(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Chumash and Costanoan languages"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/chumashcostanoanOOkroerich 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

IN 

AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 237-271 November 19, 1910 



THE CHUMASH AND COSTANOAN 
LANGUAGES 



BY 
A. L. KROEBER 



BERKELEY 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



XmiVERSITY OF CAIjIFOENIA PUBLICATIONS 
DEPAETMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

The following publications dealing with archaeological and ethnological subjects issued 
under the direction of the Department of Anthropology are sent in exchange for the puhli- 
cationa of anthropological departments and museums, and for journals devoted to general 
anthropology or to archaeology and ethnology. They are for sale at the prices stated, which 
include postage or express charges. Exchanges should be directed to The Exchange Depart- 
ment, University Library, Berkeley, California, U. S. A. All orders and remittances should 
be addressed to the University Press. 

Price 
Vol. 1. 1. Life and Culture of the Hupa, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-88; 

plates 1-30. September, 1903 $1.26 

2. Hupa Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 89-368. March, 1904 _. 3.00 

Index, pp. 369-378. 
Vol. 2. 1. The Exploration of the Potter Creek Cave, by William J. Sinclair. 

Pp. 1-27; plates 1-14. April, 1904 40 

2. The Languages of the Coast of California South of San Francisco, by 

A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 29-80, with a map. June, 1904 60 

3. Types of Indian Culture in California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 81-103. 

June, 1904 26 

4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern California, by A. L. 

Kroeber. Pp. 105-164; plates 15-21. January, 1905 75 

5. The Yokuts Language of South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. 

Pp. 165-377. January, 1907 2.25 

Index, pp. 379-393. 
Vol. 3. The Morphology of the Hupa Language, by Pliny Earle Goddard. 

344 pp. June, 1905 3.50 

Vol. 4. 1. The Earliest Historical Relations between Mexico and Japan, from 
original documents preserved in Spain and Japan, by Zelia Nuttall. 

Pp. 1-47. April, 1906 60 

2. Contribution to the Physical Anthropology of California, based on col- 
lections in the Department of Anthropology of the University of 
California, and in the U. S. National Museum, by Ales Hrdlicka. 

Pp. 49-64, with 5 tables; plates 1-10, and map. June, 1906 75 

8. The Shoshonean Dialects of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 65-166. 

February, 1907 1-50 

4. Indian Myths from South Central California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 

167-250. May, 1907 "^^ 

5. The Washo Language of East Central California and Nevada, by A. L. 

Kroeber. Pp. 251-318. September, 1907 75 

6. The Religion of the Indians of California, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 319- 

356. September, 1907 - ^^ 

Index, pp. 357-374. 
Vol 5 1. The Phonology of the Hupa Language; Part I, The Individual Sounds, 

by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 1-20, plates 1-8. March, 1907 35 

2. Navaho Myths, Prayers and Songs, with Texts and Translations, by 

Washington Matthews, edited by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 21-63. 
September, 1907 — • '"^^ 

3. Kato Texts, by Pliny Earle Goddard. Pp. 65-238, plate 9. December, 

1909 " ^•°" 

4. The Material Culture of the Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians of 

Northeastern California and Southern Oregon, by S. A. Barrett. 

Pp. 239-292, plates 10-25. June, 1910 75 

5. The Chimariko Indians and Language, by Roland B. Dixon. Pp. 293- 

380. August, 1910 I-"*' 

Index, pp. 381-384. 
Vol 6. 1. The Ethno-Geography of the Pomo and Neighboring Indians, by Sam- 
uel Alfred Barrett. Pp. 1-332, maps 1-2. February, 1908 3.26 

2. The Geography and Dialects of the Miwok Indians, by Samuel Alfred 

Barrett. Pp. 333-368, map 8. 
3 On the Evidence of the Occupation of Certain Regions by the Miwok 
Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 369-380. Nos. 2 and 3 in one cover. 

February, 1908 ...„ ^" 

Index, pp. 381-400. 
Vol. 7. 1. The Emeryville Shellmound, by Max Uhle. Pp. 1-106, plates 1-12, with 

38 text figures. June, 1907 -• ^'^ 

2. Recent Investigations bearing upon the Question of the Occurrence of 

Neocene Man in the Auriferous Gravels of California, by William 

J. Sinclair. Pp. 107-130, plates 13-14. February, 1908 86 

3. Pomo Indian Basketry, by S. A. Barrett. Pp. 133-306, plates 15-30, 

231 text figures. December, 1908 -• - ^'"° 

4. Shellmounds of the San Francisco Bay Region, by N. C. Nelson. 

Pp. 309-356, plates 32-34. December, 1909 50 

5. The Ellis Landing SheUmound, by N. C. Nelson. Pp. 357-426, plates 

36-50. April, 1910 ^^ 

Index, pp. 427-441. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS 

IN 
AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 237-271 November 19, 1910 



THE CHUMASH AND COSTANOAN 
LANGUAGES 

BY 

A. L. KROEBEE. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Introduction 237 

costanoan 239 

Dialects and Territory 239 

Comparative Vocabularies 242 

Phonetics 249 

Grammatical Notes 251 

Texts 253 

Relationship of Miwok and Costanoan 259 

Chumash 264 

Dialects and Territory 264 

Comparative Vocabularies 265 

Grammatical Notes 268 

Texts 269 



INTRODUCTION. 

Many years ago Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta com- 
posed, and Shea in 1861 published, one of the most satisfactory 
treatises dealing with an Indian idiom of California, the Gram- 
mar of the Mutsun Language, subsequently classified as a 
Costanoan dialect. Several years ago the author added notes 
on another dialect, that of Monterey, and presented a gram- 
matical sketch of the Santa Ynez idiom of the Chumash family.^ 



1 Languages of the Coast of California South of San Francisco, present 
series, II, 29-80, 1904. 



238 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 

Since that time he has recorded two vocabularies, one in the 
Costanoan speech at Mission San Jose, the other in the Chumash 
dialect of Mission San Buenaventura. 

A comparison of these two new sources with the material 
previously obtained, enables an insight into the dialectic organ- 
ization of the two families. Wherever these uniformly-made 
records of two dialects of the same stock corroborate each other, 
whether by agreement or by an explainable difference, they 
furnish a basis of comparison by which other previously pub- 
lished lists may be judged, and some allowance made for their 
orthographic variations. In this way some half dozen diverse 
vocabularies in each family are made available for comparative 
study. 



1910] Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 239 



COSTANOAN. 

DIALECTS AND TERRITORY. 

Seven Franciscan missions were founded in territory held 
by Indians of Costanoan speech: Soledad, San Carlos near 
Monterey, San Juan Bautista, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara near 
the present city of San Jose in Santa Clara county, San Jose 
near Irvington in Alameda county, and Dolores in San Fran- 
cisco. To these were brought, before the close of the Mission 
period, probably all the Costanoan Indians then living. 

Some record has been made of the prevailing language at 
each mission, which was normally the dialect of the immediate 
district. Seven forms of Costanoan speech are therefore known 
to have existed. 

Unfortunately it seems impossible to learn anything as to 
such other dialects as there may have been, as to transitional 
idioms connecting the "standard" languages of the missions, or 
of the territorial extent of each form of speech. It is almost 
certain that the seven published vocabularies do not comprise 
all varieties of the Costanoan language. Father de la Cuesta's 
works refer to differences of speech between the Mutsunes and 
the Ansaymes or Ausaimas connected with mission San Juan 
Bautista, but furnish only two or three illustrations.^ Nothing 
has been published regarding the dialects of northern Alameda 
or Contra Costa counties. Finally, while all ethnological maps 
have extended the Costanoan territory eastward to the San 
Joaquin river, the missions are all situated in the western half 
of this area, between the mountains and the sea. Not a Costa- 
noan dialect, tribe, or even name is positively known from the 
territory between the main watershed of the Coast range and 
the San Joaquin river. It appears, indeed, that contrary to 
former supposition at least all of the plain of the San Joaquin 
valley, and possibly the lower hills on its west, were not in 



2 Compare his Vocabulary or Phrase Book of the Mutsun Language, 
ed. Shea, New York, 1862, examples 9 and 12. 



240 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 

Costanoan but in Yokuts territory.^ This circumstance would 
account for the absolute dearth of references to Costanoan 
Indians in this area. Nevertheless there remain sufficiently 
extensive tracts which cannot well have been inhabited by any 
one but Costanoans, but in regard to which we are, and perhaps 
always will be, uninformed. Consequently the present classi- 
fication may not be regarded as exhaustive; and it differs 
further, to its disadvantage, from such comparative studies as 
have been made of Yuki, Porno, Miwok, Yokuts, and Shoshonean, 
in that it deals not with areas of speech, but with the speech 
of accidentally selected points. In the absence of fuller data, 
it is however necessary to operate with those available. 

As is usual in California, none of the dialects seem to have 
had native names. Mutsun is properly only the name of the 
principal village near mission San Juan Bautista. Rumsen 
or Rumsien, used for the Costanoan Indians of Monterey, is 
probably also only a specific place name misused by the whites. 
The five "tribes" at San Francisco — Ahwastes, Olhones, Altah- 
mos, Romonans, and Tulomos — are, if Costanoan, only ranch- 
erias. Polya, Polye, or Polaya, was given to Dr. Barrett and 
the author as the name of the language of San Jose mission; 
yet this seems to be nothing but Northeastern Miwok polaiya, 
ocean, and is therefore probably the term applied to the resident 
natives by the Miwok of the interior after their transportation 
to the mission. 

The seven known Costanoan dialects are divisible into two, 
groups, a northern and a southern. The northern division 
comprises San Francisco, San Jose, Santa Clara, and Santa 
Cruz, the southern San Juan Bautista, Soledad, and Monterey. 
The difference between the two groups may be accentuated by 
the fact that the four northern missions are all situated on the 
ocean or San Francisco bay, or within a few miles of the water; 
while two of the three southern locations are some distance 
inland. It is impossible to predict a priori whether such a 
topographical distinction will be reflected linguistically, in any 
given case, in California. Where the speech of entire areas, 
has been ascertained, the following facts have developed. The 



3 Present series of publications, VI, 350, 375, 1908. 



1910] Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 241 

Yokuts and Miwok correspond absolutely, in their lines of 
dialectic cleavage, to the division into level plain and broken hill 
country.* The Maidu, however, in a similar situation, do not;" 
and similarly among the Pomo several dialects each comprise 
parts of two or three distinct topographical areas.* 

In the northern division, the dialects of San Jose and Santa 
Clara are very closely related — so much so that in view of their 
being recorded many years apart by observers using different 
orthography, it cannot be stated with certainty whether or not 
there is any real difference between them. San Francisco is at 
least as similar to these two as is Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, 
geographically the nearest of the northern dialects to San Juan 
Bautista, also resembles it most ; but the primary line of division 
in the family nevertheless passes between the two, for Santa 
Cruz is more similar to Santa Clara than to San Juan, and this 
in turn has closer affinities with Soledad and Monterey. 

In the southern division the abundance of material on San 
Juan as compared with the scant 22 words known from Soledad,^ 
make comparison more difficult. It must be observed that the 
numerals given by de Mofras* as from Soledad belong evidently 
to a dialect of the San Juan type, if Hale's Soledad vocabulary 
represents the characteristic speech of that place. The Monterey 
dialect is peculiar. In its stems it agrees almost invariably 
with San Juan, as compared with the northern group; but 
many of its words are evidently reduced, especially in their 
latter parts. Dropping of vowels is responsible for a common 
accumulation of final consonants, a feature confined to this one 
dialect. 

Graphically the affinity of the Costanoan dialects can be 
represented thus: 

S Fr 
S CI S Jo 

S Cr 
Northern 

Southern „ ^ ^ 

8 J B Sol 

Mo 



4 Present series, II, 309, 1907; VI, 333, 1908. 

5 E. B. Dixon, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVII, 125, 127, 1905. 
« Present series, VI, 123, 1908. 

f Gallatin, Hale's Indians, Tr. Am. Ethn. Soc, 11, 125, 1848. 
8 II, 401. 



242 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES. 

The comparative Costanoan vocabulary which is appended 
is a collocation of previously published word lists with those 
secured by the author in the Monterey and San Jose dialects. 
The latter is corroborated by a brief vocabulary obtained by 
Dr. Barrett in Marin county. So far as could be judged, the 
orthographical peculiarities of each observer have been oblit- 
erated and all Avords given in uniform spelling; but only words 
represented in two or more dialects have been included.* C 
represents a sound akin to English sh; x is the surd fricative 
in k position ; q is velar k ; q ', k ', t ', p ' are surd stops produced 
with more than usual muscular energy and accompanied by a 
glottal stop; y is a voiced fricative in k or q position; X is 
velar x; t- is a palatal t; l, surd 1, affricative; o and ii indicate 
sounds similar to German o and ii but with less rounding of the 
lips, and therefore less distinct quality. 



9 The following are the sources: Monterey, the author, supplemented 
by A. Taylor in the California Farmer, XIII, 66, April 20, 1860. Soledad, 
H. Hale, in Trans. Am. Ethn. Soc, II, 126, 1848. San Juan Bautista, 
de la Cuesta, op. cit. Santa Cruz, F. J. Comelias, in Taylor, op. cit., XIII, 
58, April 5, 1860, reprinted in Powers, Tribes of California, Contrib. 
N. A. Ethn., Ill, 538, 1877. Santa Clara, F. G. Mengarini, in Powers, 
ibid. San Jose, the author. San Francisco, in Schoolcraft, II, 494, re- 
published in Powers, ibid. 



1910] 



Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 



243 



e s 



^ o ^ 



rt - _ 

iS sd s 



BJ ._ ._ 



o3 'j; ^ en 



^ K 

p: ^ 



SOU) 
-2 & .tJ 



SQ 



c8 








a 




.2 




i 
^ 


X 


3 


o 


g 


eS 


-ti 


"o 


c 


•t^ 


'5 


M 



,c 


v 








m 






« 


_g 














.4^ 


'■+J 


eU 


e» 


'^ 


o 


C 


P 


c 


^ 


CS 


at 






CIS rt 



-5 « 
OS 



S g 

» $ -"^ -" '•- 



5 S I 5 X § I ^ =g g? 2 I i2 



.1 



CQ 



08 

s 

i) tt) ^ 

(h U U 



• C 03 

=> '- rt .5 



{X a 

OS tS 3 



-£Sp^-2-o3£'^.2 



00 J^ — 

flj t^ — C8 t* 









a 


















so 




00 


i 


.S 

O 


6 

o 


.2 
'5o 


"3 


0) 


a 

'S 
•S 

s 


cd OS 


1 

s 


"2 

p 


03 
S 
'-3 


S 
m 
X 

P 

©■ 
« 
-t-» 

O 


a 
"x 



P X 4S m 



>> 2 



2 p »:. 
S.5 5 



=Q H 



03 Cd 



B « " 



X 



1 s -^ 

.2 03 £ 



08 J<3 « 

a p -w 



s s 



C ^ S3 03 P 



&4 








00 


a 




« 




B 


,•• 


• *4 


X 


p 


.^ 


■4-> 


b 






OQ 


P 


P 


-^ 


'x 





.•S .2 08 



^ -S e ^ ,2 a 



3 p 



;S o 



r^ a P 



E 

O *< t! 
& 2 S 



<5 !:? CO C 



,-*j-*eM'-j,»<a)«Poaje8«a~ 
■^ ■:i r'^ S >S ^ c 03 >%oo S 5J §a; Ert 



a B 



^ ® -a 
^ pq C 



244 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



^ -S 9, o cs 5 -s c« -ja P ^ S 2 








S 




s 


■43 ^ 



cj 


•* .^ 


M 


%s 


o 


bo E3 


^ 


eS •*^ 



s 




























s 








M 

II 


<0 

'm 






1 

2 


tupen 
conok 
huti 






2 B 


^ J4 


2 




























^ 




























o 








i 










a s 

JO 00 
3 --^ 










1 


a 

6 

o 






tB 




1 


i 

£ 


S 

^1 




i 

O 


a> rt 

£ s 


tarax 
icmen 
korme 



U M A -^i fh ti i4t>0 u ^ -n ^^ U-t^S 4J.X-WP4.3 



.5 

8 






M c3 0) cS 






I 

.2 



plh5 jdiiCL,E:Sfl-S3 C 42^4iJ>!iXJ<jS.S-S.2 &< 



d 



2iS^Sbood§rt^S.2.£ gg^2^1«ga,'S5>,d§Sb 



1910] 



Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 



245 



as 



3 






^ S 2 

ft & o 






^ .2 ^ -S 
ci C 3 2 



go© 

s s 5 



O .^ 



i g 



gij H 03 

CO g ;i3 



1^ 
i t 



M 

3 « g » a, S 



80 S:? cd ^ 

^< S «s c P 



«« -^ £ ft 53 



3 

a 

3 



aj ft C eS « 



._J«!-i3 30c33p3^ 

S3ft>;^^SRSc3 



e3 ._< 






I 

I i 



„ ,, o 3 a cs ft 



■*j ^ OS »*» S 



05 2 

fe a 



krf *" ^^ 

"S ^ s* 



..4 O 



S es 





3 
ft 

1 




5 


3 


1 


en 

M 
S3 





.3 %. 




^ 



■3 
e 


11 




Thundei 
Lightnii 
Rain 


o 

s 



f^ eg <- ^ ^^ pq 



i 1a S ca o 2 rt 

CQ J O > S oo CQ 



O 'W 00 



^ J O S O U ^ 



246 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



« SO 



ts 






3 ^ S XI 



tj 9 Sort 'nS o-k^7^^ 



s is 



■g rS § -S I ^ s -S -3 5 2 



eCoo »£«.b'5?=si3'3sS&,.2-s»-2s3ort = 



»« 



•^ 



«? -C .2 £ -S -3 2 . § 2 J . « .i ^. I ^ , 1 -g ^ i 



a 






s 


X 


£ 










3 


a 




;^ 


CD 


-*-^ 










» 


o 


jM 




o 




>^ 








■p 
-u 




3 




S 


A 


m 


!5 





X5 ^ 

03 .-S ^ 



S P^ 






1910] 



Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 



247 



^ 2 



& ?3 



»! ~ 






— 83 cj 

i g .1 . 

« c3 g ^ oj 

S ^ 6 S 



O 3 o ? - £ 

g 3 ^ -w a S « 

O 3 g .S g g -^ 

« c S ^ 6 ^ .S 



OQ S 



1 










a 


^ 




u 


o 


93 


a< 




« 


s 


a 


^ 


.^id 


■§ 


-*-> 
^ 


o 


« 




ei 


o 


<» 


c 


£ 


a 





a 






m 


03 


.2 


0) 




"5 


'S 


X 


S 




« 



a w eo 



^1 

is a 



M S. s 

G« a ^ 



ei as 






05 i S* 
'S a 





« 


a 




03 


C3 


a M 


^ 


^ 


OJ c3 


C3 


CS 


S fe 


a 


a 



.a 


•9 






a 


'a 






i> 


4, 






a 


a 






^ 




03 




® 




•^ 




OU 


a, 







i 


s 


aT 


3 i^ 


a 


a 


fl 


C «S 






2<u 






■ ~ 03 c3 

■? a ■? 



e3 X 



1^ S 



"fS eS 2 as S2 

.i2 5 S S S 




S i< ca 






a ^ £ <!> 






T3 _ 'T S 

O 03 § -C iJ h?? 

O OQ Q h-. E^ ta ^ 



rfj ^ J3 « J 



=: = a- 



F 7 m T as 
O o 41 o O) 






248 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



s 


ca 


C3 £ 


s 


& 


^ ^ 


ei 


o 


.a ^ 



-2 s 



fe i -S -5 ^ i § 

^ .5 -S c8 cij -g rt 






03 .^ 

o 



9 * 

(-1 i^ O 



g § "S -js ^ 



o o :3 M 






1 






1 






.« 






. o 
o ■'^ 


g 

O 




o 
d 
o 
PI 


'S 


1 

'3 


1 


a 


cS 



d Qt ja Q< -^ .S -^ f^=« !=* 



-^ .§■ -s J 



cs D 52 2 



S .t 



2 fl 



s fl .S cs s 



h "« « 



(3 _ 



s c to 



s 5 ^ jd -jj 



00 
fl e9 .rt .rt .9 

- ^ F 3 :3 -13 -^ 



§ el js -« © .2 « £ 



."S ^ ¥ 



OS .rt 

•3 S 

a '3 



"= M eS 
OS ^ 03 



OQ 







a 3 



•5 "^ -2 
+J & of _S 

r! ' n* H (-1 



^ OS 



V vi c« .s n 4^ ,^ 



* .-1 



j<i 



o o 

a «> 



s o 



® o 






•- .2 



-3 



B* ei 



c § §.9l I.ga3.^ 



fijOCCCW^E-fHfiWQicOQOQOQh^MbQCC 



O o -^ 

o u o 



1910] Eroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 249 



NOTES TO VOCABUIiABIES. 

1. Old. 

2. Compare Monterey ap-s, an-s, my f., my m., apa-n, ana-n, your f., 
your m., San Juan Bautista ap-sa, my f., with the apna-n and ana-n of 
Santa Cruz. These are the only suffixed pronominal elements yet found 
in the Costanoan languages, except for the affixes of the imperative. 

3. The prefix or proclitic nik-, my, is unparalleled. 

4. The ending -m, which appears repeatedly in the vocabulary of this 
dialect, is probably not pronominal. 

5. Compare San Juan Bautista tapis, crown of head. 

6. With we-per compare San Juan Bautista tut-per, lips. 

7. Throat, swallower. 

8. Also with the meaning of soul, spirit, person, in de la Cuesta, but 
liver in other dialects. 

9. The original has p for t. 

10. "Up." 

11. "Heat of the sun." 

12. Said to mean also earthquake. The initial is dental, not palatal t 
at Monterey. 

13. =tura of other dialects, or an error for tarax, skyt 

14. "Roretaon." 

15. Compare stream. 

16. The same as deer. 

17. "WUd-dog, field-dog." 

18. Either waguises = wawises, or waquises = wakises. 

19. Given as wolf. 

20. "Wild-deer, wild-meat." 

21. Santa Clara wirak, wings. 

22. Raven. 

23. Compare night. 

24. Compare blood. 

25. Compare the Santa Clara word for green: tcitko-mini. 

26. Compare boy. 

27. "Above." 

28. Literally, good. 

29. "One-hand." 

30. Coast Miwok kene, osa, teleka, one, two, three. 



PHONETICS. 

The exceptional habit of the Monterey dialect of shortening 
its words is the cause of its frequent accumulations of final 
consonants. Such accumulations are not tolerated by the other 
dialects, as a glance at the vocabularies reveals. In regard 
to initial consonants, Monterey agrees with the other dialects 
in possessing only simple sounds and affricatives like tc. As 
a group, therefore, the Costanoan languages are to be reckoned 



250 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 

with the majority of California linguistic families in that they 
allow only single consonants before, after, or between the vowels 
of stems. 

The vocalic system of Costanoan is reducible to the five 
sounds u, o, a, e, i, of which both o and e, and u and i, are open 
in quality, though the latter perhaps also occur with close value. 

The apparatus of consonants is also simple, consisting of the 
stops k, t-, t, p and the sounds n, m, h or x, s, c, r, 1, w, y, and 
the affricative tc. 

T- is very palatal, as in Yokuts and Salinan, and its frequent 
orthography tr conveys a fair idea of the quality of its sound. 
De la Cuesta has written it thr, also ths, th, and tsh. These 
spellings give to his material a much more forbidding and diffi- 
cult look than the actual phonetic simplicity of the Costanoan 
dialects warrants. 

The four stops have been almost randomly recorded by the 
author, both in San Jose and Monterey, as surd or partially 
sonant. The perceptible difference is so slight that it seems 
probable that there is only one series of essentially surd sounds, 
which differ sufficiently from the English surd stops, in being 
pronounced with somewhat less breath or some degree of sonancy 
— possibly during the explosion — to cause them at times to 
assume to English ears a quality approaching that of sonant 
stops. Father de la Cuesta seems to have mastered the pho- 
netics of the San Juan dialect, but his nationality and orthog- 
raphy are unsatisfactory for elucidating this point, as the surd 
explosives of Spanish are voiced during part of their formation, 
while the corresponding Spanish sonants are largely fricative, 
so that if the Costanoan stops are actually intermediate rather 
than surd, he would nevertheless have naturally and correctly 
represented them by the Spanish surd stop characters. 

H and x shade into one another and are probably one sound, 
as in Yurok and Yana and Yuki. C, more nearly than English 
sh, resembles s, as in so many other American languages. R 
is trilled with the tip of the tongue, but without violence. 

Sound equivalences between such nearly related languages 
as the several Costanoan dialects can not be dwelt on with 
much emphasis in the present state of knowledge, as some dif- 



1910] Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 251 

ferences may be typographical rather than phonetic. A number 
are however apparent. 

r^l: woman, hair, foot, moon, black, large. San Francisco particu- 
larly substitutes 1 for r, but not always. 
r = n, y, t- : tobacco, wind, hair, meat. 
l = n: coyote, white. 
y = tc, t., t: bone, blood, coyote, black. 
8 = k, h: beard, today. 
k = x: head, ear. 
k = w: house, salt, small. 

Santa Clara -tc=:San Jose -x = other dialects : forehead, heart. 

c = tc = t: bow, thunder, small. 

In San Jose, all the consonants occur initially, and all but 
tc finally. In consonant combinations in words, r, p, and tc 
have not been noted as second member. Further examples may 
eliminate these exceptions and reveal all the consonants as avail- 
able for any position. All the vowels are found in every part 
of words. 

GRAMMATICAL NOTES. 

SAN JOSE. 

The personal pronouns in the dialect of San Jose show full 
forms similar to those of San Juan Bautista and other dialects, 
as contrasted with the reduced ka, me, wa of Monterey. As 
in the other known dialects they occur in two forms; one for 
the absolute, subjective, and possessive, the other, produced by 
the addition of -c to the first syllable of the stem, for the ob- 
jective. The objective of the third person ic or c, which presents 
the appearance of a formation by analogy, has no known parallel 
in the southern dialects. 





Subjective and Possessive 


Objective 


1 s 


kana, kanak 


kic 


2 S 


mene, meni 


mec, mic 


3 S 


waka, wakai 


ic, c 


1 P 


makin, makinmak 




2 P 


makam 




3 P 


wakamak 





The plural of animate nouns and pronouns is formed by the 
usual suffix -mak, -kma, -ma: tare-ma, men, aita-mak, women, 
muwe-kma, people, waka-mak, they, makin-mak, we. 



252 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 

An ending -c, as in tare-c, man, miti-c, old man, is evidently 
the same as the Monterey and San Juan suffix of nouns -s. 
Compare aita-kic, woman, atsya-kic, girl. The -c and -kic of 
the words for man and woman are lost before the plural suffix. 

The general Costanoan locative or inessive suffix -tka occurs : 
si-tka, in the water. Another locative ending is -mo, -mu, -m: 
no-mo, here; rini-mu ruwai, on the house, "above-on house"; 
mani-m watic, where are you going? Compare San Juan Bau- 
tista patre-me, at the house of the padre. 

An adjective ending -wis corresponds to Monterey -st and 

San Juan, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and San Francisco -min 

or mini. 

cirke-wis, black 
locko-vris, white 
pulte-wis, red 
icne-wic, how is it? 
kutcu-wie, small 

The imperative ends in -i. Compare San Juan -ya, intrans- 
itive imperative, and -i, imperative with object of third person. 

The future is indicated by -na, while -k seems to denote the 
past, and -c is perhaps a present: kiti-na, will see, kiti-k, saw 
or sees, wati-c, goes. Compare the Monterey preterite in -ki. 
Another ending is -kne, as in nimi-kne, struck. 

SAN JUAN BAUTISTA. 

The following are the grammatical elements of the Mutsun 

dialect, as given by de la Cuesta in Spanish orthography. They 

appear to constitute the entire grammatical apparatus of the 

language. 

-mac, -cma, plural of nouns; -s-mac, plural noun agent 

-se, -ne, -e, objective case-ending 

-sum, -ium, -um, instrumental case-ending 

-tea, -tae, locative case-ending, in, on, at 

-me, case-ending, with, at the house of 

-tsu, case-ending, in company with 

-huas, case-ending, for, to 

-tun, case-ending, from 

-s, infixed near the end of verbs, plural of object or repetition of 

action 
-s, preterite 
-n, preterite, more remote 



1910] Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 253 

-scun, -CUD, preterite, remote 

-gte, preterite 

-si, causative 

-su, to go to 

-na, to go to 

-ini, to come to 

-miste, to beg to 

-u, when 

-inicane, when 

-stap, -stapse, impersonal, passive, etc. 

-gnis, impersonal, passive, etc. 

-gne, the same, also participial 

-guit, prohibition 

-csi, excellently, well, thoroughly 

-mu, reciprocal 

-pu, reflexive 

-ya,intransitive imperative 

-i, imperative with object of third person 

-t, -tit, -mit, imperative with object of first person 

-yuts, plural of subject in the imperative 

-is, hortatory (?) imperative 

-se, -8, added to first word in sentence, interrogative 

-na, adverbial numerals 

-huas, ordinal numerals 

-si, distributive numerals 



TEXTS. 

lord's peayers. 

Two Lord's Prayers in Costanoan have long been known." 
A partial translation can be made. It may be added that the 
text given by de Mofras from Santa Clara appears rather to 
resemble the San Juan Bautista dialect; and that his other, 
which is presented as from the Tulare Valley, in other words 
Yokuts, is possibly most similar to the dialects of San Jose and 
Santa Clara. 

VALLfiE DE LOS TULABES. 

Appa macquen erinigmo tasunimae emracat, jinnin eccey macquen 
unisinmac macquen quitti 6n6 soteyma erinigmo: sumimac macquen 
hamjamti jinnan guara ayei: sunnun macquen quit ti enesunumac ayacma: 
aquectsem unisimtac nininti equetmini: jurin4 macquen equetmini em 
men. 



10 Duflot de Mofras, II, 392. 



254 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 







TRANSCRIPTION 






apa 


maken 


erinix-mo^ 


tasuni-mak- em^ 


Father 


our 


sky-in, 


(sacred) 


thy 


rakat* 


xinin'^ 


eksei 


maken 


unisin-mak" 


name. 


(come) 


(rule) 


us 


will 


maken 


kitiene 


sotei-ma 


erinix-mo 


sumi-mak' 


us 


as 


(earth)-in 


sky-in, 


give 


maken 


hamxamu® 


xinan 


wara ayei 


sunu-n" 


us 


food 




debts 


forgive 


maken 


kitiene sunu-raak'^ 


aya-kma** 


ake-ktsem^" 


us 


as 


forgive 


debtors. 


not 


unisimtak" nininti 


eket-mini^ ^ xurina 


maken 


(lead) 




bad. 


(deliver) 


us 


eket-mini 


emen 








bad. 


amen 









NOTES. 

1. Compare San Jose rini-inu, up. For the locative ending compare 
San Jose -mo, -mu, -m, and San Juan Bautista -me, at the house of; also, 
below, sotei-ma, on earth. 

2. The ending -mak occurs on several of the forms that are imperative 
or optative: 

tasuni-mak, hallowed be. 

unisin-mak, thy will be done. 

sumi-mak, give us. 

sunu-mak, as we forgive, or, forgive us. 

3. Compare im rakat in the Santa Clara prayer. Compare also San 
Jose em ama, are you eating? where em replaces mene, you 

4. Compare San Juan Bautista "gracat. " 

5. Compare Monterey xin, to walk. 

6. Unisin- perhaps contains the same stem as Monterey iws, ius, to 
like, desire. 

7. Sunu-n and sunu-mak, forgive, are not the same as sumi-mak, give, 
through a manuscript misreading of nu for mi; but sunu recalls Coast 
Miwok suli, pardon, pity, while sumi is paralleled by San Juan Bautista 
xumi, give. 

8. Compare San Jose and San Juan Bautista ama, to eat, Monterey 
amxai, food. 

9. Contains the common Costanoan plural ending -kma, -mak, -ma, 
usually confined to animate nouns. 

10. The negative is akwe in San Jose, kwe, kue, at Monterey, ekwe at 
San Juan Bautista, etc, 

11. The ending agrees with the locative case-suffix -tka, -tak, which 
appears to be common to all Costanoan dialects, but is of course used 
only with nouns. The word may be corrupt. Except for a difference of 
two letters, it is identical with unisin-mak above. Possibly -tak should 
be read -mak. 

12. In San Juan Bautista ekwe is no, not, ekwet-, bad, evil. The ad- 
jective ending -mini, -min is known from San Juan Bautista, Santa Cruz, 
Santa Clara, and San Francisco. 



1910] 



Kroeher: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 



255 



MISSION SANTA CLARA. 

Appa maerene m^ saura saraahtiga elecpuhmen imragat, sacan 
macrene mensaraah assueiy nouman ourun macari pireca nunia ban 
saraathtiga poluma macrene souhaii naltis anat macrene neena, ia annanit 
macrene nieena, ia annanit macrene macrec 4quetr maccari noumabau 
macre annan, nou marote jassemper macrene in eckoue tamouniri innam 
tattahn^, icatrarca oniet macrene equets naccaritkoun och k J^sus. 



TRANSCRIPTION. 



urun 

poluma'^ 
bread 



apa makrene me 

Father our thou 

elekpux-men* im rakat 

(sacred) thy name, 

sarax asuei numan^ 

rule (=8ky), which 

numaban sarax-tka 

as sky-in, 

naltis ana-t*' makrene^ 

eive-thou-us us, 

makrene makrek ekwet-* 

us our evils 

makre ana-n nu" marote^" 

forgive those who 

in ekwe tamuniri 

not 

onie-t makrene ekwet 

deliver-thou-us us erll, 

Jesus 

Jesus 



saura^ 

art 

sakan makrene 

come to us 

makari 



makrene 

our 



nena 



ya 



makari 

(we) 

xasemper 

(injure) 

inam tataxne 

nakaritkun 



sarax-tka 

sky-in, 

men 

thy 

pire-ka* 

earth -on 

souhai 



ana-nit 

forgive-thon-ns 

numaban 

aa 

makrene 

us, 

ikatarka 



otc 



1. San Juan Bautista tsahora = tsaura, to exist, be locally, used with 
animate nouns; Monterey tcawar. 

2. -men seems to be the suffix -min, -mini. 

3. San Juan Bautista numan, who, which, that, ille qui, relative, not 
interrogative. The same stem appears in numaban, as, below. 

4. For San Juan Bautista regular pire-tka. 

5. Monterey, pulum, acorn-bread. 

6. As in the preceding prayer, the words give (bread) and forgive 
(sins) are similar. Give, in San Juan Bautista, is ara or xumi, here ana. 
The San Juan ending for the imperative of the second person with object 
of the first, is -t, -mit, -tit; compare ana-nit and onie-t below. 

7. The repetition in the printed text of the four words beginning with 
macrene is a copyist's error. 

8. See the preceding text for a note on the use of this stem with the 
meanings of not and bad in San Juan Bautista. 



256 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and EtJin. [Vol. 9 



9. Monterey and San Juan Bautista nu-pe, that, those, San Jose nu-xu, 
there. 

10. San Jose mat-o, who. San Juan has ate for who, and Monterey 
amp. Compare however the stem rote, to be somewhere, in these two 
dialects: Monterey anrot, where is it? 



MONTEREY. ORIGIN OF THE WORLD." 



tan 


murka'tuyi^^ pi' 


ri ne'ku 


u'uwin 


ci'irx 


When 


finished 


world, then 


flew 


eagle, 


u'mun 


tat-ikima'tcan (Pico Blanco) 


ne'ku 


xo'p 


hnmminKbird, coyote 




to Pico Blanco. 


Then 


rose 


huya 


tci'pil 


ne'ku" 


wa'atsii wasyi'lum 


huya 


where 


mountain. 


Then 


ocean 


approached 


where 


wa 


ko'ro ne'ku ta'nai wa'tin 


u'mun 


ne'ku 


their 


feet. Now then 


went 


humminjrbird. 


Then 


wa'tiyi 


ne'ku 


u'wi 


(para la Sierra de Gavilan) 


went. 


Then 


flew 


to the 


Sierra de 


Gavilan. 


Ne'ku 


tso'rekoi 


pi'ri 


Ne'ku wa'c kaii 


kap 


Now 


dry 


world. 


Then him told 




si'irx 


ne'ku 


wac 


'k ta'tikima'tcan 


es-wa'ti 


eagle. 


now 


him he-sent coyote: 


"Go 


a'yewuc 


1 wi'num 


i'nta 


muc-ro'ti 


ne'ku 


ta'nai 


look 


below. 


What 


is-there?" 


Now 


then 


was 


co'o 


i'nta 


muc-ro'ti 


ne'ku 


wa't 


him 


asked: 


"What 


is-there?" 


Then 


went 


ma'tcan 


ne'ku 


wac 


ka'ii ok 


ci'irx 


e'xe 


coyote. 


Then 


him 


told sent 


eagle: 


"Many 


ama 


lakiuni 


e'xe ma'tcan a'iiwis ro'tei^* 


people 


are-dead, 


many." 


Coyote had-looked there. 


tconmestawaa'n 


wa's 


xi's 


i'nix 


ti'ius 


" May your mother die ! ' 


' For- her 


he-made 


road 


of-flowers. 


ku 


kae mu'ic ti'us 


ne'ku 


u'uwin^"^ 


ne'ku 


"Not 


me please flowers.' 


Then 


fled. 


Then 


u'uwin 


lu'pup 


huya 


wi'is 


ne'ku 


wa'at 


ran 


diTed 


where 


sand. 


Then 


came 



11 By the author. For a free translation see present series IV, 199, 
200, 1907. 

12 Began? 

13 Followed, as recorded, by ka u'uwin, I flew, fled, ran. 

1* The passage given in present series II, 79, 1904, follows here. 
15 Into the waves; the native word had been forgotten. 



1910] 



Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 



257 



tatiki-ma'tcan 

Coyote. 

ka xa'wan 

my wife." 

ku ka 

"Not I 

la'tciamk 



ka' 
"I 



pri-ki 

seized 



wiyuc 

sand. 



ara 

Now 



a'xelust 

alone 

la'tciank 

women 



ku 

"Not 

mak 

we 

isko 

that 



lusen 

wish 

ka 



tci'iya 

here. 



me 

you 

tu'man 

can 

ka 
I 



xa wesp 

to-marry 

e'xe 

many 

i'usen 

wish 



o't- ne'ku 

"Go!" Then 

an ku ka 

"Where will-be my 

ne'ku 

'Now 

u'kc'a' 

everywhere. 

isku 



mak 

we 

a'tap 

again 

ru'k 

house?" 



exe 

be-many." 



pi na 

This 



mak e'xe 

we are-many. 

ne'ku 

Then 



xa wisp 

married. 

xalei's 

Five. 

ne'ku 

Then 



ca 

the 

ne'ku 

Then 

ne'ku 

Then 

u'ti(s) 

they 



u'ti 

they 



XI SI 
made 



(w)as 

him 



to 

ne'ku 

"Now 

mu'tut 

may -eat. 

o't- 

Go. 

te'uwen-um 

wlth-acom-mush 



mmiy 
uu 



me 

you 

xi's 

Make 

wa'tin 

go 



xis 

make 



hi's 

Make 

kue 

not 

imano 

when 

xa'kau 

dams, 

tco'tcon 

can-get-nothing. 



pu'lum 

acorn-bread 



pu'lum 

acom-bread 

kau-tak 

to-beach, 

ni't 

gather 

isku 

that 



weren 

rabbit 

te'uwin 

acom-mush 

isku 



ara 

gave 

isku 

that 

isku 

that 



that 

tci'ikas 

gather 



esxen 

sea-weed 



me 

you 

isko 

that 

isko 

that 



tu'man 

can 

tu'men 

low-tide, 

isku 

that 

ru't 

pick 



nimi 

kill 



me a mxai 

you may-eat. 

we'ren ne'ku 

rabbits, then 



la'wan 

bow, 

u'ti 

they 

me 

you 

mu'tut 

may -eat 

me 

yon 

me 

you 

i'mat- 

When 

me 

you 



ne'ku 

then 



me 

you 



me 

you 

tea'tc 

buckeyes 



amxai 

eat- with 

isku 

that 



me 

your 

me 

you 



tci'iks 

gather 

pu'lum 

aeom-bread. 

mu'tut 

may -eat." 



wa'ti 

went 



a'ntus 

other 

i'swin 

sons 

a'ntus 

other 

la'tciamk 

woman: 

tu'mai 

could. 

ka'i 

said: 

ru'k 

houses 

te'ps 

arrow, 

a'mxai 

might-eat. 

a'mxai 

food 

to't- 

meat. 

mu't 

may -eat 

mu'tut 

may-eat. 

tu'men 

low-tide, 

wa'tin 

go, 

a' 'ulun" 

abalones, 

imate 

When 

ku 

"Not 



i« Spanish. 



258 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



ka i'usen 


ka'k 


te'win^^ 


ne 


'ku mama'kam 


I 


wish, 


bitter-is 


acom-mush.' 


' "Now 


ye 


ne'neix 


isko 


mam a'mxai a'ru ka 


mas 


search 


that 


ye 


may -eat 


Already I 


you 


e'nwen 


isku 


mam ru't 


isku 


mam 


a'mxai 


taught 


that 


ye 


may-gather. 


that 


ye 


may-eat. 


a'ra 


ka 


mas 


ni'pia-ki 


cina 


mi'cix 


isku 


Already 


I 


you 


have-taught 


what 


is-good. 


that 


mam 


ru't 


isku 


mam 


a'mxai 


ka 


mamas 


ye may-eather, 


that 


ye 


may-eat. 


I 


you 


xu'ri 


a'ra 


makam u'rse-ki 


ru't-at- 


e'xe 


leave, 


already 


ye 


have-learned. 


Gather 


many, 


imatc 


i'nam 


isku mam 


ku 


la'kun 


when 


rain 




that 


ye 


not 


die 


i'itak-um 


ar 


ka 


e'ucaii 


ku 


ka 


tu'man 


with-hunger. 


Now 


I 


am-old, 


not 


I 


can 


xin 


wa'ra 


ka'nise ka 


wa'tin ar 


ka 


walk, 


alas 


me! 


I 


go 


, now 


I 


e'uwcon 


ku 


ka 


tu'man 


xi'n 


ru't xu'nosyin 


am-old, 


not 


I 


can 


walk. 


Gather wild-oats 


isku 


me 


xi's 


ku'rk 


li'u 


me 


ci' 'win 


that 


yon may-make 


meal, 


carry 


your carrying-basket 


ne'ku 


me 


ru't 










that 


you may-gather.' 











MONTEBEY S0NGS.18 



19(^).i9 A dance song: 

uxar-at kai pire, on-cliff dancing (of-the-) world 
19 (^). A dance song: 20 

panantonakoi, jealous 

urin puncipin tot-nin, deer 

20('). Song of a blind man: 21 

piina watena tot-i, there goes meat 



1^ The people complain that the acorns are bitter. Coyote replies to 
leach them, but the informant had forgotten the native word. 

18 For a song from a coyote myth, see present series IV, 202, 1907. 

19 Numbers refer to catalogued phonograph records in the Anthropo- 
logical Museum of the University. 

20 A woman sees a successful hunter with the deer he has killed, and 
although he is already married, she wishes him for a husband. Deer is 
tot.. 

21 Played by him on his flute. A girl was attracted, came to him, and 
became his wife. 



1910] Kroeher: The Chutnash and Costanoan Languages. 259 

20('). Dancing song: 

comak kaenep lupaki22 

21 (^). A woman's love song: 

hayeno, come: 

ha-me ka rut-ano, you I mean, 

ha-purps tcokolate, hat chocolate-eolored.28 
2o('). Song:24 

ara patcaxtiyee xawan, now hits wife 

was yeyexem, her pelican 
Hunting song: 25 

kuniixt wa-wuus wat isxeno, stopped its-nose . . . 

(with-)estafiate-plant 
16 (^). Dance song.26 

ka istun xaluyaxe, I dream jump 
ka mas ictunine, I you dream-of 
werenakai, rabbit 
tceicakai, jackrabbit 
eksenakai, quail 



RELATIONSHIP OF MIWOK AND COSTANOAN. 

In 1856 Latham-^ tentatively separated certain of the dialects 
subsequently classified as Costanoan and Miwok. In the earliest 
linguistic map of California, in Powers' Tribes of California 
in 1877, Powell still grouped together as Mutsun the languages 
then known. Fourteen years later, however, in his Indian 
Linguistic Families, Powell divided the same dialects into two 
families, which he designated Moquelumnan and Costanoan. 
This separation has been generally accepted, though only with 
reserve on the part of some students, inasmuch as there are 
several obvious lexical resemblances between the two groups of 
languages, as in. the words for two, I, and you. 



22 The words, which" were given by the informant as mak enep lupak, 
which perhaps coincides with their usual spoken form, are said to refer to 
a woman's white face-paint. 

23 The words are given as sung. When spoken, hame ka rut<ano would 
be mec ka rut-in or me ka rut-. Hayeno may mean to come — compare the 
vocabulary, — but sounds like a meaningless refrain. 

24 A charm to bring a man home. Fog was away, and to cause him to 
return he was told that the pelican was beating his wife. 

26 The hunter sings this in order that the deer's nostrils may be unable 
to smell him. 

26 Sung by the rat to the three animals mentioned, who danced. The 
ending -akai seems to be expletive. 

2T Trans. Philol. Soc. London, 81, 1856. 



260 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



Since the structure of the Miwok dialects has recently begun 
to be ascertained, and as Dr. Barrett's studies have systematized 
our lexical knowledge of them, more reliable comparisons than 
heretofore are now possible with Costanoan. 

Some fifty resemblances have been determined between 
Miwok and Costanoan, these being in part lexical and in part 
grammatical. As the number of stem-words available for com- 
parison is less than two hundred in each family, and as the 
structure of neither is very thoroughly known, this series of 
similarities is fairly significant. 





MiwoJc 


Costanoan 


I 


kanni 


kan, kana 


thou 


mi, mi-nii-n'* 


men, mene 


we 


masi, mako 


maken, makse 


ye 


miko, moko 


makam 


this 


ne-, ni- 


ne- 


that 


no- 


nu- 


who 


mana, manti 


mat-o 


where 


mini 


mani, am 


what 


hiti, hinti, tinii 


hint'O, inta, intsis 


objective 


-i, -tc, -t. 


-se, -c, -ne, -e 


instrumental 


-su 


-sum, -um, -eyum 


locative 


-m, -mo 


-me, -mo, -m 


locative 


-to 


-tka, -tak, -ta 


plural 


-ko, -k 


-kma, -mak, -kam 


plural verb^ 


-ti 


-s- 


plural imperative 


-te 


-yuts 


reflexive 


-po 


-pu 


preterite 


-ce, -caka, etc. 


-s, -skun, etc. 


not 


ket, ken 


ekwe, akwe 


noun-ending 


-8 


-8 


water 


kik 


si 


teeth • 


kiit 


sit 


liver 


kula 


sire 


nose 


huk 


us 


arm, hand 


eku, uku, tisso 


icu 


bow 


kono, soloku, tanuka 


conok, tanuka 


drink 


ucu 


ukis 


thunder 


talawa 


tura 


father 


apa, api 


apa 


mother 


unu, uta 


ana 


man 


tai, tayis, cawe 


tares 



28 Possessive. 

29 Eecorded in Southern Sierra Miwok and San Juan Bautista Costanoan 
only. 



1910] 



Eroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 



261 





Miwok 


Costanoan 


two 


oti-ko, oyo-ko, osa 


utin, utsxin 


sleep 


etc 


et-e-n 


leg, foot 


kolo, koyo, ko 


koro 


foot 


hate 


hata 


neck 


lola, heleki 


ranai 


smoke 


kal 


kar 


sky, up 


lile 


rini 


pity, forgive 


suli 


sunu 


people 


miwo-k 


muwe-kma 


head 


molu, tolo 


mot'il 


five 


masoka 


micur 


earth 


wea, woi, wali 


warep 


arrow 


cuta 


huti 


ash 


sike, yuli 


yuki 


ear 


tokosu, tolko 


tuksus 


tongue 


letip, nepit 


lase 


nail 


ti, sala 


tur 


moon 


kome 


korme 


sun 


hi, hiema 


hicmen, icmen 


turtle 


awanata 


aunic-min 


eye 


sut, suntu, huntu 


hin, xin 


lightning 


walapho 


wilep, wilpe 


white 


pas-as-, pakis 


paxel-, palkas- 


black 


mulu- 


mur-tuc- 


small 


kuci 


kucue-, kutcu- 


many, they 


uti 


uti 



The greatest obstacle to a final answer to the problem as to 
whether or not this material is sufficient to establish kinship 
between the two groups, is the difficulty of making a distinction 
between elements that one language has borrowed from the other, 
and those that they hold in common as the heirloom of original 
unity. As Dr. R. B. Dixon has said,^" when confronted by a 
similar problem between Chimariko and Shasta, the general 
status and extent of borrowing between the unrelated families in 
California must be better understood before even a considerable 
body of similar words can be either accepted or rejected as 
positive evidence of relationship. It is obvious that words have 
been transmitted in many directions, but it is not known how 
extensive the process has been.^^ 



80 Present series, V, 337, 1910. 

31 A somewhat similar case is provided by a series of similarities be- 
tween Yokuts and Maidu, in which the terms of cardinal direction, the 
numerals from one to three, and the words for head, mouth, breast, 
person, sun, dance, and probably others, are almost alike. These resem- 
blances may be due to borrowing, particularly if any considerable pro- 
portion of them prove to extend to other families. 



262 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 

In favor of relationship is the equivalence of k and s in a 
number of words, and 1 and r, or 1 and n, in others. On the 
other hand even such correspondences are of course not proof 
of kinship, as a language lacking r or a certain type of k might 
well alter these sounds to 1 and s in borrowing words from an- 
other stock of speech. 

Probably the strongest evidence in favor of kinship is fur- 
nished by the grammatical elements enumerated, and by the 
general structural resemblance between the two groups of lan- 
guages. They agree in possessing a closely similar phonetic 
basis; a prohibition of combinations of consonants in stems, or 
initially in words ; a paucity of reduplication ; a similar number 
and kind of suflBxes of case and number in nouns and pronouns ; 
the complete absence, so far as known, of instrumental, spatial, 
and adverbial affixes from verbs; and a general lack of prefixes. 

The most important difference between the languages is in 
the grammatical usage of the pronominal elements. Costanoan 
is almost entirely analytic in this regard, while the majority 
of Miwok dialects are elaborately synthetic, both in noun and 
verb. What is more, the affixed pronominal forms of Miwok 
are for the most part entirely different from the independent 
pronouns that are common to Miwok and Costanoan. But the 
gap is bridged by the coast dialects of Miwok, which lack nearly 
all the synthetic pronominal series that are so conspicuous in 
the interior dialects, and affix the pronominal elements so loosely 
that they are more properly proclitics, as in Costanoan. If 
Miwok and Costanoan constitute but one family, the interior 
Miwok languages therefore probably represent a more primitive 
stage of synthetic structure, which has already largely broken 
down in the coast Miwok dialects, and has been replaced by an 
almost entirely analytic one in Costanoan. 

A definite answer as to the genetic relationship of the two 
groups can therefore perhaps not yet be given, though the 
evidence will probably make a favorable rather than a negative 
impression. The most appropriate designation for the new 
and larger family, if it be recognized as a true unit, appears 
to be Miwok, which alone, of the names already in usage, is a 
native term denoting human beings. Mutsun and Moquelumnan 



1910] Kroeber: The Chumash and Coatanoan Languages. 263 

signify specific localities, and Costanoan labors under the double 
disadvantage of being Spanish — corrupted at that — and of 
geographic inappropriateness for a group extending to the 
Sierra Nevada. 

In any event, even if the fact of a larger family is accepted, 
the Miwok and Costanoan groups must continue to be regarded 
as the primary divisions of this family. The most diverse 
Miwok dialects appear to be more similar to one another lexically 
than to any Costanoan idiom, and vice versa. This circumstance 
should have historical bearing because the Costanoan territory 
is on the whole situated between the coast and interior Miwok 
divisions. 



264 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



CHUMASH. 

DIALECTS AND TERRITORY. 

The Chumash languages are more difficult than the Costa- 
noan, and it is less feasible in this family to reconstruct forms 
given in an imperfect or inconsistent orthography. Five mis- 
sions were founded in Chumash territory: San Buenaventura, 
Santa Barbara, Santa Ynez, La Purisima, and San Luis Obispo, 
the first two being on the coast, the three western ones a short 
distance inland. Data are available on the dialects of all of 
these missions except La Purisima. In addition there were the 
dialects of the northern Santa Barbara islands (represented by 
a vocabulary from Santa Cruz), which not only were Chumash 
but have given this name to the family. The islanders received 
no missions of their own, but were brought to the mainland. 

The known Chumash dialects fall clearly into three divisions. 
One group comprises the district of San Luis Obispo. Another 
embraces the islands, so far as these were Chumash and not 
Shoshonean. All the remaining territory within the limits of 
the family was included in what may be called the principal or 
central group. Within this division San Buenaventura, Santa 
Barbara, and Santa Ynez show variation. Other dialects^- very 
likely existed also, but have not been recorded. The Santa 
Barbara idiom is more similar to Santa Ynez than to San Buena- 
ventura; where one of the three differs from the other, San 
Buenaventura is exceptional three times out of four. The 
island dialect, assuming it to have been comparatively uniform, 
so that the Santa Cruz material may be taken as representative 
of all the islands, shows no special affinity to any one of the 
dialects of the Central division. The same seems true of San 
Luis Obispo, but this idiom would seem to be more specialized 
than the island dialect. Graphically the relations may be 



represented thus: 



8 T 

S Ba 

S L O Id 

S Bv 



32 See, for instance, present series, IV, 138, 1907. 



1910] 



Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 



265 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES. 

The table is derived from the following sources: San Luis 
Obispo, Hale;^^ Santa Ynez, the author and Taylor;^* Santa 
Barbara, Hale,^^ Loew,^'^ and Portola;^" San Buenaventura, the 
author; Santa Cruz Island, Timmeno.^^ 



English 


San Luis Obispc 


• (Santa Ynes 


Santa Barbara 


S.Buenaventura Santa Cruz Id. 


Person 






ku 


ku 




Man 


Lmono 


U7ui7 


ozoiz 


ataxat^ 


alamiin 


Woman 


tsiyuL 


eneq 


eneq 


Xanwa2 


hemutc 


Child 




tcitci 


tupnektc 


gunup 


kutco 


Old man 




anaxo 


pakowac 


pakiiwas 




Old woman 




anaqatcan 


eneXewae 


Xanwawan 




Father 


sapi 


qoqo 


qoqo 




seske 


Mother 


tuyu 


tuq 


xoni 




osloe 


Head, hair 


CO 


oqwon, nokc 


oqwon, nokc 


oqwom 


pulawa 


Forehead 




iksie 


ixsi 




igtce 


Ear 


ta 


tou, tu 


tu 


turn 


tu 


Eye 




tuX, toX 


tugu 


tok 




Nose 




noX 


noXc 


noXe 


tono 


Mouth 




ok 


ok 


ok 


aotc 


Tongue 




eleu 


eleu 


eleu 


eloe 


Tooth 




sa 


sa 


sa 


sa 


Beard 




atsiis 


atsus 


atsos 


atses 


Neck 




ni 


ni 


aklii 


kelik 


Arm, hand 


pu 


pu 


pu 


po 


pu 


Nail 




eqwai 


eXwae 


iqwai 


eqwai 


Body 




amun 


amun 




alapamai 


Breast 






qoax 


qou 




Woman 's breast 


kutet 


kutet 






Belly, back 




akcu 


akcewe 


qop 


atckuae 


Leg, foot 




uL, tem 


UL, tem 


6l 


nimel 


Bone 




se 


se 




ikukuie 


Blood 




aXulis 


aXulis 


an 


aXyulic 


Penis 




Xot 




xot 




Vagina 




tili 




tilin 




Chief 




wotca 


wot, nokc 




wota 



33 Trans. Am. Ethn. Soc, II, 126, 1848, from Coulter, in Journ. Roy. 
Geogr. Soc. London. 

34 California Farmer, XIII, 82, May 4, 1860, republished in Powers, 
Tribes of California, op. cit. 561. 

35 Collected by O. Loew, published by A. S. Gatschet, in F. W. Putnam, 
Wheeler Survey, VII, 424, 1879. 

36 Given in Powers, loc. cit. 

37 Published by Taylor, loc, cit., republished in Powers, loc. cit. 



266 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



English 


San Luis Obispo Santa Ynez 


Santa Barbara 


S.Buenaventu'i 


•fl Santa Cruz Id. 


Friend 


axsi 


antuk 


anteg 




oxken 


House 




ap, mam 


ap 


ap 


p-awayic 


Bow 


t-axa 


ax 


ax 


ax 


twopau 


Arrow 


lewi 


ya 


ya 




aihue 


Knife 




uwu 


owa 


ou, oa 


ewu 


Boat 




tomolo 


tomol 




tomolo 


Moccasin 






ekenemo 




itcenmu 


Tobacco 




coX 


CO 






Sky 


tixis 


alapa 


alapa 


halaepai 


nawoni 


Sun 


smaps 


alaca, qsi 


alica 


icau 


tanum 


Moon 


tawa 


awai 


awai 


axwai 


owai 


Star 


k-cihimu 


aqiwo 


aqewu 


aqiwo 


aklike 


Night 


tc-xime 


asaXei 


sulkux 




oxemai 


Wind 




saXtakut, 
saXwet 


saXkut 




kacoklo 


Tliunder 




soXqon 


soXqo 




ooxqon(sic) 


Lightning 




ma-ctiiX-a- 
soXqon 


s-kuntawa 




8-kunto 


Rain 




tuhui 


tuhui 


tuhuye 




Snow 




oqtauqo 


kalum 


poi 




Fire 




nil 


nu 


no 


ne 


Smoke 




tox 




ito 




Water 


t-o 


0, oa 








mihi 


Sand 




Xas 




qas 




Earth 




cup 


cuxp 


cupcup 


-sup 


Ocean 


tc-nexan 


s-Xami 


s-Xami 




nutewo 


Stream 


te-limi 


teyeX 


texeX 


ma 


ulam 


Lake 




iik 


iikek 


simuwu 




Valley 






s-tauayik 




8-tauahik 


Mountain 


tspu 


tiip, uclomon 


oclomol, tuptup 


tcou 


eiletupun 


Stone 


t-Xop 


Xop 


Xop 


Xop 


wa 


Salt 


tepu 


tipi 


tipi 


tip 


topai 


Wood, tree 




pon 


pon 


pon 


pon 


Leaf 




kapi 


kap 




kapa 


"Pine" 




tak 


tomoL^ 




tomoP 


Meat 




kani, somut 


saman 




comun 


Dog 




hutcu, qo 


tsun 


c-toniwa 


wutcu i 


Coyote 




XoXau 




alaxiiwiil 




Bear 




xus 


xus 




yus 


Fox 




knuix 


knuex 




knix 


Deer 




wu 




wo 




Jackrabbit 




ma 




ma 




Rabbit 




qun 


qun 


timeu 




Ground squirrel 




emet 




pistuk 




Eagle 




slo 




tslo 




Goose 




wawa 


wawax 






Duck 




olwackola 


olxwockoloix 






Turtle 




caq 


caqa 




teke 


Rattlesnake 




xcap 


xcap 


xcap 





19] 


10] Kroeber 


: The Chumash 


and Costanoan Languages. 


267 


English 


San Luis Obispo Saiita Ynes 


Santa Barbara 


S.Buenaventtira Santa Cruz. 


Snake 




pcoc, yox* 


tsokoix 




pcoc 


Fish 




alimu 


alimu 




layec 


Fly 




aXumpes 


aXlpes 




ulupuk 


Name 






tu 




te 


White 




owox 


owox 


owe 


pupa 


Black 




coyi 


axima 


cocoi 


astepin 


Eed 




tasun 


tasen 


ukstai 




Large 




noxoac 


XaX 


XaX 


inu 


Good 




tcoho, cuma 


cuma, tcoo 


wacot 


yaya 


Bad 


ts-owis 


aXiimuik 


aXpan 


muctcum 


anaisnems 


Dead 




akcan 


kcan 




kopok 


I 




noi 


noo 


no 


noo 


You 




pii 


pu 


pi 


pii 


We 




kiku 


kiku 


ki- 


mitci (sic) 


This 




kai, kia 


kai, ite, he 


kaki 


tuyu(stc) 


That 




qolo 


bo 




itwo(sic) 


All 




yila 


yula 


yula 


tetwoke (sic) 


Much 


ts-exu 


wahatc 


uhu 




talaketc 


Who 




kune 


ayi 




tco 


To-day 




qopu 


qupu- 




manti 


Yesterday 




kactapin 


kcapin 




pua 


Yes 




ino 


ho, i 




yutua 


No 




pwo 


sewilx, amo 


museil 


anictu 


One 


tsxumu, tcumu 


paka' 


pakas 


pakets 


ismala 


Two 


ecin 


ickom 


ickomo 


ickom 


ictcum 


Three 


mica 


masox 


masex 


masox 


masex 


Four 


paksi 


ckumu 


ckumu 


ckumu 


ckumu 


Five 


tiyewi 


yitipakas 


yitipaka 


yitipaket 


sitisma 


Six 


ksuasya, 
ksukuya 


yitickom 


yitickomo 


yitickom 


sitictcum 


Seven 


ksuamice 


yitimasox 


yitimasex 


yitimasox 


sitmasex 


Eight 


ckomo 


malawa 


malawa 


malawa 


malawa 


Nine 


eumotcimaxe, 
skumotci 


tspa 


tspa 


tspa 


spa 


Ten 


tuyimili 


tciya 


kelckomo, 
kecko 


kackom 


kackum 


Eleven 


tiwapa 


telu 


tulu, keilu 




telu 


Sixteen 


peusi 




peta 






Eat^ 




aciin 


alcun 


umu 


asta 


Drink 




aqmil 


aqmil 


aqmil 


akmil 


Run 




aLpat 


alpat 


oxnei 


wiwawi 


Sing 




eXpetc 


eXpetc 




xuwatc 


Sleep 




we 


we 


ukwe 


nayul 


See 




qoti 


qoti 




naptil 


Kill 




siniwe 


siniwe 


takto 




Sit 




ilikun 


Icken 


hiliko 




Stand 




lukumil 


nowo 


nawo 


kakan 


Give 




ike 


xiks 







268 University of California Publications in Am. Arch, and Ethn. [Vol. 9 



NOTES TO VOCABULAEIES. 

1. Southern California Shoshonean. 

2. "Young woman." 

3. Compare boat. 

4. Yokuts yax, water-snake. 

5. Serrano Shoshonean haukup, Esselen pek. 



KEY TO THE DIALECT GKOUPS. 





Northwestern 


Central 


Island 


One 


teumu 


paha 


ismala 


Four 


paksi 


ckumu 


ckumu 


Eight 


ckomo 


malawa 


malawa 


Eleven 


tiwapa 


telu 


telu 


Stone 


t-Xop 


Xop 


wa 


Water 


to 





mihi 


Bow 


t-axa 


az 


twopau 


Sky 


tixis 


alapa 


nawoni 


Father 


sapi 


qoqo 


seske 



GRAMMATICAL NOTES. 

The brief San Luis Obispo vocabulary shows one consistent 
peculiarity. All its terms except four or five, besides the nu- 
merals and body-part words with possessive prefix, begin with 
t- or tc-. Thus t-awa, moon, in other dialects awai; t-o, water, 
as compared with o; ts-limi, stream, versus ulam. Even adjec- 
tives are not excluded : ts-owis, bad, ts-exu, much, elsewhere uhu. 
It would appear that this prefix is a proclitic article, such as 
ma is in the Santa Ynez dialect.^^ The Salinan language, to 
which the San Luis Obispo dialect was adjacent, though so far 
as known unrelated, presents the almost identical circumstance 
that the majority of nouns commence with t-, tc-, or s-.^® 

The pronominal forms, which are identical whether subjec- 
tive or possessive, but quite distinct and suffixed instead of 
prefixed when objective, appear as follows : 



88 Present series of publications, II, 36, 1904. 
38 Ibid., 46. 



1910] Eroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 269 

SLO 
P- 





S Y 


S Ba 


S Bv 


Id 


1 s 


k- 


k- 




k- 


2 S 


P- 


P- 


P- 


p-, pas-, pate- 


3 S 


s- 


B- 


ts- 


ic-, tea-, tc- 


1 D 


kis- 




kis- 




2 D 


pis- 








3 D 


sis- 








1 P 


ki- 




ki- 




2 P 


pi- 








3 P 


8i- 









The San Buenaventura dual and plural forms occur in kis- 
iskom, we two, and ki-masox, we three. 

The objective suJBfixes determined in Santa Ynez are -it, -lit, 
me, -in, -lin, -win, you, -u, us, and -un, -wun, them. The only 
parallels are in the prayer below. 

A past suffix -wac or -woe is shared at least by Santa Barbara 
with Santa Ynez. 

The plural of nouns is regularly formed by reduplication 
in Santa Ynez, Santa Barbara, and Santa Cruz Island. The 
process may be assumed to be characteristic of all dialects of 
the family, 

A noun-forming prefix al- appears in Santa Barbara al-kcan, 
dead; in San Buenaventura aL-owo, white, aL-cocoi, black, al- 
ukstai, red, and possibly in alaxiiwiil, coyote; in Santa Cruz 
Island ala-pupu, white, alo-kopok, dead; perhaps in la-stepin, 
black, and al-apamai, body; and in al-amiin, man — compare 
Santa Ynez amun, body. San Luis Obispo Lmono, man, has 
perhaps the same composition. 

A number of Island verbs are given with the prefix na-. 

It seems that the Chumash dialects are comparatively uni- 
form in grammar in spite of their considerable lexical 
divergences. 

TEXTS. 

Textual material is almost wanting except for a Lord's 
Prayer given by Duflot de Mofras*" as in the language of 
Santa Ynez. This reappears with but slight variations in Ca- 

*o n, 393. 



270 University of California Fublications in Am. Arch, and Etlin. [Vol. 9 

balleria y Collell's History of the City of Santa Barbara,*^ where 
it is given in connection with notes on the language of Siujtu, 
Yuctu, or Yuchtu village near that town. Both texts leave much 
to be desired, showing obvious misreadings and words arbitrarily 
connected and divided; but a partial translation is possible. 



DUFLOT DE MOFRAS. 

Dios caquicoco upalequen alapa quiaenicho opte: paquininigug quique 
eccuet upalacs huatahuc itimisshup caneche alapa. Ulamahu ilahula- 
lisahue. Picsiyug equepe ginsucutaniyug uquiyagmagin canechequique 
quisagin sucutanagun utiyagmayiyug peuxhoyug quie utic lex ulechop 
santequiug ilautechop. Amen. 



CABALLERIA. 

Dios cascoco upalequen Alaipai quia-enicho opte: paquini juch quique 
etchuet upalag cataug itimi tiup caneche Alaipai. Ulamugo ila ulalisagua 
piquiyup queupe guinsncuaniyup uqui amsq canequi que quisagiu 
sucutanajun uti-agmyiup oyup quie uti leg uleyop stequiyup il auteyup. 
Amen. 



TBANSLATION. 



Dios 

God 

op-te 

thy-name, 

watauk 

(be done) 

ila-ulalisa-we^ 

day 

uki-agmag-in 

our-o'wing- ( them ? ) 

uti-agmai-ug 

(their?)-owing-us, 

santeki-ug 

(deliver) -tis 



ka-ki-qoqo 

onr-father 

p-akinini-ug^ 

thy-(?)-u8 



itimi 

(on) 



cup 

earth 

p-iksi-ug 

thou-give-u8 

kanetce 



poxoy-ug-' 

(not?) -us 

il-autetcop^ 

from-evU. 



up-aleken^ 

thou-in 

kike 

TU 

kanetce 



alapa kia 

sky, this 

ekwe 



enitco 

(sacred) 

up-alaks 

thy-(will) 

ulamuhu 



alapa 

as sky, 

qope ginsukutani-ug 

to-day, forgive-us 

kike ki-sa-ginsukutana-gun* 

■we we-forgive-them 

kie® utik lex uletcop 

(temptation) 



41 Santa Barbara, 1S92. 



1910] Kroeber: The Chumash and Costanoan Languages. 271 



NOTES. 

1. liiliikon, in, 

2. -ug or -gug appears throughout this text for the first person plural 
objective. Spanish g is a voiced fricative, and Chumash possesses such 
a sound in k or q position. 

3. Caballeria y Collell gives, for Santa Barbara, a "dative" prepo- 
sition il, a "genetive" or "ablative" ul. Compare il-autetcop. 

4. -sa- is perhaps the future. Compare Gatschet in Wheeler Survey 
VII, 485, k-caa cuun, I shall eat, ke k-caa cian, I shall not buy. 

5. Possibly pwo, not, though ini- is the negative element of verbs. 

6. Either kie, for kike, kiku, us, or kia, this. 



Caballeria also gives the Acts of Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

The late Mr. L. G. Yates included in his valuable paper on 
Charmstones*^ the words and translation of a Chumash song in 
the dialect of San Buenaventura: 

kajoiwawille lelenimustu mesipposh sumusil 

I shall tell ; uneasy heart charmstone 

kateushwen laliolio Iwennew 

I have not sad I 

Another Chumash song occurs in a Yokuts myth:*' 

kapix, you(?) came 

tata, mother's brother 

caxcaniwac, you will die (sic; probably: have died) 

salialama, perhaps refrain, compare laliolio in the last song. 



Transmitted March 29, 1910. 



42 Ann. Eep. Smiths. Inst, for 1886, 296, 1889. 

■*3 Present series, IV, 242, 1907. The dialect represented is most likely 
to be that of the mountains to the north of San Buenaventura. If so, 
it does not differ greatly from the idiom of San Buenaventura, Santa 
Barbara, and Santa Ynez. The tradition is localized in Chumash terri- 
tory, and may be of Chumash origin. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS - (CONTINUED) 

Vol. 8. 1. A Mission Record of the Callforma Indians, from a Manuscript in the 

Bancroft Library, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 1-27. May, 1908 26 

2. The Ethnography of the Cahoilla Indians, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 29- 

68, plates 1-15. JiUy, 1908 76 

3. The Religion of the Luiseilo and DieguefLo Indians of Southern Cali- 

fornia, by Constance Goddard Dubois. Pp. 69-186, plates 16-19. 
June, 1908 1.26 

4. The Culture of the Lxiisefio Indians, by Philip Stedman Sparkman. 

Pp. 187-234, plate 20. August, 1908 _ 50 

5. Notes on Shoshonean Dialects of Southern California, by A. L. Kroe- 

ber. Pp. 235-269. September, 1909 36 

6. The Religious Practices of the Dieguefio Indians, by T. T. Waterman. 

Pp. 271-358, plates 21-28. March, 1910 80 

Vol. 9. 1. Yana Texts, by Edward Sapir, together with Tana Myths collected by 

Roland B. Dixon. Pp. 1-235. February, 1910 2.50 

2. The Chumash and Costanoan Languages, by A. L. Kroeber. Pp. 237- 

271, November, 1910 35 

Volumes now completed: 

Volume 1. 1903-1904. 378 pages and 30 plates _ _ „ ?4.25 

Volume 2. 1904-1907. 393 pages and 21 plates 3.50 

Volume 3. 1905. The Morphology of the Hupa Language. 344 pages 3.50 

Volume 4. 1906-1907. 374 pages, with 5 tables, 10 plates, and map 3.60 

Volume 5. 1907-1910. 384 pages, with 25 plates 3.50 

Volume 6. 1908. 400 pages, with 3 maps 3.60 

Volimie 7. 1907-1910. 441 pages and 50 plates 3.50 

GRAECO-ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY. (Large Octavo.) (Published by the Oxford Univer- 
sity Press.) 
Vol. 1. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 1. 1902. Edited by Bernard P. Grenfell, 
Arthur S. Hunt, and J. Gilbart Smyly. ziz -f 674 pages, with 9 plates. 

Price »16.00 

Vol. 2. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 2. 1907. Edited by Bernard P. Grenfell, 
Arthur S. Hunt, and Edgar J. Goodspeed. xv + 485 pages, with 2 col- 
lotype plates and a map 16.00 

Vol. 3. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 3. (In preparation.) 

EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY. (Quarto.) 

Vol. 1. The Hearst Medical Papyrus. Edited by G. A. Reisner. 

Hieratic text in 17 fac-simtle plates in collotype, with introduction and vocabu- 
lary, pages 48, 1905. (J. C. Hinrichs, Leipzig, 25 marks.) 

Vol. 2. Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der, Part I, by George A. Reisner. 
xil -f 160 pages, with 80 plates and 211 text figures. 1908. (J. C. Hin- 
richs, Leipzig, 75 marks.) 

Vol. 3. The Early Dynastic Cemeteries at Naga-ed-Der, Part II, by A. 0. Mace. 
xi + 88 pages, with 60 plates and 123 text figures. 1909. (J. C. Hin- 
richs, Leipzig, 50 marks.) 

Vol. 4. The Predynastic Cemetery at Naga-ed-Der. The Anatomical Material, by 
Elliott Smith. (In preparation.) 

Vol. 6. The Cemetery of the Second and Third Dynasties at Naga-ed-Der, by A. 0. 
Mace. (In press.) 

Vol. 6. The Cemetery of the Third and Fourth Dynasties at Naga-ed-Der, by G. A. 
Reisner. (In preparation.) 

Vol. 7. The Coptic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der, by A. O. Mace. (In preparation.) 

SPECIAL VOLUMES. 

The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans, containing an account of their rites 
and superstitions; an anonymous Hispano- American manuscript preserved in 
the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence, Italy. Reproduced in fac-simile, 
with introduction, translation, and commentary, by Zelia Nuttall. 

Part I. Preface, Introduction, and 80 fac-simile plates in colors. 1903. 

Part n. Translation and Commentary. (In press.) 

Price for the two parts J26.00 

Fac-simile of a Map of the City and Valley of Mexico, by Alonzo de Santa Cruz, 
Cosmographer of Philip II of Spain. Explanatory text by Zelia Nuttall. Map 
in 7 sheets, 17 X 20 inches. (In preparation.) 

The Department of Anthropology, Its History and Plan, 1905. Sent free on appli- 
cation to the Department, or to the University Press. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PUBLICATIONS- (CONTINUED) 

Note.— The University of California Publications are offered in exchange for the publi- 
cations of learned societies and institutions, universities and libraries. Complete lists of all 
the publications of the University will be sent upon request. For sample copies, lists of 
publications or other information, address the Manager of the University Press, Berkeley, 
California, U. S. A. All matter sent in exchange should be addressed to The Exchange 
Department, University Library, Berkeley, California, U. S. A. 

ASTRONOMY.— W. W. Campbell, Editor. (Lick Observatory, Mt. Hamilton, Cal.) 

Publications of the Lick Observatory.- Volumes I-V, Vm, and X completed. Volumes 
VII and IX in progress. 

BOTANY.- W. A. Setchell, Editor. Price per volume $3.50. Volumes I (pp. 418), II (pp. 
354), and in (pp. 400), completed. Volume IV (in progress). 

CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY.— Edward B. Clapp, William A. Merrill, Herbert O. Nutting, 
Editors. Price per volume $2.00. Volume I (pp. 270) completed. Volume n (in 
progress) . 

ECONOMICS.— A. 0. Miller, Editor. 

EDUCATION.— Edited by the Department of Education. Price per volume $2.50. 

ENGHNEERING.— Edited under the direction of the Engineering Departments. This series 
will contain contributions from the Colleges of Mechanics, Mining, and Civil Engi- 
neering. Volume I (in progress) . 

GEOLOGY.— Bulletin of the Department of Geology. Andrew 0. Lawson, Editor, rnce 
per volume $3.50. Volumes I (pp. 428), II (pp. 450), III (475), and IV (462), com- 
pleted. Volume V (in progress). 

MODERN PHILOLOGY.— Volume I in progress. 

PATHOLOGY.— Alonzo Englebert Taylor, Editor. Price per volume, $2.50. Volmne I (pp. 
347) completed. 

PHILOSOPHY.— G. H. Howison, Editor. Volume I (pp. 262), completed. Volume n (in 
progress). Price per volume $2.00. 

PHYSIOLOGY — S. S^ Maxwell, Editor. Price per volume $2.00. Volume I (pp. 217) com- 
pleted. Volume II (pp. 215) completed. Volume III (in progress). 

PSYCHOLOGY. — George M. Stratton, Editor. Vol I (in progress). 

ZOOLOGY. — ^W. E, Bitter and C. A. Kofoid, Editors. Price per volume $3.50. Volumes 
I (pp. 317), n (pp. 382), in (pp. 383), and IV (pp. 400), completed. Volumes V 
and VI in progress. Commencing with Volume II, this series contains Contribu- 
tions from the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of San Diego. 

MEMOIRS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. (Quarto.) 
. Vol. 1. 1. Triassic Ichthyosauria, with special reference to the American Forms, 
by John C. Merriam. Pp. 1-196, plates 1-18; 154 text figures. Sep- 
tember, 1908 $3.00 

2. The Silva of California, by W. L. Jepson. (In press.) 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA CHRONICLE.— An official record of University life, 
issued quarterly, edited by a committee of the Faculty. Price, $1.00 per year. Cur- 
rent volume No. xn. 

ADMINISTRATIVE BULLETINS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.— Edited by 

the Recorder of the Faculties, Includes thc^ Register, the President's Report, the 
Secretary's Report, and other official announcements. 

Address all orders or requests for information concerning the above publications to The 
University Press, Berkeley, California. 

European agent for the series in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Classical Phil- 
ology, Education, Modem Philology, Philosophy, and Semitic Philology, Otto Harrassowitz, 
Leipzig. For the series in Botany, Geology, Pathology, Physiology, Zoology and also Amer- 
ican Archaeology and Ethnology, R. Friedlaender & Sohn, Berlin.