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■J"^ '"335c! 









DnisHED HPKCiAt-i.r von thb itar of 









r , 


mn JiMU noMiL 

Oopjiight, 1689, hy L. B. Hahxult A Oo. 





Tecd} Cycloptediii ia designed to fill a void which still exiaia id our 
general literature. It ia espedally intended to give the Leity, in n condenwd 
and handy form, a great variety of informatioo, culled from many elabo- 
rate volumes, and M'rittcn by a great diversity of aieu, as to the oonstitution, 
nature, anil {intctieul workiag of the Church of CoBiST. It is to enable them 
to judge for themselves, upon the many questions of fact, and doctrine, and 
govennnent, in cor Commauion, furnisliing them the materials for forming 
such judgments, and for holding correct views thereon. 

The importance of having the Laity intelligcutiy taught conoemlng 
Ibeee thinj^, cannot bo overrated in our Chun;h, where the Lay element is so 
conspieuQUij snd pofverful. 

Nor would we wish it less prominent. The Church gains largely by 
the viadocQ and sound coudbcI of its Ijaity. Hence the more oceetMiblo 
coolesiaetical information is made to them, the wiser will be their action, 
the more loyal their stip{>ort, and tlie more conservative their influence. 

"While tilts Cyelo]Me<lia will be of much use to the Clergy who have not 
the advantage of libraries, yet it vma not prepared for them, as they arc 
soppoeed to have already a [«rtain haeiB of information on thege topicH, and 
also opportunities of pruuecnting their researches in any special line of hU- 
tor\- ur doctrine. 

Hence, only the outside, m it were, of many questions is shown here; 
far many of the subjects here intxodueefl require voltmies, rather than jnges, 
and many minds, rather than one mind, to do them justice. As furnishing 
beads and dulu of thought imd fact fnnceming the Urge circle of topint here 
introduced, tJiis volume, then, will be of the greatest wsrviuu to all Lay 
people, as well as furnish a convenient reference book for the Clei^. 

In |ireparing thb volume, tlie Editor, himself a Bcholarof much ripe- 
DCM and breadth, ha»i called to bin aid writers of varying shades nf opinion, 
•o as to reflect, as far as |iossibIe, the many-sideduess of the Church's views 
oa itoroe of the practical questions of ritual aud discipUue. It ^w& tvA 


represent one party or school, but gives fair and candid expression to many 
different minds and opinions, which are tolerated within the wideness of the 
/)ut8tretched arms of the Church of the living GrOD. It is well that it 
should be so. In an age wheu no asserted truth goes unchallenged, and no 
opinion is uttered without subjecting it to the crucible of heated criticism, 
we want to know how these points are viewed by divergent, yet representa- 
tive, minds, in the several departments of sacred learning. The names of 
the contributors show the range of minds, as the number of the different 
subjecta treated show tJbe range of topics embraced in the volume. The 
plan has been to let each man speak for himself, and so be responsible aloue 
for bis opinions. 

Whatever will enlarge the area of knowledge, or give shape and defi- 
niteness to floating opinions, or throw light upon obscure points, or stimulate 
deeper investigation in this broad department of learning, cannot but prove a 
great blessing to all thinking and Christian men. This Cyclopeedia will, it 
is hoped, ful611 all, or nearly all, these conditions, and it ought, therefore, to 
be hailed with favor, especially by the Laity, as a marked help to them in 
seeking after a deeper knowledge and wider views of the person and glory 
of Christ our Lord, as seen in "the Church which is His body, the fullness- 
of Him that filletb all in all." 




4 «nd 1^ (I{«v. i. 8, xii. «, xxii. 18; ef. 
It. xiL 4, xlir. 6]. The flnt and lut iMtBTi 
of lb« Ur«ek atphHbel, ui4k1 [ovxpru** it)« 
•tenui; ot God. lis r<irm belou^t to St. 
Joha'a KovcUtian, Wl iU iii«Bniug U ruiind 
»lre«d7 In luklkh. It wu ui*d by the ivfi\ 
IkUr to ezi>r«u the comprabeiuii'i! suture 
of Qvi*. TIm ajrinbol i> (^fnomll)' ucigited 
lo our I/OKD. In Uio Unt piLuag«, Uiu 
ajatbol maj refer to the TniNtrT, but It is 
b«U«r(iii view of (he fact iLat in xxii. 13, 
oor i^KO priTH lliif title to Hinulf ) to hold 
t]ikl it U i>iie of our LoBO'v tide*, iiDplyiiig 
fur Uira all ibe attributes of itia Quabeiul, 
■• bftitig tlie Siiuroc, Upholdor, and Had of 
all thlw*. TbcM two iMtcri puud into 
e«rl7 Cnriiltati uk, beine found in ihv 
catacomb* ; and in to eociMiattical Latin 
poetry (mtr I'rudcntius, Cathsm. ix. 10), 
aod to into Utnricical >^ uia. It ii often 
naecl «« a tnonoj^ram Ufi '» ^^"rcb deco- 
ratioM. (Fu^Bithop /^3^ Wordivrortli'* 
Hcrw T«alaini:nl, ■* -^ Archbiitiop 
Tranch'k CuunuentArv on th^ Epiatles to iM 
iMVia Charcbes. for tborougb diKiuiioa of 
iha aaanln^ ofAA in itaaMvalatiott.) 

Aatoii, the broiJicr of Muaea and the fint 
Uigb-Pricat undor the Ijtw. Uik father wa* 
Amrani, and bin mother waaJochebod; hii 
wilt wa* Eltsheba, dauchier of ^absbon, of 
tbe tribe of Jiidnb. Itv wot throe year* 
older than Uoaea, and apparenttr, tinea 
Ooo Uinuelf called him '■ the Lcrtte," 
ba wa* of priettly dicnlt? in bis familj. 
Bit «a* a far waaker onaracter tlian bf> 
bcDtbar's. Abletoapeak wdl, ready, and not 
WBOtine in ooiira^, he wot civen to Mows 
to be nil inoutb>pieca, ai UoMi wu tb« 
■aouth>piece of Oon, i.«,, the tropbeu In 
tbem b» being flnl the Prophet and then 
tba Hij^b-Pricat Aaron become* a typo of 
CXkUT. He west willingly with Moaea 
upon tbe tniasioo. Tber twain went to the 
{Mopla and gathored tbeir eldera. Aaron 
■pfiarebt^ doaa tba evulautial aiga* befom 

them instead of Moaes, and aflor (bey bad 
been ackoowlodfcod br the people, the two 
brutherc go before Pharaoh. Tliroughoul 
the firat part Aaron aata for Uotee : Aaron 
caiu down tho rod that become* a « erpont ; 
be tmitee the Nile, itrstchej the rod otot 
the itrvam*, tmJIea the dtiBi. The two 
■prinkte ihn a*hae of tbe fiirnaco. Thence 
till tbe lait stroke Moane not*. Qe itretcbea 
tbe rod towurd heaven, fur the Btorm of 
hail; over I ho land, for iwarau of locuate. 
But the LOHO retcrved to Uimialf vitbout 
Klroka of mil or word of prophet tbe two 
deuth-pliigue* bt the let time: the murrain 
watiMlthuiivnliof Egjfpt ) at midnight there 
wai tbe grajLt cry. Aaron it withdrawn 
ttom the proiiii nviit plaoe In (he narrativo 
till the laraelites reach Ihe wlldemeas of Sin. 
MoKca bids him prepare tbe people for tbe 
mirado of tbe manna. Aaron bears up 
Modes' hand with tbe rod till Aroaiek u 
diiMignflt^d. He draws near with Hoses to 
tht! luinrait of r^iiiai, but dues nut enter the 
Fire nud the Cloud. Now left to hiniBclf^ 
bo shows tho woaltnos* of bis diaracter. The 
uiurinuriDK of tb« people upon the long 
abienie orUoees, and their cry for aooie 
god togoup beforo Ibem, led him to collect 
tho olTerioi^ of their goiden ear-rings and 
to oait the aoltao cat£ It ibows him to be 
a farile and popular leader rather than a 
deeply>prinoipled master of men. The 
worship of tne molten calf witb the ritei 
due to tbe Lokd perrenely otTered befora 
It led to the sin of liuenliuuinea*. The end 
of it was the abama and shrinking on 
Aaron's part, tb« indignant discipline in- 
Uialod by JUosos, and Uicn hii wonderftil, 
living int«rceision far the sinning people 
and bis erring brother. The fo^ivanasa 
wa* conipl«t«, for Aaron was ininicdiBlely 
conaecrated U» ibe Higfa-Priesthood, and it 
was eonfemd bra perpetual gmnt to bis 
family alone. Her* we have to call attes- 
Uuu to the typical oharacter of hu uftoa. Vv 




hia right to ctiler iDU> lfa« Holjr of 
SoHh OIKc in thn \ent, on the rreat Dajt of 
Atoatmtnt, with the blood of toe £o»t and 
tlM bulloclE. H« mado the atoDem«ni wben 
be Mood bedvavn tii« Htidk and the ilnad, 
and tUyed tbtt Are tbat bunt (roiu tb« 
Lofto'B aomr. It was bla rtgtat to offer 
uylutn for Bit lifetime totbe tnunilajcr 8m1 
lothadtT of rafuge. He oould nut tlieirv 
Id AjDkralribea. Tbeint«T<c«worj-,«<ipiaioty, 
ftpd eTer-tivine work of our Lord nro lypi- 
itd in theM rttM. ATbatAver d«f«ctK in bit 
prtvuto cbaractcr marred lU ev^nncin, in hit 
oflcinl rbarsot«r be waa bntwMa JinovAit 
jind Jerovah'v pw>pl«. Aaron appears 
again vben brmurmiirrd ngainst hisbrLitkur. 
Hi* coanniuion. iu Krandour, and iu awful 
dutt«a daxzlod him. HU liiLcr [ircEiiminf; 
upon her ofllc« ma prupheteiu showed benelf 
jealoug of Moeca also. In fact, Uiriam waa 
the chief in tho rwistance to the Lawivor'a 
authority. lU Tindicatlon by God ETmEelf 
waaa fievera loMOR. A);ain, when Korah'H 
n-bellion ended En his d«ttrtiction and Aaron 
had ii*cd hi* priestly function ofmakinf an 
atonemtnl, tnm, ana further atuilatloa to 
bit offloe, iho Lord ch«s« to girt tin people 
the sign of hti rod, nith buih, bloontu, and 
fruit,— a ti^ that wat laid up to][ctbpr witb 
the |>ot of manna before the ark testiinany. 
Then God cave h spocial charge to Auron 
that hv and hio ■uii>, and hit failior't bunte, 
•fauuld " bear the iniquity" of the sanctuary, 
nnd he and liio ions ibould " beur the iii- 
iouily" of the priesthood {ef. P« Ixxili. 60, 
&i, and the Agony In thcUardon). Hit were 
to be thv Itthea, ihepeac^-oIToringt, the wave- 
offeringi, the Qnt n-uit«, Iha devoted, the re- 
demptfon-tnoney of tlio flnt-born, of mitn 
and benit, for he and bia ion* irere tn have 
no inheriUnce in tho land, but to be»epa- 
rato to the I^kd. Aaron '■ cbaractMrappnari 
again raarkntlly in sWriii); hii bruLh«r's ina- 

EatienL-e at the rock, when he imole when 
eahotild hare only •pokou, Uiriiun by 
this tinip waa dead, and the weary Journey- 
ing wa* drawing toaclo«e ; nowatlherery 
end vfhon tho lunvcd-for land waa aIntMt in 
light, til be rortndden. He bmihi to have 
AC4]uieoc>od Iu the deor»e. And wlien the 
coramand oame for bttn lo ctitnh tlie Mount 
Hot, nnd ibprn iifinn ita top to baYe bin 
prteatly gnrnivnta taken from him nnd put 
upon nil eon, and tbcn to lie down and die 
there, in the (iglu uf the conxrVKntlon, lii* 
tubmijulon did nut fail him. TheLawglvor, 
the faithful tervaat, dotpoiled his lored 
brother of the aocred TeatmcnU with which 
he had, at the outaet of lb«ir journeying* 
ao many years before, ndornrd fum, " And 
AuoD died then in the top of Um immnt, 
nnd Uoee* nnd Sluxaronme down from the 
mount." The real grentneia of Aaron's 
cbnnicier ii ovorahadowed by the tplnnUur 
of hit hrothrr'n, bill he wu, with all Ihe 
weaknMuiet ro faitlifully recorded in Uoly 
Scripture, a far more perfect man than 
siuy othen who an In their enreer* more 
prominently, not mof« T«al)y, type* of 

CsBtST. Hb ow-o sbortcomiR^ nmy have 
tAii);hthlni that coinpatsion whioh uurGrbat 
High-l*iri«*t hod leArnod, not from taint of 
■ In, but by contact with and aufforing from 
its lonlbBome eflcots. In Aaron's dvecend- 
ant* flowed the blood of their mother, a 
daugbtftr of the tribe from vrhicli our Lokd 
tu<ik Hii Floih. 

AbaddoQ (Job xxxi, 12, Dcetruction). 
In Job ixvi. 6, the Choldoo parapbnut 
makea It mean the " bouse of daiirucilon ;" 
in Job ixviii. '£2, ita Cbaldec equivalent it 
the angel of Death. It wai alio applied 
later by the Jew* to the Chrlacian ■cbools 
Ua'Abidan. In Bov. ix. II it is a title of 
the "Angel of the boLti>ni!eM iiit," whoee 
nflmc in Ue Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, hut 
in ibe Ore«li toagne hatb hie nnmci Apollv^n 
(i.K., dmtroyer). There is much Jewiah 
trifling uiiun tbc name. It is, however, one 
of the litlos of Satan. Tho woe in Bev. ix.. 
where Abaddon ii ipoltca of, is interpreted 
uitually of the Saracens, and he U named as 
their king. 

Abba (Syrioc), A pceuliorly tender form 
of Pathxr. Our Lord (Mark xir. 8S) 
usee it in His Prayer in the Ciardcn. St, 
Paul Ultfo it twvcn (Rom. vlii. IC; Gnl. It. 
3), in refi^rring to our adu|)tion u Bona 
through the Holt Qdost [vidt Confirmn- 
tioo). £«lden and olhor wrlivn suy thai 
tbn Jowt had a luw which forbade bond* 
lervanta to vse the term father to their ma«- 
tern, *o I'luO used a term tondtrr and exprM> 
tive of llUal revorenrfi. In ibc l*BliMtinlan 
and Scyptlan Churcbcu It be^ume an ecele- 
s i as ticnV title, and so probablv pn«>pd into 
tbe WmI as Abbot 

Abbess. Tho Mother or Superior of on 
abbey of nuns, or fomalo perioni living un- 
der religiouB vows and discipline. 

Abbey. Tlia building la which a society 
di'VuU>d to reliijion durull ; » moniwtery 
wh>»c hefid was an Abbot or Abbess. They 
were quite numerous In England before the 
Reformation, and the title still cling* to 
some of tho churches, Weetminotdr i* better 
known as WcalminEter Abbey than as St. 
Peter's. In Catbedntl Abbeys ilie Bishop 
was the Abbot, iind th» prmLyti-ral SuputSurs 
of ibeae esiablisbmenta were styled Priora. 
Cranmer and Latimer tried bard, at thttdis- 
solution of tho monasteries, to save some of 
the abboTs from uonllscalion to put them to 
reformea use, but did not suoceM, 

Abbot. The Palhrr or Superior of a body 
of men living under religloiu vows. The 
derivation of the word is from Abba (Mod. 
Let. jlMos). TliD word Pathur, in ita forms 
Abbas, Papa, Fathur, liua been ever applied 
to the Ofariatian preebyler at s title of re- 
spect, except in the later bisiory of the Eng^ 
l]«b Churen. An Abbot was elected either 
by all the memben of the mona*tcry, dt by 
a part of tbeni a* a clinplcr. Abbots wers 
divided into two ranks, Abbots and Mitred 
Abbots. There were in England twentv- 
flve Mitrw) Abbot*, who sat and voted in the 
House of Lords. Abbots were subject l^ 



pMt dIoocHut ; but apeciml eiemptlotu won 
JginutMdi for fikron or by purcbMc, to mtiaj 
[nonuteries, — Mine ownine olMdi«iuM to tbe 
S«fl «f Boro*. otben to tb« OrowD, and »o 
•aampted &oiu epucviml vUItation and T«f- 
amiatiou TlM Abbot i«c«iVMl confirmalion 
tit bit office And b«D«liction Trom bit tiiocf- 
mMMkt uu) vovrcd cBtioolcal ob«dIe[io« to him. 
(Du|^U'8 HonuiiL-<>n, Willi»'« Mitred AV 
iKita, BncfclopwdtA BriUnnicH, nub toct.) 

Abjttratioii. A Milemn nctof rirnounuing 
&U tuM or bimtkml tloctrmec which ii {wnoD 
fesd fortnerlj' bold. Tbera ia no AUthurizod 
fbrai ta u** [ii tti« Bn};IUh Cbun:b, ttiougb 
public ■bjuration bma bi-cn tubde "by pvr»ona 
at different tImM. A form wu put fottb bv 
«&• of tbe houwt of Con vocal ion, 1714, bat 
Si did not ntcoivr rojal unction. 

Abtotioa. A Utureital term for«ny ixto- 
moni&l wubtng of i&e wnon or of lacrod 
'vcMth. I. Ptrvm. — Tbe wuhinit* of tbo 
print* Id the Moulo Lan previous to coii- 
MOcrktlODi and aHer It fVcqueiilly in Ibeir 
niiiiitration. Tb* wuhing of tbe fbct, AfVtr 
•/ur IfDBO'B example, and according to St. 
Pan)'* question iw In tha character of a widnw 
DiwdiQg church uid if nha bavc w«ib«d the 
<««l of itnngvra ; also tbe Milj rituiti ttte of 
If atbing lb* tiandi before aad after tho colo- 
bratiooof ibc BoljOommoDion. II. TMngg. 
~-So the ablutiODf in the cnrenioniai of tho 
law. Id e«rly liturgio u*c a mvcrenl ablii- 
tion of the veateU wiih a little water for tbe 
eoBMunpUon of OTerj portinn of the cnniw* 
cnied eJemeDU. 

AbrataaiD. Tbe Father of the FHithfu] 

(Bom. W. 16). Tbe Friend of QoD (Ifl. xli. 

«y The Heir of the World (Koin, U. 13). 

TWSolltJirj in the rvlif^ion and worship of 

Jdotaii. Tbe gntndett of tbe men of 

tbtOidTMlADieDtiavfl bit great deecendftnt, 

UoMt. Tbe maD tbroueli wboee faith the 

eotld bae rKcirod the bunejng* of CtlKUiT 

tk> liOBD. The man whuae name vras 

dnegtd by G«i> aa a »i);n of His biMsing. 

Ua in bi« life and conduct stands forth at 

'WmI uoapproecbed In truevourtesy, noble 

g W ai, and liinplidt;. The patriarchs] 

wk In ted l» accurately portrajocl in Holy 

wpMre, and can be, even jc\. ttTiSed iu 

tbtcuutfoM and fanbit* of the Arab«, Bome 

cf *ho(B are bis deacendanU. 

He aas the ion of Tetab, an idolater. 

*^'«|li Abram'a okine i* ar«t in the liat. he 

'x Pralably tbe aecond son. Tbe ioiit of 

'Vti vnn Uarsn, who died b-fure the mi- 

S'Uloa, Ahratn, and Nahnr, who mnuirird 

'* tr, Tereh died in Bsian, and Abram 

'*«»the bead of the family. Tho life of 

|i "•pslriarcb li divided into four chief pt«« : 

1^^ L The migration ^m Ur to Haran 

^M 'Pvna, ticn. si. 81 ; «/. AcU vii. IM). 

^m UnaTerah died, and then {Gen. xii) tho 

^P yrnnasd wna given to Abram In rcniovn 

^^ Nq Haran to a land Goo arotild ahow him, 

■od tbM be would be btceeed, and of hu d<f 

■■"Bdanu ihould be made a greet nttign. and 

■ inbnD promise of pmtcctiuu was nddtid. 

^ obeyed, and remuved with Lot, bis 

nephew. He flrsl wUM ni^r Bpthd. anil 
there built an altar to the Lord ; tbi'nce he 
went dowo to £gyt>t. It U etrengo at we 
read it, but in reulily it waa mnit naturul, 
that boabould have uncomciuusly di#iruMed 
tbo full ntGoaine of tbo promiae of protec- 
tion. He wai afraid that hu wife wuuhl be 
taken frvvm him, and be framed a deceit by 
having her lay iihe wun hix nitir-r. Sarah 
was tnlten from bim, but Fhara<>h was 
plagued uf the LoftD becAUee of her, and re- 
•toredbertohiiD.aodbewiudiimittod. From 
Egypt h(t returned to Bethel, and there upon 
the ullar be hiid built bo renewed hit wonthip 
of Jeuotau (Uon, xiii- I -I). A wealthy, 

troeperine: man, with a larse retinue, and a 
inKinan with faiio who also wo* wealthy, be 
wu ftiifUc-ipntty strong to besajfiafrom altaci*. 
But thii very wealth, and tbe need of room, 
caused a itnfe between their followen, and 
lliey found it prudont loseparaie. I^it chute 
the plain of Jordan, noai Sodom, and Abram 
remained in the hillr region. Ucre he re- 
ceived a renewal of tbe promise, which was 
a lltlls more clearly and fully expreeced, and 
he was directed to wnlk ihrougb ilie Unstli 
and breadth of lli'ii hiiid, fur it anuuld he his. 
Upofithb command he removed to Uamre 
(Uebroo), tad there built an altar and wor- 
shipped. At this point ooi-un one of ibe 
most vivid of the iucidents of bis life 
Whilo crushing tht> revolt of the siil>jcct 
Sodomitea Chedarlaomer oarrlod off Lot end 
htR family. AhrBm, with hi* tbrne hundred 
and oigkiteen aervHiits, piani»od a nigbt sur- 
prise, which was compli-tely aucceiaful. He 
u^>jiarentlir slew (he king in tbe fight. Upon 
hu victorioui return, MelcbiscdcD, the mys- 
terious king of Buk'm, priest of tlm Mutt 
High Goo. met him with bread and wine, 
and blessed him. Abram paid him tithes 
and received hi* bleailng u from a superior. 
Abram 's refusal to receive any part of the 
cpoil was a nobly proud act on his part. 

II. Tbe Bi-i-ond pcHud of Iiis life is from 
this oTont BJid the renewed promiio which 
folluwnd till the third covenanted promise 
with direct promise of Isaac. This second 
renewal was still more full, and was scaled 
with a McriUce and A Bt>temn sign of n 
horror of great derlcneea in his sleep. He 
was told or the servitude in Kgypt, of the 
dcliviTmncn and the ivtahlbhninnt of his 
dei>cendani4 in the laud God promiacd bim. 
To accomplitb this promise Biinib persuaded 
him to take ber Egyptian insid as a coneu- 
bine ; but tbe act was both a proof of his yet 
defeclivp tnitt and of the evil of talting ac- 
complishments Into hii hands. Ungar's 
insolence and .Snrab's Jealousy dmve lite 
concubine tii run away fr«m her mistriva 
Elagar was ordered to return and to submit 
to ^nb. She became the mother of Iib- 

III. And yet again the promlfe was re> 
new«l when Abram was nincty-ainc yraxn 
old. OoD appeared to bim, promised' that 
Senih should bear bim a son, ebanged bia 
name to Abraliam, and gave him tM «0T^ 




S&nt lign of ciritiinoUion. Stilt ft* fulflt- 
metitwuiielaTeti. Here occurred Lhetoiicb- 
ing Tuii of liie Jbqovaii Aogol with two 
ftll«ndant< to Abrahatn, tbeir vuning him 
of the irnpL'ndlng destruction of Sodom, 
■nd bii eamwi, peroiitent pi** in it> 
bekair. It wiu u. pniof of Iiii grawtli in 
faith and in ti tnisting conlldeni:«i. A(;ikin, 
howftrcr, he tbov* hU dittrust when ainuni: 
lh« FhiUtlinM. Afraid of bcirijj dcjiriveii 
of h«r (dciptte Ood'B uroniito thnt Sarah 
•bould give him a kid), h« called her hii 
*tMor, nod King Abim«l«oh tent aod toolt 
b«r. OoD proteoted her, and learned ttii> 
king of hi* error, vrho rmtorfxt ^^rab, willi 
« just reproach tu Abrahaui Tur itU deceit. 
Alter thi> Serah bore Abrabnm a fon, and 
fcfae CBllvd him Iiano, ur Laughter, in rehr- 
DDvc to Sarali'i LauRb of Ju^ whcDfhe beard 
tb« promite Chat the in b«r old ageibould 
hare « ton »nd a1«o to hfi own tani^nHB. 

IV. The lait main period becini with the 
grut (rial of failh lo which Abmhain wiui 
■uhjwtvd Hv wwi tempted, waa proved in 
the highest form in the command to offer up 
liWK. Howoould tbo proniiM b«rull)lled iT 
liaav vra* oflWrad, aod unw ooiild a human 
•avrillc* be acc«pUb)e to lli«Ooi>of Life? 
Tfafl oommsad wba cuuched in word.* whiLh 
■llOW«d bov prtciout luae muil be: " Tako 
now thy aou, tbino only »ou Waac, whuin 
thou loreat." Tb« Fatrlarth hnd learned 
that nothing cotild faii of all that Jkiio- 
TAD had promised, and he oboycd. Uis 
obedienoe nod lu rmult were thvnccfonh 
tbe v«ry vrown of faith nnd of the truth of 
God's procniMa, and biK-am» th« lypo of 
tha aacriBce of Hb *inl«u Sun upon the 
CroM. It was m> wonderful a proof of ilii 
lru«t that (hv^ift wa> K'lvtm tiim that tbe 
■tilHlual bluiliif; ho had thould be )i;iveii to 
all nations U[kir earth, and the Son of 
Abraham is thft h«ir of tb« world, bv that 
aot in verily upon the Cro», which wm 
doD« by llgurv up-^n thn altar in lh« Mount 
Mnr'iAh, 11 WMi done, It t* well to note, 
when Isaac could und«r«tand what was to 
belraiiMctod, and bit oboditnce, thtrvfore, 
mutt not bv overlooked. Waa It now that 
Ahrahaiu saw tbe da^ of Chuht and waa 

.Sarah diftj at an advanced age at Kaijatb 
Arba, to whii^h Abraham r(>niov«d from 
BMrahvba, Eomi) Itmn aftor the offaring of 
Imbo. The whole wcuunl of tbe death. 
tbe purebase or a bury ins;- place in tho land 
wbicb bad all li*vn siy*-n to him, hi* courl- 
aay and itntdy moao of preferring hit re- 
quMt, and the hj^li rc»pwt paid to hini by 
ibe UittitM.and the simplicity of tho whole 
■utrraiiTe, make it one of the mcKt toucblas 
paMBKe* in tbe record of hii life. 

He lifed nearly thirty yvmn lunger, and 
marrii^ Keturab. It was, uerhnui, not, we 
■boold (UppoM, it for 10 boly ana Mailed a 

1«»ona^,— one *o b1««Md and proepored,— 
>nt AbnUiam wai llTing at a different era, 
with ideal current artnind him for Other than 
tlioN we ftre babltually luing Mtd HTiac in. 

Be i* a person, to iii, »o conjoined to th* 
faith that he diipUrad that we cannot think 
of him ta a man wuu, in Ibat Eastern life, 
ii«cdcd the care of eom« woman's band lo 
minliier to bim. At tbe age of a hundred 
and feventy-Bve yeart be died, and wa< 
buried by hi* eons. Itaao and Isbmael. 
Abmbam la for u> tlio type of the Militari- 
utu of the man of faith. Otherf, as Jnb,ai 
fiJelohizedoc, wero aervanlc of Ooi> and of 
great bollneu, hut he had sttll greater and 
more enduring blcasings bocauae of his fnitb. 
And thin faith grow ; it wa* dJAciplinod and 
d«veloj>od. The clii*h boiue(>u this tiiiih 
and hn conduct that occurs in hi* career 
wa* rather tho rcaclt of not ■[■ring bi>w 
truitfulncAt muit penetrate tbe lower nianee 
of i.'iir daily lifci Htid work. He bslieved 
that God would iioL forsake bim; «till, ihv 
emergencies seemed bo prca^ing that he 
deemed be muit do something, and be acted 
as be did. The consMuoncos bore evil fruit 
for him and hii children iu tbe firtt ia- 
tttsnce, a* the Egyptian maid gave him ao 
much trouble, and a tbouannd years laluf 
Iihmael sorely dislrased Israel. And, too, 
the daily life and authority of a man of 
IotvIIt meatii, while it win a ncinntant proof 
of Qon's bleuinK. tendt^J U> withdraw bim 
from Ihe finer, ttiibtlor inlerconnoi-tion of hii 
religiout lift- with ihc olighteit imru of bti 
daily life. But this he erldently outgrew. 
A^ain, lo him wo owe our lalvnlinn. To 
bim, more thun to any one man, wu owe our 
(.'hrlnttan privile^eE. Tbe children of Abra- 
ham (uccording the iBilh be hnd, before cir- 
ciimciiiion) wn arn hitir* with farm of the 
world, not only of tbjs viHlMc, liut of tbe 
world unseen. From him came the Labd 
Jkkvm Curut, through whom he, a* well 
IU wo, received all the promiiet, and in whom 
ibev are flilfllled. 

"the more Abraham's life and conduct art 
■tudled tbe more tborouebly human do Iher 
appear, He wai a preat man, endnw<^ witn 
laree capacilics, with deeply relijjious and 
atedilative character if tics, with power of 
will to riH Uf tbe height or the demand* 
made upon Mm, and with a lovinc and a 
■rmpatbetlo itrain thrnughmtl. Ilii abili* 
ties aod weight were ttarlv arknowlrdged bj 
tbe peoptM ui whose n^goborbood be dwelt. 
It waa only by deep pondnring and prayer 
that he cniila have lieen iirengtliened to 
meet the discipline Ooii jmt upon him. The 
influence ^Arah bad over htm and his deep 
alTcclion for Inaac are proof enough of that 
best of nlldumMtic bonrjn, — h loving nature. 

Abaoltlto. In thenlner, n prrfect unaller* 
able condition, e.ff., Divfiie goodneei is abeo- 
lutc; to Divine justice and mercy, without 
imperfioclion or defect. Tbe aluolute ^fl 
of redeiiiplioa will be at the rceurredion. 
Its rin it conditional here and row. 

AMolntloii. Tbi> nuthorlutlve act of 
deolanng Gou's forgivenets of a pcniteDt. 
Cf. P. U., "IlMLh given power and com- 
mai>dment to His ministers to declare and 
pronounce to His people being penitont the 


klMohHion And r«mi»ion of their liat. Il« 
pwdt»D«tb «Dd absulvetli ell Ihose who truly 
rmnt ui6 UDfeignedlr bclioro Uii Holy 
Word." Tb« tuc »f Ibi* nutli»ritj ia oon- 
tiMi only to tbe bUhops «nd tb« nriMtf. It 
\t rormcd upon th» authnrity uur Lord gnvo 
au Cburcb (RL Mntt- xtE. 19, xvHi. 16; 
9t Jobn XX. 28). A cbar);c LbricA repeated 
«t different tiine>, Sr*t wiiilo prtpftring Iho 
ApeMla* Tor tb«ir work and then immedl- 
«Mly ftftor Bi« r«s«irm(rtion. It U itn tnt»- 
ffnu pA't of tb« minintrr of the Ohurdi 
tnmeD.iu it la inrotved In tbo UKntm«nla 
aC Bft|vtUin mi ih« Euobuitt But It* 
r>r««li«sl uia wnt nUo Uing U-forv involved 
In all Mu.'rifiL-«* In tb« Iicritiml dinprrtnljiifi ; 
■nd * nut*bl« ini>tAnco nf th<t df^inrniirm of 
ab»olution it Id >'u11ibq'b reply to KioK 
David, — "Th« Lokij also bath put nwny 
iby aio" (2 Hun. xii. 13}. Our Lukd mtik- 
tn;; all furrJT^ntM flow from HIh own )>eraoii 
prunouncM Uit abwiution authDritaiivcLy. 
"^ Iw forftven lb««. . . That 
ya may kuow that the Son of man bath piiw»r 
oil W\h to Torgivc linx." Sn lo the ninfiil 
«Ma*o. "Thj linj are forKiren." Then it 
VM a developmont into Chri^iinn tiw of the 
caret wbi<^h lay in tba UtnAii? diapantatiim, 
•ad was ordained by onr Lobo for the 
oxafoft of Ilii own. A* all power i« lli« 
in h«a««a and In «arih, and ai H« is ever 
wltb UU Churnh to the end of the world, 
*t\A has by a direct ([ift of tbc Hoi.Y 
OnosT for that end endowed the Apo^ 
klate with the CgmmtHion, it must bu of 
^■oatlnUQIU and cnntinuul umt in His Church. 

■■Tho ^wcihI ac-ta ur wayi in wUkb the 
tntniilcr* of Chxibt are eomimaeioned or 
»aUKiris«d to esempUfy lbi> tbalr powor of 
nUininf; or r«niiuing tint appcnr to be four 
acta of th« ministry whereby ih<f bcmcflt of 
•taululion in ordinarily diipenfed iinlo men. 

" Tbc pow«rof admlniilnrinK ttio two »ac- 
tUDenta vf Baptism and the Lord'* Supf}4r 
to all luch a« an> qualifl«d to rei^oive them. 
whicb U, theTprur«, called ' nacrMRiMiUl 

" Tbo p9w<r of dvclnrlng or publiibing the 
Itrmi or cvndilloni unon wbkh the Ov*p(il 
pmmlsea pardon ana rBmiMlon at ttm, 
wbtcb ii cklled tbo 'declaratory abaolution 
tf th« vnrd and doctrine.' 

" Tka poww of intnrrwling with GCD for 
pardon of ■In* through the media of OHnnr, 
■hi(^ ia the ' ahfolulion of prayer.* 

"Til* power of executing Church diid- 
ptlne and (!<enaur«fl upc-n d«1inquciiU, which 
ranidata In tnduding Aagitinui and KCran- 
dalotM ainnen from the eooimuninn of the 
Cktirch, and r*<otvine penitenu a^ain into 
W communion when ihey have gtiren juat 
•rldttooa of a atnoere repeniaace. 

"Ia tbeao four acta, regularly ex«rcl>cd, 
wnabia the ministerial pavt^t of n^taminj; 
» remittlne nln«, flo far as the deleitun^ 
wnhority of man pan bo ooncarnftd in it." 
(Biwh. Chr Ant., bk. riii.) 

"Tbt miniator can only lend his month or 
bb hiDd loward (he cxtomaL act oC abaolu- 

tion ; but he cannot abaolre fnt«rnillj, much 
lata the iirii]tiN|iai-d ninnvr. CiiKinr llirii- 
aelf liaa aaaiiied iii. that unleM men lejiciit, 
Uioymuat inoTttauy (wriab ; and tbatuoloaa 
tbey forslvfl men their trtapassea, their 
bouvenly Father will not forgive thtm 
their troapaaaM. Now, it would b^ abaurd 
to think, after tlda, that a sinner who pcr- 
forrus neither uf ibvto conditions abould, 
notwitbatnndiniEC, be pardoned by tioD, con- 
tinuing impenttont atill ; and only bevausa 
ho ohancM nurmptitionily to W looaed on 
earth by Boine nrror or fraud, that, thorafiire, 
ho fhauld bo also moti csnainly loo»cd in 
bmven. This were to iuiacin* ono of the 
vainest things in the world, that CaKisrr, 
to nialtfi tU* prioata' words true, would malie 
HLi own worai false, u tbey must needs he 
if any oiUa-ttrd ahaolution, given by n falU- 
bl« and niUtaken man, i-onld tiHnilate an 
impcnitUTit sinner into ibe kingdom of 
heaven." (llingh. Chr. AnU, bk. iii.) 

Tha very funnal wortls which our Church 
requirea to be used in the ordination <^ 
a niiniatar ar« these: " Whose sius thou 
dosl fori^ire, they are forj^van ; and whoaa 
«ina thmi doft rntaio, thor ar* retained." 

tTha Formof OnliTT^ng of PriMla.] Wane- 
Bowledfre most williiiKly tbul the prinvipa] 
part of Lba priest'a ministry is ozerdaed In 
the matter of " forgiven eaa of tina," — tha 
quflttion only is of the manner, how ttila part 
nf thrir function is rxrciitrd by them, and 
of the bounds and limits thereof. 

That WB may therefore give unto ltii» 
priiisithe tlkioB* that are the priest'i, and to 
uoD the thinga that am Oou'a, and not 
communioati) unto any creature the pnwrr 
that nrDporly belong* to the Croator, who 
■" will not Rive Hla glory unto another" 
(liainh xlviil. 11), wo must, In the Ant 
phiiw, Iny this down for a nurr ground, that 
in foritiTe sins properly. dir*cih". und ehto- 
lutfllT, t) a pHviUge imlyapppriainiiiE unto 
tbo "IXmx nigh. " I, errn I, am Hii that 
hloltoth out Lhv tranagrestions for mine 
own aake, and will not remember thv ains" 
(laaiah iliii. 3S). -'Who ia a Goi> Ilk* 
unto thw, that pardoneth Inlq^uityf" mys 
the prophet Mican (vii. 18): whiob In eflm 
la Ibn lame with that of the acribtv (Mark 
it. 7, and Luke t. 21): "Who can tbr- 
eivo ains but God alone T" And tJ]«r»- 
fore, when David aaya unto Oou, "Thou 
foesaTcat the iniquity of mv sins" (Pa, 
xxxii. 6), (irw;ory, luroaauia the Great, 
the first Biabop of Kome of that name, 
thought thia to b« a aound paraphraae of 
his words : "Thou, who alone apanat, wbn 
alone forgiven aln*. For who can forgive 
aina but Ooi) alontt f " (Orogor. Expotit. 
xi.. Pa. Pcenit.) Irennua telb ua that our 
SATlOUm in Ibis plikce, "forgiving aina, 
did both euro the man and miinifiwlly dia- 
coTer who Ho wa*. For if none." aayi 
be, "cum fnrt;iro aim but Gor) alone, and 
our I>oai> did furj^ivn ihcui, and rured 
tbem. it is manirmt thai He waa the Word 
of OOD mad« tbe Son of tnao ; ftud t.t\av, •& 




ll> «u louabad with flompuiion of ti>, 
M U«0 U* bftti) invroy va lu, ftod for< 
ifNvtk vm nir tUbu whinh wa do owa noto 
«lhr M»kw" (Ir«n»u>. ftdv. Hnrw.. Ub. v. 
wp. IT). IViullUo (lib. ir. adr. Hftrcioti, 

alO> ((^n. ih«l " oliuii ll"o Jow*, tw- 
ine ^n1,V Ul* buniftiiliy, and not being 
|«l ewUlh uf nil tlolty, did deMrvedly r«B. 
f^ t^M R riMu could not forgive um, but 
wi» a)(>ii«, Qv, by •niworing of tb«m, ihnt 
*lfc* Sim of nt*n trnd Buthorii^ lo fomrc 
■MU<' Wuttld by (h(i rcmlMion of iliu Bavo 
WMKC«I1 !>• mind Ihitl lie wM'tbmt only 
*»•>«»* nmn pr«(>lu'*iod of in Dutkl, who 
MM|i(«iJI [M>w«r t>l 1u<Ik''>K. ■"'' ibercbr «Uo 
W Ibrglviuit »1m'<' (l)«n. »U. la, Uf. Si, 
^mbriiM hUii iib*«r*M, upon the lilalory of 
WW wom^n ukoii In «dultory (John tiii. 9), 
tkftt "Jkbv* b«inB "li^'Ut to pudon iin, 
rWfttiitilli Btitne. ror It la Dot lb* amW- 
Mdur," Myt tio, "nor tb« mcMonger, but 
lb* LoHD UliiiMlf l)ut faftth MTod Ilia 
|fK)|t)». Il« ri>iiiiiiti«tli ittone, b«imu>ie it can- 
■Iktl Im iH>mmiin m anr man wilb Curmt 
%iiA>titlvii*|i,i. Thli li lli<ti>m(«ur CiiKiKT 
iJiMi*, wbii ' tiiknili Bwny the bid of ihs 
W^U' " (Anibro*. KpUl. Ixxvi,, oA. Stii> 
lAtitHt). Ho, iu(>, H(. CbryiMtoDi U cflr«fu1 
f4i ^irMorvH (hti)'* |irlvll«g« «nLlre, by vfUn 
it>ii'i]'>-*liiB ■iK-U»onlanc<*as tbcM: " Nuno 
titii ' -rulira Nina but OOD ftlone" (Ohrr»- 
,^l lu a 0.»r lit., HoiB. Ti.). "Tofoiyivo 
till* bnldii^pib lo au otiier'' (Id. in John 
vtll , li»i». llv., ad. Urvc., vel liii., LiiUn). 
« Tt' ^'rKlva ijiu I* po«*ibI« lo Uos onlv" 
If/ til I t.'or IV . Hoin. il.). " G*D ato'ne 
tK>(li lllli) wlilrh »\*o lie fTorketb lii tho 
Wdiblnn <•( ibo now birth" (fit. iK). Wliu»L>e 
U U Mcii lI'Ht Ui« work of clMnaing the tout 
la wholly (Iod'a, had ihe inlnlllftr hath no 
band <» oil In effecUDg uiy part of it. 
IUvImii thill, l)i»r(ifort>, rwarved unto Qua 
Ilia i<i>rrd riKbtJi, we give unto Ui» tinder- 
tifflc«n ihvir line, whtn «a "ftccount of 
tliviii u "f the mlnUt«ra of ChkUtT, and 
•litmirdt of tlie mytteriea of Ood" (l Cor. 
Iv I, 3), nut M lords, that have power to 
djajiiaa of »|iiritiul crftce* m they pleftM 
lOhryaMt- la I Cor. Ir., Horn, x.}, but m 
■la that nr« Ud to follow their toaster's 
nlioni Itienin (Id. in 2 Cor. ir., Hoin. 
ircB Init,); and in following iL«reiif 
but bring ih^lr external mfniatry, for 
Ihtoh Itialf alto tbcy ar«< beholden lo Qod'» 
tniiri'T 'lid KOiidneM, (ton conferring the 
lliwaril lili-'ulng of Ilia Spirit Ihorcupon, 
when anil whf>r«' H<> will. " Who tb«n li 
Paul T" tayi HI. Paul, ■' and who i* Apolhw, 
^Ut mlniatnri by whom ye bplieTed, evwn 
tha Lou> cave to every man?" (I Cor. 
. ft. I "Tbimfora," aaji UpUtui (lib. 
f.S, *'la nil ib« tervaati thne it no do- 
■tlnlon l>ut a miniitry." " Ii ia Ue who la 
^Hevpd that givctii the (hin^^t whi«-h ia b»- 
iliiv«d. »at M by whom -we do bellevft" 
lAf. lb. Himilitw at Chrywutt. in 1 Cor. Hi., 
n, vili.l. Whxrcaa our :iAviouK then 
I unto Bia apoailea, " Keceive the UokT 
r| whoaa aina you forgivo ftball b« 

foirgiveii" (John zx.). St Baiil (lib. v. 
adv. Eiiii<Hn,p. tin.ed. OrBoo-Latin], Am- 
broM (da Splr. Sanct., lib. iii. onp. 19), Au- 
tjuatlne (contra Bpbt. Parmenian, lib. ii. 
cap. ii. et Iloin. xxiii. Ex. GO), ChrYtonlom 
(in 2 Cor Hi., Earn, ri.), and Cyril. Alaz* 
and. (in Job., lib. kLI. eap, SS), mako ibia 
obaDmation tbcrvupon : that ihu ia not their 
work properly, but the work of the Holy 
Onoar, wbo remitted br tbatn, and therein 
MrforiDetb the work of tne true Ood. ■ ' For, 
indeed," aaya St. Cyril (Id- lb.), "it U- 
longetli to the true (JhoD alone to be jil>I« to 
Ioi4« men from tbeir aini. For who else 
can (Vee the tranef:res»ore of the law trom 
■in hut H* who u th» author of the law 
itaelfr" "The Lohd." aaja St. Augua- 
line (Horn, xxiil. £x. SO), " woj to give 
UDlo m«Q the UOLZ Gbost; and He 
would have it to be undenlood, that bv 
the Holt Quost Himaelf ains ibould b* 
forgfren to the faithful, and not that by ibe 
nieiita of men aim should bo forgiven. 
Par what art thou, man, but a »lck man 
that hatt ae«d to be healed t Wilt Ihoa be 
a phyaiciaD to mel Seek the phjaician 
togfttber with ms." So St. Ambrose (d« 
S^r. Sanot., lib. ill. cap. IB), " Bahdd, that 
hf the Holt Oho»t aina are farglvea. Bui 
men to the remiaaion of aina bring Ibeir 
mlnlurj; they ex«r«ise not the authority 
of any power." St. Cbryaoitom, though he 
makaa tfai* lo be the axarciee of a great 
power, fM in the main accord* fully with 
6t. Ambrote, that "it remaini in Uoi> 
alone to beatow the ihlniia wherein the 
priMt'a aervii^e it emnlored" (Id. In Joh. 
II. Horn. Isxsvi., ea. Or»o., vol. Izxxv. 
Latin). " And what apmk I of prieataf" 
aaya be [Id. ib.). " Neither ang4^l nor arch 
angel oan do aught in tlnwe tbine* which 
are given by GoD; but the Falnnr and 
the Son and tJie UohX QBoar do diipenae 
all. The pricat Icndolh hii tongue, and 
putteih lo Ilia band." "' Ui* pari only ia 
to open his mouth ; bat it la Ood that 
workdb all" (Id. in 2 Tim., cap i Itora. 
xi.). And the reuona whereby both he and 
Theoptiylart (Id. in Juh. viit,, Uoin, llv., 
OrjK., vel liil., Latin) after him do prnra 
that the pricftta of the law hiul tio puwL-r lo 
forgive lint, arc of as great foT«o to tike Ihi^ 
■ame power from ihe minidtcn of the Gotpol. 
FIral, bwauae (Tlivophylact In Joh. vlll.)ii 
h Ooo'h part only to fi>ru;ire air*, which ir 
the moral that HayniL:>(HaibeniUt in Evang. 
Dotnin., XV., po«t Pontecoat) makea of that 
part ot iha hUlury of ibo Goap«l, wherein 
the lepera are cloanaed by our RATtoDa 
before they be commanded to abow them- 
■elTM unto the priest, "beoauee (Tb&ophy- 
lael in Joh. viii.) the prieal* ware lerrttnta, 
yea, aerranti of ain, and tberofora had no 
power to forgive aina nnio oUiere; but the 
Bom ia tbt Loao of the houw, who wu 
manifeaied to take awav our uliit. aaya SL 
John (I John iii. fi)." upon which aaving 
of hia, St. Augiuline writoi : " It t* Ife in 
whom there la no lin that ramc to take away 






'tin. For if ihrm hfiil twen »in in Him too, 

Itmtut bftve b«cD luken awar from Htm; 

Be eould not Ukr it ^vny U'imfetr' (An- 

nut., Trsct. ir., in 1 John !)l.). Th«rc th«ri 

Jbllowa anutber p«rt of the ministry of rec- 

nciilalion, coDtislIng in tho due Kdm.tiiia- 

ratlon of the sacntmvnbi, which being tho 

roptr MMi* of tho prAmliei cf the Goipel, 

I tti« ceiuures are of the tbretiUi must ihere- 

Decauarilv aUo havo reftrrence to tbo 

nniaion of^ >ini" (Act* ii. 88; Mnlt. 

;v{. 29|. And »o we a«e the ancient fathers 

lU that iCypriu, Epiil. Ixivi. ace. 4, ed. 

itnvlii, 6 Goulutii ; Cyril. AloxnnO., in 

oh., lib. ill. c. 50: Aiat>ro«. d« PceniL lib. 

c 7 ; Chnrsoet. ae 8ac«rdoL, lib. iu. lorn. 

., od. SuTil., p. 17, lin. 26 ; vide «t torn. vii. 

_, 26S, liii.S") ibe «oinmit«iun, "'Whtwoovor 

■ioi remit, lliey are T»mtc(«<l unlo tlem" 

(Jobo xs. S3], u executed by Iho Tninttlen 

of CsBirr, am well ia tbe conferring of 

baptlcm u in tbe reconciling of p«nU 

tCDts; yet to in both tbw«, and in all 

tb« ucramenbt likowitie of both the IM- 

Uswota, that (Atiguit. Quaut. in Lavit. 

«. ; Opt«l. lib. v.coutroDonal. ; Chry»- 

Miitt. ixri , Horn. IxxvU., edit. Qrttc., 

[till., Latin : in 1 Cur. iii., Hum. viii. ; 

ia 'J Tim. i., Horn. ii. circa fluom) the 

■fclnutry onlv ii to be accounted man's, but 

tk* power Uos's. "For," ai St. Angu*- 

tine olwrres, <' 1( U one thing iv beptlzq by 

wkj of miniitry, another tblng tu baptize 

W way of power" (Aug, in £van^. Job., 

Tract r. ): " tho power of ba|il]eiiiK the 

Lord rtlAlneth to HImielf, the miniMry 

04 hath ^ven to Bii tervantii" (/i. lb.): 

"Ik* Dowvr of the Lawo'» bapllsm was to 

pM from the IjOXD to no man, but the 

aUltiT WM; the power wrut to be tt«nti- 

l*nd from the L<iei> unto none of Hla 

Bdainsn ; the minittry waa both unto the 

p«d and unto tlw bad" (fd. lb.). And the 

nnat wbieb be auigni 'a, " that Lhn hojia 

■^ tkt btplizod might be In Him by whum 

tbif did acknowledge themioIvM to have 

l*al»ptLted. The Losd, therefore, would 

■Ktktr* a acrvant 1o put hia hope In a aar* 

**ni"[/iib.). And therefore thoie achool- 

■uti^ed, " It U A matter of equal power 

tv hotm Inwudly, and to absolve fTcta 

*WW lin; but it was not ft that tioo 

**ll)duMDmuni<:al« the power of baptldng 

*'l'k) uy , leAt uur hopeaboatd be repOMd in 

BU- the same reason, it was 

"* Bt that He (tioultl commuaicata the 

P»<t of abaolring frani actual «ln unto 

"T" lAIexand. de Uniea, Summ., part ir. 

aui. Hemb. 1.). Our SATiouit, 
irc, aiu*t atlH bare ilie privllwi ris 
*C^ UDio Uim of bein^ the aluolute XoBO 
"wlCt own hoiit«. It i« kiilTlcieat for U'u 
™wi thai thi'y )« eau^ctncd, na Uo«ea wa«, 
"UAfat in all Hii houjie aa HrrantA" | Ileb. 
*■'!.*>. Tbe place wherein ihey serve i» a 
■)Hard'i pUoe ; anil th« Apiwlle telU thnm 
^1 " it ia TMuirod in itewarda, (hat a man 
t" IWbd faithful" (Cof. iv. 2). They may 
■■"t, iherefote, cerry tbemeelve* in Ihei'r vfflvo 

aa the unjuat steward did, and prtw^iinvi to 
strike out their Master's debt without Hia 
direction, and contrary to Uis liking (Luke 
xvf. G~6). But our "Cokd has given no au- 
thority unto HIa slewartU lo jiranl an iicqutt- 
tance \itiU> any of Ula debtors thai britiv nut 
unfeigned faito and repentance with ihem. 
" NeithcrBngnlnnrarclinnKcl'Vsni " neither 
yet the Lord Himself (who alone can aay, 
•I am with you') when we have tinned, dnih 
release ua, unku wt> bring repentxnpe with 
m." writes St. Arobrove (Bpiat. xxviii. ad 
Th«udofium Imp.) ; uid Klijcius, Blihop of 
Noyon, in hia itirinon unto th» pcnitentt, 
" Before all tbinga. It ia neumaary you thould 
know that howsoever you deaire to receive 
tbe imposUfon of our bands, yet you eanaol 
obtain the absijilutk'n vf your aiu« bt>fora 
the divine piety shall vouirhaafe lo abiulvo 
you by the grace of compunction" f Kllj'Iiia 
Ifoviamena, Hom. xi. torn. vii.. Bibliotli. 
Parlr., p. 248, cd. Colon). To think, tben- 
foro, that it lien in the power of any prieet 
truly tu abaolvo d man tnnn his tins, with, 
out implying tbe uonditiiiii»f hia "biilinving 
and repenting as he ouglit to do," is both 
pr4:.>uiuption and madncw in tbe highcet de- 

.And Cardinal QaMannine, who cenauree 
thif eondiCinnul abitohitien in ua for idle and 
FUporfliaou*, U driven to confess that when 
th^ priest (Benamiin, de P«init<;nl., lib. ii. c. 
4, Ki;cL. penult) says, " I abaotve thee," b« 
" doth not affirm that bo dutfa absolve abstv 
Iut«ly, ua not being ignorant that it may 
many ways come to pais that he dolh not 
ab»i>lve,ai though he pronounce Ihoie words ; 
nariiely, if hn who »-emeth lo receive this 
aarramenl" (fur mi Ihi^y cmII it) " peradven- 
tura hath no inteulioit lu receive It, or is not 
rightly di«po<«l, or putteth acme block in tbe 
way. Thuipuforo the iiiiiii*Urr," mvi he, "sig- 
umeth noihlDf^ else by thasa word* hut that 
he, as much as in him lictb, cotifurreth the 
aacrament of r^^conc illation or absolution, 
which, In a mau rlKhtly diapoaedt bath vir- 
tue to forgive all his tins." 

" Evil and wicknt, carnal, natural, and 
dcvillnh men," aaya rit. Augualine (de Bap. 
tisni, contra Itanntist., lib. lit. cap. ult.). 
■■ imagine tboao thiogt to ba given unto 
them by thc-ir aaducen, which are only (ho 
gifts of OoD, whether aacrnnicnta or any 
other spiritual works conrarning their prea- 
ent salvation." But auch a* are thus de- 
ceived ought to listen to thia grave admo- 
nition of ^t. Cvprian (de La|>s., sec. 7, ed. 
Pamel, 1-1 Uoulart): "Let no man deceive, 
let no man beguile hlmiclf; it if the Lokd 
alone that can show mercy. He alone oan 

Srimt pardon to the sins committed against 
[iro, who did Him*<-1f b<vr our xim, who 
suHbred grief f»r \ia, whom GoD did deliver 
for our smi. Man cannot be greater than 
God, nelthor can the arvvant hy liia indul- 
gence ramitor pardon that which by heinous 
trespMs is committed against the LoiD; 
iHt to him that I* fallen this yot be added u 
a further oritne, l( ^t \m if;nOTUk\. t>C V\tiA 




vbicli IB iflid, ■ CunHfd is ibe man that ptit- 
t«tb hi* trust in man." " Whereupon SU 
Auputlne (In ETanj;. Job., Tract. t.J vritoi, 
ibKtgood ininiiton io LtintidQr that "they 
Kra but minUtairB; Uiaj' would nut hv lii-lil 
for judjcei; IbejraMtur timt ittiy trudt a)ii>iiTd 
be put in them ; uad thai the pnwcr or re- 
mitting and roliiinine (in* ii cominiltcd unto 
ibe Cbiircb, III bo dliipenied therein, " bul 
ftccordiiig to lb« u-bitr&inent of God" (Id 
dc BaptiitiD, contra Donatut-t Hb. iii. c. IB). 
KftpRntonco from dead works i« nnv at the 
foundations and principle* of tbe doctrine 
of CuHiKT [Ilfib, vi. I). " Xothins maketh 
rupiint«ii<.-« oi'rlttiti but tlis hiitrifj of Ufa 
■uid tbe luve of Ood" [Auj^uaL Serm. vii., 
de Toroporo). And vitbout true Kpent- 
msica nil tbi< priMt* undvr bw>v«n ara not uble 
tu give ui H dl^cLiLTgo froui our t\a% and df^ 
liver us from tbe wratb Lu come. " Bxcept 
ve be converted, jti «bBl1 not enter into tbe 
kUiiCdo» or bMven" (MatL xriii. 8). " Ex- 
oept ye repent, re (ball all peritb" (Luke 
xtii. S,(i), II tbe Lohd'h u-ving in tbe New 
Tulanient. And in the Old, " Repent, and 
turn from allyourUwucrMainna; so iniquity 
tbiill not be jrour nun. Cmt awuy frcm you 
all vuiur InuLngreMioni, wlii-rvliy ve have 
limiugreu«d| and make juu a nt-w bi-»rt and 
ft new epirit ; for wby will ye die, U houM: 
of IiraolT" lEsek. sviii. 80, 81), [Dr. 
Steplienna Nut*!* to Buuk -A Cummon 

Ab«tilieiiC«. A reduction at fuud for the 
vtkt offrU-diBCiplinc. It implies a certain 
degree of voluniarincti on tbe part of htm 
wbo practieos il, and aUo a power to deter- 
mine how far be will or will notabstnla. It 
ia not to be confounded with faitin);, though 
It U M> often. Aa for IaIaI abntincncc, i.e. 
tma "ulcobolic liquids." no Cbrlstloa can 
tnk* tbu vow in lu fullMl iii>ntn, lu be must 
ruceivu fur bii *uul'> beullb ibc Uolv Com- 
munion. But St. Paul g'ivee us t£e unly 
true principle in, "It it good neither to 
•at flcib nor to drink wine, nor aiivthiti)> 
whereby iby brother itumbletfa ur in oAended 
or ie mndc we«k." 

Accidenu. ThU term of ancient philoft- 
opby, which referred to tbe cbaQKCnblo pnrt« 
of mailer. a« form, eolor, tiule, »^ upposed to 
Mib«tanc4>, proper, and tlie immiitMOie pro|>> 
ertio* of nintlrr, wdj u|iprupnut(id by later 
mediaval tbeologiaoi to the allcjced cbanef! 
in tbe eletnenta nfter consecration at the 
Euefaarbl. The "upeciw," i>r ''acddont*,'' 
were aaid lo remain of bread and wirii;, but 
tba aubatance wa« trans ub>t«uliated. It was 
K men) lubierfugo for a logical difllculty in 
endeavoring to explain what I* given lu aa a 

Accommodation. A word used lo expreu 
tbe manner in which Divine teaching* con- 
vey and adapt Divine iruthi to our compre- 
henaion. TtieM, it !• eviilent, must be fitted 
tu tbe capacity, developmeni, and circuin- 
Stancei of thoae reKeirtne these trulhii. 
Abnbam. with bit aurroanainp, oould not 
roeetve what was given to I>avid, or Isaiab, 

ur Daniel, though lie wa* tbp Kalber of Ibv 
Faithful. Bo, again, tbe use of mmbloa ii 
nn inatancoof accommodation. But, again, 
[l i* an aocommodation tunur limited power 
to apeak to ua of Oos'a anirer or Jwulouay, or 
that Hi* Eye i* upon ua. Bis Haiid uphulda 
u*. It would be fmpoHible for ua to under- 
f>t»nd many thing* revealed to uj of God 
without some ftuoh aceomnioilatioii from 
Him. Hut while fictfd t»i mir dwarfed power, 
yet ihrv ari' thi-mnelvrs tnith), wliich we are 
gradually enabled to underiland bettor and 
lu throw iwiiJo groiavr, maierialialic conccn- 
tton* wliii'b tb* mere word* would (eaan. 
Another form of accummfidntion ia in the 
gradual additions to the fund a men tat eliv 
nivntarv truibn ftr*t revealed, five received 
a pnijihecy of Cbrut, but a fiiller o«te 
was given to Abraham, and a atlll fullw to 
David, and to on. We pracltce thia mode, 
mtherof development loan of accommoda- 
tion, in leaching children. SoSt-PaulgaTe 
the Conntbinni milk rathor itmii meat, ^ut 
■ prtnitin Kccom mod alio n j- i\ erta tbe truth 
and tht'rer»rc it is innclmi.Miblc, and »nj 
attempt lo explain difficult paaiapea upon 
iiui;h a Eiriiic'iple must be condemned. 

Acepbali (without a bead). Certain here- 
tic* wbo sejuirnled from tho Church, fnllow- 
in|> Ncatoriu*, or who held Kutychian prin- 
ciples and were oondumncd by tbe Synod at 
Cnnstanlinoplo C3it A.b. The Church in 
L'yprui will Hcepbalouo, not being uudvr the 
JuriidietiotL of tiiu rslriarch of Antioch. 
ho, t^o, priwU who refuftftd to be under h 
bisbop were tuld lo be aeephall. 

Acolyio A sub-offl«er aaaistln); tn I>lvina 
«ervicB in the Latin and Greek Ohuri^es. 
Bin duty i» to lieht the cnndlnt, hand th« 
bread and wine, tbo water, etc., lo the pHeet. 
In the OretTb Church it i' another name for 
a sub-dtiucon. In lli«Engli(li Church, befors 
the nefurmatiun, the mime waa corrupted 
into Cullet. 

Acroetic Paalmi. Certain Pulm* Id 
Hulv Sorijiture bi-gin with ibu several suo- 
ceMive letter* of tbe aluhabeC, each aianaa 
b'-c:inning with each latter in its order. 
Tliere arc twelve lucb poem* in the Old 
Teatanicnt: b'lalin* xxt., zxxiv., zzjcvii., 
oii., cxii., ciix., cilv , a part of Prov, xixL, 
LamentJtiionf i -it. U»t Piuilm cxix. la 
the mont rcmarknhlo of thc*e cumjioiition*. 
It it divided into twenty-two sections, of 
eight couplet* ewb ; oRcb diviKion begin- 
ning with that letter of the alphabet In ita 
urd«r, and every couplet in Uw diviaion b^ 
ginnini; with the letttr of ita division, «./., 
tbe lint division btgina with Aihrv, etc., 
and nacb cuuplct begins with the letter A. 
F»«luiA XXV., xxxiv., and CIV. are of twenty- 
two stiinzaA each, tbe drtt line only of Max 
couplet being iicrnR.tiCAl. P»a1m xxzvii. ia 
In twenty quatrains, the first line of eaob 
quatrain being aorottical. Psalms cxi. and 
cxii. are of twenty-two lincx each, and endi 
line begins with > now letter in alphabetical 
order. But Proverbs ixxi. i* in twenty- 
two couplet*; Lamentatiiin* eb*. 1. 13. In 



l*antf-tw<i trtplvu, th« flnt linn of «ach 
triplet being KcroslicHl. Lamanliitlona ch. 
iiLU ill twenty-lwuiripleU.otcti liijilK htint; 
in each lioe acro«tioftl. while LaiuciiUlioiK 
ch. IT. u 10 twenty -two couiil«u,«MhooupIttt, 
in )U flrM lin«. beint; twrallckl. The** n- 
mKrhaU« po&nn exbibit well ihe rhytliraioal 
and nntitfactkalcbBractorof Bobrowpoetrir. 
knd it< pMuliftr ttyle of p«nkUali«mt. 

ActsofitM ApMtlca (The). Fn.bnWySt. 
Luk« did not eiv« >ny till« U> bin work fur- 
iber tban would be implit^ in tli«i term bjr 
which he detignikief ibta g'tepa),^-" the for- 
tEi«r tTMliM!" (AcU I. 1). in thi^. tbun, m 
is tMBrly all the otiicr books of ibo Bible, 
tbwr« WAi Da title or nanta tupplicd or pr^ 
4xm1 by tbo writer. And u the hutdlng 
AeU of the Aposllei doe« not Utcnlly ood- 
tarta U> lh« mntents of th« hUtory, it would 
h* b«U«T togivM ilitii truw meaning, "Pno 
tica of the A[hi!>i1«>," wbicb !■ probiibly 
aaarar the idm intended by thoM who tup- 
pltad tht tiUt. For tb« trcaliefl only rKordi. 
•ad, too, parilKlly record*, the Acts end tbe 
Pr»ctiee of four Apoatlee, SS. Peter, John, 
PbuI, end BAreabu, with Merc«ily mora thivn 
m ntinan to St. Jemu. In fftcl, Sd. John 
■ad Bumabu mppeer only in oonnection 
witli, or in reUtiim to, tiS. Peter and Pnul. 
The huUiry, thvn, may be ccitBtd«tred os 
tta« tiwinrea r«cord of what ibould be tbe 
ApDvlmio potior end prarticn huLoric-BDy 
UliMlreted by tn« Mctiomi of ibitm repreien* 
ImUt* Apuatieei alfK> u unfoldiDi; the ex- 
paiuion oi the Qospel from Jeruiikletii to 
ttamariA, and IheDCfl to Iho tioDtitci) ; a* be- 
side in a peculiar wsy doclariii)!; tliu i^ntrvl- 
litii^ power of the aac«iided Lioed Jkbu*. 

It u no leeieaing «f the authenticity snd 
Inspired Mouiaey of St. Luke to RuppiMe 
that b« iHjr have (ued written docunienu, 
eeail; aooambW to otto «a aituaMd a* him- 
mAL fbr hb earlier facta, and lo bare r^ 
eoroed what cante within hii own perrooal 
kftitwlettee later in his attendance on Bl. 
PanL But tbe whole tone of tbe Aeta lin- 
pliM that though he may not hare taken aa 
Mbre part, yei he wm not only an ey^wit- 
amt of thegeneniLeouneof tbeeTftnl* he rcc- 
er4i, bat had intimate relaiiona with aotne of 
the principal actort. Tbe minate tonches in 
ki> oarrativE prore tbii, e.j/., the datcriptlon 
of SL Stephen before Lbe-Sanbedrim, and the 

rted modeiMaiion of bia speech; tbemen- 
df rifrniScant sumacna; the detailed 
•Aoonia o? 8t. Peter') deliverance from 

Gnn. and bis rt»^tion at the home of 
ry, the mother of 31ari;, whoa* lurnamo 
h John. Even tbe narrative of the oonver- 
nea of Coraaliun render* it probable that he 
«»• ofM of the brethren wh<> went with 8t. 
Pit«r (h>n Joppa to Cwarea. Of course 
la the Jonmeya of St PaqI we have the 
record of an actual cooipaniombip, though 
KL Luke wa« often Mpar«ted from thn ApuM- 
Ue by the exigeBciee of tbe miision work, lu 
k eiMfly narced by tbe pronoun " v>e" uMd 
in many pla*;ea, and then (when tit. Luke 
waa away) dropped for >■ ibej." 

The plan cf tbe book, wbiln the narrative 
pauesi on In a [lerfactly natural way from 
event to eventi la not always evident to ordl> 
nary reader*. But when we rcineniher that 
tbe'HotY :^rtluT eoatad certaia &eu to h* 
aet down, and otheiB iMinlnrly eren toon 
important to be omitted, and uat there U no 
waste or uncertain^ in Hit purpoaea, Hit 
purpoM, we may feTerently nj, ii to record 
the work i;lven to tbe Church to do, not tlie 
aeliirvemifiii* of Hia aervanla. With thia 
due wo can well tee that it ii an outline. 
auOoient, dear, definite, but very concise, 
of the work lo bo done, of thu lines upon 
which cli« future ufflcers in the Church were 
to moTo forward. It contains in ila htibory 
tbe tmo aolution of ihn probl«iaA which can 
be pToaeeied to the Church In tbe eeverul 
epoohaof her oareor. It is (to burrow the 
illiiatmtlonof Biahop Wordawortb) the jour- 
nal of the move men la, directed by the Cap- 
tain of our Salvation, of Ui« offioera lending 
Ui4 army to >U llnul victory. The Apo«tlot 
had inuL^ the same difllculttot to enuountar. 
And their inodeof sumiounltngobitacleBand 
their itmlogyattd TAotios are leetons lo us in 
the prea«nt day. The plan of the Acta i| 
simply a development of^our Loau's dlrm- 
tint], " But ye snail recei v» power, after Ibnt 
the HoT.Y Qro-st ii nome upon you, and ye 
shall be witnesses unto me, both in Jeru- 
uil»in and in all Judwa, and in Samaria, and 
unto th« uttBrunial jwrl of ibn «irtb." 

Be);innti)^ with the iVat-einion (th. i. 1-12), 
8L Luke goes on to record tbe continuance 
of tbe company of the one hundred and 
tweutv faithful in prayer and aupplieation 
(vs. id, N], and theelectlonofHattliias into 
the Tiloco of Judat (vs. \l>-26\ ; then tbe 
wonarouR outpouring; of the Holy UnoeT 
(ch. ii. 1-4), and the attention it attracted, 
and the rmultine cnnverrion of the three 
thouiand (r*. &-4T}. Tlmmupon hi; rinrriliM 
the practice of the new i!omniuoily (vs. 42- 
47). Chapter iii. narrates th<!i miracle of 
healing thu himo licgnr at Suloniun'a Gatv, 
and Sl Peter's appeal, and ch. iv. the arreat 
and imprison meat by " the priests, the Uap- 
tuin of the Temple, and tbe Mdduoeoa," with 
St. Peter's manly boldneaa, and ttaolr db- 
miaaal (r«. 1-23), and the than k»girtng, and 
their renewed courage by the grace of tbe 
HoLTOHDaT(ra.2a-41). Tlienthe commu- 
nity lift) if deeoribed (va. SU-3H, with the 
stern mlrihuijua that foil upon Anuniaa and 
Sapphmi [cb. r. l-lll; the i-onlinued growth 
of tna Church through the Hi^cia and wonders 
wroufiht by the Apoitlai (Ti. 12-16) ; the in- 
dication ttiispNuucedin the Jewish rulers; 
the arrest of the Apostles and their defense ; 
the private consultation and the counsel 
givAB by Qamaliel ; tbair illegal atripat and 
rd«aH(vt. 17-42). 

Than tbe narrative relates fbr u* another 
ai«p in thn Church's dnvolopment It hai 
nearly outj^ronn tbe iwatlimg-bandi of a 
mere community life. The iuLrvaite of their 
iiURiber demanded ■ new artannu\«a^ t«t 
the guvemtnent q( ib« TfttAvj-po^Vi^ 


Churcli, and IhiB led to the utsbliahmeol 
of tfae OUconatv and the tp«cia1 rMorvatlon 
to thtmaelTM bj Lha A[i(iiitli':i <>f tlia dulio 
of fitnot ftnd the minialr/ of tlie Word (cb. 
Ti. 1-9). Thft DOW Order, howevor, fhnred 
in lb« WLirk uf prcucliing; ip(.'i.'tftny Suiuheti 
(VB. B, lOJ, who WHS arr««tea and iilaceu 1»- 
Jbreth«oouncil(TS 11-lfi). ThenrollowiSt. 
Supb«n'ii mnt choniotcmlic Rprcch Ich. vii. 
TI. I-&S|, «nd clorioua isArtTrdom (tlU- 
60). Outof thecbnng«in th«int«riarorgtiii- 
isation gnw tliiit Urit niBrLvrdoni, nnd tbon 
lfaaMnect]tion{cli. viii. l-SV vrhlc'h.vrilbout 
bruudng up lb« Churcb, drove those wbo 
v«ra ftctivo in tlic woric uf cunvumuD t« tbo 
third (tep in her worb. The doiu<on Fbillp 
goM down to Samariih sod llierB (ti. 4-18] 
gfttbon in mAnj oT the 8«(nAritanii, but M 
yet no Gentlte was Rdmliwd. Since only 
the ApOdtlM could oonflmi, th« College of 
ApoMlM iwnt Sfl. F«t«r nnd Jnhn down to 
giv* tb«in tbo Holt Quo&t bv lh« luring 
tut of bktida (va. 14-84). and ti>ok the oppor- 
tunitj' (t. 26) to prwcD in lh« noigbburiaK 
SanuirJtiin rula)f[<M. Tbon fullowi tbft aend* 
ioK Philip to f;utiiL>r in the fint convert Tor 
Africa (vH. 'ifi~40). Then (ch. Ix.) iiiocM-d* 
the nurrmliTC of St. faul'i conTerslon (r*. 
1 -t2) hii esoapo from th» J«w«, who lay in 
wait for him {vi. SS-Sl), 8t. Pctar's mMon 
work in lawvr Syria (vi. 82~I3) broiight him 
to Jappe, whenco be was called to fulfill hii 
work part in laving the foundation of the 
Church fur the UentflM bv tbit baptiitn of 
thv cmlurlon Comaliua {cb. x.). 

Tliia brought on the aeL-ond diftoensiou 
-wltbia the Onurch (ch. li. I -IS), nrhich wm 
•ottled by St. P«t«r'i mcuudu Ucocfiforth, 
whaleTer tomporary or Io<;b1 prejudice tbi>rc 
might be, tbero wa* no contention about it. 
But tbi« work vaA traocfun-Rd, «« *oon w it 
began to be important, to Barnabas, who 
•oOD took Saul to labor with him (vc lB~aO) 
St. Jamea'a martyrchnn nnd thii imprimin- 
mcnt of St. Pul«r fulliiw in Ibe iiarrutivr 
(ch. xii. 1-1»}, which, however, loon reTcris 
to Barnnbiu and Saul. But the Cburrb btu 
uvenitepped bar narrow buunda. Tba mii- 
aion, by command of the Holt tiaovr, of 
Uarnabat and Saul to Iheir work {ch. xiii. 
IS) itiauEuratei a new work. Hence- 
forth, while ibe Jewi are fint appealed to, 
the OentiloK havn the Goipel preached to 
them. Thia llrat niutionar^ jiiorniry beyond 
the llmiu of -Syria (oha. xiii. 4; xiT.)wu 
tmpnrtunt in Ita mults, but really it toil tbe 
way l» |tr«ater cliangea. Saul bncanie* Paul, 
ana ia Uiu leadiiix ipeaker. Ch. iv. recordk 
Ihe third and last atruggla within the 
Cbnreb. Tbo Judaic party made tboir la*! 
reaUlaiice uixm virvumciaion. Tliii wu alM) 
battled ; and now whatever bickering might 
arise, liifl policy of th« Church waa lettludliv 
1ht« Council at JeruMlem In tta BncyclicnI. 

Prom ihie time forward tbe Darralive Ii 
of St. Paul alone with ih« oompiiny h« 
gatbarvd about bim (ch. xv. a6-»9). But 
then* fa abo a aigniflcant chango in Uie nuN 
icy of earrying forward tta«ao«pe]. SLPaul 

doea not trust to hii poraonal influence ami 
constant luporviGion, nor pause for miDut«at- 
Lrntian to comparatiTely unitnportuni Hi-liln. 
That is trusted lu true fiiUh tuhiicvmpaoiotjs, 
or lo those chosen out of tbo new conrerta 
to bo their miniatvrt. He Hookt cvnlrei and 
luflucmttftl ti'wna with tbo Inatlnct of m 
general who plans bis strategy and leavea 
tactical diapositimii to hii trusty aubor- 
dlnalM. Only in Corinth and in Kpheiua 
did bo make voluntarily any long stay, and 

Ohurch tu buiJ Urmly, Hia Drat journey l^^H 
recited in chs. xiii. and xiv. Bts eacoad ii^^ 
ch(. XT. se ; xviil. 23. Hii third jonrnor la 
recounted in cbs. ivlli. 26; xxi. 14. Ula 

both weni nintt important pouts for tht 

" ~" ~ ■ U 

labarv are henceforlh from a prison or ^^| 


guard-huuso, ever in tbo nmcrncoof, if a< 
chained to, a loldier, or eW upon a itonn* 
driven »liip, till fadisKtla*tporiniIIod, though 
a •Uitp priionor, to dwell in bU own hirud 
house Lb ruugh twotguiet years. Ttitiie last 
chaplor« (frucrt oh. xiii. to the end) arfl 
moit precious to ut tiontilo*. With tho 
ilirectioa of our Lord clnarly set before u», 
they are the only record of the fulflllmcolof 
ills con>mand. This Book of the Act*, then, 
bear* upon tU front Cho stamp of coniiilcnt 
iruthfiilaMs. It is a fikilhful account, «cni- 
putonsly accumto, of the chief nnd to ua 
miMt impurtatit fn>cU cnnncctrd with the 
Apostolic faunding, nurture, organixatioo, 
and proclnmatiun of tbe Church na the Bitdy 
of CiixuT, which He purchased with Hh 
own blood. Its Utl», "Tbe Praotlc-e of tba 
Apuatle*," gi^^ w>lb cunciae clearneaa Ita 

Eitirpoae. When wequeation it wo find that 
I givm tu lb* Tbrocfold urder, — Apo6tl»i, 
Prcabytera, Deacon*. It Mta before us (he 
t^acrament of Baptism ; tbe necauity of Con> 
flrmation ; tba daily celebration of tbe Com- 
munluD ; the obiervance of the Lord's Day. 
In it we Ipnm the true Financial polii^y of 
th* Cburrh ; the A|io>tolic authority for 
Episi-upal Tisitatiuri ; the tone and policy of 
ourmlsflicnary work; the power of sorisoiu; 
ttio um f.f forinu uf pravef- In it b given 
ut naturally. Incidentally as a part of tbe 
narrative, tlie usages or practice of tboa« 
who had the mind of CnitiHT, and who hni 
been instructed by Him for the forty dayi 
He was with them In the things pertaining 
to the Kingdom of Heaven. 

This, u with nverv other book of the 
Scripture, baB been subjoottd to the wildoat, 
vaguest oritJciam, which is bqat rupliod to 
by pointing out that, a> in so many other 
cases, tbe cHtica cnnnot agree upon any 
one common ground. Its text, wDlcb, of 
course, was cupiod out by writen In iuocea- 
siva agva, biu utiderjione sume mutilation, 
and some slight variations bare crept in, 
but tbero i> nothing to throw the sHghteat 
shadow of doubt upiin Ita gonulneneas or its 
invplratlon. Nor is tbwe any material va- 
riiition in the best critieally tiwtiired form^^ 
of the text thai can nflvct ibe aeuse uf oii|^| 
AnthoriK*-d Tersioii. ^| 

Adiaphofistic Conttoveray. {Adicpkora^ 





«r Uitnga JndtflerenL) A dbpute which 
uoM Mud continued tor Bome time betWMa 
Ui« foUowgn of Luiligr tod of U«luctboa 
kbnut the tnulitiuni and cvnmoniM of the 
Church. JJeUncihoii vm» dU|x>»ad to tur- 
rwder them u iodiBerent for lh« tMkb of 
pM«t mm! unitj. Tbo chiof oppooeat in 
Ibe eooLToveriy wu ih« Uobrew profeaeor 
K Witi«nbeT;g, llljriu* Kloccua. 

AdJBiatieD. Tn« blading "{, or iol«mn 
•ppeal to, a perM>n hy un inviic;&Lii>n of ttiD 
Mvios nunc, m the Hieb-Pricat to our 
LoKp: "I adiur« Tbe» bj? tho livinB Qon 
that Tbuu icll u% wlwlker Tliou b» the 
CuKwr the Son or aoD." To thiB adjura- 
tion our LoND, bithorto silent, at onco re- 
pUed. Adjumiiuii was a port of tb« foroi 
uf •rxorciim whidi nudently wm the prec^ 
4tat office ia baptism. 

Adinlniatration. Tb* porforninnco of ft 
fatT, or office, or f^JDcUon. It la u«ed bct- 
mkT tiraw in th« t*ra;er-book, ns in Ch« 
title tu the Office of the Htdr Conimunion, 
lb« pravAr for IkoM to be ordaioMl, and in 
lb* Oraioal. Id cccluiMUcal law it refen 
lo thn dlMribution of the offecbi of iotw- 

Adnmaition. Advice or warning. A 

wortl ui«d to Murt the adviMry aHlikority 

of K Bittiop over hi* oler^ary, when they 

prutniM to follow withaKlad mind bis^odly 

^jdmonition. Btit it ie ako in thv cbarge to 

tb* prieal al hii ordioation. It ie, however, 

jt4ym UMd in a harsher aenie, meaning the 

flcu ilep nf warning, whicb, if p<ini»tenily 

yelirrled, aiu«t lead on tu excommuiiicattion ; 

fLi^Vtwing St. I'eul'a dirtctiuo, " A man that 

%m u Mtetic after tbc flni and eeoond ad* 

AMnitloii MjKt" (I'iltis iii. lOj. 

AilmoDliMHi, Oodly. Tlio oarlint form 
aCueximinwtioD of a ■?Bndid»lu for ordora 
duibc tbo procvH of ordination it found in 
eoOilnalor theeleTcntb century, though 
■VmUow w«r« aeked of Bithops, at the ttrae 
^tUir oonaecratjon, at an earlier period. 
iH ituttioiis propounded in our Ordiniil 
■■• pKuliar to Ibe Eniclitb Mrvite, and 
vtnfruMd by ibvniforiaanof our Lituier 
n ma-lfi. They leetn, as Palmar hu muI, 
'^ have been modeled in a great decree 
"W the pM*)]«l formularicB tued in tiie 
"VMJMi Of BiehopA." The laet qucation 
■ pfoUbly the mott ancient of tbem all, 
"Miifaand in manuKriplOidinalii, written 
!%bbuadred yeart ago. wb«re itU pluced 
"KKtiy the Doeition which it holdn in our 
'fpf^t et lb« Mginning. In the £nf;li»b 
"Vv^iMoli the pfaraw u*«d i>, '• Will you 
'•'«*>lly obey your Ordioarv and oihur 
'Mf niaieun?" Tbe Urdinitrv, nciunling 
Jj^noB Law, ii the Bubop, and the ■■ other 
■hf ainittem" are such ulUfer* a« ure 
*>UUifebed by bw,— the Aivhdeaoon, Dean, 
IvCdlBiBUaary of the Bichou But in our 
'^eel ii inMrtad after "uolaf minlMen" 
jh* ftfdt, " who wioording to the Caoone of 
JtoChtirtJi may have the charge over you." 
^Naton of thu chitoKa i* found (a the 
■OlbMon the introduction of the Spisco- 

Mtrinlo thU country, It wat not deemed 

Met nt that time tu intioduoe tboMOtfaH 
offluos and litlee, eudi u Archdeacon*, Dwni, 
and BurulDeaui, wbiiifa baveio lungexiiled 
in Knf;ii>nd. Ii; will be notiL-ed that the 
only chief ministetv olber than the Bishop 
wboie admonitions and j udgment the Deacon 
and Prleat are lo follow are tlioie who Are 
inve«t«d with iuch nutboriiy by the " C'annna 
ortheC'liiirch," Tbii inu«i menu the Canntia 
(iC tktt t'burub, because tlie Canune of the 
Eneli^b Church recognized theae »Te»l 
ofBi-ra and dignitist ; and ita use hem wai 
evidiMicly to reitrii-t thai vow of oliedionce 
lo lbu6e whom the Aiuericau bramb of the 
Church by it* Canons might appoint over 

The only chief mliiioten recogniited by our 
Canons la lovcated with any govern ing OT 
contKilling Authority are thoM olcct«a by 
tbe several Standing Commllcees, whicm 
Standing Committees, under eortain ciraum- 
■tancea, mttrdte " tbe power* and duliw l<> 
he perftiruiud by a Biabop." Kur in ciufl 
there ia m vauiacy in tlio EpisL-ojinto, tlie 
Standing Committeo is the ocuk-f ia«tiC4il au^ , 
tboHty uf thu diocue fur all i>urpoe«a| 
declojvd in tbe Oiuioiis of ttie Chuivli. And- 
tbia authority ie exercieed by thorn whoa 
acting in their oorporal* cB]»Glty as mem- 
ber* of ihiit commltiee. There is but little 
doubt that the pfariieeolagy of the tjuoacioo 
WM Hu framed in order to meet Juet euch a 
development oi ia noiruaa ianmsof tha 
diiH-raM where the Cathedral and Dwanal 
in>tiiulii>nii and usages uhtain more or less, 
aud wliii^b, pcrhujia, it wo* coujectured 
might in tbe future, in tbe ^reat growth uf 
the Church, arieo as a pracctcat oecoeaity. 

Confining ounalvet siinplv lotbeAmerl-. 
can Ordinul, wbatls {iromiihed ln'ref Eteverenk^ 
obediflnc« ; cuiiforiuity lo godly adrnoai> 
tione; Submii^ioD to godly judgment — of 
tbe " Bbtiop and other ohlsf miniHtcrs who, 
avoording to the Canon* of tbe Church, may 
have tbe charge and government over you." 
But here the queetion ariaes. What is uieanfcj 
by the phraeot "godly admonition; godl^ 
judgment" T This must be inti)r|>rali'^ by 
tbe tenor uf tlie office la which the terms 
are found, and by the gentiral utn^e and bk- 
planation of it in recognised uultH^rilie*. It 
it that admonition and that Judgment 
which as a reverend father in tioi> in tbsf 
fliilae** of bis episcopal office be deliver* In] 
(juMtionn nf conduct and duty in carryini 
out tbe provisions of the Church'* law an3 
wurihip. It it an "admonition" ddiivcred 
in ihfl fear of (iot>, to whom the Biiliop is 
■ umAable for all hb ai:ts, in refbreiioe 
lo some conrae or practice which the Bishop,! 
nctmg as an aoiborized rulur in Gop**) 
house, deems wrong. It ie a ''Judgment'* 
made in the fear of Uod, and with * full 
recognition of hi* being judged of GOD; 
as to the rii;ht or wrong, tbe propriety or 
impropriety •■f some act or ceremony which, 
in thi> •uliinntion of tbn Itinhop, cnutraxeivea 
tbe laUr.r or the spirit of m« ftouvvM u^ 




oonforatity to the <iucirine, duciplisi!, and 
vorsbipuf ili« ProUwUini Ei>i»oi>pftl Cliuri.'h. 

It U not ijintnt Lbul a, K"<lly Kdmunition 
or« ffiKilv judjtKienl should l>e a |j«;rr>?i;tly 
holy Aod pBifectly juit admonition or judg- 
ment lueb u Uoi) iliuKvir wtmld ^Ivu, b«- 
cguM the udmuDilioii (tiid Jiidcnivai, boiog 
human, muii neccaaarilj' partake of humnn 
inflnnityaDd imperraction. Neither Aom it 
xotttt tb»t hitch ■.» AdroonlUan or JudjcmtMit 
vrill be lucb as shall be tustaiaed by process 
of law, beoauM dttcisions of law iire ever 
varjrini; boLh in tlni» and jiW'c, niid tlin 
cunaict uf lawft U a fact recu^nitud by Uia 
moft eminent jurista. 

Ni'ithtir dora it iiicitii that suuh a.n ad- 
murilliuii and Judgui«ut nball always tie 
•MibB utid pruducLivc, for as ''to err is 
humjtn," to UUbopt aro noi oKompt from 
tucb enuDcy, itnd with the mosi devout 
Bspirallont and t^aniiMt endeavors to do 
right th«y niHT Tet tniaa the marita of wix- 
dum and prudcncir. But iL doca mean Uiat 
when a Btehop undar tb« realizini; senK of 
bic conte«nittoD yovt to " biinlth and driva 
awaj fn>m tka Church uU ominetiui and 
stnitige dimtrtne conirrtrv to God's Word," 
•ad " both privBtel}- and openly call upon 
aind vncounge vlbvra to do the urns," and 
" dlllijvntly exercise sucfadltciplineasby the 
authority of Uod'b Word u iid by the urder of 
tb is Church iacommAndfidtoIiini ;"duu, on 
quettiund of conduct which be bcUevea to be 
niprehensibl* or on points of ritual of doubt- 
ftil intornrelnlion and aulborlty, glvo bin 
official admuniiiun and judgmetil touching 
ibcM things, it is the dntv of the clorgy U> 
revcrtntly obov nitth (odly adiuonilion and 
submit ihonuelvca to such godly judgni»iii. 
Tot tbU Hulimttaion to obedience duaa . uot 
debar tbutn the privilege or weaken thedutji 
of tasting tho right of the clergy to tboir 
course and vl«ws by the proc«*i of Caiiun 
Law. For such adnionil]i>n and judgEuent 
but takes the ptace of a bcmporary injunc- 
tion in civil law, whiirtby a ccurw of con- 
duct is arretted and made stationary until 
Judicial decision (ball be had in ihgprvmTie*. 
ou in ibose catos, if the clergrmnn ftMdo n|;> 
grieved by llie admonition of thn Biilj-up ur 
that be has bocn wronged br tlie judgment, 
be has redrees in low. Xn& Kclcsiiitticnl 
CiMirts ate up*u to bim,andqucatluns tif fuot, 
of intorprelalion, of iiaue, i-an be then and 
there tottJod. 

Uiahop Manl, in his "Dleooums upon tlio 
Church and Her KlniatralJonB," aays in 
refer«noe to these words : " The rule and 
limits of tlte raepect and deference duo iD«y 
be Judged to M Uial in all mattete of 
cpiriCual or eooletiattic*! conoern, in all 
niattara wbicb afTiict tbe walfare of religion 
or of the Church, it U tbe duty of the- clergy 
to eomply with the advice and to acquiesce 
In tbe decision of tbcir Urdinary, unless his 
•utbority be luipcoded by a peramount or 
NipeHor power. If tbe Low of Goo or 
the law of tbe country cloarly and indis- 
puubly prceorlbe a diOvrent ooune, their 

authority surpasses that of tbe Bishop and 
ought t» bo pmferrijO. If neither of tbess 
authorities clearly intnrfcrus vritii it, (hen T 
apprehend they concur in »u»ijiiiijng and 
supporting it, and it becomes tbe duty uf - 
tbedergy lo follow with u glad miaduidf 
will tbo admonition ufibi'irluwnjlgovorBorT 
though ab«tracl«d]y their iiiolInaiTons may 
lead tbrm in a ditlerent course, and to sub- 
mit their Judernient to tb<i judgment of tbcir 
nlflcis.! Huperior, though ubetractedly tbcy 
nuiy not bij convinced of ih® oorreutn* 
hii (IiK^iaion " (Tlin Church und Her liinil 
tracions, p. 2M.) " It may be noted aI»o,''~ 
■ays Dunn Comber, "that tbe caiidldat<» 
pruuiisit ffladly to nliey, tbitt is, readily and 
willinj;;ly, without murmuring or too nice 
disputing, unlcstj tho thing enjoined be 
notorlouily evil; for to be very scrupulous 
proceeds froai the prido of InTeriort and 
t«nds Ui overthrow tno superior's aulborlty. 
Yet thi» doth not give superiors any un- 
limited powers to ooinniana anything tJiat 
is evil, for tbey only promise to obey tAosr 
^Iv aiimiiiniiwfu, to that euoh as govern 
in the Church must tuko heed tbey do not 
eujoin iitiytbtng but that which is eithcr 
good in itaelf or apparently lends to pro- 
mote piety and virtue and is not evil." (On 
tbeOroinatiouOIBc«>i,p.314 ] CnnunJamee 
(Oomment on the UruiNaiion Services, p. 
270) aays " The SpiM:o[ial admonition wbicb 
tbe clergy are to follow, end tbe like Judg- 
ments lo which they ure to submit them- 
selves, mutt be 'godlv admonitions* and 
'godly Judgments.' h'ow ihi» cjiulion by 
which the vnw in nccotnpiinird, like every 
other cautionary (counsel and guarded oom- 
iiiand given by ibo Cburcli, is used not a* 
dutibtiiig ttitljor tb« godlinnu of lli« Biahup 
urtliedue obcdtuiicu of his clergy, but bo- 
causti this or any other vow is rn^uired to 
buscfcnnfy riiitdv, and b»;au>« all ihe ser- 
vices, and particularly the ordination ser- 
vices, arc wrillcn a* unto fallible men, and 
there can be no sound legislation either in 
Cburcb or State where all is not based on this 
principle. Tbe framers. lher«n>rv, nf thexa 
•arvii-<-s wisely so actMl. Thvy T«niemhered 
Lbut Sl Paul scrupled not to avow of bimaelf 
that be wai a man of like paaiioos, M well 
with those he ordained at with those among 
wbuni be ministered. A frank avowal tbls 
that he was liable to error. It is only in 
tliie view of the •ctM that the term can be 
considered appropriate, for to suppose that 
the admonitions of a Bl*bop to be otbrr tlian 
godly would appear impoMible, and it ia 
Goually Impowible lo oHnccivo otherwise of 
bu Judgment io matters of reHgion than 
that it sbiiuld bo godljf according to tbe 
writtfii Word of God dwlared in Uis Qoe- 
pel Hiid adopted by tbe Church." 

Tbe venerable Bishop White, in his "Com- 
niat «o the Ordination OtSees," a book 
unanimously approved by tbe whole Houee 
of Bisbopa In IBSS, speaking of these prom- 
itea, after slating that tbeeo " godly ndmooi- 
lions muK have retpeot to Mae lundard bjr 




whiolt tb«T tre directed, and that ihii >t4nd- 
■ri moal M l)i« rarioiK emabltBbed inalitu- 
tinm of the Church and ont thn privnt* 
opinioiM uf Uie Bishop," he adde, " Itiat in- 
tudiciom or eTon impertioeot interfereO'ra 
u potaiblf ought iiQi t« Ih joaiod, and caa- 
m>t be JuatUed." But then are two d«. 
KrriptioDi of caiM In which no atch oenwre 
i<afpUc«b1«. Oneitwheroan oflenMagalnat 
mvrali, the othbt wbere an offonM af:aliut 
ord«r >* tbr subjM>l. In either ot thc^ cum 
ii>d««d ibc admanition of tlii* Bishop woiiid 
. b* uiMOMonabtC unlos* tlio olTunM vrcri; no- 
torioai and admitted, becLUte he would be 
id dnaprr of nvakine hinuolf an accuMtr 
when he b appuintctf to be a Judge. But 
if either of ttwspeciMoF offenae isaoknowU 
ednd bv the offending party, attd es|>«ciallT 
If ItbelvMifled and pervovered In, Cben is 
bere claimed to the Bixbop the right in qiies- 
traa, Bd ontjr on the ground of ecclceiaa- 
tieaJ lav, but on that of the nooBftnl of tbe 
puty ia the anawer to the qnwtion lait read, 
whidi fnav bo Miuldered m a nenoual cuii- 
tract btoalng hltn to lubtnluiun under ^<^- 
proof for put fault, and u> amendment 
under exhorutioo relative to the limo to 

Whan, therefore, a Bishop acting ai a 
l^rflier In Oou nf n fatnilr over which 
the Holt OHoer hu mad« him oreneer, 
ntond bf an honi»t and zoalous lore for 
OoD'a truth, and tuilained by the ipeciflc 
dcciaiooa of ih« eet»bli«hed and r«co|;uixed 
BnlatiMtical tribunals of the Churt.-h of 
KaeUtod, a Church from which our* has not 
4*fairl«d " in any euentlal point of Duc- 
triiwj IKwipline, or Wotahip," and by ihe 
deciiions asd Oaooni of our own Cfatirch, 
laauea hla admonlHon and glfea hia judg- 
meal vpwn quettioaa of nmi^and ritual, t«- 
pMnally when the polnta olijected to are in- 
nuiatioQi upon the eatabllsbed »ervicei uf 
tbit Cburub, u carried on aince its founda- 
tion nearly a wntury ago, luch adniuui- 
tioaa asd Judgment are llkoie mwgnised by 
tb* Ordinal aa godly. They proceed IVom 
goUj motlTea, are dIrMCed to godly end*, 
sad eonoam (blnga pertainlBg to tbe wonblp 
of OoD fn His Holy Temple. 

To ditobay, i]l>nn,'l« an lu't »f *<i!f-will and 
■ubversiTe of all autliorily. I a the caM of 
* Usacon, wc m^v at once that subordination 
to the Preebyior which maki* that Ppwbyter, 
apeeinllr ib« one under whom he serve*, one 
of thAMirTmi&iatvn sot ornr him, to whoec 
adaaoBilions and judgm**nt he mujt conform 
lliaiaelf oaa trup Duuortos; and if to a Pnu- 
ttyter aet urer biin in a particular pariah or 
•ntMioaarv ttatlou.much rourwtubii Buhop, 
lowhoaedlreclioaand authority he is c*iion- 
icallr b«tund- 

RV. Rar. Wm. Bacok SrxrKXS, D.D., 

BUht^ of Ptmitjflnutitt. 

Adooal. On«»f the title* of Gou (9.0.); 
3dj houo. It was pninouDced by the 
J«WR for the cord JatioTAS, whion was 
«aty uttered by the priMta in the aandxtary 
wb«a kleiaUtg' the people (ifunib. ri. 32), 

and by the Hl^h-Prie«t on the Ony of Aton«> 
ment wh«n Iwfore th« meroy-eeat. The true 
pronunciation wn* "aid to be lo«l. Th» Jews 
refuse, genemHy, to ultor the "Incommu- 
nicable Kune.'' and for it substituted the 
phrase Shorn nninii]i?p)ior«>h, i.e., tha nana 
of four lotuir*, Tud Hu Vav He. The Alex- 
andrian tmnslators uf the Scriptures Into 
Greek (Si^utuagint) luvd th( word Kyrio* as 
its cquiTaleDt, and tbiu tt passed into the 
Kew Testament ai the title of our Lonn. 
The word Adon, Ijokd, I* found in many 
names, as in Adimijnh, AdontEebel(,yebuoli' 
adon-exer, and in Oreok mythology the 
f^yriaa Adon i» Adnni*. 

Adoption. A term of Komao law wbioh 
St. Pnul uied to express the relation of the 
Christian to his heaTenly Father. The 
RoMULU law ran thus: " When alien* were to 
be taken Into a family or Into the place of 
children, the ceremony wm nithcr Iwfot* a 
prater or beforn the pmiple. If it wern dtme 
through the pnetor it was called adoption." 
The parallel is accurate. Our adoptinn Is 
not crealad by our will or choice, hut It by 
Ilie eitl of O'os. Wc may choose whether 
wo shall accept it, but it is still Uii gift, and 
notour* by anv claim or moric. Ills granted 
to us In and through our Lord .Iesok 
CilRCtT, tfaer«fot« by Uin incarnalxon and 
the grace thereby aocruln); to the human 
race nom Him. It ie oonvevcd in baptism, 
and reversing the order nf the venen, " As 
many of you as have been baptJMd into 
Chkist have out on CBBiaT" (v. 27) ; 
" For ye are all the children of Hob by 
faith in Curi«t Jmus" (v. 26), and lh«n 
" And (f ye be Christ's then are 70 Abra- 
ham's seed, and heirs according to tbe prom- 
im;" (Oal. iii, 2!)) ; and the Apostle prooeeds 
in bis argument (eh. Iv. 4-7) : " But wbes 
the fiilnoM of the lime was como, Goi> M>nt 
forlh Hill Son, mnde of a woman, mnili- undir 
the law to rwicwm liiem thnt were Under the 
law, that WO might reoeivo the adupiion of 
son*. And bocauM ye arc ions, God halh 
sent forth the S[)irltof Hii Son ioto your 
hearts, crying Abbu, Puthcr. Wherefore 
thou art no mure a tervant, but a son ; and 
If a son, then an heir of Odd through 
Chkiht. " So, loo, in the Apostle's ari;um«nt 
in Ibi) eighth chapter of Romans, nt. Paul 
usee the word adoption in Rom. vili. 16, 28, 
ix. 4; Oal. iv. 6; and Ephenaiu i. 5. 

Adoptionist. Hrrmy. A heresy which 
Uught that Christ was not the Bon of 
UoD by His eternal generation, but by 
adoption. It was broauad as early as lh« 
later Arian contToverviee, 880 A.D., but did 
not take a dittlnct ihape, though oombated 
by the early fathers (iw .\mbrae«. Oratory, 
Nax. £p. ad Cl«d., i.), till tbe eighth oeniuiy, 
and in Spain, Elipandus, Arcbbiihop of 
Toledo, and Fdiz, Bi>hon of TTrg^. It 
was probably hit upon by Bllpandus as a tb»> 
nry to Conciliate ibo Mi-hammedans among 
whom bis province wai placed. Felia was 
a sat4ect of Charlemagne. They \»«%|h\ 
that Cbrxst Jkscs as man waa a&a\A«&, 




tbougb u UiG Word oC God vtoraiilly \k- 
gotten, thiu p»c4tua1ljr dividing tlie Fwrdua 
i>r CnsiST, tor they doniod tlut th« luun 
CanibT Juvn (rota Che beginning of Bin 
Inonriiailon perfectly unlwd with Uii Word 
tb« eurnitl nnd oiily-bvgollem Sox of 6oi>, 
It wmN but atiotbcir funii of XmloriKiiiira. 
BcTeriJ t)it9olo|fiaii» nl uucc conibiiU-d it. u 
BmUu and Bishop l^thmuc, of U«m&, but 
Churl«in«j;DU »oiit for Aluuiu, wbo rufutinl 
the hereity In tovcral worki aiid lelttfcs 
writloQ bulb to Kslix and to I^lipnndiit, 
founding bl« kr^udi^nt not unlj- upon tbc 
oppo*in|; Bileoce of ''Scripture, but upon the 
contmdiccioti in thu nsturii of tho Unity of 
P«non in Cukiht, ttml lie could bt; the Son 
of Gop by nature and the Sox or Cod by 
udoptioD. UiH two nuturuc cannot make 
Him (WO Sunt, fur tliey are perfeoLly con- 
joined in Uis one Perion. 

F<-lix rt-iMintod hi* boreay at tb« Cniincil 
at KHtislvjTi, 792 A.o., but wa« Mot to Rome 
by Cbarlemagtie, vlicre be hiid to uinkc 
a Mcond ■till nxirs fornml abjuration of Itin 
error in full urtliodox l«riDs. but wbeii bv 
r«gain«d bis diocMO h« rolapeed. BtAue 
■utneiOD«d anew, und bis t4ni!tt condtmnra 
at Frankfort ^'9fi a d.), be (ouKbl refUga 
with Elipandii» within the MobaintDedan 
rul«. Ail'ipticni^m Vfiit ikgniu condemned at 

Thu" lifri^y wim condcrnned again at Aix- 
I^CliBiiellv. 799 A.[>., and wax ubjunnl l>y 
Felix, l>\il KliiiHiiduH ileudily adberccl to U 
to thu lust. Tbey sought in vain to prove 
tbcir trr-T by appouls lo tb« Liturgy, whitU 
appL'iils arv valuitblo tu u( now an leiUing 
tAe diit« "f partu uf the Mocarabic Liturgy. 

Adoration. A ayiionym for devoul, rov- 
«retit wonbip. Iti origin U fh>m the Latin 
manua tiii o« mitlerf, to put the hand to 
tbe ninuth in token of sil«ni awe. It i> u*«d 
excliisiviily to mean tbe wuralii]) ptiid to 
Gov, and is in act both outward and in- 
ward; outward in auL-b ktimliog or buwinj; 
and dinging ur apeaklug wonU uf prabe ; 
tnlt:rior, oflb^ heart and mind in siieh de- 
Toui air««ttona aa raiio tb* tou) In adori»£; 
thought. Tbe outward l» empty form If It 
be not conjoined and informed by the inif^r' 
ior adoration, which make it acceptable a* a 
|n!r»onul ufTcring to OOD. 

Adultery. (>iminal intercourse of a mu- 
ricd ppmin of aithrr »ux with anolhar of tW 
other M!», wbetlicr umrried or not, Tbe 
mural ftin of adultery is iniphed in the in- 
spired word* villi whicb Adam received 
£v«, and U act forth in the Seventh Com- 
mandment. Cbkist conllrmad tbe binding 
force of Adam's dmlnrntion in emphatic 
terms (Mark x. 6~S], and expounded the 
force of the Commandmant in His Sermon 
on tbe Miitint (Mhil v. 27-S2). In all 
countries the crime has been branded as a 
heinous one, and oAen and enrlicr waA pun- 
ubablc with death, and If the Injured nui- 
band should slay the guii'y pnrtiM /taffmnte 
lUlieln even nuw, Ine bornicida drie« not 
receive the condemnation it should. Our 

Lord's foTgivenoss of ibo guilty woman 
(John i-Iii. II) is taken as a uiitlgalion of 
the dcnth-ft'ntcnce under (he UotaTc ditpco- 
aation \ but the guilt of it, both as lo the 
moral and spiritual death of (be sinning onei, 
and an to the nin ugiiiiiitfiiciel}', i* not ther^ 
by eil«i]Ualed, und the nt-vernt enaciments 
have always «L'jud upun thcClmrch'a Oanon 
Law against the guilty panios. Tbia and 
forukatlon are tbe only cuusm allowed by 
our Lord lo Justify divoroe. It li a alti 
Hint, is absolutely heinous in the tij^rbt of 
God and in His Law. Hut mural iheolo- 
giiins Bomotimw distinguish between di^Tee« 
uf h-L'inuuanus in reforonfo Co thn dcwtrui-tivp 
resulta to sucielv-. A petition againit thu 
lin stands in lbD^nt;lisn Prayer-book in tbe 
Lituny, whikli petition ha* been icftenod by 
hardly equivalent phratee I» the American 

AdvenL There is no certainty of the 
dale when the season of Adrenl was a&< 
p( The early Sactampntiiry of l-eol 
Juist not menl.iuu any Sundiiy* in Advent. 
The CuoiMof St. Jerome, and later the Sma- 
ramonlary of Clelasiua I. |49C a.d.), at' 
eribo Collects, Epistles, and Go«pels to flvo 
Sundays in Advent. These ducunient^ are 
protuibly much interpolated. But Mnximus 
of Tours ^4<M)a.D.) mukt^ the earliMt cer- 
tain mention of Advent, and Cw-^arius of 
Arlw (&01-42 *.!>.) bns left, tbe lir"i set of 
Advent ieruions we buve (Uio^e ax-ribcd to 
St. Ambrose and St. Auj^ustino are spu- 
rious). In the AntbriMian and Uoaarabic 
Liturgies the Advent it.>ason dates from St. 
MarlUi'a' day (Nuvembur IP,, and includaa 
forty days, which were accounted as a teiaer 
fast among the religious. But the ftret of 
llieee Ave Sundays was retilly oounted ns pre- 
ceding thtt Siindays in Advent, so that there 
wurv only four Bundays counlc^d. The Gal- 
lioan Cnurcb (Ma^n, 681 a.S,) onlered 
Uonday, Wednesday, and Friday lo be oh- 
«urvc)d as fa«ti tn Advniil, but tbe rule was 
diiregarded. In the PrerBfonned English 
L'>>efl, as in the Uallican und Mor.arabio 
Itilci, we Und special Epistle* and Gospels for 
Ibcse davi' Toe obierrancc of Advent In 
the Grwk Church wan probably much later, 
fnr BaUamun (1200 A.t>,} say* " tbe others 
(hosidca the Leiiten fast), n£ the fast of tbe 
>'ui.iTiiy, are each of seven dayx only. Tboe* 
niiinki who fatt forty days, vik., from St. 
Philip (September 14), are bound to this by 
their rul«. Such laics as do the like are Lo 
be praised therefor." 

Advowaon. The right, in England, of 

EntTPnage to a church or an eccTesiasLical 
envflce, and hit who has the right of Advuw- 
80& is called the Patron of tbe Church, 
from hi* obi in t inn to defend the rigbta of 
the Churt'h (rum oppreulon and vh>]oD<'i>. 
For when lords of manors first built 
churcho upon tbeir own deineinca and ap- 
polnti^d the tithes of ih«i« manors to be paid 
to tbe offloiating ministen which were before 
given lo the clergy in common, tha lonJ 
wbo thus built a church and endowed it 





wltb i:Ic1<c lit Uiid bud, or (.'uittm»n righl, • 

piiccr nii[i«ied of iiominuttn^ «u(^h minitUr 

■i*rd iprovidGd be were cunotiicalljr 

to ofiiciftic in tbftt churcb of 

wiinu DO WM tbe founder, L-ndotrpr, muin- 

[_-taiDar, or, in on* word, ihe (>a(rciii. TbU 

_ I U hvnUble, uid i« aublecT to m&ny 

and intrioitc rul«a. (Viiie Burti'i 

■iMtical Law.) 

JBon. ThU h a word wbtcb ha* two lepa- 

itc uu!3>; tba Irun on«, ill omnpction trxiii future life and et»iiilv, Knd ibu other, 

[n wbkh tbo Gnodtic* Mtei it, ptmonif^in}; 

kod dctfying ibeir iuiaginvd tuccceiion of 

mrroviog lonie pbrnHM from Obrii- 

li»n RorelktioD Hod mdding lo Ibem the 

rtldett lmft$ininic*f theGiKuitK'4, wbo were 

^^tber Omnult or Scypliana, pretended to it 

"Iwpar fiiratis thnn tbnl thv Apofitle« lauKbt. 

Tbeir arigiti miint bavp t>*4>ii in Ibe f«ars 

_w»rlv conleinpe'r»rr with the ttoA^ of the 

A.M«tolic L-eoturv, tor w« find iRnAtiui al- 

_|uaing to tfaU word sbortly after tbs dutb 

^f Si. Joba. 

»AcTiana. A im&ll lect, futiuded hy 
Avrluft, M l*ro*bTtM- of tMtbaatc, about 866 
» D- Aerlui, It U *aid, vu disappointed in 
jyat nStalDin^ (be Kpitoopate, and in eonse* 
[iu«iKe t<cnlFd fVxim th« Church and dsnied 
Oia^ therfi mta any diiri-mirn Winreen the 
oflwof a Bitfaop and ihsl of a Presbyter, 
tnomtraat in iho curi' ihut all «th«r scbii- 
oulical or heretical budin bad talcen to 
DC«(ar« at tbe outset Epiaoopal oonsecrallon 
for tbeir minielare, Aorius, by thb, gttte 
i^hst |>ro«f ponibla tbat hitncrlo an un- 
tif'W tuecanlon tnia tbo A]>ottl«( wa« 
'ftr dMtaed eueatial to a true mtcidry, 
«tn bf Iboao who wrm attacking that very 
BdmntT at tbe ministry iticlf. Tko sdc't 
U mt fa«( very ton);. 

ASections. Tbn Afftii-tion*, tis love, jov, 
pt( eager, Jeaiouty, arv nl«o called tbu 
•(*Uafi. Ln later Kligious teacbing tbey 
■nvadt tbe b«*f« of (bH>l9et« lyitetni to a 
■■cfc licger extent than ibe New TtuUnJuiit 
tinuii. Feelini; cannot bo called into 
T*^«T iMttitv without a UM (rightly or 
"■valjt of the Keaaon. At tnen raaion 
■«« p«c»d«, to baM rellfpon upon feellnc, 
n\A may or mav nnt havo any tru<> depUi 
In Hparale individual iialunn, in to builtl 
>n»° tbt ibiftinK sand. The value of tbe 
AITuiau '>r F'-ulinffi cannot bfl OT»r««ti- 
'oukI in their true ^lace, but thoy mutt bo 
•nV)rdittated to tbo rmifon, and must not 
••T'llie f«^ nHion of consdcnce, a danger 
kM u rerv imminent In all enthosiastlc 
't>Bt „t rvlitinn. Thp inspired teacbcr* 
'tvr Kpfioaltid in the flr*t inKlanc* to the 
•Iwiidiia; oar, tbey «{iea)i rery ttroncly 
">'» the need of controlling tbem. Tha 

C pilar evnftuik<n of tbe principloi and doc- 
tx* of Cbriailauily, and ino enthuied 
^iJAbw of tbem, lends to a fake compre- 
"•*>■ of the trne Chrwlian »t»to. Ac- 
*wfiag to a very oarnmon confusion, a per- 
*^ it not a true Chri*lian udIbsi h«i bat 
<*niiB «i|Mrienc» or feeling* overlooking 

th« triu bail* in tfa« gifl« and adoption by 
OoD in theChiireh. A German ecliDul or 
Pieliscn baa endeavored to ibelter n'tigion 
from ihn attacka of wpoacnls by withdraw- 
ing it iato tba provfne« of Feeling. Tha 
fciny of making Seltglon wholly a iiaie of 
exjjerience or Bplriliial Judgment U evident 
by inalituitng tbe iligatott compariwn ba< 
tween the dogmu and biatory of the Mtw 
TealameDt and tbe fanciful notions of lh« 

Affinity. Tbe relalion«bi^i contracted br- 
Iweena husband and bli wife'& blood rela- 
tions. By tba old Canooi illicit inten'ourfO 
alio resulted in affinity. Within oortniii de* 
greea the IKvlne Law (In tbe I8ih cb. of Le- 
viticus) has fnrbiddoD nuirriiiro with a wirv'4 
rolulione. Tbe Table of Kindred and Affin- 
ity, which is Canon Law in Rn^'land, doM 
not bind the Church in Ameriui, tbimgli va- 
tbe Bouse of BiabuptderUrcd (General Con- 
vention of 180S) that it ouchttoboobMrved 
By till- ulj Luu- (.Imi- Ctid.) u kind ut «pir 
itu»i allliiity was cftrHtwl between tbe s]>on 
•or* and tbe adult or tbo infant bAiitiscd 
and marriago was consequently forbidden. 

Atruaion," vitU Baftuu. 

AgapB. The feasU of L-harity, St. Jude 
v. I2i St. Peter ii. 18. They had tbftir ri«« 
in Ibe eommunity of goods mentioned in 
Acts il. 44, and a« tbe snaring d( nil ibings 
in eommon could not be (wiitiutied wbun 
the eociety became too numeruu^, auch a 
feast for the poorer members would Lei-oiue 
a (ubstitulo which could cxprpu well tbe 
fellowtibip and love between Cbriitluni of 
all ranks. Si. Paul d««<.Til>es but duM not 
■o deaignate a feast of this kind. It Ixvamo 
very popular and apread throu^bout tbo 
Oburvb. Plidy may ref*r to it in hi" rmn-.m 
l«n«r lo Trajan . . . " that they, Utt-r in tlm 
day, partook In common uf a simple and in* 
nocent meal." Ignatius ipeaki of it. Ter- 
lullian alio, in tbo next ci>ntury ; Cleuieot 
|192 A.D.) also spnaks uf the luxury which 
was introduced inlo the foul* wbioh wera 
int•^nded lo bo for the poor, and at simplo 
and temperate at became Cbrietians. U'-at, 
wine, flBD.cbeotO, brvad, milk, nouUry, made 
np the articles uiuhIIv furniibed by the richer 
fur tbe poorer broth reii. The nul tiauuf tbe 
fesst was not tbe relief to tbe »c«dy, for 
that could be and was attained bv clbor 
■gencie*, but at a living proof of tne com- 
mon brothorhood. Thif common bond w tit 
lost light of «i the Church e^ew in wealth 
and drew into it the wealthy upper clanet. 
Astetic ideas, too, and iho prnctii-n of fbsting 
bpfor*! Communion, and lite abuae* readily 
growinK up about these Feasta of Charity. 
would lead to their disu*c and abolithmant. 
Wbcu tboy Uailly di*ap]n:Bred is not prob- 
ably to be atcertaloed now, buL traces of the 
practice survived in Kgypl till nor the clmn 
of the Itfth century, and the Council in 
TruUo {602JL.D.I forbid* them, though no 
other notice of them at that dal« U fiiutA. 

Ageoda. A term menning TVvb^\o^M 




i]nne, in itiiiirtL-tiun fruiti ThInM Ld l>c Iw- 
li«red. It uauallj meant the illvinc offlc-ro 
M in th« Council «r Carth«|;B (890 a.D.) aod 
lanocont I. ^ivp ad DcH^L'utlum, though lU 
f;«numeneM li now quMtiooed.) Lalurly, 
Bc in Uede, It meant specially Gomtnamciim- 
lion of thed^iid. 

AgnoaticisRi (frum Llio nugative purtkle 
a iind . >. -' ., I know I 16 a modem word 
n<pn«(-iiliiii; a riirm of pnilostnilij' wliirU liaa 
MtlAiiivd a Midu Hccs)itBiice tvttfa iuiiie men 
uf cullivated intellect. U ifc fairly describwl 
in th« following icotcnottf taken from ]'Te- 
b«ndnry Row'a " Il«veluiioi) and Mudern 
'J'hQulogy ConiriutM],"Loi>duQ, lMS,p.S88: 
■Thi* philunnphy muiiiUiim tb at while be- 
lief In Ibe cxiat«nce of a Gnt oauia of the 
univon«, wblcb it deeignntea Oou, is a ne- 
casaliy of thought, yat tlii> Unit cvuii-, or 
QoD, owiag to lltu limitaiiuni uf tht^ liuiuan 
inballMt, must fbrever remuiu unknown and 
nalntowkhU to m&n. In other word*, tfast 
It U InipoMlb'lo to alBrm of it a tntgh' nitrl- 
biiT«; and tbat to auert that il puh^eHei 
|)«n«na]ity, rolilion, intvlligenuc, nr n moral 
cbaract«r IK nothine clno than anth roponior- 
pbism, by which IB mosnt thai to aBcribe 
8iicb cnncnpiion*, being purtlt/ Aui»tiM, to the 
flnit cauiRof tb« univt'ne is (Imply lu munu- 
Eacture a God after our own likoncec. Tbe 
God pf tbi< inl«iB, th«re(br*, while the w- 
aumptlon of IJi!i exUlence tatlsflM an Intol- 
leotual neceaalty, ia pTK'ticljr tbe bami; for 
alIiuor»lpurp(M«aiif Uecxixtcd noL [Vid* 
Athsi^U.) For anything that wt- can know, 
Ho U incapable of caring for uj or rcRurdinf; 
our conduct, and we, in like mannoc, may 
bolh live and die withuut any rpgHrd for 
TTim." Whiln this eubllu pliitiWHphy i^ ajK 
]>Arently more modcBt tliun ntboius, imd to 
tbat dt<en>a leu offensive to tbn cullivatPd 
tule of intullwlual men, it la plain Trum tbe 
above deacripUon that iL ia abiolulely a>nti- 
Chriitian. ( Kii« ATtiimu. Sc«nUo*'A(;- 
DMticUm: A Doetrlnvof Despiiir," bvFret- 
Idenc Poner, of Yale Colloge, in tbe lerie* 
of " Prewnt-Dnv TracU." London, The 
Religious Tract 'So<^iotv.) 

Bbv. ^au. Hakrisov. 

Aeiiua Dei. I. Thn wonbi with whluh 
St. John Baiillat jpolntod out Jpjirs to Hi* 
ditripltM — " Jlehotd tbi^ Lamb of Uon which 
takelh away lbs lin of Ibo world" — wot 
very nHiimlljr and d«vuut1y \ubA in i>ie 
liUirgic wonbip. It wa» incorpomtvd into 
(htt glorioua bymn ''Cilnria in Esoolaia," 
fixind al the end of St. Clement of Alex&n- 
dria'$ worke (192 a.ii.), and now in our 
Prnt'er-ftiok. It wa* uUo u*c(l ai a venlcln 
ditnng tbe celebntion of tbu Ili>ly Com- 
munton, at tbe time of coniecraiing the 
ftlomenu, and be^-amt common during 
tb« BiMdiK*aI age*. But the Enrli'b Vt« 
dropped it, Lbough it i* being rprived In 
many f>!ii<-ca. 

II'. A medallion of was itamp^d with the 
afle; of a lamb. Il was an aiici(>nl cuttom 
to aidritute to wonbipen on lh« flr«t Sun> 
day aflpr Kuler particleaof wax taken fr<>:ii 

tbe Paichal taper, which bad been colemnly 
bleteed on the £nitcr-(.-ve of the previuui 
year. ThcM particle* woroburned in houses, 
flcldi, or vi&flyardi to locutv them ai^init 
evil indtiencL' or tbundcr-ctroke*. In Boi 
tt«vir, bnwovpr. inotvad of ■ Paachal (speryl 
the urchdearun wai anrtiitomed to jirouoiincv' 
a benediction over a mixture of oil and wax, 
from wbiuh fmall tncdulUons were made 
bearing tbe flf[ur<' of n lamb, to be distrib- 
uted to tbe people on tlie finl Sunday after. 
Eaator,c»pCciHlly to Ihc newly baplit^. la 
modern timei tbi« benediction of the Agnxa 
Dei U r«u!rvod to tbe Po(>e bJniK«lf, and 
take* place in the Drsi year of hit pontlfl- 
cate and i-very acvcnlb vcar following. 

Alabama, Diocese of. On Monday, Jan- 
unry 26, l^l>, a meeting of tbe memben 
and friondi of tbe Protnaiant Epiacopat 
Cburcb in lb« State of AluWina wa> held 
in the city of Mobile, for "the purpose ol 
giving a mora efficient and prrniancnt char- 
acter to lla initllutlanti, and for thu betUr 
admin ill ration of it« rite* and ordlnaneea." 
Tbi« wam* t<> huvo bi-en tbe Orac vtep taken 
towards organizing the OioctM. Two cler- 

Stneu of ihe Church were tfaen llnni; in 
I State, — the Rer Mr. .Sfanw in Mobile, 
and tbe Rev. Mr. Mulli^r in TunlinlfH^a, — and 
both were preeent at this meeting. It also 
appears that tbo Kt. Kcv. Biibop Srownell, 
of Conueclluut, and tbe Rev. 'WnHam RUb- 
moud, of flew York, were in Mobile at tba* 
time, end wnrc inritL'd to be present. Binbup 
KrowncU, by special request, presided ovet 
the me«iing. 

The Diocceo was formally oreanlned fay 
tbe adoption of a comtilutinn, wbich r*ccw- tne aiitbcirity of the Church in tne 
United Statoi. After tbia was done, a rceo- 
lulion wax pasied looking to tbe formation 
uf a Southwestern Oiucsce, to be oonipoaed 
of the Dioceses of Utasiaaippi. Louisiana, 
and Alabama. Aftor ooireapondence bo- 
twe«n tbe parlies Interested In this, a nuoi- 
her of clergy and laity, duly eleciM to rerv 
rpsent their scrnrvl Sut*-*. ax.'HTinblrd in 
Christ Church, New Orleaoi, on the <th at 
March, 188fi. Their object irai to Mean 
ibu |iri7i1ago granted oy a Canon of (be 
General Convention of lS33, which Canon 
was rzpreMod in Ibe following words: "Tbe 
Uioccsca of Miwissippi and Alabama, and 
tba Clergy and Churvhes in tbo State ul 
L<nniiiana, are hereby nitihorized to associate 
iindjoin in thu election of a Ui^hop, anv- 
thing in the Canons of tbii Church to tfio 
contrary notwithstanding : the said aaiocia- 
lion to bu diiBotvt^ on ihn demise of tbe 
Biahop, and not before, unlcaaby tbe consent 
of Oeneral Convention." Actitur under tbe 
authority of sucb Canon, this Conv«ntion 
unanimously elected the Rev. Fraaci* L. 
Hawk*. 1> D., of St. Thomas' Cburcb, New 
York, l(i!ihi>|i of tbi* Southwastern Diocese ; 
but, in i-vmi^^uenco of the repeal of said 
Canon by a snci-wdlng General Convention , 
Ihit plan was abandon od. 

llta Conventlan of Alabama whi< h 

met in Tatk»lotiM, on the Sd of Januurr, 
lUI, laviiad Biihop Browncll lo tHltD 
ehATmot pariiho* in ihU SUttti, utidur thx 
nrnvuloiii uf CftDou 20 of th« Ghurvb In tlia 
United HtAtM, kod to perform luch Epiico- 
pAl »r*fcet M might b« required. TliU 
iBTltaUoii wu acoepled, and the Bishop 
roBatnad in official charge of thii t>iocei« 
aDtU IfMO, at which time b« rMuwtod to b« 
n)li«T(td. B«tweea 1RSI mud 1840 Biahop 
Brovacll paid at l«ut two vitiuto Alabama, 
Ha nrvsidwd at tba CnnTimtion which mm 
in Tualialooaa in 1885, confli-Tti«d aevenil 
penona, mod coosecniled tho church in that 
cit; ; and a{;aifl in LB37, adminittwod «on- 
flnnaitoD in the dty of tfobilo. 

Id i9M, biahop Oiej*, of T«i][i«M«ei, acting 
tor Bubup Browncil, viatt^ thcSUtn; nnd 
fn 1688, Bub«p Kciapar, at tliQ inTiiatlon ot 
Bishop Ot«T, performM wvwal Spiacopal 
acU in tba DioeatQ. 

In 1840 the Mooaaa wai pliic«<d under ibo 
oAcial charge of the Rt. Rer. Bishop Polb. 
wko toade two Ttiiti to tho Diocuc, and 
preoUed at the Convention of ISiS. 

fit the Tear 1942 tb« Rev, Martin P. 
Park*, of Virginia, at thnt time Chaplain 
■1 the MiliUr/ Acaderar at W«*t Point, 
vac elwted Bifbop, but declined to tehe 
cbar^ of the Dlocoair. In 1R4S iho Rev. 
JaiEMa T. Johnston, of Virginia, urn* duly 
elected Bitbep, but declined to accept the 

At a Convention held In Oreeniboru', 
Alabama. In 1844. the Kev. N. U- Cohba, 
O.D., of Ihe Diocese of Ohio, woa elected 
Btafaopvr AUbama. The Rur. Dr. Uot>b« 
a oae pte d tbe election, wai oonaecratcd tn 
Ootober, 1644, and came at once to hti worli 
la tb« Di(>c«*e. 

At the Conrention of IMS, tbe firat one 
Md after Bithop Cohb* took charga ef the 
IHaeaii, the number of olerj^'y irntilled to 
*«ati waa 17 ; at tfae Convention of 1800, the 
laal utM at which Ihia Bishop wiu praent, 
tba nunber canonlcallr connected with tfae 
Dk*e«w waa 32. Tbe kbon of this BIsbop 
were v»r/ gnatljr blesaed ; the number of 
biaclerg; raptdljr incraaaed, and fats Dioceae 
vaa always a faciOMhold at uniljr witb Itself. 

BUbop Cobbe died in January, 1861, and 
oo Ifaj 9, ISQl, tlM Annual Convention of 
the IHocnae aneinbled in Bt. John's Ofaurcli, 
MofttMOierj. Failing to agree in Lhechoice 
«f ft Blsbop tb« Convontjon adjourned to 
mi^aLin Sclnui, <jn Tburcdav, yoverober 21, 
]M1 ; andraaasemblinfrat the lime and place 
appuinled.tboRov. Kichard Hooker Wilmer, 
U.l>.. of tbe Diocue of Virginia, woa unanl- 
niooalv alacted Biibop of Alabama, Tbe 
R«r*. Dr. WilmiT accept^ ihi* Qleclirin, 
and waa oomKraliHl In SL Paul'* Church, 
Riebmond. Va , March 6, 1802, Ihe Bt. Bev. 
WUltsm Jleade, D.D., Bishop of Virginia, 

iRl Rev Jribu Jobnii, Aw>isiRni Bisbop 

fftglnia, and the Kt. Rev. Stephen Elliott, 

Biafaop of (JcoKiu, uniting in thU 

BtUnt. When the war awled thit 

Protmlaiit Episcopal Church in the Ciiilod 
Stales, and tiie Biabop of Alabnma took hia 
luui with bis breiliren in tbe House of 

Biibop Wilmcr c&mc at onoc to his Pio< 
cese, anii in Ood's providenea haa been 
spared to labor continuously in this portion 
of the Master's vineyard. 

In 1867 the subject of a Dioceaan Bebool 
for Qfria was brought btfori; tho Convention 
in Ibo Bishop's address, and tho action wbl-cb 
ihc-n began tduUnd in lli'ii piirchnsci of n lot 
near the city of UoutKumrry, and the emc- 
tion of a suitable building, caliv'd Uumner 
Unit. This property was managed for a 
lime by a separate board of truiiece, then 
by St Johns Parish, Montgomery, and 
lliially cjimc tnU> Ihe poniewion of the Dio- 
cese. The fchool li now in a very Sourlsh- 
Ing condition, under Ihe charge of B«T. 
Oirargu H. Bvvrhart, D.D. 

Oil the aame lot It a large and handaoma 
brich home, known formerly as the Bishop 
Cobbs Uomo for Orphans, which house u 
also tbe property of the Diocese, and Is r9> 
served n* tbe residence of tbe Allure Bishops 
of Alnt'iimn. 

In 1864, Bishop Wilmer issued a Pastoral 
Letter urging upon the Diocese (he eetab- 
lisbneiit, of a Hnm« for Widows and Or- 
pbaiis, which should be under the care of a 
Siiiorhood of Deaconesses. The plan was 
approved by tbe Convanlion, and steps wera 
taken to carry It Into effecL A tern orphans 
wero eollectad at Tutkalnn<a, but they were 
soon removed to Mobile, and to this number 
were added the tnmales of tbe Bishop Cnbba 
Home at Montgoraery. A buitditiK was 
purrbiut^ in wblch were placed a number 
of orphan girl*. As neceasity requimd it, a 
atniilar Home was fUTniehedfor bov«i both 
Homes bving under the care of tue Dea- 
conaasaa. Tat liberality of Church |>oop1e, 
almost esclualTely of Mobllo, has enabled 
tho manoeers not only lo provide comfort- 
ably for lAese orphans from day to day, but 
also to lay up funds for future use; the 
property of the Home amounting, in 1688, 
to tl 6.769.29, 

In 1646 there waa formed a Society for the 
Relief of Disabled CUrgymen, ana of the 
Widows niiJ Orphuns of DecMsad CWrvy- 
wen. This society has pteierved lu exist* 
eoce under several changes of constitution. 
nod BOeffls destined to bo the moani of do- 
ing much good. It holds property to tha 
amount of |l3,108.42. 

In 1884 an olfort wa* mudc tn si^rure a 
Bishop's Fund. Three trustees were ap- 
pointed to receive a gift of land oflotwl by 
Jnt'ob Lnrillard, Ksa-, of Kew Viirk Ciiy, 
for tbe benefit of a fbnd whoae annual in- 
tereat would in time be lufflcieot to support 
the Btahop of the Diocese. ThU fund is 
managed by three trustees, who are ol«oted 
annuity by iba Convention, and its prop- 
rrlv now nmmints to (29,862. 

VTom 1830 to 1814 the variotu npvrU 




conflrmitlloni, 108; mftrriagw, 194; fixaw- 
bU. iX4. 

Ftum 1844 to 1801, baptiftn*. C498-, oon- 
Srni&Liout, 2861; mftrmgei, 1462; ruaer*!*, 

From 1861 to 1883, bkptinins, 10,720 ; oon- 
SrEnkdou, 07C8 ; marriiigM, 2558 : funeroli, 

Total baptismt. 18,068; wn firm alio us, 
9387 1 nMrrWca, 8831 ; funonU, 7785. 

Dmooiu ordatned from 1840 lo 1861, 28. 

Print* " " " " 28. 

0hurcliF>cnn9Ccnt«d" " " 14. 

Deacons ordalnsd " 1661 to 1888, 26. 

Printts " *• " " 17. 

CburcUmconiiMiratvd'* ■* " If). 

Total dMoani urdidnCNl, 64. 
'• priMte " 48. 

" ' cbiiruh<.-«cDaMicriit«d, 88. 

Th« prMMit cuodkioii of l}i« DiocOMt h 
butt exnlained by citiug ■umc wordi from 
the ftddrcM of Di»hop Wilmer to the Con- 
van tioa of 1882: 

" W« huve paisod thrDugh n irrDnd r«To- 
tulUin, •(icinll^ ond poliJiciilLy. In tiuw of 
ktl thiLi Liu tnkvii plnco during tbv Ivt 
twenty yann, tb« woitdfrr witb me is ihHt so 
much liiu b«en ■ccomnlUtaed b; our people, 
under every puuihlu dixadvuitagv and du- 
oonmgvment. Wo have 1o«t a large nunibor 
of our propio by emigral-ion to cnorc fertile 
t«rritonet. CoHiroro the number of con- 
flrtuHtiiini rppurted fur the Wt Ivrenty yean 
with till-' niunbiir of oiinimunicanu at nre»- 
ent r«]u>rl(Kl, und it will be leen how large 
B numlKT iiiiiAt liav(! ccnjarated froDi tne 
bt4it«. And the clerey, flndlnic no luffldent 
uiaintonnnca, h»v« fiillowcd ths tide of pop- 

" Tiiii stat«naent followiiif; will ibow, at a 
gUnco, how the «largy have b«en affacltd Dy 
the flucluatloiu of tne Uinua : 

Vo. of olitKrouaiilcallj rwlikinlln ihaDlacaM 

HmcIi l^ ISC£ „ _ S4 

Vo. of clsrju duaaddMl ttrimnlai from uthw 

Wooii*^ -- - 4U 

Xo. «f elmntf ttar* aildad lijr CMIumIod bi lM%- 
eaoMta.. _. _ _... tt 

— n 

Vo. of etvrEj at U17 tlu* BoacKtwl «ri(b DliMMt — 
mac* «bova ibte.... _......_..._--..... lofi 

Kv-of clxc'dt'*! *t>ilin riBldadt In Ulua«M.« 8 
Ku. iitcltHj tD«i(tBr[*il 111 nthar Dlomn ilan 

ijM* _....... _ „„...__ H 

Ko- uf cl*rE7 depavHl ilncc ■btiT*ilKl*.......~— 8 

^ TT 

Ob* uniln •uapvodim, imbw not rapcirt*d...-._. 1 

I>t^u1 nuiolnf r«i>>>rt>< - ..^ ST" 

There baa b«eii a itrurtg teind«ncy on the 
pari of the ^leople U> leave tbe country 
and make lh«r homoi in the citioi, and in 
Goni«queDi», while (ho city puriibM have 
rapidly iDor»a*«4] in numbers, the country 
paritlirai bare langtiiiihrd, und, in lome in- 
fttancn, diial. But there •c«rns to be a briebl 
Aitun in store for thU Dioeete. Th« nek 
uA\ and minpml wealth of the State are be- 
ginning to altrairl allanlion, and with tho 
return of prosperity the Church will go for- 

ward, wUh froifa vigor, in the diMharco ol 
her work. RicCARD H, Cobbs, I>.1>. 

Alb. fiWr VxNTMKX'ni. 

Albany, Diocese of. HuUtr}/.~~Tha Dio- 
cese of Albany, furminK & ptrt of th« f>uu> 
of >fuw York, voiiiiru of ninctten countieti 
which c<jmprii«d tbe old Norlhnrn Convo- 
cation. ThpM couDtiea are Albany, Clin- 
ton, Columbia, Uoliiware, Emcx, FtRnklin, 
fulton,Ote«no,Hiiuiiltiin, Ucrkimer, Mont- 
gomery, Otsego, liemi^elunr, Saraloi[a,^b9- 
neclndy, Schonnrifi, 8t. Lairrence, Warren, 
and WuhiiigtiMi. It embriwt* within iti 
limits 20,888 »anM« mUai, &nd, according 
to tilt) cnniui of 1880, hn« a population of 
949, MA *uuU. Its territory i> divvniRnJ 
by laka and rircr, mountmn and vnllt^y, 
foreat and plain; wtiil« tbo great Adirun- 
dack WildernoM, witli its woiidurful r«- 
sourcM, lim in its bosom. It has also such 
riiinoiiM KUTninw marts as Lebanon and 
Ri'TliSeld Hpriugs, Luxarnfl and Scharon, 
Lake (jeoTt;e and Saraioga. The Diooma 
(ak«« its name from tlie eapiUil of the Stfit«, 
which is also tlie resldencn of the Bishop. 
It was carved out of the Uioccse of New 
Y<^rk, logetlicr with Long UUnd, in ibo year 
1808, by ac't vf tlie Oenura) Cunvi-ntton. lU 
primnry Convention, pursuant to the call of 
tlie RL Rev. Uoratio Poller, U.D., LL.D., 
D.C.L., Bishop of New York, mot Id Iha 
city of Albuiy, in St. Pewrs Church, on 
OtfceinW- 2, 18Q8. Tliir Dixhop of Xew 
York preaidod and preiwliMl tbe sarmon. 
Amon^ the visiting olergy wu tbe KL R«v. 
Henry La^oclJes Jonnar, D.D., Lord Bishop 
u( Dutiiiijiji, N«w Zealand. Uu the Koond 
day of the Convention, Deieailwr 8, 1h« 
Rev. William Oroswell Doane, 8.T.D., Bac 
tor of 81. Peutr's Church, Albany, was 
cbo=en Bithop. His ooDsecratioo tooK placa 
ill th« «ama church on the Feast of the Fu- 
rifluntiiiii in 1859, llio pmurhor U>iDg Kt. 
Rev. W. H. UdenhAimer, V.D , Bishop of 
JJow Jurtey. The BiEbon of Mow York 
was ihe Cvnswralur, and was aaaictod by 
the Bishops of N«w Jersey, Malna, Mis* 
aouri, and Long Island. Under tbe wise 
manwement of BUbop Doane tbe DtocMa 
of Albany hns been steadily iDoreailnff Id 
ttrangtb and influence. At tbe line of lu 
orgaulxatioii in 181^8 Ihom wnr« 78 clargy- 
men belongini; U> it. In 1878 tliei^ were 

117, and in I888 than were 123. la IMS 
Ifaer* wiare 9A oburvhas, In 1878 tbara wara 

118, and in 1883 there w«rc 122. 
There were reported from 16 churcbca : 

OsptUwi. OvnAnnsllaiis. Ooaoiuttksak 
InlMa..-. .. lUT 7W iMl 


lulRKt. ITm VST ISjOlB 

In 18«8 Ihe offoringt were $118,4Xr67( 
Id 1878, 1280,400.06; and in 1888 ihoy were 
9206,928.62. In sonio par{»b<is now oliurchaa 
bare lakco the place of old ones, whila 
In other* tho »ld have been renovated. 
Churvh property also of jrwit value haa 
b)frn a(<c]uired fur miuion work And otbiar 
religiou* purposes. Offorings an madei^^J 



til* fbllowfog objects, u requlrwl b,v Canon : 
DioceaaQ Fund, MiMion* of tba Dioc«te, 
A$»A tnd Inflrm Oleivy, W14ow« tnd Or- 
lm«t of DecMted CWjiytnen, Bible and 
Ootamat) Pr»yt>r-B™>k Soristy "f Albany, 
B|ii3<^(i|wl Piiiii), Mlary of tbe Biiihop, 
EdiKwtton of Younc Mon U'T the Ministry, 
Orpluui Houro of tav H"ly I^«viDur, !><>- 
Bmiie MUatoiu, Furi'l^ii Miniuii*. Off«r- 
inn u* also prOBented by the Bundav- 
KftooU of tb« DIoMM for Ulfi Uhild'i 
'tMuvM. — Tli« chMghtry of tho DiocetQ 
Ita mimmi work. Undvr Ibii «n«rgvitic 
iMdenhlpof tliu Bbhup, who muit be tbe 
gT«it minionary, tbe Cbarch it ci tended f&r 
and wide, and itio ibing* tliat remain nrq 
itr«agtbened. There *r« about ninety raia- 
«loo aUtiona recciring aid from the Board 
of Mifftoas, and the mm of 110,000 Is appro- 
tiriat«d aaBually for ihis work. The Board 
II ooinprM*d of the Biaho)!, Kr-nifUiw presi- 
Amt, and five other clergymen, and flvo 
Etymea cho.iea by tb« Conreatton. 

Cbno^nrion.— "fbt Conrention meeti an- 

niwlly on the firai Tueidsy aft«r the flnt 

Sunday after iht> Kpiphany. Where, ttie 

Blafaop d<4ormin«». Elilhcrto UiQ citiea uf 

Albao; ftnd Trov have iti&nMl ihe tionurt of 

Ik* m«e>tinFi. I'hU b'>dy i» c-oiiipo«ed, Brat, 

«f the Biihcip; Mirondlv, of all rlergymen 

CBiionically reaidenl williin Lbo DioceM for 

tix months pr«viou« to Convenllon, rvttric- 

lioa of time not to up^dy li> reotori dulr 

elveted, or minionarieA dulv appciintod ; aful, 

tbtrdly, to three lay dele)tal*>i from the 

0«Ui«drftl Mid three Iny delogatce from each 

Cborch in uoion with the CoaveDtlon. Tho 

^ala^taa must be, in all cai««, oommoni- 

cmnta. The MMion* usually Inst two darn. 

Tbe permaneut offit-era of tha Dioiue urn 

*\m Buhop, a Standing C<>mmittce, a Secro- 

tsrv, a Treaiurer, aiid ■ Ro^Utrar. 

(TamvocaHtiiu. — The Dluvta \i divld^l into 

-diatrictJt callnl ConvoonLiont. the Iit1«« and 

liaits of wblvb are lu follow* : The Convo- 

«Mtiun of Albnny compriMi the ociuntiea of 

Altmny, Orocna, Oolurabia, Sch«n«:l«i3y, 

3Uonte<>'nery, Pultun, Hamilton, and Uer- 

Icimer ; tbc Convocation of Troy, the <wun- 

Ctca of KeiUMlur, Saratofa, Wafhiog-lon, 

'Warreo, Clinton, and Bm«x; the Convoc^a- 

tioD of snaquahanaa, the countlea of Dela- 

■Wftre, OlMco, and Schoharie ; the Ooavock- 

Uon of O^ensburR, tbe countiw of St. 

Ijawrane* atvd Pranklin. Th« BUhop i» 

head of <«ch Convocalion nr-o^fin, and the 

«x«eutivfiofflc4.-r lean Arcbil«*cun,B|ipo)iited 

aanuailT by tho Uinliop, oa Ibo noiDinalJan 

of the Cofi rucatloa, from among it* ilutsy. 

Two mmtint:* are reaaired eikch year hy 

Oanon. Oth«r« may be b«ld by order of 

OMTocalton. The worli of thii Coaroca- 

tl«u la aMrially mimioDary in ite character. 

Other Ia*titutloiii uf lb* Diomho are the 

Bible aud Common Prayer- Book HociutT of 

Albany and it* vidnity, inci>r|>or&ted in 

M30^ St. Axiiw' Sclioot for Oirlt, locat«d 

ia Alhaay, with the Dlihop ■< Ruclor, and 

twenty^tlx tcachert and ofSci'rt ; IIk Child's 
iloapilal, Albany, with bntnch Home for 
Con m let emu at Sttraton in tb« nimmcr; 
tho Orphan Ilouto of Uifl Holy Saviour, 
tV.optTMowf n ; St. John's Clnr^y Houta, 
Eitdt Line, incorporated in 1^1 ; Hi^me of 
tb« QoaA Shepherd, SaratogiL :^)ringe, ineor- 
poratod ID 1869; the Cburcb Hoinn, Troy. 

The SiJilcrhood of the Uoly Child Jeaua 
hai iu headquarten at Albany, and ii under 
the direction of the Biahop of Albany. Tba 
Siit«n arc at work in Su Acnoe' 8cbo«l, 
and in chnre« of thu Child'n Hoapftal, 
Albuny, and th« Child'* Convaleaccnt 
Hnnin* 8arnUiKa Springs. The Cathedral 
BuildinK of All-Saints, which bai bwn 
the tireani of the Biiihop for yoart, will 
»oon crown tbe commanding sile choaen 
forit. A large lot haa be«n socured in tha 
city of Albany, north of tho Canltol, and 
n«Ar tit. Agow' School and Dio old chapel, 
which haiaoneeoodnHrvic .AhontfT.'i.oOO 
are in hand, ana the wor-lc i> to be iltliKanllr 

Eroiecuted. Thtt ^nd edifice, which will 
B built of etone, will be an ondnrinK mon- 
ument of the xaal and labors of the flrat 
Biibop of Albany. Bithop Doane, on 
whom ba.t fallen the mantlt-npirit of his 
■ainted father, a former Bishop of Xvv 
Jertey, U In bis visot and munly prime, 
and 11 noted fnr ht* ripe vrbolanihip, hi* 
fhciln pen, hi* ^ft* as a preeiding officer, 
hlB eloqueaco u & preaehfr, and bis large- 
nM« of heart. Hs reuelved the dogrea of 
T>->ctor of Laws a few yeara a^ f^m Union 
L'riiveriity,— a Just r«cognItion of his ability 
and suptrW tnfenta. 

S-mrcf.i f-f /n/oi-wafioM.— Journall of Gen- 
enil Convoiilion, JriuruaU of Contention of 
the Ulooeie of Albany, Constitution and 
Cnnoni of tbe J>ioc««e of Albany, T«ar- 
Book* of the Church, and porsonal knowl- 
edgi!' Rbt. JoHEPii C*R«T, D-D. 

Atbate. A lort of Cbridiiin lierinib, so 
callc'd frum the whitu lini^n tbey wore. 

Alexandria. Vidt KAarxH-t CaURcaBS. 

Aleaandria, School of. Every church 
bitd iw L-nt^ctieticMl school, somewliat (M»r»- 
■ponding to our conBrmation chuMi, but 
with mart deflnlteneaa of orgaalsaUon, and 
some provition was mudo for toe oducailoo of 
Chrixtian cbildrun, hut no church ever |Hia- 
seised a* famous a school a* thai at Alexan- 
dria. Itt foundation is obscure, though as- 
cribed to rjt. Mark, and the list of Its earliest 
master* I* very doublftil till we reach Pant»- 
nut, who was at its head about 179 a.d. He 
wasasa heathen an ealcrlic, but brouf-hl his 
phiioiophical studies to the service of the 
Churcli. In suoh a eity at Alexandria hi* 
ability would be very usufVil in attmotlng 
many to hts lecttirea. When h« wnsieaton 
hi* miMion to the Indians (probably to 
Lybia), dementi who wm most likely of 
Roman extraction, himsplf in onrty li^ an 
cnthusiaitic itiidvnt of pbiloiuipby,and Inter 
a devout Chrivtiou, ducc-Mded faim. His 
works, tha ■■Cobortatio,""FBdag9fiu*i" Mid 
the ■■Stromatu," dismirslvaeollectloasof his 




ledum, protMbty h\*rtl upon b Wo«« outline 
of Ibii Apottolic cnnitilutiuiia, ftre ■ vftlu- 
.frbis picture 4f bow &t a publJo leclutor 
vpoa Chmtiim (op'c* o»u1a gu boforo > 
Diinl fludteiicw. T)iu admlnlttrativeabUitj' 
of tbe Bisbup Demetriut ui«d botfa Pantie* 
nuR and bis ttro tucnmon wltb great wU- 
dom t]U Doitwtriue f^tl oat vltb Origon. It 
b Hid Uut bvfora Dcinfltriut't ttm« the 
Chuivb <^ Alexandria bad do depcndenctei^ 
but rrom tbo date ot PunUenua'B mlsaion, 4ind 
froni the fame and luoceai ot the »cbool, 
MOB S*M WVK nddod upon S«m, till Alcmn- 
dria was at tba bead of a larga ptovEriL-e. 
Orlgca, who lucceedcd to Panlienu*, who 
raunted bit pMt upon bi> miurn, brought, 
p«rfaap«, tbe loflleil abilities jfit uf«d fur 
tbe ta*k. Aduiiantin» io enduntncf, with a 
mind capacious of all initruction, n mutor 
of tba dori^lunt, no moao critio, be wki d&- 
TOt»d to bit Bchool. Hii puculiar notiooE, 
probtibly tnorv iipoculativoly bald tliaii otbvr- 
wU«, gava a otjIurEetjr that paiued hiiu , »iiic«i 
tbojr were rather qucatioiis far debat* in bis 
schuol thun formulated dogma*. At hay 
ralo, th?y wore fastened upon him. la an 
botir ijf eiilhitited f^ar for blnxelf and his 
inBueiicp in tbe school h« iDutila.trd him- 
self, giving a wrong interpretation to our 
Loao'B wordf [Uatt. kix. 13). T)iv ad 
diskblad bim from ordiiiiitivn. When, th«u, 
b« racaivtd ordiniitiuu un a visit lo Pales- 
tineiooiktrarjlo lbs Canons, bis JlUbop Looli 
hi* oScf a* cat«chisl from blm. Thesobool 
bocani* of lea* imporlanoe lat«r a* tbe adults 
to bo prepared for Iwptiini and conflrmation 
grew rarer, but it nurtured ■ spirit of di»- 
puio whicli produced Ariuii, tbe famous hero- 
tie, wbo, bowevcr, bad rMolvad bis dialwiiu 
training from Lucian, of Aiiiioch. Tlw 
M'bool was Qnullv L-liBi-d hy becoming a mere 
niimin^-^oboul for the young to bo prepared 
fur bapiiim and coiiUritialton. It is not 
wortli tbo while to give tbo names of iu 
later iiiastors save on«, Didymus, who wils 
loUlly blind (S40-S9& a.d.}. 
AUenAtlon Is, in ebuich matters, tbe im- 

£ roper diiposal of such lands or goods u 
are been given to the Cburdi for wicred 
•nd devout uses. It has always been deemed 
ainhil lo apply such mean* or property to 
vlhcr thiin direct Church needs. It was 
bardly an allenalioti in cbl» sense, whan, for 
the ransom of Chriilion ci>pti*CD, Bishops 
sold tbe Chunb'i plate, or lands even. Tbe 
llkoirudone in casw of s«vor« famine- But 
this does nai jiiiitlfy tbe act under other cir» 
otimstanom. The Bishops were only ibo 
■ lewardn, and not tbe owner*, and many 
Canons were oecoseary throughout die litB- 
tory of every |iwl of Ihe Chunh restraining 
tbam fmin wasting and for prirate purpi^ra 
(MrtiriK with Church proptrty. 

Alienation in Mortmain. The oonreying 
of real eilate to any corporate body ; in this 
aase, for reltsioiu purposes. 

AUegory 70"'- >v. 24}. An all<qc-"'y 
■umsup iu iteelf the wipiuateparpoaaaof tho 
Trpti Pamble, or ILulapbor, using either 

one i>f these three as a leading form at Tniy> 
ing times. The Canticles are filled with 
typee of Chuit and Hla Church, hut tbe 
whole i* allegorical. It expreeac* one thing 
under word* that, upon tbe surAuie, are the 
expreaaion of Another. So P*. Ixxx. 6-IA, 
arc an allegory. But the same imagery in 
Ij. t. is thfrrc a parable. SL Paul uiaa tb* 
allegorr in 1 Cor. x. 4, end In Oal. Iv. 16- 
21. The U(e of allegories is pe«uliarty 
Oriental. It it a form adapted tn iho con- 
veyanoe of religious truth in very atlraetive 
xbapM. Allegorical i ntorp rotation » became 
■ favorite modeof flxplsining the o1>*curitii9» 
in Holy Scrkptum. Tbo L'lamjile of St. 
Paul, as above quoted, was imitAtod, and a 
devout spirit, leeing Crbist everywbero 
ill the Scripiure, was tempted to drag inlu 
lino many texts which could not pos>ib)y 
c»nCain any direct referenee to Him. TtaM>< 
loK'ans claimed for tbo interpretation of 
Scripluru *nv«rnl muilnsof Iroating tbe text, 
tDKiu of tb«nt enumerating lixteen, but 
Uiree were gan«reny admitted, — the M<n»i, 
the Allegorical, and tbo Uysticai Sanaa, 
apart f>om tbe bimorical or gmromatleal 
tenie. But tbe itrlving to torture new lig- 
nillcationi and to find new allcgnrUa soon 
brouj;bt on a reaction. However, thaae 
methods of int«rprelallon hold preosdaoe* 
till tlin RcfoDnaLiuu, when tha iWctlun went 
Uki far, |>ri>diic.'iii); a t«niiM>r which eoiptiea 
Holy bcripture of much of its true moaning. 

Alleluia. A funnula, or proclamation, 
" I'raite ye the Lqkp," found in I's. cxvii,, 
and as a heading to several other Psalms, 
especially cxiii.-cxviii., the great Ilallcl. 
Psalms sunic at all the graater Jewish fcett* 
Ta.lB, The word has boen transferred into 
all languas;*!. It was r«(>urded by St. John, 
ail used by the Angvl Host (Rev. xix. 6, T). 
Ofoourso'it passed immcdiatoly Into Cbria- 
tiaa ujHga. There i* the ttory of tbe Halla- 
lujah victory by the ChrlitJan Britons over 
the pagan PlcU and HcoU (429 a.D.). It 
WM u:ted ai a walch-ory of en courage nMnt. 
It was Introduced into th? Liturgy in both 
Rati and WocL It is 1 n tbe Liturgy of St. 
Jnmwi, as the earliest instance; in tfa« 
Weil, tlie Mosarabio (which is of Kaatarn 
parcDtugo, however), it was OwalT uaad ; but 
10 the oth«r Weetern Cburabea it wa* very 
sparingly used, being used meet freely dur* 
ing the Raster and Whitsun fensls. Otir 
own Churob bean as one of the marks of 
EasteiTi influence thouiteof tbo Tiallaliijali 
in tbe Veraicles, " PraiM ye ilie Lord, the 
Ijiiso'a name be [iraisGd." iu tbe Morning 
and HveniM){ Prayers, 

All-Saini*. In the Kastcm C'burcb this 
was a very ancient fea^t, St. Cbrysostom 
kpvaking of it nnd'^r the nama All-Martyrk 
It falls upon our Trinity Sunday, erownlnf 
the Church's year with a joyful oomnent^- 
ralion of all saints of G<id. 

In tbe Weetern Church this feast had It* 
ri»e much Inter, in the consecration into 
ChrislianCburcbesofboathen temples. Thta 
practice began ia tbe latter part of Pop* 





/'■ life, and when (607 A..D.) fion]- 
bnlll. prociir(!Cl f>om itMompororftrwcv. 
nitian of mt •upreniMcj, hii •uccvMor, Bom- 
fiuw IV., conMcimted tbo Panlhcnn to Ihft 
rirpA and all nuityn (Hay 18). It is 
DM cerUln when th« commemoratioa wu 
tninaf»rr«d to Nnvpiiibf>r 1. Il vrma not ob- 
strrpd in Gnul till lnl«r; in England, B«d« 
ftmkt at it 1 Q<M «a« it geD«nu Ull Lotiii 
tJi« piou*. nttiw ulTiM Irora Qrogorr IV., 
ordored it Thg Collwt, BfjlflU, and voa|>«l 
wi'r*- (if later dato. 

AU.SouIb. a fMtival fallinr on tho next 
dayaflcr AU-Sainto' D«v. It Had lu origin 
fo ilia continuoui ovmm^moration at the 
Rolj Communion of "th* toiiU r>f all tho<t« 
irba have di«d in Um cnminunlivn »r the 
bo)^ uid blood of our LoRO." But beside 
thic KiKbarinia cornntmontlcD. th«ro wart 
awBlT f ia r y obwrrancaf, probabljr bjr tbe 
tarriTinfj raUtivM. In Bs7, Amalanu* of 
HatJi wntea of th« annual coaiaiainoiation 
t( Itaa d«M]. The fMtival wu at once rtry 
popuUr, after an ordinance by Odilo, Abbot 
pf ClujTBT, ftT the abbaclea under him 

Almigbiy. Svnonytnniu with Hobrew 

LuKD God df llosta; tbe Miji;hty GOD ; 

Onnlpotftnt. A title which Uoi) eiva 

Himwif in Hii covenant wiib A1>nU»ni 

[Out. ivii. 1). It U vontlnuouilv oaed 

afla-wanb adowa Uie itrMm of Kovela- 

llu. Il was Ukan at onoa Into Lho Orwd, 

■■1 kM mainuinod [upl«e9th«r« evertlnoe 

Mw lQt«Kral p«rt of toe Ant clauae. It is 

anaat itnporUinl tlUa, far it maybe can- 

titrtA {*) aa CombreliwulT*, cootaining all 

■kiopi C^) Orislnatlve, at crMting all 

''■'"C*; (e) PrMervatiT« of all itiingi. It !a 

ItJy uMid, thwrefore, by thn Oboith in bar 

Vrimd, in Imt Prayart, at ihe Holy Oom* 

■Baaioa, and in her UrmUt tha " Te Deum" 

M»dtka •■Gloria in £zc«Uii." Buttblspow«r 

beiof of iba oaMBlial attribute* of the Divine 

Xfttara belong equally to tbe Thesk Pkk- 

*»*■ of the TkitriTT. and to (he Atbanaaian 

Hjratii. " So, ItkewiM. tbe F^tuis Is A1- 

mlebty, the Sox h Almit-htT, the Holt 

Qno*T U Almighty, and \fX tiirm aro not 

'Vw Almtghtioi but Une'ALMiOBTT." 

^AloM. In Job'a aoIeDin proteataiion of 

bW iDlAgr^Lj ht [Jaow the abarine of hi* 

^"fd with the pour aa one of hli rl||;hteou» 

Wtana (Job xs^zi. IT). Prom the earliett 

*C* tbnaciTing and relief of tho poor and 

°^r hat nad a special promlie and pledco 

t lw ed. The Israeltle when given the 

■M wait ordpr«d U> Iwtb tbe gteiming. 

■'< tu to iburr ibe tll^e of bii produce 

TIT third year with not oalj tba Lorite, 

'^Ao th« Mrvntrer, the fistberluat, and tbn 

■lik*. Fran the Ijnw Ihe Iiraallte hud 

kUbt^Jmned u|H(n him, and be reccivftd the 

^^^Mi of proaperity (Prov. xix. 17; Fs. 

''' l» Our LoBD asKumai Una rlchl 

^•Intt In His Sermon on tbe Mount, and 

^<niel( though ministered toby (itbcrs, was 

''Bhw «f alms. It was the llrst pujiular 

^rln tbe Church, and it rrew lo rapidly 

*sII1m KMonaia wMMtabLbhod to sujier- 

intend the work. When St. Peter and St. 
Paul arranjced their nilfrjlonaryjuriidictionii 
St. Paul waa enjoined to be ntiiidful of lb* 
poor. And it rcreircd fVom him much at- 
tentton, as we feather tram bis dirMlions (o 
the Corinthians and elsewhere, He went tip 
to Jerusiitom with tbi; collections made for 
the sainU there When there was a famine 
threatened in Judna, alms were aent lo the 
pi<ur from other part* of Syria. In tbe 
oourse of lime this HlmsgiTin; took more 
systematic shape. Tha offerlurv included 
food as well as moner, and it was shared by 
the mtnlit^rs with tbe poor. Th6 moneys 
gBthered into tbe treasury wore divided Into 
tbfF* parts, — one for tbn ministry, one ftr 
the rriiainng and building; churt-hn, and 
the ibird for the widows and jiixir. The 
offqrtory now ibould take this latter place 
to a (kr larger eitent than il biu dcmi-, es- 
pecially as the Rubric makes the alms fur 
the poor its chief use. In England oztn- 
ordinary collections have bpcn taken up fWim 
(irn*> CO time upon roya) briefs, but IsUerly, 
a* the marhin«ry for (iioh a ffstherine was 
Tory (utprnsive,— taking up bdovs half the 
amuunt collected, — it ats not Iwen olien 
used. After reforms under Anne, aad asrain 
under George IV., it gradually fell into dis- 
use, (hough a royal brief was isiued as late 
AS 1854. 

There should bo some (jstetn devised and 
faitbftilly carried out in each IMocete tbni 
dinll Iracb tbe duty of almsgiving, and 
.iliuw how much good itelfecta. Alms should 
be put into the nands of the Bishop of the 
Dicic!es« for use oftener than they are. 

Altar. A ■tnictura of stone or wood, 
upim which the elements of (b« Holy Cora* 
munion are consecrated. Tbe more usual 
name in tho PrayoNllook is the LOBD'i 
Tftble, but tho term Altar is aied in the 
•ifUva of lostitullun. Tbe word occurs in 
tbo Kpistia to tbe Hebreun, " We have an 
aliar, whereof they have no right lo eat 
whirb sonro tbo tabernaclo" (Heb. illl. 10), 
and is bwt referred to the Christinn Table. 
The ultar of th«i Old Trxtampit wai one on 
which bliiodv •ac'rificsa w^m i)ff<Tr«l, tbouch 
there wu aW tbo Altar of Ineonso. Tbe 
llrat alur was bulll by Noah. Tbo altnr 
was usually placed In soma spot deemed Cor 
•ome reasoD hallowed: as where Goo ap> 
pcared to Jacob. The matorinl of which thojr 
wore made was, according to tho Uotaic Law, 
eilber of eerlh or of "stone*, upon which no 
tnid had been lilted." It was ontrary lo 
the l^w U> build an altar elsewhere than In 
tbe Tflbernncle, and afterwards in tbe Tem- 
ple, tbouK'li ibis u-RH frwiiioTUly vii>1ated : 
ni whan David built an allar at the thresh- 
ing-floor of Araunah. Allan, not for sacn- 
ficc, wero often built, ai when the tribei of 
Keuben and Manaoad), and Ond, pot up sa 
Alurof Witaea*. There was the altar for 
burnt siu-rillr« in the Tabomacic made of 
vruiid nnd nvf>rlaid with brwa ; a aeooad 
larger one mode wholly of brasa wa« arectad 
in the fltat Temple; a third, of unhewn 





•loriH (Mt l«Mt th« one that replncMl it und«r 
judu ilflccabeui, wh«n be clMniod tbe 

Eollutod TQinplc aflor AnTloohtit BpE^ihariiis 
■d daMcrat4Nl Lt, waa ■■>). wai placed in the 
Moond Temple on llie^pnt wtioro the brancn 
mliMT bnd Hood. In ttio Tcinple, oi reotorcd 
by Qen>d, tbe ftltar voa nlso of nrhewn 
ttODft. There wu aha tli« Altm* of Tn(vn>», 
liblcb, bowerer, wm nnl propirty xo, •im-A 
Rn iftOTiflco* wiTo oBercd ujion il. Ai fur 
ChrUtimi nltAn, they hare bwn medc of 
YBrloUi niiit<<HaU, in early limiw. gcnorallv 
ot wond, bill vitrj oflen of marlile, niid tn 
pn» or twi> InileiicM of gold. URcn the 
wood mM dcoiraicd or covcwd witli jrold or 
■llvirr plalinK "r chaied work and adornod 
widi |{i^im- rtieform varie* from (he Table 

10 the Tomb fnmi. In the Greek Litcirgiral 
langiiegA the t«rni lued ii trapeza, — table, 
but with tome epithet, as "thn vpiHtLial," 
"the royillc*!," "the royal," " Iho liuly," 
ur" the dlvinn." 

In iliU itiuntrv thera is no rule, and an 
attar may be medo of either wo^xl or itore, 
and In olllior of the forms nburs dMcrlbcd. 
TItyni PAH tiA no real objei^tion to iiting the 
Ijirm alinr for tho Holy Tabic, sincii both 
l«nu* am uaad In the Prayer-Book, and upon 

11 ftH plM*d the oblaltom for tb« meirorial 
VUr Lnnif onmmnnded ui in muk« of ni« 
UMK, ftoll, iMrfMJt, and aufficieiil ax^riflce once 

A)l«r-Cloib. The clothx with which tbo 
Holy Tal'ln li ▼oat«d, either ai (jernianeiit 
#OVerliiK*, or for the celebration of the Holy 
Oviiimiinli>n, Thv nirlii'ct unqucitlinnable 
t«fbr«i)iMi U) allAr-cloUii other ttiivn for tho 
MBlnbrMllon 1i found In St. Chrysottom'* 
JInmlly on Mfttthew xiv. 2Sl, 24, wherein 
h* oontmta Ibe coxlly nilkcn nmbmidernd 
Mverlnff given for the Hulv Tabln w-itli tbe 

inty olothtng Qften gni^gin/ly ginn to 

Itie pM>r. in uU time (8MM06 a.d.) we tee 
liiateuohoottlyaltiir-clothi wereuaual. The 
■ vntliitlii; uie of colors in altar vmtrnrnts 
ftir the aeveral mmom of the Chriitinn year 
it not more than teven or eight ceoturieia 

(lid. (ViltfCOLOKt.) 

A liar • Piece. Thi* wa« a nlnturoor carved 
■•(■■•roli'T plaocd behind and over the altar, 
llil* pf Bi-lice of piftci Dg picture* in churchet, 
IhoUfth vtrry anciont, itill won iu way 
■biwlV, agni'mt uiui-h uppuiltlon. The dan* 

Jfnr that ariMe later mm oloarly leen by a 
Hw. The fpoltnic that tbe house of uod 
•hiiuld he fnftdeas glorious aa puciibts filled 
lh« devout hearts of the many. The earliest 
Inilan<« <re have nf a nifUire tn a chiiTcb i» 
from Hi, KplphantUH (891 Jl.d.), who, when 
Jiiiirneylnc tnrough Paleatine, found at 
AnabUtha a veil banging befarn tli» door* 
of tho sanctuary of the church with a 
pulntlng of OoKisT or fome Saint npon it. 
This he had torn into pleoei and given far a 
winding-sheet for the |Hior, and replaced K 
wlUi a pUIn veil fmni his own home in Cy- 
pnis. Puiiliniis of Nola (4(K2 a.h.) intrndueed 
idouns laricMy in his new cbiircb. They 
were of Scripture subjwu, and were de- 

signed to in>tru<-t thft i[1ili*mte. From tbi 
time oa the deorstton of churches vitb 
painting* linrramn moro common. These ro- 
marki apply to picture* tiropar, fonrn find 
Byrabolic decoration much earlier, but nuth> 
ing that applirn to painting*. But while 
frequent caiual references are made to pic- 
tures, after this there \t eaer a note of warn- 
ing ■ounded. The famous Gregory I., In 
ivrmlcmnine the nii«uw of pictiirm, ur;ges 
that it would be wrong to remore tbem, aa 
thpy wpro obJ<H;t-lesM>ns io sal^red hUfiry lo 
the uiiiuarnHd (Bp. ad Ser. Mats.). Them 
WM, at first, very much objection to produc- 
ing any likoneu of our LoitD, but that, 
soon after the common introduction of art 
Into the Ghureh, was avercome. 

Very early mosairs cxiiit, the oldest of 
«hich'ar«at Ravenna and at Themalonlca. 
Tbe Oro«a was a symbol cbat wa4 employed 
at n very early date, hut Ow Crucidi was 
not usDd till very mu«h latrr. The oldort 
frcscuei are of tiaints, in tbt^ cstacomha at 
Naples, in the fifth, but the nearest ia ago 
after ibcm are dated abvut the eighth, era- 
tury. There were three style*, distinct tn 
treatment of tho same subjects, — the Itoman, 
the ByKnnlinc. and tha Lombard, which 
developed upon different lines of church 
decoration. Tn ths Gre«k Church the ioon- 
ostasis !■ the tpai'o on which the g r ea t e st 
amount of painting is placed. 

Altar-Rails are of modern arrangvnflot, 
lioiiig dun probably to Archbiahop Laud, 
who hitd l.bnm erni'tcd to prevent the profW- 
natioTiit and iniruilum whkb freiiuently oo> 
currcd. Tbcy have taken the place of the 
old open-irorK grating or screen which parted 
the oboir from the nave. This lalier eep> 
nration wa« of ancient dale, as may be sfaovn 
by the frequent rcfproncw and doscnplions, aa 
that by Kufebius l3'2iHO a.d.) ^f the Church 
in Tyre. It was open tr^llis&d work, often 
enri(^h(Kl by brunxn or gilt or silver. The 
muUTia) was usually of wood or iron, hut 
tomctimoi of ftono. There was always some 
mode of mftrking the division beiwcen tbi 
nave of ihe church and the sannCuary. Ia 
the Eastern Church it was as above, till 
later, when the open-work was panrled and 
palnt*-d wilb pictures of CBiti«T and tbe 
Apf>«lle« or Saints, end entnr^-d by donra, 
wnl(?h therefore fcirmod «iMinplet« |iBrtitlon 
between the two portions of the church 
jlcoNovTASis). Tho material of which this 
Iconoiluis was made was u»ually of wood, 
though other material is used also. Id tbe 
We*l, the psriition whs, as stated above, 
without railing and open-work. 

Anbon. or Arobo. Tbe desk or rahed 
platform for th^i reader, fmm which the 
Epi«lln and Gosjiel were read, noLtcee wure 
published, and from wbi<.~h the in&rior 
clergy preached. Its position varied. It 
probably occupied the same position rela- 
tively that iho place for the readers did in tbe 
synagogue. It often stood in the middle 
of the nave, but sometlmee to tbe right of 
tbe front of what we now call the choir. 



to Ur^ cburobc< tter« wore oftra two 
AmbotiK, ciDfl an tbi; right for Ibn OmmI, 
tb««Uieroa ibe Ua for itie Epistle. Th« 
AiaboB «u probflblv movabiQ. It pru- 
c»d«J tbe nul]>it, wbtvb uru lauir. ( VUe 
POLTtT.} It wu rrwjueDllT orniilii«Dt«d 
with carved work on it* psiMb, and in lomc 
»XMnpl«* iilill »urTiTine it wiu supported 
upon ■ pillar. That at at. SopbU (biH a.u.) 
fakd two Hfghic of ftfjM, tb« nno on th« i-iul, 
111* utbrr on IIm wot. The Bialmp grricriilljr 
{•reacbMl trom bit chair iC'Alhtdrttl. but 
•oattimca f^om > d»k in rroiii of tbo allitr. 
Sl Cbrjtsoatom jiruacbcd from tbe Anibcin 
ihnl be mtebt be beard ibe bvUer. At 
R«vcoiia eii«t* ritill an Ambon wbiob m&y 
dat« fr«m th« building of the church (49S- 

Anbrosian Rite. Vui* LiTUKOixa. 
Amen. Fnilliful, Tru«, Piroi (Heb. and 
Or, J. The rait[)OEi«« of the p<>o|>le to *v(trjf 
|ir«jir. It Ji a llrong a«t«v strati on of 
vitber faith in or conHiit to the coni«nta of 
th*m>yer. Thep«oplegavelb«ircoti*ent to 
Ui« Etinding bov«r of Ibo curses pronounced 
upon Mt. Eital (Deut xxvil. 16) by tbeir 
Amen. Ii wm a title Gop by Itaiah (Ixv. 
2AJ g3iV0 I!imii«tf, — " th« Quo of Atttat." 
It bad the furc« uf itn oath, tka wbcii tb« 
«oett««d woman waa to r«ply to the I'liMt, 
Itlng tha cunc upon porjury, Aiueti, 
men, in tb« trial for jealoiur ^Num. v. 
'}. It, of courM, Maaed into Cnn^lian mm 
1 oDc« (1 Cor. xiT. 18), but our Lobu 
nT« it • lijKniAcaiico which ve undenraluA. 
Tb« enunciation of aolemn central tnilbcof 
nia B«v«Iation wa« alway* pr«oed«d by an 
., Amm (Verily, Verilr),a*ini^t. John 
lU. 8, S, 11; T. 1», 24. 36; vl. 82, 47, £S : 
III. 61, 68, «tc. Compara with tbi« and 
^th li. Irr. 1ft; R«T. lit. 14. Tli« r«apoiiie 
Iwaym made t«ud and (Vill. The Amwi 
»b«uld be printed in other typ« when it it 
■ rwpOD** than wbca It i* an tnvocBlion. 
Itt th« on« c*>« (in Ilatiet) thi L'oti);r«>ji:atlon 
atone r«apond, a* in the prnycr* generally, 
Vut whrn it U alto for the minliitcr lo ut«, 
it tbouid be alwayt printed in Koman. 

AmvHcan Church, The (offlcially^'Tbo 

Protwt<nl Rpivrip«| Church in the Unilpd 

State* of Aniuriui"), \» that branch of ibe 

Onst Uoly, Catholic, Apoatolic Ofauroh in 

AnMrica which tnuw iu ApoMollo origin 

>kra«gb th« Church of England. It It in 

communion and in aeronmont in doctrina, 

dikcit'.IJnc. and wonhip with the Church of 

KnE'at>d, which It venerate* at iu mother- 

<Jburcb, while b«iing at th« tamo tiinn a* 

»Dtir«ty ind^pwndttnt of it a* any daughter 

can be who baa left bcr mother'a home and 

li niitrcw of a bouie and funily of bor own. 

Thrangb tho Church of Knglaiid thU 

ObuK^ baa affllialluna with the whole 

Cbuncb of the Wett. In itt Creed* and 

Liturgy and Dincipline it occupici the 

IfKnud which It cummoB to all the churchee 

* Cunt»T from the beginning. At having 

■■•1 off the error* of Rome, it it to far in 

<}*pathy wHh thotQ bodiea <A Chriatiana 

who, ■in(*r ihn Haformalion of the nxtaenth 
c«ntury, have been known an Frottwtant and 

The hiatory of lb« Church in America U 
a tlory of full threo hundred yiwr*, for it 
wat in tho ywir 1478 thai on the thore* of 
Probishcr's Stmitt [named in honor of the 
admirnt in ct>ronian()] " SI»«Urr W'>irnll 
c«lu'ira(eyi h ''ommiinion upon land, at iho 
partakinjr nhcrmjf vrro Uw captain and 
manroth«M with htm. Th* t-olnbni'iiin -f 
the Dirine my»tery w&s tlia lli»l sicti, seal, 
and viiSmiaiion of CillLiCT'8 dMth and pat- 
tlou ever known In tbcte quartert." Thn 
flrtt known fanptiains in Engllab Aitierka 
W«T« tb"t>o of Virginia Duro, the grand- 
dau^httr of Governor White, anil " Man- 
ten th» mvHgi-,'' br>ih baptized on libipboanl 
oJF Roanoke Inland, on t)i« coa>t of North 
Carolina, both bapticed by White, the gov- 
ernor of Italeii^h'e socond colony. Another 
layman, Kir Thoma* Huriut, rocurdg hit uaa 
of the Pnner-Bouk iiiiiung '■the jwor infi- 
delt'' in I6'8fi,^«ne of " the (Int lay-n»d»ra 
in the AiiM>rican Church." Tbo next date 
tnhca ut north ai;aiu In ItiOiun expedition 
Milled from Brialol, under Capiain Richard 
Wcymoulb, whotetWlarnd object Wat '■ the 
promulgating of Qou'a holv Cfauroh by 
planting Chnatiuiity," and w'hicb tailed uji 
the Penoliacut and erected a cniti near the 
tile of ibi! pretenl town of BelfatL Thit 
allcoipl failed, but two years later another 
effort promiacd better rviultt. In Auguat, 
1607, a company, among whom wu the 
Rev. Richard Seymour, landM on an itianil 
at the mouth of the SflKadnhock. or Kenne- 
bec, and, betidet liriy htiuxcn and a fori and 
itore-houte, built a church. The severity 
of the climsiQ, and a Are that dmtroyed tbeir 
tt(iT«>iiuuin and cburch, diibeartsnml tbem, 
and tbi^y returned to Bnglniid the next teu- 
ton. This wat thirteen ycart before the 
eelvbrauii Pilgrim h'atben lanjcd r'n Ply- 
mouth Book. The tame year, ItiOT, the flrat 
permanent tettlement wat eflrctod in Vir- 
glDi*. In May, 1607, under Ur. Kohcrt 
Hunt, a prieet of ibc Cburob of Enebtnd, 
the ftnt aervicct were held, and « OBurch 
begun ai Janieatowti iu Virginia. Servtcea 
wiiru held at Ural "under an awning and 
in an old cotton tent. Thit," tays Captain 
John ^mhb, ■' waa our church li'il we built 
a homely thing like a barn, where w« bad 
daily C'lmmon prayer morning and evening, 
every Sunday two acrmona, and every thine 
months the Holy Communion till our min- 
tmer die>i. But our prayer* daily, with an 
homily on Sundava, we cuiitinued till more 
preacher! cane.'' With libenl giflt of 
money and Und the Church In Virginia. 
WM (u a fair way to nruiper, though tlia 
ditturhancee at borne told upon the coloniea, 
and the clergy who came out were by no 
meant all Uiat they thould hare been. 
Amune thoae who deaerve to be remorabered 
witw Buck and Whiiaker, who lucoavded 
Ur. Hunt Whilaker bai beeti named the 
Apoetle of Vii^inla. He it waa who bap- 




tided Pocktaoutju. Id tbg mean time tottlo- 
mcnu wirra txinK ctublf»faod all klucig tlic 
coast under dmercnt religinus indueincB*, 
and tome of Ihvm, u in Nnvr Knglnnd, diR- 
tinctlv hi)itll» to tb«Churt'b. Amoni; thKtii 
were hare and thero Cb)trcbinc<n «nd Chnrcfa 
colonieSt thotigb th« Clmrcii wnn tiov«r to 
(trong, ev*n In Virginia unci MitrjlMiid, aa 
ii ofleii uippoaod. Bi»ewhcr« it wm Ter,v 

TbocMeof Maryland f> i)Ocutlkr and not 
generally uRdentood. The Cliarter ot 1684 
and the Act of 1649 nri; rcprrfcntrd m a 
noble Iniunce of relii;l>iiu tolcrjicion on the 
cart of Roman Catholics, but witbout vuf- 
flcient grounJ. Tlioto act*, it !■ truif, went 
ubUini^ hj RuiDanCattiulitu, but thej- wen 
{ranted not by tbem, but to them. They 
wars obtained TroTii Cliarlc!* und bit udvitors 
for the ipeolal bonelli of Roman Cattiulki, 
and Boinan Cathulic* took advanla);* of 
theni, aa it wa> intrndpd that they should. 
Tbat liberty and protection wliich was 
granted wai all tb«y atkcd for, and all tbey 
oouUl bava ubtainoa. But ii«itlit>r in Mary- 
land nor anywbereeUi- dill Roumci autbority 
ever rt>gAni tbo docinno " IhaL io eonaoionce 
and in wontbip mcnihould be frao" at any- 
ibliig but insanity {dtiirnmtnlttm). In 
Maryland froai the Orat the Cbiirch of Kng- 
land wu " prot4ctcd," and the Rer, Kicbard 
Junes, a elercytnaa of the Cburoli of Eng- 
land, cnmoon with thollrst Ijonl naltitnorii 
and willi hii 6ock seitlod on Kent Inland, 
onpnsile A nnapolii. In 11123, Governor 
Robert Qor^e« i>i\m|{ht with him Lhu Rnv. 
William Morrell, a Church <>f England 
clvrgymon, lo bU cubmy un Ma<>i>ui'liu»L-tU 
Bay. In IQSOttie Rev. William Ulaokttone 
•old his faria in Sbawmut, wborc Ltoston 
now standi, and mnoved to Pruvidcnce. 
In IC2ti, John and Samuel Brown, two of 
the original patenteciii, wnrc batiisbi-d fTiim 
Kttlom for uslrii: tbe Prnyer-BiMik. In 1646 
and 16M pctitibni wore pri'sented in Bueton 
for permittiiun to use ibo Prayer-Biuik ; and 
tbe p»iiiii>iiera were ptinlibed for Mditiun. 
The first church serricos wi^rc bold in Beaton 
in 1686. None ar« known to have been hold 
witbtD ibe timlUi ot Hem York before 1678, 
nor in PennsylToniabeforc 1095. Whnn tbu 
Independents beoune the imutcrs in Mary- 
land, they at once repealed tliolawAof tok-ra- 
lion and proecribed "jn>porT and prelacy," 
lA thay had from ilio Srst in New EoKland. 

The Church (jrew, howerer, slowfiy.lmt ii 
was without headorchiaf pastors until IftSa, 
whan Vt. illair wasuntto Virgiinau Com- 
miaMry of the BItbop of Lnndou ; there was 
no authority over the Presb)t«rs of tbo 
Oburcb,wholoo often worejust the men who 
needed orerloolctDK. Sooo afterward* Dr. 
Brav was scat out ai Commlnary to Mary- 
lanil, and ibity did what good men could wtiu 
war* clothed wllbauch aulbority asa Bisbop 
can delegalA,batwho still wi-rctiat Bi'lii>i>#. 
Th* Church In Anerleafor another hundro<l 
year* was an Episcopal Church without a 
Bishop. Or. Blair was Cammissary of Vir- 

^nia for Ufty-tbrcc years. Dr. BraycntLTed 
upon tbe llffld of bis labors In 17W, uud a 
result of his mJMionary zeal was the found- 
ing of two societies whicH hurt doncso much 
for tbe cause of tbe Uustiel, the Society for 
promoting Christian Knowledge, and the 
Society for the Pri!i>A|<ntion of tlte Gospel in 
Forttifcn Parts. When after a few years ha 
ruturnod home, tbe niajority of tbe colony 
of Maryland were accountea of the conno- 
iilonof the Church. In 16(17 New Amsttr- 
dani was ceded u> the English, and In 16M 
"Trinity Church," in New York, was built 
and endowed. In 1679 Kind's Chapel, In 
Boston, was erected "for the excroUe of relig- 
ion according to tbu Chun-h of Envland." 

At the tinii! of tbe fuunilatiun of tbe S. P. 
Q. "inSfuth Carolina w^rc TOGO suuls, be- 
«tdi» nogruutiuid Indiunii.liTmg without any 
mluisier of the Cbureb, and abov- half re- 
f;ardleis of any religion. In North Carolina 
above 500U wilboiil any miniil«r. Virginia 
containing 40,000, divided into 40 pamhea, 
but wanting nenr half the number of clergy* 
num. MaryUnd containing 2>'i,000, in 26 
parislici, wauling balftlic number of clergy' 
men. In Pennsylvania at least 20,000 souu, 
of which not abovo 700 fr<iqucRt the church, 
and not above 260 are oumniunlcanu. In 
New York the numbers am &0,OGO, 1200, 
4fi0. In Connecticut, 30,800, 160, 8fi. In 
other colonies of Kew England, 90,000, 7C0, 
IfiO." And the writer adds, "This is the true 
thniirh mtilntiirhuly stale of our Church in 
Norln America." 

The niiuionariea »f theS. P. Q. were Mnt 
into tbe provltvces in which the Church had 
no a)itabli*hmcnl, a* it bud in Virginia and 
Maryland, and fruit wa« not wanting to their 
iabon, Uioueb it was not gathered wilhoQt 
oppoiitioD. In Now England the movemont 
Cburt-'bwurd b<>(^n within the very walls of 
Yale College, when Dr. Cutler thv rector of 
lliiicoLlKCi%iind Musin, Jiibnnon and Brown* 
two of tbo tuujti, through reading of worka 
of the Englinh divines in the collt^u llbrarj, 
wem Irougbt to ■aaijKn ibair poslilona, and 
in 1723 went overto England for ordination. 
Mr. Urown died in Kngland r,{ smallpox, 
but Dr. Cutler in Boston, and Mr. Johnson 
at Slratford, labored many yMirs, and ax 
art*d a pow«r(\i1 infliienco for tbn Church. 
Many more would have followed iheni into 
tbe pticAtbood, but were deterred by ita« 
dangers of tlie sea- voyage and '*lfac unhappv 
fata of Mr. Brown." "Tbefounuin of all 
our mi»cry is the want of a Bishop." Thty 
were bitt«rly opposed and perecvuted, but 
nowhere In lie country were there so manv 
natiTe clergy, and nnwheni was the Cburob 
more Armly plimlrd. at the breaking out of 
the Revolution, than in Conne'itisut. On 
the other hand, in Virginia and Maryland 
the Churub, tbuueb oiruiiiaratlvely strong In 
nuniban, was wvak in Inuuence. Thoro was 
no Epiiico|Ml authority, and the whole ayiteu 
of the Church was gradually dissolved. 
■' Certainly,' says Bi'liop Whitfi. " the dif- 
ferant Episcopalian congrngaliuns 

k knew J^^ 




»« b idon bfiCon the RvroIutioD : «xe«pl wbat 
^raa tfac reiuh of ib« eonne«ilvn whicti they 
In coRimon hull with tbp Bl«liopof London. 
That aiithnrilT b^ing withdrawn, ih« clergy 
and [■eoiile of tmy dlilHct mifcbt, without 
unlKwfiilnc««. bmireiicU>dforiheroBoW<a,ftnd 
in M>m«(t»partmonUiui'h n}ir<ioiN.iliiig would 
not Imts bMD •urpriiiiij;." 

There oonld b« no conQrowtions nnd do 
ordinatioD*, sod tb« lupplr of clergy fell off, 
nnd UiFKDthorllT wbti;hb«}on{(«dtoft Dlibop 
wna U(Urp(>d or lo«t aliogctber. 

Manjr c«u>«ii were iit work to prrrrnl the 

*p|>o4iitmtJit of ft Biibop, and to mtkt ttaat 

which wiw rwit nllogatbnr easy hi Sr*t man 

aind mora difltrutt. Tbn priinarj ohntJicle 

Ibv in the Mghloenlb (.t-nlurv idea, -which 

friondft and «i)«aii«t tbarcd alikft, that a 

[tiaboji was parllr un «cct«aiiv«iivul functloo- 

»ry and at l«a«l half a Slata dtf^nltary. 

3laDj wbo woald'not baTQ obJm.-(«d to a 

*< purelT religious Epkeopaoy" aid otiJoM. to 

m " polilJcBl EpiBcopacy.'* So )c«ncrot had 

vbia nppnboiuioD b>>•^>nlD that Bisbop Whiu 

«l«clarea bU bvliaf that a few rean before 

'Uc BavoluiMnaiT war it would have been 

** hBp(Mibl« to bava obuincd tho concnr- 

>«oo« of a nsMclablv number of laymen in 

^uijr naaaare for lh« obtaining; of nn Ameri> 

^smn Biebop," and that when all wrre ready 

%o aTow " tbelr prefercnco of EpUcopacy 

^n<l of a form of prayer." To add force to 

'CbS* apprcbeniion cilrmi in the undert tending 

»t Uiia dignitary required a lar|^ oiulow- 

tal to lupport \iiin. But more than all 

[■^•llwr cauaw wai the provailing igBorancg 

^udooldn«M whiob pr«vailed cvod ampng 

yfofiwptd friend! oi tho Church In the 


A wrlur In 1735 eiprawM the feeling of 

^ prcat many, who wnt«a that " oonsiderlng 

liow long n time it It since the eBtablithmont 

^of Ifac 8 r. <}.), ill* cnlanim may hy tbia 

ViBie ba priiviuc^ vitb miaiaterB among 

vbaniMlvM, and likawin be of luAdeat 

•fcllitiaa la aupnorl ihom if tbay wora in- 

«UaBd tA k." And illll more when ho adds, 

" in effect I know hardly any here that are 

^Ifpoted (o do much for promoting or ad- 

'vatieing rviiE'on, or that seem* to bo much 

«>inoer«ed what b«come« of tl either abroad 

<w bA hotna." Kflbrt* were made, but tbey 

failad. At one time uattra went •« far 

Dial a palace was purctaui>d fur the Biahop 

«l Barlin^tnn, and i:«ii*idnrabl* bcqite«U 

wera r«cei**i] fur the endnwntimi of ibo See, 

tnit lh^ti>nlh'>rthequ«ien in 1713 pulanLopto 

all I - In 1727, chiefly ihr-.tiii;h the 

*!-' i..fkeley ^nftiTwardt IlUlM'p}, 

a tUiti iiT miri a gram were obtained, but o»- 

tee (b« brrjad m-hI wu aitachod the king 

4tad. Onee the Church caiM near obuiniag 

BUbopa 1b ipite of oppoaiiion, wben Dr. 

Wvllon and Mr. Talbi^t were eonHHiraled by 

we of the acn-juring Bithope. But tho 

MtUr went no r^rtber. T)r. Welton waji 

■VBRMDed homif, and Hr. Talbot di#miued 

bina bii poti a* mfMlonary of tbo S. P. G. 

AnbbUbffp SeoVar renewed the ^ffurt In 

1741, and tb« New England clergy JoInJ 
in (troDC repreern union*, but all in vain. 

But Oot) wa* Tu«paring for Bi« ChuroJ 
adelireraboe in Hi« own way. Bngland'L 
>tatwmenianogkctingtheCb*Drch in Anerl 
lea had neglected the ttrongotl of all bondJ 
between ihecolonle* and l£e motlier-coun-i 
try, and Kngland owee in no imnll degrcrc to] 
that tinglMt the lou of thneo coloniM, When ' 
ibe war of the Revolution came, wblle In 
ihe Niirih thr" Chnrch clnigy wpre generally 
loyal to the mother-country, ther were weak 
in niimberH and in inflm-ni'e. Pur a time it 
eecnied as tliougb tho war, with its eoasa* 

3uonl hatred of Enfcland, would work the 
eatnictioD of the Church. But initead, it 
gave Iter freedom. Tlie close of the war law 
moft of tbc clergy esiki, tb«ir oborchM 
deaecrated or dnfroyed, and their congr^^ 
Lions broken op. In IVnntvlvania only one 
church wa« Wt ,— Chri»t Church, in Phila- 
delphia, under the Ber. (aftarwartlA BUhon) 
Willlani While. Virginia entered on the 
war with tttl cburchet and chape)* and 91 
dergym'-ii. At the cloie of the contest a 
large " number of her churcbea were d^j 
iiroyod. 9b pariehoe were extinct or fonakeo^ 
and only 28 clergymen remained, and tt 
Church wa* eo depraMed and k> little zn 
was found in h«r members that Dr. Grifflt 
was tinable to go orer, with Ors. White nti 
ProToost, to bo ooDWcrated Bishop of Vll 
ginia, becauae funds could not be raised lo 
defray bis eipenaes." 

The number of tbnae in " English Amer-] 
lea" vbo belonged to th« Churcn vat a«TM 
•0 lai^ u would b« and b naturally lup- 
poead, partly owing to the fact that u>mK of 
the cojoales were sellled by those disaffected 
and hoetilo to the Church, partly because otg 
the immigration of those of other natloni 
At the beginning uf tba Kevolutionary war 
there were only about eighty clergymen of 
the Cburch to the north and east of Mary>j 
land, and tboM, except ia Beaton, Newporly 
Kew York, and Pblladslpbia, prinrapallf ' 
■unported by the S. P. O. Outside of Phila- 
dulphia there were never more than six in 
Pennsylvania. In Maryland and Vlrglnift. 
the Church was more numerout, nad sui^J 
ported by legal establish meats. Farther 
south tbey wero lose than In these provincei, 
hut more than in the North. And bcaidsai 
Ibis paucity of numbers, the very conns 
tioa and name of Rngland waa a disadi 
iHge. But tbn groklest dbadvantagn of all 
lav In ila very organisation, which re<]ulred 
Bishops, who were denied. 

The difflcutUes which Hand In tb« wayol 
the Church are iltiislraled by the fact that 
Mr. Adams took uii ihi* caitc of «omo candi- 
dates for ord era, a ail through the Danith min- 
ister at the Goart of St. James made appli- 
cation for their ordination to tbc Danish 
Church, which was favorably rfcnivnd bub 
never acted upon. Indeed, tlioM who •oughl . 
to supply the exiganoy had no idea of kaTrQ|> ' 
raeourta to any otfaen besidea the EnglimJ 
Bishops, at least until that hope failed. 




lu 17M oGcumd k oormpondenoe whiofa 
noeds nommntont to illustrale Uie condition 
of tbo Obuieh. Two young m*!! bud bravod 
tb« dangers of the_Fea to obtain ordinittlun 
in En^Mnd, but bad be«n refused becuufe 
thu Btthopo could not dii>pcn>o with Iho 
oalba of uniformity, and tliry tipplicd to 
FnaklJD forusictanco. Hit aneweria dated 
" Potiy, nnar Puri«," and with a rofr«>thinii; 
InnovcDce be ipforma ibein t1ial h« lind 
applied U> the Fope'^Numdouu tiidr bvbnlf, 
bat «d*i»cd thrmt«gtvc up iho thought of 
Eneland and go to tbe Churuh of Ireland, 
and if that apjilicatian failed, to act ui 
though Englund nnd Ireland wcra sunk in 
the leu; and expreMOR hia wonder "thnt 
HMn in America qualHtod to pray for and 
Intiruct tlipir nvii'tibnn ahould nut ba p«r- 
tnjtii'd [.. di> it till they bav« voyaged 6000 
mil'^ to Mk learo of a croai old gentlemiin 
at Caatcrbury, who *ocnu, hj your own 
aooount, to biive as 1|til« regard for your 
•ouli aa did Allorncy-Ganeral Seyiniiur fur 
Uioae of Virginia. OommJMary Bfair brggid 
bim to ccniiidtir tbat the people of Virginia 
bad «ou1b lo bfi Haved. 'SouUC (said b«); 
' ■ your Koul* 1 malMi lobiu^co.' " 

Uiie vuriou* roMill of the want of Bi»hnp* 
may wi^ll be nolicod. la 1784, Juhn Wuky 
ofdnin«d and tont out Dr. Coke lo be Super- 
IntAndeui of tbe Malhudiit Sauifiici iii 
Anicrii'a, and aHerwards Joined Ur. Acbury 
With bim in otitco. I'artly aa a rcfult of 
till* iiviloit, tlic MclbodlaU wore »oparat1^d 
ftom the Church. For thi* a{;ti(>[i, to 
OppOMd to hi* forinor conduct and l^ni-bini;, 
Mr. Wnilcy gn*<* (be; rntiun thai while at 
boin« til! wiHiId not miiror it, iiiuiuiucli m 
iber« were in Amurica " no BiehopE with 
)«^»1 jurUdicIiun, bii Krugilra worn at nn 
end." Tbe exuuie U a nuffiuiKiitly weak 
one, and it i« Dr. Coko'o own teelimony that 
ha went further in Hpanition than Mr. 
Vr'e«l«r inlcndedi ae be did in calUni; blm> 
■Hf a Biihop ; but tuoh a* the excuae is, it 
■ugK*ata eomo inlorcating qumlioii* u to the 
pMAblUUei In caae even tbia bad b«en want- 
ittz- It ^nta only in Kovombvr uf th« lam^ 
year that Bishop Seaburr was tMiiiucratud. 
In 1761, Dr. Coke applied to Bishop White 
for the ordination of tbi- Mrlhiiditt n>ini«. 
tnrd and ft^r the consecraiion of himaelf and 
Mr Aibury, and ezpreaied a Strang re^rei 
fur hi* i«f*t action and deaire of r«nnion. 
The i^ffort rame to naught, but wh«n Ibe 
qiietliu'i '<f aeparatlon turned upon aiich 
fwinte, it js hardly poesible Ui avuid saving 
to ounnlvp*, What might bare baen If a 
Biihop had been here I Su hopaleM did Uic 
proepet-t seem of obtaining DiiaopeaBdcon- 
tiniung tbf proper minliiry of the Cburcb, 
that Ur. Willie put furch a acheme of pres- 
bytar Ian aud pruv-i>iunitl "rdination, in order 
that tbe duty of wi>r»^iip and of pnrnching 
the GMpel might not utterly lapse. But the 
peace of 1783 opened a better prospect, and 
in 1*84 several oonferenooe were lu'ld in 
Brunswick, N. J., In Philadelphia and Ki^w 
York, which resulted in a General Convpii- 

tian In PhiUidelphia in ITSa. Bui in tlta 
mean time the cler|;y of Cunnuclicut had 
acted for tbameolvec, and bv their appuiat- 
mont Dr. Samuel Seabury aailed for England 
and npplied forconaeeraUon aa Bi«hop. But 
the English prelate* could do nolhin); with- 
out tbe consent of lb<i ministry, and Ibe 
minlatry would not eivc their consent wltk- 
DUl a formal ri>qui<i»t of Congr«B», which of 
ouune was out of tbe <|u«*^on; and after 
wailing sumo months in vain, at length 
following the inatructions wbii-h he had 
rC'-eived at home, nnd acting upon tbt 
ndvioe of friends in England, Dr. Seabury 
turned hU steps to Scotland, whcrv wat 
a Church which, If it wn$ persecuted by 
thn sute, and its asscniblie* fort.iddon by 
1hw,i was, at Irast, not liamperud in it* spirits 
uai rights by slate control. On the Uth 
of Novcmbof, 1TH4, in a little upper room 
In Aberdeen, tbo Qist Bitbop of the Amer- 
ican Cburcb was oonsecrated by three Bl*h> 
op<, Kiigoiir, Peire, ami Skinner, and tn 
J unc, I7&&, he was at home. Hi* cunsrcra- 
lion had a double eood effect, encouraging 
tbo Churcbmon of Aniiirica and rousing 
the uuthi>ritii)ii in EnL.'Und, br the eerlalnh' 
that even if tbey were ralusocl by England, 
Scotland could and would supply thetu with 

At tbe Convention in Phlladeipbta la 
October, 1785, seven State* were repr»- 
ecntcd. Dr. White preaided, and It Si tohb 
meekness and wiMloin tbat the Church owea 
its deliverance from the many dangert 
that cncompawiwl it. There werp gmvo dlf- 
fitroncM on nlmcail evrry canccivablo sub* 
ject. Siiina were afraid of a Bishop, and 
wanted Lis bands tied and himrclf made 
tbacrintluTOof tbe Convention. Bume would 
haveexcluded the laity from tbeCotivenllon. 
i^omo wDuld omit the oiiening petitiona of 
the Lituny. Bishop Scuuury and his elency 
declined to attenti the Convention. Sj 
Rome Dr. Whiio hJRiMilf was charged with 
Bdciniaiiism. There were elenienta in tke 
Church and In the Conveolion that boded 
neither any good, but out of them all the 
LoRu delivered ihem. 

The '■ proposed book" of 1786, whicb 
was by order of the ConTcnllon sent out 
into tlia dltfercnl Siatee for coDii deration, 
and which embodied many radii^ii) changes 
fnim thv Ungliah Prayer-Book, fi-lt flat. Cor- 
respondence with the EnKlieb Prelates re- 
aultad in bringing the mind of tbe Cbun^ to 
a general at^reunnuil that the beet tblnit tu 
be done was to take Ibe English hook williw 
fuw changes as poteible, nod when, in 1 78<t 
Dr. White ana Dr. ProvoMt, elected fop 
PcnribvlvEinia and Xew York, arrive in 
England, they weru favorably reruived, and 
on Februarv 4, 17^7, were consecrated in 
Lamlictb Coapel by the two Archbiebopa, 
and the Bishops of Bath and WolN, and 
Potvrlio rough. In ITSd thii utiiun belurvcn 
tbe Dioceaea waa happily etTccted. Bishops 
White end Seabury constituUni: tbe HotiM 
of Bithopa in Qeseral Convention. 

•Kmin tbe «lWntIoiu in iJie rrayer-Bouk 

okin* und«ir <ii*cu»ton, tb« influ«nca of 

BUbop StmJtMty >p|ieiin in llu) imputtftnL 

»lt«raUo(M in t^ Communioii omc«, br 

wbich tbaC offlon follows iIm) Soottiih uiodal. 

Tbe pntTen of JDvocNlioii and ublAtion are 

«b<M« of the Fi»t Book of Edward VI., 

but tho order ie that of U>t> ticoilish nnd of 

ti)« ancietkt Lituri|;l«<. It waj u cbuiiK4 

ibMt *' laT v«ry near to ttiip ii«*rl of Bishop 

t'l*«liurr," wbo •Ten d<ii]l>ti?r) wli<tthpr tli-a 

/urm uf itic Cliuroli of Eugliitid " ulriiitlj 

amounted to > coDMcntioa. " Wbcn lti« 

[•ropuMid diaiig« aaiu« down to tba lower 

i>uM>. l>^ ibe iiiflucDceof tb« Prttident, Dr. 

WiUiaiu Sinitli, it wu scoeptod without o^ 

■itio&. By tt " tbe Uofy EocbarUt i* 

■ tori^ to Itf ancient (ll|;tiil.v and offli-'ae^," 

^^nd w« ba*» an offlc^ than which nolLiing 

ymono magiiilii-ent and wortbv i-jin be oon- 

^^nved. In contiwrisoa with tliii greatgaia, 

:^or vbidi, aed«r Goi>, we taaw to tiiKak 

Siuabury, tba uiher ebiukj[0« and 

I ar* uoall. Tlio om'uaioa of tba 

uan Ore«d wm Ibe onljr important 

nluloD- Bsftdet cbaaic«« required by tba 

■baiig«d political condition of tbo coun- 

I olbon w«re niBdi>. Selwttoiu from tho 

ftn added tu tbo Pnaller. T)i« 

, ^ii ft atllcat«nd Nunc DimilUa were omitted. 

^Sm Veiiilo and Beneduitiu ahorteniKi, ana 

47tbct alieralHint were niade, >oroe of them 

dcciM improTCinont*, soma decided loMce, 

»oi NHite for wbich it would be bard to give 

* nttofi, but none of tlioio affiwlinf: nnj 

dnctriM or indk-atlog any '• eM«ntiul d»> 

rartatv from tbn dnctriaw, ditcipliae, or 

wtnbipof tbe Church uf BnKlsnd." 

TU KvolutioD, ibarcforc, effected no break 
i& lUlioa ot lliu CbDrcb's hUiory. ^oth- 
tic i» ber dikoipline, or wuriliip, ur prao- 
Dn ii lo be regarded as having e begiiininj; 
u ikKt tltac. Tben were portioiu of the 
Pnjtr-Bou)(, ft* the Arlictea, ft>r exiiuiplo, 
M Intlly aoted upon until 1801, and evuu 
"Wi M them wa« no release from former 
^'!UiqMon that aocoiidt, except from tboec 
l^iidotl obliniion* which w«re atrected bi- 
"« nr The CburcJi always hud tbn Lit- 
^47> ted that wblcb vru uol eipruKily 
*»(•! •imp]^ iMnlioued in force. Tho 
•nuiuon wbtob mi made in tbo Uotiven- 
<{■* of 1911, that tbe Protwunt EpiiK'opal 
^<^h i) the Chiircb formerly known under 
'■* bioie iif "tbu Churcb of Knelnnd in 
^•fioL," a declaralivii culled for dv tome 
*bpUM wblcb had ariDen about lan<!-titlei, 
^pMwcd the unl-rertal u n den lun ding that 
"U rtippot was this a "now Chinch." 
^•WoJt back over the long tlnijig^la for ex- 
"■OM whUih culmiiiAted m itieoMafully, 
^■eare more and more ImprwiMd wllh 
'^t rrwitk«M of the leadeiv of the Church, 
'* 1^1*11 especially wltomadoup Lhslloaio 
''niboM in 17^, and on whom to much 
■yoW; but of tbiiM two we must BJTe 
^>^]«i to one. Biitfaup deabury'n nal mtfi 
"**Vllaii lo Churob principlcdsupplicd wbnt 
*ulKkin2 Id ^^* character of UithupW bite, 

and we owe him h i^it-al iJabt of adtnlratioa 
Hfid gratitude But the gentle and Hnn 
hiiiid Ibalguidi-'l the fmil bark o( tba Cburcb 
throoirb the don^vrs that beaet her on everr 
nid", thii oni! tniin who was to the Cburcn 
whm WailiinKloH was lo tbe Stale, was 
William Whitb 

Tho life WM ttill very feeble. In 1700. 
on« hundred u&d oiKblT-foar years ufter the 
first nlHatlng of the Church of Bnglnnd in 
Virginia, Dr. Madiiion wenlorcrto EnjrUnd 
und was ooanecrated Bieliup nf Virj^inta. 
But niitetMa yesra after, wben the Ucnvral 
Convontion was hold in Baltiriiuru, the 
Bishop of Vlrglni&oonklilered ibui hisdulics 
to Ibe college of wbicb bo vih» president 
were tufflcioDt excusn for his absvnoe from 
Convention, and the Dlooeae was not repre- 
lented. At that Oonvenlion only Bishops 
'White nnd Cl«ggett were present, und, as 
Bishop CLag:gctL was just recoverini; from a 
severe Uloeu, it was a question not unlikely 
to prvsonl itMilf whether a linKlu Bishop 
eould conilltute a house. S^iedal reasons 
doubtless eiistcd in lomo Dioccsoi for the 
weakness of tbe Cburcb. In Tirfnui>> tbe 
Itniiiediata and apimrenl reason was thc< 
withdrawal of tbe utipend* and seixure of 
the glcbos by tbe Legislature. Patrick 
lienry resii^te^ tbe act lo tbe last, and m 
lone at he lived it I'ould never be obtained, 
and it was deiilanid uiK-uiiitituliuEial by tbe 
Supreme Court of tbe United Slatcti; but, 
uide frv>Qi tbo illogalily of the act, luch was 
tho character of many of the clergy wbo 
rveeived the ilipenU* and held tbe glebes, 
thai, in tbe opinion of Biihop Meade, Ihe 
loH of thent was the snving of tbe Church, 
by relieving: her of tbo burden of unworthy 
mioisten and ibrowing her upon her own 
resourom, chough for a tinio her cundilion 
was depluniblci. 

The Convention of 1911 met in ifew 
Uuvun under serious dilBcullies, since uul of 
•even Bisbops tn tbe Oburch there trere but 
two present, —Bishops White and Jnrvi*. 
Ilithop Claggett was prevented from at- 
tendance by ticknes); Bishop Madimn by 
the duties of hi« college, fiuhun Frovonst 
was in ill hi'alih. The consecruttuu of Drs. 
Hobnrl nnd Omwold was neceasurily Dost- 
poned, nnd, after the Bishops bad gODOaowD 
lo New York, it wu* till tbe last minute 
doubtful wbeihi^r the assistunce of Biihnp 
Provo""»t could be obtained. Ur-, however. 
■' llnallv found hlmMLfslronic enough logive 
his attendance, and tbu* tlie buiinws was 
hitppily acoompl i>hed. " 

Tlir ChuTob in America was in ntor* 
ways tbon one httropored by its Knglish 
origin. Tbe branch nod been bound, and 
cliiiltad almost to death by long neglect 
before It was broken ufl* and plunted in the 
American soil, and it iuherited many of tbe 
defects and deformities of worship and dis- 
ci pliue of tbe motber-Cbiireh at that time. 
In iu earliest dealing with its own proper 
ini»ionnry work it rivaled Its beiictier. In 
1801 several clergy of Western i'enntylva- 




Ilia nnd Tir|;in)«, wlikh won larg«1y ntUed 
by ChuKh poopln, road« an •fl'art to hsvo 
the WoMern countrjr Drganic«d Into a aem- 
nito Diocotft. Ic was not tilt IMS that 
Oeneral Convontiun gave tb« dwired per- 
miMion. vhlch, In effect, wat ropoaud in 
181t. In ISIO, Philnoder ChaM wa* «on*«< 
erat<d for Ohio; but tt vraa not till 1836 
that a BIshnp wka leen in PcnnsylTuita 
woai of tb« All«t;)unie«. From 1800 to 
1823 tk« clergy in Ponmylvanis had only 
iciercaaed from IB to 81. It ii nnly natural 
ta add that the Cburcb in the wottarn part 
of ilio fStatv liud bwn for many years in a 
• taW of di-vllnc, wbil« the di>p««i{ion to IVa- 
Urniu with ibuM who in ductrlna aiid (!!»• 
cipllnit were the Church's cnvrniea, and lo 
" opjwjM the t««!lv*d proj-ortlw of our V<im- 
maninn, or to undermines ihoni tnaldlouBly 
and by dMnms," naddened ibi- Inst yean of 
Btabop Wnile'a life, and tnadr htn fear, 
whilt Da pmyed, for tbc Churt^ba Axiatcnfe. 
In Maryland, party spirit nn to high ihm 
at Dr. Kamp'i (ilMitiun a jriurty oi)daavurL>d 
to crcat« aK'b[i:ii in tli« Cburcti. and after 
th« d«nth of Birhop Stone, in 1838, it waa 
ilirce yeuf, and an«r two elected bid d*- 
clirii^d the Sec, tbat a ■ueoeatftil cholo* wa« 

In Virginia, the Conrention whifib aa- 
aembtad to elect Bubop Hi<orc,Bri«r Biibop 
Madifon** dnatb, nutnborad onlv 7 clnrs;y 
and 17 larmnn, and wua tbn Ar*t wbiL'ii 
hiMl niH for Mveu yearx. In Itiohmand 
" Hj'iicopacy was almost dead." Chur«b- 
men aMurcd I>r. MM>re tbnt " no man 
coald carry out our formi in all tbdr ru- 
brical sign ;" but the niao of iheir ohoioe 
bad bad a diflcmii training and belddif* 
for«nl riewi, and aciM upon them, thoui:b 
he wa* not able V> carry the bodr of his 
clargy with liim. Thi> Church in Virginia, 
throu{(b his etfurta and thoMt of hi* luccaauir, 
WH roused from ita aluiabera that »«r« 
alnoM death. Only thna jMut b«lbr« 
the election of Bishop Moora to Virginia, 
John Henry Bobart had been cfaoaen A*- 
•islam Hishopof New York, and along with 
I>r. GHtwold had been consccrutM at a timo 
wh#a tbeSpJsco|(ale could wilh the greniftc 
diffltulcy muster the nec«««ry ilitm (■.tv a 
ciiisecralion. Jlu did nut Arid ibo Oburi-li 
or the Churuhinnnsblp of New York what 
ho k-fl it, or what it bas bwD tvor iIbm, 
but he ruuMid hii own Dioovae ttcm in 
slumbers, and the influence of his writing 
and preaching, and of his tabnri<^as and holy 
Itrc, WW foltln the SUU as well as tbe IMn- 
cfl«e, and went out orer the whole country 
and through the whole Chnrc-h. Ilia iBotlo 
waa "tb« Oospel In Uio Churrh." and be 
ibrank from no labor and from no eontwt 

iln l>ohnU of bis belief. Bi-liop White Irwknl 
fbrward to ibe Aitura of hia ton In ibv 
faith with tlic keisnust hope " ibat be would 
not cease lo be effioteni in cstonding the 
Uburch and prMorving b«r Imcgrlty," and 

Ih waa ruifltled. Sohools and semiDariea 
were established, publication societies Inoor- 

pomted, the Board of Wmioo» vm organ- 
ised, the old apolomtio t«n*vu laid aside, 
and tbn Church clalmad her nlarv and ber 
riKht. Il 13 arm indication of the rapid turn 
of the tide that the Diocese which at bis con- 
secration i^'nitnlnnd 40 clnrgy, twenty-four 
years aflar wards— Ave years after his death 
— contained 108. Not till 1819 was the Brsi 
" Western" Biihop Mimerat«d, — Philander 
Cbase for Ohio. In 1885, tbe last Conven- 
tion at which Bishop While presided, Jack- 
son K«ii)pnr was consecrated the flrst Mis- 
sionary Btdhopof Lbe Nurtbweati and In bis 
sertuoD at the cootHration Bishop Dc«n« 
N[M>lie for the Churt^^h, which waa waken- 
ing to new life, when be laid down the 
principle Ihnt this " Church is to be a His- 
nonarv Church, that her Bishops are tni« 
ApoatW. and that of ihls miaslonary body 
ev«ry Cnriatlan by the terms of bia bap- 
tismal row U a member." 

The diS^rence between the Cburcb of then 
and DOW It greater than appears by any 
(iiere cninparuon of iiumbor*. We road in 
r«jK)rls of General Convention, "so many 
Bishops prMont, so many Diooeeoe repr»- 
santed ;" but the bodlea wbleb tbey repre- 
sented were smnller etlll. In Tllinols, Is 
1886, "throe clorgrmnn met for nrgnnlxa- 
titin," and "this Convention unanimously 
appoint Philander Chase to the Epiicopate 
iif niinuis;" and at llio snviinlh Annual 
Convention the Bishop reporu " ihat neither 
as pioneer missionary, as n Diuct-tsn Bishop, 
or a* parish minltter, has be received any 
salary except t:>0." In Delavare, In 1791, 
8 olerRynieD and II laymen net to f^m« a 
conatiiutinn and orf;aalze th« Church. In 
the Prninmila of which Delaware forms pert, 
in 1827, there were only IR clprjry, while 
there were 40 chur^ihe* in a fit Ftato for wor- 
ship. In K«nlucky the " organiKalirfn of 
the Dioceso wa.* thus happily eflected, tbcr* 
being 16 lar dclc*gates and 8 of the clerical 
ordrr," only one of wboni woe "aetlled." 
In North Carolina, where. In 1770. a list Is 
^ven of 18 settled clergy, and whirh waa 
organized in 1817, at Biibon BavenKrofi'i 
death, in IfUW, tbn cU'rgy onfv numliervd 11. 
In South Oarwlina, where I&& clergy are re- 
corded as laburini; from 170O to 1800, in 
1780 only B parish** aro repreaentcd. On 
the other hand. South Carolina, in 1$S2, 
report* iA clorgy ; Nvrth Carolina, 78, and 
in 188S asks hr a divuiion; Konlucky Sd 
elorsy; and Illinois Is a province including 
8 iMDceeea, with 60, 'X, and i6 clergy, re- 

Ilisbop Doane was elected to New Jersey 
in 18S^ and died in 1868. During hi* 
Bpiaeopat* ib« number of coramunicanu In 
JTcw Jersey increased from 800 lo AOOh, ihe 
f1«r]rv fW>m 14 CO M, and the parishns fVom 
81 loTB. In 18K2 the two Dioceaei of New 
Jersey and Nonhnrn New Jcney report 99 
olercy tnd ncurlr BOOO comniunKania, and 
80 cTergr and 87<X) eonitnuuicanls. 

The ftfst Oonvenllon of New York, In 
1786, ooDsisted of 6 clergj and dctc^atn 




^nom 7 puiiliM. 1b 1811, the yur of BUhop 
JSob»n'» coaiecraUoD, tfa« number of clergy 
•warn 40. In 18&&, ftv« jrMra Hftvr hU dcaih. 

In 1882 Uie Dioc«M« of New Tort, Al- 
S^nj, Wwtern >'ow York, Csntral Saw 
fork, and Long bUnd c-gnuln«d 74$ clargy 
^utA 87,964 oommnoicanU. 

PaaMjrlMoU, which, in I81I, cootaitved 
SO tHrngj, in 1882 r«port> in tbo throe Dlo- 
«L3«*M ofPeniuylTaaui, Pituburc and Cen- 
cral Penn^ytvania 8^ oUrgy and Si;i,251 
^— ommu ninin U. 

Some BgucM pn»ent«d al the G^uaral 

^Joovaatioa of 1888 Till tntt an idcn of tbo 

^gm.%ni icrowib of tbe Churvb, In 1790 

^^.htn vivn 7 CIocmm and ISO clei^ ; in 

-B-WO, 12,000 communioinU. In IHAH, 18 

JJIO W IM, 602 cl«rgy, aO,BS9 communloanU. 

■%jik 18SS, 48 IMoovM* and 16 taiesionarj' 

«nTMict!oi», with 67 Buhnpi, S6T6 clorgy, 

^3U6 pKrwhei aod mi»*iuni. 878,000 com* 

■ssuttcaata. Bet«««n iaer>and l&&£t)i«r«ye- 

^Btof UnCbiucli ia<.'rvaicd from $6,471,089 


W[i«n the ¥«nanibie Biibop Green topk 

Icait of the Convention of IhSU, be a«id. 

" Of the CoDTeniion of 1823, wbkh met in 

ttutat]*, 1 aloae am alin. Whon I went 

ini* bolf ordan, •iity-thra* jiun ago, 

thtf* were nioe BiBhup* in tbo Cliurch. 

WIm 1 lookAd aronna me to-dajr id ibo 

Bom of BUbvpt 1 cad m; «yt» upon mora 

AiaNnn times ibkt number. IIow bnlh 

QfidvTOUgbtl Hif blcwiog haCh bwn 

^ibeCbnruh &nd ibs balS pro«p«rcd." 

wcaiaoo, wbPD tb« flnt report i> made of 

iKiMunicanU, ibe increase haji bevn over 

IBtol, whil» tb« pupuUtion of lb««oanlry 

hattmaMdu lOor 12 to I. 

ltih«*«Ter.tb« American Chunhftuffered 
^^deutoeH of tb« Bprliib Uhurcb in 
twIwtDeatiirjr and In tbauai part of tbli 
"nuj, it has folt in no 1«m a decree the 
ywwnl of life wbioh ba« wrought such a 
|*«kAt)DB and restoration tn tbul Church 
tttWlwt forty fears, and it U ctill feeling 
*- Then wu '-in tha furlies" lb« lacne 
ptbc— (sy of "poiierv" — hero as in Kng- 
■*K ud iha nm* fellr ha» bttn t«poat«d 
MrghIoo tinea; but wudom bai eocne with 
'vudng years: oaly a weak handful has 
P*t9Urto Kome to juitify the fear*, while 
■jxipw* o{ knowledge of the Church and 
■■■lb ID ber a* a true branch of the Church 
WboUcof the doctrine and practicoof wur- 
*|^«f belief in h«r miaaiun In America, 
"Vv^ baeo a eaoeral education and ele- 
••JJwi tkat has brought whole ''ptrtiee" 
^^•nl npon ground "which, forty years i^o, 
^mtealmoat ready to condemn ai heret- 
*)u- The CoDTentlon of 1844 camft to tbo 
■tidiiiion of lar-iigbled wtidom when. 
*w dayi of excited diacuMion, the effort of 
^* Id prucure a coudeui nation of the doc- 
^ of the Oiford TVacu rMulted in a 
**<• >f tonAdanco in the " Liturgy, officers, 
osAmclet and Canons of the Church m 
"MliuH txponeats of the sense of Uoly 

$ori^ture,&nd affording ample nitanaof di*> 
dpiine and oomctjon." A similar rwult 
was r«arbi?d in 1808, and sgaln In 1871, 
when, aflpr a protracted and brilliant dis* 
cuitiun, the conclusion was in effect a vote 
of general ooQdemnatioQ of alt oeronioDlea 
llllwJ to oxprwa a doctrine fcir«ign to that 
set forth In the atithorised stAndnTds of the 
Church, and cxprmning cnnlitlfinrR in the 
paterniii counsel and advica of the Right 
Kerorend Fathers. 

Some iintownrd «v«nta roqulra to be no- 
Uced. TliH trisi and luiuanuon of the two 
brother*, Bishop Henry W. Onderdoiik, of 
Pennsylvania, in 1814, and of Bishop Ben- 
jauiinT. Ondordunk, of New York, In 1846, 
ue mo mint ted at Inatt tha power of disci- 
pline that existed in the Church. The at- 
tempted " trial" of Bifihop Doano C184B-C3) 
rasulled not only in hli triumphant acquit- 
tal, and in ■' making the trtHi cif a Bishop 
hard," but establlshod firmly the; nriociplea 
of unler upon which an Kpisoopal Church 
mutt atana. Bishop Ives, in ISSS, set the 
only eumplo of a Bishop of this Church 
perverlluj; to Some. In 1878, Bishop Cum- 
mins became the leader of the only schiam 
which has rent tho Cburcb, and wbich baa 
effectually taught us the lesson that all tha 
treaohory and danger d»m not lurk on one 
side of thu camp. The " B«formed Bpla- 
(.-ojial Chureb," oommonly known as the 
■■ Cummiiuit* movomcnl," still continues to 
oxiit for our warnlnj;. 

A real dangar was aacaped at the close of 
Lha civil war of 18fll-fifi. During the war 
the Uouihern Dioceses had orgsniaed them- 
selves under the title of the "Church in tha 
Confederate Slates," and in the 6«n*ral Con- 
Tnntion of 18S3, wbich met in thn midst of 
Ihn war, mine of thetn were reprMOntcd. 
But in lgC&, at the clcueof ibe war, two 
S(iulb«rn Bishops prcMHitL-J tlic-uselves at 
the Geaeral Convention, and the reunion 
of the once politically-divided Church was 
happily and thoroogbly effected. All signs 
of that division have long paMod awav, and 
no others appear to diiturb us or to binder 
our pmgrcM, 

At the Coarention of 1880 the new ar^ 
nin|j»niiiiit went into vpi^T^iUin, by which. 
tlin Cuiivmilioo is iiiadu the Botird of Mis- 
siciiii, mid the session wai marked by a new 
int«rf»t in the subject of missions. ThrM 
new missionary juriidlcUons w«re set odT and 
Bishops elected. The special work of thw 
Convention of 1882 was dealing with the 
report of the committee an enrichment of 
the PraTcr-Book. To some this work, and 
that of ntiuiuus, seem to partake of the same 
(Character of catholicity with the final action 
upon duL'trine and rilu&l in former Conven- 
tions, and either arc a far more worthy sub- 
ject of the attention of the Convention tbaa 
tha length of a cassock, or the cjnvenation 
in a seminary student's room. It is bettered 
that the deralopinent <.i the uii»«ioi)ary work 
of the Chureb and the work of enrichment 
of the Prayer-Book will make the ConveJ^ 


lion* of 1880 and l«8a, \ji liu fUturn judg- 
invni of tbe Uburch, amont: the muit iiu* 
porunL Conveniiunt thnt biive bo«n licld. 

The Ainerinn Churob U uot withimi wdulc 

polDU in ber cunttitution, hoine of wbich 

[•he inh«HtOd, Uid for tutnc of wbich Iho 

Bogleci and vxpoturo of ber «rljr oiulonce 

•ro rwponaible. 

Tbe powHtyslsiii, which aiakei its pouibls 
Knd not tmpri>tgitblc Ih'iag Ltikt ths puor «Iih1] 
b" oxfludwl fn>m tbeht>u»eof lb* Lord; the 
vc«iry ■yiiom und dtlwate syfteiu of moet 
I>u>ceM9. which aiakeiit nut inipu«Eitilii tbut 
tbo bodjf on which detain ilia uilllug aud 
supporting of a rector, and the lay portion 
of thut budy wbiob clccU tbo Ui*ttop, may 
becoDipoaM ofunbapilMd uobell6V«r*; tho 
WHotof codowmciil*, whi«h make* the living 
of thft olwpy a prccnriuus hire; iho *innn 
salaries wtiivh hinder yaua^ men from en> 
lering the iniui*tri-, and which produoo tn- 
qiioni chauf;e« uf |>uriiliv«; lh« di«po*iU<>n 
uf lh<! lay-puwer ajid the purtft-puurer li» 
ty ran niiM over llio cler;;/; — these are scmio 
of tbo tpeciai formi of oril ia our coniti- 
tution, tbouKb not onu uf thuui it pccullnr 
to ui. On the olhoc hand, lher« are w>iiia ad- 
vautagi-t whk-li ar« tho mull uf tb« indo- 
pendcnco of Church and Slate ill this country 
which it would bo diffli^iilt lo ovcr«itimato. 
Thu Cburcb in Amcrii.'u it ithanliitaly frir* 
tmta Rtato contrul. She hu only ti> N|icak 
th« word bo b« ab«olut«ly fioe from tha con- 
trol of official worIdlin«n. She it IhM to 
oorry on ber own ulTain in htir own wi»v- 
Her failur«i and tucoMsea ar« h«r own. sEib 
ha* n fair flold and no favor. il«r rcltilion 
to thfi Btaie i* that of the primitiv« Church, 
with the added advaDtage of being rcapecied 
initAad of parti>ciit«d. 8ha ia in th* midnt 
of a hundrad different rr-Liginii* lH)dii!)i, Hud 
in Ihe ev-a of the atate she n one among Llin 
huadrod. But her rwl position in her own 
avca it that tho affor* a ceiitrc of union for 
ihvni all, aud (K.-<cupiai the ground of apu>- 
tolic order and evang«lio truth, towafda 
vhlob all of tham aro btnding, and whor« 
all can >tand together. Sen past hldturr 
furrn»h(i4 no ^r>jiind for bnaating, but Riucn 
for graiiluiiti nnd encouragsnumt. Tb« day* 
of doubt and darkneia bar* paM*d away; 
tha no longer apologlzM for exi*t«Dce or 
liiiaitatc* to KMpn bar claimi. Lot uk tiup« 
that the d^yi uf division and doubUni; each 
other have pturd away al»o. Tbe pro^enl 
ii full of encouragement. Tba Oiture i* in 
tbe handi of them that believe and lay bold 
of it. 

Authoritica: Viltwrforca'a American 
Cbureh, S. P. G. DocumenU, Bp. PAiry'a 
Hand-book of tien. Conv., Bp. White's 
Menioini, Bp. Moada'* Churche* of Vir- 
Kinia, l.ifa of Bp. liupltlTik, S«rnion of Bp. 
Uurria. Kbv. L. W. UinaoM. 

Amice. A T«itmcnt worn on thoiboul- 
ders over the va«>o«k and coverinf; ibo neck. 
Apparently it wa* a lort of cape which 
could be arswn over the head It was in 
DM In p>g*n tlmca, but the eatlictt aac of it 

mnntioniMl in Enj^ltind wa« in the tenth cen> 
lury. It wa* Inter a sort of fur cape. If, 
aa is now hold, tlto v«ilo>ent* were varictica 
of tho usual dreos which, heing inad« of 
richer muiorial and with more ooatly orna- 
mentntiun, were iiied in Ih« terricM, tbe 
atQico waa evidently used aa a nrutMtion 
from the oold- When it was used aa a dia- 
llnci and MKTod v««tiniiiit, ihn inyaticml 
meaning of it wiu Lliut it denoted the HeU 
met of Salvation, and a short prayar waa 
recited when it was put on, imploring the 
ovorvliiiilimlui! of the HoLT Spirit. 

Amoa, whuie nama signifies " buTdoD," 
was of the herdamcn of Tekoab, a viltago 
not far from Bethlebem, and probably, 
thKUgb nowhere to n>eordod, a native of cbv 
plnce, as bin loinh wju ihown tbaro in tb« 
time of St. Jerunia. It was in the data of 
Vziaitit, King of Judah, and of Jeroboam 
11., Xing uf Itniol, that be was called to 
delivi^r tioDs maMage nraiuu tbe nationa 
n«igbhonng to Israel nnd Judah. and eap»- 
oinUy auainst the nofth«rn kingdom of !»• 
ruel. Tbe dale uf hia prophecy Is varioaslj 
as*ign«d to the years betwwn 809 B.C. and 
7S4 B.C., during which period tfaeM kings 
were contemporary. 

Amos declares of him&clf that be was not 
the son of a pruphut, nor trained in any 
school of prophets (cbap. vli. 14), but that 
it was fruin feoding his fluclis and gatlier^ 
ing the fruits of tbe sycamore (>'icuj Svo- 
amonu] that the Lokd look him and wld, 
"Go, prophosy unto my puopte Israel." 

This slatementof his uconpalion and mam- 
iiL-r of life is corruboiatMl by manv exproa- 
ftions in the prophecy, which show ihr author 
to be a tnan acouttomwl to oat-door life, ob- 
fttrvani of nftluTeimd familiar with tho cara 
of cBltl* (Mte chup. ii. 9, 18; lii. 4, 6, 12; 
IT, 1, 3, »; V. 8; vli. 1 ; ii. fi, 18). Yet 
this prophet's language is not that of an un- 
lettered or ignorant man, as It exhihils great 
natuial powers of thought, of ohscrvalion, 
and experience, and further prr^uppcaea a 
popular acquaintance with tbe IVniuieuch, 
aud impllos oeremonies nf rtrligion (though 
corruplod by Jarobouin) in accanlatiiMi with 
the law of Moae*. The prophecy dinptsya a 
remarkable unity throughout, and was prob- 
ably piil into its present form by the author 
himMilf ; it tnav ha analyzed Inut four priii- 
cijMil parts, vU. : I. Cliap. i. to ii. 8. A 
gvneraJ denunciation againiit variou* nations 
connected with Judah and Israel; 11. Chap. 
ii. 4, to 71. 14. Prophecies acalnst Judah, 
andeapeoijilly against Israel; 111. Chap. vii. 
Lo ix. 10. An account of tbe praph«t'a 
visit to Bethel, and a series of visiuns or 
prophetical symbolii; IV. Chap. Ix. 10 to end. 
An i-vAngelicnl pmph«cy forelolllng the day 
whvn Che fallen tabernacle of David shall M 
laiHMl up again, and tbe hope of the M>a- 
HiAU'B Kingdom shtU be folBlled. Tbe 
vigor, beauty, and fro»bn«ss of the proph- 
et^ style have be«n acknowledged frum tlie 
earliest times. It is Uue St. Jermue call* 
him " nideln speech, but not in knowledge," 







but ibe flfii&MB of Bishop Lowiti \t br oiL- 
irwlM, u rallnvi; " Ltl nny [Mnon who 
bu KAuioT and |wni)<i>adty enoufth la 
Judg», DOl from tbc luaii. li>it t'rvm hi» wHt- 
ibe*, upon Iho Toltiin« of his g^rediction*, 
•nd b« vlll, [ think, at:ree with nic Uiikt our 
•fcepb«rd 'i* net a. wbit bphind t!ie vt-ry 
Bblsf of tb« propligc*.' Ha will ngrw thul m 
In iafaHroilj and mafrniAcence hv U almost 
MlwU U> Iho i^rtslMt, fto in »f>li>ndur of dic- 
tion ud ek|i:am-«cf«xpra«ivnlioiit»(.-nrc«ly 
mferior lu aay ." (Lowth*! L»uturca on lli^ 
brifw I'i>elpy.) 

Thvt* i> a traililion thM Amn* ■tifferod 
martyrdom At the handa ot bis oflVnded 
tvmnirymen, Init ihere i« ni> »ur« foiindn- 
M«n fcr llir Murritoii. which iiii);lil eiuilr 
h»»» !■*«" a de veld]) men I of Ama«tah*» 
«oDirilaJnt to Jcrobnam, "Amor bath con- 
vplriiO azaimt th«c in ilw inidi>t u( iliu nuit» 
«f UravT; Uie land ti nulablo to boar all lili 

AuthorltJ«t: Bibit Oommontary, ^mith'i 
XHctloDarT of Bible, Puaej'i Minor Proph- 

Amphibalum. A nnmn for a pari of Uio 
•odmaitiMl drea uird in Onul. lu Ore«k 
derivation it ono of the minor proolii that 
tb« Oaltican Cburch rocoivod «i much of iu 
4etaili M w«)) a« ita fuimdaUon from ibe 
CaaL The word wa» tjnonymoiif wiUi 
tm m l; ot eXamil; and WH4'probiLbly ■ 
h— g y «at«r irannant vom In b*i| weather ; 
bvt ■• its t«xt)ir« and un were modifled in 
etntras of tini« II pawed into «ccle«lut1cal 
ma, and became a part of ihr. vrftmcnt« in 
tlM Mrrje*. It waa aoanileu, or rather 
ttnitad from tnp ti> bottom without any slit 
for iba hand*, without aliHirrai. It i« prf)1>- 
•UjMeatical with ibe pbcnul^on worn br 
tlw KHtcra Biibop*. 

Anatofj of F&iih (Rom. x!l. 4. A. V. 

>' proportion nftbn faitB"). li h «Tident that 

fkitk nere » not the act m th« mind, whoth«r 

aaa"Hvie][ faitb"or merely hftlief. It mu«t 

l-i (vimparwl (Kph. it.) " w'iih One yailli," 

and, Juila «. 8, " llie Faith «moti dellvnrpil to 

Um MUIIU4" It must Iberefure stand for tbe 

beJy of Iba doctrino» whute i-onlenta are the 

•li}«et of faith. If M, it will b« nrc^f^ary 

lo eaaioare it with 2 Tim. I. IX, " the fyrm 

ofaauno wnrda." Nowrovertinffto Itom. xil. 

~ iTing therefore ^IfU diSVtring B<x^rd- 

tba gnicv thai is ^rea- lu, whether 

y. In ut pniphacy Bccorilinp; to the 

lon [analogy] or the Faith," tha 

4aly IWIf oooctutiiin that can h« drawn ia 

ihal there wu a dltllnct body of doctrinal 

tUlKDmla BHlvenally rei^'efved. for St. Paul 

bad no aathority orer the CbriMianv at Borne, 

■ad thfnfiire aixtlie nf not what ho mi^ht 

ordain«d, nut of what all received t»< 

, and v> which ihi? tMtcber wu to eon- 

hi* public taactiini;. It jtointn tn hd 

■fKatolir form of the Creed; hut without 

yiHiInc thii »o far, Ihi* iihraMt of the Ajhia. 

tJ»i thowi that already there waa a criterion 

iif wMrb all tPAchen *hould be |;uli1od, and 

*Wh waa rtrvtvwl as author! tat ire. Il ia 

HA clear that nt tbut date, &B A.D., there waa 
so body of Chriitian literatore auch a* the 
NewTaataraont nowUllim could claim that 
pokillon. Tbereforo if it waa not a Urewd, 
a* wo now mi-an by thi* word, it waa aoin^ 
thln|;»)iiivHli'nt to it. A^aln, there follows 
the neccuiiy for us now Uj use Uie aame ris 
itrnint, not •dccling iiirh lu«t» at auit onr 
ric-wf, bill uiinii thi-ni all fiiirlv,, ac> 
conllnKloihejiropiirliundf thu Kaitli. Ciibk 
pnru Articlo XX. in the XXXIX. Anicloi : 
"The Church hath puwi'r to JfL-rwo Rite* op 
CcrenioDiaa and atithority tn Controveraiea 
nf Knlth; and yi-t it is not lawful for tho 
Church toordatnanythtngthut lacontrary to 
Goo'a Word, written ; ntither may it ao »x- 
finund one platt lif Scrijiiurt ihat it bf.rfpug* 
nanl ia anather, Wberefure, although the 
Chiiruh ba a WimcBa and a Keeper <j? Holy 
Writ, yot ai it ought nvt to deorre aiiylhing 
a^ainat tlieiumo, Ko hisldea tlieaametlouglit 
not lo enforco anythtni; to be believed for 
nf■c^r^lity -if Nilvatitm." 

Anaphora. {Or. liftlccfup; oETerlnf;; ef. 
IJpb. vii, 27, nOerlni; sacriflcra; thoiK'a tho 
iiblation at tho Holy Communion,) The 
tertii Anaphora U, Dicn, equivalent lu mir 
Lifl up your hearts. The whola fubject 
will como up unilur the wurd Lilurey, but 
it may be vtull here lo compare the Eastern 
Liturgy with our uwii. Omitting the prvp 
aration, w* bar* — 


riKiitr of 111* Trfaotplol 

TiluSLpliat UroiD. 
Cvmaitiai-onLlivn bf var 

Ctfcnnipaiumloli of Inatlln. 

Wuitlarf Intdlulloa fix (lie 


Wotrldlf iDMCHtkMl t07 itl* 

milMion of Iba Body aod 

Pnjrar fiir t)i t HmoMI of 1 

Ilia HuLt fiuMT. I 

Pmjrtr tor lb* «haa(« af f 

Iba Dam* nl^ J 

0*n*nl ihitnMalaa f^r 
Qalck and Dad. 

fnjm Iwfora lb* laa»^' 

Ldbu'ii Pnj'tr. 
EmlKilUiiiiu. I>ni}ar«n>r 

I ABB'S I'lV"- 

Frayvrar loflduallm 
tlDiy ll>ln{> M Holjr ftr- 




Autyum, or fhsah^Mnc. 

Uft ap foar hsaila 

All Blory <» 1» "Sitrt, cK. 



Wli(ra(0t*,O Uia».MC 
And «>■ meal kUBldy, Ma. 

QT. rrsfsr for Omai^ 

Cburdi MllllaErt^ 
Uare wa s&r aad praMa^ 


KnUitpg j^llncllyiKraJUl 

In «if Vnjwr 

Ausiaiin Caa Hakw af 

AJuliblj aad rrar Llitiig 


Bnt this, thoueh the general order, wns not 
invariable. Tbeprecedinic preparation (pro- 
iinaphuTB] wni; (nr Ivat I'liiinged tbnn thia 
whiL-k we now would shrink from chnnvinit- 
Uur own I'rayer-Book ha*, in tho plaining (he 
invocation in tha office, drawn more nearly 
to the Eastern rale than have any othar of 
thh Western Churcbea. 



Anathema. (Gr.Kdevotod lliln){orofl'er- 
iag. A i-iiuingoff ttota Uie ol&cct nni prJT- 
tlf^Mof th« Church of su ob*tiiiataoff«oder.) 
AAftthema iroi tbo sreBter, u Apborismoa or 
Se^rutioD WM tba l«M«r,»kconimiin{cnlinn. 
It IK Ihtt cxlrnmuat «ct of <ji«cip1iiiu llint cuu 
be iiiDictL'O. Il wiu bnaed ujjun Ihe wur(i> 
af our Lord, " If be will not hear th« 
Cburcb, lot liiiti bo u» ho b«utiiuri inuu and 
K publiraD." " H« muM be a grieTuu* aud 
tcnndaloui linncr, notorLOiiK, under kc'ciun- 
lion ud conviction." St. Vmitl unod th« 
Urm Bve tinuv, and always to expreu 
ttrong reeling of oandfunnniinii. It wm 
il«riv«d ttttm th« BepluH|{inl lr>iii>luliuii bif 
lb« New Tetiamont wrttorft, and vtu. na- 
dvntcod by thom in itf dwpoit ipiriltuil 
MiiM, not tii»rulr rurinal cxclution rroni ili« 
Church'a iirlrilegn, bat a mo»t lerioua, a%j, 
fital loM to th« loul. " ir any man love 
not lh« LoKD Jtava CHRiiiT l«t Mm bo 
•natJieoia." The anatltcnia wat diracLcd 
neninit h«rMi««, hi IIirv vivtv tlio proucliing 
nranulber Oo*p«l. Ttie form nccum in tliu 
declaration appended to Uio Nicene Creed. 
(Vid« Nicxvx Cuxui.) "But (UuM who 
•ay, 'OacQ Ho wai nut,' aiid, ' Befure Ha 
wai be^otMD Ha was oat/ and, ' Uo cam* 
into i)xi«tc»c« out of nolbing;' or who *ky 
tbut 'Tbfi Sod or Ooo li of anotbor sut>- 
•Innc<?, or «Menc«, or la created ur muiabln 
nr chungmbis,' tbo Catholic and Aj>ci«tulic 
Oburoh analhomallEM." Thfieonsi-ntor tbe 
reflieal to tubsoribe to ibis formod ibo loat. 
The ntintbcma was aftsrwardi uied in lov- 
oriil Ptntcunnnu hy *uc'caoding CoundU, but 
tbo tiiodt QOtabl* weT« ibe iwelva KDatheEnaa 
Iaunch>rd by Uyril of AloiaAdria A£«in*t 
Il«»torIu> at tbo'Councll of Ephcstu, 430 a.d. , 
and ibe Caoon thea paBg«d, and r<>-<>naoC«d at 
Cbalcedon, 4M x.o., thrvKtnning tbo anatli- 
•inn ar>iu»t tbe laytnaii wbo ebould imua a 
Oraedln plac^ of t&s NJceoo, alto the anath- 
etna a^ninet all niwt hurosioii «iniicU><] by tb^ 
fiftti tiviiKral ODuni-il of CuiuiaiiUuople 
{b6i A.D.). 

But Ifttor it b•^caInc fearfully abu*fld. Of 
coumlu blading power Isonlyai (b«anatb- 
ama defends a truth of Ui>lv Writ, or ouU 
off an oflVnder againit it. Hut thn terror it 
inapired wa« ao great Ibal many tiirica it wm 
auerly p«rverted. It vas laaucbed agalmt 
the offwdw with *ulnmn toll) t^ of bnlU. It* 
fn-Dii iraro recited by lb« Biabop lUtinK 
befure tbo altar in full veatmeola, with 
ivrlvAprieiU in atlondnDco holding each n 
lighted cnndt«, whicli. a« tbe last terrible 
words of tbe curae wer« uttered, were daabod 
upon ibc futTcmrot. llrni:n the phnue 
<• UurMtd with Bell, Book, and Candle. " lu 
aiiauie, while it wrought gr^ui and oft«'i 
Irreparnbte niiai^biaf, ovcrrpacbod itaelf, and 
it waa often aet at iiauKbt at later time*. 

But the Bngliih Cburcii has been tingu- 
]arly cauliou* in pronouncing any nnntb- 
wniH, It occurs oneo in the Article (Sill) 
upon obtaining eternal «alrali<>n onlv by tlic 
name of Ciikiht, f-'llowing clowly^n teci* 
ptrtheesantpleof St. Paul. 

Anchoret. A peraun who Mtob apart; S 
bi>niiit. ( Vuie H kru it. ) 

Ancyra. In tli« yo«r 814 a. D. a Council wna 
held at Ancyra by tomo eighteen Uiiho]ia„ 
iifnoDg whom wer«TilulU o( Antiooh, Mar- 
cullua of Anoym, Lupua of Turiu*, itnd Ani- 
|ihion i>f Epi|ilianin. Their cot»u!tHtinn« 
wcru embodied in '^4 UanoiM| ohiefly relating 
to the truttiDunt of audi as bad fallen in 
timMcf [lersecuiion. Canon lOalluws tJtoce 
to marry wbo, on receiving Deacon*' order*, 
dednre (bi^ir piirpoco Lu do so ; but forbuU 
niarriug^, under pain of depotitlon, to tboM 
who am nrduinod jprofpMing conlineitce; 
Cflnon 13 r»rbidi Ohompiairojii to ordiain 
withuut iit-rmiieiun in writing, from the 

Another Council wa* held at Anoyrm in 
3&8 A.f. by Baall of Ano^ra and George of 
LaodicOa, with a party of Semi-Ariun tiislf 
opH. Thid Council oondoiiino;d the doctrine 
uf tilt- jpuro AriBDi, and put forth un oxpoii* 
tioti of llii'ir faith, in whieh they atSroied 
that tbi? Sua was of likt aubataacp with th« 
Futlicr; lucaiiiiiig iltu be inferred that H« 
wii* not of the tame (ubitaoce ; they COD- 
duained the tertu eantuJittanliai, and, on the 
other hand, tlivy alio condeiuncid tbe Arian 
fnrnnilary of faith cAlled the Second Creed 
of Sirinium. 

Andrew, St., aurnamed Proto1«cl«a, or 
Brat-ciLllod, wa» a nalire of Galilee. Ha 
waa tbe ion of Juna, and, tngeUit-r wilii liia 
brother Binton, be followed tbe occupation 
of Oabing. Bethti^ida, aunall town on the 
Sea of mUIisu, wna itiuir birtbpWn. Liirlu 
inenLion la mude uf Si. Andrvw iiidividuallv 
in the Goapeb, yet a good judgment of hit 
cbnmcter may be formed from that little. 
He wits probably older ibiin hit brollier 
Himnn, aince ho ifrgt attended the preaching 
of John the Baptist. When hit ncard the 
declarulion of John, "BthnUi iht Lamb «./ 
Ood" M ho fHW Jciua uppronirliiiig, An- 
drew (afier hi* interview with Chkut, in 
rorupauy with St. John) went first Un his 
broloer, to whom bo told of his Snding 
the Mbm-iau, and whom as a brotherly 
duty he brought to JEaira. He waa of a 
devotionul turn of mind, arcking nrncntly 
fur the truth himselfi anddeeirlng to bring 
others to tbo knowledgv of it. AA«r tbia 
llrsi int«rtiew wilb lila future LoaD it 
is conjectured that mure than a year pasaed 
before the fonnal c«li to the two brotfaers 
look •p\»fii, which was after the miraculous 
draught of fl«bea on tbe .Sea of Oalllee, 
when, with their partners, .lames and John, 
"lliey forwok all end followed Him" t&U 
Laker. 11). 

There are but two other circuamtnnces ir 
.■^t. Andrew's life uiemiuned in the tiospeU, 
llie first in 8t. John's Goepel, ch. xil. 21, 
where be liringn th<t int^uiring Ure«ki In 
Jeics, and the other in St. Mark, ch. xlli. 
I), when I*oter, Jamec, John, and Andrew 
in<)uire privately of their LoEii concerning 
thr deitruotiuu of Jertisalem. 

Ecclesiattical hlatory, bowever, girat an 




Ktnt of tho labor* at St. Andrew. H« 

t, kflar tlie diaponion of tha ApoitUi, 

Ibim, CkppMduciu, and Ililliyma, con> 

e autnj to tlio failh and MUbliahing 

BM. From tbcncaliowtinltQ^^aniiBtiK, 

fwRion of KuMia that ix>rd«ni on LliaBiacIl 
Bm, and for tbu> b« it caIImI the Founder 
i4 lb* Riuaian Churcli, and i* honored h 
tbiir titnUr nint. Sinopc Mid Seteftopol 
arv both eon naRtod wiiti th« nuioe of 8t- An- 
■Irew. Hmring luflKriKl manv pnnK»i;uli«n« 
ti« relurnol to Jerusali^m. On his way he 
tftiricd M Birzantiiim, wber« he iiutnutted 
th« tnliabluou In (lio religion of CBBrsT 
.»d f(mnd«d a Church, over whiL-li he con- 
rxtrd "the bclortd tJUchys" aa Bnt 

B« mv«led art«r this into Thrace, Maoe- 
donia, and Aobaia, whvre for many yvar* 
beprMiched the failb, and at but gave hii 
>t Uitimony to Itft truth by laying duwn 
i» life In tu defanaa. 

The acoount of bit martyrdom ii very af- 
[■tiog. At an adrancMl age he was called 
•tort the pnimniul, at Putra*, a city of 
Uli!liai«,oniA«GuIfof LepAnO.and required 
|i>««u« A>oim prwcblni; iha t'hnnlAn doc- 
trinal. I mf ad of oomnlying he prociiiiined 
CmmUT even before the judginent-«Mit of 
JKf:*ai, the proraniul, who wu so ennif^ 
tkat b« commandwl the aged Apostle to be 
fanpriaoned and •eourgud laven Itniat oit bit 
MJted back, and th«n to be fkitened to a 
ena with cnrdi, that bia (uiTeringB might 
b* pnlooged. Thti crraa dlfTerKt frum the 
Dpigkt croM, «Dd muoallftd the croa* d»> 
iiKiMie, from the Roman numeni) X, 

Wbett the aufiVrrlng .-Vpnitle cam« tivar to 

tUl l»trumaflt of torture, he frU on bis 

fcwi M ukd ■ddrgwtd lo it thU f)tmou3 inro- 

aaXiuo, "Hall, precious cmt* I thou ba«t 

bem coDtecrated by the Body <>f ciy Lobd 

Md lidon>«d iritb Hit limb« aa with rich 

J«w»U. 1 vome to thee exulting and glad ; 

iTC"iT« m* into thine arms. Oh, gi-od crow, 

I h««B anienll* Iot«i1 thee ; long hare I 

dvtirW thM and aou^bt Ihcc; now thon art 

found by me and art made re^dy for my 

looclng toiil ; roceivt me into thine arma, 

lalaiig me from among man, and pment 

me lo my Uutib, that Be who r«<lM!mnd 

Bt on tb«e may rec«lvo me 6y thee " For 

iWB daya the dying marlyr pf««chcd to the 

jMopte f^om iha t-n>u, at the end of which 

tine the peunlo importuned the proconsul 

that ba might bo Ultea down; but Iho 

kla«ad Apottle prayed earnestly to the 

Utu that he mliihl at Uiii limo ami th« 

W«lk with hit blood, when bo inaUntly 

•i|b«d, Novemlwr 80, in the year 70 *.d. 

TW f«ut of St. Andrew, on which the 
Mftonfng of Adveni, deiw-nds, I* conildUT«d 
lat kginning of tlio Chrittian year, and II 
•^ fwy auci«nt dale, biding one of tboie for 
"Ucb an Eptftle and QusfHl are provided 
»tltt Leeilonary of St Jerome, and which 
■* dm {nmyen provided for it in the 8m- 
JNMary of 8t, Or^orv. The r«ttcf of 
K Antnv, whld) had been prSMrred la 

CoMtcntinoplQ for thirtoen oentoriei, on 
tb« taking of that dly by the Turki w«r« 
dtapened throughout Cbrintendom, lie in 
calkd tbr patron saint of SooDand and 
RuMia, and throe orders of t{oightlitJL>d bear 
hi« emblem (the Crttx deeunata], tbe Scotch 
order of the Thlntle, the Biircundiuo order 
of Ihft noldcn P1m«o, and theltusmn ordei 
of the UroH of tit. Andrew, and for nearly 
ibrre (HtntuHM this cro«s has boen borne on 
the ntitiiiiial hannnr of firpnt Itritiiin. 

Angela. " Which are spirits, imniiiterlal 
and tntollcctua], the glorious iababilAnts 
of those sacred palaces wh«ro notliiiii; but 
light and Meaaed Immurtallty, no shadow 
of inatt«r for tears, discontcntmenls, griefs, 
and uncomfortable pauions to work npon, 
but all Joy, trHnqiitllity, and p«a«9, eoen Kir 
eier and arer, doth dwell. As in num- 
ber they arc huge, mighty, and roval 
arml«a, ao llkowtio In perfection of oW 
dience unto that taw which the Highest, 
whom they ndnre, love, and Imitate, hath 
impcaed upon ffaem, such olMcrvnnls tliev 
are thereof, that our HATioirn Himself, 
bi-ing to set down th« perfect id«a of tliut 
which we are to pray and wish for on earth, 
did not t«ach to pray or wish for more, 
than only thut here it might bi^ with ub, a« 
with Ibem it is In heaven, Beholding the 
faoti of (iot>. they adore Him; being rapt 
with love of His Ix-aiitv, tliey cloave untti 
Uitn: desirinf! to reeemole Bim, ther long 
to do good unto all Uls creatures, and otpe- 
ctally unto iheohildrvn of mcR." (Hooker.) 

" Mew ofl do tb*7 llMlr illrar bowsn laais 
To oom* uiDccoru, iJiaisacmr wsall 
Haw ofl tli> Ui»y with rdIJ** plulout <jas** 
T^tftlla|Iiltl«s, liho tirluf (QrvVlrau^ 
AlCBlaMI'JUl flsodaUiBidiu oIlltAut: 
Tiisf Fuc us filbl, di*) iTBtob and dull ^^^^ 
Aad Ibelr bilgbl (quiutruiu rouml tUjal ua ptaat. 
And all fiir tors, and ihiUiIdii foi nwani,— 
wbj (tiauld baaranli Oiinlo man bars tacit regard t" 


It certainly does not lenon the wonder, 
while perhaps It leads towards an answer to 
the quoflUon, if wo believe that thr apnear- 
ancM which are aacrlbitd in the Uid Testa- 
ment to the Angsl Jkhovxh (" the angel of 
tho LoMD") were Theophanln, — manifljata- 
liuns ofUoD,— and that "the angel of the 
Lokd" is the 1#ord of the aiit;wts, und noL 
one of the angelic host. It is very evident 
that Hn who up]H:ar« to Abraham In the 
plains of Usmre and in the land of Moriah, 
to Lot in Sodom, to Uagnr in the Wildnr- 
ness, to Jacob in Hiirnn (Q«n. svi. 7; svlli. 
I ; six. 1 ; xxii. II ; xxxi. 11, 13), to Moeca in 
thn bush, to Balaam, al Bochim to the pao* 
iile, to Otdcun, to Manoah, to Rliiah the Tish- 
tiito, is one who astumce thfi nuni> rity, czur- 
elsQs the powor, and ii called by tliv namoof 
Jkbotab and Ood (Num. xxii. 85; Judges 
ii. I ; vi. 1 1 ; xlli. 18 ; 2 Kings i. 8, 15). Other 
later otsca there are where the annl is plainly 
the miaiatar and metsenger of Jxhotas, 
BR in tho vfsion of iJavid at tho thri<«hlng 
lliKir, and at the dMiriiclion of the Aiiyriao*, 
and in the vision of Zocbariab (3 Sam. xziVi 

H) SKlaeislx. 8&; Z«cb. i. 18). Bat in 

16* ftiBt«nf«<« whith bare bwvn dt*d. cv*n 
WDi-r* * diittnctioi) veom% w bo mode, Ho 
whom JiiiuvAH caII* ■' Minu H-tii-ol" it 
niimi-a br Itniuh ■' ib<i ftHp!lolHii.|.rK»"n«" 
(Ki.xxMi, aO; xxxit. U; K Ui(i. fi), and 
by Jhovah Uim.,.ir It l« »i,id "inyprw- 

. ,, iry pr_^ 

>-uo« •»&]) g,. Willi ilinn,, »iiij I will givu thee 
""•t ' (Kx. xxiiiii. U). And wh»lh« we 
uudnMUml with the oarlK-r Futhen. tbui '■ Ihe 
KHfol uf ilm h'nxUtxr if iho I.onr. And God," 
"T, with S». Am;iig[lriu, Umi tho TlieoptmtoB 
ytn " •eir-tn»iurMi«iluii, of God tbrouRh a 
• nMtml Ulnc" (Lidilon, Bump. Lpc.1. lli» 
i *'"" '^''^'no m«nir«t«U.iris i» tin; 
•'ime, ihis Aiig«l Jkhovau w the Lobd of 
ih« itimab. 

And ihoy nro Hi, cmturea and MtranU. 

Wo nrwl mn |wu» lo Consider tlie WMon- 

abi«nou i>r a boliaf, which all race* and g«ii- 

BfaiUiB* i.r men aliare, in the vsi.iviice of 

"^**'''' of beingi hlgbar tlian man and le- 

iwaaii nmn and God, ncaw-r to Gon ihan 

man It, ho\\w and wiAer, Md, nn ibr [jllicr 

»»nd, having ralalloni of duty toward* 

men,— lli« Awl that ull men do fihure it 

urovoa lu PtaaonableneM. WIihi wp has« 

bi oouMw, u ««r»anUor lbs wm« Lori>, 

Who hai aol itj^tn hcfom u* at oup exani> 

1.1m (if oWlloiico lo Ul( will, ij, what Ho 

»" '•"Wiled lo u» in Ui« Word uoncarniiig 

Utaio, And ilio itiBiniction which He bm» 

([Iran iia b by do tne«ni to mcncro aa i> 

ipntiillmaa timnoMd. 

lo the Oltl Teiiament, a>id« from Ifaoce 
tll*l«nc«a which have bemi cited, and which 
wwu Willi Tqw rifoptionM evident manirnU- 
I'""*! 11 '^'' JJlvino proteriw, the inttaac«> 
'" wlilirli ih« nnf-ett are oamed An not vannr, 
bul thcj^ aru pr«t;nunt with moaning. Abra- 
ham law ihri-e (Ucn. xviii. 2, 8), of whom 
OnnwB* pro-eminont; Lot, two (ch. six. 1). 
Itiit He whnm Jotbua taw it Captain of the 
liOnii'H h«»t (Jpih. V. 41. Ttiu Pialmlit 
namat " t|i« c-harioU of Oon, tbnutands of 
anifolt" (IV Itviii. 17), "whom J!c makcth 
•plriu" (Ft, civ.^, " whom Ho ^Ivath <?biu-£c 
cimcofnlii«" Hi« people, who "cjcel in 
•Iwngth" (l*a. ici 11 ; ciii. 20). Jacob law 
Ihfii) aK«ndinK ■"•I demuding on the lad- 
di»r rrom earth to heitven (Oea. ziviii. 12). 
liBtnli "taw the LoKD high and lifted up, 
and llUti-iiln lill<jd the t«mple, and nbuvo u 
■ liKid Iho xtraphim, crTtQ|; one to another, 
■Holy. U.ilv, l!oly'"'(l», vi ]). K)»ki.;l 
faw "tltu pbenibiiitj of Uod," "the living 
i^reultirM," "in the viiioDt of Ood by thit 
rivor iif L'bnlnir ' ( R»ik. x. 20). In llauiet'i 
vi>lnn till? apffel Gabriid — " man of tioD" — 
It hill t«iu:hcr, and an|p>U are the prtiiow 
of the kingduoii.of wb'ttu Mivhael it oaeof 
IhDchL'l.—Michao), "who like QoD?" (Dan. 
il.l9i X. 18). 

Id 2 Kadraa the angel, who it tent to in- 
■truet the prophet, i>> named Uriel, -'the 
flame of Uod'' i Kid. iv. 1), one of " the in- 
numerable muliitndo of antteh Kathered 
tOKcther" (eli. vi. !tj, nhciHthiiilaMlBiid trem- 
bllnt; befotaLbeZ/aftD(2 Old. Titi. 21). The 



angel** name in Tohil is Raphael, "o' 
the Mven holy tin^lt which pretOD' 
prayers of Uiu «iltiu, and which ^ il 
'jut b«for« the Holy Ono" (ch. xli. 15^ 
not to be feared, but who lorvcd men 
of any favor vt mine, but by tlie will 4 
God," a* iho ungd who 'talked wit) 
John forbade hie wornhlp, "for 1 
f^Uuw-«orvaiit" (Ruv. xxll. ft). 

But it ia in the Chrittian Scriptur 
light of the " manifcalalion of Ooi)"1 
Seih" that we have the fullest evidMiQ 
diictrlue of the unifcU of Gf>t>. "Weoi 
liave, we can almmt unilnrittund. tba 
coming from hravcn must huve ujiene 
wtiy and hrouj^bt iha atmoFpbere ma 
an;;elio attendniicn of iK'nvi'.n with HI 
the narili. An niigel aniiuiuiced lh« 
iif Hi* forerunner (8l Luke i. 1,2 
10). The Bn[*cl tiatricl nulutcd Hit i 
mulbrr with the prumlie of His conoc 
and birth. A mntlitude of the hm 
ho(.t attended the angel that annaunoe 
birth to the shvpbRrd*. An anijel W. 
and cuided Jo»eph (Hatt. i. SO, 24}. A 
delivered Him from the hand uf B 
AngnU min!>teT«d Lo Htm in Hi* tti 
iLun (Matt ir. 11). An angel com] 
Him in tiothMcoiuie (St. Luke xxii 
Ltgioaiof angeli wereat Di* bidding 
He was betrayed (Bl Mati. txii. iS), 
ijqIi announced Il» reaurrection (6L 
xx. Hi. Angela accompanied Hit &*« 
(Aoul. 10}. ^ar above ull angola Roi 
now. Defnru Him angcI* bow and velS 
facet B*they womhip (Htb. 1. 7(. Th« 
iiT tbu archangel ahull hcmid Hi* com 
judgment (81- Luke Iv. IG). With a] 
angels lie t>lin11 oonie (fit. Matt.xx^ 
Angiiln jihull Hummoti ijuk'k luid dead 1 
Ilia throne (St Lukoxii. tj). Before I 
He eiiull (M>nfc<M th«m ihtt have eon 
Him, and d«ny them ihat bavo denied 
Angel* ahatl be Hi* inlnii'lor* of rewac 
punt-hment (St. Matt. xiil. 89). 

Th<-y differ from UB and «ic«l IN, 
itlorJDU* creaturwof Ood, in roanTt 
but moEt »f hII Ui faoltU4!M end obed 
Tlify aro wonderful in knowledge, i 
[wnrnnce (^loriLiut, great in pnwcr, li 
nity cxalit-d, in nuiubvr "an innum 
compiiny,'' ''thoutaiid th»tii>Hndt aa 
thnitiand times ten thoujiiiiid." The 
thev whom we unduntaiid by "the 
Hugrli" {I Tim. r. 21), who haTO \ 
the ordeal before which otliem fell, 
"kept th«tr flrst «*tau-" (Jude fi), an 
keep it furever. And jot thfsc glwrioi 
imiuvrUi bcingt arobut crealurcd, and 
crcatLircs. They are to far beyond ii 
the " wt>r*hlplng of angel*" (Col. J 
would be ibe natural impulwof hu 
an^ of reverpnr" fi>r the inSnlte OoSi 
ibey themsclvca furbidsui-h worthip. " 
up,' said St. ret«r ; " I alto am a 
(Act* s. 20). And in the tamo tpii 
angel forbade 6t. John, "I am ib 
luw-aervanl. worship Hod" (Rer. xi 
: But, "let all the angeU ot Qod w 



^Biat," ft>r "bj- HIni, ihi' Sos, wur-f ull 

K-iiliuc* CTeml»d, ihiii ue in lleiiveii. and that 

TV In mrtfa, vifiblo nn<l invMiblo, wlxuhvr 

ej be tliroaes, or domlnloni, or principali- 

««, or powen : all ihiRiJE vror« creittpa by 

'ins and for Him, and by Ilim >U tbinf:i 

Ut" (Ciil. I. 16). Finite, therefore, in 

or, for ihey vera ereMed ; Aolto in 

^Biaenitudf, for tpac« cantaini Uioai; flBiiu 

fin Hiiowlpdite, "dMlring Ut look Into" (I 

'X*et. i. 12) tb« inyit«ri€a of CilnritTp no that 

^he A[m«itt4« of (h« I/Olib kre " u «p«cUcl« 

«o ih«m" ^1 Cor. Iv. V), Bitd "even to tbe 

^rtn<-inRtiti« and powers in lieuvonlr plao-K 

^* tiiade kiKiwo bjr th« Cbtirch Ihfi iimnjfutd 

■^riwlom uf Goo" (Enh. 111. llj, nn-l of the 

futur« igDurant- At comiwrwl wilb ui 

■^wbe; but "He ckar^elb HIi iini{al« wUb 

f olltf" (Job iv. IS). Ai comparctj with ua 

Bolj, but ft erCAt hoiL nr th«tn ba* fiillen. 

~7be ervst lcau«rof tbut Tallec bott, m creHt 

-K-hut h« ckwlil Dinke " war in H«aTc<n" (H«v. 

3iiL 7-9), and on enrtb aodiviild iba King- 

«5oiD of OoD Lbat iu lh« verjr preienc« of 

«1m Soa of QoD he oould offer Qim alL tbo 

^^■dngdoim of tbo earth and tha gloriet of 

^^kli»m, is a fallen augfl (St. Mmi. iv. 9; 2 


^^L Of that glorloiu bo«l of tbo elect He«»ii 

^^^a tta* borne. Of them alon«, thoro ihi^y 

^^■alofta — tb«i jiiii^'indnl is nni vci, and all men 

-^vail for it — wunbiji and aiiore and do the 

^rill of llifir God. There ibcy worship 

d adoro Him ihatfilleih iip^m ibo throne 

the Lamb. " Whi^iL Uv brin^eth tbe 

Ueo Into tbo wurlJ U« uilb, Let 

^Btba^angola of God worship Him" fHnb. 

. 8). Ana aii|;oln worthip llim who »tteth 

«]peo tbaibfoae In human form, who "lonk 

jaot on Kim cb« nature of Rn^rla, but H« 

%ook tin Him tbo *«od uf .Ibrahun" (Hob. 

tt.»)."th6 Mao CsBt&T jR6nb'(l IHm. 

i". (,), " the So» of whom Ha eaiih Tby 

Throne, O Goo, 1* for ov«r and over" (Ueb. 

Bat their work ia not al^ done in lleav^n. 
*'An lh*y not nil minintcrini; i|>iriu, tent 
fonli to miniKier to ibeiu (but «biill be bein 
of Miration?" (Ueb. i. H ) Tbe eiiMenrc 
<f Ibem that do th« will of OoD in Hoaveti 
i» BO life of idleness. They arti Iho fellow- 
•(r*isla of Him who is the Lobu and Ibc 
8*»I0ra of men. Tliey aro tbe agiMitii or 
Otliaiid the ni«aai of Intercourae lietween 
•<nh and HeaTen. 1 1 is no novel inlorprutn- 
tlaitturmd, "Ue makelb HU anfrcli to be 
*i»d». and Hi» mlniiter* it flame of flro." 
Tb(flr«g (iti t!o«iiit Siimi wprc the work of 
upU. An nni;el tmubltd the waten of 
■tboKU. In the Apocaiypc we road of 
ttCtliiMlralniDi; ibo fuurwiad*. Work* of 
^■CMnoF, the de.£iruGtlon of Soilum and 
*J>*orrah bv tb« Bery lava of Tolcanuei, 
!*• dertniolfon of Si-nnecharib'* hoeU bv 
bam, It ia tafpmed, of a iiitfovatiDS witH, 
A* M(UI<nca in I*rae] when David num- 
wfw th* people, thn umiliri); of th« earth 
■^ ik« ApocaiVpM'. are u^i^riliod to an^)«. 
yuan a not Inanimate, lu loila aro du- 


tic*. "Fnf all lhtiit[s fcrvaTbee." "And 
trverv breath of air, and everj' ray of boat 
and light, every bcouliful prnipect, it, aa 
it were, tfao »klrta of their cnrmcnta, the 
waving of the robe* of thoM grxanuK and 
holy Ix'ingi, who>n facoa *oe God in Ut-aven. 
And I put it to any one whether it ii not at 
^hila»u])bi<-al, and'af full of intoUccltial en- 
joymenti to refer lliu movetnont* of the na- 
tural World lo iboiQ aa to attempt to expluiu 
iheni by ccitnin theories of srience, uaenil aa 
Ibeee are, ami capable of a rt-llginui applico' 
tion." (Newman.) 

Then- gtiardetl, l*d, and f^d Hi* Church in 
iht wildorncM (Pi. IxkTiii.Srt). They wateh 
over natiuus. They watth over men. " Tbo 
angel of tbo Lokd camputh rouiid about" 
(Pa. arxiv. 7); "and lot Uie whole moun- 
tain round about was full of horaea and 
chariota of ffro round about the propt)«l" 
{'2 King* vl, 17). They are tbe inrtrumenti 
of mercies and punishmenU (2 Sam. xxiv. 
IC). Thny boar tb« prayors of men iin to 
Gob (K«v. viii. 8J. Tliey watch over little 
children (ch. xxvi.). "Uf such ii tbe king- 
dom of Uttavon," and "iboir anprol* do al- 
ways behold the face of mv Patueb wliiuh 
lainHeaiveo" (Sl.Matt. iv'iii. 10(. They are 
proaont in tbe aunmbliM of Chrittiana; the 
reatoa for their decLTcy and order la " be* 
cause of the angoU" (&)al. v. 6; 1 Cor. li. 
10). Thoy ar« Qou'a nlQaa<^nger* to men 
(Acta viii. 26 i X- i), and under tbe guiae of 
itrani^era and needy " aomo have enUrlaloed 
ungvlBanawari<ii" (Kcb. xiii.i). Th?T watch 
uvcr tbn liviii);, and than b Joy in tim pres- 
ence of the at],i;ela of QoD over one sin ner that 
repvnteth." And wbcn Laxnrua, the beggar, 
dioii they "earry bii soul to Abraham's 
bosom" (Si. Luke vli. 39: xv, 10), 

Tbcir work ia of a kind Ibnt to our pride 
and envy (thodrvil'nown sina)He«ni irksome 
and unworthy (1 Tim. lii. S; Wia. ii. 3i). 
Hut "tho an^alic life k piuscd Itotwoun 
Heaven and earth" (Lui^btun), and In their 
i-vca it it "Glury to God on bi|:h" where 
tnero it "noaco on cartb. f*'>o<l-^ll towards 
men," unu riutliinK which ia worthy of the 
care and luve of God ia beneath tbeiratten- 
tinn. What wl 1eam about (hem show* ui 
that there ia cli>f>e Ciinnoi-tioi) between thnae 
two portions ofthe one Inngdom, — tbe vuible 
and the invisible. It I* not without miuin- 
ing that tha ApoatciUc Llturgiea repeat the 
very fornu of words and of worship which 
tho abephordi heard, and which were re- 
T«(Jed to laalah unJ St. John [Si. Luke il. 
14; Is. vi. S; Rev. iv. 4-11). Bo MoMiswaa 
bidden In " make all tilings iwcording to the 
pattern showed to tbee In tbe mount" (Heb. 
viii. IV). May it not be f'>r a liko macon that 
aa tha nam* of Halaolii sifciiillM ''my 
Au^l," aud hi* prophecy of John the U»p- 
tial ia " Heboid, I acnd mv angel before Thy 
faoe" (Mai. Hi. 1), so m'the lolurs to the 
Chnronaa of Asia the Lohd chooses to nama 
the Chief Pa«torj not Apostles or Hi>b(>pa, 
but by tbe very nanio oi those miriiiteriug 
■piriu which were about Hta throne? The 




m«ti on earUi offioen id the Cbnrch Titible, 
mad tb« Spirits in Hmvoii offiwrs of the 
Obnreh inTiiibt*, »n knit toj^tlmr In lliu 
MUM ConamuDioQ of Balnlj. bet to do ibu 
MmewUl of OoD, ^nd callod b^ tbo »Rie 
Dunvor "AdmU" (B«v. i. -JO). 

What 6b ^hn saw in Ueaven It la for 
tbe Obarch to reflect on enrtli, aod bo lo do 
the will of OUT Fklher. In their wonhip, 
iu order, harmonr, beautT, constancy, thej 
•bow ua wbo. ana who sKin«, i* the object 
of our wonhip,— not iipirica of ihii denil arid 
•■•ouli yet under th* altsr" {Rev. vi. 9), 
notovoD tbeirgloTfounclTct, but " the Lord 
Ooo ALMiotiTT, wliieh wai, and it, and i» 
to come" (IteT. iv. 8], and bovr llr ia to 
tw wftrtbitHKl And in their niini«t ration*, 
inakine IlU will ihtiira, carln;; for whnt II« 
carei for, loekiug Bis glory bMause tbey aro 
Huljr and Hit, Uiay inow ui what i( 'u> Im 
the spirit aud tbonanner ofour wurk. The 
LOKD l«lls ua who the^T shftll ho that in 
lb« remrrectioti ibull inborit the kingdom 
and be ■■ aa tbe aTtcel*" (St. Luko xx. 80), 
tboaa who have like ih^ni mlniitered to 
"tbeae hi* brethren" <St. Matt. xxt. 40). 
TItey have confeeeed Him hero, and He sbail 
ConliNH them before the angijU. They bave 
fbllowod and wurtbfpcd Hint liem, and 
tlier«u here, "with angel* aiid archaui^vlB 
■Bd all the companr of Heaven, they ihail 
laud and tnagaUT Hit glgrluu* tiuitie, fvcr- 
more praiiin^ Ulm and ftaylnj;, Holy, Iloly. 
HoIt, Lohii Uod of Uo«ti. ll«nvon and 
wrtJi are full of Tbr ULory. Glory be to 
TbM, O 1X>KD, MoitHlgh." 

Kkv. L. W. OiueoK. 

Anglican. It-n Angtfs wnm one of thv 
trlbw of Ti'Uluuic luf rubhen that deiootided 
npon the ooutt of England, drove the an- 
cient Britoni buck to the mouatuint of 
Curnwal) and Walet, and eetablliihed tbeni- 
•elvM ■■ permanent retidenta on the tMl. 
For eome oocuit rMJion, perhaps for tti 
euphoav, their name bu Men perpetuated 
ID Xagllih and Englnnd. 

The t«rin AnclicBn ii now commonly ap- 
plied to Uiu NaiionsI Omrch of BagUnd, ni 
tb« tena tialHcan ii to the National Church 
of Franoo,— the aociont (Aul, — Coptic to 
iba Cburob of the Copia, or Russian ta the 
Oriental Ohureh in Kuuia. 

Iltoie are national torm*. Tboy CTloce 
tba important fact that while tb« Catholic 
Cbarch i* one over all ChrUl«ndom and rtf 
maina one and the mime into whatever land 
her miaalonaries pen L't rale, ktilltheconroroii 
bertelf to national peculiarities. Tho cus- 
tomi, lh« tiulc* and huhiti, with llie mode 
»f tbuu^ht mid et-'tiou, whiuli di*(i;i){uiBh the 
iMliant from eauh other, enter ov«n into 
the national formi of religion. While the 
Aiielfcnn ii, aa ihe claimB to be, the One, 
Holy, Catholic Church In Kneland, (he hai 
berown BnglUh mnde* of Liturgical wor- 
abip, and her special tArtos and way* of the- 
ologiotl teMhiog. Tb* Anglican CIturc-h 
wa* originated among ifae Britons in Apin- 
totlo times and was revived among ihts 

1 oi 

Anglo-Rusoiu, 59S a.d., by Au^itine and 
his companion monks, wbo was Induced by 
Grngoiy the Qreat, a Bikhop of Rome, to 
enter upon a miiBion at Canterbury. The 
Rom&n Itithop pursued Lha same policy to- 
wurdr En^liiiid thai was lo succoaful toward* 
the other nations of Western Europe. Bis 
cUim of eiupr«niBoy was r^Mted at flrst by 
the Uritiah Ohrialiana, and was oevor tamely 
submitted to by the English Church or poo- 
dle. Evon IiilduhrBnd (OreRory VII.), 
wbn« Krindlng under his hf>el the crown of 
the Holy Roman Empire iti tho ptri«n 
Uenry IV. of Uermany, wit« caroiul not 
turn the tcrew& cT Sis uiurpations 
tiffhtly upon William uf Normandy, cvn- 
riiii^ror of England. John was the first of 
ttie kiBga of England to acknowlcdee the 
temponJ and spiHlnnl lordnhip of the Pope, 
hut even then the bnroiie, who went the rep- 
rescDlative English [i«oplu, wrunj; frotn him 
(he Magna Charts, in which the phrase 
" our Church of Kngland" sbows that the 
nation itself rejcetpd the unoBlholie clalnu 
of the Botnan Ponliff. At Irtol, niVr many 
ridssiludee, Ihe Englith Convorution, 1637 
A.V., flnally resiated successfully the Koman 
uhuruatione, and tliit National Church of 
England became, as she still remaim, free 
front foreign control. She bec«]ne only the 
more diBtUictly Catholio by r^octing iha 
unemhollo awumption* of the Pop«, The 
Uatlicnn Chtirrh was at l»ast etjoally r«al- 
ive under Lhu Papal gnp, hut Khe now, like 
other National Churches of Western Ku- 
ropc, has been forced to suoeamb. The 
Anglican Church, howvvur, maintsins tuc- 
c^ufully her national autonomy. While 
rccogniEini; tha aulhority of the whole 
Church Catholic, and remaining ready to 
obey It ihould It ever be clearly and l«giti- 
matvly exercised, she lupporls the right of 
Niitioniil Churches to conduct their p«culi> 
nrly national affairs without foreign inter * 
vontion. ^M 

What the Anglican Church claim* fb^| 
herself she allows^to others. Bulb thfScoU^^ 
tish and Irish Cburchoa hftve their own Lil- 
urtcivs, canuns of discipline, and e<jncr*l 
self-rule, while they keen up reoipr'>cal 
commiinicin with Kneland. The Etii^lliih 
colonJM being oB.->rntia1ly parts uf Kogland, 
their Churches are branchini; outgrowths 
that still retain not only onfanic union with 
the "Church of Englnnd," hut canonical 
conjunction with her. 

The Church in Amcri«a, though desc«nd> 
tng throuKb both the English and Scottish 
tinea of the Ajmitolic Kpi*cvpacr, Is proik 
rrly not .Anglican. Uvrc, »■ in Kngland, In 
France, and in other countries, the Catholic 
Church is one in organic union with the 
universal Body of Chkikt, holding to the 
one succesatoD under the one Loao, with 
the one laitb and the one baplitm, hut she 
is already, and li more and more manifesto 
ing herself to be a disllnciivcly national 
Church. She feel* the current or proi;r«*M, 
and while doing all she can to purify it and 




Vmp in tbe witjs vt tnith and hultnwc, th« 
do«« Dot oimdlv «nd fcKiliilily ibraw b<sn«If 
kihvu-t ii. tier mlMJon It primarily and 
chiefly to tbo AmericaD people, ftnd the i* 
1^^ tut dtrtio^ng nn Amcfioui type «f Catb- 
^H ul I c doctrine and pnicii«9. 
^K Th« Aneltcmn Church hu no authority in 
W^ 1^ Cbarch in tb« irnilcxl Sutn. Bhc liu 
ft tishtfully {rt!«t follutiiiGo tfarou>;b the wril- 

■ iigt of her BCholtn living ud deud, u w«ll 

■ H ibrough bcr nolila sxamplc; but tbe 
M ^Dgfatcr bu a damaln and hoii>«hold of 
m ier own wbich ibe holds dircctlv luidf^r tho 
W »o* LoKO, and by tbe grace of Hli pret«ncc 
r alie it bearing her nilnew lo Hit name, wln- 
} oJngsouU to Uixgltiry, constriicling form* 

of Wiirabip ad«plM lu ber Ittne und. sphcn:, 

mxmI iearaiog fatt lo to teach the otke F&iLli 

t^^l it tball laJfo up into itikilf. tttUsr Amori- 

c^wi DMtbodi, the b«*t thought and purett 

JiX*« of the AiDcrioao pcoplo. 

H«T. B. PRimtLiK, D-D. 
.Anoatcs. Th« revenuM or proflu of one 
•r«->«ai. and to far tynonymoiit witli flntt 
ff—ii't* Tbey were Ihe revenum of tbr 

IV. <^ for the lir«t year after tlie cutue- 

, f the Blihop to hit Soc. They were 

n L I <Mi« paid to the Papauy. Tbvy aroii^ 
Hi-' • u> tli« diapotal made of the ac<;ruiu)j; 
''r*- nt», lIltaM, and paymcnu due, though the 
^ikh^^ric were vacant. Who wa* to eojoy 
Oieinr Tho tempuuion to the Bishop over 
^*««nibeDeBu(«. and to iho Motropolitan in 
ibc CM of the vac»nl 8«e, wiu lo kecji tho 
***W<*ftlaod to apprupfiutc the ruvcBuiw, 
oi •iHtottquire from the Bishop-elect tho 
Want of the flr*t yciir'* infumi-*. Thi. 
njlit, or r»ih<Tr, usur[iatlon, pai»*d on to 
'b'Ftme. The bt^ginning of the practico U 
DljiD^ve begun with Pope Gregory [600 
^b^lmt ii did not Unally take the bur- 
'howoie ibape It aiUined till about 1 223 
*j^t vtftft lunocenl III., by granting to 
™«iyni. ths Cpiwopal revenues for inrci 
Tiati, DbUdned the royal aid in flxing thi^ 
^ttupoo the clergy for ihu Pajmiy. It 
'"'Wpart of the comjiluints niude furcen- 
lirlw lirture the Kcforniation. It 3i Mti- 
"•ti^ibit io the forty-five year* between 
Wtoi 1S31 thp •qufvalent of I226.O00 a 
V*> nt paid to the Pope* bv RngU^h 
"■Wfiln the forni of aonatM alonu. In 
"^m Convoc»llon of Canterbury applied 
14 tai crown for relirf, and a conditionDl 
*^ »•• puaad, by which li cocnprocnise *■» 
' : > Um Pope. A* no notice was taken 
.t<e aet wac conllrined by letters 
fj^two yrara later. Annates "in a t«« 
*>faiMHi« ehapa have ever «inc« been paid 
••ft* crown t^ every Bishop and every 
l*^ holding » beneace above a certain 
'^^•nt of annual valup. But ibis revenue 
•" •K.lfed to the benufil of the cliirgy by 
Y'^tt Anne'* Bounty Act, and is now 
"^"ijiOKl for l>ulldtng parsonages. 

Aumln* Bssier. The m^^g of the 
""H ■ doubtfnl, hut the iRMt probable 
^Nuaiira b Lbat il was tb« anniversary 
wtdsy or tboM who bad bceu Uptized the 

prqvjoui rciu«, n* tbti ww tuually ndiuinls- 
terod at Etuter-tlde; yet, if obaeived on the 
actual Sunduy the year following, it might 
fnll very iuu>>n Inlcr, or before tb« Easter of 
that year. This will exphiin why it could 
nOl <in such varying dat«*- It does not 
appear to havo been kept up, aa il was obao- 
tete {anli^uus) in ItOO A.D.. when Micro* 
logus mentioned it in hit Ircali**. 

Annunciation. Tbw t't-iui of tho Annun- 
cialioii of the Aiigal Gubrie! to the Viryiri 
Mary. The feast cDmracniorating tliiv event 
Is satd to date earlier than 41)2 a.d., for in the 
Sacramentary of Gelaetu» there is an Kpis* 
tie, Gospel, and Collocl, but [hn actual day 
olieurved vartod. Hnwrvrr, iLc Sacrament- 
ary has had inteqMULioos, and no un- 
doubted proof for tbg oUervunco uf tho 
fiuiil can tm iracud higher than the Spaniib 
Council of Toledo (0J% a d.}, which ordered 
lbat, as the feast day would fall in Lent, it 
should be obMtrved in December, In aocom* 
nncc with the L&odiceaa Canon (ftlct), order* 
ing that no festivals of Martyrs, i.«., Holy 
Days, aliould bo obaorveil in Lent. But the 
TrnlUn Council {692 a.b.) ordered that this 
ftjtul shuuld b« excepted from tbu probibition 
and restored Ui its right place,— ihe 2Sth of 
March. Tbo purpose of the fcativul is to 
CO mine mo rate the announcement made by 
the Angel Onbrlel la the Virgin, that sb« 
should vunoeive and bring forth tbe prom* 
iscd Memiiah, and the cnnoeplian of our 
Lord,. wbii^h followed that announcement. 
Antclucan. (Before dawn.) In thHj.irini* 
jtivo Churcli in lime of pcrtecution the 
Cbrislinna vun want ta ni«et before dawn 
to ehvap* dotei'tiun. Tb» custom wsui con> 
tinucd after persecution bad ceatL-d, but i\ 
was broken up later, as it led to sonao irrever- 
ence and disorder. In dangerous times, of 
course, the lloly Communion was then most 
safely and readily cclobratcd ; butintimnof 
quiet tbla wus not ne^eMary, and ih^ custom 
wiiH no Inngpr impprativc. Al?o tlmni wurw 
irrt-giilaritius eimnnc-iiid vritb tbooalobnitloiia 
tit that liifur, BO that it nan ordered lbat the 
Uoiy Communion should not Iw e«Ubrat«d 
at night. 

Amependluni. A frontal v eating th* 
front of the altar. The> color of the anle- 
pcndium should vnrv with tbo sesson and 
the special day. Tne Boly Table in the 
Greek Church is alwaj-s veiled with »peolal 
caro, with ullar-cloths which wrro oonae- 
t.'rultd at the time llis altar or the church 
was CO use era led. 

Anthem i'ulf A.htipbom. 
Anihropomorphlsm. (The Ilkenaaa Qr 
forrn of man ) 1 he gross error of soma here* 
tlc£,— Audi'di)?, — wbo held that OoD had 
a human form. Ii wu and Is probably n 
niiEural hasty error which soroQ may llnd it 
[liintull lo put avray. At anv rate, it hsw 
been auppused lbat many held it whiuc lan- 
guage, following tho accommodations of 
Holy Scripture, hiu leeined to jui^tify the 
charge. One of the earliest, Teriullisn (180- 
S02 A.D.}, taught that UoD had m body, bat 




being iivlf-oziitpnt, wm bound hv verjr dlf- 
(ernnL ■iid Lo ua Incooiprchcnsible. 1&W& i>f 
exUteiicp. The LiiEiguai:e, Hii Kyo, His 
Hand, Bi| on-nting man in HU uwu Imkgo, 
in unlj kuilvd lo our [luwurii uf coniprehen- 
aiun, fi>r we oro distincllj' sn'l autliori- 
UUvely iftiight (It. it. 18; AcU xrli. ^, 
d( sJ.| tfait U« U «v«n-wher« present, a 
Spirit whom no man hath ie«n nor C4ir 
■M, who cannot b« dvlinvBtsd hy mmi'it 
ftrt or drvici', nr, tus tiie Article lialti it ( Ar:. 
I.), " Tb«r<} ia but one tiring and truv (joj>, 
dvcrUxiinct wicli<iuLlii)dy, purta, <jr|>a«Iana, 
of inltnitn piivor, wikdum, and fc^^"'**-" 
A» we uin onlv uite Serijiturelang»i»gti upon 
such loftf find' Insohihlo «ubJecU, it ti well 
Ut UM )[r«M Cftrq and dwout thou^lit in 
fonains nicta ooncepiionc, Anihrojiomor- 
^Um dom not ncrcsuwri i,v i-xclu<li- n jWrsoR 
Irom the Church Communiun, tbouRb, M 
St. AuniaiiQQ says of tbo»« wliu varv inb- 
1«d in li:i own Limes, tb«y art- earaal and 

Anticbriit. A vord compcundi'd f^nm 
the Gre«lc anti nnd CftriiCos, ond moaning 
"opposed lo," or, "inilcad of ("hkibt." 
Tbon ia prohabljr no tbeolugiol lulject 
involved in ^reaLer obscurity, and ftvm the 
«Hrlic4l tim«i tbo oipl&natorr thoorJM haw 
ivcu sluiuit Iiinuuii>rabl«. Tba idua of An> 
tichiiat may be truced back a^lmoat aa far aa 
the Kc:t*iunic tdea, and it undoubledl/ tho 
ChrlBtlun unuloi-iia of thai dualLim which 
cbiirH<?teri7«t nil Omnlal religioua svetenis, 
and whii-b i» nrnvt famiiiur in Ibu ^«r*ia>i 
Ormucd and Abrimiin, the pertnnal op* 
puting iiow^rti of flood and Bvil. Th« «iii)- 
plc8t solution of thcae atribinf; annlogica ia 
that iho groat trutli* of CliriAliBnilv worn 
foresliadowed in lli« prim«va1 or p.itrlnrcbal 
revelation aiid nMaiiiod in [luril^ •uilv in ihu 
Old Tectamcnt propbcciu, but tivod on in 
one or other corrupted form in at) tlie wik- 
nate heathen tTstviD*. Tbs term Anttchritt 
id found in the New Testament only in 
th« 111 and 2d EpiBLlea of 8L John, al- 
tboHch the idsa is very oleariy uiiEht in 
St. Matliiaw xziv. and 'St. Marie xiii. St. 
PbuI, also, in 2 Tho»». ii., sptivki of "The 
rman of »in." by whom it la jencmlly be- 
lieved ho mains AniichrisL Certainly St. 
John >lati.« poiitively that tbo coming of 
Antichrist wu* a doctrine well linown Lo 
tbOM to whom he wroto. The (^roat«t di- 
vetBity of opinion baa prerailed ai la wb«ih«r 
uroMnl by Antichrist a person, or « sy«t«m, 
oraciorrupti-d Church, »r a pvnecutlng anli- 
Chrifilinn powur; aa lo whether AnUchritt 
hiualrcady comc.or Uyettobeespectcd, orie 
typical of a cvimtant opponition of the world- 
nower to that of CniitBT. In the Ronmn 
bburch Antichrist is eeneraiiy ItGlieved to 
ineikD htintlien imperial Borne, thouch many 
interpret the propheciea in Rereutlon u 
polntMiiT to a [wrMinu) opponent of Christi- 
anity who i* t4i appear immedlatuty prior to 
the second coming of Chhut. In Ui« Greek 
Church Urccory Vll. wa» culled Aniiohriflt 
bj tome, as Bon i fac« 1 U. bad already bcvn by 

Phocas; butthe prvvailinfchulidflias pointed 
to Mohammod, as might naturallj \m «x- 
poctvd. Among ProlwtanU the alnort 
univeraaliy accepted solution has been 
found eii&cr in tue Fope or in the Church 
of Kotne; while individual ruler*, from 
t,'allgiila lo Napoleon III., b&ve been claimed 
ns meeting the most minute f*quiremefiUo( 
prophecv. It would b* u> unproQtable aa 
nnpoMible to olludK, even, to all tbeM: beli«& 
and fancies. The Hid diTisions of Chris- 
tianity have caused alinoft every Cbriilian 
•ysiem to be re^rded as Anlicbrist bv tome 
opposing sysiem. Tb>' confusion has fargdy 
reauhed Irom tba many uniiiccMsful at- 
tempts to Bolve tbo myitcrioiu propbeclta 
of Daniel and th« Revelnlion, «*p«)nally 
tboae which ctHicern " tlie number of Ihe 
beast," and the " time, and times, and divld- 
ing of time," which an iuppo««d to pofnl 
to the name of ih« S&diviaua] AnU«iirisl 
and the duration of the anLl-Chriattan power. 
Tbia immense diversity of belief, together 
with the myiiery in which the whole subject 
is involved, would seem to suggest that lb* 
matter, out*idn of the geoenil principlea 
tikughl liY otir Loan Ilimauir, is of far less 
pmcttcal importance than hua been aasigned 
to II The one essential point is that CDrit- 
tianlty is in cojjitant c^inflict with "the 
prince of this world." " tha evil one" fW>m 
whom ihc Lord has tuughttis to pray for 
daily dcliTeraDce, and that Aotlcbrin ia to be 
found in everyeonoretedevelopnienlcir incar- 
nation of his power. A cloae ozamination 
of 3L I'aul's Isnguage in S TbeMStloBJans 
will bIihw conrluiively tbal the Roman em* 
pcrore, of whom Nero wn* the type, tXilflUed 
nvpry pitrticular of hiii ilM<-ripli«n of the 
"Man of Hin." Th«v wuro in all respecta 
personal Anlii^hrieu. Tbuy were " Cbristui," 
"anoinLod"ForGroicnSt tliey were worshiped 
at Oud nnd dwlurvu tbemwlvea to be Incar- 
nailoni of the Supreme God, assuming tlie 
title " Divine;" they claimed " Iring won- 
ders" in support of their aunmed divlnltv; 
they were monsien of iniquity such as toe 
world hiu cittver semi htirnra or since, and 
tbey were the relcntlnM pvnerutorsof all who 
confnaed CnniaT, dciuaiiding the abjuration 
of Uis futh and the substitution for it of 
their own worship u tha prtoe of life f>>o«ii 
every apjirehendwl Obrlatian; and, Anally, 
tbo great Arian apostasy immcdiiilcly pro 
ceded tbo final dutruction of itoman heathen 
imperialism by "the breath," or "spirit" — 
"pnoiima" — of the Ia(RI>'i mouib, for the 
death of the bnl f-ounvertMl Conatanlinc 
ended forerer the ^rent centralisation of the 
world- power which had been the uncoinpro- 
miiinfc opponent of tlio kingdom of CtlElsT, 
and ihetiL-efortb Cbrialianitv became the 
dominant power in the world. Tbt« view 
U greatly strengthened by St. Pauls rftftTT- 
ence to our LoKi> as having predicted th« 
events which, for obvioun rcwuni of *afi<j' 
to the Church a* wi-Il ai Ui HinucU, m 
could mention only iu figurative and ob- 
SDuro language, it was, doubtlaas, to thi* 





IiiiCa«(>e of St. Phu), nnd inhor Bud more 
»9cm Wuihing* In lliii iitiiio tcfTdct, tlint 
St. Julin alludes in bi> Firit F.dsllo.aiid bk 
dedaniii^n ihnl there wort ttan "iiJre»dj' 
moriy .\iitlchrMt«"it mcxt tignldcunt, ii* Hp- 
par«ni1y da«i;^«id to drajr atlCDtlan ftum 
tfao prerailiDg ex [>«<-' tut ion of a p^rionnl 
Antichrist, nnd the i mm ml in to occurrence 
of iha Second Advent, and fix it u|>i>ci Ihf 
lui defMtion wbi<-h Imd uvea then 
, nnd which orabndi^ tho miwt tm. 
1 reatumoflhe ]>ri>fi)iL-cv. In regard 
' tb« bMrJDg; of the Revi'lal'ion upan the 
<uhj4rt, that book i> yet loo tuuch an ua- 
*ol«ed infiin-y U> pL-rniit any deitnlie con* 
ctosion to be drawn, Uow much of it li 
l^rophMTT and bow much the nij-tttical de- 
fcrlptioa of evcuia alrvady pint orth«n [taw- 
ing wo rannol y>*t decide. Nor U the theory 
abova fld*aRC(<d in anj war incdrinulont 
witb tht: ducCriiioof a imtxinnl Anlirhriit, 
tmsi«di«t'-Ij to pru-e<le the fiiiul comitiic of 
th« I,OKD in glory. Almost all propfaecy 
b manifuU In itn rulBlhuoiit, bavmn grii- 
iial and ipecial ii);niflcatloii«, t)iv ti-ncb- 
lig of M>me general truth beini; alwAyi Ibo 
Dun Important, and tho prediction oi I'vcnU 
laoaoct c«f«« EWOfldary. TbU k iindmibt- 
tiW trus of the propMoiea of Antlcbrial. 
V\ti we neeil In know and r«;mi'mbrr may 
U mnned up in a rery ft-w words, ito 
•nbolux duvvlopment of Chri«tianity can 
Mrihiy b« nimnt ai tfeine a pow«r bottile 
W CMUVT. But the world*puwer i> alwny» 
KffHlu tbe Cbrut-power and striving lu 
••( (imR in luplaeo, and the wurld-ii'iwiir 
» tlaajt HMimlng; luuio coiicreiu f'rm hj 
okke iu oMwdlloti liinf;ible and ctTfi-aJTt. 
AiUlbful Cfariittnnn we muil be coiiiUnt 
iawinialnlnf the Lniit>'c>>ldo 'v\ t1ii«c^aM;- 
b«Mutici,and iiienduririf,' the trliiU which 
Ite (lilbfalneM invol»«, *nd doiiic bo wo 
Bud k«l U> diklurh our (iiindK with toolciiig 
•^ftrtunal Anlldirist, but rntlifr direct 
wm in watchful boDu to U)« coming of tbo 
»>n BiinMf in tliu full auiimncO that 
•^•fy oppining power will be de»iri>r>-d b«- 
'"•Bia^nd ercry faithful watcher be r^ 


'LotidanM). Tb« remiuntng udoodbo- 
(**>*lbr«ad which had been bl«««d in th« 
""•wnf lb« {ircjuiration of tha ElemeiiU. 
rntUiii Itc namo (ignilles " instead of 
***pft" {\.e., lln" eunuvrated breiid), ({ivitn 
^ OMMoinmunlcanta liittcad of tho coiue- 
^"^ Wrad. There w, doubtleaa, a bisloric 
**•*. Ibouich not Tcry dUUnct, conRcctlnc 
»■<« l..vo-f«.u (I Cor. al. 30, 8»), ibit 
'J^'wuq, ih« Kulogisa of tba Wwiern 
^Olh, the " pain brni" of tb« Oallican, 
■wl^blesHd broad of the older Englub 
*^»ffc, ivgiHlior. 

Aaunofnlantam. (Opposed to Law ; in 
^"tii Ilifturj, ihoaa oppoaed to th« moral 
^*af («<)b.) Tb* Mrliflat Antinominn* 
*|i^ ibt Onoitict, wilow wild iitoculationt 
*lutRM imaginniiont led them into tiieh 
aoNeluioa, Their profligate live* and ab- 

>iird doctriiiex nnd high proieneionK to Wli- 
dom and inni'i KiK^wledj^n naturnlly led to 
tho dt^nial of uny inonil irbtigatJunK at all. 
IJut in thii they loiigbt for aomo aup^iDrl 
frum tlio (irvn^ nnd decided laiiruiige of St. 
Paul upon Faith, and lomUlea those a*!!!- 
ing ti> bo milled by Iheir want of aelf- 
runtfol. Tbcre »» alwiiyi an Antinominn 
principlo in mera human nnlure, nnd thii 
ro>t>pi'iir» in t-amn form or oilier along iIm 
line <i\' CltiirL-b litiiti>rv, (oiiie tciidi-r in eaofa 
OKU iiol liciug eulirt'lj free from »tmie form 
'tf the error. But it roappcHred with vio. 
Joiice at lliu KerortiiHtioii. In thai age and 
in the whirl of that terxible bn-akiog up it 
ia not at all lurprixing that lomo were 
(omptftl 10 u«« more violonl Ungiiug« than 
the truth would bctir (us did Lutber], and 
ilint other* WL^uid fall tntolhiii heroiy. JohD 
Agricola, at Wittenberg (l£88 a.d), bwama 
the lieader of Lbe iioct. Uin tenet* wore re* 
pudiatcd by Luther and Melancthoa, and it 
u. Mid that lio himielf nniunlcd hii error 
Hflerwuid*. Tt «]>rniiK upa^-ain uiidur Crom- 
well in KtiKlaud, aiiioiiL{ lbe innumerable 
^o-laheA which swarmed in that eonntry 
dunnfi the Great Rebellion (1640-66 a-P.). 
In every n^e, howuver, some tectarioi bav4 
iHtld it, though in a repruted way. Tbo 
Holy Scriptures presiwt, na ia their wont, 
both Hd«B, both Faith and Works, tnoit 
■ tmngly, and the Church h duty is to do the 
tame. 'Logical ooniMjuenca* In iiucb cmmm 
are to be meaaueed by practical cdase* 
quenccfl. Th« Iroe line i& to fill out work* 
with tho Lifo of faith and to clothe fnith 
with the body of work*. "Show niw ihy 
Kailh without thy Work*, and I will »bow 
the* mv Faith by my Worka" (^. iii. M; 
Jas. ii. 18). 

Aotioch, Tbera \rere two Antiocbs, the 
btwt kniiwn in Svrio, whore tbo di«riples 
WL-re Unit cuUihI Cbri»i.iiin», where St. Peter 
labored to much, whoro SI. Ignatiua after- 
ward) ruled; tbo other a larga town in I'i- 
Aidia, uhoro St. Paul preached and (ufTurud 
for toe Oocpel'saake. Hot the flrst Aniioch 
d(«orv«s a longer notice, from Ihv important 
t'vent« whiah took nlacc iherp, and from the 
influence iu School Gxercin;-.! at one time. 

It wan fijunditd by SelKtuuK Nicutor (8<X) 
u.c.], und H jiurt of iu fitpulnti'on wiu Jow- 
Uh. It crew apace, im ild position waft ec 
collonl both in n political and in a commer- 
cial lentn. It wa« adurnod by thu SoWueld 
kings, the Roman) faTored it, and llerod 
tbo tircot contributed to its adornment. Ita 
population, like tliot of Alexandria, was 
winy, goy, and lic«>nliou«, easily roiued,and 
oTt^n (a* in tbo famoiu ca*e of ihu Stalun) 
proceeding Lo excuxei. iLt fondncafe fur 
giving nicbnamot poMibly is noted in thu 
fact tbal tbe dliciple* received there their 
future designation aa Cliriitiaut. IgonilUf, 
upon lbe deuth of Kvodiu* in a riot, became 
th<j Hi»hup iif th(; Jewish, a> bo already ftas 
of the Gentile, coni;r«gatioBa, and, having 
uifely brought hi* Il<ick through ibo pan*- 
cution under Domitiun (0&-9Q A.l>.),bravel/ 




«Mi lb* •&»lB|tk wf ■ good confeuion before 
T><^ut. Uh l«U»n ut a precioui rwalt of 

^(^millMUllj « twUnr wmr of procliiiRi- 
il^ iIm Oot|Nil tluui if bv bad remained in- 
Ww*>l at htuuo. Antioch bacanio famoui 
Xiif \U l^itwbMleal School, under Lucian, 
«!&•> wu niKrtjTCd (Stl x.dX He wm & 
vWt, ■,'oul man, with iL KT«at seal of inaiKht 
Vtt4 i>rlrlii«llt.v. Uiil ho WW bardljr orUio- 
tk4 li> ni« tMh'tiliig. IIU puplU vore nenrly 
«tl afttfrwanU Arlani, under (he VacJ of 
Arlui, whii wai him^tiir trHinecl in ilii* An- 
itwbMio mIiimjI. r.iii-i>n'* teaching Ht«m* 
to bare bMn of a dlH|>iiUtioui turn. H<t 
iM»nb«t»d tb« Hjrrun iny«liciaai tind gnu*lt- 
Cltut, and In thn ofTurt brought out the filnn 
(if |irt>j>'>>ing |iri<ti1i>iiii on tno Kaith for dc> 
liata. Tli« tiiptiistital Rtylft at (irgumitnt 
wiu If) YnviM>, Ahd to bis training in dialec- 
llta lit tUiH) ft ichool Ariu* owod miinb of lii» 
lint ttiOWMM. In Uila ibn M^boul of Liidim 
(III] much morn harm (u Cbmlian Truth 
thiiii all ill* fanolea of Origon. Laclan re- 
jpomwl bU own ifiod name aflerwar*]* by a 

flWHl oonfowlvnal hliinart;rdun:i(31I a.d J, 
itti tin aowMl M>«b Ihat borv [>oi»rrQcd fruit 
(II ItiP ne«l lw«iil.v year*. Tho bUtory of 
ArUiiUni bolt>ng» to another artlclo, but 
liiirtt In Anil[>ch worn h«bl *(>m<i of ita ttrong- 
tat Coillicilli. Lnolan'ti nchuul *oon diiid otit, 
tiut bla iuOunnco in urging moro iiractical 
lind ctainniallcal criticism df llio Biblo long 
utiilniuod. From him really camo the luue 
wblili liil!(i«nccKl DimloruK uf Tanui tn bia 
U«i>|i<«l>, nnd tliroii^-li him Theniloro, 

A C'ouiidl Mas held at AnLioch in the 

Jonr titu or &tl j-i>. Somo historlani affirm 
lal ihiTo were two CoanoiU, one in Mcb 
yattt, but whether or nnt that waa no, it will 
indite to ciinvidcr tbo Ibin^ dune aa Ibti 
iH'-U "f on« Council. Tbo Emporur Con- 
■lantlne bad laid tb« fdundnliuna of a mng- 
nllli'vnt rhurvli at Antlixb, which wai fln- 
Hbnl alxiiit tbii time by h'u hod Constanliu« ; 
and Uiinnbiua of Niccmedia ^th«rGd lo- 
Mtbor a largo number of Bishofw (as many 
lU Vl, of wbom 40 were Kimebianii) U> d^'di- 
inil« it: tbaM organised thein>«lve« inlM a 
(lounoil, which ia often called the Council 
iif tlia [>odloalion, and ii tho iccond Council 
of Anilocb, If, ai aume think, another wa* 
htvbl In MO *.i>. The Biihopa asMmblcd 
Wfli« fViicn the J{«at alone, no one tvom tbo 
Wwat^rn fimifiro belngr pr«*ent, nor any rop- 
rw«nlativ«or the Pope ; and RusebUn opin- 
tuni —*m to have prevailed, aitber tbruugb 
the ratirimiont of Uie orthodox Bishopa, or 
ihrougb tb« influence of Constantiu*, who 
WM preaent in p«noo. Th« ohargea aicalmt 
til, Albanatiui, forcnerlj prefWrred at tbe 
ttjrnod of Tyre (of murder, Mcrileee, and 
iiupiirityl, were ronewcd, in splto of naTlng 
boon plainly confuted ; and h« waa con- 
dMnned wlitiout a faMtring. Tho Council 
ttlMi pnxwedcd lo elect and coniecrnte a 
Hbbop of Alexandria in hi« place, — »nfi 
Orngory of Cappndocia, a coam and Tk>- 
l«nt man, wbo praienlly look pouotaloa of 

bia See \>y military force with many out- 
ragea and cruellies. They thi^n drew up 
three or four crvodf, which under ordinaiy 
I'irciimctanceB woald have boca unobjvctiai- 
nbln. but were nuspicioui from tbe carofbt 
omiuion of thft term A^«aofnar [co^aaenllal, 
coDSubatikntial)! which had hcc'>mo tbo t«*t 
of orthi^oxy. Tbe lecond of theae ct4m1( 
isBomeUmoaatvled tlio^bmu^oryffi^^nMKA, 
nr tho Oretd of (fit Deilieaiian, bulUaccHbed 
Lri un earlier dutc than the Cuuucil. f)e>id» 
ih^eo Crecdit Iwcnty-flvc Canons were paawd, 
whi^h, though u-chnlcally rejected a* llie 
wiirk of hsri?lie», have actually been r«. 
ceived iutu the Cuds of Oburuh Canont, 
being conSrmod by the Council of ChalM* 
don. Th(i«o of itimit inieroet now are tba 
following: Tha lat Canon «atubliah«B th« 
decree of Nieu L-onoernioi; Easter; the fith 
proacrlbcs a rule for dealing wilb thoae wbo 
a»emblo privuto Indencnd'Cnt cone;r«ga- 
lionit; the Ttb foJolDB toe ubo of letter* of 
peute, or diamiranry letter* ; tha !2tb (which 
was diriicted against Athanbaiua] doprivea 
of nil hopo of restoration any one who wing 
depoaod aball carry bin complaint to the em* 
peror inatead of lo n Synuil nf Binhupa; liie 
l6th forbida appeal frum the unaiuinuuj d«> 
oialon of a provincial Synod ; the Slat for- 
bid* tranilationa; nnd tlie 22d forbids ODO 
Bi»ln>p interfering in ibe Church of anoih«r. 
Olher Couni^iU or Kynoda were held at An- 
liocb,u follows: in 846 A.D., when the Con- 
fMclon of fuiib [■uliud the fiaiifiienM wu 
drftwn up; in 3(^0 A.n., whi^n Molctlui wu 
elected PaLriarob uf Anliut'k, who, wurtniy 
cspoiuinE tho defense uf the Ctilliolie faith, 
ao provoked the Ariani that ibcy procured 
hi< bnniabnient a* a .Sttbolllan ; in 893 a-D., 
when lh« Cieod of Nice waa received as the 
expuailion of the true faith ; in S80 A.d , of 
which no record! are prosarved, though lb* 
Ciiuncil ia tiiid to have received, unani- 
mously, tho Epiatle of Pope I>aniiiaii»; in 
301 A.D., when the error* of tbe Mii.'JiiHan* 
W4ire condemned ; in 417 A.D.,agnintt Tf^W 
qtus; in 498 a.I>., R{f;aln«t XetloHu*; and 
in <{t6 *-»., when the memory of Tbeodorus 
of Uopauealia waa diCt'cndfid. 

Hbv. B. a. Bkktoh. 
Antiphon (Engliib form, Anthetn), An- 
lipbonal chanting, i.e., runponatve, a* wfaen 
iwo choirs respond to each other. Aniinb- 
onal rending, as in our rending tbo P»alt«r 
In the aerTice, miniiter and concrcgMlloti 
replving tbe one to the other. It was lb« 
Jewuh mode. Indned (Is, ri. 8,. " this 
cried to this," Heb. ), tbe Hcrapbim ropnnd 
the one to tbu other. Thearrangomenu of 
tbo cboira (I Cliron. vi. SI, tq., and xxv.) 
neceaiarlly involved ntitlphonal alnginr. 
Many of tbu I'^aims (e.g. XJtiv., cxviir, 
cxxzjT.) muKt have been so tiacd : Miriam'* 
Sone at tbe Ked Sea was choral and antlpb- 
onai. Tbe dedication of the rebuilt walla 
of Jeruaaicm wua evidnnlly with antipltonal 
sineini^i ■« waa alio tbus cclebntled tho 
foundini; of tbe lecond Temple (Neb, xii. 
27, tq. : Ecni III. 10, \t). 




PUnjr'i Ikinotu IqlUr lo Trvjan ubout tbo 

CtnicLuta impliw In tbc ntimnu " tteum iw 

MMM," b^ lurui among chamiolvei, anliph- 

oAkl ftiDgiBs. It u ft vary old traditum 

Ihftt Inatliu of Antioch Introduced nn- 

lipbonsJ linKinff into ths Onntilo Ctiurch 

b»nnu» nf » vicinn of »ntipli<in>l chuncing 

in hcttvcn. Munt prulnably, m he united tbe 

Jewbl) mad ticdtilo ccngregatioiM uod«r 

hil Jurisdiction, it iimj bo ■ wny of tecon)- 

ing nil Ar};utn«rit ttoto Itnluh to tbe Qen- 

tilM for iuoh tingiDK. Kut and Wast took 

M Dp, ftiid U •prcad with grut nplditr. 

Tb* cuiloat once taken a\i wu sot Isid 

Mid*. Bat lIi« lorni Bntipbon cum* laiar 

la bftV« Vkrioai mvMntngi, uprin^ing out of 

Ite 000 ccnlntl ueo of Ibe Pialtni ; [a) The 

Ftalm* wvr« lo called frvm tbtiir utv. {b} 

It came to DMan later a teetion of a Pialin, 

«r a coiBpilation of Mveral Pi«lms, or other 

wlecliona from Scripture*. The uift wat in 

ibU caw for ona oaolr to tins each verse, 

end at iu cloe* the other choir retpotided 

with an iinvftrjlng rcnicle. Such M-rrftnac^ 

■taaU ere frequent in ibe utd office-boo«s. 

TtM CaDtklu uwd in Engiiih ilato Mrvioos 

hiatead of the Venito ar« of tlil* nitturo. 

(f) A further change took place in lU 

maaaiBg when it wa* the name for n tingle 

i^amtt from the P»lm, £>rlglnallr ^ung 

betaetn the rerce*, but later odJt at tba 

bof^BBing and ib« dm*, (li) The la*t atep 

••* la taakti it raeaii the aeiiteiice lakeu hy 

llKlfudauiig alone. This antipbon might 

Ufrom (icriptura or from Bomo other source. 

TbiM antiphona are rery common in the 

OfMk Mrvioea. The word autheni (and. 

|iMa,0. B. anlofh, nnlrm), found ii> O'hnii- 

W (Mod. K. anihem), inftani In Enslish 

■■aie •och a verw aioct usually from Scrip- 

''a*, iboogb often the o»inpacar made a 

riaiUnilhani out of two leuarate teiU or 

(W|« from the Holy Writ. The anti- 

I'M fcnna a very ooubla part uf tbo Litur- 

N mttIcob, eapadally in the Uourabic 

■■*lutarn ritaa. (For the u*o of Lba An- 

S** in lb* Mrrtee, aee Amtrxk and 


AMjphonal. (Antipbonar.) Thn book 
^^ ouniains tba Inviiatoriet, reiponto- 
^*i rertw, oallact«, and whatever ia auog in 
j'.thpir, bat not including tba hymna pa- 
™UDoiJie Communion lerTlce, wbiobare 
<^<>iiBid in the Graduale. It li a book 
'**'bekiflgt to lb<! Uoman rite. Theantipb- 
<**l wtt alio uaed in tb« KnKlish Hrvi>:<> 
linUiBecinintUitivn of the Prayer-Bouk diil 
•••y ■iih lU use. 

Aatipopc. Rival Popes were oalled anti- 
I"^*. Tboy woro protandeis to tho Papal 
^n, elwud br partisani tipou oiue pre- 
^1 At elaim. but several of Lbein were 
*|*Xd under sucb circumstance* that, had 
^*f bten succbuful in their olaiuis, tlioy 
*'^ htTft baen acknowledged u iGfriti- 
^^Itlf ebmen. The number of rival claim- 
"^^ba been vaiioualy slated, and proWbly 
y x ba coiDpletely given. Bui it bas 
Itcd at about forty. Many be- 

gan an oppotition which mainutiood itaelf 
loo short a time to require tt»li(.'«. Otli«ra 
again surrendered tbelr claims by com* 

EVomifc. From the date 2H A.St. there was 
ut one century {the thirteenth) which waa 
not mnrkoii by ai> antipope. Pur ovcracen- . 
tnry, from 10(6 a.d. to 1180 A. i>., there waa 
a conlinuuu* serie* of antipope*i and at Iha 
oulaet 1 1046 a.O.) there were as many as four 
Id tbe lleld. The Council of Pisa (1409a. i>.) 
depuaed both the leffitimuieuiid tba unli pu|>i; 
and elected a thirS. This but introduced 
three rivaU. The Council of Omatanca 
(H14-18 A.if.) deposed two, the third nlKll> 
cntpd, and a fourth wax elecied, who r^ 
muinetl poMKMuor >>f thi>S«M| bui befora he 
died there were two riral i;Sairaatit« [142^ 
'29 A, p.} This, together with oUior biitori- 
■cal faL'ta, make a very iiftniflciuril cptninnn- 
tary uptin ihe doctrine of Papul inrallibllily. 
Antitype. This word van be used in two 
diBlinot and oppoaing sonsts; (a) a* op> 
posed lo mere re^rveenta lions of s reality, 
as the siilialanro ix <ipp<iKrd lo Llio shadow. 
Chbibt was the anUly^Mi Mine*, David, 
Solomon, wera tho typos. It is aUo u»ed 
it) ill a reverse soniit, ui twite in the New 
Testanieni (Heb. ii:. 241; "For Cbribt is 
not entered unto tlip h«iy pUtc* made with 
bands, which sire the fl^urca (ibe antitypes) 
of tlie true; but unto heaven iueif, now to 
Bp]>ear In the presence of 6oL> for us," 
where tbe antltypu means the shadow, 
while the type, as St. Chrysi,)Etoin says, ha* 
the power of the reality. And again in 1 
P«U lil. 21, whoro the word anlitvp* lud to 
Its use In ibe Liturgies: "The llko flgura 
whereuDto [tho nniitvpcl bnpcisni dutb alao 
now eavo us." The FhiIkts itinn u.>ed this 
word in the game way. Irenwus: "TheOoLT 
.Spikit is then invoked that the br<?ad may 
be tbe bully and tbe cup may be the blood 
of CitttisT, that they irho receive iheae 
aTitilype* may obtain rouiission of sins and 
everlasting life." SL Basil usus this term 
antitype in reference to the human bnxiy. 
As at first elanue the body would be 
called ■ eiraple Bubstance, but BubscquenI 
rea^ning would sliow that it was a complex 
tiling, having color and shitpD, and antitype 
find mBgnituae, when, if the text be orrvct, 
U is dilBcuIt to translate it iinlcrs it be a 
rufervnce to Its prototype — Ooo's Imago. 
It van be oompared, therefore, with Uis 
phrase in bis Liturgy: " We uffrriiig the 
■iniity|ies of Ibe Holy' Body and Blood of 
Christ, be^ocb Thee that Toy Holk Si'iitrr 
may descend upon us and upon thrae gifu." 
Apoctypba. This Oredc word means 
" hiddL'ti, secret." It seems to be nwd foi 
'■ ftpuriuus" in tbo latter part of the aaeood 
century. Perhaps the name indli^-atea aaeorei 
knowledge inad« known only to ihe initiated. 
Tho name* of dtatinguished mrn, n* Solo* 
mon and £sm, Daniel and Jeremiah, were 
lalsDly given Hg autbur* of Ibe vnriou* book*. 
Tbe tnirodiHung of Apocryphal b<Hiks into 
the 8eptuaginl gave Lliem a oettniti weighU 
lboiu;h Jerome spmk* strongly against an 




tindu*' Tiluation ur them. Tli« Chiiivb of 
Koine, Bt the Councilor Trvnl, includiH] Uif 
dDiil'tfiii booki in iu deOnltiKnufCHriunk-al 
Scripture, ci.^^ptinetbo iwi>booW».)f K^dni* 
Rud tlic Pr&ycr of Hanituch. Tbc Uerinitn 
and Engliih iUiform-org followed ibeniiiniun 
of Jorome. In I.utliiT'ii Girnmn RiWu thp 
0U« "Ap9crjfi)ba"' liwl tbl» Addition : "i.r., 
Booktwbiefa An not of like worth will) Huly 
Scripturv, Tel kro aood Knd ua-ful to bo 
ttmd." Wlclif uied thu i^rm Aijuprypliii 
for ihcumranonical booki, nnd tliir tudginent 
of S( Jerome in giTCn in tho Vl. Article 
of tbo KngUKl) Cnurcta. He admits tLem 
tn lie " read for (txampli' of lifo ond instruc- 
tion of Diannrn," but not ■' In oUibliiitL any 
di'Ctrine." The A|ioiryjibal buwks are iil- 
terwiine In ibcir connect Ton with tbo litarn- 
Uiry and htiiory of the Jawt. " Tln>y reprc- 
KDttbepcri'jdof LranKitionand decay wniob 
followed im Ihc return frnm Biibylon, when 
lb* prophcU, who were then thc'lcitchert of 
ih* peu[)ln, liBil pasfed iiwiiy and llie a(ie of 
■cribea lucci-uilnd." " Tlinaltirutionnnf the 
Javiah character, the illfft.T«nt i>hni(!ii which 
Judaism preieDtfid in ['al<?t>litii> and Alexan- 
dria, the good nad the evil which were c&lled 
forth hy contact with jdoltitry In Eitym,and 
by thu Ktraggle again»t it iu'Syrin, nil these 
pr»ent ibemMlvea to Ihc rvadcr of the Apoc- 
rvjiha with greater or leis diatlnctncoe." 
Theae hook* Eack ihv prophetic i^lpmert, 
though there l« (Oine att(^tnpt to feign it. 
The Son? of the Three Children is the only 
poetry In the Apocrypha. Where the wtit- 
«r« ure aS^cied by Ur«ek culttiru there it 
"lb« taate for rheloripiJ ornnnifni which 
cbitraoteriEed the literaiiire of Aiexandria." 
In tho Apocrypha works of fiction app»r, 
which rest, or purntirt to rest, on " an hii- 
toricjil foiindHtion. TheJpvIsh exit«had 
a. rapulation fur mustt!, and wnre tkak«d to 
aing the "tones uf 21on " (Pa. cxzirit.). 
The triiil of skill in wi,'e Hayings eiren in 
1 Kidriu iii and iv. ■■ iinplii^ a imditioniil 
hwHer' that the Pemliiii king* hwiowd 
Ibose who powcascd such gifts. Tbc transi- 
tion to ttoiT-teUing was natural. Tb* cap- 
tivity, with its remoteneei of icen« and 
■tranj^i adrenturcs, cave a wid«< field to ths 
tmaginalion. In IM and thn Drafcon tliiira 
is a love of the marvelous, and a ecom of 
tbfl idolnttr. In Tobit and in tiutanna ttaore 
is a moral lendcnev. Jeremiah hai a prunii- 
jieni place In the honea of the Jews, and so 
in '2 Mace iv. 13-16, he is represented as 
K|>pe*rtD||[ to Juda* Maccabwu* and living 
him "a sword as a gih from Gon." This 
may help to explain tb« rumor of tba 
pimple in Cnni.iTS dny, Ibal "Jeremias, 
or onof the prophetsi'' bad appeared on 
earth (Matt. xvi. U|, With r^'niril tn tho 
Ihlae names given In Apucryphal writers, it 
is difficult at this day to know bow much 
dcc«ptinn Rxi*tcd, if any was intended. Sol- 
omon's name may have bcL'n oied to draw 
attention by personation. Later JewUb bis- 
tory shows this, however, to be a danK«r- 
practice. There arc inaocuriwieain the 

I lorj 


history conUined in the Apocrypha. Tfcia 
may ha partly dua t» a wnnl of " power to 
diiliiigulih truth frnm laUebood." The in. 
Hufnte a,!;uinsl idolulrr is stroni;, as in the 
story of the noble Kac««beca, and tn th« 
bookt of Judith, ll«rijch,iiiiil WlKdom. The 
heroic death by marcvtdoni of ihe molher 
Hnd her wven sons in 2 Mace. vii. u a wra>- 
rli-rfiil nnrrntive. A high idca of alniagiv- 
mE appears jnTcbit it. 7-9, which forma 

fnrt (if thn ti'iitcn eca used in the OfTertor^. 
It Toblt xii- 8, [iruyer, fa»tini», and nims are 
n&nted nx chBrncliriBtic* oforioly iifo. Our 
Lord explains their relation to true relig- 
ion In Si. Mntt vi, 1-18, The Wisdom nf 
ttoloninn is a bonk iifa wry elevated tonoof 
tl)oui{hl. Wiacloin is beaulifully etyled "the 
briKntneBS of the cvcrliiBtine light, the un 
fpiittixl mirror uf the puwer uf God. and the 
imttge of His i^oodness" (ch. vll. 26). " In 
nil ai;es, entering into holy souls, she makclfa 
thetii frionds of Gon" (v. 27). ITils reaem- 
blei Phjio's teauhinE, and tbresh«dowc St, 
John's d*«(-ripiinn of CnKiaxas the Word 
of OoD and "the trueLiglit, which lighleth 
every man that cometh into the worid" 
(Joh'n i. 1, 01. Eternal bleistodnon ibinrn out 
in Ihli hook. How niBRnlficontly the fol- 
lowing words sound in dny* of hralbondark- 
ncMi : " The «uuls of the richtcdiis are In tho 
band of OoD" (Wisdom Iii. I), ud, "Id 
the sight of thn unwiM thny aeemed to dia" 
(v. 2| ; " But tliey are in peace" (t. 8). Seo 
Ihe final Iriuinph of the nghleona in ch. vl., 
with ita IlKiirea of rai'idty pAMing life, in 
the ship, the bird, en<l the arrow. In such 
a deetlng life the wieki»d ory, ■■'We in like 
manner, a* soon as wo were born, began lo 
draw to our (md" (v. 1»). The wide love 
of OOP Is described in ch. zl. 3&-2Q : '* Thou 
tovest ail the ihinirs that are, and abhnrrflit 
nothing which Thuu biut msde" (v. 24); 
"O Lord, Thou lover of souls" (v. 36). 
The second book of £tdnu, from the " nllu 
■ions lo JxHVH CiiRlBT and to the phrase. 
i>li)}-y of the New Testament," is supposed to 
be llie work of a ,J.>winh Chri«ti«n. Koclesi- 
uliciit ii believed to he written by the ion of 
Slrach, B« it claimstobe. JoMpbns sxotudM 
the Apocryphal books fVom ui« Canim of 
Scripture, and " Phllo never quotea Ihein a* 
he doca the Sacred 8cTiplur«. lly the Jews 
they wore never viewed as part of the 
Cmion." Still they form an "important 
link" in Jewish bislory, and nnrratr " (he 
fullUlmeiU of many of the Old Teatnment 
propheclee, capeciBlly ihoec in the hook of 
Daniel." Tlify give acoount* of customa 
end circumntMTicfj alluded to In the Xew 
Ttisumcnt, and so help us to undersUnd 11. 
They contain, also, ■■ pieui rejections, writ- 
trn by drvdut nii-ii, who were wnttini; for 
the oonsotation of Ismel." The Knthen 
ofVn sppcaird (o them and quoted tfaeni. In 
vl^ry curly limes " lhe7 were read tn noM 
Cburchsa, ut Iciut in the Wmi," not as 
Canonical Scripittm, hut a* ancient and val- 
uahle f(JT instrUL'tiun, as a liumily or sermon 
mij;ht he read. The Bclgio L'onfewion al- 




kiw«d l.Ii«m to W rrad in Chiircli». Tiii* 

p«aMig«o<rcuraiii CecJI't " Rcmaiiii" ; *' }[nn 

iKkcrMlure uf extmuea. 11i«! uiiddlc [«th ta 

gsMrtUy the w(m p»ih j but ihire are (vw 

witm vnciugb to flni) k. Bixvuae PBjibta 

liAVw inule ttto Diu«h of (uTiio ibiitifF, Prot- 

Mtjuitt have mnda too little of them, . . . 

Tb* PApMt r'»l* tluj Apofijrphft inw hla 

C&Don ; the ProteeUnl will Kurvety reritrd 

[ft »» »n uicintit T«c»rd." Whiln the Eoz- 

h ChnrcU rciid* the ApiinrjiphK in the 

blic Mrrioe, il i» uot inail as Stt-ijitnre. 

<« £piiovpHlCliurcb vucly tuk« tb« nid- 

dle pwuid of trhk-h CVctI upcraki. While 

with the Jew* tliemMlTM, eiL-liida the 

Apoorvphiil books bora C«iionic»l Srrip- 

lur«, ue U ready to dnw from them inch 

IntormMion u mav be of benefit to her (•fail- 

dnn. Itiabap Ch. Wordswonb ccintenda 

Ikat if the »*rly Church limd claimed canon- 

lAy lor them ehe would ham imnmW the 

(innBMof the Jowt into her Tom; but all 

tht ApMilM wor« Jew*, "the Km fifteen 

B«bot>t of Jertualem wer« of Hebrew «x- 

trnttion" (SuMfa. U. E., ir. K). The Orook 

(Aotdi, uioOfffa not coniidcriDi; the Apoc- 

iTpht toiptrra, veoermte* it, and by a proper 

ys« cf it we keep in concord Ibue far with 

that ucient bodj. While thn Ai>iK:ryphn 

vma ftUowed to be read for Jnetruotion in ao- 

riflniCharehtK, Crril'sCnt^i-hi'tica) L«cturw 

UkoVlhat the Cliurtifa of JiTuialem wu an 

exeiflioci, aivd (he CounL-il of LnodicMdo- 

(■TBitMd the ckM for tame other ChurthM 

hy brWdding all but the Caaonicftl br-okf 

t» Im read in the Church. Itia author vf 

^L Aw .\pMlolic Conilitutiona, glvlDg order* 

■ •l>otil the reading of Uld Tctlament books, 
H omtif Lh* ApAcrrpha. 

■ Atitherltiee: £. U. PJoniptre la Wm. 
™ Stniili't l>i<:twniii^ of the Bible: Ilorne'ii 

»»U(ducd<m; HihU I„ore, by J. CnmpRr 
'**»i;Bi*wneon the Artwleft; Wordsworth 
Ott lie Canon ; BinKbam'BAntiquiliei. For 
* Imof worLi on the Apooryplta, ■«« In- 
^^Awten to the Old Tetlament In Lange'i 
*«n«to, Third DivisloD. p. 0* 

Kkt, a. V. HOTPHKIir. 
ApoUiaarunlsm. ApuUlnarii, Btihopof 
•*>aoMi|d. 890A.D-), arerj learned end tn- 
'**>Ual Biabop, pn>niulgnii.-d cortnin crro 
**>« |«afiblng« concerning our LoHD'e 
'"»'<. Tho NJoen* Cotincil had deter- 
•"•lllijly Scripturii to fWrh that Ho wii» 
Pl'fcB man ta well ea Eternal 8om of Goo. 
"* Hrfcct man flii human nnture mu«t 
"tti vt body and n>ul, or Uo would not 
^pirftetin«u. Bui ihl«Aiiollinnr{i denied. 
B*dU not deny the true body, but be did 
**rtbetoul in our Lnair'a human naturv. 
w«M refuted by Atbanaalus fwbo, how- 
^<ilUB0tai«ntioBhi8 name, forthoy wore 
Crind*), by Otvgnry N'aziaoxen, 
of Kytaa, anil "lluin, and wai con- 
br • Oouncil at Alcintidria (S01! 
*J>-^»»d by the accond Ucneml ('.Minoil at 
wii«ia^nople(S81 A D.). Hlaerror t«d him 
'^**c Ih* Church and create a hcL tiryg- 
"T^fmanwrn atatcs Bniily the Iruo doctriiw 

of thoCburc?li (Ep, nd C'lwl.j: "Let iiot in«D 
derpSve nor W denH»wl." luppniine "the 
lordly nature" (using this tccni iuatead orour 
LoBP and GoD) " to be louDeu. For m 
do not 9i>paralo the inanhnod from Hi* Di- 
vinity ; but we cnnfen that it \t one and iha 
ujne; thut the manhood wa* flr*t, but. 
that Ha wnx UOD, the onlv Unv, bflore all 
world*, without a human body or il* uttn- 
btilM. Rkit in llie ful1ne«i> of time He took 
upon Him fl«h fr>r our mlvation. He wiu 
capttblet of nulTering aoviirding t» the ficeh. 
Ue wu incapable of fufierin;; accordiDj' to 
Uin divloilv, circuimcribad atwurdini; to ait 
Ixwly; not "to be ciruiimicribetl acxiDrdinj^ to 
His divinity ; at onctt earthly iind heavenlv. 
Ho wiu tocn ; he vnu knr>wn ; H« wa« Ir 
RpBce (ut O Hi* human btiily); He wa« uo' 
Ixiunded by »pHce (at to Hit divit)ilv, Dom- 

E are St. John iii. Ill) That uiir whuleman- 
oocl hnvine fnltrn under iiiii might he re- 
formed by Him who wu wholly man aa well 
as Ooi>.'' 

Apoataay. (A falling away ; a deaerlloii 
rro[iiauiii>eorfVoraB]^ncr«l.) A defection 
frons the truo faith of Cnni:<T. in timoa of 
por>^<.-<.-ution thi* «ln wiu rife unions Cbriitlam 
frum fuur ut bodily peril eipecially, u gen- 
crnlly tii" act itself wa* nflcn propravd In 
ihti mildnt way: ft few (cr^lni of IncenM 
offered to an idol, «r to th« image of the 
emperor, or & ronanciation nitjiy niiibigu- 
oualy made, and certified to by k [iin gist rate. 
But thero hare b«en other apokUltit, lucb ai 
was ibe Eiuperar Julian, or renet^des bo the 
Mohammedan Faith. It wu Iv^clated upon 
by the Church, and the penitent* had to un- 
derffo H long di*dptine of probation, in lome 
plkCM for twelve yean, Dcfore they could 
be re«tor«d. But wbon the Hale took up 
Bpooisity into its Civil Code, ita enitcln)«nts 
were inUiVrant. The apodatn to paeaniim 
WIU not allowed In bequeuth bv will or to 
inbeTlt. Atono time h«,was to ue ditmiatd 
Crom all ponl* uf (^iril dignity. And if t^a 
ajH^taiy uf a tottittor cuuld be etiabllabed 
within five y«ra after hiade*th, bis will was 
null and void. 

Apofttle. On« who is wnt ; 4 title given 
to the Twclvi> disciples by our blesaed 
IjOkd when He chmr thorn to be Hi* 
niMai-ngrni to all tho world. As for Lhft 
special traits of iho individunl ApoMles wo 
mutt (urn lu I lie • hart ckott-hci under their 
names. Here their office !■ dwelt upon. 
Tlicy are called Apofttlm by IJt. Matthaw, 
onlv when their npp<jintnicnt I) recorded, 
imd by St. Hark, when thoy return frora 
tii«ir mission. But St. Lulie givo* them 
this title, from Iheir appointment, in six 
placM, evidently showing tbat the full 
value of their title was iipprudated Inter. 
In 3t. John's Qospcl tlio name it not given 
at aH, but the Twelve are callod dise1pl<». 
(Kir LoBD coDsidorod them as one body. 
Uo gave them the practlcul training His 
I>reeenoe and mission work afforded. He 
•eems rather to have truited lo His having 
them witli Him, and to His pereooal influ- 




«nG«, than u> Ul« many instmctioiu iSl. 
John xiT. 9]. Hli words, Hi* pHmhlaii. 
Hit wurlci, Hi> example, warn Hii in»Lruc- 
tioo uoN tban the imparting of doctrjae. 
Indood, Ilin diK-crino osing im mucli tlin 
«xpftiuioii Bud the «nrorc«inuiiL of iho OIJ 
Toftamrnt, except the prediction conoern- 
ing Uimself BDd Uis Aton^mpnt and ItMur- 
roctioa He ga-vt them no lecrel doctriaos. 
Oiil of the Twelve tbera appear lo have 
b«en clirMon to lerve Him mgre cIomIj Stj. 
I'etor, Jttiniu, nnd Julin. These wcrn tJikcn 
np into the Hount of TraniaicuraLtan, 
wer« witb Him in Oiq Unrdnn, lu well im 
Mlnct«d et ulber •pecLwl occKnioru. Still, 
H« made no furtber dulinctiuni beltrcen 
them, and it would flcem that tbo Throe 
■t«ud >u cloMly to Him, becauM of ib«ir 
own love to Him. They all, however, were 
dull to NM what Mis piir[io.-«« -kck, and, 
with all their training and their zeal and 
MrHTeranoe, ciiU failed to coinpr«hend 
Him arichl. It wui not till aiKir Hii 
nturmctiun, and then by a tpeeial gift 
from Uiin, that lUey underftLcHxl all the 
Scripture about Uim. But thoir offico 
b^ikO property afMr Uis Resurrect tun. Tlio 
GontimlMion that had been given (i^t- Mall, 
svi. 18, 19; XTjii. IS, 21) was by unticipo- 
Itun, but now it wan given fully and dnally, 
yet not al once, but during the forty daja 
proTJoa* to lit* Aiipen«on. The iint pnrt 
given was on that eveoiug, in the uppi!'' 
chamber, wbeii fao met Ihetn: (o) "Peace 
be unto yoQ. As my FATaxa hath aent 
iBt, ovoa ao utttd (Apoatleixe) I you." 
Il waa a plenary canimJuion, wiiii equal 
but delagateJ powera. Then followi: (A) 
" Qe breathed on thorn, and said, Kecotvo 
ye the HoLX Ghost: whoec loever iini ye 
remit, they are romittod unto them; and 
whoii' locTCr aina ye retain, lh<>y are rw 
lalned." This ta recorded in St. John a 
Ooipel XX. 21-23. Thoreuppeontoharebeen 
a paone in tbn ponvuyanco tif iboir commin- 
•Jvn. For the forty daya that He wai guin^ 
iu and out anionj; them He wh4 " eptatcini^ 
of the thlnj^t pertaining to the Kingdom f>i 
QoD" (jtctt^. HI. But Wre wo niuit place 
the giving of Uie suoond part of ihe com- 
mitalon in Hi* npjwnrinu to the Eloven a* 
they BAt at meat (6t. Mark xti. 14-18). 
Th« miuioQ il Duw given : (e) "Oo ye intn 
uU the world, and pmcb ih« Uc«p9l to 
every creature. Be that believeth and it 
bapUiwd abhll be saved ; and ha lliat belier* 
cit] not •hall bodnmned." At Ihi* point, 
loo, we may add St. Lukc'i re«ord aa par- 
allel and eiplanatory of St. Mark'*: "And 
that repentance and raminion of nint (hould 
beprt'achGd in Hii Nain« antonc altrationi, 
U-ginning at Jwualom. And ye are wit- 
!!«■*«• of ifattM thlaga" (St. Luke sxiv. 47, 
48). In obedience to HU cuiumnnd they 
meet Uiffi in a mountain in Galilee, and 
ibon Ue claim* liU royal authority: " All 
power if given to Ml in Heaven and In 
earth. (jt>ye, Iberefoie, and make diaciplea 
of all nationa, baptiaing them in tlie Name 

of the Fatukr, and of the Sox, aiMl of Uw 
Holt Ohuht; leacbicff thnm to obeerva 
all things wliatsoorer I have commanded 
you.' And than He givu tltat Mimm 
proniiiio, now to •irangely denied na pocaibl*) 
"And, Iu. I am with you alway, even unto 
tho end of the world. Amen" (St Matt. 
ssviit. \6, 20). Wc Keo that the conuoaad 
to baptlio 11 eiven twice, and the commla- 
cion to abcolve, which involvoi the effecuof 
bapLiam, ii given onc« wiili iilenary and co- 
equal fxiwer at Hia own, ana that tbia dele* 
gfltien rcGU upon tho power givaa to Him, 
and He iodU it with ihu gift of the Holt 
tiBOST fur their official acta. St. Luka 
^ives a note, too, in the Apostolic office, 
"And ye arc vlUteMet of Uie*a tbiogi." 
The whole commission to f^lvea in perpe* 
tuity: " I am with vou alway, even to the 
end of tho world." We aicertiiin, thru, that 
the Apuitolio otlite was never to fail, and 
was to )» a witness of Bim and His Kenir- 
ruction ; that it wa* to cunvey to th« re- 
pentant tinner the etPKl of Hh atonement, 
ue., pardon, and forgiveoeM by baptism, 
and It wai to u*o difctpUoo; that iia tnia- 
■lon-fleld wiu the world. 

The continuity of the office was shown by 
the rIfKtirm of Mattlicw f Arb i. I&-28), the 
condition beins that the perian elected mOH 
hava boon with the Lukd Jmvd from the 
beginuint;, that be might be a compatont 
wiLnest of the Keeurrecliun. The co-«quaI> 
ity in the office was *hown by the co-equal 
gift of the UoLY GaoeT to the Twelve, 
and in the fact that tlie Colleveof the Apoa- 
tlei »eni SS. Peter and John down to Saoia* 
ria TActa vill.), and Uiat St. Jamea prssldad 
at ttie Oouncil of Jerusalem (AcU av.), and 
that St. Paul admitted do superior to blm* 
lelf (Oal. i. 1). The perpetuity of the of> 
fice wai xhnwn by the fact that tiilvaao* 
and Tiiuutliy and Kpaphrodilus and Titu* 
wore Apostles as well as Barnabas and 
Paul, iiiilned, there were lomo who were 
faUe AixMtlea (2 Cor. li. IS; Rev. ii. 2), 
which could notltavo been unloas the office 
was widely tproad. Tbi* we note was within 
Apotlollc time. But as Timothy WM an 
Apottle (oorap. 1 Thcei. i. t with ii. 0), he 
waa led (2 Tim. ii. 1, 2) to commit to fttittu 
ful men the cummiuion tliat they might 
leacb others also, a very direct oommand oa 
tli« aucounion, whu^li wa* of couna trnfiliod 
in the dlrectioni about Bishop* or Elders 
and Deaconi. What, then, were the func* 
tions of the Apoitle ? U« was prttnarily to 
Preach, and to Baptise, and tvCooflrra (Aeis 
vili. and zlz. ; Deb. vi.), and to Dlaoipllne 
. St John XX. 23, with AcU viii. 20-28} 

Cor. V. 1-6; 1 Tim. i. 18-20). Again, it 
is to be noted that not only did our Loas 
promise a perpetual presancc with |ha bold- 
er* of the oflice, but It wa* the only offiea 
Ue ordained, prayed (or, and gave the HoLT 
Obort tc Uimielf, and sent it for them to nst 
fur the Oburcb. Tbey eeleGied £ld«n In 
every Church, they ordained Deacons, but 
they alone were in the original aacrad 





lioo. I'hii -woaid bft ftli>nfi BuOlcient to ' 
|ffOV« iu vunUntiltj did the >'ew TMUmsnt 
|f*« iM tko olher Tacts. Diit in tmtli the 
wliol* irork preaa|ipi>*ea Apnitolic feutfanr- 
iXj. And ocntlnD&nr« In Lhe unitr of Lhe 
ApMUc«««i fK-m ih« flntsproor of ortho- 
4ozT(Acti ii. 42; 2 Thesis, ii. 15, iii. 4-9; 1 
Cor. It. 16-21 ; it. ; Oiil. i. ; Phil. Ui, 17 ; 1 
John 1. 8; U. 16; Rev. ii. 2, 8). In fnct, 
ApMtolic «alb«rity it socorut&ntly preiap- 
pOHd tli«t h> q^'io Miv losf iu prutif ii 
pwdlew. All cumaiKikds and dlrecLiuns are 
founded Bpon it. Now, th« Apottolic of- 
ftcA wu \a givft roal Riid truo spihtaAl gifUi 
■nd to be ibe only appointed chanoel by 
wbich th«y were conrejed PropbeU and 
TtaclMra might b« tDultipIcd, but aince Rap- 
tin Mid Abaolulion, and the Conartnntiou, 
mA tbe LoKD'a Suppor, und tbe BlawiDe of 
Pmm ar« real and true gifta to be received 
ltd lired in, uid are not conferred by merely 
jntchiikK whicb opens thn mind, or teacb- 

awkid) traitu the ditciplee to receive: 
linoe tbete gifla are onlv to be r«<!eivvd 
bf t^Maofflcert, tbe Apoatolicofflcamuiibu 
MtMual. It wa* and it niuit continue tu 
Uaivitneuof tiie Im-nrrmtion and Res- 
onaetloti (1 John throughout), and tt is a 
K& bet, but ona which foiluw* from t)je 
I prtoripilN loherenl in th« i.-uiii)iiU!iiun, that 
K vbtrtier it has been dropg^ed by any Met, 
^M aodi^ire haa been no continuing Apo«tolie 
^m Chncb n«Ri it to enforce lhe«« doctrines, 
^P Ik* haij Ml ifWtinff tbe Apostolic office 
|p kaibiiNAeGtM the Divinity of Oukibt. 

IIOMdUc Fatben. C'1rinent,tticcooipan- 
im (f gL Paul, And later Bii^bop of Rome 
()'i-D.|, Ignatiui (USA, D), and Folycorp 
(tn i.»), companion* of St- John, wrote 
Willi Ittleri which have conic down to u*, 
"*t»of gre»l Talup. element'^ letter u> 
tW Corinth iaot ia Taluablo Dot only for iti 
maMita, but chiefly for iU quuUliont ttom 
"yHw r TealAmest, being an unconscioui 
II^Moftlie authenticity andgencral roc«p- 
Mtf ilifl books he citea. iKnatiun wrot« 
n ^i{(tl« to tb« Churches of Kphosua, 
^ailM, Xome, MagnMia, PhiUdetphia, and 
^Wa , and one l« Polvcarp, which ziva 
l^ntiiiil but poeitiTo information on Epis- 
^ji^, uid tlpoB Church Kovernmont, and 
wn qooU tfie Xew Teatament very frimly, 
■tWtiif oa to eatablbh the early circulation 
*>rv«af thfi NowTMUniont. Th«re ia alec 
••••••pomry aecoant of bit martyrdom. 

I ntfmrpwroiealeil«rlothQ Fbiladotphlan*, 
j ■■Ibere b alao a oot«iniporary nurratiTe of 
*■ Btftyrdom- Thcao are miut Talualile 
'■oil ifom thoae who were trained by tbe 
A»0«B. Tbera ar«, beaidoa, the Shepherd 
"vBnnai (identified by aoma with the Her- 
"•tTEom. ari. H, but v«ry doubtful), 
nk)) vaa u. one time very |iO{iiilur, the 
^ JeobUoI (but very early wrilicn) Epi»- 
'*<fSt BnrnabaJi, and tome frauinenlt of 
Iwitorb of Pa pi a*, Bi«hop of ITJerapolii, 
**<«tflicipleof St, John. TIin<> hnd bocn 
^tUbjtlicApoatlcs&t. John and 8i. Paul; 
■■tMt writing*, aipKianyiinoe their t«- 

limony caunot ha doubted at true, are val- 
uuble not to much on the subject* thvy dla- 
cummI m upon tho facta of Church novem- 
ment Ibcy aanumcd »r alludi'd to, aou of tho 
eenuineneoa of such of the New Tostaiuoat 
Scripturoew tbuy quotud iiicidcutally, duio); 
80 without hotiuitiuu, a» !f appballiig tu an 
[nipirod aulhoHty equal to the Old Teita- 
ment Scriplati!. 

Apostolic Succenion. The real mean- 
ing of tliiv t>--riu li tut little apprecialod even 
by muny otherwise well-informod Church- 
men. It is suppoiod to bo, as it rouliy ia, a 
oonsocratianoraperton to Episcopal author- 
ity and office by tno»e who nave vheRitmlvoa 
reoeWed it from othnrs tracing tfioir author- 
ity by tuccnwivr sjiccint hacic to ictitiu uno of 
the ApuBtlea- But barsb deductions aro 
drawn from it, and tho Church is accused of 
judging and " liJiehurchiiig" thoio who from 
sumu prejudiut^ ur utber i«J«ct it. She does 
not do this. Shu has a duty to do in assert 
ing bor right to be a part of the Holy Calb- 
olte Church, and this Is one of the visible 
elomenls of her divine organixation. tiha 
judgca tionu. That is Gou'n nreruxatire. If 
they reject her claims to iiieir ^alty, it la 
not her fault. If there is any unchurching, 
they do it thomtalvea. But thli Law of 
AiiustoHc Succession In the Church is only 
what she mu«t have as a solf-prrpetuating 
Body. Its principle underlict all acknowl- 
edge n^veruniont. Unlcm the exercise of 
supreme authoritv be received fVom some 
aplaowledKed and ravered source, this au- 
thority is but usurpatJon. And tho formal 
admission to wi«la this authority by tba 
proper person s the rut o appointed constitutes 
the person so admitted an o(Iic!t<r clothed with 
this HuUiority. The President of the Unibed 
BUUia is i-Iected, but he is not Preaideut and 
cannot auume the autboritjr of tit office ULl 
the oalh of offico is adminuiarod to hlmbr 
the officer afjpolnted by the Oonstitution. It 
must be so in overy organisation. Tho 
CbuTcb is CniiittT'aorgaDiZMl kingdom. It 
cannot break a law which He has put aa 
fundamental to all government. It must 
derive its authority from Qlm. Bplritoally 
He la pruenU The HoLT Qboat abides in 
it, ana it ia tuiuined and fad by Him. As 
Ho withdruwi Hii vitiblo Prvsoncu It must 
tiav« a sulf-{i«r[)«ituxiiiig government. As it 
is divine an<l miraculous it muat be founded 
in miraclot. Our Lobd took not Bis office 
upon Himself, but was sent (Apoellelaed), 
even at Aaron was called of God. It was 
founded in miracles. In fact, itiaaproperlaw 
in God's dealinKt with men, that every di»- 

fienuUon or covenant Uc makw is founded 
n mlraulea, rastji upon them. For Ilia 
Patriarchs, the miraclce to Abraham were 
vouchoK. For the Jew, firom HoMt' time 
forth, the wonders in tho land of Ham, in 
tho field ofZoan, at tho R«»18ca, and In tbe 
Wilderness were enoiigb. And the author- 
ity of the Bigh-Pricai rmtod upon the mira- 
culAut call and tbfi wonderfbl power given 
t<.> Aaron. So our Lord had a publio o«m- 




mlaclon glveo BIm. and wtt& enduwcd bv Bti 
Patusk (u wrli M by inhrrent rij^lit a« 
UOD'aSov) lopruvo HindciUriiiobj- Ilinmlr. 
IU!l««. And Hu tcni iJisi offlocrs t^rth with 
that pownr. It wu •iiueriulde'l, n<>; «uenttiil. 
It VM3> for proor, not For nulliorhy. Tbc !«t 
High-Pri«*ttbtit«nteri'<l wilbiiti iht veil wu 
ae much * Hij-b-Priui u was Aaron. Bui our 

LotDVfM Milt, WUV Ui« FATilLU'B " ArOB- 

TLK" f Dob. iil. 1). He chukc twelve, whuin 
Ue called ApoctW (St. Luka t!. 13), and 
when ilecommioioncd ihrm amrwaf^cr UJ* 
KcfurrecUoD He admitted them xo UU own 
rank, " A» my FATniK hiif mndH me an 
atioiitl«, rren »o I wnd you" (8t John ix. 
21). Fur tliin n-iuon thediitiiictiim liplicut^n 
prcjwrvi-d ihroughput lh<> New Ti'itumtint. 
AKaiu, u tliUofflc« involve* <jur Loki>'& own 
officD, lie has protDiMNJ an abidintt |>LT]^etuiil- 
tng prMonce in it t^ the (\nd of tli« world 
(St. Uatt. xxvlil. 20). Uo ha" Him*oir 
mad« unity with Him and HU Fatukr dt- 
p»nd upon it. (I.) It in noticouble (hat Uc 
doe* notpruy for unity till IntcrcdLng flmt 
fortboApoMlei. U« pleads, " N«iibtr|irfty I 
fur thi-fv alono, but fvr ihem nUn thot be* 
Have an mu thruupb tbnir word ; tlmt tlmy 
all majr be oim,na Tbim, FATBitit,ikrt In Mc, 
ftnd I in Tbc«, Uiat thoy also may bo on« in 
u*" (St, John XTii. 20, 21). When wu remem- 
ber the time of ibU prayur, ihe Higli-Prlcst 
•anctifying H iin«ctr as tbeon«perri»t victim, 
the uniitlurnblj »oitnin pow^r of il will bi- 
rd!. (If. J The ApoatlcA cluimud l1iat foU 
lnw8hi[t with IbemsQlYCii wu «uentiiil to llic 
oontimuinc4> o{ the momben In the Cburch 
(Ada li. 42; IJohnf.I-7; ii. !»; 2Th«M. 
tii. 8, (U in other hkn place*). Tliin tiuthor- 
ily rcfidod in ihem to admit t-> thHr own 
rank unun tJic Lorii'h own rtmitniiuiiin. In- 
deed, tliey adrnltt^ tttreral, — St. Mntlbiui, 
81. Barnabas, St. Paul. We kuuw tbitt St. 
Paul numbcrod with himutir in rank Si. 
Timothy, and 7Uu>, and Silvanui {ridt 1 
TllMi. ii.; cuirp- with it. 0). Indeed, if 
tbeae tb-pauf tboiranfmiuioncin b« provi^n 
It il luelfJ'i tn dnny thft Tact or to cxplnin 
Away the princiiplo. But wv »eo our LokD. 
ourApoiilij, from HisFntber; Iho Twclv«, 
tha Apuatlfji, fnitn our Lonii ; Si. Katthiiui, 
>nd Bainabmt.Bnd Paul (Acta xrii. 1,2] fruni 
the Tw«lve ; Rt. Timothy, mid Tilus.aiid Sil- 
VftDUi from St. pHul. The quitlion of tb« 
Anmla of ilia Churchua (R«v. II. and III.] 
neadano dlM-uaaSon h«re, aince the aci?eplanc« 
of tha principle in the Now T«6tamont i» 
•uflelontty MUblbhed. It i» atturd to aun- 
pvee that St. TIniutby or St. Tltua would 
break lh« commandment tbcy b|id received 
ao aolcmnly fnjm Ht. I'lvul. Tbo question 
ti authoritatively dcddcd by Ihe lenatlan 
Epictlei, ainc« they accept ancl curry ivtrward 
till! line ot mixWMtin. 

It b abaurd to claim that tli«lin« baa been 
bruken. For {a) ibe curlicit Cunon uf p<»l- 
Apottoltc time* orders that the conicciutor* 
•ball b« three. The purpoau being that ibe 
oonaacratioD aball be moat public and notor- 

ious, (b) The IntercuDiinuniuu uT ibt dif* 
ferent Uhurche* kept any oue Church from 
bi>ing imposi'd U]»jn. Il it siguiCctuit that 
tills was tried In the tlm«* of the ApMtlM.. 
FaUo Aponilen. cried Su Paul. Our Lour 
c"mmiTid» 111" Angel of the Churd) In 
Kpheaus, "mid biisi tried them which aa/ 
Iboy are Ajiu6Ll<ra uiid on- nut, nnd bwt 
found them liurs" (Kcv. Ii. 2). Thechala 
can no more be broken than ibv descents of 
an ever-incrvaiing fjujilly be denint W" 
uk no Jen to prove his Je«ccnt from Abra- 
bum. The principle of thn luccesAion t# 
well »liown by the followinjc occurrence, 
which tihnti bat net down in (he word* of tbe 
vonctratcd narrator : 

" A doctrine is somotimei bctlir llluiira- 
t*d by a «lory thnnliy a dogmatic lreali>«. 
The clarairte]- of true rBpnniance, and the 
(Kjisibilily of free pnrdon for trnnitgruMioiia 
agsin't iXcuven, urc better exhibited by the 
pnrahle of the PrudlfjiilSon than they woutil 
be by a tioniilotical trt^nllse Bearing this 
in mind, wo am inn1in>ed lo bellcie thai an 
nnecJotfcorpiirochiai (Experience will satisfy, 
ir not coQvinco, miiUitudut, bettor than motf 
formal iiUtoinunUiroapectlns&poatollcAlauo- 

"A rector, who h«d gone to » railroad 
depot to s(« a clerical brutJitir start upon a 
Journey, encounterad n l»dy who, though t 
Presbvterian, had for yuan bul«iif{ud t<> hit 
churcn-choir. She wa« much pletikcd toM* 
him, for she wiu going fr»m home |«ruia- 
nrntiy and wa» glad lo bid him farewell. 
Sbe thanked blm for his minfitnOioiK, 
and cronfocced thut her mind bad bevon* 
foflencd about many Kpi^mpal j<«cullaii> 
tin; but one tUm bad never been able to 
admit or tolerate. Of course, the natural 
qu««tiim wiis, ui what do you allude? Oh, 
tu the well-known theory of an Apoatolie 
succession In ibe ministry. Why, tin ■»•■ 
swcr waa, you yourself believe in a whol« 
fiimily of Apostolic (ucceMioni, and stiroly 
a single s[M.<cimen iu the miniitry ■>ucbt not 
tn give yu» any trouble. Oti , no ; sh« bad 
Di> faith In uythlnc of the kind. Well, let 
ui MO. Do yea, or do you not, believe in the 
Apostolic suocomIod of the Christian relig- 
ion ? Why, the bud navur beard of tuoh ai 
idea before. But, it waa preued upon hvr, 
if you d<i n"t, then you mutt admit tbe 
chargu ef inddvU IhatChrUUanily is an in- 
vention or an impoMurc, fur it must tia 
traced tu its sources to hr> true to ita own 
pretcnsiona. So the admitted the iwiot and 
cooiented to tbo most comprebenajve of kll 
Apoatotio suecesalons whatever. 

" Then tbe wan aiked about the Apoatollr 
tucccMion of Uie CbriAtiaii Church,— Hb* 
grand onlward instituDon of Chrisiianiiy. 
Was tbrrc ever a time, since the days of 
CitftiaT und His AiiOktlet, when tkern waa 
not a ChriUiiin Cliurcb upDii the eartfaT 
Bad (bit Church ever died out and vanished? 
Ub, no; she could allow nolhinK of tba 
kind. Then von believe in the Apuatolio 
sucoession oftna ChriiUan Church T lUtbar 

timoroiulj (forih«bcg«ntah«TeKii Inkling 

journey ibc wu traveling) ih* ad- 

ttiKl s)i« did. 

'ow, «Kcl»in)«d her loinewhat HonuMd 

ri*t, bcro oomu* a fonnidablo malter: 

jrou, or do joa doI, believe iu the Api«- 

cmeoMiionof tha Chriilinii Scriptures? 

ibft", and rvmembar well, liL-rn cuii- 

taiuoiMof lho«eaw(bl|;*)>* ^it-^ whkb 

Tour friends *o often tbrmten at. Wv huvo 

ao tBiAUMripu of luch Scrlpturca which go 

k (iTiWut (be middle oriho fourth wu- 

luri, iliut ia, uv SfiO a.d. And the Init 

«mer of ChriitiKii 8cr)]>turo mn^ br dnicd 

u IWl A.D. U«r«, then, ii a prodii;i<iui tCAp 

i^ two bawlred aod flfty veai-a to ho bridged 

v"T, aad uoImu yiu will cruti it under tlio 

(uirdant'c of hiilurv and anciunt uulbur*, 

ulrM X"!^ ^" l^kV the leitimony uf ibat 

Iwiiuuon vht>*B contitiuiiv you havo ac- 

kain>l«d^ed, yuu Iist« nit Bil)t>v Tou liuve 

bn It in that durk abyu whii^b lias swal- 

knd up (ai jou mfflrmj our proteutioiia U) a 

■Uinry wboao line baa ncr^r bi-cn brahon. 

Iiniu awfu] alternative, and >bo turrcu- 

^(lalwltboiil ronditiniu. 

"Tbra tha tfuoiCiun wa* followad up by 
wtibwt TitibU aKcramanU. If sucli thin^ 
bdacApoaiolic luccoaBion wo nuat abao- 
in tbi ealebratiiin of utd-fmhiont^ taora- 
■MtU lad JwD ibe Quikkcr*. Infiuit buif 
Vm ca&a uexti and if Ihit could not bo 
VMidbf iu A.ponolic lucocMlon, wo ma*t 
>utk Ut th* catapi&g-ground of Ana.bap- 

I"Trnni outward iaatitdlioDi the quei- 
(■■Mr *pnt on todoctriau. If tbo doctrine 
«f <ti Trinity bad do Apoitollo iuccM>iun, 
nnni acJcDowtedgfl thitdoctdn« a failure 
*( Bi*ooao»ptKin, maks followtbip witb 
MMlberetlr*. and adopt SocinianUm. If 
«doeirlfle of tte fnll wid uri^iD«l stii VjiuI 
^AfMtolio (uocvaioa, wa mast justify 
niicaaUni and aruw oursalTas our own 
'■Wnm. She now foreaaw bar daitiny 
V^^ plaialy, ^nd bowed to ttie rector's 
F»alue, t&at witb bim she bcU«T«d in 
•■arilj of socewiioiit which wore trtily 

^|liU aow, said b«, coidm tbe trux of this 
'■'■Iwi loalter. You believe in tlie Apoa- 

IWIc tHCMiion of a Christian ministry, 
'■sibtta aver a litna when ibera wss noi 
■Nl a ministry upon owthf wb«n Ita 

continuitv was broken and Ita txUtenoa 
wai to be ai^ain beguoT Oh. no; by 
DO D)«tiR*. Then at latt you Wii>v» with 
mr in (hu slrady exUtanoe of an Apuxlolic 
ministry, Im iU inward cunatituli^m wliet it 
mi(;bt, and tbo difference betwi-on ns is 
about Ihu tinturu of an vxcaedinj|,-1y long 
cbnin,— whedior it Ims tbroi)strand< in It or 
only one. Take Sulnnion's assurancti nbout 
tbe rcli'ihtlily of a threefold cord, nnd you 
will come orer to my side cordially. The 
difference bi3twc«n us hns dwindled down tn 
nn affair s^i snisll ihnt f<>r tufoty'R «iiko you 
should cajiiliiluto without a qualm. And tu 
help you dutn gracefully, let me beg you to 
remember ihuc tbcro is almost tho satD« 
utiitniinitv in Clirintcndu'n ahuut Bplscopacy 
which cvrn Oil.ljun was ronstraincd in admit 
there is abnul thu dixtrine of ihc Trinity, 
which, oi* cuUMc, M a uovorntii^ doctrine 
conovrni i)g ibv Godhvad, is the pivot on 
which (luL'trlnal urthod'<xy has fur ages 
turned. 'The consubfitintlality of the 
PaTokr iind ibe Sox.' wiys (he skt-iiiical 
hlsttii'Iani 'was talabtbbeti by tbe Council 
of Nice, mid has been^iisly riTi-«ivi>tl 
nt > fundMnifiilnl arttclr of Lhr Uhriiliait 
Failb, by (Ik^ consent of thu Grei-k. tlia 
Latin, tlie Oricnuil, and tbe rruicMtatit 
Cburchos.' (D(«, and ivii. 12mo. 
m1., vol.ii. II. 817,818; and cutiip. p. Sl'iat 
top.) The unanimity of Uhrislcndum about 
Eptsoopocy is nearly asconriplei'* as its una* 
nimily nbout the Trinilr; and witb ibc 
Trinity fordnctrino and Ki>i«cojMii-y for dis- 
cipline, CbdBtvndom ailKut hi>);iii to b«, as 
in ihc priitiiiivc a{{cs, a unitol ivlinlit, nn 
iinbrrikcn c»Tnmunton of Haints." (ttcv. T. 
W.Coll, D.U.) 

Tho succoMion of the Bnglisti Oburcli 
from St. Polycar^i, from the unknown 
founder of tho liixiian line, and hunt St> 
Jatnei, the flroi filaliopof Jorunieni, i« here 

f;ivon. Aj; llitx mint have been an inter 
•(!iii)t of ibe Chtirchcii iti the K«»^, wliii:b 
weri^ fotiuddl by St. I'ctcr at Anlioch, and 
tit Paul at Kpliums. u well at by 8l. John 
In Asia Minor, duubtltsa the direct line of 
the PalriarcliB of Jcrusnlnni wim IwAind up 
with thwo siin^mion* by actinic upon the 
Canon rcquiriiic the tJirM cunmrcratura. So 
the £tig;1lsh Kplacopate has probithly twined 
into on« "oora" munj of the (cimrata suc- 
caaalona than any other oommunion.* 


JIbf kii nfle 

"■'m— — _.__ M 

Mlsi M Bph^M, and 
^ ^ra^U At Smjn*. ia 
'**uar_„_.„..,. IBT us ma 

ihm tajraa ha sands 



8S. Psn. aad Patn ti 

Iiimis „ M 


C UKmn K 


ALaxsjinaa ^,.,« _ lOV 


&t. Jahu .>...... U 

StKioai „ U 

Joams L..._ ». lOT 

Z*caaiia... .„..,„._....»...... Ill 

TOBIIB....™... -. IIS 

*1kh IMUnnob Mvra fnU^tniMd la tugar worti^ as la Dr. A.>|iln^pftBlltT( Ctiorch. 



^^^^ Pvratm)*, 

^^^ nbo fttrrlTad UlL-.... 

^^^^^^^K bnn. 


^H FAutTun. 
^^^ VsKin. 

^H Jmin. 
^^^^ PnuwT. 

^H Toenm. 
^H Maxivos. 

^^^^^ Vsiuauiin. 

^V Jrann....^ „.. 

^H ALIIirn, 

^^1 Martih. 
^H AuriocanB. 
^^1 Bu'ioict. 

^H SiCIAKtVfl. 

^H BvcBsam L...^... ...... 

^H Pi.rtBii« „.._ „. 






— «r 

— 4«1 
...» 4«» 


SncnriL „ ll* 

TuABr BO aii ...... ............. 130 

HTonin...... «....». 13S 

Pira 142 

SLitTDitim ......... ITT 

ZiraintKVi-...^. ~» 301 

JniWAtn. J 
funr J 

Paiur «......d 

Skxica _ ^ 

Lkti „......^ 

J CDA> ..._..., H 

CAMIASim _..... ...1 

I'mi.l^B .-.».......« j 

JvLua „ ^ 


JVI.IAN ....H m3 

Haxikdi ».....^ 

Aimniio .......»^ 

CAMt« „.. .^ 

Nakuimvk .. 

Qoutrs t»d HAMOtMn. 

AVTHRDS _ v...» Si5 

Faiiavvi-.m »»....» 23tt 

HAKAUUn ........ ....i.ij 

llTXalMTf. _ a. 

BvTTCSUinn..... _....... S7S 

IClHOat.LDI....... SI^H 


k[M>eiiABfli-......»»...M. ail 

Prnti. (eipollcd by , 
Arlaai) «..» 

8iiucm....H »...»«. >U 

Amaitajiui _ IBS 

lKHOCEICTirk.« «... 402 

Bo>irAi:s._...„ _.,.. 418 

Crnii. (r««tor«4, ui4 *| 

pR AOUCt...^ 

JnVMIAI. ».....!< 

MAArriuDa -....-.i 

Ckr.cvriiiK 423 

OoBMoratAd Pallaaim 
for tbt Irnh. 

^B Snt rakuvt —.—■... 

SrniiArHL-x. „ 40& 







Pkxboiis«..„ — ....... 


MM. AA. 

&1& HoHMnBAS- n _.„. >I4 

iU JOBV I » » &1S 

Fm-ix III ai8 

BoxirACS II«,......« MO 

Joanir^ US 

AflAnnvt.. Ui 

5XS SrLT»iiTS~...» IM 

S43 ViviLin „ MO 

852 Pxiaoim tr 455 

Joiif III „..,..„ ISO 

5T3 BnrKDicT I iTi 

Psuiin UI „ „ «7S 



JoKJilll.^.. 511 

Oontaarstad Da Tin of 

oarriad th* iagoMalas 
«f tba Cbunh at J%- 
niul«ca to BriUln, 
wb«ac« it ]^M•e4 t« 
tha Eogliih luooewion. 

KthvHus, with Tinnitus uf ArLei, ooiue- 
crmtcd lb* Monl: Angnttint (whom Uragorj' 
b»d lent ont to the Skxona in Britaio) m 





I V itiliao being ukcd to aid th« Skxudi in 
Kl««tlng an Ar(^biihop,sclcct«d Thoodoriu, 
■ Q-rcdc Af Tknut, And ooiuccrated him, aii<I 

T> Tnow>u...^...„ „ „,... UBS 

•■ barrnir^LD „ _ „ *ft3 

*- Tirni" -.—..— « 7Jt 

W. Koraw-M _ TM 

U- Cnunt ...» «. «»«...» T3S 

tt. BiMtria „ JH 

IL Luuu- »....-«» 7111 

1^ ArmLtKB _ _ T4S 

1^- VnjvsB _..— B«S 

!•. Tuoaiu 832 

IT. OicuoiTa _ tit 

IB. RniuaD STO 

t*- PlMKm _ _ B9P 

It lnu.K „..,...,™.. (14 

II. WiTLraaui ......«.....«.„ B2I 

*lOiO B42 

&■ DmrM _ HO 

KBrasbua ~.....~ U» 

Abamnm - »•... B40 

■- Itnic .....„._„_ Wb 

n-lir«a«B......... ......... lOBS 


■■in(*5».. . 
4' Luraisc. 

J lULra 

* VOLUM C«MKim...»„.... 

*■ ^BMIK ^ 

^ta«a»A Bxacn.. 

• iiiBi ail . 


*L bu>«u> Pm-JooLix 

Arobblahofi of CuiMrbur;. Tb« £agliall 
■uaoeMioD u by Auguii)a«, through Eib«rlus 
and Tirgiliiis to Hi. John. It ruoa on thui: 

Bmik AJh 

SAiM*inn , „ SM 

DonirACi III ...„.,...,„ 60« 

Bo«tr*c« IV 50T 

DSVtSSBtT M..-....-- »...»... 015 

BoHiMcn V „„. tlft 

EoiroKiva ». 534 

SNTinixDii ...~._ »...-. MA 

Jon IV «.... U» 

THMnwaa tit 

Mamtix -..».._ M9 

Rneeitnra ..........._ Hi 

VlTAIllAK ..HM..............1.H....U.... Uf 

■aiil hiin to En^Und. Al thii lata point lb« 
lloman auccetaion enters iuto the Bogliih 
lloe, wliiuh triKed Aral to 8t. John. 

12. Iliniaiti WALTan _ „ „„. 1I9S 

43. Srii-irEi I.iKiiTox _ 1207 

11. JticHAiin WcTaanajm..^ 1S99 

15. BdhvjidRicb „ 1U4 

16. BoKirACBOpSATOT— .....„..». IMS 

ir. RoBiiiir KiLWARUT _,... 1274 

Juan I'lt-KiuM. 

Rokiiir Wi!iL'Ueuiav... 
Valtbr KsTaoLM-.... 



.... t2M 

.... ISIS 

... ISM 

Janii HTnATroRD IS33 

Joux Dt UrroBU 1S18 

Thomaji IJMAutrAitDiXK »...» - IMV 

glHOK ISLIP .«,.»...». 1S49 

Siaox LAKoflAN. ......... .....M.. tSM 

Wii.ii,iM WtiiTTLMir » „... ISC8 

BiBoji fii:jiBii«T^ _ 1874 


TnoHAB AauHiMi..... - - ISST 

Hosn WAunx „ tIfiS 

Txu«A« Auitxaiu _,..„._ 1IW9 

llENnr CaicBiLer Ull 

JUHil STAVmUIl „ „ H4i 

Jonii Kbxpb „....~.... UU 

TvDHA* ll<iiTAcniBn..~ ~...~ 14.H 

Jdnx Mohtok .^ Il'<* 

Basar Dbakb^ ISfll 

VlLLIAH Wakbbui ...» ~ MOi 

Thoxai Cbaxhsii .....__ - I43S 

CAiniriAi FoLK..~ »«..... 154* 

Matiiiew Pankrb. _ IS49 

Et.xtiiu tiiitHHAi... .•....••...... 147fl 

JoH« WniToirr « .._ - 15HS 

BiOUkD B*ac«an.....»» »..»«.». IIU 

OMMgiABwr ~ - 1*11 





Wtt.t:IAtl hABB ._. lU.I 

WtLtiita JiiXDX „ limit 

Oii.iBnr Shbldoh -...._............ 1003 

William S&kckoTT «.... IflTS 

JoitH ^tijjorimi. ..„..„ 16PI 

TKav4* TaxioM „ »...- 1BS& 

William Waki - „ 1718 

Jobh I'm-rkd » » _ ITS* 

Tmovu UinaiRa. _ 17-17 

Matthew llrmMi _ IJi" 

TtiWAt Sircrsx „....._ I7&S 

FKEIIEK)t'K Coil]l«ALt.U »».^ ITM 

JoBK Moore „ 1703 

Arcbliutiap Hoor*. ueiited by tho Arrh- 
ViiliDp of Ytirlt, and bv the Bishops of Bnlli 
and WelU hihI of PetorlMrouKbi con*'*- 
cratcd Wiliiain WhiUj&nd SiirouorProvoost, 
oa February J, 1787. Throe yean UUr hu, 

with the BUhoM of Londtun uhI of Roches 
l«r, ooimwrfltwi jAim-i Mudiron, on Se|tli>m- 
bnr IB, 1790. A Irou'l.v, Sniiiu«l SpBhur; faui 
Tcoetvcd oantecmtiiiii fmin the BiabuM of 
ScoLland, Kobcrt Kiigour, Bifbop of Abw- 
(luca ; Aritiur Poiriu, Blvbopuf Moray ; and 
John Skiiuiur, of Aberdeen, I'rimijt uf Um 
Cburcii of Scotland, on Nnvombcr 14, 17&4. 

The Scoleh lucCMClon aprinc:* from ^« 
Enttllah luocculoD, u AKhbiihop Kbeldoo, 
ftwiated by ih« BUhopi of CariUIu, Worc«»- 
Ur, and Llantlafr, orjii»!criit«(l Jami-ji Sharpc 
Arcbbithopof .St. Andrew's i from tbem t£« 
cDnsi?cntori of Biihop Scaburj* draw tluir 

Tbe number of American Biahopa from 
tilts beginning: hits be«i>inQ » t«lal of au< 
hundred and thirty-four. 

UMia et 9mof. 

Banoiu. BiAaunr (Praidinc Dp,)- 
William Wmia " '' ^ 

BAMvrk Paaroon " " _ 

Jam EI Mamwim..... 

TiinMAA Jciim CLAOflarr 

RuiKKt SHrra _ 

KciWAHD Dabs. „.„, 

A Tin in AH .T ADVIi.,, „.....„„..... H...1 

hnirjAttiH Moons. , 

Saiii;i;i. Faukeh _ 

JouK IlKMnr UaRAHT.. 


TaroiKiitK DcRoy _........ 

IticnAUD CuAKxiaa Mooaa 

Jahm Kaaf 

JoBX Cnoai— „ 

Katraxikl Boiint»„, „ 

Prilakdeh Csask (PrMidingBp.)* 
Thiiuaa Chiircii naowfiix *' 

Jony STAftK ItATKMtCftOrT 

Hkkkt rKTicK OauKiinoiiK 

WiLUAU Meade 


BRxjAMtn TaKiiTTr.i.i. OHnBaooHa.. 

LkTI .SiLLIKAS IVEff..... 

Jaus IlKMnr llaFsi!iR(Pr«A. Up.]... 
BaXi^Aai.i B. fiaita " " ... 

CHAituca Pimt JttcUvAiss 

Odonna WAinixoroa Uoavk 

Jamrs IIeiitkt Qtit 

Jackmk KHMrNuI- 

t^AaiiKL ALLKa AloCuaaarj 

1.KQ1IIDAB F(iLa|.„ 

Wii.iJAM llaATnarra Da Lancet... 
CiiHi;iropaRn Bowirm Oamdu... 
WiuJAV ItouLiXTCX WiiirtrxaaAK. 

Ktki'HEii IvLM»n 

At.rnxti L«K fPrafrJicf; Bp.) , 

Jwis Joni*-... _ 

Habton Banisiirn 

Jobs fasiiTut Kt« Uekiiiaw.., 


NicnoLAi UAaaaa Coias.^ , 

OtcsKuSrai^Kn IIauk* 

SAm»r tn. 

ConiiMtiouL.„..M ».. 


New Vurk -. 


Margin nd , 

ftoulli Cnrullau.... _..., 

Mbkbiii liuictUL 


Now Viirk (Aniitaali 

.MnuAO liUfDtU 

Nun Vurh iAtwiiionI) 

Eastern DiiweM 

.^ouih Cirulina .....i 


MsijrlAnd (Ayfifiyun) 

New Jtnty 

ftoiilli Cu-rglina 

Oil in „.., 


.Viotb CnTolina 

Pan Dnj Iran In {AniilaHt), 

Viri'min (At*irtanl]„, 


New York. ........ .......... 

Nnrih OaroUaa 

V etni nil I. ................... ... 

Konlucky » 


Nair Jamsj.. 

TvnnBMMi. ~ 

M«. and lad. («•>•.)...... 

"M iobipin .~ 

ArkBni»i {li'fi"-<"j)—. 

W«iivtu Now Tork 

Soiiib CnTDlina 


Oeontiiv - 


Tlrgicia (Amilatl) 

MaoAnhilaettl <i4(><*<MM) 

Rhode litand 

Naw Uniupltllra. 

Alabama. ~.. 

M iMourl _ 

Oati ot Can» 

II, I7B« 
4, 1707 
4, 1 787 

10, 111)0 

11, i7n 
13, IT>& 

7. I7VS 
18. Iliir 
[|. ISO! 
U. ISOi 
tS, 101 1 

10, 10tt 

18, 10U 

8, leui 

M, 1810 

37, 181 » 
33, 183S 

26, 1627 
to, Wii 
21, isaa 

38, 18^0 

a, us I 

91. 1M3 

SI, 18.12 

31. na 

81, ]»Xi 
7i, I Mi 

7. iBsa 
V, Ifsg 

31, tSlO 
IT, U(0 
20, ten 
13. tsti 

IS, Ul3 
»U, U(2 

11, IKI3 

Sfi, UH 

a«, i»4i 

20, 1844 

Dan or 

F«b. S$. 1700 
Jul; 1?. 1S30 
?<ipu S, 1 316 
Mar. 6, 1*13 
Aag. 3,)8I8 
Ort. 30, ISDl 
Sapt. to. 1 802 
Ma; .1, 1 011 
Feb. 37. 1810 
Dml 0. 1804 
Bapt. 12, 18M 
rA. li, 1044 
Aog. 6. 10IT 
Not. it. 1941 
Out. 2S, IBM 
Jaly 30, IMS 
Aug. 25, lUft 
E«pk 3D, 1»3 
Jan. 13, IflU 
Mat. 6. ISM 
Deti. a. 1060 
Mar. 14. 16«] 
F>b. 20, 1838 
April 30, 1841 
OoL 13, is«r 
Jan. fl. 1 808 

Mar. 13. 1&;S 
April 3T, IKS» 
April 23. 1B63 
Ma7 34. 1870 

Jun* 14. [n<4 
Ai>ril 4. IMIfc 
June 23. [963 
Oct. ir, 187» 
Vk. 21,1000 

April 4, 1800 
?a|>t. II, Wt 

July 3V, IB6S 
Jail. 18,1870 
J>n. II, 1001 
April ID, IS08 

• TiaaaUM I* UMBDli. Ism. 

iABMpivd lll«boprt«*f WboonrfD la LB61. 
miMlaM t» LoBlttaoa Onl. K, IMl. 

t Dit"M« (ML 14, USl. 




Hjjm or 

WnxiAM Jairu BOOMK 

Obok«i Wassiiiot«r Fbriiu 

UmtAna SooTBaiTi* 

Auaio Pornm - 

Oaomam BcMuttia. „ 

Omiihib UrmU) 


Joas PtTNtt'-. ■ ». 

PK4SCI* Husati UtTTLKMML. .„ 

JoMB WiuaAn. „.. 

lltxKr JottM IT inrjiBftiiBK^ 


TnoNiit ArKi«*os 

Wiuj<H IsoRABta Eir~ „. 

TsuiiA» PicLBiNa Seorr. 

HxaRr W**niMiiKK« Lkk.,,., „. 

I lionkTIO POTTEII. , 

1 TaoMAji Mahcu Ci^bx....» _. 

BmtiiL BuwajM ... 

iLiX^iiCiit UbUV....... 

WlU.UH F{kJ(RT ODKMHnHBRt._..., 

UixBr Buijtkii Wtiii-rui., 

Btnr CiAnrux L&rj 

Jowrv CaricstBANK IjliotjI 

V'n.LUH Bicoa Brtrtm _ 

kiCUHt) IlanXBIt WltHBII. 

Tlovii IIuBa«Mi Vail. „ 



t W M I UllRPKN C(.1HIU0II ^.. 

Obmob M^xirsu. ltai(nii.L 

Mm Bahhbt Kinrwn 

CuaviiKi MooBK WtLi.inaR _.. 

3*Wfa rchi: IJKtL WaVBIt. 

Sn«»ii Durii) Cuaiiix(f_ 

VtuiAM Bdho;<» Aiiicm«t..»».».^ 

Buir Ai>AK» NKKtr 

Dtntt STLmarBx Trm.* 

J(9« rBKK«*> Tuujro 

Jw WAnon Ubokwith 

faiMCu UoMbbcb Wbittlc. 

VuuAit Bbxrt AUBsam Bimbll. 

Cbkiu I'ii4sibux BoBBmaa 


iuaif .N'hwbirb LrPTLKJAU a. _..».. 

Tiuu.ta CitiuwBLL DoASB.. .„ 

FnirRic Da« nnxTiiKiTDa^ _.. 


Hmr Sli.e' Priiii« 

H Vfuj^H WoouHTrrr Nilei 

VtuiAV Ptnnntr .....~— 

VtUIAN llll.I. WniTH llgWR 


VllAllx lIoBAKf UaKB 


BtUAjfis HcNBT Pajmiocs 

'iBJMIIIt BBXM>|i7r LrvAK ». 

Jmi PniiiKuv Ki-Auiisia 

Gnjiai> Kakpoii-q Wkllu. ....._.. 

RwiinW. B. Bluott „... 

JowrUziiitr DveAiiBKT WntamLD. 
'bBuxnas CvAKLU OASRrrr... 

Mamb w Bib. 

Cbina {ilimionar]/) 

AifcUMI •■ 
TnrkBj " 

P«h n*J I r u i» » , 


IndUnn- • 




ConDootiout (Attittaniy 

tllinuii {Am'ftattI) 

N«<( Voili ( Praoinuitnl).., 

!fou!l> C>rall[iB 

North Ciirolln*. 

CBlifornlll { JfiMiDfiary)... 
Of. «id Wsah. (M«..)^.... 


Nbw Torlt {PraeUiomit),., 

Bttodo Illuti- 

PciuwjUBiiik {Aiiiuini)^ 


Kao Jeraej 

Ohio ( Aoiflonl}. 


Aiknuu* (lfiHti)fiary)_... 
North WW! " 

PvitRfjIraDiB (Atti*laniy. 

A lAhaLUM — 


WcBlNowTorfc M"<«-)^ 


N*bnukn ( Wuaioiuiry).. 
Culoraiid " 

PttUbDrg-.. A 

Cblnn anil J^br (itft**.),. 


Ksntuok; (Aniaiaut) 

\7Uooniin " ...... 


Muninaa ( if i«*fo>»arjr )...... 

PtoridB „ 


VlrgiRis ( j( •mrtrnil)... 

Variuunl ........^ 


Or. sni W>«li.(Jtf>M.) 

fi«Dg Itluid 


CaatrRl NswTork- 

rfair. and Arir (ir>«.J_... 
Ark. B»d Ind.Ter. (Mii*.). 

Nut* HiiinpahltA 

Mar^lBiict (>*n*la»t) 

i^olli rarollRM {AmUi.).., 

CMitrrtl PmnfrlrBDin 

Niobram [HU^ionarji)**^ 


KonbOrolinB (Jtaftt). 

OoloraJo (Mi**it>Jiarg).... 


WcMern Teia* {itlf.).... 
K«nb (.'BltforaU " . 
North! ni Tauu " 

Dirfl «« OuBBB- 

3^ 18-14 

29, 1844 
36, IS44 
33, lUi 

31, isj: 
le, lexif 
it, isao 
U, 1861 
1», tSAl 

36, isat 
:o, isai 

10, isa: 

IT, 181.1 

IT, isaa 

15, i0is 

18. 1U4 

e. 1664 

30, ISAS 
13. I8t0 
la. 1869 

13. lua 

13. t85« 
13, lBi« 
la, tMO 

3, I8«2 
e. I6fll 

16, ISSi 

4, IMi 

11. I8fl> 
la, 1»63 

sa. ig«9 

3, ISAA 

T, leos 
IS, i8«a 


I. mr 


I 2, 10<« 

I 80, IMi 

3, IMS 

35. lata 

3. 1869 

!7. I8«9 

2, 160V 

1 8. I SA» 

IR, 18BV 

21. I8J0 

SI, 1»TI> 

6, ISTU 

8, IS7I 

28. 1871 

U, tf)T3 

I 17, 1.K71 

17, IR7S 

II, leu 

31, tST3 
15, IS7* 


10, \9U 

Datb av 


JuIt U, ie«4 
April 3», tS>9 

July 4, UBS 
April S3, IS40 

Aag. Se, IS-S 

Oct. Si, 1874 
Nor. 4, ISM 

Anf. 10, ISTd 
8epL 81, l$a4 
D*o. a, IS71 
Jan. 4, 1&8] 

July 14. tsar 

Sapt at, 1BT4 

Au(. SflStl 
Ati«. 14, ISTS 

Jan. U, ISU 

Sapt. 38, ISrS 
Julj 10. I8S1 

Dao. 8, iSrS 

joBo », isrs 
pm. t, isra 

Jnljr 4, ISS8 

lA. K, 1874 

tMfM »r (IM B««M «r BWUT*. 0«t. » UM. 

ilateOM Rewpiaa In Um Baua of BlalMpk OoL 81, UTt 
JMSr&t DhMaM of Kattbwn H«« Janar Ma*. IX int. 
TMarfak4 U> KmIoii. IM>. t Tntailatad lo ladUtia, USB. 

Jatladktfaa anlaiiad B»d (HI* cbaBc*4 to Sju kbara Da^ta tv Uw Omttal 0»RT«rtao or IBta. 




Kuu or nwor. 

Viuuit FOBixa AvAiil*^ 


Jon!i SMnnodoTtea 


TnoHi* Auouarra Jasorii 

'WiLiijiH Emtaeid MrliiititR 

Jmi« llBHHT [IniuiiT Umw 



SkHDItl. I, J. ScHaRKKcaKWiiKr f^ 

Alhahbhii IlitiiaEM 

(iROftei WlLMAM pKTtllKIN 

(iBoncs Fhaxsus SBmaiiR 

Sandil Shits Hirhtil. 

Tbokab ALrmBC gTtiiKHr.... 


Oromok K. DusLor 

Lition Kifim^jsrt BuirSB. 


OoBn-Axnt WiiTKiiKAD „ 

IltoK Mii.].«B 1nattnax„ 

Patid Bun], KviCKSRiACRitm 

IIkkkt Commas Pottkh 

Alphid MlOILL Xaxdolti 

WiM.MH D. W«LS«« 

A.A. Watsos, Wed 

Kam> nr an. 

K«w Mfxiw (V ■tn'oiHir^ ]. 

KnOtDok; lj4*n>lan() 

Vtw Jennj 

WMIain Mi«higMi. 

Soiilborii ObtQ. .••.■.......... 

riiinoti^ „ 

Foodo Lm 

Afrlu ( Jf M*iaf>arjr>...„,.., 
ShanpihnJ " ........ 

Quhii^v ....HOI 

W«Bl Vinttni* 



Norlhri'ii New Jvrtvj 

LouiaisDB „ 

New Mciioo {Minionarji). 
Monmnu " 

WMliingkJD Ter. " 


MUiinippi {Aut*iani) 

] ndlaon ,.,...., ,. 

New T"rk (^huism') 

VIririnU " 

Norlb Dah<>tA(Vii*.) 

EmI Carolini 

D«Tt «r 0»m» 




Ju. IT, 18» 

Jul. 17, 18T> 

P*b. 2. 187A 

Feb. », 18]» 

April SS, IS7B 

0«i. 8, IS7S 


Dm. It, ISrS 


Sept. 10, 1S7< 

p«b. 13, isrr 



Ort. >1, L8T7 


Ifv 1&. rsu 

Mnf So, IHTI 

June It, IHTS 

Seist. IT, m» 

Jkn. 8, laSA 

F*1>. fi, tSSO 

Nov. 31, 1884 

Deo. 8, 1H8« 

Pee, 15, ISSft 

Jan. -Zi, 18SS 

F.I.. 2*, 19SS 

oou 11, leu 

0«t. SO, 188S 

Oct. 31, ISBl 

Doe. 2n. IHRJ 

April 17, ieft4 

• KMlgiMHoD araepHd hj the Hon** of KUhopa, (M. lA, ISTT. 
t UwlgiiAlloli MCaptol by tba HouH of Uliliojw, ML M, le«t. 

Tba diicuMion on tbe Apuatolic Succeuk>n 
bll oceusled bo muny |>cn8 thoi only n T«ry 
ftwworncan bo m'eatiancd hvn.'. 4q xhv 
English Oburch, lladdnn on Um AiiMtnlic 
Succcitfion is of nuthoTitiy, ut aleu tho older 
" DAubeny'E Guide." In the AniDricma 
Oburvli, mnnv vnlitakln tracts maA works 
bkVB hatm put forth, tu Bliliup Ondardonk'e 
" Epiiropacf tested by .Scrinturo," l>r. Bow- 
den^s "LMtcn to Dr. Miller," Cluipln'c 
" Primitive Chuivb," BUhop Kip's *' Double 
WItnwa," Manh&ll'i " Not«<« on KpiBC«- 
pacy." Thoo are old work*, but lUey con- 
lalfi tho whoIA oaostion, and are probably 
moTt Hocenible tiian other lator on>nii. Tho 
li«lc of the sucoeMiuiL above ^iveii ha*« 
b*Mi compiled from CUapin's " PrimiUTO 
Church" and Bishop Seymour's List in the 
" Churcliinan't Calendar" for 1860. 

Appellate Coun. In all our Diooosae, 
except the thro* in Illinois, the system of 
Church rourU, for the trial of prtuta, dtA- 
fioM, and laymen, is jooomplete, proriding, 
for the moKl pari, for only one formal trial. 
In nnarly all, no trial can be etitorad upon 
unless itu Bishop concents. Id nearly all, 
the Bishop has so larg(> an uency In the 
fOTmUion t>f tli<i Coiiri,— wlii«h is a Court 
ai>polnted for Ibe *|iecial case, — that it is poa- 
■ible to organiso it to convict or to aciiuit, as 
be may prefer. In loroa EKooeiei tb« Court 
b a permanent body, eleoted annual Ijy by Ibe 
CoDVontion. Wbvr« there U a deflnftc party 
pn^ominaniw in any suob Diocesan Con- 
vantiun, it will naturally b« embodied In 
the ptraoitnei of the Court, and any trinl 
marktd with the sll^test partisam tinge 

would mereir be decided like n} 
jinrty vole. In iifilber tase is any 
provided. If injustice were done, thei 
hv no possible remedy. Eren If a 
should bo »o cxtrcmi.' u t«i lay himsal 
to trial and conviction for the mode ia 
h« mieht btive svciir^ the dopositloi 
obnoxiuui cicrttyman, still, the punli 
of lliA Bi«ho]i wuuld not otierate to 
thft poor clorgyuan. For Aim then 
remedy. His opproisor nii}{hl be d 
but he himself would nut be in the >1 
degreii relieved front the constuiuot 
that opprcealon. 

SnverAl Bttemnts to wtablish nn A» 
Court by General ConviMitiou hnvi! fti) 
various rea^ns. Kvery sucb utten 
shown thccumbrniiinoM and pra«tic 
cully of contlructing any oh« Aj 
Court, which can receive appeal* fr 
whole Amorioiti Church ; and it la 
thai Ibcy hav* failed, for they were t 
aonably' workable. In thfi'Canua 
trial of a Bish-np w» And an tniportaU 
nltion ijf the true principle, in the ti 
mont of aBonrd of Inouiry, wbowtn 
are ukcn from tbo Dioe«ie concvni 
ihe three a/ljniitin^ Dioetaet. The ff 
of iy\tKf»ii» ammaiUmttv ^tuated is | 
solution of till) dllBcuUy. The Othi 
oinle involved is, that vrh^rvM thv 
biiily of tnjiutice in the lint 1r*I 
due to the predominanL-o of the will 
man, tho anpaal should he f thtt ju 
of more ttian ono. Indlvldoal pi 
U more Ukely to be remedied by tut 

Tho "srouplni; of Dlooe»«s oon»eniently 

^tuBtcd" ii onlv aOQUior dasoription of 

^hat U known in EcrkxiKiticftl lancuftgA M 

* l^remrtee. And iho Brat Provlnoo lo bo 

f ally t)r|i;*in{B<-d in ibia ntuntrv is tAto tbo 

#^t to girpu* iir«Moiiabl«C()urtur Appeal. 

*▼*• rcfvr to lUiDuii, whoio tbrro IMoi-cm 

<?' "OhioKso," "Quiocy," and "SftrinR- 

0«ld" w aaiwcl in the"ProTince of Illi- 

*>*^*-" Tb« tcrujiulons obttmcti vnniui i>f 

lliGQnicnl CoDvcntlun biul dcL-iJoil thai & 

C*vn at AppeftU, DDder AnUlu VI. of tlic 

C^uoHitulion, ooold b* MtablMa-d "iilv by 

Uxaellun of th« DIommb «s iulOi, and noi 

1>J tht mction of th« Province ■» a Province. 

^Mordingl^, tbs F<Nl«raie Coundt acud 

eniy M tn informBl committee in prapAring 

tit drmti nt a Canon, which, with Kubntnii* 

Ul identity, waiaftorwaifJi adopted by each 

■If th« ibrM Diooeeaa CvsveDtiotii. Tbo 

Idding prindplu of tbit C'«ni>ii art m foU 

I. Til* Blibopt of tbe Proviaco srs tbo 

a KM of the Court of Appml. A4 llio ]>od- 
■ prejudice or psi^loD of the Bithop i>f 
tfc« I>!«OMO IVoRi wbi^h tba apjMwl comM 
tn.J b« tiia leadins feMarti in tba cue, It 
■Mtld bt manifutly a departure from our 
titabLufaed idm for tbo official action of 
QOiBubop to btt officially reviewed and car- 
ncMd, cxrom by bin peeri, — hi* br«thrnn in 
tto lane ani«r. Moreover, tbit i* tbvprim- 
Mn ml*,— tbo Birbops of tb« Province 
bvnstb* univi'r>nl C»urt of Appeal in ibii 
■llwt t^. It ix n-i>cly prondird, bow- 
'fXr, that tb« BUhop vbiuc jud^iueat is 
tnilM fraiu kbul) not preside in tbo Court 
un>C tiw trial of that CKt«. In all otb«r 
•■M,th* Bi*hop wbo preMidoe in the Fed- 
MMCMiacil (lb» iletrtipolilan, a» b« wa« 
**"<1 in anciciU daya) ptuidfiB alao in tbit 
%*M« Court. 

' tut tli«rp are tvvr ot our Biahupa wbo 
■*^ been trainvd m Uw^rers; and to one 
*■« lu not li»d that trtiinin^, there arv 
■•■jlMil poinu whicb rnny fail to be ap- 
pwud by itiB unl^al mind. Tbe IIlinoiK 
^0*0, tlwrvforv, providr* that thw* »bi»ll 
**^Wttji« in the Court of Appeal,— «auli 
'*MMtB ConTcntiun aball elect on* Clerical 
J*l<iM Lav AwMcor it nuy bo Cnkon 
""tnaisd tnai mcb Convvntion will ii«k'<:L 
fwfnman who ia known for hii familiar- 
ly *ili)ib<^ Can<>n>, Ami a layman who it 
"^nti in tlic tnw of ibe land. At occMiona 
^ arit* when ihitrv will ni>t bn entiro hnr* 
■■Wbrtwwn a Biibop mid Um mujoriij- in 
"*Cmttat)aD. and as it if bit ri^M that he 
^"^ bavo thu advlco of itioic in wh^in 
•* bii (onfldenc«, ic h pntptrly added tliai, 
■■*•• Ibc «l^-trd AM<-»mr»,— wbo mny bn 
"P*4»dBpon to iir.^t^tt Iba ri|;bta of clerer 
>w bi^, — aiKib uLibop mny, if be >«« Qt, 
•pniw una clnival ir lay A*«M*<ir, or botli, 
"*> lo««r will. doubll^^M, be very aelduRi 
V*H*d; but it U quit« proper that it 


*• 1> Mbar Conru of Apiml, wiib At- 
'**v< U bu been a GontMlvd piiim whether 

the mpinb«r« of the Court tibi.)uld be tiuund 
to duuido in iiccurdunoe with L)i« ad*io« u[ 
Iba Aueuorii, or abould have power lodi^ddo 
otbcrviio, In Illinoli, tbe rvspotuibiliiy ia 
accurat«)y divided In tba Canon it*elf, A* 
Iho Aweaiora arc mppo^od to be su[wrior iu 
llio liiiawlcd^o to bo expected of expoTtt, 
tAty are to decide all lnlerlijiQiiti>ry qiiMlioiu, 
— itll iliosn quoaliont of bittoricHl or pro- 
fDuianal l(ilerprelntion,a>Imiail>ili(y of evi- 
deui-«, etc., in uhiob tncii wilbuui Npwciiil 
training aro moil likely to ru&ke miat«kt». 
Ill ihii way ili«y prviwt tbo diuiiity of lh« 
Bishopa fniiii ihv danger of making an un* 
happy exbibit of innuOicicni infornialioti. 
But when all preliminary (^uejtluni arc thui 
settled, and nuthini; rvmmns but the Aual 
dvciiiuii UB tu whullinr the appeal aball bn 
Kiaatod, or refuAid, ot a new Ixial ordered, 
uwa the dignity of the Biihopa ia further 
lecured by giving to tJtan alone tbo rigbt to 
vol«. But a furtlier wfeguard for thu Hghu 
of cturgy and luilr ii K<>cur«d in the pr^f 
viMon ItinleScb Bithopahall eive, in writing, 
aeriatim, the reatoiu lor bis oociiion. When 
it ia known bcfuriihiiiid tbat every tuch 
opiniou uiuit run the i;aunUel of up«n and 

fiublit criticism, it is the more likely to be 

4. The Illinois Onnou ]e lorioutly defec- 
tive in onu point. It allows of no appeal 
except from an ttdveiae decision in* Diociwiii 
Court. This would licnit tbe UHfuliiws of 
tbe Court lu thn lowmt iwuiblv miuiniiim. 
Not one-ioritb ]<iiTt of lUo grievancM tb«t 
arise ever uoitie bvforci an EodcMaatinLl 
Court at all: and thus niutvtcutks of our 
pmcUcal troubles would bo left jutt vhcre 
they are now,— with »o reiuiidy whBi«ui-vur. 
An appM.1 should be allowed to every per>> 
t.on oCnimirig to bo agg^ricvnl by any aclioa 
on the part of any of Ibe cuiutiiuted 
autboritiut of lIiq Churt^h in aiiv Dino-iio of 
the PtoviafW. In tlie priuiil've Cburdi, 
this was carried to far a to include every 
cue of luspctiilon from tbo communion or 
of eioommunioatlon. The prinuiplw was, 
indeed, early recognised thiit an act of dis- 
cipline by one Biabuti could not be revoked 
by another Biahcn. Tbe one under discipline 
could be roMorra only by Aw ovn Blsbop. 
Bui every sueh act wat open to revision by 
the Biibopa of the Province. For insianoe, 
the Gtb Canon of the gr*«t Council of NicaM 
provides ss followi : 

" CuiioArning those, whether nf tb» CUrn 
orof Lb« Laity, who have been oxcommuni- 
lei the pTuvttil^n of tbat Oanon prevail wbicb 
provides that peraoiu wbo huve been cut 
out by onti Bi*oop an not to bo resdoiilted 
by another, nevntbelow, inquiry should 
bu inado whether tbey b&ve boea cicom- 
luuntCBted ibruugh ei>ptJou*ni««, ur uonten- 
tioiimeM, or any Buch liko ungradnu* dU- 
poiition, in the Biebop. And, thut ibta 
matter BUkj bare due invostigation, it if 
il(«-re«d tbat, In every Provlnoe, Mynod* 
sbull beheld twice ereij year; ioorderlbat. 




all the Bi*hop« or the Provincu bvins oHcni- 
bied t(ignili«r, kueli (jueallani niBj by llicin 
be thorougfal/ exttuiiiied ; «o ihat those who 
b»»e confcMcdly offimdftd ngaitut Ihoir 
£iihDp mar be i«en to be, for Just c«um, 
«xoi>miDunicat«d by all, until it thiill »i'«ni 
fit to the common wuHMnbty of ttie Bislui|iH 
to pronounce ft milder sentcDte upon thi'in," 

Aod ibe 9lh Canon of Aniloch ( after wardi^ 
made (Bcainenlciil) iirovides In like nmtiner : 

" If anvotip h«» bwn cxcnnimiinirnti'il by 
hi* own lljsbop. lat bim not b« received by 
otben until h« bus nilbor bran rMUired bv 
bin own Biabop, or until, whnri a f^yiicxl ia 
held, be flball nave appijared and tnudc hid 
defense, ard, baTinc cAnvincM tha Synod, 
abftll bkTe rocclTed a different Benience 
And let thii decree t<pply to tho Lailv, and 
to Pratbyton nnd Dnicnnx, und ull whn mn: 
In the Oiiniin" (i.«., on the Sacerdotal List). 

It ii clear Ihat if the oxcr<:iso of tbe power 
of ib« key* — »p«'i:i(lc«lly givmi tiii.>ui.'b Hinboti 
■thi* to;i»«raUun — ivail!iU!< Mjirn uiuj)|ii-«l, 
■nd reviflion by other Uinhop*. t)icre can he 
no official aollonofkBiihop secure I'romtfucli 
revUlon. And if all the offlcinl acu of h 
Bishop are ]iahl« t" roriilnn and i^rroction 
by hifl brethren, thent are iiiii uiferinr officers 
or organiHH lions in theCfaurth wbo c«s bare 
the face toclaiiu eienipllon. 

The good exarople >el by lllSnuU will, in 
course ia to bo hoped, b«> followed 
la otber Iftatei of tbe D&i<jn, i>nly with ttn 
iraperfcctioni remedlod, <[> a« lo bring it 
into elijser a^reempnt with the enfimple of 
the pritnitivu Cburvh, and with the tcqtiiio- 
ments of justioe and contnion lenie. The 
tru« idea 9t tbe Spiaoopute is, not tbat enob 
Bishop may bo an irresponsiblo dcapot witbi n 
hi* uwti lerrltoriut limits, liable to no cnr- 
ration until hu i< bad enough to bodopa»cd, 
but ihiit tbe entire order i* One (iSpueo- 
fuitut ett tiNtM),in (ucb wisetbnttbere it no 
official not of any Binbop which may not be 
>tihrnitt<-d to the revision of bb brotbren. 
The itrcngth of the vkoU ord«r will thin 
rwt in fRch act: while, on tbo otlivr plnn, 
Ibe uuihurity of tbe entire order will suffer 
fVom any Dianifeatation of urhltrsry cnpric 
or infirmitr on tbe part of any individual 
Bishop. Nothing short of tbo true svilem 
will realize St. Cypriiin't de^cripthm of the 
One Episcopate,— •" cir^Hii a nnguiiit ix noi.i- 
DUll para tettefwr." 

K«T. J. H. H'lrKlNit. P.D. 

Arcbbtabop. It at first lU'ibubly meant 
what it now signiQos, — Bittiopt iicrr jirnT. 
incM, but ttirrawdroa under MMropflimm 
or Ffttrinrobs. About the time of the (.'otm- 
cil of Cbaloi'diin, howoTi-r, it came lo mean 
tbe PaLriiirchs tbcmielTiis. Hut liilpr a^ain 
It fell baclf to iu original uBi>, i.e.,tbe Bishop 
over other Bishop* in a Province. Tbe co- 
equality uf »plritual power of hia sulTraaaiis, 
and the superiority poeltion for the diaei- 
pline of tbr t)h iircb in tbe Arcbbishnp, were 
both strenuouMy set forth. The Arc.h- 
blibope of the Wntera Cburcb for centu- 

ries were iadopcndcnii but about S14 a.i>. 
ibo Popes b^an giving tbe pall (ruf« 
T^VL), and from that in about two hundred 
and fifty years siiccecdi^d in enforcing that 
tbo tfin of the pall wa6 Imperative, and that 
tbe Arohbishop should swear fealty to the 
Pope on receiving it. This was thrown off 
by the An^iiirHn Cummunion. In the 
English ComniitEiion there arc four Arcb- 
bSsnvps, — CuiilurUiiry, York, Armagh, and 
Dublin. In ihe Anierloan Ohurcb tbe pre- 
siding Bisbop, who is Ihn eldest oonaBci^ted 
Bishop, has many Archepi&copal AjDoUont 
to perform. Tbrmigh him munt bo mada 
all nffifial cammuriicatious from foreign 
Churches. He presides in tbo tlouse of 
Bishops, or convcnos it for special ineetingt; 
either eonsecrales In pereon of appoints oon- 
seiTalurt for a Bi^hop-eleot ; appoints the 
council of live Rishotu lo settle dilferencn 
between a parish and the Diocesan ; receives 
the resignation of a Bishop and communi- 
cstei it ici cnj^h of tbu Binliop.H laving jurii- 
diciioii in tbe Church, and upon their advice 
accepts or refuses such resignation; and 
receives charges against, and arrangca for 
the trial of, an aecusud Bishop, 

Archdeacon. The Arcbdeacnn was arir> 
inally the presiding Dencnn over the body 
of Deacons, cither in a city or a Deanery, or 
K DiovM*. I^lrir, in the ninth rentur^, 
tbe Arclidcsuion was In priests' orders. His 
functioas were to loolt after the flnancca 
of tbe Church and tbe distribution of ftinds 
to the poor. Ue eiorcisod a discipline 
over the Deaconf and Presbyters under him 
in the Btibnp'i behalf, nnrf he had a care 
over th<! pnijicrty of the Cburcb. He was 
the Biahop'B buainc^ man, so to speak. In 
lb« Xatt. wb^in a Sou was vacant, be was 
one of the guardians of Ila rights and ita 
properly. Tbo Diocose usually bad severs) 
Arthdeocoiu. In ibo English Cburcb the 
Arehdeacon locks after the condition of tbe 
c'hiiroh and of the parsonage, and b the 

frupcr pnrson lo iirdcr or lo permit repairs- 
t 15 there an office of great weight, since 
the Arrhdi'nt'on buldi a court, at whiob 
[dJM of diu'Epliiieof tbe laity are presented. 
Th^ Hirbtn of the office vary mnch in Ibe 
several IJiocnuw. but usually tbe Archdea- 
oon vlvlta for the Binbop tbe clergy, in- 
speotJi the properly, induet* parsons, raoeivca 
tD9 presentment* of the Cburvb> wardens, 
and iKflds a minor court. 

Th« an* ha* been revived in two of the 
Di(icr>.ei of lb" Ammrlcan Chureb,— .Albany 
and Cuniieellcut, hut the office is probably 
idcntiiiil with tholillo Ocan of foTivocaUoB. 
Archimandrite. (C/r. tbo leader of the 
fold.) Tbe title of tbo ruler or^r several 
mona*teriei>. \lAitv* not nrceamirily imply 
that the A rehi mandril* had several 'monas- 
teries under him, but this was usually (ba 
casif. Tiie Hegumen was tbe chief over a 
single monRstery, and eon'eqiienily when 
soreml monasteries were unilor one rule he 
wa* suhject to the Arcbimnndrite. The 
ArobiintiDdrite was, of coune, under tbe 




MiitborUj of iht Bubop. Il wii> u litlp wliirh 
■OQB «mm« into om «ftor mpniilia bodi«« 
obCKinad *ome fiobeaion and tired bf aoiDe 
Mfcaowledgod rule. 

K Arcfaitectuie, Church. /V-r/o/ofy,— Un- 
pr ibii heiad no endvavor will b« mnda to 
Riqairv into the nnturo nnd strucLurp of 
thn placH of wonkip of tlii- t«rly C!iri»- 
li»as, theii dcvelopnicni frum I1l<- ii[i))cr 
room of thadnys of the Apostlet, through tbe 
iniorwaiog oentiiriM, to tb4 nugniLlcont 
utructur** of tho Middlu Ae<!4, cuutJuulii^ 
SlicDC* to our uwn tloin. Tim a turBorj 
(EflkncA cao b«^ven to the hUlury lal' [liix 
RUbJ«ct In the limited ipiK-o hcr« Ah'')tU''d, ttic 
I^Mt of ihU •rlicti; b«inK ni»lnlf to sliow 
wbrnt at*.y lie done In the wny of improving 
the ftrrliitvriiim «nd ftrr»ng«mcnl of '>ur 

E«ri«h rb^r^^hea, adAptinj; tbcnt nf<t only to 
b* KHitt* 'if tb« coD^regBtion , bui mnkin;; 
^b«a moro houaa* of Qot>, ni'finnnifintx nnd 
^fferiogs of ■ graieful nroplo to the great 
^ni anjMfl Okkatoi of «11 ihtni^. 

£i»Wy ifi*(»ry. — What liltlt! it known of 

«lw pU««( of wortbip of iliD wriy Cliri*tiKnt 

)B found in the iMlntlic vrrltlngaandamoujg; 

Lb* vritingB of the rnrly Chrittfan hitlon- 

•M|Wbil« muctt iarnnuniion iit aUo obtain 

abUfroQi the early h«nihcn writers of the 

a{b In ib« purlJMt (iniw, doubUet*, tliore 

mao fixed iHlfSoe*. vamriosa b«ing b«id in 

liwkaiMi of ChrUtiand, sumeliwea, as wn 

■**ih tba Scriptures, in un upper room, 

*• vbni Paul wiu Kttippin^ ul Tnnu ; 

'MJmd Ibe f rat day of tb<» we-k, when lie 

I oMfliacftnft tofctber to bn'ak bread (that 

■ K<0(*Mirat« tbeKucbariil),rauIprcacbod 

■ ■lot^m, ntadj to At^mn on tho morrow, 
M Md tontinued bla ipaccb unill tnidnlghl. 
B ^ U)«ra were many light* in the upper 
^ ranbtr, where thay van- gatbcrod togolhvr. 

•™"l)Hn Mt in a window a certain young 

Ma BMaad Etitj-cliuB, boinji fallen into a 

•ip»l«ea, and an Paul wan lufiK preaching, 

I ■••ttkiown witliiliw[>and fell 'JIuwn frt>m 

K B>tb|rdl(,naad wa« Uken updoad." 

■ pail ili« moat particular d('«cription of 

■ t*^ *•' wortbip thai wb find in iho 

■ ^HBrw. It will b« noticed that tliii ii 
^ *><>M(r riMjm, M WM« aUo tbat in which 

•W 81T1017B celebrated the Last Supper. 
^'W 'wa-of-lhc-way jilacos vete douhtlms 
*'*Mtd bncaiuit in thoao early day* it waji 
** *>(k ai a iiian'B life wa« worth to pro- 
K ™* h'Bweif a OhrUUan. In Rome we 

■ fan womhlping in tho houtdt of 
^■Aj^'i I ii| Id anderEroundehapeh, 
^^H.''' ^'> wbar« (Bey were loa»L 
^■B' -t*d. 

^< riiel pcrKcullons to whiob 

■•'■ lUns wMfl ■objwted, both 

™*r tliQ ivraiil W»tro, ft4 a,d,, and then 
•*«» Uio liunian Emperor Damitiait, Hi 
**■. aunt ha*e heH that there wore no 
•Wurt Ml upari for thu worihlp of Goi>. 
'tSL fiul »ayi, " Uare ye not houaui to 
■•'•fii Jrink in? or deaplw y« the Churefa 
■f Seal" Now It )» abowB that the an- 
onUritan, Su Auitln, St. Baill, St.Cbrya- 

osiom, and St, Jerome, took this to mean the 
placa fct kpnrt for Chriitian vorahip, and 
out the uM«mb1]r of paoplei Then wa 
linow that the dliciplei oftein met U^eiber 
fuT prayer and warship after the death of 
our oAFiovx. 

In the secund century, when the perewu- 
tloni were t^iill actire s^init tho Uhn*lian« 
and it Urcnnic nccrisnry Tor thi^m to hand 
togeLbcr, I^nntiua writts to exhort tbom to 
meet lcR<Mtic-r in one place, and ib hii; Epis- 
tle to tliu I'liiladi-lphiiing tayt that at tht* 
timo tJn-TB wa> line allnr in e?efY church, 
and onQ ApohloUc Bishop, or neiul, ap- 
pointed with hii Protbytcry and Dcuconi. 
Sums of the litter Greek reudiiiga omit the 
word Chureb, but speak of tb« one altar, ihut 
■bowing thnt there wa* a ttatol plecn "f wor- 
ship. Tlien hUt>'>ry telli ui of people tuminc 
their bouses over to the Church iu which to 
calabralelhedivine offloes of womhip. We 
have recvrd uf forty churcliea In Uuuie at 
the date of the last jiertccutioo, and there 
w«ro many in Africa. 

Ai early m the middle of the third century 
Gregory of Seo CtoBarea write* (iw.riting 
the degree* of admluiun of pcuitcnUi, ac- 
cording to tbo dinciplino uf thoao dayi : 

iHl. tt'Kpem (the first dogroe of pennnoe)' 
wero without the poroh oflbe oratory. Thor* 
the muurnf\il ninnern itood and bt-gged of 
all the faitliful, aa they went In, to pray for 

2d. ^«rr«>'*[thoaeognddegrc«] wurewith- 
in tho porch. In the place catlud Naribox, 
wber« tfaepenlLenl tinner* might stand near 
the catechumeniand bc«r the Scripture read 
and e)i)>ouiidvd, hut wer« lo go out before 

3d. Pr<»tintHU»,^mty doton aUmg U« 
ckiiraft-pavummt. Tlicto proatratc ones 
worn ftontlttod lomcwhat farther into the 
churcli and wunt out with the wtwhu- 

411). Stantea, — ttayinff unlA the p^'/iU cr 
ean^rtgaliin. Tho» t<m$iilfnles did not 
go out with ihu catQehumonH , but aft^r thc^ 
and the otbor penitents had letX reinainod. 
nod joined in pruycr with the faithful. 

&. f'artie.ipatart in the SaeratntnU. 

About ibv heginning of tlio fourth cen- 
tury Conitantine ascended tlw throne, and 
hw^omiiij; folly convinced of the truth of 
the Christian religion, set about f«taMlHh- 
ing it throughout hti dominioo*, orectinfc 
cburohe* everywhere. For somo time before 
bit reitto, and oveo Inlo It for iwenty-fltw 
years, heathen lenipios were used to mma 
CXtf^nt for Cbrlallftn wonbip, how much has 
never been determined. At ihl^ time, how- 
ever (itSi A.D, i, Constantine ordered all iJi« 
temples, altar*, and itnagcsof lliu heathen 
to bo dostroyeil, and in many instances Ihoso 
tcmplas were denoiiihad and th^jir rorcnuta 
cotilUeutvd. Sonio of the Inter emperors, 
however, Instead of pulling down the tem- 
ples, courened lliem to Christian uins. 
Ilonorius puhlishcd in the Wa^ti-ro Kmplro 
two laws forbidding the deelruoiion of anr 




more lemp^M in the cIUm, u tb«v might 
■erre for ornamtm or [lubHa use, 'hoing onco 
pUTK^dortliGiridoUsnd Hlttin. Ther?can be 
no dnubt ot the ntitipalhy of ttii: Cliriilinns 
to tbe Ace aru, because defiled by Idul&trouB 
UMS. and tliBttiioy diMtroyod crt^rv thing that 
vn» bMUtiTtil ihal cnmi) in thi-ir uny. Xot- 
witliRUndiDg the Uler IntpeHul decreet fur 
tbe picMrvntion of lbi> ncathen temple*, 
nothing could inducR tho people to toltnto 
tbetn or tbeir ccnienU, nnd it wu only jn u 
few oiit-of-lhe.wiiy placw, m «t I*alutlii«, 
tbuy wrromlldweil lororniiin. At Konic the 
only examp]iR ibat ovet itt preiervaflon din- 
tinclivuljr to Ihu C)ir1i>Uun> i« the Pnnlbeoo. 
Tlivy dpatrajTHl eT(^rylbirig llinl Ihay puuld 
laj their hondi un,tli<! mure lieaiiliful ihn 
qotckeit doitroyed, it mattcrod nnt so Iim^; 
M It uvurvd of tint rtt«t of tbu hvKtIion 
Ohurob. They worked, even lu In later 
time* the I'liritHni wnrked in England; 
whulcriir wu bewitifiil, whntcvcr plesucd 
the eye, if It belonired to the enrlier religion, 
tntut give way to tti* new. 

We know ttiat the Emperor Conxtantinv 
gAve orders, artcr a \<yn^ venrch Ly thu Ein- 
praw Helena, which rosulLed in finding the 
. Holy Sepulchre, tbat nchurcli 1)0 cr<^tcd over 
Ita rite. Tbe pUoe bad beeD deBoerulcKl by 
thsMgan*; IhoT oven bad erected n alutue 
of Venua over tlio pUoe, and dodicntcd tbe 
■pot to the heathen goddecs. ConataslinQ 
cvdvrs how t)i<> church tbsll ht built, nf 
irliat form, of what matdrJuii. and kU forth 
U to the (loi'^irntiiiii, etc. All in a motl 
elaliurnte iiiftnin*r. Thrre is CTcn a plan uf 
till* HuIt Sopulchro Church handed down 
hy tbn Aubui Adumnan of Tonu on hin tub- 
lets, u he took it dovn from the deicrlpllnn 
of ArculphoB, ft Gallican Bishop, who huti 
viiited the Ea*t. It wu of " wondorrul ro- 
tundity," eDti>red by fnur doors; It con- 
tBined' three eiilei, and wa* surrounded by 
twrlvc column*; hanging in it were twi-Ivc 
tamiKi, hurnln;: d&y uid night, emblems of 
the iwolve Apottlw. 

Although thu Church uf the Ro1y Sepiil> 
chre wai eyidently round, it had other p»rt« 
attached, and there is little eTideocfi or thU 
form h^in^emplovcd eUcwhor* to any great 
ortent, tlie u^ual 'onn boins ib&t of a paral- 
lelogram Hnptittenci, however, wore goii- 
eTalTy built either round nr polygona-l. It 
U evident that ibc cburahoe, orwliat«ver 
form, had other buildings attaobed, both fur 
secular and re1ii{ioui purpoiei, — tuch as 1i- 
brarioi. ht-uies fur the clergy, schools, etc., 
much the lamo as in the lat«r cathodrala 
and in miiny of the niiMion churches of to- 
day In London, and occasionally in Amer- 
ica. The enlrnncra was at tbe west end, the 
church being placed eaat and vrcAt, with 
the altar at tiie eut. Ther* arc exceptions 
to this cu'lom ; no mono, however, than to 
prove thp rule, the habit living to face to 
tlia cast, *o In this way it became oalunil to 
orientate the churches. Entorini; tb« wc»^ 
era door, and pai«lBg through tbe porcb, a 
targe op«n court was reached, surrounded 

by a colonnude. In the centre, this court 
contnintd a fouuisln^ uaed to wiuh the 
bunds and facv, sometimes the feet. This., 
perhaps, is the origin uf the custom now 
10 vocue in Ramao churches, though per- 
v4<rtod, of having a stoup of holy wator at 
(lie dour. Thit open cuurt, or atrium, Wat 
used for peiiileius uf llje first order, thca* 
who wcro nut allowed to cuter ihu church ; 
later it was uied a* a plac« cf buri&l, par- 
ticularly Cor iba wealthy and those vf dii- 
linction. Pasting ihrough this quadrangle 
Ihi- nurthct nan rcachwi. Kiitranco to tLi» 
was had through threa gntot, the central 
uiuiillv thu larger. There were, wmetlmee, 
■everul imrlln-xiin to a church, evt-n u nianr 
OS four. Tbe nurthex formed the first di- 
vision of tho church, and contained the cate- 
uhumeiiB and thu bourvrs. Jnws, infidela, 
and heretics were admitted here. lu fKnt 
calm' the third clasa of penitents. 

The narthnx was separated from the na*a 
or church proper by a wooden aorecot or 
riiiling. The nave was entered tbroiisb 
sevL'Du gates, often called rnywl or beftiitiial 
k'ulee. Here were congregated the ainia 
body of worshipCTS, Ibooe in full com- 
munion and uttdcT no censure. 

Tho sexei were utuully separated during 
»rrviro, a prsclico that Is yet in use id aam* 
of tber modern rituntiKlic Churches. £l. 
Cjril sayi, "■ |^(,t ,„(,„ },q ^.h]^ ,j,,,q ^qj 

woman with women in the churfh." Then 
in the AjHisluliril conktilutioni, " Lot tb> 
door-keeriers tiand at tlie gate of tha 
men, and tbe di'ai^uncue^ at thu t;ate of the 
women," The women were usually placed 
on the north side of tho church. Th* 
Greeks now put ihijm En the gallerla*. 

Not only was thi; order obaervtid, bat tha 
virgins, matrons, and widows wore given dk- 
tinot pinees; then came the order of panJ* 
tent* not nllowed to partake of the Holy 
EuchnrisL, but permitted to stay in tha 
church nnd witness tha celebration. £au 
of the nave eame the choir, the place for 
the siugbfs. This wa« separated irom tfa« 
former by a screen or low wall. Here waa 
placed the amho, or pulpit, from which the 
gospel and epistle were reitd. Tbe sermon, aa 
a rule, was preached by tbe Bishop from the 
altar-slepa, although St. Cbryaoatom, the 
ticUrr to be hcurd of tlio people, preached 
ttom the smho. 

Extending from the choir oastward, was 
the sanctuary, cor r«i] Minding to tho buly of 
holies of Jews. Tho Lulios called it the aa* 
crarium. Ucrc wvrecclcbiatcd the Church^ 
niott sacred olSves. The sucrariutn Ww al- 
ways elevated above ibeohoir, and waaofien 
soparatvd from it by a rail or law screen called 
cAiicelll, bence tbe word chancel. This wa> 
to keep out the multitude. The Council of 
Laodii^va forbaile Iny jKirxona rnioHng the 
sanctuary, wbile tht> Cuundl of Tnillo says, 
" That no layman whatsoever bo perniitLed lo 
eater tbe piacD of the altar, excepting only 
the Emjerur, when be makes his oblatloQ to 
the Ckkatob, according toanoiont custom." 




Tha lacrarium wu luually Mmicircular 

id )ilan. In th« centre wu jtlocod Ihi; alUr, 

nietd on *ev<-tal *t«p«, ftnd *urmDunt«d by & 

C&nopr iupi>ort«d br twelve colutnns, sjm- 

buUcnl or iLe twelve ApMtlm>. On Lh» top 

of tb» cannpy wms K crou, while beliind Uiu 

•itar wui tli« Rinhnji'iiehftir rniiMl siicl ttta'in^ 

■Ml, Around llie firtiimferonco of tho 

Ipse were iilK«d the ttnU fur Uie prioatt. 

llin vftrly altars were uf wood, but iLia me- 

lirial wa* nut ueed long, u it eridcot from 

lie decree of ibe Couocil of Eponc, tlmt no 

I ili&re f bould b« connccratcd except lucb hi 

J< of >iun«. OtfgoTj N^ssea My*, " ThU 

(•llnr whereitt we «tand u by nature only 

• Rinion irtonc, nothing different from other 

•jO**, wbertof our wuIIb art! made and 

iv«Tn«nU formed ; but uftcr II U coni.ii- 

lt«d, Uld dncltrali-d to tha turviceri of OOD, 

beoumtv ■ holy tabic, ua imuiaculnte altar, 

irliicli may iiut pri'tnisetloiuljr be toiictied br 

)1, but only by tbc priMta In tbe time of 

Ivine (urvk'e. " All of wlilch ijve* to show 

ie lacred feeling for tbe cburch, and ope- 

iU nvore ucred altar, held cvin in the 

|^««rly day* of the Church. The epfroes 

ma the columna of the canopy to the 

()Ur were hung with curiaini or rcilii to 

gunnml tho altar. St. Cliryioslum skvi, 

•■ ynxa yoa we the veilf undruwu, then 

Ibbik you aw bMTm openod. snJ tlic angoli 

AwMeding from abote." Hangingt were 

placet in other peru of tlie ohuroo,(oine- 

tisM richly worked In gold. Tlicv were 

nlMd between nave and cfiftnoel, ana before 

mn. ate. The alUr wu covered with « 

Bmb oteih, emblem of purity. The sacred 

*Mib««r«of variou« sub*tanc», uiunlly cf 

flB ud nlrer, yet glnas waa ui«d in the 

Mflv lime* for cbiliceR. 

OAn b«aide the altar in n n-Muu on on« 
<Ul «» a ihalf to contain ihe uffttriligil of 
^md and wine. On the opposite «ide frum 
i"" ewthe prieii'i Tc*try. 
Votiide the mum body of the cburcb, and 
*^niaA outer incIiMure, were the various 
■"•MlBp oonncetod with the church, luch 
*• tht UpUkt^rr, whir.h in thtmn duyi wiia 
*'**]'■ a Bepurate structure, tbe library, 
prinh' bou»M, die. 

^lu Iturior* uf tbeae churohei of tho 
^'T Ciriitiani wore, according to the 
*"'*n<)f the lime, quite elaborately deco* 
'»l«i The walli were often lined with 
■■ttUr. while the roufa were of mokati; or 

K I'm, and covered with gotd nnd colur. 
«Ilen wcri! inlaid with prcciou« *tunv» 
*** pM aod lilver, while Kate« wen set 
*llkNlvDr and ivory, and ooIumnK were of 
nnWrblei with ca'pitnU uf bright gold. 

>> W been thuu^hl by M>me that thv 
'^'^ Roman batilica, the lest of public 
Jindcaa^ Ihe time, «ugge«ted the forni and 
■pitttoient uf the ChrUtian churt-h. 
J^WW true tbia moy be, Ihi-y crrtumly 
™**«lau rctemblanoe, and tbore are num- 
■"■ laiiaiwee of bwilicw bningconi'erted 
wrfwrehea. ThU plan of Trajaii't Baail- 
'''viU ihow bow fiir the baatlicn was Iml^ 

tat^d in tbe arraneemcnt of tbe ChrintUo 
church (Fig. 1). The bmilica was of tha 
Ehape of a parallclop>atn, with a lemioireu- 
lar apue Ht one— inmctinim at oilkor — gad. 

Tin. 1 

I ■ a 

■ ■ 

■ m 

Tntjui'i Burillu or JiwUoe Ball, Kou*, n >J». 

la tbe centre of tbe apse was the ical of th» 
prator, and below and about him ihrnt* of 
the aucaitin nnd olh«r officer*. Thfue were 
aeparaled fr-icu the uiala body of the build- 
ing by tt scrciia of lattice. work called can- 
colli. In the main body aat ths p«opls, 
while loLwvvn tbom and tho higher ottci-ra 
of Uie cuurt >ut the advocatea and uoutriea. 
The main building was divided by tworowa 
of cvluinni inti) three ai»l'i^. These coluntnc 
lupported an arcade carryitiR a wall c»n- 
taining wind'iw*, fiirming a clMr-itory, Lh« 
oidn aiiili-a bdng lower. A bellur arrange* 
ment could not have been deriiAd for a 
Chriitian church, and It ii the form, with 
tlight mudifli^uiiont, that js In use lo tbti 
day throughout Wtalom ChriilondoiiL 
UowoTor well adapted these heathen baaillcs , 
were to tho eiigenole* of Christian worship, 
they did not oontlnae lonif ia use. Ther* 
It only one example remaining to ui of a 
heathen baxilica converted to a Cbristiaa 
church. A veneration for tbe graves of tha 
martyrs and a distaite for ediOcM con 
kUuRted for pagan tu«a caused, under ChHif 
liau rule, the demolition uf thoM ancient 
«tructurtis and their re-oroctioa In other 
places made sacred by contalstnr tbe ro- 
maini of the mariyrt. Here iTiey wore 
built again on mnch the same plan and on a 
vhL grander scale. The mart^ were uau- 
ally put to death ouuide tbe city waits, aad 
were suppood to be buried on the spot of 
tlii'ir execution, so that when tbe churebea 
-unto Lo be erected on theae spots tbey were 
very inconvenient of ace«M| bein|E m Car 
from the oentro of population. 

A custom had urown up of worshiping 
uad«rgroiind in the cataeombs among tha 




gnivps of Ibn iDBTtyrt, niid this ciutom un- 
Soubf^ly WM tlio roMon, when Chrwtinn- 
ity bccditie Isgaliwd bf Coasu&lia«, of th^ 
cbunhTC being tot up in tho «Bitm [ilocM, m^ 
inMunccd in Bnmo \iy Hnnta Agnese Knd 
Bha Lunmeo, knd nUo at 8t. Pi-ler'e, wliicli 
Coniuntine bftd plMfid nttir to the Circuaor 
Hqto, «nd wboH iilur vu ivt over ibo rc- 
nuJni of the Anoitlei. Tbb ciutum uf pluc. 
ill)* ih-Q churcViet without the city wbIU 
riiii*>.-dKr«atinci^riri'niODCeiitnd wmii tnatlcr 
of mucb momotit is later ttmes, whtn th^ 
Inmrsliiiu uf ncnliorii borbariaits prevuiiteil 
an Attendunc* ii|k>ii Uia (.-hiin.'hivi and Sonlly 
CJiuttxl their deiw^riilMni and, in mvtny Jn- 
Manoa, entire demolition. 

'I'liu Bwilica of Si. Pi.'t*r, bowevor, c^n- 
luiiK'd oariain addition! and variHtitina frnrii 
(he c)tU baallico. (Fig. 3.) Itcunutitedof a 

rut I 





^Kt ft 

VIE \ 



^m\ t 










w ■ 












rUa of uickni DuIUiaof Si. Puior, RongtRSO i.t. 

llTD<^i>l«d chuTub, «xt«udinf; MUt and waat. 
At the Pud of tli» Btc ai«lea wttt an fti^lo 
running north and louth ; mut <>f thii cama 
the apce, £Wtng tbe nUn tb« form of a cr*>M. 
Thora wer« forty-eijin l coliiniiis of prGci<">ii« 
marbliM indoaSng Uie Iari;« hihIi^, und th» 
lateral aUiea oontaincd furty i'i|cl>t rolvimni 
lilicwise. There wore an btindred othorcol- 
unitii iiurriviiiidiiiK tlio varimi* cbapiilK arid 
thriniM. The waTl* wiTeiMivred with [lalnt- 
inKS nf rcUgioua £ub)ect«. T)i« flat wooden 
cuFliD^ ytM cororca with Kill m^tul and, 
Corinthian brau taken from tlip t«mplo« of 
RomuluaaDd Jupiter Capltoliriua. In tbla 
magniflrrnl iirucluro wai ofia candHabran 
thai alono conuinfid 1?B0 llghu Beild« 
tblt there were mere than a iboUMUid other 
liglit«. All thii inagoiac'-nvs in lue* than 
threo cenliiriM aflur tlia death of CHXiKxr 
Thit Btruclure wiih»U)od the varied furtunei 
of Konvo for twelvit hacdred year*, beinc tt- 
■pvctod hv all iu Invadcn, Anally faillniu; 
awav wltn aee. On lu alte row aaoihvr 
batilk*, grander and more iKautiful *till, 

that glory fif tni»dorii limf*. When tbe Mat 
of iho Ronrian Empire •not tf^movcd to By- 
nuitium, Conslantine act about eroctin^ a 
grand thuruh lUcre, prabably modeled on 
81. Peter's. This did not laKt long, Anothw 
wa« built on its aite and |iartial1y dMtioyml, 
rebuilt and destroyed a^>iin, meetio^ with 
many dha«i«T( in tbo mean time. Finally, 
Ibe mosl fnmoui archEtrcu w(!r« cnlltMl frocn 
all jinrt-i of the known world by Juiltnlan, 
and the er(«ttoti U'^nn of thu gnat Church 
of St. Sopbiti. Tbi« church, unlikn thuK; 
of Rocnti, farmed a Greek cniu In jilan, each 
arm bniiif^iiliko, whilf ihe WMterDL-hurch** 
bad a LtiLiii crirvi for a plan. Ai the inter- 
icclioD of the arms of ibc crose rose » great 
(lunin of prKruliur coii^trU'cUon. iJiirio); tlie 
revival uf It-urning, ooiiimiinication was 
ealabliabed l)«twe«n Uiei-c* and It^ly. and 
this liut and most magnidccnt biuiiica of 
the Eii>t«rn £Ripirs grcdlly influencMl the 
form uiid urvhlteclure of tbe new buildinas. 
'I'hf t'huTi-h uf St, Uark. at Venice, of Oie 
Irnth rrntiirv, whs copied in miiny partic- 
ulars frum nc. Sophia, and ibii mfluunce 
extended throughout Italy, The modern 
(vliiirch i)f Kt. Ti'tpr at Hoiiiv owes muoh to 
this iiiipoclutiun uf llic domu front the EuL 
Ab did ibe ancient Builica of St. Pottf^ 
ftiriilK)) thv form for tbe uncie&l St. Sophia, 
so did the Inter Si. S'i|'b!it ttipply muvh that 
inSuLinced the niodern Si. Peter'a. 

Some writeri hare hr^ld that Con»lanLine 
removed tii« icai of cinplra froio ftomeio 
the Y.t>ii to have more frMdotn in thoHtfUb- 
li'hmoiit of his n<fW religion, to throw off oil 
th« irniiimeUof an i-arlier painalam, toatort 
anew uiid froh. Onn of his first objerti, of 
cotirie, vfat lh« erection of i^borcaca, and 
having no pxample anywhere about, tba 
ari-hilHuU wire left In tln'ir own rrsourcoa 
The\ UMilouhtudly drew »oiin- frum Kmne,-^ 
the idea of the round arch, ntaylre, and a 
purtiul uH-ofih« buMiljca plan. Tho Ewl- 
ern urthiu-cmrw developed frucw tbaaw 
elTorta, however, ii a diilincl style of ila own 
and 6«*bntiAl1y aCbrUtian arcbit««tur«i noU 
whhatandinf; iu early Jtomun Influonce. It 
|;r<>w out of ihe esif;enclei of the time, hav- 
ing nn coniHi't with the earliAr pngan ttyW, 
and Mitciid uver ibe enliro F.iuicrn Kmpir*. 
This If the llyle^cnerollr known as Byson* 
tine- Iu plan u usually tba fhap« of a 
Greek uroaa, thu oulorn end terDilnaling in 
a seniicircular apio: a plan that [ni]i;hl b> 
efTectunlly uied in the pr<-«rnt day, and of 
whloh more will be »nid further on. 

Many iay tfant this work nl Byzantium 
was but a debacement of tbe Homanesoue, 
tfelf debased from Lho Rnmun and lh« oia*- 

It may have been lo ; allow it so, and yn 
still wv bavo Riuob t» iidmira ; pi-rhap« more 
In tbe uiililles, than in the b«autlM, of thft 
style, a etilu which spread thrtMighout the 
£a»t, and in th<: fltUi and sixth centurifft 
even to North Italy, wher«, at Kavi-nna, 
are it'Veral types. Thne, and the n)U(.-b 
tntvr cxamplca at Venice, made mention of 





*buT«, an thi> purett t/Mof the iljla in tb« 
WmL The l^inbitrf)!, noircrpr, w«r«great- 
1r influence) is tb«ir building by B^Sftii- 
uum ; and through ibo Cnuli> with' ths Emt 
(hi* Btvie cr«pl into Franctt, wliure ■ whnU 
iBns <u unmiMakibly Bysnntino ohar^-iics 
«r«tch uruit thv icuthwontern curn«r of 
the coantr^. lu oomluiive, iha Rumiin- 
tK|ue, abounds throuijhoiit Suuihoru and 
CenUsI FtMtct, ninnini; into Normandy 
ud KaeUnd, wh«r«]t it r«pn4cnt«d by what 
b c*ll40 th« Hormwi style. 
BoUi tba Konianvftquo and By3antin« are 
■Uhable by Ibe niund ari'li,thn1iitt«r 
lb* dome. To show tlie jiotency of 
a«ac« ot tbo dome, menliiilly » By- 
Uotiae production, we li&vv only U* b« r»- 
tdnded of thn name given to the i-aibedral, 
R«n ta our diiy. in many European cuun- 
trie*. In Germany wa hurt Uio item, in 
Italy tb« Duomo, and, although n<>w 11>o 
tonua aro Indiicritninatoly applied lu the 
ffiacl(«l church »f a ciiv, Uicy came irom 

flhe habit of ibii cbar«n being; domical. 
Buontttg from iuly norlh. and down 
(hrouxh the Rhino town*, i* n linaof round- 
^hea domiail chorche», evidently owinf; 
Ortir inipirittion to the Bast, where Ltiu By- 
gaaUite niaiataln«d lU sway until the tupr'c- 
W^y "f tho Oltomaitfc aummarily cli<iOK«d 
It* Mfthor iprimd. 

TU oIh*r cMcntiallv Chrittiitn etylo i* 
ihM n* uiullv deni>miniitcd G'llhic. It 
lUTbe Mid to nave spruni; up Bimultaao- 
«aU]rlliruufi;lKiut Euro]>c, whilii ii U oprinJD 
UsmooAa nation can claim iiny priority t.f 
iaVodoctioo. lu main obar*cteri«lic, a* 
M*g*Q«nilly unduntiood, ii the pointed 
«d, ahliou^h many writer* have held 
au Ibe l«rm Oothto included all Ktyln* in 
w ifttrlbe dcbaMmrni of Itaoclai^ici ani] 
I^^dbiecf Roman architoclurv. indutlitii; 
Iw I^aberdic, Romnnciquc, Byzantine, 

Bwib* word ha* now.ganemlly, come \o 
^'^tfini Uttho pointMl nrchor thr Mid- 

j r!j^ ""^ ^B K^d^'o' ">o tbrouKbout 

^L "WNdom. To tw *iir*, tlinra it Lh^o Sara- 

^M ^l*^! iIm puinted, but tlitu itylo i« easily 

■ "wngnWied from the Oolbic. There arc 
H ^l^lWoriat M to the origin of tho pointed 
P^ ''^]r«,tkediver^uc«oropiaioii bcingfo 

P^^iiWeely any two writers acreeInK on 
'*l At theory, it will be sufficient here 
"•JwiWcc a few of thi; thcoriw ptit forth, 
•"< • f^orit« one la thjit of the form pro- 
■■•"1 by the ovorhanging bouchB of an 
'^"••of iMwa. Then vm harn int«rlacf>d 
^_ ntkar.vurk, and the bandinj; "f two Iwip* 
^B " "*adlk> RiMl at tho top. Still more plna»- 

■ '** b ibat of the InKTi^ctwl croin of tho 
^m niii^t (.f 9«rly «hurchc&, which funnod a 
^1 Hatniuch, while tbo round arch wmi ob- 

?7*Wi*l«wbftro throuebouttbeatruetiiri!. 
''^cariain, also, that the aoclenta knew of 
"■ihape, a* la *opn in vimeof ibeir under- 
P'tti paaia^iia and tomb*, ynt thar had 
■• vrived at the correct method of eon* 
nnoMm of lb* annh. Atlhough tomo of 

th<-jic theorim might account for Ibe orifpn 
and growth of the pointed nrcb in n cortaln 
locality, yet they could not be held to favor 
its giinKral and rapid tntrodiiction into •■> 
many cunntriea at onca. 8iRiultai>««iulr, 
on the roturn, in the twelAh century, of tfio 
Cmudon from the Kul, thtt >tyl" bogan to 
app«ar, building tprlDvInK uprapidiv Ifi alt 
directioni. Thii Tact vT iu Kprlajruig up At 
luch H time, and so rapidly, haa led to the 
theory of lla d«rivittlr->n from the pointed 
8»rBoeDic arvti, iwd loine prejudiced writers 
hiivo, in their pfforu to prsveni it* tiM, 
cniled it the S.aracroir atrli!. Allnwinc th« 
fact of Ihe adoption «f the pointuil «ri^ «f 
the East, how arc wo to accovini for tho wide 
dlvergciiou In ihKdylcs? fur, allhotiffli Urn 
pointed an-h it a prlnripal charatteri»lto of 
the Uothic, it is not the only one. Thi-re are 
thereat idea of vcrtimlity ; tho c1u>t«rod 
columns, with their liichi and •lenderiballet 
llio loftv spirea and towers; the tracery; 
tho tniiltions ; tho crow vaulting;. 

Fortunately for thin t>arAocnia theory, It 
bM the adv&ntae^ of obronoloKical ct>rrMt< 
neat, white tho aimultnneity of the icrnwth 
of Ooiliic ]» the main objection m tho adotw 
tioD uf the other IhtoHfis. Some dorivo the 
uie of tracory from tho perforated frst-work 
of the Arabiuna. 

Theorizinoftbeterm OothiollMabroaded 
in IU min-nmyatrryBalhriiourconf thortylo. 
That Ihu Guthi bad nothing to do with the 
introduction of the ityle whkh bean their 
nnni(> in now gmerally acooptml, and the ui« 
of tbii puK^t* namo to desi|i;iiHte itn e>*i!ii- 
lially (/hrlsliun flrchitecturo haa annoyed 
and pazr.lcd many. Utbor namct have beon 
'uirgcstvd, such at Chri»lian, Foinied, Ea^ 
Iliu; hut nil of tltom arc ol>jeL-t!otiab!(i and 
mislead in l;. The Bynantine and Lninbardla 
are lut much outgrowths of Olirii^liiinity a« 
the Gothic, whilu there are other pointed 
■tylei- As for the last term, surely ICngland 
cannot lay claim to the architeotnmof Ihif 
Cbri.^tinn world. 

Many writer* uied the name Gothic n» 
unit uf rnproHfh, meaning iboreby to stigmn- 
tise thAnlrlb Hi harbarout. outlandish, and 
iiDcivili£(^d. The style bad its growth in, 
and belong* essentially to, those eountrle* 
that hud hueti overrun and inhabited by the 
Gotbs, and for this reason, pi?rhap«. It b as 
appropriate n« any. 

Tho Gothic with which we in America 
have bad most to do it that linown u Eng- 
lish, und thi( i« difidod into titmo distinct 
prtriod*, with tramitiuns frum one period to 
another, where the charaoler of the work is 
of nocoMity nmreor Ica* mixed. Thetetbroe 
poriodi nra dmignalcd Knrly English, Dec- 
orated, and Perpendlonlar. Thi» is confin- 
ing the doflnition of the term Gothic to 
PoinUid Gothic. Saxon and Normaa are 
often counted In aa heln;; Qolhic, sltliou^ta 
ronnd-archnd. The arob of the Early Bngliiih 
IS quite sharp, tho openings being narrow 
and htnh, a complete subversion of the pre- 
ceding low round-arched Norman, while the 




ohkncler of tho wgrk nu sinip1«r tbui in 
the ■ucx'eedtngtLylet, Ihuwkll-tpBcngTCKtar, 
ftnd there wu tittle farving at decuration. 
Tlio (locornttd wurk ii churactcrizcd l»y a 
eamewbiit flitllvr ttrcli *iiJ widur oiwniri)^, 
profoM c&rviiiga and orcaiueniatioiiii, luid, 
in ahurl, in iho tiylo in which (iothic reacbvd 
lU hGiithi ■>f grandeur and maeniliccDCffi. 
Tho Porpohdioular bat quit« JlJil^bead«<l 
apaningi, very broad, with mnnj- divistouR 
bj verticil 1 bun, tullnd iiiullii)ii«. In this 
iiylt the wiiiduwa uflvii ar« lurger lliuti llie 
«urri>uii(iJiiK wall-fpiico. It repreaenta tbe 
•iijcliiieij] Gviilil(.'iiri:liiL(K^turo, nntl Uchuriu;' 
torized by all kinda uf depravitiet, nrlUla 
miiL-h df it i« very bc&utifuL. 

MobL tft* the promiaeat catliodrali and 
churchra contain exaniples ot nil the dltTer- 
«nt it/lva, fnim ih« Norman at William 
the Uiiai|uerur Jovrii. SmnolimM odd part 
ii Nurman, aciutbcr Ei^rly Engli*)i, and »u 
ou. Affikin, one *v^i thodiTiiion oi stjleein 
the difler«Til ituridii, tliu lowar arcado bniiia 
fTormttii, iha blind-iturj-Enrly Bnf;liih, aiiH 
tli« claar-atory decorated, thiu ihowing 
when ibe dlSbrcnt |>aru wsru butlt or ro- 
builL It i* not wicnia ibe province of ibl« 
arliclatonj which u the proper ttyle Tor 
t<j-daj, Mcb having itiQWO merit*. Ncith- 
ingi hovoTer, cnn bo mom b«autiFiil ttinn an 
EnelEib pariih vhurcH built id the truopirU 
of Gothic work. And tbii EnglUb nnriih 
cburob ia whore ordinarily we nbciula louk 
Tor our inoclol ; not but what this n&tiun and 
ace may bu capubin of dovolopingailyle iff 
otjHroh arehii«iclure of Ita own, without re- 
vvrLing lo tlie Middle Aj;ea for enllghtea- 
infiat, yet it hu oo fur bc«n unabli^ to do lo. 
Kotoaly the church archiiccturo, but tbo 
whulit arcbitncturu of this country bat baen 
but a cuDlinuou* Hriini of tantatiTa axpori- 
monld in the endeavor to create an Ameriiuin 
■tyl«. Each arcbitoct audcburchcDmiaitlev 
baa atarttd out o& liii «r tti owu iudttpeadont 
Uiw, •ooictliiiai copying. In ao fiu* ai ih^r 
knowiedgo or ignorance allowed, the arohi- 
tootura M an carll«r age, sometimee reach- 
ioE out iDabllnd.eroiiln;, pitiable way for 
that which they were tinable to reach, yet 
tboughl tbny bad contummatod. 

Seeoiingly tbe more intelligent ■olutlon 
off tb« problem would be to adapt our 
ehui^M to the waata and n«od> of too peo- 
ple, keeping In raind tbu vurluliunn of cli- 
mate and tenip«ntm«, uot letting the utili- 
tarianiiai of tho age run away with us. 
Empluyinc the bcit talent, uiing tbe b»t 
matertuU, and buildini; in tbe most sub* 
■taotial, chiir<'bly, and beautiful mauner. 
With tbo tliouaands of cburchea built in 
tbit country tince tia foundation, there 
•taniU in tits city of Kow York, nt tbe head 
Ot Wall StrtKt,'a cburah erectod a balf- 
century ago, that, to thia day, ii the heat 
ciauipJe of a Lb u roughly -appointed, well- 
adapted, and beftutifal purUu church that 
we URTeL However coDveDlional It may be, 
however unorigiDa), howt-ver faulty in de- 
bul,daaigned acil wa* by a man who, when 

be llr«l caniotu ihic country fk-oni Fnpjland, 
work^il at a caipautar'a bench, it yet lUnda 
to rrn>in<l na of the beauLiea of an Kngiiah 
liuriib cburcb, and of tbe folly of ctrivio^] 
for somi'thing nitw when one limplu cdiflt*' 
can *how ui more of beauty and of use ia , 
iu Utile cuaveoLJiJEit than all the acorea and 
boudreda and thouuiRd* of olhor cburchM 
■trcwn over our land, and devoted to Lb« 
worship of God. The main idea of thii 
ace is to get a larj^o, ucly, unninly aMcm- 
liTy room IhatuiLght be used fur a barn, 
Ekat)ni;-rink, or railway -(tati on, with ai . 
inttcb or more purponu tlian that fur wbiiib it 
i* built, erected In a S[)trh and form un- 
known in any ageor country bul this, with- 
out even tboni«rit of beauty or orijcinalltji 
un uiiiiiidllj^ent, illiterate attcnipi at an 
adapuitiun ofa *tyle once the glory of iht 
Uhriatiun world, a atylu yet capable of a* 
perfect and beautiful an interpretation and 
espotition ai wag ever given it lo tbe tmn- 
init uf ita power. And yet they call thli 
ityle Ooibic I B«lt«r tha't architecture had 
bean rcWated to tbe maatcr-workman of 
iho Aliddfe Age ore it became tbui deb«Kdk^ 
Due may travel from one end of tbia greakj 
land to the other, from ocean to ocean, ft>oakj 
£iilf to gulf, and ace scarce a bcggarlj 
dozen of cburcbes vorthj of tbe aunst 
either as to appronrinliinniu uf plan, bwulr 
i)f itructure, or iimpliciiy or moaumant^ 
ijritEideur. For not only should a cburch 
bo arrangud for the econoniios and decciL^ 
cioa of public worsbin, but it should be 
f'lr u mouuincnt, standing through all time 
lu tbe glory of the Triune Goo. Builded, 
aa of old, by loving and mutcrty bandsiil 
of the batl of the earth, not cheanly nor 
ntcgudly, but, where poverty will allow 
no more, licuply and subalantiatljr, thMi 
grandly, mngiiiicently, and |;loriausly. It 
muitkeopinmitid the<uiaracter of theeauM 
it it to lerv'*, tbo name it l« to commemorato, 
the God it is tu glorify, Tbi.-ii will we have 
a itracturo worthy iU holy naDie, not cram-, 
bling to diut, but aerrioc lU nurpoie throogM 
generation and generation, tliroui;h the WW 
and ocnturicc, lu have the cburchea of old,] 
and that, wjlb the care of dutiful bnnds, maf i 
stand fur all time. j 

Who can ^ee the work of the aaolania] 
and tay tbat they built not well nor stronhj 
Iv? It li only work done in iho times ^ ] 
iha di^baaement of tbo arU and sciencoa 
crumbled and fell away. The ilmpioM fonitl 
of the parish church in England coniitted of ^ 
a nave and cbaticel, both long anil narrov- 
When an antnrgvment wu* needed an atsla 
was addtrd, flint on one side and then oa tbt 
other. Somotimei, to obtain mora roonial 
resort was bad Iu imnMptit, but ihcee, as « ' 
rule, wi^ru L-unHned to catnedrala. The form 
of plan ihua obtained was ibal of a Latin 
cTfM. Uccaaionally the atalet were exiende' 
along tbe ildcs of tbe chancel. Tbe cbtircboi'! 
alnioflt invariably fitcod the eaat, a« did' 
tboee of the Marly tiniei. Tbe townr was 
placed in various positions, at the west 




Id tb* oenUfl, «t Junction of ii»v« taii 
pU ; on ihti kouln itdo, in whicb cam 

tuuKlIf ncftT tbe wcflt end ; aad, in 
in >n V pJAco ItiAt aentnf^d bwt ndnptod 
tb* ntMiiion of tho nri'hilot.-t, nmul lie* 
|[. "nierv wu uaiiatly a [xiKh un th« 

Bide, neu- tbo wesl end. Kntr&nces 
had ftlxt It oth«T place*, u when the 

r&s HI itu WMl end, ftn enlrEince was 

through it. Then tberu was the 
k dnor in one )i^ of the cbuiitiel, op- 
to ikt ?«iry. The vefltry wfti a«u- 
> Ibo Dortli tide of tbQ ehtuice), and 
m anl; place tn the church in which a 
•/ WM permitfible. Just Instdo the 
poorof tbeL-hurd) wai placed Iho font, 
gtt contpicuoui objfct on eolorinv, 
IBM alroott btockiug thewa^-, an all- 
romhider that the onlv entrance to 
IT'S Church «a> tbrougn baptltm. It 
iTuHablT targe enoueh for iRimenion 
tau, and of a dlraifliM and substantial 
rter, not ramini^ng one, a* do unnid nf 
nt> ofkoo Bvcn in our churches, of tin 

of a flower^arden. Banning up 
l)k ibe church wu one wide, central 
er putMgo, with open benchea on each 
while near the walb, on either side, 
otber alliiTS, giving easy acccB« to the 
Ma. At tbe bead oT the central allej', 
e cbaaeel itefa, was the desk or et^ol 
tring the LitaoTaC: wbile th" pulpit 
^laord at on« side, either ut th« imrth 
elk. Tbe chancel wa« raised eereral 
^and divided from tbe naxe often bj- a 
fe, called tbe rood-ecrecn, from it« beine 
nlj under the mod-beam and bvly^rutKl 
Mlbereun. Thb rood-beam was n hcavv 
loTUiabcr extending across the cbancol, 
bleb wa» plu^'«d acroetor crucifix, with 
iwofSt. Jubu «nd the Virgin on either 

8onMtim«e a rtone or wooden gallerr 
Macro** the chancel to carry the rood, 
Vn called a rood-tofl. Just within the 
ml «tre the eoatj or stall* for tbo clergy 
iiiinn. ^ase stalls rsri north anil 
i, bdtu; each other, and were eiiually 
H w t£a two (idea. Tbe end ttaits, at 
■m, w«r« roturavd and fiwed the alur. 
Itbe service wu said or sung, and here 
kutd stood, on which was placed tho 
k A wide pai^age cxti'nded between 
>slii leading to tbe tanctaary or sacra- 
L This was raised ngain, abore tho 
til, by one or more stMps, and inpnTali-d 

it by a rail. Witbin this rail, und 
1^ t^tnst Ibo east wall, was placed tbo 
) abich was raitod on iit Icait thrM 
; la a «ery large church the number 
iDcressed, thai tbe altar might not b» 
ni. The top step, called the foot<pace, 
rider than tne others, in order thai the 
I night the better stand to celebrate the 
th*L Tb« altar was uiuallT of stone, 
B^slab of which wis ineised with Ave 
H, one In tbe middle and one at each 

saibtematic of the flvu wounds of 
kr. Barh of tbe altar, or on il, and 
I Ui^tly above it, waa a shelf, called 

the lelablr, on which were placed the croeg 
and candlc-eticka. 

The oast cad of the churcbea wai tuunlty 
M]u»r<>, atthaugh ocoaalonall; polygonal or 
round; the apildal form, BowflTar, boing 
confined jtrincipally to the Cuntiueiil. If 
this apse form wu used the altar was not 
placed ngttioft tbe eait wall, m tb«n it Ion 
lis dignity, but was set forward, usually to 
the chord of the apxe, where it was of\flp left 
expotied on all fniiraidrs, with a canopy orer 
it, or was Tilaccd against an elaborate stone 
sort'en callmi tho rerodos. Even when It 
caraft against the wall it tiiually had this 
tcroeo hack of it Within Uic ctmnccl-rail 
on one aide, generally the south, were placed 
seats for tbo clergy, generally three, called 
ledilia. Sometimes on ibc inmu tide, some- 
times on tho other, was set the credence, a 
Tecee*ed shelf in tbo wall to contain the un- 
coniecrated brcnd and wine. Here wat> oft»n 
placed the piscina, is which the pHesi washed 
111* hands Wore the celebration With the 
exception of tho latter, tbe alii'Tr arrange 
aicnt is that now u»ed and gt^mrralij- acDe|)ted 
tbrouehout the Anglican and American 
churcooi; tho universality »f the adoption 
and use depending much upon the knowl- 
edge of the clergy or laity having in chare* 
the erection of churches, often upon their 
individual Ideas u to the utility or imp>r. 
tance of such customs, and sc>metimes, per-* 
)iap« frcqiinntly, upon a ciirioui prejudice aa 
to tbe Buperttitlont liable to be engendered 
by their use, and this b«cau»e they were 
or are used and observed by that branch of 
tho Church under the Jurixlictiim of tbe 
Bishop of Rome Tlin enlighteimient of 
this age is a sufficient f;uara against tbe 
introduction of the fUtx-'rititioiiK •>!' a pcri'>d 
Are centuries past. TbeCburch doorfea that 
everything be done decently and in order, 
and mpureuancDof this tho noiiM of worship 
should be arranged decently and orderly. 

In the erection of a church the plan, per- 
bap*, is tho first thing to comider. The 
eiiTiplcft and bmt form for a small church ia 
that of nave and chancel, both as narrow 
and long as may be coneittcnl with economy 
of spaco and practicability of lieartng and 
seating. The narrower and higher tbo 
church the bettor the Olfccl, both archit4>ct- 
urally and occleeiaitlcally. In tbe simplest 
and itnallest churohea tho nave and chancel 
mar be under one roof, and even of thn tame 
width, tho (liTiiiion being mark(!d bj an nrcb 
or screen of open-work. Oft«a in the coun- 
try a very small church only is ntiedod ; this 
may hare low, rou^b atone walls, and he 
huilt on the lino of pictureequeneas of effect, 
rather than that of grandeur aad stibliaity. 
The outline of all country churcbea had bet- 
tor be studied on ibis line of plolurewHieneas, 

Next to the Rimpln form nr nave and chan- 
cel cornea tbu chuprh with tlie side aisles; 
thete separated from the nave by a row of 
columna on either side. These columns or 
pier* should be of brick or stnne, and carry 
an areaded masonry wall called the clear 



•lorjr waU. TliU wtUl should oitsnd hlf;1icr 
than tha out«r, or Aisle whIIr, and be pitrfcod 
wilb windoira to Itgbt tiic a«vc. Huch ub- 
Jeolion la niKda la tbU counvy (o httTtiii; 
side aiilcw, lince tha columm obxiruct a 
olciir view of tlic clmnccl. This maj bo 
wbvialcd hy making Uie aislea uarrowr, ur 
by a judioioua dUtribuLion o( Uis tcatin^, 
*o tliat tliQra navd bo oo tmu1}lo on thu 
ftcure. AntitlittT inatbod ot eQlu-ging tbe 
cburcli ia bv transepb ^ ibis, however, suould 
be ruortod to only id Urgt churchot, at 
llie forui ruully bcluuK* f^ iJio valbodral. 
Saep iratiieiiU are vtnv objeclionable, a» 
tbcr thruw ikc pvopLc on to ono Bid<;, often 
ontlr«ly uut of view of the chauccl. Tbc 
better nay to do if LratiMtptfi arc needed u 
to adupt tlio Bjjumtioa plua of a Giwk 
croM. Ucr« tho D»rm and LranMipl* may bi; 
madu wide, luid the cbuncvl Itirgi?, and iiul 
eo deep aa hj thu £tit;liab (dan. In thid 
way ibo aiiiiru cotigrtKatioti U tbrowo ouurer 
togttlhvr nrtd tiourur tnuchaDci^L But iiuver 
uii^ the Grvek plan withuut ita iuseiurabb 
g^real round arch and fijrzuDiinc datail. }?at 
Dothing lu»k> mora iQcoDsruoua thao to im 
GothiL-, which ii cuontlaUy an Brabiwoture 
of h«i.f[hl nnd vertical linea, uied where thti 
maiD character of the work muit of nococ 
•Jty be low and broitd, and tbe Unee more or 
Uh horis»nlal, often on account of llie lack 
of ■ufflciunt fundi) to niaLn tin? building of 
ibu iiMjanary haiffbt. Fur tbn ofTvct uf all 
eoolttbulioal ambiiecturu ia hicrvaaod by 
Hcrent vertivality. UyaaDtino or Uuiiihiiub(|uu 
nay L« tiiade aa loftT aa you like, but if u 
broad t-hurch ii iiei.'aod, tlio ruuitd urch la 
much eaular adaiiltd chitti iho puiiited. 

MatrriaU. — Tlio materials uf Iha edifiui; 
■liould bo eiltt«r briok or atone, or both. 
Avoid the uie of wood aa oiuvb as poaaiblCi 
nxcepl for temporary airucturi!*, or perbapi 
for amall miaaion cttapnla on tbo frontier. 
Even then a more aubaLanital maiL'rial ahould 
bo uaed If obtainable. Very pretty and in- 
expenaive church's may b<^ or«cted out of 
the round bouldor* of tlm Rvld*, aiioh aa our 
anoeatcita in acma at tha nioro aterilu and 
rooky parts of the oouittry gathered into 
Mono walli to fen«« thoir lands. Tbo walll 
^ould alway* ahov tha ruL'k tnva, and liu 
usually what ia called ruhblivwurk, laid in 
mortar, and ahowing aa rough and moasy a 
face B* poaaihle. Tbo wiadow-oponinK* may 
be of the laiue atoiie, iMjuared and drea»ed, 
or of a better atona wrought and moulded. 
Biitlrca^aa ahould be placed about the walla 
wber«TCr neccaaaty, but ao particular ii»u- 
lurtty ahoold be obat>rved in their dittribu- 
lion- If the timii will afford it, build u 
towrr, or lower and >pii«. If not, let your 
money be expended in inakini; what yuu do 
Otleinpl ■uhttaatia! and Untini:. If it li do- 
airabli' or noovMary to uav wood, a v«ry preity 
offei't tnay heaoi, with an idea of aolldity, 
by utini; rubbl».«toae for the faundaliona, 
wnit:h may bn citi^nded up lo the line of the 
window-4lll«, the structure above belag of 
Inatead, however, of batbetting or 

olapbuarding the wuiidan iiart, it may be 
covered with fehiDglea, wliich ahould be 
•taiaod, not [-ainted, thui ihowiog tho oatu- 
ral grain <.>f tli<) wood. The intide, even, 
may he treated in thia way with wonderfiil 
«ffbct. Alwava huvc everything limpleand 
real, not tawdry, nham, or flnicnl. It will 
bo found, no matter what the climate, that 
if the church is built uf mat<>nry with tblek 
walU, till.' tcinperuiiiri! will bu tntich more 
even, and more vastly kept ao, iben if tbe 
buildin;; it of wuud. In the South it w'M 
bo found necwaarv to have tbe vriiitlow 
largo, and tu ettvitu tliom nearly to the toot- 
for air and ventilation. 

A good way, pcrha|i(, to eo about the 
erection of a cburcb ia to bulla « Utile at ■ 
time, a« tbe early builders did; Bay the 
chancel flr«l, whicb may beu»ed aa ftcliapd; 
then tbc nave; then Uic t^jwur; and if aD 
eiilarijeinent ia net-di^d, aialca may be added. 
Never tiy to put up t large church with 
toatifBcivnt funiJ*. 

Bed or yalLow briclu, either [ireaaed or 
comuuii, may be used, aud la citychurchca 
of a simple characLcr, especially those for 
mlaslotLjjurpuMfi, brick may soein the more 
approiiriate material. Most of the imw 
cliiirciiM throughout London aro of brick, 
And very beautiful they are, too. Slaay 
new churches in tbe east of London at* 
utuftUv uf red brick in a very severo round- 
arched atylo. What strikes an observer 
muiitly in tbae churchce is their atupUcityi 
appri)prial^nr-s9, and tulidlly. Tbuy are ia- 
variabiy lined ou tbo inside with bricka^ud 
uttcn haw vuullral ceilingaof tbo»anie. They 
cuiulut uf nave aiid chancel, with usually 
two, fiunieLinii.'B four, side alilec. By the 
side of tbc chance) is b inorninK chafKit, In 
whkb U held tho week-day or early moro 
ing service, at which few pqople are likely 
to bo present. Tbc church ia uaiinlly aeatta 
with chidrs, soroetlmGe with open benchcc, 
pews never, and floored witb ti>os, wbieh 
lire aometlmua of etay^ vncBualii:, nr evnn 
wuud. Thii latt mutcrial iiiu the advan- 
tage of not being cold and damp. 

vVa coasonanl witb the limplo, loatiu 
monumental charui'ler of ^our church, aC 
wava bave tbe material oi the interior, aa 
well aa the exterior, of tbe walla subtlsoitia), 
either brick or stone, never plaster. For 
this latter li liable to drop oS m time, or to 
gel spotted with water, or froxrn, and baa, 
wiilial, a very unauhslanlinl luuk fur a 
church, wliilu to platter you must put Soor- 
Jng strips and latlia on tho walls, thus mak- 
ing the lire risk Tiiueb greater. If you wont 
lu pluaL«r tltu ceilings to obtain an evonna* 
uf tviiijioruture, endeavor to bave thont 
ccili'd over afterwards in wood, or paneled. 
It is pleating to see tbe idea of tho tnonti- 
mc'iibil character of a church saining ground 
in thiscoiintry,«<pednllyiniho East, whore 
many, if not the must, of the churches 
erected in tbe last few ^con, in the larger 
towns at lesist, have thetr Intariur walhi of 
asnbstanUaJ maturial, usually brick. 




J-'urnittire.—The &iur tifl font, perltapa 

tiia pulpit, should \>« of tinnc, and llie loc- 

^Vn of braw, while ihii iilliur fnrnitur*) I* »t 

H^od, ■IwNva luljiiUniial, Aiid tieBlgneil in 

Vlvpiiig wilh the churL-h. The nto^t of tha 

nrf^tun obuimxl al the ccclc«)utti>»l fur- 

■b«n*, to called, it but a monj^re] Oathlc, 

IRUT and [worlr dMignpd, Tti« brsjv- 

rk 1* ««mctimea brilcr. Tt ii muro dt«ir- 

U*, however, wh«r« the taadi will Allow, 

hsw the furnituri*, inrliiJfng braw. 

rk, dp«i^i>d mii] idjuIh In unUr. Yuur 

ehitect will advite vou, and if he is nn 

^ — you fhould Vi«Tc nonfi other, — lot 

iga, or ovencc tlit^ dcslfcnlng of, 

^_ big thmt is coiine<;t*d with the 

dvreh, *»rn to ihr imintHl-gliu* window* 
■ad tbc f;*B-iztur«R, and attend to Ihn selen- 
UcDor mrpets, ran, stc Be will not ubu> 
■Ilj' ondcrlMka IM dmigning of italni'd- 
|1m work, iialeu »r a simple ch»r«ciar, but 
vfll adriM ytm wh»r« to look, or will obtain 
I for yoo. 

thsa b*efi of tnie yeatB sume excel- 
_ ifd-glaM work dona in thii countrj. 
1 nt'Mtly, howt'Vrr, of n ditTcrrnt chnrnc- 
tlvhum the Ancient stained gUsa, and con- 
jf fmm that prodnwd by tho bc»t 
In Lnndon aiid Munich of tu^ay. 
iMBall chitn'hea ihaL oAnuot afford figur»- 
*«(k,a rerv pirating effect can b« got by 
■ittMiheanil gla^t, and at a very am all ox- 
poH It is not ndvl*able lo have a window 
IB lit cant ^^d over th« altar, precedent to 
ttmotrmrrnnitwttbitJinding, forunloMit U 
■Hli*arr^ark IndMd, ItUturetothrow an 
w^kanat glare in ibp fauc^ of th<> con^re- 
plMi,*ad to nbicuri) almintl rnlirply thn 
tlhtiod ihinp about iL The bvller war i* 
^■lUMa window on oaa aide only, wh^ch 
■if t* mode V l«rB:eB«Ei«e(t«d,Uiuiobuin- 
'^«»iiSc!«i«y of liotht withddt the yonfvi- 
iKQtMaltlnf; from the raultifarioiia ravs of 
■Mirtm^ light*. Thftnttl<nolwclUo"havfl 
^ncklignt in a cburob,— a clnrc ti ei- 
^**'kvl^ onplNuont and eonf^ing to manv 
*«*Mn. Almoat aa bad it the lack of 
ViMad in toma churchea. This lalUr 
"^iiwialways owing to imall or insufB- 
'jwu wiadowi.'bm oft«n t« the fact of Ihs 
*fflA balng to wide thai the li){ht from the 
"VVtaiowj will not tttrike acrosa. This 
"■hitftrUt«d by buildinjc the church with 
**<n mi alika. and frettin)^ mo«t of the 
Whn the plear-aiory windows. Th" 
jwwiury n»ay hv a* high a« you like, tlm 
hW the bMt«r. Windawa in the wc^i 
'Vira Birajggt'le, but they ih^uld not be 
•^tri^lur large. eUe tlie clergy will oi- 
Wl*a tile aame Biinoyaiice lh«l an east. 
•*J»W«u«eB the cotigr*galion. 

"• tlUr ilionld be of sione and a flsttire 
■ttadtarel), reattQ^ on a stone foundation. 
ItlksoU be at the fomi of a tomb, at least 
*a(mlou, andbetwoand ahalffcct wide 
^Uria leet and three inchoa bijcb. It 
'■"■U \m pUc«d agutnd the aaft wall io 
^^We ehancwl, whl1« in an apaidal on* it 
^VlMael forward, even tu tbechord, if 

tbe room can be iLfford«d. It tbould alwari 
be raised on at l«ut three slops, — ibroe will 
answer ftir all ordlnarj purpoeeo,— the top 
one beinK widor Ibon Uie other. Tho sanc< 
tiiary-rail should be of braM If poaatUe ; if 
not, a roinid wooden rail Is sufflcient, set on 
simple standards of metal as opm a> poau- 
bl«. A ntil is not atull necessary, eicrpl lo 
keep out ll)*i multitude. A o»rd will anawar 
for (he gate, unlet* a metal rail is utod, wbvn 
a amnller metal np9 inav be niadu lo slida 
into the other. This is teller than a cum- 
brous gac« (hat ii coiitinuallv goiting out of 
order. Near the nlur should bo a credence 
to bold the eleinenta before the service, and 
against the south wall should ba two »r 
thrco, usually three, arata, or x^dilla, for the 
clerjcy. Tbechance) should contain tliu stall* 
or benches for the clnrgy and chnir, cimitcl- 
ing of iwo or tbren long bouchi-B on each 
side, running longitudinally ; Ihe front one* 
br-ing low for the choir and the bock onoi 
high for tho cl«rgT. Tb« organist alao 
should iilt bere with nls key-board, and face 
the same way a* the ohoir, the organ being 
plju;nd in a rocesa or gnllfiry on either aide, 
or at the west end. On a line betwean the 
rave and chancel should bo plai'od the latv 
torn, whicrh ought to he of brais and In the 
sbapeof on eagle. A simjile wooden leclern 
is often uaod in email cburcbca ; a very neat 
one may be madu of niolal lo fold up, and 
have a canvas or clolb book>resl Tha pul- 
pit mny be plac«d on tho north or south aidn 
of thccburen, and be of wood or Mono. Thii 
lncl«rn iniislbcon the oppoaitn side Irvm tho 
pulplu The pulpit should be in tbo nave, 
and OS near thu people us pn'sihie, even 
ninong them. The yiruycr should iiovur be 
tinid or aung at the teciem. as is aomciimo* 
done, but in Ibc stalls, or at a prayer-detk, 
niid facing north or tuuth, noi wvst. At the 
head of the cnain alley or paatag^ majr bo a 
(mull desk at which to say the Litany. 
Often dirldine the chancel front tha nave li 
an open acreen of wood or metal call«d tho 
rood-^cnmti. Si, Sli>pben'«, I'rovidenc*, baa 
a Terr fini; uew woudi-n one; while the 
Church of tho Advent, Botton, hn« an iroa 
one of considerable bsiebt.asd St. Stephen's, 
Lynn, Maas., la, I belieta, to bar* <maot 

If (he church fi a fre< or tniuion church 
in a town, it is belter lo iMt wiUi chain, 
otherwisi' jilaln o^wn benches may be ii*ed. 
They should be two feet and t^n inches a]iart 
from back to hack, while they arcnftttn made 
thre« fi^ei, and even mora, as at Trinity 
Church, Boamn, Twenty inches in width 
iTiay be alluwnl for each pi-riiin. Th« main 
alley can be front fotir to aii f«-et wi.le, and 
the side onra thrae lo four ff*cl. The font 
should be of lion* and placed near the inaia 
entrance. It must b« on a solid foundation, 
and be large enough for tmrnntioD. It 
(lught to be raised on two or three steps, so 
that the ntergyman nay be seen whila od* 
mlniateriog the rite of baptism. Whether 
the floor is of wood or not, it la bettvrio ha<-« 




B liiiQ d( tiintting <1owD tbu k1I«)'i thiin U> 
carpet llie whole cliuroh, wbil* rugtanil ni«U 
mny be used fur the p(tw«. Thi» Iwt, tow- 
«vcr, It mpro a matter of convenlvncD nnd 
comfort, snd is often dolvrmlned by the 
ollmiitfl and hy t1)« tn^thodF of heating iiMd. 

Sun^ay>&Aoof ChaptU. — A Btmilny-ncliool 
chapsl It oft«n attai--hed Id a i-hurc-h, and iL i> 
klwava bolter to Iibto it po ; a tupanie build- 
Idk being r*r more profurtililu Lhun la um 
tbabasemenL of the main itruclvire. 

HetUing and VentUatitm. — tircst care 
ihould be taken In the matter of b«Atiiig and 
TentllBiion, <>spvda)ly lo the North, whore 
il ii r«ry spldom that thii tcitiparalur* of a 
£burch In winter is at all aatisfiictorjr, Hcnt- 

- r».a. 





8icn>wial PdoM. 





Inff by ftimawn i* probablj the matt deair- 
ablA WBT. The whole baiieme&t may be 
mad«abot-air cbamber, ktiinf; thi^ air up 
in a inullttiideor rlni-'-t iindiir lb» [lews. In 
Lliia way, by a juaiclotia arr«uf^m«nt nf the 
openiof^ for the fr««h wann air and of out- 
Irta for the foul air, a reaunably perfect 
nytti'tii may be oblsiTiod. It it dtfflculc to 
put forth nny onp «y»t«m for all cum. Kacb 
problem nhoulil he workiid out for >t*olf and 
to inecl the eiiupncies of ih« occasion, 

tjic\-OotM- — A jilniuuint >iiitit about 
churcba*, oapoclally (n tbe innintry, (a the 
welUkept church-yard, — the (Joi>'s acre, — 
where lie all Ibedcad of tb« parifih. Al the 
antrance to thii church-yard it was a eoodly 
CUltoin to er«ot a >holt«r ovpr the gat»-way, 
under which tbo tnournnni might tliip and 
, tbe corpsfi whiti- waititiK lor tbe procei- 

Mon of clergy to crim«i out from tbe church 
In meftt ihnm. This *bnlt<-r«d gittv wai 
Ihence called lich-j;aleor cor[i»i*-siit»'. TMa 
custom might bi.- revived, the gate aerring at 
a >hc1tcr ft-ora the weather at all timM, be- 
Bldea being a plctureaqoe ornament to ttia 


Aaiiocn. Ths appar part of the cspltal of a eok 

ama «r pi«r. 
AaiKT. A term for a ooUeetion of cuaranttial 
buitiiiage, wa«liilDg of a ohurcb as4 other 
tUuututM, praililfnJ o>er l>y bo Kbbul oi abbw). 
ADXTTUEtrr. Tb« (Olld pmt or a rati Ot pUfAWB 
whiab an aM:h iptingi ar abuti. 

Ai»i.z:. The wisp at the lidu of 
a Btiureli, i>ep»raC«d from Iba 
nave b; cotutua* or plen, aad 
roofed loi>r«r than tha mala body 
of the obarch. Jt ■* an arohlte^ 
tuTai divtfioB of lb* atmetwa, 
aii4 nut a paaaa^ oi allej W> 
twDan tho poiri, ai oftan uaad. 

At-HCiii- A reucic ID tho nail aaar 
111* nllar uioJ to oonlaia th« 
BOCTftl micl*. 

ALUosnr, or Avaanr. A roam 
vhcTo alma were dlitHhulo] la 
th* pqor. 

ALi-aa. An tleralnl lomb-Hka 
nmettir* for ths Mlabratlon Of 
tha Eufharln, placed at tbaeawb 
era end of the ebureh, nado it 
Brit of wood, but tha Oenaidl el 
EpoDB, Ifi Franca [B0« a.Di), 
ooiDBiaoilail thai alcara ba matl* 
of etoDe, 

ALrniL Ad allay or pmaaaga In a 
null, ad in tho clanr-atary at a 

Aana. A kind of palpil ia lb* 
aaily ohunh, nrkglnally a raad- 

Aaaiii^Tuiit. A paaaega to walk 
io, mob aa aloiitaia. 

AaTa-Cn«piu» A (nalt obaMl, 
forukiuic tbu ealiauo* to aaouar. 

Ap«e. The (otniBircular or poly- 
gDlml tonal nntioD Id tli< obanm 

ar alalat of a ohuroh, vary lltila 
uad In Inflaod, bnt oomnon ea 
the OenUnrat. 
A TOW or ranga of arahaa lupported on 





pien «r oolamoa, Mlher agalait a wsll «r d«- 

Aaca, A oonatrvotlon of muonr; (paODtnif aa 

oponiog, and le conntruclaj tbaC tha atonoi oi 

briekj by mutual piDiiarf «111 lapport eaeh 

OCbcr. The lower port 1> fkUmI tti« *priDglaf^ 

tha ildu the baunobci, asd the top tbe orown. 

CPI«, 3.) 
AnitAii. Bqaared tt«DM oaed for tbe faeinc of 

walli. The aihtar-tlDe ia thai of iho fac* of tfaa 

BALPAcniNO. A canopy, lapporled on 'hatbi. 

■laodiDK orer tb« altar. 
Ba-i^tHTKnT. A loparate building or an addiUon 

to the obutcl) to oDDtaia the font (br the rite of 

BasB. Tb«inoulde>l lawnrparlofanolumaar ahalt. 
B^'A. A buililing died by the Oreckt anil 

lUiraiuM for publja putpoeoa, •* for a juatl«r 

bill, hall of tKebangiv ete. 


Wat. Tlw «ainp&rtai*Ot -if iin mr«ad», or fpaeo 

or itirWca bMirron any Iwu rDlainiM or pUrt. 
Bii.FBT. OMall/ appllxl bi III* rui|tln|-Mft oT 

tuniBg balU. 
ftlU^tiAaj.S, ltaLI.-CuT. A it*blB or oot in ■mitll 
•liilM)i«* Mill alupfU ibat lw.<ra do tammr, to 
ooantn vB« ur nura \jtiU, ohimIIj f l*«eJ at Um 
v«t «ii4- <*>•■ pikcod <ir<f Um ehaneel u«h 
It ll «an«d MBCtiM b(tI>(ML 

tnT, «r Thifokiph. a ttrtn appllvd ta 
r bci««*n iIm> ki«*r ar«ftil« or ib« wall 

A plo' of iHaMtir^ pnjMtlng ttom k 
MM t« ttrMftlWD it. 
Ab arTi«»MbU fTtgmctiuD or DOreriiig 
f««r ilvlivf. dMn, windowi, imu. ud klun. 
CftPr o* Capital. Tba uppat pan of ■ oaluDLCi, 

pW. or piliwUr ; ommII; •lab^toUl; ««nr«(l. 
{^raSBXaL. Tba imadp*! oburoh ot a diuoOM, 
itwr* U* BUtiop Ui UJ Mkt [Fls.1.) 



^u«t. Tba «» OMd n»r tlio *1m at iha aala- 

*"•« «r tk* BMharlri. al flnt uada of wnod 

•M ihu, tba* af ||«U and «II««r. 
^^^Itn. Tba — tttro ead of a «liar«li, nhera 

~ ^wn uid tbi abpir an pla^d. asd what* 

t* HtntM ata pnrurtnad. 
^■nt. A ttdail ebapti ballt oM linMi % eb«r«b, 

'■' tftM «B«talDiiif th* lomb of tha bsnilar. 
^"u. A aio^l bviMiiiE ated ia pla«a of a 

"■M Iq a hrga pariih ; a bnlldlnr altaotiad 

<■ > fbartb or fonalai F*^ ^ •■> lii«HtatioB, 

*^9mi ttm tba MrHea* of tba cltare}i. 
^^^'fn-UMtti, Thaplaoe «f MNmblr f«r tba 

**tlw. at dwa and canona, of a salliadral. 

*■■*«■• an lit «ftii*u (hapa*. ntiwIO; pol/i- 

'^^ Tktl part »( ft ea(b«dral wben tha oboir 
^•ad abwa iba tarrlc* It lurg. In a jiarlth 
****<k UU plat* U eallad Iha «baii»al, th« tarm 
*McWag«nDdoa4 tonatbcdrala: It «u Mipa- 
'*NlHai Uia mt af Iba churcb by a aertea. 

"■'Mwat, or rtinK-Sroat. Ad uppar ttory 
*>a* tf nndoHK In a abareb abort Iba blioil- 
■■7' It U la tba vail aaparating aata anil 
■K m*k ia nmui\y aallad tba clMr-atory 

CtoiarBB. A nOTerail ambnlalorf or walli about 
a quadrabcla ut a Mll*f;iale or mona>iit ttruA- 

OoLtnn. A vtrllea) oyllixlrieal iban uMd U> mp- 
port a >u|>«riotaBibfiit waigbt. A elmiarvd 
aoluoiD i* a eidlootius u( atamli tlMtder tbafla 
baniJtd tagatbar. 

Corwa. Tba top or ranariiig coofm af a aaUt 
oaaally of atona, »3ti w«fttbar*d to throw eS tb* 

CoiuiSL. A pro]Mli&2 K«ii« ar piaea of Umber 
JHlligig out from ■ wall nrnl aaad aa a lupport. 

Crbdcnci. a rmall labia ar rMtat In tba •rail 
ntar lb« altar, r>n •rbltili tho tiivad and wlna 
wera plaMd baf^ra tbay w*r« oootaoraud. 

Cwiaa. Th< tfrnbal oftbaChnillan rali)(i<iii. Tba 
(Jratt eroM bat aacb ol iU arnii aJtke. wbita 
tli* Latin ba« tLo lowtr arm luDEer ibati tba 
albert i Ibia l*t(*r ta Iba utual Una of onm 

Cnri^. A vanlttd apartiaaDt undar a ebwali ar 
otbar bnllding. In a elianh it It gaiutally 
audtr tba ohuitel. 

CctP. Tht point of eaaating or tba fallallam of 
Crwwry at Id a trabil. wban tba thrao pr^tct- 
iDC point* af maatioiE af tba folli art eallad 

UiiPBH-woKK, A farm of daooraifnf of Bat anr- 
faota, nwb U WtUt, panvlt, alo,. with a gaovat- 
rie«l pMUn, «HHlitln< of faDarat, lotaDcaa, 
or otbtr fonoa, llllad wilh a fjciwar oc rotttM 
daaign. Tfat name U derived fr«03 a kind of 
olulli wurkoil Id ilmlEar paltcrnt caaile at Ypraa^ 
BalKluB), baeoa tba atnt, X>rap D'Vprae. 

Dovx. A onpnla or Intartad ruti on the lop of a 
baitdine. Tha toru It darlTod ff*u iba itaaia 
givto lb* ttallao uthtdr«l, " II duoniK," vhioh 
■mail J had o dout. 

DoHBAL, or Uoaau. Tba faaoxinst babiD'l tb« 

FaluvtooT;^ or FoUiIi'S-ROOU A iMit niada to 
(old up Mke a CMBp>ab*lT. and ••( ■•n.'d or metal, 
earriDi] about kj a Biabtp wbcti away from hit 
own ohureb, a lami orroneooalj applied Co Iba 
LLtasy ttooL 

FmiAi. Tba araamtnt ta whtob a tntra^ fablat 
plnntela, ar oaacp; tanalBMoit •ODtutiiig ibb- 
anally in a flower or baooh of flowara. 

FLftciBB. Tba anall rpira ^tar tb* latatwailoa 
of naro aad trantapu oontainiDg Iha taoetu 

Foar. Tbo ttaul lutd In the rlt* ot baptiicn. It 
aboald be of «tone,aB4 of tuaaieot ilaa to allow 
a ohiU to be imiiMittad. 

FntTBsroou or PasBUtTMi. A teal plaeeil near 
tba altar, tba laat nfUga Ibr thote who alalmad 
tba pririTaca of aaaataarr. Tba taat «r peace. 

FaONTAL- Tbahangliwof the front of the altar. 

Uablb. The trianfoW-thaped upper jiart «f a 
wall (onnad hj tba tennlDAilon of a racif agalnut 

GAMi.aa. A obapal or poreh ai tha wettam 
enlr»Daa ta ■ oburob. Mmelimca n part of the 
watt end of the ebnroh, aapaiatad fram Iba nat, 
and Dul auBildaretl ao aaared aa tba raat of tba 
edlBoe. Deed tblti/ tor penttanta ncl jet 
admitted la lb* bod/ af Iba eharob. 

QABoorLx, Afl onuunantal tormiBaiiaa to a 
gullrr ur waltr-ipoat mail to carrj tba water 
elaarof tbe building. It la ofoallra grntatqaa, 
and anppotad la ba namtd ttam thafinwiing 
tauDid miada bj Iba walar paarinf thtvaghlt, 

OaiLLi. Tha omamaalal Iran-vurh inwaa in- 
elotlBf a abapal, lomb, or aa opaalnf , aaali aa 
a window. 



Ontis. Tb« ttj\* of nulling fornud bf the 
Inlanoetiofl af IwovsnlU: aceilinguf tbUfnm 
it oitW B grained Mlllag. 

Sbdtiuciwii. Thvlljhl anil fnneldil omBOiaoCa 
Hied bjr tbe ■nctaote; al*o t[ittgoy\**, oorb«i«, 
and othnr ornaiDaiirti oa-rrcd in carluui nnd gra< 
t«<(ui; turiu) uic ofUn Uiui ukll-tJ. 

HjLMUcit-Qa^kU. A buriiurjiiil timbpr rpptiitg on 
tlH> l»jj uf Uit> irnti BDil {>roj«otlnx into Ihn 
ahnrnli, formlnjc p*.rt or it truu, B.ri(i oflan 
Okrred ; liparo llio tin-me bBoitiier-biiuii Imv. 

Jamb. T)h' iiiIm r>f n <li-nr or w'mdow-opvDing. 

JotHTB. Tbc intctrlkM bciwtrn tho ilanM or 
brink* In nniioaTj ara callM jnlntn. 

LAnv-CliAriir. A obapal pla«<i4 to ibo cadwanl 
af Ills Blur in lane* obm^b** and dedlcaiail 
lo ibe Blcuod Virgin, callad Our Lady. 

Lakckt. a lung, narn>w wtt)doir«r opMilngirUb 
a iiarruTf, iH>iiit4xl arali. 

LANianp. A urm jctrvc t« Ibo IIkM MiiitraetioD 
rarralng tbo (oji nf a taWDT or dflinc, ciuattjr of 
■ pvljrgDDal fonD i ooewJoniUl; it t* |<ln«^(l oa 
a roiil, and in urad fur riiruMiNuf llghr bdiI hii. 

LBCTRnif. A ni^rabto iletK of waoti ur a)«Uil 
DBBl ru hold lh» BIbl*, nn*n mad* of bnuia In 
Ud* form of an aaKivv th« BibI* rMLing on ibc 
book at th« aaigla. 

IdOB-«*TR. A mvtnd gale-wa; nl lbs eHtTaacii 
U ■ ohiireh-Tatd or oaaaW'rT, «b«rB Ihc mourn- 
•rt iratail tb* aorpaa whit* ntiUiitg Tor lb« 

LacTDK. Ad npcD iirDetamiMi a mof. ataall j for 
va&Ml*lion,Bn'i cnniUlitig of a mdbII lant«rD ur 
eajMla, tbe opminga Qllvd with alaU or lonvn 

UmraR. A ki^ Rhnrcb attafthrl in an «c«Ui!- 
B*ti«al wlAblttbiaBnt. If Iho fr-^lcrtiilr l>B)'re- 
■idnl orsr bj a ttiahaj) it ii calliid n Caihettmt ; 
ir b^ an Mbol, an At^ r I' by a prior, k 

UiSBKMiti. A |)i»JooUuii uD th* midvr ilde dF 
MM In (b* *t»IU of tai)(B rhurnhn. Than 
Mate it«ro iDad« l« turn up JiiriiiK tbe Uag 
MTVleea, nliioh nara perfurinnl (landing, and 
tbt miBonrea wora jirojctitol enougb lo form 
a parital tutt. Tbvv xirc «t*lionil«lj (larTKl 
in vnriaiif Krnlftfiqrin rnriix, 

MuMAsicQT. A gtniip of hul1diiiE< urad fiir the 
baibitatiun of an order of minliB. 

Moajic-woRK. Flat arnaiuenial itork foriBMl by 
tnlavlng amaJl pi«uo» of *Uia<^ xlaw, i»>i>aD»l, or 
narUa of vmrlMU wKlora. Ploon. ttnUi, and 
oeiUnp ara done <d ibl* manner. 

MvuiOH. A vertical dirliloD of a window Into 
IwO or niura parln. 

VARTnEX. 'tb* )i'^n:b fonDlns lb* «iitniiioa to 
lb* Pirly fhrlitliiiii l>ciii!Hea. 

Navk. Tbe (akin budy or diriiion »r a ofaareb, 

to called rrom iti fBiirlnl rramablBnoii tu B (falp. 

On tltbcr lidu ur« tb« »i>lw, &ed ftt iba eul »nd 

!■ Lbv <,'li»n««l. 
OKAT»iir. A •in*!) ro«ai or obaMl UU«ti«d twu- 

■ill; lo a prorata boDM and fbr tndividnal or 

family davotiona. 
Pac«, or Poor-PAOK. A broad «up In Awni of 

tbo allJtr. 
Patm. a aniall filal* ar falv«r viad In th* cflla- 

brfttioQ of lh« Kuohari*! ; it wad foriaod lo lit 

cbv cbrBlloe M a eavtr. 
PiBS. That portion at a watl betwMn wlodowt 

ar othar opMi)ac*> of b mbmIto orwHaB ttaad- 

InjC alono and nacd lo fnpport aretiot, oto. 
FiLi^u. Th* nvitd or p«lyfODBl pkn er ool- 

«■■■ dwt Bn{>p«rt tba mabi nrebea of B bfdld* 


PinrACT.". A (nail turret or toll oniBin«nt, taper- 
ing lo [Ira top find uruollr elBboralriy tarred, 
forralngtwinltiBCioni to buttroHM, c«nt«rt^M8. 

PiwciiTA. A iiuoti buln, althtr rvoaMod In lb* 
wall. n«ar tbe altar, or projeotinjt from lu aad 
aicd to oarry oil (be wBlcr aaod in Ablation 
bofOTO tbe taan. 

PoppT-iKtrti. The Unlnlt, or umamanta, al Uu 
tap of ImddIi nr atall nud*. 

RmuB. A cui'iorcd iticlter at Ibo anlmnMitO tbt 
i^boreh. Bomctiiacs the lower (tory oftbotawat 
foroi tiM poreb. [t li oniallj ptaoed on lb* 
■oath aide a«ar the wcat end. 

l>nt.prT. An oioTatiwI platrom or dttk fRHB 
wblcb wrinani >rr jireaclitil. XomolllnM of 
(tnoo, bul omally of waed, and polysowl v 
round io abape: piaoed mt eiUm tJMBOftboi 
•onth lid* of oav* D*»r aotnuiOB to bIibsobL 

RRriorotiT. Tbo dliilng-lMll uf a mooaBUnot I 
coitreat. It oontnlBad b dwk or pnlpi^ m* I 
which our of th« moiDtierB read l« (£■ oUimb J 
dunng oimI*. I 

HBi.iijtitRr. A tuiall boi, ohoM, or oBakat la 1 
auntalo r*lk«. i 

RRncDoii. TtiB «cT«>n or olhar oraananlal woHc J 
al tbe boclc of Ibe B)t*r, eltbtr acainrt th« walk. 
oi <1 pun lied. 

Ketablk. a raind abell al tb* back •>f Ibo b1(m» 
on whiob BTO plaoad (b*orM«, vbbbb. Bad W -J 
diviticka. I 

B.IDUE. The apex of the roof nnning lb* l«agtteJ 
of lb? building. 

Rood. Tim orriiriax plntwd ia tbe rood-loft, witt*^ 
flKuro* of the Virgin U^ry and St. Jobn oi^^ 
elibor Bide. J 

Bonii-UBAU, or Roon-i^rr. A heavy bcant or^l 
gallery rxlending acrow tba chan?«J at Ib ^^ 
junalliiD wElli Ibe nave, on wbich wat placf^H 
Uie rood ; itBdomuatb wb« oftan pUstd a aoi 
(ir luw ntS\, oallod ruud-teraeD or roud-wal 
Tbwe wrcunt ar* mad* ^uite light »ai op**, 

RooD-TDWKii, Rood -BTBRrui. A umm BBttBlii 
giroD to Ui« grant towsr at th* InliiriBillwB 
nave anit tranaeplB. 

RosB'WiHDOw. A naco* giion tfi b visdaVBT 
nlmnlir fi'rm BUinI wllb tfanary ; irtb* 
i* in tbu forin of «|>okM it ii tailed 

^ACHAHiuH. Tbe iaaioted vpa^e almnt th* 

H*.Ctl^ftr. A room aitaobed to a ohnreh In wbleb ^ 
tbe prleeU rabi>d,Bnd in wblch the matti tea-— ^ 
«al>, lealDi-cnU, als., wer* k*pl. 

Bahctuaht. TIge t*at«m end of th* cbanod, in ^ 
wbieb tb« alUr is ph«ed ; called alao Mermrittn. -J 

EANcrt'H Bbllwwt. a imall gable or otber attvo- ^ 
tar* on ih« roof, to ooniaiD b bomII bell obIMI -^ 
th* *BitetUB-b*ll. whteh wnt ami during variaua 4 
pArta of tbe Mrriee, cBpoelBlly at th* werda ~ 
' tanctat, lanotui, Banolna ;** placed neimlly 
ovet Ihs ebancel arob; iiiBietiinea it it in a 
imall eplr* oall*d a fltobe. 

Sbdima. Ibr** •*»!« t>)a<«d noMr tb* alUr, and 
Agalnit or r«a«a**d in on* of th« wmlb; naed 
during pBiU of th* aerilM by tb« prieat and hit 
attaailaiiU, ihedeaoon and lubdeaeou, 

SnitTLCDRii, TBI BABrax. A r*ea«a, gcnvnlly 
in th* north wall of a Itouan ahnrch, to oMilaiB 
tbe oroii from Oood-I^dmy l« BaAler. 

SnArre. Stmder ooluinn*, either rtaDdlng alon* 
or atlncbrd to walli. biittreMra, els. 

Snitlirit. A nhrst or box to nonMla rellea; 
tlmoi In tbo frtmi of a choroh ; ofl«a th*y 
«over*d wiita Jewel*. 

BtUv CiLt.. Tbe horiionlal (tone fonning the 
bottoB of window- opening*. In a w90d*B 





bolMing tha dot llmbar pnt on Ihn fou'Diiaclaa* 

>Ad •itcftiliDS »n>uikj the bailJini;. 
tirm. A eHMng; k tsriii uanl v!i\y (o dMignkla 

HbordtnaM pttrta and mmibvri of • buililinf, 

■• tb* tsiltng ni prilBt, ni an miait, doorway, 

■i*u««j, o«f&io«i (te. 
Spjs. Tb* widtli of u) arvli b«two»n tba nil*; 

•Uo tbs width of • roof, 
SriiL A ihiuTlj'P^'&ttd lannliicktion fflr«n to 

towart, aail j\tiug li> a gtaal baiglit, furmlag 

Hh mt U> th« t*w«r; uaally built «f muonrr 

1m UiabM work, (ontrrtlma* nf wood, and eov- 

«n< with thlBxlM, tUM. »r llatM. 
8ral.l» A Bied ••Ml, paKitllr iaeloiB), (br th« 

OM «f «l*rg7 abd cbolr. Tbc Malla ara «ttiikt«tt 

tn (Ii« aban«a| or obolT. 
GrAXiTAVb. TtM Una applM to ilia a|irlsbl mi da 

at alalia er balMiltaa. 
IraKCUk A ftti*r»i tarn um4 to Jncludo Iho 

wtto1« atraftaro of tawor, bvlfij, and tpirc 
Snor, A imall Twael pUoed »t Uia enliiuiae lu 

a Kowwn rburvh t« aoBUln hol^ water. 
Arm tiraa. A imall portaMv Kane kliar. 
T^anoitfi.i. A awatl Ttll or nlirli* In whlgli 

«>NM holj or praohiKi tblnf t* |iIoodi| ; appllHl 

t» Um r«MfU«l» oMT Uw altarwbera iho pis it 

plMad i •!•• • RkiM wh*r« an imago uia/ b« 

TsuKLi-ATint PjiTKHKirr. A paraiDPiii formail of 

Ma*ll cabo* oC atoa*, uurbla, p»tMry, «t«., of 
^^ bus an iock Ui a balf^laob wfoarc, like dice. 
l^wta. Ilia Utc« ntuoarr (tractun u«»d ta 

nwk Iba podilim of Botiurcb, luually (qnarv, 

aonallMtaa ravnd »r poljrganal; oooatiocally 
loppaJ oot wltb a Oat roof, ofianar, howorvr, 

^P'miCaar. Tke oraaoeatal fliling in uf otreutar 
■l&dawa, »inilo>-btad), and panaU formfrd hj 
Mm r«taUl4M)aa( of Ui« iDalliMM. It fhoatd bt 
of alsna, and not of wduJ, a* U i>tton ia. 

■rr. Tbat pinion of a oburoh ibat «r<Ma«f 
InaararMl/ betweon tat» and obuh, aiMndiDg 
b(i«Bd U>« Da'B *n Mtb«i ill*, aod [uruine 
Uw ama of a eroM. 

Tba boTlMBtal erdM-ban of woo-t or 
maatiialAIrtdaH window or dnarwaj labalghl, 
liMMmdifttBetioB to fiaalllob* Ibat run vortl- 

— ""^ 

^V'Hnu. A panel. olDitoir, or irladaw.htad 

(traiil bi cairplne (a ibaabapaof albr«*-laaf«it 

trvtti auaircfoil li roaMM(«it i do^ualoit, 

^ iir-l«af«a; naltKMI, nuutjr-lcBfed, 

^^mtirtf, or Dt.i)iB'ffT«aT, Tb« ipooa of wilII 

b«l»a«n iba lnN«r arinids and tlio al««r-tuirjr. 

-^■TaaiT. A mall liiwrr, usiiall; rouoil Or ovtaK' 

Bal; (■atrsllj' plaead at oaraais of ballillnjfa 

ar hrfer tonafa. 

^trarmv, A nama siran to tba tpaM abore 

Ibt wfraiag of a dourwajr. fotaiBil hj Ifae tquaro 

^^ b«>t ol iha door and tha forin of Ika amh iboro 

^^L H I oAea ataborvtol; earrrdiOt'flllnl with ninaali^. 

^H Tirvt. Tba arebad oailiox of a roof ; w)i«ro tb« 

^H tsalla latcraMt iboaMliayi* atlJ lobogroinod. 

^m VMu Pnim. AitoTtl-aliaf*don>*a>«nt p«ini«J 

^f «l batb Mi4«; aaod for panaU, wtnduw», ei«. 

I h li ibaMmm^a fora of tbo aiirrqlo, or gioff, 

jvvhlob lbs rBprricDtaiiani of ibe parKini of 

wBaly Trinity war« rurroaadtd Id the U!d- 

fc Afta. Tta« iiaaa wat Kiroo by Albort 


loa Lairia, OblM«o, 

Art or the CovetMnt. TtlC cofT^r or ch«*t 
^ ihiiDm or acaclK wood, In vrblcb were 
F'wH tb TabUa ot the Law. It waa aba 

called the Twtlinony. According to Hefc. 
ix. 4, the pot of mannn and Aaron'i rod 
wfrrp within it. It wn* two nml a bnlfcubita 
lone and una and n half ciihiu dnop, and 
the same nipaiuremenl in width. It was 
ovwrlnid with gnld within and wlthmit, and 
it* litl waa •iirruundrd with a crown iif gold. 
Pour miUlen rin|i:!i, one al laach corner, were 

filacotf fur the fttaroe of acacia wood bf which 
t WM to be c«rri«d, and wbleta wore alwuy* 
to rpniain In plaee. It waa tlio coniMrated 
depository for the Tablet* of the Law — Qon's 
T*»timftny Ut Hi* pcwplc. It therefore con- 
tained the stone ublC9, bewn by U'tcs, and 
wHlfn on by OoD for a Teetimnny hofopo 
llii paoplp. It occiipind the chinf ptnm in 
the Holy <if Holit^, utid it was st*l Itefure 
the mercy-seat, which waiovenh.idowcd by 
the cheniblm. In tha jnupnnyin^ of tha 
ohildrim it wa« alwuyii t« be iHirne by the 
Kohnthitee, wbwi the [jriwU had cnvcTcd H 
wilh the veil and jiall of bndgcr-skiii*. Upon 
Ibc teat whcro the TrMimooy rwtcd, lb* 
cloud, the gtory of the LoiiO|ho»i?red, It led 
the wny tn the three davs of the flr»t journey 
after lc«vii\g Siniii, and it WM (iIilcl-iI in the 
front of th>^ advancing: hotta with a idlemn 
ptMclamaCioQ by Huset (Num. x. 38-80 ; tf. 
Ph. Ixriii. )). It* match waa marked by 
the bl&*t fWiin Lwo oilrcr triunpeLi. It wa< 
never seen but by thu Qit^b-Prictt, for notis 
cotilil look upon it iind live. It vim thui tn 
the central place iu the Jewlih wmhlp, and 
wu a ptTpetual witne*a of God* covenant 
wlih HiB people. So Iialah appeati to it : " To 
the Law (>.;., the whclo Lcviticftl Law] and 
to Ibc Tcitlnionv" (i.e., the eoTcniinl In the 
Ark). (It. viit. 20 ) It excluded idolatry in 
the labprnaoie, however much the hnarl of 
the pnople l»nn>»d lo Itint sin. 

Anin, when Jo»huB wai about to crM* 
thii Jordan, the Arit led th^ wny, two tbou- 
(and ciibitji in ndvnm^e of ibe [icople (Joih. 
iii., iv.), and it was borne in front m th* 
folnmn procMslont about Jertcho. It waa 
ftt Gllgal, then removed to Shiioh, till tb» 
time of SaiuiioI. It waa taken by the Philia- 
tinni when flophni and Phincha* aacrlle- 
^ninly carried it to the battle of Aphok, 
who kept it BcTeB month). It waa ihfln re- 
turned (1 ^am. vi,), and ratnatni'd at Kir- 
iath Je«riin twenty yeara, till it was left 
by Siiviil Hi the house of Ob«4 Edocn fl 
cfhron. xiii.j; linally, It WM Mrricd u> 
Jorusatom and plncvd In the tent David bad 
prepared for tt. Thence It waa borne to tb» 
Tomple by Solomon. 

Arkanaai asd Indian Territory. Tbil 
DIow'M waa oTgeDiied in 1871 a.i> T1i» 
Twipulatton of the yiato U 902,fi<H. Blibop 
Polk (Imrn April 10, I80« ad.) wa» "con- 
»crri>ted UlMionury Biehon of ArknnMU end 
the Indian Territory »<'Utn of SB" 80', with 
provisional (.'liurKe of Alabama, MlsttMippI, 
and the republic of Teiaa, Ducombcr 9. 18S8 
A. v. At tbe General Convcntlim held in 
rhiladclnhia. C>ctob«r ft to 1». 1841 ad., 
Bhbop Polk W03 nominated by iho Hogae 
of BUhopa to the Bphcopate of I^nUiana, 




Sreeably to the requwtof that DiocMO that 
e tioneral CoDTontion *h»iild ck-ct iU 
Bistiijp, in which Actioii Ihe IIcum of l^pn* 
ties unmiimoiut; ooaourred. Di«d June 14, 
I{t64 A.D. 

"SvconiJ Biihnp, thn Rt. Rev. Quores 
Wathfnfjton Fre*iiiiiti, D.D. Burn Juno 13, 
1789 A.D. Consecrated MiMionary Bisbou 
of Arkanuu and %hv IndiuD Tviritory Kuutb 
of 36^°, whh tiip«rviajun of ilie Churt^li ia 
Texaa, OcUitwrSfl, 1&44A.D. Die4 April 23, 
1B58 A.D, 

'■ Third BUhop, tb« Rl. R«v. Utary Omm- 
plain Lay, S.T.D., LL.I>. Born DeMinber 
fl, 181S A.D- C:»n»«eriit«d MiMionsTj- Btxliop 
uf Arkannus and llic Iiidia:i Trrritory, Oo- 
tobor 23, ISii! x.d. Tr&DtUtcd to Ea^tun, 

lSfl9 A.D. 

"PrBieot BUhop, the St. Rov. Hcnrj- 
NiI«Piorco,D.D.,LL.D. Kwideoc*. Liltla 
Rofk. Bora in I'awtuckot, Rhode lil&nd, 
October 10, WM x.d. Uruduatcd at Bnwa 
tTaivorBliy 1842 ad. Ordered D«acon 
April '29, 1843 a.d. Urdainod Priest Jan- 
uary X, 11549 A.D. lie was kucceotivdlT n-c- 
tor'of St. John's, MobiU-, Ala.. St. Paul's, 
SjiringOfld, 111- {l85»>-:0 a.i».). Received 
dR^rvu lit D-D- frcim Un i vBr*ily of Ala- 
bama, and thai of LL.1>. from tiie Cullt-gn 
of William and Mary. Virginia, 1^0 a.d. 
CotUQCratod IflMioaury Bi»Tiop of Arknu- 
tai and Ibe Indian Terriuury in Mobile, 
Ala., January 26, 1870 a.d., by tboKt. liav. 
Wtn. M. Gr«fia. D.D., Rl. Rev. Henry J. 
Whiiahoine, D.D.,LL.D., D.C-L., Rt. Rer. 
R. H. Wilmer, D.D., Rt. Rev. C. J. Ouls- 
urd, S.T.D., LL.D., Rt. Rov. Jo«epb P. 11, 
Wilmer.n.D , Rt. Rcr. J. F. Toung. S.T.D. 
Writings : Occasional Sermons, Huayn, Ad- 
druuM, und Foomi." (Living Uburch Ao- 
uuhI, 1884.) 

BUhup Kreenian was rector of Immanuel 
(Jburch, Newcastle, Uel,, bi'ifori) liis clera- 
tlon to tho l£pi«copaU, bcac« William T. 
Read, Eeq,, or Kew CasUe, presented reio- 
lutioDB concvrning his d«Btn in the Dela- 
ware Convention of 1868 A.D. Ttiey dcrlnro 
that " the Church haa lost ooe of ber brifrbt- 
oat araainoEits, a i^hief pastor emiaeully qual- 
Iflod fur t1iu cxullod and nvipuniiblii xtultun 
to which the Cburvh culled hi tn wiLb cun- 
tidcrabls uoanimity, and wboditcharged ita 
duties wltb dillftcnce, abilily, uprigbtncu, 
and xeal. direi-ie4 br sound Judiiment, and 
animatoa by ardent luvo of tind and man." 

In 1835 A.O., Rev. Fmndi L. Hawk*, 
D.D., was choaen bv tho Gcnoral Conven- 
tion as Missiotiiir.v Bi»h»p, to havejuritdic- 
tlon In LuuiiiHrin luiJ tli« T«rriLiiriiM of 
Arkanaaa and FIuTidu He decliued tbe 

When BUhop Polk wa« eloctod by the 
General Convention of 1841 A.D. " lo th« 
Dioc«i8»n Epiaoopat* of Xiouisiana, he re- 
signnd hii pr«viou* oharge, and Bi*ht>p 
Otey, of TenneaiM, waa madsaotiai; Blibup 
of Arkanmu, etc. Thisstat« ofthiogscon- 
tinitwl until 1844 a.i>>,'' whrn Bishop Fro*-- 
man waaeiKted. Biaho|i FrMiauu was aUc 

to bare JuriadictloD )n Texaa, u wvB u the 
Indian Territory. 

BlRbop Lay reported to tbe General Con* 
veatJon. of 1868 a.d. concerning Arkuuai 
and tbo Indian Territory, thai in tbe preced- 
ing tbrM ytart hn had licensed 8 lay-readen. 
Tbftrc wan I <rjini!l<jat» for holy ord«ra, aad 
there were 8 Presbyters canonically net- 
dent, nnd 1 without a cure. TboM w«r« 
16 puriihot, 5 chun^bes, and 1 mrsoaact. 
Baptiains, 4llQi citnSntiatiiiiu, 2fi4; caoi. 
niuricaDls, GOi>; Soiidaj-«choo! t«acherK,ft7 
icholan, 620. 



"Aeadeirue. — St. John's Atnociotc Hi 
School, Fuyetteville, Ark., 0. A. Lav«rMI, 
Principal. Went iolo operation tbe lit of 
October, 1888 a.d." 

Bishop Pierce't first annual rcixtrt to the 
Board m Miuions. in Octobor, 1870 A.S., 
stated that IQ9 had recolred confirmAtioo, 
II od thore bad been bt baptisms. The Bishop 
bad trnvolpd G414 mile*. "Two pttriaW 
were M-ir-iupnnHing, LIUle Rock and Hel- 
ena. " Tho Bishop wu consecrated in Juy- 
iiarv of thin year. 

fiixhcip Pi«r(!e r«porta to the Board of Sli*- 
■iuDB iu 1863 A.D. that bo bu beeii buNily 
at work in his jurisdiction for the put fuur 
yoart, " having in that period allowod Um- 
»o\{ little or no time fur simple recreation." 
Il<> npcitke vrilh intcn-it of a visit to the 
miulona in the western part of the Indiaa 
Tprritory, under Rev. F. B. Wickn. Mr. 
WIckd wnsB rwMorin the State of New Tork, 
who tooli uninn Itidinn Uds to educate, anq 
iil\*>rwiin!i (entered on this miMiunary work. 
Pro^rtns biu been made " in planilng the 
Cburcb among the ChoyoDon, Arapuuies, 
Kiowaa, and Ouinanches." The laaors flf 
Mr. Wicks have been aided by the help of 
tbe C'bxiyenno Deacon, iti-v. David P. Oka- 
burter. Tbe Blahop cc-iillrmcd at tba Chey- 
enne school-house dn«Bn persons, all Chey- 
ennM. Tbay were rnung men and women, 
nppcnrinji; vi'ry lnte]Ii|;ent, The BUhop saya 
that " they form n grand nuctoua for a large 
work among llivse Itkdiuus." He adds, " I 
dn iit)i ibink tbut I wai uvur uioru deeply inw 
pressed wiib any rcli|;i>nis service! tbaa I 
was by the baptinm of ibr«e yuuDg wen bv 
Mr. Wieks on tbe Wtnlneaday night prevv- 
ons to their confirmation, Sunday, October 
6. There wu a larg:D oongregation of Indi- 
ans and wbilca presbnt, and fisw eyes wer^ 
seen in which no tear-dron Klistcned." At 
tbe Kiowa and Conianclin school ■booM, 
Anadnrku, Mr. Wii^hg baptixdd six Indian 
young meu,andtbcBichoucunKfme(l twelve 
porsoas. At Anndarko tho Kiava Doaoon, 
Kor. Paul C- Zutoni, has anlsted Kr. 
Wicks, and Mr. Geerge W, Hunt, the 
superintnndtfntnf thn Kiowa and Comanche 
xenon), ban aW given him valuable aid, 
Hr. Hunt baa become a candidate for 
order*. dlHps have bM,<n taken loohiag to 
tbo erection uf a church at Anadarkn. At 

Furl fiill the Bishop couArmed two 




f oaa dI* tb«iji l)«iRg tho wifo of tfaa com- 

nuiiulant. Col. ti. T. Uitnilry. The Bialiop 
■WMM plau«d wilh tbe lucteu of the pluia of 
Ht. Wicki k&d hu iaStionc« unoog the 
IfidikQi, bimI think* tbat Uiu mitfittn aocd* 
in be eDl*r«ed lUid developed under auch 
«tw l««d«nhip. 

In ArkwiMi Uae BUbop r«ports ■ new 
«harch Mag paihed towkrda oompIiMion >tt 
Tan Bnren, und ■ new church awn to !« 
oommanctxl at Uuriannn. Tim Biiihn|> i> vt- 
ccMlinglr enxiuiu lu Mtntiliib a ci'ntrul mia- 
■lAe tM clerey-baua*, with a Buard of 
CUffg; at Ltiufa Kock. H« haa worked for 
yean, ataaidHy but ^raduallv, " towarda Uio 
Mabutliin«n( of thia catb«dnl and clergjr- 
beuae." Be urs, " I iim now, and have bean 
BBce ibe middle of June Luti tiylcg to raits 
tW requisite f^ind*. ilij aiiccest haa not 
Wn up t(> tbi» lii«i>ifr*»t, "id y«t not 
dkcuuragiog. Wilh $2000 !□ addrtiun to 
that b now lacurcd. I cad begin to build 
thii tall, and have mucb of edit achoina in 
netatiuu during the coming vear. I cuu- 
itder thia work one of ao idui% impurtauce 
asd to Tilal to tba Church in Arkanian that 
I afattU plaee It eecoad to notbiae die till it 
to A(m». Maj God put it into t£e hearta of 
Oburchmen ever;wD«re to help me I Th« 
aum I aak u ao hltle, that I uu^bt not to Iw 
oMigad t0 take iui»tba to raiea it." He re- 
fOWU 8S coflflruutiona, 1 ordination to tho 
priwtbood ; number of milea traveled, 6201. 
u td£tlaa to tho ooDBrmatioos iu Arkau- 
Ma, a hare bc«n coRllnn«d in the Indian 
Twiltwy. Kav, S. F. UtfTCiiKiM. 

Ailia. Of the numerou* eoclMioatlcnl 
Mnanlioni called Oouncila of Aries, the 
Knt (nlf nc<Kl bv coiuidrrnl in anjr fkill- 
>■(' AbOBt the b^ioniog of the fourth 
walnijr, ob oc«adoD« of violent pni»»cu. 
^CjSiHch wrakneaa had tiean vxhiliitod by 
^^ntfuB, aa well aa luUL-h rcrtiLude and 
'■liVbIck latter waa toiofftiinca carried to 
"oBik fanaitviani; Had there bad ariten-, 
'Wi^ia A/rira, twoelaaaea in ihe Church; 
"^ottbaae inclined to trrat forgivingly 
"^ launilr auch a» had fnllon w Ucn aornl jr 
^ bj peneculion, and to diioourage 
gi t iiiim wbiob provolced peraaoution ; 
l^elher, of tboa^ wbn ibiiuKht Ikaj ought 
* Ua a aevercT riow, and uxcludo tbo 
^Maltanatyled tradU-yrj,, Uuxa Obur«h 
P'fly and communivn, at luaat until the 
~>t of death. The aiiLai;^>>iM:u uf tbeac 
1^ (aitiaa took more dcBnito form, and 
J^ttaofica and violont, on the olection of 
win to the See of Carthage (811 jl.o.). 
*)' a rival, M^Jorinw, waa eWtad and- 
**lWTHaJ to the aam« Scr, on the ground 
^ fWiliaa'a coiu«crati»n waa not valid. 
"•Uc b»wi giTMi by a iraditor. The Em- 
1^ Conatantine, who became maat<.'r of 
I* Wat about ibia time, gare toniu atten- 
|*«lB|]M»cdisp(il«a. and authorized a lueet- 
^«( Biihopa at Rome to compoae tbum 
V» JLp,). CMtliao vaa preiaat at thia 
'■VcTvoce, aa waa alto the oppoaite party, 
^M hj a cartaln Donatui ; not, howovcr, 

that one from whom the parly «hcrtly nfter- 
wurda wait nnmifl. Thndnctninn W)i> in favor 
of Cwcilian, hut Dcjiialui atid bin bnitbn^n 
wore not aatiaftod, and thoy applied to the 
Emperor for another bearing. Thiaapplica- 
lion iaancd In tho Council of Arteii,aKen«ral 
Council of the We#t a«»emb1ed at Are lata, 
a city near tb« mouth nf the Khmia (Anguat 
l,ii4 It la laid aa manj aa two 
hundred Bithopc met at this lime, amonjf 
who'll worn thrtio fnim BnLnin. — Kborina 
of Vurk, ReAtitutui of Luudon, and AdeU 
flui of Linooln. Tba rcaultof tl<« deliher- 
Htiona waa again in favor of Ciecflian and 
the more muOcrate party, and a number of 
Cannni woro paaaod in tbo hope of ending 
the dUicniii^n*. Amonf; <>Lhi^r tbin^ltwai 
decided that clergyioen whu were duly con- 
victad aa tnidiu>Ti Hliolild be d(>p<«ed : that 
falae acctutirx ihould be «xcnmmunlcated 
uutil near death ; that ordinaCii'U by tradj- 
tort, if otherwiao unexceptionable, abould 
bo valid; that pononi bapUaud bj heretlca 
in the Xama of the Father, eto., and in the 
right form, ihould not be rebuptlMd, but 
roccivod into tho Church by Impoaltion of 
bands ; and that Eaater abould be observed 
on Sunday, 

Articles, the XXXIX. " Articleaof Rvtlg- 
ion" were an invention, in Wcatern Buropc, 
of ttt« lixteenth century-. The EnMiern 
Cbureb ratalna yet the Catboli'U praclioe of 
Bfl«en hundred yeara, and ia tatiiGed with 
tho Crc»d aa the one formula of faith, with 
the Liturgy at the rul« of wonhip, and 
with CanoDi for ditciplina. Thu latt«rtend 
to preserve good ni<jntU and promote the 
order of the Chtirch. Tho second nourlshae 
Krowth in grai-e, wiMJoin, and mutidneaa of 
faith. The flrat maintains the primarv &cta 
r>.>B]M>i;ting Fatiikh, fluN, and Hut.r Qdobt, 
whieb arr iieciMMtry U> be boliaved in order 
Uj ho savnl. They are ao neceaaary hocauae 
inlvation ii a fact, and muit, tbci«farc, re«t 
on facts. The only facU which make a sure 
foundation are those set forth in tbe for>- 
mulaa of tbo Crood, Though the Creed baa 
two forma, one called the Apoctlea', and the 
other the Xioene, the latter is only an «x- 

fiansion of thv furmor, can lain ing no merely 
lumatt opinions or ex plana I Ions, hut merely 
■ uch ciilur^eni-onta of tbe old slalQotenU of 
facta US were known to bare boon accepted 
and taught from the beginning In all tbe 
Churches of Apoatollo foundation and ap> 

In tho aixtoentb century, however, the 
realatance to the Biahop of RoniK, which lod 
to the oonvulsioni of tbe Ki-furm^iliun, waa 
accornpanii-d by a fierce rvactiun iigninit tbe 
niiHtiioval tlteulo^y. Indeed, the enoroacb- 
menta of ibo Pop'> upon tha righta of tht 
uultuoa] CbuTobec in Western Xuropc, and 
his uaurpaLiont of power haaed upon his un- 
catholic claims of '■ supremacy," had long 
prouftoded, /Niri naaMi, with the d<<vtilwpmi?nt 
of novel and, lher«foT«, erroneous tiioolog- 
icaldoctrinoa. Praclicalcorrupii'-iu followed 
from erroneous teaching, and Induced an. 




activ*, ladleiiant, sniJ lomeiiiMW vioIenL re- 
■isl«nc«. The vliole Cburcli, in the Wt>>t, 
likd bc<umei4 bound in the chnins of a lyr- 
annom riapitl riilo, Hni3 (o h^'M rartlve by n 
powerful, wi?ll-nrgnntr,pil, iind miniitci1j--<]i- 
Tidod cccli'siaalicism, lliHt wlii^n the inevi- 
table r««cLioD came, and tfao indMtructiUe 
digoHy of pvnonnl maji — iciadfl in God'8 
imago, and rMpunilblo dlrcctW to HIni — 
arai reauerted and defended, tne rebound, 
like iU oiu^B«ion, bnmmc oxlromc. 

Not cnly wore tb^ rlfrbte of roan at inan, 
free bj: nHtiiro and godlike, an imppllinif 
furco undttr thn Ttrfnnnntinn, 1>nt In* mi- 
yremucY "f Truth . a« the "Word iif Ciav, wiw 
autunilly Htt forth u the onlr iiiro wet of 
Hit witi and wiijc A K<'i'<ni1 iiiinllcfltual 
laoaiuiinije had [ireiiaredtlie waj" for a the- 
ologii^t, M well as moral and religious nv 
virul. The thcolof^lcal revival l«d, of 
course, Ut d'Octrinal controT«riioi. ThMe 
disturlied th-* q\iii?t nf bolli CTnirch and 
Statu. Tlii^ ruinn, in both ('Uurcli and 
6talo, endeavored to check diaordiT. Thn 
Kot'urmcrt wcra in earn«K, aod bef^an to 
•bow (oiuBtliijiK mora tban a mant tpirit of 
endurance. Tnoj were not all «ccW!a«lIuB. 
I'rincM favored lh« Reforntntion. Bulb 
Pops and Emp«ror tried in t-uin to itamp 
«ui the iiiOTeniPut. and Jerome had 
bi'^n iiilenc^, but Lulher, Zwingle, Calvin, 
and Ihu Englijh ConvncaLion were, both 
Jointly and tevorally, t«o eirons to b« re- 
prvJiMl, and too niim(<roti( tt) b^ConOned. 

Opoii oontrrtVffwy wiw, thorrfore, tbfl only 
reaort, and out nf tbin'omrover^y grpw tlin 
tnTenliQii of " Article of ReHijion." Gen- 
enill J, tboueh not alvray*. <4|)ociAlly atflrtt. 
Articles ot^ Religion Vere diilin^ui>h«d 
from the Artic1e4 of tbe Fiiith. The latter 
wcrp contained in th« Creed, The former, 
while <>latnied Ii> be acoordnnt with and 
bated upon tho Creod, treated largely tbe 
■ontemnnrary <|iii«lii>nii in di«put*. 

Abooj- tif Artiflcii of Rnliginn wa» prc- 
unted by Luther, MeUuethon, nnd Ineir 
Maociat«a to tfa« GermaDic Diet at Augs- 
burg, June 2S, 1530 a.ii., and is ualled " tli(< 
Augtbui^ConfcMion," On October S, 1629 
A.D.. a body of tovcntccrt articles, known 
M the " Schwabach Articlen," had been 
praeented to a Joint mectlnc of tbo fotlow- 
"Tsof Luther and of Zwingle at Marburg, 
but were not Hi'L'rpt<^ by the lattrr. Indnen, 
this conference se^ms lo have settled the 
fact that Lutbar and Zwingle could not 
iwroa. The latter Inaisted tliat ?vory point 
■nuu1d be settled tolely upon the expreu 
words of Holy ftcripture, wnile the former 
claimed that the Church had at Icatt fome 
weight of iiuthorlty as interjirek-r of Holy 
Scripture. Luther. ther*'ffire, wished to re- 
tain all axinting doctrinfii and practice* 
which were not against tho ciprrM words 
of Hoi; 8oriptar«. On thic point they tap- 
Braled,and thoOarman Reformi^ni prouocded 

The first part of "Tbe Aujtsburg Confes- 
lion" consisted of XXH. Articles; tbc lust 

of which " concludes . . . b? declarinc that 

thiT^ It nothing in the doctrine of the liUtk* 
cran body which differs either trota Ha 
Scripturea or the anrient Church." (Bard- 

The Enslinh Church IMtl a.d., br distinct 
convocation&l enactment, rejf^lcd the ni- 
prcmacy of the Tope. Thi« was the fliat de- 
cisive act which invotv^ tho English Church 
In tho Qood of tbp Itc formation. Naturally 
the Conlini^ntnl Keformen ware conforrea 
with; and a strong effort was made, in which 
both Itanry V III. and Cranmcr joined, to iiv 
dtii-n Lijlh'nrant, and i-nprcisllv M<-lanctlion, 
to meet and confer with the fitiglish Coo«- 
cation. 163S a.u. a seric^n of English "Arti- 
cle* of Religion" wore drawn up, but not 
actually auiUorlzed and set forth. Th« 
bands of hnth Gardiner and Cranmer appear 
ia them, with not a little of tbe dash of 
Henry VIIL MeaDwhtle, the Saa1e«Idi« 
League had organixod In Germany a politi- 
cal as well as rnligions miilance to papal 
usurnultons ; nnd efforts were made to at- 
tach mnry VIII. to it. He and his Bishop* 
wcru not, however, wllllna to adopt toe 
Augsburg Confession. Em oasslea were In- 
tercaangcd, sndvonfcrencei followed ; until 
som«timeinthc nummerof !S3Ij a.i>. a body 
of Xlir. Article* wore acrecd upon. Thej 
were (1) of the Unity of G«D and Trinity oi 
penons, (2J nf Original Bin, (8) of tbe tw« 
natures nf CnRisT, (4) of Jumfleatlon, (6) 
of the Church, (6) of Baptism, (7) of ths 
EiichnriM, (S) Of Penitancft, (0) of uw of 
t^acraTnonti, flO) of Mialators of liie Chuitb, 
fll) of Ectloiiastical Ritas, (Vi) of Thlnsi 
Ciril, (13) of Resurrection of tbe Body aad 
Last Judgment. 

These Articles, tboui^b showlof; the In- 
fluence of (he Augxbnrg Oonfeation, were 
full Blsn of signs of those views wbicb dii- 
tioKuished iho Engtish Refomatlon trom 
that on the Cnntinont. 

Th.' <!pnll. of Henry VIII., 1R47 ajO., 
iilKL-ed the iriowri Upon the head of the boy 
Edward VI. The Duke of Somersot— the 
Proioftor of King and rt-alm — was a corre- 
spondent of Calvin. Both King and Proleiy 
tor were in closo intimscy with Cranmer. 
who is regarded as the cliief compiler and 
coDstructor of the XLIL Articlee. Thaw, 
though "ftgrei.'d by tbo Biihcips and other 
bwmiKl mnn in tbo Hj-nod of London, 1U3 
A.S.," were set forth June 19, 16fiS a.d., by 
" a mandate ia the nama of the King dtrwM 
to thn olBclals of tbe ArchUsbop of Cajsler- 
bury, requiring them to see that the New 
Formulary should bo subscribed;" i.e.. by 
ail tho clergy, school-masters, and raemWi 
of the university on admltclon to decrees. 
This was not, however, cmrried genaralty 
into effect. 

The reign of Mary Tudor restored papal 
authority, and though nothins offloia) wai 
duni'wiin thn X LIT. Articles, they remained 
lo in slxtyatiue, tliat on tbe ascension lo the 
throne of Klinaboth— Norember 17, 156B 
A.o., — they wore not held to bo of authority. 





iBcTerd (1658 A.n.), '■ AnIil)ishop Pmrkpr, 

witb the Mn^tlon uf Die olticr MMr-poIitnn 

■ad ibe rtst of the En;1i'^h pr»Ui(cis,'' tvt 

f'lrth XI. Artirlfli of Rtiligiuu; '• iind t.h* 

cierey vfpre required lo mafc'> a imblic pro- 

tumoa ot il ;" sod it Wiu "appointed t« Em 

tauglit and boldcn of nU pftriont, Ticnr*, and 

vnmtM, M ' well iDiotiflcaiiroiof th«irfoni- 

mDDeoDi*oi In (he -inidductrine, to lti«alop< 

rpin;; of ihe mouihi of them that gn about to 

HlandcT the mini^u-rs "f th« Oliuroh tor dl- 

■r^Trtty ofJuclRinent, at nc«SMn? for the fn- 

•rrut-tion of tbpir pp.ipin.' " (lliirdwicke.) 

Th» XLII. Arui'lt* were, huwnrer, taken 

Op and di»cu!«>ed bv batb houMv of Ci>avoCa- 

lion 1662 A.V. Tho7 were » i^inodiling 

tboso »t fortb ten yean l>cr<irc under Ed- 

anl VI Four were eiricken out and »«f- 

allered, but 6ub»cripLioii to them wa< 

•I ini r+qulr«d, ultlKugb tboy were tiied 

meUmu u tetu of onh Jdosy. How and 

lb»a "nien smpwled of beio'ri»d<iiy were 

lied upon to lubMribtf a* ptiiii vnlent to t»- 

canution." Tbe XXXIX. ArUdea were Ml 

(ortb hr aaitaorii}- of Qacen, Convooaiioti, 

and Parlianioni 1671 a.d., and «ut)tcriplmn 

loiVm wiu r«qu!re<l by » Caimn of ibe Con- 

Wttluia, ttueiub])^ at that [x-riort, and by a 

MlkBpormiy ouocimcnt of the ciril li-gisla- 

■un." (Hanlvrieke.) 

Aftcribedeaib ofLutber, 1MB ad., C«I- 

liB|«bo WM thfn about Ibirty-Mvcn yenn 

~^' W"> to bo felt u ft wvitT among the 

icntal R«formerf. OeneTa, In 8wil- 

wM bii boni«, but liti wridnKa 

rid abroad. It* woi particularly noi'>(l 
idtrocaling, wbai i« frwi-ly talkinl about 
Untk never cle«ir)y deflai^d, vis,, tbe 
"imof private judgmetil." Tbie, at ieoit, 
■iwiua tbo full vvulutioii uf one of ibn 
^raieo] forwauf the RefomiaLliin, vlit., ibe 
v^^M ptMitioo under flon and bc^fore man 
ofv^ttttftnon. With ft not uRUHil in- 
'^■■Nfni.-yC'al via added tolhlfllbe Lh«ology 
^^(iiinaiiuD. Tbeae two incDinpaUljle 
yw Mow* — human freedom and amolute 
^*nB— worked itrangely tocether, and ei- 
•'W, iB^w-dj jijii exert, a vgat laOuenoe 
S*^ Uw Kcformation tknd its d«vo1pnm«il. 
EHiab diviniu, and ejip«clallj Wnilgifl, 
^''•(•litiraled by Calviiiistii, and «Ddeav- 
*^ to «l a eerira of Calvini»ti? nrttclca tt- 
UUUitj by ftuthurity. They put forth ihe 
Mnbub Arik-1e(, niite In number, whicb 
•WI"i»ro*ed by Johu (Whilgifll, Arch- 

af OS Oaat«rbury, Richard, Hlahtip of 
ni. and other tbeolo|{lani, at Lainbeth, 
a«T(iDb«r 20, l.»5 A.n." Tbp 7ir»i^ rpiidn ; 
"vOO froni eternity ho* predratinutrsl lome 
b>tt(i^and reprobated t'thenlodeath." The 
/•w**.' "They who are not predwtinod to 
■IvKiun, n4w«Marilv on necoanl of tbelr 
•W ton., are damned." The ninM.- " It i» 
Wpiitin the will or power of every man 

UX. Articles of it«li(f1on, containing on« 
Uadfadaod Ave narnifraphi, " wereagT"^ 
V ^ ^^ An;nbi»b.ipi and Biihopt arfd 
twnnof tba Cleorgieof Ireland id the 

ConTf^catinn boldeo at Dublin ini5 a.I>., 
for the iir-n.'hiif: '■f diveraiiies of opinion, 
and ibr- Grital>Iifhing of ronKnnt tourbinB 
Ifiin R<'llgic>n." Tlii-y wen- mil (lalvirintic. 
but -were ^tfo^lJl:iy nnl^-Romiab ; and olcMed 
wilb a fiovcre denunciation and decree of 
ftiknco and doprival of offlca n^init who- 
ever, "after duo admonition, doe not eon- 
foriue himtelfe and ccoM to diiturbe the 
pnnce of tbe Oliurch." 

Ca1rinl>nn wok mmpant In £nf:laRd un- 
der Elisabeth. Pre3byt*riBnfem btcaine, 
both In Church and Stati', an a^grvMiro for«(» 
»i>on t« bo virfiednd by Puntiiniini. Tlie 
later was equally Cnlviniatic with, and mare 
violent tbnu, tho former. 

TliuColvinUts in PranL-c and Swlloerland 
hod drawu up several bcidiea of ardolea of 
rcHvrion. ca)W Confea»ions. 

Whon Jam« I., 14303 J..V., cnmo totb« 
Englitib throae b« dlMpD<>tnt«d the Preaby- 
lerlans by tldinr with toe Church of Eng 
land, lis dabbled in tbeology, and waa 
well diijmscil tnwurijj n recnnntliation, if 
po»9ibU, with Calvinum. He tent "apn- 
vat* (lej'UtHtian of divinM to the naiiiinul 
S> nod III' Diirl," Ifilfl A.n , l>iit without avail. 
Ijiis Synod drew uji tbe flnal CalviniiiLiQ 
confeecfon, and manifMted Ibc irroprouiblQ 
ualagonUm of that ductrtno to the Cailivttc 
faith, oi let forth in the formulaa of wurabhi 
in the Church of Kni;land. Tho "XXXIX. 
Articloaof Religion" iitill carried thft Arm 
rojoctlon, by the Cbur«h of England, boib 
i>( tb'i dogniiu of Culvjn nnd the luurtwi- 
lion* of lEnine. NciTlxT were the {<»oaliar 
t«nutK of Arininlii*, who held the nppoaite 
pole la ('alrininm, aunctioncd by the Ar> 
tie\*t. Tbougb drawn in tbo prevalent 
tbeulugif'iil Inngungo of the tlmra, they wer« 
an taniMt eflriri to eipruss lb« petullarlv 
calhi)Uc position of the Uhurcb of Kuelana. 
NocoMorlly, with danger* on every nond, 
they had to bo more or leas nGgatlve In 
spirit and form. In denying erruni they 
may nnt have etcapcd, in every ca«0, 
the inevltAhlft iftndency toward! ovflrttate- 

Tbo forment in W«t«rn Europe tUrrvd 
even Ltie Rtiiiian Chun^h to ber depllii. Bba 
woa cutiipdk'd to rtapond to the It«forma- 
tioQ. Fopo I'aul III. convened tho Council 
ol Treat, 1C4& a.d. It continued throu({b 
hit reii(n and that of JuUuf III., and 
came to a clme I>rcctnb<?r 8—*, I68H a.d., 
und4T Plus IT. It made no ooncosaions, 
but rather the oonlrary, It petriflod many 
of the Rninnn Cnrruplinn*, added naw 
urticlM (u tbe Paitb, and ^.-unfirmed that 
prlnoiploof " Developinent" which hoi now 
nt toit culminated In ««iiing rmb, ui "Ar- 
licleiof Fallh," the Iinmai;ului«ConoeTitlon 
of tbe Bleued Virgin, and the Infallinility 
of the Pope. 

James I. died 1(>25 a.d., nnd waa tuo- 
c«wled by hh Ron Charlm I., who waa 
bflboodod January 30, 1M8 A D. TUa pr». 
('i>ding year tbe Aueinbly of Uivinca in 
Wmtmlniter Mt forth tbe wolt^knowS 




"Weatmimtpr Confowlor/' which it the 
■ulhorii-iil rxriofuMil oT Pr*-*bvUrifin doc- 
tilne. The XXXIX. Artfclc*,'how«ver, rc- 
mftined, end *till Qoniinue wilh nutborityln 
th« Church of Etiglnnd. 

Thu Church iu Ariivricn did not mt flnt 
udopt the XXXIX. Articles, They were 
not referred to ertn in tho Trofaco to tho 
American Prayer-Book, tiu'l puruKropli Wl 
one, «he[t< it t* i>tAliK] " that lliU Church ii 
fftr fVofci intnnding tu depart Trom tho 
Cbimh of England In AnymAentinl point of 
doctrine, d)Bcii>1in», or woraliip." TnU dec- 
larMtion had direct r«f«ri'ri(>c, u tho cunlexl 
»buws, only "U> thuae ullL'rntiotis in llio 
Liturgy which hacftma necisssary ... in 
(.-vjikvquoucv of Ih'i K"vglution." Tbut it 
did iiat refer ipeciflailly W the XXXIX. 
Arlidcs will auueKr in tha proceedings of 
ConvftntJoD, 170*2 a.&,, 1799 Ji.i>.,ft> rftferrod 
to below. 

The first Rotion taken ia the Amoricnn 
Churcli on Articlw of Religion wiu in Gi'ri- 
vral CoiiTentHiri, 1789 x D., aa folluw* : Tiitt 
Houie of Biithii|M, cnnststing of Srahury and 
WtiitD, "origicialod nnd *^!iiit to th<i Uoum} 
at Clerical and Lny Di-fuilicj ... a pro- 
posed lalifleatiuu of thv Thirty-nine Articles, 
with an GKceptioD in rrenrd to thcThirty- 
ejxtli and Thirty-icventn Articles." TMe 
traa on the last day of the seasioD. In the 
Houaeof DojnitiM tbo "proposed ratiflciL- 
tioo" WHA, "with the oonrurr«ncfl of the 
Uciue of Bishops, referred to a Aiture Con- 

At tbu Genorul Conmntinn of ihv^ TraUaU 
aitt Kpiicvpal Church iu the Unlied iJUttei 
of North America, 1192 jl.D., the mailer wa* 
coi»ld4red in the Uoiuo of Dcputio*, but 
]io«tponed "because lh« Churches in loino 
of the Slates are not represented in thit 
Convvntion end others only partially." The 
Oenerftl Convention beld'lTVS Jl.d. a^ain 
postponed the toatter. At the Special 0«n- 
•TkI Convvntion, held in PhiUdnljnhia 17S)9 
A.I>., on Thursday, June 13, the K«v. Ash> 
1»1 BaldwiD, from Connecticut, moved in 
the BouM of Peputios, thKl "the Hoiuc 
rMOlre luctf into a i>omniiliee of the whole 
to (kite Into ooDsiderution the propriety of 
irtauag articles of religion." Thia was 
VfTMd Ut, and when tho committee rose, 
"iht chaiTmsn of the committM, Win. 
Waltur, D.D., of MMsnchusatts, reported 
the fallowing resolution, vie. : 

"AMoIcstf, ThiU tho Articles of our faith 
mi religion, as founded on the Boly 
Scripturoa of the Old und New TetlamenU, 
are sufflvlenlly declared in our Creeds 
and Lilurcy as net forth in the Book of 
Oommon P'rayet established for the use of 
this Church, and that further artiolet do not 
uppeor necesury. " 

"This ruoliition wu disagreed Ui by the 

On Saturday, June 15, "A resolution wu 

SrapoacdliyMr. Blasui, — Rev.JohoBissei.of 
'ew York, — that the Convention now pre 
ceed to iIm &»ming of artiolea of T«Ui[lon for 

this Church.*' " The question WHS uken by 
yeuB and nays," and "carried in the affirni* 
ativei. ClcrgTT! Tea. Connoi-tieut. Rhode 
Island, New lorb, New Jersey, I>elawarar 
&; niLy, MaK«iu;)iu«etle, FennsylTania, Vlr^ 
rinia, H. Laity : tbb, Connecticut, New 
Jersey, Pennsylrania, 8; nay, Virginia, 1." 
The contmitlee was "chosen," and toa- 
■ittcd of seven members, one (h>iii oacb Stat* 
except Rhode Island. 

On Tuesday, June 18, " The chairman of 
the Committee on the Articles rdpnrled se*- 
ontcen articlee of Roli|;lon, which were read. 
Whereupon, no motion of Mr. Biscet, 

" Retaived, unanimously, Thaton acoounV 
of the advanced period of the present eeaslon, 
iind tha thinneu of the Conruntioo, tba oos- 
niditnilion tif the ArCteles now reportod and. 
reud he postponed, and that the Secrelarj' 
tranMTibe tho Articles into the jourosJ of 
this Convention, tn lio over for the conaider- 
Btion of the neit General Convention." 

Tho XVII. Article* aw« printed in ftill ia 
an tip[)«iidii. 

The House of Bishops do not appear lo- 
hnve taken action upon the subject. Ita 
Rieiuben prcaeat were Bishops White, Pro- 
voost, and Bass. Bishop ProTOost wa* 
absent first and last day. Bishop Baas waa 
absent on the flrtt day. Session contloued 
from Tuesday, June U, to Tuesday, J uo» 
mt, inclusive, esccpt Sunday. 

The General Convention, 1801 A.D., waa 
oponed in St. Michael's Church, Tnialon, 
N. J., Soptcinber 9, a lufflelenl quonim not 
unpHiurintc on tho (tth, the day of call. The 
HuusB uf Bishops, consisting of Bishops 
White, Pcnn»vlvania, Cloggetl, Maryland, 
iind Jarvis. Connecticut, on Wcdneadaj. 
September 9, "agreed onaforno. and manner 
of eeitinc forth the Articles of Raligion.and 
iierccd that tho same bo sent to the Home 
of Clerical and Lay Deputies for tbur oon- 

It will thus hn ween that the BUbopi 
ignored, of course, the XVII. ArticM, 
which had only passed in a committee of th* 
lower house, and took the Inilinuve in a^ 
tioD. The Articles sent by them were the 
SX.\tX. uf tiie Ungliih Church, witli such 
iiltrrationn as ndaplml Ihern to the American 
Church. U will be observed that they call 
them " Tho Article* of Rclition." 

Confercncn bnCwuen the houaea and oot* 
eral action reisulted In setting forth the so- 
called XXXIX. Articlee, AS BOW Brinted in 
tbo Pruyer-Boi>k, entitled "Articles of Re- 
ligion as eitahlithed by the Biihopt, tha 
Clergy, nnd tho Laity of the Protcatant 
Kpi«ci.pAl Churc'h In the United Stateaof 
America, in Convontinn, on tho T2th day of 
8«ptembnr, in tho year of our Lord 1801." 

In Arlicle VIII. all reference to the Atha- 
nasiun Creed is left out. Article XXI. is 
omitted " bocause It is partly of local uid 
civil naluro, and U provided for astotb* 
remaining parts of it in other Articles." 
AHicIc XXXV. has a note modi^ing itn 
recommendation of the Homilies. Article 



XXXVI. " or Ooiwocrmtion of Dishorn itid 
HfDUUi*," ie n>Bd« U ooinmen4 tmd a«f«nd 
''Tb* book or Oont«CT«t!on nf BMiups, nnd 
>rd*rhie of PrieiU »nd D««icuui, u ml fiirth 
Mr tki# GMieral Conrcntion of ihir Church in 
IT92-" "Article XXXVll. to bf omIMod. 
tad the followlfm «uUlUiii«d in Its [>lftce : 
' Of the piwerof the Civil M iiipatr8t«. ' " 

Ttiu* till* Amcriran Obtiich bu thirir- 
nlghi Ariict« of Relipion "set forth" hj 
ih* G«n«n)l Convention IBQl a.0., and <inc» 
icqui«e«d in. 

'■ Id the ChuTcb of England, tbe SSth 
[Jsnon r<v]uirBt the candidatn (for ordrrii) 
kftcr r«feT«nce, flrsi, to the royal Bupr«niftcj ; 
l««oDd, lo lb* Book nf Common Prmvr 
ftrticItM, lo aiKnifr his at*«nl a* Mla^a : t, 
H- 3f.. do willinsly nod fx animo nibacriba 
^ibote llir«e Articles aViri* mcnttonod, *nd 
^^dl thlnff* thai are contained in cheni." 
^Bn Um Amiyncan Church, Artjvlc VII. of 
^» Cotwtltutlon require*, "^or vhall an; 
| l T» o n be ordainMl until he shall have mib- 
l^crib*) ibefoltawinzdfir.lanitinn : " I <in hr. 
Ilcre the Holj: Scriptures of tin- Old and 
lew T«»taiBent« to be tbe Word of Uot>, 
iia contain all tlilnfcn niweuary to inlvn- 
oa;aad I do lolemnrj eniiage tv conform 
tditdoctriniM and wnr*hip of the Prnleal* 
.EpiicofMlCburch in the UhIImI .Sinlee." 
'nMraiborityortb»"XXXfX. Artidet" 
tlMdatpeciSnlljr to Ihn i^lergy, and in leL 
fartk la Um above formB of tubicriptinii. 
tV)Utj, u euch, oven in KagUndi are nol 
^*iti to tholr termi, though lome laymon 
-<f., mem ben of the unl*er>ilie!i— have to 
^wile them. In Atncrice the loity ere 
'•h' bmid by tbe Crred*. They frofcw l<>- 
Iw In tba AiKWtlet' Creed at h'aptiim, nnd 
"ttHy »eoiu> the Nicpme Crond in ihe Lii- 
■Vffi^ver, or, Ki il U detignalfld in ttin 
n^Bortk. " The Order for the Adniini*. 
•«•••« of the L>oiiD'iit^uppcr, or Uoly Com- 
•srta." Tbeff prufiHinlon of faith', In tbo 
iMlQuballe Church, iub|e<7U the AmerU 
<M«ily to lucb Canona of Diwipline n* nrr 
'fov b« eauhlished by tbe Amcrli^un 

Afelkwltke: Bi>bop Burnet on XXXIX- 
Afkld, Hardiricke'i UiKtory of LLe> Arti- 
^ lAibop U. Brtiwne on the XXXIX. 
TwIm, Biihop Toralinet' Elcmenu of Tb»- 
*^.*ic^ Rbv. B Fravklik, D.D. 

Alctntion. The artii-le of the Cntfd de> 
'^tliiiuur Lone aMendcd into hearen. 
1 rn»i) [inrperly ilatv* only fnct* to bo 
'*I«ifd. A Cbiiillan cre«j iiaiei tliu 
'•CU u( Hir Chriitian rrligion. Therefore 
' IM liakinie the Reaurreclion with lli» 
'wluynja niediatorial acu aivd Hit jclll 
*^lla Holt QBoar <Miuld not be omitted. 
'n ihii fiwt, to brteQv atatvd in the CrDed, 
••I alio be Toqchacf for in the inanired 
*oi Therefortt w« bare recorded by 
Jt iAa that Cbwbt foretold b!» Aimii- 
^{A. x«i. 6; XX, 17), that lie did ascend 
•Wlj before Hia Apostle*, by 8t. Mark 
**■ irl. 10), br SL Lake (cfa. xzlv. 61 ; 

ArU i. 9-1I)> He was seen at Hi« place lit 
heaven by St. Slepbon. ills uconiion WM 
iniigbt and liifi-reiicwi drawn from il bv Bt. 
Paul (Eph. iv. 8-ia : Col. ii. 16; I Tim. III. 
16), by at. Piter, wno Ww aUo an (^yc-wlU 
ncM (1 Pet. ili. 22). Therefore It vnn In HU 
very and true Body end Sonl, now immor- 
tallv cnnjnined to His DivitJly, bv which 
He'^Ath entered into tliD HoliosL 'tbe Aa- 
ceneion was nocwtary for ui, ilnce Ho ootild 
not oihvrwi*« •end 'to Hit ApoMlea, and 
therefore to Hit Church, and cuniequently 
lo ««, the gift of the Holt Guoht, nor tho*a 
e\(U wbioh he received for men that the 
Lord God ini_eht dwell nmoni; ua. It wa» 
nocniiMiry that H<' might take up Hi* media- 
tcirial wiirk. It was n«oir»»nry that our »f» 
f-clioni might a*«nd lo Him '(Col. iil. 1-4). 
Thoif main fact* are thui grandly tumned 
up by Blihop Pearaon: *'Upnn tbeae oooald* 
cr&liont we may t-aiily conclude what every 
Christian liobli^ tofsonfwein thf« word* 
of our Creed, Ht atcfntUd into Aratwi; for 
thereby be in imdnnilnod to exprvM ibua 
much. I am fully |ier>uiided that thu only 
h«|;i>tten and <^ter^al Son of Ood, after Ho 
r^e from the dead, did, with the fame soul 
iind b^dy with which Ho roue, by a true and 
Eocal iraOHlnlion, convey Uimaelf from tbe 
earth on which Ue liv«d, through all the 
rtciona of tbe air, through all the celeillal 
orbs, nntil He cnme unto the heaven of 
Inmveni, the nioni gSiiricjiw Pr«*ence of the 
majealyof Qod; and tfaua I beUcre in Jiat;a 
Christ who ascekoxd iitto bkatxm." 
(P<i»rtion on th<' Creed,] 

Aacetica. (KMe Hbbhttb.) The name 
ascetic i* deriTed from thp Greek word •' a«< 
kotiko*," which mrnn* " tiierciacd." A»- 
cetloUm bu l>«en laid to b4> a t«mpRramftnt, 
rmthnr thnn a law of Chritlian life. The 
idea nf thn nnt'icnt anei-iicK wm that soli- 
tude, extreme t'aiting, and aelfdental, and 
faardeninf; of the body and keeping it under, 
and bringing ii inUi lubjeolion (1 Cor. ii. 
37). brought the tpirit into better condition 
for ccinitant cfnti'mplation of l>ivin« tfatnge. 

ThU Rtyte of life la fim met with in tbe 
beathen world, and doubtlma many [food 
Ri»n amrng them have thus loaght OoD ac- 
cording to thnir light. The Bast Indiana, 
the Mohammcdana, and th« ancient KsTP' 
tian pTiriiii all practiced aacetloiam, The 
Th^rapHiilK (Worahljier*) of Eitypi, who en- 
deavored lo mingle the teaching of Hoa«i 
and Plati), belonged to Uiis ichonl. 

Among the Jew* the BtMoea were noted 
ax-atio, and in the d*)i of 8t. John the 
BaptiU Ibey were leading In their mountain 
valleys a life similar to hia. Thoao who 
strive to iraee tbe hiitory of luch communl- 
tie* eoe a forerunner of them in the prophet 
Klijeh. I>finiel the propfaet. in fai* mourn- 
lug, ate nu plousant bnad (Dan. x. S). In 
tbo Api-^Tvpba, when £fdraa prepares hiin- 
*clf fur hu viiiiijn*, he ki>ui, according in 
oommandwent, into the lleld Ardath, "aitd 
did oat of tlio herbs nf the Add, and," he 
adds, "the meat of Lbe same aatfified me" 




(3 Eidraa ia. 26) Annii, tho prnplirtCM, 
"aarT«d OOD with fatxingt »ad praver* oielit 
wnj day" (St. Luk« ii. £S, 37). 

The woetic ii aider lIibd th« monk, kud 
tbc tftrm it « more geoerBl one. In the \jo. 
fflanlnj; bo lived alone, or hn could live in 
tD« bo»y diy. dislinifulsLed by bU «*l ; tbo 
oomniuDiUM worn an after-ttioijgtit. 

Egypt, "Ihe rootber of wond«rs," wm 
tbc Tifltural hume of a«oeticiMn. The Kut' 
«rn mind U naturally i;iven toreflactu^n. A 
Warm climate allow* inutL bi ]ito murli in 
thr upon nir, nnd thn muKnlflcenl (;li>Hr slar^ 
llKtil niffhU i>f th(! Ka»t '■ dcclara tlic glury 
of Gop" to the «il«tit vratcber. About tbc 
olcne of thn fdiinh cotiliiry ihv innuntalnfi 
and doerla of Bjfypt w<>r« full nf Christian 
br«tbrftn, whose eelf-dc-nyin^ livciitntonikhcd 
thewwHtl. The dwellon in the Roman em- 
pire, wbich vit* than rutting in vice, jutvi 
allurpi) to theBe toata of [liety, and Si. Jv- 
ntmeandothnr* vi*ilc<d thorn. Nobl« Human 
■women gave up tbelr property, and, tired 
of tho ntToiniiintc, faithleat life uf the capi- 
tal, lou^ht i1h' KzTptian di'Rcrt. Thei quet- 
llon wliiL-h luei tiTf was whi-lbcr pli-amm or 
virtus wi» the aim of life. Prutu tbc Thi-baid 
aKctI<rl»in liat oprund avur tbu wurld, und for 
c«nturic« it was a riiii-bty power amimg mun. 

Thr Kuono by his mountAJn spriiifi wltb 
his inceMant w(u<bing# wa« a t^po of all wbo 
havo fullowcd blm. Tho Oariniuiant, wkb 
their rule to oat no fletb and koep porpeiual 
»ilen<w and nevor %o abroad, and inp monk* 
of La Trappe, who men tu ob»»rve nilenra 
and dig thcirown graves, ar« lineal deacend- 
anu or the ascetic Jew aod tho Egyptian 
Uhristian. Tho dark foreiU of Mount 'A thou 
contain tho mon aster ica which gavo Bikbup* 
to the £aili>rn Chureb, and thu* it« doctrine 
and worsliip wprg delormincd by men who 
know not tlitn odut-ation of pnblJo life. 

Uallaai, in Uit- " Middle Agm," drawn at- 
t«Dtion to tb« fact that Ibe rnstinz and 
mUihlng and bard lot of monks and her- 
aillamuU le«d inen to cunuludn thai. llu-y 
are living in hope of a better world in the 
ftitiirv. Tho reality of hearcn wa» a con- 
■laiit itnpulaa in their life. " JerusniMn tho 
Gulden" i« the oompoeition of a monk. Tbe 
W(jrtlitnune«« and uncertainty of earthly 
thing* led their laindi nboTe. The fiutitie, 
contmued ofton for day«, lubdued the bodv 
to tbe aplrlu If livavoa wu a reality, bell 
WB» alio one. Nu wonder that thn wurn-uut 
watchor heard the crlaa of devils in the 
blgbl-Urda' note* or In tlio yell* of wild 
bMinU among mini. Tbe ilnfulneu of iin 
on the onn hanil and tho nearnMi of GoD on 
the other were cnutlanlty before the mind 
of the aecclic us ho watcbwl under the akv 
or tilW hit liltJQ Bold. 

A wearinvae of life, and a propsration for 
dratJi, were the great atiniulanta lo thoee 
who led ao toUlary aad donying a life. Coa- 
tanplatton and prayer were the feurinew of 
lUa. Tbe H0I5 Scriptoree were tbe guide, 
and tboM) aarly amMice wbo could not read 
ooipniUcd ibua to meroory. 

In a buM- age, whvn mm miial Iw in tbe 
world, anil y*l not uf the world, it i> well 
sotnaiJint>t to look iip-:in ih« lif n of men who 
gave up all fur ('HtiiHT, nnd who, with all 
their imnerrettitins, wore the t>alt of th« earth 
in a godlete age. 

Amhoriiic« : mngham'B Aoti(|uitlei, Bau, 
Burton'e Anatomy of Meiancholr, Farrar's 
Life of Ohri»l, Geikii.'. Lir«i of Christ, and 
Kingsley'H Hiirinttn. Eincsluy refera ki 
Gibbon, Mental cmbeTfi "Hoi'nei d'Ood- 
Oent," D«aii Miliiiu""* '■ History of Cbrlt- 
llaniiy" and " Lullu Christianity. " an<! 
Ozanam's " Kttid<--* (liTmaniquM," and 
eepodally to UcMmcyde'* "Lives of ih" 
Hermit FatlieTf." 

TIkv. S- F. HoitCUKis. 

Aasurance of Faith. Thn word attli- 
roacc, in the flrst vcr<« of St. Luko's QomI 
and in .St. Paiil'N Epistlim, !i a mptapbor 
taken from tbe onward iwe«i of a ship bo- 
fore a favoring br(?ezo. i»t. Luke mcoa* to 
My that outward hiitorlcut facu have givcA 
us flill portuasion of the tnitfa of what 
snirilual fncu wo txach in thn Goapal. St- 
Paul nicnni Die Hanie thing when writing to 
hia oonvcrte (1 Tbeu. i. G; Ueb. rl. 11 ; x. 
S2\ and Rom. iv. :il ; xiv. 6). It U th« eon- 
viotiun thai comes frtim those proofs {aa tbft 
Ltlfts of ^acrnmrntnl life by the TIoLT UUon'r 
r/. tho U-xU Cited), which He chooaee to pufc 
tMifore iia aa culSoiant, and our action upon, 
that ornvirtinn. It cannot refer tu tho in— ' 
wnrdronTirtiun rri>niern..tioiii>rea<:ilement. 
Th<^ word aMurunce is used in connectioia 
filher with historic proofji or with thi power" 
of ihv Holt Gbost, nhown by numrlBif or 
in cotinci'tion with the sncrainents, "t witlk 
Abr«horo'B faith fRom, iv. 21), who liad 
already outward demo nit ration of Goi>'» 
ttower. Therefore HookCT was right wbea 
ne taught that the pnxifi of faith worn itot. 
H> strong as the assurance of the sentM, from, 
the certainty of evid4>nco depending upon |J)» 
proof* adducpd ; hut there arliee from this m~ 
terUiioLy of adherence, which, iuelf, osuae» 
Ibe heart to " cleave and stirk to tJiat which. 
it doth bellovn. The TRaaon Is this 1 lb» 
faith of a Chrieliiin doth apprehend tbv 
wordc of tho law, tho promlsGa of Ood not;- 
only n* true but as good ; and therefore evon. 
thuii when tbe evidence which he bath of 
the Iruih i> so small tbnl tt griovelh him to 
feel bit we«knea« in assenting thereto, yet 1» 
(here in him luch a sure adhvrenre unto that 
which biT doth but faintly and fearfully be- 
lif^vG, that bis spirit having once truly tasted 
the b(«venly swH'titvia therenf, nil the world 
in not m|]|« <iuiie and clean tu remove hliu 
from it, but he strivetb with him«f )f to bop» 
against all roaaon of behoving, being settled 
with holy Job upon this immocabln revolu- 
tion, 'Though Ooi> kill m« I will not giva 
over irn^ting in Him.' For why? this lea- 
$*m rcmalneth forever imprinted tn him. 
'It is good for mo lo clvavc unto Ood.'" 
(Hookor, Scnn. 1., p. CSfi, Keble'sed.) This, 
however, I* very different tttaa tnc pr^ 
eumptuoui aMuraoce of pardon somellinea 



^ugLl tgr »c«UriM, but wtiicb hu no vrsr- 
ranl of Holy Scriitiiire. Even :St. Paul full 
tb* dmmI of roRicant active work for hl> 
CbmUan lir« (e/. 1 Cor. ix. S7. wilb 2 Tim. 
iv. 8), 

AthuiBBlsn Cracd. VUe Crkkds and 
Qi'irTMqrit VuLi. 

Atfaeiaii), from a >nd Mac, U Ibo <lcnial nf 

Ui« exiat«nc« <i{ a penunal God. It thus 

iMlwUi paDthvUm, which t«achw tbat 

^^mrjrUiiii^ it God. Alhu'um niiitl ba care- 

ully distiuj^Ubed fruui ake|itk-iiu], whicli 

uply doubU. and fram iiiQddity, which 

tbc ir-JMiioD of Bnornnix«d fMiihorfurm 

' religion. £rord9e4 It include itio f^od* 

»D^ of Mvag« tribM, If tb«ra be sucb, 

^boat iDto]1«ctuald«iri-l0pfD«Dt i>too low ta 

'lutm » coDMption of God. Avowed and 

oOBiiitant atboi^ai is exceodltigly rare, and 

Ir alway* individiml, bO SMt nr •rnlAin hav- 

[ocavcr lieen willing toaitablUb'iUvlfujHii) 

ihk lauu. Kvta ibe pwitiTUin of Cumle 

«t«fi( *ti«n of aTowtd atbeUtn, coaUot with 

|t«Ww ibe Aitltily of all «|«%uIh(U>u bo- 

y««d U« data of iwsltlTe 9x;>eri'>ni-e. Tbo 

^MTg* of atfaeum hat always bwn most 

•MwnttBt lo tboM!, even, who might bo 

MMwal ftthftlstt. Among th« Gr««fci and 

llaB4iu it wat punUhvd with d<!«th, iboso 

«DBTlrt«d of it bung rt^rded l>r tbo luw 

ai JUtto Aanunn jencr-ij,— onoiDics to Ltie 

kiMuriM. A littls ibought will r«vcal 

tki|«nndi uf lbi> unlv'TrMl rapugnnnt-c. 

iMiil fa llie deliberate rajeclion uf tbe 

>Bwtiuju of cotiactouin«su, no arf;ument 

hut wttt r«)uired to e«tablt>h a bi.-livf in 

Oon, while atbeUoi li idvftfi tb« raault of 

•■H t«ore«s of tboitght. ThoD the mind 

uteal^ r«ooili from wbat i* ontrury lo 

MHa.uid athciam i» »a li«naiitn it nxc«>*i- 

Uvtht tecoi;nitiun of effect wiltiuut tausi-. 

t^Mgn without a dniener, of law vitb- 

wtalivtivvr, audof ISn witbnut aivurc-i:. 

AiUttiabaratloii of the Isat two polni* 

*V Dt luBcioot for illuflliation. One uf 

''''WnHlt* of obwrration and expcri- 

"^yli the necawary r«eoi:nitlon of Uw» by 

*JjduUiraI prooeoM are govenied, an<i 

^ Th* recurrence of th^ soasonf, the 
(■^iBtioD of aeod, tbq Teprodnclion of 
HWitad aoimaU nach atUit iu kiud, witb 
"■■f Btote inalaaMi whkb will readily 
"W, are seen lo be recular, ayiteniuir, 
**t perauMnt. Man ilndi them nccc#- 
*'7 t" fal* Ufi^, while bo can u^iibcr alter 
y atxrin them, but be may rely upon 
'"■.and don rely upon llicrn, witb tfaa 
**•*«• nrtainly of not being ditap* 
HnM. Bawoa tella him that tbere 
^*>baaUind grwtar than hia to conceive 
■*■ vbloh be cannot coinprrbcnd, and a 
^^ Kfcattsr than his to enforce tboia. 
'"'■MIimI and thi« Power be always findi 
P*>br ilHin tbe grasp of liU mind and 
P*K, (Bd ihia aupreme iQielUsent farce U 
*°^ ^Cain^ man leoogniua the fact and 
■■ iknoaiwia of Ub, but flndii no ori- 
lw Isr tbtn within hla experience. But 

r«s»oti diNuaoiis an origin, which muit 
ne<:owisrily be beyond hia experience. Be 
Aiidt, too. In ctoM connection with life the 
phenomoDon of death, and aoon diiuavon 
thai it is abnormal. Tbert ought lo be no 
death; by the Ter}| nature of life tbe qul- 
chinef which it quiclEens ahouM be jwrina- 
nent. Itut they are not in. and Llint aya* 
toniaticitlly. Reaaon dcmandv fur Uiis a 
coDtroilini^' WtU which restrtunt, aa it orl^- 
inalot, ibvphenomona of lifr'. That origi' 
uating una cuntrolline will in Gad. Thut 
the rt-jei-ling "f (be Hxthtence of God i» con- 
trary til n-aavn, and, lhcruror(<, nbhorront to 
bumnn Intellect. We aomotimcs meet the 

Kfarasa " BcidntlQc ntbelioi," hut ihere oar 
no sdch thin^ aa sojentiflc athi>i«m, b^ 
teuao nothing could be more unnrimtillc 
than to deny the exlatonco of that which is 
undcmniiBtrablc. But the nxUtvucQ of a 

Kniiunl Hod ik undntnoiutrabU by *«i«nce 
cause Kviencc dirnla neci-aaarily with finite 
data and causes ; but Unite CMie<u miut lend 
lo Qnito roiult*, and Qvd 1* of nvcesaiiy 
Intlnitv- HniiuQ tciciivo can neither pn^ve 
nor diiprove the Bxisienceof Goo, becaiue 
it tnutt work with dat4i which cannot lead 
beyond human experience, while God ia 
beyond human experience. But to awume 
tbitt whK'h wi* CJinnot kiii:iw U contrary lo 
acienoe, nud cberRfore tbiin: can Ix! no acl* 
entiflc ulhi'itim. Finally, Athiiem ia re]Hi^< 
nnnt to ri'DtoD bvcBvae it ia illogica], logto 
buinutliujiL'rfuctloniifibt^procaaaea of reason. 
PurUiL;ieis Mieiitlally ilip neceaaaryaaquence 
of cm\<-n and effcut, and therefore to donv b> 
any «fl*cct un antecedent caiue li fltogfcal. 
But the huiuan nklnd inuat neomearity con- 
fine Ita procudaea to tequencea, b^ginnini; 
within iu own eiperi»nce, and Ihp ultimate 
Btlainnient »r human lutpericnoe ia (ilwaya 
manilMtly an tffect. But aiheifiin deni'ei 
any anteiMdt'nl cbhh} beyond thi? tmaiiblv 
attaint nent of huninn L-Knnrieiice, Hiiu there 
fore alhetim ii IlluKtcul, and vcnteqjcntly 
repugnant to reaaon. Tbu* we may read 
lly account for the nhhorrunce nlwayt man- 
Jrealed by Individuala to tbe charge of 
Blhciain. But it is rqually rc^pugnant to 
morality, and conArquenUy lo the welfare 
of ioclely, because it de«iroir'« the atn>nge«t 
and higheiit incentive to ih« cnntrnl and 
rfatraintof tbma natural amMiilisii nnJ jina- 
siou* which in their unbridled indulgence 
are boatile to the intereita of aocicly. The 
first vknieDt of locisl order and welfare it 
the taatrlctlou of Individual libertv fur the 
oomraon good, and the realraint within pcr- 
mituid limita of tboae diapoaitioiu and di-- 
■lr«t which are common to oil animal na- 
ture. But the fear nf human puniahment 
and tbe dwirn of the good of other* have 
never been found tiuffirietit to accompliah 
theae end*, unlua juded and supportec by 
aaenae of reapMiaibility atid acL-uuntAblllty 
unto a higher Power, whoae vigilance can- 
not be BManod and wh<'i« authority can- 
not be defied, or whoec lor* and Undnen 
excllea to reverence and obedience- But 




fttbettm dutroj-s alike this fear and tbb 
r»»eri!nce, and Ly removing »1I sarw^ of 
dang«r bejood this life, or uf cotnptm- 
tating reward hereafter, dirMtlj foatenitlie 
eommluiM) of acU cootrary to tho com- 
mon welTare. Henra weiety hu ever r«- 
garded athin«m m limtile (o iln b«*t intorevU 
nnd MihvxnivR of it* nindamvntal princi* 

filM, and ban puniihn] it lu n crinii! nr tnndr 
t ft bar to social privjl^cs und reinAoL 
Tha rvfbiial to act^ejit tlin aatii nf nti attieiat 
io a court of Jtutlce la a brand of dttgratw, 
and the aMi<rtlon of a distrust \>j hii fellow 
«illBOi», from which every man mutt ihrinh 
with horror. It 1b a powerful proof of the 
heaUhjr too? of public Bentlment upon thU 
vita! mattPT, that thero i* probably ant a 
tingle society in the country or^ntxed fnr 
mutual bvneflts of any kind intonrhicb an 
avowed atheiit could obtsin ndmiMinn, 

Among tboae who liavn hmm ola*ii»d an 
athnata are the Peripatetic and Epicurt^iin 
pbiloaoplien of ancient tirac*, and llobbci, 
Hume, Eant, Splnosa, Blount, Vnnini, and 
others in the modem period. We muit 
ramcmbrr, howevM, how innrciirate was 
the linffue^e and how intolerant the views 
of thenTogiiral writers only a few yours ago. 
Few, if any, of thoM- namnl (!an \w properly 
called ath«i>U under tha exact terminology 
and discrinkiiiating claMiQcationa of morn 
recent iihilosophy, though moit of them, 
wandering In ilia mliiy regliim of limta- 
phynifal speculation, have trodden dangar- 
onsly nt-at to iho fatal verge, and there are 
few'mlndt Rtrong enough to follow their 
lenching« with lafeiy. 

Kkv KosKar Wilhov, D.n. 
Atonement. This ward, as ajtplled to the 
great work of CitmitT, has bcon used in two 
Ren*«*, differing nccordlng In the view taken 
oftbo Person of CBKioTand of His relation 
to thn procras of mnn'i lalvation. Those 
who deny the divinity of our Loan Jn^re 
CURitT oomuionly regard the Atonomenl oa 
a mpr« rmtoratinn of fHendly fueling be- 
tween two alienated parties. It is, to uiq 
their own favorite etymology, an "it-tm^ 
tn»nt," — arM«n«U*iifionof IbcC'nKATOR and 
creature to each other. From thii point of 
view, Inasmuch as the Criitob cannot bo 
supponfd to have contributed to the alieoa- 
tio".— and IsnotnuppnWto have railed any 
barrier to the restoration of the oriclnal 
amiciiMo rolalions between Himself and HIi 
rreiitiirf, — inamnuch, therefore, m both tho 
originnl departure and the continued separa- 
lion arc exclutively on the part Of the cren- 
turo, ihp Atonement U regarded as ajirot'cM 
not for reoiricilinKiheCRKATOK to thn creo- 
ture, or the law to the offender, but only fur 
T«conci1lng the creature to the CstATon. 
Awordinc to this view the work of Cbrut 
is reduced to ihe esorciie of a mere persua- 
sory influpiirn upon the crmitiire. Kirvt. 
pCTfluuding him to desire reconciliation, and 
then persuading him to take the steps of 
moral and (piHtual rvform nootuxary forth* 
raatoration of hamiony. Hut in all lhl> 

there is nothing of the nature of erpiatie* 
€tT 'if Katie fart ion r>-ndored for the olIenM. 

But the Holy Catholic Church, while In- 
cluding this persuasor; prooeee in her Idea 
of the Atonement, and undentanding Uh 
language of Bl. Paul (3 Cor. v. 20^ m ai> 
presting it, hnii, from the flnt, inolodd 
much more. &bt> holds that the fltnesaof 
thing!!, their accurali^ a4jualment, the eter* 
nal principles of justice and truth, and the 
permnnant ndUbuing of iIig univnrso de- 
mand that where law has been brolien mom 
adonuate satiafBctJon fur the ofl'en>« shall be 
ronaered, especially where a penalty hit 
been attaehea beforehand to th« inhvctlao 
and made known to those undor ita aa> 

liL ltiacontrarytoJuit)ce,tothaesMntiil 
fltn»$9 of thing*, and to the dienity t^ alt 
law that tliK infrHi'licin of anv law *hooM 
have no evil consei^uenca* for ilte inlVlnger; 
that the reaulte of diaol>cdicnce should be to 
him the lamc as those of obedience. Law 
is something more than a mere indication m 
siiegettion of action. It Is an oMigtUon 
ruU of action, imp4»inji respect for itself 
upon all; not only binding tbeperaon gor- 
pmod but eKisting oa an autborilv in tbs 
universe, the majntenunce of which l>ecom<s 
i>r univertai obligation and intcrcsL To b( 
law in this ttnse It mutt be an en/oreed nils 
of aetion, 

2d. The eontroliimg power of law, — h* 
vatue as an effective refUMlor of action Isaacs 
H8ri^ when disohrdinicw goee unpuniabed- 
Wherefore, when law ia violated, ita rafO- 
Ittting efflcirncy. which is impaired by lbs 
vinUiion, mujit lie Matured by torn* cxpia' 
tory penally. It is for the benefit of all for 
whom lav \* made, the law-breaker biuMlT 
included, Ihul the law shall nut be rendarvA 
Ineffective and ooatemptible byparmlttlnf 
its infraction with impunity. 

This hecomes more evident when thr n*' 
tureof 8ia is oonsidwvd : 1st. "Sin is trans- 
(p-nwinn of Law." 2d. Sin is always the Pfr- 
iponsibln Afrt of a free agent. No being !■ 
resjionsihlo for what he cannot help. Th e t» 
f'.ire sinfulness is our common inherited nfr- 
lure. Bui Sin itself Involves freedom of *&' 
tion,— aetion performed not by com pulsion— — 
however induced through tbn pcmtianive in- 
fluence of mofimu, — but not tha leu freo be— 
oatuetheresultofiuchpomiMion. Hence tbw 
mMonn^ and tha impiirlanonof oflVi>iiiog all 
tnmptation to law-breaking by curreipiind-' 
ing penally. This t« an absolutelv rational 
arrangeniont, and one of univertal applici^ 
lion,— in all worlds and forms of rcaiiontibiB 
existence, — one aduptod to the nature of f^as 
agents, whn, bocause they are fr^>f^, moat 
therefore be abU to break the law, and who 
are therefore to be blndared from doine lo 
not by compulsion, but by the pnmuasoiT 
pnwnrof motives. Thesa motives may be M 
diffi-renl aorta. Tbev may be found in the 
love of the right, or Id tha love of the law- 
makt^. But these motives may be leviii. 
□lately and effectively supported by another, 




, Ui» sppr«b«iuiton of tho avil amst^ufiKt* 
of krekkJDK the Uw. Tlu kUachmeal ot & 
pcaklty to law-brMtkin^ is tbantforQ mor« 
tbaa ■ n)«a«ura at nuUot. It U a punitiva 
in«aiur« of mere)', »lnc« it supjiliei an addi- 
t>on*I jiroteciioD t>f tho univcrto against Lha 
difttarbtng inflnonixt ot UmpUtion and (in 
Irf protecting th« fr«« ageat a^caiiut binitelf. 
1l U, th«rer»r«, r1*o an much a moasura of 
nurcj for ih« Uw-brnak«r a« for th« law- 

Bat la order that s penalty to&y have any 

^bAil vffnct ita «iifiirci.-itiDiii miutlMi oMxartd. 

^Bla U— «quallj tit tliu olber, and Tur the 

^Bm rVMons — a measure of truo morcT u 

^b u of JujtiM,— and for ail — for tba Ikv- 

^raak«r as nell a* for ib« law-keeper. And 

■U tbat might b« mid of th« prot«oiive 

fvwer of an enforced pcnalt/ in the cano of 

lint otfcase would appl; to all luhMquent 

mnHB. Tbe rBtionai4 b the uune. 

Hot wfavra a partk-iilar ponulty b«8 b«en 

uCorcluuid atucbud tu tbe breucb cf a law 

iteMTMit^of tbfl law-m&lieruaUoiuvolTcd 

alUenfomiBont. It ii of course concoir- 

tUt tkBi ibe t«rtns of tbe penally amy h« 

Ifatt tiw law>bre*ker ihall only \m liabU to 

■Miia coiUMLicnco. But wbatcrcr tbe 

lenl tanoi «t the j>enalty, the vcrAuIty ot 

tk« Itw-awJcw rv^uires that tbtpsa ti>rmi bo 

nfand. A poriiiPt tbreut it only a promitt 

i> UMher form. And it 1* a proniisa uirt 

MtfioUrt uoMibla l«w-breiik«r, made with 

tk« mrcirul intfiDl to diit«r him from th« 

eb^but U U a pranlM to tbe rail of Uie 

uifMH alio, wboM p«aoe ia more or leu 

<id^[tr•d by any induction of law. The 

w«l (OforoAment of tha penalty beoomM, 

<b>nlatt,Mi oblij^alion of j(i«fi«, Qfm^retf, 

Tbta ni*n wm placed in probatitm h« 
*■ KU tltat if be sinned he should die. 
jiniaaromi)« on the part of tbePivine 
M>«a£«r,and,ai matlo by Divine wiidum, 
yfc lcb must be betd to bare been in juti 
f*|Min to tbe oBienie. Ilkvine boon 
■^ta fuimiment wai required c>^ ibo 
l*^lylli of ab»olulo ;«*fW,— by the inter- 
*Airtb« nniverao, tnoM of lh« lavi-lir<utk- 
<l| Uta ioclodcd, and by tbe 'ctraeity of the 

itn»Mc«awry, thtrofvrc, from all tU»« 
((^ of flaw, thai luaQ'a uffenite ibuuld be 
T^I'lAcd \ij tbe actual infliction, in some 
^. "f Ibo pronlMd p^malty. And it muitt 
"nWuied tbv th«p«utlty procniaed wiu a 
MUiMani] pttn\tiw»on»- Tnere was tomo- 
Wi| nor* than a nwra auparation fniui 
*Wii»iinpl« ^tetot reiulting /act,— a 
■tt *Wdi «<ntld bt nontralized or tiiin- 
P*)W by another limpla faut, vis., by a 
*Vl briiif;lns together a^ain of tbe aepa- 
"Ujfnrtwt, — an «i-ON«-me»f The penally 
"^ bot ftaty conaaquentlal, but wu alio 
l[»«iTBly funitirt, and was (beroforo»oine- 
VI(aDr*lbaa tb« ofTender could himnalf 
'*j>t« by simply returnitig. Tbe ofTendec 
'"^MiMlBUaU! hiaiJ><<lf Q« mtul D«ed« 
■ *w tB waied. But loMuucb u it was due 


to abtoluta juttir?, n* well n« to tbe ln> 
tercala of the univer^i', that on reinilateriLonl 
shoald take effect whiob ehould leave tha 
sin unpuni*hod or the brohen influcnv* 
uf the law unrepairL>d ur uncompenuted, 
some tulei^uiitecoLUpent>nliDn,orBali*fticlion, 
or expiatioD wu nocMMTy, thai tho law- 
breaking mifht be properly offitct or bal- 
anced, and IDQ shattered iiiHueiice of the 
law it«elf repaired. Could th« tinman t&w- 
brroker mukn Ihi.n expintiun for himself 
either bv subsequent otw^dicnoe or by Buffer- 
ing? Ii« C()u]d not do tbU by tit^aquont 
oicijienfir, inaimucb M there wai itill du9 
frum hitii tuhit CttKAToa a perprtuaUy pep- 
f<K:t acrvicd. All that he could ao, tbercftra, 
ul the Ixi"!, would b« not to break the law 
fc^um. Tliere uould be no room or potaibil- 
ity for (L euiiornbundnnt or suprirtliimi* «or- 
ricc or obcaicnc.e. But not to offend ukaIb 
would offer no saliafuolion fvr tbe i^reticb 
niready committed; nothing but MiiToring id 
tiinh rasa I'uuKl unhwnr tho purpuaa of expU 
ttlion ; and hud the ufft-nder risen frotu his 
firat fault to u continuoiuly perfect obcdi- 
enci: Ihcrvnftvr, it U conceivnbl* that by hli 
sufferings Juiilv« eould have been salisfl^d 
and the law vindioatod, and iU inUurnco 
(utt«ined. But, unfortunately for him, hii 
sin not only subjected him to puDishment, 
hut broiighi In a depravation ol^ his niitura. 
£41) tlmL Irgm tho urst he hu gone on In- 
(^reasing in place of diminishing the filial 
record ncainEt himselr. Uanifutlfi tlttrt- 
t'jrvt hi;, utiu)^ u cvntinituvi offeDdSTi could 
ninku no ■.■ipiittion for hlntieir, either by 
obedience ur by suffering. 

At the stune time It vtu Dot consistent 
with jiuticc that the penalty ahould b« 
bi>rne by one alwolniely unconnected with 
tbeoffenM. Besidea whit^li, t!ir Tu'-raltr hav- 
ing; been dcnoimced Hiiecifi-oally ujxrti tha 
o^nder bimeclf, the vcracilr of Ibv Law 
malior wiw phidgi^ fur ita Inlliclluu upon 
Aim. Bow, then, could expiation bemad«, 
or the reioalatoment of tbe offend-er Acoom- 
plishfid, if neither one himself an offender, 
nor one UQConnecied with the offense, could 
make it 7 

Just hpre an imporlnnt fact muit b* 
noticed. Adam repreaentod tho race of man, 
und his act was a npmenlatitt act. Hi* 
olTutisewiu nra««Hj^MiM,and so tbe peiiMty 
w»s a ract-ptnalty. That this is so is cvl- 
(Icnt from two facts, not to speak of others : 

lit. Tbe whol<j race, «■ a ra««, bare inher- 
ited the laint of Adam's tin. The oas« i* 
not onp oT h rnuhitudo of indtTldual ilnnf^rs, 
but one of n rttee or slack of sinners, in 
whom the sinfulavit in the slock iscongont- 
lal. Tbuni Is ubtulululy never an eset'ptioa, 
2d. Tbe tienally of mortality is equally uni- 
versal Bud congenital. There is no exception 
in roapect to it. It li, therefore, a roM-pun- 

But han l^ain another fact must b« borna 
in mind, vix,, that tbe human tiunily is, 
after all, in a very real sense, only ono'con- 
tinuous perton. Am tho bruohee of a tret 




•re u ptitx of tbc one troe, and u, i>o mutUT 
how loi>f( tbe life >if the tree, it* cuntiDuily Is 
preHrrndjMtlhHt U i>, afYcr bII, but onoand 
ths •nine Ireo, ind lu Ifttett brnncbu %to 
only ft continiiftLion of ihe wood wbich wu 
in it iw A ifliblirig n Imndrtnl T«tri bi^fore, 
to wtUt ttiu Duitian tloclc. Il finji nut bimn 
a •vHa* of 5Ut-uthMV« crutUunii ; il hun 
been but on«coatiiiiii>us, uniatt^rrupted )»- 
dividuftl, at Ivatt w fur a* body and brain 
are «ii)c«rnttd,ai)d to far lU we ta*y huld 
thai meiiiul ftnd mornl qualities ur« inAer^ 
Ueti, TKii way iiicliidit tou uiind wilh iho 
body if) tbiH tiHtcmviit (tbe will ii pcrboM 
the udIv t«parabt« part of the ninn). The 
child bfigini by being a living pari of its 
parent* before it nuta out on ib »wn iRdi> 
nendent career of will. There has never 
been a brenl: qf an interval in tbiB human 
continuitr, and >a, in point of fait, thiTn 
lia* bwtM litf.Tnlly but one HVor-<levL«!oping, 
continuuua humrin being. Itft muiiy lirunLhui, 
however Kparatod after a lime fmin tha 
parent item, am in their ttsrl u Identical 
with the original atook aa are the branchea 
of a tree with iU trunk. 

Thii gn-ftt, continuous, ailMnvnlvIng bu- 
man belnj;, now as many years old w have 
elapsed alnce the ereation, linned aa a 
whalr, wan ifmlnncpd at a \ohoU, and su a 
tnhaU now lies untlrr the [KinuUy uf the Iaw- 
In ibU fact we tind the bcKinning of the 
■otuliuig of our diflic-uUy. To complgto it 
anutber fac-t \* neceuary. 

Thi: MoRi High Oot>, the Son, hj' cauaiog 
Himself to he born of the VirKiu Uary, 
entered into the human ruco and bocamie a 
part vf the fnme. Haviuu tbuB becomo 

Enrt of the huinan Hlock, iJeoould, in 1I3b 
urnun nnttir«, rightfully rcpreaent that 
stock in any traniactlon with Divine Jui- 
tice. Punishment inflicted upon Bioi in 
Hi* human nuture would be puninhniont 
inDiclij'l ii[i<iti Uir buinnn race. Anil an the 
r.ain inflivti^ u|>uii any part uf a human 
body il indicted upon that body ih a whole, 
ao the penitltr inflii-teil u\ioa an individual 
of a race In inflicied upon tha lacc Thua, 
one person might bccunKi proxy for hia mco 
to the avenging Inw. 

Yet It couttnuoualy sinful member of the 
r&ce cotitd not thus stand as proij, seeing 
that he would havn hii own olfpniiea to 
answer for. But onn who had Incurred no 
individual penally might thus, by ittSeriag, 
■tnpil arwrifinj ia hi* meaintrt~tor the <:>t'- 
fensa of hU race, su that iu him hit mi-'e 
tnicht bu punished. 

fiut i:ould any o&epcnoQ adegvaUiy »ton<i 
for a whole race T Could the ta«j«tty of 
tl><< Uw be tbuB auSciently vindlcAled, the 
nerMsilJea of Justice be mnintuined, the v^ 
rmcity of the law-mnkcr bn pmscnred, and 
Uio i'niereau of the univerM) be lufflclently 
guarded 7 

When in human warfare a body of oien 
faaring become lialilc tu punishroenl certain 
of thetr number are telftcled a» repr«aeota- 
tirea of llie ren, the punifbmvnt of ft leader 

i» nccuunied the equivalent of Uiat uf mmay 
private individual)!. Natural resuia avueiiU 
ihii as a principle. But God, the Soir.liy 
taking humanity did not put off U» own 
Divinity, And eo in standinfc proxy to 
Justice for tbo hiinmn race, His value •• &n 
nKamtilu or suhstilutH for other* was in- 
flnitel}' inultiplii^. By bow aiiich a I>ivin9 
victim wns uf more value than » human 
one by so mucb the mere did Kis loffcr- 
ing oxcL-ed III value that of any int<rel^ 
buujan victim in auppKing a tuitabln aati»- 
faction tu the broken taw aiid in r(;&turin|c 
tbe power uf tbt: law it a provcntiv« <^ 
future disobedience, fieiiut a pan of th*' 
human stock, thes(>nlence of the law a^aimC- 
that utock was literally csn-utrd in Him, 
and the veracity of the Law-gtv«r «a« 
muinlained. Being Divine, ma W4U as 
human, i.e., a Divint man, IIv oould ad»— 
(|iinLi-ly rt-prcHent any number uf initiridMals 
ill that ruci!. Tliuft waa solved the riddlw. 
Eternal justice, the true honor and digaiiy 
of law, it* BvaiUbility us a barrior agunsft 
tin, and the truth of Qoo were mado coa- 
sistunt with niaD's salvation. 

Atonement, then, in the sense in wbich it 
U applied by the Holy CatboUc Church to 
th« work of CuttiHT, is the eipiallun offered 
in tbii F(>nion of the Divinv man wherebw 
He {>ut HiniBvlf in lb« place of the real or 
the condemned human face and suffered in 
its stuud. As man, Hv paid the pvnnlty ad- 
judgud against man ; a* Qon, lie gav* 
vblue to tb« subetituttua of Hlmsntf for lis* 
whole race. 

Thuii the Atonement, while includinjp tlk* 
Idc-auf reoont'lliatluti <>r ■^ot-ome-mtt*t," azxd 
indeed involving all the subsequent pr-«.^ 
ccMiM of reconciliation whereby the nffi'iiil im\ 
ia brought to a belter mind and Into h^hj- 
mooy again with tbe I>ivine will, yet 0<^'S- 
laini alio the princinle of a tatiMfaetioH 
dnri'd fur the breacti of the law ; and 
rciTunTH jiaid fur ibe doliver&neo of 

In this lenio tbti aucEent sacrific4w w 
meaaures of aloneinent. They were 
faclluns or ransoms rendered, and belfu 
types of the Atonement of Obb[R, m 
feet theiniclvea, they were said to ettbet 
atonement through Dim for those who 
ferfid iliem. Thus (to amlect one oat 
many paanagee) In Lev. Iv. 8£, il i* 
with re«pect to any oneof th« people 
Rboiild sin and bring a •acriloa, '• The pr -a«t 
shall make an atociemeot for hia ain thkC^ A< 
hath committed, and it ahall b« forgi^^^" 
him." And so of the ncriflce of our Li^^^ 
Jiatifi CiiRiftT, it U said (Horn. ▼. 11)," ^f 
Hiui we have received tbe atonemeat. ' 
Thai Uis Atonement waaooi a mere proodV 
of reconciliation, but an expiation bv nifli*^ 
Ing, is evident trota Epb. i. 7, et «}. .* '' la 
whom we bava redemplJOD thntvyA Hit 
blocd, lliu foiviventw* of sins." 

Correapoiiilcnt to thU view of the Atoiw- 
tnent wa* the language of the Fathera. Ik 
Ulomeut of Komc (a ooatMnporary of th» 





^^^pnsttm), 1 %fut. vti. : " Let a» look stand- 
^asBtly lo th« kloodnf CliKMT. . . . *bcd fur 
fi^^ur mmWmtian." Epiit. St. Bumabiu (a verv 
j^i irljr document), cb. v. : "Tbo r-Mnlseion t^f 
^ins vrhich ia twclod bv HU blood ot tpriaV- 
>^>ng." TgnkUua kJ Smyrn.,Ti.: *' If ttiey 
i^^ctirve nol in Die bioml of Cqhiat (Ibf^) 
I^Aftll incur ovudciuitfttion." Kptit. ad UU 
^ pgat to im, ii. : " li» (God) took on Hiin iha 
M«wden of our tiiiquiti«« ; tie gnvo Hit Som 
^^^Aift ft roiuiwi ior a>." Juatin Mitrlrr, 
^^^^■kTrynfa., iziii,, ifMiitka of Cbkibtu 
^^^^■r«rea orer to dentA bg Ood for Ota 
^tf^ui^TtMiont of the poopU.'* 

Ttn tboT* HrnoBly u f«wip«ci(nen«of the 
ut nuu* of jiatrUtic latimoHjr to iho doc- 
inn titld bv th« Holy Catholk Chureli 
_T«>B ibi« oabJKt aod conflroiftlopy of the 
^<!» wv have prasentHl. 

Anribulcs of Ood. Thrac chKntcl^ri*- 

%*a lir which w* cftn ncaeniza Him And 

Ui> waling witb u«. "Hb proponv u 

■l»«n to b>«« M«rcy ;" Jutlico u ■iiotbor ; 

LmtU mora propurlv Ilimiclf. Holinew, 

OmpMrioR, Omni[ioteni'«, OmDipmeuoe, 

m MrfbnUtt. In ehort, in the Divina 

Mm^ •Uies w« cftonol cAmprehend it in 

htl^ wa cut onlj recognize aitributea. 

IkcMnay be groupvd into thoie irlatinglo 

Si DUun Abaotuttly, and tbM« di*p1ayf4 

kMfdau. Of the flnt ve may recite UU 

fcilfK4aar«, Bm Onini*i.-i«nci*, HU Onini- 

IIMaoe, Hu WUdirni, Hi* Truth. Of thv 

^U, ir« naj recite UJi Juattce. Uia 

Jbnf. Uii Lot-e, His Comntision. These 

(n frtdvntly purt of the Divinu Euor». 

^n n>«xui IB Him mnit are loieparable 

^W Oini, but tbev am all Gogniznble hy 

*i nd ID our own uoaidod ipcnilationi) 

^■BRfiing tho I>iTJD« natur« are forced 

ftKanir raco$;nition beoame there It loine 

jUil tiMiat«rpart in ouroHD hiimHn nature. 

^«J a» ao nianr cord* to draw iw to the 

**iiim Dature. Yet while they ci^'uiit and 

"^^ iHrpvabla frum Hb Xatance, it h Rome- 

^vinyaRire, a> our m>u1 I* an ewrncv known 

■o H h^our c«[NKitiea, yt% it i> tanititliirig 

*<«. TherftloH theee leraral allribules 

^^a bhvt in lb« vvr? naiUM of tioK ucid 

«*)o^ tu any conevptloii we Mtn form of 

*'lin j«l do not dcM-nbo Uu full nnturo. 

tien. Ad attempt hy the schoolmen 

•• an*Iy»ls of repentance led to a too 

■Jid untenable Mriea of subdiviiioiic. 

laii U dvftned to bo I be Urtt iit«p tn- 

re^iii«T»ce. It ia akin tu ibe world!/ 

I* which woTheih death ; not a (orro* 

^W ahMa imm a baU«d of *ln, but a •urrow 

fcwa Um corif*^uencet of tb» act. It ia a 

■KpWwards tnio repfniairce which yot may 

*>Hr ha Bttainod. Ai n preliminary pArt 

I* the mHh of a«u in the heart of the tinner 

hiCng la a tnM hearty r«peniann, the dis- 

I'KUoa U uirfut •nough for the tkeulogian, 

W it !■ a vary danferaua iUfeeaiion to the 

i»;nf(ctly taught laymaD, tnore wfHiciaily 

•»<■ tba Ccuocil of Trent (Scat. «iv. v. 4, 

^ p«alL) taught t^t eoDtiitlon, oonfeatlou, 

«ntl nalUfaction wpm »tifflcii>nl, maktni^ooD- 
Irhiun comisi in tbu trirrors of a itrioken 
iM>nii:tcnci!, ami a faith ihut the sina of th« 

Scnilcnt are forKlvcn by Cukibt. It it evl- 
iiat that thin li l)Ut a partial iiaivmtjiit made 
mora fully and aci--urBtely elsewhero, but 
certainly [as thli is a caaon complete in 
ittfolf) very mistakenly hvm, linco ine other 
teaohlnt: would ha loweroj to thi*. not ihU 
]ift«i1 up t'> miMt th« truer definition, 

Autoccphali. ThoH Metropolitans who 
•mr.xr. not unijer a Patriarch wore cnllcd 
Autoccphali. Such vera the Archbishop of 
Cyprus W the exprass rvcognttion of t]i« 
Oetinral Council of Eplitaiu, 431 *.d., and 
tho ArchbkhujH of Ilul^ria aitd OL-orgin. 
The Urilish Archbishop of Catirleon upon- 
TJsk wfiM uliio autocvphaluus. 

Ave Maria. The ealmatiun uf die An(;el 
Gabriel U> the Virgin Marv at ibe Annun- 
ciation (St. Lake i. '26). The wordi of th« 
aneel were simply "Hall I thou that art 
biebly favored, the Loiii> is wilh the*. 
Bl«ned art thou ninnn^ women." Tha 
oiodern Koitian itivui'Mtion fulitiwiiig lb* 
TulgDte roa<I«, " Hail Mary t full uf grnce," 
than add* from the (aluiniionof f^t. £Uza- 
hotb, "bleued ait tbuu amonu women, and 
blessed is tho fruit of tby womb." Th« Brat 
part came Into use About U9fi A.S., as is 
teen from the iDjuuctioos of (Jdu, Blibop of 
Pari*, Hi thnl duu-. Its univeral W9 was 
ordorrd by Urban IV. (1^61 x.D,), together 
wilh the addition of ElizjihBtb's salutatiun. 
Later yeta precatory, " Holy Mary, mother 
of God, nray for us now and at tbu hour ot 
our dealt)," wua added and ordered to be 
used, in the Breviary of Piua V. (IMWa.D.). 
The flr&ti-lauM was in use in Eiigliiud. but 
Df>t the second, till nearly the data of the 
Beforoiation, and tho precatory additloti 
never And In the " limtituttoD of a Cfaris- 
tian Man," 16S0 a.d,, the preachers wi;re 
enjoined to tnaoh that it wu no prayer, 
but that it was a laud and tbonksifivinif 
for our LUKV'K birth, wilh a rctnctiiornno* 
that the Virgin humbly subniitled and ba> 

Aiyme. (Uolcaveued bread.) Tho oon- 
trovursy between ibe Greek and Itoman 
(Jburcbei upon the use by the latter of un- 
iMTcned bread in the Euubarisl. Tbu carli- 
eet use waa that of unleavened brcuil, and 
was so for Hveral centuries (vid< OBtA- 
TlOMa), but th« Roman Churrh grsdiinlly 
fell frnln Lh« use uf liwened brnnil iil'ti-f 
th« cliMO of ihe ninth eenUiry. Tlie Grt-ok 
Cburch hiu always umkI leavened bread. 
When, then, tbe various oausea of division 
came to » fncoa about lOM A.D., thi) use of 
unlearened bread beoanw a bltur part of the 
fbrioui dispatM which raged overtbedlSW- 
«nco and wronnofthe two CburchM, and 
it coulinucd lo %e a sertotu subjvc-l of con* 
trovetvy fora long time. { Kub If eale's In- 
troduction to the History of the Eastern 
Church, vol. ii.; Hcudimors'sNotlUaKucha- 
liatica, pp. 74&-G6.) 




Baal. (Lord.) The nune of a ddtv wur- 
shipcd among the Semitic peoplet or Sj-ria 
and Haopolamia. It ii Ideutiucd witli tbu 
Babylonian Bel. Tb« Baul-wonhiji Inla 
wlitcli Uie laraeUt«i fell when "Ihey joined 
llieuiftclvo* to Uaul-poor" when tomulcd bj- 
tlio Moabitce, clung: to them till laic In 
ihelr history. The mlDor prophets nri;> fiill 
of wfcrencM to it, Hnd, in fact, IhsT worti 
onlr curin] of it wlieii finully all idofiitruus 
tendonciM wer« crushed out by the Bubylon- 
iao cBplivity. 

Balaam. Thofaiuuiupiaiibat who tlea^ 
Itrunl (NiUD. Jixiii. and xxiv). The whole 
hiitury of his contact with Itriut) i« recorded 
in ihcib two cbaptorg, vi-itb a Dcoawary itlgbt 
reference to bin Iti a later chapter. Be ap- 
pean ^om the Ant u a urophet of Oou, Knd 
M acU and iaiinenlitlca in thr Bibl«. It i* 
not the place hera to ent«r iato lh« ques- 
tion bow much knowk-dce of Qou the 
heathen rwlly hud, and bow far Ho 
choM to liavo Hiroiulf wUu(»s«d tu among 
thcoi. For any kiiowlvdge giTen to ihcm 
would be pGTVflrted into polythuiMlic teach- 
ing. Tbu ]ii(tory of fialiuLiii io thort, but 
very iiititruutiro. Balak, the king of Moab, 
■eudi for bim to come lo curse the paMing 
hocla of Israel, " for I wot that be wbuni 
thou bleasGft U bteised, and be wbom tbou 
curwat is curved." It is not nei^eunry to 
fUppOM that the reward* nf diviiiatiun in 
tbn hands of the eldcm of Uuab were any 
Other than lb« usual and courteous gifts 
from a prince to a prophet (e/. I Sam. ix. 
7-9). Balnara, deairoua to go, still fn- 

Iiiirtd of fioD whether he could go. The 
rOKi> forbade him, "for Ibouiball not curse 
the people, for titey aiw bteuod." The 
prlneca returuMl to Balak with the mea- 
Mg*! but Balak, unwilling to let the 
prophet put bim off, as he tlumghl, sent 
Other and more honurablQ ambafsadors. 
Bftliam itill profeased utter inability u> act 
without permiMton ^m the Lord. Thu 
permisiion wni conditiunitl,— " if thu nit^n 
come to call thee." Of this call nothing is 
said, only, " BaliiMm rote up curly in thu 
morning and saddled hia uu and went with 
the princes of Moali." Ilia willful conduct 
brouffhl upon him the terrible rebuke, — 
the dumb ate, speaking with man's voice, 
(brbade the madneM of the prophet. Doubt- 
less thebiibe of political honors held out to 
Balaam was really irresjilible, and wm, a-i 
we ktiiiw, yielded lo. hut he was at leoal 
nominalty obedient to tbe iuHpirntion of 
tioD. llpipittt BHlak'i entreaty bo bUiacil 
thv people, adding bU prophe^-y of the M ta- 
slAtl, "There shall romeastar auiuf JacHih 
fend a Mcplre shall rise out of Israel." It 
le not neceasAry to suppose that heeould un- 

derstand how far his prophecy raached ; tbal 
he thought it only |H>1itk-Hl is clear fnimtlM 
next vorvee : it* spiritual truth was tMtyoad 
his ken. After ttiii Balaam raturnod hofne^ 
but with the MidiHnila princes — who wen 
leagued with Biilnk (Num. xxii. 4-7>— he 

Allotted the Uoentlous feast into which Isreel 
ell, and for which Motes Inflict^ a fearfbl 
rcngeanca. Ilalaam hinuelf thushalp«dte 
brinr on a mumontary fultlllment of bit 
nropbecy, " Ho shjitl smite thA coroen ef 
Moab and dnlrny all the children of Sbeth." 
He fell hi tbe buUl« that bmko the power ef 
the Midlanites (Num. xxxL 1-10). HItis 
a very fa»clnnling liiBtury. A propbeA ef 
Goo though a hc^tthcn, usinc this InflneBOl 
for lempornl good amung till people, aub^ 
lious, self-willed, vain o? bis pollUcal ■»• 
gncily, bi& was a character of minelad ela^ 
and gold, and was strong and weak in pro* 

f?Ttion. N(;t above the Ideat of hit dty in 
!> surruundingii, though as prophet of tbe 
One Qao bolding the duo to faighar prin* 
ciplot, ho probably deemed hit counsel to 
the MidifmLtci a stroke of real policy, and 
did not at all enter Into the peculiar purposM 
of UuQ in tbe separation of Israel from 
among tho Gentiles. This was far beyond 
all be had over learned of UOD'fl merciAll 
dealings with men. Sharing the polltictl 
views of hLs tribe, he fel) from the pure 
height into a sin that brought him under 
tbo cdeit of the sword. He is a Ifpo ot a 
l&rce human nature touching many sldat 
and appealing to our sympatbiot. In tnuy 
rasiiects. Loo, n« typiftu t lie oharacter which, 
rising abovi> demagugism, yet does not rank 
above the trickery of tho politician whea U 
bai tbe opportunity to become a ttateemuk 

Bui as uiiu of tbiite permitted to propheaj, 
no matter how obscur«iy, yet to propheay 
of CnniaT, and to leave this prophecy among 
his people, which Anally should bring the 
wise men to the cradle of tho Sur of Jacah, 
Balnam cliiimnof us a special attention. It 
was not nrcBuary that beihould understand 
tho full reoL-li of 'bit profihecy, but aaaoredl/ 
be understood miicb i<f its political bMriag, 
und, Lliorefurv, ti luldud to hEs respunslbBlty 
in bis nfter-Bciiun, To lu it Is a proof ibal 
tiOD did not leave Himself without witoeei 
anionir tho Oontites. 

Bands. A part of the clerical draa* tbit 
has now almost entirely faltrn into dittu*. 
It is a rrmnnnt of Ihi- ancient amtee. la 
reality it !a n pari of tin- full dreaa ttyr lav- 
yen, iis well u cleigymen in tbe Snirliib 
(IJiurch, but there, as well as bore, it la 
hardly ever to be seen. 

Banners are of Iste origin. In Iba Bible 
the " banner" appears to have bc«n merely 
B pole with tome device upon h, as a rallying- 




point tvT ibe aqiuidrDD (or worked lata tlie 
Mil of th« Bhip if uaod at tea). It vu not * 
ita^, wbatcrer itandinl* wero used. Bab- 
Hnic»t writers sUlo that the ttand&rdt for 
tba fiDur divisions of tb* iribM upnn their 
marcli {Namb. ii.) were, for Jiidan, a, lion; 
tor Reuben, ft mAn ; for Ephralm, an ox; 
br Dmo, an <■«)«■ Bat this is mere tr&di- 
iJon ; min|mri>, nowt>var, ihn Vinion of Ez«- 
tiel (ch. X.) and of tb<! Hav«taticin (cli. iv.). 
But iba li«ti[i«r, u a flat;, belunp rather to 
ib» Ag* of Chivalry, and i* a heralillc stand- 
itd, Mid lo it p«*H.-d intu Cburub usage. 
rfcin y DO autboriz>tloo for lis use in our 
larvicca. In the Sunday^cbool celebration* 
[i Kttpi^rs to hn Qu'M appropriate, and c«r< 
t^nly mo«t uniibjeclloDable. Banncn wer« 
fitrm*rlf a pari of iho acoustomiKl orna- 
vcnta of tha altar, and w«re sutpendnd 
o«ar iL 

Bftiini; Banna of HarrltKC- Tbo word 
^bft&B"oo4iiM from tbn lyowLutin, signify- 
ing lo nroclaim an ndict; beaoe tfae edlut 
SI prodamatiun itscK, and Ibencc. in Lhe 
CkBTGh,a proclamation of inarria£« iMlween 
|V1M than and there named. Tbo publi- 
■lisaof baniu of inarriaf^e is not required 
it lUi oanatTj, tbougb tba custom U in 
Hupbeea atill ouricd out, 

Th focm la England 3s as follows : 
Aftw tbe second tesson, at morning praver 
(srif tbsn b« no morning prarer atevtining 
prajts), for tbr«« lu^Te^a^8undaJS previouB, 
''diffutalAsbsIl Ear, aft«r tbo accustomed 
■auMr, I publiib the banns "f uiarriagv 

UtawiM.of and N. of . ff 

ttjtt jou know cause or Just imrwdiment 
wl^lkiM two MrsoR* sbotild not be Joined 
tifwar to boty matrimony, ^e are to do- 
riBilt. Tfali ts tbcfli9t (second, or tbird) 
teisfwking." But now marriages maj- 
■ha W ealebrat*d witbout «Sl.h«r bsnns or 
tlMHOfDn production of the superintend- 
o'niMfw'i oertifl«st«. 

Bifdaai. On« of the two groat sacra- 
Wah "nnerallv nec«asuT to salvation," 
"BKltfosd by Ohbut Himseir- (tuU Sac- 
tAMtn)m a means of Initiation into Ui* 
Chanli, sad >■» sign of regeneration or 
"»Mnb" (Arlicl*..f Religion XXVII.); 
■MTlbj' wf krc made " members of C1IKI8T, 
difUnii of God, and beirs of the Kingdom 
rfH^Ttn" (Catoehiam). 
I Inaniuderiog baptiam we shall set forlli 

K(Ain« bULorjr of iLa sacrament; (b) tbe 

■ iMi«ud sien and manner of admini*tra- 

■ Snn; [0) The Covenant: (1) the inward 

■ V*f, i'i) tbe conditions required of those 
*k*H<u; (d) bv wkon and to whom ii is 

_(*) Tbi HtSTORT.— The washing wiUi 
*>>v H an emblem of purity wa* ^ wry 
Mt^Mt origin himI of general use. It u 
yrtilly lo b« found suKing Eastern niLlious. 
ClHIiai wrttT*. bolb Greek and Latin, fr&- 
4MiL!r it as ■ means of purltlca- 

BMtv-: <;,r saorifi4^«s, and of remov. 

ac«»ii-jniB> uiioleannass. (t$ae Smith's 
iDicUocisu-)'.) I 

In the SCusatc Kitual washing or iNitbing 
in water is coofUmlj- [iTescribed as a means 
ofoeremontul purlficatioii. ffumerouaattch 
oommanda are found in tbe Pentateuch, 
botli for the priests and tbe people. Thus, 
before going into the nanctuary tho pHesU 
were lo wash their hands and their feett 
"thRt the; di«d not" (Bx. zjcx. 20). For 
this purposR, and also for washing the ves- 
sels nnd thing* used in t1ii< siM:riilr«ii, Moses 
wa* orderwl to plaice a laver of lini*« bo- 
tween the altar and tbo taberuadi-. Soltr- 
mon made Urn Invert and " a mollon sea" to 
be put before the Temfilo (2 Chron. Iv. 1- 
6), It is these divers washings that are r** 
ferred to In Uiirk rli. 1, and Ileb. iic 10; 
in both places the Greek word being "Baji- 
itsms, " 

Thai the diHsp spiritual signiAcation of 
tbe ceremony was undertLood aniiiuirs from 
many passagsi of tha Old Teftaaent: 
" Inasb me uioruughly from mine inioaity 
and cleanse me froia my sin" ^P*. 11. 2) ; 
>>I will waih mine hands in innocency, 
U Lord, and so will I go to Thine altar" 
(Ps. xxri. 6}: "Wash thine heart from 
wickednen" (Jar. iv. 14). 

Jttwinh wriuin of a lati>r date tell us that 
pruaelytei from the heathen received a hap* 
tism aa well as ciroumcisioo as a sign of 
Llia putting awny of tbe old Itfo and admis- 
siun Into the new an Qou's people. 

It fs evident that the idea of spiritual 
puriflcAtion wai in tbs minds of tbo Jews 
connected vltfa washing or haplbro. And 
thus we can understand the readiness with 
which tboy csmo to John " proaching tho 
baptiim Of repentance for rcmlwlon of 
sins;" and that they 4t first saw In him tht 
promised MEsstAB, who was to bring r«- 
mi*sinn of >in*. And when he denied this, 
Lhny nalunttly asked, " Why bsptiMat ihou, 
then?" His answer point^ to the higher 
baptism of which hi* wa» tbo preparaliOD, 
the bnptlsin of wutor and of tbe Sfibit. 

When the Christ instituted baptism aa 
the great sncramont of forEivcnMn nf sins, 
and initiation into His Cburcb, He only 
odiipted an old oustom well knnwn to tha 
>}ews and other MOple ; though in so doing 
He gave it a wiser use and deepur meaning- 
It doe^ not appear that the CUkisT Uimaeli 
ever baptised, but His dilciplM did; tbo 
cbaruL'U'r of tbli rim I* not described. After 
Hb resurrection the oummlssion given lo 
the Apostles is clear: "Go ye therefore and 
teach (make diseiplca of) all nations, bap- 
liEirg them" (Matt, siviii. 1»). And it is 
very certain that the diiriples undontood 
tbab Ibis rile was the" uutwurd visible aEgn" 
of rentstion of siu and reception into tbe 
Church, CnaisT'a Body. Furwhcni'vor men, 
convinced by their preaching tbalj sacs was 
tlieSoKof tioD, the Ukmus, asked," What 
*tiAll wo do ?" tbe uniform answer was, " B«- 
pcnt and bo baptised for the reulssloD of 
»in», and ye shall receive the gift of the 
Holy UKoar" (AcU ii. 38. See also AcU 
viii. 12, S6 ; s. 47 ; ziti. 16). Thus baptism 




Nor had mnr a richl U> Mtunie 
til admitted iiit«i tno Churdi b; 

ttiuk tho plac* of rircnaivlkivti u tb« meaiu 
of rotering into oavetiant with God, and U 
ill vho ««re circumciiiHl wen cftll«d Ura- 
elilM, to all baptized penont ««re called 
Ctriniam. " ■ * 
the nameDtitil 

It t« unndMBiary to ahov fiirtbcr ibml 
from tbe Apofiolic timwi iMii'iiBm ha* l>««u 
nignrdfd bv tliti Church u tsaonlial. How- 
FVfrr thev maydifl'triu lu lit lurunhig niiil 
Eriudee o'r adtuiniftrntion, all "who iirofou 
kaii mil tbDiii«i-lv«it cbrUliiiu" agree in tbU. 

(n) Thb Outward 3ia«t axd Masmkk 
or ADUtxitfTRATtox. — Tho Cat«chi*m 
tCKCbei lliHt " lh« outward vi«iblft nign <>r 
form In baptUm" ts "water, wtierein the 
perwon U baptized, In Ihr. Xamt of tJu 
Fathkr, and nf th» .HOK. and of t/ie Ifot.Y 
QBObi." Two tbin(^, tiien, uro to be con- 
eid»red. tlia watkh Bud ibc iroiu». 

[I] Tbnt wATBii ii an «H«ntfaJ part of 
bjLpiimu «e learn fhim the words of our 
LoiU> to NioodaiDiu: " Exmpt n man b<.- 
born of watar, and of the Spirit, he cAiiriot 
enter Into the tuni;doin ot Goo" (St. John 
iii.fl). So hImi St. Poter after lIiBlth* Holt 
Okokt had fallen upoa Cvrnaliu* and ttioti^ 
with hit)], xnid, " Can any man TorUid wat^r, 
that these should not be baptised?" (Aou 
I. 47). And tbo tmitimony of tho Church 
U (o cirjir u» to tliw TiuTt, and it U one uti uni- 
T«r*all; admilled, that it t» unaoceMikry to 
take up tpaeo with quot«tloni froin'tlie 

Bui while there i^ no doubt as to the use 
of water in thi* <iHcranienl, iheis ii a differ- 
once of opininti nnd cunlntn u lo the mode 
of admiiiMmti<.''n ; whether it chould be by 
tprinktintf, or pr/uring, or itnnitrtton. 

An rwearda tprinkling, ibciugh it mav Im 
regarded aa valiJ, yel i« it irregular, tliFre 
bemg no authority for itt u». Tho rubric 
in the oIBl-o id the Aniericmi Praycr-Bouk 
order* that tbe minlater tukiii^ the child 
"^■hall dip It in the wiiterditcrcolly, or shHll 
ptmr water upon 11." In tho Knell*hi>ftiMi 
tbere are two rubrics, the llrel order! dc dip- 
p\ng in ihe water dti>cre«t)y nnd warily, 
"prtividitd (hut lti» ipRnMira stiall Cfrriiiy 
that tbe i-bild may well endure il." An- 
other ndda, "but if they certify that the 
child U wcnk, it »hall tufflcu to pour water 
upon It." The uine direftlon \» given for 
tue bapliBm of adulti. Thai our Church 
■ Daw* m valid and regular either " dippine" 
or "potirlnff," giving prect-dence to ue 
former. HTuiii uyi (Annotated Prayer- 
Booltj: ■' There cao be no tjui.'xlion that af- 
ftulon, if thoroughly perfonned, it nniplvauf- 
Boieat for Ihe due admiaiatrotion or tbe 
■Borament of bapilam. In *ucb a clitnata a« 
oun, will) nich halriU *» tbuMi of mudern 
time*, and all Ita cootcqiicncea omlderod, 
the dipping of infant* could seldom be 
■eealy, and would often be attended with 
danser The * weakncw' nf the rubric may 
Justly be iu»Kitn«d u the nannikl condition of 
infante brought up under hucL conditiona." 

Thus piMrinff the water ha* ootae to b* 
with lu the usual foim of Hdminiattatiea. 
but great care should bo taken that water be 
pour«d fVeely ''ver the bend of ih<^' child or 

Eerson from ibe hollow of the ministet* 
and, so thai there may bo no po»iblp duubt 
of 11m! attunl contact of th« water witli the 
Mfson. To insure thii no covering akoold 
OS retwnad on tlm lirad at that lime.. 

Trine Imuiernan,—i.e., the dipping or thi 

iiuuring of till.- wuiur at tbe naming vt eaeh 
.'enon of tbo Trinity, makine: throe times.— 
ibouKh nut orderi^ by tbo rubric, is a very 
Biicieni custom , worthy to be observed ai 
leaching the doctrine of the iloly Trinity, 
and rcMerlng more coruin ttiecont«cl with 
the water. 

1ht4tt tmmtrwion. — As rsgaids this, which 
some bold to lie eueaLlal tohapUMu, we have 
seen that the Church doea not re<|Uir« it. k 
she ri^btin allowing this discroboD? Tbora ' 
appoart little dv'ubt that the usual cuatom of | 
the early Church was to lead tbe eaudJdale I 
into the water and thore dip him three times 
while repeatinje the prMcribod formuls. 
And It is ureed that St, Paul alludes to thM I 
in L>i« well-known text, ■* Therefore we ue 1 
buripd with him liy Mptism into death" < 
(Itutu. vi. i}. Too much stress has btsa 
laid upon an argumentdntwa frona ftroEs- 
livo patsagu, friiiii which, if the whole lis 
thus taken liternllr, we uiii(kt alau prors , 
Ihal we ought to be eruoilii:^ as he wia 
i>oubtlMs there ii hero an allusion to tha-^ 
usual mannc-T of Inptising, but aearcely ja ~^ 
tended us nmking it essential. Prom oUIV 
dranini;s in tbe catacombs at Rome, k aT^^ 
prnrs that the candidate wo* Inl into in-^ 
water, and he standing Iherei the watff w«»4 
poured over his head. But ercn if total iucr« 
nionion generally obtained in th« miw^2 
Church, it never wa* considorod essenti^Bb^ 
What waa cjilled eiinie toysltsm, or the b«^S 
tisin or Ibu nick and weak, was hy pouri«::»t 
so aUu whure water was scaroa, as in pri^^O 
or in the desert, and tfaeso were held so v^k^l4 
thnt Ctinrin' wore pawed forbidding the ^T^ 
buplixtnf; of such. t 

If we turn to the New Testament, wt 9- ^^ 
that in many of the instances there reoor^S^ 
iiniiiuTiion would have been highly Impr-^'' 
able if not inipoMlble. Uow could •■**3 
ihrco iliouiand baptited on tbe day ^' 
Poiili-cuit, or the Qvu thousand afierwuT^* 
added, hare been immersed in Jeruaalem, ' 
Nor is il probable that the jailer of Pill' 
lippi could have been immersed in fb* ' 
prison. The woni baptised doe* not sl> 
ways mean immersion; "the bapLiaiDg of 1 
tjkUe*" (Mark rii. 4), and the <*aivecshs|te 
ttxincs" of the law. were really wuhiau 
The isrssiites " were baptised unto Moaesla 
the cloud and in tbe sea" (1 Cor. i. '1). Tel 
they went over dry^od ; tbe Egyptians, 
indeed, were immoraed. St. Peter aba d^ 
elarce baptism to be the ■■ figure" of (literallj, 
antitype, i.e., "that wblcn correspond* to 
and was figured by") the salvation of Koab 
in the Ark by watnr ^1 Pelcr iii. 31). Yet 



Ifoab WM» biim« upon tb* water, and niuiisd 
upon trttm bearen ; he vu ni>t Iininened, 
•■ were lb« nnbelievvn. Great kItom hM* 
^•wi lal^ upon the i>«ruuiit uf tliu bupti&m 
ef the Minucb (Acts viii, 38J ; " And tti4>y 
wcmt down bnlb into iho wat^Tr, hulh I'lnlip 
ftud ili« Minucii; and h« baptisad him. 
And wb«o tfaey wer« oomv up om of th« 
w^t»r." fte But tbit r*a1ty pnivM nothing, 
Bxcept. indeed, the necusiitr i>f «nt«r. Fdi-. 
■rat, tb«> Ureek wnrdt traaslat«d " into" and 
"out of" {m und a), mean aUv tb« plHCa 
lowKrds wnlL'h and from which there 1« 
motion; Mcond, one may "_i[o down into" 
umI •' eoniA up out of" a'wator withoDl im- 
mwlR^ tbe irh<tl« hudv ; and, third, If total 
itprner«iMi bs moant, llien miivt rhilip the 
DilnUtvr an w«ll a* tfa« eunuch h»vv: bean 
Etn(i)er»«d, for it rmda, " thuT w6ut donrii 
both into the wat«r." vhkh provM too 
Biuch. yi'^\ )>roljubt]r both ilandinE in ihn 
water, Philiti lakinK up ib«r«ur En bla band 
Dt III a To*>«l, bHptis«d by puuring ovar the 
BJd of the eunuch. 

B^e Msert, tb^n, that Scripture Hnd the 
Ohareh priw<'nbr nulhing «« lo di* prpcisp 
VBanocr rif iidminitlpring the wal«r of biip< 
K^i- It » therefore on« of tboee ceremonica 
■Jid ritw whicb may h> changed by partio- 
olav Churcbe* "•owurdiny b> the dtvenlty 
of coantriea, time*, and men'* munner*, sci 
Kkal aothing be ord*in«d aeuin<t Gou'tt 
-Woid" (ArL XXilV J. 

{2i Ths Form or worim. — About thi* 
ID be no disput«. The Hipping in or 
irinr on of water muiL itp. kdcsjoi- 
i by tEe wurdfl iiitBcribed by our LoiU> ■ 
(in fAf y«me of tAt i'ATUXR, on-^ of th< 
t>i, amd 0/ fA«'BoLY OROftT." Without 
«^a« no h«pti>m b valid, " for tbeae are ee> 
•ntttl part* of baptjeni." (.See rubric «t 
«*d«f "PrlTate Baptlini of Children.") 

Bat what is meant by " Baptixing in the 

Aiaw"T Not only by the authority of, lu 

Bksiiabten), though this ie meant, but ttXtn 

■a4 •penally " into the aanie," at it ahould 

^ItuulatM. 7aT >' thii naino'' trai put for 

Iktthiait itMlf: thui, "UU name Bhall be 

cllM Jntra (SAVioiTK),f.,r Uvuhull »avo;" 

"Ilty )haU <-all Hi* name Kuuahdkl,'' 

«Be ii "Cob with ui. " Tho sacred name 

fttDu, Sow, and IIot.T OiiOBt in pni upon 

'Wbentinid, an that of JehotaB wan upon 

■Mwldren of Uracl (Sura, vi. '11 ), whereby 

jW VH« made a noiy, ucculiar people. 

• w to tiH bapiiciM) Into *' the name" nieanii 

'eUllw Uuly Trinity, for " the name" of old 

^ttOoD IJim«cir' Ml tn tb« rerelatloD to 

J|*afroin the httrninj; bueh the natne I Am, 

■ Qoti. Theroftire the Uebraw* always 

9*A| Biib the deepett reverence of Tbk 

*On, It wai not " to be tahen in vain ;" 

"bww WM to bootferod to it;" "In it 

annn to trust." TIk- uld TeiUment Is 

Mef aocb eipreiuloDs, by which we learn 

*J»l"T^e Naiac" ii ( Joi) Ilinuelf, or, r»th«r, 

"• fweUlion of Goo. To know Gors 

I li to know Hini ; to do anything by or 

BaSM It to do it by or in Uiin. So 

alw in the Now Traitamont wk read : " Hal- 
lowed be Tby Name ;" " His name, tbrougb 
fallh in Hie name, bftth made thii man 
*iroTig;" "At the name of Jiatta eTery 
kneo should bow." And Dumeroua teita 
can bcr quiit«d where the name Ot Juos i* 
put for UiniMlf. 

Therefore, whgn He whose name is Bu- 
MANL'xi., "Goi>,with 111," i* about to Keod 
fnrtb Hia racwengers to deliver men from 
bondage to tin ana death, of which thftt of 
^eyp'' 'wu the type, He ipwlci to thnn from 
Uie riien body, dead, yot alive, leelng no 
corruption, of which the Buih was the em- 
bletn, nnd eirea thorn Hi* new name to be 

Sut tipoo Uii people, h H« did of old to 
loaea, — a new name eipreating the fiiller 
r«v«]alion of HimMlf, " Pathkn, Bun, and 
Hot.r On06T," not three natnas, but one, 
for He Bay* not into the namee, but into the 
Name ezprcuing the unity of the Godhead 
in the Trinity of the Pi»rt«ni. Thia Holy 
Name Is to boiaid over them, and into union 
with this Holy Trinity they are by baptliia 

Thi*. we remark in paMiog, i« ako in 
briof thocroed uf the Churrh, a* taught in 
our Oalecbiun. Porall ConfeuiouAofFaitb 
ar« enlargement* or dsTolopmenU or ex- 
pijinat!un> of thii dlriii^sly-given formula. 
With what reverence and aweahould it be 
rcgardiid 1 

[c} Tat CoTRyAjrr.— Ai under the old 
dispentation God made a covenant with Hi* 
people whereby they wvro made Hia, oir- 
cumciiioD being the outward «ign and ical 
Ulureof, ao baa He made Lh« new corenaat 
in •fceD8(H«br«wM xii. 24), wbervof baptian 
it the outward Kign aiid pludee. This waa 
foretold by the prophet Kxekief: " Then will 
I sprinkle clean wator upon vou, andyc aliall 
be^lean; fr«m all your flUiiIn<aa and from 
all your idol* will I cleanse you. A new 
hi^art sl»o will I give yoii, anil a new apirit 
will I put within you, aiid I will lake away 
the Etony heart out of your fleth, and I will 
givo you an hourC uf fldh" (Eaok. xzavl. 
26, 26). 

In this covenanL there are the two parties, 
God and man. What OoDolTon is entirely 
a free ipift or f;race from Hiui ; He nnnezee 
to it* mcnption Mioh condilinn* a* He may 
please, but tlier are in no way uf the nature 
of an equivalent; man cannot punihasa 
thom ; so St, Paul wrilsA, " By grace are ya 
•aved through fallU ; aiid that Dot of your- 
selves it i» tfaa gift of God: not of world, 
lent any men should boaat" ( Kph. ii. 8), We 
are thus led to consider, flrit, Oot>'s part, 
nod, tevnnil, man'* jMri in the ooveoant 
made In hapU'ni. 

[I) Thr Ixward Gback or B*PTtaM. 
— Tbe Catcchifm doling this to be " a death 
uiito alii, and u now birlU uutw rigbleous- 
ne** ; for, being by nature born In sin, and 
ibe childroo of*wrmth, wa arc hereby mad* 
the children of erace." And the child la 
taught that in baptism it " was made % 
Dteuiber uf Chrut, the obild of tJoD, and 

an loharltor of tha kinf-dom of beaven." 
ThU i» called lliraBN kkatiok (which urn); 
ftcoordlag to our Lohd's AVora, " T« mutt 
b« born tistiin." " IGxoept a man b« born 
of tTHt«r mini of the SfiKiT, hti cannot vntor 
Irtp tbo kingdom of God." 

Oud givM in l>*pti«m, Int. KemiaiioD of 
•int; oa St. Peter taid to tb« multitudo 
uklnE, "'WltKt sball w«^o?" "R«pent, 
and be baptiud «*ery ono of 7011 [□ the 
Mtnn of Jmca Orniht for tho rtmiMion 
of ilns, and ye tball reoaWa the jrilt of tbo 
Holt Ouwt" (AcU ii. $8) ; as ulao it was 
•aid unto Saul, " Arita and hv bapticod, and 
wash aurajr iby »Jii»" (Acta jxii. 16). 

2i. Ueinb<i»bipin llis Churcb, the Bodv 
QtCUBnar: "for by (jn« t>pirit am wv ail 
baptised into ona body;" "Now ye are 
tho body of OiiaiKT, and members in par- 
ticular" (1 Cor. xll. 18, 27); "Hi* body's 
sake, which is the Oburch" (Ooi. t. 24). 

Sd. Ad"ptioii M Ilii cbildren, and with 
ihii ilin girl nf tbti Hoi.t Spirit arid hair- 
afaipof bbaven: " For ye are al] tbc children 
of Goc by faith in CutusT JxurB, for as 
many of you as have boen huptiz^'d into 
Obkut have put on Chriht;" "And b»- 
caiii« )'« are sons, UOD hath font forth the 
Spirit of Hi* Sob into your bc&rto, crying, 
Abba, Father. . . . And If a son, then an 
boir at Goo through Chkwt" (Gal. iii. 27; 
iv. a, 7). 

Tb« Ctaurcb, then, for bor Leaching has 
nost ceruin warrant of Holy Scripture, 
yellowing ibi*, in thv baptismal service, 
*he bids us pray God to " taactify this 
water to the mystical waabing away of 
sin." ThA ripunMT* Rxhorlcd lo pray 
for the person now to b« baptiied, " Tbat 
our Tm*D JxHuii Ckhimt wntild voueh»nf« 
lo receive bim, to rcleuin him from tin, to 
saciQlify bim with the Uolt OHoaT, and to 

K' '<• him tbs KiDgilom of Uoav<;n and (ivvr- 
ting life." And lh« Dewly.laniizod is 
spoken of as "regenerate and grafted into 
ine body of CaaisT'B Church," Th* 
XXVIi. Article of BoUi;lon deeiares that 
" Bapliim ... 14 also a sign of regenera- 
tion, or new birth, wbarvby thnv tnnt m- 
oelve Wplism rii;htly are graftetl into tbe 
Ohurch, the promises of for^veaais of sin 
and of our adoption lo b« lb* ions of Ood 
by lb« Holt Ohobt are visibly signed and 
scaled." (VitU KsaEHBiiaTiON for furthrr 


WHO OOME TO HE BArTiZKi>.— Tliuugh the 
benafita uf baptism are entirely a free gift 
from God, yet has He bmo fit to pr<e«ribc 
Qtrlain oonditions with which roan must 
«oni[)]y before be can olaim the pn-initc*. 
^eae are ia the Calechitm declared lobe 
*' Rvpentanci', wliprehy tlipy fonnkn »in; 
and (aitli, whcrtiby they stfadfiully believe 
tbe promises of Goi> muds to Oiem in that 
ancTament ;" or, as it is ■«( fA'th in iha qu«>> 
tlons asheid at the baptism. Ken unt^iii lion 
of sin, bdlief in the Articles of the Christian 
£^tb, and an bonMt purpote throughout 

life to keep God's Commandments. 
anriT and Faith have been called tbe 
itrelcbed forth to lake hold of GOD'8 giflfc" 
But even these are ofHim, " for it it Odd tbst 
worketh in u* both to will and to dn." Witb 
the grare of baptiiiiii Ho girat the ea^iacil/ 
for tOMe.just asin Ibe natui-el birth He gives 
the various facultiw of mind and body. It 
is loan's pari to realise tbnaiid use tbe spir- 
itual life and power thus given him ''to 


work out his salvation." (ride fbrtber in 

(tj) The Mihistka xkd Scbjcct* or 
Baptihw — iMg Baptitm. — Ordinarily this 
sacrament is to be uduiinistered by one in 
holy ordcM, for it was in the original com- 
mission given to the Apoatlea tbat ibey 
should baptise. In tbe Aotsof the Aposilss 
wo read of Philip tho Deacon baptizing the 
Saniarltani and tho eunuch of EtblopJa. It 
certainly would teem right that th« tdtet 
recoivlng into CaataT'a Church should ba 
by onH July commissioned as aa ambaasadof 
fur CHaisT. Tho Prayer-Book requires that 
it shall be by a minister ; a deacon may act 
III the uhiM>nce of thonrieat. NotwitbHiaod- 
ing llii(, the uoiversal tradition and practice 
(if Lht Cliurch from ihr cnrlieit ages b«s 
allowed the validily of lay bapiiim in caiet 
of nt?ceEsicy, a rebapiiam novor beinc n- 
iiuired for such pi^moni. The question was 
fully diM-uss^d iit tlie Church uf Carthage, 
with tho above condution, And, tbeiefore, 
in our own Church, lay baptitm is recognised 
by genera) cuitom, though tberu t* no author 
ity for it [n ihe Prayer. Book, unless it bs 
implied in tho rubric: appended to the " Of- 
fire for Private Baptitm," which limluUw 
eesentlsls of boplism to " watc-r, in ths 
Nanin," ntr., hut omts nothing of the nece^ 
sily uf a Inwfiil minister; iJie rubric in the 
service itself, however, r^iuires "a UwAil 
minltler." It is well here to uolicn, as in 
historical fact, that Jn the AmI Prayi-r-Book, 
that of 1549 a.D., the rubric directed tbal 
" whnn gront need shall cumpol them so i« 
do," "one of them present" shall baptiM 
tlifl child. In IK03 A.B , a(\er the IlamplOB 
ConfurencB, to mixit ih<i pn-judicea of the Pu* 
ritaoB (t), the words " lawKil mintslcr" were 
substituted for " one of them," and tn tbera- 
viiion of I6((2 i,D. the rubric took iu prai- 
ent form. There is In this allowauL-« 04 lay 
hapliini, n departure (torn tho strictoesaof 
the Church as rc^rds orders ; hutunirerMi 
custom se^-niB to sanction it; some writer! 
take tliu ground that any invgutarily or d)^ 
feet in »u<:b baptism is made go'id oy cos* 
flrmuiion. Others hold that there is a priest- 
hood fn every Chrittlan sufficient to make 
his ael valid; these making a dlstinotiou 
between that which he has the power to do 
and that which be has the right to do. 

Adult Baptuvt.—Thfi* it a aixvlal ser- 
vice provided for the baptism of thoee of 
riper yrarm. The perions are rc^uirod to 
answer fur Ibnmselrea, the sponsors bitEir~ 
" their chosen wttnoMee." The rubric 
reeu that " due care be taken for thtir 




vniDation, wfavUicr ihw Us (uflloi<tnil^- in- 
■truct«d ill ttu? Princlftin of ihe CbnttUn 
Beligioa ; KDd llial tboy he exhartcd to pnv 
put tbcnxolre* with Wuy^r And l-'utln;: 
for tbe r«ceivlD]f of thu boly aacntmeiit. ' 
Tb«r«.U oUn a nibric that " It l« cupi-diont 
tiikl >vBrT p«rMin thiia baptized vhotild bo 
conflrned bj the Bi«l)op to luun mtla liis 
tepUsm w eonrenietitly Kihy be, that so he 
mar b« «dmitt«d iv tho Holy Commuoiun." 
hfant Stptitm. — Though ibcre U nu dU 
net commatid in th« Kaw Teitanieat to bap- 
til* infftoU, yd Um infertnce that U wa* 
dOB« by the ApostiM ]| *o ttrong lu to 
nnooRt to proof Baptitm took the plaM 
rf circumcuion. lRfant> w«re cir«.nnici»«l, 
lAd ao recrii«d into the old coTorittnl; the 
iposUw ikatunUly, unleea forbidden, vould 
WptiM infanta and nc«iv« ibmn intn tbtt 
MV eov«nanL So Hr from being forbidden, 
mraad ibat Uwonly time Jtaiia wai -' much 
iaplMMd" VM wben tli« di*ciplM rebuked 
<MH mho lirought to Hint Tonng children, 
npn{, "Suffer the littl« ebildren to coma 
uto Bw, and forbid tbam not ; for of sucb 
V Um kiiwdom of Qod." If infuntj are of 
lit kiBMon, auroly tbej may receire that 
rit« ahMh admiu into the kingdom (St. 
lUft 1. 18). Si. pBtw, curuiimiiiiiiig the 
Jm to be Mptiacid. adds : " Fur the prcin- 
b*kiiuil«you, ftod to your (rhildr«n" (Acta 
iLM). St. Paul on *e*oral occiuluns bap- 
tei whola bouaebolda ; there mu*t have 
tnitUUrMi in Mine if not all of ihcae. 

Itil »lica we take the t4»tinion^ of (be 
^■WrwI CbuKh lW)m the bcicinninf^, the 
p>M ii uter whelming. We have not fpace 
MtfMMjona, auficQ il to «af " ttiai all tut. 
^Baiyar wrtlem down to the twelfth ceii- 
^^iJBrnu iu u«e." and ■■ there ia not one 
^rf, cucUtioB, or exaniplu that makw 

BV we hare aeen that repentance and 
^^ti*n^uii*d of thoae wbo come to bap- 
'■MiUid tt 1( areued that u infanu are In- 
"Pulerf th«M tnny should not be baptised 
B*l lut Ihi* lh> Church prnvidn iiy re- 
mtritg turetiea or epunaun, whu prumiMi 
"■■tboth ia tie cbild'a uauic. Their duty 
■'■ t»M that it bo Uughi, to coon a« it bo 
WtlilnTa, what baa Wei) dune fur it, aud 
I* ■!■ it at the proper time to fulfill ihe 
'^N ^ taking upon it*elf the bnptiintal 
<wniw' >, lo thai It may alio enter upon 
wnU Uptbraa) privilege*, Just a« the law 
^inn chitdren to hold pMip«rty, but ru- 
V^ guardiaoa lo act for tbu toioor until 
1^ o«9 of uc, unimee full posMction, and 

^lUU tnfant Baptijm ihould be adniin- 
^v«l ia church, oithcr at Morning or 
»"»inj PraTor, immediately after tho %ix- 
^ WMD, both tMcauw it is an act hi 
'Ml tbe oongregatii>n are la take nan, 
udttio ■•for the l)rller instructing ui thn 
'■'fll In Ube groundt of Infant Buuiiam." 
»m Mf>tt baptitia to he delerrwl till Idd^ 
*>>« Urtb, a* a tuo nueh the ciMtom. Tlio 
n>tti« lays, not » (anger than tbe flr*t or 

Hcond Sunduy." Il may not aiwuy* b* 
poaiible to ouinply wlih thli, but tber« 
should b« no iinaeccMary delay. 

Prtvate hi/iittt Haptitm is only allowed 
for " (treat cause and neoeesity:" aibortcncd 
form la provided to be u««d in tucb caae. 
Though tbi> boa lawful and MutScieiit ba[^ 
tism, •till, if the child live, •• it u expedient 
that it be brought into tbe Church," that 
" the Congregation may be certillcd of the 
truo form of Bnptiam, and it be rLx.-«ived 

Sulilicty aa one of tbe flock of true Cbriitiun 

Authorltica: Baplicm tc«l«d by Scripture 
and Hiiilory, by WillLHtn Ifod^e*, l).D. ; 
Wall'i Hiitory of Infaut BapUim; Dr. W. 
Aduma' Mcircy Ui B«liefl ; Wall and Jorriau 
on Infant BaptiFm. Indeed, tho work* on 
tlio tubjwrt of Bnptiim are ni4iny and eually 

Kev. H. B. Boous. U.U. 

Baptism iHoly), Office of. Tb« Hr- 
vicealn our ^ray«r-Buok I'ur the adminb- 
tration of baptUm are tnknn ulmoKt word for 
word from tnoiu in the KnglUh book. Tbe 
inipurtant i;hanget are that jicrtniuion i* 
given for ahortening tho service for infant 
biipliini lu L^aiu It It uaud in tbu lame church 
miire than once a month, and that the si^a 
ft{ the croM may be oD)itC«d if the omiMion 
be (pvclally deaired, " although Ibo Church 
know* no worthy ouise of scruple ci>noern- 
ing the same." Tbe form of the tervice for 
infant beptium ia not ciokoty connected with 
that of ancient rituali, tho rea*on being in 
great i>art, doiibtlMa, because the Beformera 
thought it necoasary to introduce eshorta- 
lionn, and to make ibn imrvice ii mi-aiiji ot 
instruction to the c<jngri'-gBlion : and for 
ibid latter reason it ia ordered that il shall 
bo uiud in tbe midst of either Morning or 
Evotilng Prayer. Since IfiSS a.D. the 
whole of tbe service has been said at the 
foDt; the book of IMS ordered th« 
Brat part, aa far aa the addroes lo the god- 
fathers and godmothers, to bo satd at the 
church-door iind the reit at the font. This 
first purt aitmii U> curreajiond tu tbe ancient 
form of making a catechumen, conaiatiocof 
a call to prayer, a potilion (or UodI bI«M- 
ing un the ehlld, a iburt Ouii|u)l, followed 
by a comuenL and exhortation based upon 
it, and a prayer which includes a Ihanka- 
givlne. The miniaier Ui«n paaaca to tbe 
second part of ibe service, which ta the 
ipeoial preparation for the sncrnment. Tbe 
■ponaors ftre exhortud as to the mcanine of 
tnoact, and are aaked to answer in the cbild'a 
DHma. Tho quesliont call for a rununcia- 
Ltun ((in which In early days gri-at ttreu 
wiu laid), aprofeMJuo of failb, an cxprea- 
•ion of deattfl for bapUim, and a promiee 
of obedience. Two of the anawen in our 
srTvke differ from those in the Eiit[li*b 
book: the Brsl, by the addition of ail after 
tlio words " I ren'ninco them all'' ; >md the 
ImI, by the addition of Ihe werda "by 
OoD'a help." Then follow four shott 
|irayers for apiritual bletaing), and a prayer 



fur lh« blewinK *>( Ibe wHter Thc*e]in>yer« 
(or tboao whico cnrroapond t« Lli«in) ar« not 
lb tlie torvlcQ uf 1&49 a.d., but will be 
fuuoi! »l lh« end of Ibe form for private 
bapliam, with ii direction thai when Ibu 
wuli^r in lh« font in cbkuged, which thell be 
once ft month ut tbc leuL, tbej- ahall be uaftd 
befoT* any child u tinptixed ia it. Sinco 
1662 A.n., th*> wnter linit hrmt ciiit xriuw in 
lbs fuul At each bAplUni; t)ii*taHa becu di- 
r«eted by rubric *incc IfitiS a.b. ITio third 
part of thu terrlct L-oniivU of tliu b»|)tlMii 
iuelf, wliicb uur ChufL-h allow* to be ailLer 
bj immettion or Ijy affusion (no permistion 
U glT«n for Mperoio'ii}, imd iho makini: of tbe 
Blrn of the crou upon the clilld'a forebead. 
Titea In tho fourth part tbe pe«p1o nrti 
Uddon l« priijiTj Iho LiiKDA PtayiM- i« 
used »> tbo righltul utierancu of tin- cbild 
of Gvi>, and it it followod by tb&nksgiring 
and prsycr, aod by cib'jrt nitons tu ih« (pun- 
ion lo reiuL'mbi^f nud Vj fulfill ttauir dutlea to 
tbe ^ild, aad to sou Lbai in due time it i* 
brought to LhQ Ki^hop for confirmation. It 
d'Mit not bcLonji to toll urtlcle to ipcftk of 
tbe dooU^n« of Baiitlmi i but tbe bUtoricul 
fftct may boitstcd inut thi» l»t call to pmytir 
ftnd Ibn prnvar Itoelf, bi'tli of wliicli (Wlun- 
tbot the child ia rajc«nerate, wero not in the 
fir*t book of Kdward VI. (1649 a.i>,), but 
Mum In*ttrt«d in bix iiccun J lHi»k in I S5^ a.d. 
Tbe»ervicu fur privute bapti«n, cuuUiif 
ing aUo a form for publicly recaiviDg into 
tbo Church (uch u have been privatQly 
bapliwd, vnlU for ng special nohc«. But 
with reference to the couditioaal form of 
baptinri, which ia placed at the end of the 
acrvlce, It may bo of lnt*r«at lo quote two 
Tubrici from ilio Prayet-Book which waa 
set foTlh by Biihop Tnrry, of St. Andrww'K, 
in 1848 A.n., aa embodying acuntoin in thi.- 
Scotch Church : " Prom l£e uubsppy mul- 
tipltoitr of ruligioua i«cu Lo thi> oountry, 
caaaa rrequently uocur la whii^li punonn, 
ttom eoDKientioiu moilvea, eipreu a dekire 
to separate tfaemaolrea from «uch kl-Is. und 
to unite tbetoielvu to tbo Church. In all 
•ucb InsLaucM, when the aupltc*nt< for ad- 
miuiiin into the Chiircb, n(U>r du« inatruc- 
tion, iball dipivM a doubt of th« vaiidity 
of tbi^ Bnpliein which they have receirod 
trom tile Minieier of tbe eecl to which they 
fbrnkerly Itvlotigml, tho clnrgyninn lo whom 
th« application in made ilinll biiplina iha 
paraon in tbe hyiiolhetii'iil rurtu preAcribrnl 
In tbi* olBce. in ciuci wliere tuch doubt 
doea Qo( uitt, It vball tuDIcv to r<K«ivo tbo 

Senon into the Cfaurcb in this maiuior : be 
nt kneeling down, tbo Mini«t«r abiil] take 
hiiu by the hand asd say. We reeeive (Au 
ptfr«oN,"eic. Theformeroftbeeetworubrioi 
wa* taken frvim the ITth of the former CauoR« 
of lliH iWtch C'huTuh,- its lubntiiiica, with 
tbe direction for Ihe use of tlie hypothetical 
form of words, ia in tbo 84lh of the present 
Obdodi, { 4. 

The Enf[Utb Cburvb needed no oAoe for 
the miniitraiioo of baptitm to auch aa are 
of riper yean until altar tbe Great Uobel- 

lion. Then, in part because it waa hofwd 
that there would be great numbon of coo- 
v«tUi among tho nutivce of Atnerira, aad 
■till more beoaune f^o many had grown as 
unbapUsed at homo, a lervico wa* prepared 
(it la taid br Bishop Oriffltb, of Sx. Aaafk) 
and inserted in the book of 1662 A.O., ma 
wbicb it haji pa>Kcd into our own. Ita oot- 
linn i« the naint^ as thai for iufaot baptism, 
and the i:ijiiii{;cs whirh were made will 
readily explain thcRiDelTC*. 

AutboriUes: Keeling's LllurKlN BHian- 
nii^iti, Uulley's Vnriniloiuof (he ContmunioD 
and Baptismal Uffices, I'almcr's Urlginaa 
Liturgtcn, DUhop Torry's Prayer-Bool. 
Riv. Peoi-. S. Haki. 

Baptistery. Tho building orcbamberMt 
apart for tbo celebration of the mcrainent 
of bupti.iiu. It waA usually attached U the 
larger, or cathedrul churcli,'tincc iho adtnit- 
iilrutiou of tho rile was moid tbure only. A 
tpuuiuui buildiug was neceasary, as the sacra- 
loent was adminislercd by immersion, eitbcr 
simply or accompanied by aaperiioR. At 
many as three tliouaand were baptized on 
Eaoter.eve wheti 9t. Chryvostom was ar- 
rested, and mntiy, both men and womsn, 
who had not yet r««eired the aacramenl, 
were dispersed. Tbo oUlett baptiatory new 
in eKiKtonce, al Kavenna, is older than 4Si- 
4S0 A.i>. It is oclajKonal, about furly ftial la 
diameter, with two iiiches, or apstis. It has 
two stories. Tbe font, which is in the em- 
tre and octa^nal, baji a »euiidrcular indoi- 
utiun iB the side, wlicro ibu priest no stand 
to iiotner«e without descending Into ths 
water. Tho walls ara decorated with f!^ 
urps in low relief tn stiiccs), but the domsit 
covered with moeaioa; tbo coniral portifxi 
r*pre««>nling the baptism of o«r IjOIV^ 
BaptuLnrlisioF lalar date are Found in Tsrl~- 
imH jiurtA i)f Europe, but as adult baptiin^ , 
fcU mio disuse, the bapListury was i^csX^j 
tieodod, and tho font was iransfenvd tuai 
the uhurch. There it has happened that tt^*' 
canopy under which the font was plafO**!; 
wa* so enlarged and enriched aa to ba >a »P3 
ported upon its own pillars, and aatMatnas^ 
a bapiiiUTy within tbo church. Baam^*^^ 
of iliii orcur in England. 

Bamabaa. (Son i>f prophecy or exho: 
lion (Bev. Vera.) ; not ao correctly in A. 
•'of coniolalion.") A Lcvile by desceti 
Cypriote In- btrth, and by sowe(Lleni. Al<— 
Slrum. ii. 170) said to be one of the aerer*^^ 
was one of tbo earliest prominent memty^j 
of tbu infant Church (AcUU. 89). His V^J 
name. Joseph \or Joms). has be«n ovente **^ 
owed by the usmo given him by tho Apost-*^ 
Bis act of giving urn price of a field via *.' 
be had aoliio tbe Church is the flrst no* '* 
we haro of him. Ho takos Saul after ** 
ronvenion (Acts ix. 17) to the Apoatlel 
Uiuu|;h there bad been a previous (He*V 
chip between them. When be aaw 
erowtb of the Gvntile Church at ADii<*^JL. 
be sougbtSaul at Tartui and brought h"|"'j 
there, as If knowing Saul's special inii»f^"j 
to lh« Gemlilos. V^ilh Saul be carrlad tbi^j 




lh« Church «l Antiocb Mut to Jertiik- 

iiDoa ooGftcioBof tha famine (AcU xi. 

10). Upoa Ibair nlurn tbej were ul aniiK 

by dlr«oiloo of the Dolt UtiohT for ihcir 

Sni raiMiontiry j<>urn«<j' (Am* xiii . xiv.V 

which WM Dm to Cyfraa (wher« Snul took 

the tutni« of P*ul)i mad Into A»i» Hinor aa 

f«r u Dorbt, in Lymonik. Ktlurnio^ Ut 

PrtfjA, thuy «aiW to lb« port of SolcucUi, 

mud to rMurned homa lu Aiitloch. They 

war* UAOciAt^d i(ig«th«r in the slniegle 

■pUmt tb« Jodalzrrc in lli« lUMtion af cir> 

puRu-Uioi), ADi] ttcpo »enc from tbe Couocil 

uf J«ru#al«in nith honor biick to Anticcb. 

WtMotiiSMCoad aiivionarjr journoy wnsprn- 

pB u d, lta*r diM|tre*d m to ibe propriety of 

taking his n«pH9W, John Varic, with Ih^m, 

"The runtmtiim vriu ko ihBrp thnt thi-y 

|M1ed a^undet.'* Since th« braLlir«n cum- 

■Dcndtd St. ['auI to tho gruM of Uod, it hM 

VcD Inferred that IttrnabM vm in the 

vFDBg. Thi* it the lut ooiics in the Acui, 

8L ?>ul tpmakB of him in »sl. il. St. Uar- 

ulu «M ompbAtirally a gnnd niBn and 

M«( tb« Holt Groct, bal doe* not K-«ni 

ukinbad that «n«r^ticdet«rn)inAtion that 

mto loarkad in St. Paul. ili> wiu im- 

pnatd by St. Peter «ven whan inliiiiuip)v 

HMCiiledwithSt. Paul (<Hl. ii. 13). Whn't 

hhifUf^weer wu U not authcnticallv t«ld 

IH. Om tradition send* him to Milan, a 

lUu ane gave him martyrdom upon hi* 

•WMid ftiit to Cvprui. 

As vpietl* under hi* nantc is extant. It 
^ b«M b«ld autbontio by v«ry many able 
Mbehn, but i* not now luliniitod m );enu- 
■*■ Hewever. it i* a v«ry aticifni CKriniiiin 
*^ttap, pKtb«bly of the earlier pnrt of the 
■■WMftntury. It wai evidently the work 
*f • itry devout hut nnm-w Chriuinn, 
I *VAaditaer graiped ihu lieauiy of iilktt"ri- 

■ J^^twpntation nor the true hrc&dth uf 
1 fttkBuiUy. It U a valuable writing, not 
^U "tilieonienta, but for the inf^reiK-ea that 
^B |IV U drawn from It. (Featt^ay, June 

H ^mlnloinaw. Of bim we hnvc notbini; 

■ ^ die natiie in the 1I*U of lh« A[i">ll«s. 
F USt Hau. X. 5, we have Philip and Bar- 
I J^^raiew the lixth in the ti*t. I n St. Mark 

'^ \i, with Philip, b« i* the tilth ; aa, too, 
^ St. I^ks Ti. 14. Jf be ii tho Miino as 
'■Ukaaiel, ea come bave ih<)usbt with a 
^Mt dml of pleuaibilily, we Duve ioni'S 
^wt lu hi* character, — an Umolito iiidoed 
■a eliMii ii no ffuile. The arguai^nu roliod 
^ tr; briefly, {i) The call of St. Bitrthal- 
^w it not reounltd, whila thn addr><M to 
'^Uhuiel u nearly etiuivalent. (ft) The 
*I*^1i»M who monlion Bartholonew do 
<W diuda to Nathaniel, white SU Jobb 
^ not name Baribolumow, but doe* Na- 
*wixl. (c) Bar-tbolmai it the *ame u 
■w-loaa, St. Peter'* otber name, or Bar- 
*>^, ud may be aa af»i>cll«UTo or a ftur- 
oite, M in Ui« otbor two Ga»e«. But the 
^•arrtnl Iradiiiun of the «>r1y Church 
k «ltwly atlent upon thi* iden'liflcallun. 
*V wrtain tradition, too, about hi* career 

i* wantine- It is «uppo»ed Ibal he evangrl- 
i)t«d Nortnorn Imiia, l^i>avlng lliere a Hebrew 
copy of St. Mnttbew'i Ooipcl, which nfief- 
wanlt wa» found by Puntvnut, lfa« g'^Bt 
Ak'xandriaa ciLtechiiit (I!K)a.ii.) ; that hwr- 
Ing onoe e*cn)>Ml cruciBsiun through the 
remorse of bit penecutor, be wa« afterwardt 
fiayed alive by Kir)ff Attyu^^, at Albin- 
p[»>lit, upon the Ca*[iisn Sea. But tberv 1* 
Huibin^ to lead ui to auppo^e that there ii 
anv (UMtructure of fact for th<^ tnidttion. 
It !■ only another examt^le of the rul« " pria- 
ciple*, not nien," wbictt marku Ooii's work 
in the world, while yat thi-Mi priticiplM are 
only tar ntan'* SaKation. (PeaBt-day, 
AU([U» 21.) 

Baruch. (Blawiad.) Tlii; can of Nariab, 
ami friend and otnaiiuKnoU of Jeremiah 
(Jer. xikii. 12 ; ixxvi. 10 af.), wasof iMurtly 
family. Hi) brother Svriah bold otSi'« under 
King Zedckioh. Ue was nccuied of urging 
Jeremiftb In favor of tho Cbuldean*. Jo*»- 
pbu* My* he wu impriioned wilh tha 
prophet, but waa permitted, after the fall 
of JeruMlem, by Kabucbndiiezzar, to remain 
with J(>reniiiili, and wa« forood with him to 
El) down 10 }i!gypl. This it ihe lui crrlain 
iiiforuialiun we haveof bUu. He Ha* a nian 
uf ooarftge, at it abown by hii itMidfatt nd- 
heronee to Jorccniah, and by hi* uctiag a* 
hi* amanuen*!*. The book atlrlhuied to 
him i* apocryphal, though it waa received 
by tone of the ratbti*, a* AlhanMiu*, Cyril 
of JcFUMilein, and Klcepborut. Dr. Olni- 
bari^'s conjecture that H nva* written by 
■onto devout Jew about (tic middle of tba 
necond centtiry bofom CiimitT i» probably 
cnrrect, Imt the ■value he puta upiin it ie ua 
probiibiy oioggcrated. It is but a cento 
of pa*>agva from thu prayer of r>nntal [Dan. 
is.), from Beut. xxviii.,and from iibmie* to 
be fuund in the prophple. espciciully l»aiah. 
The lir«t three chtvptert may be a tratitia* 
tlun from loiiie Hetirvu' Iniitator, and the 
1b*1 two ao addiiton by the triin>lxtnr, a* 
had boon conjcctuml- But beyond rcooTd* 
tne the hope* of the Jewi under the Beleu- 
cidw or the Ptotomi^s it ii valueleaa. 

Baain ; for recotving the aim* and other 
davotiun* of the congregation in the pro- 
anapboral [Mjrtioo of the Oommunion aer- 
vice. The rubrio rum : 

"Whilit ihe*e *enlen«M are in rending 
the l>ce*.'on4, Churi'h'Wardem, or olber Bi 
person* app<iirit*d for that purp<ifle,»hall ^^• 
ceive (he Alma for the Poor and other De- 
TOtloni of the people in a decent Bii«in to 
be provided by the Pariah for that nurpoae; 
ana revarently bring it to the Pnr«l, who 
ithall bunihlv pruMtit and plaice it upon Ihe 
Holv Table.'' 

Balh-kol. <DMUghleruf a vulc^e.) Keally, 
a aorl of divination among ibe later Jews. 
It wa* pretonded that aAer tho innpiratton 
of the prophoU oeaaed devout men were 
guided by n voice {Bntb-kolj ; in faol, ihoy 
put auoh a conatruction upon the Bnt words 
they accidentaliy beard, after devoutly Bak- 
ing for inetruction. To ^vo an intianoa: 




"R. loctienan Knd R Slm«on hen Luchisb 
dwirinc to aee tb» r«oe ol B. Sftmu^l, a Beby- 
lipiiiib Jovtor, nid, X«t u« ful low Ui« hearing 
of BHtlfkul. Traveling, iberttforo, near a 
tchool, lliey beard the voice of a bty reading 
tb«a word4 out of the lirit book orKanuel: 
'And &amu«l died.' ¥nm ih«ncQ the two 
Babbit Inferred that their D'iviid tiamuvl 
WM dmd : and, indeed, Samuel of Babylua 
wa* ju»t dwiH." 

Beatific Vision. ■> As for in<-, 1 will behold 
Tbj' face in rlchteousoese : and 1 thall be 
■atuAvd, when I awake, with Thy likcne«e" 
(P«. svii. 16]. *' BrliiTod, rinw are we the 
•one uf Qott, and it duth not yet appear 
what w« thall be : but wo know that, when 
Ha tball ajiptiar, wo dinll bu likn Him - for 
w« aball aeu Him m Ue n" (1 John iii. 2). 
These texts land maay olhura) cunlain the 
fiUlDM* of uft doctrine of the highoit and 
fioftlatateof bleuednesa. There ia the bl««- 
edntM of knowledgo of Ood, ths bleated- 
noMof a full Fnitb, tbeblwRodneuof eeeing 
and hearine Him by evHy lueann vouch- 
■sfod to us here, bui betide there will be tbo 
bl<uod juy ot Hncing Him face to fwe in 
hoUnnM in Hii glur^. It it not lo Im in 
tbia life. It waa denied lo Uoeee, St. John, 
and St. Pnul; both declare "no man can see 
Qi>D." But In the hereafter wo aball too 
Him bee to face. " Hit lervaoti thall aerve 
Bim, and tbcy aball tec Hit face; and ilia 
name thail be in their forehcade" (Rev. 
xxii. 3, 4). But the full elory of the vition 
of Goii will bo, uudouDtedly, after the 

Beatification. The declaration by Llin 
Pope th&t such or tiicb a holy pureon, wUusu 
lif<j wa« uvlubly livly and uucotupaulfld by 
mlraolei, it in eternal bliu, and in cunKf- 

2uenc« permit* religious honor to be paid 
im. In baatifloation ibo Pope doot not 
iiidieMtg ietermine tbo Hate of the tniiit, 
nut onlv to far aa to free the religiouc hon- 
or* paij to him ^i>m the cliarg* of tiiper- 
Btitiun. But in canoninatiua the Pope dovs 
determine officiall^T, ex cathedra, the oondi- 
tiun uf the new Eumt. 

Bel and the Dragon,— Apocrypha. Thu 
Greek li anil alio tit of Daniel contain addi- 
tions to the original text. The moat im- 
porUmt are lo the Apocrypha, and ure 
the 9ong of the Three uoly Children, tht- 
Hi»Uiry of 8u«uiini>, and the flitt^iry of 
Bel and tlie Driigon. Bol and the I>rngoD 
te placed at the end of Daniel, and in the 
Soptuagint it headed ■■ Part of the prophecy 
of Habaklcuk." There it no eviduncu ibnt 
the additiona ever formed a jiart uf the 
Ucbmw tsit. It it turmitcd that the trnnt- 
Inior of Daniel may have wrought tip cur- 
rent iradiiioM in iheae additlont. Tbettory 
of the Ihvgon appean like a " atratige 
ezaggcrati-iin " of tho deliverance of Dnnicl 
ttota the lions [Daa. vL). The ttorj has 
noaivod ■'Mnbellithmunts in later timoa-" 
It n«ed nut be nigarded at a were tablti, but 
it waa tbaped fur a luural uurpute. While 
Caltnot and the Pert Bojaluu ttrive lo trace 

tbo history in this work, it may tw M' 
to conaider ntther its design, "to r«i 
idolatry ridiculuut, and to exalt tfa« 
God." The Jdol Bel it repreaented as ibe 
object of the kine'a adoration, whila X^niel 
itnwonhiper of "the living Gos" (v. &\. 
The king tpeakt to bim of tha food wbiob 
Bel eatfi, and Duniel dectnrea that tbo UoIh 
bill briuu and clay. A I'ontMt is brot^ht 
on br-lwcKti Duniol und the idol prieats, and 
when he Ehowt their duplicity lo the king 
tlicy are hlain, and Duniel denrort Bel and 
hit Leitiplct. Than fallowtths killing of Uie 
Dragon bv Daniel's tkiU, and ibc tbiry of 
tho den of Horn, with an addition conc«n^ 
ing Habnkkuk'* aid in fc«ding Daniel. 

Authuritiet: B. F. Wcitcott, in Wm. 
Smith't Dictionary of the Bible, Home'i 
Introdnctiun, Arnnld'l Commentary, in FW 
trick, Lowth, and Whitby. 


Betfry. Vidt Architccmra. 

Bella, The. Tbuy are mentioned In the 
Bible as a part of the Bigb-Prieat's dreit, 
fringing tho lower adge of bit robe, and by 
their tinkling the iiuupln might know wbea 
be went into the Uuly Place, and when bs 
came out, "that he die noi." But in Cbria- 
tian time* bells ar« used to summon the 
faithful to the servioea. The CKrIlatt belU 
in UM were very small onea,— hand-bellt, in 
fact, — and, trusting to the ah&pa of several 
that atill remain, th&ped very mu^ Ukeotif 
cuw-bull*. lu timet of persecution a bm^ 
■nngor toeiimmon the congregation; it 
quiet timet a Oencoii announced lh« houn 
of service. Bellt or their equivaleots or 
lubstitutos were used aftcrr Christianity was 
formally recognized by the utaie. Theoldett 
u»e of belli is attributed, but nrtibabljr 
wrongly, to Paulinni. Biihop of Hola, m 
CiimpHnia {409 a. D.J, but he does not apeak 
of bells at all in bis daecripUon of bit 
Church. They toDn became generally used 
in the Wctl, and were of cunsiderable six*. 
Cbarleniagoe (BOO a.I>.) eooouraged tbe 
founding of bellt, and employed skilUbl 
founders. Of these, Tunck<;, of 6t. Oall, 
wan tbe chief, who cast a large bell for tbe 
grriit church at Aachen (All). He asked 
for onu hundred pounds of silver aa alio; 
for the oopper, from wbiub we may infer 
ihoi the bellt may hav* weighed four orflve 
hundrrd pmiiidt. In the Eiut hell* w«re in- 
troduced from Venice, and were beooming 
general (gG5 A.U.), till tho Turkt, tbrougS 
Duperttiuon, fgrbude iheir use. So now ibv 
lutumons lo service it Kiven by hammering 
upon a hoard Huppendrdfroaia rope or chain 
( Vidt Skma^i'bok) or held by tbe centre id 
the hand. It was usiialty twelve fc^-i loog 
and from a foot to a foot and a half wide, 
Mcd was rcdticnd in the centn lo a width suf- 
flcient to let it be gratjted by the hand. It 
wai ttruck with a hummer or mallei. Soaw- 
limes. the MmanLron It made of iron or of 

TUrkctul. Abbot of Cniwland (870 A.D.), 
gave seven bellt to bis monastery, probabfy 




11 flr»i ptfftl in Eni;Uiul. Rinniug of York 
IICl.M^l 1.0.) gKrfi tbo Church of St. John, 
I Bcverlejr, two ^r«*iL ImlU. 
yrOB lbs tlm* thtt Cburafa utensil* w«re 
BWd ibere was aliriijii Knmn act of dodi- 
catioa of tbem to iKTwd and balIovr*d um. 
Perms for the b«ne<dk-tion of b«lU mn Pound 
ta Um later M.SS. S«cratnealArium of Qreg- 

S, and pTobabl; date from tlio time «f An 
I ^700 4.D.). Upon mnnr cburoh-MU 
«aa plMMd the I<atin dnggersf, — 

tmmta INma »win«, PM*b tmo, «an|cr*c* '■•'n> 

X M») ia of Mvim or mon belli ; a cbime 
vt tint or more. For ruke for HnciDs 
chime* and paala an; haod-bouk oo bells 
UM ba oaQsalled. 

For chorchei ia tbe countrr th« Itell 
ikmU b« Mlcctfid, if pgaifbl«, witli nfersnce 
la Uw poalllori of tb« uliurvh; if upon nn 
MdMOm or on a plain, a bell of Uie luwett 
tttttkatcan Im bMrd the farLhmt (aud it 
tMitob««rd «t l<««t ihTMiniloi) it tha 
inMra«« In choow. From E to A >hould 
L tUgsavral range of iha noie. 

Blu. Tlu! (ilnpc of the BiMbnp'atbrona 
•a flu priinitive Church, or, pouibly, tho 
■M»iaM iutair Th« BUbop'i throae wm 
adtDtlj piacFd lu tlin c«ntr« against tho 
Vtill,4lnl ui«>iM)iliafur lliii Preabj'tur* wfirn 
napl ■>'i «itber hand, while in thft centre 
of U*ifW the altar wai placed. 
Beoaionu A holy water »Loup. 
BcDcdicile. { The Sung of the Thriw ChiU 
im.l /t, hymn found in the SuitUiaginl 
TVilMAf tKe book of l>aiiid, end aUo in 
■hi kftteryf^M, but not occurrtoi; la tho 
at^«8iinptur«. ]i i« laitl Ut have beoii 
*Uf hj Hanantah, Mi*ha«l, and Anariith 
*nirtMr niraculuui deliverance from tho 
'•7'WuM, ai reoorded in Dauel lii. It 
ItMblM •■rj much tho l4Stb Psalm, and 
'*llUI^ man; to be only an expansion 
«K> hwaa probabljr u*«d in the Jewish 
jrvcue wonhlpt and to pawed into earlj 
Cbfiuia naag«. It was eurtnlnly in ti»a in 
M dip of St. Athanaiiui m&-60 A.D.). 
RChTMktom (422 a.d.) call> it •< thai ad- 
^^"^ utd marreloiu oung, which from 
•wtdiT to lbi» has bwin mnjt eTervwhore 
|»<^«qiil ihe world, and *bo1l T«t £« lung 
^ Aiture inncratiitni." Il wu Inourpo- 
^N Ifeto the olSeM, common u> Itotli ibe 
M^itb and Qallioaa Churohei, and from 
'*>>« it |iBu«d inio iu pretest plaoe in the 
i^Mf«r.Book pf IMO A. D, which it has kept 
•••riiace. In that PrnT«r-Itook this rubric 
*« vnixti t« the 7li bfum .■ 

'"after the flrsi leMon shall fulbw Te 
0^^ ImdamMt In English daily throiit;h- 
yhsyear except in Lent, ell the wh^ch 
■^n Ibe |>lac« cf TV Deum iball be u>e<l 
{■•J'tilt omnia <^tra D&tHini Domino in 
■H&ihiMfcdloweth." (In tba flnl Prayer- 
B**k lh« hjrnn ran tbtu : 

*5iur**«rtaMNM [AaBifMkBDOdortlMLaw: 
'*ie* Ub Md ni IfiB np twrattr." 

In tho «(N'Dnd Prayer-Book (1K&3 A.O.] it 
vra« chnnj^od ta the pmMnt form.) In 16S2 
this inttririion was remoTad. UowcTer, tbe 
rule it aCti'ti followed now, but It would be 
well In uso it when Qva. i. is rend. It hat 
been commentml on in a dovotinnnl tone by 
several rticnnt writers, for whioh it is admi- 
nibly Hdapted, brtn^nr forth, us il can ba 
well made to do, the glory of God i& all His 

Benediction. The act of blaaiiof; and 
ibo form of bleuing. "And without all 
contrndiclion the IcM b hlcMed of tho bel- 
ter" { Ueb, vil. 7}. Id Patriarchal days the 
hlflKting of the children was a most nacred 
and imiMiriant acL Abraham had bif chil- 
dren bleaiiod of God. Isaac waa deceived 
into (riving Jacob tbe itreAter MeuiB^, but 
would not alter it. Jacob left a t«lvnin pro- 

Chetic bleesjnir of his twelve tons. In llie 
iter history, Uoiee bad given him ibe form 
of bleating the people, a fomii the Church 
hae inoorpontod into her Officeof Viiltation 
of tbe Sick. It was a lolemn threefold ut- 
terance of Tkx Namk, which was then put 
upiin the childnsn of Israel: "The IjOKD 
blcas thee and keep thee. The Loao make 
His PBcoKliino upon tbee and bo gracious 
uotothiw. The Loao lift up His o»unC<k 
nance upon thee aud five tbee peace. Aud 
tbcr Iball put M.T Nauk upon the children 
of Israel and I will bleiu them." 

Ln all landi and in all limM the receptlun 
of a benodictioD hm always be«n hif;hly 
raluod, and this forma] putting of Ooi>'h 
bleuing upon HU people is of the higboii 
importance. In the Praycr-B^ok there ere 
six farmulai of ben<?diotinnsnd three prayars 
for ipactial brinnitiction. Thi.i Urst is the 
mutual henudiutiiin of hulh prieet and peo- 
pie in the Tcriicles: "The Lobp be with 
vou, R. a»d with thy spirit." Tbe soeond 
Is the benedictlun taken from 2 Cor. xiii. 14 : 
"The grace of uur LOBD Jkimtk Curut 
and tbo toTo of Uos aad the f<.-llowihip of 
the Bolt Ohost be with ui all QTermura," 
in which the variation of " us" for ■' you," 
though apparently slight when compared 
with the same benediction in St. Jamea's 
Liiur^, hinu at the poesiblliiy that St. 
Paul may have quoted from the Liturgy, 
and that our own use uame not from Inu 
form in the New Teelanient. but fruia this 
nncient Liturey. Tbii bleiiingclocM both 
Morninjc and Evonini; Prayar and tbe 
ButUI Mrvlco. The third form b the beau- 
tiful one fortuod by tho Kaglish Church bom 
an old Anelo-Saxon form and a brniHliction 
by SL Paul. The flret part it from Phil Iv. 
C. 7 : " The peace of Gon which pastoth all un- 
(lerslaiidingsluill keep your hnnruandmioda 
through Juira CBateT,"but«nl8rRed. The 
Moond pan Is also enlarged f^m Unit blees- 
!ng in Loofric'i iCxiiw Ponlifical; "The 
bleasiag of God tlie Fathkh, and of the 
Sox, and of tbo Uolt Uiiosr, and the peace 
of the Lord be ever with you." This is used 
n( the Holy Communion, ut ordination, and 
at tbe conteoration of a ohureh. The letter 




Mrt WB* itlio placed \ij tha Caroline rcriton 
noSS AS.) amr ihn ConSmiatioii Offico. 
Tbe f lurtb form U the on* divinely oom- 
iniitidi'<l til bit put upon thn HnU- Ppojilo, 
and vma JncurjioratM IdIo thn OtSrn f'T the 
TisiUtion of itie Sick. Ttic fifth form iii 
the bl«Mi^ (Uhcn from Ueb. iiii. 20,21) 
in tfae Office uf Intlitution. Tiiero it no 
■iMratlob In llii* rurm. Tbe iLxih form in 
the one at the cIom of the HurriaKe terTJcc. 
It \* modeled npon the one in the EngU»h 
Otto?, but'differa trom il mntcriblly. The 
Kn^liih firm i* this : ^'Almikhtt Gou, who 
■1 tliA bi!|(inning ditl (;riwte our lir«t |<arenU, 
Adnin and Eve, and did »ncUrjr and join 
tliem together in marriage ; Pour upon you 
tlie ri'Chct of Bin grocn, nanctify nnd hleen 
you, lliat ye may {ifeaw: Him both in hodv 
andttoul, and live together in huly tovo unto 
your Itvci' end. Amen." Our Ainoricnn 
form li : " God the Fatheii, Gob ibe Son, 
God ihe UoLr Ghost blew, preserve, end 
kor|> >'iu. The Lnit» mercifully with ETi* 
fnvor liKilc iiptm ynu mid 1111 yoii with nil 
Ipiritunl benediction and em«Q, thai ye may 
BO live together in thi' life thai in the world 
t<> cutnn ye miiy Imvo life nvurliuttng. 

The ihroe prayers of benedict ion are, fim, 
thi> Invocation in tbu Holy Oommunlon: 
'■And we uioiL huuiMy b^eueb Tliec, O 
mcrcirul Father, lo hear ui ; and of Tliy 
■InitKbty Koridncsu voiichimfe to blcM and 
■»ncmv wllh Thy Word and Holy Spirit 
tbcw Tbv Rifts nnd crc&turee of bread and 
wine." The second is the prayer f^ir ibo 
blcMlneof the water in the lliijitisnial Olltcn. 
The llilrd i» pfojierly a aerita of praycra in 
tbe Form or ConKevration of 4v Church or 
Chapel. Th«i(tr>l being tlm prnrcr"0 Etnr- 
nal God," and ilie Cullecu fullnwin);; ihe 
seoondi after tbe eenlciice of cooaecraliuD is 
TNd, the prayer, ■* Blasted be Tbr Nnmo, U 
Lord," utc. ; and nfler the Mornlnf; Prnyer 
and Communion service the last pravi^r, 
" mcM«d bo Thy Name, O Lom» Go»,"*<ric. 
Of course tbe MrvJca elOMS wtth The Peace 
of OoD. 

Tile airts of bluasins ar* oft re|>«at»d, lome- 
tlmi-i daily, aa, fur hucanca, grace al m«al. 
Inthe primitive Church many forma of ben- 
ediction were used; aa of the utoniili and 
furniture of « cburch, aa well ai of jiereona. 

It were well iTh little thought were spent 
upon the value and solcm ni ty i>f benedictions, 
colefly those given to us at the Ohurch'asor- 
vices, bm alsoon lets solemn occasions. To 
have lli> name pul upon u* U no light thing, 
but uf itself a rii^h aud abiding gitt, unleaa we 
c«at it fhJiD us. Then aa tbe acta of God's 
9fic«ru« not mtn forms, but true and •B'cc- 
tual actions, we receive of Goo true and 
effectual bleaaing aa we St oursalves for It 
and give due heed to it, 

Benedlctua. Thtseoondof thetwohymns 
pftgr llie snoood Inson at Homing Prayer. 
It ■■ the hymn of Zaohariski, the fathw of 
8t. John Baptist, at bis son's circumcialun. 
Tbe Bnglith places it Srst, and recites il at 

length ; but tbe Amnriran Church pUcas tt 
icci'iid, and nuitos but four ven«« If the 
lone of the hymn be noted carefully, it will 
be se^n to I* lltly tuuid fnim Advent Sunday 
to Trinity 8und:iT, wbilv the JubUaie it loore 
proper fur the 'Trinity seafion. It waa in> 
tended in the English service to be osed oon- 
slanlly, itiv JuOitaU bein|; given a« an alter- 
naie, to avoid ihe repetition of the £ffM>fi«fH« 
when it should occur in the second leison, 
lu ritual u«e has Mtat U> ui from the Galli- 
can and t^alsbury uees. 

BeneAcc. It wiu UH-dtoKivnlfy Die glftef 
land given to the soldinr out of conquered ler> 
rilury, " Hence, doubtless, ranir the word 
itntjieitn bo upplk'd to Church li vines; for, 
biisidis that the occlusiasilt's held for lifQ, lik* 
lliu Kuldiero, the riches of the Cliurcb arda* 
fruni the beocDccnco of prince*." (Bums, 
£«cl. Lnw.) In the American Church so 
such thin;; a« a b<.'neflce ii properly known, 
einue our pariihes and ehurche« are erectM 
and stippiirlt-d undi-r ilifTer^nt conditions of 
life from tbosti in which the Church in Ku- 
rope grow. A benefice is the growth of dlf> 
forpnl cuitumi fnam our*- A benefice rv 
([uiriis to be erected by Episcopal authority; 
to be founded for purely spiritual purpoaes; 
to bo conferred upon a cfcrk in orders; It 
must be pcrfictual, ui)d i:lvi>ii to another ym 
*i'n then him who cunfers ic. In obtalniag 
n brnrticc, thrn, thcic must be. I. Praeala* 
tiun by the proper person to the BUbop 
of the nominee. II. Examinattoa bjr tke 
Biabop. II[, Refusal [eenQr&Uy from irul 
of IcnrninK); or, IT. Admiision. T. Id- 
■iilution (wlieu the nominee is preaenlod bf 
a putron to the Biehop or Collation (whea 
tlic BJKbop prDscnts a bvaeflce in hii own 
eifl). yi. Induction, usually by the Arvb* 
deacon. VII. Duty after inducUon. A 
benefice Is adilTorent thing from nculhednJ 
proferment ; for It but a cure of soula, whieh 
a OHlhedral preferment halh not. 

Benefit of Clergy. A niedinval custom 
by which ticouied p^nona who proved them- 
selves to be "clerlu" by roadine Latin 
could claim to be tried by the Bishop's, ii^ 
■tikd uf thu KJTig'a, Court. It was a priv- 
liege originally belnngtng oiUy to thoia 
who wt^re actually in holy orders, but it was 
gnvdually extended to those In minor ordors 
and lu every one who could read n v*ri« in 
ibe Latin llible. The privilege was gruaaiT 
abused,, and a hindranoc to the execution oi 
justice and a scundal and burden to tht 
Church. It wnt modified and rMtniined at 
the Reformnlion, and the i-lergy ware Uietn* 
■elves subject to secular tribunnla for rrinaa 
and misdemeanors at law, and Anally the 
Bera'tll of Cl'^rcy wut abolished In 1S2i a D- 

Blble, The, is the popular culleutiva llllo 
of the sncred bonks of the Christian Churek. 
It incltidra the Old TcHtument, or the I!^ 
brew Saorad Sorlpiurcs, the eodoalMttctl 
books called "the Apucrvplia," and tlifldl^ 
tinctively Christian booiu which oorapcm 
ibc Hew Tcatamenl. TbocarliiMl cullecUwa. 
title waitho"Lnw,"whichombracod pr 




^)j ohIt th* flv* buolii uT il<»r*. Later 

^ celW-ttoo of the pru^hct* wm added, 

uid l»Uf Mill tb* Uogiognpba, or tba 

VuIdu. Id our Satidob'b tim« theMrbote 

col^Mnlon w»a *pokeD of u "ibe Law," 

•• tk* Ia« Bod the l*ropb«U," or " the JjKW, 

iba ProjUivU, and tlie Ptalmi," or more 

Rkerailj, " tb«Kcrip(urM," mvi "tbeUoly 

S(Ti|itui«," or "UiB Sitipluni." 'With ono 

or tm nwptioiu (2 Pol. iii. !«; 1 "nm. v. 

M), mhmtfwm "tlie ScripUirM" or "tbe 

Mi|(Br4" art mentioned lo Ibo Mow Teata- 

MCDt. tb» i«ror«nc« U to U<o Microd boolia of 

lk« QU TcataiuBDt (t.g , St. John ii. 22, v. 

If:l Tim. iii. 16}. St. I'airl >pcak« of 

I ■'tk«nldcoTeniint''or "Milamont" (2 Cor. 

K lU^ UJ, and cofitraiu " tb« two Cor^nants" 

H 10*1 jr. 34), BO that v»r)' onrly thmo titti^t 

■ il "Old C(>v«nBRl," or •' ToliunRnl" hdc^ 

H "XfBTtFlBiRPnt," were in U£tt. iLwaatiot 

p fillBt Jerotoc. to the fourth cMiturj, uted 

ikilUa "fiibliotbocadivlna" th«t any oae 

Ina WM uacd to Miclud« both. About tbu 

■HWlimeUia Ore«ka b«i>an to umi tlio pin* 

nl Hiblia, or "Th* tk>»k«." which waa 

ahwfardJ borrowed tn th« Wctc knd uied 

HtriD^Ur, aod *o liat paaaed ioto com- 

■MnMin tba ward Bibt«. 

WUW. therefore, this uscexprc^aea a pop- 
•hf tOBTtciion and a grmi truth, St. .lis 
f^rt litlff, •' ibp Divino Libmry," or tluit 
BWh U ptn^ralljr uied in tbu Prayer-Book, 
b aQtC ilrictlv i-OTrcL-l, inaaniut-'h ai the 
BiH*lta colloi-tion of tome sixtT-*ix (or, 
Mtilpf tfa« Apocrypha, eighty) dittinct 
l"ifa or dociiUi«nU, KBtt«red wur a porifxl 
aflftNli hundred years, and wrliteii lodif- 
Anit itjries and for difTrre^C pnr[n»M. 

^l«* are arrane^d in our Hihle-*, cxc«pl 
>>fe>ith« threefold ^neraldivliloti marKs 
WA ■ dbtinolion, without regard to ordnr 
«( Oka Tba Law of Moaaa ooniei flr*l in 
**^i Mowed by the biriorioal hooka, and 
^y of thaw wbieb, ia tb« Hebrew, are 
'*wael anaonc tha Paalmi or Haciu|ira- 
^■vi tb0B*l>y the firupheli t%e Ue- 
"■^vBlUt, after the Law of Mocee, places 
'•• «»0(«loiu of " the I'ropheU," the flrat, 
F^, includme Jo4hua, Judaea, 1 and 3 
fcfc wl , 1 and 2 Kiiigit. mid fotUrwm, in- 
•Jjiftlj tboaa that we nuine the prnjibet*, 
**t*pl Danie), whr, along with David, ut 
pgw to; the gift of uoplwcy but not «x- 
"<)■>■( m pMtonI ofloa of tua prophet, !i 
gfcaaaJ among "the Wrttlng*." or " l)ia 
"■^Bi." In the Sepluagint verBionof the 
OU Tatament, which ha> alwayt been in 
2 ia the EMt^rn Church, the Apoc-ry- 
}*dar Keclaalaaiical bonks areinierfnerH'd 
■■Mf iba hookf of tbc Prnphrti and Rngio- 
C>^wlli«y ar« alio in tbe Vnl^-ate, which 
*■■* brthe Romaa Church and recardMl 
••bittry partof vqualaalboriCT. Sfvithdr 
■ U«}jaw Tvatanient arTaiiged chrunolug' 
"•llj. The general order m lite Oospew 
^ At book of Acb, which tuppl«ment« 
^Lnhe'i Q«^, 61. Paul'i Kpbtica, (he 
wMirbI BpiatlBBf tba Revelation or St John. 
Ui hiawjr of tbaCanon of th« Uld Tcatib- 

ment li rerjr meagra. Tim word Cannn ffg- 
niflea a nUc or metuurui^ line, and U g«ner> 
RiliT titod to lifjsify the collootiun of thou 
book* which canto un(^ the rule or dffioi- 
lion of " iaipircd hoof*," or " Holy Scrip- 
turoB." or the Canon of the Old T«i«ineiit, 
it i« MinmdMl thnt op to tho captivity only 
thai portion which U called the Law ('J Kin^ 
isii. 18; loa. xisiv. 19) wu collocted and 
ravkoned a« iiacnid and eltwrd. A oirong 
evidence of Ihb b found in thi^ fncrt that the 
S«ra«iUn8 only receive the livu Luuka of 
Uoee* w iacr«d. Aftvr the rclurn from the 
CapUvUy hiitory au!ribe> the auiimricativo 
CollcctioD and use of " tbe Prouh<'Li" lo Esra, 
and after him to Noheminti |2 Uiui- ii. 18). 
£Era oreuQised "the ^reat aftembly" by 
wbi(.-h ttic i?ollBcli(rn oi tbe 8criplun:-B waa 
carrii^ on and cnmplet«d. 'V\\t> lii«t mnmber 
of Uie gront aSBi;>ntily wiia Sniiiui (lie Juvt 
{'iSG B.C.), mid nftbT bis time nu new book 
wiH added to the Hebrew Canon. In Alex- 
andria, buweviir, in tbo third cnntury R.c, 
the Ureok version, called, lti> aa!d,from th« 
number of the Lranalatora the Septuagint, or 
"tho L>XX.," had been iDttde, and wm in 
iiniveml use among aimreek-apeakliig Jews 
in tbe world. To thia additioni were made, 
viz., thmtt wliirh nrc ini'ludcd in '' the 
Apocrypha," and were receired and used as 
part of the Holy Soripturee by the parly 
Ohurcb. A* ha* bnan naid, ibar are still ao 
received by the Eaal«riiChurk-b,und iu spite 
of m. J cromo't proteatand distinction, wliich 
it quoted in our VI. Article, tbe Itoman 
Churi;b declnrea all but ihrM of tliem uanoo- 
icaland of equal value with tbe other books 
oftheUld Teatament, and those throo being 
Ihe two hooka of Ksdraa and the I'njtr ot 
HanasMh. Our own Churvb druw» IQC dla- 
Unctiun of St. Jcrom« beiwesn "the Canon- 
ical hooka nf ibn llld and Hew Tfiianient" 
and "tbe other buiika (a^ Uier-mie aaith), 
which the Church doth read for osamplo of 
lifu nnd {nUriictiun of cnannun, but yet duth 
not appl^ them to establish any doctrine." 

Tho history of tbe Canon of tbe New Tea- 
tament ii ol counc muoh more ct^mplete. 
At first the Church had the Uvinir voice of 
Apoattea, and with i.his Lo lupplfmiinc and 
explain the Kacred Scriptures of tbe Old 
Covenant, It needed nothing more. But 
thit alate of ihiBi^a could not liut, and partly 
bv diiifj-n (St. Luko i. 1-4 ; 2 Put. i. 16), 
cluQlly, it would ap|«ar, by the power of an 
oTeriiiling Providence, not only were Lha 
four tiospeli written, but la a Mrtea of occa- 
slonnl lettera lha ApoBllea, and especially 
Si. Paul, furnished a body of comnii'nturi«> 
and imttrncttons, which have been and will 
be tbe eaored lecaeT and lha Sacred Scrip- 
turea of the Cbur«h for all limt'. Though 
tliBse writing* wore at flnt the ipciJal prop- 
erty of difTereot paru of Ihe Church, and 
thoueb atlbcTory first not all ChurtthcB {hw- 
■cafca them all, ilillaa one body the Church 
pau«<«ed them all, and within another ren 
eralion bad gathered tbe«n all in on« oillec* 
tioo. 'Hhe " Apostolic Vatbera/'SkCieoieDl 




of Kona, St. lentttiui, St. Palv«srp, St. 
Bumabu, ftcqueiitly quote tbe Ck«pau and 
Braatlca. Marciati the ooretic, IreniMi*, Ter- 
tullUit, r«cogriizo Ihp Uocpsl " compriting 
ibo four tiOMpvl*. " Tfttian'* Dlilewaroii ii s 
harniouy of Uie four Gospel* , ».nd they quote 
" the Apoatks" u collectiom of KpUlle* kI. 
rcadjr known. Origrn mcntmn* tlin books 
irf both the Old fl,nd the Now TeslanienU by 
tiainc,ftndcuRinienlJ0Tii1iGti). Othcb"okiiof 
tli<» Apo*t4ilii; Fatbnrs wprv nmd in <-buTdhM, 
but wrm dfjigJiMml ai " Pttle-iiBilical," 
"read," or "diatmted," tboug;b they wora 
not forbidden till the Council of Litudic«H, 
SAO A.D. Tb« iiGnocutiun of DIui'!i>tLHn, 908 
A.V., was eai>eci«lly directed againtt tha 
ChurchM and tbe ScripturM of tbe Chria- 
tiant, "that the Cburclioi should be razed 
aod theSeriptiin>4eDDiiiTni>d with Are," but it 
faad thagood efl'cct toaharpen th« diittinf-tion 
batwcm " Ihe Holy Bcripturo" mid nil other 
writings, ami the uan of the word " Canani- 
cil," to dittmguiih tho«e which w«re "in- 
apircd and *acrnd,'' ntuy be taid to date 
from ihia time. The controrerilos of the 
fourth conturv give frc^jiicnt iMlimony to 
the fact that tWre was a eeoerul conacnt to 
the Canon of both the uid Toetanicnt and 
the Kew. 

Tho onrli«8t MSS. known dikte tram that 
century and the ful lowing,— the Sinaitlc and 
Vatic&n Codic« (fourth century), and the 
Aleiandrian and Epbnamic i(flfth century). 
Mauy liundreda, mur^ or Ihah coitipltio, are 
in exisient^ and kn»wn, dating froia every 
century since that time. The»« which have 
bocD nani(.-d ur« eriJi'ntly ioiendi-d fvr pub- 
lie uie,aud, of courto, repreienl older man- 
oacripta which have poriahed. They con- 
tain inor« or loM entirely both the Old and 
the Htw TeBtatn«nta. 

Allcnipt< were made very early to divide 
the b'>ok« into portiom for convi'uience of 
Uae, but our prL'seiit diriBion into cbaptern 
dates only from the lhirtc«Dth century, and 
i*U)C work of Cord inal Ilueoiof Snnc^toCaro, 
The diviiion into vur>iu I* later still, and the 
work of Stephens, the printer, in the sii- 
laonth eentury. 

Tlif &erlptur«a w«r« lint received by the 
Church in Greek, and there Is no known 
translation into Latin till TertullUn qnotet 
that whlnh was in tue In Africa. Tlio llrxl 
attempt at Iniulatioo into Anftlo-Soxon 
was by Coodman, in ih« sixth t'enturv, 
and after him by the Venerabin Bcde. 
WicklllTu's version iu the fourteenlli century 
woi |]u Bnt fioraplolo En^^lish traiislatioa. 
Tb» lint printed edition of tho Nqw Tc«in- 
ntent In KBgliah was Tyndale's, pnibably 
printed at Worms. Oovcrdu1o'« Itible wna 
prtnt«d abroad In l&Sfi a.d, Cratimrr* 
■■Great Bible," In 1540 a.D., wns tha 
appointed " to be read in Chut^bee." The 
Genevan Bible of 1560 a. d, wax for tbrnip- 
fourllia of a centurv the pujutlur Bible 
in Kngland. Tbe " Biihopt' llibic ' of 1668 
A.II. It Ibiit from whivb ihc i'ruyer-ltoc>l> 
varaloB of tbe ISalms is taken. Theauthor- 

ixcd veninn, known aa £tng Jamoa^ 
dates from 1611 At)., since wbldi a 
tho year 1881 a.d. qo reviaioo by a4 
boa been att«inptcd. 

II. Tfaii bald and lui per feet sketch of! 
toryof th? Bible leaves upon ibemim 
reader at finit Llie impreasion of unc^ 
and lack of tbe aulbority which i4 
bMD utnutomwl to nasocute with tfai 
Tho Bible is fra2in«ntary imtftud o4 
one complete wurk, and ihv bi>lury j 
ment&ry atkd as iDcumplcLc. Tbe j 
of many boolcs an^not named. rbfl| 
plainly lot forth oUlinsof thelrowal 
itv. The record of their orI(;ln Is ofl 
wbot WQ would dciirc or oipcct. Tfai 
woa not MtabllAhed at once and ] 
Th«re is little uppartnt unity of | 
plncoor ptirpuse in the different book 

And yet out of lb«*afragnirnta, ant 
circutnstancea of tbe kingdum and 
of I*raol and of the c^rly Church in 
favorable, grow and hns been laai 
collection which, without chanj^ <l 
part to adapt It to another, is so com 
one that to many a render of the Bl 
hnowledjte oomea with a kind of shoi 
it ts not one in tbe sanre sensu thai a j 
or a treatisa on orithraetic is omt 
unity is ta complcia and acknowl«d 
friend and foe that it has passed Inl 
tnun Kp<wob and tbouzht, and the b 
cneitiy of the " Cbridnm «uperstilioi 
Kidi-ri' that wben bs has dtOivered a ] 
Daniel or St. Peter's tCpislle be has I 
th« whole fabric, wbilo many a i 
reoderof thu Bible "rwid* acupiari 
out being ooiupelled to recognlae tfaj 
once between (joipcl and EpistU, ^ 
hialory and poetry, or even beiw4 
Testameut and New. Tbat U to ri 
truoand deep nenM the Bible is onl 
and they who so regard it are not m| 
It bos grown with the growth of | 
thing, and tbe life of it has been thi 
who sjMku by till! pnipbiita. 

The tru« character of this Dlviaa | 
can bettor be understood from anollU 
of Ttf^w. The Scriptures contain ii 
selves th« record of the etfect whii 
Imcebad in the world, and their woB 
rocord and in M|;hl. The hiiilory 
peupln of I.irscl i* the story nf th«J 
tion of a pcopltt from tbe lowcdl begl 
to tbe bighett fortnt of civilisation i 
tightcinniflnt. Indrjith of thought, 1j 
n^as of uiuioIh, in lody spiritual cnnoil 
and at the same time in the proctid 
ing of ita wisdom upon daily life Ml 
suciely, no literature of anv'anclonV 
compares with thai of ine pec^tai 
MosM led out of Egypt And UH 
rnuniJHtiiin if built thosuuclure of u 
T«stumeat. TocomparetbeChrlitiaM 
tiircR with tbe writings of their own I 
i)f nnv oilier is impossible. Tbcircll 
and ifieir ilfcct b one, and it b uni^ 

UI. The Uld Twtament ii than 
history of a nation, and to bn andei 




fgaiA Im re*d a* m bUlotj. The atarv bc^ni 

i«^tW til* bcf^enlng of the wbi>lo rac«, and 

1^^ is nuTowwd to th* history o( a family 

^titeib becumwagnMl lulimi. ' That nation 

«ifllta^ rerenea aud uhrokvn up, bulitduea 

n«l pcTbh till it* work it done. This hi>- 

urf U not coBtAtncd only in the hittorieal 

bom- The prophet* are wov«n into It, 

Old wck of tb« otb«r books and each por- 

iSno of tbcm fall* into iu place. 

Th« Aral book telU Oic itorj of tbe earth 
frwa IW creation "in th* beffinninfr," 
,t)mB|h larcwiTnohangoa until maii't erea- 
liea.nd thrn ^oea od to relaU; tite hittunr 
<IlMrac« until tbe choico af one faotily, 
•hitb b«Dcef<>rward bocomoc its almott ex- 
ilodn lubjiwL Th«rfl it bartily a |inuiLgti 
vranfMin thefint partoftbebu'okof Genc- 
lil|t&,lhttpkrtof it which rolatcatha early 
Ui|(f7«fibeMrth and o{ manlclnd, wblcn 
tai M beeo the objeut of alUck And the 
nl^ of eontroveriy. The acroiinu of 
ihcKatioft, of the fall, of thv flood, the 
tk^ftfJojU, thu tlic«b'^,v, — eTerythuiK in 
Ik* leak and everything' about it bu bwn 
Mti awl defendvd. lU Musai? aulhor- 
Atf |» bean irapusiied. Il hai bMn 
■fintad into two and throe and an indefl- 
am Banher of docamwta ucrlbod to ai 
■aajwthoia. But »tlll the book remalni. 
iMtnoant of the creation it declared to be 
"• nairkablr anticipation of the conclit- 
thoiifMienoe." Ill account of the fall of 
■a hour oaly solution of tbe problem of 
•rll [ft tb« world. Tbe «rttio3 never hare 
■pndbnh* raaultsof tWr criticiKn). Thu 
Itali antborship ii unibaken. And the 
t'Miiikal eharacler of the D&rralive roau 

■ livar pvuad than ever. 
Th( fQDUilnlng fuuF hooka of the Penta- 

M>d rcUle the history of thai chosen 
Mil from tfao time of tbeir grrat Iradnr 
■Mhw^iTer, Mo*c«, down to tho time of 
(Mtaflaklishment in the land which had 
iMfnahtd to ihom 

nwk Moaea to David marks tbo (rial ami 
^f«or the tbeocratio tyatem, or rather 
U*l>ilaf« of tbe people to comn up lo thn 
n^sleal of that Ryitem. The three char- 
■"Brf prophet, jiriest, and kinp are re- 
■*>bll; blended tn Samuel ; but tbcy are 
*■** ivunltod. Ue is thu one choj«n to 
•"tal the king: over tbe people, nnd lo 
MUhb the line of the prophets wbich b^ 
'WMfrom that time prominoDL T" Uiis 
py hilpB|; the bouk^ of Joahun, Judf^es, 
■'•. Prom David to the Ca^itivity i* the 
F'rt'daf the kingdom, ihough in thi' accumt 
ffiBMlan it was divided »nd coriluiUL-d 
**t*eUiwdoma. The worshifiof Jxhotaii 
***«tablbhedat Jertt*alem. Tbii piwliei* 
F^kiiiMl as f pevial meaaenKeraof iiiis Ldhd 
^Mli klnzdoais. To thia period belonj:; 
jwVlitortcit books of Samuel. Kings, nnd 
|^||«khi, the propbe«lc< of Iialab, Jere~ 
™". the tarlier of lh« minor prophniH, the 
P*l*p«n«f the P»alra», and thi; b-Kjks 

■ 80I0IB1J*, During and after thi) Cbi>- 
h iMUtI, Daaiol, Baggai, Zechariah, 

Msdaehi, many of the Pnalmn, and (he his- 
torical books of £xra and Ni^hemiab. Tba 
book of Job is one of which the date aud 
author am unknown, but iipparpntlv it it 
one of the rarliust, if not the verv earllKst, of 

Thase differont booki represent different 
»tai^ of tha national life and (<r Ibo na- 
lioftal education. The state of society tn 
Geneeis is patriarchal. When the children 
of lurael come prominently forward In 
Sxodufl, they are nondmen in Ef^ypt. The 
Law is given to a people degradod by long 
Ixmdnge. Jo*hua, Judges, Kiith, ditpict a 
sUsta uf society of the Tiide^t aud most 
primitive. The books of the kingdom show 
us a nation highly cultivated and enllgbt- 
itni'd. Frum tlwl uuinlition they fell away, 
but ihe lofty s)iiritual L'onDcptioDii and high 
moral purpos«a which bad bc^Wngcd to thorn 
at their but remained to tbcm, and kept 
ihem from ever becoming really like the 
nations around th«m. T&«re ii in the his- 
tory a distinct iidvance from time tn time. 
The nation is being educated, as we can sea 
very clearly. 

lV. But while, »My during tlia Ave cen- 
turlm from Muse* to Solomon, there is a 
oontinual progr«ta ood education of the peo- 
ple, evident in tboir cuatomi, social, poiitU 
(.'ul, and even rell^Iuus, In the evils that are 
rebuked and in the form of tbe rebukes, in 
the form of the instruction! that ar« given 
totbem, there Is in tbe story from beginning 
to end one unchaoj^cable efemcnt. no who 
in the beeinning created tbe heavenn and 
the enrth is the Loan, who spaku lo Abra- 
ham and to Uoses, who waa revealed on 
Sinai, and who mode tbe promise lo Duvid 
and to8o1omon. Tlia Law that Hegavooti 
Sinai embraced all tbe principles ofall the 
law that He ever gave tbem. Ilighi^r cod* 
ceplion of God, or of man's duty to Ulm, 
thuii was revealed tbeii, and later in Deiiter- 
onomv, — "The LoKDour God iaoaelioan: 
and ttou shAH Uive the LoRB thy God with 
all thln« heart, and with all thy soul, and 
with all thymlght" (Deut- vi. 4, 6), — waa 
never revealed to thum or to wan. AU 
That wns taught them, and all that waa 
given them, was involved in thoae firstcom- 
mandmcikts The priesthood &• b«lng nurw 
by thcirotficetotlie source of truth, and as the 
t«ncbin{|( caste, no doubt were always some- 
what in advance of the common people, but 
thoT had no surret knowledge, and nothing 
which did not belong alik« to all and each or 
the " kingdom of priest*" (Bx. i!x. 6). Hosbs 
rxprnmcd the view of true wiidom and the 
view lit' tile whole law when he rajoiwd that 
some wero prophMying in tho ennip, " would 
<i<iD that all tne Loftfa people wem proph- 
ets." Our Batiour appeals to the taijinR 
to Mofics at the bush, " 1 am the OOD m 
Abraham and of Uaao and of Jacob," u 
proof of the reaurrection of the dead. The 

arMs and education of the nation waa noi 
« way of diMuvery or development of 
new truth; but it was « progrett and edu- 


o>tion u n lo a iinndnrd wliich wu wt for 
tbemonSiDBi, Kiidin ihcc*!) of MoMSMiidin 
th*i>roini*c U> Abnihiitn, AaA never chitngod. 

Tnli tboU);lil of tbe porfpotnefis and unitj 
Ot ihe trulli which wu rvvenlcd givw u* 
th« kpr to the unity uf the Hcrlptiirp*. 'Wn 
wn uadenund baw tbe ins)iir«il words or 
Lbe One Qod should be etsenlially one wilh 
«Mh utbor. Bui wu hnvu hd vxptuuHtiim 
mora definite »U11. Tbitt esplHualloti llco In 
the one purpoie of Uod, whit^b wu flnt 
revealed in Rdc-n, in tbe promise of ihe 
" Hed of the woman who should bruise tbe 
■erpont't heMd," which wiu renoatfld to 
AhrahBm, " in Uiy t\fn\ ihull all LIib iintiorii 
of tbe cnrlb bu bluued," itiid o^ain ti> Darid 
of tbe Son, who abould tit on his tbrone 
■nd roign forever. " Vuur iKtlicr Abru- 
bam rejuloed tusee luy day," our Satioub 
aaid. Of all Lh« Xaw And the pfopbclt lie 
Mid, " 1 nin not come to drxtro^ but to ful- 
fil." "Tb« icttimony of Jssve is tbe spirit 
of prophecy. " The children of Israel were 
chown and k«pt and tniiubt and trained for 
tha fulfillment nf that one promise and piir- 
poee of Almijthtjr God. Wbut was true of 
the whole (j'Rtoni wa» truu of evurv r-urt of 
it. Bifcry tanriBca nmi n ty™ of' Chkiut. 
Brerv law aod every prophecy foretold 

Still mors uvidCDtly true f» it of the Strip- 
luretof lbe NewTetlament ih a I they depend 
upon C'miiBT and reveal Him. The OnuprN 
are bi<'t:rapbiei >^r llim. The E))i«tl<4apply 
the truth ivs it i* in Him, to eatAblisb ami 
edify His Kinedocn and to inBtrii«t and 
guide Ilisfollawun. Th(>y nrfO'ithiti); witli- 
out Him, and it i> in vain tu try to undcr- 
itatid Ibem without the presuppoeition of 
faith in Him. 

Tbn fulih in Chukt it tberufore the bond 
of union between iha Old Tattaniont and tbe 
New. Out of tbe Old TMtaiuent bad grown 
up at our Satioub's cominKa itroni^ and 
dl-fin1u «x pet' t alio n of tbe Curikt, the Son 
of David. And ihoiigh many held that ex- 
poclation along with Mich crroni tlinl they 
could not rccoenixe the fulfillment, Ue did 
fblQII It, and it wa§ the purpose of the a<»- 
pel> and Epittiva in >h(iw how Ho (\tlllllud 
it The Old ami thi- New are, llmri>fure, one 
" in UiiD." Wecould bave neither without 
tbe other, but noUb«r without llim. 

V. The Bible ta therofure a history, and a 
blatory which baa one key, and wbioh cvn* 
trat in one Per«4>n. But there i« anolhi-r 
viftw frf Ita hlMorloal obaracter which is in- 
volved in ifaiR one, and which h not \wn 
necMiary in order to und»r«tnnd eilht-r iIil' 
history which tbe Hcripturet relaio ur tbeJr 
own blMory aa books. It would bo impi^ui- 
blc for any man to undentand the flr*i »on- 
l«nve of tbe Uld Tuatament who did not 
know who ia iht tion wbo created, or to be- 
Keve it wbo did not l>clievr! In Him. It 
would ht ItDpowlble la tdrm Any idea of tbe 
OMineatioo of tbe diflerent poriinni wiibmii 
aonw r«oosnitSonof Cbrimt our I.oki>iui the 
obJaL-t andAilfllltBeol of the purpose of QoD. 


But not ]esa neceMarr than tbiM) two firxl 
principlosofacriptiiral criliciain la ani>tbor,— 
the rocoenition of the kingdom of Israel and 
of it* fufflllmeni, the Kid^'J^'Id ef Cbriitoa 
eartb, in their eorporali! nnd nffieial eapa<4(y 
of Uin wiinrM ami kn>['i*r of Holy C^riplure. 
TheOld Tc^taiiH'nt 8(-r!ptiirvs were writttn 
and uummittod to tbe Kingdom und Ohurcb 
of Israal {Rom. iii. 2J undar all iu raritd 
ctrcunisiHii(.'e*. It U as necessary In k**n 
this thought in mind in order to uudvntarv) 
thorn as it i.'i with regard lo any )ii*liyry ur 
publieduuumeniof any nation. While tbey 
contain many things which are iiniversalty 
tniii and a[>[iIirBht9 Ui all timw and peoples, 
they CDntoin n gteut diuil which is only di«- 
rectly true and applicable to tbta luiriicalir 
peopln and perhuivt Ui ihit pnrtic-uiar tiaie, 
and even that unlvcnuil truth mu«tb«SM& 
lo be understood through the medium of tlua- 
"peculiar people," 

This li one practical bearing of tbo prtaei— 
pie Another is no less imuortant. Ttici* 
Beriptiir«samcbein>|)irBd Womlof l}oj»,aiiL 
this ch<iS(in nation Is lbe chosen peoplaaf 
OoD in the tame senac and for tbe aama par — 
tioau,^"*!! iniijiirrd nation" in Dcaa ataa— 
ley's word*. To ;;lve any uu-nnin^ to tb» 
words " inspired" or " rbosen uf Qoo.' ii l>^ 
*U[^M His overruling preHnce with theii» 
as a people In the reception and presam— 
tion of llii words to ihena. Ue med ma^ 
to write tbcm. Who the men were or wbsfc 
the pen tboy vrole with or the material a& 
which they wrote we do not knnw, bat Om 
fact that we have them proves that tbey ««f^ 
written, and provm* aim tbe fact of Uiair 
preaiir ration. The nion and tb« name* 
] laased awny, for they wore octinc ofBcially*^ 
tbe propbut is one wbo " tpeaKE for Ow,"' 
— and what (hity spoke and urnta by tIti^ 
tue of their office, the whulu livlnt; bodjr 
acting by its TnrioDS memhtTs, and tbroogb' 
generations, icdted, sifted, prMcrvod by m^ 
tue of its office. When men neglected theiT~ 
duty Qnu overruled their neglect, and wbn 
some refurmalion ropuirv the ruinod Tncmla 
of tbe LuHD, under lbe rubbish itaeyud 
>• tbe buok of tbo Law of the Loau'M^Cbroa. 
xixiv. 14i. The practical bearing of tbit 
principle as ail answer tu many uftht> attacks 
ofunhelicfi* veryevidcat. Uistory aiidcon- 
ititutian and laws and poetry imply and 
prove the nation to which tbey belonged. 
Tha iitrong proof that the Scripturea uf ibe 
Old Trxtamcnt ar« all that wd bolieva Lb«U 
to be lies id the iMtiroonv wfalcb tbo peufila 
of iKrse! supply us by their exi>tenee ai a 
piKipln. In this widiir viovr many of tbe 
smaller ouestioiu and tests of wiinJs and 
sty let ana imagined prob«bit)ti«e ofmen wlw 
read th(^ books of tliree tbouuBd yoanaga 
with aln>eieeDlh «eatury «yee simply link 
out of sif^bt. 

We can sen tbe bearing of this [u-iaciple 
upon the Old Testament Scrlpturea. It ia 
no less imiiortanl to the nndarstaailliic tit 
the New iMUmi^nt. Tbe Scrtptur«a<a this 
New TeaUuieat were written and eonimlt* 




itA, not bjr cbaaee, nor to all lh« world, nor 

IsMiiV miraculotH igcQe;, butto tho Church 

HCnrbi, ui which ih«jr lUiid roltiUkd pr6- 

Btjr M do the Scripturaa of the Old Tata- 

■h to tb* ChurcB of lanicl. It hardly 

^n to be tiif^Micd that the £pUtI« tii Lha 

l^ndreh of Oup, which b at C^rinlli, «U)>- 

foaw th« exittenoe of the Ciiuri-li of t}<>i> at 

Qgrinth, and that otic who would unilmtniid 

l!ktl Ej^dtle Riuxt read il wtlb the uiider- 

■tobdJD^ of a Chuivb thoroughly orgunisud 

ui |uwiaiing all ihiiL woa uMdad fur Lba 

fall Mr&rntanra of th« work of a Cburch : 

ClW, 8acramenU, LiUircyt Paalni!', and 

•mf«il»r thiD^ aotMaMlnhk, but JtLl 

ialXMive of i.virponte extiteaoc. What is 

bWdttfaU one letter ii Ju«t as lru«, tliuut;li 

•atilvajn xi nvidrat, of all the tv*l (if llio 

Vfw 7«ftaiiHAt. Mo one can r«ad and un- 

imtuii aJik« wfa; loinv thine* *rB itiid, u ad 

■M* tqaally importunt aru omitli-d, and 

mhj Dtkara otily hinted at, who du«a not 

Wdlban Scriptures wilh the uudimlaitd- 

\ infiit ik9 Vtunb to which and for whicli 

j iMftffvwrltten, Tha world roc4ive4 th«ui 

ten ihf Church. Il can only Kad them 

\ laiManaingly in tbc C^hurch. 

T^aune principle clean up miiny difficul- 
iM ailh rvgard to th« hlBtory of t lie Cnnon 
<l Ito S*m T«uiamont. Wnttoti to and fi>r 
fli Church, ttiat Cburcb prtuuTviHl thern. 
AOn and CtMtnciU were tli«v[jii'«s, blend- 
HfnuTiii oiWi which tp&k* tbe judginqnl 
"At liilDg body la whkh itio gtildin); 
8t«b had ooKM to abide at Penle«(»l. We 
■*• M idea of what b meant by '- publio 
4^k«,"" the spirit of tht- iige,"olc. The 
wa of Scripture ezpreuea the matured 
}td|nMataf thiaCharcbof Ooo, whi:ae«fDvo 
Xiib be "tb« pillar and ground of th« 
VHk** Md to which the Spirit waa proni- 
'■'■■d at PeateMM wu Mnt to abide, who 
*4iflnU» you into all truth." 

VL la tvfnrritit; to thiiM firat principla* 
^tblruib about the Holy ficripturee we 
w»iM bMD unmindful of the r«oent at- 
Wb ud the bold cluimt of nti^wrn criti- 
(^ We have bad them constantly In 
■bd,ud this artiote baa been shaped with 
"fcwwto them, not with a view to avoid 
■■T ef than, bat to sujuen the beat way for 
lb wtiaan' reader to meet tbetn. Tbore 
nimUnd* of criticimn.^ona b the orlti- 
*j*i of Ime, and therefore bumble and 
MlAil,Hholiu«hip, which regards no point 
*( lb troth benmth iu aoi!ue,and ao li not 
" b aad tobasy itMtlf with wordi and Jou 
oipatota uf lAe Soriplurca, but wbioh is 
^ tf^tld of any truth wherever It Bnda iU the uoie time, reoogniKot the 
M that there are Kei|;hti(>r malttira tban 
■■^uid that thnrn is truth which is l)ig;bvr 
•MdcefBt ih»n men can aw or reach, and 
*^ ii t« be accepted not on oridenca of 
S^ bit nf r«8»0D and fHitb. Wo need 
■l*WfcaTuuhcrilieUmuf lUreaulU. There 
* *y tter criticism which wa need not so 
■<"b Mr M ahuD,— the dishoimt and de> 
'**r>l»t eritJTiiin of determined unbelief, 

eoEDCtimM V&ry Ifarned.and sumetimca renr 
•hallow and l|!n*>r&nt and boastfU, whtcn 
begina Ita InveiiiffHlioEis into the 8criptur« 
in the spirit of Uie detvciive, wilh a mind 
warp<^ and u heart hardened hy determined 
prejudice. It laj'* beforob&nd, ThMe can be 
uo such ibin;r at « miraclo ; a rtal prophecy 
h impnssi bio. There b no God, K>r if ilicre 
is, lla docs not interfer* wiib the order of 
nature and in the a.lTai rs of man ; iha super- 
nntural u the work of imactnation, the dl- 
vine i* the uiiknowiibln; and then in this 
■pirit of " free ii3(|iilry" It procowiii to fnn- 
viet tho Scripturttt of fully and fsUchinid, 
and calls its conclutioni "the rc»uits of the 
higher criliiiim.'' So anoilier "Hwocps the 
heurens wiib hi« i«leBcope and tindi nu OoD 
thori-," and aiiothor "carves the Hviog 
hound," and with knife and gliiu and un- 
clean hand etiaruboii and Qnda no life in the 
carcass. Even so " their witness agrees not 
lugetliar," and the ci>ri>Lant contrudiutinns 
of the critics, both in lh«ir principle* and 
In Iboir concltuions, are enough to ullay our 
fibers if we had anr. There 1« literally not 
a book of Holy bcripttire wbioh has not 
tieon tbe snhjocrt of such attacks, and it 
may be aafcly said thai no book oonld pnaai- 
bly stiind, and no evidence could be accepted, 
upfin their principles. If tha Judge b«if;ins 
the trial of a case by declaring that all the 
witneues are tiars before ha hear* Uiein, 
thun no evidence curi prove n case, and Dot 
oiily can no oilraoie and uu prophecy bo 
pruved, but no ordinary event in life. If 
liiOiDrences in style in the writluRS of one 
who prophmied during; the n-i-q" of four 
kiottt provee that laaiah could not hare 
wriltAH ail hii prophecy, and demands a 
"ijrwit unknown" lo supply lii* lack, and 
if the niimo reiLAimit reourri: twn Zediariaha 
and two or more Danieli and two St. John*, 
and two — thfi " Elohist" and the ■• JcbuvEst" 
—or a doxen writers of Oeiiaiili,aDd a furxnr 
of Oeutcrutiumy, atid even of St. Paul's 
Kpiftlct, then no great poet or author who 
over lived evor wrote bis own wHtlnii^, and 
no roaa who ** now is old" could ever " have 
b«en youne." 

Th4f truth about sucb attacks is that they 
are only now in form, they are old in spirit 
They are the trials and tLits not only of 
ourfttith.but of Uie truth. Tbe flnal re< 
suite have always bcon goud. Small errors 
in the text have been detected and corrected, 
and there is a uonrlunt return lo the v>'ry 
pviTeotion of the original writing*. But 
that we may not misunderstand the bearing 
of sucb an admission, let us understand Just 
what it imiilid*. Such a lifling and cini- 
parison of tiundredaof old nianuscripta, and 
the existence uf sucb error* or any orrors ia 
some or other of theoi, proves two things, — 
in tho first place, the vast number of oilier 
niunuscribt^ which thi>y represent, and there* 
fore of oluer witnesses to Lh« truth, and aba 
proTca tho true aibtcnce of a conimoii and 
perfeot origjnal u carlotnly as th<> converg- 
ing of paths into roads, aiAl uf roads Into ■ 




iAty,prtrna tho ojiiitcnce of tbo cHj mto 
wbicD Hiid out of which tlit.7 l<ad. Th« 

adlng uid «xpunf;in/; of a word or a md- 
' tonce or s pUMgo (and apcciftl [y aoe which 
bu no )pt:«l«l doclrinul itgniflooctt, tnd 
wbiuh is, If Dot & capyiat'i «rror, at beat ^ 
parnpbrvs or oommeDt), to far frum shak- 
ing our faith in thu rekl, onljr oonflrma our 
■MUrance. When (he expertclerk In ■ bank 
diM«Tftn, by tho aid of «yfr tirid t;lau, and 
•oalu, ID packafw of bill* or a pilo vf gvLd 
and illvcr pleeaa, ud« vhich is counterfeit, 
but which, by iU cIom imitation of the 
ifonuine, ha* «*cap«d LlioordiDary «ye, in- 
■lead of KuhioK to the oonoliulon that all 
Br« therefor* are aMUredby 
the name te*l« thai all tbci real ara Irua. 

"laai not aware," aaya Profeasor San- 
day, of Oxford, "of a (ingiy dUcovcrr of 
ii«w docuDKnti or tnacuriul* hearing, how- 
ever EndlreoLly, on New Tettameiit orlti- 
ciiin, that ha* tanded in any way to fihake 
tb« fouDdalian* of our falih, whil«i by fitr 
thft larger Dumber have tended very poil- 
tivelj to «treti);then them. Nor i* the prot- 
p«cl any Iru tavorabla a* mgardi niHtciilii- 
tivo, analytical, or rccunatruotive cnticiim. 
Han^ pwuTM, thorv i> morw reason fordif- 
quIeL fiola and rBvolutSoriHrv liytiothoKea 
hare been thrown out, and will prubablybu 
thrown out again. But when we look back 
upon pall conlToveniw, we fball 1*0 in- 
deed thai ibey have left n ri'siduum, but a 
reiiduum that leave* ChriBCiumty no weaker, 
but rather ilrongor, than it wu* bpfora. 
Krror* are corrected; oiagj^cmtinns arp 
modified; our undentandine of the New 
TmtamnnL gtvwt in d<<plb and fuHnei^ 
And It) iho nievn limn, a* it aeenu tu me. 
ocriaicj ji-siliuns have be«n [ikted beyoitd 
tho reach of rontroTcrsy. Thoy are tn 
muob ^ecurv jcruund fnm which we can 
look out in ta^f , even though there may 
b«ob*curity outaidc. It i« only a niatt«rof 
tliiia, and in the end all will come out right 
knia. One truth cannot perBianently con- 
fllot with another tnith," 

There um " thin^ hard to \m undnrmtiiod 
in all the Holy SinjUNrtM. wlikh tliey ihal 
■ra unl^arnctl aod unstable wreet to thoir 
own dwtructlon." But none the )ch w« 
ara oomnnanded by our lionc to "learch" 
them, only to rend them in faith in Him if 
we would re«d them tafely and profltahly. 
They will b« attacked, and mnny will deny 
and rojoiTt ilitim. Rut we need tiKithnr bn 
ntUled by their error* nor fvar Llitir altacki. 
Sonui of them proccod froni i(;norsnc«. One 
It reminded of the ancKKlotu of h'rnnklln, 
who beloK In eontnany wllb a number of 
French inBdel*. who worn ridi<-uling the 
Bible, took from hi* pocket "an old book 
that he bad picked up at a buok-atall," and 
read to tfapni, io ihelr delight, tb« " Prayer 
of Habakkuk," and then oompalUd tliani to 
cunfan that lliey bad nerer re«d the book 
oD which Ihcv were •itling in Judgtaent. 
Other* proceeiil fri>m other cduim. But w« 
need not fear ihejn. We have endearored 

to iDdicato*omoof the guarde against tka 
in thoee deeper and wider pnnciplei fl 
*GripLural ontic'itm without wbk-h any iti 
dent will go astrav. With which we'can 
down to thftM) booJU from a wider Tie«J| 
a higher pocition. ■ 

It may be wsll to remind ourMlvn fl 
otta *ingl« fulfilled prophvc^, suob ■* tl 
many that clutter about ourHaviotlx'a coa 
ing, i* dcciiive agatnat thv dcniak of prt^ 
ecy and fur the Iwlivf in it. One ftd « 
deflnite, MeB«iMni(? exjioctatioii, one* ao p« 
»i*tenUy drni^^l and now >o uniTcr«ally on 
ceded) fiiiindM] on thi: prophecy of I>*nj« 
ii enoughtuoitublUb the truth of Unnicltl 
prophet. One miracle, and above all ll 
miracle of the Ki*iitirrpi:tion , ji»tiflea ai 
aatahUHbo* Lha bclit^f in niirHL'W. " If ■ 
ibe riwt of tho Christian Scripturea were k 
or unauthiMitic, the four enut unduputt 
KpislW of St. Paul furniib u* with all tl 
(Micntial* of the Christian Faith." So ik 
<iT«n at:*^'n*t unbelieving criticiiiu w« ai*< 
llborty to choose our own ground, and I 
iiimmonotir enemy to stand upon IL Bi 
fur our own purpoaa and advantage the tn 
niur«o is not even to take our atand at Sn 
even on *uch certaio truth. We cao c«a 
more aafely and wiMily to tba ojuuutnatio 
even of *uch evidan'ce*— of which there I 
abundartoe — from above. Orautod the U 
iaf of Qofi, and the lupornatural i* n«Mni 
thing* hard bo be undemood beooOH nattM 
ofcouna Prophecy ii the neoeuarydocWn 
Ijon of Llis will, and miracle* the natura 
evidence and miun* by which lie aceoia 
pliihee it. If this U Hia will and Bii warh 
llicn tliMo way* are *nch u are to be ■< 
{levied. Inatead of fattening on eom* III 
lie point and teaUng the paaaagebj avoid 
and tb« book by a miinnderalood pitag* 
and the whuli- by u durkoned past, mad >•■ 
evnrj ulep Bhutting oiit the evidence >■■< 
tnilh of OoD. wo set! in tho Scripturt* lb 
Word of Uim who i& higher than the Scrip 
tore*, and who toiut be believed Id, ina>d« 
to uiidenland Bis Word, the raTslatioa si 
CnaiHT the Incarnate Word without wheB 
lb«v are naiij^ht, mid the meMagi- delivt^ 
to '"'the Church which ii Hit Ui^y." Thn 
an not, therefore, all our religion, not il> 
■um of Ibe tru*t committed to ui. Thtj A' 
nirt. loM but gain to our view when » 
understand that they are oot alone, hut ita 
tliev aro ac the law of the Kingdom, UHaj 
Uieir plane anil fullllling their work In ih' 
areat ayttem of Ihe Kiugdoai of the gfH 
O0& and onr &aT]otia,. Then we om rw 
Ihc book* In their p'ace*. and each chapl* 
and vane and word it niai^lfied and eullghi 
eoed by the light that falu upon it fromlh 
sun of the *yitem. It U fully in accord wll 
thii prineiple that " the Ankle of the Sut 
cioncy of the Holy Scripture* for Salvmt^ 
wa* placed by our Anglican Fatben n« 
after the ArUcles of the TriuUy." " B0I 
iicripture conlaineth all thing* neeeaaai 
to t«lTatioD, *o that wliataoever 
read therein, nor may be pn>ve<t 1 




^ tiO boniqalnd ot»aj mui that it iliould 
^beUned M *n wUe]* of the Faith, or be 
fbDUjrlitreiiuisiUor neowwry to ERlvatiun." 
Asdit b in cb* urn* ipirit tliHt it ^itw on 
^tatefioe wbfti is inaftttL by Holy Scripture. 
^Mtb Bti kDpc*] to th« gannr*! judgment of 
^K CliuK«, — " tboM cAiioniol books of the 
^Eu tnd K«« Totaio^nt of wLuse autborlty 
Hm« m«m ku; doubt ia lb* Cliurch." 

Avtboritiw: Wordtnorth't Qoniinentttr>-, 
Tbt Biblo In tbe Ctaorcb, Weitcott, AJdi tu 
rvOi,XiM7<-lo|>«(lift Brit«onica, PraowditiKH 

I RtT. L. W. OlBSO!*. 

H Biddinc Pnjrcr*. Ti> bid not only ittcanl 
H)iin>dtf,^t kiMloprajr («/. Uermun, b«t«iij. 
H BidLig prkyer. then, i« a inoniliuii or call lo 
H V*}*'- It u ntainnl iiiour" LvtiiKpmy." 
P uibtft^Cuonof ia08 A.i>.,tb€furinor 
I UUi^ pmjor «ru givim thus : ' > Bofbrt< all 
' HMw, leeltin*, mad hoinilics th« pruacbon 
odBiobton ftball move the ptNipfa lo juin 
I *Ulb«in in pnjrer in lAi» form, or to this 
^Ao, u t>neliy u coDTcniontlr tber may : 
i«tball pr«y'r>r Cbhist's Holy Catbolic 
IWch: tbat U. for the wbole congregation 
tf CbrWiao pwtpin diit|)«rMd tbrougboiit 
A* wbola world, and upedally for the 
doRlMi of England, Scol]Hnd,and Ir«Und. 
AidlMniB I raquire you inMt Mpcclally to 
PVitr Ibe Kiiig'ft muat eaoeli«nt Uajesty, 
MrioTtnicn, Lord Join CI, King ufKasland, 
^xknd, Pranc«, and Ireland, defender of 
(kUlb and luprtRM eovernnr in these 
UiMlni tod all olh«r nit dominidJii and 
^Mriea uTcr all persona, in all cbuma an 
**il tMtanutkal w temporal. Te ihall 
Aipfar toff our grmciuu* Qiie«n Anne, tha 
Mbtt Pflnco Henry, and tha rwt of tbn 
^irc'i %nA (Juc«n'> royal issue. Ta aliall 
I" tft tht minisl«n of (Jon's Unly Word 
*M acnnvnta, a* w«11 ArcbbUfaapa and 
lAifi at otb«r paatore and curatea. Ve 
'WliW pray for the Kine'* mo»l honor- 
is Coan«il and for all tbe nobltlty and 
*lclilrBt« of thi« r9alm, that all and every 
■'uacln tb«>ir nveral callingi may tarvn 
Wyaad failhfully to Iho glory of Qob and 
^•wMng and vellpoTorniDg of UIb people, 
'■Miwii Ins tbe account they must make, 
^yaiball pray for the whole Commcins 
'f Iw nalm tliat tbry may tiv* in the tn;« 
■iltud fear of OOD, in humb1« obedieiii;e 
**^ '^^S- *^ brotherly charity oae to 
r, Innallv, lot u* prabo God for uH 
'ich are departed out nf thii life in 
I of Cuitiar, and pray unto Uon 
--Way b«TQf;rac« to direct our Uvea 
Hvtbi^ l«od example, thai ibis life eii(i«d 
*>l>^ ha made partaken with them of tiie 
Wiltu naurrwlioii in tfaotireererlaiting." 
|»«*nj»ccaclud«l with the Lobd'b PrByerr. 
■■aiiiMaand MtatM are vsriod.of coum, 
niklba tbnea and the eovereiKiit, but the 
■MiBf prayer t» ilill uncd in Bngland. As 
ilvltai lupuni that it would ba t«ry con- 
•w*W to deliver a iMturo or lermon to a 
MM or gnlld without liia Xvaning Prayer 
H, it )■ worth the while to oon- 

sid«r whntber il mi|{ht not ba adviaable tor 
tbe Ghar«;h to pornilt somo iuoh form of bid- 
ding prayer to be uied under duo roitrio- 

Bier. A portable carriage fur tbe duad. 

Bigamy. Tho crime of marrying a leo- 
ond wif« while the tint it itill firing. In 
the enrly Church it meant also the marry- 
ing of a aeoond wife after the death of 
the flrst. — an act wbii;li wa.i diKouragod in 
every way, it being sometimes aa imiwdl- 
Dtont ti) holy orilnrt. But tho rulo ana tlie 
oppoaitiun varied in variuun parta of tha 
CburcU and at diffien>ot times. 

BiiTctta. The iquaro cap worn by for- 
«{([o ecelMlaa tic* over tbe auccbetio, ordoee 
■kull-cap. It wa« (irobaMy a Utn lolroduo 
tion after tontiirc wiwi fully ^nforcpd. 

Bishop, Tho Rights, U'utica, and Privi- 
legos of a. Injni^ijiatgly b«foro Hi» aaceo- 
aion itito Hcaviin, in a o\aci> aginrt whoro 
He bad appointed, our Lokd, iu ihu |tre^ 
encQ of Uta el«v«D Apostlea, aaeerting the 
ploaitude of Uia powor, "All power ii 
givea unto me in heaven and In eartli" (St. 
Hattfaew xzTiii. 181, made thia the baai* of 
the fullnots of the funclinna with which IIr 
Mnt forth His Apoitles to thur work : " Go 
ye, thf^rufore, and ti-ach all nation*. . . . 
and, lo, I urn with you al way." " A> [xaduf) 
my Father has scut me, ereu aosend t you" 
(St. John XX. 21). Of tho fullnut of the 
power with whieh Ho wu Himself endued, 
according to tbla measure He inveeted Uii 
Apoitlea with authority to oarry on the 
<Tork whicli He lind begun. Realiainz tbn 
Bolo resnon&ibility thus placed upon thum. 
thny fill up thi^ir nurnhnr (Acta >. 3X), and 
in due tima (sjnutitulti the luhordltiHta 
ordors of Deacon and Proabjrter (Ai^ts vi. 6; 
Tltui i. 5], for tho bettor execution of the 
task that at flr»l realod wholly upon tbum- 
aelrea. With the headship of tliu Churdb 
under Cnatax in thia office alwaya clrariy 
Indicated, but under varying name*, it set- 
tled within the &r»t century after Chkkt 
upon that dflsignaLion of Biabop, which 
was used at times by the Aiiuatlea, aud haa 
been employed ever sinoe. At Brat the 
overafgbt w*iu in the body of the Apoille* 
jointly. Then a single ApoiUe bad the 
cjire of thuMi whom ho h*A Won tbe means 
of c«>nverting to the Cliristian faith. Boon 
after this there arote naturally tbe Dioccean 
Ejiiiioopato, with Llie immediato authority 
of Blanojui reatrlcLed to tbdr aevernl Dii>- 
fCeiM, along with 
ttte part of each 
HL'iii?rftl Episcopate, 
<'miro Uhuroh. 

The duty of geiMra) oranigbt in the 
BUhop very soon compsUod tho deiignaiion 
of particular Pmbytert to bare tht imme- 
diate spiritual aire of the several districia 
or pariah ee at they were suocesal rely formed. 
Tbcao Preabyten at flrst were »ent forth 
from the Bishop's Church, and acted with 
dftf^ted BUthoritT. A* tbe number of 
Christians and tbe ^iatancn from the Bitfaop 

::beo w lueir aeTerni i/io- 

a joint roaponaibilily on 

Blabop, at a part of the 

te, for the welfare of tbe 




incrMMd, tliH* Pmibjtttt caids tcr&Ju>lly 
lo «ct wilh grwur indeptndencc, and the 
relfttioD of th«ir parbbea wiiJi tbu ciitliuilral 
b«caiD« more inovflDJta. Al ilie kHUie time 
tb« «nni)«ctioa of ttvry Uptix^d p«non 
with tfaa BUbop wu marked, aiiil th« a\g- 
piflcanc* of llw (ol« otRom which was im- 
nwdintely crtuttiHl in thu Church by our 
Lord wu einphiuieeil iu the r«n«wal before 
him of th« bapliimai Towfi, and tbo recetr- 
loj; frudi bim in iMiiDnnation the iwl of 
th« HoLr Ohost. 

Tho disltnci purpoia declared for which 
the number of th« ApotUu wm compleled 
wu that lbs penon u> ehoften mifcht b* a 
witn«M to Lh« nviurreclion of our Loko. 
Tbii office of the B|ii«co(Mit«, to hold, and 
band OB, and bear vritoeat to, the purity of 
tb« faltb, bat aiwa.Ti been very impomnt. 
As diSer«nt luterprotalium of thn Holy 
Scriptures appeared, and aut^lluni nruu) 
nhiHit lh(! faiui which had been delivered, 
tha Blahops from all part* of the Church 
w«r« callfjd togniber into CouDcila in ordor 
to hear wiuiew to what had be*n held ftom 
tbe hi«iantng, and lo dctarmina quntiona 
of discipline and order. Tlib was Iba order 
iu the Church with whom the dootsioiu as 
to d'-clrino reated. 

Thi» witneMin^ Ainctlun of tbe E]h»- 
00pal«( coming among the other reaaons 
■tat«d, from tbe fact that it nover dind, and 
could 1>«* dittinrtly irawd In the l)l>tory of 
the ■everal Kom, wh* n«tiirallr Join«d wilh 
the executivu function. W)i'Rl«v«r others 
could do the Biihnp uould da, and more. 
All fuDcitons Dndcd up io him. All appeals 
nal(;hl fiaally cume to htm for KvltlomonL 
lie was the viiibte centre of communion. 
ThroU|;h him the Diocvfto and it^ membert 
vera oon nee led with the univeraal Church. 
ITo wa* the guardian of the rights and 
nrivilogaa of the several members of tbe 
IhocMe as against each oLher. 

This exeouliVD function of the Btsbop 
manifeatul !tJ.nlf in Knvoral forms : 

(1) HavinK a seal iu all Oeneral Goun- 
eils of the Churcli, he baa the position of 
prcetdcticj In his own Dlocaae. Ho holds 
nil own offlce in iriut, being obliged to sco 
that its powors and dignities suffer no dimi- 
nution while thPT arn in his hands. He is 
also the trmta*-of lite trail ilional and iminc- 
tnorial immunities and ^rltileRei of all tho 
tHergytaeti and laymen in his jurisdiction. 
The interest and the greatest efflclency of 
tha wb»le Chun-h are ioTolTcd In the de< 
velopment to the highest point of all the 
oapaoities which are in each oflce, and In 
thf> provRntion of the dishonoring of any 
THiiliiun or the diminutioQ of its "fflcieocy 
It the intriuioo of other agencies out of 
torir rightful place. This duty comes 
ri)|;ht1f un the Bithup. 

Apoetoliv esimple ahows that this ml* of 

lh« Bi»hop is not designed tu W autticmtic, 

but to bo >barcd and concurred in by the 

eooosalof the PrMbyiersand Brethren (Acts 

p-ST. 2t}. In all forms of ecclesiastical ao- 

in (1 

llut. ... Li.. .... 

this inittatiou 
d«li borate con' 

tion of Canons, or 

, or in the ranis' 

• of tbe Cbuni, 

.i ag with tbs 

K. ther or^hrtfai 

tbe Church has bMn ■&«&. 

(2) Ootfitde of conciliar action tti« BUIies 
is rmransihie fur the eScwncj of the Chuita 
in aJlof the multiform activities of s liiiuf, 
aj^groaiTa body. aU tha time conf^octin^ 
OBW questions. Beapontlbtv for the ipiritunl 
iuiereau of Lh« DIaoeee, hit original richl 
of nomination of ministers to all paniM 
hM yet its trace rftmainini; in tha need tbit 
he should concur io all eiactioBs of clergr- 
mcn to mifiw, in order to tbe vatidlly of tas 
Hctittn. In caseof dlSfereucrs bL-twcen the 
miniet«t and coagregaUon, which may not 
uthcrwLM h« appsasva, with hita, (.'iiber iwr- 
luniillr or hy deputy, the business of ioal 
iip|i«al and settlement lies. In case of bait 
of any sort alleged in the minititcr, tbs 
Kidliop, on a formal preeenution of ilx) cats 
to his notice, lakxf order for the eonstitutioa 
(if i)i« court, if he tliinki that the uatMi 
should ){o to trial, and the prooounceoMt 
of sentence if euilt i* found. 

Tbo Dtacon Is pcoullarly under ths Bl^ 
op's care. Uls studies, as are also thoM of 
the candidate for holr ordcn, nro nrosrcutid 
under the Bishop's alrection. Too Deaoos 
is also subject to the Bishop's control in oS- 
ciating in the Diucasn. 

Tk> the parish and the latty, from th* 
Bishop, puied, in large decree, the power 
of nomination to the rcttorship wbaa ika 
incomo of the |>ari*li wnut dire<.t]y Iu the 
cicrsymen, tnste^ of, as si Arst, oomiag la 
the Bishop for distribution. Where, bow* 
ever, the Bl«hop now doea not nomlnata, ha 
jconurally recommends for vacant positions, 
with an influnnon which is Increasad, ■□( 
mert^ly by the fact of bis offlcc, bm also bf 
his larfier knowledge and the disintereslaa- 
new of hi* niotivos. In any eveat the 
ohulcnof a rector has to he commanleated 
to him and be approved by him. 

(3) As the suprenieciecntlTeottooTof till 
Diocese, the dlitributioD of the moneys tt 
the Diocrae u lArgnh' under hi* inltMoee, 
If ni>t hii <HjnUi)l. He, io Miuultatiun with 
alhnn, tiiilributes llie inuoey which ti cuD- 
Lrlbuled ft'r the missionary purposes of ths 
Dioceto, as well all the educallunal and el«^ 
musynary f^nds which are at disposal. To 
hiro'alao| as having a bottrr hnnwtcdge of 
the real condition and needs of tbe Diocese, 
are intru9t«d, from time to time, trust monsyi 
for di«irit>iUion acunrdinr to his Judgmuat, 
for church building and for peraonal and 
pHriichial aid. 

The relation of the Bishop not mardy 
with tho DlixH'se, but with tbe general 
Church, IS shown in the manner of his 
election and utherwise. It is required tl>al 
he shall receive at Ica^t a majority of the 
votes or the clergymen and parithM taavtu 
t«ats In thi> CnnventJon ; but his elactioa ■ 
still incompleta nntil he receives tbs votat 




of « tukjnritj of the Dt<ioeM!t, u repreteoted 
I7 their StAodin); Ci>mraitt«M or depuUUfoas 
\a Gvoenl Conveotioo ; uid xfMr this the 
•ttdencv of Llie ounwiiit of it majuritj of the 
BUtopft. H« tUBjF Dol rciign his o^e UDli) 
&■ hm» out odI/ lbs conMQt of tbo Uivcuo, 
Wt of th4 UouAft of Biabop*. If ch»rg6d 
with fault, ho U tried by the Hoiue vf 
BUbop* BJlting u * court. 

Tb« •jtB^'Ul deaigoalion of tbn Bishtm In 
IkU tfountrjr, M rticuniDienileid Liv the G«n- 
fml ConvcnlioD of 1786, vu "Tta« Bight 
lUvMniiil A. 6., Bitlwp of the PrvUMUnt 
XpUcup*] Cbuix-h in C. D." 

li wduM Dut b« stniuiEO Liiat, Troin dUuse 

<& the (Art of tha Bub>>p, or from arabitiun 

« nvflMive energy on toe pnrtuf vibera, iu 

lb* jmtngfi of tiioQ (oma of Dm orLgln&l 

bactwnt of tb« Kpiacopmt« ma; bavc lapsed 

iltaeo lutnid«d upon. 

(1) TltB riicht of ord«rioc the LiLurf;j' and 

4« Bitaal of his Dioceao, wbkh oH|;i[iully 

blt«^(d to tb« Buhop, ban piuiiid tu the 

hpilltkia of Lbo nalianal Churoli, t<> wliicb 

iHVuhop hae virtually ceded ■ portiun of 

tbri|bt. A difpotilion. also, urucliually to 

NgBWa tbe Ritual, wiiliiml rvfpruiic« la tbo 

Bokop, baa not infrequetitly ap|)«ared iu 

wiaia ntni^lcn and parishu of a l>io- 

(1) Tlw h«sd4bip of the Diocan b4 Kpre- 
Mm b Council, and the nowIbilUy of re- 
Jk6m kU Qtenaitin whicD did not ■net.-t 
*i>i OH approval, bai In many iiietanc^ 
■bnihkn to tbe bonorarj pratldancy of tb« 
b^7.u4 only tu«b a voira ia disapproval 
lahiwy to any ckrgyman in tlio DieoeM- 

BdI bti autJiorily im bciog Lh» cblsf offi- 
WitalUi v«to, which ia inc«psrable frorU' 
■>i> right to l«gbilat«Kiid to <ilici}>Iin«, bciDg 
i^tmi in the ottoe of Binhup, am iidl fur- 
hM*b«a eitbar not n»ed or held in ab«y. 
wailmD|h forva of circumtuinces. 

I'i Frum noD-ratidenue and Immenion in 
MB JDtarMta ibe right of the Bi«hap in 
ntllkcdtal hM declined, in many catea, to 
^mcaitaoa of but a formnl rtaitalion, 
M iht prtvilef^ft of aa honorary seat in the 

((} Tbi rtttbt and l)i« duty of K*vi»g holy 
''Wit vbidi li a primary office of tbe 
HfiMfatft. baT« in caaot been ao abridKed 
Vwaeiaalvo powcn a«f«rt*>d by booici 
~*H wlvlfon lunctloiii, that ii has bvon 
btpMifafe for BlabojM oollvotiveiy or acting 
"'Vtf to iftve tbe BpiMopat*, or even ap- 
f**"a ibe qaeitlon of the Btn'Oaa of tba 
l^m prapoaed for admii^OD to tbe lower 

l>tl believed, bowever, that, with r«mrd 
1*1^ and many other functiuna of alike 
"*ttBlar,UMdiipoiit>oii in tboL^hurvli ia lo 
*■>*''* M tbe Blabop that which fur tbo Ui- 
IVI ng^iiBea of the Church, anii ibi»r«foro 
I"* bltl«r (fflcianoy of iu work, nghtly and 
■'Vtallybatauevd lohini i while proy'ldin^ 
lui tba wiidvni mad bf«ltbful influence of 
wivti tball be iaonaa«d by the ooua*«], 
*** n-Op«fatioD, and tbo nacwaarj chevks 

which coma from tbaotharcooatitueat parts 
of the Cburoh. 

Rt. RbT. 0. F. BOBBBTSON, D.I>., 

Blaapfaemy. Blaiphnmy S^ aDmetimat 
coiifustd wit.h,pnifaiiil.y. A profauo jjcnuii 
ie unp wliu uica oril liiDguuge. oalht, uod 
bbupbcmou* pbraMa. But a pcrton mayba 
Kuiliy of IfluHjilj^iiiy without tiiiyprMfanlty, 
for he Diay t«avh contrary to tioo'a honor 
or truth and yd um apfiamitly reverent 
UueuugQ. In the early Church thero wcra 
tbrw sorts of blasphemy diBiinsiiUhed: 
Pint, of apoaiatM; ao St. Polrcarp itidig- 
naiitly rapiied whan riMiuirixl li> deny 
CHiiiaTi "lliene eighty and six veara have 
I acTvai Him, and m nevvr did niu harm ; 
how, then, can I blaspheme my E!ug and 
mv Saviour?" Second, of h«retii'a and 
sell ia ma tics, who yet nioy recotuiaeiid their 
bercay by moral lives, The Church visited 
Ibeto with excommunlcatloa. Tbe tblrd 
sort of btasphecty wos the tin agalnut tbe 
IIoLT Uho«t. Vt hnt tliii sin wan, or i>, wu 
iiiuchdobalrd. Atlbctinie wlivn our Lobd 
dcolared it, it was a denial of the eviJoace by 
niiraotw which Uc woHtnd of the powuruf 
the UoLT Ohoht. If, then, It was atin then 
lo deny the powurof tlio lloLT Onoar, now 
it must ba of theiamo hind. St. Athanwiu* 
and Bl Ambroto defined It to be a denial of 
[he Divinity of Cbeibt, but St. Auguitine 
deOned It lo be prraUtvnt and final impcni- 
t*-ncy. Jlowcvcr this inay be, the sia of 
hinsphoroy m committed with fearful fra* 
qutDcy in this age. It i* by a direct revil- 
ing of God a sin that marki the liut agoof 
the world (Kc«. xvi. 9, 11, 21 ; 2 Tim. iii. 
t). By willfully imputing UiUim itUrlbutot 
or qualities which are not poMiblv, u<^ injuf- 
tice, and i.'rvali(in of siu, or dcnyiiig Uii at* 
Lribulca uf love, mercy, truth, and *uch like. 
It may be aUo committed by reviling Uis 
creatures. Thus imprucatiuns and profane 
twuuring have the nature of blaiphvmy. 
By the Statute Law of Kngliuid tbi- denial 
of the: [icrsKnn of tlio Trinity, uflhe Chris- 
tian rcll^ii>n,of the Pivineaulhority of the 
Holy Scriptures, is made blMphomy. 

Blood. •■ But flukh with the life thereof, 
which ia the blood thereof, yc shall not eat" 
[Qcn. is. 4). "And whatiflcvor man thara 
be of the houfo of liracl, or of the sUaucer* 
that iojouru nmons you, that f>at«th any 
manner uf blood; I will avcn let my face 
againit that soul that eateth blood, and will 
cut him olf from aiuong bis pcopl'Q" (Lov. 
xvtl. 10). "That yo alnlain tivta . . . 
bloo»l" (AcUav. 29). 

It is very dear that in Goi>'« ^i|:ht blood 
has a sacrfNl and significant oliarfti-i«r wbioh 
it much disregarded. The command was 
strict, " be shall even pour out the blood 
thereof and cover It with dust." ThaChri*- 
tians observed it under the directions of the 
Apostolic Letter, as ituotad abova. Btoud 
tru accounted tbe lifla, and mudarn tci>uic« 
teach«a us th« same. " It ia the life of all 
Besb ; tbe blood of it is for the life thereof." 



The luM of blood ii the lou of phv«iciit ]if«, 
and thii i* Lypic*! of the dentli of thi! «oul. 
80 lioly .ScTiptur« >r>eAlu of the " pouring 
oul of lb« »oul|" md " llio offurine of the 
wul." Blood, ihwriiforti, lining the- Tjfii, Kn.d 
U Atonement !■ biutiil u[)uu th«lif«uf ooofur 
the Ktm i>f all (Ruiu. v. and Hcb, ix. 7 ■ff-]- 
tlic tiluody eacri&CQ wa* the lypo of tb« one 
full tJUlSciiiut Hucrillce of Chhut. For the 
1if« of the fle*b it In ih« blood: "and I have 
gtveo it to 70U upon the nllnr to mnko Kn 
utoncmcnt for your muU: for it it the blood 
thxt iualc«itb ftn utoaemotit for Ibo »oul" 
JLqv. ivii. It). If, thun, tb« blood of th« 
l>tnb, the heifer, or the duve could havi! 
tui-b tyiiitial pi^niQcarice, of how much 
yrcater <iigaity miut wc devoutly count tb« 
rodunniing blood of our L»hd J ksvh CaRini, 
the Laiiih of Ood, for whom were all previ- 
ous McriBces and in whom cbcir nicauing 
andtfficwy c«ntrodl "The blood of Jiscfl 
CUKUr cluanKth us from all sin." "How 
muuh iuor« «hall ihf blood of Cukibt, who, 
through th« etcinBl SriuiT, ufleied HimiiDlf 
vitbout tpot to God, f>ur|;a your coii^duijce 
from dead work* to serve tfio living Go»." 
" Cnto Elim that loved u* and mulivJ lu 
from our aim in Hiaowii blood, and Ualh 
luadc (M kiDn aud priMLs unto tioDanil 11 id 
l^'ATQER, to Him bo glory and dominion for 
over Biid »ivet. Amen." "Th«*>> iire llii-y 
tcbicb came oiR of ere* L tribulation anil 
have wanhcd thdr roboa and made llictn 
white in the blood of iLe Lamb." Thence 
the blood of redemption iipon the crotft ii 
niadv by Bitn owr life, " Thia ia my bliiud' 
whivh 1* *hed for you and for ninny for the 
reuiiuioii of tins. Do thia an ofi. im yeiliall 
drink it, for the Lou> Juca bad already 
• aid. '- Wlimo vHteih my Ktutli, aud driiiltvth 
my Illouii, hath eternal life; and 1 will ralie 
him lip at tho liwt day" [&U John vi. Mj. 

Body, Mystical. The union bntwMti:) 
Christ and His members U «o real, so in- 
timate, that St. Paul deolar«* we urv of Hit 
flcnh and of Hi* bone* (Eph. v. 80). Th« 
Body into which we are so bound u|t is 
Uii Mystical Body the Churcb, which tbe 
ApMiIo declares wo aru. "Now yu arc the 
Bud)' of Christ, and membon iu uarttcular 
(1 Cor. xii. '2'), but this Body bath Cuairrr 
U lu Head, " And cave Ilim t<i be tbe Head 
orer all Ihlnea to ihi Churcb. wblcb is UU 
Body, the fuTln>e<M of Ilim thul nileth iill in 
B]l"(£ph.i. '.!<1). Thi»Church,lhe>»uliiarid 
bodies i>r them that bdiuve.Hd bun purcbeacd 
to Hinutlf with Hie own Blood. It la a 
mysfieo/ Dody, and our union in C'nKiHT is 
myttlcal, becuusr it i> now trfiyond our coiu- 
pKhenAion, not cuntrary to the analogica 
vhieh faith suiiplic* from Uie ejcperionee we 
daily have ^'^'i"! "*- It '*! therefore, to bfl 
believed ana acted upon in our tptrllual Itfo, 
for the Rpiriiual lifvof the ChnMttnn is the 
Life of Caftie^- The Church is mil only the 
ftillncM of Him that Otlotb ell in all: it it 
His BH<1«; it i* Hit joy. Therefore the 
ioining of vurvalve* lu CBRiax by bapti'm, 
by the Coumuuion, bj the faitb, luve, uid 

obedienco which enter into the nature of our 
npiritual life, is auch and m» cloee a union 
with Him that it U properly myGtical, b« 
yond human knowltfOgo, and ia summed up 
111 the ■trout; words Sl Paul uie* : " Ve an 
(lead, and your lif« is bid with ChbUT in 
God," and the still more ni}st«rious lao- 
gtiogo of St. i'eter: " Whereby are ilrta. 
unto us eiceediuii great and precious pF0B«- 
itea, that by theae ye mij;hl be partaken «r 
the Ditnat naiure, having rsc-apcd the cor — -^ 
ruption tbal ii in lh« world ibrouKta Itia"^ 
(2 Pet. i. 4). The Churii is ihw visible wp-- -- 
pninlnd Eliidy for tli« (giving untl rDceiTiiig~^d 
of Che gi'ti, gmci^, and inSut^ucttt which ^t 
make up the mystical union of tho Cbristian ^ 
with his LoBir. The inner iuy«Ucal uaim * 
of ibeUfiiiis the spiritual activity and health; " 
use of cbeae means of f^rnca in the man hin- -^ 
self. This mystical union hai been UMUd 1 
of in many ways. Its study and praetk* ' 
bavjuK formed a school of thoU{fhl in the * 
Chiirrli, which linaUy lod into vagartee aol 
wurrmittil by Holy Kcripture. 

Body, Natural. Our luktural bodiei, bow- 
over Lhoy may be viewed under the inrMti- 
gatioiit of niudurn svtoii(.-e, van Anally be 
treated simply as returuuig to thai dust o«l 
of wb icb we arc formed. The teachings of the 
Itt and 2d chapter* of Qeneau are the butt, 
flaully, of all that can be aud of our mortal 
bodies. That we were made by OuD in Ht» 
own Ima^e, and received from Him a tiring 
soul fhiia Uis breath, that tbi$ breath was 
tbebrealb of Im* [vide marfriD in A. V. at^ 
Hi-b.), und ibal the lubdivision of our lih 
into physical, intitllectunl, and npi ritual life, 
(if which every thinkiii); mun is thoroughly 
conscious, all Ihcee aro postulates with Uw 
ChriMtiar. The analynii of materiftlUu OUk 
not ovorihrow tbae, for ihev are aside fri 
the line of study he bai marked nut for hi 
hclf, find the cluhing comce from his eff) _ 
to overpans the bounds between mLitd and 
mnUer. And ibe last analysis even of tha 
niateriaiiat enda in a pre-exlalent ideeL 
Tliat He can and did call our ttAtore iMa 
cxiai<.ncc by His own Hut it, of oowie, a 
fuel that every believer in Bevelation a*- 
si'its. How far, i n what way It may be said 
ihiit our body is In His Image, has over beea 
A mallor of mueh (peculation, but will be 
ever one of tboic mytlerice solved in the 
hiireuAer, whon we shall know even a* we 
are known. Of thu creation of woman, It 
tiiiiy 1>R Mid lu be wholly of the one naiisre 
of man, hut derivativvly, and luUistiac M 
tiibordtnatc, end not by ori);iual vroatieD. 
Thi^te an- in our human nature three forms 
of existence, two of ihom in tbe bistork*! 
past, the third in ibe continuous fiow of 
nuRian history : Adam by oriKixal vrtAiion. 
£ve by bcInK formed out or Adam, and 
(heir doMendnnts by conception and i>irtlt. 
And thin human nature thus briiujrbt into 
existence is intimately bound up io'a unity 
wonderful and renotine, and typical of the 
iuSnite and inc'imprehausibte unity «f 
Divine Nature. ' 




[Tb« Fftll, by the inlroduction of tin by 
>b«dienco iato oar natun:, produced dit- 
lion when Ihe prluc(|>le of uulty 
■n f^ndAinRntal. Ckpsoitiea snd en- 
iti Bttod for inimnrtnlity ani] per- 
pplaaM were to Utint«d and suiined, 

J principle of harmonic life in Cioo 

•O ralneil, that doMtb wu tlio invviubln 

ntult. "Dfiiig thi>u tbuU di«" wa» Ihe 

tttounciag of a fact mutting frotu lin. 

pOAtb ii Ibc SiuU re*ult of a polongod dli- 

touc'^tioii thai be|pn* wlih toe mument of 

Urtfa. Wben reparkUan no loDg<^r (•xcp^i 

Ul» vaite, then tl*«lh bt^ini U> win tlm vic- 

htrr In ihe lcn^tb«n«d nru^icle. But sines 

■IBB bad «ll things put io HuIi|«ction to him, 

fcu &11 laintad and luiled all tfao tubordimtte 

cicalittn. TliPrefore Si. Paul tcuchea ua thul 

"V4 know that th« wbolo creation eronn«lh 

HdtnvBlletb ill pain logetlicr until now." 

Owflpaccdoea not pennlt ue to point out 

tU Waring of tbe wnolfi pawagu (Roin.viii. 

IMS) upon tbe Fall, the iiilcrcoancctioii 

«flk« natural creation and man, and tbe 

iMUralira of th» ono by (ho T«d«mption of 

tk Mlitr through Jaaira Chkibt, and by 

^BMluiuouapreWDCvof ih>e UoltSpikit. 

Bu Uti* outlioo itatcm«nt of tha icriptural 

lukvill give the clue to a clear grMp of 

lUiniMcct. Th* capacity for «ternal life 

HlbiaiKua*od ander the title of luHOR 

'UtfT. The dlaaatroiu oonBcquencee of 

Ibi FUl ruinad ib* corporeal powan and 

ifHj of tb« body, but we cannot know 

tki btisht from which Adam f«11. Dr. 

BMb'i well-kuown sarin);, thut an Ariitotli' 

**iImi tba rtibbitb of an Adain,ie poiaibly 

iktMway that we cmi eipruM tboextviit 

■(Iklojary Immorlallty beloneiKl aln(!i] 


P^leUut He itaould b« botden of death ' 

(A(u!L!U). Bala« th««e(M>Dd Adam, the 

Wtkialag Spirit, Hn rolorr* to u« thi« 

{■••(Ulit/. The forgirsnew, then, of lio 

■fr tilt (t«p to the giving bacli to our 

•toilbodiea their original power of mor- 

^'fftf •Hlch r*-«idowment la tu be com- 

PMMtt lbs Reaurroction. 

Bfdy, Spiritual. St. Paul distinctly 
••*• that the body to be given u» at our 
■'Wmnkm i« to be (piriiual. Thin diffl- 
*wrilvayihai tiMn pniMnted: buw, Lbfm, 
•Wlt» be judged iu the spiritual body for 
<Hdftdi^ii« in the natural body 7 or. in 
"w-vordtihowahall that penonnl Identity 
™A *e now wear b* brought np at the 
j^tMni-Mftt? Tbat we cannot nnw iin- 
*">u4, boi it ]• no greater dlffioultr to 
''^ ^ future fbet than it it to accept 
^ td upon tha ptwent fa«!(, that our iioul* 
*>< ear bodice — Lwo diilinct and, in lomo 
"•f*!!, UitacDtiUtlG «nlitio»— form bulonp 
f*!*^ ibvugE we can never undcr»t<ind the 
"lteite|iriacipIaof their union. Iiide*d, It 
■ m dUBcull to admit that in a perfect 
*!*'* ef linJeaaneM a apirittial budj, with 
J***! eapacitifli now b«yoad », may he 
^■*i7 It DaUtation f»r ttie radaamad aoul. 
•'"ItevaBdiof Scripture arc to be accepted, 

and then explanation Iu he patiently wailed 
for. The fuller ditcuuion of this tubjoct 
belun^ii Io (be title Kxhchbkcti'jn. 

Bowing, in the Creed A reterentacief 
wontliip kt ibu naiue of J Ksua (i'bil. ii. 10). 
The text upon which tbia bowing li bated 
rufon properly to a bending of the knee, 
which waji an Oriental aol of hmniign. It ia 
only when Ula name, Juus, ia uttered thai 
Lh)« reverent bowing is proper, JEatra ia 
His name u man with ui. Uukist it Ilia 
till«, at anointed to His threefold otQi.'e at 
Primhet, Priest, and Kintf. Therefcre 8t. 
PauVa arguaiunta with tlic Thit.'uiioniaiit 
wcra accurately atated, "that this Jnua 
whom I proclaim unto you in ihc t'liamT." 
The IBtb Canon of thi> Church of England 
makoA bowiug at the name uf J bstta proper, 
not only in the Crocvd, but at all othor times 
when it is mdntiuued. " When, In time of 
Divine tervico, the Lord Jesub shall be 
inantinnvd,due and lowly reverrncu shall be 
done by all pcraonn pnsent im bath been 
accutlomed: teetifyine by these outward 
coromoniei and gosture> tb<>ir inwHrd humil- 
ity, Christian molutiun, and due acknuwU 
edgmenl thai the Lokd Jksi;» Cbkist, Ibe 
true eternal Sox of Uod, it Iho only baviour 
of the world, iu whom alone all the cnurciea, 
gracfv, and promise* of Uod to maniiind for 
Ibis life and the lifetooome are f^lly and 
wholly comprised." (Canona of 1604 a.d.) 

Breviary. The Bool: of the Doily OOlns 
uf ttie Kutnan Church. The name bolonged 
to the uartiL-ular UflS. pmpared by Qreuory 
VII. (1086 A.D.), but the book, in 'principle, 
wat in uto in the Church manv agae b*- 
fure. It w«a oiude up of tho F*«lmi, of thq 
Lewont from Holy bcripiure, or from the 
wnrkt of iho l''atbE'rt, tcnl^nocs Lhrown into 
the form of Von>icl6A, KMpondt, Anillphoni, 
Prosas, and other similar forms, Every 
Glih<ip hnd, Drittinally, the |iowit to alter, 
arrange, or riHxinipilelhti Liturgy in lils Oio* 
ccse, but IVom the GAh century Ibore waa a 
tend«ncylo unify the iK-rviL-ee, and et^ially 
was this di^no in th» ProTiiices. Bull there 
was a large degree of variation for many 
ages. In the Knglith Church there wen 
Tarletlea in the Boveral leading Diocesea. 
The monnsterieabad their apQcial Breriariea. 
The Rumnn ofllce-boolca, kflaaal and Brerl- 
ary, weru and are forL-od ujion the Diuc«aei 
which receive Ibe papal nutbority, detpilo 
of very delorinint'd ri->t»tun(.'«. The present 
fornor the Roman Breviary waa made under 
I'iits V, It it dividf^ intn four pnrtt, cwlled 
after the tctuons, Pan Hlcroalls, Vernalia, 
jGstivalit, Auiumnalts. Each of tbmi> parts, 
in addition idlbnintrndunCnry nibrl<.-i.ojiliin> 
dar, and uther lahlei, b»s four subdiviiiuns : 
lI.) The Ptaiier, comuri^in;; the i'taltn< 
and Caattctos, arranged for wccltly reoiu- 
tion, >«nd alto the unvaryini- [laru of the 
offlc«a. (II.) The Projjer OtKce* fur the 
aeaaon, which vary with the 9«a.i<in. (HI.) 
Tho Frop«r Officii f<»r tho Pestivalt of the 
Saints. (IV,) The Common (i.*., unvary- 
ing) Office for the Feativalt of tbe Sainla. 




Uxinlly applied U> LnlUira Apo*- 
" t. It itdiminguiBbed (roD) 

tolio of tbe Pope. 

the Bull obieSy Train the form Kod Katun of 
tbo intiTumont. Tbcr boUi tiava lb« wmo 
ttuUiuriir, liul the Bn«f I* ^nenJIj tbortw 
knd dval'a on«u wilh niatl«n of Ibm impor- 
UncD, •.nd it m».y be rc«allc<t or rcprawd vX 
will. It li ordituiriljr wntii-ii in the LKtJa 
chikrtict^r, bus a wms Mini muiohod bvuring 
tUo impniu nf lb* •ocallod "fl*b«miaii'a 
ring," — n fi^uro uf 8L Peter fiihiog from a 
boat,— «Dd u >isD*d by Ibe 6c«r«tary of 
BrMk. Tb« foroi of ibe BrU-f, tbouk-li uvw 
fixed bv Ub^omm, ku varied in liiuea put. 
(Vidt UD1.L*.} Jn EoKlBiid Ibc crown hu 
frotn Uoie Impirmdri^ iMued Brief* for 
charitable ])UtpoM*,wbicb brief* ar«dirwHed 
to be read araani; ibc natior* aflxr the r«ci- 
tatiad of the NIccims Cru«d after tbe Ooi{i«l. 
Aa Hie cofl of iuuiog theea brieb, though 
rediic«d very much from tbo previoui 
cbariiM, it ttlll yvry great, tkej' are not id 
ft«gu«Dtlj luued. 

British Cburcb, The. When or hy whom 
CbriMiaaitir wai broujrht to Uriuin ii un- 
knowo. Ai it wat uodirr tb? dominion of 
ib« Ronuin cinpcrun until iWt A.i>., it t% 
prubabletbat thu Gospel wtu [irVBched tb«ru 
as in Other parti of ihd empire at a very 
MtIt periud. I>ir«<:t ifvidvace i* wanting 
uutil toe end of the ■eeood century. Clem- 
«nt of Rotoe, 90 a.d., meotions that Ht. 
Paul, boforo bl* martyrdum, had viaitAd the 
boundary of tlieWert |r6 r^ua rff Unttut), 
but the exprtesion u loo indcBnitc to found 
an arciimpjit upon it. The identiflealion uf 
Clauuia and Pud«n> in«nlioni*d by Si, Paul 
(2 Tim. iv. 31| wilh a Roman family cun- 
niwled wilh tiio government of Britain is 
aWvery duubtful. Thv Htory of St. Joseph 
of Arimathea and hti tweWu couipanicm*, 
their coming lo tilMtoDbury, and liiu holy 
Itaom which ipratig from bit planted iialf, 
li a mpdiwval legend. The eartlMt un- 
doubted tmCtmony to the exiitence of Chrii- 
tianlty in Britain U that of Tcrlullian [b. 
160), and ai b« tmyt thai the Qoepel bad In 
hi* lime panetratod rogiont in the iitacd 
whivh the Bumuni bad HotvUit«d,U inelear 
thai it was du ni;w ihlnj;. Tu tbat jioriod 
(177 A.Q.) b4iloAg» the account of a British 
chief, Lucius by natne, applying to the 
Biihop of Rome for Chriiliao lDBtrut.'tiun. 
Very little «an be oollwtod from our tcanty 
reeordi with regard to ibc (latn nf tbo 
Cburcb in iu carliMt period, iU eitension, 
mode of government, or life. There wi<rri 
Bitho{M in the princi[i&l Roman t(>wni, iu 
which placM tncre may have bcon some 
churchet of Roman brlok, but in no«t cascf, 
away from thuco oeotrea, sueb building* at 
cxi«lBtl for ptiriiiMCB of Cbriftlan wonhip 
were (■onilmcliHl of wandi or wiittlai in tbn 
aticietit British fashion. But it dura nut 
appi-ar that much pregmi had been made 
during ihu Rifinan period In the conversion 
of the f;r«at body or the population. Thai 
IhaOhurcli had her ntarlyrt here as cite- 
where l» shown by the itory of Alban, ood- 

verted by the Christian prlast to 
bad in pity K\ya sbelber, and it 
#i««d ha gav* himself up totbe jmr. 
Wiib bis nam* are astociatad mai 

at the same period, tha beginBlDg'i 
fourth century, under the iii«rci)<«aj 
ror MaKimian. Bishcikt from Briti 
present at the Counclfof Arlei in 
814 a.D., from ifork, London, and ^ 
bly) Caorleim. During the Ariao ' 
yvny in the fourth eenlurr the *(i 
neea of the British ChurcL ii (r 
nfamd to, lliougb British Bisbopal 
Counell of Ariminura (859 a.d.J 
with those more learned than that! 
th« nncatholic formulary thora 
Bilt like ibe mass of thoM who weij{i 
miiilcd, their wenkneas was but Irnii 
St. Jnoine spraks of tha British Clif 
of his lime ae sharing in the coniot 
thusiasm for pilgrimagea to tba Ujoijt 
We obulo at this period won low 
gllmpaei of Bridih Chriatfanltj shal 
fore ibc withdrawal of the Roma 
North Ilritaln, near Dumbarton, w«| 
the Deacon Calpurniiis, whow 
tus, WM a nn'nti, and hift ton the ! 
pBirick. Ninian, from Cumharlao 
ui-uied at Rome and returns in Bi 
ordora lo establish a mission on tba < 
Galloway. Here ho built bis <^liur 
pruinunlory of Wbitbarn, which, 
stone irulead of the more common i 
came renowned as the White Hous«,! 
dida Cnsa. Thii mission was a ca 
lit-ht throuehoiii the Komtin proT|| 
\ alientia. Tho here«y of Pclagiu* ai 
gan, tlic Briton, dii-ply nflVctijia bicj 
country, and occasit^nod the misstol 
Gaul i>f the famous St. German ■ 
miuipaniou, Lupu», wbo succeeded Iq 
ining tbo tide of bercey, and seem U 
done much good of other kinds, f 
connection comes the Hlory of the " j| 
Viflory," when a l>nti*h army, tnnat 
Tcrtrd from pu^nninm and bspltEcd h 
man at the HafiUr festival jntt paj 
from anihuih tlmuting " Alluluia,'' |j 
lo rout an army uf Piets and SasuB) 
out ilriking a blow. During hJs ■ 
in Britain, which included two Tteits fd 
iM A.D.}, German is said to hare Q 
schools in Wales, and ■omeold relieid 
totnn were nlwayi rofcrred to hitaj 
miwion of Si. Gi-rcnan, ibe still *arU 
of Victricius of Rouen, the Ux%\ 
Briton was ihu ftrit Btsbop of Koqi 
character of the earliest Liturgical r« 
are facts whirh point to a Oall lean on 
the British Church. Tbo luppoeed] 
of ail Enslerii origin are without | 
lion, 04 will be <eon hiTenflur. 

In the fifth century t-aine the laB 
8t. Patrick and the conversion of I| 
Tbe infant Church, owing to Ibt (|{ 
itanccs of the rase, otsumed in Irvlai 
afterwards in Scotland, throngh the t 
af8t.Columba,a[<ecuiiarform. Thai! 
was peopled by wild elans, each attA) 




own chiefUuD, • Lyp^ wbicli rdaiKinird 

lung«ii iu the Highlftnda o( Scotlaod. The 

aus«kjsiiri<:« wer« floniptllvd U> diroul ihcir 

■flbru dnt lo the convcnlun of the cbiefn, 

fbr «ilhuut ibw Dothing ixruLd be etTeK-tcd. 

A.lnkM uf aw:tt»ly tLo mo&Mtic ijium W 

tmtnt prcdvmtnKDt. Th« Abbot oeouplod 

vich nferenoe lo hi* toeivty ft position pnr- 

ftllol viib that of tb« dil«f to hia, and, 

in bet, U>tb ubaractent were BouietiuieB 

noitad ID the » UDt penon. Tho coueequeiiM 

_i>f thit kjilwB ill » country in which ullior 

xoim did not eil»l mw, ib&l th« Abbol 

tc4vi*r(i ibe chief raligiout conlnil of the 

dtiUict in which hi* houto wu *iiunt«d, and 

tlte [■■ttluu of BUbop* wm inferior lo that 

whictiUwy occaui«d gein^mlh' in Itio Oath* 

olio (IhuTcb. Tfati, trliich ^rrw niit of tho 

awMMiUM of the c*rlieei misjic-ns, long re- 

UKiMd ft urikiae feauira of Ce)Lii: CbriElj- 

ftnlt; tB Iroland and f^oUanil, but a liiLli- 

lalcr mr tut il dUapiwuriuj; and ifac ltialiu|i 

■Mnnitig hit more nppropriate fiinctionti, 

when ib«M miuiont spread loto tho north 

of Knjcland. It would b« a miitake, how- 

WW, to Hippoae that tb« pManttnl fiiiirtiani 

at Uw Biibop wnrt si any tinii! Iwt «i):ht of 

or BMrped by the Abbot. The BUhop v-u 

■laancBiled upivn to ordain, li> give uon- 

ftnMtWn and tn» mur« ■ulemn l>QU«fdii.'llou, 

aul ta conatM-nte cliurchea, A Itithop 

micil bo a mambor of a rclii;ious boiuO) ad- 

*>M«d pcrhapt to the tpliwopal ord«r for 

Vf^miDent pi«ty ur learning. He would 

M Niktct. lute the TMt, to the Abbot, <,-«t 

tht Abbot Dcvcr vanturod to oxctviao an.v 

•rfUi EfJurt|iftl funcUona. It would ap- 

F*9t^ ihvro were in Ireland agront num- 

Mi irf ■■ Tillft^ BMhupt." To vuch a one 

fiLCuhinibft wM arot for orditiatiun, and 

'■•d Um good (oa» plowing la hit field. 

"<niueh ft t/dcm ait tlii* wvtit furth aunie 

*f IU gruuleftt luiuiouariM ih(^ Christian 

^Wclt hw CTer producod, Ibrmigh whiim 

'^(oiranlon of 0«miivDj wat well boguD, 

^(f {wnalBed En|:laiid mainly acc»m- 

PJftM. Such ft avFtmn wa*, in fact, far 

MkMuitcd for iuImIod work atnoug wild 

"i buUmms tribe* than to h<^ thl^ perma- 

^nfcnn undsr which Chri^tiunity tbould 

••*9ythe land. We c«u uoly mention 

^''ftbt natnea of Columhan and Gall , who 

■'•td ift the Voien and in SwitKcrlnnd, 

^■"u and Tfinciiitu in Oemany, and 

'^ «(kan th«ir ooiopanioiii and aii»ot?t- 

'^ Il wai tb« foundation uf St. Culuiuba 

'^I'Ktland wbicb became the chief source 

'f %bt for Kagland, a» wo lee in following 

wfiilorTof «irly Kn|c)i«h Cbriniwiiiy, 

■ttifwiBg the i'nU>re«ting though H»nty 
'**<*4ior Brittab Chmlianity, w« eotilj di»> 
*^ (I) That the supreniftcy or evea the 
r^of Romewuunkoown. St. Colum- 
** Mqiha othor Iri«h tniulunaries trewtHl 
'J*f«fa with the reaped due to Um Uiahop 
(Ctbiadii imporUnt 8e* in the Wvit, but 
"IJ^U^ non; tber li«4iuted not to dlAr 
*"imiftiid to reMkohim in no meMursd 
**"■■ (9j WftSM Cbriitianity ftMuninga 

uniqui! fitmi of nstcrnal organisHtion among 
tliftlridb and Northern C«It3, which, bow- 
«vvr, i* not te«n Hiiiong tho Briinni <•( the 
■outli until the Hftxon <»nqurat drivin tb«tn 
into WhJm. (8) Such cUar>icitirUl.ic inarka 
ft! can bo madi-uut indicate aprotuhle GallLo 
origin for rarly Brlti'h Cbn*tianily, wbiU 
that of Norrh Uriisln and Ireland is dertTftd 
iVotn Soiilb flrituin. 

The Saxon I'eriui, the Canaerium o/ Sufi* 
iaKd.~~I>\iT\nK tho century and & qiiartar 
from 44fl-{>1T *.u. Driiain hecotnas RnKland, 
ftntl with tbiii ehitnge Chriatiimily in uhvan 
from the Iniid, and tbo worship of Tbor and 
Odin reign* tuproma. Tho only account of 
this uiiiuieiiiuuB cban^ from the Brltitb 
■ide, i* that of Uilda«, who abow* fully the 
weok and divided condition of the mingled 
heftthen ftnd Chrlttiftn Britou, which nude 
thom onthe wbolvtbeoxy preyofdetultory 
oonquoat. The mmnanta rocovur •omedognw 
of atreniftii and maintain th^nisulvM Ions 
ftAor the cnnquekl in Walei, Cornwall, and 
UtrutbclydeiLlons tho wutoni coatt. Cbrls- 
lianity here undergoes a revival ufearnect- 
neiv* Ktdud perhaps by c1o*i>r retntioni with 
tlio rigoroua life of the Irish Church. Col- 
]cg«tftndmonMteriea were founded in which 
mligi»ii uiid ttiarning wer" fMivrrd and kept 
alive, finch wore th« fainum BuiiKor Iiceod 
in Flint«hirej St. Aaapli, founded by St. 
>liini;o (Muiigbu); at l.lnncarfan tho col- 
lege founded by St. Cadoc, who resigned a 
princely heritage for ihcreJigioiii life. Elie- 
wbcra the Angles and Saxon* bad iKvupiml 
the land. The old £piKoiMl Ki^m bnd be- 
come cftntr« of pugnn worchip. Then came 
the minioDof AugusiirieHndlii* Rionkii{ri97 
A.D.), wml by Popp Gregory, tli« one great 
niiuiun which caniv f»rtli I'roui Rome itaalf. 
The mi«»i<intiriL'4 lauded &l Thanet, whw« 
tbu fierce Jute had firctstupptd upon BriiUh 
*oJl, K«at wail iK'uii coiiijuered fur the 
Cburcb and Ibo See I'f (.'iintrrbu ry cdtjalH 
tl»hcd, with AugiMtine fxr Itii trU ocoupftnt. 
KaiMi foDowed, wllb Mellilu* tu llni Buhop 
of LnndtiD, from which, however, be vaa 
»ooa drivtui, and pngatiiiin resumed ite sway. 
l*aulinut, another memlxir of tho mJMloai 
becuRjc the Apostle of Norihurabrlft under 
the pultviiage of King Edwin, and ihowed 
hiniti'lftt faithful and unwearied miuiionary, 
but on the dcaLh of the kin|; be too wa* 
driven «UL Bfrinu», who came later under 
tliVBiMpivw ofl'upQ Honoriu*, converted the 
Wwt Saioii*. 

The Cr'.tic Mlaaiana. — But while the good 
work of the Rumun minion ariMwaithui pro- 
cuodiiig with many vlcluitudef, an independ- 
ent moveiii<>nt of even eroator itrnngth waa 
■Flting in Iram the northward, and I^d yttat 
alter Faulinuc was driven from York St. 
Aidki) arriTnl to tidte up the work, ftvui the 
KreiiEmunaitery of St.CtiIutul>aat lone. Uo 
eilahlithed bimself not at York, but, after tho 
Celtic cuittom,telo(il«dftr«tiri>dipiuupon the 
cOiBdt, ftnd founded the new Uouse of Liodia- 
farne, from which wonl fnnb '.he mi-u who 
were to uunvort all North and Middle Bug> 




luid, tlial U, the grwler part of tbe land. It 
wu not luuj; berore lb« two elnmonts, ibAt 
frum ItomeiindthKt from Sc»tlHn(J,citmD into 
colluiun. AuKutiUnn, ttcling undfT tbo di- 
TOcUon or St. Gregory, had mado an CDdeavor 
la iirrivfl at an undemtaiKliug with ilio 
Briliib Bisbupa of th* wtut uf Ecit|[ltiitd, but 
failed of suce«M, partly throucb his own want 
of tact, partly tnruugh thoir obstinate ad- 
herence to Ibcir own cuttoms, Tbl« was at 
tho mecling at Augu^tlne'^ OaIc near iho 
tS«v«rn (COO A.u.j. B^eiv th« poinUof ditt'tr- 
eiLcc hetwoun tho Komaii Ciiurch aiid Iha 
Oettto first came into Tiew, from which it 
plainly appnars that the iHtter kovw nvthing 
uf tbo Huprttmacy of Homo. Tim priru:i)ixl 
ground uf differenoi! wat the time of thu ub- 
forrancc of Ka«ter. Tbero was alao toma 
diffleulty In rof^nrd to the mode oC baptiHot, 
but ptMrlwIv nUut we liAvB no ineaiu of 
knowin;;. A third [uiint bud reference to 
the toMMiro Tbc lirHt and laat of tbcw) tiar« 
oden beeni adducbd as proofn t>f the EASt«rn 
origin of BriUdh Cbmuanily, but (1) the 
Cemo Sacter wa« not the tame with tho 
QuorlL>d''i.'iRian practioB of Axis Minor, aji* 
cribed to St. John, aooondiav tu whii^b tho 
fefttival wai celebrated on toe llth Niiac, 
which might fall on wny duy of ihu wwik. 
The CelLi<: Euiter rnuit alway* fall u[>on a 
Sunday, but the cycle emplujcd waa simply 
the utigorrocted cycle or an earlier Umo. 
XBither(2) wae thdrtonaurEi like that of the 
But. The Greeic tonaiire wnt talal, that of 
Rome wax coronal, the CelticBhuved the an- 
terior hairof the head. 

The next great oooation nhcn these polnu 
of diir»roDce came in question waa at the 
conferonce of Wliiiby, 644 a.n. ThU wan 
Dotaa much a cunLait between men a* |>rin- 
L'iplet, eince the leaders of tbe diai^u^^ion oii 
boib tidoi were men who had boen trained 
oriKinatly In the Celtic iv*l'im. On ihu 
Celtic tide wai Colnian, tee fuece«*or ■!•{ 
AldibD ; on the lloman side the famouis Wil- 
frid, then Abbot of KipoD. Wilfrid was a 
native of Nortbumbna, trained flr*t at Lin- 
diafftrne, but aft«<rwBrdi with l)on«dlct Bit- 
COp, the ewlieat Rn|^li*bmao who iippear>M» 
a piomiiter of relljcioua arl, he bu^ viaitcd 
Boiua and become flllod with an entbuaiastic 
detenu i nation to bring bin i-srliur frii^ndt 
into at'L'ord with the luayea uf tbe Church at 
large,ee]ieL*ially n« represented by tbe loothtr- 
Church of ihe Wmi, a* *ha now claimed to 
he. Tbe confcr«nve WM held at Whitby, 
tbe fiunouB motiaatery of St. Ililda, who had 
heeome the munnplor nf Icinp. Wilfrid 
gained the victory, and Culman with a pan 
of tin monke from Lindi»farne, nnd other 
foUuwifni, wiUidmw to lona and aflnrwiirds 
to Lrelaud, where he died in STS a.o. Tliia 
confi^renceand iUraaults constitute an epoch 
in the history of EngUah Christianity. The 
I ingle- minded Dcaa and satnily Uvea of these 
Celtic mtMionariea, their otter u n worldlinees, 
■a Bede, himaelf a stmng Koman sympiv 
tUter, describee it, might make us regret the 
triumph of the Koman system. Looking at 

the later development of the papal clalnis, 
w« miglii bn tt'tiiptnd to dream o* a Ohuich 
whicb, Inking its nsa indnii«ndtrnt of Rome, 
iierer auhnlittl^d to her diitiiinaliun, and thus 
iu ibo far West might have presented apu- 
ulkl to tbe orthodox Chun-h of the East. 
But aueh a reault was jirububly Impoaaibk, 
when wo coniider the aifficultiea which the 
future history of Bnzland bad in store for 
tbeChtirch. The Ccltk Church wa* " devoid 
of that unifying power, that wonderful ^ift 
of order and organisation which wu tbe 
streiifTlh of tbe Roman," therefore it would 
not have enabled England "to endure the 
trentendous ilruiii of ibg next four hundr^ 
yeun." Aa it wai, it waa tha Church which 
guMv England unity and the streu(;lb which 
comet from ttnitv. Aftor Lhewilhdrawal of 
Culinun, Wilfrid was appointed Biihop of 
York, and went into Oaul for conaeerailon. 
Uiirint; his prolonged absence the Caltio 
piirtv obtained a temporary victory, by per- 
suading the king to appoTnt to tbe raooDt 
bishopric Cbad, one of the original dlaeiplci 
of Aidan at Lindisfarne. His oonseormuoo, 
which luok placv at WinchMter, is iottfreal- 
iiii; (mm the circum»tanl^e that Bi«hop 
Wini of that Sco, who bad been conseoratM 
in Gaul, ubuined Ltiu aMistanco of two 
Blakopa of Qrltlsh raue from Cornwall, and 
thus m tbe pereon of Chad tbe two Uae* 
were unltol. 

Another epoch in the history of England 
and its Church was tbe arrivulof Theodore 
uf Tarsus, an Eutern monk (GQ9 A-»-)t "P* 
pointed aiid oon»rcnitcd Archbishop of UaiH 
terhury by tbe PopQ himself after the duth 
of the DoiDinee of tue English kings, who had 
gone lo Rome fur coruoirration. Theodora, 
taking his simt at CaiiLtrrhurT, commenced 
hit Work by making a careful visitation of 
hit wbolu proviiiuo. Jdo was the fint Arch- 
bishop ui whom all England luhmilted. 
One result of his vi&italiou was the e«l«h> 
llsbmont of Wilfrid in the See of York, 
Chad quietly witbdrawing to b«MtiM, l«tw, 
Bishop of LichQeld. But the gn^l work 
of Theodore whs the extension and oifiiuil- 
uktion of Uie EpisuiiiMte. According bo 
high authority, "by his amin^oment of 
UiocMM and tbe way in which be grotiMd 
them around the Son of Cunterbury, In mt 
national Synods and ec chat Ian tk-al Canons, 
Theodore did unoonscioualr a pulilical 
work." The spectacle of a Church at one, 
under one Arahblshop, prepared the way for 
a united slate under one king. The union 
of England was, however, very gradual, and 
only effected long after this time, when dan- 
ger threatened from abroad. Theodore is 
also thought to have taken the fint steps 
towards the latablishmant of the parochial 

HeAooti and LtamtHg. — Learning followMl 
in the wake of Ohrittian enlightenmijoL At 
the school of Canteihury, under Tbaodoco, i 
Hcbrow, Orock. and Latin were taught. 
Here was trained Adhelm, Abboi of 
Halmeabury and Biabop ik Sbetbomi^^^ 




who xMloutlj promotAd tb« cauw oT cdu- 
^■Uoa IB AVmmx, Bad composed mnny re- 
aua *ongi in b»li>d fann and in the 
tonciiv. H« U U> lin r«iiienib»rt;d u 
Iral l»i(liihnun who cultivated c)u*i- 
1 iMroia; wiUi cucc«m. He died 709 x.d. 
ki poo^y of C»di»»n, K Isv brother of 
litli}', tnv grnit St Ililda'i tnoaaalerj' in 
Dortfa, cQublcd Hiblicnl Ior« to iprcjid 
ung U)« romitMA people of ihe lowut 
Br casilBc ihesaored Story uid the 
^Chnt(«ndom into th« iinipttut tit- 
' »pvM:h, the Faith wu bcuughl huinc 
IheKTls of «erf «nd ahecberd. Learn- 
■rubad mo*i in tliv icDoolsof Nortb- 
,«p«clal)y at Jnrruw and Tork. Il 
Jarruw that Bade, called the Venera- 
his life (b. About 678 A.V.). Elo 
fith«rof Eo^luh lIleratuK, and 
lirwigh bia many treatise* made aoorndbte 
"iratmtTfniwn all iho VnowWgn of bit 
red and urorane; llie first tbeuluitiun 
int cultitator of ecienco ttio £lng- 
t«vtr produced. From the ichool of 
latela the oext centurj (b. 78Sa.i>.} 
Boui A-lrain, who opent manji' yrar* 
: tilt wort of Oharluin»K:n<], ati'] aidfid In 
■kt (nat educationftl desiEns of that en- 
lUiluti emperor. In Alfrvd tho (irrat 
Ciratluuiwd England pmduis^ the iXTfnct 
kii(, "Alfr«d was iho nabt««t, M oe ww 
thmi contpiotc einbodioiBDl of kII that 
iigiHI, all that h loveable In the Engllsb 
" (Green's Englith People). Thr- 
< IM line of eorlBiiaa Ileal staletinCTi 
KT* plftfcd such m large port in Rng- 
r WM St, Dunilan. A) rirlual 
rencx from dA(>-tl79 a.»., h« <]i<i 
Jbf hb Brmnw* Mid Btrict ercn-haiided 
Iwke 10 fuM tli« Snj;liah people Into one 

litEfftttM of Manatiieiitm. — In the lutor 
*tw period toe glory of the earlier Church 
* tbcired. The galaxy of Mintx and 
wwd net) who Kppe«rcd at the perlud 
^ tk« convertloD or England and in the 
**lt 1^ l«ft (vm aueceaaoni. Oradiinlly 
**irtaio foeblciMH crept over the wliult! 
Mia vhiub mode them the euy pny, Arst 
H ih Dftnea, then of the I^omaiu. The 
|of ihit wu undoubtedly ibe abnor- 

Snent of munastfciiin. Kng- 
^ I Nortbero Europe, w«« con- 

~^ by monka,— thoee of tbs rule of St. 
I on tbe Mie hand, and of St. Benn- 
tiie other. It wa« ineritabln that 
ficuin tbould be etrong, and it eoon 
the whole of Anglo-Saxou Mfo. 
doiiatino* of hind were itinferri>tl 
I monuterlee, more than thirty hingi 
•m cndfid their days In the clointcr, 
iotll«r wmlktof Ulean Innuniernble 
The grandeet and tnoH «ucc«u- 
niuionary a{(oncM«, monaiticiKni 
a heavy burden and a itnivo evil 
llldotuinates tbenholelireof a nation. 
. which biu and «r«r mux have 
^>IU9,ind that a niuat EmportaDt plane, In 
'■Ckiiitiaa Church, i) a ffuitfal tourcof 

<'rr>ir and corruption when it il attempted 
to mRhe II Ike only allowable form of Chrji- 
tian lif?. Tli« airnngth of tha nation for- 
takirii; ihn work of <^on]inoii life to aerve 
OoD in ihe cli>ig|or«rd wallt, and ultimately 
to ucoid the burden of duty laid upon tbiHn, 
Wtt» puttinK an end Kj prcKreas, both in 
Church anu State. The oonditiun <if things 
il well expT«ued by Dean Mtlnian: "Tbo 
Anglo-Kikxon clergy, sfneo the days of Dun 
Stan, had produced no remtirkable man. 
Tlio Iriiinipb nt mnnattioitin had unfmbled 
Mtilhmit innntlfying ih-n n"i-ulartlergy. . . . 
It might cunce&l inutb gentle and amiable 
goodneH; but ita outward cbarHUter was 
that of timid and unworldly iciiuraut.'e, 
untlt Ui rule, and exercising but feeble and 
unbon«licial infliicn«e." 

JSnglani and tJte fapaeif. — it is important 
to trace, howeror briefly, the relation ot the 
Church in EnglaniL to thp VajiHoy. W* 
liHve *afn, iti rtivivwing Ibi- hitlory of 
llriti&h Chrifttianity, that the Brilona aeesi 
to have hnd no knowledge of any kind of 
piipiil JurisdiL'tluii. It would loen) to be 
eqniilly Irua that in the early Kngliih 
(Anghh-Sniion) Church there wits but Tittle 
notion of the rule of Komc over other 
<'hurche* at a matter nf right and law. 
They W no niMini sulmiitlcd to th« Ponn as 
posaeuing tbe headship and univeKal do- 
minion oTw the Catholic Cbaroh. Yet 
none the leas tbuy owned bU away. It is a 

Stpular errur to represent tbe Anglo^Hiuion 
hrisilans as asserting Independeiii:e ot Rurne 
and maintaining their rights as a branch of 
tbe Church, llic timpln truth 1* that the 
relation lielween Rome and Rn^-Iand ttX that 
peri-nd did not rust upon a Imsis of claims 
and coricmaidnci; it dia nut wrar a I qgat as- 
pect. Such words as these indicate tae pre- 
VHtllng sentiiniint: "Gregory, our fstnnr, 
whoieut us bapUitin," " lliough he be not 
an apostlo to others, yet he is to us. fur the 
seal of bis apostleship are wo in tbe Lobd. " 
Xotnitbfilanding the fifkct that thv t,'rcBier 
part of England had first reoeived ibe Gos- 
prtl fri>m Jnna and Lindisfarne, thrro was, 
an«r thii reconciliation and fUsion of Lbe two 
elemenu under the inOiience of Wilfrid and 
the wisu meaiure* of Theodore, a remark- 
able lack of any oonscluusneaa of an inde- 
pendent <>rigin among the Christian praple 
of KugUnd. They leaned to Home a* colo- 
nists to the moth er-«' nun try, witli><ul think- 
ing of ruifing any qusstion as to what niigfat 
aiime time be cluimed as a matter of rigat. 
Their loyaltT to the mothet-Ohurch was r«- 
nianlicHndc'tiildlike. A pilgriunLci' tu JUima 
vfBs tbe dreain of every Christian >'»^lish> 
man's heart. " From no olhor Ixnd did 
there flow into tbe papal oxcbcqurr -noh rlih 
contributions." let praciicaily tbe inde- 
pendence of tbe Church wm little interfered 
with. Bishop* wern i^hrnrn without thn 
|)apal iaterrention, though sometimes that 
intervention was invited, as in the can of 
ArehbJabup Tlicodore. But in general all 
ecclesiastical appointments were in the hands 




of the king' If w« oompirv th« pcwition df 
th« Clturcn in th« AnglvSaxon jwciixl «ritb 
thml under the NurmsD kings, thi; difference 
do«a not coMUt in the groKtcr devotioD 
■hovn M the F*pa^«l th«ul«r epoch. Tbe 
contrary b true. DoubtleM ibe for«igD eo- 
elefliestm who pour«d into Kngland Kt thi« 
time, filling ita 8«e* uni nrnruc«a, brought 
with tb«ni tho LmmI fomii BOd observAncu 
wbi«h the Catholio religion had aMumed, 
and ■ pvrccptible chungo of Lono.' But ni 
regnrd* L}i« Pujiacr, we find (but the cutn- 
mun practice of the earlier period, which 
httd rcit«d only on ouitvm, bocuinv exprc«« 
hiw. The depnndencD ut the Church un the 
royKi power wai strictly enfurced. I*relatet 
were uracticbllj choMO hy the king. More- 
over, wllliwn the Conqoeror would allow 
no papal letters to bo reoeived into the realm 
irilltout hi« HMenl He met the demandi of 
Gregory VII, with ■ ■lerrrefutsl. " Foalty 
I h*vn never willed to do, nor will I do It 
now. I have never promisod it, nor do 1 
Snd l)int iiiv prttduvosaorc did it lu vuiin." 
Such pr iiidple* were maintained bj' ^VilEiam 
Knd hia tuu-MSon, not for the got>d of the 
Church, but to itren^^en Iheir own power. 
Vet the nrttciical result was the comparative 
indepenoencre on Itome of the realm end 
Church of Kn2ltind,'«nd at most pcriudx a 
coiuiderable Jealouiy of |iapal encroach- 
tnents. It Ec«nied to many noble and devolcd 
men far more natural thai thp Cfauri^h should 
Imiii u[| Rome than Ite sul>Jn:t la the tender 
merdM uf a tyrant at home, and, very dif- 
ferent fronj our view, they often identified 
the *' libertine of Ibt Church" with Hibjcc- 
tlon to the Pojie. Yet a deep, underlying 
feeling of Independence resided in the Eng- 
lish people. When Iho mott powerful of 
Pope*, Innocent III., depoecd even ao evil a 
man as King John, the bull might hero re- 
mained inefiedual, m> far a* thn main Ixidy 
of Ifae people were cr>ncerned, not with slaiid- 
in; the great encouraf^Gnieiii which it gave 
toati hisvneinien, puMio und privain. Wb«n 
the Icing yie-lded and kiieh before the papal 
legate, " He baa iwconie the Pope's man ; be 
has forfeited the very name of king, " wn» 
■aid to have been the Indignant ouicrj- of 
hU subjects. Thit was tlie higheat [u>iiit 
whicli papal BgRrestiinn evnr reacDod in Kng- 
land. With tha growth of a atrong national 
spirit oame resistance, often renewed and 

Sradually embodied in the laws of thqking- 
om, U> the papal claim* (I) uf a right to 
exact peouniary cunlributions, ^2} of ecclo- 
sioetlcat jurifdiclion, n* axhibited In np- 
poiDtmenis to BiHhcprit* and other BeneSces, 
and fn apjieali from Knglitb courts. The 
"Cuiintituliont of L'larrndi'n," 116-1 A.D.. 
provided I hat clcrlioni> of Bishops or Abbots 
should take placo In the preeencu of the 
king's olllocr*, and huve tbe king's axtonl, 
and that no appvnls ilniuld go Airlfaer than 
the Archbiihvp without his consent, and to 
Lbeae meaauree the prolatcc gave Iheir in- 
dorHnwnt. In Henry III.'* time there was 
a rising throughout the kingdom against 

tlio [lapul rolIdctoTE, and ib» baroiwj 
purt refitml to aid thti Pope in hla! 
wilb frederioh II. U was at this til 
Orcen, "tbat the little rifl Aral 
which wa» de»tin<,'d to widen into Ij 
which parted one from the uihcr 
U(-fortnalion." As Parliamenl rlj 
importance, Ihntjcalciu.iyof papal agj 
is eiMblted from time to time In nfl 
tain tonec. In the reign of EdW^ 
{1327-]S;t *-»,) Parliament utiora 
rirutuiti agatnkt the corrupt and il 
Interference of the Pope with the aj 
thu Church of England, and etippi 
king ugaintt thu Pupu iu thuconu 
Scutland. When a pupal interdict \ 
upon Pliindors, Eii^Iisn pricsia said . 
that country with hold dellanco. 
let^atec were threatened wiih stonti 
they landed in England. In 1348 J 
Commons petitionsNl against pnpal 1 
ments to vacant livings in d(«pit« 
rights of patrons or of the crown, i 
king complained to the Pupoof thei 
mejit of " forelgnars, muatly suspicl 
soii»," and reminds hia Uoliaeea ( 
successor of the Apoitlci was Mt t 
Lord's sheep to feed and not to shod 
The Parliament declared that they ** 
cotild nor would talcrats such uiii 

In 1S51 A.D. the Statute of Pnrtl 
badd any one to n^^nive a papal prof 
appoiiitmont ; that is, a grant of tl 
superseding the right acquired by t 
and i-onfirrini; afrosb the spiritual m 
poral ndminiMralio&ofSeoorBene&i 
iirnclJci: bad cummenood in 1300 i 
bud cunntunily been resisted. In 1) 
the first of (he celcbmt<-d ^latutes of 
munirc" wns passL-d, forbidding anj 
from the English courts, under pala 
lawry, pnrpntual impriionmvnl, or: 
mrnt from tbn land. Both tiiese lai 
reiterated ni later periods. By the t 
statute I'f Prairnunirii, panod in 19 
it was onacted that all pnrsoijn nroov 
the Cuurt of Kunic or eUewhere 
tions, proccMfii. scnt^ncot of eicoml 
tion, bulls, instrumenU, or otbef 
which touch the king, his crown, i 
or rpalm, should suffer the p»na1iiea 
munire. " This art in onn t>f Iht^ al 
defensive measurea taken during iht 
Ages against K»tiie" (Stiibbst. Whi 
Urban V, refwred to King .Tohn's , 
siun and oath of feully as the rrij 
his demands, it was declared by Potf 
that John's submisklon had becnniaiM 
out their assent and aealoat bit cod 
oath," and ibey pledged tbemaelTeai 
such claims with all ihcir power. 1 
the last ever heard of a papal over-l 
in the feudal MDse over England/ 
slatutM of Prwniunira and Prurl 
malned thu law at England, though 
to fall into disiito whan Iho politrl 
Pupiicy avoided diruct uontliot, untu 
hands of tienry VIII. they proved a 




favmeadoiu power, and hardly any nev 

latioo wu Q«c«cMry, but eimpiV the 

_ation of !■*» alroMdf l<*Dg uiitiing, to 

■ pUte Um Indepeadenoe of the EuglUh 

tUKfc. WhatevftT tbMries of the Papacy 

'may baro b«en hold ty iii«ny or few and 

«cMd apon from time to tii&« la Eosland, 

however far at •ome epoohs tha loatiera ot 

(fra Cbureb majhavacpnunittod th»Miii»lrM 

U> Koaie'a cxlnine cluiui*, hUtory »howii 

ib&t ifca ajnrtioa «t tboio olaims'waa ro- 

ilM«d wb«n<>v«r thny camo in cuDtlict with 

tb* aatk>inl uplrjt, tbal thu |[«n«ral drift nf 

BnclMb Kntimeut was Lowardi indupccid- 

eBcc, »d Ibat the »top« n«cd(iil to ocoiovo 

\bat todep«ndeac« were almott nil takea oiiu 

taadred and eixhty yf«rH bef«>re it wa« at 

laat eiactri. While we may admit tbo Rub- 

Janlea of ttw EaeliibCbiircbtotbe Pajiocj 

nvajrtnon or T«ai dvflned and admitted 

(knufb til* Hiddla Age*, tha facta »bow 

thttiiwh iubjactinn wai nut luuked upon a« 

iMUvof lH«io« right, and ihut the ez- 

tnmu cUiini of liildcbrnnd urora not ad- 

■iUtd. Tbu Papacy bad m part to p3ny 

win DtviD* I'rovidenve, >n Hiding; the 

Cbanbia rnut tho lyraiinyiif kint<», and 

ttelkat work was done its piiwcr c-ftfted 

b Kiifland. Even Sir Thxmaa More and 

1km «bo thought with him wfr« not 

bwbU ftl the n!jl^cLi(>n uf papal control ; 

Aiir offMiiilkn waa to the roru aaranpUon 

vfnfnamey over the Church. 

Qacikfivw.— W« may fltlr cinelitdii in tho 
vatitti Dean Church : - The Icuon of hi«- 
Imt, [ think, f* Lhlf, nal that all tli<! g^mi 
nUk night haw bwn hoped fur Lo sucidy 
h» Mlowtd ftom the appearance of tho 
Ctalaa religion in ibe forefront of human 
bd: Ml that in (hh willful and bliinderiiie 
*<*U,u full of mUuMid gift' anil waatcii 
BWHuutiee aod dtMppointed ])n>mij)e, nJa- 
w ud (niDL-hiaf bflv« never been in its 
B^laottbat In the natiuna when* it baa 
phut a footing tt baa mattered tbelr betet- 
%<lai, tho foUehood of one, tho ferocity 
**^h(r. the vharwitwitcic aeiuualiiy, tbo 
t**nderi«tlc arrogance of other*. Bui hla- 
^Itachta ue thi* : that in tmcini; bank 
!■*»«»• of human improvement we como, 
■■RMtaUKftflr anolhfir, upoD Christianity 
"■Utovne from which improveiDiint do- 
"'■1 tit principle and iti motiva; w« AnH 
'**th(r ■gurcp sclfHjuBte lo accuunl fur tliit 
"**ttTiKg of aiaendtnent; and, without it, 
^^itr uorcn of good oould bare bovn 

4uihnrit)a : Bede'a Ecwiesiaotkal ilistory 
jj«i In llohn'a Library), Iriih Hrimitivo 
^nfa, by Daniel De Vinn«, St. Patrlek's 
™ft""B (Mign^l, Murray's Ireland an! 
••Chtrrh, Bright'" Barly Bngli»h Oliwrrh 
^bbbop Trenrh'K Li^lurM on Hedfnvnl 
^"thUielorr. Maclear'sConreraionoflbe 
^*,.Xae{eer'> Convcnion of the Engliib, 
^rtw't Barlv Engliih Church. Greon'c 
B**«7ofth« £nKlt*h People, Slubba'Con. 
•*«<*nial Uislory of Kngiand. 

Kit. Prqf. W. J. Gold. 

Bull. The nam« girea to the Titers of 
the Pope, who«Q aathorily, wfattber for t«m- 
poniry or ci>u«tituti»nal purpoaw, u para- 
mciiniC. The nnuia In taken from the laadaa 
teal {Builn) attached by a liiken »lring (if 
it bo a Bull of Orace) or by a taempeB cord 
(if it be a Bull of JuatloeJ. Thli globular 
um) bear* upon one aide the representation 
of the Apoftlea S3. Peter and Paul, and on 
thr (itbrr lUii name of tbe reigiiinz Pontiff. 
Tho Bull it iHucd from the panal Ch&noery. 
There are also (;nnRi*i.iiri»l Bum ; ».«.,lho«e 
iuund by tho advii-u end consent uf the Car- 
dinul* in Ooniiatury, by wham they are 
tigned. The matter of the Uul! may bo of 
com pa rati rely private uuluru, »r tt may re- 
luto to public matter* of » nation, or of 
an order, or It may he binding upon llio 
whole Roman obedieaoe, or it n^uy lay down 
oertAln oonBtltullonsl principles, bs did the 
famout Bull Vnam Sanctam. 

Burial. Whito it waa ouxtiinutrv among 
the heathen, yet the whole surriiuuilinin ttc- 
oomparying the act of burial aoiong Ubri*- 
tiftus were *o marked and no reverent, thai 
tbiiy stampnd llio rilu aa ChHatian. Julian, 
thuM|KwtaCe emperor, SGSa.d., iiclcnowludged 
that austerity of life, hospitality, and rerer- 
ent burial of tha dead were the powerful in* 
dnoncea that K**6 Christians the oonvunion 
of the empire. It had its motirc in the 
faith in the Kaiurm:ti»n, and, therefure, the 
body that QoD would eo care for as to brine 
ivgain frnm it* dual must bo reriTemly laid 
nvrnv. To utbutk this loving cure of the 
(IhrUliaM for tbe r«maina of his loved one 
wita a cc>ntrt)lliu);vausewhy so many martyrs 
wore burnt by heathen magistratca. The 
honorable burial of our Lord's Body by 
Joseph of Arimathea was the pattern up<m 
which the Christian based bin care of hla 
dead. But in tiutea of penecuLii'^b it was 
not always possible to bestow tbix iraro, and 
intrtrment wan otXvn very hurriwi. Yet when 
Palycarri wax burnt, his boiit!a aiid ashes were 
gathered up, without hindrance, by the 
brethren. To be buried beside tbe remains 
of a martyr wiu always accuunled honorable. 
At first burials were'made anywhere it waa 
moat con venicntouUidciif tbe city, aa borlals 
within were illegal. But care waa had to 
obtain, whenever poisiWe, a cemi'torynf their 
own, and their riglil tatt waigenttrally cuii- 
cnli-d. At Alexandria tbey had them (Jpcjtlr, 
In Riime, where tbe soil wai lucb that sub- 
terranean burial could bo carried out, the 
Chrisliatu dug out those underground gal- 
lerioa— already he^an by the beatbi^n — fiir 
burial purpoaM, and theae cataoombs became 
plaoea of refuge of safe meeting a* well a> 
of burial, since tbe tunnpl* an lhi>y wore dus 
out ramided mi as to form an underground 
labyrinth. When peace came, churches wore 
frequently erected upon tha tombs of sainli. 
Tho early Chrit;tiani, whenever they o««ld 
du au, made their burial rites contrast nota- 
bly with thoM of the heathen. Tbo Itody 
•tu^ kept unburied a* lo«z ai convenient. 
It was decently prepared lor burial by ilie 




friADdi mad rolatiret, sot by Ured penooi, 
■WBtbMl In linen witb dec«nt orderlimMa. 
It wu laid out eitbor at th« homo or in tho 
church. Tlie wuIcIkts oTCr it Mng hirmiiK 
and anib«ins. They buried !□ open day, 
with iomcthing of triiimplial ptimp, witb 
liymii* oC liiiiKi Kill] fliitli and icriplunil 
aiillioiiii. When tbe ^ave wu reached 
tbeae byiuos aod prayon weror«nvwed, and 
kn addrcu doiMd the auTice. 

Burliil riles muit vary very miioh with 
Ibe cireamBUiDCW Uld witb th« deTelopmeot 
of the people, but the aimpler and nlniner 
A ChTlitian burial can be conduoted tA& bet- 
ter it ii. Two uliii*f thing* should h« madv 
proDitn«nt, the faith hi thv fUluru Kwurror- 
tioii and the luvtiii: curu wbi<^h for Cbbist'b 
f&kc wc should tiiovs the doad. The hUtory 
Qt tbu Urdur Ut lliv Uurwl uf ibe Dond !« 
•laaple and clear Ii hu Itttio relailmi to 
tbe ancie<Dl officM, taking fVom the Sarum 
luc (be Oret two opvning KntrncM, and 
addlnc tbe third. The coriise waa to be 
carried either to iha church or tho grave 
at oncR, spparonLly cuitumarily t» Lh« gr>ve. 
Tliun the noble itntbtMii, -' Mun Chut in burn 
of woman," waa rccit«d. lis use hero wu 
peculiar to tbo EnglUh Prayvr Boole. It 
wMJt tu be tuld cither by the priett alone or 
tu^ther with tbe clerka. Tho priest wai to 
ca»t tbe earlb upon the body in tbe flrtt 
Prayer-Book (IHVa.d.); this waccfaangcd 
to the precent u«e in the tocond Vrnyet- 
Book (1662 A.u.}. Tlie aenlence of coin- 
niiltal. ai aUo the final prayer, exjtrnaDd a 
fltroDK bojie in the bletdedneM ot the de- 
oetuea. In tbe lint Frayor-Book, if tho 
lidilv was borne tu the gruv« at onoo, ibu 
Punlmii c-xvi., ixxsii., cilvi,, were to b« ro- 
cil«d in tbe church aftorwanda, 1«g*'tborwith 
the Lwon (1 Cor. xv. 20 «?.), and then 
tbo tuflVaga and a Soal pmyer were recited. 
The ncond Prsyer-Uook apparently, afUr 

tbe nntfacm, " I hoard a toIco," ordal 
L«Kon U) ha r«ad at the jirnve, ao] 
with l1i«i Kyrien and th« Xokd'h I 
rlo»ud with thn £nitl jiravRn nes 
In our Prayer-Book. Toe I'rayer-B 
1862 A. U. rvnrningud thin tnnl«rial 1| 
proitent onlcr, which, with impurtAnt' 
changee, we Tolluw. Thei« verbal 4J 
consist in an entire umiMion of kny 
COM to hopcMi c«pcciallv for tbe i^ 
tbedrofipint;or the Kyrlee,and the oi 
ou< recital of the two I'Mltns (xxxfi 
xc), whertuu tbo fllorin i> placed j 
end of eaeb Psalm in tbe English 8 
Hook. ,1 

Thi* order for the Burial of tb» S 
uiiiLpuruuched in ftimple and eeveregq 
and lofty fnith and porftet hantoB^ 
only what lit r«iveul«a to u« in Hoi 


lure. Its dear proolamation of the 1 
KKimoK, it» fteedom from all (hat taa 
uMoA to believe, liowevernntiirally, y0 
out alear warrant, it« solemn Icason^ 
living, nako it a most Rabl« office- A 
tin onloa In th» Prsyer*Book has w) 
of ila rubrics systematkally riulatod, 
dinary caaes at least. Comporativ«l]l 
watcbrulnesa ia u»ed to observe the riu 
to those who oan have the office real 
them. The nnthcTn shall be said 01 
wMU tbe corpse is made rtftdy for th*^ 
not after it is placed. It is not Incii 
■in thn ministier to racitn it by liiinHclC 
pur]Hiiio ovldeotly la to have thn dboin 
aKjifrmbled ftiend* recit* it. Tbls ia tri 
of the other antbem, " I bmrd a i 
Then tho miniiter oAmh should red 
Lord's Praver. Uuvh of tbe improaq 
and solemnity of this beautifbl offlot) 
by tbc«o inrnu>tion« of Ihe rubric 
'Burve. The c&so for the bir tinti 
with which (.he elements are to b« 4) 
when nil huve communed. . 

Cabala. The mystio theoaopby of the 
later speculative Jcwinh schools. Ita con- 
tent* ar« mneb older than its written docu- 
ments, which nppNrently date from tbe tenth 
c'liiury, thi'Ugli Lhcaa ar« attributed to a 
much lati-T Bi^r. The Cabala is ba>»d upon 
& mystic andnllceurizinK arithmetic, which 
is arbitrarily apnllcd to ibo ducirine of tbe 
nature and attributea of Uoo. It had its 
usee, doubll«ss, in countoracting the gruMer 
aDthropomorpbic teaching* uf tliu Talmud, 
beside which it seems to have flowed in a 
parallel and ditUnci channul, though prub- 
ably ihn Bubbi of the Talmud was also a 
master uf tbe CabaU. It may iadirecUy 

have had a grvat inflnenoe in tbe alii 
ing ti-ndflnuy in tbe inlernretation oj 
Scripture, which overreached ilHlf I 
Churrh. Till) lnnilvn'.!y to a RiynticaV 

tiTetatiun has always besn very gfl 
loLh the older Jewish, and in the Clli 
Church, bated, indeed, upon the sij 
and example of our Lokd and of 9^ 
but running to a most absurd oxceaaj 
Oahala bax many points of cootaa| 
GrioHliciBni. It was wsenlially {wnttj 
That Tt i»h-iuld have some points of 1 
mcnt with Christian dcK--trine Is to bo j 
iiat«d, yet Lliey are very few. It siii| 
Pbilo, probably, wiUi the idea of th«| 




vhicb pr«p«red tb« wvTfor underEUndinp 
ibB r*T«tKttnn of Lh« "Word of <}ai>. It 
tMxn* ^ bold to & triplo rondiliuii of our 
pnal. — the intellectaal, the moral, and the 
■urittiil merg; of our lifn. Tbu froodom 
^ w^lll in falUa man U UMrled. 

C&Icndar. A table of th« order of days in 
Aa jx«r, tucli «» U prvflsvd to our Prnjer- 
]L*cik. The enrliwt table* af th'tt cluu were 
t«rT wwioot, b«iag oivU as well a« eoclMi- 
itUicaL Tbara U, Imwvtw, combiiipd witti 
thU calendar ecc^f*la«Lical!jr a calaluKue uf 
iht tdoti wbMe connnemtiralioQa faLl upon 
InddajtiB tfa« civil war. Our own cal- 
taSm Ii a moat >diulraf>lv tlnaple and clear 
iimy aat for practical luo. Tba fof low- 
ta|NlUM fivo* but lb« chSef point*. A 
ihnmgh dlfoautoa would rwulrea volume. 
Ibintd ealradar it derived from the Olil 
lalla mI«o, to cmll, from tha ciittoni of 
kitu|lli« Ponlifex announce tnlbu people, 
MM loc«tb«r, the bol^ dan. IaTof iho 
fncriet of porting in public pIscM the 
fKfm holidaji caote In ; bencs the title 
NloUr, and io lata Latin eaUndtirium. 
Tki dirMoa of daya wai iu>c«Mnrily ^lar ,- 
tttt«( vMks by Divine law. The ni^>ntbH 
vm oHginall; lunar. How it in rnmark- 
lUithal these tbrua modts of marking tini« 
hut tu common divisor, yet are cunatantljr 
■vahigled. It oauKs a grcmi deal of am- 
twwmal, and yat there i* no uiuaii« of 
i fcl ^ B chai^a. Bjr inMrcalalioni and 
■Aluvy eawtmaate pMnta of lima for now 
<»• aui be imngM u tt nu by Jiilliii 
tW or by Pope Gregory Xlll. (I6B1! 
^>lj, or rwtorallonfl effected us the disvor*! 
anaiaitiana of the calculation for Eiutor; 
wllhwt three inconimRt)»urabl« nioaaurw 
'^ tet are noalterable. 

n ■ iIm weak ■■ practically the most iio- 

MMfbat u it i> incommeiuurable with 

■■Itt days e bra. 48' 4d" uf tbc ■dual 

'^yiir, there mu*t be lomo moda by 

jjn «« cMi uonnevi ibe two wiltaoui oon- 

^^ thaiD. Thij WBJ liniply done by 

*|Jl|tte f r<t BCTcn lottore of tee alpbabH 

"^Bi day* of the week, marking^ uie itt 

^ «f Jennary at A, aad bo on. The letter 

g* H« 81*1 of Doci-niU'T ia A. Xow ut 

^"^J doee n»t fall yearly In tbu aaiiie 

|^<*i eMh letter becomva in its turn the 

r*'*iij iHter. If Soadky fall on January 

». M n will la 1889 a.D., then A will be 

MH&mJBv hitter. Again, if tbore be a lenp- 

}^<U the day IntetcaUtrd fall* l>(-lwfli:ji 

^3hh of February and the lot at March, 

*• Sanday letter with which the yw 

j'f^ M. tor Inttance, In ISM ^d., K, will 

^tHk,u in the date Just ][i veil, Io O, for 

^Ottnday latter being B, and the 21'tb of 

•mnry lett<'r«d D, ai n\*o Uerch 1 tt 

"ttnd 0, the intercalated day la aa it were 

tAiiuun ill ihti calendar, but carrlci buck 

vfcadey iette*. go that the 23d of Feb- 

^ Nay K in 1884, the el«hlh day after 

o XiKh T, which i« letterMl D, and Uii* 

*^ Ibo letlar for the rwl of the year. 

"•^•wr Ike Sunday letter for say year 














ia found, the dat« of any siven day of tba 
week can Ita readily founa in the calendar 
by thib *inijilc contrivance,'. 

The rule to Bnd the Sunday letter for the 
T'l'tmuinder of Uiii century ii very clear, and 
!■ tbua (;ivon in the Arat of Iha 
Tablet for dnding Saatar^laj: 
" T'> find the Dominical or Sun- 
day Letter, acoordinK to tho Cal- 
eiidar, until tbe year 1699, ia- 
iilusive, add to Cuk ynnr of our 
Losi> itt fourth part, omitting 
fractioDi, divide the sum by 7, 
aud if tbvru b« uo remain dor, 
then A U thu Suivday Letter ; 
but if any number remain, thoa the Letter 
slandinv againci that number in the imall 
annoxea Table U the Sunday Letter. 

"Note. — That in all Biwoitiln or Loup- 
Vcani,tlia Lrttcr found m iibuve will lie the 
Sunday Letter from tho intercalated day to 
the end of the year." 

But It was a icnall part of the «of k to ar- 
range the DomlDival Letter. A more diffi- 
cult work waa to aiyuat the proper time for 
the celebration of Kuter, Stnoe Eatb^r waa 
the Cbrttttan Feast atandinff in hisiorioal 
relation Io the Jewith Pa««over, it waa 
nuctuaanlygovvrni-d by aimilar rules, "nten 
Baater, aa did the Paceover, depended on ih* 
full mooD^ or, rathar, on th« fourleoatb day 
of the moon. The Council uf Mice, 825 
A.D., laid down four poalulatea concerning 

I. That the 21*1 of Hareh muit be taktii 
a« the day of the vernal etjulaox. 

II. Tliiit [lie full moon happening upon 
or nnxt after tlie '<iliit of March is to be 
ttfkiin far the full nrKin of the niunth Niwa. 

III. That the next Lord's Pay next 
after thai full uioon is to be observed a* 
Easter Day. 

IT. But if the full moon fall on a Sun- 
day, the next Sunday is to b« Canter Ust. 

But those are calendar, not aslronomtcal 
full mooni, since tfae lunar cycle being 
129.5306 days, tbo equatinn proposed by the 
golden cycle of Heton of alteronte tveaty- 
ninn and thirty days was not aocuratfl 
enough aftnr a lH[)au of tinio, and tlii4 slight 
error every uiueleen yimm «nu aulllcienl to 
produce a aerioua incouveiiiem:e afler a time. 
It wu with some trouble that tho corracCtoaa 
were effected. The Pu^al term is that 
period within which the moon oan paaa 
through licr lunation befora and immedi- 
ately afler the vernal equinox. Tho Paschal 
moon is new at the eau-lieat on Uaroh 3, to 
that it is full on the 21st (both day* hf>ing 
counted),— that is, fourteen days after. But 
should lae full mooo Atll after the Zlai, tlie 
latest dftte is April IS, liaue from March 8 
to April & is twenty-nine days, and April 18 
it ihe latent fbll nioon, to that the latccl 
Sunday «n which Easier can fall U April S6. 
£aster-day, then, may fall oa any bunday 
between March 22 and April 26, l>otb iaclo- 
Mve, immediately mtUrr a full moon. Since, 
then, the calendar date of the full moon may 




be throe Aayt »Ttn diffureot Iroin tbft utro- 
Domical Tull mnxiD, tba iwo ntodw of caIcu- 
lution ilu iiut nlways coincide. The reftaun 
for thia diwrapajicy ii uot f*r lo seok, liDco 
the now moon from wbich both Jew knd 
ChriftiAD counitd wm not the ono obtained 
by cslculalioD , but bj obe«rvation. But 
tn« cKluiilution of tbn cNtrmditr moon do- 
ppnd«d upon Ihe Epact, which was Lhn 
nfciiio (tivMi to iha nunibor uf daya' differ- 
ence hotwccn thci ciirront lunar montht nnd 
llm •ol«r ywir. Tlia dlffUronce !> uk'veo 
diijri. At the beji^Dninf; of the cjcle the 
year and thie new moon ooincido; but &t the 
end of tbo «dIu year the moon is eleven 
dkjs old. At tbo end of the second solar 
year the difference ie twenty-two dara, flit 
tho *ind of the third year it i» only tbren 
days, —, thirty-liiTce dnyi minus Ihe 
Ihirly days o( a full hinnlion. At lh« pnd 
of thdcyclsof ninolQiin vettn ihu bhrio iirdor 
rueum. Since the true lunar month i> 
29.&a08 dayi, to allow thirty day* to a luna- 
tion ii too much ; tborefor* upon February, 
A^rll, June, Auicu>t, September, and No- 
vember two e|j.&ct« are auigned to a certain 
3ay ill each ••{ lhc*c montlin. Thi» dpvii'" 
Mr'vM to keep the error within bounds. Tho 
prlndpal use of tb« Bpact ii to enable onn 
to Una tbn ago of tho mimn at itny r*>qi>irnd 
data of the givan year, and of fonrae ila 
chief uae ia tc d«termine the Panchal cioun. 
Tbo rule is, (I) Add tocethar the day of tho 
uontlt ^ivoii mid the Emal-i, to ba fuund In 
the third uible in the Prayer.Boolc ; (2) if 
the dale given i« after March, add the num- 
ber of the month frora March Incluaive, and 
the turn it the required age of the moon. 
Let UB uke ISSli x.u. Eatter-day for that 
year would bo thus calculatRd: Hinct' an 
Butor can fall between Mari:h 22 and April 
2&, toi u> choose April I on which to And 
the muon'a ago. The Spact for 1906 is 15; 

April I - 1 

Hpact. — 16 

March and April ..••• S 


Tb« mo«n will be eigbtoe n dav> old on April 
1. It waa full, tberefore, on'Uarch 29, and 
AprH S will bo EMter-day. 

Th« Holden Number wai ml)r the lame 
cycle aa Lh« Epuct, i.e., one of nineteen 
year* ; but ihore wot made do proviiion for 
the hour and a half of gain in eachlunalton, 
which ainonnted to about a day in three 
bundrfid and twelve ye«r«. Therefore, when 
the Oftleodar vra* rectified In the Engliah 
Churoh in 1763, the Oolden Number was set 
maid* pcMtJc&lly, and the Epact Rubttituted. 
Tor tAe oirder of the Qoldan Number waa 
flxed by Uw, and ouuld not be moved lo Its 
true plava in the column whenever tho error 
by increnmnl bocaniu MrioU*; ao it waa 
drODMd and the Bpact waa aubitltuied, 
wucn could be placed oppoaito its true 
place in tho cycle. The Golden Number In 

apparently differeat from th* Spaet, u wi 

bo leoa : 

ci«et.„ ro 1) a a M » « IT ■ I 

OoUan Nnoibar ^l l>4BflTSII 

ZtrntL _ (90 I 11 13 4 U Sa T 1 

OoldMi Httatbcr._.~.tU 13 13 U 16 IS U 11 I 

B^l the fact !■ that tbo Gotdoo Nunbe 
needed Ihe Kpact originally; and If tb 
Tnblcof Leaoonafor Harcb and April beaa 
Aiiiincd a aerlei of rtntngely arranged nsni 
hei% will bo noted. Thcie aro tlie Golda 
Numbrn, niarlcInK the days upon which tfa 
full rooun« can fall in those monlha. to Ihi 
the year on which the Golden Nambt 
pointa out the full moon beine fourrd, tb 
Sunday letter following; such Gulden Kuk 
l>«r is Easter-day. Take, aeain, tho na 
]80e A.D. The Enact is 1&, the Ootde 
Number corretponoiag ia IS- This ia t* 
opposite Karcb 26 «■ the date of the Ac 
moon- Eaiit«r-day will, therefore, lUl □ 
April fi. These compulation* were neoai 
Hury to procure an accurate mode for findla 
Eailor-day; yet there will always beavi 
riali'un frum the aatronomioal (Vill mooi 
Blnoe H is not possible in an ecclcaiaatin 
cal«-ndar to make provision for the tniBU' 
crrori which tbe loiss of a few momantt a 
«eoo»ds will produce in ihr tapaa at ce3 
liiriee. Thererorea rectification mualalwftU 
ba mode at stated periods. 

Easier determines the date* of all ll 
Moviiblo Ft'iuiU and Fasu which preetC 
and follow it. Upon Easter depend tl 
niimlMir of Sundays after Epiphany, tl 
dale orSepluagMintu, Seiagysima, and Qnll 
qitaeMima titindayii,AAb-WedneadBt,Ooo< 
J^ridtiv, whk'b precede, and Asoenstoa-da^ 
Whit-Sunday, and Trinity -Sunday, whic 
follow, Kn!>t«r-day,nnd neoraMrily ibe&tui 
ber of Sundays after Trinity are alto tha 
determined. Except for the Immovabi 
Ffuwti, which fullow thu solar calendar,* 
(•i:i-lcTiiiutii:iil tttlcuUlions follow Ihc Ko(^ 
prctopt lo regulate tho feasts by tbe moee 

In fact, no proposed oulendar oan so we 
moot all ibedifflcultleaand nice a^Jostntb 
required as the one we now tiM. It ll 
mcmornblc eiamplo of the truth Uiat Go^ 
ordinances are immutable. Tbe Preach a 
templed to substitute a now raUndar dnHn 
the Kevohition; but thny had, in teaa tha 
twolvo years, to revert to tbe Church Cfc 
eudar, which ii based upon Jewish Lav 
which, again, la based upgn the ordinance: 

'^ And OoD aald, Let there be light* in th 
Unnament uf the tieavnn lo divide the da 
from tbe night; and let them beforrigw 
and for season), and for days, and for year 
. . . And OoD mnde two great light! 
(Oen, i, 14, IB). 

Under any s;)'stem of chronology wh«l 
ever each bislorian ia inexorably bound b 
the conditions of Jewish computniion, bol 
hccauao It ii so universally reLelved that I 
cannot es::a pell, and because, with all the di 
Bcullice attending calculations underwit, 
conforms to natural terms of time 





of ancient history depend (lo tttk* but 

l|l« inilanoe] upon IIir calcuUtion of 

■clIpMi for thrtir venflwiUon. 

Calendar of Saints. tV« Martvkoloqt. 

Caliloniia. Diocese of, iSy>-t8ft4. Ths 

tntDonveniUin wuf lield inTriiiil^' CLuroh, 

Su Ft»aci«<x>, in July \ltiM a.h'), for thv 

(mtu of oixuDisinjE the DIvccMof Cfeli- 

braHL Th« OMning unnon was pronchcd 

h Ibe RcT. Dr Ver M«hr, iind Ihn Itnv- 

Aitd L. Hine« w«£ ap{K)inC«d chsirni&u. 

ttb* tkcl in history that thucnrlv found- 
in i/ ihe Church on ihU omuI btui nu i<]i-a 
<f tnting with the G«ner«I C'hurL-h at ch« 
BuL Vuir* U no recognition of it in any 
<t iMr BToeeedlnfft. They tcnorcd tb'o 
tUHof " rroteitaot EpisooMl/'and trailed 
ibat orgmnlKAtion th« " Cnurcb in Cnli- 
bnd*." Knowing that while in this pimi' 
tin 00 Bishop would be coniecntea for 
thn, ths qudtiOD wm ditcuiwd of at- 
(■Hing to prDcur« th» Epiioo|mio ^um 
tbiOftck Church. AlMndoning thj* idea, 
ibCoiiT«ntimt elected M Urn r Bithop the 
b Brr. Bishop d(>utb|;ate, vrho, haviDc 
Ue oaoMcraltid to a foreign mifaion, had 
Wf rtturaed. He, huwover, declined tfan 
MWmd. Thr«e yoart pawed away, dur- 
■m«Uch time DOlniDg fOrthw wm done lo 
■^qIu the Church. In thit time the K«v. 
Hr Uinw, the fint tniniiter to the cout 
•I Ibi tnt rector of Trinitv, tho molhcr- 
^ari> of the Dio«e»e, had been removed 
Mmli. The ao-call«d parithei of Hurv*- 
4HS(wkton, and .Sacmmentohad bnrdly 
acdUcAcc, and Ihero wero hul two Ut* 
ffiibtt,— Trinity and Or*c«, of San Fnui- 
Ms ilieM eontUtuting the " PiocoH of 

II Oetobfr. 18&S A.D.,tho Oenoral Can- 

JjBion met in Hew York, and the wunt* 

vlUieoMt eoon claimed tboir altcntLon. 

jfMlag moat w1»«ly the pajit actinn of the 

IHlMe, w&ich wa* not in acc»nl with Lh« 

|*^tr of Churchmen in California, tho 

wMal Convention decided Ui apnoinl a 

•wieiuiT BUbop for California- The fli)j>- 

^ *■• Dald in the Uoune of Blnhopa, and 

W Bcr. William Ingraliam Kip, [)[> , 

'wtw of St. Paal'i Church, Albany, w« 

^xBlBalfd. Tb* oWtion wa* so unnnimooi. 

^ Iherolce of the chutcb w> ur^vnt, tha 

*•*. Dt. Kip accepted the nomination, and 

^amwcnied in Trinity Church, New 

JoA, an Octoh*r 29, Fettival of SS. Simim, 

^sdf, 1S58 A.n The tennon was preached 

5^ Bubop Burgcas, of Maine, and pnrb»n» 

■t lit) Bc4 ba oQt ^r place in thU briof hit- 

*^ U Eire ■ ftw wordo or pa^Mgec of that 

•^•q»nt aad touching mrmon, for In th« 

**hto Ttan that have |iasMd it M«mH like 

*«ftilltliiig of prophecy : 

"la tkii foramoit Umple of the great 
■»t «id metropoli* of this new Western 
•wid *t (je aiu*iDbh>d fur a work which 
*»«» be without fnilt in distant d»r« And 
uahnuTegloBi, From this spot, and from 
*••*•• are about lo »c»impliHh, tbo 
WlVorldeBce hvur* It, ts airalgbt 

to the Golden Qale, which opens toward* 
Eastern Aala. Ho who shall enter there ai 
the lint ProteaiaQt Bithop will tee before 
him iho land which ji thu ireaiure-hausoof 
the repitbJii.-. Behind il are the vale* and 
rivers and unowy mountains, which an 
iL. .iiir Far Wft»t the Farther Weat. And 
binldat them lie the seata of that aboml- 
nablB and scnauiil itnriietT> the orv nf which 
goes np lu hi*iivi'n, likv thnt of Bodum and 
(Inmorrah fmni tbevallevof the Dead Salt 
San. Still beyond spread the deserta which 
divido, but which will not long divide, the 
OhriilSam of this ContinenL 

" Upon Ihe edge of ibo vast field he will 
stand when he thall pjKce his fool on the 
shore of the Puflflc. There hs is to be oo> 
cupied in laying th« foiindatlona of a Church 
wliirh must bi; a pillar and ground of th« 
truth for wide lands and for unborn minioni. 

" Pew of the inuae can be live to witn«M. 
But In tbe year* to come, If yeart ar« given 
him, be rn'ott rocnl] the prospect* which 
opcnod upon him in this bour, and again 
when he ant taw the ooatt of that Western 

To the Bitbop-i^tnct ; "Tours it an Epis- 
oopiitc to be exerciii'd where fellow -laborers 
uro alill lo be gathered, where (omiDariet 
ara yet to be founded, where congregation* 
are luosllr lo be1>L-t;un. You go where tbirit 
for gold, Impnlience of rtslratnt, the vices of 
adventurers, and all the Ills of unavoidable 
Iftwlessnau have boen before ynu ; where the 
Riiflening influence of old age and of child- 
iKKid can an ynl b« little known, and whor* 
female niely throws hut a araall measure of 
ju familiar light over tbe aurfhceand fhc« 
uf lucioly. A lover of the world, a pleasor 
of men, a reed shaken hy the wind, has no* 
whi^ro his place among the standard- bearers 
of Chbwt ; but l«ast of all on lueh an out- 
post b^Wgii^red by temptationi.'' 

TbiHui niiMitgQii hfjip to tl^ow not only the 
inagiiituiJB nf the work before the first 
Bishop or California, but the peculiar diffi- 
culties to oni'ounicr. 

At Ihe tiuiH of bis arrival, January 29, 
1854 AD,, there was hut one clergyman, 
KoT. Dr. Wyat, rector of Trinity, aotlTeljr 
engaged In parochial work. Ecv. Dr. Clark 
wna proventod by ilb" from auumtng the 
dutits fif a purisli, and Dr. Ver Mi^hr, who 
was nominally rector of Gruce Church. wa« 
engaged ino«t of lh« time with his school at 

At IheflrslConvenlion held by the Bishop, 
three months after hit arrival, there were 
but three parishes represented, Trinity and 
nraoi>, nf San Frani'lico, and Si. John's 
pariah, Sluektuii, and tfan latterexialed only 
on paper. 

In December, 1!)56 a.d,, the DioceM hay- 
ing strength enough to elect a Bishop, ft 
Dpecinl Convention was called for that pnr- 

Kte. It met in Sacramento, February £, 
jn i..D. There wen nine olcn^y preMnt, 
and nine parishes repreaented, when the Bl 
Kev. William Ingrahana Kip, H.D., Ihe 




UisaiouKry Uiihop, wuuoftnimoutljr docted 
Bbbop of'tho Oiocci>G at C&lifnrnla. 

In i$71 A..D. the DLocue, bv coneent of 
Gfiliorul Convontion, wni diviilcd, fttiil lltn 
northern purtLmi >i-t ofi' aa Uii? Miuiuimry 
Jiiri^iilirliuii of NurthorD Californin. of 
whltl. ihe Bt- liftv.J.U.D. Wingficld.O.D., 
is iU Mi'Kl^tDury Bhltop. 

liuU'Rd uf two parltb mini*t«>n, u tbirt; 
feian ago, n»v-, with tlir n>i^rthorn portion 
of tiio btuUi Utkfnolf, there ma etlU About 
■cventy on ibe iiet. 

Nt^vcr in it* hiitury hiu the Cliurcit in 
Cnlifornin been more prMjieruu* lliun at tbe 
prGHnl. Ill sympulhy, in Churchman*hip, 
in li-'Tultv, und <l(]vution lite cU-rgj' uio 
iinilcJ. f))tlvr piiricbca bk awaklug tu lh« 
great worli before- them, whil« now miMion*, 
MKtn to be p*riihM,arc*prlngiiigupftlloTer 
tbo Diocese. 

To EflRtoro pemila troinod in t1it' Cluircb 
Hnd CUurcb pniiuiplna ii niij{bt»(«tn tliwt Cbu 
pri^reid livra hai beeu aluw, und tiiAt with 
all Uie reputed grtal wealth of Culkfurniu 
ihertt ibvuld b« Cburcb Itiilltutjuiu, largolr 
ondow«d, fprln}(in)f up and re&cbing uut 
a^rcMivoly all over llic brnad Statn. Dut 
T«ry little of tbii great wealth Is in thu 
bandi of Church pwple, and th« Cburc-h i» 
cumpsrativeif ponr, and ii ha* btiiii a band 
to hand ■trugeii; at liitii.-3 barely to exist. 

In aucb a mixed pupiilatioii, the ood* of 
tb« Mirth thrown togolber in a lump, ai it 
were, with all absdea of rellijiou and no r?- 
ligiun, cine midbt well exclaim, " Who it 
kufilcionl for thc^e tbingii ?" Vet amid cbo 
iawlcMncat, even in ItA «*rly hlstorv, there 
hare always been some acble wmU doing val- 
iant mrvtca for Cukiht and Hi* Cburuh. 
Thero bava been earniail, ielf>4eiLyins »ciiiU 
(oing about di>i&g good humblv, not t<) be 
•MO of men, wbuae reward wlli one day 
coma from Hltu in whose iHcmory " no good 
dead iaever lost." Many a pioneer Cbnrcii* 
man, of both cler^v and laity, will bo of 
tlMM who shall beliud " in ecerlastinf re- 

The Wotnrn's Miulonary Society of the 
Oiocuie (Auxiliary] h dmii; a good work, 
and many of our missionaries arc chccT<.'d 
by their limelv ii[Tu and tbou((blfuI L-are, 
while tbe iiicle ehapel ii beaulitlil in it* 
cbaacel nirni>hrd from tlie sarar M>urc(!. 
With nearly every pariah there ii connected 
a Pariab or It«ctur>' Aid Society, wboeo 
viailM to the kmk and kurruwing, together 
with subntantial aid, do much tu teach peo- 
tde of ■ living:, loving Ubrlst, a* well as a 
living Cbur«b, 

Trinity, the mttth>»r-parisb, i« a lort of 
nillying'point. Every yc«r in niir TJiorMan 
(Vmvontiou Bhe welcome* tbe tcattered cbU- 
dien and bidn tbem comvunoo moro around 
licr nliKr. Benoalb the chancel of iblt 
<;huruh rests all lliat is mortal of the flrti 
minister of our Cburdi to the coast, the \U:v, 
FUve) L. Uinee. 

Gr«oe, formerly called ihe Cathedral, in 
, Vbioh the Bi*bop labored for many years, 



and twice saved trota tbe sherifT* bamnmr, 
stands upon what is called Grace Church or 
Nob Hill, and can b« leca for coany blocii 
tiround, SE though inviting all to come aod 
woriili ip. 

Advent, llie down-town church, i« noil 
in ag«. It has its guilds, ita hmtberlioud*, 
and its ^rwt army of choriften ; iu doon 
itaad open to the wuarj' laborer, aa thoi 
raying, Come in and rest and pray, for 
i» the nouie of prayer. 

Si. John's, SU Paul's, St. Luke's, 
.Stephen'*, and St. Peter"*, — this cluUer nf 
Bsinta in tbrjn rhurchei ant in a certain mv 
children of the older pariebcc, and are atV 
doicij! zoud work for the Church. 

Or ue Church initilutium, there ii tli.^ 
Old Ladies' Uome. Tbe building was for- 
merly used ns :^t. Luke's Uoipilal; cleats i 
hrlcbt, and truly hone-Ulce, ft i* admlr^b" 
biy mannged, some four ladiee from aaoAl 
purinb etmdltutlng the board- It ia earn' 
pbatically a Hoini;, and itn iumatc*, aoBstf 
furty in number, are tenderly cared foraiad 
thuir docliniiJK year* made happy by watcfca - 
ful care and Uie coinrorting servlc«» of tta^ 

The DIocwe Ii well lapplied with Cburela 
8cb«ol». I will not cneniton the V017 eic»l— 
lent inxliliiltoni of Bnnicia, as they oona0 
under anulhi-t bead, via., tbe Jurisdiction 
of Northoni Caiifornia. In thi« DiooeMir« 
huvu, U4 uQD of the uldvat Church school*! 
St. Maitbt*tv's Hull, Saii Uat«i>, Rev. A. Il«- 
Urewer, Principal imd Kector, founded in 
lHfs& A.a. with but three pupils, until itM 
rolU number about one hundred, «nd foll- 
The echool in kU lu appointmeDU is trail 
arranged; the stiino church covered wlttf- 
ivy, the ahodcd wullu and profuaiun of Bomt— 
era, make a picture, one of the itrntl btaut*^ 
_fui in buuuiiful Culifuruia. Indupendeo* 
of ibe thoruii^h trainlnj;, the tliorougb drilK« 
and mnnly bearing of the cadets, the Tefid>^ 
\ag, ChriatianlsinglsfliMAca thrown aroua.^ 
the boys is an education in ilaelf. ^ 

Trinity Schooi, in San Francitoo, Bar, E. ^9 
Spalding, Princijial, though but 8ve or d ^ 
years in eiii<tcnce, baa made splendid pm^tf 
resi, and doe* great credit to it4 founder *ia -* 
i mil rue tors. 

Irvin School forYaung Ladies^ ia9an 7n^^ 
ci»oo, Bav. B. B. Church, Prinoip*!, is steals 
ilygroving in favor, u it so wall dAserrw^ 

There aro aUoChurch schools at San Jd«^^ 
Santa Crua, Alameda, and Oakland, >o th^M 
our Diocese U not only well supplied wit -J 
Church schools, but can be ooDgrataktc-^ 
on their hleh chHrHC»>r and etteleney. 

Many of ihow wiio helped to lay Ih-^ 
riiiimlatiiin ortbeCbureh in CaliAirnia hav '^ 
pasjed to their rcwurd,— " they rest fro*J 
their labor, and their wvrks (<h1ow ibtm.^ 
Our guol fiiihup, after thirty yean of Gtiik^ 
ful doing, is still hale and erect, and at th^ ' 
veart pOM on it more and more beloved b^ 
bis people. In ■■JpBnie]rlngs>»ftea" be vlsil—^ 
every parUli and miuion in ihe Wowa^ 
every year, and aaino of tbcin, a* 



tb« chance* lliat hove occurred in ih\t 
ihanging poptilntinn U « living orarlv, a 
poMtunl puruh and dtoccun rrgiattT. 

"then reiiiaine yet miy much land to be 
ranHod, far our Olitircfa n but H T«t in lu 
vitncj, ind if but ibo foundation can bo 
Ud d««p and •Ironi; In fallb, in Iot?, nnd 
dnotion, th« Aitiire tiintnriiin will look upon 
tUi IttI* ikctcfa of the CliuTch in 1884 x.d. 
MhMlll gmtercontnut Hird in <Hat lint 
OwTontlnn ihtrty-flim jr««r« a^. 

Rkt. W- L. Githkhs. 

CtO. rUtVnex-noM. 

CahrtniaiD. Tho mtciD of theolr>g:T of 

JdmCaltin <lS0ft-lM4A-D.). It nn* twicd 

D|n AiwBstlnc'k ij- •t«in of Fredeatiaation, 

kilMl nr more nyitematic, and wu boMd 

1w am tb« control of the IncamaUonover 

■Mflian tba aubordinatiDn of iho Inrnrna- 

tend Alon'm^ntio ih* In^oil nii(rYinri«ii 

ifillHct dogmn of PrcdmlStialioii. Oalrin 

m k BUter of logic, and imprP^-CKl hit 

•mhiiloni upon many wbo ttudied hit 

rafa. Rtaajatcm affix-led many whn did 

Mi(rae with him in hit ecclesiMtical tb^ 

•fhtiUidCalTliiiam 1* held by agr^t niim- 

^■livan bj no mvani la tjmpathy with 

USjilB^ly b»can«i> It expreaiteo mom ]oti;i- 

nU^lbtfthvtn llw rAnchinionn to he. drnwn 

ft«i 00b> Juallc«, prraciencia, um! (jmniHti- 

••». The error lies, not in urging the«, 

hltavnconaciotulr fDbnrdinatIng tij thorn 

tbAvmMnenl and^ iu cuniequenmi to all 

■V. In thli 0* In *o many oilier thltj^;*, 

AtCkttrch doM not inlcrfero with any pri- 

nMwjUihMii that arc not puihcd to the tt- 

|«l cf breaking down the Artictw of tho 

vMdasd to th»pra4-tical denial of auy part 

''ibttwching* of HiiIvScriplniT upon Iht? 

"^Itw principle UicI down In the XX. 

4-1ltl>: "Thff Church hath jwiwor to d&- 

^ntSatcior (?eMinii>ni«« and aiithnrity in 

^•Hmriiea of Fallb, and vet it i» not Uw- 

jUftrtte Church to ordni'n anything that 

""■Otry to God* Word wrliien, neither 

^J h lo eipound one place of Scripture 

«itt|ber«|iugnant to another Wherefore, 

■'<ka|b th« Church b« a wilncoa nnd a 

■•Vt of Et>\r Writ, yet, at it oujht not 

■^WW anything agaimt the umo, to, b»- 

^|fci, the lam*! ought It not to enft)rfln any- 

•*>l«t to be heliered for neceailty of mIyo- 

"«-" Thereforff, tltough men may by force 

^'tWr Indt'idiMl temperamenu nwd to 

•ora ijitanu, th« Chwr«h cannot form any 

?>itwi of theology nihor than tho hrruutth or 

^?titreand the'Crf«d allow. Caivln'e ei- 

*»>»■ noilont, or rathrr Kialempni^, are not 

^» * Icnadouilr held an fnrmivrly. Tho 

•"'^Wntoof Oafvinijm, hh they aro called, 

Hi ^ T^t Goo boi cbo»en n nerutn number 
^^*wn»? lo everla«lig]D; (il^ry before tho 
V'^^aArikm of tbe world, according to UU 
V ™***M» {ittrp'Mf* and of Hi* tnv enci 
^ ***WTt,wilhOTt Ihpleiutfiirf-'ightof&ith. 
pw «Mti, or any conditions p''rform*d by 
"■VMIana, and that th« rait of mankind 

III- wru p1ejij«d to pn*« by and ordain them 
to dlahonor and wrath for thi>lr (ins, to the 
prai«i> of ni« rindii-tirn jIHti(^•. 

II. TliB! .Icaos OflKisTby HI* luiferiniji 
and death made an Aloncment only for Iho 
tint of the elect, 

in. That mankind are totallr depraved 
In confeqiience of th« Fall ; ana br virtue 
of Adam'* being their public head tW guilt 
of fall tin wan imputed, and a corrupt nature 
conveyed lo bis postcHiy, from which pre- 
ocfrJi all actual trnnKgrmuton : and thai by 
Rin we are made luhject to death, and oil 
niiieriea, teuijiurAl, spiritual, and eternal. 

IV. That all whom OoD has predeftlnatud 
to life He It pleased In HIi appointed time 
eff^ually to call by Ills Word and Spirit 
out of that Mtale of *ln and death in wntcb 
thoy are by nature to grace and ealTatlon In 
Jmuh CaaniT, 

V. That thmo whom flon ha« nffiictuallv 
called and tanetfOed by Hli Bpirit ihaTl 
never finally fall from a'ltate of grace. 

The older CaKinitt* utrdniiouMly defended 
theae promwiliuni, but at thepreaenl day they 
are held in a much modiAeo form. 

Candlemoa. An old name for the Feoat 
of the Purlflcntlon of Saint Mary the Virsln 
(Fehniarr 2). It was ruBtomary in the 
miidiinvaf Churrh upon ibi* feaat to bear In 
propMgioti.iind topino^in Ihechun'h.alatge 
number of lichied candlct, typifying tho do- 
(eriptlon in tho Song of fltnicon of the Lord 
.Ttina,— "a light to lighten the Qentilae, 
and the glory of Thy peo|)le Israel;" hence 
tbenanieCimdlemB»>aay. Alcaifi ( 
rpcAka of the custom ; Ht, Bernard alM> 
(1153 A.D.). [Vide TtxsTe.) 

Caoon. Apparently it !« a nani<> givf>n to 
an officer in the CBthedml Maff — a mfmhcr 
of the t;hiiptcr — who held the lama general 
rank m the Prebend They wlih the Pro. 
bnnda hud their ■uvF<ral diitieui In thn lervIcM 
and tare of the Cathedral. PoMibly the 
Pro bend enjoyed the incam« fromaipocial 
endowment or oitnte, white the Canon wot 
mnintained out of the common income of the 
Oathodral. liowevcr that may hare been, 
Canon* and I'rohendi are now merged into 
the ilngle title of Canon*. Thoy are mem- 
ber* of, and vote in, the Cathedral Chapter. 
[Vuta OhaptkiiJ Uinor Canon* are mtt of 
the Chapter. They ought to be all priesU, 
ikillcd in Church muiic, and are reepoofi- 
ble for the docnnt nnd *otemu celebration of 
divine tervlee In daily rotation. 

Canon. The term i« from the Greek 
Canon, and meanf a nile or law, or the term 
iaoaed generally for Canon Law,— i.e., the 
ruin of tfiu Church ; Canon of Scrlpiur*, t «., 
the book) wliirh Uia Church accept* a* In- 
apired and as binding ; Canon of the LIlurgT, 
t *., tho rule for the cf^lcbratinn of the Holy 
Communion, which u^ualty begins with the 
veMicle, Lift up your hearts (.^ritim Conta). 

Canon Law. All the legitlation of Lho 
Church, enacted by her own iplHtual right, 
ha» from the first been ombodiealnOnw«*, — 
a word derived from the Oroek, and aignify* 

"d lor^t^H «"«"'"'^'«''. free di«?o«ion 
oS Sev '-^^*.'' '.''*'"''* ""* '"J' " '*'*''- 



I'oguining " '"w-malt.nR power from Iho 
l.«w7or"«." ™ ^'''■'"'^ «>UTCMof C.nar. 

tl«, r,«h;i"fl^ ^ '" '^'« AoU of lb« Ape- 

eJhlvlfil.'^P"'^'''' C«noni,-« bodr of 
bul irH,!i ^■!"'n»T of unknown koliouity. 

A^l-./ '^^'?" t«"B»'teverywheM by the 
Apo.ll«ihejn„iv,,^ though »!«, with mkrk* 
?Ll ■d<inion.. The Ont two, brief u 
*?■%,?• "''* '^" ''"' """I* "f »■• bmnphw 
of IJie Apostolic ChurL-hinull .g«: "C«nnn 
1. iAt a Biihopb« ordained liy two or thrw 
m»hop«-" -'Omon II. Let* Prabyier, or 
PCft^wn. and lli» oiher clBfgy, bo oidiJnwl by 
one Bhliop. ■ Thew, u well aimanj other* 
nr*> eml««lied in tlia " IJi(r«t" of Ulo Amer- 
ican Church. 

2. The Canoni piuiMl by ibe undlipntod 
Ocncr*! CmmcilB, By th« Council of Nic« 
20! by Hie flr»l Comicil of OoonUntinnple 
7; by the Council of £pb«siu 8; by the 
Council *f L'httIi.-«i]ori 30; — Umm A^ Canons 
■ra ot higlimt tiiichority. 

8. Be«ld«tbMei theCouncilcrChalcedoD 
(4V* <EoaBien]o&l spprorst to th« Cani^Ds 
of •e»ef»l Provincial 8ynod», »» follow* : 
of AooyrH, 'ifiCanoDs; of Neo-Cw>iirea. IS; 
of GsDfEra, 20; of Antiucli, So; of I^ndi- 
ow. 00. The lut of thiwe Laodiceftn Canons 
]■ tta« earll«ei itist leit)** tho number of the 
book* to be received u Holy Seripliir«. Thi« 
«ntlr« bcjy of (Bcumenicul Uw litm ftt ilie 
bntiii of the wurbiiif; lyatem of the Cbiirch 
in nil Kgce, thmiprh niiiunitly soino portioni 
Uie many obangM of time ^nd clrcitmitance. 

II. Tno Anflicun CsnoDt Tbi? Cnnon* 
iidnntcd in variou* Provincial Synods in Eng- 
land— Lynd wood enumerates fift*m — before 
the Reformation ronminiMl in f'jrc* until IflOD 
A U.. unci niill rontinup tu hv nf furce, except 
where iubA«]U«nt lis^iilktion hu eiprCMty 
altered them. Of lbe«o Dr. Hook itj*. 
•• Tba above Caiiou*, made t>y our Churcli 
befbr« tb« Reformation, are, of course, liind- 
taff on OUT Church now, and arc acted upon 
in the KcolMirui Ica) OourU, eiMtpt where 
thoy are aiiperaeded by tubtequent Can- 
ons, or by the provitionn of an Art "f 
Parlianent." Blunt'* "Book of Ohurcb 
Law" aayi, " Tho Canuna paaaod up to the 

flfimoth ceniury were collected 
Lvodwond (Ari-Sdnacnn of Oat 
nA«rward« Bishop of t^t. David 
called ' ProTinciale,' of whicb 
tion t( lliat printed at Oxford ii 
were publiihed in Biurlitb i 
■ Collection of all the Eccleail 
Canon*, An*wer«, or Rescript* 
Church of Enfflund,' the orij 
of which WM printwl in 1720 a 
viMd one, nhfrd by Bnriin, I 
Wilkini's ' Condlia MagQK Br 
tains all such docuraenta down 
Ayhffe't ■ Pari>r)CDn Juri* Can 
cani,' or, a Commentary by wi 
tiienl to the C^non* and Constil 
Church of Enelnnd,— a Taltia) 
cbaTBcier of which i* indicated 
was publinh^d in 173-1 a.o. 
new and moat tmstwnrtfaj edil 
kins'* ' Condlia' baa lately bea 
the CUnndon Pnu uodtr lb« 
PWfeaior Stubb* and the ] 

IlMido* the above, thoro wu 
"Corpus Juris Canoaicl," the 
con);1ii<ineration nf Church lat 
by ttin Pnpnu. In addition to 
(fikiiona, it rontains thcdecreea 
Futbert of the Church, a large | 
lira atrknowlrdgiHl forgeriea. 
under Gregory XIII. the bull 
mAMivi^ folio Tolnmes in fine ' 
of the Dceretum of Orallan, I 
of Or*fi;ory IX., the DeerttaU 
Vin.,'the 0/#mwi/i)i* G<n»tttk 
ent v.), the Kitract^anUt of i 
nnd ihn Hiti-aviinanif* Oommu 
land thft adopttoa of thia Ri 
Law was ndror unmttrioiod or 
More thun once ibe attempt te 
was succcserully resisted ; one 
bringing from the barons tha fi 
yvlMinan t«git Anfiliee nan/art 
the admitted snjwriorjty of ) 
howovpf, mnny ruWof the R 
Law have been incorporated w 
INh, and th" English courts ba 
limw duvidod cum* on ni> ot 
than that vf a Canon of tha fo 
Cuimcil, as accopted and reoogn 
lish Ecclesiastical law. 

At iheRerormailcin scitlomoi 
ter. which tonic place in the twe 
of Hitnry VIII., it wan rxpra 
that BO much of the entire bo 
asiical legisUtion as did " tut 
Gon'a 1avr« and thn law* of tj 
same to be abrogated and U 
but "such of Ibem as shall b« 
stand with God's laww and th 
realm, to ittand in taW ilrenrth 
A royal commiwinn of thirty 
was to sift the whole, and pii 
shape that which should conti 
The " Rofiirtnalio Legum Roola 
issued In tha reJf^n of Gdwardl 
woric of the commiaslou cuntei 
it n«Tor rocoivod any l«gal san 




a«tt]*nMnt of Henrj YIII. still oon- 
tinuoB in fore*. 

In 1603 A.o. ft body ot Canoni wfta pre- 
Mnd hy Convocation' and approved br the 
icing; but thcj wet* nol adujit^il Ly FiirUH- 
■Mmt, and tb«refor« are not binding on the 
kUy. In IMI ad. other Canons wcr« put 
bat not with ai hlgb Authority u 
! of 1608 A.D. One Canoii, tbat con- 
; (ponton, baa \>t)*n nitorcd nince the 
of ConTocxIion in out own (Ikj. 
I>1« portinna of Ibeee English Can- 
■•i tn pTMlicalljr 9bMl*t«. 

HL Tb«Canon»Dftb* Americnii Church 
Mtwladin^ th« Conttilutionl are found in 
[tk^DigMl," whirb ii dividnd into Tour 
Tlrto I. U " Of *A« Order* in the 
r, ttitd of tJu Dattrin* and Wfrnhip 

ittc ObcrM," including e«o«ral dir«clinnR 
a* work of Pri«ata, ftiaoone, and par- 
IA«; Titla II. i»devt>lcdlo"i>MCi>Iine, " 
n kModane* bting proTid«d Tor i)ltbo|i*, 
Pri«U,uid Deacon*, and very liillti furany- 
Mr «W ; Title 1 II . contwrni the " Organ' 
vi Siiitt and O^ctr* of tht Ckureh ;" and 
Tiit IV. U occupied b7 '■ JtfiMel^neowa 


Itevb no roatrtction on tho power at 

ItlldMba powMaeJ by tUft Cenoritl Con- 

liut many things ar« left to tbe 

Conveotiuuc, oi|H!«ial)y tbu ntoc/^ 

Prieata and Dimcuds. Each Dio- 

Mil ihtftfoK, hua ConslitulioD and Can- 
v* of lu oim, whlob ara of (ubordinate 
luUwri^ to thoM of tlio G«n«r»] Convcn- 

Aj bthe prtxad auiAority of th««« cbrpe 
■nnebtt of t^anon Law, it may be niiid : 

L or ib« (£k:aa)tu«al Canont, a prec- 
lilt neognl lion ta atnbodtod inourOnIi' 
■tf<«Ur« the Preaiding Biibup tbui ad. 
■■■ tba Biahop-eli^ct : " Brother, foras- 
■nikiitht Holy iJcriptUTc and the ancivnt 
WMM tomnMnJ," eic. This revognlsat a 
Kill aUdinr authority in Ihoia Caaoni, aa 
•**» in Hnlv-8cript«ri;. A very largo 
ir^Mticn of tnoae Oanoni, moKovcr, is 
Mtojitd in our own"Dig»l." But no 
•piitc Bientiun of tbeni ia niHdn in tliat 
(wil wfaii^b sniimeralea the causei fur 
•Uehicii^i 1 iiTT^entod and tried. 

U. Tb* .\ inon* have, by many 

''ourl»*(]ii.^ . ,ii,..i, ,.w, l«en deciBri,>«l ti>be 
["(Ii l.ioiline in [hi» country, eicwpt wbero 
^Mricaa Canom bava co^nred the aame 
pmti difl<!r«ntly; others deny it. The 
MM of Biihuni, in 1814 a.d., dUlinctly 
■rani it. 

lki\ at l«a«l, mav be laid, that both 
wntnkal and Aaglican Canons ar« a safe 
pUatti tb« Individual coDscionoe or Judg- 
OM. vh«re American C'anona are silent. 

01. Among the cbarf^na for whinb a 
^^. PriMi, or Deanoti may be prenenteil 
1^ tried, oar Amerlcaa Ooooo specifics 

'Vididofl of the Oonatilution or Cunoni 
^ tht General C«iiveatIoa," and alio 
'jJ'nlltioB of the CoiulituliuD or Canons of 
"nWncwsio which he belong*." 

TC would not b« safe to talie for granted 
that an Ecclesiastical Court would carry its 
penul discipline beyond tho two spedflca- 
liona bvre made. 

It liju bc'ii ctiid that tbci fint Canons 
wKre pnMed by the " Apostles, £lden, and 
Brethren. " In the case of the (Bcumenical 
Counoili fas in all Provincial Synods), 
tbousb only Blsbops (or the reprceentatlrea 
of abtenl Dichopc] voted, yet the diMiussioni 
wnre public, and the voice of the other 
urdi^rs of tbu ministry was fre«ly h«ard| feo 
that tho result may fntrly bo said lo Im tbe 
viilnt! of nit. Kur had those Ciinons Iha 
foroe of latDS until ihey received the official 
sanction of the emperor, tho embodiment 
of the lay power. Durlne the mediwral 
period no Council was held nrithoui somo 
rn presentation of the fatnn secular eli<Tn«nt, 
eittinr in tbo Council ildclf, or applied after* 
wards. The common rutd was, tbut no bull 
of any Pope, and no Canon of any Couo- 
oil, could be publbhed a* binding in any 
country without the consent of the king. 
Under the Anglican systom, where tho Con- 
vocation includes only Bishops and clergy, 
their acts do not binil as law without the 

SproTal of Parlia<ii(cnt. And, with us, no 
innii ciMi be enaot«^ without the free vote 
of the order of the laity, as well as that of 
tho Bishiijia and tba ufcrgy. The shape In 
which the principle is embodied in our 
American system is the fairfiSt of all, and 
tbo least liable to any abuse. 

Rkv. J. H. Eopxtxs, D.D. 
Caooo of SCTiptuie. A point of the 
highiist importanm from many point* of 
view i» thn dnterrainnliuo of the Cancmlcul 
Scriptures. It has been urgisd Utterly that 
the .Scriptures are nolof the esaanco of the 
Faith, bulunly inspired recordsofU, While 
it is very true that the Faith and the facU 
on which it rest* arc no woven Into the very 
lesture of the CbrUtlan polity ihat th^y 
would exist in all cuxntial* without the 
rpcnrd, yet tho very constitution of our 
nature, our finite condition, and the rela- 
tion* of Ooi* d<ialing Inwards us, nacinesi- 
UtUie a Ki-vulation, It foUowt that the pres- 
ervation of this Revelation could not be 
left t<i chitnce, but being to men. for men, 
and dcpojUcd with m<^n, for their Instruc- 
tion, it mii«t be pr^fierved bv them under 
God's g^ni>ral guidance A »fipht eiamina- 
tion nf tht! diitortious of the urifinal Divine 
oommunication which belonged to ali men 
at tbo Bnt, shows us that peculiar Kitiirds 
are ne«dcd for the accurate conser vatlou of 
eucb a Itevolation. When tbe family of 
Abraham was chosen there was at first a 
transmission of tbe Pailli by trsdliioo. It 
was a simple plain fact. Tbe unilT of Ood, 
and the bleated mission for which Ho had 
chosen them and tbe inheritance of the land 
of Canaan. Doubtless tbe doctrine of tbt 
unity of Oos was obsi^uroil by cuataral. 
naling heatben communications, but the 
tradition was direct. But when HoMs re- 
ceived a Reyelatlon and a Law, and an 


ordffr to write thcni down, t!i«ri |>r«|>ara< 
lion no* alto made for Ibi-ir Jiie preAPrvn- 
tlon. They wore piil l)Mii|i- thir Ark of the 
CovcnARt, nn<] were kepi with th» car« that 
walcb«d over that. Tjigb llic rwjofd", not 
tlin full rnoonl* of what wr mny call tha 
atatfl |>w|i«ni ard public doeumeiiia of liieir 
buiorv, but Iho r»cord» Ihal exhibit tho di- 
nct line of God's 4caltn|:i wttb and cars 
for Ria cboien people, a& Joshua, JudgM, 
Samuel, Bnd King*, — written by men who«8 
namcfl may bn tra<3ilinTia1ly cunnectcd wHh 
tbem, or which may hnrc boon forgotten, 
but who navertbeleas werp ri-cngniaiid ■« 
till" niopT pfr»i)iig to do thin, — were alio 
publlabM in iMimc aulbentio way- 80, too, 
of thft prophetic writing*, of I'roTorb*, and 
Cccl^siasif*, and ibo nuug 'if Song*, — tbe 
Ptalnu aa belonging Co the T»niplc< ritual 
itandi focnawbat apart, — thoie vntn in nomo 
•cnK rvcfwnisMl u hiily book*, thnu^'h not 

S:ftU]«red rnio anauthorilatire collection as 
n tlia prw«nt Canon. The Imv Bn|iBrsntly 
waa tho onlT collection wbli-b receiTad from 
tbe Aral flill recognition. A(\br tb# Cap- 
tivity Kara irtok up the work. Uo cau^ted 
the Law to be road publicly. Jewish tradi- 
tion aaaigns to him the collection and ar- 
rangement of alt the bonk* up to bin timn, 
and !fclieint«h added what wab wantinfj, 
MTo ihw books eridenllr later, at Malachi. 
This tradition of the Talmtid shows the 
gradual forming of the collection of (be 
■acred book*. Later, ai we know, the 
whole lilt undsrwent leTcr* Krutiny, and 
kome, an Either and th* Oong of Solumon, 
wero only received aft«T eharp diMUminn. 
External teatimony is not wanting. The 
tranalatlon of ■ tho Hebrew into Greek, 
though a work extending over a lon^ pe- 
riod, may be aa*1gn«d to about '270 a d. 
While there lire bimki in It which are nut 
from Uebrew originals, and »o are r«jcctMl, 
Iho Un otherwinv corrvtptindi tu the Palen- 
tlneaa Canon. In ihc ejected booka In thli 
9«ptiutgint ia a confused reference to the 
tradition nf tlio Tulmiid. Wc have next the 
Indirect tcetimcny of the Alexandrian Pbllo, 
whotiuoted largely from eotne portloni of 
the Old Tsilanifint, and rvfi'rrwd to the law« 
and oraclen uttt^rcsl by pri>pbRt>, and hvonii* 
And the other (books) by which knuwli>d^o 
and piety are perft'ctrd. Tbin triple divifivn 
Into the book* of ■• Moaes, the Prophet, and 
tho Faalms" {ef. Luko xiiv. 44) wa« com- 
ini>n thiri, but th<^ oonti-nt* or the lhr«« 
parts varied, from thirteen pronhcta of Jo«e- 
phiu tn the «igbt that (he pmphotj onw con- 
lain, far the twolvc minor prophets tniiat bfl 
oonoted as one book. The usual number 
WM irbitrsrily nade to consist »r twenty- 
two book*, to corrtMpund with llm iwt'iity- 
two letter* of the Hebrew alphabet. Tbu« 
Joacphu* claasef Ihcm ; Tbe Law five books ; 
the I'ropbcU, J'ttbua, Jud^«-x wttb Uiith, 
Samu>.'l, Kintrf, laaiah, Jereraiab with Lani' 
tclatirni, EMklel, Daniel, Kxn with Nfhe- 
tnlah, Entber, C'hronicl«>, the twelve minoi 
prupbelt), and Job; and the Bagio^apba 

Faalmt, Proverbi, Eceletiuatea, and Song of 
Solomon. There was a gradual tranofereBWt 
nf acpnrat'^ book* from (be «e<ction of lbs 
Propheu to tbatof the nagrlA^rapba, bnt the 
triple diviaion was ttill the current one, and 
■n Mopepted. It in truth mpr(iM>nt«>d not only 
the Katberlng of the booki into onw formal 
list, iiut tho gradual growth of it among 
tbo Jews, and the appreciation of tho rela- 
tion of tbe Canon to their national hlitory. 
But this is tbe stule of the Old Testameait 
III the lime of our I^uu. liis re^fcrcncoa to 
it with approval, and His quotation! froa 
it, plaoQ Its authority fir ds beyond aay 
question; and, farther, HU quotaliona wart 
not from every book, for from a few tbereb 
no quotation. Yet linco Ho referrad to thi« 
tripio division, the Law of Moae* and (bi 
I'ropheUand tbe Psalms, aftvr Hli Reaur> 
rectum an conlninies nil thing* In be fulllHed, 
and as He optitiird Ih^ir nndrrxUindin^ to re* 
ceive theco Scriptures, we have a special 
Bual plaonO u]ion th«ir authenticity and aa- 
thoriiy. We have only to notice here that 
tho liste given by Oriffen (230 A. D.), and Je- 
rome (400 A.D.). ftnd by the Talmud (HO 
A.D.j,i.'on)plct«ly correspond. Other IMl Ib> 
chid" sonin Of nil of the apncrypbal bnoka, but 
(Irigi-n, Jprnmc:, and the I'lilmud adhered to 
tbo Hebrew teit. These Urt:er lUt* nertif 
tra(^ their lisu thrnugb iranalatloM tO 
theS<^ptu■gint, lunlfa trandatlon, with adifi* 
tions, as we have seen. It futlowa that ihc 
Apivcrypba t* to be rejected as uninspired. 

The history of lh« tJanon of the NewTw- 
luiiii^rit ii9 parallel. Tbe Kovclalionof JlTO 
Christ, recorded by chosen men, waa Ant 
pubfi>hi>il and aiitbrnticatrd and ratbared 
into n Canon, afu^r thorough iMOnr. It 
holds preci«9ly the same relHtioc to theCbria- 
tian Church tbftt the Old Testament held to 
the Jrwiih Church. Through tixtv vaart 
its writing! wero nroduced to the l9^r«« 
writing were pro<luc«d during the foortMii 
I' I'D turn?* of their produetiun, — t «., w tha 
circuuistaEK'os of the Church deinandcd- 
IVrsccution and difficnlty of intcrcommutil' 
cation for «uch purpoiee kept the forraaitoo 
of tbe Canon in abeyance. The (ioapela 
and other writing* were circulated, eiam- 
ined, uH'd, tftttiHJ and critictaed, di>iibt*d vt, 
and llualiy accepted u we now have theoi. 
The liet ai we now have it was tbegciKu^ 
atiy-ML-ccptcd one made by ihe CutiDcll of 
Lacidicea (86S a.d.]. But' ibere were ooto- 
plete cnllcctionf made much earlier, thoogh 
there were so many of tbu books which were 
ttill under doubt in one part or another of 
the Church that there wm no cpneral readi- 
nvat to accept any one ratalogiie, till the 
cessation of pertecutioa garc tho Cbnreh 
]ui«ure to examine tbii oiott aecewMry ijnM' 
iii>n; aiid nhiin it wui done (ailifaciorily, 
iboDgh by a Provinci^il Ooancit only. It wm 
at nnce reooived and reflated by other Coon- 
ells. It U out of place here to do morotbao 
to indicate the various lines of evidence 
which go lo corroborate the ge»tiSnen««s nS 
the several books so received aa inspired and 

Of scRiPrrRK 



I The flrit Add moM Tftlu^ In Iho 

MTio* of fluotBiloiM— msdo, as IVom 

^rtuu intpirM and «f ultitnntM aiilliorlly 

nd <>f tb* bij^licit tbIuf, la itrtl!f> other 

wiinu— 1ol*foand in thuCbristUn writerfi, 

lici^nniii^ with Clcmrnl, tbo follow-worher 

(I St. l^iul, in liiv K-ll«r to th« Coriiilhian*, 

0d eonttnually incretulng and widenlns till 

'ib* dat* of the CoodcII abov« r«ferr«a to, 

laM* than which It would not be nocfuuaiy 

tft trsM tti« quotalloai. Ind«ed, orer^ vene 

M^?^'"" Tmtnmpnt, it !• Mid, siive one, 

fln b* f'land in iki; antA-Nicvn* Patli^n, — 

i/.in tbe Brtt t«ru hundred and thirty veani 

sf Ctaratian historv. It ii not tbat anyono 

nter «iK)tsd fmni all cbn bo<>h>, hut all 

llMBirnteratogvilier did doio. AndthUii 

4a mvn moarkable not merely from the 

wmpuUiTaly ilight mcftni of cir«ulaLing 

itaawritlan, but frum the manirold difS- 

tMm vhicD penwution ereaMd for iha 

ftfcum of tb* bookt, and th« siuilied con- 

■llBMnt and protiTtion of Ibntn. Tbv n^- 

■d tin* of »vid«Dee it the tranal&tionfl 

•M wwa niad« at an mrly dale, u thft 

Pittfalta and the lUlu. The third linn i« 

**•• o( them in ibe public tfrvlcf, ihow 

b|tiowth«y vera rccciT«d u of inspired 

«Mlr In the worihip of the Church. 

lb Itth Artiole, after coooliely •Uling 
A* uithority of Holy 8rriptur« and the 
"lUitB of ue Apocrypbat booka to the in> 
*jb^ totpntm, eivea the litt« of the booki 
«f U* Old Ta«tAmant. Thia was done te- 
*•» of Ibe r«T«r«nce which <hi> Lnlin 
Chirdl ihowad to the Aporrrphnl book>, 
^l»4edd« the qaeeUon auth'oritaiivnlv. 

iatkodti«: Brownu on XXXI5. Arti- 
4«,8irilli'aDScilonafy, Wurdtwiirlh on itio 
^iiB, Weacott on the Canon of the Saw 
^^WUBMl, Scbaff-IIrrisog CycEopiedia. 

OiMtAntloD. The papal act of pn^- 
'^•(m1o( upon th«< full Hani'tily of a noly 
F**n. Id beatification th« Pope only pro- 
*««• Kpmi hi» (or herl bl«Medne«, but 
"wiMdMida vfaether he(orahe)ia a iialnt 
HiM,nid allows » cirlsin cnUm Xi i>p puMi 
^llt. Bat fn canouiuitiun tUs P^pe ex cathr.- 
^iaeoun«ea tb* enrollment of the naine 
"rntbtCalMdarof Saints and the privilege 
lo'W'm tb« eultu* of tb« fiiitbful in the 

b anty tlraei local fkme for lanotiiy 
Pwid tbe oame upon tb« mil. It wr» a 
*<MlautioB of the atlll naore&ncJent rite of 
"iliBt the namca of the fliithAil departed 
* A* oelabralioa of tha Kuchariat. ( Vid» 
''iTTGas.) But oflen, after the name wai 
pf«M til* roll, papal unction waa coughu 
Hlilw Koman Sm did not claim lb« excla- 
*»rtfln till the pcmilfleala of Alexander 
"1-jIUl a.D). This right wa* not com- 
M:r«U>li*h«d till 112-', K t). whoa Urban 
vi^totwdabullfand a ifH^ond IfiU a.d.) 
"Wfiaj Uie mann^ of procijdur*. The 
**« Via eatitled to lli« invocation and 
•WUkBofibe whole Church. "ThocuU 
••Itha btatifl«d i« permiUed, the ealtus 

" UawioiilMd ■■ enjoined," 

Canticles. V%dt Tfir. Hoxo or SaLOMON, 

Cantor. The oBlcQof iliculnncr wm very 
ancinntly r*oni;niKi3d in thi> Chureh, and he 
wai iirt apart for hti i-i^i-a with the chnrse, 
"See that th<iii bolievt- in thy hmrt what 
thou nyeat witii thy mouih, and approve In 
thy work) wbiit ihr.ii byiievo-it in thy heart." 
The cbHr beiiii; dividtd into twu |>nrt«, th« 
Cantorin, or norlh tide wk* the Preceniurv, or 
leaden, ami wa« the leading !idf< in the t,a- 
Tipbonal (In^lnir, while tht Decimi lidc, in 
thB oppr*ite Rtalis, retpondod. 

Capital. Viiit AHciiiTKrTUKB. 

Capitulary. A naint- for a irctinn of the 
lawi enacted by tbe >Ulee-;>eneral which 
Charlitmagno uted to gather to advite upon 
the empire. T)ie whole lerliw wa* called 
The Capitulariet, from capitula — ehapten-^ 
of Hich a UlQt. Tbme capitubiriM or Cfaai^ 
1ema)>)ie and liii »ucce«aon are W«ll known, 
and are very Importitnt doc^uniQntJ In the 
hi«tory of tho»* timw. Thoy treated of 
tvery topic, from prirnlr Diittliri tocnn«titii- 
tional pHndplet and ecclcslaitic^ul alfaln, 
Ixilrjg often civil rv-en«rlni<iiit8 uf Provincial, 
and eif«n fEcumejiical, t'niionx. 

Cardinal. Tbe title of the hichesl digni- 
tary under the Pope of the Koman Ohureh. 
ll( oriijin lte» far back in the history of the 
C'buroh In Rome, but In the form and rank 
it now hold* it At.X/rt only Unn\ the lixteenlli 
century. Eaeh parlab in the city ha<l its 
own mother or baptismal church, and the 
Inoiirnhnnt wax ralW intitiilattix inenrdi- 
imitui, ihenoe eardinaii*. Therw were leven 
nenrona appointed for thu cliariLable work 
in tbe sereral wards or narnhea, a Deacon 
to each Church. Tbeee forined a oouiicll to 
iho Bifhnp. Afterward* Btfphen TV. ("71 
JL.D.S added the auflVagan Biahopa of the 
iici''ijbor ciliM. Th^ee, with tbo people, 
had the right to nominate the BUhop of 
Romfi; hot Iherlehttooonflrm wan exerci^d 
by thp Franeo-Gnrman •mperorc: flnsllv, 
thf) right to rlrfi was Heourtti tci the Cardi- 
nals only (l(16fi A.o.). The number of Car- 
diiiulia vnHed, In ibf* time of Innoi'mt III. 
tfmr« were over tliirly. Death, and polili- 
cal Intri^ea and difflcukiet in nominating, 
of course, all bad their force. The Council 
of Ba«te Used the number at twenty-four. 
In 160e A.D, under Plus v., ther« wcra a* 
many aiA sevoDty^JE. Bixtii* V. (tSQOA.n.) 
llicd the nombor at sevenly-aix Bithfrps, 
fifty PriciW, and fourteen I>eaconi. A Car- 
dinal pripft of a city chur«:li in Rome may 
nliio bti n niahop of a Sn" fluewhirre. 

The Popn uuniinatci the new Cardinal in 
one socret Consistory, who ii conAnned In a 
second by votu of the CardinaU present; 
when (be creation Ii publicly announced, 
inatallation with the red hat. the ring of 
otBoe, etc., tnkcs plnoo. There must be 
tome rcf>nrd paid to tbe rl|[bu of ether na- 
tionalitiea to a tharo In holding the offloe, 
but tbf inalori ty of the Card! naU are Itallaoi. 

A Cardinal l* alone eliji^ible to elecUon 
to tbe papal tbrono; hi> title ii JCmlncntia- 
(imui. Uffnuo against him ranks as trea- 




■OO. Tlis oldMt rvKidont Curdinvl Bi*bop U 
i>Ma of th« Collvge uf Citriliriali. 

' Cafthaga. Tha Coundle of C'arttaoga and 
the Councilf of Africa arc frrqiirntly inU'r- 
«bailgad by bliboriana, and lu they were 
ofieiL ooDipoaed of tlie urue UiitbofM and 
|pitlMr«d in tha iBma place, and even in the 
aamr rear, It t* powibia ihat lnde|>endtnt 

fRftial a^cQunU of the aauie Council may 
BVB come to be iwckonod ti» nccnunu ofnap- 
anita Synod*. It will not )>« nn^iaury to 
autioe nioro tban two or lbre« in anydotail. 
A Ooondl vai bold ut Ciirthage, or ratber 
aovatal Couiiuiti wt-re li^ld, in lh« year 26G 
a.D., on tbe quoillonof baptJzinstboae who 
bad alraady been bapliaod oy heretic*. Tbe 
DUifonn dcoUlonwaitbat there wasnoTalld 
iMpUsm out of ibp Catholic Church, and 
that all wbf> hiid one" lw«n baptiasd by her- 
elic« mimt bu baptiKed again fur adiuutiuri 
Ui tho Church. St. Cyprian maintained 
this OTtinion without wurcring, and thorn 
WM a lun{( djipuie bct««on him and Pope 
Qlaphan on tb« matter of rebapii^m, wbitrh 
was decided Bnally at the Coimcil of ArW 
In 814 A.D. In the year 41 1 a.d. a Council, 
or perhap« a Confeivnce, wih held at Car- 
thage on tbi> *rhitm nf tbe DonntUU. After 
coniidenihlE! diAciia^icii, deuliion <raa made 
thai tbe Dooatiat^ wore entirely refuted by 
tbe areuniout* of the Cathnlici, and thougli 
tboir kadan appealed from tbli decision, It 
waa in vain, and tbe sect from Ibu time de- 
clined in number and intlucnce. SoTcral 
Ceiinctl* were held in Carthi^c in tho yean 
412, 4K, 418, and 419 a.D. Some of thote 
are^alled Africa, soma Carthage, K>rei« by 
bolli nninc-K ; und n> thi'^ weni compoacd 
larKclj of tbeinme Btuhopi, theyara inor« 
like Koverai nmsian* of one Council than tep- 
araia CuunciU. In the CounviU of Car- 
thago, held in413, 419, and418A.D.,the bar- 
ely of I'clngiuDwai discuiaod and answered, 
and Pelauiiu and liU dtioiple, Colcatiut, were 
ci>ndemned and exeommunitrated. Frum 
the lut of thcafl aucmblie* tbe Ui»hops ad* 
drcaaed a very itrong letter on the heresy of 
Pelaiclut to Zoeinuft, tho Pop«, who aeemi to 
bkva b««a impoaed upon somewbal by Pela- 
eiiM and Calaittu*. Tho Council nf Africa, 
bald in 419 A.D.|UaU«call(idCarthugv,nnd 
ia numbcirad Inr lom* the fourth, by othen 
tb« tUth, of CarthaK«. Aurelius, Bishop 
of Carthage, called the Couneil and prciidud 
orer it. xboro were pratcnl two hundred 
and HTentcan BUhopi, amunf: whom wore 
the Primata of Nnmidia. St. Aujeuatkoe, 
B>«hop of flippo, and St. Alypius, of Thu- 
gaite. A legat* of thn Pope wan at'o prei- 
ent. The bualness of tbe Council wat on 
the question of appaab to tbe Pope. Fau>> 
liiiUK, the logata, produoed a Canon, pur- 
portiiiK t/' bi3 one wade at ibe Council nt 
Nice, to itbow that all Biihopa have » right 
of apprnl to the Pope; it wa« denied that 
there waaiuch a Canon, and in order to de- 
termine the ditpnle, aucbentlo coplee of tbe 
acUof Mic« were tent for from Aleiandria 
and Coiutantinople. In the mean while 

thaaffair of Apiariui, a priaatof Sicca, wi 
discuaaed.' Be bad been depoaed and ei 
coamnnicalad bv hia Biahop, bnt bftd aj 
paaled toPopa ZmIidui, wbo bad raoain 
tbe appeal, oonlrary to the deddona of >ei 
eral CounctlR, and readmiltcd him to oon 
munion, Tbo African Bi^hopa roAuad I 
admit thii protenalon of the Pope witfa n 
sard to the right of appeal to Borne, an 
grnat contentiouK aroaa Upon the aulfjao 
Five year* latur another aaacmbly, or pa 
hape the utina Biihops, oanie tot[*Uur « 
tbe lutinau of Aplariui. Jt kppMrs Ifci 
ha had beenaaeoond time exoonmiunlcalai 
and liad afterwards Hcd to Rome, where I 
wn« received by Pope Celeatine (for ZoatiM 
wiw d«ad,and his euocetwr Boniface), wfe 
save credit to hit itatamanu, received hii 
mto communion, and gar a him a letter I 
the Biabupa uf Afrita. Aocurdinxly, Apii 
riu* appeared at this Council with Faaal 
nui, who withed to bavo bim raoaived loi 
communion. But the Council procasdlngl 
lu<iuire into hit conduct, Ajiiariua confem 
hi* crime* and was cut off rrom the body o 
tha Church. By thli time an answer ha 
been received from Cyril of Al>^Kandria an 
Atticii* of Connlantinople, certifying thi 
tliii Cunonacilt^d by Znpinuia were n<>t BiaC 
At Nice; so the Council addrested a letter < 
Pane Cuttutlina, in which they coraplaiac 
of Ilia conduct In tlie niattar of Apiarlui 
begged bim not to listen so easily to tbo< 
who came to him from Africa ; not to r- 
ceivo Into conmunioa tkoiawfaom thsyhd 
excommunl Gated, a* this waa oonlrary ^ 
Nice, which decided that all eaaee ahoSM I 
■cttlrd in the province whero thay ariaa^ BB 
roiild not he carried elsewhere vltboot tl 
eopeci&l direction u( tbe Church : tkn 
iidchvd that tha aid of tho IIolt SriK] 
[night he hopt^d fur to aiuiiit aevara) Bishoi 
to);6ther as much aa one alone ; and SnaU 
Chey bogsed the Pop« to send no more 1«| 
aiei to AIVIgb to eaacute hiijudgiaenu,! 
likely to introdnc* too muob of the pric 
of the world into Ibe Church of CQUr 
A hundred years later, a Council wai he! 
at Carthage under BoniCaciui, when certai 
C»non» wore pauiKl fiirUdilina without dL 
tinciiuii aU aj>t>eula beyond the sea. Hi 
Church of Africa maintained her right 
judgiDjir her priciu without appeal until 111 
litiiu of Grogury the Oraat. 

Caasoclc. A lou}( straight gown ofaon 
kind of atutr, or cloth. In the Church o 
Rome it varies in color with tho dignity c 
the wearer. Priests wear black; Bisbop 

turple ; Cardinal*, scarlet, and Popes, whit 
n the Chiirah of England lilack i* worab 
all the three orders of the clergy, but Biahop 
unon stale oc(»i>ioni,ofl«n wear p«irp)ecoat 
Thn Ixxiv. English Canon enjoltia tbi 
beiiwflced clergyman, etc., shall not go in pn' 
lie in their doublet and hose without coata< 
eoMookt. Jci^lt. (Hook's Church Dictioi 

CaBUiatry,orCasesofCoDact«oce. Cm 
istry is tho name that is giTaa bo that wtaDl 




Icfa aim* to allow how iQ resiilve "cue* 
if o<NUci«nc«)," u thojr arc >:alW They ar» 
\mM* ■ In whitb ire are in duuitt u Ui wlmi U 
nxr duty, Ui« doubt or bositAiion ariainc 
fr^ni Uw fact that thoT« an> two or mors du- 
ti««, each of which hu (.-Uuu* upon lu, 
are to situated that w« can iierform 
le of ibfu. The aim vim iogilimate 
but the icienc^. ihU brunob ol' 
Phit.iwiphf and C'hri«ian Ethic*, — 
tlWM incliiilril in lM>lhuiiki>, — ban falinn 
to iiceteL't a/iil autne meaatire «f diarapulc, 
Itait It it nowHldom or never includod in 
ytnatlseaon tfaow rabjc'su. Tun di*r«- 
t* inio which It bai f^leii ha« nwulted 
two c«ut«<, In the first plitce, tbe 
vUwiof Christtan life and duty tokon by 
FntMUnt denotntnationi eeDvrally give 
WLitlle iicMai»n for thp appliratioa of any 
(Ctka^ndplea orca«ui*try a% it was taught 
^■t^nbefor«th0Kwfivumtion, andus It ia 
■all tauf>ht in the bo«kt of Uoman Catbo- 
Unun tbeaut'JvcL The oilier nMiion,whiDh 
■M fathap* much the ini»l influential on 
Uivbote, wu tba fact that caauiatry waa 
■Mvba uted and regarded &a a mc«ni of 
ttOag out bow to eaoape the perforiuaiice 
rfmiii dutT that wa* diitajitpful or incoo- 
nsltDl, nUier than ne u iiioitnB for Undine 
•4 hi a cvnflict of aevaral dutiee, wbicn 
tat«t lh«(ii was riwlly (At duty that ought 

ftillhawoper, caaubtrj, properly regarded 
(■idfraiKtly tr«atcd, baa ita plaoo and ite 
"'."ti it Might not to b« omitted from any 
*«k that u^ertakea t« abow a iniui whut 
|>lxlaaare,ar to b^lpbim to find out how 
Hw^t to deport liiniwlf, and what he 
"Vbt todo under all condiUon* and iu rII 
^dieuouiancoa of lif«, whether it claims 
l^tei ireatlM of Koral Philomphy based 
'ViHiiHi and Ibe light of nature akinu, or 
sliwiiioon Christian Ethics bated chiefly 
K da truths uud doctDnejt of iUvcLation. 

ltliiaoneca*e, that of Miral Phlloauphy, 
^tt\ti* ■■ one of law, the f^lflllment of 
■H(i is exMt and complote rigbteouineu, 
*i(lis]way««powihillty of going h«yond the 
'^ftinnnitt of duty and doing what will 
*•< bacome works of "»ujpcr«iigatioa." 
I«Aa«tbtf case,— Christian Btbica,— where 
WMtwiion U diroctfid both to tho purity of 
wt aiid th» U|>rlt(btneM of tbe moiiTM, it 
"•viiyrao^nisMl as » possibility ibat one 
■■■nbaTond the requirement of tbe law— 
^ liv of liberty ana of grace — and do mor* 
l^s ii noedvd tu fuHtn one's obligations. 
'*5<<)'ily one B«Ing In " the furin of man" 
'' |«|^p(«td to have evetr done so much as to 
■^ ihs reqairauMU of the law. In this 
^thare are but (wo gr«at dutiei,— loro to 
^ttaad love to itMO ; th«se, when properly 
"'■ImiLuuiI, can nvrer be in conflict by any 
'•WUiy or in any case. No humnn Wing 
^■o laelt «OBM ftiUy up to tbe re<)ulT«- 

bowever, there !s a plac* and ■ 
'ftT eaauistry even here. For although 
ttaa tt no conflict between our duty to 

OoD and our duly to our fpllow-cnea, when 
holb am rightlv undnrstooil, tbora will b« 
many rmken in llic life of an earnest and con- 
Bcienti'jus man wh«o b« will be in doubt 
abuut his duty, evon frum a Chriitian point 
of view. 

As specimens of the questions that have 
been dlMuueit iindor tht hejid of caauistry 
tako the foMourlng. Und«r tbe head of tlio 
duty of Iruthfuliie**, " hnw fiir is one justl- 
f]nbl« in witiilinlding tht- truth and miiload- 
ing other* hv telling vfhat ts known to be 
fulBc, wbcn iliG falling of the truth would 
tiut thu niun who tvlU It to incunvcnienoe or 
low, or damage to his fHends, his country, 
or his Church? " Or, arain, us coming under 
th« head of honesty, "now far may a servant 
whof'^ wages are either inMjfBcionl to sup- 
port bim iind hi" family or below what they 
ought to be, tnkr the pp)pi*rty cif bis em- 
ployer without hia knowledge or cunsont to 
Enatto up iho deficiency T" It vrill roudily ba 
aeon huw und why the sulO^ct of casuistry 
should fall into dii repute when it is occupied 
with euah ijuesliont- 

Still, however, us we bare already aaid, 
there will be oocasionR for th« exerolse of 
gvnuino ciwuistTy in its propnr and highar 
senM, wheth<-T wn reeard thu matter as ona 
purely of Moral PbHosophy or as one of 
ClirUttHii Ethi«. 

As a matter of Moral Fhtlosotihy I think 
wc may get a very important help from a 
recognition of the fact tbal our duties may 
be reforrfid to those classes, with rofercaco to 
ihelr grade of Imporianca or claim to prefer- 
ence in making our selection. In the first 
plncr, we may spcalc of thoao dutin which 
fiach ano of us mny be s^d to owe la hirrueif; 
second, those that he owesto Ais/«i/ou<-ni«n; 
and, thinlly, thoMi that h« owes in tho tev* 
eral Dnlers to hi* country, to humanity, and 
to God. 

Among thu duties that ono owes to him- 
self are t<Mnp«r»jiuo, nubrlety, uare of health, 
inornl and iDlellci:iiial culture, and such like. 
Now it i* hardly poHible that Ihore should 
occur any eondict betwoen those duties one 
owes to himself and tho duties of «ith«r of 
the higher grailn*. Uti iheconlrary, tbe per- 
forata nee and [wrfectiun of tba»e duties ar« 
a help towards the performaoce of tho higher 
duties. Uealih, 14.- mpc ranee, ptirity, and a 
high state of r-uliare innke u* more valuable 
to olhon and enable us to render duti«« of a 
higher grade, or to perform them more fully 
and more acceptably, than wecuuld i I' we were 
defurniod and degrtulpd by thn vi^w which 
are tlie op{>usIl«i of thuoe virtues and uccum- 
pliahuienti. Then as between our duties to 
our families, our friondi, and our country, 
humanity, and to Ood, there is leas often s 
conflict than we are apt to imaii^ine. But 
whctn tbcrn is nsally a conflict, thcro ran be 
no doubt that the objects ris« in aupehoritr 
tbe one to the other, in the order in whico 
ihoy aru namsd abov«. One who is fit to be 
a umrtyr fur truth, for bis country, and his 
iioi> should have uo hesitation aliout being 




ft Riarlyr But no inin of t, mmi or cow- 
krdlr disposition hM any tuch caII, or any 
qualiflcation for tho csMing Mni who ar« 
worthy to b« murtyra uru alwitys th« men 
wbo have tba rwpecl und Mteem of their 
fi'llow-mnii, for iho'ir murnl (■srclli'niM) anil 
mrnUl luiierSorl ly. Of llin fcirfinoBi ami 
most worthy of all the innrtyrs the world hai 
ATBT bad it wu " Ho who h&n dono nothing; 
nnnlw,"lh«re vai no cuuiieor death In Him, 
"not evm to moch u » worJ of guile «ns 
CTcT foimil in Hii month," No one can 
render effective nnd (HTftptJiblc »erTtee to 
any cauee a» a KiariTr who doee not com- 
mand th« mtpoct and oorfidooco of bia fsl- 

We can wolL uudenland how one ehould 
ont^T upon ft courts of livroiodovotion to hii 
country or tlip sorTlue of God wltbnut even 
a rej;ret f'T the comfort, ttie eiue, and the 
occnsioDK for K'IDsh and MDtiial indulgcnco 
which thft duiiM ho undrrtakes to perform 
mfty compel him to aftcrlflce. But we can- 
not iindertland how ftny one nhonld nnter 
upon such a cniiniu without regret and pain at 
IhoihuughtofthesntriBcM whithoth«r»musl 
make, or the lo»ci which tbie courfo may 
eiiialE upon thoni,— thu low of loyiiity and 
cijiniiaiiiunship, atj(I,u It will oflen hngipen, 
ibo lou of tnuirb nefxlod help and support. 
Heoco one ihould well RCftn nU molifM b«- 
fbr» enCerlnj; upon such dutlo*. Involving, 
fti it doM, the negloL-t it non-peTformftnce.of 
other dulirj that am in a wny and U>it cer- 
tain degree, nt least, duo t'O nnc's rdutivn 
Add neighbors. Ho should carcfuilv consider 
whothor any holn that Ae cnn render t<) thn 
hicher Cftuw will oompnnitnti' in the gt<nenil 
balance for tho Iom of thoso dutiea which by 
a difTcrcnt cotirso be could certainly perform 
for the Kood of man and tb« jclury nT QoB. 

At B ma(l»r of Ohrlillan etliica the solu- 
tion of quMtioni of conncicnco or of duty 
b«com«i ft vAry different iblne. Here w<^ 
ha*e not only the ScHplurea but mlco thp 
Chufoh in gpn^ral, and ttarh one bin own 
tinmediate and partioulur (Tliri^tian pastor, 
to inform, advise, and to (;uidc bim. But 
tbe Scripture* ihomtolvc* haTo put the mat- 
ter In luch a ll^hl ihat the lolutton of »uch 
qn«*tlon> becomes oompnr all ve1yea*y. Chrii- 
tianily dirccU nttention to the motives by 
which one Is actuated in what he doea ai a 
chief and controDingcIemi'nt. ItdUtlnctly 
mcognlxet the fa<?l that one may do ftvTn the 
best of Oiulives wbnL ou(;hl not to be done, 
and may, on the other hand, do from very 
bwl motive* the verr thing ibai ought to be 
doo«. St. Paul will flirnhh ub itn eiatnpte 
of both casM,— (be ono in hi» own person, 
and Dig other in that of some of the poople 
with whom be was brought Into contact in 
tba coiime of hi* minUlrv. K<'riirii hii con- 
Tsmlon, and when he was (H-nrctitinfi: the 
Christians, in a spirit of dclermined opposi- 
tion to the Tcry (io»pcl which b* aftcrwardi 
•0 effccii^clv nreaebvdi he, ai be himself In- 
forms u>. dfd It tVom a seal for Ood and the 
troth. The act wva about the wont that 

could b« dene •* he came to renrd It adtr 
wards, wbllo tbe motive was or ibe higbea 
order, nnd that one which of all otb«ra b 
rej^arded as the most holy and oonmoadoblt 
For un einmplo of the other cloaa of cue 
we may rnfor to hl« Kplitle to tbe Philip 

Eiani, cliap. S. 15, where be say* that son 
ave preached CnaisT " of envy and Mrife.' 
"not ilnceroly," but from moro "conten 
tion," supposing and Intending f> add "ftf 
fliction to his bonds." " What theu T" h 
Biki, " notwithstanding, every way, wh«^a 
In riret«n», or In tmih, OamiflT i« pr«Mbcd 
and t therein do re)oic9, ycit, I will rvfolw.' 
Hunoe niantf«(t1y tbe motire was bM, ol 
though tbe act was a very proper thing b 
be done. And so in fact in a large abore ol 
what we undertake (hen is always tbvpoi 
slbillty of some element of bad moUn 
However g<x)d and commendabla th« worl 
in which w<t engage, the enforcomont oflas 
and the admlni,ttralion of diMlpliBe may b 
promoted )>r pursued more Int«ns«ly than ) 
woLila otherwise b» from motivos of anga 
or dislike towards Lhuse who ar« Lh« object 
of our activity and our seal. So too ii 
tbo higfawt, noblMt works wc con undoi 
lake, —.even those that seem most nohta aai 
heroic, fivnn in tbmo cases where martyrdoo 
may appear to be tbeinoTiublo re«iilt, ther 
may be •otnethinjt of an unholy fKllftg 
something of pride, of ambition, torn 
thought uf thn balcj of cloi^ that will accom 
pnny our name in all the future generation 
of men, 

Christianity doos not teach, as it it hiu 
times clalmeil, that the character of ov 
acts depends icMullj/ and exclusively on oB 
motires. It rocognisos the fncl, as we bar 
Just Hid and smh, that tbe motive may be bf 
while the act is good, and tho r«v«rse, whlel 
will bappon far more fre<iii»ntly. The n»o 
tire may be perfectly pure stnd good, wbil 
the act we perform is one that ought not I 
bi' (loRA. And alibmcgb we mav hops lb 
pardoii from Ood, oa Sl. Paul did, and ob 
lain it, as he assures na be did, there or 
often certain natural consc^uencee thai wfl 
follow our acts which no repentance cai 
avert, and from which, co (kr aa «« know 
Goti will not grant us any oxefnpUon. Thi 
broken non^titutin'n that eom«a from a UK 
of dissipation and vice will not be reMond 
allhixi^ti, as wi! miiy hope and belleva, tk 
SeibI penalty fur tbe tTmnsgr«iBslon whle&l 
to follow in'tho next world will be remitted 
and In fact many of tbe purely eoaenUB 
and psychical consequpnoes may be mverlei 
by I>)Tine grace, sn tnat peace and hope wit 
come as the result of the I>Wino f^ror oni 

we have spoken nf tbreo guides whW 
the Chriitlnn believer bos to a knowledg 
uf his duly in the order of their aulhorlt; 
and importnnce, — the Holy Soripturea, th 
Church, and the immediate pastor of «■«] 
one OS a member of eome connrecatioB "i 
Christians. Ample provision is thus nadi 
for all clasaeft and oonditiona of men. ~ 




A* ^trj lovmt in th» teal* of cultura, t)i« 
nost iKDorant uid leut inlellecttift!, per- 
Upa. t£i< r>rd«r tboald be reversed, so u to 

Eit tha puu>r flnt, ihnii ihn C^iurcli, untl 
amlhr tb* Jlnlv Scrijituro*; fur, tta a uiut- 
ttt- or fact, wliat'UieM {leo [lie learn of Christ 
iBd vf cliilv Ihof karn from thpir patbor, 
^nd throDg'^ him Ihey may come » know 
iif ifae leai.'bln;£i uf the tloly Scrifitur«a or 
nf tbi Cbuich, wilh'jitt diMinguithing or 
knowiag any difTcrcnc*! lirtwcnn thu Iwo 
tlonau, or in fart Dint thaw aro tha 
ivo lounrati from wbich tliii intlruction 
M* mmtt to them. &u(.-ti U thu prurUiuu 
(m lb* rer/ luwut and tlio«« wbo have Lho 
ImM opportunity to Icam and judge for 
ikmuiIvM. Nwvr we inav well bHi«ve ibat 
bdwb pMwn* Gov will not fluid thom ro- 
naMiUK^boany contiderablc txtcnt nt luwt, 
Iff till crroH tbat maj be taught tbem, if 
■ywcb ibould tiavG entered Intu lbs in- 
unction Uiat ha* baen givvn thani. But 
t* iboM of l*rg«i eiuluwm«nii there i;au 
liwdoubl that God will bold tbeiu retpun- 
aVb bf utjr crrort ttcT mair bold, wbcibor 
ii^wuliia or In roj^^ard to tbctr duty, wlili'b 
tttj nigbt have avoide-d by «uch a xliidy of 
IhtChun-band tbr Holy .Srriptiirvaaii ii wm 
<D Ottr power to make. Tbe Bible h for nil, 
mi ill who can do to sHould r«ad it But 
' Hefa iDtarjiratatinn, ami tboni ara iiune, 
**m lit inoat learned uid tbe wuest, wbo 
'*mlAil in it many lhi&g« thataro" bard 
l*bnidtntood," and for tbe ri^bl ijnd«r- 
■■■tinc gf which Ibey wuuld bu K^td of 
WDlw tbey have not yet reocived. But 
*M ntaril to duty — the minor detail* of 
WMjeu — 1 think lbOT« aro tw^ iirincU 
phwulMof tbe yreatost importance. I 
(^ now not of doctrine, or tb« doctrine* 
■'teUth, but of duty, what wa are to do, 
■BitUtly of tboae minor puinla of duty in 
'V*i to wliicta tbtTQ ii nioft likoly to b<* 
■•KiIiBmlty.or in wbi<rh thoru may ariio 
^Kfirti 'if duiiea, ao tbai we are in doubt 
^ki li> perfiirm ja order to aorve QoD 

^tb«lnt principle ii that It li alwavs 

^■•r to err, ir w« muat err at all, or arv la 

4^ of nrtag, on the aide of wlf-donial 

■''BawMity u!an in tbe direaion of self- 

'^Ie">c« ■Oil MlttthDwa. Jhloet of ui 

''vraitralni In tbe Endulgonce of our ap- 

IJWm and tbe eojoyaieot of our pleaAurei. 

**b4 o( uraycr, ab«liiMiice, and Mlf-d«nial 

"■Hwioed, and thoy are found ntwouary 

'"f beat niraons, and benoQcial, I doubt not, 

•"(ll. Ji'ow wbeaovar a ca*e of doubtoc- 

*^i U wbicb it la merely a (]uet>tion i>f a 

*°j> more enjoyatwttor ease on our part, 

•«a4u»y iif i?baritv or of forboai«ictt for 

^(oedof othor*, tlii* jirluciule will lialp 

l*^' Vary ready solutiuii. Ity uU<tinrnc.-t.> 

•jj^ltdenlal in order to do a diod of 

■jwj or lo pTomoio tbe bapplnoM and 

*Hun ofKime other person, we inay be 

•jjl^iouble duty and (xinferring a two- 

H* "iHIt, one on ouraclvea and one on 

'**MniNkrin this coDimon humanity of 

oHin, on vomoon* of those in reference to 
whom CitiiiHT baa aaid, "Innftmuch n* ye 
hare done it unto one of tboae yo have done 
it unto me." 

Of ooiirae tliera !■ a poiuiltility of carrying 
our abstiuoDoe and •cJf-aurreadvr, not to 
say telf-sacrillco, loo fur. There may be an 
aHtiuaneoand tolf-nagl«^'t thitt will impair 
tha heattU or endanger ibu llfu. And tberg 
are oasea of oourse in which one will have 
duties tnpcrfonn that will require ■vlf-facri- 
fice to that extent. In tbe oaae of the pitrent 
nnd tbe profeesional nurso, ac wett as ihntof 
tbe pbj-aician, it aomvtitnw bvnomaK a cleju* 
duty to do whal the inse n-'ijuiri^nvenat the 
riakof h<''«lLliandoriife. And there are casoe, 
as we caouulduubl, in which porioni who 
are not luppoeed, and cannot uu lu^ipuiod 
on any gtneral princjplea of duty to run 
such risk*, hav* oeverlboleM done ao, with 
tbe Kiiprtival of Ooo, and, as we doubt not, 
tbe approval of all rigbt'minded persons and 
with, at any rate, Cho admintlion of all sub- 
stsjueiit af[es. 

And to with gencroaity. If in a matter 
of doubt whether I owe a man lix ponce or 
ten pence, on the principle I have tlatad It 
is safer, and, in a Christian point of view, it 
is bottar, to pAy th« ten pence. Most of us 
hare oonititutionally and naturally quite 
enough of selflnhnitit. We nnvd rather to 
check than to tultivateand oncounsKeit. By 
acting on the ruie suggested wo may, and 
luokl likely we shall, ho gaining more ia a 
Spiritual way thau wo luso in uur (amporal 

This principle, however, should not be so 
understood and applied as U> inculeate sub- 
mlsaion to wrooft and extortion when the 
right Is clearly known. We are spaaklnjf 
of r-aies of doubt, and not at all of lho»« in 
which the right in cli'nrly ^e■^n niid kiniwn. 
How far we may lubmil lo what is clearly 
wrung nnd unjuul i* nMitthor i]iiiuliun, and 
one, too, that we are not considering now. 
There are case*, doublleas, in which it is a 
duty to resist wro&fl;, not necessarily from 
any motives of self- interest or hope of gain 
or advantage to our^elvea, but in the iraune 
»f truth, and of Lhcwo great principles of 
righCouu«ii(iBs without which there can bo 
no peace on earth and on which happineN 
in the kingduw nt h<'avcn itself is founded. 

2. The other K'v»,t principle tu whioh I 
referred is that oi spiritual guidance in an. 
swcr to prayer. In the suuc of nature our 
uaiural iiiiitincu ■rf> su^'i^ilvc. In almost 
iinv ciministancoi, mn in rii>w ol our duty 
bufore ui, whiib in to lir ciLhi-r done or to 
bo lefX undone, thote in»lincta will sugceat, 
i>acli one according to it« nature, what w« 
(ball do. The insiincta ut a generous niaa 
will suggest and incline bint to act gener- 
uii«ly, and he will dvcidc and act aooord- 
ingly ; while the man of a different nat- 
ural tendency In iinr. ri.'i^|keoi will as readily 
chnote and act in Ihe u;ber way under pro- 
cisely the samecircumatancea. Ia this way 
we all ahow what is onr nchira/ disposition. 




And ililfrTcncct in nntuml i3{i)>0H)tion 
COiUtltutO Ibu difl'erenc« InnaUirolchamcter 
vkkb w« all cxhlttil jn dnik life, und 
which, Lo «ain««xti!nt, rrniiiin uiirl underlie 
M k baite KDd the KruuiicJ-^uil tliti (-hurncUT 
tiitX ve carry or maintain Ihrcugb lifo, 
iMtvrithitandiag kII the natural culture we 
Bitty pecPive. But ChrUtlanity UTitI Chri-!- 
tf»n utinvereion ch&Dge« our D8iur«< lu ihU 
reopi-ft. It implnnti naw inttincU, aivM 
new aims io life, and especially Atttt U et- 
tkblUh ihn idoa at <itoi>, us omnipme&t, 
knowing; the rtfry nKcmt' of our thought* 
and heurla, u a Being to be iitpremely lov«d 
and to b« faar«(] more than all «l£e tb»t we 
can have thought or concopUon of, and tbii 
puis it* natural Instini'ti and prufretiiitlcu t<> 
■ very Ittrge extent into abeyance or into a 
■tala of InaotiTity, Ji>*t a* cno may bo »o ab- 
Borbed in eomc eurthly punult tOAt b« be> 
coiRM iinconscioua or puns, and 9veD of 
bodily neiidi. One may tivm hn to much 
overcome by fenr ai to be lueapable (if anger 
or of lu»l. Now, whnlercr of »u|>crnaturat 
th«re may bo in iho relieiooi oxperivnce, there 
it a change of ihli kino in our tbouglita Biiil 
fooling* in consequence of the rise into ao- 
Mfity of the religinii* tmntlon* iiwakcncd 
Ir. u> by oar Chrlilinn faith. Through the 
Influ«nonof thii faith, and by peT««vemni-e 
Id the acta and modi of life which Cbriati- 
tnity preacribes and requires, Lhe^enew mn- 
tiret btcome eontlantly prominent and pre* 
dominating. They boi^uinehiibiti, n[idaup<>r- 
lede the old, (Mnsiitutiunal, and natiira! 
inatinct* of the Individual, bo ihst Bft«r a 
period of confirmed experience and acquired 
liAbit, h^ acts a> promptly, si unc^msciouily 
of hi* motives, nnd in acertain sense aanaf' 
uraiit/ in the nnw way as he did in the old 
way — " ader the fle-h," as the Ajioatle call* 
11 — before the change. 

Now, thr Bihlo leaches tbst in and along 
with this chmige the Holt Orost works iin 
our hearts. And not unly so, hut DJvine 
suldanco. the tacrr'd influence of the IIuly 
SFiaiT, will be given (» guide us In all 
questions of doubt and uncertainty in an- 
■war to our prayan. "When we pray for 
■pedflo ab]«cta we are apt to cnnflne imr de- 
■im for tBOfa objeota, and to encourage and 
■trenglhanourhopOTof rcalititigilieni. Itut 
when we aubordlnala out wills tu the will at 
OoD, and in praying for any objccl, pray 
aUo, and still more aamestly, that Ui* will 
may be done, whatever may become of the 
object we desire, this is pretty stire to cause 
a clear, scttlrd, iind abiding cnnviclion as tr> 
what we ought to do. On such a conviotiun 
we find that we may act, and hnvn no en use 
tnrepant of our action; and seldom, prr- 
hapt never, if we want lo see all the ccmse- 
quences of our act. shall we come to regret 
it or to wish that we hftd done otberwis«, or 
In anv rnpcot dltferently from what wa 
were led, an wi; shall believn. to do by the 
guidance of Oon, working within by His 
Bot.T SriKiT, and without and around ut 
by His overruling providence- In the ti)!hi 

of Christian Kthic*, therefore, one do* 
wron^ only when (1) before th« consdoi; 
adoption of the Christian Faith he follow 
those nnturnl instincts which are bad, or I 
the degrre and furm in which they are bad 
or (2) when, after having oume under th 
influrincc of the Christian Faith smd ih 
rjidance of tbe Eolt Spikit, hn ktlov 
himself to choose an act wilhoui conautdi^ 
and allowing himself to be guided by tb 
Divine influence : and the only pra«ti«i 
difficulty in this latter stage of our experi 
ancn vaems to bo in silencing our own faearl 
and its promptings,— the prompting* of tba 
"corruption of our nature," ''thoinftcUo 
of wfaiciL doib reraRln even in Ibose tlial tr 
rweiierale," and will remain unlll we ai 
wholly transformed into tbe image of " Hit 
who is our Kr^iirrnction and our Life." 
Rev, Wm. P. WiLSos, D.D. 
Catechlain. To ^ve inttrurtum, (o ffocJ 
E* an nuwntinl part of ihn spiritual laschin 
every Christian should receive. It wiU bttic 
upon the rule our Lord gave tbe ApottlM 
" Oo ye, therefore, and make dlMlploa ofa 
the nations, bapilEliig Ibem Into iba Banc 
of the Fatuer, and of the Sov, and of tt 
Holt Ohoht : teaching th<'m to oliserve ■ 
things what«'>nver I commanded yoii"(S 
Mali, xsviii. 1(1,30). Whenever the Churc 
made convert* she instructtxl each special 1 
in tbe doctrines of the Faith, From l£i 
grew up the Cru>'d, and for this icfaooU vea 
everywhere esuUlliJiad for the Iralstiig * 
th« eatetJiutrtent. Several of I beae schools, 4 
ralJirr (he teacher* of ihem, became fsmail 
The Ali^jandriiin snd Antiochean schoo 
bore an important part in the eftrly Churc 
teaching, and most disstlmusly linoe Arts 
the hi-retic wss Irainrd in Antiooh aai* 
Ludan the martyr, where be imbibed tlto< 

Erinciplcs of dialectics wbicb resulted In t> 
eroticnl ductriuos, and was master for 
time in the Alexandrian school, befi>r* l> 
hor«#v br<-iiiiiii »o dngrnnl. Pantwnut, OW 
ent of Alexandria, and Urigea, wer« (hmo^ 
InRtPuctor* in this aobool. Cyril of Jand 
slem delivered In tba Church of tha Ho 
Sepulchre the valuable Catechetical Lector 
that have comedown lo ua. Everywhere t-^ 
otncQ of (ho Cati'chift was an important oc3 
Intrusted lo him who was Bttest. It W 
not properly contlned to any order ; a L^ 
man, Oeiu'on, I'ridt, or Bishop, as he b^ 
the gift and the opportunity, could All It. 

So St Augtifitine wrote for a Daocoa tS 
elements of catechising fDe. Rtid Caledia- 
There was ever R WRtdiful care to see lb' 
children were properly ratccbised, and v 
iiavu fre<|uenl cnaetraeui* by Councils an 
Synod* upi.111 (hibim|i>jrianlduty. Tberoug 
strong m)ft»ionar,> siirmons of St. Boaio* 
(TIOa.d.) hAToa'catceheticforceRnd dir«e 
neM. So, too, in a missionary Jotimey lo' 
Pomeranla, Bishnp Otho caterhised iheeo* 
vnri* Ui the number of seven tliousand, It 
said (1124 A.D.). A great activity in ih 
work WM developed by the KeformatloR 
and ueiirly every leading Beformer eora[~ 




^ cjMchinn whicb conuioed hb own pocii- 

^r di^rinftlriewf. IqJuikUoqi weremide 

w Cnnmer, and Utu«d by Henry Till. 

|1&M A.D.). mtloiniag tbc clnr^ anew to 

a-MtB ibe ctatlnrtn in tbo Cfm, liOHD'n 

V>r»ji!r, and T«n Con mand menu. In Ed> 

vs^ VI. Primer (1&58 a.».) a l^ingcAte- 

i^iaiD vnjt *ei forth, tn ilie CuiiJtrtDation 

UffitT wiLi prcBiedlbe first balfuruur [ireient 

C«i«tiiini. Who iu BUtboi was ii not <.-er- 

vin. Ii ha* b««n «lalin«d fur Aloxandor 

How«tl. wcond master in W«tliniiuiar 

■rhool in 1M9 a.c, biit flntn of St. Paul's 

from 1500 to Iff02 Jk.n. ; alio for Uiahop 

n«t, who was Bishop of Rocheiler in 

A.U. Iti«ha[> Gofxfrieh, of BIy, has 

bean urged m» iU aulhur, >iti<-e ttivduty 

* OODandlbaduty lOvriirdsmyDnigh* 

an ni tnblcti tn the wulli cf ■ ipadoui 

hwr^ndow which he added tn thn Pnlui-a 

rflly. Tbacatc^hnmin Edward's I'r«y«r. 

B«dn tndcd with the ai^anatiou of the 

Lou'a Fra;«r. At the Hainpton Court 

Cvalimce, 1608 a.d., lb« Piirltuni com* 

tiMl that th« Catochium w&« too ebort, 
catHeqiMnce Iha )alt*rr part, upon th^ Sac- 
iwnili,va> drawn Up. It^iiutlioriAclaimcd 

S' Blibop Coain to haro bcon BUhop Over- 
l>aithat itina Deau uf ^)I. Paul'i. It in 
I ptiMt that he tranalalMl from aomft Latin 
I «mUub. 

I Tba fntent «yil«n of Sunday-achooh 
^b Wmtoomacfa the place of proper catccbi-t- 
^P Wlutraction or ihnmugh drill in theCale- 
^ Jiilll. It iboiitd b* mntif a much more 
r i^rtthl part of the paroohia) wnric, in 
I MordiBN with the plain iaDsuacn of the 
I IWd u tbo and of the Calnrtiitm. The 
«bttodo thi* liea of cuitrtB inntiily upon 
^ndar, but the laity are not free. But 
Vipdai are taken tosco that ibo children 
"iBkutnioted at home that they van be 
fntliUyaani tnthi> church to be diteohiaed, 
■M bit little more rare is taken to (ee that 
*J^eo at all wbeDei-i*r there Ia ihls 
*^ilfachar'g«d. Wnre the pitronb tbom- 
y* to come, or wera the open rnt«c<hgiiit>g 
**W by the Prayer-Book held aflor the 
••■wri leniin in tht ovenintr sfrvice. when 
^pntnunnd Kuardian^ could make it a 
Wf l« In pTMent, th»re woiiid be mor» 
'■■■'If and seal ibown. It i> true that not 
"Ihiftttaa grift tocatAchiae liappily, but it 
<u t,\w%yt be mada moat prolltabl* to all 
^(■fvd. Tbo nil>rtc-i detnnnd tbe wrneat 
"*<inn of e»erv lavnian : 

"llheminiiterof eTerrPariib ■halldltl- 
t**<)]r.iipon Sundaya aod Holy-days, or on 
"iBtotlMr eonvenwnl occulont, openly in 
^sChnirb imtnict or eiamine ao many 
^Itnof hU Parish arnt onto bim as be 
**n tkink oonresient In soniA part of tbie 

"1 And all faiherfl, roothim, maalars, and 
***iMuiahallcau»e their cfaitdren.aerranK, 
ff fft wnlfeaa who have not learned tbeir 
JIU^Miw, to oonio to the ChuKb at the 
^•ppolntwl. and obediaoily to hear and 
" ** ordered by Lh* minis teV, nntil such 

time as they havo learned «U that ia th«a 
appointed for lh«En to learn. 

" { So soon BB ehildren are eome to a com- 
TKrtcnl ngc and can say the Creed, the LoRD'a 
Prayer, and iho Ten Commandments, and 
can answer to the other oueatloni of this 
abort Catechism, they shall be brought to 
the Bithon. 

"{ And wbenioeTor the Bishop shall give 
knowlodge for children to bo broaght unto 
bim (or thdr CunfiriDulion, tlio iiilQiiterof 
every Pnrinh shall either bring or send Iu 
writing, with his band subicribcd thoreto, 
the namcA of all such persons within his 
ParlBh OB he shall think Qt to be presented to 
thn Biihop (n bo conflpmpil," 

The plnn iif thn CHti^'himn i* v«ry obrious. 
It ia a moalrrimprrlieiisive^'auuiiBry, netting 
forth clcnriy the Buptitmal Covenant, ana 
our duly Lii uMUine ft; t1)e Creed and !ta 
sumumry ; the Covenant of duty In the Ten 
Commandments, with a noble ciposition of 
il ; the Law of Prayer, and tbo graoe of the 
Sacramonta. At tiw BUfa'^'pf at the Savoy 
Conferenofl nj.lied to Puriliin ohji-ctions, 
"I'h^ ('nt«chi*m i* not intcuded a< ii whole 
holly of divinity, but as a comprtihcnsioii of 
ibeArticlM of Faith and otter doctrinal 
most nfttMsary to tMlvatlon." 

Catechumens. In the early Churcli Iboae 
irho wore jir^paring for baptism, or who 
sought instructlDn in Christian doctrine for 
thai end, wer^ admitted into a class by some 
ligniHeimt rite, by the lnyine on of himda 
and Ui« sign of oron. Thny wenn, hiv 
side* T«cffiving sprriul innlnjction from the 
catecbist, allowca lo attend the pnbtic sor- 
vlce and to liEti^n to the Scriptunv and to 
sormonii. protiublv from aome allotted p'aca 
in the church, they were dismined from 
the church with some specinl prayer, aa tfall, 
from St. Ohryioilom'siituFjty : 

■'LoEDonrQoD whodvelleat na high and 
heholdi^st the humble, who didst »«na fortti 
the aalration of the roceof man. Thine onty- 
beitotten Sort, our Gon and Liinu Jaaua 
CitRieT, look down upon Tliy tervanls tbe 
Oatw-humens who hare bowed their necks 
unto The«: and make ihcm worthy. In due 
reason , of the larer of regenoralion, ..f the for- 
givenCMof sfna, of the robe of immortality! 
unite them to Thy Holy Catholic anil Apos- 
tolic Church, nnd number them together 
with Thy elect flook, that thev abo togviber 
with us may glorify Tby nonorahw and 
majMtio Name, Pa.thks, Bom, and tloLT 
Ohoht, now and ever and to ag«» of agea. 

As ihfv were belter prepared they were 
iriilruvt^d in the f;roat hicU and dogmatic 
tjulhs, but were not"d with Ibe 
words of r-ither the Creed or tho LoKS'e 
Prayer till Jast before haptiim. Tho leach- 
ing was clear and aa full a* iho coridilion of 
thn outre bum en woulti pnrnilt. But if the 
cnlochumen was approaching death or woa 
in danger of martyrdom, tho Tegular s«uon 
of buptism was anticl|.mteil, and ha was bap- 
tised witbont hesitation ur delay; or if bap- 




tien entild not he s.(Imini«t<T(id in ou>M of 
tnart^rilaiii, lb<» Church IirM ih»t thebapllini 
nf bltiod niipulii-d Ibe graci.- of the Inrer. 

Cfttbcdiml, Socioly ii) iho fir»t or the 
Chrinian c«ntur)oi wiu urbHn, and the {v>li- 
ticul organlZBllon wka mun!ci|TBl. A mitn's 
oiuntrr wa« not a region but « city ; hi* 
pKtHoiiimdic] not cmbrncrn wliolc nation of 
the Mine lan^utef And hlood u hiiuielf, but 
thow only whowiiti him wcroslnuupwitliin 
the wnllii of a sini;le town, A mun wni ii'il 
n Grrnlt or llnliim, bul «n Alhtiiiiiii or a 
Romnn. Within ihi? walls of tAch city were 
tbo (chooU vrj.liikin'.'piiy, thu politK-ul uasem. 
bly. the ib&rp Rvtiilllea of coiumt--r«i, the 
Iflorioiif worltR of art, and the Ri&)](iiiflcctit 
ipmpliSBand the winmhip nf the cod*. Thov 
who lived in the midst of all this urban cuf- 
turn, Mcili'inont, iin<i •trife potild bill grow 
in mvntal vignr, xinsitiri^nnx of ipiril, and 
eagtrncM for whnl was new. On the other 
hand, they who were ihut out and con- 
demncd to the drudg^cry of d»iW und nndleii 
toil, born to labor and with children doomed 
to thr *aniti hard lot, giow with the yanr* 
and tho fcnenit)(>iii« mtirc and mori^ ttolid, 
clineinjcunreHsoningly to the putuid unapt 
to anopt whut. vins u'lvronted and new. 

Wb<!n Ihcy to ivboui Ibu sugiiit rora- 
mimd was givi^n, t.' go into all tlif) world 
nnd prcuch tbo Gospel to ovory it-cuture, set 
ahoui It* obedienoc, ibcy fulliiui-d of ii)<cvft- 
•ity tho lines on which they found m^etv 
oi^nlccd. Thcv' na»cd throueh Ibf tlclJ* 
and villagei, and the *canty ana itollil p>)p> 
tilHtion* there, Into tho city. They did »o 
btcKuio hore tbn tniiUitudra WF-ro gathered. 
And Iheae mullitudMby education, culture, 
refinement, and loot:, daily, and anslout 
reaionior about tbo loul, ita'nnlurc and dec- 
tinT, had autjjrowu th« mythoWy of tholr 
fatbprt and were reody to hear, need, and 
accept a newiolutfoo of the myeteriea of 
life, death, and immorullty. But an ttincr- 
ant npostlMhip, that blosi«d one eily for a 
iittl« whil«, and then, bpfore what there had 
been won wad well asauriij, wu ntuler th« 
nccca£ity of papains on to anothor, was un- 
Mual to the px Igtudur. As eacli city naf a 
whale country unto lu citiznnii, ait^ ciin- 
manded of them a palrlocbfji ai enlhuMutlc 
and narrow a* tho li>vn of home, it followed 
that a lo<ral, ttatlonnr)' rufdent and muni- 
oipal EplKxipate wu the only initllutJon 
wni«h could rSVcluBlly work upon luch pop- 
ulaUona. A Bishop of Or«ec* or Italy wai 
InipoMlbla. Tbo autonomy of a Obnroh in 
eu«h ulty was a neceaalty by riinjton of tho 
nature of erory munldpalliy. Ii wa» for 
t hi* rrai>on that tha ApoatiM appoinled elder& 
In every cltT. 

Theaciaal work of obedience to lb«DWtno 
commnnil wa* conducted in the way we 
■hould eijicct. Going to hi* own city, the 
Bi»hO|l «»tahti«hed bimaelf in a certain place 
of mldonn and niiDittration, Uin ho 
gathered about bim hi* Frlcsta and Dwacoiit 
iQ numbcra accordini; to clreunalanoea ; all 
living togcthor, tbetr ItaitU aflame vitli a 

Gommoa xval, th«irint«DH«ctivitiefd«vQtal 
to a common life und work and daatiny. 
Bach of those whom be bad gathered arouni 
bim wat oulenod by bim h> eoma ipeeiil 
task, — e.g., laboramong aclao of th« people 
whom he could iaor« raadlly reach, or a seo- 
tion of the city wbich he could more cua> 
vL-nii-ntly sorrc, or ■ function of preachbf 
or tcftcbin? or diiputin^or wHtitifi to wUm 
bu was Nt'scislly ftttod. Each f^ow to Ui 
jilacig ami work, and mtum* to the Blibop 
with re|iorta uf wliat he Ua* dime and iMn 
and heard, and to rocaive new ordertjiit- 
tiructioriit, mid a^iiignmCBta to duty. Tbi* 
common home of all hli peopla, where *!J 
the ways of all thrir work Mfgin and eal, 
whither, atYir all toUA and dangwaand fMt- 
secuiioiia, ihey turn their weary fiat for »■* 
and ihnir weary heart* for ■o)aM>, » ibe 
Cathedral. It wa* not only tbo flnt Cbur«b 
in order ofti me : It wai lonf iheonlr Chnrcb, 
and it held its primacy among tlie iiiMi(*>' 
tlon« of the ChriMlan itale b»cauM U w** 
the focui of all the «ork of the DIoeeae 

In 8a>on England oociety wai very diC- 
ferently orjcaniud. There were few towik*- 
Thu pjipulation wai tpanely loauettd owav 
thvcoijntrv. Each family, witb-itsbraacb^ 
and deiii-ndctits living by ilacif, held wtd* 
iructa of land, and much of the country \mj 
vacant. Tho people were devoted toagri«»l' 
tiire and paaturai^e. Their mannera «vx« 
nidc nnd simple, and they were dUincUn^'' 
to the exactiooH of compnct MK'ioty. Tto* 
K>lity WM Innw and p».sv ; th« countiy vwt 
.ivioed amoBK many triW with indenalt*. 
dirnioorutic inatitutioni. Each bad iti kira^, 
but hn WB> king in littln eUe ihan name, ex- 
cept for i^urpoaee of defense and war. 

The Bishop entorins upon the work oi 
lonvertlna a tribe Qxedhiiteat, his Bithop^ 
■lool, a* It waa called, at any cunveniera' 
place of hi* choice, and with no regard *'' 
population. Sometimw, of, for Imtance, ** 
Kly, bo planted it by itaelf in a vacant r*' 
gion, tlui rcligioua colony afUrwardi dra^^' ' 
log the viooplB around it. Accordingly,^^ 
wa* the uiihop, not ofacitv, but of atritv^ 
Tbia is illuitraivil l>y bis title. On iba Co**!] 
tineul the Bishops wore called oflor tb ^iy j 
citv, a* ibo Uisbopof JriuMileni,af Aotie^^™^' 
of Koflie Un the inland, on the other ba^^jgj 
society bein^- niral ai>d tbc poUtv tribal, U-JK 
Bitho|i« took tbwr style from tneir yeof^^^^ 
For tn»tarn-t', there wim u tribe calbd t*— —Jj 
Somifrrauetas, fVom which the name Bobmi^^^ 
comes. The Bishop, whuae »eat vu J 

Wull«, wa< ihu Bishop, not i.f WelU, bat -*j 
Chi> Soinomaetas. TbL-r« was aUo the ui 
oT tb(^ West Saxons, who had the roy 
.iiyof Wincbertei. Tbeif Uisbopwai: 
th>> Bishop of Wibcbeeter, but uf the We 

But, however Inten'oting this dtlTereD^ 
in drcumstancee, thu work in BHuin 
the snma as elaawbore, and w&* oarricd 
in the same way. The BUhup haying ma— 
choice of the place where be should li»~ ~^ 
built then tbe church, houses. 






I, »nd all DoovMarj convenlcuuM for 

Ui cl«ric»l oolnaj. Here be ^thcrcd about 

bim hia Prioata imd Dabcooi in coiuid«rAblo 

aiUDbws, giving tbtm boniM in hU own 

^a aam. mttA tuppvrting tbem from bi* revB- 

■■■. TIm life fTM not noctMnrilf celibate, 

^pr andcr one roof, nor rI one tablu ; but it 

vu In communUr. He wu the houd of tbe 

&aU7, and he ruled it »8 a Tatbcr Im buuic- 

boU. n« apportioavd the work amuiiji; hii 

ditfjrijcivini; lo mch bis pWe, office, iind 

ttik. To tbia uoe bt eavc tiiU circuit to 

Wni in Ibo country of tb« irtbe, anci la 

iMtlMr tbnt; U> use )i« B]>po1nt«d this iUt- 

liaa or aiUaioD. anil lo anotiicr tlisl ; und so 

wthnuitb nlltbe work ofthelftoceM. The 

1 vfknt ('(duly wb<»« <'entre wa« bora om- 

I Inevd nil iDiniiitiati'>ni', (--liHritlv*, iiiatrui> 

f li«ni,iad iDl«rc«U; and tba Mtrvice whicli 

nufcftb beooe vu circumtcribod onlv bv 

llH bwnduiM of the wbolu Diocui«. '£1iU 

Winof wvrk wm theCnlli«dral. For four 

■rtuTM tbia «af the politT of th« Church, 

wvdlamung rude Mid rural tribcAof Ung- 

\ainin th« iotensG life of the erwtcitioe. 

Iwywban lh« polity of tbo prim!liv« 

Ckudt «nu tbo Dinceaan tyttem, Jutt u 

mjilku* tb« MliuinblratioD wm Hpiwo- 

pl- Ibo oMitre of tb« Diocoie wa* tbo 

OulMlrtl, wid from tb«nc« the voiV was 


Qn^boat all the couraa of hintorj, in 
*0 poll of the world, the iMiIily of the pritn- 
'Jl** Hmm baa coDiroltod tfac whnlu of ihu 
■nhvmrat Af the conntitntion of tba ClirU- 
UuiChurcb. It* prini-i)j1i-i, modw, and ad* 
tfilrtnlioi) ba*e ut all tiiuei been founiicd 
***lat tb« Apottlw aitd tbcir lmm«dtat« 
■■"napn advpUd and «iiabli-h«d. Under 
^inwui«af cin-um«taiic««[hprebv.vobefln 
"Miflcatioo* in iDcidrnu and detail*, but 
■**tr ia what w&i MiMitlal and organic. 
"W Cbristisniij- became iIib MiHgiim nf 
hpMpl*, and the Calbndrul could nut t--ci;i- 
"n (bos, Dur be »«rv«?d liireetly fri'io it, 
i^^thm tprang "P ** fiGjiaTato in'dcpund«nt 
t^^ work. But Ibe BUbop excpvlsed 
■■ Juriidictlou from his own Cburch aa 
^ U)« opitol of hi» Dioctas. Thenct* 
^VWdcd Ibt autbority, tbcadminiitrtttioD, 
^ ttnin by wbtcb the Diocese in city and 
^UT a1ik«( and all tb« panpla, urban and 
'U»l, were ruled and wrvad The body of 
'^■Urgj wbo hitlierto had held a direct, 
pw*l,apdcotntant rolnti'>ntotli& Ui>bop, 
■Uoiq aow divided into Iwo «lai»e«, one 
<ki Varxhial, the otb» the Cathedral, 
**CT' Tbn active work aoiung the pirnple 
•■• MURitKl bj the former; tbo iicwera 
*Wb all {b« Procbytcnr bad nerciiird in 
**itil( ihe Biihop in th« ■dminutration 
*fibaa» devolved upi>n Ibo latter. The 
"""HU jij-ai^m became accordingly bcimi- 
^ l»|q th« Parochial and tba Cathifdral 
Jta; (aeh of which wait lh« complement 
•iWotbt*, and tbo whole riill having a 
f*™ciiiaiaii in thp BpiscaiMl ftioction. 

»• CWy of tbo Cathedral were now 
"••'IililuJlnto a eoBipant and bigbIy-or> 

gattized body. We ihall defiua their dntlai 
and powers hercaltor. Wv have now to 
direct our attention to their organ izatioa. 
They wero flret called Canons in the eighth 
century. Th«ir corpuration wan called the 
Cluiptcr. Thutr number differed atdiRer- 
eot Calhedralti and at different timee. At 
WqUm Ibcrv wore in the tontb century Ebiu 
or Ave; In ibn twelfth at firtl l«n, then 
twenty-two; afterward* the number was 
nkiaed to EAy. At St. Pnul'i, Londou, tbero 
w«re thirty, and at Lincoln llfty-two. It 
waaneoeuary ch&ttheeo great BocietlMshnuld 
have offlc»rs charged with special dutiitf. 
The principal officer of the Cathedral bi>dy 
after tbo Bishop waa called the Dean. Dealt 
Kilman in hi* AnnaU of St. Paul*, Lon- 
don (p. 1X2], thuj dofinui bin dutiu and 
office: " The Dean bud sufirL-aie authority ; 
was bound to defend the libcrtic* «t UiD 
Oburcb ; wa* bound by hie oatb to ubiurve 
and to compel oiher«, from th^ Canons down 
to the loweat officer and servants, to ob«erva 
the laudable customs of the Church, to 
watch overall the powewionB of the Church, 
and to rucovcr what might have been lost or 
allonated. He bad authority also ov«r all 
who inhabited the uiuiiun and estates ; an 
authority which singularly ciimbined the 
Ht'lgnorla) and npirituul juriMiictlons. He 
was the guardian ai once of the rights and 
interests of tbe poorer tenants, and, it tnnjr 
aUo be said, vauaU, m woll as of iheir 
morsilaand religion. The Denn presided in 
all caus«t brought before the Obapler and 
detarminod them, with the advico of the 
CliHpter. He correct.nd, with th« advice of 
tbc Chapter, all excnesM and t'oiitumacic«. 
Lighter offensM of inferior persons were 
punished by the Cbancullur. The Biihop 
had no nuthoritj In capitular affairs, except 
on appeal. Tbe Dean, for more heinous of- 
fenses, could expel from the choir, and out 
off all stipends and enudumeni*, with dis- 
cretion, tu the editlcution, not the deatruc* 
tion, of the Church. Those words are in 
Colct's unaccepted code ; but tba same I pi rit 
prevails throughout the older statute*, only 
in different rorins. The Dean had a Sub- 
dean to perform his functions when abroad 
or incaiMWilatcd from dutr, with authority 
over all tbe Inferior members of the Churon 
nicnpi the Canon*." 

Ni:it in rank to the Dean was the Prft* 
centor. who had char(,'e of tbe choir of the 
Calhuaral, and all tbe icrvicu which wert 
iierfurmud in It, and the SL>hoo1s of music, 
lie directed the music and had tbe discipline 
of all lhocbori*lor*andtin£«ri. Hisdcpuly, 
where be had one, was calfod the Succentor. 

Next aftdr thePrewnior came the Chnn- 
cellur, who waa i-harged with tbo care of 
the library, and the grammar and divinity 
fohoolt. It waa also lits duty to lecture t4 
tbe Cathedral clergy on divinity, and to 
organlM theologle^ Inslruolion 'gtren by 
other*. In soma places, as at St. Paul's, he 
had " charge of education, not only for the 
Church, hot for tbe whole city ; all tflacbers 




of gT»inni*r urn lubjuit t>i ))iin." Hi* dc|> 
afar w»* the Vict-CLiiLicoIlur 

The laal of tbi- officer* t>r tba Chapter wiu 
the TrowuriT. " Tim Trunsur*!- wb» thu 
raiipoiiiiiblv f;uBi(lian of the ireft«iir«« of the 
Church, Biid wnjiln inili-cJ tb«y were. Rel- 
iqurv, tint in rnluc and imjwirtann) ; book», 
of wblch tbarc i& ■ cuviouB catalogue; vq»' 
saU of gt'ld itnd tilvor, vMiiuvnU, cbnliccn, 
oroBtot, vurlaitiK, i^Ukliiuiiii, »tid pull*. He 
WM KuswcraMt) lu ibo Ucan &iid Cbaplor 
for tb* safe cuModir o{ all tbc*a firccioui 
thlDffs, and could not lead any of ibom 
vithuut tb« poDieni of th« Dean and Cbap- 
l*r. Under the TrcaMinjr wa» the Sacriut. 
Hii ot&aa wu to Bupcnntend the tolling of 
tbo bulU, to 0]<i?n Ujd doon of thd Cburcb at 
tb« appointed liinsH, tudrau lh« altur*, antl 
take care that llit? tcmpIs mid v<r»lni«ult 
were clean and io good <>rd«r. Th« Kacriit 
wai to take csr« tbat tberc watt tn ihc 
ChUFch, even od Lb« festivnli, no crowd, 
noiM or Ringing, nniUifir talking, ((uarrel- 
jng, iii>r jeating. neither buflnt-M (lorel^f^p- 
in?. lie wasta maiauin urdar and coo- 
dut't ovi-ry mil' to bin prupw' nlaoc" 

Tberv was nnulbcr txuly <.if the Culhedral 
clergy who t-unni'l bo pai>a«d over, naniel)-, 
the vlear*. When nun-rc«ldeac« became 
comnion it wat r<.<ijiiired of t^wh Canon ibat 
hv provjdo n cW^ymsn who should tmkf hU 
place in hb Hhietii,-t:; nnd the ruli; sprang up 
making It faia duty to slvays hare a def^uty. 
Jutt H* ibv Dean had hi* ^ubditan, the Pre. 
centor bit. SLiceoninr, and «<> on, eJicb Canon 
had hiidt^puiy, wliu WHS oiilltdhiK Vin'BT. 
Tbcrc Were Ibercfciro as many Vicar» us 
then mre Canon*. When tbe Caitoni for- 
■ook lh« Cathedral for their probcodfl, the 
Vicars carrt«>d on ibe »«f vices Bod work ym- 
baptoa efBeienttjr and dcnimusly a» tnnee 
whom they r«preHat«d, An old writer of 
lbu«9 Ume*, aaakin^ to ■livw ihi> liuiicTiurity 
of tho monki ovor the sectilar Canun*, anyi 
thai tbe fuiuier praiae tion with their 
moutha, the lutter through thair Vicari. 
There in a *turv of Tbumaa A Beekct, when 
ArehbUhoi) of CancerbuTT, tending a man 
with a bull of vxcommunicalimi acainut thn 
Biahop of Londiiii, who went to at. Paul's 
Cathedral on ABceDaionHJay, and on that 
gr«at fntival found thit oBlvi»Un^ primt 
neither Bi»h"p, IVsii, nor Canon, but only h 
Vicar. The Vicari of each Catliudral hav- 
ing com m«>n emplayinGat, intemU, andlifn, 
were UMlUTally orawn lugciber. Firvt, they 
acqiiiri-d )>«taliM Mparnte friim tboao of th« 
Canona; then they had hooMa oftlicir own, 
donnlliorict, t«feoturies, and cbapelB ; at 
last, iiDmarried and living a pur^dy colle- 
glaia lifa, tkay w«r« formed into a cnrtiu- 
ratioD, *o that, aa there waA the curpuratKiii 
of tbe Dean and Canons, ao there wa« ■ cor- 
pomiion of the Viear*. Tbay were now 
no lonKQreach tbe deputy of a Canon, bnl 
wvre Ine aniataDl* uf ihu reaidentiarii's in 
ihe MCTtee nnd wi'rkoftbeCatliedrnl. Then 
■ tlluinction came in, — thero were priwt 
Vicara and lay Vicari. But the laii«r wan 

not meroly iin^inLi men paid esrh a^ 
diariti*, but ut-mliern uf Ifao colle|| 
equal lights with thuir clerical brotU 
For niuny centuriw all tbe Canons 
continuLiuily ai the Cathedral, anj 
their aolc oocupulinn in mtrvit.-^ ther^ 
aoTYiec |iri«H.'eJing ibcrf^fruni. Bul| 
time the Chapters acquired tfat- riftll 
point ihi! PHcitK »f cortiun Pnri«li«t, ■ 
caivud iu Lithe* and uilier teteait 
iiHlurully they ujipointud their own if 
t>> thooe place*. Clorgy holding aud 
flclurico had thus two ofileev, — one. 
Canon ; ibe oih»r, that of Pmriah Pff 
title in the latter capadty being that 
bend. The two functions were ua 
<>ne periun, Init were di«ttni-t. By I 
inma of the Cariuiii lived Ri(i*l of ihi 
in their Pnrished, ImTing their dntia 
Cathedral ti>th«trVlcBra. Utben li« 
of tbe time at the CathedrnU, 1e«Tit| 
parochial dutiec tn IMesti whom t| 
ph'ved. At IcD^tb thn »cparalion | 
thu' two ehu»ei became ao Oxed ti 
name of Ca&on was Iwrnv only J 
Cathcdml elergy, while that of PreH 
nnjilied tu those who remained on the 
Claries. The di»tlnction wa* further! 
by the numoa rutidenilary Canona,' 
lbn«E> who retained dutina at the Cal 
and tiim-rmidi'titiary Canon*, that J 
wLig liiul only incidental or »l)|;fat or q 

The ChnptuK ware comjKMad tmlj 
ri^KidotiiiariM. But therowas aUo a' 
{'hupter to which the non-reiidentl 
niuatCathediuU worc»ut»mf<ned. TH 
of thit larccr body were thow of < 
Biahupi and rep rose n tat ive* in 0{ 
tion«, j 

Thinhighly-orKanlaed system exial 
perfection tn the twelftti, tbtTtaciri 
fourtneoth cntiirien throujicboui £an 
in flreai Britain wiLbuut material dii 
lieLwi'vn thi-'ni. But some of the Cal 
wero M CI nailer ioa, the AbhM hold 
place of Dean, and tbe tnonka th* ] 
tint Canons. 

When Honry VIII. ■upprened ti 
Dstoriob in Eiixland he made oo «H 
of the Catbenrali which wdto Ht 
monkH. Th««B were Canterbiiry, ^ 
IN, Wurche«<er, Duriiam, Norwidl 
e^lcr, Ely, and Carlisle. lie r<MiB 
loif compelled to rc-MLabli<b C'taaj 
tbeec Cathedrals. Tbe orgnnixaiioj 
bn provided (or Ihem wnBiimtb aimpl 
Ihnt which wn haro deacribed. BM 
Dean and from f"ur to twelve raaklll 
onu, who formed tlm Chapter. 'Bi 
had honorary Curmnt, but this waaj 
enspty title.' In*tiad of Vicari th« 
Minor Canona, who perfornied th 
datle*. There w«re no Preeenl<w«, Q 
lor», ■■r TrcMiirern, hiu their duUea n 
putetl on tlir Minor Canon*. Theaa 
draU are lallmi ('iitbedniUof Uje now j 
tioa. The others nro cali'M Catbaj 
thttold foundatiun. Tbe I«t4cr ara 1 




ToHt, Euler, S»li>b(iri, Weill, Lincoln, 
AcUMd, Upr«f(irii. una Chichi^tor 
ta^MO A.o. I'urliknienl patted an net r«- 
ftucilf thv Dumbor ut Canons nt raoh»- 
dni Mr foflr, eicfpl mt Cnnterburj-, Diirltuni. 
ud IDf , wbvri.- thnrc vert t« Ija six. and ut 
Vinchnter, wliere Uim* were to be tlv«. and 
Ai udovmcnu or %l\ olliirr Stull* were di 
«nidtoolb«T purpoiu. TIiv net aUn di- 
WHdtbepreli«nd«(c8t»t(»,kaTfn^ thr Pro- 
brjrfi b Catbednia of thf oM rmini]iiti(in 
wbooi ocmp^nintK'n. Tlifl niitiibor at 
Hini'T Canon* or Vit^r* wax to bo not mum 
Uua lit nor lr» ihiin two. In 1874 a.I>. an 
tcivu pKurd )ieraiiUii)f ibe enilowmcnl of 
■•■Cknonritt byUK muniSctnceof priyni« 
UiidiuU nod the HpjMiinUneni theivlu of 
EBanbrnu. The npjioinintent of ])^iik i> 
Utlial'ruitn. of the Cunonit, I'r^bcndI|And 
B^iinrr t'anonf, as a general rule, in tbo 
Ihkfif, ind tbe Minor Canons in tlt« Dvan 

thtiii>L' lb* l»at nflera j«lrs Ibe ultetilion 
(/ Eit^'lish Churcbtnt-n liu br«n drawn to 
tW CalbtdruW, and nn agitBli'.>n hu bMii 
(nt; ciM uritb a view of givini; ihcni a 
nptplaco in tbe practical aclivilic* nf the 
O^ttk. AroTalcommtuionU iiowiitlln^. 
tiirmru upon the Mvcral Catbedral* con- 
Ulu uw tutiilra of tbnir ot^niKulion and 
^ntmient which ani lu be adopts b; the 
H^NiiiiCDuucil.undBrca rut body of in- 
ttwiig raalt«r. Purhnp* thu nimt' notice - 
■Utlkiiun of llie new tlatutt;* i< the ter- 
ftl pravliions looking to a mora direct and 
MItc relation of lh« Cstbedral* with ibc 
llkctMand it» adminMralion. 

la 111 exorpt thoie for8l, Paul's, London, 
^**Uan it made for thr«« Chapter* ; nnt 
■MHfflptjr thd CliBptci, coropnaMi of res> 
'^WDHm; onen11«d the General Chapter, 
■MpMdof Ibenon-mfdoaliaric*, whctlior 
*!f an callod Prmcndliric* or Honorary 
^Mvi, ihe Archdvacon*. and (generally, 
""•« always) of the Proctors in Convo- 
^iaq; nd t tb)rd called tbe Dioceian 
■■[*», con)pOf«d of the mrmbeni of the 
w*>nd C%apt«r and all of ibn HiocMan 
jjsm This Iftcttx body, ni-wly [:n'al«^ In 
*•! Natulct, is a revival of Lho Chaptefs 
"■katiiBia wh4!n the Cathedrali wvrc tbo 
^ ieU*e and itffii-Ient agenulea uf tlie 
^"trd. It is »o in il« orgaaiKatlon, and 
•wtmeeiall/ in iw fiinctiona. It in cnn- 
**b4 ij ib« Blihop, and It* dutlH arc to 
Hji^wid acslit him In [h« admin istrniioa 
••ibiiaii:* In •ome of tha italiiLM tb^" 
***iiitte> arr? L-njointsl upon tbe Cbaptera 
""J tb» Gt^neral Chapura; in «ih«rs ilioy 
"^ ini|>««d <Ki lho Oonoral Cliaptir* nlonr, 
*vUuMpruvi<!uni(lonot*upfr*«dHt)Le Wo. 
^bCbauter. PrcviMon is made for tbnt 
j^dllnall uf the tlatulcei>Kc«jit in tho*e for 
^fiiil'*, LoimIob, where the General Cbnp- 
'wbrbir^ndwltb thediilif«and»ervicoelw. 
■Wt KitBioiK^ Id (h» [tl>N-'-tal> (.'llnpter 

/^ Iftfortano? of Hie introdurtion uf 
*"jpriwirtoia tnio tbe (tatut-* of the 
^wfraUnf England cannot bw ovoiMHti- 

malod. But tboy ars only (brnintated *tat«- 
ments of opinion* which ha t« hern *ft forth 
in niflnr wriiirj^ of very eminent men, and 
rapccially in cnmmunicaliont of Catbvdnti 
Autboriiim lo thn coinminion. which an 
appended lu its reporti In theae wniinp* 
tbo contention hat been earnotl In behalf uf 
tbo fMcniiiilly Dinuwan cbnnictcr of tb* 
Cal bed rail. 

In tbi- ilntiile* for Trnro, proTi»ion i» mad* 
for a force rif m«n oalli'd Mi9,'<iiincrit, whoM 
dntv w if> go up and down the Dioctue at- 
' aiituiK thn pnrochinl ("iTgy bv preaching, 
lecturing. Iioldtitg niis.Htuns and other lim'i'- 
Ur tervicee. ThQ llr»t Uiibop uf Truro, 
now thu Archbiib'ip of Cunttrbiiry, origi- 
nated the idi'B of ihl* body, and itpeaki of 
ttiRin a* tbe suetesson ofthe Prebendaries 
of tbe earlier time* in Uio MrvlcM abov* 

W* paaa now to connidcr tb? proper tunt- 
ttona or tho Calhwlral and ib (Hnrgy. Th« 
Hrvl and most obrlou!> of ibirrn is tliemaintu- 
nance of the con»ta^^t, elaborate, und imprat- 
ilvo woTvhipof Almhihtt God. SiioattinK 
on lb it *ubject. Dean tJoulbuni, uf Norwlcn, 
aikvi, — 

*" I truit that I hav« oprntd a wat liy 
thwe remarks for the discernment oi the 
tru« rbiinicl«'r of thn (hthMrtd Chiirrh. It 
is a buildini; »p(wi»ily und promiiirnlly dad- 
icttted to the glory of Aimiohtt Ood. I 
miy tpeeiallfi and prvtninrntty ; and it la by 
thV tuwialcy and Jiruuiluutice tbiu I Mtere 
s Cailiipdrallo be dinting oiNbitl fmro other 
t'b iirches. All Churche* an-, of rour»o. in 
one aspect of Ihom, offcrinca to Uod f>ir the 
bonorof Hit Name. But then t hi* U not tbe 
Imdine, bnt iho aiibordinnle idi^iln a paro- 
chial Chiirch. Tbe primary object tb«ra ia 
th*i dcnlinj: with hoTnnn iioiiU. ihfi coiircrt* 
ing und aoitcninR of human bi-nrU, the Jtir- 
rtnj; and awakening of human coiiicii' »(.■«), 
lh« inillniin)!; lb« wonhigvr into the knowl- 
edge of (ii:it>, and tbt< );radun1 drawing of 
him up into commnnioii with Ood. 2(or 1i 
this end In the lentit dejjree foreign to the 
ninc(ion« of a Cattiedritl ; rather it Ff n pert 
of it* function', only not the moot promi- 
nent part, not the greatrbarai-trriKing Idea. 
Tbe Cathedral in a place rstbiT wfarre OOD 
\t ni>r>hlpi-d than wourr man ic impr«utod, 
though it la a moDt bleMsd thini; indeed 
wherr (he latter end it fccured along with 
the former. The very core of it« work i* 
the daily ofBee In lb* oboir, sttli-mn, efl'ect- 
ive, dignified ; rendered bk pcrfpct na pow]. 
ble by the airrMory of licantifii! mukio, and 
eT»r rtrivinj: and yearning to repreaent 
more porfcctly upon eartb the adoruifon 
which ceiwelnliil V iroea on in tbe courta of 
heaven. Tbe antbeni is c[uite in plai'e in 
eiirh worship; nor iturolv should Bnlb>enia 
ever be ditcontinucd fn Cathcdralt, tliouffb 
nniuiled (in myjodgment) to the w<ir«hlp 
of pnrorhix! Chnrrbet. To dtamrd anthama 
frotii Calliodriiii would lit; to distiard anme 
of the graodcit efforu of mutic to praif* 
(he Crnator, Redecmnr, and Sanctiflcr, from 




. tboM Terf housM of prayer which are, in a 
riDorv e*pKi»l mnancr, dcdk«U-d to ihe ci'le- 
[liTatiwn of the Klorifet of QU Nudg." Tlii* 
rlt ft MfTtce whicb lioB boen ulwajt fkith- 
ftilly di»cb«rg«d liy ihn Cuilinlmlt and daw 
not oeed fbrlliur rt^mark. 
The vecood fiinelioii of ilie Calbedrol 
[Chapter if to aid the Uiibop b; advice and 
labors in tbe ii>liiiiniHrftiion of the EpUuo- 
pal offlc*. \W h»re olrpady t*en how rhe 
ChriHlian c(inimunit,v vans eiitUiinii by llie 
BiFhor' ft^i^ui himiclf anddiroctcdand rtiled 
bv him in ull t)i<<ir wurlc. By tHo vcrv cir- 
i-iiiDiitiiiicei of tli« ihiiutiori it wiu a i.t)iii)>at.'t 
body : iUi iiicn>beT» wt-n- all driuwi fniui ibe 
ouuidc intotbc toiieiy ftirh(t1|> and camfort 
and tiip)t»rt. WitliL'ut, voi'iciy wm unut- 
terably tMrrujil and vit)*; *eu«ua1ltv, *u|ier- 
itilioti, nthri»m,werc oa i-ycry lianJ. i'onu- 
livr ainu.^cnipnla were alti:-gothi»r ungodly ; 
Ibe gravcEl thought, tho Uu blest fupi rations, 
«nrc of ibo «BrOi, iiirihy. Tbv niiiimiul 
roliuiun, wb!cb muhiplit<d ilm divjiiitii^i, 
l-dejaed i\te omiiiarorB, mid denied ttiu uiie 
r mJj and true Uai>, vrait abhorienl. Aguiuft 
thU wickedn«M it was the iui»slua uf tiitt 
early Chriilians to jtroWt with thi^ir lif^ 
blood. Their Iiotd of Tjiirda, imd King nf 
King*, wu the Eternal Tbinift wor3hip<?d 
througb the Inparmiii' Son ; nnd in ninpur- 
rtlon n« tha Ronaon state wiu leii^tiD^u Ui ii(>- 
'bold ila adulterate ch^/u«, so tbu CbrtMimi 
Conimonwcallb wiui handed &ivund the uni- 
vef »ul Church of CnRi&T. Thdr verv dcpthi 
uf vpnierAliiin and pasiionalcneta of aovutlou 
mudc lht'»e men and women recoil frotn llie 
liiui-h of the vJln world, nnd drov« thvm t«>- 
• gettier and bound tbcm by the moet ucr«d 
l,ic|i. Thi'ir MH-'inLy, itolaliid in iho iniiliitof 
^lu itiulliludi!!, tuok H cur|ti)r)itu cbaraclLT 
' ind had a polity of ita own, and wm in truth 
a eieitM S/<i. 

Ip ilib taored fainily tbe BIthvp ww tli« 
father, aad all were nit children. It wai 
not only love they gave him for hi* lendor- 
neu and wiedom, but veneration nlio ri^rhii 
hich ('fflc-e And hi« ehuru<;l'*r, whk'h ibu 
office «iLii<,'li£l(^d- How lot UK unk liiin- thii 
bol* man luUKt have carried bimaelf umun^ 
hia Drclbren. lie tbared tboir inlMisily ut 
devotion ; he ahrank with tb<:m from tho »in 
without-, he awaited I he same dojtllny tbat 
th«]' foretaw for iheTnuclves; and bc-ide», 
«*«r in hi* imr rang Ibi- voicr if J]i.->t>'», 
■• Peed Uy She^p"; -> By this shall all men 
knew that yi> am My disciples, thai ye love 
iinr another." He wa« tlieir ruler. Did hn 
Iwrd il ovtr tbi'iii? Uuing wjiat hewim, uml 
lb«y what they wait, all bri'ibrcn Uj|:ethL'r, 
he could not hi-lp but taice iheit), or at leiut 
thoae vfaowere eompeteni, intohi* couintcli, 
and liilen patiently, rivpriifully, rererentlv, 
gladly, In what nulj hud t»*By. Tbero, in 
thoie flrnt day.*, under tbe preji-^ure of the 
aia witliout and thv Iovr within, iliis custom 
grew up, of the BiKhoji taking (^uunsut ot hit 

Wnen aftetwarda tb* purely DioccMii 
ajltwm bMaiD* modiQed by th« pnrochlKl 

syateni, the Clergy who wrv about d 
Hitbop at bii tjatnedral aucceeided tt> tli 
right to^hare iho Epiac<^l conauliatioD 
as Uiey lucceeded to almost &II th«*otlii 
i-i.rnoniir right* nf th« whole rlerlcal hod 
It liHx-nnie univenal Canon Law that U 
Bishop IUU^t on ('iTlaiti subjevt* coiiku 
Chapter b'?ri>rc acting upon them. 

Hvnce tbe Cbaptiir ba* h<>e(i ■.vllod *1 
Senate of tbe> Diocetie," and the Canuaa] 
been called "■ Brother* of the Bishop."] 
some Glalutes th« duty of the ChM>li 
dvclarod to bo, " to aid the Bii^bop whet 
Se« il full, to HUpply bit placo wbon 
vacant." Une grc-at writerun Bccleauallc 
Law coneliidcc from • mafit of avidtw 
that every wlieri! >' the Cierf;y uf Calh«4f 
ChiLTchea formed one bixly with tbe BIsba 
and entered 'ntU} their tharcof the aniie 
and Into aome ouociatlon with biD tmex' 
sway." Another epe&ki&f; of the Caiw 
Kiiyc, " ihuir pHncipnl duty wat to aunft til 
BUhop by tlieir work aitd thi-ir couaat 
iii tho goveruiucnt of tbe Church." Bef 
nald Polo *u.y», " tbe rationalu and gni^ 
of iuilitiitlnii; Canonrlea and Prelwsd 
Chtircbea *m, thai they who are apnoi 
lo tbirin, may oA-ninl thn Binhnp and aid 
with t-junsel and work in the diteJic 
hi* ollleu and divinn thing'." 

A third fuiicijou of tbe Ciitbadral Cler] 
WH4 lo supplcioenl and reinfutee Ibe par 
chial Clergy in their active and imctie 
labor* antoiiK tho puople. TbI* IncludetC- 
strictly nilwoiinry work, of whic^, an do> 
by th^ Cathedral Clercy in the early da^ 
pninigh hii« hs-i-n atreaay said. And of (^ 
iiiiiatn-ncQ thL>y did, and may render t«J 
pBriii;'!liia1 Clergy, uoihing need be addl 
th» rxplMDHtiun iif tho xiviety of MlMiq 
foriticKl by Archbishop Benson, at Tr 
Ibe Diocesan Kalcndar for 1881 a.d. 

"CathedrnI Mlwlonor*. Si%t%rtifient 
peritate. Tbe objeot of this wsc 
is to proviilc a stuff of preachers, who,' 
htAnji bound hy parochial or other liea, i 
bo erniriiiy at thr diapoeal of the Bishop ; 
any wnrk lo whioh he may see fli to m 
thrni. 111 [lie uall of tb« (Mrochlal Clen 
Iteiiiiit-a undertaking and arranging fut su 
i-ionn (t<-chnlca11y so called), woera tl 
BUh")) and parochial Clersy thinli detl 
nble. ihey will endeavor, an far a* their BU 
licr-'' niiiy ptrmil, ti> give rourvra of innniH 
<>r Kclureis at popuTous centres, to Wpit 
('piritual niiniutnitiont during tbe nbieBoei 
iicktK-M uf (^ni-umbenti, and to hotp in .^ 
fathering of Candidate for couflrmalioajl 
llie formalicin of branchcf of tbe Cb^i 
Society for iheedvBDCcmentDf bolylivln 
tit other socieiiea approved by the Bl.>>bo] 
in the instruciinn or nupervision of Ll 
prcKctieni ; in the pnimotiun of Hiaai« 
Chapcla, and in other work* wbieb 
the tpiriluul and moral improvvment < 
[mopfu. " 

A fourth ftiiicUon of the Cathedra] w 
the ectahli»hniont and maintenance iik cki 
conneilion with It of Inatltuiloni of < 




tiA tducatloD. Ttaocuttinn hiu beC'D uni- 
wwl to caublbb i^niiDmbr ^ehuoU for boyt 
ntomMUoa witli the OKthfKtrnt*. In Sni;- 
bad Knne of thf>c achoola tuive ntuincd 
Ttn ptM rcfiuution. So, too, r«adenhip8 
mltcwrwbipt on divinity wpra gcn^rul. 
IWdnly of boapitalily vn* uiijuined upon 
tiktCUrfy, and ibii included ore of the 
BtkiudHnfurUiunlp. Thcsu diilioa nndser- 
*Im tera d«Tt>Irfid upon Ibu mo^dern injtl- 
adMH klid cannot contiUently be nFt;1ocl>?(l . 
Ibjtranut WMntiHl, bal tbeyHr«< pntcti- 
lally w rcbiUd Ui Ihi-m ttml Ihej' ouf^hl In 
M k pUce in etvrf tcfacmo for tbeir offi- 
cial Ot](aniita(lun. 

Afttr tliii review w« ar* able lo hiuw-kt 
Ifc t yiiMi, what, then. W a Catbfdral ? Haw 
iMk4iffcr Irom anj* other Church 7 The 
■M h derived from the Latin. The seal 
ttiBbhopia a Church waa bis Cothtdra. 
iBttd from thui htx Mat be npt-cialty oxuf- 
4n1 hit oAee. fie had but one laut In his 
Oitcs*, whiofa was in bia Cburcb ; b« bad 
■m* Id puiib Cburchci. Soon what wa* 
ftcatiu \o one Church ir*ve It a dUlinclive 
im,tml tb« Diahop's Church wa* called a 
'UMdnl, Properly, the word la an adjcc- 
1^ialdDalifl«a Chur«b. Speaking exactly 
K w-ilW tmy Cathedral Church, CnthtJrnlh 
■Mkiu. In coQim^in parlance the adjective 
^vttA ai a noun, and dropping the word 
CWdi we lay Caihndral. 

Ik Ckibedral, then, ii the Cburch Sn 

WAit tba VaJKtdra, Sedrt, S<-o, or Scat of 

tWBiAon. IttBblgCbnrt'b. IlniitometLmi'x 

*ii w M the partor, and tomotltne* tho 

^Mtr, of hit DtocM«. And hla Catbedrul 

wbtiencallwl lh« pariah Church, aud the 

••tril of Ihe Diuccse. Tbe»e wiirdn may \>f. 

**talmijni dwcriptivc of tho fact, but they 

^*tj one Idua, that the OntlnHlriil it Uie 

^tiop*i Cburcb and ha* roiatiuca of ^uine 

*^ t>> aud cun tiocUon in some way with I ho 

jW^we. Hany •uppo*e that it must b« a 

'^paod b«auliful buildini; ; thai the nor- 

**S«i BUM b" rhorai, and tlint th^ Clorgy 

*i>tt be nuDienma. It i» iialurul to ('ipvcit 

*" tfeeM of a Bttbop'e Church. But the 

P^U^^*xxm Biibopa genorallv built thvir 

T^nrdMi of wood, iranll In ttz» and rude 

? «outrDctton ; and thmr were truly Calho> 

'**!». Thp choral terrioo haa long ilnce 

^^•ed to be pwsliar lo Cfttbedrsia, and one 

I'^icil »«rvin|; at Ilia ftllar with hla Biihon 

^*ybe the only ckT^ymnn. Sieo of build- 

**Vi node of MTYiec,' and number of Clergy 

**« «cM«t>U, aocMMirict, circum«tsnc«»; 

^^nt are not eiaenlial lu the Cathedral. 

!^aat i( ravntial ii that the Church should 

°^ th« {i«culiar place of the Kpiicopal funt>- 

fiat when tha Biabop ha* plantod hit Snn 
' any Cburcb, other tbin^ naturally and 
"*"Wiarily gather around it. bpeoinlly 
^UbeeoUectedanuniberorcicreY lowborn 
bc*1Ur«aon for aid and advice In oarryin;:: 
'ObUwork. The RpiironsI fuiH'li»n in the 
VWw7, and a numtfr of Clergy, largar or 
■Qallar, who aacist him in the *a<lminiitrm- 

tion of the DIocmc ii the «ftcoiidary, olempnt 
uf a Cath^ijr^l. 

In Ibe scheme upon which the Cburch In 
thia country waa nrganiaod the Catbi>drn1 
bad no place. Several rentons may be ua- 
aigmtd fur thia dnpuniirD rroin Catbulie 
u*a([u, but It ii not wltbln our purpoM or 
our apace to mention tbem. Abuut tbirly 
yeana neo an attempt waa miidc to eneraft 
the Outhedral upon the orffunlzution of the 
Clntrch. Not Iins; after he wac *enl out to 
Culifornia, Bwhcrn Kip plncsd hia Kpitonpal 
ubair in Grace Churfb, of Han PrnncUco, 
■nd called that Church hii Cathedral. He 
did tbU in hi* right a* rec-tnr uf lliu pariah, 
and when hii iucumbencr teiiaed, the naine 
of Cathedral waa dropped. □«.■ anprwurds 
beld tbft rectortbip uf tb« Church of tb« 
Advent, and th^re ajcain eet up bh B|il>copal 
aeat and gave its edid<:e the fame nam?, and 
wit bdrowDoth when hort-aignwltbcponition. 

Afli!rwardai>Llii-riiiHbopaaeiuplhctr Epia< 
oopal cbair in pnrisb t^uivhei. Usually 
■ hoy bavq ai^cured team tbo parochial ur> 
ganieation the right to occupy the aeat, to 
preiK'h, to direct ibe ritual, and to Ufo the 
buildtne Tor iSpltcopal Mrricea. Examples 
of Cathedrals of this class are St. Paul'*, 
Buffalo, and Hi. Paul'*, Indian>pi>lix. To 
llin intne claM may a1*a be referred other 
Cathedrals, such as St. Peter and St. Paul, 
Cbicagij, and Our Mvrv'iful Savimtr, Farl- 
bautl. Al these Snilttul-iuiia, the title to the 
uToporly, and the entire jjuwar of ailiiijni'tcr- 
ing it, and directing the «ervics« and work, 
nro tn tho Bishop. But b<-yand thif, these 
Churchw have little to disliuKulvb them 
^nt pariah Cburohca. They bavt> no Chap- 
ter orfttnctiftn not IikbI to tbo building ; nor 
organic relmions to the DiocoiO. This is ex- 
p1ain«d bv Bishop Whipple in a liitiur in ibn 
wriwr. he unyii tlio ('utlitidrul " iliould be 
»u]elr ill Itie Bisliup's care, that he mav tel 
forth Mich a ritual as may be a tnodel for 
the Diwwo. It needs only such niaohin«py 
as may help him." 

A femnu class of Onthetlrala have Cbap- 
l«rs but no Dl«cesan rcUtions. The Kpie- 
copale, as in theclaai first yientiunvd, i» ihu 
primary, active, and (.■antral rum-tlun, hut 
not theauleand unquallfledauthority. Tho 
Biabnp holds bis office apart, sharing it 
with none, and aided in its exercise by 
nf>ne, hut within the precincts of the Ca- 
thpclral ha baa Ihe nia of Itii Preibytery. 
All-SuitiU', Albany, and Davenporl, Iowa, 
are cxamplos of this class. In the insttlu- 
tiiin (It Allinny there i* a Cliii|)ier coni pinetl 
of the Bialiop, Dean, Precentor, CbanceJlor. 
Treasurer, four Minor Canona, and six lay- 
men. None of them except the Bhbop baa 
any Diocesan relations, dutiet, or rigbuoihvr 
tlmn tboae piiuManed by any clergyman (t 
layman. Tnu body has an care of the Mis- 
»)on* of the DioctKC, and whatever it at< 
lempts In that service Ih in tuburdi nation to 
thfl Diocesan Doudof Missions. The funds 
and prnpprtr of tho Dioccae are not in ita 
bands, bat tn tbc«« of spAclal CoounittMS 




or lh« DtootMxi CounoiL The SctiooU kiid 
KoopiuU are independcat of it ; Ibero Is no 
duty on Ui* nvt of the BUbop to tuk tbc 
C3i«pWr &r aavlva In thu adminiitrNltoii vt 
hUcOict, noroD iU p«rt unv dutr lo ^ive 
him advic>- whrri wtkcd for it. It I* « body 
a* IocaI in lU cbftmcter and service hh uiy 
{lurl^lt Cliurcli. Tii«rQ U wfcnt i» fulled a 
tirrat«r ChaiJtnr, uoiihkjui^ nf tliti An-lidtii- 
cimi, t)i« members ul (he SUjidiii;; Citiu- 
niiltee, uf iho Board uF UJfsionf, uiidut* ibd 
licpuuilivii* t'J Uviieral Cotivvuikiiiv, tlio 
(•fociTi of ttitiBJiMtL^uiiCuuiioU.audiha r«o 
1t>n of tbe two oldcAt cliurche* in the chy. 
Iti ilA pem^nnti iL i> DtOUtoan i titit lh£i 
only funciivii «f ihie U-dj' is w elect the 
tnnaib'>r« vf llii* Cli«|>i"r [irupor ainl t" hi- 
tvnii til'! Biihiip uiiiiii i-t-rtuiti iij>i'<'inl ix«a- 
tioHB. It hat uu air«ct and aLliva relultuna 
with till! UivWHO. 

Tbe »iituv i* true of iLi« tebeoie of llio 
Cathedral at Davetipiirt. Bisbup Perry, 
retaining in hii ifwn hand* tLin title to tlic 
nrogHTty in order to preterm It ni h Iii&li<^p'ii 
Church, lio» ereoU-'d a Chuplor, with n Di-'uri, 
who !• iIh' liani! of tbn I'dumiiuiiiil iniiiin- 
liona, a Stiuiur Caiiuu, who baa ibv |iiiittf>ni1 
carewftlia ovngresation.othurC'auoiii wtuiw 
apcuial duitM are in Uiv par]*li Cliurche« 
or the i-tty and in tbe at-hoolit, aiid Curalum 
of Ibc Cathedral, who are laymou charj-od 
with the ten)] 'orttli tins. Iw work if. tittt, 
to maintBiti tfcii worihip In ihc Cuth^dral in 
rich, Hbiiiidnni, and Hp]iro|iriHli) servit'wi ; 
HL'dUill)', ttj fPiuiiiLt Iho VFiirk of ihr paritii 
Oburchbi and mmtiuni in tlit.- H<-a <-ity ; 
thirdly, lo carry «n the schtiols Uieru; 
fourthly, to ectund iiilMJ^Lary cITurta into 
tbe DIuvi'iu ai fully und oa far aH puuiMf. 
But tho Diot:>QMn adii>iiti«tration i» here, ua 
at Albany, dittribiilt-d iitnunf; lliu Board of 
UluioDi, lh« Tturiteei of tbe funds ot the 
Dioc«w, and xht> TriiKt«M of the fipitcopnte 
fund*- Iti* n<»t |ir(ii>uavd la brin^ the pow- 
ers and duliM of tDOM budiet within the 
jurisdiction of the Chapter. 

Caihudralt of thothli'd tdaii aromuully, 
with those liut deacribcd, IochI 11* to tbe ser- 
vic«« or ptiblii: wori>liip und of charitlot; 
but they alsu liav<- direct practical and con- 
aunt relation wiih the Diocwe. The t^niaha 
Cathedral u an oxamplit- Tt* Chaplnr ron- 
aitla of the Binhop, Di^aii, tlirvf C'ltnoim, Uva 
honorary Cutioiic, tbo Ntundiiig C<;iiin]ittce, 
and all the vihur iiaii.'eTt of thv ]>)uvi-«c. It 
is irfaargpd with the car« of tbe nilasluna, 
fundi, proprrty, ti'h(>iit>,aiid hosnitalsof the 
Dlocefe. It iiim'Is ([uarierir irna deals with 
(ivprj Ruhjix-Kifudmiiii^itraiion. In soveral 
Mi»>SanMrr Jiiriii)i<.-L!<>ii> and Also in several 
of Ibe youn^^r Uidct'scb tl liiu liLvn aduplud. 
llcotnei much noaror to a restoration of Uio 
polity of tbe early Church tlinn cither of 
the two clutes of insiltutiun* above de- 

Wo buTo to-day In lh« American Church 
Gatbedrali oreanlKod on three planp. The 
drst are Uiiwe bHs«d on thu KpiEcojial ofBca 
■lona. Th« second are tha«v hassKl on the 

Boe prliiL-iple, and have Cliaptcrs but no Da 
COauD relations. Tlia third \iav« the Eiiito 

iiflUi ■« iha primary elenii'nl, with C'u 
or the aasistanva of the Bishop Id 
niinislratiun of the Uioocac. 

In order lf>an ial«lli|(eat riewofthet 
dilioDs in which the Cathedml id tbiicijiia 
try muil bo dov<dop*d into u vipirmu 
efflciejit, and prat-'tliable agMtcy in tb 
American Ciiuroh, nonxMliing more thai 
theMdescri|;ilii>nt ant necMsarr. Wc hsn 
leea tbnt tbu <>M«utial object of the Cbapw 
is to provide fruni tbe IVesbyiory a oomH 
tent hod}' to assist the Bishop in the cicrcil 
of hill once: wbJoh aasistance b flnt by a^ 
vioe, and, secoadly, by* not panwhia 

As tlid CathmltBl wat not racogniied t 
those whii tVuuied iLc Couttilution of tl 
American Church, so nobody vas proridt 
for tb« atsittuncu of the Bishop by adric 
Tbe need of snub body was not felt at fln 
Wo need not concern ouraolrea with the rot 
sono. iliit afKT a time it began ^ocrall 
to t}t felt that some autbority oavht to 1 
prvvidoil to which tbo Bishop mignt f«tac 
iitid wbiuh shnuld aUu to a degr«a conLT 
the K|)iseii|ittl function. Ai-conlinglr, ] 
IB3-!> A..D. the Uoncral Convention bjr UUH 
providk'd thut " In everv Diovcse when thai 
IK a llisbijp tbe Standing; Comniitlea s)m 
Lie u Council of Advice tn lh«: Hiiliop. Tb* 
shall bo KUintnoned on tUf r^r-^iiiiition of tl 
Bisbop whenever he xbuU wi^h for their M 
vicv, und ihi-y may mi*i?i of ilii-ir own accol 
a)(r«vab1y to their own rulea when tbej BH 
Iw diipuUKl to udvise tlie Biaho]!." jfl 

This wuH the restoration of tita ^'kfl 
under anolbvr iiaino- And If tbe funojiS 
of tbo Biibo|i extended 10 all tbe ntaUtf 
properly belonging to llio Chapter, tb* 
would bo little nc«d of rcviTinff iL B' 
su«h it not ibe oaae. Tbe dutiM of tl 
Slandint: Committea ar«i>f the very higM 
and moKt sQlcmn nature; but tbey are tA 
limited. For iiittanoe, tbo Co 111 mil tee d'C 
not have the car« of llie uiU»iont of t. 
Diucoao. That Is an tnteretl tbe otoat ■ 
tlve, urf^ent, and prewingof all. It it 1 
lru«u>d to the care of another »«pM»l«, ^ 
O'nnectcd, and Independent bodv oliL' 
TariouBly the Board of MiMiona, tn«Oi^ 
inlttvo iin Misninna, or tho Miutunary SiV 
Rly Whi-n a quiisliou touebioK miaii' 
bos boon doierniined by tho body ebufl 
With iboir ran*, it would bo nut only »• 
st^uinl^', but niiaehiaTOiis in every way, 
ibo Ui»hop to gn to tho Standing Commit 
for n<lvi>re 011 the MlbJAct. It would bPrM 
Inc tbe Cinnmiltee to an appflllsle juriwl 
liur, and kiiliordinaling to it all other budi ' 
ConfiiiiHin and irritation would follow whB 
would be Jcitolcrable. And what ii irM - 
missions und tbo Bi-nrd charged with thtf 
is true of all other luieresu of tbe DIoaM 
whioh are pattwiedout amongditftrantn* 
ilar bodir^. It Dili* apprjir* tliat mula 
the administration of tbe Dioceaa bti* 
given into tb^i handi: of other bodlea Cha 
tba Standing Conim!tt4>e>, It 1* laic 




for it to b« a Council of Advlcn Ui lh« 

BUtdp OB odIj * modicum of 11b« subjccU 

It tt* JiactMwiop, ooiuidenitioii, and deier- 

■iBMioaof vbicfa bo no«di ouisiAtico. It 

b ^n»j elMr, tbvrofore, tliut llie Suindiuir 

CotnnuiLe* of a Diocoe dua not an»w«r all 

tk awds which th« llithop saa/ have for 

miataM in the waf of adrlM. Aa hi* 

CmmII, m the Sanate of the Divccw, It doea 

iMtllUi* plaoo of tbc Chaptur. 

Wt piui OR to conoidnr th<i nMiilancii 
■kUi the Cbapler nwr ^ive the Bishon liy 
Ma\ \Mbon Dot mthm iho prorincu of the 
' il Prl«ai. A bcHlj of Clttr^ mi- 
;tli« Cathedral, uuder the punoiial 

tiva diri.-cb(iii of ibe Buhop, K*>i''S 

MU ihfl mlMiooar^- xlationt, icrving tb«m 
ad KturninR to him fur reiutrt nnd now 
<Hm,«DrlM in iIm »aiii« «r»v aa th>.> foroN 
(j rtidi tbe world wa> flrat oi>tii|iit-Tcd Ui 
tMttkf af tlie Church. Il in a mii<l« imt 
ntf wictlttod by pritnilivo and Catholic 
nH|(,lwl in iu aalun.- iliuvl t» tlm ootiiill- 
tica af Bodcrii niiuionarjr lat>or. L«t tbii 
ttapliiotd hy a vipw uf tb« work done io 
Iha «ty. SappoM ib«re weru at the Ca- 
Ibabilt hall, and lwl(;e, or four tiiiit'i, or ii 
teoi liiaM a year, m chuuld be ap|.-nint<>i) 
Uk.llic HitHiunarjr ■biiuld cmii; up for u 
tttit roiideitoo in it. Uor« b« would mi*ct 
ndkuw and l«arn to lova tho»v whit, liko 
Mb, atrc devoted by vow utid hnliit and 
Mi tothe tervicc of their c-ouiiHun LoKu ; 
^Im would find cotupunionthipand syin- 
fUtf aad aifartion and a fruhnn^d lifo and 
MuiaiHted tpiril, *ucb m l'uiiiu only from 
cWawgnih and fprror of auociation ; h^m 
^MoU And tbc euidnnco and direction 
■•ItaitiMlof bla BUhop, and thc«Mcrand 
■Nruf ih» Clorgy ; here he would »(X th«i 
■Mtof nwling tii k<.'«p paco with thi> proij- 
nk of others hv whoM) uouir«r«iitiMii ht-. 
■BtU be MimulatMl to exertion ; h&re, 
•^iJI, h* wv«Id hiive tbc altar ut whi«h 
t*lncd la the hiffhrit act of wonthip atid 
*Wtplatidid aervicn of the t«mp1e. And 
<• U woald b« urcngthcntd a^nhi*l thc< 
*'J»h«f hu lot stnone the people to whom 
"*"vnt, and ai^aiiMt tlgo«« other triaU «l* 
'm ijtfrlt. Ill* Btny niml nut \ua long ; tivun 
*lk«AiT> itiiirhi •uAm! to return htm to his 
*Wll« acw tnnn. 

kt ifa« M imionary i* not the only pcreon 
*Viwould )m bl«u«(l by ibU relief. Com- 
^ af>at itBt^d timo, ht- mxild, tiithnr by 
*>['Ma ml* or in the natural c»ur*e, rc|K>rt 
^litBUhup of his work, kif field, and hU 
*^ T)w> pt'culiBr ntti-d« i>r ibn itattoii* bp 
*^B,and lii* uptnt-M lonnswL>r thptn, would 
^n» known ; and he would hn inBlru<:i<^ 
'I«*N coudmU and encouragod to go on, 
** U rHnforvnd bv otht-n or withdrawn Uj 
^e«4li*r |>la<.« lur which he wotild seem 
"Vttflltod. at the caw nv^uirrd. Mia-iion* 
*|^lhui orc'ttiisiNl and narking ftnm the 
C«Uirffiil w-ipiii In a very fow yean bo- 
•iiAouil . body, having com- 
i>d«i, •«nliment4. and tupi- 
i uimf would eoon grow up among 


them an f9f>rit dt furjm, without which no 
mcicty wa* Bvnr cfilriiml. 

Tbo mei to which Ihfc (dihedral Cltrgy 
mav be put in e^tiont where iho Churah i> 
wofl p]ant«<] and rooliil in adiuiruMy tx.- 

flaloed by Bliboii SwouttoHii, uf Ti>roritu, In 
'anodii, In hii tiuilres« to his i^vnnd i)i I8SI 
A.D. Ue»ay», "Siippotingtbat f hud rc-idfint 
In Toronto, imy fotir U&noni , men i^f tb(«ro-.;)(b 
prai^tiDal p«ri>ehli>l eKp<>rii<ii<.'p, of true m\*- 
cionarTupirit.ofa bit;h order i>f pulpit pnvrtir, 
nf intvnac nympiitbT, and, abovu all, Tult of 
earnest iplrftual lifo,— for they would need 
T» b« all thb, — tht> viilup cif mifli ■ Ixidy of 
Tuun Would hii iiiuuk-ulabU, an (.-ounielon 
nrid mdviiers. But — hore xt tho puitit 1 wish 
la bring out — a mitwion in th« Diooeao It, 
fur some cauiQ, evidently in aa unproaitQrotia 
i^undilliiii ; tbe^'lerj^yinHn vtimplmni Inatba 
i-arnt>t nblnin support frmii tfm iipople; or 
thr Ohumb i» losing ground, and «i> furtb. 
I direct one of my Canons to go to tbit 
plnrii, li> inqiiirn into what t* wronij;, to 
iliiy a vrouk, twci weuka, or three wet-kt, to 
ruiise up the people, und put new life 
into ihu L'hurcQ'i work. A youne and 
ltii?xperiutic'ed cl«rB>vn)an meeta with dif- 
tlriiliit'* be does not KDow bow to deal with; 
\w tii-nds advicQ and guidanoe ; another 
of the Chapter Is sent to help him, to put 
liini in the way "f doing hi* work hmtor; 
with the luring word* and mature wiitdoni 
of un Hiier bruthcr to (:LTe hitn eonfldenco 
and chc«r. Ur a i-largyniao write* me for 
help in an Amergency -, hit parish i« inToded 
by a new i«ct, pr«aching «tningo dpclHnes 
aiid drswini^ hb ['O'.ipte away from tbo faith ; 
hr lind irK-nt him«clf in labor* to coiiMtcmrL 
the niLicnior, but Hr^d* thut It U aa unequal 
tHst to i»pe with einsle-liH&dod, or his areu- 
innnli am exhniiitml, and he want* anotlier 
mind loreinforLV him with freahaigunienla. 
Here In help for the onii*rj;i'noy. — a woll- 
ivsrncd, and wrlt-vquipped, and eealous 
iiiciubcr of the ('iitli<.*driil Staff ready to jro to 
the n>ciie. Have I JusliSnd my awortmn? 
I r«><l *iiT« that cverv narn^t and faithful 
]<url»h ck'rKyman will confeee that suoh n 
sv«t«ni, by which th«olcrg» migbLocc-aicion- 
ally hr utirrinl up ti> miireiiiligi^ricc, cliuered 
in their Skulmion, aided in their dilBcullies, 
by a vitiii frum a brother luch at 1 have d«- 
KrihcHl, would go a lonj; way to breiik dnwn 
the L>ungri^f;atl<>uft1ii'in, to awaken iheoplrit- 
iial turpi-rnf ibope»plo, til nrniiiir' Ia a-'livily 
tl)« mi.->*ionary indilff-r^ncr. to iyiteiualiu> 
the incffli-iont diffutiun i>f forcM,— the chief 
iliffir-ultitt* and oviU iindi-r which w« luffiir. 
Tu furry out tliik nynti'in fully will ri'tjutro 
mttaiifiand time ; btil a rmnll h«giiinin'; may 
be inndv I (•hall nut fu^-h tbit <|un>li<)n of 
mean*; but I eannoi furbi-ar a (.-uiu'liidinff 
remiirk, that It ii lantalisinR to be tauntM 
with aping titlft* and dignitiro, and at the 
nirt\o lime to feel that no colonial DIoceM 
pvor hud go nmrly within |t« grasp ih«piiw*r 
111 iTii-t and mainiiiin a roal liviiii; Cnirii>dral 
EitiibiithmrMit. with its urliv^ Chapter and 
SutS of oSicerf, as tha UiocoM of Toronto 

with iU richljr fmilowed Ohiirt^h in the ca|>i- 

It needs nu wurOt to Dhow tho advkutiiKCS 
of bringing the «cbuo1« and clinritii-ji n] th« 
Diocoe« together at the Culbi^'ilTml, itiid ccm- 
diictini? them byiuClorgy uadftrtbeejeof 
tilt BiHhop. 
^E It i« * *ltii>n which may Dot be roucb- 
^■wfvd toiuorLhiigi-tioralion, but not beyond 
Oiir reiuoD&blehu]>ir : a Cathedral iint^ more 
Iho Bi»lift)'» Church, in which the Ef>i»to- 
|iaU) ahall bo ihc pHmiiry fiinctinn, but 
ninoonded by s bAiulor Clttritj fur iu uniit- 
aii06| ft body of well-learaui], cx[i«rti:iici!il, 

■■devout men, mulntnining in itt duo di^uity 
■nd beHiiijthe woribi|> uf God; sharing [1i« 
•ttcrrd xway and l&bora uf tho> ohief [laitor In 
iiii adminiiitration ia fjircHdiiig tbr knowl* 
•dge of the truth in nnw [lart.^, and holding 
up lbs hands of ihojs vhu are mt anion); the 
people teaching and vindk-uling the Ere«>l 
truthi at the <^pal to ihoiu wbn are igna- 
ritiil or ricTTerae, trainiug th« children in the 
knowlcage the; aead in this world, aod the 
knowledfje ihnt Hu ih«m fur nnuihur world, 
Kod serring tha poor, virk, and uitfortiinsie 
In Bemen, Axylum*, IIo»|)itala, ond Ketiral* 
of whatever dorl. 

Tba numbun vary aocordini; to the needi 
of each plave, It* oraanixBtion m Timy hv 
found cunvcniciit, lb« HjijK>rlionnii-iit of 
work among thorn a» their flLncM and other 
condltioti) may rc<)uIro; biitthc wholu forin- 
iog a commiinily co^petaiive, (^umpnol, cffl- 
ci«nt, with one heart and onemind, ti>rving 
Ihe Krml 7))shi-[i and Sbvphcrd of souli with 
H holy fcTTeriicy. 

Authoritieii: "The Cathedral : lt» Voces- 
Mry Place in the Life and Work of th« 
Churth," by Edward Wliito Henion, L«rd 
Blthop of Truro, laf^ Chuncvlluror Lincoln. 
London, Julin 3Iiirriiy, Albemarle fitriMiC, 
1978, "The Priuol|d6» of tlie Cathedral 
Ujntcni vindicated and enforced upon Num- 
ber* ef Catlie:iir«l Kf.uiuiiilion*. F.ighl Sor- 
mofu pr^acbt'd in (he Cathedral Church of 
K the Holy and ITnHicidcid Trinity of Nnr- 
^g wiah,"bv Kftwnnl MrTrifk Goulburn, D.O., 
Dean of Nurwic'b. Kivintflon'!*, Lundoti, 
Oxford, and CamhHdgc, 1870. ■' The Eng- 

»)ttb Calbudral vf Ibe >'iiiolucnth Ci;n- 
tury," by A, J. B. Bi'rreafurd Hope, M.P. 
D.O.L. With i Hunt rat ions. London, John 
Utirray, Albemarle Street, 1881. " Kuutyi 
on Celhedrala by Varlotu wHterB," edited 
by the Very Revtinrnd J. !?. Hnwxon, D.D., 
Dean of GnMter. London, Jvbn Murray, 
Albemarle Street, 1872. "AnnaU of SI. 
Paul'* Olbcdral," by Henrv Uarl Mil- 
man, D.D , late Duan of Sl ^aul'n. Juliu 
Murray, Alhemurlc Street, 18C9. " The 
Cathedral in the Araericiiin Church," by 
JitatM H. Woolworth, LL.D., Cbanoellor 
of the IMocece 'if ^f'tra^ka. New York, £. 
P. Dutiun A Co., 1883. 

Hox. Ja*. M. Woolworth, LL.D. 
CMholic. The word Caiholic, «a it« 
etymology «howi, wui of Cirevk origin. It 
_^ ]■ ooDijMunded of two words ^Kata and 

olt^s, Kef ISiBv), and mean* literally " cmtha 
whole," or, as applied to the Churcb, *■ Vki- 
versal." St. Cvril, Patriarch of Jenualin, 
before the midtjle of the fourth century, snj 
Alexauder, Patriarch of AlEXHndria rarliB' 
in the Moie century, both UKd It. It prob- 
ably came rapidly into use throughout th> 
Chiireh after iha second Geueraf CoiiiicS, 
held in roiist&ntlnople SSI a.d., whicli^nt 
the whole nrtielc, ii> follow* : " In Ourlliiilj 
Catholic and Apostolic Cbureb." 

Catholic was used coRimonly as one of lb* 
name* of the Church from the time of lb 
first Geiienil Council, held at Kiet it 
Bithyniu SSJi a.b., though itdoet not apfttr 
in the original Cr«nl of Nice, It deslcnsHd 
those who udhered to the ancient fiuth m 
defined at Nice Tbey culled themsdns 
Catholicj, but named the neretioafttfthiir 
moi^t pn^minerit leadt?rs,— -f.j., Cerintbisi^ 
Murfioriitiw, Moulttiiiils,AriaDS, 2<«iterisa% 
Eutychiuns, elv 

Catholic wM not long coming laU A 
forms of the Creed, and became a dfdl- 
cant and diatingulihini; title of the C^uith 
in common usq both among Oreelu sad 
Iinlins. IL wn* and still ii accepted as CM 
of the Jour notes of the Church, "tht 
Body of CHKiaT," from its very nature sad 
ronititutlon, was, is, and ever inusloonlittMi 
Oiiii. Holy, Catholic, and ApQatolic; 0■^ 
as being the organic body in mystical M 
ruul union with "Him, who is Bead ew 
all things to the Church:" Holy, as till 
dcpoiiitum of the truth and dispenser ef tk( 
nacrmnirnt-', by which hi>linei> is begtin, n^ 
lured, and increased: Catholic, asMntinl' 
ell ibe world to pruacli the C><iepel, to ^*^ 
tiwT and fivd with the " Brand of UeaTco" 
everv one, and all who would he saved ; aB"< 
Bnally, Apottolic, ns buill upon the foun^ 
tk>n» of the Aposlle* and Prupbei*. Ji*''* 
Ohsist llimself being lb« chief eoroV 

The word has been sadly raisuMd in ^ 
oourso of history, and meet aignnlly by 1" 
AaRUiTipti'onii. of the Roman Church. In vA*! 
iiwrly times the Bubop of Rome was •^ 
t-(juiit«43 one of the live Patnarchl of •" 
C^.ntholic Church, each one olBoially <^tisS ^ 
the 'itlivr. These patriarchates difftrtd ' 
L]urnli'i>i'% and influence: those of 1 ,_ 

ConttnnLinople being the greaCaat. Indtf^ 
so Ionic u Chrisilan emperors ruled 
Bonuin Empire, from the throne in Byi 
tium, the Sea of Constantinople was 
chief in power, though on account of 
dii;nity of old Rome a kind of nypeeV^ 

Srioriiy was ulluited lo the Roman BM^ 
tilt the Hssuniptlon of the exclusive 
lo the nnmo Cnthnlio wa» m^ver made 
Uomo In early llmu, and is not yet even 
cfdcntally confesecd, much less allowed, 
tbe KhsI. Int^idnnlnlly it h»< come intoee ~^ 
mon use in the West, so that aeclarians i 
the world call tbe Roman Church C«lhol 
but no careful and. wcll>uugbt Efl^liik 
American Churchmfln e»or gives her 
andent, signitirant, and almost aacred 





Ithougb UwContiDADUl Refurfui-r« did 
uke the term Callmlic iv tlicmt'Olvci, 
IthcCbnrcli of England mnd her dftughler, 
fcAnrricnn Chuix'ti, bavr adhered lo it 
Kon WiMtrJiMiUy. It Mti fflrth thoirL-Uim 
V tafiWM witli th« prtmltiTO Ctiurcb. It la 
tbatigk, w«rri>al, and itxtirant-e tbttt their 
■tentj U darived in uolimlcon dnciiiiC 
bMIlK AwMtlaa; thiit ibe faith (licy cikm 
nlnio uia ht^r witcoM to i« the ono failh 
«Mb bu b«M) from Ihe beginning ; tlmt 
■meata tli#y mdniliilfLeraraC^BUT'a 
srewitb He isnvcrpreMfit tobestow 
Qt the grftcc He Kttaohed to tinih ; 
Ihe HwLT SrmiT cootlnually In- 
I Hir, making Her wittioKi mocepUtile 
r ninulnliuni effectuul. 

Cftlhulic i» to ««t forth Amoug 
of truth In tb« Crood that it do- 
M)leniD utf. They viliu make It k 
noa of pari;, either do not recognize 
ti devotional «igniflc»iico, or do not 
tbe fulln«u of It* meaning. It 
I r«nt«nded for earnestly wh«n de- 
af eVKD the v«ry n«me of our Loiii> 
but \t± ordinarir u»p )> u devolinriHl 
Ixa (pokeo it ihauld briii); u[i in 
'■ toati the ricb and dour ucniciout- 

iwf irwimtiiitfiti &Mik*, 
"ill Jalo la OiaiM, Uiak llftos BtaA. 
Aad •( 111* V* pMtak*." 

Tbt indent, though nnt priiniliv«i, applt- 
Iflf Ihenimie I'alholir In tlin C}iurc-li 
LuJrsnal use for more than Unecii 
1, hnv«indt:cr>(l tbc desire, whidi 
rofteo warmly ei[>rfu«id on the floor 
nl CuHv«ntiun, iu change the titl<-> 
t lb AfD*rican Cbarch from the prciflnc 
'hWiiUnl E|.lico(.ftV' I... ■'The Caihi>lio 
^iRiiii Atnerica. " II i* arf^ued that tre 
wiolvcakly prat«xt ngnin*! Itnrnc, hiit 
tt»l»»ilrinly and reanlut«ly rejfci licr un- 
*UWHe auumption*. It is 8aid thnt Epts- 
^^ H a distinctive appellation, may be 
^IVfnled aa * negative erafeesion that the 
>fbr«)«cy ii not *-*jentia1 to the legUimdlo 
P^'Unlixn of the Uburch. Uowevor tbo 
MUvreniw About the name may fare, It is 
MhMta faoi tbat the American Church in, 
■IbtCfeed the rccttei »rtd forth, a. true and 
■"wtitd oulerowtb from the #t*m of the 
_w»iH<ilT,C*Uiolic, and Apostolic Cburch ; 
1 tint the b»a the riaht, wlieiber abe ex- 
it or not, Id cAllherteir bv the old 

JbrehDdreD are not dispoeod to loae the 

"t^thelrown l^itiinn^y. Tbagrowing 

"""pB uid icnoiiit iipprccialion of ihc 

tbVf are born itiroiif;b and nur- 

;^tbt Bride ot Cukibt is caunng a 

devp Mrcwptiun of ibe tbKia of 

olio heritage. They are more 

accounting the Church ns in 

boHc, and thereby perceiving 

•Uicently and feeling; niDr(> pro- 

' Iheir common anion with ail thi» 

early and Uit« Christians, In life or death, 
wha Arc in llie imtnurUl Ciitholi<: Church, 
of whli'h ('a HIST wM, ii, and ever will con- 
tinue \hv Livini; Mciui. 

Catholic Epistles. The EpisllM of 8t. 
Jantes, the twu of St. Peter, the three of St. 
John, nnd the Epinle of 8t Jude are so 
caIIihI. Tbore in no very wtisfacltirv reason 
for the titV, wliicb y«t U fnit Ifl be noel 
Appropriate. P'rhajM the title as it is trans- 
luU-d in our Aulboriiivd Vertlon gains iU 
true explanattui), The Qeneml Euitlea, as 
encyclical and not to local ChurJhcs; and 
stnco it may be objected thiit thi« cunoot 
Apply to the sccnd and third of St. John, It 
mny be naturally not refi^M^d la these »Iiiirt 
fpi*tl«», >it\cr it in priip<,T to tliu limgirr finl 

Celib«cy. The virgin state; butthcword 
i« now UBi'd gi'ivnraily til diinoto ihu vuw of 
never ruarryTng exacted from inoinbers of 
Ihc Roinun Church, who enter eithnr some 
moniutic order, or tnke tcctejJn«ti»-al ofltc*. 
It has no foaI defense, and li productive of 
much HvU. Tt is true, however, tbat undar 
■iiino circumntancfv evuiii 8t. I'aiil cori- 
■nended the unniArried !>l«te, but this hait 
DO true relation to tbc <]a«slioii. Tlie New 
Testament luyt nothing tliat bt-an upon tbis 
except that several of toe Apustlas were niar- 
ried, and in the dircctinn to Timothy fl 
Tim. lit. 12), that the BIsbop ihnvild be the 
bunband of one wife. But there nri>se at an 
early dat«i a strung f-cling that lbi> clHrgy 
shniild rnnjain tinmarnwl. Voluntary vow* 
uf virginity werft orimmon and inrroiwed as 
the Church grew, till the Komen weronumor- 
ous enough to be put into a ganeral oruanl- 
uitlon under Episcopal rule. The tondency 
WAS strong to un;e the clergy lo reniAin un- 
married. This increased to tbat the clergy 
were utiially unmarried; but there wai no 
imperative rule beyond continurnis effort* by 
the BishopA, both Kust and W-t^, lo carnr 
out Ibis purposa, till the Civil Law forbn« 
the priwt to marry arur ordinnlion. It is 
ntvdliuii here to nwounl the condilioni per- 
mlLtcd or the disabilities incurred. The 
BMtcrn Church was conlentcd with this re- 
striction,- but the Ltttio Church went fur- 
ther, and after a long and «evcre stniggi* 
broke «p the marriagn of th-we in nnurs. 
Tt wan diaaitrous in many nay*, and Iho 
only gain was the dependence of the clergr 
upon tbd Church Hlonebv tbn suverAnve of 
nil family ties. The R«f'oniuitlon was tho 
only shuck the sysleui has received. Tho 
Church of England at onc« threw off lb« 
yoke, and permitted marriago to li«r olersy. 

The person in the Roman Church who 
lakes a monastic voir is bound by this 
promise, and bo too every Deacon, Priest, 
add Bishop. It is probable tbat mAoy clvgr, 
living in apparent concnbinaga, worflsevKtly 
bound by a marriage vow ; at least, there la 
proof that many on their d«ath-ljed, by ac- 
xsowlcdglsg the woman, attotDptcd to «t- 
tablieh a marriage and to salve their con- 
ic i«nc«. 


Cemttcry. Aildcjiitig-DlnL-e. Tbiinknui 
WM u>r<) by CliristJMnH U> oeiiulo tli<> ]>liiceor 
turitti. Il wu K now and beimtiful luo 
of II word tliut Cbritluiiiily iiilmducvd. 
('*I)c«th ift iiicit ijeath among Cb rjtUwnt, bui 
ucftjitid kalccping uid k itating."] 1) WM 
In ilM b«fure ihe j-ear 22il a.u. Th« early 
Cburch wae very cureful, if i>o«]ble, lo sep- 
■rutx iu diwd frr^ni lho«> of tflo birBlhen, mtd 
NO uccjuiri^ l)urini-gri lunda uttbo Mirlitiil uj^ 
fiuttuntly. Ill I{uiii«ltieburi>laweri>maOoiii 
thi' uDdcrgrouiul )(all«riea of Uw Mtscombt. 
Tbo veinvioric* w«ro Rcixud in tiinr»of [t«r- 
lecutioD, but were very jjctuemliy promptly 
rcnWrod. Tb>; wurd liai long •inru k'«l il« 
old e«n>e, Bind now rocjuit (imply a buriAl- 

Ceaser. A ligbt vpnnet, iwiine by cbnin*, 
ftod 111 wliicli inccHM' i* burnt. In iiicdi«.-\Bl 
and later timM in ihc £nj;lHb Churah. at 
Uio titno of tb« vigli^bruiiou uf ibe Huly C«m- 
uiutiiun it U hIwkvi uHcd. 

It wu oiia uf llie v«M«li u»«d hi Jewiih 
wonbi]). Il conlaiDcd iha livu cokU upon 
wbicb incen»e wm pui to incento ihfl KlUr 
Hml th« (ucriflon, luorniiiK and evenine. 
The cenaerwiuit|i«ciallyat«d when tbvQigli- 
IVictl, on ibu great day of At<invmeiit. went 
inio th« Holy of Holies. Iu ue« ia the 
ChrtftiHii ClKtrcb, whilq indic^tvd. \* boi di>- 
Aiird Hi ail Diirly uga. Thu trarliriat CL-nMirs 
(tliuriblu) III L'li Lionel! neiglied Ibirty nod 
&rt«Mi puundu rot|MKtiv(>ly, Hnd so could not 
hAT« bcvn (wung, Th«y were aaM to bo 
](iruorCon»uiatiii« lu tb« Church of Kouq. 

CanaurBB, Eccleuavticml. Th« p«nklii«f 
by which, forMiiiu) notable »iti, t'briiUan lay- 
ni«n are deprived of cvinniuiiion. or olerjty- 
Bi«ti are probibit«d to axwule tocir eacrvd 
offioa. ThoM) ueiwuni* ar« vxmfumunica- 
tioa, *u»poniiaii, and inlerdicl. and (leaser in 
rank) Irregularity. All lenleDCoa iiictirr«d 
by any diKubcdiem.'!; or »in are cvmurva of 
ili(> Church. Thtiy involve l)I'I!> withholding 
or thtiM) gifb for tAo iniritual llfo which sbe 
bu to em; and if tn« *«Dl«n1^« be jMilr 
tnctirred, the low to the pitlty parly of all 
thnt tboy would ooovvt- The Church may 
cut ol) from t-ouifnunioi) , or inflict InMcr 
puniftliuirni, Ixit ahe caiiuoL rt|<«l from it 
aDddoiirivu itiL- >iai>arof the entrance into 
tJia viaiblo Cliurvb wbich tho facrament of 
ba)rtUin bat givi^n. She can ditclpline, and 
tbatt loo, sev(tr«ty. but tho cannot ftoally 
di»inh«ril : that i* the «o)ft privilege of 
ChrDit itlone at the day of Judsiuent. 

Central New York, Diocese of. In t80fi 
A.D., Ui»ho|i CoKOoalta^ tbcatleniion of hU 
Convention lo tlko need of greater pfovblon 
for Xpiecopal work io th<> liauta of bis See. 
During I8w a~v., the lubjvcl vnu furllier 
diioUMsd. and in 18il7 jl.d. it wa> reiKiried 
to the Convention by a t'oiiiiiiillee afpoinlod 
for that purfioae thnt Blo|e bo (ikki'D to have 
the livDcral Convention pvrmit the erection 
oftheixninllosof Urm>iiie,Ca>U|;a, Chenus, 
Cbanango, C«>rtlaDd, JvR«r»ou, i^wia, Mad- 
ifloiii Oneida, Oitondaga, Uiwcgo. tf^neca, 
TiOjga, and Tompkins Into a mv Saa, A 

fnrlhar rewilutlvn wai offered lo) 
Fedarate Council aof the Dtooei 
Stat*. The (joneral ConT«ntloD ol 
coucurrod, and k primary Conn 
callad ai Cllca on November 10, 
Fifty cWgy and eighty-seven 
tiet mot tn Trinity Cburc-h, Ctki 
tb9 off^niation . Bw. I>r. F. I 
cboaen Prigeident, and Rov. A.B. 
Bffcrelary. A minute ujion the . 
and cordially recognising tho pa 
of Bifhop Coxo Id the past aod 
him ibi.'lr thank* wa< paswd. Oi 
ber 11 the elecliun of Bishop was 
order of Ihc day. After Sve bai 
Vt. a. il. Liitlojohn was dul 
Dr. Liulcji'hn declined th« elaeU 
sp««ial Convention wm summooa 
uary 18, 1K&9 a.D. Bishop COi 
over flny>«even clergy cmdone hu 
forly-tevcn lay dvpuii'v; Rev. J 
Jnbu preiiched the o[wntiiK wrmoi 
third ballot the lt«v. Dr. F. D. H 
was t-lrcted. Ua waa coOMcrai 
parish i.-hur«b whlcli he vw leai 
manuel, Boston, by Rt. Bev. BUli 
on April 8, 18S9 a.d. Bisbopa 
PoU«r, Clark, Cose, Neoly.and Du 
in the act of consecration. 

Tho Constitution which had b«V 
and m-ted on In ih« jireviouB sp 
vcniion wat adtijilrd Juno 14 al 
Convenliun in Uracc Cburcli, Dt 
Convi-iiiion Iniiuediately Hdjourm 
ganised as the ^evond Annual C< 
The revorla at thai Convention w 
upon inc needs of the Dinc«so it 
of educiition, a woric which baa bi 
forward in that See with great «n 
•>a<wUenl rvnorl wai made uiwn 
in the Painlly. tbr Mean* of Cbui 
tion, the f raciicabitity of Paroctai 
and D iialemant of Ibu nisource* < 
CUM! in thii iiD^iortaiii work. The 
pregnant reaolutinns were *dop(t« 

" Xemhttt, That the chief -«e 
Christian edutsUon is the Cbrlatl 
and tbut all parmita connected 
Oliurcb ihould endeavor to raalla 
ilegu und obligations of Ibabapli 
nant, both as reapecia Ikeaiaeltea 
children; »hould aim to nilflll j 
by tho falthTul Inculcation of lb 
which a Christian child ought to 
beliav* for itasoul't hnattb : bj- 
supervUioB over their cbitdrcn 
reading, and associations; and by 
in tvferenoo to their plans of resoi 
lar leaching, aa may bo neoesaWI 
them not only acainst oantaml 
nwraU, but aUo ine uadaminii: 
faith ia Uia doclrina* and jnd 

" Hitaolrtd, Thai we recomnai 
ubIliJtnent, wb«ncr«r practicab] 
ehial, infant, and grammar acbo^ 
for children from sereo to iwalv 

"Staotrtd, That lh« doffJ 


F <xii:nTmac« ami to includa in tbdr 
icbikt t«|K>rta thv mmUon or uicli pri- 
ftcbiH'lBm tlieir narubMMOw^ be eon- 
od or MUlrollna bj? camniitnii«ntH of 
Bbureb, pro Tided tlie pruprivUinor audi 
tftb «lwirgive tbeir coattai b> Uie pub- 
lion of lucb lUtiomcni. 
RMOl90d, Tlut u th« fur of th« Lord 
tw bcfsinniug of witdatn, «nil aU true 
niitf I* rounded upon nligioo, in tb« 
||Bitat of Ihia Cunv«mion >nv ■}-&t>^tn 
Mulu Aducfltioti tbtliitwtsiippMin«nlcd 
MOM manner by an inculcation uf tbe 
idUDaaul d<>ctrini4 und iirrvepta of Ohrii' 
.ust in the end bil to secure Liie 
of society And th« pr.rman^nt 
of l)i«6uite.-' 

■• outipuk«n ind a* tLrcugly 

•show now thoroiighlv awake 

SUMwof Uentrikl Nctr York U to the 
letili tn tbo poptilMr education, uid 
niitnibly lh« prccvnt tytlom faih in 
ng all tbie n(<ait* uf a Clirintinn eiiiiitnoTi- 
.and uf giving wbul Ibe Cliurub is 
1* Iry to give hor ebtldron, Ihe )aintr» 
loekofCaUHT. It Ih in tliU line tbui 
Biriio[i baa klwuiIj written iimut the de. 
uddaiii^sn of lb« t^alwm ul ediicntiun 
Slate attempt* to provide. It ia under 
tedanbip that tlie eduostionul «tloftd 
faave Inrreaaed and dmrnned. 
thara were 96 puriihaa aod mia- 
1688 tbera wen lS8 ; in I6ti9 tlirre 
raatoul of <8 clern at wurk; in 18K3 
*«tnM«lfrKr; iDlMOthLTV wurvHT'l 
nnnleaiiU; in ]A!U Ihem v/an 12,848; 
IMibera were 1074 i-i>iillrn>»d ; In 1883 
vera 1880; in im» ihcn wa» a lolal 
tH8,lie.'A) contrlUitod; in 1869 tbrtc 
aUtaloftM2,»4.76oirvrttd for Qod's 

f — i w i' |i cf 8iati*tic» (from Litin^ 
Anniul). — Clitrjcy, ^il ; |>ariiliea aiid 
I, I$8i fatnilie,* ;«VV; indivJduaU, 
U; bafWiiRui, infnnu, 901, aduiu, 314, 
li, iaB&; conilrniiHl, 1880: voniiiiuni. 
12,848; marriaijes. 482; buriaU, 878; 
fahieboulf, Uacber*, 2,icl)olBr<. 42; Sun- 
MtlKmk, i«Bcben, I06Jt, acbular*, 8308 ; 
bibailoR*, r^I.-WI.-A. 
InUal Pennaylvania. History of tbe 
teeic of, 1871 tSSa A.D. [n ]8(M it..&., 
A* neat Conv'^ntioo after tbe formation 
IIh D»'«t*« uf Pitt*barg within lb» oH^- 
bnit* of the EHoivMt of PcnniiylvuniH, 
■bjarluf anotherdiviiion of Ibe latter 
na Wat brought up by a rewluLion and 
nd In a Lixuuiiueu uf naven, tu report 
tm at tlic next aiimiul Cooveniion. 
mwrt of tliu conimitlec, vbtn pro- 
•4 In IM7 A.B., thuw*d that out or 75 
Wb» in the dt*trl<!l prop>««d to be »et 
aaljrW wi*h«d ditiiiun, and out of &6 
, only SH approred tbemeoaurn. 
Cnnvrnltuo it wua resolved, tbe 
Penoffylvania ooncurrini;. that 
given lu ill* pmpuxed dl«i>iuit of 
I, on coodliiuu ihut twixtlurda of 
aad of the |wriahca now etditled 

to r»prMentatii)n therein, and hainj; in that 
portinn of UiK DiiicRic pmponcd tobeaetoff, 
do fciVG oScial inforiutttion to the Sttuidisg 
CommittM uf thoir dtttiro for HtKih divis- 
ion, and that lb«y have provldtid aufficiant 
luran* fur tbo lupporl of their Bisliup. tb« 
prupuied division b«in; nil thnt portion of 
Ibo pr«'*«nt LKoceio of Pennsylvania which 
IliM outaldoof ibe t'ountiM of Philadelpbis, 
Cheater, Delaware, Uonlgomery, and Buck*. 

fly tbr siirnc Conventidn, all tJie doou- 
menta louchins the diviiion o( Ibo Dloceao 
wwro njffliTwd lo tbo C^mmiltoe on Division, 
appointed lit thn Imt Ounrention, and tlM 
auid com in it lee cuntinue^l. It was uImi rA> 
Bolvnd Ibtit l!i^ oemtnittAO confor with thA 
Biibop of the l>l<>cute of P«uDHvlvaiiia and 
eaihudy tliu rosuli uf tbeir cunieTence !n m. 
report to the Convention. Tfaia the coia- 
RiiltM did in IH(tH A.D.,ivnd the cnnsontof 
the C'onvAntion wai given to a dlrinion on 
what ia called the fourte^n-coiiniy line upon 
(wrtiLin ootiditions and rnitrirtiun*. Th* mm- 
(lili»na went notoonipliod with, and i\u: plan 

I'he Bishop of Fenitiylrania, in tha Oon- 
ventiun »f 1370 a.b., afpiln cwlled atLentlon 
tu (lie aubject, atiJ aiked fur a dlviiion of 
ih*^' Uioce>e, declarini; that be should not 
wiibhuld hla oonienl from any line wlilfih 
the Convention, titwr fVill diteustion, iboiild 
in it* wudom llx upon, provided ibni it 
slinutd h uve in the DiiKVao uf Pc^nniij'lvania 
not lu^ than the Hve countioa uforeJaid. 

In aucunlunce with Um portion of tbe 
Bisbitp'j n<ldr<U4 tb« Convention nt 1870 
A.ti. ipivR oonH.-nt lo the f'lnnntian of a nuw 
I)iiM.i;M; to lie tliiu couiEiOsed ; and aUo In* 
fttructed tbeir duputiot to tbe nest GenmU 
Cuiivenliun to pruscni their ruaolulion, dulj 
autheniieaied, tu that body, and rei)ueatlu 
(■oiiMjnT to. and i^tiflciilion nf, the >amo. In 
Jum^, 1871 A.11., the Iti.ihup of tlio I>U>ceM 
of pQuoEylvunin appi-itiled ihe followinr 
Sentlnmen n Cotnniiltve of Clorgyman and 
Ijuymttn tt> take chur^ of tbe prt^paralion 
of the iietet»ary documenla concerning tiM 
divifion of Iho I>iix-c<o, and (u lay tlj« mm* 
Iwfitrc Gwiivral Convention, vis.; Tbe 
tCev. 3Ie**r*. A. A. Marple (ohairmaD), 
Wm. 1'. Lnwia, [!.()., I>r.ighton Ui'lcman, 
K. J. Ki-eline, D.J)., and Wm. P. Orriek; 
the Hon. Mewr*. Frvderick Wotu. T, B. 
Fninklin, Judf^n KlwitU, Mnuri. A. itink- 
atta and Henry CiipjieB, LL.D. (■L-crulurif ). 

In Genoral Couventiun, held at Ualli- 
morc during tb« murlli of Oclobef, 1871 
A.TJ., the Kookoof BiBhiipt and the IIhumi 
of Clenea] and Lny l}c|iulic«duly i-oncurrnd 
in giving oonMvnt to and r*tifyin< the for- 
uiiition of thu new Uioceae fruoi date of tl)« 
(lib <if October, 1871 A.n., admitting it inlo 
iiniiin with the Gvnwral Convention fnim 
and after the SlhdayofNovember, 18T1 A.D., 
and directing that the name of tbe new 
Diocoev bu detvrminud by Ibe Primary Con- 
vention thereof, with tbo (■tiiueat of tlM 
Bliliop of PeiincjlvaniH. 

Cuuonical kclioa btin); Ihtu complete, tli« 


UMmiiin^ of llifi rrimarjrOotiTtntion of 
lli« ti'Tw J^occ-wc III at- .St«ph«n'i Church, 
Hurbbu^, Dti Weilnetda;, the 8th of Nik 
Tember, fur orgHiiisatiou, nnd appoinlcd 
Rohon A. I.ainbertai], It(q.,<^f ilurriitburg, 
to Act u icRiftorary Secreury. 

In tbe PninBrr Convdniion 59 ot Iho 
clcrgj wnr" ntitiilnd Ui »™itii, of whi"iii .^7 
were pte»(:ttt. uml 1U8 i>f iha liiily, of whom 
1114 were |)r06enl, repre&entinf; i6 pari^hf'f, 
■ittutwl in 2'i countk-s. Tb« KL Itov. Wtn. 
BaM>ii Steveii», D.D., LL.D., DUhop of 
PeaDK.vlTAnin, wni J*r«(ident. There were 
proaGnt ttUo llu- (i>ll<>w>ni;-nunii>d vieit'in 
Ilroin the Church of England : the Kt. Kev. 
Dr. Selwyn, Lord Bi«bii|> of Lichfield (ilia 
Apoill« of Nhw Zeiil«rid), with hif K>n, ihfl 
Bev. Jiibn R. Si-lwyri, iind the Vary R«V, 
Ur. ilowiion. DuHit of Chssur, nnd iho Kev. 
J. H. Hoc, lU-clur •^>f WulvvrbBinptuti. Tho 
Bi*hu[i of Lii-'hflHd di'livrruO lli« lorinuu, 
and dirin« Mrryice bL-in;; eowludod. ihe 
dwgj and Uj delcgiitc» priMtnl and cUim- 
Inv uau in tnc O&DTcntic-n w«rc crIIoJ to 
order by Diibap Stevi-ns, who Inirodueed 
the EDi;liKh Churclimeii, the Oonvn^ntion 
riling 1(1 rrcpjvR th«m. On pixH?r»Jiiig to 
nacn« tbe new Dii>cese, the foUowiD|;deeiK' 
tiBllans were pnt fornitrd br variouo uiDni- 
iMni, vix., Conlral PnnnirlviLnU, Hkrriii- 
hurg, Wi1Uiuii>[iort, BolfilcUein. Kiutetn 
Peaneylvaniii, Liahfleld, nud Mjddlo Dlo- 
coeof Piinnsylvunin. Oii llio fourib bullot 
ibe Bnt iiRiut; was clni»en br u TOnvurroDce 
of biilti iirUttm. aiid rut'olved tho consent of 
tho Itifhop of I'cnnaylvAiiiii. On tho cvnn- 
tnt; of tbo flret day ino Lord Bt*hop of Licli- 
flcld and D»aD Howwn addrewwl lh« Con* 
vention wn "The Work of 'Wotnen in the 

Tho Cummiltee on tho Enduwment of llie 
£pisco)iikte of the I>ioc««e mado rupori tbut 
thn^ htMl ghtftinwl ^1,000 in uuIl »iid 
pledgM; that tbey ooosidered it ei|>ei]icnt 
to niM the BUiu to the amount of 176,000. 
The Cenrcntion revived that until th<! tn- 
W>mv from iLe ED<l<>win'i>nt Fund ihould 
ftilly iiioel the Bli-hop'a »HlHry (which wai 
fixed nt $4fiO0). an raiiitablo a>u<-»mrnt 
sboiiid bn modu upon lD« pariaJii^a fur tho 
whole amoant of the lama, «aoh parith being 
vriNjited upmi iho >nid asHaainenl witli thu 
Interrai ai^crulng on iU lufaacHpliun tu tho 
Endowment Fund; and the eomniittee wa« 
rt-quf^ictl iotoli«il additional lubicriplio&s 
to that Fund. 

Noniinatioue for a Biebop beinj; in order, 
the Iter. Dr. Koeline nominated tlie Iter. 
>lBrk Antony DeWolfe Howe, D.D., rec- 
tor of ^t. I>uke'« Church, Pbiladol|>bin ; 
the Rot. Dr. I 'a ret nominatJK] t]t« K*T. 
Genr);e Loed*, Trctor of Or*<.-e Uhurcb, Bal- 
titaoT«. The rote of Uie elergv having 
been taken, on the 6t*\ ballot th« "Kev. Ur. 
Bovo wa» d<-L'Iured duly ni<inlnat«d by the 
dersy Ui the Iniiy ; and on tlie flmi role of 
thetallj. a iniij"ritv baving rotcd fnr ap- 
prOTftl, ihe Chair declared that the Rev. 

Mark Antony Do'Wolfn H<>w«, I> l> .waith 
ehuico of the CvnriQtion for BlihopofCn 
tral Pc'nnfylvama. Whereupon the Rn 
Dr. Paret ntovud acii] it was 

•' Jtftotced, Thai tbe memben «f*AI 
Convcn lion, clerical and lay, do unaoinoadj 
(ii-uppt the filoctioa of Iho Rev. U. A. Db 
Wolfe Hove, D.D., to be the Ant Biahopof 
thia DiocMa; nnd do, withotu eiceptloo m 
re*iirT«, eamenLly entreat hi« auceptaace of 
the same, iik*i]glnK him in hia work (bi 
CUR18V ana the Caurch their scaJooi ut 
loving eo-ope ration.'' 

The Convention alio eteeUid tbaf<dlaa1i| 
Stjin-Jin); CamniitU>c of tbe Diotcoe : Cltt^ 
cul member*— the Kev. Metitr«. A A. Xa^ 
plo, D. WwhburD, "William P. Orrkk. Wll- 
iiam C. Leverett, and R. J. Keeling, DJI- 
Lay niv-inbers — ihi- Hon. Meaira. J. If. 
Huynard, V. L. Maxwell, E. O. Parrx.Aa 
Packer, iind Mr. B. A. Lanbertoa. 

Th« Conillluiion and Cunonii of the Si*- 
ceM of ['enimlvania wore adopted by Hill 
I>ioco#e with Biich few alierationa aa «fll 
nocuMary or expedient. 

Tbe .SlandinK Committee having beeala* 
■trucled by tho Primary Conventio* tatda 
thn ncccfciary steps for tho con aec ration tf 
the Rev. Ih-. Howe, appointed the Rev D>- 
Keftlinc to make tho proper ooromunieatl'a' 
to tbo Htandinn; Commillew of all the Ui- 
ctMoa in Ihe DuiLecl Statn, and to the |ir«f >il- 
ing Itiihop. Whrin the canonical eoiiMali 
had been received, tbe presiding Bii)iOfi,lki 
Ki. Kev. Benjamin Bu4wi>nh BmtUi, DJ- 
(a malemal unele of the Bliliop-eled), W- 
pointed bit contecration to lake placeMlU 
V«««t of the InnocontH, in St. LukeVChsr^ 
PlilladelphiB. Of the Houio of BUMi 
then* w«r« prei>eni and lakinf; part in H 
ninarr ration on that day the pmldllf 
UiHhcrTi uiid Binh»ri of Ki'ntiiirkv, th* ^ 
Kov, brs, Lfc, of Delaware, McllvaiMjel 
Ohio, BuduU. ii(ii<iHnl Bitbop «f Ohio, W- 
ler, of Now York, Kerfooi, of Piitstulf- 
Clark, of Rhode Inland, and Morris, Mi' 
dioiiary Bishop of Oregon and WaiUliKWa 
Territory. The Htt><ndanl Preabyieri of* 
Uijihoji-pN-ct wnro the Rev. Mr. 1A'a«hWf 
itni tbi! Knv. Dr. Panel. The eermoo W 
delivered by the Aaaislant and Biihop * 
Ohio, and the prerenttni'iit mada by * 
BiihoiB of Rhode Uland and of Pittmll 
Tbe Itev Mr. Murplo rend l})« leatinoff 
of the Convention of Central Pennajlva*' 
tbo Rev. Ur. Levcreit, tbe certiflcate of ' 
content of the mejority of the Stan'^ 
CoRimillew, and the itev. ItenJatni^H 
Haighl. D.D., that of thn raajurity d^| 
Biibope. ■ 

During the twelve yearc of Its exlM'' 
the Dioeeae haa tncreaaed in the nunihar 
iti clcrf^ from 6Q (o 90. Twenty-«i^ 
newchurch buildinnlUTebctn con«ecrat« 
tome of which ittand noted among tbe n* 
Dincese* of ihe ITniict;! State* for tbair me 
linewt iind reniarkable bt>auty. In tbaaat? 
pvriud l!t.IH5 baptiaini have been adratn 
tered by tho patMtaial and niiiioa elw 



uwa liai cottArmeJ 831' DfTions 
ujuriwiielltifi. Thavrbvloiiuin- 
ea »nd mtMion itfttiDtt* h ll-l, 
186 communlcauu, and 12,043 

jr-^tk'lit of lb(i |Miriklii9 puMi-9.1 
f, l2 luirv abu u.-buul-liuUAU-i, 
netorits. In Xtt tuoafi iwclvu 
I sum of olTerinip mmU in the 
for all Cburch ubjecu U 
So ra*lly has the wnrk nf 
3an iiifrMkuyl that in c<riisid- 
«>f, Join«d wiUi tlio Ailviincp'l 
t}i«ho{), wlio liM (Wlitiol liiii 
lUIl all the duUvs of ki> office 
liol[i of a coadjutor, Itio liMt 
renlion, 18fS a.d , apiKitou-ii m 
rvuoflal ihe next Cunveulitm 
i of tb« etccUon of an AoMitaiit 

Bnaylvtnia is divided into four 
, ^alnMl ri'dpeclivcly ihu Rtiad- 
riiburfC, tbe WilUauitporL, and 
itcrn ; tbi^ PrcaideDU of which 
tcUrical tnembcr* of tb« Suard 
[luioiit. ThaSwreiaryofCort- 
T. R. A. Lambnrtan, LL.U. ; 
' of IhtCofiveotiiin and Ejiiocu- 
Ur. P. B. Stcuon ; ofthoOoitrd 
ir. RobL H. Siirni : Ibv Rttgiiu 
htcMaiiHr. Win. H.Chatuner, 
ibt Chaacellor, Hon. Thoms* 

ebiuHven Church intiiiutions, 
ilicb UniTewily, atSi^uih Beib- 
«d and «ndi>wod by lhi< Hon. 
af Maiiclii;i>< IStiKA.D., 
ibL A. Latnbcrlon, LL.D., is 
itli a fairully of tljirtii.'ii iiinm- 
brary buildin);, whk-h i* vae <ff 
I tnuat luhstaulioi in tbc coun- 
I by Judge Pack«r in mcm'^ry 
daughter, Ups. Lu«y E. LLndo- 
■lled tb^ " Lucy I'liclcer Libra- 
iaia* at jirnwotari.OOdvoliimcii, 
rwed wltb t'lOO.IXK). Judgtt 
endowed thi' univr^ity wiUi 
St. ImVi'i U(Hpiin), at Suulli 
Inccrpuratnl Iti 1872 *.0., ri> 
Jte tantv givat bdo'^fBctor of the 
mdowment of $300,«00. The 
I Soh'Mil for Gi'li, also Eilu(i<«<] 
tblcbcm, wa* founilrd in 18^7 
> Hall, at Ki-adin^, ih lh« Din- 
boyc. Cotugo Hill S«nii- 
ibotnoachuol for yxiiigladtoii 
Tbt! Yaat«a lirntiiute h a 
boyi, at lAnca«U^r. Tbu 
Orphanage, tbe lat«it «»• 
ition, U at JonWowa, Le- 

■Ida at Kcadiog, where lie 
rhuroh, ihe rruiit eleraliuo 
_ jnlanbrins; i<nuof iiriliinK 
I'tawer containi a dnu altimo of 
b« chanc«l^-chuir and gani^lu- 
tetu «ni>ugh to wat ntarly tho 
ta aX*B, tb« Bishop and 
l«y, w. B. Moaariw. 

Caremony. The primary m«<anlDg la that 
of a cor^trml al-i giving nx{>roMi<tn lo a 
cpiriluul ac'U For Tnai&ncc. Id marrlajc^, 

buL ii juelfn rtlii. In Conflnnalion lliuinw 
[joaiiiiiii uT liiimU i^ ibt cereuiony, but the 
whole CL>n>ltit:t or octicin ol* ibe office i> a 
rite. Sool'thcoib«rofficM and facramcntal 
acta of ihe Church. But ttiii dittlnouon 
cannot be alway* aocuratcly followod from 
lh« Ian iiaago or the proper t«rin«; and ttu 
ritual i« often culled the ceremoiiial a! wor- 
ship. TbiBO riliw, or oarcmonin, am prop- 
erly tiMiijilelt'ly nudtsr ibe control of inn 
OburL'h. iind wljtlf w<^ may not alu-r augbt 
that Ciiitt.-<T ha* in»titut«l by word and ex- 
ample, yet the Churvh, a* a liviiiK p<iw«i, 
and niinlRti>ring lo iLe tpiritual needs of all 
men, munt have power to allor, amend, or 
control ritee nnd oarenioniei anitable to the 
loEidoncy vf liiu peoplea *he winiaten to. 
The oorenionlul of una part of thu Huly 
Uathulio Church may be an etHiiqilB fur, Uul 
it not an authority to, another inJcpL-ndent 
part, niinlsterlnKto a population with to- 
lallr dilTurKnt habiiudei. 

Iberhnrgcaoonen made, that tbe Church 
uiaed upon and used paean fciUvaU, while 
much exaggerated u lo Uie facu. i* rather a 
mark of her winloin and ndaptabiUty, that 
the ia to aavc men, uut tu cast th<>m throusb 
vome tingle uiauld. This rule bolda un*Kr 
allclrcumitanccf. Therefore, b owe re r much 
individual tule* may r<^rot the departurai 
made In oar Praver-Rooli from Ihe oxiu-t 

Riiclish order, the changes ttiemsvlvea were 
iiiiuli.- upon this fl rat ana proper prtocipie, 
and iho fathon> of the flrat Qeneral Cociven- 

li.iii. vrhicli adopiod our preeeot book, arnto 
he ojnimeiiditl for tlioir wiulntD and inuder- 
Htion, and were turuly under the yuidance 
of the UoLY CrflBIT. 

Chaldee. Thv language tuoken by the 
people* inhabliinff the alluvial (ilalna of the 
Euphrat<» and 'Figrii. It wnjt a ctigttate 
lan^age, or more nearly a dialect of that 
fanuly of Iho Sbt'iititio lanKUOSo l« whiob 
the Aramaic and tba nnbrvw belonged. It 
c-iuld ni>t l>« reudllv undentood bv tbe He* 
br«-w« {a Kings xviii. 2ft, 28). They oaooe 
in direct and continuous contact witb itdur- 
ing the CHittiTitv- ParU of Jeremiah (ch. 
X. II), of hanie'l [ch. ii. 4; vii. '^), and 
Kzrii (oh. iv. 7 ; vi. IS; vii. IS-2EI) arc pure 
Chaldee, but nuny words and phraun are to 
he found in tho iui'irpuriions of Holy Scrip- 
ture whicb are i^lmel}- connected with the 

Cbalice. The Cup used in iho adminislra- 
tion of tbe wine in the Lord's Supper. Tlie 
word in from the Latin calyx. It was made 
of any matrrinlaocnaible. At llrst, of gUoa, 
uf wood.of ailvcr, orof gold; but »oim wood 
was furbidJen rtbougb atill lued in pJMea 
till a lute date), and glass, pewter. goM, 
silver, bronz« were usmL Tbeae onaUcea 
w^re oflen i>f very beautiful workniiuiahlp, 
finely pulisbcd atid cbased. and in outBy 
uaeaa incriuted with precioua ston<». 




Chancel. The vpmee In > church whkli 
conuinn the choir nnd Mnrtimrv. und whii-li 
wai gwnnntllT ■■•pnrntrd friim thn niivn by a 
rRil or grutinij (•.-nncelli), rrom whkli it 
deirlTtt iU nsRie. It i* u cbBreclcritlic dif- 
fcrenco b«twc«n tb« Ruurn »nd Wijstorn 
Churchra thui In tho former Ihe i3htlncllon 
hMwwMi the beiTta, nr sanctusrj, and tht? 
choir in m miiih more «trnnely niarknl 
than thnt hMw^en the choir ana the imve, 
in tbp latter thn <Jisiini.'li(>n botwi-tm th«naTo 
ftiid lb« !-'h")ir i« latn-li nion- itnmBly miirKwl 
Ihnn llint botwepii tbt? t^hoir una thii biiiio 
Tii»ry. I Dictionary «rcbri»iiitn ADticiiili«, 
^^tiiTth Jt CheeibcRi, trTtft v«R.> Li.-fiiliy' i^^ 
chniicel U the pHraun's freenald, nti<I he Is 
ohlifrd to keep it in ropnir by Kngtiih Ec- 
eleolititlritl l.itw. 

ChtiRcelloT. In Enf^limd be ii the law 
olHtvr t" the Bi»hf>p, iidvining him in «1] 
Ingnl ntiitt*r-i ond IvuUIinif ci>urUi for him, 
Hl- muy hi- titlver u Inynian or a elergyiimn 
{Bi]i<.'k»t<>nt>, L. 8BS). It wunot of very an- 
eif'nt i]ilr'>du<:ti"n ltit» the EnijIUh Chiirvh, 
belnj; rath«r an imitttlion of ibe like title by 
the nKilf. li incUidpn two other offices, — 
tJAIdul T*hnclp«l and Vioar- General. "Tho 
Officii! I henrscauiM bet wenn party and pnrty 
r'ltii-orning will', liignriim, mHrriagfi*, ntid 
tlv« like . . . Til* pmctr work of tho Virar- 
(Jirneral ii the cxerd^i* and admlniEtnilion 
of juriidklicin, pun-ly tpiritua), by the au- 
ibi:>rity and under the direction of the 
Bithop, aa visitatioB, correction of manner*, 
gmntini; iniititutioni!, and the 1il(e, with a 
grncral inflation of ni«n and thing*, In 
order to the preiorrlnj; of dtKlpItne und 
CimnI goTfrnnH-ni in theChiireh." (Biimn, 
Kcirlraiiuliral h*w, vol. i. Sfl9.) 

In fiflfien of our Dio<ri>3M there Is a Lnw 
oMctr bearitis Ibin official title uf Chancel- 
lor, who >• apEiiiiiilird or elected tuadvUolliu 
fibhop and the Standln)* CommlttM upon 
•II legal matteM whirb atfocl tbo intrn>*tA 
of the Church a« bi* profcnlonnl counsel 
npaj be a«ted or rei^iiiri.'d. But bit dullM 
are by broad mnitnicti'.'n oflen »o »it«nd(>d 
ms to make him ntr>n law ad*ii>er to the Oio* 
ceutn OoQTcntiMn* 

Cbant. Tute Mmc. 

Chantry. In tlin Englith Prn-n'forniatinn 
('hurch, the eadawmeni or fitunding of a 
•mall chnpel i>r Mniirattd pUce in iho 
chttrcb, fur tayinK Mamc* for the soul of 
(otnc perton depnried'tbla lifi>. 'Wolnoy wss 
la the beelnning of hii eiir«^r a chantry 
nrittit- When »nrh foiindntionfl were given 
by ad of Pflrlioment to the kinR, in the loj^t 
T«ar of Henry VHI. (1546 a-B.), at hi* 
daalh Craiitnpr Iriwd In obtain fmni Edward 
Tl. the reinuaiit thiit bad tiul been confl*- 
cated for the relief of the poor parochial 
eUrrgy, but failed. 

Cliapel. Tho derlTatlon of the w«ird 
ia Terjf doubtful. It may be from the flict 
that tnr kinn of Prance tipnn their eam- 
paiCBi carrl^ with then St. Hartin'i ckak 
feappa]) and the tent in which it waj: kept 
ana wbarv ■arTion waa held wat called the 

C'apftlla. The English Churchd 
between chnpdi r<t)"al. domoi 
nnlh'giBtn rliapol, (.'hapeU of eat 

SiuriaTiiiiner* wlm live at a gre 
roni the parish church, paroch 
which arc endowed apart ftam I 
ehurch, free cbapeli, — i.t., exi 
EpS^ropa) Jurladii-tlou,— ohapel) 
l<>giiii<l«nnd corporal ioii», anach 
were built adjoining In the rhun 

Chaplain. OnKinallj- a PH* 
U> a chnpel. Thi?n n Minttler 
•errice to lomi- per^m rmpowi 
ploy one, av nn An;hbi<hDp, 
nave ••tght chupluinF, and bo too 
aopordin]^ lo their ntnk may 
proper number. C'lerj|tytnen'uf 
the army and navy, or in prboni 
or public oorponitiotu, whoar«»i 
illative hndieii, are called Chapln 
the rlerg_v whi> arw npnoinbed 
candidaica for Holy Otih-r* arp 
nmining Chaplaini. In fact, it 
title applied to any clercyman t 
corporate body !n "hit mii'ililnrial 

Chapter. (Vide UiDLr.) Tl 
derived from thp Latin GipvL 
name for one of the principal dl 
lnMik ;— in the Bible, one of the 
liuu* inin wliirh the tieritinile b( 
vided. It wae thn wurk of Oai 
(1240 A.D). who divided Ihe BI] 
veiiieDt •ectioiiK fur tlio purposes 
mrnt which lie wrute uiH>n it, ai 
ion ba« been ibv one followed «i 

Chapter. Vi/ie DKa?(, and Cj 

Character. In theological 1m 
•Mil," The tjwHal cracea ttaoin 
aoul hy tliiTgifta and graoea of 
means of sntratinn given to 
Church. The •«! of the SPI 
Lord \* ■pikcn of in auch coon* 
Paul, and in one or two placaa 
dalion. (Compare 2 Cor. i. 22; 
iv. aO; Kvtnnni iv. 1! ; Rev. \\] 
it. 4; 2 Tim. II. 10; Ui all of w 
Unal tmpreM of aoioe Indellbl 
la more or Icaa c!e»rlv a*»ertod, 
S Cor. i. 23; Bjih. !.'l9; and i< 
clearly to conBnnation.) It U 
doubled thai thnre ii an impmi 
oiirapIriLtial natura by the fftft* 
of Cvnflrmation, nnd of OrdtTiat! 
erace In ciren, It i* bectowed 
howwer we ainy aAerwards D 
abiiso it. 

Cbarcc. The addriw of thi 
his Clergy and Laity. In tl 
Church Archdoac'insdoalaodell^ 
Id the American Chun-h tt U 
wcigbtv diicuatiuu uf tome inipi 
tlon relatine cither to the Chun 
Of to the DioccM It l( pcnerall 
•otinrati/Iy, but ii lometdnca rM 
with the addresf, containing hi 
work done during the cnnrentio 
the Clergj and Laity in conrcittl 
apart from ihrir ability, thaw ch 
a alap forward in tha Churfh'a v 




bl«. An ftii«i«nt reaTtni^Rt wbich 
ii urten W€>rn by the Pilf;*t Kt the 
jn of ihr Uoly Cutuiiitiiiiuii, The 
VA« at flnl iho out-oM'tordrtuof 
ttwiic «b«n It liiul bocunio dittlnct- 
Chnrch ^arb. But by ihc ninth 
tt b«c*iiM a j>«rt uf th« V«ii(ini-iit 
a •olvmti icrricu. It was cin-uUr, 

aperture In tbe centre by wbich, 
mr lliP liwad, il could he worn iipun 
Iderc, and it wiuwida nnuiigb wbrti 
'on ill e ih mild c-r* lucovi-r Lbeburids. 

of th<' V«tn)<inti ordert-d hy ihc 
^raiinipnl« Kubric of Edyrurd TI. 
tini at th» oel^brallon of the Holy 
lioii. It WBi laid a*idc for a long 
[fcM Ir r«c«iit y^ara be«n r«viv*d. 

of il i» nol very B«aen1 in tbi« 

b. The wand rau« uptrit^fif Kxck- 
in who •pake not, Ihougb the b^-ut 
(Ting* wu M tha voice oi speech ; 
i wat n Voka from tlie flnnurni'ut 
lem. The number in Eaekiel i« 
be Cbcruhiui werv m-l in fmnl ot 
SB 0f Kdcn to kei-p ft. Two wtre 
tn th« mercy-H«tof ihc Ark in 
rnacle. Two of roldunl t,lu< over- 

I it in Solotiiun'* Trmplo. Tbe 
D are trat aienli<in«d lU i^srding 

of Bden. Their images wore lu 
pwn ihe ni*)njv-(uai, prolMilily in 
lusht-worh. They were inoken iif 
lalinasviii. 10; Ix'ki. I. In Bii>^k- 
Ticion theyarocalled Ltvini^Crcn- 
^cseflbedaiiimillU'telhefour Uv- 
Mnain Rev. Iv., butare idontJtIed 
iherubim and as the Liring Crna- 
the flr«t Ttnion in Exnkict'e Mwond 

II s. 20). My«terlDi» and iaoom- 
^l likennd to vmaiurM of tutrlh, 
•ra of lit* Throne, vuicvloiu, yet 
muaiou* ll'tght, wkcae beat la aa the 
a mighty hoti. 

>tc Kjrma. Tlih name fa often 

the TerfauMui. But, In fa4<l. it ii a 

lich ba* no paratlc-l in thf Wpatrrn 

The Hymn and iln nnfftc*-, m it 

the LIturcy of St. Chryso«loin, ii 
<fC u« who tnvrtically mpfmnt tb? 
a, and Mat; tfaa hymn to the quick* 
ItSTTT, lay by at this time all 
arat, ibat wa nuiy receive ihe Kimi 
liavtaibly nlt4-i)(!ed by (he anx«lie 
AIWdUI Alleluia I Alleluia I" It 

latar than Ht. ChrywMlom'ii da^, 
n lAMTtioD, u it was oompoted in 

of Juttininn (tW> ad). It nUo 
taea in lhi> ifTTKO of tlie {invth«MM, 
•Care cannot be idenlkiil with the 
Ua which ia euni; in the Cun^n. 
09, The upper robe of a Biahop. 

In the Church, ibe place of Ihe 
a without (be chancvl-rail, but upon 

b«tw«efi the nave and the cbancel. 
nana is Ivanaftrred ponularly wiUi 
I band of alajenra wtH> nave charge 
Wie of 1h« Sanoluary. They have 

a lonj; ]ti»lory hufaind them, f»r they are ibe 
ri'prMentiili ve« of iha or^nnlaatinn of tfao 
niTigtirii mid uiuBioians under David (I Ctiron, 
xxv.)und underSolotnon, They were reor^a- 
Liaod by Sitlii^rnlah (ch. xM. p<titirH). Every 
choir, pni[)urly u^>ni>inted, ihoulJ be Inrge 
enuu);b to t>e divided into two paru, iliut 
whoncvcr nccp«iary there may be untipbonal 
■inging, lu nif^mberA, if itflwibie, fhould 
becomniuniotinis, and sbnula have set before 
them, vory elniirly, tbn diilv and the glory 
of llicir work in [lie worship. It wa* ciia- 
Ic-Diary In the eiirly Chumh tu foI ftiiart the 
«tngi<n with iho vhari(B, " Wlmt tlii>u be- 
lleveit In thine heart that sin;; with thy 
lipp." There are two or three fundHmental 
prinHplM too ofloii lo*t ^ight of thai nhould 
rule the conduct of the music by the ctioir. 
Wry art tlu ItaiUrt tif Ou vtwiifal part af 
fht acrviat nf tioii'K Sanftuary ; thitmrore 
tlley Hh'iuld lend in *ui'h niu^it only an the 
congre-^ittion can follow. The^ are under 
fht nutAnriry of (A« Ji^etor, and his will 
i^hoiild tie Uirirwibh. When they are ready 
lo keepuut ull light and unvemly muric, and 
to repreitii all indwenoj and irp*verenco in 
the perfomiance of tt, they will find hl« aa- 
thority but a namf, Thf niii»ic, ai temit of 
the bynini and r-haiitii, Khuuld bn only front 
Mime line weli-kiiwwn book, with wbich such 
of Ihe ci>nsrcg»lt()D m chocea to do >o can 
provide ihanunlve!i. It iiaoiuaiimw alluwad 
the choir lo aeloct an elaborate aeltlng for 
the Tx DKrH, and to «itie an anthem or an 
olTcriory aentMico as an offeriii^ of tboir mu- 
hcq] «kUI to ths tilver of their talent,— a 
very ap[irof riatv and devout auftom wbvn 
It ia kept Within due limita. 

The ccimpoaition of the choir i> often to 
dttll«utl toarranefr*aCbifkicU>rlly that It may 
be ifnpcwible to nut any hint here t^ven 
into praclk'n. But iL would be well, whennvnr 
it can be done, lo lelect bora with a muncal 
enr and good voice for 'the choir. Two 
men and four or fiit boy* would make a 
^ocid baals, lhuu);h It Is the )en«t number 
that (XMild be nacd. iJixttH-n voi»a form 
iiiich tt mau of aound that, whenever lulli* 
cir>ni cnthLUlBim U •bawn, the eonicreeatlon 
will Hlway« Join in. But If not, devout 
womnn I'un more readily be obtained who 
will luake an offerlug of their work aw) 
»kill. Thero are two or thrco detideratti 
which (boiitd be attended to In coitntrv 
choirg, — to have bntonollyinniil fnyn whioli 
lo King ; lo bo Inught Uie renpon^ibility rett- 
ing upon them; to have full punctiiitt at* 
tF-ridance at peaciice; to feel that il i» little 
(horliif an inault lo Hlin, ImforA Whom ihe 
Innuuvruftt tliuirs of liCHven are ever >ing> 
Int:, to otTer a haMy. Ill-prepared, irrever- 
ent I v-piTformed (ervico of ionjr. 

Ciioreplscopua. Local BEsliopt In ibe 
ancii'in Church. Th«T were Bifhopa hav- 
inie a juriHliclion in tlin country undc the 
Biihi>p of thecitv who had >uprem« 1ari*> 
diction, but waa Linwilf iindnr the Hatni- 
pulitan. It waa, in fact, a local intaalonary 
ext«uMoa of the Epiacopate. lla jiowmw 





■rij" vtat our Bifihopt 

gito apofl a VUiution. 

^ jiKPPBWWrt diurehei, hi)- 

1.(^1 iKbidwcuni, but could 

■n llloin tbo Ulahoj), — i-e. , 

itey Mtliorii;, but by tlio 

•ivl. *nj JumdiHlnn only 

lociiM. Thpy could 

iKoflha Diacni:, Mnd 

t«irwl>: foi Auy offloiftl work inia 

mMM W ttVcb tl tlniM, •ixl gttv« Ku niucti 

In Un Wtat, tb&t tli«y were 

llw But, thd CffUQcil of 

lWO«.b.) dMlta li'luw wiiicb vm» 

u|i, tlUin «bout Botinturyors little 

^ ilkaji ilUkpnurad. But th«rc was n 

h.«^ •k'til riragglv in thoWcht, Hud fInAlly 

,t, , .. i.*iroy«d •• an order ty the 

(^ . V, Ulixicb thcTc nroimtancip* of 

M* m." !>• ifltv M ihfl llitrti^nnlli i.-«iktury. 

I, Tli*'K *** OMvntiHlly 1^ [JilBaiuuary exlen- 

^^^>f. .1 i!i.< K|>i«nt>pBtn, whith uu; sup»rcMrd 

^^pi U«> diiacillly wliciit]i<'Cbur<rti 

' (Uli *1>I* i-nliir, tlio iiiomcry of wliicti Bcom« 
W liavo l|[i|fcrnil in Knglnnd, WU aindc 
iin.l«>r Il"iir> Vlil. (1584 aj>.) by tppoliil- 
llitf luriiral |i>wn* m M^nts for tturn Uj«bo|i(, 
ii|tltllwl SuSVogBQ Bisliupk. Thn lut, ifWr 
•lumboHnr nwrly tbrm bunilrcil and HH-y 
)««ntHuDMii reTived vid baa b?(m acted 
vtjMtit, TboTo afo Cwur Still'mg:Hi», — Dr. 
l\rty, of Dover, und«r tbe ArchbUhi)|i of 
Uviitorlmry I Dr. How, of Bedford, under 
|bt> llbbop of LondiiD ; Dr. Trulloj>c, nf 
Nuttliifli*!!), under th« Uiibopof Lincoln; 
•ml Dr. ni'».)tii!leld,of Colche»t«r, under the 
lil«tii>|.<jr St. Albans. 

ChTlam. .^n anuinting oil um'd from 
Mrly linitf in tbe Cfaurcb in Bnptitm and in 
C4)li'tlriiiutn>ii. It w»» more iirnmirpiitly 
tltwl )ti inuditaval timM In tbit OriKutiil und 
IrfUlIn ChuTL-bea. In OonfiiiiiatiuD it bua 
ottea b<«n hold by Lotln Htuslttu tbal 
obrUn ti ot th« ettence of tbe rite; but 
rtxfDi tb« losplTod record (Acta vlii. 18, 19; 
ill, B ; Ilcb. vi. 2) it ii ccrluir lliat |>ruycr 
nnd itiii>i>»iti(>n of band* arn only caK-nliul. 
Ill tb* Ortenlal Cburab tbe Fri«8t aonflrtDi 
WlUi tb« cbrittn b1j>M<,'d by tbv BUbop. 

Chrlaoma. In ibu amca of Bjiptlim It 
wa* a wbite vi-Hlur« wbich th« prisst put 
upun tbe child, tnying, " TakQ tliis wbito 
VMLtiru fcr u t»l(cii of innocejicy," nc. It 
wa« >>rdered in tbe Anf(lo-8axon Church 

i7tHI A. u. j tbat chrisomei bo umn) for mcnd- 
ng tarphern or for tli« nnmuiag of t^hal- 
loM. Tbe l'ray«r-B«>k of IM0 a.i>. ord«n 
tbat the vroirutii »liiill ulFar Llin cbrinotnii 
wk*n *bv cniQfu Ui bo t'burcliH.'d. Bui if tbe 
child died bpfi>r« her churching ih« woa ox- 
cuiixl ftum ofiering it. It v&» tho outtom 
to bury tbv cbiid in the uljrii>ijtii», but by an 
#l>i»it(if wurdi the chrifome child tn^ant a 
ohild that difd be/ore it wu baptized. 

Cbiiatian. The name glvta (poaslbly in 
Jaat) by the peoplu of Antioch to the DUci- 
plW[ bat it wai >o parfccUy appropriate 

that it lupplbnted tlu) earlier n a m« entl 
A C1iri*iinn is a baptized ttiembn 
Cbxikt's Italy Church. Ho can only 
cuuie so by Bapliibni, fur Baplitun U th« 
rflmcnt of entrance, the IXmt, by wbicl 
arvuilniivied. But Uiei« baa triHn a 
ouiiinxm jwrveriion of Ibe tarm Cbrb 
in modern times, referring to the und 
lian, incaiuistvnt conduct of too many 
bear the name but practicallT deny Ita pa 
BaptiMn inHkef ii person tbo Cblld of i 
wlinil)Kr bi- ii an uWdicnt or a ditnbed 
diild, oa birlh iiialiirii a child a cilijMR ol 
ilat« wbulher bo proT« ti> be a good clE 
or not ; or ii» tbo outb of tUl^ianflO W 
an alian ucliixenand ^Ivos him ihepn 
tion of tbe state wbethor he prove nul 
U> bis (litth or not. Tbcroforo tn m] 
many Christian people do, when be« 
ing tliair ahort-comingt, *>I with I we 
Cliriatinn," i* a iiiTiniiii mialMiding pb 
Ht leuiit, if not involving much mora, 
say, 'Would I were a better Cliristiaa! 
but a confoMion that wq all tboold dttv 

Chris danlty it mually deflned aa tha 
ligion of tbo Loud JX8U8 Ciibibt. Tk 
ourr^ct, but not in tho same icnac aa l 
we my the Religion of Budilhu or of! 
hnrnmi'd. Tho origin of Chru;iaDity' 
i» fact, the foimdlng of tbe organ 
Church from which, in ita bogiontngi 
in it* continunnL-u, it i« not rationally H 
rubltr. There cun be nogreMtrrarrortbi 
TL-jmrd ChrliUanlty aa derived fnxn 
Bible, ur the Church aa a deTclopratd 
Ctiriitianity. Ititstra&gctbattlieacrtM 
are not itenornlly or clearly undentoei 
pat«nt are they to any thoughtftil axui 
tion. KvcR the olcmentary doctriaea s 
men Ut all orthodox belieTera, tkoaa i 
iBlnud in tbe ApuMlW Cr*ed, wera nal 
originally lauffbt by tbo Divinq Founds 
CbriitiAnity in any recorded word*, 
birth of the Virein Hary He doeaiMitll 
tu, and tbo grtial fat-u cf Hia UTv, dtaUli 
urre«tlon, and atcenaiuD wera at naall 
predicted by llini. Uo never MitMttti 
Uhriklinnity fur Judaism, nor declared 
farnml repen] of the law of Hoha. M 
Hn did was to choooe twelve men, ofga 
them as a ciirpormtiori in pi>rpotuily, ea 
thum wilb acbiirtur, uuIhuriEi: ikeni loU 
certain doctrince which Ue had pro* 
tnughi tbein, und whid) tbv Holt Gi 
was to recall, and Intrust them with 
mvetcrions Kacramcntal rites of inilia 
(jiaptismj and t\il1 memlwrship (Holy C 
munion) in tho society thus fon&M. 
then miulo th<-mnpromit«, to boandoo^ 
■ti! witli (hL-m until tbo end of tlie Wl 
" Rweive yo the UolT Gbott. A* 
FAincn ha* Knt Mk, even lo sand I j 
Thorti was thv Charter witb Its GDablini 
*■ Oo ye into alt the world and makec 
pica of all nations, baplixing ibtim/ 
Tbeae were tlie niitslon &nd autborily I 
itiato. " Lo, I am with you alway, 
unto the end of tho world." There wt 




mail* af |i«rp«tuit)' and ccmtinuud autbor> 
Ij, Vint wax Chnilianit; when Uo left 
IttfvrM. >fo1bing taon wbutwcr. But 
bl nu Ih? Chureb. It b oI«ar tli&t if all 
liiini mid to tbc Apostlea onlr a» tndi- 
iIU>, BO other individukli could circr lay 
lUin Cs any ri»)it« or prlvllotc^ under it, 
MK ID* prvrnlsM inwle only lo lb«[n. It U 
l^TtlMrthat iCil warn taul totbt>m aa a 
CMUind corpunlion, the rights, privilegcv, 
M4|>rDmi«tf ao (ivcn no b«long nnl^r to 
"thoB.tbctr b«i» ind tinlgn*," un comli- 
iIm irf tba charter not 1>aing viiialtvl and 
■tlun not laptiag. It iarloar iiUii 
ks i$iJiriitttaU wen not to exist 
tuid of the vorld, tbepromifle u> bs 
I llwm until t1i» end of th<i worM tnuat 
tWa mailatn tbem ai u iH!t]>ctiial cur- 
tin. Il b lliu* orident that aIJ auihor- 
liBd iathoritativ« Cbriiiiitiiily It ni'<>(M- 
|ljbwild«l|i in ttiBtcoryomlion, which 
' r Cbirab, But further, it w»t thin ent' 
and thii on))-, thai rorniulateil, 
«>>Ud,knd propBtraied Christianity, and 
>thli authority along it* d'>{-trino« iiava 
iwctfiliid. A vary *intfulitr and aulatnn 
ily had been M>uferred upon it: 
MMerer eia* ye mmit, they %ni re- 
Innto tbota i and wbotwcH'ver tins ye 
are retalDod." It ntattiin not 
F*xaot meaning ^f thmcuiinUmay 
bw, Th*y ecrlainly convoyod a 
IidIwib and unique auiUority or lotiiu 
mfm thoM tn whom lh«v were aaid. 
i aathority wa« to witbhold ur indict 
(pMtaltiM upiin tboae who ibuuld biv 
. t mami»n of the organixation. But 
lU btlTldtiali did not at uniw proceed In 
Mtfae tath functions or to perform iho 
■MHHidfned. ThoypAMcd Bi^ day in 
<Ui eouuliation, dunae vbicb, ai a rec- 
Tihtd doty, tbey elected a now mdmbnr to 
**pkMlbelr corporatn miml>"r. Tbun, al- 
'(^•(tin); tocMner, thoy ii*rfL-cUj ibe or- 
twatidn of t&i- aociety by s«I»lin^£ind oT- 
mittnf l>cae«ns, Prciby'terf, and Ap<Mlc« 
oTlBOtbyand Tilui), unit by Instructing 
■Mand trnding them out with aiitliority 
! Itatii doctHsal and initinfr ntninbcrt. 
naev A|>«>t)e> weri! authorized to pro- 
|ta tb* la/ne way to perpetuate iha 
I, tile original twelvu nifrrcUin^ di». 
iTcniii/.injt and udiiitniatering the 
■•«k,in3nultin]; into writing, penoaally 
IW the lid of two authorjtod aulttante, 
[yMt body a{ Truth now nocepied a* 
lity. Inthliargaiiiuttionitbererore, 
lity eonabtwl, and inu*t conttnac to 
ir the corporation bav laoe^d, — if 
tlorganintion bail onaMd tnoxiit, 
eniially altered in iti furm and 
ere can be no aulborixcd or 
l*e ChrbtiAnity nowamone men. 
■ rwvrded in Ibo Bible. But it 
th to nothing unleu we remember 
■ -Uhri Kianiiy m not dtriwfd from tht 
^lifurlh*>r remembfY how il Is thsl 
Flbe Bible to be true. Tl)e fitnpte 
at when the Churofa of CHsia-r 

waaorsBoiBcid the Bible did uut exiat. Bren 
the Old Toetaraent, a« ucc«ptod by the Jow- 
ifb Church of cur Lqbd'h time, wai nottho 
Old Tealament of the '• ProietUnt" Bible. 
It conLaini-d wbnt i* known a* th<^ " Apoo 
rypha ;" not all together in separate hook*, 
butdlipened amonj; the Cstionical Books, 
and in some cafit ■ n turpi! all ng thvir text. 
It in to be carefully nuted that our Lord 
Himitelf uacd and quoted tliii interpolated 
Scptuagint Vertion without on« rocordad 
wordyfdisienl. TheXew Testament Surip- 
r urea were not yet written. Tliwe contisl of 
Pour Goaprlii, written fly two Anoitlnt and 
two BraneelUta wotkinc under their imme- 
diate overaight ; the hoi>k of ■' Acts," wril- 
Lan br on*) of tlieae ETangalintn to reoard 
the (loiun of the Apoitlea; twnnty-one 
Hpiattea, being lettort a^droased by Are of 
itiv Apoatloa at varloui timu te organixc<d 
Cliurchea, or lo Individuals, or to the Obrie- 
lian sooiety at Inrgfi ; and on? book of " Rev- 
elation," whether a poem, a prophecy, or a 
rhapsody bos never oeen ftiliy determined. 
ThJK alnn by the litet of tbo original Adm- 
lle«. But itiDuia " Bookt" were written (iiir* 
ing a pGriod winipriaing at least forty ywir*, 
and aher prob&iily twenty yean of oral 
lenchlng. In thia'period there were extant 
fat St. Luke tella lu) " many" other Oos. 
peU, end at least one olhrr Kplsllc, i.e., that 
trt the LAodioMns. Tbua inere wa.i cm- 
ulnly no " Bible" up to the time when the 
Iiut ApoaUe died. Rut tb«re vnu Cbrlatl- 
unily. tinnoo Cliriiitiiinity is tio^ derived 
rVum the Bible. But a/f«rtUat last Apoall* 
WH» dead airme orKanlxed authorily — t-er- 
ulniy not Iho cimpt* i^rwnut of t£e mast 
uf Chrlitian pttople— determined what wa* 
and what was nut God's revealed truth to 
man ; r^cctvd all the Apocryphal bnoka and 
pasansea of the Old Teatamenl,— which our 
LusD Himself had not donn, — all extant 
" GiMpel**' save four, and all Apoitolic^ Kpii- 
tli-a except twenty-oua. The aama author- 
ity delerminod the " RoTolaiion" to be in- 
Bfiintil Scriptnr*!. OoulJ that authority be 
tiui!;lit elae than the continued Corporation, 
the Church T Not poaalbly. Could any 
higher power bo claimed or ueroised by % 
human orgnniialion, or oouM such orssn- 
iwition ihu« ax't exwopl by a conr^ded Di- 
Tinn iiutborijiation? UU'nrly, then, it in lh« 
Cliur«li which b acknowledged by all Ohrii- 
tian people to have ^voo tno Bible to th« 
world, and the taniu OhrUtlbnily and " the 
Church" are convertible. Uut'thi» being 
no, the dcHnition of Chriatiunity 1* not c-.^m- 
piete until wu determine what is meant by 
''the Church " About this thet^can be no 
uncertainty or Indeflnilvnnu. It mtui ba 
the perpetuated Corporation eetabliahed and 
chartered by our Load inpenion, which has 
cfjmo down in unbroken sueceeslon from the 
oriRinal Corporators, with Its charier un- 
vitialed and it« constitution diligently ob- 
acrred and r«f;firdo<l. It TaaSt poiaOM tfa* 
essential form of the original orninltaliOB ; 
it must hold and praetifw the faith and aaoa- 




mcnla intriuUNl to the Ajiuillea for prrter- 
vBtioii, diM«minati<iii, and pcr)H.'tuaii(in ; it 
ntiMt ihow iu KUthoiitv BTia iliat of iu ofl- 
ecn doriT«id iu unbnik^n oiiocewioa and 
In tb« prcwribwl form froto tbuM Apui- 
tlea; knd it inu»t prove it* raitkful fierfono- 
■tice tX ftU the obj«cU far wbk-b it wiu or- 
gvDuod anO perpctuHUd. Otli«rwi«e itit>nt 
C1I11 b« Au Cbrwtitutlty iind iiu dlvinuly-ed- 
uiiniatered relivion or relikblc invinc proin- 
isM left ttt inMkkind. WliercYcr thM«nntJMt 
arc fuund tli«re is ttaa biatom Cburv,'h of 
CHHiftT, which in it* univonnliireunixiittan 
if idftiticn! wiLh CbrttUiiititj'.uiia upijii tlm 
uitbrukcit iMliiuuiiv of which r«*l« the i>nly 
KUtbority fur boli<.<ri]ig luid ucecpUDg tii« 
CljtilliHn Bible Willi alt that It cvliUiini. 
No ChrisiJan i«cl or communion vrbith 
Iftcks Die Anoatolio foroi and conntitiition 
vf bitlivpii (or AihmUu), l*rl«ts (or Vtet- 
byierGl.Knd DwiiMJnfljiwpropprly "Tganiiwd 
Ciiiirvh which hiu vituitnl tbnCroiHliirAhsii- 
dtiiiud thu two urij(iii«l nurruineiila of BntM 
tisiu aiid the Load'A Sut>per, nor u\y liiiglij 
nnd «<tpnruic piul ofthv Corporation, wbvlliar 
BumHii, Grw-k, or Aii{;l'cau, can justly 
claim to be ChulCbuich wboM cbiiricr and 
tniut»n wof "Well nuti<tn«." ThuChurtli 
Univertml in licr iiit^i^rtty. in h>»r nuthonta- 
tive Bpiioopttl urdf-r, in her orthodin and 
pure faith, nnd in livr diilv xdminiiliTud 
iaor*tnenlji ib tihe p«rp«Uiiit4M^ <^or]iDr»ti(iii in 
wbicli ChrittianilT cunaiat*, nnd lUus when 
we expreiu our Wlit^f in Cbrii^liituilv we 
only expms uur belief in the U^K, ^oLt, 

CATHQtlC CliUHca. 

llEv. UonmT WiLSOw, U.D. 
Christmas. Iblt) Fesat falU ou Deceoi- 
tipr 25. Tliough ihiK dikte i« miw iini- 
vtrikully iihiftrvtxl, v«L nt Qnt thi^ri.' wkil a 
divuruity dF pructfce. hi Hgypt Aiu-il 20 
Kud Uoy %Q wuru obtorvtd. in PnmlinQ, 
mid tbi.' £ii»t Ki'iicrnllj, tfao Gib of Januury 
was kept, while the W<4t obsi'rved the 

SrCMul day. Itut nboul thn llrtt pHrtuftbc 
flh c«niury tliu VaU ftcccptcd tbo West- 
ern f«R«t-day, ttnd it became univertnl. St. 
CUry»ci»ti>ni ban m homily which it vwy im- 
purtant upon thit Uipic. Tbf tiutlinu of tbu 
n-fisuiiR for buppotioi; the Sfitli uf Doi-unibur 
to bo th« Iriio dutv ia ibis: Mu»t prubiihty 
ZAcbsrlu tuuk thu p>We uf ibe Hiiih-Print 
upon lh« gTt<al day uf Ali'iieuiPuL (nuch tub- 
■titutii>a. whoii tomr iinfortwoa at^idnnt 

{revented Uk' Biub-Pric-it fruni extmutiDf; 
is ofBi,'it hinwntf, ha« bven abundnntly 
proveo nut of Jiur-pliu* utid Maitnonid'vj, 
which fell Uiut yi'ar uyaa K«plemb«r 23. It 
wu wbila h«wu within tiiaT«illl)i;mi^isBg< 
of the aiiu«l cnniu U> bim. TbU wuuld pliu;*! 
lli« nativity of m. Joliti il«)>tiHi on June 24 ; 
and as ha wiu ms luuotbK ulder than dur 
LoBD, hU coii:i)n ai-cordinK t<i Ibe tJMb, 
it plac** lli« nativity of our LoRi> upon Do- 
ocmbor 2i. The <;olobmi»n ha* alway* 
Imvu ubacrvcd with graal •cilxainily and ru- 
ioioinK, ibou^b to-' frequently with other 
l^waa iMcrsd atid fvntai uuitouu. Th«n are 
tn uthar than Htv Erijjlisb Cburcli two oeU- 

bratiutift of llie Conaiiunloiii «ltj 
Uolli'ciK Upittln, and Ooapeb. > 
then: arv two «liDu»,ft(* bboaiue^ 
veniciii.'ecf lbeo«>ininunii.-ani« and 
iho Unglh of the earvic4?>. Thr« 
stand in iiuiiK-diatp ouiuiectiun 
tfaoss of St Stepheu ( December 24 
martyr; of St.Joba (DW'Cinbcr 27 
Jksds luved;" of the limoveuls' 
ccmber '!?•), iho ttiatattei iifour V» 

Chiiaioioey io Ut<- doctrine imi 
the SoripUirvm uonc«rniii}; ibe V. 
iiffiw (.f C-HKiKT, Tbd Mitajecl nil 
vvriiiriitly coiiBidtirvd undvr two ) 
Qnt containine the propb^cioe <■( 
siAQ in Uw Old Testament, and 
■ianic hojieswf thu Jew bu«d up 
nnd the second thu revelation of u 
roads by Jxsue in iho N«w Tenia 
tbe Macbin|{ortbcChttri'b upon t] 
of thcdivine and human tuitures i 
*un, logeiborwilb some mention a 
HIM wuicU were iht uccuvion uf 
oiact dctlnitiou of this teaching. 

1. Tbu Chrintolvgy of lbs OW * 
fallfc naiurally Inuj the three dl' 
I'litrisrL-bul, Legal, and Pntphetij 
'<k; ; ju*t a« the blitf >ry of Ui« ci 
pie praeats U]« Mme ttacoe, and , 
hi*t4iry edvanuing along itwi« «t| 
rrurn oullinu cnvi^rinu long ii| 
m»re minute datails <k dburter | 
docs th« docirin« of iha XEaai^ 
lueoessive divisions beeome raore 
more deflnita, and more [irtwiH. 
this topic at any Irneili would rtqi 
ume, nnd it muni suttSuu bcr« owiia 
tion sumo of ibe chief pastas«e of 
wkii'h urn undpnlaod to form a, 
ohaiii (pf prumitc and prophecy q 
tbft CiiBicT, and to indicato Ib 
uf i^« i.-<jncifplion of tho Mkmia) 
odIcQ inferreil from them. Theftl 
pasfoges is foiiad in th« story of 
man, where, with Uie cur*« pronoil 
t^e serpenl, Is Joined lfaepraraia«i 
of the woman In \m nt enmitv wt| 
pant : -< it 'hgill bnii*e thv (i4«d, 
shall bruisr •tiia faM-l." I'bi* pn 
diiliverer, which, no dvubt, bad a 
diH-por moaning (than its form 
veyii) til ili-oau who rmiiivud it, wi* 
[he bati* uf faiib and hope in a S 
.'omt, until thft promlM was raniM 
bks^ine pronounced upon Slim 
b« ihi> LoKii God of Shetn" (Gal 
in llie l>lii»ing of Aliruliam, ''■■ 
all rauiilice ut tb« earth be tflMf 
lii.l. which ar« rsmarliabla oa hi 
fuldUfiK-nl nut at the lime snok^ 
those U) whom they were ajdotaM 
thn far fuliirennd forotliars, oredi 
family of luati. Bui the prnml* 
much c1wr«r in \h*> insptrvd W4 
dyini; Jacob adclmuujd to Judah, H 
tee khail not de|Ntit fmm Judah, < 
giver from between bis feat ua 
vonw : and unlv bin) shall tha g«1 
th« people be" (Oca. allx.), nuilf 



&• in one Pi>t»i>ii, who i* in tm n man of 

fewi (tShtli>li), ID be u prince, nni\ to whom 

UtMlions iilitU b« ot>edi«nt. The iTophdcy 

ilhWiRi (Kutnb«rt iiiv.j,tin<iihi.'i>ti8Mic:wi 

of lb* Pentiilauch, whicli relKta In thn niigal 

ft Uie Loud (Ucii. xii. 7; iviii. I, «(c.), 

Imh bwri Ihougbl alMi lo rvrrr ti> the M %*■ 

UitL Bat tbe iwxtttcp in the rrvcl&tion 

o( lb* UneiAB, U ih« lyploni mQHRliiie uf 

I A* MnMK liiw of MiTlncM, iini.1 of th« 

>Bift*fnat «rhn nflVrnl ihrm. tjucriflec* 

Ivmioi » nfw ihtDj; with M'im^ii, nnd no 

I AmIi Mm pHtriitirii" wlio vfferod lli«in did 

toahkft lulBviriit oomispiiitn of th<'ir bkl- 

rdn ontaii)]; ; but Llie full iv"'*^"' "'"1 

tUoMc ritnsi apfminlitd by Muom were 

A»l;ntO to bv It ■Imd'iw of lliv ^'^d thing* 

', bimiit (u Sl Pdul dccUfiM), »iid Ki wirtre 

'aiWthe ciamplc and »hadow of heitv«iily 

, niiA AgMin, »fter « lone intprtnl, prub- 

laHr wnuM prinllive iraditUm wim forgot* 

]M,cdf1 typical m«inmgs hiid become ob- 

im. An pr««nUa ■■ rpnr«r<-d by lueunicr* 

' Bn prophets vontinuullr morn dfAinlo 

'njprMJto. In tbe P#mlint Uxii., Ixsii,, 

'«.),ui<l In tb« prophet* (iHtab si., tiii,, 

luri.: Jer. xxUI. ; Zeob. fx., aiii., uUv], wk 

>nd nill«r kiHl moT«! [tenonal d«tL-ri[itii>tii 

'«<(lMlft«IAa,<(hich, Joined With the for- 

'nr iTTcUtloii>, (\irnltn • concoptlon uf 

Bta » a Wmon who thuuld n.i»>'.-(i«" His 

I (M^ fn>m kin hx making an nxjiinton- 

' *At(B{ ftiT It, Ui(us>^If at once Prit-sl unil 

Thtln, and aftur iriumphiDjc over ib« ont^- 

[^■r of i^bttouiBMt, and d«etTovin^ bi» 

V, tbuiiU ful« forever ax 1>H! I^rinci) "f 

But in tbi» i-onr«(ilii'ii tWre went 

■Mrtradtctury iioinU llial llji? Ji!W<t, 

' iBfot rMODcilini^ then In one per- 

. ■• totbe eonoluslon thai ihe |>ropb«t« 

I^MiU tiK»lf nwiJtHK, nnv loxiff^r hihJ the 

l4ttlrlolnDln|th ; nnf) mitsinglhp true.irnM« 

MMrS«riptgr«>, it n pruhuble ifant In tim« 

ibif cm« U> I^Hik tor an mrililv l<in^ only, 

^kikmld triumph orrr the nutionii whicb 

M Ma'jneml iiud uppireMed ihein, and 

>**>n i^n a t«mi>oral kingdom to UriiQi. 

1 klin tliu fUlinww uf time Gou twt 

Ink Hb Soil, mad^ of a woman, inndo 

oaderiba Law, lo fulflll all lh« rATHKKx 

F*ttiu, aiwl t" r«c«)n4'ilr in Ilia tiwn Pcr- 

■MtU cinSk'tlKfc pr«dii^ionB of tbe birth, 

'>»k,ifid apiwarniiL-*, «>f itii? cwwiilipti imd 

[tKitiiirat, 4>f lh« death and burial nf th« 

■laa. Biiii the .lewa rejeoteit, r«(ii4io|.' 

' Vb-tw He made true in llim»olf alt tho 

'•"f pro«ni*« ; but Him hnvtChnitiaii* 

F~Dii faliiiful fullower^— «v«<r Wnured wllb 

I'liAf mrahipa« th« Mn--iTAU. thu CuKitrr 

'd«o, |-<t God Him««)f; m the HAfiouR 

h' ^m, v« a iTOe Man. The New Tceta- 

^■M, i-> Ihe wrirda "f our I^ian in th<:> Out- 

HM^ dotrtrinm paiMiiliwl bv dt. PhuI and 

r AjxBtle* in titeir Bpiitles, »u|>plE- 

rnvrtiiUon «oi>t«in^l in the Old 

n1, and famiob tbv kv<f W the tni« 

■UoB of the jirophets, na well a* 

fnr the Chri«ltan dnctrine of tho 

wrCBRUT, of the SoMorOoi) b«- 


conip ibe Son of Man, The rwidw will not 
iiciii] nny rcf<!r«noA to tht»e Scripliim, nor 
any &nam<B of their contenij, hefon admit- 
ting till' itutonifnt ; and he will u readllv 
Bilniil ihnt ihey i-onlnin tho prnmiim) frnm 
which follow aa iu([icul c<ili!in]UHnc-i« Ihe 
decree's uf tbe lirHt general Councils defin- 
ing the right faith conci^mint; the Parson 
of CUKisT. The deUnillno uflhi* faith, la 
ihe flr«l day a of Chri«tianity, wa* nej^tlre 
ratlinr thiui pnaitivc; thf- rarlicr Falher* 
c^nlentini; themsclvu with <!Ambailng tho 
oriMr* of lK>rvti<.-3 nn thi? one band or 'in the 
other, and dnnying llinl tho dtx-trine of the 
Cbkiht wiu nut, a> ilaied by tbvm ; while 
they did not undertake to Mt forth einftly 
wbut thu true (Iwlrtne wiu, more fully than 
ill ibe wofd» of St- John, "the Word wa* 
mnde Pleab." Still Ihe pmcee* of kif^ieal 
inferrnoe and developmonl wflnt on, and 
ni«n law more and more duirly hovr to iiiin) 
up the ecpanite Meartloni of ^rlpture — the 
fiiith one" (tpliviirerl to tht> utint* — in * eare- 
fully detunes] phil'Hinplik-nl slnt/^nienl. Thi«, 
li'jwover, %'iii iii^l dune at onci', but at It 
wi>ro «lCj> by <top, as the Tsgarice of herwj 
ni&du more exjilltil definitions uvcan'itry ; *<i 
that it waa six or leTon hundred yean m-fore 
thi^ Person of Ciirii>t ceued ^< form the 
chisf question In tbe Councili of the Ctiurcb. 
Tiie di-risinns of the flrst «ix jft-neral Couo- 
cilii ^Nirf Bguinil Ariii». 3S5 *.». ; Con- 
Fl(inlini<;ik- against Miu-i^oniiu, 881 A n., 
£j>ho*i» agaiii^ Nostoriuf, 431 A.D. ; Chal- 
t«don QG^ninBt Eutyches, 461 A.D. ; Conirlaii- 
litiopl:!' mjiplnnonlary of Kplieiiw, /lliS x.D.J 
and Conntnnlinupli? iiu|inleinentiiry of t.'baU 
f-doD, 1(80 A.D.), Ihe tfutmtiinte (if whtcb i* 
tx[irp-Med by Ihe (no-oiill*^ ) Nlccnc Creed, 
M?i ftirih the Person orCliitifiT as embrwfinjt 
Iruly «(td jjerftn-'tly both the nature of Ood 
and the nature of man, iinrfiBrably and with- 
out eonfUiion. 1c wilt be obeervcd that tbia 
w«« tb« work nf tlin RnntflTH Chiirrh ; in the 
Wej.t, howf'viT, thinkinif irnm werw not idl«, 
and in liki! niennor iit llu' raiUi uf the 
Church (Mnwrnini; thi' Pi:rm>n nf ClllttflT 
wa» thiM erndunlly <-x(irr'»Hty| with Mcnriwy 
tind preL'l»ioii, «t> tbe it'ielrine of His offee 
nnd work wa* from time lo time more 
clearly cjellncil, as pbiliKiitphlrnl ^perulBlintis 
ending in heresy made it ae»iruble i<> do bo, 
until th'' Chri»t>iloi;y of the Chiirrh wat 
corniileted by thu doctriitB nf iluitwr in Hi« 
olfiic an the AliineniCTil for sin, thu Be<"lorer 
■ if man !•• liie original diKnity i>r hit imiura 
losi ill Adanr, anil by the duL-trtnt.- of Divine 
j^nti'e repiiirini* bunrian sInAilneM. The 
•nlijpct of Chnitology, the dodrins of the 
IVn-'n of CiiBisT, Is aomctimeA treateJ a« 
Ihe development of n purely natiirnl Me^ 
■innio idea, nf fiihjertlvx or ■■'If-nri^inated 
conrt'ptiun, to whieh thwre wbk no corre- 
»|iuecfei)t Divine Pruntise. Or it is diM:uMed 
At tbe development of a Mc4'iani< idea 
which wit» both nittuml end ■upernatuml, 
wbi'.'b was nut purely subject! re or self-<>rlgi> 
nati-H, but bad its origin in a Divine realitTr, 
■nd wwi foatered by a kupematiiral Pnvi- 





tMiMitU (Im MViiUtioB of that r«&lily in 
t»c>r»«lti'». — Ooj> mtinittu In th« Otih. 
JhM tti Ihi" •Mvnd minle of CQDHdciIng 
^j^n^HiwlygU' iho luiti'hiii): Lhftt the doctrino 
ilf Ite NdTMu uf CiiHinT WM made Imomi 
tha jwuIux-Im Biid prophet* from tli« 
iIImI igM I'T lo")" knnwWgff of wlini 
Vtirk ■huuKI W, uui] ibn Ihird nnd trun 

[cd !■ ri-«i'linl ; n iii«lhod whicb ba« 

iV«n l«■lr^l il'i^iDaiic, and U that commonly 

tV)^^)'. ('■•I' ■iirltiTrig like a proper Iraat- 
UWl of Uii* Mil)Jt.-<:l tho rcHdi;r mitnt turn 
gO ij^H-lal wurk* en CtiristoIui;,v |Dorn«r, 
il>'Hkl>UlitM.T||[), andonsui-h subdirkioni of 
\\ II* itiit AuiiiPinMii (MiiKifo}, or th» IHTin- 
hvi'f CHini»T (Ltddiiti'n [{iimptuii Ltitturoi): 
Wit tlii> ariieloi in Smith'! " Uictit>nn.ry of 
IhK UIMa" on UsMtiAii, JknitsOukekt, Sox 

Af Uo6. SoK iif Mhu, VIC. , may he oulnuUeil 

«llll ndvanlngo. 

Aiithotiilrt : Dictionary of the Biblr-.lEn- 

vnW'li't Uitl-iryof DucLriues, Ctiumlicn' 

[ vili-i-HKlla, Ulunl"* Dlctionur; of UialorU 

'<mI Hitil I)i»1rimil Tlii'ology. 

Chioniclea. First and Second Books of. 
I'liM* Iwii l)(>i>k«, like thi^scof llie Kings, were 
)|t ilia lli*brcw (irigiiiiillv Inn u ilngk- buok, 

Ibiil In thv Orcrk [runiluliiiD they were Ui* 
fidud for oonvrDicnco, iind so the Val{^;ile 
^•l■'lv^d thirnii Ihcnoo tb«y piMod into the 

'ni<H|arii traiuUlioiu M two book*. They 
bavn bnao KlLr>biTI«d, xrith iilniKKt poxilive 
iHirtkiiityi to E/.rn ; nnd dl thti rircuimlancrs 
Mini iba i-ontcnU of the ivmVt agree very wrti 
Willi Ittt*. Th«y coDlain Kwealoiciu, e.i|ic- 
(ttii)ly llio«« of llin rri(«u and Lvviies. 

' Tlx'y tiovn much "f h iiutttmal lonv In Llioin ; 

''lliay k'** otb«r >ud ])tkriill«l ikccuuiiU to 
IJHMu Fii lUe book* of tho King* uf the iani« 
■Vonli. In ttie<i(i we may ttm Eerit'ii pur- 
iiiMt U» InfUM n nfttiona) lone iu ihu rcin- 
tmnl brought hack from lUbylon, and llio 
iiH<ilur>-iftCtgencaloj;ic«l rccordinf the L»> 
t lUial rnmlU'es, that lb« detalli of ibe Tein- 
|il« wor*bip tn^y b« reilorod ta tho49 who 
lllona wvrw competent lo conduct tln-in ; and 
iilao to i^ive utdependeDt and eorroburaLivA 
liairaLlvM of ttaa facta recorded by J«reminh 
In ihu book* of the EIag>. Thaac fiicu h*T« 
(tlMxl much in tbe nay »f those who wUb t«i 
•bow ibst thp bookvol' Mo«c« vtrc an invcn- 
lloowfaforgsrafliT tha "Cuif>tivlly ;" for if 
lllli Wure w. then the bixika of tbo CIirufiiK'Ui 
itfD Hill Ifctiw. To dcatniy ihp iTeUibilily 
,{f lb* (Jhroniuluii Ibu dule of their conipcini' 
l|<ii) «i>uld hnvc lo be {ila(.-ed later still. But 
ihu iUt« and probable autbcrrhip haw bcoti 
■ luiildanlly otabliibod bv uum [wluiit crition. 
11l*< Hiitliwilii-'lly uf the c!bromcle« hiM bet>u, 
lltun, tbu (livutupon which h grut deal of 
iirlib'itl ut'omcn liiu bc«n cx[>endcd with an 
pijtilritliintly viilimble ri-sult. The contc&u 
)K4|in wilb llii! eetipnlogii?* froin Adari) ; 
mM, after « rvpid ouiiinc, ciitno un tit thn 
Ut«r hint'iry of the two kinKdonia; and 
whllo not always identical with, dill truv- 
4IM much tbo Miiiii- j^rnund *a thtitt tit tliu 
^gollf of the KIngii. Tliey are not b(I]i- 

pli>inantary or in len lion ally iripliinntttr^* 
Llia King*, Iiktmik anothDr |Mirpiiw ta vmj 
but tbey du iudircully throw much ligU 
upon tlicni. 

Cbronslocy it the art of rc<:ordiDg bIfUrt 
oal evenu in tbtflf pro(«r order and *HM 
nian, bv exprcMine ihp interval of ikM 
which iiiu i-]i>|»i-d MwMQ thvir nocurreoGI 
mid tbo uccurrviicv uf kume other ntnl 
ufaoun us a atandard of reforeac^. To iml 
thU auhjoct Mly aenio ftplnnation of tk| 
calendar, or nude uf uie«ituring time, u^ 
regulation the year, would hv pniprr, bd 
limited ipHM forbidi any lucb dit^reuittt 
and HCtenlion wilibe);iven here only Ml 
brief mention of ihoae lyRienit of chrondlof] 
ntoEt ctiniiiionlv niel with in hMtorj, Sy I 
syetomof cbronolojry is understood a acbn 
of hirtoricn] i'vrinu arF«n>;i>J in their pnv* 
ienn«nc«, and at th«ir pruper inter%->Ia,eitHI 
befure or after a clioteo aiandard of r«Ap 
i-nco i and it ia «aiy to »«« how diAereatij*- 
t^mt may bare been luggcttad mnd adopM 
in KDoiant limea. Fur m tril>vi of tn«B •( 
flrtt looaaly auocialed together graduij|t 
developod a oommon national life, a oM 
would sruo of Bome fixed point of r«iM' 
iiig to which to mfcr in rucordlnp or am 
[turiii^ eviiiiu. Tki! miat i ui [hi rtant <!«[•>■ 
teristK- of such a flied [loint of time voaU 
be (omo event aML>ciateii with it, offMll 
moiiK'nl hm (u be nctintntlly known and laa| 
renicDibered. Hence wv Ond evenUreffrrw 
Ui C4krthqiiak« or eclipeea, the acccwiw *i 
kings and other like occaiiona comaiaat) 
knows, or of comniaa lolsrMt. SMa^ 
nitlione would naturally have llieir en 
■umdnrdK of n-frritrico, and their own ij* 
tvnit uf chniiKjlugy ha»nd upon tbrm; biAtti 
aa ii well known In am-ient hUkwyi tbi 
Grcolu u>od oiia mothiid of recording eveslii 
the Komani anuilior, and the naiioni of th 
KB»t, and of Kg^-pt, u>»d various lysMtfll 
dtlferent timbi : white in modora hlilog) 
Christians, Mohanitnedatu, flindooa, ■** 
CbinvM! all havt? their own peculiar ijiWi' 
of thronnliigy. As mmeMX or eip[htvf iM 
uro frequontly meutionrd In bisiory, it •"■ 
be well to nutice tbeTrt more piirtieul«1fj 
and tooxplain how they may be coBiMdM 
with the Vulttar or CbrlmiBii era. 

In Ureece Ine common life uf the IlsUMM 
ruc<; wiu k«pt aHvc and foetnretl by thet'o"' 
;;reut uatioiinl Kamcs, of wbteh tiKM '^ 
tllympia iieet» t'> hnve twoome prominsolll 
■III I'Krly duy. It was th« euntcm II' Q>o< 
thf«« i;iiinc«, whii^h wore celebrated e*«0 
fourth yeiip, early in July, from the ■•* 
ner of the fuut-rnco; and at a Inier ti^ 
III reoord bis name in the gymnatlu* ^ 
Ulvnipin. The tirtt to be distineuisb«d V 
thfs liLit honor wot Corabtu ; andnBliiTW' 
the I'VL-m of kift trlumpli having a A" 
imme of iu own, und bcins brought rtfi 
lurly to thii attention of tna wboln p-f^ 
every four years, became a ready stand*' 
to which all other cventa might b« rcfcrr< 
Thus (irigtiiatod tho era of llie Olvnipln' 
wliK'b are compated to have begun 7T6^ 




Mtrrt tho Chmlian «nu But n» thu vi>»r 
of iW U)jiiip<s(l» tiugiiis in Julv, it i» iipc'ii>- 
arj !■ iMucing Olympiads tu juara bafore 
Cnur, 10 ttibtnct iLo TOUT of tliD Ulvm- 
fU inn 771 if the eveiu bvfeLl (!K>m July 
ta DMMiber, but froni Till if Ttova Jtnuarv 
ItJoM. For example, Itomo was fmindca 
li tte Utird jear of ibe *ixth Olympiad, in 
ipll; lh«n ialujie&X'*+« = 23fromT76, 
■ikaftTU B.a for tlip ilateof tho fuunija- 
fin of Uia cit; ; but if llio jrur uf tb(i 
(HrmfMi* gnstieT tban 776, to And tht 
jwot ibu Cfariitiau ora nubtrHct fruui ii 
TTlif tb« event bttfuU frutn July to Dtcaui- 
Ur, TTTif ttom January tu June. 

Ai Roman ^yctcu uf chronoiogy rcfi^r* uli 
•tall to Ibe foundlog of the cit^ of Komt;, 
■Urk it ennqrally Axed in April, TOS uc, 
IfcH^UbaJtn placftd in thi>jreara76'i, 751, 
W^Ud 747 B.C. A dimple ■ubtracUun »f 
tUyar of tb« city from 768 abould givt 
ti* reu- bofuro CuKtsT of anj ovant re- 
en44 io the «ra uf Borne ; but owing to tb« 
iifomt daiei tMigBcd for the beginui ng uf 
1^1 vt, tbft rodnction i« not alwav* at- 
wMwitfa c<cnalnt7; uor it tlic diolcuUy 
lH»i4bjr the fact ibat ibe Roman* em- 
fbjtd two aorta iif ynan-, ihi- civil yfianiiid 
WMiular y«ar, and further that th« .vmr 
<'lom does not cofncide with tb« civil 
^, tkt latter boinimine J&nuiry 1, tlio 

Til «fa of Nabonassar is thikt need hy 
n>)*n; In bi* rocordi of Awyrian and 
mjtIwUa hittory. Ill chief miirlt I* thiit 
ttM|iitt al a d«flnlt« moDieiil I'f tkino, vix., 
VUMibr at noon, Fabruarjr 24, 747 u.c, 
UAftr that rcaaon u (kinous in astTonomy: 
WManount of a difference In Itn^lb of 
1^ Jilian and Babylonian yeare^ it is no 
^ Biallar to Gonvfirt dalsa from tna era of 
'Itnaaaa/' lo the ChrUlian era. 

htMt tb« Kxodns th« Jews bei^o tbsir 
T^ in 8flpl«uib«r; but to cviiim«inur»tc 
wt ncDt the b^innln^ of th« ycur nan 
" l ^ cd to about thfl time of tbe vernnl 
fimt rKsodn* zli. 2) for eceleelattlcftl 
Mm, toe forner y«ar beln^ still retained 
** (tTfl aflkir*. T)i«re is reason to bo1i<'ve 
Wlit Bxtidiu furmiKl a ahrnRolngiral nru 
*M Ibe laraelitva 11 Kiug* vt. I), bul it is 
**'! faMwn that incy recorded MstoriL-al 
•^b by referrtng thom to the year of tho 
^aing lilrifi; or L-unquaror. In tb« lat«r 
'Mnjrof tbe Jews, and until oomparalivoly 
*4wa timas, iboy u»*^ the Mai^fdiminn 
**. tbeh tbey irj-l^d tbc Era of Contract, 
J^BMf thsJr Syrian Bnvernors oonifi«lVd 
'^Vbnte It in making cuntractji, Tbvy 
'"wid, bowever, Io use now a Uuiidnne 
"*. ndioninx from the creation of tbo 
H^U, abkh they i«t about 3760 year* bc- 
^ OlkUtr. (Vide artioie Uironology in 
"•rSeiitli'* Dietionary of the Bible.! 

JtwHiccdoaianera*, jiiit«poken of, oalled 
jMfc* Zt* of till- 9«loucidn, vns reckoned 
"■ tka ooonpation of Unbrlon by Seleucit* 
^■tW (81! B.C.). Il wii» fot aloii); time 
' aw ia all the (Ireek euuntriee 

bordering on the Levant; but M those who 
u.ird it variad mii<?h in tbeir time of begin- 
nioK the yeivr, it is hard t'l dotcrniinc with 
rwwiooM oalM recorded in il. 

Tbe Vul^r or ChritUun ern is that io 
common use In Gurupe and America, and 
largely in Asia, ll was proposed some fiOO 
years aftrr CiinisT by Diimysius Kxi^us, 
and craduully cama into use by all CUrls- 
tianx. Boing desijfned to reckon from tho 
Innamntinn uf CiiJti^r, itx anthoir ohosa 
March 21i in Iba yeiimf Itnmo 762 B.C. (7) as 
its initml point, but after a time this wis de> 
furri'd lo lb* foUciwing January ; and the 
Vulvar era cow bvigins January 1 in the 
year of Rome 76S B.C. ])eaid«e llie 2Sth of 
Sdarch and ibo 1st uf January, the ^Stb of 
Deoambor hiis been uken as the bes;lnn)ng; 
"f the yoar; » fact to be r«mem^red >n 
rtfknning and comparing datea in early 
Chrintisn ii^i^.i, nnd in late hiatorr, l(>o, fur 
Ibat matter, became tho 35tb of Slarcb WM 
rutuiiicil a* New Yvar's Day iu England, 
toiitlher with the Old Blyle, until 1762 *.u., 
itt wbieh time a change of both year and 
stylo wu made; bencc, though wc now say 
that Oeorge WiwlilnKtuu whs born February 
22, 1T3'J A. 13., those who rocorded thai evvnt 
wrote it February II. 1781 * n. Huw^Ter, 
historical writers* bad already reckoned the 
yxnr to begin ut January I. For an ex- 
[Janstion of lhm« maltnrs, and for rales fur 
avoiding error and conf\)sion in datea, tlie 
roader must rofar to tho subject of the Cal- 
endar OS treated in the various cy<;lop»dias. 

The ern of the Bveira ii that uswJ bv tbv 
Mohammed ail f, and antes frou) ibe flight uf 
.Miibammod {tho tlcgira} from Mecca, or 
rather from a day ih'<'>rlly bi;fi:ire the actual 
light; BO that it beifins' July 1«, S32 m.d. 
But it ii not used in P«rsia, where Unio is 
reckoned from tbe acceosion to the throne 
of Yftxdegird, June l&, G3S a.d. 

Il remains now lo spi^ak of an Importanl, 
and III tho same lime wry dilBcult, ttranoh 
of chronology, vix., that of Biblical cbrn- 
nology. The basix of such a system I* itt 
courM the text of the Bible; and it might 
seem al first a simple mutter to rvduou iu 
reciinli bi a tahulnt«d mheme, hut there are 
diffltulties |ir»>-nled by llie text itself, and 
in addition the 8«pCuat;int, or ancienl UrMk 
vomiuii, dilfiini from the Hebr«>w text ; and 
again, the Samaritan Pentaleui^li differs from 
bi'ih these. Now two of Ibt-sc must havp 
been altered, and as certain allerntians are 
suiipouted in the Hebr«w text, vlivther by 
diwign or by nccidrot, it ha> hemimii impue- 
sible to dutermiiie wliich uf tbe three la 
ri)^ht on those [yoinls where tfaoy differ. 
Honce there haT« been so many discrc-p- 
an[ opinions and eoniradlctory conuiuslona 
among thuse who have fjiven atleiitiun to 
this subject, that from ovrr-«nn fid core in 
tre&tine il to a positive manner, men have 

Sane apparently to the opposite extreme of 
liiitcing that notbing whatever can bedooe 
with it. Theoe remarks apply uf oourae 
only to that part of Biblical chroaology 




wbioh csoBOt bf) oormboratMl bjr oond^m- 
purAry protutt Unory ; but the truth about 
It, M in to Diiny olh»r <»»<•«, lira iirdlmbly 
bvlwMn Iwu i!ilri-iii««, nnJ ncitrt-fiil cli]^i!«l 
of tlie r«curd> ur tin- BiIIh will afford • tyf- 
tern of clirouoU'gy trhicli may be wnft^tod 
u tintti ; bctiiiuic, iliou^b nutkbivlutclyDar- 
llln fur tbe earlioiil 8i;cf, It h belter than 
any other joloblittEiet) ; and in laUtr tinm 
i* cQitHrtTH-d l>y (Mntotnjmrary buitury, and 
upeiiially by the wonderJiil diBcloftiina of 
modern rifxoaN:!) and ilUoovary. 

Thv (liOVrtrot i>y>U-nii of Bible clirunotogy 
wbiub liavf ln:»'n ndvoeolod by tbe n»u>t 
luarii«d and able men miir bo arrangod (to 
luk« iio iivtiuc of tbe Riibblnlcnl i>y«l«ni() Id 
two cluaea, ike li>nc ifitans and the abort 
•yttcma ; though all laog •ratonu do not 
a|[reo with on« another, nettbor do a\i abort 
•vtlentBagreetogothtir. Tho ad vwatw of ih« 
(hurt ty-ftonii b>w« tbeir cutculutiunt on ihp 
goiie«lof(in uf tbe aniodiliiviniii and patrU 
anba as given in Ihu ll^br«w lexL (aod id 
our vcrcicn uf tbo Ulble}, wlii)« tbote who 

fir«r«r Ihv long By«ioni» cV><<i« Hit oorrapond- 
ag genealogiv* ia Lhu ijt-pliia^int, whitih 
an grcntur by una hutidml yiiini in tbi- age 
of AvarLy avery pntriarcb at the limo wbon 
hie luocvctor nax burn. ¥ot thi« r«Aii<>n, and 
for ourtMin otber jMicullariLio of inLnrfimlB- 
lian and reckoning, llivre ia n rery cunsidRf 
able diffci'«nc« bclwoon lh« two cluHce of 
ehronoluKlca, uuiil tlioy practically agrco 
in tlie date of tbe de«LrucUon of tiiitriniuu'a 
Tam|>le. Taking Ualee aa a repre^nUtive 
of the long «y>tenii and UHhar of the short, 
Ihr two may bo oomoared by tiic foilowing 
Ubl« of aix triticival dales : 

B-lm. Vmlm: 
Dntnieliaii iif Solamoa't TompU- — MD a.o. M8 s,a 

rbnndaHiHi - - imr lOlt 

ludn - ISM M»l 

call el Atown— » ..__...„_ ._....ioia im 

iriaad JIU VA» 

OrvaUon...^— ^.,.^^...„_.»^.^.MtI «m 

Uut flf all tbf! many lyslenix vrhicb have 
l>v«n (jublUhf^d and advot'utud, tbul of 
UHbor, Arvlibi«bopof Irobnil, hRi<rcc?eiTed 
ibti mint I'avur, and in bat known, Ht lotut 
to EuK''^h -speaking Rkun ; wwlnf;, do doubt, 
to ttia fact that It ii* in»ort«d in tiu- margin 
at tli« Autb'irix'jd Version of iho S<irip- 
luret, cum plot ed and nublbbed undor JauiN 
I. of Biigliind ; and tJia dates of BU(.'b o*<^nta 
u tbe Creation, tbe Flood, the £iodiM, etc., 
art commonly eiv»n in accordance wtlli it. 
pprhap* it i* »* welt Ui adupl it a« any, tmtli 
becaUM> tt is based u|Hin tlm Qi-lirpw t«xt of 
the Ilible, and Ixscauio It baa been so long 
received and used. But ibtire are many 
aide sdrouales of tbe lung syilvm, and in 
usrliciilar tha learned writer of ibe article 
Cbroiiulogy in SmiUi's ■■ Uicltunary uf the 
i)ibt(>," to which rcfi-rence ha« already bcnn 
made, appears to favor the I"ni! system; 
and be kusk^^Is a scheme newrlv ibe tame 
a* that of n«liHi lu the cnost probable, nialc- 
Ing, howcri-r, n nirrection of four years in 
iha date of tbe Exodus (and of ibo nrcced- 
\ug dates), b>uied iijion a lh<Kiry tltat ibn 

Ulh day i>r th>! muntb A.bib (i 
Paataver was instituted) corrMpoit 
tho 14tli dnv I'f an Egyptian inaot]| 
meneili, null iiihiu tbe fact, as ihowa 
trunumy, tliat u full moon full upon l| 
of Pbamenetb in Ibo your IQiS m.9 
iut«inentof tbe dutet abt/Te girea, 
therefore be, — | 

nwlmcHnD «f tbs Tamrl*"- — ..■■■.■■— 
Fuaodiidna of Ibe T*mpl«^.._.,.. „_.... I 

Kiudiu. - . ...^IIM 

Abrem - IDM 

riowl sua 

Cnatlon . „- ,.-_.Ma 

The article spoken of must be ngt 
ferred to for the explanation of ibe i 
}• round I for hi* conc^lustons ; and la 
will ba found n fullcontidcrstion of tla 
subject of Biblical cbronoloct. 
ru<ira general subject, tho "Caroil 
Inlr()dui:tiu» to tho Hutory of lh« 
and the " Cburcli of ibe RedMnMd,i| 
lat« Dr. Sauiufll P. JarTis, may bet 

Autboritiest Cbronology and Ot 
In Chambers's, Appletoa's, and Ha| 
tan EnL-yc1op»dia«. 

Rkv. r. a. hoi 

Church. Tbe word has usitally bt 
rivod iVom the tireotc ailjnctiTe JQ 
belonging lo llie LoHii, through ili^ 
tonic L'baiiKesuf (AugluJ8*sun) Cirn,! 
O. Germ. CAirichu ; Icelandic, JSyrMf 
thv Latin races usually n.'[ainvd l)M 
Ureek word, F.ixU*ia. The doviatif 
beL'D <!halleni;ed, but not on |trubaU| 
rate ^rnundt, It baa three broad umJ 
ar« quite dislincli (A) tbe church b» 
(B) tbe Cburuh in a oily or a Diocete i 
Now T<uiumt>nl in a bou*«baldlj (I 
Mystical Bixly of Chkist id its \ 
these lire quite diatintt aiiddeRnite It 
are gcijcrully well undenion-d. Jl ■ 
to thu lust tu-u tliut ihi). Hriicl** refera.| 
Srsl, of the Alyili'.-nl I)i>dy uf CbristiI 
ho |>mx'hiis«d with lli^ lll-tml (Aol»j| 
lu Founder nndFoundnti^^n is tb4> 
nimsolf, •' tJpoTi this Rock I will bit 
Cbiirrb" (>lait. xvi. 18), and thai % 
CtlttlsiT. Before its foundalinn ll<id4 
it, and calls it a Kingdom. Hid Eii^ 
BU Ji'j.TDBH'n Kiugdom, the Kingdt 
OoD, of Beavon, which He ajigminuf 
Actios. Men are bidden to enlo^ 
sunsrs rioknce and the violent takij 
foroe; It Is an open organixatiiWi] 
work* as lenreD in tbo miuI. Parah|| 
foreshadow its varird itxtrnt, |iawil 
gifta. A not Ui pttbcr nil men, ^ 
bad ; a pearl, a u-^asure worth all «I9 
service of a grcsil King wliit^h has gM 
tpuusibi lilies and eternal ruwHrdt)! 
whii:b sbiill shadow and Iod^« ata. 
Is to be in Ibo world, not of tns won 
to lift men out of tho world. It la t: 
in the heart and life. It is a klngdon 
a Divine policy and liMbiwing an iial 
i.-itii-.i:i]shi|). It admits without dia|| 
babti and old men, bond and fncj 
and learttnd, rich and poor. It la 4| 




In low, Kndit«cilizen*hipii r»- 
nrtng obedleiiM Thon: iniktnii- 
'wopartorihe tralninir llieAfioi- 
dsncvW*. Th«n ofTrrin- the roilpmplioii 
at th« Cmat, He rim fri'm thr> drivl^nnd 
■uaHitnK'lf as Bternnl Ooi> unJ Immor- 
W Tin Ue f.iund;i Uit C'harcli. It ia a 
Omuim)! throoKb Him, K union with Him, 
vwnhi^ iif Ilim. Emphiitk'Bllv, it In iho 
Ohorrb of Ctinin our Gob, vho ftu bought 
a«)UiBU blood. 

few tn tnitny vtyt Cuiukt's Church U 
■HgiinrtiM] k" (vrulnr kinedoini iirv. n« 

fum it u iU Hfwd lEpb. i. 22, '2i; \y. 
!(; OiL i. 1&-3S]. By the iIot.T Ghost 
^Mdxv. 7-16); bv tlio AportolicuiBce 
rtjbJr 11, 12; Si. Miu.xirfii. 20). For 
npurpo»r ii tn rcctnicilo itin!\il man t<> the 
Tmbi* though tho arm (2 v, 18, 18) 
Ijthi plMdlnj; of tbo Holt GuosTi'Koni. 
nL3l)iB our hmiA. It followi that the 
itftklrr of nmndlikliun in thr Charoh u in 
DiUrr'i oSlce m A)Ki*tli! [Hub. iii, 1) and 
Bitk-PriMt, and Uc mui'l npj>i)iiLl Hia own 
«**n, who »h«ro in Bi« uuiliority {!*t. 
Man. 21). He glva jjirtaftnil olTt-Tt hhI- 
^tlin. Qc moat miIpti llla own mc9i»on- 

Kllh. Mark iit. 1?; St. Jnhn xr. I(Jj, 
Apoitoltc office coQiinuci while the 
•wU hM* (St. Mnu. xx*iii. 20). But it 
CAUrtBlir for Hit nurpoam and Hii> wnrk 
OtMo XV. 14; St. Mark xvi. IS, 14; 
Bi lUu. xitvtii, 18-30). Bui a^ain, the 
»w!rtifof nwM. Ilr«iL'lii«fniin tlii-Tlironu 
dGuitbt pATnCR, Tfom tho Hnln.>*t Pre*. 
<K*<if CuKIvr'a nnccK>Lttg in(«reBisiaii, to 
^Hb uitd ba|>|>inp» of the Itwit ■>r HI* 
^"rf »t« of men. Thii wondriMU orghni- 
sU<« h W the mlTntion of meB.inul and 
MjfEpIi. ii.j. Tbia King hnt iiiid Aovn 
■flila conditions on whirh He rcccirea rror 
J^lnim it) baptism. He a&iii;n« dutita 
MB npunribiliticji ii[)on Hit citieens. H« 
n'ww by vternal law of loTe, atorej, and 
jwi». He has rigbU. privilogci, and Jm- 
■uitlti to ecnftT, oDcm to grant, dofenaea 
'■flmabuut (hem. The «onditi'>ni %tv 
Uft(St. Hark xri. 1ft; Rum. x. »; tU-b. 
"■ *; Acta viti. SR, AT) and reppnlaiice 
'*» ii. W* i 81. Luk*. xx\r. 27 ; S Frtcr iii. 
^^ Tb« (lath vf allegiance iti baptitm ia 
i** rtnuiivlntion of tho world, the deth, and 
J*»fcti1.lhe vuw of PkiLhaiidnfubedlpncr. 

■, cleftntilnjir (1 Cor. vi. 11 ; Titua 
^-tt.ani?wor«Hire/««l. ill. 2"; Col. lit. 
■*; Sph, i*-. 24), and lifo immortal (Horn. 
"■V This ia Ihc flr*t sm-rumnnl ImiUtury 
'♦'kjlotlM! CftM&in of tmr wiItbUoti (Eub, 
"'■ Bj" li w.! bcciini<> citizpn* "f Hi» king 
■•^ iKpb. ii. lT-i2 ; Phil, iii- 20, 21). »«ri:. 
J[<lfl0 (Kom. viii. I-(-17; 1 John iii. 1, 2; 
I* Jdin 1. 12), bi;ritor« of hia rojal righi* 
gJ^iT. 1-7; R*». Hi. 21; Eph. Ii. 6). 
«• arvth« [tricileeM and gifl* with wbion 
Udtierok an clouivd. itiit in u Mtcond 
•»iHff(*nr#j«Ul* Bolt Smkit for pild- 
»«»Mid bcipihflb. ri.2; Acuii.88; Tiii. 
■i; tli l-<; Eph. Ir. S0>, wbnreby vrab«- 

come lanciiSed and are tvmplM of the Holt 
GnonT (1 Cor. iii. Ifl, 17; vl. 19; Kph. I. 
ISj H). And a renewal of our wwa u «p- 
pnintiid in ibo Holy Cominiinicm (St. Jobn 
vi. Bl, 67; I Cur. li. 2)1-2B1 for forgivenru 
(9l iliilt. XXTI. 26-2fi) ; ftna dirwt iicworof 
abeolution ia given to Hia offlcon (St. John 
XI. 22,28), <<rof dlMiplirji. (1 Cor. t. 4, 6; 
1 Tlai. i. 20) und of bleasintt (Heb. ilii. 
20, 21 ; 2 Cor. xii. 14). And Ho gov- 
erns aoi'ordlng to a Lnw purt of whtob 
ia re»oaled, and part lie* bijhind the *ei! 
of wtnrnnl iif*. For Ho rannnt govern 
but bv Law, being tlii; fount and sourve 
of all ^jRWtoui; tind by |iorfect [rurity, holi- 
i\at», and Jmtivi.> Ho g«vtrn« u*. Ttiv Lav 
of CnaiHT !i drawn Tn fi»rt from ihc Law 
Uo (jaTo on Mount Sinai, and wboaeprinoi- 
pl6i nro immutable, itiid In ptirt from Hli 
own revelation of tawcy and of Jitalio4 
[Gal. vi. 8; St, MniU v., vii.. x. ; St. Luho 
vi.; SL John itii. 34,36; xiv., xv., xvi.). 
Aa the vialblc Church ii, at it were, ■ polity 
nnd a colony from the eternal liingdom in 
heaven. It is goTornod not by laws of ibU 
world, hut bv Lawi frtiDi thento (Phil. Iii. 
20, 21, and the Bplatles in the New Tnta- 
mcni gcncrnlly) ; and the Law of Faith, of 
Ki|:biiMutD«t4. of SanctiQcatloa, thn Law 
of Love and Porgivenew, ibo Law of Ju»- 
tiri) nnd of Good WorkN, ar« intt-rntingU-d 
in the tMcreA writings left to Hia Church, 
that they become the rule of our daily lifa 
aioltizoni govurnrOhy Iliiuin HU kingdom. 
But thi« oltlxcnibip. bor« prohatiunnry 
and disciplinary, involvea ceriaia reajion- 
aibilitict and duties. The conditions of on- 
tranco nevorr cca*e to be binding. Faith !n 
Him aa a Pereoii having oowor of life and 
i1«ath (8t. John v. 20-27: St. Matt. xi. 
27-80; SL John xi, 25, 'k; xiv. fi; St. 
Matt, xxvlii. IS], as one with Goi> rst. 
John, i. ], 2; X. a»-80; xiv. 9-11), a* lo 
T>e woribipMl (Si. John ix. 8&-B9; St. 
Luke xxiv. 82). Daily TBncnliog. [ncrca*- 
ing life fn holLncM fGnl. v. 22 25; Hora. 
viTl. ; Phil. iv. 8; Rom, xli. ; 1 Cor. Iii. 
n-23). Good worka (Kotn. xii.-xv. 7; 
Ki.h- ii. 10; Phil. (1. 12-15). Service to 
others (St. John xlH. 84, S&j St. Slatt. 
XXV. ai-46; Rom. xii. 18-21; G»l. v. 9, 
10). Si-rvioo of wor«hi|t (Heb. x. 24-S! ; 
I Tim. Ii. l-A; PhlL Iv. 8,7; Eph. v. 19, 
20). We have Iratcd out the condition* of 
admioion, the ucramcnu and their gitlii 
lh« Hghiii and prlvllipgos. the bpirahip, the 
dutie*. the ri>spon«ibilitlei>, ihp bleoing, and 
(hn Rtrrnglh, with un iibumbinl rc^fen-nM to 
the Scripture, whicb iayetliiflniteiy lulliTof 
nil rif thp^u. Rut Hgnin, nil Ibe*" gifu are 
conialntd In urn; Boilv. Our Loiii>'!i prnyGr 
for uiiliy (SL JuUn xvJi.] t.-annot'b« 
rni-JtninglGf.*. The Scriptiiie ia full of thii 

unity, ONt XET, OXK KARHOW WAV. Fot 

thorn It but one Atonement, one RiMiirffi^ 
tion,one Mediiitor,one King, one kingdom, 
one cUiseusbip, one Lokd. ntie Faith, one 
baptiim. For God ie one, und our calling; 
it one in the unity of tlio Uoi.y GiioR. 




K tuli 
■ iti 


ThU kingdom bo orftftlo], »o ^Terned, j 
compMod of (uclj cUisens and having mdu 
not of thie enrtlii aticl n wTiaintj of dura- 
tion beyond tho continuanot> uf thu earth, 
more, — expecting only it* comiiliitinn whon 
thti earth *1)u1] pajs H-trnr, dq>oti(Ifiit upon 
tan immonal Kitig who Ti.iljt riornal power, 
ri»hiO i( planning, »hi»ping, filling together 
ly so Dikny iiiinlca »o mimj diverse lower 
latarwlA, Mti^tifVing mi-d and giving ihem 
Immortal lope*, must not mttrcly give its 

S'ft* to u« upon our troiiBOtit to Join it, but 
U consent must axprau, on our part, a 
deep conTlction of uur iieHi3», of our faial 
danger in rejecling il and Him It/eprtsscnt:!, 
and of th* glorl-'ug b«ii«I]t^ it confers upon 
orerr on* bcloiiginK la it. For il U » 
poculiar kingdom ; il eii»u in tbe iulytwtn 
of eartlUy klngilnin«, n «piritual »IaIo wiibin 
s atcuUr one, llfling up and purifying the 
■vcular atate ; a cUt« tlrnl bindi iuio one al) 
the kindred* of tbp parlh, ypt linen not Inter- 
fere wilh, May, Karu'lioiw tueir politiral ("on- 
dilion (Rom.' xiii. 1-7 ; St. Matt. xxii. 21) ; 
yti bindi tb«m by an oatb and by mutUBl 
plodgea to the Person of llioir Klni;, wlio 
tuliw tliem by [he Inw of low and obudlence. 
]t is therrror« a bounden duty to bocome 

tlsent »f it. 

Snt i\th organ ixHtion, «o wimpBcted, gov- 
»rn«d, and iwjuiiipod, rnu»t br con<ii)ari>d a* a 

SKility, huving dcflnito end* and iimjilnr'ng 
leUnite inatrumvnu. Bui, it mitst nare 
hittoric continuity. TbI* i* UHcntial U> it. 
Il Diuit have It, for it ia part uf Goo's plan 
for tb« world throughout tlm« aa well «■ fur 
all tnen ; and, too, It cannot fail. It niay bo 
tnaimcd ctnd Injured at tluoB, but it ntiutbc 
pi?rpo(iin1, and naro power of se1f-[iarpotiia- 
tion iti ill vmlbln organixatioa. JU auur«d 

iipr[i«liiily r»ta in Lbe Pereun of Ohkiht, 
u risible perpetuity in the Apoitclio oflce, 
wliich p«rp«tuftli:a ftaclf. Tkciut fnclx of iln 
hiatoric oonltniiltj. of Ita perpetuity under 
all diaaaters, muBt ne neccasarily noted and 
accepted u fUndamentftl : flret, for our 
Qvn faith (Hob. xi. 10; 1 Pet, v. 4), and, 
■ r^latiiig to the general proof of 
the c^rtniotvof thin kingdom (Mutt. xxir. ; 
Bt. Karit x'iil. ; 1 Cor. sy.). For Ita doc- 
Irinet hare b«en and are borrowed, iU 
authority in)iuit«d, it* pnlitv ccipiud, Ila 
lawt iranafi-rred, iu citlxenvliip jiTuiuitcd. 
But in the (taxt mich organiE&lion» liat-e 
&llod,ftnd all (Imilnr prcKnt o&» wo may 
be aaaur^ will fall also aa soon a* the foroea 
■o borrnwpd, not being f i>tf-«u«taining. iball 
be rsppndcd. This Bniiv, thi« Oburch, thi.i 
Tteib1« kinfrdom, this Divine organization, 
thi* itnlo u'i thill all, arid jxirmoHlirig nil 
earthly itatt*, yet nut of ihfin, *iidiiw«I 
wilh Aupremitl vitality, inberilliig a [ler- 
jietiiity, mujt bare granted to it, ai a body, 
Mrrtaln powert, both because of Iti FoiuMr 
and beoante of the abiding prMenm of the 
Holt G«o#t. It» PnDudrr hud * dftflnilo 
piirpMoe, tbe Holt Spibit has a drfinito 
DUHtoB in and through the Church. Tber«- 
fbve It hocamea a pUUtia in tlio fullest <»;»»« 

of the word. Every rtate is 
pr«u lomc mighty political truth 
of and through the peo[>l« who 
Tfal» heavenly kingdom is found' 
might Iciiow thn only trna Qoo 
V.BKtKT whom He haa sent (. 
21. Il it therefore Trinitjirian, 
Kp, ad Svrapion], bi,-<.:auK« of lh< 
word*, wbten are the germ of tbli ^ 
It muiC, for llaetf and for Ita i^tiM 
the defcnue and continual blei«f 
Holy Trinity; it is tbe publlo I 
and the »nlo daf»nder of chi« ■ 
polity il fmmvd for that end. ZJ 
thi: una of all tbe means which cttj 
before men Lhe truth of ibe da 
vital rcliiLiun to thn lives of nid 
iieceaslty of batieviug in and thd 
ing on ail the conaequcncM that | 
it. It muit be the keeper and dv 
tht> Fuilb, neither adding to it noi 
ing from it. It miiiLt proclaim ] 
men thin Fnitli. iind il must not eq 
nor yet weaken lhe condition* { 
anco and tlic giftn Ihal »hall floi 
Al iu uovernmeiit i« framed upoc 
the Holy Scriptures are given to jj 
Kpircd record of it, and ita hisloiv 
inent and continuity, lhe hi^tnrj 
teacbingi by it, and ihn rrmlta a 
reoelved or rijected extending ol 
aection of ita career, (a ) in tbe Pi| 
|M the Kouic, [«} thu Ubrinian I 
Thi* aacrwl tnspir^Hl (uriei of i 
must be bald and defended laj 
under ibe llii«a of action auggetq 
oonlained in thajti, ita policy muatj 
out. Tbii involve* the armoci 
Creed (ApiHtles*, Nioene, the I 
oiinqiie VultJ, the fnrmalion of a 
divinelv iudicatMJ, — with rites al 
niee and a ritual which shallower 
thp runowed homiign of hi* *ua 
aliu serve h> an inkiructiuo and ~ 
and a uublio coufcsaiou of thi 
wayi ttiat thall attract ftU m^ 
tbeie rites, (bit Creed, and these 
each, richtly uned, •hall train 
mould thrir livri into n heaviml^ 
so lift Ihum U|i above other men 
the lives of the cilisvn» of ih" 
*himld dhow tho truib and aancti 
uf its laws, and the Klt>rious love 
• if iu King. Hut the very faot| 
deposit made in a state •*> foq 
having its increase by a spiritu«]|j 
given rucb a polity, drtarmina fr" 
I'harnclRTittic. It mnstbenggi 
is mi^ionary, and this eggreeti 
from llin puro*t soiiriw — lovu. I 
wni agi(rei*tve from utter love. 
RPIEIt'' abiding iu it is an aggr| 
and it i* tho sole and raogoifioenU 
of the Church to be aggrewlvfl|| 
gather all in it* fold thmugh lovij 
Again, the nlenaion tliroutfba 
and In all iitatea Iciada tu anuLh«r 
in iti Divine conititution. Intl 
a positive Faith, having a specif 




Afbliiliiy «n<) power of «<U|>l«ticiu, bavinr 
t uiiW«ruill¥ jtocapted Crocvl aod broad 
fonlBtioaaof ft common ritusl, il lux poinu 
tt miiy Hnd comoiucihj ■uiunr; al) thete, 
■b] Ii il juinMl U>fteth«r by nuaj l»u<l* and 
HMM tu ito, fur Uir juruont, uinicm Head. 
IksObiirch u * «Ulo within iKhAr buu>b Is 
fMOllulT placed. It hu to protest boldly 
•idnnitn. It hM tob«>gfgT«uiv«. TbMO 
u« ^nit wf moTBl xDlftgoniim. If, then, 
UMMTiWy •prMd |i»rt«ort)i»Church w«ra 
Mbi nlfa«red u on« bc>d^ under n rUibU 
kid,lW friction, to uall it by nu atrungvr 
OM^ tbu* cretttcd would ba a hindrance 
tkmM ttlal lo tbn diMbftrg« of itA tnin 
flUMl^u. The rear of thii, when in yot it 
«aU aot pnisibty oxiiit, W h«atlien pm- 
fmnnpoB politirkl pritiri|ilri nf miatnknti 
rtWilrliwiii to peruculc it^ il dtrnKt^T thuL 
AdMned Ita «xUt«nce, but wu divinelj- 
Mnwd tDlo ft DWUU of (trugth and of gr<» t>.'p 
fimb. Wb«ii auefa an organluition wk5 
AManttrary to nil the traditioni of it* 
IHtIm ftmiiding, it hiw ftwftlc«0(d tht jral- 
^ ud ftatajconiiRL of tlie lereral tecular 
Umism, ftDi) hu tn itMlf lad to MMPtionii 
*(ua &itb unwarrftntrd, unfnundnd, knd, 
*Mlbn togfcally carried out, cubvereivu 
' lb uutanc*. Thi«, then, leads ui lo the 
MMii tmi t«]um11y curnwl uie uf the Ulla 
CWok UMsd with reference to t))e Church 
itwbtecular «utc. (it) Tn itppoint <i Kin- 
^Tltlbl4 B«ftd wb«n ItdFounderitppolntcd 
»a^ ud loA no proviiion in lu ovnttitutiun 
^wb Baadsbip, ii th«n oppoced to und 
"Hliu^i faUl U> th« lofty anda for wbiuh 
<hQiurrb it aetablished. But, on tbacon- 
^. ia tb« AnoetoUc Collect tugtOtm^ H« 
•tuUiliid thi* Undahip; to ttnimall in nom- 
tta Be ga*« hi* own Apiutolate (St. John 
■>■ U) in Aill. Thoy wre lo be, a» tbey yet 
wfc b a common hobd, yet ai luflldontly In- 
'fMdaat looarofor ihv ncM«Mirily <i?pnral« 
jjjkwtaof tfa* Church in such nntionality, 
**9 tere io bav(- Ibo pDWur <if holdine 
"■•*. Nor yet was the Church aolely vested 
Httaai, bat aJun tit* ponplit wnro Lu Ix) an 
Jjilfal pari of it. Tho iDtttnlupeiiduncu of 
'** Kteral parts of the Church by th«Lr 
'I'Ulftalltic* WB« Hcurod through tho &p<w> 
^^l tb* indepcndeuM of tba aanral 
*Uii«tllilea was tvrtiT«d through th^ir nio9 
*r tribal paraliaritiM and ciutomi, — nnn-«ii- 
•"•Sal in tli«nu<!lv«M, but ihh outfjniwlh of 
'"■ir maatal diipoaiiii'Di, and of their forms 
"< Bb and ot gormammii, and thorofnra an- 
**MDlitic aud creallnfT jraluutin and hick- 
yaf*. wpra they lo clash through the tvo 
frostmtty of ihoir dircrta intcreal*. 
> waa at ih« (Irsi (h«i;realMt freedom 
r-. alhivsd ifae wvnral portions of the 
™iUrV ia thiiir own rrgiona. Bvery por- 
••"* »t» alh>w>-d to have its own n)6dt-s of 
?^*hic aad of logtrlatinir withio tho grvat 
'^*m vr a cciuuion Faith. Caus«a aroae 
*Utb provideniially drew (hediCToraDt paria 
".■huharch b^evih«r, wh«n it bacnme »a 
*iWf *pmd aa to appMr In danc« of fitll- 

ing apart by ita tmnv tMlont. IInm»i<tii oo- 
cftKiunvd Counuila, and CuUReila bound lh« 
Cbiiroh«a toj^tther in the d<fi>&sa ofaconi- 
moa Faith and in Iho unity of a common 
wurahip. So that It waa not, it i« nut now, 
permitted ua to admit a vialblo II«ad, but a 
vifiblo common axrcutivo office. A bond of 
unity In the ciimmon Faith, common l^aw, 
which reiulta from [he needs of the lime, a 
commnn wor*lii[i uf our ono I.oai>. It alia 
follow* tliat Ml it oxial* whiiln and complete 
in eacli aud every ]iarl, that Ibo KptstHipato 
held in common i» equally proaent \n each 
(iiiu (ifiia mi^mber*, itial the Fnllh ia oom- 
iilote in tbeCroiid and the Scripture*, and the 
Law of government and identity "f p»illcy, 
both of a;u;reMl«a and conservation, and 
unity of worship, aro enmptete In Mch part 
Elf t[i<^ Church. A(> it il nut arrogancr, nnt 
pri±Hiiinpti<)n for any part of the Chiiruh ti) 
i-uy that it IB th« Church tu rcgarda tho 
nation to which it is «*tMbli»h«d, and that It 
iiiUHt be <U) aa regardii the naceaally for eaeh 
man to be within iU pale, and the rc«poiui- 
bilityof llie Church to gather into it* pate 
all who are yet without. It fol)ow« tbat 
mlAsirinarie* from ono nation to atiothor not 
havitit; till) Faith, whim tbity bava i^xlai)- 
lisboiL the Church and ^jven to it what iu- 
i>triinieDia)ltics and olQcero the Head of tho 
Church hai loft, have thereby effect^ an ex- 
teiiaion uf the old hiitoric Churcli, and It 
inunt liccnmo national and indo|iCTidoni, yi<l 
in cluaatt union of all ih(icomin<.>n traditiona 
whi<;h belong to that Church. Thia wai 
precisely the principle of the national 
Church of Aniorica at the cltmc of the Ker- 
(diitiuii, when, by ITK&A.I)., it hn<l nn-inviul 
the Spiacopatc from th« English line. What- 
ever tho Rngllsh Church bad of thu ciimmun 
CathoHi.- Faith and ina bm-ame ourt aa helra 
tailing from a eoniinoa eatate uuder a com- 
mon will which bad made provttion for our 
inheriting. " Gu yo iuu> all the world." 
" Make ditciplea or all che nationii." There- 
fore WR, though hilt a century old, iiiitly 
claim from our F.iundcrabiiitoric continuity 
in tho Ki'iBCoPATK, in the I1kim:<it uf the 
Scripturm, In tho CouuoN CaxKDS, In ibo 
broad unity of tlia LiTDRoica, in thegorern- 
meot under the CAiroir Law of the univeraal 
Church. Wo hold thaae by tho ri^ht of n 
comcnon hoiitniM). If It b* Uie duty •>( tho 
Onp, Eiolv, Catholic, and Apoalolio Church 
to make dLwiple* of all nation*, that portion 
of it bMorned tho national Cburah in tbat 
cniintpy which It eMera under thia liittoria 
law uf indapundontp. 

The topic broaden! at overy atcp, and we 
must atop here, for much trhich cuuld bo 
properly »ald here will be found under other 
lioadinga, — Epihcopact, Bishop, Apoa> 
TOLic 8ucf,-KW>iux, AfOdTLB, Bkitihh and 
AnqlicaK Churchni. To thi^e lh<.- rcailer 
muat go for furtlier information. Hut wt 
cannot cloaa without rvpuntine that Cit aiar'a 
Church ia fuunded u|ion Himtelf hy Him* 
aielf, in His Kesurrection, officered by Hi* 
appointment, et^uippod by Ult gi(U, aent by 




I Inchiid, ULt»otl«i] fenrroua welouinet to 
idrs^M* tci larg« number* of attendants 
' ■! Hi* nrioiM BMCliBfft. 

Tt» CIturvb CoBgnsM in tho Untied 
Awm. wbiU thnr mnaifMling iti IboTonKh 
1uj>ltyio Uifl Ckurrb in her Memlr ortUr 
I «ad rif hlTul ituttioritf , it ftUo » Toluntiirj 
)<wdilioB for tlic frt« di>u;iuti9n or gmt 
I HMifeiu iMtritilninic to both Chun^b and 
SUI*. ll laja Da claim to official Mithurilj 
« KMIottfibilitf. U tjUcca nti vutAs ji |Miii«it 
DO molutiont, It wcki no Influenoe in tcfii*- 
l«iNn. R«pre»?nt«d in it* mr<inbpre))ip, 
m itbUcii, antl it* worliini^ ftircM by u. 
1*1$* ^ranurtiun of dblinpuiabed and in- 
ftNBiiil fafncfi, ii tbas bccomo r«pr«E«D- 
yiin d*o uf tbu wAob Cbiirvli. A diiof 
(Man ill lu aiiD, and a foromott nnd 
battUiif cbaractomtic of its history, bas 
k«N illiutrated in Vrinftns coectfaer men -'f 
divvN ud oppoainc tcbooT* of lhuu);bL 
«Wiletk*lio«nd*'>fi)ip Church. Such have 
l>udticro*rlrca drawn niwmr tngvChnr by 
lb* that contact i<f Uie CSoiiprou pl«tf»rni, 
■ad.M a diiiingubhcd Biihvp bas well satd, 
"AtditruMinna, intuwd uf widening th'Q 
Imth botwecn brethren, liave cendwi to 

1b« pTDMcdingt, |Mi|>»n, addroiica, and 
ipMk« *)t tbe nveral tM*ii>na are cni- 
Miol in annnal rvioin*, undn- lb« Cidtlor- 
■bpof the OeniiTal Muretarj. ThrMt form 
a liHcyrM ^tf rip* iMminR, viKomus 
■tn^tii, and idoqmnl uttvranoa uptm ereat 
^nbuat of tlio tim««. of whirh the Fmt- 
MM Splaciipal Cliiircb nmy wridi tm pmud. 
f*U««tadent in tb(!ulu);_v and lu cu^'iiali! 
^fia. »o l«M than Co itin eXtTgymmi and 
al )a,vraan, ibuae vilumc* will bo 
Inoat valuable, 

I Ninth Church Congrcsc » to be held 
loktf, imH A.t>. in Detroit, MtchiK^an, 
*M)B(b* Frei^idencv -f lb« BiabopoT uTch- 
«io.lh«Rl- Hnv -S'S. I1arri«, D.D.L.L.D. 
Rkv OEoituK D. WiLtiK-H. D.D. 
Qwchinc Office. (The tbank«^'i*Jng of 
»i)««i %nvT cbildl'irth, commonly cwlod 
^^Cliuri-binf; ui Wutottu.) A dL-op tenio 
■ftb* {>rotc«t)ijn of Providence in herg^jeat 
filaai alway* Itlird Ihn hoarta of devout 
ywlw*. While tbi* uffica, IhcQ, rony ho 
*"^4«d upon tbo Jqwith law, and continued 
>■ iMiution of till- pur! Ileal ion of thn Holy 
^*pa Mary, rei it, really Ii™ fartliiT bmrli, 
*^>btt ihnnltiVilnGM of ' deliverance fVuni 
■*<l»». Th« •1,-Tvicc ■• it ilnnde in our 
'>^n>Book I* toinetchat ohan)^, but lu 
^Vaterial p»inl. from tho Kngliib otllce. 
J*» Kyri<« an^ omitted, and only o«o Pfalm 
[waiiB j,lacc of two itbe czxvli. also) in 
■tlu^titb boiil. The "d<>L*rillv «]i|i«r- 


BM>ant mining in wilfa a VFil of wbitn 

*'*rlal. hut tbi* ii diiiued. The r.unveu- 
^piaca. nr a» iho ordinary «halldirvi-t, i» 
•■tUi it kft "f tlw early "fllw;, l"?foro ibc 
'■*cb4oor. Bishop Aridrvwi dir«L-t(.'d bo- 
""•the choir, Bi*hop Wren al the cltan(«l 
^^ ThttN b l«w i-hange from ibb old 
l»liibiuy (we ttua ia many other terTlcu. 

There «bou1d alaray* be an offbrin^ mada, 
wb«tbor tho pmyer alone i* u*ed in behalf 
of the womui at the place of the tbank^v- 
incK, or whe«.h*>r (bin ofBoo l« uted. 

Circumcision. Th» Jewish Covenant rilo 
of milting olT Uw forukin of lJi« mnlv ohild 
upon the eigrhih day, when alu> Uiu c!hild r«- 
L-civvil it* naiiic iiiia. xvii. £3; xsi.4; £x. 
«ii. .18; Li-v. »il. S; Joih. V. H). 

Cifcamciaion, Feaai of. The day wa* 
IcMil iu> thi' ot'tavo of tbv Nativity al UrsL 
Of tbc T«A=t of tbe c)rcunicl»i(>n' there it 
early otiinrvanpi?, but after the tevenlh oen- 
lury thrrit apjinar dintinrt din^clioii* for iu 
Aa it fi'lt upim th<i latof January, whiirb was 
a fiMtiviil of mad riot among tbe heathen, 
it will nnlurul that it iliuuld not ba kept 
at a feaal among ChTiiliant wbeu lUe to.- 
oevtca of lite h(!aLheii were to uiicontrotlod. 
There tbould bo a colcbratlon of the Uoly 
Communidii upon ibi* teun, as upon all dayi 
whnn any part of our LoKO'a life and ae- 
liunt nri' comniii mo rated. 

Circutnincession. Tbi- tndwellingof the 
Tbroo l>ivino i'cr.'uoB of ibc UoliTkikity 
In eavh olhiir. It i* vxprocKly inugbt (St. 
John xiv. 10-11), " BeltoriHt tliuu nut ihnt t 
am in the FaTHSuand tbe Kathkii in mo? 
. . . but tbe F.iTnBR thai dvrcllutb in me. 
De doeih the works. Believe tne that I nm 
in tho Pathkx, and tho Fathkr in ne." 
tvo in xvii. II, '21-SS, and often imnliMl, at 
in i. I ; Col. ii. 9. For in Him direlletb ail 
tlie fullncM of tho Qodhend bodily. But 
it U a rmiconable tequenre from iH" myrtur- 
ioua doctrine of the Hof.Y Trinitt. For 
thuuifh Uio Three Permn* art- disljin-t anil 
Upnratc, ihoy are One Lu ihv Divine !4ature, 
and tho Uivlne Nature i* •Mitiro in I'M'h Por- 
aon, yet there In but ofiw Rod ; which neoea- 
aarily follow* from the immutability nnd 
indiviAibility of the Oodhmd. Yet the dis- 
tinction of Penoni tt shown by it, whila 
tlin deep mv^l^rr of the 'Divinn (.rnity ii 
kept, for, lailh ftiihup Bull, "Jn order l-t 
tbai mutual existence (in each other} which 
■a diw-Tncd in tlie Fatuxk, Sok, and tloi.y 
OaoHT, It it ab*<dutely nooeautry that there 
*hi>uld be lonie ditll notion between thoae 
who ar<; thn<joincd tuyetber,— i «., that tbnao 
who inutiinily esi*t iu each other abould bo 
different In reality and not in tnoda of oon- 
cit|ilif>n niilv, for that wliioh i* aimply onoia 
nc>t uiid tu viint in itiM^lf or to inttirpenr 
tralc iuclf. ... No timilitud* can be de- 
vited which Ehall be in every rwpoet ant tv 
IlluatrHte It ; no lanjcuage avalh worthily tu 
tet it forth, teelug tDat it I* a union which 
fM trangcend' all other union*." I Kull't l>e 
fenteof the Nit-ene Creed, L. It. cd. iv.{ IS, 

Citation. A preot|j)t or a ■nmmonii from 
the propi-r uflicer or Bcrli-ainilical jiidgt?, cit- 
ing tbe |i<Treon against whom cuinpluinl it 
mudo to appear before him oa a certain day 
at aeertuinplHovioMniwcr to thoc»ni|ilaiuta 
mnd^rr ■I'linti him. 

Cle<ey- (Clcri;y, from klerot, a lot, U 
men having chos«'n God for tbetr heritage.) 




Tiuy w«i« mUu cMvd Cnnonici, from buin^ i 
andtr A rate or ft vftniin. The nune wad 
made ti> include renders, acoljtes, sutidvft- 
vtm*. The titlu, liowuvor, proparly liL'l»i!n;t 
only to lb« tiir«« ortlvra, tlic U[ih(i|»>, 
Prie»to, and Dracotif. In the Scripcum 
fiL Paul, In Uie Epltdo U tbe B«^rcw«, im- 
yWvs them to be on office ct BUtborily ; to 
in hit KpiKtlp* m TiniMthy iinil Tin«. And 
Agtiiti, 8l. Pi'U-r (1 IVt.r. 8) w«ni» thecl<?rgv 
RgHiiiBt A vftiii];luriuu8 tue uf tbcir offiui-. 
Tail riiik cvinc* uuC ck«rlv iinni«liu1«ly 
&fUir Apottullc tlniM. In tliu EnintlM uf St. 
Ignatiut, '' witlibiit lliue (tne Biibou. 
Pre«b;1«r«, KDd UeMCuns) it cannul boc»l[vii 
ft Cburcb" tut tbu Trftlllkni, e. lx.)< ""'^ 
Clnoifiil of Alexandria (Slr[>., 1. vi. o. v. in 
fln.). " Fur T ■ii[irM)*p thut th«dav«li>pn»'ntK 
in tlie Cliurcli nr the BUhojis, Pri»la, and 
J>(;aconE are imitated Crom tho angclia glory, 
a/id vf llint ccuuomy wlilcb tbc Scripturw 
deelAr« belaiiK to tLuti- wliu llvu in tbe fuoi- 
■t«|« of the Apottle*, in nfrfeetion of rii^lit- 
Mu»net» «e«ordiRg to ttie Uutp^-l. " 'I'bo 
ftppolnlm«ut of Timotliy and Tlttis over 
iav Oburflb«« of Siibt^u* and of CrB(« to 
ordvr and ordain, i> an earty proof of ilic 
dcYelopmant of Rpitcopal unli-r in the 
footsteps of the Apoatlee. For if the Trcs- 
bylun (but wrv conipoletil to nrrangfi tbtHL' 
iDiufja and to ptrpntuiite tht-lr urdtr by or- 
dination, why g\v6 Tinii>lby and Titus sucit 
ipKlal inrtruction*? why send them at all?" 
(But vids urti'i'lei Bisboi*. Priuibtter, 
DxACOx, Okihsatiox.) The clerjiy wore 
tVimi th* ApiMTulic timea ref;uTd>^ a* aMpa- 
rabiurder, with apix'ial rmpnimibilitiM and 
•pocial immunitiea. In the AcU of tbe Apo>- 
tle* fxv. 2a), ■■Tbo Apoellet and Eldors- 
br«lbr«D,''a«t4Bii tu bu cLo ^oundoit furni of 
Ihe wardit acgreguting them fnim tbo laity. 
Tb« Blibop cxcrci)cd tho highcat a>.lniini»- 
trativeandapirltual uffluv, held in binui-trnll 
the minor offlcM, nnd was |R«t. II., lii.) held 

Senonallf TMponublo for lbs growth, imrity, 
lulplme jknd orlhodoxj of ibi* Church 
•Km Di it ted to him. Cert«in of hii pT«r(>j:a' 
liw* bi> rntPTTvd to him*e-11*, vliief of whirh 
WPra the urdinaliun of Qt pi-r»ina to tliu 
Diaconate and l'> the Preibyli^rale; ami ih<.- 
ftdmiwlon by conaccration of the elect lt> tho 
oiR<-«, ti> bliuwn Epiitcopal raolc ; conQrnxi- 
tioii, excommurEcatloa. As adnainlitlrator 
of juriiidirtiiin ho gavn lott«ra dimiatory to 
Preabyiers going to othftr Uioccafea, »dmini«- 
ti^rod lhi> r«veiiuN, enforced the dificjplinc 
of tlioCiinrins upon hi* rliirgv and laity, utid 
waa till- ufllcL-r with whom lav Ihv 1a>t appi'al 
in all Eccli-bia^ Ileal caaea In tia Dii>ce»«; but 
If b« wrro t(K> arbitrary olb«r Biahopa could 
lnteTf«re. Hu lat as praaiding officer in hi* 
Dlocctan Synod, and bad hi* pl^ce accord- 
ing to the precedence of bis Secfutually ac- 
cording to iiA poHlii-al imfHirlancc) in the 
Provineial Synod. 

Tho Prwibvter *har«i with tho Biahop, or 
bkdcommittisl In him, llii' Hi;hl to rplnoratr 
tbfl .BachariHt, ti> Bildiiiurtrr Implinni, t*) icivv 
Jh» baudictioti and th« absolution, booonae- 

rmlc churrh**, and, in cnae of gr 
recoiicilv poiitL-nta. lie was auo 
to bii UiFiiup upon all L>ioceaMn i 

Thu Deai-ciu bad tba colle«d( 
ponsine of the muncys of the J 
could baptixe, KCfint in diviaa i 
minlater the cup at the Comma 
preach and aid in i^arocbial w<k 
ib«a« offio«a, baptizing Knd prtm 
exorciaed when neither Bishop no 
vrore preaent. The clergy wen 
at Ural, and fur many centuriei 
common fbnd of tbe Diooeae, 
divided usually everv month. Tl 
fund L'«me from tithes and g\t\ 
nnd enduwmentB, which wer« o 
llio Iii»hop or Pfwbyier, if rich 
ing all of bix property into tl 
treasury, as did Cy|iriun and ma 

The cU'rgy had tnuiiy Inirnuititi 
the Empire was Cbr!»iianiMd tbi 
Lies wero only wlibin the Chu 
were mipportcd by tbc Uhurch 
forbidden Any lecular employtn 
received the re«peot and hon 
ibeir officw. After the Empira bw 
lian th« civil luw Kave the Bial 
preru}i;ativee, as a share in munti 
and a powor to pardon crimina 
jj^vv duiialinns and revenuM frot 
treasury fur tbe building of cb 
tb« Mipporl of ehiiritahie work, 
Bishops bad their own Courts, 
withdrew the Inferior cleric fnn 
Isr Juriwiicticn of tbu coart* fo 
misdBmeanon', It wan ■>«<» of tl 
the RRfnrination to du away will 
that flowed from the cxempiicm o 
from st^cuillr trial for ttii-ular ci 
[I'jwer i>f tbo elorgy w«« alway* 
as with their iiiontiijoly, a» it 1 
Icnrnin^ of the Middle Age*, ant 
iiulliurity undor tho l»w«, eivU 
tlie (.-burcheA and religious boui 
scnU both of leurniii)C and of a»] 

To-day, with tho iroprtttaloaa 
petidentism hug made upon tbi 
itio majnrily nf pnnpln, thcro i 
nroppr regard paid U> theoffli«ol 
While llie cleric nitif't, so far an I 
abilitr and character reach, onlv 
comlueralicin duo him from to 
offiee and bis teacbinf; in that at 
bomDrervverentiallvreceived Ih 
Surely *oniettiin|; ni llio force of 
solemn words Hill resu upon I 
"Ha thai hnimth von haaraih 
tbatdeKpiMiib vuuuciniseth Me, 
dcepiselii Uo^eepi^th Him thai 

Cleric. (From cirreiut, n dttf 
[a iuMiL-UmM used to dMif[nate k 
but has f;radually receivml the i 
tho lay clerk, who. in the Engll 
doc* yeU and many year* ngo 
Cburcb in this country, lead Ui 
and otbnrwUn mmisI in tlie dua 
divine jxrvic*. 

Clinic Baptism. Baptitm • 
upon u sicli-bcd, or to one 




if dsath. But tiaoi it oft«n hn|i- 
tuit bnpiisni ao adiiiiuiitiT^d wtia 
DM who, ihiwigb f«u o{ jtersecu- 
i d«f«rtied U, tbt penon lo bap- 
!)• rei-uverod, ooold not be adniltio-d 
Mend offloft. It wiit on« of tb« 
agaifut NoTftliu thiit Ii« hud de- 
kjMiiu till be wu perlldiulr nick, 

on bla mxmy, bvug dQlmn-ed 
rl««l offlcA, bo procured hU can««- 
it deciatful pncdcea. 
Sboa. A Counfill «m UMoabled kt 
w bjr Klbellwld, kinB of tb« Mar- 
Tbare i» F«B*id«rslil« dlfflcully in dc- 
g tbe dale, BDt! mura in identifyinjL; 
<, wlitch is Ihougbt lo be Kochmt-T 
tdoR.or, pcrbftM, Tewktburjr. I'be 
4v«n '4'i or 747 J..D.; it it pouibl« 
tj bar* bwn two Council*; nnd if 
nt ro vhieflj' ronoornctl in inqiiir- 

nwtt«n nf religion, upeciiillv tliu 
tee* ordered in Uie esrlj* Cb'urch 
In, and in cutiflrmfiig ibu iirivilogiw 
hurch. In tbe Council ot 747 *.d. 
rt*er«rc«d from Zuob&riu, "ilie 
ind Apottolic lord to be vcnentod 
lut ttie world,' and il ii ■' »flknowl- 
lal tb« r«cital of ibeea dooamenta, 
I bv rihorLi ihe Bngliab of (iverj 
iKfurmation, under Ui» thr«nt of 
•an, WH inobpdicne«to hia * ApQ»- 
.Biborily.' " Tliinjr Canoiia warn 
■ tbn Council, in which cleru}- and 
p utJoioeU to inora c-arcful liTiii^, 
.ter diligence in public wonbip «»d 
mrvnoco of bolynUyi. 
ng after tbla Cuunct] i-enaln DIocetw 
nftom the Frovincc of Canterbury 
id logelher ini" a new Prorlnoe for 
Ibiabop of LlcbUeld. But Kenutf 
(named Kent to t)i« kingdum of 
lad «i>liiiig iu concilinli? tliu alcr]|;v 
ie« Icrritiirj', wconded Atbelhard, 
bbtbopof Canterbury, in hi* wiib to 
&aa Dlucaaeato bii'Pnxincv. Thu 
IM prewed at Bome, and Leu II I , 
dng tbe popedom, ^ htc bi* (ron^enl 

saw ftrebbitboprie ibould be atwl- 
Thif wu done accordinKlv by a 
Iwld atClovmhoo in 808 x.a.', whii-h 
'that the Ari:bi«i>ixi*^pn] Bn-, from 
b farvrard, shuuld iievor be in the 
rj of Lichfletd, nor in any other 
K Ibe i-ily uf Canterbury." Two 
uni/ettt were held in CluvMhuu in 
(04 a. a. 
inor. Ue waa n Blahop ordained to 

s'-sitl anotb^ir Bishop to na«o of inflrmlty or 
old ago, wa* tuiusiit him an loii^ sihe livad, 
and to Hiccecd him when he died. In our 
Church hvb{<nrtthetitl{tof AtMctant Bithop. 

Ccnna Domini. Tba Supper uf tbe 
LOKJJ,— i.e., the Holy Communion- 
Collect. OoHecta are «hort, rompreben* 
nivcprnyera, whioh *ro found in nl) known 
Llturgtea and public deTotlonul ollicca. 
There is no oeriiiin eiplnnatirtn to be(;iven 
of the origin of the word, only that it ii 
very ancient, hh ia the Collect itavlf. 

(a) Tho oldest Lilurgiw contain prayeni 
upon thi* niiidfl, but in Uiu Grcelc Lititr^ea 
It il rullad the E(--tien(i— inlenaa pruyer— or 
tho ExHpiMtellarin- The latter being origi- 
nally a Kind of precatory hymn invocating 
the Krac^e of OoD, vhleh la a <:hnrH(.'teri*tie 
of lh« Collect. Tho oldest t'ollection* of 
rifficr.! mntnin nutncrouK ilinrt pntyon. 
Thi-^e .tanraint^iilarin of Lm> I., (lelasiu*, 
and Urej;ory I. coDUklQ the orii^inals of tho 
major jMirt of our present CulW-t*, with 
siiino notable auepllona. A* for lb* model 
on wbirb they are framadi we may compare 
thcnj with tbe two ihort prtTor* rocordadin 
the Aou (i. 24, 26 ; \v.H ti}.), lo whl<;h tlicy 
bear muob rMemblanoe, but they mny be 
compared at an htimblo difltancc with the 
coinpaclneeB and lerteneai of tbe Lors'-i 
Prayer. There i> to definite and concise a 
■tnicture in the Collect that it mny bn r^ 
iluo^d aa it were to rule. The Collect ia 
MJd to contain, — 

ITirst, A eingle period; forming n tingle 
I n lento asn tones. 

Seeondty, only a ilngle petition la olTerod 
in it. 

Thirdly, our LonD'i« mediation or atone- 
ment i> pleaded; or, tt clotee with an •■• 
cription ot pralto In God. 

Thiue nmrk ita dilfurrncn from the long 
rlietoricnl prn\-«r» with which the Eastern 
Lituri;ie* aru Cllled, and their inlcneity and 
term puinti-dnuax mabit ihciii vory marked. 
They are the arrowh of prayer which Tertul> 
liaii'iaya Chriitlanit shot toward* boavea. 

Tho (Iructnre of tb« Coileet may be wxa 
by itudying the aimflar poinu of two bMU- 
tiful once oorapoaed — thn firat by St. Orecory, 
nbuut AOO X.U., and the othor by Buibop 
Ciaiii, IBHO A.D —a thuuuAd years apart, — 
the Collect for WhiUundav by St. Orogory, 
and tha Collect for the ursth Sunilay aftor 
Bplnhany by Buhop Coaln. They are both 
noble prayer*, wortriy of tho holy mm who 

a. Qori, 

aaUehthe mho m at thia ili»a -Ildtt l«aeb the 

(ittauided. h«art« of Tliy (aiO.rul iKOpla t>y 

lorgding to ihom lbs tight of Thy 

llfttr SriiiiT. 
gnat u< l>; tlio aame Smnit to ha*e a 

ri(bt ju4Kiu*ut iu all tLtac*i 

and arer nioi« ta r^aioa in ilji holy 

wbow bl«iiM>i1 i^ot Biia aMDifaatadthat 

tie mlKht 4(iin>j the work* of the 

ileTtl and mako iia tho 8ao« of Oon 

and hetr* of eternal life, 
grant u*, we b««eeeh Tbee, that har- 

iaic Ibli hups ••• uiBjr fiarifj aar- 

■aiTU aTan u He la pui>, 
that when Ha nhall >p[i«ar ngua with 

power and great Klury, we may be 

made like BIm in llu alainal aa4 

glorlooi klngdoot. 




AuettpUoim m mcrilj 

(fcrDDcli Ch" marita of Cukict Jsmn 

OUT SaviiiI'Ii, who tliMh >nd ni)^- 
elL Willi The* in Hid Uiiiljr of Hi* 
^^na SpiKtr, dim Oao, ««rlil vltbout 

O llvi T Gbi^vt. He liTsih ka4 nl| 
r(t). <!iBr UKC Uuu. world Midi 

(£] Thn title Collect d»M not belong 
only to the projier Collect fur tb* Sunday or 
holy-duj, buti>&bo^T«iit« the twuprnyvr* 
imnrnlikmlT «ftcrtbw Creed !ii ruorninf; Kiul 
arming pn'}'"', to U19 Hve at tbc end ■>f tbo 
Oommunion office, ftnd also to lh« *]>ec(&l 
praTen in tb« K>ver«l olB<>«8 in ih« Prayer- 
BoME ■* may be rubrii^llv nnfrd th<>rmn- 
Thore aro ona hiindrfxl anj rloven Collects 
In i>ur PrBT*T-Bi«ik. Ki(;bly-flve heUtni- to 
>pcL-ial £iunday» iind tioly-duyi, with Epiatlv 
and 0<i«{icl, and iLcrcfL<r<- imply a Contitiub- 
Ion. iwven ullien, for oceaatonal lervicM. 
bavu alfu Kpiftlf' and (ioa^wl for Lb« MtRift 
end. Tbe retnaiain^ Blaeteen belone to 
special MxrvicM, but without any EptstU or 
Gcicpel Tollowing. 

College. (KruDi the Latin eolUyitim, a 
ttUB in unity.) It watanold Rotnan rule that 
not fewer Ibaii thrcu innvtK cvuld furtii a 
uolUge. Bmil-« It iieeoa at ImuI lhr«« biib- 
opa Lu fiirm a biiu'« compMenl to tran«aet 
biwincM and to »dmini*tttr affair*. Corpura- 
tloot mn In Enjtland often called cotlegea. 
Tilt HouM of BiBbof* is alio ibe Collog* of 

Color. Colofi wer« not uud in th« 
Church at flrtt with any but tbe moat gta- 
wral pofertni'i' I*! ih<nr tymboliim. Tbu 
rofcranoa La the cpiritual meaning atlAehed 
to the Mveral tiu<*i in cuinmuo use wa*of the 
nKi«l^neral wny. The modorn itae (omdh 
to dme frotii the time when VMtmentt and 
altar-cloth* and Ecclwaiitical decoration 
received a r«:niarkHl>b' ilrvnlopmtint, 860- 
1800 A.D. It wua alui tbe date uf tho^reat- 
eit devAlapmcnt of Churcb Brchitoctur*. In 
tfa* Moeair ritual G-nu dimciud tbo um of 
color: The blue aiid the white, [he purple 
and the icarlet. of tlio Tabernack hanirin^, 
and of the veil of lb« Mott Uoly Place ; 
lb« fold, the blue, the i>urple, loariet, and 
wbit« of the Bphod; uie gold oliainB, the 
many-bued br«a<ilfilat9, tbe milre of blue, 
the curioui girdle nf the drean nf Uie Hi)cb- 
Pncat; the white robos of the minUtcrini* 
PrivtK. Occ^i'inul nnuuiiiiiE to tbn purity 
of whit* (P«. czxxii. I and the lymbolk- buM 
in Exiolciel'i vi«ioti (Eerk. i.) occur. UuL 
Lhero and in the Hew TceUntent there ii 
litll* allutiion to sjrmbultim of color, except 
in tbe ICevelntiun (i-b. jr. 3-&; sxi. 19- 
22), Oolnr WB» iiFcd ii» a matter of w>ur*o, 
but the^re Mrai apparently no flfrurativo, 
hut only a decorative iit« of it at tfio ditlbr- 
Mit MouHiTi* of lH(>(:hiircb'ii ymr. Of poursn 
V4tttin(inta won- nf wime color, but aprinr- 
ently of white. »iildoin of any olber liuu. 
lint from Ibe ninth to the thirtocntb cen- 
tury there wai a dtvelopmeni of the iiionn- 
Inglo bo nMtgned to rolorv. Tbroughout 
Europe there wat a great Tariet/ of mage*. 
*omeaf whirb ni*Th«praMrT*dintbeHarum 
u*c. However, tnere in no luw or atithori- 

tatjvo rule upon the um of colon In II 
Uhurch of Iba AliKliaui eommunion. T] 
iTiTcntori« of Edward VI. '1 CominiMli 
nhow a vurlety of u«aee* in the colore ofll 
voetnwnts and In tbe altarv-luib*. Tl 
Sarum u«e had probablv a larger inflae* 
than any other In Eniciand, but il* rabri 
ware 1101 rigi<lly emforMd. S-t we inayu| 
piMc that in reality the earlier KdcIii 
Church practioally Vimtinucd the nra 
prominnnl u»e of while, at Icait la her ra 
uienU. After tlio Rofurmntum white w 
ordered fur tbn VMtiiieuts <if Ibi- HtdyCofl 
munion. The. Ui*hapa wore m wbil« neb 
and a Hcarlct cblnicr«. But u good ol 
Bishop Hooper tboa|rl>t Marlei too pj 
oolor for a liialiop, — probably eonnevtui^ 
with the scarlet woman of ltevelaUoBf< 
black wat aflcrwardi Mibstiluled. Tbc mi 
■r« utualty of black. The old Sanimcolw 
which prevailed in tbe Rngli«h Cbareh Ii 
the Koformation, and were In Om bi TO 
nuny placet after till ie4D A.b., 
follows : 

From Cbriatmaa to Septuai 
Snndayi, while. 

From Bepluagesinia to 
Sundftja, na. 

From Baaur to W bit-Sunday, fv 
da VI. white. 

l-'rom Whll-^uday to Cbri»tn 
Sunday*, rtd. 

All-Sainu' dayi not martyr*, nod 
Tall of oD.r Loud, white. 

Hartjrra, Invention of tba Cran,t 

Block was not uacd, at leatt br 
nxiwpt ill si^rviMHi fur the dvad. WU1 
and red are the only color* inolcea of iatli 
rubrii' of th«< Saruui iniieal. Tbe i)tveBti«<i< 
of the vciimcnu In Uio return made in iM 
A.D., rive blue aa the color next fMqand 
used, but green and yvllow ai« alau §aali 
The color* fur tbe allar-clotbaveTy problM 
followi-d theaeijuenoeoftheoolanorihev*' 
tnentA ordered for the MiJoai. Thai m^ 
iieriH of ciibin iiptiniprinin (o, and ayBibel 
of, L'Hch ■eaaunot'tneCbriklJanyeanbouhi.' 
Ufiod i* reiuionabla enough. It u uied W^' 
much variation. Indeed. eT«rv«bareiB<Hl> 
pttrl£ of tbu Church, and «ucl] auf>aK« i* < 
ooDtrnry to, or inlMferwl with by, anyn^ 
or tirtlor in llie Prayer- Book. Tbc 
linen for the Testing of the Holy Tab 
the Holy Communion U tbe propeH 
rubrical cuior itt tbe celebration ot\ 
■•(-raiiieut. Wbellier Saruni or KoH 
ilie Eiiftom uw. or the caprice or taat* 
influential individualt be the rule followed 
tniite devalope and more tiurely as r»v«r« 
fur (ion'e house, und care for it* dad 
order and tbe buaur to Imi j«id Him In 
dcepenE, tbero muit b« a uceir« to tii* 
pTojier and lll*ynibali»ni. AaGonHiB 




'\n indicatfld tha l«w <tt iU um-i, wr inn 

Mfrlv f'>lIi<W iU lU^MtlotiC, UndcT OUT ocn- 

jtfluMd uilboriliw. U tius Kli-oady fotttiij 

myrMiif in U>« ^pnanllv c»rr«cl, tli<>ii|;h 

vbtflly u»aatliiiritati«e, tlire^tiuDs fuuiid in 

witaj of the Cburch kirDknuv. ft i« a 

Miai; vhich tboHld t>c guided and trftincd 

nlhpr thin <li»ooor*)C«d or retirewet], or It 

vikt fatl uni]«r i)>e<llr<9Clioi> *>i kidiq uodlit- 

dpioKllMtearumlcumpHcc, or iKiiorant 

vtUbUiM. Either«>r thcae t«mpen lend to 

ttlM4er, And mlsbt powbly lead l« dU* 

aWiaanto lawful antboriiy. 

Affaadad ia » part of tliu tonijii^nitQ 
•ainaenta made io 8oud*inor«'» " ^t>tttia 

"Tba BngUah colon npE>«ar to havo beea 
■ Mlasi: 

" ITAiir, dkil f rrom lb« »v« orthtNutlvitjr 
M tbi ocuve of Uie SpiphaiiT Inuttuive, 
umn «hw KBottisr color is MpeQlall^r ap- 
pniad, «■ twlotr ; slan daily tn'tn Bvanuuig 
blliii pridaT b«fora WliiUuTitideiiiclutive; 
■ilritdtj Suoclav and i(a Eve; iho cuo- 
*siMi gf St. Paul, Ibo I'uriilt.'AUon o[ 
fitUary; tba Anauuviatiuu, Si, Jutin Bap- 
li*,SLUkhMl,and all SainU. willi tliaJr 
Its; aad tli« colon rotalnud wbun they 

"U, on all Sundsya oxcQpt thuco Tor 
*Uth witita ia ord«T«d, aa alHiirn ; on Asli- 
WtdMtday, Maundv-Tbunday, 
^•j.HoIt Sitiurday, till Eransong, all WhiU 
Mik, ariib tbg Maturdadr bofom; tbo PwiU 
<ll>W Uartyra, wIiom) oanlh >h wmmfiiDO- 
ttlid nnleaa falliiiK betwueii Bailor aod 
NMt<»U ** 

"ftwi^ teim^ (eroMKi) wa> prtacrtbcd 
twttePcBtlTalaof ftll Conr«aaora. 

"flriaa, or tot^, on week-day* from ths 
^Ont of tfao Kpiphany to tfoptuageaitiin 
^'iKfi froDa Trinity Sunday to Advunt, 
■■BN on f astivala. t)i«ir Etw and Vigiln. 

"tUit, irQta<t,orf7^, on adwk-dayii fruin 
^Ua^eai ma Sunday Xu HauRdy>Tbur«dav. 
*Hikrouehout AdT«nt, cic^pton KrctivuU 
''ditair Itvua; aboon iko KiulH-j^dayo and 
■^Tiglla at tii« FuriflcatioD, the Anoiin- 
WBio,tbe Aacflntion.and tha faatod Vi^U 
jf tUnb' dAyr." (Bcuilaiuore'a Motitia 
■■^•liittoa, p' lOBaj.f.ff.l 

It b wid tMt clutb uf gold lupurM-do* all 

AaiWitiea: Blunt'* Annnlated Prayer^ 
2«k. tttopUen'i Sealed Ur^kt, vol. i., 
"•••h't I>l<!tionary of AntiiiuiUM. 

Colorado, Tti« Missionary JuiJBdtctian 
"t Coliirailo, Wytiming, and Nrw M'xico 
*** fart •>{ th*- junMtlclion of llie North- 
^ aader Bi«bop Talbot, IA&SMI6 a.i>. 
Uop KatMlkll araii alixitad Cur cb»u Tarri- 
|«w la Ostobar, 1066 *.D. Tba rwm« of 
Y^afcwai. popularly, l*ike'« I'eak. Sei- 
^'MtaiilK^aai&IftfiOA.s. Wyoninziru 
^bovB und»r thai nuaae till afl«r rtiabop 
yli Jailtaokchaiyw^ TbvMlbrwTorritoriM 
^'■tltvc Jurisdiction during^ Bialiup Ran* 
^^ d|kl yaara' KpiKwpaia. The t^llow- 
^)«r«aetolMr, 1S7A 4.U., N«w Moxiw 

iind Arixonu wor* mndo a M[)ar«to miaaioiw 
ary dtiirict, ibe Bi^hup of Colorado ooDtia- 
tiiiiK to havo Jumdirtion in WyonilBg. 
Diirinjj i)i>li(i|> ThI1iq1'» tix ypnin' I'liarg* 
of liie aorlliwi-*l ttn'(;iiiiR-li Willi -iiUhliRhod 
in Ucnvor, 1800 A..D., Hev. J. II. tvohlisr, 
rcnt-^r; in Caotral City, 18f}4 a.i>., K«v. 
Fmnclfi Orarigor, rector; and in Idabo 
Sprins-, 1804 ad., Kev. William O. Jar- 
via, miiaionarT. The two former iiarkhea 
had tecured chnrch building. Or course- 
other points were vjiitcd by tlie Blobop and 
liU cWgi'. 

Bisliup Randall 1>i!){aii bis work {ron*^ 
cratod l>*oetnber 28, 18t)o a.D.) witli cbarae- 
tvrisiio cncr^' in tlie eprini; of ISGti A.I>. 
Willi an iuurfritCQ uf iiiimiuiiuriui )iu puchod 
on the work of the Cburch ai ri«w point*,— 
Nvviidaritlo, Black Ilawii, UeurgutowDi 
Puoblo, etc. In ISliT A.t>. ht took al«M 
Idoking to the o^talili^biitenl o( a ichool for 
girls. In I84I9 x.i>. h'.> bfgivii tiko efforufor 
n hoya' vchoiil. Tbo rnrniDr vraa built in 
D«iiviir in 18^8 A.D. Tba lullor at Otilden 
in 18tiO A.I>. Ln 1870 a.V- ho built, ia con- 
iKK-'li'iii with thti buyi' K'hiHil, a coliuul uf 
mines, tbu Territory coiitrib\iiin]j[ luoiL of 
the co6t uf it* «ircclion, afl«rword« dcaded 
back to the Tiirritor^, and now onu of the 
heet uf the Slute ioBUtutions. In 1M7I A.O. 
he Fwured il» ni«ani>, 910,000. frtiin Nathan 
MaithcwH, Bh|., for tho crcotion iif Mat- 
thows Hall for a divinity sabool at Golden. 
Tho girU' uiid tho hoyn' schools wora nnmttd 
rMp«ctivoly f»r Mr, John D. Wolfe and 
Mr. (ioo. A, Jarvi*, wbu laT^i-ly iuiIimJ in 
thvir fuundnliuri. In 18i2 a.U. a win^ was 
addod Lo Wolfe HkH, and an KpiacopaX rosi- 
denuu «rect«!d lu Donvor. B!«tjop lUudall, 
durinjj bii activo KpUcopai^, l»cr«u^ tli» 
niitnbor of parhhc* and niiwionsto nineteen 
or twenty, and eracted ttviilvo churchu. 
Bwldca-tueaft b« hoU|;ht and cvn*«rt<Mi into 
chapvlt two nr thmti ikluctui nr "ilarM," 
for ti^niniirurT u>a, in places tbnl tubaift* 
(^uenlly Wi-ame dopopiilalod. In 18S1 A.O. 
work vnte begun on buhalf of the Chritiiaa 
Mlii-uuiion of the Shosbunt) Indian* i» Wy- 
oaiiii];, and a teacher, a laymnn, was em> 
ployed- III' bail m&igncd, bonercr, bofore 
th« Bithop'a deaLb, oa SeplGinber 2V, 1873 
A.D., and Uiff work was t»iapurarily lus- 

Biahop Spalding (i-oni«cmU!tl December 
Fll,lB7a A.i>.) «nt«rGd upon tha worlt in 
Fohrtmry foUowini;. Swnio of iho oleiny 
had lel't or hadalHtiidoniMl th«irp<~<Ui ; ibere 
wero teven nA work. MnUbcwa Uall bnd 
*«rcn divinity (tudenl* und^r a compeuiit 
tnetrucc^r, with nothing U> support liioin. 
Ddhtx 1(1 Ik ciinsidi-niblo MiiMJunt bud antruud 
■j:iiiniit ihu Kcbuul, and thu incoiiie IVoin 
puptU wu $r«atly (l«flc-i«nt. Th(> Snikncial 
panic beeinniag in tbo fall of 1873 A.i>. was 
«Qvor«ly rult hen from IHT-I lo187S A.t>, It 
was with no llttlediiSfuUy luid not without 
th« KMiuroua aid of fricnd< of miuiin* tliat 
all intlebtadneaa woa met and th<4 schools 
put upon a iMUer ha*!*. W.Jfa Uall from 




ISTt to 1892 A.D. wu mur« tfaan seir-auix 
porting. By liberal nid from Kiu Wuffe 
add tttben, utii the c«rning< of the ochoal, 
eDUrgvnenu were made Id 1878-40 a.d., 
ucMing 9IS.OOO. Jsrvit Ilall nnd MaUhowi 
flail were both deatroytd hy fire in Mitr, 
1878 A.O. Tl)u insurance, f890S 73 nii 
Jcrvii Ua1l, $6430.61 on UatUi^vf Uall, 
him) t99!>.-^i <'■> itx: litiiury, wo* nil that vn* 
loft u>. Tlia nite wa« nbaiidoiiMl nud re- 
verted Ui tlie dvnor under the terms of the 

Tfa«*e »tl»oijU wei'c the neit year removed 
to DeUTiT. JarviK Ilnll rebuilt liera hit* 
bsd mncli better >ii<-a-ju. It >« under the 
nixrt effective orKsnltntion and di&ciiilino 
under the wardensliii' of I>"i«n Hart 01 tJio 
Ciittiedral, awiiWd li}' live mn-ttora. lu »|x^ 
daily i» the fltliiig uf boji fur ihe buil ctiU 
Itea. Tbo girU' Khool ii tint of the heat 
in tha country; the principul, Mim K. M. 
Dudiaii, ta aMilit«d by a oufM of len tuiicli' 
era. The studiM embraoo all ihote uiiinl in 
•uch •eminaricd, mtnic and art 'bning tfe- 
cUIUh. Both schoolirreatly need belter and 
ampler buildings, vno librari«« and upi^ara- 
toa for ipiantifie ttudie*. 

When ibe prcMot BUbop took charge 
tbe wark wai confinad Co the two principal 
tovoi in Wyoming, Choyonn* and Lnramio 
City, »iid 10 tbe eight or nine principal 
placca eaet of the main rango of tbe Kocky 
Mountalni. For four or five years, durinf; 
the " hard tin>e»," the i^rowih ofpopulation 
thcush ste«d7 was Dot rapid. Tna Church 
WM making r«al progroai, tbcugb the f\nt 
objert wii* to *tT«ngthen the foundatinn* 
already laid, and luMlin ^>^der llie thiii;^ 
that were wanting. A momorial church to 
BUbup HaiiilaLI, Trinity, wai bulk In Dun- 
ver, 1»74 A.D., churchea in AVest Denver, 
(Jteclev, CaJl<.<n City, Sniildcr, Ko*ita, were 
•r«ot«o, and tbe churches at U'>ionid() Sprinin 
and Central City were complpted. All in- 
bahltad jmrui of the Jiiriidirtinn wptd nften 
Ti«it«d and miMtuns eAtablislicd wherever 
practicable. In 1BT8 A.V., with the dU- 
oovery of the Kilvor minis of Lt>advllln niid 
the Imjietui given to railway building, a 
new era of leuiporal proiperilv was dawn- 
tne. The church built in Inut city co»t 
|l«,000,on which a debt remained i-f $3000. 
The Chnrch has be^n plaTit«d in Oiiniy, La 
Piata, flan Juan, Rio Grande, (Vmcjon, Ous- 
ter, Ba^iiathe.Gunnieon, and oLherccJuntti'!!, 
and •Lrengtbenwl in Pnoblo, Ei Faso, Bnul- 
dor, Wild, and Ara|iahue Cuunue* in tbn 
moreeMtern parU of tbe Slate. Sev«^n rier* 
Islieaare self-4uiUining. In Wvoming tiire>e 
&»w miaioiM are well ectnblifhed on the 
Union Padfle Ballroad, and at Lender, in 
SweMwater Oonnty, while th« parUbn of 
Ohttvenne and Tjaramie Oily are ■air-*i)p- 
portlng. The Indian MiMiiiii al tbe S1io> 
■hone and northern Arapahoe Ag«noy is 
under tbe charge of an able inintionory, «)><» 
is about to btiild a chapel. Thu yuvoTn- 
ment is building a •oliool emting $1^.000. 
TbreemoTtfihurcbesaretobe built in Wyo- 

minir and leveral in Colorado, If tlwae 
am M iMUred, in 1884 a.d. 
The Cathedral wu begun in I>e«r«r 

1880 A. D,, and ready for OM Id KoTMabtr, 

1881 A.D. It will loat 1800. Tta eoat 
$tJO,0(X>, ^<)ln« f 2I>,000 of whirfa came 
theaiile iif liiUuwnt^bt the con^ .. 
The Bishop socurcd and gave the nia, 
vulue lit the time being $12,000. The 1 
poratioii, which it the ooard of tniHeei4 
ihesL-hooh and miaaion and ntoet parisbi 
othr^r property, lh« title of which ii "1 
Bishop and Cbapter of the Caihedral of I 
John tbe Evangelist, Denver, Colorado 
was organised as early a* 167S A.a. 
Cathedral org&nixation is practical udi 

in robrnarj, 1879 A.D.,St. Lnka'a __ 
lal, Denver, Colorado, was organised. 
»uilable block of fuur acrea, with a 
fmmc building originally uied aa a 
was paroliawa and uut in order, witb 
commodations for tnirty-Sve to farlr 
lientn. The property is valued atfll' 
and tbe debt thereon is fWOO. The 
tul in under itrielly Cbnrch ntani_ 
and its b«n«fili> are nxtended to all wiltd 
regard t(j aecl or religiun. It has treaV 
uver Ecven hundred putienU and ii ni 
eteellent manageturnt. It will long 
aid in Its charitable work. It haa 
clnims on Kaxtcrn communities, 1 
roiuiy of iu patienta come. 

BtBfaop Spalding hat be«n in charge of 1 
jurisdiction ten yean. Tbe galoa an 

fdllnvrs : 

Tbn p»|iiitMtinn (if Colorado and Wyoe 
in 1870 A.D. wat 60,000, in 1880 a. o. 214.0 
Th<i jKT c-cnt. of incroatu wa* 828, It ' 
hardly lo b« expenTtod that In *a new 
Tupidiy growing a ft^tntler country we 1 
keep pico with the secular growth, la : 
redpects we have fallen tfaon. In other I 
pcirtanl nupocts our staltttlct show a | 
proporilonate growth ofthe Church tbani 
the Tc^^ritl^rie». 

In 18(8 A.i>. the number of Church 
lies nupnrLod was 390. In 188S a.d. it 
1921 ; iiiL-reasc, 438 par oenl. The nue 
uf souls fur whom thevlergy werecarinK ' 
■tl the respective dalee, <ratf and 18,]41 1 
crease, 201S per ocnt. The intanti baptil 
were, in 1878 a.d. IIT; in 1888 A.I " 
iticreniie 2SH poir cent. Of adults in 1 ~ 
rcApfCtivelr, IT and 81 ; inereaie 
cent. In I8T8 a.d. there were confirmed 
In 1888 A. n, 127. ftinve June I, 20 r« 
have been uonflrined, making the numi 
fur the Inst year 147; but thsee ar« 
counted, not being yet rcportfd. Wittal 
theao tlte inerease ii 164 per cent. In' 
ten yean previou* to 1874 a.d. 408 weir» 1 
Urmed. From ihvn to June 1, 1888 
1081 : incrcanei, l&l per cent. Tbe 
in the number of communicantf ii 
ctpiiciaily grmlifving. There urnro reiporti 
in 1873 AD. 5G6; in 1888 ao. 2112; an InT 
rreoHc uf 284 |icr cent. So of 8utiday-«rht«>l 
teacbert and scholars; in 1878 a.i>. tbe 1 




OfiSi in IftSS A.]). 2062 { « gsin of 

Itnalioait to tho priolhciod and iU 
amlicrSS. Tlmre hud been pre- 
•dftined in %ad for Coloindo IS ; kh 
XlMporcHt. Tb«re vraral»enl2 
;lb«i«pwrtno<f BliowES3;iDcrea«e, 
tnt. llirM vf ihoM buili b«for« 
kro uniiMd j not one built iinca b 
Ma. Tbft iuukI proportion ^001 
Mn is £iul«rn diocMcc — will, i» 
n i»omy of town* and change* or 
ti, become ■seleu. There were, 
t ago, SreetoriM, omitting I thnt 
t^uenlly »ll«nBted and ]<mi by tbo 
MT9 mtm DOW lA ; a ^ain of 70O per 
ft Dumbcrtif •itliiiKsin Llicctiorunot 
ner du« wai 1600: at Uie latlor 
tl ; BO incrMbW or 417 p«r cant. 
raTclAT^iniin al work id Ltiajurii- 
Thara ware two or thm otbera not 
; bara or not cm plovad. Tb« ronort 
•aiKiagatiiof SOOpcrcenU Tbe 
fpariibeaand tniM>i>Dt vraD ]4. It 
8; parcant.of inrrcana, ITS. Tharu 
«U-Mpp<'Tting. Til ere are now 9; 
SU per cent. The offering! for aU 
of th" juriadictiun havo incracKed in 
MUX proji'irlioii. The; were, 1878 
ill ; in 1683 a^D. $&'J,60D ; ft guin of 
tnt. Tbo ymlue of cbiircbM and 
wu. at tbo trtt daio, $36,SO0; at 
Bt,tS49,SfiO ; iDcreiuw, 848 jier cent. 
01^ reald«nc« Wat worth $9000. 
now it (^,000; increaM, 177 per 
'olfoHall (buildioKi gr&undu, and 
) wai valued at tSOgOW. lu valLiu 
0,000 : an increase of IGC por cent. 
kO bad coat, with it« furniiuri^ and 
t, 919,781. Kolwitb»tandin^ tbe 
I Ire, which Ivtt nnly tbii invurancio 
.71, th« valua of its pnw.nt landi 
lian ia $&0,000 ; an iiicrcaaa of 810 
Maltbcwt Hall, at GoEdau. cwt 
Uattbewa Hall, in Denver, la 
BgOOO; incT«a«e, 60 per cent. Jar- 
•■dowBient for theological rdumt- 
I tMlmat«d, JB IST'l, at (12,000. 
n btar iU value is |7(>,000 ; an in- 
in par can I. Thoiiicr«Me ill value 
'icbool propertjr ia tmta f 73,000 to 
—201 par oaol. 

a?t bean *omo of our galoi. It Is 
wing. It gives good groundi for 
ment and ronBoence «• to futiiro 
Rd pro*p«Tl(y. There it much that 
« gathered from atatiRticn- Th» 
lit! for whiob we ibould bn, above 
I, •olkitoua, Ibe coining of COBlfiT'a 
ktngdom, tba a<yuU gathered in and 
Cwun and built up in Him and 
In tkUiBUing of the number of HU 
^ flgUfca can tabulate tbeea moro 
*1 gaiiw. 

Ittle ipeclal aid bai been re^cired 
U) laai ibraa jaari ttoai individual* 
ra al tbo Kait Anil ret tlie mit- 
'rriuod now op«b to u» and invitinj; 
r tlmae aa larga ai It ww ten f aar4 

ago. To keep our present tniuionariee will 
require flOOO more than th« Board of Mi*- 
»i(in* approtiriaiei, and with aevaral mlttlon 
chapuls lu build ul unce, uiid mauj in tba 
nur fiituro, tborc are no fund« aTallablo 
but lucb aa may be lecurod h\ solieilatlonE. 
Mistake ie made tn withholding nwiitaneo 
that may, unteai corradad, be latal ti> our 
continuing to lead in pioneer work im in the 
pait — to our becoming itrong u horctofore, 
relatlrnly t» alt iithor Cliriilian builiM, in 
Ibe raai wildsrneaaas that are yet to be 
cvaneeliied within tbe liruitt of tho two 
jur1ȣction*. We are not rcMivins mora 
than a fourth part of the amount of aid that 
it given to eaco of two or three leadini; de- 
nominationc for Colorodn and Wyoming. 
And we are Rxpented to be eren tnore auc- 
cciwfid than thoy I WWther our friondii who 
have hitherto lii-lput! thn work In tbb por* 
lluii of the ^reat Xew West come (o aee 
and rf«tify the tni»tiLke or not, it iK clearly 
our iat«r^t and uur duty to rely more and 
mors for tbei support of all our work upon 
tho active <iffnrta and genr-roii* ofTorlng* of 
our own poojiln. Our strengtb ia in what 
W0 do and in what w« art. 

Wo oannot expoct lb« tame proportionate 
Increaua w In the paet. Tberc iu much in 
the immediate outlook that is dieoourneing. 
Tbe iSmea arc again becoming hjird. Tb«r« 
Is DO Bale for mines. Ownen of valuable 
properties are unable to deralop tbom. Wa 
are diacorerlrg by sad axnerienea tbat the 
W'lrk in all our mining diHtrii'ta, and iheeo 
ombracG a large portion of the country, 
rnuKl itlnayK bi> of a niiuionary cliiiruclor. 
The pupulattun In mining difttrkti U ml- 
gratorv. Miners aio bard-working men; 
dependent for daii^ bread upon daily wages. 
The few who acquire wealth move to lower 
altitudes and lo cities Lbat promise greater 
oomforls and advantages. Still we shall 
have for generations good towns in th« min- 
ing rogionE, iind it is In thiuui that mucb of 
our beat work must be done. 

The jurisdiction of Wyoming, n» «oparat« 
from Colorado, wm cttublitbed by tbe Bousa 
of Bitbops in October, 18^8 a.d. Tho Hts- 
Monarv Bishop of Cnjorndii )« lh« Prnviiional 
Binhori. Btit little ha* bwii dttiw for Wyo* 
niing by the Church at latRp. It being now 
tho laleal formad of the minionary diflricts, 
it ii to bo hoped thai iu UM-di will excite 
new interest. They are chiefly for tbe build- 
ing of churchcst and parsonagas and tho 
support of mlsslonarias. 

Rt, Ri», J. P. SPALDiito, D.D, 

Colossians. This Epiiitlo to thn Colns- 
ftiiins— onii i>f the three doctrinal Epistles 
which St Paul rent out to tbo Chur^-bw 
friiin his own hired houiie iu liii firnt iiu> 
pri«onment— forms a ctrotie link in the 
chain of dortrinsl ntstcmenU tic make* con- 
i^rnini; the Church as the bodv of (..'tittiST, 
the fullness of Him that pilelb all things. 
It ii not miToty a ri>aiating of what had 
bwn eloquently put forth in the Ejiiitlos to 
the Epbesians, but it was somelhiag more, 




i>r riklliiT ilid'nrt-nt. TIk- dMigC-m of Uio 
Chur.-h at CoIob**' requir«d him to vnm 
thorn ')t thfir Uoitiit mislwi anj (Irnwn ttom 
ihB unity (it tli« FuilU (^j'. i:h. i. 28, with li. 
8 aiid la-Z3), dHngert wbich huvo nvLceuM-d 
to uwul Iho mrnitMirf <jf iho Uhurcb, to 
alleoftt« them from lh<.-ir tru« Loro aod 
Hoed, Id il he ium ivmiA which pa»f«d 
iiit»«arly Liiurgiv u>sDn (di. it. lS-16 uid 
Ht Jiiuh-b' Lmirgy]. Thbre ia tinididprablu 
ramnblmicQ upon mnny pwnta in Ihit Kpis- 
i\v DDiii)tHM'd «ith ihii d'>clrin«i mid the dl- 
Tdction* U[i>i(iuur^daldutiei wtiii'h octupy 
the |{|>Ull« ti> the Epbe»iAns. The«e bro 
hrgftly repeated in thi* Epi*tlc; indeed, 
OiWttNro nearly tuHy pine** trh4>ra Lh« twa 
Bplatle* coiiicidi' and miitiinllv iiluMraCo 
p*ch othfr ; but tln' Clmtfli al Ci>1om« Imd 
mitnj *vilf rtf a iooBl character to contend 
with. Undpr a [ir«t<iiidt>'1 p)i 1 1o>iiip>i v und 
(piritUMl wlHiiim, thrherttiucuf will-wunhip 
and of worahip of an^ta, and a prel«iue to 
ni«rc« into thing* htdden, ovmo clainMd a 
fmlM) huoilliCT nod mode a thow of woeti- 
cLtm. A claint loaupematurnl po wen and 
to « fupernatiirnl knoiirti'di;r U dvnr mint 
attractive to iminv ptiiHla, ntid 1l>« Culntuiiin 
Chriatiaru were la unat dani^fr of bdni; 
grvfttl; mitlvd- ^l- Wul wiHvtj und b»ldlv 
niMt* the danger by lulng tb« wonla wliioo 
nii^ht havH, and aflerwarda did, hccomc 
freightod with faUe^ maaaiBg, «tich ai th« 
w'jfd "folliiwa," and by Betlitijt l'"rih lb" 
truc' tup'TnuIural tendiing nf Cmhikt. IIt> 
nK«iint< his "wn frirmHr p«ac!iin_i: npim iha 
fiilltirt»of till- rri'iiiicijiibtioti <>iir LoKD liOB 
etfectcd. Ue warm ihcm IhuL ihc^c icachcn 
io tint bold ftut by lh» *■ Huad frnm wtiiirh 
all lh» body bv juiiiu and bauda, having 
nouriahnienl niiniBt«rrd and knit iDgvtber, 
tncr&A*«th with tho incrcoto of Gop." 

He fomttw no much of the latvr Gnostic 
VUtariW} and tn«L tli«m by uhini; lh« Kord 
"flJUnoai" (ploritma), ntA by rcrilitig Lliu 
hnaTfenl? oraerc and ratilct, in nnlif ipaling 
tb«Bun§of thci^eQnoiiticB; tJia wilL-wnrship, 
tfa*o1aifii to an M»I«rii? knuwlndgn. thn vain 
docaiU of latPt hereaiu, are all. lu it vrorv, 
provided for by tbs Apoatle's peculiar phniM' 

Th« BpUtle bears every innrk "f the 
Apoatle'i oa'n hand. It U within thn l>ntHd 
•copR of ihn Anuilk'n Ihoiicbti and tmL<li- 
inica before alludad to aod^ rieewhere im- 
plied, l»iC burn in tba ki*iira i>f iho prison 
bfaugliC itigvtbar and net forth with hi* own 
peculiar ctiLhutiiosliL' anergy. The Apottlc, 
chaload Ia hit giinrdf , baa l««t none uf tho 
Wtwgjr and force whi<''h be puMeiped wh^^n 
Atot, and h« »aa at fiilly alive to lh« n««d« 
of Ibe OobMNaiM ■>• though ba wcm prtaont 
And nlDlileriDC to Ihcin. Tbo practical 
hartalory portion, which occu|.iBs the last 
t-wu chapter*, i' Paiiiinc! thntugliDiiI in ibn 
cWrneu, direct iMrM, audOoliiiit'y with which 
tin la rrpruved i^d love, ri>rti<>araticc-, and 
ftwgivanaM arc urxcd. Tb^ «iklut.ttion and 
■iMMMa «p* n)l unmiBlaliubly (n<ni hint 
wbo Rifgot DO friead and ovcrluolced no 

nc«d of the Church lo which he 

Com**. An did co1l«atioa of 
and (lti«paU, whSi-h liiu bean aaci^ 
<lrriiiai^(S8l}A.n ), but tpay be prokl 
It contuitu the £|>i»Llt« and Got 
nearly a* wA now dm ibtm, and; 
lldUaKfM* frant the Romnn HlOf 
with the Bngliab an, nxcopi wb4 
rnrinnra(irHO-&S A.D./orBeriwirsA 
may have a rb it rati It chanced. 1 
il mwilionod a* far ^ka*4TI aJI 
ranganieiit uurreapunda tu ibe Sail 
ao xery ctuaely, and differ* from tl 
UH io to many way», si to ib<»w t| 
riwalved and anproprlutod indenei 
any Roman infliieueo. Several ■ligt 
ataiK^i point t« the prnbnhility thai 
toSl. Jeronie'itlmcailciul. Befof 
there was ao apvoial Borie* of aolotf 
tur«*; afl<ir ibedala aboregivanl 
turwi b4>gln to be cited nt tliouf^b I 
tionarv were in use, by St. Ambnit 
tine, f.c<>, etc. In the part apfini 
the milnta none ar* ounnienior«t«| 
Jeronie'n day. Therofnr<i it ia «^ 
jirnbahle that thii irrlrrlinn nf Bl 
(Joipcla came to lu from ih'O Eaat tl 
Oulllcan Church, and may bava bt 
hnrnm the duyi of Auf^alina of 0^ 

Com mcraorat ions. ( VitU Dull 
England, at Uiford and C'iinibrid| 
c<'iiimcni'irntion day* are kept, on 
niitiiM of all kno^n benefactors | 
rnriilles are proclaimed, apeeial p 
lL'a»<>nit appninU^, and apociiU cd 
v«!r»iol<-« ny-itcd. These dayswevi 
bi'fcrc llie Rerorniation. 

Commendam. A living glrsnl 
U< a dai^maii til) a pn>iKfr pat 
pointed. A living \t tbcn held 
mendnm. Thvy are held by Ui«fa| 
itii.'oiiiL-4 are of imatl aoiounL 

Commendacory L>etters aro tq 
in UM. HiK'h wera the Ictian 
brought from Kphcaaa to iha 4 
Cnrinth und Arbaia, and auoh tbi 
rvWrvd to in 2 Cur. lu. 1, aa V 
and u>' c^inslant uae [ff. 1 Col 
(For flirlhor notioca, aee LitkiU 


CommeniBiica. Eipoaitiooa a( 
tir^o* of Holv HcriplHrc*. It U t 
moat difBcuIt tuk* crer eei bt 
since it i« eo diflcult to gnupl 
noiua of rovrlntion, hi undurBi^ 
repdinF; bri'adlh and yet i(a pciaiti 
reach up to iU »trictne»a and yet | 
un'wiTving ntuiemcnta yet it* tefl 
all mankind. The latk rf^uirea m> 
Hibminivr mind, and » tborougH 
Ingical power, and a full coRiniani 
Important It^nrning that can UR 
npUin thi' Holy Wcripltirea. X| 
that Scn|4iirti *hatl ba dili^miljl 
with t^ruflure and not againai^ 
and that tnero tbonid be no pMp 
till ihcoriut formed to ba naraPil 
oat, and above all that tba m^kwI 



dran fot- bim^lf and ^Irictly adhere 
TlbB rule that tho Churcb ii tho keeper 
iMd vlinw »( Holy Wril. 

fnrlhiipurpaBW tniich oTihe ancient ccim- 

'sHliirin in tiKttt uic^il. SL ChrymlKtn 

ni AofUtine and J«roDi« form a valued 

Mffu. Urig«n h«« imii« vorr vnlunblc cs- 

■ tnliluiLi. bui k nut to be Lru>t«il. Tlinuphv- 

' Wt Hm iiini|trei»«d inucb uf Si. CbryaoUom 

u4 HUrd u'lrfiil ci'nifiienU of hi* own. 

TTit "Cfilici Saerl " i< the work of 
Ki^ P'»ar«OD ajid otticir Etii;1)'Ii divlnps. 
But U ii uiwloM to K" on w'tii thci livt, *a 
UJ vm and vuUiablr cuminnitnriiv Ihitc 
Kf»«nl. Ferhttp« for goneral use the tttrn- 
, Wdp BibU fur th» UM at m-IiodIk, i>iiti- 
KAtdb iviiarate voluniea, on marh Ihmik of 
{ Oa 0)4 and Sew Ta>laineiil», is lh«- bc^t Tor 
Una* wbn wifti for tpccia) comm«ntariea 

ftuiCrt'i ■■ Dain Commontarv" and 
baac Wilhaina's " Oi^TotiDrin) Oommfo- 
Wj'' tn ttfVund prabv. Tli^ "S[i«»l<«r'6 
f i —M niafy". ' ' and Alford on tha Kow 
TatiiMat, are exi-iillvii L But wlillu ndiiiit- 
tiu lh« Ficelli^nce of M|iarate writers, it 
•41 6t «»I1 ii> taktr nnlT tlXMa who adhTo 
ami iiriiftly to what hiu ever been received 

nwwttnatioH Office. An <>ffim> in Ihv 

lulUh Prayet^B»ok npgiointed fur Aab- 

'■ VtoHKlaT. It i» nne of tho lad remnants 

M of tlie oldiT puniUtntlal uffli-c« lliai 

WiMd Mit th« ditcipilnary s,v*1ein of the 

(vljiets. Then fllTcndera n«r« di-iirivrd 

tw»|iT-ii I'figth of limo Kf th'jir right* 

Ml pirilueef in the Church, n^t only till 

fcj Jiirtod ihoir rpTOnwrifo hm till ihn »et 

(■■■•M azpirnd- The Rnglinh odlta hn> 

^pMd llie very old Ballafiurj^ service fur 

wb*V«<|ii**day, pnfactng it with nn ad- 

«** and a rtfiial «f tliii i-urmt of Maiinl 

Oa), tad then wilh an exhortaUiin ufeet the 

•WwMtTlee virry nrarly as it clood. It 

^ 14 awlettTor t« pre«erT« soaiethlnK 

<f tk old diK-ip)in»ry *y>l«in and to rt.>- 

*Uuien,liy itj loritinc; I'ht! datioiinring of 

™il Mftr and jitd^nieiila ajjaiiiAt *iii- 

"**.lhit Juitk-e hat not ItMt its ttem vigor. 

iKBffricc wu« dreppod out of our Frayar- 

Mk^iat the ihrve Inal [irnyer* were trans- 

yrflii licit pr«*«-nt niace aftrr U>o A»h- 

"•tBada; Collei-r, ana the f^ven Pentten- 

lUPMlin* (wilh the ovorviifht of otnitliiig 

rjjl fcUl PtalnP WHie itrdrriid for thi- proper 

l^lWlV'rlhe day. The i.riT»i|;bt ooturred 

[ Y*** 'I'^tia^ Ihttt it wii« uhhI at lon^tb In 

I U( Ci-Rioii nation, and tborefor* waa not put 

'^ilia table for pri>per PuIbm fur A«h- 

' WMaMday, 

' CiBalMuy. AnatHoftraantbya Blihon 
f • Mt* innpfiriion* of pftrlilMS for bim and 

^ n^'itl tlnTnoti. 

Cfnaoioo Prayer. In ita proper place 
**T' U ftiund Ihe btat'>rv oi the Prayer- 
B-wt But liere It !• wrll to tnark tho 
Muiiajciif lh« word Comiuiin, what bcloneii 
Hand U to 1« ii»»id br, almi that it may h^ 
JoUt^^^f^^tdanrtood by the congrega- 

tion ) not only that, but that all have a com- 
mon share io Itf petition!, lo that nooe an 
left out, of all ctlalm a.nd condition* of 
men, and that Ihern arn in it no petition* 
that any one mny refit.'e to aav Amen 
to, and' that there are in it all Urn fartt 
of wonbip iind praiiu mid C4>nfeaik>n, m 
well tu) of praver, which all i-nti Join in, and 
111 which, a* Chri«llnn» holdlni; a rommoD 
hmlnge, all can claim a portion. It ia 
Common in the hl|rh«stand nolle^t wtm of 
tho word, 

Commnnion Viit/t Lokd'a SrpFau. 

Communion (Holy), Offica of. The ear- 
liest dcecripiiunK which we have of the C«ta- 
Rumiun Dnii-t' nt i\\n lairly Church proTe 
that from tbu bef;lntiini; it coMained theacr 
pitrle: The reading of liiily ScHpliire, with 
exhoriation bated upon it ; tlie kf-'S of peace, 
wilh praTer for an men ; (he offuring of 
liread nR<l wine; tlio thank^givinu. anding 
wilh th» TriiitTiph«l Hyain ('Uoly. holy, 
holy") ; ths mciui i>f the word* uf InHitu. 
lion ; the Ubiation of the *]«rn«nu to ()od, 
and tbo Invwatloii €>f the UoLT (}HOaT 
iipuD iheni : the admiaislralion of the ci>n*n- 
cratod cl«ntcnt«)n btith kind*; thedlfmlieal 
of tb« people (prcaiimably after a ihanlca- 
glving). There i« no aniient Liinrity* in 
which thaae part* du tiut appenp, whalevec 
ell.? may be added, and no dwL-riplion of on* 
which doM not taem to imply them all. 
And, beiidw, (hoy are alwayt found in th9 
order in which uiey have ju»i l^eeti niea- 
tiorind, the only variation uf importance 
being lha^ the ercnt Intorcruidn lor all 
men, and CMwcially for tbe whole Clmrch, 
■jcoupie* dlaerenl part* of (he snrvics In 
the Ijitiirgy of the Oreek Chiifcli it haa 
^W>o(l fur many cnnturie* after the Ineoca* 
tion of the Holt Obobt,— tliat i» to iny, al 
the nnd at tli-a cJinxicFnliiin ; in (lia ont'ieat 
IiitUTKy of Gaul and S[HHri. wliicb ia !)»• 
lievod lo have been brought almoat in Apoa- 
tollc litnes from Bpheiua, it ilundi early in 
the »arvlee, loon after th* li?Mon« from 
Scriimire; in tbe liomHn Liturgy. wlii«;h, 
though miirh older than tiie (liH:l,riu« of 
traneulifititntiatiun. and keariMC In iU tost 
no indication of It, yet thow* mnnr traoui 
of being iDutilaied anil conftioed, ft la di- 
vidMl. Une other diffV-renc^ may t>o not«d 
here a> of intcrwt in th* itindy iif our own 
sorwiocr tbe Urock Litiircy has no proper 
Pri'fncea to the Triumphal Hymn; ihaCriillie 
or Bpbeiine (ao called) but niiiro than a h>iu* 
drcd and flfty for difli!r"nl occasions; Ihe 
Koman wua once a* rich in it* variation*, 
ihuiigh now it bn* hut eleven. 

Our Liturgy ciime to ua from thoChurctiea 
of Ktigtand and Scotland, and it wat theirs 
by desconi from the Church of ancient day* 
in Kniflniid, itindifli^iDSoiilliind by Ka«U)rn 
ittfliivnciHt. It ia imnuKsiblu l<> go into ita 
early bi^lury here. 11 muil lumce lo mjt 
that tho Liturgy of iho Churah of Baglaoa 

• mi HfM to IMd in Mib luOdi* la IH wrtci mtmt, 
u <{f Ijlng oalj lu H» caBiw af Uia IJslj Oinnnualaa 


WW never idonlioftl with tluU of Ihe Church 
of Rome, and ilint it nlwnys showed that it 
WM in imrt nn inhnrilanev from tlio Churck 
of fluul, wl)ir)i liBiI, ill iU turn, lAki-ii tU 
form of Euclinrblk' wunbi|i frvia itiu Ea^E. 
Al thft tiuic of iIh- lU'r^^rnixcion Ukti- wu 
flni tddvil to tku Lailn furm uf Cu»i«i.'rn- 
tlon an Engii*]! furni fur lUe preparation uf 
tbe communicanlt, and for adtciinistralion 
to ihtm ; Chftn a cnmpl«U: a^rvict wiiit piiV 
lisbed in EnelUli (lo 1&19 x P,). adding to 
the defective ftoninn form ctTlain Uiingn 
fVaiii thai HiK^icnt LltuTgiis. tlinngh ni>t iti 
tlio aiivieut order, U>c«lber with certain 
vihflD pwullar to iUelf; and thtia (in 1562 
A.o.) tlio Mtrvlua wax put into nrnrly itn 
pret«nt ibape, lbs runii of the prayer of toii- 
:>i>cration being earrity] buck inure tioarly 
into coofbrmitT with the Kotnnn. in pArt, 
B» it saeiDi lo tuo writer, fruin u fa^vllnj; that 
n vrrong order had bet-n adopted tlireu yi^HrK 
bftfora. The Am?rifiin Liinrey i» lakmti 
alcnott «zactlj from tbnt iti llti! EjijfliBh 
Prftjsr-Book, vrtib tbe important oxccption 
that tilt Pr«y«r of ConawrnUoii fullawv Uiu 
Scotch fonn,— not tbnt in tha Bootoli book 
of 16S7 A.D., whidi nifverwenl into oae, hul 
tbat which wu talion from primitiTc lourcvt 
by the non-Juror* In 1718 ad., and which 
tra* borrowed from them bjr the Scotch 

Thne tbiiigi lielnE> premised, the mean- 
in;; of the several part^ of the Eervicci may ha 
readily »mta. Pirxl, iLftnr thin ririLal of thA 
LiiKu H Priiyi>r, and iho Collcei fnr Purity aa 
iit«')>iir«liiry to llift whuld »ervrcr, cumos. aa 
111 tbf <>urliMt days, Ibe reading of Holy 
ScriplurcK. Tlio loavn from the Old To«ta- 
nieiit (t'ltlli-'d Inaomo •erviwa tbe Pri.pliwy) 
it with uji inrariable thruuL:hiiut the year, 
conntntin^ of the Ten Cunimant)m«nU| 
whicli alio wrved, a proper response behi|; 
provided in lead to a confeMion nf sin and a 
praywr furgracc. Thn Kpintlau and the G"»- 
iiei are two IctwDnB TniMi tbe two parts of the 
New XeGlomcnt, and are reikd by ui in nc-- 
cordancc with il vi'ry iiiii'ii'ni cniviidar, 
which the C'burcb uf lioine hni ci>iifu*ed, ut 
»ba has alnmat everything el*« in the Lit- 
urgy. To tbme th« Ocdlcct«, most uf wtiii.-h 
are aUo very ancient, Krre as a Qltinji: and 
devout lulrvduGtion. Tbe Creed is tlic pru- 
PaMion of OUT Faith as bas«d oq the Kirt])- 
tures, partsofwhivb hnvojiuthRcnrrad.and 
tbe i^rmon is an eipianation of tbeni and 
iin cihortaii'in ba«ea upijti ihetn, Thn ciflVr- 
ingi'fjilmi ibiiwiimr rfi«rity,ci)rrii3p<jndinK 
til thn ktuuf rHNLiie ; and (ijeuffuringnf bread 
and wine ia like the anciant prc^enlalion ijf 
Lh« Bnl fruits of thounTtb. The Prayer fur 
tho Church Militanl is our Kcev-t IniercM- 
slon, keeping tbe position wnich it had in 
the old Liturgy of tianl, and reminding un 
that Engllah CnriAtianityeame In pari t?om 
tbe Sasl, and very prubnblv from Epbe«u» 
and from St. John. Tbe fixhoruitiim is a 
continuatiun of the Bemion, having fur it4 
purpOfte to heiiin the apecial preparation of 
tbe people for rowiving the Holy Sucre menu 

Itieads to tbe InvJMtion. which Is 
moet natur^lty, wc may Hiy neo«n 
n humble C'i>tifi-"iuii of linii and an 
lion, Llie latter liiiviiifc ila niustsulif 
— that of a prayer. Tbo Cuiiiri.irtab1 
vhicb follow lire pw^nliur lo our a 
lu tbwe from which it was taken, 
in a translation nmde (it is thot 
Archbishop L'rnnmer cxprrwly for 
Knglish Pmyer-Book; thoj serve t4 
the faith of ih«worshiper<! in Uon 
iitM of pnrdon. Then connnaform 
which ciin Ive trun^d back lu the <tt 
eat daya, brief vetBii;li)!i and fitopoi 
pRrinif tho way for tbo An^vlic oi 
phal Ilynin (it i» nut itricily correi 
ihlii tbe TrisvLtion ] ; and in certain 
form of Ihank^givinc is made loi 
adapted to the •pocial commemoni 
number of proper prefaces bein|;, I 
probably owing to R/iman influen 
iininil. Thai Prayer uf llunible Aoc 
in na a |uvrenth(vi«, |huugh very 
betneun tbe Triumphal Hymn and 
tirain uf iiraiid villi wliicli the P 
Consecration begins (which, by t 
tirst appears in the SLuIch se<rTic4 
A.D.}. The essential puti of tbU pi 
ihroujjfa Qou'B ;ti<od providence, 
proper ord*-r, in our book, as th«] 
every anvionl Liturgy, as th«r ai 
In iTiose of the Greek ChorcD, a 
manv of the camoit divin«s of thi 
of [England liiLvti wiihud Lh*t they 
in bora. The Words of Institulioi 
low*xl by an Oblation uf the el« 
f)ot>, us a mamoi-EAl of Uio on« wi 
CiiHi-ST; mid lifter it i» tbe Itvm 
tho UoLT Spirit, which compleiec 
tecration. Ilut tbe prayer goes 
brief in^1?rc>^»*ion, which reniindsi 
in tbe Greek Liturgy, an offerioi 
fouls and iho hndiw of th« vrorel 
Gem, a pravfr that thntr siiu may 
vuiit the Bt-ceptance of llicir wortll 
doxology, wniob latter is proloa 
'■i-hnod in ahyiiin. Thirii coinei th 
iitLratioiiin Uilh kinds, ac-cordlng lo 
iimtiluliuu. The PaMl-Uonimunloi 
enlled, is more elaborate in our oil 
in almost uny i>thcr. It inulud«i th 
Prayer as offered by those who fa 
ronew«id their cuvatnnnt with GoB, 
uf Than kngi vine, tlie vvnerable ( 
/.jftfefsM, and inf Blessing of Po 
oihcravrviciv than tbo B»gli>h and 
baa the LokuN Prayer it> tbii {m 
iptvite, all uLhera nlucing it before 
miinion. Tho other peculiaritiei 
Liturgy, which we Mbarv with tb 
which It is doriv*>d, are the Coi 
Words (a peculiarity of which we 
naN^ to bttashBRKHi), and tbcpoaiU 
Gloria in Exttltia ; and in rcfcard 1 
tor, though there ar« r«aiOD« for [ 
as the Hymn uf tbe Incarnation, s 
ginning uf the ufflces, as in tbe Kn 
vice of 1640 A.D., use ««otii« lu con 
preMnt posiliou very tuvngly, 1 



of Hiimbtti Afxta* in nur 
rhich we fulluw tho Eii^Lub, 
tiaUio stminof ihAnkflgiviug, 
"Mbd iti the ■tK-i<-iit otBoe*; 
linen Mtid, of Ibt* nalura of a 
ui utiAt flltingl)' «ipre«M the 

SUmility with which wo tuka 
tibe fmuM of God. 
|coii)* irithin th« Mnwfi of Ibis 
pk of Iba rabriei of the Ktsr- 
Idoctrines of tho Buchtiriil. 
It Usminond't Liiargi«s, Eut- 
ern ; Keellnj^'i Litui^w Bri- 
DiKn'« I'TincijilM of Divine 
knhBll'i Ancic-nt Liturgic* of 
|f Rni'land, HbII's PrttgnifMita 
j Rkt, pK'ir Jt. Uaki-. 

ID ia One Kind, Th» itdmin- 
P of thu IjiYud HitJ ciottlif wine 
p&up[xir. 'rhi»()raciii-f, wiiirh 
> «spr«u commjiiKl, " Drinit 
the coDtlnukl UMgo of the 
pbm elM, bu been the rule 
Church for lh« )ut uven 
1 only. 

SI of Saints. The Intler part 
ld« uflhe Cri-inl. It fijnm u 
the former [wrl, — llie Holy 
ch. Mid MrvM to parlly cx- 
WM a later lulilition lo thit 
Id* to Mnd c«rr[ea on the cnn- 
aut«r Ti«iblo union with 
Holy CaUioIIc Church. >n<) 
inavr mynU-Kl iinloD with 
unJontood in thu eon- 
[th« fim wnm of thfl flntt 
vf St. John, Biiij ad(l> lhi> 
tiuion of &1I hife uinlJ living 
rhiek U brought vut fo nobly 
, and twelfth i.lia|>lLTt »f tUu 
bl lIcbiTir*, nf«cially In lh>> 
1 re«« .>r tbo twririh (.-hitpU'r, 

■ inspJRd expodtion of lu truu 

)>Table. Tin- natiit) rrnonv- 
lAltU-tn iheChrieliiiii Uliurcli. 
tl)« Hojy Communion in 
ale calU it, n* dwn the 6ro«k 
Joly Table and llie Lowd'h 
in til c Ordinal. In (be form 
ttion of a Church or Chapol, 
inip41«d by ibc Bithopi of thb 
M a.l>., th« altar i* railed tbe 
faU«. In Uin ()(Boo of Incti- 

■ in ISM A.D. and revtaed In 
ft e*ll«d Altar. It ia both an 
bi fl>r ai tho \iUuM fur affvriiif; 
If bread and wine ll i* an altiir, 

ct to the foMt it is » tubld. 

ilamenl ib« uw ii indilTersnt 
■«ion* made to It. Qeb. xlil. 

I an Al/nr whorwif ihey have 

(hich »cr»»lh«Ta()f(rniu-l«i," 
*' Ye cunn<>{ be |wrtiil<«r9 of 
bl« and th? tabic of devjli," 
>a« on tlie tublu of devili wa> 
'of devih." And throughout 
tra iiKrd indllTi-renLlv. In 
kblo U tho LoKD'a Table, tho 

Hilly TnM<>, not tbo Cnminiini<>aiiL'i' Tnbl*, 
ui Itjttt the lunn C»i»munion<Table ia in- 

CompliRC, in tbo KriKlivh Chureb, boforo 
the liaformutiun, wm the luil iorTJoe of the 
day. WbL-D the two Mrvictti of Morning 
and Kviming Pr*ycr weri- arranged, tho 
■orTtccs of the flrtt houn were Joinod locethor 
to form the morning wrviow, and (W Vwper 
and Coinplinn of Uiii' lajit biain were con- 
jainis] into a Axed form for Ibe Evetiinif 
Prayer. It wai^not intL-niiKl that the public 
worahipthould inti.'rrvru with the um.' of prl> 
vatc prayer, an id^n whli^h baa oti^n b«><>n 
put forth, but Hhe inltindcd that tho public 
worship «hou1d b» common, and "undor- 
standod of the people." 

Concaprion. Tnq truth nf th« conception 
of Obkist by thi- i>perBtion of th« HoLT 
Ohost is of fundamPiitaL importanco to th* 
Chriitiac. Unlc« it b« »o, the anoicat 
prophecy (I*, vli. 14) hat failed, tbe record* 
of ibe KvauKellati Si. Maltbewandfit. Mark 
arc fnlio, the flrat chtiptor of Bt. John 
meaning leu, and our faith rain; not merely 
thU, but the whole career of tlici Obristian 
Chun-h an ofTocTl without a iinuae, if Chxut 1* 
not Oiv prv-cxiiliuE Bternal Son of God, of 
one lubbtani'c wiU Hit Fatiiek, b^ottoo 
<-•{ Hi" FATUxn beftira all world*. 

Conclave. A room that i^ani be locked, 
th«n an awnmbly-room , and, lastly, the »•- 
ftnmbly it««lf, generally the aafembly of 
CardinaU, and mare eapeclally that auembly 
onnvoned for the purpose of eloctiDjr a new 
pope Un to the elvpitintfa century toe ppo- 
jilf lu w«)I UK the clargy hnd a voice in the 
i-lectii>ii, but under the guidance, it is ftuid, 
of Ulklcbrand, aftvrwarai Hie famouji Ur»- 
xury VIl-, P«po yichula* II. arran^'ud that 
tiie Cardinal*, i.e., the Preibylerit of the 
Caritinai Uhurchee, should bold the election 
to Ihe cscltLtioa of the rlebt4 of tbe other 
parti UK to the eleirtion, lOfiSl ad. Thoalec- 
[inn ■■ rondiicted under mrliiin v«ry minute 
rulei, tlji^ chit-f of which i« the absolute 
icclution of tbe Cardinal! from all oxtornal 

Concomitance. The do<?trinfl that in 
tmnsiibstuntlntion tho Ulood inhrre* in tbe 
Body In the KuebariRt, and iherefbre that 
there )■ nracttcally no wlthholdlnfi of the 
eravie anrf valiin of thn Cup in tbe Commun- 
lon. Thin iirane" anil l^^^oneou« doctrine 
was Invented to parry the proofs that tbe 
Cup must by tlie ^ow Tmlamont rulo bo 
given to tho laity In the ad in In Ut ration of 
ihc LoRU'a Supjier. 

Concordance. [From eoneordare, to 
uerte.) A dleiionary and rvference book 
if all the words which oocur in an atitbor. 
It is mom eenerally applind to a verbal con- 
iiirdance of th* Bible. There are man v con- 
oordanCM, som* of subjeota (toplcafl and 
'>th«r« of words (verbal), in th« Hoorow, 
fireek (Septuagint), Latin (Vulgato), Eni>> 
lish, Fr»noh,and'ierm»n. Those in English 
claim our nltenliou. Ttiu earlier coneord- 
anoM wor« quite dcfeotiTC, as they gave 




Inil the Iflaillnj; words. But tbey wen au- 
pcrscdiKl by th<r gtvM work of Albxascek 
CauDRM (1737 A.S.), It 1* In mnny r«- 
peotatbc c>Mnp1't«*t,Mii3 i* Krran^od in vory 
mnv»ni«at form. It m* iiii-umpltite in 
pri>i>er nunii>e, l>ut thiit Lm been Hiipfilkd in 
Utn edition*. rb« miMt om^tiuut, Anil in 
nmiij' rc^pocu the ■ii.wt exhiiu»ilv«, canvurd> 
»nef it lite r«r«nL on« bj Dr. Younc, i>f 
Bditikureli, 1879 a.v. It givwthr Hebrew 
und Gret^k vcrdt. It arranges th^e by sub- 
ject* iindiT tlin «(i|inriito iWH of BBrli wtird, 
not murely «■ niiiin or verb, etc,, but iu iU 
*«vci«l se-n>-e4. It t« probably the iiiuftt pt-r- 
K fwjl concordsnco lh«t (ain bt "pr*pn.rcd. 
H Concordat. An uicrMiiien c betwo^n 
^Lpowan tvlmiye to »mu* aubjm^t. This word 
^BIltfiMljr mtrainod tosgrr^mcnti made b<^> 

acknowlMl^ng thi? KiimRn 'ibninpnci', nnd ii 
will b* fauud tbiLl v<Ty oflcri it win vnli-n^d 
inio to pnrvi'Bt tliu i[uveriiiiieiit rmni nuert- 
(ng and oiiforciiig tbc jiisL indc[Min<ltnco nf 
tb« natiotful Cburcli, Sucti U the- hliiory of 
at Imm <mt! cftncurdut in Fraiii.'^, i1ib Prnff- 
inatir »uni-tiaii (I61d A.u, t, under Krniici* 
I., \rh'i «»* in cnrreapontlencv with Uelnnc- 
tboti. A Epcand vofHwrdat was formed be- 
(wwn NacolMDi I. aed Piun VII,. wliii^b, 
biiiTf vnr, uidnoleiwanytliiDtc t(i tlii-'> UoniiLn 
-8*6. It is nun* Id furcw, after having bC'^n 
abmgwicd in ]81T a.D. to ^ivo place to ii vain 
effon to rertoPB the c^^nulI<^<lut of ICIfl a.d, 
Th" interval between lhe»v concnrdnls i* 
fitWd with most in»triictiv<i history. Ko in 
Bjn(intfa«lil)Rrt)eaof till' t 'bun' Ji wr^riMi ecu red 
inlbeMficAniatof 1762 a. v., but in 1851 a.d 
anutWr iint ui fav.^ralilc wm tnsdn. But 
Porla^l ii n(m*i! njinn tbi* pMiiii»ula fur ilit? 
JblDnMi with whii'h it ha^dt^fvmloiJ ihp prat-- 
*filBl indi>p«nd<incoof thf! lVirtu|i;m« CHii ri>h. 
tn ©•rnmny the *Itt'Hfl "t Ju«i"|ih II. pro- 
duivd n i;reat du^l r^fenciicqiionL, but tti« in* 
LarTmtii'ii nf the KrorK-b Kev<iliilii>n and the 
tTHitnifnt Napoleon tndicied up«>n Piua Vi. 

CdiKw4 R reactvcn in favor of the llnmnn 
, and r>i>nriirclati wi-nt foriiinl wilb tbo 
Hivpral »tnti'» iif fli-rmatiy more or lea* 
ravorahle to th» K<>inAn S««. Tb* most 
ravo«Lbleon«(Au>tria in 18^5 a.i>.), proved 
U> h- a failnre; many provision* In it enuld 
not b" piirried mil, and tho«<> wblrh wnr« 

»Workrd unfiiriirBbln r<:aullA ]K>liti(-Blly, ao 
UMt in 18711 A.D. it WW sbolicbed. The his- 
tory of th» ranonrilut* froiti iM6 a.u. to the 
pr«Mnt dav ia tbr hintiry of ibe etToM to 
retwncile liio National Ui*lorieat rndcpend- 
cncD ct tlio MTcrul Oitirchw of Uuropo with 
1hi>4«alr« to rvinnin, for vnryinn, and often 

Inarmw, pnliiieal rcMunn, in tb« obediancv 
»r Ihc l{iimiin See. 
Condifnity. A topic in tbe prerefnnna- 
lion discQuion ■> to tfa« rfilation of works 
dona Wfcira, and thui« untk-T Cba K'acloua 
influ«nri-« of Ood. Soto* work*, It waa bold 
by autne, ruuld be done to wwll thai tberoby 
a man coutd d«crve falvatiun (oonrruily) 
<>n the other hnnd it wai (Y>ni«iide'l ibnt n 
naa undar only divino )nllii«nca could 

daierm etsmal life ((.'undignity). The ami 
in citob gmb wai the inririinc < whi.'dlier nit 
tinsly or not! that man vould dev-r*« a 
merit «rler«a! life. Conipar* iho Xllltfaa| 
Ibt- Artirlr* upon thin. 

Coafcsaion. A word aaed with a wiii 
»g|!ri)iticaiion and many appllfation*. I 
niumis &1I iickcjiiwIcUtEmvHt of rJitM-r an H 
or a b«lief. t)i<.*r«fur« it may 1>« u*^ 1"'^ 
nify (o) Tbf ncknnwlrdgmcnt of any ni 
or fins, (ij The avownl ot a btiltef. {c} Th 
public diwuin^rtiu cnntnining such aroaal 
wblcb have h«i-ii put fiirlb vilh aulbortty 
It uFc«n u u»L'd siuiply u« me«nin|{ autkul* 
cont'««i«n of lin* to a pri«et. 

Confevsion of Faith. Th« grMl CwifH 
■ion of Faith i* made In the Cr«<«l. Tb 
Cbiirvhcan rocognizanontfacrCflnfctnciKiil 
Fnith, thouiEh docutnentJ WArini: that titb 
bavK bocn mit furlb.ani) ibe XXXIX. Art$ 
t'lea of tliu Kivglitli uiid .\m(>ri('an Churtka) 
are pupularly »<> utW. It i* raalij U 
«rr<ir, thougii the XiiXlX. Article* ccoUll 
decialiiM upon tbeologlcal potiiu uaijnr 
tMt* upon errors In vogu« at th« tinaflW 
A.U.), und upon »i>ni« poinu of Chank 
Polity. The Confeaainn of Failb ia prupot^ 
the one inad« at Uapthm : " Oo«t thoub^ 
lieveail thi< Arliclw* of the Cliriitian Putkr 
Anciently it wii* naceasary to recit* iImCtmI 
At thai lime. Hut this' doe* not conrtl 
tbiu !■ DOW placed under tbi* tilla. Uidbi i 
now 1(1 iliMo dooumeni* whk-h wera f^ 
lialif^i during the flrat oentnry of lh« RMit^ 
niHlicin (and ■■ niacin to include tboaeuuA 
cnntnining deolarnlionr upon jioint* of fdUi 
proteflU against erroni, or raalpnotien Is 
r«)igii>n, und auterliunii upon (,'ontrorarU^ 
or i]ncl«(Hrii)!n«d srlielaa. The flnl laj 
moat noiublo of Ibesc is tii« CoofoMtM it 
Augnburg, prMentcd to tbe Kntperor Chtfl* 
y. (June •£!}, IMO a ».)!» full diet at Aup- 
burg. It wilt r«ad to the Diet In tiMuM, 
nmi mftdn a very dM'piioprc»»ion 'iT''**j 
itt Dofenw (Apologiii)acaJnKiheauaaip(M 
rei>,iti*ti<>n* of Eck, Cocblwua, and *»• 
Itiimnn tb(>nlngiBn» have liecnmvoiieof IH , 
>Cnud)ird Hutburitiea of tbu Luibaraii Ca^ 
munion. TheCnlvinittit CunfewionofBi^ 
which took »h*po frotn a ipeoch by (B«I*J 

^dlui 1&SI A. It., and wui written not V i 
yconitu in IfiSi a.p ; the UelrpticIM' 
reasilonof 15flfi A. n., in IWIr, lu naibl^ , 
SwiM Rerorniiirs ; the Generan CatlcW*' j 
ibff work of Calvin, IS8« a il, takaa "oklf 
a i-«nftf»ion,— are ducumanU of this raak*' 
■ be Calvin i^ticcoinmunion ud tbeUootlM^ | 
■be Wefiroinu'lcr Confauion of Fkllk mT | 
the ?r«abyKrlans. Thctu «onailtUtt i»>v' | 
very few of the many symbolic boota,-^ 
col lection s of nlandard ConfesMont of F*"^ 
of the various religious bodi«s wbieb w"* 

Confession of Sin. It Is od« oflbs*^ 
seniiaU of re|)«ntunc«. " I aaM, 1 wiU***; 
fern my tran^gresrions unto the Lou: ** 
thou forgaTctt tbe Inlt^uity of my sin" (**" 
sxxii. ii] It is, h'lwever, a <]UMtionit% 

] luifnr* vhnm llila nonfiHtfOliEj 




A> to nMiner, it in Ui be 
d imnnrvtd, so <kr u mtxaorj 
le* CKn rondur Uii> rmtfdwinii ; 
ripluns HK (Vill of it, and lo nni 
of kll the bml And boli«»t nen 
Ik Titti eoof«««ion !■ to bo un- 
■wninc the cbarsct«r and b«in- 
B. fint b/iM-« trbom it chiE 
■ To OoD btiyiind * doubt ; bMt 
MbImIi wtuvli WBs ILiwll^ m- 
■II7, and r«r k1) Mgw, In the 
vu llfM bHbni Nathan : " And 
unio Jlalban, I huve ainned 
IiOKD, and Nathan tnid unlo 
b>U) «ko hath put awHv thy 
n M* MinfeMon b^ror* a Printt 
tti, bill it in r<)itBtly rWr that it 
kd before all who vvn pm«Qt 
cfeaatb«r, and that thii wiu no 
ikm, ccmuaalod, and iiwur to Ix! 
in b DO oxauipli- rociirdiNl 
conStation in the Bible ; 
fi lh« mMt oii«n un«l j)ublio 
it of wrotijf'Uuini; In iirt>«d, 
pHilriH, ilia gn-M Pfiniton- 
''for tbo Cburrti, but abii bj 
Df tht FrimUlve Cliutvb duritij; 
iiuriw, wb«n »bc hopt up b«r 
Un« {vuU OtaciPLlKK) In «» 
lib lb« prnept «r Su JaniM: 
nr (ralbi onr to anutber, and 
tir another that re may be 
Kb thw»andoth0r<JiT«ictioiMb»' 
Halt. iii. 6-a ; ArU ux. 1$, 19), 
< (not cMttrMt) (lur Lord's 
SC. Malt. iri. I»; xTJIi. 
Bitly »peiit«d in St. Jubn 
ye tho Holt Giiwt: 
I FBOiit, they are rainlitcd 
Md irhMO KiCroT lios yc relaici, 
rtalm-d," tnad« to tb« tlcv«n 
a ntminittal of HU own antbor- 
' HaR Ui filler* lini. Thi* in 
fiUl the publir id of cos inn, 
~ with it. Jndced, whilo 
^ aiud that thtirv uon'w 
it war* tietter that ihnre 
iiVllc conrrsuion, — we ar« not 
he ordinary wuunn^ f>Mrul' 
J <j«.'>iripin;p,— yel ttaoM wi'pe 
nn m-curnmiw, and tb^y wpm 
■iHa. But we liai-t! full and 
Wtioo M to tbit. In thi« line 
li« bMt brrrodvntt the Ctiur«h 
tar eb)lclr*n the puMii- miifga- 

f! plat-n in her public fortnti- 
are lbri;«: ibe one in Ibe 
Rt-«ninR Praver, lh« om in 
nion M'fwirw, and the I'tuyer In 
dnvxlay niinrir*. <>tlii»roonhw- 
rwc, not IB (oim, ocL-ur in the 
It tb«M are Iho ouliinm upori 
bnrvb InttrucM b«r cbildrim tv 
■clf-exa no illation andooDf<u4ian, 
In for an honeat and devout de- 
r part to fivt a hearty nioining 
ly w"»«1k «hB pwM into their 
lii> public ti» of fiirinn of coo- 
AQt inLcDded lo intvrfece with 

any prirnte and deroUnna) fiimw f»r the 

Bat while the Church lliu« publicly and 
imonly arowM ber u*« of pulilk' cujxtwion, 
iiit dors nut interfere with the unbiiniening 
of the heart and it« troubk* to her mlnl^ 
lert. ConfMiion in private l> urg«d upon 
(h«of>ndenined convict In hi«cell, nndaL the 
i-liiHi' iif tbe etbnrtaLioii in Ibe Commtinion 
funfice »he wsi» thcwr wcinls: " And bocAUM 
it li reqiiiaitc that no m&n stMvnId <>ofiic to 
tbi; Holy CoiutiiuniciB but with a full Iriut 
I n Go»*» merry , and wHb a quiet conieiirneo, 
therefore, if Iboro be any of you who by 
thi« ffleana cannot quiet bii own conidenM 
herein, but requireth further comfort or 
rminiiel, tet him come to me or to mm* otbar 
mitiJBl«r of GOD'o Word and open kto etitf, 
that be may renjeite such codly oounwl una 
ailvicv Hn may L^-ikJ k) tb>' qiiii'linR of bii 
i!unicieni.-« and the removing of all icroiile 
and doubtftilueM." Bo fur «be eihiirt* 
and iMJIvi«o» tba oonSdence which nhould 
ov«r exlit between a faithful l*rl«>t and hit 
people in any case of cunw.-ienc« M" of 
•vrtiple. The nae of abuihition undrr itiK'b 
L'a^M must alnayA bo decidrd by tite oir- 
camalancei. ( Vide Abholutio!*. 1 

C'oNrKWKiov (ADnici;i.AH),tliiitit,L-onfo4> 
tlou liilolheear of the Priett, nrbn ii b<.>und to 
nb*i>1uleeecn>cj,and wboUatlibfrty t»<]ii<t^ 
tloo Ibe penitent in anv way upon any part uf 
his or bor conduct. The praetiw arose ii[»» 
the ct^mntion of niakinE ptiblic i'i>nf<r«i>~rn . 
anr] gri'W gradually till, wIVr liaviag hMn 
rr!(-tigni)MHl by Ibo W«»lprn Church, in 
several enactmcnu of local Synodi it wa* 
mmiii«d M a novvainry preliminary tu ra- 
peiviug the Communion «ad ni nbligatorj 
oil every one oiK-e a ycur on jMin of i^xcom- 
mnnication, and thorvfore rcfutal of Chris- 
tian burial. (IT. t^unoil of Leteran, Can. 
•Jl, 1215 A, D.) 

Confesaor. One wlio al the rink of liis 
life confeaio* tie faith In CuniHT. Kor the 
UHi nf tb« word, nottiparf St, Mtitt. X, 32, and 
1 Tim. vi. 13. The oonfeatora were held in 
f!reat ealeem, mid obtained to much tnflin'ni^ 
thai Hi. Cyprian, while admirlne th«u and 
tb«ir conitancy, bad to optioce H\W ill-ad- 
vived r«laiation§ of the dioriplinn of the 
lapsed. Titm tilb* confiuurir pri.pcrly brloncn 
to htm who at anv timr al th<i ilan);er of hii 
Life l)ecau»^ of it tias confewcd fail faith i& 
tbn I.onu Jk»iik Chhibt. 

Confesaor. The litla given to the Prleat 
whi' li>.-Hr» citnfoMionii. 

Confirmation. The Impoaltion of the 
RKb>>p'i lii'nd*, wliereby the gift '»f tlio 
lloi. T (iii'iHT i* given to the prnnit ron- 
ttrrnnl; tbi- Btrrnethf-ning i>f the Rvnl by 
the graces of the &>riKiT. It bora M'Veral 
nann;>i in the work* of I h<- Fa then, — (.•.,the 
Bi>a1, tliuChrlftm, the ImpoeitioB of llanda. 
The Heal from Eph iv. 90: thu rbrtfm 
frtim I John ii. 27; tbeimpnaUion of handi 
from Heb, ri, 2. The termconHrmation or 
Rtrengthening appi>an to oiimc ftixn Bph. 
iii. 10. The ritu witboutdoubl wai typtScd. 




by the dcfccnl uf the Uoly Spirit upon 
Eitn at our Lord's bepiUm, Ht- di-clared 
conitantly thul ){■• ctime not only for llip 
BAdfenpUve ncldwliirh H<; nlnnv roii I4] i^fTeit, 
but alto to give the Uoly Gtioer, which gift, 
includiiig All oUiur gifti in UiNt, He gAvu to 
tbe ApMtla when Hi> brt-nthul uu theui, 
Rod auerwardt when at the day of l'ont»- 
f:atl lie SDiil Dim uyon ttiv A[i<Mtlc«. 

It wu em phut !<.' ally the Kite tor thut gift, 
B« Baptiim wiiB till? «[ii""iinie'l Swrannini fi)r 
our ttntranro ami birth into Ciikiht ; unit 
was implied in St. Pclcr'n wirda: " Bejieul, 
nod bu DRplixiHl ovcry one of yoti in the natnu 
of JUOR CaiUAT for tlio rwiniiBiidn oi tiiii, 
and;* sfaall receive th« iflfl <if the Holy 
GftOST. For tha {afouii^c i^ unlo you, and to 
your childTMi, iind to ull thut nrc itfAr off, 
and to at many ni the LoRb vur God shall 
call" (Acts liTaS, 8ft). Now this nromiiio 
h the fiKuring uul uf thv SflKlT, m> St. PeLcr 
in the flrtt {)(irt uf hi& sormon hod shown. 
Tilt) word! of SU I'itift imply tbuii, thai 
those who should he Iwptixed wpro also lu b« 
conflrtnod. So, too, when Philip the evan- 

eBlitt went down U) Samaria and bnpttx^ 
600Uld not cunSrm, but tbe Apostles Mnt 
Peter and John thilhsr l.o confer that grace 
(AcU viii. 14-17). So, Bt. Paul oonfinned 
the disctplesatEjihotus (Aotsxix. 6), n gift 
to which liH ropcatcdlT refers in hie EpiMlu 
to theB[ih(»iu[u[uU. ). 13,14; iii. le-, Iv. 4, 
90). 60 laying on of hatidt is made a foiia- 
dation act (H«b. vi. 'J|, So tha nnMnting 
tai aetllng of the Holt Spirit in 2 Cor. 
i. 21. There ia a serlca of tcxta which 
darlvo their chiof if nut their full nenM' 
from this laying an of linnds; the fciro- 
most placu aro the viii. chapter of Bo- 
mant, Galutiuiu vi. 6-8. and the references 
la 1 Corinthians to the body haing ihf Tt-iu- 
ple of the BoLY Uhust. In thi' »tiidy of 
tbete poMagM cDmpuriM.n f>hiiuid uImi bit 
Bude with the two Icadins prophecies, (lie 
tflXt front Joel ii.SS, 82, and Wiah xi. 1,2. 
It is not at hU neceaaary to l>rin); a long 
amy of qu»t«tiiin« fri>ni tbe Patli«rs to pruve 
the fact that CDiLflrmatiun—tht- laying on 
of band*— wu tbe pr*cticc of ihc Church 
from tbe Cral. It laa; be neueesary, how- 
mar, to remark that (.kin HrmatJun followd 
tftpUsRi immediately, and for that reason it 
tho leu often allitdi''d to in the earli«et Pa- 
tristic writiaits, sinoi it wh*, n« it wem, 
bound up in liiiptinni. With kapliam and 
Confirmation followed the receiylng the 
Holy Comrnuninn, and lo was qui dw<-k 
upon as dlscunlrely as other rites of lh« 
Church. The ant-ienl fumniiluk iii'fd hi>th 
laying on of hand* and the unction with 
conaecraled oil. The laying on of hands was 
with the words, •' Almichtv Fn»h«>r of our 
LiOKD JuuH Chriht, who halt niKtrnt-mtMl 
Thy lorvajiU by wat*r and tne Uoly 
OaoAT, who but i>iToEi them rcmiuion of 
all their rins, do Tliuu, O Lord, »vi\A upon 
tbem thu Holy Ghoht, Thy Comforter; 
and ^Ive ihcm the *piritof wisdom and un- 
derttandiDg, tb« spirit of oouniel and {race, 

the spirit of knowlcdce and true tct 
Pill them with the spirit of the fear 
in the name of our LoKt> JxHtni t 
with wbom Thou IitmI and reignt 
Cod wttb tbe Holy Quobt for ^ 
uvrr. Amen." Thou iLe Bisboii 
thuiu on the forehead with the ehrfi 
ing, " Tbe sign of CitMiaT to eteri 
Amen." (The 0«lasian Sa^-ramt:* 
600.) This form, as we soe, is dirt 
the famp line as our own s*r%'ic4>, ♦ 
one important omiaston of the chrtM 

In our oSce tbe veraiclca are fl 
anck<nt Salisbury uku. Tbe worA 
ncwumiiaDy the act of tbe laying on H 
are drawn fVom seTeral aenlanroj 
Scripture. The UoIImI was ftsn 
the pattern of one by HertDaon, Ati 
of ColitgneflMS A.n.). Therubriod 
mission of lltniM n«dT and deslrauaj 
cunllnued lo the doly Comtnvajl 
lalfcn from n Constitution by All 
Pvekhatn. ViSl a.d. 

Tbe blMtings of Conflnnatioo ■ 
received with a pn^pnrod and devori 
not hailily or withniit inalrtiction. ] 
end ii is usual to deliver lectures nf 
firmNlioti «> a DeoruiLy in tltnChrifl 
and beiULune uf its Aiiuatolic apjtujtil 
tliQ economy of the Christian Churl 
tliu duiios of a devout and prayerflj 
ralion, together with iuitructioo a) 
Church and her olSc*'. and the duj 
upon tbo jteraon conflrined in n 
TnesD bleannge and the pn&ition of | 
rito are well eet forth in a hotni| 
Ixifiiri- thii Reformation: " In Ba| 
vrus born af^in spiritually to live,. 
IJriniition be is made bold to figbk 
hi' recvivod rvmiMion of ain, nert 
ceivetb inerou« of grace. There ik 
of (joD did make bim a new man, ) 
Ktimi^ Spirit dolhdAfeJid him in hi* dl 
conflict. There ho was washed *i 
olenn, b»r<> h« is nouriihed and mad) 
In BaptiMii he waa iJiuicn tu be Ql 
and an inheritor of Ills heavenly Id 
ill Conlirniutiua God shall rIvc I 
UoLV Spirit to be hi* moutor, to! 
Iiira and pcrfet^L him, thai be loee M 
folly that inberitanco wbit-h be t 
unto. In Baptlam h« was called aal 
to be on« of Oou'8 aoldicrt, and I 
whitn coat of innoivncr delivensd ol 
and ulau his badge, which was tbe B 
the tiiftrumenl of His Paaaion set i 
forchvud and other part* of his b 
Conflrm&tion be is cncoiiTai>ed tot 
take ihc^ armor of GoD put upon hi4 
be alili; to bc^ar off the flory darl 
devil and to d?fond him from all bat 
will uso tb«m in his linltis and not I 
i>rlf in duu^LT of bis eueioies by enlj 
Held without tbvm." 1 

It ia often ukod, I* Confirmation 1 
Hury lo salvation aa Bapiiim ? A eai 
aminalion of tbe ttoripinree ouutodi 
furred to nbori-— esorrinlly (lie tiH 
man* and tbe ir. of Ephaiiaiu — «| 




fbk% il i*, fur it It part if thftomns of (cnoe 
ffl ourrvwurrection (ef- Rom. viti. 11 ; B[>h. 
\T. 301 

Caiip«r«tloti. A word tn wbich »0Tera1 

itMUnitig' «n ■Uaefaod. In iho Old Toatii- 

amt it neniiA |u doM aba tb« word Con- 

<\Matlc(i| the trbola psople, vlteiher In Itie 

niUmn*, nhert %bty w«f« tilway* tt»ni1y 

a'CUnA. Of In Canaan. It meant eltber a 

ONcwc*ti<in fnr wonbfp, ot^ a Cangrvgn- 

dea fur dvlilMmtion , and mi j^RtrrMlljr nv 

prsnitd bv the b«ads of iha UtmiVica. Tn 

ib« $av TeaUmcnt it mvatit tlr'> ^ccL»giu, 

I xkailwT meralj a local cunf^ouiniiuii or l)i<' 

L vU* bcdy of th« Failhf^I. But eioejiL in 

B iwnlin the Eoclesia id tranaliitcd Churcli 

■ li U(A. V. In later Cburcb utust It win 

H muitifd lo the local Rntherin^ or to tho 

P orrulud b<idy r«c«i<ring m in intra lion from 

■ faiiot. It ia a modern emir, leUtU-d \>y ul! 

wijChorcb Hiatorjr, togive to thuCiingre- 

I pan ihc fctf inatiT« ToioOi and to tnnke U tbc 

narMi/autlKtritj to Itaoffluan. Thmugli- 

Htlb* New Twtament, tbo Apostlpx oxer- 

cM )iukp«nd«nt Buthi>rity and ordfiinrxl ai 

WBiMwerable to Ood for ihctr authority. 

tSo^tm, Ib tbe mbapc^tolic roi-nrd in Rot. 

li ud iii. Thn Congn^atiim had many 

pr(Til«(ei, which oftwM modifl^d Uie action 

^ Iki raliDg body. The ofOc«n wvr* not 

tifM, but ai'tinv )n OoD'a Whitlf lu tbo 

QiVCrf^itioii. aoa bearera and eiet-utHnut 

•f Hli tVivi-itant TTi*y ♦xiM only for thr 

•b *f the Con^rrgation, btit frotn Goo. 

B*Ul(y in Oongrt^lion bud tho rifhl to 

■ovfuiat Ul lb« vao«nt nubonrio, (o nu«m 

»<^t to tbe cwdinalinn nf Vvncttnt { Act« 

■tltiir PreibyUin (1 Ttin. iil | ; at largely 

'Wf«]linc the flnancca its influ«noe wai 

*4(bl]i. $t. Cyprian'K toniultatlon of tbo 

^l^rapttoni in CartbaRc ii a ^ood illiu- 

Cnw. But tbne priiniliTC Congregations 

*mtwt so wliolly rt^Iated tt «ur own 

■iiwii ane* are; lb" olprjjy b"ing mors ti 

''if nthan-d around thvir HUhon, and 

'■UM by him. thnti a number of Preefcy- 

^h4 DMfioas Kattond over the Diooeee 

■tl hvUmg their Parnchlal cura at tbo 

■al»of lheCufi|;r<n>aiion. Tb« Coai;regA- 

■M lh«iua«Ivr-i w^ro not »a markcdlT 

fM, tt#a vhifti much mor* aeattereci, 

^ nttatnly In tbe city CburchM, thoujfh 

UtnwBre manv Churrhpii and Cnngrt'gH- 

**i they rpally fwrmrd for all minor 

nphlire purpiKct but one body. 

■R our CoBmgation* now ar« nearly 
wailral with tbeir Pari«h»». A Congp*. 
Oilbe may oonialn niany individualt other 
'u« ihaM> in ni»n»g«, who cannot tako any 
Nl ia the managetnent of the affairs of the 
nM, or may b« merely aupndanu on I be 
JJHM*. Bat B|mrl fr->m tb(si>, ^nerally a 
"•ptration in madv up cf j*r»on« per- 
"wwijy Riotnb«r« of tile Pariih, and for 
*" FMfwr purpoem lb« two itainet apply to 
*»fjMoabody. YetiaaomepanicufaN Ihe 
'"Wata Congre^tton is »tiU endnwi^) with 
^MM pririU^v* a* Iho older. In an or- 
**niiiQ iiM oonMOt of the Congregailon it 

had. The Cons;re^ilon beln^ oiTiiindcd bjr 
the scandalout conduct of a rnembar he la 

ha." U< be a&tl»IIed of bin ^i^IM■IltAnc« and 
amendment. (Riibrio to the iioly Cutnmun- 
icin.) In tb« Praypr-Boiik ibr4>ii;i;bi>uc, the 
ptNiple j)T*ieiil at a •arvit'e are ditunguUbed 
rmrn the Coiignrgnlion. So jirojicrly at tbe 
office of Coniccrutlon of A Church or Chanel. 
As thn Church U con^eoratfld for th« Pariah, 
the GmffrfgiiHon, not the Pftptr, i« the 
iorm un«l. S», too, in thn oIBl-c of lnatitu< 
tion, in tbe Prayer* and in theflrttof tbe 
Iwn Hniting Itiibrim. 

Ill tliB Uigtut of Canimii itic word* " Par- 
ish or Congregnliun" frcem tu imply a 
Might diSin«M« in Ibe um ct the two, th* 
one not oomulawly colnddln); with the 
othur. The Vettry tii;n, teatimonials as 
rcprcsflntJitiT«of the Puriib or Conerega- 
lion (Tit. i., Ortn. ii., J8; Can. »i.. J 2). A 
clergyman can bo rector ofa Pnritb or Uon- 
grogntion (Til, i Can. xiv , f 2, J4). The 
lerm " Conj^rwauon " Ii a lirouder term here 
than " Pariah,'' for a Congregation mu»t ex- 
lit in ft Pari*li, but a Conirregation niiiy not 
be oreaniited iiilv a ParUh, iheroforA all 
general direotinnt about munic, ubiiut Cun- 
eregationa within tliu TcrrJltTy of one 
Bishop plftcinp tbemflelve* under the Juri»- 
dic'iio!) urHmitnitr, xnnt iiimplv tbu tonn Con- 
grcpaUoii, TbemorAgaiherli)(;uraCiinffre- 
gation need« tbe aulhiirity of no Canon, but 
when this Congregation attenipu to orean- 
ijw, thoii it must talte the stew poinlea out 
by the Canons, both of tho Church nt Urge 
and the »|ieei9il one* nf thn Dion-Hi, in order 
to bucornn n Parish. Ptill, since the Pitriih 
ii a regular orgnnixation, and tha Congro- 
gatiiin i* a body with looser cohutlun, and 
•ince for certain puqKiaes the Churt-h rightly 
speaks uf the Congregation, the Pari«b, 
vrhifih civn often act lolely tbroucb iu re- 
pT«tcnlAtlt'««, the Vodiry, TniiNl in «>me 
Ckpacivie* art iw a Congregation aUo. 

Connecticut, Dioceae of. Conneeticut 
w«a not, like tome of bor iist«r colon!«, 
flnt s«ulod by companiiM of Churchmen, 
nor bad •bo, nito uiben, royal governon 
vrhu brought with them the form« of tbe 
national Church and in irnme >Cti3« Wt*b- 
litbed it within Ibelr Jurlidlction. To be 
aiirn, the Rer. M«Mn. Hnoknr and Stonn, 
wbn lifl the (rl lien i>f nnrtford in 168A a.d., 
and the Rev. John Davenport, who wa* the 
founder of Now Haven in 1639 a.d., had all 
received Holy Orden In ihs Church of Eng- 
land; but it wn> far ffoni thnir purpinrto 
build up iti the forcflls of C4>nneoti<:iit and 
by the side of her plcuant waters n Church 
wbiob ubiHild itxti^nd to a nAW tniul hor due- 
trint!, diiL'ipline, and worahip- It need 
hardly be siiid ihnt tliiC- oolonifK went of one 
mind with tbeir Coachftr*. that it was lo- 
lended that each of the towns which wore 
organised in the enirly dayi should contain 
(or. to UK) tho word" of the tbeorv, »buuld 
be) a ■' Church of Christ." of the pure 
Congregational type. Yot it was a* early •• 




VUH A. 11., .• vi'iir bnfure tlm Ni-w Hftveri wl. 
oiiy wai uniwd to Cortneclieiit, — -Suytroi'k 
li»^ li^M'ri iiiiTgiitl in tliit luilcr ut uu iwrliiT 
dni<^,— that wTltimii I'itkiii «tid ollirrt jM-ti- 
LiuriLii the Gvficnil AM*inbly in rfg*fd Ui 
prJTilt^c* vrbicb Ihcy clniinotruinctnDcrcor 
ibeCliurchof £iit;l&nd,buiwbi(ifa werawitb' 
held from ihom by Che ooclMiMtic*! iiutlior- 
\ty hrrrn. Bui Oic Snl ex|iraMlo» of a wiili 
Tiir llio scrvicM of the Churcb »«Oinf to Iwve 
come from u ftw Uhurcbinvn in Slrntr-rd 
abttul lf)90 A.u., tbifu^b it duM nut ujifioir 
tbiil Htiv petition for a. mbaionury was made 
till 1702 A.r>., in which yoartwo miMionnriM 
of th« rw^t'ntly fouiidwl Society for the Propn- 

ftinnof th«i C}(i«pHl, thct Jlpv. M>«i>rn, Guorge 
pilb and John TnllKit, vixiW Nrw London 
and iirwai-bed lliere. Three year* later, Ihe 
Stntiord Chur«biii«n &[>plii.-d to ihv Kot. 
Mr. Voacy, ntctor of Trinity Cliupt-h, Nuw 
York, for hit aMistance, and io I'OG ad 
tbe Uev. ti«orgc Mviicvan, ini>»i«nHr)-iit Ityo 
in Now York colony, be^an to^ afficiitte for 
tbetn, b«in|r ably enpounisod by n liiyman 
whcMC nnniti tbimld alwavi bi! brld in hutior, 
Col. Cnlob He»tbL-ole. in April, ITOT ad, 
lite pariitl of CUrtnt Church, .Strntfurd, wru 
org»nizKt; but Mr. MuiivMntoondit'd.iiiidit 
WHcldl without on* ttknl cletfljoian for more 
xhan Bftcien yt-ar^. In 1 706 k.D. ocx;iirr«d iwo 
«v*nu of int«r««t in ih« 4'ColMiuIical hi*- 
toryof Connralicul; theC'>}iif;T<'gntio[iBlnnd 
thpPrt*bytRriitD«lmiii>nu in tb* ■.•olooy woro 
uiiitcil under th« Sayliruok iilulfunii of gov- 
■trninrnl, and tb« G«iif!ral Audinbly in- 
cluded in tbe act wbifh ftatborisod' it & 
clau'v for " ttiu relief of »obar4li»«Dters,'' 
not freclii;; llieni frooi taxes for the supiuurl 
of the itnnding i:irdi>r, but rtunoTing tho 
Mitftlty for DAn-*ltcrdanc« U itn terrlcM. 
bat w« do nut hmr of any eiga iif Bctiviiv 
and hurdl)- of lif« on Ihu part iirditt Ohurrti 
oijlil on Triuily Suriduy, 1722 A.D., th* Itev. 
C*M>rK« I'igot tivok charge of tb« paruh at 

Ill tbiil ywir (1722 *.».) it pri>p«rly <l«t»d 
tbe foundntion of tbe Church in Connecticut ; 
yet not frnni Mr. i'lgoi't Inbots, but from a 
ino«t Ti^murkable event, which is almcsl. if 
not quit?, impapnllclvd in bidory, nnd wbirh 
bad ill urigin in tbe iuOuenoe of " tbe lint 
iDUaiDnary uf our Church in Coiin^-ticut. 
U]« Book of Comtnon rrajrcr," ond in piir- 
tlralar of n ropy uf ii. wniob belonged to 
Mr. Smithfixn, of tiuilford. TbU bonk bad 
been ttudird, whlli! be wm j-et a boy, by 
Samuel Jnhmon. who wit graduated at 
Yale <.'<ill''iii'ai)d liecHrn*" fur mveral yvur* itn, udO then Con^rf-'K^tJoDal (xuior in 
'Wv6l Uuvcii, iM^'ing held in high r^utation 
r«r hii abilltieaund hti Iciu-ning. with him 
other nilnlsi«n of the tianding order bud 
joiatd in tb« »tudr of tho quivlioMi nug- 
gcitrd by tbe Pmyer- litiok ; biu) lliey bad 
awt in tbe cx>lleKe libmry ti> ra«d luid to 
dJMUU »iich b<K>K» a« Aruhbi^bop Kiflg's 
■' Invcnliunt ot Mom In the Wwnbip of 
UoD," 8cx>tt'> " Cbrixtisr Life," and other 
irrillD£> <rf Snclith divine*- Anong tbeae 

minittera were Mr. Timothy C4 
Rector of tbe Cnllcge. for ten ye« 
1719 A.D.) puiUir ut Stratford; M| 
Brown, iu uiily olber uffltet of In* 
Mr, JamcM Weimoro, uf^'orUiUa 
JarMl Eliot, of Ktlllngwood; t 
Qart, of East Gnilft^rd: and Mt 
WhitlnwT, of Waliingfurd. Tb«| 
UidraLuaio* appcarad on the day 
ComntoDcemeittiD 1722 a. n., wben 
minittOTB jurt Mined niiido u declan 
" aome uf them douklv<d of tbe valf 
th« rc»t were more Ailly penittdl 
invalidity, t>f the PratbyteriAn ot^ 
oppwition to tbe Epiraopal. " Tht 
Uiin eaiiKod groat eonner nation aa 
ini^nt. A public ' (liapulatian 4 
which WM ntoderaled by Qovorno 
had luid great influence In tbe tra) 
adoption of tbe Bay brook platform|j 
it Riny tit< noted, bad entcrlainrd t 
Talbot Ht tbelr riiit to Now LondO 
yonrv before. Tbe result wa« that 
iha doul^nn wm-n pertuad*d to n 
thH«irforuierpo!iiti«nii; bulHuaan.i 
Cotler, and Drown were not nim 
Ih'uir dettrminntion to »eck bulyi 
the handi of s Bishop; iheyaailed. 
land; wbare they were ordained ii 
17!!3, and tbey 'were Boon followe 
WeHnore. Mr, Brown died in i 
aoon afli>r hi> onlinatinn, but ibeo 
lunn'c] a> niiwioniirio of ib« SocM 
Prnpagation of tbe (ionfiei, Mr. Jo] 
ing authorized to lake up the work 
ford, wbili- Dr. Cutier (he had red 
Divinity degree at Oxford) waa aeq 
ton, Ma**., and Mr. Wctmoro to B 
York. The progreaa of tlic Cburul 
nectiout was worthy of thid won^ 
ginning. Ibund on oarneat ronvio 
turiHl by «arneat duvniion, led 1^ 
learning " well reported of amoni 
pcopie.'' who tmilled their mm 
giving up nil tbey bad and riikliig 
ger» of ftix (botraiind mile* ofMat-vot 
fide* tbe no iMi real dangorf of | 
and Ibe violence of eniunlea, it 'w% 
and i.-aurageou* in itMlf, and it Mq 
th(' ri9>[H!i;l of ita adveraariea. Wit 
an eiccpliim il« clergy were nalit 
colony and educated among Ibeiri 
pie ; at drsl ihev eame fh>ni tbe | 
the minittryof the Congregational 
from among thom^ wbo were preni 
it ; and all thul wa« excellebt In tM 
tor or in ib« n-lifriou* ronvirtiont a» 
pie waaexbiliilcd in [Imm. In Von 
if anywhere, lhi7 Chuti-b wnaacnrpft 
own morita, and on ber own merilaf 
Slmtford Atb other pnri<khe* wereo(| 
nnn ot Fuirfieid in 17^7, aaoihi 
Lcmdon nndfr Ssntu>-i Seabury (| 
(be Biihvp) in 173'i a.d., at I4*ewt 
Redding under John Beach, ana al 
in lT34A.i>.,aiidin L78Aa.]>. ii wa*4 
that tber« were Mveo huodretl Ufa^ 




yiw tntlMcMloii*. Uc»nwbi1«, in 17^7 a. i>,, 
itia LiC^teUire bad ]MmmI a bw wMch «I- 
iMTtd tiM mnnber* "f any scitlod ecctcst 
mini I cocivlT tn jiRV tfaiii r ■■^I'lpsinxtii.'lil 
ttLHafortb* *u]>pi>rt nf ihoir own lerviii!!! 
iMlakil of iboM ot tb* Gt*nding order, the 
itMicI Dc&n B^rksloj to Amoriot had H'jI 
k«M iriLh^Mit iM ttfoeu In Cmia^-tiuut. Uv 
Wraided in Khod« IsUnd rrum 1729a.d. to 
im 1.IIL, mad (bniigb h* «-u dunppnint«d 
tahWprolectofMUbllhblncKCiilIefftln Hn- 
•uitind foatidme Bishoprics in the DtfloniM, 
kii bfcirnoB tmd bomi vrtiM, and t1i« boolcN 
wkidi he Hve to Ynlc Collage and ibvitchol* 
tntiHvwcb b« endoHAd th«r« esiendod 
tkuindMnev afUir bt* r«lurii. Soon grant 
t h w lt ylotl kitd rcII(;toiu uuntrovcrtivi wore 
I line la the Gotony. A [teriiidof irreligion 
•duiii^liiMt liMoomr tipnn tliudoMj^nd- 
thtnai awakaninir bc^aii, In the mid^i 
rfaa uii;ib>in«nt Mr. (l«<org« Whititfl^ld 

■ fted Ui« eautcru part ot Coiiiii-t-tirut a&d 
kimaacb aneourafoment b> th» "Now 

■ U|l*." M Iboaa Hsn calhid wbo farorwl a 
H <Mge ftofii the former relt^loui bvliffi and 
H HIlMa. Many irr^ularitiM attended the 
^L 4tll ■otentflt ; and tb« Mrnnge rpo<tclir:> 

^B MpM, (Moouraeing apparalionpAnd nft«r m 
■ *ulaiiiiliiig it iwx aa iary to purify tb« wp- 
*fUlHi, dialnwed and alanaMJ derout pen 
fb mm) tbnw niADy JBto a most unnatural 
•nduabaallhy (nitne of minil. Ttiu liarm 
twJaxi bv ikt) Naw LlrhU or frwred fruiri 
<btB«Mto);reattbat in 1T4^ ad. tbe law in 
kwoltober diM«fit«rft was n^nulod. In 
■ItWK trotiblca tbo calm tcuching of tUu 
tAuah va« able to snTe many from undue 
JMhMHti or from titlvr reckl«un«<«, and 
W lBloenc« waa canvtuntty nn the ^in, 
'Wwf Tww» later, in 1774 A.b.,tlie ConffWi- 
W li waltw* 4-* ti matifd that tta* EpiscnpalUni, 
•tt tWr twenty titrgymen and furiy 
*(Kliai, wc^r«^ (rne>tbirt«t.-iith part uf all llii' 
UaMuau ef tbo colony. It n<>4d hardly 
^•MtbM all alonip the n«ed vt a ItiahDj) 
^iihanly felt, and pMJtioni w«rii s«nt Bj^nin 
*M Mkin It tbtt Hubnpt of tho Knglinh 
(Wdk,— 'firraally as early aa 17-12. and in 
■^<n iar>mal mannffr in tbe l«tter< and 
*?»n» rf th« miMioiiarw. Many liravt' 

^**ll««na»^r!S»d, oR».iIftb part of IIkwp 
*■* hft C>'t>nLi.:ticut la ajiply for huly 
y^tnvr r«turiiinc. TbcimuM! ofAmcr- 
**■ KfticvipAcy had frk-ndi in England, 
^tbt cunalant r«|>iy to the jielttions was 
'^mtmtmtu. Thru cnmo the political 
J^l* and the war of the ll*v.>lul(i«o. 
•Wirf'th? clwrcy wi>rp fstihfiil fithn Brit- 
WfTowa, a> wi'lf from jirincipU «» frr)ni ll:» 
•■Ipdion of tti«ir urdiuatiun rowi.iimi [Msr- 
**M (nr a lim«> in th« UM uf thr i'niycr- 
■^ vitb all tb« lUU prayar*. Their luf- 
'•ninitwf* ^reai and w«re piitlenlly en- 
ya C Mid tb«y ■uA>r«d *»nietimM as much 
■■Ifta violcBOV 'if tbo Brittoh troaps aa 
?K Ibt patrlotlim of the rcvolatloafni. 
tot war two of tba 'ilorgy di«(l, 

thrrv went within the Britiih linex.and oii« 
to Kncland, L«nvlBK IhirtMn vritbln tho limits 
ofthoStalB, and one in Umat Barrinijion, 
Miuu., whicH wu ri-nkfiniil iHictimiiulinilly 
wilti C"iiiim;lipul- Of Uiyuu fnurlwii, it i* 
worUiy of mention, twelve were born in 
Ci>nn«cticut, on* in New Uampshirc, and 
ooo in New Vurk. and nono of ihem had 
had any otboT than Rpiecupal ordinatiua, 
though two had bwn Cnngrrgational lici^n- 

A preliminary treaty of jHiaee wm signed 
Novambvr SO, 178]f a.u., and nuuri of it 
wat required uii this »ide uf the oi^c-iin «arly 
in 17B8 A.i>. TbeConnecticutelargritoabl- 
loH thought mucli en the eourtt vf •v«du 
and con*ult«d witli each other ; and tliey 
wer« ready to act. Mo^eov<^^, Ihcy were 
alarmed at thoton<irof n pnniphlcc published 
by tbe lUv. Dr. |&nerwArd« Bishop) White 
ini;82A.D., advocating, at Inut as a t«m- 
porary expckii^nt iinitor tlntir exUting air- 
cumstancis. lliv tidupttiin by American 
Churchmen of a Pre*hyt«rtiui fona of po»- 
ernmont. Thny therefore ■.■amottigothor at 
ihu vartiMt [Hiwihluclav- Ten of the four, 
teen clerj-ymen met at the r«:lory in Wood- 
limry on iho feitirnl of Ihi" Antiiincialion in 
ITsi A.D., the rector, the Rev. John Kiititcrs 
Manhnll, ['pobsbly protiding, and ihc lie*. 
Abraham Jarvi* acting a« tlocrotury. They 
decided (» tlu two tbiii^-. to elect a Biithcj|) 
and to reply to Ut. While's paiophlet. 
Thvtr lint cfiiiico f<>r tbo RpiMH)|ttttu was tlio 
v«iinnibli!i and ho»nr«'d Rev. Jeramiah 
LeumiiiK, till laloly of Ncrwalk, a defender 
uf thii Churi'h and a »tiffi^rfrr for her salce ; 
and. In oim |a* Kcemcd likely) his age and 
Inftrmltiei shwilil fbrce him to decline the 
burden, tber decided to aak the Kev. l>r. 
8amiirl SralMiry to imdrrtnke il. Dr. 8ea- 
hury was the taw of a faiihrul elertryman, 
a native of New L'»nd"n, of etron^ and vig- 
cirtHii eharaeter, wnll known nnd highly 
e4l(r«tned in thu State. Tbe SeL-r^tarr was 
to f;.-! \o New York, to conMill with Mr. 
Learning and Ur. Seitbury, and lo arrange 
M xu iMiiniDniaU and letters uf cummonda- 
tion ; and iheclergy directed him In inntniot 
the one who sbiiiild go t" Knglnnd ti>.a*k 
for eonsecration. thnt, if hie prtition vai 
iui->ici:"=Bfiil thorn, lie nhmiicl gn to St-nilantl 
and tii-k t1»i KntscapAtn nl tbe hniidk of tha 
hi!thti|M of the disestablished Church in that 
country. The clorgy alio authorised Mr. 
JarviKto write a letierto Dr. White, polot- 
ing out the dancernus coRseouencee of iha 
ideas which bo had advances in bis pam- 
phlet, assuring him that they were utterly 
opposed to the principles of Cnnneciieut 
Churchmen, and urging Cbat at leail noth- 
ing of the kind ought to he ndvanioj until 
a request fur the Kpttcopatc bud Iiecn made 
and re)ect<^. It witi found that Mr. Lcatn- 
iiig fell il impott'ible tor hint tn ■Ki'opt the 
election whieh was nffnred him ; and Dr. 
Seaburjr naiird for Kngtand not farfVom the 
Urno wnen the fonnnl proclamation of pe*ca 
WM made, and arrived in London July T, 




i;S3 A.D., MvorNl montb* beforo the oravu- 
■tiuti of New Vork. The atory of his 
•iiJourD in EngUnd cnnnot l« told at lon^th 
bcTQ. Tlic Enk'Iiab BUbops flouRht and ob 
tuIuedCroiu Pnrli»iin<nt p<trmiiiiion to ordain 
Deacon* and Priiuta Tor ibu Uiitlvd Slatec; 
bui Uie Krulian nuliorx whicb [ireraibd in 
Uiia Church, Ibo machinaUob* of Unglitb 
polilk-iuii', Htiil itiu uixumcnu of liiflii«ntiiU 
Coii|jT«(;iitionnli«U ia C't^nrincticut proToitt^d 
tile cortiicrriition of a Bislmfi. Yd Dr. St-a- 
bnrj waited f»r mora than a .vcar, tiil at 
last, luting all h<.)pe of an ICni;liiili eanevcrn- 
tion, htj dtttidud to act u[k>u lii« liiatructioiu 
Ki>eii biiu at the time of Ms olvotion, wt> 
ond«d u they were hy tbc adrSec of Kag- 
Itth Meads, and to nmke apptlcaiicin to the 
Bitbopiof th*> Scclob Oliurch. The iiiiftwer 
came frum thvm alnicuit at once, thot Ihty 
vould freely fiivn bim what they had, "a 
f!ree, valid, and purely EcclMiuUcal £piBco- 
paciT,*' and lie turnud liU aWpc la AliardiHsn. 
"thflre, on Sunday, November 14, 1784 
A.U., ID thecbnpcl within Bishop mciiinov's 
houM in Long Acre, xho wor*hlpinK-pUcc 
of ■ lai^ eoiigpej-aiion, lio was (.•ontecmu'd 
Biahop of C'onnetlicui by three of tha four 
Bi*h(ipa of 6i:oUand,'~tlici Ku Rev. Koburt 
KUg'Our. Bishoti of Aberdeen and I'rimui, 
the Kt. Kov. Arthur l>etr>e, Bidiop of Rinn 
and Muniy,nnd ihr Kt. Rev. J»hii Hkitiiit^r, 
Bisbup Cuudjutor of Aberdeen. On tbe fol 
lowing day uithop Scabury etcrn^d u " Con- 
oordaie" Willi bli miinoiTiitor*, jn whlfh 
they covenanied comniuiiiim in faith and in 
eocls*iR«ti(-al niBicert, and Itisbop 8e«bury 

Snimisnl to ii»f hia influence! for Ibc inlm- 
uclion of the Scotch Euaharhiic office into 
hit DiocMe. T)io Bishop rvliirnni in Unti- 
necllctit to And but nine clHrftynieii. I(ifl,uiia 
having jfuoe to aiiuther State uiid four hav- 
ing; withdrawn, under liritinh iiiHucnce. to 
Jiova ScuUa. On the 2d nt AuRUil, 1T8A 
JL.D., the clej^y mei tli^ir Ui*hop at Mid- 
dleiuwn;oa theSd tboy formaUy nchnowl- 
edgod and rtceived him, and be urdainod four 
oandidat«a totb? dincoDaie; on tb« follow- 
ing dftv he dplivortd bi* primary rharvv; 
andonlhe Mb a coniiniLlei! wa)> ujipoinleu to 
acl witb ibo Hinhiip in t^tlin^ lorlb eiicb 
changM ti should be thought ncccwarr in 
ibo Prayer-Dook, in ooncei)U«ncs of wi)i<!h 
appointment n fen amendment), relating to 
tao yilate prajer», were duly piiblishf^d a 
week later. There waa a strong dislndina- 
tiontomoke any other i^bnngfs in thu *<?r- 
vicM, and il doea noititipi^iir (liul any action 
waa taken upon iLv further recommenda- 
ttoM of theooimnittea. JIui almott immo- 
diately after the publleatinn of the " Pr«- 
poaed Hook" drawn up by the Philadelphia 
Oonveniionofl78aA i>., and probably in eon- 
■equanco of It, Blibop Seabury set forth and 
Tftconmended for um a Communion office, 
almnat Idontirul with the Scutch ulSee, ilif. 
ferinji; frmn liie EnpiliKh in malt«n of ar- 
iaii{^meiit, nnd espeL-iuily in having a di»- 
tloct and formal Ublatiun and lnv<KaUt>n 
In tbflir primilivfl order after the worda o( 

taklllutioii. (Thin Seotcli oRicie mua 
eonfuied with that in thi> Hxmlled 
bishop Laitd's boi-k of ICST a.d., wU 
(luilcditforeDti ititnlinenldcacODdal 
fi'on-Jiirori'offleeof 1718a. D.) Han' 
■oemin^to prevent a union between C 
icut And lliv Diome* totbnaoatb.thl 
in February, ITSti a.i>., di-xide^l to 
t-uitdjulor BUhvp, thinking that it n 
iii'CL-aury to have a compleiu CiilUge 
iimin the Scotch line ; and \It. Lean 
Mr. Uanntleld both declining, Ur. Ja 
elected. But ho did not decide ftt o| 
tho whole prrject waa abandoned, wbl 
much prnyrr. much cirrrmpondtn 
much pntieuc-o, a union waa eOect 
lbs UioDBMM which bad locurcd 
rWim Hnclaiid. The P.ev. Mottn. B« 
bard end Abrahnin Jarvts were cl 
apcompiiny the liisbop to th« Ortnv« 
Philadelphia at Uichaelmaa, 1789 Ai 
on the lid of October they boome moi 
that Ixxty, Hiih(>p>8<E«hurrand Whit 
isiii^ lu Lbe Houaeof Bieliupn. At t) 
voniion the Pmycr-Buoh was revii 
the Kound and moderuiu view* of tha 
of Conoectleut had grant wflleht la 
vision. Kapcciftlly do we owe it to I 
the prayer of Conieor&tion in the C 
nion offloe was taken aliuoat exactly I 
Nt'iiich Mirvice. On ihu 80th of ^p 
17W A.t>., the der|^ of Connecticut 
(iimflrm the doings of their procton 
Gcimral Convention (the Kor. Jam 
beiiij; Uia onlv diMeniieol) and to m 
new Prayer- Book ; but the uaeof 
Heabury's Communinn office was n 

?elhi>r nhandon«d for lome thirtj 
a the eaino year sCollege of Dod 
rctAbli'hod ; but it i« not mention 
1T92 *.!>.. hnvlnjE l)«en dis|ilaoed: 
Siatidint; Coramiiiee, which wa« firV 
in 1391 A.D. Thu ineinl«(T> ofibe 3 
Cuniiiiittee were ail cleff^ynien; an 
been the uniform law of the Uiocei 
day, with thcexce|ilionArtheye*r U 
that they tbould all be ohoseo from I 
ical orrler Drlwgatea of th« laity I 
with the clergy in 178B a.d. to con) 
ceniini; the Bishop's salary ; but b 
wore not iummcned to tit in Cot 
till ITB'J X.V., when It was necM 
elect dfputi"* of each order to the 
Convention. Thii wiia. therofore, 
stnse the first Convention of the } 
the convoc-ntioni of the clw^ b«^ 
ynnrs before a Biiliup was elected, a 
tiiiued to be hold regularly for tnal 
afler. The revival of the Church 
necticut under Uishup tieabury w 
renl and permanent. To increase i 
Hrm itx priupiTlty, be fctt it ncc<««s 
tahlish an insiituiion for Church e4 
and in 17S^ a.d. itep* were uken 
foundation of an BpiftcopaJ •caderii] 
was permanently located at Chcthin 
A.D. Thcnigh sometimneoalled Scab 
lefte.A collegiate chartercould not bet 
for it from the l.«sialBture. Id thai 



t.<T tbogood of bii diuceao mni 
I In N«w Liiiidon, Bishop Se&- 
l«0 Um 'ZStbof Fekniary, 17'^ A.U. 
I'tMl wdftincd ri>rtr-«t|cbt I^HCon> and 
PriMtt, Knd had conflrtnad n 
' hrp noRilMir of |>i-nuiu in ConiMcti- 
,Bhi^a I»lknd, and elketrli«rD. It may 
ItrMArdlbkl he had b«cn Bi^bup -T Khada 
[Uulritice ITOO A.D., though tb«ri: wu no 

riif R^v. Dr. Abrkhxin Jarvli wiiacbo««iL 

'k lUt, tIMJ A.D., to succeed Diihop Sc»- 

ku;, Ml btt declined the Efiimx'pate, u did 

i^iLa K«v, John Bowd«n, priDcipal of Iha 

V' ^al Acad»ni]f. In Juno, L79T A.i>., 

iti Juris vus^in e)e«t«d ; Miid oii Iha 18tti 

•^ Ucubcr bo wai conMcrftted in Trinity 

Avck, N»wr Hhvuii, b.v Bi«l>opit WbiiQ, 

tom, and ItkM. Hi* E|iboofwie uftii- 

i/wn wu ■ quiet one. cxcepl for the 

nt •nnnyiinc« otittod him bj: Auirni 

in, whfRi 'be bad depowd fh>in tho 

liutrr. Tti« wUbiifbnwDlof tko CltMre*- 

i"* AbfoziNC in IFKri ad. and ;be »»• 

_ Mg of additional liii-llitim for lhf< work 

"■< At ■ndfliny at Chefihini, wer« among 

lU^pu of growth «nd procperily. The 

bMMi of ih« Bithop's Faiid w«ni chArU-ri^ 

illM A. D,, though tb<-y wera not orKan* 

M till laiS Ajt. Biibap Jarvi« liitd 

IIitS, ISU A.D.,iuid.oblcflr for flnitncial 

«Mni, th«ri> wa4 much delay in the oholeu 

•ItiucaMur. In 1816 a. »., the Rhv. John 

Owi »ai oi«ct«d, bill hv wiw anon ofli-r 

yw lo Now Joreoy, and atMitUil that 

mm; mnd in tti« rollowiiift rear BtElio[i 

Bttvt, of X«w Turk, «a> " n-iiiiisili-d lo 

'M ui perform tbo Kpiacopal official in 

M fitbcaw," which ha accordingly did, 

^MlMiBif vwT larg* BUmbcn of porfoat 

dlSinrait place*. Meanwhile, miiiT«rd 

«(itng in OonoKticut for the miied 

and r«l!giouii revolution of IKIH 

In which year, by iLe adiiiiUon of a 

oMi CBMtllUtion |t)iougL Ly a siriHll ma- 

Wftjk the calabUtbniuiit of llm Cciiigpegn- 

''"W ard«r waa brukirn. Tbi* event wiu 

•Wnddl u)d followed by a long war of 

l!*M)M», in which the cbanpioni of the 

ClbBrtb thowad swal and ability. The r«vo- 

"Hh* dtd tnuclt lo itmnEthrn the C'hitrch 

'» nil-rial tbinge, though il brought int.> 

«|<«liil ueaibcnhip «f Hb pariabei many 

*V ^ ^ot becon* oonitnunicant*. The 

p** Ftind traa inereaacd In pArt by a 

m the Slalo of o&»-«erenlb of the 

repaid by th« g«a4ml govvrnnianl 

'Heaant of money paid oul duflni; the 

" rf ind«!p«tKleiK«. and in port by another 

^ friiDi iIm Lcgialalurv, and on Uic 2d 

tjif Jon*, 1BL9 A.D., theCofiTeatloH pro- 

' yutlm alwlion of a Bi»hnp Thiriy- 

~" rgymen and fifty-four Iny delngttliis 

acnt. only flre of the Utler being 

> wiffcta on th^cjLasidu of tbo Conneo 

LA)««r. The choice fell upon thu R«v. 

Brown*)), an a^Mktant tnint«terof 

IChurch, New Turk, (om«tim« pro* 

In Union Ci>Ilcf;t!, and ho wn* con- 

I . r 1. .1 Ipi Trinity Cliiin-h, New haven, on 
il r . if Octolifr, by Bi-hops Whiio, ilo- 
ii4rt, unii Ori^iwold. Bi>bop Brownnll rn- 
icred upon bis work with vi^or, and aidad 
it by timely publicatiuaH of much value, tla 
wa* deeply intarwtad in nlucation., and in 
1820 A.D. the Osneral TlitM' logical Ssnii- 
nary wh« rcmovid to New Uurea, where II 
remained about two year*. Itenewad at- 
tempts were made to levurv a eharlur for a 
college, and at lait, in 18:^3 a. d., the relie- 
ioua Kidios other than tbo Conercgstion^- 
lata UDiting with the Church, Wiubington 
CollBgn WW iDcorporut'^d by the Legislature, 
and Uiabop Bruwtiall wa« clLo»«n iiJt flrvi 
prCflidi-nt. Ill I64S AD. its naino was 
changed to TrinUy College. A Christian 
KnowledgeS^'Civly fur dlooewn minionary- 
purpoteii liad been chartered in 1819 ji.i)., 
iind a Church i^chcilarship Society for araitl- 
Boce b) yi'ung )m-n in their aludica for tbo 
minbtry waa founded la 1627 A.D., while 
in 18^ A.u. n charter wa* obtained for the 
Fund fnr Alci-J and InOrm Clergy and 
Clergymen's Widowa. Biibon Bruwnell's 
EpiAcopAte is a lon^ record of faithful labor 
and win eountol on hi* part, and of rapid 
growth following the blesalni;' of Ood upon 
It. In lt>Xl A.ii. h« retired from the preti> 
denoy of the rA>llege tbut he might devoUi 
all his time to the work of the Ui'oco^e. At 
the «nd of a <|uitner of a ccnliiry from the 
tiine of bia consot-ration the number of 
the clisrgy bud inoreoscd to a hundred, and 
aiiiLiiig them were many whoM n)tnie& wpre 
prvminanl In the ohurchj— ooau more no 
than tbal of the learnird Dr. S. F. Jarvii. 
At the Convention of IBfil a.d. the BUhop 
asked for an aa»talant, and tbo Conven* 
tion clwted the Kev. John WtlUams, Pr«- 
idcnt of Trinity College, who was conse- 
cratrd in t^t. John'* Church, Hartford, on 
the 2»tb day of October. Biahop Williamt 
remnincd for three yean at the head of the 
oullvigo, and a ihm)liigi(.'iil di'uiirtiiiiint grew 
up there under hii •uper'iaiun, which was 
removed in I8i>l a.d., when be resigned Uie 
preiiJency, to Ulddlctown, where il wu in- 
cort'oraled as the Berkeley Divinity School, 
and it has been no nnimporuint part of the 
work of Biihirp Williami'* Kpi*copate thai 
be bni t.niin(?d there .-n muny of tlto clei^ 
of the Church. The educational equipment 
of lb* Diocwu waa oompletod in 1875 a.I>, 
by tbeestublishrnent of St. Uargarut'a Dio- 
CMan School for Girls in Waterbury. After 
1869 X.D., Bishop UroWRoIl was not able to 
attend the Cxnventlons, and on the 13tb of 
January, ISflfi a.d , he died, baring held the 
Kpiacopnte f»r more than foily-llTd years, 
during the laUer twelve of wbicb be had 
biion prniiding Bishop of tb« C)iureb in tb« 
Dniied Stalea. During the thirty-two year* 
which have jiaised since Bishop Williams's 
eloctii>n the number of conflrrnnliant baa 
been about 81,600, theproporttonnl incrcaM 
in the number of cumrnuiiiciii'iu has ex- 
ceeded that of the population of the State 
and tbut of any other rvligicmd body within 




it, the prMunt numbvr lii>)ng about 33,000, 
mid the number i>f Di'ttoon* orduD«d hju 
boon 3^, or about onc-fifte«ntb of Uw whniU) 
aumbar of th« (-'Iwsy now in the 001111117. 
The number uf claryy Quinnicullv reMi)«iit 
in tb« PiacGK at Uiu tiDi« uf lUv Itut Con- 
Tcnilon wu 187. The conlribiiiiona rtportod 
tor the pT(N«>diii(:yciir for pwochiBlaxpfinfiM 
&nd (aliiriM wcr? abuiit $100,01)0; Tor diu- 
(.ifKan mt>«i»ii> and othpr chiirilablo (ibjbcU 
• ilbiii tbe Diiicoip. |'JM,O0(l i nnd fort'liurth 
and charitubtu objecU without Ilia IJiiiccnu, 
{14,000. It (bauld bo n<;tffd bere ihai in 
IHSS A.b. tba qut-Htlon of a divioion of tho 
Diuci:s(> was ditcuued ; but sin^-r tlie foUuw- 
ing yuar notbinz bui b«on heard vt iliii tbu 
CvnventtonB. Until IHTS ji.d. tbvorsanisa- 
tion of all the pariahM had becti by Stuia law 
undartbeCunerceatioRitl furiii aiWuIedaiti- 
cal locielioi ; In iKat jenrl^iilative author- 
ity WW ubt«m«d for vrgaalutlon in a niAro 
uhurcbly way and und«r lb« proTisltttU of ■ 

Two ai.mpio futt* po a. lotifr waya in ibow- 
ing tb<> iiiIluen<:o of iboChurL'Ii id OonnecU- 
rut. The one i», that, at l(uu>t tincG 17WA.D., 
tbe piiblEc fait baa bveti aTiiiuully uppuinind 
by ibc GiiTemor of the Btata ou Uuud- 
Friday ; the oth«r, that there ars wilhia tbe 
litnit< of the Slate but two boiues of wotahip 
of till) Unitarian d«nnnilDalion. 

R»v. Pbhi". 8. H*iiT. 

Conaancruiuty. Kelaliuitihip by blood, 
M cwm|Mir«d wiili AvrisiTV, or r>.<lutiuD6hip 
by marritige. Blv>jd rululiuiiibip witliiti 
certain dej;r«M bua alway* b«iiii bold an iiri- 
peiJimoMt to mftrriai>«. What tbume dL'gTBM 
arc, bnyund wbnl llir Civil Law hat- dclur> 
Diined, hes u<it been autborltntivnly aottk-d 
hy cbd Cbiircb in thli country, though tbe 
Biklio|ii havA r<;i:--»inRi<>i}dnl, without en- 
deavoring to bririx the inuLter up in fniin, 
Ibv iid"ptk>Ti of the Kngliih Law, which is 
baiml upun ihii Lrviticnl Table (Lev. zvjii, 

Conscience. JTew wordi in any lati^age 
are tucd with a gronter TaHoty of tixtan- 
ing* or witb more ind«QniU>iieM of »i(riiifl- 
oation than th« word einutitnee. When 
th« tninilation r>r our Biblo that it now tn 
tkae wan made, and for many yenra after- 
wardi, we bad but the one word con- 
tdvHix for tba two ulnMtM of mpntal pb«- 
nouiena, which we now indicate by ilia 
two forma of tbi* words,— cunaci^iu-e and 
coaaeioutnett. By the lntt«T wo nieiin, 
primarily and in the Birii'ti>«t Minse, the 
Tneana, or proceaH rather, by which we know, 
immedialcly, what >• going on in niir riwo 
minde, — our tbougbU and fcctings, our pur* 
poaw and aim*, oar hop« and fb«r*,— «x 
when wa nay 1 am cmur^itiua of paruatng ihia 
paper, of reincmberinK an event that oc- 
curred y(«t«rday, and to ftirlb. Tbui, in a 
■econdjtry lenite, we mean by tho word iho 
linowladge ilwlf, wbi(>h we have by ihit 
me«iu, and we tpeak of the Itnowledga a* a 
maltrr of conaoiouanoaa, — or a* bring- " in 
MBMiouiMM," — uid finally, with % widar 

departura ftom the more atricl aa 
aeuae of tho woni, wt- often apcfl 
objeou that are p«rc«ived or t 
rnMlen of conwioucneta. This it4 
u view and a uMt of tbe word lu 1 
Williatn IluuiilLun baa given 
which bo baa brought into ivcertl 
uf currency and rccogniiion. 

But by ibo word >' eonteloiw" ' 
(iriniHrily our incani of linowlni 
right and our diilr. Thna wo ol 
knowledge itaelf by ihe w»rd ; | 
umi of the original word — that ISi 
niSiaiLiiicu that wn nom di?noie> 
acieneo — prevniled in L In- earlier m 
biatory, imd Llie latter— that tn, wU 
nieun hy tum^wmmutt—did not bt 
traci any ooDaiderable atnuuni of 1 
nud c<MiJ»equcDtl^ did not neod ■ 
Lerm to denote it, until quite tw4 
in fact .not until after men had 
study menlnl philoiophy tnorecar^ 
moru diittiUL'tly an a matlar of ob 
and careful MUal^ii*. Tbe wfrt 
icienco" oocuri in'our £&ifll«h B 
thirty timet, while Ibe word " 1 
nan" doea not occur at all. T 
however, aevcral places in which t 
form of the word would bettar M 
meaning than that one which la m 
81. Paul (1 Cot. »iii. 7) aaya, '* 
with mnacience at lb* idol eat." ' 
ha better "conacioueneae of tba 
koowtedgo of the fact that it is afr 
agiiin [2 Cur. 1. 12),:^t. Paul wye, 
liiiiuny af our eonacienco," wbll 
more niod«rn uae, most peiaotu « 
coniiciouanesa, — that ia, " we an 4 
or know from eontclouineaa," " tbl 
plicity and godly sini.'vrity we baf