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Full text of "The Catholic Church in Utah : a review of Spanish and missionary explorations, tribal divisions ... the journal of the Franciscan explorers and discoverers of Utah Lake, the trailing of priests from Santa Fé, N. M"





1776 - 1909 

Dean Harris 

Issllcd Undcr 
Ausþices 0/ the 
Knights if Columbus 
Statc 0/ LTtah 





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The Gatholìc Ghurchìn Utah 





A review of Spanish and Missionary Explorations. 
Tribal Divisions. names and regional habitats of 
the pre-European Tribes. The Journal of the 
Franciscan Explorers and discoverers of Utah 
Lake. The trailing of the Priests from Santa Fe. 
N. M.. with Map of Route. Illustrations and delimi- 
tations of the Great Basin. 




Early Missions of Western Canada. Days and Nights in the 
Tropics. Tribes of the Dominion. Etc. 



HGather up the fragments that remain. lest they be I"st. n 
(J ohn. VI..12.) 
HGather up the letters of the past. gather up the traditions. 
gather up the pamphlets. gather up the records that are so essential 
for the fulness of our Catholic history. for surely our Catholic people 
have no reason to be ashamed but every reason to be proud of their 
glorious traditions. n 
Governor John Lee of Maryland. to the Catholic. 

Histori<..al Society. Philadelphia. March. 1894. 

Bishop of Salt Lake 
Assistant at the Pontifical Throne. Etc. 
fhis History of his Diocese is gratefully and affectionately 
inscribed by The Author. 



Doctrines Held by Catholics-Essential Articles of Christian Belief-One Reye- 
lation, One True Religion-Opinions of De:\Iaistre and James A.nthony 
Froude- The Catholic Church a Perfect Society-Peter, Its Visible Head- 
The Deposit of Faith-Infallibility-Importance of Tradition-The Church 
and Tradition-Confession of Sins-Penance a Divine Institution-Doc- 
trine of Indulgence-The Sacrifice of the :\bss-The Blessed Eucharist- 
\\"hat of Our Dead?- The Blessed Virgin-An lTnmarried Priesthood.- 
Page I. 


Religious Orùers of the Catholic Church-Opinions of Protestant Historians- 
Explorations of the l\lissionaries-Dangers \Vhich Encompassed Them- 
Trials and Tribulations-Left Eloquent l\Iemorials-Parkman's Acknowl- 
ments of Jesuit and Franciscan :\Iissionaries- Their 
Heroism-Their \\'ritings and Result of Th
ir Study of the Natiye Tribes. 
- Page 30. 


Area of Salt Lake Diocese-Tribes of Arizona and New i\Iexico-The Moqui 
"Cliff People"-The Priest SIarcos de Nizza-Companion of Pi7arro-His 
\\"onderful Career-On the way to the Zuni Villages-De Nizza's Tramp 
through Northern 
Iexico-His Plunge Into Arizona in 1539-Death of the 
Xegro Esta,'an-View of Cibula-Return and Death of the Priest.-Page 39. 


March of Coronado for the Cihola-His Companions-Death of the Priest Juan 
de la Cruz-Of Brother Luis Descalano-Father Padilla and Pedro de 
Tobar Visit the 
Ioquis-l\[arch of Coronado and Padilla Through Okla- 
homa and Indian Territory in J5_p-Enter Kansas-Crossing the .\rkansas 
-Return of Coronado-Padilla's Journey to the Teton Sioux-Starts for 
Lands of the Pawnees-Is 
ever RecowreJ-:\,fota-Pa- 
dil1a's Account.- Page -tí. 


The Ruis Expedition of IS81-Flight of the Soldiers-l\Iurder of the Priest 
Iaria-Death of Father Lopez-Espajo to the Rescue-Arri,"es in 
the Villages of the Teguans-Return of the Party-Onate Organizes His 
Expedition for Zuni by the Rio Grande-Building of First Church in New 

Iexico-EÀplüring the Colorado-Founding of Santa Fe in 1606-0pening 
Iissions Among the ZUllis--Building of C1mrches.-Pagc 50. 



Number of Churches in r649-The Zuni Conspiracy-Revolt of the Tribes and 
::\Iassacre of the Spaniards-Slaughter of the Priests-Capture of Santa Fe 
-The "Forlorn Hope"-Desperate Charge of the Spaniards-Stampede of 
the Indians-On to El Paso-Return of Onate to Santa Fe-Submission 
of the Tribes-Reconquest of New ::\Iexico-Popl1lation-Human Sacrifice 
-Exploring the Colorado.-Page 55. 
Failure to Account for American Indian-Distribution of the Tribes-
Stocks and Tribal Affinities-Indians of the St. Lawrence Regions of the 
Canadian Northwest-Tribes East and \Yest of the Missouri-Sedentary 
Tribes-The Hunters and Rovers-Prohibition of Intermarriage in the Clan 
-Religion of the Aborigines-Indian Population in I6I2.-Page 61. 

l\Ioral Debasement of the Tribes-The Man of Nature-Inhuman Hardheart 
edness-\Vithol1t Religion, \Vithol1t Morality-No \\ford for Virtue, Re- 
ligion, Charity-Degradation of \Vomen-Her Position in the Camp-Sav- 
ages' Contempt for the Sanctity of Life-Treatment of Prisoners-Human 
Flesh Eaters-Phantom Gods.-Page 67. 

Some Redeeming Features-Tribal Hospitality and Generosity-Ferocity to An 
Enemy-Appalling Cruelty-Frightful Torture of a Foe-Spartan Stoicism 
-Rousseau's "Ideal ::\Ian"-Chateaubrianù's Declaration-Final Submission. 
- Page 72. 
::\Iissionary l\Iap of North America--Jesuits East of Mississippi-Their \\'on- 
derful Success-The Canadian Tribes-With the \Vandering Hordes- 
Jesuit Martyrs-The Franciscans-Martyrs of the Order-Plunge of Fran- 
ciscans Into the Desert-Testimony of Historians-Glory of Confessor:;, 
Saints and ::\Iartyrs.- Page 76. 

The Religious Orders-Pronouncement of Pius IX-Origin of Name Francis- 
can-Distinguished Men of the Order-As Missionaries-Francis of Assisi- 
His Conversion-Journey to Rome-Interview \Vith the Pope-Selecting 
the Twelve-Renouncing the \Vorld-Their 
Iission to the Poor-Love for 
Poverty-Brothers of the Lepers-Apparitions on the Streets of Naples.- 
Page 82. 

Their First Official ::\Ieeting-Expansion of the Order-Its Influence in the Dis- 
covery of America-Francis of Calabria and the Queen-Founding of City 
of San Domingo, Hayti-Pioneers of the Faith in America-Friends of the 
Indian-Denouncing the Slave Trade-Col1\'ersion of the Tribes-Marvel- 
ous Success of the Franciscans-.\uthorities Cited-Diego Landa-::\Iis- 
sionaries and Explorers.-Pagc 88. 



\rri\"al in Mexico-Assignment to Zuni-Laud-Visits the l\loquis-\Vrites 
to Father Garces-Garces' Extraordinary Career-His Explorations in Ari- 
zona and California-First White Man to Cross Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado-Opens the Oldest of the "Spanish Trails"-Escalante Attempts 
Crossing of the Canyon-His Letter on the Moquis-Return to the Zunis- 
Called to Santa Fe-Codifys ::'-Jew )'Iexican Archives-.'\pache Cruelty- 
Escalante's Retirement and Death.-Page 9-l. 

\Vhy the Franciscans Did 
ot Enter the Basin-Area of the Basin-Its Pri- 
mordial State-Its Deserts and )'lountains-Frightful Solitude Awed Deso- 
lation-The Wasatch Range-"Tierra de los Padres"-Animal Life of Great 
Basin- J unipero Serra Enters at the South-Tribes \Vithin the Basin- 
Franciscans begin to Ci\"ilize Them-Seeking a Trans-territorial Route.- 
Page 100. 

Habits, )'Iode of Life and )'Ianners of Tribe-First Mention of Utes-Raids 
of the Utes-Attack Viceregal Quarters-Territory Claimed by Utes-The 
"Bendito."-Salutation Among Pueblo Indians-Lte Cabins-Their Food 
and Dress-Status of \Voman in the Tribe-Her Degradation-)'Iethods 
of Cooking Food-The Ute \Varrior-Before the Fight and After-Habits 
of the Tribe-Village Life-Absence of 
\ll )'Iorality.-Page 106. 
Frightful Contempt for ::\loral Law-Religion of Utes-.\ Tissue of Absurd 
Superstitions-Belief in Immortality of Animals-In Bows, .'\rrows and 
\Var Clubs-The \Vah-Kon-The Autmoin or Priest-Doctor-His Exor- 
cisms-The Treatment of the Sick-The Feast of the Dead-The "Sor- 
cerers" of Salt Lake-Their Origin-The Jacarilla-Apache-Simpson's Ex- 
perience \Vith the Group-Their Filthy Habits-Their Food-Human Flesh 
Eaters-Mourning Customs of the \Vomen-End of the Fighting Tribes. 
-Page II3. 


rrhe title of thi
 volunle sufficiently indicate::, its charac- 
ter and its purport. This work, in all probability, would not 
haye been .written in our tiule if eonditions and cin'unlstanees 
did not Inake for its production. The people at large in our 

tern regions know nothing of the visit of the Rpan- 
ish priests to Ftah Lake; eyen learned IneH, until now. have 
thought that Bonneyille or Bridger first nlade known to the 
outside world the existence of our inland salt 
Though referred to by scholars and historian
, andnnlti- 
lated excerpts printed by Hinlpson in his RelJOrt. written in 
1839, very few readers were aware of the existence of the 
Journal of the Franci
can priests who entered our iuuue- 
diate neighuorhood one hundred and thirty-four years ago 
and preached Christianity to the Ute Indians. 
Though drawn upon liherally hy Baneroft in hi
 .. Hi
tory of Utah," and attention cuurteously attracted to it b
Elliott Cones in ,. (hI the rrrail of a Spanish Pioneer," the 
"Diario" or .Journal of Fathers DOlninguez and de Esca- 
lante is altogether unknnwn in our country, and is now, for 
the first time we believe, translated and given to thp puhlic 
iI! this history. If the .J ournal presents us with no fact of 
Ï1nportance, apart frOlll the discovery of Ltah Lake and the 
;:istence of the <treat Halt Lake, it has nevertheless a lllel'it 
pecnliarly its own. 
The description which it gives of the countr

 and of its 
geographic position, the inforulation we receive on clinultic 
cunditiülu; then obtaining, on the hahits, customs and lllan- 
tiers of the trihes, and particularly the knowledge we ohtain 
of the topographical features of our region in those early 
days. renlain as lllenlorial tahlets of our earlv historv which 

we love to trace hack to its prin1Ïtive source. K or was it 
known, even to the 
elect few, that the great Il1ISSlOnary 



and explorer, Father De Snwt, pas
ed through Salt Lake 
Ya I ley in Ib-l:l, and fhTe years afterward
 llWt the :\Ionnon 
prophet, Brigham ï oung, and unfolded before the eyes of 
r onnon leader a panormna of the '
alley of the Great 
Salt Lake. 
Again, we were affectionately nloyed to ènter upon the 
preparation of this history while the pioneer and practically 
the founder of Catholicism in Utah and Neyada was yet liy- 
ing and llloying alllong us as a friend. Bishop Scanlan 
knows lllore of the history of the Catholic Church in Utah 
and Neyada than any liying man. 
ro hiln we Wf'nt for in- 
fornmtion, or when in doubt, upon any item bearing upon 
pioneer tinles. For his courtesy to us and his forbearance 
"Then we often put a severe tax upon hi:::. tinIe and patience it 
if, idle to adr1 anything here. 

rhe closing chapter of this history, entitled" Hkf'tch of 
the Life of Bishop Scanlan," is written and published with- 
out eonsultillg his Lordship. ] [e knows nothing of it, and 
will not, till the title confronts hi1n in this work. 'Ye would 
like to haye inten-iewed hin1 for the chapter, but we had a 
presentiluent that our reC'eption nlÏght he an exC'eptioll to 
the habitually gracious and friendly g;reeting with whi('h 11(-> 
recciYf'd us at all timeç; and on all other Blatters. 
The expeetation of presenting the Bishop with a eopy 
of the history of his dioeese, the l110rning his great Catlwdral 
is C'onscC'rated. has unduly hurried us and lllust ;:,crve as our 
apology for allY errors which nlay haye escaped our notice 
and for the defeets of st
-le and cOlnpositio11 too painfully 
pr01nincnt on the faf'e of the work and in our translation of 
tlll' Rpanish .J onrlla1. 
The author begs to adnlowlec1ge his indcbtcdne
s to ::\11'. 
F],f'driC'k "
. Rf'ofif'ld, consulting engineer, for his g(-'nerous 
aid in preparing the ('haptpr which CO\'(,l'S the itincrary of 
tl1(' Franciscan priC'st:-- and tIle tracing of their route on 
the Escalante nlap. 
To GC'or
e \\r. Keel, ES(h of 
[l'xico City, ,yho, at C011- 

iderahle iUeOllYCllience to hilnself, obtained the Spanish 



transcript of }1'ray Escalante'8 .. Diario," and for hi
tesy in searching, for thi" history, lllaterial allloug the 
archives of the 
Iexican Kational LiLrary. the 3uthor begs 
to express the assurance of his appreciation. 
SALT LAKE CITY", .r anuary 2
), ] 909. 

Pioneers of the Faith 



JJuctrines Held by Catholics-Essential ..Llrticles of Christian 
Edief-One Rez:elation, One Truc Religion-Opinions of 
DeJ/aistre and James Anthony Frollde-The Catholic 
Church a Perfect Society-Peter Its risible Head-The 
D( posit of Faith-Infallibility-Importance of .Tradition 
--The ChuTch and TTadition-Confession of Sins-Pen- 
aNce a Dirine Institution-Doctrine of Indulgence-The 
Sacrifice of the JIass-The Blessed Ellcharist-Tf'1wt of 
Ollr Deaa?-The Blessed rïrgin-An Unmarried Priest- 
,Yhen relluested to write the introductory chapter for the 
history of the Catholic Church in 17tah, it occurred to lne that 
a brief exposition of Catholic doctrine and belief would be a 
salutary and useful preface to a history dealing with the early 
and present work of Catholic nlisslonary life in Ollr state. 
Early in .Llugust, a special cable dispatch from Rome 
lgr. -,Merry del ,... aI, Papal Secretary of State, to 
haye said that ":ßIany observant non-Catholics had told him 
that yery IHany English-speaking people would be prepared to 
arcept in their entirety the teaching'S of the ROluan Catholic 
Church, did they but know thCln as they were." 
During IllY lllissionary life extending over a period of 
forty years, ] lwye rereiyed llH1n

, \Tpr
- luany, conyerts into 
the Church, and in lllunberless instances I was told that 
111any of their friends were restrained fronl entering the 
Church hy ignoranee of its dortrinps, early prejudices and, 
in too nlany cases, by the religious indifference and care- 
l('SSIlPSS of nlany of their Cathulic acquaintances. 
I trust that this authoritatÏ\Te statenlent of what Catholics 
.helieye and are taught, lllay help to relllOye prejudice froln 



the n1Ïnd
 of our 
eparated Lrethren and instruct Catholics. 
thelllSelyes Oll nlany points of Catholic doctrine whieh they 
accept "Tithout being able to "
atisfy eyeryone that a
keth a 
on for the hope that i
 in you. "-(1 Pet. iii, 13.) 
In this :5UIUlllary of Catholic doctrine it will be asslllned 
that the reader knows already the prillcipa.l religions truths 
which all professing Christian
 are buppo:,ed to Lelieve. 
Among thelll I include the Lnity and Trinity of God} the Di- 
vinity of Our Lord and Ilis Resurreetion frolli the t0111h. The 
inllnortality of the 
oul, t.he iUllnutable existence of God, and 
ciousne:::'s of a jlldgulent to COlne, are eleulental 
 conlmon to the human r:H'e. 
But we, Catholics, hold in addition to these truths that 
God the Son, the 
econd Person of the IIoly Trinity, as- 
suuled our hUlnan nature and he('
une nlan; that llis COlH'ep- 
tion in the wOlnb of the Virgin ::\lary "Ta
 "Trought Ly the 
Holy Ghost; that IIi
 birth "Tas in the natural order, likß- 
unto our o"Tn. ,Ve believe that Ly His life, teaehiug, lllira- 
des, death and resurrection, lIe proved that JIe "Tas what 
lIe claimed to Le, true Uod and true luan-having two dis- 
tinct and perff'd natures, the lnunan aud the diyine, united 
in one divine personality. 
I,r e believe that tbis Divine Person, .J psU
 L"ihri I;,;t, ()ur 
Lord and 
Iaster, rehabilitated and redeenled our race b
T IEs 
sufferings and death on Calvary; that lIe is the one and only 

rediator; that there is no other uaUle under heayen b
T which 
lnen can be sa,Tecl than the nallIe of .J esus Christ, ()ur Lord. 
,Yhile all Christians hold that Christ wislws all lnen to L
saved, all do not agree regarding the doetrint'S He taught and 
the n1eans He pro\Tidpcl for our salvatioll. Non-Catholics 
maintain that thE' Bible, and the Bihle alOllP. fonu
 tlw foun- 
dation of Christian belief and contains all truths lleC{\S
ary for 
Catholics hold that Christ estahlished a Chul'<'h, and to 
that Church fIe intrusted the lneans of salvation and charged 
it "Tith interprE'ting the Bih]e. This Church is popularly 
known as the ROlllan Catholic religion. But what is re- 



 It is the theoretical and practical recognition by men 
of their relation
, their selTire and duty to God. 
It i
 conceded by uniYer
al rea
on that all nlen are és
tially equal in their spiritual relation to God, because all men 
are etlually ereature:-; and all are beings cOlnp0sed of body and 

oul. ......\s rational C'reatures they owe a 
uprenle wor
hip to 
their Creator. and that worship ought to be internal and ex- 
ternal, that is to say, a \'isible and Ülvisible worship-the 
adoration of the soul and the wor
hip of the body. 

\s there i
 but one true nod. religion, to be a reyelation 
and divine, HUlst be one and one only. The reasons which 
prove that religion lllust be one lllake it also clear that that 
cne religion should be universaL for alllllen and for all tÍlue; 
2nd unchangeable or unalterable, for God C'annot change, nor 
shoula lnan ':-; essential relations to God ehallge when these 
.relations are fixed by an nnchangf'ablf' God. 
Though there is and can be (July one true religion, this 
Teligioll i
 natural or patriarchal and 
upernatural or re- 
yealed. ......\nd of re\'ealed religion there was the )[o:-:aic or 
Jewish. which beCHnlf' the Christian relig"ion ",,
hen God, 
through IIi::; 
on .r esu
 Christ, cOlnpleted His revel a tion a11d 
supreme 111e:-;:..;age to lnan. 
\Ye have here to deal ",,
ith the Christian religion alone, 
w'hicb include:-- the truths of aU religions. and whiC'h may be 
..lefinecl as the SUlunu1ry of aU the truths ",,'hic>h (loel has re- 
yealed to u:..;, of all the laws ",,
hich regulate tlH
 conduct of the 

oul in it::; relation with its Creator. and of all the external 
1.1lCans of grare anf1 salvation whieh lIe has proyidecl for us 
"rjÜle we are on this earth. 
,Ye nlaintain that the Chri:-;tian religion, the religion of 
Christ, is and can only be the Catholic religion. The (1atholic 
Church is the divinely established institution for preselTing 
intact and l.lchTancing tl1P Christian religion; and that Church 
'lnay he descrihed as a visible. well-defined and organized 
:ïilloral body, or society, established hy (1hl'ist. the ÌlllPt--'rish- 
.::thlC' soul of whieh i
 the Holy Ghost. 
To the non-( iatholic who views the Catholic Church as 



Silllply a human institution, her perpetuity and indestructibil- 
ity \\'"iII ever renlain an insoluble probleln. The Catholic, how- 
eyer, is confronted \\'"ith no rational difficulty; he cunllJares 
the Church to the hUlnan body, differentiating, of course,. 
the natural froln the supernatural, the lnullall fro III the- 
..:\ s the vital principle of the hllllian body is the inde
ible soul, al1inla ting all its parts a nd eYer
T a t01n of its phys- 
ical being, the Ïlllperishable soul of the <- 
atho]ic Church is. 
the IIoly Ghost. No\\'" so long as the ::,oul reulLÚns \yith the 
body, nlan lives and arts, and so long as the IIol
T Spirit
anÏ1nating principle of the corporate hody of the Churclt 
abidés within it, the Church ('annot perish. 

ud a
 \\'"e have 
the ever-ahiding word of our Blesseù Hedeenler that the lIoly 
Ghost "Tould be with the Chur('h until the end of tiule, th
Church nlust live while tinle endures. 
Kor is her iInmortality lill1Ïted b
T lo('ality, for her illflu- 
 "Tithin her own sphere, is as far-reaching as the all- 
po\\'"erful ann of the Eternal I
That distinguished }-'rench philo
opher, Joseph lJe1Iais- 
tre, rose fronl the study of the religious lllovenwuts of the- 
seventeenth and eighteenth centurif'
 with tlw ('onvietion 
that .. Heresy can never 
uccessfully cOlllpett-' \\'"ith, or hold 
its own, against the Catholie Chureh, unless supported by th
strong arlll of n1Ílitary power." 
trong is the exprt.:-.:-:ion of wonder on the part 
of the Protestant historian, .1 mlieS .Antholl
T Fronde. In hiE: 
\\'"ork on the "Revival of H01uanislll," he tells us that "The 
tide of kllowleJge and the tide of outward event
,,'iih equal force in the direction opposite to HOlnallislli. Yet,. 
in spite of it, perhaps h
T lueans of it, as a kite rises against 
the \\'"ind, tlw ROl1mn Catholic Church has onl"e n10re shot up 
into yisible and practical consequence. If she loses groull(l i
Spain and Italy, she is gaiuing Ül the lllodcrn, en('rgetic races,; 
which have lJeen the stronghold of Prote
tantisnl. rIel' lnelll- 
hers increase, her organization gathers vigor, her C'lerg
T are:- 
energetiC' and aggressive. She has takpn into her :-;elTiee hf'r 
old enel11Y, the pres
. ,Vhat is the Jlleaning," he asks, "of' 



so strange a phenoinenoll! Is it becau'5e science is creeping 
like 8 snake upon the ground, eating dust and bringing forth 
111aterialisln, that the CatholiC' (1hu1'('h, in spite of her errors, 
keeps aliye the consciousne:-:s of our spiritual being, the hope 
of our illllllortality!" 
In another part of this remarkahle essay he claiins that 
,. Home counts her C'onverts froni Protestantislll by tens, while 
she loses but here and thE'1'e an unÏ1nportant unit. " 
SonlP years before the tide of conversions had set in to- 
ward the Catholic ChurC'h in 
ngland and ....\tneriea, and when 
1f r. Froude was bpginnillg to elnergE' froin olJ
curity, Lord 
)faeaulay was exan1Ïning the nIyster
T of the indestructihility 
of the CathoJic Church. "There is not," he exelainls, "and 
therp ne\Tpr was on this E'arth an institution of lnllnan policy 
so desclTing of E'xaIllination a:-; the Runlan Catholic Church." 







The Catholic Cluueh is a perfec.t society
 a supernatural 
society, a society fOllndE'd by Christ for the :.mlvation of thp 
Inn11an raee. But the 
hurch is a :,ociety of liying' men, and 
therefore nlust be a visihle society. It is a soeiety for alluwn 
who would he saved and lllUSt therefore be a perpetual soci- 
ety. X 0 society can exist without a head, a center
 an author- 
ity, a governing power. Uur Diyine Lord hefore organizing 
His soeiety and E'stahlishing His [ihurch chosp one of His 
disc'iples and appointed hinl head of thE' :-5ociety or Church 
He was soon to institute. "Thou art Peter," spokE' our 
Saviour to this diseiple, "and on (thee) this rock I win build 
:\[y Church." 
Had the disciple
 of Christ chosen the visible foundation 
they would hayp had power to ehange it. rIad Peter hilllsE'lf, 
T divinf' appointment, estahlished the Church, Peter could 
claÏ1u a right to alter or lllollify its doctrines. But when 
Christ IIÜllsplf chose the hE'ad and huilt lIis Church. no 
power on earth can destroy it, and all hell can not prevail 
against it. 
Now as the Divine Founder wa
 soon to go to the FathE'r' 
and leave for all tilne a visihle society to perpetuate His 



doctrines, it was necessary that a visible head should pre
oyer this society, and so fIe ulade Peter that head and Hi
yisible successor on E'arth, ".ith superlnunan power to rule 
His Church. and iu and throngh his lawful successors to rule 
it to the end of tilne. This is what WE' Catholics mean by the 
Suprenlacy of St. Petf'r and of thE' Pope of Ronle as his law- 
ful successor. 
The Church of Christ is OIle, holy, Catholic and .Apostoli
The [ihurch is one in its Sacrifice, its sacraments, and it
doctrines. ....\..nd this oneness excludes all Ill1l1tiplicity, all 
diyision, all cliyersity, for Christ said: 
"On thE'E', Peter, I will build :l\Iy Church (not churches), 
to thee I will giye the kE'Ys; feed l\I
T Iamhs, feE'd 
there shall be one flock and one 
By cliyine prerept aU are bound to be within this Church 
h Our Lord cOlllpared to a sheepfold. "lIe that hears 
you, hears :ßI e; he that will not hear thE' Churrh, IE't hilll be 
3-- the heathen. As the Father hath sent 
Ie, I send you; go 
teach aU nations; preach the gospel to eYer
. creaturE'; he who 
belieyes and is baptized shall be saved; he who believeth not 
shall be condenlnecl." 
an he onl
T one true Church, and aU are COln- 
Illanded by Christ to belong to that Church. TIe who knows 
this will of [ihrist and this ohligation and does not obey, 
cannot be in the ".ay of salvation. 
A ('hurch teaching- supernatural truth, nl
.;.:terious truth 
beyond hunlan nnder
tanding, Innst hp an infallihle ('hurch, 
especially if tren1elHlons penaltips {l<'C'Olllpall
. a c1E'tE'l"lnina- 
tion not to listen to its voice. lIenee our Lord luade His 
[1lnurh infa]]ihle on the instanre He nlade it divine. "I will 
be with 

ou always, even to tllE' end of tiIne." and again: "1 
wilJ sencl you the Holy Spirit. the spirit of truth, to teach 
you. and lIe will ahide with you foreyer." 
,Yithout an infallible church thel"P ('an hf' no faith, no cer- 
tainty, and thereforE' no supreme obligation to believe. The 
only church on earth that lnakes good her c1ainl to infallihil- 
ity is the Ronlan Catholic Church. 
he not only clainls ill- 



fallibility, hut 
ltf' exerei
 and lllake
 her claÏ1n operatiye 
through (1) General counril
. (
) rrhe yoice of her hishops 
in union with the See of Peter. (

) The Pope. the head of 
the Chul'('h, tf'aehing ex cathedra, ur a
 the YICar ur repre- 
sentatiye of Christ on earth. 







\Yhat, then, do we ll1eall by a

ertiDg Papal infa1libility1 
1Ye lllean that the Hoyereigll Pontiff i
, b

 di'Tine appointnlent 
and as surce:-;:-;or to Rt. Pf'ter, diyinely proteeted and exelupt 
frolll error when, in the exel'ei
p of his exalted offiee, he de- 
fines what is of faith, that i
 what we are to belieye, touching 
doctrines awl lnorals. Ilere is what the '''-atiean COllnril, 
enting the uniyersal ChurdL. proelaÎl11s in referenee to 
 subject: .. ,Ye teach and define jt to ùe a dognla c1h-inely 
reycaled that when the HOl11an Pontiff 
, e.r rathrdrrt, 
that is, ,,-hen in di
('hargf' of the office and as teacher of all 
Christians, b
- yirÌlw of his suprelné apusiolil' authority, 
he <Ìefine
 that a ùoctrine regarding faith or nlOrals i
 to be 
held b
- the nniYe]'
al Chureh, he enjoys by tlw diyilw assist- 
ance pronlÏsecl to hinl in ble

ed Pptpr that infal1ibility with 
which the Diyine Redeemer wille(ll-lis (ihurch to be endowed 
in defining a dodriue rf'ganling faith or 11l0raIs." 
l t is l11os1 iUlportant that wp hold clear and aecurate nwan- 
ing on this suhject. 
\ definition of faith is not the crea- 
tiOll of a new doctrine, but is RiL11pl
- an official c1erlaration by' 
the Churrh, or h
- the SUpreUlf' Pontiff, that a defined doc- 
trine is containpd in the df'posit. or legaey. or r<'yealpd truth, 
left u
 by Christ. 
.. "That is a deposit!" a
ks St. Yillrent of Lerins. . .It is 
that whieh is intrustpd to yuu. not that \d1Ï('h is tlip fruit of 
your inyention; it is what yon ha,Te receiyed. not ,\-hat you 
haye deyised; it i
 not a pl'iyate asslunption of authority, 
n affair of puhlic transllli
 a thing tnulSlnitted to 
)-ou. not produeed hy you." (De Pote
, Y. 
9.) The Church 
does not create a doctrine and ne,Ter clainl('(l the right to do 
so. She defiups what God has reycaled, and lift
 ahoye the 



regHHI of controversy doctrines contained in the deposit of 

\. definitiou of faith, then. is nut the inventiun or creation 
of a new doetriue, but is 
Ünply an authoritatiye or official 
prO!llulgation of a truth as old as Christiauity it
elf. Thus, 
a truth of re,Telation which 1Yê1S bE'fore iU1plieit, that is, en- 
ed as it 'Were in the deposit of all doctrinal or u10ra1 
truths, becomes, by the official yoiC'e or definition of the 
Church, a thing to be believed by E'VE'ry ulelnher of the Oath- 
oli(' Chureh under pain of exclusion frOl11 her cUlnnlunion. 
For eXt-Dnple. the doctrine of the InfallihiJit

 of thE' Pope was 
of np('pssit

 inf'ludpd in the deposit of faith, but the vast budy 
uf Catholies did not knuw it. and, until the voiee uf thp Church 
of God was heard proelaÏIning it to be of faith, wel'P not E'X- 
pected or hound to helipve it. I\Jter the (1hn1'('h had offi- 
cially dE'fined Papal Infallibility to lw includt'd in the revela- 
tion uf God to lnan, then it becalne ",,
hat i
 called a dogula, 
anù was to be accepted and lwlieYE'd lUHlpr pPllalty of C"'\:COl11- 
Papal Infallibility dOés not nlean that the Pope cannot 
sin. It is one thing to be exell1pt fl'OJll sin or the power of sin. 
ning, but it is quitp another to be divillel
T protected against 
doctrinal error, when teaching tlw things that are of Goù. 
Infallihility is not inspiration. Inspiration in1plies infal- 
libility, hut thp lattE'r dues not llecessaril
T IllE'an inspiration. 
By inspiration is lneant the ÏInpelling 'Will or intiuenee of the 
IIoly Ghost lnoving one to write or 
pf'ak, [lis will and pres- 
ence 11l0Yln?: the nlind of the individual. not allo",,'ing' hilll tu 
err, and influeneÏng hÏIll tu 'Write ur 
peak what God wi
13y infallibility is understoofl a special providE'nce or as- 
sistance fronl Hod by ,yhich the representativE' or 'Tiear of 
Christ on earth is preSl'lTed frunl all doctrinal error in 
tc.a('hing or defining all I1latters of faith and nlorals eontained 
in the deposit of truth alrpady reyealed. 
N O'W, there is nothing cuntrary tu reason and practical 
ense in belieying that God has gi'Tpn to the head of 
His Chul'('h this prerogati\Te of infallibility for the eonser- 
yatiun uf the ùOl'trines lIe reyealed for the benefit of the 



hUluan race. ....-lll infallible God proclaillls to luall truths 
'which must be believed even though they transcend the com- 
prehension of the lnunan nlind. It was neces
ary for the 
conservation and the correct exposition of these truths that 
the Church which He founded :should be infallible, otherwise 
we could not be held to believe them. 
\.n infallible God could 
not establish a Church suhject to error, and the exigencies of 
tiTHe and locaLit

 delllanded an infallible head for an infalli- 
bLe l)ody. There i
, therefore, nothing contrary to reason, 
nothing out of harnlony with God's dealings with men as ex- 
emplified in the lives of the inspired prophets and apostles, 
if God 
hields the suprenle head of the religion which He e:;- 
tablished on earth froln all doctrinal error in his capacity of 
Suprenle Teaeher. It is due to the InUllan rac'e that it should 
be so, for 1\'ithout infallibility there can be no unity and no 
cbligatioll to helieve. 







 arE' two diyiue sources of the (1hurch'
tea<,hillg-tlw s<,rivture and tradition, or the written and un- 
written word of God. Touching 1\ Y hat i
 known 3S the Bihle 
or Holy Sf'ripture, that i
, the Old and the Kew Testanlf'nts, 
the relation to and positiun of the Chureh uught to be well 
Tlw Church teaches that the Bible f'ontains the re\yealed 
'word of God, that it was written under the inspiration of the 
pirit; that, in the words of St. Paul to TiIllOthy: 
-\ll scripture inspired of aod is profitahle to teêlC'h, to l'e- 
proye, to f'OITef't, to instruf'Í unto justice." (II Tilll., iii, 16.) 
The Dible as we haye it to-day, hml1all]y speaking. owes its 
preselTation to the Catholic (1lnlr('h. During the bloody 
rseCl1tiollS, waged agaiIist Christianit
y for nearly four 
hundred year
 by the emperor:s of ROllle and the world, the 
Church preserved the scriptures frOln destruf'tion. She 
gluu.ded the Bible with luaterllal carp when the fierce hordes 
of nurthern barbarian
 swept oyer Europe, slaying, burning,. 
pillaging and devastating everything before and around 



j t wa
 tlIP Catholic Churc It tha t fixed the Canon of the 
Scripture; that i
 to say", she c1eterrniu(J<1, for all t11ne, what 
'writings were to be accepted as in::-:pired and what ,,,ere to be 
rejeete<1 a
 of lnullan invention. Hhe ,
eparated thf' spurious 
fronI the genuine and nlade it cprtain what was the inspired 
wonl of God. She ineorporated the seripture
 into her 
litnrgy; that i
. her ritual anll public 1\
orshìp, and in
thnt tll('

 be read in her open seryices and 1)(' expounded to 
the l)f'opIe. 
fIeI' priests and hi:-;hup:--; take upon thell1
ehTe" at their 
ordination the obligation to read f'ver
' da)T for an hour the 
Bihle and thp f'OlnnlPntaries on the word of God. The
e C0111- 
. or notes and explanations. are the he::;t, 1110-.;t satis- 

 and learned t'\Ter written. X 0 :--eholarly nlan now he- 
li(Jves that. the CatllOI1c Cllllreh (\\,er forhade her f'h1ldren to 
read the Bihlf' or was ever opposed to Huly S('ripture. rrhe 
Church was and is not only the guardian of the Bible, hut- 
J (haw attention to this--shp is the (liyinel
' appointed oftieial 
tp(lcher and interpreter. 
The H1hle 1\
as not, and eould not he, intended by Christ to 
be thp rule of faith and of nlora Is. rrhe theory that tllf' Bible, 
interpreted h
T ea('11 individual ur h
T a groulJ of individuals, 
is an unerring rulf' of faith is absurd. 
First, because Christ neyer wrotp a word of the Bible. 
Secund, He neyer comnl1:-,sloned lIi
 or dÜwiples 
t(\ .write. 
Th11'(1, the B1hle, as we IUl\'e it. wa
 not writh'n and <'0111- 
l)leted until ::;lxty udd years after our Lord's 
1\Ior00Yf'r, it iR well known that tlw fianon of IIol

-that is, what books "('I"(' (1('('la]'('<1 h
- th(:' Clmreh to he i11- 

'(I-- was nut furllwd in an)
 respe(.t for upwards of a 
hundred years after the <!estruf'tioll of the Teulple. 1

the Protestant essayist. SanllwI Ta

lOl' Colf'ridge. adullts in 
01H' (..\"f his essays that. the (
anoll was not collccte<1 into an 
autborized vohune for nearly tln.('(' hnndre<1 
'ears after the 
Ascension of our Sayiour. :How, then, could it be a rule of 
faith for those liying in these tillIes î l\Ioreo\'er, the Gospel 



had been preached to all nations] and the <';hri
tian Church 
constituted and ordered as a divinely organized religion long 
before; so that before the Canon was settled the (1hurch de- 
ternlined the belief of Christendon!. 
Fourth, for sixteen hundred year
, frOlll the foundation 
of Christianity until the tilHe of the ill\Tention-and years 
after the invention-of printing, it wa:::; ÍllllJu:::;:::;ible to dis- 
beminate the Bible or for the ovendlehning ma
s of Chris- 
tians to read it even if it were possible to circulate it. 
Since the Racred Scriptures have been ulnyi
ely {'onlnlUll- 
i:::;ed, and eadi inc1ivitlual has beconle hi:::; own teacher and in- 
terpreter, religiou
 confusion ha
 taken possession of the 
,lllllnan race. The unlearned and un stahle, "ullder:::;tallding 
ncither the thing8 they reac1, nor wlwreof they a ffirn1. 
have lnade shipwreck concerning the faith." (I Tim., i, 7-15.) 
Christ, th(' Divine Lawgiver, appointed His Church to be 
the guardian and teat'her of IIis revealed ",,'ords to I-Iis peo- 
ple. "_\--11 power," 
aid our Lord to the members of the Apos- 
toliC' Senate-] [is Chun'h,-d is given to )le in heaven and on 
earth. Hoing, therefore. teaeh all natiuw-;, teaehing then1 to 
obselTe all things what:::;oever I have con1nlanded you." 
(::\Iatt., xviii, 10.) .. Go ye into the whole world and preach 
the Gospel to every {'rea ture. " (:
Ia rk, xvi, 13.) "He that 
hears you. hears 
r e, and he that despises you, deç;pises :ßle." 
(Luke, x, 16.) "lIe that win not hear the Church let hi III be 
unto thee as the heathen." (l\Iatt., xviii, 17.) These solenln 
words of the Divine 1Iaster prove that lIe appointed His 
teèH'hing Church, and not the IIoly Scriptures, to he the rule 
of faith for an Christian
The Bible, for four hundred years, ha
 been the rule of 
faith for our separated hrethren, anù, as a result, endless 
divisions and warring sects have filled the civilized world wit!l 
doubt:" alJout the supernatural character and divinit
T of 
Christianity, have supplied the infidel with p]ausihle argu- 
luents, and Imve selTed to bring the religion of Christ into 
nnlnerited contenlpt. 



The Catholic {;hurch is thé custodian of Sacred Tradition, 
as she is of the IIoly Scriptures. "\Vhat do we understand 
by Tradition? By Tradition we understand the transnlission, 
by the teaching authority ur office of tlw Church, of certain 
revealed truth:, of salvation not expliC'itly C'OIltained in Holy 
rit; Ruch traditions are known as oral; that is, handed down 
fronl genera tion to gt
neration, either through the Councils of 
the Church, Liturgical Books, the 
-\..cts of the l\Iartyrs, the 
writings of the early fathers of the Church, or inserivtion" 
on the tOlubs and luonUUlents uf nlèlrt
 and confessors of 
early days. The 
aintly and learned luen fanliliarly C'alled 
the" Early Fathers" ""ere uearly all bishops or priests who 
flourished frOlu the da
"s of the Apustles to the sixth century. 
The }1-'athers wen' succeeded by hol
- anù Rcholarly lllen 
n to ecclesiastiC'al histor
r as Doctors of th0 Church. 
X ow, where the testinlon

 of the Fa tlIers. sustained by thp 
authurity uf the Ductors. prove:-, that a truth is revealed and 
waR taught by the 6'arly Church, we are satisfied that such a 
truth was and is, an integral if not an essential part of the 
Christian Faith. H1Wh eecleRiastical tradition has always 
been entitled to the 
(Ulle yeneration hy the Church as the 
Bible itself. Indeed. as a lnediuul of transnÜtting revealed 
truth, tradition fnnll SOlue aspect:, iR nlore ÏIllportant and 
. than the Bihle itself. The ChnrC'h, whether in 
saic or ...-\ postolic tilnes, antedates the Bible anù is indepen- 
dent of it. The {ihurch existed before the Bible, and could 
exist without. it. But the Church never did, and never C'ould 
exist ,yithout trallition. "Rtand fast," writes Ht. Paul to the 
early Christians, "and hold the tradition::; whiC'h you have 
learned, whether hy word or hy our epistle." (Thess., xi, 14.) 
Conullentillg on thesf' words, S1. Chrysostom sa

s: "It is 
eyident that the Apostles did llOt cOJllll1Unicate all in writing, 
but much "Tithout writing. Both deRerve equal faith. . . . 
It is tradition, ask no lllOre." Do away with traL1ition and 
the authority of the Church and the Sacred 8criptures thelll- 



 would be a
 the 'Vedas of India, the l{oran or the writ- 
 of Confucius; for neither their inspiration, authentic- 
ity, canonicity, or, indeed, their certain interpretation, could 
be conclusively and authoritatively proved. .. I would not," 
writes 81. .L\.ugustille, .. believe the Gospel itself unless the 
authority of the Catholic Church moved IHe to it." 

Those who believe in the Divinity of .J esus Chri
t will, I 
aUI persuaded, agree with llle in adlllitting that the 
on of 
God came down from heaven to destroy the power of Batan, 
to overthrow the reign of Ún and to establi
h purity, peace, 
charity and justice. The purpose of His earthly lnission and 
the object and 
ufferillg of flis divine life here on earth 
was to save our race froln sin and its dreadful consequences, 
and to rescue mankind from the horrors of eternal death. 
But it "Tas necessary, in the Divine Economy, that lllan 
co-operate in the measures taken for his balvation. By sin, 
voluntarily comnlitted, he estranged himself frolll God, and, 
in order to be reconciled to the Creator lIe insulted
 man lllust 
confornl to certain condition::; 
ublllitteu by hi
One of these obligations was that he should hone
tly repent 
of his sins and confess them to some one authorized to listen 
to him and, ]JY the authority of Gou, ab
oh.e hilll. Now that 
the power of absohTing Ûnners was granted to the Apostles 
by our beloyed Lord seelllS irrefragable. 'Yhen he said (
John, xx) that lIe sent theIll as His Father had sent Him- 
that a::; lIe was the Apostle of the :b'ather, even so they were 
to be His apostles; and that, in particular, they were thereby 
and thenceforth invested with authority to rellÚt and to retain 
sins, it beelned hopeless to conceive ",'hat the llleaning of 
these words could be, if they did not invoh'e all that "Tas 
c1aiIlled for tlWlll in regard to .L\bsolution. 

IoreoYer, it 'was evident that this COllllllission to the 
Apostles was only a carrying out of the Lord's dedaration in 
regard to the .J ewish chur('h, that lIe had not COllIe to destro
but to fulfil the law. By that law the priest was appointed to 



judge of carnal lepers, and so shadowed forth the <. 'hristiall 
priesthood to spiritual lelJers. .L
s the carnal leper 111U8t haye 
shown hinu;elf to the Leyitical priest ere he could be pro- 
nounced clean, and he pel'lnitted to stand mnongst tllE' con- 
gregation of Israel, so was the spiritual leper to be dealt "ith 
by the Christian priesthood. In both cases they oilly "ho 
showed thenu;elyes to the priest "ere undoubtedly cleansed. 
If it be llwintained that the Christian priest ha:::; not author- 
ity to judge bet"een the clean and the unclean, he is then 
nluch inferior to the .r ewish minister; if he has not power to 
cleanse as well as to pronounce clean. as 
t. ChrysostOlu says 
(de 8acerdvt iv), he i:::; not superior to hiul. In like lUanneI', 
it was proyided under the law that all persons disqualifie(l hy 
sppcial transgressions frOlll approaching the altar had to 
COlne to the priest in order to be absolved. Xothlng wa:; dear- 
er that neither the 
olelln Paschal offering, nor the annual 
Day of Atonelnent, nor the regular lllOl'ning and eyening (>h- 
lations sufficed for the cleansing of indiyidual :::;ou):::; frOln 
these special transgressions. 

Yery single soul whosp ('011- 
sciencE' "as burdened, had to COlue and f'onfess ib ..,ins. be- 
fore it was restored to the full privilege of the Coyenant. 
* * * * 

Thus it is evident to every thoughtful and unpl'Pjudiced 
11Uln that f'onfession of sin lJelongs to an uniyer:-:a! law of 
healing, and takes it
 date froill the fall of Adanl. 'Yhen 
God interrogated Adau1 it ,vas to lead hinl to ('ollfessloJl. pre- 
paratory to tllf' awful penance uf sorru" and la bur, to be 
consunllllated only by death. ,Yhen he eXalllined thE' ('011- 
science of Cain it was for a like end. .J oshua in like lllanner 
hadf' .I..
('han not only to give glory to Gud by confession to 
IErn, but abo by cùnfesf'ing to Joshua what he ha<1 done. 
Kathan waR sent to King David to ohtain tlw 
lllf'nt-" I hayf' sinned." Thus, as S1. Basil infol'lllf'd us, 
u('h aIl10ng the :--alnts in ancient tÜlles as repf'nted, ('on- 
fessf'd their sins." 
'\Ye read in LeYlticus, Y. 5, that if a Inan "ere gnilt

any of the 
ins there naIlled, he was directed to eonfpss the 



sin to the priests. 
o in the Book of X ulubers (v. 6), ""'"lIen 
a llan or a "Ollan shall COllllllit any sin, they shall confe:-;s 
their sins that they have dune;" and in the Book of Proverb3, 
"e read: "He that hideth his 
hall not prosper; but he 
that shall confess and forsake thenl, shall obtain llleì.cy" 
(xxviii, 1
). David confessed to Xathan, 
aul to 
Ahab to Elijah, Jlezekiah tu l::,aiah, and 
ranasseh to the 
seers, "who 
poke to hill word
 in the nalle of the Lord of 
Israel." .Nor "as this Illethod really altered in the X ew Tes- 
tallien t. 
They "ho were baptized by John the Baptist confessed 
their sins. They who helieved at l
phesns (, confessed and 
showed their deeds." It was 011 this aCCUUl1t that Christ pro- 
claÏ1neL1 His Ini
sion to be for the ('alling, not of the right- 
eous, but of slnner:-;, to repentance, and to invite the "eary 
and heavy laden to COllle to IIiIll for rest. ..L\nd it 'was seen 
that, though Lazarus "as raiset1 by (ihrist a
 the type of de- 
liverance frOln Inortal 
in, yet his salvation was incomplete 
until the disciples "ere hidden to "loose hilll and let hilli go." 
,Yhen St. .J allleS urged confession of sins and th(:. intercE-'ssion 
of a "righteous man" a
 a ('ondition of healing", he was acting 
in confornlÌt
T "ith the will of his Diyine 
Iaster, who in the 
hearing of Bt. .Tallles declared to his ....-\postles, "\Yhose sins 
you shall forgive they are forg-íyeu thenl, and ,,-hose sins you 
shall retain, they are retained" (81. J-ohn, xx, :!3). 
..L\rguing, then, frolll Scripture testÏ1Honies alone. the in- 
quirer is convinced that confe:-.sioll to God onl

, a
 an instru- 
IHent and ('oudition for the ren1Ìssion of his sins, is not 
sufficient for that purpose; but that it is his boundell duty 
also to confess to those whOln God has apl-'uinted on f:>aIth as 
His priests and llis delegates to re('ei \'e that confession and 
absolve hÜn frOlll his sins. 
The origin of and the authority for cunfession is divine; 
the very same upon which rests our belief in the inspiration 
of Holy Scripture, and that is the warrant and òe('r('e of that 
divinely illCo1'lJorated 
ueiety, the colmnll and foundation of 
aIr truth, the united, infaHible, yisible l'n thoEc Church, 



Few subjects are léss under:-,tood by the non-CatholiC' pub- 
lic than that of private confes
ion and absolution; and, a
result, few subjects are oftener dis}Jo::,ed of by sheer preju- 
dice and passion. If you listen to one of the 11101'e òeternlined 
oppo11ents of this SaCraIllent, you hear it denounced as thi:
"auricular confession," as if confe
:-)ion could be anything 
but auricular; or this "private confession," as if the party 
speaking had a preference for eonfes
ion of sins in puhlic and 
in the hearing of the congregation. 
'hen another tÏIue we 
are told that the confessional is often abused and perverted 
to a bad end, as if nothing else in religion were liable to the 
saIue Iuisadventure; or that it exalts and exaggerates priestly 
authority, as if Christ I-Iinlself did not exalt I-lis ApostleR 
when he conferred upon theIn the priesthood; or that it ex. 
pm.;es all C'oncerned to the peril of Îlnpurities and ùefileIuent, 
as if anr kind of cleansing or healing could be undertaken 
without incurring such risks; or that it is unseriptural, as 
though we were not told in the _Holy Sel'ipture to eunfes
our sins-one to another. The
e ubjectors would cover absolu- 
tion 1\ T ith conteInpt a
 being the refuge of \yeak '\TOlUen or of 
fell1Înine Iuen. ,Yhat is this but the old ery against religion in 
general? 'Yhat is this, after all, but tIw 
cofting censure of 
the indifferentist and the sneer of the Iuaterialist that our 
churches are filled with w0111en? Y pt it i..; a striking faet iu 
the pre:'H_
l1t day that if aIl
T ehurches an> 1JlOre thronged with 
Inen than others the
T are the Catlwlie churchc>s, whcre the 
doC'trine and praetice of priYêl te confession and a hsolution 
are preaehed and encouraged. ,Ye have yet to learn that the 
patient who boldly bulnllits to a painful and (listres
ing ope- 
ration for the sake of his health desclTes to he branded a:-: 
being: lllOre effelninatf' than thuse who ('annot nerve theIn- 
selves to subInit to the probe and knife of the surgeon. Now 
to faee shame and C'onfusion denland
 Inore Inora1 courage 
and 11lO1'e lllanliness thall to endure pain. 



TILE D()CTRrXE U]1--' r

Indulgenl'P is not a pardun fur 
in, nur is it a pernlit to 
in. .L--\n indulgence i
 the rell1Ï
sion or th

nvay of tht' telll])Oral punislullent inClllTE'd b
T the 
inner and 
l'enlaillillg aftt'r tht' guilt and eternal ]nlni
llJllPnt due for 
!?,Tave sins are remitted hy confef--:-;ion and repent.anee. rrllt're 
lIre luany exalllples in IIoI
T ,Yrit which prove that aft.er the 
guilt. ur stain of sin was taken away there 
Tct relnained due 
.a telnporal punislllnent. Thus Adaln wa
 furgiyen th
()f hi
in, but !õ;til1 what fearful punislunent he had to endure 
Jor it! Dayid was furgiyen, was pardoner] his sin of lllurder 
.:and his yiolation of tIll' san('tit
T uf lllarriage, and yet was 
})luIished h
. the death of his child. 110ses was forg-iyen his 
sin of douht, yet as a telllporal puni
hment for it he "Tas not 
pel'lllitted tu enter tliP Pronlised Land. It i
, therefore, cer- 
tain that a tenlporal punislllnent relllain
 due for sin after the 
,guilt of it has he('ll forgiYf'n. X ow the Church, by yirtue of 
tht' power of loosing and binding entrusted to her h
. Christ, 
,can rell1Ït this telllporal punÜ;IUllellt on eprtain IH.t'scJ'ihed 
.conditions, slwh as the worthy reception of the sacrmnents of 
Penall('f' and the Blessed Eucharist, the l'f'citatioll of certain 
]Jrayers, acts of 111Ortifi('atiull, the giving of ahlls, and thE' per- 

fonnan('e of C'ertain works of InerC
'here is nothing in all 
this to show that an indulgence is thf' pardon of Sill or the 
sion tu eOlllllli t sin. 
Is it e\Ten, under any ci L'CUlllstanl't's, alluwahlt' fur thp 
])l'iest. or the Church to fix a C'harge for absolving- a penitent 
fOr to reeeiye nlOnt'
- for an indulg"euee? r

nlphatieally no! To 
.do so would he to iucur the guilt of simony, that is, the 
.lug of sOlllething cOI1
f'crated or sacred. 

.Tpsus Christ, our Lord, as Ulan and mediator: held a three- 
Jold office: He "Was Propht-'Ì, Priest and King. The Son of 
<God, when He assunled our lnnuan nature W3!-; ordained, eon- 

e('rated and appointed a priest in a twofold sense. He was 



a priesi according to the order of ..c
aron, or the Levitical or- 
der, and according to the order of 
 a priest, 
according to the order of ..A..aron, lIe offered IIÏInself a bleed- 
ing VictinI, a sacrifice of blood on the Cross. As a priest ac- 
cording to the order of 1Ielchisedech, lie offered IIÜll
elf in 
the Eucharistic Sacrifice the night before His ('rucifixioll. 

lelchisedech is called a .priest by 
Ioses because he offered a 
sacrifice of bread and wine (Gen., xlv., 18-19). The night 
before lIe suffered 
J esus Ohrist took bread and said: .. This 
Iy Body which is broken for you" (I. Cor., xi., 24), and 
taking the wine, He said: 
"This is the chalice of the New Testalllent in Àly Blood,. 
which is poured out for you" (Luke, xxii., 
O). The Catholic 
Chlu('h holds, and has always helLl, that Chri
t lueant what 
He said. IIis words were not lllerely deelarative, they \\
effective; they proclaimed a Saerifi('e and a Sacrm11ent. Then
can be no religion without a saerifice; for ::;acrifice i
 the es- 
sential and distinctive act and nIa!'k of divine wor::;hip. All 
other religious aets, such as prayers,hynllls,petitions, thanks- 
giving, etc.,lllay be offered to nU1n; hut 
aerifice can be offeretl 
only to the Ureator, for it is an act by which we acknowledge- 
God's suprelne dOlninion over us and our entire dependeIH'e 
on lIilll. The religion of (
hrj st is a perfect relip;ion. mHl 
therefore nlust have a perfect 
acrifice. It is the religioll 
that is to last to the end of time, and, therefore, lllU::;t have a 
perpetual sacrifiee. Our Lord ordained I-Lis l
postles priests.. 
when, after conseerating the hread and wine, lIe offered. 011 
earth His first 1Iass, and said to them: "Do ye t.his in ('0111-; 
DJeIlloration of 1Ie." 
In virtue of this conlluand, the:-,e first Christian prie
ts and 
their validly ordained successors for all tinIe, offered and 
offer up to God the bloodless Sacrjfi('e. Tho
e who llave re- 
jected tllf' Sacrifice of the 1Iass have rejected and lost the 
Christian priesthood. _
 priest is a 
acrificial and a Scl('ra- 
nlental man, a Ulan duly consecrated and appointed to offer 
sacrifi('es and administer sacranlents. "::::;0 let a nU1n aeN>Ullt 
of us," declares 81. Paul, "as alnhassatlors of Christ and di:-;- 



pensers of the mysteries of God" (1. Cor., iv., 1). .1\.s a sacri- 
ficial man, the priest ascends the altar of God to offer the 
highest act of worship to the 8uprel11e 
 tel' of n
 all. As 
a sacran1ental1uan, he comes down froIl1 the altar of God to 
bestow divine graces and gifts to the people in dispensing the 
sacraUlents. .A, sacran1ent is a visible or outward sign insti- 
tuted by Christ to cOllllnunicate grace to the soul. Grace is 
a supernatural gift destined by God to enahle us to resist 
tel11ptation and 11lerit heaven. 







The Holy Eucharist is, however, so transcendent a lllYS.. 
tery that no one view of it, dwelt on exclusively, is sufficient 
to exhaust its fullness of grace and blessing. It is the high- 
.est, the 1110st sole1nn, the fullest and 1110St perfect act of Chris- 
tian worship. It iR the noblest offering of praise, the grand- 
est and 1110st joyous act of thanksgiving, the cOlnpletest and 
1110St efficacious forn1 of prayer, the surest Ineans of obtaining 
the grace and favor of our heavenly Father, the lllOst accept- 
able act of h01llage that we can offer to I-liln, the one act of 
'worship specially and expressly enjoitlf'd on all generations 
ûf Christians by our Lord I-lil11self. 
On no subject, unhappily, has l110re n1Ïsunder
the fruit partly of ignorance and prejudice, partly of defec- 
tive belief-heen current than on the Eucharistic Sacrifice, 

 ealled the 1Iass. If we have read aright the signs 
of the tinles during the last forty years, if the tide of conver- 
sions llOW rising to the CatholiP. mainland l11ark a concur- 
rence with the call froll1 011 high, and if a more respectful 
and deferential language toward the Holy Eucharist, which 
'was in our hoyhood stigl11a tized as a "bias pheulous fa hIe and 
-dangerous deceit." be an assurance of better things. then let 
us hope and believe that God is lllercifully, in this most sa- 
cred subjert as in others, leading hack honest souls to a 
fuller appreciation of Catholic truth and a fuller knowledge 
of the trel11endous value of a human soul. 




It is in the Catholic Church alone that the heart of Ulan 
rind,;; aU its spiritual longing:-: satisfied, m.ll1 its tenderest 
nffections enkindled at once. D.IÌd eleyated hy the po
of priyilege
ubjert to tilne, and by the t
xcrci:-;t-' of du- 
ties ,dlÌch do not tenninate in the graye. In the Chun'h, rela- 
tions and affiuities once fOrlllE'd endure foreyer. rrllE'Y are not 
for this earth alune, nul' onl

 fur tillIe, heeau:..;p tht-'Y do not 
arise out of earthl
T asso('iation;-" nor depend npon thp laws 
of Inunan existence. The
T pass he

on<1 the hounds of tilHe 
and hayp their perf(:'ct realization only' in et('rnit

. These 
relations ùo not cea:-.e ,,
hen death enter:-::. rrhe yisihle ( ihur('h
that is, the Church on earth, is the ('hmulE'l and means of our 
l1nion .with the Ohur('11 invisible. that is, with illP :-:ouls who 
departed this life in friend:-:hilJ with Uod. 'Yhen, by thp ()ne 
Baptisl1I and tllE? One Faith, "Te are united to the (,Olnpan

of the faithful on earth, we are also joined to the 
pirih; de- 
parted, so that the liying and the dead Llrt> llwmhers of the 
saIne Ohureh, uniter] to Oile II ead, .f esns (jhri
t-the Lon1 
and Ruler of hoth "'
orlds-snhjects of the Salne kingdOlll and 
111E'IUht>rs one of another in the saIne t'onllnlu1Ït

Nothing can :-,eparate ns frolH (jhrist, .. neither death. nor 
life, nor thing's present nor things to COllle "-nothing hut that 
'which cuts us off fronl the eOl1ullunioll of the Chureh, yisible 
and inyisible--either exconlll1uniration, or a death in mortal 
sin. r.I 1 1lP fornlPr cuts us off from tll(' Churl'h, yisihle and iu- 
visible, at once: and hy death in 1110rtal sin we fall away frunl 
the friendship of ChriRt, the hope of IIeayell, and the fell(HY- 
ship of rE?deelllpd souls. ,Ye lwye it on the WOl"(] of God that 
nothing defiled. llO dpfilpd soul. ('an pnter into heayen: and 
tlIP Holy Ghost, in the li:pi
tle of 
t. .Tw]p and in tlu-' SP('olltl 
general Epi
tle of Nt. Peter, teJl;-; llS that tlw repl'()Jmh-
;l1ortally guilty are in the unseell wurld d(.tained in t'\Tl'rlast- 
1.ng chains, Ílllprisoned in the pit, aw] that for thel11 tlH
mists and stonll of darkn('ss a l'e resPITPd fon'\'pl'." For 
thest> we do not pray. 
I any of the haptized, let lIS hope the 



great budy of the baptized, are not --willfully and obdurately 
sinful; but ,yhen ahout to die they know that they ha\Te not 
lliade satisfaetion to God for Rins rOlllluitted in the fle!'h, nor 
ha"\ e they 111ade anlple atonenlent to God fur these sins. The 
Catholir Church tearhE's that God haR proyidE'Q a Rtate-8L 
lll calls it a place-in the other world "There satisfaction 
luay he Inade fur lllurtal sin, the guilt of "Thieh is already 
pardoned and the eternal punishnlent ren1Ïtted, ur for yenial 
s.inR or yoluntary stains found on the soul --when it separates 
frOlll thE' bod







In what way the soul, which Ipê:1yes thi:-- world in a sb.1te 
of graf'e, yet --with renlaillS of sin, will he prepared for itR ulti- 
nmte destin
T in the J{ingdom of God. into whit'll nothing de- 
filed or that defileth can enter, we know not. It lllê:1Y haye to 
pa!'s through a 10ngE'r or shorter period of suffering in order 
to i
-s purifi('atioll. It lllay hE' that Rill, once adn1Ïtted into the 
soul, rannot be eradicated without th(' appli('ation of seyere 
rt'1I1pdiE's external to itself. Hin haR a :-,nbstantiye E'xistenee,. 
jx'sides its oppositìon to the will of God, whie-h SE'enlS by the 

onsent of the sinner tu be woyen into the \'ery texture of the- 
soul itself, so that we cannot entirely get rid of it b.'T any 
E'ffort of our own. Aftpr we havE' l'E'penteò, after abRolution, 
while we are striyillg against it. still it haunts us; we fpel it 
as the presence of an evil being whidL wi II not ]pt us alone. 
Tts luarks surviye our earthly existenre. It lllay :'3urvive 
Ood's lllust gTaeious pardon, and requi re lneans not attain- 
ablp in this life for its extermination. A11 our experience' 
IE'uds us to belieye that there can be no real, thorough cun\Tic- 
tiun of lllurtal sin without the dE'epest anguish of nlÌnd. 
if it were ;-;0 tha t the soul had tu pass through SOUlE' fier.'T 
onlpal, internal or E'xternal, for its cleansing fronl the d(-'vil- 
Inal'ks whieh hayf' been WOY(,11 into it by formpr sins, it would 
not he ;-;0 Inu('h penal suffering as the loving tl'f'atmellt of the. 
Divine Physic'ian healing the wounds of the :-,oul by sharp hut 
T reluedies. and in healing, arawing it evel' nparer to" 
IIiuu;elf and Ìlnparting to it a foretaste of eternal b]isR. 



The Catho1ic Church fronl its beginning has taught and 
teaches now that the tenlporal puni
,}llnent due for una toned 

in is nlodified and the tinle of suffering ::;hortened by the 
operation of indulgences, praYE?rs, alnu; and especially the 
IIoly Bacrifi('e of the 
Iass. -,,--hId that this was the lJelief of 
the Church of God before the Incarnation or hirth of our 
Divine Lord we know fronl the history of the pE'ople of God 
in the time of .J udas 
Iachabeus. ...:.\fter his victory over 
Gorgias, the Governor of IJunlea, .J udas ordered a collection 
to be taken up al110ng hiR officers and soldiers, aurl "sent 
twelve thousand draehms of silver to .Jerusalelll for saerifiee 
to be offered np for the sins of the dead. * * * 
 It is 
tÌlerefore a holy and wholesollle thought to pray for tllE' dead, 
that they nlay be loosed frOlll sins.'" (II. )la('h., xii., 43--16.) 
Here is an evident, an undeniahle proof-pven as an histori- 
cal fact-of the praetiee of praying for the dead under the 
Old Law which was then btrictly OhSelTE'd by the .Jews, and 
-consequently coulrl not he introdueed at that partieular tinle 
hy J ueIas. their high priest and coulluander. 
It Inust be frankly acknowledged that the Holy Seripture 
.contains no direct and explieit conullalld to pray for the dead 
apart froIlI the living. Indeed, Holy ,Yrit saYR very little 
about the 
tate of the dead; it SE'ldolll refers us to the hour 
()f death as the tenllination and end, and the final finishing 
of our nloral training and disciplinè. "The conling- of the 
Lord," "The judgulent," is that to whi{'h it directs our at- 
tention as to our goal, and thE' consuIluuation of our destiny. 
St. Paul seeIns to speak of the work of grace as continuing 
in t.he redeeIlled soul when it is in an intenllediate state or 
in purgator
T. "Being confidE'nt of this very thing, that He 
who hath hegun a good work in you will perfeet it until the 
day of Jesus Christ." (Phil. i., 6.) 
"\Yaiting for the lllanifestation of our Lord .J esus Christ, 
who also will ('onfirul 'you unto the end that you nlay be with- 
ûut crilue in the Day of our Lord .T esus Christ." (1. Cor., i., 
7, 8.) 
But we have 11lain directions to pray one for another, to 



lllake prayers and supplieatiun
 to Goil fur one anuther, to 
pray for all E,aints. Now if all who have been and are law- 
fully haptized belong to the same hody of the Chur('h, if there 
be One Body and ()ne Spirit, if that One Boùy bf' Christ HÏ111- 
self, frolH whOln no faithful :soul can be separated by death, 
it does not appear how anyone soul redeenied hy the Blood 
of .J esus Christ and uIÚtf'd to 11il11 by graee ('an he exeluded 
froni the prayers which tllf' Church uffers for the living and 
the dead, or frolli participation in the virtue
 of the 
Sacrifice of the 
Iass. .All who belong to the "housf'hold of 
God, " wherf'ver they are, sharf' in thf' cOllllHunion of E-:aints. 
,Yhen Bt. Paul begged of God (IT. r:rÜl1., i., 18) to show 
mercy to the soul of Onesiphorus, he certainly was praying 
for the dead, and in doing so professed his belief in an inter- 
luediate state, and in the pussibility that rel11ains of evil yet 
lingered with the soul of Ùnesiphorus, his friend, which the 
unknown diseipline would ('teause. The soul of St. Paul's 
friend wa:-: not donuant; it was in a state of conscious e"\:ist- 
ence and it
 powers were actively exerted in ::'OHlC way. The 
SaIlle UIa:' be sai(l of f'very soul in the interluediate state, 
that is, purgat.ory. Thought is of the very essence of the 
being of a ::,oul, in the budy or out of it. It I1IUst think, it 
cannot exist and be inactive. The soul in purgatory is wait- 
ing for the voice of Jesus Christ SUHllllouing it to "possess 
the kingdOll1," it is preparing for tllP beatific vision. ,Yhat 
Y he the nature of its suffering
, the intensity of its long- 
ings, its lonely regret for its sins, or the duration of its exile, 
are known to God alune. 
This much we do know, that the Church of Ood, in the 
Holy Sacrifice, appeals to HÏJn to have pity and luercy on 
the soub of her ch.'pa rtf'd children, aud that the faithful, from 
the beginning, prayed for their dead. ",Ye pray for all who 
have departf'd this ]ife in our conllnunion," writes Rt. Cyril 
of .Jerusaleln, "believing that the souls of those for WhOl11 
our prayers are offered receive very great relief, whilf' the 
holy and treluendous Victim lies upon the altar." (De l\Iort., 
1. iii.) 









The nlo
t unexc('ptiolla ble authority i
 to be found in the 
 liturgies, or hooks of instruetion and deyotion, on all 
points uf Cathulie faith and pral'ticp which tlwy elllbnH'e. X 0 
dOCUluents of proof ean e(IUal thel11 in Ílllportance, and when 
they all agree, as they do in thi
 Blatter of prayer for the 
dead, we lllay be certain that we haye attained the nliw1 of 
all the churches, not in one age or eountry, but in all age
in all countries where Chri
t has heen worshiped. LiturgiC's 
are the vuice and 'n)nl
, not of one Doc-tor 01' }1'ather. huw- 
ever great, but of clnll'('hei-: whieh with one cunsent IUHTe ap- 
proyed a forlll of rite
 anrl prayers. Tn (l,Tery liturgy ex- 
tant, prayers are found for the dead; they fOl'll1 a part of the 
great interces:-,ioll for the L 1 hureh and the world, fur the li'T- 
iug and the dead. Tt is heyond the liulit and the s('ope of thi
IntrrnhH'tion to (1uote the words in which litnrgie
raterl and prayed for the dead. \r e find thesp prayer
the Liturg
T of .:\Lalahar, in thof'e of St. 
La rk, Ht. .f mlles, Ht. 
Clelnent, 81. ('In'
'sostOlll, the Sa rmll, and eyen to-day among 
all the chul'ehes of the Ea
t, alnUllg- tlw Xestorians, 
si tes, 
 and Copts. 







There arE' S01l1e uther du<'Ìl'illes distin('tiYel
' ('atholie th:tt 
spa('e willllot permit us to ('nter UpOll. There is the doetl'ille 
or the (10111111Ulliol1 of Raillt
, that. of the lIlllllê:H'nlatE' ("1 Ol H'Pp_ 
tion, illYOcation and yeneratiun uf saints aw1 den)tion to t 11(> 
(ìd Virgin 1Iar
T, whose ineffable nearness to (1hri:-;t and 
hpr illllllê:H'lllaV
 purity. draw a elE'ar Jine of (listiu(,tioll he- 
tween her and all uthers, eyen the holipst erpaÌlu'(':-;. 
o as to 
exenlpt her frOlll the ('ouditions "hi('h snlTound the pion'-. 
dead. The BlOt h-worn ('ha rge that (ia tho1 i('s adol"P the Yi rgin 
_\rother uf God is l'nwti('a lIy dl'ad. ki 11(-'(1 h
- the iatpll ig(,lH'l' 
of sane BleIl. ()f (: od we a:-:k lllE'l'r
T and pa rdon, of thl' 
sed Virgin and tllt' saints in he:1YPll WC' a
k for pnl
<lud intel'cp
siun for Us with Uod. All histUl'
-, "'<1('1"('(1 alH1 
profane, offers llS uo ('hara(.ter worthier of our admiration., 
won.:hi pawl l'p,'erl'w'e than 
I ar
r as ('hi Id, Inaidl'Il and 



nlOtber. The poet 'Y orelsworth, inspired by faith anel poetic 
gellllls, sings of her: 

"'YOlnan ahon" all W(lnwu 
Our taintpll llaturl"
- hoast, 
Fairf'r than <'a:,tf'rn 
ldes at IlayhrC'ak :--tr('w11 
\Vith fandell rt:Sf'
: than the l.1lJh!pmishptl moon 
Deforf' Jwr W;111(' hegins nn hetl\"pu's hltw ('oast. 
JlaÏllf'11, whose ,it giu .'(Isom ,,-as uncross't 
Hy tlw Jpast :"hade of tlJPught to :,;in allipd." 

Nor nlay any Liatholic pay a higher tribute of respect and 
l'eVE'reuC'e to the sinlE'
s Yirgin than did the Protestant poet 
Lon?fellow when he addn-'ssed hE'l' in l'pvercnt and devo- 
tional verse: 

in and 
I()tller of out. llear I:t>t1eemer, 
.\11 hearts are toudwll aull softl'ul'd at thy natne. 
.\Jlll if our Faith hath giH'll 118 nothing more 
Thall this exalll
IJe of all "'OlllallllOOll- 

o milll. so merdfuI. Sf) :--trollg, so good, 

o patient, Ileal:'efu1. lo
nl1, JoYing. Jllll'P- 
This were eu()u
h to lll'on' it higlwr mlll trlll'r 
Thau all title' en'etk the ,,"orld hall k11O\\"11 hefOl'e." 

X'o llU1l1 whu adores God 11lay he:-:itate tu exclainl with 
ßernard : 
")Iothpr of our Lord .f esus Christ, pray for me." 

That hpr priests lllust IE'ad a celihate, that i
, a single life, 
is nut a dugina or dOl'trille uf faith of the (iathuli(. Church. 
It i
 of the tradition and of the dif:eipline of the {ihurch to 
whiC'h a ealldidate for the priE'
thood Jllust pledge hiulsE'lf 
before he takes IToly Orders. 
'Yaiving the Iluestion of c1eri('al l'plihacy with reference 
to tlI(' requil'elllent
 of the (ihu1"('h, let us look back into the 

 uf the past and inquire. what was thf' gf'lleral teíl('h- 
jng and tone of feeling in fOl'luer ag('s upon thi
 point whidt 
:-:;eems to be abuve the cOlllprehension of tuany non-Catho- 



'\Ye naturally turn first to Holy Scripture as that to which 
the profe
Úng non-Catholic Christian would appeal in sup- 
port of hiR own religion, and as a witllCRS to the soundness 
or unsoundness of ec('leRiastiral laws. 
The high e
tÏ111ation in which the yirginaI. as distinguished 
frOl11 the ll1arried life, was held in pri11lÍtiye (
hristian times, 
no doubt had its origin in the teaebing of our Lord. 'rhat lIe 
e a Yirgin for Hi
 Jll()ther, and that He Hilllself lived 
and died a -VIrgin can Rcarcely be considered to be without 
Both our Blessed Lurd and Ht. Paul Ull<lUestionably giye 
the preference to the unlllarried life as being a lllore favor- 
able state for religious seJf-deyotion and higher 
aspirations than the state of matrinlOllY. ()ur Lord's words 
fire: "AU receiye not thi
 word, but they to WhOl11 it is 
giyen; he that is ahle to receiye it, let hinl receiye it." 
Tu sonlE' it is a gift of U-od, and those who have thf' gift 
are adyi:sed to ab:stain fr0111 Inarriagt--' "for the l
ingdOln of 
Heayell'S sake" (ßlatt., xix, 1
). St. Paul's language illus- 
trates onr Lord's. ] Ie begins by saying that it is a good 
thing for a n1an not to 111arry (1. Cor., vii., 1.) ; he would pre- 
fer to see an lllell as he was himself; ,. but eyery lllall hath 
his propel' gift, OllP after this llUllllH'r and another after 
that" (verse 7) ; but celihacy is, indeed, to be adyised" (yerse 

6). lIe encourages the nnlnarried condition for those who 
aspire to holiness and he gives his rf'aROn
 in these words: 
"I would haye you to be without solicitude. lIe that is 
without a wife is solicitous for the thing's that are of the 
Lord, how he nwy plf'êlse God; but he that hath a wife is 
solicitous for the thing-s of the world. how he llla
T plea
e his 
wife" (1. Cor., 3
-32). lIe draws a difference, too, between 
the luarried WOlnan and the yirgin, praising the condition of 
the virgin (yerse 23). 
Here, then, though the Apof'tle is far frOll1 finding fault 
with marriage, he evidently pn'fers relibacy, not hf'cause 
n1arriage is not to be c01l1n1ended, but ber>ause there i:-- le:-,s 
-distrartion in an unnlarried life. Such a life, undertaken and 



adhered to, froln religious Illotives, involves a stricter renun- 
ciation of the world, a greater absence from earthly luxuries 
and enjoyments and a more entire devotion of the soul to the 
service of God. X or should we lo
e sight of other pa

which equally hear upon the question. 81. Peter is the only 
one of the apostolic priest'S who is mentioned in IIoly Scrip- 
ture to have had a wife (
Iatt., viii., 14); but it may be 
doubted if he lived ",,'ith her after his call to the apostleship. 
And the 
mlne lllay he :-;aid of the other nielU1Jers of the Apo
tolic Senate if any of theln were Jnarried. Except upon this 
assunlption, how are we to understand the llleaning of our 
Lord's answer when 
t. Peter said to IIilll: "Behold, we 
have forsaken aU, ana followed Thee." Jesus said to theln: 
"Amen. I 
ay to ye, that ye ""Tho have followed Ine, in the re- 
generation, when the :Son of man 
hall sit on the :5eat of His 
majesty, you also 
hall sit on t"
elye seats; for everyone that 
hath left howse, or brethren, or si:-;teri', or father. or lllOther, 
or wife * * * 
han receive a hundredfold, and shall pu:-;- 
sess life everlasting." (
I att., xix., 
7 -29.) 







.J udging fronl what we rea<1 of the 
\.pf'lstles, we nla
T con- 
clude that it was a spirit of self-sacrifif'e in a celibate priest- 
hood which won for Christ the first and greatest vietories; 
and in after periods of the Churf'h's hi
torr we learn that the 
ion of all Europp from harhari
';ln to ('hri

accOlllplished h
T unlnarried 111Ïssionaries. The ha re idea of 
such n1Ïssiollaries as St. Augnstine, S1. 
lartin of Tour
, St. 
Boniface, 81. Patrick or St. Francis Xavier indulging in the 
possession of wivés and the cOlnforts of lnarried life is op- 
posed to our cOllf'eptioll of heroic self-df'nial. These and 
sneh as these were the lllCl1 who earried the strongholds of 
heathendom, talned the ferocity of savage man and converted 
millions to the faith of J esus Chri
t. It would he unfair to 
a luarried clergy to expect it to produce a leper priest, a 
Father Danlien or a Father Breheuf, who was tortured by 
savages. Con11non sense tells ns that celihates who are free 
fronl the anxieties, burdens and the responsihilities incident 



to lllarried life ar(' the proper 111f'n to faee the peril
 of a 

ionary lífe, and yery uften the hu]'rur
 of llllÜilation and 
IuartyrdOJ11 itself. _\.. prie
t lllUi-it, to faithfully di
eharge tht-J 
duties of his high, holy and Ino
1 honorahle ('alling, he free 
frUIll all earthly entanglelllent
, he ahoye ðeculal' intprests. 
free of falnily cares and free also to de'Tote his whole life ex- 
T to the selTice of God and the salyation of souls. 
...lgain, he Blust be e,Ter reaùy. like hi
 Diyiup .Master, to 
- down hi:, life. if nece::'
', for the 111emhers of hi
'Yhen pE'
tilence or infE'dioll raYage
 a (,ollllllunity, when con- 
e of the lllOst yirulent type enters the hOl11e of 
any of his people, lIP lleed lwye no fear that by his l1eatll his 
wife will he left unproyided for or hi:.; (.hildren orphan.,,,. 
ThE' Catholie Churc'h is inspired hy the Spirit of all ,ris- 
.donl. She was directed b
- c1iyine inspiratiun in the apo
age; she knows now frUIn the expprience of centuries and 
the lessons of the past that the f'elibate state- ereates a certain 
 ('hologit'a1 and l11enta1 attitude in the priest whieh is ne('e
T to the effectiye aecoillplislllnent of the work of the Church 
-the sah'ation of soub. Rhe i:.; heir to the t?xlwripn('e, 
to the religious and sueial experilllents of nearly two 
thousand year;-;, and f:-ìhe is too wise to hlunder. :She knows 
that the conjugal state, in addition to its lunnpf'ring r
hilities, hringH ahout a. condition of lllÏn<1 whieh. l110re or le:.;s... 
unfitR a nlan to s
'lnpathize with the 
aeenlotal life and to 
enipl' untranllllf']pd into the s pi ritual l'Psponsi hi Ii tip
Depen<.l upon it. the (ihu)'('Ìl i:.; too wise'. too familial' with 
t}w past and too experienced in human nature. to insi
t upon 
êl f'elihate priest hoo(1 1\ T erE' :-;he not pOl1yinced hy a stud
T of 
the cE'nturies that the celihatp 
tate is better for soeiE'ty. het- 
tel' for religion, and better for the priest hinlself. 
* * * * * * 

...\nd now I deeply regret tlw exigelleies of f'pape pre('lude 
JDe fronl entering l110re n1Ïnutely upon the btudy of the ni \Tine 
and Inlll1an ef'OnolllY of the Catholic. CJJllreh. Her deeds, her 

. hf'l' superh eharities arf' writ large in tliP hii-i- 
tory of the lnullan raf'e for nineteen centul'ie:-.. lieI' n1Ï:,sion- 



arr labors and succeSSéS outrank those of all the ('hurche:.; of 
tllt' world ('onlhined. Her hospitals for the 
ick and injured, 
her hOlues for the ageL1. the poor and the helpless, her institu- 
tions for the education and protection of the orphan and the 
heroic ('harity of her ('onsecrated men and WOllH'll surpass 
and outcla:.;s tho
e of all HIP non-Catholic foundations and 
all the philanthropic institutions of the entire ""orld. :rhis 
wonderful Church of God has sUITiY0d the yicissitudes of 
tÏIue; she f'HW, to paraphra
e Lon1 :Macaulay. the beginning 
of all the dynasties of thp world and she is destined to see the 
end of thelll all. 8he is the truth; inullortal truth i" but frOlll 
the Inllllortal, and-Truth can neyer die. 




Religious Orders of the Cathoric Church-OpinioJls of Prot- 
estant H-istorians-Exploratiolls of the ìl1issiuJlarieð- 
Dangers 1clli('h Encompasscd thpnl-T'rinls and Tribula- 
tiuns Left Eluqucnt J1cilwrials-Parkman's Acknozcl- 
Jchic'cement ð of J e
iUit and Fra IlcZðCa n ..11 is- 
sionarics-Thcir Heroism-Their 1rritiJlgs and Result 
of Their Study of the }.Tath'e Tribes. - 
The IIoly Ghost, by the tongue of thp ..Lc\.rC'hang
l Haphael, 
teache::; us that" It is "ell to hide the secrets of the l\::ing, 
but honorable to re,-eal and confess the works of God." 
(Tob., xii, 7.) 
It is the reInemLranee of this advice "hich iUlpeb us to 
record the edifying eYent
 in the hi
tory of the Catholic 
Church in "Gtah, and in an especial Iuanner the experiences 
of the Spanish pripsts 1\
ho, in 1776, prpached Christianity to 
the Indians of 'Ctah 'Valley. 

upeI'fi('ial nIen and Illen of eontracteù yi
ion lU.lye for 
centuries harbored prejudices and entertaiuf'cl unr(1a
dislike for the religiou
 orders of the Catholi(' (;hureh. But 
sincere, honest and C'onscientious men-Incn "ho could not 
and cannot dortrinalJy, 
pe eye to eye with ns- haye long ago 
appreciated the religious enterprisf' 
nlCl the prodigious re- 
sults of their heroic zeal. These non-Catholic "riters and 
students of history ha\'"e not hesitated to proclailll thf' IlleIH- 
bel's of these orders to be benefactol'
 of our race, apu:-;tle
religion and men of transcendent courage. 
"The Illonastic orders," writes Lf'opold yon Ranke in his. 
"IIistoI'Y of the Popes," ,. "ere constantly aecompanietl and 



animated by motiyes of a religious character. They taught 
the savage hordes to sow and reap, plant trees and build 
houses, while teaching them to read and sing, and were re- 
garded by the people thus benefitf'd with all the 11lOre earnest 
venera tion. ' , 
Francis Parkman, the Haryard historian, after Inany 
years of study and research alllong the great libraries of 
Europe and Ainerica, cOlupleted his history, "The J f'snits of 
North ....-\..nleriea," and nlay be said to haye reyolutionized pop- 
ular opinion touching the religious orders and that enter- 
tained in particular about 1he Jesuits. ] [e strangled preju- 
dice and di
arnled hostility. Here is what he writes of the 
priests who in the se'Tenteenth centur

 dwelt with the 
ages of Canada and western X ew York: 
"In the Iiistory of IllUllanity it would be difficult to find a 
piety more ardent, an entire abnegation of self more com- 
plete, a deyotion l110re constant and generous than we witness 
in the lives of these priests. _
 life isolated frolH all 
companionship and separated frOlll all that anlbition coyets, 
then death in solitude or amid most exernciating tortures, 
such was the perspective of these nÜs
ionaries. TIlPir ene- 
mies, if they will, may charge thenl with credulitr
tion or blind enthusiasm, but cahlnlny it:::;elf cm.rnot accuse 
them of hypocrisy or aUlbition. They entered upon their 
careers with the fearle
s souls of luartyrs and the heroism of 
saints. The great aim of all their acts was towards the 
greater glory of God." 
J--\.dolph Bandelier, Eliott Cones, Charles F. Lunullis, and 
other honest and distinguished students of Spanish-Anwri- 
can Illissionary hi
tory, are unanirllous .in their expre
sed ap- 
preciation of the disintere
ted and daring efforts Iuade by 
the Religions Orders of the Catholic Churrh for the reclanla- 
tion and salvation of the lUllcrican savage. 
"Their zeal and their heroism were infinite," writes ::\11'. 
Lummis in his "Spanish Pioneers." "No desert was too 
frightful for theIn, no danger too appalling, .Alone, lUlarnred, 
they ìrayeled the l11U8t forbidding lands, brayed the BlOst 



. and left upon the nlÍlld
 of the Indian
a proud 11l0l1llment as lnailcd (lxplOrf'rR 01' C"Ol1'luÜl'ing al'u1Ïes 
ncyer luadf'." 
,Yhen studying the history of tlw explorations of tho
early tÍlnes we lunsi not forget 1 hat tÜ(
e daring' 1nen. .Jesuits 
or Franciscans. "-f'rf' tl'aYf'ling entirel
' in the dark. Nothing 
in l1lOdern tiH1e
 ('an approach the l'mnanee of the Rolihll'
expedition of that feadeRs n1Ïssionary, :B-'ather .ßlar('m
, who. 
in ] 339, set out fr0111 a Spanish 
f\ttlenwnt in Uuliacan, 
co, cro:-;sed the 
Iayo and lëHluis ri,-ers, 
truck the head- 
waters of the 
an Pedro of .k\rizona and. l"t'Hching the ,rhih

Iountains. puslH-'<l on to the J:lnpi and Zuni tnwn:-.:: un tlw 
borders of New 
l('xico and Arizona. .Kot man
- Yf'ars ago 
the English and 
\1Llerican press and platform. \H'1'0 lond and 
insistent-and rightly so,-in achniration of the conrage and 
daring initiation of Spekc' and .Burton, LivingstOlH' and Stan- 
!flY, who let in the light on da rke:-;t 
\f1.j('a. But it lnust not 
 lost sight of, when instituting- con11J:ll'i:-:ons bf'twpcn thesp 
nlen of renown, that the l'eeent pxploJ"t:'rs of _\frica had a 
Ratisfactory knowledge of the outlines of th(' continent, knew 
the naInes anfl hahits of the coast trilJes, what riyers enh-'rl'll 
the Ocean and what anilnals roamed the nnpxplol'pd tf'rJ'itor

IoreoYer, all that reumined to be exmuillpd of the interior 
of Africa was a eertaill area of known breallth anll If'ngth. 
But the fir
t explol'<.\rs of Ànleriea !itpl"al\
- knew nothing:, 
ahsolutely nothing, of the lands ther were entering. 
ionaries who penetratf'd the northern wilds of what is 
now known as the "Great Ra
in" had no information on tlu' 
extent and yastness of the lllainland, and no otlwr guide than 
an astrolabe or a C'Olnpass. 
,Yhen a
cending a mountain tlwy di(l not know hut fl'Onl 
Ulll111it the HOllth Ht-'a l11ight he Sf'en. OJ' a yision of thp 
"Great KortlH.'l"n 

" be youchsafed th P ll1. It was not 
only an unexplored land the

 were entering, hut a land ah
lntely unknown and l)crhalJ::j IJt'opled by raees of ]}wn and 
êlnilllab unlike anything c\'cr seen or drpalllecl of. 
:B-'or a II they klH'W thpy might encounter int(-,],lllinabl<.\ (le:-;- 


') 6) 

el'b of burning 
and or ru:-:hing riyer:-. uf Ìlllpa

:mble width. 

rhey lnight reaeh the foothill::; of HlOuntains of llllSl"alahle 
lleight or lake
 of burning piteh. They lllight ('banee upon 
whole riyer::; of boiling water. gigantic' f()re
bJ canyons of 
horrent clt'pths, snakt'-inft'
ted lllar:"\he:-: or \Tol('anup::; \Tonlit- 
jug fire. Tlwy forded rushing 
, dt'sccllded deep cau- 
, cro;-:
ed yawning gulf:-:;, 
kirtf'd narrow ledges and 
trailed the fring('
 of dangerou
 preeipice:-; wherp one fabe 

tep n1Ìght carry thenl headlong to death. .A 
lip, a 
nlUlllentary lo

 of self-eontrol. a :-;light gid(lin2:-:s. then a fall, 
.a hurtling through the l'ock
, a ('ra
h, and all wa
 oyer. They 
'Bndured the horrors of quenchless thirst, of fierce and 1 H 'O- 
longed de
ert heat, and waded throngh lllar;';;}les reeking ,,
the exhalation::, of l1lalarial fe\Ter. Theil' days were day
InalTels, of appearing and disappearing wonders, of tran::;- 
-t'endent possibilities, and the things and strange people al- 
:l'eady di
coYered prepared thenl for the wonderfnl ancl the 
It wa
 as if a pa

agt' to the planet 
lars were ueing 
<opened, and the first adyellturers to the stellar region
:return loaded ,,-ith geills and diaillond:-;. and bearing tiding
.of InalTt'lollS discoyeries. ,Yhen that heroic Franei
.Father )lareos of Xizza, entered 
\rizona and Kew 
Iexi('o, in 

), he blazed the way for that lllO
t relnarkahle of all t'x- 
l)lorers, "t-'ran('i
 Va:"\quez de Coronado, .who ae('0111plislwd tht' 
J.llOSt wonderful exploring expt'ditiol1 eyer undertaken on the 

\nlel'iean Continent. A.fter Coronado had returned to 
rCO (1ity, non 
\ntollio de E
pejo organized hi
1ion. gaye Kew 
Iexi("o it
 JUlJnC', and. arriying at 
:"\aw. fir
t of white l1Wll. tht"' astollnding' .. snake flaIu}t'." 
'Then, in 13
H), .J uan de ()nate led a eololl
' fl'OlH thE' Cit
. of 
::\r exieo to st'ttlt' X ew 
Iexi('o and l1hri
tiallize the sedentar
trihps of the then 1'00nanti(' land. 

ight year:-; after planting 
:IIi:"\ ('olony he 
et out. ae('Olllpanied h
T Fatlwr ESl'oha 1', for 
the Zuni and 
roqui town
 on the ('hiquito Colorado. They 
tlwn explol't'd the ('olorado anrl Gila rÍyen:. following the 
Colorado to it:.: nlouth and (']ai1l1illp; the llf-'wly di:,:('o\'E'refl l'e- 



gions for the I(ing of Spain. Un J auuary :23, 1605, Feast of 
the Conversion of St. Paul, they raised the Cro
s, the elll- 
bleIn of Christianity, at the nlouth of the Gila and placed 
New ::.\fexico, "hich then included nearly all 
\rizona, under 
the protection of St. Paul, the 

postle to the Gentiles. 
Returning fr0111 his great explorations, Onate built the- 
city of Santa Fe, and assignea, bU far as he 
ould, the tribes 
and the whole extent of the regions he had explorf'd to the 
care of the Franciscan F'athers. This \vonderfnl nlissionary 
order of the Catholic Church e
tablished Inissions all uyer the 
southwest, and in thirty years cOllyerted to the faith 60,000 
souls, in<,luding Iuany of the 
\Ioqlli and Zuni nations. rrhese 
Spanish Fathers were Inen üf great heart and steady pur- 
pose. E\yery man of thenl "as f'ducated, fitted and trained 
for the aceomplislunent of one great object, the Christianiz- 
ing and civilizing of the savage hordes around tllell1. If the- 
recognition of a common bond of humanity which unites the- 
racf'S of the earth and the units of the ra<,e he one of the no- 
blest principles known to Inallkind; if to estahlish mnong Inert 
a knowledge of our conlmon lllunanity, to renlove the barriers 
which ignorance, prejudice and narrow conceptions of th
dignity of life, have erected, constitute greatness of soul, then. 
these heroic priests, thirty-eight of "hOIn surrendered their 
lives for love of their savage brothers of the desert and th
mountain reached the plane of greatness and will he yet inl- 
lllortalized in granite or nlarble. 
But these brave aIld saintly Inen did not linlit their tinl
and talents to Christianizing, educating and teaching useful 
arts and hushandry to their bI unzed cunyerts. 
Iany of theIih 
opened up unexplored regions and cut the trails to unknown. 
lands. Of these was Franeisco Garces, who crossed the Cali- 
fornia desert, covering hundret1s uf nliles without a CUJll- 
panion, and relying upon Indians to show hilll the way h
"ished or "Tas ohliged to go. Of these also were the Fran- 
ciscan priests Silvestre Velez de Escalante and .A,tanasio 
Dominguez, "ho left Santa Fe July :..m, 1776, for the pur- 



pose of exploring the land and discoyering a direct route to 

J onterey, in Alta, California. 
They explored portions of Colorado, entered Utah, and 
on the 
3d of 

ugust, first of white lnen, looked out upon the 
plaeid water
 of Utah Lake. They charted the newly ex- 
plored land, described the tribe:-; they had yisited, the botany 
of the cuuntry, named the rivers and mountains and Le- 
qucatlJed to us an accurate lllap of the country as it then was. 
They did IHore. On their return to Sante Fe, in January, 
1 ïiG, they wrote out a hiðtory of their expedition which car- 
ried thenl to the Grand Canyon of Arizona and to the Zuni 
aild .Hopi yiUage:-;. 
ehey described Salt Lake, gaye the 
IWHH'S of the tribe:-; liying 011 its 
hores, and left to the peo- 
ple of Ltah today an inyaluable treati::,e on the habits alltl 
nUlnners of the Indians around rtah and Salt Lake. 
,Yhen the 81Jani:-;h or French nlÍssionaries fearlessly pene- 
trated an uncharted land, they were confronted with almost 
insuperable trials. The land was to be explore<1, the tribes to 
be civilized, superstition to be eradicated and the faith to be 
preached. And there is no record of failure in their noble 
nlÍssion. They plunged into unexplored regions with no 
weapon hut the crucifix, no guide but a compass, and often 
with no other cOlllpanion than their own zeal and t.he grace 
of God. They went frOlll tribe to tribe, crossing deserts and 
mountains, encOlllpassed by privations, surrounded by deso- 
lations of 
ana or an unbroken and pathles
 wilderness, "God 
also bearing thenl witness by signs and wonders, and divers 
n1Ìraf'les, and gifts of the IIoly Ghost according to his own 
will. " (He b. ii, 4.) 
They were confronted with tuils and difficulties of an un- 
accustOllled experience, and blazed the trails in nlany in- 
stances with their own blood. Tn savage encampments and in 
barbarous pueblos they raised aloft the Cross with the ap- 
pealÌlig ilnage of the Crucified Christ, "whose head was 
bow(ìd down eyeu as droops the yellow ear of corn." 
The extent of the country covered by the zeal and marvel- 
-ous energy of their priests is renlarkable. The field includes 



all northern 
[exico, Lower California. .J..\ rizona, X ortheI'll 
and Southern Ca1ifornia, K ew 
lexico, l 
 tah and portion::., of 
Colorado, _
cross the nnin\Titing hl'ea
"'ts of the:-:e barharous 
regions these saintly and wonderful men wanllel'('d, ill:-;tnwt- 
ing, teaehillg, pn-'adlÍllg, toiling and dying on the deserts or 
Jnountains, showing' on the whole suC'!l a reeord of heroislll 
and zeal as to inyite 1he applause and adnlÏration of heroic 
spirits and nlell of lofty eourage. 

nJ alllÍd aU their dan- 
gers, labors and trials, they were mapping th
 land, descrih- 
ing riyel'H and mountains and recording the hahib of the na- 
tiyes with an aecnnH'Y of th-.tail and a fidelity to truth that 
tood the attack of the keenest criticÜml. 
Separated fronl the world, froni alubition, frOlH hOlne, 
honors and dignities, they hecanIe Y(>ry Iwal" an<l fmlliliar 
frienll:-; with God. ,r e Illay, without exaggeration, repeat of 
thelll what ThOlnas Ù K
lllpis wrote of thp Illal'tyrs of th
earl ,r Chlu'C'h: 
"Saints and friends of Chri:-:t, they st.">lTed OlIr Lord in 
hunger and thirst, in eold and nakedness, lahor and weari- 
ness, in watC'hing and fasting's, in prayers and holy lIH:'dita- 
tions, in persecution and reproach." 
The ruins of the churches they huilt are to-aay elotlUent 
Inelnorials of their loye for the :-;ml-scorched ra<.'t' they re- 
deeilled, nlonumellts of their zeal and loye tor perishing nlan 
and beacons for the civilization which was to foHow. III 
nightly honrs stolen frOlll lives of self-saerificE'. they wrote 
for those ,,110 "ere to COllIe after thenl, and for the world at 
large, narratives and letter
, essays 011 natiy
 UlaUIl<:'I'S, de- 

('riptiol1s of the land. of th
 C'ustOlHs, ('(>l'f'lnouif's and ritt>
of the triLes. 
"It is Í1npossible," sa

s Parkllwu, .'to pxag-p;f'l'ate the 
vahw and the authority of thes
 writings. 1 ean even add 
that. after the I1l0st ('areful e
mllination, l have no douLt at 
all that the n1ÏRsiolléui(>;-; "Tote in pel'fpC't good fa it-h, and 
that these' Relations' arf' entitled to an h()llol'ahl
 pla('t' a.., 
historie dO<.'lunents worthy (Jf all ('onfid
ll<'e. "-( 
rhe J esnit
of Xorth AI1Ierica.) 



They mapped and delineated whole regions, nallledilloun- 
tains, ri\'ers and ,yalleys. alldleft u
 an inyaluahlp library on 
aboriginal man and savage nature. In thi"" incOlllparable 
C'ollection are included dissprtation
 on hoh\ll
', geology, zoiH- 

, ethnology and on tribal langnages and dialect-:;. 
They omitted nothing; in their edifying- letters we find 
accurate de
criptiolls of loealities and of natural curiosities, 
a wealth of historical and legendary infol'111ation, l't'ports ou 
Inanners and customs interspersed wit.h chara
teristic anec- 
 and bits of folk lore. Their "riting
 havp proved of ill-- 
t'stÍlnahle yalue to the secular historians who ha ,-e t'ula l'g'pd 
the sphere and are now exploiting the aboriginal past. 
There is not, in the histor
' of heroic endeayor, a lllore in- 
spiring chapter than that which reC'ords the dt'P(ls of st'lf-de- 
nia], tIlt' apostolic lahors and the affec.,tioll of these lonely 
priests for their spiritual dlildren of the forest or the dest'rt. 
To a feryor that was intense and an abnt'gatlon that was en- 
tire, they ad(led a devotion that was indefatigable. They 
brought to the discharge of their exalted offiee an ullselfhill- 
ness that W"êl:-; admirahle and a fortitude under depl'iyation 
and suffering which, siul'P ..\ postoliC' times. ha
- a 
parallt'l in lnunan history. 
That they nlight enlarge their usefulne:-;
 and broaden 
their Ü1fluence with their trihal flocks, thp
' eonforuwd and 
ada ptecl theulselve::., to Indian W"ays. to t llt'i r Ina nuers, ('ns- 
tOlns and linguistiC' H(ldre;o:;s. They slnoked the l'ahunet with 
thE' Unondagas, {:'xchanged wamplnn ht'lt
 w.ith tlw Hnron
and ate atole out of the 
anH-' howl with the Pinlas. They 
Illasterecl thE' dialects of the tri be:, that they Inig'ht fmnilia rly 
llse the allE'gorie
, Inetaphol"
 an(l figul'e
pt't'(.h with whieh 
tht' h.jlml orator cloth
c.l hi
()f the hrayE' and Ruintly ;-.oldiers of the l'l'OSS who did 
cluty oIl savage field
 ill those early days. :fift
,-twú won the 
('rown of martyrdol1l. 
\JI thesf' were slnughtered for the 
faith within the present linÚt
 of the .UnitE'd States and fell 
heside the :-;tandurd of the Cl'Os:-: hreathing IoyaJiy to God and 
flis Church in their expiring agonies. 



N or should we luaryel that God gave such eourage to tuen. 
,Yhen our Diyine Lord instituted IIis Church, He dowered it 
with the Seven Gifts of the lloly Ghost, and f'onspicnons 
anlong thése are Piety ancl Fortitndp whieh, when reeeived 
into the sonl, Inakf' of the coward a bravp nlan. FrOln the 
day 01 tlw crucifixion of 
t. P
ter, (lown to our own tinIes, 
the Church has been the- faithful lllOther of hpro('s. lnartyr
and confessors. The Dmniens and tlw ll'lH:'l' si
,ter<..: of Port- 
of-Rpain and Traeadie, were, and are what tlley are, hy the 
grace of the :Holy 
pirit operating OIl the Inl111Hn win throngh 
the SaCrall1f'nts and the DivilH' 
e of the una1terable 
Churclt of God. 
"Tne heroislll of the priest
 and nuns. n writes 
r r. George 
Ralnpson in the London Daily Chronicle, "who have 
ficed their lives in an effort to éllTIc.1ioratl' the l'ondition of the 
unfortunate victinls on the lonely and isohlted island in the 
Pacific ocean, exc.ites the lnost profound feeling-- of admira- 
tion in eyery breast." 
Ir. Sanlpson were intimate with tlw lllÍssionary his- 
tory of the Catholic Church, his a(lmiratiol1 would deepen 
into wonder an(1, like the men of Naz:1reth, he would "fea]' 
and glorify God ,yho had giyen snch pO'-'Ter to DIPJl." 
The Spanish Pranf'isf'an priests stretelwd a chain of luis- 
sions from ::\[exico City to the Day of San Franci::--eo. and 
eastward into I(ansas, to a point where. fignratiyely, they llWt 
the n1Ìssionaries of the gTeat .r esuit Or
ler frOlu (
anada and 
where these soldiers of the two diyisionf-: of the Anny of the 
Cross sang a "r
re Denm" to God that the llalne of .J esus 
Christ was reyerenced and the Faith prodainled across th2 
K orth .L
merican continent frOln orpan to ocean. 


Area of Salt Lake Diocese--Tribes of Arizona and .1.Yew 
Jlexico-The IJloqui, "Cliff' Peáple"-Thp Priest Jlarcvs 
de JYizzrl-Companion of Pi.zarro-I-lis Trvnderful Ca- 
-reer-On the Tray tv the Zuni rillages-De },Tizza's 
Tramp through }.Tortlu'rn Jlexico-Ilis PlllJzgp into 
Ari.zourt in 1539-Deatlz of the lYegro Estac(w-riew of 
Cibola-Return and Death of the Priest. 
Any descriptiye work professing tù deal with the early 
history of a great Church in a region elnbracing 154:,000 
square miles of territory llUlst, in a llleasure, antieipate the 
epoch of which it treats. It will unfold a panonUlla of neigh- 
boring land
 and peoples before and during the period with 
which it is occupied, that the reader may better understand 
the situation, the region and the indiyiduals to whol,n he will 
be introduced, and "Tith whmn, speculatiyely, he win as:-;o- 
If, then, we exmnine the conditivil of our country west 
of the Roeky 
Iountains as it was three hnndreù year
we find it occupied by a numher of independent hordes and 
sedentary trihes. Ronora, northern =\lexico, then included 
Arizona as far as, apd BOlne nliles beyond, the present city 
of Tucson. Over this imnlense region of InolUÜa lns, arid 
deserts and riyer lands roanled the warlike .1.\ paches, who 
scorned the drudgery of hortieultllre and trusted to their 
fleetness of foot and skill in hunting for subsistence. 
tled along the fertile Yal1e
 s of the Salt Hiyer, the Gila, the 
San Pedro, the Santa Crllz and tlw lower Colorado. and 
extending thelTIselyes inland to Hw fring-el., of the desert or 
the foothills of the lllountains, dwelt yarjous triù
s, suh-trihes 
and trihal groups. dihble-nlen and luen of the ston(\ hoe. 
Each uf these praetised a rude cultivation, possessed a 



eharal'ter of it
 o\\'n. and, suelL as it wa:-;, an independent ex- 
istence. l \>111111 on to all was tlw idea of a HupJ'enlP Being, 
Lelief in good and eyil spirits, in witchcraft, ineantation
in the supernal or infernal powers of ShanLans, or witch-doe- 
To the north, ranging fron1 the 
an Franl'i
(.o Jllouutains 
of Arizona on the w('
t to the nf'ighborhood of the pueblo 
towns of K f'W 
lexi(}o on the east, and fro1H the San J nan 
HlOuntains down southward to )Iount San )fateo, rOaIn('(l the 
Xayajos, an offshoot of the warJike ..
, known to-day as the Cli ft. nwelJel'
, inhabit- 
(-'d then the yiHages "here the,\' now are in northeastern ..L \ri- 
zona. The existing village of Oraihi, on a )'luff of one of the 

J oqui nlessa
, is the idèntieal pueblo di
('oYf'red by an ex- 
ploring part
ent forward by Corunado in ] 340. To the 
south and east of the ::\Ioqui land,.;, near the beatlwaters of 
the Puercos and Peco
 rivers, triLutarif's to the Hio Grande, 
thyelt the Zuni, a 
edentary people, to who:-;p ,'illage
given the nallle of puehlo
 hy the Hpaniards. 
X orth and nurtheast of t1Lp hunting and a 1'(1 hie lands of 
all these tribes stretched an unknuwn sea and C'ountJ'Y called 
Ly the Rpania 1'(ls the d Northern 
l yster
.," a land :-;hrou(led 
in in1l)enetrahle gloOJn. whose linÚLless (li.-;tances, ferociuu'-i 
hordes and terrifying wilds awed explol'a til.Jn. I nto these 
uncharted and lln]nlO\\'n region
 fparles:-:ly strodp the Hpani
nÜssionary Fathers. hearing a l11e
sage of 
al\'ation anll 
Tlwre is not in the hi
tory of exploration. perhaps not 
in the history of thp hmnan ra('e, ê] tale J]lore l'olllanti(. and 
thrilling than that -whi('h r('cord
 the ê]lh.cntnrous plunge 
into the dar]nwsH of the great 
\.rizoniê]n lLlountains and (It'so- 
lations of saud of thf' Hpani
h prip
t, Fray 
lare():-: dp Xizza, 
in 1329. This ach'entnrous and z('aloll:-; priest wa
 thf' f'OU1- 
vanion of f:<'raw'is('o Pizarro, wheu the daring Hpanial'd 
swept, like a -whirlwind, to the eOll<IUf>st of (>pru, and suhdue.a 
an eUlpire. UP retuL.ned frOln Peru hy ('OlllIllHlld of lJi
riors awl was doing missionary duty on the frolltipr of 



N ortheru 
uhjec1 to furtilPr order
, "When, early in 
1336, three gaunt aud sun-tanned lllen entered the fortified 
town of Han 
Iiguel de (1ulitH'<llI, Hinola, Xorthern 
and told a tale of 
talT(:lÍioll and adn
nture which staggl'red 
belief. They daillled tu be SUITiYor
 frolH the ill-fated 
of Palufilio de XalTaez, "Who on the 17th of .f nne, ] ;)
7, sailed 
a"Way frollI the port of 
an LucHr de Barnulleda, 
pain, and 
"Was neyer again hea I'd of. 
.\fter the :;hips "Went to 
 these three lllen, _\ndres Dorante:-;, Alonzo del Cas- 
tillo Jlaldollado, AJyau .x UUt'Z Caheza de 'Taca and a negro 
slayt', Estayan. were wa:-;hed a:-;hort' and eavtured by Florida 
Inl1ians. Escaping after :--01l1P y
 of eaptiyity, they 
tnullped toward the 
etting sun, lllasquerading alllong the 
6ayages as llledi<'ine lllen frol11 an()thel' world, and pas
oyer iuunellse regions and 1 hrough so lllHny tribe
 that" the 
llieniory fail
 to recall thel11." 
The fabulous tales they told and the wonderful people 
they encountered fired the Ünagillatiol1 and stinlulah
ll the 
zeal of the Pranci
can friar, De Kizza, and he re:--olY('11 to 
plunge into the uneharted land and open a way t hl'ough thes,=, 
lnysterious regiol1
 for the n1Ï:,sionaries uf his urdE'r. He 
applied for and ohtained frolll the Proyincial of the Fran- 
cisrans in 
lexieo, :B 1 ray ...!\ntonio de CilHhd Hod!'
go. pl'rllli
sion tu begin his ad\TentuI'ous journey. 
Carrying in his pocket his penllit and instruction
the virel'o

a, then (lwelling' at Toula, Xew Oali('ia, 
dated Xovenlber 20 (1st of DeCelllhel'. Hefonned Calendar), 
1338, Fray JIarcos 
Iarch 7. 133
1, frOlu the town of 
San Jliguel, Sinaloa, and entered upon his daring exp
lIe wa;-; accoillpani
d hy an Italian Franci:::,can, Fray 
JIononl to, tile negro, E
taYan. ,,'ho, with thp 
llr\'iYors of 
N"arvaez's ill-fated expedition. rros
ed tlI(' (1ontinent. and by 

Olne friendly 
inoloa Indians. "Then the expedition :-;truck 
illoloa or Petaltan, Fray 1 [onorato, hi
 ouly whitt' ('OUl- 
panion. contracted tertian f
ver awl 'YêlS ]pft in thf' carp of 
an Indian fanlÍly. P].ay :Jran
os pn
lwd on "as the Ifoly 



Spirit did guidp u
raking along two sonora guides, the 
fearless prie
t continued hi::, journey north b

t and, 
paralleling the shore linE' of the North sea or, as it is now 
eaUed, the Gulf of California, he enterE'd the land of the 
Yaquis, cro::,sing the :B-'uerte, 
Iayo and Ya<llli riYel'
. Sweep- 
ing to tlw we
t, he carne to the hunting ground
 of the Eu- 
deves, tralnped a forbidding country, aIHl on the evening of 
1, 133
), arrived at the Indian town of Varapa, on 
t.he heachnlters of the Rio )1atape, central 
onora. Tlere the 
brave priest renlained for SOUle tinw instructing tbe Eudeves 
in the elements of the Chri
tian religion. 
On the se<,ond day after his arrival mnong the Eudeve-;, 
he sent the llegro with Tndian guides on a scout northward 
into the Arizona uf to-day. The negro was instructed "to 
go to the north fift
- or sixty leagues (onf' hundred and 

 nliles) to f-iee if ill thai region he ulight see sOlnething 
out of the ordinary, or a weU-
ettled and ri<,h country, and if 

o, to send an Indian or two with a me
:,age." It was under- 
stood bebveen tlWlll that the lliessengers WE're to bring, from 
the ne,gro to the prie
t, a <,ross, and that the size of the 
cross would Inake known to Fray 1\1arcos the inlportance of 
Estavan's discovery. If the cross were large, the priest 
would understand the thing
 seen by the IH'gl'O were of great 
On the lllOrning of the fourth day after the negro had left 
for the north, two I->trange Indians entered 'T acapa carrying 
a cross large enough to crucify the priest. 
"They tol<luw," writes Fray ßlarcos in his Report, "b)T 
order of Estavan, that J should now set out at once, for he 
had Il1et people who had g'iyen hiDl inforn1ation uf the g
est thing on earth; that he was now with Indians ,dlO had 
heen therE', one of whunl he sent to Ine." r-rhis Indian told 
IIle so lnauy thing's of his <,ountry that I hesitated to helif-'ve 
llntil I would see tIw <,ountr.\'" Inyself or obtained further 
proof. This Indian :-;aid that frOll1 wlwre Estavan llOW was, 
it would take thirty days to go to the first city of the country 
that was called Cibola. ::\Ioreoyer, he stated that in this 



province were :-;e,Tell very large cities a 11 under one gov- 
ernor; that the hou
es were large, biÚlt of stone and lime, the 
smallest of these hou
es "Tas of two stories, others of three 
or four stories, and an fiat roofed; :Ii: :Ii: :Ii: that the people 
of these cities were well clothed, and lllany other particulars 
he told me, not alone of th
 Seven Cities, but of other lands 
further on, which were more ilnportant than the Seven 
Cities.' , 
\Yhen Father )Ian
us heard these wonderful stories he 
raised his hands and" gaye thanks to our Lord." Eyer since 
the time of Xuna de GuZnlall, 1330, there was a dim tradi- 
tion of the existence of the::,e seven cities, and now with his 
0\\11 eyes he was to gaze upon thelll. Starting at once on 
a tnunp through tlw Sonora Yalley, he swung to the north, 
and after four days of fatiguing travel through a wild and 
uninhabited region, he 
tood on the banks of a river, now 
known as the San Pedro, on the confines of ..L\..rizon..1. I[e was 
now anlong the Solmiplu.jS. 
oo luiles frulll the Gulf of Califor- 
nia, and heard again of the existence of a populous city 
further north which the
T also called Cibola. They told hÜn 
that between thenl and Cibola was a great wilderness in- 
hahited by fierce and crafty people, and that it would be 
dangerous for hilll to advance farther to the north, 

\ftel' a friendly visit of three or four days with the 
. the Friar. on )f ay ] 
)th. re-entered upon his peril- 
ous journey. '
eering to the northeast, he tnullped ..L\.rizona, 
its deserts and lllountains, crossed the Gila and Ralado rivers 
and, toward the end of 
Iay, 1339, sighted the Zuni village 
of Havico, in the territory now ('aIled Xew 
lexjco. Here 
his journey northward abruptly canle to an end, hy a verified 
.account that the negro Estavan. who was sent forward to re- 
port tllt' COl1lÌllg of the priest, had heen Dlurdered hy the 
Fray )Iarcos, before retreating to the I'outh, eredpd a 
wooden cross on a stone cairn, gaye to the land the title of 
the ' , New KingdOlll of Ht. Pranci
," took po::'::'e
i'ion of it in 
the naBle of Jesus Christ, and he
all his hOlllC'ward trayel- 



"Con lwrto II/((:i f('mo}" flue comirla-Kith a load of fear and 
an eUlpty s(H'k, " as h(' facetion
ly writes in his tlial'Y. 
The ailll the great missionary had in Illilld when he en- 
tered on hi:-; r01llH ntic trip wa
 to open a way for the Franci
clm priests who were to follow, to f'"Xplore tIll' land and 
repurt on the dispositioll of the tribe

 was one uf the lllO
t extraol'<lillêlry, if not the Inost 
-, journeys on foot eyer \'olunta ri Iy undertaken 
by a sing-It' luan on the ('ontinent of Korth Ameriea. Alone, 
nnarllw<l; this wOIulerfnl pl'ie
t. allilllê1 ted ,,'ith burning zeal 
for the salyation of sou]:-:, fiung hiul""elf into an uubroken 
desola tion of wi Idcl'llPss, fparlessly penetrated the ('a 11lP:-; and 
Ira bitat
 of ulwiyi I ized HUIU, and l'etuJ'lwd to his counh.

after ('overing 1,:201lIuiles of de
ert, lllollntain and ri,Ter lands 
in the six lllonths of hi



 of Coronadu fu,. the {]ibola-His Companions-Death 
of fliP Priest .Titan rlr la rrllz-Of flrnthpf Luis DpSNll- 
amo-Father Padilla and Pedro de Tobar rïsit the Jlo- 
fjui:i-Jlarch of Curunadu aud Padilla 1 hruur;h OklahuHw 
(l ud Indian Territory in 1541-E ntpr [{ (tusas, Crossing 
tlw Árh'ansas-RrturJz of CorOJl(l{lo--Padill({ 's Journey 
to the Teton-S iOll.r--S fa rts for La nds of tlw Pa Il"JlepS- 
Is Jlurdererl-Body 
Tpr('r Recorered-lllota-Padilla's 
The official report of Fra
T 1Iarco:-- De :Kizza, hi
ful exploit, the lamb hp had 
een and the trihe
 ,yith whmn 
he ta l'rie(l stillniia ted the aIllhition a11(l arou
ed the enthl1- 
n1 of tilt' Hpaniards in 1[exieo, and initiater1 tlw faulOu
expe(litioll of Coronado in 1340. 
,Yhell Corona(.lo began his nwrch for the fahulous Seyen 
 of CilJula tlu-'re went with hiul thr
e Franri

priests and a lay hrother to teach Christianity to the nati\'P
Happily the nalne
 of the
p zealol1
sionarie:-i haye heen 
elTed to us, and WP owp it to our athni ra tion for tlisintpr- 
e:::;ted courage and zeal to i:,èe to it that tlH
:'e nanleS "ill liye 
for all tinle. 
Bt'st known of the
p wa:-; l,-'athf'l" 
 of Xizza. He 
al"rOlupanied the expedition to the Zuni town
-the huni- 
Cihola of Xew 
rf'xi('o. whirh he had already :-ieen and of 
whieh he had "Tittell. Hi
 health fai ling hinl, he l'ptnrned 
[exit'o Cit
., "he1't' hp dipd 
I an'h 
;), 1 ;)38- 
The pl"ie
t .J nan de 1a t \'uz was of Freneh de
ent, and 
 aging rapi(lI
' WIIPll he YOlllutef'red to a(,('Olnpan

 (1 0 1'- 
onado. He "a
 a Ulan of great piety. and wa
 l'eye1'eueed hy 
Corona(lo's lUen for his siel'ling qllalitie
 of head and heart. 
,rhen Coronado rE'tired from X ew 
 r exieo, ..c\ pril, 1
, the 



aged priest stay
d with the Indians at 
'igua, now Bernalillo, 
on the Rio Grande, which ('uts N ew 
[exico frOlll north to 
south. As he wa
 neyer ag-ain heard of, and no positive 
stateluent in regard to his fate i
 found in the early writers, 
we luay only conclude that he wa
 I1lurdered by HIP Tiguans. 
Fray Luis Desl"alanIO, the lay brother, ::,elected for his 
field of labor, after the Spaniards left the country, the vil- 
lage of Pecos, on the left bank of and high up on the Pecos 
river, northern New )[exieo. ,Yhen Coronado was leaving 
for )[exico he presented to Fray Luis fiye or six sheep. These 
the lonely n1all droyp before hilll into the Zuni countrYt 
pausing niany tiJlle\,; in the day to let thelu browse, and at 
night lying down to rest with his sheep sleeping around hhn. 
,YllPn he entered the Peco
 with his little flock he was 
hospitably welcOllled by the IlH.liau,; of the great vnehlo and 
told he nlight 
ettle al1l0ng then1. He now built hin1self 
a rough cabin on the prairie outside thp Yillage aIHl gathered 
the little children around him for instruction in the eate- 
chislll. How long the venerable Ulan liyed here, or what he- 
Callie of his sheep, we (10 not know. He lllay haye died in 
his littlp hut, or he llIaY have bf'en nlurdered by one of the 
sorl'erers or nIedicine 111en, jealous of his popularity with the 
tribe. ,Yhen Espejo passerl by the ZlUÜ villages, forty years 
after Coronado's expedition, he heard nothing of the fate of 
Fray Luis. 
Father Juan de Padilla, who seenu:; to haye heen a ('onfi- 
dential friend of Coronado, was cOlnpal'nti\'el
' a young and 
vigorous nlan when lw yolunteeretl to join his Proyineial Fray 
J\f an'os on Coronado'
,Yhen Coronado ady-anced SOllIe days ahead of his arIllY 
toward ZUllP-Cibola, an the Franci
calls accon1pallied him. 
,Yhile he c
unped for a tÌIne all10llg the Zuui!-. lw dispatf'lled 
Pedro de 
"'obar, hi
 lieutenant. and twelye IHen to es('ort 
Father Padilla on his visit to Tu:-.cayan and the )lo<]ui pueb- 
. He was the first white lllan who eyer saw or entered a 
]\[oqui villag{' or spoke to a "fo;nake llUlll." Ueturning to 
Coronado's camp at Cibola, he joined an exploring expedi- 



tion of Hernanda de oL\Jyarado to PecoB. It wa:::; on this jour.. 
ner the 
paniards :-;a"T for the first time the falnou::, rock 
pueblo of ACOlna and heard of Quiyira. In the report remit- 
ted to )lexico and signed jointly by Padilht (nul Alyarado 
(Third Yo!. DoclUllento::, de Indias), Quiyira (K-ansas) was. 
ellted as a yery rich country. 
Un the return of oL-\Jyarado to Cibola, CorOluulo, taking 
with him Father Padilhl and twenty-nine llLOullÌed lllen,. 
started on his now fmnous journey to Quiyira. The party 
crossed the (ianadian river, entered the lands of the warlike 
"'---\ paches and rotle into the great buffalo herds of the plains. 

lfter sixty-se'Ten days of tortuous travel they cro::,sed the 

lrkansas, llf'ar old Fort Dodge, and entered the region called 
Quiyira, in northeastern Kan
as, not far frOlll the boun- 
dary of X ebraska. They were now in the land of the Teton 
-Hioux--known after-wards to tlU' (lanadian trappers and 
hunters m; the" Gens des Prairies." Thi,;; was in 1541. The 
priest returned to the Rio Grande with Coronado, and -when 
the adventurous Spaniard went hack to 
Iexico with his 
disheartened Inen, ]1--'ather Padilla and l'-'ather Juan de la 
Cruz remained to instruct the tribes in Christianity. ,Vith 
thenl stayed a Portugl1f'Se soklier, .L
ndres Docalnpo, a 
tizo boy, two Spanish assistants, Lucas and Sebastian, known 
a:-, "Donados," or lnissionary volunteers, and two ..L
Indians frOln :
FrOlll Bernalillo. where they now" were, Father Padilla 
set out on a Ini::'sionar
T expedition to the Teton-Sioux, Qui- 
yira, in the autulnn of 134:2, leaving Fray Luis with the Pecos. 
lIe brought -with hilll Docalnpo, the two Donados and the 
half-blood boy. lIe also took along aU that was necessary 
for offering up the IIoly Bacr)fice, one horse and SOllle pro- 
visions for the trip. 
K 0 accident marred the rOJllance of the journey ana they 
safely arrive(l aIllong the 
reton-Sioln::, by -Wh0111 they were 
hospitahly received. After instructing the Indians of Qui- 
yira in the rudiu1ents of religion, Fray PadilJa, in opposition 
to the advice of the chiefs of the tribe, resolved to visit and 



preaeh to the Uuya:-.. KIlO were no friend:-: of the Tpton
. Hi::; 
zeal o\Terlappecl his pnHlence or his lUHndedge of Indian 
eustOllls; for in tho
.;(? days a llÚssionary who dwelt with and 
 regarded af-: a friend of a tribe could not lea,Te their 
enCal11pnH-'nt to take up hi!-. ahodp with an unfriendl
T lwople 
without exposing himself to su
pi('ion and jealow..:y. rrhp Te- 
tons 1wld the friar in aweSOln
 reyerence a
 a powerful ...01'- 
cerer, "Those incantations, .when frienflly, nwant pros})prity 
to the trihe. and ,dlen lllalign, earrietl ,,,ith theln siekne..;s and 
nLÎsforÍllllP. The 1110re popular the priest becaIlle. the lllorp 
dangerouf-: it was for hil11 to leaye tlw wig-waIns of hi..; fl'ielHb. 
,Yhen the Spanish nÚ:-:siOluU'
T, eontl'ary to the pleatlings 
of the Quiyiras, entered upon tlw trail Jpacling to tlH' land of 
the Guya
-a Pawnee sub-tribe-he uncon
hands with a messenger of death, for his friends belieyed h(' 
was going oyer to their enenlY. and the Pawnees would look 
upon hinl as their foe, since he callle from a trihe with wluHn 
they were at war. 
[exican historian )1 ota- PiHlilla. who ('laimt'd to haye 
eXaIuinetl t'ady c10rUlllen1-.: bearing upon the death of tlw 
faithful Inissional'
T, tells us in his" Hif-:torÍa de In Kneya 
Gali('ia." that "the friar left (
lliyil'a with a sInal! est'ort. 
against the will of tIlt' Tndinns of that yillage, who loYl'tl hiul 
af-: their father. ,Yhen lw had tra "ple:l for llparly a tlay lL<.:} 
sa"T ('Gluing toward hinl Tndian:--; in their war paint. and, (li- 
vining tllPir Inurdt'l'ou
 intentiou. lIP ach-ised the Portn
who wa::-: InomÜed. to gallop off awl takf-' with hiul tli(' f)on:l- 
dos, an(l the ho
-. who, heing young. ('oulcl run awa
' and 
eSt'ape. .As thpy wen l unarllIetl they all did as the Father ad- 
yisecl. but lIP, kneeling- down. offered up Iti:-- liff.1. ,dLirh he 
surrenderec1 for the 
alnlÌion of others. Thu:, hp ohtailwd 
his lllOSt ardent wi
h. the hlessing of lllHrtYl'dom, hy the ar- 
rows of the:--;e f-:avagf'
, ,,-ho, after llJul'flpring hilll. threw hi
r into a dpt'p pit. The day of his death i:--; not known. 
although it is eonsider
d t'prtain that it u(lrurred in tht' year 
l;)-t!. non redro d
 l.'ohar, in the (lO('1l11wnts he Wl'otp with 
 OWll hand and left in the City of C111iaean. sa
-;,: that till' 



Indians went out to kiJl this holy father in ordC'r to get pos- 
:-;ession of his Ol'lIaIUents. IIp also states that there .was a 
tradition of wonderful 
igns aCCOnllJanyil1g his death. snch as 
great floods. bal1s of fire and darkening of the 
Suell is the aecount given b

rota-Padina of the end of 
the first Inart
T west of the 1Iissonri. Eight or llinp yea l'
after the Inurder of the priest. Andreas Docanl}Jo, thp two 
Donados- Sebastian and LlIca
- and HIP half-castE' bo
-, C0111- 
panions of ]'ather Padil1a at (
uiyira, elltere<l rrmllpi<'o and 
annoulH'ed the death of the prie

\fter their flight frOl11 Quiyira they were captured by 
the (jonlê:1nche
 and lwld as slaves. "
hen they hroke away 
frm11 their captors they wanden>d aiInlessly fronl pla<,e to 
place and from trihe to trihe. The traInp of the
p unal'll1ed 
and half-starvpd Blen fronl northeastern Kansas to Tmnpico, 
Jfexi<,o, would be incredible. if it were not lwove<l and ('er-- 
tified to heyond denia1. 
fn all ..:\.JllerieD.n histor
' therp is no parallel to this Inar- 
,-pIous journey, if we except the extraor<linary ana continu- 
ous wandering
 acro:-;f' the cúlÜillellt frUIn eastern l'exaf' to 
the Pacific coast of Caheza de YacH and hi:::, miseralJle C0111- 
Ialdonada and Doralltes, in 1 ;):?8-
,rhat he<'aIlle of the:-.e eOlllpauions of F'anwl' PadilJa? 
The Portuguesp soldier, 
\n(ll'é:-, Do<,mnpo, is not 11lentÏonerl 
again in histor
-. IIe is heard of for the last tÏIne in rraulpi(.o, 
on the Gulf of 
elJastian. tha DOllado, who "Tas a 
native of 
IerlllUl<'all, 1[f'xi<,o, wput to Cl1li;wan. 
Ïnalon. and 
dif"d there; Lucas, the other Donado, lwcame a <'ùte<,hist with 
tlH' Zacatf'<'a Iudians, and lived to an adnluee<l age. 
The grave (1f Father Padilla. like that of 
es. the .Tf'w- 
ish lawgiver, wa
 IWYf'l' found. He wa;-" with Pedro de Tobar, 
the first white 111au to entpl' the Zuni and 1[oCjni vil1agps and 
make kno,,-n the f'xi:-;tf'nce of the noel\: of ...\(,OIl1ê:l and thp Pe- 
('0;-, town
. \\
ith (ioronado ]w was thp fir:-;t of whitt. lllen to 

ee the 
-\ rkansa:-;. ,,
hi<'h hp (,l'o

ed 011 .T nne :?0, 1 ;)-1-1, and 
('alled it tlw Hivf-'r of 

. Peter and Pank--a naIlle which it 

till hears on the old lnap
 of Nueva Gali(.ia. or north and 
nOl'thwe:-;tern 11 exi<,o. 



The Ruis Expedition of 1581-Flight of the 80ldiers-Jlur- 
der of the Priest 8anta 111 aria-Death of Fathe1' Lopez- 
Espejo to the Rescue-Arrices in the f'ïllages of the Te- 
quans-RcfuJïl of the Par"ty-Onate Organizes Ilis Ex- 
pedition-For Zuni by the Rio Grande-Building of 
First Church in l-t T ew ill exico-E;x'l}loriì!.rJ the Colorad 0- 
Founding of Snufa Pc, lGOG-O penillg of JI i..,
Al1wng the Zunis-Building of Churches. 
The failure of Coronado'8 expedition and the dishearten- 
ing tales told by his sun-;:;corched and half-f
ullÜ,hed COlnpan- 
ions on the streets of Culiacall and 
Iexico, discouraged, for 
a tiule, further exploratiolls in northern regions. \'
here the 
spirit of adventure hesitated, that of zeal for tlw conversion 
of the northern tribes stilllulated the IH'iests of the Franeis- 
can order in Chihuahua to anlbitious hopes. Their zeal deep- 
ened into a decisive enthusiasm, and early in 1381 the Fran- 
ciscans organized an expedition of exploration and eonver- 
On the 1110rning of :Septeluber 9, ] 5
1, ill1l1Wcliately after 
the Benediction fol1owil1g the 
Iass of the' Holy Ghost. t\yo 
priests, Francisco Lopez and Fra
' de Santa 
Iaria, a lay 
brother, .....\ugustin Ruis by nanle, and h\
eh'e soldiers left the 
town of Santa Barbara, Southerll l jhihl1ahua, on foot. and 
entered upon their adyentnrous and perilous jOllrne
- into 
practically unknown lands and alllOng ullfmniliar hor(lf's of 
barbarous and sayage nleu. For eight hundred n1ÎI('
. (,1"OS::-;- 
ing bridgeless streams, scaling pathle
::-; nlonntain
through wa
 .of arid sand, the daring 
HhTenturers he1d the 
pace, and at last entf'l'pd the pueblo lands of the Tig'ua
. in 
northeastern New ::\lexico. As the little party adyanced to- 
wards Taos, the escort of twelye sodiers, terrified by a nUlll- 



bel' of approaching Zuni Indians, took fright, and, deserting 
the Fathers, made their way back to Chihuahua. 
The priests WE're hospitahl
r reeeiveù, and were pennitted 
to go fronl village to village instructing the people and teach- 
ing the children. En('ouraged hy the Sll<'CeSS of their mis- 

ion, Fray df' Santa ::\laria, heartE'ned by his cOlllpanions, left 
for Chihuahua to ask for additional priestly assistance on the 
.zuni nlission. Ou the afternoon of the third day of his home- 
ward journey he ",,,as nlurdereù on the desert by rmuning 
Tiguas, who, after stripping the Lody, left it to be devoured 
by coyotes, or
 according to the Zarate 
ahlleron, burned 
the corpse and buried the ashes. 
The two eOlllpanions of the lllurdered priest, uneon
()f their brother's fate, continued instructing the Zuni in de- 


 anf1 clean living. It is possihle the lllorality which 
ihE'Y preached did not hannonize with the Zuni senSi> of grat- 
ification, for when ]3'ather Lopez was one da: T praying under 
.a friendly tree, he was clubbed to death. His sole COlllpan- 
ion, Brother ..Llngustin, gave his body sepulture; but when 
Augustin, a few days after burying the priest was hiulself 
"brained ",,,ith a "lllacana' '-a war club,-his body was flung 
into the river. Thus ended the hopes and the lives of these 
priestly lHen of exenlplal'Y courage. 
,Yhen the scollndrely solclier:-:., who had abandoned the 
priests to their fate, found thE'ir 'n1Y back to Santa Barbara, 
they pleaded the la\y of self-preservation and justified their 
Qf'sertion on the grounds of inlll1inent danger to their own 
liyes froIH thE' hostility and nUIlluer of the natiyf's. Indignant 
;at the eowardief' and eonduct of the deserters, and fear- 
ing for the lives of the nlen of God, Don Antonio de E
2, wealthy Spaniard, at once sent out a call for nlen and 
()rganized his fanlous rescue part

 to the Zuni lands. 
He left tIle town of San BartolOll1e, Chihuahua, on the 
10th of N ovember, 158
, with Father Bernardino Beltralu, 
chaplain to tIlE' conlpany of one hundred and fifteen Inen, and 
forged hi
 way through thE' rancherias of the Conehos, the 
}>assaquates, and entered the encampnlents of the Tobosos, 



who :scattered to the 111Ouutain
 when they :-iaw the Hpall- 
iard:-3 and their hor:-ies, 
Following' up tlw Rio Grande, the expedition at hu;t 
reached the hOllles of the Tiguas, which. luuch tu tIlE' :-;nrprise 
of Espejo and Baltraln, were standing tenautle
s. The rri- 
guans, anticipating the revengE' of the Spaniards for the 

Iaughter of the priests, ran for cover to the lllountain:-:. leè.n r - 
ing in their villagp
 a few helple

 olel n1E'n and WOlllell. 
From the
E' Espejo re('eivE'd eonfirnwtion of the dpath of the 
ts. After a tour of exploration the HlJani
h COlllnIauder 
e to the land the nalllf' of New i\lexic o , 
tnH'k th{ì trail 
for home, and arrived at Ran Bartolome, .J nl
'. 1.)
In 13
)G Juan de Una te, intpIHling to colonize X ew )[px- 
et out for the ( 1itr of )Iexico with foul' hundred 
one hnndl'pd malTipel lnen with their falllilie
 aueJ a ('outin- 
gent of friendly l\Iexiean Indians. \\ïth hill1 \\'<'11t eight F'l'al1- 
ciscan priest", \\ho had volunteered their :SPlTi('e
 to OpPIl n1
sions in the land and lllilli
ter to the eol()l1i
\fter a fa- 
tiguing and Imra

iug nlal'('h of lllan
' lllouths. Unate and hi;:;. 
follo\\ers finall
T arrived at the puehlo of Puaray (It the Zuni 
on the Rio Granele. .. IIel'e," writE's 
Iar('elino Civezza, .. a. 

olelllll .:\1 a
s \ya:-; celehra tpd, a :-:pl"lllOn pl'eaehed. the (\'o
s of' 
t planted, and with rdigious and ro
'al rites .xew i\fex- 
ieo 'wa
 {'lainlE'd for the Hpanish crown." 
It is illl possible to define th(' houndarit>s of tlw X P\\y ::\1 ex- 
i('o of the earl

pania]'(ls. ft v)'()hahly inelndell h
' thp terIll,. 
Xe"r l\fexico. part
 of Colorado, Kan
as, L'tah and all north-, 
ern .L-\TizOllè.l. 
"On the 
d of ...\ngu
t. 1;)98," write:-; UillllëU'
' Shea. ill 
his sketeh of the 
vanish mif'--ion:-; ill the l Tllited 
, "the' 
ere{'tioll of the fil':-;t ('hu]'('h ill X"e\\- 
rexi('o \nl
 llcgun, and OJ) 
tllP 7th of 8<'1'te111her was opened fol' di\TinE' 
elTice. TIle' 
lwxt day, the Feast uf tht=> Natiyit
. of ()nr Lad
'. thi
\nlS dpdieated nnder thp nH111C of 81. .Jolm tht=> Bapti:-;t. tlH_
Father ('()llnlli

ary. ...\101lz0 )Iartillt'z. hl(-'

ing it awl l'Unse- 
crating the altal'
 and ('halice
. Father (1hri
t()pIwr ;";alaZal



preached the ;-;el"lnon, and the !lêl

 elo:-;p(l with a gellf'ral 
rejoi('ing. " 
 lllunble church wa
 the fir;-;t te111ple conse('rated to 
God within the prf'sent lin1Ï is of thf' Fnitp(l States] and 
Inarks an epo('h in th0 n1Ïssionary life of our country. But 
the date of tlu.. beginning of nlissionar

 labor amOlH.?: the 
trihes opens with the yisit of the two prif',...;t
Juan de Ia 
('uncion and Pedro Kadal, to tlIe 
rari('opas OJL tlIf' fi-ila, 
soUtlWl'll .\rizona. in 1338. 
The praeti(-al Hlì.d pennanent cvangplization of the tribes 
\yas nO\\T hegull hy tlIp alloÍlnent of the Fathers to the neigh- 
hOl'iug' puehlos. and the systl'lllatie organization of tll[' priests 
into an ê:letiyc lnissionar

 !Jody. :--uhjc(.t to the ordprs of the 
10(',11 sl1lH-'rior, F'ather .L-\lol1z0 
\I artinez. 
On O('tol>el' í, 1GOJ. .hwn df' OnaÌl', general in ('0l1lmaIH1, 
alHI }1--'athers Han DUellayentUl'a and Es('uùar. led an explor- 
ing :uHI (,ollciliatory expedition down the l iolor
do riyel'. 
rrhey paid a friendly yisit on the "-Tay to thE' Zuni towns, near 
the headwater:-: of 11l<' Hio GnllHle. and, fording the Pllen'o, 
passed into the 
I oqui puehlos. Hwillgiug to tlll' west. the
crosse<l the Colora(lo Chiquito at ê:l plnee afterwards calleù 
thp Nan .Jo
e, and. continuing their 1Han.h. Yf'f'l'f'(l to the 
north, pas;-;ing near the site of tlU' IH.('spn1 ('ity of Pres('ott, 
.. \ riz., through a l'PgioIl traversed h

 non ..L"--lltonio Espejo 
aud Fll'a

 Bernardino Bpltl'am nearl
' a qUêìrtpl' of a (,f'lltur
Thf'y" now entered the lancl-:; of the 
[ohavps awl 1ILe 
Ylullan trihes Ill'ar tlu' Oila, s\nnn thp Oila and, facing to the. 
:-;outh,' luarehed throug-h tIle delta of the Colorado and 

toppf'd on the shol'P of the North Sea, now tlll' Gulf of (ia 1 i- 
fOl'llia. Herf' the.\T raised a huge ('ross. hanging' on it the 
eoat of an11s of Philip 1 \T of Rpail 1 , and took pos
Si()1l of 
tllE' ('ountry in thp lunne of tILe 
panish sovereign. This \\'as 
on .Janllal'
T 2;), 1ôO;;, and as it happened tu he marked, in the 
HOllmn ealendal', the feast of the Conversion of S1. Panl, 
' declarell that the da
'" ::.;honl<1 hen('eforth he (,01nnH'ìllO- 
rated as an annual and patl'onal fe
tiYal for New 



Returning fronl his exploration
, Unate, in 1606, founded 
the city of Santa :B-'e-City of Our Hol
 Paith- and built 
the Church of San )Iiguel, afterwarc1
 destroyed in the In- 
dian uprising of 1680. 
In 1645 n1Ïssions had already hpen oppned, schools built 
and churches erected in forty-six Christianized pueblo town" 
of New )Iexico. "Even in 1617," write
 Charles F. Lunullis, 
in "The Spani
h Pioneers," "there were a1read
T eleyen 
churches in use in N E'W 
Iexico. Santa Fe was the onl
T Span- 
ish to"Wn; but there were also dnuches at the dangerous In- 
dian puehlos of Gali!-\teo and Pecos, t"Wo at Jenles, 
an Ilde- 
fonso, Santa Clara, Sandia, San ]'elipe and San DOll1ingo. It 
was a wonderful achievenlent for each lonely n1Ïs
ionary, for 
they had neither ciyil nor lnilitary assistance in their par- 
ishes, to have induced his barbarous flock to build a big 
stone church and to "Worship the new white God." 

., -' 

1\ ..}, ",: .'f?,l' '" ". 
Ii t /,: . . , . t ..\
. ':.t- "'r 
 (. I,:.i fit'.:
n ., ! ;.. 
 iT .)j(:v;,
) I' 

it "' .:\.'. .. . '

; '(,I, .á;
". 1. 
 '#, .
.. -t! \'f.[
.. ....d
:A I "J'l.F

i' ...
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-:T;,j 'f'fl.. Jtt'

f-. :?

( .,
.f/jj ,"Ít

00fi.' -:
Iri.. /. .. Jt(;


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- · ';1., '.+'....."'/1, '7 "i 
,. tj 

I I ,;. -;-,,::-;;t

t ... I{ .."", \; 
 t. .....,- 'V.',;"'.',-;:\ ,,,:.,, 
 I"", '. 
"',.r;JP. ,:0: ",.
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.. . · r. t., .' , '" '.,..... 

'" t .Þ 
- I i 1\ · i:t.
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> .:,:.d.\'. 
.. :I', ..,. 'If "r'\:M
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 .'" "'y. 
I I' J '; J \ 

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Numúer of Churches in UJ49-The ZUlli (loJlspiracy-Rrro[t 
of the Trives aJld 11Iassncre of the Spauiards-Slllllgider 
of the Priests-Capture of !':fanta Fe-The" Furlurn 
Hope"-D('speJ"{de rlwrge of tlle 1,,'p(l1liarrls-StuJJlpede 
of the Indians-Into El Paso-Retllfn of Onate to Santa 
Pe-S llbm i
sion uf the T ribr:-;-R erultq liest of 1\-"- ell' Jlex- 
i('()-Po pltlflt ion-II If nUl Jl S({C ri {ice -- E.r"þloriu.fJ Colu.- 
I"a d (). 
The 1l1i
:-;ion of .J Plne:-o;, w11en
 dwelt a 
olitary priest, 
Alonzo df' Lugo. "
as ahnost a hUIHll'ed lllile:-: we
t of Santa 
Fe and was buried in a desolatiun of solitude and :-;aud. Tao:-o;. 
where Father Zamora was 
tationec1, \\n.:-: a mi:-;prable 
tion of adohe 
tnH'tuJ'es on the Taos ri\'f'r, 
ixty-fi,"e Iniles 
northeast of Hanta Fe. At the tiulC that Father Z
settled with thp 
. thp tribe was at war with the Utes. 
 the lnission of San (ierollilno; its halldsOllle church 
was burned and it
 prie:-;t slaughterl'(l in tlH-' fndian n
of l()8n. 
()f the forty-six ('ll1'istian puelJlo
, Iuentioned by 
'Velez dp E
('alante in his report, puhlished in DOCUJ1l('utf'': 
para hi II istúria de 11/ P.1'Ícu, aud existing in 16-1:0, seyeu were 
:;:.tL'oye(l hy the .L\ pac!a.o:-: \dlO E>uITounded New 1[exico. t'x- 
cept on the' northwest, ,,-11ic11 \Ya
 held h
- the lIteF'. 
Hl'ading the glowing l'f'pol'Í
 of Gilnlal'
r. "T. 
l\[arshall on tllf' pr()
pl'rOllS state of the New 
[exican Inis- 
siolls, one would he lefl to f'Oll<'lllfle that the

 [ndians were 
28 docile a:-ì ('hildrt'n and as yiplding' as ('lay in thp hand, of 
the poUpr. But, fronl the very 1Jf'giunillg, HIt' Fathel'S IUlll 
to deal with a 
tiff-llef'ked, wa
''''al'(l and stuhhorn people. 
.1\ nlong theul wert' many in e"el'
' Plwhlo on whOln tlw prea('h- 
ing, the self-devotion and exe1l!pla)'
' li,'f's of the llli




had no effect. The 1110rality the Fathers taught was too ex- 
acting; it dmnanded a self-denial and a C0111J11and of the 
senses, even of their thoughts, opposed to their inherited 
customs, to their traditional practices, their own inclinations 
and tribal usage. 
Even anlong those who accepted the faith and received 
bãptisnl there were SOllie who
e attaclul1ent to their old su- 
perstitions was wedded to their a(hniration for thE' cere- 
monies of the new faith. There were others who covertly 
contended that when they had all accepted the religion of the 
padres, the Spaniards would enslave thenl and brand thel11 
as they did their hor
es. Then 
oll1etÌIl1es the 1110rals of the 
Spanish colonists and soldiers were not above reproach, their 
examples did not square with their belief, and their treat- 
ment of the Indian at tinlCf' overbearing. contm11ptuous and 
harsh. Occasional1y SOllie bold and restless spirit, chafing 
under the discipline of the lllÌF;sion, or resenting the assllined 
superiority of the Spaniards, would break away and return 
to the old life. These perverts, becalne 11lockers of the Chris- 
tian religion, flippant critics of the priests, and irreconcil- 
ahle enenlÌes of the Spaniard. 
In 1679, according to the report of Father V" elez Esca- 
lante, written in 1778, one of these renegades wa
 under cover 
in the pueblo of Taos, the furthest north of the X ew 
villages. lIe wa
 known by tlw peculiar nalne of Pope and 
was a native of the Inission of San Juan, in "Those church 
he was baptizE'd when a child. The Spanish governor, Oter- 
luin, ordered his arrest for erill1cs 110ne against eolonial and 
pueblo law
, and especially for ll1urders COllill1ÏttE'cl, when, 
with forty-six rreguans, he raided a section of tht' country 
during the adnlÏnistration of Goyernor Trevino. 
He must have been a man of large abilit
T and skilled in 
Indian cunlling and 
trategy. 'Yith a nUlnher of reckle

crafty cOlnpanions he plotted a conspiracy which had for 
its object the destruction of the Christian n1Ïssions, the burn- 
ing of Santa Fe, and the wiping out of the Spaniards. In his 
detennination to tear up the Spanish tree, root and branch



he was supported by aU the pueblos, the Pirm; alone hold- 
ing aloof. The uprising was ll.'\:ed for the lnorning of ..L
18th; but, learning that the Spaniards held the secret, Pope 
sprang the reyolt eight days before the Spaniards wen' ready 
for him. 
On the eyening of the 10th of August, three hundred and 
eighteen nlen, WOlnen and children of Spanish blood ,,,ere 
dead, butchered and nultilated b) Taos, (lueres, Picuries and 
tribes of the nlurderous confederacy. 

\nd what beraule of the priests? Eightf'en of theln were 
slaughtered with their countrynlf'U, hut with nlore atl'orious 
deviltry. Davis, in his" Conquest of X ew )[exico," tells us 
tha tat 

cOlna the hodi es of three n1Ïssionaries "'ere thro,,-n 
into a foul cave to the north of tlH' pueblo; that at Zuni the 
corpses of three other:-:; were left to rot in a broiling sun, and 
that at the 
Io(llIi Plwhlos the two priests, .J uan de ,r allada. 
and Jesus de LOlnbal'di, were donp to death with rlnhs." 
''In this lnanner," he continues, "the priests stationed in 
different puehlos were killed, nlostly b
T their own flol'k
, for 
wllOse spiritual and telllporal good they had been lahoring 
for years." 
The Spaniards put up a brave defen
e at 
anta f1-'e when 
Pope attaekp(l the city ,,-ith three thousand of his fighters. 
Against thenl HIP gon:>rnor. Otf'l'luin, could only thnyw' one 
hundred and fifty men. 'rhe Indian::; captured tllP town, driy- 
ing thp Spaniards into the governor's (lUêlrten: and patio. 
The besieged running short of ,,-ateI' and proyisions, and 
foreseeing they lnust perish as rats in a trap, forlllf'd the 
heroic resolve of dying like lnen in an open fight. The gov- 
ernor and the three priests who were sharing their fate, ap- 
provpd of the ,. forlorn hope." 
Early on the 1110rning of the :!Oth of ....
ugust the half- 
falnished but de
perate Rpanianls ref'eived COlll11lunion, for 
they believed their last hour had struck Then thf' gate of 
the go\-ernor's quarters was swung open, and Otennin, at the 
head of his hundred fighters, shouting the Castilian battle 



, "Santia!Jo. !f (I dlus- St. Jan1e
 and at thenl!" ru
upon the foe. 
The unexpeC'ted athH'k and the iUlpptuous onslaught of 
tlw Spauiards stampedpd the Indians. In their flight they 
lost nlOre than three hundred of their warrior
, and ahan- 
(loned tlw hor
 and arms they had stolen frolH the t)pan- 
iards. rrhe Rpanish gon
rnor had fi\'e of his n1en ki]]ed, and 
('alTied to ni
 graye the scars of t,,
o wounds he reC'eiYPfl in 
the sC'rinunage. ()tennin retreate(l to El Pa
o, leaying for il 
tinle the Iudians iu possession of Santa Ft'. 
In thi
 trea('herou.s uprising of the natiyes, Ulen, WOlnen, 
ehildren and habe:-- at the hreast were rulhlf'ssl
- slauglltf'red. 
They "\yrpC'kpd Ranta Pe 1yith the ext'eption of the Ca8(lS 
reales and tll(' plaza lIPId uy tht' 
paniards. ()f the hundred 
and fifty luen shut up in the Casa, hut one hundrp<1 were fit 
to hear H nns, an(l the ,
ietory of these fighters oypr thrpt' 
thousand Zuni warriors is one of tIll' nwst bri1]iant feats of 
 re('orded in th8 Hunab of 
r exico. 
Froul ] ()RO to ] 7
J;) the histor
' of X ('w l\I e
ico is a re('ord 
of thrilling eyputs. After the rt'treat of the Spaniards the 
nine reLe]]ious trihes, the 'l'ano:-:, rregnas, Ppcos, Quere
the rest, quarrelefl o\'er thp pf)ssés
ion of Santa Fp and thp 
right to rul(' th(' {'onutr
I eanwhi Ip Oterlllin, who had 
estahlished a fortifkd ('amp at 
an Lorenzo, nine 111ilf's frOlll 
El Paso, had rpinfore('(l hi
 ('Olnnlaud, and on the l
tll of 

 oyemher, 16
1, s('t ont wi tll one hundrpd and fifty 11101.1uted 
lllen and a deta('ll111ent of frientlly Tndian
 for Ranta Fe. He 
was accOlupallied hy Father 
-\yeta anfl thf' other HlÎ
siol1a J,ies 
'who had escaped the nla
sacre. Throngh tlw influelwe uf thp 
priests, the gon.'rnor hopcll to preyail upon the l'ehels to re- 
turn to their allf'giance to the 
h C'l'OWl1, and if C'oncilia- 
tion fail('(l. he 'nt
 lWel'ared to ,,
hip theul into 
"\Yith the excpptioll of a fpw tJ'il)('
 who flf'cl to t1w Inountains. 
the IllCliau
re in(hwp<! to suhJllit. Santa Fe was takt'l1 ])0:0,- 
session of and reeonstnll'ted, and t1w puehlo 1l1ission
The 11Pxt fiftet'll years in the ]ife of tllt' eOlnlh'

 are spat-- 



tered with bluod. rl'I u-' 
}Janiard::; were again driven out 
and again canle back; indi vidual pri(J
ts here and there were 
slaughtered and others replaced thelll; n1Ïssions ,vere de- 

truyed and rebuilt, tribes were subdued in the south whil{i 
others revolted in the north. 
-\ t la
t," say the ,.- R elliciunes" of Padre Zarate Ral- 
llleron, "
eeillg that their pueblos were conling to an end. 
the rebels resolved, on the advice of their 11ledicine-luen, to 
join together and to offpr in conllllOll to the devil the sacrifi('e 
of a young girl to propi tia tp the demon." 
But the f)loody Cere1l10n

 failed to produee the desired 
re:-mlt; th(J Indians sulnuittp<l to the ille"ita hIe and struck a 
tL'uee with the Spalliard:-:. 
r eanwhile tlw remains of tli(J 
luartyred priest::; were, so far èl::; po:-,::;ible, collected and given 
[1hristian hurial. Fr0111 the open prairie, .from cn \Tes, a
heaps and HiP ruins of old or lmrned huildings, the bone
 of the devoted friar::; wel'e gathered together and de- 
('ently interr(Jd. 

\n 01(1 n1mlu
('ript reeor<l
 that in 1ï34: the governor of 

('W )[exÍl"o, in tilt' l"OlUpany of two lllÎssionaries, visite(l 
with his staff the abandoned pueblos of the Picuries and 
 to exlulllle the bones of two \'enerahle priests and 
inter then1 ill (,oll
e('nÜed grouud. Led h
T a grizzled old 
lndian, they found the renulÏns of Padrl:' 

bCUIH'ion Zarate 
in the dt'>hris of the deC'a

efl chul'C'h of San Lorf'nzo of the 
Pieurie:--, and tho
e of Fray th'ronilllo de In Llaua amid the 
ruins of the ehurch at (
narae. Thp boneð of Father Juan 
de .J e
;us, murdC'l'P(l by the Indians of .f ellIes, were found in 
an old l"a ye and buried in Santa I
-'e: hut, of tlIp eighteell 
priests done to death b
T the tribe:-:, the llultilated bodies uf 
nearly all wen' 1"p<1ncp(l to ashes or (leyoun'd h

 wild beasts. 
But what lllatter
 it for tlIp hodies of tlw just who are at 
peaee. ,.r,rllosp who 
ow in teal'::; 1yill rt'ap in jo

. and tlwir 
nmnes will liyp frOlll gpllpl'atiou to g-elleration." 
The Hpanial'C1ð were now (17f;()) lllasters of X"pw 
and outnnmbe1"etl tlw Tndian..; by 1ll(n1
T thollsands. 



 population, one hundred aud eight
Teal'S after 



Onate's first attempt at colonization, numbered 23,000; of 
these the Spaniards counted 16,000 and the Indians 9,OUO. 
,Yith the exception of an occasional raid frOlu the Co- 
luanches, who "Were not known in the region until brought 
in by the Utes, or an attack no"T and then by the ..\.paches 
of the Routh"West, KeW" 
[exico was at peace. The puehlo 
Indians were conyerted to the faith and C'ultiyated their 
lands or raised herds of 
heep and eattle for the 
anta Fe 
rrhe Spaniards were now free to giye SOUl(' attention to 
the eXaIllination of the unexplored regioHs lying to tIlt' north 
of New :ßIexico. The reader will not fail to notice that all 
expeditions of discoyery and exploration were either piloted 
or accompanied by Spanish priests. and that in lllany in- 
stances most Í111portant explorations "Were undertaken by in- 
indiyidual priests su('h as Fathers Kino. Gal'(,(,s and Esca- 
lante. 1 ì nder the (-1chninistration of (}OyerllOr Y' ('Ie:-: (\H'hu- 
pin, an exploring party wa<:; sent out in 1 ïG3 to exmnilw the 

 north of Kpw 
rexiC'o, whiC'h is now the statf' of 
{iolorado. Tlw expedition was aC'l'OJllpallied b

....-\lonzo Posadas, who for fourteen 
.ear:-: held a po:-:itioJl of 
eC'C'lesiasti('a 1 Ï1npol'taIl<'e in X ew 
r exiC'o. Hptnrll iug after 
an ahsPllC'e of sOlllü 1l10ntI1s. tlw party reported the dis('o\'ery 
of silver ore near tlw junction of the Gunni
un and (1 0111 _ 
pag-hre riyers, in o-unnison Count

. l
ather Posadas after- 
wa I'd:::; wrote the" 1nf 01'111e" or histor
T of this expedi tiOll. and 
it is to thi
 "Informe" Escalante refers in the Diario of hi
journey fron1 Ranta Fe to lTtah Lake. 



Failure to ACCOUJlt for .À-lmerican IJldian--Distriúution of the 
Triúes-Linguistic J"3tock:; and Triúal ....lffill.ities-Indians 
of the St. Lwrrrnce RegioJ1s, of the Conaditw 'S ort11lrn;t 
-TJ iúes East and Tr est of the 11/ isso'llri---Sedeuta ry 
Triúe:-;- Thp H II Ilters a Ild Ru ver:;-Prohiúit iOIl of Inter- 
marriage in tI,P Clan-Religion of the _lúorigines-In- 
dian Population ill 1612. 
Before tlIP Fl'aneis('ans puter upon tlwir exploration
and hf'forp we disem;s the llloral condition and thp dOllwstic 
life of the tribps to whOln the prie
b; win introduce us, let U
rapidly suryey the diyisions, suhdiyisions and general Inoral 
status of the fiprcp and e]'aft

 nwe of l1len "Who roamed oyer 
\nlerican cuntinent north of 
Iexil'o, and tlw rt'Innants 
of "WhOln are to-day withering' away on g'oyernnwutal resel'- 
va tions. 
Speculation, exan1Ïnation, theory, inyestigation lUlye 
failed to acrouut for thp original hahitat of the ÅJuerican 
Indian:s. ,Ye kno"W nothing of their past, ,,'lwn or how their 
forbears canle to this continent. ,Yhat we kno"W of thenl is 
\dlat "Te lUlye learned from the l'''rench and 
panish prie
who Legan to IHing-ie with and dwell anlong thenl iUllllerliately 
after the (1iscoYer

 of Anlerica. Contact "With thenl in Blore' 
recent tilHes has taught us nothing. Their past is Ílnpene- 
trable to the eye of histol'ie re
earrh, and the ongul of the 
:::;ettlement of thf' _
t1al1tic and Pacific trihe:::; is \Tei1erl by tlw. 
ts of unkno"Wn ages. 
Of the eight great nations of savages and harharians, 
diyided into six hundred and thirty-threp trihes and sub- 
OlHe "Were in a state of barbarism near to civi1izatiol1, 
others in a lower 
tage of barbarisJll, and lllany in a condi- 
tion of 
aYagery approaching that of offal al1imal
, The 



lowest tribes were tho::,e romning the d\

ert::, and llOrrent 
lllountains of Lower California, the valley of the Cohuubia 
Riyer, and possibly the tribes of Labrador and 1-Iud
ou 's Bay. 
These people were the Bedouins of the deserb and forests; 
knew nothing of domestic root.s and yegetables, and, haying 
no settled life, depended for subsistence on huutiug and fish- 
ing. The iInlllen
e region of the L"nited btates and Canada, 
which to-i1ay is yielding to the .1 aphetic race plethoric wealth 
of timber and lllinerals, which is broken up largely into fal"lll
and cattle ranges wa
, at the clo
e of the 
ey('nteenth Cen- 
tury, an enorn10US forest flecked with de
erts find llloulltaills 
and carrying a prodigious \'ariety of \,(Jgetable and allilnal 
The êlch-enturous traveler, entering in those early days 
the S1. Lawrence Hiver and rontinuing his yoyage we
would have on his right and left as he adnuH
ed suL-triLps 
and fall1ilies of the great hunting nation, tlw ..llgonquin. On 
his left, after passing the l

squÏlllaux, were the ßer
the Papinkos, the 
[istassinis, tlIp 
[ontagnais ùf the 8a- 
gueney and the t)t. J ohn wilderne

, the Porcupines, and, 
towards the height of lanG looking to the] I ud"on Hay, tbe 
.Attikaulegues, or the faIuily of the ,rhite j1-"i
.,A.scending the utÜnya, a tributary of the St. Lawrence, 
were the hunting grounds of the Che,reux-Réleyés or Inen of 
the standing hair. tlw I],ofluet
 or island people 
 yeering to 
the north on tlw eastern and northern coasts of Lakes 11uron 
and Superior were the Petuns or Tobarco people, the] [urons, 
the Amikoues or R(JêlyerS, the Nippifo:ings or Sorcerers. tlw 
,Yyandotte:-;, the rreJnaagall1Ï, tllt
 Ten1ÏscOluingR, the Ahittibi, 
the Chippewas or Sauteurs. Xorthward still of Lake Supp- 
rioI', aud rifo:ing towards the Great Rlaye Lake. wen
 tllP .L
 and the Crees. the buffalo hunters. 
On the southwestern bank of the St. LawrPJwe. the trav- 
eler, on pntf'ring thp rhTer, would have on his right tlw Gas- 
pia ns. who clailned the owner
hip of splendid Ineac10w ]and
and splendicl ,-irgin forests, then, the Etf']nnins. t he 
and the ..Ahenaki. .L
chTancing westward he skirted what are 



now the eastern state
 of the Union and, crossing into New 
York state, he enters the preserves of the dreaded Iroquois, 
the generic name for the confederated tribes, the )Iohawks, 
Oneidas, Senecas, Cayugas and the Onondagas. 
On the northern and southern shores of Lake Erie dwelt 
the _'\.ttiwandarons or Keutrals, and the I
ries, or Nation of 
the Raccoon. 'Yest of the Eries were the ::\Iiami and to the 
south of Lake :ßIichigan the Illini or Illinois; then in the im- 
mense forests and prairies south and west of the Great Lakes 
were the 
rascoutins, or Nation of 
ire, the Puants, the 
Folle-;-Avoines or \Yild-Oats, the Henards or Foxes, the 
the PattawatOluies, the Sioux and the )Ienominis. 
All these tribes, with their sub-tribes, sprang frOlll an .Al- 

gonquin or ] [uron-IrOtluois trunk, and their languages with 
dialectic variations would indicate the rarial stock froln 
which they sprang. 
s we advance towards and cross the 
Iissouri river, we 
enter the landg of the Dacotahs and their offshoots, the 11is- 
souris, Ponc[1.s, 10was, K:aws, Sioux, Om.ahas and Otoes, with 
their tribal division
. On the upper }Iissouri were Catlin's 
l\Iandans and 11innetarees, having no tribal affinity with any 
known Inùian race, and whose language bore no resemblance 
to that of any other people. 
In grouping the N orth 
\.n1erican Indians and separating 
theln into affinities by similarity of language, John Fiske and 
:IHajor Powell classify the Pawnees with the Ärickarees of 
the Platte drainagt' and a few n1inor tribal families as a dis- 
tinct people. 
The Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks and Cherokees, now 
on the Oklahoma reservations, with the l\{uskhogees and 

eminoles formed a group by themselves and spoke a radical 
language of their own, differing only in family patois. When 
we enter the R.ocky ::\[oulltain region, we come in contact with 
the Cheyennes, Con1anches and roving tribes of the Sion."'\: and 
Apaches, who had strayed away from their own territories. 
In Colorado, lìtah and Idaho, the Bannocks, Shoshones 



and l
 rualned in the lowest state of barbarisnl, and arè 
classified by 
Olne ethnologists as one great and ;-;eparate 
Adyaneing towards the Canadian boundalT, we entpr the 
hunting grounds of the :Selish Nation, cmnl1lOuly called Flat- 
. The land of the F'lat-I-Ieacls wak that part of :\[on- 
tana lying west of and near to the hase of the nlain range of 
the Rocky 
[ountains. In northern 
lontana roailled the 
Black-Feet, aUfl around them dwelt nine other trihes, includ- 
ing the Spokanes. the Coeur d '
-\lelles. tlw Kalispels, the X ez, 
Percps, Pend
 d 'Ureille::, and the Crows. 
Descending to the Pacific ('oast line, an altogetlwr diffpr- 
ent class of people-
aying thp intrusiye Apaehe aud 
Xavajo-pos:-.e:-,:-,ed the de:--eris, the ri,'er depres
ions and the 
Colorado delta. \rith these the reader is alrpady partially 
fmniliar, and they will uot now detain us. 
The Indians of the United 
 and Canada. at the tinle 
of which we write, were 
eparated h
' their mode of li\'ing 
into two national diyisions. These were the 
edelltaries liy- 
ing in yilJagps like the IIurons, or fOl'lning a confedera<,y 
like the 1roquoiR, who practised a r11(le horticulture and 
stored [ndian corn and beans for the winter lllontlls, and the 
hunters and fishers, royers of the fore
t and tIlP plain, like 
the _-\JgOll(lllÍn and Dacotah. The 
edentary nH'PS raispd 
Indian corn, pumpkins and to1>a<,eo. Corn. supplenlPnted by 
.fish and the flesh of wild anilllals, was their only food. The
knew nothing of alcoholic drink
, hread, 
alt, pepper or \'ege- 
 rellull'kahlp faet, whielJ 
eelllS to pl'oye that the 
can sal"age was fan1Ïlial' with the dÜ;a
tl'ous effects of lllHl'- 
riage heÌ"\ye(Jn hlood rplations, or of inhrepding, was that 110 
warrior eyer took a wife frolll the n1elllhers ùf his own (.lan. 
The men and wmnen of the clan were lle:-lrJy all, b
T ('on
guinity, related to one another. IllllllPlllorial trihal law 
barred their 111arriage. The Ulan or WOlnan 
è]ected a part- 
ner from another clan of his own trihe, and the chi Idl'en of 
tbe Inarl'iage helonged to the ('Ian of the HlOther. The ('hil- 



(hen did not inherit from the father; all his property, even 
his weapons, deseending by right to his brothers or to the 
.sons of his sisters. The ehildren inherited frOll1 the tllother. 
..And the reason for this f'Ustonl wa::5 that therp could lw no 
-doubt "Who "Wa:-: the Illother of the child; hut, such was the 
loosene:-;s; of Iuorals an10ng tlw Indians. the hushand might 
not al"Ways he the father. 
The religion of all the Indian:-; was a Rt
w of ridiculous 
fables, of absurd ::;uperstitions and, very often, of ohscure 
2nd cruel rites. Eyery nation had it:-: own divinities, which 
jt evolved frOlu aninwte or inanÏIuate thing'! in the water, in 
the ail' or on the earth. 
The ..AJgOlHjuins \yorshiped the Great Hare. the Run and 
eyi] spirits. \yhich they called 
lanitolls. The TrOtlUois, the 
..'\ttiwandarons and the Hurons peopled the luli\TeJ'se with 
delnons known as (Há:-:. r.l'he IrOtlllois saerifi('cd lnullall he- 
ings to their wargocl; .Ariskoni; the Pawnee
young girls as an offering to the sun, and the Tanos and 

outhern trihes, when in dire :-:traits. offered young girls in 
sHc-rifiee to their tutplar
T denlolls. 
The spirits of the ail' d\\'elt with thunder, lightning. the 
11100n, eclipses, hurri
alles, or in "Whateyer was unu:-:ual and 

al'ried fear to their hearts. 
Rattle:-;nakes and other venOlllOUS reptiles, 
ertain ani- 
mals and, "With :::>Ollle, tllP bear, the f'oyote and the bea\Ter, 
JJcC'ause of their superior intelligence, "Werp held in reverelwe 
2nd offering:-; made thenl to retain thei r friendship and good 
Jany tribes belie\Ted that the Sk
T "Was inhahiterl by a 
great and powerful heing', who arranged the :-;ea:-;ons, eon- 
troned the winds and the wave:-. and "Wa'3 able to help UlaIl 
when he "Tas enC'Olllpas:-;e<l with dan!.;er. \..t tÍll1es they 
<>fferefl .to their divinitie
, particnlarl

 to the heaYenl
T ele- 
lnents and the spit.its (lwelling" in theIn, either to iInTok
good will in SOlllP entprprise or to phwate them, gift
 of to- 
P)3C'(,O or weaponI"- which the
T C'ast into water or fire. 
Belief in the in11110rtality of the 
oul was uniY
rsa I aInollg 
the tribef" with the f.:olital'

 exception of the Peorian I1li- 



nois, who belieyed that soul and body expired at the sam
They pushed their belief in inll11ortalit
:"" to its IÜnit, for 
they accorded life after death to all anÜnals, and in som
instances to inorganic things. 
It is impossible to state, with any approach to aecuracy
what was the population of N orth 

lnerica, excluding 1Iexico
when Champlain entered the St. La""rence in 1612. rro judg
frOlll the number of tribes, we n1Ïght quite naturally a
the population to be numerous if not dense. 'Ye must, how- 
ever, renlelllber that a people who depend for subsistence on 
the chase must, in order to liye, haye iUllllense tprritory,,- 
Figures compiled with great care by the Canadian historian
Garneau, repre
ented the probable population of Canada, ai. 
the time J ac(!ues Cartier, in 1334, disroyered the DOlninion
to be any-where frolll two hundred to two hundred and fifty 
thousand. -,,--\s
ull1Ïng the Indian
 of the territory of the 
United State... to be, at that date, a bout the same, we would. 
have a nati,Te population of about fhTe hundred thousand. 
Of the 120.000 Indians in the V"nited States to-day, only 
60,000 are full-blooded, and the same proportion of half or 
quarter-bloods in the Canadian population of 110,000 woulell 
not be very far away frOln that of the frnited State



l1Ioral Debase1Jlent of the TTibes--The .J.l1an of ]vTature-In- 
human Hard-H eartedneðs- Tr ithollt Religion, JVithout 
.I..1Iorality-l\T 0 TY ord for r irtue, Religion, Charity- 
Degradation of TV o 1'ìW n-H er Posit ion in the Camp- 
Ha1.:ages' Contempt for Sanctity of Life-Treatment of 
Prisoners-Ilumalt Flesh E"'atcrs-Plwntum Gods. 
The nloral debasement of the tribes was S0111étlÚng ap- 
palling, A frightful heirlooill of entailed and indefeasible 
accur:::;edness in association with senseless ignorance and bru- 
tal custOllls, was the only inheritance to whidl they could 
look forward. All their lives the victims of unre
and brutal passions, that op(Jned wide the door to every 
species of hard-heartedne:::;s and every d(Jgree of cruelty, their 
regeneration could never have conle frOlll theulselve:s and 
could only be effected b
r civilized Inell dowere(l with tireless 
pati(Jnce, with heroic and apostolic courage. 
The insatiable and loathsome cruelty to their fellow-Iuen 
in war, the ineradicable ignorance and hideolls superstitions 
hich overshadowed the land and its people, were C'alculated 
to awe the f:,toutest hearts that dared their redeniption. 
rrhe lllunan tYp(Js of Indian innocence, of purity and gen- 
eral 10veliIwss with which we have grown fan1ÏJiar in the 
Tlupathetic poeills uf ::\1 rs. Sigourney and th
 l'Olnantic nov- 

ls of ,J anies FenÏIllore Cooper were vagaries úf the iUlagina- 
tion and dreanls of the enthusiast. Tlw nearer we ('Olne to 
the man of nature the Inore likely ar
 we to find the savage 
brute who eats raw Ineat and the flesh uf his lnunan foe. who 
loves dirt, wears no ('Iothes, wallows in nastiness and inde- 
r and tyranllize
 oyer h(Jlple:ss WOlllan because she is 
helpless. .A.. savage is a savage, and tlIP 
-\luerican Iudian de- 



scended no lower in the 
('alf' of degradation than did the 
negroes of equatorial 
\Jrica or the Bu
hlnan of _
If now, when we nlOye anlid the green 11l0Ulllls which Inark 
their graves, or with {'urious e

e insped their rude trinket:::; 
and only treasure;,-the pottery, the arrow-head and the wanl- 
puul-the soft sad.nf'
s of pity Hteal
 over us, ,,'e nlust not 
forget that their illlnunan hard-heartednes
jn the history of our fallen lnunanit

. The lnunan tiger, the 
bluuan fox, the hmllall hyena, the Jnuuan 
nake were speeies 
quitf' conn11011 anlOng thelll, as aillong savages the world oyer, 
ciyilized or uneivilized. 
God deliver u
 fronl the luan of nature or of civilized 
ciety, unehecked by fear of punisluuent, unrepres
ed by the 
weight of law and order, unrestrained by social 
unawed by the gospel of the hereafter. 
There is a subtle eonneetion betwef'n ('nwlt
. and lust 
whieh no 111etaphysieal in<luiry has yet sati
factorily ex- 
plained, hence we are not surprised to read that the -,---hneri- 
can Indian had no eoneeption of nlorality even in the ab- 
stract. .L\ peolJle without religion are a people without mo- 
rality. In truth, until the cOIning alliong thelu of priests of 
the Catholi{' Church they had 110 word to giye expre
sion to 
tlw idea of virtue, 111orals, religion, charit
.,. gratitude and 
the like. 
"They live in eon1111on," writes .J ohn 
legapolensis. in hi
"Bhort Ae('ount of the 
Iohawk Indians, löö-l-," "without 
nlalTiage; but if an
' of theIn have wives, the luarriage con- 
tinues no longer than the
. think proper, and then the
. Sf'pa- 
rate and each take
 another partner." 
This was written of a trihe in the nÚddle statf' of barbar- 
iF:nl and which had not yet deseeu<]{->d to 
The J esnit Father, Pa ul Hag-u
npa u, Wrt>te to his 
in France that "1\Iorality is unknown 
unong the tribes, and 
everywhere a shopking lieense of nnrestraiupd i nten'on]'
. " 
Anlong a people who had no regard for nlOralit
. of any 
kind, it was not to be expected that an
. respect would ob- 



tain for the sanctity of a WOlllan'R nature. \Y Olllan was 
harshly dealt with, and anlong' all was treatf'd with a {'aUous 
disregard for the weakne:s:s of her sex. _
ffrighted lllan re- 
coils with horror frOlll the perusal of wonlan's degradation as 
penned by the eloquent Le .feune. The honor and heart of 
Ulan Illay never be Ïlllpeached with Illeaner or fouler crinle
than are there recorded. ..AJI the Illellial drudgery of the 
eanlp, the heav

 hurdens of the chase, the slaYer

 of the corn 
field-in a word, all that iUIvlied laborious work, was her 
allotted portion. Her infirnÜties excited no cOlumiseration; 
with the crippled, Jllainwd and weak she was nlore often a 
victinl of contenlpt than an object of pity. Is it any wonder, 
then, that W0111an becanle 
o utterly shanlelel:,R, hard-hearted 
and cruel that in vindictiyeness and fierceness she surpassed 
the brutality of Ulan 
The crowning infanlY of all the abOlnination
 of the 
ican Indian-and of sayage Juan everywhere-was his utter 
contelllpt and disregard for lnllnan life. Savage as he was 
by inheritanee, and brutal as his passion
 had Illade hin1, it 
till to be assll1ned that the instinct which nlOyeS one ani- 
Inal to spare another of its own spe('ies would haye lingered 
an1Ïd thp wreek and ruin of his eOITupted llature. Sueh. how- 
ever, wa
 not the ease. The lUOSt trivial incident or a thirst 
for blood, a1 tinIes, led to a war which often ended in the dis- 
persion or annihilation of a tribe. 
Frequently, and for no other end than aequiring renown 
or s('alps, the Indian warrior gathered his hra\"es around hÜn 
and, after haranguing thf'Jll on his own past and }>l'ospeetive 
exploit:-" raised tlIp fan1Íliar war-w11Oov and llloved uut to a 
mission of hloodshed and pillage. "
ith tllf' ('unning of the 
fox and the feroeity of tlip tiger, the

 fell upon their prey in 
the c1arkne:-,s of night or the dawning nlorning, and indis- 
crÏ111inately slaughtered nlen, WOlnen and children. 

 approH('hed like foxes," says l
'ather \TÏ1nont, "at- 
taeked like lions, and disappeared like birds." 
"I ('rept around theJll like a wolf," said a fihippewa chief, 
tell ing of an a ttaek he ulade 011 an isolated Sioux falllÎl
T, "J 



crawled up to theln like a snake; I fell upon theIn like light- 
ning; 1 cut thelll down and sC'alped thern." 
Their prisoner
 were treated with unparalleled fiendit;h- 
s and brutality. SODIe were mutilated inch by inch till 
they expired frOln physical pain and extrenw suffering. 
Others were reseryed to be tortured by fire, and, by a refine- 
ment of cruelty surpassing belief, their agonies "Were pro- 
longed from sunset to sunrise. Others of tlwir capti\Tes they 
cut to pieee:::;, boiled and deyoured with unspeakable relish. 
Father Bressani, who was captured by the 
enécas, and 
shockingly nlutilated lwfore he was purf'llased by the Dutch 
of the Hudson, tells us in hit; "Relation .L\.brégé
" of his 
captivity: "I saw the Iroquois tear out the heart frOla a 
Huron eaptive whOln they had killE'd, and in the pr
sence of 
the other prit;oners, roast and devour it." 
"They are not lnen," wrote an unfortunate WOlnan "Whose 
child the Iroquois had torn froln her breast, boiled and de- 
voured in her presenee, "they are wolves." 
The Anlerican Indian in his I::>ëlvage state 
et no value on 
the attributes which di
tinguished hinl frOln the wild bea:::;ts 
of the fore
t. {1'eroeity in wal', 
trellgth, agility and endur- 
 alone excited his admiratiun, and, as a rt'
ult, nUUl
- of 
tlleln approached as near at; it was pot;t;iLle to the condition 
of the aninwls in whic"h these qualities pl'C(IOlllinate. 
To attelnpt to lllak
 a hero of tllP ..Alll
rj('an T lHlian is to 
raise a nlonUlnent to cruelty on a petlestal of lust. Their re- 
ligious C'onC'eptions and praC'tiC'
s were no highcr than theil" 
lllOral aetions. The
- b
d all things to be allimah'd with 
good or evil spirits; and, when O1J the war trail, they uften 
sacrificed Inunan beings to propitiate the ;-;pirits which influ- 
enced the future of the tribe. 
"On the third day uf 11lY captivity," write:-. ]'ather 
.T ogues, "the
T :-;acrificed an JA.Igonq uin WOlnan in honor of 

\.reskoui, their war-god, inviting the grilll dt'lnoll, as if he 
were present, to COlne and feast with thenl on the InlU"dered 
WOluan's flesh." 



They had no idea of God, as we unùerstand the tremend- 
ous word. The sighing of the winds, the nlelancholy moan 
of the midnight forest, the cra::::;h of thunùer, the gleam of 
lightning, the rush of the hurricane and the sound of the 
cataract were the voices of the shadowy phalltonls or gloonlY 
spirits which haunted the wood::; or hovered in the air around. 



Snme Redeeming Features-Tribal lIospitality and Gener- 
osity-Ferocity tn an EIlPJJ1y--Appalling Cruclty- 
Frightful Torture of a Fup-Spartau StoÙ'ism-Ruus- 
seau's "Idpal 11Ian"-Clzatcaubriand's Declaratioll- 
Fillal Sulnuissinll. 
In the yile abolninations of their liyes there were, how- 
ever, SOHlf' redeen1Ïng' featuref-:. The lllellll)f'r
 of the saIne 
tribe were cloi:,ely united by b011(h; of friendship; they had a 
tender f'onsideration for and exhibited a generosity toward 
lf'h other thai was 1101 excelled in ordinary civilized 
Tht' solidarity between the 111ell1bers of thp sanlf' elan, and 

 alllong those of the ):.Jalne fanlily, was eonlplete 
and adnlirahle; they bore thenlselves toward paf'h other with 
affection and gf'ntleness. The

 were true to one another in 
their friendships, held eloquence in high repute, were gener- 
ously hospitn hIe, and, in tilues of fmnine, divided the 11l0rseI 
which chancf' or tlw fortunes of the hunt ('ast in thf'ir way. 
 eulogiulll, let it bf' understood, applied olll:v to IneUl- 
hers of thf' Halue trihe; for toward an ullfrif'ndly- or hostile 
trihe of another nation they \Verf' ruthlesH. rrrea ,",on, perfi- 
dies, Yengeanf'e, retaliations, pillage, nnspeakahlf' eruelties, 
nlllÍilations and prolonged torture characterized their hear- 
ing toward their enelllies. 
.\ part fr0111 the admirahle trihal 
and fan1Ïl

 affef'tions just nlentioned, the degnl<lation of 
lllOrals aIllong thenl wa
 appalling. The universal libertin- 
H11, the total ahsenef' of all ideas of lllOralit

 and the hope- 
less entangleulent of all in a weh of superstitions and 111u1ti- 
tudinouR puerilitie
, lllade their cOllyersioll to Christianity 
and civilization a her('ulean task. 
..AJI thp tribes, '\yith pprhap
o]itary f'xception of the 
Hurons, encouraged and 1>raeti
ed sÏ111u1taneOuf' polygal11Y. 



r-rhe aIllhitiouH alllong theIll, and those who aspired to leader- 
ship, had as Illany as six and 
eVf'1l wives, believing' that the 
more sons born to them the greater would be their power and 
influence with the people. 
AUlong Illany tribes adultery on the part of tlIP wife was 
a very ::,erious offen
e. The adulterous woman wa
punished by cutting away her 1l0i::ie and ears. ..L-\1110ng the 
Illinois the unfaithful wife wa
 put to df'ath by the hushand. 
In battle, the 
avage, anÏlllated with the hope of vil'tory or 
in the presence of Ülevitable death, was a brave luan; with 
the hopf' of winning a vietor

 for his people and of pel'lwtu- 
ating his nanle and hi
s, a warrior at tinies delilwr- 
ately invited death. .JÏln Bridger, the fanlous ",,'ef'tern scout, 
repeatedly statf'd that ÜI hattles with thf' whitf'
, or ,yith the 
Cheyennes and UOlnanehe:s, a Ute warrior would deliberately 
sacrifice his life in order to 
ecure a tactical ach-antage by 
whieh his ff'\low tribeSlllen Illight eventually win out. 
The northern anll ",,'e
tel"n trihes enl'ouraged their ho
-s in 
all that made for 
trength, C'ourage, endurance and agilit
TIlPY were trained to the hunt, to thf' u:-:f> of anllf', to extreIlle 
caution when in an ee.elllr'
 ('olulÌry, and to 
- bear fa- 
tigue, eold, hunger and thirst. 
Father Bressani. a lllissionary with the trihes in IG-l
16-l9, givf'
 us, in his "Brevf' Hf'latione," SOlne interesting o 
details of the training and eJucation of a warrioro "The 
young Inen," he tells us, .. will at tinws ahstain frOlll food for 
ten or twelve days without a lllurniur of l'Oluplaint. Little boys 
will lock anu:-, and, placing redhot coals on their anns, will 
eontest for the palm of enduralwe, ,,'11ieh one of thelll ean 
endure the pain tlw longest. ,Yith a bOllf' needle, a sharp 
awl, or a burnt pine stick they will trace or havf' hal'ed on 
their bodies (tattooed) the Ïlllage of an eagle, a serpent, a 
turtle or any favorite aninlal. The young BlaH who, while 
the tattooing lasted, gave expres
ion, by the 
lightest sign, to 
the agony he was enduring, \yould he regarded as a cown n1 
and a lJOltroon, They never cOluplaiIlf'd of cold, of heat, of 
fatigue or of disease. " 



,Yhell the young man reached a warrior's age, he faced 
danger unflinchingly, and defied death itself, with the hope of 
achieving a warrior's reputation. If in defeat he fell into 
the hands of the enmllY, he pushed his contenlpt for suffering 
to Spartan stoicism. ,Vhile his body was roasting in the fire, 
he appealed to his enmnies to test his conrage by increasing 
their torture that they n1ÏglIt see for thenu;elves how bravely 
their foe could die. lIe taunted thenl with cowardice and 
stupidity, and f'hallenged then1 to extract frOln hilu an ex- 
pression of pain, 
[addened by his taunts, his exeeutioners 
would then close in upon him, tear the 
calp from his bleed- 
ing head, cut off his fingers joint by joint, and pierce hilll 
with stone knives with the hope of extracting froBl the in- 
domitable luan a cry of cOlnplaint. As death in mercy was 
ending the awful torture of the helpless warrior, they opened 
his side, tore out the palpitating heart and began to devour it 
with unspeakable pleasure, with the Lope of partaking of the 
invincible courage of their enemy, whose fortitude excited 
their a(hniration. 
They were a courageou::; people, but their valor "Was dis- 
graced by cruelty, and no fonn of vice, ho"Wever loathsome or 
torture, to an enenlY, howerer fiendish, luet with condellllul- 
tion, or, indeed, attracted attention. 
Such, briefly, were the donlÌnant traits in the character of 
'unerican Indian. This short review of smne of the 
habits, the religious notions, the prevailing characteristics of 
the Indians of N ortll ....-\merica and the regions in "Whif'h they 
dwelt is necessarily iUf'onlplete. It "Will be Ruffif'ient. ho"W- 
ever, to afford the reader an idea of the land and the people, 
and the field, in gpneral, on which was enacted for lllan
- years 
the dranla of Christian evangelization. In proportion as 
ChristÜn1Ïty advanced in tlw forest or on the desert in that 
proportion did civilization penetrate alnong the tribes. 
Day after day, for lnany a dreary age, before the Genoese 
discovered Anlerif'H. tlw sun looked down npon the cnornlOUS 
"Wiekedness and cruelty of these aboriginal people till



with vice and trilJal wars, they were slowly fading froln the 
face of the earth. In their nwlancholy ruin and in that of 
the nations of the past we he hold historic facts supporting 
 prediction of Ü;aiah
 who, as a prOlJhet and student of 
the hU111an race, proclaÎlned that "the people who will not 

elTe God shall perish ., 
The .....\.Jllerican Indian approached as near as it was pos- 
sible to Row
seau '8 "Ideal 
lan" in a state of natu1'(>. He 
was untainted hy eivilization, wa:-. governed by natural iUl- 
pulses, was not yet depraved by lneditation: "l 'hom me qui 
chit est un animal deprl1cé-the nUlll of 1'efle('tion is 
an anÜllal depraved"-and "a<:; a Inelancholy exanlple of the 
French infidel's false philosophy. 
Chatea ubriand 's assertion that" IHan "ithol1t religion is 
the most dangerous anÎlnal that "alks or crawls upon the 
earth," found its verifi('ation in alnlost every savage who 
roalned the North .L-\llleri('an continent. 
The .L-\lnerican Indian has seen his last days as a fighter, 
and we lllay truthfully repeat of him what De Bourrienne 
spoke by the gra\Te of Bonaparte: "I-Ie Fleeps his last sleep, 
he ha:-; fought his last ba ttle, no suund can awakp hÜn to glory 
again.' , 
,Yhen, on 
rar('h 4:, 1906, the tribal organi7.ation of the 
Cherokeé;-;, Chocta"s, Creeks, Chickasaw'S and SelllÏnoles was 
dissolved and their l1lelllbers diffused in the mass of the 
country's citizenship, and when, in 1889, Chief Ignacio and 
his thousand utes ceded their right.s to the goverIunen1 for 
$30,000, tIlt' final chapter in the Indian's annals as an indt:'- 
pendent race ,\yas written. 
The Utes had ranked alllong the bravest of the Indian 
tribes, and in ferocity were exceeded only by the bloodthirsty 
Apaclìes. rrhe subn1Îssion of the Indians to the United States 
goverIunent is now conlplete. There will he no successors to 
Gf'ronÎlno, Sitting BuH and Crazy Horse, and the T'te failure 

 ends the chapter. 
 e have now to ask oursf'lves, what lllêllll1er of lnen were 

7 6 


they who conceiyed, and, under acculnu]ated hardship and 
sufferings, in a Ineasure bore into effeet, the Inagnifif'
llt re- 
solye of Christianizing and civilizing these half-hmnanized 

, --

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r_.......,,_ \ 1

?:\ ._
-:::.--- -_ 
 . .0' _ '4 . 

'" .
\.. ,.. 
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'!-t,'" n---_... _ ... 
'1 - '", . . ....-......,.
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'\\. -.-. - ---- 





jJlissionary Jla1J of ]{orth America-Jesuits East of lJIissis- 
sippi-Their rr ouderful bl.lccess-The Canadian Tribes 
-TVith the TVandering IIordes-Jesllit Jlartyrs-The 
Franciscans-Jlartyrs of the Order-Plunge of the 
Franciscans into the IJesert-Testimony of Historians- 
Glory of Confessors, Saints and il/artyrs. 
Before trailing the Francisf'an Fathers from New 
to L"tah Lake and explaining why no nlÏssions were opened by 
the f1atholic Church in Utah and anlong regional tribès, let 
us unroll, at least partially, the missionary lllap of X orth 
America at the tinle Velez Escalante and his priestly COlll- 
panion traveled throug-h Utah in 1776. 
Early in 1fi29 the Jj'athers of Hw 
ociet.y of Jesus entered 
upon the field of sayagery in the yast tf'rritory east of the 
1Iississippi. They caIne to Canada on the invitation of the 
Franciscan missionaries, who for fifteen years dwelt W"ith the 
Hurons and \Vyandottes of the northern rf'gions. It was inl- 
possible for the few Franciscans of the north to folloW" the 
roving hordes of the Algonquin nation which bordered the 
Huron hunting grounds, or, indeed, to open missions anlong 
Inany of the sedentary tribes. Then, answering the ca 11, the 
Jesuits plunged into the forests and entered upon a career of 
n1Ïssionary zeal and af'tiyity that for heroic endurance and 
nlarvelous succp::;s challenges cOlllparison with Äpo!'tolic 
In 1763 these daring priests had opened missions and 
raised the standard of tlw Catholic Church-the Cross- 
anlong the savage Papinichois, Gaspasians
 .L\cadians, Souri- 
quois, Betsiamites, 
Iisstassinis, 1Iontagnais, .1\bellakis, 
koues, Christinaux, f1hippewas, 
auteurs and Ottawas of 
the great Algonquin nation that hunted and fished in a terri- 



tory stretching froln eastern New Brunswiek to Quebec City, 
and fronl the 1llOlÜh of the Saguenay to Hudson Bay. As 
early as 1649 they had Christianized altnost the entire Huron 
confederacy and entered tlw village
 of the Pattawaton1Ïe:::;, 
the Sacs and 
[ascoutins, OJ' ., X ation of 1!'ire." AUlong every 
tribe of those war-hawks of the wilderness-the lroquois- 
they had preached the U-ospel, built bark chapels and estab- 
lished missions, and before 1764 were catechising the )Iiamis 
and the Illinois, and Iuing1ing with the Sioux. 
Froln the IllOlÜh of the St. Lawrenèe HiveI' to the north- 
ern shores of Lakp Superior; fronl the Great Lakes to the 

Iississippi; fronl the lands of the .L\benakis, frolll the .L-\ca- 
dian peninsula to IIuùson Bay, therp was llot a savage people 
whmn the priests had not vÜ;ited and instructed in the doc- 
trines of Christianity. 

Frolll tht' City of (ll1l'hec th(,H' fearle
H soltlier:-; of HIP CrusH, 
* * * Defyill
 en'I"Y ill 
That thorll"; the }lath of lllartyrtlolll, 

set out in those early da
-s to hear the llle
sage of their eruci- 
fied Raviour to the "
andering hordes sf'attprpd from the 
lands watered hy the )lississippi to the northern shores of 
the Iiudson Ba
-. In thirteen ,'"ears they tnullped or (:i:lnoed 
the rpgiolls of the Great Lakes. 
Father H(>IlP 
Ieynard. at the agf' of fifty-five, already 
bent and attenuated frolll 
Tears of excessive zeal, hardshiJ!
and stal'Yatioll with the tribes, dips alone and unattpnded in 
the forests Lordering Lake Superior. l-lis hody was de\'oured 
by wild heast
. Claude ,Allouez corers in his wanderings after 
lost souls 12,000 nlÍles, visiting in thpir haunts and pnf'alnp- 
ments the Illlrons and .L\lg'OlH]uins, the Sioux of tll(' east. the 
"\Yild Oats" of Lake 
Iichigan, the Pattawatmnies and the 
Sauteurs of Lak
riol'. Druillette is called hmne frolll the 
l\Iontagnai.;; hunters of the Laurentian wilds, and at once 
starts on a u1Ïssion of peace to tlw ".arlike .L\benaki, while 
Dahlon IJenetrates the northern wilderness, hoping to dis- 



.co\?er a river flowing into the- Sea of Japan. Dolbeau ex- 
plored toward the ::\IÜ,sta
sini preaching to the tribes on his 
TOlnantic hut perilous route, and Raimhault starts on his 
wonderful journey with the hope of finding a passage to 
China, and tracing a circle of n1Ïs
ionary achieveInent around 
the 'world. Those messengers of the Gospel, outstripping the 
most daring explorers and antiripating the future, di:::;covered 
vast regions, lnade treaties with nluuberless tribes and, for 
-the love of perishing souls, rose superior to the appeab of a 

uffering body and the deluands of exhausted nature. 
To COlllpensate the "Great Order," as 
r aca ulay ad- 
dressed the Society of Jesus, for the heroisnl and sacrifice 
<>f its sons on the n1Ïssionary fielc1s of N ortll _hnerica, God 
<conferrell UIJon lnany of its lllenibers the nlost distinguished 
llonor that could fall to an apostle-lIp el"owned the-Ill with 
.the crown of lnart
The ll
lllles of these victÏIns of rharity are fanlÍliar to us: 
..J ohn de Rrebeuf and Gabriel Lallenlent, atroriously tortured 
.and burned alive; Uharles Garnier, 
\ntoine Daniel, Pierre 
Buteux, Sebastian Rasle, shot to death; Pére Å. De Noue, 
(drowned; Rénp ::\leynard, devoured by wild beasts; Claude 
'Chahollel, clubbed to death; Isaac .J ogue::" tOluahawked and 
:beheaded-all of thein priests of the Catholic Church and 
Ts for the faith of Christ. 
On the Pacific coast, in Lower and northern California, in 
.Arizona and New ::\Iexico, the 
panish Franciscan Fathers, 
aninlatell with the sallW faith, rOl1l'age and zeal ,yllich distin- 
.guished the :E'1relldl .J esuits of the Great Lakes and the north- 
cern regions, of ranada, were, at about the 
anle tÏ111e, buried 
,anlÍd the de;o;olations of the desert and the solitudes of the 
'Sierras, civilizing and Christianizing the tribes and lifting 
thenl unto a plane of decency and clean living. 
FrOlll Cape San Lucas of Lower California to San Fran- 
<<cisco, froin the Bay of Guayulas to Turson and the IIopi 
llands ånd unto the towns of the Inysterious Zuni, these con- 
secrated SOIlS of St. Francis laid a chain of Illissions whose 



ruins to-day eyoke the wonder alike of the man of faith and 
the skeptic. 
The names of California, PiIneria and 
ew -:\lexico will, 
for all time, be united indissolubly "Tith those of the Fran- 
ciscan Fathers who labored in these vast and lonely vineyards, 
and many of whose nalne
 an..' enclm.;ed by the red cirde of 
the martyr's blood. Of these were Francis Pon'a
. poisoned 
by the Zuni, 1633; Andre Guitteras and Cristobal de la Con- 
cepcion, clubbed to death; Franci:sco Letrado and -:\1 artin de- 
Arbide, murdered by Zuni; Louis ,Jayne, bhot to death ùy 
Deguens at San Diego; Esta\'an df' A l'i\Tide, lnl1l'dered on the 
desert on his way to the Zipias, N. -:\L; .J ohn Diaz. 
l\Iorena, John Barranche, Francis Garcé
. all four knifed 
and clubbed to death by Y unlaS on tliP Colorado. .f uly 19, 
1781. The deserts of the south\\e
t are 80aked with the ùlood 
of thirty-four priests of St. Francis, lllartyred for the faith. 
These nlen of Ood, with dauntless courage and unalter- 
able faith, went on foot frOln tribe to tribe, bearing' the lne
sage of redelnption and of hope to nien and "TOlnen reeking in 
moral and bodily filth and abandoned to a lliollster of ullelean 
and tyrannieal superstitions. They nlade known the reyela- 
tions of God to these luunan wrecks; they estaulished lui:::,- 
sions among the ,. Digger" Indians of Lower California,. 
anlong the coast tribes, alliong the -:\Iojayes, thf' Yuulas, Papa- 
goes, Pinlas, )laricopas, Zuni and -:\[oqui. 
By the operation of a lnysterious la" of .Justice. the great 
priests, whose heroislll on the (lesert and disinterested saeri- 
fices on behalf of the savages of the 
outhwest are now a part 
-\.lnerican history, are to-da
T receiving frolll Ílnpartial his- 
torians that admiration and praise which, in othpr tilnes, in- 
tolerance and bigotry refused thenl. Such authors as Russel 
Bartlett, Charles F. Lunlluis, Elliot Coues, and other disinter- 
ested non-Liatholic writers, have corrected erroneous state- 
lllf'nts and arranged sonle popular opinions fonned of the 
nlÏssionaries and their methods. '''
 e owe it to these honest 
and fearless men that the reading public is at last beg'inning 
to understand why the n1Ïssionaries of the Catholic Church 



were the only clergynlen in ,A.Iuerica whose work 
llllong the 
tribes 'Was productiye of la
ting good and to cOl1('ede that, if 
the priests had been left in undisturbed rossession of their 
missions, the Indian
, to-day, would be a ci,Tilized and nUlller,- 
()US people. 
As early as 1683 tbe .J esuit priests, anticipating the COIn- 
ing of the Franciscans, had already cO\Tered Lower California 
and southern Arizona with nlOllUlllE'nts of their zeal, faith and 
{'harity. They had, according to the" Apostolica:-; 

" of 
Padre Jose (h'tega, opened twenty-nine n1Ï

ions in Sonora 
and "That is now southern ..A.Tizona, and converted to Chris- 
tianity lllauy of the tribe
. They taught thenl agriculture, 
building, the rai
ing of cattle and sheep, introduced the 
grape, the peach, the IeUlOll and the orange. \Yhen they re- 
tired froin the wildenw

 they left, in Il1any places, a partial- 
ly ci,Tilized race, churches, gardens and a people trained to 
work. They hequeathed to their suc('e
sors the invaluable 
lesson that nothing "Tas Ï1npossible to faith, energy and perse- 
The Jesuit prie
ts who sealed their faith with their blood 
\rizona and Lower California were Francis Xavier Saeta, 
murdered by PÍlnas, ...A.-pril 
, 1693; Tonla
 Tello, stabbed and 

lubbed to death at Caborca, K ov. 
1, 1ï51; IIenri Ruen, head 
split open and stoned to death by PÍlnas, 1751; ::\Ianuel 
Gonzalez, died on the de
ert; .J uan 
Iaria Carranzo, clubbed 
to death (lï3û) by Digger Indians, Lower California, and 
Nicolas Tmnarah, throat cut by Cochin1Ïs (1730), Lower Cali- 
St. Paul, writing to his Hebrew converts of Palestine, re- 
111inds thelll that "faith is the substance of things hoped for, 
the conviction of things that appear not," and he adds: 
"\Yithout faith it is ÍlllPossible to please God." He then con- 
tinues to enlunerate the wonderful trilullphs achieved through 
faith by the ele('t of God: "\Yho through faith converted 
kingdOlns." This wonderful luan, "called to be an Apostle 
out of due tÌlne," now tells thenl of the trials and sufferings 
of those who pt'rished for the faith: "\Yandering in deserts, 



in nlountains, in glens, and in caves of the earth. They had 
trials of lllockeries and stripe
; they were btoned; being in 
want, distressed, afflicted; they were put to death-a just God 
will reward thenl." 
These early n1Ï
sionaries, whether toiling for God and 
their fellow man in northern forest
 or on the deserts of the 
southwest, are to us glorious exanlples of the possibilities of 
individual Ulan when possessed of strong faith and ardent 
charity. ".À just God" has already rewarded these faithful 
servants of Christ whose lives were a triunlphant Odyssey, 
and whose death was the coronation of charity. They left be- 
hind them the bright light of snper1ullllan glUJT-the glory of 
confessors, saints and lllartyrs. 



The ReligiU1tS Order:;-PrOnOlt1lCement of Pius IX.-Origin 
Tame F'ranciscau-Distinguished Jle'Jl of the Order- 
A:; Jli:;siunuries-Frallcis of AssÙ;i-His Conrersion- 
Journey to Rome-Interview u;ith the Pope-8electing 
the Twelre-RenollJtcing the TV orld--l'hpir J.llission to 
the Puur-Lu
.e for Poverty-Brothers of the Lepers- 
Apparitions on the Streets of 1\T ap l es . 
In that lllOSt achnirahle encyclical letter addre

ed June 
17, 1
-!7, to the bishops at large, Pope Pius IX honors the 
 Orders of tlw Catholic Church by pronoullcing thelll 
to be the" (
hosen phalanges of the arIny of Christ, which 
haye always been the bulwark and ornament of the Christian 
republie, a
 well as of ci\'il society." Conspicuous anlong, 
and in the very front rank of, the great teaehing and n1Ïssion- 
ary bodies of the Church stands the Order founded by 
Francis of A
sisi early in the ulorning of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. The humble origin in tlw year 1
13 of the Fratres 

Iinores or }1-'rancis('ans, as we insist
 from affection and ad- 
llIÏration for St. Frauc-is, upon ('aIling thf'lll, lllarks an epoch 
in the ciyilization of the "Todd. The heroisl1l of the .B-'l'an- 
eis('an n1Ïssiollal'if's in all parts of our habitable earth and 
their :-;aerifi('es on behalf of Christ aud hunlanity challenge 
the adn1Ïration of bra\Te men and stagger belief Üself. 
"There are SOUle services and tl'iul1lphs," writes De 
)Ion talelnbert in his great \York, "The 
Ionks of the ,Vest," 
"of a deep and silent kind which acquire their clue honor only 
frolll posterity and under the survey of history." 
Before dispassion itself could begin to adn1Ïre the belTices 
and henefits the Franci:::;ean conferred for se\Ten centuries 
upon the lnunan race, the light had to penetrate the dark 
places of the earth where the bones of the lnartyr
 lay Ull- 



buried. Tardil
T, hut at la;-;t and sinl"t'rely, unprejndieec1lllan 
is paying the tribute of his applause and adll1Ïration to the 
heroic fortitude of the saintly lllen of the 
-'ran('is('an ()rder 
who in China, Corea, South and North Anlerica bore the 
Banner of the Cross to the barharian and the savage. 
It is late in the day, but not too late, to ask our::;el"es what 
lnanner of lllen were the)T who, under accunlu]ated suffer- 
ings, and with unparalleled success, Rucceeded in win- 
ning to Christ and to decency the degraded and unknown 
tribes of ,AJrica, Anlerica and the Islands of the 
ea ? "Tell, 
lnany of thenl were I1lelnbers of aristocratic and noble faIlli- 
lies who had graduated frOlll the he
t :-;{'11001s of 

urolJe, and 
SOllle anlong thenl have their nalne
 carved in the Pantheon 
of Fame and in the Ïlllperishable diptychs of the inllllortal 
Church of God. IIoweyer, this is not the place to enter upon 
a disquisition of the great Order or UIJon tllf
 debt of grati- 
tude due to it frOlll the lnelnbers of the human race and even 
fronl the Church itself. 
The history of the Catholic Church, from the thirteenth 
to the sixteenth century, was largely the history of the 
rise and expansion of the Franciscan Order in e"ery part 
of Europe. St. .L
nthony of Padua, -St. Bonayenture, Blessecl 
John of Pal'llla, St. Bernardine of Sienna, DUllS 
St. Leonard of Port 
Iaurice helonged to the Ïlllperial guard 
of St. Francis, 'who, frOIH one end of Europe to the other, 
stornled the strongholds of 
atan. They contributed largely 
to the learning and science of the world. \Vhen our thoughts 
carry us to the halls of the Sarbonne of Paris or to the cia:::;::; 
rooms of Oxford or Canlbridge, we recall the assertion of 
Gladstone that their golden age was when thè B"riars )[inor-- 
the Franci scans-sa t in the chairs of learning-the Cathedra 
-when Duns Scotus, Adam de :ß[arisco, .L
Jexander of Hales, 
Ockham and Peckham taught the civilized world. 
But it is as a n1Ïssionary order we love to contenlplate the 
Franciscans, and, as the patriarch of missionari{'s, we yener- 
t. Francis, who has begotten through the Gospel tlie 



t fanÜ}y of nÜssiouaries born frolll the prolific woulll of 
thf' ,. Bride of Christ," the Catholic Church. 
\Yho, then, was Franci
 of Assisi? 
Centuries before K orthwestern Europe broke apart frolH 
the unit
:" of Christendonl, a young lHan, the son of wealthy 
parents, lay at death's door. This was .fohn Bernardon, who 
was born in 118
, and was fanliliarly called Francis ùy his 
cOlllpanions, because of his knowledge of the French language- 
a rare accomplishment in those days. lfope was ahnost ahan- 
doned, when gradually a change for the better set in, and the 

 young :Franei'S of the little Italian town of ..L\"sisi rose 
frOlll his sick bed an altered luan. ReflectioJ1
 ('alTIe to hilll 
during the weary weeks of his recover)T-reflections which 
wrought an extraordinary, a supernatural ehange in the 
)Toung' luan. Before his illness he was merry-hearted and 
yivacious, was giyen to fine clothes and the fashionable allluse- 
lnents of his day. 
But now he held all these in strange contempt; his love of 
pleasure and worldly display went out from hÏIll, and there 
caIne in to take their place in his soul, 10\Te of poverty, conl- 
n1Ïseration for the poor, and sympathy for all forms of 
hunlan suffering. Ringing in his ears, as if with nletallic 
clearness, were the words of Christ, Lord and )[aster: 
"Do not possess gold or silver or nlOllf'Y in yonI' purses." 
They callle to hiIn as winged lnes
engers froln another world, 
and his heart answered with a pledge of obedience. 
Casting fronl hinl his purse, his jewels and golden chain, 
the young lllan removed his shoes, threw aside his fashion- 
able rainlent, clothed hinlself in a rough tunic girded with a 
rope. and entered upon a career of self-denial and penitential 
preaching which has won for him a conspicuous place in the 
Catholic Church and in the annals of history. 
Gnawing at his heart. not nlerely buzzing in hi
 brain, the 
words kept sn1Ïting hilll: "Provide neither gold. nor Û}yer, 
nor hrass in your purses, llf'ithf'r scrip for your journey, 
neither two coats, nor yet staYe
. for the worknlan is worthy 
of his lneat." ()nce before beggars had changed the face of 



 world, with no otlwr equipment than faith and God's 
grare. .....\nd why not again f 
Francis of .LL\ssisi went out into the world with no doubt 
of his mi
sion, with no fear for the InOlTOW, with no nloney 
in his purse, for did not God l)rovide for tllP YOllng ra\'en
whom Francis 10\Ted and 
poke to in ecstasy of jor
dised in beatific vision, lw beheld the angels of God eneonr- 
aging him, and, embo,,-el'ed in ecstasy, he 
aw the Five 
,y ounds of Christ bleeding afresh for the sin::; of the "Todd. 
Barely taking tinle to snatch a nlOuthful of bread and a 
ff'w houl'
leep, :B-'rancis sta rtecI, hare-footed, on the road to 
ROlne and, entering the hnperial City, knelt at the feet of 
that grf'at Popp, Inlloc'ent II I, asking his bles
ing and 
recognition for tbe Urdpr he was soon to estahlish. 
The Pontiff was walking in hi
 ganlf'n of the Latf'ran 
when Francis entered. Startled by the sudden apparition of 
the young 111an, thinned to ellwciation, 
llOelesfo:, hare-headt-'d, 
half-rlad, withal a heggar of gentleness and n:>tillenlent, Inno- 
cent asked hilll his Inission. The Pontiff'
 eye pl'netrated 
through the 1 ags of the beggar and Sa'\\' thf' saint. The POpf' 
a vproyed of his project, and Franeis reÌlll'nH! to As
isi (.aIT
ing with hinl a draught of his afterward fmnons "Uule." 
Gathering to hinlself tweI\"(:, others. all 
'oung, all aglow 
"Tith the sallIe diyine thuue, he Legan hi
can'er. Xl'arl
' all of knightly rank mHl gentle hluod, they 
surrendered their ('Iainls to inheritance, awl, following: the 
exanlple of their as(.ptir leader, stripped thenlsel\'es of all 
T posse:-:sions and for (1hrist 

ake took pun
!rty for 
their bride. 
Bare-footed lwggars the
- were, and a
T was the 
ruot of eyil, they' would not touch, eyen with the tips of their 
fingers, the aecursed thing: "Y e ('annot selTe Hod and Inalll- 
111on," spoke Franci
, eyen in Christ'
 own words. 
These apostles of po\'ert
T, of pit
T, of deyouring ]oye for 
their fpllow creatures, went furth, two hy two. to pl'pach hove 
alld <-- 1hrist (,l'ucifie(l to the poor. CalJed to liYe aIllong the 
people, to suhsi
t upon a hlls, to heal' the hardest toil, HIE-ir 



llllssion ,,-as to revive the faith of Jesus Christ aU10ng the 
lnasses, to give daily and living exa111ples of Christian pa- 
tience, devoted sacrifiee and self-denial. If ever Inen preê1ched 
Christ and Hitn crucified. these 1nE'11 did. 
They had no systen1. no views; they conlhated nu opinio11:;';, 
they took no side. Discussion, controversy, theological dis- 
pute, these they left to the rhetoricians and the schoohnen. 
That Christ had died, had risen again and was alive for pver- 
Inore was an indisputable but awful fact. The
- preached 
Death, the .Judgnlent after death, reward for good dee(ls and 
an E'ndless hell. 
 and his cOll1panions called thelnselve:-., "Brothers 
of the Poor," hut futurE' generations, out of love and achnira- 
tion for this lovable Inan an(l wonderful :;.;aint, in:;.;ist upon giv_ 
ing his nan1e to all who, by YOW', walk in his footste})s. 
Their Illission was to the poor, to the negleC'tecl to tho
sweltering Inasses in foul hovels with neyer a quilt to cover 
theIn, huddling close, alive with vern1Ïn, disfigured with 
ghastly wens; lepers accursed of God and Ulan, too horrihl
shocking for W0111E'n to look upon, and driven outside the walls 
to rot and die in the lazar houses. 
To these caIne Franci
 with bread, with consolation. with 
hope, with a llleS
age frolll .J esus fihrist, the son of (}o(l. To 
the!-,e outca:-;ts, wherever found, camE' those other twelyE' into 
whom Francis had poured 111uch of his own spirit of heroic 
abnegation and sublÍlne love for (}od's creatures, "hrotherq 
to pJ esus Christ, brothers to you and llle." 
",Ye are cOlne," they said to the unhappy wretche
, "we 
arE' C0111E' as your frif'IHls, nay, even as your hrother
, to liye, 
if needs be, among you; to wash your sores and to calT
'" with 
you your hunlen;-; of poverty and disease. (hu Lord sends us 
to you. ,\T e. too, are heggars, and, like JfiUI, we know not 
where to la
- our heaùs for sleep. Christ died for all of us 
and-hope is ours and there is happines
 beyond tIlE' grave." 

s they spoke, so they lived, and when, wan. hollow-e
ghastly pale, elnaciated to the bone. the
- glidpd for the fir
tÜl1e through the streetð of f,inful X aples, it was as if .. the 



graves were opened, and the bodies of the Eaints that had 
slept arose, came into the city and appeared to nlany." 
In the presence of such stupendous f'xanlples of brotherly 
love, face to face with these hourly n1iracles of grace, of seFf- 
denial and lieroic self-sacrifice, the cynic wa ç;; dumb, the rich 
nlan opened his purse and the proud and sinful took pause. 



Their First Official J1 eeting-Expnnsion of the Order-Its 
Influence in the Discovpry of Amrrira-Francis of Cala- 
bria and the Queen-Founding of cay of San Domingo, 
Haiti-Pioneers of the Faith in ..Llmerica-FTiends of 
the Indian-Denouncing the Slare Trade-COl1cersion of 
Tribes-lllaf'celous Success of the Franciscans-A'ltthori- 
ties Cited-Diego Landa-lJ1issionaries and Explorers. 
In 1
13 the Franci!-5cans held their first chapter or conven- 
tion at the Church of the Portiuncula, .....\.ssisi. Their Inelubers 
began to increase, and froni Italy they flowed oyer into 
France, Gernlany, 
pain and England. 
The whole face of Christendom was changed by the 
preaC'hing and exanlple of St. :B-'rancis and his conlpaniolls. 
They proved to the lHen of their tilue that the teachings and 
 of .J e
us Chri
t, the Son of God, were not above the 
understanding and ohedience of the BIen of the n1Ïddle and of 
all succeeding ages. In the person of 
-'raIwis, .J esus of Kaz- 
areth lived again, for the love, the instruetion and edifieation 
of the hUlnan race, as lIe had never liverl in any one indh
ual since that hour vdwn the great apostle to the pagan 
world reminded the Galatians: "I have been crucified with 
Christ, and I live, now not I, but Christ liveth in nle." 
This is not the plaC'e to traC'e the r
unifications of the dis- 
tinguished Order of Ht. Francis which, like the branches of 
the Idunlean vine, co,rer a great space and reach afar, but to 
T trace that arnl of the prolific vine which was trans- 
planted to -,-
merica and sent out its branches to every part 
of the wonderful continent. 
,Va i vi ng the di vi ne in terposi tiOll, and concerning our- 
selves only with lnunan agencies, it is no language of exag- 
geration to assert that to the influence of a Franciscan priest 



humanity is largely indehted for the discovery of 
'Yhen the daring Genoe
e, COhUllbu
, had appealed in vain 
to the courts of Europe for help to outfit him for his perilous 
enterprise, he turned to the Franciscan priest, Francis of 
Calabria, to adyi
e hilll in his despair. Francis "Went in per- 
son to Isabella, queen of Spain, and, when he left her preð- 
ence, he carried back to Columbus, his guest in the lnonas- 
tery of Calabria, the prOluise that the queen would furnish 
the nleans to start hinl on his ocean voyage. 
'Yhen afterwards cahunny hardened the hearts of royalty 
and the nobility of Spain against hÏ1n, it was another Frau- 
cisl:'an, Juan Perez de 
Iarchena, "Who caIne to his assistance, 
"The protector of COhll11bus in Spain," \Te read in the his- 
tory of Count Hose1Jy de Lorgues, "was the g'enerons ]-'1'an- 
ciscan, Juan Pprez de 
lar('llPna." This sallie Father Perez, 
astronOlner and cartographist, acco1l1panied COIUlllbus on his 
second voyage, and, with the great navigator, founded the 
T of San Don1Íngo, :I [aiti, 'Y e
t Indies. 
,.Ahl1ost ÏI11111ediately after San Don1Ïngo, in 1311, was 
raised to a bishopric by Pope Julius II., and Juan de Zunlar- 
raga created, in 1548, first arC'hbishop of jUexiC'o, the Fran- 
ciscan:s entered upon a career of lllissionêll'Y enterprise anlUng 
the savages of North and South .L\ulerica that wi1J for all tinle 
file the nalues of their luartyrs and 
ors aç;; beads of 
gold on a Rosary of "F-'alue. In one hundred 

ears thp Fran- 
ciscan lllÍ ,",sionaries had converted and civilized f,ixteen nlÍl- 
lions of savages on the C'ontinent of 
-\ nwriC'3. Not one, hut 
a whole library of books, would lw rec.luirc(l to record their 
achieyell1en ts. 
,;, The sons of S1. Jj-'rancis," writes Leopold de Chevance, 
"including Peter of Glwnt, ::\Iartin of Valencia, Francis So- 
lano, and Garcia of Padilla, ,,-ere the first to evangelize 
ico, Peru, Paraguay, Brazil, {ianada, and the whole of the 
'Yest Indies. Pnr:
uillg to the laf-;t their work of dpliyerallCe 
and salyatioll, they were abo the first, with .J uan Suarez, 
Las Caf-;as and Zlnnarraga to raise their voices in favor of 
the Indians, WhOlll it ,,-as songht to reduce to slavery, ass 



along with XÏ111elle
, tlwy were the firs1 to protest against 
that hideous traffic, the 
laYe trade." 
The Franciscans "ere not only the fir
t I11Íssionaries in 
l\Iexico and in those regions of X orth )..llleriea 
ettled hy the 
Spaniard:-.. but they were the first to penetrate the northern 
forests of Canada and the region:-: of the Great Laké;:,. Years 
before the Congregational Pilgrinls landpd in 
in l()
U. tIlt-. Franciscan Father
 Le (i aron , 'Tiel and de la 
Roche Daillon were eyange]izing the tribe
 on tlw shores .of 
Lake IIuron and preaching to the 
-\Jtiwalldaronð, whose 
hunting grounds 
tretched froIll the }1-'alls of Genesee to the 
Detroit X arro,ys. 
Fronl the 
"ran('is('ans the indigenous races of the :South 
.A..nwrican continent deri\'e,l their religion and their ('iyiliza- 
tion, and. by the opera tiOll of a lllysterious land of eonserYê:l- 
tion, a('tillg with ('learness and precision. these 
tribes haye hC'eIl united into one fan1Ïly and one household- 
the fmllil,\
 and household of the inlperishahle Church of God. 
The llatiye tri1ws of the 
-\..llleri('an continent, notwith- 
sbtnding the unfayorahle (,OIlClitions of their surroundings 
and the eyil eXalllples of nIany of the snperior race. haye pre- 
SelTf'd their solidarity and nUlllber
 by th
 influPl)('c of the 
Catholir Church and of her spiritual sons, the Franciscans. 
":Jlore than a l11i1lion anll a ha1f of the pure aboriginal 
races," writes Prirhard in hi:-: '.Xatural lfistory of .:\lan." 
"I i \Te in Routh 

\111eri{'a in the profession of Christianity, 
vdÜ]e the history of the atteulpts to ron\
ert and f'a n:l the [n- 
dians of X orth 
-\..nlerica under the influelwe of the seet:-; i
history of melaneholy failures. The preselTation of the In- 
dians of :Jlexi('o, Houth and <. ientral 
a l'efl('(.ts honor 
on the HOlllan Catholic t 1]nu'('h.' '-Prichard, See. XLI\.... p. 
"Far fl'Olll heing din1Ïnished." wr:ite
tllal't Cochrane 
in ":JI

 .Journal of a He:-:idenn' in Colmnhia." "the Indians 
ha\'e rOllsi(lf'rahly increased. .A sill1Ïlar increasl--' has taken 
p1aee generally 311lOnp; the Indian population in that part of 
Aluerica wl1i('h is within the tropics. The Indian 



population in thf' luÜ;sions is constantly angulenting, vdlile 
within the United 
tates, on the contrary, the Indian:-: are 
fast dhninishing in nUlnbers. In the rnited States, as civili- 
zation advances, the Indians are constantly drivf'll beyond 
its pale." 
In Spanish ",-\nlerica today, lnainly through the zeal and 
devotion of the Franeisran Father
, the Indians are in 11UU1- 
bel's practirally what tlwy were at the tÏ111e of the l'Onqueðt. 
They are civilized and Christianized, and are eligiblf' for auy 
office in the state, the Chur<,h or the anny. 
'[n t,,
o hundred 
years we of the north," writes ::\[1". C. F. Lnu1Ini:-:, in his 
panish Pioneers," "' wiII be clas
ifying and articulating 
and lerturing on the bones of the prehistoric Indian, while all 
through Sonth and Central An1erieH the Indian will he culti- 
vating the land and increasing in lllllllhers." 
The Franrisran
 have, in Spanish Allwriea. won a thon- 
>:5alld tribes to the eross; have spen tlWll1 inereasp and llnIlti- 
ply on every side under the benign rule of the Churrh; and, in 
spite of many calan1Ïtif's, re,Terses ana opposition, !têHTe pre- 
selTed thenl for two hundred years in tlw unbrol\.en nnity of 
tlw faith. Froln Bogota to Buenos _-\.jTeS the l'-'rancisf'ê:lns 
roalned the forests and plallls, hring'iug Christianit
T and 
eivilization to the sedentar

, or wandering', sayage:-:, 
The voice of Christianit
T," writf's _\xrhihald bnlÌth in 
his .. Peru As It Is," ,. has penetrated into vast regions of 
heathen and sa \'age tribes, and rea<,lwd the unsettled wan- 
derers ê:llnOI1g- the thirkest entanglelllCut:-- of the wooù;-;. Frolll 
O<,opa lSSllPd forth those zea Ions, per;-;ev('ring, '-'elf-dpuying 
and enùuring BleU, tlw great objeet of ,\ho
p livt's it has Leen, 
in the n1idst of dangel', and in the lUln1e of thp Ha \Tioul', to 
acId to the faith of the Churrh, and to eiyilizf'cl soeiety, beings 
whose spirits were as dark as the woods thp
- ol'cupif'tl. " 
The HOll. F. ,YalpoJe, who had aUlp]e Opp()l'tunit
- of illti- 
nudely studying the results of the seJf-sêH'l'ifiee and lahors of 
the n1Ïssionaries, tells Us in hi:-: " }1"'our Years in tllP Pacific": 
,. All South .Âuleri('a was exp]orpd under tlwir (the Fraueis- 
cans ') direetion. {)yercOluing e, ery diffieulty, surmounting 



toih;, braying unheard of and unknown dangers, glorying in 
wounds, hardships-death it
elf-these zealous nlen spoke of 
Jesus and JIis loye and Inercy in the renlotest nooks of this 
vast continent." 
In Central ..L
l the Franeiscan
 "ere the pioneers of 
civilization and religion. ..Lls early as 1331 }1'athér I >icgo 
Landa "as preaching to the tribes of lueatan and deeipher- 
ing tlIP 1laya hieroglyphs on the 11l0nU111ents of 1Iayapan, 
Chichen-ltza and 
lerida. lIe solved the m
Tstery of the 

\hau-Katan, OJ' the cycle of the (
uiches, and left us an in- 
valuahlp treatise on YuC'atall and it
lIl through 
Guatf'luala, Xicaragua and IIouduras these faithful Ini
aries carried the torch of Christianity, early in the ::;evell- 
teenth eentury, through the tribes, and e8tablishecl al1lOng 
thenl a civilization that exists in Central AUlerica to-day. 
.J ohn L. Ntephens, who, in 183
)-18-!O, traveled through 
(ientral .Aluerica and elljo
Ted every opportunity of witness- 
ing the life of labor and responsibility of the lonely priests 
sC'attercd alìIOllg' the inland viIlage Indians, tells us in his 
.. Incidents of Travel in Central Ånlerica," that tlw priest 
,. "as looked up to by every Indian as a C'olulselor, friend and 
father. [ ('ould hut think, ,yhat subse(lUently inl- 
IHo(--':-"sed itse1f upon nle nlOre and lllore in every step of nl
T in tIulÌ country, 'Blessed is the vilIage that has a 
priest.'" Farther on in hi::; fascillê1 ting book he ,yrites: 
.. The priests wpre all intelligent and good lllen, who would 
ratlwr do benefits than an injury. In Inatters C'onneC'ted with 
religion they were l110st reyerential, lahor
(l diligC'utly in 
their yoC'ations, and were without reproach aJ1l0llg the peo- 
ple. " 
'rile heroic work of the Frallci:--can
 in the great -1
elllpire of 1[exico, their labors in Sonora, Sinoloa, in Gpper 
'1\1.'1 ".mYer California, their daring e"Ploratio n

t'l'lCS 111 1 he unexplored lands of the we
t and 
t of 
our (Oonntry, are too well known to particularize in tJwse 
To thiç; !treat l11issionarv order of St. Francis helonO"ed 



the two (hIring prie
ts, }1\'aneis('o ..L-\. tanasio l)olllingupz and 
Silyestre Velez de l
s('alante. who, frOJl1 
anta Fe. Xew 
ieo, eros
ed, one hundred and thirty-five years ago, Colorado, 
tah and ..Arizona. and f'ntered the 
[O(lui towns heyond the 
Colorado Chi(luito. tr-w Rio .J êHlue
ila of the 


IIis Arri,.al in Jlerir'o-Assignment to huni-Lalld-risits 
the Jloquis-Trrites to Fathp}" r;a}"r'es-(;arrps' Extra- 
onlÌJ((lry Ca reer-H is Ex plo}"ation8 in Arizona a nei rali- 
fnrnia-Find Trhite lUau tu Cru:i:i Uraud Cauyon of the 
rolorado-O pells the Old pst of thi' .. h 1 pa nish Trrtils"-- 
Escalante Attempts rr()
.-;ing of the Canyou-liis Lptt,Jr 
on the llIoquis-Return to the Zuuis-Called to 8al1ta 
Fe-Codifies Xew JI p.rica}l 
lrch i rps-AL)(ICh e (I J(lelt y- 
E8(;alantt> ':; Retirement and Death. 
It i::-; llllWh to hp deplored that rpsearPll in the Xational 

rexi(.o, and examination of the archi\Tes of the Epi
('opal Lihrar
anta Fe, haye nut rf'wal'ded us with lllOre sat- 
- information on thf' li\rp:,,\ of Father
lante and 
DOlllinguez. Of DUlllinguez Yer

 littlf. i
 on l'f'f'orcl, and we 
hayp no data fronl ,,-hirh a short biography luight hp rOlll- 
,Ye haye searched through thp ..Croni('a Rel':1fica 
tolica del rolegio de Propaganda Fide de la Santa Cruz de 
ta l'O en la X ue\Ttl Espana" but haye not found any men- 
tion of their naInes. Let n
 hopf' that 
Ol1le futurf' historian, 
who ('an hring" to hi::-; work the tillW. the patienC'
 HIHl thf' 
IllPans, will ::-;lwC'eed where we ha\Te faile(l. IIi
 brother pl'ie
and eOl11panion on tll{' 
r oliui .. EntnHla." or ::Santa Fe expe- 
ditioll. fills a l110re eons}Jiellolls phH'e in the annal
 of K pw 

r exiC'o. 

ike::-;tl'e \"T elt-'z de bJscalante "'a
 a Spani
h prie
t and a 
lllE'll1hpr of the teLH'hing alHl Ini
- on1('}' foun(lf'd h
St. Fl'aI}('i

isi, Tta1
T, in the tWf'1fth ('elltlll'
'. He was 
one of the C'ongTega tinll pf fourteen l)]'ie:-:t
 who. in lïGR, 
",ailed from thf' port of Ran Blêl
" Spain, êlu(l, after a t('IllPC<.;- 
i HOllS Yo
-agf'. rf'êlchecl the Puerto de Glla
. Onlf of Ca li- 



fornia. Froni here he went to the town of IT or(>a
itas, on the 
rigllel. the head(lUarter
 of the Spani
I] governor and 
of the nlission of 
onora and 
inolon. Tn the distrihution uf 
the n1ÏssionarieH made h
' the goyel'nor and the local superior 
of tlH-' Franeiseans, Padre Esea lantf' "YHS assigned to Ter- 
renate, one of the five Nonorinn presidio
, and in tiule -wa
appoillte(l resiclellt lllÎssionary at Laguua, Xortheastern Ke"
)Iexieo. Froin here he yisitf'd and iustl'ueted lllan
T of the 
:sedentary tribe:-. in and around Cehilita and E] 
Early in .J anlUlr

, 1775, he is with the Zuni::; at (Þjo del 
Pesf'ado preaehing to the adu1t
, tearhillg the little boys awl 
girls how to pray, and, in('identall
T, Ï1nparting" to the Indianð 
a kno-wledge of Ï1uproyed til1age and of dOlllé::;tie cleanlines
1 [is zeal Hnd deyotion to the ehilclren won the adnlÎl'ation of 
the Zunis. 

]l tlI(' neighboring pueblos veneraÜ.<l Jlinl as a 
;o;uperior Iuan, and his faIlle traveled to the .ßIOllllÏ town.
north of the Colorado rhiquito, to whmn he IW..d sent greet- 
ings and a ulessage of good -will. T]w" (iliff [)wellers" 
a deputation of their elders tu ill,'ite him to their villages, an 
illyitation which he accepted. He passed eight days with the 
-:\Ioquis, holding councils ,,'ith the head nlen and explaining 
to the 111ysterions people the principal articles of Christian 
belief. 'Yhen he returned to his Zuni n1ÏRsion he wrote r 
ugust 18, 1775, to j1-'ather j1-'l'anciR('o Garces, who was then 
exploring the {;olorado and visiting tlw regional tribes. 
T Garces was the first white 111an to nwke thp joul'nc
frolli Yuma to the 
IojaYe and on to the Los 

ngeles of to- 
day. Tit' di
eovered the )Iojave river, traveled on foot the 
unexplored region, 
ll1Cl explored the Tulnre ,,"'aIle,'. .L\cconl- 
iug to 
lrriciyita, he was the first white nUlll who eyer 
and crossed the Grand (\lllyon froBl e,"l 
t to west, and gavè 
to this gorge-one of the natural -wonders of the world-a 
speeifif' n
llne. In 177-! he pilotf'd Cn pta in .J uall B. Ansa and 
his party frOlll the PiU1êl village of TulJac on the Hio 
Cruz to 
ronterey, California, and openerl the oldest of the 
h trails. 
In his letter to Father Garces. Esealant2 ealled the Colo- 



rado the Rio Grande de los Co
ninos, after a sub-tribe of the 
Havasupa, then BettlE'd in a deep depression of Cataract 
river in llortlrwestE'rn A l'izona. fIe nwutiolled, on represen- 
tationR lllade to hinl by the IndiauH, that the Colorado was 
Ï111pasHahle, and that no one knew if any people livE'rl on the 
'Ûtlwr side of the Great Gorge. In this letter he gives cur- 
rency to a report that white nlen (prohahly 
) "
ere luet hy Indians in the Far ,Yest, hefore 
::\Ionterpy was founded, thus rpviving the luyth of the north- 
ern Illystery. 
The letter of Padre ESf'alante was I!earl

 thirteen monthR 
hunting tllf' wandering priest, and ('aught up with hiln, at 
Jast, at his n1Ï

ion of San Xavier del Bal'. near tlu' nlOdern 
city of Tucson, .Arizona. 
In the report of his expeditions, Garcf's, writing ()(.toher 
17, 177(), sa
':-;: "1-\hout a lllonth aftpr I returned frOln IllY 
journey I received a letter fl'Olll tllP Hev. Ji\tther Bilvestrc 
,T elez de Escalante, dated frolll X P\y ::\[exico, August, of the 
.ahO\Te-Illelltioned year (1773), which. though they di:-.patehec1 
it to nle to the Rio Colorado, they (the Indian runners) had 
to hring hack, for I had already departerl. I read with deep 
interest this letter. Kow, as to the stateulent lnadc hy the 
nino Indian to tlu:i Reverend Father, I assert that what 
he cal1H the Rio de los 
Iisterios is the Colorado River. The 
I J l'ote,-;tation that the river was iUlpassahle, and that the 
'Cosninos did not know if there were people on the other Bide, 
was an exaggeration of the Indian, for it is eertain that thprp 
:are peoplp, and friends of theirs, on tlw other si<Ì.p of the 
river. [t i
 true, the river l11ay be difficult to ('ross, for, as T 
:have already written, fr0111 the village of the .T.unajaos np- 
",yards, tIIP hankH are \Ter
r steep and the sides ex('eedingl
:l'ough. ' , 
] hIring his yi
it to the 1\IotlUi:-: }1J
calante attelupted to 
crOHS thp Grand Canyon of thp Colorado and failerl. In hi
.. 'Illfonllc y Diario (IlH:' in .J ullio de 177;) hizo E'11 la Pl'o\'iu('ia 
de l\Ioqui "-hiB diary kept while al1l0ng the 
r uqui:-.-he re- 
t?ounts the ohHtacles he encountered when he e:,sayed the 



ing of the trenlelldou
nl. lIe de

 the Jloqui 
, adding there were se\'ell of tlWlìl, perched on three 
as. carrying a population of sP\'en thou
aJld fh'e hundred 

ouh;; that Uraihe was the largest town. and hplll alInust h\o- 
thirds of the people. IIis journal, dated 
 )ctober :2f\, 1 773, i
full of interesting details. ] [e l'eeollnts ineidents of his long. 
and pel'ilou
 trip frum Zuni, what ()('eurre(l during hi
tay alllong' the 
, the difficulty of ('ony('rting' 
them to the faith, owing to the opposition of the Shallli:Ul
and the possiblE' ne('es
ity of the Spaniards being eOlllpel1ed 
to usp foree to subdue thell1. He ::;a
 Ow )foqui
. or "foqui- 
nos, as they were tlH'n spoken of. werE' all dispo
e(l t(nnu'd..: 
Christianity and tllf> Spaniards, hut the lllC'dieine nwn. or 
sur('el'ers. fearing their puwer and influE'lH'e 1\ould 1w iUl- 
paired, or lost altogether if the llli
 "Ter{\ p(,l'luitt('cT 
to dwell ])(>rllU1nentl
T in their village;..;, were hitterly hostile. 
This ::\[O(!lÚ dial'io giyes us all ill
ight into the triha! life- 
of the ocC'ult racE', and is fun of curiou;..; aud intere;..;ting- in-- 

ll'C'0111panyillg the diario wa
 a lllap of the routes he l1:ld 
taken and a delineation of the feature
 of the land and the' 
general lay of the country. rrhis nml' he lil)i
l}(>(l at Santa 
Fe, to whiC'h l'la('e Ilf-' 'YHS SlUmllOlled hy the ,'i('E'l'o
- of X ew. 
::\lexieo. Ppdro Fil'lllill de Jfindinneta, to enter with Fath
Atanasio Dominguez upon a tour of exploratio11 to,nll'<ls th
Paeific oC'ea11. 
Heturning' from hj
 fmnuu:-: t'xpedition, 1<
s('Hlante ('0111- 
pleted frOlll hi
 'Tohuniuous 110t(--S l1i
 diario }lnd itin,-'rHr
now translaÌ<'(l for the first ti Ill\-' anù giyeu to t]w puhl ie il1 
this hi
tory. -<-\. HUll' uf tilE' roulE' follOWf'd by the: explurel'
anta Fe, to the Colorado and the Jloqni puehlos ,,'a:-:. 
athlf'he<l to the original diario, hut it is pl'e;-,lllllf'(lI
' lost O!. 
destroYE'd, for the assistant I ihra l'ian uf thp Xa iÎOllHll 
[exic() City, writps ll;-, that he lUHluot sW'l'<,p(lp(l lIl' 
finding an

 trH('e uf it. That this 111ap (':\.i
te(l, in 1777. we
know fr0111 the letter written b

 the JI((rque:-; de Croix, frOlllJ 
::\[exieo City, to the yi('('roy of Xe\\T )lexico. 1Iindinueta. The 



[a rqups dates his lettE'r :Wth .J ul
'. 1777. and thanks 
nueta for haying furwardE'd to him the journalf-.. and Inap 
(Diari()R y .ßI apa) of the t\yO priests" 
H('ar('ely gi \'ing hiulself tinH' to l'eCO',Ter f1'0111 t]1(\ e
tion of his wallderilIg"s oyer I110untains and de:-:erb, tlll' tire- 
less llli
sionary now 
ets out on foot for the pueblo of Santa 

-\na of the Rpllelue. high up near the Ìlead ,,-aters of the Hio 
Grande, where a mission had hppn opellt'd SOUl(' year
by Father .10sp ()r011SO. 
,Ye next hear of hilll in the huni Inission viUnge of Ran 
IldE'fonso, "There he (hn>]]s four n1Ont11s (>ate('hizin
 and in- 
stnwting the [ndians. 
]1-'1'0111 the Zuni rounh'
' 11(' is callE'd b
T his proYÏ1wial, or 
religions supE:'l'ior, .Tuan 
lol'fì. to (>ollpct and examine the 
(10(,UUIl'lIts nud arl'hivt's fuund in Hauta Fe, alHl l'udif
T th
-. the ntost irnpol'tant l't'('ol'ds anti Inanu- 
srl"ipts \YE'rp (lestroYf'(l iu thp uprising and lllas

.n('rp of 1GS(). 
The iSHle of his l',--'sean'hes, hegnu in --<-\1']'il. 1778. aud ('"'(tend- 
ing over a period of sonle 
Teal's, resulted in the puh]ication, 
in Rpallish, of his" Carta," or f'pi:";tle, aIHl his .. Arrhiyio de 
Nuevo ..Mexico." Thesf' invaluahlt> works art' printed in the 
eries of the dO('ulllE'lltary hi:-:tol'
- of 
rexieu, and the 
original llmnuscripts are to he found aUlung the general 
archiveR of 
r exiro. 
In the earta, or I(:'tter. to his e('(']psiasti('al SlJpf'l'IOl'. 
Father I

scalante says that the XaYajo-
\pa('hes ('amp to 
Santa Fe in the mouth of .1 n]y e\'er

{-'ar frolll tlwir hunting' 
 OJI the u1'p(:'r Chama to baJ'Ìpl' d]"it'd meat 
killS awl 
('aptives taken in hatt]e. If they failed to Sf'1I or exchange 
tlwir })]'iSOlWrs for grain or pnn:isimh the
' led thf'l11 a:-;idE' 
aud slaughtE'l'f'd them. ,r]wn the king' of Spain WèlS told of 
this at1'o('ions cnstOlll he gaye orders that. at tbe (::,xpeIl"C' I)f 
his majf'str, aU unsold or unJ"f'dpenH?d pl'isonel':-' were to he> 
}H1n'lIasf'd. [n tlIp SHIll(' lettel' It(' lnentiolls that ill tlip au- 
hl111ll of ] G!)(). the }\'
lll'h IT uguenots, who Ji'Tl'<l un the dis- 
tant frontier of tlw 1H'o\'in('e. w('re l'('ported to ha\'e exterllli- 
nah'd four thousau<1 
\pêH'hps, who attal'ked the friendl



tribes whieh the [luguenot
 hail taken under their protec- 
After cOlnpleting the annals of Kew 
réxieo the lwroil" 
priest retireil to the 
-'rancis('an ('ollpge at (llleretaro, 
()f hilll we l11ay rE'lJeat what Elliott Cones writes of Father 
Garces in the introdu<:tion to hi
 work, ., On the rrrail of a 
Spanish Pioneer": "lIe wa
 a true f'olrlicr of th

neithE'r greater nor lesspr than thon
 of othE'l' "hi Idl'en 
of IIoly <- 'hu}'('h. Puor, like .1 esn
. lw so loyed his fellow 
luan that he wa::-; ready to die for hilll. ,Yhat l110re eould 
llUl n do?" 

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. "-1'1'0\'0 Call.HIII, 
"HOCK OF .\(;1.8 










THE' .GRE \T BA:-:IX." 

TVhy the Fraut'is{'(!lls Did 
Tot Euter fliP Basiu-Ârpa of the 
Basin-Its P rimord ial State-l t8 Dpse rts (f ud .11 Oll}t- 
tains-Prightful Solitude .Awed Exploration-TT/(' rr((- 
-,,(dr-h Hauge-" Tiprra de los Parlrps' '-A /limal Lifp of 
Grpat Ba::Ún-.Juuipero Serra Enters at the SOllfli- 
Triùe:-; Tritltiu the Basin-Frauciscans Begiu tf) Ciriliz:
The11l-Seel,'iUlf a Trans-Territorial Route. 
,Ye haye o('casiona ]]
. heen a:-:kel1 h.\
 :-:tul1pnt:-: of _\nH:'l'i.. 
cau hi
', and haye now an,} thé'n in llwgazines and ppri- 
odi('als, ulet thp question Wh
T tlu:> Catholie Church in AUlerica 
had not at au
- tinH:' urp:anized 1l1i
siùns among' the (11u:'
, the 
ho:-:hones, the Baunoeks and other inland trilws. 
...\nd WE' h(n
e ahnlYs all..;'H'red in tl1(> wonl" of our (liyilw 
Lord: .. The haryest indeed is gTeat. hut tlw laborers are 
ff'w." 'Yhen that wondprful prie
t, .J nnipero t;erra, the 
Hpostle of (ialiforuia, la
- d
'ilJg' in hi:-: littlp lnona
ten- at 
Hanta BarLara, he turned to the nlOurllful eomluuions at hi
lwdside and 
aid: .. Pra
r ye, therefore, the Lord of the har- 
\'(>:-it that] [e send forth lahol'prs into His yinpyard." 
Extending ahout 
S() lllile:-. fnJlll Borth to f.:outh aud (;()t) 
n1Îlps frOlll ea:--t to we
t, spreadi up,' 0' er an area of :21 f),()Ot) 
f;quarp luiles, is a YHst regioll of ulOuntain and de...;ert to 
"hieh Frelllont, on his exploring expedition of 18-1:-1:, gaye 
the nallle of the .. Great Basin." Thi:-: 
olo-.:sal inland de- 

iol1 takps in the westf'rn half of TTtah. including' 
Pete, Se\'ier 
Ullllllit, and etah ('olllitil':-:, and l1H'llldp
the entire state uf Keyada. Tn 
()utllPast(>rn ()reg'on the 
Basin ahsorh:-: a large territorr and 
teal:-: a portion of huul 
frOll1 soutlwasÍ(>rn r daho and :-:ontlnw>:-:tprn ,rYOulInp;. it 
passes into California, extendiug along its pn...,tf'l'n honler, 
and, leaping to the 
onthern Pllfl of the stait., l'ollel't:-: 1111- 



perial 'Talley, San Diego eoullt
-, and portions of Lower 
California intu it
 treIuendous llUl\Y. Toward
 tl18 ea
t it 
touches the drainage basin of the Colorado riYer
 and on the 
west it i
 bounded hy the hasins of the San .J oaquin, the Sac- 
lalnellto and many lesser streall1S. r-flw ('rest of the huge 
Sierra Ne\Tada fonus the great divide for the falling and 
flowing water
, and further south to\yering lllountain
its drainage within its territory. "Tithin the hasin are pleas- 
ant val1eys, whose alluvial :-;lope
 and ßoon
 were r:1Ísed hy 
the detritus acclunulating for uncounted ages fronl the sur- 
rounding lllountains. Here, too, deserts of repel1ant a,-;pe('t 
were forn1ed, and anlong thelll are the Great Salt Lake and 
Carson desolations of sand and alkali. the Colorado and the 
[oyaYe of the southwest. The Sevier, the Ralston, 
the Auwrgmm and the E
ealante wa
tes of saud oe(,llp

own places in thi" 11la)'velons fOl'lllation, but are of subordi- 
nate ÏIllportan('e. En('lo
erl ,yithin the Basin are the dreaded 
Death Valley, the Salton Sink and Coahuila Desert. all of 
then1 I

in.g below the face of the Pacific. 
Af'ross thi
 desolation of wilrlernes
, for alnlOst a thou- 
sand n1Ïles frOlll north to south in a sPl'ie:-; of rugged range
huge nlountain
 battled with the clouds. Their gloUJuy for- 
f'sts of pine and fir, their gorges of horrent depths and 
tained silence, their fierce and forhidding lllien, terrified ex- 
ploration and enveloped their weird solitude::; in fearsonle 
()f all the great and ,nnHlrous n'gions ,,
ithin t1H-' l'onti- 
nents of Korth and Houth Alneri('a thi!o; yast, ulltrodden ter- 
ritory was the 1110st desolate, the nlO
t .inacce
::;ihle, the wild- 
f'st. Here were lonel
y and repellant deserts, waterless, wind- 
:::;wept aud sllal\:f-'-illfested. and rangps of iUlpa
sahle moun- 
tains, through wliû
e gloOln

 the ,yinc1 ru
hpd witb 
terrifil' roar, and in whose dn rk and 
ullen gorges thp 
was piled iu deep and hillow.,- drifts. r-ru tile \\pst tlw Xe- 
yaclas, pine-dad and snow-crowneù, halTed the pa
;-;, and 

weepillg plateaux sÌl'('tehed for distanl'e
 ill ullinyitillg re- 
puse. IIere, tUlI. the Yl't lUluauled "Tasah.h and (

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_.., .;{Y; d:: ... t. 

FATHEl; .J. 
Fr,llwi:-wall \\'ho P1:mtell tll<' CI'()
S in C,I1 iforllia .July Hi, 1 ïm). 



lliountains rai:-it'd to a sk
r of frostell bhw hoary !JeêH.b 
ting tIw rê:leing' ('1
HHIs, whidl droye telnpestuou
thelll. Then the ahuo:-ìt houndless wastes of desolations ot' 
::-alld "Tithin thi
 terrifying region. 
'n\eping for hundreds of 
111ÏIE':-ì in dreary :-:;olitude and sterilit
T, where 110 gra

or water flowed, l'aispd a harrier to explora1 inn and awed tlw 

toutest heart that da rE'(1 to entpr. 
Breaking" away towards tIlt:' ::-;outh and ::-;ol1th"Te
t aIlll out- 
side this eyelnpean triangle was the .. Tierra rle 10:-:: Padres- 
the Land of thE' l<"athers," so ('aIled hy the early Rpanianls 
after the JTrHneisean priests, TOlllas G 
n'('es, Pedro Font, 
elez Escah
nte, ..L1.tanasio Dmllillguez and others who ex- 
plored, lliappecl and descrihed the regioll. Beyond the E'X- 
ploretl land there lay, late e\Ten ill the eightt
Pllth eentllr
-, all 
uuknown wil(lerllPs:-ì. FrOlll the gene
is of tlw Fren('h-Calla- 
dian tl'app(']' and the estahlisilJllent of the far-reaching- fur 
, thesp parched de
erts of sage hrush :1nd alktlli, 
and thesE' trelllelHlous H1011utains, extending frOlll western 
Colorado to southeastern California and lrOlll the British 
e-:;siol1s to the boundary of ';\fexico, \H'rE' known as the 
.. Great ..L\.Jllerican Desert." 
()yer this unexplored territory of. let us 
-, t(1) degn'p" 
of latitlHle and fiftepn of longitude, roalllP(l wild hOl':-;e
f'nOrlllOUs herd:-ì of huffalo; here thE' ('o
'()tp, the n1oulltall1 
lion, the panther and the dreaded grizzl
- bear prowled, and 
the wild sheep of tlìt
 Hoekies sought its food. 
"Tithill this trenlelHIou
 dpsolation of solitude tribes antI 
hands of a slln-seorehed and wind-tannl'd raet-' hunted tlu-' 
wild heast and waIT('(l UPOll ('aeh othl
l'. HaW-Bleat eat
aml Inllllall-ftesh deYollrel'
T were, w.ho had desepIHI('d to 
the lowest harhal'islll, and lnall
r of thl'lll to sanlgel'Y. Theil' 
habitations Wl're wind.-hreaks, hoyels or tents of skin. within 
w11ieh grizzled Wê:lITiors, hideous and shl"i\Tclc(l old WOlllen, 

-OUllg- hoys aspil'i ng' to he('o])lt' hrayl's. awl gi r\s I'i pC'nillg' 
into lllahu'it
,. nois
T children and dogs, n1Ïn
dl'd illdi
T togethcr. Thpre \nts uo lllOdt-'sh T to he 
hocked, no 

 to h(' insulted, 1)0 l'cfiu('lJwnt of fPt'ling' to' he 



wouIH.led; for ulOde
ty, de('('uey and l'enlleUH.>IIt w(:'r(' dead 
 befure tlIP Hpani:-:h prie:-;t lifted the ero
s in the 
New ,y orId. They were naked and not ashalned, anÏInalized 
in their instinets aud bea:-;tly in their ln
Tlu:}y had IWyer 
e{-'n a luan of whiter ('0101' than thl'ir 
own: they knew nothing of a world beyond thei l' own hunting 
gronnds; they had thf'ir own langnage
, their own (,ll:-:tOlll
Inanners and 
nperstitiolls rites to whieh they "ere fanatic- 
ally attached, and "hich they "ere prepare(l tû defend, eyen 
unto death. The
T had neyer hf'a l'd of a ('ha
h> "ife, of a 
pure Iuaiden; their language ('onld not giye expre<..;sion to 
lllodesty, and carried no word for chastity. Into their vil- 
lages a stranger enterf'd at hi" pf'ril, for aJllOllg' t1W1l1, as 
aUlong t.he X a:-:mllonian tribes Jllf'ntioned h
' Hf'roditn s , 
a stranger l1leant an enenlY, an alien "as a foe. 
To the lllen and WOllleu of thf' RaUlP rar p , dWf'lIing' on tlw 
fringes of the Great Basin the gl'eate:-:t ('i\'iJizill
r pü\ypr th
"orld hm; evpr known, ur ever will knov-the Catholic 
Church--had, early in the sevf'nteenth centunr, rarl'if'd the 
light of riyilization. This wonderful Church was uow, 1774, 
preparing to lllareh to the redeluption of the wand('ring 
hordes within the Basin. ____llready (1770) it:-: 
ollthel'n rÏ1n 
had heen prossed hy 
-'ray .J nnipero Serra, that t'xtraordi- 
nary priest. who opened a lllis:-:iun to the Degnen'-i at Nan 
Diego and e:5tahlished the nlÍssions of Ban Gahriel and 
terey, Southern California. 
\[onterey now became a port 
of entry for goods shipped frUln Rpain and southern 
r exieu, 
:lnd if a road could be found frOll1 ::\Ionterey to 
anta Fe, 
New l\[exico, it would he of incalrulahle adyantagc in trans- 
porting troops and supplies to the Xew 
lexicall capital. 
The Fran('iscê:ln luissionaries lahoring ,yith the trihr's of 
the Rio Grande were at once seizf'd of tllP lwnefit fìuch a high- 
way "ould be to thenl in the ('onver
i()ll to Christianity of 
the rOaIning' hurdes aUtl 
edelltary clans to the north and 
east of X ew 
Iexiro. To pl'ovicle rlothing for tllC'lll
eIYeH, to 
furnish their churches he('ollling-l

. and hOll
e a lihl'ral snp- 
ply of gifts for the Intlian
, who were rayenons for presents, 

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CUFF I"\"I::LI.ElliS TOWER. Xille .\Iil,.' (':I1IYOI!. [Tt:\h. 

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:111d between whOln and the priest:-; tbere could be no friendly 
})arley till the ('hiefs. sub-chiefs and tighters were plaf'ated 
with gift
. taxed the ingenuity of the Fathers and exhausted 
their slender resourf'ef'. 
The expense of shipping supplies frOtH Rpain to 
V era 
Cruz, on the Caribbean 
ea, and then('e by burro train to 

rexif'o (iit

, and frolll there through BI Paso to 
anta Fe, 
wa -; disheartening; but now that 
l()nterey wa
 founded it 
""ould be of incalculable benefit to the f'l'ê:lnciseêlns to open 
.a road to the coast. 
,Yben Father .J unipel'o Rerra, lwacl of tlw California n1Ïs- 

ions. was in 
I exieo City in ] Ti3 he ach'ised the \'ieeroy to 
:-;;end out two SUIT(,
'S. one to seareh for a route frUlll Honora 
.. and the other to explore the territor

 and UIJen 
.a trail between Hanta Fe and the fo;f'êl. 
The suggestion of 
erra was al'ted upun, and. in 1 Ti 4. an 
exploring party uuder Captain Anza 
tarted frorl1 Sonora for 
.the c'oast. [n the sallle year Father Franc-if' Harcps, the resi- 
(dent lllissionê:U'
. êllnong tlw Papagues at San Xayier del Bac, 

-\ rizouH, was writtpn to for his opinion un the prospeets of 
(opening a ('olllnwreial highwa
T frOln Ranta Pe to the Bay of 
1ron tere
At ahont th(
 saUle tinle Pather Yelez Esealante. who had 
Tetnrned fnHll a yisit to the ::\Ioqni towns au(l was now with 
:the Zunis. wa
 alsu ('ollsu1tl'd. Esc'alal1te J'eplip(l that he "-as 
:a h110st certain a Wê:l
. tú :::\luntere
. ('cmld hE' clis('on
>red hy 
passing west h
T northwest through thf' lands of the Ylltas. 
'Thi:-; report of E
('a lante was :-;ent h
' all [ndian runner to 
-Pray G a l'('e
, who had a l1"e
., in 177 -t--177:J. HWrlP four ,. en- 
-tradas, " or expcclitious. had explol'ecl the regionð of rolorado 
:and the Gila, and reported extensiyely on the regional lands 
:ancl trihes. I-lis exploratiollS werE' afterwards Inost inter- 
lestingly dps('rihecl in his journal under the title, Diorio y 
(derrnlero que :ic'luin ('[ .II. B. P. Frr. Franci.'{c()' (iarcps 
I('}l SI( riaje lirt/lO de.wle Oclolnp de 1775 /wst(( 17 de 
;Spti(>mln'p de liia e[ Rio ro[orado, para re(;(JllJlO('pr [as 
'J10ClrmeS (Ll(e /a,lJitaJi 81(" JIffl".f/('Ji(','o;, ,l/ a [0"'; jJl{f'h[()..... dd 



J1 OrzU i d el 
'" uero-Jlf.riC(). ., This diarln is printed in the 
sanle \Tohune of the Doel1nwntos para el IIistorÌa de 
precpding the diario of Esealante and DOlllinguez, beginning 
on page 


dyising on the routf' outlined hy EsealanÜ'. Garce
heads his letter as follo"Ts: 
"ramillos 1111(, purr[()r srrrir a 10 {'()JlullIuli('(lcioJl de e....;tas 
lJroriJl{'ios y pl 
TlIero Jlc.Tic(), COil Jlollterey"-Ruutes which 
JlWY seITe for ('Ollllllunication bf'tween the
e regions and he- 
tween 1Iexil'u and 
ronterey.-Punto, \"'I. 
1 T nder Punto \T1].: ., (ioncerning sonlE' suggestions sent 
to :ß[exico hy the Rev. Patlwr 8i IYestn
 Y" elez de E
nlÎssionary with tlw Zunis in the year 177;)," hp writes: 
"The contention of the reyprenrl 
"'atll('r that a road should 
he Rought through the land
 of tlif' Yutas appeanj tu lue to 
he all right, proyided that the transit pa:--
es through the 
country of the Yutas who, 1 anI tol(l, are frieuds of the Hpan- 
iards (KueYo-
lexico), and who li\'e to the north of the. 
1[oqui. Thpn. passing alung the banks of the Colorado Riypl', 
1he rout... would take a course a little to the sontll\n
st. de- 
scending to a 
nna)] canyon where thpre is a yi]]age of the- 
Chenle(llwts (hajar a la Chen1é(11wto Cajuela), then h
T the 
San Filipe. If frmll the eoulltry of the Yuta:-. tllf' road i
taken west-northwest, as the l'eyerend Father Jnentions, it is 
certain one lnay arrive at the purt uf San Fralleisc>o and g'Oo 
on to ::\Iollterey, if not ::--topped hy the extensiyt' tu1arps: 
(marsh lands) before luentioned." 
,Ye have already sf'ell Father E
l'alante':r; repor1 in fayor 
of this route. 
On J nne :?9, 1776, h
T rpqllP
t. of tlH.' 
()\'L'l'nor of 

Iexieo, Esealante left the Zuni n1Ïs
ion an(1 callI(' to Ranta. 
Fe, when" with Father DOlnillgllez and llis 
xeelleney, Dom 
Pedro ]'innin de ){enlIinupta, the slll,je(.t was thn':o;lled uut 
and an expedition of (lisco\'el'Y determined npon. 


f :.' 

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CAj( l ,*i Lt 

Said to lie 11:3 Years Old. 

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H abil.c:;, Jlode of' Lif'e and ilIa U /leI':; of Triue-Firsl JI Pillion 
of rles-Raid:; vf the Fle:;-Atfock ri('eregal Quarters 
-Territory Claimed hy Ctes-l'he "lleudito"-8alllta- 
linu Among Pueblo ludians-Cte Cauin
, Their Food 
llnd Dress - Stat u:; vf' the TVoman in tbe Tribe - Her 
Degradatioll-llldhod.c:; of rooking Food-Thp rle Trar- 
ri n r-Bcfo1"e the F'ig7d aurl .Llftpr-Hlluit:; of the Tribe 
-rillagc Life--Ahs(,llce of 
Hl Jloralily. 
Before tra('ing' the route and follo',Ying tlw fo()tstep
Fathers Esealallte anù Dmllinguez ,ye ought to know 
1hing of the hahit
, lllt1de of liying and CU:-,tOUlS of the t1'ih\-, 
from which l T tah and etah Lake take their nallle
, so that, 
when the l'1'ip:-;b-ì introducp u;-; to the ppoI,le of the l't>giOl!, 
they nla
- not he entire <.;tr[lnge1'
 to us, nor their llWll11er of 
life altogpther llnfanÚlial'. Before t1w nlÍddle of tlw eigh- 
teenth celltl1n- ycry little wa
 known of the -Cte lndians. 
Tht'\- were not at any kuown time a 
nhll'\- or a oTi('111- 
. , . l:' 
tural tribe, hut were intel'lHittentl
- 1 o\Ter
. lll
. In the southwe
t they iute] nlalTif'd with tilt> 
, frolll which union
 :-\prang' thE-' .Tien l'i lIa-
 \ p
and frOlll wholll the PuagUê:lUlpe:-; of Salt Lake--the sorct'l'- 
en;-refpl'red to in EF.ca lante'
 journal, were de
In l(),{(i, during the a(hllini
tration of (}Oyel'llOl' ()tenlliu, 
the l
tes arf' nwutioned for the fil':-:.t tilHe in the aunals of 
Kew:Jlexieo. --.\ trihal group of the natiou then l)('cupied the 
nurthern lJlain
 of :Jlexico. They are referred to again i.n 
1,{()], when they ,yere raic1ing tlw lands of the Tao:-; and 
h :-;ettlers, 
tealing horse
 and ('attie, killing here, and 
there, hut dodg'ing an upen fight and fleei.ng whell atta('kt>cL 
FrOlll n st
lÌe lnanuscript we learn that in 1 
-1--t the rtes 
raided through the YaIle
' of the Rio -L\rriha. X. :JI., doing 



llluch danlage to the property of the re::,idents, and particu- 
larly the inhahitant
 of the town anrl neighborhood of 
.....-\ bi(lUiu. rrllP go\'ernor. 
lanuel .....\nnijo, when infol'llled by 
Colonel .1 uan .....
l'('huleta of the depl'edation
 uf the l
hegan preparations for organizing a PlulÎti\Te expedition 
again:-;t the trihe. when IH' hilll:-;elf was attaeked in his own 
(lUarters by rte warrior::;. The Indians were repul
ed. lot;ing 
eight of their fighters. 
The rte:-;, aecording to 
rajor Powell and other pthnolo- 
, are a lingni:-;ti(' hraneh of a Hhoshonean trunk. of which 
the COlllanches, the Gú:,iute
, the Paiute
, the Pnyiotsos, th
, the 
:rohikhars al1rl Tllsayan:-; were hrê1lH.he:-;. 
r:t"he diyi
ionary state lint's of to-day lnake it diffieult to 
detenlline with any ap}Jroal"h tu ae-curacy tIle re
oyer by the l T tes in the days of the FnllH:i
('an ('xplorer
Trihes and suh-trihes of the nation oe('upied the ('Putral and 
western varts of (\)lorado. nOl'tlwrn 
 ew ill l'Xil'O awl south- 
eastern l Ttah, inelnding the eastern portion
 of Ra1t Lakt' and 
to-tah ya1leys. I t is only" from fl'agll10ntar

es found 
here and there in the Iptters of the I.\.alH.j<.;can lllission<lries 
and reports of Spani:-:h explorers that \\ e are ahle tù deter- 
n1Ïne, f'yeu approxinlateI
T, the lèllHls ('1.limerl h,'" tIlt' 
trihe:-;. ,rhen. iu ] ,7G. Fathpr tfar('p:-; was PXplOl-iug the tt:'r- 
ritory and preaching to the tril,t':-: hetween the <1-ila awl tli{-' 
Chiquito (i o l onH lo, one of his gnidp:-;, a 
\r()quillo r lldian, whell 
he saw thp Colorado Hivpr. ('halltpd the entin> .. Bplldito y 
.AJa hado" with little di ffereul"e in intonation frOll1 that in 
whieh it is suug in our llli
:-;ions. .. I a:-;ked hill1 who taught it 
to hilll, awl he gave llH' to ull<ler:-;tand that the Yuta:-;. his 
lleig-hhols, klle\\ it, for they had heard it nlany tin1er-: alnollg 
the Tiquas of the Taos 1IissiOll." ]\'0111 this extract frOlll 
the priest':-; .. (lia rio" it would Seplll that the l'ies and the 
Zuñi::; uf Tao:-; were on frienùl
r tenn
, that their lands 
touched, and that there was then a prip:-;t ]"p:-;iding with the 
Tiquas lwa l' tlI(' (iolonHlo 
tah' line. 
TIlt:' .. Bendito" was a :-;alutation taught hy the prit':-:ts to 
their COllyert:-:. The I ittlf' el1Ïldren's eyenillg prayers always 




endefl with the "'ord
, .. Bnulifo y ((l01)([(10 Sp(( d Sanfisimo 
Sacra menta del Alta r-Bles;-:;ecl and hallowed he the 
Holy Sacrall1ent of tlw ....-\ltar!" 'Yhen a Chri
tianized Indian 
IHet, in the de
ert or on the luountaiu, another lndian he u
this salutation; and if the other answered, ,. .Aye 
Iaria Pu- 
iIl1a-Hail 1Iary. lllost Chaste," they elllhraced and were 
friends. The orùinary. lllorning or eyening' greeting Hl110ng 
Puehlo neighhors carrif'd \yith it a henp<liction; it was: 
"B1U'110S dias le de Di()s-
Iay God he
tow good clay
thee!" to which the other answered: "Que Dios se la:; de 
bllf'JlOS ({ lld-
Iay God grant you also good days!" 
the Spanish nlissionaries retired frOlll the fielfl and the 
.. \.nleri('an
 took po
session. an altogetlwr diff
rent fornl of 
tlutati()n was taught the Indian. ...\Ir. ]..,. F. Realp writes 
that in his tillIe. 1837. tlIP 1[ojayes had learned enough En- 
h to 
alute a stranger with: "God clanlll mr soul. hpll! 
IIow d) do." 

\t the time the Fralwi;.;cans stood on the shore
 of rtah 
Lake and-first of white lllen-looked out upon its plea
waters, the rte Indians of the yalley Leheld for the fil";-:;t 
tilue nlen differing frmu thelllselyes in cOlnplexion and al- 
nIOst eyenything except in the speeifie SUln of character hy 
which a lllan i
 a luan all the world oYer. 
rr'he habits, traits of charaeter, custonl
 aud manners of 
the l
tes of the valley with whmu the priest
 Céune into inlllle- 
 ('on tact represented fairly well tho:-;e of the whole lTt
group or nation in its ahllost prilllÍtiye :-:tate antI before tIlt' 
trihe ì,ecalue contalllÍnaterl h
r assof'lation "ith adYenturer
and flegenerate whites. 
The Indian
 of the yalley then dwelt in l'ahins of rude 
constnwtion, and were grouped together in 
f'atterefl \Til- 
, or 1110re often in 
traggllllg hourgs. These wretehed 
squatting's were but teluporary ahodes 
 for when eonditlons 
,vere unfavorahle, or a f'ontagious or lllalignant disea:-,e yi
ited their elH'aIUplllent, they burned their eabills and ('ho
another bite. 
Tlieir llliserahle shelters were luore often wiwl-hrcaks than 



huts, but where eahin:::; wen' throwll up they were fOrIlled 
frOlll hranche:::; of the HrteIniRia, cane and bru
h, or lilllh
the cotton wooò. In winter these cahins \yere heated h
T a 
ground fire the silloke of \yhieh escaped through an opening 
in the roof and the interstice
 of the ...;ide
\. t tinIe
, when 
the winds rushed into thE' "alley frOlll HIP canyons, the 
hecaIlle so dense that the WOluen and e11iltlren were forf'ed to 
lie low with their fa("e
 to the earth breathing a::- hest the

could. ,Yithin these wretched 
hacks there were no 
rOOllls or diyisions, no hp(ls. no seats. no conyenieIWe of all
kind sa\Te the earth ur tht:' skins of wild anilJwls eaptured in 
the chase. The

upported life 011 fi
h, tlt(' flesh of wild ani- 
Inals aud reptiles, ou gruhs and roob and, in 
('ason, on 
seeds, herrie:::; and wi Id fruits. 
T knew nothing of hread. salt, pepper, sugar or Yege- 
] 11 SUllllner the IllPll rOaIlled euti rely na kt:'d or wort:' only 
the breech-cloth; the wOJueu drl's"'ied more deeently, hut thp 
-s ancl girls ulHlpr ten or eleyell 
'eal'S went nude. 
The earp of tht' hut, the eutting and 
!:atheriug of fire 
wood, the dressing of skins, in faet the tlrudgery of the eHInp 
anlong- the lTtes, as aIuong" all Sêl\'êlg-es, was tIIl' WOIllan':-; 
portiou. She and her ehi Idren gatht'red tlH.' wi 1<1 bPITit:'s and 

eedR, gruhbed for wonus and fieldnlÏep. eut and carried thp 
'rild sagf' aIHl eookp(l the food. Knowing- nothing of pot OJ. 
OYf'n, shp eithpr dug a hole in thl' ground whi('h she plastt:'rpd 
êlJHI firt:'tl, ur fouutl a hollow blot'k of WO()(l, which 
f'lTPd her 
for stoye aIHI fire placf'. 
tOJlt:'S ht:'att'd iu a fin' shE' 1>oile<1 tlIP wah'r in the 
hole or hollow 1>loek, and threw in seral's of rahhit flesh, 
fraguleut:-; of 
na kes and 1'epti les, handful!"-' of sped awl pi('('(':-; 
of dt'pr ulPat, and ou this stew fed her hushand and ('hil<1ren. 
The IllJshalld post:'(l as a hunter and warrior, and his 
"arrior's diguity would not 1)('1'111it him to stoop to IJH'nial 
work: his tillie ,,-as givl'n to slothful ('as
" to galllhlillg, gos- 

ipjng with his ueig'hhor
. to fighting, hunting or attelldinp; 
feast:-: where he dan('ed allnig-ht and devoun'd eH'rything set 

U. S. 1\31. Mu, 

, I 
I I 

[I! j 
!\ Pi 


Carried 011 [he back. 





before hÍln. ,Yhell the weather was very cold and 
were in the valley he sat on a bear skin by the fire fa
bows and arrows, rat and rabbit sticks and Inaking tra1's 
and nets. He made his own weapons, offensive and defensiye r 
his shield of the buffalo hide, his spear and war club, his 
fca lping knife of flint, his scalp shirt, war bonnet and flesher. 

rhe lIte warrior had all the fighting qualities and charac- 
teristics of the American Indian. ,Vhen he entered on the war 
path in SU1l1111er he wore the breeeh-cluth and 1110ccasins and 
in winter the skin tunic; but winter or SUllllller, when about 
to close \yith his enen1Y, he stripped to the nude and frequent- 
ly entered the fight with his Lody grea
ed. Suspended frOlll 
his neck or hidden in his hair was his medicine hag, within 
whi('h was a feather, a claw of an anÍ111al, a head of a hint 
or son1e 
aered powder. If killed in the fray and his party 
defpated, his spalp was torn frOll1 hi:-, head, and his body de- 
voured by his enen1Y or left upon t11p field to he eaten hy 
Oyer the weaker trihes whOln they had COnq1wI ed PI' de- 
feated ill hattle the Gtes lllanifeste(l a haug-ht
y awl dOluineer- 
ing attitude, and when they secured and learned how to 1uan- 
age llOrses-stolen prohahly froln the Jlopis of Northeastern 
Arizona or frOln the PuehloIndians of the upper Rio Grande- 
they be('aulP insulting and defiant. But when the
y were 
whipped hy the Spaniards or by the COl11an('hes and dl'i,Ten 
to the llloulltains they hppan1e a 1110h of cowards and pol- 
Of their organization and nluubers in early Spanish tilues 
we have no positive inforInation. The Fte nation l11ay lU1\ T ø 
organized into a ('onfpd(",l'a('y of trihes for nnlÌl1al protection,. 
like the :five tribes of the Tro(IUois or those of tlw 
\pa{'he, hut. 
\y(' have no proof of H. As tllf'
T hoasted to lw ahle to throw 
threp thousand "Warriors into action and clainle<l hunting 
rights over a very wide territory, they Illust havp fOrIned 
fOl'luidahle and nUluf'ricall

 strong nation. 
The chiefs or head 111(",}) were chosen for their offices, in 
wost instancés, for their strength, swiftness of foot, their 



Yery and endurance of fatigup or pain, their stratcg

war or cunning in the hunt. 
"Then thp tribp was at peaee with thu
e beyond their 
hunting ground, the warrior whu was nlO
t popular, the lllan 
oocl standing in the ronllnunit
y, was thp Ulan who did no 
hal'111 to others. who Ii \
E'<1 peaeea hly with his neighhors. who 
attended and took a prolninellt part in the orgie
 and feasts. 
e feast
 were often 
halllE'ful rarousals. "h('re U1en and 
wmllen, young 111E'n and lllaidf'ns. ahandoned thelllSelyes to 
nll(le danee
 and shalneful illlpudicitie
. If a natural in
of shallle preyailed upon a maiden to ah
ent herself from 
p orgies 
he beeallle a target for the gihes and ulUekeries 
of liPr cOlllpanions and was forced hy l1lOcking laug-hter and 
ridicule to ronfornl to the tribal custOlH. 
ingular fact, to which an('ient and lllOdprn 11istor
h('ars witness, is that thp further a peûplp stray aside froln 
the path of nlorality and clean liying', the greater is the Ì(>n- 
deney to drift into ,yeird and shallwful superstitions. 
Thes(' superstitions in nlally in
tanl'es were a:--:--ociate<1 
with their drean1s. In fact, the ('redulit

 or helief of the rte. 
like that of the Indians of the Canadian X orthw{:'st, had it
origin in drealllS. Tn the ..L\rcha
ological Report of If>n7, 
l'OJnpiled for the Canadian gOYE'l'IllUent h

 Dr. J)a\,id Ho
a stenographiC' report of tlIp tria I Eor lnul'der of Pe-He-(
a Cree 1 ndiall, is giycn in ful I. Pe-He-(
uan, bel ie\'ing. his 
wife had a ,Yhetigo-or wa
 a hewitched pel'
bel' according to the rustmB of his trihe. Paupanakiss, a full- 
ooded Indian, heing' sworn, wa
 exanlined hy I). ,f. 
::\IcKerehar, at'ting- for the ..L
y-nelleral of Cauada. 
uestion: ,rhat other heliefs did Chief .JêH'k expre
:; to 
you? Answer: He stated that he belie\
ed their eIreHIlls. 
.: ,Yhat else did he :-;ay to you 

.: r-rhat that was their 
religi0I1; their c1reanls are their religion. 11(' said that all
 they drCêllned was right for thelll, and that h
' 1Henus 
of tlwir drealn
inging and ('oujuring in tlIp tPIIt that 
th!"'y would 
ee lneat, lnoo
e awl dppt'." 
,Yhen the Rpani
h Father
 entered (
tall ,Talley, the Blain 





body of the Ute Indians were caulping in the valleys of Grand 
and Green rivers, not far frOl11 the F,outhern boundary of the 
Navajos' hunting groulld
. Tlwy wpre llt'ver a sedentary 
people, roallÜng at one tilHe along the northern slope of the 
Uintah ulOulltain
 and at another hunting through the hills 
and canyons of the '\Ta
atch rang-e. J raving no perIl1anent 
villages, they depended on tlw eha
p anlI fi::;hing for 
They were a pr
clatory people and their Illany thefts, roh- 
beries and pnrsuit of the buffalo into thp land
 of llt'ighhor- 
ing tribes involved theln in n1an
' fierce 
 with the 
Arapahoes. Cheyennes and their kinsmen, the Bannof'ks. 
Trails led fr0111 their ('oulltry to Hanta F
, anù Rpani
h influ- 
ence was felt alnong them, even before :F
scalante 's coming. 
'Yhen the priest, at 'Utah Lake, a
ked the young Indian how 
many wives he had, he hesitated to adnÜt he had two, know- 
ing already that his violation of the unity of marriage was 
opposed to the law and religion of the Spaniards. 



Pri,r;htful Contempt for Jloral Lalc-Religiun uf Ftes-..J 
Tissue of .Aúsurd ;:)'ll]JprstitioJ1s-BeZicf in Immortality of 
Animals-In Bou;s, Arrolcs ({ud Jrar Clubs-Tllc Trflh- 
kon--The Alltuwin, or Priest-Ductor--l/ is E.J"(JI"{'is/H8- 
TreatmPJlt of the Hick-The Fpa')t of tlle D('((d-The 
USorcrrers" of Balt Lake-Their Origin-The Jfl('(frilln 
-Apache-Simpsun's ExperieJicc zrith the Grollp- 
Their Filthy IIaúits-The,zr Pood-IIulIluJl FZe",h Euters 
-JI()uruiu[j Cust()ms of flu) Tr()J}I('}l-End of thp Fi,r;ltf- 
iug T riùes. 
Thp l
 had no thought, no i(lpa of a lllOl'al law. For a 
WOllWIl to lnallife
t shame wa
 to (-,xpO.";t
 IH:'rself to ridieule. 
ty in a wifp or daughter "a
 a ('ontradirtioll and an 
absurdity, a thing to laug-h at, and slleh was thp fixity of 
trihal opinion that a WOluall or llwi(len who aspired to purity 
or dUl:';tity "a
 lookpd upon hy thp UH:'llll)l'l'
 of liPI' tI'ihp as 
an ercentrir or as an unnatural hping. 
The religion of the' lrtes, if W(' lllay ll:-:P tht:' word to px- 
press a tis
ne of ehildish fanl'it:'s, "a
 a eonglollwrate of 

H fa hle
1 1 hpy wor
hip('<1 and llul<ìp snppli('ation to tlH' 
Ull. t1H:' 
11lOOll and thp fonl' ean1inal ,,-iulb,ê:H'('Olupanipd with speeehes, 
appeab and addre
:-'e::'. Thp
' helieyed the 
onl JiYf'd after it 
left the hodr, that a spirit ho<l
. would hp giYPll it, ,,,!tie!t. 
with thp soul, ,,'ould pnjoy a 11 tIlt' pleasluPs of eating, slet:'lJ- 
iug and cOlupanionship with it
. "
hell a "\alTior 
died all his uunting, fishing and war gear wa
 buried with 
hi111; for. like the .Apa('llP, the 1 r te belieyed a1l111aterial things 
to he po:-.':)e
sed of bouls. \rlwn, in the SUlllIller of 1773, 
:b-"athel' Gal'cf's assisted at the burial of an Apache brave, he 
asked a grizzled old warrior ,yhy tlwy buried with tht:' <1pad 
xnan aJl the things which were his when he was aJiye. .. "Th

.. o{"_ 

s 1 
y. t 




, ø 

1 I 



an:::;wered the old nlan, 
 that the dead lllay have thelll to ut'e 
in the other world, of course. The bodies of pots, skins, 
knives and other things reillain in the grave with the dead, 
but the souls of these thing
 go with the ;:;ou1 of the dead 
man, and, ,dlerever he is in the other world, he lliakes use 
of thelll." 
In the happy hunting groulld
 beyond the grave were wild 
 spirit anilllals, which the departed l7'te, if he were a 
brave and a neighborly nlall here on earth, hunted with his 
spirit-Low, arrows and spear. \'
hen the ;:;ouL of a man or a 
woman, but not of a child, went out of its Dody it canle baek 
for a tÏllle frOln the spirit world, lingering around the en- 
caillpnient, and ready to act as a guide for the sonls of the 
dying. For this reason a Hte never voluntarily pa
sed by a 
grave at night, or went aronnd alone after dark, if anyone 
in the village ww.; seriousJ
' sick, for IH
 feared the spirits of 
the dead waiting' for the soul of the dying lllan or woman. 
l\lany of the warriors clainled to have seen and spoken 
with the spirits of the dead, whOln they unwillingly encoun- 
tered when cUlupeIled to Le ahruad un dark nights. N othin
not even the hope of g-ood luck in battle or the chase, could 
tenlpt a Lte to enter a grave
'ard after dark. The Fte heaven 
lay far beyond the southern horizun, when
 the clinlate was 
mild, the winds refreshing and gaille abundant. The cow- 
ardly, the selfish anrl the evil Ulan dwelt after death in a laIHl 
of perpetual snow, ice and fierce winds, where he shivered 
eternally and was always ha1f-
Every hrave carried ahout his person his Ifoh-koll in a 
small bag. This wah-kon was adopted by the young boy 
ripening into warrior 111anhood after a prolonged fast in 
sOlne lonely retreat in the mountains. It lnig-ht he, according 
to his dreauls, a little dried up or stuffed bird, a weasel's 
skin, a feather, a small hone, th
 tooth or cJaw of an aniIllal, 
or sometÍIlles a slllaH piece of lueteoric f:,tone. "
ithin it dwelt 
 protecting spirit. This 'lrah-kon once put on, llE'Ver left 
his perSOll. Rt' guarded it a
 Ca refully as a llii 
er his gold, 
f'd it in familiar tenlls, and appealed to it for help in 
eyery eillergeney. 

11 G 


.L\ Yer
illgular helipf of thp I Tte wa
 f:lith in tlIP Ul'- 
cuIt power of the triha I son'erer or 
lnuln, en lled ({ 1ft J}loin 
hy th2 enrly Frem'h trapppr
. \Yith the di
 of hi
for wh
eh he cauld a('('Oullt. he re
orh'd to 1'E'
naturdl rell1edie:-;, I-iueh as fasting. diétal'Y, IllP(lieillal plant:::; 
awl ('opiou
weating'. But if hp hplie\'e<l he wa
 the \Tictinl of 

lle ex('pptioual lllalad
 the origin of which he was u!lable 
to explain, he 
ent for the .autuwin to learn the eau:-,e uf his 

icklless and to ayert its eyil effect
 shanlall wa
ally half qUèH'k awl ha1f fanatic, "Tho preteude(l to 
knowledge and p(nVE'r. Al1l0ng: the l
. a
 aUlOllg' all the 
Xorth AUlerican lndian
, the slullllHn was held in fear and 
rE'\Tereuce, and enjoyed great authority and inftuene(' with thE' 
tribe. 'Yhen tIlE' 
haInall eXalIliut'd thE' siek mau he pro- 
nounced the di:-;ease to he caused by a yiudictiye Ï1np then 
a,yelling in tlw hody of the suffering IlIall. lIe hegau at once 
a series of exorei
lns and in('antation
. ff, hy 
ll<'tioll awl 
pounding, he faileJ to dispo:-'se

 the evil spirit, lw predicted 
thp day on which the sick nwn would die. If, on the (lay 
foretold, the nUll 1 f'llO\,ed no signs of dyiug- his fripw1s 
poure<l pots of cold water over hÏIn to help hiul leayp this 
world and to hasten his death. The
T rattled the 
in his ean,. f'hook their nIPdieine or Hlnuleb. aUlOng' ,,
\\Tas the bear'::; paW" that hung hesich. him, 
houtt>d to hinl it 
was tiuw to go, to go now, that hi
 father, l11ot11e1', and friencls 
\nlited for him in the spirit land. 
If tIll' ('lHlcléI1111ell Ulan W"a
 a l'er
()n of SOll1e illlpol'ÌanC'e, 
a chief or the head of a larg'e falllil
T, he :-'11l111nOllf'd to hif' f'ide 
his wiyes and chil(lren and deli\'cn'd his fillalme:-;sage. After 
he had fini
Il(-'<1 his (1i
('()un.;e, hi
 frielld:-; were iuyited iu <lUll 
all pre
ent, at once, hegan the TalJi.qie; that i:;;, the funeral 
t, "Then all the edihlef' in the hut w('r(' de\'<Hlred. .\lli- 
ueh as rahhib, l'uyoÌl'
 and dogs, wpre then :-::trangled 
to dE'ath so that their Rouls would allIlOUll<'e to thosp in th
other world the iuulleùiate cOIlling of the dying warrior. r:rhe 
 of the aniuwls were then ('hoppt>d up, hoi led awl eatt'H. 
hen the feast 'was U\Ter tllt' neighhors reti1'<
(1 and the wi\'es 

TilE C'ATHOLlf' ('HrRC'H I


began to "Weep and howl, tearing out their hair, and, with 
obsidian kniyes, f'utting ga
hes in thf'ir lÏIllhs and bodies. 
To d"WE'Il longt'r on tIlE' supel stitlous Illi:lnlH:'rS and custUlllS 
of the Ute") is beyond the pa,ginal limit and 
f'ope of this hi-.:- 
o we pa
s fronl the trihe of l
tah Yalley to tIw "Sor- 

E'rers" of Grea1 Snit Lake. 'Yho then were tlw Puag-umnpes, 
who, at tlw tlnlP of the "'.Tisit uf the pripsts, were on no friend- 
ly ternlS "Tith thE' tribE' of lTtah '
'Y ould it 
t:' the readf'l' to he told that all FralH'e, 
Italy, 8pain and a ft:'w I11i11ur EUl'olJean eUll11110nwealths taken 
u:-; a whole, would harely represent thE' area of the region held, 
till hi
tori('ally "f'ry rf'<'f'n1Iy, h
- an rndiau people whose 
lliUlle is probahly unknown tu any student in our high 
sellOols, colleges and uniYE'rsities? 
Fifty years ago there' "TêlS no raee of pE'oplf' in thp worl(l 
Jess known than the XortheJ'u Dt>u{>s, fl'Olll \\'h01n descended 
tht:' fighting 
\pal'hes êUHl tlw X a\'ajos. For a tiIHe this .Atha- 
can :nation was thought to he Algol1l11lÍn, ti 11 Horatio lIaIe, 

I ajor Powell and that distinguished Ohlatp 
I issiOlUU.
T and 
ptlmologist, Fatht:'r 
roril'e, IH'uyed thenl to be a great and 
spparate nation. 
'Yest of the Um>ky 
r ollutains the Den(.s rOaIlletl throngh 
fi\Te and one-half dpgrees of latitude, to the' honlprð of the 
Eskinlo hunting groulHls. 
Roulf' tilne in the rPlllOte past, why or when we do llot kno\y, 
a trihal fê:llllil
' or gronp of Uenp:-; sep:lruted frolll their }urent 
stock and wandered into south and :-;outlrwestel'n land
. 1'\,"0 
fêH't...; alone SPf'IIl to hp e:-;tahli:-;hpd, llmnely, the driftillg apart 
of tlw 
ollthern luemhprs of the ..,.\thah:1S('i:lll nation, l'e:;nltill
in a disruption of national unity and tlw formation of three 
ùistiw.t h()clip
-the ....lllmhas(.Hll, thp ....\pi:l(.he aud the XUY- 
ajos. For hUIHln.d:-;. it llm
- he tholl
ands, of 
-ea rs, two \'ig- 
Ol'OUS hrunellE's of the great nené tref' liYt:'(l and thri\'t:'(l 
apêH'e, knowing nothing of thpir parput trunk. These off- 
shoot:-; took root and fiollri
IH.-,d ill ....\rizolli:l, Xortheastt:'l'll 
California, ()klahon1a an(l ("iolorado. ,-' "-rhp
e," (tilt:' ])en{>s) 
writes the ethnolo2.'i
t Brinton, "extl-'
Hled interrllPtedly 



fnnn the .L\xetic Sea to the borders of Durango, ::\Iexico, and 
frolll Hud
on Bay to the Pacific Ocean." 
Early in the sixteenth century a wandering faulÎI
' of 
Apa('hes (Din{>
) intel'luarried with a Gte family, fronl whi('h 
prang the J aearilla-Apaehe. better known as .L
-V aquero
, and as the Y uta-Jenne. (Geografia de la
Lenguas, by Orozco y Berra). The Puaguanlpes of Salt Lake 
were au outla\yed band of ,-fa('arillas rejeeted h
T (Tte and 
",,-\pache. 'Yhen, in 1839, Lieutenant 
illlpson was on his offi- 
cial SUl'\'ey of the Great Halt Lake region, he encountererl the 
Puagualupes on the northwestern shore of Salt Lake. 'Thf'Y 
were then tllf' Pi-eeds, the" snake-eaters," though SÏ1nlJ
unfortunately, on1Ïts their naille in his .. Report." 
I:-;ÎIllpson got enough of thenl, and gi\'es expression to his 
loathing in vigorous tel'lns; he writes: "They are 1110re 
filthy than beasts, and li\Te in habitations which, SUlllnler and 
winter, are nothing Inore than ('ireular inclosures about three 
feet hig-h, nlade of sage brush and eedar branehes, and whi{'h 
serye only to break off the wind. Their yocabulary shows 
thel11 to be a distinct tribe. Children at the breast were per- 
fectly naked and this at a tinlf' "hen O\Ter('oat
 were required 
by us. I visited one of their dens or wikiups; the offal 
around and within a few fpet of it was so offensiye as to 
cause nlY stOl11aëh to reach and force 111e to retreat." 
Thesf-' animalized people fell. on roasted grass-hoppers 
and large crickets, gophers, rats and snakes, ('hopped up and 
111Ïxed "ith grease. They sacrificed luuuan heings to propi- 
tiatp the deulon whonl they inyoked, and fed on the ftf'sh of 
the victilll to cOlnplete the sa('rifice. ,'
ith the hope of propi- 
tiating and gaining thf' good will of the deulOll, they ent and 
pierced their fte
h. éndallgering at tiIne:-- their lives in tbe {'x- 
Cf'SS of their fanaticislll. For this they were called "sorC(11'- 
ers" and disowned hy '{Tte and ""-tpaehe. 1'lteir WOlnen oh- 
served season:-: of Inonrning with Ino
t hitter and woeful 
lanlelltations, and for lllOnths after the dpath of the hushand 
the widow
 saluted the rising 
un with loud and pitiful crie
Such were the PuagUaIllpeS of 
alt Lake, lllournful exanlples 










. _:. -"-\.-".. 
- . .........,.... ,.. "- 






. ., 

-- ---.. .. 




"\' '0 "
, . '
,....... +: - .-'1 




,;.- . . 

PAL rTE 'YICKI"C"PS, Tn Simpsun's 'l'Íl\le. 



of .what lnllllan being
 lllay he('Olne when 
eparatecl frolH the 
kn(ndedge of God. 
The rte and the 
-\lnerlcan Indian haye Seen their last 
day:-\ a s fighters and independent lHen. 'Yben, on 
Iarcb 4, 
190G, the trihal organization of the Cherokees, (1hoehnn
Creeks, Chi('ka
aws and HelllÎnoles was dissohTed and their 
nlenlber::, diffu:-;ed in the luas:-; of the country's citizenship, 
the final f'hapter in tbe lnrlians' aunal
 as a distinct 
race 'was "Titten. The pathetie ending of thf' \
tp uprislng 
of a fe" year
 ago settled for all tinle the indelwndent aSl'i- 
 of tbe race. The pacification of tbe l
 quells the 
last of the great warlike trihes. They held out longest against 
the gOyernnlent, and it was not till lö8!1 that tlu'y consented 
to the opening of their resernltion in the ehoice:-:t part uf 
Colorado's hunting grounds. In that year Chief IgnaC'io and 
lnorp than a thousand of his followers eeded their rights to 
the gOyenUllent for $30,OUO and rations. They withdrew to 
a snla]) fanning reselTation 
et aside for thenl in La Plata 
\.rchnlets counties, Colorado. 
Tbe L"tefo: for a tilHe bad ranked alHong thp brayest of tlH-' 
Indian fighters anù were exceeded in ferocity by the 
only. CÜtil tbe l T nion Pacifip Railroad C'ros
f'd the plain;-; 
in ] 8ï3, the Ftes reluained in Colorado. hut in the early 

 quarreled anlong thenlf->e!yefo: and a diyision 
of theul CHUle to (Ttah and settled in tbe southwestern part of 
thè state. Auu'rican Hon.;f' is driying a stage het\\Teen Rnsh- 
yiIle, K eb., and Pine Ridgf-'; Ueroninlu, the grinl old Apal'he, 
with the eruel features, thin lips, eye;-; like the hlade of a 
sword, is a prisouf>r of war at Fort Still, Oklahoma; Sitting 
Bull, Crazy IIor
e an(1 thl' gn-'at Pawnee, Hionx and Co- 
nH.uwlle C'hief
 of half a century ago are in their gràYe
, and 
no call cau IH'oyoke thenl to hattle again. 
There ('an 1Jl' no resurre(,tiun for the
p lll
'stl'riolls people. 
whose origin is known onl

 to God. They are eorral1ed on the 
l'eSelTations, where they lllust reulain till ahsorption or di;-;- 
ease annihilate



Beforp we hegin the eXaIuination of the l>iario. and wan- 
derings oyer des(:'l'Ìs and nlOulltains of th(:' Fnnll'isl'an priests, 
we uught to know sOluething of the road froni Taos. norther11 
lexiC'o, to 
lont(:'rey, whi('h the fathers failed to find, 
and whi('h was finally lu('ated fifty-odd y(:'ars after their ex- 
traordina r
T expedition. 
,Ye haye already seen that, as parl
T as 1774-. a tnlil was 
opened frOlll Tuhac. .....\rizona. to Los ...<.\ng(:'l(:'s. and on to 
t(:'rey. On ,January 8. 177-1. two priests. Francis('o Garces and 
,J nan Diaz, accOlllpanied by an Indian guide, C'alled Sehastian, 
joined the pxppdition of (1 ap tain .J uan Ha ntista-...<
nza organ- 
ized to open a road. if possible. frOlll 80no1'a. 
Iexi('o. to t11p 
Pal'ific eoast. 
The party forded the Colorado lwar tllf
 lllOuth uf the 
U i la. and. pushing on. t'ntel'ed the prpsidio and 1\J i ssion of 

an Gahriel, praeti('ally the Los .....-\ngeles of our own da
FrolH here 
\.JIZa and his t'Olllpallions passed Oll to 
es did not go with him, hut rcturnp<l to his 
I ission 
San Xayier <lpl Ba(', whieh he enterf'd .J UI
T 10, 177-1. Tht' 
next year, ()(.toher :!:
. he again joineJ ...<
nza. now a lieutenant- 
culonel, and with Father Font a
 cartog-rapher to the expedi- 
tion, Father Eisar() and Indian gnid('s, left Tuba(' OlWP again 
for the Gila region. 
..... \t Yuma, Garce
, H who," writes Elliott Cones," had 
been especiall

 C'hargpd hy' high authority to investigate tha. 

 of opening' {,01111nunication between 
[onterey and 
Iexi('o," took leaye of Anza and startpd alone for th(' 
nIOuth of the Col(\rado. ..... \. nza entered California and t'Oll- 
tinue(l hi
The Gila routp wa s Vl'ououlwed inlpl'a(.tica hIp and h('('aIlle 
SiuIVly a Ine
senger trail, "though," writes C11ar1('s "b-'. LUIl1- 



111ÏS in a letter to t11(' a nthor of this history, "this trail of 
GarC'es was probably used, hut llot, of 
ourse, at any tilne 
as fre<-1uently a
 the old Hpani--h trail by way of rraos." 
Fathers Escalante and DOinillguez failed to open the way, 
but their expedition proy(>d the importanl'(-, the 
 attacheJ to the diseoyery of a cOllunercial high- 
way from Ranta Fe to the presl(lios on the Pacific C'oast. It 
was the reading of Escalante's .J ourllal and the exanÜna tion 
of Don1inguez' Inap which possihly led \"r on Illllnholdt to ex- 
press surprise, in his "Essai Politique," that, "ponsidering 
the daring explorations of the Hpanianls in 
rexiC'o and Peru 
and along the AUU1zon, no 'road lUHl heen opened JfrOlll 
X ortl1er11 K ew )Iexico to )Iontere
' h


 of Taos." K ot till 
18:30, a('C'ording to BmwL"oft, was a C'O III llle r<' i a I road opened 
frOlll Santa Fe to )Ionterey. He \\Titès: "CollUllUniei:l tion 
with Califol'llia hegan in 183U, when .J os(> Antonio K aca vis- 
itecl that C'oulltry .with a slIlall party of his pounÌI'ynlen. r n 
:31-3:2 three trapping and trading parties nlade the journey 
under ,y olfskill, .J ackson and Young', the first nmned ul'
the long fo1Jowed trail fr01n Taos, north of the Colorado 
riyer. " 
The old 
lJanish Trail fronl Hanta Fe tu Los ....\ngeles and 
)Iouterey-of which we have heard so llllWh and know so little 
-was really an extension of thp trail frmn )liRsouri west- 
ward to the Paeifi(' o('ean. 
It Inoved out fr0111 
anta Fe going in a nOl'tlnYesterly di- 
reC'tion tin it passed through the old Spaui:--h \Til1age of 
(il ara . Frmn here it followed d<nnl the upper ClUll11H riyer 
or Hio Chmna to Ahiquiú and, swinging ahruptly to the north, 
ed the Colorado Rtate line. Xo\\
 hending to the wpst, 
it ('ontinued along tll(' southern line of the staÜ' hOllndal'Y 
paralleling the routt" of what i
 to-day the Denver and Rio 
Grande l'ail]'oH<l. 
It now swung sonw IHillutes to the nol'th, 11lO\'ing into 
Colorado and eru:-:sing in :-;u
<.t'ssion tIIP Hio Pe<lro. Bin de 
los Pino:-;, Rio l,1lol'ida, Rio Las 
 and Rio Plata. till it 
passed th9 he
HI watprs of the Rio 
rallcos and plung-pd into 

1 , ).) 


the drainage hasin of the Hio Dulure
. It continueò along the 
Dolores to where the Dolorés entered the Granrl Hi\Ter Hon1e 
ten nÜle
 tu the we
t ùf tlIP line hehyeen Colorado and Utah. 
Along the Bio Dolores, in ahout latitude 3
 0 10' north lies 
HauC'er Y' alley. and frOll1 
anta Pc': to thi:-. point-a distance 
of lllore than three hundred nliles, this old Rpanish Trail 
practically followed the route taken fifty-four years earlier 
T Fathers Esealante and Don1Ïllguez when they luade their 
bn1\ T e atten1pt to open a road to 
[ontprey. l1 it; singular 
that nowhere in Bancroft's works, or in the writings of sull- 
sequent or pre\'iou
 writers on the trans-RoC'ky 
regions, do we find any nlention of thiH fact. 
-,-\t a point, a little to the north of Saueer ,ra11ey, ESt'alante 
turned a hruptl
T eastward and, for about fifty nli les, pursued 
au easterly course before he again turned to tll(> north, and 
trayeled so far on this northern route that it wa
for hinl and his cOlnpanions to reach 1Ionterey that ,,'inter. 
Had the 
paniHh prié
ts not yeerC'd to the eastward when 
they left their C'amp at Saucer ,-r alley. but continued un, down 
the Rio Dolores, they would haye found an easier crossing of 
the InoluÜainH, pa:;,:-;ed far to the south of rtah Lake and, per- 
haps, haye entered l\Ionterey befol'C' tliP se\'erity úf tlle 
weather forced then1 to return to Hanta Fe. ,re C'an suspeet 
no 1110tive or rea sun for the chang(' unless tllP

 were decein:'d 
by their guides or wished to yisit an(I instnH't the Laguna
Tilupango [ndianH whose presen
e in 1 T tah '''''al1e
- was known 
to the priests. ,Yhile the expedition failed of it
 ohjeC't, it 
perhaps influenced partially the loeation of the Rpanish rrrail 
which trayeled over three hU11(11 pd l11i le
 of the saUle route. 
'Ye return to the C'ourse of the Rpanish Trai l. Crossing 
thp Orand River helow the Jllouth of the Dolort'
, tht' trail 
hOl'e northwest('rly till it finall
T el'uss('d the On'en Hiver 
t IJl'low the nlollÌh úf the Price near where tliP I )ell\'er and 
Rio Grande railroad now hridge
trealll. The rrrail here 
para l1eled the Priee for S01l1f> tw('nt

 mi 1(':-. on a wC'sterly 
course, when it veered for a short (li
tanC'e to the f'outhwcst. 
fording the San Rafael River, and f'har1>I
- turning due 



went on keeping to the ,yest of the San Rafael Swell and 
T Creek. Here it Lent again to the west and, 
trayeIing up the Frenll)llt Riyer, crossed the headwater
e'Tier riyer north of the Seyier Plateau. cliulbed the 
great \Ya
akh Range and, de
cending. entered the Great Ba- 
sin. Sweeping now soutlnyestward, the trail r-:kirted tile east- 

outherly rinls of the present ESf'alallte Desert, 
entering again upon, and following for a 
hort distancp sub- 
stantially the route trayeled oyer by Escalante'
 party in 
1776, it turned 
outh and 1110yed into ,. 
I ounbÚn )leadow." 
Here for a portion of the way it hroke tllf-' road afterward 
known a:-. the "old 
[ol'lnon Trail," 0r the route taken by 
IornlOns when tnlyeling heÌ\H:'ell ["tah and California, 
and the identical trail entered upon by the enlÎgrant party 
fronl )Iissouri which "as slaughtered in )[ountain :1\Ieadow 
on the lllorning of Septenlher 7, lb57. 
sing out of 
Ieadow, the trail now followed 
down the Santa Clara Fork of the Yìrgin Hiyer, cut through 
the northwest corner of Arizona and crossed into K e,Tada. 
Again pursuing a sout1rwesterly course, it swept by :;\[oapa. 
clilllbed the I\Iuddy )Iountains, skirted Dry Lake and went un 
to Las \T egas, now a division station on the San Pedro, Lo
Angeles and Salt Lake railroad. 
From Las Vegas, still southwestward, it went oyer tIll> 
sandy region of Southern N eyada, passed through the I yan- 
pah ,r aUey and, entering California, followed the desert to 
where the 1f ojave river disappears in the sands. 
l-nlike other and larger bodie
 of flowing water "hich find 
their repu
e in the 
alt lakes and 
alt heds of this weird and 
repellant region, the )[ojaye riyer, born in the Sierra :1\1a- 
dres, gro,ys in depth and Ï1nportancf' as it adyanceo;; down the 
eastward slope of the Sierra
 till it reaches the arid land:-3. 
Flowing placidly on through thése :-,and
T wastes of a thir:-:ty 
region, the river grows slna11er and slua]]er, and at last sinks 
out of sight and di:-'apvear
 in the desert. 
Following the 
IojaYe to its source in the Sierra :1\Iadres, 
the t.rail passed out of the Great Ra
in and, deseending the 



e:-;tern :-;ide of the 
ierras, pnterpd an undulating country 
which it trayele(l oyer and finally reached Lo
Speaking of the S}Jani
h Trail it lllay be of interp
t to re- 
cord that, frm11 the 1Iojaye Ri\rer, near ,dlere it is C'rossed by 
the Atchison, Topeka and Hanta Ft' railroad. and frOlll this 
point eastward., for a distmwe of nearl
' thréè hUlldrpd. an<l 
fifty miles, to where the Trail tUl'll
 J'ronl tIlt' ea:-;terly edg-e 
of the ESf'alallte de
e]'t and g()e
. through a pa ';::) in the 
lountains. the old 
h Trail wa
 followed hy 
Frelllunt when he wa:-: returning ea
al'(l fr0111 his explora- 
tion of the Great Rasin in 184-3-44. 



Journal kept by the Spanish Priests. Silvestre Velez de Escalante 
and f ranciso Atanasio Dominguez
 the Explorers of 
V tah and Discoverers of Utah Lake 

This Journal or Diario was opened July 29
 and dosed when the Priests 
crossing the Crand Canyon and visiting the Moqui and 
Zuni people
 re-entered Santa Fe
 January 2. 1777 


, , l' 









1 Z t 











__I (.Þ

t 01 



AXTA Ii'E, XE\\- 
Un the 
Hth day ûf July, in the year 177G, under the pro- 
tection of ()ur Lady the Virgin 
lary, conceiyed without orig- 
inal sin, and uuder that of the 11l0
1 holy Patriarch .J oseph
her honored 
pouse, Fray Fraueisco .....-\.tnnasio Donlinguez, the- 
present yi
iting delegate of this district of the t 10nYer
iOll of 
81. Panl of Xew )lexico, aud F\'ay FralH.i:-:(.o HilYl'stl'e \
de Escalante, teacher of ClIristian do('Ü.ille in th.. mission of 
Our Lady of Guadalupe of Zuñi; aCf'mllpanied hy 1 )on .J nan 
Pedro Ci
lleros, the nwyor of the town of Zuñi; DOll Ber- 
nardo )Iiera y Pacheco, a retirt'd captain, and ('itizen of the 
town of Ranta Fe; Don Joaquin Lain, f'itizen of tlu-' Si:lnlP 
town; Lorenzo 01iyares, of the town of Paso; LUf're('io JI uiiiz, 
..... \ ndrt"s )1 uiiiz, .J nan elf' .....-\gllila r aud Siulon LIH'erO, IUl\Ting 
inyoker1 the protection of our nlost holy :-.aints, and lUl\'ing 
ref'eiyed the] [oly Eucharist, we departed frml1 the town of 

anta Fe, capital of :K ew ::\Iexico, and after nine leagues of 
tn1\'el we arriyed at the town of Santa (1Jara, where w(-' 
passf'd the night. 
Today, nine leagut's. 
30th of .J uly. \\T e journeyed another nine leaglws, more 
or less, and aJTi\Ted at the town of Santa Ro:--a of .....\biqlliú, 
where, for yariOllS rt'aSOJlS, we reuwined oyer the 31 :-;t, and 
celf'hrating solenlll 
Iass, we again inlplored the aid of nUL 
lllost holy :--aints. 
] st day of .....-\ugnst. .....\fter IUl\'ing' ('(ì)phrated tlIp Hol
Haerifh'p of the 
rass, we left the town of Santa Rosa de 
Al,iquiú, going. west, follo.wing the béd of the l'iyer Chama. 
l"arther on, a little less than two leagues, we turned to the 



t. ,Aftf'r three and a half leagues of a had, f'ton

road we halted in thf' northern part of the V" alley of Alunl, 
Inesas (table-lands) to the ea
t and northeast of this yalley 
by the 
ide of the Arroyo 
e('o (Dry Hun). On 
Ollle of the 
aid to bf' found ahll11 and tran
parent gYP
Uln. In the 
afternoon we left the Arroyo Heeo, going in a northward di- 
rection, and after a 
hort di
hll}(òf' we turned to the north- 
east, passing through a woody cañon a little Inore than two 
leagues, oyer Yer
T bad roads, when we stopped near the 
\rroyo. Today it has rained Yer
T hard, and we haye 
eYell league

d day of _\ugu
t. ,Ye proceeded :aorthea
t through the 
SaIne cañoll a little Inore than four leagues, "hen we turned 
north, and entered a woody nH
ine. in whieh for a (lUartpr of 
a league the Îorest of sinall oak treéS i::, ::;0 dense that in pa::,
iug along we lo:-;t four of our aniuw l
, nUlking it IH
a ry for 
us to f:;top and go after thpul.finding thClll after a short tilllP. 
,Ye again entered the cañon. and althollgh we lost the trail in 
this forest, as it is not llluch trayeled, we found it 
agaiu on thp eastern :-;ide of a little strealll that run:::; 
through it, the ::,anle that, farther down, they call the Arroyo 
de [ianjilon. Leaying the forest, there is a 
lliall plain, 
covf-'red with gras
, Yer
' hf'autiful to look upon he('au
f-' of 
the roses growing there-a color between yiolet and white, 
very Hluch like eonllllon pinkf'. rrhere gTO\\.
 here a Iso a sllwll 
red fruit about the 
ize of a hhu'kherry, and in fre
tastf-' yery sin1Ïlar to a lemon, 
o that in this countr
T it is u:,ed 
as a suhstitute for If-'lllOllS in the lllaking' of 
weets mal fn
drinks. Beside
 this, there art' ('herriE's 
Illal1f'r than th<-> 

Iexican and another :-.lnall fruit they eall the little apple, the 
trf-'(, of which is like the liule tree, hut w-hosf' Ipaf rather re- 
selllhles tilt' cplery. Thf-' sizf-' of this fn1Ït is thf-' S(lnIP a
ordinary Hpanish-pea, the ehick-pea. the color of SOllle Leing- 
white, of others hlack 'fhe taste is pungent, heh\Teen swept 
and sour. hut plea
\Yhere the rO::,é
 Legin to grow, the cañon i:-. diyided in two 

 a loft

 tahlf'-Iand, on hoth 
 of whieh thprt' are rOêH1:-;, 
one to thE' w(':-;t and the otller to thf-' north. ..\t the opening' 


1 '-)- 

of the road to the west and helow the southern point of th
tahle-Iand is a 
l'ring of good water. but in order that 
the anltllab Illight he enahled to quench their thir
t it wa
found to he neees:-:an' to 11lake troughs. Thf' strayed ani1Llab 
ha'Ting turned up. we l'unmed our wa.\T through tlw caîion to 
the westwarù. anlI journeyed a league and a quarter towards 
the north. 
Goi.ng a little le

 than half a league to thp west. we 
turneù to the northeast, haying tra,.eletl a little l110re than 
thref' leagues hy a good road. Turning" a little aside frOlll thf' 
road we stopped to rest h
' a 
trealll that is eailed the nio (Ie 
la Ceholla (( )nion Hi"er). In its bed we found a sufficient 
quantity of water in pools, although it appear
 ..;eldOlll to 
haye a current. \re started out froBl this pla('e in the after- 
noon, going a quarter of a league to the north. in order to 
strike the road we had left. ,Ye hore off a little to the north- 
east, oyer SOllIe thr('e leagues of good road, and stopped on a 
leyel pie('e of ground h
T the hank of a 
trealll called Hio df:' 
Ias .xutria
 (( )tter Ri,'er), hecause. a1though the "ater is 
constant and flowing, it seenlS to haTe stagnant pools all or 
lllost of tlw year, in ".hieh otten; hreed. 
Today. eight league
?,d day of 
t. Leaying the Rio de la
 to the 
nurtheast, "e entered a small forest of }Jiuf's. and goine; a 
little less than three leagues we canle to the Hio de (1hama, 
and through this heautiful ('ountr
' "e proceeded north ahout 
a nlÍle, cro:-;sing the riyer and !-:tüppillg to rèst on thp oppo
rhe ford of the riyer is \Tery beautiful. hut near its 
 are gn>at gullif'
 full of SIlwll stones, into one of which 
aJdlp h()r
e of Don .Tuan ni
n(>ros fell and wa
ulnnerged. For ahout a !eagw.-' to t1H.:' north and 
Routh of the riYf'r, tl;ere is open C01UÜn' of good Jand fOt" :-;ow- 
ing, with proper irrigation. It pr()duc
}s flax and ha
ant l)a
turage. There is here l>\Terythillg' lH.:'('(':-::-;ary for th2 

ettlelllf'nt of a town and for its nlaihtl'nallC'e; a gTOYC of 
whitp poplar trep
 alfo\o here. 
e pruceeded on our journey in theafternoon,allda:-:l'plHl-- 


 eT.\ H 

ing the "Te
terll f'lope of tlJe ri\'er, entered a 
lna1l ya1ley, 
which we naIlled Hanto lJmuingo. rrllÍ:-; \'aIle
T is endo
e(l by 
three large and well wooded table-lands, fUl'llling a 
eircle frOlll north to 
outh, until they reach the riyer. rro the 
west uf thest' tahlt'-lands are 
aid to he two lakes, the fir:,t 
and lllOSt southern, to the Wt'st uf the opening that uue sef'S 
between the first and second table-land, and the 
eC'o!ld to the 
west of tlw IJass hetween the sf'l'ond and third table-land. 
Tlu:,se lake:, "Tith the \'alley 
poken of are \Ter
T well adapted 
to the rai
ing of large and f'luallIH:'l'<ls. ,Ye proceeded along 
tlw yalley to thf' northea:-;t and elltel'l'd a 
nlall 1110untain 
t of pine trees iu which "\\e lost one of our pack ]uult'
not finding it until llf'ar 
unset, cÛlllpeJIillg llS to halt in a 
plaee full of hriers aud bnullbles neat. tlw thref' EttIe hills 
that we IUlllled La 
antísinla Trinidad (lIuly Trinity). ha v- 
ing tra \Telf'(l frOlll the riyer only two leagues to the north- 
east. Tn this stopping pla('p there was no running "Tat(:'r. 
although we found a little in a stre
nlllet near-hy, to the 
east. The ri\'pr (1hanul runs north and south frOlll where \n' 

pd it toda
T. and, hefore it gpts oppo
ite the flint 11lOlln- 
tain, turns to the west, until it pas
es tlu-' town of 
-\hi(lUi ú. 
Today, fi\'e lpague
Jtlt uf ..<--\ugust. Leaying the Hantí
illla Trinidad to the 
north, we tra\'eled f\yo leagues by the :::-,anH-> lllolllltaill. where 
are pines and Hlllall oak
. Therf' is also ahundant gl'a

flax, and. eneIosing tll<' lllolultain, are two In l'g'e Ine
 (ta hIe..:. 
lands), each one forIning a sen1i-circle, the northern puint of 
one being joined to tlIp 
outhern point of the other, and 
ated hy a narrow opening or gate. Going a quarter of a IpaguE' 
to the northear-:t, we pa::,:-;ecl the opening in whieh i
lake, whiC'h we eal1t'd ()liyares, heing a quarter of a leagup 
lung, and t"\\o hundrt'd yard
 (nlOl'e or less) in width. Its 
water is drinkahle, though not yery pleasant to the taste. 
:E\'OlU the lake and the opening \\f' ('ontillued half a IC'aguf' tt) 
the north, and des('endillg to tllP nortlwast, "Tp left tl1(' road 
that passes the" haltiug-
tone." a
 it was railed hy thû::,e of 
our party who had hp('u hert' hpf(n.C'; the guides direeting' n



through a dry woodland, without foot-path or road of any 
kill(l, telling us that in tlw road we had just left there were 
three yery diftieult hills to ('lilllh. and that it was not so direct 
as the road we were now taking. Going a little nlOre than .
Jeague through tll(' sanw woorlland, ,ye turned west-llorth- 
"Test, retnrning lwar to the ]llonutain. and after half a l
we took to tlw northeast. Passing threp leagues and a half 
through a fertile glen we rallle to a larg p open plain called 
Belduque (Plain of the Knife). In this plain wp inelin
d to 
the west, and. descending to the arroya. went two leaglle
and éntered a cañon, where we halted to rest. 

rOln a certain 
ae(.i(lpIÜ that happened herp we IUlllled the C'auon El (iañon 
del Engaño (tlw Caiion of Deceit). Here we found sufficient 
standing water and pasture. 

roday, nine and a (luarter leagnes. 
5th day of ...\ugust. Le:lying the Cañon del Bngaño to the 
southeast, after half a Ieagne we ('anH' to the Bio de Na\Tajó, 
that rises in the nlOuntaini-J of Grulla, fio",,::; from the north- 
east to the southwest, going north for a little lllore than three 
league:-- until it join
 with another ri\Tel' ('aIled the San .Tuan. 
In this place the Hiyer Xayajó ha
 less water tllRn the 
Chmna. Leaying the riyer we proC'ee(led wi tIt SOllIe diffiC'lllt.\' 
through the ealÌon for nf'arly a league to the south, when we 
dropped to the 
outheast a quarter of a leagne and three- 
(lual'ters of a league to the west, pa:-:sing' through a calion 
and oypr hill
 and lllountains. The guides lost tllPir wa
seelning to po
s hut sllwll knowledge of this eountry. In 
order not to df'SC'f'IH1 farther, we took to the northea
t. tra\Tel- 
ing SOllie three leagups with no path, eli1l1hillg a high 11101111- 
tain and beholding the bed of the riyer Wp had just lpft. \r e 
o i.t h
T a rough and jagged slope, and, goiug a 
1ittlp alore thl'ef' lea
 to the wf'st-northwe
t, Wf' C'ro
:-:ed it 
' a goorl ford and halted on the nodhern hank. IIerp it had 
al r('ady joined the San .1 Uelll. The g uidp
 infol"lll u
 that a 
little farthpr up thf' two ri\'(
l'-'; twitf', and so we df'tf'l'lllinf'd 
to ohserye the latitude' of thi:-; pla('e. ,,-hi('h detained ll:-: here 
llnti I the afternoon of the fol1owing day. ,Ye made the oh- 

1 :30 


sernltion h
- the ul<'l'i<1ian of the 
Ull, and fouwl our
3ï degree
 51 lllinute
 of latitude, and ('alh.d tll(' pla('e Kue
Heño1'a de la
 Xie\TPH (( )ur r ..ad
- of the Hnows). 
Fray Hih'e
tre pro('
(:'(h'd to re('onl the point wlwre the 
two ri\'ers-the Xa\'ajó and the San .Juan -join. and found 
it to l)p abuut threp leagues iH an air line to the ea
t of the 
), and to he well adapted to Het.tlelllent
 on the 
banks of each ri,'er. TliP Rè.l.U .Juan ri\'er ('arl'if'
 nlOre water 
than the Xayajó, and it is said that farthf'l' north are 1a1'ge 
and fertile trad::-:, wh('rf' the ri\'er flows Oyer open (,ouIlÌr
Thus joiued the two fonn a ri\'e1' a
 largp as tlw northern 
one in the lLlOnth of .f uly; and it i
 e{11lpl1 the Rio Unllllh. de 
Ka\'ajó, he('au
p it 
eparatf'fo: the pro\Tinee of thi
 llalllf' fnnn 
the Y uta na tion. Helln\
 thl' plain of N uestra Señora de la:'i 
:Nîe\,(:'s tlH're are goud h'-nd
, if sufficiently irrigated, and ail 
that i
al'Y for three or foul' towns, e,Ten thollgl
he large ones. On either hank of the ri\Tel' we found den
T forests of whitt:' poplar, <":111all üak, ('herry. sl11all apple
, and uther trees. rrhere is also fo:f)UW sar
aparilla awl a 
tree that seeulf'd to us to hf' walnut. 
Today, eight leagues. 
()th dar of 
t. In the afternoon we left Nne
HeÎlora de las Xie'Te
, the ri\Ter helow, and OUl' course to thÞ
west, and j(H1J'IW
'il1g two and a half leagu('s O\Ter a had road, 
topped on the l)ank of the riyer. Don Bernardo 
liera hac! 
heen suffering ,,-ith pain
 in the stmllaf'h. and the nftpl'llOOll 
found hinl IllU('h worse; hut it pleased God that before da5T- 
light un the following morning he wa:, so llluch relipn'd Umt 
we were ahle to pr()(,f'ec! on our journey. 
Today, two an<1 one-half leagues. 
ïth da
T uf August, ,Ye 1)1'O(.e0(le<1 h.," the hank of tlw 
ri\Ter. and along' the 
ide of thp near tahlt'-lau(ls, a littlf' HlOrt' 
than a quartpl' of a Ipaglle to the Wl':,t, a"';('PIHlin
: a sOllll'what 
diffieu1t hill, aIul de
: to the northwest, <-111<1 a leagup 
farther on we arrin-.(l at auothpl' l'i\'er ('alle(l thp Pie(h'a Para- 
da, at a poin1 IlPal' ib jUIH'tioH with tlIP 
aYajó. IIere 
there i:-3 a large plain that we eall('d Han ....\utonio. with fine 



land for <>llltiyating, if irrigatf'd, and all that a settIenlent 
would need of stone, wood, tinllwr and pa:-:tul'e. rrhi
ri:::;e::, in the l1lountain range of GrulIa, to tlw north of the Ran 
Juan river, fiow
 frOll1 north to 
outh, :--lnd is :-'Olllpwhat 
slna]ler than the Cham(l, wl:ielJ pas
es the town of Ahiquiú. 
Crussing thi
 rivE'I' we h'aveletl two leagues to the west 
and a little nlOre than two to the west-northwe
t, and arrived 
at the eastern hank of the riyer that is ca Ilf'd Hio de los Pino
(PilH--' river), heeau
e of the pine trl'e
 growing on its hanks. 
It is 
lnaller than the northern river, hut ha
 good water. At 
this point it flows north and south, and el11ptieç; into the 
Xavajó. It risf's in the we:-:terll part of the (hlllla range at a 
point that i
 called Hierra Ia Plata (HiÌ\yer ranp:p). There is 
a large plain hf're with ahuwlant pa
turage, e

for 'wheat, gras:-: and <'01'11, hut needs irrigation. A good lo('a.- 
tiol1 for a 
ettlel1leut. 'Ye rested hE're, ]1mllillg tlw phwe Y" ega 
(Ie Ran Cayetano (Plain of Han C\tjetan). 
Today. H little 1110re than six leagues. 
8th day uf .August. ,Ye left the- Hiver Pinoç; HIHl Plain 
all (1ajetan to the west-northwe:-:t, and going four 
leagues HlTiyed at the Riyer F'lorida, whi<>h i
 11111<'h slnaller 
than the Riyer Pinos. It ri:-:e:-: in the 
anle 11l0111ltain range, 
hut Inore to the west, flows fronl north to sontl), and in the 
plae(' where we (,J'osspd it there is a large traet "ith good soi I, 
if ,ye]] irrigated. The pasiuragp on the plain i
 good, hut 
lwar the ri,Ter not so g'ood, though in the rainy "'ieason it lllay 
he hetter. Pas:-:ing" the Hiypr }'lori<la, Wt' trayelE>d we:-:t two 
leagues, and two nlOl'e to the "est-northwest. Deseendillg' a 
stony hill, we C
Ulle to the Riyer del las ...\l1ilnaS, Ileal' the 
western slope of the Plata range, whpl'e the riyer rise
('ro:-::-:ing, we halted on the oPl'ositp hank. It is as large as 
the llorthern ri\'er, and at thi:-: season l"untains 11l0re water 
and has a swiftpr (,UJT('nt, haying lllOre of a deeline at this 
point. Like tlw other l'iyers. it empties into the X avajó. 
The hanks are :steep, and here the } 'Hsturag-e is 1Iot good, 
thongh farther on and lower <10Wll it is hetter. 
Today, H little 1110re than eight leagut's. 

1 9,) 


)th day of .Augu:-;t. 'Yf' left the Hiver AlliJlla
 (Hive!' of 
Soull';) ana dÏIllbed the wel';tern 
\Ithough it i
very high, it is difficult, being ro('ky and in pa rts very steep. 
,y e rros
ed the RUllllllit oi a littlf' nlOulltain, whieh would 
nlake the dil';tauee traveled about a quarter of a league, and 
entered a fertile glen, through which we went a league to thp 
t, then turning to t1H' nort1l\'
e:-;t, skirted the foot of a 
grf'en 11l0ullÌaill with good pasturage, aud rnIne to the :::;an 
.J oaquin river. ..As it pa
 through the town of 
an (}eró- 
ninlo it is small. [t riRes in the west(,]"ll part of the 
de la Plata, and flows through the 
aIne l'añon, in which are 
said to be open veins of Inetal; although when SOlnc years 
previouR parties caIne to eXaIlline the
e 111Ïue
, by order of 
the governor, Don TOlllÙS ,r elas Cí.whupin, they could not 
say for ('ertain what metal they cuntained. 
\.ccording to 
the opinion of some who lived in this Rertion, and fronl re- 
ports gathered froln the Indians, the." cOllrluded it was sil- 
ver, thus giying the nmue to the luountain range. 
FrOlu the slope of the Hiver 
\ninulR to that of Ran 
Joacluiu the land is not very 11l0ist., while ill the inuuediate 
vicinity of the Sif'ITaS the rains are very frf'qlwnt, so that on 
the lllountains whirh are cover('d ,,'ith tall pine trees, slna11 
oak and a variety of wild fruit treeR, the pasturagf' 1-S of the 
best. The telllperature lwre is ver.'- ('old, even ill tlw lllonth<..; 
of July and August. Alnong the fruits growing here there is 
a slnall one, blark in color, with an agl'eea hie flayor. Yer
l11urh like the fruit of the nledla l' tree. though not 
 e went no farther that day. bc('ause the aninlal
 had not 
sufficient food the night hefore, and seell)pcl til'C'd, anå a]so 
hecause of a lwayr rain stOl'lll that cOlllpeìled n:-; to rPlllain. 
r:!'oday. four and a <luarter league:-., a]mo
t (hw w('st. 
] Oth day of Augnst. Father .Fra

 Fl'au('i:-,ro ,A. tanasio 
awoke with a seyerE' atta('k of rhemllatisHl. whieh he lUlll he- 
gnn to fee] the c1a
' hl'fore in hi:-; fan? and head, and it was 
:-;arY tù reuwin 1ll'I'P until he "'(lR relieyed. rrhp ('011- 
tinued n;in and the dampncss of the p]ar('. hOWeY(>I" ohliged 
ns to leaye. Ooillg north a little lllOl'e than half a league we 



turned northeast. .L
 leagu p farther on we turned to the west, 
through hea utiful Illountain glens, full of yerdure. 1'0

S a-nd 
other flowers. 
rwo league
 farther on it began to rain 
T. which caused Father _\1.taIla
io to beeOlue mUf'h 
"Tor:-:e, and abo Inade the road Ï1npassahle. ,y 
 passe<l on 
t'\\o leagues farther \Ye
t. but were ohliged tu :.;top by tlt(' 
first of the two sillall streal)1:-; which Inake up the Ran LÚ-- 
zaro, otherwise ('aIled Las 
[an('os. The pa
tul'age continue
to be a bUll<lallt. 
Today, four and a half league;'). 
1] tll day of Augu
t. X otwithstanding the ('old and dan11l- 
ness frOIll whieh w(' suffered, we were obliged to l'elnain, 
e Father .....\ tana
io wa:-: yerr lllU('h weakened fl'Oln hi:-:. 
suffering, and had 
Ollle feyer. 'Ye were not ahle to vi
it the 
n1Ìlle:-; of thp Sierras, although one of our cOlllpanion
. who 
had yisited tlwnl on a fonnel' o
l'af'iOll, assured us they were 
but a E-hort distau('e away. 
th da
r of Augu"it. E\1ther 
-\tanasio awoke sOlllCwhat 
better. and, for a ('hang
 of p]a('(-' awl teu11'erature lnon
for the purpose of eontinuing our .iourne
-, we left this loca- 
tiOll and the ri\'er of San Lorenzo to the Horth
ast. and afÜ}l' 
going a little Illore than a league \\Te turne<l to tlw Wf>st -Tlorth- 
west, and trayeled fi\'e league
 CJyer green nlonntains W"ith 
good pa
turage. To the \\e
t for tw"o and a half leaglw
ed through a pie('(' of hurnt-oyer woodland W"ith f'('ant 
pasturage, and turned tu the north. ('ru
:-:illg the Rio de 
XuestJ'a Señora de lo
 Dolores (RhTer of Our Lady of Rol'- 
rows). and lmlh'd on the f;outhern side of the Sierra de la 
Plata. Thi:-- riyer flows south, and during this 
on i
smaller than the northern riyer, 
Today. a little lllOre than eight leagues. 
13th day uf August. '" e Inadc- a 
topping plw'e JWJ'e. 
that the FHÍ1lPr lllight the sooner re('o\'e1', and also that w(' 
n1Ïght as<,<:'rtain thL latitude of this location and the plain of 
the Ri\Ter Dolores, in W"hi('h W"e find oUl's<:,IYe
. \\
(' hu\'P 
taken ohsel'ra tions and find we are in latitude 3
. There is e\'er
Tthillg here r(>(llÚsite for tlIp estah- 



be another ::,trean1 in this \
icinity with suf1Ìcient water, and 
near enoug'lI to be ahle to reach it during the afternoon, .we 
sent the g-uide
 to find out how far Wè would havp to go to 
reach a flow. A streanl wa
 found, but with water enough 
for the Illen only, and none for the anÏlnals. It wa
 filled up 
with ,,
ood and 
tone, :1ud. a::; it 
:eenle(l, purposely. The 
water i
onstant, but not palatable. The Yntas probably 
clm-ed up the fo-treaUl for 
Olne contingency which they fore- 
saw Illight happen; for, aceording to SOllIe of our cOlupany 
who had lived 
nlIong thenl, tlwy were êu'custoIlled to protect 
elves in this way. In the afternoon we proceeded on 
our wa

, and traveled two ]eague
 to the northwe
t and oue- 
half leagu(> to the north. rea
hing tlw streaUl Illentioned, 
hi('h wp nallle(l La Agua Tapado (covered water). 
Today, three and three-quarter leagues. 
1(5th da)
 of ...\.ugust. ,\,.. e n1Îssed l110re than half the anl- 
 that had :,trayed away looking for water, whieh they 
discovcred half the way hack on the road WP tl'avp]pd y

day, and there we found tlwnl. Heturnillg- late, we left 
Tapada at half-past ten in the Iuorniug. \\
 e took a nn1Ch- 
travp]pd road that we thought wonld continue until we ar- 
rived at the Rio elf' Dolores, ,,-hich we intended to follo,,"', hut 
after going- two leagues to the northwe
t and a league and a 
half to the wpst, we left it, the ground being very soft. and 
the rains having destroypd the trail. Froin here we turned 
to the northwest. ,.\ (lUarter of a league f
lrther we putered 
a ('añon, widp at the mouth, in "Which we found a good and 
luuch-traveled road. \\" p followed it, and, g-oing another 
league north, ealn<? to a rUllning sh'ealll with suffif'ient water 
for hoth man and beast. Being hidden in a dense forest of 
pillP and juniper trpes, we nanlP(l the stream ...\gua Escolldil1a 
(hidden "Water). 11ere we lost the streanl, for the road went 
at right angles to it. ,Ye 111ad(-' two troughs froBl which the 
horses could drink, hut they were not satisfied after all. 
'Yhile we were exan1Ïning tlIP land on pvery side, in order 
that we might proceed on our "Way, [Jon Bernardo 
[iera wput 
on through the cañon alone, and "Without onr having kno"Wll 



it, and because of the Ï1npossibility of our C'olltinuing our 
journey, we stopped, and 
ent one of our party to hring hill1 
back before he should lo::se his way, 11e went ahead so rap- 
idly that it was after Inidnight before they returned. \y- e 
were all very anxious hecause of their ahSCll<'e. They said 
they had gOlle up the Dolores river, and that on the ,yay they 
had found only one short piece of road difficult of pa
but which cOlùd be repaired, so that ,,,e decided to go on th{\ 
next day. 
Today, four leagues. 
17th day of August. "\Ye left the Agua Escondida, and 
about half-past three in t.he afternoon we C
llne to t.he Rio de 
los Dolores for the third tin1e. "\Ye traveled through the en- 
tire cañon and its nIany turns, seven leagues to the north, 
but really four or five l11ore. 'Ye nalned the cañon EI Labe- 
rinto de :ì\Iiera (J\Iiera's Labyrinth), bèeause of the varied 
and 1eautiful views on every side, and being so eleyaterl and 
rocky at every turn that the way seenled lunch longer and 
difficult, and also because Don Bernardo :ì\[iera ,vas the first 
to go through the cañon. The way is passable and not diffi- 
cult for the animals, exC'ept in one place, w1lere it ,yas quickly 
repaired. .L
rriving at the river we found recent tracks of the 
Yutas, fronl which we concluderl there was a settlplnent of 
thenl near by. Considering that if they had seen us and we 
had not asked fa\Tors of thenl, they n1Ïght inlagiue we in- 
tended then1 
Olne harn1, and that this fear would sOlnewhat 
disturb thein, we determined to find theJ11, thinking SOlne of 
thenl could guide us into a road by ,vhich we Illight proeeed 
on our journe-r with le:,
 difficulty than now appeared to us, 
as none of our COlnpany knew the country nor the streallìS 
ahea d of us. 
,A.s soon a
 we had halted near a wide p::ut of the river, 
that "We nmned San Bernardo, Father Fray Francisco .L\ta- 
llasio, accollipallied by .Andl'és ::\luiiiz as interpreter, and Don 

J Han Pedro Cisneros, went up the riyer sonle three ]eagues, 
and there they recognized them as heing Yntas; but they 
con1d not find the trihe, after haying gone to where the Sinan 



Rio de Ias Paraliticas (Riyer of the Paralytics) diyides the 
Yutas into two trihes, the Tabehuachis and the :J1uhuachis, 
th(' one liying north and the other south of the riyer. The 
riyer \\'as so named because one of our party \\'ho }Sa\\' it fir:-;t 
found in a TI'igTI'arn on the hank of the riyer three Y uta "0111- 
en suffering frOlll paralysis. 
Today, Sèyen leagues; in a bee line, four to the north. 
18th day of .L-\ugust. TTI'o of our cornpanion
 left yery 
early to find \\'here \\'e could best leave the river, for here the 
banks are very high and stony, and we did not care to wan- 
der wl1('1'e there was neither 1\
ater nor pasturage. In the 
Led of the riyer th
re are quantities of rocks, and we feared 
to injure the horse
. haying to cros::, it several tÏ1nes. They re- 
turnecl about eight 0 'clock in the eyening. saying that only by 
following the river bed could we leave this place, and so \\'e 
were obliged to folIo\\' the river. 
Y, one league to the north. 
19th day of .L-\ugust. ,\"'" e proceeded along tllE) r1yer one 
league to the northeast with SOUlE) difficulty, and then turned 
one league to the northwest. ,Ye stopped at another open 
part of the riyer to water the horses, so that we could leayc 
the riyer and follow a road that went northeast, if the rough- 
ness of the country would aHow it. \Yishing to cross the 
ridge of high and rocky table-lands, for the river bed now 
becmne in1pa:-;
able. one of the BIen went on ahead to 
ee if 
the road was passable. He found that we could not travel 
the northwest road, hut discoyered another path to the south- 
\Jthough he esmnined it for a long way, anù found no 
great ohstacles, we did not venture to follow it, because far- 
ther on it was divided by high table-lands and cañons, in 
which we woulll ag'ain be shut in, and so have to turn back 
as before. )1ore than this, the arid condition of the country 
in the inunediate vicinity led u
 to belieye that tIle pools of 
rain water and the channels of running water which are 
usually found here, were now perfectly dry. 
,y e ron
lllted with the lllE'll who had traveIf'<1 0\,('1' thii 
country hefore as to what direction we r-;hould take to o\'e1'- 



eOllIP these difficulties, and everyone ,yas or a different 
opllllon. Finding ourselyes in this llll('ertainty, llot knowing 
if we should follow the road lueutioned, or if Wf' ought to 
turn back a little and take tllf
 trail that passed the Y uta set- 
tlelnent, 'we put our tru
t in God, and, lun
ing in1plored the 
intercession of our n10st hol)T patron 
;aints that God would 
direet ns where it "ould be nlOst conduciye to Hi..... hol}:"" serv- 
ice, we cast lots for tlw two roach;, anù it fell to the Ynta 
trail, ,YllÏch at oncp decided uo.; to follow it until we arrivell 
at their 
ettlenlent. "
 e took ob:-;elTations at thi
which we called the Cañon del Ye
o (Chalk Cañon), haying 
Ollie chalk nearby, and found we were in 
m de- 
grees 6 luillutes latitude. 
Today, two leagues. 

Oth day of ..L-\ ugn
t. ".,. e left the CaLíon del Y e
o. going 
bark a league to tlw 
outheast, and recl'o;-\sed the riycr, fronl 
which, about è1 lluarter of a league away, towards the north- 
east, "Te fo;aw a nUlnber of sìllaU hills, on \yhieh we dlq'ov(,l'ed 
beds of a ,'ery tran';;l1arf'nt gypS1Ull. The river heing pa:-;:-;ed, 
we entered a wide yalley, and foJlowing along a well-heaten 
trail that leads towards a high tahl('-land, we traY(:,led 
three leagues to tlw northwest. It was then that, at the 
t suggestion of Don Bernardo 
riera, \\'ho was not in 
favor of this road, the int
rpretel'. l\ndr{'
, took u
H lofty lllOuntaill l'l'est, preeipitou:-: and l'o('ky, to :-:u('h an 
e:\.tent, that "e he1ieyed we 
hould he ('Olllpelled to retnH'e 
our steps after haxing gOlW half the distau('e; lwcau:-:e onr 
uffered sO 11ll1('h that lllany of tlWlll marked the 
stony road with bloud left by their hoofprints. "r e ('limbed 
the nlOuntain with great diffi('ult

, aftpr :-:eYE'ral hours of toil.. 
going in a northerly direetion, haying tntyeled in tlw ascent 
about a (juarter of a leag-ue. -,,--\long the top of the nlOuntain 
WP travelerl a lllile to the no1'thwe
t, i11l(1 froIlt this point we 
('ould see that the road went along the hase of the tahle-land, 
and over goud leyel ground. 
In the descent, which is smooth aild ('iear of l'oeks. we 
trè1yeled for nlOl'e than three-(juarters of a league in a 1101't11- 



erly direction. "\Y c pursued our way more than a league to 
the northea
t, passing through a country that ahounded in 
slllall cacti; and in order to HToid tlw annoyance that this 
ed our aniluals, 'we hetook our
 to the Led of a riyer, 
and, haying gone a long it
 COllrSP for sOlnething like a league 
 the east, we sudd{ìuly ('aIlle upon an abundant sup- 
ply of good water, which is furnished pqrtly by what renlains 
in poob after a rain, and partly hy springR. "\\
 e nauled it 
San Bernardo. It would seenl, judging frmll the trails, and 
the ruins of wigwalns, that this was a caluping ground of the 
Yutas, and here we caUle ag:Ün into the rO
Hl that we left 
when we cIinlh2d the almost un
calable nloln
tain. 1 re1'(> we 
call1}Jed, although the gra
:-- is not yery abundant. "\r e find 
that we haye journeyed today six leagues without r0ckoning 
the piece oyer which we retraced our sb

lst day of August. "\r e left the slJrings of San Rernardo, 
and by way of the cauon, in the :-.outherll part of which the 
springs are situated, we took a northerl
y dil'Pction oyer a 
road that was diffieuIt to travel, ala1 \\'hich in smne places 
was Yer
y rough. ..L-\bont half way up the (.auon we found sev- 
eral pooh of water, and, towarc1s thp end, the "
ater flowed 
vs l:tbundaI
y as thoug-L cOIning frmH a living spring. Hav- 
ing pas
et1 through the euuon, we purslwd our way in a 
T rlil'ection, oyer an open, leyel country. "\Ye 
then entered another caiion, where the road was as bad as 
the one we had J
ft, and haying made our way for ahout a 
league to the north, we canle to the Rio de 
all Pedro, and 
ta hlislwd our call1I> in a piece of leyel country, naIlling it 
the CaIn}) of 
al1 Luis. 
-, six league

d day of .August. Departing fnHn thp calnp of Ran 
, we crossed tlw river, cIinlhed a steep, high lllountaiu, 
though not a yery rock

 one, and entered upon an extended 
tahle-Iand, which is sOluething' Iikp ihe spur of the range of 
the Taheehnachis. "\Y e joul'lle
-ed along the snnlluit in a 
northeasterly direction :::-Oll1e two leagues, in an ea:-::t-llorth- 
east direction half a Jeague, and in a southeast another half 



league, and then descended to the ta ble land by another pre- 
cipitous, though short, trail; it is the saIne one that Don Juan 
.ßIaría Revera in his journal considers to be so full of diffi- 
culties. ..Along the bank of the river San Pedro ,ye Hlade 
our ,,-ay northeast for about a league. ",Ye stopped for our 
n1idday rest, and 
ome went forward to view the land, to see 
what would be the nature of the trayC'ling in the afternoon; 
whether we could leave the river and find water llear by, or 
if not, to remain in camp till the nlOITúW. Those ,dlO "Tent 
out to ascertain the nature of t.he country returned late, and 
we detern1Ïned to pass the night in this place, whi('h "
e ('aIled 
San Felipe. 
Today, four leagues. 
23d day of 
\.ugnst. \Ve left the calllp of San Felipe on 
the San Pedro river, clinlbed a hill, and, along the foot of a 
1110untain known as Tabechuahis, so called br the Y utaR who 
dwell in those parts, ,\ye covered a dit
tance of four leagues, 
which, on account of the many turns \re 1113de, could not be 
more than two leagues t.o the east of S
n Felipe. "'V è had 
left the San Pedro, which has its rise in the GruHa (Crane) 
in that spur of the lTIountain which they call la Plata, and 
which runs toward the north, turns to the northwest, and then 
to the west, until it unites with the Dolores, near the small 
range of mountains kno,Vll as the Salt, because near it arp a 
nUlllber of saline pools from which the Y utas, who dwell in 
these parts, supply their needs. It is a river of moderate 
size. ",Ye stopped for our n1Ïdday rest near a perennial f;Up- 
ply of water that descends from the mountain. In the IC\Tel 
country, in the northern part, thm-e is a valley affonling 
good pasturage, and near it a piece of ground shaped like all 
eyebrow, upon which we found the ruins of an ancient town 
e houses seenl to have been built of stone; with this 
material the rrabehuachis Yutas have constrl1cte(1 a frail 
crude intrenchment. IIere"We founlI good pasturage for the 
anima] s, which has been lacking ever since "We "Were in 
Canl}) at .L\suncion, on the Do]ores river, until t()(lay, a



soil was so burned and dry that it appeared to have received 
no rain all sun1mer. 
During the afternoon it began to rain, and continued for 
upwards of an hour and a half. 'Ye continued our journey, 
going up the mountain of the Tabehuachis by way of a lofty 
and precipitous road; and when ,ye had gone a league to the 
northeast and another to the east, a rrabehuachi Yuta over- 
took u
. He was the first one we haù 111et since the day we 
left ,A,biquiú, where we had seen two others. 1 n order to be 
able to converse leisurely with hiln, \ve pitched our canlp near 
a spring of water, 'where we rested during the heat of the 
day, and which we caUed the Fouutain of the Guide. 'Ve 
gave hÏ1n sOlllething to eat and to sllloke, and afterwards, by 
nleans of an interpreter, we questioned hilll concerning the 
country which jay hefore us, and about the rivers and their 
courses. \Ve also asked hÏ111 concerning the whereabouts of 
the Tabehuachis, l\Iuhuachis and the Sabuaganas. 
At first he pretended to be ignorant of ev
rything, even 
conceri1Ïng the country in which he lived. After he lost the 
fear and suspicions he had entprtained toward us, he told us 
that all the t;abuaganas were in their own country, and that 
we wouln n1eet thenl very soon; that the Tabehnachis wpre 
scattered about al1l0ng these lllountain::, and vicinity, He 
said that the rivers frOlll the San Pedro to the San 
Rafael, inclusive, tlo"
 into the Dolores, and then unite with 
the Navajó. \re proposed that he guide us to the viUage of a 
Sabeguana chief, who, our interpreter said, was well dis- 
posed towards the Spaniards, and aC'quaintpd with a good 
deal of this territory. TIe agreed to do so if we could "Wait 
for hÍ1n until the afternoon of the next day, to which we 
agreed, partly that he 1111ght guide us, and partly to relllove 
any suspicions that we Inight he Ineditating sOll1ething 
against hill1, that "Would awaken resentment in hÏIn and in 
Todny, six Jeagues. 
24th day of ..L\ugust. Before twelve o'clock our Yuta ar- 
rived at our camp, where we were awaiting hiJn, bringing 



with hinl his fallÜly, two women and .five cbildrpn, tw"o of 
them at the breast, and three frOll1 eight to ten years old; all 
of theill very c1eeellt in nppearmlf'e and quitp talkativf'. rrhey 
thought we had conle to engage in trade, and for that reaSUll 
brought with thenl antelope 
kins and other things. .L-\nlOll:2' 
these were Hillall apple-raisins, black in color, of ,,-hi('h we 
have spoken before, and which reseluble 5111a11 grapes, nnd 
are ver
T agreeable to the taste. "r e explained to thenl that 
we had not conte on the business they thonght we had, nor 
did we bring any goods to trade. In order that they Illight 
not think 1ye were explorers of the land, and with a view of 
keeping them well dispo
ed toward us when they were ahsf'nt 
fl'0111 us, as well as that they Illight not seek to elnharl'ass us 
in our progress, and judging that frolll the Cosninas they 
lllÏght have leal'nf'<l sOluething of the trip rnade by the R. P. 
Fray FnuH'isco Gare{>s to the Yutas Payuehis, and thenct' to 
other tribes, we told thenl that one of the Fathers, our broth- 
el', had gone to Cmmina and ::\Ioqui, and fr0111 this latter 
pla('e had returned to Cosnina. On hearing this, their Huspi- 
cions were allayed at Ollce, and ther apprél'iateù our anxiety 
to put ourselves on good tenus with theul, and told U
had known nothing- of the Fa tlIer to "h01n we referred. ,y f' 
gave them all sOlllething to eat, and the guide's wife pre- 
sented us with a piece of drieil vellison, and two plates of 
the raisins to whieh I have referred. 
'Ye returned the eOlll}Jlinlent by giving theul :--Ollle flour. 
In the afternoon we gave the Yuta the price he asked for 
guiding us, b,yO heldnques (knives), and sixteen strings of 
white glass Leads, 1Yhif'h hp hanL1pd to his wife, "Tho dC'pal'Ì<>(l 
at once along with the rest of the fan1Ïly to their yillage, 1Yhile 
he reuwined 1yith us, and from this on he was known hy the 
name of Atallasio. Lea\Ting tlw Fountain of the Guide, 1ye 
crossed along the f-iclt. of the nlountaln to tht' east, half a 
league, and anothf'l' half league to thf' east-southeast, anrl 
a quarter of a If'ague to tlif' southeast, we turned east; leav- 
ing a trail "hich leads off 10 the 
outheast, we took another, 
2nd ha\'Íllg gone thrce-<llwrters of a league, one to the f::outh- 



east and two to the east, we 
topped in a yalley WllO:-ie sides 
are lofty hut not difficnlt to ('limh, for which reason we called 
it tlw Deep '""alley. In it then> exi
ts a copious spring of 
good water, plenty of fuel and an abundance of pasturage 
for the anÜnals. 
Today, two league
23th llay of ___
ugU:-it. 'Ye left calHl' in Deep \' aìle
T and 
purf'ued our way in an easterl
T direction through dense oak 
brush for a di:-:t:lnce of half a league; we thpn descended to 
the bOllthwest, oyer country that afforded fewer obstacles, 
and along this trail we jourue

ed three and a half leagues, 
and then turned to the east another half league. -\Ye now 
began to cros
 the 11lOlultnin ill a northeasterly dire(.tion, and 
at a distance of a league and a half oyer fairlr good {:oulltr
free frOlll hrush and without any diflkult point::; to diulb. ",'Ie 
reached its sunllllit, cO\Tered ,,-ith good grass, and Yf'ry heau- 
tiful in aspect, be('aube of the thickets and poplar gJ'oyes lying 
ely together. 11ere we found three trails, and "\\
e chose 
the oue that leads to the northeast. J-Iaying gone a league 
and a half in this direction, we stopped while we "'ere on the 
northern ;:,lope of the lllountain and near an ahundant spring 
of water. to ,,-hif'h we ga\Te the 113111e of Lain Spring. 
water COllles out of the ground only ahout six steps frOlll the 
eastern bide of the trail. Before we were able to prepare our 
llleal, of whif'h we "Tere greatl
- in need, a heayy rain feU 
upon us. 
eyen ]eague:-; and a half. 

()th day of ,.Augn
t. "T e left Lain 
pring antI trayeled 
in a northea
terly dil'ef'tion one league, At this point the 
trail that we had fol1owed diyide
 hÜo two, one leê1ding to- 
wards the east-northea
t, ana the other towards thp north- 
east. "
e followed the latter, all(l after we had trayeled two 
 and a half to the northeast we finisllPcl the ò.flsf'euf 
of the lllOuntain, and entered the pleasant yal1ey of the ri\Ter 
of Ran FnnH'isl'o, f'allerl b

 the Yutas the ___lncapagari, which 
the interpreter te11:-:; us llleêlns Colorado Lakfl, fl'01ll the fact 
that near its source thele i
prIng of reddish water, hot 



and disagreeable to the taste, The plain through which this 
river runs is broad and leyel, and a well-traveled road passes 
through it. ,Ye journeyed down streal11 a league and a half 
to the northwest, and call1ped near an extenc1ed lnarsh, 
1yhich ahounds in pasturage and which we caHed the marsh 
of San ]'rancisco. 
Today, five leagues. 

.A_ DE8CHIPTIOX üJj--' rrI-[E }\IOUN
That of the GruHa (Crane) and that of La Plata (Silver) 
have their beginning near a place called El Cobre (Copper) I 
and near to a town no,,"," deserted; frOJl1 its beginning it 
ranges to the northwe
t, and about 
eYenty league
Santa Fe it fonns a point towards the west-southwest, and 
is called the Sierra de la Plata (1\Iountain of Silyer). ]-\'01I1 
this }Joint it continue
 to the north-northeast, descending 
towards the north frolll a point a little before one reaches 
the lllOuntain of the TahelnuH'his as far as another f;lnall Oll
known as tlw Sierra Vénado l\Jazan (SolTel-colored Deer,) 
here it COllles to an éud on the north. On the east it fon11s 
a JUD(.tion, RO it. is said, with the Red Ochre liloulltain and 
with the Sierra Blanca (,Yhite Range). 
On the west-southwest, looking towards the we::-;t fronl the 
point of La Plata, about thirty leagues distant, one sees an- 
other sl11a11 lllolultain called The Datil (Date). f-'r0111 the 
'western slope of this range aU the rivers that we haye pas:-;ed 
thus far flow, and also those that lie before us as far as the 
Ran Bafael, ,,
hi('h also flows in that direction. The range of 
the Tahehuachis, which we have just ero::;sed, extends in a 
t direction, SOllIe thirty leagups, and where we 
crosse(l it has a width of eight or ten leagues. 
It ahounds in good pasture Janel, is yery moist, and pos- 
sessps a soil wen adapted for cultivating; it furnishes in 
gTPat plenty pine tiulber, spruce, the Clustian pine, slnall oak, 
seyeral kind::; of wild fruit, and in SOlne p]acps flax; there is 
an alnuHlallce of antelope, deer and other anÎlnals, and there 
is a kind of chicken whose size and shape are very llluch like 



those of our dome
tic fowl, only that it has no crest; its flesh 
is exceedingly palataLle. ...\bout twenty league::, to the west 
of this range is that known as the Salt range, which looks 
sInall from this distance. Towards thf' west-sontll\\est, about 
four leagues away, one can catch a gliulp::'e of a range that 
bears the naU1e of the Sierra de 
"--bajo (Lower Hange), 
The riyer that I have meutioned as that of San Francisco 
is of Illoderate size and a little larger than that of Dolores; 
it i
ed of 
treams ,,-hich COlne down from 
the western slope of the Grullas, and flows to the north- 
west; so far as "Te can judgf' here, it has on its hank
level lands that are (ll1Ïte ::;uitable fur cultivation, proyidcd 
they could be irrigated; it has SOll1e three leagues of good 
land, and there is eyerything that is needed to Iuake it a suit- 
able spot in which to ùuild a town. On the north of this 
plain land there is a range of low mountains, and hills of lead 
color crowned "Tith ye]]ow earth. 
27th day of .August. 'Ve left the San Francisco 1l101ulÌail1 
and journeyed down the river in a northwe
terly direction; 
and haying trayeled a Rhort distance we lllet a Yuta by' the 
nallle of Surdo, with his fanÜly. "T e spent sonle tin1e with 
hÏIll, but. after a lengthy- conversation, Callie tu the conclusion 
that there was no inforIllation to be gained froIll hiIn; and 
"Te had siulply suffered frOlll the heat of the sun, whidl was 
very intense, while we were talking with hiul. 'Y E' continued 
our journey oyer the plain, and having trayeled two leagues 
to the west, we crossed the river, and passing through a 
grove of shady poplars anù other trees, which grow here 
along its bank, we climbed a small hill and entered upon :t 
plain yoid of verdure, and covered with slllall stones. Hav- 
ing punmed our way down the riyer three leagues and a half 
to the north-northwest, we pitched our camp in another fer- 
tile spot near the 
mlne river, which we called S4n ...-\llgustille 
el Grande (Saint ...t\ugustine tllP Great), and on f'aC'h bank of 
this riyer we found abundant pasture, and n1uch black poplar 
Today, six leagues. 



Farther dO"W11 the l'Í\T
r, and about four lèagu

 north of 
this plain of Ran ...\ugustine, the riyer fOl'In
 a junction "With 
a larger onf'. ('a1]
d by the people of our party the Hiyer of 
San ,Jayier (
alnt Xavier), and hy thf' 'Yutas the RiYf'r 
TOlllidIi. Thf're r;uue to thef:::e hyo riyers in the 
Tl'a r 1761 
Don Juan 
Iaría de Hi\rera, rrossillg' this sallle range of the 
, on who
e :-:;ullunit is the spot he called Purga- 
tory, a(.('ording to the c1e
criptioll he giYe
 in his journal. 
Tlw place where he campen hf'fore crossing the riyer, and 
"Where he said he cut the figure of the cross on a young poplar 
e, with the initiab of hi" llmne, anù tlU' year of his expedi- 
tion, ar(' still found at the junction of these riyen- on the 
southern hank, as "We wer(' inforIned hy our interpreter, 
luñiz, ,,-110 caIne "With the 
aid Don ,-fuan 
the year rf'ff'lTed to, 
s far as the rrabehuachi 1110untain. 
:-;aying that although ,he had relnailwd hehind three days' 
journey Lefore reaehing tlw ri\rer, h
 Call1f' last year (1775) 
along its bank "With Perlro 
[ora and Uregoria Sal1doyal, 
who had aC(,Olnpanied Don .J uan 
[aría in the expedition J 
haye referred to. They :-:;aid that they had COllIe as far as the 
ri\rer at that tÜne, and frOlll that point they lwd begun their 
return journey; only two pen'01IS f-ent b
r DOll Juan 
had èros
ed tlw river, to look for Yutas on the shore that 
was opposite the caInp, and fronl which point they returned; 
and so it "ras this ri\Ter that the,\
 judged at that tillle to be 
the great riyer Tizon. 

8th day of .l
t. ",Ye left the plain of San ,Au
leaying the riyer of San 
--'rancisco to the north, and trayeled 
half a league, going three leagues and a half to the nortJwast, 
on good ground and without 
tones. and arri\'"cd at U1P hefore 
luentioned riyer of San Francisco .Tavier (comulouly celned 
San Xayier), another nmne for the TOl1liC'hi, that is nlade up 
of four sma)} riyers that fio"r to thf' last point of tll(' f'ierra de 
la Grulla. It is as large as the river of the north, fio" s to the 
west, and in the western part of the Sierra del ",
('nado ..AI3- 
zan, it joins, as "
e haye said, with the Ran Francisco. Its 
banks here are yerr arid, and in a wiele part of it, where we 



found SOllie good pasturage for the anÍlnals, ann nanled 
Santa .filónica, we gladly halted for awhile for re:-:;t; then pro- 
ceeded up the ri\
er until we rame to sonle village
 of the 
Sabaguanas, that yesterday we thought were near here, and 
in thenl we met SOUle Indian:-:; of the TÜnpangotzis, to whose 
settlèInent we had intended to go; but on con
idering that it 
would take u
 out of the way to continue up the river in this 
dirertion, that it ,yould injure the alliuwls, who were 
already lallIe, and that it "Would be necessary to carry consill- 
erable provisions in going to their bettlen1ent, we concluded 
to send an interpreter with the guide, Atanêl:,io, to ask if 
1"00ne of t1W1l1, or of the Lagunas (Iake-Inen), would guide U
as far as they kne\v if we paid thenl. rrhey went, and the rest 
of us waited for then1 at Ranta 
Today. four Jeagucs. \Ye observed the latitude of this 
place by the Iueridian of the sun, and found it to be 3!) de- 
grees ] 3 IniInlÌes 


9th clay of ..L
ugnst. ..Ahout ten 0 'cloek in the Inorlling 
fiye Yutas-Habuagual1as "erE' seen un Hw oppusite bank 
Inaking a great hue and ('ry. ,\T e thought they were those 
that our Iuen had gone to look for; hut when they CHrne to 
where "e were we saw the

 were uot. ,r e gaTe thenl SOlue- 
thing to eat and to 
Inoke, hut after a long eonyersation ahout 
the difficulties the

 had had during the SUIlllller with the 
COlnauehes-Yê:llllparil'3H, ",ye ('ould not get frolll thelll any- 
thing useful to onr intermits, hecau
è their design was to 
Illake us afraid. exaggerating the dauger to whi('h we were 
exposing ourselves. as the COlllêUlclws would kill llS if we 
continued OIl thi:-; COUrSe. ,Y' e de
troyea the fOl'ee of the pre- 
texÌf.; with ",yliidl they tried to 
top our pro
. hy saying 
to tht'Ill that our God, who is above all, ",yollld defena n
case of an encounter with our enenlÍe
:mth day of ..L-\ugnst. In the lllorning, .L-\lldrés, the in- 
terpreter. and the guide, ..A..tanasio, with fiye Rahuaganas and 
one Laguna, arrived. After we had giyell thelll food and 
tohac>('o we told thenl of our de
ire to go to the villages of 
the Lagunas (the Yutas had told us that the Laguna



in villages like tho
e of X e"r ::Uexico), 
aying to then1 that 
as they -were onr friends they should furnish us a good 
guide, -who could conduct us to those people, and that we 
-would pay them ,dud they -wished. They replied that to go 
-where -we -wished there -was no other road than the one -which 
passed through the COlnanches' country; tlm t these would 
Ï111pede our passage, and p\Ten take our lives; and also that 
none of theul knew' the country bet-ween here and the La- 
gunas. They repeated this 111any tiu1es, in
istil1g that we 
should turn back fronl here; ,ye tried to convince then1, first 
by reasoning and then by presents, f'0 as not to offend thein. 
'\Ye then pre::,ented thf' Laguna -with a -woolen cloak: a knife 
and some -white glass bead." saying that -we gave these to 
11Ìn1 so that he ,yould acrompany us and guide us to his coun- 
try. He agreed to do so, and -we gave then1 to hi1l1, Seeing 
this, the Sabaguanas suggested no further difficnlties
SOlnc of thenl even confessed to knowing the road. 
.After all this they urged us to go to their \"illage
that the Laguna did not know the -way; ,ye knew yery -well 
that it -was only an invitation to detain us and to enjoy 
longer our gifts. l\IallY others CaIne today, and we gave thenl 
sOlnething to pat and to sllloke; so as not to give theul ocea- 
sion to be offpndf'd nor to lose f-iO good a guide a s we had 
found, we concludpcl to go to their village. This afternoon 
-we left :Santa 
Iónica, ero::,::;ed the river of San Xavier, -where 
-we watered the auimals, ascended the hill, and over broken 
grollnd. ,yithout stones. we ,ypnt up the river to the north- 
-west two league::;, and traveled two n10re over gTolllld less 
broken, but ('overed ,yith burnt gra ':is and much cacti, and 
tony. to the northeast, and halted on the bank of a 
slnall rÏ\'er that we ealled Hanta l{osa; it rises jn the ,\Tel1ada 
"",--\lazan, on -whose southern slope we are, and enter
 into the 
San Xayier. Here there is a sillall plain of good pasturage 
and a forest of white povlar and sUlall oak. Thp Saba- 
guanas and the Laguna kept with our COlnpany. 
Today, four leagues. 
31st day of "",-\llguSt. Lpaying the ri\'er of Ranta Hos:! de 



Lillla, we trayeled to the northeast a league and a half, over 
a good road, and arrived at another river that descends fronl 
the bame mountains as the former one, and ,dth it enters into 
the San Xavier, naming it the river of Santa 
Iónica, in val- 
leys and plains of which are all that is necessary for the estab- 
lisilluent of two towns. \Ye traveled up the river by the level 
ground and through the groves which line its banks, four 
leagues and a half to the northeast, crossing it once. Drop- 
ping to the north, aud again cros8Íng the river, we entered a 
lllountain covered with tree::" and began a very rough journey 
that lasted for about three nÜles; we then proceeded up the 
Sierra del Venado .L\Jazan through a glen with very steep 
sides, over a thick growth of small oak, and going foul' 
leagues to the north, we halted at a living spring that we 
IWIlleù San Rell110n N onnato. One of the Y uta Sabaguanas 
that canle with us froIll Santa 
Iónica today ate in so beastly 
and hoggish manner that we thought he would die of 
apoplexy. Finding hinlself so sick, he said the Spaniards 
had done him harIn. This foolish idea made us very careful, 
because we knew that these savages, if they became ill after 
baying eaten what others ate, even though one of themselves 
gaye the food to theIn, believe that the person who gave thenl 
to eat lnade thenl sick, and would try to revenge the wrong 
which they thought had been done theln; but God saved him 
by causing hinl to vonlit luuch of the food which he could not 
Today, nine leagues. 
1st day of Septeulber. Leaving San Hennon, going north, 
and traveling three leagut's through slllaU glt:'n
 of good pas- 
turage and thick growths of slnaH oak, we came across eight 
Yutas. an on good horses, lllany of them, of the village 
to which we were going. They told us they were going to 
hlmt; but we judgerl that they traveled in Ruch numbers to 
show their strength. and to set' if we wert' alone. or if other 
Spaniards caIne after us; knowing frmll the night before that 
we were going to their village, it would not he cllstOlnar
T for 
all of the men to Ie aye at the sallle tilue, nnless for the rea- 



SOil we have gi\yen. 'Ye pl'oceeaed with only the Laguna, de- 
::;cending a very rough IHountain and entering a lJeautiful 
valley in which there 1yaS a sIllall river, on the banks of 
which was a forest of very high, straight pine tree
, and 
alllong tl1(-'111 SOUle poplars that seelHed to ri\yal the height and 
straightlle:-;:-; of the pines. Through this \yaney we tra\yeled 
one league to the east, and arrived at a village eOlnpo
ed of 
thirty wig\nlllls. 'Ye stopped a mile l)elo\y it on the hanks 
of the river, and nmned our ::;topping phwe froul San .L\lltonio 
)IÙ l'ti r. 
Today. four leagues (in all ] 9
) leagues). 
....\s soon as we had stoPPf'd. Pat her F\'ay Frauc'i:-;eo 
nasio went to the village with the interpreter. .Andr{.s 
to see the phif'f and the others who had relnained with hiIll; 
having ::;aluted hilll and his sons affeetionatf'Jy, he a
ked that 
all the people luight lJ(
 ::;Ul11I11011etl. The ('hief con
ented, aud 
wlIen all of hoth Sf'xes had joined hiuI, Father .Atanasio an- 
nounced to theul the Gospel h
y the intel'pretpr, wlw pointed 
out to then1 our guide and the Laguna. .L\.s soon as the 
Pather began to talk to thenl, our guide interrupÜ'd the inter- 
preter in order to advise the Sahllaganas, as his eountryulen, 
that the
T ought to belit'\'e all that the Fathf'r said. heeall:-;e it 
was all true. 
'he other Laguna 
h01Yed his pleasnre b
T tIlt, 
attf'lltion 1Yhi('h he ga\'e to thf' SlWf'f'h of the Father. 
.A.Jllong tlw IlPa n'r
 wa I..j a th--'H f llU
 n. who, nut knowi ng 
what was going on, asked what it was tlI(' Fntlwr said 
the Laguna replied, "The Father says, that this \d1Ích he 
shows to us (it was a pieturp of the erul'ified Chl'i...;t) i
T Lord of all, who liYe
 in thp highest heayen 
 and. ilÍ 
order to ph-'ase .Hilll and to see IIin1, it is necessary to be 
haptized ana to ask Imnlon of Him." Ill' showed how to ask 
pardon by crossing IÚnu;:elf on the hre;lSt. rt "\\T:l s a wOlHler- 
iul aption fo'" hilll. a
 he had pl'ohahly lWyer 
e(ln it done 
before, lleitlu-'r hy the pl'ie
t nor h

 the illtf'rpreter. 
The Father, ::,eeing the pleasure with which they heard 
hiuI, then propw..-ìpd to tlw ehief who at the tiule rule(l the 
trihe that if. after talking the ulatter oyer with his people, he 



should be willing to receive baptisnl. we would COlne to in- 
struct thenl and teach thenl how to live aright, in order to 
baptize thelll. He replied that he .would snbn1Ít it to 
his people; but all that afternoon he failed to give any evi- 
dence which would enC'ourage us to believe that they ac- 
cepted our proposition. The Father, rejoicing at the 
the last one, (the guide 

hOln we had called 
ilvestre,) and 
understanding that he was known as ()so Colorado (Red 
Bear), he preached to all of them., explaining the difference 
that there is b
b\etn nlen and the 1)l'utes, the end for wl1Ïch 
each was created, and the evil there was in calling thelllselve3 
after wild hf'asts, luaking thenlsehTes in this 
Tay equal to, 
and e,Ten inferior, to thenl. He C'ontinued by saying to the 
Laguna that in the future he 
Tould be called Francisco. 
The others hearing this began to repeat the nanle, al- 
though with a great deal of effort, thf' Laguna hiIllself being 
well pleased with his new" nalne. It happened also that when 
the Father called to the chief that this one replie(l that he 
was not the holder of that office; that it belonged to a fine- 
looking young lllan who was present. Being :lsked if the 
young man was married, he replied that he was; that he had 
two wives. The young Indian was a
halll('d of this (the older 
one seelHed to honor the young fellow as being a hrother of 
a faluous captain anlong the Sab3gnanas, whonl they called 
Yalnputzi), and he tried to make out that he had only one 
Froln this it may be inferred that the
e S3Yagf'S had S0111e 
idea or kno
'ledg(-' of the disgust that is cau
f'd aIllong civi- 
lized nlell by one Ulan having se,Teral 
-iveR at the smlle tilHe. 
The Father took this as his text, and used the oecasion for 
ÏInpartillg instl'uetion upon this point, 
nd of exhorting" them 
that each should have only one 

ife. After all this had taken 
place we bought fronl them a little dried buffalo Ineat, giving 
in exchange strings of beads; and we al
o said to thenl that 
we would be glad if they would penuit us to exchan
;e SOI11e 
of our horses that were foot-sore for others of theirs. They 
assented to tIlis, and said that the exehange should take plaee 



in the afternoon. 'Yhen this W[lS arranged the }"ather re- 
turned to the canlp. 
Before the bun had set the chief came .with SOIlIf' of the old 
lllen, and luany others, to the plaee where we were. They 
hegan by trying to persuade us to return frolH this point, 
dweHing anew and .with greater energy upon thf' di[-ficulties 
and dangers that lay before us in case we pontinued our jour- 
ney forward, assuring us that tllf' COlnallches would not con- 
sent to it, adding that they said this not to 
top our going 

head in 1dlatever direction we pleased, but that the

 did it 
because they liked us and esteelned us ver
T greatJy. \rp 
replied that the God ,,
holn "-e adored "ould ùpen the way 
hefore ut;, and would defend US, IlOt only froIll the C0111a!lche
hut also fronl all others who nlÌght .wish to do us hal'ln. an<l 
that .we "
ere very certain that the Divine Jlajesty wa::, on 
our side, and nothing that they had dpscribed to us did we 
fear. Seeing that their pretexts "
ere unayailing, they sai{l 
that if we preferrf'd to go forward without paying attention 
to what they had said that we 
hould writf' to the grf'at pap- 
tain of the Spaniard3 (thus they styled the governor), telling 
hill1 that we had passed tlu'(}ugh their territolY
 in order that 
jf any evil bhould befall us :lnd we :;;hould not return. that 
the Spaniards might not think that they had df'pri,-ed us of 
our lives. 
This was the jUdgllleut of several of our part
-. who 
wished either to return or to renulÌn with tlwln. 'Ye replied 
that Wf' would write the letter, and that we would leave it 
ith thein, in order that when any of thf'lll should go to K ew 
:l\Iexico they nlÌght take it with theul. The
aid that none of 
their people could take it; that we should send it bJT Olle of 
our own party. 'Ye explained to them that none of ours could 
go, nor could the
T sta,\y with theuL. ...\.t last. 
ince they could 
find no other way tù pre'Tent our going forward, the." said 
that if we did not return frolll this point that they ('ould not 
exchange the horses that we had and that were foot-sore. 
'Ye insisted that although they might not exchange the 
horses, we were bent upon going forward, hel'au:-;c hy no 



means could we return without knowing which way our 
brother priest had gone ,yho had been with the 
Ioquis and 
Cusninas, and who Iuight be lo
To this they replied, inspired by tho
e of our party who 
uuderstood their language and secretly warred ag'ainst our 
plans, that the priests could not lose theu1selves, because they 
had all the country and the road
 delineated on their 111aps. 
They returned to their arguments, going over aU they had 
argued, and begging us to return frOB} this point, and on 
beholding that our detennination was fln inflexible one, they 
repeated ,,-hat they had said before, that they had warned 
Ul:; only because they had loved us; hut that if after all we 
"Tere bent on going aheênl that they would not interrupt our 
progress, and would exchange the horses. They separated 
fro1H us after nightfall, entertaining the hope or changing 
our detern1Ïnation un the following day; for we had noticed 
t.hat they t.old it to Felipe of 
tbi(luilÍ; tlw interpreter, 
s, and his brother, Lucrecio, who were t.he ones t.hat, 
either frOln fear or frOln a disinclination to go forward, 
secretly inspired the 
abagllanas fr0111 tIlt' 11101nent they were 
aware of their opposition to our lTIOVen1euts; and this hall 
ed us not a little sorro"
, whi{'h was increased by the fol- 
lowing: FrOlH the ti111e we "Tere ready to start frOll1 Santa 
Fe "Te had told our {,Olnpanion
 that all tho
e who cared to 
aCl'OlnpallY us on this trip should not take along anything 
with which to trade, and that those who did not wish to 
accept this {'ondition nÚp;ht remain behind. rrhe
T all pr0111- 
eù 110t to take an

thing, nor to ha,Te any other purpose than 
the one we had, which was tlw glory of God and the good of 
souls. For t.his rea
on there was gi'Ten to then1 whatever 
was necessary for their preparation and for the Inaintenance 
of their falnilie
. But 
Ollle of then1 fai]ed to ahicle hy the 
agreell1ent, and secretl
T carried along "Tith the1n a 111unber 
of articles t.hat we did not know of until we were near to the 
'Ye urged upon an of the111 that none of th
nl should 
engage in any conllnercial transaction, in order that the un- 



belie-vel's illight under::;tand that a highE'r ll10tiye had brought 
us to these provinces. 'Ye said to the 
 that we 
were not in need of weapons, nor of people, hecause all our 
security and defense 1"fere in the Olllnipotent ann of God; 
and Andrés 
Iuiíiz, with his brother Lucrecio, feigning to be 
such obedient, faithful and good Christians, traded what they 
had secretly brought, and earnestly solicited weapons of the 
nnbelieyers, telling them' that they ,\yere in great need of 
theI11, because they were ab.out to pass through the territory 
of the COluanches; in 1"fhich InattE'r, to our great grief, they 
showed they had little or no faith, and proved their little 
fitness for enterprises of this kind. 
2d day of September. EarJy in the l1lUl'nillg the saUie 
people canle, and in larger nUlnbers than on Yt>sterday after- 
noon. They reiterated the arg'luuents they had used before, 
adding to the111 another and greater difficulty; becau
e they 
dissuaded the Laguna frollI his intention of guiding us] and 
they c0l11pelled hinl to return to us that ,,-hich we had paid 
him for guiding us to his country. After IUHTing argued lllOre 
than an hour and a half, without persuading the guide to 
take that 1"fhich he had once received, and fulfil his promise 
to us, and without their ceasing to oppose us, we told thenl, 
1"fith an earnestness that seenled fitting at such :1 juncturE', 
that since the Laguna had voluntarily agreed to aCC'Olnpany 
us to his country, and since they had p]aC'ed so 11lany diffiC'ul- 
ties in our "Tay, we knew clearly and for a certainty why they 
took away our guit1e, and 1"fhy they inlpeded our IJrogress, 
but that 'we "Tould not turn hack for anything they might do; 
that we would pursue anI' journey without any gnidf', eyen 
though the Laguna would not aceolllpany us; and that they 
should understand that we no longer considered tlWlll to be 
our friends. On hearing this they were sOlllewhnt lllollified, 
and the young luan who ha::; already heen lllentioned, hrother 
of the captain, Yanlputzi, addressed the others allcl said that 
since the way had been opened before us, and the ]..agnna 
had agreed to be our guide, it was not just that we should be 



enlbarrassed in any way; and ,,
hen he had ceased speaking 
of the matter another one, ,dlOnl they called a chief, followed 
with the saIne exhortation. Then aU said to the Laguna that 
he could no longer refu
e to acconllJany us; but he no longer 
cared to do so, influenced by what they had already said. 
fter luuch urging and flattery he recei'Ted his pay, although 
with SOlue he
itation, and agreed to go with us. 
The 'Tillage had already changed its location, and was 
nlo,Ting towards the spot occupied by the chief, YaullHltzi, at 
the tinw that "Te went out fronl the ::;tOllY place of 
an An- 
Iartir. \Ye did not know what direction to take, be- 
cause the guide who had repented of his bargain did not wish 
to go ahead, nor to tell us the way. He relnained near the 
yillage with the horse "Te had gi'Ten him, on the pret.ext of 
looking for a saddle, we following where the Bahaguanas had 
gone, although not wishing to, because we desired to leave 
thenl. "T e charged the interpreter to get hilll away a
as possihle, and tried to encourage hÌln. lie did so, and aU 
the Yutas having gone, the guide now showed us the road, 
and sent the interpreter to ten us to return where he was 
stopping. I-Iere we found him bidding good-bye to his coun- 
trynwn. "Tho relnained "Tith the Sabagl1anas, and they told 
him how to arrange the journey. 
...---\.1ong with the guide, 8ilyestre, we found here another 
Laguna, who "Tished to accOlnpany us. As .we had not known 
of his desire before, we had not provided a horse for hÌlu, and 
so as not to he long'er detained, Don .J uan .Lain took hinl be- 
hind on his ('rupper. 'rith great pleasure we left the road 
that led to the village, and with the two Lagunas, SiJ'Testre 
and thp ho

 that we named .T oaquin, we proceeded on our 
journey. and having gone ha('k a league to the west of San 
ntonio "Te took another road and traveled less than a league 
and three-quarters to the northeast, and n10re than a quarter 
to the west-northwest, and stopped in a s1nall yalley with fine 
paç;tnrage near a little river of good water
 which we called 
San Âtallasio; we journeyed oyer good ground, and through 



forests of poplar and thickets of sllwH oak. Today, three 
leagues, but really only two league
. Tonight it rained hard. 

d day of Septelnber. It began to rain again yery early 
in the Juoruing, and we were ohliged to stop until it eeaseÚ, 
and at eleven 0 'clock we left 
an ,Atanasio in a northerly 
direction, and after a <luarter of a league we took to the 
northeaf;t, through a valley of groves of poplars and pines 
with abundant water and pasturage. ,Ye WE'nt t\YO leagues 
and a <luarter. \Ye dropped to the north-northwest a league, 
and then to the north sOluething 1110re than three-quarters 1 
over good ground, SOlUe,y]mt hilly. hut not stony. passing 
through a forest of royal piIH:
;-;, poplars and thicket::; of sl11a11 
oak, very troublesome. ,Ye returned to the north nortlrwE'st, 
a quarter of a league, through a deep glen, through which 
flows as luuch 'water as a luediulll det:1p furro"W would hold; 
and although it does not flow through the entire glen, for in 
parts it is hidden entirely, "While in parts it flows again, and 
in parts in troughs like rain poob, it appears pel'l11anent. In 
n1any parts of the cañon there are little huts that sho"T the 
Yutas have calnped here. J:1--'oHowing the hed of the nnrille in 
which the streanl is hidden (it can 1Je seen frolli the northern 
bank) "Te traveled a league and a half to the llorthea
t, and 
halted ahnost at the foot of a lllountain ,,
hich the Yuta
abuncari, nanlÍng- the :-;toppil1g }Jlace San SiIYe
Today, se,ren leagues. 
4th day of Septelnher. ,Ye left San SilYestl'e in a north- 
"Test direction, following the bê:1Jne strl':nll; aft
l' a 
hort di
tance we turned to the west-northwest, and "
ent two leagues.. 
turning to the northwest; we c1inlhed a hill not yery high, 
leaving the hed of the streaUI to the south, and :Duong hill- 
ocks of a kind of brOOIll corn we went nlOl'e than half a 
league. \Ye went hy another sllwll riyf'l' that elltpl'S into the 
saIne sh'ealll we have spoken of; passing it, Wp c1Ï1nhe<l the 
summit of another hill, sOluewhat roeky. and g0ing a1nwst 
a quarter of a league to the southwe;--;t. we returned a
near the str
Then hy the southern hank and o,Ter a pl(1 in of ,,-ild-cane, 



we went SOllIe three-quarters of a league to the west, passing 
a bit of a lllountain of piñon, and entered into another 
canebrake, 'where were three Yuta WOlHE'n and a child, pre- 
paring the slllall fruits that they bad gathered along the 
streanlS and slnall riyers near by. 'Ve spoke to then}, and 
they gave us SOlliP of tlwir fruits, which were cherries, IÜlles. 
and pine nuts of this year's growth. The cherries that are 
grown in thé
e part
 are very sour, but dried, a s these Y utas. 
prepare theIn, are of a sweet-sour, and very pleasant taste. 
,y" e f'ontillued our journey, and having gone thrE'e and a half 
leagues to tlw west-northwe
t, fronl the /:,aid river, passing 
near cilbins of the Yutas, in the opening of whose settlenlent 
 a large stone standing like a washing stone, Wf' entered a 
glen or slllall vallpy of good pasturage. 
I-Iere there COlnes in another road, that fronl 

Iónica, and the River San Xa\"ier crosses at right angles the 
Hiel'l'a of the ,-,- f'nado Alazan, that we had descended to-day, 
and is uy one half shorter than the one we haye taken. ,'T e 
descended hy tlw cañon a little 11101'e than half a league to the 
northwest, and turned to the "\yest-northwest another half a 
league, ascenl1ing and descending a nJOnntain sOlnewhat steep 
hut without /:,tones, crossed a sl11a11 river of cool water, and 
halted on its bank, naming it and thl' little vaHey of good 
pasturage that is here, Hanta Uo
alia. Tonight and the night 
before we felt \Tery cold. 
Today, six leagues (two hundred and one frolH Ranta 
3th day of 8epteIuber. ,Ye left 
anta Rosa1ía in a north- 
west -diref'tion and ascended a hill free fronl tJ'ouhles01ue. 
stones, but ver

 stef\p, and near the sUlluuit very dallge)'ou
because there are turns in the road that are not lllore than 
third of a yard wide; the top is covered with soft, loose earth, 
so that it is very easy for the aniluals to slip. and if once 
tIter lost their footing it ,,
ould not he possible to regain it 
until t1wy reaehpd the plain helo,,
. The aSf'ent is lllore than 
a (luartel' of a league, of which we walked the half. 'Ye 
descended to a long glen that in parts proc1uce
 only sl1lall 



oak and cherries, and in other parts spruce and white poplar, 
and, going a little lllore than f?ur leagues to the northwest, 
\,\p caIne to a little llloulltain co,Tered ,yith juniper trees, 
crossed it, and came to a plain of good pa
ture in a ðll1aU 
gro,Te on the northern bank of the riyer. On this bank there 
ið a range of high Inountain
, and half-,yay up to the 
they are of yellow, white and reù earths n1Ïxed, and froni 
there to the extrPlue sUBunit the earth is white. Tl1Ï
is larger than that of the north, and, as they told us, it rises 
in a large lake that is in a range near (to,yanls the north- 
east) to the Grulla range. Its rourse frolli here is to the 
west-southwest, and it eUlpties into the Dolores ri,Ter. In 
its wide part it divides into two Lranches, and here the water 
caIne up to the breasts of the aniluals. 1S00ne that crossed 
higher up had to SWÜll in places. The ri,Ter was. as far as 
we could see, very stony, so that in the e'Tellt of a large COlll- 
pany ha'Ting to cro
s it, it would be better to ford it first on 
good horses. 
Today, five leagues. 
Tonight we obselTed the latitude, and found ourselves in 
41 degref's 4 nlinutes, and judging that ".e had not asrendcd 
so high since leaving Santa 
[ónica. and fearing we had 111adc 
sonle lllÌstake in tl1(\ oh
(,lTation. we cletprn1Ìned to nwkc it hy 
the sun on the following day, stoi)ping at a conyenient hour, 
where the Sabuaganas wouìd not annoy us. 
6th day of Rcpteulhel'. ,Ve leU the plain and the ri,'er of 
San Rafael (where there is nothing' suitable for a settle- 
Jnent), going weðt; wo .went dO,\"ll the rin:
r half a kague, 
another half by 
Oll1e caîíons to the west-northwest, leaving 
the riyer to the south; to the north,,-cst a quarter of a league, 
and over hroken ground "Tithont 
toue for a league and a 
quarter to the west, and a quarter to the west-northwest, 
where we travplpd nearly a lnile, and n('arly tW0 leagups far- 
ther to the west. o,Tpr b1'ok('u, Rt0l 1 Y ground, with lunch 
walnut, we rle:--cended to a EttIe valley wllf-re :flowed a slnall 
ri,Te1' of good ,yater. 'Ye halted on its bank near the only 



poplar tree that there ,vas, ,,,"hile sonle of our companions 
went on with the loaded and unloaded anÏ111als. \r e took 
obselTations, and found we 1\
ere in -11 degrees G minutes 5

seconds latitude, and in the observation of the night before 
there wa::; no 111istake. ,Ye overtook the rest, who were de- 
taÏIled and were quarreling with the guide, and trayeled t1\'O 
leagues to the northwest; by leaving the road that led up the 
rÏ"\Ter to the west, and as it seenled straighter. he took us by 
another road that, entering a cañon, went directly north. tell- 
ing us that although that road 1\ T ent through the cañon to the 
north, ""e ""ould soon turn to the west. Our c01npanion..;; 
aellluÜnted with the Yuta l[1nguage tried to convince us that 
the guide, Silvestre, had taken us h
r that road, in order to 
confusf' us by turns that ""ould not take us forward, or to 
lead us into SOlne ambuscade of Sabuagallas waiting for us. 
In order to make us more suspicious of the guide, they 
assured us of tIwir having heard lllany of the Sabuaganas in 
the village tell hinl to take us by the road that did not go b
the lake, and that after going eight or ten r1a.\
s in useless 
turnings we would have to turn back. A.lthough it 1\ T as not 
altogether unlikely that some had said this, we did not be- 
lieve that the guide would consent to it. Eyen though they 
had really succeeded in their design, none of our cOlnpanions 
had eyer told us anything like it, and they 1\ T ould have done 
so, because in the valley the people had not l'eased to enlarge 
ulJon other obstacles which were less to be feared, and which, 
in any evil that Inight occur, the)
 riskf'd as Hluch as we. 
,Ye well kne-w that going to thf' north it would be nlore 
roundabout; hut Silvestre told us that he took u
 by that 
road because in the other there 1\T;lS a high, dangerous 11101Ul- 
tain, so we wished to follo1\T his adyice; but all the e0111pany, 
except DOll .J nan Lain, urged us to go the other road, S01l1e 
because they feared unnecessarily HIP Cmnanches, and others 
û in taking that direction their personal in('lination
not in the least correspond with ours. At thi
 ti111e there 
arriyed a Yuta-Sahuaguana of the lnm.;f llortlwrn trilw, and 
told us that the road to the north went yery high np. 
o that 



we had to follow the we
t. Going hyu leaglle
 to tlw west, 
and crossing another slllall ri'Ter, 'we halted on its bank, 
nanlÎng the stopping place La [1ontraguia. 
e,Tell leagues. 
There were three yillages of Sa buagana
 here, frOlll which 
there canIt' six nlen, and alnong theln one who had just 
COlne fronl tllt' COlllHnehes-YaIuparicê:ls, where he had gone 
with four others to 
teal horsecs. He said that the COllwllche3 
had all gone away. rrhesp llWll left us and went hy the River 
Xapeste, or to the east. and we trayeled on with our C0111- 
panions. ThE'se :::;ahl1aganns ,,'ere HIP la:--t we saw. 
7th day of Reptp1llher. ,Ye left 1he Contragl1ia by a 
B1Ol1ntain pass, in vdlÌeh "Te went a league to the \H'st, and 
found a field of gootl pasture. ,'
 e W'3ut down by the 
pass to the nortlnyest, and having journeyed three le<1gue
we stopped a while for the aniluals to elI'ink, heeause w(
not know if "T(:' would find lllOre watf'l' tonight: afterwards 
we went in the SaIne direction a little lllore than a qua1'Ìpr of 
a league to the north-northeast, ascending a verr diffi('ult 
hill, thinking we wüuld ne,'er l"L'Hch the tdp; for. be
ing very rock
T, in parts thpre wa:-, no path, and in sonle parts 
the ground was so 100'-;(\ that the anilllals ('ould filHl no Sur(
place for tlwir feet. The :tsceut ,yas for half a ll
aguc, awl 
at the top there were fl3t, thin sto11e
, on "ThieÌl two loaded 
IHules lost their footing and rolled down hill HlOl'e than 
T yards. 
It pleaseJ U-oel that none of t11mn were "Tounded, and tho
that caIne after "'ere unhurt. ,y p elÌlnhed up afoot, and suf- 
fered Illueh fatigup 
l1l(I lllueh fright; 
o that we 1lH11wd the 
llloulltain La Jet Husto (The Frigh1). ()11 the Inonntain the 
guide ga,Te us an undouhted proof of his 
T antI illno- 
ceIwe; frOlll the sUllunit we trayelpd half a Ipaglw to the 
110rth-north"Test, Jescending into a short pass, where we 
halted at a pool of good hut 
('anty water, nmning tlIp place 
La Xati-ddad tIp Xllestra Señora (the Kativity of Our Lady), 
in "Thit'h w(> had fairly good pasture for the anilllab. 
Today, a little 11101'0 than five and a <!luu'ter leagues. 



8th day of 
epteIl1ber. "\Ve left the Natividad de KUf\stra 
Beñora going north, and proceeding half a league we canle 
to a river of good, living water, and goiug up a rocky "iloV e 
free frOlll 
 we touk a road over better ground than yes- 
terday, and went two leagueR and a half to the northwest 
over an extended plain of rising ground, and through SOllle 
forests of poplar, arriving at a high ridge, fron1 which the 
ilvestre, showed us the nlountains, on the northern 
slope of 'which lived the COlnanehes-Yanlparicas, that we saw 
to the north of the Sabuagana
, and on a point of the 
lì.lountain to the west, he showed Ui", were his people. ,Ye de- 
scended frOlll the sUlnlllÍt of the mountain hy a very high and 
rocky path, but without stones, and with thickets of sillaJl 
oak and cherry, that served to check the anin1als, so that they 
did not ::;lip or fall. ,Ye entered into a wide cauon and on a 
good l'oa(l, and having gone in the descflut of the Illountain a 
league to tlIP north-northwest, we descended by the SaIne to 
the north a league and a half, and stoppel1 for the anÏ1nals 
to drink, beca URe a large streanl of water flows through the 
cañon frolll here down. 
In the afternoon we cmÜinued through the (.añon down 
stream, and going a league to the west-llorth\yest, we stoppd 
in a field of good pasturage, hut without water, heeause herfl 
there is no streanl. ,\T e cal1ed it 
anta Delfina. 
Today, five leagues. 
9th day of Septenlber. ,Ve left the plac
 of Santa Delfina 
hy the salue cañon, and went haH a league to the northwest, 
going down to the llorth-northwe
t. Passing through the 
cañon for nine leagues in this direetion hy a well-beaten path 
and with only one had spot, Wf> crossed the stream. Going 
through a fore
t of high reedç;, or cane, that i" called latiIla, 
we eaIne out of tlw cauoll. In the IllÌddle of this cañon, to- 
ward the south, tlwre is êl Yel'Y high rot'k on which we 
ruòely painted, three shielc1i" anò a lance, or spear. Farther 
down on the north side we sa"
 anothpr painting whi('h SOIne- 
what resembled two nlen fighting, and we ('aUed it the Cañon 
Pintado (Painted Cañon). It is the only way to go froIll the 



SUIllU1Ït ùown to the river, the rest of the way being very 
broken and stony. Un this sallIe 
ide of the cañon, near to 
the exit, we found a yein of llletal, but we were ignorant of 
the kind and quality. One of the COlllpany selected a piece, 
uncovered frolll tlIP vein, and showed it to u
, and Don 
Bernardo )[iera thought it to be "That the 111Ïners caB 
tepustete"", and that it Wê18 an indication of the presence of 
gold. 'Ye cannot 
ay definitely. nor will we, as we have not 
had experience in llline
, and as a 1110re careful exalnination 
would be nece
sary, for which we cannot now spare the tiule. 
Passing the cañon we traveled half a league to the north- 
est, arriving- at a riyer that we n
nlled San Clelnente, 
rrossing it and halting on its northern bank, where there was 
a slnall plain of good pasturage. This river is of nlediuln 

ize, flowing to the we:-;t, and the country adjoining it is not 
good for a settlenlent. 
Today, ten leagues. 
10th day of 
eptelnber. .L

,according to tllf> interpreter, the 
guide was certain that the next watering place was very far, 
anll even thongh "
e should leave early we could not reach it 
during the day, we decided to divide our journey, and so, 
after the Iniddle of the day, we left the 
an CleInente river 
in a northwest clin
ction, o'
er rising ground, without stones, 
and across s111a11 plains without gra:-;s or trees
 anrl oyer very 

oft ground, and continued one league, Jropping to lhe we:-;t- 
northwest arro:-;s land a 11n08t 1eyel, but full of dry stremns 
and gullies for t\\O league
. ..1s it was now night, and as in 
the dark the going would be uncertain anll dangerous. Wt:\ 
stopped in the hed of a 
trealll which we callefl El Barranco. 
There was neither ,yater nor grass in it, Juaking it necessary 
to "\nlteh the anilua1R, and keep thelll corra1ed all night. 
Fl'OlU the riv{'r here we "\yput in a straight 1Ïne without path, 

*Tepustctf' is derin>(l from the Xah:lUU word tepustf'tl, meaning- metal- 

tonc, and i
 not found in Sl1anish dictionflrif>s. It is fin iron 11)Tite, or in 
f'ome ill
tanc('s an ars('nical pyrite, comnlOn]y known among miners hy its 
Cornifo;h name "mUlH1Ïe:' anl1 when 
howing on the fo;urf:1f"e of the ground is 
popularly suppo
ed to fOl'1ll the eapping of the yein wbieh will lie Leneath. 



because although there are ;:;everal, they are paths lnade by 
the herds of buffalos that COllle do-wn aud winter in these 
Today, three leagues. 
11th day of Septeulher. .dH soon as we could see well we 
left the Barranco, in a west-northwest dirertion, aud trav- 
eled a league and a half through streanu; and gulche
, but 
somewhat lllore elevated than those of yesterday, and in one 
of theln we CaUlf' to a snwll pool of ".ater in which the ani- 
Inals could drink. ,r' e continued OIle league to the west- 
northwf'st and clÏlnbed an elevation not very high, from 
which we went three lpagues over good laud with fair ])DS- 
turage. Perceiving at SUll1e distanee a grove, we asked Sil- 
vestre if that was not the large stream to which he "Was taking 
us, and he said no; that it was a slllall streHlll and not a river, 
but that now we could get water. ,,- e went toward it and 
found sufficient water for ourselves and for the aninlals, that 
were now very tirf'd, thirsty and hungry, and one of the 
nudes was 1:,0 tired that it 'was necessary to take off his load 
so that he could get to the water. \Ye turned half a league 
to the north. 
Today, six leagués. 
...\t a short distance froln the gully we saw recent traeks 
of buffalo, and in the plain tllPY were fresher, and wpnt the 
direction we were going. ,Ve 11ad now but a Slllall supp1r of 
provisions for the distance we had to travel, heeanse of the 
quantity we had given to the 8abuagallas and the other 
Yutas; and so a little hefore ,,'e arrived at the stl'eanl two of 
our companions left, following the tracks we had sepll, and a 
]ittle after n1idday returned, saying they had seen a huffalo. 
,Ye sent others on the swiftest horses, and after going a 1>out 
three leagues they killed it, and returned ,,'ith a larg'p portion 
of nlt'a t (lunch luore th
n a COlnmOl1 large bull has) ; it was 
half-past seven at night. ,rp disposed of it, so tlwt the heat 
woulc1 not spoil it; and at the saU1e {Üne. that the horses 
nlight rest, "Te did not travel on the 12th frOlll this stopping 



place, which we llallled the .L<\rroya del Cíbolo (Buffalo 
Greek). TOllight it rained for several hour
13th day of Septenlber. .L-\hout ele\Ten 0 'clock in the lllorn- 
ing we left the Arroyo del Cíbolo oyer a plain that is at the 
foot of a sluall range ",,
hich the YutaB and the Laguna
Sahuagari; it extend...; frOlll east tv ",,'est, and one 
ee;:; its 
white rorks frOln the high, rising plain that is in front of the 
Cañon Pintado. Going three leagues and three-quarters to 
the "Test, we arrived at a flow of water known to the guidl
which is at the foot of the lllountain alnlost at its western 
point; we continued in the sallW direction a quarter of a 
league, by a well-beaten path near to which, towarùs the 
south, rise two full springs of fine water, within a gunshot 
of each other, that ",,
e nauwd the E-'uentes de Santa Clara 
(the Fountain
aint Clara). On ac('ount of the 1l10isture 

 conllllunicate to the small plain which they water and 
which ahsorb
 them this land produce
 good and ahundant 
pasturage. Fron1 here we traveled a league to the north- 
west, hy the saille traiI, and crossed a 
tream that conle..., 
froill the plain of the Fuentes, and in which are large tanks 
of water. Fronl here, and on rlown, there il"ì in its va1Iey, 
which is broad anc11evel, good and ahundant IJaðturage. ,Ye 
crossed it again; we rlÏIllhed several hills covered with sn1all 
stones, and having journeyed two leagues to th0 northwest, 
we arrived at a large riyer, which we caBed the San lJuena- 
To-day, six leagues. 
 river of 
an DuenaveIlÌura is the large
t that we haye 
crossNl, and is the same one that :B-'ray .,Alonso de Posada 
says, in his report, separates the Yuta nation froIll the Co- 
nlanche, if we 111ay judge h
T the df:::5criptiün he giYf!::5 of it, 
and the distanre he sa
Ts it is frolll 8anta Fe. .And i t i
tainly true that on the northea:st and north it is the hOllnd
line between these twu peoplé
. It
 COl1rðe fron1 this point is 
west-southwest; frolH the region above this point to where 
we now are its courR{' is to the west. It fOrIlls a jUll('iion "",ith 
the riyer of 8an Clelnente; but we do not know if it does so 



with othpr rivers previously lnentioned. There is here a fine 
plain abounding in pa
turage and fertile, arable land, pro- 
yided it were irrigated, which luight be, perhaps, a little nlore 
thau a league in width, and SOllIe four or fil'e leagues in 
length. entering in between two llloulltains; the spRee taking 
the forIlI of a corral, and the 1110111ltains cOIning so close to- 
gether that one can hardly distinguish the opening through 
,dlÏch the riyer flowf-;. Thp riyer cau be crossed only at the 
one fording plaee, whieh our guide a ...sured us was in this 
neighhorhood, to the Wf'st of the lnountaill that stood farth- 
est to the north, clo
e to a range of hills cOIl1posed of loose 
earth of a leaden color, and, in places, of a yellowish tinge. 
The bottom is fun of bluall stones, and the river so deep that 
the llIules ('ould not ('ross it except by swinuuing. "\Ye stopped 
on its southerll bank ahout a lllÌle froln the ford. 'Ye called 
the stopping place the 'Vega de 
anta Cruz (the Plain of the 

 Cross). ,Ye took ohservations by the polar star, and 
found ourselyes in 41 degrees 19 nlÎnutes latitude. 
14th day of 8eptelnher. ,Ye did not travel today, },clnain- 
iug here so that the anÍlllal". 'which seelned tired, could re
before IllÍdday 'we nsed tlw quadrant to confirul onr oh
tion by the sun, and found ourselves in 40 degrees 59 lnin- 
utes and :24 ;:;econds. Judging that the discrepancy n1Ïght be 
caused by SOllle variation .in the needle, in order to find out 
we secured the quadrant to ob
erve th(:> north star, whi('h 
relllains on the nleridian of the COIllpass at night. 80 
as the north F:tar was yisihle, the quadrant lwing on the 
u1eridian, we ob
erved that the nef'(lle turned to the north- 
east. \,
 e again lllade the observation of the latitude by the 
north star, and found the smne, 4-1 degrees 10 luinutes, as on 
the preeec1ing night. 
In this place are six large black poplarð, that haye grown 
together in pail':-;, ('lose to the river; not far frolll ihelll one 
 alone, and on this IOIlP one and on the northwe:-;t side 
of its trunk Don Joaquin Lain engraved, with a chisel, this 
inscription: " Year 1776." .L\..nd lower dnwu
 in a different 



letter, "Lain," .with hyo cros
es, the larger one ahoye the 
inscription and the slnaller one below. 
11ere we ohtained another buffalo, snlaller than the first, 
though we took but Ettie Uleat, finding 01u'seh?e8 very far 
from cmnp, and it was getting late. It also happ{'ned thi
l110rnillg that the Laguna, .J oaquin, frolllu1ÌsC'hief, 1110untec1 a 
yerr vicious hor
e, 1yhich fen, throwing the feUow SOIne dis- 
tance. ,Ye 1\
ere HI11Ch frightened, thinking that tlw fall had 
injured the Laguna, 1\
ho, recoyering from his fright. began 
to shed tears and cry aloud; but God perll1Ïtted that the 
horse received all the wounlls, injuring his neck, ::w.l1 so being 
15th day of Repteluber. ""T" e lllade no progress to-day, be- 
cause of the rea:-;ùn 1\?e have Iuentioned. 
10th day of :Septenlber. Leaying the plain uf Hanta ('Cruz, 
(on the river ûf Buenflventura), we 'Y{,lÜ up the ri,?er a hout 
a n1Ìle to the north, reaclwd the ford, and cro
sed the river; 
we turned to the west and went a league along the nOl'tlwr!1 
bank and plain of the river, cro:-;;sing another 
lnaller one 
that flowed down frOll1 the nortlnn
st, HIJd enten'd into this 
one frollI the 
anle plain. ,Ve turned to tlw south-southwest 
one leagu{', and cro,;.;sec1 another sI11a1l riyer, but a Ettle larger 
théln the first one, that flo1\'ed d01\-n fr0Jll the smHC northwest 
direction, and entered into the river. 
:F"rmll both of these riyer:-; the land on the hank:-; L'oul(1 be 
irrig'ated, Iuaking thellI vpry good for planting, hut \\'ate:... 
(.ould not be carried fronl the larger riyer. 'Ye JH'o('('eded to 
the soutllW"est, leaving the riyer that ran to the south, over 
lJrokell table-lands, and in place-; full of small stones; we 
descended to a dry stream, fr0l11 a high, rU('ky hilL whose 
ascent on the other <3i(1c is not '30 bad. _\s 
oon as we 
aBeendec1 we found tracks on
 or two days old as if luadE' hy 
twelve horses and lllen on foot. EXrrJllinÏL1g the tr[lek
they seelIled to show that for SOllie tinw the llwn h
d been 
hiding in the highf\st part of the lllOuntain. \\"1" e suspeeted 
that they were SOllIe Habuaganas who had follo"\\ed us, think- 
ing to steal our aniluals in this stopping place, perfonning 
an act very sin1Ílar tu "hat we had attributed to the Co- 



Juanche..." or rather, to the Yutas. 
Iore than that, the guide, 
tl'e, gave u
 ad{litional foundation for our 
f01' the night before lw 
eparated hilw..('lf a 
hol't distance 
frOln the ralll!) to f'leep, as if by accident. During our "Whol
lnareh he had not u-.;ed tlH' blanket that we had gi\yen hÍlll, ancl 
today he left tlw emn!, ,,
ith it on, nut l"<'H1oying it all day, 
we suspected that he put it on so a;;; to be l'ceognized by the 

ahuaganas in case he should leavp u:-:. Our suspicions were 
further arou
ed by hi:-; pausing for a time. as if thinl:ing and 
acting confused, when we reached the hill where we had found 
the tracks, wishing to proceed hy the river, and now by this 
road. He g'avp us no open rea
un ,,-hatevcl' for our suspi- 
pions, entirely eoncealing his real intention:-:, and in the prog- 
ress of our tra\yels he ga\ye us aluple proof
 of his innocence. 
'Ye touk the ::,anle dire<.:tion as the tracks and de
cencled again 
to the river of San Buena relltura, wlll-'re we 
aw, in the 
leafy grove and on the plain, that those \1:ho Inade the traC'ks 
had been hut a 
hurt tìulE' before us. ,re procl::'edpcl along the 
plain acro
:-- 10\\ ground and haltcd on another pbin with 
good pasturage, by the hank of the river, nalnillg the halting 
place Las Llag'as <If-' t)an Prau('isco (the "... ouncls of 
Prancis); and, haying cro

ed tllt' hills, rough ground, 
Jllountains and the plains all'eacly spoken of, we had journeyed 

ix league
 to the soutlnypst; in all the di
hm('f' eight leagues. 

\s f;OOIl a:-- we Rtopped, two of our ('o1l11mllions went oyer the 
tracks to the 
outhwf'st, to explc.re the irnnlediate eOllutry,. 
and they l'Olwludec1 that tllP tracks were lnac1e by the 00- 
lith day of Septem her. '''''" e left the plain of La') IJag"as 
de N. P. 
an Franci
co, going soutll\yest, a
('elHling SOllIe low 
hills, a league farther on, we left the road we Wf'le going, 
,vhich foIlo"e<1 the tracks of the men and horses. SihYe
told us they wflre COlnanches that "ere l1ur
ming the Yuta
who probahly had been out hunting huffalos. He conyinced 
 of this as lnu('h hy the direetion in which they "Wcut as by 
other signs that they left. 'Ye croRsec1 a dry f;tream, RPcpIHled 
a low hill, and proceeded a league and a half to the "est, oyer 



good ground, :--01uewhat arid, and ('anle to a high HlOuntain 
SUllllnit, froln whieh the guide showed U1-; the junetion of two 
, the 

llI ClenlE'nte and the San Buenaventura. that 
from here join on the 
outh. ,\T e deF-i('puded to a large plain 
bordering' another ri,rpr and went a league and a half to the 
t. reaching the junction of the two riY<.>r
 that flow from 
the llloulltain whi{'h i
 near here, and to the north of the ri,Ter 
of San BnenayellÌura and flow together to the ea
t, until they 
join "With the river of 
an ßuenaventura. 
ehe more eaf'tern 
river before its junction flows to the soutlwast, and 'H' named 
it the San Dmnian; the otlwl' fio,,'s ea:-;t. and we nailled it the 
Hall C01-;llle. ,Ye went \\
est by thi::, latter one, and traveled a 
league to thf' west, finding near the river the ruins of an an- 
cient village, in whirh \yere renlnants of 
tra\Y Hlats, jugs and 
pitehers lnad(' of clay; the fOrIn of tll(-' village wa
 round, a
Bhown by the ruins, and alnlost entirely surrounded by an 
eIllhanluuent. Going to the soutlnyeF-it hy a plain that is be- 
tween the two rivers, we ascended smne sHlall hills of loo
stone:-;, very had for the anÏlllals which were already injured. 
,Ye de:-;cended to another plain of the riyer San CO:-;Jlle, and 
haying gone half a league to the southwest and a leag'ne and 
a half h

 this plain, we halted in it and called it La Hibera de 
Sau Co
nIe (the Bank of St. COKmas). 
Today, eight leagues. 
Shurtly :;:.fter llaying 
tovped, at the fuut of the 1110U11- 
tain, we 
aw :-;moke, and asking the guide ",lIOnl he thought 
had caused it, he replied that prohahl

 SOUle COlIlanehe1-j. or 
SOlne of the Laguna:-;, who had emUIJcd here while hunting. 
lRth day of Sept em her. 
,Ye left the Hihera <1(' San Co'.ane. and the guide. WiKhillg 
to ero
:-; to the other side uf the river, and gu along it. led 
us through a forest 01' hnuuhle of ei
tlls almost inlpellPÍ rahle, 
and into a large luar:..;hy pla('p till at laKt we were ('Ollll)(>lled 
tû return, and rl'o:-:
 the rivcr three tinl('
, eau:-;illg" us lnauy 
s turll
; then O\Tpr a nearhy hill and its plain we wput 
three leagues to t he :::;outlr\\e
t; going dtHrn to the we 1-j t- 
southwest a league. we cro:-;:-;ed the riyer tll(' Hfth tÎnlC and 



now proceeded oyer the plain. where we traveled three 
league:-: and a lluarter, ascending a high tahle-lane}. at the 
top very stony, and tnl\Teled three-quarters of a league, in- 
cluding the going up and cOIuing dO"Wll; crossing another 
sll1all ri\Tcr that flo,,
s hy here and enters into the 
an Co
we nauled it the Santa Catarina de 
ena, anQ call1ppd on its 
bank. To-day, Hine leagues. Fronl the village of the 
 and the ('anl}) of 
an Antonia )IÜrtir to this point we 
counted eighty-eight league", and fronl Santa Fé t"Wo hun- 
dred and eighty-se\Ten. 
Along the three rivers which we have cro
sed to-day thß 
ground, with intelligent cultivation and irrigation, having 
heautiful groves, good pasturage and timber and woo(lland 
not far away, could support three good settlelllents. 
FrOlll the country of the ()onlanches there de
,('ends a 
range of mountains very long and high, extending northeast 
outhwest to thp land of the Lagunas for perhaps seventy 
leagues, which towards the north of the river 
an Buenaven- 
tura, at this tinle of year, has the highest tops and peaks 
with snow; fronl "Which we luulled it 
ierra Blanca de 
las Laguna
 (the \Yhite Range of the Lakes), whi('h we 
will begin to ascend and cros::, to-morrow "Where it ;:;eelns the 
19th day of 
\Ye left the River of 
anta Catarina de 
en3, going to 
th0 northwest without a trail; "We asC'eneled a hill who
e top 
wa:s leycl and 10"W, hut yery I-;tony. and "Went a quarter of a 
league, descending to the "West. \Ye went down to tlw bank 
of the river San CO
llle, and traveled on it two leagues and 
a (lUarter, turning luany tillle
. the ground h{'ing ahllost Ìln- 
...;ahle, sOlnetiln
;::, on account uf the stone:-:, and :-;Ollletillles 
for the preC'ipiees that are \'ery- steep; on one of thenl one 
of the hor
es wa:-; injured, so that we hacl to go hark a nlile, 
anù go down to the other bank of the ri\'er; we pas:-;ed it, 
hrpaking through a fore
t of cane and high reeds, and half a 
leagup to the west we descended to the northea;";t, taking the 
bed of the 
treanl for the road, and now going up the range, 



ana then cleseenòillg to the river of t;an CO
llle, we followed 
the ra\Tine, which we did not know led us to a eañon :::;hut up 
and very high in e\Tery part, illlpa
sable except by the hed of 
the stre:Ull. In the ll1Îddle of the ravine there is another 
gulch that run
 frOlll north to BOlIth. ,Ye eontinne<l going to 
the northwest, and proceecling four league
, which took Ufo; to 
the -we
t-northwest hy its llUlny tllrn
, 1ye Callle out of the 
'....añon, whieh we ('aIled de la
 Golonrlrinas (Cañon of the 
S-wallo"Ws), froni having found in it luany nests of théBe 
birds, fonned with fiO uluch regularity that they looked like a 
little village; we now went through a 
tl"eteh of burnt wood- 
land of good soil, and half a league to the west-northwest 
we descended to the "West and ascended again a rising ground 
long and hilly, and deseending Ollee lllOre "We eallle to a plain 
crossed a "Well-beaten path frOlll north to south. Leaving 
the plain, we de
cended into the rocky bed of a strennl, whic'h 
Wf-> eaIled San Estw-ll1Ïo, having gone two league
 and a half 
to the wet;t. This "Watering-place is perennial and full, and 
in it there is abundant grass. ,Yea l'rived very tired, be- 
cause the roaù was diffieult, and all day a cold wind had been 
blowing frOlll the west. 
Today, ten leagues. 
:20th day of Septenlber. 
,Ve left Ran rJustacIllÎo, and we al
o lost here one of our 
strongest horses that had died, being the one that at Ranta 
Cruz on the river of t;an BUenayelltura had hi
 neck injured. 
"\Ve went in a 
outlnYest dire('tion oyer ri
ing ground, de- 
scending to the west a little less than three leagues and a 
quarter, O\Ter a difficult woodland eo-n--'red with 
lllall 1\
trees; we entered a short glen, wide in parts, and a quarter 
of a leagllf' to the south-1-;outhwest, WC' turned to tlIp "
descending to a blnall river that flo1\ T s to the east, probahly 
the one that we nalned the San COSlllC; "e ero
sed the river 
to the south-southwest, and went up an pxtensiye rising 
ground, and going a luile farther we dropped to the :-,outh- 
west ahout two leagues, throngh a lnountain pass Yer
T pleas- 
ant and with good pa:-!turage, in which we fOHlHl a large pool 



of good water, 'Which we ('aIled Ojo de Santa Lucia (tlie 
Spring of Saint Lucy.) Tonight it ,yas 
o cold that the 
water that wa
 near the fire all night becanle iee LeforE' 
Today, five leagues. 
21st day of :::;eptenlber. 
Going from the spring' of Saint Lucy to the southwe
through the :-;alue pass that we had just ascended and thence 
through a forest of poplar
 a quarter of a league farther, we 
turned to the 'Wpst a leagup and three quarters, oyer rough 
tÍIllber lands, through llIoulItain passes of soft earth with 
many charcoal pits, or bnwll holes hidden anlong a rank 
growth of weeds, in which every nloment the aninlals sank 
and fell; tlwn we def'cended hy a sluall ri,
er filled with fine 
trout, of which the Laguna Joaquin with an arrow killed and 
caught two, each one of which weighed lllore than two pounds. 
This river run" to the southeast, through a pleasant Yane

of goull pasturage, nlan
T !:;pring
, and beautiful forests of 
white poplar, not high nor large. It is a good location for a 
village 'With an that is needed. \Ye nanlE'd it the Y" aUe de la 
Purísiula (the ,r alley uf the 
Iost Pure). The gnidp Sil- 
vestre told us that for some tÌIne a large t,ettleIllent of La- 
gunas had lived lwre, 'Who had suhsisted mostly on the fish 
froln the river, aud that they had left through fear of tll() 
, who began cOIning into this part of the ::5ierras. 
'Ye crossed the river and as('f>nd('d the rising plain of the 
yaney, and guing a league to thp south-southwest, \\e de- 
scended to the west through a mountain pat,s of bad travel- 
ing, and after three-quarters of a league, "
e cros
ed a small 
river of very cold water. 
'Ve continuèd to the west another quarter of a league, 
and entered a forest of white poplar, slllall oak and cherry, 
and royal pine, and frolH thi
 forest we took th
ascent of a mountainous pass, and went a league to the west 
and a quarter to thp south, crossing oyer to the other side. 
The guide, wi
hing to trayel faster than we were able, went 
so fast that at every step he was hidden from us in the forest; 



we could not fol]ow hinl, because asidp fronl the den
ity of 
the fore
t, there 'YêlS no path, and we could not find hi;:; trail. 
,Y' e eontinued through the fore
t, and the farther we went 
the nlore dense it uecanle, until after going half a league to 
the we::;t, we canle out of it upon a 
lnall high hill, frOlll which 
the guide showed us the 
ide on whi('h was the lake; and to 
the ::south-east of thi::s anuther part of the t;ierra in which he 
liyed, he told us, and also a great lllauy people f-.peaking the 
Sallle language and of the ScHne great trihe as the Lagunas, 
FruIn this hill w(' well t to the 
ou t hwes t aqua rtel' of a 
league and went down it to the we
t, hreaking through brush- 
wood of cherrr and sllwll oak, almo
t iluppnetrahle till we 
came to another forest, through ,yhich we thought the pac-ks 
could not pa
:-; ",,'ithout unloading the animals. In this forest 
the guide continued to annoy llS hy his fast going, 
() that we 
were obliged to stop hÜll and not pel'luit hiul to go on alone. 
In this thicket 
--'ather Atanasio receiyed a 
eYerp blow 
on the knee. Finally we desC'enùed to a deep and narroW" 
opening between the Inountain
, with llHWh trouhle and diffi- 
culty. and finding there ahundant pasturage. nlOle than in 
any other part of the range, and water for ourselyps and the 
anÏ1llals, we 
topped after haying gone a league to the ",,
llHlning the place Han 
lateo (
aint ::\[atthew). 
Today, six leagues and a half. 
This is the ('oldest night Wf' lwye had. 
d day of 8e1>tel11be1'. 
uutheast we left 
lateo hy the northern in- 
cline of the pass, in whie'll there were l11êlUY narl'OW <I('files 
aud UlallY slippery and dallg
l'OUS places, without 
- ruad 
exeept the une we wer<.
 breaking, and oyer the rocks and 
 of the Bien'a. _\. t eyel'Y stp}) hpr(' we 

ere ohliged to 
change our dil'e('tion aud llwkf' llUlllY turll
. going unly fiyC' 
leagues, they said, ascending hil1
 and ùescendinp; to the 
plains. Froln the nloulItain we de
('ellde(l to a 
ho1't plain, 
where two SIlUl-U l'iyers joill going to the south
.-t two 
leagues. The aninlals were yery tired, and as there was 
lnuch good pasturage we halted, and nanled the place Ran 



Lino. Today, we haye gone 
íx lea
, ,,
hich, because of the 
luany turns that we had to ll1ake in leaying 
brought us three leagues to thp we
FrUIn the top of the last peak ".e could see pillars of 
snloke ri:o\ing", not yery far away and in front of u
. The 
guide :-:aid that they were sonle of his people who were then> 
huntiug. ,Ye attelllpted to get into COll1nlUnieation with 
them, to let thenl know that we were not <
nelnies, ;0;0 that 
they 111ight not try to get away from us or l'e('eiye us with 
arrows; they continued to raise lllore foilnoke in the opening" 
through which we would IUHYe to enter tu get to the lake, and 
this-Hlade us helieye that they had already 
een us; for 
is the fir
t and lllOst C01111110n sign whi('h in case of Rurpl'ise. 
all the people in thi::; part of Allleril'ê1 use. ,Ye told 
that (luring the night he lllUSt be yery careful, for if any of 
thenl should know of our arriyal, the

 Inight ('onle near to 
Hee what kind of people we were: and ahont two 0 '('luck in the 
lllorning, the hour in which. according to hi!" idea, S01ne of 
them illight corne near, he talker1 a long time in a loud yoice, 
in his own language, giying thenl to uIHler:o\tand that we were 
quiet people and goud friend
. ,y (--' au not know if anyone 
heard him or not. 
d day of Septenlher. 
Sow that we had al'riyed at the lake rCtah), in unlel' that 
ter and .}oa<luill might enter their country feeling' affe('- 
tion for us, we ga\'e to ea('h of theul a yard of woo1en doth 
and another of red rihholl, and they illlulPdiately put tllPIll 
OIl. Sih.e:-:ter (:ast around hi::; body the blanket "Te had for- 
lllerly giyen hilll, and then arranged in a turban around his 
head the woolen cloth, leaying the two end:::; hanging down 
 shoulders. ,Yhen he u10unted his horse he ren1Ïllded us 
of the re(lf'Plllefl f'apti\yes "hif'h the Hedpillptorist Father
('arry in their 1>ro('es
ion OIl the feast day of Our Lad


[ercy; and this "a:-, a prophe('y tu Wi of the freeing of these 
people, who
e liherty we desireå and 1wsought of the Re- 
deeuler of the world, throngh the ïutf'rl'ession of ni

Iother, who in order to entourage 
o praiseworthy an ohject, 



was willing to accept the deyotion the Church gave her to- 
day. 'Ye left San Lino very early, going 
t. 'Ye 
went up a short hill, and at the top we canle across an im- 
Inense ant-hill, conlpo
ed f'ntirely of 
lllan pic('e
 of alum, 
very pure and crystalline. ,r e descended to the sll1all ri,rer 
of San Lino, and journeying for a leagw-' along the le,rel 
pastures on its banks, without leaving the river, but going 
down stream, we turned towards the west. IIere another 
8111a11 streaUl forms a junction with it, and along the banks 
of both of thenl there are fertile 
pots that would make de- 
lightful pastures, Pursuing our way to the west three-(l Uar - 
tel's of a league down stream, we saw and pa
sed by three 
prings of hot water, of which we tasted, and found 
that it is of the sanlP sulphurous character as that whiC'h i.
in the vicinity of San Diego de 10s 'Hemes, in New 
'Ye continued our way in a westward direction SOlIle three- 
quarters of a league. 'Ye entered the narrowest portion of 
the canon of the river, and turned towards the north about a 
n1Ïle. IIere we found three other hot springs, yery similar to 
those just mentioned, and all of thE'Ill IUHre their risf' in an 
excE'edingly lofty mountain, very clû
e to the rivE'I' on thi
northern side, and they flow into the ri'Ter; for this reason 
"Te called it the Riyer of ...
guascalipntes (IIot "
ater). In 
this narrow part of the (>añon there are SOll1e places very diffi- 
cult to pass, but they are easily repaired; we continued to 
the northwest half a league, crossi11g to tll(' other side of the 
l'Ì\Ter; ascended a low hill and beheld the lake and extended 
r of XUf'
tra Senora de la )[cn'cd de los TÜ11panogotzis, 
 we ealled it; we also saw sllloke arising fronl all parts, 
the news of our entrance having gone before us. 
'Ve now desC'pndf'd to the le,Tel at the entrance of the 
valley, crossing to the other side of the river again, and going 
more than a league by its extended plains along the northern 
bank, we cros
e<l to thp opposite hank and halted on one of 
its southern plains, which we llaIlled \'" ega del DulC'Ísimo 
Kombre de Jesus (Plain of the S"reet N
nl1e of Jesus). 
Today, fh'e leagues and a half, 



,Ye found the grass of the plain
 where we callIe recently 
burned O\Ter and others already hurning, fronl which we in- 
felTed that the
e Inaian
 had thuught us to be COlllan('he
or other enemie
; and a
 they had prohably been that we were 
bringing aniulals, it had been their intention to de
troy the 
pasturage along our way. bU that ùeeau
e of the lack of this 
we would be òbliged to leave the yalley sooner. But as it is 
so largr aud broad, we eould not ò.o it in 
o short a time, 
eyen though tlle3 T had put fireb e\'erywhere. For this reason 
lllall part reulaining in this location, ab soon as we 
had halted, Father 
-'rancis('o AtanH
io, with the guide 
tre, his eUllllJaniun J OH<lllÍll and the interpreter ::\Luñiz, 
left for the first of the bettlelnents, and going a
 rapidly as 
po:-;sible, though the horses "ere F;O fatigued, in order to 
arrive this afternoon, they went six ]eague
 and a half to 
the north-llorthwe
t. They arrived, and were receh'ed Ly 
80lne of the men with their wea pon
T to defend their 
faluilies and hOlnes. But as soon as SihTestre had spoken to 
theIn. they changed their warlike appearanee to thp Inost 
courteous and 
inIple expressions of peace and affection. 
They took theul \Tery cheerfully to their siulple huti-i, and after 
they had ernbraeed theul in a singular Inallner, and signified 
to them that they desired peace, and that they lOYed us a;; 
luuch as our hest friends, the Father gave thenl opportunity, 
so that they could talk at length with our guide Silvf\stre, who 
gave them an account of what he had observed and 
een. and 
spoke so Hluch in our fa\Tor, of our (le
ign and work. that we 
could not have wislH:,a fur anything better. 
He told thenl at length of how well we had treated hin1, 
and how much lw 10\Ted us, and alllong ot1wr things he told 
them with great batisfaction that the Lagunas had said that 
the Comanches would kill U
, and would take frolll u
 our ani- 
mals; and that we had gone through the country that they 
frequented lllo
t, and even cro
sed their recent tracks; that 
we had not changed our course, nor had we seen them; verify- 
ing what the Father had said; that God .would free us from 
all our enelnies; so that eyen though we passed through t.heir 

] ï6 


country they "ould not hanll U:-:, nor we disturl) thelll. I[e 
concluded by 
aying that tlw Father::; 
puke unly the truth, 
that eYeryhod
T could trayel in their cOInpany without danger, 
and that onl
T the Spaniard
 were good people. He ('onfirIHe(1 
then1 1110re in this helief hy their seeing that the hoy Joaquin 
o careful of us that, unlniuclful of hi
 own people, he 
would not leave the Father except to care for tlw aninlêtl
that Wé brought. He hardly cared to talk to his people, nor 
eyen to nÜngle with then1, but only to ren1aln near the v"lather, 
sleeping in any vacant pla('e near his fo;ide. That waR a Inat- 
tel' that ('ansednluch 
urpl'ise nut Gnl
T tu hi
 own people, hut 
also to u:" that one who wa:'\ a Inere child, and an Indian who 
had ne\Ter hefore :-:een either priest 01' 
panianl, should act 
in thiH way. 
...\fter talking a long tiIue about thi
, and Inan
T gathering 
frolll tlw lwar yillages, and our gi\'illg thelll sOJllPthing to 
Hllloke, tlIP F\ttlwr g'êt\Te thelll to understand, b
T llleans of th\.
interpreter and 
ilYestre, that our llluti\Te in cOIlling to theHI 
was to bring theln the light, the principal lllOÜ\'e heing' to 
seek the fo;alyation of their soul:-:, HIHl to ShO"T thPlll the n1Cans 
b)T .which they cuuld obtain it. The first al1d 111u
t ne('e
being, to beJieye in the only true God, to lon:\ IIilll and to 
c'>bey Jlinl entirely, doing all that His holy and il1lIUêlculate 
law delnallded; and that they "Would tea('h thelll ('l(\arly and 
T all tIlil'. and that they would g-ire to then1 the hol
T \Yate
of hal'tisnl, if they wished to heeOluc Chri
tians; and that 
priests shoulù CGUIP to teaeh thenl nnd Hpanianls to live 
alllong thelTI. And that they would teaeh thenl to plant and 
soW", anù to raise herds of ('attIe, so that then they' would he 
able to eat and to dress like the Bpaniards. to obe
T tlw In"', 
and to live as God had cOll1lnallded. The priests "Would teach 
them, antI our Chief would spud thenl eY(\I,
.tl1Ïng neCf1SSal'Y, 
fur He is yery great and rich and we eall ITim I(iug'; if thp
"Wished to be Christians lIe would take thelTI for Hie;;: :'()U
and would ('are for tlWlll as IIis people. 
lIe afterwards said to them, that it was neCf'
sary for us 
to continue our journey, to learn ahout the Father, onr 



brother, and that we needed that another fine of them should 
guide us to the otllP!' tribe that they wen
1('(lUainted with, 
that the other guide nlig-ht youch for ns. In all of this cun- 
tre wa
 a great help to us. They heanl us 
with pleasure. and rpplied that to all we 
aid the

 ""Tere at- 
tentiye, thUR llulnifesting thei r gellt]enf'S
. They had 
their nUInber two chief
, but not the princip:ll ùnè that COlll- 
lllaIHle(l thi
 people, ;-;0 the Father hegged that they would (tall 
hiln, and the

 replie<l that his hou
e was very diRtant, but 
, that lw wuuld eUllle to-lllOITOW. They then retired to their 
, but SOllIe renlained in ('onyersation ",,
ith RihTestl'e 
all night. 

-Uh day of Septenlher. 
,Ye sent word to the others of our COlnpany by .J oa(luin 
and the other Laguna, that they 
hould COllle fronl Dul('ÍsÏ1no 
N Olnhre de .J esus to the village where .we WeI'E\ where the 
Indians of thi
 and the other villages woulù gather; they 
arrived ahout nÚdday. The hig ('hief with the two others 
llne \Tf'l'Y early, and Iuany old Inen and the head nwn of the 
tribe. "
e CUllyerse<l with then1 a long tinle about the things 
 referred to, and all unanÏIllou
ly replied that the 
Fathers Rhould ('Ollle and live ",,'ith the 'rata 0..; (so tlw religiou
Yutas are called), to teach thenl. ___\nd the

 uffered an their 
land f,0 they could huild their houses to suit thenlsehTes; add- 
ing that they could go o\"'"er the land, and that there would 
ahyays he spips ,,
hel'P the COln<.ln('hcs entf'red the land. so that 
when they should C01l1e into the val1ey or into other parts of 
the Sierra, the SpaniardR would be prOlnptly notified, and 
tlwy could go out all togetlwr to pUlli
h tbf'lll. 
Seeing such wonderful gelltlene:,s and wil1ingnéss to re- 
('ei\'e our proposals, we told thenl that when our journe
- "as 
finished we would return with 1110re prie
ts a11<1 lllOre Span- 
iards to relneluber what theY' haa said, so that afterward.;; 

 should not repent of it. They replied that they were finll 
in all they prOlnised, heg
ring us that we would not (lelay 
lung in eUll1Îng. ,Ye said to theul that although we all he- 



lieved what they t-;aid. we desired SOllIe token fronl thenl that 
they wished to oecollle Christians, to show to our great Chief 
and to the rest of the Spaniards, hecause with such a token 
the Spaniard:-: would belie'
e Inure in their good desires, and 
it would encourage us to return more prolllptIy. ",Ye did this 
in order to better test their good intentions; and the

that they would gi'Te us a token n
'ry willillgl
" to-nlOI'l'OW 
\Ye then pref-;ellted the Chief a knife and ROlllE' glass 
Leath, and Dun Bernardo Jfiera p;aye hÌlll a snIaH hatchet; 
and for aU the rest of the cOlnpallY we gaye to each a few 
glass heads, for there were nUlllY of thenl, and t1lP

 were all 
pleased and :-;atisficd. ",Ye then relninded thelll of tlw prOlll- 
ise of the guide, and that the

 pro111ised that we could take 
Joaquin, who wisherl to go with us; they replied that they 
had talked about it, and had decided that not only Joaquin 
but alsu a new guide, would go with n
. if we wished, even 
to our own country, and could return with us when "'We 
should return; adding that none of thenl were '

 we}] a('- 
quainted with the country in the dirertion that they knew "'We 
had to take, but that with the two, Joaquin and the new 
guide, we could go, asking our way frOlll the trihes along the 
This expression of great sincerity, so clear and to the pur- 
pose, til1ea us with great joy, and c01npletel
T assured ns that 
without the least deeeit, and with perfect spontaneity and 
free will, Ill0l'"ed by divine grace, they desired and would 
accept Christianity. 'Ye put hefore theJu the sante that we 
had ghTen to Silvestre, in ordE'r that they nlight dl'cide who 
was to go with UR a
 our guide, and at once one of those 
ing near took it, and now 1w('aJne our guide and cOlnpanion, 
and we gaye hinl the ualue of Jo
[aría (.Jo::-;eph 
[ary). ."""e 
now detern1Íned to proceed on our journey the following- 
day, for the settlelnellt and port of l\IontE'rey. 
ThE'Y told us that there was a side child WItOlll they "'Wished 
us to see and to baptize. ,Ye went, and found it to be a 
youth, and alnlost reco,Tered fronl a long sicknE'ss, and en- 



tirely out of danger, so that we did not find it neces
ary to 
give it the water of baptislll. The lllother afterwards brought 
it to "here we "ere, and begged us to baptize it, and to com- 
fort her we told her that "e would soon return, and then 
would baptize al1, both large and sllutll. Finally we illfol"llled 
thelll that we had \Terr little food, and if it pleased thenl to 
sell us SOllIe dried fish. They brought it, an(l "e bought a 
good anlOullt. ...1-11 day and part of the night they "ere cOIning 
and talking with us, and they all 
eetned very silnple, gentle, 
kind and affectionate. Our SihTestre wa;::, now looked upon 
with great respect. and gained SOllle authority aIllong them 
for having brought us and heing so appr
ciated by us. 
25th day of Rppternher. 
In the lllOruing thpy returnpd to us hringing the token that 
we had asked of thetn and explained its llleaning to U
. The 
day hefore, when we ha(l a
kpd it of thenl, we told the 
interpreter that lleithpr he nor the others should 
ay any- 
thing to the Indians about this, :'0 that we ('ould Sf'P what 
they would do of thelll
ho"ing theln the (,l'O

 of the 
rosary. he ga\'(
 them to undel'
tand that they 
houl(l paint it 
as Ol1è of the figures. They touk it awa
-, and p
lillted three 
figures 011 three f'rosses; then the
T brought the token to us, 

'ing that the figure that ha(l the lllOst rpc! ('0101', or a;-i they 
said, hluod, represented the hig chief. he('au
e in war with the 
 he had received the 11108t wound
; the other that 
had less hìoo(l, was inferior to the fir:-;t one; and the one that 
had no bluod was not a .warrior, but was of authority alllong 
thenl. ThesE" three figurf>s of Inen were rl1c1el
T painted 
.with earth and red-oehre, on a sllwll pief'e of deer skin; 
we reeei,Tell thenl, sayin?; that the hig ('hief of the Span- 
 would be plt
ased to :-;ee it, and that when we 
return \ye would hring it with us so that they n1Ïght see 
how mueh we vallH'd it. and that it lnight ren1Ïnd theln 
of their pron1Ï
es, and an that we had done. ,Ye told tht'ffi 
that if,while we wprp gone, they had si('klW
:' or trouhle with 
their enelnies, they should ('ry out to God saying: True nod, 
help us, protect US; and as they ('ould not articulate these 



 very "
ell, they could sÌInply :-;a

 .J esus, 
lary! Jesus, 

Iary! They hegan to repeat this with facility, Rilvpstre fer- 
Yelltly saying it fir
t; and while Wf' Wf're preparing to depart, 
they did not cea
e to repeat the
e sacred nalnes. They bade 
 all good-by ,,
ith great affection, and Rilvestre e
enlbraced us, ahnost ('r
'ing, They again eharged us not to be 
l0ng in returning. saying that they would expect us within 
the year. 
N ortll of the ri\Ter of f;an Buenaventura. as we have shown 
hefore, there is a range uf 1110ul1tains that. su far as we could 
learn. extends fronl the northeast to the 
outhwest lllore than 
s0v('nty leagues, and in width more than forty, and where 
"\l:'E croE-=sed it is lllore than thirty leagues. In the westf'rn 
part of these Inountains, in latitude JO o 4fr, and in a direction 
a quarter north"Test of north of the town of 
anta }'é, is the 
",.,. alley of Our Lady of .:\lercy of the Tiulpanogotzis," sur- 
rounded by the peaks of the 
 fron1 whi
h flow four 
ri\Ters which flow through and water it, until they enter the 
lak{' in the nlÍddle of it. The plain of tlH
 valley extends fronl 
southeast to nurthwest, sixteen Hpanish league;.;:* (such a:-: 
are used in thi
 diary), and fron1 northeast to 
outhwest ten 
or hyehTe leag1ws; it i
 all clean land, and with the ex('eption 
of the lllar
hr plaee
 along' the shores of the lake, very guod 
for planting. FrOlll the four rivers that water it the first flows 
frOln the Routh, and is the Àguas Calientps, in whose hroad 
plaiuf.; is suffieiellt {'ultivable land for two large villag'e
. The 
second following the first, three leagues to the north, and 
with more water than the first, ('0111(1 ulaintain one large and 
two slnaU vinages. This river, ùefore entpriug into the lake, 
is divided into two hranehe:--. on whose ùanlu< are poplan: and 
large aldertrees. 'Ye nalllec1 this rivpr the Ran Ki('holas. 

r'hree leagues and a half frUlll this to the northwest i
river which runs through large plains of good land for plallt- 

* The 0111 
p;llli:;:h ](':lguP i
 equal to 
.-ll U. S. miles. 



ing. It ha
 IllOle water than the two preceding ones; it has 
larger groyes and plenty of good land if irrigated, for two 
and eyen three large yillages. \Ye were near this riypr th
24th and the 23th, and we nalned it the Hio de San 

ntonio de 
Padua (Saint .L
nthony of Padua). To the fourth river "We 
did not go, although we 
aw its groyes. rt i:-; to the north- 
west of San Antonio, and a
 we saw it, ha
 on each 
ide of it 
luuch leyel ground. They told us that it had as luuch water 
as the other
, and so ] anl satisfied we could e"itablisb ther(' 
SOllle randles and towns. 'Ye nanlf'd it thp l'iyel' of 

-\.side from these riyers, there are in the plain luany pools 
of gooc1water,and seyeral fountains which flow ùown flonl tlw 
. From what "e haye just said about the settle- 
Inents, Let it be understood that we wish to giye to each one 
JlI0re iand than he really needs, but if each settlenlent took 
only one league for cultiyation, there would be 1'00111 in tllf' 
yalley for as nIany yillages of Indians as there are in New 
:ßlexico; he('ause, although in the northerly direction we gave 
to it the aboye dÌlnensions (though it has lnore), on the south 
it abo ha::; large spaces of good ground. There is eyerywhere 
good and ahundant pa
turage, and in sonle parts flax and 
heulP gro"W in such abundancf' that it 
eenu; to haye been 
The dilnate herf' i
 goo(l, and haying suf[erf'd so luuch 
fronl cold f'iuce leaying the riyer of 
all Ruena\rentura, we 
found thi
 yalley yery cOlllfortahle hoth da
T anc1night. .L\sidf' 
frOlll all these ad\Tantages, in the range that 
urrounds the 
yalley therf' is plenty of wood and tiluher, plenty of shelter, 
water and gras:--, to raise herd" of cattle and horses; that is, 
in the northern, northeast, east and southeastern parts. Tn 
the south and southw"est it has two oU1('r extendf'd Yane

abo with ahundant gra:-;
 and sufficient water. To one o
thesp extends the lake. It (the lake) i
 six leagues ,yide and 
fiftef'll leagues long; it extends to the northwest, aud, as we 
an" told, is eonne('ted hy a l'i\'er with a larger lake. This 
lake of the Timpanogotzi
 alJounds in 11lany kinds of g'ooc1 

} Q..J 


fish, and in geese and uther "Water-fowl that ,ye had not tilne 
to see. 
The Iudialls of whmn we have spoken, live in the neigh- 
borhood, and f;ubsist upon the abundant fish of HlP laIn?, for 
whieh rea
on tht-' Yutas and the Sabuegana
 caned tht?lll the 
Fish-eaters. They also gather f;eeds and herbs, and frolH 
thenl nwke atoll" (a kind of gruel) ; tlwy al:-:u hunt wild hares, 
rabhits and fowls, which are very ahun(lunt IWl'e. rrhere 
are also buffaloes, not very far away, to the north-northwest, 
hut fear of the rmnanehes hinder thest' Indians frm11 hunting 
thelll. Their d"Wel1ing places are hut
 of cane, of which they 
also lllake curious basket
 and othf'r uSf'ful artirle
. Tlwy 
are very poorly f'lothed; the nlOst deel'nt gal'lUellt tlH'Y "Wear 
is a jacket of huekskin and 11loccasin
 and ]eggillg
 of the 
sanIe. For cold weather they have h]anket
 llHlde of rahbit 
: they m-ie the luta language. hut with a great 1uany 
changes and aCf'ents. and even 
Olne foreign words. They are 
guod-luoking'. and nlost of thenl without an
T hea rd. ] n all 
 of the
e lllountain
, south-southwest. tIlt' west and the 
southeast, tIwre live a great llUlny of thf' :-:ame lK"'ople il
Laguna:-;. with the sallIe language, and gentlf'npss, aillong 
whmn lllÍg-ht he fornwd a provinee of Illany large 
The llallleS of tllP ehil'fs that aI'(' in the "token" spoken of 
alxwe, are in tlu,.ir own lan.8,"lmg-p, the Rig Chief heill
iiianrhi; tlw 
ef'OIlr1, C\litzapnnunehi; of the third. whieh is 
onr Rilyestre, Pml<'luwll111quihil'iln (whi('h 1neans spOkeSllWl1), 
who is not a <'llÌef, hut i
 a hrothel' of the Big' 
hief. Piehu- 
Thf' other lakp that joins this one. o(.t'npi(-'
, as we are told, 
11lallY leagues. and its waters are Yer
' hannful alH1 Yt'ry 
salty; the Tilllpanois assured us that. al1
'Olle who lllOisteupd 
T part of the hod
T with it wonld at Olwe feel the part 
hathf'd p;reatly inflmned. Ther told us that Iwar the lake 
there liyed a trilw V('lT nmnerous and yen. quiet. who ,"Tpre 
eallt'd Pnagnalnpes, whi{'h in our tong-up mean:-; :-,orrerers; 
tlwy slwak the languag'(' of the COIBa.nches; tllf'Y li'T(' on herhs, 
and drink frOlll the 1nHllY fountains that ar(' near the lake, 



and their houses are of ùry grass and earth. They are not 
enen1Ïes of the Lagunas, a
 ::;Olllé have ::;aid, but 
ince a cer- 
tain occasion when they killed a luan, they have not been ;:,0 
neutral as before. On this occasion they entered by the last 
pass in the Sierra Blanca de 108 Tiu1IJanosifi> by a quarter 
north to the northwest, and by this ::-:allle pass they say the 
COlnanches enter, but not yery frequently. 
Los 'l'iInpanogotzis are 
o called becanse of the lake, on 
which they live, which i:-, called Tilnpanogo, the name being 
peculiar to this lake because the ordinary nalne ,yhich they 
give to any lake is Pagarori. [t is six leagues wide and 
fifteen long, to the narrow pass and (h.ain
 into the other 

Gth day of September. 
...A__bout one 0 'clock on the afternoon, we left the settlclllents 
we have spoken of and the riyer of San 
-\ntonio, where ,,-e 
had gone, and traveled three and a half leagues, stopping at 
night on the hank of the river San Xicholás. 
2Gth day of 
'Ye left the river San Xicholas "Tith the two Lagunas, J osé 
:.\Ial'Ía and .J oaquin, and arriving at the Aguas Calientes river 
we cros
ed it, and traveleù two league
 to the south; here we 
halted in a plain and near a strealn of good water, which we 
called tlw Arroyo de San ..Andrés (the Creek of Saint An- 
drew). It Seelns to have water continually and so appears 
to he a small river rather than a streanl or creek. On its 
banks are nliddling large trees, and in the branches luany 
8111a11 aninulls breed, a::; unkno,,-n to us a
 the trees thenl- 
Today, two leagues. 
:2Gth day of 
Lf'aying thp Creek of Saint Andre,,-, going south, a league 
oyer the plain, we C'l'ossc(l another slnaU riyer which flows 
over the surface of the ground, luaking it yery good for plant- 
ing. ,Ve ('onÞinued to the 
outh oyer the 
anle plain a league 
and a half. ,\r e passed the northern opening of it to the 
east, which we l1aJlwd the Puerto de San Pedro (the Pass 
of Saint Peter) and entered into another long valley towards 



the ea:-;t, and lWê1r ::-;(dt-pit
 that the Tilnpanois nse; we 
nalned it the ,r alle de ] a
alinas (the 'Talley of the 
Pits), which is one of the upper Ollf'S already spoken of, and 
extends frolll the north to the south fourteen league
, and 
fronl east to -we:-;t five leagues. It i
 aU level ground, with 
plenty of ,yater and. grass, though only a slllall river runs 
through it. HC're lllany fowl
 breed, of the s
nne kind as 
those of "hich -we have already spoken in this diary. 
'Ye went another four league:::, over the plain of the valley, 
and halted at a fountain of good water, "hi('11 we called EI 
Ojo de San Pablo (the ,B"'ountain of Saint Paul), .1-ts soon Wj 
we had halted, J osé 1Iaría and J oaq uin brought in fi\Te In- 
dians frOlll the nearhy settlements; -we gave them sOlllething 
to eat and to slnoke, and we offered to them the SaIlle thing
we gave to the others. 'Ye found the III as kind and gentle 
as the lake Indians, showing luuch pleasure when they heard 
that priests and Rpaniards "
er(' cmning to live "ith theul. 
They l'enlained with u
 until near lnidnight, Today, six 
leagues and a half. 
2öth day of Repteulber, 
'Ye left the Fountain of Haint Paul, and "ent four leagues 
to the south to a bluall river that flo"s to the eastern part of 
the Sierra, in which, they say, are the Salt-Pits. 'Ye rested 
here a short time in the shadp of the l'oplars,for the heat "as 
very great; we had hardly beated ourselves, "hen frOln be- 
hind SOlne thick cane hrush we sa" cOIning towards us in 
great fear eight Iudians, the l110st naked of any "e had 

t'en, with only a piece of deer skin around their loins. 'Ye 
talked to thenl, and they answered back, but without in the 
least understanding us. The two Lagunas and the guide "ho 
went on ahead had giyen us to understand by signs that they 
were friendly and yery gentle, 1\'" e continuE-cl to the south, 
and going three leagues. a half leaguf' to the south and an- 
other half to the boutlleast, "e stopped again in the yalley 
near to a fountain that we llalUed Ran Bf'rnardino. 
Today, eight leagues, nearly direct south. 
29th day of Septeulber. 



Leaving San Bernardino and going to the south-south- 
t, 'we Inet six Inùians, and talked a long tÍIne "With thenl, . 
and by means of the two Laguna
 and the interpreter, "We 
preached to them, and they listened "With great attention. 
Going two leagues and a half, "
e -went in a southwest direc- 
tion, now leaving the 
alt-Pits that btill extended to the 
south. Here "We nlet an old Indian of venerable aspect, living 
in a littl
 hut all alone, hiR beard so long and Inatted that he 
reselubleJ. one of the J-lennit::, of :bulope. lIe told us of a 
river near by and of the ground oyer ,vllÍch we 
Yould have 
to travel. \Ye went to the 
onthwest half a league, going to 
the -west-llortlnvest through lllountain passes, and over arid 
rising plains, a league and a half, and canle to a river "With- 
out disco\Tering it until "We had rearhed its bank; we stopped 
in a plain of good pasturage, whidL we luuned Santa Isabel. 
1Ve took ohservation::; by the north star, and found ourselves 
in 3!-t 4:' latitude. 
Today, four leagues. 
Soon after "We had halted, four Indian:5 canIe frOlll the 
other bank of the riyer. 1Ye invited theln to approach, and 
all the aftf'rnoon they "Werf' with us. They gave us inforlna- 
tion of the land ,,
hich they knew, and of the streanl by which 
we had to go on the following day. This river, according to 
the nallle the Indians gave to it, appearerl to h
 the San 
Buenaventura. but "We doubted it, becansf' here it contained 
but little water, less than "Where "
e crossed it in 41 0 HJ' lati- 
o that after it uniteR '-with the San Cleinente, the San 
CosIne and the San DanlÍall and other sLllall rivers, it carried 
lei::.s "Water. }J ore than this, it seems to be the :.;alne as the 
one that Rilvestre told us of, when we "Were in this same lati- 
tude, which flo"Ws through his eountry, and as he had told us 
other things about the nlOllllÍains, riyers and lakes. that we 
found to be as he had said, which included this one, that flows 
rónica, "
e think it is the sallW strealn. 
30th day of SeptenIber. 
V" er
T early there ('aIDe to the camp twenty Indians, ac- 
c01l1panied by those that Callie in the afternoon of yesterday, 



all wrapped in blankets made of rahhit and har
 Rkins, They 
con\'ersed with us ver
7" pleasantly until nine o'clock in the 
lllorning, a::; gf'ntle and a
 affahle aH the others had been, 
e had a luuch shorter heard than the Lagunas, and their 
s wpre piprced; through the hole in the nose was carried 
a Sllla 11 polished hone of the ùeer, hen or other animal. In 
features they reßeInhled the Spaniards more than aU the other 
Indians now known in ..Aluerica, and frOJll WhOlll they differ 
in appearance, They u
e the language of the TÏ111panogotzis. 
From this riyer and place of Santa Isabel these Indians 
begin to wear lwa\'}'" beards, which giye thelll t1lf' appearance 
of Spallianl
, who, they 
ay, live on the other bank of 
the Tiron ri\'er, which, according to general report, is the 
large river that is made up of the Dolores and the ri\Ters that 
unitp with the Navajó. At nine o'clock we l
ft 8anta Isahel, 
crossing the river, and by a plain of burnt woodland, very 
difficult for the anilnals, we went three leagues and a half to 
the south. '\Ye entered a sluall cañon of guod land, and at a 
short distance farther on CaIne to a land of abundant pastur- 
age, but w-ithout watf'r, and tra\Teled oyer it a league and a 
half, to the south; here behind some low hills we found a 
fountain of water, which we called el Ojo de Cisnero
fountain of Cisneros), near which are two sillall trees that 
lnark it, 
Today, five leagues to the south. 
1st day of October. 
'\Ve left the }1-'ountain of Uisnero
, and went back a half 
league to the north. '\'
e again took to the south, and went a 
quarter of a league through a glen in sonle places very stony, 
and going up it a nlile we readIed the Sierra (that frOlll the 
"Valley of the 
alt Pits continues to the south); we went a 
quarter of a league to the sontlnyest, and discoyereù an ex- 
tended plain surrounded by a 1110untain range, from which we 
had been t01d the riyer Santa Isabel defo:cended to the valley. 
Going over this plain, we continuf'd to the west, and descpud- 
jng a 11lountain pass, we turned to the west-northwest, over 
low, stony hills, and two leagues farther on we entered a 



woodland burnt oyer. .L
long the bank of a dry streaUl, with- 
out e,
en a footpath, we went three leagues to the west; leav- 
ing the btreaIu, and going two league
 west, a quarter to the 
north, ,ye carne to le'
el ground. ..\.s we thought we saw a 
nwrsh or lake, we took a short cut and found that what we he- 
lieved to Le water was nlo:stly 
alt, saltpetre, and te(lues- 
quite. * 'Ye continued to the west, a quarter to the south, by 
the plain, pa
sing sandpits, and went lllore than six leagues, 
but we cuuld not proceed farther. "r e halted without hav- 
ing found either water or grass for the anÏIllab. There was 
sunle poor grass where we stopped, but in all the rest of the 
plain that ',e had cro:-,
ed there was neither good nor had 
pasturage of any kind. 
Today, fourteen leagues. 
Two of our companions had gone ahead looking for water, 
and they said that a league farther on fron1 this place water 
could be found. \Yith this inforIllation we decided that as 
soon as the moon shone, we would take the aninlals, a few 
at a tÜlle, to drink and to bring water for the cOlnpany. 'Ye 
did not find the water, so leaving two nlen with the animals, 
three others went to look for it in the direction in which they 
said the river Santa Isabel flowed. 

d day of October. 
'Ye awoke very early, not knowing where the three were 
who went to look for water, nor did we hear anything of the 
horses; one of those who had reIllained "ith the horse[7 
caUle at six 0 'clock without being able to give any account 
of t.heIn, of his cOlllpanioll, nor of the uther three, ì,ecause he 
and hi
 cOlllpanion had gone to slepp. The hor
e:s strayed 
away looking for water, eaeh ul1p of theIll in a different direc- 
tiol1; Don Pedro Ci
neros went at onee on a hare-backed 
horse to hunt thenl up. and found theln seven leagues behind, 

* Tequ('!'(I]uite is thf' modern Mexican name for alkali. called U)- Her- 
I1:w(h'z nitrUIli mexÏcanum. and derived from the 
ahuatl tequixquitl, 
whi('h i
 Il('sc'rihpd as "impure natron which f'fflores('es on the surface of the 
soil :\IlIl of whieh the principaJ componl'nts are the sl'sf]uicarhonate of soda 
awl t1lp ('hloril1e of 
odium." This product, of which the ancient 
mat1(' gl'P:1t llse, is still frequently llSed at present. The natives recognize 
four killlls: espumil1a. confitiIJo, cascarilla and polYilJo, 



in the half of the preceding' ùay's journey, and returned with 
theill about n1Ïdday. ..A. shori tiuw after, the lllPn who had 
gone to look for water, returned, bringing ,,
ith theill SOllle 
Indians, whose villages are on the banks of the rivcr Santa 
IsaLel, and to which our lHen had gone. They 'were the In- 
dian:::; with heards and piereed nu
es, and in their language 
are called Tirangapui. There were five of theIn, including 
their chief, and their beards were 
o long and thick that they 
luoked like Capuehin lJriest
 ur ulOnks. The chief ,yas of 
lllature age, though not old, and very fine appearing. They 
semlled very happ
T when talking to ns, and in a very short 
tillle we gained their good will. 1'hf' ehief, knowing that one 
of our nUlllber was stillllli
ßÏng, ::,ent his four InJian:::; at once 
to look for hÍIll, and to conduct hill1 to "There we were; each 
one was to takf' a different direction. 
'his was a kindne
worthy of our utnlUst gratitude, and unluuked for by u:::; fnnn 
a people so sa \Tage; and who had never before ::,een anyone 
likf' us. '1'Il(' ehipf 
oon f-iaw the nlis
illg onp conÜng, and 
very joyfully gave us the news. 'Ye preached the Gospel tu 
thenl as ,yell as "Te eould, with the aid of thf' interpreter. 
\\T e explained to them the unit
- of God, punisilluent for 
sin, reward given to the good, the nece
:--ity of IIol
" Bapti
and also the knowledge and ohselTance of the Di,'ine Law. 
Being so oerupied. we did not see thrpe others that ('aUH' to- 
ward us, and the chief told us that they Wf're of his people 
also, and askeù us to continue our conyersation long.er, so 
that the
', too, nlÏght hear what we had to tell thf'111 for their 
goud, or well-being. lIe told thenl, when they arrived. that we 
were priests, and that ,,'e Wf're teaching thenl ,,
hat they had 
to do to get to heaven, and so they Rhould he yery attentive. 
hat he told thell1 had a great effe('t upon theu1. and while 
"TC could understand only one or two ,yords of the Yuta 
tongue, yet we knew what they were saying h

 their actions 
C\Ten 11efore the interpreter translated the worùs. \\
 e told 
tlwm that if they wished to fo]Jow the good way we had 
f-;hown tl!f'lll, that we would l'{'tUl'n to t11(,I11 with otlier priests, 
so tln
 t 1 hey could he instnwted like the Lagunas, who were 



now waiting to beconle Christians; but in that <,ase they would 
have to liye all together, and not so bcattered as they now 
were. They all relJlieù with luuch plém
;lu.e that we :5hould re- 
turn with the other priests, that they would do all that we 
taught them and conllllanded thmn to do, the f'hief adding 
that, if we wished and thought it would be lllore convenient, 
they would go and liye with the Lagunas (which we had al- 
ready proposed to them). 
\Ye bade good-by to thelll all, e
pe('ia1Jy to the chief, and 
they touk our hand with great tenderné::'::' and affection. 'Ye 
had only just left them, when they all, following the example 
of their chief, hegan to jlunp up and to cry and shed tears, 
:HItl e\Ten ,,
hen we were a long way off we cuuld 
till hear 
thenl lalllenting; poor lamhs of Chri
t, wandering about for 
want of the light. They so lllO\Ted us to cOlllpassion that SOllIe 
of our cOlllpaniol1s could not restrain their tears. 
In this place, ,,-hich we called the Salt Plain, \ye found 
white and delicate shelJs, from whidl we C'oncluded the plain 
\yas at one tÌlne a lake larger than an

 other we had seen. 'Ye 
took the latitude and found we were in 3
o 34' 36". This 
ervation we took by the sun, ahnost in the middle of the 
plain, that frOlll north to south is a little lllore than thirty 
s, and frmn east to west ahout fourteen. In 1110st parts 
the grazing is very poor, and although hyo rivers empty into 
it-the Santa Isabel on the north and another smaller one on 
the east, whose wa tel'S are verjT brackish-we saw no good 
location for a settlement. In the afternoon we continued our 
journey, in a ::;outh-southeast direction, becauRP the Inarshes 
and lakes wonld not penuit us to go south, which was the 
dirfict ro[!d to where we should leave the plain; and going 
three lèa;'ues Wf\ Rtoppe<l near a smallllloluÜain, from which 
we nHnled the place. which had lnarshes of 11111<'h pasturage, 
hlit of salty water, el Cerrillo (the Little )Iountaill). 
Today, three If'agues to !South-southeast. 
3d day of October. 
Leaving the Little 1Iountain, we made many turns, be- 
cause Wf\ were surrounded hy marshes. 'Ve decided to cut 
across the river of the east, that seen1ed to exhaust itself 



in the marshes and lakes of the plain, and which contained an 
abundance of fish. 
rhe bed of the river was very n1Ìry, and 
the aniInal on which the interpreter ..L\.ndres was riding fell 
into a marsh, and was got out only by gi\'ing hiln a hard blow 
on the head. \Ve went along with much trouble, and traveled 
six leagues to the south and a quarter to the "West 1 over level 
ground, and arrived at a stream which seeIned to have con- 
siderable water, but we found only a few pools, in which the 
aninlals drank with difficulty. Notwithstanding this, we 
halted here, for there was good pasturage. The ravine had 
in all parts a kind of white soil, dry and thin, that froln a dis- 
tance looked like cloth spread out, froIll which we nmned it 
Arroyo del Tejedor (the Stream of the "reaver). Today, 
six leagues south, and a quarter to the weRt. 
4th day of October. 
Leaving the 'Veaver, we ascended in a southerly direc- 
tion, and after a (illarter of a league we descended a little 
to the IsolÜh-southwest, and going a little less than .five 
leagues, we arrived at the southern exit of the salt-plain, 
and here we found, in the saIne stream, more water and much 
better than ye
terday, and also beautiful nleadows of abund- 
ant and good grass for the animals, which were yerr tiretl, 
foJ' the hrackish ,nlter had affected thenl. 'Ve halted here, 
and named the place las Y' egas del Puerto (the 
Ieadow of 
tlw Gateway). 
Today, five league
fith day of October. 
'\V' e left the Vegas dpl Puerto going south along the bank 
of the Sa111e streanl, and traveling two leagues, declining then 
three leagues to the southwest, we halted in another vaHey of 
the stremn, nanling it San Atenógene:-;. Today, five leagues. 
This lllOrning- ùefore ,,'e left the Vegas del Puerto, the 
Laguna, .T osé 
[a ría, l('ft us without saying good-by. 'Ye 
sa"T hÜn 10:1\,( the call1p, hut <lid not say an}Tthing to hilll, nor 
follow to bring' hinl hack, hecause we wished hiIll to haye en- 
tire liberty. ,Ye did not know what Illotiye h(' had in doing 
tll; s. a1thoug'b, as the interpreter told us aHennll'dR. he had 
LecOllle discouraged. 
eeing that we were 
o far frOIll his 



country, but doubtless it was sOlllething that happened the 
night before. It was this: Don Juan Pedro Ci
neros, called 
to his boy, SÏ1uon Lucero. to come with him and the others to 
recite the rosary, and he not conling, the father repro,\Teù 
hiln for his lazine
::, and lack of deyotion; while Don 
Juan was reprin1anding him the boy attacked hinl, and they 
grappleù anu to anll. ....-\s soon as we heard the disturbance 
frOlll where we were reeiting the 
Iatins of the day fol1owing, 
we put a stop to it, although not 
oon enough, to cahn the 
frightened José 
laría, for we tried to Ï1npress upon hin1 that 
Don Juan wa
 not angry, anù even though a father should 
reprimand a son as had now happened, that he would never 
wish to kin him, as he thought, and so he haù no cause for 
fear. X evertheless, he left us, giving us no notice, and we 
were now without an

 one who knew the country through 
which we had to traveL \Ye were \rery sorr
T for this inci- 
dent, beeause we wished him to participate in the good whieh 
we could not now extend to him. 

-\s soon as we had halted, two of our nunlber went to 
exall1Ïne th
 western part of the Sierra and a valley that wa
in it, to ;,ee if it was passable, and if it showed any appear- 
ance of having water and grass for the horses. 
\rhen it was very late they returned, 
aying they had not 
found any opening by which we could cross the 11l0untains; 
that they were very high and rocky in this dirertion; and in 
front of it was an extended plain, with neither grass nor 
water. X ow we could not continue in this direction, which waf:; 
thf> best for us to arrive at :ßlontere

, and so Wo?- decided to 
continue south until we had crossed the mountain range by an 
extended yalley that began frolll this place of Hall -L
and which we called el \r alle elf' Xuestnl Reîíora de Luz (thf' 
Y' alle

 of Our Lady uf Light). \Ye continued along the strf'alll 
del TejedoI', with sufficient good water, and plains "With 
abundant pasturage, which in the valley we left were very 
scarce. During tlIP past few days there had he
n a strong, 
cold wind blowing from the south, which resulted in a heayy 
tol'ln, so thick that not only the top
 of the llloulltains 



were cO,\Tered, but also the 10w-]anc1
 were buried In bnow 
during the night. 
6th ùay of Octo1>e1'. 
It wa
 still snowing at daybreak, and continued to snow 
all day, 
o that we could not re
ilnlle our jOUl'U8Y. The night 
('mne on, and seeing conditions were no Jwtte1', we iUlplored 
the intercession of our :JIother and Patron, reciting in ehorus 
the three parts of the rosary, singing the litanieR. It plea s pc1 
God that at nine 0 'c1oek at night the snow, hail and nun 
7th day of Uctober. 
K either could we lpaye San 
\tellógenes today. 'Ye were 
a t a p.Teat illconyenieuee and suffered Inul'h 1rU111 tlw extrelne 
cold, being without "Wood; with so lnuch snow antI water, the 
ground here is yery soft and ahnost iUlpassable. 
8th day of October. 
\r e left Han ..Atenógene
 bJr the plain goinQ' south. and 
,,'ith great (lifficulty went only three leagllf'S and a half, he- 
canse the ground was so soft and Inar:-,hy, that lllall
T of the 
pewk and saddle hurses, antI eyen thuse that were unloaded, 
either fell or sunk in the 1nud. "
e halted ahout a lllÍle to 
the west of the stre
nll, llmlling the place Hanta Brigida (Saint 
Hridg-et), in whieh we found we were in 38 degrees, 3 n1Ïnute':i 
and :j() seconds latitude. rroday three leagues and a half to 
the south. 
" we ::-;uft't'l'ed lllllCh with tllP euld, ùeeêluse a "north- 
er" had heen hJowing all da
"; from here we 
till intended to 
go to the preRidio awl ne"T 
 of 1rontere
-, hut 
they were still very distant; although ,,"e ha<l gone only 1 
 fron1 the halt at :Santa Drigida, "We 
had not a(hTanced to tlu> west, af'eortling to our f'Olnpntation, 
lllore than one hundred awl six league:-: and a half; hut ac- 
cording tu our own judgulent, since we had not had any lWWS 
fronl the [ndians ahout the Hpanianls and prieRts of 
I Oll- 
T, and on HeNHlut of the difference of longitude whieh on 
the maps Inark that 1'ort ana the eity of Hanta Fé, we had 
yet lllany 1110re leagues to go to the west. 
The winter had no,,- Ret in with great rigor, nu(l all the 



11louIJtain range::; that we could :-,ee were covered with sno,,-; 
the "Teather was rery changeable, and long before we could 
reach them (in \Iollterey) the 11l0ulLtain passes would be 
closed up, and we would be obliged to remaiu two or three 
 on ::'Olne lllountain, where there "Were no people and 
where we "Tould not be able to provide neC'essarr food. The 
provisions we had brought ,Yen
 now nearly exhausted, and 
if we continued to go on we "Would be liable to perish with 
hunger if not with cold. 
,y" e also considered, that even though ,,'e should arrive in 
)lonterey thi::; "Winter, "We could not get back to the city of 
Santa Fé before the 1110llth of J nIle of the next year, "Which 
-, together with the regular and ne('es
ary ones of an 
undertaking so intere
ting. as tlw one we "Were following, 
,,-ould be very prejudicial to the 
oul:, of the Indians to whOIn 
,ye promised to return aUf1 who sought their eternal wE'lfare 
by lueaIlS of holy haptism. Heeillg so Jlluel! delay in the fnl- 
filhuent of our pron1Ïse
 to them, they would lo
e hupe and 
would consirler that we had intender1 to deceive theIll, "Which 
would lnake t11ei r ('ouvE'rsiou ulllC'h Inore difficult in the fu- 
ture, and ah;u affect the extension of tllP kingdOlll of Hi::; 

ty in these parts; to this would he added the difficulties 
of the return of the frightened Lagnna .10:-:é, who had left us 
and harl returned to his cuulltr

. HUlking it ahno
t Í1npossible 
to ohtain guides; con:-;idering all thi
, and al:-,o that by going 
to the south of Nanta Brigida, we Inight b(> a hIe to f1iscoyer 
a :--horter aud lJetter road than that of the SahnagaHa
. to go 
frOln Santa :F'é to the lake of the Tilnpanois, and to the 
eoulltry of the hearded [ndian
, and pPl"haps to SOlne other 
till unknown to u::; or to tho
E' who nlÏght Ji,-e on the 
northern hank of the Hio Grande, considering all thi
, we d(t=- 
cide<l to go to the south, whell the ,,-patller would pel'lnit. as 
:<-\1' as the Colurado Hiver, and frolll then' dil'('(.t our course 
toward l'osnina, 1\Ioqui and Zuñi. 
}.T ell' Route, {fnd tliP Beginning of Our Return FH)ln 38 De- 
grees, 3 lIIillutes and 30 
S(,collds Latit"dr. 
nth da
- of ( )ctober. 
,\, e left Ranta Brigida, going f,onth six leagues with less 



difficulty than yesterday, the ground being harder and less 
muddy; we halted near the junction of the valley and the 
plain of N uestra Señora de la Luz, fronl \\'hif'h point it is 
wider, and toward the southwest, \" e called this halting 
place San Rústieo, and although the strealll of water and the 
s for pasturage were not very near, we found everything 
yery ('onlfortahle; tllf' water being frOlll the rain, and not 
Today, SLX league
 to the south. 
10th day of ()etober. 
,Ye left San Rustieo going 
outh one league, and three 
leagues to the .south-southwest. ,Ve callIe to a small ri::;e of 
ground, in the nlÎddle of the plain, whf're we surveYf'd with 
tbe eye the extent of tlw plain and valley of "The Light." 
,Ye ascended the hill, and we saw that froIn here to the south- 
west it extended lllore than 33 or 4.0 leagues, and we could 
scarcely ::;ee thp lllountain::; where it ended, they being, as we 
afterwards di
coYered, very high. 
y e also saw three large 
pools of hot and Yf'lT sulphurous \\
ater on the eastern side of 
the plain, on the lower edge of whieh are sumll patches of 
land full of saltpetre. ,Ye continued along the lJlain and go- 
ing two If'ag nes to the south, we halted, fearing that farther 
on we would not find water for the uight; here we had plenty 
of good, Inelted snow, forming a slllalliake, also good grass; 
"'C naIued the place San Eleuterio. 
Today, six leagues. 
To this place the bearded Y utas COJlle froni the south, 
and this seenlS to he the terminus of their land. 
11th day of October. 
,Ye left 
an Eleuterio, going south, a quarter to the 
east, and let our cOlllpaniolls go on before us so that we could 
confer together as to the lllost expedient 111eans for us to 
adopt to dispel froin the minds of our cOlnpanions, cspecial1y 
from Don Bernardo 
Iiera, Don .J oaqllin Lain, and the inter- 
prf'ter .l.-lndrés 
[uñiz, the disgust which they felt on ac('ount 
of our abandoning the route to 
r o11t
rey to foIl ow this 011è, 
that W(
 now understood to he e
q)('di('nt, and according to 



the Holy will of God, for 'YhOlll only "We desired to journey, 
for \Vhom we "Were willing to suffer, and if necessary, even 
to die. 'Ye had told thelll thf' nlOtives of our He,ç de('i
in Santa Brigida, and in plaee of :sublnitting to our propu
they directed their thought
 against u
, and continued to he 
displeased; all this "Was very painful and alnlOst insufferable. 
They had no other topic of conversation than the fruitless- 
ness of snch a prolonged journey; because there had not yet 
been discovered any great country, as they said, nor a people 
so welI disposed as to be easily added to the vineyard of the 
Lord or to the dOllÜllioll of His :ßIajesty, WhOlll God preserve. 
They said we had not hef'OIUe aCIJuainte(1 with any extended 
province::; before unknown, and finally that we had not se- 
curerl one ::;Ïngle :soul to the fold of the Church, the obtaining 
of which is the greatest reward, and 'worthy of the most ex- 
tended journey, and of the greatest efforts and fatigue. 
But they would not listen to our argulnents, because DOll 
Bernardo had entertained "Without any encouragelnent on our 
part, great hopes of obtaining honor and reward on our ar- 
rival at )Iunterey; and he told these hopes to the others, 
building loft).,. air-castles, and assuring thenl that we de- 
prived them all of these ÍInaginary benefits, so that even the 
servants caused us anxiety. 

 little tiJne before this, Don 
Bernardo said that "We had advanced but little towards the 
west, and that, there was much country to cross before reach- 
ing 1Ionterey; and now even the Sf'lTants asserted that if 
we had gone on within eight days we would have arrived at 
:J[onterey. Before we left the village of Santa Fé, we had 
said to all and to each one of our cOlnpallions, that in 
this journey we had no other object in view, than that which 
God gaye ns, and that we were not stinlulated by the hope of 
any tenlporal benefit; and that whoever alllOng thenl had for 
his purpose the trading with the nnhelieyers, or fo1lowing 
his OWll particular interests, without conRidering the only oh- 
jeet of this enterprise, which was aud is to tIlt. greater honor 
and glory of God and the extension of the faith, it would 
be better for him not to accompany us. 



IallY tÌ1nes on the way we had adnlonished thenl tha t the
should change Rome of their ways, because if not we would 
suffer difficulties and disappoillbllE'nts, and we would not ac- 
cOInplish all that we had desired. In part they had ::;eell this 
COlne true, ,,
hen they had not closed their eyes to the tr11th, 
not being ablf' to attrihute it to circulllRtances. ,\
 e were 
Illore and Inore troubled every day, and it di::;couraged u
yery luuch to see that instead of things concerning heaven, 
e of the world were songht for :fir:;t and principally. In 
order to Inake thel11 nndeL"Rtand l110re dearly that it was not 
fronl fear, nor hy our own detennined will that ,ye had 
changed our course, we resolved to free ourselves of these 
. Having Ïlllplored the Diyille forhearance, and the 
intercession of our patron :.;aints, we would endeayor to :find 
out the will of God by caRting lot
, one for )Ionterey, and the 
other for Cosnina, and WE' would follow the road thai should 
be deterIllined by lot. 'Ye overtook our cOlnpanions, and had 
theIn dismount fronl their horses; now being all together, 
Father }-'rancisco Atanasio put before theIll all the diffi- 
cultie::, and inconveniences we would have to suffer if we 
continuE'(l toward )Ionterey, and what we would gain by the 
return to Cosnina; and finally the lllÍ
fortunE's and losses "e 
would have suffered Lefore thi
, if Goe] Imll not earried out 
IIis own plans. lIe relninded thenl of all the hardships they 
would have to endure by continuing toward ::\Iontf'rey, and 
especially he ren1Índed thE'ln of the de::,ertion uf the guide, 
the Laguna J osé. 
HC' assured thenl also that if the lot was cast for 
terey, We "Would 1m "'e no uther guide than Don Bernardo 
)Iiera, as he considered it so near. fIe then Iuaùe thClll a 
short exhortation, advising thenl to put aside all kind of evil 

, to subn1Ït thellu;elyes entirely to God, and a::,k uf 
I-IÜn with :firl11 hope and living faith, that lIe ùeclare to us 
IIis will. They all agreed likC' Christians, and with fpl'Yent 
devotion recited the third part of the rosary, while we recited 
the Penitential Psahns with the litanies and the other pray- 
ers whieh follow. Concluding our prayers, we cast lots, and 



it C
Ulle out in fayor of Cosnina. \\
 e all accepted this, thank
be to Uod, willingl
r and joyfully. 
,\T e now proceeded, shortening the way as 11luch as possi- 
ble. 'Ye went frOlll 
an Eleuterio ten leagues; two to thp 
south, four to the eafoit. three to the south-
outheast (now 
lea,\ying the plain of Uur Lady of Light), a quarter to the 
southeast, one and a quarter to the south-southf'ast, threp 
and a half to the southeast, u\Tel' guud ground; and. after 
crossing a lllolultain of pine-nut and juniper trees by a long 
cañon full of good grass, and afterward oyer hilloeks of 
abundant grass, we deseended into a beautiful valley and halt- 
ed for the night by a little riyer on one of its bank
, where 
there was an abundance of pasturage. \Ye nanlecl it the Val 
If' Hio de Señor San ,J osé (Thf' Valley and River of Saint 
Today, ten leagues. 
,\Te took observations by the north star and found OU1'- 
selve:-- in latitude i-J7 degree
, 33 lllinute
ContiJluation of tlle Route aud Diary From 31 Degrees, 33 
Jlinlltes Latitude, úy the Small Ricer of San JoS{
, and 
úy the Tray of the Rivers Colorado llnd CosniJla. 
l:2th day of Uctober. 
,Ye left the slnall rivpr of Ran .J osé, in which there were 
many deep llÜry places, crossing a large 111001' with good 
water and grabs in it, through the llÚddleof w'hich ran a strcaUl 
of water like a ditch. I-Iaving passed it to the northwest, we 
went directly south along the Wf'stern edge of the slope of the 
plain, and going oyer a 1Joo1' road four leagup
 and a half, 
we saw our f'Olllpanions who had gone SOllIe distance ahead of 
, quickly lea ve thp road; we lmstpned on to know the reason, 
and when we reached thenl they were already talking with 
an Indian WOlllan whonl they had stopped, as she was "fUU- 
ning away with others that "
ere gathering seeds and herbs 
on the plain; there were about twent.y of them. ,Ye Wf're 
sorry to see thelll so frightened, that they could not talk, and 
we tried to dispel their fears by llleans of the interpreter and 
of the Laguna Joaquin. 



.Lis soon as they had sOIl1ewhat recoYE'l'ed, they told us 
that in this vicinity, there were llUlny of their veople, and 
that they had heard thelTI 
ay that towards the south the peo- 
ple wore hlue clothes, and that the Rio Grande riyer was not 
far frOlll here. \Ye could not get fronl thenl clearly what 
nation wore the blue ganllents or clothe:.;, nor could we fornl 
any opinion of what nation they spoke, frOlll ,dlat they 
told us, for we knew that the Payuchis wore only a red dres
It soon oecurred to us that the Cosninas buy blue woollen 
ganllents in 
[O(lui, and 
o we judged that it was of these 
they spoke, frolll which fact "
e inferred, that we were near 
tIle Colorado river and Cosnina. These Indian WOlnen were 
poorly (lresseë-1, and wore only a piece of deerskin hang- 
ing frOBI the waii;t, whiC'h hardly {'oyered what one could 
ee without danger. ,Ye took leaye of theln, asking theln 
to tell their people that we calue in peace, that we ,yould 
injure none of thelll, and that we loyed thenl all, and that the 
Iuen who wen- ahle 
hould cOll1e to ,,
here we were going to 
sleep, without inlagining any evil would befall theIll. 
\Ye proC'eede<l by the plain and yalley of 
an .Jos<\ and 
went another three leagues to the south, seeing uther Indian 
WOlllen who íleel frOln us. \Ye sent the interpreter with 
Joaquin and another cOJllpanion to try to bring one of them 
to when
 we were to halt nearby, in order to inquire of them 
if the Rio Grande was as ne
r as the other Indian WOIllen 
had assured us it was, and to see if SOlll(, of thenl did not 
wish to accOlnpany us in the capacity of guides as far as (10::5- 
nina. The: ran with such swiftness that our men could. 
hardly oyertake even one; Don .T Oa(luin Lain bronght an r n- 
dian Iuan with hiln hehind him 0Jl his horse to where "We had 
already halted. ,y p eontinued another half league to the 
fouth, near to a slllall riyer which we nmneå Rio de Kuestra 
Señora a In Pilar de Zarago!'a (Riyer of Our Lady of the 
Pillar of Zaragosa), where there was, as in all the rest of the 
yalley, abundant and good pasturage. 
Toda:, eight leagues to the south. 
This Indian whmn our cOlllpanion brought to the Clllnp was 



bO excited and so terrified that he 
eelllE}d ahno
t in
ane. ] [e 
looked everywhere and at everybody, and our every èwtion or 
lllOvernent frightened him exceedingly, and to e
cape what he 
feared. lw gavE' great attention when ''ie ::;poke to hilll; hut 
lJe an
"\ered :::;u pr01111Jtly, that he 
eeIlled rathE'r to guess at 
the (IUestions than to understand thelu. ,y E' quietell hÌIu a 
little by giving hilll sOIlletlÚng to eat and a ribbon that we OUl'- 
s(!lves put on hinl. He brought a large henl!) net that he said 
they u!:;ed to catch hare::; and rabbits. ,Y"lleu we asked hÜn 
wltE'1'C' these nets <,aIlle frOlll, he replied fl'01ll other Indians 
that lived below the gl'f'at rivE'r, froIlI which place "
e after- 
wards found they brought the colored shE'lls; and according 
t.o tIle direC'tion and the distance at which lIP placed tlwln, 
tLey appearpd to be thp COC0111al'iC'opas. 
'Vith regard to the distance to thE' Hio Grande, and the 
blue clothes, he told us the i--anle as the Indian "
omen had, 
dding that 
Ollle C'olored wool \yhich he now had, hp PUl'- 
ehased, this sUllnner, frOlll those who brought the blue clothe
\\ho had cros
ed the river. ,\... e asked hilll in nlan

about tllE' \osninas, hut he gave us no infornlatiun ahout 
1 heITI, ei ther beea Uio;e his people gi \
p th('IU another naUlE" or 
because he thought that if he aeknowledged that he knE'w 
thelìl, we would take hinl b

 force to conduct us to theIll; or 
aUy beeause lip did not know theln. ,Ve asked hillI if he 
had IleaI'd anyone :-,ay that to the west or to the northwest 
(p0:ntillg in tlIp direction) there were Fathers or Spaniards,. 
and IJe replied no; tlm t although there were many people who 
liyptJ in that direction, they were all of his language and In- 
d5è"JJ1S like hiulself. \Ye showed hilll a grain of ('orn, and he 
d that 11(-> had seen how they C'ultivated it, and that on a 
ranch that we would COlllP to 
Ollle other day, they had a 
little of thi:-; sppd that they hrought fr01n where it wa
"\Ve trif.d diligently to have hin1 ten us what people they -nT('re 
'who had sowed tIie corn, and of other things of which he had 
 a (>onfuspd kno\yledge; we could learn fr01n hilll only, 
th[tt 1hp
E' people lived on this side of the Rio Grande. ..A..ll 



night be was -with u
 of his own accord, and promised to take 
us to the ranch. 
13th day of October. 
\Ve left the little river and halting place of Uur Lady of 
the Pillar, going south, accompanied by the Indian, to whom. 
we had promised, if he would guide us to where the others 
were, a knife. ,r e went two leagues and a half to the south, 
and arrived at the ranch spoken of above, that was his. 
On it -were an old Indiall, a Loy, ::5everal children, and three 
WOHlell, aU good-looking. They had ::5ome very good nuts, 
dates, and ::501lle snlall bag:::; of corn, ,r e talked with the old 
Indian a long time, but he told u:::; only what we had already 
heard. ".,. e gave to hilll who had conducted us here the prom- 
i:::;ed knife, and we propused to them, that if one of the 
three would accompany us to those who sowed the corn, we 
would pay him well. 
By the answer we knew that they Jid not tru
t U." and 
that they were very nluch afraid of us; but at the suggestion 
of some of the cOlupany, we put before theln a knife anrl 
some gIas:::; head
. The old Indian quickly took thenl and, iUl- 
pelled by his :::;uspiciolls, offered to guide us, in ol'dpr to get 
us aw-ay from here, as we afterwards found out; and also to 
give his faluily tiuH' to 
ave thelllselves b

 taking refuge in 
the lnountain
 nearhy. 'fhp old Indian and the younger one 
who had pa::,::,ed the preceding night with us, continued to 
.aCCOlllpallY us. \Y p ,,"pnt one lpaglH' and a half to tllt' 
and descended to the sl11a11 river uf the Pillar, that here has 
a leafy grove; We ero::,::,ed it, no,,
 leaying the valley of Ran 
.J os(>, and came upon a mountain ridge that lips in tliP Sierra:s 
in the fOl"ln of a ha rhoI'. In tbe rUl11-(he
t pa 1't of thi
taiu our two guìde:-:. left U::;, and we ne\'e1" f-;aw tlWlll again. 
,Ye prai:sed their foresight in hringing ns to a pla<,p :-;u weÛ 
adaptpd to thpir saf(' and frep Hight, a:-:. they thought. a de- 
sign. ,,
hi('h wp had su:-;P(,(.tpd h

 the nlannE'r in which the
cunsented to guide us, and hy their grl'at fear of us, \Ye 1 Jro - 
ceeded now without a guide, tra\'pling \\'ith gTeat difficult

bceêluse of the stOlH:'b, a league to the south, and de



econd tÏ111e to tlw Hiyer of the Pillar. where we halted 
in a beautiful groye on it
 bank, naluing the place 
an Daniel. 
Today, five league
 to the south. 
The valley of San 
J osé, through whirh Wf' had passed, lies 
for the nlost part to the north, in 37 degree::), 33 nlÍnuteð of 
latitude, anrl frolll north to south it is about twelye leagues 
long:, and frOlll east to west in part
 IllOre than three If'agues 
wide, in SOlné parts two, and in others only one, or less. It 
 an abundance of very good pasturage; it has large 
plains and a few nwrshes, and has land sufficient for a vil- 
lage and for crolJs; for although it has no water for irriga- 
tion, except froIll the two small riverb of 
an J o
f and the 
Pillar, the great luuuidity of the soil would oyerCOUlf' this 
It is so lllullid in f'very part of the yalle)T, that not only the 
rising ground and low portions, but also the high part:-" have 
s as green and fresh, as the lllOSt fertile plains of the 
riyer during the Illonth:; uf 
June and 
Tuly. r:rhere is Ileal' hy a 
very great aT)undan('e of wooflland, tiJuber, spruee and pine, 
a goud IJlace to pasture herds of large and SlllaU cattle. r:rhe 
Indians who live in this vicinity to the west, north and east, 
('all it in their tongue, lIuascari; they are scantily dressed, 
:..;ubsist on 
eeds and herb
, hare:;, pine-nut;:; in season, and on 
dates. They plant corn, but, frmll appf'arances, gather but 
little. The
' are extreuwly tiluid, and different fronl the 
Lagunas and the bearded [ndialls. 
14th day of Uctoher. 
,re left San Daniel, going south and a (juarter to the west 
by the we
tern hank of the rivf'r. ,Ye turned a little away 
fron1 it, going two leagues over plainH of whitf' saIHl yerr 
dazzling, and very rOf'ky in parts. 
\\Te passed two fountains full of good ,yater that elupty 
into the river. ,\\-- deelilled to the south OVf'r stones of .ßIal- 
pais (which is like the dross of l11etal, though heavier), now 
andy ground and llOW by sandbanks, and went anotlwl' 
two leagne
, descending for the third tÌlne to the river, and, 
crossing, halted on its bank where there was good pa,sture, 



nanÚng it :::;all HugolillO. rThe cliulate i
 nlÌll1 here, heeause 
although W"e felt llluch heat yesterday, last night and to-day 
on the banks of the river it was still green, the roses and flow- 
ers were so brilliant and so fresh, that we knew there had 
been no frobt and not luuch cold here. ,Ye saW" also luezlluite 
brush, which does not grow in cold lands. 
Today, four leagues to tlw south. 
'\'e left 
an Hugolino by the \\'e:::;tern bank of tlw river 
and lJy the sides of some ri:Ûng slopps near by, going two 
It'agnes and a half to thp south-southeast, returuing to the 
bank and middle of t1jle river. I-Iere we found a well-lnade 
basket filled W"ith ears of corn and husks. Xear to this place 
was a SlTIaU field and on the bank of the river were three slllall 
gardens, with their ditehes for irrigating; the {'rihs of corn 
that had been gathered this year, were still in goùd condition. 
This gave us great 
fa('tion, not only for the hope we 
had of being able to replenish our 
tol'k of provisions, but 
principally because it indicateLl the care with whidl the
e p<>o- 
p]e had cultiyatecl the land
 nwking it easif'r to civilize thenl, 
and to turn thelll to the 'b-'aith ",,
hcn the 
\[()st lIigh should ,,-ill 
it, because now ,ye knew what it co
t to teaeh thesp trllth
other Indians, and how difficult it ,nlS to oyerCOnle their a\Ter- 
sion to labor, ,d1Ìeh is llece

ary in order to li\'e in (,ollnnllni- 
ties and towns. FrUIll here W"e went do",,
n the river, and on 
tJle hanks of either sir1e were large settleulCuts peoplerl. as we 
supposed, by these Indians, ",,'ho plantpd thû corn and 
S(lUashes, and ",,
llO, in tlwir o'vn languag(', an
 ealled Parrusi. 
,Ye continued down the river in [l 
onther]y direction, and 
nt half a lpaglw. De(.]ining. to the southwest, we lpft the 
river, hut a deep gully without a path ohligpd U'ì to returll 
Inore than a quarter of a league toward the river, which here 
flows to the southwest; two other 
llIall riyprs entpr into it 
at this point, 0l1f\ cOIning frolll thf' llol'th-northp:lst and thp 
other frOlll the east. rrhis one for the 1110st part, (.ontaill
hot, sulphurous ""Tater, for which reason we ('allcd it Rio Nnl- 
fúreo (Sulphur Ri\'er). 
Here there is a grove of large black poplar trees, 



 and wild grape vines. OlL thE' tract over which 
we went tllPre are a
h pit
, Yein
 of ore, and other inc1i- 
cation::; of 111Ïnerab. "T e crossed the river of the Pillar and 
the Sulphur river near to where they unite, and, going in a 
southerJy direction, we ascended n low table-land, between 
steep rock
 of hlaek 
hining stone. A
cending thi::; we 
to good open land, cro::;sed a narrow plain, that to the east 
has a rangf' of very high table-lands, and to the "
t plains 
of burnt woodland, and red :::;and. On this plain we could 
have gone by the side
 of the table-Iand
. and finished our 

 on good, levpl ground; but those that went ahead 
changed tllP direction in order to follow a fresh Indian trail, 
and so took us over the low hills of red sand, which greattr 
tired the horses. \Ye proceecled three leagues to the south- 
west (having traveled ovpr thesf' saulC plains alld table-lands 
before, two leagues to the south). 
,Ye descended now to the south two leagu

, and caine to 
a place overJookillg a sluall valley surrounded by hills; on one 
of the
e hin
 we now found ourselves and unable to descend 
to the valley. There was neither water nor pasturage here 
for the aniluals, which could not now go farthpr. ,Ye suc- 
ceeded in going down by a slope, which was rocky and fun 
of stones. ,Ye went three-quarter:; of a league to tlw bouth, 
and halted by a stream where we fOl1uc1large pools of good 
water, and plpnt

 of grafis for the animals. ,Ye TIallleÙ the 
place the Arroyo del Taray c:rlw Taluarind StreaIu), be- 
cause of the tref?S growing tlwre. 
Today, tt'n leagues, which, in a direct course, ,,
ould be 
seven south and a <luarter to the west. \r e took ou:-:elTatiolls 
by the north star, and found ourselvt::s in 3G d
gref?s, 32 n1Ín- 
utes, and 30 seconds of latitude. In this plain or little valley, 
there are lllore talnarind trees; tlw branches of ,yhich are 
1111lCh uSN1 for Inedicine in New 
[exico. To-night all of Ollr 
provisions are f'utirely gone, leaving us only two tablets of 
chocolate for to-n10rro"\\ 111orning. 
1 Gth day of October. 
,Ye l('ft the Arroyo with the intention of going south to- 



wards the Colorado l'iyer: hut ha\Tillg gOllt" on]
T a little way 
we heard 
onle ppop]e ('ailing to u
, ,ulíl turning' to :see wll('l'e 
the :-;oulld ('anw fl'Oll1. we 
aw eight Ludial1s (In the tops of the 
hills where 'we had haHE'a, aud whi('h \\ t" had ju
t left
a1"(-' in the luidrlle of a plain full of ('ha]k and a kind of 1ni('a. 
\r e retul'lwd hy the:-;
 p]aiu:-;, giving direetion:-; thnt the 
interpreter should follo"T us, a::-. he had gone on nlwad. \\T e 
caIne to the foot of the llloulltain:-;. aud we g-ave tllPm to uuder- 
stand that they 
hould eOJIle Üo\nJ without fe
ll'. hp('ê:nl
e we 
canl(' iu peaée and werf> friend}.;. \"'ït11 this as:-;nrmwe they 
Cê:lnle do"Tn, sho,,-ing us some strings of ehalehihuite. * each one 
with a ('olored shell, whi('h 
et us thinking, hpeanse the 
of chal
hihuite luuked to U
 like rosaries, and tlIP :-;hell
Ineùals of the sainb. \Ye l'el113iued with thelll a short tiUlt'; 
r }.;poke the Y uta tougue so (liffpl"elltl
' frmll the other 
Y utas. that neither the interpreter. nor the Laguna .J oa<tuin. 
could nlake theln understand, or cou]d understand l111wh of 
what the

ai(1. l\e'Terthe]ess. hy 
iglls and bccau:-;(' in 
sentenees tllPY 
poke Y uta lllore like t11(' Laguna
, we under- 
stood that they were Parusis (except one who spokp lIlUre ..L\ra- 
13i(' than Yuta, "ThOll1 we judged to he a Jalnajaba). These 
were tlwy who eultiyated the land on the banks of the ('i\Ter 
Pillar, and lived 13elo,,- the river un large Ì1.aets. ,y- e took them 
to he Cosninas, hut after\yaròs found they were not. They 
offered their cl1alchihuites Ül trade, hut we told the]ll that we 
had nothing, hut if they wi
hed tu eUlne with 11
 10 where 0111' 

men were, then we would give thelll what the
- askeJ, 
and would talk with theul longer. rrlley all caUH> lllllCh 
pleased, but with fear. ,Ye now talked with thelll lllOre than 
two hours and a half or three. They told U
 that we "Tould 
arrive at the Rio Grande in two days; hut that -we ('ould not 
go by the way we had wislwd. hel'anse it had no watpring pla('e, 
nor would we be able to cros
 the river, for the banks were 
very high, the river ver.\T deep, and the sides were r()ck
- and 
dangerous, and finally tlU1t frUlll here to the river th

* A small shell brought inland from the coast by the Indians and worn 
 an ornanwnt. 



ing wa
 very bad. ,Ye presented thenl with two knives, 
and to each one string of hPêH.1:-:. rPhen we }H.opo:-;pd to theln 
that if anyone of thenl ('êll'('d to guide us to tlip river. we 
would pay hÜl1. rrher replied that one of theln "would show 
us the way to the caíion ,,'hich was in the bnd to tJlP east of 
the plain, and fronl that point we ('ouid go alone; hpcau
tlwy wpre harefooted and l'ould not \\el1 traye1. 
',Ye did not want to leave the 
outh road that led to the 
ri\'pl', llot,,'ithstanding ....dmt they said, hp('ause we 
that llw 
Ioquis f'ntp]'tainerl hard fpplillf.?'S toward:::; the Cos- 
llinas. OIl 
el"ount of lwying guidel1 
""'ather Oarces, :lnd they 
were su:-;picious that they would direct other priests aIHl 
Spaniards into tìlf' .JIo<Jui towns, \\'hich the
' had atteulpted. 
with th1"t:'a t.... to pre\Tent, and ha ,'iug heard of this. the:-;e Indi- 
ans now tried to turn us aside so that we n1Íght not reach the 
Cosllillas nor their lleighhors, the .J Hlllaja has. Yet he('ausp of 
the urging on the part of all our C'Olllpanions. to wlImn we did 
not wish for the present to declare onr suspicions, we consent- 
ed to take the route of the caíiOll. 
\\T e offpred to tlwse Indians so]es llwde of trunk-leather 
to nlake sandal
 if they would 
iYe UH a guide, Tlwy ",aid 
they would a('COUlpany u
 until they had put us on a 
good road. \\T e entered with thelll into the ('auon I have men- 
tioned, and trayeled for a league and a half. thp journe
T be- 
ing luade with great difficulty and with 11nlC'h 
lipping hack 
of the horses, on account of the 
harp, flinty stone
 and the 
Illany dangerous spots over which "'P were COillvelled to ClÌlllh. 
,Ye caIne to one place "here the pa:-'
agp wa'S So narrow that 
it required lllorc than half an hour to get the first three horses 
to enter thp defilf'. rrhen "
f' ('BIlle to a lofty precipice, so 
i3teep that it "Tould cost infinite trouhle to ('liulb it, t:'yen on 
foot. Seeing that it ,,
onld he inlpoRsible for us to follow 
theIn, the Indians turned and fled, inlpelled to do so, probably, 
by their cowardi('e. 
'Ye found it llece
sary to turn hack in order to find aga in 
thE' southern road. "T e first stopp(-.a awhi Le to re
;t the ani- 
nJ.als and giyc thenl food and water, of ,,'hich there was a 



little here; but tlip water "
as so bad that SOllIe of the horses 
would not drink it. In the afternoon we retraeed our 
through t.he entin' length of the cañon, and haying tr:lxersed 
a half league in a 
outherly direction, we CHlllveJ Hear the 
;:;outhern entrance of the yaUey, without water for either our- 
f:elves or the horse
. ,r e were in great straits all the night, 
for ""e had no food of any kiud what:::;oeyer, and for t.his rea- 
son we detel'lllined to t.ake the life of a horse in order not to 
lose our own; hut as we harl no water, we thought. best to 
wait. until "Te could obtain it. ,r e had ç;o :::;eyere a journe
today t.hat we ë:lchTaueed only a league and a half to the 
Oc>tober the 17th. 
,Ye continued our journey to the soutlnnll'll; l'a;-:
ing the 
entrance to t.he little valley by going through a rayine in 'which 
"Te found a pool of good ,yater, sufficient for ail the anil11als. 
"r e kppt on to tIle south two league
, tllf'n took our <-,our:::;(\ tu 
the southeast two leagues, and in another ravine we found an 
aøundance of good water, not only in one pla('e, but. in lllaU
nd although it was rain w
lter, and that which gather
the trails, it does not ::seen1 to beC0111e exhausted the entire 
year. IIere we discovered some of the herbs that are ('aIled 
"que lites. " ,Ye thought we could l1se t11el11 in sati
fying our 
hunger, but we were able to gather unly a few, and thé
were very slnall. 
,r e took our way to the I
outheast, and joul'IH'yed four 
und a half leagues over leyel and good countr

, although 
f'Ollle"\',-hat spongy; we stopped, partly 10 see if in the ravines 
running down frmn the lnesa "Tp ('ould find "
aier, and partly 
t.o giye S0111e of the sea
oned lu>rbs llwye Inelltioned to Don 
Bel:nardo l\Iiera, who, as he had had no nOllrisllluent since yes- 
terday morning, was noW" so weak that he ('ould hard]
r speak. 
,y P orderpd a searph luad(' in the pa('ks and other parcels in 
which ,,'e had carried 0111' provisions. to Bee if any fragments 
of food could be fonnd, and we caIne across a few pieces of 
squash that the servants ha(l ohtainpd the day before frOlTI 
the Parusi Indians, and had hi(ldf:'n thenl a\vay 
o as not to 
invite the rest to share with then1. 



,fitl1 the
e fraglllellts and a piece of brown loaf-sugar 
which we found, we fixed up a ::-;ort of baked dish for all the 
party, and took a little nourislHuellt. \Ye did not fiud ,yater, 
Bud a-.; we eould not pa
:-: the night here, we concluded to 
lllove on in a southerly directioll. Some of our conlpanions, 
without having inforIned us of their intentions, Wf?nt to exanl- 
ine the l11esa in the east and the eountry around it. They re- 
turned, telling us that the a
cent to the sunllllit of the nlesa 
1Yas good, and that frOlll that on there was le,'el ground 
broken by lllan
T ravines, in which there l11USt be water, and 
they thought the river must be at the end of the plain which 
extended frOlll the base of the l11esa on the other side. On 
hearing this, our party a
 a whole was indilled to change the 
direction of our course; but we, who knew how often they 
had been deeeivf?d, and that in so short a titne they could 
not haye seen ::;0 lllueh, "Were of a contrary opinion, beeau
we could see pretty level and good country to the south, and 
we had toda
Y found so 11111('11 good water in spite of what 
had been told us by HIP Indians, Hnd had traveled oyer so 
much good road, that we were an the more reluctant to 
change. But as we had no provisions, and ""ateI' nlÏght he far 
away, and since to follow our own judgulent 111Ïght be more 
inconvenient to the party than to do without water and food, 
we told thenl to go ahead and do as they thought best; they 
took us to tlÏe lllesa in the southeast, cliulbing it by ,\ay of a 
broken ravine, or gorge filled with stone, in which there 1Ya
n111<'h white 
tone of a good quality that is usecl for whiten- 
ing. ,\
 f' reach('d tllf' sUBunit of the llleSa hy OIl(? of the pre- 
cipitous sides coveret1 'With black stone. and eanlpL.d on a 
slllall plain where there was 
Oln(' pasture hut no water. ,\
called the place San .2tugcl. 1'oday, nine leagues. 
'\Ye regretted yery 111uch haying changed our cour
e. be- 
cause, judging frOlll the height we had reached, if we had COll- 
tinu('d to the south 1ye would f;oon haye arrived at the riyer. 
After we had eanlpecl, We wel'f' told by tho:--e who had corne 
first to the mesa, that they thought they had seen water at a 
short distance frOll1 this spot. Two of thenl went to bring us 
SOll1e, hut they did not return that night, and the day dawned 



without our 
eeing an
 thing of thenl. ,r e concluded that they 
had gone in search of Indian viIlage
, to report tlwir ai re di",- 
tress. For this reasOll. and l)pcan
p we had no watel" we de- 
tel'lllined to go ahead without "
aiting for thelTI. 
October the 18th. 
,\T e went out fnull San Angel, in a 
direction, and after a journey of half a lengtw we turned to 
the east, a point to the Routh two leaglle:-:, oyer hills and ex- 
tE'nded valleys. covered with grass, hut vpry ro('ky. and not 
finding any water Wf' turned to the eaf-it; a point to the north 
another two leagues, going up and do,,'n rock

 hi! b, very 
trying on the horses. l
"jve Indiall
 "'ere louking at ns frOIll 
a short but lofty llwsa. ,Yhen we two, who followed in the 
rear of our (,Olnpaniolls, were passing by they :-;poke to u:-:.. 
,Yhell we turned towards theill. foul' of th('n1 hid thl'lllseb:es, 
and only one remained in 
ight. ,yP saw that lIP wa
 in greê")A 
\Ye ('ould not persUiHle hin1 to de
('end t1w ('1 iff, and 'WP 
two clinlhed up alone. with great difficulty. .A t each step that 
Wf' took èlð we canle nearer to hin1, he "as dispo
;ed to fi
from us. "
e gave hilll to understand that he fo;hould nut he 
afraid, that "Te loved hinl as a ðon and desired to speak with 
him. ,Yith thü', he waited for us, lunking lll<lny gcstnre:-; to 
show that he was in great fear. 
After we Ì1acl climbed up to wht'l't' he wa
. w(> emhnH't'd 
hÍIll gently, and 
itting down by hi
 side, we ('ailed up the in- 
terpreter and Laguna. 'Yhen he had l'eeoyered a litt](-> fl.OIll 
hifo; fear, he told u
 that foul' otlH'r
 wen' hidden near there, 
and if ,,-e de
ired, he would caU thenl, 
o that ,,'e lllight 
thenl. Un giving hi III an affinllativp re
ponse, he laid hi
and arrows on the grollnd. took the intt'll)reter hy tlip hand, 
and led hÍln to where the others were in order to hring theln 
to us. They came, and we talked with then1 ahout an honr. 
They told us that "a tel' was elo
e 1JY. ,Ye hegged uf thelll 
how it to u
, promising thenl a piece of woollen goods; 
and after a good deal of persuasion three of then1 prOlnised 
to go with Ufo;. ,Ye journeyed with then1, very 111uch fa- 



tigued and "weakened frolll hunger and thir:-;t. a league in a 
southeasterly direction, and another league to the south, oyer 
a rocky road. and reached a sluallmountain poypred 1"rith ce- 
dar bushes, and then to a l'ayine, in "'hose cayities Wf' found 
two large puuls of guod 1"rtlÍer. 'Ye took what 1"re needed for 
ourselyes, and then brought the hor
 near, and as they 
1"rere very thirsty the
T drank all the ",yater frOln the pools. 
,Ye deterJuined to pas
 the night here. eal1ing tlw plael' 
Sanulel. Today. 
ix leagues. 
The thrpp Indian:-; ,dlO aC(,Olllpanied us "Tere so filled with 
fear that they did not want to "Walk in front of us nor penuit 
us to dra"W near to theIn, until they had talked with thp La- 
guna Joaquin; "What he told thenl eonf'el'ning U
theIn, and they "
ere reassured. 
-hllong other things. the
itsked hilll ho"W it "Was that he had the courage to ac('onlpauy 
ns. ....
s he desired to relieye their n1Índs of all fear and to 
find SOlne relief fl'Olll the hunger and thirst "We "Were 
he replied in the hest "Way he eould 
 and he slleeeedpd in l'ahu- 
ing their fears and suspicions, and in this W3Y, in all probahiì- 
ity, he kept theln "With us until "We reached the pIa('e "There 
"We found "Tater. 
After "We had nladp our camp, we gave theIn the piece of 
"Woollen cloth "We had promised the"Ill, and thp
T were greatly 
pleased "With it. I(no"Wing that we CaIne without any pro\Ti- 
sions, they told us to send one of our part)
 along "With one 
of theirs, to vi
it their "Wig"Wanu.::, "Which "Were at 
01ne dis- 
tance a"Way, and bring us sOluething to pat, and that tll(>
would relnain "With us until they returned. ,y e 
ent oup of 
the half-breed::, "With the Laguna .T Oa(luin, giying theIll 
thing "With "Which to Blake purchase!-;, and !-;cIH1ing along se\T- 
eral pack anÌ1naIs to hring the bun1pn. They departed "With 
the other Indian, and returned to us after nightfall, hriugill
us a little dried n1eat, sonle prickly pears Inadp in the forIll 
of a cake, and the seeùs of SOlIle herhs. They bronght us 
ne"Ws al
o of one of the t"Wo nlen "Who had gon
 frOln U
night hefore to searC'h for "Tater, saying that he had hpen in 
t.heir yillage; the other arriyed ahout ten 0 '<,loek at night. 



Uctober the IHth, 
There caUIe to our canlp twenty of the:--e h1l1ian:--: with 
dried prickly pears in cakés or chunks, and ::,e\'eral leather 
bags filled with seeds of different kinds to spll to Uf-ì. \\T e paid 
then1 for what they had brought, and told them that if they 
had lueat, pine nut
 and Inore prickly pear, to bring thenl, 
and we would buy tl1Plll, espef'ial1y the 111ea1. rrhey sai<1 they 
had then1, but that it would be ne('e

ary for ns to "Tait for 
them until midday. ,Ye agreed to do so, and they went away; 
one of them offered to accompany us to the river if we wouJ(1 
'wait until the afternoon, and we agreed to that al
o. In the 
afternoon there canle lllauy more than had been with u
fore, and anlong theln one who was called a Jacarilla-Aparhe, 
who said he had COlue with two others of his tribe frOln his 
territory to thi
, cro
sing the river only a few days before. 
He was of disagreeable countellan<,p, anù differed frolll the 
other Indians in the disgust that our presence here inspired 
in him, and in tliP 1110re haughty lllÌen that he purposely a
sUllIed, a
 'we could easily 
ee. r:rhey told us that tllf'se 
Apaches were their friends. 
They did not bring us an
r llleat, but had several bags of 
seeds and some fresh prickly pears, sOlnewhat sunburnt, and a 
quantity of the11l dried in cakes. ,'T e purchased about a 
bushels and a half of the seeds and all tliP Vriddy lJear
. ",Ye 
conversed with theln for a long tÏ1ne concerning the distance 
to the riyer, and the road to it; their nmnher and mode of 
]ife; the tribes that were upon their border
, and about the 
guide that we asked of the111. They pointed ont the ,"\ay we 
should take to get to the riyer, and ga\Te us a sOluewhat vague 
description of thp cros
ing place, with the stateuleut that we 
should arrive therf' within two or three days. They told us 
they were caDed Yuhl1inrariri, and that they did not culti- 
V:lte corn; that their ]11eanS of sustenanee was those seed:-;, 
the priddy pear, pine nuts, uf which they gatherpd very few, 
depending upon their need, and that they hunted rabbits, 
hares, alH1 wild sheep. They added that on this side of the 
river the Parusis cultivated eorn and squashes; that on the 



ide, just after passing across, were the L'tne
(by "h01U we understand the Cosninas), and that these plant- 
ed lTIuch corn. In addition to these, they spoke of others who 
were their neighbors on the south-southwest, on this western 

ide of the river, and that the::,e are tlw Pa-uches (Pay- 
tahs). They also gaye us Honle account of the IIuascaris, 
,,?hOlll we had already seen in th(' yalley of Han .1 osé. 
o far 

s concerned the Spaniards of 110nterey, they gaye us nu 
token ,,-hateyer that they had eyer heard of then1. ()ne of 
those -who spent the preceding' Hight with ns gaye us to under- 
stand that he had heard of the journey nUHle by Father P. 
Garcés, which, taken with the fact that all the others had de- 
nif'd any a('(lllainbuwe "Tith the [iosninas (if they do not 
known thenl by the HêHne giyen a hon:'. AJlc'Hllluehis), seenIS to 
proyE' what we haye already 
aid we snspected. The t'onyer- 
sation being concluded, they all went away, without our hf'lllg 
ahle to secure one of their llUll11Jt'1' to a('('ompany ns to the 
Don Bernardo 1Iiera was sick to-day with stcHnach tl'()uhle
and RO we ('ould not leave the Call1p. ..L't little farther in ad- 
\?ance we founel oth
r })0018 of water which sati:--fied (}lll' needs. 
for the night. 
0('to1)('r the 20th. 
,Ye set out frOlu San Sanllwl, taking a north-northeast- 
erly course, having the ford of the Colorado river a,.... our ob- 
jective point. Leaving to one side a ridge of 1110untains, yery 
rocky. which appeared in front of us, going a little lllOre than 
two league:--, we turned to the northeast and entere(l upon a 
plain that was fref' f1'0111 stone, and haying gone four If'agups 
we found in a nl\Tine several pools of good water: haying 
pushed ahead a league to east-northeast "
e stopped on the 
edge of the plain hptWf'ell two s111all mountains "hi('h stand 
in the plain, ('lose to a rayinp in ,yhic!l there "as a great 
abundance uf water and plenty of grass. ,Ye (.aIled thi
Santa Gertruflis, wllOse latitu(le we found hy the polar star to 
be 3G degrees. 30 1Hinutes. To-day, seyen leagues. 
O('tober the 21st. 



",Ye left 
anta Gertrudi
, pursuing our journey to the ea:::;t, 
and haying gone a half league, we turned to the northeast. 
,Ye several tÜlle
 crossed the ravine of Santa Gertrudis, 
which in Inany places has large puekets of water, and after 
traveling over a poor country, with 
everal turn
, five leagues 
and a half to the northeast, we went through a region of easy 
travel, and luaking our way lllore than fuur league::; to the 
east-northeast, we f"topped for the night near to a little val- 
ley where there waH grass but no ,yater, not even for nUll1. 
Lorenzo de Ulivares, driven by the thir::;t ('aused frolH eating 
so many seeds, pine nuts and prickly pears, bet out as soon as 
we were in canlp to hunt for water in ",mne one of the ravines 
in the neighborhood, and he was ah
ent frOlu us all night 
Inng, which cau::;ed us great uneasiuess. \Ye called the plaee 
Santa Barhara. r:}'1 o -day, ten leagues. 
October the 22d. 
,Ye left 
anta Barbara, taking our courbe ill a north-north- 
easterly dir
ction, looking for (Hivares. ..About two league
fronl canIp we found hinl near a 8111a11 pool of water whiC'h 
contained only enough for our luen and to fill a ':'inutll keg 
that we had with us, in ease we should need it during the 
night. \f e went forward over the plain, and having traveled 
four leagues to the northeast, we saw it t.rail that led off to 
the south; heing illfol'llled hy the interpreter that the Yahuin- 
 had told hinl that this was the trail we wen' to follow 
in orùer to reach the river, we took it; but after "e had pur- 
sued our 'way to the south for ahout a league, ,ye found that 
the interpreter had lui:-;takell the description given hilll. sincl-' 
the trail turned back upon itself. .Aud 
u we turned to the 
east, and as('elHlef! a low lnountain that ,ye had attempted to 
evade, and whieh runs north and 
onth along the entire ea:-;t- 
ern side of this plain. 'Ye crossed it "ith great diffieulty and 
fatigue on tl1P part of the hOl'
es, lw(>ause ill a(ldition to he- 
ing broken up with llU1llproUS gorges it was very ro('ky and 
coyered with pebbJestones. The night overtook us while we 
were descending the other side of a Joft
T ridge ('overed with 



:b-'rOlll this point we could 
ee luany fire
 on the far side 
of a 
lllall plain. ,Ye conduded that the interpreter .L
and the Laguna Joaquin, who had gone forward in ;::;earch of 
water for the night, had kindled the fires to let u
 know where 
they.were. But after we had Hlade the descent. and had left 
our trail bonle five leagues to the east-northeast, taking sev- 
eral turn
 through the defiles of the nlOuntain, "re arrived at 
the place where the fire
 were burning, and found three wig- 
wams of Indian
, and with thelll uur interpreter and .J oa(luin. 
'Ve concluded to pass the night here, since we learned that to 
the east and west there \vas water and grass for the anirllals, 
which were entirely exhau
ted frOlll fatigue. 'Ye called the 
place 8an Juan Capi
trano. Today, twelve leagues. 
 it "Tas night when Wf' re(H'hed the
e wigw(nll
, and as 
the Indians were not able to distinguish the nunlber of people 
who came, they were greatly frightened, so nluch so that when 
they saw us arriye, in spitf' of the protestations of the inter- 
preter and the Laguna .J oaquin, the n10::;t of therIl ran away, 
leaving only tlu'f'e lllen and two wmuen, who said be
to our Laguna: "Brother, you are of the 
allle race as our- 
selyes; do not pernlit thobe people with whom you live to 
kill us." 'Ye petted thenl as well as we could. and tried in 
every way that we thought of to caItn their fears and suspic- 
ions. "
 e bucceeded to Sonle extent, and thf'Y sought to please 
us by giving us two roasted hareb and a few pine nuts. Two 
of thenl al
o went, although with great fear, to show the 
spring:..; of water to our servants. in order that our aninutls 
illight have s<)lllething to drink. 
This spot is to the east of the northern point of the IllOlln- 
tain I have lnentioned, near to a nUluher of ridges of r
earth. To the 
outh of these, \Tery near, i1pon the top of 
eral hills covered with boulders and pine and ('eclar tl'f'f'
are two hollows fined with rain water; on this 
ide of the Ill, ill 
a sluall gulC'h. there are several pools of water, hut the ([lU111- 
tity is SlllaU and thf' quality poor. r:J..10 the south-southwest 
of the:--p :.;alne hills. at the foot of the lllOunta in, there is a 

pring of constantly running water. 



After we had retired for the night, several of our C0111- 
pallioll;:;, alllOng thenl 1 )on Bernardo }liera, went oyer to the 
 to talk ,,'ith the Indiall:-ì. They told the Iudians 
that DOll Bernardo 
I iera wa:-; ill, and OIW of thf' old Illdian
either because our people requested it or bee(lu:-;e he hÏIll
ired to do 
o, set about ('lu'illg hilll with songf' and incan- 
tations, which. if they "
t're 1l0t openly idolatrous were at 
least totally 
uperstitiou:-;. .i:\Il our people very willingly per- 
luittpd this to OC'Cllr, and the sick lllall was hilll
elf plea::;eù 
with it, for they looked npon it as anlll",ing clowni
hen they ought to have oPlJo
ed it as being contrary to the 
gelical and divine law which they profess to observe; 
at least, they could have withdrawn frOJll the pIacp. ,reheard 
the songs of tlIP Indian, but did not know what their purport 
'Yhen we were il1forll1f'cl in the lllOrning of "'hat had taken 
place. we ff'lt very lllU('h grieved in 
pirit hecause of so ('are- 
le;:;s an ob::;eITance of the laws of their Churl'll, and we re- 
proved them, and wanH-'d thenl against tIwir heiug present 
voluntarily, or in any wa
T condoning SlH'h faults. This is 
one of thp rea
ons why the unl)f'lieYer
. who arc best (1('- 
'luaintp(l ",
ith tllP 
panial'Cls and Christians in the
e pal"t
t Gospel truth. and their eouYer
iou dail

 heing l"('ud(']'f'cl 
lllore difficult. \Yhen we prea{'hed to the first 
whOln we 
aw, and anlloluwed to tllPlll thp ne('e


 of Christ- 
ian baptislu, tlu' intt'l'pret('r, either for the pnrpOf'e of not of- 
fending tllf'111, or in orc1f'r that he 
nip;ht not Io
e thei r good 
will which he had gained h
y traffiC' in pelts (('\,P11 a.g'ainst the 
just prohibitions of the goYernor
 of this king'dom, h
' which 
on repeated oceHsions it had been pro('lainH-'d that no half- 
breed Indian or dweller 
hould enter into the territory of 
the unhelievers without hnying ohtainecl first a li('ense fronl 
his Ex
eUenC'y), translated the 'Yonl
 of the IH'eêw1u'1' in this 
way: .. The Father :..;ay
. that the ....1pa('he
, Xayajo:-- and 
Comanehes who are not haptlu1d ('anl1ot ('ut(']' into 1lleaYCn, 
and that they go to hell. where God wiU ('hastlsf' thf'ln. and 
they win hurn eternally like wood in the fire. n .L\t thi



howed great glee, becau
e they heard that their 
enenlies were under the neceRf.:ity of being baptizerl or of be- 
ing lost and punished eternally. The interpreter was re- 
proved. and seeing that his foolish unbelief was discovered, 
nlade suitable apologies. ,Ye could add other instancéR, men- 
tioned as occurring anlOng the luta;-" taking pla('e in ('onnec- 
tion with luany idolatrous practiees- but t]w two Iuentioned. 
which canle under our uwn obserration, "ill :suffice. For if 
within our own conlpany, "here idolatrous practices 'were fre- 
quently condenlned. persons ,"ere iound guiltr of transgres- 
sion, what nlight not taboo' VhH'e when tÌLree or fonr lllOnth:s 
would elapse among the unbelie,'ing Yutaf-: and Xavaj()
, if 
no one were present to repro\'e them or holcl thenl in ('he<'k '! 
 this, ",ye haye hat! ahnndant reason to know fronl 
knowledge aC(luired on this expedition that 
Ollle go to the 
Yutas and reulaill a great while aIllong thelu he('3use of their 
desire to purchase pe1tries: others there are who go for car- 
nal reasons, to indulge in their aninlal instincts; and thus in 
every way tIle naIue of Christ i
 hlaspheuIed, for these llwn 
prevent, anù indeed oppose, the extension of the faith. Oh! 
"ith what 
everity such wickedness should he relH'oyed! )[ay 
God in His infinite nler('y inspire the 1110St suitable and effica- 
cious nlethod for correction! 
(>ctober the 
,Ye did not travel today, for we wished to give tilJle to 
the people ahout here to C'alnl clown. and al
o that tho
e who 
dwelt in the vieinity nlÌght visit us. rrhe seed
 and other 
things which we had pur('hased and eaten did us harnl. and 
they weakened us in
tead of giving us 
trength. -\Ye could 
not persuade the peopJe to sell us any llwa1-. and for that rea- 
son we ordered a horse kiJIed, and the flesh cut np in such a 
way that we could ('arry it with us. 

""ather Frau('isco 
ltauasio suffered very Hluch to(lay 
frolll severe pains, so that he was not able evell to lllove. 
All day long Indians kept arriving from villages in the 
neighborhood, and we received thenl kinrlly and made them 
such presents as we could afford. They gave us lTIore partic- 



ulan., than we had had ('oneerning the Cmmina::) and 
quine::;, calling thelll by these n
. They al
o told us the 
trail ","e were to take in order to reach the riy{>r. whieh i
ahout tweh'e leagues fronl here. at tIlt' U10:-;t. and they de- 
Bcribed the crossing. \\T e purchased of then1 about a bu
hel of 
pine nuts, and pre
enter1 then1 with a half-hu
heJ of llerh 
The foUowing day, yery earl
y, twenty-six lndian
a llulllher of theul the sante as ('anle 
T, while othpl's 
"\ye had not hefore seen. \re pl'eaehed to theul tll(:' UO
reproying then1 and explaining tu thelll the eyjl and follr of 
their wrong-doing. espe('ialJy with regar(1 to the sup('r
CIU'PS of their 
iek people. \Ye renlÏnded thenl that it wa
God only, the true and only God. that the
Y shol1l(l go in their 
time of trouhle, he('i:luse onl
r ] [e, the High and Iloly One. 
had at His di
al health and 
s. life and death. and 
He can help eyelTone. And although our interpreter could 
not Yer
Y well explain this to thenl, there was another listf'n- 
ing who douhtless had considerahle dealings "\yith thp Yuta- 
Payuchis and who well understood what "\ye --aid; he explained 
to the others what lip heard. Learning this they listened "yith 
atisfaction, and we proposed to theni that if the
y de- 
sired to hec01ne Christians, prie
ts and Spaniards would 
COlne to instruct then1 and ]iye aillong thenl. They replied 
in the affinnatiye, and we inquired of them a
 to where w<-, 
should find thenl when ,,
e callIe; ther 
aid: .. In this littlp 
lllountain and on the nwsas in the neighhorhood." 
Then. in order to gain their friendship a little more. we 
distrihuted Hlllong theln thirteen yards of red rihhou, 
giyjng to each of thenl a half-,nud; whieh pleased theln 
YCnr lllll('h and for whieh they thanke(] us. One uf theul 
had already agreed to accon1pany u
 far as the ri,yer, in 
order to show us the crossing, hut after the
y had all gone, 
and he had êl(.'('o111panied u
 a bout half a league, hE' waR bèizcd 
with so lllueh fear that we found it Í111possihle to persua(]p 
hilll to go farther. Our l'Olllpanions, without llllleh reflef'tioll. 
desired U
 to ('Olnpel hilll to keèp hi
 word; hut when we saw 
110"'" disinclined he wa
 to proceed, we let hilll go freely. 



Octoher the 

\t nine 0 'clock in the nlOrning, or a little later, -we set 
out frOln San .J uan (1api
trano, taking uur cour
e thruugh a 
yalley to the 
outh-southeast, and. lun'ing gone a diRtance of 
four leagues -we turned to the RoutheaRt along the Rê.llile yal- 
ley. ,Ye found here at the fuut uf the Ine
a on the eaRtern 
side of the Yalle
- three pooh, of ?;ood wa tel', hut not in suffi- 
cient quantit
T for tlIp horses. l
p to this point frOlll our last 
caIn!) -we had trayerRed a pretty good ('()untry. .f ourneying 
for another t-wo leagues towards tlw 
olltheast. we turned to 
the bouth-
uuthea:,t three leagues oyer a 
T trail and \Tery 
rough road. Although we found no water for the anÜnalR, 
"We (1aulpecl where 
). found paRtnre, siuC'e a1I were Yel'
' tired, 
and night was well adyan('ed. ,Ye ('ailed this place Han Bar- 
tholomew. The yalley here is (Iuite large, but the soil is poor. 
It is of sandy hottOlll. on top of which is a la
-er of liln
T earth 
about four inche
 deep. There are lllany hed
 of transparent 
gypSUlll, and of talC', and in places there are showings of 
Today, nine leagues. 

rhe River Colorado flows along here from north-northeast 
to south-
outhwest, very deep, with high hanks, ;:,0 that if one 
should cultivate the land on the banks of tl1(' rive!', a1though 
the soil Inight be good, the strean1 -would be of no servi
e to 
hilll. \Y' e ('aught sight thiR afternoon of the precipices lin- 
ing the sides of the river, and 
een fronl the western side they 
eInbled a long ridge of honc;;;e::,. But -we judged tllP111 to be 
the hanks of 
onle of the lllany gulches that are in the plain. 
()('tolJer the 
,Ve left Ran Bal'tholOlnew, and took an east-suuthea
direction. Traveled a little le
s than a league and a half to 
the east, not desiring to arrive at what "'as really the hed of 
the great river; hecaubè we pa
::;ed Inany streanls that had 
banks as lofty as we now saw, and for this reason we con- 
cluded that the river we sought did not run there, hut that it 
was SOllle other streanl. 
o that -we bent our -way to the north- 



northeast of the valley, by which route we thought we would 
get rid of the lllesas that surrounded us. "
e enterell the bed 
of a dry ri\Ter, looking for water for the horses, which were 
very much fatigued and yery thil'i5ty, and having journeyed 
along for two leagues we found it Ílllpo
sible to get out. \Y- e 
followed the we
t bank until we were able to cliuIU to a Sl1111- 
mit that was yery rocky. \Ye pressed ahead in a Borth-north- 
easterly direction, and having pursued our route for two 
l('agues further, \ye de
cried poplar tree
 at th
 foot of a 
Inesa. \\Y e pushed on towards tl.1em and found. a spring of 
good water. ()n the edges of the spring "
e found evidences 
of the presence of saline Juatter, anll we concluded we had 
happened UIJon a spring of salt water; !Jut upon t.a:-;ting it 
we found it sweet. ,r e CaUll)ed here, and ('ailed thp place 

an Fructo. 
roday, five leagues. 
In the afternoon, Don Juan Pedro CÜmeros left ('
unp to 
examine the northern point of the yalley, to see if he could 
find an outlet, or could get sight of the riyer and its crossing. 
He returned after midnight with the news that he had arrived 
at the river; but he did not know if "
e could pass oyer SOIue 
n1esas and lofty peaks that he saw on the other side. Xever- 
theless, because he thought the river afforlled a cro
:::;ing at 
that point, we lleternlÏned to trayel in that directioll. 
October the :ZGth. 
Going out from San Fructo, we took a northerly direc- 
tion. ,Ye puslÎed ahead for three leagues and a balf, and ar- 
rived at the spot that we had thought ulÍght be the outlet vf 
the valley. It is a corner entirely surrounded by llloulltaills 
and peaks, very lofty, of colored red earth of di fferent for- 
mations, and as the soil undel'lwath the surface is of the :::;allIe 
color, it has an agreeable aspect. ,Ye continued Ül the -.:anle 
direction, traveling with great difficulty, for the hor.;;cs sank 
to their knees in the soft earth, when the surfat'c was uroken 
through. Having covered another league and a half, we 
reached the great river of the Cosninas. ..A,nother sIualler one 
unites with it at this point, and we called this the Santa 
a. "'\Ve crossed this one, and pitched our (,
Ullp on the bank 



of the larger one close to a precipice of gray stone. \Y" e 
called the spot San Benito Salsipuedell. 
,redetermined to make a reconnoitre tbi
 afternoon to 
aseerta in whether, if "
e crossed the riyer, we ('ould continue 
our \"\ay frOln here to the ea
t or 
outhéast. Ün all sideH we 
were surrounded by mesas and lofty 1110untains. E'or which 
reason, t\"\o of our people who knew how to SWill1 entered the 
water of the river, with their clothing tied aboye tlwir heads. 
They found the current so deep and swift that it was with 
great diffi('u1t
T they reached the opposite bank, having left 
their bundle in the n1Ïddle of the Btremn, without seeing it 
again. .L\
 they Iiad got over with great fatigue, and because 
they were naked and bare-footed, they found it iUIPossible to 
lllake the de
ired exan1Înation, and when they partook of SOllle 
nourislullent the

Oetoher the 
Don .J uan (iiHneros recunnoitered along the Santa Teresa 
riyer, to see if he could find a way to cross the eastern lHesn 
and return to the great river hy a route 1110re open, in which 
the ri\Ter, finding lllore 1'00111 would bE' 1110re fordahle, or at 
uch that the horses l11ight get acruss, for here at this 
point they would he drowned. Don Pedro travc;led all day 
and a part of the night without finding an outlet. lIe saw one 
hill, by way of ,,
hich it "Was thought "We 111ight surmount the 
luesa, but it appeared to hilll to be of great difficulty. Others 
"Went to recunnoitre in different dire('tions, and they found 
nothing" hut insul'lllountahle obstacles, preventing their find- 
ing a ('rossing- unless they had gone great distances. 
Octoher tlw 28th. 
'\Y e putered again upon the san1e 
ear(>h, but all in vain. 
 e constructecl a raft of poles, and" ith it Father Fray Sil- 
yestre, aecol11panif'd h
T the RPl'YD-nts, attenlpted to cross the 
er. But as the poles whidl he enlployed in pn<;;hing th
raft wet'P too short to reach the bottOln, although the
T were 
fiye yard
 in length. thp waves thrown against the raft by a 
T wind forced hilll hack three tillles to the sallW shore 
he had started fronl, without his having reached even the !nid- 



die of the ::-;tl'eaul. Besides the great depth and ;:;\yiftne:":ð of 
the current here, the hank
 of the streaUl on the other :-:ide 
are so llnHlc1
T that we 'yen" afraid we woulcl 10
e in tÌlelu 
SOllie, if not all. of our ho1':-:(,s. 
,Ye had been a:-:surE.,d hy the Y l1blliucarriris and Paganl- 
pachis lndians thai the riypl' pypryvdlerÐ was \'ery (leep, but 
not at the ford, be('au!-,e thpn> the wuter rose onl
T L1 EttIe 
above their waist. }"or thi:-: rea:-.on, and beeause of other 
they had given n
, we cOlwlucled that. the crossing wa
ther up the riyer and we despat<'hed ..."--u(h'{,s 
lnñiz and his 
brothel' Lucrecio with orders to tnn'el until they found a way 
- which we ('ould g-et across the lllE'Sa, and that when they 
Ci:lllle again to the river. they :-:hou1(1 
eek a good fording 
plal'e, or at least a place where we Inight cross with a raft, 
while the horses 
(ktoher the :2Hth. 
Not knowing when we nlight be able to get out of this 
place, an<l the llleat of the horse w(' had kille<l heing ahout ex- 
hausted, as well as the piue nntð aud other f'tlltt we had pur- 
chased, "
e ordered another hor
è killed. 
Oetoher the :mth and 
\re relllained in camp, Rwaitiug" the r('tul"n of tho;-;e who 
had gone to find a pa:-::o::a,ge out and a ford ael'o::;
 the riyer. 
X oyeluher the] st. 
They returned at one 0 '('10('1\: in the afternoon. telling llS 
T had fonnd a way oyer tllf' 111e:-,a, although eXl"eedingl
diffi(,lllt, and a phl('e wlwre we could C'ross the riyer. The pa
sagp on-'I' the lnesa was h
' wa
' of the hill that [iisneros had 
seen, and a
 thi:-; wa
 yeIT lofty and precipitous, we deter- 
mined to a tta('k it in the afternoou. ,Ye :-.et out frOlll t11I:' 
G I'eat Hivf'r and the troubleSOlll(l ealll}>iug place of Ran Bpuito 
ipuedes, going along the ri\Ter of 
anta Teresa, aud 
after we harl goue a leagup to the llorthwe
t, we 
toppecl on 
the hank of the :::;mllP river at the foot of tlw hill I have llll'll- 
tioned. Today, one league. 
That night, after the sun had set aud until seven 0 'clock 
Ül the 1110rning we felt the rold very 11lueh. . 



Xovf'Iuber the 2do 
"... e left canlp on the Hanta Teresa, dinlbed a hill. \yhi('h 
we nalllt'cl Las Äninlas, and which nla
' lJe a half league in 
If'ngth. "...(' were 11lore than thrf'e hour
 in ulHking' thf' asc'('nt, 
since it i
 a :-;teep and rucoky clÏIub. and following it there is a 
stretch of shelving roc'kl.; that are very dangerou:-:; till at la:-;t 
the way beeOInes allnost illlpassa hie. ,Ye had, however, 
reached tilt' top, and taking an eash'rly direetion we welÍt 
c1o,,-n the other side at great risk, l>el'au
e of the brola
n dwr- 
H('ter of the pree'ipi('es. and then Wf' tUl'nf'fl to a northerly 
('ourse. and after going a league ,,-e t urlled in an oblique direc- 
tion to the northeast along a n-'d stouy road that was very 
hard upou the horses. "... e ascended a lo,r hill, and pursu- 
ing our route for two anll a half leagtH's to the northeast, "-e 
deseended to a rivf'r bed in whi('h we found water in plaees; 
and although it was of a saline nature, wa
 drinkahle. There 
was pasturage for the aniluah:. and wp pif<'hed our ('éunlJ, 
ealling it San Diego. Today, four leagues and a half. 
The plëH'f' where we stopPf'd to-da
' i:-: a hout three leagues 
in direct line froIlI 
an Benito Sal
ipuedes, to the northeast, 
dose to a large nluuher of gorge:-:, lnesas. and lllountain peaks 
of a red culor; the whole reselllhling at first sig-ht the ruin
a f ortresso 
X oYt'mher t he 
'Ye Jeft Han Diego, and punn1f'd our eour:-;e to tilt' east- 
southeast, and when we had journeyed hyo If'agues we ar- 
ri\-ed for thf' f'f'eoncl tinl(> at the river, that is to say. on the 
edge of the eañoll. with its great hank and sides, froIl1 which 
the df's('put to the ri\-er is Yel',\
 long: Yer,\T high, ven- prl'cipit- 
ous and rOe'ky, and with sUe'1l had shelves of ro<'k. that t,,-o of 
thf' beast
 of burden whieh ,,-ent dO"'D first "
ere una hIE' to re- 
turn,although the paeks had hpen removed from their saddlf's. 
'Ve had not ]")ef'll advisf'(1 ahout this eliff h
r those who had gone 
to l'éeunnoih o f', and we now dis('overed that the
T not onl,\
not found the river ('rossing, hut lwd not in the severa] da,\Ts 
they were ahsent fronl us, madf' an exrunination of PYf'n so 
small a portion of the territory, since they had spent their 



tilHe in looking for the Indian
 "ho inhabit tll(
::;e region
, and 
they had acconlplished nothing. The riyer ,,-as very deep, 
although not quite so luuch so as in Sabipuedes; but for a 
long distance it was neces
ary that the horses should swim. 
Fortunately they did not sink into the n1Íre either on enter- 
ing the "Water or cOIning out of it. 
Our cOlupanions urged us to go farther do"Wn the river; 
but not seeing on the opposite 
hore any trail or "Way hy which 
we might proceed if we crossed the river, f'xcept a lofty and 
narrow cañon winening frolu a slnaller one which enters it 
at this point, and not knowing whether this one "Tas or wa'S 
not fordable, we feared that if w"e crossen the river we should 
be obliged to return, which would be exceedingly difficult in 
the fa('e of this cliff. In order not to expose ourselves to such 
a result, "We :::;topped up streanl, and c1iref'tecl the half-bre(>d, 
Juan Don1Íngo, to rf'connoitre and see if the cañon I have 11len- 
tioned had any outlet; and that if he did not find an
T during 
the afternoon, to return, and we would continue onr jonruey 
up the river on this side until "WP found the crossing and thf' 
trail of tlw I nc1ians. 
y e sent him off on foot, but Lucrecio 
l\Iuíiiz told us that if we would grant hill1 pel'luission, llf
would aconlpany hÜn on a harehH('k horsp. and takp with him 
the nwterials neces
ary to build a fin
 and raise a sllloke, in 
case they found an outlet; and then we might go on down 
upon seeing that signal, 
o tho]'p would he lc
s delay. 
re told 
hÜn to go, but direeted hÎlu to return that afb?rnoon, whether 
he found an outlet or not. Ther did not cmne back
 and we 
passed the night here. not heill
 able to watt'r the hurses. al- 
though "Te "Tt're t>lu
c tu the riyer. 
y e nauled the place the 
Crossing Place of the Cosninas, or San Carlos. Today, two 
nes to the south-southeast. 
N ovelulJer the 4th. 
Day broke without our RPping anything of t11(' two Inen 
we seut the day hefore to look for a passage out. The hor
flesh "as all COIl
Ull1f'd, we had had nothing to eat, and "We 
hroke onr fast 1\ith a few toasted (,Hetns leayps an(l a por- 
ridge llwdt' of SOlIle little fruit that was brou?;ht up fron1 the 



edge of the riyer. This btuff does not tast
 had taken by 
itself, but when it is ground and boiled in water, as we had it 
today, it is very insipid. .L\.s we saw the hour growing late, 
and our two companions not putting in an appearance, ,y
ordered an attempt should be luade to get the anÜnals down 
to the river, and that once there they should kil1 another 
hor::,e. It "'Was with great difficulty that thi
plished, some of the horf'es receiying seyere bruises from roll- 
ing quite a distance down the rocky bluff. A little before 
nightfall the half-breed, .Juan DonlÌngo, returned. saying' that 
no outlet had been found, and that his cOlnpanion. lmying left 
his horse in the cauon, had followed the fresh tracks left by 
Indians. On learning this. we detenllined to go on up the 
river until we found a place to cross and a trail on whieh to 
travel on one Ride of the riyer or the other. 
X oveluber the Jth. 
,Ye left San Carlo
, although Lucrecio had not turned up, 
his brother _\.lldré
 renlainillg behind with orders to await 
hÏ111 only until the afternoon, and to endeavor to join us that 
night. ,Ye followed along the western bank oyer lllany ra- 
vines and gorge
, a leaglH
 and a half to the north. ,Ye de- 
f.:('ended into a dry ravine, and into a deep cauon where we 
foundnluch copperas. "T e canle across a trail not nnlC'h trav- 
eled, and followed it. By 111eans of it we l'luerged fronl the 
caÎlon, passing along a slwlf of ,ylÜte and difficult rock, but 
whieh affonlpd a road that {'ould be easily improved. ,Ye 
pushed ahead. and after a journe

 of a league and a quar- 
ter to the north-northeast we found water, although only a 
slllaU (JlUlntit
y. and f'uffi('ient pasturage; as the Hight wa
drawing on, we C'aulpe<1 near a loft
y lnesa. ('aIling' tllP place 
Santa Fl'ancisca Ronlana. Today, threè ::-hort leagues. 
Last night i1 rai.nefl hard, and in SOlUf> places it 
The day broke with a rain-fall. which poniinupd for SOlllP 
. ...:"'--t a hOl1t ..;ix 0 'clock in the n10l'n ing-. .L-'\ndl'é
r uuiz 
arriyed. f'aying that his hrothf'l' had not put in an appear- 
ance. This new:::, cau:-;ed us great eOllcern. as tlw abi'elÜ Blan 
had gone now three day
 without anything" to eat. and ,yith 



no other eoyering than his tuuil', for llt' did not wear tr()u
(,'1':-;. ..Llndrés erossed tliP river, Swiulluing his horst' a long 
distanee, and in the plt:l(>(-' where he had l)el.Oln(
T the 
water rea('llPd to hi
 shoulders. A
 the half-hrecd re
to hunt for hin1 hy following the track frolll the spot "There he 
had la
een him, we s
nt hinl off, giving him a sllppl
- of 
e-fiesh, and told hinl that if the hl)r
e he 1'0<1(-' C'ould not 
get out of th(' l'añon, lip was to ahandoll it alH1 l'Ontiulw his 
T on fuot, and that if liP found hill! on tliP other hank lip 
was to eOllle btwk and follow our traek;-;, and endeavor to re- 
join us as soon as po:-:sihlt'. 
N o\'eIlllJer the Gth. 
The rain having ('('ased, WE-' dE-'parted frolll Santa Frall- 
('is('a, taking' a uortheasterl

 <Ii ref'tion, an(l after pro(,E-'pding 
for threE-' leagues, Wl' were detal1wd SUllle tilue by a fif'rl'e 
stonn of rain and hail that burst upon n:-:, aeeompanied by 
fearful hlasts of tlium 1(-'1" and Hashes of lightning. \\T e re- 
('ited tht' Litan
r of tilt' Blesed Virgin. that she lJlight hpg 
for n
 ::'Olll(, relief, and Ood was pleas('d to cau...;e the t(,lupest 
to (>pase. ,Ye C'mltiuue(l 0111. .i(nln)p
- a half Icagne to the east, 
and Rtopl'f'd 1wa r the l'iYE'l", aH the ra in ('ontinupd to pour 
down, and a nU1uhe1' of ro('k
' hlllff:-: imppdp(! our progTPS:-:. 
\\T e HaIllerl the pla('e San \Ti('entel:<'e1Ter. 'Today, three 
leagues aud a half. 
non .Juan Pedro (iisnero::; WE'ut to 
eè if the crossing was 
anywhpJ'e in this yi('init
., HIlri he returne(l to t('l) us that tlw 
riyer was \'er
T wid(-' at this point. and that it did not SCf'lll to 
be Yer
- de(
p, judging fron1 the f'urrent, 1mt that Oltl
- through 
a ('añon that wa
(' h
' eould we h01>(' to n
t:H'h it. \\
Rent t".o other:-: to makp au eXHlllinatilHl of thl;:' ealion and to 
fonl tht' river: the
T J'Ptnrnecl and ...;aid that tJ1PY found both 
T diffiC'lllt. ,Ye did not giYE' Jllu('h (').('(1it to tllp report
T hrollght us, and dptpl'lIliuE'(1 to look it 0\'(:)1' for onrsf'lvp:,; 
Oil the foJ]o,,-ing day in ('Ollll'êlny "with 1 )011 .Tn.tn Pedru Ci:-:- 
neros. Reforp night C'lospd in the half-hreed arrived, hring- 
ing his hrother Lw'}'('eio. 
K oveul1>er the 7th. 



,r p went yery early tu lllake an inspe
tion of tlIp 
a iiun 
and the ford. taking along thp two half-hreed
, .b'elipe and 
.1 uan DOll1Îngo, to 
ee if they ('ould f,)rd tlw riyl'l' on foot, 
as tIH'Y were good swiulluers. In on}PI' that Wp might get the 
 clown the side of the caîion I ha,Te HwntìOlwd, we found 
it necessary to eut steps with our hat<'hets in the ro('k of tlw 
nlolulÌain for a distall(,<> of ahout tln'ep yards. or :1 little less, 
The rest of the way the hOl'
es ,,-ere able to des
end, al- 
though 1yithout pack or rider. \Ye got down into the cauon, 
and pursued our course for ahout a Illile until we ('HIll(' to the 
riyel'. and we eontlnuf-'d down I';tn-'aUl fur a dil';hulC'p of ahout 
two gun-shots, :--OIuetinws walking in tllf' water. and SOllle- 
tillleS on the hank, until 'H-' reached what seeIne(l tlIP wide
p:1rt of the (,l11Tent. ,,
here there might hp a ford. ()ue of our 
people entered. and found a foothold, without being ohliged 
to SWilll at an
r point. 
The rest of us followpd hinl on hOl'seha('k, going a little 
farther down the riyer, \Yhen halfway a

 two of the 
horses that wen' in a(h'ance lost their tooting' êlnf1 werp ('ar- 
ried into a nalTO'" l'1IéllllH-'!. \r e I';toPPt"1. altholl
h at 
risk, until tlie first Ulan who had 
l'd eonlll l'l'tlll'1J frolH 
tlIp farthf'st f'hol'f' to lead and take U
 oyer with 
., with- 
out our horses lun'ing to I';\\Tiul. ,r e 
ent word to 0111' ('Olllpau- 
 whu had l'e1l1ained in San Yìeente that they should 10,,?er 
the haggage and 
 frolll the hluff with l'ope
 and thollg:-., 
down to the yicinit
T of the ford, and to ]ead HIP ho]'sp
the trail we üurspl\'f's ha(1 COIne. The
? did 
O. and at ahout 
fiye 0 '('lock in the aft<>rl1oon we all a(,(,01nvli
llPrl t hp pa
of the riYf'r, prai
' the Lord onr o-Of1. a11<l firing' off a llUlll- 
bel' of lHuskpt-shots to show t11f' joy Wp felt on hayillg tri- 
lllllphed oyer 
o great an oh
t3cle. that had (Òo
t u:-: ...,0 llllWh 
la hor and long (le1ay; although tlip pl'iu('ipal ('HU
P. of our 
having to suffer so 11111('11 sin('e we entf'l'ed the lanrl of the Pa- 
. -nTa:;: because we had no guidp who ('oul<1 sl}(HY us the 
way through thi
 difficult f'ountry, and we wanden'd about a 
good deal owing to our having no experieu('ed person to lead 




After renlainiug so luany days in so snIall a place, and 
after suffering hunger and thirst, and now after enduring all 
this, we found out at last the. best and f-ihortest road where 
the watering places "Were, with only short distances between, 
and "We ascertained other facts, "Which bore upon onr journey, 
especially since we left the southern trail on the day "We 
out frOlll 
an Dónulo or the Rayine of the Tal'ay. For 
frolH this puint "We should haye gone to the good water- 
ing-place "Which is found on the next plain; fro1l1 this 
plaee we n1Ïght haye easily reached another spot "Where 
there is water, whiC'h is about three leagues north- 
east of 
\ngel; fron1 this poÜlt on to Baint Gertrude':,. 
Wf' nlÏght lU1ye journeyed three leag'lws and haye 
calnpec1 in the SaIne rayine ,,
here there is plenty of pas- 
turage and water, and cuuld haye COllle ahead as fa l' as 
possible in the afternoon towards the northeast, and would 
have arriyed next da

, following the sallIe route, and leaying 
(..ntirely to one side the lllountain near the river Santa Teresa. 
three or fonr leagues to the north of 
an Juan Capistranu. 
Prolll this riyer to Ran Diego, in a south-southeasterly direc- 
tioll, and frOlH this plaC'e to the ford, we could haye gOlH-' 
without any special difficulty, avoiding nInny turns, hill:-; and 
bad roads. But it was without doubt the will of God that we 
were unable to secure a guide. pal'tl
- in order to punish us 
for our 
ins, and partly that "We n1Ïght gain 
un1e knuwledge 
of tbe people who inhabit this country. 

 His holy will 
he done, and His IUlillP he glorified! 
The ford of thi.
 river i
 guod; it is a littlp l110re than 
a Hli]e wide at thi5 point, and the riyers Nayajo and Dolort:'s 
floTV' into it flere, as do all the other riypr
 lllentioned in this 
jonrnal. .Aud in all that we have 
een of this river, there 
can be no to"
n built upon its banks. nor eHn one journe

along ih; banks either up or dO"
ll t1lp rivf.r, for all
- great 
distance, witfl tll(' hope that its waters ('an lllinister to the 
"ants of either man or heast; beeause, in addition to thp 
In'(,kpn natul'p of the C'ountn', the riyer is shut in hetween 
lofty "aIls. TIll' yjcinity of the ford is luade np of iluluense 



boulders and lofty peaks. Eight or ten league!;; away to the 
northeast is a sillal1, round and high nlountain which the 
Payuchis, who begin here, ('all Tueanf'. which lllCal1S Black 
lIill, and is the only one that fl'mll this point i
 been close to 
the ford of the river. 
On the eastprll bank of this 
allie ford whi{'h we cal1ed 
the IIoly Conception of the "\Tirgill 
Iary, then
 is a field of 
Illoderate size containing good pasturage. lIere we passed the 
night. and we took an ohsel'yatioll of the polar star showing 
its latitude to be 36 degrees 33 Ininnte

A Brief Notice of the People TYith rrh01n rre 11ad Dealings 
Bet ifPen the Yallpy of St. .J os(' ph, 11lclllsi VP, f 0 fllP Cr088- 
;llg of tile fir('at Rirer of CÚðuina. 
In this conntry, through which we traveled a hundred long 
leagues frOlll the InlInerous turns we "luade, hayin
 a length 
from north to south of sixty leagues, and frOlll east to west 
forty Bpanish leagues, there dwell nlany peovle, aU of thE'l11 
of agrE'eable aspect, ycry affable, and extreulely tilllÎd. For 
this reason, and because all those wh01n we Illet spokE' the Yuta 
language, the :--;aUle a
 do the Payutas farther west, WE' ('ailed 
a.ll the people I have spoken of Yutas Cobal'des (Coward 
Utes). The partieular nalllE'S refer to the parts of thE' conn- 
try the}T inhabit and divide thenl off into provln('es or tPITi- 
tories and not into nations; as all the Y uta
p the 
nation, or we n1Ïght say it is a nation divided into five pro- 
vinces, of which the 'whoh:\ is known solel
' as ïutas; the divis- 
ions being tlie )luhuachis Yuta
, the Payu('his Yutas. the Ta- 
hehuachis Yutas and the Sahuagalws Yutas. .A.nel the Cow- 
anI l
tes are divided iuto }-[uascaris, who dwell in tlip vallpy 
of San J osé and its vicinity; the Parusls, who join theln on 
the south and southwpst, and inhn hit the banks and yieinitr 
of thfì little riyer of Our Lady of the Pilla 1', and are thE' only 
ones among aU these people wh01n we found engaged in the 
cultivation of ('orn; the Y ubuincariris dwell south of the Parn- 
sis, and are found in the region closest to the Great River; 



the Ytilllpabichi
 occupy the tahle-lauds and lllollntaiu 
height:-;, and are nearer the countr
Y of Santa Barhara on the 
nurth; and the Paganlbachis, "Whu likewi
f-' dwell on the hard 
soil of the nle
as and in sterile ravines; for although they 
have a 
pa('ious vaHey, throngh whieh flows the Great Bi\'er, 
the.\Y cannot, as "We hä\ye alrt'ad
aid, lllake use of its waters 
for the in'igation of their lands. ___
c('ording to what was told 
ns by the Y ubuinca l'iri s. to tll(' south-southwest f rOlll theul, 
down the river, there d"WeU others "WhOUl they call Pa

lliunis. ()n the "Te
t and we
t-llorthwest of the IIuascaris, "Te 
learned that there dwelt other t1'ihe:-; "Who spoke their diale('t. 
All tIlt' others, and they are nUluerous, "Who d"Weli upon the 
western or northern, hank of the river up-
treall1 and along the 
ridge of lllOuntains whiC'h 
tart fronl the Lagunas, and in the 
country that lies lwtween it and the farthe:-;t rin'rs on the 
north that we cro
s('d before they united with each other, 
are, a('(.ording to the infol'lllation we r(-'('ein
d, of thi
nation of IIHlian:-;, and helong, SOUle to the Yutas Harhones 
( Bea l'ded Y utas), sonw to the I[ua:-;caris and others to the 
Lagunas, depending npon the resell] hlanee of their <-1iale('t to 
the languagp of the nearest trihe to thenl. 
N oyenlber the sth. 
e left the crossing-plaee and ('ëllnp of La COlH'epl'lOn 
and a:-;l'ended the hox-like 
idp of thp bank, tra\'eling alun
an extendt'd preeipiet-' without an
eriou:-: trouble. 'Ye 
turned to the ;-;outh-
t, following a well-trodden trail, 
and traveled for fiye league
 over a 
' and rOllg-h roull. 
'Ye now turnc(l to the ea:-;t a league and pitched our Calnp 
near the- last lllountaill of the range whieh extend
 frOlll Hu' 
riyer to this point, ('alling tllP plaee Hall 
rigupl. ITerc "'C 
found plenty of grass aw.l an ahundance of raiuwater. To- 
day, :-;ix leag-ues. 

 we disroypred traces of HiP prpsence of Inàians 
in the nei
hhurhood. hut we did not s('e an
Y of thf'lll. rrherl' 
abound luallY "Tild sheep, tlJe traeks showing that the
- l'Oêllll 
ahout in large fto('k
. as though the
T "were tame. They are 
Jarger in size than the dOluestic Olle
, are of the 
a1l1e ap- 



pea rance, but lunch 
wifter in lllOyelueut. Today "è fini
eating the horse-flesh we had hronght, and ordpl'e(l another 
e killed. \\T e felt thp cold la
t night nluch more than we 
had done when on the other road. 
X oven1her the 9th. 
,Ye lost our way. not beill
 ahle to di

over any trai.l hy 
\\hieh we nlÏght de
('end into a caiìon that lay near u
 to the 
t, lior by which we could go lllore than a half league 
OYer the stony SUllllllits and l'idge
 that bloc-ked our progre

for this rea
on we directed our stpps to the ea
awl after having purHwd our way in thi
 direction for a 
couple of leagnes. OYf'r very had ground, wp ,,
pre cOlupelle(l 
to stop upon the top of a table-land. "\yithont lwing a hIe to 
taIu:> another r-,tep in ad\
ance. X ear tu this n1f>
a we eêlllle 
f' to several villages of Yutas-Payu('hi
. horderÏ11g' upon 
thp territor
- uf the Cosnina
. and friendly to theu!. \r e lllade 

eYeral atteuIpt:-, through the inflnenee of the Laguna and 
otlwl'S of our party to inc1n('e tho
e people to visit U
. Either 
becaw.,e tlu-'y susl'eded that we were frienfls of tliP 
with whmn they were at enn1Ïty, or becau
è tlwy had never 
seen Spaniards. and werp afraid of us, we ('ould not prevail 
upun thelll to dnl'" llPar. 
X o\'e111Ler the 1 Uth. 
 morning- the Ì\\ro of llS went \'ery early with the in- 
tf'r}Jreter and the Laguna to their yillagf's. It 'was Ï1npo
for n:-, to reach theIn. even on foot. ,Ye ::;ent forward the 
two I have mentiollPd, renmining- onl'selYe
 ulJon an eleyatioll 
frOlll which Wl:> ('onle! see thP111 and he 
een hy tlll'lll, so that 
when the

aw how few we were the

 would COlue to us with 
 diffideu('(> and fpar. 
'tftpr tll(' interpreter had urged 
thenl for Illore than two honr"ì, fiye of the111 finally ('aille, hut 
when the.\
 near to us they turnetl and fled. without our 
heing a1>l(' to detain thelll. TIH.' interpreter again "\yent to 
theIll. to fina out if thpy would 
ell us sOInething to eat, hut 
they replied that the

 did not haye an

thing. They told the 
intel'lH'etpr that the Cmmina
 lived near h

. but that at pre
eut they were off in tlip l110ulltains g'athering pine nuts. 



They saiel that at a short distance fro1l1 thiö place we 
would COllle npon two roads, one leading to the Cosninas and 
the other to the town of Hw ()l'aybi, in Jloqu1 land. They 
also described to us the trail that ,\ye had luissed, telling ns 
that we would he cOlupelled to retraf'e our steps to San 
uel, and frOlll that point de
cènd to tlll\ callon. It was in this 
way that we waster] near].'T the entire day, and in what was 
left of it "\\
e returned to Ran )liguel, getting a half league 
nearer to the rayilH--' or eaÏíon to which wp had not het'n able 
to go before. Today, a half league to the southeast. 
X OYPllll)(-'r the]] tho 
Early in the lllOrning 'W' fonnd thp dC'secnt into tll(' ('auon, 
recoyered the trail we had lost, and went fon'
anl upon our 
journey. ,Ye reaellC(] the hottOl11 of the cañon with great 
, hef'anse a part of the trail is ex('ee(lingl.'
ous, and all of it 1:-: aloug' precipil'es. l'hp Indian.;; hayE-' l'f'- 
paired it sOll1ewhat "\\Tith loosp 
tones and stakes driven into 
the earth; and in the lowest part they haye nwde a ladtler 
of SOllIe three yards in length and two in In'l':HHh. ] Iere two 
streanl:-: conw together that enter into the large euelo:-;nre 
around Hall Carlos. ,f e aSf'enr1e(l tllP oppo:-:itc hank along a 
ridge of roeks and houlders. whi('h we fonnd hptKPl--'n tlIP t,,'o 
, nwking Illauy turns in our traYel
, antl sur111ounting' 
 precipi('Ps, where a way ('ould he opeued <HII.'? h.\
use of a ('rowhar. ,Ye reached the sUll11ui1 ahout lllÍdday, 
ha \Ting traveled in our ascents and descents 1\\'0 ]eagu\.'s in 
an east-southeast direction. There are, in a ll()rt]ll'a
ilil'eC'tion fnnn herf', byo small Illonntains. FroBl tlw 10\\,<,,,,t 
of these "
e dp,-:('cnded to tlw 
outheast. and having g'one three 
leagues oyer good ground, we stopped, [l1thou?;h in a pla('f} 
without -water, hecanse we found good pt:l
tnl'age for thp nni- 
InaIs, and sufficient flwl to keep us warnl, for WE-' were 
ing from the cold. ,Ye called our calnp Han Proto. Toaay
fiye leagues. 
:N ovelnber the 12th. 
,Ye left San Proto, taking a south-
outheast direction. 
,Ye traveled now upon nn open road and on good soil, three 



leagues, and on the wa
' (li
(,oYE:']"pd a 
ll1al1 :-:pl'ing- of good 
water, and after breaking' tlip iee tlu=> pntire pn]'t
-, Íl}('iudiug' 
the aninwls, qUPIwheJ their thirst. This phwe, as tlIp tra('ks 
about lwre show, is a spot ,dlP]'(' the t i O :-ìninal'5 l'itch tlwir 
eamp "'''hen tlu:>y are out after the PaY1H'his. \Ye ('OlItinlwd 
our way along- thf' :-;aIlle road Ífnnll'ds the south, suffering 
from thp extrf'lllf' eold, all< l1uH'ing tnl\'plf'(l :-;0111(' four league
r a good road. \\Te tllnwd asidp frOlH the higll\nl
' to takp 
tlIP tl'ai I leading' to t)l(' 
, a('('onliug' to thE:' dt'seriptioll 
that had heen giYPll llS h
T thp Payuchi:-:; we fo)Jowpd the one 
Ill0:-;t used by the Cosllinas, in a south-:..:nutlnn--,,,,t dil'f'etion, 
and haying pro('eedE:'(l a league. \\p ('aBle upon a nU1uhpr of 
c1e:-:t-'rted Yillagps. \"itlt tl'a('p:-; of luuch tiuIt:' ha\'ill

JH--'l'P in pasturing: horsps and ('attle. \\T e ]((-'1't forward upon 
the saIue roa(l, and after haying gone a l
aglH' all(l a half 
to tht> 
outhwest, night oyertook us, and Wt' ('amped "Tit hout 
" water, calJing' tht' place San .J êH'into. 'rolla,\-, ninp and 
a half leagues. 
(hI a('('oullt of tll(-' great ('oh1. w<-' stol'UeJ herp awhile, our 
{'Olllpanions going ahl'a<l, fOt, thf' pl1rpnsp of building- a fire 
awl to relit>'Te the suffering of ] )on Bprllêndo 
J ipra. who ,,"a:-: 
in (hlIlgl>r of freeziug'; alHI 1"e W(-'1'P gTeatly in feal' that hp 
('ould not with
talltl the ('old. For this rpa
()n our ('()]llpan-- 
ions reêwhl'd tht:> 
pring hefun.> we <lid. and, hefo1'e we ('ould 
('ateh up with theIll, the
' had gOUt. ahead -without filling tit(-' 
\'es:-;p]:-; we had giypu thelIl, \\"iih wt1ter, and whi(.h tlw
T had 
hrought for that purpose. Bp('a usp of this oYel'
ight, We-'- 

uff{-'rE:'d g rpatl
" tiia t Hight fnnn thi rst. 
XOyeIllher the] :Hh. 
,rp left 
all .fa('into, lwl1diug :-_
ìJr ('Ollr:-;t.' ltI a .soutlnn'''t- 
' <1il'eetioll aloug the samc road, on']' ea.s
" IBollutaius 
re -we found pJent.\' of pa.stll1'e, and after lUH'ing' ('oyel'ed 
two leag'll{-,:-{, Wt' descended towa )"d
 tIll' :-;Ollth a If-'ap;lw and a 
half, and found. in a )"O('k
T hill, .snffi('icnt wah'r for all our 
people, and allnost enoug'h l' OJ' the animals. "' r e ('OUtiIHIE:'d 
OUI' ('Oll1'SP :-;traight ahead t01nll'd.s tll(--' 
outh :-;OlHe t"TO l(-'aglH

o\'pr a :-ìalldy stretch of coulltr
T, awl tht'l1 '\YPllt ahout half a 



league to the 1:;onthea
t. and 
topped ahout a leaglw beyond. 
where we found a well of poor water. \Ve l"alled the place 
Espino (
pine), becau1:;e we ate here a porcupine, whose fle
seeuled to us very delightfuL Since the da

 we had 
eaten nothing but a piece of roasted leather, and we arrived 
here suffering frOln hunger, Katurally the pOl'f'upine, dis- 
tributed alllong so lllany of us, only whetted our appetites, 
<lnd so we ordered another hor1:;e killed. ,Ye had not given 
this order sooner because 1ve entertained a hope that we 
luight obtain rations in sonle one of the Cosnina villages, but 
we found no traee1:; of their having been recently in thes
parts. Today, six leagues:. 
X oVelllber the 14th. 
,Ye went out of Espino in a south-
outheasterly direction, 
and after we had gone a little less than a league, we f'()lllt
to a large pool of water near the road, from which the 
::llliulais drank \'ery freely and with gn-'at satisfaction. 'Ye 
continued our journey to the southeast, and entered a cañon 
in which we passed over a distance of three-fjuarters of a 
league, and entered another cañon in whieh we found three 
springs of good water. ,r e followed its course fm" a half- 
league to the southeast; we arrived at sonle cu1tivaÜ.d ground 

lnd a village of tlw COSl1ÍlUl1:;, very beautiful, and eyer.\'- 
thing in good order. These fields are irrigated fronl the 
iour springs referred to and froni two other very ahulld- 
;ant ones that an' found near h
T; in this piet'e of land 
.,the Cosninas had planted corn, beans, :-'(lna
hes. watennelon
and muskme]on
'Yhen we aITi\?ed, ther had gathered ill their crOIJS; aud 
froIll the rel11nants that we found ahout the place. we ju<lg'(> 
the crops were ahundant, f'speeia 1I

 of hl'all
; for if we had 

ared to stop lwn" we might have gathered np a husheL The 
field is surrounded hy a hedge of peach trees. Besides a UUlll- 
bel' of wigwmn:-; ('ollstrlwted of reed
, there was one littlf' 
house huilt of stolle and 111U(1. In this hut we saw the pot
and jars u!-,etl b

 these Indians; hut the people thenl
judging b
' what we saw, lnllst have been ahspnt for se\?eral 



. perhaps in seare-It of pine nuts in the adjacent 11l0Ull- 
tain, which lay to the 
ùuthwest. Fr0111 thi
farlu, paths led off in various directions, and we were 
ignorant as to which one ,ye should follow in order to reaC'11 
the .MOtlUis 
 for Wp couid no longer eontinue Our iOll1"ne
r in 
search of the Cosninas, owing to our need of proyisions, and 
because the winter was upon us in great severity. "
 e C'hose a 
road that leLl to the southeast, and traveled over level coun- 
try, and passed se\'"eral pools of good water in a di
tan<'e of 
SOllle two leagues. 
,Ye cro

ed a sllmll river that flows fronl northeast to 
southwest, in appearance very much like an irrigating ditch. 
There was a SlllaH grove and fields of llloderate size, not very 
well enclo:sed, along the side that 'Yf' passed. After leaving 
the river, we ascended a plain on which we found a slllaIllake, 
and a nUlnher of hollows whiC'h hold rain water and seiTe 
as watering places and bathing pools 1'01' the cows, which we 
no"T began to see in nunlerous herds, belonging to the 
quis. ,Ye C'outinued our .way along the In(->sa two and a ha]f 
leag.ues to the south-southeast; clilllhed a lofty hill, and as 
the night was drawing on. and there was pasturagf' for the 
anilnals, we 
topped, nmning the place 
lllllnlit of tlw Plains_ 
be('ause frOlu this point yast fielcls and pastures began to 
extend, 'without tahle-lands, 11101ulÌains nor rangp,I;;;, hut C'o\r_ 
ered with grass, and which reach on the southeast to a point 
'Oll<.l .:\Io(lui. Today, six leagues and a quarter. 
X ovelnber the 15th_ 
,''''e ",yellt forth froln the Sununit of the Plains to th(' south- 
t, and tra,'"eled in that direction for nin
without fin<ling water, not daring to lo
e our
elves in the 
sea rC'h of it. ,Ve found a quantit

 at last in ël "alley .where 
there grew chmuiso, of the kind known, a:' "little ehan1Ï
,Ye l'mnped in the p]a('e, ('alling it the Chizo CaÍÏon. Today, 
nine league
 to the south-southeast. 
'Ye had nothing- fnr our 
upper to-night. 
in(.e the hol'sP- 
flesh was not enough for the entil'e pa}'t
'. There were IlHnl
herds of cattle )'oëlluing about, and SOine of OHI- party were 



HllXÎOU:-; to kill a eow or l'alf; the
- hegged with ÎUSistpIl<'e that 
we :::;houlrl giye them pel'luissioll to reli('y
 Ül this wa

hunger whi{'h pressed upon us all. But we, helieying that \YC 
wen> now near to the town of (Jra

bi, and that :-;w'h all w't 
as the killing of one of their henl nlight raisf-' SOIl 1(' trouhle 
"ith the 
Io(lnis, and nlÏght frustrate onr dp:-;ign, whidl was 
to hring' to thpse people tht' light and sweetness of the Oo
1>el against their Yoluntan
 hlilldnf-'ss and luyeteratp ohstin- 
', onlere(l that another horse should lw killed, and that no 
one should go Ileal' the lwrd:-; of ('attIe, en'u though Wf' were 
assured that tlw:-,e herds wcl'{
 rUllning a
 (,Oll1JllOll propert

Xo\'elìlher the 1()th. 
,Ye left Chizo (
aÜon, going to the south-southeast three 
I f'aglws, and Ilea l' to a lofty 111('sa \\
e des('endpd to the 
east-northeast a (IUartf-'r of a league. \\T e found here a "
aten road, and ('aIlle to the l'onelu:,ion that it would lea(l 
us to SOllIe 011e of the 
loqni yillap:es. \\Te [ollowp(l it. amI 
'ell oyer le\Tel ('Olllltl'
- three ]f
aglH-}S to the Ilol'thea:..:t. 
and nearly two league:-; to the north, wlIieh hronght u=-, to 
the lllesa of the to\yn of (
l'ayhi. "
e ol'dp!'f'cl tla
 1IH'lllhprs of 
tlu.' l"OlllpallY to c.mnc to a halt at th(' foot of the IIlPsa. and 
that no onp, with the PX('PptiOll of tlw
e who "\n
n} to êl('('()}ll- 
"" ll:"\. should pas
 un to tllP town until Wp h'Hl din:,('tell 
them to do 
O. \re ('liIllhp(l to HI(> SllIllmit of the tahlp-land 
without any diffi('nlt
()n entering the to"\Yn. Wf' wpre :"\mTollwlpd h
' a gn':lt 
IllllulJer of Iudians, laq!:e allcl 
mall. \Yf' a:-;kt'd to 
l'(} tll',> 
ehief Ineu awl warriors, in a lallg'uage \yhi('h they did not l1!1- 
der!-\tand, and, ,,
ishing to pas:::; to tll(> honsp of the (,hief'. the
det.ained us. (hiP of thenl told us in 1 he Xa\'ajo lallgnagl' that 
we lllU!-\t not pntpr into thp town. TllPn Don .J uall I \,tlro ('is- 
Heros in a \,pry earnest wa
-, asked theul in tllP 
mne tongne 
if tller \\
ere Hot our fripu<ls? 'Yith this the
' he('anle :-;at i
fied, awl onp of thp old meu lea ns to his hOìlse aml llUHlf' lIS 
his gllP:-;t:..;. gi\'ing" to u:-; a 1'00111 in ,yhi"h to PêlS:-; t1lp night. 
and furnishing us with sneh food as tlll'Y thpms,--.ly{-'s u
Today, seyen leagues. 



At night then' ('ame to us the chief and two old 111ell, and 
aftey tlwy had assured u:-; that they were our friends, tIler 
offered to :-ipll ns whatp\'cr food we \yere ÜI need of, on which 
e expn.ì:-ised our \Yel'
- great thankf-:. 
X O\'(-'lllher the] 7th. 
y (-,l'
' earl
' in tlI<:' lllornillg tllt'
. hrong-ht to our lodging' 
several jars ur ha:-iins filled with flour, butter, guavas, and 
other kinds of ]lrovisiun:-;. \Ye purcha "(.id of theln for the 
present what we re<luired; hut the things which we Ulost 
ueede(l thp
' brought in :::nnall quantitie:-,. JIaving no inter- 
preter, we 'were not able to effeet a reduction in tlw price a:-, 
wr' ,,-ou]d lul\ye desirerl to do. "
e suc('ee<!ed in getting th{'nl 
to under:-;tand a little, e:-:peeially tlI<:' ('hief and our hO:-it and 
henefaetol'. They listened attentiyely, but nlade no other dè('- 
laration than that the
" wi:-;hed to retain thp friell(bhip of tlIp 
Hpaniards. Tlw chief told us that he had alread
f'nt word 
to the oth<:,r towns that they 
hould proville us with lodging 
awl sell to us whate\'er provisiolls we Juight npf'(l until ,,'(' ar- 
ri\"ed at Zuñi. W" e gavp thf'ln to llnd(?rstand thai we gl'eat]
apprf'ciated this favor, a:-; well a" the other:-i that \ye had re- 
ceived frmll theul, auel after lllielda
' Wf' departf'd frmn 
()rayhi, and took our wa
Y towards the to\nl of Xongopahi: 
after a journey of llea1']
' twu leagues anù a quarter to the 
southwest. we aITi\'(,<l at our destination after !-'unset, and 
were kill(lI
" l'pl'eivpd h
" tlIP lWoplf'. who il}lJllediatel

 ga\'e us 
lodging. Today, two league
 and a quarter tu the 
X oveluhpr the 1 
The prill<'ipal [ndia1!s of this to"Tl '111(1 of othC'l'ç' round 
ahout, and of the towns of Xipaolahi and 1f o:-;songanahi. heing- 
Hssf'mhlec] here, Wt' l'rea('he<l to thelll, after h
nring expre
our gratitude to thenl for the fa\"ors a11(l kill(l l'C'('Pptioll th('
had extended to us. partly hy sign
 and partl

 hy tIlE' nse of 
tllt' Xa\"ajo language. The
' replied that tllf'

 conld not de- 
hatp with n
 l>pl'ausp tllP
' did not ullIlel'stand Rpanish, nOt" 
dill Wf--' llllderstaJl(l the 
f oqui no 
 tlIa t 'Ye should continue OU1' 
' to Oualpi, where tllC're \W're sonle iutel1ig'f'nt lwrSOll"; 
who understood Rpalli
h, HlHl that after tplliJlg' thf' chiefs and 



warriors there aH that we desired of theul. \\'"f' .would then 
learn what the
T wislw(l. But as \H> urgpd them to giye u
response for tht>l11SE'lves. in ease the
T lmd(,l'
tood ,,
hat we had 
said to them, they added that the duef and warriors of 
()raybi had sent then} word that the
T were to giye lodging, 
look after our wants and sell us IH'OYlSlOn
, \Yiulling our 
friendship, but not treating with us eOlleernilJg other lllatten;; 
and that they desired to be our friends, but not Christians. 
'Yhell they had conclu(lpcl this adaress. we pl'p:-:entp(l to 
tlH> Indian who had gi\Tcn us lodging and had hE'en so kind 
in Iuany ways, a woollen sha-\y] for his wife, judging that by 
this gift they would understand hetter what our gratitucle 
was, and Iuight feel a wanner fl'ielHbhip to\yanls ns. But it 
did not turn out a
 we espe(.ted. for when the Iwlian wonW!l 
took ,yith great pleasure \dmt \W> had givélL hf'l' hrothf'l" 
snatclwd it a'Ya
T fnnll her and threw it towar.Is ns in gl'e:lt 
anger. \\T e C'oneluded that his ('",il aet SlH.êHlg froI)1 
Ollle ('011- 
ception whielí reflected upon our honor anJ prof('
...:ion hp- 
cam;;;p "
e had inllOCE'IItly bestowf'd the sha-wl as S0111P 1'(->C0111- 
pense; and 'Ye pndeayored, with thE' grayity aud dignit
T that 
the occasion c1èlnanded, to nwke hinl under
tand 0111' trne 
ThE'll it was that the Indian, desirous of IlIa king SOlllP 
reparation for the offence (which frOlTI his point of yiew wa;;;: 
not great), cau
ed us still further confusion than h
' his first 
act. Finding tba t a1thonp;h we "
('l'e lllany, and that none 
could understand hÏ1n, lIP pointed to Ji-'ray 
ilYestre and 1)011 
Pedro Ci
lleros, after the crowd had dif'persed, and 
aid to 
us in Navajo, that haying known what had taken plaet' ill 
Oraybi, when the said Fathers, Fray Silvestre and Don .Tuan 
Pedro, had been there in the :-.;UlllUler of the year hefore, and 
that lw had hf'Pll presPllt in Gualpi when tllf' Cosnina talked 
with Father Silvpstre and gave hin} dire('tiolls ahout the 
road frOlll }IOCIUi to the (iosnina
; and that now sincp \YP 
had ('OllIe hy t11p sanlP road, lw would not permit his hrothel's 
or hrothers-in-Iaw to re('eive the sha,Yl, 1Je('ause if they <ll'- 
rel)ted it his relations and neighhors would 1)(\ aJlgT
- with 



theIll. rrhis he 
ai<.l with a view to 
fy U:-5. hut we wpre not 
aùlp l'learly to undf'r
tand ju:-:t what he Ineant by it all, al- 
though it \nlS not diffielllt to nuder
tand what he Ineant when 
referring to prcyion:-: e\'ellts. 

rlulÌ afternoon we set out for GuallJi. lIaving traveled 
nine league
 and 11lOl'e than fonr in an ea
terly dirE'f'tion, we 
arrived late at night, our little party remaining at the fool (If 
a pinf'-f'o\'ered hill, \dÚ If' we e1Ï1nhed to the SU111n1Ít with a 
fE:'w eOlupauiolls. The 
eanos and Gualpi Indians ref'ei\'E:'d u-.;. 
very cordiall

, and gave ll
 lodging in the house of the ehipf 
of the Tanos, where we passed the night. Today. two. 
 and a quarter to the ea.st. 
.....\fter we had restcr1 for a while, it wa
 toì(l ll
' an 
apostatf' T ndian of the town of Oa li
teo ill X PW 1texit'0, a 
luan of grE'at age and of IlllWh authority alll(ìHg the Tanos 
of 1Ioqui, nauled Pedro. that they \yere having' at pre
ellt a 
se\Tere "
ar ,,
ith the 
-\pi:l('he Xavajos; and that thel::'e ellell1Ìes. 
had killed Illany and earried awa

T of thei l' peoplf': and 
for thi
 rèa:-;on they had heen hoping that ";;OllW pri('
ts or 
Spaniards "Tonld f'01ne this way, in order that through thel11 
tlwy Illight seek aid fnnn the Uovernor, 01' SOHIt' kind of pro- 
tef'tioll again
t their enelnif's; and :-'0 it wa:-: that the
- were 

 "Tell pleased that we had COlne to visit theul; 
for the
T hoped that we would favor and eOlnfort tl1(->l1l. 
 :::;eenlCtl to ns a ver
T propitiou:-: o(,f'asion in whieh to 
prea('h to thPlll a knowlf'(h
'e of the true faith ancllllak(-, tÌlêïll 
suhjeets of his Inaje
T. whOln llWY God presen'e. \Yf'rpplieù 
to theIn, giving thenl rea
on to hope, and WP told thenl that 
T f'houhl sUllllllOn together the ('hiefs and 'warriors of tht" 
other three town
, and havE:' thel11 ('Olllf' to u
 in Onalpi; that 
on the following da
- the
' should an be gathered together in 
this place of the Tanos to discuss this TIwttf'r with ('are and 
with due fOrIllalit
T. The old Ulan. Pedro. thf'll said to ll
he wished to go to the f'it
T of 
anta Fl>, to dra\y Ul) with thp. 
Governor ill tll(' name of the .J.\[oquis 
lnd Tanos, the trpatv 
of alliance w1íi('h the,\T wi
hed. and to a
k for the aid tlm't 
they needed, if we cared to take hinl along with u
 in OUt. 



olllpany. 'Ye told hilH that we would gladly take hinl along, 
and that we would intere
t our
eIYe:-. in thi:-: affair of tll\' 

l()(lnis with tlu-' Ooyerllor, hut that in ordpl' to do thi:-: it 
would Le lle(.t'ssar
- that out of t'aeh of th
 six tOWll
 clothed with authority should appear hpfun> his Ex- 
('f-'llelley. Tht'!- agl't'ed that on the follo\\
íng da
' there 
uch a reuuion, and that tlH:l
- would smmnon u
, and 
 her in a place "Wanlleù for the u('('(lSiOll wll(-111 en:'l.
('ould be talked oyer and arranged. 
:x o\'eullwr l!Jth. The ('hief IHen of 
\Iossanaganahi canle, 
<llHl haying joined together "With tlH-' ('hit'fs and wa rl'iors of 
the towns of tht' Hnalpi in a place belonging to the rranos, 
the apostate Pedro took us oyer t11en\ l'royiding for us au- 
other apostate a
 interpretpl', all Indian of the town of Nauta 
(1lal'a, ealled -<-lntonio pi Cuate, he('ê1l1Se he nn(lel'
tood antI 
f:pekt' well the Hpani
';]l langnage. Ht-' translatt-'rl our words 
into the 
eegua language:' and Pedro did th(' :-;am(-' I'm- tllP 
.:\foqllis, so that all thos(' present in the councilluight und<::,r- 
stand what we said. rrhe
T gavp us an 
H'('ount of ,yhat had 
been said before "We ('ëllllP to tht-' llll'Pting-pla('('. and that they 
had agrpt-'d that the apostate Pedro should al'('onl]>an
- u
the ('it
. of Nanta p(>, in order that, in tllf' Halne of all of thClll, 
he might a:-;k aid of the (}P\Tpl'IlOr against the 
-\pa('hp Xaya- 
jo:-;. aud lllake a treat
' of peal'e ",itb the Hpania nb; and the
hesought ns to do all in onr lW\H'r for thf'm. \r e g-ayp thPlll 
an:'3wer that in t'ver
-thillg "-e woul(l he in their favor, he- 
('<1 use we loyed then1 ai" chi Idren and we had ('01npassioll on 
theul heeanse of tlH'ir trouhlps; hut that as God i
 tilE' only 
all-Powerful OUt' \dLO ('outrols and gOYf'rns all; so long' as 
- persistC'd ill their unhelit'f aIHI did nùt ("ease to offend 
] íiul, the
- ('ould not hope to ht'('0111P fl'(,pc{ frOlll those 
t l'ouhle:-.. \r (:' cOlltinlwcl then to tal k to 1IIPBl f'Ollt't'l'nillg 
eternal pl1ui
hn1f'nt, i"a
'illg that if th('
 diel not al'n'pt tlll:' 
tiall l'pligioll tlIe
- wonl(l he expo:-;p(l to all ellf11f'ss sufft-'l'- 
 ill hell. 'Ye pufol'('pd our dOl'trillt'. illustrating it h
' the 
nffiictions thpy wC're alread
- undergoing". 
"Y e told them, also, that if tlll'
' ('ollsentpel to be('ome 



Christians, they would haye tht. constaut and sure defense 
(If the Sp:uIish :Inns agaiuí-'t all tlw Gentile lwople ,yho 
should atteuipt to do theln harm, HS wa
 the ease wlth tllf'- 
hristiEn Indian
 uf X ew ::\f exieo 
 showing theul at the ;-;alll
tiuit' the usele:-;snp
s and untrust\nnthincss of the friënd- 

hip,.; and aHiaut'es whieh the
' had s('veral tillIPS fOl'lned ,yith 
the Yuta::-. and Xavajos; and after having' ::-:aid to then1 every- 
thing' that seeuled proper and cffieae'ious, WE' rèlluestf'd theln 
to let us kno\\- their resolution, whether or not they agreed 
to do a:-: we desired; that we '-w're disposed to takf' tlH-'ir 

unhas:-;adors to Nanta Fe, and to fayor them in every way we 
{'oul(l. Three times did we nrge npon thE'lll their duty to 
:-;l1lnuit to the elaillls of th2 Hol
T Chul'C'h, attae'king an(l cle- 
stroying the a rglullents that they used in favor of not (lceept- 
iug the faith; hut the
' stated that they had not cared to do so 
in the past and did not wish to do í-'O now. The second time 
we nrge(l thenl, they gave Us to understand tlia t as there were 
1110re pagans than (1hristians, the
T desired to follow the lna- 
jorÍty; and that, in addition to this, the
T lin=-d in a ('ountr
,r]wl'e :-5uhjectioll to the Hpania !'lIs would he \'(=-ry iueon\'ell- 
leut, I"in('(' if the
T were C'onyerted to the faith they would 
hH.YE:' to SelTE' the Rpania]'(ls. 
Haying de
troYE'd thE:' apparE:'ut fOJ'ee of ('ae'll Olle of their 
:u'gulllenb and not finding anr exeuse for their opposition, 
thf-' memher
 of the ('ouIlf.il spent a good deal of tillle in di:-:- 
{,lls:-:ion, thosp who were of greatest anthorit
- speaking fir;-;t, 
and others follo,yiug. And although eaeh oue 
p{)l(f", foJ' hilU- 

elf, he explained his meaning' in tll(? fonn of a dialngne, and 
ended his monologue h
- addressing a uUlllher of qnel"tiol)s to 
-the rest, ,yho repliea affirnlativt'l
- or lleg'atiYel
-, according 
to tll<' ('ha rader of the questions. In thest' í-'peeehE'
- dis- 
('Us sed the traditions of their anepstors, an(l exhol'Ìf'(l f'ach 
other to a clo
e adht'rt'IH'e to tlIp aH('if'nt (,llstoms, assel'til1g 
t 1 wt it would he hetter to Huffer their present ('ahuniti(>s 
ra tliP!' than g:o aga iust thpí-'(' Cl1stOlllS. The
T affirnwd that 
they "Wanted oIll
T our friendshi p, and did not d('
i rf' to he- 



come l1hristialls, l>ecanse their forefathel':-3 had told th
they should IleVpr beeonw subjeet to the Spaniards. 
'Ye endeavored to shov, thelu the foolish Ílupiety there 
was in 
meh traditioll
 and a(h'iee, hut without an
? suC'cess 
wh:1Ìsoeyel'. l<-'ina llr, they ('HIne to t11,-, cOllelusioll that Pedro 

hOllld not go to tlw cit
T of Hanta Fe. the rea
on for ,,
he hiulself ga\'e us in thf'se words: ,. rrhey do not ('are to 
Ln \'1:' IlW go to see the Oov
rnor. Iwpause [ aill a Christian; 
' say he ,,-ill not pel'luit Ule to return to 
I o(Jui. " He 
feared this nnH'h lllOre than the otlJel's did, and ('ons
we ('Ol1ld not get hinI to put hi
 fir:-\t thought into exeeutiOlI. 
 ('oullei I h
l\'ing' hroken up, Wf' returned ;-;ad and sorrow- 
ful to our lodging
, seeing that the ohstinal'
? of thes
-' nn- 

lPl'Y lndiall:-: was not to he oven'OIlH'. }1\)1' this reasOll we 
detenllilleù to 
et out the following da
. for Zuíìi, before all 
the passes and roads shoul(l he hlo(,}\:p(l, as it was suo\ving 
without internlÌssion. For this reason also we w('rp una hie 
to take observations to find out the latitude of tht'se Jfoqui 
X oveluber the 
Oth. In the aft
l'nO()ll \\?P set out froIll the 
Gnalpi to\r11S, and journeying foul' !eague
 to the east and a 
I ;:ull'tf'r to thf' f;outheast, \ye I-'topped for the night whf're 
there wa
 \rater in a pla('e ('alled ()jo IIp] l iaîíutillo. To-day 
foul' leagues. 
1 st. ,r f' left Ojo del Caîíuti 110, amI tUrlw(l 
our step" in a llortheasterl
' tlil'eetion and tra\'eled tl1l.(1(' 
, and lmyillg gone :--onw two leagues farther tu the 
t, wp eauIl)P(l a half-league hefol"f-' re;whing a placf' ('allpd 
Esti !adpro or Ojito del ]>pîiasco (Little Rpring of th(' lio('k)' 
r :::;e\TPll leaglH:'H. 
N oyeIuher 
:!d. '\T e left the ('onipall
? with thos
 of the 
ani1lla I
, whiC'h \Yen' weakest. to follow us lpisnrf'l

 to ZUlli, 
\dÜle we with three of our cUInpanion
 :::iet ont at grpater 
:'lwed. 'Ve journeyed nine leag'uPs towards the en
t and a 
(!ll:1rtel" to the southeast. n"íwhing H spot ('alled (i llllla . \Ve 
l"\'-sted for a \rhile-', and tlll'n puslw(l a]wH(1 for anotlH-'l' t\rO 



leagues towards the east. But uur hOl'<..;es were jaded, and 
e were cOlupeJled to ::;top. Today, eleven leagues. 
N oYelnbE'r :2:3d. "
e pre
sE'd fOnnll'd, altl10ngh it snowed 
all day long, with violent storln
. galloping tweh'e leagues, 
and stopped at a plaee ealled 1
ianatuna, 01' N}H'ing of San 
.J osé. \Ye :..;uffE'l'pd ll)lwh fr0111 the col(1 during- the night. 
Toùay, twel\'P leagues alulOst continuously toward the past. 
K oyenlber :2Jth. 
u soon as day broke, we set out frolll 
the Hpring of Han .José in a south-easterl

 direction, and 
after ha\ying gone 
onlf'thing like two leaglws WE' stopped for 
a while and huilt a fire h

 whi('h to \,ann Olll'SplyE's. he('ause 
tlw ('old was 
o intense that we feared we 
hould freezf' while 
in tIlE' valley. \r e then went fOl'\YëU'(1 lllOl'P than three leagues, 
and after g'oing anothpl' two to"'a l'<ls HIP ea
t, and a qua rtpr 
towards the northeast, \ye paused a \yhile to makp a ehange 
of horses in a plaee ealled, hy the Zuñis, Okiappá. 'Ye pushed 
forward, and haying joul'ne

ed fh'e leagues to tlw southeast, 
we arrived late at night with extrelue fatiglw at the t,Wll 
and nlÌs
ion of ()ur Laòy of Guadalnp(
 of Zuüi. To(la
t wph'e leagues. 
Not feeling btrong enough to ('ontillue on our way to the 
('ity of Santa F-'e, we :-;ent w01"(1 to the GoyernoL", ach'i:sing hilll 
(If our 
afe arriyal at thi

i()n, with a hri
f reSUIlI{' of 
what is recorde(l in thi:s journal. 
X o\YPIuher 
(ith. In the afternoon our ('ompanlons a]'- 
] i',yecl. 
For yarlOU:-; rea:-;OIlS we reumilled in thi

ion until 
the 1 
th da
' of 1 )eeeinher, when we s<:>t out for thp ('it
- of 
Santa Fe. 
\ftE'r a trip of thirt
' Ipague
 we rpêlched tlH:' 
]niðsion of Nan Est{>han dp .L-\.('oma OIl the ] 6th of t.he SaIne 
TllPll there ('aJne a hpaY
' fall of snow that pre\yented our 
1llaking as rapid p}"()gre
s as \y(' de
Dp('elllher :2l)th. "T è left A('OllW fo}" tliP Illi
sioll of ReÎior 
Rail .Jo:-;{' dE' h1 l...ag'UlHl, \yhi('h we ]'eaellE'd aftpr a trip of fonr 
league:::;. To(lay, four ]eague
] )e('eulhel' :2
(1. L
a\'ing la Lagnna and tr<l \,pl illg a <li


THE ('.

talH ' 2 of 
ix lenglH's to the east, w(' f--topppd at a place ccdleel 
.....-\laIllo. TO<lH
-, six leagues 
] )e
;)d. \\
 e left thi
 place, and, jcnlI'llP
'ing' fÎ\'e 
leagues to the east. \Ye reaellt'd the ll1is
ion of 
an ..Agll
tin de 
la 1 sleta. Today, II ine league
Del'l'lnher :!Hth. \Ye set out from the to\yn of Isleta. and 
ha\'ing gOllf' foul' league
. \\Te arriyed at the lllissioll of 
Fraueis('() Xayipr de Âlhll(1l1el'<ju
. '
r()day, four leagues. 
I)p('. :Wth. Leaving this plat'p, and moyiug forwHnl four 
leap;ues, we arriye at tllt' mission uf ()uI' Lad
- uf I )olo1'es uf 

alldia. Today, four leagues. 
I)p('eluhpr ;nst. \r P lll'esse<l fonnl rd, and haying gOlW 
se\,pn leagues, we (,Ollll' to the mission of Han DOlllillgO. To- 
', se,-ell leag:nes. 
.J anuar
- :!, 1777, we arriyed at the ('it
. of Santal?é, lUl\T- 
iug ('OIue from tItf-' lllis
ioll last mentioned. 
.J anuary 3d. 'Y l-' offer this journal, with a aesC'ription of 
the rf'giolls of the lake:-. lueutiouecl ill it, anù of the Laguna 
Indians. ...\nd that it UlH
- he kUC)\Yll to h(' b'llP and in a('('onl- 
Hnl'e with tIll' fat.ts herein rel'onled, and with what we saw 
during our .iourne
', we pla('e onr 
ignature this :
d (lay of 
.J aUlla r
' of the year 1 III. 
\ T.\
I() I )()
] [XGl'EZ, 

7'(',':::1 ÌïiUIlllf u/ ."'1}((}1 ;"'], ('0 }J,7/ist. 
(T0111ada psta ('opia pOl'... \llton in (1asti Ilo 
. Huiz df' In 
(,l'i(' de ))O('uuwutos para la I[istoria dp 
tOlllO 1, páginHs' :
/,) ií 33R, iUl'lusi\yo. En e
ta lJihliotel'a Xa- 
('ionH I e:-, TerC'f'rH Herie, t01110 1 G.) 
(10pied h
' Antonio Castillo 
. Huiz fron1 the 
e('olld Ne- 
ries uf J)m'uUlPuts for the Histor
' of 
h->xil'o, \Tol. 1, Pl'. ;
to .}.}H, indu
iYe. ] n the Xational Lihrar
. of the (1it
. of 

r('xi('o it is r:rhird Series, Yol. IG. 



;:-';.\TTRE OF Ynn
 m:: ESC-\L\::\'"TE. FAC 


Etienne Provot. Father De Smet, General Connor 
and the Dawning of Our Own Time 








4! -' 


'- .. 

























al1ta Ft>, the first stopping plaep of the party 
"Was at the old Spanish town of 
al1ta (1lara, whi('h naUH.' the 
little yillagc sti11 retains, and anotllf'r nine Jeag-ues, or t\\ent
Ollf> and a half lni les, hrought thenl to Santa Ho
a de 
\ hiquiú, 
thf' still existing to,rn of that name. Fnnn hpr(' tll(> trail 
bore tu tliP north mId ,ye...;t to a point nea1' tlw pl'eseut yillage 
of Ch
ulla on the Denypr mal Bio Ol'andf' Railroad. fr0n
where the príf'
ts Ílll'llf>d ahruptly to the westwa rd. foIlo,,
- tllf' route at pn>sent taken h
- the railroad, through 
Durango and, still along' tilt' line of tlw l'ailro
H1, to tll(-' west 
until tll(-'

 arri\'f>d at thf> present 
tatioll of I )oiore
. where 
the railroad tnrn
 into thp mountaill
 to the right 011 its 
Y, to Uuray and Telluride. 
!{ere, the ('nurse taken by the party was along the Rio 
Dolores to within son1e 15 n1Ïles of where the 1"i\'e1' is jnilwd 
y the 
an 1Liguel, whi('h E
('alante l1aIlled the 
an Pearo, 
and then turned to the ea
twa n1 H('rOss thf> hpa(l-water
There l'an hl> little question hut thi
 ahrupt :-owing to the 
eastward wa
 the prilllar
- ('aus(' of the failure of the expedi- 
tion to reaeh 1[ontprer. 1t :-;eelIls apparent that in taking 
this route E:-;eaJante llllI
t ha,re heell inflnelH'ed h

 thp pl"e- 
 of Hi,rel'a and Po
ado, the fOl'lllf'l' g-oinp: a
north as the (}ralld Hi,rer, and thl' lattpl" to tlle 
all Huena- 
\'entura or Green RiYer. 
Following this easterl
' (,Olll'Se f01. 
()1llf> fift
. miles, they 
now turned llortlnnll"d, a<'ro:-:-.; the lower end of t1l(' 1 Y IWOlll- 
pahgre Plah'au into tIle (lraiuêlg-e of the l r nl'OlUpahgrp Biyer, 
and then northward a('l'O
S thp nUllni
on and the Grand, mHl 
still on a('ross tllP ,rhite ri,'el' until tllP
T rpêH'ht'fl I tall. 
Un this portion of the .Journey they tl'Hypled almost PIl- 



tirely oyer Indian tl'aib, with cOlnpetent guide
 and, a

followed pra('ti('all

 the routes of Hin?ra and Po
ado, nothing 
of noteworthy interest happened, and not until they leaye 
the banks of the Grand Uiyer do they enC'ounter a foretaste 
of tllf' tria Is whieh are to ('OIne later. 
ro:-.Ûng the state line, now :::,eparating Colorado fr0111 
l7tah, and con1Ïng to that portion of the journey ,dlÍC'h UlOre 
intinlately concerns our history, Esealante Inadc his fir
eaInp in Utah upon the eastern hank of HIP Green Hiyer at 
a point near the present town of Jensen, hut on the oppositp 
si(le of the ri,'er. Of the lo<,ation of this (,HUI)) there ('an he 
little douht. as the Iuinnte des('ription whieh he gi\'es of the 
})nnninent tOIJographicaJ features eould IJe fitted to nu other 
portioll of northern {
tah, and while his IatitlHle giyen for 
this eanlp is, as in other instances, erroneous owing' no douht 
to his failure to al'pl

 the IH:'('es
. currections to his ealcll- 
lation;o" the error in thi:;: region showing hinl to he ahout 58 
Iuinutes too far north, he t'ould ha,'e C'ome, a('C'onling to his 
deseril)tions of the country, frolH no other dileetion than 
across the Yauipa Plateau and down to the Green Hiyer, or, 

lS he re('ords it in his .Tournal, tIl(' Han Bnena\'elltura. Here 
it i
 interesting' to note that lIt' says in his journal, ., thi:, 
riyer of San Buena,'ellÌura is thp largest that we IU1\'e 
<,rossed, and is thf' saIne one that Fnl
r .Alonzo de Posado 
}o;ays in hi
 report. separate
 tIll' Yuta nation frOll1 the Co- 
llwnC'he, if we lllay judge by the description he gi,'es of it 
and the distalH'e he sa
's it is from Ranta F{>." 
The l110st diligf-'nt 
eal'('h fai Is to re\'ea I any reeord uf 
Po sa do 's trip, and a
 Escalante llUlke
 no further lllelltion 
of it beyond the Green RiYl'l', it HIllst he aSSUlll(-,d that Posadn 
turned back frolli hen:' or continued his explorations in other 
directions. Haying always in lnind the primary object of 
Esealallte':-; jonrlle
',-the resolution to open a route to 
terey,-it would he intere
ting to know how far ro
journal may have influenced hÜn in continuing' his cour
e so 
far to the north, and which nitilllatel.'r led to the ahalldoll- 
1Hent of the atteulpt to rem
h )[ontere




\rriying at the Green Hi\'er. .L\ugust l:Hh, and nanlÎn
his ('amp the l'" ega de 
anta Cruz, or Plain of the Holy 
s, ESèalallte l'elllained here the TW"O following days to 
t hj
 horses and, with the t:>xcellellt feed and abundant 
water found then" gi\'e thelll opportunity to rf'cuperate fnnn 
the weari:-;onw effort::; which the preceding day
 of the jour- 
- had occa
()n the monlÏng uf Septcmher IGth. with horses restl'd 
and refreshed, t1u-. 
- is ag-ain takt:>l] up. 
Going northward a mile to the onl
T a \Tailable ford, the ri\Ter 
is crossed and a westerly course i
 taken until Brush (1reek 
is readled when they enter tll(-' hill
 un the western hank of 
t1w ri\'er and pursue a 

 course until they COllle 
aeross tra('ks of [ndian:-; and h01'se:-;. 
These signs prodw't:>d in thei r' minds I-melt gl'a Ve suspi- 
 as to g'iye ri
e to the belief that an atteillpt would he 
made to 
tpal their stock. rrheir :-;uf-ipicions seelHed further 
eonfinned hy the aetions of their guide. su. swelTiug to the 
right. the
- turned and followed the tracks which again 
hrought thenl to (heell Hiyer anfl \\"lwre they (,êunped for the 
Lea\'ing this caillp on a COlU'SP a11no::,t due .west the Cin- 
tall Hi\'el', called by thenl Rio San Dan1Ïan, "Ta
 reuehefl and 
cl'o:-;sed near the llloutli of the Du Chesne, to whi('h t1wy gêl\'e 
the naUle uf Hiu Nan ('oslna",. 
Fronl the high hill which the
- a
cended, hefore reaehing" 
rintah Ri\'el" the g'llÌd" :-;l1o',\'e<l thelll tlif' point ,,-here tlit_, 
Green Hirer was jOiIH_'d by the 'Yhite. whil'h lattp1' the
T had 
. nanwd the San Clenwllt. 
Following up the Uu (1he
1lf' HiveI', HOHlptime:-; wading in 
the rirer bed and again dinlhing the hills alung' it
' IUllued the 
tremnH aH they eros
ed them, still lnaiu- 
tainillg that pain
taking and minute desC'ription of the COlln- 
try wh
eh alunt:> HIake:-; l'o
sihle the èH'('uratt:> tnH'in
 of tlwir 
Entering a narrow en ilon, the tl'<1 i I hepalllC lIa I'd to follow, 
and. as they a<lnuH'p. tlu...'i l' IH'ugl'\->t-;t-i i:-; spriously iUlpede(l L
the lllOre rugged llaturt:> of th2 country nntil the
. reaehed 



the mouth of Htra wherry (1reek, \yhere the
T turnp(l to the 
t and luacle their ealllp for the nig'ht on the bank:-; of 
Currant Creek. The da
' had heen a nlO
t tJ'
'illg one and the 
eountrr, at tiIne
 all but illlpa
:-;able. presenting a most for- 
nlÌclah1e appearancp a
 they entered the foothill:-; of the 
'\Ta:-;ateh lllountains; at tinlE'S thp
Y were ('OuIPf\lIed to turn 
hack and retrace their steps; for to tllhTanee seelned impos- 
sible. The indOluitable will and untiring l'atimwe whi(.It ('ar- 
ried thelll through thi
 region, and h
' whieh the,\Y slUlllonnt(jd 
greate)' hardships enf'ounterf'd JuteI' on, are smUllled np in 
Escalantp's journal ""hen', after ('01npleting' tlw record for 
the (lar, lIE' adds the uneonlplaining enÜ'
', .. \r e arriyed H-jry 
tn'C'el bpeau
e the road was diftieulL" 
Leaving the C'
HlllJ on (
urrant (1reek, ,yhpre luisfortullP 
lwd again yi
ited thenl in the dpath of one of their hors('s, 
Y veered to tht' southwe:-;t, again crossed Strawberry( 1 r t'ek, 
and, aSl'ending the (li\Tidp hetwet'll tllP drainagp of that 
streaUI and 
01dier Pork Creek, the
Y c-=unped for the night. 
The following day the
' crosst'd Holelier Fork alHl, 
ti 11 
I;lü\'ing to the south,,'t'st, clil11hed thE' lllOU1ltaiu and made 
('anlp on tlu.. divide whieh 
eparatef-: the wat(
r:-; of the Great 
Basin fronl the drainage ",,'hieh fina]]
' l'eaehps the Onlf of 
aliforllia through the [10101'a<.10 riyer. 
,Yhen they drew near to 1 T tah Lake a nd the hOI11e of 
their Laguna guidp, the lattpr's (le
inj to :-;ce his ppopl{j was 
f-:O grt'at that he so HIlleh iucreased his pact' as to Iuakt' it 
Ï1npossible for the party to follow hinl, and they :-;uffered 
Y('ry ullll'h in tra('ing their war over the l'<wkíoi. 
Leaving their ('aInp 011 tlll' di\Tide. and 
till g'oing- to tll(> 
f-:outhwest over difficu1t and dangerous ground, the

 ('allle to 
Thistle f1reek, ,dli,,!l tlH:>
' naulPd Bio 
an Lino, and ('cllnpp(l 
the night of 
('1>tenlher :!:!d upon grollud, which i:-; alnlOst 
the pre
ite ûf the little town of Indianola and whi(.lt 
('aInp the
T IUUllPfl San Lino, 
T aud usually aC('lll'aÜì as Esculalltp's (lesl'l'iptiolls 
of the country are, fronl the cmn)> vf 
an Lino to the junc- 
tion of Thistle ('reek with Roldi(\l' Fork, awl whi('h Ì\n) 



 are then known a
pani:-:h Fork, it ðeeIll:" iUlpus
to l'eeon<.'ile his fle
f'ription in the journal "Tith tll\' topog- 
- as it exi:-;t:-;. j Ie UIU:-;t, howe\'er. ha\'e gone down 
tle Creek to it:-; jUl1C'tion \\?ith 
uldier Fork. for. fruLlI 
this point d(mTll Hpanish Fork to the lake, his journal ('an 
1l'H\'e littlp douht a:-; tu the <.'onr
e he tl'a\yeled. 
Xeariug the lake and the honk of thp Indians. who had 
heen notified of their pre
ence in the <.'ountry by l'ulOke 
Hals frOJll distant hills, Es('alante, fearing that the Iudians, 
not kuowiug the purpu
p of their trip. Illight })ron" hustile, 
iustruets his Laguna guide Hih'ester to anuounce the frieud- 
liues:-; of his party and their peaeeable inteut. 
Pa:-;:-iing the juuetioll of Holdier Pork aud Thistle <- 1reek, 
EsC'alallte proceeded on dO"'11 the 
pani:-;h E\n'k Hud. when 
Ileal' the yalley, aseended a high hill fronl the top of which 
he-fir;-;t of white luen-Iooked clown upon the plea:-;ant 
\'alley of Ctah Lake. Descending again to the riyer. he 
followed it on down to \\There it enters the \'alley and 
aftpI" ou tlw 
Jd of Hepteulher 7 177H. luade his first enc
lllent 'within the Yalle

 of lTtah Lake un the north hauk of 
the Npaui:-;h Fork, whieh lu-' luuue(l _llJll((s CalÙJJlte,s-about 
two ulile:-i abo\'e the ]H'psent \'ilage of Npanish Fork. 
For lllaUY years thp iUIpression llH
 LH'e\'ailed that l

Jante, "'hen Hl'l'i\'ing at rtah Lake, calllP ùown the Pro\yo 
Hi \'PI' and euterpd the yall('y through Pro\'o (1aiiou. rrhel'c 
call he little douht hut thi:-; sUl'posi tion is erronp()U
\rhate\'er rpa:-i()n
 lllay ha\'e induced E

a1ante to traYl'l 
:-;0 far to tbe uorth of t1lf' adual dirpdiou he 
hOllld ha\'(-' 
taken to reaeh )IOJltpn'
.. it is apparcnt froul his journal 
that, long- hef()J'(' Hl'ri\'ing- at the OrePll Hiyel', lit' had deter- 
H1iIlP(] to \'i:-iit l Ttah Lake. and his ('()llr
e fJ'Olll the e(Ullp on 
Gl'pen HiyE'1' was g('nel'al1
T \\'estel'l
. until. appl'o(l<,hing the 
atC'h rangt'o the rugged and hroken ('Ol1l1h'
. fon'ed hilll 
' to tllP :-iollt1nnlnl. It is not to he sllppo:-.;(.d that an 
experieu('C'd 1. ra\'elp}O likp E:-;('alantp \HHlId ha\'e gOIle :-;tl'aight 
forward to tilt.' we:-:t fJ'OJu Ureèn TIi\'l-'1' into the roughpst aHd 

h'Ppl'st portion of the "
a,..;at('h 1110untains without [l 11l0ti\""e. 



Froin hi
 <)tunp on (
nrraut t 1reek--and there ean he no 
douht thrown upon the approxiuUltp loeation of thi:-: C'aUip- 
he begins to :-;wing :-;teadily to the 
outhwe:-;t anù the daily 
C<Hlr:-;ps and distances, as rp{'ord('<l in the journal, C'onld only' 
take hilll in a diredion leading away frOlll the 1'ro\'o L{in>l". 
.....\s already :-;tated, the only portion of the course fronl 
Green HiypI' to l
tah Lake, ahout ,,-hif'h tlwre ('an he an
(1Uestion, is, for a distance of :-;OlllP fifteen luile:-;, frOlll the 
ealll}J of San Lino, near lndianola, do" n rrhi:-;tle Crepk tu its 
junction ,,-ith No1òier Fork 
Hefel'ring to that l)Ortion of t.he journa I wherein lw gi n::'s 
a de
eription of the Yalle
' of l T tall Lake he write
, .. FrOlll 
the foul' ri\Ters whi{'h \nlÌer it, the first fto".s frOlll the south, 
and i
 the ....-\guas (1alielltes (Hiyer of \Yanll \\
ater). This 
is the strealn down \dlÌ('h he c-aUlë when entering tile \'alley 
and ulJon the banks ûf ,,-hi('h he C'êul1ped. .....
gain, quoting 
frOlll that part of his journal wlH're he rf'fel'
 to tlJf' foul' 
riyers, }l(' says, "The seC'ond followiug the fir
t three leagues 
to the north and with InOle water than the first," he naUles 
the Bio fo4an Xieholas and whi<'h ('oul<l he only the Pro\'o 
Hi\'er. The' 
l'O\'O Bi\'er has lllOre water than NpallJ:-;h 
l th
 distauee of three Spani
h league:-; which he gi\'e:-;, 
equiyalent to ahout 
P\Tell au<l OlH-' qnartf'r l11ile
, i
ingly êl<'t'l1l'ate. Iff' ('outinues "tltl'el' Ipaglle
 and a Im]f frOll! 
this to the nortll\n
;-;t i
 a l'i\'er," and this h(' names Rio de 
San .L\ntonio de Padua. rrhe distaJl<'e of thl'f'e and one-half 
lpaguPH (about eight and Olw-half lllÍle:-;) {'ould hring' hilH 
only to AlnerieHn Fork Hirer, and fÍllallr, (lCf;CrihÜlg the 
fourth riyer, he adds, ,. To the fourth 1'i,,('r we <lid llOt go, 
although \yp saw its gro\'e
. It i
 to tJlP Jlorthwpst of tll(' 
Han Antonio, and we :-;aw it; it has un pac-It 
ide Hinch le\-el 
ground." rrIlis he llêl1UeS Rio de Nanta 
\ na. Looking: a<'ross 
the \-a lIey frOlll ....\nieriean Fork Rh er to the .J onluu, We IUl\'E' 
uo diffiC'vJty in 1'e<'ogllizing' the Nanta ...\ na a
 the lattf'l' 
The reeo1'd, a
 gi\'en in the journal, must fix hp
'()Jl(1 <Ii". 



HlÌe the fart that to the strealll, down \d1Ïeh he caDle when 
entpring thf' \-alley, he ga\'e the nault' of Agua,'; Calieufps, and 
with thi
 fixed, then> are to the north of this streaUl or 

pallish Fork only the riyers llleutioned. It i
 to he hOl'np in 
lnilld that, in gi\'ing the nallle of l'iYf'r to the 
en):-;:-'l>ll, E:-;('alante differentiatps hetwepn tho:-;p earrying 
sufficient water to he dignified hy the llame of riypr and 
 haying a les
pr quantity. 1 t i:-; not to be a

ullled that 
lw ga\Te tliP IUUlles of the:-;e ri\'E'I':-; to SOUlf' of the smaller 
 "Thieh fiow into the valle
-. ] n ('Iosing his <lp",(.l'iption 
of the watf'l' availahle for irrigation IHU'POS(:'S and for the 
ps of pos:-;ihle future settleIllent, hp 
, in addition to 
the riyers alread
- enlunerated: .. ....\:;-;ide froIll thest' ri\'f'rs 
ihE'rp are ill the plain lunny pools of g'ood water and :..;e\'PlïJI 
fOllutaiu::-, which How dcnnl fl'Olll the HlOllntain:-;.' ,* 
If we are to a:-,:-;U111e that Esealantp did rea('!l lYtah Y-allp
' coming down Provo HiveI', and to which in that ('ase he 
\\-ould ha\'e gin='n tlw naul{' Agllas (1 a liputf':-;, it is (E'l'tainly 
ÏInpossi bIe to :-;ee how lIP eould have giypn IHunes to three- 

 ]()('ated to the north\\-pst of Proyo Hiver whell onl,\' 
two exist. 
Pjtchillg cmnp upon 
pani:-ih Fork, the
1" find the I ndiaIl:-i 
11:l'.'(' hurned the grass in ordpr to foree them to !PH \Ye the 
y at OI1('e, and that the Indians tlwm:-;eh-es were g-athered 
in hostile attitude in their vilIag{' 011 Auwri('an Fork. Tireù 
as their horses were, E
(1alante, at once, 
elllls Pather 00-- 
ulÍnguez, "\yith tIlt' two Laguna gllidf's and interprpter, to. 
visit the Indian
- WhOlI1 thp
- are hO"'l'itah!
' rp('eiypfl a
:-;oon as thei l' J)fì
H'f'ful nlÍS:-i]OIl was nlade kno"'n. 
-r:t'he day foJlo\\'illg' his a rriva I in tlu" va Ile
- Escalante 
InO\-e:-; his ('am)> to the llldian \-il!age 011 
\Jnpri('all Fork, 
whpre he Spf'IHls t11f' day talking to the Judians, inst.nwting 

* ".\ IH:\H IIp I-':,to:, rio!-: hny I'll el pl;nw lllll<'has ojo
 de nqua Imclla 
yarias fl1elltps que ha.i;\1I de la 
"llile thp 
pa lli:,h words "0 ;0.0,;" ;lJIII "llll'lI 1('.0,;" :l rp pro!lf'I"I
' transla te.l 
pODI:, aml fOHIIta ÏII:'. fhp lath'I" wor,l. hmH'n>r. ('an only II(' interpreted .IS 
:--trpams, ,'on!':jclercll jn tlH' :-:en!':l' in whkh Es\'alallte n:--{'{] it. 



thenl aUfl prep:lring theul for (>on\'ersioll to Chl'i :4ianity" 
llowc\'er, the prin('ipal ohjeet of his f>xppditioll Ü; 
tiJI npper- 
lllost ill his ulind, for on Septelnher :l-Uh we find in thf> 
journal this entry: ,. \\T e now detenllined to proceed 011 our 
journey the foJlowing da
' for the Rettlell1ent and 1>o
t of 

-." ..eX t ahout one 0 'eloek in the afternoon of He})- 
3th he 
aicl good-hy to the Lagunas, who treated 
hilll with great kindness; and leaving hehind, ,yith nluch re- 
gret. hi
 Laguna guide Silyester. lw again starts on the long 
- to 
-, retraeing hi:-: btep
 to [>1'0\'0 Hiycr, 
wlH:'re he ('aillped for the night. 
Pushing 011 tllP following day he s,,-ung to tile westward 
of his fir
t Canl}) on the Spanish Furk and pn"parpd to le
1.1)(--' yalley h
- it:-i southerJy end, stopping for the llip'bt upon 
the site of the }H"eS(
nt town of Pa
Taking a southerly ('our:se. liP went uut of the \'alle
' of 
lTtah Lake and passing near the yillage of POlHltown, he 
}>a:-ise(l thp Salt Pits frOlll whieh tllP Indians ohtainpd their 
- of salt, aud to which lw ga\'e the 
uggesti\'e IUlnlP of 
'T aIJe de Ia:-:: 
; thenee on up Halt Crcek and through 
the p]"e
cnt towns of Santaqnin and York following the line 
of the old (Ttah (1entral Hail"a
' aud ('
Hllped npOll the sih-' 
of the little yillage of 
Herp the 1>art
r \'isiterl a haud of Indians, gaye thPIll S01l1
pnts anù, as E
ealante "rite
 in his juurna I, "follnd tlWIll 
as kind and gentle a:-ô the Lake Llldians." 
Htill pUl'i-'ning a sonllu::,rly ('Olll'St', t1w
' pllsllPd on tlit' fol- 
]o,,-ing da
- a('ross tlw ground wlH.'l"l--' XpplJi i:-: now lo('atpd. 
ncar, but to the "-l::,:,twa rd of Leyan, and th]"Ollgh .J nah, :-ôti Ii 
following the 1 ille of the prpsent railroad. to wh('rc the roa(l 
1urlls to 01(-' westward and (')'ossps tht' diyidl' into th.... Hpyipl' 
,Talley. when they ('ontinued oll the s(JJ]thf'rly ('our:-,e SOllIe six 
lHilps further, turne(l ahruptI
' awl (']"oss('.l thp di,'idf', ('Olll- 
1ng down to the Ht..yier RiY{-'r at a point \dl('rp tlH'Y did lIot 
f-:llSPP(.t its pxi
tPIWl' until the
 rea('he(l it, and to whi('h they 
gan-' the naul(-' Sauta bahe1. 
Hl'l"l' the fndians ,risited thenl anrl (,:lllse<1 Escalante SOJllC 



i()n hy giyillg' to the ri\'E'r the :-;UUle HaUl(' a
 he had 
' heard theul a}Jpl
' to the San H nena \'entura or 
Ureeu HiveI'; he eoncluded the Indians had uwdp a lni:-;take 
and wa...: sati:-;fied in his own lllilld that it wa:-; the 
anlC strealll 
his Indian guidp Sih'ester had told him of. and ",hieh latpr 
11(' found to be f'OITe<'Ì. 
l'aulping the night of Hppteulhel' :2
lth on the hank

t'\'iel' river thf>
' yi:-;itt'd the Indian:.; again and saw for the 
t tiule tllt' .. Bearded ïuta
" w-IlOsP heu\'y IH>ards ga\'e 
the111 the appearancf' of Spaniards and ".hose country wal:' to 
the South of a largE' ri\'er known as the Tirol}. Thi:-; E:-;ca- 
!311fe a
sunlt'd to be a ri\'f'l' fonll
d h
- the watc>rs of the 
 and the Xa\'ajo and which lw apparently thonght to 

IP a largp ri\'{>r ft(H,'ing to the 
outh other than tlu-. (1 0 10- 
J'èHlo. This ri ,'er is not idputified in the journn I, nor i
anywhere 1uelltioned h
' name in the .J uurna!. 
Leê:l\'ing the Ctunp on the Sevier Hi,'el'. and which "Tas 
ah110st on thp identical ground on whi('h thE' \'illage of Scipio 
is no". built, they nlO\'ed west ael'OSs the Se\'ipr DE''''ert unti I 
the line of tllE' old lTtah (1 en tl'al Railroad was again readIed; 
here the
' halted for the night with neither watf'r nor gra

for their aninud
 and ,,'ithout water, and hut scauty food, for 
t henlSf' I Ye
Although night had fallpu when the {'amp Ka:-; nwde, two 
of tlIP (.OllllJallY pu
hE'd OIl in sea rch of "
a tel' which they 
thought would be found near L

, hoping, ,,
ith tlle ri:-;ing of 
the lllOOll, the
' f'onl(l Jead thei l' 
to('k to a drinking- plaee: 
Ilut, failing to find water t.here, other
ta]'te(l out trusting 
to again reaeh the 
eyier HiYcr. The night "'as spen1 with 
1hp littl(> part
' s(.tlitered o\'er the des('rt in 
èar{'h of wat.pr
their horses strayed away and were lost, and not until 11101'11- 
ing did two {)f the part

 return hringing a 111uuher of Indian...: 
"\\']10 guided tlWlll to water. 
Tlw follo,,'illg êlfterlloon, aftpr a yi
it to the lwlian vil- 
lagE', the
tartpd oif to tlw SOlltIlf'ast. stopping for till' 
Hight at Hpring Lake near PanulÌ Buttf'. whi{'h th('
' nallled 
l..ittlp :\1 ounta in. 



Leaxing the caHIp at Little 
Iountaill, they again took a 
? cour!'e and attenlpted to follow up the bed of 
Beayer Hiyer, whose water:-;, at that 
ea:-;on, \H're all but 
lost ill the desprt. I t 
eeIll:j froIlI the reading of t.he .J ournal, 
howeyer, that thj
 stremn wa:"\ not recognized as the Bea\'er, 
but was assulUP<l t.o 1)(-' H1P stremn which E
.;('a (anh' rl'ff'r
in the 1>re\Ti()u
"s enÌlT as "another slllaH one (riyer) on 
Hlt' ea:-;t" and which he again nleutionR when leayillg the 
calIlp at Little> 11ountain. where he 
ays "we deeided to ('ut 
across the riyer of the East." The cour:-;es aud di
as given in tlw Journal, ('ould bring thenl, in the direction 
t.hey were then trdyeling. ouly up the Beaver Hi\Ter. He- 
ferring to the saUle day's entl'y.E
('alant.e says, in fixing their 
locatioll for the night'8 emup. ,. arri\Téd at a streaUl \yhich at 
a distance seelHed t.o have eonsiderable \yater, hut Wf' fOllnd 
Oll eoming to it only a fe\\T pools." To this they gan-' the 
IUlnle of the Strealll of the ,yo- eaver, beeause "t]lt' rayine h
in all part:-- a kind of whih' soil, ùry and thill, that frou1 a 
ùist.ance looked like cloth spread out." 
This description seenlS further to fix it. as the Bp:Iypr 
Taking a southerly eour
e the fol1owing da
'. there ('an 
be no question hut that. they follo\,ed up the gf'neral diredÏtu 
of the Beayer Hi\'er, although at SOlne di
tance frolll it, anJ 
at night caulpecl 011 the sanlf' stream, "",here it. i
 noted in tlw 
fJ ournal: "\Y- e found in the ::::ialllP 
tremll l1l0re "Tater and 
llluch better than yest.erday," just at the point when.> tll(-' 
Bea\Ter ent.ers the Seyier <le
ert and whi('h they nmued 
Ieadow of the Gate\nlY." 
In the lllOrning w]wn lea\'ing thi:-; seconù Canl}) on tlIp 
Beaver at the .. 
r eadow of the fi-atpway," the Laguna guide, 
.J os(> 
Ia l'ía. left. tllPlll a
 a result of a dispute "Tith one of 
thp part.y; frOlll here t.hey trayeled with no one aUlollg thPIll 
who kw-...w the land "Thich the
T \yere nO\\T entpring, and whi('h 
later led to the ha rd
hi p
 and priYat.ion
 they endured whi Ie 
hunting for a crossing of the Colorado Hi'Ter. 
Still fol1owing up the Heayer Hi\'er 
Ollle twel\'l' miles, 



they again 
toppeù on this stremll the night of ()etober 5th, 
and whi('h eaUlp they nauled San -L\lltenógas. Thi:-: ('aIUP of 

an ..L-\ntenóga
 i:-: of 1110rf' than passing intere
t, for here 
! legan those yery 
erious iucidcntf' whieh later led to the 
ahandOlllllent of the attempt to reach )Ionterey and to fOl'lll 
th(-' detenllillatioll to return to Hallta F(. hy the shortest and 
'I niekcst route. 
During the fe'\- days before they camped at San ..L-\lltenó- 
gas a cold wiud had lJcen blowing, and on ihe lllorning of tlw 
6th not only the lnountaius, uut the lowlanùs as well were 
coyered with SHOW. It sno"Tcd continuously during the day 
and until nine 0 '('10('k in the f:yening, Jlwkillg tnn'e] ÏJnpos- 
sible and cOlllpelling thenl to n>nlaill under coyer all that day, 
as well as the following day, (luring whirh tinle they 
seyerely as the
T IUl<l no wood to Blake a fire. 
,Yhile snow-bound at San ..L-\llteuógas two of tlw pal't
ent westward acros
 the Hëayer )lonntains to 
for a trail which might take thCUl in the di ]'(-'(,tion of )IOll- 
terey, but tll(' great ex.pan
0 of desPl't whieh la
- before them 
raised a harrier to further trayel to tIlt:' we
t au(l, on the 
lllorning of ()<'toher 
th, we find thenl again traulping south- 
ward, still followiug up the Beaver HiYer. 
rhe land 0\'(:,1' 
which they tra \'eled wa
 very nludd
T and their horse:-: lltired 
o, after proceeding only ::jOUle eight and vne-half 
utiles, they ('mnped again about a lllÌle to the west of Bea\'er 
It continued to grow ('olùer anù Blore unplea
ant. their 
proyision:-; were praeti('a Ily exhausÜ'd, amI afh'r SOUl(' ('
 which showed the little actllalpl'ogres:s they had uUHlp 
wpstwanI, Escalante dc('ided to giye up the attempt to reach 

, and to return to Santa J!-'{> b
r the Ino
t direct route. 
On the following 111ol'ning the
T Legau traveling' 011 thpir new 
('OUl'S(' toward the Colorado Hiver, still proceeding up the 
Bf'a\'e1' Hi\Ter to a point 
;(nne six JUlIes frOlH 
}.-'r0111 thi
 ('amp they lpft the Bea\'er aud as there is an en- 
try in the .J ournal of the da
', reading: ., 
ro t.his phwe the 
hearded Yutas cmlle fr0111 the south and this seeins to be the 


THE C\THOLll' l.'HrnCH lX "GTAH 

tt-'l"llliuus of th,-'ir laud," it \\'oldd appeal' that Hl(' Bea\'l'l' was 
the streaUl referred to a
 the Hi\rer Til'on b
- the Inaiall'::i 
at the tiUH:' of the first l'llcallllHnent on the 
The det(,l'lllinatioll to alter tllpir course and abandon the 
- to JIonterey led to seriou
ition on the part 
of ('ertain llleillhers of thè f'xpeditiou, aud, in the iuten'",t 
of harlllOny. it was finally de('idpc! to cast lot
 to detl'rllline 
,,-hether the
. should go on to Jlontl'rey or enter upon the 
l'('turu jonrne
- to the (1olorado Hi,'er; tll(' east of tliP Jots 
Úl\'ol'ed tIll' Nanta F(> route, and they again luarched on the 
southerly course. 
FroBl tlle last ('alll)) on thp Bea\'er Hiyer south to the 
State linp het,,-el'u l-tah ê1nd --.-\rizona, it is all but illlpossihlt' 
tl) trace a('cnratel
- the route of the party froln the .Journa1. 
'Yhethel' disappoinhnent oyer the failure to rea(.h 
or by the trying' onleal of tlip days and nights, or the ill- 
feeling' in the }>art
. (.'aused b
' thl' return. led to Jess eare- 
ful keeping of the record, it is noti('eable that the ('ourses 
and distances reC'orded and the description of topographi('al 
features du nut fit tIll' ('uuntr
- as it pxists today. It SeenlS 
app:11'ent, Ilowe\'e1', that froBl the emnp near .Jlinenwille thp
outhwestwal'(l, passing through (\,dal' \T"al1ey to the 
we:st of wh,-'I't-' (1e(lar (1it
, now stands, and thence followeJ 
down the Virgin Hi\'er, leaying- Ptall near where thi
passes into ....-\l'izona, and thu:-; ('olllpleting that portion of the> 
journey, with whieJI we a 1'(' JIt're iHnlledintel
. conct-'rned. 
Following down the \'ïrgin Hi\'er the
T 111et with Indians, 
'who infoJ'Illed thl'Hl there was no erossing of tIll' (10Iorado 
in the dire(.tion thpy \Yl'l'P then o'oiu o ' 
o tIll". turned to the 
, b r--, . 
northeastward and followed n cour
e parnllpl 'with thf' rin-'I'. 
_For twellt
T-thrf'f' (Ia
's thf'
T trn\'eled OY('1' the hrokplI amI 
rugged ('ountr
'. whi('h borders the llortlLl'rn hank of t11f' 
Colorado Hi\'er hunting for n possihle ('rossing". \\ïtlt pro- 
\'i::-;i0l)s exhallstf'd, killiug their horses for food. and suhsist- 
ing as hest thpy ('ould on pine nuts and root
 !;eclll'ed from 
the Tndians, "rho refused to sell the111 BH'at, th

- fillall
l'ea('hed the ford of the 
olorado. rrJH'
. then Ieanwd that 



had the

 heen ahle to 
e('nrè proper guide
mne journey 
could haYe been a("euIH}Jli:-;hed in les
 than a (illarh'r of the 
time and with little or no harch:hip. 
A t about 3 0 '('Ioel\: on the aftf'rnoon of X oYf'Iuber 7th the 
entire partr lUHl ('rus
ed the (1ulora<.10 without 
hap and their arrival on the southern bank of tIlt' ri\-('1' wa:-; 
eìebratf'd with firing of llln
kets and dev(nlt thank
 to nod 
for dIP safe aeeolllpli
hBwnt of the ero:-;:-;ing. 
ithout eareful in:-.pection of the ground jt \nnlhl be 
diffienlt to fix the exw.t point of their cro:-,:,ing, hnt it nlu
haye been near tll(' "Lee'
 Ff'rry" of pre:-:ent tiule. 
Exeept for 
hortagp of pro\'i
ion:-; and laek of watpJ' while 
('rossiug thf> (lp:-;prt wa
 orthern ....\rizona, the return 
journey fl'Olll tllf' (iolorado was 
hf'(l without all
ex('iting iueidcnt. 
Lf'avillg the Colorado, they went southward, nea l' where 
the In'p
ent wagon rmHl runs, along the )loew'opie "Ta:-:h and 
ae1'oss the lands of the 1[0<1Ui Lndiall
. \rhile stiH hoping 
to yi
it the Cosllina [ndiaus t]lf'
- were fill a 1I
- eOlll!,pllf'd to 
ahandon their intentiou 011 ae('oullt of Jaek of }H'oyision:-: and 
Ow trouhle tlwy experielH'ed in ohtaining supp1ip
 fj'()}ll the 
.\f oqui. They then turned to the 
outhpa:-;tward and di n.(.tpll 
their ('Ol1l'
e to\nlnl Zuñi. 
On Xo\'eulher 
:2d, leaying his p

 with the weakest 
of the allinwIs, Esealantp pushed on to Zllîíi, :l.lTi\'illg' tlwl'e 
(1) tllP 
--Hh. si('k and exhausted, the 1'f'st of the Illen I'ea('h- 
 tIH-'l'e on thf' :2()th. 
ting' and rt'('ul'prating fronl the fatigu(
 of the journey, 

 renmillerl at Znñi nnti I Deemnhe1' 1 :-Hh. hsca lante II{l\T,- 
iug IlleantillIP advisee] the Oo\
ernor of their a r1'iya 1. The,\- 
again resumed their jonl'ne
' to Santa F'(> hy Ipi
- f'tage:-;, 
arriving there .January 2, 1777, haying trayelhl smue l,()()í) 
miles O\Tel' mountains and d{'
 (hIring the fhTe ulOnth:-; 
of their a],scuee 
 lllO!-'.;t of the tiUlf' without gllide:-;. always 
without a knowledg'f' of the eonnÌ1T whieh lay hefore tllPlll. 
and, at tiuH:'s, enduring untold hanbhips and priyation:-:. 



,Yhile their effort to open a route on 
 was in ntÏn. 
it cannot be 
aid that they did not (,olltrihute their 
 eyer :--lnall it 111ay 
pelll at this time, to the exploration 
and future deyelopnwnt of our Great \\' e

-. .... .. '''



':fJ,;;IS /:.' .1: :.'" 

" .- /.
, ",''''' ;. 
'i.fii!""" .. 

 .:. ,f,.-li{' . 



...'. , ''f.ol- r::f?--':' " . "',, , 
.. ";'..,,:". :1
1 I,. ....Jlfitr:. -.." ".:.;.- 
/ ..'.J/.:.,
.!:' t ,0 , q
. . > .';':/:.I,'i;
_ - 
,'V"" ;JJ""I"
 ", t:, :\' == 

' :%:


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-:;- d--'l.t...."-,.,,.


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--:: 2



ø.".- - - 














Takpll frolll ('.,
t()llgnny'.-:; ..[.(':-; \-o






tf(dious of Regional .LYamcs-Succcssion of Races-Ilud- 
son Bay Company (Iud Prench Trappers-llzulr::.on Bay 
Compan.1J Fort Built at Ogden-The Snak.e Chief" Jlall- 
/faise Gauche"-}.Tames Given to JIountains, Tribes and 
Rivers by French-Canadiall 1I1lIzters-Etienne Procot, 
Trapper, II1lJzter and nllide-Sent on a Scout to the 
SOlltlurest-Opens the" f)ollth Pass," Latpr l\
'jwlrn as 
"Jlormon TTa il"--Pro rot aud Party, Trparherously 
Attacked by Snake-Utes--TV onder{ul Escape of Provot 
-Pro rot J oins 
lshley on tlw G recn R'iver--'])iscovery 
of Sevier Lake-Death of Prol/ot-Thomas Fitzpatrick 
-PrOmillPIlCe of Celtir ).T amps m flir Trn}7s-}dissou'ri 
11. singular, if not a unique fact. in the history of Utah 
and southwestern Colorado, is the ehange of the nOlllenc1a- 
turp of riyers, nlountains and localities, indicating that mem- 
bers of four different races of Inen passed through or occu- 
pied the land for a greater or lesser period. On the Uloun- 
tains, rivers and lakes aboriginal Ulan conferred original 
nalnes. The Hpaniard, burning with religious enthusiasm" 
tituted for these names those of the saínts, mal'tyrs, con- 
fessors and canonized virgins of his Church. Then came' 
French-Canadian trappers and hunters of the Hudson Bay 
Fur Company, "Tho ga\Te French n
nlle::, to tribes. lllountain
and specified localities. Then entered on the scene, in 1823,. 
tlw 111en of tlw 
\nlprican Fur COll1pany, who incorporated 
English nallles with or supplanted those already bestowed 
by the Indian, Spaniard and French. So that on the maps. 
of TTtah and Colorado these national nallles renlain as per- 
manent witnesses to the presence, at one tilHe or another, of 



the exi
tence in our land of four c.1iffercnt layer
 ur strata of 
the Inunan race. 
Thai luany representatiYe
 of that extraordinar
Y and 
maryelously hardy class of Inen known a
 ". Couriers de 
Bois" preceded the Engli
h-speaking trappers and hunters 
we know fronl the journals of the HlHlson Ba
T COlupany, 
whose po
t at Ogden, Utah, had existed before Provot and 
Bridger first raulped in tlw Green Ri\-er \T a1ìey, in 1b

. TIlt' 
Snake ehi
f who treaeherollsly athH'kpa Proyot and his nlPll 
at the 111011Ìh of the Provo Riv
r, in tlu-. autlunn of 18
-1, was 
known as ")[auyaise Gauche" (the 111an with the bad left 
hand), a suggestiye nalne conferred upon hill1 "by the Freneh- 
Canadian trappers of the \Yasaìeh region nlany year::; berore. 
and nlany of wh01n had probably vi
a1t Lake SOllie tillle 
before Jiln Bridger sanlpled its waters, in 18
3. N early all 
the n1en of Frelllont's expedition of 18-13--1 Wl're Louisiana 
French Creoles or French-CaIladians, one of WhOll1, Joseph 
GirouI'd, well known to the author, died only a few years ago 
on his ranch in British Colu1nbia. 
Eyen wheu Lewis and Clark 111ade their fanlOu
tion to the headwaters of the 1\fissouri, in 1804, the Rocky 
mountains were already known to the French-Canadian hunt- 
ers as the "
[ontagnes Hocheuses," and the ""Gros \Tentres," 
the "Bois Brullís." The" K ez Perc{>s" and tll(' "P
d 'OreiUes" tribes had long before reeeived these nanles frOll1 
those fearle

 bush-rangers, the French-Canadian voya,f/pll1"S 
and trappers. As early as 1730-thil'ty-seven years before 
the Declarat.ion of IlldepC'ndelleC' - the 
[al1ett Brother;:" 
French-Canadians, opened the trail from a point on the l\1is- 
souri to the Spanish city of Ranta :B'e, K. 
L, and nauled La 
Platte Riyière. These Frenrh Creoles and Canadian
a]] nOlninal Catho1il's, and left the iUlpress of thcir wild faith 
upon the tribe
 with whom they ('aIne in ('onta('t. 
Of this ('lass was 

tiennfl Pro\Tot (prollolHH'pd Pru\'o), 
who ga\Te hi
 Hml1f' to Proyo rit
T, riycr and val1er. \Yhen, 
r arch 20, 18

, the Ro('k
' 1f onntaiu Fur C())npan
T wa
organized at S1. Louis b
[ajor ...\ !1llrPW Hl'nrr and \V. II. 



Ashley. Provot was one of a hundred young vo]unt('ers who 
ans"Wered the call for hunters and trappers for an expedition 
about to be organized to expJ ore, and to trap the mink and 
beayer riyers of the Hocky :ßloulltain regions. On .J:\pril 13 
the expedition set out fronl St. Louis, ascended the }Iissouri 
to the :Jlandan villages and established a fortified post at 
the 1110uth of the Yellowstone. ...lfter a series of 111Ìshaps and 
disappointulents Henry, "With his luen, reached the Powder 
River. From here he dispatched Etienne Provot with a small 
party on a scout to the southwest. 
Provot and his lllen were, according to II. 
I. Chittenden 
(The Àluerican Fur Trade), ., the first party of white men to 
have crossed the 'South Pass' late in the fall of 1823." This 
South Pa

 "Was aftennl rds known as the ")'Ionnon TraiL" 
the discovery of which is accredited to .J edediah Snlith, who 
clainlec1 to have found it in 1829, and 'who gave his nalne to 
the road to California known alternately as "Sn1Îth 's Trail," 
the" South Pass" and the" :ßlormon Trail." "But," write
Chittenden, "tradition anlong the traders and trappers 
always ascribed the discovery of this pass to Pro\yot, and 
there is little doubt of the fact." (The Fur Trade, p. 271). 
The same aut110rity adds (p. 280): "lIe "Was the first white 
nlan (..L\merican) who penetrated to the region of the Great 
Salt Lake." In this sanlP region Provot Yer}T nearly fen 
over the precipice of death. He "Was camping with his men 
near the nl0111h of the Provo River, when a Snake-Ute, named 
l\Iauvaise Gauche. with twenty or thirty of his banel, visited 
him. Gauche, after being welcomed, proposed they should all 
enter into a friendly alliance, and to cenlent their friendship 
suggested snloking the Cahllnet around the "peace-fire. " 
,Yhen the Indians and whites squatted around the fire

Iauyaise Gau('he deemed to he troubled, and upon being 
asked by Proyot what was tllf' lnatter, he replied that his 

cflh-koJl, or protecting spirit, "Was angr
r and "Would not con- 
sent to anything while there wa
 any iron in their luidst; "it 
was bad n1edicine." 
Gauche ana his -warriors now rose and piled tlwi l' anns 



at a distau<,p frolll the fire. Pro\'ot, to IUllnor the supersti- 
tion of the chief, rose with hi::; trappers and placed their 
knives and guns by the side of the tomahawks and knives of 
the G"tes, ___t\ll of thenl again sat around the firf', passing and 
sllloking in turn the Cahuuet. Gauche now gave a cry and 
his bravf's sprang as one man to their feet, rushed upon the 
whites and with tomahawks and knives, cOlleen led under their 
blankets, began to butcher them. The attack was 
o unex- 
pected and sudden that se\Tenteen of the trappers were Illur- 
dered. Provot, owing to his great strength and activity, 
escaped with four of his Inen to the nlountains. The place 
then becalne known a8 Proyot's hole or hollow. 
That winter he joined ___-\shley in the valley of the Green 
River, fronl which place, in the spring of 1825, Provot led the 
chief of the expedition and his cOlllpanions acro
s the ,Ya- 
satch mountains into the basin of Great Salt Lake, with 
which, as we have seen, he was already fan1Íliar. 
From the valley of the Salt Lake Provot and Ashley be- 
gan their remarkable explorations, circling the land and 
finally arriving on the shore of Sevier Lake, which was for 
years known as ..tlshley Lake. Fronl here they swung north 
to the Green Hiver, where permanent headquarters had been, 
in 1824, established for the .J..\JIIeriean and the Cohunbia Fur 
Companies, noW" united uncleI' the nanIe of the Rocky 
tain Fur Company. 
In the autumn of 1828 Provot started out to round up th
trappers of the c0l11panies, scattered over a broad region, and 
rendezvous them at Fort Floyd, at the mouth of the Yellow- 
,Ye know nothing of the life of tllP intrepid leader for the 
next two years beyond the fact that he at once plunged into 
the wilderness and succeeded in his mission. 
,Ye do not again hear of hin1 until February. 1838. "Then 
he arri yed in St, Loui
 from the Far "
t. bringing tic1ings 
of the appalling ravages of slnallpox mllong the upper )[is- 
souri tribes. On Fehruary 23th, the elder Choteau. "Writing to 
his son, Pierre, "Tho was on his way to X eW" York city, said: 



"Late last night Etienne Pro\Tot arrived, bringing melan- 
choly details of plague, pestilencE' and devastation." 
This plague of which Charle
 Chotea u writes was the 
smallpox, and was the Illost frightful visitation that, perhaps, 
ever swept through the X orth 
\nlf'riCall Indians. Ileal' what 
Father De 
nlet says of it
'In the 
pring of 1837 
the smallpox was COillIllullicated to the tribes on the uppe
)lissouri. The fine ('aIllp of rfeha tka, conlposf'd of 1,200 
warriors, wa::; redueed in this ::;inglp season to eight)T Inen 
capable of bearing anns. uther tribes experienced trials still 
Illore severe. This scourge counted nlore than 10,000 yictilllS 
among the Crows and Blaekfeet alene. 
The :\linnetare::; were reduced froin 1,00U to 500; the 
dans, the nohlest alnong the racE'S on the upper :JIissouri, 
counting 600 warriors before the epidelllÎc, were reduced to 
thirty-two; others say to nineteen only. ...\ great nun1ber 
committed suicide in despair." (Letter xiii, 2d ser.) 
In 18-16 Provot Iuadt' his last expedition to ihe 
territory. Returning in December of Hlat year, he 
down in St. Louis, where he died July 3, 1850. It may be 
well to say here that Provot is the correct spelling of the 
naU1e, and not Provost, which OCeurs in all the histories of 
and literature on Utah dealing with the fur trading period. 
In answer to our request to ascertain the date of the death 
and the correct spelling of the nal1le of the fan10u:--: guide, 
we received from ,Judge ,Valter B. Douglas, of 
t. LOlli
. this 
"ST. LorIs, .Tan. 9, 1
"I went to the court house m)

e]f this nlorning and after 
a long search I found the answer to your question. I di
ereel that, in the record of the achninistration of the estate 
of Etienne Provot the nanle is Provot, not Provost. Seareh- 
ing the files of the ")Iissouri Republican," I can1e acro
this obituary notice inserted in the issue for .T uly 4, 1830: 
" · Died, yesterda
- afternoon, a hout 4 0 '('lock, 
r l'. Etienne 
Pro\Tot. The friends and acquaintances of the family are in- 
vited to attend his funeral this afternoon at 4 o'clock, from 



his residence, on the corner of LOlnhard and Second streets, 
to the Catholic burial ground." 
He left a wife and one daughter. IIis wife wa
Rose Salle, dit Lajoie. She waç; the daughter of the WOlllan 
mentioned in Greggs' "COlTIlllerCe of the Prairies," ''''01. I, 
p. 146. 
ÅS the "t" in the Prench nalTIe Provot is silent, we 
can now understand the origin of the llallle Proyo, as applied 
to the city, yalley and riyer. 
,Ye haye recorded the discovery of Salt Lake by :i\Iajor J. 
Bridger, or ,. JÜn" Bridger, as he is lnore fall1Ïliarly known. 
He was in his day regarded 3Fi the greatest scout, the best 
shot and the foremost guide and hunter of the Rock
- 1Ioun- 
tain region and the trans-1[issouri territory. He spent thirty 
years among the Indians and was, on the teðtil110ny of Father 
De Smet, "one of the truest specÏ1nens of a real trapper and 
Rocky }Iountain 111an." On the adyice of Proyot, Bridger 
sent his two children, daughter and son, to be educated at :st. 
Louis, In answer to inquiries ahout their health, Father Dc 
Smet sent him the subjoined letter hJ" Colonel R. naulpbell, 
who was leaving St. Louis for the Hocky }Iountains: 
"ST, LorIs 1 T NIYERSITY, _\priI1, 1t<')3. 
"DEAR FRIEXD- it: * * .L\ few da
"B ago I had the 
pleasure of paying a yisit tn your childrcn, who reside at 
present in 
t. Charles. 
" appf'arf'd to he 'Yf'll pleaFied 
and are eertainly "el1 taken ('are of. Felix attends our school 
and is HUlking progres:-;. His sister Jives in the A.cadeluy, 
and under the inlmediate care of the ladies of that wf'll-('on- 
ducted esta1Jlisluuent, who haye eyery regard for her that 
good mothers cuuld hnye for their uwn children. * * * 
You lllay rest assured that all shaH be done to u1ake then1 
comfortable and happy. You have prolllised me a letter in 
regard to the Flatheads. Remeluber me to them," etc. (Life 
and Letters of Father De Snlet, p. 1484.) 



Conspicuous a1110ng the daring huntE:'r
 and free-trappers 
of rtah and the Intennuuntain regions in the early days of 
the fur cOlnpanips "Was ThOluas Fitzpatl'if'k, friend and C01n- 
panion of Etienne Proyot and .JêllUeS Bridger. 
Fitzpatrick "Was grand unc1p of Rt. lIon. 
ir Charles Fitz- 
patrick, K:. C. 
L G., now Chief .T ustice of the Suprelue Court 
of the D0111inion and JlleUlher of thp Board of Governors of 
the Catholic (1hureh Extension Hociety for the DonÚnion of 
HE:' joined the X orthwest Fur C01npany at .Jlontreal. (1an- 
ada, in ltl19, at about the tin1e Peter Skeen Ogden of the 
san1e company "Was leaying Vancouyer 10 open a trading post 
in the ,Yasatch Range of the Rocky ::\[ountains. The fur- 
traders, hoth of the Hudson Bay COlnpany and the Cana- 
dian K orthwe
t Con1pany. penetrated to the Rocky 
and westward still to the streanls flowing into Great Salt 
Lake years hefore the ..L-\!nerif'an trappers entpred the coun- 
try; and the llaIneS of Jllanyof the early explorers are perpet- 
uated in the riyers and lakes which are found in this yast 
territory. It is not too llnH'h to say that the fur-traders "Were 
the pioneers of civilization in these iunnensp regiuns. Tlll'Y 
undertook the 1110st fatiguing journeys "With the greatest 
phwk and fortitude; they explorpd the land and 11lade its 
wealth knu"Wn to the outposts of f'iyilization. Tn 18
1 the 
long and yiolent conflict and riyalry het"Ween the 
and the Hudson's Bay COlllpanies "Was pndpd hy a f'oalition 
of the c01upanies. 
,Yhen tlw coalition "Was effected Ogden and Fitzpatrick 
were in the ,YasatclI region. Pptel' SkePll Ogr1ell (after 
",lImn Ogden City is nauled) "Was a British 
ubjef't, the son 
of Chief Justice Ogden of (
nebef'. Thi
 is the Ogden who, 
in our histories, i
 l1wntioned a
 the di
('oYerpr of IImnholdt 
Riyer, which had been discovered and was "WpH known to the 
Spaniards 10ng before Ogden "WaR born. Ugden. after the 
union of the Eng1ish Fur c01upanies, continued as purehasillg 



agent for the Hudson's Bay Conlpany, retaining in his eJl- 
t01tToge French-Canadian trappers, hunter
 and traders of 
the Northwest COlnpany, who had foHo.wed hilll frOlll CallRdH. 
Although wild and reckless at tilDes, these hardy lllen 
were reillarkable for obedience to their superior
, for their 
unequalled skill in handling the paddle, their strength and 
endurance and their facility in adapting thenlsely('s to the 
habits and peculiarities of the lndi
n tribe:-,. They were tlw 
greatest bush-rangers and canoe-men of their tÏ1ne and, long 
before the advent of the AlnerirRn 1 rapper hunter and fron- 
tiersluan, had penetrated yast region:s and trapped the 
beaver streanlS of the great west. ,Vith the help of these 
lnen Ogden had aCC'lullulated for his cOlllpany a yast 
of valuable furs worth, it is said, $175,000. .....\..t about this 
\..shley and IIenry, with their hunters, entered 
the Green River Valley region, and began moying into Og- 
den's territory. 
The Hudson Bay chief, fearing for hi::; prc(.iou::; fur::;, re- 
moved them by night fronl the warehouse and hid-cached-- 
theln in a neighboring yalley" (now Cach(' \Talley frolll the 
French word caché, nIeaning a hiding-place). 
Ashley bribed sonle of Ogden's Inen, stole the furs and 
escaping to tlìe ::\Iissouri, sold his rich haul at St. Louis and 
laid the foundations of a great fortune. ...\..ftel' this n1Ísfor- 
tune Ogden broke camp and retired to the Colulnbia region. 
lIe died at Oregon City in 1834, in the sixtieth year of his 
His cOlnpanion, Thomas Fitzpatrick, relnained in the 
Rocky 1\[ountain region as an ÏIHlependent trapper and 
hunter. \Yhen he joined the Rock

[ountain Fur COlnpany, 
in 1824, he was welcOlned as one of the "fairest, ::;traightest, 
squarest" lnen of the west. The fanle of his great knowledge 
of the Rocky 
Iountaill country
 his fa1lliliarity with the Salt 
Lake Ba
in and Desert, his dauntl<?bs courag-e and singular 
honesty in all his dealings, reached the L"nited States goyern- 
ment, which invited hhn to join its frontier selTicp and lnade 
him a n1ilitary captain at large. "'\rllile his cOl1lluission was 



hunting hinl in the auhU11n of 1840, Fitzpatrick was guiding, 

 the Rockies, the .John Bartlesoll party which threat- 
ened to go to pieces and peri:-;h of starvation and cold when 
Fitzpatrick found theln. lIe was a l11an held in high estemu 
by Indian
 and white
, ana was incorporated into the Flat- 
head tribe when their chief, Red Feather, adopted him as his 
In ] S48 he was brevf'tellluajor and wa:-; appointell Indian 
agent over the whol
 upper La Platte region. In his official 
capacity he was present with Colonel l10bert Caillphell and 
Father D
 Slnet at the Great Peace Council as:-;pll1bled- 
SepteIllber, 1831-in a vast plain of the Platte. Ten thou- 
sancl warriors, Cheyennes, Sioux, Crows, Arapahos, :\[inne- 
tarees, 1[andans. Shoshones and ....\ricaras, nwt, by inyita- 
tion froll1 'Yashington, carried to then1 by Father UP Sn1et 
when no other white 111an would be allowed to enter tlwir 
territory. This was tlH
 hu'gest and 1110st representative 
meeting of warriors, chiefs and Indian fighters ever brought 
together on the _\merican continent. Its like can never be 
seen again. for conditions can never Iuake for its reproduc- 
,After the treaty of peace wa
 signed :b-'itzpatrick wa
tinued in office and ,vas created a governUlent guide, explorer 
and ehief of scouts. In 18-13-4 he and I{it Carson were with 
FrClllont on his explorations. The dÍlue novel and the fron- 
tier dl'êllua nlade I(it Carson a hero forty year
 ago; history 
i:-; now lifting 
'itzpatrick onto the plane of the heroie. 
luont in his report speaks generously of hill1. Chittenden in 
his: "Anlerican Fur Trade of the Far 'Yest" praises hilu, 
and Father De SUlet sa
Ts of hilll ill a letter to Colonel 

ay, written fronl St. Louis, )Iay 1U, 1849: .. I had the 
pleasure and happiness of trayeling in his (F'itzpatrick's) 
cOlllpany during the whole SUlllnler of 1842, being IHY second 
expedition to the n1ouutains. and every day I learned to ap- 
preciate hilll more and nlOl'e." '\Tith the po
sihle f\xf'eption of 
Bridger, Fitzpatrick was the lllost expert trailer and mOUll- 
taineer of his time. IIis knowledge of the wilderne
::, and his 



undoubted conragp and honesty of purpose, won for hitu the 
respect of the IHen of his tilHe and territory, and. in the offi- 
cial and private letters, yet extant, of those times he is 
spoken of in ter111S of the highest praise. 
,Vhen reading the narratives and correspondence which 
have come down to us from those stirring tinws and the trad- 
ing and n1Îlitary reports of the internlouutain region for the 
first quarter of the nineteenth centul'

. one ('annot fail to 
notice the nunlber of Irish and Catholic nalne
 which figure 
so prominent1y and honorably in the reC'ords of the tilne. In 
1820 :J[ajor Bernard Riley. after whOln Fort Riley was 
nan1ed, cOlIllllanded the Sixth Infantry at Fort Leavenworth. 
:Jlajor 0 'Fallon's naine is conspicuously pron1Ïnent in In- 
dian fighting west of the :J[issouri for l11any years. In 1

he was appointed by the Deparhnent of the Interior. Govern- 
ment Superintendent of Indian Affairs, with headquarters at 
Council Bluffs. 
In 1823, Captain :J[idlael :Jloore is llwutioned for con- 
spicuous bravery in the field by Colonel Leavenworth, then 
commanding at Fort _\. tkinson. 
In 1820 .J alnes L. Douglwl'ty accOlupanied the first Roeky 
::\Iountain expedition as scout and hunter. 
In 1820 James Patrick Purcell, hunter and trapper, dis- 
covered and luade known to the East the existeu('(' of gola 
near the head waters of the .A.Tkall
The prominent part taken b
T the "G ael Acro::;s the Sea," 
by Irish and R('ot('h Celts in exploring and opening the (-treat 
,Yest fOl
 settlelnent, fOrIns one of the HIORt interesting chap- 
ters in the history of our country "
est of the l\Iissouri. 







. .J. 


...11 i::;sionary au(l Explorer. 
Of interest, in connection with the growth of the Church 
in ["tah, and the influence he nlaY have had in the early 
settlmuent of the State, COllle
 after Provot, and next in 
chronological order. that intrepid ulÌs
iollary and traveler, 
Father De 
Born ,January 30, 1801, at Thermonde, Belgium, hIs 
early boyhood wa
 passed in his native city until he finally 
entered the 
eminary of .Jlalines, where he remained until 
his twenty-first year; sonle years before he entered the 
nary the re:-;toration of the Jesuit Society had been acconl- 
plished, and it boon becan1c apparent that he intended fol- 
lowing a religious life, the probability being that he would 
beconlc a 111elllber of the SOf'if'ty of Jesus. During: that pe- 
riod, while he, no doubt, had this in n1Ìnd, and at about the 
tiTne of the close of his tenu at the ::;en1Ìnary, Father 
 erinckx, a priest WhOlll the French revolution had 
driven into exile, returned to Belgitun froIll hi
work among the IndianR of N orth 
\ me rica in ::;earch of 
funds and recruits with which to carryon the work of the 
missions. Father Kerinckx succeeded in inducing six stu- 
dents of 
Ialinf's to return with him to .America and enter the 
uit Xovitiate, at that tÌIue established in the 
tate of 

Iaryland, preparatory to taking up nlÍssionary work aluong 
the Indians of the 'Y est. 
\.lthough in opposition to the hopes 
of hi::; fan1ily, De Smet becanle one of this number, and em- 
barked with the rest of the party for 
\nlerica in July, 1821, 
arriving SOlne 40 days later at Philadelphia. 
.After visiting 'Yashington, Baltinlore and Georgetown, 
De Smet, with the other novices, enterf'd the J e
uit X ovi- 
tiate at ,Yhitemarsh, 
Iaryland, where he rel11ained for SOUle 
eighteen months. 



In 18
3, steps were taken for the establislul1ent of a 
Jesuit Novitiate near 
t. Louis, and on April 11th of 
that year a party of twelve priests and novices, including 
De SIllet, started fronl "Thitemarsh for S1. _Louis, arriving 
there )Iay 31st. .After a lIlO
t trying journeJT, from here 
they proceeùed some fifteen nlÍles further '\y('<::t to the little 
village of Florissant. where was founded thp second novi- 
tiate of the Society of ,Jesus in the frnited 
tates, and 'which 
was destined later to bec01ue the headquarters of the Jesuits 
in this country. 
Entering the novitiate then e
tablished. De Smet re- 
luainecl there until 18
7, whf'n he 120nlpleted his studies 
and was ordained. The first few years of his priestly 
life were uneventful until 1833, "\Vhen. on account of ill health, 
he "\Vas :-;en t to Europe on busines
 of the Society and to 
recruit hi
 health by a sea voyage. Before leaving for Eu- 
rope 011 Sf'pteluber 
3, 1833, he took out his naturalization 
, Lecon1Ìng a citizen of the -Gnited States, and casting 
his fortunes with the New 'VorId, to the future developulE'nt 
of which he was ulti:mately destined to largely contribute. 
In the latter part of 1834: he left for the home and coun- 
tTY of his choice, but again serious illne
s c0111peHed his re- 
turn to Belgiulll, where he l'muained until 181'7. occupying 
his tinlP in soliciting financial aid and procuring- recruits 
for the lllission about to be f'stablishf'd in the Far ,yo est. 
Retul'ning to Rt. -Louis. he started on )[ay 10, ] 838, on 
his fil'
t n1Ïssion to the tribes, and began what -was to be hi'3 
life "\Vork, the value of which in paying the ',ay for the latf'r 
opening of the ,Yest is only now being accorded the a ppre- 
ciation fully due. 

pasnlodic yisits to the plain lnclians aurl enter- 
taining deputations frOlll distant tribes, De Smet remained 
at 81. Louis until 
7, 184:0. ,,-hen he enterefl upon 
his ßl'
t long journey into the northwest, and hegan a career 
which was destined to result in the establislullent of the we11- 
k110"\V11 Rocky )[onntain )[isÚons and in a friendship for and 
intinlacy with the Indians which became of incalculahle as- 



sistance to the pioneers and of acknowledged aid to our gov- 
During thi
 period until 18-!G his titne was spent in estab- 
lishing Indian missions, soliciting for thenl money and re- 
cruits both here and in Europe, until the ('loRe of the year. 
r.rhe great yalue of his work and achievPllwnts up to this 
tilne is best SUlnUled np h

 his biographer in the following 
expressive langnage: "But most inlportant of all, frOIll a 
public point of view, was the fact that he had hecOIne a great 
power among the Indian tribes. 
\.n now knew hi111. lllauy 
personally, the rest b: T reputation. lIe was the one whitf' 
1l.Wl1 in whonl they had Ïlnplicit faith. The govenlluent "a
beginning to look to hitn for assistance. The ::\1 0 rlnUl1 , the 
Forty-niner, the Oregon :illllnigrant, Cal1le to hilI). for infor- 
Elation and advice. J fiF; writings were already known on 
two continellt
, and his naine waR a fan1Îliar one at least in 
 religious "orlò." (Life and Trayels of Father De 
Snlet.-Chittenden.) ',Yhen hut seven years of a('tive work 
brought results such aR this indicates, the stupendous lahors 
accOIllplished during the years of his life may now be under- 
During this early period of De Slnet'8 activit
T ther(' 0('- 
C'urred an incident which, in yiew of the great influence it 
1fWY have exercised in the settlen1Cnt of 'Utah and the colo- 
nization of that territory hy the )IOrlllOnS, singularly enough, 
has es('aped the notire of all historical writers on Ctah and 
the intermountain states. In a letter to his nephew, written 
in :::\Iarch, 1851, he writes: "The Great Salt Lake, whi('h 
is a bout 300 n1Ïles in CirClll11ference, lie
 in the northern part 
0:& the Great Basin. It is rather shallow' in the portions thus 
far explored; hut is supposed to be yery deep in the central 
parts. The water of the lake is more salty than sea-water. 
Three gallons of it 

ield a gallon of Ra1t of tlw gTeate!--t pnr- 
ity. whiteness and fiueness. (hi th
 nod lwast of the lake 
is the tern1ination of the valley of Bear HiYer. This yalley 
is thirty n1Ïles long h
r twenty-two '\yid
, and rOllllHul1Ï('ates 
'\"ith another valley, which is fìft

 n1Ïles hy eight (no" Cache 



" alley). It is in thiö first valley, inclo
ed by picturesque 
mountains, "Thich ha:; taken the HaUIe of the \T alle
T of the 
:\IOrIllOnS, that their capital stands, called by some Great 
Salt Lake City, and Ly others )IorInonville." That De SUlet 
visited Salt Lake during his trip to the nurthwe
t in lS-tl 
does not 
eenl to IUHTe heen generally kno"
n. r:I
his visit, in 
a:::isociation with the fact that lw was the first Catholic priest 
to enter 1:"tah subsequent to the exploratiOll:::i of Fathers Es- 
calante and Dominguez in 1776, ghTes to this part of his jour- 
IlPY great interest in connection with the histor
T of the 
Church in our 
Quoting further frOIll the sanIe letter, and cOIning to that 
portion of the events ,,
hich followed it, he writes: .. In the 
fall of 1
46, as I drew near to the frontiers of the state of 
l\Iissouri, I found the advance guard of the 1\Ionnon
. nUI1I- 
bering about 10,000, cmllped on the Terl'itor
T of the Onlaha, 
not far fronl the old Council Bluffs. They had jn
1 heen 
driven out for the second tinle fronl a 
tate of the Cniun 
(Illinois had re(,f'ived thenl after their war with the people 
IiHHouri). They had resolved to "Tinter on the thl'e
old of the great desert, ànd then to nlove OlTward into it, to 
put distalwe between themselves and their persecutors. with- 
out even kno,,
ing at that tÏ1ne the eud of their long wander- 
ings, nor the place where they should once I1l0re ere(,t for 
themselves pernlanent dwellings. They asked nle a thou- 
sand questions ahout the regions I had explored, and the 
valley which I ha\Te just described tu you pleased thenl 
greatly from the account I gave them of it. TYas that 'lehat 
dete.nninerl the'm? I 1l'01ild not dare to assert it. They ((re 
there! In the last three years Ctah has changed its aspect, 
and from a desert has beCOllIe a flourishing territol'r, which 
'will Roon hecome one of the states of the Union." 
To the )[orll1ons liyillg in a tenlporary camp on the edge 
of the desert, unable, or at least unwilling, to retrace the 
road leading back to the land of their persecutors, ignorant 
of the region ,,
hich lay l)('fore them, De Snlet's glowing 
description of the beautiful and fertile yalley which lay be- 



yond the mountains, brought the solution of their most per- 
plexing problenl, for it indicated a place wherein they could 
establish tllE'ir hOllleS and their religion, free froln the trou- 
bles and perbecutions ,yhich had so far beset thern. I-lis close 
acquaintance with Brigham Y OUllg, * and his many conversa- 
tions with him on tllE' Hocky Àlountain regions ann on Salt 
Lake .Valley, probably determined the choice of the :ß[ormon 
prophet, and led to the decision which ultinlately ðettled the 
Latter Day Saints in the fertile lands they now occnpy in 
1 T tah. 
'Yhile it was not generally known that De thnet passed 
through the valley-for there appeared in De SUlet's writ- 
ings no exhaustive or detailed account of his visit to Salt 
Lake-no doubt can now be cast on the fact that he was there 
and had explored a considerable portion of the yaney. IT neIer 
date of .J anuary 19, 1858, in a letter addressed to the editor 
of the" Précis Ilistoriq1Jes Bruxellcs," and following' a de- 
scription of the Great Salt Lake Basin, he write
 : "In 1841 
I traversed nluch of this valley in IllY ranlble
 in the Rocky 
Àlountail1s." InasITIuch as De Snlet's ,vritings consist al- 
most entirely of letters, addressed for the lllOSt part to 
friends in Europe, and written after his return to St.. Louis 
from his various trips, no attmupt heing Inadf' to C'arry OIl 
any connected narrative, and having for their prinC'ipal ob- 
ject the obtaining of funds for the furtherance of his nlÏs- 
sionary ,york, it is not strange that he should have passed 
over, sO.Blewhat lightly, an incident which now seenl
 of such 
great historic yalue. 
1Vith his return to St. Louis on Decernber 10, 18-:1-6, his ac- 
tive nlissionary work alnong the Inùians practical1y ended. 
Only twice, and both occasions on important missions, did he 
revisit the field of his early labors. Various reasons have 
been assigned for hi
 retireluent frOln active missionary work, 

*" He (De 
lllct) became well acqu:lillte(] with Young, and it is possi- 
ble the information he 
:l\'E' him may ha\'e influenced that leader in choosing 
Salt Lal;:e Yalley as the future home (
r hi
 people." (Father De Smct's Life 
and Tra "c]s 
\.mo)lg thf' Xorth 
\.lllel'i(.;\B Iu(1ians.) 



and many of thenl are far afield of truth. Certain it is that 
the abanc1Ol11uellt of his 111Ïssionar

 work was C'ontrary to the 
de:-;ires of Father De thnet. For years he lwld the uffiee of 
procurator for the Indian 
[issions, and there is little doubt 
but his fonner successful efforts in procuring funds and aid 
for the luissions f1'01n Eurupe led hi:-; 
uperiur tu believe 
tllàt his services in this ùiref'tion luig-ht ultÌ1l1atel
T be of 
greater henefit in t. 1 hristiunizillg the tribes than the
T would 
be if devoted exclusiyely to lllÎssionary work. Singularly 
enough, at about this SaIne tÏ1ne jealousy in certain quarters 
prompted the sending to RonIe of false and lualicious state- 
llwnts concerning D(! Snle1's ,york alllong the IIHlians. and 
challenging abo tlw truthfulne
s of the report':5 he had writ- 
ten upon the sucCP;-;s of his l11issiollS. TllPse attaf'ks, how- 
ever, had not the :-;lightest influen('(' upon the assiglHllent to 
hilll of other duties, and if tlw Church did not entirely ap- 
proye of his plan for the establishment of an extcllsiye se- 
ries of missions HnlOng the Indians it ,yas ()nl

 hecause that 
plan was too large to penuit of its sw.cessful fulfilhnent in 
the then existing financial condition of the Socipty. Oue 
thing seelllS certain: Otis arrangeInellt did not altogether suit 
Father De SUlCt, and. though he accepted the changf\ with 
that spirit of cheerful ohedience which eharacterized his 
life, we find in his Inore intiluate correspondence frequent 
expressions of UÌlllost rcgret that he was no longer able to 
continue his work anlong' the Indians. 
....-\Jter his return to Ht. Louis, in 18.J.G, he ],eIuained there 
with the exception of one short trip to Xcw Orleans and a 
trip tu EurOlJe. until 1831. when he was invited by the gov- 
ernment to attend the Great Council of Indian trihes, which 
had been fixed for that year, and thus began that Jung 
of negotiations with the Indians which ultimateJ

in the pacification of lllany warlike trihes. For his valuahle 
work on hehalf of peace, the great priest received the thank" 
of President Peirce. 

Iaking such short trips as the duties of lJÎs offì('e re- 
quired, and with the exception of one voyage to Europe, he 



renlained in 
t. Louis until ] 
3K ,.At this tÎlne there caIne a 
call for his services in a nlost unexpected quarter. Trouble 
with the 1Iol'lllOnS had upen nlOl'P or less serious, and Gen- 
eral Ilarney, who was to COllllnalld the serond expedition sent 
into L'tah, reque
ted that Father De 
hllet ue inyited to ac- 
company the expedition as chaplain. . This request llleeting 
with the approval of the GovernnH'nt, as well as with that of 
the chureh autllOrities, he left St. Louis 
Iay 20. 1858, to join 
the army at Fort Leavenworth. It had then been seven 
years since he had crossed the plains when on his way to 
attend tlw Great Council beÌ"\yeell tlI(' war chiefs and {T. S. 
officials, and we can well imagine the pleasure with which he 
returned to the scenes of his earlier travels. The misunder- 
standing oet-ween the l\[orInons and the 'U. S. Governlnent 
having' heen settled, and General IIarney's expedition eallell 
back, Father De BIllet again returned to St. Louis, reaching 
tha1 eÍty Hppteulher, 18;)8, when he tenilered his resignation 
as C'haplain in the anny and prepared to resnnlP his inter- 
rupted dutieb. 
...\.t about this tÎlne occurred the outbreak of the Indians 
in Oregon, and he was requested by the Spcretary of ,Yar to 
retain hi
 coullnission as arlUY chaplain. and again aCl'Ulllpany 
Generalllarney, who was to COlllllland the expedition against 
tlw Indians. This reappoillÌInent again 11lpeting "With the 
approval of his superiors in the church. Father De Sluet left 
for Úregon, going by way of Panan1a, and arrived at 'T an- 
couver October 28, 1838. The Oregon can1paign, ho,\yevel, 
"Was clo
ed before he was able to join the expedition or rpaeh 
the field of operations. IIis long voyage, ho-wever, ,\yas not 
without beneficial results, for he reuwined during tlI(' ,,-inter 
and the greater part of the following spring and SUnUIWl', di- 
recting his efforts toward the paeification of the Indians and 
in effecting a ppacpahlp and satisfactory solution of the trou- 
ble with the n10untain tribps. 
.L\fter his return fron1 Uregon and the northwest, he once 
lllOl'e reslllned his duties in Rt. LouÍf." l'enlaining' until 18ßO, 
when business of the Soeiet

 again took hinl to Europe. 
FrOlll this tÎlne his health, "Which wa
 failing rapidl
-, tu- 



gether with increasing age, wa
 unequal to the wear and tear 
of the many journeys which his duties and conscience Ïln- 
posed on him. .b--'or the last twenty years of his life he was 
seldom free fronl physical aihnent of SOlne sort, brought 
on, no doubt, by the hardships and exposure of his mission- 
ary life. To quote from one of his letters will best illus- 
trate the deprivations of his early life. "I haye Leen for 

Tears a wanderer in the desert. I was three years without 
receiving a letter fronl any quarter. I was two years in 
the mountains, without tasting bread, saIt, coffee, tea, sugar. 
I was for years without a roof, without a bed. I have been 
six nlonths without a shirt on Iny back, and oftpn I have 
passed whole days and nights without a ]1101'sel of anything 
to eat." ",Vith a life spent in thilS lllanner 8111all wonder that 
disease should lay hea'T)'" tribute on his declining years. 
On .l-\larch 30, 1868, Father De Snlet left St. Louis on 
what wa
 pradically his last visit to the Indians. and froIl1 
a secular point of view his most inlportant. It was at this 
time that a Sioux uprising threatened a11 our northern terri- 
tory. Father De Snlet ,vas appealed to frOll1 \Yashington to 
penetrate the rpgions closed to all other white Inen, reach 
the hostile Indians. and bring a deputation frOlll thell1 to 
meet a Peace Commission. His nÜssion was crowned with 
the same invariable Sl1cress which ahvays marked his intpr- 
course with the lndians, and once more he paved the way for 
peace between the whites and the hostile tribes. 
Returning frolll his expedition, he Inadp a short trip to 
Europe, and on J uue 1st, 1870, startpd on his last visit to 
the tribes, ascending as far as Grand Hiver _
gel1cy in South 
Da l
Increasing illness and bodily il1finnitie::; no,,' weighed 
heavily upon him, and in 1871 he nlade what was destined to 
be his last visit to Europe, and to the home of his birth. 
lIe left Europe .L
pril ] 1, 1872, conlpleting his nineteenth 
voyage across the Atlantic, and with his arrival in S1. Loui
ended his life's travels, which rearhed the prodigious total 
of 180,000 Iniles. ,Yhen a Illonlent's consideration is given 



to the crude Inethods of travel available at that tinIe, and 
that much of this di
tance was accolnplished by stage, wagon, 
horseback, and often on foot, his work in travel alone bears 
convincing testimony of the arduous life he led. 
He re111ained at the Jesuit College, St. Louis, till his 
death, which occurred on l\Iay 23, 1873, in the 73d year of 
his lif e. 
The body of the great Inissionary rests in the little cmne- 
tery near the Jesuit N ovitiate, Florissant
 within sight of 
the spot where his labors began, and within sound of the 
chapel bell. 


Patriot and Pronwter. 
It would be unfair to the lueillory of a distinguished UlaH 
and a gallant soldier, who figured conspicuously in the his- 
tory of Utah in the early sixties, to oinit a :-;ketch of his ca- 
reer in a work professing to deal with the origin aud expau- 
sion of Catholicisll1 in our state. 
The nleulory of )Iajor General Connor i
 held in kindly 
remeillbrance in Utah by those who knew him and are yet 
living, and his naine is 111entioned with respect and adl11Îra- 
tion by those who were not Lorn when he cros
ed the J ol'dan, 
and, with his regiment, camped all10ng the f()othil1
 of the 
1Y asa tch. 
Like many others of his countryulen ,,-110 fought their 
way to recognition and prolI1Otion in the anny and navy, 
Patrick Connor, when, in 1836, he landed -.vith hi
in New York, "-as a penniles:5 exile. rrhe hostility to his re- 
ligion and his nationality was, at that t.ime in the rniÜ'd 
States, a very SPl'ious handicap, which closed to Iri
hl1len the 
avenues leading to COIDll1ercial and profés
ional sn('ce
Born in Ireland, 2\1arch 17, 18
O, the future general 
inherited the fighting blood of the great 0 'Connor Clan- 
,. The 0 'Connor fire-eaters of I(erry,' '-and, "Then he was 
nineteen years old, he enlisted as a private in a reglulel1t or- 
ganized for active service' in the Sen1Înole cêul1paign. After 
his rcgÏ1nent was 11lustere<1 out of seITice, in It:\.l!, Conllor 
returned to New York, froIl1 which city he went tù Texa
1Vhile there, :L\iexico declared war against the lTnited :::;tate
and at once the "Lone Star" ::-;tate raised a detaC'hment of 
volunteers, subsequently designed a
 COlnpany ....-\.. 1st Tpxas 
Foot Riflemen, to serve for a tenn of three mouths in the 
1Ie.xicall 1Var. Connor enlisted in this cOlnpnny, and was 





-, !\ 



, 1 




lilade .first lieutenant. At the expiration of his period of 
sel'TÌce, he joined Captain Seefield's "Independent COJupany 
of Texas \T olunteers," then at Calnargo, 
Iexico. ,Yith the 
V olul1teer
 he took part in the engag'elnents of Palo Alto, 
Dcla-Pahna, Hesaea, and in the .fierce fight of Buena Vista, 
where he was badlr wounded. He wað luentioned in a dis- 
patch to the war office for "conspicuous bravery in action," 
and on February 1
, 184ï, was prol110ted captain of his COIn- 
After the battle of Buena \Tista, Connor, at his own re- 
quest, was honorably discharged and retin'd to California, 
1Yhere he reinained till the opening of the Civil ,Var. 
"Then the news of the attack on Fort Slunpter reached 
California, Connor at once tendered his seryices to the Gov- 
ernor, and was appointed to the conllnalld of the Third Cali.. 
fornia Infantry. In )Iay, 186
, Colonel Connor was ordered 
with his regÏ1nent to Utah, ostensibly to guard the trails, to 
protect the Iuail and inuuigrant routes of the ,Yasatch and 
portions of the southwestern region, and keep an eye on 
the Indians. Early in October, 186
, the 'fhird California 
Infantry and a cOlnpany of the Second California Cavalry, 
under the COl1lllland of Colonel Connor, entered the \T aHey of 

alt Lake. 
Tlw colonel established his headquarters OIl a ben('h of 
land east of Salt Lake City. 1-1e1'e his. Inen broke ground 
for a presidio, or military fort, and on October 24 he named 
his post Cmnp Douglas, IIis soldiers were yet engaged in 
the construction of tenlporary winter quarters when a mes- 
senger caIne to the canlp, reporting that the Snakes and Ban- 
nocks were holding up the trails and slaughtering ÎJnnli- 
grants along the ,Talley of Bear River. Connor went after 
theIn, and on January 29, 1863, he almost annihilated the 
Snake tribe and put an end for aH tÌlne to r ndian d
in the ,Yasatch and Salt. Lake regions. 
I arch 30, 1863, he was proilloted Brigadi
of Volunteers, and his cOlnllland hOllorably Inentioned for 



their part in extinguishing the rising of the Sho
Early in '65 the Indians of the region, including the pres- 
ent states of :K pV:Hla, Colorado, Utah and parts of Dakota 
and New :ßlexico, showed signs of serious discontent. Gen- 
eral Connor's lllÍlitary jurisdiction was enlarged to include 
the territory of these states. Soon after his appoilltUll'llt 
as "::\Iilitary UOlll1uander of the Diðtrict of the Plain
," the 
rapahoes alIlbushed the Uverland :ßlail Route, killing the 
drivers, destroying the coaches and running off the horses. 
..A.t about the 
5alne tillW roving bauds of Sioux were attack- 
ing the Ì1nn1Ígral1t trains and 
laughtering ,\Y0111en and chil- 
General Connor, at the head of two thousand cavalry, 
rode into the enemy's country, attacked the .Arapahoe
the Tongue Ri'Ter, and inflicted a melnorable defeat upon 
thenl. 1 n this ellgagelllent the Indians lost sixty-three of 
their braves, their viII age was burned, 111any of their WOll1en 
and children 11lac1e prisoners, and six hundred of their horses 
rounded up and driven in. 
Connor returned '\yith his D10unts to Fort Laran1Íe, where, 
in obedience to orders frOJll the war office, he :-.ent tlw vol- 
unteer troops under his conllllfind-about six. thou:-;and-lmck 
to their separate states, to be 111ustered out of 

oon after his. return to Fort Douglas he was breveted, 

farch 13th, -:\Iajor-General of \
 olunteers, for gallant and 
lueri torious seryice. 
On April 30, 1866, General Connor "yas Jnustered out 
of service, declining the tender, on the part of the Presi- 
dent, of a colonelcy in the regular arnlY. 
Un his retirelnent fronl actiye 11lilitary duty the General 
at once entere(l enthusiastically into the political and indns- 
trial life of lTtah. Hp launched the" Daily t
nion Vidette," a 
newspa-per, in .which he adyocated tllt' basic principle
 of a 
united patriotisTIl for the state, and in whirh he endeavored 
to show the utter futility of propagating, with the hope of 



eventually establishing', the theory of a theocratic govern- 
lnent in a free country. 
To counteract the teachings of the ""'idette," and edu- 
cate the public to an appreciation of individual rights, the 
"Daily Telegraph" was founded. 
Connor now entered the luineral region, and located the 
Jordan mine in Bingham Canyon, said to be the first mine 
opened in the State of Utah. lIe SUll11110nec1 and presided 
over the first llleeting of luiners in SaIt Lake City, and sub- 
mitted for the approval and adoption of those present a :-;eries 
of mining rules which were afterwards consolidated into a 
la"W. lIe located the site for the present town of Stockton, 
erected the first silver-lead sluelting works in our State, and 
threw eighty thousand dollars of his money into luining and 
other enterprises calculated to deyelop the resources of Salt 
Lake territory. His restless energy "Was not satisfied with 
the exploitation of the resources of the 1110untains. lIe be- 
lieved that if the people li\Ting on the shores of t]w Great 
Salt Lake could be brought into clo
er touch and nlure in- 
tÍlnate association, it "Would add nluch to their social happi- 
ness and industrial prosperity. To achieve his expertations, 
he built the stealner "I(ate Connor" and the sloop "Pio- 
neer," the first craft of the kind which ever opened the salt 
aters of the lake. 
In the autumn of IH70, ('OlulitiOlts ('alled for the pre::,ence 
of a strong Ulan at the head of n1Íiitary affairs in thp state, 
and the central goverIlluent, knowing their man, ronHllis- 
sioned and appointed General Connor" )'Iajol' Gener
ll <'01n- 
lllanding the Utah Territory," elnbracing Tìtah, Id3ho and 
Colorado. The crisis haying passed, be again retirf'd to pri- 
vate life, took an a('tiye part in social and industrial life 
around hill1, and retained to the last the good will and re- 
spect of aU classes of the state and city. 
On the evening of Decernber 17, 1801, his physicians 
pronounced the General to be seriously ill. He at once sent 
to the Bishop's residence a confidential friend with a 
n1Cssag-e for Father l{:iely, the '-'Ïcar-Oeneral of tlw diocese. 



The 'Ticar-Gelleral in1mediately hastened to the bedside of 
the dying general, heard his confession and a(hninistered 
to him the last saCl'êunents of the CatholiC' Church. Un the 
19th the brave soldier and honorable man expired, and two 
days afterwards was buried with nÜlitary honors and the 
rites of his Church. Hf' died as he had Jived, a Christian, 
with the resignation of a devout nlan, the fortitude of a hero. 

\nd to add greater hOllors to his age 
Thall Ulall could giye him, he died fearing God:' 

An imposing mortuary' shaft rises over his grave in the 
lonely military cemetery at Fort Douglas, The fort was 
 creation. He saw it expand fron1 a collection of rough log 
shacks to the imposing group of buildings which impart dig- 
nity to the conunanding plateau, and it is fit and proper that 
within sound of its cannon and within the shadow of its build- 
ings, he should sleep his last sleep. 


.....t\bout a year after General Connor had established his 
headquarterR at Fort Douglas, and the place was beginning 
to take on the appearance of a garrison, a gentlenlan on 
horseback rode into the po
t and asked to see the comllland- 
ing officer. 
"General," he relllarked, after he was introduced to aud 
shook hands with the cOlllluanJing officer, "I alll a Catholic 
priest, the Rev. J. B. RaverdJ, from Denver, Colorado; nlay 
I trouble you to examine my credentials 
" After carefully 
reading tlw lptter handed to him by the priest, the General 
greeted hÍIn most cordially and invited him to be his guest 
"'WhDe he relnained in the neighborhood. Father Raverdy 
lingered sonle weeks searching for a needle in a haystaek, 
that is, for a Catholic in Salt Lake City, in those early days. 
There were a few Catholics among the soldiers at the 
Fort, whose confessions lIE' heard and in "'Whose presence he 
daily offered up the Holy Sacrifice. On the Illorning of :JIay 
11, 1864, at the request of General Connor, he blessed the 
nÜlitary cemetery, where reposed the dead, killpd in the 
Bear River engagement. 
Father Raverdy was the first priest of whom there is any 
record, that entered Salt Lakp V. al1ey since 18-1-1, when 
Father De Smet passed through on his way to the Yellow- 
The Rev. John Baptist Raverdy was horn in the city of 
Rheims, France, in June, 1831. .....\.t an early age he volun- 
teered for the missions, and came to Santa Fé in 1859, 
where he was ordained a priest by Bishop Lamy in the au- 
tumn of that year. 
Soon after his ordination he entered the Rocky :JIoun- 
tain region with Father 
Ia('heheuf, afterwards Bishop of 
Denver, and late in the evening arrived, Oct. 29, 1860, with 




his conlpanion, at Deuyer, then a collection of shacks, tents 
and rainbling fraine buildings. 
Fron1 Ðeuyer the zealous priest lnade excursions into Col- 
orado, Idaho and Utah, in quest of scattered llleillbers of his 
Church. lIe lived as best he could, slept in the open under a 
buffalo robe, and cOlnpanioned with prosppctor;;:, miners and 
adyenturers. His life "Tas as disinterestedly n1Ïssionary as 
was that of 
t. Francis Xavier. 
Father Haverdy died in .Denyer, on the 18th of X O,Telll- 
her, 188
}, and his 111enlory still lives in the grateful recollec- 
tion of Inany of the older inhabitant::; of Colorado, and the 
citizens of Den Yer. 


In June, 1866, the Hey. Edward I(elly, at the request ùf 
Bishop 0 'Collnel1, of Saf'rainento, f'alne to Sal1 Lake, round- 
ed up the few Catholics in tlu:. f'it
T, and taking up a sub- 
scription, purchased the piece of ground on which the lately 
abandoned cathedral was built. Soon after the pluf'hase it 
 discovered that there was a blen1Ïsh on the title to the 
lot. To ayoíd litigation, the seller and buyer agreed to sub- 
mit the lllatter in dispute to the 
Iornlon Pre<sident, Brighmn 
Young:, and stand by his arbitration. 
The President, after exanlining tllP deed and listening 
patiently to the evidence, decider} that Father I(elly was 
right, and ordered that the titlf' f;hould bf' quieted, al1 claiuls 
against the ground settled by tllt' seller, and tllt> deed handed 
over to the priest. 
Father }(elly said his first puhlic :\Iass in Salt Lake in 
the old 
-\sselnbly Hall of the Latter Da
aints, courteously 
placed at his disposal by the Presiùent and l
 of the 
church. .AJter achninistering to the spiritual de111ands of the 
handful of Catholics then in the city, Father :Kelly returned 
to Saf'ralnel1to. 
,\Yhel1 exmnilling the diol'e:-\Hn arch!\'es we (,HIlll' H('l'OSS the 
name of Father )[esplie, an arIny chaplain, "Who said )[ass 
for the Catholic 
oldiers of Fort Donglas on necelllber b, 



] 870, ,,-hen on his way to San Franci
co. George R.auscher, 
an early pioneer, now in hi
 eightieth year, 
erYecl the chap- 
lain's 11ass, and was married the 
ame 1110rning by the ofJi- 
ciating priest. 
On Februar
T 3th. 18G8. Colurado and l
tah werp erected 
by Papal brief into a 'Vicariate ApostoJic, and the 'Türy Bey. 
eph P. 
Iachel)flnf was, on August lGth, consecraterl Bish- 
O}J in St. Peter'
 CathedraL Cincinnati, b
T _\rchLishop Pur- 
cell, to adn1Ïnister the new yicariate. Bi
hop )laehebf\uf es- 
tablished his see in DelHTer, and aln10st iInmediately after his 
return appointed tllP Bey. .J anH:\S P. Foley pastor of SaJt 
Lake and the regional territory. Father Foley was hospita- 
bly \\'e]C'omed by hi::, {"1atholic parishioners who, though few 
in nlullber. were soC'iaHy prOlninent and influential. 
On Xoyen1ber 30, 18G8. Bishup 
lachebeuf, in his official 
capa(.ity, yisited Salt Lake, where he was the guest of Gen- 
eral Connor during the week he re})1aÜJed in the city. The 
Bishop yisited the three Catholic fmnilies then residing in 
Salt Lake and. a
:--eU1ùling then1 in the llOJ1le of Judge 
shall, prepared then1 for the sacraments; and, on three occa- 
sion:,. uffered up the IIol
' Haerifice in a 1'00111 set aside as a 
telnporary chapel. .At the Fort he gathered around hiDl pyery 
eyening the Catholic soldierç;, pre})ared sOJne of thenl for 
cOllfil'lllation and on the following Sunda
- adnlÌnlstered the 
SaCnll11ent of COnfirIllation to fourteen. ()n the 8th of De- 
eenllwl', Feast of the IUlluaculate Conception, he eelebl'ated 
two nwrriages and haptized three p}Ü]dren of .J ohn Sloan. 
On Decen1ber 10th, Bishop 
Iaehebeuf left for Fort Bridgpr 
on lu::, way to Deuyer, his episcopal city. 
On the lot purcha
ed by Father I
elly -was a dilapidated 
adobe structure. This Inllnble ruin Father 1!'oley repaired, 
pnd on Nunday
 and holydays offered within its 1111ld walls 
the Holy SaC'rifiC'e, and taught to his dP\Tout little flopk the 
duetrines of ..\. postol ic Christianity. It nwy interest our 
readers to read o\-er the roll tall of honor of those -who as- 



sisted at Father Foley's 
lass, the first 8unday possession 
"'Was takpll of thp adohe chapel. Those pre
eut wcre Judge 
Barron, )1r
. GO\Ternor \T aughan, )1rs. T, )1arsha]l, .T. .T. and 
T. B. Ù'Reilly, J. L. Burns, :ßlrs. 8iInpkins and fan1Ïly, and 
C. L. Dallier. 
Pather ]'oley cUlltinuf'd his laburs in obscurity 
nd pov- 
erty till the auhunn of 1870, "'When the IIoly See, at the ur- 
gent solicitation of Bishop )[achebeuf, ""Tho, in It'()R, yi
Salt Lake in his offi('ial character, placed Ftah nnder the 
jurisdiction of .A.Tchbishop }delnany, of ::-;an :E'raucisco. 
Father Foley nO\\T returned to his o",,'n dioce
e, Denyer, and 
"'Was appointed by 
\rchbishop Alen1any, pastur of Nalt Lake. 
He entered upon his pastoral duticR early in lHïJ. and at 
once began interviewing his parishioners touching the pros- 
pects of ereeting a ('hur(.h. I-Es en('uluageulent "'Was :->llffieient 
to induce him to fralne a subscription list, .which he headed 
"'With an hlunble donation frOll1 his own lin1Ïted lllean
A.s a result of hi
 own untiring efforts and the generous 
support he received from the citizens of 
aIt Lake, irre:,pec- 
tive of creed, the chueh of 81. 1Iary ::\lagdaleup. OIl Third 
East, was erected, and ou 
 oyelnlwr G, 1871, was cull:-;e- 
crated by Archbishop Alen1any, who n1ade the trying- journey 
frOlll San Francisco expressly for the consee1'ation. In the 
intrududion to his serInon on the occasion, the ....--\.Tl'hhi
congratula ted those present on the imposing appearance of 
their ec('lf'siastical hOlllf', and exp1'es
ed hi
 appreciation of 
the genero
ity of the friendl
T peuple whu IUHl l'olltributed 
to n13ke the church a pos
ibility_ Thi
 .wa;:; the first Cath- 
olic ('hur('h ('on
e(,l'at('d in 1 Hall, and around it are grouppd 
many pathetic scenes and cunsulitary incidents in thl' early 
cOlllIDunal life of the (jatholic
a1t Lake

 of whom 
have, since its opening, entered the life heyond tlw gTaye. 
Early in 1872, :b'ather Bouchard, a J e:-;uit priest, 
by invitation of the pastor, and cunducted a retreat, popu- 
Itll'ly known as a Inission, for the Catholics of the cit
T. These 



popular nÜs:-,ion
 have thpir origin far back in the hi-.;tol'Y 
of the (ihurch, and eXpel'iellCP and re:-;ults han-' provl'<l tlWlll 
to he of inl'all'ulahlt' valne to a l'UlJlnlullity and to in<Ü\Tidnal 
HHIls. During tllP day:, of tlw nlÎs:-;ion tlw llleIllber:-: of tIll" 
l'ongregatioll a:-:
elllhle in a b(}d

 in the elllll'('h at staterl 
hours, awl. aftpl' wor:-:hipil1g Uod. an:> addn':-::-:f>d h

 the lui:-:- 
sion })rie:-:t on a particular subjeet ìwaring: npon thp dut
r in- 
<liyi(lual lUan O"wes to (;od, to his neighhor, to hilll:-:elf. Ner- 
l11on:-: an.. delivered on tlw gravity \)f JllOrtal :--in. on the foul' 

Teat truth:-:,-death, jrHlglllcllt, heavPI1 and hell. In fa('t, 
a mis:-;ion is a spiritual awakening, a tÍ1up WhE'1l the Inullan 
soul is asked to conlnlune with it:-:elf, to puter upon all pxaUl- 
ination of its h
alth, and a:--k itself the (llw:-:tion: "' lIow fares 
it with UIP, and ,,
hat will he lll

 judglllent when lll
- f'ye:-: are 
clo:--ed in death?" 

\s thi:-; was tlw first llli
:-:iun given in Salt Lake, the 
dlur('h 'was al,,
ays {'rowded at the spiritual exer('ise
l iatholies and llOIl-( 
, drawn to thp C'hurch h
- devotion 
or ('uriusity. 
Father \Yal:-:h reulaillpd a
tor of 
t. :3.[al'
's until 
.Tuly, j
,3, when hp was reeallf'd h
- his J..rchbi
hop and Pl'Ç)- 
lllotpd to another ('barge in California. wIler!' he died 1 )E'epnl- 
:-3, 1 

-!. nuring" hi
 pastorship uf tllP parish Ill-' effected 
lllUf'h goorl, and, 1dlell he rctired, he carried "With hilll into 
his new fif'lfl of lahor the loye of hi:-: parishioners and the re- 
spef't and e
teelll of those whu wen-' not uf his fluek. ,rhcn 
taking farewell of his people he e"\::pre
secl hi:-: deep regret 
that, not1\'ithstanding his efforts, there yet ren1aiuf'd on the 
ehurch a debt of $(),f)()(), whic.It, he feareù, would greatl

lwarten his 
lH'f'PSSOr, o\ring to tlw llulueriC'al "-ealnH'
:-: of 
the ('ongrega tion. 
\.1enlany sought in his diucese for [I 

sor to Father 'ral
h, he was confronted with a serion
prohleul. Salt Lak(' was e11la rging its ei,'ic hOluHlarif-'s, luin- 
ing- canlps "Were in('reasing in the InoluItains, and the rp- 
sources of the state" ,,-ere being exploited. To lUel't the exi- 



gencies of the tÏ111e and region, and visit the distant nlÎning 
towns, denlanded a priest physically strong, dowered with 
prudence, and fortified with exceptional strength of soul and 
nlÎnd. The Archbishop had canonically the power to order 
any of his priests to this distant and rugged region, but his 
tender and kindly heart "".as opposed to the exerci
e of his 
authority when' the cOlllluand involved great pri\'ation. 
luuch self-denial and unavoidable sufTering. 
There was then at Petalunla, Olle of the prOlnising townR 
of his diocese, a stalwart young priest, who had C0111P to hinl 
fronl Ireland a few year
 before, and whOIn, in recugnition 
of his valuable 8ervices as assistant priest in San Francisco, 
the _-\.rchbishop had prOll1oted to the pastorate of Petaltu11:l. 
IIis Grace sent for hiDl. outlined the hanbhip
 of the va- 
cant parish of Salt Lake, the debt upon the church a1Íd the 
difficulties to be encolmtered in reaching the l'êlllote lnining 
caJnps in the ll1ountaill
. .L\i once the young }>l'ie:-\t yielded 
to the entl'paties of the .L\rchbishop, returned to Petahuua 
and settled his affairs, hade "good bye" to his people, and, 
on August 14, 1873, Rev. Lawrenc0 Scanlan, now ßishop of 
Salt Lake and "Gtah, putel'ed Salt Lake in tlw prinle of hi
young nlanhood, and ahnost in the early 1110rning of his 
priestly ordination. On that eventful and auspicious e\Ten- 
iug, when concluding his devotions, he n1Ïght have 
aid ,,,,ith 
-the aged patriarch: "Hie reqaiseam, f[llOniam elegi eam- 
here will I relllain, since I 111yse]f have chosen it." 





,=-' .....;


el/"<K ",.



. :
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All Hallolcs College, 
alt Lake City, is one of the high- 
class educational p
tahlishnwnts for ,
d1Ïch {",tah and the In- 
tprmountaill states an:. winning distindion. This achllirable 
seat of learning was handed oyer by it
 founder, Bishop 
Scanlan, in 1889, to the 
Iarist Fathers. 
Xow who are the 
, as tlwy are fmlliliarly known, 
and how, and wlwn did they eOllle into existence! 
The f'ociety of 
Iary wa
 founded in the beginning of the 
nineteenth centnr
' by a Frendl prie
t of the diocese of Ly- 
ons (France), llalned .Jean Claude 
Iarif' Colin. The idea of 
a religious society dedicated to the nle

ed Virgin had orig- 
inatf'd with a group of se1nillarians at 
t. Irénée, near Ly- 
ons. ..:-\.1though the 1nost retiring and 11l0dest of the group, 
Father Colin hecanle tht, real founder. ,Yhile serying as as- 
sistant pastor in the town of Cerdon, he drew np proyisional 
rules, which Inet the hearty approyal of sf'Yf'ral bishops and 
of l\Igr. Frayssinous, then 
IinisteT of Eeelesiastif'al ..AJtairs 
in France. The town of Cerdon haying pa

ed to the newly 
rf'organized diocesf' of BelIe

, Father Colin ohtaint'(l froIll 
its BbllOp, 
Igr. Deyie. permission to take a fe\y f'o}npanions 
and preach mi
sions in the neglected parts of the diocese. 
The little cOlll1uunity soon increased in nUluber, and though 
the Bishop would have preferred to }:ef' it re1nain a siulple 
diocesan congregation, l
ather Colin obtained. in 1836, fronl 
T XYI the f'anonif'al approhation of tllf\ SOf'if'ty of 

rary. as an order with siInple yows. In the 
anle Yf'ar 
Father Colin was chosen Superior-General. 
Besirlf's the Fathers. tlIp Societ
r of 
Iary. in Father Co- 
lin's 111ind, f'Olnprisf'(l se\Teral other brm1f'hes: The Brother 
coadjutors, the teaf'hing- Brothers, the Sisters. thf' Contenl- 
p]atiye Branch and the Third Ordf'r of 
Iary. All tllP
hranches are nO\\T in existence. The Brother coadjut.ors 



were the first to be organized, and the\' lU.lye eyer ",uwe 
heIIJed the Fathers in their HÜnish'

. f1athf'r Colin alf.:o 
founùed the Thinl Order of 
I a ry for persons wishing to liye 
a n.ligious life in the world, and the ()rder i
 no\y flourish- 
ing in n10::;t 111Ï
:;ions and parishes entru
ted to the ::\la rist 
Fa ther
\gain the hraneh of tll(' ,Jlarist 8i stcr::; "a
direet re-.;ult of 
1ather Colin '::; efforts; they fonn now an 
order independent in achllini
tration frOlll that of tliP 
Fathers, but the sall1e spirit aninwte:; their rule::; and their 
; they haye now eollege:-: and acaden1Ïe:-- in 
Franee, England and (keanica. The two other hran('hes of 
of'ietr of .ßIary are also independent of the 
ral'ist Fath- 
en;; that of the Brothers, "Tho are eaUed "The Little ßroth- 
 of ::\[ary," wa::; founded by Father (
halnpag11at, one of 
the first 
Iarist::;, and is now the 11lost llUniPrOUS of the 
t organizations, haying rapidly spread ahnost oyer C\Tery 
part of the \Vol'lel. 
-'inal1y tllt- I cunteulplatiye branch, ]argel

<1R planned b
T Father Colin, was organized, though long after 
the latter's death, h
T Pather E
'llU1rd, likewise a 
t, aurl 
 HOW known as "'rlw Fathers of the ßle
;"\f'd Baf'nUllent." 
But we are cùncerned here only with thf' 
ral'iRt Father::; 
--the first f'reation of Father Colin. The nmne they bear- 

Iarist Fathers. Soeiety of 

 te1ls under 
whost-> patronagp and in whose spirit they deyote thelllSplye:-;, 
both to their own sanl'tifi('atioll and to that of their neigh- 
hor, partif'ularl
' of the poor and of those n1()
t de
tihtte of 
n'l igious f'Olllforts. 

\ftt'r the approbation of the order in 1 
:1(). It 
prl'a(l rap- 
idly, fir
t in France, where numerous nli

ionary houðes and 
 were fouuded 
 then in (tceanica, whiC'h ha(l heen C'n- 
truste(l to the HoriC'ty lJ

 Greg'olT XVr. and wh(,l'e. during 
Father C()1Ïll'R adulinistl'atiou (lH3()-1R5-l-). oycr a hUll- 
rarists Wl
ent, :-.e\Tcral of whOln gaye up their 
life iu the attelllpt to rouyert the natiyl'
; lat('r in i'
Irelanel, and the 1 T llited Ntates. 

T. iu l
rathia:-: Loras, Bishop of 1)u- 
hWllle (Iowa), had asked Father Colin to send hÜn ð0111C 



 for hi
e. But on account of the slllall nurn- 
bpr of 
uh.ieets at the tl1He the rel1l1est could not he granted. 
In 11"()
lgr. .1. )L ()din. fin;t Bishop of Texas. and who 
had been late]
T tnnu;fel'red to the an'hieplo..;(>opal see of Xew 
()l'leall;-;. (.H1dre
sed a 
ill1Ïlal' reljuf'st to Father Fa\Te, who 
ue('ee<1ed Pat1wr Colin as Huperior-G-euC'l'al of the Hoci- 
ety of Jlary, and reque:-,ted so urgentl
T that sonle n1elnlJer:-i 
of the order were sent to Louisiana. 
The parish of Rt. Jliehnel, about fift
T nlÎ]es north of Xl'w 
Orleans, on the 
sissiplJi Riyer, wa<.:; the first 1Iarist huu;-;(' 
in America. uthers were to follow a few years nfter. .J e1'- 
fen-on College, and the parish of the Hol
T Xaule of Jrar
1.oth in Louisiana. were 
oon ahw confided to thel r charge. 
Later other foundation
 followed. Pari;.:he
 were ac- 
cepted in Jlassachu
etts, JI aine, California, Jfinnesota. ..---\,11- 
other eollege was founded in \..- an Buren (
Iaine), and in 
S9, the SOf'iety of JIar
T assulued control of ...:111 Hallo,,'s 
College in Ralt Lake City. 


\ll IIallow:-i Colle
'e \\'tlS founded lJy Right He\T. Bishop 
Heall]an in U-ísJ. The growing nUluber of Catholics in C'"tah 
and the ueighhoring states lnade it iInperatiye to huilc1 a 

chool where Catholie pal'Pllts eould pl'oeure for their chil- 
dren the ë:l(hTantage of a good Christian eduL'ation. ...\t the 
time not onl
T were then:. llO L 1 atltolic schools for 
{lYeral hun- 
dred luilf's around, hut the puhlie school
 tlwlllseh'es were 
sc>arce in this 
parsely inhahited 
e<'Ìion. The westerners 
Jiving' Oll ralwhes or in nlÍlliug' CaInp:-- enjo
Ted "!.10 edueationn.l 
facilities, and the foundation of a Catholic collf'ge in Salt 
Lake llwrked a hold hut decisiye 
tP}J in the histury of the 
atholi(> (1hllr(>h in t1l(:. \Y pst. 

\H IIallo\\s Col1eg-e was the third Catl101ic institution in 
the ('it
. of 
alt Lakf' fOllJHI('L1 h
T Bishop, or rather, Father 
St'alllau, ,,,Ito wa -; then luissiolla r
' reetol', the f'ity of Halt 
Lake, being a lJèlrt of the ...\rehdiucese uf Han f-'rallciseo. St. 
?\Iary's ...l('adeln
' and the Hospital of the IToly Cro
s were 



fouuùed in 1876. In fact, the ground OIl ,yhich ...:\.11 Jlallows 
now stands was acquired in 1881, for the purpose of erecting 
there the Holy Cro
s Huspital, which had been until then lo- 
cated teluporarily in a rented hou
e un Fifth East, between 
South Teluple and ]1"irst South 
treets; but before work on 
the building was begull. Father Sl'anlan resolyed to buy a 
larger tract of land for the hospital on Ele\Tenth East, and to 
set apart the slualler 1)ut lllore central lot for educational 
purposes. Four years later, in Ibð3, plans of the huilding 
whieh fOrIllS the east wing of the present structure, were 
Hlade by I-Ienry l\IonheÌln. Ground wa
 hroken and the work 
of construction hegun. In Septeulber of the follo,,
ing year, 
classes were organized. Rev. P. ]
lake, who \ras then pastor 
of Park City, Utah. and is now pastur of St. Helena, Ca1., 
electec1 as president of the new institution. Tlw first 
year it was opf'ned 115 pupils werf' pnrolle<l Of tlwse 49 
were boardf'rs and GG day pnpih5. 1:'11<.' fol1<nying year. 1887, 
the school tern1 1)egan "With 70 boarder
 and 83 day pupils. 
Soon after the opening of .AJI I-Iallows College, in Rep- 
tenlber, 188G, v--'
ltheL. Sl'anlall recclyetl news of his :1ppoiut- 
nlent as Bishop of Salt Lake. ____-\fter his l"ollsecration in San 
Francisco, Oil June 
9, 1R8ï, he returuC'd to Ralt Lake and 
lllacle All flallows College his epi
copal residence; he re- 
lllained there until August. 1889, taking an actiye part in 
the adl1lÎni 
tration of HIP l'oUege. But to fulfill the oftil'P of 
Bishop of such a large diocese and at the smlle tiIllf' to <111'e<-,t 
T a I-;trugglillg young institution, wal-; soon found 
next to ÏIllpossible. Reside!' the priests of the diocese ,,-ere 
few, and ('ould only "Tith the gl'eate
t sil('rifil'e to paro('hial 
and missiunary work he spared for the teaching fncult
T of 
All Hallows. Hence, in l
I, Bishop 
canlan entered into 
negotiations ,dth a religious order thf'll lit tle known in the 
'Yest-the Society of )lary. Father Leterier. Provincial of 
the order in the United State!', l'anw to 
alt Lake to ('onfer 
with the Bishop, and fina1Jy al'l'eptecl the (lirpction of 
Hallows College. 
The college had then three yC'urs of existence. 
'he Rcys. 



Fathers Fox, Uuinan and De]ahaye, were selected by the 
superiors of the 
iety of 
Iary to take dWl'ge of the "Work, 
with Father Fox a
rhe renlainder of the faculty 
"Was lllade up of lay teaeher
 awaited the neWl'OlllerS, 
and the beginning "
couragillg enough. Father Fox, on 
account of in health, had to leaye the conege for a change 
of air, and went to California; the ahSelll'e was intended to 
be only telllpOrary, bu1 his condition did not allo"W hÍln to 
return to BaIt Lake. Father Fore
tiel'. "ho had replaced 
Father Leterier as Proyincial of the Rociety of 
Iary in the 
U. S., assulned the eharge of president for a few 1l10llths. 1
add to the misfortune", of the struggling in
titution, an epi- 
delllÍc of diphtheria hroke out alllOng the boys, and out of 
the thirty or thirty-fi\Te hoarders, eight or ten "Were confined 
to Holy Cro
s Jlo
pital, sick with the dangeroll,:) disease. 
In tlw beginning of 1
9n Fathpr .J. B. Chataignier wa
appointed Superior to relieye }--'ather Forestier of a charge 
which it "Wa:-, ill1l'o

ihle for hilll to carryon at the f'aUle 
tÍlne as that of Pnn T inr'ia1. But again the pro
rather dark during his a(hninistration. Father Ch
was an old lllis
iunarr. a lllan of aJyanced years and of great 
experience. But the life of college Presi(lent "Wa
 not con- 
genial to hÍlu, and he welcOluec1 the news of the appointnlcnt 
of Father IIenry as his succe
sor. This was in 1891. 
Father IIC'nr
T had been Bupel'ior of .Jefferson CoHege, 
Lonisiana, and was a BlaB in every wa

 fitted for tl1(\ difH- 
cult "Work \\'hieh awaited hin1 in Salt Ln ke. IIé had great 
talent for organization, and wa:-i an exeeHent disciplinarian. 
During tlw three Yf'ars that he relnailled in charge order 
and discip1ìne prevailed. and those' three yenrs lnark the be- 
ginning of a neW" era for AH Hallo\\'s Conege. But he was 
in poor health. and again a l'hange lwcaUle llecp
ç;nry. He 
had to return to Louisiana, ,,
herf' his health continued to 
fail, and he died soon after his return. 
In 1894: Father Thos. .J. Larkin took charge of the col- 
lege. and during six years he was untiring in hi
 efforts to 
promote its suc
es-;. Thanks to hi
tness and 



.L\iJ 1:[a1ltn'-6 ht'(Òé111le BlUrt:> pro
perous than eyer. 1[(, was ef- 
ecollded in his lahor by Father U. 
Iadt'r, t1wn \riee- 
President, Prefect of Di
cip1inp and }In
ieal Direetol', and 
to hinl also the coHege owes a large deht of gratitu(le. 
 oYE'luher, 18
)'ï, the \T ery Hey. .f. C. Haftin, lltnr Rupe- 
rior-General of the Society of 1Iary, but then t;lJecial \TÜ;Ït- 
or of the 
bu'ist houses in the 1
nited States, was the guest 
of Father Larkin. IIp expl'e
:-;ed hinu'
elf again antÌ, again as 
delighted with the ex('ellent 'Work already done br the ('01- 
lpgf', the good discipline and the excellent spirit that reigned 
in the in
 ti tution. 
During the scholastic year lS!JS-lSm), an Ï1nportant step 
wa:-; takf'll in the history of 
-\n I-Iallows Col1eg-e. 
rhe build- 
ing on Ref'on<l Routh wa
 110W inadequate to nlPet the de- 
11U1!ld:-;. .L-\ Slllall house on Fourth East was renh'd, and an- 
other on t;eeoud South was hought, to Lt' used as profes
quarters; hut this wa
 only a teln})Orary solution of the 
prohleu1, aud it was eyirleut that it woul(l soon hec01ne neces- 
sary either to enlarge the old college or to build on 8011W 
other site. The latter plan 'Wa
 thought hettel', and a forty- 
acre tra('t of land "a
 purf'l1ased on the hen('h ju
t east of 
Liberty Park. Thf' site is prohahl
T the finest around the 
T of 
alt Lake for the location of a boar(ling school. 
The pl'opo
ition waR l'ef'ei\'ed with the gl'f>at(\
t fayor hy 
the friellcl:-; of the coJIege, and with enthusiaSlll h

 the hoys 
and ahUlll1i. 110re than twent

 student:-; ::5uh:.;erilwd frOlìl 
$300 <10\\'11 to $100, and agreed that eyery cent of jt would 
\)p pn id fl'Olll thei l' 0wn en l'ning
 nftf'r leaying- college. TIH

 thus subscrihed was to fonn an endowlllent hUHl for 
a '"nreater .L-\lllIallows." 

-\s it was, the '"Greater 1\11 IIallows" on the' hill whi('h 
o"er]oo1\s tIw f'ity ê111<1 the "alley pf Salt Lake, neyer beeallW 
an :'lcf'0111plifo-lH:
d fact, hut thi:-. inciùent ilhistrate:- the influ- 
Pllee of }1'atlwr Larkin oyer the boys. 
In ID()
 ]1-'athel' Larkin was appointed rettol' of the 
Chul'('h of H1e lIoly NalHe of )Iary, at ,.A]g'iers, Loui1Siana, 
ê11l(1 Father J. .J. Gllinan, tht'll Viee-Hupl'rior of the 1fa rist 



Collegf', _Atlanta, ])pcame Pl'P:-,ident of ....\11 IIHllow
}1""ather Guinan wa
T no llwans uuknown in 
alt Lake. lIe 
was one of the three )[ari
t Fatlwr
 who C'anle in ] 
), wlwll 
tliP eullegp wa:-; confided hy Bi:-;hop RCHlllan tu the ('are of 
ociety of )Iary, and he had remained there fur eig-ht 
years as profe

piritnal director. a11(l later YïC'e-Presi- 
dent. lIe was welcOlued baek hy hi
 nU1nerons friewh-; anà 
hailf'd a:-: the real founder of "' {-; reat('r 
\JI 1 [allow:-;." Ilow- 
eyer, an Î1npol'tant changl Wêl:-, lu<.ulf' in Father Larkin '::; 
IJlan:-;. Tlw llped of a larger L'ollege "'a
 nlOl'e iUlpenltiYe 
than en
'L': dUl'iug the seholastie Yt'al' 1
)()1-]90:.!, the nmuhel' 
tu(lents was larger than e"er hefore, the roll 
ÏOl' that 
-eal' ] 
J hoa rders, })l\si<1e
 the (la
. hoys. The cla:-;s- 
1'OOlnS, the åunnitorit';-;, thp dining-rooms. the ehapeì were all 
too sInal1. 
\fter Inature eOllsideration of tlll' prus and 
, it wa
 dp('i<1ed to huild, not a new co]]c,ge on tlw prop- 
. aC(lllÌred by Father Larkin. hut a !argè addition to 
the old structure. For this it Wê16 npee

i:) r
T to 1)l1
- til'
t a 
traC't of land adjoining" the eollf'ge ground
. Thpll, under 
Father Guinan':-; direetion, a large atHl hmHh.'Olne huilding' 
and a new elUll)pl were ereeted at the co::,t of nearl
onu. The new huildilw; contain:-; :-;ixty rUOlll
. he:-,idp-.; a fine- 
ly equipped gyulnasiuIll. 
The dedic'a tiun of the lIe'" wing aud uf the C'oIJege ('ha pel 
took plal'P OIl Hun(lay, 
evtcll1 bel' Gth, in the pn_'
P!lC'e of an 
ltllllu'n:-:e cro" d. The Hight He,'. Bi
hop Rl'alllau, a

by the college faeult
- and a IlUIllhE'r or yi
iting }Jl'ie
, pL'e- 
si,1E'(1 on the oc('a
ion. At the du
e t!w Big-ht He,'. gishop, 
in a few well-ehosen \\"o1"<b, ('OlupJilllented thf' 
 ou the 
gTeat work inaugurated. But it was indcE'd [I ('re(lit to the 
Bishop hÍIllse]f, ,,-lLú had fir:-;t laid his hand to the work aud 
founded _....-\11 J Iallow
re at a tilHe when no one drt-'ulIled 
of its futnre gTo,,-th nnd SllCCef-:S. 
The chapel erected lJehyeen the old aud UIE' llE'W Imilding 
is HUlnalle
(lne iu arehiteeture au(l quitE' dpyotioual in ib 
interior finish. TlH:
 altar is a work of art, also HOlnmwsqne 



in style, of white Carrara luarble, with onyx pillar
, having 
burnished gold trinllning
, while there is a lofty canopy of 
luarble and burnished éopper that set
 off the whole to ad- 
yalltage. Fourteen windows of 
tained gla
s. of tllt=- 
lllOst beautiful coloring, add yen: lllueh to the charnl and the 
devotional character of the elw pel. 
The college offers classical, scientific and conlluercial 
courses, in addition to preparatory cour:
es for young boys. 
Anlong the features of the college is an excellent muselun 
containing carefully classified collections. Owing to the 
kindness of friends of the col1ege, this nlu
eUln is being rap- 
idly added to, and wiU COlnpare favorahly with nluseums 
found in institution
 of eastern cities. 
rrhe artistiè side of the school work is cultivated b

of excellent 11lusical and dramatic organizations. The Col- 
lege band and urchestra have always received high praise 
from. thuse who are fall1iliar with their work. 
In athletics All IIallows has .won a forenlo
t place a-mong 
the collegiate institute
tate universities of the west, 
and a
 the college has for years emphasized the Ílnportance 
of calisthenics and luilitary- training, it rig'hUy prides it
on its splendid cadet battalion. 
Under the able presidency of Very Rev. Dr. Guinan, sup- 
ported by an efficient staff of spef'ialists in their respeetiye 
depal'ÌIllents, .All ] [allows College is doing excellent work. 
The records existing 
ince the 
Iarist Fathers were in- 
vited by the Ul'dinar
T of the diocese to aSSlllne the lllanage- 
. ment and direct the de
tinies of ,...\Jl Hallows, indicate a 
growing appreciation on the part of the public of the prac- 
tical education giyen in its class r00111S. 
In the 
;;;('ho]astic year of 1894:-93 there wel"e entered on 
the College register 74: studentç;, and the attendance steadily 
increabed during Father Larkin's aehninistration, whil'h COll- 
tinued until 100
, when Dr. Guinan was elected to the Presi- 
dene'y. This year, l
), there are 

5 students on the 1'011, 
and if the list continue
 to swell, the faculty will be forced 
to again enlarge the college. 






Its Origin ({ud EYJ}{{I1Siou ill (Jur Republic. 
'Yhen W
 hegin to rE'"i
w thp :-;l'l
ndid woJ'l
 the Nisters 
of I-Iol
' (\'O
S llaye done and :ll'P doing' ill the Di(we
e of Salt 
LaIn'. \H' natural]

 wish to hp jllfonn
d on tIlE' origin of the 

. and partieularly of th
 fortituitous eOlllhinatioll of 
eireulllsÌèuwPs whi('h happil

pired to illtl"odue
ten..; of Holy ('ro
s to 
\lllPriea and in an ('sl)('('ial lllall])('r to 
The ('athoIie Chur('h is the proli fi(' mother of relig'ious 
orders and institutions pstahlished ('ontinuous1
- frunl the 
nlOrning of the third l'Plltnry down to oU]' own tinw:--. [IH- 
diatelr following the peaC'
 of the Church in the HOlllan 
Elllpirf'. the religion;", orders of Tlwhait10 ancl Pale'-'tille, of 
Lerins and ::\J al'lllUlÜipr wert' fouwlpd, and l'oll
d h
H'k the 

ea of 
\rian heres
- whjeh tItrea t
lH'd to SuhIHl'rg'p Elu'ope 
and A
ia. Fl'Olll that tinle until our own dar, religj()n
(leI's huyp fiourj
hcd in tht' ('hri:-;tiall repuhli(' of the illllWl'- 
 (ihnreh, and h
- their untiring PllPrgy awl heroiC' la- 
hors haY
 ei"iliz('(l and c'ollyprtecl to the faith of .fC'
lÞ (ihri
natiuns, trihC's and peoples. 

 of tltpsp rpligious organiz- 
ations "
erp estahlisht'll tu faee and deft'at a (hUlg'P]"ous 
emergeucy ",hi(.It thrputelletl the ('iYilizatioll of a parti('ular 
people, and dishand('d ,,
hen tllP ohjef't for whieh the order 
was fonnde(l had heen a('('Olnplislll'(l (Hlwl's 'n're org'êll1ized 
for the allpyia tioll of hWllan :-;nffeI'iug, like thl' ., S()('iet
. for 
the Hellelllptioll of Christian PrisonpI's" takpll in WHr hr the 
 and IH'ld in houda
(!. ,rhen mlYaJH'ing eiyilization in 

ia and ('()lJ(litiollS in the ()l'iput llUllle for an ex('hange of 
ollen; of war, the Soeipty for tlH' Hedelllptioll of Captivés 
But great 01'<1('1':-; founclf'cl for thp ('unypr:-;ion of :-;
and infidel races. for the edu('ation of the llla:-,se
, the higla.ìl" 



de\'elopnlent uf the intelled, for the a:-::-:uag-enlent of lnllnan 
surro-w and suffering, the care of the orphan. the agell and 
the hopeles
ly poor, re1nain as living aud adive organiza- 
tions; for t1u-' dPl11aIH1:-: of illiteraey, of pnYcrt
- awl lnnnan 

uffering are appealing" and will e\'f'r appeal to th(' eharity 
of the Christian heart. 
here was neyer, in tIll:' history of Christianity, any gJ'eat 
crisis threatening the stahilit
r of e
tablishcc1 onl<'1', thC're was 
nevcr a Rocial ('ondition so dcranged and 1101Jeless wHong a 
ei,Tilized people, that God did not inspire ..-01ne one man, like 

t. Bernard, 
t. FranciR, or a Peter the ITel'lllit. to appeal' 
nnd Ineet the crisif' or the condition. 
In the history of tl1(' -world, 
ince the X oaehie Deluge. we 
find no record of an
ocial or national eílÌê:H'IYS111 compara- 
ble to or paralleling the Freu('h Hevolntion of tIle IHth cen- 
tury. It was a racial llladness nne(lUa1ed in the hiç;t()r
- of 
our race, and Illay neyer again O('ClU' in the life of the raee. 
It -was a satanic uprising of the Freneh nation against God, 
follo-wed by an attaek on even-one and every iURtitntion that 
stood by or for God in the deIlloniac war on .Tesus Chri
'Yhen, h
- the providential apparition of one luan, the na- 
tional revolt against tlu' 
uprenw BC'illg' wa
 ('ru:-:h('(l and 
order re-estahlished, th{\ ruin wa
 appalling. ....\ people -with- 
out a God or gods is an iUlpossibility. 
"Then Bonaparte fought his way to a throne aud l'OU- 
quered an e1npirf', hf1 at Olwe openf'd COlll1l1uuil'ation with thf' 

oYereign Poutiff and r('-('
ta hli
hed rl,1 igiou ill }1"""ll'ance. 
Churches 'were eleansetl, })llrifif'<1 and reeon
f1cl'atf'd, isolated 
and exiled priests wpre 
UIll1l10npd fronl the mountains and 
recalled frOlll foreign lau(b, the oldcl' reI igion
re-estahlished in tlwir lllOnastel'ie:-:, anù to lllf'et tIw alt('red 
condition.., of :-;ociet

 ll('W religiol1
 ('ongrf'gations were Ol
pi(,uollS anlong- tlw conlnlunitief- -which ('tUlle 111to ex- 
istencf1 soon after the Napolf'oni(' f1OlH'ordat was signpd by 
Roul(' au(] Paris, was th(' religions congregation known to us 
8S thai of "rL'lw IIol

Like all great and penllanent iustitutiollR of the Chureh, 

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the :society began Inllnbly, in cOluparatiye obscurity, and 
without any hlare of trulnpets. I ts founder was a pious 
priest naIued Basil 11 orea u. who was known to his intilluÜes 
a:-: a man of profound learning. of unblen1Ïshed life. and of :1 
- that was at Ollce nwgnetif' and adnÚrahle. Gathering 
around hiul a few of his priestl
' f'Olnpanions, IHen an aglow 
"áth t1iyine ellthusiasnl and loyc for soub, Basil 
pstah1ishec1, with Papal sanction, the A:--
ociation of the 

 Cross. The Societ
. adopted for its nlOtto the words 
of our Diyille Lord to Iris di
ciples: "' l
 yon take up 
your cross and follow 
TOU can haye no part with 
Tlw 11lelUhf'rs went t,,
o hy two. fnnn one end of infidel 
Franee to tJl(-' other, exhorting. yisiting, praying and preach- 
ing .. (
hri::;t anù J [inl (frucified." 
Thell ,,\yas fOrnle(l into a pious cOJllmunit
. a nlunber of 
deyout young WOllWll. afterwards eanonically grouped into an 
organization known as the "8i
terhuod of tIlt-' Holr Cross." 
rrhe chief ainls of the 
isterhood 'were directed to the llloral, 
religions and intellectual training of -,young girls, to the pro- 
teetion, (.art' for and education of orphans. a::; ward
Christ, and to the nursing of the sicl\:, the a
Buagenlent of 
lllllllan sorrow and lnllnan suffering in publiC' hospitals. 
TInIs sixt.'--ninf1 year
 :lg-o. on Se}>telllher 
9, 18-1-1, in a 
little eOllyent ehapel in the city of Le )Ians, France, the foun- 
dation was laid of the i-'ii-'terhood of the 1 [oly Cro
s, whose 
 to-day, in A luerica alone, lluluber lllore than one 
thousand. and who
e gener0us deyotion to the wounded of the 
K orthern ...-\XlllY during the trying tÜnes of the Kehellion and 
tliP Spanish wa r Plllleared tllPlll to the hearts of tht
ican people. In.J une. 18-l3, four 
isters of the I-IoI

i-'ailed f),Olll France for ....'hlleri('a. They canle by invitation 
of Bishop Ilailandièr
. of Yinecnues, Indiana. and 011 the 
oli('itation of ,,.. ery Rey. Pather Sorin. who in Au- 
gust. lR-I-l, introdlH'ed tllP Congregation of the Hol
T Cross to 
These foul' 
t('rs hegan their arduous noyiate in Indiana 
undel' trying Cil'CIunstan('e
, and in a region that was then 



practically a wilderness. They were the fir::;t YOlullteen; en- 
rolled for ::;erviep in AUlerica, and their nallle::; and lllenlOry 
are held in Lelleùietion by the InellllJer
 of the sisterl1ood, 
The most conspicuous lllember of this conllnunity of holy 
women in .Anlerica was 
L Angela, who died 
1887. She wa
 virtually the foundress of the 
isters of the 
Holy Uro;:,s in our republic. lIcr untiring zeal, her dcyotion 
to duty, and her unohtrusi\'p piety \yon th
 admiration of 
her cOlllpanions in religion and of all who "Tere priyileged 
to know her. For thirty years she filled the offief' of Supe- 
rior of tIle sÜ;terhood in 
-hlleri('a. and under her 
tration were lllOlded thp lluljority of the 
ister;:; who to-day, 
by their refinement of manner and courteous bearing, are 
winning tIle respect and adu1Ïration of thp eOllll11Unitie::; 
among whOln their institutions are establi

In 1873 the Higllt He\'erend Bi
hop Seanlan was Inis
ary rector of Salt Lake. \rith prophetic yision he predicted 
a great future for the eity and the ::;tate of Utah. lIe fore- 
saw the expansion of his own congregation, then nUluerically 
weak, and resolYf'd to antieipate growth of ('ity and the in- 
crease of the Catholic population. 
rhe Catholic Churcll, in 
every period of her luaryelous history, has, through her bish- 
ops and priests, endeavored to proted and shelter the poor 
and the orphaned, to develop tlU' Inllnan intellect to the high- 
est possible efficiency, to in1part to her subjeets graeiousness 
of nlanner, and to relieve physieal suffering whene\Ter and 
where\Ter possible. 
To co-operate with her in accompli::;hing her laudable de- 
signs for the uplifting of the human race, the Church, in all 
ages, fouuded religious soeietie::; of nIen and wmUCH, and on 
the::;e ::;ocieties she invoked the blessing of the IIoly Spirit 
and assigned then1 to respef'tiYe spheres of occupation and 
\Yhell the tiule CallIe for the repl'eselltativ(> of the Catholic 
Church in 1Jtah to call to his assistmw(' onc of the religious 
organizations already firl111y established in the Ea
.t, he be- 



Iected, as his choice, the sisterhood of the 110ly CrosB, and 
invited tlle community to COll1e to Sêìlt Lake and open a 

chool for the educatioll and training of girl
. .L\nswering 
the call frOlll the 'Vest, two :SisterB, ::\Iother ::\1. .L<\ugusta and 

ister Raymond, left their conventual hOlne at Our Lady of 
the Lake, Indiana, and .June G, 1873, entered the then 111yste- 
rious and rOlllantic cit}T of 
alt Lake. 
The Si
ters were recei\Ted by ::\lrs. T. ::\Iarshall on alight- 
ing frolll the train, and driven to her hospitable houle, where 
they reuwined a
ts of the family until tllE' little adobe 
cottage-aH unpretentious as the IIollle of Nazareth-oll 
First "\ rest street, WêlH eOlllplete(l ana opened a
 a eon\Tent 
and school. 


The citizens of 
alt Lake enjoy a reputation abr0ad for 
shrewdness of observation, appreciation of a good thing 
when they Ineet it, and generosity in the encouragell1ent of 
llleritorious effort. 
'Yhen they became convinced that the city pos
essed a 
valuable asset in the presence anlOl1g thelll of the sisterhood 
of the IIoly Cro

, they answered generously an appeal for 
the hetter housing of the :Sisters. 
FroIlI the snug little adohe cottage to the Ï1nposing .Llcad- 
enlY they now oceupy the tran
ition \YHS a neces
ity, for the. 
in('l'easing lluluher of their pupils called for nlore aillple ac- 
('oll)ulOda tiOll. 
In 1878 :ßlother ::\1. Charles heCalllP superior of the .L\ca- 

he reillained in office tilllwr lmncllted death in 1890. 
By the urbanity of her Inanner, her tact and piety, and her 
adm.inistrative ability, she won a very high place in the af- 
fection and respect of lJer :-:-;isters and lWoplf1. "She \yas," 
to use the language of one ,,110 knew her weD, "a WOlnan of 
lllature lnind, of graeiou
 1l1êHIllCl" and refinelllellt of feel- 
ing, and dow0red with exceptional adUlinistrative and cXP('- 
utive talents." St. 
rarY'R ....\.cadeuIY, 
alt Lake City. has 
been singularly fortunate in that frOlll its in<,eption until 
now it has always had as its directing n1ind ladies of refine- 



lllent, tact and prudence, whose IUllne
 nnd nle1l10ry will for 
all tilHe be associated with the growth and expansion of th(' 
rhese ladies arc known under their nallles in 
the conll11unity as .l\Iothers 
l. .L
ugusta (1873-78), 
L Charles 
I. Sienna (] H
)( )-
J3 ), 
l. Praxedi
 (] S
Lucretia (1
\Jexis (lD03-0J). 
In IDOJ the present snperior, Sister Frances Clare, wa
appointed as head of the ..:l('adelllY, and when we state that, 
by her prudent adn1Ïnistration of the affair
 of the institution 
and her urbanity of address, she has 11laintained the high 
standard of efficiency and added to the eu\'iahle reputation 
IH:'ld by 81. 
lary 's, "We but do her sin1ple jnstice. 
The course of studies ill this eXf'ellellt estahlislllilent coy- 
ers all the suhjects taug:ht in tlw great COllyent s('hools of the 
large cities of the Ea.,1. X uus and 
isters of the great teach- 
ing orders of the Catholic Church insist in lnaintailling, in 
Europe and .L-hllerif'a, that the e(hwation of the girL l11ust, to 
he efficient, differ nwterially froln that of the boy. They 
contend that urbanit

, tenderness, ê:11niability and, ahoye aIJ, 
irreproachahle nlOra lity, are inseparahle frOlll the tl'ailling 
of the g-irl, and that, wanting the
e, no young girl can eyer 
ripen intu a refined, culture(l and f'ontente(l wonnul. 
The Ahullnae Association, (,Olnposed of the graduates of 
tlw AcadenlY. organized in 18
)9, nUlllbers nearly one hun- 
dred 111en1bers. In their deyotion and loyalty to 
jl[ afp f, and hy their nohle influence, the Si
tel's realize tlH:' 
,'indicèltion of their teaf'hillg, and the reward uf their life uf 
lahor and ::-;eIf-iuulloJation. 
The recognition by experiew'ed head
 of falllilies in the 
Eastern States, of the strength of thf' position and the wis- 
dun1 of the contention of the 
if'ters, is luanifest frOln the 
numbers of non-Catholic 

oung ladies no"T attending the 
schools aHd higher institutions of learning pre"iided uver by 
the t;isters of the Holy Cro:-.s and by tho
e of other con\
ua] organizations of the United States. 



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Eyer watchful of the growing needs of Catholicity in 
1;tah, Right Heyerelld Lawrence Scanlan requeßted the Bis- 
tel'::; of tliP lIoly Cross to open a sellOol in Ogden. In re- 
e to this earllPst solicitation, on 
eptenlbe)' 16, It\T8] 
Histen; Francis, Enlngelista, Georgia, ...\nieetus, Cala
Ht'rnanlo and Flayia--the last nmned is yet in Ogden-were 
sent frOll1 the 
Iother House, at 
Iary's, Xotre Danle, in- 
diana, to eonclu('( an institution silllÍlar to that pre\Tiously 
opened in Halt Lakt-> (1ity. A spal"iuus building on the corner 
()th Bt. and \Yashillgton AYe. was prepared for their 
reception, and here the Saered J teart .A.cadeln

 of to-da
T had 
its InHable beginning. Ln the spring of U;R
, Bt. .J oseph'
Schoo], adjoining the .L\.cadeluy, was hui It. The npper story 
was occupied as a sleeping aparhllent for hoy:-;. rrwo rOOUlS 
underneath wert-> usell a:-: class rOOlllS, oUP for large boys and 
the other a luininl aparhuent for boys and girls. In lRK2 the 
first superior, Sister F1'anees, "nu..; replaced by 
lother ...:-\.n- 
nunciatia, afterwards 
lother Geut->ral of the Order. lIeI' 
forceful, winning character wa.s a potent factor in the Cath- 
olie education of this 'Yestern region; no one, bishops, 
priest:.;. re1igious 01' pupils l"all ever forgt't her noble soul aud 
her kindly heart. 'Yhen called to the ::\Iother If ouse in Indi- 
ana to fill an Í111portant position on the directorate. 
nnun('iatia "Tas rephH'éd, in 1889. b

 Sister Pauline. who 
d the growing n('(1d
 of the ....lcadenly, which wa-:, no 
longer large enough to (1eCOllllllodate the nUlnber of pnpilR. It 
was decided to ereet a new building, and a five-m're lot on 

;)th St. was pnrehased and plans lor tlw present Sacred 
Iíeart ,A..cadeIny ,yere drawn up. The ground wa
 broken for 
the new structure Sept. 24, 1890, and the corner stone laid 
::\[ay 24th, of the fol1owing year. TIlC' institntion "'a



for the reeeptioll of the 
tlldentt; in Septelnher. 1 M
):2. the Hi
ten; h
nrillg nlOyed frOll1 the old quarters the previou'3 ,-June. 
ituated at the foot of HIP ,rasateh 
, the ..L-\('adeln
', apart frOlll tlu-' careful llioral and lllE'll- 
tal training it afford:-:, offen.; exceptional adyantaget; for the 
ical developllieut of ib 
tU(lPlltS. In the yariouR depart- 
Inents. the ('our
(' of 
tudies is a
 extensiye and thorough a;-; 
it can he llwde by long experien
e and a large and capable 

taff of teachers. The nlo
t approved 
ystellU., of instruction 
 adoptE'(l. The Sacred Heart _
\ hnunae ......tssociation, 01'- 
gm1Ízed in 19()-1-. nUlnhers ninet
. Ineillhers. The 
uciety ful- 
fi1\s its uhject in keeping alive in the IWê:ll'ts of the graduates 
the llle1110ry of their ..AlIna 
later, and in perpetuating the 
friE'ndships formed in happ
T school day
. The ]u
ation of 
\cadenlY. just on the foothills of tltf' pictures(t ue 
'Yasatch range and close to ()gdell'R lùstol'ie eanyon, is ideal 
and appeals to all who appreciate thp heantiful and tlU' 
lime in nature. 
teady inc:rease of the residcnt 
tudellts and the fre- 
quent eOllllnendations appearing in the r-tah press indicah
the growth in public' fayor of thit; llleritoriolls senlÍnar
The ......teadelny of the Hat'red lIcart, ()gclen, like its sister con- 
vput, S1. 
[ary's Acadelny of Ralt Lake, offers young ladies, 
i rrespeetive of cree<1, f'Yer
- faeilit
T for Hequiring a finisllPd 
pducation and aU the graees of a refined and aCl'onlpli
woman of societ
-. ']1he ladies of the IIoly Cross are also at 
the head úf Ineritorions institutions and ('onc1uet exeellent 
sehoob at Park Cit

 and Eureka. 


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The accidents and deaths inseparable frOIH the hazardous 
oc('upatiun of In en engageù in nlÍninp: nec(J;::o.sarily threw upon 
the hands of the <>haritahly (li
e(l lllany helpless orphans. 
Touched hy the speetaele of the
e fatherless children. the 
holJ resulve<l tu HW ke }H'oyision for their lnailltenance 
and educa tiOll. lIe deei< If'd to open au .. ()l'phan
' lIollle" 
where no creed or {'olor lilw would he drawn, and h(J wOllI(l 
t to God. to the eharity of his people. tu hi
 uwn energy 
and that of his prie4:,. for the luaintenance of the orphan- 
age. ....igain he aPP(Jal(Jfl to the sisterhood of the IIol
y Cross, 
e ).[other-] [ous(J is at Ht. 
[ary's, Indiana, and again 
the sisterhood an:
mTel'ed his call. (hI October 13, 1891: three 
 arriyp(l and opeu(J<l the Orphanage in the residence 
' occupied h

 tlip Bishop and his priests. 
Twice the building was enlarged, till at last, the nlullber 
knocking at the door for adn1Ïs
ioll made a new orphanage 
an Í1nperative necessity, for the lot on ,,:hich the building 
stood was tuu :--mall for au extra wing. 
In .June, 189R, an option was offererl Bishop 
canlan on 
fifteen acres of land ou T\\yelfth South. ] Ie ('10se(1 with the 
option. but tlw first paYlllent f'xhausted his resOUrf'(JS. 
,Yhilst reyolying in hi
 mind thp prohleul of s
llwans to 111('(Jt the se('on<1 p:1YIuent, and in('r('a
ing hi
peal:, to hpaven for assistance. help c:.ulle to hilll in a UlOst 
 and courteous manner. 
enator Thomas J(earns, 
learning of the Bishop's straightened <,ir('nlll
do-wn <luietly one 1l10rning and looked over the Bishop's pur- 
chase. Next day 
Irs. l(earns waited upon Bishop Scanlan. 
The result of the intelTiew is the present 111agnifi<,ent build- 
ing, the T(earns-Ht. j\ nn's ('rphanage, co
ting, exclusiye of 
ground and furnishing. $;)3,UUO. 



rrhe in
titntion wa
hed by the ladie
 of the cathe- 
dral eongregation, but the eleetriC' awl gas fitting
. the iso- 
lated and nlOrlernly equipped laundry and aeees:-;orie:-., as 
well a
 the ()rphanag
(-'If, are llH)lllOrial
 of the charity 
and generosity of Senator and 
[rs. l{earns. 
 splellclid inRtitution, proteetillg lGS childrpll, i
enduring exalnple of (1atholie helleyolenee and a UlelllOriaL to 
thp Bi
hop and to the charity and liberality of tlw gentlt'- 
HU111 and hi
 wife that made it po

 neler the carp of eleypu Histers of the (.onllllunity of the 
II ol
' Cros
, the orphanage is a Jllodel C'lmrit:,'. ..:-\11(1 if it he 
ked, what are thp 
ters paid for looking' after the
e ] G8 
little ones, 
'ou will ht' told: 
'the food they eat. the e1otht's 
' wear and tlw hed

lpep OiL" 1 t is the 1l1Ost 
IUlÍ(ll le pxmnplt' of pure and di
illteI'f"-:ted heIH:'yoh'l1ee in 
the Rtate of l
tah. The (le\'(>tioll. 
plf-saeritiee and pral'Íi.eal 
eharity of the:-.p Iadit's. whOIn WP l'alL Hi:--tcl's, are lllarn)lou
proof!oì of the infhll'lll'e of (Joel's 
rae(' OIl lnunan 
cnlls mHl of 
the effect of the power of the I-Ioly Rpirit OIl Inll11Hn hearts. 
Thest' ladie
 LUl\'c hichlen an eìc'rnal farewell tu thp world 
and the world's pleasures and haye offerf'd tht'lllSt'lyf':-, a
Jiying yictÏIllS on the altar of c>lwrity, for the sah'atioll of 
the fatherless and the wards of pJ e
 Christ. Hurel
- their 
rf'wa I'd heyond the gra ye wi II ùe yery g'rea t. 
'Yinter and Sunlll1er the Ri
p at ;) a. nl. ..\t.) :;;0 
they are in the chappl praying to (tod and l11t'(litating' on IIi
eternaL truth
. ..AJ (; 0 \.Io('k they a:-::-:ist at the lIol

fie(' of the 

, and at G :;
() awake the C'hildn'll. ..It 7 the 
little OIlf':-: are sC'JTf'd hreakfa
t h

 the Rister;-;. and at D 0 'eloek 
school opens with a petition to God, that, in 1-Iis lnerc
', He 
would hle
s thenl all. ] Il addition to the or(linal'
' C'OIlllllOll 
sehoul education, tllO
e of the c.hi Idrpll of au age to learn 
are taught lnallners and lllOrals. and an
 trained to helie\T' 
in God, in the IIol
T Trinity, ill the diyinit
- awl rp:-;url'eC'Ìion 
of Christ in tlip judglllent to come aml a final (l('conuting- to 
God for SiUR COIllluitted in the flesh. Forty-three of the hO
and girls are taught shorthand and typewriting', aB(l SOBle 



of the best stenographers and typewriters filling lucrative 
positions in our city arC' graduates of I
earns-St. Ann's 01'- 
}Jhallage. ,Ye would hardly look for it in an orphanage, but 
one of the Sisters devotes her tiule exclusively to teaching 
singing to the children and lllusic to those of the girls who 
show an aptitude for the piano. Tlley lost one or both their 
parent::, at a tender age, and have been sent here to be edu- 
cated and trained 11101'ally. If the surviving parent or guard- 
ian can afford to pay a small 
un1 11lo11thly it is gratefully 
accepted, hut the orphan, payor no pay. is cheerfuIIy re- 
cei\Ted and no discrin1Ínation shown. 
The building throughout, the dOrIllitories, the hath 1'OOI11S, 
the spaciou
 haJIs, the cla
s 1'00111:-. and dining hall are scru- 
pulously clean and evoke expressions of surprise fro1l1 \yisit- 
ors. Therp is no hotel in our city 1110re visibly clean or bet- 
ter Iuanageù. Call in and go through the orphanage and 
verify for your
elf our statelnellt.
. To conduct this great 
institution. to heat it. light it. keep the huilding in repair, 
and furni
h food and clothing calJ for a liberal expenditure. 
To the acting sup
rior. Rister :\1. )Iartina and her prede- 
cessor, Ri
ter )1. Uctavifl. the orphanage, as a live institution, 
 deeply iudehtp(l ,]
Il('Y have done llllH'h. by their urbanity, 
tad and mild di:.:cipline, to lift thi
 great Catholic eharity 
unto a plane of high efficien('

 and of a(hnirable adaptation 
to the wants of homeles:::, children. To Ca tholie institutions, 
such as tIw I
(-'arns-Rt. ,Ann 'F\ Orphanage. 
\lr. John D. Rock- 
efeller referred when. writing in the .Tanuary l1UIllber of the 
'rodel's ,York on problems of gClwral uplift, he pays thi;:, 
tribute to the Ca tholip Ohnreh: 
"I full

 appreciate the splendid sen"ice done by others in 
tlw field; hut I haye Sf-en the organization of the ROluan 
Catholic Chnreh 
ecnr(\ hetter l'esnlt
 with a giyen sunl of 
- than othpr ehul'('h orgallization
 are acenstOllled to F\e- 
('ure froln the saIne expenditure." 




This Inagllificl'Ilt info:titutioll was foulHled hy Bishop 
Scanlan early in Uetoher, IHí3. when he hrought fl"Oll1 In- 
ùiana Histers 
l. l-Ioly Cross and ),1. Bartholollww, who at 
once entpl'ed upon their nwritorious jabal's. On the :2:2d of 
Uctoher, lnunl>ly, nuosh'ntatiously and full of the spirit of 
their Diyine 
Iaster, their ,york began ill a rentefl building 
on Fifth East between South Telllple and First Houth streets. 
It was called the Hospital of tllp Holy Cross. In this 1U1IJre- 
tentious aho(le their labor of love was pre-en1Ïnently suceess- 
fui. Their eharity in behalf of suffering lnunanit

 ,yon for 
thenl frunl a grateful people the true titlp of angels of lllPl'l'y 
and real 
isters of Charity. Xo appeal was unheeded; iUI- 
Inediate wants alone were considereù. To this day" their 
nanlPS are sacred in eyery hOl1
ehold as syuIlwls of ('hn rity 
and Ulerey, and their lneulories are enshrined like the Goofl 
Salllaritan in Hie hearts uf a grateful lwople. For se,'Pll 
years they labored faithfully all( 1 
\s a I11n rk 
of their su('('ess the present heautiful huspital, with its 
('ious grounùs. and without enculuhrau<'p WhPll Sister Hol
Cross resigut'd her position as Superior, stands as a liyillg 
nlonuluent. The tf'll-a('re bloek was pUl"ehasell in 
\pl"il, It\t'il. 
hy Rishop H('alllan and the deed giyen to thp 8ister
. GrolllHI 
for the new ho:-:pital was hroken the fo! lowing month. rfhe 
'ear the 
, with their patient:-:, relllOypd frOlll UIP 
old to the splendid strueturl' they now OC'('UPY. 
rrhere al'l' few ho
pita]s in thp eountr
T lllOre ahly ('U11- 
ductecl than is the Holy Cross ] [ospital of 
alt Lake Cit
P tah, loeatt'd ('oîlyeniently a t "B-'ir
out h street, hl'bn'ell 
Tenth and Elpventh East. This in::;titntion, which is handled 
in a 
plelldid nUlnner hy the Si
te]'s of the lloly tiro
s, under 
1he personallnanagement and rlire('tion of a Sister SuperioI' 
who has the general f,UperilltendelH'Y of the' eutin' hospital. 
is one of the notecl p]aees of this í'it
,. ... \('('ulmnoclations an' 
provided fur 130 paticnt:-: without eroweling. ,and in ('a:-:p of 
oo can hc cared fOI". Every kind of disl'ase-px- 

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('ppt contagious cases-are handled here, and e-'",Tery attention 
paid eaeh patient. There are three operating 1'OO1U:-;, au 
X-ray deparhlleut, uuder the supervi:-:ion of a specialist, and 
a btaff of ablf-' and proficient surgeons and physician
, three 
'medical Blen, twenty trained llur
es, two intf'rn:-; and twenty- 
seven Hist<:>rs of the Holy Cruss are in constant attendance, 
 insuring every care con
istent with the lllúst lllotlernly 
d hospital. 
Thp institutioll has sixty-flye prin1te ruoms for spe('ial 
patients, separate wards for patients ac
onllno<latillg fronl 
four to eighteen people each, allfl a new" steanl power and 
laundry plant \vill pro'ádp e\Terything in this lint' necessary 
for the ho
ands of patient-. have heen ('ared for and cured at 
this hospital through the careful and diligent \York of the 
Histers of the IIoly Crl>:-:
, and there i
 perhaps no institutiun 
of its kind in the country that is lllore successful in its treat- 
luent of all cases. Oup who is taken in here Ü; assured of 
every attention possihle, clay and night, and this is on<:> uf 
thp reasons that the ho
pital i:-: u:,ually cOlufortahly filled 
with patients. 
THE .JeDlìB ".l\IEl\1URIAL Ho:\n:. ' , 
Besting on a :-:olid foundation of great block
 of granite. 
the .J udge "::\[enlOrial Home" oeeupi
s one of the nlOst ('0111- 
nmllding sites in the city of Salt Lake. 
Thi!-- Inagnifil'ent lIlOllUluent of affef'tion and charity was 
lJuilt h
[rs. l\Iar
' .fudge to the Inemory of hpr hushand 
as a hospital êlllli hOllH:' for injured, ag(-'ti and feehl
The pressing ('aIls upon the rp
Olll'('es and tilHe of Bishop 
S('anlall. tlI.... ilH'p:-::-:ant appeal
 ulade upon hi
- during' 
thp lnÚI(Iing of the ('atlH:'dral. and tll(> 
ing and 
finHnc'illg of tlIi
at ecelesiastical monUlllent IUl\Te po
pOlwd the opPllillg of tlIe '.UOlllf>" heyond tlw {'xpel'tatiow.... 
antI hope of the ni
'YhPll th<:> (Ioor
 of the .Judge's If o Ill<:-' SWillg" OpPll to the 
puhlit. and th
-, grollnds l<:>ud tlIl'lllS('h-<:>
 to H tOl1('h of land- 



scape gardening, this n1agnificent building, cOlun1anding a 
sweeping view of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, will 
rank anlong the 
rchitecturally great lnonumentsof the 


Diocese of Salt Lake. 

Sketch of the Life of 
Bishop Scanlan. 




The dioce:-;e of 
alt Lake. elllbracing an area of 133,768 
square nliles, is the largest ill the United 
tates. To fOrIU 
an idea of this iUllnense territory, under the direction of one 
bishop, i
 best realized hy cOluparison. In thp provincp of 
New t ork there are :seven dioce
es annexed to the arch- 
diocese or 
Ietropolitan Ree. Archbishop Farley is in charge 
of the 
letropolitan See, and 
eYell suffragan bishops exercise 
spiritual jurisdiction O\Ter tlw province of X cw York. The 
whole province ha
 only an area of 33,:376 stluare nlÍles, or 
less than one-third the size of the dio('ese of Salt Lake. 
'fhe fact is the Bi'5hop of Salt Lake governs a region 
greater than that included within the jl1rist1iction of the 
Archbishops of K ew Orleans, K ew York, BaltÍlnore, [1hicago, 
St. Louis, Philadelphia, San Francisco and Rt. Pau1. \Yithin 
the great ecclesiastical province of 
 ew York lie the dioceses 
\lhany, Brooklyn, Buffalo, N e"Tark, ()gden
burg, Roches- 
ter, Ryracuse and Trenton ('overing an area of 71,000 mile
less by 83,000 nÜles than the diocese of Salt Lake. 
Long before Utah had a nmne, or tlw region wa:-: even 
T pla('ed, the Franpis('all ]1'athers hegall tlwir 
n1Ïssionary lahors in Xew )lexico. ,Yhen Onate. in 1 ()(}(). laid 
the founda tiOllS of Santa F{> and the huilding
 began to as- 
SUllie the proportions of a town. the Franciscan
 left their 
little convent at "El tunque" (now Cluunata R. B. station) 
on the west side of the Rio Grande an(} built their nlona;o;tery 
in tianta Fé, which was ever afterwards their headtlUarters 
for the southwestern nlissiollS. suhjc<,t. of <,ourse. to the 
great ('entral nwnastery in Queretaro. 
At this tinle the 111Ìs
ionary regions lay beyond the juris- 
diction of all
lexi<,an hishop, and the ]1'rallcis<,an Fatlwr
 a nece

ity, enjoyed exceptional priyilege
. The superiors 



of the Honora and Santa Pt'> IuiRsions WE'l'f-' authorized hy 

pecial Pontifical [ndult to adnlÌni
ter tht' HaenUllellt of COll- 
fil'lllation. FrOlll "La Collerrinn dr' BIlZa.';, ]Jrerf'8 y ntro., 
r!OCUHu'utoS. ete.," gathered hy Father Heruaez. S. .J. (Brlls- 
sels, 1 Hï
)). we learn that the Dü111inican and }'ranciscan 
. laboring in the two Ànlerieas and Philippine r
essed spef'ial pri\Ti leges and--ex('ept the power to 
confer Orders-had episcopal faeulties. The territor
-, now 
kno"Wn as l
tah, "Was suhjeet to the Custodio or presidency 
anta Fe, until the erection of Durango, 
Iexico, into a 
diocese in 16-!
), when Xew l\lexi('o and all the 
regions, including -etah. canle under the jurisdiction of th
hishop of Durango. [n tlw archiyE--':--. pre
elTed at Hanta }1'e, 
we read that the H1. Re\Ts. 
lartin Bliza-Cochea and Pedro 
Tanuu'on yi:Úted K ew ::\rexico in ] ï3ï and 1760, and in thesp 
years a(hllinistered the Hael'ê:llUent of Confinl1ation to H/O 
::\Iexicans, Indians and ha1f-hloo(b. 
T the treat
- of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, entered into he- 
tween the Repnhlif's of 
[exico and tllf-' ITnited St.ates. and 

igned at Guadalupe, near ::\fexieo City, ::\Iay 19, 18-l
, Xew 
::\lexieo. incJuding rtah. L
pper California. etc., waR ceded 
to thp {
nited Rta1.es on paynlent to tl)(' Hepuhlic of 
of $1;'),000.000 gold. 
tah now. hy a law of adhesion, falls e('("lpsiasti('all
under the jurisdi(.tion of Ht. Louis. (T. S.. gon-'rned then 
hy Rt. He\'. P. H, Kenrick. D. D. 
In 1 H()G tIll' Territory of rtah was ('ollllnitted to the 
adnlÌnistl'atioIl of His nnwf'. the ___\. l'chhishop of San Fl'an- 
cisf'o. By nIl e('elesiasti('al law of gTayitatioll it ought to 
han-' heen inellldecl "ithin the lilnit
 of the newl
' ('reated 
dioeese of 
Iary:-;\'il1e or Ura;-;s Yalle
-, now RaeraulPnto. In- 
stead. hn\\-e\,Pl" tlw I rnly Set' COlllluitted it entin
T to the 

\. l'('hhishop of San l.1ralwis(.u. "ho sent en rnest prie
ts to 
Luiltl the honse of the Lord in the 
rOrInon stronghold. 
(h) Fehruan
 ;). 1
. Colorado and (Ttah ",,'l're (->l't'ded 
into a \"-i('ariate-
t()li(' and f'athl'r ::\Iaehehellf of Deuyer 



Inad(-> Yicar 
tolic and c011
ecrated titular Bi
hop of 
\ugust If), 1 K{)8. (hl Fehru(n'
. 1
, ] 
71, Ctah i
again calTied to Califoruia and ('ollfided to the 
pi ritual 
ca1"(-> of Rt. He\T. .J useph Hadue 
\J21llHny. BishulJ uf 
an Fran- 
eisC'o. The territory relnailled attached to Han Franci
until April 7. lbb6, when rtah and six (.ouuties of Xe\Tada 
were raised to a Yieariate-
\postuli(' and Father l.Úl\\relu'e 
t5canlal1, pa
tor of t5alt Lake, 111ad2 Yi('ar-
tolic and eon- 
:-:p(>rat2d (.Julle 
!), 1M87), Bishop of Larawhu11, in pflJ"tiùllB 

-\s we h:l\Te had ()('ca
ion tu refer Ulan
T tiuu>
 tu the 
terIll Vicariate-
\ postolic, \ye ought, in jnstiC'f' to our readers, 
to explain what is uwant by the dual \\'on1. 
Briefly, then, a 'Ticariate-
\l'ostuli(' itnpI ie:-: a region of 
a countnT where 110 epi:,('opate or hi
hopri(' was at al1
T tilHe 
estahlished, 01' when. haying h
en estahlishe(l, the sw'('e..-::-:ion 
was, for a long tinle, intf'lTupted either h
T prolonged war.... 
or by national apostasy. 
\fter the apostasy of England 
Ílmn the faith, thp ('hurph in Great Britain wa
 goycr11f'd hy 
Yi('ars-Apostolie frum 1m".) till tllt' n>-estahli:-:l11nellt of the 
. hy Pope Pius I.x, 18.)(1, b
T the a l>l'oi11Ì111ènt uf the 
great "Tisellwn a:-, Bishop of ,y pstIllillster. 
J if-;
ionary dio- 
es al'f' usuaJI
T yiearÍates-ap()
toli(', awl as :;uch Inu
t l'P- 
port to the College uf the Propaganda. Home. There are 
to-day, at least a hundred of :..;11<'h \'Íeariates in existence. 
In lð91, the Yieariat(-> of rtah and Xenula \nlS erected into a 
Diu("t'se, to he known heu('efurth as the DÍoce:-;e of Salt Lak(-> 
( Dio('('('si8 Lor-lis Sal.'iÏ). TIH
 {'anunical .iuri
dictiun of Bi
01' Seaulau ('o\'el'S all rtah and the l'ountif>s of Lilwoln, Lan- 
der, Eureka. Elku, Xye and ,rllite Pine in tll(> State of :x'-
, an area of territory largf'r than all EnglmHl and 
"Tales. and Lrelall<l, Sl'otlan<l and Portugal ('Oll1hined. 
'Yhole l'(->glous of this Ya
t terl'itor
-, parti(,lllarl
" in the 
Ulountainous rangc..;, are :-:par...,el
T :-;f'ttlpd and are (Jiffi('ult of 
[inin6' ('Hlnps If'a p into exist<
nee to-(b.

 and di:-:- 
appear to-UlOITO\Y. In only a few di
tri{'ts is it pos
ihle to 



establish parishes, and when ihe
e pari
 are created and 
resident priest::; appointed, the wear and tear of n1Ï::;::;ionary 
life, the exposure on and loneliness of the long journeys, the 

evprity of the winters and the poor fare, wear down the 
prie:-:t:-; and shorten tJwlr liyes. 


The Cathedral of Halt Lake is, without exception, archi- 
tecturally, the fine
t ecclesiastical structure "e::;t of the 

[issuuri. Hesting on an iInperishable foundation of ma
block,; ûf granite, the great building occupies a cOllllualldillg 
site in onE' of the finest quarters of the 
ity, and iIllp:U ts to 
the ::;urrounding neighhorhoo(l a tone of quiet solelllllÌty aud 
si\-e dignity. Externally, the cathedral offers to the 
eye an eXaInple of the great eccle
al structures of the 
nlÎddle ages-the .L
ges of Paith-when architects and build- 
ers adhered scrupulousl
' to stnll'tural proportions and laid 
great stl'{_\
;-, on architectural unities. The yiew frOlu the 
highest platfOl"lll of the beê:lutiful K onnan towers is a rCYe- 
lation. The eye sweeps the nwgnificent \'alle
', the Great 
Salt Lake, the Jordan Riyer, the towering' peaks. canyons, 
ranges and the glorious pity itself, rising frolH the plain and 
protected and 1>attlelllPnted b
T its own rock-ribhed llloun- 
The cathedral is a finn nlaSS of masonry, built uf hewed 
and hanlll1ered stone. whose lllol'Ìared joints haye solidified 
into an inlperishable luaterial, fonning ,,
ith the trayertine, 
an indestructible whole. Its dignity and grace and solelllli 
grandeur ha\'e inlparted a new glory and importance to 
lIlaterial suhstance and carrie::; to the luilld a persuasion of 
the sublillW faith of the nien ,,'ho rai
eJ this Ï1uperishable 
telllple to do honor tu an Íluperishable God. 
This great Christian fane, it
olllmanding f'ite, its fur- 
ni:-:lunent and lllural de('orations, with the Epis
upal resi- 
dence and land cost *600,000. 
nde]' a groined eanopy, whose figured windo"\ys flood it 
with a wealth and nlriet

 of chrOlnatir f'oIol'ing, repo
es tht' 
lligh .L
ltar of ('a l'ranl lllal'hle, ela hora tely calTed by Italian 



Tl1e beautiful 
iùp altars, the :-;anctuary railings of 
ealTed [1'ish oak, the IHagllifi(,Pllt wilHlow
\l unieh de- 
sign and fini:-;h. i
s groiued anù lofty eeiling re:-;tillg on hreh'e 
pillars of lonie fini:-;h and its splendid organ, giye to thi
eon:-;p('ratt'd fane an iUUllortality of quiet grandeur and an 
ahllosphere of 
all('tity and religiou
'l1"ie pastor of the ca thedral parish and Cl1auepllor of the 
I )ioeese, Y t'ry Re\'. Father Kiel
., V. G.. has I';piritual eharge 
of the (1atllOlie I';onls of 
alt Lake City. TIe i:-, as
isted by 
fiye re
ident priest
 who say 
las:-; dail

 in the <'atllPdral, 
the I-Io:-;pital and the 
\eadelllY, \'isit the :-.Í<'k. instruet tllP 
ehildrt'n aud ('o-operate ,,
ith the pastor in the \fork of the 
pari:-;h. 81. Patriek'l'; (ilmreh in the western sed ion of th
I'ity i:-; attended un :Sunda
's and holyda,\
s frOlll thè ('atlwdral. 
(hI :Sundays the IIoly Sa('1'ifiee il'; offered up at eonyenient 
bours in the chapels of IIoly Cro

 Hospital, ..:-\.Jl Hall<HYS 
(\)llege, 81. .:\Iary's -,,-'u.adelllY :lnd 
\nll 's Orphanage. thu..; 
affording Catholies in an parts of the city eyery faeility fur 
hearing ::\lass on da
.s of ohligation. Fr01u the ('athe(ln:1 
Inrish, prie:-;ts \
il';it Binglulln, S<,ofield, Sunnyside. Fort 
Douglas, Ogden and other di:-;tant Ini


The c('cle
iasti<,al growth and expansion of the Catholic 
(1hur('h in this ('hanning and attra('ti\
e eity is Sf) intimately 
interwo\Ten ,,
ith the 
a('erdotal life of it,,; })a
tol'. Father 
(iushnahan, that the 
el'aration of the one frolll tlu> lo('al life 
of the otlwr would disrupt a union apparclltl
- pro\'i...L'ntial. 
If yon re-exall1Ïne the tiut' lllt'ZZo-tUlH' illllstratioll
 of thi:-; 
history your attention will be dmllenged by a s('ene in tll<' 
nllley of the I)lwhesne HÌyer, iw'luding" tents, \nlgou

horses-the (,alll)) of })Oll 
[ag-uire. X ow if it \n'l'e pos:-;i hh. 
for you to examine thp haptisuwl l'l'gÌ:-:;ter-l Ttah ':-: fir:-;t- 
opened h

 Father \\
a};";h had\: iu '()(), 
'ou would lloti('e that 
 first Catholic ehild haptize(l ill ()gdl'll \\-as l<
:\f aguire. \ r eJl, the father and 111Otl1e1' of Franees awJ DOll 
\laguiI'P, hy a In
.stpl'iollS law of gra\'itatiou, settled ill 



Ogden long hpfore there was prie
t or ('hurch there. They 
were of the historie .Jlagllires of B\_'l'luanagh, or l11ay he of 
the great (.lan of the 
Iaguires of Cë:1\Tan. and. when they 
drifted out west, they hrought their faith with thenl. ,Yhen 
a )lagnire fiillgs his faith away, his Irish desf'ent leayes hinl 
and gúe:::; with the faith, and hi
 manhood gets lonesome and 
foIlows the other two-always. Nothing is left hilu but a 
great lUlllle, and aslunned of its allOlllalous isolation. the 
nal11e ibelf fade::; away, declines all<t beCOllH:'S, perhaps, a 
monstrosity, a 
Iegirr, and 
Iegirrs do llot perpptuah
selyes he
-ond one or two generations. The 
[aguire. who 

ettled in Ogden. brought his faith. his naIne and his lllan- 
hoo(1 with him, ancl with hiln hegan Catholicislll in Ogden. 

\ss(wiated with the :JIaguires in those early days 'were the 
Delaneys, thp IIassetts, the :ßIcCol"lnicks, and together they 
forulP(1 the little Catholic group which grew and lllultiplied 
into the present large f'ongregation. In June, 1879. 
bishop AJeuwny callIe all the "yay frolll 
an :F\'allrisco to 
solemnly open the little C'llureh that had been built by Father 
Scanlan, who, on the occasior
 sang the first 1 [ip:h 
heard in Ogden. 
rhen, twelltY-Seypn ypar:::; ago-ÜI 1 

cauIf' Father Cushnahan. and Sill('P then great ('hang'cs ha \'e 
pn stnwlurally wrought. 

\n interpsting inridpnt in the ecclesiastical life of Ogden 
and Halt Lake was tll(
 llweting and visit of J:\.Tf'hhishop 
AI Clllany, of Ran Fralwisl'o, and his coadjutor, A l'('hhi:.;lIop 
Riordan, \\'ho ,\yas on hi
 way to the coast frpslJ frolll his ('Oll- 
seeratioll at Chic-ago, Sf'ptenlher 
G, l
On Thursda
T, Nov. 3, 1883, .L
hop Hionlan re::whed 
Ogden frolll the en st, af'f'Olupanied by a nUluher of ('lergy- 
men frolll Chicago. They were lllet at the depot by Areh- 
bishop ,AJelnan
T and Verr Hey. Father S('alllan. who took 
charge of the distinguislwd guests. Thl'Y yisited S1. .J 0- 
seph's Church and tlu'llf'P <1own to the Raf'red Heart Å('a(l- 
enlY. where they were entertained in a nlo
t pleasant 111anner 
hy addresses from tlIp pupil
 of that institution. Archbishop 
Rior(lan f'xpresse(l 'lis agl'('pahle snrprisf' at finding such a 



fine institution in the .b-'ar ,Yest. After thankin O' the Sisters 
and pupils His Urace wished thenl long and continued pros- 
perity. They arrived in Salt Lake at noon, and spent the 
-entire afternoon in yisiting places of interest in the city, no- 
tably St. :ß1ary's 
\caùenlY, where the welcolue of the good 
Sisters and their pupils found expre:-,:;ion in the presentation 
of a splendid progranl, consisting of addresses and lIlusic, 
both vocal and instrulueutal. On Sunday 1110rning the pa- 
pers gave the followiug notice of selTices: Catholic l"elTices: 
Solen1ll Pontifical High )1ass, Celebrant, :ß1ost Rev. 
bishop Hiordan; .Âssi
tant Priest, Rev. J. P, Roles; Deacon, 
Rev. S. J. Dunne; sub-Deacon. ReV". .1-\1. 
-'. Burke; Deacons 
of Honor, Revs. B. J. 
palllding and T. 8. IIenneberry. Ser- 
nlon by the )1ost Rev. J. 
. _\lelHany. SClTices at 11 a. D1. 

\fter the Gospel A l'chhishop 
\leIl1any introduced the 
new Archbishop to the congregation, and then preached an 
appropriate sennon for the occasion. 
Sunday evening the party left Salt Lake for Ogden, and 
thence, accompanied hy 
\rchbishop ...-:'\Jelnany and E'ather 
Scanlan, the distinguished guests proceeded ou their journey 
to the Golden Gate. 
St. Joseph's Church, Ogden, is an architectural genl. 
The beautiful exterior structure, all rock, with ib; high tower 
surmounted by a large cross, is the first object to attract the 
attention of visitors sojourning in the city. The interior in 
design and finish is in keeping with the exteri.or. Ornate and 

haste, with is beautiful stained glass windows and artistic 
Stations of the Cross, everything is ('al('u]ated to intensif.\' 
t.he devotion of its worshipers. 
Since the opening and deyelopnlent of the first nline in 
this thrh'ing and rich lnining ('amp attention has heen 
always directed to Catholic interest
. In 1873, soon after his 
arrival in Salt Lake, Father Scanlan visited Park r.Jity and 
celebrated )lass. FrOlIl that date down to 1881 regular ser- 
yices were helò. at certain intervals in an old log cahin. 
In 1881 a lot with residence was :-,eeured in this prosper- 









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:"iT. ')!ARY OF THE ASSt:'":\IPTIOX ('IIT T RClI, Pnrk City, Utah. 



ous mllllng" caInp. _'t ne". huilding ".hich :-;eryed the double 
pllrpm;e oÎ school and ehnn.h was erected the f.:anle 

ear. Tn 
Hepteulber. 18Sl. tlIP 
 opened their 
('hool. Ln 18,
the chul'(.h and school building and tSisters' residence were 
df'stroyed h

 fire. The church and school were rehuilt at 
oncf' of rock nnder the superintendence of Rev. P. Blake, the 
acting pastor. Tn 188G the présent pastor, Re\
. T. Galligan, 
took up the work of Father Blake, and has for f'ighteen years 
adn1Ïnistel'ec1 to the spiritual wants of the peoplt>. By hi
zeal and deyotion he ha
 slleeeeded in buildiug up tlif' spirit- 
ual edifice in the souls of his congregation and liaS endeared 
hinlself to all the Ulf'lllhers of his flock. 

\ . 
Long before the conneeting link of the Oregon Short 
Line fronl Lehi .J unction to Ironton wa;-; built, Tintic wa" 
yisited by a Catholic priest. Early in DeCenlhel'. 1
Father Scanlan went by 
tage fro1l1 Lehi to Canlp Floyd, 
here he rellainefl oyer Sunday. J:i\.Oln Can1!) Floyd he 
staged it to Diaulond, holding sen'ices there; also in SiIYer 
Cit)T and Eureka. In the baptislnal reeord are registered 
five baptisnls at Tintif' by Father Scanlan, dated Deceulher 
9, 1873. These are Dennis Sulliyan, ,.... eronica S. 
r. Brow'n, 
",\Tictor E., .AJphonsus R. and Pearl 
I. Ether. At this early 
period but few Inelnhers of the Chureh were in the di
r City, Dialllond and Eurpka gaye alnple eyidence that 
prospecting was done, for the hiUs sUITounding those places 
were dotted with ho]e
 111ade h
' tIlt> n1Ïllers' pick


In the little yillagf' with its high-:,;ollllilÏng alHI 
g"f'stiye name were only a few log cahin:-;. In one of the
, with hiR hlullkets on the floor, Father 8('anlan l'f'
for thre(' weeks, returning to Salt Lake 011 the e\Te of Christ- 
. The growth of Tintic from lR73 to ] R80, though grad- 
ual, was yery 
low, hence no prie
t yisited the place till 188l'. 



At this time Eureka, the principal place in the district, had 
deyeloped into a fair-sized 111Ìning camp and arrangements 
were made for regular services every three 1110nths. In lö8-! a 
number of falIlÌlies had settled in the town of Eureka. They 
wanted, and asked that a resident priest be sent there. 


In Septelnber of the following year Father I(iley was 
sent to take charge of the place. There being no town site 
and all unoccupied land being free for settlers, he selected 
the site on which the present church and sehool are 10('ated. 
The land being suL::5equently patented by n1Ïnp-owners was 
purchased from them, and deeds luade out in regular forlIl 
to the Ordinary of the diocese. .L-\fter locating the dnuch 
and school site a collection for a new church was taken up. 
All gave according to their means, and the work of erection 
began in the latter part of X oVf'luber. The chur('11 wa
pleted on Chrishnas eve, and the first services were held on 
Christmas day, 1

5. In January, 1886, a school was opened 
in the church by ,Yilliam .T. Bogan, who also taught night 
school, which was largely patronized by the llliners and other 
citizens of the place. The school continued until October of 
the same year. 

In the ::5 pring of 18
)] Bishop 
canlan lllade an official 
visit to Eureka, hav.ing for his object the reopening of the 
school. Seeing tlm t the church could not accolllluoc1a te the 
Catho1ic children of the place, he decided on erecting a new 
building for school purposes. In this new project the citi- 
zens all gladly co-operated. After the encouragement re- 
ceived, he conllnenced. in )Iay, the construction of his future 
school, which was cOlnpleted in _\.ugust of the saine year, and 
in September, 1
01, four Sisters of the IToly Cross com- 
luenced their first sehool tenu. Rev. P. Donohoe, rector of 
the place, was indefatigable in his efforts to provide a good 
sehool for the children of his congregation, and ha



91 encouraged it in eyery way possible. Fully realizing 
the force of the text, "Xisi Dominus aedijic((cerit dOUlUm.., in 
t"Wlll m ZauoHu:enuzf {ju i edificant ea m," he has f'een in the 
past eight years the fruits of his labors and his own co- 
operation blessed by God and can with pleasure look back 
on the good results accolllplished. Father Donohoe holds ser- 
vices occasionally in )Üullmoth, which is connected by rail- 
road with Eureka. ,'Tith the big mines, )Iamlliotll nmy in the 
near future have a church where regular servires can be. 

ElTREI(A, XEV..A,D...-\. 
The hi
T of the Church in Eureka date
 frolH the diq- 
rovery of the first great ore bodies in that once thriving and 
prosperous n1Ïning Cëllnp. .L-ts early as 1867 a priest yisited 
the callip and held public services. The substantial stone 
church yet used, was erected by 
\Ionte\'erdp. The 
present pastor, Father 
Iannioll, took charge of Eureka in 
!)7" In addition to Eureka proper his charge extends frOln 
Palisade toward Ogden on the Southern Pacific railroad. 
Twice each year he visits the different railroad towns, where 
he holds bervice
 for the benefit of his people. I-Iami1ton and 
Cherry Creek, 'Yhite Pine County, which have two nice 
rhul'rhes built in the early '70s, are also a part of the Eureka 
In Tuscarora, Elko County, a church was erected in 1890 
by Rev. P. .J. Quigley, who at the time had charge of the; 
surrounding districts. During the present year a church was: 
built by the R.t. Rev. Bishop of the diocese in Carlin. Both: 
churehes COlne within the jurisdirtion of the pastor of 

Early in 18ô2 the first mine was located near .L
ustin by 
an attaché of the stage station at .J acobs Springs. Being a. 
rider in the pony express of these days, the new n1Ïne was 
christened" The Pony." On )Iay 10, 1862, a mining district 
was lllapped out, and called the Reese River district, after 



Captain Reese, the fir
t explorer of that region. It
in a yery short tillle, was lllal'yelous. Bping ehi.-ll'tered h
T its 
officers it was a lllOdelll1Ïning <,amp. 
Rey. E. K:elly, who "Ta
 the first priest to yisit 
alt Lake, 
was also the first to hold seryj(.ps in ..A. w.::tin, which at. the 
tinlC was under the jurisdiction of Ht. Up\,. Eugene 0 'Con- 
nell of 
acralllento. Suon after hi:, first yisit he eOllllnenced 
the erection of a church; hut hefore its <'Olllpletiou, was re- 
called to 
[arysyille. 1 fe was sw'('eedecl h
- FatlJer 
verde. who ('ontinued the work of his predecessor. The 
church then begun was boon fini
lwd. In 1872 he was trans- 
felTed to Pioche, and was succeeded by Rm T . ,Yillialli 
who reuwinf'd a few years, and was in turn sncceedpd by He,T. 
Joseph Phelan. In I8t;U tliP Church, which "Tas partially d('- 
stroyed b

 fire, was repaired at an expense of $3,()00 by Fa- 
ther Phelan. In IS!).! Father Phelan resigned hi
which was taken up the smne year by Hev. Janles Butler, who 
was succeeded by Rev. 
r. Sheehan. In 1907 Father SllPehan 
was transferred to 

\ LlA. 
where a ('l1ur('h had het'n built iu l
)Oj by Father ,rilliaIll 
Ryan. now of 
alt Lakp (1ity. rL'he church at Cherry Creek, 
attended frOlll Bly, ',"ras f'l'ef'Ì('(l h
T Father 
r oloney in the fall 
of 1880. 
\tta('hpd to all the parishes of the diuce
e of 
Lake.' are outlyiug' ulÌ
sion::; and distant stations yisited peri- 
odically by the nearpst priest
I any of these reulOte ulÌs- 
sions are lllining ('amps huried iu tli(' 11l01lnhÜlls anywhere 
frOlll fifty to two hundred lui les di
tant frOln a resident 
prief--t. It is not unu
ual for a prif'st to he 
l1l11UlOlled. ,,
lllllnH:'r, to lllinistpl" to a d
'ing' or fatall
. injul'e(l lllÏner 
one hundred lllilp::; away in the nlolultains. The" 
i('k call" 
t he ulUde on horseha('k. au(l is oftpn attende(l ,,,ith llllH'h 
hardship and (langer. 
rrlip Catholi(' population uf 
alt Lake dio('e.'
e i
luate<l at ten thousand, liying. in ('iti{-'
, town", yillages and 
Ül u1Ïnillg' ('amps. SOIll<' of th('
t. Catholi('
 an' hel'<ling" slIt'ep 



on the great ranges, SOllle are prospecting in the lllountains 
and other:::; are in out-of-the-way place
 and do not bee a 
priest. in years. 
,AJI in all, the diocese i
, territorially. the roughest and 
tllP most diffieult to efficiently' and perIllanentl

 organize and 
gOyern of an the 'Tieariate-apostolics or diocese::, in the 
nited Rtates. 


Bishop ........ ........... . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
Spcular Prie:-:ts ...... ........ ........ _ . .. . ..... 11 
IJ r ie:-õ1s of Rpligious Orden; ........................ 0 

rot[ll ............ . - '" . ......... ......... 
Churches with resident priest ....... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
ilIissiollS with Churches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 11 
Total (ihul'ehps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Stations ............ ... ..... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34: 
C 1 l1al)els ............ ..................... .. . ... 6 
Religious 'YOlneu (iucI. noyices and postulants). . . . . . 98 
<-;ollege for bo.,'s .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 
 .... ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. :2
Students studying for thp dioeese........... 3 

\..cadelllies for young la(lies . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 
Pupils .. ....... .................... 401 
Paro('hial Rehooh: ............... '" ...... ;) 
Pupils ........ . . . . . . . . . 4
Orphan .ll.:-,yhUll .................. 1 
Orphans .......... ......... .......... 183 
 1 of young people undt.I' CatholiC' care. . . . . . . . . . .. SD5 
Hospital - - . . . . .. ............. ............ _. .. 1 
Catholie population, about .........................10,000 



Bishop of Salt Lake. 


Bl::5HOP OF SALT L_-\.KE. 

\nd I will raise lle up a faithful priest who shall do 
ac('ording to 11y heart and 1l

oul; an(l [ will huil(l hilll a 
faithful hou:-;(-' and hp 
hall walk all days before 
anointed. "-1. J
ings, 5, 33. 
,Yhen we began thi
 history we introduced to our read- 
 a Spanish p]'ie
t, Fray 
[ar('os de Xizza, who, in ] ,"):39, 
onora instnl<'ting the tribes as he passed anlC1ng 
them, then. entering' 
\rizona, ('ro;-;:-;ed Hlountains and deserts, 
and f..mIl afar. gazpd. first of wÌ1Ïte lllen, on tlIp a(loJw and 
roek facpd to""n:-; cf tlip nl
terious Zuñi:-;. ()n tht-' eonfilles 
of thp Zuñi and :Jloqui lands the Spaniard planted the C"L'O:-;:-:, 
the f'lllhleUl of Ulan's redeulption. 
,r e end Ollr work ".ith a hri(.f biography of an lri:-;h 
prie:-;t, who, :m:3 
.ears after "--'ra
" :JI an
os lH.-'gall hi:-; llli:-;
ary labors in ,Arizona, entpred the wilderne
s of the 
t and rai:-:efl thp ('ro

 in r
tah awl Xeya(la. In the thre9- 
and oll{:'-half ('t-'nturie:-; that han-' t'OlllP and disapppared since 
. 11ar('os' till1P, the South".p:,t aIHl the Pacific lands haye 
\,.itllp:-;sNl Inan
. c-llallge
; aU but tlIp PYerla
ting hills, the 
PÌerllal truth and thp llllHll1tahie laws of (
o(l haye ch
The ahoriginal o".ner:'Ì of the :-;oil, with their languages, 
paga 11 ri te
, ('ustOlllS an<1 usage
, Ita \Te \\'êUH'<l, and in a few 
yean; will hf' as if the
. werf' not. TIlE' Rpaniard aud the 1lexi- 
can, who mingled alllong', intennarrietl ".ith the tribes and 
f'harf'd tllPir lalHls, haye disappeal'f'<1 and their plael'
filIed h
. all aliell l'at'e, of an alien language, of unfamiliar 
ways, hahits and nUUlnf'r:-:. 
\ll things havp altered ::-aYC 
those that (Òannot change. 
In 1;)39 the Npalli
h priest, fi\
e thou:-:au(l lllile
from hi:-; own land and people, prea('hed to the 
avage Eudes 
anù Yaqui;-,. the 1
nity and Trinity of God, the Bi rth. Cl'uci- 



fixioll and Hesurrection of Jesus Christ; he told thenl of 
the Church Christ had founded to preserye and pprpetuate 
the revelations God hath llladf\ to the lnllnan race, and that 
what he was teaching them then was that which the Son of 
God taught fifteen hundred year
 hefore their tiule; he spoke 
to thelll of death, judgnlent, heaven and hell. 
Three hundred years after the death of the Spanish 
priest, an Irish priest, six thousand miles away from his 
na tal land, meets in the wilderness of the Southwest tlll
pioneers of civilizatiou fronl the East and 111any of them 
ha It and listen to his 11lessage, This Irish pdest, like tllt' 
consecrated Spaniard, tells thenl of the Unity and Trinity 
of God; of death, judgnlent, heaven and hell. In the doc- 
trines he unfolds there is no variation, no change frOln 
those taught the Sonora Indians three hundred years before 
by the Spaniard, who spoke the truths the ..1,siatics heard 
fronl the lips of the ..A__postles, who received them froul .J esus 
Chri st. 
In 17ôf) Fray JUllipero Serra, dark-haired, short of 
ure, sun-hrowned, offered up the Holy Sacrifice of the J.\fass 
at Ban Diego, California, in a lllÏserable shaek. Over the 
entrance to the shark, Adn1Ïral Galvez' sailors had nailed a 
cross. The priest sprinkled the hut inside and outside with 
T water, and the shack lwcmue the Chureh of S1. Joseph. 
N ext day, when ::\1ass ,yas said again, the shack-churrh was 
filled with a swarthy-complexioned, dark-eyed, long-haired, 
wild-looking people, the Deguen [ndians frOlu the border 
land of lower California. 
rhe languagf\ of the ::\1a:::,:-, "Tas 
La tin. 
Forty years after the death of the Spanish priest Juni- 
pero Serra, an adobe rhureh was built on the site where the 
shack, with the rross over its entrance, had stood, 
built of sun-dried brick, had a pretentiou
pirf' rising 
above it, and the spire was crowned with a cross
white and visible beyond Point LOlna. The first Slmday 
the church was opened the priest who stood at the altar 
offered the same identical SacL'ifiee and in the smne language 



whi('h the dead priest .J unipero Serra had offered nearly a 
half century before. The gestures of the priest, the vest- 
Inenb-., the cruci:fì.
 over the altar, the )1a::;
-buok, wer(:' the 
saIne, only the vestments were a trifle newer and better, and 
the priest's llaIne was )Iorera. But the congregation had 
changed. Spaniards, .nlexicalls, Indians. half-castes filled thp 
adobe church; eyerything had changed but the 
Four years ago, nearly one hundred years after the 

fass of Father :\Iorera, we assisted at the IIoly Sacrifice 
t. J o:-,eph's Chureh. San Diego. There were pre
ent two 
)1exicans, three Indians, and about six hundred fair-haired, 
blue-eyed Irish Celts and I rish-..L-\ulericans, speaking a ('OUI- 
mon language and as different in Inanners, usages and habits 
frOIn the two other congregations, as day is different fronl 
night. The priest, who in 1669 said the first l\Iass in San 
Diego, was a Spaniard, .J unipero Serra; the priest who said 
1as::; fort
T years afterwards was the son of a Spanish 
father and a 
Iexican 11lother, and was called Estavan 
era; and he who offered up the Adorable Sacrifice the Sun- 
T we .were pl'es(:'nt was an Irish Celt baptised Edward 

Iurphy. There was no ('hange in the )1ass, not even the 
shadow of a change; eternal truth is but from the imnlortal, 
and truth can never change. 
The Chureh 
tood alnlost on the site of the aJobe which 
replaced the shack. It was a large and architecturally fine 
structure, built of brick, with tower and spire and over all 
was the sign of nlan's reclelnption-the Cross-seen far out 
at sea. 

bout one hundred years after the Spanianl, J unipero 
Serra, said his .first 
Iass in Southern California, a young 
Irish priest stood at the altar of a church, built a few years 
before his cOIning, in a yalley seyen hundred and fifty Illiles 
to the northeast of San Diego. The twenty Inen and WOlnen 
who were pre:::,ent on this Sunday in the little church, 
and heard what the Deguens witnessed and listened to a cen- 
tury before in San Diego. So that if it were permitted to the 
Indians of San Diego, dead for a hundred years, to arise, 



appeal' and a
sif't at 
Lass 011 this particular 
unùay and in 
the ehur('h built in the nllle

, e\'er
-thillg hut the handful 
of people and the priest would be falllÍliar to then1. They 
would :-:ee the sanle crucifix, the 
allIe cross over the entrance, 
the salHe altar, eyen the 
allle l\Iass-hook. They woulrl hear 
alHe words fronl tlw lip
 of the 
a('rificing priest. wit- 
ness the f'mne IllOVelllel1ts, ;:,ee the sallIe gestures, the saIne 
YPsÍ1nellts, the sallie Host ele, n.1Ìed and assist at identically 
the SanlE' Racrifice. There was only this differell<'e. The 
t of a century before was of delieaÜ-- build, low of sta- 
ture, of olive tint. and a Spaniard; the officiating' priest 

tanding at this altar of the yalley, was of lll'rC'ulean huild, 
of rugged health, tall, of fair cOlllplexion. and was an J rish- 
This T ri
h priest who halted the advancing pimwer:-:, as 
(lit1 John tlIP Raptist :2,000 years before the cannTan:-; cro:-;s- 
ing the J ùrdan, and 
poke to then1 of God and the life be- 
yond the grave; who thirty-six years ago offereel up thp IIoly 
:Sacrifice in tlIP Catholic church of Ral1 Lake 'Talle
'. was 
canlan, now Bishop oyer all Ptah and nearly one- 
half of K eyada. 
Born ill J relalld sixt
T-fiyf' years ago, young Lawrence 
Scanlan grew' to boyhood surrounded by the histuriC' hill:::; 
and vaIIeys, anrl filled with the rOlnantic traditions of his 
natiye count
-. "rehel Tipperary." 
It waf'. and we believe i
 yet, a tribal and pious tra..1i- 
tion anlOllg the J rish Celts that the honor of every allC'ipnt 
fmuily denlallded a rl'presf'ntative in th(' priesthood. Åf' the 
sons grew up, one of theIn, generally the nwst prOlllising, 
was deyotecl to the priesthood. Belieying, with the Hebrew, 
that "the hest of the flock and of the vineyard shall lw givell 
to the Lord," and that" every offering shal1 be of the best," 
the Irish father 
elected frOll1 his dOIl1estic floC'k the he
and physically the finest of his sons, and offel'l'<l hinl to fi-od. 
This explains why the IHen of tlw Irish priesthood-and it 
has often hepl1 f'ollunented upon-are, to the ohsernulÌ eye, 
the finest hody of Illen found anywhere' in Europe. rrll(' T l'i:-;h, 



Jikf' the .J ews, are proud of the IJriesthood of their natioll, 
.. King
 were illY allce
tors," replied ...L-\grippa, tllf' Jew, to 
the HOlllan EUlperor, .. and 
nnong' theul were high prie:-:ts 
whosp pripsthood my fmllily considered erJlUlI to royalty it- 
self. " 
Haying finished his ('la:-isi('al stwlies, Lawrence Rcanlau 
entprt'd the fanlOu:-: missionary :-:t'llliuary, .....\..11 IIallows (.....-\Jl 

) Collegp, I )nhlin. \Yritiug' of 
\Il lIallows in the 
(iathoJie' Encyclopedia, )1 r. TholllaS (), Donnell tell:,: us: .. It 
has heen the ai111 of thp <Ii J'f'(.torr-; of 
 \ll lfallow:-:, from the 
heginning to forn1 1l1Ís:-:ionarie
 of pnH'tiea 1 t
-pe, In an 
ftCaden1ic eOllr:-:f' of Sf'\-en yea rs, three are df'yoted to phy:-:i('", 
mental philosophy, language awl English litf'rature; thf' rt'- 
1113lning: four year:-i to Sa('rpd Reriptnrp. history. liturg-y. 
canon law, s3ered eloquf'nce and the s(.if'nl"e of tlH-'olog
'. The 
:-;tudputs arf' eu('ourage(l to foster anfl strengthen the sl'on- 

alleous spirit of piety whi('h is tlIt' llPritage of lllost Irish 
children. The
- are al:-:o encouraged to deyelolJ health and 
lllilnline:-:s by outdoor f'xf'reisf's, sUe'h as foothall. hurling, 
-. handhall. tennis, erie'kf't, athletic cOlupetitious and 
long walks." Eyen to this day there lingers in .....-\11 Hallow:-. 
a tradition that LaWrf'llee 
('anlan was aUlong the greate
::thletes that e\Ter graduated from tht' eo\]ege. 
Haying ('ompleted his theologil"al studies and SUCl'P:-:S- 
T pal-::-:t'd his exanlÍnatiolls, he wa
 adyaw'f'd to ()rders, 
êliHl on .fune :.!-t-. l
()S. was ordained a prif'st. Self'(.ting 
the far di:-:tal1t ('alifornia for his field of lahor
, the 
prit'st l'PtUl'Iw<1 to his hOl1lP in Tippt'rary to spend a ff'w 
 with his p:lrents and yisit his relatiyes and fri('wls he- 
fore hidding tlIelll .. good hye." lJerha ps fOl'e\'pr. (hl.f nly 

). j.-'athE'1' 
('anlan If'ft hi
 pal'ent:-:. h01ne and fl'if'nd:-: \\
a feeling that he l11ight neYf>r again look upon them. 
- one who know
 the "al'lllth of the] rish hf'ay't and 
tlw st I'onp; howls of dOlllf'!'ti(' a fff'etion "hich hind together 
tlu-. lllPlllhprs of an r rish fmni ly ('au understand the intense 
grief whi('h fills the houw "hen a lwloyed son and hrother 
]eay('s tllPlll. it nUl
- he foreyer. But Father Ncal1lan he- 



longed no" in an e
pecialillanner to God and it was the con- 
viction that he was doing the "ill of God which tenlpered the 
sorro" and strengthened tht> heart::, of the father and mother 
who now, for the last tÏ1ne on earth, eillbraced their parting 
Bon. As he passed out, contending with eUlotions which 
spoke with tears, his lllOther followed hinl, flung' her
elf upun 
his hreast in an agony of loye and grief and fainted in the 
arnu...; of her consecrated son. Tenderly un"illding the llla- 
terual al'ln
, he resigned her to his brothel', and, broken in 
spirit. passed Oll. 

.. * * * lIe ,,"Pllt forth 
St r{,ll
th{,llf'<l to 
ift('d i 0 Huhllue 
"hl' might oJf InunaJ
 }lassioll. to pass Oll 
Quiptly to the saeritke of all 
The lofty hop\'s of llWllhood. and to turn 
Till' high HmlJitioll written on his hrow 
To scrn' hiH (ind and lJell' his fellow-man." 

Arriving in New York, Father :Scanlan crossed the Isth- 
mus of Panama and safely reaching San Francisco, was ap- 
poinÌf'd, XOyelllber 
9. 18G8. assistant priest at :S1. Pat- 
rick's. Frolll here he "a;:, transferred to the ('athedral, 
notwithstanding the protests of the pastor of St. Patrick's, 
who had learned to appreciate the good will and disinterest- 
ednes::; of his new curate. \Yhile at the cathedral he so 
endeared hilllself to the parishioners that after thirty-six 
 of ahselH'e frOln California. the San FrancÙ,co Jlonifor 
uld say of hilll: "Father :Scanlan. no" Bishop of Salt 
Lake, was a nlost deyout and faithful priest, who is still re- 
membered with affe(,tioll hy tllP \'eteran
 of the catheùral 
parish.' , 
) a cry ('ame to Bishop () 'Colllwll of n ra
s V'alle
from Pioche, X eyac1a, asking for a re
ident priest. Pioche 
"as a n1Ïlling ('alnp aIllong the hill::-, of southeastern Nevada, 
"hose water
 .are tributary to the Virgin HiYer. The emnp 
was pitehed fOlll' hundred lllil(>
 fl'Olll tll{-' lleare
t railroad. 
Bishop () 'Connell wa
 unahle tu an
"el' the call of Pio('he 
and apvealed to 
\.rchbishop _\Jenlêln

 for assistance. The 
...\xdLhishop spoke to J1-'ather 
ealllan ahout the spiritually 



titute condition of Pioche. and at Ollce the young priest 
yolunteered for the mÜ,sion, 
He now enters, in earnest, on his reJnarkable n1Ïssion- 
ary career. Staging it frOJll Palisadf', Nevada, through the 
mountains, the cold of Fe
:!.'uary wore hÏIll down, and when 
he reached Hamilton he had mountain fever and was threat- 
ened "ith pnelunonia. Nothing but his youth and 
constitution carried hin1 through a severf' siege of illness. 
Recovering after a n10nth's convalescence in Han1ilton, he 
pushed on, and on 
[arch 16 entf'red Pioche, ,Ye haye said 
tha t Pioche was a 111ining calnp; it was more, for in those 
days there gathered here some of the wildest and toughest 
characters of the Southwest. Every man was a law unto 
hin1self and gambling hells, brothels, elegant 
 and low 
groggeries swung wide open day and night. Here also were 
Jnen of brawn and muscle, big-hearted men, and men of 
honor and generous in1pulses whose courage and ll1anhood 
awed the tougher element. These men of all creeds and no 
creed "elcomed the young priest, and with their co-operation 
he soon built a fran1e church with two rooms tacked unto 
the rear for his living and sleeping apartments. 
He took his meals in a Chinese "Chop Suey." The 
third Sunday after he opened his little church with a big 
cross on it, a deputation of ruiners "\yaited upon him and 
firmly but respectfully intin1ated to hin1 that his serlllons 
were not suited to his environment. He had been preaching 
on Death, .Judgn1f'ut, Heaven and lIen. They told him to 
keep on telling thenl about heaven, but to leave out the other 
three as un
uited to the time and place. ]'ather Scanlan 
ans"ered that he was not preaching his own opinions, but 
the doctrines of J esuf': Christ, tlw Son of God, "and," he 
f'ontinlwd, "while I anl here I'll preach Jesus Christ and 
Hill1 Crucified." They boycotted hÏJn. The Chinese eating 
tent deu1anded cash for every JHeal. He was driven to beg a 
lneal IWl'e and therf', and his clot1lf'
 hegan to lusf' ('0101' and 
ill1Ílate to the weeds of the trainp. (hlf' afternoon, when 
walking in the shade uf hi::; church, Dan 0 'Lcar




him. .. Father," 
aid I )an, shaking the prie:-:;t hy the hanù, 
TUU 'ye won out, the hoys adn1Ïre your pluek; IH-'rè's fifty 
dollars, go down to l{iulha lis and huy a suit of l'lothe
o \Ye'lL 
all he with 
TOU next 
unday," After the reeonciliation Father 
Heanlan ealled a llleeting of tllf' Jllinf'r
 and a
ked for suh- 
seriptions to huild a hospital wlH're tliP si(ok and injured 
of tliP ('mllp lllight he eared fur. He went around the follow- 
ing day soli('iting aid and in two lumlths the hospital ,,'a:-: 
open and ready to l'f'eejye patients. 
,YIH-'n, (>ar1y in It-i7;
. (1 1 athel' 
canlan '''HI.{ SUllllllOlWd 
lLOnlP h
 ..L\ n.hhishop to take eharge of the Ï1nportant 
parish of Petahnlla, (\difornia, the citizens and Ininer:-: of 
Pioelw sent a petition to his Unwe requesting hinl to Iea\'e 
Father 8eanlan with thenl. ] fe renlaine(l hut a few 1l1Ouths 
in Pptaluma, when he yolunteprf'(l for th(' l 
tah ]ni
sion and 
left for 
alt Lake. 
,rlH-'Jl, ou ..L\ugust 1-1-, lS7;
\lÌlwr H('anlan pnterp(l 
Halt Lake, Ill' becanle 11lissionar
T l'f'('tor on
1' the large:-:;t 
parish in tlw l
nited Htates. If it were po:-:sihle f01' hinl to 
eolle('t in onp plaee the lllelnbers of his seattl'1'illg' rlo('k, IH' 
possihly ('ould llêl\
e counted eight hnndn
d ('atholi('s in a 
tate populatioll of 
7,OOO. In Ralt LaIn' (1ity awl ()g-c1Pll 
there were, perhaps, DO Catholie:-:, the ntlw1' 7I() were llis- 
per:-:pd on railroad divisi 1" in lliining' e:llHps and among till' 
yillage:-; of the statf'. relll' littlf' hri('k dlUreh to whi('h hf-' 
fpll heir in Ralt Lakp (

 carripd a \,isihlf' ('ross of wood 
and an invisihle deht of $G,O()(). It ,nlS tIll' onl
T (\lÌÌ1olic 
rhureh in a region of t\;),O()() squarp lllilps of tprritor
'. In 
two years IIp lifte(l the $G,OOO nlOrtgage fronl the ('hu1'(, h, hut 
in doing so he taxell his patielwe all(l his hUlllilit

 to thf\ 
Iin1Ìt. He still clw
lIs with grateful ('OlllplaeplH'Y on tl1(\ ('OU1'- 
tf'sy and liherality of his Protestant friends who caull' to 
his help during the
e trying Yf'al's. 
In It'7l) tbe faule of Rilver Beef, hef'a use of its ri('lJ on' 
i t
, was hecOJning' wide:-;preacl. n
forc tl1(' dis('oYer
' of 
f:1Ivpl' ore it wa
 an unat1 racti\'e d('sert in the southern part 
of Hlf' 
tate, and ahout scyentecll Inilps from 
t. O('orge, 
where the first 
I(jrJnon temple was erected and (,ollJl'leteù. 

 ù TAH 


\fter the di
coYery of tlw mines Inen flockeù there frOIlI 
all }Jart
 of tlLf' 
 of rtah and Xeyada. It was called 
Sih.er Reef froIll the geological fOl"lnation of the hills. COIn- 
ing within the jurisdietion of Father Scanlan's largf' parish, 
he yisited tlIP IJlaee in 1
77, luaking the round trip of 1,000 
lniles frOlll 
alt Lake and Lack on horseback. In the trip were 
included FrisC'o. Fort C
nlleron and nUln
T other snmllel' lLlin- 
Ülg ('aillps. lle wa::-: absent fh'e 11l0llths, returning tu Salt 
Lake in ()('tober. Being pleasecl with the future pr6
pects of 
tllf' pI a('e, he Sf'n t Father K i ley, who is 1 ðÎ -l ('anle f rOUI San 
FrancisC'o to lu:>lp hilli. OIl a yisit to the He2f in IHÎ
. Father 
iely returned in 
\ugust of the saIne year and reported that 
Hlliong the llliners and other residents of the place were luany 
 who Wf're prepared to huild a C'hurch, and inyited 

her Scanlan to reyisit thenl. [nlluediately Father 
Ian nlade preparations for his second yisit, lea \'iug Halt Lake 
latf> in Xoyeluher of that 
'ear. ....
ftel' reaehing his destina- 
til)ll a largt' lot was soon :-;ecured. and on .1 anuar
' 1 
t a sub- 
scription list for a new church was opened. rro the appeal 
' respondf'd. and the work of construction was 
soon begun. In less than four lllontlu; a neat, ('OIUllludioms 
frallle C'hureh was cOlllpleted. First sPlTices-a JI iRsa ran- 
tata-were C'elehrated on Easter Hunda
', 187!}; the chureh, 
blessed on the :-;mne da
.. was dedieated to Ht. .John. 
rrhe next year Father 
C'anlan Holicited 
fl"Olll the nLÌners and hui It Ht. .J ohn'R Hospital where the sick 
and wounded Inen of the emllp were attended to h
' a surgeon 
and three Histel'i' of the Holy Cro
In 1
Î9, while Father Seanlan was engaged in ereeting 
the ('hur('h aud hospital at Hilyer Heef. an inyitation wa
tended to hiln b

rOl'lllOl1 authoritie:-, of 
t. George to 
hold selTiees in thei r ta hernaele. He aC'C'epted, aJlfl a!ì the 
RPITiees wpre to hl' on Bunda
.. the regular Hnuda

AI iss(( ('a Iltata and senuon-formcd the progrmn of th2 da


\ C'hoir was nef'flf'<l, and as the tahenuu'le ('hoil' of the place 
did not know Latill. it \Hls thought that the 
illg'illg of thp 
Kyrif' Elf'is01Z, Uluria and Credo eonld not h
 t'alT:etl out. 



The leader of the ("hoir asked for Catholic' lllU
ic. awl hf'ing 
giyen .. Peter's 
s," in t"o "eek
 his ehoir knew the 
and could sing it in Latin. On the third 
unday of 
Iay 11igh 

fass wa:::; sung in the tabernacle. Before the selTices Father 
Scanlan explained the meaning of the Yf':-;Ìlllf'nts u
ed at 

IaRs, and at the Gospel preadlPd a logieal and f'loquent 
111on, taking for his text, "True adorers of <lod 
ha 11 adore 
Him in spirit and truth." Careful to give no offen:-;f' aw1 to 
respect the helief of his hearf'rs, nf'arly all of wh01n were 

, he won for hill1sf'lf the e
teelll and good "ill of all. 
The inyitation to Father 
canlan by the officials of the 
Church of the Latter Day Saints at S1. George was not by 
any llleallf.) an isolated expression of ('ourtesy frOlll tIlt' )[01'- 
nlon elders to a Catholic priest. )f r. Young and his 
in the presidency, indeed all of the 
IOl'lllOn offieials, were 
ever friendly to the Catholic priest, and Rishop Scanlan has 
nIany tilHes in conYf'rsation gratefully refern--'ù to this re- 
peated luanifestation of generous feeling- towards hÍ1ll
elf and 
his predecessors. To "hat are we to attrihute this exc'f'p- 
tional treahnent of CathoJie priests in tho
e early tÍlnes? .1-\..s 
a unit of soeipty the ayerage 
[ornlon has llO Inore loye for a 
Catholic or his religion than has the Baptist or the Sweden- 

 rather prolonged experif'ue(ì has tallght the 
Catholic that in a COlillllunit}T "here the nlajority of the lllel11- 
bel's are distinguished for courtes

 and graciousness of Inan- 
ner, intoleralH'f' an(1 higot]'
. to himself and the ('reed he pro- 
fesses are Bilcnt, if not unknown, and thai "here vulgarity, 
low breeding and ahsenCL> of refined Inanners are the (,01fl- 
panions of a people, he and his rf'ligion are insulted and 
yilified, if liot a('('ursed. 
'Yaiyillg the qup
tion of the social status of tlI(' 1Iornl0Jl 
rOllllllunity in :-,earching for a rea SOli of the inyariable kil1d- 
nf1SS with which Catholics and their priests haye been always 
trf'ated, and which Catholics haye not failed to apprpe'iate, 
we are dispo
ed to attrihute it to a (,olnparatiYely unknown 
and an entirely unsusperted SOUl'e'f'. 
\[r. Brigham Y onng and the 
[onllolls, c1ri\'en hy 



a renwrsele::-;::-; per
eeution frolli lUinoi::-;, went intu winter 
quarters near Council Bluff::-; on the 1\1 Ü;souri, late in 1840, 
the outlook for the 
IOl'lllOn ('hief and hi
 peo1>lp for the fu- 
ture was gloOll1) and forbidding. 
On N oyember HJth, an extraordinary nlan, a priest, nÜs- 
sionary and explorer, landed at Council Bluffs, returning 
fronl Fort Assiniboine on the ..L
thalJa::-;ca, in the northern re- 
gions of Canada, where he had been evangelizing the tribes. 
This mall was Father De Smet, the Hocky :ßIountain mis
ary. Brigham Young, who perhaps had neyer spoken to a 
Catholic prie::-;t anù knew nothing of his religiun, had heard 
of him. Now listen to }1-'ather De 8met: H:K ot far frOlll the 
trading post in a yast and beautiful plain, is a tf'lllpoJ'ary 
lllllent of the 
, driYE'n out frolli their eity 

al1Yoo on the l\lissi::,::-;ippi. 
,. I was introduceù to their prpsident, 
lr. Young', an 
affable and very polite gentle111Hn. lIe pre

ed nIl' yery 
f'arnestly to remain a few days (a
 his guest), an ill \,ita tion 
,yhich my linlÍted time did not pennit Ine to accept. The 
unheard-of persecutions and atrocious sufferings ell(lure(l by 
thesp unhappy people wiU furnish a sad page to the great 
Valley of the ,Yest." ("De :SIIlet's Life and Travels," Chit- 
tenden, "\T 01. II., p. 611). In his interviews with 
Ir. Y onng, 
Father De SUlet unfolded before the astonished eye
 of the 
prophet the "
atch Range and the Valley of Great 
Lake which he crossed in 1841. ("' In 1841 I trayersed lllllCh 
of the vallf'Y," De SUlet, Vol. IV., p. 1412.) "'riting ill 1851 
to his nephew in Belgiu111. Father De S111et adds: "
(the :ßlornlons) asked mf' a thousand lLuestion
 about the 
regions, and thE' hasin of the Great Ralt Lake pleased theul 
greatly fronl the account I gaye tl1el11 of it. ,ra'-' that what 
determined them (to settle there)? r would not darE' to 
assert it. They a l'f' thf'1'f'." 
,Vhatevel" illfluen('e FatllE'l' ))p RUH-'t's de
(,l'i ptiou of the 
Halt Lake region may haye had on the nlinù of President 
Young, we fpel satisfif'cl that tllP 
 and bearing- of the 
edueutetl awl l"E'fillPd pl'ip
t mu
t ]m\'(' ÏJnpl'f'ssed the 
l110n ('hief l110st fa \'()rahl
' and ine] il1l'd hiBl to a friendly 

: ):14 


ideration for thf' priests he aftennuds 111et In the city 
IlE' founded between tlw Inountains. 
''",Then Father Seanlan returned frOlll HilYf'r Beef to Ralt 
L:lke, a deputation fronl tllf' citizens waited upon hilll and 
}Jre:-;ented him with a gold watch and <'hain and an addresò"Ì 
('(.ngratulating hinl on the suecess of his nlinistration and ex- 

)r('ssing their admiration for him as a priest and eitizen. 
_\ t ahout the saulf' tinle his Archbishop conferred upon 
Jllm the titlf' of Yieal'-foranc or Hural Dean. "rhe indf'fatig- 
;.!bJe priest now entered upon a \Tisitation of his vast par- 
ish. (hI horsehaek or on foot, he visited Provo. ()phir, 

to('kton, Alta, (1astle Gate, Park (1ity, and BillgluUll, and 
'\Y!t0ì'E.'yer there was a prospeet of esta hi ishing. a parish he 
(,l"f'ded a church. There is no part of an honorahle ana 
:,pllsitiye priest's dllt
. so painful and humiliating as that of 
going" fn>ln house to house and luan to llUlll solieiting InOlH'
either for his own support or the building of a ehul"eh. It is 
trying to his patif'nee, his nlê.lnhood and hi
'Yhen he sets out in the lIlorning to ('auyass tll(> eOlnluuuit
for a:-;sistanee he llla
' expeet to eu<,uunter au uceasional r('- 
fusal; hut, if he he 
'Ol1l1g aud inexperien<,erl, he is not pre- 
pared for the insult or sneering f'xprf'SSiOll a('e01npanying 
that refusal. In the pari.'" days of his lllinistI,
. in ("tah 
:b"ather Rpanlan hf'gan the erertion of a frmne chnrc'h in a 
distant nlission. ()ne sharp, frosty. morning in Ff'hrnar.", 
he elH'uulltered a fairly wf'll-to-do lllHll whosp aC(IlIaintance 
hE' had made a ff'w weeks hefore. Asking hin1 conrteou
fOJ" a 
uhs('ripti()n for the ('hun'h, tlH' Ulan turned upon him 
with a snf'f'r and told him, Ìn 1l1Ol'ê \'igorons Á\nglo-Raxon 
than we write it, to "go to Uehenna 01' Hades." Father 
S('anlan was then in the priule of his 
'oung' Ilmnhood, weigh- 
ing' 1 
)8, standing (; fef't 1 and possf'="sf'(l of gTf'at strength. 
For a mum
nt the fig-hting' blood of hi:-; n.l<'e l'usse:-:sed hi Ill, 
his ('olor heightened, the man of the r rish l'LH'e ahnost ('OIl- 
qUf'l'('d thp prif'st of the TImllan rite: then. 1'C'1Il\'1l1hpring his 
SêH'}'L,d ('alling, tlw YOllng' priE'st huw(>(l hi:-: head and ,vent 
his \nl
'. The next morning the samt- nUUl waited upon hiln, 



apologized for his rudeness and ga\'e him a hundrt'd dollars 
for the L'11u1'('h. 
.....-\t Pioche, when the hoycott was on, he wa
 p:lssing on 
the opposih' side of the street to that on ,d1i('h wa
 a saloon 
hefore whuse winùows"ere loitering a nUlnher of hangers-on. 
One of the nlllnber called out to hinl and sairl: ,. 
ay, F'ather 
Scanlan, we haye an a rglllueut here of 
01ììE; inl}Jortanee anù 
'oul' upinion. It is ahout the age of the clevi I. Can 
tell us ho\v old he is?" .. GentlellUHl," sp()ke the prie;.;t fron1 
the 01 her side of the street, ., take IllY adyice and keep the 
rpL'ords of your own fmllil
' awl "lJecinlly that of 
'Ol1r own 
father. " 

lt BelulOnt Father H('anlan "as stopped on the 
OlW afternoon h
' a specly looking ('hap with a red and bulbou
nose. The tnll11p asked for a dillle, and the priest gaye him 
hyenty-fh'(' cents, sa
'ing at the same tinw: "X ow, IH'on1Ïse 
lue you won't get drunk on this." The tramp thanked hinl 
and replied: ,. Drunk un twenty-fiye cents! ] IH'ou1ise you 1 
"on't. ,rhy, l{everelld Ril', it would take ninety-nine rents 
of a dollar to make UI(' drunk." 
,rhell, in lRR(>, Father H('anlan "a
 llolllinated to the 
Episeopate h
' the Holy 
èe, and wa:.; appointed Virar-.....-\pos- 
tolir oypr all Ctah and a large portion of Xl'vada, he went 
to Han Fran(.is('o for his eouseeratiou, and on .J une :2
18S4, wa:-: ('onsc('rated Bi:-:hop of Larandun h
T Hi
An'hhisho}> Hiol'dan, as"isted hy Bishop
 () 'Connell and 
::\Ianogue, The ('el'elllOUY of ('on
e('l'atiou considf'red h

alone was lllagnifi('ent and elahorate as the eel'enlOuials of 
the (1atholi(' (
hur('h al'P wont to he; hut to lllany of thosp 
present thel'p was aùded a deep and signifi('ant illtere"t. Thi
arw..;p froul the fa(.t that lw who was being- eonserrated to one 
of thf' hight'st offires in tllP gift of the (ihnr('h and who was 
ahout to I'ptm'n to the l'lu?,'g'ed rf'g-ion in di:.whargp of the du- 
ties whi('h that offi(.f' ilIll>used, was, eighteen years, hefol'e 
their own spiritual a(h'iser, and sOllle of WhOU1 he had llUlr- 
riNI mHI haptize(l. lIe had hef'll iu and out aIllOlIg theill. in- 
};truetillg thelll iu all that was ('ulllluendahle, enL'ouragin



thf'Ill to pure and holy living, synlpathizing "Tith thenl iu 
OITOWS and afflictions, Rharing' their joy:-: "Tlwn they 
rejoieed, lllinisterillg fnithfully to all tlwir Rpiritual ueeds, 
rPIH'oving when reproof was necessary, hut always inspired 
"Tith ulOtivps unnlistakahl
T for their be
t interests, hoth spir- 
i tua 1 and nUl tprial. 

-\nd now, "Tllf'n the Church" put a fair lnitre upon his 
-td aud clothed hill1 with the gannents of the High Priest," 
th2Y rejoicpd with excppding' great joy and knew he was not 
forgottf'n of God. "Of 
Bishop Reanlan returned to Ralt Lake and took up his 
duties at onf'e. The ring and purple 1uade no ehangf' in hinl. 
lIe reluained and remains the salue kindly, unassuluing char- 
acter he was before the 1uitre and the garnlent
 of the High 
Priest were put upon him. 
,Ye lunTe spen that he originated and fOUlldpd en'ry 
parish, every Catholic educational and charitable institution 
in Ctah. lIe now began a pastoral visitation of his vast 
YJcariate, entering mining camps, visiting inland towns and 
crossing regions of desolation untouched by any nlark of 
('i vi liza ti on. 
Lp:lving Delamar one afternoon to visit a Catholic fmn- 
ily four or fh'e nriles west of the Nevada mining ealnp, he 
11let on the road and entered into conversation with a man 
"Tho, frOlll his dress and Learing, the Bishop thought to he :1 
preaeher. "Good afternoon," sairl the Bishop, 
haking hands 
with tlw stranger. "l\fay I ask who you areJ" "
Iy nanle 
is Collins," answered the other. "I anI a poor 1uiRsionary 
preaching in these parts." ".A "That 
" said the Bishop, ,. ..A.. 
sionary," replied the prf'af'her, pulling out of his pocket a 
little bla('k tf'SbUnellt which opened at tlu' preeise tf'xt he 
wanted. "I am come to preach salvation to the
e poor 
1uiners, ] [ow shall they call on HÌJn in whOln the,\T have not 
hf'lieved, and how shall they heli{'yC' in HiIll of ,YhOlll they 
haye not heard, and how shall tllC',\T hear without a preaeher!" 
"That is all very "TelJ," interposed the Bishop, "but why 
(lOll't you finish thf' text, 'How 
halJ they preach unless they 



be sent?' 
ow who sent you!" "Sent?" said the preacher. 
"Yes, sent," spoke the Bishop. "
1y Archbishop sent me, 
and the Pope, the Bishop of Roome, sent him and his predeces- 
sors, and I send my priests. Now, who sent you!". "The 
Spirit of the Lord," said the preacher boldly, for he was not 
a man to be easily put out of countenance. "I hope you do 
not deny that Christ is able to send I-lis own messengers 
without human intervention 
" "God forbid that I should 
doubt it for one moment," replied the Bishop; "I know that 
lIe can. I know that He sent l\Ioses and .Li\aron without hu- 
man intervention to establish the Aaronic priesthood, and I 
know that lIe superseded this very priesthood of His own 
ordination, by sending, also without hUlnan intervention, the 

postolic priesthood, and what He did once, of course lIe 
can do again. God forhid I should doubt that; I should be a 
Jew if I did. 
till I do observe that wheneyer God f'ends 
anyone direetly frOlll Hilnself, and without human interven- 
tion, lIe is always graciously plea;:,ed to confirm His own 
appointment to the minds of His faithful servants by signs 
and wonders. 
[oses called down bread froln heaven. lIe 
and ,Aaron brought forth waters from the rock. 
\nd so 
also when God was pleased to supersede their priesthood. 
luany wonders and n1Îracles were wrought by the hands of 
the Apostles. They did not go upon their own testimon

, but 
appealed to these signs from God as witnesses; as in the f'ase 
of their ::\[aster Hiulself, the works that they did testifif'd of 
then1. ' , 
"Now," f'ontinued his Lorrlship, "without at all douht- 
iug tlw possibility that another succession may be com mis- 
ioned to supersede that of the .L.\po
tles, where are your ""yit- 
nesses? I suppose you do not expect us to take your word 
for it. ,Yhat supernatural pO""Ter do you po
sess or appeal to 
in proof of your heavenly mission?" This was a puzzler; 
it had been a puzzler to 
[ohamlned many hundred years 
before. The prophet, ho""yever. got out of it cleverly by say- 
ing he had written the T
oran. which. as eyery one could see. 
was a Iniracle in itself; but the poor preacher coulc1 not say 
he had ""Titten the Bible, so he fell a-thinking aud pass('d on. 



In ] 

n tliP rïl'ariate-Apuðtulie wað eonðtituted a dio('ese. 
and the Bit;hop fixed hit; cathedral throne pel'lllanelltl
- in 
Halt Lake. The eredioll of his new eathp(hal was an achieve- 
Inent fit tu test the lifl,-tiIlle of the a hlest Ulan; yet it was 
1)egun and ùone b
- Bishop Scanlan in a fe"\"T years and with a 
sllecess that ('ould he only the fruitioll of an apostolic' zeal. 
.Lllld the saIlle energy displayed in l'redillg the eathedral was 
in evidence befure he began the great building b
- the found- 
ing of Iuany in
titutions. the creation of parishes and tlw 
ereetion of el1ur('hes to Ineet the needs of a growing popula- 
,Yhi Ie studiousl
- a\'oiding anything which Inight he in- 
terpreted. even in the faintest wa
-, as Inixing in polities, thl' 
Bishop has alwa
-s taken a fparle;:'ð open stand on all quet;- 
, social and moral. ,Yhen he COInes hefore 
the puhlie. he conIes with the respect of all. Hl' h:1S hepll 
the great nlan of the ('ollll11Unity for thil,t
T-fin' years. From 
his cOffilnanding presen('e-talI, dignified, 
tately-one Ini
kno.w at a glance that he is a ruler of nlell. Courageous with 
the eonsl"iousness of right, he has ueyer falter{'d in denounc- 
ing wrong and appealing for its remed
-, and the puhlie ha..; 
always waited on his word. flis splendid ('haractf'r, his self- 
devotion, hi
 lllany ëwts of kindness. aud his patient toils in 
the earl
' days of his Inissionar
T life, rest in the ohscurity 
where the hest of lnunan virtlws are huried from age to ag.e. 
"Tlw lift' uf a nÜssionary priest," writes Cardinal Gib- 
, d is ne\Ter written, nor can it he. lIe has no Bos\vel1. 
His biographer llla
- reeoullt the ehurches he ere('tt'<1, tll<' 
schuols he foundp(l, t1w works of religion and ('hal'ity lIt' in- 
augurated and fosten'd, the sennons he })l'eache(l, the chil- 
dren he e:lÍe('hizpd, the ('Ol1yerts ll(' J"(>('ein:,d into the fold; 
and this is already a great de
ll. hut it onl

 touches UPf)!l tll? 
surfacp of that deyoted lif('. There is no m
1oir of hi
\'ate dail
- life of llsefullle:-:s and of his sac'red antI {'onllrlea- 
tial relatiolls with his Hoek-all thið is hidllen with (1hrist in 
God., and is registered onl
' h
' His re('()}'(ling an
The Bishop has. hy his siIH'el'it
. of purpos(' and hy all 
admirahle antI lwnurable straightforwardness, heen singu- 

THE CATHOLIC l'HrRl'H 11\ rT-\H 


larly fortunate in winning, during the early year
 of his 
thood, the good wilJ and rp
'q)f'('t of the ('itizpns of Salt 
Lake, and retaining no,,- in the eyenillg of his life, their affec- 
tion and adnlÍration; but he has been espeeially blpssed in 
haying" for his Yi<'ar-Uel1l'ral a priest who is, and has always 
been to hiln, just less than a 1>rot hër awll110re than a friend. 
Father Kiely possessf's the sa \'ing gift of l'omUlOn sense, a 
direetness of purlJose, an unselfish deyotioll to a high cou- 
eeption ùf duty, and a loyalty to his Bishop whieh hê1\ T c won 
for hinl a distinguished }Jla('(' in tllP priesthood. ,Yhat a 
help and inspiration he has been to Bishop 
('aulan is hest 

hown in the loye and esteel11 whieh his yenera ble Prelate 
eherishes for hiul. For thirty-five Y(lars he has been the 
friend and c0111pauion of his Bishop, as assi
tallt priest, 
Hcetor of the l'athedral, (ihau('ellor and \"ïeHr-Oeneral of the 
dio('ese. He has 1>f'en of in\'aluahlf' assist:uH'e to his e('('le- 
siastieal superior. has heeu intinlately identifipd with him 
iu the building of the ('athe(lral. and of the Ulany (1atholie 
institutions of tlw ('it
., and in gratitude for and apprel'iation 
of his disinterestedness aUtI zeal, his Bishop S}W11ks of him 
in languagp of unstinted praise and holds hinl in the \'C'ry 
highest esteem. 

rr 11(1 ell< ì. 


Articles (Essential) of Christian Belief.................................. 2 
Alvaredo, Hernanda de .................................................. 47 
_'\scl'.ncion. Juan de la .................................................... S3 
1l"yeta, Father ............................................. .... S8 
.Allouez, Claude .......................................................... 77 
Arbide, :Martìn de... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 79 
Arivide, Estavan de..........,..... .. . . . . , . ., - , . -, 79 
Anthony (St.) of Padua ............................ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 83 
Assisi, Francis of .. .. " .. .. - . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . .. . . ... 84 
Ansa, Captain Jl1an B,........................... -. .,. .. . 96 
Arroyo del Tarny.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......202 
Armijo, Manuel . . . - ....,..................................107 
Archuleta. Colonel Juan ................................ - . . . . 107 
Anacaumchis, Tribe of ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . .210 
Arroyo del T ej edor -. ..'....... _ . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 
Arrival of the Sisters .......... - .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . _ . _. . _ . , . . . . _ _ . .297 
Alemany, A.rchbishop ............................................... 283, 3 1 3 
Academy, Saint "Mary's .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298 
Academy, Sacred Heart ........... - . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " ., , . _ . . .300 
.'\ustin, Nevada .......................................................... 3 1 7 

Bible, The ......... - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9 
Bandelier, Adolph ......................,'.. . . _ . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 31 
Burton ...................................... . . . . . . . _ . . . . . .. _ 32 
Basin, The Great ...'. - , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . .. ..... _ . .. 32 
Buenaventura, San ............. - . . . .. . - . . - . . - . , _ . . . . . . . . . . ., S3 
Beltram. Fray Bernardino....... ..................... - . . S3 
Bressani, Father ...... .. '................... . . . . . . . . . .. 70 
Bridger, Jim ...... ...................... 72 
Bourrienne, Dc . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 7-1- 
Bull, Sitting ................................................... 74 
Brebeuf, J can de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 
Bouteux, Pierre .. . - - . . . . . . .. ..................... 78 
Barrauche, John .................. - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 79 
Bartlett, Russel ..................................................... _ 79 
Bonaventure, St. .. ....... - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 83 
Bernardon, John ............................... - . .. - ................ 
Beale, )'1r. :F. F. ......................................................... 108 
Boyle. Dr. David '. _ . _. .., " .. .. .. . " .., .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . III 
Bancroft ....................... ...................... _ . . . . . . . 120 
Bcavcr River.. .. . .. " . .. .. " . .. . . . .. .. " . .. . . . . . .. .. " ., " ., . . . . .. .. .. . . .2S1 




Barron. Judge . 
BuuLhard. S, ]., Re\'. 
Blake. Re\'. P. ............... 
Bonaparte, X apoleon 
Bogan. \\ïlliam ].. . 
hop. Vi
it of the .... 
Butler, Re\'. James ........ 

........ . 28 3 
'" .283 
....................... ... . 28 9 
....... .......... .......... ........... .295 
.3 16 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 I (í 
.. .. ... ... ..... ..... .. ., .. ..... .. . .3 1 8 

Christian Priöthood, The 13 
Celibacy. Clerical ......' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2S 
Coues, Eliott .......................,......... . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 
Coronado. Expedition of 45 
Iarcelino .................. .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 
Cachupin. GO\ ernor Velez .............................................60, 13 I 
Cruz, Juan de la . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 45 
Cartier. J afJues .......................... .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6ó 
Cooper, Fenimore ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . , , . , . . . ' . . 67 
Chateaubriand .,....".................................................... 7-\- 
Concepcion, Cristobal de la ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . , , , , . , , , . . _ _ R9 
Calabria. Francis of .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rq 
Che\"ance, Leopold de ......................................... 
as. Los .................. ' , . . . . . . , . " 89 
Cochrane, Stuart C. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 
Croix. Ie :\Iarquis de la .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 
Cañon del Y e
o ...'....', . . , . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 
Cañon Pintado . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [60 
Comanchcs- Yamparicas ., .'. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. , rho 
Calchihuite ., . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ., . 20 3 
Chama. Town of ..........,.... ...................... . .2-\-2 
Creek, Strawberry . .2-1-5 
Creek, Thistle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-\-5 
Creek. Cu rrant ....................................... . .2-\-6 
Creek, Soldier Fork ....,.'", ., . . .2-\-6 
Choteau ,__ __ . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 
Connor. General Patrick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . .. 275 
Colin, Jean Claude :\Iarie . . ., ,'..................... . . .2R6 
Champagnat, Father ... . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .2R7 
Chataignier, Father .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . __ . , , . . _ . , . . .29 0 
Cochea, Right Rc\". :\Iartin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .309 
Cushnahan. Re\'. P. :\1. .. .. . .. . . . .. ... .. ... .. .. . . .., . . " . . . .. . . ., .3 1 2 
Cathedral, Salt Lake ...... __. ... . . .312 
Collins .. . , . . , . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. ......................,..... . . . .3J,; 

Iaistre. Joseph ..... . .. . ., .. .. ., .., " ., -\- 
Dominguez. .-\tanasio .... . . . . , , , . . . - . . 3-\- 
DlJrantes. .\ndrc.'; ..........................,.......'..................... -p 



Descalona, Fray Louis .......... .. . . ' " . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . " .. '" 46 
Docall1po, i\ndres ............................................ . . . . . . . .. 47 
Druillette ....... . . . . . . .. ...................................... 77 
Dablou. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 77 
Dulbeau .................................................................. 7 H 
Daniel, Antoine ...... - . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 8 
De Noue, Père A............................ _. .. . '" .... ............ 7 8 
Diaz, John ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " ............................................. 79 
Dominguez ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 
Durango, Town of ........................................ ............. .24 2 
rty, James L.. . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 
De Sll1et, Father .............................. ......................... .266 
Diocese of Salt Lake ................................................... 3o.
Donohue, Rev. Patrick '" . - . . .. .. . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . " . . . . .3 16 

Eucharist, The Holy . . . .. ......................................... 19 
Espejo, Don Antonio de ............................ .. . " '" .. .. . ... 33 
Escobar, Father ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 95 
Escalante, Silvestre Velez de ..... '................... .......... .34, 124- 
Estavan, Juan ............................... .................. _ . . . . . . . .. 4 1 
Eymanl, Father . - -............................................... 287 
Eureka, Ctah ............................. _ _ .. ......................... .3 1 5 
Eureka, Nevada .,............................................. .......... .317 
Ely. Nevada ..........' .,. -. . ., . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. .3 18 

Fronde, James Anthony . -. .. .., " ........... " '" ....... .... 4 
Franciscan Fathers. The ................................, _ .. _. . .. .. .34 
Fiske, John. .., .. " ... .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. ., . . . . . . . " .. '" " ". ., .... . . . .. 63 
Friars l\Iinors ...................... - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 83 
Francis (St.), The Sons of ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 88 
Firmin, Pedro ........................................................... 97 
Fuentes de Santa Clara ...................,'. . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 
Fur Company, The Hudson Bay.............. .......... '" .. .. _.. .. _. .226 
Fork, Spanish ............... . . - - .. " .. . .. ., . . .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. .24 6 
Fork, Soldier ...................................... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 6 
Fur Company, The Rocky Mountain ..................................... _ .257 
Fitzpatrick. .l\Iajor Thomas ......... - . . , . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .262 
Feather, Red ................................................ .. . .. .26-1- 
Frenlont ..............,.. , . . . - . . . . . . .. " .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ..26-1- 
Foley, The Rev. J;l1nes ............................ _ . .. .. .. . . . " . " . .282 
Forestier, Father . - .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .. .290 

Garcés, Francisco ........................................ , . . . . _ . .3-1-, qI 
Garneau ........ - . . . _ ....................................... 66 
Garnier, Charles .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 8 
Guitteras, André . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .................. 79 
Gonzalc'7, l\ranl1cl .............,..,........................................ Ro 



Gladstone ................................................................ 83 
Ghent, Peter of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 89 
Gualpi .......'............ ..............................................23 6 
Green River .......................... ..................... .. .. . .24 2 , 24 6 
Girourd, Joseph .............. . .. " , . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. " . . .. . .. .257 
Guinan, The Rev. J. J................................................... .29 1 
Gregori XVI., Pope................................... ................. .286 
Galligan, Rev. T. .... ., .. . . .. .. . .. ., .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... ... ., .. .. .3 1 5 

Holy Eucharist, The . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 19 
Honorato, Fray ........................................... . . .. .. . .. '" 4 1 
IIorse, Crazy ........................ . - . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 7-1- 
Hales, Alexander of . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 83 
1 Itllnboldt, Von ........................................ .. ... .. .. .120 
Hascaris, Tribe of ............... . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . .. .210 
Harney, General .,....................................................... .27 2 
Henry, Father ..,.................................... - . . , . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .290 
Holy Cross, The Sisterhood of .......................................... .29-1- 
Hospital, Holy Cross............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305 
Hernaez. S. J. ................................,.......................... .309 

Infallibility, Papal ........................................................ 7 
Indulgence, The Doctrine of ,............................................. 16 
Ignacio, Chief ....................................... ..... . . . . . . . . . .... 7-1- 
I nnocent III., Pope.. . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8;:; 
Indians, The Ute ........................................................ 106 

Juan de Jesus, Father . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 59 
J ogues, Father Isaac ........... . . . . . . . ., ................................. 70 
Jayne, Louis .................. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 79 
Julius II., Pope ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 89 
Jensen, Town of . . . " . . . . . . . .. ., .. .. .. .. .. .. ... . . ., . .. ., .., .... ... .. .. .2-1-3 
Juab, Village of .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1-9 
Judge, 1\1rs. l\Iary ......................... .......................306 
Judge, The "l\Iemorial Home" .......................................... .306 
Kino, Father ............................................................. 60 
Kiely, Very Rev. Father.......................... ..... ........... .3 12 , 3 16 
Kelly, The Rev. E............... . . .. . . .., .. . . . . . . .. . .. .. .... '" . .281, 3 1 7 
Kearns, Senator and :\ll"s. Thomas ...................................... .302 

Leviticus ............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1-1- 
Longfello\\' ............ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ......... 25 
LUlnn1is, Charles F. ............................ . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .., 31 
Livingstone ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 2 
Lopez, Françisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 50 
Lugo, Alonzo de ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55 
Lon1bardi, Jesus de ....................................................... 57 



Llana, Fray Geronimo de la ...................................... S9 
Lallemant, Gabriel ....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 8 
Letrado, Francisco ....................................................... 79 
Leonard (St.) of Port l\Iaurice .................................... .., 83 
Lorgues, Count Roselly de ............... .. ... .. .., . .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. . .. 89 
Landa, Father Diego ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 92 
Lain Spring ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 
Lake Timpanagotzis . . . . . . . . . ' , - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 
League, Spanish . . . . . 
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 
Lee's Ferry ............................................................. .245 
Levan, Village of ........... ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1-9 
Leavenworth, Colonel ................................................... .265 
Loras, Right Rev. l\Iathia
 ........................................... . .287 
Little Brothers of l\Iary . _ ' . . .. ,. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ., . .. . . . .287 
Leterier, Father .......................................................... 28 9 
Larkin, Rev. T. J................................................. . .29 0 

l\Ierry del Val. Cardinal ........................ ............... 
l\1achabeus, Judas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21 
Mass. The Adorable Sacrifice of .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23 
l\Iary, Devotion to ................................. . . .. 2-1- 

Iacaulay, Lord . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 29 
:\Iarcos, Father .......................................................... 3 2 
:\Iystery, The Great Northern ........................ . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 2 
l\Ioquis, The ....". _ ..................................................... 40 
l\Ialdonado, Alonzo del Castillo ........................................... 4 1 
:;\Iartinez, Alonzo .................................... ....... . .. S3 
l\1arshall, W. T. ' - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55 
l\Iota- Padilla ......................... ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 49 
l\Iegapohlensis, J 01111 ........................................ 68 
l\leynard, Father Réné ................................................... 77 
l\lontalembert, Comte de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 82 
l\Iarisco, Adam de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .......... 83 
:\Iarchena, Juan Perez de ................................................ 89 
:\Iarfi, Juan ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 98 
::\IcKerchar, D. W....... . . . . . . . . . II I 
:\Iiera. Don Bernardo ..................................................... 13-1- 
::\Iossanagabi, Town of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 
l\Tona. Village of 2-1-9 

IcKay, Colonel ... . . . .. .. " . .. " . . . ... .. .. .. . . . . ., .. . . . .. . .. .. .,. .. .. . .26-1- 
:\ioore, Captain Michael .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " .:. .. . .. .. . .. . " ., " .265 
l\Iesplie, Father ......................................................... .281 
l\Iachebeuf, The Right Re\'. Joseph ..................................... .282 
l\Iarshall. l\irs. T........................................................ .283 
:\Iarists, The ............................................................. 286 
1Ionhcin1. Henry .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289 
Mader, Rev. B. ........... -.' .. .' ... ...... ... .... - ..... ........ .. ... .. .. .291 




loreau, Rev. Basil Antoine ..............................................29 6 

Iaguire, Don 00" 0 .. . .. . . .. ...................................... .312 

Ionteverde, Father ......................... .... . . .. . . . .. . . . .3 1 7 

Iannion, Rev. Joscph .................................................. .317 
1\Ialoney, Rcv. \Vo . 0 . . ' .. . . ., .. " . . . . . . . . .. . .. . " .. . .. . .318 

Iorero, Father . . .. . . . " . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 

[urph'y, Edward ................. ................. .. ... ... .. .. . ., " . .3 2 2 
Nathan ... ....... 0................... ................................ L.J. 
Nizza. Father ....................... 0 . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . . .... 33 
Xavajos, The... .. ... .. ... . . . .. . . . . .. " . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. .,. . . ., ... .., .. . ... 43 
Nadal, Pedro . 0 . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 
Kaca, José Antonio ....... ................ 0 .. . . . .0' .. . . . . . . . .120 
:\Jephi, Town of ........................................................ .249 
:-\erincks. Rev. Charles . .. " . . . . . . . . " . . . ., " . .. ... ., . .. .266 

Our Dead ................,.. . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 19 
Onata, Juan de . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 
Otcrmin. Governoî ....................................................... 56 
Ortega. Padre, J osé ............ ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80 
Ockhanl ............................... .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 83 
Oronzo, Father José , . . . . .. . . . " . . . .. . . . ... . . . .. .. . . . . . .. ... . . . . . .,. .. .. 98 
Oraybi ...................................,.... " .. .. '.0.234 
Ogden, Chief Justice ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .262 
Iajor ..... - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 
Odin, Right Rev. ]. 1\1. ........................... .288 
Orphanage, The Kearn's-St. Ann's ...................................... .302 
Ogden ............ - 0 . . . . . _ _ . _ .. .....................................3 12 
O'Connell, Right Rcv. Eugcne . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2H T. 325 
Ir. Thomas ................................................. .3 2 3 
O'Leary, Dan.... ..... ..... . o. .. " ., ....0 _" .. 0..... 0" .326 

Peter (St.), The Suprcmacy of ..........,......... 6 
Paul. Saint ........................ ..................................... 12 
Pcnance, Thc Sacrament of ............ 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . .. ................... 13 
Priesthood. Thc Christian ..................................... .......... 13 
Priesthood. The Levitical ................................................. q 
Parkman. Francis ,. o. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11 
Pizzarro. Francisco . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. .. 40 
Pope, Arrest of .......................................................... 56 
Posadas, Alonzo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 
Powell, 1\Iajor .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .............. 63 
Padilla. Juan de _.... 0 0 . 0 . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . , . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 64 
Porras, Francis .......................................................... 79 
Pius IX.. Popc............................................................ 82 
Padua, St. Anthony of . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... - . . . 83 
Parma, Blessed J 01111 of ................................................ 83 
Peckhapl ................... ............................................, 83 



Portinncnla, Church of ................................................... 87 
Padilla. Garcia of ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 89 
Pilgrims, Congregational ....... . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .....,....... 90 
Pritchard ........................ ..... ..... ............................ 90 
Pisadu, Alonzo de . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 
Puagnampas of Salt Lake ....................' . . . _ . _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 
Pa-nches, Tribe of ..................................................... .210 
Pagampachis, Tribe of - - .. . . .. - . . . .. .. ., .. ... .. " . . .. .. .. .. . ... ... ... . . . 21 9 
Provot, Etienne ................ .................... . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . _ .. .226 
Provo River ............................................................ .2-1- 8 
Payson, Town of ............... -.... .......... . .... ..... ................ .2-1-9 
Pondtown, Village of .., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . .. ........ .2-1-9 
Purcell, James Patrick . .. " . .. . . . . . .. . . '" .. . . . " . .. ... .. .. . .. .. . . . .. .265 
Pierce, President .. .... .................................. .271 
Pamaron, Pedro ...............................,... - .. .. ..........309 
Park City...... .......................................................... 3 1 4 
Phelan, Rev. Joseph . . . . . .' .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . " .. . .3I
Qnigley, Rev. P. J.. . . . - ............ . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 
Real Presence, The................... - . . - - .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 17 
Ranke, Leopold von . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 29 
Rnis, Augustin ... - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 50 
Ragnenean .......... ........ ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 68 
ReinlbauIt ........................ ...................................... _ 7 R 
Rasle, Sebastian .... - . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 78 
Ruen, Henry............................ - - -. . -..... '" ... ... ...... ..... 80 
Rio ChatHa .............................................................. 12-1- 
de las N ntrias ... - - . ' , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 
de la Cibolla ................... ............. _ _ . . . . . . . . _ . . . . .126 
San Juan ............................................................ 130 
de los Pinos ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .130 
l'lorida ........................................ _ . . . . . _ . '" . . . . . . . . 130 
Navajo. . .. .. .. ., . . ., .. .. .. .. .. ., . . . " . .. . . . . . " . . . '" . . . .. " '" . 130, 225 
tie las Animas ...............,....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130 
Dolores .............................. ......................132. 225, 2-1-2 
Iances .......................................................,.. 132 
Escondida .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-1- 
l'aposa. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. ...................................... _. ....13-1- 
ParaliticcLs. . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ........................136 
tie San Pedro ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 
San Augnstine el Grande .............................. - - . - . . - - . I-J.-I- 
Tizon .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1-5 
San Javier ....................... - . . . _ . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . " .. . .145 
Juan l\laria ..................................................... _ . . . . 145 
Santa Rosa de Lima - - . - . . . " . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 
Santa :Monica ........................................................ I..J.8 



San Rafael ............. - _ . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .157 
San Clemente ....................................,... _ . . . _ . . _ . _ . . . . . .161 
del Cibola ........................................................... 16 3 
San Buenaventura _ _ .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . ., " . 16 4 
San Cosme ................................................. _ . . . . 167, 2.t.t 
San Damian .. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167, 244 
San Catarina de Sena ... _ . . , . . . . _ _ . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . .168 
San Estaquio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9 
Aguascalientics . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .173 
San Nicolas ...................... - . . . _. ......... _ . . .179 
San Antonio de Padua ..............................................180 
Santa Ana .... - . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180, 247 
Santa Isabel .........................,....,..... _ _ .185, 249 
Tiron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 
de Señor de San J osé.. .............................................. 196 
SulfÚreo .................... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . _ _ . . _ . . . _ .... .201 
Santa Teresa ................. ........................... ......... .225 
San Miguel ...... . . .. ...... _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 2 
Cncolnpahgre.. ...... ...... ......................................... .24 2 
Uintah .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 
San Lino ......... - . - . . _ .... _ . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245 
Tiron ............................... .............................. .253 
Riley, l\lajor Bernard .................................................... 265 
Raverdy, Father ........... _ . . . . ' . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280 
Rauscher, George ........................................................ 282 
Raffin, Very Re\'. ]. c..................................................... 291 
Rockefeller, John D................,. -. . . .. .................. .3 0 4 
Riordan, Archbishop .................................................... .3 1 3 
Reese. Captain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1 7 
Recapitulation .................................. _ .,.........' . .3 1 9 

Supremacy of St. Peter, The.............................. ........ 6 
Sins, Confession of ...................................................... 13 
Saints, The Communion of - - . . . - - _. ........................ 24 
Speke ......................... ...................................... _ . 32 
Stanley .................. ........................................... 3 2 
Sampson, Mr. George ......... - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ . . . _ . . " 3 8 
Santa l\laria. Fray ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 50 
Shea, John Gilmary ........ - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 52 
Salazar, Father Christopher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ . . 52 
San Miguel, Church of.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 
San Geronimo, Mission of - .. ..................... 55 
Salmeron. Padre Zarate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 
Sigourney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " .......................... 67 
Saeta, Francis Xavier .............................. _ _ _ _ _ . 80 
Siena, St. Bernardine of ..... . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . 83 
Scotus , Duns ,............................................................ 83 



Solano, Francis .......................................................... 89 
Suarez, Juan ............................................................. 89 
Smith, Archibald ........ . -. .... .... - . , . . . . .. . _ . _ .. 91 
Stephans, John .................. ........................................ 92 
Serra, J unipero .................. ........................................100 
San Cayetanu, Vega . . . . - . . . . - . . . ' . . - - - . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . 130 
Santa Clara .......................................................... I2-!-, 242 
Santa Rosa de Abiquin .............................................. 12-1-, 2-1-2 
Santa Cruz, Vega... -............ .... . .. ..... ....... ..... -.............. .2-1--1- 
Sevier River ............................................................ .249 
Scipio, 1'0\vn of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 
San .A.ntenógas .......................................................... .252 
Seefield, Captain ......................................................... 276 
Sauchan, Bishop. .. . .. .. .,. . . .. . ,. . . ., .. . . - " '" . . . .. ... .,. .285, 310 
Sheehan, Rev. J\1......................................................... .318 
Scanlan, Sketch of the Life of Right Rev. Lawrcnce.. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . .319 

Tradition, The Church and ............................................... 12 
'robar, Pedro de ........................................... - . . . . . . . . . . . " 46 
Trevino, Governor .................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 56 
'r ello, T olnaso ............................................................ 80 
Tall1arah, Nicolas.... ........................................... _. .... ., .. 80 
Tabechuachis, Range of ..................................................138 
Timpangotzis, Tribe of ....... - . , - - .. ..................................146 
T epustete .................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 
Timpangotzis, Valley of ..................................................173 
Tirangapin, Tribe of ....... .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ., . . . .. . .. .18] 
Tintic ....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .315 
. I 
Ute Indians. The ........................................................ 106 
Utah Lake ............................................................... 246 
Vasquez de Coronado, Francis ................... - -. .... . ... .. ... 33 
Vaca, Alva Nunez Cabeza de ........... .. .. .. .. . ., .. . .. .. . ., '" .. ., .. '" .. 41 
Vallada, Juan de ............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " 57 
Valencia, I\Iartin of . . . . . . . . ., . . . .. . . . . . " . . . " . - . , . - . . '" .. . . . ., " ... 89 
Virgin River ............................................................ 253 
Vaughan, 1\.1rs. Go\'crnor. - - - -. - -.. . .. . - .. . .., . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. .. " .. .. . 28 3 

VV ordsworth, The Poet ., . . . - . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24 
\Vhy Priests Do 
ot I\Iarry.. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 25 
\ Valpole; Hon. F.......................................................... 91 
\Valsh, The Rev. Patrick .. .. - ., . .. -. -. . - - . .. .. , ., ... .. .. ... .. ... .283 
\Valsh, Father .......................................................... .312 
Xitnenes ........................ .................................. . . . . .. 90 
Xongopabi .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .......................23-1- 
Y utas- Y amparicas ...................................... ................. q6 



Y utas-Sabaguanas .................... . . . . . .., . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .I..j.6 
Yubuincariri, Tribe of ..................... ............ -. .............. .209 
Yubuincariris, Tribe of .......................................... .2 1 9 
Ytimpabichis, Tribe of........... ....................................... .226 
Y utas- Barbones .................. ... - . . - -. ....,. - . . . - . . . - . . . . . . .227 
Young, Brighau1 . ..... ..... .... ..... .., .., .. ... ..... .. ... ......... .... .2jO 

Zat110ra, Father ........................................................... 55 
Znmarago. J nan de ....................................................... 98