joseph of Arimathia 6 /JouXevrrjs, who buried the body of the 
Messiah in a grave which he had prepared for himself, as is related 
towards the end of all four Gospels. Alma'mun b. Ahmad Alsalami 

20 Alharawi maintains that he has seen it in the Church of the Eesurrection 
in Jerusalem, in a vault as a grave cut into the rock in a gibbous form, 
and inlaid with gold. To this grave attaches a curious story, which we 
shall mention when speaking of the Christian Lent. People say that the 
king does not allow the Greeks to visit the grave. 

23. Gelasius, martyr. 

25. In the night after the 25th of this month, i.e. in the night of the 
25th according to the Greek system, is the feast of the Nativity (|j^), 
the birth of the Messiah, which took place on a Thursday night. Most 
people believe that this Thursday was the 25th, but that is a mistake ; it 

30 was the 26th. If anybody wants to make the calculation for this year 
by means of the methods mentioned in the preceding part, he may do so. 
For the 1st of Kanun I. in that year was a Sunday. 

26. David, the prophet, and Jacob, the bishop of ^lia. 

27. Stephanus, head of the deacons. 

28. Herodes killed the chilren and infants of Bethlehem, searching for 
the Messiah, and hoping to kill Him among the others, as is related in the 
beginning of the Gospel. 

29. Antonius, martyr. Christians believe him to be identical with 
'Ahit-Buh, the cousin of Harun Alrashid. He left Islam, and became a 

40 convert to the Christian Church, wherefore Harun crucified him. They 
tell a long and miraculous tale about him, the like of which we never 
heard nor read in any history or chronicle. Christians, however, on the 
whole are very much inclined to accept and to give credit to such things, 
more particularly if they relate to their creeds, not at all endeavouring by 



2S8 ALBiE^Nl. 

the means at their disposal to criticise historical traditions, and to find 
out the truth of bygone times. 

Kanun II. 



1. Basilius, also feast of the Calendce (Calendas). Calendas means 
"may it he good" (KaXoV plus?). On this day the Christian children 
assemble and go round through the houses, crying with the highest voice 
and some sort of melody " Calendas." Therefore they receive in every 
house something to eat, and a cup of wine to drink. As the reason 
of this custom some jDeoj^le assert that this is the Greek New- Year's 
Day, i.e. one week after Mary had given birth to Christ. Others relate 10 
as its reason the following story : Arius on having come forward with his 
theory, and having found adherents, took possession of one of the Chris- 
tian churches, but the people of that church protested against it. Finally 
they arranged with each other, and came to this agreement : That they 
would shut the door of the church for three days ; then they would pro- 
ceed together to the church, and read before it alternately. That party, 
then, to whom the door would open of itself, should be its legal owner. 

So they did. The church door did not open of itself to Arius, but it 
opened to the other party. So they say. Therefore their children do 
p.293. such things in imitation of the lucky message which they received at that 20 
time. 

2. Silvester, the metropolitan, through whom the people of Constan- 
tinople became christianized. 

5. Fasting for the feast of Epiphany. 

6. Epiphany (]**J>) itself, the day of baj)tism, when John, the son 
of Zacharias, baptized Messiah, and made him dive under the baptismal 
water of the river Jordan, when the Messiah was thirty years of age. 
The Holy Grhost came over him in the form of a dove that descended 
from heaven, according to the relation of the Gospel. 

The same, now. Christians practise with their children when they are 30 
three or four years of age. For their bishops and presbyters fill a vessel 
with water and read over it, and then they make the child dive into it. 
This being done, the child is christened. This is what our Prophet 
says : " Every child is born in the state of original purity, but then its 
parents make it a Jew, or Christian, or Magian." 

'Abu-Alhusain Al'ahwazi describes in his book of the Sciences of the 
Greeks the process of christening. First they read prayers for the child 
in the church during seven days, early and late ; on the seventh day it is 
undressed, and its whole body anointed with oil. Then they pour warm 
water into a marble vessel which stands in the middle of the church. On 40 
the surface of the water the priest makes five dots with oil in the figure 
of a cross, four dots and one in the middle. Then the child is raised, its 
feet are placed so as completely to cover the dot in the middle, and it is 
put into the water. Then the priest takes a handful of water from one 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SYEIAN CALBMDAE. 



289 



side, and pours it over the head of the child. This he does four times, 
taking the water successively from all four sides corresponding to the 
four sides of the cross. Then the priest steps backward, and that person 
comes who wants to take the child out of the water, the same who has 
placed it there. Then the priest washes it, while the whole congregation 
of the church is praying. Then it is definitively taken out of the water, 
is adorned with a shirt, and carried away to prevent its feet from touch- 
ing the ground, whilst the whole church cries seven times : Kvpie iXerjaov, 
i.e. " Lord, have mercy upon us ! " Then the child is completely dressed, 
10 always being borne in the arms ; then it is put down. Thereafter either 
it remains in the church, or it goes there again and again during seven 
days. On the seventh day the priest washes it again, but this time 
without oil, and not in the baptismal vessel. 

11. Theodosius, the monk, who tortured himself, and loaded himself 
with chains. 

13. End of the feast of Epiphany. On this day the noble saints on 
Mount Sinai were killed. 

15. Petrus, Patriarch of Damascus. 
17. Antonius, the first of the monks, and their head. 
20 20. Evithymius, the monk, the teacher. 

21. Maximus, the anchorite. 

22. Cosmas, author of Christian canons and laws. 

25. Polycarpus, the bishop, the martyr, who was burned with fire. p.294. 

25. Johannes, called Chrysostouuis. 'IwawT^s is the Greek form for 
John. 

31. Johannes and Cyrus, the martyrs. 

Shubat. 

1. Ejihraem, the teacher. 

2. Wax Feast, in recollection of Mary's bringing Jesus to the temple of 
30 Jerusalem, when he was forty days of age. This is a Jacobite feast, held 

in great veneration among them. People say that on this day the Jews 
introduce their children into the temples, and make them read the Thora. 
If this is the case, it is in Sliebat (the Jewish form of the name) not in 
Shubat (the Syrian form), since the Jews do not use the Syrian names. 

Between the 2nd Shubat and the 8th Adhar the beginning of their 
Lent varies, of which we shall speak hereafter. When fasting they never 
celebrate the commemoration-days we mention, except those that fall on 
a Sabbath ; those and only those are celebrated. 

3. Belesys, martyr, killed by the Magians. 

40 5. Sis Catholicus, who first brought Christianity down to Khurasan. 

14. Commemoration in recollection of the finding of the head of the 
Baptist, i.e. John, the son of Zacharias. 

19 



290 ALBIEUNt. 



Adhar. 



9. The forty martyrs who were tortured to death by fire, cold, and 
frost, 

11. Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem. 

25. Annuntiatio Sanctissimce Deijparce. Gabriel came to Mary an- 
nouncing to her the Messiah. From this day until the day of His birth 
is a little more than 9 months and 5 days, which is the natural space of 
time for a child's sojourn in the mother's womb. Jesus, though he had 
no human father, and though supported by the Holy Ghost, was in His 
eartbly life subject to the laws of nature. And so it is only proper that 10 
also His sojourn in the womb of His mother should have been in agreement 
with nature. 

The mean place of the moon at noon of this day, Monday the 25th 
Adhar A. Alex. 303, for Jerusalem, was about 60 minutes in the first 
degree of Taurus. Those, now, who follow in the matter of the Numu- 
dhdr (i.e. a certain method of investigation for the purpose of finding 
the ascendens or horoscoj)e under which a child is born) the theory of 
Hermes the Egyptian, must assume the last part of Aries and the 
beginning of Taurus as the ascendens of the Messiah. However, Aries 
and Taurus were ascending at the time Christ was born, during the day- 20 
time, because the mean place of the sun for Jerusalem for noon of 
Thursday following after the uight in which Christ was born, is about 
2 degrees and 20 minutes of Capricorn. The above-mentioned time of 
p.295. Christ's sojourning in His mother's womb (9 months 5 days) is, according 
to their theory, a conditio sine quel non for every child that is born in 
the night of Christmas, when the moon is standing under the earth at a 
distance of ^^ circumference from the degree of the horoscope. Now, 
knowing so much about the moon's place on the day of the Annuncia- 
tion, we find that the horoscope (of the hour of Christ's birth) was near 
24 degrees of Pisces. And if we compute the mean place of the moon 30 
for the 25th of Kanun I. for the time when she stands under the earth 
at the distance of J^ circumference, we find the horoscope to have been 
nearly 20 degrees in Aries. 

Both calculations, however, (that of the astrologers and Albiruni's 
own) are worthless, because those who relate the birth of Christ relate 
that it occurred at night, whilst our calculations would lead to the 
assumption that it occurred in the day. This is one of the considera- 
tions which clearly sLow the worthlessness of the Numudhdrs. We shall 
dedicate a special book to the genera and species of the Nuniudlidrs, where 
we shall exhaust the subject and not conceal the truth, if God permits 40 
me to live so long as that, and if He by His mercy delivers me from the 
remainder of pain and illness. 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SYRIAN CALENDAR. 291 



Nisan, 

1. Mary the Egyptian, who fasted 40 consecutive days without any in- 
terruption. As a rule, this commemoration-day is celebrated on the first 
Friday after breaking fast ; therefore, Friday being a conditio sine qua 
non, it falls on the 1st of Nisan only four times in a 8ola7' Cycle, viz. in 
the 4th, 10th, 15th, and 21st years, if you count the cycles from the 
beginning of the yEra Alezandri, the current year included. 

15. The 150 martyrs. 

21. The six synods. Synod means a meeting of their wise men, of 
10 their priests, bishops, and other church dignitaries, for the purpose of 
anathematizing some innovation, and for something like cursing each 
other, or for the consideration of some important religious subject. Such 
synods are not convoked except at long intervals, and if one takes place, 
people keep its date in memory and frequently celebrate the day, hoping 
to obtain a blessing thereby, and wanting to show their devotion. 

1. The first of the six synods was that of the 318 bishops at Nicasa, 
A.D. 325, under the king Constantine, convoked on account of Arius, who 
opposed them in the question of the Persons, and for the purj)ose of per- 
petuating the dogma which they all agreed upon regarding the two 

20 Persons of the Father and the Son, and their agreement regarding thia 
subject that Fast-breaJcing should always ,fall on Sunday after the re- 
surrection of the Messiah ; for there had come forward some people 
proposing to break the fast on the 14th of the Jewish Passover month 
(Teo-o-apecrKaiSeKaTtrai, or Quart decimmii) . 

2. Synod of the 150 bishops in Constantinople, a.d. 381, under the 
king Theodosius, son of Arcadius the Elder, convoked on account of a 
man called " enemy of the Spirit " (7rv€D/xaro/xa;;^os), because he opposed 
the Catholic Church in the description of the Holy Ghost, and for the 
purpose of perpetuating their dogma regarding this Third Person. 

30 3. Synod of the 200 at Ephesus, a.d. 431, under the king Theodosius 

Junior, convoked on account of Nestorius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, p.296. 
the founder of Nestorian Christianity, because he opposed the Catholic 
Church regarding the Person of the Son. 

4. Synod of the 630 at Chalcedon, a.d. 451, under the king Marcianus, 
on account of Eutyches, because he taught that the body of the Lord 
Jesus consisted, before the cVwo-ts, of two natures, afterwards only of one 
nature. 

5. Synod under Justinian I., a.d. 553, convoked for the purpose of 
condemning the bishops of Mopsuestia, of Edessa, and others, who 

40 opposed the Church in its fundamental dogmas. 

6. Synod of 187 bishops in Constantinople, a.d. 680, under Constan- 
tine (Pogonatus) the Believer, convoked on account of Cyrus and Simon 
Magus. 

19 * 



292 ALBIEUNI. 

23. Mar Georgios, the martyr, tortured repeatedly and by various 
tortures, till lie died. 

24. Marcus, author of the second Gospel. 

25. Elias, Catholicus of Khurasan. 
27. Christophorus. 

30. Simeon b. Sabba'e Catholicus, killed in Khuzistan, together with 
other Christians. 

Ayydr. 

1. Jeremia, the prophet. 

2. Athanasius, the patriarch. 10 

3. The Feast of Roses according to the ancient rite, as it is celebrated 
in Khwarizm. On this day they bring Juri-roses to the churches, the 
reason of \%hich is this, that Mary presented on this day the first roses 
to Elizabeth, the mother of John. 

6. Hiob, the prophet. 

7. Feast of the Apparition of the Cross in Heaven. Christian scholars 
relate : — In the time of Constantino the Victorious there appeared in 
heaven the likeness of a cross of fire or light. Now people said to the 
king Constantino, " Make this sign your emblem, and thereby you will 
conquer the kings who surround you." He followed their advice, he 20 
conquered, and therefore became a Christian. His mother Helena he 
sent to Jerusalem to search for the wood of the Cross. She found it, 
but together with the two crosses on which, as they maintain, the two 
robbers had been crucified. Now they were uncertain, and did not know 
how to find out which was the wood of the Cross of Christ. Finally 
they placed each cross upon a dead body : when, then, it was touched by 
the wood of the Cross of Christ, the dead man became alive again. 
Thereby, of course, Helena knew that this cross was the right one. 

Other Christians, who are not learned peoj)le, speak of the cross in 
the constellation of the Dolphin, which the Arabs call Ka'ud (riding- 30 
camel), i.e. four stars close to Alnasr Alwdki', the situation of which is 
like the angles of a quadrangle. They say that at that time this cross 
in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place where Messiah had been 
crucified. Now, it is very strange that those people should not reflect a 
little and find out that there are nations in the world who consider it as 
their business to observe the stars and to examine everything connected 
with the stars for ages and ages, one generation inheriting from the 
p.297. other at least this knowledge, that the stars of the Dolphin are fixed 
stars, which in this quality of theirs had long ago been recognized by 
their ancestors who cared for such things. 

And more than this. This Christian sect indulges m majorem Crucis 
gloriam in all sorts of tricks and hallucinations, e.g. God ordered the 
Israelites to make a serpent of brass and to hang it on a beam, which 
was to be erected, for the purpose of keej)ing off the injury done by the 



40 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OP THE SYRIAN CALENDAR. 293 

serpents when tliey had become very numerous among them in the desert. 
Now from this fact they infer and maintain that it was a prophecy and 
a hint indicative of the Cross (of Christ). 

Further they say that the sign of Moses (i.e. the divine gift by which 
he wrought miracles) was his staff, and a staff is a longitudinal line. 
Now when Christ came, He threw His staff over such a line, and a cross 
was formed, which is to be indicative of the fact that the law of Moses 
was completed (finished) by Christ. But I should think that that which 
is perfect in itself does not admit of any increase or decrease, which you 

10 might prove in this way, that if you threw a third staff over the cross, 
from whatever side you like, you get the lines of the word X {no), which 
means no increase and no decrease. 

This is certainly the same sort of hallucination frequently occurring 
among those Muslims who tiy to derive mystical wisdom from the com- 
parison of the name of Muhammad (>x»^a^) with the human figure. 
According to them the Mim is like his head, the Ha like his body, the 
second Mim like his belly, and the Dal like his two feet. These people 
seem to be completely ignorant of lineaments, if they compare the mea- 
sure of the head and the belly (both expressed by the same letter Mim) 

20 and the quantity of the limbs which project out of the mass of the body, 
forgetting at the same time the means for the perpetuation of our race. 
Perhaps, however, they meant individuals of the feminine, not of the 
masculine sex. I should like to know what they would say of such 
names as in their outward form, but for the addition or omission of one 
letter, resemble the form of the name of Muhammad, for instance, a-.*^ 
or Artjay* (Hamtd or Majid), and others. If you would compare some of 
them according to their method, the matter would simply become ridicu- 
lous and ludicrous. 

More curious still than this is the fact that this Christian sect, in the 

30 matter of the Cross and its verification, refers to the wood of Pceonia. 
For, if you cut this wood, you observe in the plane of the cut lineaments 
which resemble a cross. They go even so far as to maintain that this 
fact originated at the time when Christ was crucified. This wood is 
frequently used in this way, that a piece of it is attached to a man who 
suffers from epilepsy, being considered as a symbol of the resurrection 
of the dead. Now, I should like to know whether they never study 
medical books and never hear of those authors who lived long before 
Christ, and on whose authority the excellent G-alenus gives the descrip- 
tion of this wood. Those who use the works of soul and nature as 

40 arguments regarding physical appearances, from whatever theory they 
start, and how widely soever discordant their theories may be, will 
always manage to find that the starting-point of their argument agrees 
with that which they maintain, and that their first sentence resembles 
that at which they aim. However, such arguments can never be 
accepted, unless there be a reason which properly connects that which is 



294 alb!eun!. 

measured witli that by which you measure, the proof with that which is 
to be proved. There exist, e.g. double formations or correlations in 
things opposite to each other {e.g. black and white, &c.), triple formations 
in many leaves of plants and in their kernels, quadruplications in the 
motions of the stars and in the fever days, quintuplications in the bells 
of the flowers and in the leaves of most of their blossoms, and in their 
veins ; sextuplications are a natural form of cycles, and occur also in bee- 
p.298. hives and snow-flakes. So all numbers are found in physical appear- 
ances of the works of soul and life, and specially in flowers and blossoms. 
For the leaves of each blossom, their bells and veins, show in their 10 
formation certain numbers (numerical relations) peculiar to each species 
of them. Now, if anybody wants to support his theory by referring to 
one of these species, he can do so (i.e. there is material enough for doing 
so), but who will believe him ? 

Also in minerals you find sometimes wonderful physical peculiarities. 
People relate, e.g. that in the MaJcsura (altar-place) of the Mosque in 
Jerusalem there is a white stone, with a nearly-obliterated inscription to 
this effect : " Muhammad is the prophet of God, may God he merciful to 
him ! " And behind the Kibla there is another white stone with this 
obliterated inscription : " In the name of God the clement, the merciful ! 20 
Muhammad is the prophet of Grod, Hamza is his help." Further, stones 
for rings, with the name 'Ali, the Prince of the Believers, are of frequent 
occurrence, because the figure of the name 'AU is frequently found in 
the veins of mountains. 

To this category, too, belong certain forgeries, e.g. some Shi'a preacher 
once asked me to teach him something which he might utilize. So I 
produced to him from the Kitdb-altahvih of Alkindi the recipe of (an 
information how to make) an ink composed of various jDimgent materials. 
This ink you drop upon an agate and write with it ; if you then hold the 
stone near the fire the writing upon the stone becomes apparent in white 30 
colour. Now, in this manner he wrote (upon stones) the names Mu- 
hammad, 'All, etc., even without doing the thing very carefully or under- 
standing it particularly well, and then he proclaimed that these stones 
were formations of nature and had come from such and such a place. 
And for such forgeries he got much money from the Shi'a people. 

Among the peculiarities of the flowers there is one really astonishing 
fact, viz. the number of their leaves, the tops of which form a circle 
when they begin to open, is in most cases conformable to the laws of 
geometry. In most cases they agree with the chords that have been 
found by the laws of geometry, not with conic sections. You scarcely 40 
ever find a flower of 7 or 9 leaves, for you cannot construct them 
according to the laws of geometry in a circle as isoscele (triangles). The 
number of their leaves is always 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 18. This is a matter 
of frequent occurrence. Possibly one may find one day some species of 
flowers with 7 or 9 leaves, or one may find among the species hitherto 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SYRIAN CALENDAR. 29d 

known such a number of leaves ; but, on the whole, one must say nature 
preserves its genera and species such as they are. For if you would, e.g. 
count the number of seeds of one of the (many) pomegranates of a tree, 
you would find that all the other pomegranates contain the same number 
of seeds as that one the seeds of which you have counted first. So, too, 
nature proceeds in all other matters. Frequently, however, you find in 
the functions (actions) of nature which it is her office to fulfil, some 
fault (some irregularity), but this only serves to show that the Creator 
who had designed something deviating from the general tenor of things, 
10 is infinitely sublime beyond everything which we poor sinners may 
conceive and predicate of Him. 

Now we return to our subject. 

8. Commemoration of John, author of the fourth Gospel, and of 
Arsenius, the monk. 

9. lesaia, the prophet. Dadhishu', in his commentary on the Gospel, p. 299. 
calls him W**». God knows best (which is the right form). 

10. Dionysius, the bishop. 

12. Epiphanius, the archbishop. 

13. Julianus, martyr. 

20 15. Feast of Roses according to the new rite, (postponed to this date) 
because on the 4th the roses are still very scarce. On the same date it 
is celebrated in Khurasan, not on the original date. 

16. Zacharias, the prophet. 

20. Cyriacus, the anchorite. 

22. Constantine the Victorious. He was the first king who resided in 
Byzantium and surrounded it with walls. The town was after him 
called Constantinople ; it is the residence of his successors. 

24. Simeon, the monk, who wrought a great miracle. 



Haziran. 



30 1. Feast of Ears, when people bring ears of the wheat of their fields, 
read prayers over them, and invoke the blessing of God for them. 

On the same day commemoration of John the son of Zakaria, through 
which they purpose gaining the favour of God for their wheat. This 
feast they celebrate instead of the Jewish 'Azereth. 

3. Commemoration of Nebukadnezar's burning the children, 'Azarya, 
Hananya, and Michael. Also commemoration of the renovation of the 
temple. 

5. Athanasius, the patriarch. 

8. Cyrillus, the patriarch, who drove Nestorius, the author of 
40 Nestorianism out of the Church, and excommunicated him. 

12. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the four evangelists. 

18. Leontius, martyr. 



296 ALBtRra!. 

21. Berekhya, the presbyter, who brought Christianity to Marw about 
two hundred years after Christ. 

22. Gabriel and Michael, the archangels. Their commemoration they 
consider as a means to gain the favour of God, and they ask God to 
protect the creation from any injury done by the heat. 

25. Birth of John b. Zachariah. Between the annunciation of his 
birth and his birth itself there elapsed 258 days, i.e. 8 months and 
18 days. 

26. Febronia, the martyr, who was tortured to death. 

29. Death of Paul, the teacher, the apostle of Christianity. 10 

30. Peter, i.e. Simeon Kephas, the head of the messengers, i.e. apostles. 



Tammuz. 



1. The twelve apostles, the pupils of Christ. 

2. Thomas, the apostle, who did not believe in Christ when he had 
returned after His crucifixion, until he touched the ribs of His side. There 
he felt the trace of the wound, where the Jews had pierced Him. He is 
the same apostle through whom India was Christianized. 

p.300. 5. Dometius, martyr. 

7. Procopius, martyr. 

8. Martha, the mother of Simeon Thaumaturgus. 20 

9. Commemoration of Nebukadnezar's burning the three children. 
They assert that, if they did not keep this commemoration, they would 
suffer from the heat of Tammuz. 

10. The forty -five martyrs. 

11. Phocas, martyr. 

13. Thuthael, martyr. 

14. John of Marw, the younger, who was killed in our time. 

15. Cyricus, and his mother, Julitta. Cyricus is said to have argued, 
when a child of three years, with decisive arguments against some king. 
Through him fourteen thousand men were converted to Christianity. 30 

20. Feast of the Gra/pes, when they bring the first grapes, and pray to 
God that He may give blessing and increase, rich thriving and growing. 

21. Paphnutius, martyr. 

26. Panteleemon, martyr, the physician. 

27. Simeon Stylites, the monk. 

30. The seventy -two discijiles of Christ. 

lb! 

1. Fasting on account of the illness of Mary, the mother of Christ; it 
lasts fifteen days, and the last day is the day of her death. 

On the same day, commemoration of Solomonis the Makkabean. The 40 
magians killed her seven children, and roasted them in roasting-pans. 



THE FESTIVALS, ETC. OF THE SYRIAN CALENDAR. 297 

5. Moses, tlie son of Amram. 

6. Feast of Mount Tabor, regarding which the Gospel relates that once 
the prophets, Moses, the son of Amram, and Elias, appeared to Christ on 
Mount Tabor, when three of His disciples, Simeon, Jacob, and John, were 
with Him, but slept. When they awoke and saw this, they were frightened, 
and spoke : " May our Lord, i.e. Messiah, permit us to build three tents, 
one for Thee, and the other two for Moses and Elias." They had not yet 
finished speaking when three clouds standing high above them covered 
them with their shadow ; then Moses and Elias entered the cloud and 

10 disapjieared . Moses was dead already a long time before that, whilst 
Elias was alive, and is still living, as they say ; but he does not show 
himself to mankind, hiding himself from their eyes. 

7. Elias, the ever-living, whom we mentioned just now. 

8. Elisha, the prophet, disciple of Elias. ' 

9. Rabula, the bishop. 
10. Mamas, martyr. 

15. Feast in commemoration of the death of Mary. The Christians 
make a difference between " Commemoration " and " Feast " ; the latter is 
an affair of more importance than the former. 
20 16. lesaia, Jeremia, Zakaria, and Hezekiel, the prophets. 

17. The martyrs Seleucus and his bride Stratonice. p.301. 

20. Samuel, the prophet. 

21. Lucius, martyr. 

26. Saba, the monk, weak from age. 

29. Decaj^itation of John. Alma'mun b. 'Ahmad Alsalami Alharawi 
relates that he saw in Jerusalem some heaps of stones at a gate, called 
Gate of the Column ; they had been gathered so as to form something 
like hills and mountains. Now peoj)le said that those were thrown over 
the blood of John the son of Zacharias, but that the blood rose over 
30 them, boiling and bubbling. This went on till Nebukadnezar killed the 
people, and made their blood flow over it ; then it was quiet. 

Of this story there is nothing in the Grosj^el, and I do not know what 
I am to say of it. For Nebukadnezar came to Jerusalem nearly four 
hundred and forty-five years before the death of John ; and the second 
destruction was the work of the Greek kings, Vespasian and Titus. But 
it seems that the people of Jerusalem call everybody who destroyed their 
town Nebukadnezar, ; for I have heard some historian say that in this 
case is meant Judarz b. Shapur b. Afkurshah, one of the Ashkanian 
kings. 
40 30. Commemoration of all the prophets. 

IWL 

1. Festum coronce anni. They pray and invoke God's blessing for the 
end of the year, and the beginning of the new one because with this 
month the year reaches its end. 



298 • ALBiRI^Ni. 

3. Commemoration of tlie seven martyrs killed in Nishapur. 
8. Hanna, mother of Mary, and Joyakim, the father of Mary. 

13. Feast of the renovation of the temple, with prayers. On this day 
they renovate their churches. 

14. Feast in recollection of Constantino and Helena his mother finding 
the Cross, which they seized out of the hands of the Jews. It was buried 
in Jerusalem, but on this subject we have spoken already. 

15. Commemoration of the Six Synods. 

16. Euphemia, martyr. 

20. The martyrs Eustathius, his wife, and mother. 10 

23. Vitellius, martyr. 

24. Thecla, martyr, who was burned to death. On the same day, the 
feast of the Church of the Sweepings (i.e. Church of Resurrection) in 
Jerusalem. 

25. The martyrs Sabinianus, Paulus, and Tatta. 

28. Chariton, the monk. ' 

29. Gregorius, the bishop, the apostle of the Armenians. 

This, now, is all we know of the commemorations and feasts of the 
Melkites, in some of which they agree with the Nestorians. Of these we 
p.302. shall treat in a special chapter, but first we shall give an explanation of 20 
Lent as something which lies in the midst between both sects, being 
common to both of them. 



299 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ON THE CHRISTIAN LENT, AND ON THOSE FEASTS AND FESTIVE DAYS 
WHICH DEPEND UPON LENT AND REVOLVE PARALLEL WITH IT 
THROUGH THE YEAR, REGARDING WHICH ALL CHRISTIAN SECTS 
AGREE AMONG EACH OTHER. 

Heretofore we have explained in sucli a manner as will suffice for every 
want, and more than that, all the particulars relating to the Passover of 
the Jews, its conditions, the mode in which it is calculated, and the 
reason on which this calculation rests. Christian Lent is one of the 
10 institutions dependent on Passover, and is in more than one way con- 
nected with it. We now present such information regarding Lent as 
corresponds to the purpose for which the practices of Lent are intended 
— by the help of Grod and His mercy. 

Christian Lent always lasts forty-eight days, beginning on a Monday 
and ending on a Sunday, the forty-ninth day after its beginning. The 
last Sunday before the end of Lent (or Fast-breaking), is that one which 
they call Sa'anin (i.e. Hosanna or Palm Sunday). 

Now, one of the conditions which they have established is this, that 
Passover (Easter) must always fall in the time between Palm Sunday 
20 and Fast-breaking, i.e. in the last week of Lent. It cannot fall earlier 
than Palm Sunday, nor later than the last day of Lent. 

The limits within which the Jewish Passover revolves, we have already 
heretofore mentioned. Regarding these the Christians do not agree with 
them, nor regarding the beginning of the cycles (Gtgal). The word 
Jijal, or cycle, is an Arabized Syriac word, in Syriac Gigal, meaning the 
same as the Jewish Mahzor. But it is only proper that we should mention 
the Termini peculiar to each nation. So they call the Great Cycle, 
Indictio (sic) ; but as it is troublesome to pronounce this word so 



300 ALBiEl^Nt. 

frequently in our discourse, we shall use tlie term Great Jijal (i.e. Great 
Cycle). 

The difference regarding the cycles has this origin : According to the 
Jews the first year of the ^ra Alexandri is the tenth year of the Cycle 
(Enneadecateris), whilst according to the Christians it is the 13th year. 
For some of them count the interval between Adam and Alexander as 
5069 years, others as 6180 years. The majority uses the latter 
number ; it is also well known among scholars (of other nations). 
It occurs e.g. in the following verses of Khalid b. Yazid b. Mu'awiya b. 
'Abi-Sufyan, who was the first philosopher in Islam ; people say even 10 
that the source of his wisdom was that learning which Daniel had derived 
from the Treasure- Cave, the same one where Adam the father of mankind 
had deposited his knowledge. 

" When 10 years had elapsed besides other 3 complete years, 
And further 100 single years, which were joined in right order to 

6 times 1000, 
He manifested the religion of his lord, Islam, and it was consolidated 
and established by the Flight (Hijra) ; " i.e. Anno Adami 6113. 

p. 303. The Hijra occurred A. Alexandri 933. If you subtract this from the 

just mentioned 6113 years of the ^ra Mundi, you get as remainder 20 

6180 years 

(as the interval between Adam and Alexander). Now they converted 
this number of years into Sinall Cycles, and got as remainder 

12 years, 

i.e. at the beginning of the yEra Alexandri 12 years of the current 
Enneadecateris had already elapsed. 

Further they arranged the years of the Enneadecateris according to the 
Ordo Intercalationis ni^^TH^ (i-^- 2. 6. 7. 10. 13. 16. 18.), because this 
arrangement stands by itself, as not requiring you to subtract anything 
from the years of the era. 30 

In the first year of the cycle they fixed Passover on the 25th of Adhar, 
because in the year when Christ was crucified it must have fallen on this 
date. Starting from this j)oint they arranged the Passovers of all the 
other years. Its earliest date is the 21st Adhar, its latest date the 
18th JSTisan. So the Terminus Paschalis extends over 28 days. 

Therefore the earliest date of Passover falls always by two days later 
than the vernal equinox as observed by eye-sight (i.e. the 19th Adhar). 
And this is to serve as a help and precaution against that which is men- 
tioned in the 7th Canon of the Canones Apostolorum : " Whatever bishop, 
or presbyter, or diaconus celebrates the feast of Passover before the 40 
equinox together with the Jews, shall be deposed from his rank." 



ON THE CHRISTIAN LENT. 301 

If tlie Fast-breaTcing (Fitr) of the Christians were identical with their 
Passover, or if it fell always at one and the same invariable distance from 
Passover, both would revolve through the years either on the same days, 
or j)arallel with each other on corresponding days. Since, however, 
Past-breaking can never precede Passover, its earliest possible date falls 
by one day later than the earliest possible date of Passover, i.e. on the 
22nd Adhar (the 21st Adhar being the earliest date of Passover). And 
the latest date of Fast-breaking falls by one week later than the latest 
date of Passover ; because if one and the same day should happen (to be 

10 Fast-breaking and Passover, i.e. a Sunday), Fast-breaking would fall on 
the next following Sunday. In this case it would fall by one week later 
than Passover. If, therefore, Passover falls on its latest possible date 
(18th Nisan), Fast-breaking also falls on its latest possible date, i.e. on 
the 25th Nisan. 

Therefore the days within which Fast-breaking varies are 35. And 
for the same reason the beginning of fasting varies parallel with Fast- 
breaking on the corresponding days, the earliest being the 2nd Shubat, 
the latest the 8th Adhar. Accordingly the greatest interval between the 
beginning of Lent and Passover is 49 days, the smallest interval 

20 42 days. 

Between the full moon of Passover and the new moon of Adhar in a 
common year, of Adhar Secundus in a leap-year, is an interval of 

44 days, 7 hours, 6 minutes. 

This new moon falls always between the beginning of the smallest in- 
terval and the greatest interval (between the beginning of Lent and 
Passover), and falls near the beginning of Lent. And this new moon p.304. 
has been made the basis of the whole calculation in this way: You 
observe the new moon of Shubat and consider which Monday is the 
nearest to it, the preceding one or the following. If this Monday lies 

30 within the Terminus Jejunii, i.e. between the 2nd Shubat and the 8th 
Adhar, it is the beginning of Lent. If, however, this Monday does not 
reach the Terminus Jejunii, and Hes in the time before it, that new moon 
is disregarded, and you repeat the same consideration with the following 
new moon. In this way you find the beginning of Lent. 

As we have mentioned already, Passover may proceed towards the 
beginning of the year as far as the 21st Adhar, which is its earliest 
possible date. If full moon falls on this day and it is a Sabbath, the 
year is a common year, the new moon by which you calculate falls on 
the 4th Shubat and the preceding Monday, which is the nearest Monday 

40 to this date, and therefore the beginning of the Termimis Jejunii is the 
1st Shubat, if the year be a leap-year, but the 2nd Shubat if the year 
is a common year. This date lies within the Terminus Jejunii, and so it 
is the beginning of Lent. 



302 ALBtE-&N!. 

The latest possible date of Passover is the 18th of Nisan. If full 
moon falls on this day, and it is a Sunday, the year is a leap-year, the 
new moon by which you calculate, i.e. the new moon of Adhdr Secundus, 
falls on the 5 th of the Syrian Adhar, and the 8th of the same month is 
that Monday which follows after this new moon and falls the nearest to 
it, because in this case the 1st of the Syrian Adhar is a Monday. There- 
fore the beginning of Lent is the 8th Adhar, which is at the same time 
the latest possible date for the beginning of the Terminus Jejunii. 

If we were to go back upon the new moon of Adhar Primus, we should 
find that it falls on the 5th Shubat in a common year, whilst the 1st Shubat 10 
is a Sunday. In that case the preceding Monday would be nearest to it 
(the 2nd Shubat), which is the beginning of the Terminus Jejunii. Now, 
this day would be suitable to be the beginning of Lent, if it also corre- 
sponded to all the other conditions (but that is not the case) ; viz. if we 
make this day the beginning of Lent, Fast-breaking would fall about 
one month earlier than Passover ; and this is not permitted, according to 
a dogma of theirs. And if the year were a leap-year, new moon would 
fall on the 4th Shubat, and then the preceding Monday, being the 
nearest to it, would be the 1st Shubat, and this date does not lie within 
the Terminus Jejunii (2nd Shubat — 8th Adhar). Therefore we must 20 
disregard this new moon and fall back upon the following one. 

The followers of Christ wanted to know before-hand the Passover of 
the Jews, in order to derive thence the beginning of their Lent. So they 
consulted the Jews, and asked them regarding this subject, but the Jews, 
guided by the enmity which exists between the two parties, told them 
p.305. lies in order to lead them astray. And besides, the eras of both parties 
differed. Finally, many of the Christian mathematicians took the work 
in hand and made calculations with the various cycles and different 
methods. Now, that method which they at last agreed to 'adopt, is the 
table called XpovtKov, of which they maintain that it was calculated by 80 
Eusebius, Bishop of Csesarea, and the 318 bishops of the Synod of 
Nicsea. 



ON THE CHRISTIAN LENT. 



303 



The Chronicon of the Christians. 



10 



20 



30 



Limar Cycle. 


1 


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L. 


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25 


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25 


18 


4 


25 


11 


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25 




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L. 


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6 


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6 


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L. 


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L. 


19 


10 


2 


17 


10 


24 


17 


2 


24 


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2 


17 


10 


2 


17 


3 


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5 


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26 


8 


1 


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8 


22 


15 


8 


22 


8 


1 


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8 


1 


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22 


15 


1 


22 


L. 


27 


7 


28 


21 


7 


28 


14 


6 


21 


14 


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21 


7 


28 


14 


7 


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14 


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28 


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26 


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pp.306, 
307. 



304 ALEtBUNt. 

p.308. Festivals depending upon Lent. 

[Lacuna.] 

to give up their religion. Then they fled one night and perished to the 
last of them. This Friday they call also The Small Hosanna. 

The first Sunday after Fast-breaking is called the New Sunday, on 
which day Messiah dressed in white. They use it as the commencement 
of all kinds of work, and as a date for commercial agreements and 
written contracts. For it is, as it were, the first Sunday, because the 
preceding one is specially known by a more famous name, i.e. Fast- 
breakiag. 10 

All Sundays are highly celebrated by the Christians, because Hosanna 
and Resurrection fall on Sundays. Likewise the Sabbaths are celebrated 
by the Jews because, as is said in the Thora, Grod rested on this day on 
having finished the creation. And, according to some scholars, Muslims 
celebrate their Friday because on that day the Creator finished the 
creation of the world and breathed His spirit into Adam. According to 
the astrologers, in all religions certain week-days are celebrated, because 
the horoscopes of their proj)hets and the constellations indicative of 
their coming stood under the influence of the planets that reign over 
these respective days. 20 

Forty days after Fast-breaking is the feast of Ascension, always falling 
on a Thursday. On this day Messiah ascended to heaven from the Mount 
of Olives, and He ordered His disciples to stay in that room where He 
had celebrated Passover in Jerusalem, until He should send them the 
Paraclete, i.e. the Holy Ghost. 

Ten days after Ascension is Whitsun Day, always on a Sunday. It is 
the day when the Paraclete came down and Messiah revealed Himself to 
His disciples, i.e. the Apostles. Then they began to speak different 
tongues ; they separated from each other, and each party of them went 
to that country with the language of which they were inspired and 30 
which they were able to speak. 

On the evening of this day the Christians prostrate themselves upon 
the earth, which they do not do between Fast-breaking and this day, for 
during this time they say their prayers standing erect, all in conse- 
quence of some biblical commandment to this effect. The same (pros- 
tration) is proclaimed for all the (other) Sundays by the last Canon of 
the first Synod. 

The beginning of the Fasting of the Apostles, according to the Melkites, 
is a Wednesday, ten days after Whitsunday. It is broken always on a 
Sunday, 46 days after its beginning, 40 

The third day of this fasting, a Friday, is called the Golden Friday. 
For on this day the Apostles passed a lame man in Jerusalem, who 
asked people for a gift. He invoked the name of God, asking them for 
alms. They answered : " We have neither gold nor silver. However, 



ON THE CHRISTIAN LENT. 305 

rise, carry away your bed, and go to your business. That is the best we 
can do for you." The man rose, free from pain, carried away his bed, 
and went to his business. 

Most of these festivals are mentioned in the Table of Fasting, which is 
arranged in seven columns. If you find Fasting by this table, you find 
at the same time these festivals — if God permits ! 



20 



306 ALBtEUNI. 



p-309. CHAPTER XVII. 



ON THE FESTIVALS OP THE NESTORIAN CHRISTIANS, THEIR MEMORIAL 

AND EAST BATS. 

Nestorius, from wliom this sect derives its origin and name, opposed 
the Melkites and brought forward a theory on the dogmas of Chris- 
tianity which necessitated a schism between them. For he instigated 
people to examine and to investigate for themselves, to use the means of 
logic, syllogism, and analogy for the purpose of being prepared to 
oppose their adversaries, and to argue with them ; in fact, to give up 
the Jurare in verba magistri. This was the method of Nestorius himself. IQ 
He established as laws for his adherents those things in which he 
differed from the Melkites, differences to which he had been led by his 
investigation and unwearying study. 

Now I shall proceed to propound all I have been able to learn 
regarding their festivals and memorial-days. 

Nestorians and Melkites agree among each other regarding some 
memorial-days, whilst they disagree regarding others. 

Those days, regarding which they differ, are of two kinds : 

1. Days altogether abolished by the ISTestorians. 

2. Days not abolished by them, but celebrated at a time and in a 20 

manner different from that of the Melkites. 

Further, such Nestorian festivals, not celebrated by the Melkites, 
which are derived from the feast-times common to both sects (Lent, 
Christmas, Epiphany). 

Besides, there is a fourth class of Nestorian feast-days, not iised by 
the Melkites, which are not derived from the (common) feast-times also 
used by the Melkites. 

A. Feasts regarding which Nestorians and Melkites agree among each 
other : Christmas, Epiphany, the Feast of Wax, the beginning of the 



THE FEASTS AND EASTS OE THE NESTORIAN CHRISTIANS. 307 

Fasting, the Great Hosanna, the Washing of the Feet of the Apostles, 
the Passover of the Messiah, the Friday of Crucifixion, Eesurrection, 
Fast-breaking, the New Sunday, Ascension, and Whitsunday, the fasting 
of Our Lady Mary, and some of the memorial- days which we have 
mentioned heretofore. 

B. Feasts common to both sects, but celebrated by the Nestorians at 
a time and in a manner different from that of the Melkites : — 

1. Ma'aVthd (Ingressus) . On this feast they wander from the naves 
of the churches up to their roofs, in commemoration of the returning of 

10 the Israelites to Jerusalem. It is also called \L^ ^sjOfi (Sanctification 
of the Church). It is celebrated on the first Sunday of Tishrin II., if the 
1st of this month falls on a Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, or 
Sunday ; but if it falls on a Monday or Tuesday, the feast is celebrated 
on the last Sunday of Tishrin I. The characteristic mark of the day, as I 
have heard John the Teacher say, is this, that it is the Sunday falling 
between the 30th of Tishrin I. and the 5th of Tishrin II. 

2. Subbdr (Annuntiatio), Feast of the annunciation to Mary that she 
was pregnant with the Messiah, celebrated on the first Sunday in 
Kanun I., if the first of the month falls on a Friday, Saturday, or Sun- 

20 day ; but if it falls on a Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, 
the feast is celebrated on the last Sunday of Tishrin II. In every case 
it is the 5th Sunday after the Sunday of Ma'al'thd. 

In the year when the Messiah was born, the 1st of Kanun I. was a 
Sunday. Between this day and that of His birth there are 25 days. 
Now, Christians say : Messiah differs from mankind in so far as He 
has not originated through an act of begetting ; likewise the period of p.310. 
His sojourning in the womb of His mother is contrary to the ways of 
human nature. The annunciation (of the pregnancy) may already have 
occurred at a time when the embryo (or growing child) was already 

80 settled in the womb ; it may also have occu.rred earlier or later. I 
have been told that the Jacobites celebrate Subhdr on the 10th of the 
Jewish Nisan ; this day fell, in the year j)i'eceding the year of Christ's 
birth, oh the 16th of the Syrian Adhar. 

3. The Fasting of Our Lady Marij. It begins on Monday after the 
Sunday of Suhbdr, and it ends on Christmas-day. 

4. The Decollation of John the Baptist. The Nestorians celebrate it on 
the 24th of lb. 

5. Commemoration of Simeon b. Sabbd'e, i.e. son of the dyers, on the 
17th lb. 

40 6. The Feast of the Cross, celebrated by the Nestorians on the 13th 
llul. For on this day Helena found the Cross, and she showed it to the 
people on the following day, the 14th. Therefore the Christians came 
to an agreement among each other, the Nestorians adopting the day of 
the finding, the others the day when it was shown to the people. 

20 * 



308 ALBfEUNt. 

C. Feasts celebrated by the Melkites only, and fixed by them on 
certain dates of their own, are, e.g. : — 

1. Commemoration of John of Kashkar, on the 1st Tishrin I. 

2. Commemoration of Mar Phetion, on the 25th of Tishrin I. 

3. The feast of the Monastery of John, on the 6th of Kanun I. 

4. The feast of the Church of Mary in Jerusalem, on the 7th of 
Kanun II. 

5. Commemoration of Mar Wy, on the 25th of Haziran. 

6. Beginning of the Feast of Revelation, on the 6th of Ab ; it is the 
last day on which Christ appeared to men. On the same day the feast 10 
of Dair-Alnds. The end of the Feast of Revelation is on the 16th Ab. 

7. Feast of Mar Mart, on the 12th Ab. 

8. Commemoration of Crisp inus and Crispinianus, on the 3rd llul. 

D. Feasts fixed by the Nestorians on certain week-days, regarding 
which the two sects have nothing in common. For instance : — 

1. Commemoration of the monk Kuta or Mar Sergius, on the 7th 
Tishrin I., if the 1st of the month is a Sunday ; in any other case it is 
postponed to the Sunday following next after the 7th. 

2. Commemoration of Solomonis, on the following Sunday, according 

to the practice of the Christians of Baghdad. 20 

3. The Feast of Dair-Abi Khalid, on the first Friday in Tishrin II. 

4. Feast of the Monastery of Alkadisiyya, on the third Friday of 
Tishrin II. 

5. Feast of Dair-Alkahhal, on the fourth Friday of Tishrin II. 

6. Commemoration of Va-,^ (Mar Saba ?), on the last Sunday of llul. 

7. Feast of Dair-Altha'alib, on the last Sabbath of llul ; but if the 1st 
of Tishrin I. of the next year be a Sunday, the feast is postponed to 
this day, and falls no longer in llul. In that case the feast does not at 
all occur in the year in question, whilst it occurs twice in the following 
year, once at the beginning and once at the end. 30 

p.311. E. Of those feasts, depending on certain days, which are common to 
both sects, there are three classes : — 

I. Those depending on the Lent or Fast-breaking. 
II. Those depending on Christmas. 
III. Those depending on Epij^hany. 

I. Feasts depending on the beginning or end of Lent are, e.g. : — 

1. The Friday of joW\, the 12th day after beginning of Lent. 

2. Alfa,ruka, i.e. liberation, on Thursday, the 24th day after beginning 
of fasting. 

3. Commemoration of Mar V^y and commemoration of Mar Cyriacus, 40 
the Child who preferred death to apostasy, on Friday the 20th day after 
Fast-breaking. 



THE FEASTS AND FASTS OF THE NESTORIAN CHRISTIANS. 309 

4. Commemoration of Sunn and Duran the Armenians, who were 
killed by the king Sha^xir, on Sunday the 29th day after Fast-breaking. 

5. Fasting of the Apostles, according to the Nestorians, always 
beginning on Monday, seven weeks after the Great Fast-breaking 
following after Whitsunday. It lasts during 46 days, and it is broken 
always on a Friday. 

6. Commemoration of Mar Abda, the pupil of Mar Mari, on Thursday, 
the 14th day after the end of the Fasting of the Apostles, which again 
depends on the Great Fast-breaking. 

10 7. Commemoration of Mar Mari on Friday, the 15th day after the end 
of the Fasting of the Apostles. 

8. Fasting of Elias, beginning on Monday, 21 weeks after the Great 
Fast-breaking ; it lasts during 48 days, and it ends on a Sunday. 

Fasting of Ninive, on Monday, 22 days before the beginning of 
Lent, lasting three days. Tradition says that the people of the prophet 
Jona, after punishment had come upon them, and after God had again 
released them and they were in safety, fasted these three days. 

10. The Night of AlmdsMsh (the spy) is the night of a Friday, in 

vvrhich as people say — they seek Messiah. There is, however, a diffe- 

20 rence ; according to some it is the night of Friday, the 19th day after 
the Fasting of Elias ; according to others it is the Friday on which 
Christ was crucified, called Alsalahut ; according to others it is the 
Friday of the Martyrs, one week after Alsalahut. The preference we 
give to the first of these three opinions. 

If, now, you know the beginning of Lent of a year in question, com- 
pare the column of the common year, if the year be a common year, or the 
coliimn of the leap-year, if the year be a leap-year, and opposite, in 
the table of the feasts depending on Lent, you will find the date of 
every feast in question, and also the date of the Fasting of Ninive, 
30 which precedes Lent. 

Here follows the table. 



310 



ALBlRfjNt. 



pp.312, 
313. 



Table of the Feasts depending on Lent. 



II. 


II. VI. V. 


VI. 


I. 


rv. 


II. 


VI. 


V. 


VI. 


II. 


VI. 


II. II. 


S o 

J° 

a 
'a 03 . 

p H 
'S)H a 


a 

0) 

o >, 

blip, 
3 ^ 


CM 
O 


03 


ft 

it 


1 

a 

02 

H 


§^ 1 


m O 

<1 !=l c3 

-^ as, 

=« § IP 
p=( 


(A 

a 
1 




1| 
|§ 

is 



§ 

s 

1^ 


1 


1 

3 


1 



1 






i 




1 


<oi 
m 


1 


<t3 

5 


1 




1 


1 


,0 

< 


3 
PI 




M 
M 

a 
•a 


2 


3 


13 14 


26 27 


10 


19 


20 


11 


22 


9 


10 


17 


4 


12 


12 13 


3 


4 


14 15 27 28 


11 


20 


21 


12 


23 


10 


11 


18 


5 


13 


13 14 


4 


5 


15 16 28 29 


12 


21 


22 


13 


24 


11 


12 


19 


6 


14 14 15 


5 


6 


16 17 


1 Ad- 


13 


22 


23 


14 


25 


12 


13 


20 


7 


15 15 16 


6 


7 


17 18 


Mr. 

2 


14 


23 


24 


15 


26 


13 


14 


21 


8 


16 16 17 


7 


8 


18 19 


3 


15 


24 


25 


16 


27 


14 


15 


22 


9 


17 117 18 


8 


9 


19 20 


4 


16 


25 


26 


17 


28 


15 


16 


23 


10 


18 18 19 


9 


10 


20 21 


5 


17 


26 


27 


18 


29 


16 


17 


24 


11 


19 19 20 


10 


11 


21 22 


6 


18 


27 


28 


19 


30 


17 


18 


25 


12 


20 20 21 


11 


12 


22 23 


7 


19 


28 


29 


20 


31 


18 


19 


26 


13 


21 i21 22 


12 


13 


23 24 


8 


20 


29 


30 


21 


IHa- 
ziran. 


19 


20 


27 


14 


22 j22 23 


13 


14 


24 25 


9 


21 


30 


31 


22 


2 


20 


21 


28 


15 


23 23 24 


14 


15 


25 26 


10 


22 


lAy- 

yar. 


IHa- 
ziran 


23 


3 


21 


22 


29 


16 


24 [24 25 

1 


16 


16 


26 27 


11 


23 


2 


2 


24 


4 


22 


23 


30 


17 


25 !25 26 


16 


17 


27 28 


12 


24 


3 


3 


25 


5 


23 


24 


31 


18 


26 '26 27 


17 


18 


28 29 


13 


25 


4 


4 


26 


6 


24 


25 


1 1161 


19 


27 27 28 


18 


19 


lAd- 
har. 


14 


26 


5 


5 


27 


7 


25 


26 


2 


20 


28 ,28 29 


19 


20 


2 


15 


27 


6 


6 


28 


8 


26 


27 


3 


21 


29 '29 30 


20 


21 


3 


16 


28 


7 


7 


29 


9 


27 


28 


4 


22 


30 30 31 


21 


22 


4 


17 


29 


8 


8 


30 


10 


28 


29 


5 


23 


31 31 1 

Shu. 
i bat. 


22 


23 


5 


18 


30 


9 


9 


31 


11 


29 


30 , 


6 


24 


ITish- 1 2 




























rin II. 




23 


24 


6 


19 


lAy- 
yar. 


10 


10 


IHa- 

ziran. 


12 


30 


31 


7 


25 


2 


2 3 


24 


25 


7 


20 


2 


11 


11 


2 


13 


31 


lAb. 


8 


26 


3 


3 4 


25 


26 


8 


21 


3 


12 


12 


3 


14 


lAb. 


2 


9 


27 


4 


! 4 5 


26 


27 


9 


22 


4 


13 


13 


4 


15 


2 


3 


10 


28 


5 


5 6 


27 


28 


10 


23 


5 


14 


14 


5 


16 


3 


4 


11 


29 


6 


6 7 


28 


29 


11 


24 


6 


15 


15 


6 


17 


4 


5 


12 


30 


7 


7 8 


1 


1 


12 


25 


7 


16 


16 


7 


18 


5 


6 


13 


ITisli 
rin I. 


8 


8 9 


2 


2 


13 


26 


8 


17 


17 


8 


19 


6 


7 


14 


2 


9 


9 10 


3 


3 


14 


27 


9 


18 


18 


9 


20 


7 


8 


15 


3 


10 


10 11 


4 


4 


15 


28 


10 


19 


19 


10 


21 


8 


9 


16 


4 


11 


11 12 


5 


5 


16 


29 


11 


20 


20 


11 


22 


9 


10 


17 


5 


12 


12 13 


6 


6 


17 


30 


12 


21 


21 


12 


23 


10 


11 


18 


6 


13 


il3 14 


7 


7 


18 


31 


13 


22 


22 


13 


24 


11 


12 


19 


7 


14 


14 15 


8 


8 


19 


INi- 
sar. 


14 


23 


23 


14 


25 


12 


13 


20 


8 


15 


15 16 



10 



20 



30 



40 



THE FEASTS AND FASTS OF THE NESTOEIAN CHRISTIANS. 311 

II. The feasts depending on Christmas are these :— The Feast of the p.314. 
Temple on Sunday after Christmas ; the Commemoration of Our Lady 
Mary, lit Mart Maryam — Mart means midier nohilis, domma— on Friday 

after Christmas. If, however, Christmas falls on Thursday, it is post- 
poned until the second Friday, for this purpose, that Christmas and this 
Commemoration should not follow each other immediately. For only 
the nigU of Thursday lies in the middle between the day of Thursday 
and the day of Friday (not one complete day). 

III. Feasts depending on Epiphany :— The Fast of the Virgins on 
10 Monday after Epiphany ; it lasts three days, and is broken on Thursday. 

It is also in use among the 'Ibadites and the Arab Christians, who relate 
this story : Once the King of Al-hira, before the time of Islam, chose a 
number of women from among the virgins of the 'Ibadites, whom he 
wanted to take for himself. Now, they fasted three days without any 
interruption, and at the end of them the king died without having 

touched them. 

According to another report, this fast was kept by the Christian 

virgins among the Arabs as a thanksgiving to God for the victory which 

the Arabs gained over the Persians on the day of Dhu Kar. So they 

20 were delivered from the Persians, who did not get into their power the 

virgin Al'ankafir, the daughter of Alnu'man. 

Frequently this fast is connected with the Ninive-Fast. For if Lent 
falls on its earliest date, the Monday after Epiphany is the Fast of the 
Yirgins. Then there are twenty-two days between this fast and Lent. 
In that case this day is also the beginning of the Fast of Ninive. Both 
fasts {Jejunium Virginum et Jejunium Niniviticum) last three days. 

Thereupon they celebrate the Commemoration of Mar Johannes on 
Friday after Epiphany. 

The Commemoration of Peter and Paul on the second Friday after 
80 Epiphany, that one which follows after the Commemoration of Mar 
Johannes. Paulus was a Jew. Now, they maintain that Messiah worked 
a miracle in blinding his eyes and making them see again, whereupon 
he believed in Him. Then Messiah sent him as an apostle to the 
nations. Petrus is the same as Simeon Kephas. 

The Commemoration of the Four Evangelists, on the third Friday. 

The Commemoration of Stephanus, martyr, on the fourth Friday. 
Some people place it on Thursday, one day earlier. 

The Commemoration of the Syrian Fathers, on the fifth Friday. 

The Commemoration of the Greek Fathers, i.e. Diodorus, Theodoras, 
40 and Nestorins, the bishops, on the sixth Friday. 

The Commemoration of Mar Abba Catholicus, on the seventh Friday. 

The Commemoration of the Children of Adam, i.e. of all mankind 
that have died up to that date, on the eighth Friday. But if there are 
not enough Fridays, and Lent is near, they drop the Commemoration of 
the Syrian Fathers, and celebrate instead the Commemoration of Mar 



312 ALBtRUNi. 

Abba Catliolicus, and then they proceed according to the original order. 
During Lent they drop the Fridays, and on the evening of every Friday 
they have a Kuddds, i.e. worship. 

They have constructed for the days depending on Christmas and 
Epiphany and the week-days in question a table, indicating their dates 
in the Syrian months. If you want to use it, take the years of the JEra 
p.315. Alexandri, including the current year, and change them into solar cycles. 
With the remainder compare the Column of Numibers in the table of 
the Nestorian festivals. There you find opposite the number each 
festival ; if in red ink, its date in the month written in red ink at the 10 
top of the column ; if in black ink, the date in the month written in 
black ink at the toj) of the column. Over the whole you find the week- 
day on which the feast always falls. 

If we knew the system of the Jacobite Christians, we should explain 
it, as we have explained those of the other Christians. However, we 
never met with a man who belonged to their sect or knew their 
dogmas. 

Here follows the table. 



THE FEASTS AND FASTS OF THE NESTORIAN CHRISTIANS. 313 



I. I. I. VI. VI. VI. I. II. I. VI. II. VI. VI. VI. III. VI. 


VI. VI. 


VI. 


VI. 


I. VII. 




M 


1— I 


wK 


M 




M 
M 


H' • 


-M 


.M 


. M 


h-i 


M 


M 


M 


i-i 


M 










M 
















h- 1 


^ M 


1— 1 1— 1 


M M 


1— 1 


M 


M 


M 


h- 1 


^ 










a 

^•3 




Pi 


<B 


a a 


fl 


<s 


a 


Is 


<So 


a s 


a a 


PI 


a 


a 


fl 


1=1 <"S' 


gs- 


S' -os' 


««' 


^'b 








u 

-s 


ii 


s 


'S 

-g 


1 






t'i 






<3 


<d 




p-g 


a-S 








, 




CO 




Sh 


i 


H 


H 


&U 


HM 




MM 


.C3 

M 


<ctl 

M 


M 


•Hi 

M 


Mm 


Mm 


^ ^ 


^ 


2 


*3 .M 

hb 









— 











































.53 


o 




O 


o 










g 


o 


6 


9 


1 


6 


a> 




1 


1 


§ 






o 
.2 


"o 

02 

o 

1 




1. 


o 




a 
o 

_"§ 

a 




ft 


O 

■■3 
§ 


to" 


1-5 
O 

1 


PM 
o 
o 


o 

a 
o 


1-1 

u 

3 

II 

C d 


02 

o 


+3 +3 
o o 


O 

ai 
o;3 


a"^ 


<4H 
O 

a 






1 

o • 


1 

o 




5S 


|| 


'a 



3 
a 
<1 


'3 


EH 

1 






1 

o 


'-+3 


o ^ 


IS 

o o 


1 

o . 


1-" 


§1 


'-+3 o 
o d 


o a 


la 
o 


1 


o 

! a 


S 2 


i.2 






°l 


°o 


o 


o 


o 




■o° 


S s 






S to 

S g 

aa 


ai£ 

a> 5 


a a 


iS 


a^ 


53 r^ 


a 





s 


1 2f 


fl fl 


x^ 


4^*^ 


-g Al. 


.^J 


+^ 


o 


+3 


B-e 


-^J 


a g 




a i 


a s 


11 


a s 


a.a 


3^ 


a*(3i 


-P 




§M 


O " 




§<1 


§^ 


i 




c3 




as 




i-^ 


o ^ 


^ > 


i^^ 


a-s 

o ^ 


15 


i^ 


gS 


1^ 




o 


o 


o 


fM 


pR 


Ph 


Ph 


N 


Ph 


o 


Ph 


Q 


O 


O 


o 


Q 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


1 


7 


14 
21 


4 


2 


16 


23 


2 


3 


30 


28 


7 


11 


18 


25 


29 


1 


8 


15 


22 


1 


30 


1.29 


2 


13 


20 
27 


3 


1 


15 


22 


1 


2 


29 


3 


13 


10 


17 


24 


4 


31 


7 


14 


21 


28 


29 


28 


*3 


12 


19 

26 


2 


7 


21 


28 


30 


1 


28 


2 


12 


9 


16 


23 


3 


30 


6 


13 


20 


27 


28 


27 


4 


10 


17 
24 


31 


5 


19 


26 


28 


29 


26 


31 


10 


7 


14 


21 


1 


28 


4 


11 


18 


25 


26 


25 


5 


9 


16 
23 


30 


4 


18 


25 


27 


5 


1 


30 


9 


13 


20 


27 


31 


3 


10 


17 


24 


3 


25 


24 


6 


8 


15 
22 


5 


3 


17 


24 


3 


4 


31 


29 


8 


12 


19 


26 


30 


2 


9 


16 


23 


2 


24 




*7 


7 


14 
21 


4 


2 


16 


23 


2 


3 


30 


28 


7 


11 


18 


25 


29 


1 


8 


15 


22 


29 


30 


1.29 


8 


12 


19 
26 


2 


7 


21 


28 


30 


1 


28 


2 


12 


9 


16 


23 


3 


30 


6 


13 


20 


27 


28 


27 


9 


11 


18 
25 


1 


6 


20 


27 


29 


30 


27 


1 


11 


8 


15 


22 


2 


29 


5 


12 


19 


26 


27 


26 


10 


10 


17 
24 


31 


5 


19 


26 


28 


29 


26 


31 


10 


7 


14 


21 


1 


28 


4 


11 


18 


25 


26 


25 


*11 


9 


16 
23 


30 


4 


18 


25 


27 


5 


1 


30 


9 


13 


20 


27 


31 


3 


10 


17 


24 


2 


25 


24 


12 


7 


14 
21 


4 


2 


16 


23 


2 


3 


30 


28 


7 


11 


18 


25 


29 


1 


8 


15 


22 


1 


30 


29 


13 


13 


20 

27 


3 


1 


15 


22 


1 


2 


29 


3 


13 


10 


17 


24 


4 


31 


7 


14 


21 


28 


29 


28 


14 


12 


19 
26 


2 


7 


21 


28 


30 


1 


28 


2 


12 


9 


16 


23 


3 


30 


6 


13 


20 


27 


28 


27 


ns 


11 


18 
24 


1 


6 


20 


27 


29 


30 


27 


1 


11 


8 


15 


22 


2 


29 


5 


12 


19 


26 


27 


26 


16 


9 


16 
23 


30 


4 


18 


25 


27 


5 


1 


30 


9 


13 


20 


27 


31 


3 


10 


17 


24 


3 


25 


24 


17 


8 


15 
22 


5 


3 


17 


24 


3 


4 


31 


29 


8 


12 


19 


26 


30 


2 


9 


16 


23 


2 


24 




18 


7 


14 
21 


4 


2 


16 


23 


2 


3 


30 


28 


7 


11 


18 


25 


29 


1 


8 


15 


22 


1 


30 


1.29 


n9 


13 


20 
27 


3 


1 


15 


22 


1 


2 


29 


3 


13 


10 


17 


24 


4 


31 


7 


14 


21 


28 


29 


28 


20 


11 


18 
25 


1 


6 


20 


27 


29 


30 


27 


1 


11 


8 


15 


22 


2 


29 


5 


12 


19 


26 


27 


26 


21 


10 


17 

24 


31 


5 


19 


26 


28 


29 


26 


31 


10 


7 


14 


21 


1 


28 


4 


11 


18 


25 


26 


25 


22 


9 


16 
23 


30 


4 


18 


25 


27 


5 


1 


30 


9 


13 


20 


27 


31 


3 


10 


17 


24 


3 


25 


24 


*23 


8 


15 

22 


5 


3 


17 


24 


3 


4 


31 


29 


8 


12 


19 


26 


30 


2 


9 


16 


23 


1 


24 




24 


13 


20 

27 


3 


1 


15 


22 


1 


2 


29 


3 


13 


10 


17 


24 


4 


31 


7 


14 


21 


28 


29 


1.28 


25 


12 


19 

26 


2 


7 


21 


28 


30 


1 


28 


2 


12 


9 


16 


23 


3 


30 


6 


13 


20 


27 


28 


27 


26 


11 


18 
25 


1 


6 


20 


27 


29 


30 


27 


1 


11 


8 


15 


22 


2 


29 


5 


12 


19 


26 


27 


26 


*27 


10 


17 

24 


31 


5 


19 


26 


28 


29 


26 


31 


10 


7 


14 


21 


1 


28 


4 


11 


18 


25 


26 


25 


28 


8 


15 

22 


5 


3 


17 


24 


3 


4 


31 


29 


8 


12 


19 


26 


30 


2 


9 


16 


23 


2 


24 





pp.316, 
317. 



314 albIr^!. 



p.318. CHAPTER XVIII. 

ON THE FEASTS OP THE ANCIENT MAGIANS AND ON THE PAST AND 
PEAST DAYS OP THE SABIANS. 

The ancient Magians existed already before the time of Zoroaster, but 
now tbere is no pure, unmixed portion of them who do not practise the 
religion of Zoroaster. In fact, they belong now either to the Zoroastrians 
or to the Shamsiyya sect (sun- worshippers). Still, they have some 
ancient traditions and institutes, which they trace back to their original 
creed ; but in reality those things have been derived from the laws of 
the sun-worshippers and the ancient people of Harran. 10 

As regards the Sabians, we have already explained that this name 
applies to the real Sabians, i.e. to the remnants of the captive Jews in 
Babylonia, whom Nebukadnezar had transferred from Jerusalem to that 
country. After having freely moved about in Babylonia, and having 
acclimatized themselves to the country, they found it inconvenient to 
return to Syria ; therefore they preferred to stay in Babylonia. Their 
religion wanted a certain solid foundation, in consequence of which they 
listened to the doctrines of the Magians, and inclined towards some of 
them. So their religion became a mixture of Magian and Jewish elements 
like that of the so-called Samaritans who were transferred from 20 
Babylonia to Syria. 

The greatest part of this sect is living in Sawad-al-'Irak. These are 
the real Sabians. They live, however, very much scattered and nowhere 
in places that belong exclusively to them alone. Besides, they do not 
agree among themselves on any subject, wanting a solid ground upon 
which to base their religion, such as a direct or indirect divine revelation 
or the like. Genealogically they trace themselves back to Enos , the son 
of Seth, the son of Adam. 

The same name is also applied to the Harranians, who are the remains 
of the followers of the ancient religion of the West, separated (cut off) 30 
from it, since the Ionian G-reeks (i.e. the ancient Greeks, not the PcofxaloL 
or Byzantine Greeks) adopted Christianity. They derive their system 



THE FEASTS AND FASTS OP THE MAGIANS AND SABIANS. 315 

from Aghadhimun (Agathodaemon), Hermes, Walis, Mabfi, Sawar. They 
believe that these men and other sages like them were prophets. This sect 
is much more known by the name of Sabians than the others, although 
they themselves did not adopt this name before A. H. 228 under 
Abbaside rule, solely for the purj)ose of being reckoned among those 
from whom the duties of Dhimma (jx^TotKia) are accepted, and towards 
whom the laws of Dhimma are observed. Before that time they were 
called heathens, idolaters, and Harranians. 

They call the months by the Syrian names and use them in a similar 

10 way to the Jews, whom they imitate, the Jews being the more ancient 

and having a greater claim to originality. To the names of the months 

they add the word Hildl (new moon), so they say Hildl Tishrin I., Hildl 

Tishrin the Last, etc. 

Their New Tear is Hilal Kanun the Last, but in counting the months 
they begin with Hilal Tishrin I. p.319. 

Their day begins with sunrise, whilst all others, who use lunar months, 
make it begin with sunset. 

Their lunar month begins with the second day after conjunction (new 

moon). If, now, conjunction precedes sunrise only by one minute, the 

20 third following day is the beginning of the month. But if conjunction 

coincides with sunrise or falls only a little later, the second day after 

conjunction is the beginning of the month. 

When in the course of three years, one month and some days have 
summed up, they add this time as one month to their months after Hilal 
Shubat and call it Hildl Adhdr I. 

Muhammad b. 'Abd-Al'aziz Alhashimi has given in his Canon called 
Alkdmil a short notice of the feasts of the Sabians, simply relating the 
facts without investigating and criticising their origin and causes. His 
report I have transferred into this chapter, adding thereto whatever 
30 I have learned from other sources. Eegarding the more external part of 
this feast-calendar (i.e. the purely chronological part) I have made com- 
putations on my own account, only by way of induction, since I have 
not the same means to investigate this subject which I had for the 
others. God helj)s to what is right ! 



Hilal Tishrin I. 

6. Feast of Al-Dhahbana. 

7. Beginning of the celebration of the feast. 

13. Feast of Fudi Ilahi. 

14. Feast of Ilati Fudi. 

40 15. Feast of the Lots (Festum Sortium). 



Hiird Tishrin II. 

1. The Great Bahht (i.e. Fat^^m). 

2. Mar Shelama. 



316 albIe^nI. 

5. Feast of ^ y\>i for the shaving of the head. 
9. Uy the idol of Yenus. 

17. Feast of Uy (Tarsa). On the same day they go out of town to 
Batnse. 

18. Feast of Sarug ; it is the day of the renewal of the dresses. 
According to 'Abu-alfarag Alzanjani, they celebrate the Feast of Tents 

in this month, beginning with the 4th and ending on the 18th. 



Hilal Kanun I. 

7. Feast of the addressing (s-»^^) to (^\-^ the idol of Venus. 

10. Feast of the idols for Mars. 10 

20. Feast of the Demons. 

21. Beginning of the first fast, which is broken on the next following 
day of conjunction (new-moon's day). During this time they are not 
allowed to eat meat. At the time when they break their fast they are 
wont to practise almsgiving and charitable work. 

28. Feast of the invocation of the Demons. 

29. Feast of the Fata for the Demons. 

30. Feast of consultation. 

p.320. According to 'Abu-alfaraj Alzanjani they celebrate on the 24th 

of this month the feast of the Nativity. 20 



Hilal Kanun II. 
All the invocations, fast and feast days of this month are sacred to 
the Demons. 

1. Feast of New- Tear's Day, like the calendar of the Greeks. 

4. Feast of Dair-aljahal, and the feast of Balti, i.e. Venus. 

8. Fast of seven days : it is broken on the 15th. 

12. Invocation of \^=^j. 

20. They pray to the Bel of Harran. 

25. Feast of the idol of Tirratha (Tir'atha, Atergatis). 

26. Feast of the nuptials (wedding) of the year. 30 



Hilal Shubat. 

9. Beginning of the minor fast ; it lasts seven days and is broken on 
the 16th. During that time they do not taste any fat, nor anything of 
the feast-meals or what is taken from them. 

10. Feast of the House of the Bridegroom for the Sun. 
22. Feast of y.-is.s^ for the Sun. 

24. Feast of the VeneraUe Old Man, i.e. Saturn. 

25. Feast of the nuptials of UUic. 



Hilal Adhar. 
1. Fast of <^\ ; it lasts three days, and is broken on the 4th. 40 

7. Feast of Hermes-Mercury. 



THE FEASTS AND FASTS OF THE MAGIANS AND SABIANS. 317 

8. Beginning of the Great Fast, during which only meat is forbidden. 
Its Signum is this, that they begin to lament on a day of this month, 
when the sun stands in the sign of Pisces (and the moon? — lac^ma). 
They continue their lamentations until the 31st day, when the sun 
stands in the sign of Aries, and the moon in the sign of Cancer, both 
standing in the same degree. The former day is the beginning of the 
fast, the latter is its breaking. Frequently this fast lasts only 29 days, 
when Hilal Adhar has less than 30 days. 

10. Weaning of the children. 



10 Hilal Nisan. 

2. Feast of Damis. 

8. Feast of the Stibium. 

4. Celebration of IIXovtos. 

5. Feast of y^?, the idol of Venus. 

6. Feast of jU-. and of the Living Being of the Moon. On the same 
day is the feast of Dair-kadhi. 

8. The breaking of the Great Fast falls in most cases on the 8th of 
this month. On the same day is the feast of the birth of the spirits. 

9. Feast of the Lords of the Hours. 

20 15. Feast of the mysteries of Alsimak (Spica). 

20. Feast of the assembly at Dair-Kadhi. P-321. 

28. Feast of Dair-Sini. 



Hilal Ayyar. 

2. Feast of Salugha, prince of the Satans. 

3. Feast of a Baghdadian house. 

4. Feast of the vows. 

3. Feast of c'-^t^^, or feast of baptism, 

7. Feast of Dahdak, the idol of the Moon. 

11. Feast of Dahdak and Ws^^i;^. 

80 12. Feast of \^f^. 

13. Feast of Barkhushya. 

15. Feast of Barkhurushya. 

17. Feast of Bdb-altibn (the straw-gate). 

20. Feast of perfection for Dahdak, a blind idol. On the same day 
the feast of Tera'uz. 



Hilal Haziran. 
7. Commemoration of Tammuza with lamentation and weeping. 
24. Feast of Alkurmus or feast of genuflection. 
27. Feast of the butcher's house. 



40 Hilal Tammuz. 

15. Feast of the youths. 
17. Feast of the nuptials of the elements. 



318 ALBtRdNi. 

18. Feast of the elements. 

19. Also feast of tlie elements. 



Hilal Ab. 

3. Feast of Dailafatan, the idol of Venus. 

7. Also feast of Dailafatan. 
24. Feast of bathing in the Thermce of Serug. 
26. Another feast. 
28. Feast of Kepharmisa. 
30. End of the feast of bathing in the ThermcR of Serug. 



Hilal llul. 10 

13. Feast of the Column of our Houses for the women, the end of a 
fasting. 

14. Fasting of UiiJ. 

24. Feast of the Lords of the coming forth of the New Moons. 

25. Feast of the candle on the hill of Harran. 

In each of these months there is a fast of certain days which is obli- 
gatory for their priests. I think, either it lasts 14 days of each month, 
or it falls on the 14th. I cannot make out the truth. 

One of those who record their doctrines says, that on the 17th of 
each month .they celebrate a feast, the reason of which is the beginning 20 
of the deluge on the 17th of the month [lacuna] ; further, that the days 
of the equinoxes and solstices are festivals with them, and that the 
winter-solstice is the beginning of their year. 
p. 322. This is all that Alhashimi and others have related. We have collected 
these materials as we found them, simply transcribing the names as 
they were written. When we shall be in a position to hear these things 
from the peoj^le themselves (the Harranians) , and to distinguish between 
what is peculiar to the Sabians, the Harranians, and the ancient Magians, 
we shall follow in this chapter the same method which we have followed 
elsewhere, if God permits ! 5^0 

(The author tries to form his information regarding the 
Harranian calendar into a system.) — Because their great fasting 

falls into the first phase (quadrature) of Hilal Adhar, whilst sun 
and moon stand in two douhle-hodied signs (Pisces and Gemini ?), 
and because the end of the fasting falls into the first phase of Hilal 
Nisan, whilst sun and moon stand in certain two inclining signs 
(Aries and Cancer), their months must of necessity revolve in the 
solar year in a similar way to the Jewish months, that is to say : on 
an average. And between the causes of each of these two things 
there is a connection. For the Jewish Passover demands that sun 40 
and moon should stand in the first opposition in two signs of the 
equinoxes — for they may stand in opposition, and not only once, but 



THE FEASTS AND FASTS OF THE MAGI AN S AND SABIANS. 319 

twice — and the Harranian fast-breaking demands that which we have 
mentioned (in Hilal Adhar). Hence follows tiat the phase (quadrature) 
next preceding the Jewish Passover is the fast-breaking of the Harra- 
nians, and that the conjunction which falls next to the autumnal equinox 
is the beginning of their year, never falling beyond tlul. 

If we compute these elements for a cycle of 19 years, we get a rough 
sort of computation, but only a rough one, for they themselves try to 
correct it by means of the time of the conjunction, as we have men- 
tioned. 

10 The methods of both Jews and Christians for the computation of 
Passover are based upon such motions of the luminaries, of which we 
have found out that they remain back behind real time, especially as 
regards the sun (the precession of the equinoxes having been neglected). 
If we examine the oppositions according to the motions that have been 
found by recent observations, we find that some of them precede the 
Easter-limit according to both Jewish and Christian systems; they, how- 
ever, disregard this precession, whilst it is really the case, and we find 
that others of them (the oppositions) fall near the end of the Easter- 
limit ; these latter oppositions they adopt and ,rely upon them, whilst 

20 they are utterly wrong ; for the real time (or opposition) precedes that 
time already by one month. 

Now, since it has been our object hitherto to point out scientific 
truth, to mediate between the two parties (Jews and Christians), and to 
adjust their differences, we have put forward the methods of each of the 
two sects according to their own theory as well as that of others, so as 
to show to each of them the pro and the contra of the case. And from 
our side we have proved that we candidly adopt their tradition and 
lean upon their theory, in order to make the truth clear to them. In 
all of which we are guided by the wish that both parties should dis- 

30 miss from their minds the suspicion that we are partial to any side or 
try to mystify them ; that their minds should not shrink back from our 
opposition, when we pass in review the (chronological) canons which 
they produce. For if they are left such as they are, they are not free 
from confusion and mistakes, most of which we have already pointed 
out. 

Now we shall assume as the earliest date of the Terminus Paschalis the 
16th of Adhar ; we shall let the day of opposition in reality fall into 
the two signs of the equinoxes ; upon this basis we shall arrange the 
Passovers of the cycle that none of them precedes this terminus, and 

40 that each of them falls so that sun and moon stand in opposition to 

each other in the manner prescribed ; the end of the terminus is to P-323. 
be the 13th Msan, and within this space the sun must once have stood 
in opposition to the moon, although the sun may also after this 
terminus still stand in Aries without standing in opposition to the 
moon. 



320 



albIe^n}. 



From these corrected Passovers we shall then derive the fast-breaking 
of the Sabians, and thence the beginning of the year, i.e. the conjunc- 
tion in Hilal Tishrin I. 

All this we have done and arranged in a table. Now if you take the 
years of the ^ra Alexandri — the current year included — for the begin- 
ning of Tishrin I., which follows after the conjunction of their New Year, 
and add thereto 16 or subtract therefrom 3 ; if you divide the sum by 
19, if jow neglect the quotient and compare the remainder with the 
column of the numbers in the Table of the Corrected Cycles, you find 
opposite their New Year, the end of their Great Fasting, the corrected 
Passover, and, hence derived, the mean fasting of the Christians, all 
fixed on the corresponding days of the Syrian months. 

Here follows the Table of the Corrected Cycle. 



10 



p.324. 



Table of the Corrected Cycle. 







•^ 


aj 


^ 




• 


rJ, <>> 


d 


bn 


4i 


-a 
1 

a 

o 


6 

1 
1 


11 


1 

03 




> 
o 

PM 
Ti 

0) 

o 

o 
1) 


H 

o 


P 

5l8 


1 

o a 


a 
1 . 

ll 


M 

11 

as 


o 


h! 





H 


EH 


H 


H 


H 


H 


1 




28 


1 


Nisan 


8 


Nisan 


20 


Shubat 


18 


Ilul 


2 


L. 


17 


21 


Adhar 


28 


Adhar 


9 


Shnbat 


7 


Ilul 


3 




6 


9 


Nisan 


16 


Adhar 


28 


Kanun II. 


26 


Ab 


4 




25 


29 


Adhar 


4 


Nisan 


16 


Shubat 


14 


Ilul 


5 


L. 


14 


17 


Adh^r 


24 


Adhar 


5 


Shubat 


3 


Ilul 


6 




2 


5 


Nisan 


12 


Nisan 


24 


Shubat 


22 


Ilul 


7 


L. 


21 


25 


Adhar 


1 


Nisan 


13 


Shubat 


11 


Imi 


8 




10 


13 


Nisan 


21 


Adhar 


2 


Shubat 


31 


Ab 


9 




29 


2 


Nisan 


9 


Nisan 


21 


Shubat 


19 


Ilul 


10 


L. 


18 


22 


Adhar 


29 


Adhar 


10 


Shubat 


8 


Ilul 


11 




7 


10 


Nisan 


18 


Adhar 


30 


Kanun II. 


28 


Ab 


12 




26 


30 


Adhar 


6 


Nisan 


18 


Shubat 


16 


Ilul 


13 


L. 


15 


19 


Adhar 


26 


Adhar 


7 


Shubat 


5 


Ilul 


14 




4 


7 


Nisan 


15 


Adhar 


27 


Kanun II. 


25 


Ab 


15 




23 


27 


Adhar 


3 


Nisan 


15 


Shubat 


13 


Ilul 


16 


L. 


12 


16 


Adhar 


23 


Adhar 


4 


Shubat 


2 


Ilul 


17 




1 


4 


Nisan 


11 


Nisan 


23 


Shubat 


21 


llAl 


18 


L. 


20 


24 


Adhir 


31 


Adhar 


12 


Shubat 


10 


IlAl 


19 




9 


12 


Nisan 


20 


Adhar 


1 


Shubat 


30 


Ab 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 



20 



30 



321 



CHAPTER XIX. p-325. 

ON THE FESTIVALS OF THE ARABS IN THE TIME OF HEATHENDOM. 

We have already mentioned that the Arabs had 12 months, that they 
used to intercalate them so as to make them revolve with the solar year 
in one and the same order, that the significations of the names of the 
months seem to indicate the reasons why they agreed among each 
other regarding this order, some of them indicating the corresponding 
times of the year, others indicating what the people did during them. 
We have already given the theory of some etymologists and historians 
10 of the Arabs regarding them ; we shall now add another theory. 

Al-Muharram, so called because four of their months were Hurum, 
i.e. sacred ones, one a separate one, i.e. Eajab, and three consecutive ones, 
i.e. Dhu-alka'da, Dhu-alhijja and Almuharram, during which fighting 
was forbidden. 

Safar, so called on account of a contagious disease that used to befall 
them, when they became ill and their colour became yellow. 

Bahi' Primus et Postreimis ; they fell into the season of autumn, which 
the ancient Arabs called BaM'. 

Jumddd Prima et Postrema, the time when the cold mornings, rime 
20 and hoar frost appeared, and when !the water began to freeze, — the 
season of winter. 

Bajab, so called because then peoj)le said irjabu, i.e. abstain from 
fighting and warlike exj)editions, because it was a sacred month. Accord- 
ing to others, so called because people immediately before it made haste, 
heing afraid of it ; for you say rajibtuhu, i.e. I was afraid of him. 

Sha'hdn, so called because then people dispersed to their camps and 
went out in search of booty. 

Bamaddn, the time when the heat commenced and the soil was 
burning hot. This month was held in high veneration in heathendom 
30 Shawwdl, so called because then people said shawwiln, i.e. break up ; 
according to another view : because about that time the she-camels throw 
about their tails, wanting to be covered. Therefore the Arabs did not 
like to marry their children in this month. 

21 



822 ALBtE^Nt. 

Dhu-al1ca'da,\)ecaMse then people said,sti down and abstain from fighting. 

Dhu-alhijja, so called because in this month they used to hold their 
pilgrimages. 

(The seasons with different nations.)— Their months were dis- 
tributed over the four seasons, beginning with autumn, which they 
called i2a.&*' ; then winter; then spring, called /Sai/, or by others i^abi' 
Secundus; then summer, called Kaiz. This nomenclature, however, 
has altogether been drojDped and forgotten. Of the way in which 
they divided the seasons, we know only so much that the beginning 
of BahP or autumn fell on the 3rd llul, the beginning of winter on 10 
the 3rd Kanim I., the beginning of Saif or spring on the 6th Adhar, 
and the beginning of Kaiz or summer on the 4th Haziran. This 
you learu by the way in which they distribute the risings and 
settings of the lunar stations over the seasons. 

Regarding the beginnings of these four seasons there has been a con- 
troversy. Ptolemy says, in his Introduction to the Spherical Art, that 
the ancient Greeks fixed their beginnings on the moments when the sun 
p.326. enters the equinoctial and solstitial points, whilst the Chaldeans are 
said to have commenced the seasons 8 degrees after the equinoxes and 
solstices. The reason of this is, as it seems to me, that the computations 20 
in the Chaldean canons are back behind the computations to which the 
observations and canons of the ancient Greeks have led, and that just 
8 degrees were assumed as the measure of this difference because they 
found such a difference in the progressive and retrograde motion of the 
sphere, the greatest extent of which is 8 degrees. But God knows best 
what they meant ! The explanation of this motion you find in the Zij- 
alsafcVihoi Abu-Ja'far Alkhazin,andintheBook of the Motions of the Sun 
by Ibrahim b. Sin;in, the best and most appropriate explanation possible. 

The Byzantine Greeks and Syrians fixed the beginnings of the seasons 
earlier, one half sign (i.e. 15 degrees) before the equinoctial and solstitial 30 
points. In consequence, their seasons commence when the sun enters 
the middle of the signs that lie before the year-points. Therefore these 
signs were called the corporeal ones (Gemini, Virgo, Arcitenens, Pisces). 

Sinan ben Thabit relates two theories on this subject on the authority 
of the Egyptians and of Hipparchus, both nearly to this effect, that 
they fix the beginnings of the seasons one whole sign before the four 
year-points. The radicals among physical scholars make them precede 
the year-points by one sign and a half, and those of them who more 
than all deviate from the truth fix them on the times when the sun 
stands towards the equator at the half of his total inclination (15° Am- 40 
phora, 15° Taurus, 15° Leo, 15° Scorpio). Such a division stands in 
direct opposition to common usage of mankind, and is in no way to be 
harmonized with the significations of the names of the seasons. 

These theories in all their varieties are represented in the following 
table. 



THE FESTIVALS OF THE HEATHEN AEABS. 



323 





The natural 

philosophers who 

most of all 

deviate from 

reality. 




B 




tsj 


M 




•sq:juoj\[ 






1 






•so'^'Ba: 


1 >o 

i -^ 


T— 1 


I— 1 


IN. 

1—1 














1— 1 














1— 1 




W m a 














» ri g ^ .cS g 


•sqc^nojig; 


■(-J- 




,J2 
'<1 




















Eh a -^ 




i 








m 




•S8:^B(J 


1 i-i 
1 


l-H 


rH 


I— 1 


» 












M 


o 












h-l 


W 


i SP-^ . 




■u- 


^ 




rt 


H 

H 

^ 




•sq^uoj^ 


m 


<1 




02 


» 


W'^o 












» 

m 














•sa!}^^ 


l-H 
1—1 


CM 

I— 1 


CO 

1— 1 


1— 1 

1— 1 


pE4 
















o 










« 


W 
o 


^ 01 ^D-° .12 

p^ c3 nd <:« <=4 


•Stf^UOJ^ 




1 






^ i 




























•S8^BQ 


i>* 


o 

l-H 




rH 
1— 1 


fi 








PI 




M 


o 


11^ o 
es .a o o 

':3 tS .j:1 pQ 

<1 t! -^ ^ 


•sq^nopj 




U 

<-* 

o3 


3 


Pi 
<Pi 
PI 


<J 






<i 


ffi- 


<t— 1 


M 


fzi 
O 


•sa^'Ba: 


lO 


-* 


CO 


CO 


W 

E-i 


CO 

O C3 O 


•sq:jno]^ 


rH 
< 


<r-l 


<3 
«— 1 


M 

<C!S 


§ 


•ea^'Ba; 


CO 






CO 


hi 






is 


c3 




M 

P! 


e1 


•2 s ^a 


•sqi^nopi 




5 


PI 




=« S o ° 

so §^ 




<tl 


ffi- 


<— ( 


M 




•s^:^BQ 


I— 1 


1—1 


IN. 

1—1 


rH 






t 




rt 




M 




fl S 2 °o S 
^ g « § ■Ji'-S 


•sq';uoj\[ 


5 




<3 

0—1 


PI 
PI 

M 
















EH 1 ^ S ^ 


•sa^j-Bo; 


l-H 


1—1 


1— 1 


rH 










Sh 


d 




in! 
©1 




•snosBog 


bD 








CO 

Ph 


173 _^i 




m 


m 


^ 


^ 



21 



324 ALBin^NI. 

p.328. (On the fairs of the ancient Arabs.)— The Arabs used to hold fairs 

in certain places and on certain dates of their months which were inter- 
calated so as to agree with the solar year. Some of them have been 
mentioned by Abu-Ja'far Muhammad ben Habib Albaghdadi in the 
Kitdb-Almujir. He says : 

The fair of Diimat-aljandal was held from the 1st of Rabi' I. till the 
middle of the month. There a bargain was concluded by the throwing 
of a stone, viz. if people gathered round an article of merchandise, he 
who liked to have it threw a stone. Now, frequently several people 
gathered around the same article, then the owner had to sell it to that 10 
man who threw the stone. 

The fair of Almushakkar commenced on the 1st of Jumada II. There 
the touching was the mode of bargaining, viz. only to hint and to whisper, 
which they did for fear of swearing and lying. 

The fair of Suhar, from the 10th till 15th of Rajab. 

The fair of Daba, on the last of Rajab. There the mode of bargaining 
was Almusdwama (i.e. chaffering). 

The fair of Al-shihr, in the middle of Sha'ban. There the mode of 
bargaining was the throwing of a stone. 

The fair of 'Adan, from the 1st till 10th of Ramadan. 20 

The fair of San'a, from the middle of Ramadan till the end. 

The fairs of Alrabiya in Hadramaut, and of 'Ukaz in the highest part 
of Alnajd, not far from 'Arafat, fell on the same day, viz. the middle of 
Dhu-alka'da. The fair of ' Ukfiz was one of the most important, being 
frequented by the tribes Kuraish, Hawazin, Ghatafan, 'Aslam, 'Ukail, 
Almustalik, the 'Ahabish, and by a motley crowd of other people. The 
fair was held from the middle of Dhu-alka'da till the end. As soon as 
the new moon of Dhu-alhijja was observed, people went to Dhu-almajaz, 
a place in the neighbourhood of 'Ukaz. Then they held there a fair 
until the day of Altarwiya (the 8th of Dhu-alhijja). Then they went up 30 
to Mina. 

The fair of Nata in Khaibar and that of Hajr in Alyamama were held 
. from the 1st till the 10th of Almuharram. Since God has sent Islam, 
most of these customs have been abandoned. 



325 



CHAPTER XX. 



ON THE FESTIVALS OF THE MUSLIMS. 

Muslims use the months of the Arabs without any intercalation, for a 
reason which we have heretofore mentioned. They declared the four 
sacred months as sacro-sanct in consequence of the divine word (Sura 
ix. 86) : " Four of them are sacred ones (such is the right law). 
Therefore you shall not wrong yourselves in them." 

The months Shawwal, Dhu-alka'da, and the first ten days of Dhu- 
alhijjathey call the Months of Pilgrimage, of which Grod says (Sura ii. 

10 193) : " Pilgrimage lasts for certain months. Therefore those on whom 
He has imposed the duty of pilgrimage shall not speak indecently, nor 
commit any wrong, nor quarrel during pilgrimage." They were called 
the Months of Pilgrimage because before this time the pilgrim is not 
allowed to enter the holy precincts. There are controversies regarding 
them between the lawyers of the four orthodox law-schools ; they belong, 
however, to the science of law, and would swell this book too much if p.329. 
we were to propound them. These (two and one-third) months are 
named with the Phiralis Paucitatis (not dual), because the fraction, i.e. 
the third of a month, is added to the other months as one complete 

20 month. 

The Months of the Treaty, which God describes in the following words 
(Sura ix. 2) : " Therefore ye shall go about on earth during four months," 
are the time from the Day of Sacrifice (the 10th of Dhu-Alhijja) till the 
10th of Eabi' II., for the Prince of the Believers ('Ali) recited this Sura 
to the people (as a messenger of the Pi-ojihet) on the Dies mactationis (i.e. 
the 10th of Dhu-Alhijja) on the fair. 

The Arabs celebrate the following days of their calendar. 

Almuharram. 
The 1st is celebrated because it is the beginning and opening of the 
30 year. 



326 albirun}. 

The 9tli is called TasxVd, a word like ^Asliurd. It is a day on whicli 
the devotees of the Shi'a say prayers. 

The 10th is called 'Ashurd, a most distinguished day. The Prophet is 
reported to have said : " ye men, hasten to do good works on this day, 
for it is a grand and blessed day, on which God had mercy on Adam." 

People celebrated this day until the murder of Alhusain b. *Ali b. 
'Abi-Talib occurred on it, when he and his adherents were treated in 
such a way as never in the whole world the worst criminals have been 
treated. They were killed by hunger and thirst, through the sword ; 
they were burned and their heads roasted, and horses were made to 10 
trample over their bodies. Therefore people came to consider this day 
as an unlucky one. 

On the contrary, the Banu 'TJmayya dressed themselves on this day in 
new garments, with various kinds of ornaments, and painted their eyes 
with stibium; they celebrated a feast, and gave banquets and parties, eating 
sweetmeats and various kinds of confiseries. 

Such was the custom in the nation during the rule of the Banu 
'TJmayya, and so it has remained also after the downfall of this dynasty. 

The Shi'a people, however, lament and weep on this day, mourning 
over the protomartyr (Alhusain) in public, as, e.g. in Baghdad and in 20 
other cities and villages ; and they make a pilgrimage to the blessed soil 
(the tomb of Alhusain) in Karbala. As this is a mourning-day, their 
common people have an aversion to renewing the vessels and utensils of 
the household on this day. 

When the news of the murder of Alhusain reached Medina, the 
daughter of 'Akil b. Abi-Talib came forward and said : 

" What will you say, if once the Prophet speaks to you : 

' What have you done, you, the last of all nations. 
With my next relations and my family, if I inquire for them ? ' 
One half of them are prisoners and one half tinged witli blood. 30 

It was not the proper reward for the advice I gave you. 
That you, in playing the part of my successors, should bring woe 
over those who had sprung from my loins." 

On the same day Ibrahim b. Al'ashtar, the helper of the Prophet's 
family, was killed. 

People say that on this day God took compassion on Adam, that the 
ark of Noah stood still on the mountain Aljudi, that Jesus was born, 
that Moses was saved (from Pharao), and Abraham (from the fire of 
Nebukadnezar), that the fire around him (which was to burn him) 
became cold. Further, on this day Jacob regained his eye-sight, Joseph 40 
was drawn out of the ditch, Solomon was invested with the royal power, 
the punishment was taken away from the people of Jona, Hiob was freed 
from his plague, the prayer of Zacharias was granted and John was 
given to him. 



THE FESTIVALS OF THE MUSLIMS. 327 

People maintain that the Dies omationis, which is the time for the p. 330. 
rendezvous of the sorcerers of Pharao, is this day 'Ashura, especially 
the time after noon. 

Although it be possible that all these events should have occurred on 
this day, we must state that all this rests only on the authority of popular 
story-tellers, who do not draw upon learned sources nor upon the 
agreement between the owners of a divine writ (i.e. Jews and Christians). 
Some people say that 'Ashura is an Arabized Hebrew word, viz. 
'Ashur, i.e. the 10th of the Jewish month Tishri, in which falls the fasting 
10 Kipj)ur ; that the date of this fasting was compared with the months of 
the Arabs, and that it was fixed on the 10th day of th.e\v first month, as 
it with the Jews falls on the 10th of their first month. 

The Prophet gave orders to fast on this day in the first year of the Hijra, 
but afterwards this law was abrogated by the other law, to fast during 
the month of Eamadan, which falls later in the year. People relate 
that the Prophet of Grod on arriving in Medina saw the Jews fasting 
'Ashura. On inquiring of them, he was told that this was the day on 
which Grod had drowned Pharao and his people and had saved Moses 
and the Israelites. Then the Prophet said : " We have a nearer claim to 
20 Moses than they." In consequence he fasted on that day and ordered 
his followers to do the same. But when he afterwards issued the law 
regarding the fasting of Ramadan, he no longer ordered them to fast 
on 'Ashura, but neither did he forbid them. 

This tradition, however, is not correct, since scientific examination 
proves against it. For the 1st of Muharram in the year of the Hijra 
was a Friday, the 16th Tammuz, A. Alexandri 933. But if we compute 
the Jewish New- Year's Day for the same year, it was a Sunday, the 12th 
of Elul, corresponding to the 29th of Safar, Therefore the fasting 
'Ashura fell on Tuesday, the 9th of Rabi' I., and the flight of the 
30 Prophet occurred in the first half of Eabi' I. 

When the Prophet was asked regarding the fasting of Monday, he 
said : " On this day I was born, I received my prophetical mission and 
divine revelation, and on this day I fled." 

Further, it is a question on which Monday the flight occurred. Ac- 
cording to some, it was the 2nd of Eabi' I., according to others the 8th, 
according to others the 12th of Eabi' I. However, according to the 
generally-adopted view, it was the 8th of Eabi' I. Both the 2nd and 
the 12th are excluded, since they were not Mondays, because the 1st of 
Eabi' I. of this year was a Monday (in consequence the 2nd was a 
40 Tuesday and the 12th a Friday). Now, for this reason the arrival of 
the Prophet in Medina (on Monday, the 8th of Eabi' I.) falls one day 
before the Jewish 'Ashura (on Tuesday, the 9th of Eabi' I.), and 'Ashura 
did not fall in Muharram, except at the time 3-10 years before the year of 
the flight, or 20-30 years after the year of the flight. 

Therefore you could not maintain that the Prophet fasted 'Ashura on 



328 ALBlRf^Nt. 

account of its coinciding with, the 10th in this year, unless you transfer 
'Ashura from the first of the Jewish months to the first of the Arabian 
months, so as to make them fall together. (In the first year of the flight 
the 1st of Muharram was a Friday, and therefore the 10th or 'Ashura, 
Monday). Also in the second year of the flight the Jewish 'Ashura and 
the date of Muhammad's arrival in Medina cannot have coincided. 

The assertion of the Jews that on this day God drowned Pharao is 

refuted by the Thora itself. For this took place on the 21st of Nisan, 

p.331. the seventh of the days of unleavened bread. Now, the beginning 

of the Jewish Passover after the arrival of the Prophet in Medina was a 10 
Tuesday, the 22nd Adhar, A. Alex. 933, coinciding with the 17th Eamadan, 
and the day on which God drowned Pharao was the 23rd Ramadan. 
Therefore this tradition is altogether unfounded. 

The 16th, Jerusalem was made the Kibla of the Muslims. 

The 17th, the Companions of the Elephants (Ethiopians from the south 
of Arabia) arrived before Mekka. 

Safar. 

1. The head of Alhusain was brought to Damascus. Then he (Yazid 
b. Mu'awiya) placed it before himself, and with a stick in his hand he 
struck out the fore-teeth (the central four incisors), reciting these verses: 20 

" I am not a descendant of Khindif, if I do not revenge 
On the sons of Ahmad what he has done. 
O that my chieftains in the battle of Badr had witnessed 
The pain of Khazraj, caused by the hitting of the spears. 
They would have praised God, and their faces would have beamed 

with joy, 
And then they would say : ' O Yazid, do not ask for anything 

more ! 
We have killed the generation of their chieftains ; 
We have tried to take vengeance on him for Badr, and we have 30 

got it.'" 

On this day the Imam Zaid b. 'Ali was killed and crucified on the 
border of the Euj)hrates ; then his body was burned, and the ashes 
thrown into the water. 

16. First appearance of the illness in the Proj»het. This was the 
illness in which he died. 

20. The head of Alhusain was again laid to the body, and both 
were buried together. 

On this day the pilgrimage of the forty men occurred, when they 
entered the holy district after their return from Syria. 40 

23. Alma'mun b. Alrashid (the Abbaside Khalif) gave up again 
the green dress, after he had dressed in it during five and a half months. 



THE FESTIVALS OF THE MUSLIMS. 329 

He again adopted the black colours, tlie colours of the Abbaside party, 
after they had become excited against him. 

24. Muhammad left Mekka and concealed himself in a cave together 
with Abu-Bakr. 

BaW I. 

1. Death of the Prophet. 

8. The Prophet arrives in Medina on the flight. 

12. The Prophet is born on a Monday in the Year of the Elei>hants. 

BaW 11. 

10 3. The Ka'ba was burned at the time when Alhajjaj besieged 'Abd- 
allah b. Zubair. 

15. Birth of 'Ali b. Abi-Talib. 

Jumddd I. 

3. The Battle of the Camel in Basra with ' A'isha, Talha, and Alzubair. 
8. The death of the virgin Fatima, the Prophet's daughter. 

Jumddd II. 

2. Death of Abu-Bakr. 

4. Fatima was born of Khadija bint KhuwaiUd. 

Rajah. 

20 4. 'All and Mu'awiya meet at Siffin. 

26. God made Muhammad His Projjhet to all mankind. 

27. Night of Ascension and the night- journey to Jerusalem. 

8ha''Mn. 

3. Birth of Alhusain b. *Ali. 

15. The great Liberation-night, also called Lailat-alsakh. 

15. The Ka'ba was made the Kibla instead of Jerusalem. The 
Harriinians turn in praying towards the south pole, the Sabians towards 
the north pole. I believe that the Manichseans, too, turn towards the 
north pole, because this is, according to them, the middle of the dome of 
heaven and its highest place. I find, however, that the author of the 
Booh on Marriage, who is a Manichsean and one of their missionaries, 
reproaches the j^eople of the three religious with turning to one direction 
to the exclusion of another. With this he reproaches them, besides other 
things, and he seems to indicate that a man who prays to God does not 
need any Kibla at all. 



30 



330 ALBiE^Nl. 



Bamad&n, 

the month of the obligatory fasting. 
p.332. 6. Birth of Alhusain b. 'Ali according to all authorities except 
Alsalami. 

7. Alma'mun adoj)ted the green colours. 

10. Death of Khadija. 

17. The cursed 'Abd-alrahman b. Muljim Almuradi struck 'Ali b. Abi- 
Talib on the head so as to injure the brain. 

On the morning of the 17th the battle of Badr occurred ; according to 
another report, it occurred on the 19th. But this is not correct, because 10 
there is an uninterrupted tradition saying that it occurred on a Monday 
in the second year of the flight. If we compute the 1st of Ramadan for 
this year, we find that it was a Saturday, and the Monday in question 
falls upon the 17th. 

19. Mekka was conquered. The Prophet did not perform the 
pilgrimage, because the Arabian months were back behind real time in 
consequence of the Nasi^ (postponement of certain months in the times of 
heathendom). Therefore he waited till the months returned to their proj)er 
places, and then he performed the farewell-pilgrimage, and forbade to 
use the NasV. 20 

21. Death of the Prince of the Believers, 'Ali b. Abi-Talib ; also death 
of 'Ali-Alrida Ibn Musa Alkazim b. Ja'far Alsadik b. Muhammad 
Albakir b. 'Ali AlsajjadZain-al'abidin b. Alhusain, the j^rotomartyr, son 
of the Prince of the Believers 'Ali b. Abi-Talib. According to others, 
his death (that of 'Ali-Alrida) occurred on the 23rd Dhu-Alka'da. 

22. Birth of 'Ali b. Abi-Talib, according to Alsalami. 

25. 'Abu-Muslim 'Abd-alrahman b. Muslim first raised the standard 
of the 'Abbasides in Khurasjin. 

26. Revolt of Alburku'i in Basra ; according to some, he was 'Ali b. 
Muhammad b. 'Ahmad b. 'Isa b. Zaid b. 'Ali b. Alhusain b 'Ali b. Abi- 30 
Talib ; according to others, he was 'Ali b. Muhammad b. 'Abd-alrahim 

b. 'Abd-alkais. There is a rej)ort saying that Alhasan b. Zaid, the 
Prince of Tabaristan, wrote to him at the time when he came forward in 
Basra, asking for his genealogy, in order to learn the truth of the 
matter, whereupon he received this answer : " Do you mind my business 
as much as I mind yours (i.e. as little). My compliments." A wonderfully 
short and cutting answer, very much like that which Wali-aldaula 'Abu- 
'Ahmad Khalaf b. 'Ahmad, the Prince of Sijistan, gave, when Nuh b. 
Mansur, the Prince of Khurasan, had written to him threatening him 
with various things. He answered : " Nuh, you have quarrelled with us 40 
a great deal. Now carry out that with which you threaten us, if you 
are a true-speaking man." 

27. The night of this day is called Lailat-alkadar (Night of Fate), of 
which God says (Sura xcvii. 3) that it is better than a thousand months. 



THE FESTIVALS OF THE MUSLIMS. 331 

The date of this night rests on universal agreement, because its real 
date is not known. People say : " See, this night is the night of the 
17th or the 19th, for it was between these two nights that the battle 
of Badr occurred, the conqiiest of Mekka, the descending of the angels 
as a help, marked with certain badges (Sura iii. 121)." This may be 
correct, for God says (Sura xcvii. 4) : " The angels descend and the 
Spirit. There is freedom from everything in that night by the permission 
of their Lord." 
People say that on the following days the holy books were communicated 
10 to the Prophet — 

on the 1st of Ramadan, the leaves to Abraham, p.333. 

the 6th the Thora to Moses, 
the 12th the Psalms to David, 
the 18th the Grospel to Jesus, and 
the 24th the Furkdn to Muhammad. 

As regards the Goran, God says (Sura ii. 181) : " The month of 
Ramadan in which the Goran was sent down." Thereby we learn that it 
was revealed in this month. Some people quote besides the passage 
(Sura viii. 42) : " And that which we have sent down upon our servant 
20 on the day of the decision (Alfurkan), on the day when the two hosts 
met," inferring from this passage that the Goran was revealed on the 
17th of Ramadan, because on this day the two hosts (that of Muhammad 
and his opponents) met at Badr. But God knows best ! 

Regarding the Thora, we have already mentioned that it was revealed 
on the 6th of Siwan, on the feast of congregation ('Azereth). If, at that 
time, Ramadan coincided with Siwan, the matter is so as has been said. 
But there is no possibility of settling this question, because the year in 
which the Thora was revealed is not known ; if it were known, we should 
inquire into the subject by chronological comjDutations. The report 
30 regarding the Gospel is the saying of a man who does not know its 
character, nor arrangement, nor composition, and the revelation of the 
other books is altogether unknown and cannot be found out. God 
knows best ! 

Shawwdl. 

1. Feast of fast-breaking, also called the day of mercy. God selected 
Gabriel as the bearer of His revelation. He inspired the bees and taught 
them how to make honey (Sura xvi. 70). 

People maintain that on this day God created Paradise. But why 

do they mention in their report such a thing with all that it may be 

4i) supposed to indicate and that may l)e inferred therefrom? They go 

even so far as to attribute to Him an ugly anthropomorphism — as to say 

. that on this day He planted the tree Tuba with His own hand. And this 



832 ALBlnt^Nf. 

they have not tried to explain in any way ; on the contrary, they believe 
it just as it stands, from sheer ignorance. 

2. Beginning of a voluntary fasting of six consecutive days. 

4. Muhammad and the Christians of Najran argued with each other. 
Muhammad installed Hasan and Husain in the right of sons of his, and 
Fatima in the right of his wives, and 'Ali b. 'Abi-Talib he made his 
intimate friend, complying with the order of God in the verse of the 
cursing. 

17. Battle of 'XJhud ; according to others, it occurred in the middle of 
the month. In this battle Hamza was killed, and Muhammad lamented lo 
over his loss. 

19. Death of Abu-Talib. 

28. On this day, they say, Yonas was devoured by the fish. 

Dhu'Alka'da. 

6. The Ka'ba was sent down. God took compassion on Adam. 
Abraham and Ishmael raised the bases of the temple of Mekka. 

14. Jonas, they say, came forth from the belly of the fish. According 
to this view he must have stayed there twenty-two days, whilst according 
to the Christians he stayed only three days, as is mentioned in the 
Gospel. 20 

29. On this day, they say, the tree Yaktin grew over Yonas. 

Bhu-Alhijja. 

1. The Prophet of God married his daughter Fatima to his cousin, 
p. 334. 'All b. Abi-Talib. The first 10 days of this month are also called Dies 
noti and Bies sacri. According to some, they are the time by which God 
completed the time which He had promised to Moses, saying (Sura vii. 
138) : " And we have j^romised Moses thirty nights — which are the 
nights of Dhu-alka'da — and we have completed their number by ten " — 
which are the Dies sacri. 

8. This day is called Altarwiya, because the pilgrim's-well in the holy 30 
mosque of Mekka used to be full of water about this season in the time 

of both heathendom and Islam, and the pilgrims drank from it so much 
as to quench their thirst. According to another view, it was called so 
because they used to carry the water from Mekka on Bawdyd, i.e. camels 
which are used to draw water from a well. According to a third opinion, 
because God made spring forth for Ishmael the well Zamzam, from which 
he drank so much as to quench his thirst. According to a fourth 
opinion, because on this day God revealed Himself to the mountain, as 
has been mentioned in the history of Moses. 

9. This day is called 'Arafa, the day of the great pilgrimage on 40 
'Arafat. It is so called because on that day people recognise each other 

at the time when they assemble for the performance of the rites of 



THE FESTIVALS OF THE MUSLIMS. 833 

pilgrimage, or, because Adam and Eve recognised each other after they 
had been driven out of Paradise in the place where people assembled, 
i.e. in 'Ao'afdt. 

On this day God selected Abraham as a friend (KhaliT). It is also 
called the day of forgiving. 

10. It is called the day of the victims, also Dies tmtctationis, because on 
this day the animals, that had been brought to Mekka to be sacrificed, 
were slaughtered. It is the last day of the days of the pilgrimage. On 
this day Isaak was ransomed with the ram. On this day, too, the Road 

10 (via strata) to the Last Judgment is said to have been created. 

11. The day of sojourning, because on this day people sojourn in 
Mina. 

12. The day of goiiig away, because on this day people go away from 
the holy district hurrying. 

11, 12, 13. The days of Tashrik, so called because on these days the 
meat of the sacrificed animals was cut to pieces and exposed to the sun 
for drying. The name is also derived fi'om the saying, " 'Ashrik thabir 
Tcaimd nughlr " (i.e. Shine forth, O mountain Thabir, that we may break 
up). According to Ibn-Al'a'rabi they were so called because the victims 
20 (hostlce) were not killed before the sun had risen. 

These are the days which God means in His words (Sura ii. 199) : 
" And ye shall remember God on certain counted days." 

In the time immediately before and after these days people say Allah 
aJcbar after every prayer. Among the theologians there are differences 
regarding the beginning, the end, and the limits of the prayer of Takhir 
(i.e. Allah akbar), differences peculiar to their science. 

17. 'Uthman b. 'Affan the Khalif was killed. 

18. It is called Ghadir Khumm, which was the name of a station on 
the road- side where Muhammad alighted when returning from the fare- 

80 well pilgrimage. He gave orders to collect the saddles and all the riding- 
instruments into one heap ; this he ascended, supported by the arm of 
'All b. 'Abi-Tjilib, and said : " men, am I not nearer to you than you 
yourselves ? " They answered, " Yes." Then he said : " To every man 
whose friend I am, also 'Alt is a friend. God, befriend him who 
befriends 'All, and oppose him who opposes 'Ali, help him who helps 
'All, and desert him who deserts 'Ali. Let truth go about with him 
wherever he goes." Then he is said to have raised his head towards 
heaven and said 

(Lacuna.) 

40 24. 'All gave away his seal-ring as alms, in praying. p.335. 

25. 'Umar b. Alkhattab was killed, and the Sura Hal 'Aid (Sura 
Ixxvi.) was revealed. 

26. David was inspired to ask for pardon (Sura xxxviii. 23). 



334 albirunI. 

29. Battle of Alharra, in which the Banu-'TJmayya killed the people 
of Medina, when the honour of the Muhdjirun (companions of the flight 
of Muhammad) and of the ^Ansdr (his partisans in Medina) was stained 
and their wives were given up to the enemies. Therefore may God 
curse all those whom His Prophet cursed, of those who rebelled in 
Medina against the law of God, and may He let us belong to those who 
do not like wickedness on earth. God is the best Helper, and infinite 
thanks are His due ! 



335 



CHAPTER XXI. P.336. 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS, THEIR RISING AND SETTING, AND ON 
THEIR IMAGES. 

It is now time for us to finish, after we have, as best we could, 
fulfilled our promise in explaining the science of that subject which 
our friends wanted to know, and in relating all we know regarding it. 
But above every knowing man there is Grod all-wise ! To complete the 
representation of this science, only one more chapter is required, that 
of the rising of the Lunar Stations in the days of the solar year. For 

10 this science is practised on account of its general usefulness for the 
purpose of prognosticating all meteorological occurrences which revolve 
together with the Lunar Stations. Therefore we shall now proceed to 
explain this subject both at large and in detail, and we shall add some 
of the proverbial sayings relating to them, which we gather from the 
literature of this kind, e.g. from the book of Alkulthumi, that of Ibra- 
him b. Alsari'i Alzajjaj, that of Tahya b. Kunasa, of Abu-Hanifa Aldi- 
nawari on the 'Anwd, the book of 'Abu-Muhammad Aljabali on the 
science of the configurations of the stars, the book of Abu-Alhusain on 
the fixed stars, and from other books. 

20 The Hindus divided the globe, in conformity with their 27 Lunar 
Stations, into 27 parts, each Station occupying nearly Idj degrees of the 
ecliptic. From the stars entering these Stations, which are called Jufur, 
they derived their astrological dogmas as required for every subject and 
circumstance in particular. The description of these Astrologoumena 
would entail a long explication of things, foreign to our purpose, all of 
which may be found in— and learned from — the books on Astrologou- 
mena. 

The Arabs divided the celestial globe into 28 parts, so that each Station 



336 ALBIRUNt. 

occupies nearly 12f degrees of the ecliptic, and eacli zodiacal sign con- 
tains 2| Stations. Some poet says : 

" Their number is, if you want to count them, 
Twenty stars, and a number 8 after them. 
In each of the zodiacal signs there are 
Two Stations and one complete third of a Station. 
A jjeculiar system of computation belongs to them, and they haye 

their heliacal risings and settings. 
Which are the reason that winter and summer revolve." 

The Arabs used the Lunar Stations in another way than the Hindus, 10 
as it was their object to learn thereby all meteorological changes in 
the seasons of the year. But the Arabs, being illiterate people, could 
not recognize the Lunar Stations except by certain marks, visible to the 
p.337. eye. Therefore they marked the Stations by those fixed stars which lie 
within them. And the rising of the fixed stars in the east early after 
the rise of dawn they considered as a sign of the sun's entering some 
one of the Stations, and so they could do, since the stars do not recede 
from their places except after the lapse of long spaces of time, and, 
besides, the Arabs were not educated enough to notice such a variation. 
Further, they composed verses and rhymed poetry, so that these things 20 
could easily be remembered by illiterate people, and recorded therein 
the annual physical influences which, according to their observation and 
experience, coincided with the rising of each particular Station. These 
sayings and verses they use to indicate certain circumstances of 
theirs, e.g. : 

" When the moon joins (i.e. stands in conjunction with) the 
Pleiades, 
In a third night (of a month), then the winter is gone." 

For the Pleiades occupy the place from 10° of Taurus till about 15° of 
Taurus. When, therefore, the moon joins the Pleiades in the 3rd night 30 
of a month, the distance between sun and moon is about 40 degrees. 
Then the sun stands in the first part of Aries. Further : 

" When full-moon is complete and stands with the Pleiades, 
Then you get the beginning of the cold season, the winter." 

For when the moon stands in opj^osition to the Pleiades, the sun stands 
in the middle of Scorpio, and that time is the beginning of the cold 
season. Further : 

" When full-moon joins Aldabaran 
In the 14th night of a month, 

Then winter encircles the whole earth, 40 

Being like riders who ride about, telling people to warm them- 
selves. 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 337 

And full moon risea in heaven high overhead, so that 
The shadow of the teut-poles disappears, 
When the night has reached its middle 
And the air is free from dark clouds," 

For at that time the sun stands in Scorpio close to Alkali (the 18th 
Lunar Station) ; it is the time of cold and of morning frosts. The 
moon stands in some degree of northern declination, and frequently 
she stands in such a latitude from the ecliptic towards the direction of 
the declination, that she culminates (stands right) over the heads of the 
10 Arabs. In consequence, the shadows of all bodies disappear at the time 
when she reaches the middle of heaven, i.e. at the time of midnight. 
Further : 

" When the new moon of a month first appears 
To the eyes of people at the beginning of a night, standing in 

Alna'd'imf 
Then you get cold winds from every side, 
And you find it agreeable a little before dawn to wrap a turban 

round the head." 

For at that time the sun stands in the first part of Sagittarius. 
20 Further: 

" The complete night, with all that belongs to it, has become cold, 
And the sun stands in the Station of Al'awivd." 

For the stars of Al'awwa (the 13th Lunar Station) lie aroimd the P-338. 
vernal equinox, as the table of the Lunar Stations will show. 

However, if I were to communicate to the reader all the verses 
and sayings in rhymed prose which relate to the rising of each Lunar 
Station, I should also have to interpret their meanings, and to explain 
the rare words that occur in them. This, however, we may omit, since 
it has been sufficiently done by the authors of the books of 'Anwd, whom 

80 we mentioned above. 

Since the Arabs attribute all meteorological changes to the influence 
of the rising and setting of the stars, in consequence of their ignorance 
of physical sciences, thinking that all changes of the kind depend upon 
the bodies of the stars and their rising, not upon certain parts of the 
celestial globe and the sun's marching therein, they believe a great 
many things similar to that which we have mentioned of the Sirius 
Jemenicus, during the rising of which Hippocrates in his time forbade 
taking hot drugs and phlebotomizing. 

And this subject reminds me of an occurrence in my life which serves 

40 to confirm the verses of Ahmad b. Faris : 

" A wise man of by- gone times has said : 
' The importance of a man lies in his two smallest things.' 

22 



838 ALBiRUNt. 

I on my part also speak like a wise man, saying : 

* The importance of a man lies only in his two dirhams.' 

If he has not his two dirhams with him, 

His bride does not care for him. 

In consequence of his poverty he is despised, 

So that people's cats jdIss at him." 

For when I was separated from the court of His Highness, and was 
bereft of the hapj)iness of the royal service, I met a man in Eai (Rhagae) 
who was counted among the learned astronomers. He had studied the 
conjunctions of the stars which form the Lunar Stations, and he had 10 
commenced to collect them in order to derive certain sentences (astrolo- 
goumena) from the Stations and their single parts, and thereby to prog- 
nosticate all changes of the air. Now, I told him that the truth is the 
very reverse of his theory, that the nature and peculiarities which are 
attributed to the first Station, and all that which the Hindus relate of 
the connection of this Station with others, are peculiar to the first part of 
Aries, and never leave this place, although the star (or stars which form 
the Lunar Station) may leave it. In a similar way, all that is peculiar to 
Aries does not move away from the place of Aries, although the constel- 
lation of Aries does move away. But then the man became very haughty, 20 
and treated me slightingly, though he was inferior to me in all his 
knowledge. He told me my theory was a lie, and behaved very rudely 
to me, being very lengthy about the difference between us in wealth 
and poverty, which changes subjects for glory into subjects for blame. 
For at that time I was in a miserable condition, tried (troubled) on 
all sides ; afterwards, however, when my troubles had subsided (ceased) 
to some extent, he chose to behave in a friendly way towards me. 

It is evident that, if the science of meteorology were to depend upon 
the rising of the bodies of the stars, as observed by eye-sight, the times 
and seasons of the Meteora would differ in the same proportion as the 30 
stars change their places ; besides, they would be different in different 
p.339. countries, and we should require for them as well as for the appearing 
and disappearing of the planets various kinds of tiresome methods of 
calculations. 

In reality the rising of the Lunar Stations means this, that the sun 
on entering one of them covers it and the preceding one too, whilst the 
third one, according to the inverted order of the zodiacal signs, rises 
between the rise of dawn and that of the sun, at that time which Ibn 
Alrakka' describes in the following verses : 

" The observers saw Sirius distinctly, 40 

As he turned away, when the morning prayer approached. 
I recognize Sirius shining red, whilst the morning is becoming 

white. 
The night, fading away, has risen and left him. 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS, 339 

The night is not afraid to lose him, since he follows her, 
But the night is not willing to acknowledge that he belongs to 
the night." 

The rising of a Lunar Station ther called its Nau\ i.e. rising. The 
influence of the rising they called Bcirih, the influence of the setting 
they called again NmC. The interval between the risings of two con- 
secutive Lunar Stations is 13 days, except the interval between the rising 
of Aljabha (the 10th Station) and of the following Station, which is 14 
days. So the following verses : 

10 " All time, you must know, consists of fourths. 

And each fourth consists of sevenths. 
A complete seventh belongs to the rising of a star. 
And to the influence (Nau') of a star setting in the west. 
Between the rising of each star 
And that of the following star there are four nights 
And nine nights more." 

There is a difference of opinion regarding the 'Anwd. Some maintain 
that each influence (of a Lunar Station) is brought about between the 
risings of two consecutive Stations, that therefore the influence is attri- 
20 buted to the former of these two Stations. According to others, a 
certain si>ace of time is peculiar to the rising and setting of each Lunar 
Station, and everything that occurs in this time is attributed to the 
Station in question ; occurrences which fall after the end of this space 
of time are no longer attributed to it. The last view is the generally 
adopted one. 

Besides, there are differences about the length of these spaces of time, 
which we shall afterwards describe. 

When the influence of some Station has been found out and is known, 
and nothing happens at its time, people say : the star was empty ; or : 
80 the Station was empty, i.e. the time of its Nau' has gone by without there 
being any rain, or heat, or cold, or wind. 

(On the Winds.) — Regarding the directions of the winds, the planes 
over which they blow, and their number, there are different opinions. 
Some maintain that the directions of the wind are six, as Ibn Kunasa 
relates, on the authority of 'Abu-Muhammad Ja'far b. Sa'd b. Samura b. 
Jundub Alfazari, whilst, according to most others, there are only four, 
as Khalid b. Safwan relates ; the latter is the opinion of most nations, 
although they differ regarding the planes of the blowing of the winds. 
Both these opinions of the Arabs are comprised in the following two 
40 circles ; the former view is represented in the inner circle, the latter in p.340. 
the outer circle. There you also find the names of the winds and the 
directions of their planes. Here follows the circle. 

22 * 



340 



ALBtnUNi. 



SotUfv 



JEasb 




West 



UTorttU 



In the first theory the author (Ibn Kunasa) places the wind Mahwa 
near the south wind, whilst it is well known that Mahwa is the north 
wind, because it extinguishes (destroys) the clouds when they are empty, 
after the south wind has driven them on, full of rain. In the same 
theory he assigns a separate plane to the wind Nakhd, whilst it is well 
known that Nakba is every wind, the plane of which lies between the 
planes of any two other winds of the four cardinal winds. Dhu-alrumma 
mentions the winds, NabTcd included, in this way : 

" Heavy rain-showers of some Anwct and the two Haif (south wind 

and west wind). 
Which drove the sand-masses of the dusty-coloured mountains 

away over the house. 
And a third wind, blowing from the side of Syria, a cold one, 
Blowing with whirlwinds along its road over the sand. 
And a fourth wind coming from the rising-place of the sun, 

driving 
The fine dust of AlmiTi and of Kurakir over the house. 



10 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



341 



10 



The side winds, carrying along the dust, excited it (the east wind) 

to still greater vehemence, 
So that it frequently roared like the she-camels 'in the tenth 

month of their pregnancy, when the throes are near." 

The two Half a,re the south wind and west wind; the windy blowing 
from Syria is the north wind ; the wind coming from the rising-place of 
the sun is the east wind. 

The planes of the winds with the Persians are the same as with the 
ancient Grreeks, and all physical scholars ; their centres correspond to the 
four directions. They are represented in the following circle : 



Southy 



'EaeV 




West 



orthj 



Any wind that lies between the centres of the planes of two other 
winds is referred to that centre which is the nearest (and receives its 
name therefrom). Other people refer an intermediate wind to the rising 
and setting places of the sun at the time of the solstices, and call it by 
a Greek name. 

(Method for finding the time of the Nau' and Barih of a Lunar 
Station.) — The following is a good method to find the times of the 



342 ALBIRUNt. 

iuliiionces (eTna-rjixaaLo) of the rising and the setting of the Lunar 
Stations : Take the time from the 1st of Ilul till that day the nature of 
which you want to find out, and divide the sum of days by 13. If there 
is no remainder, proceed in this way : If the moon stands opposite the 
sun or in one of her quadratures, you get rain, if it is the season for 
rain, or some change of the air in consequence of wind, or heat, or cold. 
For if there is no remainder (as in this case), it is the time of the rising 
of one Lunar Station and the setting of the opposite Station. On the 
1st of Ilul falls the JBdrih (influence of the rising) of Alsarfa (the 12th 
Station) and the Nau' (influence of the setting) of Sa'd-aVaJcJihiya (the 10 
25th Station). Prom this date you begin counting, for this special 
reason, that it is the first of a month and the beginning of autumn. If, 
besides, the moon happens to be in one of her Foundations, the influence 
(of the Lunar Station) will come out very strong. 

Abu-Ma'shar says : " We have tried this method A. H. 279 in Shawwal 
p.341. ^^ ^^® ^^^^® o^ ^^^ moon. We counted the days from the 1st Ilul till this 
full moon. They were 130 days;' dividing them by 13 you get no re- 
mainder, and the Ascendens of the full moon (or opposition) was Amphora. 
So we got rain on that day, and when the moon stood in her right quad- 
rature, also on that day we had rain." 20 

Further, he says : " We tried it also in the following year. We 
counted the days from the 1st Ilul till Thursday the 13th of Kanun I. ; 
the sum of days we divided by 13, and there was no remainder ; the 
distance between sun and moon was as much as half a zodiacal sign 
(i.e. 15 degrees), the moon had turned away from the hexagon of Mars 
and stood in conjunction with Yenus. At that very time we got rain." 

Now, this is a testimony of Abu-Ma'shar, showing that through this 
method you obtain correct results. If, besides, you take to help the 
mansions (the places of the Lunar Stations) of the Hindus and their 
single parts, you are pretty sure in your calculation to come near the gQ 
truth. 

People relate that among the Arabs the Banu-Mariya b. Kalb and the 
Banu-Murra b. Hammam b. Shaiban had the most accurate knowledge 
of the configurations of the stars. 

In enumerating the Nujum-aVaMidli, i.e. the Lunar Stations, the Arabs 
commenced with Alsharatdn, since in their time they stood in the first 
part of A^'ies. Other nations begin with the Pleiades. I do not know 
whether they do this because the Pleiades are more easily and clearly 
visible without any study or research than the other Stations, or because, 
as I have found in some books of Hermes, the vernal equinox coincides 40 
with the rising of the Pleiades. This statement must have been made 
about three thousand and more years before Alexander. God knows best 
what they intended ! 

We shall adopt the Arabian system in enumerating the Lunar Stations, 
and shall begin, as they do, with 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 343 

1. Alsharatdn (J3, y Arietis), 

i.e. the two signs. They are called so for the same reason that the 
soldiers of the body-guard of a prince are called Shurat, since they 
mark themselves by some sign, by the black colour, or something else. 
It consists of two stars belonging to Aries (JS and y). Sometimes, also, 
a third star near them is added, and then this Station is called AVashrdt 
(plural instead of the dual Sharatan). Between the two stars, when 
standing in the middle of heaven, there is an interval of two yards 
according to eye-sight ; one of them belongs to the northern half, the 

10 other to the southern. 

All measures of distances between the stars according to eye-sight are 
to be understood only for that time when they stand in the middle of 
heaven, for these distances appear greater near the horizon in consequence 
of the intense refraction of the ray of light in the watery vapours that 
surround the earth. This has been explained in the books on the geo- 
metrical configurations (of the stars). Further, the distance between 
two stars increases iti the direction from north towards the south ; 
frequently, too, when the stars march towards the horizon, it increases 
in the direction from east to west, or pretty nearly in the direction of one 

20 of the cycles of altitude. The reason of this is that the spheres decline 
from the perpendicular direction which they have on the equator. 

The Station AVashrdt is also called Alnath (i.e. horn), because the two 
Sharat are placed on the root of the two Jiorns of Aries. The meteoro- 
logical influences of this Station are peculiar to the first (i.e. original) 
position of Aries, and in no way depend upon the stars from which 
the Station has got its name. These stars have migrated from their 
original place (in consequence of the precession of the equinoxes) and have 
in our time come to occupy a second jjosition (different from the former), p.342. 

2. Albutain (e, 8, tt Arietis). 

80 It consists of three stars at the end of the womb of Aries, forming an 
isosceles triangle. The word is the diminutive of Batn, so as to mean 
the little womb, so called in comparison with Batn-allmt (the womb of the 
fish), which is the 28th Station. 

3. Althurayyd (Pleiades) 

consists of six stars close to each other, very similar to a cluster of 
grapes. According to the Arabs they form the clunis of Aries, but that 
is wrong, because they stand on the hump of Taurus. 

The word is a diminutive of Tharwd, which is originally identical with 

Tharwa, i.e. a collection and great number of something. Some people 

40 maintain they were called so because the rain, which is brought by their 



34^ ALBlEUNi. 

Nau\ produces Thanva, i.e. abundance. They are also called Alnajm 
(i.e. The Star). 

Ptolemy mentions only four stars of the Pleiades, since lie had not 
observed more of them, because to eye-sight they seem to lie quite close 
together. 

The forty days during which this Station disaj)pears under the rays 
of the sun, are, according to the Arabs, the worst and most unhealthy of 
the whole year. Al'asadi says : " Althurayya never rises nor sets unless 
bringing some harm." And one of their medical men says : " Warrant 
me the time between the disappearing and the rising of Althurayya, and 10 
I shall warrant you all the remainder of the year," The Prophet is 
related to have said : " When the Star rises, all harm (mishap) rises from 
the earth ; " and according to another tradition : " When the Star rises, 
all mishap is raised from every place." 

4. Aldabardn (a Tauri), 

a bright red star, so called because it follows after the Pleiades, standing 
over the southern eye of Taurus. It is also called Alfanik, i.e. a great 
camel- stallion (not servingfor riding), because they call the stars around 
it Kilds, i.e. young she-camels (serving for riding). Other names of it 
are " The follower of the Star," because in rising and setting it follows 20 
immediately after the Pleiades, and Almukhdij (i.e. a she-camel giving 
birth to a young one of imperfect formation). 

5. Alhak'a (A, ^', ^" Orionis) 

consists of three small stars close to each other, looking like so many 
dots impressed upon the earth by the thumb, the fore-finger, and the 
middle-finger, the fingers being closely pressed together. They were so 
called because they were compared with a circle of hairs on the side of 
the horse at the joint of the foot ; such a horse is called MahhV. They 
are also called Altahd'i (or Altahdyi). Ptolemy considers them as one 
cloudy star, and calls them the nebula on the head of Aljabbar, i.e. 30 
Aljauza (Orion). 

6. Alhan^a (y, ^ Geminorum) 

consists of two bright stars in the Milky Way between Orion and the 
head of Gemini, distant from each other as far as the length of a whip. 
The one is called Zirr (button), the other Maisdn (walking along 
proudly) ; they stand on the foot of the second twin. According to 
Alzajjaj, Han'a is derived from the verb Hana'a, i.e. to wind and twine 
one thing round the other, as if each of them were winding and 
twining round the other. According to others, this name is to be 
understood of a third star, standing behind their middle, which gives 40 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 346 

them the appearance of an inclined neck. The Arabs consider Alhan'a 

and six other stars as the bow of Orion, with which he shoots at the p.343. 

Lion. 

7. AldJiird' (a, jB Geminorum) 

consists of two stars, one yard distant from each other. The one is the 
hlear-eyed Sirius or Sirius Syriacus, according to the Arabs, the out- 
stretched arm of Leo ; the other is Sirius ^Ahiir or Sirius Temenicus, the 
arm of Leo which is not stretched out. According to the astronomers, the 
outstretched arm is the head of Gemini, and the other arm belongs to 
10 the stars of Alhalb Ahmdakaddim (Procyon). But people differ greatly 
regarding these stars and produce various futile traditions and stories 
in support of the names which they give them. The rising of Ghumaisd 
(the blear-eyed Sirius) in the year 1300 of Alexander took place on the 
10th Tammuz, and that of Sirius Temenicus on the 23rd Tammuz. 

8. Alnathra (Prsesepe (e) et duo Aselli (y, S) Cancri) 

is the place between the mouth and the nostrils of the Lion. It is also 
called AllaM (the uvula), and consists of two stars, between which there 
is a nebula, the whole belonging to the figure of Cancer. 

9. Altarf, 

20 the eye of Leo, two stars close to each other, one belonging to Leo, the 
other to the stars outside the figure of Cancer. In front of them there 
are stars called AVashfdr, i.e. the eyebrows of Leo. 

10. Aljabha ((, y, rj, a Leonis), 

the front of Leo, four stars, each star distant f rom^the other by the length 
of a whip, lying athwart from north to south in a curve, not in a straight 
line. According to astronomers, they stand on the mane of Leo. The 
most southern star of them they call the Heart of the Boycd Lion ; it 
rises when Suhail rises in Alhijaz. Suhail is the 44th star of Ai'go 
Navis, standing over its oar. Its latitude is 75 degrees in the southern 
80 half. Therefore it does not rise very high above the horizon, in conse- 
quence of which it has something unsteady for the eye. People say that 
a man, if his eye falls on this star, dies, as they also relate that on the 
island of Eamin, belonging to Ceylon, there is an animal the sight of 
which kills a man within forty days afterwards. The most curious 
instance of the connection between animal life and its material influence 
is the fish called Sihirus Electrictis. For the hand of the fishennan who 
has caught it takes care not to touch it as long as it is in the net still 
living. If you take a i*eed and touch the living fish with one end and keep 
the other end in your hand, the hand becomes feeble and drops the reed. 



346 ALBlR^Nt. 

Further, the worms in Eaghad, one of the districts of eastern Jurjan. 
For there you find in certain places small worms ; if a man carrying 
water treads upon them, the water becomes bad and foul ; if he does 
not tread upon them, the water remains good and keeps its nice odour 
and sweet taste. 

The death of a man bitten by a panther, when a field-mouse pisses at 
him 

\_Lacuna.'\ 

p.344. 11. Alzuhra (8, $ Leonis), 

i.e. the shoulder of the Lion, the place where the neck begins. According 10 
to Alzajjaj, it is the place of the mane on his neck, because the mane 
bristles up when he is in wrath. According to Alna'ib Alamuli, Zubra is 
a piece of iron by which the two shoulder-blades of a lion are imitated. 
This station consists of two stars, distant from each other by the 
length of a whip. They are also called the Two Khurt, i.e. holes, as if each 
of them were penetrating into the interior of the Lion, but in reality 
they stand upon the shank of the Lion, one of them on the root of the 
tail. When they rise, Suhail is seen in Al'irak. 

12. Alsarfa ((3 Leonis), 

a bright star near to some very dim ones, called the Claw of the Lion. 20 
It stands on the end of the Lion's tail, and is called so because the heat 
turns away when it rises, and the cold turns away when it disappears. 

13. AVawwd (/3, rj, y, 8, e Virginis) 

consists of five stars in a line, the end of which is turned. And there- 
fore the Station is called so because the verb 'Awd means to turn. 
Alzajjaj says: "I do not know of anybody else besides me who has 
exjilained the word in this way. Those who say that these stars are 
dogs running behind the Lion and harking are wrong." They stand on 
the breast and wing of Virgo. 

14. AlsimdJc Al'a'zal (Spica). 30 

It is also called the Calf of the Lion, and AlsimdJc Alrdmih is his other 
calf. 

This Simak is called 'A'zal (i.e. bare), because whilst the other Simak 
Alramih (the shooter) is accompanied by a star, said to be his lance, 
this one has no such accessory, and is therefore said to be bare of 
weapons. 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 347 

According to Sibawaihi, Siinak is called so on account of its rising 
higli, or, according to others, (because the moon does not enter this 
Station. But if that were the case, Alsimdh Al'a'zal would not deserve 
the name of a Lunar Station, for, of course, the moon enters it and 
frequently covers it (so as to make it disappeai"). 

It is a brilliant star on the left palm of Virgo, which some people call 
Stmhula (the ear). But this is wrong, because the Ear (Spica) is 
Alhulba (i.e. hog's bristle), which Ptolemy calls Aldafira, i.e. Crines plexi. 
This is a number of small stars behind the tail of the Great Bear, very 
10 much like the leaf of Luhldb, i.e. helxine. The whole zodiacal sign is 
also called so (i.e. Spica). 

According to the Arabs, Alhulba (the hog's bristle) stands on the end 
of the Lion's tail, being the small hairs on the end of the tail. 

15. Algliafr (i, k, \ Virginis) 

consists of thi'ee not very brilliant stars on the train and the left foot of 
Virgo. According to the Arabs, it is the best of the Lunar Stations, 
because it stands behind Leo and before Scorpio. The evil of the Lion 
lies in his teeth and claws, the evil of the Scorpion lies in its venom and 
the sting of its tail. A Eajaz poet says : 

20 " The best night for ever 

Lies between Alzubana and Al'asad (Leo)." 

People say that the horoscopes of all the prophets lie in this Station ; 
but this does not seem to be true except in the case of Messiah, the 
Prophet who keeps off all mishap. The birth of Moses— according to 
the report of the Jews — must have coincided with the rising of the 
tooth of Leo and the moon's entering the claws of Leo. p 345 

It is called Ghafr, because the light of its stars is imperfect, from the 

verb Ghafara, i.e. to cover a thing, or, because it rises above the claws of 

Scorpio and becomes to it like a Mighfar (i.e. coat of mail). According 

30 to Alzajjaj, the name is derived from Ghafar, i.e. the hair on the end of 

the Lion's tail. 

16. Alzubana (a, ^ Librae) 

consists of two brilliant stars, separated from each other as far as five 
yards, and standing in a place where the two claws of Scorpio mi^ht be ; 
they belong, however, to Libra. The word is also derived from zabana 
(i.e. to push), as if the one of them were being pushed away from the 
other, not united with it. 

17. AViUil (j3, 8, TT Scorpii) 

is the head of Scorpio, consisting of three stars which form one line. 
40 Ibn-Al^ufi declares this to be impossible, and maintains that it consists 



848 ALBtH^Nt. 

of the 8th star of Libra and the 6th one of the stai'S outside Libra, as 
also Ptolemy has it in his Almagest. According to Ihn-Alsufi, those 
who consider the three bright stars in one line as Al'iMil are mistaken, 
for he says that the Crown, (i.e. Al'iklil) could not be anywhere but upon 
the head. However, the general view of the Arabs — in opposition to that of 
Ibn-Alsufi — is this, that the three stars in one line are AVihlil. The 
Arabs have a proverb applicable to this subject, saying : " The two 
contending parties were content, but the judge declined to give a 
judgment." 

[18. Alkalb (a Scorpii) 10 

is a red star behind Al'iklil and between two stars called Alniya^ 
(praecordia).] 

19. Alshaula (A, v Scorpii) 

is the sting of Scorpio, so called because it is always mushdla, i.e. raised. 
It consists of two bright stars near each other on the top of the tail of 
Scorpio. 

20. Alna^cfim (y, S, e, rj, a, <f}, t, t, Sagittarii) 

consists of eight stars, four of them lying in the Milky Way in a square, 
which are the Descending Ostriches, descending to the water, which is the 
Milky Way ; and four of them lying outside the Milky Way, also in a 20 
square, which are the Ascending Ostriches, ascending and returning from 
the water. 

Alzajjaj reads the word Alnu'd'im, i.e. the beams placed above the 
mouth of a well, where the sheaves of the pulley and the buckets are 
fixed (attached). 

The stars were compared to ostriches, as if four of them were 
descending, four ascending. The Descending Ostriches stand on the bow 
and arrow of Sagittarius, and the Ascending Ostriches stand on his 
shoulder and breast. 



21. Albalda 

is a desert district of heaven without any stars, at the side of the Horse, 
belonging to Sagittarius. According to Alzajjaj, this station was com- 
pared to the interstice between the two eyebrows, which are not connected 
with each other. You say of a man 'ahlad, which means that his eyebrows 
do not run into each other. 



30 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



22. Sa'd-Aldhdhih (a, /8 Capricomi) 



349 



consists of two stars, the one to the north, the other to the south, distant 
from each other about one yard. Close to the northern one there is a p. 346. 
small star, considered as the sheep which he (Sa*d) slaughters. The two 
stars stand on the horn of Cajpricorn. 



23. 8a'd-Bula' (jj., v, c Aquarii) 

consists of two stars with a third and hardly visible one between 
them, which looks as if one of them had devorired it, so that it glided 
down from the throat to the breast. According to others, it was called 
10 so because Sa'd is considered as he who devoured the middle star, robbed it 
of its light and concealed it. According to Abu-Yahya b. Kunasa, this 
Station was called so because it rose at the time when God said : " 
earth, devour thy water " (Sura xi. 46). This is a rather subtle derivation. 
These stars stand on the left hand of Aquarius or Amphora. 



24. Sa'd Alsu'ud (JS, ^Aquarii) 

consists of three stars, one of which is more bright than the two others. 
It is called so because people consider its rising as a luchy omen, because 
it rises when the cold decreases, when the winter is past and the 
season of the continuous rains sets in. Two of these stars stand on the 
20 left shoulder of Aquarius ; the third one stands on the tail of Capricorn. 



25. Sa'd-AVaJchhiya (y, C, tt, -q Aquarii) 

consists of four stars, three forming an acute-angled trigone, and one 
standing in the middle, as it were the centre of a circumscribed circle. 
The central star is Sa'd, and the three surrounding stars are his tents. 
According to others, this Station was called so because at the time when 
it rises all rejjtiles that had been hidden in the earth come forth. These 
stars stand on the right hand of Aquarius. God is all-wise ! 



26. Alfargh AVawwal (a, /3 Pegasi), 

also called the Upper Handle (of the bucket), and the First Two wlio 
3Q move the Btichet in the Well (in order to fill it). It consists of two bright 
stars, separated from each other, standing on the spine and shoulders of 
Pegasus. 



350 ALBtRf)Nl. 



27. Alfargh Althdni (7 Pegasi and a Andromedse), 

also called the Lower Handle (of tlie bucket), and the Later Two who 
move the BucJcet in the Well (in order to fill it). It consists of two stars 
similar to Alfargh Al'atvwal. According to the Arabs Amphora consists 
of these four stars. 

28. Batn-Alhut (ft Andromedse), 

also called Kalb-AlMt, is a bright star in the one half of the womb of 
a fish (a star) called Ribbon, which must not be confounded with the 
Two Fishes, one (the 12th) of the zodiacal signs. These stars stand 
above Libra and belong to Andromeda {lit. the chained wife who had 10 
not seen a husband). 



The preceding notes we have condensed and have added thereto other 
notes relating to Lunar Stations ; this we have arranged in the form of 
a table, showing the nature of the Lunar Stations according to the 
different theories. We have also noted the rising of the stars of the 
Stations for the year 1300 of Alexander according to mean calculation ; 
this we have also deposited in a table of the conditions of the stars of 
the Lunar Stations. If you look into these two tables you will find that 
the superscriptions at the top of each column render it superfluous to 
consult anybody beforehand as to their use. Here follow the two 20 
tables. 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



361 



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ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 353 

(On the interstices between tlie Lunar Stations.)— The moon's p.361. 

standing in conjunction with a star or with stars which give the name 
to a Lunar Station and belong to it, is called her MuMlaha ; it is disliked 
as foreboding evil. 

If the moon, accelerating her course, passes by (beyond) a Station, or 
if her course is slackened and she has not yet reached the Station, so 
that she is seen standing, as it were, in an interstice between two Lunar 
Stations, this is called the moon's ' Udill ; and this phase is liked as fore- 
boding something good. 
10 Some of these interstices are called by special names, e.g. the interstice 
between the Pleiades and Aldabaran is called Aldaika. This interstice 
they consider as a bad omen, foreboding evil. It is called Daika, 
because it sets very rapidly, for between the degree of the setting of the 
Pleiades and the degree of the setting of Aldabaran there are six 
degrees on the ecliptic, and nearly seven degrees on the equator. 
According to some authors of 'Anwa-books Daika consists of the 21st 
and 22nd stars of Taurus, which the Arabs call the Bog of Aldabaran, 
but this is not correct. 

Sometimes the moon, not reaching Alhan'a stands in Al-tahdyi, i.e. the 
20 24th, 25th, and 26th of the stars of G-emini. According to others Alta- 
hdyi is identical with Alhak'a ; whilst others again maintain that it is 
neither the one nor the other. 

Sometimes the moon, not reaching Alsimak (Spica), stands in her 
throne of Alsimak, which some Arabs call the Backside of the Lion, i.e. 
the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th of the stars of AlgJmrdb (Corvus). 

Sometimes, not reaching Alshaula (Aculeus Scorpii), the moon stands 
among the Kharazdt, i.e. the vertehrce of the tail of Scorpius. 

Further, not reaching Albalda, the moon stands in Alkildda (Monile), 
also called AVudhiijtj (Nidus Struthiocameli) i.e. the 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 
30 13th, 14th, of the stars of Sagittarius. Some people take these stars to 
be the bow, but they are the head of Sagittarius and his two locks. 

Sometimes, not reaching Sa'd-alsu'ild, the moon stands in Sa'd-Ndshira, 
i.e. the 23rd and 24th of the stars of Capricornus. 

Sometimes, not reaching Alfargh Althani, the moon stands in Alkarab, 
which means the place where the two cross-woods of the bucket meet, 
where the string is fastened, i.e. the 5th and 7th of the stars of the 
Great Horse (Pegasus). Or (not reaching Alfargh Althani), the moon 
stands in the Balda of the Fox, i.e. an empty starless region between 
Alfargh Althani and Alsamaka (Pisces). 
40 Some one of the authors of 'Anwa-books thinks that AVantsdn, i.e. the 
1st and 2nd of the stars of the Triangulum, stand between Batn-alhut and 
Alsharatd.n, where he saw them setting after Alsharatun ; therefore he main- 
tains that the moon, not reaching Alsharatan, stands in Al'anisan. But this 
is wrong, for Al'anisan stands in Aries more westward {lit. at more degrees) 
than Alsharatan. However, the retardation of the setting of Al'anisan 

23 



354 ALBiRUNi. 

(that they set after Alsharatan) was caused by their northern latitude. 
For it is peculiar to the stars that those which have much northern lati- 
tude rise earlier than those that have less, that in consequence the 
former set earlier than the latter, and vice versa in the south. 

Because, now, the fixed stars which give the forms and names to the 
p.352. Lunar Stations move on in one and the same slow motion, you must add one 
day to the days of their rising and setting in every 66 solar years, since in 
such a ijeriod they move on one degree. We have represented in a table 
the places of the stars of the Lunar Stations for A. Alex. 1300, along 
with the names given to them by the astronomers, with their longitudes 10 
and latitudes, and the six degrees of magnitude to which each star 
belongs. Now, if the reader wants to know the reality about the Lunar 
Stations, he must correct their places for his time according to the pro- 
gression we have mentioned, i.e. adding one degree for every 66 years. 
Further, as to their disappearing in the rays (of the sun) and their 
coming out of the rays, he uses the rules mentioned in the Canons. The 
demonstration of these things is found in the Almagest. The eastward 
and westward motions of the Lunar Stations differ at the same rate as 
the latitudes of the countries, further according to the six classes of 
magnitude to which the stars belong, and according to their distances 20 
from the ecliptic. In so doing he will arrive at certain astonishing facts 
when he has to do with high degrees of latitude north of the ecliptic ; 
e.g. when Venus stands in conjunction with the sun in the sign of 
Pisces, the time of its being concealed binder the rays is one day or 
nearly two days, whilst it is nearly 16 days when she stands in conjunc- 
tion with the sun in the sign of Virgo. 

Mercury is observed in the sign of Scorj^ius in the mornings as pro- 
gressing towards the sun, whilst the interstice between them is as much 
as l-ths of a sign (i.e. 24°), and receding from the sun, whilst he is not 
at all seen in the evenings. The reverse of this takes place when he 30 
moves in the sign of Taurus, for then he is observed in the evenings 
progressing towards the sun and receding from him, whilst he is not 
seen in the mornings. All these particulars are explained and accounted 
for in Ptolemy's Almagest. 

Here follows the table of the places of the stars of the Lunar Stations. 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



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ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



357 



(On projection, and the construction of star -maps.)— I tave p.357. 
followed in this book a method which the student of this science will 
not disapj)rove, treating in each chapter the subject as fully as pos- 
sible, and not referring the reader to other books until I had myself 
nearly exhausted the subject. Now, I must add to the book another 
chapter on the representation of the Lunar Stations and of other 
constellations on even planes, for the human mind, once knowing at 
what different times the different stars rise, forms an idea as to the 
positions which they occupy in the ecliptic. Our remarks in the pre- 

10 ceding pages will enable the student to recognise the stars of the Lunar 
Stations by eye- sight, and to point them out. However, not everyone 
who requires these things knows the positions of the ecliptic. Besides, 
the representation of the Lunar Stations as well as the other stars 
comprehended by the 48 constellations (on an even plane), offers many 
conveniences in common to all classes of scholars. The same applies to 
the representation of countries, cities, and what else there is on earth, 
on an even plane. Therefore, not knowing any special treatise on this 
subject, I shall treat it myself, mentioning whatever occurs to my 
mind. The reader, I hope, will excuse ! 

20 The projection of great and small circles and points on globes may 
be done in this way, that you make one of the two poles the top of 
cones, the envelopes of which pass through them (the circles and 
points), and cut a certain plane which is assumed. For the parts 
(lines or points) which are common to this plane and the envelopes 
of these cones if they pass through circles, or common to this plane 
and the lines (of this cone) if they pass through points, are their 
projections on this even plane. 

This is the method of the astrolabe (stereographic polar projection), 
for ia the north the southern pole is made the top of the cones, and 

80 in the south the northern pole is made the top of the cones, and the 
plane which we want to find (the plane of projection) is one of the p)lanes 
parallel with the plane of the equator. Then they (i.e. the cones) repre- 
sent themselves as circles and straight lines. 

'Abu-Hamid Alsaghani has transferred the tops of the cones from the 
two poles, and has placed them inside or outside the globe iu a straight 
line with the axis. In consequence the cones represent themselves as 
straight lines and circles, as ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas, as he 
(Abu-Hamid) wants to have them. However, people have not been in 
a hurry to adopt such a curious plane. (This is the central projec- 

4Q tion, or the general perspective projection.) 

Another kind of projection is what I have called fhe cylindrical pro- 
jection (orthographic projection), which I do not find mentioned by any 
former mathematician. Tt is carried out in this way : You draw 
through the circles and lines of the globe lines and planes parallel to 
the axis. So you get in the day-plane straight lines, circles, and ellipses 



358 ALBIEUNI. 

(no parabolas and hyperbolas). All this is explained in my book, which 
gives a complete representation of all possible methods of the construc- 
tion of the astrolabe. 

However, lines, circles, and points do not represent themselves in the 
same way on a plane as on a globe ; for the distances which are equal 
on a globe differ greatly in a plane, especially if some of them are 
near to the one pole and others to the other pole. But it is not the 
pui'pose of the astrolabe to represent them (the lines, circles, points) 
as agreeing with eye-sight, but to let some of them revolve whilst the 
others are at rest, so that the result of this process agrees with the 10 
' appearances in heaven, including the difference of time. On the other 
hand, the purpose of the representation of the stars and countries 
(on even planes) is this, to make them correspond with their position 
in heaven and earth, so that in looking at them yon may form an 
idea of their situation, always keeping in mind that the straight 
lines are not like the revolving (circular) lines, and that the spherical 
planes have no likeness to the even planes that are equal among each 
other. 

"We must give an illustration to make the reader familiar with these 
methods. One way serving for this purpose is the construction of the 20 
flat astrolabe. 

Draw a circle as you like it, the greater the better. Divide it into four 
parts by two diameters which cut each other at right angles. Divide 
one of the radii into 90 equal parts. Then we make the centre of 
the circle a new centre, and describe round it circles with the distances 
of each of the 90 parts. These circles will be parallel to each other, 
and will be at equal distances from each other. Divide the circumference 
of the greatest circle into the (360) parts of a circle, and connect each 
part of them and the centre by straight lines. 

In doing this we imagine the periphery of this first circle to be the 30 
ecliptic, and its centre to be one of the poles of the ecliptic. On the 
ecliptic we mark a point as the beginning of Aries. Then we fix the 
places of the stars according to Almagest, or to the Canon of Muhammad 
b. Jabir Albattani, or to the Booh of Fixed Stars, by 'Abu-Alhusain 
Alsufi, taking into account the amount of precession up to our time, and 
changing accordingly the places of the stars as determined by our pre- 
decessors. Take one of the stars of that half (of heaven) for which you 
have constructed this circle, and count from this assumed point (the 
beginning of Aries), proceeding from right to left, as many degrees as 
the star is distant from Aries. That place where you arrive is the 40 
degree of this star in longitude. 

Further count, from the same point in a straight line which extends 
to the centre, the corresponding number of the star's latitude in the 90 
circles. Then the place you arrive at is the place of the body of the 
stars (i.e. the point determined by both the degrees of longitude and 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 359 

latitude). There you make a dot of yellow or white colour, according to 
the class of magnitude and brilliancy to which in the six classes the star 
may belong. 

The same process you repeat with every star. the latitude of which 
lies in the same direction, till you have finished all the stars of this 
direction. The same you continue to do with the stars of another direc- 
tion, until you have fixed the stars of the whole sphere in two circles. 
We mark these circles with the blue of lapis lazuli, in order to distin- 
guish them from the stars, and we draw round the stars of each con- 
10 stellation the image which the stars are believed to represent, after 
having fixed all the stars in their proper positions. In this way the 
object we had in view is realized. 

This method, however, we do not like, because the figures on the 
ecliptic cannot completely be represented, since some parts of them fall 
into this half, some into the other half. If you drew round the circle p.369. 
of the ecliptic, outside of it, 90 circles, parallel to and distant from 
each other as far as in the former construction, in the same way as is 
done with the flat astrolabe, the matter would evidently proceed in the 
same order. Further, we do not like this method, as the places of the 
20 stars in heaven and those in the design (drawing) greatly differ from 
each other. For the more southern the stars are, the distances between 
them which appear equal to the eye are the greater and wider in the 
figure, if its centre be the north pole, till at last they assume quite 
intolerable dimensions. The same applies to the method of him who 
wants to represent the stars in the plane of a circle which passes through 
the two poles of the ecliptic, in those points where the straight lines of 
their heights touch the plane (i.e. the foot-points of the verticals), which 
method is similar to the astrolabic projection ; for then the figures of 
the stars are in an undue manner compressed towards the periphery, and 
30 they become too large about the centre. 

We shall now try to find another method, which is free from the in- 
conveniences of the process just mentioned. 

We draw a circle, divide it into four parts (by two diameters cutting 
each other at right angles), and upon the points of the four parts (i.e. 
where the diameters touch the periphery) we write the names of the 
directions (i.e. north, west, south, east). 

We continue the two diameters that divide the circle into fourths, 
straight on in their directions in infinitvim. 

Each radius we divide into 90 equal parts, and the perij)hery, into 360 
40 parts. 

Next we try to find on the line of the east and west the centres of 
circles, each of which passes through one of the parts (degrees) of the 
diameter and through both the north and south poles. 

When these centres have been fixed, and we draw all the possible 
circles round them within that first (and largest) circle, we get 180 arcs, 



860 ALBIRUNt. 

which divide the diameter into equal parts, and which cut each other at 
each of the two points, the north and south points. 

These circles are the cii'cles of longitude. 

Then we return to that line which proceeds from the north point as 
the straight continuation of the diameter. On this line we try to find 
the centre of a circle, passing through those points of the periphery 
which are distant from the east and west points 1 degree, 2 degrees, etc. 
until 90 degrees, and through those points of the diameter which are 
distant from the centre 1 degree, 2 degrees, etc. until 90 degrees. 

The same we do in the southern half, on the line which proceeds from \Q 
the south point as the straight continuation of the diameter. 

The circles we get in this way are the circles of latitude, 180 in number, 
which divide each of the circles of longitude into 180 parts. 

Further, we assume the west point to be the beginning of Aries, and 
the line from east to west to be the ecliptic. From the beginning of 
Aries we count the distance of each star; so we find its degree (of 
longitude) . 

Then we count the latitude of the star in the proper direction on the 
circle of longitude. Thereby we find the place of the star. 

We make another figure similar to the first one, where we assume the 20 
west point to be the beginning of Libra. In this way we can give a 
complete map of all the stars in the two figures. Lastly, in representing 
the single star-groups or constellations, we draw those images which we 
have heretofore described. 

If we want to make a map of the earth, we construct a similar figure 

as described in the preceding. We count the assumed longitude of a 

place from the west point, and then we count the degrees of latitude of 

p.360. the place on the circle of longitude. So we find the position of the place. 

The same we continue to do with other places. 

This is the technical (graphic) method for the solution of this 30 
problem. 

As some people have a predilection for calculations, and like to 
arrange them in tables, and prefer them to technical (graphic) methods, 
we shall also have to show how we may find, by calculation, the dia- 
meters of the circles of longitude and latitude, and the distances of their 
centres from the centre of the (great) circle. And with that we shall 
finish our work. 

We draw the circle ABCD round the centre H, and divide it into four 
parts by means of the two diameters AHC and BHD. 

A is to be the west. 40 

B „ south. 

C „ east. 

D ,, north. 



ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 361 

The radii we divide into 90 parts, and the whole circle into 360 
parts. 

Now, e.g. we want to find the radius of the circle BZD, which is one 
of the circles of longitude, and the distance of its centre (from the 
centre H). 

Now, ifc is evident that HZ is known, being determined by the 
degrees, of which the radius HC as well as the radii BH and HD 
hold 90. 

The multiplication of HZ, which is known, by the unknown sum of 
10 HK + KZ, which is the diameter we want to find, minus ZH, 

is equal to 

the multiplication of HB by HD, i.e. the square of one of them. 

We take the square of HB, i.e. 8,100, and divide it by ZH, which is 
known. Thereby we get the sum of HK + KZ. To this we add ZH, 
and take the half of the whole sum. That is ZK, the radius of that 
circle to which BZD belongs. 

Now, after having found out so much, we open the compasses to such 
an extent as the new-found radius is long ; one of the legs of the com- 
passes we place on the point Z, which is known, and the other leg we 
20 place on the continuation of the line HA, to whatever point it reaches. 
The latter poiat is the centre of the circle, i.e. K. 

In this way we can dispense with the knowledge of the distance 
between the two centres. 

(In the following the text is corrupt.) 
This is the solution of the problem by means of calculation. 

If you want to find the distance of the passage, i.e. that point on the 
periphery of the circle where the line which connects the two points B 
and K cuts the periphery, viz. the arc AT, di-aw the line BK which cuts 
the periphery in T, draw the vertical (i.e. Loth-Linie, the line which 

30 represents the height of a trapeza or cone) TS upon BD, and draw the 
line TD. 

Because, now, in the triangle BHK the sides are known according 
to the parts, of which the radius counts 90, we change each side into 
that measure, according to which the radius counts 60 degrees, i.e. we 
multiply it by 60 and divide it by 90. So it is changed into the sexage- p. 361. 
simal system. 

The triangles BHK and BTD and BST are similar to each other. 
Therefore we multiply KH by BD, and the product we divide by KB. 
So we get DT as the quotient. 

40 Next we multiply DT by HK, and divide the product by KB. So 
we get DS as quotient (changed into that measure, according to which 
DT holds 60 parts). 



862 



ALBtEX^Ni. 



If we take the corresponding arc in the table of sines and subtract the 
arc from 90, we get AT as remainder. 

If we want to find the passage (T) by an easier method, we change 
the triangle BHK, the sides of which are known, into that measure 
according to which the radius of the circle ABCD contains 60 parts. 
Then the angle TDB in the first figure, and the angle TBD in the second 
figure, is that which determines the whole distance of the passage (from 
A), as a chord determines the distance between the two ends of an arc. 

If we want to change each side of this triangle into the measure 
according to which BK holds 60 parts, we multiply it by 60 and 
divide the product by BK, according to the measure of which the radius 
holds 60 parts. So we find what we wanted to find. 

If we, then, know the side HK according to this measure, we take 
the corresponding arc from the table of sines. So we get the arc DT. 

So, by whatever method we solve the problem, the end we aim at is 
the same, and also the results. 

Here follow Figures I. and II. 



10 



I. 




ON THE LUNAR STATIONS. 



363 




10 



Let us again construct tlie same figure to show the same thing for the 
circles of latitude. 

The circle of which we want to find the radius is that one to which 
MQL belongs. AM as well as HQ and CL are to correspond in number 
(i.e. to hold the same number of parts). 

We draw the vertical (Loth-Linie) MX, which is the sine of DM, 
which is known, and we draw HX, i.e. the sine of AM, which is also 
known. 

Then we subtract HQ from HX, after we have changed it from the 
nonagesimal system into the sexagesimal system. The remainder we 
get is QX. 

By this we divide the square of MX, and add QX to the product. 
Of this sum we take the half, which is QK, the radius of the circle to 



364 



ALBIRUNI. 



which MQL belongs, according to the measure of which the radius of the 
circle ABCD holds 60 parts. 

If we want to find the distance of the passage (T) from A, we draw 
the line AK, which cuts the periphery of the circle in T. 

Further, we draw the line TC and draw the vertical (Loth-Linie) 
TS upon AC. 

Then we multiply AC by HK and divide the product by AK. 
Thereby we get TC. 

If we multiply this divisor by HK, and divide the product by AK, we 
get SC. 

Multiply it by AS, and the root of the product is TS, which is the 
sine of the arc of the passage (i.e. of the arc AT). 

Likewise, if we change AH into the measure according to which AK 
holds 120 parts, and we take the arc from the tables of whole chords, we 
get the arc AT, i.e. the distance of the passage (from A). 

This method applies in the same way to the direction of C as to the 
direction of A, to that of B as to that of D, without the slightest 
difference. 

And here ends my work. Here follows Figure III. 

C 



10 




p.362. 



(Conclusion.) — Now I have fulfilled my promise, and I have compre- 
hended in my exposition all the j)arts of this science, agreeably to the 
wishes of my friends, exerting myself to the best of my capability. 
Every man acts according to his fashion, and the value of a man lies in 
that which he understands. I hope that the elements which I have laid 
down are sufficient to train the mind of the student, and to lead him to 



20 



ON THE LUNAE STATIONS. 365 

a correct consideration of tlie origines of mankind, sufficient to lay open 
all that is doubtful in the eras of prophets and kings, and to give a cor- 
rect idea of their own system to those of the Jews and Christians 
who are led astray. 

If the reader be like me (in knowledge), he will thank me for the task 
I have carried out ; if he be superior to me (in knowledge), he wUl be so 
kind as to correct my errors and to pardon whatever mistakes I may 
have made. If he be inferior to me ia knowledge, he will not do me any 
harm, because he will either acquiesce in being led by me for the purpose 

10 of his instruction, or, in case he opposes me, he will offer opposition to 
things which he has not the power of mind to handle successfully. 

But why should I mind — or be afraid of — the enmity of any adversary, 
since my badge is, wherever I am, the power of our lord, the noble 
prince, the glorious and victorious, the benefactor. Shams-alma' dli — may 
God give long duration to his power ! Its firm column is my trust; from 
the fact that it spreads secretly and openly I derive strength ; its brilliant 
light is the guide of my path ; his undisturbed happiaess is my trust 
and my hope. May God teach me and all Muslims to be truly thankful 
for his benefits by fulfilliag all the duties of obedience as prescribed by 

20 the law, and by continually praying to God that He may reward him 
according to His mercy and grace. 

Let us finish our book with the praise of God, who afforded me help 
and guidance, and who taught me to distinguish the path of truth from 
the path of blindness. " Let those who want to perish (as infidels, 
idolaters,) perish, after a clear proof (of the true religion) has been pre- 
sented to them, and on the strength of it, and let those who want to live 
(the life of the true religion) live, after a clear proof (of the true religion) 
has been presented to them, and on the strength of it." (Goran, S. 
viii. 44). 

30 The mercy and blessing of God be in all eternity upon the Prophet 
who was sent to the best of nations, and upon his holy family ! 



367 



ANNOTATIONS, 



p. 1, 1. 25. Shams-almo'dlL This prince, Kabus ben Washmgir ben 
Mardawij, wlio bad received from the Khalif the honorary name of 
Shams-alma'dU, i.e. Sun of the Heights, belonged to the family of the 
Banu-Ziyad, who ruled over Jurjan (Hyrcania), Tabaristan, and other 
countries south of the Caspian Sea during 155 years, viz. a.h. 315-470. 
Kabus, after having reigned a.h. 366-371, was driven away and fled into 
the dominions of the Samanian dynasty, where he lived as an exile, 
whilst his country was occupied by a prince of the family of Buwaihi 
A.H. 371-388. To this period the author alludes, p. 94, 1. 19 (" at the 
time of the Sahib (i.e. Sahib Ibn-'Abbad the Yazir of the Buyide prince) 
and when the family of Buwaihi held the country under their sway "). 

Kabus returned to the throne a.h. 388, and was killed 403. This 
book was dedicated to him according to all probability a.h. 390 or 391 
=A.D. 1000. The history of this prince is found in Sehir-eddin's " Ge- 
schichte von Tabaristan," etc., ed. Dorn, pp. 185-198. 

p. 2, 1. 27. Wading. Although all three MSS. have c^"^", I think it 
would have been more idiomatic to read ^.^•^. The second form occurs 
rn, 17 -,^^,7; p*, 19. 

p. 3, 1. 14. Which have come down from them. The words ^*6-ai J^^^ 
are very bad Arabic, next to impossible. It seems rather likely that 
between them a word has fallen out, e.g. i^aU, or some synonym of 

p. 5, 1. 15. Nychthemeron. To meet the inconvenience that the word 
day means the totality of day and night as well as the light half alone, I 
have ventured to adopt for the former meaning the word Nychtliemeron, 
for which I beg the reader's pardon. 



368 ANNOTATIONS. 

p. 6, 1. 37. Canon of Shahriydrdn AlsMh. The word Canon (so I 
translate the word Zvj) means a collection or handbook of astronomical 
tables of various kinds. They were always the depositories of the latest 
discoveries of Eastern astronomy. For more information on these 
Canons I refer to the excellent work of L. A. Sedillot, " Prolegomenes des 
Tables Astronomiques d'Olough-Beg," Paris, 1847, p. viii. ff. (Table 
verifiee, etc.) 

A Canon of Shahriydrdn Alshdh is not known to me. However, there 
is a Zij-i-Shahrydr and a Zij-Alshdh, with either of which this Canon 
may be identical. 

The former was of Persian origin, and was translated into Arabic by 
Altamimi, vide " Hamzae Ispahanensis Annalium," libri x., p. V", and 
"Kitab-alfihrist," ed. Pliigel, p. 241, 244, and notes. 

The second, with several other canons, was composed by the famous 
mathematician and astronomer, a native of Marw, Habash ('Ahmad ben 
'Abd- Allah), who lived in Bagdad, end of the second and beginning of 
the third century. Cpr. Sedillot, "Prolegomenes," p. x., note 3, and the 
" Kitab-Alfihrist," ed. by G. Fliigel, p. Vv*^ and the annotations. 

p. 6, 1. 42. A variation which during the eclipses, etc. I have not been 
able to ascertain what relationship between the eclipses and the different 
length of the days is meant by the author in this passage. 

p. 7, 1. 39. Except one Miislim lawyer. The following discussion is of 
more interest to a Muhammadan theologian than to us. The canonical 
time of fast was from the rise of dawn till sunset, and some too pious 
people mistook this day of fast for the astronomical day. 

p. 8, line 22. Likewise it had been forbidden, etc. This passage refers 
to a custom which existed among the Muslims in the time before the 
verse Sura II., 183, was pronounced by Muhammad. We learn from the 
commentaries of Alzamakhshari and Albaidawi that the time of fast 
extended over the whole Nychthemeron, except the time from sunset till 
the second or last night-prayer, i.e. about midnight, or till a man fell 
asleep, during which eating and drinking and women were allowed. 
Omar once had intercourse with one of his wives after he had said the 
last night-prayer ; this breach of the custom made him feel penitent, 
and he apologized to the Prophet. Thereujjon the Prophet abolished 
the old custom, and pronounced the verse in question, allowing his 
people to eat and drink and have intercourse with their women not only 
from sunset till the second night-prayer, but also farther till the rise of 
dawn, i.e. nearly the whole night. For the traditions concerning this 
subject vide " Bokhari," ed. Krehl, I., P^^, P^^. 

In my translation, p. 8, 1. 23, read " after the last night-prayer " instead 
of " after night-prayer." 



ANNOTATIONS. 369 

p. 9, 1. 14. Tradition which relates, etc. It is not quite clear to what 
tradition the author refers in this passage. Prof. L. Krehl kindly directed 
my attention to a tradition which occurs several times in Albokhari 
{" Becueil des Traditions Mahometanes," public par L. Krehl), e.g.i. 149, 
ii. 50, etc. Here Muhammad compares Jews, Christians, and Muslims 
to workmen. The Jews work fj'om sunrise to noon, and receive one 
Kirat as wages. The Christians work from noon till the afternoon- 
prajer, j'0»i\ i>^ and receive one Kirat. The Muslims work from the 
afternoon-prayer till sunset, and receive two Kirat. So the Muslims 
receive twice the wages of the Jews, whilst they only work half the 
time. 

To a similar tradition the author seems to refer. He calls the Mus- 
lims ^' those who hasten to the mosqiie on a Friday'' thereby distinguishing 
them from Jews and Christians. 

In any case this tradition must have proved, according to the author, 
that Muhammad represented the day, whether it be short or long, as 
divided into twelve equal parts, the so-called wpai KaipiKai. 



p. 9, 1. 36. What is he, etc. The reading of the MSS. (^}) 1 have 
changed into e)*V It seems preferable, however, to read <j^\i, as Prof. 
Fleischer suggests. 



p. 9, 1. 46. The prayer of the day is silent (or, rather, mute). 

The two prayers of the night (>-->j*^\ '/'» and bU«5\ i^) are (j\^^ 
i.e. these prayers are spoken with a clear audible voice. The two prayers 
of the day (j^\ 'i>^ and ^-a*5\ 'i^) are y^^ i.e. these prayers are not 
spoken with an audible voice or whisi^er ; the lips move, but no sound 

is produced. Therefore they are called (jj\^^.«.a^\ i.e. the two silent or 
mute ones, which name is derived from the tradition quoted by the 
author. 

This division does not comj^rehend the morning-prayer ^^^ ^^. 
But it can be proved from tradition that this prayer is to be spoken with 
an audible voice. In the M%iwatta' of Msilik ben 'Anas (published 
with the commentary of Alzurkani at BuLik, a.h. 1279, torn. i. p. ^'^*), 
Alfurafisa ben 'TJmair Alhanafi relates that he learned the Surat-Yusuf, 
i.e. Sura xii. by hearing it from Omar, who recited it repeatedly as his 
morning prayer. 

The author wants to prove that the 5-^^\ i^-= is not a day-prayer, 
because it is spoken at the rise of dawn, i.e. before the beginning of the 
day. According to holy tradition the prayer of the day is silent (or mute), 
whilst the morning prayer is not. 

24 



370 ALBIEUNI. 

p. 10, 1. 1. The '^ first " prayer, etc. The five canonical prayers of the 
Nychthemeron are these : 

cli*J^ l^ or ly^V^ oUi«J\ S^uo ? Prayers of the night. 

u " \ ( P^^ye^s of the day. 

The author's argument is this, that ^^\ '^-o or morning-prayer is 
not a prayer of the day, because the j4^\ 2^^-= is called the first, i.e. the 
first of the two day-prayers, and because the ^^\ '^^ is called the 
middle prayer, i.e. the middle between the first day-prayer and the first 
night-prayer. If the ^~t^\ 6^ belonged to the day-prayers, the 6^^- 
j^\ would not be the exact middle in the way we have described, for in 
that case the ^\ 'i>^ as well as the j^\ 'i^'o would be in the midst 
between the first day-prayer and the first night-prayer. 

p, 11, 1. 12. Sbidliind. An astronomical hand-book of Indian origin, 
edited the first time by Alfazari, a.h. 154, and a second time by Albe- 
runi's famous countryman Muhammad ben Musa Alkhwarizmi. Alberuni 
wrote a book (commentary ?) on the Sindhind with the title Jy?-^\ ^'^f^ 
^♦*<s!^\ v_jlwjt. ^_ji jy^\ ^\^. For the literature on this subject I refer to 
Fliigel's " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 274, notes. 

The word Sindhind is supposed to be the Sanskrit Siddhdnta. 1 must, 
however, observe that Alberuni writes this word in the more correct form 
of 4\>U>j~a, e.g. in the title of his book, " On the mathematical methods of 
the Brdhmasiddhdnta," s^U^esJ^ ^j,^ ^^ JiUsA«. fi^\f. ^ U &^i^y. 

p. 11, 1. 15. The four seasons. Eead ^jS\ instead of ^.ji\. 

p. 12, 1. 88. The quotation of Theon refers to the introduction of his 
Upoxeipoi Kavoves, where he speaks of the Julian year of the people of 
Alexandria, of the Egyptian year of 365 days, and of the Sothis period 
of 1460 years ; vide " Commentaire de Theon d'Alexandrie sur les tables 
manuelles astronomiques de Ptolemee," par M. I'Abbe Halma ; Paris, 
1822, p. 30. On the Sothis period, vide R. Lepsius, " Chronologie der 
Aegypter," Berlin, 1849, p. 165 if. 

p. 12, 1. 40. On the year of the Persians, cf. a short treatise of 
A. V. Gutschmid, Ueber das iranische Jahr, " Sitzungsberichte der Kgl. 
Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften," 1862, 1 July. 

p. 13, 1. 22. The Hebrews, Jews, and all the Israelites. It is difficult to 
explain what differences the author meant to express by these three 
words, which to us mean all the same. Perhaps he meant by Hebrews 
the ancient Jews, Samaritans, and other kindred nations ; by Jews, the 



ANNOTATIONS. 371 

monotheistic people in particular ; and by all the Bant-Israel, the totality 
of the Jewish sects, Eabbanites, 'Ananites (Karaer), and others. Vide 
a similar expression on p. 62, 11. 16, 17. 

p. 13, 1. 34. In a similar way the heathen Arabs, etc. C£. with Albe- 
runi's theory, the description of ancient Arabic chronology by A. 
Sprenger, " Leben und Lehre des Mohammad," iii. p. 530 ff., and 
" Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft," torn. xiii. 
p. 134, and tom. xxxi. p. 552. 

p. 13, 1. 42. The genealogy of the Kalamis occurs also, but with some 
differences, in Ihn Hishdm, "Life of Muhammad," ed. Wiistenfeld, i. pp. 
29, 30. 

p. 14, 1. 16. The text of this verse is incorrect, for, according to the 
context, it does not contain a description of Fukaim, but of 'Abu Thu- 
mama ; and, secondly, the metre is disturbed, for I do not think that 
the licentia poetica allowed a poet to distort the word t~4aJ\ into L<.*iai\. 

p.' 15, 1. 13. The leap-year they call Adhimdsa. According to the 
double construction of the verb j_5*— , the Indian word may either be 
&M.UJk> or i—UJ. It seems preferable to read <5— UJV>, and to explain <iuUJ\. 
as Adhimdsa, although it must be observed that this means "intercalary 
month," not " intercalary year," as the author maintains. Cf . Eeinaud, 
" Memoire sur I'lnde," p. 352. 

p. 15, 1. 15. And their subdivisions. Eead U>j^ (as depending on 
^gJUjtx^i), i.e. the Jufur of the Lunar Stations. 

Our dictionaries do not explain the meaning which the word Jafr, pi. 
Jufur, has in this passage. It is a term peculiar to the Indian system of 
astrology ('TJtarid ben Muhammad wrote a book On the Indian Jafr, 
^^^.i^\ jst:^\ s_jU', vide " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 278), and it means something 
connected with the Lunar Stations, perhaps certain subdivisions (but 
this translation of mine is entirely conjectural). 

The word occurs in four other places in this book : — p. 336, 1. 9. 
The Indians derive their daTpoXoyovfieva from the fact of the stars 
entering the Bibdtdt (i.e. resting-places, road-side iuns) of the Lunar 
Stations. These Ribdtdt are called Jtfur, and each of them is 
thought to refer to some special matter or event (life, death, travelling, 
victory, defeat, etc.). Their number must have been very great, be- 
cause the author says that he will refrain from enumerating them, as 
this would detain him too long from the subject of his book. p. 338, 
1.14: The author, sj)eaking of the same subject, mentions the Ribatat 
and the Jufur of the Lunar Stations side by side; also, p. 341, 
1. 7. On p. 347, both words occur in the superscription of column 5, 



372 ALBIRUNI. 

but liere tlie writing of the manuscript is such a bad scrawl that I do 
not feel sure of having made out a correct text. 

As the subject-matter seems to be of Indian origin, one may presume 
that the word also is derived from the same source. 

p. 15, 1. 17. Ahu- Muhammad AlndHb Aldmuli (i.e. a native either of 
Amul in Tabaristan or of Amul or Amu on the Oxus), the author of 
a Kitdb-alghurra is mentioned four times, vide p. 53, 1. 34 ; p. 235, 1. 8 ; 
p. 344, 1. 2, He is not known to me from other sources. 

p. 16, 1. 14. Cannot he dispensed 'with. Read i^^ instead of ^^^ 
(Fleischer). 

p. 17, 1. 6. A tradition for which, etc. Instead of ^ tf-^^ (^P, 4), 
read ^f>'^<^ or ^ tf^'^^ (Fleischer). 

p. 17, 1. 8. Perhaps we shall facilitate the understanding of the 
following pages, if we state the order of the author's arguments. 

A. Notions of the Persians regarding the Era of Creation, p. 17, 1. 8. 

B. Notions of the Jews on the same subject, p. 18, 1. 5. 

C. Notions of the Christians, p. 19, 1. 10. 

D. Refutation of the Jewish theory, p. 19, 1. 41. 

E. Refutation of the Christian theory, p. 21, 1. 5, and Biblical pro- 

phecies relating to Muhammad, p. 22, 1. 17. 

F. On the Thora of Jews, Christians, and Samaritans, p. 24, 1. 1. 

G. On the difference of the Gospels, p. 25, 1. 36. 
H. On sectarian Gospels, p. 27, 1. 9. 

p. 17, 1. 9. For the Persians, etc. Cf. with the following traditions, 
chapter xxxiv. of Bundehesch, ed. F. Justi, 1868. 

p. 18, 1. 5. The Jews and Christians differ, etc. An extract of the 
following by Almakrizi has been published by S. de Sacy, " Chresto- 
mathie Arabe," tom. i. p. 284. 

p. 18, 1. 16. By Hisab-aljummal the author understands the notation 
of the numerals by means of the letters of the Arabic alphabet, arranged 
according to the sequence of the Hebrew alphabet. 

p. 18,11.19,20. AlrcVi,Abu-'IsdAlisfahdm. Of these two pseudo-Mes- 
siahs the latter is well known. For his history, vide H. Graetz, 
" Geschichte der Juden," 2nd edition, tom. v. p. 167 and p. 438. Of the 
former name there is no j)seudo-Messiah known in Jewish history. 
However, Graetz reports of a pseudo-Messiah (loc. cit. p. 162), whom 
he calls Serene. The oldest Hebrew report concerning this man 
begins : 

n^ni inu? lirntDi ii^niS:ii i^:^^ ni^ton b^nm Dn^trtri 



ANNOTATIONS. 



373 



" Wtat you have asked regarding the deceiver (or heretic) who has 
risen in our exile, and whose name is i^^")," etc. Whether this name 
has any connection with the Arabic ^^V^ whether the reading ^"^"y 
is to be changed into "i^~), students of Jewish history may decide. 
Certainly a later Latin chronicle calls him Serenus (Grraetz, loc. cit. 
p. 434 ff.) A pseudo-Prophet, Bd% in Tiberias, is also mentioned by 
Al-Jaubari in "Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft," XX. 490. 

p. 18, 1. 25. The author's transliteration of Hebrew words resembles 
very much the present pronunciation of the Jews of Galizia. Between 
the words Dn?2 ^^^^ DVl the Arabic has the signs o>^}, a^ud the last 
word ^inn is written ^.yfcU> for both of which variations I am unable 
to account. 

p. 18, 1. 35. Since the time when. The Arabic translation of this 
passage is not quite correct, and next to unintelligible. It betrays a 
certain likeness to the translation of the Syriac Bible (Peshita), where 
this passage is rendered by — 

" And from the time when the sacrifice passes away, impurity will 
be given to destruction." 
Accordingly I read the Arabic text : 

although I am aware that this is bad and ungrammatical Arabic. On 
p. ^*, 1. 20, read^--a> with PL instead of ^--aj. 

p. 19, 1. 12. Sum of 1335. Eead i^^ instead of U^ e>*^; o^ P- ^"^' 
1. 8. 

p. 19, 1. 22. Urishlim, i.e. Jerusalem, etc. The author gives to this pro- 
phecy of Daniel a wrong date. It falls into the first year of Darius, 
V. Dan. ix. 1, not in the time some years after the accession of Cyrus to the 
throne. This latter date the author has taken from Dan. x, 1 (" in the 
third year of Cyrus," etc.), and Dan. x. 4. 

Perhaps in the Arabic text (p. ^\ 1. 11) the word *^^' has fallen out 
between the words ^y>^ and (j^-^^. 

1. 19, p. 31. And before this, etc. This is a blunder of the author's. 
It ought to be, " And after this," etc. 

1. 20, p. 43. Jerusalem. Here, p. 17, 1. 21, and in all other passages 
(p. 16, 11. 1, 13, etc.) the con-ect reading is y-A»4J\ c^-o according to Yakut, 



374 ALBfEUNI. 

" Greographisches Worterbuch," iv. 590, not (j-AftJ\ o^. In the follow- 
ing line, p. 18, 1. 1, read <^i3\ instead of i\ (Fleischer) . 

p. 22, 1. 17. For Muhammad, etc. Read J^i^s^i instead of A*i*-*^ on 
p. 19, 1. 3. 

p. 22, 1. 40. Almatlmd. Eead ^^^^\i instead of ^yli^W ; and in the 
following line read <u* ^^ instead of <$-* ^^ (p. 19, 1. 13). 

p. 23, 1. 16. Legions of saints who, etc. This passage is of Koranic 
origin, and formed upon the pattern of Sura iii. 121. The idea of war- 
riors wearing certain badges (as e.g. the cross of the Crusaders) occurs 
also in a tradition, vide Albaidawi ad Sura iii. 121, and Lane, Arabic 
Diet. s.v. f»j~-j'. 

p. 24, 1. 5. After Nehuhadnezar had conquered, etc. The last source of 
this tradition regarding the origin of the version of the Seventy is the 
letter of Aristeas, well known to Biblical scholars, and now generally 
admitted to be apochryphal, vide Be Wette, " Lehrbuch der historisch- 
kritischen Einleitung," edited by E. Schrader, part i. p. 92. 

p. 24, 1. 28. And each couple, etc. Read " and every one of them had 
got a servant to taJce care of him." And in the Arabic, ^\ 2, read J^j 
instead of eh^jj ^^ instead of ^U>>, and 1. 3, ^e^^^^y instead of ^^Ju^y. 
On the same page, 1. 6, read J^ instead of J^. 

p. 25, 1. 2. AUdmasdsiyya. This name is derived from the expression 
^^.w. S (" do not touch "), in Sura xx. 97 ; vide S. de Sacy, " Chrestomathie 
Arabe," i. pp. 339, 342, 344. It is identical with 'AOiyyavoi, the Greek 
name of a heretical sect, vide Du Cange, " Lexicon infimae Grsecitatis," 
and " Etymologicum Magnum," ed. Gaisford. 

p. 25, 1. 25. Anianus. The Arabic manuscripts give the name u-^'\ 
i.e. AthencBus ; but the well-known Athenaeus cannot be meant here. I 
prefer to read (j^y^i\, Anianus. This author, an Egyptian monk, con- 
temporary of Panodorus, is known as a chronographer ; he is quoted in 
the fragmentary chronology of Elias Nisibenus, cf. Forshall, " Cata- 
logue of the Syriac MSS. of the British Museum," p. 86, col. 2, no. 5. 

p. 25, 1. 28. Ihn-albazydr, from whose Kitab-alkiranat the author has 
taken the statement of Anianus, was a j)upil of Habash, and lived in the 
9th century, vide " Kitab-alfihrist, p. 276. 

p. 26, 1. 30. But no male children, etc. Read (^i S instead of (^y* 3, 
p. tv, 20. 



ANNOTATIONS. 375 

p. 27, 1. 5. Now Joseph and Mary, etc, Eead J>\i instead of \^\h, on 
p. vr, 6, and Ut instead of ^jie, 1. 15 (Fleischer). 

p. 28, 1. 11. It is related that Tahmurath, etc. The last source of this 
report is the Booh on the Differences of the Canons (astronomical hand- 
books), by Abu-Ma'shar, cf. " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 240, and also 
" Hamzae Isj^ahanensis Annalium," libri x. ed. Gottwaldt, p. 197. The 
word 1*^ in this report, p. 24, 1. 9, means scientific hooJcs, as also in the 
" Kitab-alfihrist," p. 240, 1. 28: "And he ordered a great quantity of 
scientific books (^'j^ U^^) to be transported from his storehouses to that 
place." 

p. 28, 1. 16. Least exposed, etc. Eead \q^ instead of ^i*.^, on p. 24, 1. 10. 

p. 28, 1. 23. That Gayomarth was not, etc. The same tradition occurs 
in the chronicle of Ibn-Alathir, ed. Tornberg, i. p. 34, 1. 5. 

p. 28, 1. 34. Some genealogists make the Lud of Genesis x. (in Arabic 
•i^^) the father of the Persians, Hyrcanians, of Tasm and Amalek, etc. 
(Tbn-Alathir, i. 56). The Arabs have mistaken the Hebrew 0**?^^^ 
{Emaei, the original inhabitants of the country of Moab) for a singular, 
and for the name of a man ('Amim ben Lud, Ibn-Alathir, i. 56). 

p. 29, 1. 4. Abu-Ma'shar, a native of Balkh, one of the fathers of 
astrology among the Arabs. He wrote numerous books on all branches 
of astrology, many of which are still extant in the libraries of Europe. 
He lived in Bagdad, was a contemporary of Alkindi, and died a.h. 272, 
at Wasit. Cf. " Kitab-alfihrist," p. tw and notes ; Otto Loth, " Alkindi 
als Astrolog," p. 265. In the middle-ages he was well known also in 
Europe as Alhumaser, and many of his works have been translated into 
Latin ; whilst modern philology has hitherto scarcely taken any notice 
of him. Wherever Alberuni quotes him, he wages war against him, and, 
to judge by the quotations from his books which our author gives, it 
seems that the literary work of Abu-Ma'shar does not rest on scientific 
bases. 

p. 29, 1. 18. On the star-cycles, cf. J. Narrien, "Historical account 
of the Origin and Progress of Astronomy," London, 1833, p. 112. 

p. 29, 1. 28. Days of Arjabhaz and days of Arhand. According to 
Eeinaud, "Memoire sur I'lnde," p. 322, the correct form of the former 
name would be Aryabhatta, and the latter would be the Sanskrit ahargana. 
Alberuni made a new edition of the Days of Arkand, putting it into 
clearer words and more idiomatic Arabic, since the then existing trans- 
lation was unintelligible, and followed too closely the Sanskrit original, 
vide my " Einleitung," p. xL, in the edition of the Arabic text. 



376 albirun!. 

p. 29, 1. 31. Muhammed ben Ishak ben Ustadli Bundadh Alsarakhsi, 
and Abu-alwafa Muhammad ben Muhammad Albuzjani. 

The latter was born at Buz j an in the district of Mshapur, a.h. 328, he 
settled in 'Irak, a.h. 348, and died 887. Cf. Sedillot, " Prolegomenes," 
p. 58 ; " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 283 ; Ibn-Al'athir, ix. ^^, 3. 

The former scholar is not known to me. 

p. 31, 1, 15. In Hebrew, " Nebukadnezar." In the Arabic, Vv, 3^ read 
jVaiJ^y^ instead oij^^f„ (De Goeje, Noeldeke). 

p. 31, 1. 35. Callippus was one of the number, etc. Behind the words 
<^yi ^ i^^-^. (^j there seems to lurk a gross blunder of the copyists, 

p. 32, 1. 16. Zoroaster, who belonged to the sect, etc. The passage, 
&^U^\ i-Jui yfej, VA, 2, seems hopelessly corrupt. My translation is 
entirely conjectural (i-Jiu, ^^ ysi^). 

p. 32, 1. 22. Philip the father of Alexander. This is a mistake of the 
author's. He ought to have said : Philip the brother of Alexander. The 
source of this statement regarding the era of Philippus Arridseus is 
Theon Alexandrinus, Ilpox'^i-poi Kavoves, ed. Halma, p. 26 ; cf . L. Ideler, 
" Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie," ii. 630. 

p. 33, 1. 8. Habib ben Bihriz, metropolitan of Mosul, is known as one 
of those scholars who translated Greek books into Arabic at the time of 
the Khalif Alma'mun (a.h. 198-218). Cf. "Kitab-alfihrist," p. 244, 
1. 7 ; p. 248, 1. 27 ; p. 249, 1. 4. 

p. 33. 1. 18. 'Ahmad hen Sahl. This man of Sasanian origin was a 
DihMn (i.e. great landholder) in the district of Marw. He played a 
great role in the history of his time, and was commander-in-chief to 
several princes of the house of Saman. His history is related by Ibn- 
Alathir, viii. 86 ; " Histoire des Samanides," par M. Defremery, Paris, 
1845, p. 134. 

p. 33. 1. 28, It was Augustus who, etc. On the origin of the yE7-a 
Augusti, cf . Theon Alexandrinus, Upox^i-pot KavoVe?, ed. Halma, p. 30, 
1. 32 ; Ideler, " Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chrono- 
logie," i. 153 ff. 

p. 33, 1. 34. Ptolemy corrected, etc. The source of this information is 
Ptolemy, fiaOrj/xaTtKr] crvvTa^L<;, book vii, ch. 4 (ed. Halma, tom. ii. p. 30). 

p. 33, 1. 44. The prognostics, JIU~J\, are questions relating to the 
decrees of the stars ((•^«s-J\ f^^\ ^). The books on this subject con- 
tain the astrological answers to all sorts of questions, and the methods by 
which these answers are found. 



ANNOTATIONS. 377 

p. 34, 1. 7. Maimun hen Mihrdn, a dealer in cloths and stuffs of 
linen and cotton, was at the head of the administration of the taxes of 
Northern Mesopotamia (Aljazira) under the Khalif Omar ben 'Abd- 
al'aziz, and died a.h. 117 ; vide Ibn-Kutaiba, " Kitab-alma'arif " ed. Wus- 
tenfeld, p. 228. 

p. 34, 1. 26. Alsha'hi, i.e. 'Amir ben Sharahil ben 'Abd Alsha'bi, of 
South-Arabian origin, was born in the second year of the reign of 'TJth- 
man ; he was secretary to several great men of his time, e.g. to 'Abdallah 
ben Tazid, the governor of Alkufa, for the Khalif Ibn-alzubair, and 
died A.H. 105 or 104 ; vide Ibn-Kutaiba, " Kitab-alma'arif," p. 229. 

p. 36, 1. 10. Reform of the calendar hy the Khalif Almu'tadid. Cf. 
Ibn-Alathir, vii. p. 325. 

p. 36, 1. 14. Abu-Bakr Alsult, i.e. Muhammad ben Yahya ben 'Abdal- 
lah ben Al'abbas, most famous as a chess-player in his time, the com- 
panion of several Khalifs, died a.h. 335 or 336, at Basra. In his Kitdb- 
aVaurdk he related the history of the Khalifs, and gave a collection 
of their poems and those of other princes and great men. Cf. Ibn- 
Khallikan, ed. Wiistenfeld, nr. 659, and " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 150. 

p. 36, 1. 19. 'Ubaid-allah ben Yahya ben Khakan was made the Vazir 
of the Khalif Almutawakkil, a.h. 236 (Ibn-Alathir, vii. 37), and died 
A.H. 263 {loc. cit. p. 215). 

p. 36, 1. 42. Khiilid ben 'Abdallah Alkasri was made governor of Al'irak 
by the Khalif Hisham ben 'Abd-almalik a.h. 105 (Ibn-Alathir, v. 93), 
and held this office during 15 years, till a.h. 120, (loc, cit. p. 167). Cf. 
Ibn-Kutaiba, " Kitab-alma'arif," p. 203. 

p. 37, 1. 6. The Barmak family were accused of adhering secretly to 
the religion of Zoroaster, cf. " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 338, 1. 14. 

p. 37, 1. 9. Ibrahim ben Al'ahhds Alsidi, an uncle of the father of 
Abu-Bakr Alsuli (on p. 36, 1. 14), a most famous poet and high official 
of the Khalif in Surra-man-ra'a, died a.h. 243. The family of Suli, a 
family of poets, of eloquent and learned men, of whom sevei*al acquired 
a great fame, descended from a princely house of Hyrcania. According 
to our author, p. 109, 1. 44, the princes of Dahistan were called Sul. For 
the biography of Ibrahim and the history of his family, vide Ibn-Khalli- 
kan, nr. 10 (ed. Wustenf eld) . 

p. 37, 1. 19. These verses of Albuhturi form part of a larger jDoem in 
the poet's diwan which exists in the Imperial Court-Library at Vienna 
(Mixt. 125 f. 293, 294), vide Fliigel's Catalogue, i. 436. 

p. 38, 1. 5. 'All ben Yahya was famous in his time as an asti'o- 
nomer and poet, and as a friend of several Khalifs. He died a.h. 275 at 
Surra-man-ra'a, Ibn-Khallikan, nr. 479. He was one of a whole family 

25 



378 ALBfEUNi. 

of distinguished poets and scholars who traced their origin back to 
Tazdagird, the last Sasanian king. Cf . " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 143. 

p. 39, 1. 16. On these mythological traditions, cf. L. Krehl, " Die 
Eeligion der Vorislamischen Araber," Leipzig, 1863, p. 83 ; Almas'udi, 
" Prairies d'or," ed. B. de Meynard, iv. 46 ; Ibn-Alathir, ed. Tornberg, 
ii. 30. 

p. 39, ,1. 33. Banu-Kuraish. In the Arabic, p. 34, 1. 12, read u^^ 
instead of u^yjS ; and p. 34, line 13, read Ji^ji instead of Ji^y» 
(Fleischer). 

p. 39, 1. 34. The following famous battle-days of the ancient Arabs are 
well known to Arab historians. For more detailed information I refer to 
the chronicle of Ibn-Alathir, of which nearly one half of torn. i. 
(p. 320 ff.) is dedicated to this subject. Cf . also Ibn Kutaiba,- " Kitab- 
alma'arif," p. 293; "Arabum Proverbia," ed. Freytag, tom. iii. 
p. 553 fe. 

The pronunciation of the word Alfadd (p. 39, 1. 44) seems doubtful. 
Yakut, iii. 804, mentions Alghadd, a place in the district of the Banu- 
Kilab, where once a battle took place. Therefore it would perhaps be 
preferable to read " The day of Alyhadd" 

p. 40, 1. 26. On this war of Alfijar, in which Muhammad took part, 
cf. A. Sprenger, " Das Lebenund die Lehre des Mohammad," i. 351, 423. 

p. 40, 1. 35. Notwithstanding, we have stated, etc. This passage proves 
that there is a lacuna in the order of the chronological tables, such as 
exhibited by the manuscripts. According to the author, his work con- 
tained also the tables of the princes of South-Arabia and of Alhira, but 
no such tables are found in the manuscripts. Their proper place would 
have been between the Sasanians and the Khalifs (after p. 128), but the 
table of the Khalifs is lost, too. 

I am inclined to believe that the author had scarcely any other in- 
formation but that of Hamza Alisfahjini (transl. by Gottwaldt, pp. 73 
and 96). The manuscript of the University Library of Leyden proves a 
considerable help for the emendation of Hamza's work, but more manu- 
scripts will be wanted before a reliable and clear text can be made out. 

p. 40, 1. 39. For the following rej)ort on the antiquities of Chorasmia 
I refer to my treatise, Zur GescUcUe und Chronologie von Khwdrizm L, 
published in the " Sitzungsberichte der Kais. Academie de Wissen- 
schaften in Wien," Philosophisch-historische Classe, 1873, p. 471 ff. 

p. 41, 1. 7. On the name of Afrigh, vide my treatise Conjectur zu Ven- 
didad, i. 34, in " Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft," xxviii. p. 450. 



ANNOTATIONS. 379 

p. 41, 1. 23. Piece hy piece. Read UUaS instead of VcUsS (text, p. 35, 
1. 16 (Fleischer). 

p. 41, 11, 33, 41, I prefer to read Azkdkhwdr instead of Azkajawar; 
also J), 42, 1, 26, 

p. 43, 1. 24. The chief source of all information of eastern authors 
regarding Alexander is the book of Pseudo-Callisthenes (edited by C, 
Miiller, Paris, 1846, Dido t). The book has been treated with the same 
liberty both in east and west, and it seems that the eastern transla- 
tions have not less differed from each other than the various Greek 
manuscripts of the book. The passage p. 44, 1. 30 ff. does not occur so 
in the Greek original, but something like it, cf. book ii. ch. 20, 
p. *?7. The murderer of Darius, p. 44, 1. 8, has a Sasanian name (N"au- 
jushanas), whilst in the original there are two murderers, Bessus and 
Artabarzanes (ii. 20). That Nebukadnezar is introduced into the tale, 
occurs also elsewhere — Mas'udi, " Prairies d'or," ii. 247 ; Tabari (Zoten- 
berg), i. 516. That Alexander was originally a son of Darius, is the 
tradition of the Shahnama of Firdausi, vide also Tabari, i. 512 ; Ibn- 
Alathir, i. 199, 1. For more information I refer to Fr. Spiegel, " Die 
Alexandersage bei den Orientalen," Leipzig, 1851, 

p, 45, 1. 3. Ibn-'Ahd-AIrazzdk Altusi. A man of this name, i.e. Ibn 
'Abd-alrazzak is mentioned in the history of the Buyide prince Eukn- 
aldaula, by Ibn-al'athir, viii. p. 396, among the events of a.h. 349. 

p. 45, 1. 5. Abu-Ishak Ibrahim ben Hilal, the Sabian, was the secre- 
tary of the Buyide prince 'Izz-aldaula Bakhtiysir, famous as an eloquent 
writer in prose and verse. He died a.h. 384, or, according to another 
statement, before a.h. 380. Cf . " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 134 ; Ibn-Khallikan, 
nr, 14; F, Wilken, Mirchond's " Geschichte der Sultane aus dem Ge- 
schlechte Bujeh," Berlin, 1835, p. 105. 

The title of his book (p. 45, 1. 6) read Altdji instead of Alfdj. 

On the pedigree of the family of Buwaihi, cf. Ibn-Kutaiba, " Kitab- 
alma'arif," p. 36; Ibn-Alathir, viii. 197; F. Wiistenfeld, G enealogische 
Tabellen T. 10 and Register, p. 152. Most of the names which occur 
in this pedigree are also found in Sehir-eddin's " Geschichte von 
Tabaristan, Rujan und Mazandaran," ed. Dorn, p. 101, and the whole 
pedigree, loc. cit. p. 175. 

p. 45, 1. 9. Read;i;~^U* instead of j|^M.ja.U» (text, p. 38, 1, 3). 

p. 45, 1. 22, Abu-Muhammad Alhasan ben 'Ali ben Nana, mentioned 
as the author of a history of the Buyide princes, is not known to me. 



380 ALBIEUNI. 

p. 46, 1. 8. Eead J-U instead of J-.Vj (text, p. 38, 1. 10) ; and J~.W 
instead of J-W (p. 38, 1. 11). Eead j_j*~-J instead of ^J*'^„ (p. 38, 1. 11). 

p, 46, 1. 12. The names of Laliu and Layahaj (p. 15) are unknown to 
me ; perhaps they have some sort of relation with the word Ldhijdn, 
(jVjss&S, which is the name of one of the two capitals of Grhilan, cf. Dorn, 
" Sehir-eddin's Geschichte von Tabaristan," etc. Yorwort, p. 11, 
note 1. 

p. 47, 1. 23. GMUn. Eead J*«sJ\ instead of J-&J\ (text, p. 39, 1. 5). 

p. 47, 1. 25. Asfdr hen SMrawaiM. Under the Khalifate of Almnk- 
tadir (a.h. 295-320) the party of the Alides tried to occupy the countries 
south of the Caspian Sea, Tabaristan, Dailam, Ghilan and Jurjan, 
fighting against the troops of the Samanian princes of Khurasan and 
those of the Khalif. The first Alide whose efforts were crowned with 
success was Hasan ben 'Ali, called Alndsir AVutrush, about a.h. 302. 
Soon, however, the generals of the Alide princes, Laila ben Alnu'man, 
Makan ben Kaki, Asfar ben Shirawaihi, were more successful than they 
themselves. The latter, Asfar, who abandoned the party of the Alides, 
succeeded, a.h. 315, in occupying Tabaristan, and in rendering himself 
an independent ruler. He did not long enjoy the fruits of his labours. 
After having made himself thoroughly unpopular, he was killed by his 
generals, at the head of whom was Mardawij, a.h. 316. Mardawij was 
now the ruler of Tabaristan and Jurjan, and tried to extend his sway 
over the neighbouring countries. He was the founder of a dynasty who 
held the supreme power in those countries during one hundred and 
fifty years. He abandoned the party of the Alides, and adopted the 
black colour of the Abbasides. To the Khalif he made himself so 
formidable that he was invested and proclaimed as the legitimate 
governor of all the provinces which his sword had conquered. Cf. 
Weil, " Geschichte der Khalifen," ii. 613-621. A history of this man 
and of his descendants is found in Sehir-eddin's " Geschichte von 
Tabaristan, Eujan und Mazandaran," ed. by Dorn, 1850, on pp. 171-201 
and 322. 

Mardawij was a ^J'■t^, i.e. native of Ghilan (not ^^^W, native of Aljabal 
or Media). The name of his father is written jUj and ol>j, and I have 
not been able to make out which form is the correct one. In Sehir- 
eddin's chronicle, the name is always written jUj. 

In the text, r«i, 6, read J^\ instead of J<-*!J\. Between the words ^^ 
and^ (line 6), there seems to be a lacuna which I have no means of 
filling up. This lacuna is the reason why the following words do not 
offer a clear meaning. It is not clear who was the son of Warddnshdh 
who instigated MardiWij to free the people from the tyranny of Asfar. 



ANNOTATIONS. 381 

p. 47, 1. 29. Khurasan. Read yU^^i-, r«\, 8, instead of (^jU-^-i.. 

The name FarJchwdrjirshdh may possibly be identical witb tbat name 
which Anoshirwan is said to have had as the governor of Tabaristan in 
the lifetime of his father, Hamza Isfahani, ed. Grottwaldt, "^ 3, 4. Cf. 
^ J\y&,ji and eU ^ j\y»jj in Sehir-eddin's " Chronik von Tabaristan," ed. 
Dorn, pp. 19, 31, 42 ; P. de Lagarde, " Beitrage zur Baktrischen Lexiko- 
graj^hie," p. 50 ff. 

p. 47, 1. 30. In the text on p. 39, read JCi\ instead of «dW\, 1. 9 ; 
JA»^ instead of J^, 1. 13 ; and ii^\ instead of 4y^\, 1. 19 (Fleischer). 

p. 47, 1. 32. The Ispahbad Bustam, the uncle of Shams-alma'ali is 
also mentioned by Ibn-Al'athir, viii. 506. To a son of this Rustam, 
Marzuban ben Eustam, the Ispahbad of Jiljilan, our author has dedi- 
cated one of his books, vide my edition of the text, Einleituug, p. xl. 
nr. 7. 

The history of the ancestors of the Ispahbad Eustam is related in 
Sehir-eddin's " Geschichte von Tabaristan," etc., ed. Dorn, j)p. 201-210, 
270, 322. They are called " the family of Sdwand." 

In p. 47, 11. 34 and 38, read (^^^/> instead of e^ji/'. Cf. Yakut, " Geo- 
graphisches Worterbuch," iii. 283. 

p. 48, 1. 5. The same pedigree of the house of Saman is also given 
by Ibn-al'athir, vii. 192, and in the geography of Ibn-Haukal, pp. 344, 
345. 

p. 48, 1. 16. The Shahs of Shirwdn. According to Kazwini, " Athar- 
albilad," p. 403, Shirwan was first colonized by Kisra Anoshirwan. The 
kings of the country were called yU-i.^. Anoshirwan is said to have 
installed the first governor and prince of Shirwan, a relative of his 
family. Cf. Dorn, " Versuch einer Geschichte der Shirwanshahe," j). 12 
and 25. Mas'udi, " Prairies d'or," ii. 4, makes the Shirwanshah of his 
time descend from Bahram-Gur. 

p. 48, 1. 24. Vhaid-Alldh, etc., founded the empire of the Fatimide 
dynasty in Kairawan and Egypt, a.h. 296. He pretended to be a 
descendant of 'Ali ben Abi-Talib. Cf. Ibn-Al'athir, viii. 27; Ibn- 
Kutaiba, " Kitab-alma'arif ," p. 57; Weil, " Geschichte der Chalifen," ii. 
598. 

That prince of this dynasty who ruled at the time of our author, Abu- 
*Ali ben Nizar, etc. (p. 48, 1. 31) was Khalif of Egypt, a.h. 386-411, and 
is better known under the name of Alhakim, cf . Ibn-Al'athir, ix. 83, 2 ; 
82, 14 ; 221, 14. 



382 ALBiEUNt. 

p. 48, 1. 41. I feel inclined to suppose that in this pedigree there is 
a lacuna between <^^\i. and oy^y, that wi-^Vj the son of Noah was ori- 
ginally the end of the first pedigree, and that the second commenced 
with Alexander ben Barka, etc. This opinion is supported by Mas'udi, 
" Prairies d'or," ii. 248, and Spiegel, " Alexandersage," p. 60. However, 
I must state that the pedigree — such as it is given by Alberuni — also 
occurs in Mas'udi, ii. 293, 294, and Ibn-Al'athir, i. 200, 5-9. If, there- 
fore, there is a lacuna, as I suppose, it is a blunder of older date, and 
must have occurred already in the source whence all, Mas'udi, Albe- 
runi, and Ibn-al'athir have drawn. 

Some of the names of this pedigree exhibit rather suspicious forms. 
II. yy^, perhaps ^j-a- Egyptus ? Cf. Ibn-Alathir, i. p. 200, 1. 6. 
VI. fj=^. Read (^^^ Latinus. 

XV. ^S\ is a corruption of 'IQ^. Genesis, xxxvi. 11, 15 ; vide Ascoli, 
" Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft," 
XV. 143. 

p. 49, 1. 22. The combination of Dhu-alkarnain with Almundhir ben 
Imru'alkais, vide Hamza Isfahani, translated by Gottwaldt, p. 82. 

p. 49, 1. 26. 'Abdalldh ben Hildl. On this famous juggler, vide 
"Kitab-alfihrist," p. 310, and note. 

p. 49, 1. 37. On the supposed South- Arabian origin of Dhu-alkarnain, 
vide Mas'udi, "Prairies d'or," ii. 244, 249 ; A. v. Kremer, " Sildarabische 
Sage," pp. 70-75 ; Hamza, transl. p. 100. 

p. 49, 1. 41. The name Suhaih occurs also in Ihn-HisMm. The life 
of Muhammad, i. 486. It seems to be the diminutive of j-*-*^ 'Ashah 
(Ibu-Duraid, " Kitab-alishtikak," p. 41), as Nu'aim ^•^ is the diminu- 
tive of 'An'a^n fit*>\ according to Ibn-Duraid, loc. cit. p. 85, 1. 14. Another 
name of the same root is cW^ in Hamza, ed. Gottwaldt, p. 132. 

The spelling of the name Alhammdl, 1. 34, is uncertain. 

For the spelling of the name Tan'um, vide Ibn-Duraid, loc. cit. p. 84, 
note. 

p. 50, 1. 4. Fever-water. Eead muddy water. Eead U=^ instead of ^_J♦^ 
(text, p. 41, 1. 3), and read;,-:^^\ instead of j^S\ (text, p. 41, 1. 5) (Flei- 
scher). 

p. 50, 1. 7. The following reasoning occurs already in Hamza, transl. 
p. 100. 

p. 50, 1. 26. Ibn-Khurdddhhih was postmaster in Media, and wrote 
about the middle of the third century of the Flight (between 240-260). 
His geographical work has been edited and translated by B. de Mey- 
ni-iJ, " Journal Asiatique," 1865. 



ANNOTATIONS. 383 

p. 51, 1. 1. Sawdr. This nation is mentioned by Byzantine authors 
under the name of %a/3ipoL 

p. 52, 1. 24, Abu-Sa'id 'Ahmad ben Muhammad, a native of Sijistan, 
is not known to me from any other source. 

p. 53, 1. 31. The same names occur in Mas'udi, iii. 415. These days 
have also Arabic names (Zoc. cit. p. 416, and this book, p. 246, 1. 16). 

p. 53, 1. 34. Bead ^U3\ instead of «wUJ\ (text, p. 43, 1. 22). 

p. 63, 1. 37. ZddawaiJii hen ShdliawaiJii, a native of Isfahan, is men- 
tioned in " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 245, as one of those who translated Per- 
sian works into Arabic. He is also mentioned on p. 202, 1. 7, and p. 207, 
1. 11. 

p. 54, 1. 1. Abu-alfaraj Ahmad ben Khalaf Alzanjani ; "Kitab-alfihrist," 
p. 284, mentions an Ahmad b. Khalaf among those who made astrono- 
mical and other instruments ; also mentioned p. 118, 1. 31. 

p. 54, 1. 4. Abu-alhasan Adharkhur ben Tazdankhasis is not known 
to me from any ot;her source ; vide p. 107, 1. 40 and p. 204, 1. 14. 
Eead (^. j)^)^'\ instead of <^\y^j'^'\ (text, p. 44, 1. 6). 

p. 54, 1. 29. Eead ^i\»\j instead of y3\»\} (text, p. 44, 1. 15). 

-a a 

p. 54, 1. 39. The reason why the Persians did not like to increase the 
number of days of the year was, according to Mas'udi, iii. 416, that 
thereby the established sequence of lucky and unlucky days would have 
been disturbed. 

p. 55, 1. 3. The words 1. 5-27 do not in the least harmonize with the 
preceding, which makes me believe that after the word Adhar-Mdh there 
is a gap, although the manuscripts do not indicate it. The explanation 
which is commenced in 11. 3, 4, is continued in 1. 28 ff. 

p. 56, 1. 7. Yazdajird AlMzdrt is also mentioned by Yakut, " Geogra- 
phisches Worterbuch," iv. 970. Yakut may have drawn his information 
from this book. 

p. 56, 1. 22. As these names, the scanty remnants of a long-lost 
Eranian dialect, are of considerable philological interest, I shall add the 
readings of the Canon Masudicus of Alberuni according to two manu- 
scripts, MS. Elliot (now the property of the British Museum, dated 



384 ALBiEUNt. 

Bagdad, a.h. 570, Eabi' I.), and MS. Berlin (tlie property of the Eoyal 
Library, ace. ms. 10, 311, or MSS. Orr. 8°. 276). 



MS. Elliot, f . 14a. 


MS. Berlin. 


^T-y 


'V-y 


C)^J^ 


t)^^ 






\jUi.U6.\ 


^Jc;j£.U&\ 


^y^ 




•^j 


^j 


rr^ 


u^y^ 



whoever wants to explain these names will also have to consult the 
six manuscripts of the Kitdh-altafMm of our author, and the most ancient 
copy of the Canon Masudicus in the Bodleian Library. 

In this book Alberuni does not mention the months of the Armenians, 
but I have found them in a copy of the " Kitab-altafhim " (MS. of the 
Bodleian Library) in the following form (p. 165) : 

iJr^'^^i (4)^ (_r»^ tsj^ u-^^^ (read ,j^y^\^) (j^\j\ ^-^^ i£kj\ ijW) (!) 
<Sjf.j^ (j-»^U (read (j-i'^U) (j^^^yb (MS. . . ^^yfc) 

Cf. E. Dulaurier, " Eecherches sur la chronologie Armenienne," 
p. 2. 

p. 57, 1. 17. I am sorry to state that there are no tables of these 
Chorasmian names in the Canon Masudicus, nor in the "Kitsib- 
altafhim." 

The form (,j>*a\ (p. 57, 1. 2) reminds one of the Cappadocian name 
Ocr/xav, ■yicZe Benfey und Stern, "Ueber die Monatsnamen einiger alter 
Yolker," Berlin, 1836, pp. 110-113. 

The name ^Jj (name of the 8th, 15th, and 23rd days) is, like the 
Persian Dai, to be retraced to Badhvdo (Benfey and Stern, ih. pp. 109, 
110). 

The corresponding Sogdian name (p. 56) is written e:.w.j, which is, 
perhaps, a metathesis for u-i"^, which would be equal to Datlmeho, the 
genitive of Dadhvdo, and would resemble the Cappadocian Aa^oucra (Ben- 
fey und Stern, ib. p. 79). 

The reader will easily recognize the relationship between the Sogdian 
and Chorasmian names of the days of the month and the Persian 
names ; this is more difficult in the case of some of the names of the 
months. 



ANNOTATIONS. 385 

p. 58, 1. 10. And relied, etc. Read (:})^)*i instead of (:))^)si (text, p. 48, 
1. 14). 

p. 58, 1. 16. Dai, vide note ad p. 57, 1. 17. 

p. 58, 1. 33. It is not known that the Egyptians called the single 
days of the month by special names. 

p. 59, 1. 3. On the names of the Egyptian months, their forms and 
meanings, vide R. Lepsius, " Chronologic der Aegypter," pp. 134-142. 

p. 59, 1. 22. The small month. The Coptic name for the Epagomense 
is JO abot n Jcouji, " the small month," cf . R. Lepsius, " Chronologic 
der Aegypter," p. 145 ; and this book, p. 137, 1. 22. On the Egyptian 
names of the 5 Epagomenae, cf. E. Lepsius, loc. cit. pp. 146, 147. 

p. 59, 1. 25. S=w^\. It seems, one must read this word IsaJ^, since the 

Coptic word for leap-year is 't'A-TTOKTl' > 'i-e. 'ETraKT?;, as Mr. L. Stem 

kindly informed me. In that case the author was wrong in translating 
the word by ^1^ i.e. signum. 

p. 59, 1. 26. Abu-arabbas Alamuli, the author of a book on the 
Kibla, is mentioned by Haji Khalifa, iii. p. 236. His full name is Abu- 
al'abbas 'Ahmad b. Abi-' Ahmad Altabari Alamuli, known as Ibn-alkas§, 
and he died a.h. 335. 

The months which this author ascribes to the People of the West 
are our names of months in forms which can hardly be traced back 
to a Latin source (ancient Spanish ?). I suppose that by the People 
of the West he means the inhabitants of Spain. 

p. 60, 1. 21. Kitdb-ma'Jchadh-almawdkit. This book is not known 
to me. 

p. 61, 1. 1. Twenty-four hours are = 86,400 seconds, which, divided 
by 729, give a quotient of 118|-|-f . 

p. 61, 1. 13. Read (»Aa;uJ^ instead of ^Ift^\ (text, p. 51, 1. 17). 

p. 61, 1. 45. Thabit ben Kurra was born a.h. 221 and died 288 ; vide 
" Kitab-alfihrist," p. 272, and notes. On his astronomical theories, vide 
Delambre, " Histoire de I'astronomie du moyen age," p. 73. 

On the family of the Banu-Musa vide " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 271. Mu- 
hammad died A.H. 259. 

p. 62, 1. 16. The Hebrews and all the Jews. The wovdi'Ibrdm= Hebrew, 
was a learned name, known only to scholars ; it meant that people of 

26 



S86 ALBIR^NI. 

antiquity who spoke the Hebrew tongue and who lived in Syria under 
the law of Moses. Jew is a popular name which means the descen- 
dants of that people, who no longer live in Syria, but are scattered all 
over the world, who no longer speak Hebrew, but who still live under the 
law of Moses. 

p. 62, 1. 18. The names of the months of the Jews occur also in 
Assyrian, cf. E. Norris, " Assyrian Dictionary," p. 60. 

Part of the following chapter has been edited by S. de Sacy, " Chresto- 
mathie Arabe," i. p. '^^ (taken from Almakrizi). 

p. 62, 1. 40. " Remember the day," etc. This quotation is an extract 
from Exodus xiii. 3, 4 (Deut. xvi. 1). The words in that month when the 
trees blossom are the rendering of the Hebrew iD^^^^^n tlJIPQ- The 
month 'Abib has always been identified with Nisan by the whole exege- 
tical tradition of both Jews and Christians, but I do not see for what 
reason. 

p. 63, 1. 15. This view, that Adhar 11. is the leap-month, was held by 
the Karaeans, according to Eliah ben Mose in Selden, " Dissertatio de 
civili anno Judaico," cap. v. p. 166 O^tl? m« imt^ ("^"ll^n VH). 

p. 63, 1. 31. On the invention of the Octaeteris by Cleostratos of 
Tenedos (about 500 b.c.) vide Ideler, " Handbuch der mathematischen 
und technischen Chronologic," ii. 605. 

The cycle of 19 years is the cycle of Meton, invented about 432 b.c, 
vide Ideler, loc. cit. i. 297 ff. 

The cycle of 76 years is the improvement of the Metonian cycle by 
Callippus of Cyzicus (about 330 b.c), Ideler, loc. cit. i. 299, 344. 

The cycle of 95 years (5 x 19) has been used by Cyrillus for the com- 
putation of Easter, vide Ideler, loc. cit. p. 259. 

The cycle of 532 (=19x28) was invented by the Egyptian monk 
Anianus, vide Ideler, loc. cit. pp. 277, 451. 

p. 63, 1. 37. In the author's statement regarding the 4th cycle of 95 
years there is a mistake: we must read 1,175 months instead of 1,176 
months. 

The synodical month or one lunation is=29 d. 12h. 793 H. 

1,176 lunations = 34,727 d. 23 h. 528 H = 900,149,208 H. 

If we divide this sum by the length of the solar year, i.e. 365 d. 
/o^s'o h.=9,467,190 H, we get as quotient 95 (years), and a remainder of 
29 d. 13 h. 438 H, i.e. 1 lunation plus 725 H., i.e. one lunation too 
much. 

If we reckon 1,175 lunations, we get as the remainder 725 H., and 



ANNOTATIONS. 387 

this result is correct, because it is five times the remainder of the 
cycle of 19 years, of which this cycle is a five times multiplication. 

95 years = 5 x 19 

1,175 lunations = 5 x 235 

35 leap-months = 5x7 

725 H.remainder= 5 x 145 

This remainder represents the difference between the rotations of the 
sun and the moon at the end of the cycle. 

p. 64, 1. 3. Halak, as I have written, according to the Arabic, is the 
Hebrew word yr^r\, which in the Canon Masudicus is sometimes rendered 
by (jLa.. Of the still smaller division of time, of the D''i^^*\ (one Eega' 
=^'7Q Halak), I have not found any trace in the works of Alberuni. 

For the convenience of those who want to examine the following 
computations, I give a comparison between the Halaks and the other 
measures of time : 



I. 


1 hour 


= 1,080 H. 




1 minute 


= 18 H. 




III. 


= ^H. 




liii. 


= 1 H 

2 00 .^• 




liv. 


= 1 H 

12 000 .^* 




IV. 


— 1 TT 

7 3 ,' 


n 


. 1 Halak 


= lo'so liour. 




1 H. 


= ^ minute. 




1 H, 


= 2^ seconds, 




IH. 


= 200 in. 




IH. 


= 12,000 IV. 




IH. 


= 720,000 V. 


ni. 


1,080 Halaks 


= 1 hour. 




1 Halak 


= 1 h 

1080 "• 




1 Eega' 


— 1 h 

8 2 080 "■• 



In Jewish chronology there occur two kinds of years, the Julian year 
(in the calculation of E. Samuel), and a scientific year derived from 
the researches of Hipparchus, which is the basis of the calculation of 
E. 'Adda bar 'Ahaba. 

The year which Alberuni mentions, consisting of 365 d. 6 1111 h., is 
the year of E. 'Adda, equal to 

365 d. 5 h. 997 H. 48 Eeg. 

Cf . Lazarus Bendavid, " Zur Berechnung und Geschichte des Jiidischen 
Kalenders," Berlin, 1817, p. 32. 

Eegardiag the origin of this year there cannot be any doubt. The 



388 albirunI. 

Jewish chronologists found it by dividing by 19 tbe Enneadecateris of 
Meton, which consists of 235 Hipparchical synodical months (i.e. 6,939 d. 
16h. 595H.). 

It will not be superfluous for the valuation of the following calcu- 
lations to point out the difference between the ancient Greek astrono- 
mers and the Jewish Rabbis who constructed the Jewish calendar. 

The elements for the comparison of the rotations of sun and moon 
are two measures : that of the length of the synodical month and that 
of the length of the solar year. When Meton and Callippus con- 
structed their cycles, these two measures had not yet been defined 
with a great degree of accuracy. Hence the deficiencies of their cycles. 

Centuries later, when the sagacity of Hipparchus had defined these 
two measures in such a way that modern astronomy has found very 
little to correct, comparisons between the rotations of sun and moon 
could be carried out with a much higher degree of accuracy. Thereby 
the Jewish chronologists were much better situated than Meton and 
Callippus, and the following calculations prove that they availed them- 
selves of this advantage. 

p. 64, 1. 10. Computation of the Octaeteris and Enneadecateris. 

I. Octaeteris. 

The ancient GTreeks counted the solar year as 366| days (i.e. too 
long), and the synodical month as 29| days (i.e. too short). The Jews 
counted — 

the solar year as 365 d. ^HH h, 

and the synodical month as 29 d. 12 h. 783 H. 

The 99 lunations of the Octaeteris, each lunation at 29 d. 12 h. 783 H., 
give the sum of — 

2,923 d. 12 h. 747 H. 

which is equal to the sum of — 

75,777,867 H. 

If we divide this sum by the length of the solar year, i.e. 365 d, 
5 1111 h.=9,467,190 H., we get as quotient 8 (years) and a remainder 
of— 

1 d. 13 h. 387 H. 

This would be the difference between the rotations of the sun and 
moon at the end of the first Octaeteris, i.e. the moon reached the end 
of her 99th rotation, when the sun had still to march during 1 d. 
13 h. 387 H., till he reached the end of his 8th rotation. 
According to the calculations of the ancient Greeks, this difference 



ANNOTATIONS. 389 

was less, viz. 1| days. Cf. L. Ideler, "Handbuch der mathematischen 
und teclinisclien Chronologie," i. p. 294 ff. 

As the author says, 387 Halaks do not correspond to ii h. with mathe- 
matical accuracy (p. 64, 11. 24, 25). There is a difference of -^ h., for 

387 }, _ _iJ5_ -^ 

1080* 120"* 

whilst 
iJ- h = ■** h 

30-"' 120 "• 

II. Enneadecateris. 

Meton discovered that 235 synodical months pretty nearly correspond 
to 19 solar years. In constructing his cycle of 19 years, he reckoned 
the solar year at 365y^9- d., i.e. by -^ d. longer than it had been reckoned 
in the Octaeteris (a mistake which afterwards Callippus strove to 
retrieve). More correct was the following Jewish calculation with Hip- 
parchic measures : 

235 lunations, each = 29 d. 12 h. 793 H., give the sum of — 

6,939 d. 163^5^ h. = 179,876,755 H. 

If we divide this sum of Halaks by the length of the solar year of — 
865 d. 6%iU ^' = 9,467,190 H., 
we get as quotient 19 (years), and a remainder of only 145 H. 

According to this computation, the difference between the rotations 
of sun and moon at the end of the first Enneadecateris would not be 
more than 145 H., or -^^ h., i.e. a little more than j- h., or than ytw ^-y 
whilst, according to Callippus, this difference was greater, viz. -fl d. 
= id. 

This reform of the Metonic Enneadecateris enabled the Jews to 
dispense with the 76 years cycle of Callippus, which he constructed of 
four-times the Enneadecateris with the omission of one day. The 
Jewish calculation is more correct than that of Callippus, who reckoned 
the solar year too long. 

p. 64, 1. 33. On the meaning of the word TlTll^ cf. an interesting 
chapter in the '^'H'^i^ri "IDD of Abraham Bar Chyiah, edited by H. 
Filipowski, London, 1851, book ii. ch. iv. CntllDn DtiJ tyTl*"Dl)- 

At the beginning of this exposition (p. 64, 1. 31, text, p. 55, 1. 8) there 
seems to be a lacuna. It is not likely that the author should intro- 
duce a technical foreign work (like Mahzor) without having previously 
explained what it means (and this is not the case). 

p. 65. The difference of the Ordines intercalationis is caused and 
accounted for by the difference of the beginning of the Jewish JEra 
Mundi. 



390 albIeun!. 

The world was created at tlie time of the vernal equinox, i.e. the 
Tekufat-Nisan. But the year as reckoned by the Jewish chronologists 
does not commence at the time of the vernal equinox, but at that of 
the autumnal equinox, i.e. the Tekufat-Tishri. Now, the question 
whence to begin the first year of the ^ra Mundi, has been answered 
in various ways. Some commence with the vernal equinox preceding 
the creation of the world, others with the first vernal equinox following 
after the creation of the world. Some counted the year in the middle of 
which the creation took place as the first, others counted the following 
year as the first year of the first Enneadecateris. Cf. "^Ili^n "^QD 
of Abraham bar Chyiah, iii. 7, p. 96. In conformity with this diffe- 
rence also the order of the leap-years within the Enneadecateris has 
been fixed differently. 

The Ordo intercalationis ^ItOl^l, which reckons the second (complete) 
year of the creation as the first year of the first Enneadecateris, 
occurs also in the valuable TesMhJid (Eesponsum) of E. Hai Gaon 
ben Sherira, a contemporary of the author, vide Abraham bar Chyiah, 
p. 97, 1. 36. 

The Ordo intercalationis lOnb^rTI^ which has become canonical since 
and through Maimonides, is not mentioned by Alberuni. 

The three Ordines intercalationis which the author has united in the 
circular figure, are constructed upon this principle : 

Of [the seven intervals between each two leap-years, there are five 
intervals each of 2 years, and two intervals each of 1 year. 

p. 66, 1. 7. The solar cycle (nr2)l^ "\1tHD) of 28 years consists of 
Julian years of 365^ days. At the end of this cycle time returns to the 
same day of the week. Cf . L. Ideler, " Handbuch," etc., i. 72. 

p. 66, 1. 23. Of the five DehiyyotJi of the Jewish calendar 1"l^ " rT^ " 
lli^ rr^ ■ 1"^t5^ ■ t^QprritiSl which are certain rules ordering a date, e.g. 
New-year's-day, to be transferred from one week-day to another, our 
author mentions only the first one, viz. "^I^, i.e. the rule that New- 
year's-day can never be a Sunday or a Wednesday or a Friday. 

The words that Passover hy which the beginning of Nisdn is regulated I 
understand in this way, that Passover, i.e. the 15th Nisan, and the 1st 
Nisan always fall on the same week-day. 

The rule 11^^ is connected with the rule 111 i.e. that Passover shall 
never fall on a Monday, Wednesday, or Friday, in the following way : 

Passover must be the 163rd day from the end of the year. The divi- 
sion of 163 by 7 gives the remainder of 2. 

If New-year's-day were a Sunday, the last day of the preceding year 
would be a Saturday, and the 163rd day from the end would be a 
Friday. 

If New-year's-day were a Wednesday, the 163rd day from the end 
would be a Monday. 



ANNOTATIONS. 391 

If New-year's-day were a Friday, the 163rd day from the end would 
be a Wednesday. Cf . Lewisohn, " Geschichte und System des Jiidischen 
Kalenderwesens," Leipzig, 1856, § 92, § 127. 

On the correspondence between the four days that can be New-year'a- 
days (called D''"li/t2J Hi^nt^) and Passover, cf. Abraham bar Chyiah, 
ii. ch. 9. 

p. 67, 11. 28, 35. I should prefer to read JW«si\ instead of J^^ and 
^^ ^U^ ^^ instead of (^ ^U-;^ (^ (text, p. 57, 11. 18 and 21). 

p. 68, 1. 4. On the calculation of the arc of vision H^t^in TWp *'■«• 
that part of the moon's rotation between conjunction and the moment 
of her becoming visible at some place, vide Selden, "Dissertatio de 
anno civili Judaico," cap. xiii. ; Lazarus Bendavid, " Zur Geschichte und 
Berechnung des Jiidischen Kalenders," § 36. 

The mean motion of the moon is called in Hebrew *'^2Jtt!t^ 1]7nD> the 
real motion ^1^2^ 'Tp'HT^, vide Maimonides, tlJIHil UJIlp? vi. 1 ; xi. 15. 

p. 68, 1. 32. Pdruah t^f is a Biblical name, vide 1 Kings iv. 17. 

p. 68, 1. 35. If the Mtladites commenced the month with the moment of 
the conjimction, they differed from the Eabbanites in this, that the latter 
made the beginning of the month (e.g. the beginning of the first month 
or New-year's-day) depend 7iot alone upon conjunction, but also upon 
certain other conditions, e.g. the condition jl'^ (Lazarus Bendavid, § 36) . 
The Eabbanites tried in everything to assimilate their calendar, based 
upon the astronomical determination of conjunction, to the more ancient 
calendar which had been based upon the observation of New Moon. The 
conservative tendency of this reform of the Jewish calendar is pointed 
out by A. Schwarz, " Der Judische Kalender," pp. 59-61. Cf . also 
Abraham bar Chyiah nili^H *\DD' P- 68, 1. 6; p.69, 1. 21. 

p. 68, 1. 36. Read A^\ instead of oVJsJ^ as plural of <^j\i (text, p. 58, 
1. 17). 

p. 69, 1. 5. 'Andn, the founder of the great schism in the Jewish 
world, lived in Palestine in the second half of the 8th century. For his 
history, vide Graetz, " Greschichte der Juden," ii. ed., tom. v. p. 174; for 
'Anan's reform of the calendar, ih. p. 454. 

The pedigree of 'Anan has been the subject of much discussion, vide 
Graetz, ib. pp. 417, 418, and J. Triglandii, "Notitia Karaeorum," Ham- 
burg, 1714, p. 46. 

p. 69, 1. 25. Eead '^\ instead of ^\ (text, p. 59, 1. 9). 

p. 70, 1. 16. Eead "5 instead of J (text, p. 60, 1. 4, after ^\;^ ^yl^). 



392 albIeun!. 

p. 72, 1. 36. Ismd^il hen 'Ahhdd, born a.h. 326, was Vazir to tlie 
Buyide princes Mu'ayyid-aldaula, and afterwards to Fakhr-aldaula. He 
died A.H. 385. Cf. Ibn-Al'athir, ix. p. 77. The same man is quoted by 
Alberuni as the Sdhih, p. 94, 1. 19. On tliis title, vide Hammer, " Lander- 
verwaltung unter dem Khalifat," pp. 34, 35 ; " Abulfedse Annales Mos- 
lemici," ii. p. 586. 

p. 74, 1. 7. The farewell pilgrimage is described by A. Sprenger, "Leben 
und Lehre des Mohammad," iii. p. 515 ff. On Muhammad's prohibiting 
intercalation, etc., ib. p. 534 ff. 

Eead ^Us^- instead of ^aa=^ (text, p. 63, 11. 1, 3). (Fleischer.) 

p. 74, 1. 15. Ibn-Duraid, a famous philologist of the school of Basra, 
died A.H. 321, in Bagdad. Cf. G. Miigel, " Grammatische Schulen der 
Araber," p. 101. 

p. 74, 1. 25. Abu-Sahl 'Isaben Yahya Almasihi, a Christian physician, 
was a contemporary of Alberuni, who lived at the court of 'Ali ben 
Ma'mun and Ma'mun ben Ma'mun, princes of Khwarizm. The year 
of his death is not kaown; probably he died between a.h. 400-403, 
Cpr. Wiistenfeld, " Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte und Naturfor- 
scher," p. 59, nr. 118. 

p. 75, 1. 26. Kead \^^ instead of W (text, p. 64, 1. 6, t,/*^^ jy-Ju 

p. 76, 1. 36. Abu-'Abdallah Ja'far ben Muhammad Alsadik is one of 
the twelve Imams of the Shi'a. He was born a.h. 80, and died a.h. 
146. On the sect who derived their name from him, vide Shahristani, 
ed. Cureton, p. 124. Cf. also Wiistenfeld, " Geschichte der Arabischen 
Aerzte und Naturforscher," nr. 24. 

p. 77, 1. 4. This tradition occurs in Bukhari, " Eecueil des traditions 
Mahometanes," ed. L. Krehl, i. p. 474. The other traditions to which 
the author refers in the course of his discussion (p. 78) are also men- 
tioned by Bukhari, i. 476 f£. Cf . the Muwatta' of Malik ben 'Anas, ed. 
Bulak, ii. chap. 84. 

p. 77, 1. 22. Eead C;?.J^\j instead of cj^A^J^^ (text, p. 65, 1. 14), and i\ 
instead of \3\ (p. 65, 1. 15). (Fleischer.) 

p. 80, 1. 4. Eead Ji^j instead of Ji^^ (text, p. 67, 1. 17). 

p. 80, 1. 5. The same fact is related by Ibn-Al'athxr, vi. p. 3. In con- 
sequence of his killing 'Abd-alkarim, the governor of Kufa, Muhammad 
was removed from his oSice a.h. 155 (or 153). The story shows that the 



ANNOTATIONS. 393 

falsification of tradition has at certain times been practised wholesale in 
the Muslim world. Ibn-'abi-arauja, also mentioned in "Kitab-alfihrist," 
p. 338, 1. 9. 

p. 80, 1. 27. Eead and its origin instead of and of its original, etc. 
Eead 'Si«\j instead of <jM^ (text, p. 68, 1. 4). (Fleischer.) 

p. 80, 1. 34. Eead «yWy instead of «i>Wy» (text, p. 68, 1. 6), and 
y^ _ ^usyi - t_ jkY. ».»J\j (text, p. 68, 11. 9, 10), as in the manuscripts. 

p. 82, col. 1. Kuba was the second largest town of Farghana, not far 
from Shash, It is described by Ibn-Haukal, p. 394 ; Yakut, iv. 24. 

The word «£\?jUrf («£\>jl^) I have not been able to explain hitherto. 
Perhaps the word bears some relation to \jVa5j i.e. Bukhara. 

p. 82, coll. 1, 8. The names of col. 1 are in use among the eastern 
Turks (of Kashghar and Yarkand), vide E. B. Shaw, " A Sketch of the 
Turki Language as spoken in Eastern Turkistan," Lahore, 1875» 
p. 77 ; J. Grave, " Epochse celebriores," London, 1650, p. 5. 

The names of col. 8 seem to be in disorder ; they mean : The Great 
Month, the Small Month, the First Month, the Second Month, the 
Sixth Month, the Fifth Month, the Eighth Month, the Ninth Month, 
the Tenth Month, the Fourth Month, the Third Month, the Seventh 
Month. Cf. Shaw, " Sketch," etc., p. 75. 

Both columns are of particular interest in so far as they exhibit the 
most ancient specimen of the Turkish language. 

p. 82, col. 5. Octomhrius. Perhaps it would be better to read 
Octembrius, in conformity with Octembre, which occurs in Proven9al 
beside Octohre, vide Eeynouard, " Lexique Eoman ou dictionnaire de la 
langue des troubadours," torn vi. p. 390. 

p. 86, 1. 13. The 210 years for the stay of the Jews in Egypt are found 
in this way : 

Interval between the birth of Abraham and that of 

Moses ...... 420 years. 

Moses was 80 years of age when he left Egypt - 80 „ 

Interval between the birth of Abraham and the 

Exodus ..... 600 „ 
Further : 

Abraham was 100 years of age when Isaak was born 100 „ 

Isaak was 60 years of age when Jacob was born - 60 „ 

Jacob entered Egypt when he was 130 years of age 130 „ 

Interval ibetween the birth of Abraham and 
Jacob's entering Egypt - - - 290 „ 

27 



394 ALBiEUNi. 

Now, the difference between the two numbers (500 — 290), i.e. 210 
years, represents the time during which the Jews stayed in Egypt. 

p. 87, 1. 11. Eead ^U' instead of &^\S (text, p. 75, 1. 1). (Fleischer.) 

p. 87, 1. 13, The 8eder-'6ldm, i.e. Ordo Mundi, is a well known He- 
brew book on the Chronology of Jewish history, carrying it down as 
far as 22 years after the destruction of the Temple by Titus. It is the 
^^-^ ch^^ "^ID to which our author refers, not the i^toit D71i^ TlD- 
Cf. " Chronicon Hebraeorum Majus et Minus," ed. Joh. Meyer, Am- 
stelodami, 1699. I am, however, bound to state that some of the 
numbers which Alberuni quotes on the authority of this book are not 
found in — or do not agree with — the text as given in the edition of 
Meyer. 

pp. 88, 89. In these tables there are three blunders in the addition. 

The last three numbers in the addition of the years of the Seder- 
'Olam ought to be 460, 500, 503 (on p. 88) ; and in the same column 
on p. 89 the eleven last numbers of the addition ought to be : 781, 
810, 865, 867, 898, 909, 920, 990, 1080, 1563, 2163. 

p. 90, 1. 18. On Kushan, vide Judges, iii. 8, 10. 

p. 90, 1. 35. Hasliwiyya and Dahriyya. The Hashwiyya or Hasha- 
wiyya are a heterodox sect of Muslim philosophers who adhere to an 
exoteric interpretation of the divine revelation, and consider God as a 
bodily being, vide " Dictionary of Technical Terms," i. p. 396. 

The word DaJir seems nearly to correspond to the Zrvdnem akerenem 
(" endless time") of the Avasta. The Dahriyya are a heathenish school 
of philosophers who believe the DaJir (time) to be eternal, and who trace 
everything to the Dahr as last cause, vide "Dictionary of Technical 
Terms," i. p. 480. 

p. 90, 1. 44. In the following the author attacks 'Abu-Ma'shar, the 
author of the book De nativitatibus (p. 92, 1. 2 ; p. 91, 1. 31 ; p. 94, 1. 44 ; 
p. 96, 1. 1). Cf. note ad p. 29, 1. 4. 

The subject of the discussion is the Dona astrorum (vide Delambre, 
" Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne," ii. 546), i.e. the question how long 
a man may live, if at the moment of his birth the planets occupy such 
places and stand in such relations to each other as are considered the 
most favourable. 

For a detailed explication of the astrological terms which occur in the 
following, and all of which are of Greek origin, I refer to the Dictionary 
of the Technical Terms used in the Sciences of the Musalmans, Calcutta, 
1862. 

The Materfamilias (y^>^) is the indicium corporis, the Paterfamilias, 
the indicium animoe (p. 90, 1. 45) . 



ANNOTATIONS. 396 

The house of the Sun is Leo, his altihido is the 19th degree of Aries. 
Cardines are four points of the ecliptic : 

I. Cardo horoscopi, or Cardo prirmis, that point which rises in the 
east at the moment of the birth. 
II. Cardo occasils or Cardo Septimus, that point which at the same 
moment sets in the west. 
ITT. Cardocoeli or Cardo decimus, the point between the preceding two 

points, but above the earth, 
IV. Cardo terrce or Cardo quartus, the point between the points I. and 
II., but under the earth. Cf. " Dictionary of Technical Terms," 
i. 465. 
In a concordant masculine quarter. By quarter I understand the divi- 
sion of the signs of the Zodiac into four trigones, the trigonum igneum, 
trigonum terreum, etc., which are either masculine or feminine. Cf. 
M. Uhlemann, " Grundziige der Astronomie und Astrologie der Alten," 
pp. 66, 67. 

The term concordant is applied to any two places of the ecliptic which 
lie at equal distances from one of the two equinoctial points so as to 
form with each other the constellations called Tasdis or Tathlith or Mu- 
kdbala. Cf. " Dictionary of Technical Terms," ii. 1392, s. v.^\^. 

p. 91, 1. 10. Have no aspect. The word 5=2-. is the contrary of ^. 
There are five aspects : 

Tasdis, i.e. the planets are distant from each other by 60 degrees. 

TarM', i.e. the distance between them is 90 degrees. 

Tathlith, i.e. the distance between them is 120 degrees. 

Mukdhala, i.e. the distance between them is 180 degrees. 

Istikhdl, is the Mukabala of Sun and Moon. Any other relation be- 
tween two planets is called Sukut {i.e. falling out). 

Cf. " Dictionary of Technical Terms," ii. 1385, s.-y. ji=». 

p. 91, 1. 13. The Caput Draconis is that point of the ecliptic which a 
planet cuts when moving northward. If sun and moon meet at this 
point in the same zodiacal sign and degree, they are said to stand within 
the opoL eKXeiTTTtKot (Ptolemy, " Almagest," vi. cap. 5 ; limites ecliptiques, 
vide Delambre, " Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne," ii. 226), and an 
eclipse takes place. Every ecHpse is considered as unlucky. 

p. 91, 1. 16. The elements of this sum (215 years) are not quite clear. 
If the Sun gives 120 and 30 years. Moon, Venus, and Jupiter, 25, 8 and 
12 years, we get the sum of 195 years. Whence the astrologers derive the 
missing 20 years is not stated. They are hardly to be considered as a 
gift of Saturn or Mars, since they are unlucky stars ; perhaps they are 
traced to the influence of Mercury. One may suppose that there is 
somewhere a lacuna in the text. 



396 ALBIEUNI. 

p. 91, 1. 31. Eead ^_^^'i^ SjU*3^ cs^^ ^_^ f^^^ instead of v>3y ^^ 
^h^\ ^ J^S\ lji4jd\ (text, p. 78, 1. 19). 

p. 91, 1. 34. The middle conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter is 240 
years, the minor conjunction 20 years, the major conjunction 960 
years. Cf. 0. Loth, " Al-Kindi als Astrolog in Morgenlandische For- 
schungen," Leipzig, 1875, p. 268. 

p. 93, 1. 10. Tuzun was 'Amir-al'umara in Baghdad a.h. 331-334, at 
the time of the Khalif Almuttaki, whose eyes he put out. He was 
of Turkish origin, and commander of the Turkish troops who held 
Baghdad and some other parts of central Mesopotamia. 

p. 93, 1. 15. Ghurur-aldaula. Eead 'Izz-aldaula. Mu'izz-aldaula died 
A.H. 356, and 'Izz-aldaula died a.h. 367, both princes of the family of 
Buwaihi. 

p. 93, 1. 23. Ndsir-aldaula, prince of Mosul and the north of Meso- 
potamia, of the family of Hamdan, died a.h. 358. 

p. 93,1. 42. Eead «t4^ instead of q}\S (text, p. 81, 1. 7), J^^ o^(:)^ 
(p. 81, 1. 9), and (^'^'i]^ instead of f%W:J\j (p. 81, 1. 12). (Fleischer.) 

p. 94, 1. 19. Sahib. The author means 'Isma'il ben 'Abbad, Vazir of 
the Buyide prince Fakhr-aldaula. Vide note ad p. 72, 1. 36. The time 
during which Fakhr-aldaula held the country of Jurjan under his sway 
was A.H. 372-388. 

p. 94, 1. 40. ^Ahu Sa'id Shddhdn is not known to me from other 
sources. A man called Shadhan is mentioned by Yakut, i. p. 204, 
1. 20, and Haji Khalifa, v. p. 102. 

p. 95, 1. 2. According to " Dictionary of Technical Terms," i. p. 568, 
retrograde motion is any motion which does not, like that of the 
planets, proceed conformably with the order of the zodiacal signs. 

The ecliptic is divided into twelve equal parts, called houses. The 
12th, 2nd, 6th, and 8th houses are called Domus cadentes. 

p. 95, 1. 22. 'Ahu-'Isma. A man of this name was general to the 
Khalif Alhadi, and was killed by Harun Alrashid a.h. 170. Cf. Ibn- 
Al'athir, vi. p. 74. The epithet Sdhih alsaffdr I cannot explain. 

p. 96, 1. 12. Eead J/o^ instead of J-=^ (text, p. 82, 1. 21), and 
(:>«flss,fe^^ instead of (^j^i^sJ^as^ (p. 83, 1. 1). 

p. 96, 1. 25. Jamdlabadhra, a town in India, is not known to me ; 
the word can be read in various ways. 



ANNOTATIONS. 397 

p. 96, 1. 43. Abu-'Abdallah Alhusain, etc. Alnatili, a native of 
Natila, a town in Tabaristan, is sometimes mentioned as the teacber of 
'Abu-'Ali ben Sma. He lived in Bukhara, and afterwards at the court 
of the prince Ma'mun ben Muhammad of Khwarizm. Cf . my edition 
of the text, " Einleitung," p. xxxiv. 

c - - - 

p. 98, 1. 13. Covering. Read ^^^ instead of ^y^ (text, p. 84, 1. 10). 
(Fleischer.) 

p. 98, 1. 22. In some hook. Alberuni does not mention the author of 
the work whence he took the chronological tables of the kings of Assyria ; 
in any case it must have been derived from the " Chronicon " of Euse- 
bius. Cf. A. Schoene, " Eusebii Chronicorum libri duo, Berolini, 1866 
and 1875 " ; vol. i. p. 63, and vol. ii. p. 11 ff. 

p. 100, 1. 24. Another table of successors of Nimrod is given by 
Mas'udi, " Prairies d'or," pp. 96-100. 

A similar table is also found in Alberuni' s Canon Mas'udicus (MS. 
Elliot, fol. 28a). 

Years of reign. Anni Adami. 



Nimrod - - - - 59 2951 

Interval after the confusion of 

languages and the destruction 

of the tower 



43 


2994 


85 


3079 


72 


3151 


42 


3193 


18 


3211 


7 


3218 



u-j); 

Interval 
Then follow the Assyrian kings, Belos, Ninos, etc. 

p. 101. Table of the Kings of the Chaldeans. It is the table of Pto- 
lemy. Cf . " Chronologie de Ptolemee," par I'abbe Halma, Paris, 1819, 
2de Partie, pp. 3, 4, and " Georgius Syncellus," ed. Dindorf, Bonn, 1839, 
p. 390 ff. 

p. 102. This table of kings of Egypt begins with the 20th dynasty 
of Manetho. Cf. " Eusebii Chronicorum libri duo," vol. i. p. 145 ; vol. ii. 
p. 62. 

p. 103, 1. 13. This table of Ptolemaeans is based upon that of 
Ptolemy. " Chronologie de Ptolemee," par Halma, 2de Partie, j). 4. In 
1. 32 read : Cleopatra, till the time when Gajus Julius obtained supreme 
power in Rome. Read ^}f. instead of ^);^\ (text, p. 92, 1. 15). 



398 albie^nJ. 

p, 104. The last source of this table of the Eoman emperors seems to 
be the " Chronicon of Eusebius." Cf. also " Hamzae Ispabanensis 
annalium," libri x., translation, pp. 61, 54, In the addition of the years 
there is a mistake ; tbe last sum is 313, not 303. 

p. 105, Part of this table of Byzantine emperors seems to have been 
taken from Hamza Isfahani, translation, p. 62 and 56 ff. In this table 
the sum of the years is 526, not 528. In the text (p. 96, 1. 12), read <Ulw» 

J '^ C -» 

instead of <Ulw» (De Groeje), 

p. 106. The tradition of the judge Alwahi^, see in Hamza Isfahani, 
translation, p. 57-59. Alwaki' seems to have lived in tbe first half of 
the 4th century of the Flight, vide " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 114, 

Tbe addition of the years of this table is in great confusion, and Albe- 
runi has not made an attempt at correcting it. 

J — jC 

In tbe text (p. 98, 1. 10), read U-. instead of Saa-., 

p. 107, 1. 1. The following chapter on Persian chronology bears a 
close resemblance to that of Hamza Isfahani, translation, p, 6 ff. 
The explication of the word Gayomarth, 1. 5, see in Hamza, p. 48. 

p. 107, 1. 43. Abu-'Ali Muhammad ben 'Ahmad AlbalkM, mentioned 
only in this place, is not known to me from other sources. Haji Khalifa, 
iv. p. 13, quotes from Alberuni. 

p. 108, 1. 3. The following sources of ancient Persian history are 
also quoted by Hamza, p, 7, 

'Abdallab b, Almukaffa' was killed in Albasra, probably a,h, 146. Cf . 
" Kitab-alfihrist," p. 118 ; Ibn-Kballikan, nr, 186, 

Muhammad b, Aljahm, of the family of Barmak, lived under the 
Khalif Almu'tasim (a.h. 218-227), Cf. "Kitab-alfihrist," pp. 81, 245, 
277, and notes ; Ibn-Kballikan, nr. 31, p. 40. 

Hisbam b. Alkasim and Bahram b. Mardanshah, Zoroastrian priest in 
Shapurstown, in Persis, are mentioned in the " Kitab-alfihrist," p. 245, 
among those who translated Persian books into Arabic. 

p. 108, 1. 19. The manuscripts have Tclizura. My reading, hhrura, 
is a conjecture. The word may be identical with hhrura of tbe Avasta 
{vide Justi, " Handbucb der Zendsprache," p. 92), and also with Vjj^ 
mentioned by Mas'udi, " Prairies d'or," ii. 88, in a very curious chapter, 
where the author enumerates Ahriman and his son Huriyd in a table of 
kings of the Syrians. 



ANNOTATIONS. 



399 



p. 108, 1. 34. A young man. In text (p. 100, 1. 7) read ^\^\ inste^ad 
of w\yu5\ ; ^Jftis— > (1. 11) instead of "f^i^^. ; and A«a&»J\ instead of 'i^oa^\ 
(1. 12). (Fleischer.) 

p. 109, 1. 14. Similar tables of the words for king, emperor, prince, 
etc. in various languages are given by several authors, e.g. by Ibn- 
Khurdadhbih, " Journal Asiatique," 1865, p. 249-257. 

Tadan. Perhaps we must read TudMn, and compare the following 
note of the " Etymologicum Magnum," ed. Gaisford, p. 763: TouSowot: 
01 TOTroTTjprjTai rrapa TovpKots. 

On Sul, vide note at p. 37, 1. 9. 

The wordjCs Kahbdr (p. 110, 1. 1) is supposed by my learned friends 
P. Lerch, of St. Petersburgh, and W. Tomaschek, of Gratz, to be a mis- 
spelling for }^, i.e. Knaz, Knaez (a derivation from the Teutonic 
cuninga), a conjecture which I recommend to the students of Slavonian 
antiquities. 

The title BuMdrd-Khuddh has been found by P. Lerch on the coins 
of the satraps of Bukhara under Sasanian rule and later (as far as the 
time of Almahdi). The coins offer an original writing of Semitic origin ; 
the legend is without any doubt to be read Bukhara Khudddt (or 
Khudddh, Kliudddi). A number of these coins are found in the coin- 
collection of the Eoyal Museum of Berlin. 

p. 110, 1. 26. The following verses are also found in Mas'udx, 
" Prairies d'or," ii. p. 116. 

p. 111. On the pedigree and family relations of the Peshdadhians 
from Hoshang till Fredun, cf . Bundihish, chap, xxxii. On the chrono- 
logy of the Peshdadhians and Kayanians, ih. chap, xxxiv. 

In the text (p. 103, 11. 11, 15), read &*^^. instead of ^«^->>. 

p. 112. On the descendants of Kawi Kawata or Kaikubadh and their 
names, cf. Noldeke, " Kayanier im Awesta, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft," tom. xxxii. p. 570. 

p. 113. With this table compare that of Hamza, translation, pp. 
9, 10. 

p. 114, 1. 4. With this table, compare Hamza, pp. 17, 18. 

p. 116, 1. 3. A similar table occurs also in the author's Canon Masu- 
dicus (MS. Elliot, fol. 29a). 



400 ALBIRUNI. 

After the kings of Assyria and Arbaces tlie Median follow the kings 
of Babylonia and Media. 

Years of reign. Anni Mundi. 

Pul Jy, a descendant of Sardanapal 
Tiglatpilesar - . . . . 
Salmanassar (;j*.*Jl«) i.e. Bukhtanas- 

sar I. ...... 

Sanherib Sargon (^j^^ »_-j-jVjs,*«, 
Ezarhaddon f«^>^j— . . . . 

Merodakh Baladan ben Baladan, i.e. 

Mardokempad ..... 
Sanlierib Minor ..... 
Kiniladan (jjJlw.* .... 

Nabopolassar tlie Magian ... 
His son Nebukadnezar, i.e. Bukhtanas- 

sar II,, who destroyed Jerusalem 
Evilmerodakh ben Nebukadnezar - 
His brother Belteshassar 
Darius the Median .... 

Then follow the kings of the Persians : 
Cyrus --..... 
His son Cambyses .... 

Darius the son of Vishtasp ... 
Xerxes, i.e. Xerxes Kisra b. Darius 
Artaxerxes (cy;^-----v^i=;^), i.e. Ardashir 
Longimanus ..... 
Darius Nothos - . . . '. 
Artaxerxes j«>\j^\ ^i . . . . 
Artaxerxes Ochus, i.e. the black - 

Arses ben Ochus 

Darius ben Arsak - . . . 

Then follow Alexander and the Ptolemseans. In a special column the 
author mentions some contemporary events of Jewish, Egyptian, Greek 
and Roman history, 

p, 115, 1, 45, In the text (p, 112, 1. 4) read f>S\j> instead of ^ol? 
(Fleischer), 

p. 116, 1. 8. Sa'id b, Muhammad Aldhuhli is perhaps the same 
Dhuhli with whom Bukhari (died a,h, 256) had a controversy, vide 
Haji Khalifa, iii, 172. 

p. 116, 1, 34. Mah is Media or Aljihal or Aljabal in the later geogra- 
phical terminology. Eead JWV^ instead of the misprint JW*:>\. 



35 


4709 


36 


4744 


14 


4758 


9 


4767 


3 


4770 


48 


4818 


31 


4849 


17 


4866 


21 


4887 


43 


4930 


2 


4932 


4 


4936 


[17] 


[4953] 


9 


4962 


8 


4970 


36 


5U06 


20 


5026 


41 


5067 


18 


6085 


40 


5125 


27 


5152 


4 


5156 


6 


5162 



ANNOTATIONS. 401 

They ivere one of the families, etc, is a literal translation of the 
reading of the manuscripts, but I do not believe that this reading is 
correct, nor that Arabic grammar allows such a construction. 

My conjecture, f^f-\ instead of (^^ is not satisfactory, as it is not 
conformable to the usual consti'uction of this word. 

One might think of reading \y^\ (" They were the most daring 
and enterprising of the petty pi'inces," etc.), but this, too, does not 
seem to settle the difficulty. 

I am sorry to state that I have not been able to find the original 
upon which the term Muliih-altawcVif, " Petty princes," has been 
coined. 

Cf . with this passage Hamza, p. 30 ; Tabari, ed. Zotenberg, i. 523 ff. ; 
Ibn-Alathir, i. 208-210, 271, 272 ; Mas'u'di, " Prairies d'or," ii. 136. 

The pedigree of Ashk is carried back to a son of Siyawush, whose 
name I do not know how to pronounce. Another son of Siyawush is 
mentioned by Ibn-Alathtr, i. 173 (Ferozad ^j^yt^) and Tabari, ed. Zoten- 
berg, i. 467 (Afroud). 

For another pedigree of Ashk, vide B. Dorn, " Sehir-eddin's Ge- 
schichte von Tabaristan, Eujan und Masanderan," p. 152. 

For the chronology of the Ashkanians, cf. Miihlau-Grutschmid in 
"Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgeuliindischen Gesellschaft," tom. xv. 
p. 664; Blau, ih. tom. xviii. p. 680; Grobineau, ib. tom. xi. p. 700; Muj- 
mil-altawarikh in " Journal Asiatique," 1841, p. 164 : H, Schneiderwirth, 
" Die Farther," Heiligenstadt, 1874. 

p. 117, 1. 9. On the surnames of the Ashkanians I offer a few 
conjectures : 

Khoshdih, i.e. well-born, de race pure = setrivahya, vide Gobineau, 
"Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft," tom. xi. 
p. 702. 

Zarrin, i.e. golden. 

Khurun seems to be a mistake for jjJ^ i.e. Gotarzes. 

Gesuwar, i.e. curled, cf. the Persian word Gesudar=a man of au- 
thority. 

Barddih-=^>^ cV happy-born. 

Baldd=^>i SW high-born ; but see note at p. 118, 1. 21. 

p. 117, 1. 30. See this table in Hamza, translation, p. 10. 
p. 118, 1. 5. See this table in Hamza, p. 18. 

p. 118, 1. 21. Besides the name Malddhdn there occurs a Parthian 
name Mildd, in Mujmil-altawarikh, " Journal Asiatique," 1843, pp. 
393, 415, 416. Pei-haps there is some connection between J^ >i%» 
and the surname of Feroz ben Bahram, mentioned p. 117, 1. 17 (J^?)- 

28 



402 ALBfRUNI. 

p. 119, 1. 19. Abu-Mansur 'Abd-alrazzak is not known to me from 
other sources. 

p. 119, 1. 37. In the text (p. 117, 1. 13) read (^ ^. U instead of 

p. 120, 1. 22. In the text (p. 118, 1. 3) read j^sjj instead of '^-sSSj 

p. 121, 1. 6. Shdhurkdn. Of this work of Mam's very little is known, 
vide G. Fliigel, " Mani, seine Lehre und seine Schriften," Leipzig, 1862, 
pp. 365-367. 

p. 121, 1. 36. In the text (p. 119, 1. 5) read ^ with the MSS., instead 
of y-i'^ 

p. 121, 1. 40. The following calculation is known in astrology by the 
name of Tasyir ^th>«-^ (Directio). The calculation is this : 

407x93i=37,925|. 
If you divide this product by 360, you get a remainder of 152f degrees. 
The meaning of the 93| degrees, the nature of the solar cycle here men- 
tioned, and the further details of the calculation, I do not understand, 
and cannot, therefore, guarantee the correctness of the text. 

p. 122, 1. 14. Musa ben 'Isa Alkisrawi is also mentioned in the 
" Kitab-alfihrist," p. 128. His chronological theory is stated by Hamza, 
translation, pp. 11-16. 

p. 122, 1. 32. For the pedigree of Ardashir ben Babak, cf. B. Dorn, 
" Sehir-eddin's Geschichte von Tabaristan, Rujan und Masanderan," 
pp. 146, 151. 

p. 123. With this table, cf. the history of the Sasanians according to 
Mirchond, translated by S. de Sacy in Memoires sur diverses antiquiUs de 
la Perse, p. 273 ff. 

Instead of ^-^f. read SJ^" Tiridates, surname of Shapur I. 

The word 5a-aU is explained by Mirchond as j^^^ hienfaisant (Sacy, 
p. 296). 

Instead of ci.s«^jaU Mirchond has o-^^osU-. 

Instead of (iiU^U^ Mirchond has <Si>U(j\j^ 

Read J\jci)y instead of 'i\j Jy with " Mujmil-altawarikh " (see " Journal 
Asiatique," 1841, p. 265 ; 1843, p. 403). 

I have to add in this place that opposite the name of Ardashir ben 
Babak the MSS. have the following note : 

jJ^ ^j &>Uj ^^j {j'>/^\ t^iU <i(JU.&J ^l«sJW "-r-vak^ 
I have not been able to make out the meaning of the last word. 

In the note which is written opposite the name of Shapur ben Arda- 



ANNOTATIONS. 403 

shir, the MSS. have the reading cw?.^:&ju.\ which I have altered into 
g^isj;*.\ as the word ^y^ is in the masculine. 

The surname of Shahrbaraz (:)U/- is perhaps to be read (^\^j&- or to be 
considered as a corruption of (^j^*^ He is also called Farkhdn. 

In the text (p. 122, 1. 7) read ^3J^j instead of o^j- 

p. 124. With this table compare Hamza, translation, pp. 10, 11. 

p. 125. With this table, cf. Hamza, pp. 18, 19. 

p. 126, 1. 27. Jushanasptadha or Jushanastadha is the correct reading 
of the signs SJ*--' — ^-^ G. Hoffmann read first the beginning of the word 
as Jushanas or Jushanasp (v^^ (J-^» Armenian form Veshnasp, vide 
Langlois, " Collection des historiens," etc., ii. p. 345). The second part 
of the compound I read Tada or Tadha (a word of unknown etymology), 
and found the whole name in the Armenian form of Vishnasptad (vide 
Langlois, "Collection des historiens de I'Armenie," tom. ii. p. 387). Gr. 
Hoffmann added a further support of this identification by pointing out 
the Greek form of the name, viz. FovcravacrTaSy/s (cf. P. de Lagarde, 
" Gesammelte Abhandlungen," p. 185). 

p. 127, 1. 23. In the text (p. 129, 1. 9), read ,^ q \*''--: instead of ^ '■ *--> ; 
ylasj (1. 11) instead of (j-*«?. ; and (^^-^^ (1. 14) instead of j,^^ 

p. 128. With this table, cf. Hamza, pp. 14, 15. 

p. 129, 1. 16. 'Ahmad b. Altayyib Alsarakhsi, a pupil of Alkindi and 
companion of the Khalif Almu'tadid, was killed a.h. 286. Cf. " Kitab- 
alfihrist," pp. 261, 300, and Wustenfeld, " Geschichte der Arabischen 
Aerzte und Naturforscher," nr. 80. 

p. 129, 1. 19. On the Indian astrologer Kanaka, vide " Kitab-alfihrist," 
p. 270, and note. 

p. 129, 1. 24. In the text (p. 132, 1. 10), read ^J<^\^^} ^\^\ instead 
of ^oUi3^j t^^p^ , <^^ c^ 0-- 12) instead of <s^U. ^*^^ and »^»>S^ 
(1. 13) instead of '•M (Fleischer). 

p. 130. This table contains a number of mostly well-known princes, 
statesmen, and generals : 

No. 1 was Vazir to the Khalif Almu'tadid, and died a.h. 291. Cf. 
Weil, " Geschichte der Chalifen," iii. pp. 514, 539. 

His son, 'Amid-aldaula, is not known to me. 

No. 3-5 are princes of the house of Hamdan in Syria (Mosul). 

No. 6-11, 13, 14, 17-21, 23, are princes of the house of Buwaihi or 
Buya, vide the pedigree of this family in T. Wilken, " Mirchond's Ge- 



404 ALBIRUNI. 

schichte der Sultane aus clem Hause Bujeh," p. 12 ; the Turkish chronicle 
of Munajjim Bashy, ii. pp. 484, 488, 495, 501. 

No. 12, 15, are two princes of the family of the Banu-Ziyad of Jurjan. 

Wo. 16 is not known to me. 

No. 22, 28, 29, are the two founders of the famous Ghaznawi dynasty. 

No. 24, 27, 32, belong to the family of Simjur, governor of Khurasan 
under the Samanide dynasty. Cf. Defremery, " Histoire des Samanides," 
pp. 261,169,188,201,203. 

No. 25. Abu-arabbas Tash was governor of Nishapur under Sama- 
nide rule, and died a.h. 879. Cf. Defremery, ib. p. 168. 

No. 26. Abu-alhasan Alfa'ik, a general of the last Samanide princes, 
disappears before a.h. 389. Cf. Defremery, ih. p. 196. 

No. 31. Abu-alfawaris Begtuzun was governor of Khurasan and 
Vazir to the last Samanide princes ; he seems to have died before a.h. 
389. 

No. 33. Abu-Mansur Alp-Arslan Albalawi was Vazir to the last 
Samanide prince Muntasir, and was still alive when this book was com- 
posed. Cf. Defremery, ih. p. 202. 

p. 131, 1. 18. On Bughrakhan, prince of Kashghar, the conqueror of 
Transoxiana, vide Weil, " Geschichte der Chalifen," iii. Anhang 1. 

p. 131, 1. 23. Here the author speaks of the prince of Jurjan, Kabus 
ben Washmgir, to whom he has dedicated his book, vide note at p. 1, 
1. 25. 

p. 131, 1. 41. In the text (p. 135, 1. 6) read Ujc- instead of UJ^s.^ 
(Fleischer), 

p. 132, 1. 3. Tailasdn. (Cf. p. 152, 1. 34.) By the term twofold (or 
redoubled) Tailasdn, the author means an oblong quadrangular field, 
divided into two equal parts by a diagonal. Tailasan is the name of a 
piece of dress, vide Dozy, " Dictionnaire des noms desvetements chez les 
Arabes," p. 278, and Lane, "Arabic Dictionary " under this word. 

p. 132, 1. 7. The Greek name of the sexagesimal system is k^-qKoara, 
vide Delambre, " Histoire de I'astronomie ancienne," ii. pp. 577, 608 
(Hexecostades). There is a chaj^ter on the sexagesimal system of calcu- 
lation in Barlaam's XoyumKr] aa-rpovofxiKr] (Delambre, ib. i. 320). 

p. 133. A similar table of intei-vals between the epochs of the various 
eras is also given by Delambre, " Histoire de I'astronomie du moyen 
age," I). 96, on the authority of Ibn-Yiiuus. In the text of this table I 
had to correct some mistakes : 

At notes a, c. PL have the correct reading, 101 4933, guaranteed by 
^_J\.^^s<^ The corresponding sexagesimal numbers 54, 7, 43, 4, are wrong 
in all manuscripts, for they re j) resent the erroneous number 101, 9274. 



ANNOTATIONS. 405 

I have i)rinted instead of them the sexagesimal numbers which represent 
the number 101, 4933, i.e. 

33, 55, 41, 4. 

At notes b, e, d. The reading of the manuscripts 123,8523 is wrong, 
for the addition of the constituent numbers gives the sum of 123,8516. 
Accordingly also W«s«5a«^ must be changed into Was«BjB>\^ 

The sexagesimal numbers have also been derived from the wrong 
number, for 3 (not 43), 2, 44, 5, represent the number 123,8523, whilst 
we must read 

56, 1, 44, 5 
as representing the number 123,8516. 

At d, read y \ A/* a instead of y s-» »3>^ 8 

p. 134. The chapter on the chess problem I have separately edited 
and explained in the " Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft," tom. xxix. pp. 148-156. 

Regarding the English terminology of this chapter, I must say a 
word to justify the use of the word check. If I had lased the com- 
mon expression for a field on the chess-board, i.e. square, my translation 
would have become very ambiguous, as frequently in one sentence I 
should have had to speak of a square (in the mathematical meaning) 
and a square (a field on a chess-board). The square (former meaning) 
of the number of a square (latter meaning) would have been intoler- 
able. To avoid this ambiguity I have adopted the word check in the 
common meaning of square, as check seems to be the next synonymous 
term, meaning a quadrangular field in a piece of Scotch cloth or tartan 
plaid. 

p. 136, 1. 7. The days of the epochs of the various eras according 
to Ibn-Tunus have been communicated by Delambre, " Histoire de I'as- 
tronomie du moyen age," p. 96. 

Albatini's rules for the comparison of eras between each other, see ib. 
p. 41. 

p. 136, 1. 20. The epochal day of the jiEra Biluvii is a Friday, vide 
Ideler, " Handbuch der mathematischen und technischen Chronologie," 
ii. p. 627. 

p. 136, 1. 26. The epochal day of the ^ra Nabonassari is a Wed- 
nesday, that of the JE'm Philippi is a Sunday ; Ideler, ib. ii. pp. 627, 
628. The correspondence between the I. Tot and the I. Daimah, is also 
stated by Alfarghani, " Elementa astronomica," ed. Golius, p. 5. 

p. 136, 1. 30. The epochal day of the M-a Alexandri is a Monday; 
Farghani, p. 6 ; Ideler, ii. 628. 



406 ALBiEUNi. 

p. 137, 1. 9. The Syrian year commences witli the 1 Oct., the Greek 
year with the 1 January. The interval between these two New Year's 
Days is 92 days. 

p. 137, p. 17. The epochal day of the JSra Augusti is a Thursday ; 
Ideler, ii. p. 628. 

p. 137, 1. 37. The epochal day of the jTJra Diocletiani is a Wednesday, 
see Ideler, ii. 628. 

p. 138, 1. 9. The epochal day of the Era of the Flight is a Thursday ; 
Ideler, ii. 629. 

p. 138, 1. 30. The epochal day of the jiEra Yazdagirdi is a Tuesday, 
see Farghani, p. 6, and Ideler, ii. 629. 

p. 139, 1. 7. Read Alnairizi instead of Altibrizt (also in the text, p. 
142, 1. 22). In the text, p. 142, 1. 21, read y-W«3\ j>\ instead of 

p. 141, 1. 29. The following lines (till p. 142, 1. 2), are a torso of 
which I do not know a proper restoration. It seems the author gave an 
exposition of the length of the Jewish, the Christian, and the astro- 
nomical years, and pointed out some incongruity between Jewish and 
scientific astronomy. Both Jewish Years, that of E. Samuel (the Julian 
year), of 365 d. 6 h. and that of R. 'Adda of 365 d. 5 h. 997 H. 48 
Eeg. are too long, vide Dr. A. Schwarz, " Der Jiidische Kalender," 
pp. 65, 120. In the present state of the text I am not able to say 
what the 165 days (p. 142, 1. 2) mean, 

p. 142, 1. 12. The subtraction of two years in this calculation is neces- 
sitated by the Babylonian Ordo inter calationis, ^3,15^^, which the author 
uses in this place. Cf. p. 65, 1. 6. 

p. 142, 1. 20. The Assaying Circle is based on the assumption that 
the Enneadecateris corresponds to 19 solar years (whilst there is a dif- 
ference between them of 145 Halakim, vide p. 64, 1. 16), and that the 
mean Lunar year has 354 days in a common year and 384 days in a leap 
year. The former, if compared with the Julian year, is too short by 11 
days ; the latter is too long by 19 days. 

In the squares of the thirteenth year of the cycle read Ilul 7, instead 
of Ilvl 6 (also in the text). 

No regard has been had of the intercalation of the Julian years. 

p. 143, 1. 28. In the text (note i, last line,) read tyi^ 5«— ; instead of 
p. 144, 1. 5. By the apparent motion the author means that motion 



ANNOTATIONS. 407 

which at any time is found by astronomical observation, no equation or 
correction being used. 

p. 144. 1. 17. This space of time, i.e. 2 d. 16 h. 595 H is the so-called 
Character of the Enneadecateris. 

p. 144, 1. 26. The 4 d. 8 h. 876 H. are the Character of the Common 
Year, the 6 d. 21 h. 589 H. the Character of the Leap-year. Cf . Lazarus 
Bendavid, " Zur Geschichte und Berechnung des Jiidischen Kalenders," 
Berlin, 1817, § 32. 

p. 144, 1. 30. These 5 d. 14 h. are the Moled of the Creation (T '\) 
i.e. Friday morning, 8 o'clock. Cf. Dr. A. Schwarz, " Der Jiidische 
Kalender," p. 50, note 2. 

p. 145, 1. 15. With the 12th year of the ^ra Alexandri begins a new 
Enneadecateris of the Jewish JS'ra Adami, the 182 d. one. 

The Basis, i.e. the Moled of ^. Alex. 12 (i.e. yE. Adami 3460) has been 
omitted in the tables of all manuscripts. It is, however, easy to find by 
the help of the tables on pp. 145-147. 3460 years are : 

d. h. H. 

6 G-reat Cycles - - - = 3 20 600 

14 Small Cycles - - - = 2 15 770 

2 single years - - - =36 385 

9 18 676 

Therefore the Moled of the 12th year of Alexander is 2 d. 18 h. 675 H. 
(cf. the astronomical calculation of this Moled on p. 148, 1. 19). 

p. 145, 1. 30. The numbers of days, hours, and Halakim of this table 
the reader may check by always adding the Character of the Enneade- 
cateris, i.e. 2 d. 16 h. 595 H., and by subtracting 7, as soon as the addition 
of the days gives more than seven days. 

p. 146, 1. 20. The number of days, hours, and Halakim the reader 
may check by always adding for a common year 4d. 8h. 876 H., for a 
leap-year 5 d. 21 h. 589 H., and by subtracting 7, as soon as the addition 
of the days goes beyond this number. 

p. 147,1. 1. The Character of the G-reat Cycle is 5 d. 7h. 460 H., 
which you get by multiplying the Character of the Enneadecateris, i.e. 
2 d. 16 h. 695 H. by 28, dividing the sum by 7, and taking the re- 
mainder. 

p. 147, 1. 42. Times. One time is equal to four minutes. 



408 albIe^^n}. 

p. 148, 1. 16. In the following tables these measures have