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Full text of "The churches and chapels of old London : with a short account of those who have ministered in them"

i 
* 



FREDERICK T >BUR Y BEER 






Pepys' Church of St. Olave, Hart Street, 
has just received a new organist in the per- 
son of Mr. Ernest G. White. He is an old 
friend to many readers of the CITY PRESS as 
the son of Deputy White, for so many years 
a representative of Walbrodk in the Court 
of Common Council, by trade a brushmaker 
in Cannon Street, and in his moments of 
leisure a student of civic lore. The informa- 
tion the Deputy thus acquired he worked up 
afterwards in more or less ambitious volumes. 

His story of Walbrook is, perhaps, the 
most interesting of his several works, but 
there is a fund of information in his smaller 
volume on " The Churches and Chapels of 
the City " to which I invariably refer when 
in need of a fact concerning the chapels 
and also in another small volume on " The 
Royal Hospitals of Bridewell and Bethlem." 

His chief claim for remembrance rests, 
however, upon his initiation of the scheme 
for placing the records of City parishes in 
the Guildhall Library (for safe custody. Up 
to the time he made the move, these records 
in many cases were exposed to loss by theft 
and fire. A few parishes kept them in the 
Vestry, but in many cases the volumes 
passed a precarious existence on the office 
shelves of the Vestry Clerks. The wonder 
is not that any disappeared, but that any 
remained. The Deputy met with strong 
opposition when he pioneered his project, but 
it was soon realised that he had common- 
sense on his side, and one by one since then 
the parishes have fallen into line. 






THE , 

& CH^TELS 

OF 

OLT> 



WITH 



A Short Account 

of those 
who have Ministered in them 



J. G. WHITE 

Deputy 

91 C'innon Street 



Xonfcon 

igoi 



"Printed for Trivate Circulation 



XonOon 

C. E. GRAY Printer 
32 Kennington Park Road S.E. 




IDebfcatfon. 



TO THE WARDENS, COURT OF ASSISTANTS, 
AND FREEMEN 



OF THE 



ancient jfraternitE 

(Bi'cthernc and Sisterne) 

of St. Bicbolas, 



OTHERWISE 



ZTbe Worsbipfnl Company of jparisb Clerks 

THIS BOOK is RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 
BY THE AUTHOR, 

JAMES GEORGE WHITE 

Parish Cler[ of the United 'Parishes of St. '- : Swithin and, 
St. Mary c Bothaw. /.- 



dfcaster of tbe Company, v&yjL*^ I00t2. 

Deputy of the Ward of Walbroo^. 



CHRISTMAS, 1901. 



preface. 




following pages consist of two distinct and separate sections, 
one relating to the old Churches that existed in the City 
before the Fire of London, the other relating to the Chapels 
and Meeting Houses, in number amounting to sixty-five, that existed 
in the City during the eighteenth century and the beginning of the 
nineteenth. 

The sites of the old churches are very plainly indicated in most 
instances by little green spots, formerly church-yards, now changed 
into pleasant gardens and resting places. A very small amount of 
information can be gleaned as to the architecture, style, or size of 
these buildings. In most cases, no doubt, they were small and 
insignificant structures, but sufficiently large for the congregations 
attending them. That they were more in number than the circum- 
stances required is sufficiently evidenced by the fact that when the 
City was rebuilt it was determined to erect but half the number that 
previously existed, although there is not much doubt that then, as 
now, the inhabitants did not always attend their own parish churches, 
for we find in the records of the " Old Stepney Meeting," at that time 
situate in the small village of " Stebonhethe," that when it was 
formed in the year 1644-45, it is stated that among the congregation 
worshipping there " we have men of Stepney and others of Walbrook 
and Birchin Lane " attending the church. 

With regard to those who have ministered in these old churches, 
the same difficulty occurs as that in respect to the buildings. Infor- 
mation in most cases of a most meagre description can only be 
obtained from a large variety of sources, scattered here and there in 



VI. 

works and histories relating to the history of the old City. The few 
particulars here given and I venture to think for the first time col- 
lected together show in a marked degree the various characteristics 
of these good and worthy men, who, not without many faults and 
failings, worked boldly and fearlessly in their Lord's vineyard, in the 
midst of many trials and difficulties, of which we can have no 
conception. 

We will commence our round of the old City, not, as in the case 
of the chapels and meeting houses, taking each district, but in alpha- 
betical order. By this means any one particular church can be more 
easily found, the aim and purpose of this little work will be served, 
and the hope of the author will not be disappointed if a livelier 
interest is awakened in those who may read these pages, in the inter- 
esting and unique buildings which still remain in our midst the City 
churches or, if one kindly thought is given as those most interesting 
and sacred spots are passed in busy life, the City churchyards to 
those who lie at rest in their quiet shade, and who no doubt have 
worshipped in those holy temples of which the following pages attempt 
to give a short account. 

J. G. WHITE, 
91, CANNON STREET, E.G. Deputy. 

1901. 



to Gburcbes. 



PAGE 

All Hallows, Honey Lane ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 

All Hallows-the-Less 25 

St. Andrew Hubbard 27 

St. Ann, Blackfriars 29 

St. Benet Shereog 35 

St. Botolph, Billingsgate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

St. Faith under St. Paul 41 

St. Gabriel, Fenchurch 49 

St. Gregory by St. Paul 50 

Holy Trinity-the-Less ... 58 

St. John-the-Baptist 61 

St. Tohn-the-Evangelist 65 

St. John Zachary 69 

St. Lawrence Pountney ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75 

St. Leonard, Eastcheap 84 

St. Leonard, Foster Lane ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 90 

St. Margaret Moses ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 93 

St. Margaret, New Fish Street 97 

St. Martin Orgar 104 

St. Martin Pomeroy 108 

St. Martin Vintry 110 

St. Mary-at-Axe ... 114 

St. Mary Bothaw 116 

St. Mary Colechurch 119 

St. Mary Magdalene 122 

St. Mary Mounthaw 128 

St. Mary Staining 129 

St. Mary Woolchurch Hawe 133 

St. Michael le Querne 139 

St. Nicholas Aeons 142 

St. Nicholas Olave 146 

St. Olave, Silver Street 148 

St. Pancras, Soper Lane 152 

St. Peter, Paul's Wharf 158 

St. Peter, Westcheap 159 

St. Thomas-the-Apostle-and-Martyr 166 



to Cbapels, 



Aldermanbury 75 

Aldersgate Street 86 

Armourers' Hall ... ... ... 97 

Barbican 

Bartholomew Close 85 

Bell Alley 96 

Bishopsgate 44 

Brewers' Hall ... 72 

Broken Wharf 60 

Bury Street 27 

Camomile Street ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Carter Lane ... 62 

Coachmakers' Hall 73 

Coleman Street ... 92 

Crosby Hall 34 

Crutched Friars 29 

Curriers' Hall 81 

Cutlers' Hall ... 57 

Devonshire Square 38 

Cunning's Alley ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 44 

Dyers' Hall 56 

Embroiderers' Hall 74 

Fetter Lane 64 

Finsbury 97 

Founders' Hall 91 

Girdlers' Hall 74 

Glaziers' Hall 58 

Glovers' Hall 85 

Gracechurch Street 17 

Gravel Lane 31 

Haberdashers' Hall ... 70 

Hand Alley 43 

Hare Court 87 

Helens Place 35 

Jewin Street 79 



IX. 

PAGE! 

Jewry Street 28 

Joyners" Hall ... 58 

Loriners' Hall 84 

Maidenhead Court ... ... 14 

Mark Lane 25 

Meeting House Alley 82 

Miles Lane 11 

Monkwell Street 77 

New Broad Street 98 

Old Bailey 63 

Old Jewry 52 

Paul's Alley 88 

Paved Alley 18 

Pewterers' Hall 17 

Pinners' Hall 100 

Plasterers' Hall 73 

Plumbers' Hall 57 

Poultry 50 

Salisbury Court 64 

Salters' Hall 46 

Shoe Lane ... 63 

Silver Street 67 

Swan Alley 95 

Tallow Chandlers' Hall 56 

St. Thomas Apostle 61 

Three Cranes 61 

Turners' Hall 16 

Walbrook 49 

Weigh House 13 

Woodmongers' Hall 32 




^*tv*t^>*t^v*t>^ 



V^XL/ 



Cburcbes ano Gbapels 



of 



16 Xonbon; 

a abort account of tbose wbo bave 
mtnistere^ in tbem. 



1901. 




HE following is a list of all the parish churches which 
existed in the old City before the Fire of 1666, with those 
that have been since erected. Those churches which do 
not now exist are printed in italics. 

Portsoken Ward (8), St. Katheiine, Hoi;/ Trinity, St. Botolph ; 
Tower Ward (3), All Hallows Barking, St. Olave, Hart Street, St. 
Dunstan-in-the-East ; Aldgate Ward (4), St. Catherine Cree, St. 
Andrew Undershaft, St. Catherine Coleman, St. James, Dukes Place ; 
Bishopsgate Ward (4), St. Botolph, St. Helen, St. Ethelburga, All 
-Saints ; Broad Street Ward (6), All Hallows, London Wall ; St. Peter- 
le-Poor, St. Martin Outmch, St. Benet Fink, St. Bartholomew, St. 
Christopher -le-Stock$ ; Cornhill Ward (2), St. Peter, St. Michael ; 
Langbourne Ward (7), St. Gabriel Fenchurch, St. Dionis, All Hallows, 
Lombard Street, St. Edmund-the-King, St. Mary Woolnoth, St. Nicholas 
Aeons, All Hallou-s Staining ; Billingsgate Ward (4), St. Botolph, St. 



-. 



Mary-at-Hill, St. Andrew Hubbard, St. George, Botolph Lane ; Bridge 
Ward (4), St. Magnus, St. Margaret, Old Fish Street, St. Leonard, Eaxt- 
cheaj), St. Benet, Gracechiirch ; Candlewick Ward (5), St. Clement, 
Eastcheap, St. Mary Abchurch, St. Michael, Crooked Lane, St. Martin 
Orgar,St. Lawrence Pountney ; Walbrook Ward (5), St. Swithin, London 
Stone, St. Mary Woolchitrch Hair, St. Stephen, Walbrook, St. John- 
the-Baptist, St. Mary Botha w ; Dowgate Ward (2), All Hallowx-the- 
Great, All Hallows-the-Lesx ; Vintry Ward (4), St. Michael Royal, St. 
Martin Vintry, St. Thomas-tJie- Apostle, St. James, Garlickhithe ; Cord- 
wainers' Ward (3), St. Antholin, St. Mary Aldermary, St. Mary-le- 
Bow ; Cheap Ward (7), St. Benet Shereog, St. Pancras, St. Mildred, 
Poultry, St. Mary Colechnrch, All H allows, Honey Lane, St. Lawrence, 
Jewry, St. Martin Ponieroy; Coleman Street Ward (8), St. Glare, Jewry, 
St. Margaret, Lothbury, St. Stephen, Coleman Street ; Bassisshaw 
Ward (1) St. Michael Baxsisshair ; Cripplegate Ward (7), St. Michael, 
Wood Street, St. Giles, St. Alban, St. Mary Aldermanbury, St. 
Alphege, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Bartholomew ; Aldersgate Ward (6), 
St. Mary 'Staining, St^ John Zachary, St. Ola re, Silver Street, St. 
Leonard Foster, St. Ann Agnes, St. Botolph, Aldersgate. 

Farringdon Within (10), St. Ann, Blackfrians, St. Paul's Cathedral, 
St. Peter, Wextcheap, St. Vedast, Christ Church, St. Augustine, St. 
Matthew, Friday Street, St. Michael-le-Qnerne, St. Faith, St. Martin, 
Ludgate ; Bread Street Ward (4), All Hallows, Bread Street, St. 
Mildred, St. John-the-Evangelist, St. Margaret Moses ; Queenhithe 
Ward (7), Holy Trinity, St. Nicholas, Cole Abbey, St. Nicholas Olave, 
St. Mary Somerset, St. Mary, Monnthaw, St. Peter, Paul's Wharf, 
St. Michael, Queenhithe; Castle Baynard Ward (4), St. Gregory, 
St. Benet, Paul's Wharf, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Andrew-by-the- 
Wardrobe. 

Farringdon Without (8), St. Sepulchre, S. Andrew, Holborn, 
St. Dunstan-in-the-West, St. Bartholomew-the- Great, St. Bar- 
tholomew-the-Less, St. Bride, The Temple, Holy Trinity, Gough 
Square. 

Total number of churches 118 ; now standing 58 ; destroyed 60. 

In addition to these there were in old London thirteen greater 
conventual churches. The old chronicler, Fitz Stephen, makes this 
remark : " I do not think there is a city in the world that has more 
praiseworthy customs in the frequenting church, respecting services, 



8 

keeping feast days, giving alms, betrothing, marrying, burying 
religiously." 

The list of rectors of these churches is not given in a complete 
form in these pages, the changes being so numerous that to give them 
all would have increased the size of the work too much. Those names 
are principally given concerning whom a few particulars can be gleaned, 
or who remained longest in their cures, this information being taken 
from the " Novum Repertorium Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londinense," 
by the Eev. Geo. Hennessy. 

In the Guildhall Library there is a pamphlet with the following 
title and contents : 

" A General Bill of the Mortality of the Clergy of London in a 
Brief Martyrology and Catalogue of the Learned, Grave and Painfull 
Ministers of the City of London, who have been Imprisoned, Plun- 
dered, and Barbarously Used, and deprived of all livelihood for them- 
selves and their Families in the late Kebellion, for their Constancy in 
the Protestant Eeligion established in this Kingdom, and their Loyalty 
to their King under that grand Persecution by the Presbyterians. 

" London : Printed against St. Bartholomew's, December, 
1662. 

" A General Bill of the Mortality of the Clergy of London," &c. 

The Cathedral Church of St. Paul's the Dean, Residentiaries, and 
other members of the Church sequestered, plundered and turn'd out. 

St. All Hallows, Wood Street. Dr. Watts sequestered, plundered, 
his wife and children turned out of doors, and himself forced to fly. 

St. All Hallows Barking. Dr. Lafield pursuyvanted, imprison'd 
in Ely House and the ships, sequestered, and plundered, afterwards 
forc'd to fly. 

St. All Hallows, Lombard Street. Mr. Weston sequestered. 

St. Alphege. Dr. Halse shamefully abused, his cap pulled off 
to see if he were not a shaven priest, voted out, and died with grief. 

St. Andrew Hubbard. Dr. Chambers sequestered. 

St. Andrew Undershaft. Mr. Mason, through vexation, forced 
to resign. Mr. Pritchard, after that, sequestered. 

St. Andrew, Wardrobe. Dr. Jackson sequestered. 

St. Anne, Aldersgate. Dr. Clewel sequestered. 

St. Austin. Mr. Udall sequestered ; his bed-rid wife turned out 
of doors, and left in the street. 



St. Bartholomew, Exchange. Dr. Grant sequestered. 

St. Bennet Fink.- Mr. Warfield sequestered. 

St. Bennet Gracechurch. Mr. Quelsh sequestered. 

St. Bennet, Paul's Wharfe. Mr. Adams sequestered. 

St. Bennet Shereog. Mr. Morgan died with grief. 

St. Botolph, Billingsgate. Mr. King sequestered and forc'd to 

fly. 

Christ Church. Mr. Finch turn'd out and died. 

St. Christopher. Mr. Hantlow forc'd to resign. 

St. Clement, Eastcheap. Mr. Stone shamefully abused, seques- 
tered, sent prisoner to Plimouth, and plundered. 

St. Dionys Back church. Mr. Hume sequestered and abused. 

St. Dunstan's, East. Mr. Childerly reviled, abused, and died. 

St. Edmonds, Lombard Street. Mr. Paget molested, silenced, 
and died. 

St. Ethelborough. Mr. Clark sequestered, imprisoned. 

St. Faith's. Dr. Brown sequestered and died. 

St. Foster's. Mr. Batty sequestered, plundered, forc'd to fly, and 
died. 

St. Gabriell, Fenchurch. Mr. Cook sequestered. 

St. George, Botolph Lane, St. Gregorie's by St. Paul. Dr. Styles 
forc'd to resign. 

St. Hellen. Mr. Milward turn'd out and died. 

St. James, Duke's Place. Mr. sequestered. 

St. James, Garlickhythe. Mr. Freeman plundered and sequestered ; 
Mr. Anthony, his curate, turn'd out. 

St. John Baptist. Mr. Wemys sequestered. 

St. John Zachary. Mr. Collins sequestered, forc'd to fly, and 
plundered. 

St. Catharine Coleman. Dr. Hill forc'd to resign ; Mr. Kilbute 
sequestered. 

St. Catharine, Cree Church. Mr. Eees turn'd out. 

St. Lawrence, Jewry. Mr. Crane sequestered. 

St. Leonard, Eastcheap. Mr. Calse forc'd to give up to Roborrow, 
Scribe to the Assembly. 

St. Leonard, Foster Lane. Mr. Ward forc'd to fly, plundered, 
sequestered, and died for want of necessaries. 

St. Margaret, Lothbury. Mr. Tabor plundered, imprisoned in the 



5 

King's Bench, his wife and children sent out of doors at midnight, 
and he sequestered. 

St. Mary Aldermary. Mr. Brown forc'd to forsake it. 

St. Mary-le-Bow. Mr. Finch sequestered and died with grief. 

St. Mary Bothaw. Mr. Proctor forc'd to fly and sequestered. 

St. Mary Hill. Dr. Barker sequestered, pursuyvanted, and 
imprisoned ; Mr. Woodcock turned out and forced to fly. 

St. Mary, Mounthaw. Mr. Thrall sequestered and shamefully 
abused. 

St. Mary Somerset. Mr. Cook sequestered. 

St. Mary Woolchurch. Mr. Tireman forc'd to forsake it. 

St. Mary Woolnoth. Mr. Towne molested and vex'd to death, 
and denyed a funeral sermon to be preached by Mr. Holdsworth, as he 
desired. 

St. Martin, Ironmonger Lane. Mr. Sparks sequestered and 
plundered. 

St. Martin, Ludgate. Dr. Jermin sequestered. 

St. Martin Orgars. Dr. Walton assaulted, sequestered, plundered, 
forc'd to fly ; Mr. Morse, his curate, turn'd out. 

St. Martin Outwich. Dr. Peirce sequestered and died. 

St. Martin Vintry. Dr. Eyves sequestered, plundered, and forc'd 
to fly. 

St. Matthew, Friday Street. Mr. Chaplin violently assaulted in 
his house, imprisoned in the Compter, then sent to Colchester Gaol, 
Essex, sequestered and plundered. 

St. Maudlin, Milk Street. Mr. Jones sequestered. 

St. Maudlin, Old Fish Street. Dr. Griffiths sequestered, plundered, 
and imprisoned in Newgate, when being let out he was forc'd to fly, 
and since imprisoned again in Peterhouse. 

St. Michael, Bassishaw. Dr. Griflin sequestered. 

St. Michael, Cornhill. Dr. Brough sequestered and plundered ; 
wife and children turned out of doors ; his wife died with grief; Mr. 
Wild, his curate, assaulted, beaten in the church, and turned out. 

St. Michael, Queenhithe. Mr. Hill sequestered. 

St. Michael Querne. Mr. Lawrence sequestered. 

St. Michael Royall. Mr. Procter sequestered and forc'd to fly. 

St. Mildred, Bread Street. Mr. Bradshaw sequestered. 



St. Mildred, Poultry. Mr. Maden sequestered and gone beyond 
sea. 

St. Nicholas Aeons. Mr. Bennett sequestered. 

St. Nicholas at Cole Abbey. Mr. Whitald sequestered. 

St. Nicholas Olaves. Dr. Cheshire molested and forc'd to resign. 

St. Olave's, Hart Street. Mr. Haines sequestered. 

St. Olave's, Jewry. Mr. Tuke sequestered, plundered, and im- 
prisoned. 

St. Olave's, Silver Street. Dr. Boone abused and died with grief. 

St. Pancrasse, Soper Lane. Mr. Ecop sequestered, plundered, and 
forced to fly ; wife and children turn'd out of doors. 

St. Peter, Cheapside. Mr. Yochins sequestered and died with 
grief. 

St. Peter, Cornhill. Dr. Fairfax, sequestered, plundered, and im- 
prisoned in Ely House and the ships ; his wife and children turn'd 
out of doors. 

St. Peter's, Paul's Wharf. Mr. Marbury sequestered. 

St. Peter's Poor. Dr. Holdsworth sequestered, plundered, im- 
prisoned in Ely House, then in the Tower. 

St. Stephen, Walbrook. Dr. Howell, through vexation, forc'd to fly. 

St. Swithin. Mr. Owen sequestered. 

St. Thomas Apostle. Mr. Cooper sequestered, plundered, and sent 
prisoner to Leeds Castle, in Kent, and died with grief. 

Trinity Parish. Mr. Harrison sequestered. 

In the ninety-seven parishes within the walls, besides St. Paul's : 
ousted, 85 ; died 16." 

The following is a List of " Ministers of the Gospell " who signed 
" A serious and faithfull Representation of the Judgement within the 
Province of London, contained in a letter from them to the Generall 
and the Councill of War, January 18th, 1648." 

" George Walker, Pastor of John Evangelist ; Henry Bobrough, 
Pastor of Leonard, Eastcheap ; Nicholas Profit, Member of the Ward 
at Foster's ; Thomas Case, Minister of Maudlin, Milk Street ; James 
Walton, Pastor of Leonard, Foster Lane ; Matthew Haviland, Minister 
of Trinity ; Francis Peck, Pastor of Nicholas Aeons ; William 
Withkins, Pastor of Andrew Hubbard ; Nathaniel Staniforth, Minister 
of Mary Bothaw : Thomas Whately, Pastor of Mary Woolchurch ; Ben 
Needier, Pastor of Margaret Moses." 



With regard to the various and, in many cases, singular additions 
to the names of City churches, there can be no doubt, as a writer 
well observes, that " a large number of them were built like Orgar's 
and Sherehog's about the same period by the lords of manors, sokes 
or wards within the City." Such names as St. Benet Fink, St. 
Nicholas Aeons, St. Andrew Hubbard, St. Lawrence Pountney, St. 
Catharine Coleman, St. Margaret Moses, St. Mary Mounthaw, St. 
Mary Somerset, and St. Nicholas Olave, all evidently point to the 
foundations of private benefactors, and there are many instances in 
the following pages where these founders are well-known historical 
characters. In some cases, as is shewn by the records, the founders 
themselves were the first incumbents, and left endowments to their 
sons. 

Mr. Green, writing in his history, as to the groups of churches 
in the City, says : "It is to Erkenwald and his immediate successors 
that we must attribute the little ring of churches and parishes such 
as St. Augustin, St. Faith, St. Benet, St. Gregory, St. Martin, which 
show a growth of population round the precincts of the minster." 

For the same reason, no doubt, the influence of the Port of 
Billingsgate must have had the effect of more thickly peopling that 
part of the City, and no doubt accounts for the group of churches 
which once stood in the immediate neighbourhood St. Botolph, St. 
George, St. Andrew, St. Magnus, St. Mary Magdalene ; whereas, 
going further eastward, as Mr. Green observes, " the bulk of the area 
is divided between the parishes of St. Dunstan, St. Olave, and All 
Hallows Barking." 

In 1642, the title of " Saint " in the weekly Bills of Mortality 
" was commanded by the authority then prevailing to be expunged for 
the future. The Blessed Virgin Mary, the Holy Apostles, nay (and 
our Saviour Himself nor the Holy Trinity spared), whom no Christian 
dare deny to be Holy Saints in Heaven, so were they unhallowed and 
unsainted. This divorcing of the parishes from their Saints in the 
said Bills continued until the year 1660, when at the Eestoration of 
Charles the II. they were again restored, and so it hath continued " 
(Seymour's, London?) 

The system of " Chantries " will appear so often in these pages 
that it will be well to give a short explanation of these institutions, 
which evidently occupied so important a place in connection with 



8 

the Churches of the old City. This explanation cannot be better 
given than by a short extract on the subject from "Blunt's History 
of the Reformation." 

He says: "By piteous pleas, the charity of the living for the 

dead was excited, and men and women of all degrees paid money to 

the clergy for 'praying the souls' of their deceased friends or 

relatives out of Purgatory as regularly as they paid the sexton for 

the burial of their bodies. The intercession thus bought was 

offered by means of the Holy Eucharist, or Mass, which had of course 

from the most primitive times been considered to benefit, though in 

some unknown way, the living as well as the dead. The Holy 

Eucharist thus came to be celebrated as a sacrifice for the benefit of 

the souls in Purgatory more frequently than as the thanksgiving sacrifice 

and Communion of the church militant. An order of clergy arose 

whose sole work was that of offering it up with this object, and 

' chantries ' were added to churches or enclosed by screens within them 

for the erection of altars at which these ' chantry priests ' might officiate." 

At this early period, when the means of acquiring knowledge were 

so scanty, and books so few and precious, we gather now and then a 

little insight into the pains that were taken by those who possessed 

them that every care should be taken for their preservation. In Dr. 

Sharpe's Calendar of Wills, an interesting will is given of the Rector 

of " St. Dunstan-toward-the-Tower " (John de Kenyngton), dated 

1374, who, among other bequests, leaves a precious book, one evidently 

which he highly prized. The words are these : " To S. Paul's Church 

he leaves his book called Catholicon (Dr. Sharpe explains this as the 

Eastern name for the collected Epistles) to be preserved in a case 

where most convenient, with a notice in large characters upon the 

same, requesting any one reading the book for the purpose of study to 

devoutly repeat some prayer for the benefit of the souls of John de 

Kenyngton and John de Brampton, clerks, and their benefactors. And 

whereas he had entered into a covenant to leave the said book to the 

college of priests in St. Paul's, under penalty of sixty shillings, he 

desires that the said sum be paid to the college in satisfaction, and 

that the book be placed in the said church as aforesaid for public use " ; 

also William Kyng (Draper) leaves to the Rector and Parishioners 

of St. James de Garlikhithe his book called 'le Bible, 'which he wishes 

placed for use in the said church, and to be fastened with chains like 



9 

the book before the Image of St. Mary in St. Paul's, to prevent their 
removal." 

George Bancroft, a clergyman of the Church of England, writing 
in 1548, speaks in bitter terms of the " Popish Mass." He says that 
he has "for the edifying of his dear brethren in Christ, and for the 
prevention of their deception by crafty connivance, translated into the 
English tongue ' Responsio Predicatorium EasUensium Indiapensorium 
recttc Adminixtrationis Catiiw: Dominica 1 .' The preface is dedicated to 
the right worshipful and his ' singular good master, Silvester Butler,' 
and wishes him ' prosperitye and healthe both of bodye and soule.' 
The book speaks of the Church of Koine as ' devilles apes,' ' beastly 
bishops of Babylon,' and ' maskynge masse priestes.' " The title of the 
book is " The Answer that the Preacher of the Gospel at Basile made 
for the defence of the true administration and use of the Holy Supper 
of our Lord Agaynst the abhomination of the popishe Masse." 1548. 

There is no doubt but that at this period the state of affairs in 
the Church was at a very low ebb. 

Bishop Jewell, writing to a friend on a visitation he made to the 
Southern Province 1559, says: "We found everywhere the people 
sufficiently well disposed towards religion, and even in those parts 
where we expected most difficulty. It is, however, hardly credible 
what a harvest or rather what a wilderness of superstition had sprung 
up in the darkness of the Marian times. We found in all places votive 
relics of saints, nails with which the infatuated people dreamed that 
Christ had been pierced, and I know not what small fragments of the 
Cross. The number of witches and sorceresses had everywhere become 
numerous. The cathedral churches were nothing else but dens of 
thieves or worse, if anything worse or more foul can be mentioned." 

Archbishop Parker, in a paper which he laid before Queen 
Elizabeth in 1562, draws her attention to various irregularities in the 
Church with which he required power to deal. He says : " Some 
perform the divine service in the chancel, some in the body of the 
church, some in a seat, some in a pulpit, with their faces to the people, 
some keep to the order of the book, some intermix psalms in metre, 
some say in a surplice, some without one. The form and situation of 
the communion table was a frequent scandal. In some places the 
table stands in the body of the church, in some places it stands altar- 
wise ; in others in the middle of the chancel, placed north and south ; 



10 

in some places the table is joined ; in others it stands upon tressells, 
sometimes covered with a cloth ; in others a naked board. The 
Administration of the Lord's supper was no less irregular. Some 
administer the communion with surplice and cap, some with surplice 
alone, others with none ; some with unleavened bread and some with 
leavened bread ; some receive kneeling, others standing, others sitting. 
Baptism was variously administered. Some baptise in a font, some in 
a bason ; some sign with the sign of the cross, others sign not ; some 
minister in a surplice, others without ; some with a square cap, some 
with a round cap, some with a button cap, some with a hat, some in 
scholars' clothes, some in others." 

In another place the good Bishop writes as to the sad state of 
affairs in the Church at this time : " The masters of the work build 
benefice upon benefice, and deanery upon deanery, as though none 
were yet in England. The poor flock is given over to the wolf ; the 
poor crie out daily for bread the bread of life, and there is no man 
to break it for them. The noblemen and gentlemen, patrons of 
benifices, give their presentations either to the farmers themselves 
or else with exemptions of their own tithe, or with some other con- 
dition that is worse than this. The poor minister must keep his 
house, buy his books, relieve the poor, and live God knows how." 

In the " Life of Bishop Aylmer," by John Strype, we gather the 
worthy Bishop's opinions as to the Puritan. Strype says : " In the 
year 1577, the Bishop met with several persons of a contrary way to 
Papists, of whom he informed the Lord Treasurer that, in respect of 
their hindering unity and quietness, they were not much less hurtful 
than they, namely : Chark, Chapman, Field and Wilens. These he 
had before him ; the two former he had some hopes of, but the two 
latter showed themselves obstuiate, and especially Field, who, notwith- 
standing the Bishop's inhibition had entered into great houses and 
taught, as he said, God knows what. His advice concerning these 
men was that they might be profitably employed in Lancashire, 
Staffordshire, Shropshire, and such other like barbarous countrys to 1 
draw the people from Papism and gross ignorance." 

Bushworth, in his " Historical Collections," gives some 
" Directions concerning Preachers," which were issued by the King in 
1622, of which the following is an extract : " That no parson, vicar, 

* " Life of Archbishop Parker." STRYPE. 



11 

curate, or lecturer shall preach any sermon or collation hereafter upon 
Sundays or Hollidays in the afternoon in any cathedral or parish 
church throughout the kingdom, but upon some part of the catechism, 
or some text taken out of the Creed, Ten Commandments, or the 
Lord's Prayer (funeral sermons only excepted), and that those 
preachers be most approved of who spend the afternoon exercise in the 
examination of children in their Catechism, which is the most ancient 
and laudable custom of teaching in the Church of England. 

" That no preacher of what title or denomination whatever, under 
the degree of Bishop or Dean at least, do from henceforth presume to 
preach in any popular auditory the deep points of predestination, 
election, reprobation, or of the universality, efficacy, resistibility, or 
irresistibility of God's grace, but leave these themes rather to be 
handled by the learned men, and moderately and modestly by way of 
use and application, rather than by way of pointed doctrine being 
fitter for the schools than for simple auditories." 

The following is an Ordinance issued by the Lord Mayor in 1629, 
" for reforming abuses on the Sabbath day." 

" Whereas, I am credibly informed that, notwithstanding good 
laws provided for the keeping of the Sabbath day according to the 
express command of Almighty God, divers inhabitants and other 
persons of this City and other places, having no respect of duty 
towards God and His Majesty or his laws, but in contempt of them all 
do commonly and of custom greatly prophane the Sabbath day in 
buying, selling, letting, and vending their wares and commodities upon 
that day for their private gain. All inn-holders suffering markets to 
be kept by carriers in most rude and prophane manner, or selling 
victuals to hucksters, chandlers, or other comers; also carriers, carmen, 
clothworkers, water-bearers, or porters, carrying of burdens, and 
watermen plying their fares, and divers others working in their calling ; 
and likewise I am further informed that vintners, ale-house keepers, 
tobacco and strong water dealers greatly prophane the Sabbath day by 
suffering company to sit drinking, bibbing in their houses on that day, 
and likewise divers by cursing and swearing and such like behaviour, 
contrary to the express Commandment of Almighty God, His 
Majesty's laws in that behalf, and all good government. For the 
reformation thereof I do hereby require, and in His Majesty's name 
strictly command all His Majesty's living subjects whatever, and also 



12 

all constables, headboroughs, beadles, and all other officers whatsoever, 
to be aiding and assisting the bearer hereof in finding out and appre- 
hending all and every such person or persons as shall be found to 
offend in any of these kinds, and then to bring before me or some 
other of His Majesty's justices to answer for all such matters as shall 
be brought against them, and to answer for their good behaviour. 

" EICHARD DEANK, Mayor." 

The poet Milton, writing about 1680, has left us the following 
scathing lines on the Arminian clergy, who were at this period 
beginning to assert their opinions : 

" . . . . Such as for their bellies' sake 
Creep and intrude and climb into the fold ; 
Of other care they little reckoning make 
Than how to scramble at the shearer's feast, 
And shove away the worthy bidden guest. 
Blind mouths that scarce themselves know how to tell 
A sheep hook, or have learnt aught the least 
That to the faithful herdsman's art belongs." 

In 1638, complaints were made to the Chief Justices as to 
" Revels," " Church-Ales," &c. Dr. Prince, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
gives an account of them and the great good which in his opinion they 
did by promoting benevolence and good feeling. " After church the 
people went to their sports and pastimes in the church yard, or in 
some other public house, where they made money. Under the in- 
fluence of beer their liberality expanded and they collected money for 
such objects as re-casting the church bells, called ' church-ales ' ; 
mauling the parish clerk, called clerk-ales ' ; setting up a poor 
parishioner, called a ' bid-ale.' " 

On the 23rd June, 1640, the House of Commons ordered that 
" Commissions be sent into all counties for the defacing, demolition, 
and quite taking away of all images, altars, or tables turned altarwise, 
crucifixes, superstitious pictures, monuments, and relics of idolatry out 
of all churches or chapels." 

Hall, Bishop of Norwich, 1644, gives a most graphic account of 
the scene in his cathedral at this time. He says : " It is no other 
than tragical to relate the carnage of that furious sacrilege, whereof 
our eyes and ears are the sad witnesses. Lord ! What work is here ! 



13 

What clattering of glass ! What tearing down of walls ! What tearing 
up of monuments ! What pulling down of seats ! What twisting out 
of irons and bars from the windows and graves ! What defacing of 
arms ! What demolition of curious stone work that had not any 
reputation in the world, hut only of the cast of the founder and skill 
of the mason ! What tooting and piping upon the destroyed organ 
pipes ! And what a hideous triumph on the market day before all the 
county, when, in a kind of sacrilegious and profane procession, all the 
organ pipes, vestments, both copes and surplices, together with the 
leaden cross, had been newly sawn down from over the greenyard 
Pulpit, and the service books, and the singing books that could be 
had were carried to the fire in the market place. * 

In connection with this part of our subject we have " The Journal 
of William Dowsing, of Stratford, Parliamentary Visitor, appointed 
under a warrant from the Earl of Manchester for demolishing the 
Superstitious Pictures and Ornaments in Churches within the County 
of Suffolk, 1643-44," first printed in 1786. The following is a copy 
of the warrant: "A Commission from the Earl of Manchester. 
Whereas, by an Ordinance of the Lords and Commons assembled in 
Parliament bearing date the 28th day of August last, it is amongst 
other things ordained that all crucifixes, crosses, and all images of any 
one or more persons of the Trinity or Virgin Mary, and all other 
images and pictures of Saints and superstitious inscriptions in or upon 
all and every the said churches or chapels, or other places of public 
prayer belonging, or in any other open place, shall be taken away and 
defaced, as by the said Ordinance more at large appeareth ; and 
whereas many such crosses, crucifixes and other superstitious images 
and pictures are still continued within the associated counties in 
manifest contempt of the said ordinance, these are therefore to will 
and require you to make your repair to the several associated counties 
and put the said Ordinances into execution in every particular ; hereby 
requiring all mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, headboroughs, and all 
others of His Majesty's officers, and every subject to be aiding and 
assisting you whereof they may not fail at their peril. Given under 
my hand and seal this 19th day of December, 1643. To William 
Dowsing, Gent., and to such as he shall appoint." 

Master Dowsing was evidently a man of business and went to his 

* " Church and the Puritans." CREIGHTON. 



14 

sacrilegious work in good earnest. In his diary he tells us that on 
January 6th, 1644, at Clare, " we brake down one thousand pictures 
superstitious. Three of God the Father, three of Christ and the Holy 
Lamb, and three of the Holy Ghost, like a dove with wings, and the 
twelve Apostles were carved in wood on the top of the roof, which we 
gave orders to take down, and twenty Cherubims to be taken down, 
andrthe sun and moon in the east window, by the King's Arms, to be 
taken down." 

At Ufford, June 27th, 1644, " we brake down thirty superstitious 
pictures, and gave directions to take down thirty-seven more, and 
forty Cherubims to be taken down of wood, and the Chancel levelled. 
There was a picture of Christ on the Cross, and God the Father above 
it. I left thirty-seven superstitious pictures to be taken down, and 
took up six superstitious inscriptions in brass." 

On August 81st, 1644, this iconoclast again commenced his work 
of destruction : " Some of the thirty-seven superstitious pictures we 
had left we brake down now, in the Chancel we brake down an Angel, 
three Orare pro anima in the glass, and the Trinity in a triangle ; also 
twelve Cherubims in the roof of the Chancel, and one hundred Jemm 
Maria in capital letters, and the steps to be levelled. We brake down 
the organ cases and gave them to the poor. In the church there was 
on the roof a Crosier Staff in glass and also twenty stars to be broken. 
There is a glorious cover over the font, like a Pope's triple crown, 
with a Pelican on the top picking its breast all gilt over with gold." ::: 

The distracted state of affairs with respect to religion is forcibly 
shewn in the account of a disturbance which took place in Fleet 
Street, and is described in a pamphlet (1641) bearing this title : "The 
Discovery of a Swarm of Separatists in a Leather Seller's Shop, being a 
most true and exact relation of the tumultuous combustion in Fleet Street 
last Sabbath day, truly describing how Barebon, a Leather Seller, had 
a conventicle of Brownists at his house that day, about the number of 
one hundred and fifty, who preached there himself about five hours 
in the afternoon, shewing likewise how they were discovered, and by 
what means, as also how the constable scattered their nest, and of the 
great tumult in the street. London : Printed for John Grunsmith. 
1641." The following is an extract from the work : " At length they 
catcht one of them alone, but they kickt him so vehemently as if they 
* Notes and Queries, 2nd and 3rd Series. 



15 

meant to break him into a jelly. It is ambiguous whether they have 
kill'd him or no, but for a certainty they did knock him as if they 
meant to pull him to pieces. I confess it had been no matter if they 
had beaten the whole tribe in the like manner." 

From the life of Marshall, in Brook's " Life of the Puritans," we 
gather a little information as to the character and length of the services 
at many of the parish churches at this period (1643-44). "Dr. Tvviss, 
who was prolocutor to the Assembly of Divines, commenced the public 
service with a short prayer ; Mr. Marshall followed, and prayed with 
great power and pathos for two hours ; Mr. Arrowsmith then preached 
an hour, and a psalm was sung ; Mr. Vines now prayed nearly two 
hours ; Mr. Palmer preached an hour, and Mr. Seaman followed, and , 
preached nearly two hours ; Henderson, the great Scotch divine, then 
addressed the congregation on the evils of the times and their remedies, 
and at length Dr. Tvviss closed a service of at least nine hours' duration 
with a short prayer."* 

In 1692, was published a list of churches (now in the British 
Museum) in the City and around, in which daily prayers were said, 
also where " The Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was 
administered weekly " ; also " The Lectures in and about the City of 
London." The compiler heads his list with these remarks : " And 
now, considering the ways and methods which Satan and his 
emissaries have taken to fill HIS churches, the theatres, with 
votaries have been (not by bells, which make a great noise near hand 
and are not heard afar off, but) by silently dispensing their bills, and 
setting them up at the corners of the streets whereby they do draw 
people from all parts to their contagious assemblies. I 'was easily 
convinced of the necessity of the like undertaking for the services of 
Almighty God, and therefore would no longer excuse myself for the 
omission. These are, therefore, dearly beloved in Christ Jesus, to 
acquaint you where you may daily with the congregation of the 
faithful, assemble together in the house of prayer. Where you may 
in imitation of the Apostles of our Lord every Lord's Day partake of 
the Blessed Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. And, lastly, where 
there are any extraordinary regular lectures to be heard, for your good 
I have spared no pains for the certainty of my own information, nor 
charges in the dispensing hereof for yours ; and now know that the 

* Marsden's "History of the Later Puritans." 



16 

wilful neglect of these means will one day have a sad after reckoning, 
and that this paper will then rise up in judgement against you. If 
this paper have its desired effect, I trust Almighty God will fire the 
hearts of His faithful labourers to set up daily prayers and weekly 
Communion in many of their own churches where at present it is not. 
For the sake of such as during the whole time this is dispensing may 
happen, either by sickness, absence, or otherwise, not to come into the 
way of it, there shall be of them to be bought price one half-penny, 
which is also certain and, therefore, put into the hands but of one 
person to sell, who ever else therefore does sell them, does also print 
them, and consequently does not only rob this bookseller of his copy 
(which cost the author so much labour to perform), but the poor also 
of their just due therein, which it is hoped every Christian buyer will 
remember and consider. Sold by Samuel Kebble at the " Turk's 
Head," Fleet Street, 1692. Price one half-penny." 

The following churches in the City had daily services : 
All Hallows, Barking, 8 in ; S. Andrew, Holborn, 6, 11, 3 ; St. 
Andrew, Leadenhall Street, 6 m. ; St. Antholin, Watling Street, 6 m. ; 
St. Austin by St. Paul's School, 6 e. ; St. Bartholomew-the- Great, 
10 m. ; S. Bartholomew-the-Less, 11, 8; St. Benet, Gracechurch, 
11,3; St. Botolph, Aldgate, 7 m. ; St. Botolph, Aldersgate, 10, 8; 
St. Christopher, Threadneedle Street, 6 m., 6 e. ; St. Dionis, Lime 
Street, 8, 5 ; St. Dunstan West, 7, 10, 3 ; St. Edmund, Lombard 
Street, 11, 7; St. Lawrence, Jewry, 11, 8; St. Martin, Ludgate, 11, 3; 
St. Mary, Aldermanbury, 11 ; St. Mary-le-Bow, 8, 5 ; St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, Old Fish Street, 6 m. ; St. Mary Woolnoth, 11,5: St. Peter, 
Cornhill, 11, 4; St. Sepulchre, 7, 3; St. Stephen, Walbrook, 11, 5; 
St. Swithin, 11, 4. Lectures were given at St. Michael, Cornhill, on 
Sunday Mornings, 6. At St. Antholin, Watling Street, there was a 
lecture every morning at 6. . 

The following is the full text of the Petition of the Court of 
Common Council to the House of Peers on the subject of the City 
Meeting Houses : 

" Tue Humble Petition of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Commoners of the City of London in Common Councill assembled 
concerning Church Government. Presented to the House of Peers 
upon Fryday, the 16th day of January, 1645, Showeth, that in 



17 

November last the petitioners made in their humble request to this 
honourable house that Church Government might be settled and 
are most humbly thankfull for your favourable interpretation thereof, 
proceeding from the good intention of the Common Councill who are 
resolved according to their duty to have a tender respect to the 
privileges of Parliament, which by the liberties of the City and 
Kingdom are preserved. That in December last, at the choice of new 
Common Councillmen for the year ensuing, the inhabitants of most 
of the Wards of the City petitioned their respective aldermen in 
their wardmotes to move your petitioners to make their further 
addresse to this Honourable House of Parliament for the speedy set- 
tling of Church Government within this City and against toleration 
as by copy of one of the said petitions annexed appeareth. That 
private meetings, especially on the Lord's day (of which there are at 
least eleven in one parish) are multiplyed, whereby the publique con- 
gregations, ordinances, and godly orthodox Ministers are very much 
neglected and contemned, as if they were Anti-Christian, and our 
present times are like the primitive persecutions, or as if we were 
still under the tyranny of the Prelatical Government, and by reason 
of such meetings, and the preaching of women and other ignorant 
persons, superstition, heresie, schisme and profanenesse are much 
increased, families divided, and such blasphemies, as the petitioners 
tremble to thinke on, uttered, to the high dishonour of Almighty God. 
That the petitioners are informed that divers persons have an intention 
to petition this Honourable House for the toleration of such doctrines 
as are against our covenant under the notion of liberty of conscience. 
The petitioners, therefore, having no power of themselves to suppresse 
or overcome these growing evils, doe, according to their covenant, 
reveale and make the same knowne to this Honourable House, and 
for timely provision and removall thereof, doe hereby praye that the 
premisses might be taken into your most consideration, and that 
Church Government may speedily be settled according to our most 
solemn covenant with the most High God, in such manner and forme 
as to your wisdomes shall seeme most agreeable thereunto, before we 
be destroyed one by another through rents and divisions. And that 
no toleration be granted either of Popery, prelacy, superstition, 
heresie, schisme, prophanesse, or of anything contrary to sound 
doctrine and the power of Godlinesse, and that all private meetings 



18 

contrary to the said covenant (the rather in regard of the said effects 
thereof) be restrained. "* 

And your Petitioners, &c., 

" MICHELL." 

In the twelve years from 1688 to 1700, Dissenters had taken out 
licences for no fewer than 2418 places of worship. De Foe, who knew 
as much, if not more, of their condition than any other man, reckoned 
their number at this period at no fewer than ten millions, and at the 
same time states that they were the most numerous and the wealthiest 
section in the kingdom ; but it is almost impossible to accept this 
statement. I 

A broadsheet in the British Museum contains the following : 

" A List of the Conventicles or Unlawful Meetings within the 
City of London, and Bills of Mortality, with the places where they are 
to be found, as also the names of divers of the preachers and the 
several Factions they profess. To the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of 
the City of London and to the Bight Worshipful the Recorder and 
Aldermen of the said City, the Churchwardens, Overseers of the Poor 
and all other Officers and Ministers of the Peace, the perusal of the 
following List of Unlawful Conventicles is humbly printed 

" Leadenhall Street, near Creed Church Independent. Bishops- 
gate Street Within, Crosby House Presbyterian. Bishopsgate Street 
Without, Devonshire Buildings Independent. A Quaker Meeting at 
the same house. Meeting House Alley, near Bishopsgate Church 
Anabaptist. A Meeting House in Petit France Independent. Pin- 
makers' Hall, near Broad Street Presbyterian. Near All Hallows- 
the-Wall, Independent. White's Alley in Little Moorfields Presby- 
terian. Another in the same alley Independent. Ropemakers' 
Alley, near White's Alley Presbyterian. Lorriners' Hall, near the 
Postern, between Moorgate and Cripplegate Presbyterian. Between 
White Cross and Red Cross Street, near the Peacock Brewhouse 
Independent. Paul's Alley in Red Cross Street, at the Old Play 
House Anabaptist. Beech Lane, at Glovers' Hall Presbyterian. 
In the same lane, near it Independent. Jewin Street the same. 
Westmoreland House, Aldersgate Street the same. Bartholomew 

* This Petition is referred to later on in the portion of this work relating to 
Chapels. 

t " History of the Free Churches," SKEATS. 



19 

Close Presbyterian. St. Martin's-le-Grand, Bull and Mouth 
Quakers. Embroyderers' Hall Presbyterian. Near Cripplegate the 
same. Stayning Lane the same. High Wall, near St. Sepulchre 
the same. Cow Lane, in a Schoolhouse Independent. Stone Cutter 
Street, near the Fleet Ditch Presbyterian. Wine Office Court, Fleet 
Street Independent. Goldsmith Court in Fetter Lane Presbyterian. 
Blackfryers, near the King's Printing House Scotch Presbyterian. 
Another near the same. Broken Wharfe, George Yard Anabaptist. 
Three Cranes in Thames Street, near Dowgate, over stables Presby- 
terian. Joyners' Hall, near Dowgate Independent. Ayner Yard, 
in Dowgate Hill Anabaptist. Bell Inn, in Walbrook Presbyterian. 
Exchange Alley, at a coffee house Independent. Bartholomew Lane, 
by the Exchange Presbyterian. Freeman's Yard, near the Ex- 
change the same. Gracechurch Street Quakers. 
" London. Printed by Nat Thompson. 1688." 
Sir Humphrey Edwin, who was Lord Mayor, 1697, was a strong 
Nonconformist. Soon after his admission to the office, he gave great 
offence by attending public worship at a conventicle on two Sundays 
in full state. A meeting of the Court of Aldermen was held to consider 
a complaint from the sword bearer against the Lord Mayor for com- 
pelling his attendance on the occasion when the Lord Mayor was 
deserted by all his officials except the sword bearer, whom one of the 
chapel officials had locked in a pew. The Court took notice that the 
Lord Mayor had " for two Lord's Dayes past, in the afternoon, gone 
to private meetings with the sword," whereupon his Lordship 
promised to forbear the practice for the future. Edwin had, on his 
election, received the Sacrament, according to custom and in accordance 
with the rules of the Church of England. His friend, De Foe, took 
him very seriously to task for so doing, charging him with having 
" played Bo-Peep with God Almighty." 

The first edition of Sternhold's and Hopkins' Psalter was 
published in 1549, with the following title: "All such Psalms of 
David as Tho. Sternhold, late groom of the King's Majesty's robes, 
did in his lifetime draw into English metre." This work was 
published by Edward Whitchurch, Oxford, and dedicated to 
Edward VI. In this dedication the compiler says : " Seeying that 
youre tender and godly zeale doth more delyghte in the holye songes 
of veritie than in anye feygned rimes of vanitie, I am encouraged to 



20 

travayle further in the sayd booke of Psalms, trustyng that as youre 
grace taketh pleasure to heare them sunge sometymes of me, so ye 
wyll also delighte not onlye to see and reade them yourselfe but also 
to commande them to be sange to you of others." 

The following is the First Psalm as it originally appeared from 
the pen of the compiler : 

The man is blest that hath not gone 

By wicked rode astraye ; 
He sate in chayre of penitence, 

Nor walked in sinners' waye ; 

But in the lawe of God, the Lorde, 

Doth sette his whole delyght, 
And in that lawe doth exercise 

Hymselfe, both daye and night. 

And as the tree that planted is 

Faste by the river side; 
E'en so shall he bring foorth his fruite 

In his due time and tide. 

His leafe shall never fall awaie, 

But flourishe still and stande ; 
Eche thing shall prosper wondrious well 

That he doth take in hande. 

So shall not the ungodlie doe 

They shall be nothyng so; 
But as the duste which from the earth 

The windes dryve to and fro. 

Therefore shall not the wicked man 

In judgemente stande uprighte ; 
Nor yet in conseill of the juste, 

But shall be voide of might. 

For, why ? the waye of godlie men 

Unto the Lorde is knowne ; 
And eke, the waye of wicked men 

Shall quite be overstrowne. 



21 

There is also in the Library of St. Paul's Cathedral a selection 
of hymns, with the following title : " Canticc Sacra, or the Hymns 
and Songs of the Church, being a Collection of these Parables of Holy 
Scripture which either have been or may be as properly sung as the 
Psalmes, together with other of the Ancient Songs usually sung in the 
Church of England, faithfully and briefly translated into lyritic verse, 
fitting the use and capacitie of the vulgar, and dedicated to the King's 
most excellente Majestie. By George Withers. London, 1023." 



The following, among many other authorities, have been referred 
to in this work : 

BROOKS." History of the Puritans." 

CALAMY. " Ejected Ministers." 

COOPER. " Athene Cantab." 

" Dictionary of National Biography." 

FOSTER. " Alumni Oxon." 

HENNESSY. " Nnnim Repertorium Ecclesiasticum." 

HEYLIN. " History of the Reformation." 

NEAL. " History of the Puritans." 

NEWCOURT. " Repertorium" 

PALMER. " Nonconformists' Memorial Report." 

" Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts." 

RILEY. " Memorials of London Life." 

SHARPE, DR. " Calendar of Wills." 

STOUGHTON. " Church of the Commonwealth." 

STOW. " Survey of London." 

WALKER. " Sufferings of the Clergy." 

WEEVER. " Ancient Funeral Monuments." 

WILSON." History of Dissenting Churches." 

WOOD. " General Baptists." 

WOOD. " Athente Oxon." 



HU Ifoallows, Ibones Xane. 

This was a small church situate on the present site of Honey 
Lane Market, Cheapside, the ground being until recently occupied by 
the City of London School previous to its removal to the Thames 
Embankment. The Lane, according to Stow, was " very narrow and 
somewhat dark, near the ' Standard ' in Chepe, and a place not so 
called for its sweetness." 

In old records the name is written " Huni Lane." Thus in a 
deed of the reign of Edward I. : " John Bucointe gives to Hubert 
Antiocha all his lands in Huni Lane, provided that Hubert shall not 
convey the premises to the Church or to a Jew without his 
permission." 

There was a parsonage house, the site of which was sold to the 
Corporation in 1687 for 120. 

There were not any monuments of note in the church, which was 
repaired at the cost of the parishioners, 1625. 

A little information can be gained as to the church from the 
following entries : 

1612. Margaret Spatche was buried close to a pillar in the 
cloisters, and is said to have been the first person buried there. 

1616. Arthur Coleby, merchant, was buried at the upper end of 
the cloister between the east wall and the uppermost pillar. 

1307. Emma de Honilane left a tenement in the parish to 
maintain a waxlight in the church on Sundays and Festivals. 

The value of the living was small in 1636. The yearly profits 
were returned as follows : " Tythes, 40 ; Casualtyes, 4 ; Glebe, 13 " 
(Newcourt). 

1360. -William de Machford left to the church, to the parish 
chaplain, and to his children, cups of silver and of mazer, four best 
shears, his feather beds, a brass pot and basin. 

1861. John de Bowynden, apothecary, by his will desired to be 
buried in the churchyard and under the same stone as Marjory, his 
late wife, his corpse to be covered with a cover of russett white on the 
bier, and five round tapers, each of six pounds of wax, to burn around 
him, six poor persons to be clothed in coats and hoods of russett, and 
each to hold a torch, of nine pounds of wax, around his corpse. He 



28 

also left to the church his priest vestments and chalice, two cruets and 
towels ; also money for chantries. 

John Norman, draper, who was Mayor in 1353, and was buried 
in the church, gave to the Drapers' Company his tenement near the 
church, to pay 13s. 4d. yearly for the support of a beam light, and 
also for a lamp to hang in the lane leading to the " ' Standard ' in 
Chepe." 

This Mayor was the first who was rowed to Westminster by water 
in order to take the oath. He had a' barge built for the purpose. The 
Companies also had smaller ones built, in order to accompany him. In 
his honour the watermen made a song, beginning with the words 
" Row thy boat, Norman," &c. 

RECTORS. 

1327. Simon de Crapping, a citizen, presented William de 
Coventre. 1328 John de Clukeron, died 1357. John English, 1362 
1373. John Poynders, 13851395, Richard Jepp, 13981429. 
Thomas Trumpyngton, haberdasher, left to this Rector and Church- 
wardens a tenement in the parish of St. James, Garlickhithe, to main- 
tain a chantry and for the ornaments of the church. Richard Oppey, 
14291463. Henry Hoddes, 14711476. Edward Supron, 1476 
1479. John Young, D.D., New College, Oxford, 15101526. He 
was also Rector of St. Christopher-le- Stock, St. Magnus-the-Martyr, 
and Archdeacon of London. Buried in the Chapel of New College, 
under a marble stone that he had laid there before his death. 

Robert Freeman, 1527, was cited to appear before the Bishop, 
and was charged that "forasmuch as he had despised the con- 
demnation of Martin Luther, and had kept in his possession the 
books and works of the said Martin Luther, by which he was mingled 
in the sentence of excommunication by the authority of Pope Leo X., 
of happy memory, and for other just and lawful causes, the said 
Father inhibited and interdicted the said Freeman that hereafter he 
should not celebrate Mass nor preach publicly before the people until 
he should otherwise be dispensed with, under the pain of law." 

Thomas Garrett, " Curate," 1527, " a forward and busy 
Lutheran," was afterwards presented to the living. He was a member 
of a strong anti-church party, which, at this time, came into existence 
under the name of " The Christian Brethren." Books were circulated 



24 

by them, in which the principles and practices of the Church were 
strongly denounced. These books were afterwards forbidden by the 
King and the Pope. Garrett went down to Oxford to disseminate his 
opinions, " whereby many in that university were enlightened in the 
truth of religion." He was taken before Wolsey, who imprisoned 
him for a time and then dismissed him, " after a ready abjuration." 
In connection with this "abjuration," the " Greyfriars Chronicle" 
has the following : 1540. Also this same yer at St. Mary bpittell, 
the iij dayes in Ester weke preched the vicar of Stepney, one Jerome, 
doctor Barnes the ij ed daye ; and the iij ed Gerrard, parsonne of Hony 
lane ; and these recantyd, and askyd the peopell forgiveness for that 
they had preched before contrary to the lawe of God." 

Garratt was subsequently burnt at the stake about 1540. 

Dr. Cooke, " Parson," 1537. Of this gentleman we read in 
" Fabyan's Chronicle " that in 1537 " one Andrew Hewitt, and Master 
Frith were burnt at Smithfield at one stake, and that Dr. Cooke, who 
was Master of the Temple, willed the people to pray no more for 
them than they would pray for dogges, at which uncharitable words 
Frith smyled and prayed God to forgive them." 

Dr. Norman, 1540, " Parson of Huni Lane," " found himself in 
trouble through heresy." 

Richard Benese, 1540-1546, afterwards Canon of Lincoln. 

Thomas Paynell, 1545-1563, was Canon of Merton Priory, 
Surrey. 

Simon Todbury, who died 1586, held with this a number of 
other livings. He was Eector of St. Peter's, Cornhill; Vicar of 
Fulham ; Vice-Chancellor of Oxford ; Prebendary of Lincoln ; also 
Precentor ; and was there buried. 

Thomas Wilcox, born 1549; Fellow of St. John's College, 
Oxford. Upon leaving there he became " a very painful minister of 
God's Word in Huny Lane." 1572, he took part in the composition 
of "An Admonition to Parliament," a document in which " the 
Puritan party in the Church of England declare their hostility to 
episcopacy." For this he was committed to Newgate, but was 
released in 1573, and was then deprived of his living. 1577, he 
appeared before the Bishop of London for contumacy. 1581, and 
again in 1591, he was censured and sent to prison. Died 1608, aged 
fifty-nine. He wrote and translated a large number of works, among 



25 

them being " A Short but yet Sound Commentarie on that worthie worke 
called : ' The Proverbs of Solomon,' and now published for the profite 
of God's people. London, 1589, 4to." " A Right Godly and Learned 
Exposition upon the whole Booke of Psalmes; Lond., 1586. 2nd 
Edition, 1591." 

John Astor was also " minister " here, but resigned in con- 
sequence of the Act of Uniformity, 1662. Dr. Calamy says : " By the 
special favour of the Court of Aldermen, he liv'd and dy'd Ordinary 
of the Wood Street Compter." 

Henry Virtue, " Parson." There is a sermon by this gentleman 
in the St. Paul's Cathedral Library, preached at the Cathedral on 
July 9th, 1637. The sermon is entitled " A Plea for Peace." 

The advowson belonged, in 1315, to Ralph de Hunilane, who left 
directions that it should be sold together with his house and cellar. 
Thomas Knowles, who was Mayor, 1399, presented it to the Grocers' 
Company, of which he was a member. It still belongs to this 
company. 

The registers date from 1538. 



HU 

This was a small church standing on the south side of Thames 
Street. The site is now a churchyard at the corner of the brewery 
premises. In old records it was called " Omnium Sanctorum, super 
Cellar-in in," that is, the Church of All Saints over the Cellars, so called 
from having vaults underneath. In other writings " Omnium 
Sanctorum parva," or All Hallows-the-Less, to distinguish it from the 
larger neighbour, " All Hallows-the-Great." 

The steeple and choir were built over an arched gate leading 
down to a large house called " Cold Harbour." 

In the twentieth year of Richard II., Philip St. Cleur gave two 
tenements towards enlarging the Church and churchyard. 

1594. The choir, having fallen down, it was rebuilt at the cost 
of the parishioners, and again, in 1616, the church was repaired at 
their cost, when " the interior, being very dark and gloomy," dormer 
lights were made on the south side. 



26 

1633. A " large gallery " was built on the north side as well as 

two other galleries. 

The following inscriptions were on monuments in this church : 

" Jesu, that suffrayd bitter passion and payn, 
Have mercy on my soule, John Chamberlayn ; 

And my wyfs, too, 

Agnes and Jane, also. 

The said John deceased, the truth for to say, 
In the monyth of Decembyr, the fourth day, 
The yere of our Lord God, reck'ned full evin, 
A thousand four hundred four score and sevin." 




" Before this time that here you have seen, 

Lyeth buried the body of William Greene ; 

Barber and surgeon, and late Master of that Company, 

And dark of this church, yeeres fiftie ; 

Which William deceased, the truth for to say, 

The month of December, the fourth day, 

The yeere of our Lord God, as by Bookes doth appere, 

One thousand five hundryd and eighteen yere." 

The following articles were in the possession of the church : 
Two flagons of silver and two plates for the flagons to stand upon. 
Two little gilt plates and one large plate of silver to lay bread 
upon. 

Two gilt bowls or chalices with covers, and one silver bason. 
The registers date from 1558. 

RECTORS. 

William Hurdel, 1242. Robert de Ereby, 1323-1328. William 
de Talworth, 1333. William Latymer, 1546. William Dykes, 1561. 
John Atkinson, 1589. Peter Geston, 1597. Nicholas Alsoppe, 
Christ Church, Oxford, " Parson," 1603. John Trebicke, 1631.-* 
William Seeker, 1662. William Carr, 1679 ; Delected Richard Watts , , 
parish clerk of the united parishes. 

The patronage belonged to the Bishop of Winchester until about 
1347, when Sir John Pountney purchased it and appropriated it to his 

" 



27 

college next to St. Laurence Pountney. It has now passed into the 
hands of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 



St. Hnfcrew tmbbarfc. 

This church, originally called St. Andrew Juxta, Eastcheap, was 
founded ante 1361, when the Earl of Pembroke presented Kobert 
Clayton in the room of Walter Palmer, a former rector, who had died. 
The church stood in what was then called Rope Lane, afterwards 
called Lucas Lane, now Love Lane, at the corner of Little Eastcheap. 
After the Fire, a portion of the site was thrown into the public way 
for improvement, the purchase money being given towards the pewing 
of the church of St. Mary-at-Hill. On another part of the site was 
erected the King's Weigh House, to be afterwards occupied by the 
Weigh House Chapel before its removal to Fish Street Hill. Close 
to the Weigh House the parish built a " Vestry Boom, under which 
was a portico with public stocks, a cage, and a little room." 

1693. A further portion of the site was sold to the City for 75. 

1295. Ralph de Wynton left money for maintaining a lamp in 
the church and for the poor. 

1304. John de Falmin left some rents in the parish for^ro- 
viding a torch at the Elevation of the Host and for a chantry. 

1309. John de Dene left money to maintain a chantry in the 
Chapel of St. Mary in the Church. 

1349. Richard de Lambethe left money to provide a torch and 
lamp to burn in the church. 

1353. John Hastyng (baker) left a bequest for the maintenance 
of a chantry by the Brethren of the Guild of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

A letter, dated 4th March, 1628, from the Lord Mayor and Court 
of Aldermen to the Lord Keeper (Coventry) states that " they had 
received a petition from the inhabitants of the parish of St. Andrew 
and certificates from the churchwardens and others, that the church 
was in a great and dangerous decay, and could not be repaired under 
such a sum of money as by the certificates and petition enclosed 
appeared, in which also was shewn their poverty and utter inability 



28 

to repair it, being mostly of mean trades, such as basket makers and 
turners. This Court therefore requested him to intercede with the 
King for the grant of Letters Patent for a supply, by way of charity 
to the work, out of such parts of the Kingdom as should be thought 
fittest." 

This petition must have had some effect, for Stow says that, in 
1630, " the church was repaired and richly decorated, at a cost 
of 600." 

In Holy Week it used to be the custom for cakes to be thrown 
from the church tower by someone dressed to represent an angel, for 
the boys below to scramble for. In the accounts of this church for 
1520, there is an item charged for the hire of "an angel " to serve on 
this occasion. In 1537 he only receives fourpence. 

RECTORS. 

h 

Thomas Snodiland, 1361. He left directions to be buried before 
^the image of St. Botolph on the south side of the High Altar. He 
also left money for a chantry and for the welfare of the Brethren of 
the Chapel of St. Mary in the Church. 

Sir John Wolde, 1384. One of his parishioners (Christina Coggin), 
who wished to be buried in the tomb of her late husband, left this 
rector a bequest, also to the Fraternities of St. Mary and St. Katherine. 

William Rooney, 1468. Julianne, wife of William Fairhed 
(butcher) who wished to be buried in the church near her late husband,- 
left to this rector money to maintain churches, roads, and bridges. 

Thomas Pulter, 1480. Edward Sprontesbury, 1499-1537. 
Thomas Greene, 1537-1545. William Swift, 1545-1568. Henry 
How, 1593-1598. 

John Randall, 1599-1622, was a staunch Puritan, and considered 
a good preacher. He died at his house in the Minories ; was 
buried in the church. His portrait, painted when he was a 
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, is still to be seen there 
in the common room. Anthony Wood says of him: "After 
some time he became so great a labourer in God's vineyard 
by his frequent and constant work in the ministry, as well as 
resolving of doubts and cares of conscience as in preaching and teaching 
that he went beyond his brethren in the City to the benefit of all." 
He died 1622, aged fifty-four years, and was buried in his church. 



29 

By his will he left a tenement in St. Mary-at-Hill to Lincoln College. 

Eichard Chambers, 1622. " He was dispossessed for loyalty to 
the Established Church." 

Nathaniel Raveno, born 1602, appointed 1627, in succession to 
Richard Chambers, from whom the living had been sequestrated. 
Remained until 1647, when he removed to Felsted, in Essex. Calamy 
says : " He was a judicious divine, generally esteemed and valued." 
Raveno was the author of " Solitude Improved ; or, a Treatise proving 
the Duty and Demonstrating the Necessity, Excellency, Usefulness, 
Natures, Kinds, and Requisites of Divine Meditation. First intended 
for a person of honour, and now published for general use. London, 
1670." 

William Wiggins was "minister" for about fifteen years, but 
resigned. At the Restoration was appointed preacher at the Poultry 
Compter, where he continued till 1662. Died 1669, at the age of 
eighty-five, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. Dr. Calamy says of 
him : " He was an excellent Hebrecian and Grecian, and never had 
any other Bible with him in his closet or pulpit but the Originals." 

Thomas Parkin, presented by Algernon, Earl of Northumberland, 
was Rector, 1666. 

An annual sermon, in commemoration of the Great Fire, which 
commenced near the spot where the old church stood, was preached in 
the adjoining parish church for a century afterwards. 

The patronage in 1389 was with the Earl of Pembroke, who was 
killed in a tournament at Woodstock, after the battle of Northampton. 
It then devolved on Edward IV., subsequently coming to the family of 
the Earl of Somerset. 



St, Bun, Blacfefriars, 

This is one of the most interesting of the city parishes, from the 
fact that enclosed within its precincts was located the great religious 
house of the Dominicans, or Black Friars, who were lords of the 
precinct, shutting out all civic power and authority, at the same time 
enclosing within their four gates a busy community of artificers and 
shopkeepers. 



80 

At the dissolution of monasteries, under Henry VIII., the whole of 
the buildings were destroyed by Sir Thomas Cawarden, Knight, 
Master of the Rolls, to whom they had been granted by the King. 
Sir Thomas being compelled to find a church for the parishioners in 
place of the one which he had destroyed, allowed them the use of a 
building which was in a ruinous state. 

Two documents, of 1558-5, found about fifteen years since, in 
the Record Office, show that during the reign of Philip and Mary, 
two tennis " courtes," or " playes," occupied the interior of the old 
church, and that Cawarden had converted it into the headquarters of 
masques and revels. The name " Tennis Court " still survives in the 
parish. 

The building which Cawarden provided fell down, 1597, when 
the parishioners purchased an additional piece of ground, for the 
purpose of enlarging the church, which was rebuilt by subscriptions, 
and consecrated on the llth December, 1595. It was then ordered to 
be called " The Church or Chapel of St. Ann, within the Precinct of 
Blackfriars." 

Some additional land was purchased in 1613, of Sir George 
Moore, when an aisle was added, and a vault constructed underneath. 
In 1642, the building having become much decayed, was repaired at a 
cost of 500. 

The purchase of ground, with the new buildings, new pews, and 
pulpit, cost 1546. A portion of the old churchyard is still to be 
seen in Church Entry, Ireland Yard. 

The heart of Queen Eleanor, of Castile, wife of Edward I., was 
interred in the church with that of her son Alphonso. 

The following were buried in the church : John of Elsham, 
brother of Edward III. ; Hubert de Burge, Earl of Kent ; Sir Edmond 
Cornewall ; Sir Thomas Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, a great favourite of 
Henry VIII. ; Sir Thomas and Dame Parr, the parents of Katharine 
Parr, wife of Henry VIII. ; Margaret, Queen of Scots ; Oliver 
Cromwell's daughter, wife of General Ireton ; Nathaniel Field, the 
author and dramatist, who was born 1587, in the parish of St. Giles, 
Cripplegate, and died 1633. Several of his children, from 1619 to 
1627, were christened at St. Ann's ; Dick Robinson, the player, 1647 ; 
William Faithorne, the engraver, 1691 ; Earl of Worcester, beheaded, 
1470, 



81 

The following lived in the parish, and were buried in the 
church : 

Isaac Oliver, the miniature painter (1617). His son erected a 
monument to his father's memory with his bust in marble. This 
perished in the Great Fire. 

John Bill, King's printer (1630), by will directed his body to be 
buried here, and left 300 for the expenses of his funeral ; also money 
for the poor of the parish. 

The following is the translation of a Latin inscription on a 
monument to his memory in the church : 

" Peace to the memory of 

John Bill, Bookseller, who imported during many years, literary 
works from many nations to this Kingdom as 

" ' The Thesaurus of Books ' ; 
" ' The Parent of Libraries ' ; 
" ' The Mercury of Accadimies.' 

May be deservedly mentioned also as typographer to their Royal 
Highnesses Kings James and Charles, performing faithful service in 
this work for thirteen years, who died deserving well of the estate of 
letters, but best of his own relations, not without grief and sorrow on 
the part of his friends, in the year of his age fifty-six, and of the 
salvation of the world, 1630. Who during his life had honourably 
married two wives, Ann, daughter of Thomas Montfort, Doctor of 
Theology, who died without children, and Jane, daughter of Henry 
Francklin, who increased the family by five children. This monument 
of faithfulness and love I, Jane, his most sorrowing wife, have 
erected." 

There was also a monument to the memory of Queen Elizabeth : 

" Sacred unto memory. 

Religion sincerely restored ; peace thoroughly settled ; coin to the 
true value refined ; rebellion at home extinguished ; France nearly 
ruined by internal mishaps reduced ; Netherlands supported ; 
Spain's Armada vanquished ; Ireland, with Spaniards, expulsed ; and 
traitors corrected and quieted ; both Universities, by a law of 
provising, exceedingly augmented. Finally, all England enriched 
and forty-five years prudently governed. Elisabeth, a Queen, a 



32 

Conqueror, triumphed. The most devoted to piety, the most happy, 
after seventy years of her life quietly in death departed." 

Upon the reverse side of this monument was written : 

" Unto Elisabeth, Queen of England, France, and Ireland, 
daughter of King Henry the Eighth, grandchild of King Henry the 
Seventh, great grandchild of King Edward the Fourth, the mother of 
this her country, the nurse of religion and learning. For perfect skill 
in many languages, for glorious endowments of mind as well as body, 
and for regal virtues beyond her sex." 

" I have fought the good fight." 

Sir Samuel Luke, the original of " Hudibras," and one of Crom- 
well's officers, was married here in 1624 ; also several of his children 
christened. There is also no doubt that Vandyke, the painter, lived in 
the parish, as appears from the parish books. He also left 800 to the 
poor of the parish. 

The registers contain the following entries : 

Baptisms: 1596, December 29. " Eponelep (Penelope), son of 
the Eecorder. 1641, December 9. " Justinian, daughter of Sir 
Anthony Vandyke and his lady." 

Burials: 1579, August 4. "John Lacone infamously buried for 
killing himself desperately." 1580, March 21. "William, fool to my 
lady Jerningham." 1594. " Robert Halle, servant to Tysse Cutler, 
who did hang himself and was buried at the Thames head by Black- 
friars." 1638, March 14. " Martin Ashunt, Sir Anthony Vandyck's 
man." 1648. " Jaspar Lanfranck, a Dutchman, from Sir Anthony 
Vandycke's." 

On July 18th, 1578, an interdict was placed on this church because 
the minister did not celebrate the Sacrament according to the ritual of 
the Church of England in not using a surplice. 

The famous doctor and discerner of the circulation of the blood 
lived in this parish. Among the entries in the church books is a 
license to eat flesh granted to Elisabeth Knight, "by reason of her 
weakness." This is certified by " William Harvey, Doctor of Physic," 
24th February, 1628. 

A license to eat flesh is granted to Elisabeth Frost, " by reason of 
her sickness." This is dated 19th February, 1618. This license is 
renewed 27th September, 1618, " because her sickness continued." 



88 



HECTORS. 

Stephen Egerton, Peterhouse College, Cambridge, " Preacher," 
1588, was buried in the church 1622. 

John Sprint, Student of Christ College, Cambridge, was minister, 
or lecturer, 1592 ; died 1623; was buried in the church. " He was 
cried up by the citizens for a godly and frequent preacher, and by 
them much followed, but was cut off in the prime of his years when 
great matters were expected from him." He was the author of several 
works, among which were " Cassander Anylicanux, shewing the 
necessity of conforming to the prescribed Ceremonies of the Church 
in case of Deprivation." Lond., 1618. " The Christians' Shield and 
Buckler ; or a letter sent to a man seven years grievously afflicted in 
Conscience and fearfully Troubled in Mind." Lond., 1623. (Wood.) 

David Englishe, 1597. John Handler, 1604. Theodore Crowley, 
1612. Humphrey Mason, 1618. 

Dr. William Gouge, King's College, Cambridge, born 1578, and 
educated at St. Paul's School, was connected with the parish for the 
long term of forty-six years. When he came, finding it without any 
church of its own, he raised among the Puritans the sum of 1,500 for 
the purchase of a building and also the erecting of a Rectory House. 
He preached twice every Sunday and held a Wednesday lecture, 
which for thirty-five years maintained a great popularity. During his 
stay at Cambridge it is related that he never omitted attending 
Divine Service in the chapel of his college for nine years in succession, 
and made it a point to read every day fifteen chapters of the Bible. 
In 1638 he refused to read in his church the Book of Sports. 
1643, he was nominated a member of the Westminster Assembly of 
Divines, and also assisted in writing annotations on the Bible, 
published under the name of " The Assembly's Catechism." He died 
1653, and was buried in the church. 

Granger says : " For forty- six yeara he was the laborious, the 
exemplary, the much-loved minister of St. Ann's, Blackfriars, where 
none ever might or could speak ill of him, but such as were inclined 
to think or speak ill of religion itself." He was at one time offered 
the precentorship of King's College, but declined it. His usual 
saying was that it was his highest ambition "to go from Blackfriars 
to Heaven." 



34 

Mr. Gouge published a work on the Sabbath with the following 
title : " The Sabbath. Sanctification Herein. (1) The Grounds of 
the Morality of the Sabbath ; (2) Directions for Sanctifying it ; (8) 
Proofs that the Lord's Day is the Christian Sabbath ; (4) Aberrations 
about it ; (5) Motives to Sanctify the Sabbath. Herewith is added a 
Treatise of Apostacy and of Receiving from Apostacy, by W. G. 
London : Printed by G. M., for Joshua Kirton and Thos. Warren, in 
their shop in Paul's Church Yard at the White Horse, 1641." 

As this Book of Sports caused such heart burnings, not only in 
the minds of many of the City Clergy, but with many others at this 
time, the text of the Act is here inserted. Looked at in the more 
liberal view of Sunday observance which is taken in the present day, 
we can hardly realise the position three hundred years ago. " As for 
our good people's lawful recreation, our pleasure is that, after the end 
of Divine Service, our good people be not disturbed, letted or 
discouraged from any lawfull recreation, such as dancing, either men 
or women, archery for men, leaping, vaulting, or any other such harmless 
recreation ; nor from having of May games, Whitsun ales, and Morris 
dances, and the setting up of May poles, and other sports therewith 
used; so as the same be had in due convenient time without 
impediment or neglect of Divine Service. And that women shall 
have leave to carry rushes to the church for the decoring of it 
according to their old custome. But, withall, we do here account as 
prohibited all unlawfull games to be used upon Sundays, onely as 
Beare and Bull baiting, interludes, and at all times in the meaner 
sorte of people by law prohibited, bowling. 

" And, likewise, we barre from this benefite and liberty all such 
known recusants, either men or women, as will abstaine from comming 
to a church or Divine Service, being therefore unworthie of any 
lawfull recreation, after the said service, that will not come first to 
the church and serve God. Prohibiting in the like sorte the saide 
recreation to any that, though conforme in religion are not present in 
the church at the service of God, before their going to the said 
recreations. And we likewise straightly command that every person 
shall resorte to his owne parish church to hear Divine Service, and 
each parish by itself to use the said recreation after Divine Service. 

" Our pleasure is that our ordination shall be published by order 
from the Bishop of the Diocese through all the parish churches, and 



85 

that both our judges of our circuit and our justices of our peace be 
informed thereof. Given at our Mannour of Greenwich, the four 
and twentieth day of May, in the sixteenth yeare of our Raigne of 
England, France, and Ireland, and of Scotland the one and fiftieth." 

William Jenkyn was for a short time Lecturer. Benjamin 
Whitchcott, 1662. John Good, 1664. 

The alternate patronage of the living is with the parishioners and 
the Mercers Company. 



St. Benet Sbereog. 

The church of St. Benet Shereog stood in Pancras Lane on the 
site of the present churchyard. On the wall of the churchyard there 
is a stone with this inscription : " Before the dreadfull fire, anno 1666, 
stood the parish church of St. Benet Shereog." 

Sise Lane, in this parish, is a corruption of St. Osyth Lane, 
St. Osyth, Queen and Martyr, having been the patron saint of the 
church until displaced by St. Benedict. 

Among the records at St. Paul's Cathedral is one dated from the 
Lateran, 1300, in which the Commissary of the Pope mentions the 
appeal of the Prior and Convent of St. Mary Overie, Southwark, 
against the Bishop of London, with regard to some pensions in the 
Church of St. Benet. 

1260. Ralph Faire left to his wife, Lecia, his mansion for life, 
and also to pay five marks annually for the maintenance of a chaplain 
to celebrate " Dei Sancta Maria.*' 

A tenement of William de Mazalenn in the parish is mentioned 
in 1287, when the church is referred to, taking its name perhaps, as 
suggested by Mr. Biley, in his " Memorials," from the fact of hogs 
wallowing on the shores and ditches connected with the course of the 
old Walbrook, or it may be, as suggested by Mr. Loftie, from the fact 
of a " Willolmus Serehog," who lived near the church of St. Osyth 
in the Tenth Century. There are two chapels mentioned as existing 
in the old church. 1848, Eoger Carpenter (Pepperer) wished to be 
buried in St. Mary's Chapel, and 1898 John Frash (Mercer) wished to 
be buried in St. Sithe's Chapel. 

A monument was erected "To Sir Robert Warren, Knt., 



36 

Alderman and twice Lord Mayor, Merchant of the Staple at Callis, 

with his two wives Dame Christian and Dame Joan, which said Sir 

Ralph departed this life llth July, 1558." 

Also the following epitaph to the memory of a young wife, who 

died 12th July, 1618, in her 28rd year : 

" Here was a bad beginning for her May, 

Before her flower death took her hence away ; 

But for what cause ? That friends might joy the more. 

She is not lost, but in those joys remaine 

Where friends may see, and joy in her againe." 

On a monument in the chancel was the following : 
"Here lyeth Katherine Prettyman, a mayde of seventeen yeares, 
In Suffolk born, in London bred, as by her death appears ; 
With Nature's gifts she was adorned, of honest birth and kin, 
Her virtuous minde, with modest grace, did love of many win ; 
But when she should with honest match have lived a wedded life, 
Stay thee, quoth Jove, the world is naught, for she shall be my wife. 
And death, since then, hast done thy due, lay nuptial rites aside ; 
And follow her unto the grave, that should have been your bride, 
Whose honest life and faithful end, her patience thou withall 
Doth plainly show, that she with Christ now lives, and ever shall. 

She departed this life the llth day of August, 1594." 

The following extract is from Strype : 

" On the 19th June, 1557, was old Mrs. Hall buried in the 
church of St. Benet Shereog. She gave certain good gowns both for 
men and women, and twenty gowns to poor people. She was 
memorable as being the mother of Edward Hall, of Gray's Inn, who 
set forth the chronicle called " Hall's Chronicle," and I conjecture 
this was that Mrs. Hall that was a great reliever of such as were 
persecuted for religion in this reign, and to whom several of the 
martyrs wrote letters which are extant." 

This same Edward Hall, who was Gentleman of Gray's Inn, 
Common Serjeant of the City, and also Under- Sheriff, was buried here, 
1644. Also Mrs. Katharine Phillips, " the matchless Orinda." An 
epitaph on an infant buried in the church was composed by her. 

1628. The church, being much decayed and perished, wa s 



87 

repaired at the cost of the parishioners, and " some marble stones that, 
had lay hid under the pews, were removed to the body of the church, 
and it was said added much to its grace and beauty." 

About this time Mr. Ferrar (father of Nicholas Ferrar) repaved 
and seated at his own expense the church and chancel, and, as there 
was no morning preacher, he at his own expense brought from the 
country Mr. Francis White, who afterwards was successively Bishop 
of Carlile, Norwich, and Ely. Mr. Ferrar lived in St. Osyth Lane. 

The following Mayors were buried in the church : Henry 
Frowicke (mercer), 1478; Sir Ralph Warren, 1558; Sir John Lion, 
1554. Machyn gives an account of the funeral of the wife of this Lord 
Mayor : 

" September 10th, 1555, was bered my Lade Lyonys, the 
Ma'res of London, with a goodly herse mad in Saint Benet Shereog 
perryche, with two branchys and twenty-four gowns of blake for pore 
men, and three of emages and six dozen pensselds, and six dozen of 
schochyons, and the aldermen folohyng the corrse and after the 
Compane of Grossers, and the morow the Masse, and Master H 
did pryche, and after a grett dener." 

It is stated that the plate, bells, and some other ornaments of the 
church, which they had before the Fire, were since that date 
" embezzled by the churchwardens." 

RECTORS. 

Nicholas, 1284-5, " Parson." He directs his executors to sell two 
shops, which he had in " Estcep." John Vycent de Waltham, 1326-8. 
Sir John Newton, " Parson," 1898, left to the churchwardens a quit 
rent to maintain a chantry, died 1426. John Wakering, Prebendary 
of St. Paul's, 1896-1426 ; died at Thorpe, Norwich. John Mowyer, 
1453-1477. Nicholas Kyrkeby, 1526-1583. Anthony Richardson, 
1547-1556. Thomas Banks, 1583-1588 ; presented by Queen 
Elizabeth. Arthur Laurence, ditto, ditto, 1597-1603. Roger Fenton, 
Prebendary of St. Paul's ; died 1615 ; was buried beneath the Altar of 
St. Stephen's. Griffith Williams, Jesus College, Cambridge ; 
presented by James I., 1614-1616 ; was Dean of Bangor, 1634 ; 



38 

Bishop of Ossory, 1661 ; died 1671. Hugh Morris, St. Edmond's 
Hall, Oxford, 1626 ; Vicar of Chobham, 1631. Cadwallader Morgan, 
University College, Oxford, 1626. 

Matthew Griffith, born 1579, Brazenose College, Oxford, was 
presented to the living, 1640, by Charles I., to whom he was chaplain. 
He was also lecturer of St. Dunstan-in-the-East, and after the 
Restoration Master of the Temple. For preaching in St. Paul's 
Cathedral a sermon in 1642, entitled " A Pathetical Persuasion to 
Pray for Publick Peace," the living was sequestered, and he was 
placed in prison. At the Restoration he was greatly excited, and on 
the 25th March, 1660, preached a Royalist sermon from Proverbs iv., 
21, in the Mercers' Chapel, Cheapside. This was published under the 
title " The Fear of God and the King, Together with a Brief Historical 
Account of our Unhappy Distractions and the only way to heal them." 
The sermon gave great offence, for which he was lodged in Newgate. 
He afterwards obtained the living of Bladon, Oxfordshire ; died 1665. 
He published several works, among them being " A General Bill of 
Mortality of the Clergie of London which have been deprived by 
reason of the contagious breath of the Sectaries. 1646." 

Nicholas Lockyer was also minister here, but was deprived of the 
living. He was also Provost of Eton College ; but of this he was also 
deprived. He had been chaplain to the Protector ; died at Woodford, 
1685, " a wealthy man," and was buried at St. Mary, Whitechapel. 

The patronage of the church was originally with the Prior and 
Convent of St. Mary Overie, South wark, until the dissolution, when it 
came to the Crown, to whom the alternate patronage, together with 
St. Stephen's, still belongs. 



St. JSotolpb, 

This church stood opposite Botolph Lane, in Thames Street, and 
is said to have existed as early as the time of Edward the Confessor. 

The following epitaph to the memory of John Rainwell 
(haberdasher), Mayor, 1426, was in the church : 



39 

" Citizens of London, call to rememmbrance 

The famous John Kaimvell, some time your Mayor. 
Of the Staple of Calice, so was his chance. 
Here now lys his corps, his soul bright and fair 
Is taken to heaven's bliss, thereof is no despair. 
His acts bear witness, by matters of accord, 
How charitable he was and of what record ; 
No man hath been so beneficial as he 
Unto the city in giving liberally." 

He also gave a stone house to be a vestry for the church for ever, 
and left money " to clear arid cleanse the shelves and other stoppages 
of the River Thames." 

John Rainwell was evidently a man of some determination. In 
1426 information was given him that the Lombard Merchants were 
guilty of adulterating their wines. On finding this charge to be true, 
he at once seized and ordered 150 butts to be thrown down the 
kennell. 

At this church, on the 25th August, 1559, " the rood and the 
images of Mary and John, and of the patron of the church, were burnt, 
with books of superstition ; where, at the same time, a preacher 
standing within the church wall made a sermon, and while he was 
preaching the books were thrown into the fire, also a cross of wood 
that stood in the churchyard." 

The building was repaired at the cost of the parishioners, 1624. 
Stow says " that it was a proper church." He also says " that there 
were buried there many persons of good worship, whose monuments 
were all destroyed by bad and greedy men of spoil." 

After the Fire the ground on which the chancel of the church 
had stood was rented by Sir Josiah Child, in 1693, for 100 per 
annum. He formed out of this the passage to Botolph Wharf, while 
the ground on which the nave had stood was let for building at 6 a 
year for ground rent. 

The presentation was given by Ordgar, in the twelfth century, to 
the Canons of St. Paul's, and continues a joint presentation with 
them and the Crown until the present day. 

In this church seveial persons were "presented" for religious 
oftences. John Marlor, grocer, " For calling the Sacrament of the 
Altar the baken god ; for saying that the Mass was called beyond the 



40 

seas "Miss," for that all was amiss with it. Nine persons were 
" presented " for " that they had not confessed in Lent nor had 
received in Easter." Another that " He came to the church with 
loud reading of the English Bible, and that he disturbed the Divine 
Service." Another " That he was a railer against the Mass." 

1318. William Pickman left some rents to be devoted to the 
maintenance for six years of a chantry in the church. 

1322. Oliver de Kent (fishmonger) left a bequest for the supply 
of wax. 

The church, similar to so many others in the old city, possessed 
a fraternity. 

1397. Richard Tyknore (draper) wished to be buried in the 
church, leaving a bequest to it, and also to the fraternity of St. Mary 
therein. 

Stephen Forster (fishmonger), Mayor, 1454, was buried in the 
church with Agnes his wife. 

1622. Thomas Barker left 4 for poor maids and widows, who 
should be married in the parish, 2s. 6d. each to the churchwardens, 
6d. to the sexton, and Is. to the clerk. 

1656. John Wardell left funds in the hands of the Grocers' 
Company in order to pay 4 to provide " a good and sufficient iron 
and glass lantern, with a candle, for the direction of passengers to go 
with more security to and from the water side all night long, to be 
fixed at the N.E. corner of St. Botolph Church, from Bartholomew 
Day to Lady Day, and Is. to the sexton to take care of such lantern." 

RECTORS. 
' 
. Thomas de Snodilande, 13431349. He wished to be buried 

before the image of St. Botolph, on the south side of the High Altar. 
He also left money for a chantry, and for the welfare of the brethren 
of the Chapel of St. Mary in the Church. William Rose, 14131441. 
Lawrence Bathe, 1444, while yet a deacon, was ordained priest 1446, 
afterwards deacon of St. Paul's and Bishop of Durham. Walter 
Countre, 15081520. Edward Marmyon, 1535. John Mullins, 1557; 
Archdeacon of London, 1559 ; died 1591. Griffith Williams, New 
College, Oxford, 1559 ; was also Vicar of Shoreditch and Canon of 
Hereford and Worcester ; died 1573. Robert Harvey, 1595. Michael 
Gifford, 15971629. William Kinge, Christ Church, Oxford, 1629. 



41 

Thomas Wykes, Precenter of St. Paul's, 1639, also Rector of Finchley; 
died 1644. Jacob Tice, " Pastor," 1648. Philemon King, Prebendary 
of St. Paul's, 1640 1666. " He was a most charitable preacher and 
good-natured man, and an excellent Christian." 

In the Guildhall Library there is a very fine old manuscript, 
printed on vellum, which was purchased for the sum of '65, with the 
following title : 

" Original Register Book of the Charters, Writings, Close Rolls, 
Wills, Indentures, Memorandums, and all the Monuments of the 
Church of St. Botolph, Billingsgate, written in the year 1418, by the 
consent of William Rose, the Rector, and John Aylesham and William 
Bell, churchwardens." 

The manuscript commences with the will of Oliver de Kent, 1322, 
and finishes with that of Thomas Wall, 1530. 



St. jfaitb linger St. Paul. 

Originally this church was a distinct building, standing at the 
eastern end of the Cathedral. It is recorded that Falk Bassett, Bishop 
of London, 1241, " began in 1256 to build the church of St. Faith on 
the spot which King John had formerly given to the Bishop and 
Chapter of St. Paul's for a market." The Bishop died .of the plague 
in 1259, and was buried in St. Paul's, where he founded two chantries 
for his father and mother. He also bequeathed to St. Paul's a golden 
apple, two rich chests for relics and vestments, and some books. 

The church was taken down to provide for the enlargement of the 
Cathedral which took place in 1261, after which the vaults at the 
west end of Jesus Chapel under the choir were appropriated to the use 
of the parishioners ; this was called " Ecclesia sancta Fidel in cryptix." 

This chapel, which was an extremely beautiful building, was 
entered by a flight of twenty-six steps, and measured one hundred and 
eighty feet in length, eighty feet in width, consisting of four aisles 
divided by three rows of columns, eight in each row. Over the door 
leading into the chapel was " curiously painted " the image of Jesus, 
also a figure of Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury, who was buried 
before the iniase. 



42 

There was at the east side of the churchyard a bell tower, with a 
high wooden spire, covered with lead, called " La Clouchier" On the 
top a fine statue of St. Paul. In the tower were four large bells called 
" Jesus Bells," so called as belonging to the chapel under the Cathedral. 
These were all standing until Sir Miles Partridge, Knt., having won 
them from Henry VIII. at one cast of the dice, broke the bells as they 
hung, pulled down the tower, and sold all the materials. Sir Miles 
was afterwards executed on Tower Hill. Jesus Chapel being suppressed 
by Edward VI., the parishioners of St. Faith, in the year 1551, were 
permitted to remove into it. The building thus remained their parish 
church until the destruction of the Cathedral. 

"Gregory's Chronicle" says: " 1551. Item, xxiij day of Augusts, 
the periche of Seynt Faith entered furst into Jesus Chappelle as their 
periche church, and had servys there." 

Sir Christopher Barker, Garter King at Arms and Suffolk 
Herald to King Henry VIII., died 1549, and was buried " in the Long 
Chappie, next to St. Faith's Church, in St. Paul's." He possessed 
large property in Lime Street, in Nicholas Lane, and Ivy Lane, in the 
City. 

Robert Johnson was buried in Jesus Chapel, 1558. He was 
principal Registrar of the Diocese of London, and one of the Actuaries 
at the trial of Bishop Hooper, 1554. 

On his tomb was the following inscription : 

" Of your charite pray for the sowlys of Robert Johnson, late one 
of the Proctors of the Arches, and Alyce, his wyf, who lyeth both 
buried under this stone, which Robert endyd this lyfe the x\ day of 
November, Anno Domini 1558 ; and the sayd Alyce endyd her lyfe 
the xxi day of April, 1555, on whose sowlles, and all Christian sowlles, 
our Lord have mercy." 

Machyn records that the funeral took place " with two white 
branches, fourteen grete staffe torches, four grete tapers, two dozen 
and a half of eschoins of arms, thirty mourners in black, and all the 
masters of Jesus Guild in their black satin hoods." " There was also 
a morrow Mass, together with a sermon, a grete dinner and a dole of 
money." 

On a raised stone in the middle aisle was an inscription to the 
memory of William Balham and Alice, his wife, A.D. 1577 : 



43 

" So here the certain end of every mortal one, 
Behold ! Alive to day, to-morrow dead and gone ; 
Live well, so endless life (by death) you shall obtaine, 
Nought lose the good by death, since life thereby they gaine." 

Also a tablet with the following inscription : 

" Here buried is Elizabeth, of honour, worthy dame, 

Her husband, ers't Lord Shandoys was her sonne, hath now like 

name ; 

Her father was of Wilton Lord, a Gray of puissant fame ; 
Her brother left, with us behinde, now Lord is of the same ; 

Her vertuous life yet still doth live, her honour shall remain ; 

P 
Her corps, though it be growne to dust, her soule the heavens 

containe." 
" Quae obit 29 JJecewbrix, Ann. JJoin. 1559." 

" The vault, which before the Fire was the parish church of St. 
Faith, under the present choir of St. Paul's, is about seventeen feet 
below the area or floor of the church, and probably one of the most 
capacious and every way curious vaults in the world. Here the coffins 
are buried in the ground, and do not lay on the surface as in other 
vaults." (Hughson's, London.) 

William Lamb, born 1595, was buried here. He was master of 
the Cloth Avorkers' Company, 1669. In early life he lived in London 
Wall, and left money and a chapel there to the Company to provide 
clothing for twenty-four poor men and women. Lamb's Chapel, with 
some almshouses, were pulled down in 1825. 

In the church of St. James, Prebend Square, Islington, which 
was built from funds of this charity, there is a fine bust of the founder 
in his livery gown, with purse in one hand and his gloves in the other. 
It bears date 1712, and was removed from the old chapel in London 
Wall. He died 1680. His tomb, which, with St. Faith's Church, was 
destroyed, bore a brass plate with a figure of himself in armour and 
his three wives, Joan, Alice, and Joan. The last survived him and 
was buried in St. Olave, Silver Street. 



44 

The tomb bore the following inscription : 

" I pray you all that receive bread and pence, 

To say the Lord's Prayer, before you go hence; 

As I was, so are ye, 

As I am you shall be ; 
, That I have, that I gave ; 

That I gave, that I have ; 

Thus I end all my cost, 

That I left, that I lost." 

Lamb was noted for his piety and benevolence. An old biographer 
says: " He hath bene seene and marked at Pawle's Cross to have con- 
tinued from eight of the clocke until eleven attentively to listen to the 
preacher's voice and to have endured the ende, being weak and aged, 
when others, both strong and lustie, went away." 

Mrs. Masters, 1665, left 40s. in the hands of the churchwardens 
to repair the pews. She also gave for the use of the church a silver 
flagon, a silver cup, and a silver plate for the bread. 

In " A Brief Account of the Charities of the Parish," published in 
1878 by the Rector, the Rev. W. H. Milman, he gives a copy of returns 
to articles by Commissioners of the Crown in the reign of Edward VI. 
(preserved in the Public Record Office). These returns show that early 
in the reign of that monarch, and apparently in anticipation of coming 
spoliation by a Royal Commission, both the parishioners of St. Augus- 
tine and also of St. Faith, authorised the churchwardens to sell all the 
plate and vestments belonging to their respective churches, save the 
small quantity of each required for the actual celebration of Divine 
service. By this sale the parish of St. Augustine realised nearly 200, 
of which the sum of 103 was laid out in the purchase of three houses 
which were vested in trustees, the rents to be applied to the " better 
maintenance of God's Divine Service in the said church." The less 
wealthy parish of St. Faith realised by the sale no more than 88 11s., 
the whole of which they expended in throwing into their church in the 
crypt of the Cathedral that further portion of the crypt which had hith- 
erto served as " The Chapel called the Crowds," and for setting up a 
choir therein and for furnishing and adorning the same. "Certain old 
books of the church were sold to one John Rogerson for 12s." 

In the Library of St. Paul's Cathedral there are some most inter- 
esting documents referring to this parish : 



" A Kelease by Robert, Prior of St. Bartholomew to Sir Godfrey 
de Acre, Canon of St. Paul's, of a rent of 5s. from a house in Elders 
Lane in the parish of St. Faith, which they had of his gift for the 
purchase of wine for Divine service, A.D. 1257." 

An old document says : " In the lane of old tyme called Aldens 
Lane, but now cawled Warwic Lane." It also appears that Ivy Lane 
was formerly called Folkmares Lane. 

Another deed shows that the " Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's 
assign to different members of their body the inns called ' Hospitium 
Johannis de Sancto Laurentio ' and Stamford Inn, both situate in Ivy 
Lane in the parish of St. Faith, for the rest of their lives, or as long 
as they shall remain Canons." 

A grant by " Brother Robert, Proctor of the Hospital of St. 
Thomas at Southwark, and the brethren and sisters of that place, to 
Master Robert de Arches, of land and houses in the parish of St. 
Faith, 'juxta vicum regis occidentalim,' to hold in fee, rendering a 
pound of frankinsense or 4d. yearly on St. Thomas Day. A.D. 1217." 
There is a very fine ecclesiastical seal attached to this document. 

The following is an inventory of articles belonging to the church 
in 1298 : A copper cup gilt and a pyx of ivory. Two censers. A 
flabellum. A cross of Limoges work, with a painted wooden staff and 
two other crosses. A hand bell and a little bell to be sounded at the 
Elevation. Three super Altars, blest. Seven osculatoria. One fan of 
peacocks' feathers. A Crismatory. Several vestments, a chasuble of 
green samite embroidered with figures of the Holy Trinity, the 
Crucifix, St. Mary and St. John, St. Peter and St. Paul, and other 
saints (the gift of Hugh de Vienne), a vestment embroidered with 
doves sitting upon branches, a cope embroidered with vines, the Agnus 
Dei, and four shields. A Lent veil. A missal of the use of St. Paul's. 
An antiphonarium. A legendarium. Three graduals. A psalter. A 
manual. An office for the Dedication. Another with the lives of St. 
Thomas and the Blessed Edward. A chest with a lock for the afore- 
said books. A paschal candlestick." * 

In 1509 a parishioner refused to pay his share of the parish clerk's 
salary, the proportion in which it had been taxed by the churchwardens 
and parishioners, deducting it from his other assessments. On 5th 

" St. Paul's " BEV. W. S. SIMPSON. 



46 

September he was ordered to pay it within eight days. On the Mon- 
day after All Saints' Day it was certified as paid, and he was 
discharged. 

Among the bequests recorded by Dr. Sharpe to this church is one 
in 1393, by Martin Ely, one of the Minor Canons of St. Paul's. " To 
the church of St. Faith he leaves his chalice and portifory, with music, 
of the use of St. Paul." 

The following interesting bequest of books is also made : 

" To his brethren the Minor Canons living in their common hall he 
leaves his books ' Deere tales Sum mart inn,' and ecclesiastical stories of 
the weaknesses and virtues of the four evangelists with glossers, a 
book called ' Radonale Dirinnnn,' a book in quires and unbound of 
divers treatises after the manner of concordances, " A Briton " (this 
book Dr. Sharp considers refers to a treatise on law, written in French, 
attributed by some to John Breton, Bishop of Hereford, and a judge) 
and a " Legend of Saints." 

John Norton, Printer in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew to Queen 
Elizabeth, an Alderman in the reign of James I., left 150 to the 
minister and churchwardens in order to distribute weekly to twelve 
poor persons (six to be appointed by the parish and six by the 
Stationers' Company, of which he was three times master), " twopence 
each and a penny loaf, the vantage loaf, that is, the thirteenth 
allowed by the baker to be given to the clerk. Ten shillings to be 
paid annually for a sermon at St. Faith's on Ash Wednesday : the 
residue to be laid out on cakes, wine, and ale for the Company of 
Stationers, either before or after the sermon." This sermon is still 
preached as directed at St. Augustine's Church. 

RECTORS. 

Sir Robert, called "Le Seneschal," 1277. Martyn Elys, 1367. 
Robert Dale, 14241486. Richard Heyman, 1436-1464. Richard 
Layton, LL.D., Prebendary of St. Paul's, 1535, also Rector of 
Stepney ; Dean of York, 1539 ; died 1544. John Denman, 1547. 
John Cooke, 15721582. William Woodford, 1624. 

It is related by Walker, in his " Sufferings of the Clergy," that 
Mr. Brown "was sequestered from the living because he had given 
offence to godly Mrs. Charnock, by bowing towards the Altar at 
Whitehall." " He was an admirable plain preacher, and of such a 



47 

venerable aspect that as he passed along those who reviled his 
brethren, reverenced him." 

J. B. Saunders, who was " minister " here for a short time, was 
called " Chaplain of Noah's Ark," from the circumstance of his 
congregation in the afternoon numbering but eight persons. 

Arthur Jackson, who had been Rector of St. Michael, Wood 
Street, was appointed to St. Faith, 1642. In 1624, while a great 
sickness was raging in the City, he was one of those who continued 
faithfully to discharge all his duties, and was preserved from infection. 
He was a strong Royalist, was fined 500 for refusing to give evidence 
in a case, and committed to the Fleet, where he remained seventeen 
weeks. He was afterwards appointed one of the Commissioners at 
the Savoy Conference. At the Restoration he was chosen by the 
Provincial Assembly of London to wait at the head of the City clergy 
in order to present a Bible to Charles II., when he passed through 
the parish in his triumphal progress through the City. Mr. Jackson 
would not read the " Book of Sports." This was reported to Archbishop 
Laud, who answered " Mr. Jackson is a quiet peaceable man, and 
therefore I will not have him meddled with." He had a strong 
objection to the use of music in churches, as the following extract 
from one of his sermons will show : 

" I appeal to the experience of every ingenuous person whether 
curiosity of voice and musical sounds in churches does not tickle the 
fancy with a carnal delight, and engage a man's ear and most diligent 
attention unto these sensible motions and sounds, and therefore must 
necessarily in great measure recall him from spiritual communion 
with God, seeing the mind of man cannot attend to two things at 
once, and when we serve God we must do it with all our might." 

On the passing of the Act of 1662, he resigned the living and 
retired to Hadley, Middlesex, where he died, 1666, aged seventy-three 
years. 

He published in four volumes " Annotations On Several Parts of 
the Bible." 

John Geree, born 1601, was appointed " Preacher," 1647. He 
lived in Ivy Lane. His sermons were largely attended by Puritans. 
His reverence for the person of the King was such that Baxter says 
" he died at the news of the King's death, 1649." He was buried in 
the church. He wrote and published a considerable number of works, 



48 

among them being " The Character of an Old English Puritan, or 
Nonconformist. Lond., 1646." Also the following : " The Red 
Horse ; or, the Bloodiness of War. Represented in a sermon (to 
persuade to peace) preached at Paul's, July 16th, at five of the clocke 
in the afternoon, By Jo. Gerce, M.A., and Pastor of St. Faith under 
Paul's, and now published to cleare the Preacher from Malignancy 
imputed to him by several left-eared Auditors. Lond., 1648." 

The patronage of the living is and always has been with the 
Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 

This old church is mentioned in the following extracts from 
"Pepys' Diary " : 

1666, September 7th. " Up by five o'clock and blessed be God. 
Find all well, and by water to Paul's Wharf e. Walked thence and 
saw all the towne burned, and a miserable sight of Paul's Church, 
with all the roof fallen and the body of the quire fallen into St. 
Fayth's." 

1666, September 26th. " By Mr. Dugdale, I hear the great loss of 
books at Paul's Church Yarde and at the Stationers' Hall, and which 
they value at 150,000, some booksellers being wholly undone, and 
among others they say my poor Kirton. And Mr. Crumlan and his 
household stuff burned, they trusting to St. Fayth's, and the roof of 
the church falling broke the arch down into the lower church, and so 
all the goods burned. A very great loss." 

1666, October 5th " That the goods laid in the church yarde 
fired through the windows those in St. Fayth's Church, and these 
coming to the warehouses' doors fired them, and burned all the books 
and pillars of the church, so as the roof, falling down, broke quite 
down, which it did not do in other places of the church which is alike 
pillared (which I knew not before), but being not burned they stand 
still." 

1666, November 12th. "In Convocation House Yard I did there 
see the body of Robert Braybrook, Bishop of London, that died 1404. 
He fell down in his tomb out of the great church into St. Fayth's this 
late fire, and is seen here his skeleton with no flesh on, but all rough 
and dry, like a spongy dry leather, or touchwood, all upon his bones, 
many flocking to see it." 

1667, June 7th. " But that the burning of the goods under St. 
Fayth's arose from the goods taking fire in the church yard, and so 



49 

got into St. Fayth's Church, and that they first took fire from the 
draper's side, by some timber of the houses that were burned falling 
into the church." 

1668, September 16th. " I stopped, too, at Paul's, and there did 
go into St. Fayth's Church, and also into the body of the west part of 
the church, and do see a hideous sight of the walls of the church ready 
to fall, that I was in fear as long as I was in it, and here I saw the 
great vaults underneath the body of the church. No hurt I hear is 
done of it, since then going to pull down the church and steeple, but 
one man on Monday this week fell from the top to a piece of the roof 
of the east end that stands next to the steeple, and there broke himself 
all to pieces. It is pretty here to see how the last church was but a 
case over the old church, for you may see the very old pillars standing 
whole within the walls of this." 



St. Gabriel, jfencburcb. 

This church stood in Fenchurch Street, between Rood Lane and 
Mincing Lane, nearly opposite C^llum Street. The ground on which 
it stood was after the Fire thrown into the public way. It was called 
St. Mary's- until 1517, when the name was changed to All Saints, after 
which it was again changed to the present one. 

A small portion of the churchyard still exists in Fen Court. 

1372. John Somushane, Woolman, left directions to be buried 
before the Altar of St. John the Baptist in the church, "if the 
parishioners will consent." 

Helming Leggatt, in 1376, gave a tenement with yard and garden 
to the parson and his successors for ever. " The house to be a parsonage 
house and the garden to be a churchyard for the parish." 

1631. The church was enlarged by adding nine feet to the length. 
It was also " very worthily beautified at the proper cost and charges of 
the parish," the amount expended being 537 10s. 

" A very fair " figure of the King's Arms in the glass of the 
chancel window was the gift of Thomas Clark, Glazier, on which were 
the words " Touch not Mine Anointed." 



50 

Pepys in his diary mentions this church : 

1665, October 9th." To church with my wife in the morning in 
her new light-coloured silk goune, which is with her new point very 
noble. In the afternoon to Fenchurch, the little church in the middle 
of Fenchurch Street, where a very few people and few of any rank." 

The alternate presentation is with the Crown and Corporation. 

RECTORS. 

John Peynell, 1321. John Trutheriff, 1462-1499. Thomas 
Marshall, " Vicar," 1527-1529. Thomas Osmond, 1540-1556. James 
Meadows, Chaplain to James I., 1603; also Rector of Snodiland, Kent, 
1614; died 1631. George Palmer, Fellow, Lincoln College, Oxford, 
1682 ; was sequestered,~1543, by the Westminster Assembly of Divines. 
Ralph Cook, 1637 ; " was dispossessed of the living " ; restored 1660. 
John Wallis, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, Savilian Professor of 
Geometry, "Minister," 1645 ; died 1703. Thomas Harward, 1662. 

The parish registers date from 1571. 



St. (Bresors b St. Paul. 

This church stood at the south-west angle of the Cathedral, con- 
tiguous to the Lollards' Tower, which had been at one time used for the 
imprisonment of heterodox divines, and on the site of the clock tower 
of the present Cathedral, the northern wall of this little sanctuary 
touching the Cathedral wall. 

The church had been in existence as early as 1010, when Bishop 
Alwynn removed the remains of King Edmund the Martyr from St. 
Edmund's Priory to St. Gregory's, where they remained for three 
years, while the Danes were ravaging East Anglia. 

1276. Thomas Everard left to the church four shillings annual 
rent of a shop. 

We read of Richard II. presenting a rector to this living. In his 
reign the Petty Canons of St. Paul's obtained Letters Patent to be a 
body politic, by the name of the " College of the Twelve Petty Canons 
of St. Paul's Church." They had the church of St. Gregory appor- 
tioned, to them for their better support, 



51 

In St. Paul's Cathedral Library there are some interesting docu- 
ments relating to this old church. 

An agreement between the Dean and Chapter and Robert de 
Keteryngham, the Rector, concerning the chantry of Gilbert de Bruer, 
dated 1356. Two very fine ecclesiastical seals are attached. 

1398. John Tykhill, chaplain, resigned the chantry of Isabel 
Bokerel, in St. Paul's, on being presented to the rectory of St. 
Gregory. 

In an inventory of articles belonging to the churchwardens are 
the following : A wooden pix for the oblations. A wooden cross with 
images of the Blessed Virgin and St. John. Two other crosses of 
copper of Limoges with one wooden staff. A leaden vase for the holy 
water, the gift of Walter (Galfridi de Criptix Rcctorix). 

After the fire at St. Paul's, in 1561, which destroyed the steeple 
and a considerable portion of the building, we read that, on the 23rd 
June, 1571, " began the service to be said at St. Gregory's Church by 
the Paul's quire till St. Paul's might be got ready." The services 
continued to be held in St. Gregory's until November of the same year, 
when " was begone the serves at Powlles to synge and there was a 
great Communion." 

The following were buried in the church : 

1558, August 23rd. Dr. Cook, Dean of the Arches and Judge of 
the Admiralty, " a right temporizer." " The church hanged with black 
and four "hundred and fifty arms. There were -present all the Brethren 
of Jesus in satin hoods and I.H.S. upon them, with all the priests of 
Paul's. In January following was set up for him a coat, armour, and 
a pennon of arms and two banners of saints." 

1558, November 22nd. Robert Johnson, Gentleman, and Officer 
to the Bishop of London, " buried honourably in Jesus Chapel. Many 
mourners in black, and all the masters (or brothers) of Jesus in their 
black satin hoods ; the morrow Mass and a sermon ; and after a great 
dinner and a dole of money." (STRYPE). 

Thomas Redman, Proctor of the Arches, 1601. 

Valentine Dale, Ambassador to Flanders, 1512 ; Archdeacon of 
Surrey, 1573 ; Ambassador to France, 1573-6 ; Dean of Wells, 1574 ; 
and for some years representing Chichester in Parliament. Died at 
his house, near St. Paul's, November 17th, 1589. 

Stephen Collye, " The Protestant Joiner," convicted and executed 



52 

for treason at Oxford, 1681, after a London jury had ignored the 
indictment. 

Alison, second wife of George Heriot, 20th April, 1612, and Dr. 
Thomas White, the deprived Bishop of Peterborough. 

Martin Brown, Master of the Barber Surgeons' Company in 
1653. He died 1654. In his will he describes himself as of the 
Parish of St. Gregory, " full of years," and desires to be buried in his 
parish church near his dead children, " which was partly under my 
own pewe where now of late I satt." 

The registers of St. Gregory date from 1589. 

The following extracts are interesting : 

Baptism. 1629, June 26th." Moyses and Aaron, two children 
found in the streete." 

Burials. 1600, February 10th." Mr. Tracey, a yonge gent who 
was slain in the uprore between Paule's and Ludgate, the eighth day 
of February." 

1600, February 12th. " Captayne William Wayte, who was slayne 
in resistance to the Erie of Essex and other his associates, the eighth 
day of February." 

1600, February 16th. " Edward Neot, servant to Sir Christopher 
Blount, who was wounded in the uprore the eighth of February." 

1580, March 14th. " One of the Bishoppe of Asaph his men, 
being slayne at Pawle's Chayne." 

1589, April 25th. " Lawrence Middleton, Gent., who had his 
deathe's wound in the church yard." 

1592, June 2nd." Morgan Aubrey, slain at Pawle's Chayne." 

1594, October 3rd. " Francis Bourne, Gent., slayne in St. Pawle's 
church yard." 

1595, August 29th. "John Pendringe, Gent., who received his 
deathe's wound by Pawle's Chayne in y e streete." 

1595, August 29th. " John Bartlet, serving man, slayne at the 
west ende of St. Pawle's Church." 

1610, February 14th. " Job Fitzwilliam, servant to Sir 
Edmonde Dymmocke, Knight, slayne in a tavern." 

1586, December 9th. "A woman killed by the Lord Windsor's 
waggon horses." 

1575, July 10th. " A rogue, against my Lord of London's Gate." 

1658, June 9th, *" Dr, John Hewyett, a minister," 



53 

These extracts throw a lurid glare on the state of the London 
streets at the period in question. 

At the beginning of the fifteenth century the neighbourhood of 
the Cathedral appears to have been in a very bad state. A document 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, dated 1405, recites that " a house belonging 
to the Chapter of St. Paul's, at the north-east corner of Sermonarius 
(Sermon) Lane, in the parish of St. Gregory, which Sir John Danys, 
late Minor Canon, inhabited during his life, has been assigned to 
Sir Nicholas Housebonde, likewise Minor Canon of St. Paul's, for his 
residence. The said Nicholas has made complaint that it is incon- 
venient for the purpose, on account of the grievous perils which are to 
be feared, by reason of its distance from the Cathedral church, and the 
crossing of dangerous lanes by night, and the attack of robbers and 
other ill-disposed persons, which he had already suffered, and also on 
account of the ruinous condition of the building, and the crowd of 
loose women that lived around about it. The Chapter, therefore, 
assigns to him a piece of ground at the end of the schools bounding 
the gardens of the Chapter." 

In November, 1633, the question was debated before Charles I., 
in council, as to moving the Communion table from the middle of the 
chancel to the upper end of it, and placing it there in the form of an 
Altar. As this was enjoined upon the churchwardens by the Dean 
and Chapter of St. Paul's, w.thout the consent of the parishioners, 
they opposed it, and appealed to the Court of Arches. The King 
decided that such a matter was " not to be left to the discretion of the 
parish, much less to the fancies of a few humorous persons," and 
decided that the order of the Dean and Chapter was " to be obeyed and 
complied with." 

In a report by Inigo Jones, dated 14th June, 1631, upon the 
repairs of St. Gregory's Church, he says " that the church is in no 
way hurtful to the foundations or walls of St. Paul's, nor will it take 
away the beauty of the aspect when it shall be repaired. It abuts on 
the Lollards' Tower, which is joined on the other side by another 
tower, unto which the Bishop's hall adjoins. Conscious that neither 
of them is any hindrance to the beauty of the church." 

During the repairs to the Cathedral, in 1645, some portion of the 
material gathered together for that purpose, by order of Parliament, 
was given to the parishioners of St. Gregory to rebuild their church, 



54 

which had been pulled down, because it was thought to be an eyesore 
to the Cathedral." * 

The church is mentioned several times by John Evelyn in his 
diary. He writes : 

" Went to London, March 18th, 1655, to hear the famous Dr. 
Jeremy Taylor preach at St. Gregorie's on Matthew 6, 48, concerning 
Evangelical Perfection." 

April 15th, 1655. " I went to London with my family to cele- 
brate y e feast of Easter. Dr. Wild preached at St. Gregorie's, the 
ruling powers conniving at y e use of the Liturgy, &c., in this church 
alone." 

June 8th, 1658. " That excellent preacher and holy man, Dr. 
Hewitt, was martyred for having intelligence with His Majesty thro' 
the Lord Marquis of Ormond." 

This clergyman, who was an ardent Royalist (born 1614), was 
appointed minister of St. Gregory's about 1645. He was educated at 
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and was noted for his preaching as well as 
for his devout and distinct reading of the prayers. He made several 
collections in his church for the exiled King, urging his congregation 
" to remember a distant friend." 

By order of Cromwell's High Court, Dr. Hewitt was beheaded on 
Tower Hill, 2nd Jime, 1658, and was buried in his church. His 
speech and prayer on the scaffold were afterwards printed and largely 
circulated. This speech, and a letter that he wrote, were read at his 
funeral. " They are fine specimens of eloquence, nervous English 
composition, and pious resignation." Mourning rings were afterwards 
distributed among his friends. 

Clarendon makes these remarks as to Dr. Hewitt : 

" Dr. Hewitt was born a gentleman and lived a scholar, and was 
a divine before the beginning of the troubles. He lived in Oxford, and 
in the Army until the end of the war, and continued afterwards to 
preach with great applause in a little church in London, where by the 
affection of the parish he was admitted, since he was enough known 
to be notoriously under the brand of malignity. When the Lord 
Falconbridge married Cromwell's daughter (who had used secretly to 
frequent his church, after the ceremony of the time), he was made 



* " St. Paul's," by S. Simpson. 



55 

choice of to marry them according to the order of the Church, which 
engaged hoth that Lord and Lady to use their utmost credit with the 
Protector to preserve his life, but he was inexorable." 

After his death a volume of sermons was published with the 
following title : 4 

" Nine Select Sermons Preached upon Special Occasions in the 
Parish Church of St. Gregory by St. Paul's, By the late Kev. John 
Hewitt, D.D. ; Together with his Publick Prayers before and after 
Sermon. Printed by Henry Ernsden, at " The Greyhound," in St. 
Paul's Church Yard, against the Pump, and Thos. Rooks, at the " Holy 
Lamb," at the West End of St. Paul's, near St. Austin's Gate. 1658." 

" Thus wee can onely see thee by thine own, 
Fair Pencill, though by death the curtain drawn, 
Which shows thee sooner to our weeping eye 
There could be hop'd from thine own modestie 
Unequalled chance ! that the same blow should give 
An yet make thee thus to live." 

Samuel Pepys was in the habit of sometimes attending this 
church, as will be seen by the following extracts from his diary : 

1661, October 9th. "So home to dinner and to church in the 
afternoon to St. Gregory's by Paul's, where I heard a good sermon of 
Dr. Buck, one I never heard before, a very able man." 

1661, November 10th. " Lord's Day. At our own church in the 
morning, where Mr. Mills preached. In the afternoon went and sat 
with Mr. Turner in his pew at St. Gregory's, where I heard our Queen 
Katherine, the first time by name as such publicly prayed for, and 
heard Dr. Buck upon ' Woe unto thee, Corazin,' &c., when he stated 
a difficulty which he left to another time to answer about why God 
should give means of grace to these people which He knew would not 
receive them, and deny to others which He Himself confessing they 
had had them would have received them, and they would have been 
effectual, too. I would I could hear him explain this when he do 
come to it." 

1662, November 9th. -" Lord's Day. Walked to my brother's, 
while my wife is calling at many churches, and then to the Temple, 
hearing a bit there, too, and observing that in the streets and churches 
the Sunday is kept in appearance as well as I have known at any time. 



56 

Then to dinner with my brother, and after dinner to see Mr. Moore, 
who is pretty well, and I to St. Gregory's, where I escaped a great fall 
down the stairs of the gallery. So into a pew there, and heard Dr. 
Bull make a very good sermon, though short of what I expected as for 
the most part it do fall out." 

RECTORS. 

Laurence the Prior, 1181. Gillut de Newton, 13401344. John 
Tylehill, 13981423, Thomas Kent, 15311538. 

Thomas White, D.D., Magdalen Hall, Oxford. Born 1550. 
Took Holy Orders 1593, and " became a frequent and noted preacher 
of God's word." Presented to St. Gregory's about 1575. Was also 
Rector of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, and Canon of St. Paul's. Canon 
of Christ Church, Oxford, 1591, and of St. George's, Windsor, 1593. 
Died 1623, and was buried in the church of St. Dunstan, Fleet Street. 
Fuller says: "He was accused of being a great pluralist, though I can- 
not learn that at once he had more than one cure of souls, the rest being 
dignities, as false is the aspersion of his being a great usurer." Dr. 
White will always be remembered as the munificent founder of Sion 
College, London, leaving a donation of 3,000 for the purchase of 
premises "fit to make a college for a corporation of all the ministers, 
parsons, vicars, lecturers, and curates within London and the suburbs 
thereof, as also for a convenient house or place fast by to make a con- 
venient almshouse for twenty persons, namely, ten men and ten 
women." 

A few of Dr. White's sermons were published. Among them was 
" a sermon preached at Paule's Crosse, 17th November, 1589, in 
joyfull remembrance and thanksgivinge unto God for the peaceable 
years of Her Majesty's most gracious Reigne over us, now thirty-two. 
By Tho. White, Professour in Divinitye. Printed by Robert 
Robinson, 1589." 

The following is an extract from Dr. White's will : 

" I give my curate a gown ; my clark and sexton two clokes of 
ten shillings the yard. I give ten pounds to St. Dunstan's, and 
6 13s. 4d. to St. Gregory's, where I would have reasonable diet, be it 
dinner or supper, for sixty of the ancientest men and women in 
St. Dunstan's, and for twenty others likewise in St. Gregory's parish, 



57 

the day of my buriall, and I would have the diet for St. Gregory's to 
be at the ' Green Dragon.' " 

Ambrose Golding, Sub-Dean of St. Paul's, 1591-1606 ; died 1619 ; 
buried in the Cathedral. 

Thomas Atkinson, Minor Canon of St. Paul's, 1607 ; died 1616. 
Simon Stubbs, 1616-1621. 

Thomas Adams, "Preacher," 16181623. He was "observant 
chaplain " to Sir Henry Montague, Lord Chief Justice of England, to 
whom, in 1618, he dedicated a work, entitled " The Happiness of the 
Church ; or, a Description of those Splendid Prerorations wherewith 
Christ hath endowed her, considered in contemplations upon part of 
the twelve chapters of Hebrews, being the sum of divers Sermons 
preached in St. Gregorie's, London, by Thomas Adams, preacher 
there." In 1629 he collected and published in one large folio volume 
his numerous occasional sermons, which he dedicated to the parishioners 
of St. Benet, near the Paul's Wharf, London. " Thomas Adams 
stands in the forefront of our great English preachers." The date of 
his death is uncertain. 

Robert Skinner, Trinity College, Oxford, "Preacher," 1621-1630; 
Chaplain to Charles I. ; imprisoned in the Tower, 1641 ; Bishop of 
Worcester, 1663 ; died 1670. 

Matthew Stiles, 1630; also Rector of St. George, Botolph Lane. 
" Was an excellent grammarian and casuist, and had gained great 
knowledge and experience by his travels into several parts of Italy." 
Walker says : " He was plundered ; also his family, wife, and several 
children, who were all sequestered of their necessary support of victuals 
and apparel." 

The following lines were written at the time on the sequestered 
clergy : 

" Thanks to such lights as you are who have stay'd 
In that firm Truth from which they fondly strayed ; 
Endured reproach and want, all violent shocks 
Which rowled like billows, while you stood like rocks, 
Unmoved by all their fury, kept your ground, 
Fix't as the poles, whilst they kept twirling round ; 
Submitted to all rage, and lost your all, 
Yet ne'er complied with, or bow'd knees to Baal." 



58 



This church stood at the north-east corner of Little Trinity Lane. 

The patronage was originally with the Prior and Convent of 
St. Mary Overie, Southwark, with whom it remained until the time of 
Henry VIII., when it passed to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, 
with whom it still remains. 

1313. David de Hereford, baker, left some rents for the 
maintenance of a chantry in the church. 

1365.- -John de Clark, Ropere, left money for the same purpose, 
and wished to be buried in the chancel of the church. 

1606. The church, which was small and was in a ruinous state, 
had to be propped up to prevent falling down. It was subsequently 
pulled down and rebuilt at the cost of the parishioners. 

1629. The building was under repair. At this time two large 
boards were set up in the church, giving the names of the benefactors 
to the building fund, with the amount subscribed. We are told that 
collections were made for the repairs of the building, " but that they 
would not stretch so far," but a general collection was subsequently 
made after public notice of it had been given in the church. 

1541. The following parishioners were " presented" for religious 
offences : 

William Wyders : " denied, two years before, the Sacrament to be 
Christ's Body, and said that it was but only a sign." 

William Stokesby : " for rebuking his wife at the church for 
taking holy water." 

Roger Davy: " for speaking against worshipping of Saints." 

Mr. Blage: " for not coming to his parish church, not confessing 
nor receiving." 

After the Fire, Protestant Lutherans obtained consent to build a 
church, which was erected on the same spot on which the old church 
had stood. This building was removed when Queen Victoria Street 
was formed. 

The register books of this parish commence in 1547. These books 
show that during the plague of 1563, sixty-five deaths occurred ; in 
1593, sixty-six; in 1603, one hundred and twelve; in 1625, one 
hundred and twenty-eight ; and in 1665, eighty-one. 

The following is one of the entries : " Alice Melecke, the daur. of 



59 

John Melecke, Xyned being the daye the Kinge Phillipp came from 
beyond the seas and landed att Greenwich att five o'clock att night." 

Henry Machyn, the well-known diarist, was connected with this 
parish. His diary was published by the Camden Society in 1848. It 
is called " The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen of London, from 
1550 to 1568." 

The following entries occur in the register books : 

27th September, 1557. " Katharyn, daughter of Henry Machyn, 
was christened." 

Among the entries of burials is the following : 

llth September. " John Sonne, the son of John Sonne, and 
servant of Henry Machin." 

On llth November the register shows that Henry Marcham, 
Taylor, Clerk of the Parish Church of Trinity-the-Less, was buried. 
This, no doubt, records the burial of the diarist. 

Machyn records in his diary that in 1556, in the reign of Philip 
and Mary, three Altars were consecrated in the Church by the Suffragan 
of Norwich. 

He appears to have been a supplier of funeral trappings on a con- 
siderable scale. The notices on which the diarist bestowed most care 
were those of great funerals. His grammar and spelling are so bad as 
sometimes to make his meaning obscure. The Lord Mayors' Shows 
on each 29th September he carefully particularized. 

On the 17th November, 1558, he recorded Her Grace Queen Mary's 
death in the following sentence, thus spelt : 

" The XVIIth day of Nov., between V. and VI. in the mornyng, 
ded Quun Mare, the VI. yere of her grace rayne, the whyche Jhesu 
have mercy on her solle. Amen." And with the same pen he wrote 
how " the same day, at after-noon, all the chyches in London dyd 
ryng, and at night dyd make bonfyres, and set tabelles in the strete, 
and did ett and drynke and made mere for the new Quun, Elisabeth, 
Quen Mare's syster." 

Here is another entry, 1557 : 

" The 4th of May did ride before the King and Queen in Her 
Grace's privy garden Sir James Granado, and so the bridle bit did 
break, and so the horse ran against the wall, and so he break his neck, 
for his horse threw him against the wall, and his brains ran out." 

25th July, 1560, he writes : " The second year of Queen 



60 

Elizabeth were all the rood lofts taken down in London, and writings 
written in the same place." 

RECTORS. 

John Port, 1323. Wm. Grace, 1434-1453. Richard Walsall, 
1485-1490. Thomas Lane, 1503-1532. 

John Rogers, who was burnt at Smithfield, 1555, was Rector from 
1532 to 1534.* 

Sir Thomas Chambers was presented to Holy Trinity by the Dean 
and Chapter of Canterbury. He had by no means a satisfactory pre- 
vious history, having been lodged in Wood Street Compter, and also in 
Bridewell for an assault, and in other ways his character was not good. 
After leaving Holy Trinity, he was presented by the same Dean and 
Chapter to the rectory of St. Mary Bothaw. He stayed there but a 
short time, no doubt going from bad to worse. 

Christopher Riley, 15781603. 

Dr. Francis Dee, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1606. He was 
presented in succession to his father, who had also been Rector of St. 
Bartholomew-the-Great. Dr. Dee resigned the living 1620 ; was also 
Rector of All Hallows, London Wall ; Chancellor of Salisbury Cathe- 
dral, 1619 ; Dean of Chichester, 1630 ; Bishop of Peterborough, 1634. 
His name appears as one of those first connected with the foundation 
of Sion College. He died at Peterborough, 1638, and was buried in 
his cathedral. Wood says of him : " He was esteemed a person of 
pious life and connection, and of very affable behaviour." 

Ralph Hatfield, 16201625. 

Edward Harrison, Emmanuel College, Oxford, 1625. " Was 
sequestered, and died of grief soon after." 

Matthew Haviland, St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, 1648. " Was ejected 
from the living." Calamy says of him : " He was a man mighty in 
prayer, and a savoury preacher." 

Samuel Cheney, 1662. 



* See also St. Margaret Moses. 



61 



St. 3obn-tbe- Baptist upon Malbroofe. 

This church stood upon the site of the remains of the churchyard 
now existing on Dowgate Hill. When first built it was situate on the 
banks of the Walbrook, near the " Horse Shoe Bridge." 

The church was founded at any early date, 1181. It was a 
rectory in the patronage of the Canons of St. Paul's, who granted it 
to the Convent of St. Helen's. From them it passed to the Crown in 
the reign of Henry VIII. 

1842. Adam de Dockford wished to be buried in the church, and 
left to Matilda his wife, all his movable goods and chattels, one 
hundred marks, together with his entire chamber, beds, vessels, 
napkins, towels, jewels, and other small necessaries belonging to his 
trade lying in his shop in the parish of St. Antholin. 

1858. William de Voystre wished to be buried in the chancel of 
the church, near the body of Alice his late wife. 

1484. John Penne, Skinner, left to the rector and parishioners 
lands and tenement at the corner of Walbrook, charged with the 
maintenance of a chantry for the soul of the late King Henry IV. and 
Olive his late wife. Distributions to be made to poor householders in 
the parish and the residue to be kept in a box in charge of the church- 
wardens for pious and other uses. 

1461. William Gregory wished to be buried in the parish church 
beside the seat in the chancel where he used to sit. To Agnes, his 
wife, all his stuff, except his wearing gowns with fur, his furs wrought 
and unwrought, and all other stuff pertaining to his craft as skinner. 

William Clinch was in 1541 "presented," for "calling the 
Bishop of Winchester a false, flattering knave, for burying his wife 
in the churchyard without Dirge, and causing the Scot of St. 
Katherine's to preach the next day after the burial." 

The following particulars are taken from an interesting paper 
read by Mr. H. Matthews before the members of the London and 
Middlesex Archteological Society, 1885 : 

In 1412, " The Mayor and Corporation of the City of London 
granted to the inhabitants of the parish of St. John a piece of ground 
twenty-one feet by seventeen feet, for the purpose of enlarging their 
church, which was then -about to be rebuilt, and William Comberton 
gave lands to endow the same." 



62 

The old structure was situate on the east bank of the Walbrook, 

This old brook was spanned at various places by bridges, one of 
which was Horse Shoe Bridge. 

Cloak Lane was then Horse Shoe Bridge Street, and the church 
stood on the north side of this ancient thoroughfare. 

From various entries in the churchwardens' book, about 1595, it 
would appear that the church at this date was then about one hundred 
and seventy-seven years old, of rectangular form, and illustrated the 
Decorated Gothic period, not exceeding sixty-five feet in length by 
about thirty- six feet in width, a window at the east end, and others on 
the south side, flanked with buttresses and finished with an embattled 
parapet. There were three entrances on the south side, and a parson's 
door on the north. The tower was at the west end, containing a peal 
of five bells and a clock. 

There was a monument to the memory of John Stone, Tailor, 
Sheriff in 1464, and also one to Wm. Comberton. 

The building was not rendered quite useless by the Fire, but 'was 
repaired and fitted for public worship at a cost of about 80, and was 
\ then named " The Tabernacle." When St. Antholin's Church was 
opened for Divine worship the tabernacle was then disused. 

Newcourt says, speaking of the ground on which the old church 
stood: "That it appears by the presentment made by the Rector, in 
1698, there have been great encroachments made since the Fire, to some 
of which the parish had consented, and others have been made by the 
Lord Mayor and Corporation without the consent of the Archbishop 
and Bishop of London, and the Chamberlain of London receives the 
rents for the same." 

1597. Sir Richard Sulton, a member of the Skinners' Com- 
pany, was chosen Lord Mayor. He and his company went to the 
Church of St. John-the-Baptist on Corpus Christi Day, " when a peAV 
was newly fitted up, and the iron standard for holding the sword of 
state, was newly repainted." 

In the reign of James I., under an order from the King, that "all 
churches should be repaired and made fit for the service of God," 
the mason's work of the church was repaired from top to bottom', 
and, in 1610, the churchwardens bought a copy of the new translation 
of the Scriptures, then just completed, selling the old one for 20s. 

On the enforcement of the Act of Uniformity, contributions were 



68 

given to many of the clergy, who had, in consequence, resigned their 
livings, the entries of the churchwardens shewing that these were often 
not more than Is. 

There is also an entry of 4d., " to him who brought the precejpt 
from Laud to prohibit the eating of flesh on fast days." 

When afterwards Laud, who was then Archbishop of Canterbury, 
issued a proclamation, requiring all churches to be repaired, St. John's 
churchwardens seem to have met it with a very bad grace, as they ex- 
pended only 54 16s., and that sum included certain works to the 
parson's house. 

Upon the execution of Charles I., the religious enthusiasm of the 
parishioners prompted them immediately to collect funds for the com- 
plete repair and restoration of the church. Between May and November, 
1649, 910 was collected, and with 230 in hand, they at once com- 
menced work. A dinner was afterwards indulged in at a cost of 18s. 
per head. The internal alteration consisted of the removal of the 
Alta'r and the substitution of a plain communion table. 

From this time it would appear that the parishioners chose the 
ministers. 

In 1653, lectures are mentioned, with regard to which there is 
the following entry : 

"Layed out, when the ministers preached every morning (during 
the whole month), for bread, butter, bacon, pipes, candles, and a 
gammon of bacon, and a half-hour glass, 8 17s." The pay of the 
minister weekly was 20s. During the year " 36 was paid to the 
several ministers for preaching as per bill." 

Upon the re-establishment of Episcopacy, 8 10s. was paid for the 
purchase of a prayer book, a surplice, a book of canons, and the 
Thirty-Nine Articles. 

Laurence Campe, a benefactor to this parish, died 1613. In the 
Guildhall Library there is an old account book containing receipts 
and expenditure of moneys left by him for the benefit of the parish- 
ioners. The following is the title : 

" This Booke conteyneth the sum and substance of such charitable 
and memorable gifts as were eriven by Lawrence Campe, late of the 
parish of St. John upon Wallbrook, Silkman, wherew th he put the 
parishioners of the saide parish in trust ; with a true note of the 
severall assurances made by the saide Lawrence to the saide parish- 



64 

loners, and of the uses therein expressed. And in this booke is noted 
the proceedings of the said parishioners in performing the trust in 
them reposed." 

" Memorandum the said Laurence Campe, departed this life on 
Thursday, the thirtieth day of December, 1618, and was buried the 
fourth day of January then followinge." 

The accounts of the trust commence in 1614. The funds were 
confiscated under the " Parochial Charities Act." 

Lawrence Campe also left monies derived from the house in Wall- 
brook, known by the sign of "The Lamb," to pay, among other things, 
40s. for the relief of the poor of the parish ; 40s. for the provision of 
faggots against Christmas for the poor of the Ward ; and 40s. to be 
paid to the Deputy of the Ward to be distributed by him. 

RECTORS. 

Peter the Priest, 1150. Sir Arthur Odiham, 1861. Robert 
Brown, 13941416. Master John Braughynyng, 14221434. 
Henry Croise, 14531469. Thomas Appelby, 14861505. Henry 
Symonds, 15051545. Clement Erington, 1556, appointed by Philip 
and Mary. Hugh Lewis, 1570 1581. Robert Peterson, 1619. 

Richard Walmsley, St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, 1633, when the 
living was sequestered ; was also Rector of Mulion, Cornwall. 

Christopher Fowler, St. Edmond's Hall, Oxford ; born 1610 ; 
Fellow of Eton College, 1641 ; was also Minister of St. Margaret, 
Lothbury. After the Restoration he lost his Fellowship, and retired 
to Kennington, where he preached. He died 1675, and was buried in 
St. John's Church. Wood says of him : " He used gestures and antic 
behaviour in the pulpit, enlivening the serious gravity of the place, 
but which made him popular in these times." Mr. Cooper, who 
preached his funeral sermon, said of him : " An able, holy, faithful, 
indefatigable servant of Christ." 

William Rayner, 1643, was a member of the Westminster 
Assembly of Divines. 

Zaccheus Montagu, Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1660, was also 
Rector of Radmall, Sussex. 

The register books date from 1682. 

On a wall adjoining the church yard is a tablet with the following 
inscription : 



65 

BEFORE THE LATE DREADFULL 

FIRE, ANNO DOMINI 1666, HERE 

STOOD THE PARISH CHURCH OF 

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST UPON WALLBROOKB. 

WILLIAM WILKINSON, 

NICHOLAS COTTON, 
CHURCHWARDENS, THIS PRESENT 
YEAR ANNO DOMINI, 1671. 

There is also a monument with the following inscription : 

" Sacred to the memory of the dead interred in the ancient church 
and churchyard of St. John-the-Baptist upon Walbrook. during four 
centuries." 

" The formation of the District Railway, having necessitated the 
destruction of the greater part of the churchyard, all the human 
remains were carefully collected and re-interred in a vault beneath 
this monument, A.D. 1884." 

During the progress of the work of this railway, an immense 
thickness of rubble wall, consisting of the foundations of the old 
church and tower, was discovered. 



St. 3obn-tbe-Ev>anaelist. 

This church stood^ at the corner of Friday Street and^Watling 
Street, on the site of the present churchyard. Friday Street was so 
called on account of fishmongers residing there, and selling the Lent 
fish on Fridays. The church was founded about 1365, and was 
anciently called St. Werburgh's, the presentation being with the Prior 
and Convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, from whom it passed to 
the Archbishop. 

1360. William de Aungre, Citizen and Merchant, gave to the 
Rector and his successors " one small chamber with two garretts 
built above them, lately erected, with free ingress and egress, as he 
had held and inhabited them, the churchyard being on the west and 
his fountain on the east." 

1617. Sir Walter Craven, Lord Mayor, 1610, left to the parish, 



66 

" where I was first apprentice, the sum of 100 for the reparation of 
the church of St. John-the-Evangelist, to be employed at the 
discretion of the parson and churchwarden for the time being." 

Sir William Crane, 1620, gave to the rector and churchwardens, 
for the repair of the church, a ground rent of 5 6s. 8d. on the 
"Bell Inn," Friday Street. This house is now known as No. 12 in 
the street. 

1626. The church was repaired at the cost of the parishioners, 
when a gallery was built at the sole cost of Thos. Goodyear, Citizen 
and Draper. 

The following were buried in the church : John Doggett, 
Sheriff and Alderman, 1509. Sir Christopher Ayscough, Knt., 
Draper, Sheriff, 1525 ; Mayor, 1584. Thomas Garrett, son of Sir 
George Garrett, 1664. 

The following entries appear in the vestry minutes : 

1665. " Paid at the ' Swan,' on Holy Thursday, for a quarter of 
a pound of rhubarb, 2s. Paid for new books to be read in church for 
the victory against the Dutch, Is. 2d." 

1667. " Paid a man for getting the great belle down, and the ledd 
frome the top of the church, 10s." 

" Given the poor that were burnt out, by order, 23 5s." 

" Given the man that brought some iron from the church that 
was taken from the tombs, Is." 

RECTORS. 

John Hanvill, 1854. Edward Wymondswolde, 13721894. 
John Flamsted, 14251427. 

Walter Adam, Minor Canon of St. Paul's, 1435 ; also Eector of 
St. Christopher le Stock ; died 1445. 

James Goldwell, LL.D., All Souls, Oxford ; Prebendary of St. 
Paul's, 1459 ; Bishop of Norwich, 1472 ; died 1498 ; was buried in 
his cathedral. He rebuilt the Church of Great Chart, in Kent. 

John Grey, 15461553. Eichard Judson, 15791585. 

Robert Wright, Trinity College, Oxford, 158990 ; Chaplain to 
Queen Elizabeth ; Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 1630 ; died 
1643. 

William Stepeny, 15791608. 

George Walker, St. John's College, Cambridge ; born 1581 ; was 



67 

presented by the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, 1614. He 
continued here all his life, often refusing higher preferment. He was 
a strong Puritan, which much displeased Archbishop Laud, who 
mentions Walker in one of his reports to Charles I., as one " who had 
all his time been but a disorderly and a peevish man, and now of late 
had very frowardly preached against the Lord Bishop of Ely's book 
concerning the Lord's Day, set out by authority, but when a canonical 
admonition given him to desist he hath recollected himself, and I 
hope will be advised." 1638, he was committed to prison for " some 
things tending to faction and disobedience to authority " in a sermon 
which he had preached. He published a mimber of works, one being 
" The Summe of a Disputation Betweene Master Walker, Pastor of 
John Evangelist, in Watling Street, London, and a popish prieste 
calling himself Mr. Smith, but indeed Norrice, assisted by other 
Priests and Papists ; Held in the house of one Thomas Baterson, in 
the Old Bailey, in the prescence of some worthy Knights, with other 
Gentlemen of both Religions. Printed 1624." The concluding 
paragraph is as follows : " To him (Mr. Smith) Mr. Walker answered 
that he knew himselfe inferiour to many hundreds in the Church of 
England, that it was not any power in himselfe but the power of the 
true cause which made him to prevale, for maynus est ueritas prei-alebit. 
A gentleman overhearing laughed, and sayd ' I am glad that you finde 
some of our ministers more learned than your priests, contrary to 
your common bragging and boasting that all learning is among your 
priests and Jesuites.' And so they parted, Mr. Smith saying to Mr. 
Walker ' I pray God we may meet in Heaven ; ' Mr. Walker 
replying and saying ' I desire so also, and hope we shall so doe, if you 
will forsake your errours and embrace the truth which is professed in 
the reformed churches of Christ.' 

" Soli Deo Gloria. Finis." 

Walker was a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines. 
On the 29th January, 1644, he preached a Fast Day Sermon before 
the House of Commons. Fuller said of him : " A man of a holy life, 
humble heart, and bountiful hand." He was said to be an excellent 
logician, Orientalist, and divine, strongly deprecated in his sermons 
the profanation of the Sabbath and other evil practices so common in 
those days. Died 1651, aged seventy, and was buried in the church, 
having been rector nearly forty years. During his life he advanced 



68 

the sum of 1000 for the maintenance of " preaching ministers " in 
his native country. 

Seth Ward, a famous mathematician and astronomer, was rector 
for a short time. 1648, he was imprisoned at Cambridge, and resigned 
his living ; 1662, was made Bishop of Exeter ; 1667, was translated to 
Sarum, where he founded a college for the widows of clergymen, and 
also eight almshouses. Was afterwards made Chancellor of the Order 
of the Garter. Died 1688, and was buried in his cathedral. 

Robert Tatnal, " minister," 1640 ; resigned 1662 ; Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Dr. Calamy says of him : " He was a 
man of great skill in vocal and artificial musick, which rendered him 
so acceptable to many of the gentry in and about the City." He 
published a discourse in quarto about the " Fear of Death ; or, the 
Sinful Palpitation of the Heart." 

Samuel Annesly, D.C.L., Queen's College, Oxford ; " fell in with 
the rebellious times, preached long and loud at Clitt'e, Kent, and at 
St. John-the-Evangelist, Friday Street." He was afterwards preacher 
at St. Paul's, and pastor of St. Giles, Cripplegate ; after preaching in 
conventicles. 

In the St. Paul's Cathedral Library there are two sermons with 
the following title : 

" Communion with God. In Two Sermons preached at Paul's, the 
first September 3rd, 1654 ; the second March 25th, 1655 ; by Samuel 
Annesly, LL.D., Minister of the Gospel at John Evangel. Lond., 
1655." 

In the Sion College Library there is also a sermon with the 
following title : 

" The First Dish at the Wiltshire Feast, November 9th, 1654 ; 
or, a Sermon preached at Lawrence Jury to those that there offered 
their Peace Offerings and went thence to dine at Merchant Taylors' 
Hall; By Samuel Annesly, LL.D., Minister of the Gospel at John 
Evangelist. London, Printed by C. T. for Nathaniel Webb and Wm. 
Grantham, at the 'Black Beare,' in Paul's Church Yard, 1655." 
Mr. Annesly died 1696, aged seventy-seven. 
John Stoning, Exeter College, Oxford, 1663. 
From the earliest records until the union of the parish with All 
Hallows, Bread Street, there appear to have been thirty-eight rectors 
here, 



69 

The parish is a small one. We find from the register that in 
1654 there were only four baptisms and eight burials. 

During the formation of the Underground Railway, some old 
foundations of the church, also some fragments of monuments, were 
discovered. 



St. $obn 

This church was originally dedicated to St. John the Baptist, but 
was by an ancient grant bestowed on a person (its builder or holder) 
named Zachary, from which no doubt the additional name was 
derived in order to distinguish it from St. John the Baptist upon 
Walbrook. 

Among the manuscripts at St. Paul's Cathedral is a copy of the 
grant to ZacMary, for a payment of two shillings, which he was to 
make annually in " the mother church." This way of describing St. 
Paul's certainly favours the presumption that the Chapter had built 
the church, and it is remarkable that the document is witnessed by 
the incumbents of other churches which were probably built by the 
authorities of St. Paul's. They are Osbert, Priest of St. Alphege ; 
Robert, priest of St. Mary ; John, priest of St. Faith ; and Unfred, 
priest of St. Olave's. 

The church stood on the spot now occupied by the churchyard at 
the corner of what was formerly called Maiden Lane, now Gresham 
Street, and was considered a handsome structure. 

As early as 1181 it was rated to pay a certain annual sum to the 
Canons of St. Paul's, with whom the patronage still remains. 

Roger B/yvin left money (1277) for chantries in the chapel, which 
he had erected in the church. 

John Walsh, Goldsmith (1384), left money to the work of the 
belfry. 

Sir Nicholas Twyford, Goldsmith, who was knighted with Sir 
William Walworth, and Mayor, 1388, was a great benefactor to the 
church. He was buried (1390), "between the two south pillars next 
the high Altar. Also Margery, his wife." 

William de Burton, Goldsmith, desired to be buried in the chapel 
of St. Mary in the Church. He left a missal and a portifory to be 



70 

used in praying for his soul ; also a bequest to Sir Henry de Sponden, 
who in 1388 was Kector. This gentleman left directions that he 
should be buried in the middle of the church, a small stone to be 
placed on his grave with his image thereon made of brass from the 
breast upward. 

Hugh Wetherby, Goldsmith, left money, 1426, to maintain a 
chantry at the Altar of St. Dunstan. 

One of the most conspicuous monuments in the church was to 
the memory of Si Dru Barentin, Goldsmith, Sheriff 1393, Mayor 
1398. His house stood opposite Goldsmiths' Hall in Foster Lane, 
with Avhich it had a connection by means of a bridge built across the 
street. This bridge or gallery appears to have remained until the 
latter part of the sixteenth century, as it is clearly shown on Aggas's 
map. 

Sir Dru Barentin was a great benefactor to the Goldsmiths' 
Company. He is said to have built the first hall at his own cost (1406). 
He died in 1415. 

The history of this parish, as will be seen, points to a very close 
connection with the Goldsmiths' Gompaay, whose arms were set up in 
the church, and whose Hall has for many generations past stood in 
this parish, and was close to the old church of St. John. The same 
fact is shown in the parish records. 

The following interesting notes are taken from " Memorials of the 
Goldsmiths' Company," by Sir Walter S. Prideaux : 

1354. " 10 is paid to the work in St. John Zacharie's church." 

1359. " A dinner on St. Dunstan's Day is mentioned, also St. 
Dunstan's Light in St. John Zacharie's Church." 

1374. " The light in St. John Zacharie's is twelve wax candles, 
and two torches weighing iwelve pounds." 

1461. " Sir Thomas Bagot was admitted to tne chantry of Dru 
Barentin in this church." 

1510. "The Company to find a priest in St. John Zachary's 
church, with a stipend yearly for ever of ten marks, the said priest to 
be always at the nomination of the Fellowship." 

1558." Sir William Testtwwua, of St. John Zachary's, to be talked 
with for the saying of Mass before the almsmen on Wednesdays and 
Fridays. It is agreed that he shall have therefore 6s. 8d. per 
annum." 



1610. " Ten pounds is given towards the repair of St. John\ - 
church." 

1624. " Forty shillings is given to the parishioners for the 
repair of Lady Read's monument in fcbe church." 

1629. " Petitions from the churchwardens and parishioners of 
St. George's, Southwark, and St. John Zachary, for assistance towards 
the repair of those churches, and also the steeples. The Court agree 
to send to St. George's church 3 (the parishioners not to know from 
whom the money is sent), and to the repair of St. John Zachary 
twenty nobles is sent." 

1632. " The Wardens and others of the Fishmongers Company 
to the number of eight repair to Goldsmiths' Hall, and in solemn 
manner go with the Warden and assistants of this Company to the 
parish church of St. John Zachary, and there hear a sermon, after 
which they return to the Hall, and dine according to ancient custom, 
which amitie God long continue." 

1636. " The parson of St. John Zachary makes a demand on the 
Company, for an addition to his tithe by reason of their having pulled 
down, for rebuilding the Hall, no less than eight or nine adjoining 
houses, from which he used to receive tithe." The letter concludes : 
" These containing in extent and value one- sixth part of this small 
parish, which amounts in the whole net to 60 per annum, I beseech 
you, gentlemen, to consider and determine of it as in wisdom and 
justice you shall think meet, that you may render to God that which 
is God's, and prevent any further complaining. PHIL. EDLIN, St. John "; 
Zachias (Rector)." 

1640. " Francis Robinson, for twenty years parish clerk, is made 
porter with 40s. a year. He is not to intrude himself upon the 
Company when they or the wardens go to the Lord Mayor or Sheriffs." ^ s 

1642. " Mention of the death of -John Dyos, a pensioner, who 
desired that he might be buried in the church of St. John Zachary. 
This is arranged with the churchwardens at a cost of 50s." 

1646. " Ten pounds is given to Mr. Barton, minister of St. John 
Zacharie's parish, in regard to his necessities, charge of children, and 
small means. It is alleged that many refuse to pay him that which of 
right belongs to him." 

1647. "The Clerk reads a letter from Mr. Browne, father \of ' 

' /C*v 

Mr. Rotherham, the late Rector of the parish, desiring that the tithes 



72 

due from the Company to Mr. Barton, the present Rector, may be 
stay'd in the Company's hands until the end of next term, because of 
an order which he pretends to have been made in that behalf. As, 
however, the order is in no way directed to the Company, it is decided 
that, notwithstanding the same, the Wardens shall pay Mr. Barton 
the tithes." 

1649. "John Hastings is elected beadle, vice Ralphe Robinson, 
who is to be buried this afternoon in St. John Zacharie's church." 

1659, 4th March. " The Commissioners for ejecting scandalous, 
ignorant, and insufficient ministers and schoolmasters within the City 
of London, represent unto the Wardens the sequestration of the 
benefice, and that upon the occurrence of such sequestration, the Com- 
missioners did lately order that the said John Heardman (the late 
Rector) should be allowed and paid from the time of his ejection out 
of the profit of the said benefice the sum of 8 per annum, and did 
direct that the Company and all the parishioners should pay their 
tithes to the Commissioners, who should make provision for such 
payment of 8, and hand over the balance to the incumbent for the 
time being." 

1659, 15th April. " Mr. Strettell, minister of St. John Zacharie 
in the place of John Heardman, petitions the sequestrators with 
reference to the 8 allowed to Heardman out of the income of the 
benefice, and the petition is forwarded to the Company and debated, 
Mr. Strettell and his counsel being also heard touching the matters 
alledged in the same. The Company, however, decide to continue 
paying their tithes to the sequestrators." 

1659, 18th November. " Mr. Strettell conies and demands the 
tithes for the Hall for three quarters now past, being 45s. a quarter, 
who is told by the Wardens that the money has been already paid, and 
that there is a receipt for it by the sequestrators for the parish (author- 
ised by the Commissioners who sequestrated Mr. Heardman, the late 
minister), whereupon Mr. Strettell shows an order of the Committee 
for plundered ministers, which is read, after which Mr. Strettell 
desires the Wardens that he may receive the future tithes as they 
shall fall due, but the Wardens tell him that the matter must be con- 
sidered by the full court. Subsequently, at a court held on the 
19th December, Mr. Strettell is informed that what the Company 
have to pay for the tithes on the Hall, they are resolved to keep in 



73 

their own hands until the controversy which is depending between 
him and Mr. Heardman shall be settled." 

1660, 24th October. " The Parson of St. John Zacharye's parish 
comes before the court and petitions them to bestow something toward 
the new ' tryming up ' of the church and for the ' refreshing ' of the 
two monuments therein of Sir Bartholomew Keade and his lady, and 
Sir James Pemberton, in regard that the Lord Mayor elect intends 
to keep his Mayoralty in the parish, in the house which belongs 
to the Company, late in the occupation of Sir James Drax as tenant 
thereof. 3 is given." 

In the Ordinances of the Company we read that they attended 
St. Paul's on St. Dunstan's Eve (at this time St. Dunstan was their 
patron saint) and " thence after service to St. John Zachary, and 
attend service there." 

It Avas one of the Beadle's duties to warn the Company's twelve 
almsmen called the " Almsmen of St. Dunstan that they should be 
present at St. John Zachary's church every Wednesday and Friday at 
eight o'clock to hear Mass." There they were to pray for the 
good estate of all the brethren of the craft, whether living or dead. 
They had also to come weekly to the Goldsmiths' Mass " at St. John 
Zachary's in their blue, and to every obit in their black gowns." 

There was a Chapel of St. Dunstan in St. Paul's Cathedral, for 
which the Company supplied yearly, fourteen days before the Feast of 
St. Dunstan, "clothes of silk, jewels, and plate, and also arras for 
hanging of the chapel without." 

Sir Bartholomew Eeade, Alderman, left directions that the mem- 
bers of the Company should attend at this church on the day of his 
decease. To the minister, for a sermon, he gave 1 lls. 6d. ; to the 
organist, 10s. 6d. ; and the clerk, 8s. 6d." 

In the accounts of the Company appears a charge for maintaining 
in the church " the St. Dunstan's Light." 

" Mr. Henderson, the minister, receives 45s. for a quarter tithe of 
the Hall, and for the houses and cellars within and under the same." 

The following were buried in the church : 

Sir John Francis, Mayor 1400. 

Sir Eichard Martin (Goldsmith), Mayor 1589. ^> 

There was a monument erected to the memory of Sir James 
Pemberton, Knight, with the following inscription : 



74 

" This Monument is erected to the memory of Sir James 
Pemberton, Knight, who, being Sheriff of this City at the coming in 
of King James, entertained near forty earls and barons in his house 
on the day of the King's being proclaimed. 

"Afterwards (anno 1612) was elected Mayor of this Most 
Honorable City of London. 

"He erected a free school in the parish of Eccleston in Lancashire 
sixteen years before his death, and gave 50 by the year to the main- 
taining thereof for ever. He gave also 500 to Christ's Hospital and 
200 to the Company of Goldsmiths, besides many liberal gifts to the 
poor of his kindred and many other most charitable uses. 

"He died the 8th day of December, 1612, aged sixty-eight years. 
" Marble, nor torch, nor alabaster can 
Reveale the truth of the long buried man ; 
For oft we see men's goods, when they are gone, 
Doe pious deeds, when they themselves did none. 
Mine, while I lived, my goodnesse did expresse, 
Tis not inscriptions make them more or less ; 
In Christ I hope to rise among the just 
Man is but grass, all must to worms and dust." 
There was also a monument to the memory of John Sutton, 
Citizen, Goldsmith and Alderman, who, on the 6th July, 1450, was 
killed in the defence of the City in the battle on London Bridge against 
the rebel Jack Cade. 

The church was repaired on several occasions between 1616 and 
1631 at a cost of 120. 

The following extracts from the old account books of the parish 
are of interest : 

1633. " There is a charge for re-hanging the third bell, also the 
great bell. 1 9s. 8d. for a perambulation dinner. At the end of the 
year the total sum received is 57 7s. 3d. ; the total paid is 
54 3s. 4d." 

1636. " Paid to Mr. Boyond, for one whole year to read Divine 
service, 4. In this year the wine for Holy Communion cost 
4 17s." 

1641. " Revenues arose from the following sources Rents and 
annuities, 16 16s. 4d. ; fines and casualties, 16 12s. 6d. ; burials in 
the church, 6 16s. 4d. ; burials in the churchyard, 17s." 



75 

1642. "Ringing out the King's Coronation, 3s. 4d. To Richard- 
son, the joyner, for making a ^eme- in ye chancell, 16s. 6d. For 
making sett of parish lanthorns, Is. 6d. For maintenance of a 
woman that fell in travail in ye parish, and to discharge ye parish of 
her, 16s. lOd." 

1644. Received of the Company of Goldsmiths towards the 
money that was lay'd out for the relieving of ye poor when they were 
visited, 2." 

1645. "Paid for candles to hang out in ye night, and for other 
necessarys for ye church, 2 Is. Paid for mending large lanthorn, 
and one new, 6s." 

1647. " Paid for the Account Dinner, 1 15s. Given to the 
boys who beat the boundaries of the parish, 6d." 

1648." Paid for the Account Dinner, 4 2s. lOd." 

1660. "Paid on Ascension Day, for ribbons and cakes, 14s. lOd. 
The same for a dinner, 2 2s. 7d. The same day to the poor of the 
parish, 2s. Paid for the King's Arms, 2. Given to the Widow 
Steyns to buy a coffin and bury her husband, 15s." 

1663. " Paid for a parish dinner at the ' Globe,' Moorfields, 
3 7s. lOd." 

1664. " Paid for rosemary and bay at Christmas, 5s." 

RECTORS. 

Robert de Barentin, 1217. Henry de Spondon, 1366-1383. 
John Hale, 1407-1412. John Statharne, 1414-1422. William 
Byngham, 1424-1451. William Westwode, 1452-1457. John 
Jenkynson, 1513-1540. William Tofte, 1560. Hugh Andrews 
(Minor Canon of St. Paul's), 1585-1604. Henry Hammond, 1608- 
1623. William Carter, 1625-1630. Philip Edlin, 1635-1642; was 
dispossessed by Parliament. Thomas Rotherham, 1642. John ;' I 
HJardman, 1662. 



St. Xaurence pountnes. 

This church stood on the site of the present church yard in 
Laurence Pountney Hill. The building consisted of a porch, north 
and south aisles, chancel, battlements, and a steeple. There was a 



76 

High Altar, an Altai* dedicated to Our Lady, one dedicated to the 
Martyr, St. Stephen, and one to St. Thomas of Canterbury, an image 
of St. Leonard, and images and arms of the founder. There was also 
a preaching cross. 

In connection with the church was a college dedicated to " The 
Holy Jesus and Corpus Christi," founded by Sir John Pountney, 
Draper, about the year 1245, from whence the church took its name. 
It was endowed by the founder for a master, wardens, thirteen priests, 
and four choristers. All were to reside in the manse appointed for 
their residence adjoining the church. Sir John Pountney was Mayor 
of London on four occasions, but does not appear to have served the 
office of Sheriff. He was noted for his wisdom, his piety, and wealth. 
His will is dated 14th November, 28rd Edward III. He built also a 
chapel in St. Paul's Cathedral, where he was buried. 

In 1631 the steeple, which was celebrated for its height and pic- 
turesque details, was newly leaded. Aubrey says that " this was the 
only London church which could boast of a leaded steeple, except 
St. Dunstan-in-the-East." 

In the same year five new bells were hung and frames renewed, 
the aisles were raised and levelled, and the entire church repaved 
within and without, at the cost of the parishioners. 

The following memorial was in the church, dated 1628 : 

" In memory of Sir Allen Cotton, Lord Mayor, who had fourteen 
children and lived to the age of seventy. His sons placed this tablet. 

" When he left earth, rich Bounty dyed ; 
Mild Courtesie gave place to Pride. 
Soft Mercie to bright Justice said : 
' 0, sister, we are both betrayed.' 
While Innocence lay on the ground 
By Truth, and wept at either's wound. 
The sons of Levi did lament, 
Their lamps went out, their oil was spent. 
Heaven hath his soul, and only we 
Spin out our lives in misery. 
So Death, thou missest of thy ends, 
And kill'st not him, but kill'st his friends." 

There was also a monument to the memory of " Elisabeth, the 



77 

wife of Emmanuel Lucar, a very ingenious person in all sort of needle- 
work, could write three hands very well, was a good accompanist, could 
play well on the viol, lute, and virginals ; she read, spoke, and wrote 
Latin, Italian, and Spanish, and, which crowned all, was endued with 
many virtues. She died at the early age of 27. An. dom. 1537." 

1306. William de Guliford left the rent of his house for six years 
after his decease for repairing the north part of the church. 

1349. Dyonisia la Tonge wished to be buried in the cloister of 
the College of Corpus Christi, near the church of St. Laurence. To 
the chapel in the church she left her brewery, charged with the main- 
tenance of a lamp to burn day and night before the image of Blessed 
Mary in the church. 

1350. Katharine Estmare wished to be buried in the church 
before the Altars of the Martyrs Stephen and Thomas, Archbishop of 
Canterbury. To the church and ministers she left two pieces of tapestry 
and a mazer enamelled with the image of the Blessed Mary. 

1 389. Idonia, wife of Robert Salisbury, Fishmonger, wished to be 
buried in the church, and left to Christina, wife of Sir Thomas Pyke, 
her new gown of scarlet, with fur and hood ; to Sir John Norwiche, 
sub-master of the college, a chalice and paten ; and to each of the 
chaplains a sum of money. 

1393. William Wight desired to be buried in the cloister of the 
church. 

1497. Johanna, Avife of John Carre, Gentleman, desired her 
estate to be divided into four parts : the founding of a chantry in the 
church, marriage portions for four poor maidens having few friends, 
the relief of poor householders and parishioners, the repair of the 
church ornaments. 

1657. Eliab Harvey left property in Duck's Foot Lane for the 
relief of nine of the most ancient watermen of the parish or others, 
the same to have 6s. 8d. a year, also 16s. yearly to the sexton for his 
pains in making clean the tomb of the said Harvey, the tomb to be 
made clean once in every week for ever in dry weather, taking special 
care to make clean the said tomb at any time or in any weather when 
any moisture or any sweat shall be upon the tomb ; 16s. in each year 
to the churchwardens to brush down the walls and make clean the 
pews and wash clean the pavements of the parish church against the 
feasts of Christmas and Whitsuntide, the residue to keep and maintain 



78 

and as often as need make new curtains and curtain rods now before 
the said tomb, and once in every year to paint in oil the black circle 
round about the tomb and all the whole wall within the black circle ; 
and upon the Feast Day of the Annunciation of St. Mary the Virgin 
an exact account of the rents received shall be made at the same feast 
and all the particulars fairly written and entered in a book to be kept 
in the parish for that purpose." 

John de Bland, 13th January, 1302, " being the Friday next before 
the Feast of St. Hilary, bound himself and all his rents and lands to 
keep the City indemnified from peril of fire which might arise from his 
houses covered with thatch in the parish of St. Laurence, and he 
agreed that he would have the said houses covered with tiles about the 
Feast of Pentecost then next ensuing." 

In a patent of Henry VI., approving certain persons to pursue the 
study of alchemy for the King's emolument, the following names 
occur : 

Thomas Harvey, an Austin Friar ; Robert Grattely, a Preaching 
Friar ; William Attclyffe, the Queen's Physician ; and Henry Stamp, 
the Master of the College of St. Laurence. 

The two following names also occur as masters of the college : 

1398. Nicholas Mockyng, Treasurer of St. Paul's, " Keeper of 
the Corpus Christi Chapel." 

1466. Henry Sharpe, LL.D., Prebendary of St. Paul's. 

The oldest registers in the parish date from 1538. 

The first volume is thus headed : 

" M.D., that on the first day of December, in the XXX. yeere of 
the raigne of our Suffrane Lord King Henry the Eight, This Booke 
begun to be kept in the Parish Church of St. Laurance Pountney in 
the form following. In the presence of Mr. Powle Withipole and 
William Chande, Churchwardens, and William Latimer, Parson ot the 
same." 

The register of burials dates from 1542. 

The following were buried in the church : 

Adrian Poultney, one of the builders of the church. 

The first and second Earls of Sussex. 

1552, October 15th. Thomas Beale, Parish Clerk. 

1561, November 12th; Mr. Woodly, Minister of the Church. 

1568, February 8th. John Uprise, the Common Cryer. 



79 

1577. Sir John Olyffe, Knt., Sheriff. 

1578, September 15th. Alice, wife of Mr. Robert Hales, Minister. 
1584, September 4th. Robert Faulkner, Parish Clearke. 
1597, August 30th. Edward Moore, Parish Clearke. 
1601, July 6th. "Jeremy Sands, being frant, and lept into the 
Thames and ther drowned the V. day of July." 

1601, October 8th. " Olyf, wyf to Willm. Spackman, late of 
Ambridge in Essex, being lunatick, cam hither to be cured." 

1602, February 2nd. "Margery, wyf to Jeremy Crewes, Needle- 
maker, upon the banck side, she lept into the Tames, but died in the 
house." 

1602, March 4th. " Thomas Stevenson, a prentis, died under 
Wido Stevenson's window in Katharine Wile Alley." 

1609. " Edmond Bramston, a seller of aqua vitey." 

1611. "Francis, servant to Mr. Scott, scalded in the mashe 
fatt." 

1628. " Robert Silvester, Clarke of the church, by trade 
Haberdasher." 

1624. " Elyas, the son of Elyas Crabtree, minister of this parish, 
and Mary his wife." 

1681. "Alice Gratwyck, swane to Mr. Crabtree, minister of this 
parish." 

1641, December 12th. Mr. John Goldwell, Curate. 

The churchwardens' accounts date from 1530. The oldest book is 
thus headed : 

" This is the accompt of us, William Pape (Draper) and Anthony 
Herne (Stock fishmonger), Churchwardens of the parish church of St. 
Laurence Pountney, London, for the space of one whole year, ending 
the first day of May, anno domini 1530, and yielded and given up on 
the fourteenth day of the present month in the presence of the most 
discrete honest men, parishioners of the same." On the first 
leaf of the book is written : " Deliver all things in number and 
weight, and put all in writing, that you givest out or receivest 
in. Ecclesiastics Lvii., 7." 

The following are a few extracts from the accounts : 

1580. " Recei\ d> of John Wernes for Mr. Canwicke's pit and 
knell, 13s. 4d." 

" Paid to John Ingolrl, Carpenter, for four quarters to fasten the 



80 

bars in the glass windows, and nine foot of board for Mrs. Bird's 
maid's pew." 

1583. To the clerke for watching on Easter Eve, Is." "To 

the clerke's wife for washing the Vestry gear, 4s." 

1536. Making the pit for the child that layeth before Our 
Lady, 8d." 

1538." For a Bible in English, 4s." 

1547. " To the clerke, for the ringing of a knell at the burial of 
King Henry VIII., Is. 8d." 

1549. " To the plasterer, for mending the quire and whiting it, 
six days' work at lOd. the day, 5s." " For taking down the sepulchre, 
2s." 

1579. " To Goodman Peter, for wainscoting the quire, agreed by 
a vestry, 8 18s." 

1588. " Paid to the clerk, for his two year's wages, and for his 
attendance, and light for the lecture, 10." 

1596. For turned pillars to hang hats and caps upon, for setting 
up three benches iu the church, and work in the quire, and a new 
seat, 2s. 4d." 

1597. " For two prayers set forth for the good success of His 
Majesty's Navy, 7d." 

1601. " Mending two Lan thorns to serve in the church on lecture 
nights, 2s. 4d." 

1612. " Spent on our dinners these two years, when we came from 
St. Magnus, and when we went our perambulations, 3 13s. 4d." "To 
Mr. Flood, to buy Bishop Jeule's Works, 1." 

1615. " Paid for being presented for not having the King's arms 
in the church, Is. 4d." "Paid for the King's arms and then Ten 
Commandments, 7 7s. lOd." 

1617. "Eec d - of Eichard Lewis, for the shop in the churchyard, 
15s." "Paid to a poor man towards redeeming four cushions from 
the Turks, Is. 6d." 

1618. " Rec a - of the butcher, for the shop in the churchyard, 
5s." " Paid for new paving the alley to the church, 18s. 6d." 
" Making three long benches for the maids, 2s. 2d." 

1623. " Gift to a poor woman that had a wolf on her arm, 6d." 

1629. " To a poor minister that was cut of the stone, Is." 



81 

The following minute of vestry occurs on the 13th February, 
1641: 

" There shall be no allowance made to any churchwardens for the 
usual dinners heretofore made at the coming in of any churchwarden 
into his office, or at the perambulation of the parish for the dinner 
heretofore made, and that no churchwarden for the time being shall 
give any of the parish money to any poor minister, lame or maimed 
soldier, captive, or any poor dwelling out of the parish, and not being 
an inhabitant of the parish." 

Eobert Nelson, author of the "Fasts and Festivals of the Church,'' 
was baptized here July 8th, 1656. His father, Mr. John Nelson, 
Merchant, was buried here in the following September. 

Thomas Creede, the great printer of plays in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, lived in the parish. 

Anne Clargis was married 28th February, 1632, to Thomas 
Radford, Farrier, of the parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. She 
was afterwards married to Monk, Duke of Albemarle. 

The patronage of the church, together with that of St. Mary 
Abchurch, belongs to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

William Latimer, a Curate of the church, complained, jointly with 
Bishop Hooper (in the reign of Edward VI.) against Bishop Bonner, 
for leaving out of his sermon at Paul's Cross the article of the King's 
authority, whilst a minor, contrary to the royal injunction, and for 
various neglects in his episcopal office unduly, for which the bishop 
was prosecuted and deprived. In connection with this, " The Grey 
Friars Chronicle " has the following : 

" 1549. Item, the first day of September : the bysshoppe of 
London, then Edmond Boner, preached at Pawle's Crosse, and after 
was accuysed on to the cownsell by two persons, as William Latimer, 
parsonne of Sent Lawrens Pountney, and John Hopper, that some 
time was a whyte monke." 

Edward Gregory, Rector 1536. He was also Hector of All 
Hallows-the-Less. 

Richard Archbold (1556) was appointed by Philip and Mary. 

Thomas Wadsworth, born in the parish of St. Saviour's, South- 
wark, 1630, and Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, was minister 
here. He was Lecturer at St. John the Baptist, and lectured on 
Saturday mornings and Tuesday evenings at St. Antholin's ; was also 



82 

lecturer at St. Margaret's, New Fish Street. He resigned all these 
appointments in 1G62. On the Saturday before the Act of Uniformity 
came into force, his parishioners desired him to preach them a fare- 
well sermon from Malachi iii., 6, with which he readily complied. 

Dr. Calamy says : " He was an able judicious man, devoted wholly 
to God, and to do good." He afterwards gathered a congregation in 
Southwark. It is related " that he received nothing for his labours, 
but was content to spend and be spent in his Great Master's service." 
His diary, printed at the end of his life, contains " the strongest proof 
of his being an excellent Christian, and it is no less evident," says 
Granger, " from his private works, that he strove to make others as 
good Christians as himself." He died, 1676, aged forty-six. His 
funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Bragge.* 

Tobias Conyers, of Peterhouse, Cambridge, succeeded Mr. Wads- 
worth. He was an " Independent Arminian," and published " A 
Pattern of Mercy, opened in a Sermon preached at St. Paul's before 
the Right Hon. The Lord Mayor and the Lord General Moncke." 
Bishop Kennett says of him: "A very learned and extraordinary 
person." 

Thomas Palmer was chosen minister 1644 ; remained until 1646 ; 
when he removed to Aston-upon-Trent. The following appeared in 
" Kennett's Register and Chronicle": "It was advised soon after from 
London that whereas among the late conspirators there was mention 
made of one Palmer, a minister, near Nottingham, it was proper to 
notify that the Palmer intended by His Majesty's Proclamation is not 
Laurence Palmer the minister of Gidling, within two miles of Notting- 
ham, who lives quietly and in obedience to the Government, but one 
Thomas Palmer, sometime minister of Laurence Pountney, London, 
a great assister of the late rebellion, both with his sword and pen. 
The last settled place of his abode was at Aston, in Derbyshire, where 
he was ejected, and since that time has been an itinerant preacher and 
gatherer of churches here and there. About four months since he 
was secured at Nottingham for preaching in conventicles. To give a 
personal description of him, he is a tall man, flaxen hair, between 
forty and fifty years of age." 

At the great Fire, some circumstances in connection with the 

* See also St. Margaret, New Fish Street. 



83 

destruction of this church seem to have given rise to suspicions that 
the fire was begun and maintained by design. These are related in a 
tract published soon after the event, and which is now in the Guildhall 
Library. It is there related : "The Information of Thomas Middleton, 
Chyrugion, late inhabitant of St. Bride's, London. I, the said Thomas 
Middleton, do hereby certifie that upon the Sunday in the afternoon 
(the day upon which the dreadful fire broke out in Pudding Lane 
which consumed the City), hearing the general outcry that the City 
was fired by Papists and French, I repaired to the top of a church 
steeple near The Three Cranes in the Vintrey, where myself and several 
others observed the motion of the fire for two or three hours together, 
and we all took notice that the fire did break forth out of several 
houses, while those which were then burning were at a good distance 
from them every way, and more especially I saw the fire brake out 
from the inside of St. Lawrence Pountney steeple when there was no 
fire near it. These and such like observations begat in me a persuasion 
that the fire was maintained by design." 

Some further evidence is given by a Mr. Citman. "Mr. Citman 
did inform that our Mr. Carpenter, late a preacher on Colledge Hill, 
did in discourse tell Citman that the judgement of God on this 
Kingdom of the Plague last yeare, and lately by the Fire in London, 
were come upon this land and people for their forsaking the true 
Roman Catholique religion and casting off obedience to the Pope, 
and that if they would return to the Church of Rome the Pope would 
rebuild this City at his own charge. Carpenter said likewise to the 
said Citman that if he would come and hear him preach the next 
Sunday at his house in Queen Street, he would give twenty reasons 
to prove that the Roman Catholique was the true religion, and his 
false, and that our Bible had a thousand falsities in it. And that 
there was no true Scripture but at Rome and their Church." 

Samuel Pepys, in his diary, on one or two occasions mentions this 
church, and also a curate there, of whom he does not seem to have 
formed a very high opinion. 

1662, January 6th. "I to St. Paul's Church Yard, to my book- 
sellers, and then into St. Paul's Church, and there finding Elborough, 
my old schoolfellow, at Paul's, now a parson, whom I know to be a 
silly fellow, I took him out, and walked with him, making Mr. Creed 
and myself sport with talking with him and so sent him away." 



84 

1662, February 6th. "Thence with Mr. Elborough to a cook-shop 
to dinner, but I found him a fool, as he ever was, or worse." 

1664, February 12th. " To church to St. Laurence to hear Dr. 
Wilkins, the great scholar, for curiosity, I having never heard him, 
but was not satisfied with him at all. I was well pleased with the 
church, it being a very fine church." 

1666, September 2nd. "Having staid, and in an hour's time seen 
the fire rage every way, and nobody to my sight endeavouring to 
quench it, but to remove their goods and leave all to the fire, and 
having seen it get as far as the Steele Yard, and the wind mighty high, 
and driving it into the City, and everything, after so long a drought, 
proving combustible, even the very stones of churches, and, among 
other things, the poor steeple (St. Laurence Pountney) by which pretty 
Mrs. - - lives, and whereof my old schoolfellow, Elborough, is 
parson, taken fire in the very top, and then burned till it fell down." 

This Mr. Elborough published a sermon with the following title : 
" London's Calamity by Fire bewailed and improved in a Sermon 
preached at St. James's, Duke's Place, wherein the Judgements of God 
are asserted, the times of these Judgements specified, the reasons for 
these Judgements assigned, and all in some measure suitably applied. 
By Eobert Elborough, Minister of the Parish, that was lately St. 
Laurence Pountney. London, 1666." 



St. Xeonarfc, Eastcbeap. 

This church was an ancient foundation, as both Strype and Stow 
refer to a monument in the old church dating as far back as 1280. 
Newcourt says that it was originally called " St. Leonard Milk 
Church," after " William Milker," the builder of it. 

1259. Walter de Stocke left to the Hospital of St. Thomas rents 
" of a shop near the church of St. Leonard in Estcheap," and two 
shillings for the maintenance of a wax taper in the church. 

1314. William Mollyng left five marks for the maintenance of a 
torch. 

1349. Geoffry Fairher wished to be buried in " the chapel of the 
church of St. Leonard," 






85 

1351. Thomas Doggett, " to be buried in St. Mary's Cbapel in 
the church." He also left money to the High Altar, the fabric, and 
the ministers. A monument to his memory was in the church. He 
left to his son Walter, two pairs of best sheets and two pieces of his 
best silver. 

1857. John Edward wished to be buried in St. Mary's Chapel, 
and left to the Fraternity of Butchers money to provide a wax taper 
at his funeral. 

1861. Kobert Forneux, Fishmonger, "to be buried in the 
chancel of the church, where his children lie buried." 

1363. William Doket (Vintner), " to be buried in the choir of 
the church, near the tomb of Sir John de Lichfield." 

1890. William Young (Butcher) left money to buy two new 
missals and for the repair of the belfry. 

We gather from these various directions that the old church con- 
sisted of chancel, choir, chapel of St. Mary, and a belfry and steeple. 

At the time of the excavations in Eastcheap for the Metropolitan 
District Railway, the site of the old church was plainly shewn. The 
foundation shewed a long chancel and a nave, the latter having 
masonry of great antiquity on its north side, made up with fragments 
of Roman brickwork. 

In a document of the fifteenth century is a demise by John 
Carpenter, Town Clerk of the City of London, to John Staples, Citizen 
and Vintner, of a tenement called " Le Greyhound," which John 
Carpenter had lately rebuilt, bounded on the north by the church, on 
the south by a tenement called "Le Boole," on the east by the country, 
on the west by the King's highway, together with an underground 
cellar between " Le Boole " and " Le Sterre." 

There was a monument with the following inscription : 

" Here under this stone lyeth Joane, wife of William Allyn, 
Citizen and Alderman, who died in childbed of her ninth child, the 
22nd of May, 1560." 

William Allyn, Leather seller, was Sheriff, 1562 ; Lord Mayor, 
1572. He lived in Bow Lane, and afterwards in Tower Street. Was 
buried in St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. 

Maitland refers to an inscription which was "in a green shop" 
[the late vestry room.] 



86 

" Time out of minde this vestry stoode, 

Till work'd with adge my strength I lost, 
And in November, with full consent, 

Was built at y e parish cost, 
When Queen Elizabeth raigned had 

To England, peace, twenty-six yeeres, 
John Heard, Parson at that time, 

Richard Founts and Hary Barker 
Churchwardens were, Anno Dom. 1584. R.P." 

1618. The church was much injured by a fire caused by 
" whiteing of baskets in the house of one Jerome Baynton, a Turner." 
" The steeple was fired, and quenched, but not without great pains 
and much danger to several persons (who have not been rewarded by 
the parish), before any great harm was done to it more than the 
defacing of it and other parts of the church." During the same year 
the steeple was rebuilt and the structure repaired. 

Immediately after the Fire in October, 1066, a vestry was held at 
" The Gun," Aldgate, at which the churchwardens were directed to 
" make sale of the iron and lead convenient to be taken down from 
the church and to receive all rents due to the parish." 

RECTORS. 

John Taurner de Lichfield, 1848. William Wexcombe de 
Tessington, Prebendary of St. Paul's, 1861, afterwards Rector of 
Maidstone. Sir Geoffrey Launde, 1890. John Lyle, 1416-1419. 
Sir Thomas Kiggle, 1423. Sir Robert Pyrington, 1441. 

Thomas Still, 1457, was appointed when a minor, but had a dis- 
pensation from the Archbishop. Died 1498. 

Thomas Wills, D.D., New College, Oxford, 1513-1516. Was 
Canon of St. Paul's and Prior of St. Gregory in Canterbury. 

Peter Potkin, New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1516-1520. 

John Towner, 1540. Was also Rector of St. Dunstan-in-the-East. 
He did penance in 1554 for getting married. 

Abraham Colfe, Christ Church, Oxford, born 1580. Was 
presented to this living in 1609 by the Dean and Chapter of Canter- 
bury, of which his father was Prebendary. He was presented to the 
vicarage of Lewisham, 1610, of which place (in 1604) he had been 



87 

Curate. He held both livings until 1646 (or 1647), when he was 
displaced in his City living by Henry Robino, a member of the 
Assembly of Divines. Several attempts were made to deprive him also 
of the Vicarage of Lewisham, but these failed. He died Vicar of the 
parish, 1657, aged seventy-eight. In his will he says " I desire my 
executors to see my body buried in a decent and Christian manner in 

the churchyard of Lewisham And my will is that a freestone 

of about one foot broad and square any way and three foot long shall 
be set deep and upright in the ground over my grave to uphold a thick 
strong plank of oak which shall be put there all along close by the 
wall, between the two buttresses, for people to sit upon when they 
resort to the public church meetings. " :;: A kindly thought for those 
who came from a distance. 

In Evelyn's Diary we find Abraham Colfe referred to : 

" 14th March, 1652. I went to Lewisham, where I heard an 
honest sermon on 2 Corinthians v., 7, being the first Sunday I had 
been at church since my returne, it being now a rare thing to find a 
priest of the Church of England in a parish pulpit, most of which 
were filled with Independents and Phanaticks." 

" 25th December, 1652. Christmas Day. No sermon anywhere, 
no church being permitted to be open, so observed it at home. The 
next day we went to Lewisham, where an honest divine preached." 

Colfe was a great benefactor to the parish of Lewisham. He 
built and endowed a free school, also some almshouses, which still 
exist, and are carried on under the management of the Leathersellers 
Company, of which he was a member. 

Seth Wood, who had been for about five years minister at St. 
James, Garlick Hill, was appointed to St. Leonard's, 1650, and 
remained until about 1662, when he resigned because (as he says him- 
self) " he was not able to satisfy himself on some things required of 
him about Conformity." Died 1698, aged eighty years. 

Mr. Wood is said to have been " an eloquent and awakening 
preacher and an ingenious scholar." 

Matthew Barker, born 1619, was here for a short time, but 
resigned on account of the Act of Uniformity. He then formed 
the first Independent Church, which met in Miles Lane, where he 

* The parish church of St. Mary Lewisham. DUNCAN. 



88 

ministered for nearly forty years. In 1660 he signed the declaration 
of the congregational and public preachers against " the late horrid 
insurrection and declaration of rebellion in the saide City." 

Mr. Barker, in 1651, preached a sermon at St. Paul's before the 
Lord Mayor and Corporation. This was published with the following 
title : "Jesus Christ, the Great Wonder, Discover'd for the Amazement 
of Saints. A Sermon preached by Matthew Barker, Preacher of the 
Gospel at Leonard's, Eastcheap. Printed by R.W. for Eapha Harford 
at the 'Bible and States Arms' in Little Brittain, 1651." 

He also published another sermon with the following title : " The 
Faithful and Wise Servant, discovered in a Sermon preached to the 
Parliament of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
at their late private Fast in the Parliament House, January 9th, 1656. 
By Matthew Barker, a Servant of Christ and His Church in the work 
of the Ministry at Leonard's, Eastcheap. London. Printed by 
J. Macock for Luke Fawn, and are to be sold at his Shop at the sign 
of ' The Parrot ' in Paul's Church Yard, 1657." Mr. Barker died 1698. 
Calamy says of him : " He was one of considerable learning, great 
piety, and universal candour and moderation." 

The patronage belongs to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, 
together with that of All Hallows, Lombard Street. 

One of the church wai dens of this parish in 1599 was John 
Wallington, who lived in Eastcheap. He had a family of twelve 
children, one of whom was Nehemiah Wallington, who was a rigid 
Puritan and a profuse writer. Some of his notes and recollections are 
of an interesting nature, and are given here. 

He has written for us the means he took in order to overcome his 
hasty temper : " The outward means that I have used to overcome this 
hasti crabbit nature of mine are these. Sometimes I have gone into 
another roome by my selfe til my anger is over, and then com again. 
Sometimes I went abroad and then com again when my wrath is past. 
Sometime I have gone to bead when I have been angered, and lay 
awhile til my anger is past, and then I have rose and put on my 
cloes and have bin friends again." 

Nehemiah was by trade a turner, had gone into business on his 
own account shortly before his marriage, taking a house in Little 
Eastcheap. His father occupied one in the same street at the corner 



89 

of Pudding Lane, and the one which Nehemiah had selected was 
between his father's and Fish Street Hill. 

Nehemiah writes: "On the beginning of October, 1641, at 
Leonard's, Eastcheap, being our church, the idol on the wall was cut 
down and the superstitious pictures in the glass to pieces, and the 
superstitious things and the prayers for the dead in brass was picked 
up and broken, and the picture of the Virgin Mary on the branches 
of candlesticks was broken. And some of these pieces of broken glass 
I have to keep for a remembrance, to show to the generation to 
come what God hath done for us to give such a reformation that our 
forefathers never saw the like. His Name ever have the praise ! " 

On the election of Common Councilmen, St. Thomas's Day, he 
makes these remarks : " The latter end of December, 1641, there were 
putting out of those Common Council men that were not well affected, 
and there were chosen in most wards very wise and sound Common 
Council men, which was a great mercy of God." 

" This finger of God makes me call to mind another great work of 
God, which I did hear of very creditably, which was in the year 1625, 
when those wicked and cruel bishops caused that reverend minister of 
God, Mr. Elton his books on the Commandments to be burned in 
Cheapside. While they were a-burning, a man that brought more 
quires of these books (which he had found out), and laid them on the 
fire ; and that great and mighty God that hath the command of wind 
and fire, did command his wind to blow one of these sheets of paper 
out of the fire again and to lap about this man's face (as he stood to 
see them burn), and it did so burn his face very much that he was in 
miserable pain." 

A judgment on organs : " At Boston, in Lincolnshire, Mr. Cotton 
being their former minister, when he was gone, the Bishop desired to 
have organs set up in the church, but the parish was unwilling to 
yield. But, however, the Bishop provided to be at the cost to set 
them up. But they being nearly up, a violent storm came in at one 
window and blew the organs to another window, and brake both organs 
and window down, and to this day the window is out of reputation, 
being boarded and not glazed." 



90 



t. Xeonarfc, poster Xane. 

This church, known in old records as " Ecclesia Sancti Leonardi 
in Venella S. Vedasti, London," originally belonged to the College of 
St. Martin. It was founded about the year 1236 by William Kirkham, 
Dean of St. Martin's. The building was small, and stood in the 
courtyard of the Collegiate Church on the western side of Foster Lane 
on land now occupied by the Post Office, being originally built for the 
use of the inhabitants of the Sanctuary. 

When the excavations for the buildings of the General Post 
Office were in progress, a large quantity of bones and other remains 
were discovered, also various pieces of Gothic architecture finials, 
crockets, and glazed tiles which no doubt had formed part of the 
old church. 

The patronage was anciently with the Dean and Canons of St. 
Martin's, with whom it continued until that deanery was annexed to 
the Abbey of Westminster, the Dean and Chapter of which still 
retain it, together with the Governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

1533. A very fair window was placed at the upper end of the 
chancel at a cost of 500. 

1618. The church and spire were almost totally destroyed by 
fire, but were afterwards rebuilt. 

1631. The building was again repaired, and at the same time 
enlarged. 

1291. John de Marsland left rent for the maintenance of wax 
in the church. 

Francis Quares, the poet, who died 1641, was buried here. Also 
Mrs. Jodosin Frankland, "a Good Benefactress to Brazen -Nose 
College," Oxford. 

An engraved brass was in the chancel to the memory of Eobert 
Parfitt, 1507. Also a stone without a name, but with the following 
inscription : 

"Live to dye.' 

" All flesh is grass and needs must fade ; 
To earth again, whereof 'twas made." 

In the " Memorials of the Goldsmiths Company," by Sir Walter 



91 

Prideaux, the two following entries in connection with this old church 
occur : 

"Memorandum William Daniell, now Upper Warden of this 
Company, departed this life the tenth day of this instant July (1652), 
and on the 15th day of the same month was buried at St. Foster's 
church, his corpse being accompanied from the Hall by the Livery 
and the Governors of Christ's Hospital (whereof he was a member), 
the velvet pall being held up by six assistants of the Company, three 
of the degree in which he died, and three next beneath him." 

" Memorandum That Mr. Edward Fagham, Upper Warden of this 
Company, departed this life on Sunday morning, --the 20th day of 
August, 1654, and was buried at St. Foster's Church on Wednesday, 
the 80th of the same month, his corpse being carried out of the hall 
attended by the Livery of this Company, and the Governors of 
Christ's Hospital, the pall of velvet being . borne up by six of this 
Company, whereof three were of the degree he died in, and three of the 
degree next beneath him." 

The following entry occurs in the minute book of this parish, 
June 29th, 1646. 

" It was unanimously consented that the Ordinance of Parliament 
touching the Presbyterian Government should go forward and be put 
in execution." 

Beneath this some commentator has written : 

" Impious Error. 

Thus did mad people, void of fear and grace, 
Besiege ye churche, and stormed ye sacred place." 

In the margin is the following : 

" Who's this that comes from Egypt, with a story 
Of a new pamplet called a Directory ? 
His cloke is something short, his looks demure ; 
His heart is rotten, and his thoughts impure. 
In this our land this Scottish hell-hatch'd brat, 
Like Pharoah's lean kine, will devour ye fat ; 
Lord, suffer not thy tender vine to bleed, 
Call home thy shepherds which thy lambs may feed. 
" Quare fremuverunt yentes ! ! " 



92 



RECTORS. 

John de Musland, 1291. William de Kymbunton, 13251329. 
John Kityn, 13881393. 

John Sayle, 1417; Minor Canon of St. Paul's ; died 1425. 

William Lambart, Prebendary of St. Paul's, 1479 ; died 1492. 
John Norbury, 15201525. 

Richard Grant, All Soul's College, Oxford, 15201524. 

Thomas Browne, 1567; was appointed Head Master of West- 
minster School, 1564; was also a Canon of the Abbey. He was 
presented to the Rectory of St. Leonard by the Dean and Chapter on 
the llth July, 1537 ; resigned the living 1574, on being presented to 
the rectory of Chelsea. He was the author of several poems in Latin 
and English verse ; was buried at Westminster. While Archbishop 
Laud was a prisoner in the Tower he was asked to present to this 
living Mr. Geo. Smith. He declined to do so without first examining 
the candidate. Laud's autograph petition in this case is still 
preserved in the House of Lords. 

William Ward, 1640, was sequestered. Walker says : " His 
crime was in preaching boldly and honestly against the Scots' 
Rebellion." 

James Walton, born 1600, of Trinity College, Cambridge, minister 
1644. He remained for sixteen years. On the 29th April, 1646, he 
preached before the House of Commons at St. M-argaret's, 
Westminster, on " The Delay of Reformation provoking God's further 
Indignation." He resigned the living in 1662. Richard Baxter 
describes him "as a good linguist, a man of primitive sincerity, and 
an excellent and zealous preacher." Less than a year before he died 
Baxter writes : " He fell into a grievous fit, in which he often cried 
out ' Omit one spirit of grace ! Not a good desire or thought ; I can 
no more pray than a post ' (though at that time he did pray very 
well)." He was commonly called " the weeping prophet," his 
seriousness often expressing itself in tears. He died 1662, occasioned 
by grief, " at the sad state of the church, the multitudes of silenced 
ministers, and his own unserviceableness, together with the fear lest 
he and his family should come to want." 

Samuel Bolton, Lincoln College, Oxford, 1663, had previously 
been Rector of St. Peter-le-Poor, was Chaplain to Charles II., and 



98 

preached before the House of Commons at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster. On the 15th January, 1661, he was made a Prebendary 
of the Abbey. Among the records of the Corporation there is a letter 
from the King to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, recommending 
Mr. Bolton for the rectory of St. Peter, Cornhill, in place of the late 
incumbent, who had been removed for non-subscription. It does not 
appear that this application was acceded to. Mr. Bolton died 1669, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

LJp to 1818 the following inscription appeared on a gate at the 
entry of the precinct: "Before the dreadful fire, A.D. 1666, here 
stood the Parish Church of St. Leonard, Foster Lane." 



St. Margaret 

This church was one of the most ancient foundations in the City, 
the living having been given to the Priory of St. Faith, Hersham, 
Norfolk, in 1105, by the founder, Robert Fitzwalter. This priory was 
annexed as a cell to the Abbey of Cloches, in France, in fulfilment of 
a vow which he had made to St. Faith for releasing himself and his 
wife, Sibyl, from prison, into which they had been cast by thieves 
who had robbed them as they were returning from Eome, where they 
had been on a pilgrimage. 

The patronage afterwards devolved to the Crown. 

The name of the church, similar to many others in the City, was 
no doubt given to it in addition to the Saint, from the fact that a 
person named Moses was either the builder or a great benefactor. 
Part of the site of the old church was sold to the City for the widening 
of an alley between Friday Street and Bread Street. The money so 
obtained was applied to the pewing and decoration of the church of 
St. Mildred. The remainder of the site was the churchyard, but this 
has now disappeared in Queen Victoria Street. 

The church was repaired in 1627, Simon Price and John Whit- 
comb being churchwardens. 

In the " Calendar of Letters," preserved at the Guildhall, is one 
under the seal of the Mayoralty 1368-9, certifying " that it had been 



94 

proved in full hustings by Geoffrey, the parson of St. Margaret in 
Friday Street, that Dame Maude Serce de Kine, the particulars of 
whose decease had given rise to dispute in the county of Devon, had 
died in the said parish of St. Margaret about midnight next following 
the Feast of St. Giles last past." 

From old accounts we learn that John Brightwise, late parson of 
St. Margaret, had a pension of 4 a year, and Thomas Griffiths, a late 
parson, 6s. a year. Both of these had been probably chantry priests. 

The inventory of goods belonging to this church in the reign of 
Edward VI. contains items of plate and vestments of an extremely 
rich character. 

1260. Simon de Cochrane left an annual rent of half a mark, 
charged on his mansion at the corner of Distaff Lane, for the main- 
tenance of a light in the church, " where shall repose his body and that 
of his wife." 

1345. John Brabason (Fishmonger), left 3s. 4d. for lighting the 
Blessed Virgin Mary in the church. Edith Barry left 2s. to the High 
Altar. 

1350. William de Trumpton left a bequest for lights in the 
church. To Alice his wife and Margery his daughter, he left his 
brewery situate in Distaff Lane, the sum of 3s. 4d. to be devoted to 
the making of two crosses to place on the tomb of Margery his wife. 
To the Rector, Sir Geoffrey de Schaunfield, six silver spoons and a 
brass pot holding two gallons. 

1367. Adam Brabason left to his daughter 50 for her marriage, 
a silver cup and a flat piece of silver with an image of St. Katharine 
on the bottom. 

1512. Gerrard Darryll (Fishmonger), left to the Parson and 
Churchwardens of St. Margaret, lands and tenements charged with 
the payment of 4 a year, to observe an obit in the church ; and 
13s. 4d. to the Masters of the " Bachelors " of the fishmongers of 
London attending the obit, to be expended for the said "Bachelors." 

The parish registers date from 1559. 

The following inscriptions were recorded on monuments in the 
old church : 

" Pray for the sowlyys of Michael Forcase and Mary hys wyf, and 
in the worshipp of God and our Ladie, for theyr Faders and Moders 



95 

wyth the Sowlyys of al Christn of your charite say a Pater Noster and 
an Ave Maria." 

" Body, I, Mary Pawson, ly below sleeping. 
Soule, I, Mary Pawson, sit above waking. 
Both we hope to meet againe." 

" A Monument to the memory of Sir John Allott, Knt., Lord 
Mayor and Mayor of the Staple of England, who died 15th September, 
1591, in the year of his Mayoralty, aged 66." 

Machyn records in his diary the burial of Master Burse (Skinner) 
one of the masters of Christ's Hospital, in the following words : 

" The 30th day of January, 1559-60, was bered in sant Margeter's 
mbyses master Busse, Skynner, on of the masters of the hospetall, 
with grew stayfi'es in their handes, and all the masters of ye compene 
in their leverey and a xx clarkes syngyng, and he gaff a xii mantyll 
frys gownes vi. men and vi. women, and ther dyd preche master 
Juell, the new byshope of Salysbere, and ther he sayd playnly that 
ther was no purgatore, and after to ye howse to diner, and there was 
a xvi. morners in blake gownes and cottes." 

And again on October 15th, 1561, he records the funeral of Lady 
Dobbes, "late the wyff of Sir Eichard Dobes, Knyght, and Skynner, 
late Mayre, with a harold of armes, and she had a pennon of armes 
and iij. dozen and d'f Skoychons ; in the parryche of Sant Margat 
Moyes, in Friday Street. She gayff xx. good blake gowns to xx. 
powre women ; she gayff xi. blake gowns to men and women. (Master) 
Recherdsun mad the sermon and the clerkes syngyng, and a dolle of 
money and a grett diner after, and the compene of the Skynners in 
the levery." Sir Richard Dobbs was Mayor, 1552. 

RECTORS. 

Robert, 1300. William Dapin, 13811386. Sir William 
White, 14191429. 

John Selon, Minor Canon of St. Paul's, 1436. 

George Underwood, 1468 1481 ; was also Prebendary of St. 
Paul's and Rector of Bradwell, Essex ; died 1504. Thomas Groome, 
14861496. Richard Brooke, 15101532. John Hunt, 1532 
1542. 



96 

John Kogers, educated at Cambridge, burnt in the reign of 
Queen Mary, was Rector 1550. He resigned on becoming Prebend of 
St. Pancras. The " Mattheus " ; or, the "Bugge Bible," was 
published by Rogers, under the assumed name of Thomas Mattheus. 
This Bible is so called from the fact that in the 5th verse of the 
91st Psalm, where it reads " so that thou shalt not need to be afrayd 
for any bugges by night." * John Rogers was Chaplain to the 
Merchant Adventurers' Company of Antwerp. He left a wife and 
eleven children. 

William Collingwood, 1556, was presented by Philip and Mary. 

Robert Hill was appointed 1607 ; resigned 1618 in order to 
become Rector of St. Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange. He was a 
prolific author. Among his books was "Life Everlasting; or, the 
True Knowledge of One Jehovah, Three Elohim and Jesus Immanuel, 
collected out of the best modern Divines and compiled into one 
volume. Cambridge. 1601." Died 1603. 

Nehemiah Rogers, born 1598, Fellow of Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, was appointed assistant to Mr. Thomas Wood, Rector. He 
officiated here until 1620, when he was appointed to a living in Essex. 
He was a staunch friend of Archbishop Laud, and an uncompromising 
Royalist. Died 1660. 

Benjamin Needier, born 1620, Fellow of St. John's College, 
Oxford, was appointed 1648. He was one of those who, in January, 
1648, signed the " Serious and Faithful Representation to General 
Fairfax, petitioning for the life of the King, the maintenance of 
Parliament, and against the Proceedings of the Army." He resigned 
the living 1662, and retired to Hampshire, where he died 1682. 
Richard Baxter says of him : "A very humble, grave, and peaceable 
divine." At Cambridge he was said to be " a worthy man." 
Culverwell Needier, his son, who was christened at St. Margaret's, 
5th March, 1656, was Clerk-Assistant to the House of Commons, 
which he retained until 1710, when he was " disabled by palsie." 



* See also Holy Trinity-the-Less. 



97 



&t. /l&argaret, iRew jfisb Street. 

This church occupied the site on which the Monument now 
stands. 

Stow calls it " a proper church." 

There was but one monument of any note ; this was to Johannis 
de Coggeshall, a famous citizen. 

1381. John Rows (Fishmonger) left a bequest to the church, to 
its ministers, and the light of the Holy Cross upon the High Berne ; 
also to Orders of Friars, for providing each of their houses with bread 
and cheese, and two barrells of beer to be consumed on the morrow, 
after "Placebo" and "Dirige"; also to provide tapers to burn in 
the churches of St. Magnus and St. Margaret. 

1385. John Coggeshall desired to be buried in the tomb which 
he had caused to be made in the church wall, under the marble stone 
in the window next to St. Peter's Altar, on the north side of the 
church. He also left money for tapers to hang in basins before the 
Altars of St. Mary and St. Margaret. 

1400. John Whaplade desired to be buried before the " poolpit " 
in the church of St. Margaret, and also left money for rebuilding the 
belfry. 

1572. Thomas Jenyn left a sum of 18s. 4d. a year to provide 
charcoal for the poor of the parish. 

In Riley's " Memorials of London Life " the following incident is 
recorded : 

1811. " Hugh Maffrey, Fishmonger, was called to answer before 
the Mayor that he had bought six pots of Lampreys from Thomas 
Lespicer, of Portsmouth, which he had stood away in the house 
against the custom of the City, seeing that he ought to have exposed 
the same for sale under the wall of St. Margaret's Church, and there 
to have stood for the purpose of selling them. The two were forgiven 
the trespass they had committed on undertaking that in future they 
would not sell them elsewhere than in the place appointed." 



98 

The alternate patronage, together with that of St. Magnus-the- 
Martyr, and St. Michael, Crooked Lane, is with the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and the Bishop of London. 

RECTORS. 

Hugh de Hemmude, " Chaplain," 1283. 

" James," another Chaplain, 1283, desired his garden of Coleman 
church to be sold, except that part which he devised to his 
parishioners of Coleman church, for tiling the church and paying his 
debts. 

Roger de Bradfield, 1308, presented by Edward II. 

Roger de Nosterfield, 13621371. John Philp, 14091425. 

Henry Hounsaid, 1441. He was left by Thomas Duste 
(Fishmonger), together with the churchwardens, a shop in 
" Broggstate," to be devised to the repair of the image of St. 
Christopher, in the churchyard, and of the gateway beyond the 
image. 

John Alcock, 1461, was presented by Thomas Kemp, Bishop of 
London. He was the founder of Jesus College, Cambridge ; Dean of 
St. Stephen's, Westminster, 1462 ; Master of the Rolls, 1468 ; 
Prebendary of St. Paul's and Salisbury ; Bishop of Rochester, 1471 ; 
Lord High Chancellor of England, 1472. Translated to Winchester, 
1476 ; Bishop of Ely, 1486. 

It is related that in 1488 he preached a sermon in St. Mary's, 
Cambridge, which lasted from one o'clock in the afternoon till past 
three. He died 1500, and was buried in Ely Cathedral, at the east 
end, where he had erected a sumptuous chapel for the purpose, and 
which is a noble specimen of his skill in architecture. His effigy is 
on the tomb. 

John Cracoll, 1463, was charged, together with the " Wardens of 
the Fraternity or Society of Fishmongers of Brogg Strete," with the 
observance of an obit of Thomas Wayte (Fishmonger). 

Geoffrey Wren, 15121527. 

John Young, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1554 1556 ; was 
also Canon of Ely ; died 1580. 

William Aston, Queen's College, Cambridge, 1577 ; Bishop of 
Exeter, 1598 ; died 1621 ; was buried in his cathedral. 

Samuel Hensnett, Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1598 ; was also 



99 

Vicar of Chigwell, Essex ; Prebendary of St. Paul's, Bishop of 
Chichester, 1609 ; Bishop of Norwich, 1619 ; Archbishop of York, 
1628. He was accused (1624) in the House of Commons of " putting 
down preaching, setting up images, and praying to the east," but all 
these articles he answered to the satisfaction of Parliament. He died 
1680, and was buried at Chigwell, leaving directions that " a marble 
stone should be laid upon my grave with a plate of brass molten into 
the stone an inch thick, having the effigies of a bishop stamped upon 
it, with his mitre and crozier and staff, but the brass to be rivetted 
and fastened clean through the stone, as sacrilegious hands may not 
rend off the one without breaking the other." He bequeathed his 
library to the Corporation of Colchester for the use of the clergy. 
.John Cowlings, 1604-1610. 

Edward Abbott, Balliol College, Oxford, 1611-1616. Was also 
.Rector of All Hallows Barking ; died 1634. 

Robert Porey, Christ College, Cambridge, 1640 ; Prebendary of 
St. Paul's, Archdeacon of Middlesex, and Rector of Much Hadham, 
Hertfordshire ; " was silenced, sequestered, plundered, and forced to 
fly." Was restored to his living 1660. " 1669, November 20th. Dr. 
Porey, a Prebend of St. Paul's, reputed a rich prelate, died this day." 

David Barton, Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1662 : Rector of Chisle- 
hurst 1670. 

Sydrach Sympson was a celebrated preacher of the period. Was 
Curate and Lecturer 1635. He gave serious offence to Archbishop 
Laud, who, in his annual account, which he presented to the King as 
to matters in his province, reports that Mr. Sympson, among others 
in the City, had been " con vented " by the Bishop of London for 
" Breach of Canons of the Church in sermons, in practice, or both. 
But because all these promised amendments for the future, and 
submitted to the Church in all things, my Lord very moderately 
forbore further proceedings against them." Subsequently Mr. 
Sympson was suspended for " breach of canons," on which, in 1638, 
he went to Holland. 1641, he resumed his lectures at St. Margaret's, 
and was also Lecturer at St. Ann's, Blackfriars. 1643, was chosen to 
be a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines. He was 
afterwards appointed Rector of St. Mary Abchurch. 1653, was 
appointed to St. Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange. Died 1655, and was 
buried at St. Bartholomew's. 



100 

Thomas Wadsworth, who had been Eector of Newington Butts, 
but in 1660 had resigned, was Monday Evening Lecturer at St. 
Margaret's, drawing together very large congregations. * 

1648. Thomas Brooks was preacher at the church of St. 
Thomas-the-Apostle. He was transferred to St. Margaret's 1652, and 
preached on several occasions before the House of Commons, 
resigning the living in 1662, after which he ministered in a building 
in Moorfields. He was one of those clergymen who, during the entire 
period of the plague, 1665, remained in the City, after which he 
published his " Heavenly Cordial " "for such as had escaped." Died 
1680, aged seventy-two years. 

A copy of his funeral sermon, by John Reeve, dated 1680, is in 
Dr. Williams' library. 

Mr. Brooks does not seem to have given entire satisfaction to his 
parishioners in New Fish Street, if we may judge from the following 
petition from them, which is in the Sion College Library. The petition 
is as follows : 

" To the Honourable Committee for Plundered Ministers. The 
Humble Petition of the Parishioners of St. Margaret, New Fish Street, 
whose names are hereunto described, Sheweth That one Mr. Thomas 
Brooks was, by order of your Honours dated the 23rd March, 1651, 
appointed to preach for a month next ensuing as Probationer to the 
end, that upon the Parishioners and the said Mr. Brooks mutual tryal 
of each other the said Mr. Brooks might continue or your Petitioners 
have some other to officiate among them. Your Petitioners are 
humbly bold to offer to your Honours' consideration that they have 
had tryal of the said Mr. Brooks ever since your Honours' order, but 
cannot find that comfort to their soules they hoped, nor indeed is the 
said Mr. Brooks so qualified to your Petitioners' understandings as to 
remain any longer with them. And further, your Petitioners say that 
the said Mr. Brooks refuseth to afford your Petitioners the use of the 
Ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, nor will he bury their 
dead. 

" The Petitioners therefore humbly pray that your Honours will be 
pleased to make your Order and give liberty to your Petitioners for six 
months to present a fit person to your Honours to be their minister, 

* See also St. Lawrence Pountney, . i| 



101 

and in the mean time that Sequestrators may be appointed to provide 
for the service of the cure out of such money as shall arise for tithes 
out of such parish." 

These charges were replied to by Mr. Brooks in a pamphlet of 
about seventy or eighty pages, bearing the following title : 

" Cases Considered and Kesolved between all the tender, godly 
conscientious Ministers in England (whether for a Congregationall or 
a Presbyteriall way) are concerned, Pills to Punje Malignant* and all 
Prophane, Ignorant, and Scandalous Persons (but more particularly 
calculated for the Meridian of Margaret, New Fish Street) from these 
grosse conceits that they have of their Children rights to Baptism, and 
of their own Eight to the Supper of the Lord. Also Good Counselle 
to Bad Men, or Friendly Advise in several particulars to Unfriendly 
Neighbours. By Thomas Brooks, a willing servant unto God and the 
Faith of His People in the Church of Christ at Margaret's, New Fish 
Street, London. Printed by Mr. Simmons for John Hancock, and are 
to be sold at the first shop in Pope's Head Alley next to Cornhill. 
1643." 

Mr. Brooks published several works and volumes of sermons, 
some of which are in the Sion College Library. The f till titles of two 
of his works are here given : 

" The Crown and Glory of Christianity ; or, Holiness the only 
way to Happiness. Discovered in fifty-eight sermons from Hebrews 
xii., 14. Where you have the Necessity, Excellency, Earity, Beauty, 
and Glory of Holliness set forth, with the Eesolution of many weighty 
Questions and Cases. Also Motives and Means to perfect Holiness. 
With many other things of very high and great importance to all the 
Sons and Daughters of Men that had rather be Blessed then Cursed, 
Saved then Damned. By Thomas Brooks, late Preacher of the 
Gospel at St. Margaret, New Fish Street, and still Preacher of the 
Word in London and Pastor of a Congregation there. London : 
Printed for H. Cripps, J. Sims, and H. Mortlock, and are to be sold 
at their Shops at the Entrance into Pope's Head Alley, out of 
Lombard Street, and at the sign of the ' Cross Keyes,' and at the 
' Phffinix ' in St. Paul's Churchyard, near the little North Door, 
1662." 

" Paradice Opened ; or, the Secrets, Mysteries, Earities of Divine 
Love, of Infinite Wisdom and of Wonderful Counsel, laid open to 



102 

Publick View. Also the Covenant of Grace, and the High and 
Glorious Transactions of the Father and the Son in the Covenant of 
Eedemption, opened and improved at large with the Resolution of 
divers Important Questions and Cases concerning both Covenants. 
You have further several singular Pleas that all sincere Christians 
may supply and groundably make to those Ten Scriptures in the Old 
and New Testaments that speaks of the General Judgement, and of 
that Particular Judgement that must certainly pass upon them all 
after Death. With some other points of high importance that tend 
to the Peace, Comfort, Settlement, and Satisfaction of all serious sincere 
Christians. To which is added a sober and serious Discourse about 
the Favourable, Signal, and Eminent Presence of the Lord with his 
people in their greatest Troubles, deepest Distresses and most Deadly 
Dangers. Being the Second and Last Part of the Golden Key. By 
Thomas Brook, late Preacher of the Gospel at St. Margaret, New 
Fish Street, London. Printed for Dorman Newman at the ' King's 
Arms ' in the Poultrey, and at the ' Ship and Anchor,' at the Bridge 
Foot on South wark side, 1675." 

The same gentleman also writes a " Discourse on the Great Fire," 
under the title of " London's Lamentations ; or, a Serious Discourse 
against that late fiery Dispensation that turned our (once renowned) 
City into a Euinous Heap. Also the several Lessons that are 
incumbent upon those whose Houses have escaped the consuming 
Flames. By Thomas Brooks, late Preacher of the Word at St. 
Margaret, New Fish Street, where that Fatal Fire first begun that 
turned London into a Euinous Heap. There is but the distance of 
one day between a great City, and none, said Seneca, when a great 
City was burnt to ashes. ' Come ! behold the works of the Lord, what 
Desolation He hath brought upon the Earth.' (Psalm 46, 5.) London : 
Printed for John Hancock and Nathaniel Ponder, and are to be sold 
at the first Shop in Pope's Head Alley, in Cornhill, at the sign of the 
' Three Bibles,' or at his shop in Bishopsgate Street, and at the sign 
of the ' Peacock ' in Chancery Lane. 1670." 

The book is dedicated to Sir William Turner, Knt., Lord Mayor. 

The two following short extracts from the work are here given, 
and show the style of discourse at the time in question : 

" Ah, Sirs, God by that dreadful fire that has destroyed our 
houses and burnt up our sustenance and banished us from our habi- 



103 

tations and levelled our stately monuments of Antiquity and Glory 
even with the ground, has given us a very high evidence of His 
Sovereignty both over our persons and all our concernments in this 
world. Ah, London, London, were there none within or without thy 
walls that did deny the Sovereignty of God, that did belye the Sover- 
eignty of God, that did fight the Sovereignty of God, that did make 
head against the Sovereignty of God. Were there none within or 
without thy walls that did say, We are Lords, and we will come no 
more unto Thee ; that did say, Is not this great Babylon (is not this 
great London) that we have built ; that did say, The kings of the 
earth and all the inhabiters of the world would not have believed that 
the adversary and the enemy (the flaming and the consuming fire) 
should have entered into the gates of Jerusalem (into the gates of 
London) ; that did say, Who is the Lord that we should obey His 
Voice. Ah, London, London, if there are any such within or without 
thy walls, then never wonder that God has in a flaming and con- 
suming fire proclaimed His Sovereignty over you, and that He hath 
given such Atheists to know from woful experience, that both them- 
selves and all their concernments are in the hands of the Lord as the 
clay in the hands of the potter, and that the sorest judgements that 
any city can fall under are but the demonstrations of his Sovereignty. 
Psalm ix., 16 ' The Lord is known by His Judgements which he 
executeth, the Power, Justice and Sovereignty of God shines most 
gloriously in the execution of His Judgements upon the world." 

" Ah, poor London, how has God taught thee with bryers and 
thorns, with sword, pestilence, and fire, and all because thou wouldst 
not be taught by prosperity and mercy to do justice, to love mercy, 
and to walk humbly with thy God. God delights in the reformation 
of a nation, but He does not delight in the desolation of any nation. 
If God will but make London's destruction England's instruction, it 
may save the land from total desolation. Ah, London, London, I 
would willingly hope that this Fiery Rod that has been upon thy back 
has been only to awaken thee and re-instruct thee, and to refine thee, 
and to reform thee, that after this sad desolation God may delight to 
build thee and beautifie thee and make thee an eternal excellencie in a 
joy of many generations." 



104 



St. Martin 

This church stood in Martin's Lane, at the top of Cannon Street, 
on the site now occupied by the clock tower and churchyard. 

It was a very ancient foundation. By the register of Ralph 
Diceto, Dean of St. Paul's, 1181, it appears to have been in the gift, 
at that time, of the Canons of the Cathedral, with whom it still 
remains. 

The name Orgar added to it was taken from " Ordgarus," the 
founder and builder of the church. He was an eminent and wealthy 
citizen, whose name is frequently mentioned in the records of the 
twelfth century. He also built the church of St. Botolph, 
Billingsgate. 

In a deed of agreement entered into with the Chapter of St. 
Paul's, he is described as " Orgar, the Deacon." 

The old church was not entirely destroyed in the Great Fire, a 
porch entrance and the tower being saved. These were taken down, 
and the site was let to the French Protestants, who erected a wooden 
building which they used for public worship, until about 1826, when 
the lease expired. 

The present tower and rectory house were built in 1852, when 
Cannon Street was widened. The old tower was a plain low structure 
of the fifteenth century date. 

In the parish was a large house called " Beauchamp " Inn. 

Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1397 1414, often 
lodged here. This house was destroyed in the Great Fire. 

Not much information can be gleaned as to the church. Stow 
calls it " a small thing." 

Sir William Cromer, who was Mayor in 1413 and 1423, gave his 
house in Sweeting's Alley, Cornhill, his house and garden in Crutched 
Friars, and also a house in St. Swithin's Lane, " to God, the church 
of St. Martin and the Rector, the day of his death to be celebrated as 
an anniversary for ever in St. Martin's ; 6s. 8d. to be given to the 
poor ; 13s. 8d. to the Rector, and him holding the plate ; 6d. to the 
clerk ; 4d. to each servant ; lOd. for ringing the bell ; Is. for candles ; 
4s. for meat and drink ; 6s. 8d. to the four wardens of the Drapers' 
Company," with the direction " They shall drynke in the church." 
He died 1433, and was buried in the church. 



105 

1273. Milo de Wynton left a bequest for the maintenance of a 
lamp and chantries in the church. 

1861. Letitia, wife of Thomas Attewych, desired to be buried 
in the porch of the church. 

1376. Robert de Fawkys desired to be buried in the church under 
the marble slab where lies the body of Johanna, his wife. To Sir 
Geoffrey atte Crouch, Rector of Abbechurch, he leaves the Psalter 
pledged with the testator for twenty shillings, or that sum of money 
itself. 

The parish registers date from 1625. 
The following were buried here : 

Sir William Cromer, Mayor, 1418 and 1423 ; Member of 
Parliament, 1406 and 1417. 

John Matthew, Mayor, 1490. 

Sir William Hewitt (Clothworker), Alderman of Vintry, after- 
wards of Candlewick ; Sheriff, 1553 ; Mayor, 1559. He lived in 
Philpot Lane. Died 1566. His wife was also buried in the church. 
Sir Humphrey Browne, Knt., Lord Chief Justice, 1562. 
Sir Allen Cotton (Draper), Mayor 1625. A monument to his 
memory had the following inscription (also Charity, his wife) : 
" When he left earth, rich bounty died, 
Mild courtesy gave place to pride ; 
So Mercy to bright Justice said 
0, Sister, we are both betrayed ; 
While Innocence lay on the ground 
By Truth, and wept at either's wound. 
The Sons of Levi did lament, 
Their lamps went out, their oil was spent ; 
Heaven hath his soul, and only we 
Spin out our lives in misery. 
So, death, thou missest of thy ends, 
And kill'st not him, but kill'st his friends." 
And also the following : 
" In memory of Maria, the faithful wife of John Moore, Mercer, 

December 10th, 1632. 

MEMENTO Mom 

Hie 

MILES ANNANS, HUMILIE PICE 

PULCHRA, PUDICA, MODESTA, 

GRATIA DEO, SPONSO CHARA 

MAKIA JACES." 



106 

1548. "Information was given to the Court of Aldermen of 
preachers having used ' certain words ' touching the Mass in the 
churches of St. Dunstan-in-the-East and St. Martin Orgar."* 

RECTORS. 

Sir John Jay de Ledbury, 1348. According to Newcourt, in this 
year he obtained the King's license to exchange with John de Alyngton, 
the vicarage of Clare in the diocese of Norwich. 

John Houghton, 1851-1375. Thomas Totterton, 1407. Alexan- 
der Brown, "Parson," 1452-1459. Thomas Shell, 1554-1557. 
Thomas Mortiboys, 1570-1593. Roger Andrew, Cambridge University, 
1603. Rector of Chigwell, 1005, died 1615. William Harris, New 
College, Oxford, 1605-1614. John Tournal, 1625. 

Brian Walton, Peterhouse, Cambridge, was admitted Rector 1635. 
From all that can be learnt of his early history, he seems to have been 
of very humble origin. He had begun as a sizar at Cambridge, and 
before he was forty years of age he had worked his way into three 
rectories St. Martin Orgar, St. Giles-in-the-Fields, and Sundon, in 
Kent with a prebendal stall at St. Paul's. He was also one of King 
Charles's chaplains. He was a staunch adherent of Archbishop Laud, 
in 1636 incurring the displeasure of his parishioners by moving the 
Communion Table from the centre of the church to the eastern end, 
and also for bringing various actions for libel. 1641, a tract was 
published under the title " The Articles and Charges prov'd in Parlia- 
ment against Dr. Walton, Minister of St. Martin Orgar in Cannon 
Street, wherein his Subtile Tricks and Popish Innovations are dis- 
covered, as also his impudence in defaming the House of Commons." 
1642, he was sent to prison and deprived of his living. 1660, was 
made Bishop of Chester, but only lived one year afterward. He died 
at his house in Aldersgate Street, 1661, and was buried in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, where a monument was erected to his memory. The work 
which made Dr. Walton's name so well known was " Walton's 
Polyglot Bible," published and brought out by subscription 1654. 
The remaining five volumes were published between this date and 
1657. Dr. T wells said of this work : " It was the glory of that age, 
and of the English Church and Nation, a work vastly exceeding all 

* "London and the Kingdom." SHABPE. 



107 

former attempts of that kind, and that came so near perfection as to 
discourage all future ones." 

A copy of this work is in the library at St. Paul's Cathedral, and 
bears the following title : " Biblia Sacra Poly (/latter Compleetentia 
Textits Virt/inales, Hebraicum, cum Pentateticta Hamaritano, Chaldaicum, 
Qracwn, Versionumque Antaquarum Samaritance Ch-ccca' Ixxii., Interp. 
Chaldaicd', Stjriaca:, Arabics, ^theopicu; Persicir, Vuly. Lat., 1657-60. 
Six volumes bound in twelve." 

Dr. Walton had twenty-eight assistants in this work, the greater 
part of them being among the deprived clergy, as Ussher, Thorndike, 
Pocock, Hammond, Fuller, and Casaubon. Two at least were Presby- 
terians : John Lightfoot and Andrew Young. Some of them were not 
deprived, as Saunderson and Whitelock. Some were laymen, as John 
Siddon. Of some of the others nothing is known. * 

In the course of this work no less than nine languages are used : 
Hebrew, Chaldee, Samaritan, Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Ethiopic, 
Greek, and Latin. Some portions of this Bible are printed in seven 
languages, all opening at one view. In its compilation Dr. Walton 
was assisted by Dr. Bruno Ryves, Rector of St. Martin Vintry. The 
work is also in the library at Sion College. Dr. Walton's wife died in 
1640. The following lines were written in her memory : 

" If will to live and will to die, 

If faith and hope and charity, 

May crown a soul in endless bliss, 

Thrice happy her condition is 

Vertuous, modest, godly wise, 

Piety flowing from her eyes, 

A loving wife, a friend most deare, 

Such was she who now lyes here." 

RECTORS. 

Matthew Smallwood, Brasenose College, Oxford, 1661, was 
Chaplain to Charles II. and Canon of St. Paul's. Died at Lichlield, 
1683, of which Cathedral he was a Canon, and was there buried. 

Joseph Swinnocke, Chaplain of New College, Oxford, 1662. 

Michael Ogilvy, 1662 ; died 1666. 

* " Religious Thought in England." HUNT. 



108 

On a brass tablet in St. Clement's church is the following 
inscription : 

" The church of St. Martin Orgar, which, until 1826, stood in 
Martin's Lane, Cannon Street, was dedicated to St. Martin, Bishop 
of Tours, who died A.D. 397. It was presented by Ordgarus, the 
Dane, to the Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral, A.D. 900. After the 
Fire of London, the parish was united to St. Clement's, near Eastcheap. 
St. Clement's became the church of the united parishes. Bryan 
Walton, the learned and famous author of the ' Biblia Polyylotta ' 
was one of the Hectors of St. Martin's. He was consecrated Bishop 
of Chester, A.D. 1660, and was buried in the crypt of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, of which he was Canon, A.D. 1661." 



t. /Ifcartin pomerop. 

This church stood on the east side of Ironmonger Lane, Cheapside, 
on part of the site now occupied by the churchyard. 

1627. A large part of the north wall was rebuilt at the cost of 
the parish. It contained a window with the following inscription : 
" This window was new built and finished at the sole cost of John and 
Humphry Slaney, 1627." His arms were also in the window. 

The church was again repaired at the cost of the parishioners, 
1629. 

The advowson belonged to the Priory of St. Bartholomew, 
Smithfield. From thence it passed to the Crown. 

1305. John de Coftrur left a tenement to maintain a chantry in 
the chapel of St. Mary. 

1327. William Lowe left a bequest to maintain a chantry in the 
church and also the convent opposite the church of St. Thomas de 
Aeon. 

1388. John Frere left a bequest for the purchase of two 
candelabra, to maintain the light of the Fraternity of St. Katharine, 
and for the rood light. 

The curate and churchwardens of this parish were brought before 
the Privy Council on the 10th February, 1548, charged by the 
Bishop of London and the Lord Mayor with having " of their own 



109 

hedd and presumption " removed from the church, " images, pictures 
of the saints, and also the crucifixes " and set up in their places about 
the church certain texts of scripture, with the arms of His Majesty. 
The offending curate and wardens meekly explained to the council that 
the church roof was in such ruin as for fear it would fall on the people's 
heads " they were fain to take them down," the crucifix and other 
images being so rotten by the time that the church roof was repaired 
that they fell to powder, and " were not fitt to be sett uppe againe." 
It was intimated, moreover, that they were in want of funds. In 
consideration of their repentance and lowly submission, and for other 
respects, which did partly mitigate and make the " haynousness of 
their facte less or then it appeared at the furst face," the Lord 
Protector and others of the Privy Council pardoned the curate and 
wardens, but they were held to bail xxs. a head with iiij sureties." 
They were ordered, moreover, to erect within two days a new image of 
the crucifix, or at least within that time to cause " somme payntures 
representing the crucifixe to be sett uppe there for the while, and that 
they should by the firste Sunday in Lent next, coming at the fardiste," 
set up there an image of the crucifix. 

RECTORS. 

Sir Nicholas Huberd de Spalding, " Chaplain " 1348. John de 
Overtyne, 1361. Eichard Parker, 14281443. James Beecke, 
14431456. Richard Westmore, 14831499. John Elmett, 
15241532. Richard Gwyer, 15411550. 

John Hardiman, D.D., was " Preacher," 1541, " when he came 
forth openly and boldly in the cause of the Reformation." He was 
presented for preaching openly that confession is confusion and 
defamation, and that the butcherly ceremonies of the Church were to 
be abhorred ; also for saying " What a mischief this is to esteem the 
Sacrament to be of such virtue, for in so doing they take the Glory 
of God from Him, and for saying that Faith in Christ is sufficient 
without any other Sacrament to justifie." 

1560. Queen Elizabeth appointed him one of the twelve 
Prebendaries of Westminster. 1567, he was summoned before the 
High Commissioners and deprived of his benefice. Brooks, in his 
"History of the Puritans," says that Dr. Hardyman "is charged with 
breaking down the altars and defacing the ancient utensils belonging 



110 

to the church of Westminster, but with what degree of justice we are 
unable to ascertain." 

Edward Stevenson, 1556, appointed by Philip and Mary. George 
Barton, 1560; "dispossessed" 1568. Andrew Castleton, 1576; died 
1617. Joseph Symonds, 16321639. 

Edward Sparke, Clare Hall, Cambridge, was presented 
September, 1639; sequestered 1645. At the Kestoration he was 
restored, but resigned 1661. He was subsequently minister of St. 
James, Clerkenwell ; afterwards Vicar of Tottenham, and also of 
Walthamstow. From 1662 to 1666 was Chaplain to Charles II. ; 
died 1692. Several works were written by him, among them being 
" Santilala Altaris : or, a Pious Reflection on Primitive Devotion as 
to the Feasts and Fasts of the Christian Church. Orthodoxically 
Revived. London, 1652." This work was long held in great esteem, 
and passed through six editions. 

John Fuller was also minister here. Calamy says of him that 
" he was a most pious man and practical preacher. He had three 
sons that were scholars and ministers of note." 

Joseph Symonds was for a short time Rector, but in the time of 
Archbishop Laud seceded from the Church and settled at Rotterdam. 
He preached more than once before Parliament. There is a sermon of 
his still extant, published with this title : " A Sermon lately preached 
at Westminster before sundry of the Honourable House of Commons, 
1641. By Joseph Symonds, late Minister in Iron Monger Lane, 
London ; now Pastor of the Church at Rotterdam." 

John Wallis, " Pastor," 1648. 

Thomas Neast, Fellow of New College, Oxford, 1661 ; Rector of 
St. Stephen, Coleman Street, 1671. "He was a mathematician and 
an adept at decyphering." 

The parish registers date from 1539. 



St. /IDartin 

This church stood at the south corner of Tower Royal, or, as it 
was formerly called, Tower Street, at the corner of Thames Street. 
The addition of "Vintry" to the name is said to be taken from 



Ill 

an ancient building in the parish, and for the general reception of 
imported wines, in the reign of Edward I. It was an ancient founda- 
tion, having been given in the time of the Conqueror by Ralph 
Perrill to the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, the Abbots of which 
presented to the living in 1388. It afterwards came to the Crown 
until the time of Edward VI., who granted the advowson to the 
Bishop of Worcester and his successors. The presentation is now 
with the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

In an old manuscript in the Guildhall Library there is an inter- 
esting account of the building of the church in 1306, from which we 
find that in this year Margaret, Queen of Edward I., built the quire, 
to which she gave two thousand marks. She was buried before the 
High Altar. 

John of Brytaine, Earl of Richmond, built the body of the church 
at a cost of 300, and gave many jewels and ornaments. 

Lady Mary, Countess of Pembroke, gave 70. 

Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, gave twenty great beams 
from his forest at Tunbridge, and also 20. 

There were many other donations and gifts. 

In the following year the building was surveyed and covered, and 
in the three following years it was plastered, whitened, glazed, and 
leaded, the ceiling ornamented, and then stored with books. 

The charges amounted to 456 16s. lOd. Richard Whittington 
gave 400. 

There was paid for the writings of Doctor de Livra one hundred 
marks for two volumes laying in chains. 

One window was glazed at the cost of the Lady Isabella, Queen 
Mother of Edward I. 

The clothiers, or drapers, of the City glazed the great window 
over the great Altar. 

Sir John Cobham, Knt., glazed the third window. 

The names of others who glazed the remaining windows are all 
recorded. 

It is stated that one window is glazed from small sums collected, 
the names not being recorded. 

1420. The ceiling of the choir was new made from the alms of 
divers persons at a cost of two hundred marks. 

The church was three hundred feet in length, eighty-nine feet in 



112 

width, forty-four feet in height, all the columns and pavement being 
of marble. 

The account of the building concludes with these words: " May 
they who assisted in building this church, and they who shall keep to 
maintain it, be blessed of the Lord, and have life eternal for their 
reward. Amen." 

A monument with the following inscription was in the church : 

" Thomas Banks, Barber-Cherugion, 1598, Deputie to this Ward, 
who had to wife Joan Laurence, by whom he had seven sons and ten 
daughters." 

The Vintners Company, or, as it was called, " The Fraternitie of 
St. Martin," had an Altar in the church dedicated to St. Martin, their 
patron saint. 

In the books of the Company are some entries relating to the 
repairs of vestments of the church, and other charges ; also of a 
bequest towards the repairs. 

" Item Payd to a vestment maker to amende the ornaments in 
St. Martyn's Chappell and for stuff to the same xiis. vjd." 

" Item, received the x. day of December A v. Hen viij for the 
bequeste of Maister Yegge, towardes the reperacions of the Churche of 
Seint Martyn in the Vyntry, xxs." 

The following payments are also recorded : 4s. Gd. for three Altar 
cloths, one of " bokeram," and two diaper, " and for the halowyng of 
theym." 

1514. 2s. lOd. for " makyng the lighte afore Seint Martyn and 
for new wax." 

The following is a note in " London and the Kingdom " (SHARPE) : 
" After the redyng of the preposycioun made yesterday in the Sterre 
Chamber by the Lorde Chaunceler, and y e declaracioun made by my 
Lorde Mayer, of suche communicioun as his lordshyp had w* the 
Bysshop of Canterberye, concernyng the demeano r of certein prechers 
and other dysobedyent persones, y* was ordered and agreyed that my 
Lord Mayer, and all my maisters, th' aldermen, shall this afternone 
att ij of y e clok, repayree to my lorde protector's grace and the hole 
counsill, and declare unto theim the seid mysdemeanor, and that thei 
shall mete att Saint Martyn's in the Vyntrey att one of the clok." 

John Gysors, Mayor, 1311, desired to be buried before the rood in 
the church of St. Martin, He also left money for a chantry. The 



118 

chaplain was to have a chanter allowed him, and to be provided with 
a chalice, a missal in two volumes, a gradual with epistles and com- 
munion of the saints, and the other volume containing the Gospels, 
a psalter, a vestment with apparel complete, and a cope of fine linen 
for the deacon and sub-deacon, a white amice and a maniple for winter, 
a cloth of silk and gold, and a chest for keeping them in. 

His son, Henry Gysors, was buried here, 1343, and John Gysors, 
his brother, 1350. 

Sir John de Stoyde, Knt., Alderman of the Ward, Sheriff 1332. 
Mayor 1357, by his will dated 1375, desired his body to be buried in 
the church of St. Martin in the Vintry in a new chapel on the north 
side of the church before the Altar of the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and of the Apostles John the Evangelist and John the 
Baptist. 

1397. Henry Venner desired to be buried in the chancel and left 
money for lengthening the church and raising the belfry. 

Gilbert Nursch left ten marks for the work of the church on 
condition that a vacant space near the belfry should be built upon. 
He also left to Sir Philip Kays, parson of the church, a tenement in 
the parish of St. Michael's, Cornhill, to maintain a chantry. 

Simon Adam, 1448, left money to maintain a chantry at the 
Altar of St. Eutropius in the church. 

A portion of the church was rebuilt, 1399, by the executors of 
Matthew Columbus, a merchant of Gascoigne. His arms were placed 
in the east window. 

Sir Ealph Astray (Fishmonger), Mayor 1494, newly roofed the 
church with timber, covered it with lead, " and beautifully glazed it." 
He was buried in the church with his two wives, Margaret and 
Margery. 

Thomas Cornwallis, Sheriff, was buried in the church, 1384. 

The building was repaired 1605, and again in 1632, at the expense 
of the parishioners, the cost being 460. 

Henry Villard, Mayor, 1356, entertained with great magnificence 
at his house in the Vintry near the church, the King of France, who 
had been taken prisoner at Poictiers; also the Kings of England, 
Scotland, Denmark and Cyprus, 



114 

RECTORS. 

" John," 1250. Mastur Nicholas de Drayton, " Parson," 1376. 
Sir Philip Kayes, 13921421. Thomas Coles, LL.D., 14851489. 
John Westlake, 14441450. Walter Hart, 1467 ; also Prebendary 
of St. Paul's; died 1484. John Kipplingham, 14881519. Edward 
Saunders, 15401556. William Neal, 15561574. John Bateman, 
1578-1605. Francis Marbury, 1605-1610. 

John Whitney, Emanuel College, Cambridge, 1611 ; Canon of 
St. Paul's, 1615 ; also Vicar of East Ham ; died 1624. 

Bruno Eogers, New College and Magdalen College, Oxford, 1628 ; 
Chaplain to Charles I., 1640 ; deprived, 1642. He was plundered, 
forced to fly, and shift from place to place ; was afterwards restored, 
made Dean of Windsor, 1660 ; where he died, 1667. A long Latin 
inscription to his memory is on the walls of St. George's Chapel. He 
was the author of " Mercuriits Ruxticux ; or, The Countrie's 
Complaint of the Barbarous Outrages committed by the Sectaries of 
this late Flourishing Kingdom." 

We find that this church possessed a great window over the 
High Altar, a rood, a new chapel on the north side, an Altar of the 
Assumption, an Altar of St. Eutropius, St. Martyn's Chapel, a belfry 
with a peal of bells in the tower. 

It was at this church that the ancient Society of Bell Ringers, 
called " The Ancient Society of College Youths," first met in 1637, 
the tower containing a peal of six bells on which they practised. The 
society was established by Lord Brereton and others for the practise of 
ringing. It still retains the same name, derived from " College Hill," 
near which the old church stood. The following were also .members 
of the society : Sir George Bolles, Alderman of Dowgate Ward, 
afterwards coming to Walbrook Ward, Sheriff, 1608 ; Mayor, 1617. 
And Slingsby Bethell, Alderman of Walbrook ; Mayor, 1755. 



St. 

This church stood on the west side of St. Mary Axe, on the site 
of the present schools. 

It was so called from the sign of the axe which hung from a 
house opposite the eastern end of the building. Mr. Wheatley says 



115 

that Stow is not quite correct in this, the church deriving its name 
from a holy relic which it possessed an axe that had been used to 
behead some of the eleven thousand virgins. The church was also 
named St. Mary Philliper, or St. Mary-the-Virgin ; St. Ursula and the 
Eleven Thousand Virgins. 

The patronage was held by the Convent of St. Helens until 1540, 
when it was seized by Edward VI., who presented to it in 1549. 
Elizabeth gave the patronage to the Bishop of London. 

In connection with this old church, the following extract is taken 
from " Gregory's Chronicle " : 

" 1437. On Estyr day there was on John Gardyner take at 
Synt Mary at the Axe in London, for he was an here ty tyke, for when 
should have been houselyd (taken the sacrament), he wypd his mouth 
whithe a foule clothe, and layde the oste thereyon, and so he was taken 
by the parson of the chyche, and the xiij day of May he was burnt at 
Smithfielde." 

1561. " This year did the Bishop unite the parish church of St. 
Mary at Axe, which was of the Queen's patronage, unto the church 
of St. Andrew Undershaft. The reason whereof was that the inhabi- 
tants of this parish might resort to Divine service, and have the benefit 
of a minister to officiate to them in their spiritual exigencies. 

" They had been several years without an incumbent because of the 
narrow value of the living, for whatsoever this church yielded to the 
parson in former times, which by offerings and gifts might have 
amounted to some considerable matter, being dedicated to several she- 
saints, as the Blessed Virgin and St. Ursula, with eleven thousand 
virgins besides (and so might well have been resorted toby the rich devout 
citizens' wives and daughters, and have partaken of their bounties), 
yet now, as the instrument of the union imputed, the church was so 
bound of late time, and the former rents, incomes and emoluments so 
decreased, that it would not suffice for the sustentation of a minister, 
the fruits and rents not exceeding 5 yearly, and therefore it was left 
desolate, and without any office performed in it for no small time, and 
the cure of souls was neglected. Upon these reasons the parishioners 
petitioned the Bishop that they might be joined to the next parish, St. 
Andrew's, that lay near and convenient, and Edward Eiley, the present 
incumbent of the said parish, and both parishes consenting, the Bishop 



116 

consented, and signed an instrument to unite the said St. Mary's 
with it." * 

1283. William de Chillingford left an annual rent to this church 
arising from houses in the parish. 

1363. Richard Hackneye desired to be buried in the church 
before the great rood. 

1562. The church was given to the Spanish Protestant refugees 
for divine service. 

" And so was the church of St. Mary at the Axe suppressed and 
letten out to be a warehouse for a merchant." MARSLAND. 



St. /IDars Botfoaw. 



There is no doubt that the name of St. Mary Bothaw was derived 
from a boat house, or haw, connected with Dowgate Dock, the stream 
running up Walbrook into Bai'ge Yard, Bucklersbury. The added 
name was given in order to distinguish it from other churches in the 
City, so many of which were dedicated to St. Mary. 

As early as 1167 we read that certain lands and houses, specified 
as lying on the north side of the church, were granted by Wibert the 
Prior and Convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, to one Ermin and 
his successors, in consideration of an annual payment of ten shillings 
in money, a towel of the value of eightpence, two pitchers, and a salt 
cellar, which were to be delivered to the Prior for the use of his house. 

The Dean and Chapter are now the alternate patrons of the 
living. 

The church, which was considered handsome, and had a small 
cloister, stood on the site of the old churchyard in Turnwheel Lane, 
now covered by the Cannon Street Station. Stow says that this was 
a little lane with a turnpike in the middle, and also the church, which 
he calls " a proper parish church." 

There was a tablet with the following inscription : 

" This church was repaired and beautified at the charge of the 
parishioners in the year of our Lord, 1621. John Bennett, Thomas 
Digby, Churchwardens." 

* "Life of Archbishop Grindall." 



117 

There was also a monument to the memory of Queen Elizabeth, 
with the following inscription : 

" Elisabeth, Queen of England, France, and Ireland, <tc., Daughter 
to King Henry VII. by Elisabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV. 
Having restored true religion, reduced coyne to the just value, assisted 
France and the Low Countries, and overcome the Spanish Invincible 
Navy, enriched all England, and administered most prudently the 
Imperial State thereof forty-five years in true piety, in the seventieth 
year of her age, in most happy and peaceable manner, $he departed 
this life, leaving her mortal parts interred at the famous church at 
Westminster. ' I have fought a good fight, I have finished my 
course.' " 

Henry Fitz-Alwyn (Draper), the first Mayor of London, who died 
1190, lived in the adjoining parish of St. Swithin. 

Munday, in his edition of Stow, says that in 1614 the house was 
still standing, but divided into two or three tenements. The house had 
been left by Fitz Alwyn as a gift to the Drapers' Company. He was 
buried in the church, where there was a monument to his memory. 
His arms were also emblazoned on the windows. 

1350. John, son of Adam de Salisburi (Pepperer) left directions 
to be buried in the church. He also left to Idonice, his wife, two 
hundred and fifty pounds, his entire chamber, with robes, beds, chests, 
&c., all his vessels and utensils of gold, silver, brass, iron, and wood. 
" An iron bound chest to be deposited in the church, and in it are to be 
placed forty pounds sterling, to be lent to poor parishioners upon 
certain securities, to be repaid at a fixed time, so that no loan exceed 
sixty shillings, and the security must be greater than the loan. Three 
parishioners to have each a key, so that it may be opened and closed 
with the consent of all three and one of the keys in his custody so long 
as he shall reside in the parish." 

Kobert Chichely, Mayor, 1422, was a parishioner. He appointed 
by his will " that on his birthday a complete dinner should be given to 
two thousand four hundred poor men, householders of the City, and 
every man to have 2d. in money." He also gave a plot of land in 
Walbrook, on which to build the new parish church of St. Stephen. 

John Net (Pepperer), wished to be buried in the church. He also 
left money for lights to burn there. His executors were to purchase 
cloth in Candelwyke Strete to make hoods for distribution among the 



118 

porters of Soper's Lane, who customarily served the Pepperers, and 
also all his balances, weights, brass mortars and pestles in his shop to 
be sold. 

1393. John Dymock wished to be buried in the chancel of the 
church. 

1419. Johanna Falstof to be buried in the church near the 
sepulchre of Simon Donsarty her grandfather. 

In the parish, on the east side of Dowgate Hill and close to the 
church, was a large mansion called " The Erber," belonging to 
Richard, Earl of Warwick, who here lodged his father, the Earl of 
Salisbury, with five hundred men, in the Congress of Barons, 1458, in 
which Henry VI. may be said to have been deposed. 

In the time of Richard III. the building was called the King's 
Palace. It was rebuilt by Sir Thomas Pullison, Mayor 1584, and was 
afterwards the residence of the great navigator, Sir Francis Drake. 
The house was destroyed in the Great Fire and not rebuilt. 

During the progress of some buildings in Cannon Street, a cloister 
of the old church was laid open, and also a small vaulted building 
composed of very massive and elaborate masonry. The cloister was 
constructed with strong ribs, much depressed, with a chalk roof. 
There were also the remains of a pointed doorway. 

In the churchyard were the fragments of the south wall of the 
church, with a window bricked up, and part of a pannelled tomb. 

The registers date from the year 1536, but those up to the year 
1564 are evidently, to a large extent, copied, being written all in one 
hand. 

In 1687 occurs the only mention of a Rector of St. Mary Bothaw. 
" The Rev. William Lushington, Rector of St. Mary Bothaw, was 
buried, 8th January, 1637." 

In the minute books of St. Swithin's parish the following entries 
occur : 

" 1669, August 10th. An order is received from the Lord Mayor 
that the churchwardens shall cause the walls and steeple of the late 
church of St. Mary Bothaw to be forthwith taken down, the materials 
thereof to be preserved and to be employed towards the repairing and 
rebuilding of the church of St. Swithin." 

" 1670, December 19th. Ordered that the churchwardens of 



119 

St. Mary Bothaw bring in their plate, bells and vestments into the 
church of St. Swithin, according to Act of Parliament." 

" 1676, November llth. Ordered that the vestry do meet some of 
the parishioners of St. Mary Bothaw, and discourse with them about 
the rebuilding of the parish church." 

RECTORS. 

Adam Lambyn, 1281. William Roberts, 1381-1402. Sir Thomas 
Walton, 1426-1466. Richard Underbill, 1470-1476. Peter Potkin, 
New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1506-1516. Hugh Gyffard, 1528-1534. Richard 
Taylor, 1552-1560. Robert Coley, 1567-1574. Thomas Colfe, 1588- 
1599. Christopher Topham, 1606-1620. Thomas Copping, 1638. 
Nathaniel Stamforth, 1648, " Pastor." John Meriton, New Inn Hall, 
Oxford, 1666. 



Colecburcb. 

This church stood in a corner at the south end of Coney Hoop 
Lane, on the site of what is now Frederick Place, and was built upon 
arches, the entrance to the building being up several steps. 

The church was repaired at the cost of the parishioners, 1623. 

There was no parsonage house. 

Henry IV. granted a license to found a Brotherhood of St. 
Catherine in the church, because St. Thomas a Beckett and St. 
Edmund were baptized there. 

1262. A fierce quarrel broke out in this church between a 
Christian and a Jew, relative to money matters. The Jew, having 
wounded his adversary, fled out into the Jewry for refuge. He was 
captured in his own house and killed. The mob then fell upon the 
inhabitants of the quarter, plundering and burning their houses. 

The church is described in a petition of the Mercers' Company to 
the House of Commons, the Company desiring to remove the church 
and build their grammar school on the site : 

" Whereas, the Wardens and Commonalty of the Mystery of 
Mercers of the City of London, at the time of the late fire, were seized 
in fee of the rectory and parish church impropriate of St. Mary 



120 

Colechurch, the said church being an upper room about ten feet higher 
than the street, and lying over certain rooms and arched vaults and 
cellars of the said Wardens and Commonalty, upon the site of which 
church they had designed to build a free school and other buildings, 
and to remove the dead bodies and bones of such as have been buried 
upon the arches, and to cause them to be decently reposed within the 
body of their chapel called Mercers' Chapel." 

The church, no doubt, derived its name from one of the founders 
of the name of Cole. The steeple contained four bells, also a Sanctus 
bell. 

1278. William de Wantrate left money for maintaining a lamp 
to burn at all hours in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the 
church. 

1390 Johanna Northburgh left a bequest to the High Altar. 

1557. Robert Downe (Ironmonger) left directions to be buried 
in the church of St. Mary, to which he left twenty shillings for his 
" laye stall." To twelve poor men who were to carry twelve " staffe 
torches " at his burial, he left each a ready-made gown and eight 
pence in money ; also to the Livery of his Company attending his 
funeral six pounds for a dinner. 

RECTORS. 

Roger de Musendene, 1252. John Tenterden, 1466. Robert 
Downes, 1537. Andrew Castleton, 1570 (this Rector was blind). 
Richard Turnbull, 15811592. Richard Cowdale, 15931638. 

Thomas Horton, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1638. Was 
" silenced " 1642. He afterwards "conformed," and was appointed 
Preacher to the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn ; Rector of St. 
Helens, 1666 ; died 1673. 

Samuel Cheney, 1640. 

The patronage is vested in the Crown and the Bishop of London 
alternately. 

The Vestry minute books date from 1621. The following are a 
few of the entries : 

" It is agreed toadventur sixe pounds for the proffit of our church, 
stock in the lottery for the plantation of Verginya, and what benefit 
cometh shall be for the good of the church." 



121 

Then follows " For the adventur our church had two spoons price 
twenty shillings. 

" The old church Bible was sold to Mr. Thomas Allen, for fourteen 
shillings with concent of the parish." 

" Paide Mr. Williams for the Booke of Martyrs 1 5s." (1685). 

" Paide for prayers for the Prince of Orange " (1688). 

Fines. " Person working at his trade on Sunday, 3s. 4d. Person 
drunk and swearing two oaths, 9s." (1712). 

The following statement appears in the Vestry minute books of 
1660: 

" The goods and implements belonging to the parish of St. Mary 
Colechurch, delivered by me, Francis Hall, unto Mr. John Clarke, 
churchwarden, upon the day of May, when I delivered up my 

account. 

" Two large bottle flagons of silver gilt, given by Mr. Rob Wilson. 
Two large gilt silver Communion cups for wine, and two plates gilt 
for the bread, and a case to put them in. Two large pewter flagons, 
five pewter dishes. A pair of brasse scales and a beame, with a pile 
of Troy weights, and a little case to keep them all in. Two large 
pewter candlesticks, given by Coll. Jackson. A trunke, a locke and a 
key to keep them all in. Three tablecloths and two napkins of diaper. 
A pulpitt cloth with a green cushion belonging to it. Another pulpitt 
cloth with some green velvet with a pillow to it. Light green cushions 
of Kersey on both sides. Four green cushions lined with leather. 
Two covers for the Communion table, one of green Kersey, the other 
of . One greate Bible, a greate booke in folio of 

Bishop Juvell's works. The paraphrase of Erasmus upon the four 
Evangelists, and the Acts of the Apostles. A register book for 
christenyngs and marriages and burialls. A table standing in the Vestry 
house. Three tables of orders and duties. Thirty-six small candle- 
sticks, with a board to carry them on. A Communion table in the 
Chancell. Eight halberds, with cases of leather placed on a rack. 
Thirteen leather bucketts, with a staple to hang them up. Three 
coffins, with a pair of trussels, and a black howsell cloth. Four pick- 
axes, three shovells, with a crow of iron. Five bells, one grate and 
four small. Four ladders and a fire hooke, two of which are placed in 
the alley by the great conduite with the hooke, the other at the stockes. 
A desk, where are some wrightings about the house that Coll, 



122 

Mannering lives in. Tenn forms standing about the church. An 
yron cheste in the belfry, wherein is the coloured glasse." 



St. /Ifear^ /Ifcaafcalene, fliMife Street. 



This is a very ancient parish, there being a royal charter, quoted 
by Newcourt, in which Henry I. desires the Dean and Archdeacon of 
St. Paul's to give the church its own parish, and an agreement follows 
in which Galfridus, a canon of the Cathedral, is named as " owner " 
of this church, and his son Bartholomew is named as his successor. 

There is no doubt that this church and parish, from its close 
proximity to the Guildhall, occupied an important position in the 
City. This is also proved by the number of Aldermen and other 
citizens who were from time to time buried in the church. 

The church was small, standing in Milk Street at the west end of 
Honey Lane Market. The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's are the 
patrons. There was no parsonage house. 

Sir William Dugdale, in his " History of St. Paul's," observes 
" that the church of St. Mary Magdalene was of no value." It was 
repaired at the cost of the parish, 1619. 

The chancel window was built by Mr. Benjamin Hensha\v 
(Merchant Taylor) at a cost of 60, 1638. " A fair Communion 
table " was added and the church repaired at a cost of 30. 

1383. Johanna Mitford wished to be buried in the church of 
St. Mary, of which she is a parishioner. She left bequests for tapers 
and torches to burn on the day of her funeral, the torches afterwards 
to be given to the church. Her executors are to hire the larger tapers 
of twelve pounds, according to custom, the lesser tapers of six pounds 
remaining in the church for the use and relief of the poor who die in 
the parish. A cloth of russett to be put over her coffin at her funeral, 
the same to remain in the hands of the rector and churchwardens, 
with one of her own sheets for the use of the poor of the parish when 
they die. 

Henry Cantilow, Mercer and Merchant, of the Staple, built a 
chapel, and was there buried. His monument had these words : 
" Pray for the soul of Henry Cantilow, Mercer, Merchant of the Staple 



123 

at Callays, the builder of this chappell, wherein he lieth buried, 
1495." 

John Kendall, "presbiter," 1517. He desired to be buried in 
the chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, " near the Guyld Hall, London," 
or in any other holy place " in olio xancto loco." He also left a 
bequest to the church of St. Oswald of Sturby, Lincoln," ubi baptisatita 
fni." 

The following monuments were also in the church : 

" Of your charitie pray for the soul of William Campion, Citizen 
and Grocer, some time one of the Masters of the Bridge House." 

" Here lieth the corpse of Thomas Skinner, late Citizen and 
Alderman, who in the sixty-third year of his age, December 5th, 1596, 
being then Lord Mayor, departed this life." 

A monument in the south aisle to the memory of Mary Collett, 
wife of John Collett, who died 1613, had the following lines : 
" This marble witness, dew dropt with the eies 
Of grieved Niobe, tells thee that here lies 
Her second husband, joys, her first content, 
Her parents comfort, her friends ornament ; 
Her neighbours welcome, her deare kindred's losse, 
Her own health foe, deeming all pleasure drosse ; 
The world a jayle, whence through much paine we see, 
Her soule at length hath purchased liberty, 
And soared on high, where her Redeemer lives, 
Who, for her torment, rest and glory gives." 
A monument at the east end of the fourth aisle had the 

following : 

" This stone, this verse, two Mountfords doe present, 

The corpse of one, the other's monument, 

Two lovely brethren, by their virtues known, 

Whom Cambridge and Kings Colledge called their own, 

Osbert and Richard, of which worthy paire, 

The first's employed by sea in great affaire, 

Made Heaven his Haven, and at that Port the other, 

By land, did overtake his eldest brother ; 

So, now, the bones of both are laid asleepe, 

These in this church, these in the eastern deepe, 

Till all the dead shall wake from sea and lande, 

Before the Judge of Quick and Dead to stand." 



124 

On the tomb of Sir W. Stone, Alderman and Fishmonger, was 
the following : 

" Grave of levity, 
Span in brevity ; 
Glorius felicity, 
Fire of misery ; 
Winds stability, 
In mortality." 

He died 14th September, 1609, aged sixty-three years. 

" Here lie the bodies of Gerard Gore, Citizen, Merchant Taylor, 
and Alderman, and of Helen his wife, who lived together married 
fifty-seven years. The said Gerard died in his ninety-first yeare, 
llth December, 1G07, and Helen being seventy-five years old, died 
18th February in the foresaid yeare." 

The following were buried in the church : 

John Omey, Mayor, 1375. John Mitford, Sheriff, 1375. Thomas 
Meschampe, Sheriff, 14G3. Richard Lawson, Sheriff, 1477. Sir 
John Brown, Mayor, 1497 (was Master of the Mercers Company, 1450). 
Edward Alison, Priest, 1510. Sir William Brown, Sheriff 1491 and 
1504, Mayor 1513. Died during his mayoralty. John West, Alder- 
man, 1517. Thos. Exmew, Mayor 1518. He gave 40 to the church. 
Was Prime Warden of the Goldsmiths' Company. John Marchal, 
Alderman, 1558. Thomas Skinner, Mayor, 1596. Died soon after 
his election. Sir W'illiam Stone, Mayor, 1609. 

The register books of this parish were supposed to have been 
burnt in the Great Fire, but were found by the parish clerk of St. 
Lawrence Jewry in an old chest in St. Lawrence's church. 

In this parish lived Bishop Latimer's " good nurse, good Mrs. 
Lathom," who, when he was "in a faint sickness " (as he writes 
November 8th, 1537) "seeing what case I was in, hath fetched me 
home to her house, and doth pamper me with all diligence." 

Four years afterwards she was "presented" for "maintaining in 
her own house Latimer, Barnes, Garrett, Jerome, and divers others." 

Thomas Cappers was also "presented" for saying these words : 
" That the Sacrament of the Altar was but a memory and in remem- 
brance of the Lord's death." 

The following entry occurs in the baptismal register, 1619 : 

" Anne Henshaw, daughter of Benjamin and Anne Henshaw, of 



125 

the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street (because the great east 
window of the same church was then formed and builded at the proper 
cost and charges of the aforesaid Benjamin Henshaw, the father), 
was baptized in our parish church, June 6th." 



RECTORS. 

" Galfridus," Vicar 1162, the first Treasurer of St. Paul's. 

Henry de Holkenton, 13281336. William de Sommerdaby, 
1354; died 1380. William Belgrave, 13921402. John Burton, 
14141419. John Lovency, 1426 ; died 1439. Roger Ayerst, 1441 
1459. Thomas Wharton, 1511 ; died 1521. Geoffry Page, 1535 
1547. 

William East, D.D., 1554 ; afterwards Canon of Windsor. 

John Bullingham, Fellow of Magdalene College, Oxford, 1565 ; 
was Prebendary of St. Paul's ; died 1598 ; buried in Gloucester 
Cathedral. 

Thomas Edmonds, Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, and who 
had been a chorister at Magdalene College, 1571. 

Thomas Spain, Brasenose College, Oxford, 1577. 

James Speight, Christ's College, Cambridge, 1592 1637 ; Rector 
of St. Clement, Eastcheap, 1611. 

Anthony Farindon, Trinity College, Oxford, born 1598, and who 
since 1634 had held the vicarage of Bray, in Ireland ; was in 1647, 
through the influence of Sir John Robinson, a kinsman of Archbishop 
Laud, chosen " minister." He was also Divinity Reader to Charles I. 
at Chapel Royal, Windsor. 

Brunston says that : " In a short time the congregation so much 
increased that it was very difficult to find a seat." He published two 
large volumes of sermons, which were dedicated to his patron, 
Alderman Sir John Robinson. 

The following is an extract from the dedication : 

" As a witness or manifesto of my deep apprehension of your 
many noble favours and just charity to me and mine, when the 
sharpness of the weather and the roughness of the times had blown all 
from us and well nigh left us naked." 

Farindon had among his hearers Hammond and Saunderson. 
He complied with the existing restrictions by not using the Book of 



126 

Common Prayer, but this did not save him from the effect of the 
harsh measures which pursued the sequestered clergy. 

He resigned the living 1651 (or 1652). 

On the two Sundays preceding his departure, a clerical friend 
preached for him, when the parishioners made a collection at the 
church doors and presented him with 400. 

He died at his house in Milk Street, 1658, and was buried in the 
church. 

Walker says that at the University he had been " a noted 
preacher, and his discourses, though more remarkable for force of 
style than polish of manner, will always be valued for their grasp of 
learning and strength of thought." 

His executors published in 1663 three folio volumes, each 
containing between forty and fifty sermons. 

Thomas Vincent, born 1634, Christ Church, Oxford, was 
presented 1656, and on St. Bartholomew's Day, 1662, " was deprived 
for nonconformity." He wrote and published an account of the 
Plague and Fire, entitled " God's Terrible Voice in the City." This 
account is still extant, and is in the Guildhall Library. He 
continued his residence in the City during the whole time of the 
Plague, 1665. He also wrote a work called " God Wanting to be 
Gracious unto His People, together with England's Encouragements 
and Causes to Wait on God, Delivered in Certain Sermons at Milk 
Street, in London. Printed in 1642." This volume was dedicated 
to Major-General Skippon, and Kichard Ainsworth, Esq., two of his 
parishioners. " They abound in that kind of oratory which at that 
time was very popular. His resentment against the late episcopal f 
government is very deep." 

He asserts that the " Anglican Church is the Babylon of 
Revelations xviii., 4, and he enumerates his idolatrous doings, 
crossings, altars, crosses and ceremonies, false worship, false 
doctrine, &c." 

He afterwards retired to Hoxton, where he preached to a large 
congregation which met in a wooden building erected for him. He 
died 1678, and was buried in Cripplegate Churchyard. Samuel 
Slater preached his funeral sermon. 

Dr. Calamy says of him : " He was a worthy, humble, eminently 
pious man of sober principles and great zeal and diligence." He 



127 

had the whole of the New Testament and Psalms by heart. He 
took that pains as not knowing but they (as he has often said) who 
took from him his pulpit, and his cushion might in time demand his 
Bible also." 

Richard Baxter preached here 1661, " for the period of one year, 
for which he was allowed the sum of 40." 

Thomas Cartwright, Magdalene Hall, Oxford, 1665 ; Prebendary 
of St. Paul's ; was Chaplain to John Robinson, Alderman and 
Sheriff ; Bishop of Chester, 1686 ; died in Dublin, 1689. 

At the time of the Civil War in 1642, a service was established 
here called "The Morning Exercises." Many of the citizens having 
friends or relatives in the army, so many requests were sent up to the 
preachers in the various pulpits on each Sunday for their safety and 
preservation in the field, that the ministers had not time to notice 
them in prayer or even to read them. It was therefore agreed to set 
apart one hour each morning at seven o'clock, half of the time to be 
spent in prayer for those who were engaged in the war, the other half 
to be spent in exhortation. 

Thomas Case, Christ Church, Oxford, who had been appointed 
" Minister " here in the place of Mr. Jones (who had been sequestered 
1641) was the first to commence these meetings in St. Mary's, and in 
order that those living in other parts of the City should have an 
opportunity of joining, the services were continued in other churches, 
in rotation, a month at each. A number of the most eminent 
ministers conducted these services, which were attended by large con- 
gregations. Many were held at St. Giles, Cripplegate, and some at 
St. Giles-in-the-Fields. 

These sermons were afterwards collected and published in six 
volumes from 1661 to 1690. Another edition was published in 1844 
by William Tegg, Cheapside. This work is in the Guildhall Library. 

Mr. Case was also Lecturer of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, preaching 
there every Sunday afternoon and each Thursday. He was also 
Lecturer at St. Mary, Aldermanbury, and St. Giles, Cripplegate. 
1643, he was selected a member of the Westminster Assembly of 
Divines. 1649, in consequence of refusing " to be true and faithful 
to the government without a king or house of peers," he lost his place 
at Milk Street, and in 1651 was committed to the Tower on a charge 
of high treason, where he remained six months. 1660, he was one of 



128 

the ministers deputed to wait upon the King at The Hague to con- 
gratulate him on his restoration. 

It is related that Mr. Case, in administering the Holy Communion, 
instead of the words " Ye that do truly and earnestly repent," used the 
following : " You that have freely and liberally contributed to the 
Parliament for the defence of God's cause and the Gospel, draw near," 
&c. He was said to be " a scripture preacher, a great man, a-nd one 
that brought home many souls to God." There can be no doubt that 
with all his republican zeal he was a man of true piety. He died 1682, 
aged eighty-four years, and was buried at Christ Church, Newgate 
Street. Dr. Jacomb preached his funeral sermon. 



Itfountbaw. 

This church, which was very small, stood on the east side of Fish 
Street Hill, or as it was formerly called, Labour-in-vain Hill, leading 
from Old Fish Street into Upper Thames Street. It is known to 
have been originally the private chapel of the Monthaults, an old 
Norfolk family, and from them the church took its name. They 
inhabited a large stone house in the parish, which in 1234 was sold to 
the Bishop of Hereford. 

1609. The church was rebuilt and enlarged, Robert Bennett, 
Bishop of Hereford, being a benefactor, also his successor, Edward 
Fox, who was much employed by Henry VIII. in various negotiations. 

1610. The church was glazed at the cost of Thomas Tyler 
(Haberdasher) and Richard Tichborne (Skinner). 

In the south aisle was a painting of James I., with the figures of 
Peace and Plenty on each side of him, Peace with an olive branch and 
Plenty with a sheaf of wheat. This was given by Robert Plunkett, 
churchwarden. 

1345. John Gloucester, Alderman, founded a chantry, and gave 
Salt Wharf in Thames Street for its maintenance. He was buried in 
the church. 

John Skip, Bishop of Hereford, 1539, was buried here 1552. 

Stephen de Gloucester, Alderman (Fishmonger), 1366, was buried 
in the church, and left a bequest of 10, and the same to St, Mary 



129 

Somerset. He also left to his wife 10, the utensils of his house, all 
his jewels except his money of silver and gold, and also his stock of 
fish. 

RECTORS. 

Nicholas de Alvington, 1344. Nicholas de Stoke, 13871391. 
John Fawne, 13971421. John Barrett, 14361460. John Hotoft, 
14601475. 

John Oliver, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, 1522 ; resigned 
1527 ; died in Doctors' Commons, 1532. 

Gregory Permay, 1527 1537. 

Thomas Soadley, 1547 ; resigned 1554 ; died 1564. 

John Horsfall, 15741587. 

John Heyn, Brasenose College, Oxford, 1594 ; Kector of St. 
Mary Somerset, 15851596 ; of St. Martin Orgar, 15941603. 

Thomas Whytehand, 16031622. 

Thomas Thrall, 1630. This Rector was sequestered, several 
charges being brought against him : " That he was a common haunter 
of taverns and alehouses, who not only read the Book of Sports from 
the pulpit, but invited his hearers to practise them, he himself setting 
the example by playing at 'cudgels.'" "That he neither preached 
or catechised on the Lord's Day in the afternoon, nor suffered his 
parishioners to do so, though they desired it at their own charge, 
spending much of his time in alehouses, and hath been often drunke, 
and doth ordinarily swear and curse and useth superstitious bowing 
and cringing to the Communion Table." 

The parish registers date from 1568. 

The patronage is with the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 



St. /Ifears Staining 

This was a small church standing on the north side of Oat Lane. 
Part of the site was after the Fire thrown into the public way, and 
part is now occupied by the churchyard. 

The following inscription is placed on a tablet in the churchyard : 
" Before the dreadful Fire, Anno. Dom. 1666, here stood the parish 
church of St. Mary Staining." 



130 

There was no parsonage house. 

1630. The church was repaired at the cost of the parishioners. 

1247. We read in the " Liber Alb its " that, " in the wardenship 
of William de Haverhill, warden of the City, one Ludovic, a 
goldsmith, slew his wife and fled to the church of Saint Mary, of 
Staininge Lane, and then by permission of the Justiciars he abjured 
the King's realm." 

The following circumstance in connection with this old church is 
related by Eiley : 

" On Thursday, the Feast of St. Dunstan (19th May), 1278, the 
Chamberlain and Sheriffs were given to understand that one Henry 
de Lanfare was lying dead in the house of Sibil le Feron (the 
Ironmonger), in the ward of Chepe, in the parish of Colechurche. 
Upon hearing which, etc. And having called together the good men 
of that Ward,* and of the Ward of John de Blakethorne, t and the 
Ward of Henry de Fro wick, diligent inquisition was made thereon. 
Who say that one Richard de Codesfold, having fled to the church of 
St. Mary, Staniges Lane, in London, by reason of a certain robbery 
being by one, William de London, Cutler, imputed to him, and the 
said William, pursuing him on his flight thereto, it so happened that 
on the night following the Day of the Invention of the Holy Cross 
(5th May), in the present year, there being many persons watching 
about the church aforesaid, to take him, in case he should come out, 
a certain Henry de Lanfare, Ironmonger, one of the persons on the 
watch, hearing a noise in the church, and thence fearing that the 
same Richard was about to get out by another part of the church, and 
so escape through a breach that there was in a certain glass window, 
therein went to examine it. The said Richard and one Thomas, the 
then clerk of that church, perceiving this, the said Thomas, seizing a 
lance, without an iron head, struck at Henry beforementioned, through 
the hole in the window, and wounded him between the nose and the 
eyes, penetrating almost to the brain. From which wound he 
languished until the day of St. Dunstan (19th May), when he died 
about the third hour. They say also that as well the said Richard, as 
Thomas, beforementioned, are guilty of that felony, seeing that 
Richard was consenting thereto. And the said Thomas was taken and 
imprisoned in Newgate, and afterwards delivered before Hamon 

* Aldersgate Ward, f Cripplegate Ward. 



131 

Hawetlyn, Justiciar of Newgate. And the said Richard still keeps 
himself within the church beforenamed. Being asked if they hold 
any more persons suspected as to that death, they say they do not. 
They have no lands or chattells. And the body was viewed upon 
which no other injury or wound was found, save only the wound 
aforesaid. And the two neighbours nearest to the spot where he was 
wounded were attached, and the two neighbours nearest to the place 
where he died, and the said Sibil was attached in whose house he 
died." * 

There was a monument in the south wall of the chancel to the 
memory of Sir Arthur Savage, one of Queen Elizabeth's generals in 
Spain, where he was wounded, 1596; he died 1615. 

1837. William de Schivborn, Rector of Stone, near Rochester, 
left a tenement in the parish of St. Mary Staining, to his nephew, 
William, reserving to his nephews, Richard and John, a lower 
chamber with free ingress and egress for their lives. William and his 
successors are to go out at the time of his anniversary to the place 
where his body lies buried, there to remain for two days, and make 
solemn service as for a body present, so that not less than ten shillings 
be expended on the ceremony. 

1388. John Knott (Fishmonger) wished to be buried " in St. 
Ann's Chapel," in the church of St. Mary Stayning. 

Lady Rowlet, one of the learned daughters of Sir Anthony Cook, 
the youngest of five, wife of Sir Ralph Rowlet, Knt., was buried here 
8th December, 1557 ; also Sir Arthur Savage, Knt., General of Queen 
Elizabeth's Forces in France, 1632. 

In the " Memorials of the Goldsmiths Company " by Sir Walter 
Prideaux, is the following extract from their old records : 

" Memorandum, that on Tuesday, the llth day of July instant 
(1614), the Right Worshipful and Worthy Member of the City, George 
Smithers, Alderman, departed this transitory life, and that on 
Thursday, the 10th of August following, he was interred in the 
chauncel of the church of St. Marye Steyning. There being present 
at the funeral the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of the City, with 
many of the Aldermen his bretheren, and other worshipful persons, 
who dined at Goldsmiths' Hall that day. The wardens give license to 
Mrs. Smithers to have the use of the hall, plate, linen, and other 

* " Memorials of London Life." RILEY. 



132 

necessaries for the funeral dinner. The plate, &c., she is to receive 
by inventory, and to deliver in good plight without prejudice or charge 
to the Company, the next day after the funeral at the latest." 

The advowson of the rectory belonged to the Prioress and 
Convent of Clerkenwell. 



RECTORS. 

Adam de Doncaster, 1270. John Forster, 18921398. Roger 
Willbye, 14271432. John Bakster, 14391444. Walter Choltron, 
14601483. William Jackson, 15431547. John Taylor, 1567 
1578. Rowland Heryng, 15741581. John Lownde, 15841607. 
Samuel Phillips, 16071625. 

Isaac Tongue, born 1621, University College, Oxford, was 
presented by Bishop Henchman 1666. He had not enjoyed the living 
more than three months before both church and parish were burnt to 
the ground. He had previously been keeping a school at Islington. 
After the Fire he accepted a chaplaincy at Tangier. After two years' 
residence there, he returned to London, and was presented to the 
united rectory of St. Michael, Wood Street, and St. Mary Stayning, 
and held with this the living of Aston, Herefordshire. He died 1685, 
and was buried in the churchyard, his funeral sermon being preached 
at St. Michael's, Wood Street. 

" He was a good chronologist, and devoted much of his time to the 
study of alchymy, and was well read in Latin, Greek, and poetry." 
Burnet says : " He was a very mean divine, and seemed credulous and 
simple." He also relates that Mr. Tongue was the first discoverer of 
the plot of Titus Gates, 1678. 

Nathaniel Holmes, Magdalen College, Oxford, 1643 " a man 
well skilled in the tongues, particularly the Hebrew." Calamy says of 
him : " He was a Millinerian, but did not contend for a carnal, selfish, 
and worldly liberty to be enjoyed by the Saints before the general 
resurrection, but for a spiritual, purified, and refined freedom from sin 
and corruption." Died 1678. He wrote and published a considerable 
number of theological works, among which were the two following : 

" Ecclt'siatitica Mathamessentica, or Church cases cleared. Wherein 
are held forth some Things to reclaim Professors that are slack 
principled, Anti-Churchians, Non Church Seekers, Church Levellers, in 



133 

a Discurs of twelve Questions, with a Pacificatory Preface. London, 
1652." 

" The Resurrection Revealed, or the Dawning of the Day Star 
about to rise and radiate a visible, incomparable Glory far beyond any 
since the Creation upon the Universal Church on Earth for a thousand 
years yet to come before the ultimate Day of the general Judgement 
to the Raising of the Jews. London, 1654. In seven books." 

Mr. Holmes was a rigid Calvinist. He would admit no one to 
the Sacrament but such as were members of his church, nor would he 
baptize any children, although born in the parish, " but of such only 
that should enter into their new covenant." He resigned 1662, then 
spending most of his time in the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, 
"where he kept, or at least frequented, conventicles." 

Samuel Fawcet, "Pastor," 1651. This gentleman preached "A 
Seasonable Sermon for these Troublous Times " on the 23rd 
November, 1651, " before the Right Worshipful Companie of the 
Haberdashers." This was afterwards " Printed for R. Cotes and John 
Sweeting and are to be sold at his shop at the sign of the ' Angell ' 
in Pope's Head Alley." 



St. /I&an? Moolcburcb 1baw. 

This church was an ancient foundation, dating from the time of 
William I., when it was given to the Abbot and Convent of St. John's, 
Colchester, with whom it remained until the time of Henry VIII. 
It then came to the Crown, with whom it still remains. 

The name was derived from the circumstance that a beam was 
.fixed in the churchyard, which was used for weighing wool. This 
custom was here continued until the sixth year of Henry II., when it 
was removed to the Custom House Wool Quay, Thames Street. 

The church was rebuilt in the reign of Henry VI., and was 
" reasonably fair and large." It was then ordered to be placed fifteen 
feet from the Stocks Market, in order that the light to the market 
should not be damaged. The Mansion House now stands on the site. 

1861. William Walman (Skinner) desired to be buried near the 
tomb of Margery, his late wife. He also left money for tolling his 



184 

knell, digging his grave, and other funeral expenses ; also his brewery 
in the parish to Alice, the wife of William Peart. 

1868. John Fairher (Fishmonger) left money to the Fraternity 
in the church of St. Mary, of which he was a member. 

1881. Thomas Terricant left a bequest to the Chaplain of the 
Fraternity of St. Mary's Chapel. 

1888. Richard Hall (Fishmonger) left money to the High 
Altar ; and also to the Fraternity of the Salve. 

1429. Margaret Cornweillo left a shop in the parish, called " Le 
Cok in the Hop," for the repair of the nave of the church ; also a 
brewery in the parish, called " Le Swan in the Hop." 

Sir John Winger (Grocer), Sheriff, 1498 ; Mayor, 1604 ; was a 
great benefactor to the church. He also gave 20 and two large 
basins of silver. 

Richard Shore (Draper), Sheriff, 1505 ; probably a nephew or 
brother-in-law of Jane Shore. Gave 20 to build a porch at the west- 
end, where he was buried. 

John Handford gave a font, which was " very curiously wrought, 
painted and gilt." 

1578. Richard Pelter (Brewer), wished to be buried in the choir 
of the church. He left legacies to the poor living in Scalding Alley, 
in the parish of St. Mildred ; to each of his customers a barrell of ale ; 
to his daughter 60, a standing cup of silver gilt, a towel of damask 
work, and eighteen napkins. 

A " very fair screen " at the west door was given by Captain 
Edward Ditchfyld, who was churchwarden, 1670. 

On a stone at the chancel door was the following inscription : 
" In Sevenoke into 
The world my mother brought me, 
Howeden House, in Kent, 
W T ith armes ever honoured me. 
Westminster Hall 

(Thirty- six years afterwards) knew me, 
Then, seeking Heaven, 
Heaven from the world took me, 
Whil 'in alive ; 
Thomas Scott men call'd me, 
Now laid in grave, 
Oblivion covereth me." 



135 

There was a tablet with the following inscription to the memory 
of Queen Elizabeth : 

" The admired princesse, through the world applauded 

For supreme virtues rarest imitation ; 

Whose sceptre's rule Fame's loud-voiced trump hath lauded 

Unto the eares of every, foreign nation ; 

Canopied under powerful angels' wings, 

To her immortal praise sweet science sings." 

1493. Certain parishioners were brought before the Archdeacon's 
Court for not paying their dues for the stipend of the " Holy Water 
Clerk," and for the " Berne Light." 

Nicholas Newell, a Frenchman and a parishioner, was, in 1541, 
" presented " for being " a man far gone in the new sect ; that he was 
a great jester at the saints and at Our Lady." 

The church was repaired in 1629 at the cost of the parishioners. 

This church, no doubt from its close proximity to the most 
wealthy part of the City, was evidently one of some importance. 
Placing all the particulars we have of it together we find it possessed 
a porch, a chancel, a choir screen at the west door, a font, rood loft, 
peal of bells, images of the Virgin Mary and of the saints, a clock 
with two dial plates, one shewing outside and one inside the church. 

From the bequests made, the parishioners must have been men of 
no small importance and wealth. There are also mentioned several 
breweries in the parish. 

There was also a College, or Fraternity of St. Mary in connection 
with the church. 

1636. The yearly profits of the church were returned as follows : 
" Tythes, 50 16s. 6d. ; Glebe, 22 13s. 4d. ; Casualties, 13 6s. 8d." 

The Churchwardens' Accounts commence in the year 1560, 
Thomas Alen (Citizen and Pewterer) then being the churchwarden. The 
following are a few extracts from them.* 

There is a direction dated 1526, " The Clerke to have for tollynge 
of the passynge belle, if it be in the day, iiijd., if it be in the night for 
the same, viijd." 

1560. "Paid for taking awaye the holy water stone and mending 

* These extracts are taken from "Transcripts of the Registers of this Parish," 
by the Kev. J. M. S. Brooke. 



136 

of the rose of the water in the college, viiid." " Paid for carrynge of 
the tymber of the rood lofte into the churchyarde, viiid." 

1560. Paid to Mr. Bullock for wryting of the Scriptures and 
paynting of the church, iiii viis." 

1570. " Paid for ringing the bells when the Queen's Majestie 
throughe the citie to the Royal Exchange." 

1587. " Paid for carriage of an Irish woman, viiid., into 
Fynsburie feildes who was delivered of a childe under the stockes 
allowed out of poors box." 

1590. " Payd a certyficatt of pennance done by Sheppard's wyfe 
and the powlter for openinge three wyndowes on the Sabathe daie, 
xvid." 

1601. " Paid to Andrewes for whipping the vagrants for one 
whole yeare, 5s. 4d." 

8B. 1606. " Paid for answering the 26 articles and for a bill to 
certify whether all our parishioners received the Communion at 
Easter, 3s." 

1643. " Paid Robert Miles, free stone mason, for scaffolding and 
use of boards and poles, with his and other masons' and labourers' 
wages, in taking away the superstitious images of the Virgin Mary and 
the angels attending her and framing them into another decent 
shape, in all as by agreement, 9." 

" Paid the carvers for worke done by them in the like kinde in 
altering of images 8 8s. 6d." 

" Paid the carver for taking up and laying down with brass pins 
the monuments, and defacing the superstitious inscriptions and 
cutting others in their stead that are not offensive, the some of 
4 9s. 6d." 

" Paid Robert Miles for filling up the places where the superstitious 
images of brass were taken up and not fit to be put downe againe, 
1 4s. 6d." 

1646. " Paid in the tyme when we had no parson to several 
ministers for forty-four sermons, at 10s. per sermon, 22." 

1649. " Paid for breade, beere, ale, and sugar, for the minister 
that preached the morning exercise in our church, 1 4s. 4d." 

1653. " Paid for two hower glasses for the church, 2s. 6d." 

1660. " Paid to the ringers when my Lord Munc declared for a 



137 

free parliament, 7s. Paid to the ringers when King Charles the 
Second was proclaimed, 5s." 

1663. "Paid Mr. Robert Freeston for the stocks and whipping 
posts, and for mending and painting them, 1 6s." 

1616. " Mr. Geo. Scott, Grocer, gave the clocke to strike in the 
great hall, and with two dyalls, one towards the streete, the other 
within the church." 

1666 to 1669. " Paid for removing the vest, [ments] plate, bookes, 
and cushings in the tyme of the Fyre to severall places in the country, 
and bringing them into London againe, and then removing them to 
severall places to secure them, and carriage about the same, 5 6s." 

" Paid to severall watchmen to secure what was left unburnt about 
the church, 9 18s." 

"Paid for repaaring Eigby's Shed, the things being broken by 
taking down the stocks, 2 11s." 

" Paid Mr. King, Vintner, since the Fire with the parishioners at 
severall meetings about parish business, at the ' Rose ' Taverne, and 
one at the ' Dog ' Taverne, in all 8 2s. 6d." 

1669, December 22nd. The materials of the old church were 
sold to Mr. Richard Tompson for 50, and were paid for " out of the 
cole money." 

The parish registers date from 1538. 

Similar to so many of these old City churches, this one had its 
chantries connected with it. From a return made by the church- 
wardens in 1545 of chantries within their church, the following occurs : 

" To a Conducte, beying a pore perishen of the said perishe of 
Seynt Mary Woolchurche to helpe to syng in the quere yerely, 
Ivjs. viijd. 

The rectors of this church received four marks a year from tithes 
of the Stocks Market, which were paid to them by the Masters of the 
Bridge House, to whom the land on which the market stood 
belonged. 

RECTORS. 

John de Hatfield, 1349. He desired to be buried in the chancel 
of his church, or where God shall dispose. He left to the Rector of 
St. Benet Shereog all his books, robes, beds, vessells of brass, wood, 
and utensils. 



138 

William Tankervylle, 1382; died 1385. John Wyles, 1386 
1391. John Skypton, 1432 ; died 1442. 

Robert Kyrkeham, Prebendary of St. Paul's, 1447 ; Master of the 
Rolls ; was also Rector of St. Dunstan-in-the-East and St. Martin 
Vintry. 

John Benet, 1454 ; resigned 1485. John Archer, 1485 ; died 
1504. Richard Chester, Prebendary of St. Paul's, 1488. 

John Corney, 1504 1517. He directed by his will to be buried 
in the " Quyre." He also left a bequest to the Abbot of Colchester, 
who had presented him to the Rectory of St. Nicholas in that town. 

Simeon Matthew, King's College, Cambridge, 1533 ; Canon of 
St. Paul's ; Rector of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, 1534 ; died 1541. 
He wrote several sermons against the Pope, and was a great benefactor 
to his college. 

Geoffrey Jones, 1539 ; dispossessed 1538. John Hay ward, 1593 
-1618. Richard Crook, 1618; died 1641. John Tireman, B.D., 
1611, "was soon afterwards forced to forsake it." Philip Harris, 
1645. 

Thomas Whately, 1648. Charles Mason, King's College, 
Cambridge, 1661 ; Canon of St. Paul's, 1663 ; Rector of St. Peter le 
Poor, 1669. 

Thomas Leaver, who was preacher to King Edward VI., and 
seventh Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, published the 
following in connection with this church : "A Meditation upon the 
Lord's Prayer, made at Saynte Mary Woolchurch Hawe. London, 
Anno. 1551. John Daye, 16mo." Thomas Baker says of Leaver: 
" One of the best masters, as well as one of the best men, St. John's 
College ever had." 

Bearbinder Lane, in this parish, is mentioned in City records as 
early as 1858. It is now called George Street, and was the spot at 
which the plague, in 1665, first made its appearance. 

Defoe, in his " History of the Plague," says : " To the great afflic- 
tion of the City, one died within the walls in the parish of St. Mary 
Woolchurch, that is to say, in Bearbinder Lane, near the Stocks 
Market." 



189 



St. 4Dfcbael*le<!luerne. 

This church, formerly called " St. Michael ad Bladum," or St. 
Michael " at the Cross," was so named from a corn market which was 
held near the spot. It stood fronting Cheapside, on the ground now 
occupied by the statue of Sir Kobert Peel, at the western end. 
The building was erected in the time of Edward III. 

At the east end stood a cross, called the " old crosse in weste 
chepe." This was taken down in 1890. 

At the west end was a small passage still existing, called 
" Panyer Alley." 

About 1390 the church was taken down, rebuilt, and enlarged, 
the Mayor, William Eastfield, and Commonalty of the City granting 
the ground for that purpose three and a half feet on the north side, 
and four feet at the east. 

This was a small building, sixty feet long, with a square tower 
fifty feet high, and a clock on the south face. 

This same Mayor also built a conduit, which stood at the east 
end of the church. 

On the 8th April, 1378, application was made by the Common 
Sergeant on behalf of the Ward of Farringdon Within to the Mayor, 
that Roger, "Rector of St. Michael, and the churchwardens, " had 
lately blocked up with a stone wall the doorway of the church, through 
which time out of mind there had been a common passage for the 
people through the church all the day, which blocking was injurious, 
as being an impediment to their common passage." 

The Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs went in person to the church, 
and, after inspection, they named a day for reason to be shown why 
the doorway had been so blocked to the grievous damage of the 
commonalty. Appearance was made, and not having anything to 
show for themselves, they were ordered under a penalty of 20 to pull 
down the wall, so that the old door should stand open for common 
passage through ihe said church during the day, as from of old it had 
been wont to do." 

The building was repaired at the cost of the parishioners in 
1G17. 

The church was built from the foundation with free stone, and 
the pulpit, pews, and galleries also made new in the year 1638, and 



140 

the " condit adjoyning unto it began to be built from the foundation 
with free stone in the year 1643, in the mayoralty of Sir John 
Wooleston (Grocer), and was finished in the year 1644, in the 
mayoralty of Thomas Atkins (Mercer)." Notes on London Churches, 
16311638. 

1368. Adam de Eylesham (Gpldsmith) left money for tapers to 
burn before the image of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the church. 

Geoffrey Bernese left a legacy to the Brethren of the Guild of 
St. Hilda. He also wished to be buried in the church under the 
stone "which covers the body of Eliza, his late wife"; also he left 
the sum of twenty shillings for gathering together the chief 
parishioners of St. Michael and their " friends and neighbours within 
one year from his decease and giving them drinks." 

A parishioner in 1340 was cited, for refusing to pay for the 
" beme light " and also the wages of the clerk. 

1531. Sentence of condemnation was read by the Bishop of 
London against Tewkesbury, a Leath seller, of St. Michael-le-Querne, 
" an excellent proficient in the Gospel of reading the Books of the 
Scripture." 

There was in this church a monument to the famous antiquary 
and writer, John Leland (1552), who was born in the parish : 

" Here lieth interred the body of John Leland, native of this 
honourable Citie of London, brought up in the Universities of England 
and France, where he greatly profited in all good learning and 
languages. Keeper of the libraries he was to King Henry the Eight, 
in which office he chiefly applied himselfe to the study of antiquities, 
wherein he was so laborious and exquisite, that few or none either 
before or since may be with him compared, which will best appear by 
his New Years' gifts to the said King Henry, written in Latin and 
translated into English by his contemporary companion, John Bale, 
and by him intituled ' The Calseyouse Journey and Serche of Johan 
Leylande for England's Antiquities,' given of him as a New Yeere's 
Gift to the Kynge Henry the Eighte, in the thirty-seventh yere of 
his Reyne." 

Stephen Spelman, Chamberlain and Sheriff, 1405. 

John Banks (Deputy), Bassishaw Ward, 1634. 

The parish registers date from 1558. 



141 

RECTORS. 

John de Mundene, 1274. 

Thomas de Newentone, 13511374. "He was buried in the 
quire." Eoger Frysbury, 13781387. Nicholas Bury, 13991410. 
John Holborn, 14131426. John Craas, 14271434. 

William Eadcliffe, LL.D., 1454 ; Prebendary of St. Paul's ; died 
1458. 

Henry Hickman, 1535. Thomas Whitmore, 1547. 

Gervase Smith, Magdalene College, Oxford, 1568 ; also Rector of 
St. Martin, Ludgate. 

John Gravitt, 1571. 

Joshua Gelpin, Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 15771603 ; 
was Rector of St. Ann and Agnes, 1575 ; St. Vedast, Foster Lane, 
1578. 

George Downham, Christ College, Cambridge ; Prebendary of 
St. Paul's, 16141616; also Rector of St. Margaret, Lothbury; died 
1634 ; was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

William Lawrence, 1620 1641. " A most excellent pastor, and 
extremely beloved by his parish. Upon the breaking out of the 
Rebellion was sequestered." 

Anthony Tuckney, D.D. ; born 1599 ; presented to the living, 
1648. He was a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, 
in the deliberations of this body taking a very important pait. 1645, 
was made Master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he had 
been educated. 1666, he deposited all his library at Scriveners' 
Hall, where it perished in the Great Fire. He died 1670, and was 
buried in the church of St. Andrew Undershaft. Richard Baxter says 
of him : " An ever humble man." Calamy says : " He had the character 
of an eminently pious and learned man, a true friend, and an 
indefatigible student ; a candid disputant and an earnest promoter of 
truth and godliness." 

Matthew Pool, born 1624, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1649 ; 
was one of the preachers of the "Morning Exercises" at St. Giles, 
Cripplegate. On the 26th August, 1660, he preached a sermon at 
St. Paul's before the Lord Mayor, entitled : " Evangelical Worship is 
Spiritual Worship, discussed in a Sermon preached at Pawle's by 
Matthew Pool, Minister of the Gospel at Michael Quern, London," in 
which he endeavoured to make a stand for simplicity of public worship, 



142 

especially deprecating " curiosity of voice and musical sounds " in 
church. 1662, he resigned the living. He was one of those who in 
1672 presented to the King "a cautious and moderate thanksgiving 
for the Indulgence of March, 1672." Died at Amsterdam, 1679, aged 
fifty-six, and was there buried. He printed and published a large number 
of books and tracts, one of them being ' Dialogues between a Popish 
Priest and an English Protestant, wherein the Points and Agreements 
of both Religions are truly Proposed and fully Examined. 1667." 
Dr. Calamy says of him : " He was a very diligent preacher and a 
hard student ; very facetious in his conversation, very true to his 
friends, very strict in his piety, and universal in charity. He wrote a 
voluminous work on the Bible called ' Synopsis Criticorum,' which was 
published in five large volumes folio, and was said to be ' an admirable 
and useful work.' ' 

The presentation belongs to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, 
with whom it has been for many centuries. 



St. TFUcbolas Hcons. 

This church stood on the west side of Nicholas Lane, on the site 
of the present churchyard. It must have been a very ancient 
foundation, for we read that as early as 1084 " Godwin with his wife, 
Terena, for the redemption of their souls gave the church of St. 
Nicholas and St. Aldehm the Confessor, to the Church of Malmesbury 
for ever." 

In old deeds, dated the thirteenth century, this church is said to 
be situate in Hakon Lane, or Hakoun Lane, and later on in Aeon 
Lane. 

At the dissolution the living came to the Crown, with whom it 
still remains. 

1258. "Ralph" is mentioned as "Chaplain cf St. Nicholas 
Hakon." 

1297. Gilbert de Chipsvede left his tenement in the parish 
charged with supplying a torch annually in the church at the 
Elevation of the Host. 

1341. Lawrence de Camn'eld wished to be buried before the font, 



148 

and left money to maintain a lamp before the rood ; also the money 
for a fountain situate within the parish. 

1849. John de Northall (Clerk), wished to be buried in St. 
John's Chapel in the church of St. Nicholas. 

1361. Alice, wife of John de Northall (Clerk), desired to be 
buried near her late husband in the chapel of St. John-the-Baptist. 

John Botiler (Draper) left for the use of the church of St. 
Nicholas a silver cup, with the Royal Arms of England enamelled on 
the bottom for making a chalice, and two silver gilt stands and five 
mazer cups for making a thurible ; also all his broken silver and a 
large seal with a shield engraved upon it with a cross hanging by a 
chain. 

1408. John Walcote desired to be buried near the chancel of the 
church, and also left to the Eector, Sir Richard Chaundler, lands and 
tenements in the parish for the fabric of the church. 

1383. John Barryll desired to be buried before the rood. 

1423. Solomon Oxmaye (Goldsmith) left to the Rector, James 
Parayer, tenements in Lombard Street for religious purposes, the 
residue of the profit to be kept in a box in the church under the care 
of the Rector and churchwardens, to be devoted to the fabric and 
ornaments of the church. 

1520. Sir John Brydges, Mayor (Draper), repaired the church, 
" embellished " it, and was there buried. 

1553. Joseph Alleyn (Draper) wished to be buried in the church 
" if he chanced to die in the parish, otherwise in the parish church 
where he may happen to die, ' withoute anye pompe or pride of vaine 
glorie.' " 

On a tablet in the church was the following inscription : 

" ye dere frendys whych sail hereaftyr lie, 

Of yowr devotion plese ye to remembyr 

Me, Richard Payne, which of this noble cite 

Somtym whylst I lived was citizen and drapier, 

And now thro Godd's grace buryd am I here 

For mercy to abyd aftyr this life present ; 

Trestyng by preyer celestiall, joy to be my judgement, 

Wherefor, my frendys dere, my soul ye like, 

And eve Elisabeth, my wyf and children, on by on assist, 

And I sell prey God for peyne yowr souls to resist, 



144 

The sooner by mediation of blessyd St. Albion, 
On whos day in June on cccclx. and thrice on, 
Then being the yere of God as hit him did plese, 
Out of this present world did I discease." 

There was a monument to Francis Bowyer, Alderman and Sheriff, 
1580, with the following inscription : 

" This picture is for others, not for me, 
For in my heart I wear thy memory ; 
It is here placed that passengers may know 
Within thy grounds no weeds but corn did grow ; 
That there did flow within thy vital blood, 
All that could make one honest, just, and good ; 
Here is no elbow room to write of more, 
An epitaph yields taste, but seldom more ; 
And now attend thee at the court in Heaven, 
Thy worth, sweet Charles, deserves the rarest wit 
Thy Jane for such a task is most unfit." 

Sir John Hawkins, Knt., the famous Naval Commander, was 
buried here ; also John Briggs (Draper), Mayor, 1520, who lived in 
Crooked Lane. 

The parish registers were preserved from the Fire. They date 
from 1539, and are written on vellum. There are entries of several 
marriages during the time of Oliver Cromwell, when the ceremony was 
performed before the ' Aldermen and Justices of the Peace." 

It may be of some interest to give here the principal condition of 
this most extraordinary Act. It was passed 24th August, 1653. It 
enacts " that publication of the intention of the pastors shall be 
made on three several Lord's Days, at the close of the morning 
exercise, in the church or chapel, or in the market place next 
adjoining on three market days, between the hours of eleven and two. 
That all persons intending to be married should come before some 
Justice of the Peace of the same city or town. The ceremony is also 
directed, the man taking the woman by the hand pronounced the 
words : ' I, A. B., do here, in the presence of God, the searcher of all 
hearts, take thee, C. D., for my wedded wife, and do also in the 
presence of God, and before these witnesses, promise to be unto thee a 
loving and faithful husband.' The same words were repeated by the 
woman, with the addition of ' an obedient wife.' The parties were 



145 

then declared by the justices to be man and wife. It was also added 
in the Act, ' and no other marriage whatsoever within the Common- 
wealth of England after the 29th September, 1553, shall be held or 
accounted a marriage according to the laws of England.' " 

William Lambarde, the historian of Kent, was born in this 
parish, 18th October, 1536. He was made Bencher of Lincoln's Inn 
1578 ; a Master in Chancery, and Keeper of the Records, 1597 ; Keeper 
of the Records in the Tower, 1601 ; died 1601, and was buried at 
Greenwich. 

RECTORS. 

. Master Nicholas, 1250. Adam Navrealton, 1345. William 
Benington, 13711381. John Claypole, 13811401. Richard 
Perry, 1435. Richard Lofthouse, 1444 ; died 1462. William Sheriffe, 
14621472. John Willys, 1472; died 1493. Nicholas Urswick, 
1497 ; died 1506. Robert Portland, 15061531. Maurice Griffith, 
1531 ; died 1558. Thomas Knell, 1570 ; resigned 1572. Robert 
Hales, 15791588. 

Robert Temple, Magdalene College, Oxford; Prebendary of St. 
Paul's, 1592 ; was also Rector of St. George, Botolph Lane ; died 
1598. 

Henry Bird, 16041612. John Jones, 16121636. 

Matthew Bennett, 1636, was presented by Charles I. Walker 
says : "He was a learned and genteel man, and valued by Bishop 
Usher." 

William Jenkyn ; born 1612 (Cambridge) ; was appointed Lecturer 
1636. He was presented by Charles I. to St. Leonard's, Colchester ; 
was also Vicar of Christ Church, Newgate Street, to which he was 
presented by the Governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. On his 
declaring himself a Royalist Presbyterian, his living was sequestered, 
but on the next vacancy he was again presented, and remained there 
until 1662, when he resigned. He held also a Lectureship at St. 
Ann's, Blackfriars. It is recorded that at Christ Church " he 
exercised his ministry morning and afternoon to a crowded 
congregation with eminent success." " Upon the destruction of the 
Monarchy he refused to observe the public Thanksgiving. For this he 
was suspended from the ministry." In 1663 he is reported " as 
holding a conventicle at Mr. Cleyton's, in Wood Street ; at Mr. 



146 

Angell's, in Newgate Market ; and at the ' Rose and Crown,' in Blowe 
Bladder Street." Upon the issuing of the Act of Indulgence, 1672, 
he took out a license for himself as a Presbyterian preacher, and 
another for his " house or chamber in Home Alley, Aldersgate Street, 
as a worship place, where he had large congregations." He was also 
chosen to preach the Merchants' Lecture, Pinners' Hall. September 
2nd, 1684, " Being engaged with three other ministers spending the 
Lord's Day in prayer in a place where they thought themselves safe 
and out of danger, the soldiers broke in upon them, and Mr. Jenkyn 
was lodged in Newgate," where he died, 19th January, 1685, aged 
seventy-two years. A nobleman, having heard of it, said to the King : 
" May it please your Majesty, Jenkyn has got his liberty." " Eh ! " 
he replied, eagerly, " who gave it to him?" The nobleman replied, 
" A greater than your Majesty, the King of kings." Upon which the 
King seemed much struck. Baxter says of Mr. Jenkyn, " A 
sententious. elegant preacher." He was buried with great honour in 
Bunhill Fields. 

Thomas Peck, 1648. 

John Meriton, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1661 ; resigned 
1664 ; was also Rector of St. Michael's, Cornhill. 



St. IKUcbolas lave. 

This church in the twelfth century belonged to Gilbert Foliot, 
Bishop of London, and was by him given to the Chapter of St. Paul's, 
with whom the presentation still remains. 

It stood on the west side of Trinity Lane, was of great age, much 
dilapidated, and very small. 1609, it was taken down and a new 
building erected in its place. 

Between the consecration of the new building, on the 9th April, 
1610, and its destruction by fire in 1666, no monuments of any note 
were erected, with the exception of one to John D'Arcy, second son of 
John, Lord D'Arcy, who died 1593 ; and one to Gresield Windesor, 
daughter of Henry, Lord Windesor, who died January 27th, 1600. 

1628. The church was repaired at a cost of 24. 

1628. " The South He, that was like a cottage before, only tiled, 



147 

was ceiled, and that gracefully and decently finished, which, with some 
cost bestowed on the steeple, did arise to the sum of 22 at the cost of 
the parish." 

1632. The church was enriched with a very fair gallery at the 
cost of Richard Turner and John Nowell. 

1662. The building was repaired at a cost of 50 7s. 6d. 
After the Fire the parishioners met for twenty years in a 
temporary building called the " Tabernacle." 

1557. Thomas Lewin (Ironmonger) left some houses charged 
with the maintenance of a mass priest in the church. " He was to 
dwell in the fairest of the five new tenements, which the testator was 
about to erect in the churchyard, the remaining four to be set apart 
for dwelling houses for four poor and honest men to live rent free and 
to receive each twenty pence quarterly." 

Blitheman, Organist of the Queen's Chapel, was buried here, in 
whose memory the following inscription was placed : 
" Here Blitheman lies, a worthy knight 

Who feared God above ; 
A friend to all, a foe to none, 

Whom riche and poore did love ; 
Of Prince's Chappell, Gentleman, 

Unto his dying day, 
Whom all took great delight to heare 

Him on the organs play ; 
Whose passing skill in musicke's art 

A scholer left behinde. 
John Bull (by name), his master's veine, 

Expressing on each kinde. 
But nothing here continues long, 

Nor resting place can have, 
His soule departed hence to Heaven, 

His body here in grave." 
He died on Whit- Sunday, Anno Domini 1591. 
William Newport, Sheriff, 1875, was buried here, 



148 



RECTORS. 

John Perochier, 1327. Henry de Welwyn, 13361392. Walter 
Trewethy, 14281434. John Puson, 14371456. 

Sir John Sason, 1498 1519, " prest and parson of St. Nicholas 
Oluff, in Bred Street, London. He desired to be buried in the quer 
on the left side of Maister Harry Willows, some time parson of the 
sayd churche, or before Seint Nicholas, with a littell tombe for the 
resurrection of Ester Day, and he gives twenty shillings to the parish 
church of Bloxam, where I was born." 

Edmund Cowper, 15461562. Peter Lillye, 15891601. John 
Greenwood, 16101612. Richard Cheshire, 16121642, " molested 
and forced to resign." 

Oliver Whitbie, Trinity College, 1643; resigned 1660; Arch- 
deacon of London ; Canon of Chichester, 1672. 

Joseph Cart, 1660. 



St. lave, Silver Street. 

This church is generally supposed to have been a timber 
structure. It was of great age, and in 1609 was pulled down, a new 
building being erected in its stead. 

The church possessed a picture of the King, there being in 1662 
a charge for 1 for it, " and the rest that was paid more for it was 
given by them that desired not to be known." 

The building was repaired 1662, at a cost of 50 7s. 6d. 

The churchyard is small. 

For a considerable period the parish held an additional piece of 
ground in Noble Street, which was called the " anatomizer's " ground. 
The record of the burial of " anatomies " is frequent. 

The number of burials registered in 1665-6 is 119. 

The situation of the church is denoted by a stone in the wall of 



149 

the present churchyard, with the following inscription beneath a skull 
and cross bones : 

" THIS WAS THE PARISH CHURCH 
OF ST. OLAVE, SILVER STREET, 
DESTROYED BY THE DREADFULL 
FIRE IN THE YEAR 1666." 

On the left of the gate is another stone with the inscription : 

" THIS KAIL AND RAILINGS WAS ERECTED BY 

VOLUNTARY SUBSCRIPTIONS ANNO DOM. 1796. 

WILLIAM WEBSTER, 

CHURCHWARDEN." 

The following extract is from a report of a visitation of London, 
made in 1527, for the detection of heresy, by Jeffrey Wharton, D.D., 
acting for the Bishop of London : 

" The said Hacker confessed that he and others met once a 
quarter in his own house, and that they read sometimes in a Book of 
Paul and sometimes in a Book of the Epistles ; and that he, and 
Russell, and Maxwell, of St. Olave, Silver Street (Bricklayer), were 
much conversant." 

Strype relates that " the 29th of July, being St. Olave's Day, 
was the church holiday in Silver Street, the parish church whereof 
being dedicated to that saint. And at eight of the clock at night, 
began a stage play of a goodly matter (relating it is like to that saint) 
that continued unto twelve at midnight, and then they made an end 
with a good song." 

John Banister, a well-known London surgeon, lived in the parish 
in Silver Street, and was buried in its churchyard. He was born 
1540 ; died 1610. One of the works which he published was entitled : 
" The History of Man, Suck'd from the Sap of the most approved 
Anatomists," in nine books, London, 1578. 

After his death a collected edition of his surgical works was 
published entitled : " The Works of that Famous Chyrurgion, Mr. 
John Banister, in six books." 

In the churchwardens' book of accounts, 1630, are charges for 
" making the lanthorn in the belfry " ; also its repairs, the supply of 
candles at 6d. the lb., and the salary of the sextoness for cleaning and 
hanging out the lanthorn. 



150 

There are also chronicled the ringing of the bells on the birthday 
of Queen Elizabeth ; the coronation of Charles I. ; the birth " of our 
young prince," 1630 ; the princess, 1632 ; the duke, 1634 ; and the 
Queen being brought to bed 1636. On the King's " coming out " of 
Scotland the ringing was kept up for two days, and the victory at 
Naseby was not forgotten. The swearing-in of the Lord Protector, 
1653 ; the proclamation of Charles II., and his dining at Guildhall 
were also commemorated. 

The churchwardens' receipts for 1631-2 were 89 15s. 2d., and 
the payments 76 6s. lid. 

There were about one hundred and thirty ratepayers. The rate 
books show that Judge Jeffreys was owner, if not occupier, of premises 
in the parish from the time of his being Common Sergeant, in 1676, 
until his fall, 1685-6. 

Among the inhabitants were Sir Robert Tichborne, Alderman. 
His lectures, 1657-8, are frequently referred to ; also the names of Dr. 
Gifford and Lord Winsor, 1637. 

The parish possessed a whipping-post, but it is not mentioned 
after 1638. 

The price of iron bars for the vestry windows is stated at 3^d. 
a pound. 

The loss by light gold is more than once alluded to, especially that 
" that came from the Lord Mayor," in 1637, causing a debit against 
the parish of 2s. 6d. Also an entry " Paid for a proclamation for 
avoiding the gentry, 3d." 

Some of the entries relating to the relief of the poor in 1630 are 
quaint : 

" Item Given to a lame man born in the parish to set him going, 
Is." 

"1631. Given to a poor woman converted from Popery by cer- 
tificate, Is." 

" 1637. For a bedstead for a poor woman, and to be rid of 
her, 8s. 4d." 

" A sick woman, 4d." " To get her away, 4d." 

In 1662, relief to the amount of 4s. was given to " one poor 
minister having seven children ready to starve." 

1638. 2s. was given to two poor " Irishmen whose houses were 
burnt by the Turks." 



151 

RECTOKS. 

Roger de Shawdelane, 1343. William de Abinton, 1349. William 
de Burton, 1380. 

Thomas de Middleton, Prebendary of St. Paul's 1391. Died 1414. 

John Maunsfield, 1412. Died 1414. Edward Hyke, 1512. John 
David, 1530. George Newton, 1535. William Ashton, 1547. 

Abraham Wright, " Minister," 1555. Died 1600, at Oakham, 
Lincolnshire, where he was Vicar. 

Anthony Simpson, 1566. Died 1567. Rowland Herring, 1570. 

Rowland Hill, " Clerk Parson," 1581. This gentleman was 
appointed trustee of some charities in the parish. 

John Donne, 1589. Resigned 1592. Was also Rector of St. 
Benet, Gracechurch. 

John Flint, 1592. Thomas Boothe, LL.B., 1610. Died 1616. 
Thomas Mamie, 1621. Died 1641. John Bellchawne, Magdalene 
Hall, Oxford, 1644. Walter Taylour, Queen's College, Cambridge, 
1644. 

Abraham W'right, Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, 1655. This 
gentleman was born in Black Swan Alley in the parish of St. James, 
Garlickhithe, 1611 ; was educated partly at Mercers School, Cheapside, 
and also at Merchant Taylors School. He was accounted " an elegant 
preacher," and frequently filled the pulpit of St. Mary's, Oxford, and 
of St. Paul's Cathedral. He was chosen by the parishioners of St. 
Olave as their rector, and remained four years, resigning in 1660, 
going from there to Okeham. "He was a person of open and professed 
affections for conformity, and no favourer of sectarians and their 
conventicles ; was therefore not beloved by the Dissenters of his parish, 
which was full of them." He died 1690 ; was buried at Okeham. 
He wrote and published several works, among them the two following: 
" Five Sermons on Five Several Stiles or Ways of Preaching ; the 
first in Bishop Andrewe's Way, before the late King upon the first day 
of Lent ; the second in Bishop Hall's Way, before the Clergie at the 
Author's own Ordination in Christ Church in Oxon ; the third in Dr. 
Mayne's and Mr. Cartwright's Way, before the Universitie at St. 
Mary's in Oxford; the fourth in the Presbyterian Way, before the 
City at St. Paule's in London ; and the fifth in the Independent Way, 
never preached. Lond. 1656." 

" A Practical Commentary or Exposition upon the Book of 



152 

Psalms, wherein the Text of every Psalm is practically expounded 
according to the Doctrine of the Cath. Church in a way not usually 
trod hy Commentators, and wholly applyed to the Life and Salvation 
of Christians. Lond. 1641." 

Dr. Bossie, 1661. " He was abused and died with grief." 

William King, Caius College, Cambridge, 1662. 

Thomas Douglas, "minister," resigned 1662. He afterwards 
took his degree as Doctor of Physic, but ran into debt. Afterwards 
went to Ireland, where he died. He wrote a book called " The Great 
Mysterie of Godliness, opened by way of Antidote against the Great 
Mysterie of Iniquity now awork in the Eomish Church." 

The alternate patronage is with the Dean and Chapter of St. 
Paul's and the Provost and Fellows of Eton College. 



St. jpancras, Sopei* Xane. 

This church, first erected in the twelfth century, stood in Pancras 
Lane and Queen Street, or as the latter was called, Soper Lane. The 
present churchyard points the spot. It is but a short distance from 
that of St. Benet Shereog in the same lane. The church was also 
at the corner of a small lane called Needles Lane, but this was not 
a thoroughfare. 

The building was small, with a handsome porch, steeple and 
tower containing five bells. 

There was a chapel in the north side of the church dedicated to 
the Holy Virgin, a chantry having been founded in it, 1353, by John 
de Causton (Mercer). There was also an Altar of Our Lady. Margaret 
Eeynolds, who had given 68 towards rebuilding the north wall of 
the church, left money for a Mass to be said daily at this Altar. 

In the same year, Koger, Bishop of Waterford, granted forty days 
pardon to those who offered for this church and prayed for the welfare 
of the kingdom. 

1374. William, Archbishop of Canterbury, granted an indulgence 
of forty days to all those truly penitent and confessed who should con- 
tribute to the support of the bell called " Le Clok," in the tower of the 
parish church of St. Pancras. 



153 

Richard, Bishop of Bifancon, also issued a pardon of forty days to 
those pious persons who gave oblations to God and the church of St. 
Pancras, for the support of the structure, books, and ornaments, and 
who also would in charity pray for the prosperity of the church. 

Henry Deyner (Ironmonger) left money for the maintenance of 
the clock. 

1375. John Biernes (Alderman, Mayor 1370), desired to be 
buried in the church, near the tomb of Christina (his wife). 

1419. John Haddele (Grocer) left a bequest to Sir John Wykyng- 
stone, the Rector, in aid of maintaining the church clock. 

1427. John Everard left money for the same purpose. 

This church must have held an important position in the old 
city, for we read that on the 23rd June, 1561 : " Gilbert, Bishop of 
Bath and Wells, by license from the Archbishop, ordained six deacons 
in the church of St. Pancras, belonging to the deanery of the church 
of the Arches, and on the 20th July the same Bishop ordained two 
deacons and four priests." 

1617. Thomas Chapman, a wealthy member of the congregation, 
presented to the church a monument bearing the figure of " that our 
famous Queen Elisabeth." 

The following was the inscription : 

" To the most happy, blessed, and precious memory of the late 
famous and never-to-be-forgotten Monarch, Queen Elisabeth, the 
Restorer of our Religion, a tender nursing Mother of the Church of 
God, a powerful Protector (under Almighty God) of her own 
Dominions, a ready Helper of her neighbouring Princes, a hearty and 
unfeigned Lover and beloved of her subjects, who lived gloriously full 
of days, and whom the Eternal Jehovah blessed with the longest life 
of any Prince of England since the Conquest. By way of due 
Thankfulness to the most Holy Sacred and Individual Trinity, and 
her ever-honoured Royal Virtues, this Memorial of hers was here 
erected, set up and consecrated, the 17th November, 1617." 

In the same year a son of this gentleman built at his own cost a 
porch. He also left two pounds for a dinner for the parson and 
churchwardens with such relatives of Mr. Chapman as might be in 
town on the same day as that on which the dinner was given ; two 
pounds twelve shillings for sweeping the pulpit at Paul's Cross once a 
week ; one pound for two lanthorns with candles to be hung up in 



154 

Soper Lane ; twenty shillings for teaching scholars of the name of 
Chapman at Barley, in Herts. 

On a monument in the north wall of the choir was this inscription : 

" Here underlyeth huried James Huyish, Citizen and Grocer, 
London, third son of John Huyish, of Beaufort, in the County of 
Somerset, Esq., which James had to his first wife Margaret Bouchier, 
by whom he had issue eleven children, and to his second wife, Mary 
Moffatt, hy whom he had issue eighteen children. He died on the 
20th day of August, An. Dom. 1590." 

The following were buried in the church : John Barnes (Mercer), 
Mayor, 1370. He gave a chest with three locks and one thousand 
marks to be lent to young men on security. He was also one of the 
founders of the church of St. Thomas-the-Apostle. 

John Hadley (Grocer), Mayor, 1379. 

John Stokton (Mercer), Mayor, 1470. He was one of the twelve 
Aldermen who was knighted by Edward IV. on the field, as a reward 
for suppressing the insurrection of Falconbridge. 

Richard Gardener, Mayor, 147H. 

Stow relates : " That in this church do lie the remains of Robert 
Packington, merchant, slain with a gun as he was going to Morrow- 
Mass from his house in Chepe to St. Thomas of Aeons, 1536." 

In Hale's Chronicle, ed. 1548, fo. 231, this circumstance is more 
fully recited : 

" In this yere [November, 1536] , one Robert Packynton, Mercer 
of London, a man of good substance, and yet not so riche as honest 
and wyse, this man dwelled in Cheapside, at the sign of the " Legg," 
and used daily at foure of the clocke, winter and summer, to rise and 
go to Masse at a churche then called St. Thomas of Acres, but now 
named the Mercers' Chapel, and one mornyng, emong all other beying 
a greate mistie mornyng, such as hath seldome be seene, even as he 
was crossyng the strete from his house to the churche, he was sodenly 
murdered with a gonne, whiche of the neighbors was playnly herd, 
and by a great nombre of labourers at the same tyme standyng at 
Soper Lane, and he was both sene to go forth of his house, and also 
the clap of the gonne was hard, but the dede doer was never espied or 
known. Many were suspected but none could be found fauty ; howbeit, 
it is true that forasmuch as he was knowen to be a man of great 
courage, and one that could both speke and also could be harde ; and 



155 

that the same tyme he was one of the burgesses of the parliament for 
the Citye of London, and had talked somewhat against the 
covetousnesse and crueltee of the clergie, he was had in contempte 
with them, and therefore mooste lykely by one of them was shamefully 
murdered as you perceive that Master Honne was in the sixth year of 
the reign of this Kyng." 

On boards fixed in the porch were written the names of benefactors 
to the parish. 

We read that when an occasional service was held in the evening, 
" the church was lighted with candles, and the rich folk brought with 
them their male servants with staves to beat off the rogues as they 
returned from church on dark nights, and torches were made use of. 
The journey to and fro was often one full of adventure, if not risk." 

1882. William Islip was "Parson." Stow mentions a monu- 
ment to his memory in the old church of St. Dunstan-in-the-East. 
William Islip was a relation of Simon Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
to whom the patronage of St. Pancras was conveyed the 24th April, 
1365, by the Prior and Chaplain of Christ Church, Canterbury. The 
grant, which is in Latin, includes in the transfer of patronage the 
churches of St. Pancras and All Hallows, Bread Street. 

The alternate patronage still belongs to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and the Grocers Company. 

William Sawtre was "Parson " of this church 1399, the living 
being in the gift of the Prior and Canons of St. Mary Overie, South- 
wark. He was one of the first victims of the Act passed in the reign 
of Henry IV. for dealing with heretics. On the 12th February, 1401, 
he was summoned by Archbishop Arundel to appear before the 
Convocation at St. Paul's, the following charges being made against 
him " Refusing to adore the true Cross save as a ' symbol by vicarious 
adoration ' ; with maintaining that priests might omit the repetition 
of the ' hours ' for more important duties, such as preaching ; that the 
money expended in pilgrimages for the attainment of any temporal 
good might be more profitably distributed to the poor ; that men were 
more worthy of adoration than angels, and that the Bread of the 
Eucharist after consecration, though it was the Bread of Life, remained 
bread." Sawtre was burnt at Smithfield, 10th March, 1401. 

Foxe, in his "Book of Martyrs," says : " As King Henry IV. was 
the first of all English kings that begun the unmerciful burning of 



156 

Christ's saints for standing against the Pope, so was this William 
Sawtre the true and faithfull martyr of Christ, the first of all them in 
Wicklyffe's time, which I find to be burned in the reigne of the afore- 
said King, which was in the yeare of our Lord 1401." 

The decree of Henry IV. ordering the burning of Sawtre is dated 
at Westminster, February 26th, 1401. 

RECTORS. 

Henry de Elmynstone, 1312. John \Vykington, 1403-1413. 
Richard, 1416; died 1450. John Kyrkeby, Prebendary of St. Paul's, 
1448. Thomas Bromhall, 1452 ; resigned 1459. John Rurnpayne, 
1508-1539. 

Henry Bedell, 1561-1568 ; also Rector of Christ Church, 
Newgate Street, and St. Stephen, Walbrook ; died 1576. 

Francis Purefoy, 1568 ; Rector of Horncastle, Lincolnshire, 
1585. 

Richard Turnbull, Corpus Christi College, 1582 ; died 1593. 

George Walker, " Parson," 1540, was charged with preaching 
against confession, holy water, praying for saints, purgatory. He was 
also presented, suspended, and committed before the Ordinary for 
certain books. He was also curate of All Hallows-the-Less. 

Thomas Mountain, 1558 ; was Rector of St. Michael Royal, 1550; 
sent to the Marshalsea Prison by Bishop Gardner, 1553. Soon after 
this he went to Antwerp. On his return was presented to St. Pancras, 
which he resigned 1561. He compiled a ' Relation of the Troubles 
he underwent for the sake of Religion," 1553. 

Abraham Lambe, 1593. He wrote a tract, entitled " A Memoriall, 
&c., of Mr. William Lambe, Esquier " ; also " An Epitaph, or Funerall 
Inscription, upon the Godlie Life and Death of the Right Worshipfull 
Maister, William Lambe, Esquier, Founder of the New Conduit in 
Holborne, deceased the 21st April, 1580." 

Abraham Fleming ; died 1607. He was the earliest translator 
into English of the " Bucolics and Georgics of Virgil." 

Gerrard Ecop, 1636. In 1649 the living was sequestered, and 
another Rector, by Order of Parliament, was put in his place. Walker 
says " that he was plundered, forced to fly, his wife and children 
turned out of doors." 

Christopher Goade was chosen lecturer, 1644, to preach on Sunday 



157 

afternoons, " 50 to be collected annually to pay him." It is recorded 
that Mr. Ecop, the Rector, objected to this appointment. A short time 
after Mr. Goade was appointed Rector, but soon after " was turned out 
of office " for refusing to preach at some particular request of the 
parishioners. 

Joshua Sprigg, New Inn Hall, Oxford, 1650; also preacher at 
St. Mary Aldermary ; buried at Crayford, 1684. 

George Cockayn, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, was a 
celebrated minister of this church, and a strong Puritan. The year of 
his appointment is not clear, but in 1646 he wrote himself " minister 
of Pancras, Soper Lane." During his incumbency the church had an 
increasing and fashionable congregation. One of these was Sir 
Balstrode Whitelocke, one of the Lord Commissioners of the Great 
Seal. Under the ministration of Mr. Cockayn it is related " that the 
service of the church was strictly Independent. No use was made of 
the Prayer Book, but the minister prayed extempore. The Psalms 
were sung by the congregation, and the sermon occupied the chief 
portion of the service." In 1648, at the age of twenty-nine, he was 
chosen to preach before the House of Commons at St. Margaret's 
Church. The service, we are told, lasted between three and four 
hours. In January, 1658, he preached a funeral sermon at St. 
Stephen's, Walbrook, on Colonel William Underwood, an Alderman 
of the City. In consequence of the Act of Uniformity he resigned 
the living, but it is said " he preached in several City churches under 
the pastoral care of his friends, where he was always welcome." Died 
1691, aged seventy-two. 

Nicholas Lockier, Fellow of Eton College, " Preacher," 1662. 

Samuel Dillingham, 1662. 

Among the records of the parish are the following : 

" A copy of the charge given to this parish anno 1555, October 
30th. 

" To make up the Altars by November 8th. 

" To make up the rood loft with the rood Mary and John of five 
feet long by Candlemas 

" To bring in a bill of presentment to Mr. Warrington within 
fourteen days, containing the names of the spoilers of the 
church, and who have any of the church goods, and the 
names of them that come not to the church, or receive not 



158 

the Sacrament there, and of those that do come and use 
themselves there irreverently." 

May 30th, 1641. The Vestry assembled in order "to subscribe 
the protestation of their abhorrence to restore the Roman Catholics 
and their determination to maintain the Protestant religion." 

15th October, 1641. The Vestry resolved to remove a picture 
which was either hung or painted upon the wall over the font, all 
inscriptions on grave stones tending to superstition, all the crosses on 
the walls, and that on the candlestick for the pulpit, the initials 
"I.H.S." the word Christ by the commandments, and the statues in 
the church porch. " A silver flagon lately given by Mrs. Wightman, 
and which had the initials ' I.H.S.' engraved upon it. This idolatrous, 
Jesuitical, and superstitious mark " was to be rubbed off. 

The parish registers date from 1538. 



St. jpeter, Paul's Wbart 

This was a small church standing in Upper Thames Street at the 
corner of Benet's Hill. The foundation was ancient, as it is stated 
that in 1181 it belonged to the Canons of St. Paul's, who received a 
rent of 12d. from Rudulphus, the priest. 

There were no monuments. 

It was repaired at the cost of the parishioners 1655, and a " fair 
table of the commandments placed in the chancel, 1619." 

On the wall of the old churchyard is inscribed : 

BEFORE YE LATE DREADFULL FYER 

THIS WAS YE PARISH CHURCH 

OF ST. PETER'S, PAUL'S WHARFE. 

DEMOLISHED SEPTEMBER, 1666. 

AND WAS ERECTED 

FOR A CHURCH YARDE 
ANNO DOMINI. 1675. 

THIS STONE WAS NEW FAC'D AND LETTER'D, 
THE WALL AND IRON PALLISADES ERECTED. 



MR. BOXALL TARVBR j 
L.LIAM HOLME j 
ANNO DOMINI 1779. 



, T T7 TT \ CHURCHWARDENS. 

MR. WILLIAM HOLME 



159 

Evelyn, in his " Diary," says : 

" March 25th, 1649. I heard the Common Prayer [a rare thing 
in those days] in St. Peter's at Paul's Wharf." 

" During the time of Oliver Cromwell, in this church was con- 
tinued without interruption the Liturgy of the Church of England and 
the dispensation of the Sacraments. Many of the nobility resorted 
here at this time." 

Newcourt relates that "the galleries for their accommodation were 
richly hung with Turkey carpets, &c." 

RECTORS. 

Hugh de Mavary, 1315. Robert de Kyrkeby, 136G-1389. John 
Spicer, 1397-1407. John Dowell, 1429-1434. John Horsfell, 
1572-1587. James Barley, 1626. 

Edward Maubury, Trinity College, Cambridge, 1632 ; sequestered 
by the Westminster Assembly of Divines, 1645. 

Andrew Geare, born 1622; "Minister," 1651. He held the 
living for six years, removing then to Woburn, Beds. Some time after 
he was a minister at Dartmouth, where he died, 1662. 

The patronage belongs to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 



St. peter, Mestcbeap. 

This church stood on the site of the present churchyard, at the 
end of Wood Street, Cheapside. In ancient records it is named in a 
variety of ways : " St. Peter at the Cross in Chepe " ; " St. Peter, 
Cheap " ; " St. Peter le Chepe " ; " St. Peter de Woode Streete " (and 
Newcourt says) " Kcdesia S. Petri de Went Chepe." 

The patronage anciently belonged to the Abbot and Convent of 
St. Albans, who retained it until the dissolution of religious houses, 
when Henry VIII. granted it to Lord Wriothesly, from whom it passed 
through the Montagu family to the Dukes of Buccleugh, with whom 
the alternate presentation still remains, together with the Bishop of 
London. 

1285. Falk de Wagefeurd (Vintner) left a house in the parish 
for the maintenance of a chantry in the church. 



160 

Nicholas de Coffren, 1300, directed his house to be sold, the 
proceeds to be devoted to the maintenance of three chaplains to 
celebrate in the churches of St. Peter, St. Bartholomew-the-Less, and 
St. Mary de Colechurch. 

1311. William de Winton left the residue of his estate to 
maintain a chaplain in the parish church. 

1341. Peter de Coffren directed his body to be buried in the 
church before the rood. 

1348. Simon de Bockyng, Citizen and Goldsmith, left the 
tenement, which he inhabited in Wood Street, " for ever to the alms 
of the Goldsmithery of London for his soul, finding a chaplain to 
celebrate Divine Service in the church of St. Peter, by the view of the 
Wardens of the Goldsmithery of London." 

The Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, formerly Rector of the united 
parishes, read before the London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society a most interesting and exhaustive paper on the ancient records 
of the parish. It is from this paper that much of the following 
information is taken. 

Soon after his presentation to the Rectory, he says : 

" My curiosity was much excited by finding in the tower of St. 
Matthew's Church, Friday Street, a large oak chest. It was locked, 
and the keys were nowhere to be found. According to the testimony 
of the sexton, it had certainly not been opened for twenty years, and 
perhaps not for a much longer period. With the help of the 
locksmith, however, I was soon master of its contents, and had the 
satisfaction of drawing out one by one a Black Letter Prayer Book of 
1662, a folio of the Homilies, and vestry minute books, ranging from 
1574 to 1713." 

From incidental notices scattered through the register of burials, 
Mr. Simpson is able in a great measure to reconstruct the ground 
plan of the ancient church. " It had a nave, two aisles and chancel, 
with north and south chapels ; a vestry, to which access was gained 
from the north chapel by some steps. It was duly furnished with 
screens separating the chancel from the nave and aisles, with a poor 
man's box, an hour glass, with women's pews on the north side of the 
nave, a reader's pew, a gallery ' for the maydens ' of the parish, the 
stairs of which were at the north-west angle of the church." 

The " masters " of the parish sat at the east end of the south aisle. 



161 
i 

7th February, 1434. Three altars were dedicated, one on the 

north side, to the Blessed Virgin Mary, a second, on the south side, io 
St. Dunstan, a third in the nave near the entrance of St. Dunstan's 
Chapel, in honour of the Holy Cross. At this last-named Altar a 
chaplain of the Brothers of the Holy Cross celebrated Mass every 
morning. 

One of the chief relics of the church was a " pece of the Cross of 
Chryste." 

In 24 Henry VIII. the chaplain received " for his wages one hole 
yere \} xiis. iiijd." 

Thomas Wood, Goldsmith and Sheriff, 1491, was a great 
benefactor to the church. 

The nave roof is said to have been supported by figures of 
wood men, to commemorate his generous gift. 

In 1481 we find that this church possessed two child's copes for 
St. Nicholas (the Boy Bishop), one mitre, one tunicle, one chasuble, 
and " a croune for the Bysshope." 

The Goldsmiths Company agreed to keep on the 18th April, 
1509, which was their election day, the obits of Alderman Thomas 
Woode and Robert Bolder on the 2nd August ensuing, with Mass on 
the morrow, also a dinner. * 

There were three monumental brasses. In the " south ile was 
the grave stone of William Perryn, having iiij pictures of brasse upon 
the stone." 

1602. The registers speak of "a greate stone that hath the 
crosse of brasse in it in the middest of the middle ile " ; and, in 1637, 
mention is made of a " brasse image under the communion table." 

1555-6, we learn from the accounts that " a New Rood with 
Mary and John " is purchased, and in the following year an image of 
the patron saint. 

1558-9. " xxd. is paid for taking down the Rood and for other 
work." 

By the last will of Sir John Shaw, Knt., Alderman, Citizen, and 
Goldsmith, made the 26th day of December, 1503, he desired his exe- 
cutors to "performe and fulfill the last will of myn uncle, Sir Edmonde 
Shaw, Knyght, concerning the contynuance of dayly s'vyce to be songe 

* Herbert's " History of the Livery Companies. " 



162 

and done w'yn the parish church of St. Peter in Chepe, London, if it 
canne reasonably be brow'ht aboote. And also wh. the same bondis 
and goodys I wyll that my saide execute's shall cause ye saide churche 
of Saint Peter to be bylded and made wh. a flatte roofe. And also the 
stepull there to be made up in gode and convenient manr." 

Sir John Shaw seems to have been a great benefactor to the 
church and clergy, for in his will he makes mention of " my tenement 
in the paroche of Seint Peter in West Chepe of London, wherein 
Maister Chaunterelle, p'son of the same churche, dwellyth." 

The church possessed a chantry founded by Nicholas de Farndon, 
Goldsmith, 1861. This person was evidently a man of note. From 
him the Ward of Farringdon takes its name. He was four times 
Mayor. This chantry was dedicated to the Altar of the Blessed Virgin 
" in the south part or chappelle of the same church." The surplus 
was to be given in aid of the work of the church. The chantry was 
to be " served by a cou'nable and honest chapelyn for the soule of 
Nich's Farenden in the saide churche of Seynt Peter in West Chepe of 
London divynely to synge." "The for s'd chapelyn" is not "to defyle 
or willingly any grevouse trespas do, or be overcome of customable 
dronke, or be rebel or contu'mous ageynst the p'son of the said 
churche." The document from which this is quoted then proceeds to 
assign nim " x marc in the name of his wages and salarye .... yearly 
for ev'rmore, atte said iiij termes of the yere by even porcions." A mark 
is 13s. 4d. The chaplain's salary of ten marks would therefore amount 
to 6 13s. 4d. 

The rector and churchwardens were patrons of the chantry. 

Farringdon was Warden of the Goldsmiths Company 1338 and 
1352. He was buried in the church, and left out of his lands in the 
parish 4s. to maintain a light "to be burning before Our Lady there 
for ever." 

The volume from which these extracts are taken contains a copy 
of the will, dated 1470, of " Robarde Botiler, citysen and goldsmith of 
London," who was buried in St. Dunstan's Chapel in the church of 
St. Peter. He bequeaths " to ye hy auter of ye saide chirche [of St. 
Peter] so that ye p'son of the same chirche pray for my sowle, xxs." 

The diary of Henry Machyn contains the following : 

" 1554. The ij day of November was bered at Sant Peter in Chepe 
one Master Pickeryng with ij whyte branchys and viii torchys, iiij 



163 

grate tapers, and he gayffe unto xij (pore men) xij gownes that dyd 

here them and eldyd the divers morners and the felowshype of 

the and the.morow the masse of requiem." 

" 1557. The v day of Juin was bered in Sant Peter's in Chepe 
Master Tylwith, Goldsmyth, with mony morners and with ij whyt 
branchys and xij stayffes, torchys, and the xij pore men had gownes of 
mantyll frysse and iiij grate tapers and ye mas was kepth on "Wysson 
Monday, and after there was a gratt diner." 

1570. The following occurs in the register : " The L'die Mayre's 
wyffe to the Eight Honourable Lorde Maior then of this cittie, 
Alexander Avenon, was buried in this p'she in the quere upon the 
sowthe syde there'f neore unto the towe pyllars of the same syd in the 
vawte of brycke contayning viij fowt in length and towe fowte and a 
half of brea'th, with three staers at the hede there'f the xvi daye of 
Julye. This vawte of brick was fyrst mayde for the Lady Mundye, 
layte wyffe to Sir John Mundye, sum tyme Lord Mayre of this cittie, 
and she was the fyrst that ever was bered in this vawte." 

One more extract from Henry Machyn's diary is worth quoting. 
He says : 

" 1556-7. On the 23rd March was a grand procession with the 
crafts and their liveries, trompettes blohing with oder instruments with 
grete joye and plesur, and great shutyng of gones at the Tower, and 
the waytes plahyng on Sant Peter's in Chepe." 

A monument to Augustine Hin@ (Clothworker), Alderman and 
Sheriff, 1554, had these lines : 

" God grant us all such race to run 
To end in Christ, as they have done." 

The following were buried in the church : 

William Bees, Sheriff, 1429. 

Sir John Maunde (Goldsmith), Knt., Mayor 1527. 

William Dayne, Alderman, and Margaret, his wife, 1529. 

Thomas Knowles, twice Lord Mayor. 

Sir Alexander Avenon, Sheriff, 1561 ; Mayor 1570 ; eight times 
Master of the Ironmongers' Company. He kept his Mayoralty at a 
house in the parish of All Hallows, Bread Street. Died 1580. 

It was at this church, on the 14th January, 1559, that Queen 
Elizabeth, on one of her royal progresses through the City, stopped in 



164 

order that a Bible in English should be presented to her at the door 
of the church. 

The building was repaired at the cost of the parishioners in 1616, 
at a charge of 341. 

RECTORS. 

William de Stenham, 1302 ; presented by Edward I. 

The next is recorded in the following words : 

" 1306. Thomas de Wynton, clericnx, prcsentatus ad ecdesiam 
Sancti Petri de Wood Street, London, nostri diocese racante per 
Religiotum rerum Adam de Sancto Albano ipsius ecclesial patronuin xexto 
die Martiifu.it adinixxn* at Hector institution canonice in eadem." 

William de Kelm, 13491364 ; presented by Edward III. 

John Joye de Ledbury, 13721392. Richard Kesteven, 1408 
1419. Robert Wright, 14331460. John Alcock, 14621491. 
John Chaundell, B.D., 1491 ; died 1509. William Robinson, 1509 
1516. 

William Bobyn, 1516-1529; Prebendary of St. Paul's; 
Archdeacon of Winchester. 

Thomas Goodrich, Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge ; presented 
by Cardinal Wolsey, 1529 ; Canon of Westminster. He was appointed 
as one of the syndics to convey an answer from the University of 
Cambridge to the King concerning his marriage with Catherine of 
Arragon, and from his readiness to oblige the King in that business 
was recommended to royal favor and made one of the chaplains. Was 
Lord High Chancellor, 1531 ; Bishop of Ely, 1534. He was a zealous 
promoter of the Reformation, and sent a mandate to all the clergy of 
his diocese with orders to erase the name of the Pope from all their 
books, and to publish in all their churches that the Pope had no 
further authority in these realms. He was a strong adherent of 
Cranmer, and took some part in writing the " Godly and Pious 
Institution of a Christian," as well as taking a large share in the 
compilation of our English Prayer Book. On the death of Edward VI., 
he supported Lady Jane Grey, in consequence was attainted as a 
traitor ; but his great piety induced Mary to pardon him. He died 
1554, and was buried in his cathedral, where there is a brass with his 
figure in ecclesiastical habit with the great seal. Burnet says : " He 
was a secular spirited, busy man, and had given himself up wholly to 
factions and intrigues of State, so that, although his opinions had 



165 

always leaned to the Reformation, it is no wonder if a man so tempered 
would prefer the keeping of his bishopric before the discharge of his 
conscience." (" History of the Reformation "). 

Richard Gwent, Prebendary of St. Paul's, 1534 ; died in the same 
year. 

John Gwynnett, 1543. 

Edward Simpson, Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1571 ; Rector of St. 
Dunstan-in-the-East, 1574. 

Richard Judson, Trinity College, Cambridge, 1585 1615. 

Daniel Vichiere, 1615-1647. " Died with grief not long after his 
sequestration." 

Dr. Roger Drake, 1653, Pembroke College, Cambridge. " A rigid 
Presbyterian," he resigned the living on the passing of the Act of 
Uniformity, 1662. Was one of the Commissioners at the Savoy 
Conference, and occasionally preached at the " Morning Exercises " 
at St. Giles in-the-Fields, and at St. Giles, Cripplegate. Baxter says 
"he was a wonder of humility and sincerity." Dr. Annesly says 
" That his writings will be esteemed, while there are books in the 
world, for the stream of piety and learning that runs through his ' Sacred 
Chronology.' ' He was the author of " Sacred Chronologic drawn by 
Scripture Evidence during that vast body of time from the Creation of 
the world to the Passion of our Blessed Saviour, by the help of 
which alone sundry difficult places of Scripture are unfolded. 4to." 
London, 1648." He died at Stepney, where he had for some time 
lived, 1649. 

Thomas Brook was for a short time " Preacher." Mr. Calamy 
says "He was a very affecting preacher and useful to many." Died 
1680. 

George Woodward, Magdalene Hall, Oxford, 1665. After the 
destruction of the church the living of East Mersey was given him, 
where he died 1667. 

This church seems to have suffered much loss in the confusion 
caused by the Great Fire, the churchwardens reporting, 1693, " We 
have no parsonage house, nor any glebe belonging to our minister." 



166 

St. Ubomas tbe Hpostle an& 

This church was of great antiquity. We find that as early as 
1181 the patronage of the living belonged to the Canons of St. Paul's, 
with whom it still remains. It stood on the north side of Great St. 
Thomas Apostle, or, as it was anciently called, Wringwren Lane, and 
was repaired by the parishioners at a cost of 300. 

In the parish stood a building called " La Real," or " La Riole." 
In 1831 Edward III. granted " La Real " to his consort Phillipa for 
the term of her life that it might be used as a depository for her ward- 
robe. It was here, Froissart tells us, that Joan of Kent, the mother of 
Richard II., took refuge during Wat Tyler's rebellion, when forced to 
fly from the Tower of London. It was this building, no doubt, that 
gave rise to the name of " Tower Royal " in this parish. 

There were no monuments of antiquity except some arms in one 
of the windows, which were supposed to be those of John Burnets 
(Mercer), Mayor 1871, who built a great part of the church. He also 
gave a chest with three locks and keys containing a thousand marks 
to be lent to young men on sufficient "pawne." 

Another benefactor was Sir William Littlesbury, Mayor, alias 
Horn, this name being given him by Edward IV., as he was a good 
player upon that instrument. He was a Salter and Merchant of the 
Staple ; was buried in the church. He left by his will money to 
change the bells for four " good new ones of sound and tune." This 
bequest was never carried out. His house in Bread Street, with 
garden, he gave to the Salters Company, they to find a priest for the 
church and pay him annually Q 13s. 4d. He was buried in the 
church 1487. 

1285. Roger de Chaundler left his seven shops, near the church 
of St. Thomas, to be sold. 

1829. Rosina de Burford left her houses for the maintenance, 
for a term of twenty years, of chantries in the new chapel which she 
had built on the south side of the church. 

1336. Roger atte Vyne left a bequest to the rector, clerks and 
chaplain of St. Thomas for a knell to be tolled on the eve of his 
anniversary, for keeping his obit, and for the maintenance of a 
perpetual chantry. , 

In 1360 is mentioned, in connection with the church, " The 
Wardens and Fraternity of St. Eligius." 



Eobert Westmall desired to be buried before the Altar of St. 
Eligius (Bisbop and Confessor). 

1576. Margaret Dane left 2000 for (amongst other things) 
providing fuel for the poor of the twenty-four Wards of the City. 

From the history of the Merchant Taylors Company, we find that 
Sir Thomas White, who was Master of this Company, probably 1535, 
and Lord Mayor 1553-4, lived in Size Lane in this parish. The 
churchwardens' accounts show that " Thomas White and Avice, his 
wife, took a lease of the garden and garden plot in the parish of St. 
Thomas Apostle, with all the brick walls compassing the same, except 
and reserving to the Rector (the lessor) the door within the brick wall 
over against his parsonage door, with liberty for the Eector and his 
friends to walk in the said garden and to take erbys for his commoda- 
tion, without waste or destruction, from Lady Day next coming for 
twenty-six years at the yearly rent of 20s. by half-yearly payments." * 

William Bromwell, Mercer, left to Jonan, his wife, a tenement 
and a piece of void land in the parish, the remainder to the parson and 
churchwardens of St. Thomas. The churchwardens to find yearly the 
Paschal light of the said parish church, so that all the parishioners 
may be discharged of contributing to the same ; they are also to provide 
tapers at Christmas to stand in the great candlesticks before the High 
Altar, there to burn before the Sacrament on festival days, as of old 
time had been accustomed. 

The mission is given to the churchwardens to build upon the 
piece of void land mentioned. 

Under the Communion table was a tablet with the following 
inscription : 

" Here lyes interred the body of Mr. John Foy, Citizen and 
Merchant Taylor of London, who departed this life the First of 
December, 1625, and left issue four sons. He lived and died in the 
true faith of Jesus Christ, which he hath amply expressed in a worthy 
annual contribution towards the poor of this parish." 

There were five epitaphs in Greek and Latin to " Katharine 
Killigrew" ; also a monument to John Martin, Sheriff, 1583. 

Edmund Allen, an " ancient, eminent protestant divine," Bishop- 
elect of Rochester, was on the 30th August, 1559, buried in this 

* " History of the Merchant Taylors Company." CLOPE. 



168 

church, " a few clerks attending, and his funeral sermon preached by 
Mr. Huntingdon, the preacher." Mr. Allen had a wife and eight 
children. 

Thirteen parishioners were, in 1541, " presented " and put up by 
the Inquisition for giving small reverence at the Sacring of the Mass. 

RECTORS. 

Sir William de Sleford, 1365. William Champneys (Baker), left 
to this Rector the residue of his goods and chattels for pious uses. 

Robert Goodall, 1418-1446. 

Richard Howell, 1446-1462. To this Rector is left a tenement 
in the parish of Holy Trinity for pious uses. 

Richard Dean, 1536. 

Nicholas Wilson, Corpus Christi, Cambridge, 1508 ; was also 
Vicar of Thaxted, Essex ; Confessor to Henry VIII. ; Archdeacon of 
Oxford, 1528; was committed to the Tower, 1534; for refusing t) 
take the oath relative to the supremacy and succession of the Crown, 
where he remained two years. The benefice being declared void, he 
was at length brought to swear, and so escaped for the time, " but it 
was but a dissembling of the matter." Sent again to the Tower, 1540, 
for giving alms to persons who denied the King's supremacy ; died 
1548. He was the author of a book printed at Paris against the 
divine right of Henry VIII. 

Richard Alison, 1591 ; died 1612. Csesar Walpole, 1612 ; died 

1617. 

William Cooper, 1636. Walker says : " That he was dispossessed 
of the living 1643, at which time he was plundered and sent prisoner 
to Leeds Castle, Kent, where he died of grief." 

John Romany, 1658 ; died 1666. 

Thomas Cartwright, D.D., Magdalene Hall, Oxford, 1659 ; was 
also preacher at St. Mary Magdalene, Fish Street ; Prebendary of St. 
Paul's, 1677 ; Dean of Ripon, 1686 ; Bishop of Chester. He received 
this appointment for boldly asserting in one of his sermons that the 
King's promises to Parliament were not binding upon him. He 
accompanied James II. to Ireland after his abdication, where he died 
1689, and was sumptuously interred in the choir of Christ Church, 
Dublin. 



169 

The following is the title of the register book of this parish. 
The contents of the book have been carefully transcribed and published 
by the Harleian Society, 1881. 

A few extracts from it are here given : 

" The Booke of the Christenings, Marriages, and Burials (within 
the parish of), St. Thomas (the Apostle), in the first yere of the most 
Lappy raigne of our sov'aigne Lady Elizabeth, Queen of England, 
Ffrance and Ireland, defender of the faith (&c.), according to the 
constitution of the Church of England, made in that behalf. This 
Booke being made anno 1598. Thomas Millne and Eichard Powell 
being then churchwardens of the same p'ish of St. Thomas Apostle. 
London. Baptisms." 

1629, March 19. " Susanna, the daughter of a wandering woman 
brought into this parish by St. Antholin's watch." 

1682, January 29. " Peter, the son of a wandering woman, being 
St. Peter's day." 

1658 (no date). " A female of Alice Hodgson (as is supposed) of 
Francis Savage, was stillborn, 14th December." 

The baptisms from 1680 to 1704 were probably entered in the 
register of St. Mary Aldermary, but if not the volume containing them 
is hopelessly lost. 

Thomas Roman, Mayor, 1379, was buried in the church with Julia, 
his wife. 



FINIS. 



LONDON 

C. E. GKAY, Printer, 
32 Kenuington Park Road, S.E. 



VA xf> Vf> \lp xf> V> x 
^^^^^^^ 




t tbe lo /IBeetfna Ibouses wbfcb ba\>e eststeo 
witbin tbe Cft of Xonoon, ourlno tbe last 

TTwo Centuries; 

TKIUtb a sbort account of tbosc wbo bave 
mintetereD in tbem. 

3. <3. Tld. 
1900. 




[HERE is no doubt that during the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries many more meeting houses existed in the old 
City than those mentioned in the following pages, but it is 
only in some instances through passing allusions that any particulars 
as to their existence can be obtained. 

It is intended in this small work to give as far as can be ascer- 
tained a short history of these most interesting old buildings, and at 
the same time, a short account of the good and worthy men who, from 
time to time, filled the pulpits, fulfilling their duties nobly and well 
in times when to declare oneself openly a Christian required no small 
degree of courage, fortitude, and grace. 

The large number of meeting houses in the City at this period is 
referred to in a petition by the Court of Common Council as follows : 

" The Humble Petition of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Commons of the City of London in Common Council assembled : 
concerning Church government. Presented to the House of Peers 
upon Friday, 16th January, 1645(6)." 

This petition " sheweth, that in November last the Petitioners 



2 

made it their humble request to this Honourable House that Church 
Government might be settled ; and are most humbly thankful for your 
favourable interpretation thereof : that private meetings, especially on 
the Lord's Day of which there are at least eleven in one parish are 
multiplied ; whereby the Public Congregations' ordinances and Godly 
orthodox Ministers are very much neglected and condemned, as if 
they were anti-Christian. And by reason of such meetings, and the 
preaching of women and ignorant persons; superstition, heresy, schism, 
and profaneness are much increased. 

"That the Petitioners are informed that divers persons have 
an intention to petition this Honorable House for a Toleration of 
such doctrines as are against our Covenant, under the notion of 
' Liberty of Conscience.' 

" The Petitioners therefore, having no power of themselves to 
suppress or overcome these growing evils, do according to their Covenant 
reveal and make known the same to this Honourable House, and for 
timely presenting and removal thereof, do humbly pray that the 
premises may be taken into your most serious consideration." 

In 1586, John Greenwood was arrested for reading the Scriptures 
to twenty-one persons, at the house of Henry Martin, in the parish of 
St. Andrew-by-the- Wardrobe. 

In January, 1641, we read of a celebrated Brownist pastor in the 
following lines : 

" And at the ' Nag's Head,' near to Coleman Street, 
A most pius crew of brethren there did meet, 
When their devotions was so pure and ample, 
To turn a sinful tavern to a temple. 

A worthy brother gave the text, and then 

The cobbler How his preach most straight began, 

Extem'ry without any meditation, 

But only by the Spirit's revelation. 

He went through stitch, now hither and now thither ; 

And took great pains to draw both ends together, 

For (like a man inspired from Amsterdam) 

He scorned ne sutor ultra crepidam 

His text he clouted, and his sermons welted 

His audience with devotion nearly melted." 



3 

Also, on the 12th November, 1645, eighty Anabaptists met at a 
house in Bishopsgate Street, many of them belonging " to the church 
of one Barber," when five new members were received. 

A large number of the meeting houses in the City belonged either 
to the Independents, Presbyterians, or Baptists. The Independents 
first formed themselves into a church, about the year 1592, at the 
house of Mr. Fox, in Nicholas Lane, as will be seen by the following 
extract. 

Strype, in his annals, mentions the case of Daniel Buch, a 
scrivener, who, in 1593, was examined before some of the Queen's 
justices as to his religious opinions and doings. This gentleman 
refused to take any other oath " than to protest before God that all 
his sayings were true." Being asked who was his parson, he replied 
" that Mr. Francis Johnson was chosen pastor, and Mr. Greenwood 
doctor, and Bowman and Lee deacons, and Stuchley and George 
Keniston, apothecary, were chosen elders, in the house of one Fox, 
in St. Nicholas Lane, all in one day by their congregation, or at Mr. 
Bilson's house in Creechurch, he could not remember which. And 
that the sacrament of baptism, as he called it, was delivered there to 
the number of seven persons by Johnson, and that he took water and 
washed the faces of them that were baptized." 

The following is the title of a book published by the Independent 
Church soon after its formation : 

"Anno Domini 1616. A Confession and Protestation of the 
Faith of Certain Christians in England, holding it necessary to 
observe and keep all Christ's true Substantial Ordinances for His 
Church Visible and Political. That is, Indued with Power of Outward 
and Spiritual Government, under the Gospel, though the same do 
differ from the Common Order of the Land. Published for the Clearing 
of the said Christians from the Slander of Schism and Novelty, and 
also of Separation and Undutifulness to the Magistrate, which their 
rash adversaries do falsely cast upon them ; also an Humble Petition 
to the King's Majesty for Toleration therein. Colos. 2, 4, Psalm 116, 
9, 10. 16 mo." 

There is no imprint, and the book is not paged, but pages 69. 

The following is the title of another work published in 1646 : 
" The Schismatick Sifted, or the Picture of the Independents 
Freshly and Fairly Wash'd over again, wherein the Sectaries of these 



Times (I mean the principal Seducers to that dangerous and subtile 
Schisme of Independency) are with their own proper Pensils and 
Self-mixed Colours most likely set forth to be a generation of 
notorious Dissemblers and sly Deceivers collectors (for the most part) 
under their own Hands in Print for the more fair and full satisfaction 
and undeceiving of moderate and much-misled Christians, especially 
by the outward appearance of their Piety of Life, and a Pretence of 
their Preaching sound Doctrine. By John Vicars, London. Printed 
for Nathaniel Webb and William Grumham, at the Grey Hound, in 
Paul's Churchyard, 1646." 

This book bears the following dedication : 

" To the Eight Honourable and most worthy to be highly 
honoured Thomas Adams, Esquire, Lord Mayor of the most famous 
and renowned City of London. J. V. prayeth all increase of Gracious 
Honour now, and of Glorious Happiness hereafter." 

The first Presbyterian Church was formed at Wandsworth on 
the 20th November, 1572, by Mr. Field, lecturer, of Wandsworth. 
Eleven elders were chosen, and their offices inscribed in a register 
entitled " The Orders of Wandsworth." This place was selected as 
being a retired spot, and but four miles from London. 

On the 26th May, 1646, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Common 
Council presented a remonstrance to the parliament, in which among 
other things they requested that all private and separate congregations 
should be suppressed, that all sectaries refusing to conform to the 
public discipline might be proceeded against, and that none disaffected 
to the Presbyterian government might be admitted to any office of 
public trust. The Lords respectfully acknowledged the merits of the 
city, and gave the authorities thanks for this expression of their zeal, 
but the Commons were indignant at their assumption, and after a 
warm debate simply replied that they would take the remonstrance 
" into consideration at a convenient time." * 

It will be seen from the following pages that on several occasions 
the civil magistrate was called upon to inflict penalties upon citizens 
on account of their religious belief. On this subject it is interesting 
to note what Judge Blakstone said. " The sin of schism is," he says, 
" as such by no means the object of temporal coercion and punishment. 
If, through weakness of intellect, through misdirected piety, through 
* Price : History of Nonconformity. 



perverseness and acerbity of temper, or (which is often the case) 
through a prospect of secular advantage in herding with a party, men 
quarrel with the ecclesiastical establishment, the civil magistrate has 
nothing to do with it, unless their tenets and practice are such as 
threaten ruin or disturbance to the State." 

Walker, in his book, " The Sufferings of the Clergy," has the 
following : 

" The pharisaical House of Commons voted on June 1st, 1649, 
for a day of thanksgiving to set off King Oliver's victory over the 
Levellers with the more lustre. The wise Lord Mayor and his 
brethren in imitation invited the Parliament, Council of State, the 
General, and his Officers, to a thanksgiving dinner. The 7th June, 
the thanksgiving was solemnized in the city. The Lord Mayor 
meeting the speaker, resigned to him, as formerly was used to the 
king, the Sword of State, as had been ordered by the House the day 
before, and received it again from him. And then the Mayor 
conducted them all to Christ Church, where the Commons, Council of 
State, General and his officers, together with the Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Common Council, etc., mocked God with their devotions, when 
Mr. Thomas Goodwin and Mr. Owen preached out of the politics to 
them. From thence they were conducted to a great dinner at 
Grocers' Hall, and entertained in the quality of a ' Free State.' They 
were all strongly guarded with soldiers, and every cook had an oath 
given to be true to them, which showed they had more of fear and 
guilt than of confidence and innocency within them. Great presents 
of plate given to His Excellency Fairfax, and to His Super-Excellency 
Cromwell, and to others, fit to be chronicled in Stowe's and 
Hollingshead's volumes amongst other solemn fooleries. Let it not 
be omitted that Hugh Peters, and many other saints, were too full of 
the creature drunk." 

Lathbury, in his " History of the English Episcopacy," thus 
writes : " Many of the sermons of the most eminent of the Presbyterian 
clergy during the war were not only stimulants to rebellion and blood- 
shed, but specimens of the wildest enthusiasm." 

A Scotch clergyman of the same period thus addressed his Maker : 
" To be free with you, Lord, we have done many things for thee that 
never entered into thy noddle, and yet we are content that thou take 
all the glory." 



Another, speaking of malignants, asks : " Lord, what wilt thou 
do with these malignants? I'll tell thee. E'en take them up by the 
heels and roast them in the chimney of hell. Lord, take the pestle of 
thy vengeance and the mortar, price of thy wrath, and make the brains 
of malignants a hodge-podge, but for thine own bairns, Lord, feed them 
with the prunes and raisins of thy promises, give them the boots of 
hope and the spurs of confidence." 

In 1643, a Presbyterian minister asks in his prayer: "0 Lord, 
when wilt thou take a chair and sit among the house of peers ; when 
wilt thou vote among the Honourable Commons." 

" We know, Lord," said another, " that Abraham made a 
covenant, and Moses and David made a covenant, and our Saviour 
made a covenant, but thy Parliament's covenant is the greatest of all 
covenants."* 

" On St. Bartholomew's Day, 24th August, 1662, was passed an 
Act of Parliament, usually known by the name of " The Act of Uni- 
formity." Neal, in his " History of the Puritans," gives the following 
as the principal conditions of this Act : 

" 1. The ordination, if they had not been Episcopally ordained 
before. 2. A declaration of their unfeigned assent and consent to all 
and everything contained in the Book of Common Prayer, and 
administration of sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies of 
the Church of England, together with the Psalter and the form and 
manner of making, ordaining and consecrating of bishops, priests and 
deacons. 8. To take the oath of canonical obedience. 4. To abjure 
the solemn league and covenant which many conscientious ministers 
could not disentangle themselves from. 5. To abjure the banefulness 
of taking arms against the king, or any commission by him on any 
pretence whatever." 

To these conditions a large number of beneficed clergymen of 
the church, to the number of about 2,000, found themselves totally 
unable, conscientiously, to subscribe. In consequence of this, many 
seceded from the church and went into private life, others, to a 
considerable number, set up meeting houses of their own in various 
parts of the City, the districts around the City, and in various parts of 
the country. So far as the City is concerned, from this date com- 
menced the birth of many of the meeting houses and chapels, which, 
* Lathbury's History of Episcopacy. 



for more than a century, continued to exist and flourish in the old City 
of London. Only about three of these now survive ; the remainder have 
disappeared, but many of the spots on which they stood are well- 
known, while of many others not a vestige remains. 

In the year 1670, the twenty-second year of Charles II., an Act 
was passed for suppressing conventicles. On the 15th June, public 
notice was given that the " places undermentioned, late made use of 
for conventicles and unlawful assemblies, are now, by His Majesty's 
particular command, in Council appointed, to be used every Lord's 
Day for the celebration of divine worship, and preaching the Word of 
God by approved orthodox ministers approved by the Bishop of 
London, to commence on the Sunday following, for the benefit of the 
inhabitants of the adjacent parishes respectively where parish churches 
were consumed by the late dreadful fire, viz. : 

" In Fisher's Folly, in Bishopsgate Street, a convenient place, 
with two galleries, pews, and seats. 

" In Hand Alley, in Bishopsgate Street, a large room properly 
built for a meeting house, with three galleries, thirty large pews, and 
many benches and forms, known by the name of Vincent's congregation. 

" In St. Nicholas Lane, a large room with two galleries and 
thirty-nine forms. 

" In Mugwell Street, Mr. Doolittle's meeting house, built of brick, 
with three galleries full of large pews below, with locks and keys to 
them, besides benches and forms. 

" The Cockpit in Jewin Street, a meeting house with three 
galleries, many pews, forms, and benches. 

" In Salisbury Court, four rooms opening into one another in the 
posession of John Ford, a schoolmaster. 

" In New Street, Shoe Lane, four rooms opening into one another, 
with seventeen pews and divers benches in the posession of Mr. 
Turner." 

By this act it was enacted that any person attending such meetings 
was to be fined five shillings for the first offence and ten shillings for 
the second ; the preacher was to be fined twenty shillings for the first 
offence and forty shillings for the second, and the person in whose 
house the conventicle was held was subject to the same fines as the 
preacher. 

Thomas Scott, the commentator, makes the following remark : 



8 

"Many of the Puritans," he says, " were factious, ambitious hypocrites, 
but I must think that the tree of liberty, sober and legitimate liberty, 
civil and religious, under the shadow of which, we in the Establishment, 
as well as others, repose in peace, and the fruit of which we gather, 
was planted by the Puritans and matured, if not by their blood, at 
least by their tears and sorrows. Yet it is the modern fashion to feed 
delightfully on the fruit, and then revile, if not curse, those who 
planted and watered it."* 

" On the 10th January, 1703, the following proclamation appeared 
in the London Gazette : 

" Whereas, Daniel Defoe, alias De Fooe, is charged with writing 
a seditious pamphlet entitled ' The Shortest Way with Dissenters.' 
He is a middle-sized, spare man, about forty years old, of a brown 
complexion, and dark-brown coloured hair, but wears a wig, a hooked 
nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth, was 
born in London, and for many years was a hose factor in Freeman's 
Yard in Cornhill, and now is owner of the brick and pantile works 
near Tilbury Fort in Essex. Whoever shall discover the said Daniel 
Defoe to one of Her Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, or any 
of Her Majesty's Justices of the Peace, so he may be apprehended, 
shall have a reward of 50, which Her Majesty has ordered immediately 
to be paid on such discovery." 

Kev. William Nicholls, an Anglican divine, who wrote, in 1707, 
a Latin treatise, entitled : " Nicholls' Defence of the Doctrine and 
Discipline of the Church of England," gives a curious description of 
the preaching of the Nonconformists of the day. 

" Most Nonconformists," he says, " have left off their obstreperous 
din and ravings. They don't strain their lungs and their sides as 
formerly. They don't fling about and shake their heads, as though 
they were tossed about in a boat, nor beat the pulpit as if they were 
in fits, nor trust to extempore effusions, nor abound in that canting 
phrase and expression which so mightily took with the people. Now 
their discourses are sober and correct, they study and compose them, 
they have purged out the old musty, obsolete words, they take care 
not to be abrupt and incoherent. They have learned of us to clothe 
the bones of a discourse, as I may say, with good flesh and blood. 
Their way of reasoning is not fallen from the dotages of Baxter and 
* Evil of Separation. 8vo. London, 1817. 



9 

Jenkins, but from the clear method of our Sharps and Tillotsons. 
Now they say nothing but what is fit for the preacher to say, and the 
congregation to hear. There is little difference between them and us 
in the method of composing and speaking. The theatrical way of 
agitation and vociferation, the awkward style and blunders of the old 
Nonconformists, are now to be found only among Quakers and 
Anabaptists. Those that are in love with them must visit their dark 
conventicles for them. But whatever refinements are made among 
other dissenters from the absurd preachments of their rough-hewn 
ancestors, they must allow the men of our church to be still more 
refined. For if ever there was an age or church since the Apostles' 
time that abounded in eloquent preachers, it is certainly ours, which 
has produced perfect masters of this art. If solid reasoning, just 
explications of Holy Scriptures, well-chosen words, with all the 
ornaments of style and language proper for the gravity of the subject, 
are sufficient to make good sermons, ours certainly are such in all the 
most celebrated congregations of the kingdom, but especially in this 
great City of London, for the truth of which 1 appeal, not to the gross 
taste of the vulgar, but to your most learned foreigners, Swedes, 
Danes, Hollanders, Switzers, who come here to sojourn in our 
Protestant Athens, London, for the opportunity of hearing and reading 
our sermons, which you propose as most perfect patterns for your 
imitation." 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century it was the custom for 
the dissenting ministers of the City and Metropolis to meet at Baker's 
Chop House, Cornhill, for an hour or two every Tuesday afternoon for 
general conversation on any public question. It was here that the 
first idea of the London Missionary Society was formed. Afterwards, 
for greater convenience, a more suitable room was taken at the Castle 
and Falcon, Aldersgate Street. In connection with the formation of 
this society, the committee made application to the directors of the 
East India Company for permission to send out some missionaries, 
with their families, to the Company's territories for the purpose of 
making 'known the Gospel to the natives of India. 

The following was the reply received to this application, dated 
from the East India House, 12th January, 1797 : 

" Gentlemen, The Court of Directors of the East India Company 
have had under consideration your letters of the ?.9th ultimo, requesting 



10 

permission to proceed to India with your families, and reside in the 
Company's territories for the purpose of instructing the natives of 
India in the knowledge of the Christian religion ; and I have received 
the Court's commands to acquaint you that, however convinced they 
may be of the sincerity of your motives, and the zeal with which you 
appear to be actuated, in sacrificing your personal convenience to the 
religious and moral purposes described in your letter ; yet the Court 
have weighty and substantial reasons which induce them to decline a 
compliance with your request. I am, gentlemen, your most obedient 
humble servant, " WILLIAM RAMSAY, Secretary. 

" To Robert Haldane, Esq., The Rev. David Bogue, The Rev. 
Greville Ewing." 

Among the earliest editions of metrical versions of the Psalms is 
" The Book of Psalms : Englished both in Prose and Metre. With 
Annotations opening the words and sentences by conference with 
other Scriptures. By Henry Ainsworth. Eph. v., 18, 19. Imprinted 
at Amsterdam, by Giles Thorp, An. Do. 1612. 4 to pp. 348." 

The metrical versions are some of them printed in score, and 
others are referred to those which have their tune against them. The 
following is one of the Psalms (No. 23) : 

" Jehovah feedeth me, I shall not lack. 

In grassy fields, He down doth make me lie : 
He gently leads me quiet waters by. 
He doth return my soul ; for His Name's sake 
In paths of justice, leads me quietly. 

" Yea, though I walk in dale of deadly shade, 
I'll fear none ill ; for with me Thou shalt be, 
Thy rod, thy staff eke, they shall comfort me. 
'Fore me a table, Thou hast ready made 
In their prescence, that my distresses be. 

" Thou makest fat my head, with oincting oil. 
My cup abounds. Doubtless, good and mercy 
Shall all the days of niy life follow me. 
Also within Jehovah's house, I shall 
To length of days repose me quietly." 

The following is the title of another work published at this time : 
" The Schismatic, Sifted through a sieve of the largest size ; but 



11 

is now more purely drest. Wherein the Chaff, the Froth, and the 
scum of Mr. John Vicars, his Siftings and Paintings prove him to be 
a lame Draughtsman, a smeary Washer, his Colours foolishly mixt, 
and his Pencil as coarse as his Colours. Collected out of his own 
words, under his own hand. By T. C., a well-wisher to Truth and 
Peace. Printed according to order, 1646. 4to. pp. 11." 

It will be seen from the following pages that the halls of the 
various livery companies were utilise! to a considerable extent by the 
Nonconformists for their services. 

In "Malcolm's Manners and Customs of London " we read the 
following in connection with the end of the seventeenth century : 

" The halls of the different companies appear at this period to 
have been used for almost every public purpose, but particularly for 
the sighings and groanings of grace and our righteousness, and to 
reverberate in thrice dissonant thunder the voices of the elect, who 
saved themselves and dealt universal misery to all around them. 

" Sunday, a world of women with green aprons get on their 
pattens after eight, reach Brewers' Hall and White Hart Court by 
nine, are ready to burst with the spirit a minute or two after, and are 
delivered of it by ten. Much sighing at Baiters' Hall about the same 
hour, great frowning at St. Paul's while the service is singing, a 
tolerable attention to the sermon." 

We will now proceed through the streets and lanes of the old 
City of two hundred years ago, taking care not to forget the many 
courts and alleys, because in them are hidden away several old meeting 
houses of great interest. We will commence our walk from a central 
point, taking an easterly route as far as the confines of the City, then 
retracing our steps, notice those in the centre, then proceeding west- 
wards, afterwards taking the northern district, and so completing our 
interesting round. 



%ane. 

For more than a century a church belonging to the Independents 
existed in Miles Lane, or as it was formerly called, St. Michael's Lane, 
from the church of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, which stood there. 

The old building stood in a paved court called Meeting House 
Yard, on the right hand side from Cannon Street. Mr. Wilson says 



12 

that " it is a large substantial brick building, with three good galleries, 
and is one of the oldest places of worship among the dissenters." 

Soon after the fire it was taken possession of by the rector of 
St. Michael's, who retained it until his own church was rebuilt. 

The first minister was the Rev. Matthew Barker, who had been 
minister of St. James, Garlick Hill, in 1641, and in 1650 was made 
rector of St. Leonard, Eastcheap. This he resigned in 1662. He 
gathered a congregation in Miles Lane, where he remained until his 
death in 1698, aged eighty years. Dr. Calamy says of him : " He was 
a man of considerable learning, great piety, and great candour and 
moderation, no lover of covetousness." 

Another famous minister here was the Rev. Matthew Clarke, 
who, in 1694, succeeded to a declining cause, but soon gathered a 
large and prosperous congregation. He was also one of the merchant 
lecturers at Pinners' Hall. He died in 1726, aged sixty-three years, 
and was buried in Bunhill Fields, where a long Latin inscription, 
written by Dr. Watts, was placed on his tomb. At the conclusion of 
it are the following four lines : 

" Go, traveller, and wheresoe'er 
Thy wandering feet shall rest 
In distant lands, thy ear shall hear 
His name pronounced and blest." 

Calamy says of Matthew Clarke : "A very valuable man and 
eminent for his skill in oriental languages, for the promotion of the 
study of which he took much pains." 

In 1781, the Rev. Stephen Addington was appointed minister, 
and continued so until his death in 1796. He also at the same time 
opened an evangelical academy for young men at Mile End. After 
his death the church was closed for some little time, when it was 
taken by some seceders from the Church of Scotland under the Rev. 
Alexander Easton from the chapel in Red Cross Street. 

In 1805, the Rev. John Rae, of Scotland, was appointed the 
pastor. The congregation at this time seems to have been small. 
Soon after the building was required for the new approaches to 
London Bridge. 



18 



1bouse Gbapel. 

This congregation first met in the reign of Charles II., and soon 
became a large and important society. The first minister was the 
Eev. Samuel Slater, who had been minister of the collegiate church 
of St. Katherme near the Tower, where he preached the Gospel for 
nearly forty years. In 1662, on account of the Act of Uniformity, he 
left the church, and was one of those worthy ministers who, during 
the plague in 1625, remained in the city during the entire period, in 
order to attend to the needs of his congregation. He died in 1670, 
at an advanced age. The original chapel was situate at the corner of 
Love Lane in Little Eastcheap, near the site formerly occupied by 
the church of St. Andrew Hubbard. 

The King's Weigh House, which before the fire stood in Cornhill, 
was after that event removed to Eastcheap. In 1695, Mr. Thomas 
Keynolds, who had been ordained in 1694 at the meeting house in 
Little St. Helen's, and afterwards assistant to Mr. Howe at Silver 
Street, was invited to the pastorate, when, the old meeting house 
becoming too small, a new one was built, the Weigh House occupying 
the ground floor. This building was opened in 1697. Mr. Wilson 
says that it was " a large, handsome, oblong building, with three deep 
galleries, and an upper one for a charity school." 

Mr. Reynolds was one of the preachers appointed to the Merchant 
Lecture. He died in 1727, aged sixty years. 

A Friday evening lecture was established in this chapel for the 
purpose of " encouraging and defending " the use of psalmody in the 
services of the church in 1708. A volume of sermons on this subject 
was published at " The Golden Candlestick," at the lower end of 
Cheapside. About this time there was a strong controversy on the 
subject, and the Weigh House ministers were early pledged to defend 
the use. The volume was entitled " Practical Discourses on Singing." 

In 1736, Dr. William Langford, who had been co-pastor with Mr. 
Bures at Silver Street Church, was invited to be an assistant at the 
Weigh House. On the death of the pastor (Mr. Wood), Dr. Langford 
accepted the pastorate, and remained for thirty-three years, until his 
death in 1775 at the age of seventy-one. He was buried at Bunhill 
Fields. 

Upon the death of Dr. Langford, Dr. Wilton, in 1776, was invited 



14 

to the church. The interest, which had then sunk very low, began 
gradually to revive. Mr. Wilson says of him : "Dr. Wilton was never 
a popular preacher ; his style was not simple. He was very long in 
his services, and took very little pains with his composition and 
delivery." This is said to have been one of the sins of the dissenters 
in the age in which Dr. Wilton lived. He died in 1778, at the age of 
thirty-four, and was buried in Bunhill Fields, where a monument was 
erected to his memory. 

To him succeeded in 1779 the Eev. John Clayton, whom Robert 
Hall spoke of as " the most favoured man I ever saw or heard of." 
This well-known minister had been for some little time assisting at the 
chapel, when, on the death of Dr. Wilton, he was unanimously elected 
minister with the exception of one member of the congregation, who 
persistently objected to him, but soon afterwards became Mrs. Clayton. 
He was pastor for nearly fifty years, and died in 1843 at the age of 
eighty-nine. It has been said that "although John Clayton achieved 
some reputation for preaching power, and gained a position of con- 
siderable influence in his own sphere, his crude political creed pre- 
vented his ever becoming a representative man among the dissenters." 

In 1829, the Rev. Thomas Binney accepted the pastorate, and on 
the 16th October, 1834, laid the foundation stone of the new buildings 
on Fish Street Hill. It was at this ceremony that he startled 
society and the Church by saying " that the Church of England had 
destroyed more souls than she had saved." In later years it is pleasant 
to relate that he became much more charitable in his views, and 
gathered very large congregations to his church. In consequence of 
the formation of the District Railway, the land on which the chapel 
stood was required. It was freehold, and originally had been purchased 
for 7000. The price given by the railway company was 95,000. 
In 1883, service was held in the old chapel for the last time, the 
church being removed to the West End. 



Court, 6reat Eastcbeap. 

This was a large square building with three galleries, holding 
about 700 people. Underneath the chapel were shops, and the way 
to it from Great Eastcheap was through a passage into the court. 



15 

The origin of the church is involved in much obscurity, but about the 
beginning of the eighteenth century we read that two societies of the 
Baptist denomination, at the time destitute of pastors, agreed to unite 
under the ministry of Mr. John Noble, who had then charge of a 
congregation meeting at Tallow Chandlers' Hall, Dowgate Hill. 
" While young he suffered a long imprisonment. He was a man of 
excellent parts, though outsiders accused him of uncharitable conduct. 
His friends declare that his moderation was exemplary." He remained 
here for the long period of thirty-four years. 

The congregation at this time was in a very prosperous state, the 
people " expressing a very great love for the Gospel, and generously 
contributing towards it, manifesting strong affection for its aged and 
honoured pastor by the most kind and generous treatment, even to the 
end of his life." Mr. Noble generally attended the meetings at the 
Gloucestershire Coffee House, and when present appears usually to 
have taken the chair. This distinction rose, doubtless, from a respect 
for his age and usefulness. The last time he attended the meeting 
was 20th March, 1726-7. He died in June, 1730, aged seventy-one 
years, and was buried in the Baptist burying ground in the Park, 
Southwark. His funeral sermon is still extant ; the title page is 
emblazoned with a death's head, a skeleton's limbs, and a mattock for 
grave digging. 

During the time of his successor, Mr. Samuel Dew, the congre- 
gation much declined. He was known as a hyper-Calvinist. Mr. 
Ivimey says the result of his ministry was the " exciting a captious 
and censorious spirit among the members of the church, which led 
them to bite and devour one another, and as no others were induced 
to join their fellowship, they were soon destroyed one of another." 

Another minister here was the Eev. John Gill, the Calvinistic 
commentator, who commenced a Wednesday evening lecture, which 
he carried on for thirty years. 

The commentary referred to was an arduous work published in 
nine folio volumes. 

In 1760, the lease of the chapel expired, when the members dis- 
persed themselves among various societies. For a short time the 
building was occupied by the Swedenborgians, and afterwards by the 
German Lutherans. 

About the year 1820 the old chapel was taken down. 



16 



^Turners' Iball. 

This was one of the largest of the companies' halls, and stood in 
Philpot Lane. 

It was first used by the General Baptists in 1688, the pastor being 
the Eev. Eichard Allen, who had been excluded from the Church 
meeting in White's Alley, on account of his views on the subject of 
baptism. He ministered in this church for about seven years. 
Mr. Wilson says " that he preached in this hall to a small but 
affectionate people." 

He remained here for about seven years, when he removed with 
his people to the church in Paul's Alley, Barbican. 

About 1700, the minister was the Rev. George Keith, who after- 
wards seceded to the Church of England, and ministered at St. 
George's, Botolph Lane. Soon after this we find him one of the 
marrying parsons in the Fleet, when he was excommunicated by the 
bishop. 

It was in this hall that John Wesley once preached, it is said, to 
2000 persons, when the flooring gave way, and had it not been for 
some casks of tobacco in the cellar beneath a serious accident would 
have happened. As it was, the beams sunk but a foot or two, but, says 
John Wesley, " I went on without interruption." 

In 1726, the Church in Devonshire Square signified a wish that 
the church at Turners' Hall should be united with them. 

On December 26th, two messengers, Messrs. Blackwell and Webb, 
delivered the following message in writing : "Brethren and sisters-: 
we, as messengers from the Church of Christ, meeting in Devonshire 
Square, late under the pastoral care of Mr. Mark Key, deceased, to 
this Church of Christ under the pastoral care of Mr. Sayer Rhudd, 
request that you will please to remove from the place of your meeting 
to that of Devonshire Square (each church keeping up its own church 
state for some time) till a union of both may be agreed upon to mutual 
satisfaction, and that our brother Rhudd be the pastor over the whole 
community, to which our request we hope for a favourable answer." 

The messengers being withdrawn, and the church having 
approved their application, they were on their return informed by Mr. 
Rhudd " That they took the invitation kindly and designed, God 



17 

willing, to meet with them in Devonshire Square, Lord's Day 
sennight." 

In the minute books of the Turners' Company it is recorded that 
the Anabaptists held their services in the hall, and that on one occasion 
the court considered that the last sermon the Company's chaplain 
preached was not sufficiently clear on some abstruse point of theology. 
" The Committee determined to see the chaplain, to urge a more 
intelligible treatment of the question." 



(Bracecburcb Street. 

In the reign of Charles II., the Particular Baptists had a church 
in this street, but the precise spot where it stood is not known. 

The church is referred to in an old manuscript of the year 1692. 

Crosby, in his " History of the Baptists," says that about this 
time the pastor of the church was Dr. Lee Viel, a foreign divine of 
Jewish parents, but who afterwards embraced Christianity. Not being 
master of the English language, he was never popular as a preacher. 
" He was, however, a grave and judicious divine, a skilful grammarian, 
and a pious good man." 



' 1baU. 

This hall, situate in Lime Street, like so many of the old livery 
halls, was, for a few years, in the reign of Charles II., appropriated to 
the use of the Nonconformists. 

An independent congregation met here for some time under the 
care of the Eev. Robert Bragge, Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, 
whose father was a captain in the Parliamentary army. For a few 
years he had held the living of All Hallows-the-Great, in Thames 
Street, but this he soon resigned. Afterwards he gathered together a 
small church in the parish, removing subsequently to Lime Street. 
Dr. Calamy says of him : " He was a man of great humility and sincerity, 
and a very peaceable temper." He died in 1704. 

Mr. Bragge's successor was the Eev. Ralph Yenning, who had 
previously held a lectureship at St. Olave's, Southwark. Mr. Yenning 



18 

was a popular preacher, and during his time there is no doubt that the 
church in Lime Street was in a flourishing condition. He died in his 
fifty-third year, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. Dr. Calamy says of 
him : "He was a most importunate and prudent pleader for the poor, 
who were very numerous in his parish. He yearly got some hundreds 
of pounds for them, having such a way of recommending charity as 
has prevailed with several to give who had gone to church with a 
resolution to the contrary." 

The church here did not have a very long existence after this. 
We find that in 1715 the hall was used for the last time as a place of 
worship. 



jpav>et> HUe, Xtme Street, 

This was an alley in the Leadenhall Street end of Lime Street. 
The chapel was a large building with three galleries. The congrega- 
tion, which had been formed at a meeting place in Lower Thames 
Street, met as early as 1640, imder the care of the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Godwin. In 1672, the chapel in Lime Street was erected, and for 
many years had a large and rich congregation. 

In 1755, the East India Company bought the site, one branch of 
the church going to Miles Lane, where they remained for about ten 
years. 

In 1643, Dr. Godwin was selected a member of the assembly of 
divines, meeting at Westminster, and was also one of the ministers 
composing the synod of congregational churches which met at the 
Savoy in 1658. He had the misfortune to lose nearly the whole of his 
valuable library in the great fire. He died in 1680, aged eighty 
years.* 

A noted minister of this church was the Rev. Nathaniel Mather. 
In 1656, he was presented by Oliver Cromwell to the living of 
Barnstaple, Devon. At the Restoration he lost this preferment, and 
in 1688 undertook the charge of the congregation in Lime Street. 
He was also one of the Merchant Lecturers at Pinners' Hall. He died 
in 1697, aged sixty-eight years, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 

* A further account of this minister is given in connection with the Poultry 
Chapel. 



19 

The Rev. John Collins was also one of the ministers here for 
twenty-five years. He died in 1687. 

The Eev. Thomas Bragge was appointed minister of the church 
in 1697, and remained until 1737, being pastor of the congregation 
for forty years. He was a very famous divine of his day. 

It was his custom to make the most of his subject by preaching 
(as was the custom in those days), several discourses upon the same 
text. It is related that in one part of his life he was employed no less 
than four months in developing the mysteries of Joseph's Coat, " and 
he made him a coat of many colours." The following lines were 
written of him 

" Eternal Bragge, in never-ending strains, 
Unfolds the wonders Joseph's Coat contains ; 
Of every hue describes a different cause, 
And from each patch a solemn mystery draws." 
He died in 1738, aged seventy-two years, and was buried in 
Bunhill Fields, beneath a handsome tomb, under which also rest the 
remains of John Bunyan. 

The building was taken down in 1755, when the church was 
divided, one portion going to Miles Lane, the remainder to Camomile 
Street. 

The following interesting particulars are taken from an old minute 
book of the chapel now in the Guildhall Library. 

" 1734, 22 July. Considering how many thousands have lost 
their lives by the wars that are in Europe, and that the sword 
still goeth on to destroy, this church came to a resolution on 
the 31st inst., to spend some hours in prayer to beg of God that 
negotiations may be set on foot and meet with success for the 
reconciliation of the contending parties on the earth. 

" 1735, 20 October. A letter from the church of Christ, 
meeting near the ' Three Cranes,' London, to this church of Christ, 
was this day read acquainting us that they had called the Eev. Mr. 
John Hill to succeed their late worthy pastor, the Eev. Dr. Thomas 
Eigby, deed., and that they desire the presence of our pastor and two 
messengers to be witnesses to their Faith and Order in the Gospel, 
which request being taken into consideration, the church was pleased 
to appoint Messrs. John Hargrave and Thomas Baddington to attend 
the meeting of the church on Thursday next, the 23rd inst. 



20 

" 1735, 17 November. Notice was given to the church that 
for some time past our brother, Mr. John Watts, had absented 
himself from communion with the church, whereupon our brethren, 
Messrs. Joseph Alderney and Thomas Adams, were desired to wait on 
him and enquire the reason thereof. 

" 1736, 6 September. After some time spent in prayer, a 
motion was made for the church to send a letter to the Eev. Mr. 
Thomas Scott to invite him to come to London and give us a taste of 
his gifts, and for his encouragement so to do it was proposed that we 
should bear his travelling charges and expenses whilst here, which 
motion and proposal was for a considerable time debated, and then the 
question was put ' So many of you as are for having a letter sent to 
invite Mr. Scott to come to London and give us a taste of his gifts 
hold up your hands.' After which the contrary question was put, and 
thereby it was resolved in the negative." 

The following is the minute on setting apart a joint minister with 
the Rev. Thomas Bragge : 

" 1737, 3 August. This being the day agreed on for the 
setting apart our brother, the Rev. Mr. John Richardson, we desired 
the Rev. Mr. John Hubbard to begin with prayer, which accordingly 
he did, and when he had ended the same he desired to know for what 
cause he had called together himself and his brethren, the pastors of 
other churches, with their messengers, or words to that effect, 
whereupon our brother, Mr. John Butt, in words to the following 
effect, and in the name of the church, declared that, we having 
several times sought the Lord by prayer for direction in the choice of 
a fit pastor to be joint or co-pastor and teacher to this church of 
Christ with our reverend pastor and teacher Mr. Robert Bragge, and 
having given a call to the Rev. Mr. Richardson, who was pleased to 
accept of the same, and he having by word of mouth declared unto us 
his hope in what God had done for his soul, and at the same time 
made a confession of his faith as to doctrine and church government, 
and two of the brethren thereupon acquainting the church of the 
character they had received as to his life and conversation, the church 
did receive him into full communion and fellowship with them, after 
which the brethren unanimously chose and ordained him to be joint 
pastor and teacher with our rev. pastor and teacher, Mr. Bragge, 
and that the pastors and messengers now called together may be 



21 

witnesses to our order and walk, as also to the recognizing of out 
choice and appointment ; and our brother Butt further said ' So 
many of the brethren as are now present are desired to recognize their 
choice and ordination by the holding up of their hands,' which they 
did accordingly. 

" Then our brother, Mr. Richardson, gave an account of his 
acceptance of their choice and ordination, and assured his brethren, 
the ministers there present, that they would pray for his being 
enrolled to perform so great a trust, and that his ministry might be 
blessed to the conviction of sinners, edification of saints, and building 
up of the church, or words to that effect. 

" After which the Eev. Mr. Goodwin spent some time in prayer, 
and then the Rev. Dr. Guise gave us a word of exhortation, with a 
particular charge to the church and our brother now setting apart. 

" After which the Rev. Mr. Hall, not being come, the Rev. Mr. 
Stevens was desired to spend some time in prayer, and then the Rev. 
Mr. Richardson concluded with prayer, looking for a blessing on our 
present transactions. 

" 1738, 13 February. According to the resolution of our last 
church meeting, the church now met again, and tho' it pleased God 
yesterday in the evening to take to Himself our late rev. brother, Mr. 
Robert Bragge, we spent a considerable time in prayer, and our rev. 
brother, Mr. Richardson, gave us a word of exhortation, and then we 
went on with prayer, after which a motion was made for adjourning 
our usual church meetings to the 27th inst., which was agreed to, and 
then the church meeting was concluded with prayer. 

" 1738, 4 December.. Oar brother Adams acquainted the church 
that he had met with our brother Edward Bidale and notified to him the 
church's desire that he would attend in his place this day, which he 
refused to do, but delivered him a letter directed to the members of 
that church of Christ meeting in Lime Street, signed Edward Bidale 
and dated the 27th November, 1738, which being given to our pastyr, 
he read the same to the church, wherein he declares that he does 
thereby acquit us from any care or charge over him, so He desires we 
would dash out his name without any further form, which with the 
report of his disorderly walk being taken into consideration, it was 
unanimously resolved we should withdraw from him, which sentence 



on behalf of the church and in the name of Christ our pastor solemnly 
pronounced, as he had not walked with us according to the Gospel. 

" And our brethren, Messrs. Hancock and Adams, were desired to 
acquaint him therewith. 

" 1740, 21 April. After some time spent in prayer, the experiences 
of Mrs. Mary Alder were read to the church and were by them ap- 
proved of, as was also the account given of her life and conversation, 
upon which she was told if she was present on our next Lord's Supper 
Day and we met with no discouragement, she should then be received 
into full communion and fellowship with us, and then this church 
meeting was concluded with prayer. 

" 1745, 27 May. After some time spent in prayer, John 
Baddington told the church some of the brethren had been with him 
and signified their offence at his having for some time past attended the 
Moravian ministry, and the reason he gave them for so doing was because, 
under their ministry, he found his dear Saviour Jesus Christ, whilst 
he hungered in bondage in Lime Street, and then several of the 
brethren spoke their minds in respect to what he had declared, and 
our pastor reproved him, and then gave the Blessing, and we 
adjourned. 

" 1746, 14 August. After some time spent in prayer, the office 
relating to our sister, Sarah Bryan, was taken into consideration, and 
after long debates thereon, by holding up of hands, it was unanimously 
resolved to cut her off from communion and fellowship with us by 
excommunication, whereupon our pastor, in the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the power of the church, did deliver up to Satan 
our sister, Sarah Bryan, for the destruction of her flesh that her spirit 
might be saved in the day of the Lord ; and our brother Butt was 
desired to let her know what sentence the church had passed on her, 
and that we no longer esteemed her as a member with us. 

" 1748, 30 January. After some time spent in prayer, the 
church was informed that several of our members were dissatisfied 
at sitting down in communion at the Lord's Supper with our brethren, 
Mr. John Duck, John Hamer, and Charles Richards, who were 
reported to hold such damning errors in religion that unfitted them 
for membership with a church of Christ, whereupon our brethren, 
Mr. Cranke and Mr. Harwood, were deputed to acquaint them the 



23 

church desired they would abstain from sitting down with us at the 
Lord's Supper until they had given the church full satisfaction as to 
what in due time shall be arraigned against them, and then this 
church meeting was closed with prayer and thanksgiving. 

" 1749, 9 October. After some time spent in prayer a motion 
was made that we should lay aside the Scotch version of the Psalms 
and instead thereof sing the hymns and spiritual songs composed by 
the late Rev. Dr. Watts, which occasioned very long debates, and 
some desired the further consideration thereof might be adjourned. It 
was carried to the contrary, and thereupon our pastor put the question 
' All you that are for having Dr. Watts' psalms sung by the Church, 
instead of the Scotch version, hold up your hands,' and on the contrary 
question being put, the first question was carried in the affirmative, 
and then this meeting was concluded with prayer and thanksgiving. 

" 1753, 28 May. After some time spent in prayer, a report was 
made that the Court of Directors of the United East India Company 
(who had given us notice that they would require the ground on which 
the chapel stood) had taken our memorial into consideration and 
given us liberty to remove every thing in the chapel which we thought 
we had a right to do ; after which we considered who might be 
proper to view and appraise the same ; and it was agreed that 
Mr. Blatherdin, in Coleman Street, and Mr. Price, in Houndsditch, 
should do it, but both of them not knowing any other person was to 
or had valued the same (the articles in question being the pulpit, 
pews, and fittings of the chapel), then it was thought convenient 
that proper notice should be given when we intended to remove to 
Miles Lane ; and it was agreed that next Lord's Day our pastor should 
declare from the pulpit that from and after the Lord's Day following, 
being the 10th June, there would be no more preaching in this place, 
but we should remove to Miles Lane, in Cannon Street, and that 
written advertisement should be fixed on our present meeting house 
doors to notifie the same, and then this church meeting concluded 
with prayer, thanksgiving, and the Blessing. 

" 1755, 7 August. After some time spent in prayer, one of the 
brethren stood up and acquainted the church (when several of the 
brethren were then present) that Mr. Richardson had been requested 
to give a meeting of five or six of the brethren to talk over the affairs 
of the church, which he had absolutely refused to do. So that he 



24 

was obliged to take this method of informing the church of our present 
situation, the substance of which was there was a general uneasiness 
and dissatisfaction amongst the members concerning Mr. Richardson's 
preaching, and also his behaviour to them. 

" Many had absented themselves, and others about asking for 
their dismissions, and from once a crowded auditory now dwindled 
away to nothing, by which means the collection for the poor and for 
the rent of the place fell vastly short, and he designed to have added 
the subscription for the minister also, but that he had just heard 
Mr. Richardson in the vestry declare to some of the brethren that he 
had enough, he wanted no more. He said further, that our collection 
for the fund, which formerly was the largest of any church in London, 
has been entirely laid aside these three or four years, and we have not 
been able to raise anything upon that occasion, so that we have not a 
name in the fund book, and for many years one of the most eminent 
of all the churches are sunk so low as hardly to be respected or owned 
as a church. It is evident there is a cause for so great a declaration, 
and it appears plainly enough to many where it lays, for not one of 
the absenting members ever complained of the church ; therefore it 
must needs be in the minister, and that if some method was not taken 
speedily in order to restore peace, we could not long subsist as a 
church. Then several of the brethren then present spoke their minds 
freely, being much to the same purport. Mr. Richardson also made 
answer that there might be causes assigned. The first was that many 
of late had conformed to the Established Church, and dissenting 
children marrying with Church folk, and lastly, the great declension 
of religion in general, but promised before the church that whatever 
had been amiss with regard to his preaching or conduct, he would 
endeavour to amend and do all in his power to restore peace, which 
the brethren said was all they required, and then Mr. Richardson 
concluded with thanksgiving and the Blessing. 

" 1755, 6 November. After some time spent in prayer, our 
brother and sister Gerthon came to desire their dismissal, which Mr. 
Richardson again declared, he never would give any more, nor put his 
hand to any except into the country, which caused some sharp debates. 
One of the brethren endeavoured to persuade him to draw one up, but 
he absolutely refused, and flew into a great passion, so when it was 
found that persuasion was to no effect, it was agreed by the brethren 



25 

present that one of the deacons should draw one up against our next 
church meeting, and to be read to the church and signed by one of 
the deacons. Then some of the brethren told Mr. Richardson of his 
preaching, that he did not study his sermons nor his expositions, and 
also of his conduct towards the church, and his behaviour in life, 
to all which he seemed insensible, and stood up and concluded with a 
short prayer. This behaviour of our pastor made some of the church 
very uneasy. It was afterwards agreed by some of the brethren to 
write letters to the rest to attend at our next church meeting, and that 
one of the brethren should desire Mr. Richardson to meet five or six 
of the brethren to talk over the affairs of the church. On the 
llth December, 1755, Mr. Richardson resigned the pastorate of the 
church. 

" 1760, 20 March. After some time spent in prayer, our rev. 
pastor gave us a word of exhortation, then the affair of the psalms was 
mentioned (to sing without giving out the lines, as had been the 
custom), whether it would be agreeable to sing with the book. It was 
put to the vote and carried unanimous. Then our pastor was desired 
to give notice of four Lords' Days that the people might provide them- 
selves with books, and the deacons were desired to get a proper number 
for the poor and the table pew, then this church meeting concluded 
with prayer and the Blessing." 



/l&arfe %ane. 

For some years an influential congregation met in this lane ; the 
exact spot is now difficult to find. 

Originally it seems to have been a few persons meeting together 
in the house of one of the wealthy City merchants at that time 
residing in the lane. 

The church was gathered together about the year 1662, by the 
Rev. Joseph Caryll, who had been rector of St. Magnus, London 
Bridge. This gentleman was also preacher to the Honourable Society 
of Lincoln's Inn, and also a member of the Westminster Assembly of 
Divines. He preached several fast and thanksgiving sermons before 
the Parliament, and published, among other works, " An Exposition 
with Practical Observations on the Birth of Job," in twelve volumes, 



26 

quarto. Dr. Calamy says of him " that he was a man of great piety, 
learning and modesty." 

In the Sion College Library there is a volume of sermons, 
written by Thomas Brooks, "Preacher of the Gospel at St. Margaret, 
Fish Street Hill," dated 1660. The title of the book is " Heaven on 
Earth ; or, a Serious Discourse, touching a well-grounded Assurance 
of Men's Everlasting Happiness and Blessedness. Discussing the 
Nature of Assurance, the Probability of Attaining it, the Causes, Springs, 
and Degrees of it, with the Kesolution of severall Mighty Questions." 
Mr. Caryll wrote the following introduction to this book : " The 
greatest thing that we can desire (next to the glory of God) is our own 
salvation, and the sweetest thing we can desire is the assurance of 
our salvation. In this life we cannot get higher than to be assured 
of that which in the next life is to be enjoyed. All saints shall enjoy 
a heaven when they leave this earth. Some saints enjoy a heaven 
while they are here on earth. That saints might enjoy two heavens 
is the project of this book, that this project may be published, and 
(by a blessing from the third heaven) prospered. Joseph Caryll." 

Dr. John Owen, who was pastor of another church in the 
neighbourhood, succeeded Mr. Caryll, the two churches being united. 
The congregation, we are told at this time, numbered 171 members. 
Mr. Wilson describes Mr. Owen as " the prince of modern divines." 

In 1652 he was chosen Vice-Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford, where he preached on alternate Sundays at St. Mary's until 
1657, when he resigned. He was the author of a considerable number 
of works. He died in 1683, aged sixty-seven years, and was buried in 
Bunhill Fields, as many as sixty-seven carriages, filled with friends 
and admirers, following him to the grave. 

Dr. Chauncey, a divine of considerable learning but not popular 
as a preacher, succeeded to the charge in 1687 and resigned in 1702. 
Mr. Wilson says : " What rendered him chiefly unpopular was his 
frequent preaching uppn the order and description of gospel churches, 
by which he at last preached away most of his people." Another writer 
speaking of him says: "Dr. Chauncey, though a learned divine, he was 
not a popular preacher, and to add to the evil, being a stiff, or some would 
say, a furious Independent, he tormented his people from the pulpit 
with frequent dissertations on church government." 

In 1708 this church removed to Bury Street, St. Mary Axe. 



27 



Burp Street, St. dDarp Hr.e. 

One of the most interesting recollections of this old City meeting 
house is the fact that for nearly fifty years the Rev. Dr. Isaac Watts 
was the pastor. 

On the same day that King William died (18th March, 1702), 
Isaac Watts was "solemnly" ordained to succeed Dr. Chauncey, whose 
assistant he had been for some time. " He was separated to the 
charge by fasting and prayer. Matthew Clarke, Thomas Collins, 
Benoni Eowe, and Thomas Ridgley prayed on the occasion." Thomas 
Rowe preached from Jeremiah hi., 15. 

This ordination service took place in the old meeting house in 
Mark Lane. At this time Dr. Watts was residing in the lane. It 
was also from here that he published his metrical version of the 
Psalms. 

In 1708 the Chapel in Bury Street was opened by the Rev. 
Thomas Bradbury. It is described as a building with three galleries, 
and was erected at a cost of 350. 

Dr. Watts is said to have had " a large and respectable congre- 
gation." A writer says : " Although neither a fluent or popular 
preacher, many citizens who then lived over their business premises 
might be seen on the Sabbath mornings walking to the sanctuary 
where Dr. Watts preached." One of his most devoted hearers was 
Sir Thomas Abney, the Alderman of Vintry Ward, and Lord Mayor 
in 1700. With this worthy alderman Dr. Watts spent much of his 
time at his mansion at Abney Park, Stoke Newington, and was always 
a welcome guest. 

Dr. Watts died on the 25th November, 1748, aged 75 years. His 
remains were interred in Bunhill Fields. A handsome marble 
memorial was fixed behind the pulpit of the chapel to his memory. 
Dr. Samuel Chandler delivered the oration at his grave, and Dr. 
Jennys preached the funeral sermon from Hebrews xi., 4. 

After the death of Dr. Watts, the interest of the chapel continued 
in a very low state. There were several ministers, but none succeeded 
in gathering a good congregation. 

The following notice appears in the Evangelical Magazine for 
January, 1797 : 

" On December llth, at the Meeting House of the Rev. J. Beck, 



28 

Bury Street, was opened a Sunday evening lecture to the Jews. Dr. 
Haweis, the Rev. Mr. Greathied, Rev. J. Eyre, Dr. Hunter, Rev. J. 
Love, and the Rev. Mr. Cooper have engaged to deliver the first six 
discourses in the order in which they stand, and should any of that 
long-neglected people attend, other ministers will be requested to 
assist in a course of lectures upon subjects suited to their condition." 
In 1823 the church was removed to Bethnal Green. 



Jewry Street Gbapel. 

About the time of Charles II., a society of Presbyterians met in a 
chapel in what was then called Poor Jewry Lane. This society met 
for upwards of a century. Some well-known divines of the day were 
the pastors. The first was Mr. Timothy Cruse, who had a flourishing 
church and congregation. This was about 1687. In 1694, we find 
he was one of the preachers at the Pinners' Hall Lecture. Mr. Wilson 
says of him: "He was justly esteemed one of the greatest preachers 
of the age in which he lived." He died in 1697, and was buried in 
Stepney Churchyard, where a handsome tomb with a Latin inscription 
was erected to his memory. 

The next minister was the Rev. Francis Fuller, who in 1662 
resigned the living of St. Martin's, Ironmonger Lane. He died in 
1701. 

Dr. Harris, who succeeded Mr. Fuller, was a very popular 
preacher in the City. He was also for thirty years one of the Friday 
evening lecturers at the Weigh House Chapel in Little Eastcheap. 
He wrote the commentary upon the Epistle to the Philippians and 
Colossians in Matthew Henry's work. He bequeathed a large number 
of his books and writings to Dr. Williams's Library, where there is 
also preserved a very fine painting of him. He died in 1740, and was 
interred in Dr. Williams's vault in Bunhill Fields. 

Dr. Nathaniel Lardner was appointed an assistant minister here 
in 1729. He first commenced his ministry at a meeting house in 
Hoxton Square, and was member of a literary society consisting of 
ministers and others, who met weekly at Chew's Coffee House, in 
Bow Lane. He was a most prolific author, his principal work being 
one entitled " The Credibility of the Gospel History, or the Principal 



29 

Facts of the New Testament, confirmed by Passages from ancient 
Authors who were contemporary with our Saviour or His Apostles, or 
lived near their time." This was an immense work, published in 
twelve volumes, the first volume appearing in 1733, and the last in 
1755. After which he published a supplement to the work in three 
volumes. He died in 1768, aged eighty-five years, and was buried in 
Bunhill Fields. 

It was in this chapel that the Rev. Joseph Hart was minister. 
He died in 1768. In the eighteenth century " Hart's Hymns " were 
very popular and highly prized by a large number of churches both 
Dissenting and Anglican. 

For some years the Rev. Richard Price, D.D., was afternoon 
preacher here. " He was a man of very superior attainments, a 
profound mathematician, and a prolific writer on political subjects of 
the day." In 1763, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and 
contributed continually to the transactions of that learned body. 

In 1796, services according to the Church of England were held 
in the chapel for some time, after which it passed back again to the 
Independents. 



Grutcbefc Jfrtars. 

One of the earliest meeting houses in the City belonged to the 
Baptist interest, and was situate in Crutched Friars, on the site of the 
old Friar's Hall, which was burnt down in 1575. The congregation 
was formed about the year 1639, the chief promoter being Mr. John 
Greene, who was by trade a felt or hat maker. He was chosen 
the first minister, and became a zealous and popular preacher. In the 
year 1641, there was published a quarto pamphlet, entitled ''The 
Brownist's Synagogue, or a Late Discovery of their Conventicles, 
Assemblies, and Places of Meeting, where they preach and the manner 
of their praying and preaching, with a relation of the names, places, 
and doctrines of those which do commonly preach, the chief of which 
are these : Greene the felt maker, Marler the button maker, Spencer 
the coachman, Rogers the glover ; which sect is much increased of 
late within this city. A kingdom divided cannot stand." This Mr. 
Greene seems to have gone abroad for a short time. On his return in 



80 

1646 " he statedly preached in Colnian Street, once on the Lord's Day, 
and once on a week day." Edwards,* in his history, says " There is 
so great - a resort and flocking to hear him, that yards, rooms, and 
houses are all so full that he causes his neighbours' conventicles and 
others to be oftentimes very thin, and independents to preach to bare 
walls and empty seats in comparison of this great rabbi." 

The following occurrence is related, which took place most 
probably in this meeting house : 

"About Aldgate, in London, there was a great meeting of many 
sectaries, and among others Master Knollys and Master Jersey, for the 
restoring of a blind woman to her sight by anointing her with oil in 
the name of the Lord. It was conducted after this manner : The old 
blind woman was set in the midst of the room, and she first prayed 
aloud (all the company joining with her) to this effect : That God 
would bless His own ordinances and institutions for the restoring her 
sight. After she had done praying, Master Knollys prayed for some 
space of time to the same effect, for a blessing upon the anointing with 
oil, and after prayer she was anointed with oil. The person who 
performed this ceremony repeating these words : " The Lord give thee 
or restore thee thy sight." 

During the Civil War Paul Hobson was pastor, who, on the out- 
break of the war, took his sword and went into the field on the 
Parliamentary side. He was a man who denounced other sects in no 
measured terms, so that for a time he was lodged in Newport Pagnell 
Gaol. 

Timothy Cruse, who was his successor, was a famous preacher of 
the time. He is said to have had the charm of an agreeable voice, a 
graceful manner, and was ,esteemed one of the greatest preachers of 
the age. His congregation here was large, and during his life the 
church was in a flourishing state. At his death, which occurred in 
1697, at the early age of forty-one, an attempt was made to introduce a 
successor contrary to the wish of many of the congregation. A 
separation followed, which sowed the seeds of future decay. Mr. Cruse 
was also one of the selected preachers at Pinners' Hall. 

The succession of Mr. Cruse was Dr. Harris. He was invited to 
the pulpit at a very early age, and was considered a good preacher, but 

* Edward's Gangrcena. Part III. 



31 

very modest and retiring. He was one of those who preached the lecture 
on Friday evenings, at the Weigh House, to encourage psalmody, and 
on the death of Dr. Tong was chosen to be lecturer at Baiters' Hall. 
The works that he published were numerous, chiefly sermons, which 
at the time had a good circulation. He made a valuable collection of 
authors upon Biblical criticism, all of which were bequeathed to 
Dr. Williams's library. He died 25th May, 1740, aged sixty-five 
years. 

To him succeeded Dr. John Benson, of whom it was said that, 
" in learning he was not deficient, of pains to excel there was no want, 
all that toil could do was done, but he had not the ability of his 
predecessors : he was an impenetrably dull man." During his 
pastorate the congregation was gradually diminishing until it was 
scarcely entitled to that name, and after a precarious existence of about 
twelve years, it became extinct. Dr. Benson died in 1672, aged 
sixty-three years. 

The building was afterwards opened by the Calvinistic Methodists, 
William Aldridge, who came from Lady Huntingdon's College, at 
Treveca, being the first minister. We are told " that the place was 
once more filled with serious and attentive hearers." 

A short time after this the church removed to Houndsditch. 

The site of the old chapel is now covered by the East India 
warehouses. 



0rav>el Xane, Ibounfcsfcitcb. 

This chapel was erected for the Baptist church about the year 
1688. The exact spot on which it stood is not known. In the 
" Confession of Faith," put forth by the Particular Baptists in 1689, 
Mr. Edward More is mentioned as pastor of a congregation meeting 
in Houndsditch. 

The congregation first met in Winchester Street, afterwards 
removing to Gravel Lane. Mr. Wilson says that the building was 
made of wood, " of very considerable dimensions, and capable of 
accommodating 1500 people." 

Dr. Samuel Pomfret was the first minister. He was born in 
Coventry in 1650, was a popular preacher, and drew together large 



82 

congregations. He told a friend that he bad 800 members belonging 
to his church. 

In his biography it is said that " he exercised his ministry with 
great constancy and almost incredible pains, and through the blessing 
of God upon his labours, with such success, that some think the like 
has not been known in these latter times." 

About 1730, the congregation was much reduced, and shortly 
after, the church removed to Great Alic Street, Whitechapel, the 
building being converted into business premises. 



Dall. 

Very little is known as to the history of the church meeting in 
this hall, which was situate in Duke's Place, Aldgate. It was one of 
the earliest congregations belonging to the Baptists, dating from the 
year 1640. The numbers of the church increasing, it was considered 
wise, on account of the disturbed nature of the times, to divide the 
church. This was done by mutual consent, one section going to the 
ministry of Mr. Praise God Barebone. Not much is known of this 
gentleman except that he was a leather seller in Fleet Street, and was 
considered a notable preacher of the day. There were two other 
brothers of this family, each of whom, according to the well-known 
custom of the old Puritans of the day, had a sentence of scripture for 
his Christian name, one brother being named " Christ came into the 
world to save Barebone," the other brother being named " If Christ 
had not died thou hadst being damned Barebone." With regard to 
the latter name, it is related that some are said to have omitted the 
first part of the sentence, and to have called him only " Damned 
Barebone." 

In connection with this preacher, a pamphlet was published, 
entitled " New Preachers, New - ." " Greene the felt maker, 
Spencer the horse seller, Quartermine the brewers' clerk, and some 
few others who are mighty sticklers in this new kind of teaching 
trade which many ignorant coxcombs call preaching. Whereunto is 
added the last tumult in Fleet Street raised by the disorderly preach- 
ment, pratings, and pratlings of Mr. Barebones the leather seller, and 
Mr. Greene the felt maker, on Sunday last, the 19th June, near 
Fetter Lane and in Fleet Street, at the sign of the ' Lock and Key,' 



33 

there and then did you (by turns) unlock most delicate strange doc- 
trine, where were about thousands of people, of which number the 
most ignorant applauded your preaching, and them that understood 
anything derided your ignorant prating. But after four hours' long 
and tedious tatling, the house where you were was beleaguered with 
multitudes that thought it fit to rouse you out of your blind devotion, 
so that your walls were battered, your windows all fractions, torn into 
rattling shivers, and worse the hurly-burly might have been, but that 
sundry constables came in with strong guards of men to keep the 
peace, in which conflict your sign was broken down and unhanged to 
make room for the owner to supply the place." 

The tumult alluded to is thus described : " A brief touch in 
memory of the fiery zeal of Mr. Barebones, a reverend, unlearned, 
leather seller, who with Mr. Greene, the felt maker, were both taken 
preaching or prating in a conventicle amongst a hundred persons on 
Sunday, the 19th December, last, 1641. After my commendations 
Mr. Rawbones (Barebones, I should have said) in acknowledgment of 
your too much troubling yourself and molesting of others, I have 
made bold to relate briefly your last Sunday afternoon's work, lest in 
time your meritorious painstaking should be forgotten (for the which 
you and your associate, Mr. G., do well deserve to have your heads in 
the custody of young Gregory to make buttons for hempen loops) you 
two having the spirit so full that you must either vent or burst, did 
on the Sabbath aforesaid place, all which shows had never been had 
Mr. Greene and Mr. Barebones been content (as they should have 
been) to have gone to their own parish churches. Also on the same 
day a mad rustic fellow (who is called the ' Prophet Hunt ') did his 
best to raise the same strife and trouble in St. Sepulchre's Church. 
Consider and avoid these disorders, good reader ! " 

Mr. Henry Jersey was minister here for a short time. He had 
been rector of St. George's, Southwark. He died in 1663, aged 
sixty-three years, and was buried from Woodmongers' Hall. Several 
thousands of people, it is said, attended his funeral. 

Anthony Wood, a writer of the time, thus relates the funeral : 
" At length (says he), paying his last debt to nature, September 4th, 
1663, being then accounted the oracle and idol of his faction, was on 
the seventh day of the same month laid to sleep with his fathers in a 
hole made in the yard joining to old Bedlam, Moorfields, in the 



34 

suburbs of London, attended with a strange medley of fanatics, mostly 
Anabaptists, that met upon the very point of time, all at the same 
instant, to do honour to their departed brother." 



Crosby 1ball. 

This hall, one of the finest examples of ancient domestic archi- 
tecture in the City, was for more than one hundred years devoted to 
religious purposes by the Nonconformists. Sir John Langham, the 
noble owner in the time of Charles II., was their friend. The Rev. 
Thomas Watson, of Emanuel College, Cambridge, who in 1646 was 
presented to the Rectory of S. Stephen, Walbrook, and resigned it in 
1662, became the first minister. He soon gathered a large congregation, 
and was author of the tract " Heaven Taken by Storm," which is said 
to have been the means of the conversion of the celebrated Colonel 
Gardiner. Mr. Watson died in 1689, while at prayer in his study. 

Stephen Charnock, who had been five years co-pastor with Mr. 
Watson, succeeded. His work on "The Divine Attributes" is still 
well-known and read. In one of his works there is an engraving of 
the throne room where the services were held. He continued here 
until his strength failed him, when he resigned. He died in 1680, 
and was buried beneath the tower of St. Michael's Church, Cornhill. 
" He was an able divine and a prolific author. He wrote " A Body of 
Divinity," which appeared as a formidable folio of 176 sermons on 
the " Assembly's Catechism." 

The next pastor was the Rev. Samuel Slater, M.A., who remained 
here twenty-four years. He was considered to be " a good preacher 
and a correct scholar." The Rev. Wm. Tong, in preaching his funeral 
sermon, said : " He passed through the world with as clear and 
unspotted a reputation as anyone." 

In 1703, Dr. Benjamin Grosvenor was appointed pastor. Under 
his ministration the church and congregation soon rose to be both 
rich and powerful ; in fact, during his pastorate this church rose to 
the height of its prosperity. 

In 1716, Mr. Grosvenor was chosen the Merchants Lecturer at 
Salters' Hall. He died in 1758, aged eighty-three years, and was 
buried in Bunhill Fields. 



35 

After this the church had several ministers, among them being 
Dr. Samuel Wright, John Barker, Clerk Oldsworth, Edward Calamy, 
Junr., Dr. Jno. Hodge, but in consequence of families removing and 
from other causes, the prosperity of the church gradully declined. The 
last minister was the Rev. Richard Jones, of Cambridge. 

On the 1st October, 1769, the members assembled for the last 
time. Bread and wine were dispensed, when Mr. Jones delivered a 
farewell discourse. A short time after this, James Kelly, who called 
himself a Universalist, and who had been preaching at a meeting 
house in Bartholomew Close, took the hall and remained until 1778, 
when it was finally closed, and so concluded the religious life of 
old Crosby Hall. 



OLittle St. Ibelens. 

In 1672, in what was then called Little St. Helens, but now 
known as St. Helen's Place, stood a Presbyterian meeting house of 
" moderate size with three good galleries." 

The church being conveniently placed in the City, a number of 
lectures were held here, among them a Friday lecture by Mr. Coward. 

The first public ordination held by the Nonconformists after the 
Bartholomew Act was performed in this chapel. On June 22nd, 
1694, we are told that it was one of "peculiar solemnity," and lasted 
from ten in the morning until six in the evening. Dr. Calamy was 
one of those ordained on this occasion. 

The following is an account of this service, given by one who was 
ordained in Dr. Annesly's time : 

" The manner of that day's proceeding was this : Dr. Annesly 
began with prayer, then Mr. Alsop preached from I. Peter, v., 1, 2, 3, 
then Mr. Williams prayed, and made a discourse concerning the 
nature of ordination ; then he mentioned the names of the persons to 
be ordained, read their several testimonials, that were signed by such 
ministers as were well acquainted with them, and took notice what 
places they were severally employed in as preachers ; then he called 
for Mr. Bennett's confession of faith, put the usual questions to him 
out of the directory of the Westminster Assembly, and prayed over his 
head ; then Mr. Thomas Kentish did the same by Mr. Reynolds. 
Dr. Annesly did the like by me ; Mr. Alsop by Mr. Hill and Mr. King ; 



86 

Mr. Stretton by Mr. Bradshaw ; and Mr. Williams again by Mr. 
Bayes, and, after all, Mr. Sylvester concluded with a solemn charge, 
a psalm and a prayer. The whole took up all the day from before ten 
till past six. 

" Before our being thus ordained, we were strictly examined both 
in philosophy and divinity, and made and defended a thesis, each of 
us, upon a theological question, being warmly opposed by the several 
ministers present." 

The first minister here was Dr. Samuel Annesly, the grandfather 
of John and Charles Wesley. In 1642 he was elected by the unani- 
mous vote of the inhabitant ministers of the Church of St. John-the- 
Evangelist. In 1652 he was nominated one of the lecturers of St. 
Paul's, and, in 1660, was presented to the living of St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate. 

The father of Daniel De Foe worshipped in this church, and also 
the son. Of Dr. Annesly 's worth, Daniel De Foe long entertained a 
most affectionate remembrance. He has drawn the doctor's character 
in the following lines : 

" His native candour, his familiar style, 
Which did so oft his hearers' hours beguile, 
Charmed us with godliness ; and while he spake, 
We loved the doctrine for the preacher's sake ; 
While he informed us what those doctrines meant 
By dint of practice more than argument." 

Mr. Wilson says of Dr. Annesly : " He was a divine of con- 
siderable eminence and extensive usefulness." The same author also 
relates that his goods were seized "for keeping a conventicle." On 
this circumstance Dr. Calamy relates : " As a judgement of God, that 
a justice of the peace died as he was signing a warrant for his appre- 
hension." Dr. Annesly died in 1696, aged seventy-seven years. Dr. 
Williams preached his funeral sermon. The register of St. Leonard, 
Shoreditch, has this entry for December, 1696 : " Samuel Annesly 
was buried the seventh day, from Spittle Yard." 

In 1700 Mr. Benjamin Robinson, a learned and respectable 
minister, was appointed the pastor. He was one of the preachers of 
the Merchants' Lecture at Salters' Hall, and took a considerable part 
in the discussion of the religious disputes which were held in that 
chapel. In his early days he had kept a school, and was for more 



87 

than twenty years a minister of eminence in London. He died in 
April, 1724, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 

The Eev. Edward Godwin, who had been co-pastor with Mr. 
Kobinson, was invited to the pastorate in 1724. He remained here 
until his death in 1764. He was considered a good preacher. The 
congregation, which had considerably declined during the previous few 
years, showed a good increase of numbers. He was also Friday 
evening lecturer at the Weigh House. He was buried in Bunhill 
Fields, where there is an inscription over his tomb. 

Mr. Woodhouse, who had been keeping a school near Shifnal, 
in Shropshire, was minister here for a short time, but the date is 
uncertain. " He discharged the duties of his ministry with affection, 
zeal and usefulness, until within a few days of his death." 

After this the chapel seems to have experienced a rather varied 
existence. The successor of Mr. Godwin became a Sandemanian, 
and the next two ministers were so unsuited to the congregation that 
the members soon dwindled away. The Presbyterians giving it up, 
the chapel was taken by a German Lutheran divine from Brown's 
Lane, Spitalfields, but this gentleman did not long remain. It was 
then taken by a society of Baptists. The last service was held, and 
the last sermon preached in the old chapel, by the Rev. Samuel 
Palmer, of Hackney, on the 15th May, 1795. The building was taken 
down in 1799. 

Maitland, in his history of London, says of Little St. Helens : 
" A good large place having one or two courts within it, with good 
old timber houses, well inhabited, some by merchants, at the lower 
end of which is seated Leathersellers' Hall, and in another part a 
dissenting meeting house." 

In the Guildhall Library there is a manuscript book with the 
following title : " The Substance of Several Sermons Preached on 
Different Subjects at the Meeting House in Little Saint Helens, 
London, by the Eev. Mr. Harman Hood, 1719, written by me, S * A." 
Then follow a large number of extracts, all written in a beautifully 
clear hand. 



38 



Camomile Street 

In 1766, an Independent meeting bouse was built in this street. 

The church had been meeting for about ten years in Miles Lane. The 

chapel is described as "a good brick building with three galleries." 

The congregation was but small, and only a few particulars can be 

gleaned as to the work carried on. 

Mr. Porter, who is described as a lively and agreeable preacher, 
was the first minister, and remained here for about seven years. 

In 1774, Mr. John Reynolds was appointed and remained for 
thirty years. As a preacher he was not popular, and the congregation 
much declined under his charge. He died in 1803, and was buried in 
Bunhill Fields. 

The following notice appears in the Evangelical Magazine for 
October, 1802 : 

" In consequence of the meeting in Princes Street, Finsbury 
Square, being shortly to be taken down, the Rev. C. Buck and 
congregation are removed to the Rev. Mr. Reynolds' meeting in 
Camomile Street." 

In 1805, John Clayton, son of the Rev. Dr. Clayton, of the 
Weigh House Chapel, was appointed the minister, under whose 
ministry the congregation for some short time increased. Shortly 
afterwards the church removed to the Poultry Chapel. 



H>ev>onsbire Square. 

As early as 1638 a church of the Particular Baptists, which had 
migrated from Wapping, met in Meeting House Yard, behind 
Devonshire Square, Bishopsgate. The original title of this church of 
time of Charles I., written in Norman-French, is still preserved. 

The first minister was the Rev. William Kiffin, a wealthy 
merchant and noted controversialist of the day. 

In 1645, two books were published with the following titles : 

" A Looking Glass for the Anabaptists, and the Rest of the 
Separatists : wherein they may Clearly Behold a Brief Confutation of a 



89 

certain Unbiassed, Scandalous Pamphlet entitled ' The Kemonstrance 
of the Anabaptists by Way of Vindication of their Separation.' " 

" The Impertinences, Incongruities, Non-consequences, Falsities 
and Obstinacy of William Kiffin, the Author and Grand Eingleader 
of that Seduced Sect, is Discovered and Laid Open to the View of 
every Indifferent-eyed Reader that will not shut his Eyes against the 
Truth. With certain Queries indicated from Anabaptistical Glosses, 
together with others propounded for the Information and Conviction 
(if possible) Reformation of the said William Kiffin and his Proselytes. 
By Josiah Ricroft, a Well-Wisher to the Truth." 

A pamphlet published in the same year by Mr. Kiffin bears the 
following title : "A Brief Remonstrance and Grounds of those People 
called Anabaptists for their Separation, &c., or certain Queries 
concerning their Faith and Practice, propounded by Mr. Robert Poole, 
answered and refuted by William Kiffin." 

It is related of Mr. Kiffin, that being a wealthy man, Charles II., 
who we know was frequently embarrassed for money, requested the 
Anabaptists to lend him 40,000. Mr. Kiffin replied that he could 
not possibly lend so large a sum, but if His Majesty would condescend 
to accept as a gift the sum of 10,000, it was at his service. The 
King was quite willing to accept this sum. 

On Thursday, July 12th, 1655, Mr. Kiffin was brought before 
the Lord Mayor at Guildhall, charged with preaching " that the 
baptism of infants is unlawful." But the Lord Mayor, " being busy," 
the execution of the penalty was deferred until the following Monday 
morning. It seems most probable that nothing more was heard of 
the matter. 

The new meeting house, built for Mr. Kiffin by his congregation, 
was opened on the 1st March, 1686. Mr. Ivimey says: "This meeting 
house is of an oblong form and has three galleries. It will contain 
about 600 persons. It was originally fitted up without seats, and had 
only forms. The only marks of distinction in the meeting house are 
two raised seats expensively fitted up on each side of the pulpit. 
These were altered for the accommodation and at the expense of the 
Lady Dowager Page when the Joiners' Hall church removed from 
Pinners' Hall to Devonshire Square in June, 1724." 

From a church book commencing March, 1664, it appears that 
some of the people had deserted their brethren. One of these is said 



40 

to have " neglected his duty a long time and forsaken the assemblies 
of his people, and also frequented parish churches, contrary to the 
true end of his former profession, and taken upon him the charge of a 
churchwarden." Eefusing to appear before the church at the request 
of the messengers, " brother Kiffin and brother Cooper, he was separ- 
ated from their communion in a solemn manner according to rule." 
" Another person on the same day, and for similar conduct, it was 
unanimously conducted and judged, should be cut off from them as an 
unfruitful tree." 

Mr. Kiffin was one of the five Baptists who were made aldermen 
by commission from James II., when he deprived the City of London 
of its Charter. Mr. Wilson says : " He felt obliged nominally to 
accept the aldermanship, but after holding it for a few months, without 
meddling much in civic affairs, he obtained a discharge from his 
troublesome office." 

Not much is known as to the later part of Mr. Kiffin' s life. About 
1692, he had a disagreement with his congregation, which led to his 
resignation and withdrawal from the church. He died in 1701, aged 
eighty-six years, and was buried in Bunhill Fields, where there is a 
monument to his memory. 

We read that on the 28th June, 1666, Mr. Thomas Patient was 
set apart to assist Mr. Kiffin in Devonshire Square, Mr. Harrison 
and Mr. Knollys assisting on the occasion, but only about a month 
intervened before death took place. From the church books we read : 
"July 30, 1666.- Thomas Patient was on the 29th instant 
discharged by death from his work and office, he being then taken 
from the evil to come, and having rested from all his labours, leaving 
a blessed savour behind him of his great usefulness and sober 
conversation. This his sudden removal being looked upon to be his 
own great advantage, but the church's sore loss. On this day he wacs 
carried to his grave, accompanied by the members of this and other 
congregations, in a Christian, comely, and decent manner." 

From the nature of this record there is no doubt that the plague 
was the cause of Mr. Patient's death. He had only been ordained 
about a month when he died on July 29th, and was buried on the 
following day. 

Daniel Dyke was also appointed co-pastor to Mr. Kiffin. He 
remained there until his death in 1688, aged seventy, and was buried in 



41 

Bunhill Fields. He published " The Quaker's Appeal Answered ; or, 
a Full Eelation of the Occasion, Progress, and Issue of a Meeting at 
Barbican between the Baptists and the Quakers. 8vo., 1694." 

Joseph Stennett was ordained pastor in 1690. He was employed 
to revise the metrical version of the Psalms. Dr. Sharp, then 
Archbishop of York, said: "He had heard such a character of Mr. 
Stennett, that he thought no man more fit for that work than he, not 
only for his skill in poetry, but likewise in the Hebrew tongue." 

Mr. Stennett wrote the following beautiful epitaph for his father 
and mother, who were buried at Wallingford : 
" Here lies an holy and an happy pair, 
As once in grace they now in glory share ; 
They dared to suffer, but they feared to sin, 
And nobly bore the cross, the crown to win ; 
So liv'd as not to be afraid to die, 
So dy'd as heires of immortality. 
Header, attend tho' dread, they speak to thee, 
Tread the same path, the same thine end shall be." 
Mr. Stennett also wrote a metrical version of Solomon's Song, 
and also several sacramental hymns. 

Mr. Richard Adams, who had been assistant to Mr. Kiffin, 
succeeded and continued pastor for about twenty years. 

Mr. Mark Key, who had been assistant to Mr. Adams, was then 
appointed. He was ordained on the 27th December, 1706, Mr. Joseph 
Maisters, pastor of the church at Joyners' Hall, preaching the sermon. 
He died in 1726, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. A public funeral 
was given, it being recorded " that hat-bands, gloves, and cloaks be 
provided for all the ministers invited." " All the brethren are desired 
to provide themselves hatbands, gloves, and cloaks for their more 
decent attendance at the funeral." It is added " to all which the 
church unanimously agreed, and ordered it to be entered in the church 
book." 

About 1700, a society from Pinners' Hall occupied the chapel for 
one part of each sabbath, for which the sum of 10 yearly was paid. 

At this time the Lady Dowager Page, who was connected with the 
church, had a pew fitted up for herself and attendants on each side of 
the pulpit. In the decline of life her servants were accustomed to 
carry their mistress into the old family pew. Two sermons, an ode, 



42 

and a funeral oration were published to commemorate her departure. * 

In 1729, the church at Turners' Hall was united with the church 
in Devonshire Square. This was agreed to on the condition " that 
the public services should be held as they had been during the lifetime 
of Mr. Mark Key." 

Mr. Sayer Rhudd was the first minister of the united church. In 
1733 he gave great offence by visiting France, which step the church 
refused to sanction. It was agreed that his salary should be withheld 
until he gave satisfaction. This he refused to do, and so left the 
church. 

Mr. George Braithwaite succeeded, and was minister fourteen 
years. He published a work entitled " The Nation's Reproach and 
the Church's Grief, or a Serious Needful Word of Alarm to Those who 
Needlessly Frequent Taverns and Public Houses, and often Spend the 
Evening There. In a Letter to my Neighbours and Countrymen." 
Mr. Braithwaite died in 1748, aged sixty-seven years, and was buried 
in Bunhill Fields. 

In 1750, Mr. John Stevens was appointed the minister, "and was 
much esteemed by his brethren for about ten years, but at the end of 
that period he brought reproach upon his name, was dismissed from 
his office, and excluded from the church." He was thought by many 
persons to be entirely innocent of the charges. 

Mr. Walter Richards succeeded, but did not remain long. Mr. 
Ivimey says in his history that " he was a man of unsettled principles, 
eccentric habits, and but of little use." 

The succeeding ministers have been Mr. McGowan, Mr. Timothy 
Thomas, and Dr. Price. During the pastorate of the latter, the old 
chapel was taken down and rebuilt, the opening sermon being preached 
by the Rev. Dr. Binney in 1829. 

On the 9th April, 1871, closing services were held in the chapel, 
the building being required for the purposes of the Metropolitan 
Railway, the church removing to Stoke Newington. 

Maitland, in his history, states that "from an early period the 
Ward of Bishopsgate has been a centre of Nonconformity" ; and writing 
in 1725, he says "there were three Presbyterian, two Independent, and 
one Quaker's meeting house in the Ward." 

* Ancient Meeting Houses, Pike, 



43 



1bant> Biles, JSisbopsgate* 

Early in the eighteenth century, in this alley, now called New 
Street, stood for many years an interesting old meeting house, 
which had roomy pews, after the custom of the time. 

Maitland, in his history of London, describes it as " a large place 
with three galleries, thirty large pews, and many benches and forms." 
After the Great Fire, this place, like many others in the City, was 
appropriated by the Anglican party for their services, the people 
regaining possession after the churches were rebuilt. Mr. Thomas 
Vincent was minister here until his death in 1678. 

Dr. Daniel Williams, the founder of the famous library known 
by his name, was chosen pastor here to a numerous congregation. 
He was a great favourite with William III., and also Thursday 
lecturer at Pinners' Hall. 

On the death of Dr. Bates in 1699, his valuable library, consist- 
ing of about 600 volumes, was purchased by Dr. Williams for 1500, 
who afterwards bequeathed them, together with his own, that they 
" should be deposited in a convenient place in a freehold building, to 
be purchased or erected for that purpose," to be "a public library, 
whereto (to use the testator's own words) such as my trustees appoint 
shall have access for the perusal of any book in the place where they 
are lodged." Among the directions of his will is one " that the greater 
part of his own works should be reprinted every twentieth year for the 
term of 2000 years." While he made no provision for the improve- 
ment of the library, he bequeathed, by the purchase of a single new 
book, the building which was to receive the books was to be "a 
throwsters' workhouse or the like," or else a new structure to be 
erected for the purpose on a " small piece of ground," with one room 
for a single person who was to give such attendances as could be 
purchased for 10 a year. This direction, however, was not followed, 
a handsome building being erected in Red Cross Street for the purpose 
of the library, which was opened in 1729. In 1864, the building being 
required for the railway, the books, amounting in all to 22,000 volumes, 
were lodged in temporary quarters ; since which time a handsome 
building has been erected in Gordon Square, where the library is now 
situated. The collection of books is from three sources. First, the 
collection of the founder ; secondly, that of Dr. Bates, who died at 



44 

Hackney, in 1699 ; and, thirdly, the collection of Dr. Harris, the 
minister at Crutched Friars in 1700. Dr. Williams died 26th June, 
1715, aged seventy-three. 

The lease of the building in Hand Alley expired in 1780, and the 
church was dissolved. 



JSisbops^ate. 

This meeting house was situate in a large paved thoroughfare 
leading from Bishopsgate Street into Moorfields. The church, which 
was General Baptist, met here in the time of Charles II. 

In 1646, Mr. John Griffith was the minister. He was confined 
in Newgate for some time, and in 1680 published a small work, entitled 
" A Complaint of the Oppressed against Oppressors ; or, the Unjust 
and Arbitrary Proceedings of some Soldiers and Justices against some 
Sober and Godly Persons in and near London, who now Lie in Stinking 
Gaols for the Sake of a Good Conscience, with some Reasons why they 
cannot Swear Allegiance to Obtain Liberty." He was fourteen years 
in prison, and returned to his church in 1684. He died in 1700, aged 
seventy-nine years. 

Mr. Robert Jennett succeeded. He had been pastor of a church in 
Goodman's Fields. In 1724, he was still living, but the church was 
much reduced in numbers, and so remained until his death, which 
occurred soon after. 

In 1698, Captain Pierce Johns left a considerable estate to be 
divided between six churches of the denomination in London. In this 
bequest five churches were to have an equal interest, the sixth only a 
moiety. This smaller share fell to the lot of the church in Dunning's 
Alley. 

At a meeting of the trustees, held in February, 1727, it was 
resolved that the church in Dunning's Alley had misapplied the money. 
It was, however, paid them until 1729, when the trustees passed a 
resolution that the said church was extinct. 



JSisbopsaate CbapeL 

The church meeting here was founded in the year 1700, by Mr. 
Richard Paine, who, at the time, was a member of the church at 



45 

Pinners'. Hall, the new congregation meeting in the Embroiderers' 
Hall, Gutter Lane. Mr. Paine, who was an earnest and zealous 
preacher, in 1710 changed his views on Baptism, which caused some 
dissension in the congregation. 

Later on, the church found a home at a few other halls. From 
Embroiderers' Hall it removed to Brewers' Hall, in Aldermanbury ; 
then to Loriners' Hall, in Moorgate Street ; and in 1726, to Girdlers 
Hall. 

In 1729, the congregation, which was numerous, but chiefly of 
the poorer sort, began to seek for a permanent home, which was 
found in Boar's Head Yard, Petticoat Lane. 

In 1734, Mr. Paine left, after a pastorate of thirty-four years 
Mr. John Hulrne being appointed as successor. He did not long 
remain. Some divisions about this time seem to have occurred. For 
about seven years the church was without a pastor. 

In 1743, Mordecai Edwards was appointed, and soon gathered a 
large and flourishing congregation. After a brief but brilliant pas- 
torate, he died, and was buried in Bunhill Fields, Dr. Guise preaching 
his funeral sermon. 

In 1750, Mr. Edward Hitchin was appointed minister, and 
remained twenty-four years. 

About 1759, the church removed to White's Row. The minutes, 
or records, from this date have been preserved, and throw an inter- 
esting light on some of the questions which came before the church. 
Suspensions, and even exclusions on account of bankruptcy, are not 
unusual. Deputations are frequently appointed to visit members who 
have been absent from their places for two months, and generally they 
report that the absentees have irregularly joined other churches. 

In 1767, it is reported that a member holds some strange views, 
and he writes what the minister calls " profane letters " in regard to 
the doctrine of original sin. Accordingly he is excluded " for denying 
the imputation of Adam's guilt and for blasphemous treatment of 
divine things." Certain members complain of Mr. Hitchin's sermons. 
One says that " he mixed " the Gospel ; another that " he larded it ; " 
another that " he made a remark in the pulpit which she did not 
like " ; and another " that Mr. Porter's ministry is more blessed to 
her than Mr. Hitchin's," to which Mr. Hitchin replies " that she 
never attended the pastor's ministry regularly during almost the space 



46 

of ten years." In 1774, Mr. Hitchin died, and was buried in Bunliill 
Fields, the church defraying the funeral expenses. 

In 1836, the church removed for a short time to the chapel in 
Bury Street, St. Mary Axe. In this year, the land on which the present 
chapel stands, in Bishopsgate Street, was purchased for 5000. A 
flourishing church still exists here, the chapel being one of the only 
three remaining Nonconformist churches in the City of London. 



Salters' iball Cbapcl. 

This chapel stood in Cannon Street, on the ground now occupied 
by the General Insurance Company, and was for many years one of 
the most famous and important meeting houses in London. 

The congregation originally assembled at Buckingham House, a 
spacious mansion on the east side of College Hill. 

After the fire, the chapel was built in the grounds of the Salters' 
Company, St. Swithin's Lane, on land which the company allowed 
the congregation to use for the purpose. Being in a central position, 
it was much used for important lectureships. One of these, " The 
Merchants' Lecture," is still delivered in the City. 

The first minister was Mr. Richard Mayo, one of the seceders of 
1662, who had held the living of Kingston-on-Thames. He had also 
been lecturer at St. Mary's, Whitechapel, where he drew crowded 
congregations. An account of this popular preacher can be found in a 
small quarto funeral sermon which was sold at " The Three Legs, 
over against the Stocks Market." The writer of the sermon calls him 
" the prince of preachers." He died in 1695. His funeral sermon 
was preached by Mr. Taylor, who said, " His end was like the light of 
the evening when the sun setteth, an evening without clouds." 

William Bates, D.D., was for many years one of the Tuesday 
lecturers here. His popular talents drew great crowds to hear him. 

On the accession of William III. to the throne, Mr. Bates presented 
to the King an address of congratulation from the dissenting ministers 
of London. 

Previous to his leaving the church, he had been rector of St. 
Dunstan's-in-the-West. 



47 

In his farewell sermon to his parishioners in August, 1662, he 
said : " I know you expect I should say something concerning my 
Nonconformity. I shall only say this much : it is neither fancy, 
fiction, or humour, which makes me not comply, but merely the fear 
of offending God." 

In a funeral sermon on Dr. Bates, preached by Mr. Howe, he 
said : " His memory, which suffered no apparent decay till the 
advanced age of seventy-four, was so vigorous that when he had 
delivered an elegant speech without having penned a word, he could 
afterwards repeat it to his friends and relations." 

Nathaniel Taylor, who succeeded Richard Mayo, was called by 
Dr. Doddridge the " Watts of Nonconformity." Matthew Henry 
speaks of him as '"A man of wit, worth, and courage." Another 
writer says : " Nathaniel Taylor was a popular preacher at Baiters' 
Hall. Vivacity of thought, brilliancy of imagination, a retentive 
memory, warmth of affections, fluency of expression, an agreeable voice, 
a prepossessing delivery, rendered his public services unanimously 
pleasing." He died in 1702, aged forty years. 

In 1702, William Tong succeeded to the pastorate, and remained 
twenty-four years. During this period the chapel was crowded, it was 
said, by the richest congregation in London. When in vigour he was 
pronounced " the prince of preachers." 

Mr. Tong completed Matthew Henry's " Commentary," his contri- 
bution being the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Apocalypse. He wrote 
also a life of the commentator. 

Mr. Tong died in 1726, aged sixty-three. It was said that in 
losing Mr. Tong, the dissenters of that day lost one of their brightest 
ornaments. 

In 1719, Arianism began to prevail at Baiters' Hall, where a synod 
on the subject was held, several strong meetings being held on the 
matter of " a fixed creed." The meetings were at length divided into 
two parts, subscribers and non-subscribers. The meetings concluded 
by the non-subscribers calling out " You that are against persecution, 
come upstairs," and Thomas Bradbury, of New Court, the leader of the 
Orthodox party, replying, " You that are for declaring your faith in the 
doctrine of the Trinity, stay below." * 

* An old engraving, in the possession of the Baiters' Company, represents this 
taking place. 



48 

The subscribers proved to be fifty-three, the " scandalous majority " 
fifty-seven. During this controversy, Arianism became the common 
subject of coffee-house talk. Mr. Wilson, in his history, says of this 
controversy : " The ill temper discovered by both parties at the Salters' 
Hall synod, had a very ill aspect in the cause of religion, especially of 
Nonconformity, and gave advantage to their enemies to speak all 
manner of evil against them." 

In 1730, the largest collection among the Presbyterians for poor 
country churches was made in this chapel, and amounted to 280. 
Among the Independents, Mr. Thomas Bragge furnished the largest 
sum, 300. 

In 1716, Mr. John Newman was appointed pastor, and remained 
for the long period of forty-five years. He was buried at Bunhill 
Fields, Dr. Doddridge delivering a funeral oration at his grave. For 
some years he drew crowded congregations, but towards the later part 
of his life these materially decreased. Mr. Wilson says : " When we 
consider the fickleness of mankind, this is not at all surprising, and 
was no diminution of his real worth." 

In 1742, Mr. Francis Spilsbury was chosen minister of the church, 
and remained for the long period of forty years. His knowledge of 
Latin was so perfect that he not only could write it, but could speak it 
with as much ease and fluency as his own tongue. He died in 
1782, and was buried in Bunhill Fields, where a monument was 
erected to his memory. 

Hugh Farmer succeeded. He was one of Dr. Doddridge's first 
pupils at the Northampton College. He wrote an exposition on 
demonology and miracles, which, at the time, aroused much controversy. 
His manuscripts were all destroyed at his death, according to the strict 
directions in his will. 

In course of time the church passed out of the hands of the 
Presbyterians and was occupied for a short time by the Christian 
Evidence Society, who named it "the Areopagus" from them 
passing into the hands of the Baptists in 1827. 

The services were continued in the old building until 1830, when 
a new building was erected up a narrow passage in Cannon Street. 
This building remained until 1864, when the church was removed to 
Islington, the site of the chapel being sold for 4,000. 



49 

In a small manuscript book (no date), at the Guildhall Library, 
is the following short account of this meeting house : 

" This meeting, so called, was no other way connected with the 
company than being tenants to them for the long period of 128 years. 

"It is traditionally reported that the Court of Salters for a con- 
siderable period was composed wholly of Dissenters, and that it is 
about fifty years only since this exclusiveness was broken into. 

" The former pastors were strict Calvinists, the latter ones 
Baxterians, and the present one is an Arian." 

Dr. Robert Winder, who preached the last sermon and published 
it, says in a note of the minute book of the congregation, " that they 
met on the 3rd December, 1687, at Buckingham House, College Hill, 
which was taken by Mayor Broadhurst, and on the 4th April, 1692, 
agreed to a lease of the Salters' Company of the ground on which the 
hall formerly stood, and resolved to build a meeting house." 



Walbroofe, 

Mr. Ivimey, in his " History of the Baptists," relates the history of 
a church in Walbrook. According to his narrative, the members were 
separatists from a church meeting in Spitalfields, under the care of 
Mr. William Collins. The records of the church are thus described : 
" A catalogue of the names of the members of the church now 
meeting in Walbrook under the care of the Rev. E. Wilson." Then 
follow the names of about 120 persons, men and women. " A record 
of the acts of the church commencing 4th January, 1707." The 
further records "indicate a prosperous state." June 6th, 1708, they 
agree to "establish a prayer meeting on a Lord's Day morning." The 
last entry in the church book is by Mr. Ebenezer Wilson on 5th 
September, 1712. Mr. Crosby, in his history, says of Mr. Wilson : 
" Though he was a worthy man and a scholar, yet he was not a 
popular preacher, and as the people were but few in numbers, so they 
continued, yet he had a tolerable maintenance from them. Some of 
them being rich, and he being generally respected, they contributed 
largely to his support." Mr. Wilson died in 1714, After his death the 



50 

church left Walbrook, and in June, 1716, removed to Turners' 
Hall. 



poultry Cbapcl. 

The meeting in connection with this chapel originally commenced 
from very small beginnings. About the year 1641, a meeting house 
stood in Anchor Lane, Lower Thames Street, in the parish of St. 
Dunstan-in-the-East. One of the earliest preachers here was the Rev. 
Thomas Godwin, where he ministered for about ten years. During 
the troublous days of the Long Parliament, this gentleman, who seems 
to have been a man of considerable influence, not only in the City, but 
in the country generally, was appointed by the House on several 
occasions to preach the Fast Day Sermons, which had been appointed 
by the Puritans, in St. Margaret's Church, in Westminster Abbey, and 
also in St. Paul's Cathedral. His name appears several times in the 
journals of the House. On the 25th August, 1646, is the following 
entry : " Ordered that Mr. Ball do from this House desire Mr. Thomas 
Goodwyn to preach before the House of Commons, at the parish church 
of St. Margaret's, Westminster, on the Publick Day of Thanksgiving, 
being Tuesday, the 8th September, now next following." 

And on the 10th September, 1646 : " Ordered that Mr. Blakiston 
do from this House give thanks unto Mr. Thomas Goodwyn for the 
great pains he took in the sermon, preached by him, at the entreaty 
of this House, on Tuesday last, at St. Margaret's, Westminster, it being 
a day of Publick Thanksgiving, and desire him to print his sermon, and 
he is to have the like privilege in printing of it, as others in the like 
kind have usually had." 

In 1650, he was appointed President of Maudlyn College in 
Oxford. 

In connection with these old Puritans, an amusing anecdote is 
related in the Spectator. " About an age ago," says Addison, "it was 
the fashion in England for everyone that would be thought religious 
to throw as much sanctity as possible into his face, and in particular to 
abstain from all appearance of mirth and pleasantry, which were looked 
upon as the marks of a carnal mind. The saint was of a sorrowful 
countenance and generally eaten up with spleen and melancholy. A 



61 

gentleman who was lately a great ornament to the learned world 
(Anthony Henley, Esq., who died in August, 1771), has diverted me 
more than once with an account of a reception which he met with from 
a very famous Independent minister, who was head of a college in 
those times. This gentleman was a young adventurer in the republic 
of letters and just fitted out for the University with a good cargo of 
Latin and Greek. His friends were resolved that he should try his 
fortune at an election which was drawing near in the college of which 
the Independent minister whom I have before mentioned was governor. 
The youth, according to custom, waited on him in order to be examined. 
He was received at the door by a servant, who was one of that gloomy 
generation that was then in fashion. He conducted him, with great 
silence and seriousness, to a long gallery which was darkened at noon- 
day and had only a single candle burning in it. After a short stay in 
this melancholy apartment, he was led into a chamber hung with 
black, where he entertained himself for some time by the glimmering 
of a taper, until at length the head of the college came out to him from 
an inner room with half-a-dozen night caps on his head and religious 
horror on his countenance. The young man trembled, but his fears 
increased when, instead of being asked what progress he had made in 
learning, he was examined how he abounded in grace. His Latin and 
Greek stood him in little stead ; he was to give only an account of his 
soul, whether he was of the number of the elect, what was the occasion 
of his conversion, upon what day of the month and hour it happened, 
how it was carried on, and when completed. The whole examination 
was summed up with one short question, namely, whether he was 
prepared for death. The boy, who had been bred up by honest 
parents, was frightened out of his wits at the solemnity of the pro- 
ceedings, and by the last dreadful interrogatory ; so that, making his 
escape out of the house of mourning, he could never be brought a 
second time to the examination, as not being able to go through the 
terrors of it." 

Dr. Godwin attended Cromwell in his last illness, and prophesied 
the Protector's recovery, but in spite of this he died, upon which Dr. 
Godwin said : " Thou hast deceived us, and we are deceived." 

After the death of Cromwell, Dr. Godwin preached for a short 
time in Fetter Lane. He died in 1679, aged eighty years, and was 
buried in Bunhill Fields. 



52 

About 1672, the church removed to Paved Alley, in Lime Street, 
the Rev. John Collins being the minister. Mr. Wilson says of this 
gentleman that " he was a minister of uncommon abilities and greatly 
signalised himself as a preacher." He was one of the lecturers at 
Pinners' Hall. He died in 1687. 

In 1755, the church, or a portion of it, went to Miles Lane, where 
it met for about ten years, when a new meeting house in Camomile 
Street was built, to which a portion of the church removed in the year 
1766. 

During the pastorate of the Eev. John Clayton, who was 
appointed in 1805, the church determined to erect a new chapel in the 
Poultry. The necessary land was purchased of the Corporation for 
the sum of 2,000 (being the site of the old Poultry Compter, which 
had been removed in 1817), and a building erected at a cost of 
10,000. This was opened on the 17th November, 1819. 

Mr. Clayton's connection with the church extended over a period 
of more than forty years. He resigned the pastorate in 1848, and 
died in October, 1865, aged eighty-six years. 

The Eev. S. B. Bergne succeeded, and was pastor for seven years. 

In 1854, Dr. James Spence was appointed, and remained until 
his retirement in 1867, when he removed to the Old Gravel Pit Chapel, 
Hackney. He died, February, 1876, aged sixty-five years. 

In 1869, Dr. Parker, of Manchester, was appointed, soon after 
which the land on which the chapel stood was sold to the London 
Joint Stock Bank for 50,200, having been purchased in 1805, as before 
stated, for the sum of 2,000. 

In 1873, the church was removed to the City Temple, Holborn 
Viaduct, the cost of the land being 28,000, and the building, with its 
fittings, 70,000. 



The congregation worshipping here was first gathered together by 
the Eev. Edmund Calamy, who, in 1662, had resigned the living of 
Moreton, in Essex. On coming to London, he preached for some 



53 

time in his house at Aldermanbury, and afterwards, Avhen Charles II. 
proclaimed his "indulgence," to a congregation at Curriers' Hall. 
It was said that Calamy " was a man born to be loved, and who 
embraced such liberal views concerning toleration as rendered him 
singular in the midst of his brethren." He died of consumption in 
1685. 

Samuel Borfit, who succeeded Calamy, had been minister of High 
Lever, Essex. He was also fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
He had but feeble health, and in his later years physical debility 
prevented him from preaching. 

John Shower, an eminent preacher of the day, was elected pastor 
in 1691. He had commenced preaching in London by undertaking a 
lecture which had been established in 1678 against Popery at a coffee- 
house in 'Change Alley. He also assisted Vincent Alsop at West- 
minster. He then went abroad, and returned to England after the 
Revolution, when he resumed his lecture, and at the same time was 
appointed assistant minister to Mr. John Howe at Silver Street, where 
he remained a year, and was then invited to the ministry at Old 
Jewry, it being agreed at the time that no one congregation should 
monopolise two such divines as Howe and Shower. 

The congregation then removed to Curriers' Hall, where the 
numbers so increased that they removed to Jewin Street. This chapel 
being soon found too small, a new chapel was erected in 1701 in the 
Old Jewry. This was situate in Meeting House Court, screened from 
observation by houses being built up in front of it. 

The building is described as an extensive and substantial 
structure. " With its two large central bow windows, one over the 
other, and four smaller ones on either side, the Dissenters of the days 
of Queen Anne thought the exterior handsome and imposing. The 
interior occupied an area of 2,600 square feet. There were three 
galleries, furnished with seats five or six deep, the entire building 
being fitted up in a style of great elegance." * 

In the later years of his life, Mr. Shower retired to Stoke Newing- 
ton, and made one of a circle in which he and Watts were the chief 
ornaments. He died in June, 1715, aged fifty-nine years. It i 
related that " his warm and devotional affections frequently gave force 

* Holden Pike. 



54 

to his earnest expostulations by floods of tears, and sublimity to his 
prayers, by the most exalted intercourse with God." 

The following beautiful extract is from a sermon preached by Mr. 
Shower, being the first that he had delivered since the death of his 
wife, which occurred 24th August, 1691. The subject of the sermon 
is " Communion with the Saints in Heaven." He thus concludes : 
" Let us, therefore, after what hath been said, resolve to have 
communion with them [the Saints in Heaven] , though they are 
departed, by contemplating what they are and where they are, and 
what they do, and what they possess, and by rejoycingin their blessed- 
ness more than we would have done for their temporal advancement 
in any kind on earth. Let us desire and endeavour to be as like 'em 
as we can, by imitating temper and work done in the love of God and 
the delightful, thankful praises of the Redeemer. When we look up 
to Heaven, let us think they are there. When we think of Christ 
in Heaven, let us remember they are part of His Family above. 
When we think with hope of ent'ring into Heaven ourselves, let us 
think with joy of meeting them there. Oh ! Welcome, welcome, 
happy morning with Christ and them, never more to part, 
never more to mourn, never more to sin. ! happy change, 
! blessed Society (shall we then cry out) with whom we shall 
live for ever, to know, to love, to admire, and praise and serve 
our Common Lord. We formerly sinned together and suffered 
together. But this is not like our old work on state. Our former 
darkness, complaint and sorrows, are now vanish'd. This body, this 
soul, this life, this place, this company, these visions, these fruitions, 
these services and employments, are not like what we had in the 
former world, and yet which is the quintessence and spirit of all. 
This happiness shall last to all eternity, and after millions of ages be as 
far from ending as when it first began. Fit us, Lord, for such a day, 
and come, Lord Jesus, come quickly." 

Simon Brown, a remarkable preacher of the day, came to the 
Old Jewry in 1716, and remained about seven years, when mental 
affliction overtook him, his successor being appointed in 1725. 

About this time a course of lectures was established here, being 
delivered on Tuesday evenings and carried on by several noted 
ministers of the day. One of these was Dr. Nathaniel Lardner, the 
subject of his course being " The Credibility of Gospel History." 



55 

In 1727, these lectures, or a part of them, were printed. Dr. 
Lardner died in 1768, aged eighty-five years. " At the time that he 
became an Old Jewry lecturer his fame had scarcely commenced, and 
as his elocution was bad, his style inelegant, and the substance of his 
discourses dry, his audiences were not likely to be very large or 
much interested." * 

In 1726, Dr. Samuel Chandler was appointed assistant minister, 
and shortly afterwards was appointed pastor, remaining here for the 
long period of forty years. This was a period of great prosperity for 
the Old Jewry church. It was said that Dr. Chandler " was loved by 
the people, respected by the world, and admired by a wide circle of 
distinguished friends " and to have been " an instructive and animated 
preacher." He was the author of a large number of sermons printed 
singly, on various occasions. Four volumes of his discourses were 
published from his manuscripts after his death. 

In order to repair the loss of a large sum of money at the time 
of the South Sea Scheme in 1720, he established a book-selling 
business at the " Cross Keys," in the Poultry. Some of his friends 
said at the time that such a man would be much better employed in 
writing books than in selling them. He died in 1766, aged seventy- 
three years, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. At the sale of his 
library afterwards, several original manuscripts were disposed of. 
One of his Bibles, interleaved with a large number of notes, is still to 
be seen in Dr. Williams' library. 

The next pastor of the church was Dr. Abraham Rees, the son of 
a celebrated Welsh Nonconformist. The congregation had much 
declined when Dr. Rees was called. His first charge was in 
South wark. At the time he was considered the most likely man to 
effect the much-needed restoration, and he partially succeeded. The 
congregation soon grew both rich and influential. 

On the accession of George IV. to the throne, Dr. Rees was 
selected to take up to the throne the address of congratulation from 
the Nonconformists. Much of Dr. Rees' fame rests upon his 
cyclopedia, which he published, and which is contained in forty-five 
volumes quarto. He died in Finsbury Square, June, 1825, aged 
eighty- two years, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 

* Memoirs of Lardner. 



56 

The last minister of the church was David Davidson, but by this 
time the congregation had much diminished, and the numbers were 
still growing less. Soon after, Mr. Davidson resigned the charge. 

In 1808, the lease of the old chapel came to an end, when it was 
removed to Jewin Street. 



' ifoall. 

There are several halls close together, situate in the neighbour- 
hood of Thames Street, which we find during the eighteenth century 
sheltered dissenting congregations. Dyers' Hall, which before the 
fire stood in Old Swan Lane, and was afterwards removed to what 
was called Little Elbow Lane (but now College Street), was let to 
a Nonconformist church, the Rev. Thos. Lye, who had held the 
living of All Hallows, Lombard Street, being the first minister. 

Calamy states that Mr. Marsden's church from Founders' Hall 
met for some time, by permission of Mr. Lye, in Dyers' Hall. 



Uallow Cbanfclers' t>all. 

This is another of the old City halls, and one more of the group 
clustering round and near to Dowgate Hill, which in the seventeenth 
and early part of the eighteenth centuries were let out to dissenting 
congregations. Two congregations seem to have met in this hall, one 
under the Eev. Elias Reach, who had gathered a church at Wapping, 
then at Goodman's Fields, then removing to this hall. Another 
church from Gracechurch Street also met here. 

One of the early pastors of the church meeting here was Thomas 
Cole, who had been Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford. He was 



57 

also one of the Tuesday lecturers at Pinners' Hall, to which place his 
congregation removed, and from thence to Loriners' Hall. He is said 
to have been " a man of good learning, of polite manners, spotless life, 
and of eminent virtue and piety." He died in 1697. 

About 1730, the church was under the care of the Rev. John 
Noble, when a new meeting house was built in Maidenhead Court, 
Great Eastcheap, to which it was removed. All traces of this court 
have now disappeared. Mr. Noble belonged to the society of ministers 
of " The Particular Persuasion," which met " at the Gloucestershire 
coffee-house on Monday afternoons." 

Mr. Samuel Wilson was assistant for a few years to Mr. Noble. 
He also held a weekly lecture at the hall, " which was very numerously 
attended." 



Cutlers' 1ball. 

This hall, which formerly stood in Cloak Lane, Dowgate Hill, 
and from thence removed to Warwick Lane, was used by an Inde- 
pendent congregation from about 1674 to 1700, when it was dissolved. 
No further trace of this church can be discovered. 



^lumbers' Ifoall. 

This hall was situate in Chequer Yard, Dowgate Hill, now 
covered by the Cannon Street Railway Station. 

Dr. Neal, in his history, relates that the Puritans met here, but 
were disturbed by the sheriffs and many sent to prison. 

There does not appear to have been at any time a regular church 
gathered in this hall. 

Price, in his "History of Nonconformity," relates that "on the 
19th of June, 1569, some of the principal leaders of the separation, 



68 

who had been meeting in various places in secret, on this day ventured 
to meet openly in this hall, which they hired for the day under 
pretence of a meeting. They were discovered by the Sheriffs of London, 
brought before the Lord Mayor, and committed to the Compter." 



' Ifoall. 

This hall, which was situate in Thames Street, was used as a 
church for the Baptists at an early period. It was generally known as 
the " Glass-house Church." 

We read that Mr. John Miles and Mr. Thomas Proud were bap- 
tized here in 1649, the pastors at this period being Mr. William 
Consett and Mr. Edward Draper, both of whom afterwards died in 
Ireland. The latter published a work, entitled : " Gospel Glory Pro- 
claimed Before the Sons of Men in the Visible and Invisible Worship 
of God. Wherein the Mystery of God in Christ, and His Koyal 
Spiritual Government Over the Souls and Bodies of His Saints, is 
Clearly Discovered, Plainly Asserted, and Faithfully Vindicated Against 
the Deceiver and his Servants, who Endeavour the Assertion thereof 
upon what Pretence soever. By Edward Draper, an unworthy servant 
of the Gospel of Christ." This was a quarto volume of 169 pages. 



This hall stood in what is now called Joyners' Hall Buildings, 
Upper Thames Street. The place was formerly called Friars' Lane, 
and previous to this Greenwich Lane. 

The hall was used as a meeting house of the Particular Baptists 
about the end of the seventeenth century. Joseph Maisters was the 
minister about 1667. The congregation at this time was considered 
to be one of the richest in London. One writer says it was " the 
richest in England." Mr. Maisters died in 1717, aged seventy-seven 
years. Crosby, in his history, says that " Mr. Maisters was a very plain 
and serious preacher, and though he never used a pompous style, or 



69 

fierce delivery, yet his preaching was acceptable almost to all, and admired 
by many serious and judicious Christians of different persuasions, 
though he himself was a professed Calvinist and Baptist. Possessing 
a very retentive memory to the last, he only used notes to his 
sermons." 

A later minister was Mr. John Harris. During his time the 
church was sufficiently wealthy to maintain their pastor and two 
assistants. During the ministry of his successor the church removed 
to Pinners' Hall, then vacant by the removal of Dr. Watts' church to 
Bury Street in 1708. The congregation continued to assemble here 
on Sunday afternoons until 1723, when a portion of the church 
removed to Devonshire Square. 

In 1751, the numbers had greatly diminished. A short time after 
this the church was dissolved. Mr. Ivimey, in his history, says (writing 
in 1813) : " It is likely that the supineness of the people, and the 
indolence of the ministers, contributed not a little towards that event. 
How disgusting that ministers in full health and in the vigour of 
youth should preach only once a day to the churches of which they 
were pastors. It was not likely that spiritual life, union, and zeal, 
would be excited by such scanty labours, however excellent and learned 
the sermons might be." 

In the minute books of the Joyners' Company there is an entry, 
dated 22nd May, 1683, " that a conviction had been sworn against the 
master and wardens, before Sir James Smith, Knt., Alderman, that 
they did, with a willing mind, permitt and admitt a certain illegal 
conventicle or convencion at the house in Joyners' Hall, on the 3rd 
December, in the year aforesaid." . . . The sum of 20 is 
assessed on them, either or any of them, for every such offence 
according to ye statute." 

In August, 1683, the sum of 6 17s. 6d., was " paid counsellors' 
fees and other expences about the convencion." 

On the 29th December, 1687, the court resolved that " ye said 
hall with ye stewards' room and ye lobby be let to John and Richard 
Marriott for a meeting house on every Sunday in ye year, and one day 
in every month for one year at ye yearly rental of twenty pounds, to 
make satisfaction for such damage as shall be done to ye said hall 
by reason of ye said meeting, and to hang ye hall with buckram as it 
was when formerly used by Mr. Brag." 



60 

On the 5th March, 1688-9, application was made on behalf of 
Mr. Harris, " who meetes in the hall on Sabboth dayes, to abate the 
rent, and accept of 14 per annum, for that they alledged they could 
have a continuance much cheaper." To this application the court 
agreed. 



36rofeen Mbart 

Here stood, in the reign of William III., a large old building, 
formerly belonging to the Dukes of Norfolk. This was let to the 
famous Hansard Knollys, who had been for some time preaching in 
Great St. Helens, where, it is said, he had a thousand hearers. He 
was afterwards arrested " for preaching against infant baptism," and 
lodged in Wood Street Compter, but was afterwards discharged, having 
liberty given him to preach "in any part of Suffolk where the minister 
of the place did not there preach himself." 

Crosby, in his " History of the Baptists," says : " Mr. Knollys 
was as excellent and successful in the gift of prayer as of preaching, 
for God was pleased to honour him with several remarkable answers to 
his prayers, especially during the time of the plague in the City, divers 
sick persons being suddenly restored even while he was praying with 
them." He was also one of the lecturers at Pinners' Hall. Mr 
Knollys died in 1691, aged ninety-three years, and was buried in 
Bunhill Fields. Mr. Thomas Harrison preached his funeral sermon 
at Pinners' Hall, which was afterwards published ; and Mr. Benjamin 
Keach published an elegy on his death. 

The following epitaph is inscribed on the tomb of Mr. Knollys : 
" My only wife that in her life 
Liv'd forty years with me, 
Lives now in rest, for ever blest 
With immortality. 

" My dear is gone, left me alone, 

For Christ to do and dye ; 
Who died for me, and died to be 
My Saviour God most high." 



61 



In 1691, the church was removed to Bagnio Court,* Newgate 
Street, and about 1700 from thence to Curriers' Hall. 



CTree Cranes, TUpper Ubames Street 

An Independent church met for some time in what was then 
called Fruiterers' Alley, but now Three Cranes, Upper Thames Street. 
It was not a large building, and was erected about 1739 to take the 
place of one which had been in use before the fire. Mr. Thomas 
Gouge, "whose praises are celebrated by Dr. Watts," was the first 
minister. In 1688, he was one of the Merchant Lecturers at Pinners' 
Hall. He died in 1700. 

Dr. Thomas Ridgly, who had been assisting Mr. Gouge, was 
appointed successor. At this time the congregation, in consequence 
of some disputes which had been taking place, was in a very low 
state. It gradually increased, but was never very large. Dr. Eidgly 
also lectured on Thursday evenings at Jewin Street, and on Sunday 
evenings at the Old Jewry. He died in 1734, having been pastor at 
the Three Cranes for nearly forty years. He was a great friend of 
Sir Isaac Newton, and the author of " A System of Divinity." 

In 1749, Mr. Samuel Pike was appointed the minister. During 
his charge a serious breach on doctrinal matters took place, which 
ended in a division of the church, one section remaining, the other 
section seceding to the church at Little St. Helens. He died in 1778, 
aged fifty-six years, but had left the church about thirteen years 
previously. 

The congregation was now greatly reduced, but the church was 
continued until 1798, when it was closed. A short time after this 
the building was taken by a body of Calvinistic Methodists, who 
remained for a few years, after which it was taken down. 



Great St. Ubotnas Bpostle, 

This meeting house, situate over a gateway, was a small and 
inconvenient building belonging to a congregation which had been 



Now Bath Street. 



62 

meeting at a large room in Paternoster Row. There were not more 
than two or three ministers in succession attached to the place, the 
church dating from about 1684 to 1742. 

The Rev. Benjamin Atkinson vvas minister here from 1722 to 1741 . 
Ou his retirement, the church became extinct. The building was 
afterwards taken for a short time by the Scotch Presbyterians. 

Also close at hand, in Bow Lane, a church existed for a short 
time. This was closed about 1729. 



Carter %ane. 

A Presbyterian congregation was gathered here from an early 
date, and was one of the most important Nonconformist churches in 
London. The first minister was Mr. Matthew Sylvester, who had for 
some time held the living of Gunnerly, Lincolnshire ; but on account 
of the Act of Uniformity, had resigned it. He first gathered a con- 
gregation in Meeting House Court, Blackfriars, thence removing in 
1734 to Carter Lane. He was also one of the preachers of the 
" Morning Exercises" at Cripplegate Church. He died in 1707, aged 
seventy-one years. Dr. Calamy says of him : " Mr. Sylvester was an 
able divine, a good linguist, no mean scholar, an excellent casuist, an 
admirable sextuary, and of uncommon eloquence." 

This church was honoured by the assistance of two of the greatest 
ornaments of Nonconformity of the day Richard Baxter and Edmund 
Calamy. Both of these ministers assisted from time to time in the 
work of the church at this place. 

In 1708, Dr. Samuel Wright was appointed to succeed Mr. 
Sylvester. For thirty-eight years he ministered here to a numerous 
and influential congregation. He was considered an eloquent preacher, 
and during his ministry the church was in a flourishing condition. 
He was also one of the lecturers at Salters' Hall and at Little St. 
Helens. He died in 1746, aged sixty-four years. 

For some few years there was a succession of good men as 
ministers here. Dr. John Gill was ordained minister in 1719, and 
remained until his death in 1771. To him succeeded Dr. John Rippon. 
Soon after this the congregation gradually declined. 



63 

Mr. Wilson, writing in 1808, says of this chapel that "it is a 
substantial hrick building, square form, and three galleries, the inside 
being finished with remarkable neatness, scarcely equalled by any 
place of worship among the Dissenters in London, and in colour much 
better suited to the solemnity of Divine worship than the theatrical 
style of decoration adopted in many of our modern chapels. Though 
the morning congregation is far from being large, the afternoon 
audience is much smaller, and presents the melancholy spectacle of a 
noble place of worship nearly deserted." 

Other ministers followed, but none succeeded in regaining the 
prosperity which the church had formerly enjoyed. 

Henry Ireson was the last minister. He officiated at the last 
service held in the old chapel on Sunday, 13th October, 1861. The 
church then removed to Islington. 

The Christian Reformer says, alluding to this occasion, that " the 
closing service would not be one of lamentation over decay." 

Holden Pike, in his history, says : " On the memorable day 
already mentioned, a large concourse was attracted by the last sermon 
in a building of so many and great associations. Let us venture to 
hope, notwithstanding, that to many the season was one of mourning ; 
for although a new chapel has arisen at Islington, the spectacle descried 
from our standpoint is that of a noble barque wrecked on the breakers 
of ' unsound doctrine.' " 



Bailey 

Towards the beginning of the eighteenth century, a meeting house 
existed here, and was occupied by the Presbyterians. Very little is 
known of its history, but the church is mentioned in 1738 in a list of 
licensed places. 



Sboe %ane. 

After the death of the Eev. William Romaine, the Eector of St. 
Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, a few who had been members of his con- 
gregation took an upper room in Eagle and Child Alley, leading from 



64 

Fleet Market into Shoe Lane. It was fitted up as a place of worship, 
the Rev. Samuel Eyles, a Calvinistic Baptist, being the first minister. 
He had another congregation in Cornwall, where he spent six months 
in the year. As his people (says Mr. Wilson) could not endure any 
other preacher, " they met during his absence, and employed them- 
selves in reading his sermons which he wrote for their use." 



Salisbury Court, ffleet Street. 

In the reign of Charles II., a small meeting house existed in this 
court. It consisted of four rooms opening into each other. 

Maitland, in his history, mentions Mr. John Fowl as occupying 
it during the plague of 1665. 

Mr. Christopher Nesse, who came to London in 1675, preached 
here for about thirty years. He was the author of "A History and 
Mystery of the Old and New Testament," which was published in four 
volumes folio. He died in 1705, aged eighty-four years, having been 
a preacher of the Gospel for sixty years, and was buried in Bunhill 
Fields. 



jfetter Xane. 

There were originally three chapels in this lane, two being occupied 
by the Independents and one by the Moravian Brethren, who still meet 
here. The latter stands on ground occupied since the fire by a meeting 
house of some kind. The original building is said to have consisted 
of four rooms opening into each other, and contained seventeen pews 
and divers benches ; also to have had two entrances, in order that the 
preacher, when danger was near, might be able to escape. 

Mr. Turner, who had held the living of Sunbury, but had 
resigned, was one of the first ministers. This gentleman was very 
active in preaching during the plague of 1665. We read that 
"Richard Baxter began a Friday Lecture on January 24th, 1671, 
at Mr. Turner's, in Fetter Lane, with great convenience and a con- 
siderable blessing, but he never took anything for his pains." 



65 

We also read of meetings being held, and lectures given, at 
" Mr. Jollies, in Fetter Lane." 

Richard Baxter was minister here for about ten years, resigning his 
charge in 1682. 

The Independents then took possession of the chapel under 
Mr. Stephen Lobb. This gentleman was one of the most popular 
divines of the period, and drew together very large congregations. He 
was also a great favourite with James II., and at the time suffered 
very severe censure for taking up to the king an address of thanks for 
the indulgence which had been granted to the Dissenters. He died in 
the midst of his work in 1699. 

During the latter part of Mr. Lobb's pastorate, Mr. Thomas 
Godwin, the son of Dr. Thomas Godwin, was appointed to assist in the 
work. On the death of Mr. Lobb, Mr. Godwin removed to Pinner. 
This young minister, with three others, carried on an evening lecture 
at a coffee-house in the City. This was attended by some of the 
most prominent merchants in London. Dr. Calamy says : " Mr. 
Godwin was a person of great and universal literature, of a most 
gentle and obliging temper, and who lived usefully upon his estate." 

Mr. Benoni Eowe was pastor here for a short time. He was 
said "to be a man of very good qualities, but not popular as a 
preacher." He died in 1706. 

In 1710, Mr. Thomas Bradbury was appointed. It was during 
his pastorate that the riots, caused by the attack of Dr. Sacha^ereu ' 
on the Dissenters, took place, the chapel being burnt to the ground. 
Mr. Bradbury had been for about two years minister of a church at 
Stepney, from which church the following testimonial was given to 
the church in Fetter Lane : "To the church of Christ assembling in 
Fetter Lane, whereof the Eev. Benoni Eowe was formerly pastor. 
Whereas, our well-beloved brother, Mr. Thomas Bradbury, has been 
for about these two years in communion with the church at Stepney, 
and has possessed a particular reputation and respect in the hearts of 
the congregation, but is now, by the holy Providence of God, called 
to settle with you. We do therefore, in compliance with your desire, 
dismiss him from his relation here, and heartily recommend him to 
you, not as a common brother, but as a more public useful servant of 
Jesus Christ, with our earnest prayer that he may be made a singular 



66 

blessing to you, and an eminent instrument in God's hand to add 
much people to the Lord." 

In 1728, some unfortunate differences arose between Mr. Bradbury 
and his congregation, which caused his retirement from the church, 
and removing to New Court Chapel, where he remained until his 
death in 1759. He preached his last sermon on the 12th August of 
that year. 

In 1732, a considerable section of the church determined to build 
a new meeting house on the opposite side of the way. In this building 
a church has continued until recently to meet. John Wesley was for 
some time connected with the church here. It was in Fetter Lane 
Chapel he first met Peter Bohler, a minister of the Moravian Church, 
but it was soon found that those two good men could not agree upon 
several important doctrinal points. The matters in dispute were dis- 
cussed, and after a short debate Wesley was prohibited preaching at 
the church, with the result that he formed a distinct community, which 
was the beginning of the Methodist Society. Ten days after this, 
Wesley received a letter from one of the Moravian Brethren in 
Germany, advising him and his brother to deliver up " the instruction 
of souls " to the Moravians, " for you," adds the writer, " only instruct 
them in such errors that they will be damned at the last." 

John Wesley was one of the early members of the Fetter Lane 
Society. The rules of this society were printed under the title of 
" Orders of a Religious Society meeting in Fetter Lane in obedience 
to the Command of God, by St. James and by the advice of Peter 
Bohler, 1738." This society first met at the house of James Hatton, 
West of Temple Bar, where he carried on the business of a bookseller. 
Owing to increasing numbers, they removed in 1738 to the chapel in 
Fetter Lane, then known as " The Great Meeting House," or 
"Bradbury's Meeting House," situate between Neville's Court and 
Fleet Street. 

In 1803, the office of pastor was vacant for fifteen months, after 
which Mr. G. Burder was appointed. In his time the congregation, 
which had much decreased, soon grew in numbers. The building was 
thoroughly repaired and a fourth gallery added. 

An original engraving of the interior of the old building, as it 
doubtless appeared at the time of its first occupancy by the United 
Brethren, shows a lofty edifice, with galleries on both sides and at the 



67 

west end, a high pulpit at the east end, unprovided with stairs, but 
entered from an adjoining room. The building was lighted by two 
rows of windows on each side. Fixed benches ran round the 
wainscotted walls, while the middle was occupied by moveable seats 
without backs. A drawing of the exterior of the building about the 
year 1784 shows the roof surmounted by a cupola with the "Lamb 
and Flag " as a vane. 



Silver Street. 

In a narrow place, called Meeting House Yard, in Silver Street, 
stood a small chapel. It was built soon after the fire, and was almost 
entirely closed in from the street, in order that, at the time it was 
built, it should be as far as possible screened from public observation. 
The building was small and oblong, with three galleries plainly fitted 
up. 

Dr. Lazarus Seaman, an eminent Presbyterian divine, was the 
first minister. This was a man of some note. He was master of 
Peterhouse College, Cambridge, and afterwards the lecturer at St. 
Martin's, Ludgate, and Rector of All Hallows, Bread Street. These 
appointments he resigned in 1662. He was one of the commissioners 
sent by Parliament to treat with Charles I., when the king was a 
prisoner in the Isle of Wight, and also a member of the Westminster 
Assembly of Divines. Dr. Seaman died in 1657, leaving behind him 
a valuable library, the first that was sold by auction in England, 
realising 700. Dr. Calamy says of him: "Dr. Seaman was an 
excellent casuist, a dext'rous expositor, and both a judicious and 
moving preacher." 

Dr. Jacomb, who succeeded, was a man of considerable learning. 
He had held the living of St. Martin's, Ludgate ; he was Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; Chaplain to the Dowager Duchess of 
Exeter, daughter of the Earl of Bridgewater ; and also took part in 
the Conference at the Savoy in 1661. He died at the house of the 
Countess of Exeter in Little Britain, in 1687, aged sixty-six years. 
He left behind him an incomparable library of the most valuable 
books in all parts of learning, which was afterwards sold, realizing 



68 

1300. Dr. Calamy says : " Mr. Jacomb was a Nonconformist upon 
moderate principles, much rather choosing to have been comprehended 
in the National Church than to have separated from it." 

The celebrated John Howe succeeded to the pastorate. It is 
related that " not a few persons of figure attended his ministry." He 
was for some time Chaplain to Cromwell, and was appointed by Christ 
Church, Oxford, to the living of Torrington, Devon. He remained 
here until the Act of Uniformity compelled him to resign. At the 
time of the Revolution, 1688, Mr. Howe took up an address from the 
dissenting ministers to the Prince of Orange, and, it is related, "made 
a handsome speech " on the occasion. Dr. Calamy, in his history, 
relates the manner in which Dr. Howe conducted the services on the 
public fast days, which, at that time, were very frequent. "He began 
at nine o'clock in the morning with a prayer of a quarter-of-an-hour, 
in which he begged for a blessing on the work of the day ; read and 
expounded Scripture for about three-quarters-of-an-hour ; preached 
another hour ; the people then sang for about a quarter-of-an-hour, 
during which time he retired and took a little refreshment ; he then 
went into the pulpit again, prayed for another hour, preached another 
hour, and then, with a prayer of half-an-hour, concluded the service 
at about four o'clock in the evening." The following is from an old 
writer : "A young minister, who wishes to attain eminence in his 
profession, if he has not the works of John Howe, and can procure 
them in no other way, should sell his coat and buy them ; and if that 
will not suffice, let him sell his bed and lie on the floor, and if he 
spend his days in reading them, he will not complain that he lies hard 
at night." Mr. Howe died in 1705, aged seventy-five years. 

The famous Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas Abney, worshipped con- 
stantly in this church with his family, and during his Mayoralty, in 
1701, publicly attended the services. It is recorded as an evidence of 
his piety, on the evening of the day on which he entered upon his 
office, he withdrew silently from the public assembly at Guildhall, 
after supper, went to his own house, there performed family worship, 
and then returned to the Company. 

The Eev. Jeremiah Smith, one of the pastors of the church when 
Sir Thomas died, gives a short account of the family religion of this 
famous Nonconformist knight. " Here were every day the morning 
and evening sacrifices of prayer and praise, and reading the holy 



69 

scriptures. The Lord's day he strictly observed and sanctified. God 
was solemnly sought and worshipped, both before and after the family's 
attendance on public ordinances. The repetitions of sermons, the 
reading of good books, the instruction of the household, and the singing 
of the Divine praises together, were much of the sacred employment of the 
holy day ; variety and brevity making the whole not burdensome but 
pleasant, leaving, at the same time, room for the devotions of the 
closet as well as for intervening works of necessity and mercy. Through 
the whole course of his life he was priest in his own family, except 
when a minister happened to be present.* 

In 1705, the Independents met here under the ministry of the Rev. 
Daniel Neal, the well-known historian of the Puritans. He held the 
pastorate for thirty-six years. His congregation so much increased 
that he removed to a larger meeting house in Jewin Street. He died 
in 1743, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. This society lasted until 
about 1789, when the congregation met in the afternoon only ; another 
congregation, which had separated from the church in Monkall Street, 
assembling in the morning. 

From 1709 to 1728 the Kev. Jeremy Smith was one of the 
ministers here. He was one of the continuators of Matthew Henry's 
" Commentary," and is described as " a man of eminent abilities, 
though in the decline of life the failure of his voice occasioned a dimi- 
nution of his hearers, and obscured his eminent worth." He died in 
1723, aged seventy years. 

The Rev. Thomas Wills, who came to the church in 1789, 
drew crowded congregations until 1797, when, through infirmity, his 
popularity began to wane. In that year a neighbouring preacher fixed 
his quarters at a meeting house in Grub Street close by. " Being 
something new, many of the Silver Street congregation floated to hear 
him," to the great grief of Mr. Wills, who was soon wholly laid 
aside. 

Mr. Wilson, in his history, says (writing in 1808) : " From a 
small plain structure adapted to the use of old-fashioned Non- 
conformists, the church in Silver Street has been metamorphosed into 
a large and splendid chapel, with every attraction that can dazzle the 
sense of the religious public. The liturgy of the Church of England and 

* Urine's Life of John Owen. 



70 

the Countess of Huntingdon's hynins were introduced, an organ 
erected, and the name of the place altered from Silver Street Meeting 
to Silver Street Chapel." 

On the appointment in 1808 of Mr. Evan Jones, further extensive 
alterations were made. Mr. Wilson says : " The fitting up is in the 
highest style of elegance. The pews and walls of about half the chapel 
are covered with crimson baize, and as the place is well lighted and 
the congregation numerous, the effect on a winter's evening is par- 
ticularly striking. The area is fitted up with pews and seats, and are 
let out to the public by quarterly tickets. The three large galleries 
are also ticketed. It is evident, therefore, that few of the poorer 
people attend. Among the attractions at Silver Street, besides a 
variety of preachers, are an elegant and commodious building, an 
organ, and a prayer reciter, with his paraphernalia of office, and a 
crowded congregation. 

" This constant change, which is founded on policy, is also pro- 
ductive of a roving disposition in religious professors, who are thereby 
rendered unfit for a stated ministry." 

In 1828, Dr. Bennett was appointed to the pastorate. His ministry 
was attended by large congregations. That which brought Dr. Bennett 
prominently before the public was a controversy in which he engaged 
with an infidel named Eobert Taylor, who made a good deal of noise 
in the metropolis in the year 1831. 

In 1840, the old chapel was used for other purposes, and, in 1842, 
the foundation stone of the present building, in Falcon Square, was 
laid by Dr. Bennett, the cost of its erection being about 7, 000. This 
is one of the few Nonconformist churches still remaining in the old 
City. A good work is still being carried on, and a good congregation 
still attend. 



Ibaberfcasbers* fball. 

This meeting house was dedicated to religious purposes in the 
reign of Charles II. It was a very small and inconvenient building 
of oblong shape, with galleries. Both Independents and Presbyterians 
seem to have met here. 

Mr. Theophilus Gale was an early Presbyterian minister. He 



71 

was a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and also preached in 
Winchester Cathedral until he left the church in 1662. It is related of 
him that, leaving London for a short time, he left all his papers and 
writings to the care of a friend in the City. On his return he saw 
London in flames, and was much distressed as to the fate of his 
books and papers. On meeting his friend he was told that in removing 
his goods to a place of safety, the last cart not being full, they looked 
about in a hurry for something to put in it, and, seeing a desk near, 
they had thrown it in to make a load, " which he was not a little 
pleased to hear." Mr. Gale died in 1678, aged forty-nine years, and 
was buried in Bunhill Fields, where a memorial stone exists to his 
memory. He left all his estate " for the education and benefit of poor 
young scholars." 

Mr. Eichard Stretton was an early minister of this church. He 
had held the living of Petworth in Surrey, but resigned it in 1662. In 
1683 he was imprisoned in Newgate six months for refusing to take 
the Oxford Oath. During his imprisonment he assisted the Ordinary 
in preparing the condemned criminals for their death. Dr. Calamy 
says : " Mr. Wood, the Oxonian, represents Mr. Stretton as a traveller 
on the seas, whereas he hath told me himself, more than once, that the 
Lambeth ferry boat was the biggest vessell he ever was in." Mr. 
Stretton died in 1712, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 

William Strong, another minister here, was a member of the 
Westminster Assembly of Divines, and also one of the Parliamentary 
preachers. 

Dr. Theophilus Lobb, a gentleman who combined the office of 
doctor and preacher, was appointed to the church in 1732, which was 
then in a very low state. His ministry did not tend to revive matters. 
At its close, in 1734, the " congregation came to a resolution of breaking 
up their church state." 

After this the Independents took the church. The Rev. Robert 
Wright, who had a church at Girdlers' Hall, removed here. He died 
in 1743. It is said that, " being of a retired and melancholy disposition, 
and having a bad state of health, his congregation latterly declined." 

Dr. Thomas Gibbons succeeded to the ministry in 1743. He was 
one of the tutors at the Dissenting Academy at Mile End, and one of the 
evening lecturers at Monkwell Street. He died in 1785, and was buried 
in Bunhill Fields. The small chapel continued to be used until a few 



72 

year 3 since, when the congregation, having almost disappeared, the 
building was converted to business premises. 



JSrewers' 1ball. 

This fine old hall still stands in Addle Street, Wood Street. It 
was let to the Nonconformists during the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. 

The Rev. Richard Payne, an Independent minister, had a 
flourishing congregation here for some time, but being dissatisfied 
with something, the church went to Loriners' Hall, and then took 
refuge in Petticoat Lane. 

In 1733, the Baptists had a church here, but its later history is 
not known. 

On the 5th July, 1671, application was made to the Court of the 
Company by the churchwardens of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, " for the 
parishioners of the said parish to meet in the rooms now used by the 
Company for their Court Room on Sabbath days, for that their parish 
church was not yet restored." Permission was granted. 

On the 29th March, 1672, another application was made, "and 
humble request to the Court for the use of the hall for the parishioners 
on Sabbath days in the morning, and gave the Company thanks for 
the use of the room in which they had leave to meet hitherto." 
This application was also granted on condition " that they make good 
such damage or spoil as shall happen to be done by reason of their 
meeting there, which they did promise to do." 

On the 12th April, 1688, " an agreement was made with Richard 
Hulog for the letting of the hall, little parlour, long room, and musick 
room at 32 per annum, the same to be used on every Lord's Day and 
one week day every month, if desired, for the morning lecture." 

On the 9th May, 1729, " it is ordered that Mr. Edwards and the 
other gentlemen shall have the use of the great room in the hall for 
Divine worship at 22 per annum, upon the same terms as they had 
it before, for 30 a year." 



78 



Coacbmafeers' fball, 

This hall, which stood in Addle Street, Aldermanbury, was one 
more of the old livery halls let out to the Nonconformists for a meeting 
house. 

There is very little to he related in connection with it. Mr. 
James Kelly, an Anti-Moravian, occupied it for a short time, then 
going to Crosby Square. Soon afterwards the hall was let to some 
Separatists from the church in Red Cross Street. 



plasterers' 1ball. 

In this hall, which formerly stood in Addle Street, an Independent 
church was formed by the Rev. Nathaniel Partridge, who, according 
to Dr. Calamy, had been rejected from St. Michael's in the town of 
St. Albans. From 1666 to 1684 he was minister at the hall. During 
this time he was tried for preaching and sent to Newgate for six 
months. He died in 1684. 

The Rev. John Faldo succeeded him. He was a great writer. 
Among his works is one entitled " Quakerism no Christianity." He 
also preached a course of sermons at the hall, in order to bring about 
a Union of Independents and Presbyterians. Mr. Wilson says of 
him : " He was a sensible and worthy man, but, it is apprehended, not 
popular as a preacher." He died 1692, aged fifty-seven years, and 
was buried at Bunhill Fields. 

A short time after this the hall was taken by the society for 
training young men for the ministry among the Independents, and 
was known as the " City College for Independent Ministers." The 
earliest tutor was the Rev. Dr. Chauncey, a man well known in the 
City at the time. Among the Professors was Dr. John Walker. 
" He was a men of very superior acquirements, and in the knowledge 
of oriental languages had but few superiors in the kingdom." He 
died in 1770, in which year the academy was transferred to 
Homerton. 

The last pastor of the church in this hall was the Rev. Thomas 
Charlton, who died in 1755. 



74 



Embroiderers' 

This hall, situate in Gutter Lane, Cheapside, was used in SL 
similar way to many other' of the old civic halls for a few years, as a 
meeting place for Nonconformists. 

Mr. Alexander Shields, a Scotchman, was here for some little 
time. In 168, he was apprehended, taken before the Lord Mayor, 
and sent to Bridewell. Shortly after this he returned to Scotland. 

A church seems to have remained here for a short time after, 
as we read of a Mr. Richard Pain, who gathered together here a 
Baptist Church ahout the year 1700. He removed after a short 
period to Brewers' Hall, Aldermanbury. 



GfrMers' fball. 

This hall, which stands on the east side of Basinghall Street, 
sheltered for some few years a small Independent congregation. Mr. 
Wilson says that " it was a small building with one gallery." 

Mr. George Griffith, who about 1G66 was the first minister, had 
been preacher of the Charterhouse. He also held a weekly lecture at 
St. Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange. There is a painting of him in 
Dr. Williams' Library. Dr. Calamy says : " He was much followed in 
his younger years, and reckoned a man of great invention and devotion 
in prayer ; but when he grew old his congregation declined." He died 
in 1694. 

His successor, Mr. Tate, did not remain long. The congregation, 
which had never been large, gradually declined until about 1710, when 
the church was dissolved. 

In 1752 it was reported to the Court of the Company " that some 
persons were willing to take the hall for the use of a dissenting con- 
gregation." It was then resolved that the hall be let for "not less 
than seven years at the yearly rent of 30." 



75 



Hlfcermanbur^. 

The Rev. Edmund Calamy, whose grandfather of the . ame name 
had, in 1662, resigned the living of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, gathered 
a congregation in this street ; the exact spot is not at present known. 
The church was afterwards removed to Plasterers' Hall. 

In the vestry minute books of the church of St. Mary appears the 
following entry : 

" 1639, May 27th. The late election of our minister, Mr. Edmund 
Calamy, was confirmed by general consent, and ordered that he shall 
have for his maintenance 160 per annum, which money is to be 
gathered by the churchwardens for the time being, or some others, and 
to be paid quarterly. And it is ordered that Mr. Calamy shall by him- 
self, or some other preacher, thrice a week, that is, once upon the Lord's 
day in the morning, and upon Wednesday in the afternoon, preach the 
ordinary lecture by himself, and upon the Lord's day, in the afternoon, 
by some other. And it was propounded whether every man would give 
the same rate which formerly they gave to Dr. Stoughton, and it was 
consented unto without any contradiction, and Mr. Edmund Calamy to 
come to us at Midsummer next, or presently after, and to preach as 
formerly hath been done, that is, three-fourths of the year, from 
Michaelmas to Midsummer, three sermons a week, and from Midsummer 
to Michaelmas two sermons a week." 

In the following September we read that "Robert, Earl of Warwick 
applied to the vestry for a pew in their church, when they offered him 
that in which Mr. Calamy's family usually sat, or permission to build 
himself one at the end of a little gallery, as His Honour shall think 
fit." This circumstance seems to show that Mr. Calamy's congregation 
was a large one, or that there was very little space accommodation ; 
in fact, we read that " Thither multitudes were accustomed to flock to 
hear the Gospel, and the narrow streets leading to the place of worship 
were blocked up, service after service, with three score coaches, the 
minimum number of vehicles, which, according to the preacher's grand- 
son, conveyed the wealthy Presbyterian to the old church door." 

It is related in Calamy's times how that the good old doctor " lived 
to see London in ashes, the sight of which broke his heart. He was 
driven through the ruins in a coach, and seeing the desolate condition 
of a once so flourishing city, for which he had so great an affection, 



76 

his tender spirit received such impressions as he could never wear off. 
He went home and never went out of his chamber more, but died 
within a month." 

The following notice was issued, dated 1st December, 1645, and 
signed by the Lord Mayor : 

" Whereas, at the entreaty of Mr. Calamy and other ministers, 
as it was represented to me by certain citizens, I did lately give an 
allowance to them to meet and dispute with certain Anabaptists ; and 
whence, I understood you in pursuance of that allowance, there is a 
public dispute intended on Wednesday next, December 3rd, in the 
church of Aldermanbury, and there is likely to be an extraordinary 
concourse of people from all parts of the city, and from other places ; 
and that in these times of distraction there may be hazard of the 
disturbance of the public peace ; I have, therefore, thought fit, upon 
serious consideration, for prevention of the inconveniences that may 
happen thereby, to forbid the said meeting on Wednesday next, or at 
any other time in a public way, before I shall receive the pleasure of 
the Honourable House of Parliament touching the same, which with 
all convenience I shall endeavour to know. 

" THOMAS ADAMS, 

" Lord Mayor." 
[This is taken from a placard in the British Museum.] 

The Kev. Joseph Barber was minister of this church for the long 
period of sixty-four years. He died in 1810, aged eighty-three years, 
and was buried in Bunhill Fields, where a stone was erected to his 
memory. 

During the time that Mr. Calamy was rector here there seems to 
have been a dispute with one of the lecturers at the church on some 
point of doctrine. 

In 1645, was published a tract with the following title : " Truth 
Shut Out of Doors ; or, a Briefe and True Narrative of the Occasion 
and Manner of some of Aldermanbury Parish in Shutting their Church 
Doors against me. Published for the Cleering of the Truth from False 
Reports, and more especially for the Satisfaction of those Worthy 
Underwriters who chose me to perform that Catechisticall Lecture, to 
whom I ought to give a Just Account of my Carriage therein. By me, 
Henry Barton. London : Printed for Giles Chalvers at The Black 
Spread Eagle,' at the West End of Paul's, 1645." 



77 

To this work a reply was soon forthcoming, which was published 
with the following title : " The Door of Truth Opened ; or, a Briefe 
and True Narrative of the Occasion how Mr. Henry Barton came to 
Shut Himself Out of the Church Doors of Aldermanbury. Published 
in answer to a Paper called ' Truth Shut Out of Doors,' for the Vindi- 
cation of the Minister and People of Aldermanbury, who are, in that 
Paper, most Wrongfully and Unjustly Charged; and also for the 
Undeceiving of the Underwriters and of all those that are Misinformed 
about this Business. In the Name and with the Consent of the whole 
Church of Aldermanbure. London : Printed for Christopher Meredith, 
at ' The Crane,' in Paul's Church Yard, 1645." 



flDonfewell Street, 

In Monkwell Street, or as it used to be called, Mugwell Street, 
stood, until the beginning of the century, one of the oldest of the 
London meeting houses. It was one of the first built after the fire. 
It is described as " a large substantial brick building, of a square form, 
with three deep galleries," and being situate up a gateway for the 
purposes of concealment. It was built for the Kev. Thomas Doolittle, 
who for nine years was Rector of St. Alphege, London Wall, and, in 
1662, resigned the living. A dwelling house communicated with the 
chapel, which had often been the means of escape when minister or 
congregation had been interrupted by the soldiers. 

Upon the indulgence being granted to Nonconformists in 1672, 
Mr. Doolittle took out a licence, which is still preserved in Dr. Williams' 
Library, Gordon Square, being an interesting document. It is here 
given : 

" Carolus II. 

" Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, 
and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all mayors, bailiffs, 
constables, and others, our officers and ministers, civill and military, 
whom it may concern, greeting. In pursuance of our declaration of 
the llth of March, 1671-2, wee allowed, and wee do hereby allow, of a 
certain room adjoining to the dwelling house of Thomas Doolittle, in 
Mugwell Street, to bee a place for the use of such as do not conforme 



78 

to the Church of England, who are in the persuasion commonly called 
Presbyterians, to meet and assemble in, in order to their public worship 
and devotion, and all and singular, our officers and ministers, ecclesi- 
asticall, civill, and military, whom it may concerne, are to take due 
notice hereof, and they and any of them are hereby strictly charged 
and required to hinder any tumult or disturbance, and to protect them 
in their said meeting and assembly. 

" Given at our Court at Whitehall the 2nd day of April, in the 
24th year of our Keign, 1672. 

" By His Majesty's Command. 

"ARLINGTON." 

Mr. Doolittle died in 1707, and was buried in Bunhill Fields. 
Two of his works " A Treatise on the Sacraments," and " A Call to 
Delaying Sinners " went through at the time several editions. 
Palmer, in his " Nonconformists' Memorial," says that Mr. Doolittle, 
" though a very worthy and diligent divine, was not very eminent for 
compass of knowledge or depth of thought." 

Mr. Doolittle, while living in London, opened a boarding school 
at Moorfields, where he had twenty-eight pupils, removing it soon after 
to Woodford Bridge. 

Among these who succeeded to the ministry in this church was 
the Rev. James Fordyce, who occupied the pulpit for some years, and 
at the same time enjoyed a large degree of popularity. 

In 1760, he had a unanimous invitation to become co-pastor with 
the aged minister of the church, Dr. Lawrence. At his death, soon 
after, he was appointed successor. The congregation rapidly increased. 
It is said that " eloquence in the pulpit was his study and pursuit. 
This brought around him a congregation of young gentlemen and 
young ladies of the first respectability in the city, and to them he 
considered it his business to preach. Though a man of unfeigned 
piety, the radical defect consisted in his not bringing forward habitually 
and abundantly the peculiar principles of the Gospel of Christ." 
Towards the close of his ministry the congregation declined, and in 
1782 he resigned the charge. 

Mr. Wilson makes these remarks : " Fashion and curiosity, it will 
readily be imagined, had some effect for a time in producing the throng 
of his hearers, but the attachment of persons actuated by such motives 
will be as capricious and variable as their minds. They will change 



79 

their preachers as they change their dress, not from their own taste, 
for, in general, they have none, but from the desire of being where 
others are, of doing what others do, and of admiring what others 
admire." 

Dr. Fordyce died in 1796, aged seventy-six years. 

This chapel was one of those honoured by the preaching of John 
Bunyan, who occupied the pulpit once or twice a year on his visits to 
the metropolis, after his liberation from Bedford Gaol. 

Writing in 1808, Mr. Wilson says that " Monkwell Street Chapel 
exhibits at present a melancholy contrast to its former prosperous 
state. At present the number of pews greatly exceeds that of the 
hearers, who are so few that the ends of public worship seem scarcely 
answered by their meeting together. With the falling off of the 
congregation there has been an equal declension from the doctrines 
taught by the earlier pastors of this society." 

After the death of Mr. Fordyce, this chapel had rather a chequered 
existence. It was let out to several ministers in succession, but none 
succeeded in gathering together a congregation. In a few years the 
building was finally closed. 



Sewin Street 

Near and around this spot were clustered a considerable number 
of meeting houses. 

The street itself takes its name from an old burial ground belonging 
to the Jews which existed here. 

Mr. Grimes, who came from Ireland, was one of the first ministers. 
He was one of those who had left the church, and opened a meeting at 
"The Cockpit," in this street. He was followed by Mr. William 
Jenkyn, who had been lecturer at St. Nicholas Aeons, and also at St. 
Ann's, Blackfriars. He had also been minister of Sudbury, in Suffolk, 
and later on was chosen minister of Christ Church, Newgate Street. 
He was one of the ministers who signed the remonstrance against 
bringing the King to trial, and afterwards refused to observe the public 
thanksgiving ordered by the Parliament, for which he was suspended 
from the ministry. Upon the Act of Indulgence, 1672, passing, the 



80 

meeting house in Jewin Street was erected for him, when he soon 
gathered together a good congregation. He was selected, also, as one 
of the Merchant Lecturers at Pinners' Hall. 

In 1684, together with three other ministers, in the middle of a 
service in which they were engaged, he was taken before two aldermen, 
Sir James Edwards and Sir James Smith, and required to take the 
Oxford Oath, and, upon his refusal to do so, was lodged in Newgate, where 
he soon afterwards died in 1715. His daughter, at her father's funeral, 
gave away some mourning rings, on which were inscribed " William 
Jenkyn, murdered in Newgate." He was buried in Bunhill Fields. 

In 1760, the Independents took the building, Mr. Joseph Hart 
being the first pastor. He remained until his death in 1768. He had 
large congregations ; he also published a volume of hymns, which for 
many years had a very large circulation. His funeral was supposed to 
have been attended in Bunhill Fields by not less than 20,000 persons. 

After this the Baptists seem to have held the chapel for a short 
time, but the history is difficult to follow. 

Another meeting house in this street was built in 1808, for a 
congregation who had been worshipping in the Old Jewry, Dr. Bees 
laying the first stone of the new building. It was used as a place of 
public worship until a few years since, when the building was taken 
down. 

The Rev. Joseph Irons, of the Grove Chapel, Camberwell, had, in 
1843, a Wednesday evening lecture, which was always crowded. 

For some years the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists had a chapel in 
this street. This chapel had been founded in 1774 in Smithfield, and 
afterwards removed to Wilderness Row, from there removing to Jewin 
Crescent. 

On September 22nd, 1878, the last sermons were preached in 
this chapel previous to its demolition. 

On April 15th, 1878, the memorial stone of a new building in 
Fann Street, Aldersgate, was laid, and on February 17th, 1879, the 
new building, a handsome Gothic structure, costing 10,000, was 
opened for public worship. 



81 



Curriers' fmll. 

This hall originally stood in London Wall, near old Oipplegate 
Church. The building was chiefly remarkable for a group of beautiful 
trees which surrounded it. This old hall was removed in 1820. It 
was for many years the home of various Nonconformist congregations. 

The Rev. Edmund Calamy, who had been preaching in his own 
house in Aldermanbury, took the hall about 1672, which he fitted up 
for public worship. He remained here until the time of his death. 
Soon after this the hall was taken by the Particular Baptists, under 
the Rev. Hansard Knollys, who had been preaching at Great St. 
Helens. He was a famous minister of the day, his hearers often 
numbering a thousand. After his death, the hall still continued an 
important meeting place of the Nonconformists, and was for many 
years known as " the Cripplegate Meeting." 

In 1705, Mr. David Crossby was appointed minister, and served 
the church for a few years. 

At an association of Baptist ministers, held in May, 1719, the 
following minute occurs : " Mr. David Crossby, who had been an 
eminent minister, but who had been for some time guilty of scandalous 
sins, was called before the ministers, who with the deepest compassion 
reproved him. He seemed both sensible and sorrowful, and the 
ministers set apart seven days of prayer with him." He seems 
afterwards to have redeemed his character. He died in 1744, aged 
seventy-five years. 

In 1715, Mr. John Skipp was the minister. The following 
account of him is given : " He was a man of singular talents and 
abilities, of very quick, strong natural parts, of great diligence and 
industry in acquiring useful knowledge, a warm and lively preacher of 
the Gospel, a zealous defender of the special and peculiar doctrines of 
it, whose ministry was blessed to many souls for the conversion of 
some and for the edification of others." He died in 1721. 

The next minister was the Rev. John Brine. He died in 1765, 
aged sixty-three years. 

At this period the church was much reduced in numbers, the 
members amounting to not more than thirty. In 1799, the lease 
expiring, the congregation removed to Red Cross Street, adjoining 
Dr. Williams' Library. After this the hall was taken by .another 



82 

church, but this remained only for a very short time. Soon after this 
the building was taken down. 



Tbouse Hlle^, 1Ret> Cross Street. 

This building was a plain structure of an oblong form with three 
galleries, built about the year 1710. The alley is described as a " good, 
clean paved court without a thoroughfare." The chapel was first 
occupied by the Independents, until about the year 1750, when it was 
occupied by the Particular Baptists. 

The first minister of the church was John Lewis. We find him 
" discharged from his situation for not behaving in a commendable 
manner." 

In 1728, Mr. Samuel Stockell was minister, and drew large con- 
gregations, but a manuscript of the day very much qualifies the character 
of this gentleman. It says : " He pretends to be a great admirer of 
the Grace of God, although it is to be feared he had not learnt." After 
this the church was taken by Mr. John Stevens, who had been excluded 
from the church in Devonshire Square. 

In 1760, the church was taken by the Particular Baptists, who 
held it for a few years, the first minister being Mr. Thomas Craner, 
who, we are told by Mr. Wilson, "was a man of respectable character, 
but a drawling and inanimate preacher, and very high in his notions 
upon some doctrinal points." Mr. Wilson also says : " We have been 
told that, when Mr. Craner happened to touch upon any doctrine in 
the pulpit which was disagreeable to his hearers, they would manifest 
their displeasure by stamping with their feet. As Mr. Craner did not 
relish this sort of harmony, he, upon one of those occasions, singled 
out an old man who was particularly active, and threatened that, in 
case he did not desist, he would descend from the pulpit and lead him 
by the nose out of the meeting house." Mr. Craner continued here 
until his death in 1773, aged fifty-seven years, and was buried in the 
ground behind Maze Pond Chapel. 

In 1793, the church was let to the Swedenborgians, who assembled 
there until about 1800. It was then let to a congregation of Seven h 
Day Baptists, who had been assembling in Curriers' Hall. 



88 

This church does not seem to have lasted long. In 1807, we find 
that it was taken by a Mr. Franklyn, whose congregation had been 
worshipping in a small wooden building in Mile End New Town, and 
consisted of persons who had seceded from the church in Little Alie 
Street, Goodman's Fields. 

Mr. Wilson says that " these persons were of the supra capsarian 
cast (whatever that may mean) and separated from Little Alie Street 
because the pastor there did not preach to deny all ungodliness." 

The next minister, Mr. John Griffith, seems to have had a quarrel 
with his church soon after his connection with it. He was excluded 
from his own pulpit, and went with those who adhered to him to a 
meeting house in White's Alley, where he preached for some years, we 
are told, with great acceptance. He afterwards published a book 
containing " An Account of his Conversion, Call to the Ministry, and 
some Hints relating to the unjust Proceedings of the above said church 
towards him." 

In 1808, the Sandemanians took a lease of the chapel, and 
remained there a few years. 



Barbican Cbapel. 

An old Independent congregation met for many years in Barbican. 
As early as 1695 we find that a Mr. Andrew Burnet was the pastor, 
and, with his death in 1707, the church for some time became extinct. 

In 1724, Dr. Foster was appointed to succeed Dr. Gale as co- 
pastor, with Mr. Joseph Burroughs, in this church, which at this 
period was Baptist. Dr. Foster held the office for more than twenty 
years, and at the same time carried on an evening lecture at the Old 
Jewry with a large degree of popularity. Pope has celebrated him in 
the following couplet in the epilogue to his satires : 
" Let modest Foster, if he will excel 
Ten metropolitans in preaching well." 

At the end of 1744 he succeeded Dr. Jeremiah Hunt as pastor of 
the Independent congregation at Pinners' Hall. Two years after 
this it was his melancholy duty to attend the Earl of Kilmarnock in 



84 

the Tower, and also on Tower Hill at his execution. Dr. Foster died 
in 1758, aged fifty-seven years. 

The chapel, which is still standing, but now used as a warehouse, 
was built in 1784, at a cost of 1,100, for a famous minister of that 
time, Mr. John Towers. His congregation had, up to this time, been 
meeting in Bartholomew Close. He died July 6th, 1804, aged 
fifty-seven years, and was buried in Bunhill Fields, where a memorial 
stone was placed to his memory. He was pastor of this church for 
the period of thirty-four years. 

The church continued in a flourishing condition for a few years, 
after which the congregation gradually dwindled away until 1860, 
when it was removed to the north of London. 



Xoriners' 1baU, 

In 1699, a congregation of Particular Baptists, who had separated 
from a General Baptist church meeting in White's Alley, met at 
Loriners' Hall, which then stood at the north end of Basinghall 
Street. This lasted but a short time. We find in 1704 that a 
congregation of Independents was worshipping here. 

In 1728 the hall was taken by the Methodists, and in 1739 it was 
occupied by a clergyman of the Church of England, who had joined 
George Whitefield's congregation. 

In 1750, the hall again changed hands, and soon after was taken 
down. 

On the 17th April, 1704, an association of the Nonconformist 
churches met at Loriners' Hall, when the following matter was 
considered : " The great number of Dissenting ministers in London, 
and the variety of talents and gifts at all times possessed by them, 
have had a tendency to draw away persons of an unsettled mind from 
their own places of worship. And it should seem there were such at 
that period as the late Kev. John Newton used to designate ' the flying 
camp.' " To check such a practice the assembly determined : " That 
the members of each church ought ordinarily to attend the worship of 
God in the church to which they stand related ; and that to make a 
common practice of deserting the assemblies to which they belong is a 



85 

great discouragement to the ministers of those churches; that it 
occasions the neglect of the poor among them ; and that the 
continuance of such a practice has a tendency to weaken and will 
perhaps in time issue in the dissolution of some churches." 



(Movers' 1ball, 

This hall was situated at the entrance of Beech Lane, leading 
into Whitecross Street. It was placed, as usual, up a narrow passage, 
therefore not visible from the street. It was originally part of a 
palace belonging to the Abbots of Ramsey, and no doubt had been 
used by them as a private chapel. In 1662, it passed into the hands 
of the Glovers' Company, who let the hall to the Nonconformists. 

On the 25th May of this year we read that " the soldiers came to 
Beech Lane to a meeting there with their swords drawn. The ensign 
came with his sword drawn, holding it over the head of him who was 
preaching, pulling them violently down the stairs and taking them to 
Newgate." 

In the year 1702, the church was extinct, but in 1738 the 
Baptists gathered a church here, a Mr. Lee being the first minister, 
who, it is stated, was reckoned " a great preacher, but, at the same 
time, a notorious liar." 

In 1798, the church was let to a body of Baptist Sandemanians, 
who continued there for eight years, when they removed to an old 
meeting house in Bed Cross Street. After this, Glovers' Hall was not 
used again for church purposes. 



Bartbolomew Close. 

In Bartholomew Close stood for many years an ancient building 
called Middlesex House. The site is now covered by Middlesex Court 
and the offices of the City of London Union. Being so close to the 
Priory Church of St. Bartholomew, there is no doubt that this ancient 



86 

building was originally a part of the conventual church. At what 
time this place was converted into a meeting house for the 
Nonconformists is uncertain. Originally, no doubt, the place was 
used for Romish worship, as there was for many years a very ancient 
sculpture representing the figure of a priest with a child in his arms. 
In the cellar underneath were evidently the fragments of an ancient 
chapel. There was also a very singular window in the building, so 
placed that a person in the gallery of the meeting house could watch 
the course of divine worship in the adjoining church. In several 
parts of this old building were private doors, supposed to have been 
made to facilitate egress in time of need. 

Mr. John Quick, who had held a living at Brixton, in Devonshire, 
seems to have been the first minister of this Presbyterian Church, 
which continued to meet here until 1753, when, in consequence of its 
reduced state, it passed into the hands of the Methodists. 

John Wesley preached in this chapel in 1768. 

The following incident in the life of John Wesley is interesting. 
An entry in the parish books of All Hallows, Lombard Street, shews 
that he preached in this church on the 28th December, 1788. W 7 hen 
in his 86th year he said : " I remember preaching in this church about 
fifty years ago from this circumstance. On leaving the vestry to go 
into the pulpit, I turned back in some confusion. The attendant said 
to me ' What is the matter, Sir, are you ill ? ' ' No,' I said ; ' but I 
have forgotten to bring my sermon.' She replied ' What, cannot you 
trust God for a sermon ? ' Upon this rebuke I went into the pulpit, 
and preached with much freedom and acceptance, and from that time 
I have never taken a manuscript into the pulpit." 

Up to the year 1806, the building was used by the Methodists, 
but the congregation at this time is stated to have been in a very 
reduced state, and at the same time very poor. 

The later history of this church is not known. 



Hl&ersoate Street. 

About the year 1804, a meeting house was erected in Aldersgate 
Street, opposite Westmoreland Buildings. It was built for a 
congregation of Calvinistic Methodists, who had previously been 



87 

meeting at Shaftesbury House. Mr. Madden, who for a few years 
had a small congregation in Bartholomew Close, was the first 
minister. 

Mr. Wilson describes the chapel as " a large substantial brick 
building of an oblong form with three galleries." It has long since 
disappeared. 

Mr. Daniel Neal, the author of the " History of the Puritans," 
was minister of a church in this street in 1702, having been assistant 
to Mr. John Singleton. This church afterwards removed to Jewin 
Street. Dr. Neal died in 1743, aged sixty-five years. 

Another chapel in this street stood at the corner of Little Britain, 
on the site of an old religious house belonging to the Fraternity of the 
Holy Trinity. Dilworth, in his history of London, says : " This hall 
was granted by King Henry V. to St. Botolph Parish, after the 
suppression of the foundations belonging to the Abbey of Cluny, in 
France, of which this had been one. Some of the building is extinct 
(1760), the lower part of which serves for a coffee house, and in the 
upper part the ward and parish officers meet on their parish affairs ; 
but on Sundays and Holy Days is used in a manner more suitable to 
its institution in the service of God, being the place of worship for a 
congregation of Nonjurors." 

Mr. Wilson says of this sect that " they were a race of men who 
declined to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, under the 
idea that they were usurpers." He says that " their bigotry was truly 
contemptible." 

From this sect the building passed to the Methodists, and from 
an entry in Wesley's journal we find that he paid a visit to the place 
on the 24th May, 1738, and on the 20th September in the same year 
he mentions his preaching to the society in the same room. 



"bare Court, Hlfcersaate street 

The congregation worshipping at this church was first gathered 
together as early as 1660 by the Kev. George Cokayn. This 
gentleman, who had been for some time minister at St. Pancras, 
Soper Lane, but had resigned, subsequently formed an Independent 



88 

church in Bed Cross Street. In the Church of England Mr. Cokayn 
was a man of considerable note, his church in Soper Lane, now Queen 
Street, being always crowded with hearers. He was one of the selected 
ministers to preach at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on one of the 
Parliamentary fast days. After leaving the church, his congregation, 
in 1672, met in his own house in Red Cross Street. This house, at 
that time, being partially hidden by trees, and separated from the 
adjoining streets by gardens, was well adapted to conceal its 
congregation from public notice. Mr. Cokayn died in 1691, at the 
age of seventy-two, having ministered to his congregation for forty-two 
years. He was buried in Bunhill Fields. The exact spot of his 
earthly resting place is not known. 

One of the deacons of the church was Mr. John Strudwick, 
grocer, and member of the Clothworkers" Company, who resided on 
Snow Hill. It was at his house, in 1688, that John Bunyan died 
while on a visit. 

Mr. John Nesbitt succeeded to the pastorate and remained for 
thirty-three years. It was during his ministry that the chapel in 
Hare Court was built. We are told that the court at this time was 
fringed with poplar trees, and the pathway from Aldersgate Street to 
Bed Cross Street was between gardens. This chapel was used until 
1772, when a new building was erected. In this building subsequent 
congregations met until 1857, when the church removed to Paul's 
Boad, Canonbury. 

It is an interesting fact that the church still possesses an oil 
painting which tradition says is a likeness of the old minister at St. 
Pancras ; also Communion plate dating from the same period. 



Paul's Sllep, Brfoaewater Square, 

Mr. John Gosnold formed a church here as early as 1646. It 
met for 120 years in a building which had been erected for a play-house, 
but for which the Government refused to grant a license. It was a square 
brick building with three deep galleries, " conveniently fitted up and 
substantially built," and would accommodate 3,000 persons. Mr. 
Gosnold was a popular preacher, the chapel being generally filled 



I 



89 

" with highly respectable hearers," and among them very often " six 
or seven clergymen in their gowns, who sat in a convenient place 
under a large gallery, where they were seen by few." 

After the fire the overseers of Cripplegate, knowing the 
congregation to be large, applied to them to make a collection for the 
poor. This was done, and the sum of 50 was collected. For twenty 
years this collection was repeated. 

Mr. Gosnold died in 1678, aged fifty-three years, and was buried 
in Bunhill Fields. 

Mr. Thomas Plant succeeded. He was a popular preacher. By 
some means he gave offence to Lord Bridgewater, whose house then 
stood where Bridgewater Square now stands. It is related that, by 
his orders, the " meeting was disturbed and the pulpit and forms 
broke to pieces." Mr. Plant died in 1699. 

In 1695, this church, and the church meeting at Turners' Hall, 
were united. In the article of union between the two churches it was 
agreed that one psalm should be sung during Divine worship, and in 
1719 it was agreed that there should be singing twice in the afternoon 
service. 

In 1700, Mr. Joseph Stennett, who preached here on one part of 
the Sabbath, received a message from the church informing him that 
" several brethren were dissatisfied with him for having preached on 
the controverted points between the Remonstrants and Calvinists, and 
that the church expected that he would not preach on those 
controversies in the future, and that the church had been informed he 
had preached at Loriners' Hall, and had thereby abetted a schism in 
the church in White Street, Moorfields, and they expected he would 
desist from preaching there in future." To these requisitions Mr. 
Stennett refused a compliance. He was, therefore, " respectfully 
dismissed from his situation as their minister." 

In 1717, Mr. Joseph Burroughs was appointed minister. At 
this period it appears from the books that the church consisted of 
about 220 members. He died in 1761, aged seventy-seven years. 
There is a fine painting of him still preserved in Dr. Williams' 
Library. 

In 1754, Mr. Allen Edwards, a member and deacon of the church, 
was set down for Sheriff, but refused to take office on account of the 
Sacramental test, which he considered to be "a vile prostitution of a. 



90 

sacred office." This became a test case, and was at length carried to 
the House of Lords, when Lord Mansfield gave judgment in favour 
of the Dissenters, at the same time declaring " that every attempt to 
force conscience was against natural and revealed religion, as well as 
sound policy." 

Mr. Richard Allen was a famous minister at this church for 
twenty-two years. He was also a member of the Society of Calvinistic 
ministers, who met every week at the Hanover Coffee House in Finch 
Lane. He died in 1727. 

In 1745, the church, which had been meeting at White's Alley, 
Moorfields, and which for some time had been in a declining state, 
was removed to Paul's Alley. In the minute book of the former 
are recorded the two following resolutions : 

" That the church in White's Alley do meet at Barbican for the 
exercise of religious worship, and have the liberty of the pulpit every 
Lord's Day in the afternoon except the first Lord's Day in the month." 
" It is also agreed that this congregation do remove to Barbican the 
next Lord's Day ; also the sconces and the candlesticks ; that the pewter 
be cleaned and afterwards carried to Barbican ; also the great Bible." 

The last Baptist minister here was Mr. John Noble, who was 
chosen in 1766, and remained until the expiration of the lease in 1777. 
This gentleman was at the time pastor of the Sabbatarian Baptists, 
meeting at Mill Yard, Goodman's Fields. From this date the chapel 
was taken for a short time by the Sandemanians, who had been 
meeting at Glovers' Hall, and subsequently at an old meeting house in 
Bull and Mouth Street, Aldersgate. 

At this meeting house was kept a register of all the persons 
baptised and by whom performed. This book is now at the Bethnal 
Green Road Chapel, among the archives of the General Baptist 
Assembly. The entries date from 19th October, 1716, to 19th 
December, 1788. The title page is written, and is as follows : " The 
Register Books containing a Register of the Name of every individual 
Person Baptised ; also the Baptistery made, Dr. and Cr. ; and an 
Inventory of all the Garments, Furniture, and Uttensells belonging 
thereunto ; with an Alphabet for the more ready finding out of any 
Name. London : 19th October, 1716." The Inventory then follows 
of the articles in " three good rooms, for the convenience of dressing 
and undressing." 



91 



' Ifoall. 

This meeting house was situate at the top of Founders' Hall 
Court, and was only accessible by means of a flight of stairs, the lower 
part being used as a tavern. Mr. Wilson says that " the building is 
fitted up with great neatness," and that " the congregation is in a 
respectable state." As early as the time of the Restoration the church 
was used by the Scotch Presbyterians. 

Mr. Jeremiah Marsden, who died a prisoner in Newgate in 1684, 
is mentioned by Dr. Calamy as " the minister at Founders' Hall." 

In 1700, a new meeting house was built, which was used by the 
Scotch Presbyterians until 1764, when they erected a new building in 
London Wall at a cost of 1,700. 

Mr. Kobert Fleming, one of the ministers here, was also one of 
the Merchant Lecturers at Salters' Hall. He was elected to this 
office in 1701. 

Another famous divine who ministered here was the Rev. Dr. 
Hunter, who for thirty-one years was pastor of the church. He died 
in 1802, and was buried in Bunhill Fields, where a handsome 
memorial was placed over his grave. The inscription is here given, in 
order to show the style of panegyric indulged in by admirers of the 
departed at the commencement of the nineteenth century. The 
inscription was written by Dr. Collyer, of Peckham : 

" Beneath this pillar, raised by the hands of friendship, sleep the 
mortal remains of the Rev. Henry Hunter, D.D., who thro' a long 
life deemed of those who knew him, alas, too short, served with 
increased assiduity the cause of religion, literature, and the poor. In 
him, to distinguished talents and a capacious mind were united energy 
of disposition, affability of manners, benevolence of heart, and warmth 
of affection. In the hearts of those who were blessed with his 
friendship is preserved the most sacred and inviolable attachment. 
But his best eulogium and his most durable memorial will be found in 
his writings. There he has an inscription which the revolution of 
years cannot efface, and when the nettle shall skirt the base of this 
monument and moss obliterate this feeble testimonial of affection, 
when finally, sinking under the pressure of years, this pillar shall 
tumble and fall over the dust it covers, his name shall be perpetuated 
to generations unborn, Reader, thus far suffer the effusions of 



92 

affectionate remembrance, when no adequate eulogium can be 
pronounced, and when no other inscription was necessary to per- 
petuate the memory of Henry Hunter, thirty- one years pastor of the 
Scots' Church, London Wall, and on Wednesday, the 27th October, 
1802, left his family and his church to deplore, but never to retrieve, 
his loss, and silently took his flight to heaven in the sixty-second year 
of his age." 

Mr. Anthony Crole, who had been connected with the church at 
Pinners' Hall, removed to Founders' Hall in 1778. He died in 1803. 
Two or three ministers followed, but the church not long after was 
closed. 

The following notice appears in the Eranyelieal Magazine for 
November, 1797 : " The lease of Founders' Hall having expired, after 
having been thirty-eight years under the pastoral care of the Rev. Mr. 
Towle, the church will meet at the Postern, London Wall. The 
re-union took place on the 19th inst., and Mr. Towle with Mr. Butter, 
will preach alternately." 

In the court minutes of the Founders' Company there are two or 
three references to the letting of the hall for religious purposes : 

" 1672, April 3 That a committee be appointed to contract for 
letting the hall and parlor to such persons as will desire to have them 
for a publick place to preach in." 

" 1687, August 16 That the Master and Wardens have full 
power to lett the hall or parlor to any persons to preach or pray in. 
Not to take less than 20 a year and a year's rent beforehand." 

" 1690 Received for preaching in the hall, a year's rent before- 
hand, 25." 

" 1821, May 7 Dr. Collyer and Mr. Pearce, from the Salters' Hall 
congregation, attended and offered to take the meeting for one year and 
to quit at three months' notice." 



Coleman Street. 

In this neighbourhood from time to time several Nonconformist 
churches existed for short periods. One of these was formed by the 
Rev, John Godwin, who was presented to the living of St. Stephen, 



98 

Coleman Street, in 1633, and resigned it in 1645, when he set up a 
private meeting house in the parish on his own account. 

Mr. Neal, in his " History of the Puritans," says : " Mr. John Godwin 
was a learned divine and a smart disputant, but of a peculiar mould, 
being a republican, an independent, and a thorough Arminian. He 
was ejected from Coleman Street because he refused to baptize the 
children of his parishioners promiscuously, and to administer the 
sacrament to the whole of the parish." Dr. Calamy says of him : "He 
was a man by himself, was against every man, and had every man 
almost against him." 

There seems at this time to have been some angry words between 
the Presbyterians and Independents. Mr. Thomas Edwards, a Presby- 
terian who describes himself as a minister of the Gospel, thus speaks 
of Mr. Godwin : " There is Master John Godwin, a monstrous sectary, 
a compound of Socinianism, Arminianism, Litutinism, Antinomianism, 
Independency, Popery, yea, of Sceptism." Mr. Godwin then charges 
Mr. Edwards with " forgery, lying, jugglery, littleness, malice, bloody 
negociation against the saints, obscene and scandalous writing," c. 

There can be no doubt that Coleman Street was at this time a very 
warm place so far as religious teaching was concerned. 

In 1648 was published a book with this title : " Coleman Street 
Conclave Visited, and that Grand Impostor, the Schismatic Cheater- 
in-Chief (who has long slyly lurked therein), Truly and Duly Dis- 
covered ; containing a Most Palpable and Plain Display of Mr. John 
Godwin's Self -conviction (under his own handwriting), and of the 
Notorious Heresies, Errors, Malice, Pride, and Hypocrisy of this Most 
Huge Gargantua in Falsely-Pretended Piety, to the Lamentable 
Misleading of his Too-Credulous Soul, Murdered Proselyte of Coleman 
Street, and Elsewhere. Collected principally out of his own Big 
Braggadocio Wave-like Swelling and Swaggering Writings, Full 
Fraught with Six Footed Terms and Fleshly Rhetorical Phrases Far 
More than Solid and Sacred Truths, and may fitly Serve (if it be the 
Lord's Will), like Belshazzar's Handwriting on the Wall of his Con- 
science, to strike Terror and Shame into his own Soul and Shameless 
Face, and to Undeceive his Most Miserably Cheated and Enchanted or 
Bewitched Followers. 1648." Facing the title is John Godwin's 
picture, with a windmill over his head, and a weathercock upon it. 
The devil is represented blowing the sails, and there are other hiero- 



94 

glyphics or emblems about him designed " to shew the instability of 
the man." 

This Mr. Edwards was the most prolific writer of his time. One of 
his works was entitled " Antapologia ; or, a Full Censure to the 
Apologetical Narration, &c., wherein is handled many of the 
Controversies of these times ; humbly also submitted to the Honourable 
Houses of Parliament. By Thomas Edwards, Minister of the Gospel, 
1644. 4to, pp. 867." He concludes the dedicatory epistle of this 
work as follows : " I conclude this Epistle as Beza doth his Dunlitius' 
Farewell. The Lord keep thee and all thine from all evil, and 
especially from noonday devils which walk about in this place, and in 
these times that is from the errors of Anabaptism, Brownism, 
Antinomianism, toleration of sects and schisms, under pretence of 
liberty of conscience." 

In the course of the work, writing on the exile, voluntary and 
involuntary, of several ministers of the time, he makes these 
remarks : 

" Into what remote and far country were you banished ? And 
what were the companions of your exile ? Certainly the reader . . . 
will think, ' Alas, good men ! ' Into what Patmos, Indies, or remote 
wilderness were they banished, and forced to fly, and will never 
imagine that those men were the exiled ministers, and this their exile, 
who, in a time of common danger, and suffering in their own land, 
went with their wives, children, estates, friends, knights, gentlemen, 
citizens, over into Holland ; where they lived in plenty, safety, pomp, 
and ease, enjoying their own ways and freedom, and when the coasts 
were cleared, came over into England, were entertained and received 
with all respects and applause, and are now members of the Assembly 
of Divines." 

In another work, the same author, Mr. Edwards, who signs 
himself " a Minister of the Gospel," writes to Mr. Godwin : 

" Mr. Godwin, will you never leave your scoffing and scorning, 
your reviling and reproaching of all men, stuffing your pages with 
great scribbling words, and filling whole leaves with nothing but jeers 
and multitude of six-footed words, instead of reason and argument ? 
Will you, by all your writings and preachings, make good that title 
which, by way of reproach, was first given to you, namely, ' The Great 
Red Dragon of Coleman Street'?" 



95 

One of the books published at the time in connection with Mr. 
Godwin was the following : 

" The Great Accuser cast down ; or, a Public Trial of Mr. John 
Godwin, of Coleman Street, London, at the Bar of Eeligion and 
Right Reason. It being a Full Answer to a certain Scandalous Book of 
his, lately published, entitled : ' The Triers Tried and Cast,' &c. 
Whereupon, being found Guilty of High Scandal and Malediction, 
both against the Present Authority and the Commissioner for 
Approbation and Ejection, he is here sentenced and brought forth to 
Deserved Execution of the Press. By Marchamont Needham, Gent., 
1657. 4to, pp. 131." 

The style of Mr. Godwin's writings may be judged by the title 
of a reply which he published in a dispute with a clergyman of 
the Established Church. The title is "The Younging Elder," and 
which, he tells his readers, was "compiled more especially for the 
Christian Instruction and Reducement of William Jenkyn, a Young 
Presbyter, lately Gone Away like a Lost Sheep from the Ways of 
Modesty, Conscience, and Truth, occasioned by a late Pamphlet 
containing very little in it but what is chiefly reducible to one or both 
of those two Unhappy Predicaments of Youth, Ignorance, and Arro- 
gance, clearly demonstrated by J. G., a servant of God and man in 
the Glorious Gospel of Jesus Christ." 

Mr. Godwin continued to preach at his meeting house in Coleman 
Street Parish until his death in 1665. 



Swan HUes, Coleman Street, 

This meeting house was under the charge of Thomas Venner, who 
was by trade a cooper. He was one of the sect called " Fifth Monarchy 
Men," and was accustomed to warm the zeal of his admirers with 
passionate expositions of a fifth universal monarchy under the personal 
reign of King Jesus, who would put the saints in possession of the 
kingdoms and cause all other human governments to cease. This 
unfortunate man deluded his followers to take up arms, and by this 
means prove their case. It is related that " Thomas Venner, taking 
occasion of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy being enforced and 



96 

holding all swearing unlawful, preached an inflammatory sermon 
on Sunday, January 6th, 1660, at the meeting house in Swan Alley 
before an auditory of Fifth Monarchy men. He then sallied forth 
with fifty or more well-armed fellows towards St. Paul's Cathedral, 
intending the subversion of the restored dynasty, or die in the attempt. 
On the way they were joined by confederates from other districts, 
a murderous assault being made upon all who opposed them." This 
action ended in a dismal failure. Venner was tried for insurrection, 
and found guilty. He was hanged in front of the door of his meeting 
house in Swan Alley. 



Bell Hlle, Coleman Street. 

In 1640, a Baptist church was formed here by Thomas Lamb. 
In 1643, Mr. Henry Deane joined the church, and soon after was 
appointed assistant to Mr. Lamb, on which occasion Mr. Deane was 
baptized by immersion. A fierce controversy on this subject was then 
raging, and a Dr. Featley published a work, which, at the time, had a 
large circulation, entitled : 

" The Dippers Dipt, the Anabaptists Duck'd and Plung'd over 
Head and Ears at a Disputation in Southwark. Also a Large and Full 
discourse of their (1) Originall, (2) Severall Sects, (3) Peculiar 
Errours, (4) High Attempts against the State, (5) Capitall Punishment. 
The fifth edition augmented with (1) Severall Speeches before the 
Assembly of Divines, (2) The famous History of the Frantick 
Anabaptists, (3) Their wild Preaching and Practices in Germany. 
Together with an Application to the Kingdoms, Especially to London. 
By Daniel Featley, D.D. Printed for N. B. and Richard Royston at 
the Angel, in Ivy Lane, 1647." 

Soon after, a reply to this book was published by Mr. Lamb, and 
Mr. Denne, entitled " An Apology for some called Anabaptists in and 
about the City of London on behalf of themselves and others of the 
same judgment with them." 

Mr. Lamb died in 1672. 

From this church in 1649 Samuel Gates (father of Titus Gates) 
was sent out as an itinerant preacher. 

In 1705, the church ceased to exist, 



, 



97 



Hrmourers' 1ball, Coleman Street, 

As early as 1647 this hall was the home of a Presbyterian church. 
The first minister was the Rev. Richard Steel, who had held the living 
of Hanmere, Flintshire, for about twenty-five years. He preached 
to a congregation in the morning and at the same time ministered 
to a congregation at Hoxton in the evening. He wrote and published 
a work which passed through several editions, entitled " An Antidote 
against Distractions in the Worship of God." This book was written 
in prison. 

Kichard Steel was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge. 
Dr. Calamy says : He was a good scholar, a hard student, and an 
excellent preacher." He died in 1692, aged sixty-four years. 

There were two succeeding ministers here until 1709, when the 
church became extinct. 



jfinsbun? Cbapel. 

In the year 1810 Dr. Alexander Fletcher was appointed to fill 
the pulpit at Miles Lane meeting house. The place was soon found 
insufficient to accommodate the crowds who flocked to hear him. 
Accordingly, Albion Chapel, London Wall, was built, the foundation 
stone being laid by Dr. Waugh, assisted by the Rev. Dr. Fletcher. 

On the 13th July, 1825, the first stone of Finsbury Chapel was 
laid by Dr. Fletcher. The building was opened in 1826, having cost 
10,000. 

During Dr. Fletcher's life the chapel was always crowded. He 
died on 30th September, 1860, at the age of seventy, and was followed 
by the Rev. A. McAuslane, who preached his first sermon on the 
16th March, 1862, and resigned the charge in 1880. From this time 
the congregation gradually declined, and in 1893 the building .was 
taken down. 



98 



Street 

In the neighbourhood of what is now known as New Broad Street, 
but two centuries ago was better known as " Petty France " (a large 
number of French people dwelling there), stood two well-known 
meeting houses. 

One of the earliest ministers here was the Kev. Mr. Vincent, who 
held for a short time the living of St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street, 
but on the passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1662 had resigned. 
This gentleman was most active in his ministrations to the afflicted 
ones during the fearful plague of 1665, and was wonderfully preserved 
through it all. He wrote a graphic account of the event in a book 
which is in the Guildhall Library, entitled " God's Terrible Voice in 
the City." 

In a pamphlet published in 1662, entitled " Behold a Cry, or a 
True Eelation of the Inhuman and Violent Outrages of divers Soldiers, 
Constables, and others Practised upon the Lord's People commonly 
though Falsely Called Anabaptists in and about London." 

We read that, on the 15th June, 1662, "the soldiers came with 
great fury and rage, with their swords drawn, to the meeting in Petty 
France, and took away him that preached unto Newgate." " On the 
29th June, the soldiers again came full of rage and violence, with 
their swords drawn. They wounded some, broke down the gallery, and 
made much spoil." 

In 1702, an attempt to introduce singing into the services at 
this chapel was made, but without success. 

In 1708, the congregation, which had been gradually declining, 
was in a very reduced state. Soon after this the church was dissolved 
and the building taken down. 

In 1729, another meeting house was built in this street. It is 
described as "a large building with three deep galleries of five seats 
each, capable of accommodating a large congregation." 

This church was formed by seceding members of the church 
in Miles Lane, very serious differences having arisen among the 
congregation there. 

The first minister was Dr. John Evans, who had been for several 
years Sunday evening lecturer at Salters' Hall, where his congregation 
so much increased that a larger meeting house was built for him in 



New Broad Street. He was also one of the Merchant Lecturers at 
Pinners' Hall. He acquired a considerable reputation at this time 
from a dispute in which he was engaged with Mr. John Gumming, 
minister of the Scotch Church, London Wall, " on the importance 
of Scripture consequences." "In the Arian controversy he refused 
to subscribe to any articles, but maintained the orthodox sentiments." 
He died 16th May, 1730. 

The succeeding minister was the Kev. Dr. Guyse. Toplady, in 
his writings, relates that Dr. Guyse lost his eyesight while preaching 
in the pulpit, and in consequence was forced to conclude his sermon 
without notes. An old lady, who was a member of the church, 
said to him on coming down from the pulpit, " God be praised that 
your sight is gone ; now we shall have no more notes. I wish that 
the Lord had taken away your sight twenty years ago, for your 
ministry would have been much more useful by twenty degrees." 

Dr. Samuel Brewer was one of the Tuesday evening lecturers here. 
Some people said that when it was his turn to preach, they learnt 
from his prayers all the religious news of the city and neighbourhood, 
as he took notice of every event. He was a man of great piety, and 
beloved by all. 

" Having many seafaring people among his hearers, whenever a 
merchant ship was going to sail, he specified the captain, the mate, 
the carpenter, the boatswain, and all the sailors with great affection, 
and it is said that, impressed with a belief of the benefit of his prayers, 
they frequently brought him home, as a token of gratitude, something 
of the produce of the country to which they went." He died in 1796, 
aged seventy-three years. 

The following notice appears in the Evangelical Magazine, 31st 
December, 1800 : " The Rev. Ben Gaft'ee, late of Homerton Academy, 
was ordained to the pastoral office over the church in New Broad 
Street, lately under the care of the Rev. Dr. Stafford deceased. The 
Eev. Joseph Brocksbank began with prayer and reading the scriptures ; 
Dr. Fisher explained the nature of a Gospel church, and asked the 
questions ; Mr. Child, a deacon of the church, declared the proceedings 
of the church since the death of their pastor ; Mr. Gaffee declared his 
profession of faith ; Mr. Gaffee, of Hatfield Heath, prayed the 
Ordination Prayer ; Mr. Good delivered the charge from Acts xviii., 
25 ; Mr. Barber offered the general prayer ; Mr. Knight, of Southwark, 



preached to the people from II. Chron. xv., 2 ; and Mr. Ford, of 
Stepney, concluded with prayer. Mr. Wall gave out the hymn. A 
very large auditory attended, and the whole service was conducted 
with much solemnity. This place of worship was built in 1727, and 
from that time to the present [a space of seventy-three years] it is 
worthy of remark that the church has had but two pastors Dr. Guyse 
and Dr. Stafford." 



pinners' 1ball, It) Broafc Street. 

This old hall sustained, for more than a century, the reputation 
of being one of the most celebrated places of worship among the 
Dissenters. The building stood at the upper end of Pinners' Court. 
It was an ancient structure with six galleries, having originally been 
part of an Augustine priory, and afterwards converted into a building 
for the manufacture of Venetian glass. For many years it was known 
as the " Glass House in Old Broad Street." The celebrity of this 
chapel was occasioned in a large degree by the establishment here 
of the " Merchants' Lecture," which was first commenced in the year 
1672, and conducted for many years by some of the most distinguished 
preachers of the day. 

Four Independents were joined to two Presbyterians to preach by 
turns. Dr. Manton, Dr. Owen, and Mr. Baxter were among the 
first lecturers. Following these were John Howe, Matthew Mead, 
Vincent Allsop, and Daniel Williams, the munificent founder of the 
library which still bears his name. 

The old hall was crowded with listeners, many of whom travelled 
on foot from distant suburbs to attend these lectures. 

The agreement, however, which had been entered into between 
the Presbyterians and Independents, did not last very long, for we find 
that in 1694 an open breach on doctrinal matters took place, which 
was never healed up. 

Four of the dissentients Dr. Baker, Mr. Howe, Mr. Allsop, and 
Mr. Williams removed to Salters' Hall,' Cannon Street, where a 
rival lecture was set up at the same day and hour. Two only remained 
at Pinners' Hall Mr. Cole and Mr. Mead to whom an addition of 
four names of the Independent connection was afterwards made. 



101 

Mr. Cole was a very famous preacher in his day. He had been 
Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford. Coming from there to London, 
he took an active part in all the religious controversies of the day. He 
died in 1697. 

The lecture, after having remained at Pinners' Hall for one 
hundred and six years, was removed to a chapel in Great St. Helen's, 
after which, in 1778, it was removed to the chapel in New Broad 
Street. In 1844, the lecture was removed to the Poultry Chapel, when 
the attendances were so small that the services were held in the 
vestry. It was afterwards removed to the Weigh House Chapel. 

It. was to Pinners' Hall that Sir Humphry Edwin, when Lord 
Mayor in 1698, carried the regalia of his office. Toulmin, in his 
" History of the Dissenters," thus writes of this action : " The conduct 
of Sir Humphry Edwin, a Dissenter and the Lord Mayor of London 
this year, in carrying the regalia of his office to the meeting house at 
Pinners' Hall, will be deemed by many to have been injudicious, and 
in those times of irritation calculated to raise jealousy and influence 
the passions. The fact is that unhappy consequences arose from it, 
both in this and the succeeding reign. It was represented by a warm 
advocate for the church, not only as a reproach to the laws and magis- 
tracy of the City that the Mayor should carry a sword of state with 
him, as the divine elegantly expresses himself, ' to a nasty conventicle ' 
that was kept in one of the City halls, but as ' a horrid crime.' " 

The first minister was the Rev. Anthony Palmer, who, quoting an 
Oxford historian, " carried on the trade of conventicling to the last, 
and was buried in the phanatical burying ground joining old Bedlam 
near to Moorfields by London." No doubt this refers to Bunhill 
Fields. 

Richard Worell succeeded. He was the son of a Royalist mayor 
in the Isle of Wight. He had offers of preferment if he would 
conform, but he said " I will risk comfort and freedom if the people 
at Pinners' will openly hazard their money" and they did so, among 
whom was Sir Henry Tulse, Lord Mayor. Mr. Worell died in 1705. 

Isaac Watts preached here for four years on Sunday afternoons 
previous to his going to Bury Street, and on Saturdays a Society of 
Seventh Day Baptists had the old hall to themselves. Their minister 
was Thomas Bampfield, who had held a living in Dorsetshire and was 
one of the prebendaries in Exeter Cathedral. These preferments he 



102 

resigned on the passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1662, but they 
were restored to him at the Restoration. He died in Newgate, 1684, 
aged seventy years, and was buried "amidst a large concourse of 
spectators, in the burial ground behind the Baptist meeting house in 
Glass House Yard." * 

In 1690, Mr. Joseph Stennett was appointed pastor to the church, 
and it is related that " though they were able to do but little towards 
the support of his family, which proved numerous, yet no temptation 
could ever prevail on him to leave them, but he continued their faithful 
and most affectionate pastor to his dying day" (Ivimey). He died in 
1718, aged forty-nine years. 

In 1710, Jeremiah Hunt, who had come from Norwich, was 
appointed minister of the church. Mr. Pike observes that Mr. Hunt's 
" election was an unfortunate procedure, for it marked the fatal first 
step towards a declension in doctrine and prosperity." 

In 1727, Mr. Edmund Townsend was appointed minister of the 
church. Mr. Ivimey says : " He was a worthy and respectable man, 
and though not particularly distinguished for literary attainments, was 
yet a useful minister, and greatly esteemed in his day." He died in 
1763, having been for some time incapable of preaching. He was 
buried in the ground behind the Baptist meeting house in Mill Yard. 

The church continued at Pinners' Hall until 1727, when it was 
removed to Curriers' Hall, and in 1799 to Redcross Street, and from 
thence to Devonshire Square. Writing in 1808, Mr. Wilson says : " The 
last few divines connected with this ancient meeting house were of a 
very different stamp to their predecessors, and preached, to a great 
extent, to empty pews." 

Writing in 1812, Mr. Ivimey, in his history, says : " This church 
is reduced to about six members, and the congregation is not much 
more numerous." 

It was in this hall that John Bunyan preached his sermon on 
" The Greatness of the Soul," published in 1683. It is described on 
the title page as " First Preached in Pinners' Hall." 

A writer of the day says : " When Mr. Bunyan preached in 
London, if there were but one day's notice given, there would be more 
people come together to hear him preach than the meeting house 

* Vide Devonshire Square. 



103 

could hold. I have seen, to hear him preach, by my computation,- 
about eleven hundred at a morning lecture by seven o'clock on a 
working day in the winter time." 

The following lines on ministers of the day are from the 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1736. They are entitled : " Verses Made on 
the Dissenting Ministers and Found at Hamlin's Coffee House. By an 
Uncertain Author": 

" Behold how papal Wright, with lordly pride 
Divides his haughty eye on either side, 
Gives forth his doctrine with imperious nod, 
And fraught with pride, addresses e'en his God. 

Not so the gentle Watts ; in him we find 
The fairest portion of a humble mind ; 
In him the softest, meekest virtue dwells, 
As mild, as light, as soft as evening gales. 
Tuning melodious nonsense, Bradbury stands 
With head uplifted, and with dancing hands ; 
Prone to sedition, and to slander free, 
Sackerville Hore was but a type of thee. 

Mark how the pious matrons flock around, 
Pleased with the tone of Guyse's empty sound ; 
How sweetly each unmeaning period flows, 
To lull the audience to a gentle doze. 

Eternal Bragge, in never-ending strains, 
Unfolds the wonders Joseph's coat contains ; 
Of every hue describes a different cause, 
And from each patch a solemn history draws. 

With soundest judgment and with nicest skill, 
The learned Hunt explains his Master's will, 
So just his meaning and his sense so true, 
He only pleases the discerning few. 
But see the accomplished orator appear, 
Refined in language and his reasoning clear, 
Thou only, Foster, hast the pleasing art 
At once to charm the ear and mend the heart." 



104 

We have now completed our circuit round the old City, and 
have, in some small degree, gathered together the histories of the many 
old chapels and meeting houses existing during the last two centuries, 
the nature of the work carried on in them, and the kind of men who 
carried on that work. Many serious imperfections must have been 
noticed in their lives ; at the same time, much noble and self-denying 
work was carried on under the most trying and difficult circumstances. 
Let us, who live in the happier days of true religious liberty, endeavour 
to follow the examples of patience and fortitude so nobly set by those 
old ministers now at rest. 



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