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Henry Wright, Hon. Clerical Secretary, C.M.S., 1872-1880. 

Frederic E Wi-ram Hon. Clerical Secretary, C.M.S., 1880-95. (Photograph : Elliott & Fry.) 
Sir J. H. kennaway, President of the Society since 1887. (Photograph : Elliott & Fry ) i , , - 
William Gray, C.M.S. Missionary, 1858-1870; Association Secretary, 1870-1874; Secretary, 

Christopher "c. i enn, C.M.S. Missionary, 1851-1863; Secretary, 1864-1894. 










" Though thy beginning was small, yet thy latter end should greatly 
increase. For enquire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to 
the search of thy fathers. . . . Shall not they teach thee, and tell thee, and 
utter words out of their heart ? " JOB viii. 7, 8, 10. 

" That they might set their hope in God, and not forgot the works of God, 
but keep His commandments. " Ps. Ixxviii. 7. 




\_All riyhts reserved] 





Sart m. 




The Period Athanasian Creed Controversy Lord Salisbury 
Sacramental Confession Public Worship Regulation Bill 
Ritualists in Prison Ecclesiastical Courts Convocation The 
Evangelical Leaders: Ryle and Hoare Islington Clerical 
Meetings Wycliffe and Ridley Halls The Record The Day 
of Intercession for Missions Missions at the Church Con 
gressesAttack on C.M.S. at Stoke Missionary Conferences, 
Oxford and London The Second Pan-Anglican Lambeth 
Conference and Missions Deaths of Bishops New Bishops 
Death of Archbishop Tait 3 


Unnoticed Religious Movements Pennefather at Milclmay S. A. 
Blackwood Robert and W. Hay Aitken Parochial Missions 
Hoare at Nottingham Moody and Sankey, Liverpool and 
London Y.M.C.A. and Exeter Hall The Church Congresses 
on Deepening the Spiritual Life Broadlands Oxford and 
Brighton Conventions Evangelical Divisions The Keswick 
Convention Evangelistic Agencies Children s Special Ser 
vicesCambridge and the C.I. C.C.U. What we owe to these 
Movements . . . ..- . . . . . 20 



A New and Vigorous Period Henry Wright E. Hutchinson 
General Lake S. Hasell The Committee New Missionaries * 
of the Period Islington College Valedictory Meetings The 
Native Ministry The Funds : Great Income of 1874; Exten 
sion ; Retrenchment ; Deficits wiped off 35 


Why should Deputations be necessary? Missions not a Charity " 
Yet Giving and Collecting are Sacred Functions Examples 

A 2 



of J Self-denial The varied Sources of Supply Contributions 
from London and the Provinces in 1880-81- The Associations 
Some of their Meetings The Association Secretaries, Hon. 
District Secretaries, Local Secretaries County Unions : Mr. 
Lombe s Story of Norfolk The Publications The Anni 
versaries Sermons by Bishops Jackson and Baring The 
Meetings and Speakers : Lord Northbrook, Sir B. Frere, the 
Rev. W. T. Satthianadhan - . . .54 


East African Slave Trade : Livingstone and Bishop Ryan Sir B. 
Frere s Mission Kirk s Treaty Death of Livingstone The 
Nasik Boys New Developments in Africa : Scotch Churches, 
S.P.G., Universities Mission, Stanley s Second Journey, L.M.S. 
on Tanganyika, Congo Missions Gordon at Khartoum C.M.S. 
Missions : West Africa W. S. Price and Frere Town The 
Rescued Slaves Giriama Christians The Sultan of Zanzibar 
and the Slave Trade Trials at Frere Town Bishop Royston s 
Visits R.G.S. Exploration Deaths of Bishop Steere and Dr. 
Krapf ............ 73 



Stanley in Uganda His Challenge to Christendom C.M.S. re 
sponds Preliminary Plans The First Men : Shergold Smith 
and Mackay Mackay s Farewell Words The March to the 
Interior On the Nyanza Mtesa s Invitation The Gospel 
preached at Rubaga Smith and O Neill killed The Nile 
Party and Gordon Wilson and Mackay The Roman Mission 
The Waganda Envoys to England Mackay s Journal : 
Manual Work, Teaching, Translation First Conversions The 
Intermediate Stations ......... 94 


C.M.S. and the Mohammedans Sequel of the Constantinople Mis 
sion Missionary Travels in Asia Minor Palestine: New 
Churches and Clergy Moabite Stone Other Missions in the 
East Bishop Gobat transfers his Missions to C.M.S. The 
Mohammedan Conference of 187o Bosworth Smith s Lectures 
General Lake s Plans His Death Extension : Jaffa, Gaza, . 
Hauran Tristram s Testimony Bishop Barclay Ahmed 
Tewfik Persia : Bruce s Sojourn Persia Famine The Mis 
sion adopted by C.M.S 113 



Lord Northbrook and his Successors The Prince of Wales in India 
Bishops Milman and Johnson C.M.S. Missions Story of 
Jadu Bindu Ghose Colleges closed for lack of Men Hooper s 
Divinity College at Allahabad Vaughan in Nuddea The 
Struggle with Caste J. Welland Church Councils Diocese 
of Bombay: Bishop Douglas C.M.S. Western India Mission 
The Theosophists Lord Ripon s Education Commission 
Decennial Missionary Conference at Calcutta . . . .126 




Punjab Mission Mrs. Elmslie Miss Tucker NarowaJ Converts 
Frontier Missions Kashmir Punjab Church Council 
Lahore Divinity College Bishopric of Lahore Bishop French 

Cambridge Delhi Mission Alexandra Girls School Batala 
Boys School C.E.Z. Ladies Imad-ud-din Dr. H. M. Clark 
Bateman s-Work Second Afghan War Mayer at Bannu 
Beluch Mission George Maxwell Gordon Gordon with the 
British Troops Gordon killed at Kandahar . . . 1 44 



Bishop Gell s EpiscopateBangalore Conference Madras Chris 
tian College David Fenn Madras Native Church Telugu 
Mission Hodges and Poole Tiniievelly Missionaries Prince 
of Wales and Tinnevelly Christians Bishops Caldwell and 
Sargent Great Famine Large Accessions to S.P.G. and 
C.M.S. Report of Rev. Periyanayagam Arumanayagam 
Balance-sheet of Mengnanapuram Church Council Travan- 
core The Syrian Church The Revival of 1873 Justus Joseph 
and the Six Years Party Bishopric of Travancore and Cochin 
Bishop Speedily Australian Aid to South India Missions . 162 


Non- Aryan Races of India The Paharis of the Rajmahal Hills 
E. Droese and Hallett Santal Mission Puxley, Storrs, 
Shackell Rapid but unnoticed Growth Kols, Gonds, Kois 
Sir A. Cotton and General Haig Edmonds and Cain on the 
Godavari Rev. I. V. Razu C.M.S. Non-Aryan Conference 
Santal Native Clergy Gond Mission : Williamson Bheel 
Mission : Thompson ......... 186 


Church Problems in new Fields The Episcopate in India Conse 
cration of Churches Licensing of Laymen The Ceylon Con 
troversy Bishops Copleston and Mylne The Position in 
Ceylon The Tamil Coolie Mission Missionaries Licenses 
withdrawn C.M.S. Protest Resolutions of the Indian 
Bishops C.M.S. Memorandum Alteration in C.M.S. Laws 
Lambeth Conference Renewal of the Controversy Opinion 
of the Five Prelates Final Arrangements . - . . 198 


China in 1873 Bishop Burdon The Term Question Progress in 
Fuh-kien Native Clergy in Fuh-kien and Che-kiang Rev. 
Sing Eng-teh s Report J. C. Hoare S.P.G. at Peking China 
Inland Mission Political Troubles Chefoo Convention 
Shanghai Missionary Conference Stewart s College destroyed 

C.M.S. ejected from the City Miss Gordon-Gumming 
Death of Bishop Russell Mid China and North China 



Bishoprics Bishops Mowie and Scott Fuh-kien Native 
Conference F.E.S. and C.E.Z.M.S. at Fuh-chow Opium 
Japan Advance of S.P.G. and C.M.S. in 1873-75 Warren, 

Evington, Fyson, S:c. Dening s Separation .... 217 


New Bishops in North- West Canada Lord Dufferin s New World 
Diocese of Rupert s Land Diocese of Saskatchewan The 
X, Government and the Plain Indians Diocese of Moosonee 

Peck and the Eskimo Diocese of Athabasca Bishop and 
Mrs. Bompas Tiikudh Indians Roman Catholic Missions. 
North Pacific Mission Duncan and the Lord s Supper Bishopric 
of Caledonia Bishop Ridley Ultimatum to Duncan His 
Secession ........... 238 


THE ErocH OF 1880 82. 

Joint Committee of Finance and Estimates Heavy Retrenchments 
Men Kept Back Wright s Ordination Sermon Controversy 
in the I. F.N.S. Establishment of the C.E.Z.M S. Deaths of 
Miller and Auriol Henry Wright drowned F. E. Wigram 
appointed Hon. Sec. New Group System Retirement of 
E. Hutchinson Appointment of General G. Hutchinson and 
R. Lang Shepherd and Drury Fresh Efforts to raise Funds 
New Missionaries" Half as Much Again " Prospects of 
Extension Childe on the Holy War ... . . 254 

MR. WIGRAM S PERIOD: 1882-1895. 


A New Era Archbishop Benson : his Church Policy ; his Relations 
with C.M.S. ; his Missionary Sermons and Speeches The 
Boards of Missions Church Defence and Church Reform 
Jerusalem Bishopric Ritual Crisis of 1883 Evangelical 
Divisions Lincoln Judgment Islington Meetings Spiritual 
Movements Moody at Cambridge The C.I-M. Cambridge 
Seven Mildmay and Keswick H. C. G. Monle Keswick and 
Foreign Missions The Salvation Army 269 


Mr. Wigram s Period Deaths of C.M.S. Men Lord Chichester, 
Captain Maude, Sir J. Kennaway Committee-men, &c. The 
St. Bride s Preachers Speakers at the Anniversaries Dr. 
Westcott and Sir M. Monier-\Villiams Home Developments 
Missionary Leaves Association Missionary Exhibitions 
Lay Workers Union Missionary Missions Medical Missions 
-New Children s Home Enlarged C.M. House Pigott and 
Oliphant . . . . . . 292 



THREE MEMORABLE YEARS, 1885, 1886, 1887. j-uit 

Public Events of 1885 Cambridge Movement and Recruits The 
March Meetings Thursday Prayer Meeting Earl Cairns s 
Meeting Moule s Speech Foreshadowings of C.M.S. Women s 
Work Ladies Union Younger Clergy Union " Testimony " 
Trust Association February Simultaneous Meetings Cycle 
of Prayer Bishop Hannington s Death Letter from Cam 
bridge Men Gleaners Union Mr. Wigram s Journey round 
the World General Haig The London F.S.M. Winter 
Mission to India Policy of Faith Whole-Day Devotional 
Meeting 314 



Divisions in C.M.S. Circle Japan Bishopric Ceylon Corresponding 
Committee Bishops as Vice-Presidents Jerusalem Bishopric 
Sion College Meetings C.M.S. at St. Paul s C.M.S. and 
Home Controversies Canon Isaac Taylor s Attacks Question 
of Missionary Self-Denial Question of Home Expenditure 
Controversy in The Christian 335 


Increasing Number of Missionaries Marriage Questions Asso 
ciated Evangelists Recruits of the Period Ninety-five 
Cambridge Men Wrights and Wigrams B. Buxtoii Hors- 
burgh s Party Douglas Hooper s Men Pilkington Graham 
Brooke and J. A. Robinson The East and W 7 est Africa 
Parties, 1890 Bishop Tucker Mr. Monro J. S. Hill Women 
Missionaries The Four Events of 1887 C.M.S. and C.E.Z.M.S. 
Training of Women Valedictory Meetings Student Volun 
teer Movement Outcry against Men going Abroad . . . 353 



Sierra Leone Bishops Cheetham and Ingham Visits of Missioners 
Church Constitution Lagos Yoruba Mission James 
Johnson Niger Mission African Archdeacons Henry Venn 
steamer Trials in the Mission Debate in House of Lords 
Liquor Traffic J. A. Robinson and G. W. Brooke Plans for a 
Soudan Mission Niger Controversies Deaths of Robinson, 
Brooke, and Bishop Crowther Bishops Hill, Phillips, and 
Oluwole Deaths of Bishop Hill and his Comrades Bishop 
Tugwell . - . . . . . . .375 


Hannington s Party for Uganda Mackay at work Coast Missions 
Henry Wright steamer Diocese of Eastern Equatorial 
Africa Bishop Hannington Death of Mtesa King Mwanga 
The Boy Martyrs Murder of Hannington The Great 
Persecution Gordon and Walker Bishop Parker His Death 



Mackay s " Never ! " The Scramble for Africa German 
Blockade Emin Pasha Revolution in Uganda Expulsion 
of the Missions The Christians in Exile Mwanga restored 
Stanley s Testimony Mackay s Last Messages His Death . 402 



The British East Africa Company W. S. Price at Frere Town- 
Fugitive Slaves ransomed Women Missionaries in East 
Africa Douglas Hooper s Plans and Recruits Bishop Tucker 
Uganda a British Sphere The Stanley Steamer Baganda 
Lay Evangelists The Crisis : Company to withdraw ; Gleaners 
Meeting ; the 16,000 ; Uganda saved Dissensions and Fight 
ing in Uganda French Complaints Lord Rosebery and the 
Ministry Outburst of Public Feeling Bishop Tucker s 
Second Visit to Uganda ; First Native Ordinations Sir G. 
Portal British Protectorate The Mission and its Work 
Pilkington s Translations Spiritual Revival, December, 1893 
Great Extension of the Work Hooper at Jilore Death of 
Mrs. Hooper - 428 


Increase of Missionaries and Converts Deaths of Missionaries : 
Bishop Sargent, &c. Deaths of Indian Clergymen : Manchala 
Ratnam, the Brothers Viravagu, W. T. Satthianadhan, Piari 
Mohan Rudra, Jani Alii, Sorabji Kharsedji, &c. Literary 
Work of Archdeacon Koshi Koshi and Dr. Imad-ud-din 
Striking Conversions First-fruits of Gouds and Bheels The 
Native Churches Church Building Divinity Schools Board 
ing Schools, &c. Higher Education Associated Evangelists 
Medical Missions Literary Work Extension : Quetta, &c. 
Women Missionaries .... . 455 



Indian Religious Thought Arya Samaj, &c. Anglo-Indian Rulers 
and Bishops of the Period New Bishoprics Bishop French 
Controversies : Oxford Mission, Church Councils, Salvation 
Army, Hasty Baptisms, &c. Special Missioners and Visitors 
Winter Mission of 1887-8 : H. E. Fox, G. Grubb, &c. Grubb 
in Tinnevelly in 1890 Conventions and Quiet Days Bombay 
Decennial Conference Statistical Returns Progress of Indian 
Christianity . 483 



Books on Islam Death of Hildner Revived Egypt Mission 

Occupation of Baghdad Bishop French in Persia Palestine 

Reminiscences of General Gordon New Missions at Aden 

General Haig s Red Sea Journey New Missionaries, Men and 



Women Controversy with Bishop Blyth Advice of the Five 
Prelates Further Development of the Palestine and Persia 
Missions Bishop French s Later Travels French at Muscat 
His Death Bishop Stuart to Persia The Christian Inscrip 
tion on the Mosque at Damascus . . . . . . 5 1 2 



Ceylon Growth of the Mission Trinity College, Kandy Disesta- 
blishment New Church Constitution Visits of Fenn, Barton, 
Wigram The Theosophists Salvation Army G. Grubb. 

Mauritius Progress- -The Bishops The Seychelles. 

New Zealand Veteran Bishops and Missionaries Bishop E. C. 
Stuart Te Ante College Maori Clergy Character of the 
Maoris Colonial Church - . 537 


Continuity of the China Mission The C.I.M. Hong Kong Fuh- 
kien : Progress, Persecution, C.E.Z. M.S., Advance in the North- 
West Outrages Question of Chinese Dress Mid China : 
Shanghai, Ningpo, the College, Tai-chow, Hang-chow, the 
Hospital General Missionary Conference, 1890 Opium Con 
troversy The Royal Commission New Si-chuan Mission 
Mr. Horsburgh Diocese of West China -War between China 
and Japan Riots and Outrages The Ku-cheng Massacre : 
the Story and the Effects What should, or could, the Govern 
ment do r 1 . . . . . . . . . . 559 


Japan in 1883 General Conference at Osaka The Japan Bishopric 
Bishops Poole and E. Bickersteth The Japan Church The 
C.M.S. Mission Progress of Christianity, tirst rapid, then 
slow Japanese Parliament Joseph Niisima Women Mis 
sionaries for Japan Visits of Canon Tristram and the Bishop 
of Exeter Earthquake of 1891 Blessing at Tokushima Con 
versions of Ainu -War between Japan and China Work 
among the Soldiers New Dioceses Bishops Evington and 
Fyson ...... . 588 



C.M.S. and the N.-W. Canada Dioceses New Dioceses and Bishops 
C.M.S. Missions, in Rupert s Land, Saskatchewan, the Arctic 
Regions, Moosonee Sim, Stringer, Lofthouse, Peck The 
Bible among the Red Indians. 

North Pacific Mission Difficulties with Duncan Duncan s Depar 
ture Bishop Ridley and his Indians Kitkatla Conversion of 
Sheuksh The Christians at Aiyansh Women Missionaries 
Death of Mrs. Ridley 615 




Missions at the Church Congresses, 1883-1898 Third Lambeth 
Conference, 1888 Questions of Polygamy, Proselytism, &c. 
General Missionary Conference, 1888 Anglican Missionary 
Conference, 1894 S.V.M.U. Conference at Liverpool, January, 
1896 Evangelization of the World in this Generation . " . 641 


Deaths in the C.M.S. Home Circle, 1891-94 Revision of Laws, 

1890 Development of Departments in the C.M. House New 

Medical Department Unions and Bands Second " F.S.M." 
Anniversaries Missionary Missions and Exhibitions Outside 
Matters : Colonial Bishoprics Jubilee, Diocesan Readers, 
S.P.G., Dr. Gust s Books, &c. The Keswick Letter of 1890 
and its Results Appropriated Contributions Deputation to 
the Australasian Colonies Colonial C.M. Associations The 
Policy of Faith after Seven Years, Challenged, Examined, 
Re-affirmed Changes in the Secretariat H. E. Fox Hon. 
Secretary ...... 557 

$art X. 
THE LAST FOUR YEARS: 1895-1899. 



Missionary Interest at Home Archbishop Temple Other Bishops 
House of Laymen Lambeth Conference, 1897 Queen s 
Diamond Jubilee S.V.M.U. Mr. Mott s Tour C.M.S. 
Agencies at Home : Unions, &c., Women s and Medical De 
partments, Exhibitions, .Missionary Missions, &c. St. Bride s 
Sermons Changes in Salisbury Square Recent Church 
Controversies ....... 683 




Candidates -Their Training New Recruits Native Clergy Mis 
sionaries at Home Finance : the Position in Recent Years- 
Analysis of Contributions Sources of Income The Three 
Years Enterprise : Its Design and Its Results - Our Own 
Missionaries "The Second Jubilee 702 



Sierra Leone and its Hinterland: Recent Insurrection, Bishops 
[ngham and Taylor Smith- Diocese of Western Equatorial 
Africa: Liquor Traffic, Bishop Tugwell, Hausaland, Yoruba 
and Niger Missions, Delta Native Church -Eastern Equatorial 



Africa : New Diocesan Divisions ; Work at Mombasa, Taveta, 
Mpwapwa, &c. Slavery in British East Africa Uganda: the 
First Ladies, the Railway, Progress in Uganda, Toro, Nassa, 
Recent Soudanese Revolt, Bishop Tucker Egypt : Cairo 
Mission Proposed Mission to Khartoum . . . 721 


Palestine Baghdad Persia India : the Famine, the Missions, 
Work among Students, Women s Settlement, Dr. Barrows s 
Lectures, Special Missioners, Baptisms, " T.Y.E.," Retired and 
New Bishops, Reinforcements and Appeals Ceylon China: 
Progress and Persecution, Bishops Moule and Burden Japan : 
New Bishops, Women s Work, Progress ..... 7ol 


One Hundred Deaths in Four Years Aged Veterans in New Zea 
land Other Veterans : Davis and Baumann, J. B. Wood, 
Arden, &c. Younger Labourers India : Miss Petrie, &c.- 
Palestine : Miss Attlee Persia : H. Carless West Africa : 
Miss Goodall, Cox, Humphrey, Dobinson Uganda: Callis, 
Pilkington, Hubbard China: Collins, Ladies in the Aden, 
Miss Entwistle Native Clergy Bishops Archbishop Benson 
Home Friends, Clerical and Lay W. Gray and F. E. 
Wigram . . . . . . . . . . . 780 


lleqncc : The World Opened Delays and Disappointments- - 
Colonial and Imperial Problems The Episcopate Changes in 
the Church Development of Church Life Missions and 
Spiritual Life Good out of Evil Weakness of Men Faith in 

Circumspice : Africa Moslem Lands India China Japan South 
Seas South America North-West Canada One Race and 
One Message, 

Prospicc : Tasks before us Native Church Organization Evan 
gelization of New Fields- The Second Advent . . 800 


INDEX. 833 




The Revs. H. Wright, F. E. Wigram, the Right Hon. 
Sir J. H. Kennaway, M.P., the Revs. W. Gray 
and C. C. Fenn ....... Frontispiece 

Messrs. Joseph Hoare, Alexander Beattie, Sydney 
Gedge, M.P., Arthur Lang, General Lake, C.S.I., 
Mr. Henry Carre Tucker, C.B Facing 43 

Bishop Perry, the Revs. Prebendary Auriol, Canon 

Hoare, Canon Tristram, Dr. J. C. Miller . . .,44 

Bishop French, the Revs. R. Clark. J. Vaughan, 

J. Welland, Dr. Bruce, G. M. Gordon ... 144 

Bishops Gell, Speedily, Caldwell, and Sargent, the 

Revs. David Fenn and H. Baker, Junr. . . ,,162 

Bishops Russell and Moule, Archdeacon A. E. Moule, 
the Revs. F. F. Gough and R. W. Stewart, Arch 
deacon Wolfe 217 

Bishop G. Smith, the Rev. G. Ensor, Bishops Burdon, 

E. Bickersteth, and Poole 234 

Bishop Anderson, Archbishop Machray, Bishops 

Horden, Bompas, and Ridley, Admiral Prevost . ,, 238 

Archbishops Tait, Benson, and Temple, Bishops Ryle 

and E. H. Bickersteth ,,272 

Bishops Phillips and Oluwole, the Rev. James 
Johnson, Archdeacon D. C. Crowther, the Rev. 
J. Quaker ........ ., 375 

The Rev. J. B. Wood, Archdeacon Dobinson, Bishop 
J. S. Hill, the Rev. J. A. Robinson, Mr. G. Wilmot 
Brooke ..398 

The Rev. W. S. Price, Lieut. G. Shergold Smith, 
Bishop Hannington, Mr. A. M. Mackay, Bishop 
Parker, Mr. G. L. Pilkington .... ,, 402 

The Revs. Jani Alii, Iniad-ud-din, D.D., Manchala 
Ratnam, Piari Mohun Rudra, Archdeacon Koshi 
Koshi, D.D., the Rev. W. T. Satthianadhan, B.D. 460 

Bishops Iladfield, W. L. Williams, Stuart, and Roy- 

ston, the Rev. W. Oakley . . . . ., 537 

The Revs. Wong Kiu Taik, Dzing Ts-siiig, H. 
Gunasekara, Chalil Jamal, Wiremu Turipona, 
J. Settee ..707 

The Misses Goodall, Caroline Fitch, Florence Valpy, 
Helen Attlee, Irene Petrie, Gertrude Stanley 
(Mrs. Smyth) ,,784 

The Enlarged Church Missionary House, 1884-5 
C.M. Children s Home (new building, 1887) 



BISHOP TAIT: 1873-1882. 



THIS Part covers the eight years of Henry "Wright s Secretaryship, but 
carries on the history two years after his death, partly that the great 
epoch of change in Salisbury Square, 1880-82, may clearly appear, and 
partly to mark the epoch in English Church history of Archbishop Tait s 
death at the end of 1882. 

We begin, as before, by surveying the Environment, first the Church 
Movements and leading men of the period (LXIX.), and then (LXX.) 
the Evangelistic and Spiritual Movements associated with the names of 
Aitken, Moody, Pennefather, Battersby, &c. Then we come to the 
Society itself, and note the men and work of these energetic years 
(LXXI.) ; stopping, however, just before Mr. Wright s death, and 
leaving that event and its issues to come at the end of the Part. A 
supplementary chapter (LXXI I.) describes the Society s home organiza 

The chapters on the Missions are eleven in number. First we see the 
revival of vigorous efforts in and for Africa (LXXIIL), most of them 
consequent on the death of Livingstone ; and, in particular (LXXIV.), 
the commencement in Uganda. Then we take up Missions to Moham 
medans (LXXV.) in Palestine. Persia, &c. India absorbs four chapters 
this time, three of them reviewing the woik by dioceses. First, Calcutta 
and Bombay (LXXVL), introducing the Prince of Wales s visit, 
Vaughan s struggle with Caste in Krishnagar, and some educational 
questions; then Lahore (LXXV II.), and the work of French, Clark, 
Bateman, and Gordon ; and then Madras (LXXVIIL), with Bishops 
Sargent and Caldwell in Tinnevelly, the Great Famine, the Travancore 
Revival and Schism, &c. The fourth Indian chapter (LXXIX.) 
narrates the efforts to influence the 11011- Aryan Hill Tribes, Santals, 
Gonds, &c. Chap. LXXX. discusses the ecclesiastical questions that 
arose in both India and Ceylon at this time, and, in particular, relates the 
story of the famous Ceylon Controversy. The China chapter (LXXXI.) 
tells of advance and progress amid many difficulties ; arid a short section 
at the end of it summarizes the few yet important incidents of the period 
in Japan. Chap. LXXXII. takes us back to North America, reviews the 
work by dioceses, and, at the end, begins the story of Bishop Ridley s 
episcopate on the North Pacific coast. 

The closing chapter (LXXXIII.), as above indicated, relates the 
important events of 1880-82, Mr. Wright s death, the changes in the 
C.M. House that followed, and the emergence of the Society from the 
Period of Retrenchment into the Period of Expansion. 



The Period Athanasian Creed Controversy Lord Salisbury Sacra 
mental Confession Public Worship Regulation Bill Ritualists 
in Prison Ecclesiastical Courts Convocation The Evangelical 
Leaders : Ryle and Hoare Islington Clerical Meetings Wycliffe 
and Ridley Halls The " Record " The Day of Intercession for 
Missions Missions at the Church Congresses Attack on C.M.S. 
at Stoke Missionary Conferences, Oxford and London The 
Second Pan-Anglican Lambeth Conference and Missions Deaths 
of Bishops New Bishops Death of Archbishop Tait. 

"It shall be built . . . even in, troublous times." Dan. ix. 25, R.V. 
" But Jehoiada waxed old, and was full of days when he died ; . . . he had dove 
good in Israel, both toward God, and tou-ard his house." 2 Chron. xxiv. 15, 16. 

HE period often years which we are now to review p ART vill. 

begins with the death of the great Missionary Director, 1873-82. 

and closes with the death of the great Archbishop of Chap. 69. 

Canterbury. The latter event is a convenient point A d ^J c 

to which to carry our present survey. Not only docs and an 
it mark a distinct epoch in the history of the Church, but it also epoch> 
very nearly coincides, though accidentally, with what was virtually 
an epoch in the history of the Society. The years 1880 and 1881 
were distinctly years of important events in the Society s career ; 
but the issues of those events were scarcely visible until 1882-3, 
the years of Tait s death and Benson s accession to the Primacy. 
And these years, upon a review of the whole period, seem to be 
the transition time from the Past to the Present of the Society s 
inner life. Almost all the developments that have signalized 
recent years have begun since that transition time. 

In previous periods we have found a close connexion between 
the Society and its environment. In tracing out the history of 
the Church of England, we have found much light thrown 
upon the history of the Church Missionary Society. No fairly C.M.S. and 
adequate account of Pratt and Bickersteth* and Venn, as C.M.S. 
Secretaries, could be given without noticing their attitude towards 
the current affairs of the Church as a whole ; and we have seen 
how skilfully Mr. Eidgeway, as editor of the Intelligencer, turned 
to account the varied questions and controversies of the day in 
his treatment of missionary problems. We shall not henceforth 

B 2 


The con 
with Ra 

PART VIII. find this connexion existing in anything like the same degree. 
1873-82. The Society s own affairs at home and abroad had now become so 
Chap. 69. garbing, and its immediate interests so extensive, that Wright 
and Wigram and their colleagues had neither time nor opportunity 
to take much part in the general business of the Church ; and 
although Knox s brilliant articles in the Intelligencer were those 
of an acute observer of current Church politics, his attitude 
towards them was a kind of outside attitude, very different from 
Eidgeway s. Nevertheless, it seems desirable to continue our 
periodical surveys of the public affairs of the Church ; and we 
shall find not a few links between them and the affairs of the 
Society, although not so many as we have found before. 

In one respect, the period now to be reviewed differed entirely 
from the preceding one. In the sixties, as we have^seen, the 
Eationalistic controversy was in an acute stage. In the seventies, 
it had almost wholly died away. Archbishop Tait of Canterbury 
was as popular among Evangelical Churchmen as Bishop Tait of 
London had (for three or four years at least) been unpopular ; 
and Bishop Temple of Exeter was rapidly living down the 
vehement feeling that had found utterance in such loud protests 
against his appointment. A little temporary alarm arose from 
the publication of a pretentious and apparently very learned book, 
by an anonymous author, called Supernatural Religion, which 
attempted to destroy the historical evidence for the genuineness 
and authenticity of the books of the New Testament; but its 
fallacies were ruthlessly exposed by Professor (afterwards Bishop) 
Lightfoot in a series of most masterly review articles ; and the 
book has long since been forgotten. Not till 1890 came the con 
troversy over the volume of Essays called Lux Mundi, in which 
a younger High Church Oxford school advocated yiews_ on 
Inspiration and the Humanity of our Lord previously identified 
The battle rather with the Broad party. The agitation about the Athanasian 
Creed, which was much earlier in date, being at its height in 
1872, was of quite a different order. It was indeed regarded by 
High Churchmen as a battle between orthodox Christianity and 
Bationalism ; but it was not really so, for Evangelical Church 
men, whose loyalty to the doctrines of the Creed was un 
impeachable, generally supported Archbishops Tait and Thomson 
in their efforts to obtain some relief for sensitive consciences, 
either by eliminating the "damnatory clauses" or by altering 
the rubric which requires the recitation of the Creed in public 
worship. In nothing has the enormous power of the High 
Church party been more signally exhibited than in the com 
plete victory they gained over the two Primates and their 
large following among the laity. Dr. Pusey and Dr. Liddon 
threatened to resign all their preferments and retire into private 
life if the Creed were "tampered with"; and Archbishop Tait, 
with unconcealed reluctance, fell back upon the issue of a 
" Sy nodical declaration" "for the removal of doubts, and to 

of the 


prevent disquietude "which was finally accepted by the Canter- PART VIII. 
bury Convocation in May, 1873. Ch 73 "^ 

At this time, the most influential layman of the High Church J__ 
party was the Marquis of Salisbury. Mr. Gladstone, rejected by Lord Saiis- 
Oxford University and identified with the disestablishment of the ^ h as a 
Irish Church, had lost much of his old influence; and the Hon. church 
Charles Wood (the present Lord Halifax) w r as not yet in the front 
rank. It was Lord Salisbury who moved the principal resolution 
at the great St. James s Hall meeting in defence of the Athanasian 
Creed (January 31st, 1873) ; and it was he who represented the 
party in the important debate on Eitual at the Leeds Church 
Congress in October, 1872. It was in that debate that he advised 
the Eitualists not to be afraid of the Privy Council ; which led to 
the memorable retort that may be said to have made the dialectical 
reputation of Mr. Goe (now Bishop of Melbourne) : " Lord 
Salisbury advised his friends not to be afraid of the Privy Council. 
We [Evangelicals] are not afraid of the Privy Council. Why ^ ( e s 
should we be? Rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the retort" 5 
evil" a sentence drowned in a torrent of cheering, all parties 
uniting to applaud so brilliant a rejoinder. 

This incident is typical of the principal feature of the Church 
history of the period, the Eitual prosecutions and the controversy Ritual con- 
regarding the Courts that gave the judgments. But there was tr 
one matter more intrinsically important than any questions of 
vestments or lights or the " position of the celebrant," which 
never came before the Courts, but which caused grave anxiety. 
This was the practice of " Sacramental Confession." In 1873, 
a petition to the Bishops to appoint special priests as authorized 
"confessors" raised what Dr. Pusey called "a tremendous 
storm "; :;: and the whole Episcopal Bench, without a single 
dissentient, issued an important and impressive Declaration, con- 
condemning the practice, and explaining in a quite satisfactory 
way the exceptional case contemplated in the Service for the 
Visitation of the Sick. In the same year, only six days before 
his sudden death, Bishop Wilberforce delivered his memorable 
address to the same effect to the rural deans of his diocese. f 
Again, in 1877, the revelations regarding the manual called The 
Priest in Absolution led to a further strong condemnation of 
the practice by all the bishops, Bishop Moberly of Salisbury 
(who was regarded as the most advanced theologically) warmly 
concurring in the decision. Then, in 1878, the principal sentences 
of the Declaration of 1873 were adopted, with equal unanimity, 
by the one hundred bishops attending the Second Lambeth Lambeth 1 e 
Conference. It is well to remember these facts, as showing (1) conference 
the unmistakable judgment, not merely of the Evangelical wing 
of the Church that goes without saying, but of the Church as a 

* Life of Dr. Pusty, vol. iv. p. 265. 

f Life of Bishop S. Wilberforce, vol. iii. p. 419. 






Success of 


in prison. 

body ; (2) the absolute failure of the most impressive Episcopal 
Declarations to secure the obedience of the "Catholic party "- 
or no Qne w -j} p re tend that "sacramental confession" is /ess- 
practised now than it was then. 

To revert to the Eitual controversy proper. In 1874, Archbishop 
Tait, representing the whole Episcopate- a fact often forgotten, 
introduced into Parliament the Public Worship Regulation Bill. 
^ was this Bill that drew Mr. Gladstone out of the retirement 
into which he had gone after his defeat at the general election 
earlier in the year. He vehemently opposed the Bill in the 
House of Commons ; while Mr. Disraeli, separating himself from 
Lord Salisbury and other members of the Government, welcomed 
it as a measure "to put dow r n Ritualism." Ultimately, though 
with important amendments, it passed by immense majorities. 
It did not directly touch any of the disputed questions : it simply 
provided an easier procedure for their settlement. In short, it 
may be described as having " created Lord Penzance." Although 
several High Church bishops and lay peers had supported this 
"creation,"* there was from the first a determined onslaught 
upon the plan on the part of the " Catholic party." Week after 
week the Church Times thundered against the " P.W.R. Act," 
and all Tait s hopes of a reasonable settlement through its means 
came to nought. The Bishops, in March, 1875, issued another 
joint Pastoral, calling upon the clergy to obey the law. It was signed 
by all except Bishop Moberly on one side and Bishop Baring on 
the other, the former thinking it too strong and the latter 
characterizing it as "weak milk and water"; but it effected 

Meanwhile, the Church Association s prosecutions went on ; 
tne new Judge decided almost every point in its favour ; the 
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, when the appeals came 
before that august tribunal, confirmed most of his decisions ; 
the Ritualists became more and more determined in their re 
sistance to every existing authority ; and at last Mr. Tooth of 
St. James s, Hatcham, was sent to prison (1876), followed (1880) 
fcy Mr p elham Da le of St. Vedast s and Mr. Enraght of Bordesley, 
and (1881) by Mr. Green of Miles Platting. The three former 
were quickly got out of gaol ; but Green refused to do or say 
anything whatever that would give the Courts an excuse for 
releasing him, and his incarceration lasted more than a year and a 
half. Most pathetic is the narrative t of Archbishop Tait s efforts 
to procure his release, knowing w r hat terrible mischief his im 
prisonment was causing to the Church. Let it be carefully 
observed that these men were not really in prison for conscience 
sake. To compare them with the martyrs of the early Church, or 
of Queen Mary s reign, is utterly misleading. They were not 
compelled to do anything their consciences forbad. They had but 

Life of Archbishop Tait, vol. ii. p. 219. f Ibid., vol. ii. pp. 453473. 


to resign their posts in order to be free; and in point of fact it PART VIII. 
was only when by efflux of time Mr. Green s living became vacant, 3 
that Bishop Eraser was able to move the Court to order his release. 
Although Mackonochie s resignation looked like a device to defeat 
the law, it really was a fortunate thing from the Evangelical point 
of view. For probably no one event in the history of the past 
half-century has done so much to foster the Romanizing move 
ment, and to injure the Evangelical cause, as the imprisonment of 


Mr. Green ; for however illogically it transferred to his side damage to 
the sympathies of vast numbers of good and moderate men. The geuST" 
policy of prosecution might have been justified by success, but it cause. 
resulted, as we see when we look round the Church of England 
to-day, in dismal failure. And the day came when the Church 
Association publicly abandoned it " for the present." 

Meanwhile, as the constitution of the Ecclesiastical Courts 
caused so much dissatisfaction among High Churchmen, Arch 
bishop Tait set himself to obtain such changes in them as might J t ^ pt to 
enable them to command obedience. It really was a hopeless reform the 
task to invent a Court which would be respected by men who Courts - 
were and still are a law unto themselves, and who will acknow 
ledge no authority but their own judgment as to what is 
" Catholic." But he honestly tried. It seems hard, however, to 
convince any party that the business of a Court of Law is to 
decide, not what the law ought to be, but what it is. Dr. Pusey, 
when he heard that tfhe Judicial Committee were likely to condemn 
vestments in the Eidsdale case, wrote to Archbishop Tait, en 
treating him, as one of the judges (or rather, as an assessor), to 
get the Judgment modified before it was delivered.* " Our 
business," replied the Primate, " is to decide what is historically 
and legally true, and not what is or is not desirable."! Years 
afterwards, when Archbishop Benson gave his famous Judgment 
in the Lincoln case, he might have said the same thing as against 
objectors from the opposite side. An English Judge, ecclesiastical 
or otherwise, may make mistakes ; but his bona fides ought not to 
be challenged. It must be added that Tait s well-meant effort 
came to nought. The Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts occupied 
much of his time in the last year or two of his life ; but it did 
not report until after his death, and its recommendations have 
remained a dead letter. J 

All this while the Convocations of Canterbury and York were gojj^*- 
not idle. Their principal work was revising the Rubrics, taking the 
as a basis the recommendations of the Ritual Commission of Rubncs - 

* But Pusey by no means approved of the extreme forms of Ritualism, or 
of the tactics of the ultra-ftitualists. On one occasion he actually wrote 
withdrawing from the English Church Union, but was induced to remain a 
member when certain language was altered. See his Life, vol. iv. chap. xi. 

| Life of Archbishop Tait, vol. ii. p. 291. 

I Since the above was written, the Archbishops have announced their 
intention to ask for legislation on the lines of the Eeport of the Commission. 

Chap. 69. 

Jackson s 


Ryle on 

and on 

and on 


1867-70, in which, as we have before seen, Henry Venn took so 
active a part. At length, after going over the entire Prayer-book 
several times with the utmost pains, both Houses of both Con 
vocations agreed upon their Eeports, which were duly submitted 
to the Crown. Upon the whole, the recommendations were good 
and useful ; yet this labour also was practically thrown_ away. 
For no Government has seen its way to promote the legislation 
without which no legal change is possible ; and indeed the Canter 
bury Lower House, while submitting the Eeport, deprecated 
any attempt to legislate without some security that Parliament 
would refrain from making any changes except such as Con 
vocation had approved ; and this security, of course, could not be 
obtained. Bishop Jackson of London, however, proposed that 
Convocation should have power to make " canons and con 
stitutions " for the Church under the authority of the Queen in 
Council, the said "canons and constitutions" being laid on the 
table of the Houses of Parliament, and then coining into force 
under royal license unless Parliament objected within a certain 
time. This proposal has never met with general approval, 
although there has been, and is, a growing feeling that in some 
way the Church of England, though established, ought to be able 
to legislate for itself, on minor matters at all events, as the 
Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland does. The real 
difficulty is that Convocations of clergy only do not command the 
confidence of the laity. Canon (now Bishop) Kyle, who always 
wished, not, like some good folk, to end Convocation, but to mend 
it, expressed in forcible terms what is needed, at the Leeds Church 
Congress in 1872, viz., (1) Amalgamation, i.e. of the two Provinces ; 
(2) Expansion, i.e. admitting more elected members; (3) Reduc 
tion, i.e. of the official members; (4) Inclusion, i.e. of the laity. 

Canon Ryle was throughout this period perhaps the most 
prominent and honoured of the Evangelical leaders. Dean 
McNeile did not die till 1879, nor Dr. Miller till 1880, nor Dean 
Close till 1882; but age or weakened health prevented them 
from taking any conspicuous part in public affairs. Mr. Ryle 
was admired, not only for his staunchness to Evangelical 
truth, but for his independence of mind; and at the Church 
Congresses his popularity was great with all parties. His letters 
to the Record on Church Reform were too bold to win assent 
from his brethren generally, who were more afraid than he was 
of changes and innovations ; yet the fact of his having the 
courage to write them added to his influence. In 1872, at the 
Islington Clerical Meeting, he was audacious enough to blame 
Evangelicals for misjudging High Churchmen, told them to 
attend the Church Congress and learn better, assured them he 
had not himself caught any theological disease " by attending, 
advocated as much unity in the Church as was possible, and 
made the following notable suggestion : 

" Let a few Churchmen of mark from each school be got together 


quietly in a private room, without reporters, in order to talk over points PART VITT. 
on which they disagreed. Let them take from one school such men as 1873-82. 
Canon Liddon, Mr. Burgon, Mr. Carter of Clewer, and Canon King Chap. 6J. 
[now Bishop of Lincoln]; from another school, Dr. Vaughan, Canon 
Lightfoot, Dr. Barry, and Dean Howson ; from another school, Mr. 
Twigg, Mr. Aitken [senior], Mr. Maclagaii [now Archbishop of York], 
and Mr. Wilkinson [now Bishop of St. Andrew s] ; and from their own 
friends, Mr. Garbett, Mr. Joseph Bardsley, Dr. Walker [of Cheltenham], 
and Dean Payne Smith. Let them be put down in Cumberland, at the 
Borrowdale Hotel; keep away from them letters, newspapers, Times, 
Guardian, Church Times, and Record; give them nothing but their 
Bibles, their Prayer-books, pens, ink, and paper ; and ask them to talk 
matters over quietly among themselves, to find out wherein they differed 
and wherein they agreed, and to put it down in black and white. That 
such a report would bring to light clear evidence of a vast amount of 
unity, he firmly believed, and should continue to believe until the 
experiment had proved the contrary." 

It was not long after this that Canon Kyle, Canon Garbett, and 
Canon Hoare, who were all three accustomed to attend the Church 
Congress, and the latter of whom had said that he hacl no objection 
to preaching in a surplice where it was desired a rather bold 
thing to say then,* were vehemently attacked by the Bock, a The 
paper recently established and desirous of winning its spurs. 
Week after week "the Three Canons" were denounced as 
traitors to the Evangelical cause ; and it was to describe those canons 
who sympathized with them in their generous utterances that 
the term " Neo-Evangelical " was invented. It is worth while 
remembering who were the first " Neo-Evangelicals." 

Canon Hoare was now recognized as one of the foremost Evan- 
gelical leaders; and at the Church Congresses he stood only 
second to Canon Kyle as the champion of Evangelical principles. 
While Kyle was especially prominent, during our present period, 
at Brighton, Croydon, Sheffield, and Swansea, Hoare s treatment 
of the subject of Confession at Plymouth was a model of Christian 
controversy, and he did good service at Leicester and Newcastle ; 
but the most memorable of all Congress speeches on controversial 
subjects was his at Derby, in 1882, in reply to Mr. Wood (now 
Lord Halifax). He had prepared an address, as invited, on 
Liturgical Improvement, but Bishop Maclagan of Lichfield, w T ho 
was presiding, suddenly called upon him out of his turn, imme 
diately after Mr. Wood, who had put forward, as his idea of 
liturgical improvement, the adoption of the Prayer-book of 1549. 
Hoare, having to speak on the spur of the moment, threw aside 
his prepared speech, and, as the Guardian expressed it, "with 
admirable skill and courage grappled with his antagonist," 
pointing out that the advanced party, by its chief lay repre- 

* It is a curious evidence of the changes of the last twenty years, that at 
the Swansea Congress, in 1879, Canon Kyle was thought generous for saying 
that High Churchmen ought not to be denounced for preaching in the 
surplice and chanting the Psalms. 



PART VIII. sentative, had that day abandoned its old profession of loyalty to 
1873-82. the Praer-book as it is. 

Chap. 69 




of the 

rjij ie j smi gt; 0n Clerical Meetings of the period were cheerful in 
tone. There was no shutting of the eyes to the perils of the 
Church, but scarcely any of the addresses can be called pessi 
mistic. Most of the subjects set down for consideration had 
regard to ministerial efficiency. The leading speakers of the 
decade were Eyle, Hoare, Miller, Birks, Garbett, Goe, Cadman, 
Boultbee, Eichardson, Bernard. Mr. Webb-Peploe and Mr. Hund 
ley Moule appear for the first time in 1881. Perhaps the most 
interesting of the subjects was in 1879, when the general theme 
was " Eightly dividing the word of truth," and the divisions were 
the Origin of Man, the Destiny of Man, the Eedemption. of Man, 
the Sanctification of Man, which were spoken to respectively by 
J. W. Bardsley (now Bishop of Carlisle) and Bishop Eyan, 
Garbett and Emilius Bayley, Bell and B. Baring-Gould, W. E. 
Light and Karney. But the most important of all the meetings 
was in 1877, when the Jubilee of the Conference was celebrated. 
Daniel Wilson, as President, sketched its past history, since the 
first gathering of fourteen brethren in his father s library in 
Barnsbury Park. Hugh McNeile appeared for the last time, and 
preached in the parish church. Four remarkable historical papers 
were read, by Bishop Perry, Garbett, Miller, and Eyle, contrasting 
the condition of the Church in 1827 and 1877, and sketching the 
extraordinary progress in life and work and organization in the 
half-century. They are bracing reading even now. They put to 
shame our downheartedness, and show by indisputable facts the 
immense growth of Evangelical truth in the Church. And yet as 
one reads them, one realizes how great is the further progress in 
the last twenty years. 

At this point may be noticed two events of our period interest 
ing to Evangelical readers. First, it was in 1874-6 that plans 
being formed for the establishment of Halls at Oxford and 
idley Cambridge for the theological training of graduates about to take 
holy orders. The originating mind was that of the Eev. E. II. 
Carr, a regular and highly-respected member of the C.M.S. 
Committee ; and the fact is interesting that as Keble College was 
avowedly the High Church counterblast to Essays and Reviews, 
so these Halls were designed by Mr. Carr to be the practical 
answer of Evangelical Churchmen to the anonymous book before 
mentioned, Supernatural Religion. It was in the Church Mis 
sionary House that the plans were matured by him and Mr, 
Barlow (who did most of the hard work of raising funds) and Mr. 
Henry Wright (who insisted that Oxford should have a Hall as 
well as Cambridge) and Mr. Sydney Gedge, and also by Bishop 
Perry, who at this time came home finally from his Melbourne 
diocese and threw himself energetically into .Evangelical work 
of all kinds. Wyciiffe Hall at Oxford was opened in 1877, 
with the Eev. E. B. Girdlestone as Principal ; and Eidley 

Wycliffe WCl C 


Hall at Cambridge followed in 1881, having for its Principal the PART VIII. 
Kev. Handley C. G. Moule. Both these institutions, it is 1873-82. 
needless to say, have through God s blessing attained a position 
of usefulness beyond the most sanguine expectations of their 

Then secondly, the last year of our period witnessed an im 
portant change in the form of the leading Evangelical Church changes 
paper, the Hecord. On March 27th, 1882, appeared its last tri- Record." 
weekly issue in broadsheet shape. From that time the present 
weekly issue w r as adopted, and the present external form. No 
change of principles, of course, was intended, or has ensued ; but 
undoubtedly there has been a change of tone. Mr. Haldane, the 
chief proprietor and real director (though not editor), only sur 
vived the change three months ; and to others fell the responsible 
task of giving public utterance to the views and sentiments of Evan 
gelical Churchmen. Haldane was an extremely able and vigorous 
journalist, and the prosperous career of the Record for so many 
years was mainly due to him. Wise and large-hearted men 
like Venn and Auriol did not always approve of his slashing 
articles ; but the articles only represented the spirit of the time. 
Readers of the dignified Times leaders of the present day would 
be surprised if they turned up the corresponding articles of thirty 
and forty years ago. They are as able now as ever ; but the 
merciless bitterness has gone. A change more or less similar has 
come over the Record ; and not only are its polemical utterances 
more restrained than of old, but there is a much more manifest 
sympathy with directly spiritual and evangelistic work, and with 
movements of the kind to be described in our next chapter. 

Let us now inquire how the cause of Foreign Missions was 
faring in the Church generally during our period. The Day of The Day 
Intercession, the first observance of which marked so happily Cession" 
the close of our previous period, was repeated year by year ; 
but it cannot be said to have increased in influence. In fact the 
really deep interest of the first Day has never been seen in equal 
measure since. After the second year, St. Andrew s Day was 
fixed upon for the annual observance ; but this arrangement was 
not pleasing to those who hoped to win the Nonconformists 
and the Scotch Presbyterians to join in the intercessions, 
because they feared that a Saint s Day would be unwelcome. 
Partly on this account, and partly for other reasons, Arch 
bishop Tait altered it in 1879 to the Tuesday before Ascension 
Day, which would generally fall in May ; and, curiously 
enough, Presbyterian Scotland, by the mouth of one of its 
missionary editors, complained of the alteration as involving a 
slight to the Scottish patron saint, St. Andrew ! After six years 
the old day was reverted to, and has been observed ever since. 
Perhaps the most notable incident connected with the Day of 
Intercession in the period under review was the appointment, in 



Chap. 69. 

at the 

at the 

Africa at 

1873, by Dean Stanley, of Professor Max MUller to give the 
address at the service in Westminster Abbey. The Professor s 
discourse was a comparison of " the three missionary religions," 
Christianity, Mohammedanism, and Buddhism ; and the result 
of the comparison was, in the opinion of so acute a judge as 
Mr. Hutton of the Spectator, a distinct preference for Buddhism. 
Certainly it was a strange utterance in a Christian church on 
a day 011 which Christians were praying to their God for men to 
preach Christianity to, among others, the Buddhists ; and it 
furnished a text for one of Mr. Knox s most scathing articles in 
the CM. Intelligencer (February, 1874). In the next two years, 
Stanley invited Dr. Caird, the eminent Scottish preacher, and 
Dr. Moffat, the great African missionary, to give the address at 
the Abbey. But the real influence of the Day of Intercession 
was not through the addresses that attracted the newspaper 
reporters. It was through the believing prayers of believing 
people at quiet services in unnoticed places. To them, and to 
God s gracious response to them, may we not trace the large 
accessions of devoted men and women to the ranks of the 
Church s missionary army in the last five-and-twenty years ? 

Throughout the decade, Missions maintained their place in the 
Church Congresses. Generally speaking, definite topics were 
given. Thus at Bath in 1873, Missions to Uncivilized Eaces ; 
at Brighton, in 1874, Missions in Eelation to Oriental Systems ; 
at Stoke, in 1875, Missionary Bishoprics ; at Plymouth, in 1876, 
Central Africa ; at Croydon, in 1877, Mohammedanism ; at 
Leicester, in 1880, Missions to the Eastern Churches ; at New 
castle, in 1881, the Opium Trade ; at Derby, in 1882, the Organi 
zation of Native Churches, Missionary Centres, and Medical 
Missions. The most prominent speaker was Sir Bartle Frere, 
who read papers at four of the ten Congresses, viz., on the Bath, 
Plymouth, Newcastle, and Derby subjects. At Brighton, the 
Earl of Chichester (the C.M.S. President) read an interesting 
paper on Mohammedanism, and Dr. (afterwards Bishop) Caldwell 
a very able one on Hinduism. There was no man quite like 
Caldwell for the cogency with which he was wont to expose 
the fancies and fallacies of the amateurs who on occasions like 
these criticize all existing Missions, and profess to show a better 
way. His high reputation as an S.P.G. missionary gave his 
words weight with many who w T ould scarcely have listened to a 
C.M.S. man. Central Africa was a happily-chosen subject in 
1876, when the first Mission to Uganda had lately started, and 
when Mr. Salter Price, just home after founding Frere Town, 
was present to follow Sir B. Frere, in whose honour that settle 
ment was named. But the feature of this discussion was the 
appearance of Commander Cameron, recently returned from his 
great African journey ; and the tremendous reception he got, 
compared with the mild applause given to Price, was a signifi 
cant token that the Church had not yet learned that the mis- 


sionary is, from the Church s true point of view, greater than the PART VIII. 
traveller. Mohammedanism, at Croydon in 1877, was ably treated :J^ 3 ~ 82 ( - 
by three first-class authorities, Bishop Steere, Professor E. H. p ^ 
Palmer, and Sir W. Muir ; but the attraction of the discussion i s i am at 
was the Eev. Jani Alii, Eobert Noble s convert from Islam, whose Cr y don - 
striking speech w 7 as vociferously applauded, and whom the 
President was compelled by the loud demands of the meeting 
to allow to exceed his proper time. The Opium debate of 1881 
was notable for the unanimity with which men so different as Sir 
B. Frere, Mr. Scott Holland (now Canon of St. Paul s), Mr. 
Sheepshanks of the S.P.G. (now Bishop of Norwich), as well as 
A. E. Moule and Bishop Btirdon, acknowledged the guilty respon 
sibility of England for the opium-smoking curse in China. 

But the most remarkable of these discussions was that on 
Missionary Bishoprics, at Stoke, in 1875. T. V. French read the 
opening paper, a masterpiece of beautiful thought and writing. 
David Fenn of Madras followed with a scarcely inferior paper. 
Soon afterwards rose up the Eev. J. Higgins, who had been a lay 
catechist of the S.P.G. in South India, and who, soon after being 
ordained, had given up missionary work to be a Bombay chaplain ; 
and he proceeded to make a violent attack upon the C.M.S. as the Attack on 
real opponent of the extension of the Episcopate in India of i^ e s a 
course omitting to mention the prominent part taken by the 
C.M.S. in obtaining the original establishment of the Episcopate 
there. Captain the Hon. F. Maude, the C.M.S. Treasurer, was 
on the platform, and at once sent in his card to the Bishop of 
Lichfield (Selwyn), who was presiding; and being presently called 
upon, produced irrefragable evidence that the Society was no 
enemy to bishops, in that he, as treasurer, had signed many 
cheques in payment of his lordship the chairman s episcopal 
stipend in New Zealand! At the close of the debate, Bishop 
Selwyn, with characteristic generosity, thanked Captain Maude 
for his reminder, and the C.M.S. also, not only for its support of 
himself, but for its co-operation in founding other sees in New 

Within our period three important Missionary Conferences were Anglican 
held. Two of them, in 1875 and 1877, were on Church of England yCon-" 
Missions, and were promoted by the same men who had long de- London 5 
sired to see a Board of Missions established. The first was held and Oxford 
at the Cannon Street Hotel ; and the Archbishop of Canterbury and 
Bishop of London were secured as chairmen at two of the sessions. 
The C.M.S. declined to be represented officially, but several C.M.S. 
men took part. The opening sermon at St. Paul s was preached 
by Dr. Miller; and two of the most notable addresses were given 
by two Calcutta missionaries, James Vaughan and James Long. 
Mr. Long s paper, strongly deprecating the anglicizing of Christian 
converts in Heathen lands, made a great impression. Bishop 
Cotterill, Dr. Caldwell, Sir Bartle Frere, and Professor Monier- 
Williams, were prominent among the other speakers. The second 


ary Con 
ference at 

PART VIII. was at Oxford, under the presidency of Bishop Mackarness. The 
1873-82. most important debate was on the Eolation of Missionary Societies 

Chap. 69. j. Q church Organization, avowedly apropos of the controversy, then 
acute, between the C.M.S. and the Bishop of Colombo. The two 
chief papers on this subject, by Canon King (now Bishop of Lin 
coln), and T. V. French, were very remarkable both singularly 
impartial, and (as it seems to a reader twenty years after) of per 
manent value ; and among the other speakers were E. S. Talbot 
(now Bishop of Kochester), Edgar Jacob (now Bishop of New 
castle), J. H. Titcomb (afterwards Bishop of Eangoon), and J. F. 
Kitto. There were also interesting papers by Professor Monier- 
Williams on Christianity and Civilization, Padre Nehemiah Goreh 
on Missionary Brotherhoods (of deep interest, though extreme in 
its views), and the Eev. W. T. Bullock (then Secretary of S.P.G.) 
on the Day of Intercession. These Conferences may be regarded 
as the progenitors of the more important Anglican Missionary 
Conference of 1894. 

The other Conference, held in October, 1878, was on the 
broader basis of Protestant Christianity, representing the Missions 
of various Churches and denominations, and was at once the 
successor of the Liverpool Missionary Conference of 1860 (men 
tioned in our Thirty-fourth Chapter) and the progenitor of the great 
General Conference in London in 1888. Its weak point, as in the 
case of the Decennial Conferences in India, was the absence of 
S.P.G. men. At gatherings of this kind the Church of England 
has to be represented (practically) only by the C.M.S., which is of 
course an inadequate representation of its work. Not that the 
C.M.S. sent official delegates in 1878, any more than to the 
Anglican gathering three years before ; but Dr. Cust, as one of 
the Secretaries, and Sir W. Hill and the Eev. E. C. Billing, as 
members of the Executive Committee, were supposed to represent 
Church of England interests. The meetings lasted four days, and 
were held in the Mildmay Conference Hall, except the final public 
meeting in Exeter Hall. The attendance was at no time nearly 
equal to what the chief societies are wont to gather at their own 
anniversaries. Joint meetings, whether within the Church of 
England or on a broader platform, have never yet attracted the 
crowds that rally round their own particular societies. But the 
proceedings were of great interest. There was no discussion of 
missionary problems; rather, accounts of missionary work done, 
country by country. The only two readers of papers who were 
C.M.S. men were Sir T. Fowell Buxton, on Central Africa, and 
T. P. Hughes, of Peshawar, on Missions to Mohammedans. 
Bishop Perry, as a voluntary speaker, mindful of the absence of 
S.P.G. and other Church representatives, generously described 
S.P.G. work in South Africa, and also the Melanesian Mission. 
Some distinguished Americans took a leading part, particularly 
Dr. W. G. Clark and Dr. A. C. Thompson, of the A.B.C.F.M., 
Dr. Bliss of Constantinople, and Dr. Ferris of Japan. Among 


other prominent speakers were Dr. Murray Mitchell (India) and PART VIII. 
Dr. Stewart (Africa), of the Free Church of Scotland; Dr. Max- p? 73 " 8 ^ 
well (China), of the English Presbyterian Church; Dr. Mullens, Lhap 
Secretary of the L.M.S.; M. A. Sherring (India), Dr. Legge 
(China), W. G. Lawes (New Guinea), J. Sibree (Madagascar), all 
of the L.M.S.; and Mrs. Weitbrecht, of the Zenana Society. At 
one meeting, excellent speeches were made by ladies (all wives) 
from India. 

At the second Pan- Anglican Lambeth Conference, which was Second 
held under Archbishop Tait s presidency in 1878, and attended by conference 
just one hundred bishops (including two or three from the North of Bishops, 
of England who had declined to come in 1867), Foreign Missions 
were touched at two points. (1) The Committee on Union in the 
Anglican Communion recommended that the Day of Intercession 
be changed from St. Andrew s Day to the season of Ascension 
which suggestion was adopted by the Archbishop (temporarily, as 
before mentioned). (2) There was a Committee on "the relation 
to each other of missionary bishops and of missionaries of various 
branches of the Anglican Communion acting in the same country," 
which presented an important Eeport ; and in that year the Com 
mittee Reports, being inserted in full in the official Letter of the 
whole Conference, were more authoritative than has been the case 
dn later occasions. This Eeport made suggestions to prevent the 
use of different translations of the Prayer-book in the same 
Mission-field; and, as regards China and Japan, in which 
countries Missions of the English and American Churches were at English 
work side by side but under different arrangements for episcopal American 
supervision, the Committee were of opinion "that under existing Jj^same* 
circumstances each bishop should have control of his own clergy place, 
and their converts and congregations," but that, for the future, it 
was "most undesirable that either Church should send a bishop 
or missionaries to a town or district already occupied by a bishop 
of another branch of the Anglican Communion." That Com 
mittee also reported on the mutual relation of bishops and 
missionaries of the same Church, though the subject scarcely 
came under the terms of their reference. This was in consequence 
of the great controversy then going on between the Church Mis 
sionary Society and the Bishop of Colombo, and the Report, 
therefore, will come before us hereafter. 

The sermon at the St. Paul s Service which closed this Lambeth f^Jj^P,, 
Conference, preached by Bishop Stevens of Pennsylvania, deserves Sermon, 
a passing notice.* Its text was that great missionary verse, "I, 
if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto Me" ; and 
it was a powerful appeal to all parties to rise above minor 
differences and both to look at and to lift up Christ, with a view to 
the Church doing all its work at home and abroad more efficiently. 
The preacher was distinctly a High Churchman, as is witnessed 

* Printed in Bishop R. T. Davidson s Lambeth Conferences, p. 208. 

1 6 


PART VIII. by many phrases in the sermon; but the most decidedly Evan- 
1873-82. bishop in the assembly could have said nothing better than 

Nothing " All attempt to put anything between the soul of the sinner and the 

the^fnn r "phfted Christ, or to raise anything to the same level with Him, is 

and Christ, derogatory to His honour and contrary to His Word. To what purpose 

would the bitten Israelite have been told to look at the serpent of brass 

lifted up by Moses in the wilderness if anything had been placed by 

Moses or the elders of Israel between the eyes of the sufferer and the 

object to which he was directed to look ? Or if alongside of that 

serpent of brass had been placed other objects to which equal efficacy 

was attributed, and thus confused his mind and deflected his faith ^ " 

Or again, on the need of a baptism of the Holy Ghost: 

Need of a " This lifting up of Christ in all the aspects of His offices as Prophet, 
baptism of p r i es t, and King, can be done by us only as we are taught by the Holy 
s P int - Ghost, for it is His office to take of the things of Christ and to show 
them unto men. Dear brethren, if there is one thought more than 
another which presses upon me at this time, in reference especially to 
the work committed to us as Bishops in the Church of God, it is that we 
need a fresh baptism of the Holy Spirit and fresh outpouring into our 
hearts of the love-power of the uplifted Jesus. If even Apostles, the 
three years daily companions of our blessed Lord when He dwelt among 
men, had no power to preach the Cross of Christ until the Holy Spirit 
came upon them, surely we need to be sprinkled from on high, that 
Pentecostal grace may not merely light upon our heads in tongue-like 
flames, but that, like the precious ointment upon the head of Aaron that 
went down to the skirts of his garments, the unction that the Holy 
Spirit only can bestow may flow over our whole being, sanctifying our 
lives, enlightening our minds, giving grace to our lips, and wisdom to our 
acts, and power to our administration, so that it may be said of each of 
us as of the first martyr St. Stephen, He was a man full of faith and of 
the Holy Ghost. " 



During our period there were important changes in the Episco- 
pate. The death, just as it opened, in July, 1873, of Bishop 
g amuc i Wilberforce, was mentioned in our Sixty-eighth Chapter. 
He was succeeded at Winchester by Harold Browne of Ely. Bishop 
Selwyn of Lichfield (of whose previous New Zealand episcopate 
we have seen much) died in 1878, and was succeeded by a much- 
respected London clergyman, well known as a preacher and 
speaker on the spiritual life and a vigorous parish worker, W. D. 
Maclagan. Bishop Baring of Durham went to his rest in 1879, 
honoured by his diocese, despite his unflinching Evangelicalism, 
for his personal kindliness and unbounded liberality. The ap 
pointment of Dr. Lightfoot to fill the vacancy met with universal 
approval. It was at this time that a successful effort was at last 
made to obtain some new bishoprics, dividing, and thus relieving, 
the more overgrown dioceses. By special Acts of Parliament the 
se es of St. Alban s and Truro were created in 1876-77; and in 
187g gir R Cross, the Home Secretary, succeeded in passing an 
Act to facilitate the formation of four more, Liverpool, Newcastle, 


Southwell, and Wakefield. Suffragan Bishops were also being PART Till, 
now appointed, the first since the sixteenth century. This 1873-82. 
revival was due to Bishop Christopher Wordsworth of Lincoln, Gha P- 69 - 
who obtained a Suffragan from the Crown as early as 1870, with 
the title of Bishop of Nottingham. The Suffragan Bishoprics 
of Dover, Guildford, and Bedford followed; and since then the 
number has multiplied. Some notable appointments were made 
to the new sees. When St. Alban s was carved out of Eochester, 
Bishop T. L. Claughton elected to take the new division; and 
Eochester was given to the highly-esteemed Evangelical Vicar of 
St. Pancras, A. W. Thorold. As at the same time, a large part of New 
Surrey was transferred from Winchester to Eochester, Thorold blshops - 
became, in effect, the first bishop whose centre of work lay in 
South London. The new diocese of Truro received as its first 
bishop E. W. Benson; and to Liverpool was appointed the 
redoubtable Protestant champion, Canon Eyle. The appointment 
of Eyle was one of the last acts of Lord Beaconsfield before the 
general election of 1880 terminated his political career ; and cer 
tainly a Premier who in four years raised to the Episcopate a 
Thorold, a Benson, a Maclagan, a Lightfoot, and a Eyle, cannot be 
accused of selecting inferior men. The new dioceses of Newcastle, 
Southwell, and Wakefield, were formed a little later. 

But the most important event affecting the English Episcopate 
was that which closed our period, the death of Archbishop Tait, eath of 
on Advent Sunday, December 3rd, 1882. For twelve years as Ta C it. bp 
Bishop of London, and for fourteen years as Primate, he had been 
one of the foremost men of his time. It has often been said that 
he was Archbishop of the laity rather than of the clergy, and there 
is truth in the remark. He often took a lay rather than a clerical JJJ!^ 
view of things ; when dangerously ill in 1869 he said he had with the 
wished to live to promote the organization of lay help in the laity " 
Church ; * and while he was at times distrusted by the Evangelicals, 
and always much more than distrusted by the High Church party, 
his influence in a lay assembly like the House of Lords was such 
as no other Primate of the century has enjoyed. But in the 
great Church gatherings over which he presided, such as the 
Croydon Church Congress and the Lambeth Conference, he won 
general gratitude and admiration. He was gifted in an unusual 
degree with that kind of Christian common sense which depre- J^ mon 
cates panics and soars above the idea that each difficulty as it sense 
arises in the Church involves as is said so often as to lose much 
of its force "the most solemn crisis we have had to face." At 
Croydon he said : 

" Some think that I never speak without an undue exaggeration of 
the brightness of the prospects of the Church. But they re bright ! 
Look abroad : what other country in the world would you change 
Churches with ? Look at home : which of the denominations would you 
prefer ? Look back : what Hge are you prepared to say it would have 

* Lift of Archbishop Tait, vol. ii. p. 52. 
VOL. III. c 


PART V11I. been more satisfactory to have lived in ? For my part, 1 thank God and 
1873-82. take courage." 

Many who think of Tait in connexion with the controversies of 

the period of his Primacy forget his great work as Bishop of 

London, or imagine that the chief result of that episcopate was 

His work the establishment of the Bishop of London s Fund. Our Thirty- 

Mte^ions fourth Chapter will not have been written in vain if it reminds the 

readers of this History how much the aggressive elasticity of our 

Home Missions owes to Bishop Tait s own example of preaching 

in omnibus yards, at dock gates, in the open-air. Of his deep 

and for interest in Foreign Missions his ten speeches at C.M.S. Exeter 

Missions. Hall meetings * are a standing witness. Very impressive some 

of those addresses are, weighty, practical, transparently sincere ; 

" persuasive," as Lord Granville said his speeches in the House 

of Lords were,! and " uniting, to a remarkable degree, dignity and 

simplicity." Let us read three brief passages from them. First 

observe his reference, in 1874, to the position of the Primate in the 

very heart and centre of the Church s world-wide interests, as 

enabling him to appreciate the Society s work : 

His view of " There is no cure for evils which we have at home, to be compared to 
C.M.S., that interest in the advancement of Christ s Kingdom amongst those 
who are lying in darkness, to which the efforts of this Society are 
dedicated. I am certain that if men s hearts are stirred by the Holy 
Ghost to take a real interest in perishing souls, many of the disputes 
which at present rend our Church at home will disappear. 

" In my particular position, I have communications weekly from 
almost every part of the earth. The Churches throughout the world 
which are in communion with the Church of England are continually 
applying to the centre, and their applications generally come through 
myself ; and I can testify that wherever the sun shines upon the miseries 
of the human race, there this Society is at work, and not only at work, 
but at work in the best way, spreading the Gospel to those who would 
otherwise be in darkness." 

Then see how, in 1877, he could estimate the trustworthiness 
and value of the Society s Reports : 

and its " I think we have reason to be thankful to Almighty God for the 

Reports, progress which this Society has made and is still making. It is always 
refreshing to hear the Report of this Society not an imaginary picture 
of imaginary triumphs, but a real, business-like statement of the exact 
degree of progress which is made year by year not heeding the dis 
couragements to which we may be exposed, but hopefully stating what 
they are, and what appear to be the remedies by which they may be 
surmounted. I am old enough to remember the time when it was a 
fashionable thing rather to sneer at missionary success and at missionary 
work. Thank God, I believe that time has greatly gone by. There was 
a time when our politicians shook their heads gravely when you spoke 
of any missionary efforts in our distant dependencies. "W ith respect to 

* Once as Dean of Carlisle, five times as Bishop of London, four times as 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

| Life of Archbishop Tait, vol. ii. p. 584. 


India especially, it was almost part of a politician s creed that you ought PART VIII 
to dissemble your Christianity and half leave the Natives to suppose 1873-82. 
that you were somewhat ashamed of it. Thank God, that state of things Chap. 69. 
has gone by." 

This speech was delivered when the Ceylon controversy was at 
its height, and some other features of it will come before us in a 
future chapter. Here let us notice how, in the same address, he 
encouraged the Society to unflinching faithfulness in maintaining 
its distinctive principles : 

" You are right in maintaining that you will not flinch from those and its 
great principles which you have announced, and from those doctrines principles, 
which have not only been your watchword ever since this Society was 
founded, but which throughout the world, wherever there are pious 
souls, are the comfort and sustaining power that bear those souls 
throughout great emergencies, and enable them to face death with 
calmness. These great doctrines you will not hesitate to proclaim, and 
by God s blessing they will force their way into the hearts of thousands 
who either hesitate at present to accept them, or who openly reject the 
truths which you preach." 

" To face death with calmness." Yes : the great truths which 
the Church Missionary Society proclaims are exactly those on 
which the dying can rest their faith and hope, and which give 
them a peace that passeth understanding. And upon them, as 
the biography of the great Archbishop abundantly testifies, he 
himself reposed, as he passed through the dark valley into the 
light of everlasting life. 



Unnoticed Religious Movements-Pennefather at Mildmay-S. A. 
Blackwood-Robert and W. Hay Aitken- Parochial Missions- 
Hoare at Nottingham-Moody and Sankey, Liverpool and Lor 
Y M C A and Exeter HallThe Church Congresses on Deepening 
the Spiritual Life-Broadlands-Oxford and Brighton Conven 
tions-Evangelical Divisions-The Keswick Convention-Evange 
listic Agencies-Children s Special Services-Cambridge and the 
C.I.C.C.U. What we owe to these Movements. 

" Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth ? . . . Come and eee.* - 

he ESnt 

are despised hath God chosen . . . tliat no flesh should glory 
in His pretence." 1 Cor. i. 28, 29. 

is not always such religious movements as attract 
Public attention at the time, or the accounts of which 
fill the pages of ecclesiastical histories, that produce 
the most important permanent results. 
had writ ten the religious history of his day, he would 
have told us a great deal more about Eabbinical controversies than 
about the Prophet of Nazareth, and probably he would not have 
mentioned the Sermon on the Mount at all. Modern writers on the 
Reformation period say much of Henry the Eighth s divorces and 
the two Prayer-books of Edward VI. , and the Advertisements of 
Elizabeth, but for the most part ignore the work of the Spirit ot 
God in enlightening the minds of humble and unnoticed men 
years before Henry shook off the Papal yoke. In the early 
chapters of this History we have seen how obscure and despised 
the early Evangelicals were, the men whom it is now the fashion 
to praise-at the expense of their successors. There has been a 
similar condition of things in the last thirty or forty years. The 
Evangelistic and Bevival Movement of 1857-61, described in our 
Thirty-fourth Chapter, lies outside the range of vision of the 
modern Church historian, and so do the movements that have 
spmn^ from it. Indeed, these movements are scarcely recognized 
even by the Evangelical clergy, although to them is largely due 
whatever of life and power the Evangelical wing of the Church 
possesses to-day; and, emphatically, whatever of life and power 
there is in its missionary enterprise. All the more necessary is 
it, therefore, to draw attention to them. 


At the time when our period opens, there were two evangelistic PART VIII 
and spiritual movements going on which have led to great results. /J? 3 "^ 
One was the Parochial Mission movement ; the other is usually iap 
identified by the name of its headquarters, " Mildmay." The TWO move- 
latter, though the less prominent and perhaps the less important, 
was the earlier in time, so we may rightly take it first. The 
commencement of the " Mildmay" influence, at Barnet, so far back 
as 1856, we noticed in our Thirty-fourth Chapter ; and Mr. 
Pennefather s removal to a North London parish in 1864, and the Mr. Penne- 
remarkable development of organized women s work under his 
auspices, were mentioned in our Fifty-second Chapter. It is a 
notable instance of the Divine procedure using " the weak things 
of the world," "things which are despised," "things which are 
not " that such an influence should emanate from such a place. 
The small but populous parish of St. Jude s, Mildmay Park, w r as 
one of the most ordinary of new middle-class suburban districts. 
It had not the romantic repulsiveness if the phrase may be per 
mitted of a Spitalfields or a Wapping. It was simply common 
place. William Pennefather was Incumbent for just nine years ; 
and in that time "Mildmay" became the centre of a spiritual 
power which was felt to the ends of the earth. The local work in 
mere building was astonishing. Pennefather enlarged the church His paro- 

. + e n/\ i T -, 11 -i , chial work. 

to seat 1500 persons ; he erected large new schools, and two 
mission-halls ; he built the commodious Deaconess Institution ; 
he planned, and completed, the erection of the great Conference 
Hall, seating 2500 persons. To accomplish these things he raised 
some 40,000, and he left all the buildings free from debt. But 
his was no mere bricks-and-mortar ministry. Spiritual work of the 
most direct kind w r ent on all the week round ; men and women of 
all classes and ages were brought to Christ ; and Christian 
workers, alike the youngest and the most experienced, found at 
Mildmay an inspiration that sent them back to their work, at 
home or abroad, with a deepened sense of their own insufficiency, 
but with a quickened faith in the power of the Lord. Much 
more might be said, and exaggeration w T ould be scarcely possible. 
Let it suffice to quote the testimony of a neighbouring clergyman 
of a very different type, the Eev. John Oakley, afterwards Dean Q a r ^ ley , s 
successively of Carlisle and of Manchester. Speaking, after Penne- testimony 
father s death, at a meeting of the Association of Lay Helpers for tohim - 
the Diocese of London, he closed a striking eulogy of him with 
these words : " He accomplished a work never exceeded, perhaps 
never equalled, by any clergyman in our generation." 

What was the secret of William Pennefather s unique influence ? 
It was simply this, that he was a man who walked with God, who 
simply asked his Heavenly Father for whatever was needed for 
this or that project according to that Father s will, and who found 
these childlike requests granted. He was the George Miiller of 
the Church of England ; and though his career was much shorter 
and (if one may so say) less sensational than that of the founder 


PART VIII. of the Orphan Homes, his influence upon the Evangelical circle 
1873-82. has oe en incomparably greater. And that influence did not cease 
Chap^TO. with llig death. jj e entered into rest on April 30th, 1873 ; but 
His death, his work (except what was purely parochial) was continued for 
many years by his beloved and like-minded widow (with the full 
sympathy of successive vicars), and since her death has been 
continued by a large band of true-hearted followers. It has, in 
fact, been developed and extended in all directions, and is now, a 
quarter of a century after the founder s death, carried on at a 
cost of 25,000 a year, almost wholly provided by free-will offer 
ings. That is, the tangible work; the influence, of Mildmay 
cannot be expressed in figures ; but we shall see its results again 
and again in these later chapters of our History. 

We must not, however, leave Mildmay without a reference to the 
friend who succeeded Mr. Pennefather as Chairman of the yearly 
Conferences, and as the leading trustee of the institutions, Mr. 
sirAithur (afterwards Sir) S. A. Blackwood. His conversion, and early 
Biackwood wQrk for clirist> came before us in our Thirty-fourth Chapter. 
Though a civil servant of the Crown with heavy responsibilities, 
he was always about his Heavenly Father s business ; and perhaps 
no recent biography gives so attractive a picture of a high Chris 
tian character as does that of Sir Arthur Blackwood. Under his 
presidency the annual Mildmay Conference lost none of its 
spiritual power ; and his own brief expositions of Scripture were 
among its most valuable features. The Church Congresses 
recognized his unique gifts. Three times in five years, at 
Nottingham, Brighton, and Stoke, he was appointed to speak on 
the deepening of the spiritual life. Certainly no layman of our 
time has equalled him as an expositor of Scripture. 

Of the regular Mildmay speakers it is only necessary here to 
mention one ; and his name will take us on to the other move 
ment which has been alluded to as a feature of the period. This 
was one of Mr. Pennefather s curates, the Kev. W. Hay M. H. 
Aitken, who subsequently became the most prominent " mis- 
Robert and sioiier " of the day. His father, Eobert Aitken of Pendeen, 
Aitk?n y was the earliest, and in many ways the greatest, of modern 
" missioners." Forty years before, Eobert Aitken had had a 
church at Liverpool, but being actually censured by so good a 
bishop as J. B. Sumner of Chester (afterwards Primate) for 
preaching in the open-air like a Methodist, he resigned, and 
became for some time a free lance. Then he came under the 
influence of the Oxford Tracts, and from that time combined, in a 
way quite unique, the most fervent evangelism with a love for 
the sacramental system. Dr. Hook invited him to Leeds ;* but he 
was of too independent a spirit to be happy there, and he subse 
quently worked in the Isle of Man, until he was appointed to 
the parish of Pendeen, in Cornwall, just north of the Land s End. 
The influence he gained there over the tin-miners was something 
* See Vol. II., p. 404, for Aitken s influence on J. W. Knott at Leeds. 


extraordinary ; and the beautiful church on the wild Cornish cliff PART VIII. 
which now excites the admiration of visitors was literally planned 1873-82. 
and built by himself and his people with their own hands, on the 
model of the ruined cathedral of lona, as a thankoffering to God. 
When his son was offered the curacy of St. Jude s, Mildmay, he 
w T rote to him, " Mr. Pennefather is a very Low Churchman . . . 
but he is a very holy man, and that s the great point." 

Eobert Aitken fell dead suddenly on the platform of Paddington 
Station on July llth, 1873, two months after Pennefather s 
death. But not before he had taken an active share in initiating 
the Parochial Mission movement. That movement had a com- * hi t 
plex origin. On the one hand it was in part anticipated by the Mission* 
special services for working-men which had been begun in the movement, 
fifties by Dr. Miller of Birmingham, A. Baring-Gould of Wolver- 
hampton, and other Evangelical clergymen, and which were in 
fact connected with the evangelistic movement described in our 
Thirty-fourth Chapter. These, however, were generally short 
evening services every night for a week, with sermons by different 
preachers. The idea of a regular " Mission " for eight or ten 
days, conducted by one "missioner," and with " after-meetings," 
came, on the other hand, from a rising section of young and 
fervent High Churchmen, among whom Twigg, Body, Furse, and 
G. H. Wilkinson (now Bishop of St. Andrew s) were conspicuous; 
and they derived their idea from Rome. Even Rome may now 
and then set us an example in methods ! But this fact caused 
the earliest Parochial Missions to be regarded with suspicion by 
Evangelical Churchmen ; and when unexpectedly, in 1869, a 
Twelve Days Mission for London was announced, scarcely any The 
churches but those identified with advanced High Church views 
joined in it. Nevertheless, within two years Missions were being sion > l86 9- 
held in parishes of varied ecclesiastical colours all over the 
country. In Advent, 1871, a united Mission for the parishes in 
the deanery of St. Pancras, organized by the Vicar of St. Pancras, 
A. W. Thorold (afterwards Bishop of Rochester), was marked 
by much blessing. In this Mission Robert Aitken and his two 
sons, R. W. and W. Hay Aitken, took leading parts. Then, 
in February, 1874, came the great London Mission, under the General 
auspices of the Bishops. Among the Evangelical " missioners " Mission, 
who were now prominent were C. D. Marston, Sholto Douglas, l8 74- 
W. Hay Chapman, W. Haslam (another remarkable Cornish 
clergyman, gifted with rare power in dealing with individual souls), 
and a new man from Herefordshire, H. W. Webb-Peploe. Another 
missioner whose services were manifestly blessed, and who was 
counted neither with the High Churchmen nor with the Evan 
gelicals, was F. Pigou, now Dean of Bristol. 

Although, thus quickly, all earnest Evangelical clergymen who g^f^f" 
desired a blessing from on high in their parishes came to recog- clergy and 
nize the value of these Missions, and learned to thank God when 
the fruits from the faithful seed-sowings of their own ministry were 


PART VIII. suddenly reaped by a stranger, yet not many of the acknowledged 

1873-82. leaders became " missioners " themselves. They could and 

Chap. 70. ach a pi^ Gospel ; but to conduct after-meetings and deal 

wisely with inquirers needed a special experience, and, as a 

matter of fact, the men whom God specially used in this way 

were not the men who had been most prominent in the defence 

of Protestant truth against the advancing sacerdotalism. It was 

another case of the "diversities of gifts." But there were ex 

canon ceptions, and a notable one was Canon Hoare Though not 

Hoare as a Disposed to adopt the ways of the Aitkens and Haslam, he was as 

m is S1 oncr. F I , 

m is S1 oncr. F ^ I t() w , n souls . and very ^0^ is hlS OW11 

account of the working of the Spirit of God at his first attempt 
to conduct a Mission at Holy Trinity, Nottingham, m 
He was not expecting to see people weeping m the church under 
his first sermon, or clergymen at the prayer-meeting with covered 
faces " in trouble about their souls," or leading gentlemen ol the 
. town coming to him in conviction of sin, or a whole string ol 
"inquirers " waiting their turns for personal interviews. At the 
close of the week he wrote, " It has been without doubt the most 
encouraging in my whole ministry. I never knew so^ many- 
persons awakened under my sermons in so short a time ;> 11 
has been," he again wrote, " a new era in my own lite llns 
one case is given here, as a specimen of what went on, lor three 
or four years at least, all over the country ; and the case is chosen 
purposely of a recognized and judicious Evangelical theologian, 
rather than of the regular missioners who were regarded (though 
not justly) as fostering " excitement." 

The secret What was the cause of the unmistakable blessing that attended 
ofbiessing. the Parochial Mission movement ? No doubt the freshness of 
the method had its influence in bringing people together and in 
clining them to expect something. But after all, conversion is the 
work of God the Holy Ghost, and there is nothing to be said but 
that it pleased Him at this time, in answer to the prayers that 
had for years been going up for a revival of true religion, to work 
with special power upon the hearts of men. 

But the Holy Ghost is most honoured when working by means 
which the natural man despises. The "treasure" is most 
appreciated when in the most "earthen" of "earthen vessels. 
And in the midst of the Parochial Mission movement came 
another movement, from which the greater part of the Church of 
England stood entirely aloof, but to which the Church ot 
England owes a debt of gratitude not the less real because never 
fully acknowledged even if acknowledged at all. This was the 
Mission of Mr. Moody and Mr. Sankey. 

Mr. D. L. D L Moody, the famous American evangelist, had lor several 
M dy years been a vigorous preacher, worker, and organizer of mission 

* In his Memoir, by Dr. Townsend, p. 163. 


agencies, at Chicago. He had been in England twice before his PART VIII. 

first great campaign, and had become known as an effective " 

evangelist. In 1872 he spoke at the Mildmay Conference, and 

Mr. Pennefather thereupon suggested to him to come over again 

and undertake special missions on a large scale. On June 17th, 

1873, he landed with Mr. Sankey at Liverpool ; and the first 

thing he heard was that Mr. Pennefather was just dead, and also 

a Newcastle merchant who had joined in the invitation. Deprived 

thus unexpectedly of the two friends on whom he had most relied, 

he began work by holding meetings at Young Men s Christian 

Associations in the North of England, the first of which, at York, 

was attended by exactly eight persons. Gradually, however, the 

spiritual power of both the preacher and the singer began to be 

felt ; and their fame reaching to Scotland, they were invited to Moody and 

Edinburgh. There, it may be said, the more public work com- 

inenced ; and for about a year (1874) a mission of unprecedented 

magnitude went on in the chief cities of Scotland. Thence they 

went to Ireland ; from Ireland they came over again to England ; 

and at Manchester, Sheffield, Birmingham, and Liverpool, the 

largest halls were densely crowded day after day. Mr. Hay Aitken 

was then Vicar of Christ Church, Everton, Liverpool ; and on the 

Sunday morning when the mission began in that city, February 

7th, 1875, he was exulting that in every church in Liverpool must 

that morning be read out the words, " Jesus of Nazareth passeth 

by "the refrain of Mr. Sankey s most impressive solo, for it 

was Quinquagesima Sunday, with the story of Blind Bartimeus as 

the Gospel for the day.* 

Meanwhile preparations were going on in London to receive the Prepara- 
evangelists there, and the Agricultural Hall at Islington was en- London, 
gaged, and furnished with 14,000 chairs. The local chairman and 
leader was B. C. Billing, then Vicar of Holy Trinity, Islington, 
afterwards Bishop of Bedford ; and even the extraordinary energy 
of his episcopate, which so many remember, gives but a faint 
idea of his incessant and unwearied labours in connexion with 
Moody s Mission while his multifarious parochial agencies never 
stopped for a moment, nor his supervision of them. A few weeks 
before the Mission began, Mr. Moody came to London and met a 
large assemblage of ministers of religion (over a thousand), to 
be " heckled " as to his objects and methods ; and " heckled " he 
was. What is your creed?" asked one. "It is already in 
print," was the reply ; " you will find it in the fifty-third chapter 
of Isaiah." " Will you try," said another, " and reach the 
miserably poor ? " " Yes, and the miserably rich also." " I am 
a red-hot Ritualist," said a third ; "if any of my people are con 
verted at your meetings, will you send them back to me to be 

* This is a personal reminiscence. I was staying with Mr. Aitken, and 1 
heard Mr. Moody speak and Mr. Sankey sing for the first time at 8 a.m. on 
that Sunday. We walked three miles through deep snow to the meeting, and 
found three or four thousand persons assembled. E. S. 


PART VIII. taught?" " I have nothing to do with churches and congrega- 
1873-82. tions : any I bring to Christ are free to go where they like." 
Chap. 70. The Mission hegan on the evening of March 9th, every one of 
Meetings the fourteen thousand chairs being occupied, and crowds also 
at the standing " Let us praise God for what He is yonuj to do m 
fu g rai C Haii. London!" exclaimed Moody ; " Praise God from whom all bless 
ings flow " ; and the Doxology, thus unexpectedly called for, was 
sung with overwhelming effect. Such a beginning is worth 
recording ; but it is beside the purpose of this History to describe 
the never-to-be-forgotten weeks that followed. Of the pathetic 
" son^s and solos," whose strains are now familiar in every part of 
the world ; of the strong common-sense of Moody s utterances ; 
of the overflow meetings for three or four thousand people who 
could not get in ; of the workers meetings at 7 a.m. on Sundays, 
when thousands of Sunday-school teachers and others found 
fresh inspiration for their ordinary labours ; of the young men s 
meetings, at which a Scottish youth afterwards known as 
Henry Professor Henry Drummond won his spurs ; of the subsequent 
Drv i 1 ?- meetings for West End folk in the Opera House, where some of 
the most touching results were seen ; of the crowds of awakened 
souls in the inquiry-rooms ; of the distinguished men who came 
to hear ; * above all, of the clergymen, laymen, and women, now 
well known and honoured for their Christian labours at home and 
abroad, who went to those meetings with their hearts and lives 
The results far from God, and came away to begin a new life of personal 
dedication to His service, much might be said. Those who have 
been even a little behind the scenes know that no other religious 
movement of the time has had the practical and permanent fruits 
in converted souls and consecrated lives which God vouchsafed to 
Mr. Moody s Missions. 

On one point a word may be added. Many people objected, 
not only to Moody s inquiry-room, but to some of the after- 
meetings at regular Parochial Missions, on the ground that they 
Revivals involved " the confessional." The whole subject of Eevivals and 
and con- persona i dealing with souls was ably discussed in the very year of 
cuwJdat Moody s first London Mission, and when Parochial Missions were 
co e n|res s e . being everywhere held, at the Stoke Church Congress of 1875 
Mr. Twigg and Mr. Grier represented the fervent High Church 
school who believed both in revival prayer-meetings and in a mild 
form of " confession " ; and a layman who had taken an active 
part in Moody s work, Mr. W. T. Paton, read an admirable paper 
on Eevivals and the Inquiry Boom, in which he explained that 
what the -inquirer" at such meetings was brought to confess 
was not sins but sin, not particular acts or thoughts, but the state 
of alienation from God ; and that therefore the Christian worker 
dealin^ with him, whether layman or cleric, had only to " stand 
as far in the background as possible, so that he might point all 
the more clearly to the Lamb of God." 

* I myself gave Mr. Gladstone a seat one Sunday evening. E. S. 


Mr. Moody s campaigns attracted attention far beyond the PART VIII. 
circles usually interested in such movements. Naturally, the 1873-82. 
great bulk of the clergy stood aloof ; most Evangelicals even, CIia P- - 
though they went to hear, took no part in the work. But along Opinions 
with coldness and criticism and cavils there was much interest, o lookers - 
and some sympathy, in unexpected quarters. Archbishop Tait 
wrote to Earl Cairns a valuable letter, for publication, in which, 
though with characteristic caution, he expressed sympathy with a 
work that was reaching such multitudes. Bishop Thorold of 
Kochester (at a later period *) gave hearty endorsement to the 
services held in his diocese, and attended them himself. In 
the correspondence columns of the Guardian, Moody s methods 
were not only assailed, but vigorously defended. In Church 
Bells also, Mr. (afterwards Dean) Oakley, the High Church 
clergyman before mentioned, wrote an enthusiastic account of 
one of Moody s most striking addresses, on the sufferings and 
death of Christ, and of Mr. Sankey s accompanying solo, " 
Christ, what burdens bowed Thy head." People might approve or 
disapprove ; but they could not help being keenly interested. 

Two practical results of the 1875 campaign must be mentioned. 
In the first place, it was Mr. Moody who suggested to Mr. Hay M . r - Ha y 
Aitken to give himself wholly to the life and work of a " missioner," 
and who spontaneously collected large sums of money to start a 
new organization for that purpose. Aitken thereupon resigned his 
Liverpool parish, founded the Church Parochial Mission Society, 
and has been its leader ever since. In the second place, Moody s 
private and personal influence was largely used to call forth the 
energy which has so wonderfully developed the Young Men s and J.^. and 
Young Women s Christian Associations, both of which, from the 
time of his visit, manifested a far more vigorous life, and gradually 
gained their now important position in all parts of the world. 

In this connexion should be mentioned the purchase of Exeter Exeter 
Hall for the Y.M.C.A. That building had been held by a band of Y.M.C!A. 
shareholders, and it has been mentioned in a former chapter 
that the Church Missionary Society had 250 invested in it. 
Various circumstances, particularly the failure of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, from whose concerts a good part of the income 
was derived, led to the Hall being for sale. In order to save it 
for the philanthropic and religious uses with which its name had 
been so closely connected, six gentlemen contributed 25,000 
between them to purchase and adapt it, and presented it to the 
Y.M.C.A., it being understood that it would continue to be let to 
the various societies for their public meetings. Considerable 
improvements were effected in the building, and the present 
commodious Lower Hall was constructed. On March 29th, 1881, 
the Hall was reopened with a great evening meeting, Lord 

* That is, at the time of Mr. Moody s second London campaign in 1883-4. 
Thorold was not bishop in 1875. 



Chap. 70. 

Moody s 



PART VIII. Shaftesbury presiding, and Archbishop Tait and Earl Cairns 
1873-82. speaking with great warmth and impressiveness. 

Moody and Sankey came over again in 1883-84. This is beyond 
our present period ; but it will not be necessary to describe in our 
next Part that second great Mission, culminating in the wonderful 
meetings in the temporary building on the Thames Embankment, so 
it is just mentioned here. One feature of that Mission, indeed, 
we shall have to notice its influence upon the missionary enter 
prise. That influence was indirect ; neither in 1875 nor in 1884 
did it occur to Moody himself, or to his comrades and supporters, 
to link with his call to the unconverted the further call to the 
converted to take their part in the evangelization of the world. 
But God had His own purpose to fulfil, though man did not 
perceive it; and we shall see hereafter what the missionary 
cause owes to Mr. Moody s campaigns, especially to his visit to 
Cambridge in 1882. 

We must now turn to another and different class of movements. 
The Parochial Missions, and campaigns like Mr. Moody s, although 
effecting great good in instructing and quickening the zeal ol 
godly people, were designed primarily for the unconverted. But 
the deepening of spiritual life was also being widely and prayer 
fully considered. This, of course, was the chief purpose of the 
Mildmay Conference, and some of the men who spoke there were 
recognized as more gifted for the building-up of believers than 
for evangelistic work. The Church Congress also was now giving 
one of its most important sessions each year to a directly 
spiritual subject. This was done for the first time at Southamp 
ton, in 1870, under Bishop Wilberforce, when the first evening 
was devoted to the consideration of " Agencies for the Kindling and 
Eevival of Spiritual Life," the chief speakers being E. M. Benson 
Twi<. and Body, representing one wing, and Emilms Bayley and 
J. H. Titcomb the other, with W. D. Maclagan between them. 
A layman also appeared for the first time as a Congress speaker, 
who was in after years to be known in a very different connexion 
H. F. Bowker. After that year, it became the regular custom 
to take the devotional subject on the last day of the Congress ; 
and although now and then extreme opinions found utterance, 
and extreme practices were recommended, yet upon the whole 
most edifying addresses were given, and a surprising amount ol 
spiritual unity was manifested. The names of Hoare, Cadman, 
Eichardson, and Bickersteth, occur repeatedly in the programmes 
during our period, and those of G. H. Wilkinson, Maclagan, 
Body, and Walsham How. 

Very different from the Congresses, but still bolder m bringing 
together men of quite opposite theological views, were the private 
Conferences held yearly at Broadlands, at the invitation of Mr. 
Cowper-Temple (afterwards Lord Mount Temple), for united 
prayer and the discussion of spiritual topics. Here would gather 

on the 

At the 



At Broad 


such different types of Christians as Haslam and Body and PART VIII, 
Andrew Jukes, Pastor Monod and Father Ignatius, Mrs. Charles 
and Miss Marsh.* A remarkable series of breakfasts, also, was 
given in London by Mr. Samuel Morley, M.P., to which hundreds 
of clergy and ministers were invited in turn, and the subject of a 
higher Christian life discussed and prayed over. 

But a more definite message was now to be proclaimed. 
Several American writers had for some years been publishing 
books on the " Higher Christian Life "; and in 1874 some remark 
able meetings were held at Oxford, in which the American leaders At Oxford 
were joined by a few English clergymen, of whom the Eevs. Brighton. 
Evan H. Hopkins and G. E. Thornton are the best known. Many 
who were present testified to having received great blessing ; and 
among these were two clergymen already respected then and 
much more honoured since, A. M. W. Christopher of Oxford, and 
T. D. Harford Battersby of Keswick ; while a third, who was 
not present, but who was already becoming known (as before 
mentioned) as a conductor of Parochial Missions, H. W. Webb- 
Peploe, testified to receiving a like blessing indirectly through the 
influence of the movement. In the following year, 1875, similar 
gatherings were held at Brighton, with similar effects ; and there 
Mr. Webb-Peploe appeared as a speaker. 

What was the message delivered at these two Conferences? It J a he e f es " 
may be summed up in St. Paul s words, "As ye have received thtcon- 
Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in Him. While at the ferences - 
Church Congress the discussions, however profitable, mostly 
turned on the external means of grace, the Oxford and Brighton 
meetings did not touch them at all, but went to the heart of the 
matter. " You received a finished salvation through a crucified 
Saviour by simple faith in Him. You did nothing ; you merely 
took the free gift. So walk. Sanctification is from Him alone, 
by the Spirit. You are to trust Him to do all in you, as He has 
done all for you. You are the branches of the Vine : fruit comes 
only from the sap that flo\vs from the parent stem ; the essential 
thing is to abide in Him." In this teaching there was nothing 
really new ; but it had certainly not been prominent in ordinary 
Evangelical ministrations. Now it was given by men who had 
themselves passed through a definite experience of the living 
power of God, and who called upon their hearers by an act of 
unreserved faith to "step out" of the bondage of the average 
Christian life into a light and liberty not before realized. 

But there was undoubtedly some want of balance to say the 
least in the language of the American preachers and writers on 
the subject; and the cry of "Perfectionism" was raised, not Contro- 
unreasonably. The more careful and better-instructed English p e e r r S fec n 
teachers earnestly disclaimed the holding of anything that could tionism. 

* A vivid account of the Broadlands Conference in 1878 is given in H. B. 
Macartney s England, Home, and Beauty (the first series of letters under that 


Chap. 70. 

tion at 

Origin of 
the Kes- 
wick Con 


be called sinless perfection. They could use the Prayer-book 
words " Vouchsafe, Lord, to keep us this day without sin, and 
Grant that this day we fall into no sin," as a prayer which they 
really meant, and which they looked to God to grant ; yet at the 
same time they could realize the imperfection of their holiest 
hours and best services, and could say with equal sincerity at the 
day s end, "Forgive us our trespasses." As Mr. Webb-Peploe 
constantly said, There is no such thing as a perfect sinner ; but 
there is a perfect Saviour, and we are not to think of His grace 
for us as imperfect." The older Evangelical leaders, however, 
could not, or did not, always distinguish between the carefully- 
guarded language of some and the fervent transcendentalism ol 
others and the columns of the Eecord teemed with protests from 
Deans Close and McNeile, Canons Eyle and Bell, and that doughty 
Protestant champion and munificent supporter of the ,.M.b., 
G T Fox of Durham. Mr. Christopher and Canon Battersby 
earnestly defended the teaching that had so much helped them 
personally ; but they failed to satisfy their critics. 
" Meanwhile, to meet the increasing demand for instruction on 
the subiect of Sanctification, a London clergyman who had links 
with both sections, Mr. Hay Chapman, arranged in two successive 
years a " Conference of Members of the Church of Lngland, the 
invitation to which was signed by most of the recognized leaders, 
Eyle Hoare, Garbett, &c. The first of these was held at Cannon 
Street Hotel in February, 1875, Mr. Auriol, the Nestor of the 
Evangelical party, presiding. Through Chapman s influence, both 
sections of opinion were represented : Hoare Herbert James, 
Emilius Bayley, and Eichardson, the more orthodox side; while 
Evan Hopkins and Bowker the layman were allowed to speak lor 
the new school . It was not a discussion, however. The meetings 
were purely devotional ; and that they were needed and valued 
was shown by the overwhelming crowd that packed hall and 
galleries and lobbies and staircase. The afternoons were given 
(as at Mildmay) to missionary and other practical topics ; and 
none who heard them can forget Canon Jackson s thrilling account 
of the united Parochial Mission at Leeds, or T. V. French s most 
beautiful address on -Foreign Missions in their Eelation to the 
Spiritual Life of the Church." * In the following year a similar 
Conference was held at St. James s Hall, when the speakers in 
cluded Eyle, Garbett, Cadman, Eeeve, Conway, and Rowley Hill. 
This effort, however, was but a temporary one ; and the two 
wings (on this question) of the Evangelical body did not really 
come nearer to one another for many years. Meanwhile, a quiet 
local gathering took place in that same year, 1875, which was 
destined, in the providence of God, to prove the seed from which 
a crreat and fruitful tree should spring or, to vary the figure from 
which a rich harvest of blessing should by-and-by be reape. 

* Printed in the C.M., May, 1875. 


the summer of that year, Canon Battersby invited Mr. Hopkins, PART VIII. 
Mr. George Thornton, Mr. Webb-Peploe, and others whom he 
had met at Brighton, to spend a few days with him at Keswick, 
and hold "three days union meetings for the promotion of 
practical holiness." In this unpretending way began the Keswick 
Convention. Of the truly wonderful growth from that little 
seed we shall see more in future chapters. For some years 
the Convention continued a comparatively small and almost a 
private gathering ; and for the present w r e need not trace its 
history. Let it only be added here that Canon Battersby was a Canon 
cultured Oxford man, who in his Balliol days had been the con- Battersby. 
temporary of Matthew Arnold, A. H. Clough, J. D. Coleridge, 
F. Temple, F. T. Palgrave, J. C. Shairp, and H. A. Douglas 
(afterwards Bishop of Bombay), the two last-named being his 
intimate friends ; that, under the spell of J. H. Newman, he began 
clerical life as a High Church curate ; that he afterwards came 
under the " broad " influence of F. W. Myers (whose curate he 
was) and of the Bunsens ; that nevertheless, as years went on, 
he threw in his lot, with full conviction, with the Evangelical 
clergy, and, when Vicar of St. John s, Keswick, was an active 
supporter and Honorary District Secretary of the Church Mis 
sionary Society. Then at the Oxford Conference of 1874 he 
exchanged (as he expressed it) a " seeking faith " for a " resting 
faith " : and to pass on to others the blessing he had received, 
and which all men acknowledged had made even his shining face 
shine more brightly, became one great object of his prayers and 
efforts. Twice in his life he had to bear the cross of separation His Con 
from those whose fellowship he had valued : first, \vhen he opposed, 
spontaneously arid openly left the High Church party; secondly, but perse- 

i T-V Xi i 1.1 i 7 -n TIT li T J veredm. 

when Dean Close and other Evangelical clergymen in the diocese 
of Carlisle turned their backs upon him because he arranged 
meetings at which such heretics as G. R. Thornton and Webb- 
Peploe were to speak. He did not live to see the increasing 
acceptance of his Convention and its influence in the most earnest 
Evangelical circles ; but he lived long enough to preside at eight 
Conventions, and to be assured that God was owning them in a 
very remarkable degree. Their great days were in after years. 

During our period, as in the previous period, the general 
influence of the Evangelistic and Revival Movements of 1857-61 JJj e on 
continued to bear fruit in home mission efforts of all sorts ; and move- 
the work of Christian women, in particular, was rapidly extending, m 
and was receiving the manifest blessing of God. The Railway 
Mission, the Navvy Mission, the Christian Police Association, and 
(some\vhat later) the Christian Postmen s Association, began to 
do excellent though little-noticed service ; and these, as well as 
work among factory girls, match-box makers, and other special 
classes, engaged the sympathetic and prayerful labours of many 
devoted ladies. But there were two movements which have had 
an important, though indirect, influence upon the missionary 



Chap. 70. 

Children s 




of the 
on Uni 
men and 

enterprise, and which therefore call for special notice. These 
were the Children s Special Service Mission, and the efforts to 
reach University men, especially at Cambridge. 

The Children s Special Service Mission originated like other 
good things, from the visit of an American. In 1868, under Mr. 
Pennefather s auspices, Mr. Payson Hammond held services for 
children at Mildmay. After he left, Mr. Josiah Spiers and Mr. 
T. B. Bishop began to gather the Sunday-school children of the 
neighbourhood, and others, who were playing in the streets on 
Sunday evenings, into Mr. Pennefather s new schoolroom for a 
bright, informal meeting during church time. The object was not 
instruction as in a Sunday-school, but the definite setting forth of 
Christ as a living Saviour and Friend for children, and the leading 
them to yield their young hearts to Him. There was a singular 
combination of brightness and solemnity about these gatherings ; 
the atmosphere of them was very quiet, and the tone very real, 
without the slightest approach to excitement ; and there can be no 
question that God vouchsafed definite blessing. They were soon 
imitated elsewhere ; but the really important development was 
when Mr. Spiers and others particularly Mr. Edwin Arrowsmith 
began to visit the seaside in holiday times, and to gather 
children for Gospel addresses on the beach. These were 
children of a much higher class socially, and it is among such, 
both boys and girls, that missions of the kind have since been 
carried on, not only on the seashore, but in schoolrooms, &c., at 
other times of the year. An important addition to the agencies 
employed has been the Children s Scripture Union, followed by 
the Schoolboys Scripture Union. These Unions as well as Mr. 
Eichardson s Bible and Prayer Union, which was the progenitor 
of all the rest, have given an immense impetus to Bible reading 
and study among the young ; and not in England only, for through 
Mr. Bishop s untiring energy branches have been formed in every 
part of the world, and the publications of the Unions, the issue of 
which has become a large and nourishing business, are translated 
into many languages in Europe, in Africa, and in Asia. 

The most interesting feature of this movement has been the 
part taken in the services by young University men. They go for 
three or four years and do the humble work of marshalling the 
children, giving out hymn-books, making friends with the boys, 
and playing cricket with them ; and gradually they become 
qualified to conduct the meetings themselves. An admirable 
training-ground is thus provided ; and many of the most efficient 
of our younger clergy at home and missionaries abroad have in this 
way learned how to carry on evangelistic services and how to deal 
with individual souls. And their own ranks have been continually 
recruited from among boys who have been brought to the Lord at 
these meetings. The boys are young, and probably at preparatory 
schools ; but presently they go on to public schools and join the 
little circles of Bible-reading boTO there ; and in due time, as fresh- 


men at the Universities, they take a bolder and more manly stand PART VIII. 
for Christ, and eagerly join the bands of like-minded under- !873-82. 
graduates at the watering-places in August. This has been the Cha P- 7Q - 
history of many a young man now filling an honourable position 
in the Church of Christ ; and the Church Missionary Society owes 
so much to the movement that it could not but justly demand a 
place in this History. 

Not directly connected with these agencies for boys and girls, 
and yet very happily supplementing them, have been the* direct 
evangelistic efforts to win for Christ the undergraduates at the Spiritual 
Universities, and to combine the godly men among them in Snts at 
labours for their comrades. This work began at Cambridge before Cambridge 
our present period. On November 24th, 1862, when the Eevival 
Movement of 1859-61 was bearing fruit, was commenced a Daily The Daily 
Prayer Meeting for undergraduates, conducted by themselves, to 
pray " for the outpouring of God s Holy Spirit on the University."* 
That Prayer Meeting has been held daily, in term time, ever since. 
In 1871, it went into alliance with the Church Missionary Union 
the foundation of which, in 1858, was mentioned in our Thirty- 
sixth Chapter ; and they occupied the same hired room for several 
years, until the Henry Martyn Hall was built. In 1873, C. Lea 
Wilson and Algernon Coote invited Stevenson Blackwood to vj sit * of 
Cambridge, and on November 17th in that year he gave the first 
of those addresses which have had so powerful an influence on 
many young lives. Efforts were made to bring Mr. Moody to 
Cambridge in 1875, but in vain ; but evangelistic meetings on his 
lines were conducted by other men with great success. In 1877, 
in the rooms of W. Mitchell-Carruthers of Trinity, was founded 
the Cambridge Inter- Collegiate Christian Union, familiarly known 
as the " C.I.C.C.U.," conducted solely by undergraduates, which The 
has ever since banded together the decidedly godly men and led C<I>CJ 
them to seek the spiritual good of their fellow-students. The 
" C.I.C.C.CJ." evangelistic meetings in the Guildhall on Sunday 
evenings after church hours, at which all the leading evangelists 
of the day have spoken from time to time, have been a great 
source of blessing. Similar work, though for the most part on a 
smaller scale, has been done at Oxford ; and Mr. Webb-Peploe Oxford, 
gave the first of the addresses to men there in 1874. 

Let it be carefully noted that the Cambridge Daily Prayer 
Meeting was a direct fruit of the Eevival Movement of 1859-61, 
and that the "C.I.C.C.U." and its work were an outcome of the 
movement of which Moody s campaign of 1875 was the centre; 

* Tt is worth while recording some of the names on the list of those 
invited to attend on that first occasion : Maynard, Edwards, Wilson, 
Trotter, Falloon, Storrs, Watney, Isaacson, Carpenter, Keeling, Bathurst, 
McNeile, Lang, Campbell (now Sholto Campbell Douglas). The conveners 
were the first three here named. In fear and trembling they drew lots 
which should open the first meeting, and the lot fell upon A. M. Maynard, 
now Vicar of Totlarid Bay, Isle of Wight. 



PART VIII. and it will be seen at once what Evangelical Eeligion in the 
1873-82. Church of England, and the C.M.S., owe to two influences which 
Chap. 70. k ave received but scant recognition at the hands even of the 

Evangelical clergy. 

These Most of the movements described in this chapter have had to 

ments bear the reproach of being " undenominational." This feature of 
undenomi- them has repelled not merely High or via media Churchmen who 
yetniainly would probably in any case have not sympathized with them but 
f a ^ so ^ ie S reat majority of the Evangelical clergy. As a matter of 
fact, almost all the workers in many of them, both the leaders 
and the rank and file, have been Churchmen. This is especially 
true of the movements now generally identified with the name of 
Keswick, and with the work among boys and girls and at the Uni 
versities. The Evangelical Eevival of the eighteenth century, under 
Wesley and Whiteiield, was similarly non-denominational, yet 
almost all the leaders were clergymen of the Church. It is scarcely 
reasonable to boast of that Kevival, and at the same time to ignore 
or despise present-day movements on similar lines. It is very 
likely that if the Evangelical leaders of twenty and thirty years 
ago had come to the front and accorded them sympathetic co 
operation, they might have been more distinctly on Church lines. 
Whether they would thus have been more effective in doing God s 
work is a question on which opinions will differ. The fact re 
mains that while most of our recognized leaders have been largely 
occupied in the conflict with error of various kinds, faithfully 
though it must be confessed unsuccessfully striving to check its 
progress in the Church, many of their best people have been 
working quietly and directly to win souls, in ways which have 
been non-parochial, and to that extent irregular, with the result 
that thousands of young men and women are Evangelical members 
of the Church of England to-day. They were the children of 
Church people ; and they have been saved from the errors that 
now so widely prevail by being brought to love the Word of God, 
and to trust in a personal Saviour. It is this, more than anything 
else, which has preserved, and extended, Evangelical religion in 
the Church of England ; and it is this which has done more than 
anything else to lift the Church Missionary Society into the 
position which, to the unconcealed surprise of both friends and 
foes, it now, by the grace of God, occupies in the face of the 
Church and of the World. 



A New and Vigorous PeriodHenry Wright E. Hutchinson General 
Lake S. Hasell The Committee New Missionaries of the Period 
Islington College Valedictory Meetings The Native Ministry 
The Funds: Great Income of 1874; Extension; Retrenchment; 
Deficits wiped off. 

" Let Thy hand be upon the man of Thy right hand." Pa. Ixxx. 17. 

" Thou ahalt break forth on the right hand and on the left." Isa. liv. 3. 

HE period we 

ir r e are now reviewing was one of the most PART VIII. 
important in the history of the Church Missionary 1873-82. 
If the epoch 1812-16 was one of special Cha P- 71 - 

Society. If the epoch 1812-16 was one of special Cha P- 
importance, and the epoch of 1841-44, and the epoch c-M^sTin 
of 1850-53, and the epoch of 1857-59, so also, very the period, 
emphatically, was the epoch of 1874-76 ; while the closing years 
of this period, 1880-82, mark, as before observed, the transition 
time between the Past and the Present of the Society. 

We have before seen that in the year 1872 the ebb-tide of the Close of 
previous few years reached the low-water mark. We have seen ofoT"" 
the Committee s pathetic reference to the " failing treasury" and sion - 
the " scanty supply of men " in the Report of that year, and their 
mournful doubt whether the candlestick of a Church so neglectful 
of its primary duty would not presently be removed. We have 
observed the sombre tone of the last Valedictory Instructions 
to departing missionaries delivered by the aged Henry Venn in 
1871. ^ We have seen the repulse and retreat of the missionary 
army in many parts of Africa ; the closing of the door in Turkey ; 
the great gaps in the ranks caused by death in India, and the lack 
of men to fill them up ; the harassing controversies regarding 
bishoprics in Madagascar and China ; the disasters and perils in 
the latter great empire ; and the grievous results of injustice, war, 
and apostasy, in New Zealand. Although some of the chapters 
in the preceding section of our History presented many causes of 
thankfulness and encouragement it could not be otherwise in the 
service of a faithful God, yet, upon the whole, the clouds were 
gathering all through that period, and it was " amid the encircling 
gloom " that Henry Venn was laid in the grave. 

But as we enter upon our new period, the tide, perceptibly, 

D 2 


PART VIII. begins to flow again. The Day of Intercession, observed for the 
1873-82. fi rs t time three weeks before Venn passes to his heavenly rest, 
Cha P- 71 - instantly brings reminders that God answers prayer. All through 
o p ^in~ of the next three or four years, candidates are multiplying ; the 
^Advance nn a ncia l vear ending March 31st, 1874, produces the largest 
CC ordinary income by forty thousand pounds (besides special funds) 
that the Society ever (to that date) received ; and the ardent spirit 
of Henry Wright, as he enters upon his eventful secretaryship, 
backed by the energy of his colleagues, especially the two laymen, 
General Lake and Edward Hutchinson, leads the Committee 
into new paths of missionary development and extension. 
Forward Let us glance at the forward steps of only the first half of the 
pSs of the period. In 1873-74 are matured the plans for enlarged work in the 
world, newly-formed dioceses of Moosonee, Saskatchewan, and Athabasca. 
In 1873-75, four important centres in Japan are occupied, in 
in i8 73 , addition to the one, previously worked. In 1873, the Society 
crosses the Jordan and places a pioneer at the ancient Eamoth- 
Gilead. In 1873 is received the first of Mr. W. C. Jones s munifi- 
in i8 74) ce nt gifts in aid of Native agents and Native Churches. In 1874 
are taken the first steps towards re-occupying the interior Yoruba 
towns, abandoned for some years. In 1874-75, Frere s counsels and 
Livingstone s death lead to the revival of the East Africa Mission 
in i8 75 , and the foundation of Frere Town by W. S. Price. In 1875, the 
Society adopts the Persia Mission, already begun tentatively by 
Eobert Bruce. In 1875, an important Conference on Missions to 
Mohammedans, arranged by General Lake, results in plans for a 
general move forward in respect of those Missions. In 1875 
comes Mr. Stanley s memorable letter from Uganda, issuing, in 
in 1876, 1876, in the first missionary expedition to the Victoria Nyanza. 
In 1876, Fourah Bay College is affiliated to Durham University, 
and Negro students are enabled to take degrees. In 1876, the 
Society doubles its work in Palestine by taking over Bishop 
Gobat s diocesan stations. In 1876, a sailor missionary is sent to 
live amongst the Eskimo of Hudson s Bay. In 1876, the first 
Chinese clergymen in the Che-kiang Province are ordained. Ir 
1876, the Ainu of Yezo are visited. In 1876, the first missionary 
goes to the Hydahs of Queen Charlotte s Islands. In 1876, the 
Prince of Wales s visit to India leads to the carrying out of plans 
for higher education for Christian girls in the Punjab. In 1876, 
Native Church Councils are planned for North India. In 1876-78, 
in 1877. new divinity schools in India are projected. In 1877, plans are 
formed for enlarged Missions to the hill-tribes of India. In 1877, 
the Gospel is preached in the capital of Uganda. In 1877, 
arrangements for development on the Niger are matured, in 
cluding a new mission steamer. In 1877, the consecration of 
Bishops Sargent and Caldwell gives an impetus to the consolida 
tion of the work in Tinnevelly ; the consecration of Bishop French 
to that in the Punjab ; the consecration of Bishop Stuart to that in 
New Zealand. And in these years Islington College is rapidly 


reviving under Mr. Barlow s headship, trebling and quadrupling PART VIII. 
its number of students, and gaining the academical reputation it " 

has never lost since. This simple enumeration will at once reveal 
to readers of the preceding section of this History the immense 
difference between the years 1867-72 and the years 1873-78. 

There were two great trials during our period. First, in 1876 
began the Ceylon Controversy, which lasted four years. Secondly, 
1877-80 was a time of financial anxiety, which much clouded the 
latter part of Wright s official career. The Ceylon Controversy 
did not really check the onward progress of the Missions, except 
by occupying a very large part of the time and strength of the 
Committee and officers ; but no sketch of the period, however 
brief, can omit it. In fact, the two most prominent events of 
Henry Wright s secretaryship were that Controversy and the 
Uganda Mission. The Ceylon difficulties led to an important 
modification in the Society s Laws, arranged in consultation with 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, and with 
their entire approval. A future chapter will explain these matters 
more fully. 

Let us now look a little at the men of the period : first the 
administrators, and then the recruits for the Mission-field. 

A few months before Henry Venn s death, his chosen successor, 
Henry Wright, entered on his office. He was the second son of ^ e r ^ t 
Mr. Francis Wright, of Osmaston Manor, Derbyshire. From his 
boyhood he had shown marked signs of personal devotion to his 
Divine Master ; and at Oxford he was one of a little band of At Oxford, 
Balliol men who met regularly for prayer and Bible-study two of 
the others being Lord liadstock and W. H. Fremantle (now Dean 
of Eipon). "I remember," wrote Fremantle long afterwards, 
" Professor Jowett, who was tutor to us both, speaking of him as 
one whose simplicity of character, in seizing upon the right and 
doing it, amounted to a kind of genius."* His interview \vith 
Venn, when he came from Oxford in 1856 to inquire touching 
possible service in the Mission-field, was mentioned in our Thirty- 
sixth Chapter. He was ordained in 1857, and laboured for a time 
among the miners and iron-workers of the Butterley estate belong 
ing to his family. Subsequently he w r as Vicar of St. Nicholas, 
Nottingham, and gained much influence in that town ; and in 1871 
he was one of the Secretaries of the Nottingham Church Congress, 
in which office he displayed uncommon capacity " the power 
of handling large numbers of people, as of an army by a good 
general, the discrimination and direct application of mind which 
enable a man to carry on many subjects at the same time without 
confusion of one with another, as of a physician among a succession 
of patients." f This, and the energy he had shown in securing 

* C.M. Intelligencer, October, 1880, p. 624. 

t Rev. Gerard Smith, Vicar of Osmaston, in the C.M. Intelligencer, October 
1880, p. 628. 


PART VIII. the patronage of Nottingham churches in Evangelical hands, and 
also the testimony of Mr. Barton, who knew him intimately, led 
to Venn thinking of him as a possible Secretary of C.M.S., and 
writing to sound him. Two letters came from him in reply, and 
both Venn and Lord Chichester at once said that the man who 
could write those letters was the man for the Church Missionary 
Society. And so it proved, most assuredly. Henry Wright was 

AS c. M.S. soon recognized, first, as a statesman, able to take large and 
ary comprehensive views of any subject before him ; secondly, as an 
administrator, working out in detail the broad plans that his mind 
had framed; thirdly, as a wise and sympathizing friend of the 
missionaries ; above all, as a true-hearted Christian, living for the 
glory of God, staunch in his allegiance to the spiritual principles 
professed by the Society, while large-hearted in his interest in the 

At Hamp- work of other Missions. He took a house on the top of Hampstead 
Heath, which soon became dear to missionaries and candidates 
who enjoyed its hospitality ; and in order that he might have the 
privilege of preaching on Sundays without going into the country 
" on deputation," he undertook the Incumbency of St. John s 
Chapel, an old chapel-of-ease on Downshire Hill. To fulfil 
thoroughly his responsibilities to the congregation (there was 
no parish), he was wont to employ as curate the very best man 
among the missionaries on furlough, such as Joseph Welland and 
James Vaughan.* 

c.c.Fenn. Wright s colleagues, when he came into office, were C. C. Fenn, 
General Lake, and Edward Hutchinson. Christopher Cyprian 
Fenn was a son of Joseph Fenn, one of " the Travancore trio "- 
Fenn, Bailey, Baker who began the Mission to the ancient Syrian 
Church in 1818. We have seen C. C. Fenn as one of the band of 
Cambridge men w r hose offers of service signalized the two or three 
years following the Jubilee. He had been a Scholar of Trinity, 
and had graduated as Senior Optime and first class in classics. 
We have seen him as Principal of the Cotta Institution in Ceylon, 
in which Mission he worked from 1851 to 1863. In 1864 he was 
appointed a Secretary of the Society. In Wright s time, his chief 
duties were correspondence with the missionaries and the com 
pilation of the Annual Eeport ; but the special value of his 
services lay in his being the depositary of the Society s older 
traditions, and particularly of Venn s plans and principles in the 
development of Native Churches. On his personal qualities it 

* It is worth mentioning that Mr. Wright taught the congregation to give 
offerings every week ; and that they might be really freewill offerings, he 
had no collection from pew to pew (except at the Communion offertories), 
nor by plates held by the wardens, but left the people to put in what they 
pleased in fixed boxes near the doors, only announcing each Sunday the 
object to which the offerings that day would be given. This practice is still 
continued ; and there being no parish to support, St. John s Chapel is able 
in this way to help a large number of outside causes. The amounts collected 
in this simple way, from a congregation not numerous, mostly middle class, 
average from 8 to 20 per Sunday, and sometimes are much more than that. 


would not be fitting to enlarge in his lifetime ; suffice it to say PART VIII. 
that he was deeply respected and beloved by all his colleagues. 

Edward Hutchinson, the Lay Secretary, had come into office, 
as before mentioned, early in 1867. He at once took, not only Edward 
command, but lead, in all the financial, legal, and business affairs 
of the Society ; and for fourteen years he worked with un 
tiring energy. But he always disclaimed being merely a 
Secretary in charge of the secular side of the Society s affairs. 
He understood the office as a sphere of labour in the Lord s 
vineyard, and he took a prominent part in every branch of the 
administration, only excepting the selection of candidates, which 
is always in the hands of the clerical members. In Hutchinson s 
view the Lay Secretary was the Secretary of the Society, its 
representative before the world. The Hon. Clerical Secretary 
might write letters to bishops, and the other clerics in the 
office might, personally and by letter, be the friends and coun 
sellors of the missionaries; but, as a great organization, "the 
Society "had, in his view, one executive officer, the Lay Secretary. 
It was an unnoticed but significant way of putting this principle 
into action, when, on Venn ceasing to attend the House as his 
infirmities increased, Hutchinson took his faithful and experienced 
confidential clerk, Josiah Bartlett, who had for years known all the 
private personalia of the Society as no other man knew them, 
downstairs into the Lay Department,* leaving Wright to bring 
in a new man. In fact, the Church Missionary House reverted at 
this time to the old position under Dandeson Coates forty years 
before. Coates and Hutchinson have been if their view of the 
Lay Secretaryship was correct the only Lay Secretaries. 

Hutchinson s public services for the Society were very impor- 
tant. He was a good speaker, and proved a welcome deputation 
at the anniversaries of the great Provincial Associations. No 
other C.M.S. Secretary, clerical or lav, has sought the same 
position in West End society which Hutchinson was able to take. 
He was an acceptable representative of the missionary cause in 
official, scientific, and other circles not closely connected with it. 
He was a familiar figure at the meetings of the Royal Geographical 
Society. He spoke at Mansion House meetings on behalf of 
Africa, alongside the leading men in Church and State. Africa, 
indeed, was his especial care, and in the general cause of Missions 
and of civilization in the Dark Continent he rendered essential 
service. In ecclesiastical matters, Hutchinson took a strong lay 
attitude. He claimed for the Society a freedom from the control 
of bishops beyond what a clergyman like Henry Wright thought 
reasonable ; and his influence did not tend to an early and friendly 
solution of the Ceylon difficulties. On the other hand, he took 
pains to maintain close relations with the non-episcopal societies, 
English Nonconformist, and Scotch Presbyterian, and Continental 

* Mr. BartloU died, greatly re^.ectot. , in July, 1878. 

SOCIETY: A-f/ss/o.vs, MEN, MONEY 

Chap. 71. 


His repu 
tation in 

His work 

Protestant. Personally, he was a warm Evangelical Christian, 
and when the Monday morning prayers at the Church Missionary 
House were instituted, which the Secretaries conducted in turn, 
his Scripture expositions were perhaps the most suggestive and 
impressive of all. But it must be acknowledged that his strong 
opinions and somewhat imperious will did occasionally cause 
friction : and this friction was keenly felt by Henry Wright. 

The fourth Secretary at the time when our present period 
begins was Major-General Edward Lake, E.E., C.S.I. He had 
been one of the most distinguished military officers employed in 
India, both in war and in political offices, particularly under John 
(afterwards Lord) Lawrence. Again and again his name appears 
in the records of the stormy times of the Sikh Wars and the 
Mutiny, and always as of one of the bravest and most trustworthy 
of men. He closed his Indian career as Financial Commissioner 
of the Punjab the highest post next to the Lieutenant-Governor ; 
his friend Eobert Cust holding the Judicial Commissionership 
simultaneously. His Christian influence was of the brightest kind. 
" No one I ever met," writes the Rev. John Barton, " seemed to 
me to realize more fully the privileges as well as the responsi 
bilities of stewardship. His natural gifts, his happy home, his 
official position, his money he looked upon all as God s good 
gifts to him to be laid out to His glory." * Sir Robert Montgomery 
wrote of him, " The Government had in him an eminent public 
servant of the highest type"; and Lord Lawrence, "He was 
one of the soldier-civilians of North India who was an honour to 
his Government, and a tower of strength to the administration to 
which he belonged. Lake Sahib was the man who most 
identified himself with the feelings of all the Native populations 
with whom he came in contact."! 

Such was the man who, in 1869, became a Secretary of the 
Church Missionary Society. Not " the Hon. Secretary," although 
he was honorary. Not " the Lay Secretary," although he was a 
layman. He undertook a portion of the administrative work and 
correspondence with the Mission -field, and also the editorship of 
the Church Missionary Eecord concerning which periodical the 
next chapter will speak. He further prepared a new and enlarged 
edition of the C.M. Atlas; and his studies for this and for his 
magazine quickly made him master of the history and circum 
stances of all the Missions, to an extent which only such studies 
can give. As a counsellor, in the Committee-room and in more 
private consultations, his wisdom and gentleness were of the 
highest value. Mr. Wright testified to "his broad statesmanlike 
views, his indefatigable industry, his tender consideration for the 
feelings of others, and, over all, his humble spirit towards God "; 
and also to "the extreme facility, which any Secretary might 
covet, with which important despatches were drawn up by him, 

* C.M. Intelligencer, November, 1877. 

t Ibid. 


resolutions framed, and articles written ; and yet so much care PART VIII. 
and pains w r ere taken by him in mastering details, that he could 
be relied upon more than most men for correctness in statement 
of facts. His special interest was Missions to Mohammedans ; and 
one of his most fruitful services was the arrangement and conduct 
of the Conference on the subject in 1875, of which we shall see 
more in a future chapter. His labours in this connexion, and 
particularly the heavy correspondence involved in working out 
the plans formed at the Conference, undermined bodily strength 
which had already shown signs of failing ; and within four 
months of that gathering, he was obliged to resign his post, after His retire- 
holding it nearly seven years. His health then gradually failed, death. 
and on June 6th, 1877, he entered into rest.* 

Meanwhile, another clerical secretary had been appointed in 
1874, specifically to take charge of Indian affairs, which needed 
more regular and systematic attention. This was the Eev. 
William Gray. We have already met Mr. Gray as a distin 
guished alumnus of Trinity College, Dublin, as an itinerating 
missionary in North Tinnevelly, and as C.M.S. Secretary at 
Madras. From 1870 to 1874 he was working in the Society s 
home service, as Association Secretary for Notts, Derby, and 
Lincoln. He had just accepted a rectory in the city of Lincoln 
when the call came to him to join the staff at Salisbury Square, 
and a twenty years Secretaryship commenced which proved of 
very great value, both to the India Missions and to the Society as 
a whole. 

General Lake s retirement reduced the Secretariat proper again 
to four members, Wright, Fenn, Hutchinson, and Gray ; and 
though, for some months in 1877, Mr. Barton, having returned 
home from Madras, again took his seat in Salisbury Square, his 
appointment to Trinity Church, Cambridge, once more reduced 
the number. But two important departments, the Home Organi 
zation and the Editorial, were not formally represented in the 
Secretariat as they are now. The Home Department continued 
to be administered by Samuel Hasell, formerly of the Bengal 
Mission, who has been introduced in this capacity before, and 
who was called Central Secretary. His influence in Salisbury 
Square was great. He scarcely ever spoke in Committee, but in 
the private secretarial cabinet in which, though not in the full 
technical sense a Secretary, he had a seat his clearness of per 
ception and readiness in expressing exactly what he meant gave 
him as much real power as any of his colleagues. If something 
was proposed which he did not approve of, he gave no opinion till 
he was asked, and then simply said, "It can t be" which was 
sure to result in the thing being dropped. He was wholly devoted J^ tJ 1 t i r J 
to the Society, and represented what might be thought very C.M.S. 

* A fund amounting to Ks. 7800 was raised in memory of General Lake, 
and the interest is expended on prizes for both secular and religious know 
ledge, competed for by boys and youths in the Punjab. 


Chap. 71. 



His death. 


narrow views. He liked to recall the fact that he had never heen 
at an S.P.G. meeting, nor inside Mildmay Conference Hall ; and 
he objected to the Bible Society or the Pastoral Aid Society being 
combined with C.M.S. in joint meetings. Yet he was not really 
a narrow-minded man, but in a certain sense very far-seeing and 
statesmanlike. His standard of action was, "Is it C.M.S. ?" 
If not, however good a thing might be in itself, he would have 
none of it. A friend, after many vain efforts, at last induced him 
to go and hear Mr. Moody, just for once. " What did you think 
of his address? " " Oh, it was only one of our Bengali sermons 
translated into English ! " But he would spare no trouble for his 
dearly-loved Society. However busy he might be, he was always 
accessible. If a man called and failed to find Wright or Hutchinson 
disengaged, Hasell would put everything aside in order to attend 
to the visitor. His room, therefore (the one next the door, now 
used as a book-room), became a place of resort for friends from 
town and country ; and often he spent the whole day talking with 
them or letting them talk to him, and then would stay late in 
the evening to write his own letters.* So much for the man : 
his Department will be noticed in the next chapter. He died 
suddenly on June 5th, 1879. He was deeply and justly lamented ; 
but God s unseen ways are best ; and it is certain that Samuel 
Hasell could never have been happy amid the developments of 
the next decade. He was succeeded in his office of Central 
Secretary by the Eev. Henry Button, whose great services wall 
come under our notice hereafter. 

The Editorial Department was not organized when Wright 
came to Salisbury Square. Since Eidgew r ay s death, Mr. Knox 
had edited the Intelligencer, and the rest of the work was in 
commission. We shall have to review the Society s publications 
in the next chapter. Here it need only be added that the Author 

* On one occasion, a "press-man" called, representing the Tatlcr, a 
" society paper" which had a short-lived career at that time, and demanded 
to see everything, as he was instructed by his editor to write "smart" 
articles on the missionary societies. Hasell, instead of showing him the 
door (as some other societies had done), spent three or four hours in showing 
him the books and accounts and explaining everything to him. At last the 
man said, "I want to ask one more question : you were in India ; how many 
Heathen did you convert ? " " None," was the reply. " None ! " exclaimed 
the man, and out came his note-book to receive such an admission of failure. 
" It was not my biisiness to convert the Heathen," quietly continued Hasell. 
" Why, what was your business, then ? " "To preach the Gospel." " Why, 
what s the difference ?" " This is the difference : I can t convert you ; only 
God can ; but I can preach the Gospel to you " and he did so, then and 
there. The man thanked him, and went his way ; and in due course his 
article appeared in the Tatler. Here is one paragraph : 

" Decidedly the best career for a young man to enter is that of the Church 
Missionary Society. Not only will he be ensured an easy and comfortable 
life, but if he should be called to his reward, the wife and children he may 
leave behind him will be amply cared for. The amount spent by this noble 
Society upon the widows of missionaries and upon the education of their 
children is surprising. . . ." 









Joseph Hoare, Member of C.M.S. Committee, 1849; Vice-President, 1881. 

Alexander Beattie, Member of C.M.S. Committee, 1842 ; Vice-President, 1880. 

Sydney Ged<re, Member of C.M.S. Committee, 1860; Vice-President since 1886. 

Arthur Lang-, Member of C.M.S. Committee, 1858; Vice-President, 1881. 

General Lake, sometime Financial Commissioner of the Punjab ; Hon. Sec. of the Socisty, 

Henry Carre Tucker, Commissioner of Benares during the Mutiny ; Member of C.M.S. 
Committee, 1858. 


of this History was invited by Mr. Wright to join the staff in PART VIII. 

June, 1873, with a view to his shortly becoming Editorial I 873 " 82 - 
Chap. 71. 

secretary. r 

Throughout our period, Lord Chichester continued President, 
and Captain Maude Treasurer. But in the Committee there 
were great changes. Several of the lay members were re- Deaths of 
moved by death : in 1874, J. M. Strachan and P. F. O Malley, 5gj" 
Q.C. ; in 1875, General Eowlandson, J. Gurney Hoare, and mittee. 
H. Carre Tucker ; in 1876, the Eev. C. D. Marston ; in 1877, 
J. F. Thomas and F. N. Maltby ; in 1878, the aged Eev. Joseph 
Fenn and General Clarke ; in 1879, General Alexander ; in 1880, 
the Eevs. Canon Miller, E. H. Carr, and E. Auriol ; in 1882, 
Colonels Caldwell and Smith, the latter the respected chairman 
of the Finance Committee. During the same years, such highly 
respected and influential friends were also lost as Lord Law 
rence, Bishop Baring, Sir John Kennaway, Mr. Eussell Gurney, 
and Mr. Benjamin Shaw. Now Mr. Carre Tucker, Mr. Thomas, 
and Mr. Maltby were, up to within a few weeks of their respec 
tive deaths, in constant attendance at the Committee meetings ; 
and except Mr. Beattie and Mr. Lang, there were at the time 
no lay members quite in the same front rank ; so that the loss 
of all three within a year and a half was deeply felt. And all 
three had held high office in India : Tucker as Commissioner 
of Benares ; Thomas as Secretary to the Madras Government ; 
Maltby as Eesident at the Native Court of Travancore. Then, 
again, Mr. Auriol had for many years stood quite alone as the 
leading clerical member. However valued others might be, none 
came near him in influence in the Society s counsels. 

As these revered names are recalled, the picture of the Com- f jJVcorn 
mittee-room in (say) 1875 rises up before the memory, with the mittee in 
chief members sitting in their accustomed places. It is, of course, l875 
the old and smaller room : the present room did not exist. The 
table is as it now is for sub-committees, only the chairman sits at 
the end, with his back to the east windows. He has no desk or 
raised seat ; nor is there any da is. It is the Treasurer, Captain 
Maude, who is presiding, full of life and vigour at the age (in that 
year) of seventy-seven. Behind him is a bench in front of the 
windows, and there, near the fire-place, sit J. F. Thomas, small and 
slight, and F. N. Maltby, tall and dignified. On his left hand is a seat 
sometimes taken by Mr. Beattie, but which in the following year 
will become Bishop Perry s recognized place. Then, on the long 
side of the table, with backs to the fire-places, come the Principal 
of the College (Mr. Barlow), Mr. Auriol, small and bent, but as 
alert as ever, Henry Carre Tucker, with his long white hair, and 
Arthur Lang. Last on the same side sits General Clarke, bluff and 
soldier-like ; and at the bottom, facing the chair, Colonel Hughes, 
silent except at prayer, when his frequently-muttered "Amen" 
and "Do, Lord!" can be heard by those near him, and who, 
though still alive throughout our period, retires in broken health in 




Chap. 71. 

1876. :;: On the bench against the wall, between the two fire-places, 
and under Venn s portrait (as it then hung), sits General Alexander, 
ready to rise and lean upon his gold-headed stick while he solemnly 
protests against any man or money being given to the work of 
Higher Education. On the other side, to the chairman s right, 
sit the Secretaries : first, Fenn at the corner ; then Wright, Gray, 
Hutchinson, Lake, Hasell, and the present writer. This does not 
quite fill the table, and probably Sydney Gedge has secured a 
chair at it, and also two clergymen who have lately joined and are 
already among the most regular attendants, E. C. Billing and 
William Allan. Joseph Hoare may be standing at the fire-place ; 
certainly no particular seat seems to belong to him. 

But in 1876 an old clerical member, hitherto only an occasional 
visitor, begins to be seen week after week Canon Edward Hoare. 
He had not felt his counsel needed in Venn s time. "If he 
agreed with Venn, it was superfluous ; if he differed, it was use 
less "so he expressed it. But the Ceylon Controversy brings 
him back, and for many years, and particularly after Auriol s 
death, he divides with Bishop Perry the leading clerical voice in 
the Committee. Canon Money also now becomes more regular, 
and devotes himself especially to African affairs ; so does the Eev. 
Sydney Gedge, father of the lay member of that name, who, 
towards the close of our period, comes to reside near London ; while 
Bishop Alford, long separated by the old dispute about the China 
bishoprics, comes back to the Society s councils to take up the 
question of Indian Education. Three young laymen are taking a 
recognized position, who were elected at the beginning of our 
period, Eobert Williams, jun., banker, Philip Vernon Smith, 
senior classic and barrister-at-law, and Charles Douglas Fox, 
the eminent engineer. But in 1878-79 come four new Anglo- 
Indians who are destined in after years to be in the front 
rank of the lay members, Eobert Gust, Henry Morris, Major- 
General George Hutchinson, and Colonel J. G. Touch. Thus we 
see how God in His gracious providence raises up men to fill, as 
efficiently as ever, the places vacated by those whom He calls 
unto Himself. 

m iss1on ffof Let us now look at the missionary recruits of the period. In 
aries. numbers there is a decided improvement, dating from the first 
Day of Intercession. We find 224 added to the roll in the 
ten years, 1873-82, against 159 in the previous period of eleven 
years, 1862-72 ; and as the women (18) are exactly the same, 
the increase in men is fully fifty per cent. It is not, however, 
so very much better than in the period of thirteen years next but 

* Concerning Colonel Hughes work as Hon. Sec. of the Strangers Home 
for Asiatics, see Vol. II., p. 382. In his last years, he was a great sufferer, 
and living quite alone at Bournemouth ; but if the ecstasy of heaven was to 
be found anywhere on earth, it was to be found in his sick-chamber. See 
C.Jf. Intelligencer, March, 1886, p. 162. 



Rev. S. 


New lay 






Charles Perry, Bishop of Melbourne, Vice-President of C.M.S. ; active member of Committee. 

Edward Anriol, Rector of St. Duiistan-in-the-West ; active member of C.M.S. Committee. 

Edward Hoare, Vice-President of the Society; Preacher of the Animal Sermon, 1871;. 
active member of Committee. 

H. B. Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S., Association Secretary, 1806; Preacher of the Annual 
Sermon, 1883 ; Vice-President of C.M.S. 

J. C. Miller, Birmingham and Greenwich; Preacher of the Annual Sermon, 1858. (After 
wards Canon of Rochester.) 


one preceding, 1849-61; and that it should not be much better PART VIII. 
gives us fresh evidence of the greatness of that period. We may ~ 

compare the three periods thus: in 1849-61, an average of 19 
per annum ; in 1862-72, of 14| per annum ; in 1873-82, of 22| per 
annum. But in University men, the comparatively high standard 
of the first period is not yet reached again : the three periods 
standing for 62, 23, 43. Oxford alone is up to the mark, with 
12 in the third period as well as in the first. This is partly 
compensated -for by the addition of thirteen men with medical 
qualifications (besides one included under Cambridge), and of 
several men already in holy orders, though not graduates. But 
we find the leakage during our present period great ; for the nett 
number on the roll at the end of it is only 271, an increase of 
only 41 upon the 230 of 1872, indeed of only 29 upon the 242 of 
1865. With all the enthusiasm of Henry Wright, and all the 
interests of the new and enlarged Missions of the period, the 
progress in respect of the most essential thing of all in a mis 
sionary society missionaries is still very slow. 

Islington College contributed 91 men to the total of 224. Most 
of these were trained under a new Principal, the Eev. W. H. 
Barlow, who succeeded Mr. Frost in 1875. Mr. Barlow was a 
Cambridge man of distinction, who had been, when a Bristol 
incumbent, Hon. Secretary of the great Bristol Association, and 
subsequently had been Eector of St. Ebbe s, Oxford a parish 
of which distinguished men have been rectors, F. W. Eobertson, 
S. Waldegrave, C. Baring, T. V. French. The College at that time 
was far from full, having suffered from the lack of candidates in 
1870-72, and the younger men called forth after the Day of 
Intercession and by the influence of the Parochial Missions being 
still in their first year or not yet passed on from the Preparatory 
Institution at Eeading. Moreover, there were other causes of 
anxiety. Mr. Barlow proposed to the Committee to move the 
College to Cambridge, in order to breathe there the freer air of 
university life ; but this suggestion not being accepted, he vigor 
ously set himself to make Islington, as it was, more worthy of its. 
old reputation. Just at that time, the Oxford and Cambridge 
Preliminary Theological Examination was instituted, and he boldly 
seized the opportunity to make a good place in it an object of 
healthy aspiration with the students ; and the complete success of 
the plan did much to raise the morale of the College. At the same 
time, in order, even by so outward a thing as dress, to emphasize 
its academic status, he put the men for the first time into caps and 
gowns ; and Islington began to feel that it was no longer a mere 
"institution," but really a " college." 

The year 1876 is memorable in the annals of Islington College 
as registering the low- water mark of its number of recruits. Only 
three of its own regular students went out in that year ; and 

only four in the preceding year. Eeckoning back three or four men of 

years to the time when these men offered, before their training l8 ? 6 


PART VIII. began, we come to 1871-72, the period of the "failing treasury 
r? 3 ~^n a scan ^y supply of men," just before the Day of Intercession 
ap ushered in brighter prospects. The young men brought out in 
answer to the prayers of that Day were still under training. Not 
till 1877 were its fruits available. Hence the small number three, 
of which there is only one other case in the whole history of the 
College, so far back as 1834. But who were the three ? They 
were J. J. Bambridge, who laboured fifteen years in connexion 
with the Sindh Mission ; Llewellyn Lloyd, still at work in Fuh- 
kien ; and J. Sidney Hill, who first went to Lagos, and then to 
New Zealand, and who, seventeen years later, became Bishop of 
Western Equatorial Africa. There was a fourth, whom Islington 
presented for ordination at the same time, but who, being a 
Dublin graduate and also fully educated for the English bar, 
had only been a year in the College reading divinity Robert 
Stew r art. No\v it so happened that in that year, for the first time 
(though not for the last time), the two Evangelical Colleges at 
Islington and Highbury took the best places in the Bishop of 
London s examination. Highbury men took the first and third 
places, Bambridge the second, and Lloyd the fourth. * In the 
gracious providence of God, that scanty year, though it could not 
boast of quantity, did show quality. Scanty, be it observed, as 
regards men who had been under training, and who represented 
the depressed period of 1872 ; not scanty otherwise, for it saw 
other men twenty-eight men go forth (six above the average of the whole 
period), including the first Nyanza party, and also Weitbrecht, 
Durrant, Stone, Longley Hall, W. E. Blackett, H. Newton, 
Peck, c. In fact the tide was now r flowing. In that very year 
the Committee reported that they had accepted fifty-five candidates ; 
in the next year they reported exactly the same number ; and in 
May, 1877, they had no less than eighty-one men under training. 
It was during Mr. Barlow s Principalship, on July 31st, 1876, 
that the Jubilee of the College was celebrated by a special meeting 
of great interest, on which occasion was unveiled a portrait of 
C. F. Childe, the Principal whose good work we have before 
Mr.Heisch noticed. Mr. Heisch, the veteran Vice-Principal under Childe, 
Dr. Dyson. Green, and Erost, continued under Barlow till 1879, when he 
retired after thirty-seven years valuable service. f He was 
succeeded by Dr. Dyson, who had come home from Calcutta. 

* At the Christmas Ordination in the same year, 1876, Henry Williams, after 
wards the well-known Bengal missionary, was first in the Bishop s examina 
tion, and read the Gospel at St. Paul s Cathedral, the first of several Islington 
men who have gained that distinction. This also was the first year in 
which C.M.S. men competed in the newly-arranged Oxford and Cambridge 
Preliminary Theological Examination. Bambridge arid Lloyd were the first 
to go up, and both were among the nine men who obtained a first class. It 
is worth noting who the examiners were Archdeacon Hessey, Canons 
Luckock, Norris, and Westcott, Mr. Jayne, and Mr. Nutt. H. Williams, six 
-months after, did equally well. 

| He died at a great age in 1898. 


Of the ninety-one men sent out from Islington within the ten PART VIII. 
years under review, forty are still at work, viz., after twenty 1873-82. 
years service and upward, Macartney, Tunbridge, Painter, Hall, Cha P- ^- 
and Eales, of India ; Alley, of West Africa ; Binns of East Africa ; Islington 
Pickford of Ceylon ; Lloyd of China ; Williams of Japan ; Good- m e e r " 5 f the 
year of New Zealand ; Collison, Hall, and Field, of British 
Columbia ; and after sixteen years service and upwards, Cole and 
Gordon of Eastern Equatorial Africa ; C. A. Neve, Manwaring, 
J. J. Johnson, Parsons, A. E. and W. H. Ball, Thompson, J. 
Eedman, Peel, Knowles, and Guilford, of India ; Ilsley, Balding, 
and Liesching, of Ceylon ; Ost, Banister, Martin, and Shaw, of 
China; Fuller of Japan; Winter, Canham, and Lofthouse, of 
North-West Canada. Also two men, Sedgwick of Palestine and 
Keen of British Columbia, who went out more than twenty years 
ago, but whose service has not been continuous. Of the Islington - 
men of the period who have died, J. S. Hill (Bishop), H. Williams, 
V. C. Sim, J. C. Price, should be specially mentioned. Of those 
no longer in the field should be mentioned A. E. Cavalier, of 
Ceylon, now Secretary of the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission ; 
G. Litchfield, of Uganda, and afterwards of North India, now 
Incumbent of a parish at Cape Town ; C. W. Pearson of Uganda, 
J. J. Bambridge of Sindh, H. Lewis and A. J. Santer of North 
India, now serving the Church in parishes at home ; and F. 
Glanvill, of Ceylon, now well known as an Association Secretary 
of the Society. 

The twelve Oxford men of the period make a good list : F. A. P. Oxford 
Shirreff, Principal of the Lahore Divinity School, now Vicar of m 
Sparsholt, Berkshire ; H. Evington, of Japan, now Bishop ; J. S. 
Doxey, of Kashmir; G. B. Durrant, of North India, now Secre 
tary at home; C. T. Wilson, of Uganda and Palestine; E. N. 
Hodges, Principal of the Noble College, and then of Trinity 
College, Kandy, and now Bishop of Travancore and Cochin; 
A. W. Poole, Eugby-Fox Master, afterwards first English Bishop 
in Japan; A. Lewis, of the Punjab, the biographer of G. M. 
Gordon ; C. S. Harington, of Calcutta ; W. E. Taylor, of Mom 
basa ; H. A. Bren, of Bombay ; and lastly, in 1882, James 
Hannington, first Bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa. 

Excellent also is the Cambridge list, with twenty names : Cambridge 
Theodore Maxwell, B.A. and M.D., and B.Sc. Lond., of Kashmir ; 
H, Horsley, of Tinnevelly and Ceylon ; P. K. Fyson, of Japan, 
now Bishop ; A. Clifford, of Calcutta, now Bishop of Lucknow ; 
E. Young, of Eupert s Land, now Bishop of Athabasca ; J. C. 
Hoare, of China, now Bishop of Victoria ; E. Davys, of China ; 
J. A. Lloyd, of Agra; Jani Alii, E. Noble s convert from 
Mohammedanism, B.A. of Corpus ; F. W. Ainley, of Travancore ; 
H. D. Williamson, of the Gond Mission and Calcutta; H. P. 
Parker, of Calcutta, afterwards second Bishop of Eastern Equa 
torial Africa ; W. Andrews, of Japan ; A. T. Fisher, of the Punjab ; 
E. Shann, of China; H. D. Goldsmith, of Madras; T. Bomford, of 


4 8 


Chap. 71. 








An Oxford 

the Punjab ; G. H. Pole, of Japan ; E. P. Ashe, of Uganda ; A. J. 
Shields, of the Santal Mission.* 

The Dublin list comprises D. T. Barry and W. E. Blackett, of 
Calcutta; E. W. Stewart, of China; H. Newton, of Ceylon; 
H. M. M. Hackett, of North India ; E. Elliott, of the Santal 
Mission and Palestine ; J. G. Garrett, of Ceylon ; T. Phillips, of the 
Niger; W. Latham, of North India. 

There are two other University men, H. U. Weitbrecht, Ph.D. 
of Tubingen, son of the Bengal missionary of the same name, and 
who had been curate to W. Hay Aitken at Liverpool ; and C. H. 
Merk, Ph.D. of Leipzig, son of the elder Merk of North India. 

Of these forty-three University men, sixteen are still at work 
after a service of from sixteen to twenty-five years, viz., Bishops 
Hodges, Young, Clifford, Evingtou, Fyson, Hoarc ; Horsley, 
Wilson, Weitbrecht, Williamson, Andrews, Taylor, Garrett, Gold 
smith, Bomford, Latham ; while Bishops Poole, Hamrington, and 
Parker, and E. W. Stewart, and Jani Alii, died in harness. 

The miscellaneous list, comprising neither University graduates 
nor Islington men, is unusually long in this period. First it 
includes eight clergymen ordained before they came to the Society, 
among them F. A. S. Bellamy, of Palestine ; J. Stone, of the Telugu 
Mission ; J. E. Longley Hall, of Palestine ; and P. O Flaherty, of 
Uganda. Stone and Hall were from St. John s Hall, Highbury. 
Then there are thirteen medical men (besides Maxwell of Cam 
bridge) ; among them E. Downes and A. Neve, of Kashmir; John 
Smith, E. J. Baxter, and E. W. Felkin, of the Nyanza Mission; 

A. Jukes and H. M. Clark, of the Punjab ; E. F. Hoernle, of Persia ; 

B. Van S. Taylor and D. Main, of China. Among other laymen 
the best known are Lieut. G. Shergold Smith, T. O Neill, and 
Alexander Mackay, of the Nyanza Mission; E. J. Peck (since 
ordained), of the Eskimo Mission ; J. Batchelor (since ordained), 
of the Ainu Mission ; and J. A. Wray, of East Africa. Several 
names in the list, clerical and lay, are those of men taken up in 
the field. The total of "miscellaneous" is 73. Then there are 
eighteen women, including Mrs. Grime ; of North India ; Mrs. 
Eussell, of China ; Miss M. F. Baker, of Travancore ; Miss Alice 
Sampson, of Calcutta; and Misses Young and Hall, of Ceylon 
(now Mrs. Pickford and Mrs. Balding). 

Interesting circumstances marked the coining forward of some 
of these brethren. For example, Shirreff and Hodges had belonged 
to a small band of friends at Queen s College, Oxford, who were 
accustomed to read the Bible together, and encourage each other 
in missionary zeal. To the same band belonged, then or a little 
later, Arthur Lewis, afterwards of the Punjab Mission; A. J. P. 
Shepherd, who went to India as chaplain under Bishop French, 
and who was afterwards Director of the C.M.S. Children s Home ; 

* The proposal made in 1877 by Edward Bickersteth, Fellow of Pembroke, 
Cambridge (afterwards Bishop in Japan), to affiliate his projected Cambridge 
brotherhood in India to the C.M.S., is noticed in a later chapter (p. 151). 


and A. M. Hewlett, of the S.P.G. Madagascar Mission.- Hodges PART Yin. 
and Poole (who was of Worcester College) were also close friends. 1873-82. 
The former became Tutor at the C.M. College, and the latter Cha P- n - 
curate to Canon Christopher at St. Aldate s, but after two or three 
years they offered together, and together went out to the Noble 
High School. Another band had no common friendship before 
offering, but their offers were in response to a special Appeal for 
India drawn up by David Fenn when at home on furlough in 1875. Davi <| 
That Appeal, within a few weeks, brought forward six clergymen. Fenn ssix - 
One of these was refused by the doctors ; the other five all went to 

India, Doxey, D arrant, Weitbrecht, Stone, Bomford though the 

last-named, owing to ill-health, did not actually go out till five 
years later. Doxey served eight years ; the rest have continued 
in connexion with the Society ever since. India has cause indeed 
to remember David Fenn s Appeal. 

One name of the 224, it \vill have been noticed, was not a 
European name. But Jani Alii, though a convert from a C.M.S. Jani Air. 
College, was in England on his own account, and when he offered 
to the Society it was as a Cambridge graduate, and as a missionary 
in home connexion. His University life is interesting to the 
C.M.S. in another way. He was an intimate friend of Henry 
Perrott Parker, and it was his personal influence that inspired 
the offer of service of the man who was to become Secretary at 
Calcutta, and afterwards Hannington s successor in the bishopric 
of Eastern Equatorial Africa. 

Something should be said of the men for the Nyanza Mission ; 
but it will be best said when we come to review the history of that 

The public Valedictory Meetings, which had for many years been Vaiedic- 
so thinly attended that the College Hall sufficed for them, or the ing Meet 
dimng-hall of the Children s Home, or some local room at Black- 
heath or Hampstead, increased much in attractiveness during our 
period. In three years, 1876-78, a large tent holding four hundred 
people was put up for the purpose in the College grounds ; and 
that tent witnessed the farewells to K. W. Stewart and J. S. Hill 
E. N. Hodges and A. W. Poole, Jani Alii and H. P. Parker, and 
many others whose names are now familiar and honoured. In 
1879, bad weather drove the meeting indoors, and the experiment 
has never been repeated. In 1880, the (old) Memorial Hall at 
Islington was used; in 1881, the Lower Exeter Hall; and in 
1882, the last year of our period, a really spacious room (St. 
George s Hall, Langham Place) was engaged for the first time 
since the very early gatherings in Freemasons Hall noticed in our 
Tenth Chapter, on which occasion it is recorded that " a special 
address was given by the Eev. H. E. Fox, Vicar of Christ Church, 

* In fact, tho band owed its origin to the fact that Mr. Hewlett, and his 
sister (now well known as Miss Hewlett of the C.B.Z.M.S.), were taught 
from their earliest childhood to pray for the Heathen. Their father was a 
clergyman who was an Organizing Secretary of the Bible Society. 

17/~iT TTT J 



PART VIII. Westminster." The Large Exeter Hall, for such gatherings, was 

1873-82. s till some years off. 

Chap. 71. j3 u j. we mus t remember that missionary labourers were not 
raised in England only, and that the Society had long looked to 

increase of the growth of the Native Ministry to supply the Home Church s 

^eriy e lack of service. It is remarkable, however, that it was the hopeful 
period at home which coincided \vith the largest increase of Native 
clergy. In the year 1876, thirty Natives of Africa, India, China, 
New Zealand, and North- West Canada, were admitted to holy 
orders. Not only w 7 as this then the largest number on record, 
but it has never been equalled since. Among the Africans of that 
year was Charles Phillips, now Assistant Bishop in Western 
Equatorial Africa; and Isaac Oluwole was ordained in 1881. 
During the whole decade under review T , the number of Natives 
ordained was 129, making, with the 185 up to 1872, a total from 
the beginning of 314. Of these, India had supplied 160 ; W 7 est 
Africa, 68; New Zealand, 38; Ceylon, 18; China, 13; North- 
West Canada, 11 ; Palestine, 4 ; Mauritius, 2. The Tamil race 
leads easily, having supplied 94 men, in India, Ceylon, and 
Mauritius. The Negro comes next. 

The Funds Let us now briefly notice how the Funds were progressing. 
We have before seen that in 1872 the Committee reported an 
Ordinary Income of 150,000 in round figures, and that this only 
showed an increase of 23,000 in eleven years. In 1882 they 
reported an Ordinary Income of 190,000, an increase of 40,000 
in ten years. But this scarcely shows the whole advance, for in 
the latter year there were also various gifts to what would now r 
be called " appropriated funds," amounting to some 12,000 more. 
This is a compendious statement ; but the period was one of 
remarkable ups and downs, and the years 1877-80 were years of 
serious perplexity, from which the recovery only began to come in 
1881-82. It is needless to enter into full details ; but some of the 
more important facts are interesting. 

In the first year of our decade, 1873, the Committee had to 
announce a deficit of 12,000 ; not that the Income was less, for 
it was larger, and it had been swollen by 2300 received from 
offertories spontaneously given on the first Day of Intercession 
although that Day had not been designed for the collection of 
funds, or even for prayer for them. But twelve months later, in 
Great May, 1874, when the first complete financial year, since the new 
j 7 c 4 omecf prayers for men went up to the throne of God, had to be 
reviewed, the whole Society was startled by the news that the 
receipts had exceeded a quarter of a million. In those days 
nothing was ever published regarding the funds, or even allowed 
to be whispered (if it could be prevented), prior to the announce 
ment at the Annual Meeting ; but at the tea before the Sermon on 
the Monday evening that year, men were eagerly inquiring of one 
another, " Can it be true? a quarter of a million!" Incredible 


though it seemed, it was indeed true. First, the Ordinary Income PART VIII 
was 196,000, being an advance in one year of 40,000. Among 1873-82. 
the "benefactions" was an anonymous "thank-offering" of Cha P- 71. 
5000, and a contribution of 8000 " in memory of Francis 
Wright," Henry Wright s father, who had died during the year, 
from his family. There were also three legacies, of 10,000^ 
5000, and 4900. This Income covered the year s expenditure! 
wiped off the previous year s deficit, and left a balance of 10,000 
to carry forward. Then there were two important gifts of 
investments : one from Mr. T. W. Hill of Bristol, of 22,800, the Special 
interest to be added to the general funds yearly ; and one from Funds 
Mr. W. C. Jones, of Warrington, of 20,700, as a thank-offering, 
for the recovery of his son Walter, the interest to be used to 
support Native agents in certain Missions. Then there was 8500 
contributed to a fund in memory of Henry Venn, applicable to the 
aid of Native Churches. These and a few smaller special funds, 
and 7350 contributed to feed the famine-stricken people that 
year in India, made up a grand total of 261,221 " committed to 
the administration of the Committee in one year." Nothing like 
this had ever been known ; and as the gathering friends took their 
seats m Exeter Hall that Tuesday morning, and saw the figures scene at 
on the papers handed to them, they could scarcely believe their Exeter 
eyes. Presently Mr. Fenn rose to open the meeting with the HaH 
reading of Scripture (there was then no hymn at the beginning) 
and on his giving out " the Hundred and Third Psalm," a murmur 
of grateful assent arose from the crowded platform. By-and-bv 
Bishop Robert Bickersteth began his stirring speech with the 
words, " A joyful and a pleasant thing it is to be thankful " and 
warm indeed was the response from the meeting. 

It was not to be expected that the whole of "the advance even 
in the Ordinary Income would be maintained in the following 
year, to say nothing of the special funds that had made up the 
great total. But one-half of the advance in the Ordinary Income 
was maintained, and, as it afterwards proved, maintained per 
manently. That is to say, the Income was 175,000 in 1874-75 
and it never again fell below that sum. Moreover the new East 
Africa Mission, and, in the next year, the new Nyanza Mission 
were started, and for some time fully supported, by additional 
speciaHunds. But the Expenditure was growing still faster, and Deficit of 

Ltt// the Committee reported a deficit of 14,000, notwithstand- l877 
mg the continued receipt of large legacies. In the face of this 
Lencit, the Committee determined on decisive measures of re 
trenchment. (1) The Missions in Turkey were to be given up Retrench- 

.together, and the missionaries to be withdrawn from Con- ments - 
stantmople and Smyrna ; also from the Mohammedan Mission at 
-Kombay. (2) Grants to Sierra Leone, New Zealand, and North- 
West America to be reduced. (3) 4000 to be struck off the 
iia Estimates for schools and catechists. (4) The number of 
students under training, which had been eighty, to be gradually 

Chap. 71. 









reduced to forty. (5) Certain missionaries, ready to go back to 
the field after furlough, to be kept at home. (6) No new mis 
sionaries to be sent out, except to fill vacancies caused by death 
or retirement, until an adequate income had been secured. 

Meanwhile special contributions to cover the deficit came in, 
and they covered it with just 30 to spare. Yet the Committee, to 
prevent future deficits, persevered in their policy of retrenchment ; 
and severe as their proposed measures were, they were nearly all 
carried out. Did that set things straight ? Not at all. In the follow 
ing year there was a deficit of 8000, and further miscellaneous 
retrenchments were ordered. Individual friends came forward 
nobly. Mr. George Fox of Durham gave 5000 ; and Mr. Vincent 
Stanton of Hales worth, besides also contributing handsomely, 
started a " Substitute for Service " scheme, promising 250 a 
year to support his " substitute " an anticipation of the modern 
" own missionary" plan. Moreover, Mr. W. C. Jones handed to 
the Society another trust fund, of 35,000, in aid of the Native 
Churches in India ; Mrs. Disney Eobinson a fund of 5000, also 
invested for specific purposes ; and, a little later (1879), when 
Frances Eidley Havergal died, the Eev. C. Bullock raised through 
his popular magazine, Home Words, over 2000 as a memorial to 
her, which was handed to the C.M.S. for the support of Native 
Bible-women and the production of Miss Havergal s works in 
foreign languages." But the general Income showed no elasticity, 
while the Expenditure continued to rise ; and in 1879 the position 
was more anxious than ever, the accumulated deficit amounting 
to 25,000, and the Working Capital being so much reduced that 
the bankers felt it necessary to write the Committee a serious 
warning. It was at once arranged to keep back seven of the 
Islington men just ordained and ready to go out ; to limit the 
Candidates Committee to ten new men for training ; to close some 
stations in North India ; and to reduce the India estimates further 
by five per cent. Moreover, a Special Committee was appointed 
to examine the whole financial position ; and many long days in 
the spring of 1880 were occupied by its discussions, which led to 
a still more stringent policy of retrenchment. The proposals of 
this Committee need not be explained here, as the concluding 
chapter of this section of our History will review the various 
events which made that year and the year 1881 a crisis in the 
Society s career. 

But meanwhile the ardent friends of the work outside had been 
thoroughly roused. Mr. Stanton had again come forward with 

* Miss Havergal was an enthusiastic friend of the C.M.S. Her desire had 
been to go to India as a missionary, as her friend Miss Clay did ; but her 
health did not permit of this. Only a few months before her lamented and 
unexpected death, she sent the Society her jewels, which fetched 50. 
One of her last literary productions was the series of short papers entitled 
"Marching Orders," which wore written at the request of the Editor of the 
C.M. Gleaner, and were appearing in its pages when she died, in 1879. 


his generous aid, starting a new deficiency fund with a gift PART VIII. 
of 1000 ; Mr. Bickersteth of Hampstead (the present Bishop of J 8 ^ 3 ; 82 
Exeter) wrote fervent letters for publication which touched many 
hearts ; much prayer was offered ; and just as the Special Com- The deficit 
mittee were completing their Eeport, the accounts made up to cleared off - 
March 31st showed that (1) 27,000 had been received to wipe 
out the old deficit ; (2) the Capital Fund had been entirely 
restored ; (3) the expenditure of the year just finished had been 
all but covered. At the previous Anniversary, Bishop Thorold 
had said, "Evangelical Eeligion is not in its decline, as some 
assert ; but when the Church Missionary Society is in financial 
distress, Evangelical Eeligion is on its trial." And before the 
Anniversary of 1880 came round, the trial had issued in the 
deliverance of the Society from its distress. Would, then, the 
Special Committee modify their Eeport ? No, they did not. They 
were working, not for the past, but for the future ; and they 
pressed their recommendations, which were duly adopted by the 
General Committee. 

At this point we pause. We have much yet to review, at home 
and abroad, and shall occupy several chapters in doing so, before 
we can concentrate our attention upon the events of 1880-81. 
Then we shall understand the Psalmist s words which Henry 
Wright prefixed to the last Annual Eeport he had to read in 
Exeter Hall, on May 4th, 1880, " Truly God is good to Israel ! 



Why should Deputations be necessary ? Missions not a " Charity " 
Yet Giving and Collecting are Sacred Functions Examples of 
Self-denial The varied Sources of Supply Contributions from 
London and the Provinces in 1880-81 The Associations Some of 
their Meetings The Association Secretaries, Hon. District Secre 
taries, Local Secretaries County Unions : Mr. Lombe s Story of 
Norfolk The Publications The Anniversaries Sermons by 
Bishops Jackson and Baring The Meetings and Speakers : Lord 
Northbrook, Sir B. Frere, the Rev. W. T. Satthianadhan. 

" Whether any do inquire of Titus, lie is my partner and fellow-helper concern 
ing yon: or our brethren. . . . Shew ye to them, and before the churches, the 
proof of your lore, and of our boastinc/ on your behalf." 2 Cor. viii. 23, 24. 

"Being brought on, their way by the church, they passed through Phenice and 
Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles : and they caused great joy unto 
all the brethren." Acts xv. 3. 

?AR 7 r V R2 H IPHHIilF the ]Divine Heac * f the Church has given it a great 
Chi 72 GbP PP1 commission, and that commission is neglected, the 
P o |||jg work of arousing the Church to a sense of its duty is 
Ought KnSi^^Pl as truly a work for Christ as the direct preaching of 
tionstobe the Gospel. It is as much the duty of a clergyman 

necessary ? t o press upon his people their ohligation to take their part in the 
evangelization of the world, as it is to exhort them to come to 
the Lord s Table or to fulfil any other Christian duty. There is 
no more reason for requiring " deputations " to plead the cause of 
Missions than to require them to expound the Fifth Command 

is their We have seen how, in the earlier years of the century, some of 

to mta? ect tn e g od men wn o had begun to realize the Church s responsi- 
funds ? bility travelled over England to wake up their fellow-Christians 
to the like realization, and what remarkable effects were produced 
by the visits of those first "deputations." We can now see, 
however, that there was a weak point in their appeals. By 
dwelling upon the spiritual miseries and perils of the Heathen, 
rather than upon the Lord s command to His Church, the feeling 
awakened was for the most part one of pity ; and people put their 
hands in their pockets and gave money, just as they would have 
done for a Famine Fund or a Hospital. But the call to personal 
service was not realized. It was not often pressed. As one reads 
the early sermons and speeches, one cannot but be surprised at 
the absence of what in recent years has proved the most potent 


of missionary appeals. The consequence was that the object of a PART VIII. 
missionary deputation came to be universally understood to be / 
the collection of money ; and if a particular preacher could by 
his eloquence extract 5 more than usual out of a congregation, 
or if a missionary on furlough could persuade some of the audience 
at a local meeting to put half-a-crown in the plate instead of a 
shilling, it was regarded as a success. This view of the matter 
was fostered by the undoubted fact that other " charity sermons " Essential 
or appeals at meetings were really for money and not for men. j^JJeiT 
Pleading for a school or a hospital, or for a fund to provide g h j 
additional parish clergy, involved no pleading for personal and 
service in the Lord s vineyard. The speaker was not seeking to 
induce his hearers- to become schoolmasters or doctors or nurses 
or curates. lie wanted money ; and if he got money his object 
was attained. Then the same reasoning came to be applied to 
missionary societies ; and so it came to pass that they were 
counted as so many additional " charities" to be subsidized, and 
the personal responsibility of every Christian to take his personal 
part in fulfilling the Divine Command was missed altogether. It 
was not so with practical Home Mission work. Money was not 
asked for to support Sunday school teachers or district visitors or 
young men giving their leisure hours to mission services or 
youths clubs. If a cle/gyman spoke to his congregation on these 
matters, it was workers that he asked for, not funds; or if funds, 
merely for collateral expenses such as Sunday-school prizes or 
fitting up a reading-room. And as to the home missions outside 
the parish those home mission efforts noticed in our Seventieth 
Chapter, no deputation came preaching in their behalf : what 
ever funds they needed were raised independently. But the 
evangelization of the world was a " charity " asking for a big 
collection. Surely if the true position of the Command of com- what 
mands had been insisted on from the first, the close of the 
Nineteenth Century would have seen the number of labourers in 
the field ten times what it is ; prayer and study and interest at 
home would have been tenfold ; and as to the money, the great 
principle that " there is that scattereth and yet increaseth," and 
that "five loaves" given to the Lord will produce "twelve 
baskets" for the donor, would have been more widely realized, 
and deficits would have been unknown. 

However, this History has to record facts ; and one thing we W a 1 } 1 at was 
have to do is to review the Society s home work, which consisted, 
in the main, of raising funds. Not that no efforts were made to 
bring recruits to the missionary army ; but there was a general 
feeling though doubtless an unconscious feeling that this was 
the work of headquarters, rather than of the Associations through- Aim of the 
out the country. The Associations were judged, and judged t ion? cia 
themselves, by their contributions. That was the one topic of ^ o r ^ e 
their Eeports. It rarely occurred to them to report upon the m 
number of candidates they had sent up, or the number of mis- 


PART VIII. sionary prayer-meetings held, or the number of sermons and 
Cha 3 8 ^2 ^ ectures on Missions apart from collections ; not even the number 
of subscribing members ; only the aggregate of their contributions. 
After all, both the collecting and the giving of money in Christ s 
Sacred- cause are sacred functions, worthy of all honour, although not of 
mp S ney f con- such exclusive honour as they have received. A chapter might 
tributions. easily be filled with most touching illustrations of self-denial both 
in giving and in collecting. In not a few parishes, in not a few 
homes, the month s or the year s offering has been a matter of 
earnest prayer. Many a missionary-box has been constantly 
prayed over; many a church collection, long before it became 
the custom to lay the alms on the Holy Table, has been mentally 
and spiritually "presented to the Lord" by the clergy and 
churchwardens who counted it ; many a true thanksgiving has 
been offered to God for even what to human eyes was but 
a small advance in the parish contribution to the C.M.S., the 
" Vicar wel1 knowing that it has meant real self-sacrifice in at 
least some homes ; many a poor widow, or young sempstress, or 
maid-of-all-work, or bricklayer or fisherman, has rejoiced to "do 
without " some comfort or pleasure in order to take a little share 
in promoting as they verily believed the Saviour s glory Whom 
they love. Let one simple illustration be given of an individual 
gift : 

" On Thursday last we held the quarterly meeting of the Juvenile 

A widow s Church Missionary Association. A widow in humble life, dressed in 
deep mourning, met me at the door. Her husband had been a tradesman 
in a small way, and her income is only small. On two former occasions 
she had given me oO and 100, the latter sum at our Jubilee ; and I 
was well pleased to find her waiting for me at the door of our Juvenile 
meeting, for I felt sure that something was coming. But judge my 
surprise and delight when she quietly put into my hands ten Bank of 
England notes of 20 each. I stepped with her into a side room to 
count it, and make it sure ; and I then said to her, I fear you cannot 
afford so large a gift : it is a large sum. Her simple reply was most 
touching : she merely said, I do not spend it on myself, and so I have 
it to give. 

" Very few more words passed. She merely enjoined secrecy, and 
begged that it might be entered as Help in time of Need. " 

, or And one illustration of a parish contribution. This parish was 

parish. a small and poor one in a northern city, with not more than five 

houses in it rented at 30. In 1866 it had 305 regular subscribers, 

and 85 box-holders. Let us read a few sentences from its Vicar s 

Report : 

" I. First, our Collections after the annual sermons in the church have 
increased. Some of our friends feared that the gathering of sub 
scriptions so widely would cause our church collections to be less. I am 
happy to say that this is not the case. Nor should we think that it will 
be so ; for giving is a Christian grace ; it is a sign of love ; and the love 
of souls is the very soul of love. This grace, like others, is strengthened, 
and not weakened, by exercise. The more we give the more we would 


give in a cause so glorious as this. The liberal deviseth liberal things, PAKT VIII. 
and by liberal things shall he stand. 1873-82. 

" II. Next, our Missionary Bo.res have yielded a larger sum. We never Chap. 72. 
had more of these silent friends asking for the family offerings of the 
Christian household. And they have not asked in vain. They seem, 
like the hand of God, ever open to receive the first-fruits of our increase. 
The sick child is restored, the ailing mother is strengthened, the father s 
health is mercifully continued, and there is the open hand ready to 
accept the thank-offering to God for His goodness. I should like to see 
a missionary-box in every house in the parish, that some portion of our 
weekly earnings may find its way into the treasury of God. Honour 
the Lord with thy substance, and with the first-fruits of all thine 

" III. Our Sale of Work, too, has produced more than ever. Many, 
very many, busy hands have done the work. Not only women and 
children, but working men, have joined, and joined heartily, in this 
labour of love. One clever artisan has always contributed the fruit of 
many toilsome hours when his day s work was over, articles which have 
added more than a yearly guinea to our receipts. Others, too, have 
been equally industrious. And what our female friends have done, I do 
not dare to say ; but this I say, that the poor woman s mite, whether it 
be given in money or money s worth, is seen and owned by the Lord of 
all. My good friends, you will not lose your reward. God is not 
unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love. 

" IV. Again, our Subscriptions also have increased. The collectors have 
continued their patient, painstaking work. And work it really is. We 
have 305 subscribers. We have received, during the year, more than 

1513 distinct gifts. In L Street alone, which contains 114 houses, 402 

gifts have been gathered from 62 subscribers. We never gathered more 
subscriptions. Good friends, here is encouragement. Your labour has 
not been in vain in the Lord. Let no one say their little is not worth 
the giving. I only wish every family in the parish would subscribe a 
penny a month. The great ocean is made up of drops. The richest 
harvest is formed of single grains. Let each one do what he can. God 
asks no more. Subscribers, will you try to stir your neighbours to help 
in this work ? 

" My dear friends, our watchword must still be LET us GO ON."* 

But a whole volume might be compiled, with the title, " The 
Komance of the C.M.S. Contribution List." 

The sources of supply of funds differed and differ widely in Sources ot 
different parishes. In many, the church collection provides the fu 
bulk of the contribution; but where it only provides one-fifth, or 
one-tenth, the missionary interest of the parish is much more 
healthy, that is to say, when other sources are so well worked 
as to make its proportion relatively smaller. This is usually the 
case in poorer parishes. There are many that produce only 10 
at the annual offertory, which contribute 100 altogether ; but 
where the offertory is 100, it is much less likely that the total 
will reach 1000. The other sources are (1) annual subscriptions, 
(2) weekly or monthly subscriptions from humbler people, gene 
rally gathered by lady collectors, (3) occasional benefactions, 

* See also a valuable paper on Parochial Missionary Associations, by the 
Rev. J. E. Sampson, in the C.M. Intelliyencer of May, 1884. 


1873- 82. 
Chap. 72. 

Sales of 
Work : 
their true 

The Con 


(4) missionary-boxes, (5) juvenile associations (which generally 
include some of the boxes), (6) sales of work and miscellaneous. 
The relative value of these sources will come under notice in a 
later chapter. Here let only a word be said about Sales of Work. 
There is, rightly, a strong feeling against "bazaars," with their 
usual concomitants, being held for the benefit of distinctly 
religious objects. But a Missionary Sale, though at first sight 
much the same, is in reality a totally different thing. The gay 
folk who frequent bazaars would vote it insufferably dull : no 
raffling, no theatricals, no variety entertainments, no comic songs. 
During the preceding twelve months busy fingers have been 
employed in making articles for sale ; those busy fingers, many of 
them, have belonged to the bedridden, the poor, the solitary, the 
young ; not a few have been set to work by real love for the Lord 
and zeal for His glory ; many simple articles have been dedicated 
to His cause \vith prayer. Then these articles are gathered 
together, and displayed, and sold ; and great is the joy in many 
a cottage or sick-room when the news comes that the piece of 
work, which perhaps occupied hours of loneliness and weakness, 
has been sold for its full value, and the money handed to the 
missionary treasurer. Who would rob these quiet workers of 
their joy ? who would forbid those who can help in scarcely any 
other way from helping in this way ? A Missionary Sale may be, 
and often is, a holy service for the Lord. And, let it be added, 
in just those Sales where the spiritual tone is highest is the largest 
success achieved.^ 

In our Thirty-first Chapter, we briefly passed in review the 
various towns and counties, and the London churches, in respect of 
the contributions to the Society in 1847-8. An examination of the 
Contribution List at the close of our present period (1881) reveals 
great changes. The Associations, in 1847-8, sent up 76,000 ; 
in 1880-81 they sent up 139,000, an increase of 83 per cent, in 
thirty-three years. The whole Income rose in the same period 
112 per cent., so that the sources other than Associations show 
a much higher percentage of increase ; but in comparing counties 
and towns, we can only take the Association contributions. In 
London, in 1881, Islington still held the first place, with 2500, 
contributed by no less than thirty-two churches. Hampstead had 
risen from 373 to 2100. In Paddington, instead of the one 
" Bayswater Chapel " of 1848, the Society was supported by four 
teen churches, giving 1600. In Kensington, which did not 
appear at all in 1848, an equal sum, 1600, was now given by three 
churches ; St. Paul s, Onslow Square, having already advanced 
to 1200. Several of the old proprietary chapels had dis 
appeared, but Portman Chapel and a few others were still liberal 
supporters. South of the Thames, Clapham, Brixton, Camber- 

* See further, an interesting article on "A Missionary Working-Party and 
its Results," in the O.Jf. Intelligencer of January, 1884. 


well, Penge, Greenwich, Blackheath, sent good contributions. PART VIII. 
The clergy whose churches stood out from the rest were E. H. p 873 " 8 ^/ 
Bickersteth at Hampstead, Webb-Peploe at South Kensington, Ghap 72 
Boyd Carpenter at Lancaster Gate (where his mother was the 
chief influence), W. Abbott at Paddington, Nevile Sherbrooke at 
Portman Chapel, E. A. Stuart at Holloway, B. Baring-Gould at 

Looking at the English counties, we find that Middlesex, York- J h u e nties 
shire, Lancashire, stood the first three in amount, with 14,800, " 
14,300, and 12,000 respectively, followed by Kent, Surrey, 
Sussex, Hants, which sent between 5000 and 9000 each, and 
Warwick, Somerset, Norfolk, Gloucester, Devon, Durham, between 
3000 and 5000. It was, however, Kent, Herts, the four northern 
counties of Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland, and West 
moreland, and also Norfolk, that exhibited the largest relative 
growth in the thirty-three years; while in addition, Beds, Devon, 
Gloucester, Hants," Middlesex, Notts, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick, 
had at least doubled their totals. In -the cases of the northern 
counties and Beds, however, this was because they did little before. 
Among the towns most conspicuous for advance were Nottingham Thetpwns. 
(with its environs), from 440 to 2000 ; Sheffield, from 860 to 
2230 ; Tunbridge Wells, from 160 to 1730 ; Cheltenham, from 
740 to 1950 ; Newcastle, from 300 to 1000 ; Torquay, from 
170 to 970 ; Southampton, from 130 to 780 ; Hastings, from 
430 to 940 ; Southport, from 120 to 620 ; Croydon, from 
80 to 540 ; Weston-super-Mare, from 140 to 460 ; Dover, 
from 90 to 650 ; Margate, from 50 to 390 ; Clevedon, from 
70 to 320 ; Eipon, from 120 to 420 ; Blackburn, from 116 
to 560 ; all these much more than doubling their contributions. 
The growth of the watering-places, also referred to in our Thirty- 
first Chapter, will be noticed ; and it should be added that 
Bournemouth, Eastbourne, and Southsea were new and important 
contributors, as also were Dorking, Eed Hill, and Surbiton. 
Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Bristol, and other large 
places, showed good increases, but not a doubling, which was partly 
due to their having been so well forward before. Some of the prin 
cipal Yorkshire towns, on the other hand, had gone back. The 
large increases in Herts, Norfolk, and Durham, w 7 ere due to the 
multiplication of small Associations in the villages, involving villages, 
diligent work on the part of the county organizers. Wales and 
Scotland had gone back a little ; but Ireland had advanced from Ireland. 
1300 to 6000. 

The organization for promoting the interests of the Society and 
collecting the funds differed, and still differs, widely in various 
parts of the country. There are great Auxiliary Associations like 
the "Bristol," the " Liverpool and South- West Lancashire," the 
" Manchester and East Lancashire," the "East Kent," the large and 
" Devon and Exeter," covering half a county, or a large town and sma11 - 
its environs ; and now and then covering a whole county, as the 


PART V11I. " Norfolk and Norwich." In those cases, the smaller local 
Cha Ti Associations > for particular towns or parishes, remit their money 
* p to the Treasurer of the large Auxiliary with which they are con 
nected ; and the whole comes in lump sums to London. But in 
the majority of counties there are no very large Auxiliaries, and 
the small Associations, or individual parishes in which there is no 
organization at all, but only perhaps a yearly offertory and a couple 
of subscriptions, send up their money to London direct. Thus, in 
the Summary of County Contributions in the Report of 1881, while 
Norfolk only occupies one line, the total sum having come through 
one treasurer, Surrey occupies seventy-seven lines, representing 
that number of Associations or parishes remitting independently/ 1 
This is due to the voluntary and spontaneous origin of the Asso 
ciations. Local friends have combined and organized themselves 
as they thought best, without dictation, often without even 
suggestion, from headquarters. It was not Salisbury Square that 
requested Cromer or Yarmouth to remit through Norwich, or Dar 
lington to remit independently of Durham. All such matters are 
left to the discretion of local friends. But there has been this 
Advantage advantage in the existence of large and strong Auxiliaries, that 
Auxiiflries their Committees have been able both to bring powerful influence 
upon the parishes within the areas they covered, and also to 
represent effectively, in times of controversy, the opinion of their 
constituencies to the Parent Committee in London. The quarterly 
meetings of the Manchester and Liverpool Committees, for 
example, have always been regarded as important occasions for 
the discussion of questions of policy, and very often a Secretary 
from headquarters has gone down expressly to attend them ; and 
the Norfolk Anniversary at Norwich was for many years the 
occasion of the delivery of a brilliant manifesto on the missionary 
enterprise, in the form of the annual county Report, written, and 
read, by the Hon. Secretary, the Rev. E. Lombe. Many interest- 
o?focaT ts ing inci dents, indeed, might be gathered from the records of 
Annfver- Association Anniversaries. Thus, in one volume of the old C.M. 
Record, tox 1873, we find two noteworthy meetings at Exeter. At 
the earlier of the two, a remarkable speech is reported of Bishop 
?e s mpi p e. Tcm P le s > ) vno (as we saw in our Fifty-first Chapter) had lately 
been appointed to the diocese amid a chorus of protests from 
"High" and "Low" alike, Dr. Pusey and Lord Shaftesbury 
combining in public action, a speech in which are to be seen 
indications of the zeal and devotion to the missionary cause 
which have since so conspicuously distinguished Dr. Temple. At 
sir John that same meeting " Mr. Kennaway, M.P.," spoke ; but, only a 
naway f ew wee k s a f ter> fr e succeeded to the baronetcy on the death of his 
father ; and later in the same volume is recorded the anniversary 
of the Devon Association, with the new " Sir J. H. Kennaway " 

* But since 1895, the appearance of the Contribution List has been much 
altered by the new arrange meiit under dioceses instead of counties. 


presiding, and his speech at length, and also a speech by Sir PART VIII. 
Stafford Northcote, afterwards the Earl of Iddesleigh. In the 1873-82. 
same volume is an account of the Jubilee of the Windsor Asso- Cha P- ? 2 - 
ciation, and of the Queen giving it 20 on the occasion; and of Gift from 
the sixtieth anniversary at Norwich, when the chair was taken by the Q ueen 
the aged Mayor, Sir Samuel Bignold, who had helped his brother- 
in-law, Edward Bickersteth, to found the Association sixty years 

Those who have been much "on deputation" know well the 
immense differences between one local anniversary and another. 
They can recall the cold, dull meeting in a big Corn Exchange, Meetings, 
with a hundred and fifty people where two thousand would not fill 
the room ; with no choir, and perhaps no hymn for lack of some 
one ready to start it ; with no one to distribute papers or sell 
books ; with the Mayor or other local magnate in the chair, who 
confesses that he knows little of the subject ; with a short state 
ment by the local treasurer regretting a slight falling off in the 
funds, or rejoicing that (say) 82 has been raised in the town 
against 81 the year before ; with the formal votes of thanks to 
" the deputation " arid the chairman at the end ; with the collection 
of two or three pounds at the door. On the other hand, they 
recall the gathering in a barn at a Huntingdonshire village, with 
the whole population present and eager to hear the result for the 
year of the " missionary pig " and the " missionary hop-poles " 
and the " missionary beehive," and the rejoicing over the 120 or 
so raised by not much more than 120 souls ; or the meeting of 
five hundred people in a Kentish village, which begins at six 
o clock, and which, to please them, must be kept going till half- 
past nine, and where the contents of a hundred missionary-boxes 
are reported on amid the keenest interest of the people, and where 
the question is how much over 300 the total will come to. 
Chilling memories and inspiring memories by turn ! 

Meanwhile, the official representatives of Salisbury Square have 
been the Association Secretaries. The title is not a good one, as The ASSO- 
it confuses them with the Secretaries of Associations, who are secretaries 
locally appointed. The S.P.G. term "Organizing Secretary" is 
better; the original C. M.S. term "Visiting Secretary " would be 
better still; and some other word than "Secretary" would be The office, 
best of all. For the Association Secretary does not conduct the 
affairs of the local Associations, nor does he collect funds. He is 
in fact a permanent " Deputation " for a given district, seeking to 
influence the clergy and others, preaching and speaking constantly, 
guiding the missionaries and others sent to his district from time 
to time as " deputations," and reporting the progress of his district 
to headquarters. Most of these officers are clergymen giving 
their whole time to the work and receiving a stipend ; but some 
are honorary, and combine the charge of a district with that of a 
small parish. In former chapters we have seen how many names 


PART VIII. afterwards well known and honoured are found on the roll of 
Association Secretaries. No less than six have become bishops, 
viz., George Smith (Victoria, Hong Kong), E. C. Billing 
The men. (Bedford), W. Walsh (Mauritius, now Dover), E. G. Ingham 
(Sierra Leone), and, in Ireland, W. Pakenham Walsh (Ossory), 
and J. F. Peacocke (Meath, now Archbishop of Dublin). Seven 
became Secretaries in Salisbury Square, viz., R. Long (now Arch 
deacon of Auckland), J. Mee, W. Gray, S. Hasell, H. Suttoii, 
G. Furness Smith, H. E. Fox. Add to these Archdeacons Martin 
and Smart, Canons Gibbon and Tristram, Hon. Canons Powell, 
Christopher, and Money, Prebendaries Barlow, Calthrop, and 
Mason ; and it will be seen that the C.M.S. Association Secretaries 
have been a band of men not to be despised. The ideal Hon. 
Charles Association Secretary was Charles Hodgson, the college friend of 
[iodgson. Lord Chichester,* who for nearly thirty years (1836-64) worked 
Yorkshire with extraordinary devotion and efficiency, being 
especially admired by Yorkshiremen as one of the best horsemen 
in the county, and famous as a judge of horses and hounds, though 
of the latter he saw little after his younger days. 

In 1860, with a view to eliciting further honorary service, the 
Honorary Society began to appoint a new class of officers, the Hon. District 
Secretaries Secretaries, clergymen or laymen undertaking to represent the 
Society within a smaller given district. These were chiefly for 
rural districts, where few or no regular Associations existed. A 
local rector or squire, it was thought, would have more influence 
with his neighbours than a visiting Association Secretary, who 
might be regarded as " professional." These " H.D.S. s," as they 
are colloquially termed, were not felt to be needed in great towns 
with strong Auxiliaries. In those cases the locally-appointed 
Hon. Secretaries of the Auxiliaries were able to exercise the 
desired influence. But as the system grew, some of these locally- 
appointed men were also appointed "H.D.S. s," that they might 
be regarded as representing Salisbury Square as well as their own 
local Committees. The functions, however, are different, even if 
the same man holds both offices. The Hon. Sec. of an Associa 
tion stands, as it were, w r ith his face towards London, as the 
representative of the local body behind him. The " H.D.S." 
stands, as it were, with his face towards his district, as the repre 
sentative of the London Committee. 

Towards the close of the period now under review, fresh efforts 

were made by Mr. Sutton, who was now Central Secretary (i.e. 

for Home Organization) in succession to Hasell, to make this 

Organiza- system more efficient, by adopting the existing ecclesiastical 

roi by division of rural deaneries, and aiming to appoint an "H.D.S." 

deaneries, for each. Norfolk had already led the way in this direction under 

Mr. Lombe s guidance; but in every other county the H.D.S. s 

had no defined districts they had centres without circumferences. 

* See Vol. L, p. 257. 


Hasell, in fact, as well as other old workers, feared to adopt the PAETVUT. 
ruri-decanal arrangement, lest in time it should subject the 
Society s organization to the cramping influence of ecclesiastical 
officialism. The Norfolk leaders, however, were above all suspicion 
of tampering with C.M.S. independence; none, in fact, guarded it 
more jealously. So, gradually, under Mr. Sutton s guidance, the 
Norfolk system came to be generally adopted ; and there can be 
no doubt that it has proved of real advantage to the Society. 

To Norfolk and Mr. Lombe the Society s home organization 
owed another development, that of County Unions. These are County 
not Associations for the collection of funds, but Unions of friends Unions - 
for conference and prayer. As designed in Norfolk, the member 
ship was strictly confined to the innermost circle of staunch and 
zealous C.M.S. men. The " H.D.S. s " for the different deaneries 
assembled twice a year at one of three hospitable houses in 
Norwich, and carefully overhauled the whole county ; and next 
day the members of the Union met with them in private con 
ference. Mr. Button recommended other counties to adopt this 
system ; but for the most part they only did so partially, arranging 
for a more open membership, and adding w r hat was in effect a 
public meeting to their periodical gatherings. Whatever may be 
the best system, the County Unions have certainly proved a 
strength to the Church Missionary Society. * Mr. Lombe s account 
of the origin of the Norfolk Union is so racy that some paragraphs Origin of 
from it must be given : f foikUnkm. 

" For many years our present Bishop was County Secretary for Mr. 
Norfolk, and used to gather the few Secretaries who then existed n te 
annually in Bergh Apton parsonage to overhaul and forward C.M. work " 
in the county. Goodly gatherings I have heard they were. The 
parsonage used to be well packed with good men and true sometimes, 
so I have been told, two in one bed. If it were so, they helped to keep 
one another warm, and warmth is essential to life. The last such 
meeting was held February llth, 1852. 

" On March 9th, 1852, a meeting was held at the Swan Inn, Norwich. 
Twelve good men were present to form an institution of some kind, 
that the annual gatherings might be maintained, and the work still 
carried on. Corporate action was the thought of the day a corporate 
Secretariat for a single individual, a corporate Pelham for an individual 
one. In that nest of swansdown, composed of Cunningham, Tacy, 
G. Steward, F. Bevan, F. Watson, and others, the egg was hatched, and 
forth came the C.M. Union. 

" It consists of Evangelical brethren, nominated by two members, and 
selected by the whole body, whose qualifications are that they are lay 

or clerical supporters of the C.M.S., pay 7s. tid. yearly in advance for 

rch, July, a 

three luncheons at three annual meetings in March, July, and December, 

* See an account of the Somerset Union, C.M. Intelligencer, February, 
1885; a paper by the Rev. E. D. Stead, Ibid., September, 1885; a paper by 
the Rev. J. (1. Hoare, Ibid., October, 1887 ; and a paper by the Rev. (T. A. 
Allan, Ibid., April, IHJM). 

| From a paper read before a local conference in 1880, printed in the 
CM. Intelligencer, April, 1880. 


PART VIII. and pledge themselves to be regular in attendance whenever con- 

1873-82. venient. Scripture papers are read, and discussion had. Missionary 

Chap. 72. papers are read, and the Secretaries are there invariably to transact 

business, communicate information, organize work, and stir up the 

sleepy with the rousing notes of the C.M. trumpet Work, agitate, 

pray. We number some one hundred members the best men in the 

county and with this organization we manage to keep the county alive 

in re U.M.S. 

" At the July Meeting of 1866, a conversation ensued between two 
C.M.U. members, in which dissatisfaction was expressed with the 
progress or rather regress of the work. A Report was read a general 
and minute organization and canvass of the county urged. Wordy 
brickbats were hurled at the reader s poor head, but only hurt his heart, 
and that recovered. He was not bidden, like the consecrated cobbler, 
Sit down, young man ! but he was told to let well alone. He thought 
that l well bad, and wouldn t let it alone. A meeting was summoned of 
a very few trusty souls, when it was agreed to get appointed a separate 
Secretary for each Deanery, as a convenient and recognized geographical 
district, and to make him responsible for it, with a working County 
Secretary to keep them going. 

" This was done, and before the next Union Meeting could stop us, 
the men were appointed, the county organized, canvassing sheets were 
sent out to each of them, all ready for entering figures, with a circular 
requesting them to canvass each parish, recusants to C.M.S. or no, and 
bring their sheets filled up to a meeting of all these Secretaries the first 
Monday in March. . . . 

" That meeting was held March 4th, 1867. The result was striking a 
promised gain of seventy-seven sermons and eleven meetings. The 
close of the year showed an actual gain of 103 more appeals by sermons 
arid meetings in sixty-two more parishes than had ever been reached by 
the C.M.S. before, and the income sprang up at a bound by some 300. 
The meeting was a most happy one, followed by a capital gathering of 
C.M.U. brethren next day at Norwich, who were very contented to have 
been taken by surprise, and did not desire the supposed disturber of 
all well to sit down again. 

" Annually these canvasses have been made, and these meetings have 
been held for twelve years (this is the thirteenth), under the auspices of 
Thickthorne and Earlham hospitalities. It has been sometimes suggested 
that it is hard upon our hosts. They deny the soft imputation, and 
resolutely say, Let well alone. 

It may help if I give examples of our results : 

1 Increase of Income, 1200. 

Large proportion of volunteer work more than half . 

Small proportion of Deputations, only 16 out of 444 appeals in 1879. 

We have 1000 subscribers where we had 600, and 300 more in 

We have 699 boxes out where we had 291. 

The boxes produce 400 instead of 180. 

Let these things speak for themselves. There is nothing at all 
extraordinary about it, only the simple use of a common organization 
around a pivot, and the application of Wesley s good old rule, All at it, 
and always at it. We men of Norfolk live among turnips, and we 
know the value of orderly drills, plenty of hand-picking, and much 
stirring the soil and a well-managed gang, under legal sanction, is no 
bad thing. 

" All we say is, Come and see. Send us a Commission of Inquiry if you 


like it. We will gladly receive them, show them our farms and books, PVRT VIII 
and tell them all we know. We only humbly say, Give us credit for 1873-82. 
being in earnest, and, if you think our plans are worth their salt go and Chap 72 
do likewise." 

Further schemes for home work were being formed at the end of 
our period. The Lantern and Loan Department was begun in a 

4- *"vi^^ -i-^T-r ^,.! ~IOC)1.j_l f* i T\ yr ^ 

-IT VM.J.^I. __ wcvi-j. j_^ v_x i^/ctJ. ui-LJ *_/nu VV ctrt (J"L:Llll 111 Mi 

tentative way in 1881 ; the first Missionary Exhibition was held New plans 
at Cambridge in 1882 ; the first Lay Workers Union was started in l88l " 3> 
in London in the same year ; and the first Ladies Union in 
Norfolk in 1883. But these and many other developments will 
come before us in future chapters. 

We must now briefly notice the Society s Publications. Our The Peri- 
Thirty-fifth Chapter gave some account of the four periodicals odicals - 
issued monthly during the years following the Jubilee, viz., the 
Intelligencer, the Record, the Gleaner, and the Juvenile Instructor. 
These continued without change till 1870, Mr. Eidgeway editing 
the three former, and Charles Hodgson, E. C. Billing, and Miss 
E. S. Elliott, in succession, the " little Green Book." Eidgeway s 
death in 1871, and the appointment of the Eev. G. Knox as editor 
of the Intelligencer, were mentioned in our Fifty-third Chapter. 
There was, however, an interregnum of a few months before Knox 
took the reins, and during that time the Eev. John Barton, then Mr Barton 
temporarily one of the Secretaries, conducted both the Intelligencer 
and the C.M. Record. Meanwhile, the circulation of the old C M 
Record and C.M. Gleaner had much diminished, partly under the 
influence of the general depression in missionary zeal and interest 
which we have before noticed as marking the sixties, and partly 
owing to their being unquestionably behind the times in attractive 
ness. When the Conference took place with representatives of 
the Church of England Young Men s Society in 1868, and the 
latter criticized the Society s literature, as mentioned in our Fifty- 
third Chapter, a Sub-Committee on the subject was appointed, 
which recommended the dropping of the Gleaner altogether and 
the improvement of the Record. These proposals were adopted 
and when Mr. Barton took the Record, he at once made important 
changes in it. On Barton s return to India, General Lake con- General 
tinned it on the same lines ; and during the three years of his Lake> 
editorship, 1871-74, the periodical took a leading place as an or^an 
of the Society. The Missions were systematically reviewed from 
the standpoint of a Christian scholar and statesman ; and the 
Record became quite a rival to the Intelligencer, although without 
the brilliant and elaborate articles which Mr. Knox was now 
producing. The next change was in the Juvenile Instructor 
Miss Elliott resigning the charge of it, and Mr. Hutchinson, the 
Lay Secretary, undertaking the responsibility, assisted by Miss 
Helen Turner. 

But when Mr. Wright came into office as Honorary Secretary Wright s 
he at once urged the importance of producing a new paper " ew plans> 

~\Tf\T rrr * * 


Chap. 72. 

The new 

The new 

The C.M. 


altogether, of a more popular and attractive kind than anything 
yet attempted. It wan with a view to this that he suggested to 
the Committee to invite to the House the Author of this History, 
as mentioned in the preceding chapter. The proposed new 
periodical appeared on January 1st, 1874, with the old abandoned 
title revived, Church Missionary Gleaner. In the same year, 
General Lake gave up the charge of the C.M. Record, and it only 
continued as a separate publication to the end of 1875. January, 
1876, saw the union of Intelligencer and Record under one cover, 
though still independently edited, Mr. Knox continuing to conduct 
his moiety of the combined periodical until the end of 1878. In 
1879 the two portions were amalgamated, and the Intelligencer 
assumed the form and character it has since borne ; and Mr. 
Knox was thenceforward responsible only for his own articles, 
which, however, continued for several years to 1)6, month by 
month, the chief attraction of the magazine. 

One other publication should be mentioned the Church 
Missionary Atlas. It had been originally planned by William 
Knight, and the first edition appeared in 1857. It contained 
sixteen pages of letterpress and thirteen small maps. A second, 
a third, and a fourth edition followed at intervals, corrected up to 
date. One of General Lake s legacies to the Society was the fifth 
edition, which he re-wrote on a larger scale. It appeared in 1873, 
with twenty-three maps and sixty pages of letterpress. No 
sooner was it out, than he set to work to get ready for a sixth and 
still more complete edition ; but this was not completed and 
brought out till 1879, nearly two years after his death. It also 
was almost entirely re-written, and contained 136 pages of letter 
press, and thirty-one maps, most of them new. The edition now 
on sale is the eighth, and its letterpress extends to 250 pages. 

The Society s Anniversaries during the period next claim 
attention. And first the Sermons at St. Bride s. It has for 
many years been the ordinary custom, though occasionally 
infringed, to appoint as preacher a bishop and a presbyter 
alternately ; but in the decade under review there were six 
The bishops and four presbyters. In 1873, Bishop Eyan, formerly 

preachers. o f Mauritius; in 1875, Bishop Jackson of London; in 1877, 
Bishop Baring of Durham ; in 1878, Bishop Maurice Day of 
Cashel ; in 1880, Bishop Thorold of Kochester ; in 1882, Bishop 
Pakenham Walsh of Ossory. The four presbyters were, in 1874, 
Canon Eeeve of Portmaii Chapel ; in 1876, Canon Garbett ; in 
1879, C. F. Childe, the former Principal of the Church Missionary 
College; in 1881, Dr. Boultbee, Principal of St. John s Hall, 
Highbury. There is one notable difference, an unexpected one, 
between the sermons of the two classes of preachers respectively. 
Five of the six bishops dwell pointedly on the current circum 
stances of the Society and the missionary cause, Bishop Jackson 
being the only exception ; while three of the four presbyters 

The Anni 






scarcely allude to them at all, and even Childe, who, more than PART VIII. 
any other of the ten, was one of the inner C.M.S. circle, does so 1873-82. 
but slightly. On the other hand the sermons of two presbyters, Cha P- 72 - 
judged simply as sermons, must stand first in merit, Garbett s as 
by far the loftiest in thought and eloquence, and Childe s as a 
comprehensive "Bible-reading"; though Bishop Thorold s and 
Bishop Walsh s are striking and eloquent too. Garbett s subject 
was "the economy of the mystery" in Eph. iii. 9; and Childe s 

ji -, ,, * -, ~, HID 

the " strong man armed and the " stronger than he, upon 
which text he built a masterly exposition of the personality and 
power of Satan, as " the Author of Missionary Difficulties," and 
bringing together almost all the passages of Scripture referring 
to the great Enemy. In this respect it is parallel with John 
Cunningham s Sermon in 1823, noticed in our Eighteenth 
Chapter. Bishop Thorold s text was, " Take ye away the stone," 
upon which he spoke with characteristic originality and force on 
man s part in God s work. Bishop Walsh expounded three 
verses in the 68th Psalm, including the words, " The Lord gave 
the word " and " She that tarried at home divided the spoil." 
Bishop Day s sermon took the unusual shape of being almost 
wholly a powerful appeal for funds, based on " Bring in the 
tithes " in Malachi. Bishop Jackson spoke on zeal, taking Bishop 
Epaphras (Col. iv. 13) as a pattern ; and his sermon was ^mo S 
remarkable for a faithful warning as to the tendency of an aesthetic 
religion to destroy missionary zeal : 

" But there is a less obvious and less suspected form of the prevalent 
aesthetic selfishness which at least threatens to weaken interest and 
effort for the missionary cause ; I mean the developing taste and lavish A warning 
expenditure for the architecture and adornment of our churches, and the 

accessories of public worship. I would allude to this subject at present, ritualism. 
entirely apart from questions as to the legality or illegality of ornaments 
and rites or of their compatibility with the teaching of God s Word, 
and with the doctrine and discipline of our Reformed Church. And 
I would be understood as speaking in no language hut that of devout 
thankfulness of the impulse which in our days has not only, with God s 
blessing, multiplied churches over our land in the midst of neglected 
thousands or in remote and forgotten hamlets, but has rescued the houses 
of God from squalor and decay, has restored them to their original 
beauty, and fitted them for their holy purpose ; and which at the same 
time has replaced the undervalued duty and privilege of worship by the 
side of the ordinance of preaching and the Offices of Common Prayer. 
And I admit that a burning zeal for God s glory and love for the Saviour 
will justify, when they exist (as when Mary broke the alabaster box of 
spikenard), a lavish expenditure at which prudence might cavil, and 
which even piety might wish bestowed elsewhere. But the danger- 
is and it is a very real and pressing danger that when artistic tastes 
are common, and there is a kind of enthusiasm in many minds for 
music and colour, and form and ceremony, we mistake the instinct for 
indulging such tastes for a desire to honour God and His house ; the 
awe of solemn architecture for the realization of God s presence ; the 
emotions which music excites and harmonious colour sustains for the 
fervour of true devotion : arid gifts towards procuring and maintaining 

F 2 


PART VIII. such aids to self-indulgence for self-denying offerings in the service of 
1873-82. Christ. 

Ohap. 72. u This is not the time or place to warn against this epidemic error 
which is deceiving multitudes who believe themselves religious ; but 
its bearing is obvious on the decay of missionary zeal and missionary 
exertion. Not only is the interest and effort and money which might 
have been employed in the great cause of evangelizing the dark places 
of God s world, bestowed on the costly accessories of public worship ; 
but they are so bestowed under the belief that they are thus dedicated 
to God s service : and it is forgotten that far more precious in His sight 
than sculptured shafts and glowing glass and the sweetest strains of 
choral song, is the salvation of even one undying soul, which He created 
and for whom Christ died." 


Baring s 


praised ; 
but not 

Baring s 

But of all the ten Sermons Bishop Baring s was by far the 
most memorable. Even apart from its references to current 
affairs, it was a noble exposition of the vision of the river and the 
trees in Ezek. xlvii. But Baring seized the occasion of tbe 
Ceylon controversy, \vliich was then acute, to deliver his soul 
upon the High Church and the Evangelical views of Missions, 
strongly urging the superiority of a Voluntary Society over an 
official Board or a Mission absolutely controlled by an individual 
bishop, and warmly commending the C.M.S. and its missionaries 
for their resistance to claims which he regarded as neither rightful 
nor for the good of the work. The Sermon was of course 
enthusiastically approved ; but it is to be feared that some who 
most loudly praised it were not equally ready to adopt as their 
own another principle laid down by him. He pointedly addressed 
those who are always urging the prior claims of home work 
compared with Foreign Missions. " It may seem at first sight," 
he said, "the dictate of sound wisdom to plead, First evangelize 
more entirely your own country, and then extend your charity 
towards distant lands. But it will be found more in accordance 
with Scripture and apostolical practice and heaven-taught wisdom 
to say, Seek to evangelize the world, and in so doing you will 
evangelize your own country. 

At the C.M.S. Annual Meeting, the first resolution always 
includes an expression of thanks to the preacher of the evening 
before. Archbishop Tait was the first speaker on the day follow 
ing Baring s Sermon, and it was thought not quite fair to com 
promise the Primate by asking him to move thanks for so avowedly 
controversial a Sermon. So the President formally made the 
motion, and the Dean of Eipon (W. E. Fremantle) seconded it ; 
and when it had been passed by acclamation, and the Archbishop 
rose, he significantly said, " My Lord, one subject you alluded to 
is a somewhat intricate subject ; and if there is any one in this 
room and I don t suppose there is any one else who is bound 
to be very cautious in all that he says on this and other intricate 
subjects in the present day, that person is myself." Other points 
in this and other speeches of the Archbishop have been already 
referred to in our Sixty-ninth Chapter. 


Two years before his St. Bride s Sermon, Bishop Baring had PART VIII. 
spoken "at the Anniversary, and amid tumultuous cheering had ^ 3 ~ 8 ^ 
warned the clergy against yielding one jot or one tittle of their ap 
Evangelical inheritance. In the first year of our period, 1873, Speakers 
Archbishop Thomson of York was the first speaker, and delivered Annual 
a warm eulogy of Henry Venn, then recently dead. The other Meetings, 
bishops who spoke in the decade were E. Bickersteth of Kipon, 
Ellicott of Gloucester (thrice), Thorold of Eochester, Pelham of 
Norwich (twice), Walsh of Ossory, Barker of Sydney, Thornton 
of Ballarat ; and, from the Mission-field, Burden of China 
(twice), Machray of Eupert s Land, Horden of Moosonee, 
McLean of Saskatchewan, Bompas of Athabasca (before he 
went out), and Crowther of the Niger (thrice). In 1880, Mr. 
Eyle was an appointed speaker ; and before the day came he 
had been nominated to the new bishopric of Liverpool. He ^jf Jf 
spoke, therefore, as bishop-designate, and of course had an designate, 
overwhelming reception ; and with characteristic energy he called 
upon the Society to stand firm to its old principles. At the same 
meeting, a warm though brief speech was delivered by Earl 
Cairns his first appearance at a C.M.S. anniversary. In the 
following year Lord Shaftesbury was one of the speakers. He g{|j tcs _ 
had never been a frequenter of the C.M.S. meetings. The pro- bury, 
longed Presidency of Lord Chichester prevented his ever having 
been called to take the chair ; while as President of other societies, 
the chief May meeting week was so full that he was no doubt 
glad not to be obliged by duty to come on the Tuesday. But his 
speech in 1881 was a hearty and an able one. Other influential 
laymen who spoke in the decade were the Earl of Northbrook 
(on his return from India), the Earl of Aberdeen, Viscount 
Midleton, Sir T. F. Buxton, Sir Bartle Frere, Sir W. Muir, Sir 
W. Hill, Mr. A. Mills, M.P., and Mr. J. M. Holt, M.P. 

Of the home clergy, Canon Hoare spoke twice, and the 
following once each :- Archdeacons Prest and Eichardson, Canons 
Martin, Miller, and Money, F. F. Goe, and E. C. Billing ; also, 
after visits to the Mission-field, E. H. Bickersteth (on India and 
Palestine), Canon Tristram (on Palestine), and J. B. Whiting 
(after meeting West Africans at Madeira). The missionaries were 
much more numerously represented in this decade than in any of 
our former periods. Those who spoke were, from West Africa, 
J. B. Wood ; from Uganda, C. T. Wilson ; from Persia, E. Bruce; 
from India, Leupolt, French, D. Fenn, Barton, Brodie, Welland, speakers. 
Storrs ; from Ceylon, J. Ireland Jones ; from China, G. E. Moule 
and Wolfe ; from Japan, Ensor and Warren ; from North-West 
Canada, Cow r ley and Kirkby ; also W. Eidley, when just nominated 
as first Bishop of Caledonia ; and one Native Indian clergyman, 
W. T. Satthianadhan of Madras. 

The Evening Meeting was now becoming better attended, 
mainly by Sunday-school teachers and other young men and 
women ; but it was, even in 1882, far from having the importance 


PARTYIH. it now has. The chairmen in the decade were Bishop Crowther 

1873-82. (twice), Bishop E. Bickersteth of Eipon, Bishop Cheetham of 

ap " Sierra Leone, Bishop Eyan, Archdeacon Bardsley (now Bishop of 

Carlisle) ; and four laymen, Sir John Kennaway (1874, soon after 

succeeding to the baronetcy), Mr. Joseph Hoare, Admiral Prevost, 

and Mr. S. A. Blackwood. The speakers included several of the 

missionaries above-named, and others ; and the only other 

speaker needing to be mentioned was Mr. Boyd Carpenter (now 

Bishop of Eipon), who delivered a striking address in 1881. 

Of three of the speeches at the Annual Meetings another word 
should be said. First, of Lord Northbrook s, in 1877. This was 
the first and only occasion upon w r hich a Viceroy of India has 
spoken at a C.M.S. Anniversary; for Lord Lawrence, though 
present more than once, never would speak. Lord Northbrook 
emphatically expressed his opinion that the Natives of India respect 
an Englishman who is not ashamed of his religion, and have no 
fear of his infringing the principles of religious equality : 

Speech ot 

On Chris 
tian policy 
in India. 

Sir B. 

Frere s 

" I believe that they do not honour a man the less, or love him the 
less, because they see that he is in earnest in his own religious con 
victions. If proof were wanted of this, it would be sufficient to recall to 
your recollection that some of the noblest deeds that had been done in 
British India had been done not only by earnest Christian men who 
never for a moment concealed their zeal in favour of the spread of 
Christianity. It is only necessary to mention the names of Herbert 
Edwardes and Lord Lawrence to prove that what I have said is true. 
I will add one thing more. Among those whom I have known in high 
office in India there are none who have so conciliated the respect and 
aft ection of the people of India as those very men who have never con 
cealed their desire to extend the Christian religion. I will mention Sir 
Donald McLeod, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab. Sir William Muir, 
who is now present, and my friend Sir Eichard Temple, now Governor 
of Bombay, arid one of the men who was foremost on all occasions to 
join in everything which he considered to be of advantage to the welfare 
of the Church of England, and the spread of the Christian religion in 

And then he pronounced a hearty eulogy on the missionaries. 
" They are worthy," he said, " of all support, encouragement, and 
admiration. ... I know of no single exception to the general 
esteem and respect in which the Church Missionary Society s 
missionaries are held in India." Sir William Muir, who spoke 
later in the same meeting, warmly testified that Lord Northbrook 
had " in his private capacity unflinchingly supported the cause of 
Christianity in India." 

Sir Bartle Frere s speech in 1882 was still more remarkable as 
an emphatic testimony to the value and success of Missions in 
India. He begged his hearers not to be content with the short 
and fragmentary " Abstract of Report " just read, but to read and 
study the entire Eeport. " It would fill them with astonishment 
and thankfulness." " To the ordinary mind," he went on, " I 
think the first feeling would be one of questioning Is it possible 


that these things can be true? Is there not some mistake or 
perhaps pardonable exaggeration?" And then he proceeded to 
mention facts in his Indian experience, showing, he said that 
wonderful as this Report is, it is a very sober and subdued 
statement of the truth." 

But in the whole period there was no speech that touched the Mr^ 
heart of the meeting like that of the Kev. W. T. Satthianadhan m anadh < s 
1878 We have before met Mr. Satthianadhan in South India. -P- 
No Native clergyman was more highly respected than he, and m 
that year the Society invited him to England, with the unexpressed 
purpose of promoting thereby the commencement of a Native 
Indian Episcopate. That scheme has never yet come to maturity; 
but this is not because there was any doubt m England after 
seeing Mr Satthianadhan, that he was eminently fitted to be the 
first Indian bishop. His admirable and truly spiritual addresses 
in manv parts of England created a deep impression ; and his 
wife whom he brought with him, won all hearts. While he was 
a convert from Hinduism, she was a Christian of the fourth 
generation, being a daughter of the first Anglican Native clergyman 
in South India, the Eev. John Devasagayam. This is how he 
began his Exeter Hall speech : 

I will begin with the history of a Hindu convert. At the age of H is.story^ 
fourteen this person was sent to an Indian school m connexion with conversion 
this great Society. One of the books used in that school was of course 
the Bible This school was conducted by a blind teacher, and the Bible 
was taught regularly every clay ; but the youth was so bitter against the 
study of the Bible that one day he instigated the other scholars to 
request the teacher to give up the Bible, accompanying this with a threat 
that if the request was not complied with they would all leave the 
school. But the teacher was not moved by such a threat. You may 
all leave the school, he said, but give up the Bible I never will, 
continued there for two years. In the meantime, the teacher paid 
particular attention to the inculcation of Scripture truths and applied 
them to the hearts and consciences of his students in such a way that 
they were much impressed by them. Under the instruction of this 
admirable teacher the youth remained another three years^ and the 
bewail gradually to dawn upon his mind not only the folly of Heathenism, 
but the truth of Christianity, and the necessity of closing with the otters 
of salvation through Jesus Christ. He went through a great mental 
struo-o-le ; he was not prepared to give up his parents and his home, but 
the Spirit of God worked mightily in his heart. The young man was at 
length enabled, by God s grace, to give up his home and everything he 
felt dear, and to betake himself to the foot of the cross, where he found 
rest for his weary soul. His conversion made a sensation m the district, 
and emptied the school. He himself became an object of persecution, 
and was dragged before two magistrates, European and Native ; hut the 
Lord helped him throughout all his troubles, and he is now a herald of 
the cross to his countrymen; arid by a strange providence is now 
privileged to address this audience. [Great cheering.] Bless the Lord, 
O my soul ! [Renewed cheering.] " 

Then he described his work as a catechist and a pastor, in 
Tinnevelly and in Madras, and his wife s remarkable zenana 


i9 schools - Then he referred to the recent famine, and England s 
Chap 72 enerosit y in sending relief, and concluded thus : 

" But there is another famine which exists in all its horrors riot only 
fbMndia ? ^ Madras Presidency, but throughout the whole country and 
throughout the whole world. In India you will see Hindu temples 
and Mohammedan mosques raising their proud heads. You will see 
idols in every city and every village. You will see vast crowds wor 
shipping at the shrine of Vishnu, and prostrating themselves before 
idols of wood and stone. The country is suffering from this spiritual 
famine. ... It is sometimes said that India is the brightest gem in the 
British crown. Whatever may bo our view on that matter, we must all 
agree that it is our duty, as Christians, to give ourselves no rest, to spare 
no pain, till we see India set as the brightest gem in the crown of our 
Royal Immanuel." 

It is usual for the Anniversary Meeting to be closed with a few 
\vords of exhortation and application from a leading home clergy 
man. Miller, Hoare, Goe, Money, did this responsible bit of 
liinn S ? ervice admir ably. But no one did it better than E. C. Billing, 
speech. 8 m 1882 ; and his closing sentence, being the last words spoken at 
the Meeting of the last year of our period, will fitly close this 
chapter : : < The cry to-day has been Extension ! If this is to 
be realized, we must first cry Excelsior ! We must rise higher : 
we must come nearer our Lord Jesus Christ. Then we shall have 
more sympathy with His purposes and plans, and labour for their 
fulfilment, looking for the day when He shall see of the travail of 
His soul and shall be satisfied, 

And the great Church victorious 
Shall bo the Church at rest. " 



East African Slave Trade : Livingstone and Bishop Ryan Sir B. 
Frere s Mission Kirk s Treaty Death of Livingstone-^The Nasik 
Boys New Developments in Africa: Scotch Churches, S.P.G., 
Universities Mission, Stanley s Second Journey, L.M.S. on 
Tanganyika, Congo Missions Gordon at Khartoum C.M.S. 
Missions : West Africa W. S. Price and Frere Town The 
Rescued Slaves Giriama Christians The Sultan of Zanzibar and 
the Slave Trade Trials at Frere Town Bishop Royston s Visits 
R.G.S. Exploration Deaths of Bishop Steere and Dr. Krapf. 

" So the dead which he slew at his death were more than they which lie slew in 
hi* life."Judg. xvi. 30. 

" He hath sent me . . . /o proclaim liberty to the captives, . . . to proclaim the 
acceptable year of the Lord,, and the day of vengeance of our God." Isa. Ixi. 1, 2. 

N our Fifty-sixth Chapter we reviewed a period of Ebb PART VIII, 
Tide in Africa. Very different is the period now before 1873-82. 
us. The decade commencing with 1873 was a time Chap. 73. 
of unprecedented advance in missionary operations, or 
in preparatory measures for them. The Tide was The turn ot 
flowing again. the tide. 

The event which more than any other marks the turn of the 
tide occurred on May 3rd, 1873. It was a death the death of 
David Livingstone. Like Samson, the intrepid missionary- 
traveller effected more by his death even than he did by his life. 
Directly or indirectly, that death at Ilala led to most of the 
great missionary advances that date from the years following 1873. 
But we have first to go back a few years, and review the efforts 
made while he was yet alive to grapple with the East African Living- 
Slave Trade efforts in continuation of those briefly noticed in _ 
our Fifty-sixth Chapter. trade . 

A year and a half after Livingstone once more, in 1864, flung 
himself into Africa, a remarkable letter * was addressed to the Bishop 
President of the Church Missionary Society ; which letter may be 
regarded as the starting-point of the agitation that led in after 
years to more resolute measures for the suppression of the Slave 
Trade, and to the revival of the C.M.S. East Africa Mission. 
The writer was Bishop Kyan, of Mauritius. He had been stirred 
up to inquiry, and then to action, by finding hundreds of liberated 
slaves, rescued by British ships, landed in the islands forming his 

* Printed in the C.M. Intelli-jcnccr of August, 1867. 


Picture of 
a slave- 

PART VIII. diocese, Mauritius and the Seychelles. His letter gave particulars 
1873-82. O f some O f the horrors he had found to prevail. It seems right to 

Chap^73. quote one p assa g e , painful as it is, just as a specimen. It is a 
quotation from a description by a French official from the island 
of Eeunion, M. Menon, who had bribed an Arab slave-hunter, 
by the present of a rifle, to let him see his slave-camp in the 
forest : 

; The keeper of this den [an open enclosure without protection from 
weather] utters a hoarse cry (pousse une rouyissement) : it is the order for 
the merchandise to stand up. But many of them do not obey. What 
is the matter ? The chains are too short : the dead and the dying 
prevent the living from rising. The dead can say nothing, but what do 
the dying say ? They say that they are dying of hunger. . . . 

"Who is this creature who holds tightly in her arms a shapeless object 
covered with filthy leaves ? It is a woman, lying in the mud, and 
holding her dried-up breast to the child of which she has just been 
delivered. And those little girls who totter as they strive to rise, on 
what are they leaning ? On a dead body. And this man who is working 
with his hands a piece of mud, which he is continually placing 011 his 
eye, what is the matter wdth him ? Our guide tells us : He is a trouble 
some fellow, who set a bad example by saying he was dying of hunger, 
and I gave him a blow which burst his eye : but he won t be hungry 
long. " 

Bishop Eyan concluded his letter by appealing to the Society, 
as the benefactor of the slaves in West Africa, to take some 
measures similar to those it formerly took at Sierra Leone, and 
also to persuade the Government to move. Being in England 
at the time, he interviewed the Committee, and at a special 
meeting on March 25th, 1867, it was determined to try and arouse 
public attention to these atrocities. Mr. Edward Hutchinson had 
just become Lay Secretary, and he took up the East African 
Slave Trade from that time as one of his special objects of 
interest. Some months were occupied in collecting and marshal 
ling the facts, and in March, 1868, the Committee held another 
special meeting, at which they received General Eigby, late 
Consul at Zanzibar, the Eev. Horace Waller, of the Universities 
Mission, and other experts. A Memorial to Government was 
adopted ; and it was resolved to take steps to establish a settle 
ment for the reception of liberated slaves, but as there would be 
no safety for such a settlement outside the British dominions, the 
Seychelles Islands were chosen as the probable locality for it. In 
pursuance of this plan, the Eev. T. H. Sparshott, who had been 
sent out to the help of Eebmann, was instructed to visit the 
Islands, purchase land, and prepare for the establishment of a 
mission station. It turned out, however, that the Government 
did not intend to send rescued slaves to the Seychelles, and 
proposed rather to place them at Zanzibar under the protection of 
the Sultan. This seemed to the Committee a most unwise 
proposal, and they petitioned against it. Month after month went 
by, and even year after year, and the Government could not be 


takes up 
the slave- 




prevailed upon to decide anything. The Sultan of Zanzibar PART VIII. 
offered certain concessions if he were released from an annual J^ 3 ~ 8 ^ 3 
payment to Muscat due under Lord Canning s arrangement before ap 
mentioned ; * but to this the Calcutta Government would not agree. 
Correspondence went on between London, Bombay, Zanzibar, 
Mauritius, and the Seychelles ; but nothing practical was done. 
Meanwhile Livingstone was lost, and Stanley went out to find T 

,-,-, , TT -i I- _T i_ : :j_u 

him, unexpectedly met with him at Ujiji, and supplied him with Stanley, 
more " Nasik boys,"! but failed to persuade him to come home. 
This expedition revealed fresh evidence of the horrors of the Slave 
Trade ; but evidence was not wanted what was now needed was 
action. Still the accursed traffic went on ; still peaceful villages 
by the score were burnt, -the men killed, and the women, girls, 
and boys carried captive ; still the herds of miserable victims 
were driven in gangs towards the coast, and still not a third of 
them lived to reach it ; still the callous Arab displayed his " mer 
chandise " in the slave-market at Zanzibar, and pocketed his 
unhallowed gains. 

But Hutchinson and the C.M.S. Committee were not asleep : 
nor were the leaders of the Universities Mission ; nor was the 
Anti- Slavery Society. Public meetings were held ; deputations 
went to the Foreign and India Offices ; Bishop Wilberforce, with 
his hereditary interest in Africa, wrote a stirring article in the 
Quarterly ; and at length a Parliamentary Committee was Pariia- 
obtained in 1871. Mr. Gilpin, a Quaker member, moved for it ; committee 
but so faint was the interest that the House of Commons was 
nearly counted out three times before Mr. Eussell Gurney, the 
Eecorder of London, rose to support the motion, and then the 
Government yielded, and the Committee was appointed. Among 
its members were Mr. Gurney himself, Mr. E. Fowler, Mr. J. G. 
Talbot, Mr. (afterwards Lord) Kinnaird, and " Mr. Kennaway," 
now President of the C.M.S. Throughout its sittings E. Hutchin 
son was in attendance, gathering witnesses and providing facts ; 
and the Eeport submitted to Parliament J presented a strong case 
for resolute action. But it fell short of recommending the real The real 
remedy, viz., to apply to East Africa the method that had been so 
successful in West Africa, that is, to annex a bit of territory on 
the East Coast, upon which, being British, the slave would at 
once become a free man. This measure Hutchinson urged in a 
series of articles in the Intelligencer, piling up statistical and other 
evidence of the commercial success of the West African posses 
sions. But for this the Government were not prepared ; and a 
dispute even arose between the India Office and the Treasury as 
to which should pay the small cost of the Consulate at Zanzibar. 
And meanwhile the village-burning, the slave-stealing, the march 
ing, the whipping, the dying, went on merrily as usual. 

* See Chapter LVL, Vol. II., pp. 430, 431. f Hid., p. 432. 

| Printed in the C.M. Intelligencer, March, 1872. 


PART VIII. But Death often achieves what nothing else can achieve. In 

CJf 3 ~ 8 73 ^ anuai T 1872, the whole country was shocked by the news that 

ap the devoted Bishop Patteson had fallen a victim to the just 

But Death resentment of the Melanesian islanders against the kidnapping 

vTcTo S ry he expeditions of unscrupulous Europeans in the South Seas. The 

Queen s Speech with which Parliament was opened a few days 

later referred to the sad event, and made it a text for some strong 

words about the Slave Trade generally. The Prorogation Speech 

in August promised early action ; and soon after, Mr. Gladstone s 

sir B. Government announced their intention of sending Sir Bartle 

Frereto Frere to Zanzibar to inform the Sultan in plain terms that 

Zanzibar. ._-. , -. -. ____. _ _ . 

England and Her Majesty s Government were determined that 
the Slave Trade should cease, and to negotiate an effective treaty 
for that purpose. 

Before leaving England, Sir Bartle Frere, on November 5th, 
attended the C.M.S. Committee, and consulted with them regard 
ing future possibilities ; and in the following week the Society 

C.M.S. issued an Appeal for a Special East Africa Fund, in order to be 

Fund. n a prepared for vigorous action. In aid of this Fund the Baroness 
Burdett Coutts held a meeting in her own house, at which 
Hutchinson was the chief speaker; and she afterwards herself 
gave 1000 towards the formation of a Freed Slave Settlement. 
In the next live or six years more than 10,000 was specially 
contributed. But this is anticipating. 

Frere in Sir Bartle Frere executed his commission in the most complete 

a way, so far as the collection of authentic information was con 
cerned. He visited all the chief ports on the coast, and also 
Muscat and Bombay ; and he interviewed the Khedive of Egypt 
regarding slaves supplied to that country. The blue-book con 
taining his Eeports proved of the highest value, and entirely 
confirmed the strongest statements that had been made regarding 
the horrors of the slave traffic upon which some arm-chair 
critics, as usual, had thrown doubts. From 20,000 to 30,000 
slaves were being shipped every year, which meant that three or 
four times that number had been stolen, the rest dying on the 
terrible march to the coast. But Sir Bartle failed to induce the 
Sultan of Zanzibar to sign the treaty presented to him, and had 
to leave with the intimation that the next emissary would be the 
British Fleet ; and soon after his departure, six English men-of-war, 
with two French and one American, appeared off Zanzibar. In 
their presence, Dr. (afterwards Sir) John Kirk, the Consul-General 
and Political Agent, was able easily to overcome the opposition of 

slave- the mullahs behind the Sultan; and on June 6th, 1873, the Treaty 
was duly signed. It abolished all carrying of slaves by sea, closed 
the notorious slave-market at Zanzibar, and forbade the many 
British subjects on the coast (Hindu traders) to hold slaves a,t all, 
while of course not touching the Mohammedan domestic slavery ; 
and it made provision for the due protection of any liberated 
slaves who might be received into mission settlements on the 


ooast. Six months passed away; the slave-market was at an TART VIII. 
end ; part of the ground it had occupied had been bought by Dr. p?^ 3 ~ 8 ^ 
Steere (afterwards the Bishop) for the Universities Mission ; and 
on Christmas Day in that same year the foundation-stone of what 
is now the cathedral of Zanzibar was laid there, while the Native Bishop 
school-children sang " Jerusalem the Golden." In due course the Cathedral, 
noble building rose ; and the Communion Table stands on the 
very spot where once stood the whippingpost. 

Meanwhile, immediately on Frere s return to England, he came Frere s 
to the Church Missionary Society, and on June 24th, 1873, stand- c P M. & s. to 
ing before a large map with a pointer in his hand, he addressed 
the Committee on the prospects in East Africa. He described his 
visit to Rabai, where he had found Eebmann blind and broken 
in the midst of his handful of converts, and the Bombay men w r ho 
had been sent over doing well. He emphatically affirmed, in 
contravention of much that had been said outside, especially by 
those who did not wish to see the C.M.S. prominent in the work, 
that Mombasa was the very best place on the coast for a settle 
ment of freed slaves ; and he intimated that the Government 
would be willing to commit some of the slaves that would be 
rescued to a C.M.S. Mission there, while others would be handed 
to the Universities Mission at Zanzibar, and others to the Roman 
Catholic Mission at Bagamoyo, on the mainland opposite. The 
Committee still felt the importance of Government purchasing 
some land on the coast, which might be in the fullest sense 
British territory ; but as this was not to be obtained, they deter 
mined to take measures to establish a settlement, trusting to the C.M.S. 
Arm of the Lord to protect it. Sparshott, who had come home, res P nds - 
was sent back at once to Mombasa, and with him a new recruit, 
W. B. Chancellor. Meanwhile, Hutchinson compiled a valuable 
book, The Slave Trade of East Africa, giving the whole history of 
the question, with the official reports and despatches; and showing 
that the Arabs were already evading the Treaty, by marching the 
slaves far to the north, and shipping them beyond the limits of 
the Sultan s territory. 

When the Treaty was signed, on June 6th, 1873, David 
Livingstone had been dead just five weeks, far in the interior. [Jf^ * 
He never knew of the great step having been taken to " heal the sto V ne g " 
open sore of the world" as he himself had expressed it; and 
the fact of his death was not known in England until the 
beginning of 1874. At length a telegram arrived from Aden * 
stating that news had come from Zanzibar to the effect that the 
body of Livingstone had arrived there, brought from the far 
interior by his faithful followers, Chuma and Susi and the " Nasik 
boys," and was about to be sent to England. One of the Nasik 
boys was mentioned as having kept a diary of events ; and his 
name Jacob Wainwright was at once recognized by Mr. Price, J^jj 


* There was then no telegraph between Aden anrl Zanzibar. 


Chap. 73. 

Jacob s 
account of 
stone s 

Burial of 
stone in 
the Abbey. 

service at 
the Abbey. 

who was then in England, as the name of a lad who had been 
under his charge in India ; * whereupon the Society telegraphed 
that he be sent home with the body. 

Very touching was the narrative given verbally by Jacob to the 
Committee on his arrival. He described how, at Ilala, near 
Lake Bangweolo, the Doctor had been found on his knees dead ; 
how his men anxiously consulted as to what they should do ; how 
they realized that if they buried him and reported his death, 
their statements would be doubted ; how they realized also the 
extreme difficulty of carrying a dead body fifteen hundred miles to 
the coast, through tribes that thought a corpse brought ill-luck ; 
how, nevertheless, they determined to try; how one of them, 
who understood embalming, prepared the body ; how they dug a 
Httle grave for the heart, &c. ; and how Jacob himself, being able 
to read English, took the Doctor s Prayer-book and read part of 
the Burial Service as they stood round the body and the little 
grave. " And what did you do then, Jacob ? " asked Hutchinson. 
" Sir," was the reply, " we then sat down and cried." Nine 
months it took them to reach the coast, despite obstacles and 
difficulties innumerable ; but they accomplished the task, and all 
Christendom was grateful. On April 18th, 1874, in the presence 
of an immense concourse of distinguished Englishmen, with one 
black face, Jacob Wainwright s, conspicuous among them for he 
was a pall-bearer, the remains of David Livingstone were laid in 
Westminster Abbey ; and there may now be read his last message 
to humanity " All I can add in my solitude is, May Heaven s 
rich blessing come down on every one, American, English, Turk, 
who will help to heal this Open Sore of the World." 

Three weeks after Livingstone s funeral came the C.M.S. 
Anniversary, when Archbishop Tait and Bishop E. Bickersteth 
both enlarged on the urgent claims of East Africa upon Christian 
England. " He being dead yet speaketh," said the latter; " you 
might dedicate to his memory a costly monument of sculptured 
marble, but the noblest monument you could raise is a special 
fund for the evangelization of those tribes for whose bodily welfare 
he so patiently laboured through long years of lonely exile, and 
for whose moral regeneration he sacrificed his life." At the 
Evening Meeting, Mr. Price spoke, introduced Jacob W T ainwright, 
and told his story, to the delight of the young people who filled 
the Hall. On the following evening was held the Abbey Service 
referred to in our Fifty-third Chapter, when Mr. Gordon Calthrop 
preached a remarkable sermon. The congregation it w r as in the 
nave were actually sitting over the fresh grave of Livingstone, 
and Calthrop took as his text the striking incident (2 Kings xiii. 21) 
of the dead body that was quickened to life when thrown into 
the sepulchre of Elisha. " Let us," he exclaimed, " be quickened 

* See Chapter LYI.. p. 432. In the Glewcr of June, 1874, there was a 
woo.lcyt, from a photograph, of a s^ronp of Mr. Price s boys at Nasik, Jacob 
Wainwright among them. 


into fresh life by contact with the bones of Livingstone; and let PART VIII. 
thousands of Africans, through the influence of his death, be -J 873 " 8 ^- 
revived and stand up on their feet. " 

The death of the great pioneer-missionary at Ilala gave a distinct Forward 
impetus to the C.M.S. plans for a Freed Slave Settlement, and to ^nts in 
the Fund for establishing it. But before relating the story of its Africa, 
foundation, it will be well to take a more general survey of the 
many forward movements that date from this epoch in the history 
of Africa, some of them, though not all, the direct result of the 
influence of Livingstone s life and death. 

(1) The Scotch Presbyterian Churches were, naturally and rightly, Scotch 
the first to move to perpetuate the name and influence of the great MTssions* 
Scotchman. First of all, the Free Church sent a small steamer 
happily named the Ilala up the Zambesi and the Shire, which 
was carried past the cataracts of the latter river, put together 
again above them, and launched on Lake Nyassa, and there 
Dr. Stewart and Dr. Laws founded the first mission station on 
that Lake, and called it Livingstonia ; while the Established 
Church chose a place on the Shire Highlands, and named the 
station Blantyre, from the parish on the Clyde where Livingstone 
was born. Both these Missions have -had chequered histories. 
Jit both districts have heroes of the Cross laid down their lives. 
But their work has been a growing one ; and while Blantyre 
boasts of the grandest material church in Africa, built by the 
Natives themselves under the guidance of a missionary genius, 
Mr. Scott, Livingstonia has branched out northward and west 
ward. The African Lakes Company, formed by Scottish mer 
chants interested in Missions, has developed the civilization of 
the whole district ; and now Nyassaland has become the British 
Central African Protectorate, which claims supremacy over half 
a million square miles of African territory the very country 
formerly desolated by the slave-trade. 

(2) To the various interesting Missions in South Africa was South 
added in 1874, the very year of Livingstone s burial (though not Afnca - 
connected with him), the Gordon Memorial Mission in Zululand, 
founded by the Dowager Countess of Aberdeen in memory of her 

son, the Hon. J. H. Gordon, who had desired to start it himself, 
but died suddenly. This also was a Scotch Free Church Mission. 

(3) At this time the S.P.G. was much extending its work in S.P.G. 
South Africa in Kaffraria, Zululand, Basutoland, Griqualand, 
Swaziland, Bechuanaland. The Scotch Episcopal Church, in 1873, 

took Kaffraria as its special field, the S.P.G. assisting ; the Bishop of 
Edinburgh, Dr. Cotterill, who had been Bishop of Grahamstown 
(and, before that, C.M.S. Secretary at Madras), being much in 
terested in the Kafirs. The Bishopric of Zululand was founded in 
1870; of St. John s (Kaffraria) in 1873; of Pretoria in 1878. 

(4) On St. Bartholomew s Day, 1874, Dr. Edward Steere was Bishop 
consecrated Bishop for the Universities Mission to Central Africa; Steere> 



Chap. 73. 

Stanley s 



His Congo 

Mission to 

on the 

and from that day the great work of that Mission may be said to 
have begun. Usambara, the scene of Krapf s prayers and tears 
nearly thirty years before,* was occupied in 1875 ; in the same 
year Miss Allen began her remarkable work among the women 
and girls at Zanzibar; in 1876, the Rovuma country was occupied; 
in 1879, the first Native deacon was ordained ; in the same year 
was opened the great church on the site of the Zanzibar slave- 
market, the laying of whose foundation-stone we have already 
seen ; in 1882, Lake Nyassa was reached, and plans for the 
future Mission there formed. 

(5) In 1874, II. M. Stanley started on his second African ex 
pedition. The New York Herald, which had sent him out the 
first time, four years before, "to find Livingstone," now combined 
with the London Daily Telegraph to send him on a longer explor 
ing journey. In April, 1875, he was in Uganda, and wrote thence 
the memorable letter which led to the C.M.S. Victoria Nyanza 
Mission. In 1876 he navigated Lake Tanganyika ; which led to 
Livingstone s own society, the London Missionary Society, adopt 
ing that Lake as its Central African field. In 1877 he reached 
the upper waters of the Congo, and for more than a thousand 
miles floated down the mighty stream to the cataracts, opening up 
in one journey a huge territory never before seen by the white 
man. This great discovery led to the Congo Missions. Then in 
1879, commissioned by King Leopold of Belgium, Stanley re 
turned to the Congo ; and in three years he established stations, 
with infinite labour, on the lower river, and at Stanley Pool above 
the rapids which led to the organization of the Congo Free State 
in 1885. 

(6) The London Missionary Society s Mission to Tanganyika 
was projected in consequence of a donation of 5000 from Mr. 
Robert Arthington, of Leeds, who has so munificently helped, 
and inspired, other African Missions. The Rev. Roger Price, 
the one survivor of the massacre that destroyed the first Makololo 
Mission in 1860, as mentioned in our Fifty-sixth Chapter, was 
sent first to East Africa to find out the best route ; and in 1877 
the first mission party started from the coast, using the road to 
Mpwapwa which Alexander Mackay had just constructed. They 
reached Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika, in 1878, but the leader, the 
Rev. J. B. Thomson, died immediately, and other troubles ensued. 
Dr. Mullens, the able and highly-respected Secretary of the 
L.M.S. (and formerly a valued missionary at Calcutta), went out 
himself to set things in order, but died en route, and was buried at 
the C.M.S. station at Mpwapwa. The Mission afterwards had 
many trials, but a pleasant interest attached to it from the journey 
of Mrs. Hore and her little boy "in a bath-chair." 

(7) Before Mr. Stanley emerged from the Congo, Mr. 
Arthington had approached both the Baptist Missionary Society 

* See Chapter XL. 


and Dr. Grattan Guinness with a view to the Gospel being PART VIII, 
sent to the old "kingdom of Kongo," on the west coast of 1873-82. 
Central Africa. This country had been the scene of a great Chap ^ 
Koman Catholic Mission in the sixteenth century, and the 
capital to this day bears the name of San Salvador, though 
Roman Christianity has disappeared.- The news of Stanley s 
great discovery gave an impetus to these new projects, and both 
the Baptist Mission and the Livingstone Inland Mission were 
started in 1878 the latter organized by friends of Dr. Guinness s Dr. 
Missionary Training Institute at Harley House, Bow.f Both met oXnness s 
with almost overwhelming difficulties, chiefly owing to the arduous Misskms. S 
task of transporting everything over the rocky country down 
which the rapids of the Congo flow, between the long navigable 
river of the interior and the short navigable stream below down to 
the estuary. Both Missions lost valuable missionaries in Comber, 
McCall, Craven, and many others. But both succeeded in estab 
lishing themselves upon both the lower and the upper waters, and 
in launching steamers on the latter the Peace and the Henry 
Eeed ; and the Baptist missionaries Grenfell and Bentley have 
done remarkable exploratory and linguistic work in addition ; 
besides which many true converts have been gathered. In 1884, 
Dr. Grattan Guinness transferred the Livingstone Inland Mission f 
to the American Baptist Missionary Union, the same society 
whose Telugu and Karen Missions are so well known. In later 
years Dr. Guinness founded the Congo Balolo Mission, in the far 
interior; and other Missions have been started, particularly that 
of the Methodist Bishop Taylor, which has been miscalled 
" self-supporting," and the methods of which have given much 
anxiety to the other Congo Missions. 

(8) Two other new Missions were projected in 1879. M. 
Coillard, the devoted French missionary in Basutoland, formed French and 
the plan which afterwards took him to the Barotse Valley, on the MTssionT 
upper Zambesi ; and the American Board of Missions (A.B.C.F.M.) 
resolved to take as its field a part of West Central Africa, south 
of the Congo, lying behind the port of Benguela. 

* The story of the Roman Congo Mission is told in an Italian work by 
bihppo Pigafetta, chamberlain to Pope Innocent IX., who gathered it from 
the writings of a Portuguese, Duarte Lopez. Pigafetta s book was translated 
Hutchinson, wife of the C.M.S. Lay Secretary, in 1880 (John 
Murray, 1881). See C.M. Intelligencer, January, 1879, and April, 1881. See 
also Africa Unveiled, by the Rev. H. Rowley of the S.P.G. 

t This Institute was founded by Dr. Grattan Guinness in 1872 on 
undenominational lines. It has since sent over 600 men and women into 
Heathendom, in connexion with thirty.different societies. 

The story of this Mission is pathetically told by Mrs. Grattan Guinness 
in The New World of Central Africa (Hodder & Stoughton, 1890). 

Before this was settled, Dr. J. O. Means came to Europe on behalf of the 
ird, and made exhaustive inquiries touching Africa and its Missions ; and 
^Report to the Board, with its voluminous references to all sorts of books 
and papers, is perhaps the most valuable summary of African work, and of 
ie sources Q f information regarding it, whicVhad appeared up to tha-t-time 
and, indeed, it has not been excelled since 



PART VIII. (9) The year 1874 was a year of great importance in another 
1873-82. p ar t o f Africa. Just as the news of Livingstone reached England, 
Chap. 73. Q i one | Charles George Gordon entered Khartoum as Governor of 
Gordon at the Equatorial Province under the Khedive of Egypt. After 
Khartoum. three years of struggle with the slave-traders, and travelling up 
the White Nile to the Albert Nyanza, which Sir Samuel Baker 
had discovered in 1864, he was appointed Governor- General of 
the entire Egyptian Soudan. This post he held for three years 
more ; and his astonishing energy was successful in completely 
suppressing the slave-trade for the time, and in reducing his 
vast domain to order. Probably no such six years work was ever 
done by an Englishman. Unhappily it did not last. In 1879, the 
Khedive Ismail resigned, and was succeeded by his son Tewfik ; 
Gordon soon after threw up his appointment ; very soon the 
Eastern Soudan relapsed into confusion ; and in 1883 the Mahdi 
destroyed the Egyptian army. But this takes us beyond our 
period. It was while Gordon was at Khartoum as Governor- 
General that he received one of the C.M.S. parties for Uganda in 
1878, and sent them thither up the White Nile, as we shall see 
by-and-by. At the same time he offered, if the Society would 
send a Mission to the Albert Nyanza, to place it there and protect 
it. And once more, it was Gordon s tragic death at Khartoum six 
years later that led to the project of a C.M.S. Mission there, for 
the fulfilment of which we are still looking and praying. 



in West 

Let us now concentrate our attention on the work of the Church 
Missionary Society. The East Africa and Uganda Missions are 
among the greatest fruits of the revived interest in Africa which 
dates from the death of Livingstone. To the story of the Expedi 
tion to Uganda another chapter will be devoted. And before 
turning again to the Mombasa Mission, we must take a passing 
glance at events on the other side of the Continent. 

For our present period was one of various developments and 
advances in the C.M.S. Missions in West Africa. In 1875, the 
Sierra Leone Church organized its own missionary society to take 
over the work among the Heathen of the neighbouring districts. 
In the same year, the Government withdrew its subsidies to the 
Church and threw it upon its own resources which new position 
it met bravely and successfully. In 1876, Port Lokkoh was 
occupied, for Temne work. In 1874-5, the veterans Townsend 
and Hinderer paid their last visits to their old fields, the former 
visiting Abeokuta (where English missionaries were still forbidden 
to reside), and the latter opening up new work to the east of 
Lagos, leading in 1876 to the occupation of Ode Ondo by a newly- 
ordained Native clergyman, the Eev. Charles Phillips (now 
Bishop). In 1877, the Eev. James Johnson was sent to Abeokuta 
as Superintendent of the whole Yoruba Mission ; and he being a 
Yoruba Native himself, was allowed to reside there. He threw 
himself into the work with the greatest energy ; in fact with 


almost too great zeal if that be possible against slavery and PART VIII. 
polygamy, having to bear much opposition and reproach in conse- 1873-82. 
quence. His place at St. Paul s Church, Breadfruit, Lagos, was Cha P- ? 3 - 
taken by the Rev. Henry Johnson, who had been sojourning for a 
year or two, under the Society s direction, in Palestine, in order to 
become more fully acquainted with the Arabic language and the 
Mohammedan religion, and thus be fitted for special work among 
the Moslems of West Africa. When, in 1880, Henry Johnson 
went on to the Niger as Archdeacon, James Johnson returned to 
Lagos, and resumed charge of St. Paul s, where he has ministered 
ever since. In 1878, the Henry Venn steamer was placed on the 
Niger, and proved most useful to Bishop Crowther and his fellow- 
workers. But of all this we shall see more by-and-by. 

We now revert to the plans for the establishment of a Freed 
Slave Settlement near Mombasa. 

Great was the satisfaction of the whole C.M.S. circle when it 
was announced that Mr. Salter Price himself was ready to go out w. s. 
to found the new Mission. Three objects were set before him in least 6 tc 
the Committee s Instructions : (1) the formation of an Industrial Africa. 
Settlement for liberated slaves near Mombasa ; (2) the develop 
ment of the station of Eabai as a Christian village with a view 
to which another party of the "Bombay Africans " was sent for 
from India ; (3) an attempt to move forward and plant a station 
on the slopes of Kebmann s snow-capped mountain Kilimanjaro. 
In October of the same year, Mr. and Mrs. Price sailed for East 
Africa, accompanied by four men from Islington, two of them 
being practical workmen. The expedition was fitted out with 
every needful appliance for a settlement, agricultural implements, 
simple machinery, a boring engine for obtaining water, a large 
supply of various kinds of seeds, and a small steam-launch called 
the Dove. "We trust," wrote one of the C.M.S. editors, "that 
like Noah s dove it will be instrumental in bearing the sweet olive- 
branch of the peace of God to many of the oppressed children of 
Eastern Africa." But this fervent wish was not fulfilled. The 
Dove was put on board a Government coal-ship going to Zanzibar, 
which had to put into a South American port damaged, and never 
reached her destination. Subsequently another small steamer, 
the Highland Lassie, was sent out, and proved useful for a time. 

On November 15th, 1874, the party reached Mombasa. The Price at 
little island of that name should be conceived of as a sort of W 
miniature Isle of Wight, lying in the mouth of an estuary as a 
smaller Wight would lie in the mouth of Southampton Water. 
The town of Mombasa would be the Cowes or the Eyde, looking 
across to the mainland, which, however, would be only half a mile 
or so off. Then sailing up the estuary, landing at a spot roughly 
corresponding with Southampton, and pushing five miles through 
the bush up on to the hills, we should come to Kabai or Kisulu- 
tini, Krapf s old station. Mombasa is inhabited by the Swahili 
coast people, Mohammedans, half Arab and half African in origin; 

G 2 


at Rabai. 


mann s 


months at 
Mombasa : 

PART VIII. while Rabai is in the midst of the Wanika tribe, the pure Natives 
1873-82. of the country. At Eabai, John Rebmann was still living when 
Chap. 73. p rice arr i ve a, in a miserable hut, totally blind, with a little 
Rebmlnn community around him of about a dozen Native Christians. The 
old missionary had been on the coast twenty-nine years without 
once coming to Europe ; and he was very reluctant to leave now. 
But at length he was persuaded to go home under the care of 
Isaac Nyondo, the faithful convert mentioned in the Fifty-sixth 
Chapter ; and in July, 1875, he was received with deep sympathy 
and respect by the C.M.S. Committee. He then retired to 
Kornthal in Wurtemberg, where his old comrade Krapf was living. 
Krapf got an excellent widow to marry the blind veteran and take 
care of him ; and there he died in peace a year after, on October 
4th, 1876. "Old Rebmann" he was called, yet he was only 
fifty-six years of age. 

Meanwhile Mr. Price and his party were engaged upon an 
arduous task. First he had to provide for the " Bombay 
Africans," i.e. the slaves rescued in former years and taken by 
the British ships to India, as related in the Fifty-sixth Chapter, 
and who had been sent for to come over and form the nucleus of 
the new colony. Many of them, of course, knew Price well 
already, having been under his charge at Nasik. A good many 
of these he settled at Rabai, in order that the Wanika people 
might have an orderly community in their midst, to set them an 
example in the cultivation of the ground. Others he kept at 
Mombasa to assist him in preparing, secondly, for the important 
work the Society had undertaken, of receiving rescued slaves 
from the British cruisers. His journals of these first few months 
are graphic and interesting in the extreme ; and every detail of 
the daily life that was told was watched by a large circle of 
readers in England with keenest sympathy.- Of the four young 
Islington men, one, Remington, died ; a second, Williams, was 
invalided home but subsequently went to Japan, where he is 
still labouring; the other two only stayed a year and a half. 
Price s most efficient helpers were the leading men among the 
" Bombay Africans," George David, Ishmael Semler, and William 
Jones, and also Isaac Nyondo, the Native Mnika.f Their wives 
also, especially Priscilla David and Polly Nyondo, were fre 
quently mentioned as doing good service under the direction of 
Mrs. Price. 

Land had to be procured for the proposed Freed Slave Settle 
ment ; and after a long search, and infinite trouble with the 
Mombasa people, especially the Wali (governor) under the Sultan 

* "Mr. Price s journals were printed in the CM. Intelligence of May, 
October, November, December, 1875,, and April, October, November, 1876. 

t It may be well to explain the prefixes of these tribal names. Wa-nika, 
the people ; jf-mfca, a/n individual; Ki-niba, /an adjective like "English," 
applicable t6 the language, the customs, &c. ; V-nika, the. country. .So 
W*-gandv j M-gartda, : Ki-gar>da y U-ganda; but- this is- the coust form only in 
TTgaiiiJa itself it is. Ba-ganda, M u-ganda, L 

The land 
for the 


of Zanzibar, Price succeeded in purchasing a tract on the main- PART VIII. 
land, nearly opposite the town, two or three miles in circum- 
ference, thirty feet above the sea-level, open to the sea-breeze 
blowing up the harbour, and comprising " a nice shamba (garden) 
planted with cocoas, some good patches of arable land, plenty of 
building sites, a well of sweet water, and a fine stretch of sandy 
beach." On May 7th, 1875 a date worth noting the purchase 
was completed by the Wall s signature to the necessary papers ; 
and next day Price wrote : 

" The first, and a very important, step has been taken towards the 
creation of a Freed Slave Colony near Mombasa. The land is pur 
chased ; the deeds are signed by the Governor; and I, as representative 
of the C.M.S., am in lawful possession of the property. Of course the 
great work still remains to be done ; and for that we shall, above all 
things, need much wisdom and grace from above ; yet let us at this 
stage set up our Ebenezer, and praise the Lord who has so graciously 
removed obstacles and made plain our path. This opens up a new era 
iu the East Africa Mission." 

Now observe : close to this piece of land was the grave of Eosina Close to 
Krapf, the first Christian grave in East Africa, dug thirty-one Krapfs 
ycurs before. Krapfs memorable message * was coming true at & rave - 
last: The victories of the Church " were about to be won by 
stepping over the graves of her members." 

In June, Price wrote again : " I have now a hundred people at 
work, constructing roads, erecting buildings, and generally con 
verting the wilderness into a garden. This is the Lord s doing, 
and it is marvellous in our eyes. The next thing was to give a 
name to the new village ; and Price, mindful of Sir Bartle Frere s 

interest in the old Mission at Nasik,| and in the ex-slaves brought 
up there, of his share in the new treaty with Zanzibar under 
which all these proceedings were now being taken, and of his 
personal request to the C.M.S. to found a Freed Slave Settlement 
at Mombasa, named it FBERE TOWN. 

And quickly did the British authorities take advantage of it. 
Actually before Price was ready, on September 4th, H.M.S. 
London brought thirty-one rescued slaves, and landed them on Rescued 
" the sandy beach " ; and on September 19th arrived H.M.S. Thetis, handed to 
with no less than two hundred and seventy-one more, 58 men, theMissi " 
61 women, and 152 children. This was a charge indeed! Most 
of them belonged to the Makua tribe far to the south, whose 
language was unknown at Mombasa ; and the only interpreters 
were two boys who had picked up a little English. They were 
utterly ignorant, almost naked, without an idea of order or 
decency, and many of them diseased. But let us take the account 
of Captain Ward, E.N., himself, the captain of the Thetis. It Narrative 
will show the procedure adopted in the case of rescued slaves : ward P , tai 

" H.M.S. i Theti*; at Sea, September Vlth, 187 ft. R<N 
" On September 9th we were standing leisurely across to Madagascar, 

* See Vol. I., p. 461. t See Chapter LVI. 


PART VIII. under sail, having put our fires out, when a sail was reported from the 

1873-82. masthead standing the same way as ourselves. As the wind was light 

Chap. 73. and there was no chance of coming up with her before night under sail 

only, I ordered steam to be got up, and about 2 p.m. we were in full 

pursuit. We did not come up with her until about 5.30, when the 

number of Arabs on her poop, the absence of colours, and certain 

erratic movements of her helm, had already raised strong suspicions in 

British our minds against her. The first lieutenant boarded her in one of the 

sailors and cutters, and almost immediately after we had the satisfaction of seeing 

ship. him take her in tow to bring her to the ship ; in short there w r as no 

necessity to ask for papers, for a momentary inspection was sufficient to 

satisfy the boarding officer that the dhow was a full slaver, so we at once 

set to work to bring her human cargo on board. 

" It was a long business, and by no means an agreeable one, upwards 
of 300 souls being taken from her hold. Out of this number about sixty 
were Arabs and crew, and the remainder slaves. She had been only 
three days out, and therefore it may be supposed that the cargo was in 
comparatively good condition. Still many of them were in a very 
emaciated state, and three have died since we received them on board. 
One poor old woman, whom I found lying on her back in the hold, was 
at first thought to be dead, but on her being lifted up she commenced 
screaming violently, and struggling with the men who were carrying her 
out of this pest-house. She is now quite well, and in her right mind. 
The slaves were stowed on two temporary decks, each about three feet 
high, the upper one being roofed over with cocoa-nut leaves. Of course 
the poor creatures could not move from the place where they squatted, 
and the stench in the lower tier was of such a nature as to make one 
wonder how any human being could live there for an hour, and yet it 
would probably have been a full week before they were released, had they 
not fallen in with the Thetis. After clearing her out and taking as much 
of her provisions as we thought necessary, we set her on fire in several 
places, and put twelve pounds of powder in the lower part of her hold. 
In a few minutes we had the satisfaction of seeing this explode, shortly 
after which the vile craft went to the bottom, never again to carry a 
living freight." 

" Zanzibar, September ISM. 

" All well so far, I am thankful to say. The dhow and 241 slaves were 
condemned in the Vice-Admiralty Court yesterday, and fourteen of the 
Arab dealers sent to prison. I am off to Mombasa at noon to-day, to 
deliver over the slaves to the care of Mr. Price, the head of the English 
Mission at that place. This is to me a very great satisfaction ; it will, 
as far as we can see, give the Mission a most favourable start, and work 
enough for the missionaries for many a day to come." 

" H.M.S. Thetis, at Sea, September 21st. 

Captain i must now tell you something about the Mission and our visit. 

Frere O " Directly we anchored I received a visit from Mr. Price and Dr. Forster. 

Town. They are very kind, nice people, and Mr. Price is a thoroughly practical, 

hard-working clergyman, not at all inclined to take a dismal view of 

things. The 239 slaves, none of whom speak any language known to 

any of the Mission party, were enough to overwhelm a very plucky 

superintendent, yet Mr. Price never hesitated for an instant in his 

determination to receive them all. 

" He has purchased a most desirable tract of land on the mainland, 
with a good sea frontage facing the harbour, which has already been 
cleared of jungle and intersected with broad, macadamized roads. 
Temporary sheds have been erected for immediate necessities, and 


permanent buildings are begun. Potatoes and cabbages have been PART VII I. 
planted on a small scale, and found to answer well. They are on good 1873-82. 
terms with their Arab neighbours, who look up to them for advice, Chap. 73. 
and are especially grateful for the medical aid which is afforded them 
free of all expense." 

Then, nine days after, see what Mr. Price says : 

" September 28th, 1875. We are all working at high pressure. The Hard work 
sudden influx of nearly 300 souls men, women, and children in a state ^^elj 6 
of destitution, speaking a language that nobody understands, and many slaves, 
of them suffering from various diseases, is no joke. The first problem is 
how to provide food for so large a multitude. The necessaries of life, 
few and simple as they are, are not easily obtainable, and, when obtained, 
they have to be cooked under great difficulties. When our buildings are 
completed and the machinery is in full working order, this will be a 
comparatively trifling matter, but in our present transition state it is a 
troublesome business. Then, with our limited means of accommodation, 
one s powers of invention are sorely taxed to locate all decently according 
to age and sex. Happily we have so far progressed as to be able to 
shelter them, and we are running up temporary buildings which, in a few 
weeks, will be ready for occupation, and remove all anxiety on this score 
for some time to come. Some unruly spirits have to be restrained and 
controlled ; the sick have to be attended to, and the able-bodied to be 
supplied with suitable employment. In addition to all this, provision 
must be made for the education of the young and the i egular religious 
instruction of all. Altogether we have a task before us which makes a 
full demand on all our powers of rnind and body, and for the due 
performance of which we need, above all, the wisdom that cometh from 
above. " 

Then, with a view to a commencement of the simplest religious 
teaching : 

" Sunday, November 14f//. In the afternoon we collected all the adult First 
freed slaves more than 200 and George David (the Native catechist) attempt to 
endeavoured to impress upon their minds two truths which are at the slaves 
foundation of all true religion the Being and omnipresence of God ; for about God 
he that cometh to God must believe that He is. I never in my life 
witnessed such an illustration of that kind of teaching which the Prophet 
seems to describe as line upon line. After a simple statement of the 
truth that there is a God, and that He is everywhere present, he expressed 
the substance of his teaching in the following formula : * Munugu Killa 
pahali yupa, jun na thun ( God is in every place, above and below ) ; 
and then, dividing his audience into several groups, he patiently perse 
vered with each group, till they could not only repeat the words after 
him, but utter them without his assistance. I am within the mark when 
I say that he repeated the words at least 300 times. The exercise lasted 
an hour and a half, and the patient teacher was rewarded at last by 
finding that the words, if not in all the fulness of their import, were 
imprinted on the minds of his rather obtuse pupils. This may seem 
a small result ; but it was worth the labour. Minds full of darkness do 
not easily open to the first rays of spiritual light." 

And, to start an elementary home life : 

" December 2\st< Married fourteen couples of the freed slaves. It was and of 
an occasion of some little excitement and amusement. The men and ^ 
women were grouped apart, and then the men, as their names came up, hf e . 


PART VIII. were asked to name the objects of their choice. This, in most cases, they 
1873-82. were unable to do, and there was nothing for it but for the would-be 
Chap. 73. husband to enter the charmed circle and lead off the object of his affec 
tion. Generally there seemed to be a preconcerted arrangement between 
the parties, but not always. One unfortunate wight came forward, and, 
on looking round on the galaxy of black beauties, was so bewildered, that 
he was unable to fix his choice on any one in particular. With a peculiar 
nervous shrug and a crimson blush which was all but visible through his 
black skin, he said, i I should be very happy to marry them, but don t 
know who will have me. He subsided amidst a roar of laughter from 
his companions, and his case was of course postponed. Another no sooner 
pointed out the lady of his selection than she coquettishly turned her 
back upon him, and began to stare vacantly in an opposite direction. I 
said, Very well, 110 compulsion; let him stand aside. This was- more 
than she expected ; she only wanted to be wooed and won like others of 
her sex, and seeing that under the circumstances this process was in 
admissible, she quickly relented, and gladly suffered herself to be led 
away to the group of selected brides. The number being completed, I 
took each couple separately, and, joining their hands, required them to 
pledge their troth either to other. It is a pleasant thing to feel that 
one has made twenty-eight people happy; for though in one sense their 
happiness is sublunary, it is according to God s ordinance. The number 
was only limited by the number of cottages ready for married couples. 
By next week we hope to have as man} r more." 

These extracts are given at some length, because the beginnings 
of a new work are always interesting. Meanwhile it pleased God 
The to give Mr. Price an unlooked-for encouragement in the midst of 

concerts ^ s l aDours * Some years before, one of Rebmami s Wanika con 
verts, Abe Ngoa, had struck his wife in a moment of irritation and 
caused her death. He was so filled with remorse that he left 
Rabai, and went and lived alone in a hut in the Giriama forest, 
thirty miles to the north. Having with him a copy of Rebmann s 
Kinika version of St. Luke s Gospel, and being able to read, he 
began to teach a few of the Giriama people. In 1874 he was 
visited by Mr. Chancellor (the missionary afterwards in the Sey 
chelles, then at Mombasa), who found a little band of eleven 
persons who had given up their "fetishes" and "joined the 
Book." When Price arrived on the coast, three of them came 
down to him and asked for baptism. He sent George David to 
visit them, who found some thirty eager inquirers. "It is most 
encouraging," he wrote, " to hear these people praying in their 
huts morning and night, husband and wife praying together for 
the forgiveness of their sins, and thanking God for His care of 
them." On August 22nd, 1875, five men and three women came 
to Rabai and were baptized by Mr. Price ; and this was followed, 
on October 17th, by the baptism of the chief of the tribe, Abe 
Sidi, and his wife, who took the names of David and Rachel. Here 
was a " planting of the Lord " in no ordinary sense. It was like 
a little tree sprung from a single seed carried by a bird from some 
distant spot. 

All this while Dr. Kirk, the able British Consul-Geiieral and 


Political Agent at Zanzibar, was vigorously acting 011 the Treaty PART VIII. 
of 1873, and doing his best to grapple with the slave-trade. In 18 ?3-82. 
1875 the Sultan of Zanzibar visited England, and the C.M.S. Chap 73 
Committee obtained an interview with him and urged him to Dr. Kirk 
persevere in various measures for suppressing the traffic, and to |u?tan e oi 
give countenance and protection to the Mombasa Mission. His Zanzibar, 
written reply is interesting, as showing how a Mussulman could 
sympathize with missionary work among the Heathen, unconscious, 
or ignoring the fact, that the Christian message is for Moslems 
likewise : 

" Respected Representatives, We are much pleased with your address 
and with your welcome, and we ask the Almighty Creator to bestow 
upon you and upon all the benevolent all the good things you have 
asked on our behalf. We are aware that your Society is zealously 
engaged in spreading the light of godly knowledge among the ignorant 
in Africa. That is a praiseworthy object, and such as will meet with a 
recompense from God. As regards what you have mentioned of the aid 
we have been able to afford to the missionaries of your Society settled 
in our parts, your thanks exceed our deserts. What we have clone, we 
have done for God s sake, and, God willing, we shall continue to do so by 
the strength of Him who is the bountiful Supplier of all wants, to whom 
alone be glory and worship for ever and ever, Amen. Written in the 
preserved City of London, &c., the 25th of June, 1875. 


In April, 1876, Sir John Kennaway brought the whole subject Frere 
before the House of Commons, and urged the Government to take ^SsS^ d 
more active measures. Among other suggestions, he asked for a eminent, 
grant of money towards the heavy expense of housing, feeding, 
arid caring for the rescued slaves at Frere Town, thrown upon the 
Society by the Government itself. Mr. Bourke, the Under 
secretary for Foreign Affairs, replied very favourably; and Mr. 
W. E. Forster, for the Opposition, promised support to Ministers 
" in any reasonable measure to stop the iniquitous traffic." Not 
much, however, was done ; and some years elapsed before the 
Society received the grant so justly due. Nevertheless the efforts 
of Dr. Kirk and the naval officers on the coast were not fruitless, 
and the slave-trade diminished year by year. 

After nearly two years of most arduous and valuable work, Mr. 
and Mrs. Price returned to England. They were succeeded by 
the Eev. J. A. and Mrs. Lamb, the veteran Yoruba missionaries, other mis- 
who exchanged West for East Africa at the call of the Society. S pS? 
Another West African missionary, the Rev. A. Menzies, succeeded Town - 
Mr. Lamb. In 1876, the Rev. H. K. Binns went out; and his 
name, more than any other except that of the revered founder of 
Frere Town, is identified with a Mission in which he has now 
laboured (with brief intervals) twenty-two years. But the secular 

* Mr. Disraeli was then Prime Minister. Punch represented him deferen 
tially expressing- to the Sultan his hope that his Highness would help in 
suppressing- the slave-trade. " Yes, illustrious Ben Dizzy," replies the Sultan, 

" but Conservative Party very strong in Zanzibar . " 


PART VIII. side of such a Mission is very important, and involves onerous 
1873-82 responsibilities ; and a succession of laymen took charge of these 
duties, while two or three doctors and schoolmasters had the 
medical and educational departments from time to time. In Mr. 
Lamb s period, Commander Eussell,E.N.,was Lay Superintendent; 
and after him, an industrial agent, J. E. Streeter. Both these 
men lost their wives in the service. Mr. Streeter for some years 
did exceptionally good work, and won the confidence of the Society ; 
and so did the schoolmaster, J. W. Handford ; but their names 
Causes ot remind us that Frere Town sometimes caused the Committee 
lety grave anxiety, and humbled them with the thought of human 
infirmity. The Mission suffered sorely from "the craft and 
subtlety" of both "the devil and man": "man" being repre 
sented by the Arab slave-holders, who dreaded the influence of a 
prosperous colony of liberated slaves ; and " the devil " exercising 
his malice by ensnaring, not only weak and immature African 
Christians, but also more than one English missionary who should 
have been " strong in the Lord and in the power of His might." 

Nevertheless, the blessing of the Lord was not withheld. 
Indeed it was bestowed before these trials arose. One bright 
Bishop occasion was in September, 1878, when Bishop Eoyston of 
F? e y re ton at Mauritius came over and visited the Mission. Just at the time, 
Town. there was no ordained missionary there. Lamb had retired ; 
Menzies had not yet come ; Binns had gone home for a few 
months ; Streeter was in general charge of the work ; and the 
Bishop wrote in the warmest terms of both the secular and the 
spiritual aspects of Frere Town and Eabai. He held a confirma 
tion, at which fifty-four baptized Christians, mostly "Bombays," 
but with a few of Eebm arm s Wanika people, and four from 
Giriama, were admitted to the laying-on of hands; the last to 
receive the rite being the old convert AJDraham Abe Gunga and his 
son Isaac Nyondo. " My visit," wrote the Bishop, " has filled 
my heart with gratitude to God. I can quite understand the 
proverb that those who have drunk African water must taste it 
again. "* 

Testimony Not less decided were the frequent testimonies from naval 
officers! officers who visited the Mission, some of them distinctly godly 
men. f But the crowning blessing was when, at last, after three 
years and a half of patient labour in trying to obtain entrance 
for some rays of light into the dull understandings and dark hearts 
of the freed slaves themselves and this through the medium of a 
language, Swahili, not their own vernacular, thirty-two of them, 

* Bishop Royston s account of his visit was printed in the C.M. Intelligencer 
of December, 1878. 

| See the letter from Captain Boys, R.N., of H.M.S. Philomel, C.M. 
Intelligencer, April, 1877 ; from the Rev. J. S. Knight, Chaplain to H.M.S. 
London, Intelligencer, March, 1880; from Captain Brownrigg, R.N., Intelli 
gencer, June, 1881. Brownrigg s visit was shortly before he was killed 
in a fight with a slave dhow. 


with nine of their young children, were baptized, on Easter Day, PART VIII. 
1879. They had been gradually taught to repeat "eighteen texts 1873-82. 
about our state by nature, seven texts about our state by grace, p * 3 
fourteen texts about the way, how the believer is kept, six texts Bapti 
about our burden of sin and the invitation to come to the Saviour." 
George David was their principal teacher. On the next Easter 
Day, 1880, nineteen more were baptized. Meanwhile, many fresh 
rescued slaves had been brought to the Mission, and there were 
now more than four hundred of the poor creatures under its care. 
Many of them had little " sham has " (gardens) of their own, and 
were thus supporting themselves. 

The prosperity of the colony attracted undesirable neighbours ; 
and in one letter we read of " the toddy-shops round the place, 
andMoabitish women in abundance." But its reputation brought 
upon it another danger, which gave both the Society and the Dangers 
Government many anxious hours. It must be remembered that ow^ e ?s av 
although the export slave-trade had been reduced to a minimum, and their 
domestic slavery could not be interfered with in a Moslem state, 
The Mohammedan slave-holders of Mombasa, and their slaves, saw 
the poor creatures, rescued from the slave dhows only four or 
five years before, now living in comfort as free men, cultivating 
their own little plots of ground, building their own little huts on 
the Society s land, enjoying the rest of the Lord s Day, seeing their 
children taught to read and write like the white man, and having 
access at all times for counsel and guidance to patient and sympa 
thizing Englishmen. The masters saw all this with envious 
hatred ; the slaves with not less envious longings. Slaves fre 
quently ran away, and sought refuge in the Settlement from cruel 
treatment ; the masters demanded their ejection : what were the 
missionaries to do ? They were bound by the laws of the country 
to deliver them up ; but sometimes humanity triumphed over the 
claims of law, and they refused. Moreover, at Rabai some 
hundreds of people, many of them runaways, were " squatting," 
so to speak, around the mission village. The natural result was 
that the safety of the settlements was repeatedly threatened ; and 
on one occasion a hundred young men at Mombasa made a vow 
"to make soup of the livers of two of the missionaries, and to 
serve up the head of one of them for the first meal after the 
Ramadan fast." The danger was very real for a time. But a 
visit from Dr. Kirk, and a stricter rule about not harbouring 
fugitives, set matters right for a while. In after years similar 
complications occurred, which were dealt with differently. 

These difficulties, and others caused by injudicious though well- 
meant methods of punishing the refractory among the people, led 
to the Committee requesting Mr. Price to go out again for a few Price s 
months in 1881-2 to set things in order. Despite not a few trials 
that beset the Mission at that time, he was able to write home : 
" I could not help calling to mind the very different aspect pre 
sented when one Sunday afternoon, just seven years ago, I first 


Chap. 73. 

Abe Sidi 
and his 


Plans of 
the Geo 

entered the harbour of Mombasa. Then, where Frere Town now 
is, was nothing but wild jungle ; whilst now r , in spite of the devil 
and all his wiles, it has all the appearance of a field that the Lord 
hath blessed." And again : " I venture to say that there are 
few places in the world where there is a larger amount of peace, 
contentment, and happiness, than in the C.M.S. settlement of 
Frere Town." He also visited, at a place called Fulladoyo, a 
remarkable communityof runaway slaves who had gathered round 
the Giriama Christian chief, Abe Sidi. He found a well-built and 
orderly village, where he was most joyfully received ; and early 
next morning the whole little native colony assembled for ordinary 
morning prayers, Abe Sidi himself conducting : 

" After a hymn, heartily sung, Abe Sidi read and made remarks upon 
a few verses from Gen. vi., and in simple and earnest language set forth 
Jesus Christ as the true ark of refuge provided by a merciful God for 
perishing sinners. Then, followed a selection of prayers from the 
Prayer-book, of which now, thanks to Bishop Steere, we have a fair transla 
tion ; and very touching and soul-stirring it was to hear them all as with 
one voice joining in the Confession, Lord s Prayer, and General Thanks 

For these fugitives, being fifty miles from Frere Town, the 
Mission was of course in 110 way responsible to the Mohammedan 
masters they had left ; but none the less did the existence of 
Fulladoyo excite the masters wrath ; and after two or three years 
it was attacked by them and destroyed. Abe Sidi was taken 
captive, and was said to have been put to "a horrible death." 
" I never met him," wrote one missionary, "without feeling I was 
in the presence of one of God s saints, and that instead of teach 
ing I could sit at his feet and be taught." Is there in all this 
History a more striking illustration of the omnipotence of Divine 
grace ? 

In 1883, Bishop Eoyston of Mauritius again visited East Africa, 
and confirmed no less than 256 candidates ; and again he wrote 
warmly of the condition of the Mission. Trials there had been ; 
mistakes there had been ; failures there had been ; but the Lord 
was there, and His work was being done. This episcopal visit 
naturally closes the first period of the revived East Africa Mission. 
When we resume the history, we shall find plans being matured 
for the formation of the Diocese of Eastern Equatorial Africa. 

But there are four things to notice briefly before closing the 

(1) In 1877, the Royal Geographical Society initiated a new 
scheme for the exploration of some parts of still unexplored Africa. 
An important meeting was held at the Mansion House, which 
was addressed by Sir Rutherford Alcock, then President of the 
Society; Mr. W. E. Forster, M.P. ; Commander Cameron, the 
great traveller ; Archbishop Thomson of York ; Sir T. Fowell 
Buxton ; Colonel Grant, the companion of Speke in the dis 
covery of Uganda; and, with these, two representatives of 


Missions, viz., the venerable Dr. Moffat, and Mr. E. Hutchinson, PART VIII. 
Lay Secretary of the C.M.S. One of the resolutions passed -J 8 ^ 3 ~ 8 ^- 
recognized " the continuous and earnest efforts of the several 
Missionary Societies, following in the footsteps of Livingstone, to 
spread the humanizing influence of Christianity in Africa." An 
expedition was sent out to the country north of Lake Nyassa, 
which, owing to the death of its first leader, fell to the command 
of a young Scotchman, Mr. Joseph Thomson. It was he, who 
on another and later journey, first traversed the route by which 
Hannington afterwards sought to reach Uganda, and which is 
now the regular route thither from Mombasa. 

(2) Just at the time when our present period closes, on August 

27th, 1882, died Bishop Steere, in the midst of his work at Death oi 
Zanzibar. He was much more than Head of the Universities steen 
Mission. In his vigorous and practical character, he was an 
example to all missionaries in such a country as Africa ; and by 
his linguistic work, especially the Swahili Bible and Prayer-book, 
he laid all Church Missions under lasting obligation. 

(3) Twelve months later, died another African missionary hero, 

the venerable Eobert Moffat. He first went to Africa in 1816, the and ot 
very year in which the C.M.S. began its permanent Sierra Leone Moffat < 
Mission. It is a fact like this that enables us to gauge rightly 
the progress of African Missions. Within the adult lifetime of 
one man, what had God wrought ! 

(4) Steere and Moffat had been preceded into the eternal world 
by yet another African missionary hero. On November 26th, 
1881, Johann Ludwig Krapf entered into rest. He had long and ot 
lived in retirement at Kornthal. The previous evening, Mr. Flad, Kra P f - 
who, like him, had been a missionary in Abyssinia, spent an 
hour with him, talking of the approaching Second Advent of 
Christ. He went to his bedroom quite well, as usual, and was 
found in the morning, kneeling at his bed, undressed, and lifeless." 

This chapter opened with the death of Livingstone. It closes Krapf and 
with the death of Krapf. They were men of the same type. In Living- 
both we see the same single aim, unflinching courage, bound- St 
less faith. Livingstone was the greater traveller ; but Krapf has 
the higher claim to bear the name of leader in the Recovery of the 
Lost Continent. For he was an earlier pioneer, and Livingstone s 
own later journeys, as well as those of Burton, Speke, Grant, 
Cameron, Stanley, Thomson, were inspired by his example and 
his discoveries. Very different were the outward circumstances 
of their last hours. Yet in both cases it was a kneeling body on 
which Death laid its hand a praying soul which the Lord of Life 
and Death called to His immediate presence. Found dead, kneel 
ing at his bedside that is the record both of Livingstone and of 



Stanley in Uganda His Challenge to Christendom C.M.S. responds 
Preliminary Plans The First Men : Shergold Smith and Mackay 
Mackay s Farewell Words The March to the Interior On the 
Nyanza Mtesa s Invitation The Gospel preached at Rubaga 
Smith and O Neill killed The Nile Party and Gordon Wilson and 
Mackay The Roman Mission The Waganda Envoys to England 
Mackay s Journal : Manual Work, Teaching, Translation -First 
Conversions The Intermediate Stations. 

Chap. 74. 

Krapf s 
work not 

Stanley s 

" Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God." Ps. Ixviii. 31. 
11 Arise ; for this matter belongeth unto thee : ire also will be ivith thee : be of 
good courage, find, do it." Ezra x. 4. 

]VEE since the failure of Krapf s attempt to penetrate the 
further interior of Eastern Africa in 1851, his great pro 
ject of a chain of Missions across the Dark Continent 
had slept. Yet we have seen that his researches and 
appeals had not been fruitless. We have seen the 
first travellers go forth, inspired by his discoveries ; we have seen 
Speke gazing at the broad expanse of the " Nyanza," and naming 
it after Queen Victoria ; standing with him there, we have heard, 
in that very year so justly called annus mirabilis, 1858, the reports 
of a kingdom on the far side called Uganda ; we have seen him go 
forth the second time and visit Uganda itself in 1861 ; and we 
have seen Stanley, fourteen years later, launching his Lady Alice 
on the great lake, and sojourning with King Mtesa. That visit 
was destined to be the starting point of a new missionary enter 

On November 15th, 1875, a remarkable letter, dated April in 
that year, appeared in the Daily Telegraph from Mr. Stanley in 
Uganda. It described Mtesa as " vastly superior to-day to the 
vain youth whom Speke and Grant saw." " They left him a raw 
youth, and a Heathen. He is now a gentleman, and, professing 
Islamism, submits to other laws than his own erratic will." In 
fact the Arab traders had come in, persuaded Mtesa to become a 
Mohammedan, and introduced the dress and some of the barbaric 
civilization associated with such courts as those of Muscat and 
Zanzibar. But Stanley had told him that there was a better 
religion still, and had given him an outline of Christianity; and 
now the traveller, in this letter, challenged Christendom to send a 


Mission to Uganda. Two days after the challenge appeared, PART VIII. 

the Lay Secretary of the C.M.S. received the following letter : 1873-82. 

Chap. 74. 
" November \lth, 1875. 

"DEAR MR. HUTCHINSON,- My eyes have often been strained wist- The offer 
fully towards the interior of Africa, west of Mombasa, and I have longed to 
and prayed for the time when the Lord would, by His Providence, open 
there a door of entrance to the heralds of the Gospel. 

u The appeal of the energetic explorer Stanley to the Christian Church 
from Mtesa s capital, Uganda, taken in connexion with Colonel Gordon s 
occupation of the upper territories of the Nile, seems to me to indicate 
that the time has come for the soldiers of the Cross to make an advance 
into that region. 

" If the Committee of the Church Missionary Society are prepared at 
once and with energy to organize a Mission to the Victoria Nyanza, I 
shall account it a high privilege to place 5000 at their disposal as a 
nucleus for the expenses of the undertaking. 

" I am not so sanguine as to look for the rapidity of success contem 
plated by Mr. Stanley ; but if the Mission be undertaken in simple and 
trustful dependence upon the Lord of the Harvest, surely no insur 
mountable difficulty need lie anticipated, but His presence and blessing 
be confidently expected, as we go forward in obedience to the indications 
of His Providence and the command of His Word. 

" I only desire to be known in this matter as 


" [ So likewise ye, w en ye shall have done all those 
things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable 
servants : we have done that which was our duty to do. 
Luke xvii. 10.] " 

On November 23rd the Committee met to consider the matter, should 
Such an enterprise was not to be undertaken lightly. Very wise undertake 
heads were gravely shaken that day, Lord Lawrence s and ^^ r a J 1 ise , 
General Lake s among them. The journey would be long and " 
arduous ; if successfully accomplished, the Mission would be 
nearly a thousand miles from its base on the coast ; a traveller 
like Stanley might get through once, but how could regular com- Reasons 
munications be kept up with a permanent Mission ? Was not the a & ainst Jt - 
ordinary plan of all practical military operations better, advancing 
slowly but steadily from station to station, and making each one 
sure before advancing further ? Besides, what reliance could be 
placed upon the sincerity, or at least upon the stability, of Mtesa s 
good intentions ? Stanley himself, too, was then regarded as 
rather a man of sensations than of judgment that could be trusted ; 
and as for the Daily Telegraph, it represented at that time what 
would now be called "the New Journalism," and the Saturday 
Bevieiv, then at the height of its reputation, was already making 
merry over an alliance between such a paper and the C.M.S. 

What was the answer to all these arguments ? The answer was 
this, that the call was no mere invitation from the king of Reasons 
Uganda, no mere suggestion of an enterprise never thought of for it- 
before. The past could not be forgotten. The long chain of 
events which had led to the invitation stood out before the 
memory. At one end of the chain was a fugitive missionary of 


Cha P- 74 - 

Plans or 
the new 

the C.M.S., led by the providence of God to a point on the coast 
w here he heard of a great inland sea, covering a space till then 
blank on the map. At the other end of the chain was the C.M.S. 
again, offered a noble contribution to undertake the work of plant 
ing the banner of Christ on the shores of the largest of the four 
or five inland seas since discovered. Was not the call a call from 
God? So urged Henry Wright and Edward Hutchinson, two 
men (as we have seen) not always seeing eye to eye, but now one 
Decision of in heart to go forward. And the result of the solemn debate, and 
C.M.S. tne earnes t prayer offered, may be summed up in St. Luke s 
words, "Immediately we endeavoured to go .... assuredly 
gathering that the Lord had called us for to preach the Gospel 
unto them." The resolution adopted was as follows : 

" That this Committee, bearing in mind that the Church Missionary 
Society is primarily commissioned to Africa and the East, and recognizing 
a combination of providential circumstances in the present opening in 
Equatorial Africa, thankfully accepts the offer of the anonymous donor 
of oOOO, and undertakes, in dependence upon God, to take steps for the 
establishment of a Mission to the vicinity of the Victoria Nyanza, in the 
prayerful hope that it may prove a centre of light and blessing to the 
tribes in the heart of Africa." 

Special contributions at once began to pour in ; and very soon 
about 15,000 was in hand. Numberless letters came from 
persons desirous of joining the proposed expedition ; but most 
of the applicants were quite unsuitable, having very little idea 
what was meant by a Christian Mission. Meanwhile a Sub-Com 
mittee was engaged in considering plans and routes. This Sub- 
Committee comprised Lord Lawrence who, once the question 
was decided, gave his advice ungrudgingly as to the best way of 
carrying out the project, Sir T. Fowell Buxton, Mr. Beattie, 
Mr. "Gedge, Mr. Joseph Hoare, Mr. Maltby, Mr. J. F. Thomas, 
Mr. E. Williams, and the Eevs. E. Auriol, E. C. Billing, and Canon 
Money. They took counsel with Colonel S. E. Gordon, brother 
of Gordon of Khartoum ; Lieutenant Watson, a member of 
Gordon s staff; and Colonel Grant, Speke s comrade in Uganda in 
1861. It will have been noticed that the "Unprofitable Servant" 
had referred to the occupation by Gordon of the upper territories 
of the Nile, or Eastern Soudan, for the Khedive of Egypt, as one 
of the providential circumstances encouraging the Society to 
undertake the Mission ; and at first it seemed as if the route up 
the Nile would be best. Colonel Grant, however, urged strongly 
that as Gordon was regarded in Central Africa as an invader, a 
Mission approaching Uganda from the northward under his 
auspices would seem identified with a policy of annexation ; 
whereas the liberal tendencies of the Sultan of Zanzibar, who had 
that year visited England, and was really doing his best, under 
Dr. Kirk s influence, to suppress the slave-trade and to foster the 
growing commerce between his dominions and the interior, 
pointed to the East Coast as the natural starting-point for an 

route to 
Uganda ? 


expedition to the Lake Eegion. Moreover, the Society s long- PART VIII. 

cherished desire to penetrate the interior from that side could not 1873-82. 

fail to influence the Committee in deciding, as they did decide, to 

start from Zanzibar. Colonel Grant also urged, in view of the 

probable uncertainty of Mtesa s character, that the Mission should 

aim first at the kingdom of Karagwe, to the west of the Victoria 

Nyanza, where he and Speke had found the king, Eumanika, of 

a singularly noble and gentle disposition. This last point was 

left undecided ; but it led to the enterprise being called, not the why 

Uganda Mission, but the Nyanza Mission, leaving its precise locale 

an open question. Mission. 

The first offer of service that was seriously entertained linked J^ e en 
together the associations of the East and West of Africa in a expedition, 
remarkable way. When, forty-four years before, the little slave- 
boy who became Bishop Crowther was rescued by H.M.S. 
Myrmidon, there was a midshipman on board who became 
Captain Shergold Smith, K.N., and who was, at the date to 
which we have now come, agent in charge of Sir John Kenna- 
way s estates in Devonshire. His son, George Shergold Smith, ti eut - 
had been in the navy, and had served in the Ashanti campaign of 
1873-4 ; but African fever having affected his eyesight, he had left 
the service, and was now a student at St. John s Hall, Highbury, 
with a view to taking holy orders. His sight, however, had 
improved, and his heart went out to Africa. " I love the African," 
he said, " and I want to preach Christ to him." " Send me out," 
he now said to the Society, "in any capacity: I am willing to 
take the lowest place." But as soon as he was accepted, and 
began to take a share in the preparations for the expedition, he 
evinced so much capacity, that the Committee, without hesitation, 
appointed him leader of the expedition. 

The second man accepted was Alexander Mackay. All 
Christendom now knows the story of the brilliant young Scotch 
man, who at the age of twenty-six was chief constructor in a great 
engineering factory near Berlin ; who had been a volunteer 
teacher in Dr. Guthrie s original Eagged School at Edinburgh ; 
who had been looking out for an opportunity to dedicate his 
practical knowledge and experience to his Master s service in the 
Mission-field ; who had offered himself to the London Missionary 
Society for Madagascar, but was told that the island was " not 
ripe for his assistance"; who had offered to the C.M.S. for the 
lay superintendence of Frere Town, but found that another (Com 
mander Eussell) had just been appointed ; who again came forward 
when he heard of the Nyanza Expedition, saying (December 12th, 
1875), " My heart burns for the deliverance of Africa, and if you 
can send me to any of those regions which Livingstone and Stanley 
have found to be groaning under the curse of the slave-hunter, I 
shall be very glad"; who, after he had applied, received a letter 
from Dr. Duff, offering him the charge of the new steamer which 
the Free Church of Scotland was sending out for Lake Nyassa ; 




Chap. 74. 

O Neill, 

of the 


leave of 
the party. 

Mackay s 



and who, by the same post, received Mr. Wright s letter com 
municating the C.M.S. Committee s acceptance of his offer. 

Then appeared, and were accepted, a young clergyman, an 
Oxford man, the Kev. C. T. Wilson, Curate of St. James s, Colly- 
hurst ; a vigorous Irishman, Mr. T. O Neill, Diocesan Architect, 
Cork ; and two mechanics, Messrs. G. J. Clark and W. M. Eobert- 
son ; also " as builder and agriculturist," Mr. James Eobertson, 
whom the doctors refused, but who was allowed to accompany 
the party at his own charges. Still there was no medical man ; 
but at the last moment Mackay found an old fellow-teacher of his 
in the Kagged School, working in connexion with the Edinburgh 
Medical Mission Dr. John Smith ; and he was accepted just in 
time, in fact only half an hour before the valedictory meeting for 
the party was to be held. 

Before this, however, Lieutenant Shergold Smith had started. 
Some friends of Africa had presented to the Society a small 
steamer, the Highland Lassie, for the use of the Mombasa Mission ; 
but her first association was with the new Nyanza Mission, as 
Lieutenant Smith volunteered to sail her out. She left Teign- 
mouth Harbour on March llth, 1876, was blown across the Bay 
of Biscay by a strong northerly wind, sailed or steamed quietly 
through the Mediterranean, the Suez Canal, and the Eed Sea, and 
safely reached Mombasa." 

The rest of the party were taken leave of, not at a public 
meeting, but in the Committee-room, on April 25th. The Instruc 
tions had been drawn up with much care and deliberation, with 
the aid, as regards external matters, of Colonel Grant s experience, 
and of that of the Scotch Mission on Lake Nyassa. Great stress 
was laid upon the importance of maintaining the avowed mis 
sionary character of the Expedition : the Lord s Day to be 
scrupulously observed with the utmost care ; the natural love of 
sport to be restrained, and game only to be shot for food ; daily 
united prayer not to be omitted. " Let it be understood among 
your attendants, and they will make it understood among the 
Natives who visit you, that at such times you cannot be interrupted 
that you have an engagement with the King of kings which you 
cannot neglect." A touching incident occurred on the occasion, 
which was remembered long afterwards. Mackay was the last to 
say a few words in reply to the Instructions. " There is one 
thing," he said, "which my brethren have not said, and which I 
want to say. I want to remind the Committee that within six 
months they will probably hear that one of us is dead." The 
w r ords were startling, and there was a silence that might be felt. 
" Yes," he continued ; " is it at all likely that eight Englishmen 
should start for Central Africa, and all be alive six months after ? 
One of us at least it may be I will surely fall before that. 

* Lieutenant Smith s very interesting journal of her voyage was printed in 
the CM. Hleaner of June, 1876. 


But," he added, " when that news comes, do not be cast down PART VIII. 
but send some one else immediately to take the vacant place." 1873-82. 
The forecast was too true. Within three months one was dead Cha P- ? 4 - 
the builder, Mr. J. Robertson. And the day came when Mackay 
himself was the only one of the party remaining in Africa. 

On April 27th the party sailed from Southampton, and on 
May 30th they were all at Zanzibar. Their equipment, and the The party 
goods and appliances they were to carry up-country, had all been bai% a " zl 
selected and prepared under the advice of Colonel Grant, and of 
Lieutenant Cameron, the first Englishman to walk right across 
Africa, who had just returned from his memorable journey. The 
money had to be purchased at Zanzibar, consisting, as it did, 
principally of American cotton cloth, called merikani. The wages 
of the men, their daily rations, the liongo or toll levied by various 
chiefs whose territory must be crossed, all would have to be paid 
in this bulky coin, which of itself required a large body of porters 
to carry it. It was hoped that the unhealthy belt of low country 
along the coast might be traversed by ascending one of two small 
rivers, the Wami and the Kingani, neither of which had ever been 
explored ; and a small steam-launch, the Daisy, was used to try 
them . But both were found to be far too narrow and tortuous ; 
and it therefore proved necessary to march the whole caravan of and on the 
several hundred porters direct from the coast. The difficulties road> 
and annoyances of this method of travel are well known now, 
from the countless letters that have described them ; but those 
experienced latterly on the road to Uganda are as nothing com 
pared with what the first parties went through. Their journals 
are full of interest, but it would take a whole volume of this 
History to print them here, and they are always accessible for 
reference in the pages of the Intelligencer. 

It was arranged to establish an intermediate station in the 
uplands of Usagara, some 250 miles from the coast ; and 
Lieutenant Cameron had told the Society of a suitable place 
called Mpwapwa, which accordingly was fixed upon ; and one of Mpwapwa. 
the mechanics was left there. He, however, soon left in ill -health 
and returned to England, as the other had already done. The 
party, therefore, that went forward from Mpwapwa was reduced 
from eight to five in number ; and very soon Shergold Smith had 
to write, " We are yet (like Gideon s army) too man}/," for Dr. 
Smith insisted on sending back Mackay, who was ill, and who, to Mackay 
his intense disappointment, was carried in a hammock back to fj* nt back 
Mpwapwa. There, however, his health revived, and he walked 
down to the coast, 230 miles, in eleven days. Not that he had 
the slightest thought of returning to England ! But he felt that 
perhaps his right location for a time was at the base of operations, 
arranging for the forwarding of mails and supplies, and laying 
plans for easier methods of travel. In fact he did, in about six His work 
months, construct a rough road from the coast to Mpwapwa, 
which he thought might be available for Cape waggons and teams 

H 2 



Chap. 74. 

The Lake 

Death of 
Dr. Smith. 

from King 

of oxen. But the oxen were killed by the tsetse-fly, and this 
plan though not the road came to nought. 

Meanwhile the remaining four, Shergold Smith, Dr. Smith, 
Wilson, and O Neill, went forward, and the two latter, with the 
first division of the caravan, reached the south end of the Lake 
on January 29th, 1877, after a inarch often interrupted of just 
six months. The two Smiths had a much more trying time. 
The whole of their porters deserted, and both were prostrate with 
fever and dysentery ; and they only arrived at Kagei, where the 
others were awaiting them, on April 1st, after what Lieutenant 
Smith called "a stormy voyage." And they were still " too many." 
On May llth the doctor succumbed to the fever, and the first 
missionary grave had to be dug on the shores of the Nyanza. 
That left three. 

But their courage failed not, nor their trust in the Lord who 
had sent them. The little Daisy, which had been carried all the 
way in pieces slung upon poles, was put together ; but in 
Mackay s absence, and with some of the machinery missing,. she 
could only be made into a sailing boat. Shergold Smith intended, 
as soon as she w 7 as ready, to cross to the west end of the Lake 
with Wilson, leave him in Karagwe with Eumanika, and then go 
on alone to Uganda ; O Neill remaining at Kagei with the heavy 
goods, until it should be known whither to convey them. But 
towards the end of June, messengers unexpectedly arrived from 
King Mtesa. When Stanley left Uganda two years before, he 
had left behind a boy who had been in the school of the Universi 
ties Mission at Zanzibar, and who could read and write a little 
English, in order that he might read to Mtesa the Bible Stanley 
gave him. The letters now received were written by that boy for 
the king, as follows : 

" April 10M, 1877. 

" To MY DEAR FRIEND, I have heard that you have reached Ukerewe, 
so now I want you to come to me quickly. 1 give you Magombwa to be 
your guide, and now you must come to me quickly. This letterjfrom me, 

" MTESA, King of Uganda. 
Written by Dallington Scopioii Maftaa, April 10th, 1877." 

( Written on the back of the above.} 

" To MY DEAR SIR, I have heard that 

" April \Qth, 1877. ^ 
you are in Ukerewe, and this 

king is very fond of you. 

He wants Englishmen more than all. This is 
" DALLINGTON SCOPION, April 10th, 1877. 

across the 

from your servant, 

servant that you may come quickly, and therefore I pray you come to 
me quickly, and let not this my servant come without you. And send 
my salaam to Lukonge, King of Ukerewe, and Thaduma Mwanangwa, of 
Kageye, and Songoro. This from me, " MTESA, King of Uganda." 

It was then resolved that Smith and Wilson should go straight 
to Uganda. And now occurred a signal token of God s favour, 
so exceptional that it has never occurred again in all the twenty 
years that have since elapsed. That little sailing boat crossed the 


Victoria Nyanza in thirty hours ! At a small island en route, where PART VIII. 
they essayed to land, they had a perilous adventure. The Natives ~ 

on the shore threw stones and shot poisoned arrows. A stone 
struck Smith, carried the glass of his blue spectacles into his 
best eye, and destroyed the sight of it. Wilson s shoulder was 
pierced by a poisoned arrow, and Smith, blinded as he was, 
and blood streaming down his face, sucked the wound, and doubt 
less saved his comrade s life. The brave sailor went on, and on 
Tuesday evening, June 26th, anchored in the inlet now known as 
Murchison Creek. There they waited a day or two until their 
coming had been announced to Mtesa ; and they reached Eubaga, 
the then capital of Uganda, on Saturday evening, June 30th. Arrival in 
The Sunday they spent in retirement and prayer, " the king gan 
quite understanding why they did not call upon him." On 
Monday, July 2nd, was the reception. Both Smith and Wilson 
sent accounts of it. Let us take Smith s, as it so touchingly 
refers to the loss of his sight : 

"Hubar/a, Uganda, July 8th, 1877. 

" This was our reception. I could not see, so my report is that of ear. R e 

" The king rose as we entered, and advanced to the edge of his carpet, y 
and shook hands. A fine fellow, over six feet, broad shoulders, and 
well made ; grace, dignity, and an absence of affectation in his manner. 
He motioned us to seats. Then five minutes were allowed for drum- 
beating and looking round. I longed for sight to see. 

" Calling one of our guides, I heard his animated report. Then the 
Sultan of Zanzibar s letter was read, after which the C.M.S. s. 

" It was read in Swahili by a young fellow named Mufta, one of the 
boys Stanley had brought with him, and left with the king, at his request, 
to teach him to read the Bible. At the first pause, the king ordered a 
feu dejoie to be fired, and a general rejoicing for the letter ; but at the 
end. where it was said that it was the religion of Jesus Christ which was 
the foundation of England s greatness and happiness, and would be of 
his kingdom also, he half rose from his seat, called his head musician, 
Tole", to him, and ordered a more vigorous rejoicing to be made, and 
desired the interpreter to tell us that this which we heard and saw (for 
all the assembly were bowing their heads gently, and noiselessly clapping 
their hands, and saying Nyanziy five or six times) was for the name 
of Jesus. This from the centre of Africa, dim as his knowledge may be, 
must rejoice the hearts of all Christians. 

l The king then asked, Have you seen my flag ? I hoist that flag 
because I believe in Jesus Christ. This Christian flag is a medley of 
all colours, suggestive of the universality of Christ s Kingdom. 

" The following day we went twice. In the morning it w r as a full 
court as before, and from some cause he seemed suspicious of us, and 
questioned us about Gordon, and rather wanted to bully us into making 
powder and shot, saying, i Now my heart is not good. We said we came 
to do as the letter told him, riot to make powder and shot ; and if he 
wished it, we would not stay. He paused for some time, and then said, 
( What have you come for to teach rny people to read and write ? We 
said, Yes, and whatever useful arts we and those coming may know. 
Then he said, Now rny heart is good : England is my friend. I have one 
hand in Uganda, and the other in England. 

" He asked after Queen Victoria, and wished to know which was 



PART VIII. greatest, she or the Khedive of Egypt. The relative size of their do- 
1873-82. minions was explained to him, and referring him to our letter, I said 
Chap. 74. how desirous England was that his kingdom should be prosperous. 

" Executions such as Speke describes have ceased. The drawings in 
his book are most faithful. 
" Eye says, you must stop." 

First Then on the following Sunday, July 8th, the first public Chris- 

Chnstian ,. . . , o / . . i 

service in tian service in Uganda was held in the kings compound. Here 
Uganda. j s Wilson s account of it : 

" Rubaya, Uganda, Sunday, July Stk, 1877. 

" The king, chief men, and others, about 100 in all, were present. I 
read a chapter from the Old and New Testament, Mufta translating, 
and explained a few things which the king asked. We then had a few 
prayers, all kneeling, and to my surprise and pleasure, a hearty Amen 
followed each prayer. The king had told them to do so. I next gave 
them a short address on the Fall, and our consequent need of a Saviour, 
telling them of Christ. Mufta translated. All listened with grea f 
attention, and the king afterwards asked many questions. It was very 
encouraging indeed." 

Let us now come back to England for a little. The letters 
conveying the glad news of the Gospel being preached at last in 
Uganda reached Salisbury Square six months after, on January 7th, 
1878, and excited the utmost interest and thankfulness. But bad 
news travels faster than good news. On March 19th the follow 
ing telegram came from Aden, sent thither by the agents at 
Zanzibar: "Letters from Governor of Unyanyembe report Smith 
and O Neill murdered." * This was crushing news indeed. 
Where was the one man left in the heart of Africa ? Where was 
Wilson ? None could guess. To all appearance the Mission was 
at an end ; and, naturally enough, there were not wanting voices 
to utter the agreeable words, "We told you so!" Some, even, 
who had ardently supported the enterprise, now went over to the 
opposition. But Henry Wright s faith failed not ; and there was 
another, who, on first hearing the previous news of the bright 
commencement in Uganda, had written a sentence that now 
seemed prophetic. This was the old veteran, whose discoveries 
thirty years before had inspired all Central African enterprise, 
Ludwig Krapf. From his retirement at Kornthal in Wurtemberg 
he had written : 

" Kornthal, January 2 2nd, 1878. 

" With hearty thanks to God I have read that your missionaries have 
reached Uganda, and have been well received. No man has more cause 
for thankfulness than myself. By the establishment of a Mission in 
the centre of Africa, my urgent wish for the location of a Mission-chain 
between East and West Africa has at least been fulfilled by half way. The 
western half will be brought about on the Lualaba, which Mr. Stanley, 
in the providence of God, has discovered. Since 1844 this chain of 

* Unyanyembe was a trading centre 500 miles from the coast. The Sultan 
of Zanzibar had a kind of partial authority in the country, and had a 
governor posted at this station. 

The good 
news in 

But bad 

"We told 
you so ! " 

Krapf on 
the Mis 


stations has been an object of thought and prayer, and now I have been PART VIII. 
permitted to live and see the development of this plan. True, many 1873-82. 
reverses may trouble your faith, love, and patience, but you have the Chap. 74. 

promises of the Lord on your side, and especially the promise of 

Isaiah ii. 18. Though many missionaries may fall in thefiyht, yet the sur 
vivors mill pass over the slain in the trenches, and take this great African 
fortress for the Lord" 

And now those final words of his were a comfort and a strength. 
But what was to be done? That was the practical question. 
There were already five men, laymen, at or near the coast, and Reinforce- 
three more were at once despatched ; but some of these were for ments - 
the intermediate stations. Besides them, it was determined to 
send a new party by the Nile route. Gordon had lately been in The Nile 
England, and had offered to assist any men who might be sent party- 
that way ; and when he heard of the catastrophe he wrote to Mr. 
Wright, " I will engage to send up safe any persons you may wish 
to send, to secure you free passage for letters, &c., and to do 
this free of cost within my government. . . . Don t send hike- 
warms. At the same time he suggested that a Mission be sent 
to the Albert Nyanza, offering every facility in his power. This 
was not possible ; but four men were selected for Uganda, viz., 
Pearson, who had been an officer in the P. & 0. service ; Felkin, 
a young doctor ; and Litchfield and Hall, Islington students ; and 
they left England in May, 1878. Hall, however, was disabled by 
a sunstroke in the Eed Sea, and had to return ; and he has since 
been a missionary in India. The other three went on camels 
across the desert from Suakin to Berber, and thence up the Nile 
to Khartoum, where they were received with unbounded kindness Received 
by Gordon. Pearson wrote of him thus : 

" August 8th, 1878. On going to the palace at two o clock, of course 
the guard turned out, and several kavasses ushered us upstairs, and in a 
large corridor we saw a table laid for lunch, and a little man in his shirt 
sleeves walking about. 1 took him for the butler. On looking through 
the open doors opposite saw a very splendid divan with a round table in 
the middle, on which was a bunch of flowers; several looking-glasses on 
the walls. But on catching sight of us the l butler rushed up and 
said, How d ye do r* So glad to see you ; excuse shirt-sleeves, so hot ! 
awful long voyage. I ll make a row about it. Are you very angry 
with me ? 

" A hearty grasp of the hand to each, a piercing glance of small sharp 
eyes accompanied this flow of words, spoken in a clear, sharp, but 
pleasant tone of voice. Yes ! it is he indeed, the liberator of the slaves, 
the ruler of a country half as big again as France, the Chinese Gordon ! 
It is hard to describe him ; he is short, thin, well-moulded face, slightly 
grey hair, his eyes calm, but at times light up with great fire and energy, 
thin, nervous hands, and a peculiar smile. We have had some glorious 
talks with him, which have strengthened me. I only wish I could stay 
with him longer. 

"August 9th. He changes rapidly from one subject to another. In 
the middle of a conversation he suddenly stopped and said, You wrote 
to your mother, did you ? * Yes. said I. * That s right, always let your 
mother know how you are. How my mother loved me ! 



1873-8 2. 
Chap. 74. 

The fate of 
Smith and 
O Neill. 

alone in 
the heart 
of Africa. 

Joined by 

Gordon sent the party on by his steamers, and at his personal 
expense, right up to the frontier of Uganda.* 

But this is anticipating. Let us go hack to the Nyanza, and 
see what that alarming telegram meant. Shergold Smith had 
left Wilson in Uganda, and re-crossed the Lake to help O Neill to 
bring over the heavy goods. They visited the large island of 
Ukerewe, where they had purchased a big boat from an Arab 
trader named Songoro. This Arab had a quarrel with Lukongeh, 
the king of Ukerewe, and being in peril of his life fled to the 
missionaries for protection ; whereupon Lukongeh s people sur 
rounded the Mission camp, and, probably on December 13th, 1877, 
massacred almost the whole party, including Smith and O Neill 
How they died, what were their last words, we know not; but 
this we know, that they had finished the work God gave them to 
do, and He called them to Himself at the right time, and not a 
moment before. Smith had written only a few days previously ; 
" Wholesome linos are those you sent : 

1 know riot the way I am going, 
But well do I know my (Juide. 

" Pray for us all, that we may know Him better and better until the 
perfect clay. ... I am lost in contemplation of that glorious time 
when Christ Jesus our Lord shall come and take His great power and 
reign . . . We ask prayer that our hopes, our aims, our desires, may 
be one the glorification of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the hastenino- O f 
His Kingdom." 

Wilson had remained in Uganda, and was five months without 
hearing anything o f his brethren. At length, on the last day of 
the year 1877 the fatal tidings reached him. Immediately he 
obtained canoes from Mtcsa, and went across the Lake to get 
further information, and perhaps meet Mackay, who he hoped 
might have come on. But he found no one "at Kagei, and he 
therefore returned to Uganda, and spent many more months there 
alone a solitary white man in the heart of the Dark Continent. 
Meanwhile, Mackay, on hearing the news, had pressed forward^ 
but being impeded by a bad rainy season, which obliged him to 
wade through swamps for days together, only reached Kagei in 
June, 1878. He at once went over to Ukerewe, unarmed, to assure 
Lukongeh that "the followers of Jesus did not avenge wrongs, 
but forgave them." Presently Wilson came over the Lake again^ 
and once more, after just a year of loneliness, had the companion 
ship of a fellow-Christian. The two men started together for 
Uganda, but were wrecked on the way, and did not reach Eubao-a 
for two months. November, 1878, therefore is the date of 
Alexander Mackay s arrival in the land for which he was destined 
to do so great a work. 

* Felkin s very interesting diary of this journey was printed month by 
month m the C.M. Gleaner, of 1879. Letters also appeared in the IntMiqcnct-r 
of January, 1880. 


For three months all seemed hopeful. Teaching at court went PART VIII. 
on regularly, though the people generally were still unreached. 1873-82. 
But the early months of 1879 brought a succession of events good 
and had. First, in February, the Nile party arrived. Then came 
two French Eoman Catholic priests. From the day when the French 
news was published that Shergold Smith and Wilson had reached sion in 1S 
Uganda and found good openings, Cardinal Lavigerie, then u & anda - 
Archbishop of Algiers, had planned to send a Eoman Mission to 
so promising a field. Dr. Oust, hearing of this, went himself to 
Algiers, and begged the Cardinal, with all Central Africa open 
to him, not to choose the one spot where a Christian Mission had 
already been begun ; but in vain. The usual policy of Eome 
was adhered to : it was more important to thwart a Protestant 
Mission than to go to the unevangelized Heath en. * The third 
event was the arrival of a letter from Dr. Kirk to Mtesa, brought 
by the Arab traders, w r ho pretended to translate it for him, but 
wickedly made it mean precisely the contrary of what it said, 
reading it as if it were a w r arning to the king against the 
missionaries. It was the first but not the last time that this trick 
was played by them. The fourth event, in April, was the arrival 
of two more men, Stokes and Copplestone, who had come via. 
Zanzibar, making now seven C.M.S. missionaries in Uganda. 

The French priests had brought for Mtesa just the kind of French 

i -i >n -I -T, -P presents 

present he valued nnes, powder and shot, military uniforms, for Mtesa. 
helmets, swords, &c. From the first they set themselves to 
undermine the influence of Wilson and Mackay ; but no open 
breach occurred till the Superior arrived. Then Mackay writes : 

" M. Lourdel know well that it was our custom to hold service every 
week at court ; and lie and his Superior came and sat down beside me, French 
and did not leave until they had fulfilled their intention to oppose us. jjf ies ,* s a * 

" All kneel now, and join devoutly in the Amens. The gentlemen of service^ S 
the French Mission sat on their chairs, however, during prayers, and 
somewhat distracted the general attention by their doing so, and by their 
mutual talk in French, although in whisper. 

" We were not interrupted by them, however, until prayers were over 
and I began to read the Scriptures. I had read only the first verse when 
Mtesa, in his usual abrupt style, called to a coast-man present to ask 
the Frenchmen if they don t believe in Jesus Christ ; why don t they 
kneel down with us when we worship Him every Sabbath Y don t they 
worship Jesus Christ r 1 

" M. Lourdel was spokesman. He became all at once very excited, and 
said, We do not kneel, because we should thus show that we were not 
Protestants but Catholics ; we do not join in that religion because it is 
not true ; we do not know that book because it is a book of lies. If we 
joined in that, it would mean that we were not Catholics but Protestants, 
who have rejected the truth ; for hundreds of years they were with us, but 
now they believe and teach only lies. 

"Such was the drift of his excited talk in a mixture of bad Arabic, 
Swahili, and French. Mtesa endeavoured to give the chiefs some idea of 

* See a significant and avowed instance of this at p. 136 of this volume. 



Chap. 74. 

Mackay s 

ment of 

Mtesa s 
envoys to 

what he had been saying, and then asked me what I had to reply. I felt 
that the moment was one requiring great coolness and great firmness, for 
my opponent s excited state might prove contagious, while his repeated 
denunciations of me as a * liar could not be easily disproved on such an 

" I endeavoured to give the court a simple account of the history of 
the Church, and why we had left Rome. I stated, as clearly as possible, 
that our authority was the Word of God only; that the Romanists had 
the Pope as their head, while we acknowledged one Head Jesus Christ. 
I tried also to smooth matters by saying that we had one belief in many 
things one God, one Saviour, one Bible, one heaven, and one law of life. 

" But my friend would have no terms of peace. There was one truth 
(el Haqq), and he came to teach that, and we were liars ! We were liars 
to say that they worshipped the Virgin Mwy : we were liars to say that 
they regarded the Pope as infallible. The Pope was the king of religion 
in all the world. He was the successor of Peter, who was the successor 
of Christ. The Pope was the only authority to teach the truth in the 
world. Wherever we went to teach lies, the Pope sent his messengers to 
teach the truth. If what he said was not true, he would die on the 
spot, &c., &c. Never did I hear the word mwonyo (liar) so frequently 

" I could not but feel sorry for the king and all present. Their feeling 
of hopeless bewilderment made them say, t Every white man has a 
different religion. How can I know what is right ? Mtesa asked. 

" They went home, and so did I. It is with a heavy heart that I think 
of the trouble now begun. But it is the great battle for the truth, and 
the victory will be God s. I have taken up the one solid ground that we 
must ever fight on and for Christ, the sole Head, and His Word the 
only guide. It is with all our might that we must now labour to give the 
people the Scriptures in their own tongue, and teach them to read and 
understand them. Where will Popery be then ? " 

It was only for a month or two that there were seven C.M.S. 
men in Uganda. Stokes and Copplestone went back across the 
Lake to establish a proposed station at Uyui, near Unyanyembe ; 
and Wilson and Felkin, both of whom had suffered from the 
climate, undertook to conduct to England three envoys whom 
Mtesa wished to send to the Queen. They took the northern 
route by which Felkin had gone to Uganda, down the White 
Nile ; but the journey proved a difficult one, as the Khedive 
Ismail was dead, and Gordon had thrown up his command and 
returned home ; and the confusion was already beginning which 
lasted nineteen years. However, they reached England safely. 
But letters sent on before them, which came in October, 1879, 
gave a serious view of the position in Uganda, chiefly owing to 
the false statements of the Arabs about Mackay ; and again those 
members of the C.M.S. circle who were not favourable to the 
Mission returned to the charge and proposed withdrawal. Again, 
however, opinions veered round when, in April, 1880, Wilson and 
Felkin appeared with the three envoys. As the first natives of 
Uganda who had ever been seen in England, they excited great 
interest. They were received by the Royal Geographical Society,* 

* Proceedings of Ike R.G.S., June, 1880. 


and by the Queen at Buckingham Palace/ Their coming PART VIII. 
certainly helped the Mission in this country, notwithstanding that 
it turned out afterwards that they were not chiefs as was supposed, 
but persons of no consideration in Uganda. And when, after 
twenty months absence, they appeared again in Uganda, their 
account of their journey created an impression which was useful. 

For that period had been one of much trial. The king s ^Pf^ of 
caprice, the slanders of the Arabs, and the opposition of the Uganda. 
French priests, combined to cause much discomfort to Mackay, 
Litchfield, and Pearson, though Litchfield left in June, 1880, and 
Pearson in March, 1881. Nevertheless, the period was, upon the 
whole, one of much practical work. A few brief extracts from 
Mackay s journal may be given, f First let us see him at his 
manual work : 

11 January \th, 1879. Yesterday and to-day engaged in fitting up Mackay s 
shop for iron work. Forge, anvil, lathe, vice, and grindstone, are now 
in order, and will, I hope, be of very much service. 

" 16th. Host of chiefs and slaves crowding my smithy. The cyclope 
blower and turning-lathe are great marvels to them all. The grind 
stone, however, is perhaps the most interesting object. They cannot 
understand how * the wheels go round ! 

" 17^. King sent two trumpets to repair. The English copper one 
I quickly brazed with borax and brass filings in furnace, but could not 
get solder to hold on native-made brass trumpet. I could not use 
borax, as that needs great heat, which would melt the soft solder with 
which it is made. I found a small bottle of chl. amon. in medicine- 
chest, but that does not seem so pure as sal ammoniac of commerce, and 
failed after many trials. I have no muriatic acid or rosin." 

Then let us see his ordinary methods of teaching : 

" Sunday, May ~\8th. The king sent out to say that we should have 
prayers in the church. I am very glad indeed that he gave such an 
order, as, although it means that he could not be bothered with Bible- 
reading that day, yet he recognized the existence of other souls than 
his own. This he has always failed to acknowledge. 

" The Katikiro, chiefs, and all of us then repaired to the kanisa (or 
newly-built neat chapel). The half-breed Mohammedans came also and 
sat down well back, and did all in their power to talk with the people 
about them, and take off their attention. Still in other respects all 
were attentive, and devoutly kneeled during prayers. These I read in 
Swahili, and am sorry that many do not understand. I hope to intro 
duce one or two prayers in Ruganda very soon. 

" I then read and explained most of the first two chapters of St. 
John s Gospel. The Katikiro acted as interpreter, and a good number 
took a lively interest in the lesson. I laid down clearly the grand 
truths of the Gospel, and the love of God to man in Jesus Christ. 
Head-knowledge is easily enough imparted, but to reach the heart needs 
a power not of man but of God. 

" Sunday, June 15th. Litchfield and myself went to court. Last 
night I translated into Swahili Exod. xix. and xx., and I read these to 

* See C.M. Gleaner, August, 1880. 

f Several of these extracts have never been published before, either in the 
C .jf. Intelligencer or in the Memoir of Mackay himself. 



Chap. 74. 

The two 
and Lu- 


the king a.nd court, beginning the service with prayer. I explained the 
meaning of each Commandment, and endeavoured to show how we are 
all guilty of all, and all come under the curse, but that Jesus alone has 
kept them all, and in Him we have alone a right to heaven. May God s 
law be a delight here, and above all, may the love of the Redeemer be 
felt ! I fear that these lessons make little impression on the minds of 
the hearers. Only one sentiment seemed to be properly caught, viz.. 
that we all break one Commandment or other, and are thus all sinners. 
I feel much my feebleness in being able to lay before them properly the 
great matters of eternity. One consolation I have is that God can 
bring the truth home to hearts without a multitude of my words. 

" August 9th. I have now gone through the whole of St. Matthew s 
Gospel, much of St. John, portions of Kings, and of the Acts. I now 
mean (D.V,) to take St. Luke s Gospel for some time. I have got a copy 
in Mombasi Swahili by Rebmann, but have to render it into the Zanzibar 

Hitherto the Scripture-reading had been from the Swahili 
versions in use at the coast. Mtesa and the chiefs understood 
that language. But the people generally did not, and Mackay 
was only gradually picking up their vernacular, Luganda (or as he 
at first called it, Ruganda), by ear, and could not yet speak freely 
in it ; so that his instructions given in Swahili had to he 
interpreted by one of the bilingual chiefs. But he was now 
working hard at reducing the Luganda, and trying to translate 
into it prayers and texts : 

" February 5th, 1879. Studied the language. Endeavoured to reduce 
the seven classes of nouns to four, to find a rationale of concords. I 
think I see my way pretty clearly. One thing I feel strongly on, viz., 
the absurdity of multiplying minute differences into distinct classes, 
thus confusing new learners. Steere s eight classes of nouns in Swahili 
are a damper to a beginner. The small book with exercises and four 
classes of nouns is out of sight better for beginners than his handbook. 
We all learn to speak our mother tongue before we study the grammar 
of it. This should be the order, as far as possible, in acquiring a new 
language also. How many years hard work does it not take to learn 
Latin by cramming up five declensions ? Did Cicero know anything 
about the declensions P If he did not, and yet knew Latin, how absurd 
it is to attempt declension before one knows Latin ! I learned German 
first, and afterwards studied German grammar. I never saw any speed 
by following the inverse order. 

" August \ltli. This afternoon I had a couple of lads for hours with 
me ; we translated the first chapter of Genesis into Ruganda together. 

""2th. Every day during the last week I have had one or two 
lads with me in the afternoons learning to read, and giving myself 
considerable help in their own tongue. I have written out translations 
of several chapters of the Scripture reading lessons. To-day I have 
attempted the Creed, and got a fair rendering. Of the Lord s Prayer 
I have got several versions some time ago, but the best requires revision. 
Little by little I hope to get our whole Sunday service translated into 

" Sunday, September ]4th. Found the chiefs, &c., waiting for us in 
the chapel. During the week T had translated into Ruganda the 
prayers I usually read in Swahili, i.e. with the assistance of Mokassa, 
who reads with me every day. 


"As it happened, there was no one present qualified to interpret, and PART VI IT. 
I observed one of the chiefs say, We can only join in the Ainens to- 1873-82. 
day. I told them that I had endeavoured to translate the service into Chap. 74. 
Rnganda, but imperfectly. They asked me therefore (o read that they 
might understand. 

When I had finished, I was gratified to find that they had understood, 
and not a few told me so afterwards. 

" Sunday, 21st. Went to court alone and held service. Yester 
day I had gone over and improved my Ruganda version of the 
prayers, and this morning T read this revised form. Instead of the 
Apostles Creed I have translated the Nicene Creed, as the latter is 
more explicit on the divinity of our Lord, and this is the great question 
just now, as the Mussulmans declare Him to be only a prophet. It is Dealings 
a pleasure to be able, in ever so imperfect a manner, to have prayers in JJ 1 ^*^ 
such language as all present can join intelligently in, and this they did 

" The first part of our lesson was the Feeding of the .5000. In con 
nexion with that, Mwanakulya (a Mutongole) has begged me to teach 
him a grace to say at meals. Such a subject is full of instruction to an 
audience like what one finds here, where daily food is got with no toil. 

" Then came the most important and most opportune subject. Whom 
say ye that I am ? (Luke ix.). Without alluding to the debates of the 
previous days I dwelt much on the great fact of God manifest in the 
flesh/ I turned up passage after passage showing the testimony of all 
the evangelists, of angels, and of Jesus Himself, to His oneness with the 

" Sunday, 28tfi. To-day was fine, and Litchfield accompanied me 
to court. The chapel was immediately filled, those of lesser rank 
sitting outside. After reading prayers in Ruganda, I went over again 
the subject of last Sunday, showing that the united testimony of 
prophets, angels, apostles, and the Lord Himself was that He was no 
less than the Son of the Living God and the one Saviour of the world, 
Then came the special subject for to-day the value of an immortal 

" Such lessons are by no means over formal, but are given much in 
the way in which Moslem teachers explain the Koran. We all sit on 
the floor on mats, and in a familiar way I endeavour to inculcate the 
great truths of eternity. Many listen attentively ; and as their habit is 
to repeat over their understanding of each clause, I get an idea of how 
far they have caught my meaning, and derive no little encouragement 
also in so feebly fulfilling so great a duty. It is an awful position to 
stand between darkness and the light of life." 

The foregoing shows how important it was to meet the teaching 
of the Mohammedans. So here : 

" Sunday, October 5th. The subject of polygamy was talked on for Question of 
some time. I told them that I fully recognized the difficulty of the p< 
case, but said that we also should go in for many wives were it not that 
the plain command of God was against it. I said that they could still 
keep their households of women as servants. The Mussulmans had 
again much to say. They declared that polygamy had nothing to do 
with religion. I asked their chief advocate, How many wives have 
you? Four. Why not five ? This they knew to be an injunction 
of their creed, and could not answer. They then maintained that 
religion was a thing of pure belief, and had nothing to do with matter 
of life. I asked, Then why did you not join the chiefs and me in the 


PART VIII. food which the king sent out to us just now ? They were floored again, 
1873-82. and Mtesa and the whole court laughed heartily at them. 
Chap. 74. " The difficulty is this. At present a man s status is reckoned by his 
establishment, which depends on the number of his wives. Those cook 
the food, and do all the work. 

" * How is a man to get on with one wife and several children alone in 
his house ? asked the king. Who will look after the goats, cook the 
food ? &c. I said that we in Europe had women servants always in the 
house ; but they were not our wives, and need not be necessarily wives 
here either." 

In December, 1879, there was a recrudescence of the old 
Heathenism, which had rather given way before both Mohamme 
danism and Christianity, i.e. at the capital of course the country 
Dealing districts were as yet untouched. This revival came in the form 
hJbari" f a woman representing the lubari or spirit of the Lake, to whom 
super- was attributed magical powers. Thus Mackay dealt with it : 

" December 14f/*. After prayers, instead of our usual reading in St. 
Luke, I turned up the Scriptures from Exodus to Revelation, reading a 
host of passages to show the mind of God towards dealers in witchcraft. 
The laws of God to Moses, the example of Saul and Ahaziah, the mani 
festation of our Lord to destroy the works of the devil, the Acts of the 
Apostles especially the case of Elymas, the works of the flesh con 
trasted with the fruit of the Spirit in Gal. v., and, finally, the list of 
those who may not enter through the gates of the heavenly city (Rev. 
xxii. 15). All these I read in order, having previously written out the 
passages in Swahili." 

Beginning Then we see the first attempts to translate into Luganda St. 
thew^a" Matthew s Gospel, which Mackay subsequently printed on the 
Luganda. spot, and which was long the chief spiritual sustenance of the 
Christians of Uganda : 

"January 2nd, 1880. This morning early, commenced to translate 
St. Matthew s Gospel into Ruganda. Finished the first chapter. A 
perfect host of difficulties present themselves at almost every step. It 
will take very long indeed before they can all be met in any translation. 

" May the same Holy Spirit who inspired the Word at first, cleanse 
my heart and hands in this work, and sanctify it to the glory of my 
Lord and Master Jesus Christ ! " 

" 19th. This morning I resumed translating St. Matthew s Gospel 
with my pupil Mokassa. We did the whole of the second chapter. 

29th. Several mornings Mokassa and I have been translating the 
fifth chapter of St. Matthew." 

In March, 1881, with the returning envoys, came a new 

Philip missionary, the Rev. Philip Flaherty, the same man who, as a 

O Fiaherty } avman? had assisted in the Constantinople Mission in 1860-64. 

He was now brought to the Society by Canon Money, who greatly 

valued him ; and he proved a very remarkable man, with a 

singular power of picking up a language, and great readiness in 

making the best of untoward circumstances. Mackay and the 

other brethren had already done much in teaching boys and 

youths in T^ganda to read, about which many showed much 

eagerness; and into this work O Fiaherty also flung himself 


energetically. The year 1881 was marked by manifest signs that PART VIII. 
the Spirit of God was at work. The first clear cases, indeed, were 1873-82. 
those of two lads, Duta and Mukasa, in the preceding year, who Cha P- ? 4 - 
openly avowed their belief in the religion of Christ, and were in First 
consequence seized, bound, and sent away into the country." converts - 
The next was that of a youth named Sembera. On October 8th, 
1881, he brought to Mackay a note written by himself, " although 
he had never had a lesson in writing, written in Luganda with a 
pointed piece of spear-grass." It ran thus : 

" Bwana Mackay, Sembera has come with compliments, and to give 
you great news. Will you baptize him, because he believes the words 
of Jesus Christ ? " f 

About the same time, another lad named Dumurila died, and 
when dying induced a companion to fetch some water and pour 
it on his head, naming over him the names of the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost. The companion, after the lad s 
death, came to the Mission and told the story, bringing his 
dead friend s Gospel of St. Mark a tentative version printed by 
Mackay which he said had been constantly read by him. Was 
not that baptism registered in the books of heaven ? The French 
priests had already baptized half a dozen lads. The " gospel " R-C. con- 
of fear which they preached proved more quickly effective than the vt 
Gospel of Grace. " How many more days? " said one who had 
been instructed for two months, and was told to wait a little ; 
" see, I tremble in every limb when I lie down to sleep at night, 
in the thought that death may surprise me and cast my soul into 
eternal fire." This was in 1880. Not till March, 1882, did the 
first Protestant baptism take place ; but on the 18th of that First 
month, to the great joy of the two missionaries, Flaherty and bajltis 3 . 
Mackay, five well-tested converts were publicly admitted to the 
Church. One was Sembera, who received the baptismal name of 
Mackay. The others were named Filipo (after Flaherty), 
Henri Eaiti (Henry Wright), Edward (after E. Hutchinson), and 
Yakobo (Jacob). Only a few days later, a sixth was baptized 
eight hundred miles away. This was Duta, who had been taken Henry 
down to the coast by Pearson when he left the country, and was 
left by him in the charge of the Universities Mission at 
Zanzibar. There, on Easter Day, he was received into the 
Church, and named by the kind missionaries of that Mission after 
Mr. Wright. Henry Wright Duta had already, while in Uganda, 
undergone, as we have seen, persecution on account of his 

* They were pupils of Litchfield and Pearson s, and interesting early 
notices of them occur in the latter s journals printed in the C.M. Intelligencer 
of October, 1881. 

f A remarkable account of Sembera was written after his death by the 
Rev. E. C. Gordon. It seems that he had actually begun to believe in " Isa" 
before any missionaries reached Uganda, taught by the reading of Stanley s 
Swahili New Testament by the boy Mufta. See C.M. Gleaner, July, 1893. 
He was also C. T. Wilson s first pupil. 



PABT VIII. unconcealed belief in the Christians God; and now for some 
1873-82. years his name has been known all over the world as the most 
p roni i nen t an( j useful of the Native clergy of Uganda. 

The year 1882 was an epoch in the history of the Mission. 
Not only did it witness -the first baptisms in Uganda, but at the 
very time they took place a new party was preparing to sail from 
England, which included James Hannington, E. P. Ashe, and 
Cyril Gordon. But as the only one of them who at that time 
reached Uganda, Ashe, did not arrive till May, 1883, which 
would take us beyond our present period, we may conveniently 
suspend our narrative for the present at this point, leaving 
Mackay and O Flaherty at Kubaga, with their first little band of 
converts around them. 



Krapf s 
on AMce. 

Before closing the chapter, a word must be said about the 
intermediate stations established between the Coast and the Lake. 
Mpwapwa, the place before mentioned, on the borders of 
Usagara and Ugogo, 230 miles from the coast, was occupied 
tentatively when the first Nyanza party went out, but not per 
manently until the arrival of Dr. Baxter, a medical missionary, 
in 1878. Six miles off, at Kisokwe, a branch station was 
established ; and in 1880, J. T. Last began work at Mamboia, 
some fifty miles nearer the coast. At these three stations, the 
first English women to live in the interior all died, Mrs. Last, 
Mrs. Cole, and Mrs. Stokes. For a few years, commencing 
1879, there was a station at Uyui, near the Arab trading town of 
Unyanyembe, 500 miles inland ; but it was ultimately abandoned. 
The others were persevered in, and some fruit gathered, but the 
work 011 the whole has only lately begun to be encouraging. 

The death of Krapf, at Kornthal, was mentioned in the pre 
ceding chapter. He did not live to hear of the baptisms. The 
last he heard of the Mission was not favourable. But his faith 
never faltered. In a letter dated August 30th, 1881, one of the 
last he wrote to England, he still dwelt upon his old project of a 
chain of stations, and called on the Society to persevere : 

" Real missionaries and their friends must never be discouraged at 
whatever appearance things may assume from without. They must act 
like a wise general does. When he is beaten back on one point, he 
attacks the enemy on another point, according to the plan he has 
previously laid out. And in all cases true missionaries and their friends 
must be mindful of the memorable words which were spoken by the 
French Guard at the Battle of Waterloo : La garde ne se rend pas, ello 
mevirt The Guard does not surrender, it dies. " 

very different 
It is certain 

Yes, and the issue of the Christian s battle is 
from that of the French Guard at Waterloo. 
victory. And within a few years the conquest had been achieved 
of many souls for Christ in Uganda. 




C.M.S. and the Mohammedans Sequel of the Constantinople Mission 
Missionary Travels in Asia Minor Palestine : New Churches 
and Clergy Moabite Stone Other Missions in the East Bishop 
Gobat transfers his Missions to C.M.S. The Mohammedan Con 
ference of 1875 Bosworth Smith s Lectures General Lake s Plans 
His Death Extension : Jaffa, Gaza, Hauran Tristram s Testi 
monyBishop Barclay Ahmed Tewfik Persia : Brucc s Sojourn 
Persia Famine The Mission adopted by C.M.S. 

" Thou therefore gird up thy loins, and arise, and speak unto them all that I 
command thee : be not dismayed at their faces." Jer. i. 17. 

" I Daniel alone sow the vision. . . . Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel 
. . . and I remained there u-ith the kings of Persia." Dan. x. 7, 12, 13. 

]ROM the first, the Church Missionary Society has felt PART VIII 
a special responsibility laid upon it to preach the 1873-82. 
Gospel to the Mohammedans. Its original title was, Cha P- 75 - 
"The Society for Missions in Africa and the East." C.M.S. 
Why not " Africa and Asia " ? for " Asia " and " the jy d h ^ 
East " may be said to be nearly synonymous. It cannot be medans. 
doubted that the words " the East " were primarily designed to 
point to the lands where Islam is dominant, though of course not 
excluding other Asiatic countries ; and frequent references in the 
early Reports to the followers of the False Prophet, to the shores 
of the Mediterranean, and to Persia, indicate the solicitude of the 
Committee. We have seen that the original Mission to the 
Oriental Churches, begun in 1815, was undertaken, not merely for 
their benefit, but with the object, through them, of reaching the 
Mohammedans. The enlightenment of corrupted Churches was 
not in itself the natural work of the Society : otherwise, why not 
go to Italy and Spain ? But in the East Christians and Moslems 
were mingled ; and if the former could be stirred up to evangelize 
the latter, a great work would be done. 

How this enterprise failed, we have seen. We have seen also 
that when the Jubilee was celebrated, the Society still had mis 
sionaries at Syra, Smyrna, and Cairo. The old veterans were not J^paies 
withdrawn, but there was no intention of reinforcing them. Then tine Mis- 
we saw the special circumstances that took the Society to Pales- Jg". s m 
tine in 1851, and to Constantinople in 1858. When the decade now 



PART VIII. under review opened, Cairo was no longer occupied, Lieder having 
1873-82. been dead seven years. Hildner still carried on his Greek school 
Chap. 75. at gy ra> w here he had heen more than forty years. At Smyrna, 
J. T. Wolters was still holding up the hanner of the Cross after 
forty years service, having with him his son, Theodore F. Wolters, 
and also E. H. Weakley, who had been transferred from Con 
stantinoplewhere Dr. Koelle continued his patient and persistent 
labours. In Palestine there were three German veterans, Klein, 
Zeller, and Hiiber. 

In our Forty-first Chapter we briefly reviewed the story of the 
The Con- Constantinople Mission down to 1864, when the Turkish Govern - 
Mission ple ment suddenly suppressed the work of both the C.M.S. and the 
S.P.G. In the following year, both the excellent Turkish clergy 
men employed by the S.P.G., the Eevs. Mahmoud Effendi and 
E. Williams (Effendi Selim), died, and also a con verted Imam, Abdi 
Effendi, working under the C.M.S. ; and on December 1st in that 
year, 1865, the most distinguished Christian champion in the war 
with Islam, Dr. Pfander, died while in England. But his great 
book was not dead. The Turkish translation of the Mizan-ul- 
Haqq had been cautiously circulated here and there, and it is a 
curious sign of the importance attached by the Moslems to 
Pfander s influence, that a Turkish pamphlet was published, giving 
a garbled account of the famous discussion between Eahmat All 
and "Priests Pfander and French," at Agra in 1854, which was 
described in our Forty-second Chapter. From time to time Turks 
Koeiie and who appeared earnest inquirers visited Dr. Koelle ; but Turkish 
the Turks. S pi es we re ever on the watch to report who ventured to come to 
the Christian missionary ; and men suspected of Christian tenden 
cies were sent off by scores into exile, and condemned to work in 
the galleys. Three times was Koelle able to report baptisms, once 
of a Turkish family, and 011 two occasions of Persians ; but for the 
most part missionary work was practically at a standstill. "Prosely 
tizing efforts," he wrote in 1875, "offend both the religious and the 
political susceptibilities of the Mussulmans. A Turkish Mussul 
man regards them as an insult to his faith, and a Mussulman Turk 
Turkish as an act of hostility against his government and country." " An 
intolerance European missionary," he continued, " could not visit in Moham 
medan houses without rousing suspicion. No church for the 
public Christian service of Turks would have any chance of being 
authorized by the Government. No missionary school for Mo 
hammedan youths would be tolerated." " The Government 
absolutely prohibits the printing of books in which our religion is 
defended against Mohammedanism, or their importation through 
the custom-house. Even books like Sale s English translation of 
the Koran are rigidly excluded." Nevertheless, Koelle succeeded 
in occasionally disposing of a book he had prepared in Turkish, 
entitled Food for Reflection; but when a smaller work on. the 
Death of Christ in refutation of the statement of the Koran that 
Jesus was not really crucified was printed in England and sent 


out, the box containing the copies was seized at the custom-house PART VIII. 
and the books destroyed. 1873-82. 

At Smyrna, the work was less among the Turks, and more Cha P- ? 5 - 
among the Greeks ; but it amounted to little more than seed-sow- workTt 
ing, by conversation and the sale and distribution of Christian Smyrna. 
Scriptures and tracts. In pursuance of this design, Weakley and 
the younger Wolters travelled frequently over the interior of Asia 
Minor, and most interesting are their journals published from 
time to time in the Intelligencer, giving accounts of their visits to 
Koniah (the ancient Iconium), Alia Shehr (the ancient Philadel 
phia), the ruins of Colosse, Laodicea, Sardis, and many other 
places of deep interest to the Bible student. Who shall venture 
to say that these tours were fruitless ? Is not such work precisely 
what calls upon us for undoubting faith in God s own promise that 
His Word shall not return unto Him void, but shall accomplish 
that which He pleases ? 

In Palestine, at the opening of our present period, only Jerusalem Palestine 
and Nazareth were occupied. At both places there were congrega- Mission - 
tions of from two to four hundred people, Syrian by descent, Arab 
by language, and originally belonging to one or other of the Eastern 
Churches. How they came to be adherents of the Church of 
England, our Forty-first Chapter explained. There were now two 
Native pastors, Seraphim Boutaji and Michael Kawar, who had Anglican 
received Anglican orders from Bishop Gobat ; and a third, Chalil 
Jamal, was ordained in 1874. All three had formerly belonged to 
the Greek Catholics," a small community of seceders from the 
Greek to the Eoman Church. The ordination of the two former 
occurred on the day when the new church at Nazareth was opened, New 
and that of C. Jamal at the opening of the new church at Jeru- ^ a u z r a c r h e t n at 
salem. The former church has an interesting origin. In 1862, and J eru - 
the officers of H.M.S. Mars, then on the coast of Syria, wrote to sa 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, expressing " their feelings of 
astonishment and shame at the neglect of the Church of England 
in not having a suitable place of worship" in a place of such 
sacred associations as Nazareth, when the Latins and Greeks had 
theirs. The result was the raising of a special fund for the erec 
tion of a good church, and it was at length solemnly dedicated to 
the service of God by Bishop Gobat on October 1st, 1871. Zeller 
preached on the occasion on Christ s own text in the Nazareth 
synagogue, " The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me," &c. St. Paul s 
Church at Jerusalem was also built by means of a special fund, 
and was opened on Advent Sunday, 1874. Christ Church, belong 
ing to the London Jews Society, was used for English services, 
and for the small community. of Jewish converts; and St. Paul s 
was appropriated to the Arabic-speaking Syrian congregation. 
The venerable bishop of the Syrian Church Was present at the 
dedication. It is particularly interesting that the account of the 
ceremony which appeared in the Intelligencer was written by 
an African, the Eev. Henry Johnson of Sierra Leone, who had 

i 2 



Ghap. 75. 

Klein s 
tours: the 

in Turkey 
and Syria. 





Gobat s 

been sent to Palestine by the Society to perfect himself in 

As in Asia Minor, so in Palestine, missionary tours were taken 
from time to time by Klein and Zeller, and of these also the 
journals were published, giving graphic accounts of the Bedawin 
across the Jordan and in Moab, and of the Druzes of the 
Lebanon, as well as of the ordinary Moslem and Christian 
population. It was on one of these journeys, in 1868, that Klein 
made his great discovery of the famous Moabite Stone, the 
genuine record of the deeds of Mesha, King of Moab, nearly 3000 
years old, \vhich is now in the Louvre Museum. 

Other Missions in the Turkish Empire were doing interesting 
work. The most important were those of the American Con- 
gregationalists at Constantinople and in Asia Minor, the American 
Presbyterian Board in Syria, and the American United Presby 
terians in Egypt. These experienced less difficulty with the 
Turkish authorities, as they principally sought to influence the 
Christian population. The great Beyrout Press of the Presbyterian 
Mission in Syria was, and still is, one of the most powerful and 
useful agencies in the East. The Irish Presbyterians had a 
Mission at Damascus, and there laboured Dr. Wright, the present 
Editorial Superintendent of the Bible Society. An interesting 
work was being done by the British Syrian Schools in the Lebanon, 
under Mrs. Bowen Thompson and Mrs. Mentor Mott. These 
were planned after the shocking massacres of the Maronite 
Christians by the Druzes in 1860, which sent the combined 
English and French fleets to Syria, and in dealing with which 
Lord Dufferin won his earliest laurels. The C.M.S. was earnestly 
appealed to at the time to undertake work in the Lebanon, but 
this was not possible. The Society did, however, for three 
years subsidize Mrs. Thompson s schools. In Palestine itself, 
the Female Education Society had ladies at Nazareth and 

Bishop Gobat had various agencies of his own in the Holy Land, 
He had a mission station at Nablus, and at Salt across the Jordan ; 
but his great work was his schools. His remarkable influence 
upon education in Palestine has never been adequately recognized. 
In 1847, when he went out as Bishop, there was not a single 
school of any kind in the whole country, except that the Latin 
monks were teaching Italian to twenty boys. Gobat opened the 
first Christian school in that year, with nine children. In 1872 
he had twenty-five schools, attended by one thousand children 
belonging to five Christian Churches, besides Jews, Samaritans, 
Moslems, and Druzes. The Greeks and Latins had been stirred 
up to emulation, and there were about one hundred schools 
altogether.* His Diocesan Boarding-school at Jerusalem was 
especially interesting. How widely its influence extended may be 

* Bishop Gobat s Annual Eeport, in the C.M. Record, March, 1872. 


illustrated by the following testimony of Mr. Stanley, the African PART VIII. 
traveller : 1873-82. 

Chap. 75. 

"The most important member of the Expedition, next to myself, was 

Selim, the young Arab boy, a Christian from Jerusalem. He was 
educated by good Bishop Gobat ; and if all the Arab boys of his school 
turn out like Selim, then Bishop Gobat deserves the highest praise for 
his noble work. He was honest and faithful, without fear and without 
reproach. These praises are totally insufficient to convey my sense of 
the services he rendered to me." * 

But as the Bishop was now getting an old man (he was two 
years older than the century), he was desirous of handing over all 
his Missions to the C.M.S. The first station so transferred was 
Salt, in 1873, when the Society sent thither the Rev. Franklin ^M-.S^ 
Bellamy, Vicar of St. Mary s, Devonport. Salt had from time salt, 
immemorial been an independent town, unsubdued by the Turks, 
but paying tribute to a powerful Bedawin tribe ; but in 1866, the 
Turkish Governor of Damascus had succeeded in subjugating the 
place and placing in it a garrison. Gobat thereupon sent a Syrian 
catechist there. A Jesuit Mission also appeared, and by means of 
unconcealed bribes induced a good many of the Greek Christians 
to join them. These, however, did not like their new friends, and 
presently went back. The Bishop offered nothing but the truth 
of God ; and when Bellamy went out, he found a congregation of 
150 people worshipping with the purer services of the Church of 
England. In after years the Rev. Cbalil Jamal was in charge ; 
and visitors to Salt notably Mr. Bickersteth (now Bishop of 
Exeter) in 1880 have always spoken warmly of what we like to 
think of as the Ramoth Gilead Mission. 

The further transfers of Bishop Gobat s agencies did not take 
place till after an event of the year 1875, which had considerable 
influence upon all C.M.S. work among Moslems. Mohammedan 
Missions were one of General Lake s special interests, and in that 
year, observing that several missionaries more or less engaged in 
them chanced to be in England together, he arranged a two days 
Conference on the whole subject, which was held at the C.M. JJjjJ^ >s> 
House in October. It was not confined to the consideration of medan 
work or openings in the East," taking that term in its limited 
sense. Missions to Mohammedans in Africa and India were also 
included, and the subject was dealt with comprehensively. Among The 
those who took part were Bishop Gobat himself, Canon Tristram, s * 
Koelle, Zeller, T. F. Wolters, and Bellamy, from "the East"; 
Scbon, Gollmer, and Roper, from West Africa ; Bruce, from 
Persia ; French, Keene, Bateman, Long, Hughes, Brodie, Sheldon, 
and D. Fenn, from India ; and Jani Alii, R. Noble s convert from 
Islam itself, then a Cambridge undergraduate. 

The principal impression conveyed by this Conference was that * 
the Mohammedans had been almost universally neglected. The tion. 

* How I Found Livingstone, p. 351. 



Chap. 75. 

of work 

opinions as 
to method. 

Islam in 
Africa : 
Mr. B. 
Smith s 

great American Missions in the East scarcely attempted to touch 
them; how little the C. M.S. had done there we have seen; and 
there were no other agencies of importance. In West Africa the 
Mohammedan population was reported as quite accessible, but no 
one was attempting their evangelization. Even in India, where 
religious liberty prevailed, and where important converts had been 
gained as we have seen in several preceding chapters, this 
branch of the work was scarcely at all cultivated. The higher 
Mohammedans are touched by no Mission," said Sell of Madras. 
" Very little has been done among the Mohammedans in Bengal," 
said Long of Calcutta. And it was the same story everywhere. 
As to the best methods of reaching the Moslems, there was much 
diversity of opinion, governed largely by the circumstances of the 
particular fields from which the men had respectively come. 
Those from India contrasted the liberty there with the hindrances 
in the Turkish Empire, and urged that strength be thrown into 
the Indian work ; while those from " the East " affirmed that India 
and Africa were only the "outskirts" of Islam it should be 
attacked at the centre, and particularly where its sacred language, 
Arabic, was the vernacular, as in Palestine. Some thought the 
only way to reach the Moslems of the East was through the 
Eastern Churches ; others, that the Eastern Churches were the 
greatest obstacle to the evangelization of the Moslems. Striking 
evidence was given by the Punjab men, especially by French, to 
the fact that underneath the hard crust of Mohammedan pride and 
bigotry there was often to be found a heart that craved for peace 
and rest and holiness, and that the profounder parts of Scripture, 
such as the First Epistle of St. John, seemed especially effective 
in such cases. On the other hand, the men from West Africa 
testified to the worthlessness of much of the supposed enlighten 
ment and civilization spreading over the Dark Continent by the 
agency of the " missionaries " from the University of El Azhar at 

And here it may be mentioned in passing that some remarkable 
evidence touching the influence of Islam in Africa had appeared 
in the Intelligencer in the previous year. Mr. Knox had, in one. 
of his most incisive articles, reviewed Mr. Bosworth Smith s 
Lectures on Mohammed and Mohammedanism, very severely, 
indeed too severely, and in some respects not quite fairly ; but, 
in a valuable appendix to the article, he had marshalled the 
decisive testimony of travellers like Lander, Barth, Schweinfurth, 
Baker, and Livingstone, to the evils wrought in Africa by Moham 
medanism and Mohammedans. It is, indeed, the fact of the 
religion of Islam and its professors being indistinguishable in this 
matter that differentiates their influence from that of Christianity 
and Christians. Christians, so-called, have wrought untold evil 
in Africa ; but what they have done has been in the very teeth 
of the precepts and the spirit of the Christianity they have so 
unworthily professed. 


After the Conference, General Lake prepared and submitted PART VIII, 
plans for enlarged work in most of the fields represented at it, ** 73 ~; 
which, after full discussion, were adopted. Africa was not 
omitted : it was proposed to make resolute efforts to carry the General 
Gospel to the powerful Mohammedan nations, Mandigoes, Fulahs, ^an e s 3 for 
and Hausas, both from Sierra Leone and up the Niger. As extension, 
regards India, the Corresponding Committees at Calcutta, Madras, 
and Bombay were directed to draft and submit proposals for new 
work in the three Presidencies. Persia had already been dealt 
with, as we shall see presently. In Palestine, the Society was to c. M.S. to 
accept Bishop Gobat s transfer to it of his Nablus Mission, his Qobat s" 
Diocesan School at Jerusalem, and other schools at Eamleh, work. 
Lydd, &c. ; and, in addition to this, certain schools for the Druzes 
which had been tentatively started in the Hauran by the Kev. 
Dr. Parry were to be taken over ; and Jaffa and Acca were to be 
occupied. The feeling was that Arabic work should be cultivated 
rather than the Turkish work; and while Koelle and the elder 
Wolters were left to hold the fort at Constantinople and Smyrna, 
the younger Wolters was transferred to Palestine. 

The labour involved in maturing these plans and corresponding 
about them with the different Missions may be said to have 
robbed the Society of one of its most valued Secretaries, General 
Lake. His health, which had latterly somewhat failed, gave way 
under the strain, and the very same number of the Intelligencer 
(March, 1876) which set forth the new plans also announced his 
retirement ; and he died in the following year. His disappearance 
from Salisbury Square undoubtedly hindered the carrying out of 
parts of the scheme ; and although the Society s work among 
Mohammedans has largely developed since then, it has not been 
altogether on the lines he laid down. Indeed it is a case, like S 

, . , ., . -, p/niT IT sion ot his 

so many others, in which the providence ot God has not led plans, 
the Society forward upon the exact path proposed even by the 
wisest men. The year 1877 was a year of financial perplexity, 
and of heavy retrenchment ; and just a month after Lake s death, 
resolutions were adopted which possibly might not have been 
adopted had he been still in office, but which certainly illustrate 
the uncertainty of human plans. Not only were Constantinople 
and Smyrna to be entirely abandoned, and the veterans there 
withdrawn ; but two missionaries were to be also withdrawn from 
Palestine, one of them being Klein, who was to retire to Germany 
and there be employed upon linguistic work ; and Deimler s 
Mohammedan Mission at Bombay was likewise to be discon 

However, retrenchments, even when ordered, are not always 
carried out. One lady saved the Bombay Mohammedan Mission 
by giving 1000. Koelle and Wolters stayed on at Constantinople 
and Smyrna, as "retired" missionaries, still exercising what 
influence they could ; and, although Wolters s work was almost 
done, and he and his wife died at their post within three days of 



Chap. 75. 


A mission 
school in 

PART VIII. each other, in 1882, Koelle s work was certainly not done, and 
82 - presently he had the distinction of causing an ultimatum to be 
presented to the Sultan by the British Ambassador at Constanti 
nople, as we shall see. But in Palestine, despite Klein s leaving, 
Extension the work went on extending. Longley Hall had opened the 
thief jlffa, new station at Jaffa; and in 1878 the second city in the Holy 
Land, the ancient and historic Gaza, was occupied by a converted 
Jew, the Eev. A. W. Schapira. This last step was in consequence 
of certain schools started at Gaza by an English gentleman, 
Mr. Pritchett, being handed over to the Society. The schools 
in the Hauran were nourishing, though so far away from 
immediate superintendence. Let us take one extract from 
Bellamy s report in 1877, just to show what may be going on in 
a part of the Mission-field probably unknown to the Society s 
whole constituency. It is a notice of the school at Sleim, close 
to that strange island of basaltic rock in the midst of the great 
plain called El Lejah, the "region of Argob" of the Old Testament 
and the " region of Trachonitis " of the New, part of the domain 
of Og, King of Bashan : * 

" Fancy thirty children boys and girls in a room the flat stone roof 
of which I could almost touch with my hand ; the doorway so low that 
I had to stoop much to get in ; no light but what that doorway gave ; 
not a seat nor a desk. The following were my notes of inspection : 
Door, 3.1 feet high ; room, 40 feet long, 8 wide. On register, 34 ; present, 
30 ; 4 of these Greek Christian girls, the rest Druze boys. Have read 
in 1st class Old Testament to 2 Sam., Proverbs, Psalms, Ecclesiastes, 
four Gospels, and Romans. Answered well from both Old and New 
Testaments. 1st. 2nd, and 3rd classes quoted many verses from Scripture 
by memory." 

Bellamy was asked by the Druze sheikhs to start other schools ; 
and others were started, and prospered still more. The day came 
when the work had to be abandoned owing to Turkish inter 
ference ; but was that Divine seed sown in vain in those young 
hearts ? There are, in fact, three agencies which seem to be 
especially important in Mohammedan lands, viz., medical missions, 
women s work among women, and schools. The two former, 
which now occupy a leading place in our Palestine work, had 
scarcely, if at all, been begun, in the period now under review ; 
but schools were doing most efficient service. In 1880-81, Canon 
Tristram and Mr. Bickersteth visited the Mission, and the former, 
on his return, presented to the Committee a valuable Eeport.f 
He had not been content with sojourning at the chief stations : 
he had gone among the villages, such as Kefr Kenna (Cana) and 
Ophrah (Ephraim, John xi. 54), and inspected the schools there ; 
and he was highly pleased with the majority, which were giving 
Scriptural instruction to hundreds of boys and girls, Moslems, 

* Another most interesting report, with a full account of those strange 
regions, appeared in the Intelligencer of February, ]881. 
| Printed in the CM. Intelligencer, September, 1881. 

Visit and 
report of 


Jews, Greeks, Syrians, any who liked to come. The Mohammedan PART VIII. 

children attending were numerous ; and some of the local Turkish 1873-82. 

governors informed Dr. Tristram that they considered the Mission Cha P- 7o - 

was greatly benefiting the people. Some of the men teachers 

were from the Diocesan School ; the women teachers mostly from 

the Lebanon. "Our work in Palestine," wrote the Canon, "is 

a real and vast one. I have visited thirty-five stations and out- " A real 

stations ; and I say without hesitation that the C.M.S. is saturating JJUriT." 8 * 

the villages with Gospel knowledge ; and the result, under God s 

blessing, must one day be vast. We are reaching the Moslem 

youth of both sexes, and are doing a mighty work, not by might, 

nor by power, and if ever there was a time when we must hold 

on, and go on, it is now." Canon Tristram reported with especial 

warmth on the new Mission at Gaza, and also on Nabliis, where one 

of Gobat s men, the Rev. Christian Fallscheer, was labouring ; 

and it may here be added that in the following year, on April 15th, 

1882, a new church was opened at Nabliis, in the presence of the 

Princes Albert and George of Wales, who were then on their tour 

in the Holy Land. 

Canon Tristram s visit was made under a new episcopate. 
Bishop Samuel Gobat entered into rest on May llth, 1879, aged Death of 
eighty. The beloved partner of his wanderings and sufferings in GobS? 
earlier days in Abyssinia, and of his thirty-three years life as 
bishop, died within three months, on August 1st. The peculiar 
difficulties of Gobat s position at Jerusalem were explained in our 
Forty-first Chapter. He certainly was not spared obloquy : few 
men have had to bear more ; a " Protestant " bishop in the Holy 
City was a cause of dire offence to too many. But a truer servant 
of the Lord never walked this earth. He was appointed, it will 
be remembered, by King Frederick William of Prussia, and under 
the original agreement it now became the turn of England to 
appoint the bishop. Lord Beaconsfield was Premier, and he at 
once, at Lord Shaftesbury s suggestion, offered the vacant see to 
Canon Tristram. Such an appointment was an ideal one ; but 
the Canon did not see his way clear to go, and in lieu of himself 
mentioned the name of Dr. Barclay, who had previously been in Bishop 
Palestine in connexion with the London Jews Society, and who Barclay> 
was accordingly chosen, and consecrated on July 25th, 1879. 
His episcopate, however, only lasted two years. He died on 
October 22nd, 1881. Longley Hall described him as "a very 
fine example of the high-minded English bishop." His reputation, 
unhappily, was injured by an extraordinarily injudicious and 
ill-natured Biography, the authorship of which was well known, 
though never publicly acknowledged. The book was practically, 
and fortunately, killed by a crushing review written by Mr. Knox 
in the Record (June 22nd, 1883). 

On New Year s Day, 1880, all England was startled by the f n n /$Sj ey 
news that Lord Beaconsfield had sent an ultimatum to the 
Sultan of Turkey on account of a gross violation of treaties. 



Chap. 75. 

Case of 



and exiled. 




is baptized 

Dr. Koelle, as before stated, did not quit Constantinople when 
the Mission was formally abandoned in 1877, but continued 
residing there as a retired missionary, and occupying himself 
with literary work, and with such private intercourse with 
Turks as was possible. In 1879 he was translating the Prayer- 
book into Turkish for the S.P.C.K., and was assisted in this 
work by a very distinguished Ulema, Ahmed Tewfik, a pro 
fessor and lecturer in leading mosques, and who had expounded 
the Koran before the Sultan. This Ulema was much interested 
in Christianity, but had not given any sign of personal conviction. 
.One day, both Koelle and Ahmed Tewfik were arrested in 
the street by order of the Minister of Police, Hafiz Pasha, 
one of the officials who had been denounced by name in a 
famous despatch from Lord Beaconsfield s Government for his 
share in the Bulgarian atrocities. After six hours detention, 
Koelle \vas released, but his bag of books and papers was de 
tained, and the Ulema was thrown into an unhealthy dungeon. 
Appeal was at once made to the British Ambassador, Sir Henry 
Layard. Missionaries do not shrink from suffering in the cause 
of Christ, or even dying, if need be ; but in a country where 
British subjects are specially protected by special treaties, and 
where the treaties guarantee religious liberty, they are right to 
follow St. Paul s example when he claimed his privileges as a 
Roman citizen. On Sir H. Layard failing to obtain redress, or 
the release of Ahmed Tewfik who had been condemned to death 
by a council of Moslem mullahs, the British Government 
ordered ships to the Dardanelles to overawe the Porte. The 
Sultan then gave way, promising, "out of his regard for England," 
to exercise "clemency"; the books were restored, but with the 
name of Christ in every page blotted out; and Ahmed Tewfik was 
to be "removed to an island for safety," that is to say, exiled 
from his family and placed under surveillance at Scio. Such was 
the punishment meted out treaties and British sacrifices in 
Turkey s behalf notwithstanding to one who had only assisted 
a missionary in linguistic work. What would have been his fate 
if he had asked for baptism ? Moreover, Hafiz Pasha, whose 
dismissal Sir H. Layard had demanded, was, on the contrary, 
rewarded with the grand cordon of the Order of the Medjidie. 

But, about a year after, Ahmed Tewfik contrived to escape 
from his guards and to reach England, whither Koelle had already 
come. He was now fully convinced of the truth of the Gospel, 
and desired to give his life to advocate and defend it among his 
countrymen by mouth and pen ; but he still shrank from the 
ordeal of final separation from wife and children (who were still 
at Constantinople) which would be involved in his baptism. At 
last, however, after a prolonged mental struggle, he made up his 
mind to confess Christ openly, and this "posthumous child" (as 
Koelle expressed it) of the C.M.S. Turkish Mission was publicly 
baptized on November llth, 1881, at St. Paul s, Onslow Square, 


by Mr. Webb-Peploe ; the three "witnesses" being Mrs. Webb- PART VIII. 
Peploe, Sir William Muir, and the nonagenarian Archdeacon 1873-82. 
Philpott, father-in-law of Koelle. But the end of the story is C 
moumful. In 1883, the Society arranged for Ahmed Tewfik to 
go to Egypt, which was now in British occupation, and whither 
Mr. Klein had been sent to open a new Mission. There he was 
got hold of by the Moslems, behaved very strangely (was he 
drugged?), and ultimately went back to Scio and gave himself up 
to the Turkish authorities there as a prisoner who ought not to 
have escaped. That is all we know. Many, prayers went up to what 
God in his behalf ; and though beyond the reach of Christian Sgf" 
influence, he was not beyond the reach of the Divine Arm. 
More we cannot say. 

There is one Mohammedan land, in which the Society has a 
deeply-interesting Mission, which as yet has only been casually 
mentioned. It remains now, therefore, to introduce PEKSIA. Persia. 

Readers of this History are aware that Persia was one of the 
first Mission-fields thought of by the infant " Society for Missions C.M.S. 
to Africa and the East." They will not have forgotten, either, and Persia 
Henry Martyn s memorable sojourn there in 1811, and the 
earnest desire of the Committee to carry on at least his trans- 
lational work after his death, and the new fount of type, for 
printing the Persian character better, which the C.M.S. designed, 
ordered, paid for, and placed at the disposal of the Bible Society.* 
Nor will they have forgotten that the Society owed some valuable 
missionaries to Persia or rather, perhaps we should say, to 
Russia, seeing that it was Russian intolerance that expelled from 
North-western Persia the Basle men who afterwards joined the 
C.M.S. among whom were Pfander, Hoernle, and Wolters. 
Yet the Society never attempted to invade Persia in the name 
of the Lord until, if we may so say, its hand was forced by 
one zealous missionary, Robert Bruce. Meanwhile a vigorous 
American Presbyterian Mission had been carried on since 1829 American 
among the Nestorians of Western Persia, but the language of Mlsslon - 
those parts is Turkish, and the Persian tongue was not used by 
the Americans till recent years. 

Mr. Bruce was a missionary in the Punjab from 1858 to 1868, 
first at Narowal, which station he opened, and then in the Derajat. 
Finding the importance of the Persian language for intercourse 
with the higher classes on the Afghan Frontier, he obtained leave, 
when returning to India in 1869 after his first furlough, to go via Bruce to 
Persia and spend a year there. On his suggesting this, Mr. Venn Persla - 
said, " I am so thankful for this opening : it is one of those things 
we looked for in vain in times past, but which God is giving us 
now." But only a visit was contemplated. Whatever Venn may 
have had in his mind, the Committee had no thought of a Persia 

* See Chapters VII., VIII., X. 



Chap. 75. 

staying on 
at Julfa. 


able gifts 
for famine 

towards a 




Mission. Bruce, however, proceeded to the old capital, Ispahan, 
and took up his residence at Julfa, the Armenian quarter, in which 
Christians were allowed to live ; and at the end of the year, he got 
leave to stay a second, with a view to his revising Martyn s Persian 
New Testament ; but he was to proceed to India in May, 1871. 
In April, when he was preparing to go, and yet praying that if it 
were the Lord s will he might be even yet permitted to stay, nine 
Mohammedan Persians with whom he had had much converse 
asked for baptism. Taking this as God s direction to him to stop, 
and assuming the Society s consent, he took a house for another 
year. The Committee were perplexed, and not pleased, but they 
yielded ; and in the ensuing winter came a terrible famine in 
Persia. Unexpectedly, and to Brace s surprise, two telegrams 
reached him, from men he had never heard of before : one from 
Colonel Haig at Calcutta, and the other from Pastor Haas of 
Stuttgardt ; both offering to send money for famine relief. The 
Wurtemberg Pastor afterwards wrote, "We know Mohammed 
taught his followers to hate Christians, but Jesus taught us to 
love our enemies, and we have collected this money in small sums 
from the poor Germans, and we hope you will distribute it among 
Jews, Christians, and Mohammedans without distinction." That 
unknown Pastor sent Bruce 4600 ! and altogether, from Ger 
many and India and England, Bruce received, and dispensed, 
16,000. Subsequently Pastor Haas raised 1700 more to start 
an orphanage. 

Other providential circumstances were gradually opening the 
way for the future Persia Mission. In 1872, George Maxwell 
Gordon travelled to India v-id Persia, and wrote very strongly of 
the good work being done by Mr. and Mrs. Bruce. In 1873 the 
Shah visited England, and the Society presented a memorial to 
him praying for religious liberty. About the same time, the 
Armenians begged Bruce to open a school, and a Native of Julfa, 
who had been educated in England, and had been master of the 
C.M.S. school at Nasik under W. S. Price, was obtained to take 
charge of it. Still the Committee, despite the personal influence 
of Mr. Wright and General Lake in favour of a new Mission, could 
not see that the door was really an open one ; but they reluctantly 
yielded, again and again, to Bruce s appeals for leave to stay " six 
months more." At last, when he came to England in 1875, they 
were convinced by his cogent reasonings, and after earnest prayer, 
on June 14th in that year, they passed a resolution adopting the 
Persia Mission. When General Lake s Mohammedan Conference, 
therefore, met in the following October, this new development of 
C.M.S. work among Mohammedans was already an accomplished 

Great satisfaction was felt and expressed throughout the C.M.S. 
circle that the Society now had a recognized Mission in the 
country of Cyrus and Nehemiah and Queen Esther ; and very 
warm was the applause at Exeter Hall at the next May Meeting 


when Persia was for the first time referred to as an acknowledged PART VIII. 
field of labour. All felt that the best memorial to Henry Martyn 1873-82. 
would be a strong Persia Mission. Strong, however, it was not, Cha P- ? 5 - 
for many years, even if it may relatively be called so now. No 
missionary was sent to Bruce s aid until 1879, when the Kev. E. F. 
Hoernle, M.B., an Edinburgh medical man, and a son of the Dr. 
veteran missionary in India whom the Society originally owed to H 
Persia, went out to establish a Medical Mission. In 1881, Bruce 
again came home, bringing his revised New Testament in Persian ; Bruce s 
and in due course, after careful further revision by Professor E. H. New 
Palmer, it was published by the Bible Society. The University Testamen t 
of Dublin conferred on the zealous missionary it had given to the 
East the degree of D.D. honoris causa. He still, however, urged 
upon the Committee the claim of Persia to a larger share of the 
Society s men, and means, and prayers. It was, he said, 
" neglected in the daily ministration." Colonel Stewart, also, 
the enterprising traveller in Central Asia, and a devout Christian, 
pressed on the Society the great value of the work already done, 
and the importance of doing more. In 1882, when the new epoch 
of extension and enlargement in C.M.S. history was commencing, 
fresh steps were taken for the evangelization of the Persians ; but 
these will come more suitably in a future chapter. 

What Dr. Bruce has often said of Persia is applicable, more or 
less, to all these Mohammedan Missions. " I am not reaping the 
harvest ; I scarcely claim to be sowing the seed ; I am hardly 
ploughing the soil ; but I am gathering out the stones. That, too, Gathe:inj 
is missionary work : let it be supported by loving sympathy and 
fervent prayer." 



Chap. 76. 

review by 





Lord Northbrook and his Successors The Prince of Wales in India 
Bishops Milman and Johnson C.M.S. Missions Story of Jadu 
Bindu Ghose Colleges closed for lack of Men Hooper s Divinity 
College at Allahabad Vaughan in Nuddea The Struggle with 
Caste J. Welland Church Councils Diocese of Bombay : Bishop 
Douglas C.M.S. Western India Mission The Theosophists Lord 
Ripon s Education Commission Decennial Missionary Conference 
at Calcutta. 

" The Lord doth build up. . . . Hegathereth together theouteastn." Ps. cxlvii. 2. 
" He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar from the 
dunghill, to set than among princes." 1 Sam. ii. 8. 

IN the preceding Part of this History, dealing with the 
period 1862-72, we reviewed the Missions in India 
and their environment topically. In the present Part, 
it will he more convenient to take them geographically. 
First, Bengal, and the North -West and Central Pro 
vinces, which formed part of the Diocese of Calcutta during the 
first half of our period, and the whole of it after 1877 ; and the 
Presidency and Diocese of Bombay. Secondly, the Punjab, which 
(with Sindh) became in 1877 the Diocese of Lahore. Thirdly, 
South India, comprising the Diocese of Madras, and including 
Travancore and Cochin, which became a new diocese in 1879. 
Then we will devote a separate chapter to the Missions to the 
Hill Tribes which have not yet been described, although they 
had been begun in previous periods. Another chapter will be 
devoted to certain important ecclesiastical questions, which were 
burning at this time. 

From 1872 to 1876, the Viceroy of India was Lord Northbrook, 
sent out by Mr. Gladstone. It was he w r ho, when Under 
secretary in Sir Charles Wood s time, had drafted the great 
Educational Despatch of 1854, noticed in our Forty-sixth Chapter. 
He was a nephew of Bishop Baring of Durham, and a hearty 
supporter of Missions;* and when, not approving of Mr. Disraeli s 

* T. V. French wrote in 1873 : "Church matters, I may almost say 
religious matters, are rather looking up since the exemplary and highly- 
esteemed Lord Northbrook succeeded to the unhappy though able Lord 
Mavo." Life of Bishop French, vol. i. p. 313. 


Afghan policy, he returned home before his full time was up, he PARTVUI. 
at once put his name down as a subscriber to the C.M.S. of 100 1873-82. 
a year. It was during his Viceroyalty that the great Bengal Cha P- 76 - 
Famine of 1874 took place, but so successful were his measures, BengaT 
and those of Sir E. Temple, to cope with the danger, that very few Farr ine. 
deaths occurred among the many millions of people affected. The 
C.M.S. Famine Fund, amounting to over 10,000, proved to be 
for the most part not wanted indeed it could only be used, as it 
was used, for the subsequent support of orphans ; and a large 
balance remained for use in other famines. 

Northbrook was succeeded by Lord Lytton, a man of totally Lord 
different character, some of whose actions, both public and private, Lytton - 
were much regretted even by his own friends. It fell to him to 
proclaim (January 1st, 1877) Queen Victoria s new title of Empress 
of India a title vehemently protested against in England, notably 
by Lord Shaftesbury and the Record, but which quickly came into 
general acceptance. Lord Lytton retired when Mr. Gladstone again 
became Premier in 1880, and he was succeeded by the Marquis of Lord 
Eipon, who, being a Eoman Catholic, was by no means welcome Ripon- 
to the C.M.S. circle. Some friends wished the Society to send a 
formal protest to the Queen ; but the Committee declined to do 
this. In the event, Lord Eipon s Viceroyalty was useful in one 
respect at least ; for he was favourable to an educational policy 
which the Society approved, as we shall see hereafter. Both he 
and Lady Eipon visited the Missions in a kindly spirit. In 1883, 
being in Kashmir, they invited the missionaries there to dinner, 
inquired about all branches of the work, and, with their suite, 
contributed to it no less than Es. 1100. 

Some of the other rulers of the period were hearty friends of Other 
Missions. Sir E. Temple was successively Lieutenant-Governor 
of Bengal and Governor of Bombay, and in both capacities showed 
his friendliness. Sir E. Egerton and Sir Charles Aitchison were 
successively lieutenant-Governors of the Punjab, and the latter 
especially identified himself with the cause. Mr. (afterwards Sir) 
Eivers Thompson, who became Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal in 
1882, was a member of the Calcutta Corresponding Committee, 
and so was Mr. (afterwards Sir) Charles Bernard, Secretary to 
the Government. Perhaps if more men like these had been in 
power at the time of the Prince of Wales s visit to India in 1875-6, T f h * p 
he might have been allowed to see a little more of the Native Jisit t 


Christians who are among the most loyal of the Queen s Indian 
subjects. In Tinnevelly and the Punjab alone were they permitted 
to come near him. At Calcutta, a Bengali Bible for presentation The Prince 
to him had to be conveyed to him surreptitiously. At Benares f r o n 

and Agra, he was going to visit the Christian villages, Sigra and 
Secundra, but Sir John Strachey, Lieutenant-Governor of the 
North- West Provinces, struck both visits out of the programme. 
" The grim spectre of religious neutrality was conjured up. It 
would have been a breach of neutrality if the Prince had visited 


PART VIII. mission churches as well as Hindu temples ; it would have been a 
1873-82. breach of neutrality if he had shown the same condescension to 
Chap. 76. m j ss i onar i es as to Brahman s and fakirs." * It was not the Prince s 
Not the own fault; and when, in driving through Benares, his carriage 
S2lt Ce * ^ ia( ^ ^ P ass ^ ne Baptist Mission compound, and the C.M.S. school 
children from Sigra (who had been kindly invited there to see 
him pass) sang " God save the Queen," he himself cried " Halt ! " 
and insisted on waiting while three little Sigra girls came to the 
carriage and presented a lace handkerchief of their own making 
Nor sir for the Princess. Nor was it the fault of his suite. Sir Bartle 
! Frere, who accompanied him throughout as his chief guide, con 
trived to put before him the address of the Benares missionaries 
which they were not allowed to present, and was directed by him 
to send a cordial reply. At Lucknow, where the Prince spent a 
Sunday and attended the garrison church, Canon Duckworth, his 
chaplain, preached on the duty of England to give India the 
Gospel, and strongly commended the C.M.S. Lucknow Mission, to 
which the offertory was devoted. And at Agra, Sir B. Frere, 
Canon Duckworth, and several other gentlemen of the suite drove 
out to Secundra, and expressed their hearty admiration of the 
orphanage and its industrial work. These tokens of interest, and 
not the cold "neutrality" of the Indian officials, were in ac- 
The Prince cordance with the Prince s own Reply to an Address presented to 
andc.M.s. him by the Q M S> before he ) e f t England. Sir W. Knollys thus 

wrote to Lord Chichester in his name : 

" His Royal Highness requests your Lordship to be the medium of 
assuring the Society that her Majesty s sentiments, as declared in her 
proclamation on assuming the direct Government of India, are equally 
participated in by himself, and he trusts that no encouragement will 
ever be wanting on his part to favour the efforts of the missionaries of 
the Church who have left their homes to teach the Natives of India 
The Truths of Christianity and the Solace of Religion. 

" If so rapid a success has not attended the labours and zeal of tlio 
labourers in so wide a vineyard as their disinterested efforts would seem 
to h>ive merited, his Royal Highness ventures to appeal to the good that 
has been already done as an earnest of what will follow. 

" Taking the statistics of your Address, his Royal Highness feels that 
7o,000 of our fellow-creatures, raised from the most abject condition, and 
redeemed from the most debasing errors, are facts for our congratulation, 
and may be placed to the credit of those hardworking missionaries whose 
efforts have thus far been attended with success. 

" His Royal Highness desires to return his grateful thanks for the 
prayers of the Society for his health while absent, and for his safe return 
to England." 

But in Tinnevelly and the Punjab the meetings of the Prince 

with the Native Christians were memorable occasions. The 

former we shall see when we come to South India. The latter 

The Prince took place at Amritsar on January 24th, 1876. General Reynell 

atAmntsar rp a yi or wag Commissioner of the Amritsar District at the time, 

* G. Knox ia G.M. Intelligencer, Aprfl , 1876. 


and as the Prince was to get a good view of the city and environs PAET VIII. 
and the distant mountains, Taylor arranged that he should get that 1873-82. 
view from the flat roof of the two-storied C.M.S. mission-house. Chap> 76> 
When the Prince arrived, he found a great gathering of Native R ey "^iT 
Christians in the compound, " Sikhs, Eajputs, Hindustanis, Ta y lor 
Bengalis, and Afghans," with six Native clergymen in their ?nteew 
surplices, viz., the Eevs. Daud Singh, J. Kadshu, Imad-ud-din, NaUve 
Imam Shah, and Sadiq Masih, of the C.M.S., and the Eev. Tara Christians. 
Chand, of the S.P.G. Delhi Mission; and one Presbyterian 
minister in a black gown, the Eev. K. C. Chatterji of Hoshiarpur. 
General Taylor presented three leading Christians to the Prince 
as a deputation from the rest, viz., the Kanwar Harnam Singh, 
brother of the Eajah of Kaparthala ; Professor Earn Chander, of 
Delhi ; and Mr. Abdullah Athim, Extra Assistant Commissioner 
at Ambala. In the evening, Canon Duckworth came again to the 
mission-house and addressed the Native clergy and Christians 
with great cordiality, and then, kneeling down, prayed with them 


At this time the career of Bishop Milman of Calcutta was just Bishop 
neanng its close. He had proved himself an untiring worker, Milman - 
and warmly sympathetic towards the missionaries. Although as 
we have before seen, his episcopate marked a change in the 
prevailing ecclesiastical atmosphere, he himself perceived some of 
the dangers of the new " Anglo-Catholic " system. Although he 
invited the Cowley Fathers to India, he complained of the 
"superstitious expressions " in their little mission manual," and H C 
added, " The whole fuss about vestments and incense has too c . t nd f. mns 
much of this character, and there is a distinctly idolatrous * tendency " 
in it (in my opinion) which mars much of the hope formed and 
the progress made, and threatens a retrograde movement of 
Church progress and of the spiritual life." f - Do not," he wrote 
to one clergyman, " attempt any out-of-the-way ritual for the 
Natives. It is not good for them. I have thought over this point 
somewhat carefully, and am confident that any excess of ritual is 
dangerous, as the Native Christians are only too much inclined to 
rest m a formalism of some shape or other." J Milman also took 
the broader view on the question of the baptism of polvgamists 
as other Indian bishops have done, though it is always strongly 
opposed by bishops in Africa and elsewhere. 

Bishop Milman, it may be almost said, died in the service of Death of 
Unurcn Missionary Society. The last week of February 1876 Milman - 
he spent at Peshawar. He held a confirmation in the mission 
church, worshipped and preached there on other days, visited the 
schools joined in the open-air preaching; besides, in the course 

the heavy English work required at so large a military station 
preaching in the station church in behalf of the C.M.S. His last 

* Bishop Milman himself italicizes the word " idolatrous " 

T Memoir of Bishop Milman, p. 288. + ibid., p. 355. 

VOL. in. 




Chap. 76. 



staff in 

official act was an address in Hindustani to a large gathering of 
leading Natives, including Afghan chiefs who had come fifty miles 
to meet the Christian " Chief Moulvie." Then he broke down, 
was taken by his chaplain, Mr. Jacob (now Bishop of Newcastle), 
to Eawal Pindi, and died on March 15th, looking, in the language 
of his last words, for " the glorious liberty of the children of God." 
Milman s successor was Archdeacon E. E. Johnson of Chester, 
who was privileged to hold the see for twenty-one years an 
episcopate nearly equal in length to Daniel Wilson s. The Diocese 
of Calcutta had previously enjoyed the unique distinction of being 
able to boast that every one of its eight bishops died at his post. 
Bishop Johnson alone was spared to retire, and that only on 
account of weakened health. During his episcopate the Diocese 
of Calcutta was, at last, rendered less overwhelming by the 
formation of the Dioceses of Eangoon, Lahore, Lucknow, and 
Chota Nagpore, under various arrangements to be explained 
hereafter. Another event of importance was the advent of the 
Oxford Mission to Calcutta in 1880, which, though avowing 
doctrinal and ecclesiastical principles far removed from those of 
the C.M.S., must be cordially recognized as having quickly gained 
an influence for good over the educated Hindus. 

During the decade now under review, the C.M.S. Missions in 
Bengal and the North-West Provinces continued much crippled 
by the inadequacy of the staff. The faithful German veterans, 
Hoernle, Droese, Daeuble, Eeuther, Fuchs, Blumhardt, were 
getting old, and some died. Erhardt, and the brothers Stern, and 
the brothers Baumann, and the three younger Hoernles, and the 
younger Leupolt and Blumhardt, and Gmelin, and Zenker, and 
Weber, were doing vigorous work. But the Englishmen were few 
indeed. B. Davis and J. W. Stuart were the only English veterans 
in the North-West all the time, but Hooper came presently from 
the Punjab. Vines worked nobly at Agra until his death at the 
age of forty. Ellwood, J. A. Lloyd, Durrant, and Hackett, were 
the leading younger men in that part of the diocese. A. H. 
Wright and E. J. Bell were excellent schoolmasters. Champion 
was at Jabalpur in the Central Provinces. Bengal was much 
better off, in appearance, with such names as E. C. Stuart, A. P. 
Neele, J. Welland, J. Vaughan, S. Dyson, A. Clifford, W. E. 
Blackett, H. P. Parker, H. Williams ; but the men bearing those 
names were not all there together. Stuart s health compelled 
him to seek another sphere of service in New Zealand, and he 
was succeeded in the Calcutta Secretaryship by Welland ; Clifford 
assisting in the Old Church. While Welland was taking furlough, 
D. T. Barry, who was in India on temporary service, conducted 
the Secretary s office. Vaughan took charge of the Krishnagar 
District when Blumhardt died and Neele came home. Dyson had 
the Cathedral Mission College, but returned to England in 1878. 
Parker succeeded Welland as Secretary, on the latter s death in 


1879. Blackett began the Divinity Class at Krishnagar which PART VIII. 
subsequently developed into the Calcutta Divinity School. 1873-82. 

The varied work in Calcutta, evangelistic, pastoral, educational, ^hap. ^ 6 - 
has been described before. In 1874, the Calcutta Church Mis- wortTit 
sionary Association, which conducted the bulk of the purely Calcutta. 
evangelistic work, and which was founded by T. Thomason in 
Bishop Heber s time, celebrated its Jubilee. Its Eeport, drawn 
up by Dr. C. Baumann, described the vast change that had taken 
place in the half-century. " Fifty years ago," it said, "the deep 
darkness of Heathendom had been unbroken by the feeblest ray 
of light. Idolatry and superstition reigned with a sway absolute 
and unquestioned. The people looked on us as a nation of cruel 
atheists, and regarded any instruction we might offer them with 
disdain or fear. Very few knew English. There were few 
translations of our books into their tongues, and scarcely a true 
missionary school in the whole of India." It is a retrospect like 
this that makes us realize a little the greatness of the progress 

Yes, it is " after many days" that the "bread cast upon the 
waters " is found. And this principle applies both to general 
movements in the direction of moral and intellectual enlighten 
ment and to direct efforts for the conversion of souls. Let one 
illustration be given under the latter head. About the time when 
the fifty years just referred to commenced, the accomplished 
L.M.S. missionary, Alphonse Lacroix, was preaching in the 
streets of Calcutta, as he constantly did without seeing fruit to 
his labours. A young Hindu named Jadu Bindu Ghose stopped story of 
to hear him one day for a few minutes, and then went on his way, -^Indu 
but carried away with him a sense of sin, planted in his heart by Ghose. 
the Omnipotent Spirit of God. The feeling seemed to die away ; 
but after several years it revived when some adversity came upon 
him. Then he gave up everything and became a pilgrim and a 
beggar, and wandered over India, from shrine to shrine, in search A long 
of peace. At one time he joined the Brahmo Samaj, but its pl^ 1 for 
teachings failed to take from him the sense of sin which he could 
not shake off ; so he left it, became a devotee again, and went to 
Benares, to visit in turn its two thousand shrines. At last he sat 
down in despair, crying, " What more can I do than I have done ? 
yet there is no peace." Not long after, being again in Calcutta, 
he wandered into Trinity Church. Mr. Vaughan was preaching 
on the Saviour who died for sinners. He noticed the white-haired 
stranger for it was now nearly fifty years since, as a young man, 
Jadu Bindu Ghose had listened to Lacroix. Directly after the 
service, the old man came to Vaughan, burst into tears, and 
exclaimed, "This is what I have been longing to hear so long." His con- 
How he went away with a Bengali Bible ; how he returned in ve 
two months with it almost (so to speak) at his fingers ends ; how 
he faced the ordeal of confessing Christ openly in baptism ; how 
he bore the torrent of curses from family and friends, saying to 

K 2 



Chap. 76. 

closed for 
lack of 

but re 
placed by 

Vaughan, " O Sahib, the love of Jesus has ravished my heart "; 
how he became a consistent Christian and a zealous evangelist ; 
might be told at great length. But these few lines sufficiently 
convey the moral. * 

But the inadequate supply of men prevented some useful 
agencies from being persevered in. In 1880 it was determined 
to close the Cathedral Mission College, which had been started 
under Bishop Cotton s auspices in 1865 with John Barton as 
Principal to whom S. Dyson had succeeded. This, it will be 
remembered, was the epoch of severe retrenchment ; but it was 
not on financial grounds that the College was closed, for it was 
maintained on Bishop Wilson s trust fund (with, of course, the 
fees and Government grants). But, to keep it going properly, 
three Europeans as professors were necessary ; and the men were 
not forthcoming. It was true that even the scanty supply of 
missionaries qualified for such work gave the C.M.S. a larger 
number of such men than any other Society ; but no other Society 
had anything like the same number of important posts to fill. 
Calcutta, also, was now fairly supplied with Christian institutions 
of the kind ; so it was felt that the College there could be spared, 
while St. John s College at Agra, the Noble College at Masuli- 
patam, and many High Schools elsewhere, could not be spared. 
One other High School, however, was sacrificed about the same 
time, that at Allahabad under Brocklesby Davis; but this was 
one of the financial retrenchments. But it so happened, after 
all, that in neither case did it prove necessary to part with the 
buildings ; and those at Calcutta and Allahabad were put to one 
and the same purpose. W. E. Blackett had gone out to India 
expressly to begin a Divinity School for Bengal ; and Dr. Hooper 
had been brought down from Lahore to start a similar institution 
for the North- West Provinces. The former was commenced on a 
small scale at Krishnagar ; but when the College buildings at 
Calcutta were free, it was arranged to devote them to its service. 
Similarly, Hooper projected his theological school at Benares, but 
ultimately it was located in the college at Allahabad, while Davis 
went to Benares and took charge of Jay Narain s School. The 
result was, in each case, that buildings previously used for the 
education of non- Christians were now applied to the training of 
Christian evangelists and pastors ; and although both branches 
of educational work are necessary, the latter indicates a more 
advanced Mission. 

When French established the Lahore Divinity College, he meant 
it to supply men for all Upper India. But Hooper, who succeeded 

* The narrative is given in Yaughan s Trident, Crescent, and Cross, p. 244 ; 
and in the C.M. Gleaner of April, 1879. In the same volume of the Gleaner 
(October No.) there is a most touching account of another Calcutta 
Christian, a blind man in the alms-house, who in fifteen years had brought 
fifty-two of his fellow-pensioners to Christ. But these true narratives are 


French as Principal, had previously worked at Benares; and he PART VIII. 
felt that the Lahore College could not adequately supply the needs p^ 3 ~ 82 - 
of the Gangetic Valley. French, as before explained, used the 
Urdu language as the medium of instruction at Lahore. This, 
said Hooper, is right, because in the Punjab Mohammedanism is 
strong, and " the theology of Mohammedans is expressed through 
the medium of Urdu, in terms borrowed from the Arabic "; but 
it failed to prepare the men for work among Hindus, because 
" Hindu theology finds expression through the medium of Hindi, 
in terms borrowed from the Sanskrit." The theological phrase 
ology, therefore, of a Lahore man would scarcely be understood 
by the pundits of Benares. Hence the necessity for a separate 
Divinity School in the vast field where Hinduism was dominant. 
Hooper s plans for it, as expounded by himself,* were extremely Hooper s 
interesting. For instance, while, with French, he felt the ini- J 1 5"^ for 
portance of Hebrew at Lahore, on account of its affinity with Divinity 
Arabic, he urged that Greek, having relations with Sanskrit, 
would be more appreciated at Benares. However, after twelve 
months preliminary work at Benares, the new College was moved st. Paul s 
to Allahabad, as before explained, and was opened there on Anahlbad. 
February 2nd, 1882 ; and then Hooper and his Vice-Principal, 
H. M. M. Hackett, found that, in view of the fact that they were 
to prepare, not only evangelists for the Hindu population, but 
pastors for numerous Christian congregations, and that many of 
these congregations were Urdu-speaking, it was necessary to 
combine to some extent the two systems. An interesting incident 
followed the opening of the College. On its front was painted 
"St. Paul s Divinity School," and also inscriptions in Hindi and 
Urdu, the former meaning "Abode of the knowledge of God." "Abode of 
These words attracted four Hindu devotees who had been attend- Sipo?*" 
ing the great mela held annually at the confluence of the Ganges God> " 
and Jumna, just below the city ; and they came in "to meet with 
God." After a long and interesting conversation they went away, 
taking St. Luke s and St. John s Gospels in Hindi, and Hooper 
saw them no more ; but in the following year a young man who 
was baptized owed his first impressions to that same inscrip 
tion. From the first, the College was an evangelistic agency 
as well as a place of education. Preaching tours were made by 
the Principal and students, and year by year Hooper reported 
interesting baptisms. One of them was that of an old pundit, 
Janaki Datt. So far back as 1874, Hooper had met him on a 
public road, turned back and walked with him some distance, and 
when he could go no further that way, stood with him on a little 
bridge and prayed with him. Hooper had quite forgotten the 
circumstance until reminded of it seven years afterwards by the 
pundit himself whom now he had the privilege to baptize. Janaki 
Datt became a most zealous evangelist. 

* In the C.M. Intelligencer, May, 1880. 



Chap. 76. 




of Nuddea 


His work 
at Calcutta 


The Bengal Divinity School, started by W. R. Blackett at 
Krishnagar, and afterwards moved to Calcutta, did not aim so 
high as those at Allahabad and Lahore. It was then chiefly 
needed to train agents for the Krishnagar or Nuddea district, 
and much scholarship would have been superfluous among the 
poor Christians there. But it is this district which, in the history 
of the decade, calls for most particular notice. 

We have before seen how disappointing had been the results of 
the promising movement of 1838. For many years Blumhardt 
and his colleagues laboured with true German perseverance 
among the five thousand nominal Christians scattered among the 
villages of the great flat plain. But the spiritual life of the people, 
even where it could be said to exist at all, was of the lowest ; 
and, as explained in our Fifty-fifth Chapter, the old German 
missionaries, good and kind as they were, were not the men to 
foster self-administration and self-support in the Church. Now 
and then a few encouraging facts w r ould be mentioned, particularly 
when A. P. Neele was in charge in 1873-75 ; and F. Gmelin, 
who was a very efficient training-master, produced good teachers 
for the schools, which were much helped at this time by a con 
tribution of 500 a year received yearly from St. Peter s, Eaton 
Square, through the Rev. G. H. Wilkinson (afterwards Bishop of 
Truro and now of St. Andrew s) the gift really of one individual 
donor who had interests in Bengal. But all the while, there 
was much in the district that was discouraging ; and the untoward 
influences resulted in a serious conflict when Vaughan took charge 
in 1877. 

James Vaughan was a remarkable missionary. He was a 
native of Hull, and the only child of a praying mother. As a boy 
he caused her much anxiety, but one night she went and poured 
out her heart to God at his bedside while he lay asleep. In the 
morning he awoke with a feeling of awe and a new sense of sin. 
The Spirit of God was at work, and his conversion dated from 
that day. After a few years in a business calling, he became a 
Scripture-reader under the Rev. J. Deck, and ultimately, with an 
intimate friend, Ashton Dibb, approached the C.M.S. They were 
received into Islington College, and in 1854 were ordained 
together. One went to Tinnevelly, the other to Bengal. 
Vaughan laboured zealously in Calcutta, among all classes from 
educated Brahmans to lepers and scavengers, for nineteen years 
without taking furlough. He was distinguished alike for intel 
lectual power and spiritual devotion, and won universal respect ; 
and when at length he came to England in 1874, his speeches and 
his remarkable book, The Trident, the Crescent, and the Cross, at 
once showed that he was no common man. Instead of going 
back to the Native congregation of Trinity Church, Calcutta, which 
he had gradually built up, and which now had a Native pastor (a 
convert of Duff s, the Rev. Piari Mohan Rudra), Vaughan was 
commissioned to take charge of the Nuddea District ; and as the 


supervision of the pastoral and school work would absorb all his PART VIII. 
energies, a young Islington man (the first "Gospeller" at St. 1873-82. 
Paul s from the College), Henry Williams, was sent with him, to Chap 76 
open up new and systematic evangelistic itineration. 

In going round the district, Vaughan was struck by the frequent y a j^ a d n ea 
mention of "Hindu Christians," "Mussulman Christians," and 
" Mochie Christians"; and these phrases turned out to be only 
one symptom of the existence and recognition of old caste distinc 
tions. The "Mochies," in particular, were skinners and leather- 
workers, and therefore regarded as unclean by the caste people ; 
and those who were Christians were excluded from the churches, caste 
their children even being unbaptized, because the pastors feared jJaSve 
to offend the congregations. Here, he thought, is the secret of the Christian 
failure of Krishnagar : Caste has eaten the vitals out of the 
Church, as it did half a century ago in the South.* He resolved 
to bring together delegates from all the congregations for con 
ference, which would enable him to observe their conduct towards 
each other, and also be an informal preliminary to the formation 
of a regular Church Council. The meeting was at Bollobhpur, in 
the heart of the district, in October, 1877. The. Mochie Chris 
tians sent their delegates, and an outbreak of bitter feeling imme 
diately ensued. The rest would neither sit down to eat if they 
ate at the same time, nor join the Conference if they were present, 
nor receive the Lord s Supper with them. They said to Vaughan, 
" Does our salvation depend on our eating with these unclean 
folk? " " No," replied Vaughan, " but the point is, Why won t 
you eat with them?" "Because we hate them." "Exactly 
so, and that is why it is contrary to the spirit of Christ." He 
declined to send the Mochies away; and " that night," he wrote, 
"witnessed the disruption of the Mission. The churches were Disruption 
deserted ; the children were removed from the schools ; and as we 
passed from village to village, scowls and revilings were our 

Then, in Vaughan s words still, " the vultures of Eome scented Romanist 
the prey." Several priests suddenly appeared, and said to the a 
people, " Your Sahibs wish to destroy your caste ; join us, and 
you may keep it. Your Sahibs tell you not to work on Sundays ; 
join us, and you may work Sundays as well as week-days. Your 
Sahibs won t marry your girls till they are twelve years old ; join 
us, and you shall do as you like." Money also was poured out 
freely; and many hundreds joined the Komanists. The priests, 
however, insisted on re-baptizing them ; and this they resented ; 
and presently nearly all came back again. Some Baptist Native Baptists 
agents also appeared, and began " sheep-stealing "; but this was 
soon stopped. The Baptist Society at home, on being appealed 
to, sent out strict orders that the C.M.S. districts were not to be en 
tered. On the other hand, the Eomanists, on being expostulated 

* See Vol. I., p. 300. 


PART VIII. with for disturbing the professing Christians instead of preaching 
to the Heathen, replied in these words : "We do not go to the 
Heathen, because they may possibly be saved by the light of 
reason ; but we are sure that you Protestants must perish, and so 
we come to you." * 

Christens Mean while, Vaughan appealed to Native brethren at Calcutta 
in Nuddea. to go down and exercise their persuasive powers, and three men 
went, the Eev. Piari Mohan Eudra, the Eev. Eaj Kristo Bose, and 
the old man whose story occupied an early page of this chapter, Jadu 
Bindu Ghose. God blessed their visit; Jadu Bindu especially 
impressing the people by his intense earnestness and his joy in 
Christ. At one place the old patriarch encountered a Eoman 
priest, who was enticing and bribing some of the Christians to 
join him. " In burning words he called upon him to repent of his 
sins, to forsake his refuge of lies, and to lay hold on the only hope 
of sinners." Six months after, another Conference was held, and 
again at Bollobhpur ; and though some held aloof, the great 
^vercaste ma i or ity cam e. The church was crammed ; there were 133 com- 
pre e judi a c S e. e municants, including several Mochies ; and at the great common 
meal, spread in the open-air, all partook together a veritable 
love-feast. The day s discussions and services were closed with a 
fervent spiritual address by the aged convert, Jadu Bindu Ghose. 
Thus the little seed sown half a century before by the open-air 
preacher was now bearing rich fruit. 

And now occurred a striking proof of the genuine Christianity 
of the Mochies. Having had their position in the Church vindi 
cated, they met together, and resolved to remove all occasion of 
offence by giving up their trade and becoming simple cultivators. 
Their worldly loss by this step was not small. But the evil 
in the Church was only scotched, not killed; and even this 
generous act did not conciliate the more bitter and bigoted of 
visit^of the objectors. When the Bishop of Calcutta visited the district 
in January, 1879, seventy confirmation candidates at Chupra 
absented themselves because Mochies were to be confirmed at 
the same time. The Bishop, however, strongly supported 
Vaughan in his decided policy; and this was all the more 
welcome because some at Calcutta, and some in England, 
had severely criticized it.f As Vaughan himself wrote, slightly 
altering Pope : 

" Gaxte is a monster of such hideous mien, 
That to be hated needs but to be seen ; 
Yet seen too oft, familiar with its face, 
We first endure, then pity, then embrace." 

* Address of the Eev. J. Vaughan to the Bengal Native Church Council. 
C.M. Intelligencer, November, 1881. 

t Mr. Knox, however, wrote one of his most powerful articles in Vaughan s 
favour, and against Caste (Intelligencer, March, 1879) ; and Vaughan himself 
sent a valuable review of the whole subject, which was published after his 
death (Intelligencer, October, 1882). 


Here let another good deed of Bishop Johnson s on the same PART VIII. 

occasion be recorded : i 8 ^ 3 "? 

Chap. 76. 

t( In the Confirmation Service he rose most sensibly above form and . 

ritual. Instead of reading out verbatim the solemn questions to the The 
candidates in the Prayer-book which in the Bengali are certainly stiff ^i|e p s 
and unexpressive he delivered a practical and impressive address, elasticity, 
which I translated, and in that address broke up the usual questions 
into a series of searching and weighty queries, to which the candidates 
were required to give a full and clear reply." 

Was not this a wise use of the jus liturgicum ? 

In May, 1880, a preliminary meeting of the new Bengal Church 
Council was held, at the very station, Chupra, where the confirma 
tion candidates had revolted. All was now peace and love. The 
Chupra Christians themselves " washed the feet " of the delegates Washing 
from a distance on their arrival, including the Mochies. " It was O flhe e 
a sight worth seeing," wrote Vaughan, " to behold those who M o chies - 
had so lately loathed and abhorred them stoop down to wash 
their feet." Altogether, the meeting was a complete success ; and 
so was the first regular meeting of the fully-organized Council at 
Calcutta in the following year, when Vaughan presided, and the 
Bishop was present as Patron and gave valuable addresses. In 
February, 1882, Bishop Johnson again visited the district, and 
confirmed candidates at all the chief stations. " I was," he wrote, 
" impressed everywhere with the marked signs of improvement 
since my last visit." But there was one great blank. James 
Vaughan was not there. He had died of cholera a fortnight Death of 
before, on January 22nd. He was exactly five years at work Vaughan. 
among the Nuddea people, Christians and Heathen ; and the 
stamp of his influence is on the Mission to this day. 

The death of Vaughan had been preceded by another death of D e s * th h of 
an equally valuable though very different man. Joseph Welland WeiFand. 
was a Trinity College, Dublin, man, and brother of the present 
Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore. He was a ripe scholar, 
and a man of singularly original mind. Although devoted to his 
Bengali work in different capacities at Calcutta, his influence with 
the English residents was unique. Calcutta has never had a more 
thoughtful and instructive preacher ; and when he succeeded 
Stuart as Secretary, his sermons at the Old Church drew thither 
most of the educated English of the city. Lord Northbrook made 
him his own chaplain, and his duty was to conduct prayers every 
morning at Government House when the Viceroy was in Calcutta. 
When a professor in the Cathedral Mission College, he delivered a 
course of lectures on " God in History" which made a great 
impression on the superior Natives. Both Welland and Vaughan, 
when on furlough in England, acted as curates to Mr. Wright at 
St. John s Chapel, Hampstead, where both were greatly valued. 
The death of the one at the age of forty-four, and that of the 
other at fifty-four, in the very prime of their usefulness, were 
deeply-felt losses to the Bengal Mission. 



Chap. 76. 

ladies for 


Neele s 


in the 

Diocese of 


A new influence was soon to come into the Nuddea district. 
In 1882, the Church of England Zenana Society offered to send 
ladies there for village work, and the C.M.S. gratefully accepted 
the offer. At the same time, the one C.M.S. lady missionary in 
Bengal, Miss Neele, who had for several years superintended the 
Orphanage at Agarpara founded by Mrs. Wilson (nee Cooke) in 
1836, was now commissioned to establish a high-class Christian 
Girls Boarding-school at Calcutta. 

The North- West Provinces were a little earlier than Bengal in 
establishing a Native Church Council. The first meeting was at 
Allahabad in 1877, and the second at Benares in 1878. The con 
stituents of this Council were different from those in Bengal. 
There, the congregations represented were only those in Calcutta 
and the single rural district of Nuddea ; for Burdwan, owing to 
the local fever that had decimated its population, had almost 
ceased to count. In the North- West the distances were much 
greater, and the congregations more varied. Benares, Gorakhpur, 
Lucknow, Allahabad, Agra, Meerut, and several smaller cities, 
sent delegates ; and also Jabalpur in the Central Provinces. If 
the Society had withdrawn from Allahabad and Lucknow, as was 
contemplated under the policy of retrenchment in 1880, it was 
intended that the Council should still comprise pastors and dele 
gates from the congregations there ; but as we have before seen, 
this grave step was averted. The leading members of the Council 
were the Eevs. David Mohan, Davi Solomon, and Madho Earn ; 
and the chairman was Mr. Davis.* 

Let us now cross India to the Diocese of Bombay. In the 
earlier years of the period, Bishop Douglas s episcopate continued. 
Some very able and high-toned Letters of his to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and to the Indian Church Gazette, and also his 
Charges to his clergy, advocated Missions on very advanced Church 
lines, particularly by brotherhoods and sisterhoods ; and it was 
under his auspices that the Cowiey Fathers established their 
Mission at Poona. One of his strongly-stated principles was what 
is called the Doctrine of Eeserve : that is to say, that Christian 
Truth is only to be partially made known to the Heathen, and 
only gradually and cautiously revealed to the initiated, first the 
catechumens, and then the baptized. Something like this system 
was advocated by Isaac Williams in the Tracts for the Times, and 
by Archdeacon Grant in the celebrated Bampton Lectures of 
1843 ; and indeed the Early Church though not the Earliest 
Church, as St. Paul s Epistles show us had what was known as 
the disciplina arcani. A controversy arose regarding the teach 
ing in mission-schools, Bishop Douglas s party contending that 

* A very interesting discussion on Temperance in the N.W.P. Council 
the subject in the programme being " Concerning all Intoxicating Things " 
took place in 1882, and is fully reported in the O.M. Intelligencer of October, 


Christian Truth was degraded by being set before non-Christians, PART VIII. 
except with much "reserve "; and some members of the S.P.G. 1873-82. 
at home endeavoured to get the instruction in that Society s p " 
numerous schools altered accordingly. But in 1879 Bishop Bishop 


Caldwell, the able head of the S.P.G. Tinnevelly Mission, ad 

to his many great services to the missionary cause by publish- doctrine of 

ing an important Letter protesting against the new doctrine.* 

Before this, however, in 1876, Bishop Douglas had retired, and 

had been succeeded by Bishop L. G. Mylne, who will be in 

troduced in Chapter LXXX. 

It was during this period that the great Scotch missionary at 
Bombay, Dr. John Wilson, died, on December 1st, 1875. No 
missionary in India, not even Duff, had wielded a wider or more 
potent influence. He was acknowledged by all men to be the 
first of all Europeans in Bombay ; and the Government constantly 
consulted him upon all sorts of matters affecting the life and 
circumstances of the people. Another notable missionary was 
George Bo wen, an American, famous for his hermit or fakir life. 
He managed the Tract Society s depot, and he edited the Bombay 
Guardian; but he lived among the poor Natives, dressed and fed 
like them, and subsisted on sixpence a day. All Bombay, indeed 
all India, honoured him. He won admiration from the Europeans, 
affection from the Heathen, everything but converts. He himself 
said that he knew not of one soul converted through his instru 
mentality. But his books, Daily Meditations and Love Revealed, 
are delightful. 

A few sentences will suffice to describe the Society s Western 
India Mission in this decade. Faithful, plodding work, with but inda 
little visible result, sums up the whole story. J. S. S. Eobertson Mission - 
continued Secretary until his retirement in 1877 after nearly forty 
years service. T. K. Weatherhead was Minister of the Girgaum 
Church at Bombay until he also retired in 1878. H. C. Squires, 
who, as well as Carss and Jackson, had been engaged in the 
Money School, succeeded to both posts. Deimler continued 
labouring among the Mohammedans. C. F. Schwarz and E. A. 
Squires were at Nasik and Sharanpur. When W. A. Eoberts, 
who had been at Malegam, succeeded Schwarz, the latter station 
was taken by a young recruit, F. G. Macartney, who has been 
associated with it ever since. A. Manwaring and C. F. Mountfort 
joined the Mission in 1879-80, but the latter died after four years 
service. Some of the most interesting work was done by Native 
clergymen. The Eevs. Appaji Bapuji, Shankar Balawant, Lucas 
Maloba, and Euttonji Nowroji, have all been mentioned before. 
Mr. Euttonji, in particular, was labouring with much success at 
Aurangabad in the Nizam s Territory, and had gained the hearty 
respect of the English civil and military community there. 

* See a review of a pamphlet by General Tremeuheere, in the G.M. 
Intelligencer, October, 1876 ; and a review of Bishop Caldwell s Letter, in the 
Litettijencer of June, 1880. Both reviews are by Mr. Knox. 

1 4 o 


Chap. 76. 

Jani Alii. 


Olcott and 

Collapse of 



Aurangabad is not in the diocese of Bombay, but in that of Madras, 
and Mr. Ruttonji was licensed by Bishop Gell ; but the station is 
much nearer to Bombay, and has always been part of the Western 
India Mission. The Rev. Jani Alii, Robert Noble s convert from 
Mohammedanism, who went out in 1877, was not counted among 
the Native clergy, having offered to the Society as a Cambridge 
graduate. He opened a hostel for Christian boys and youths 
attending colleges in Bombay, and carried it on zealously for 
four years, supported by the sympathy and contributions of 
many friends in England, notably of Professor and Mrs. C. C. 
Babington of Cambridge. We shall meet him again hereafter at 

An extremely interesting account of the inaugural Conference 
to form the Native Church Council, which was held at Sharanpur 
on the closing days of 1880, was sent by the Rev. Ruttonji 
Nowroji, and printed in the Intelligencer (May, 1881). It reports 
the discussions, and the addresses of Bishop Myhie, who was 
present, and a remarkable lecture given in the neighbouring city 
of Nasik, by Major Jacob, to a crowded audience of Brahmans, on 
Krishna and Christ. The Major was a fluent Marathi speaker, 
and in a most powerful way he contrasted the vices of Krishna 
with the perfect character and life of Christ. 

It was at Bombay that the apostles of Theosophism, the 
American Colonel Olcott and the Russian Madame Blavatsky, 
made their first appearance in India, in 1878. 
in this History to do more than allude to 
Colonel Olcott was at first received with 

Hindus in various parts of India, they soon found him out, and 
loudly resented his pretensions ; and it was only among the 
Buddhists of Ceylon that he obtained any real footing. As to 
Madame Blavatsky, her vulgar deceptions were at last ruthlessly 
exposed by some of the Scotch professors in the Madras Christian 
College, and she had to disappear as fast as she could. Mr. 
Knox in the Intelligencer attacked the whole movement in a series 
of crushing articles in 1881-85. They culminated in one on " The 
Collapse of Koot Hoomi " (January, 1885), which no reader is 
likely ever to forget. The whole story is a melancholy exhibition 
of human credulity. 

It is quite needless 
the fact. Although 
enthusiasm by the 

At the close of the period we have been reviewing, two events 
occurred in India, some reference to which may suitably close 
this chapter. These were Lord Ripon s Education Commission 
and the Decennial Missionary Conference at Calcutta. 

imperfec- As intimated in our Sixty-first Chapter, there had long been 
much dissatisfaction with the Education Department in India for 
fostering too exclusively Higher Education and neglecting the 
Primary Education of the Masses. The Government Colleges were 
kept up at an enormous expense, with the result of turning out 
an ever-increasing number of men, well-read in English litera- 

tions of the 
system of 



ture and mathematics, whose only object in life was to obtain PART VIII 
a good berth in a Government office ; while the number of such " 
berths not being unlimited, hundreds of men who had spent years 
in qualifying themselves found no openings. There was scarcely 
any other goal for them : they valued the education, not for its 
own sake, but merely as a means of securing so many rupees 
monthly ; and when the rupees were not secured, discontent and 
disaffection ensued, which found vent in disloyal utterances in 
native newspapers. All the while, the great principle of Sir C. 
Wood s Despatch of 1854, viz., that of grants-in-aid to^ schools 
independently carried on, whether by Natives or by missionaries, 
was being more or less disregarded. In article after article in 
the CM. Intelligencer, Mr. Knox powerfully pourtrayed the evil 
results, as well as the unfairness of manning the Colleges with 
avowed agnostics, who made no concealment of their contempt 
for Christianity, while every scrap of teaching from a Christian 
point of view was forbidden as a breach of neutrality. Let one 
illustration be given in a footnote.* 

It was Lord Eipon with the sanction of the present Duke of Lord 
Devonshire, then, as Lord Hartington, Indian Secretary in Mr. 
Gladstone s Government to whom the credit is due of instituting 
an inquiry into the whole system of Government Education in 
India. There was a General Council on Indian Education, which 
had been formed in London by leading members of the Missionary 
Societies for the purpose of influencing the Government in the 
right direction. General Sir W. Hill, of the C.M.S., was Chair 
man, and the Eev. James Johnston, an able Presbyterian minister, 
Secretary. This Council brought strong pressure upon Lord 
Hartington. A Viceregal Commission was formed, consisting 
chiefly of high British officials and representative Natives. Three 
missionaries were included, viz., Dr. W. Miller, of the Free 
Church of Scotland, the distinguished Principal of the Madras 
Christian College ; the Eev. W. E. Blackett, Principal of the 
C.M.S. Divinity School at Calcutta ; and a Eoman Catholic 
priest. The President was Mr. (now Sir) William Hunter. The 
result was a complete acknowledgment of the shortcomings of the its results. 
Department, and of its failure to carry out the intentions of the 
Despatch of 1854 ; together with strong recommendations in 

* In 1876 a series of letters appeared in the Bombay Gazette. Here is 
one passage: "I doubt not that your kicking and cuffing correspondents 
are models of church-going Christian orthodoxy, and regard the Sermon on 
the Mount as a remarkably edifying composition. I content myself with 
repeating that it is an idle expectation to expect that educated Hindus will 
generally cast aside their own ancient and coherent supernatural creed for 
another of mixed Hebraic and Hellenic origin. ... A person who has lost 
his faith in the supernatural origin of the laws of Manu will not lightly be 
led to attribute such an origin to the Levitical laws as missionaries, I 
presume, expect him to do ; and if he loses his old belief that gods are some 
times born in this world of human mothers, he does so because he knows 
how to explain the origin of all such stories, whether found in Greece, Thibet, 
India, or Palestine." 


PART VIII. favour of Primary Education, and of grants-in-aid to independent 
scnoo ^ s - Striking evidence also was adduced showing that the 
best Natives frequently preferred Mission Schools to Government 
schools because morals were effectively taught in them. The 
Eeport was not presented till 1884, two years beyond our present 
period ; but it may here be added that the Missionary Societies 
were deeply thankful for the result of the inquiry, and that 
beneficial changes in the practical action of the Government of 
India did set in from that time, insomuch that Sir W. Hill s 
Council, satisfied that its work was done, presented a final Eeport 
on the whole subject and then dissolved itself. 

The Decennial Conference of Protestant Missionaries in India 

Conference m et at Calcutta on the closing days of 1882, and was in everyway 
atcaicutta. a g re at success. At Allahabad, ten years before, 136 missionaries 
assembled ; at Calcutta there were 475. One very significant 
difference was that while in 1872 no women were members of the 
Conference, and only two papers by women were included in the 
programme and these were sent from a distance and read by 
men, in 1882 there were 181 women members, and several of them 
took an important part in certain of the discussions. At Allah 
abad, the largest single contingent of members was supplied by the 
C.M.S., 25 out of the 136 ; but at Calcutta the American Episcopal 
Methodists were easily first, with 101 out of the 475, including 
34 women a striking illustration of the rapid growth of that 
energetic Mission. C.M.S. stood next, with 72 on the roll, but 
this included 22 women missionaries of the C.E.Z.M.S., the Con 
ference reasonably regarding the two Societies as practically one 
in the work. The Baptist Society, which is strong in Bengal, 
sent 48; the L.M.S., 33; the American Presbyterians, 28; the 
Free Church of Scotland, 26. Church of England Missions 
suffered, as usual, by the absence of S.P.G. men ; but that Society 
was not wholly unrepresented, two of its Native clergy attending, 
and Miss Hoare of Calcutta. 

At this Conference, instead of senior missionaries presiding in 
sir Henry turn, one Chairman was appointed, General the Hon. Sir Henry 
Chairman. Eamsay. We have not before met this excellent man, because he 
was throughout his Indian life in a district beyond C.M.S. range. 
For forty years he was Commissioner of Kumaon, a district in the 
Himalayas, the capital of which, Almora, is a well-known station 
of the L.M.S., long associated with the name of one of that 
Society s most respected missionaries, J. H. Budden. He was a 
cousin of the great Marquis of Dalhousie, and in his smaller 
sphere he did a work worthy of a Eamsay, and on Christian lines 
like those of the Lawrences. He was a man of decided spiritual 
character, and he regarded the chairmanship of the Calcutta 
Conference as the highest honour ever conferred upon him ; but 
in his opening speech he said, " The true President of this Con 
ference is the Lord Jesus Christ, and the promise of His presence 
is the surest guarantee we have of success." 


The papers contributed by C.M.S. men were, on Native Agency, PARTVIH. 
by Dr. Hooper ; on Spiritual Life, by A. Clifford (now Bishop of Q^ 3 "^ 
Lucknow) ; on Mohammedan Work, by Malcolm Goldsmith ; on ap * 
the Native Church, by W. T. Satthianadhan ; on Work among Papers and 
Aboriginal Tribes and Depressed Classes, by J. Caley (now Arch- 
deacon) and J. Cain; on Medical Missions, by Dr. Downes. 
Miss Hewlett, of the C.E.Z.M.S., read two papers, on Women s 
Work and Medical Work. The most important discussions, as 
usual, were on Educational Missions, upon which valuable papers 
were read by the two mighty Scotchmen, Dr. Miller of Madras, 
and Dr. Murray Mitchell. There was practically no opposition to 
Missionary Colleges, as there had been (slightly) at Allahabad. 
The principal controversy was on the question whether students 
attending Mission schools should be compelled to attend the Bible 
lessons. Some urged the reasonableness of a missionary society 
offering a religious education or none at all ; others said they 
found liberty in the matter more effectual, as the scholars attended 
just as well, and more cheerfully. Apparently the question might 
fairly be answered differently in different parts of India.* 

The Decennial Missionary Statistics, prepared in connexion with 
the Conference, showed that the number of Native Protestant stastics 
Christians was just under half a million 492,882. This was an 
increase of 86 per cent, in the decade, a rate fifteen times larger 
than the general rate of increase in the population. The increase 
in the number of communicants was still more striking, being at 
the rate of 114 per cent, in the ten years. The C.M.S. figures 
showed that its Native Christians had increased from 69,000 to 
99,000, a rate not equal to that of some of the Nonconformist 
Societies, particularly the American Baptists in the Telugu 
country, where a sudden and surprising advance had been 
achieved. The slower progress of the C.M.S. is at once accounted 
for when we note the melancholy fact that the number of mis 
sionaries in India had actually fallen from 109 to 104, not only 
five less than ten years before, but three less than twenty years 
before ! We are still, in 1882, not yet clear of the effects of that 
previous period of depression. It is needless again to point the 
moral already so frequently pointed in these pages. Let us rather 
thank God for the partial revival since, and pray that there may 
be no more retrogression. But retrogression there assuredly will 
be, as there was before, if Evangelical Churchmen turn their 
thoughts and sympathies away from the Lord s great Commission, 
and concentrate all their attention upon successive "crises" at 

* A good summary of the Conference proceedings was made by Mr. Knox, 
and appeared in the C.M. Intelligencer of April, 1883. 



Punjab Mission Mrs. Elmslie Miss Tucker Narowal Converts 
Frontier Missions Kashmir Punjab Church Council Lahore 
Divinity College Bishopric of Lahore Bishop French Cambridge 
Delhi Mission Alexandra Girls School Batala Boys School 
C.E.Z. Ladies Imad-ud-din Dr. H. M. Clark Bateman s Work 
Second Afghan War Mayer at Bannu Beluch Mission George 
Maxwell Gordon Gordon with the British Troops Gordon killed 
at Kandahar. 


Chap. 77. 


Women s 

" What vent ye out . . . to see? A reed shaken u-ith the wind! . . . A man 
clothed in soft raiwent ? . . . A prophet ? Yea." St. Matt. xi. 7-9. 

" Let Thy ivorJc appear unto Thy servants, and Thy glory unto their children." 
Ps. xc. 16. 

|T was not until 1877, half-way through the decade now 
under review, that, as before mentioned, the Diocese 
of Lahore was founded. Nevertheless, this chapter 
may conveniently be headed with the above title, and 
all the more appropriately because the distinguished 
and devoted first bishop of the new diocese, Thomas Valpy 
French, had long before been a leading figure in the Punjab. We 
will first, however, review the Missions during the five years 
prior to the formation of the diocese. 

At this time Robert Clark still continued the leader of the 
Punjab Mission, and, in particular, the superintending missionary 
of the central station, Amritsar, around which the work was now 
spreading to many towns and villages. Rowland Bateman and 
F. H. Baring were his chief lieutenants ; and there were four 
Native clergymen, viz., the Revs. Imad-ud-din and Daud Singh, 
who have been introduced before, and the Revs. Mian Sadiq 
Masih and Bhola Nath Ghose, who were ordained by Bishop 
Milman on Advent Sunday, 1875. Mian Sadiq was a son of Mian 
Paulus, the head-man at Narowal mentioned in our Sixty-third 
Chapter. He had had unusually good training, having ridden 
about the country with Bateman on the same camel, having been 
two years in the Lahore College under French, and subsequently 
catechist in sole charge of Batala then only an out-station with 
no resident missionary. 

The Women s Work, too, which has since been so conspicuous 
a feature in the Punjab, had now begun. Some of the mis- 






Thomas Valpy French, Missionary in North India, 1850-1874. ; Bishop of Lahore 1877-1887- 

afterwards at Muscat, where he died, May, 1891. (Photograph : Elliott & Pry ) 
Robert Clark, Pioneer Missionary to the Punjab, 1851 Secretary of the Mission, 1877-1897. 
James \ ausdian, Missionary in Bengal, 1855-1882. 
Joseph Welland, Missionary in Ben-al, 1800-1879. 
Robert Bruce, Missionary to the Punjab, 1858; Founder of the Persia Mission, 1869; Special 

Deputation Staff, C.M.S., 1891-1896; Hon. Governor for Life 1898 
George Maxwell Gordon, Hon. Missionary in Madras, 1866; Punjab. 1871 Actino- Chnnlnin 

to British Forces, 1878; killed at Kandahar while helping to brin- in wounded S 8 < 


sionaries wives, indeed, had already done good service. Mrs. E. PART VIII. 
Clark had always been a power in the Mission. Mrs. Fitzpatrick, 1873-82. 
years before, had started the first girls schools. But now others Cha P- W- 
were to take a leading part. After Dr. Elmslie s death in 1872, his 
young widow remained in the Mission as an honorary missionary Mrs. 
of the C.M.S., took charge of the important orphanage at Amritsar, Elmslie - 
and superintended a band of Native Bible- women. Nine years 
afterwards she married Mr. Baring, but then died within twelve 
months. The Society has had no choicer lady missionary than 
Margaret Elmslie. Mr. Clark wrote of her, " She came to us 
from death, and brought life with her." And again: " She walked 
with God, and therefore knew how to work and act for God. As 
God had taught her, she knew how to teach others. As God had 
strengthened her, she knew how to strengthen and comfort others. 
Every one confided in her." * And Miss C. M. Tucker said of 
her : " She is one of a million. I never met with any woman in 
my life so like an angel without wings. Tall, fair, elegant, 
graceful, with a face that Ary Scheffer might have chosen to 
paint for a seraph, her soul seems to correspond with her external 
appearance. Saintly as she is, she is not at all gloomy ; she tries 
to make all happy, and is business-like and practical."! She was 
a niece of Dr. Horatius Bonar, who said, " What a woman the 
Punjab has made of her ! " "No," remarked Mr. Clark, " it was 
not the country, but God Himself." J 

It was in 1872, also, that the Indian Female Instruction Society 
sent Miss Wauton to Amritsar, the forerunner of a host of noble Miss 
women of the C.E.Z.M.S., which took over the greater part of the Wauton - 
I.F.N.S. Punjab work when the separation occurred in 1880. 
Among her earlier comrades were Miss Hasell, Miss Ada Smith, 
and Miss Swainson. But in 1875 arrived that remarkable woman, 
Miss Charlotte Maria Tucker, sister of the Henry Carre Tucker Miss 
whom we have before met as Commissioner of Benares in the days Tucker - 
of the Mutiny, and afterwards in Salisbury Square. Miss Tucker 
had written many books for young people with the nom de plume 

uV A>L>( ?; E -" ( A . Lad y Of En gland); and the starting of 
" A.L.O.E." for India to engage in missionary work at the age of 
fifty-four excited much interest among her numerous friends and 
readers. Two years later she took up her residence at Batala, 
which then became a regular station ; and there she made her 
home for the sixteen remaining years of her life. Her letters to 
the CM. Gleaner were among the most interesting features of 
that periodical. 

Year by year, deeply touching conversions of individuals not T 
many, but each one a triumph of grace were reported from 
Amritsar and the neighbouring towns and districts. Most remark 
able at this time was a series of baptisms of boys and youths 

* Punjab and Sindh Mission, p. 99. f Life of A.L.O E " p 204. 

I O.M. Intelligencer, October, 1882, p. 639. 


PART VIII. attending the mission-school at Narowal. Bateman s narratives 

1873-82. o f these youthful converts were touching in the extreme. All had 

Chap. 77. k een Mohammedans except three who were Hindus. One of 

them was privileged to bring out with him his father, mother, 

brother, sisters, and child- wife ; but most of them had to face the 

ordeal of bitter social persecution, and in some cases of entire 

separation from family and friends. Two or three yielded to the 

enticements they were plied with ; "a Delilah," wrote Bateman, 

" is much relied on in such cases "; but most stood firm. One, 

Dina Nath the son of a Brahman of the highest caste and character, was 

Datuu taken by his father to various shrines with a view to influencing 

his mind : 

" He was washed in sacred springs, and led before famous Brahmans, 
and sat day after day repeating before an idol the invocations by which 
Brahmans seek to hold converse with God. He did this with an earnest 
desire that if there were truth and comfort in Hinduism, he might see 
and share it. But not to the idol were addressed all the prayers of the 
young worshipper. Crouched alone within that shrine, he poured into 
Emmanuel s ear no speculative plaint ; and though all day long he was 
honestly trying after something new whereon to rest his soul, yet night 
and morning he fell back to Christian prayer." 

He had read with Bateman the provision in the Mosaic Law for 
boring the ear of the slave who " would not go out free," and he 
had put in one of his ears (already bored for rings) a sprig of wood, 
saying that if ever he could not or would not cleave any longer to 
Christ he would take it out. One day, when the lad had been 
removed to a distance, Bateman received a letter from the father, 
upon the envelope of which was a picture which must have 
puzzled the postman a face in profile with a line drawn across 
the ear." Evidently the boy had had to post the letter, and had 
drawn the sketch on it to assure Bateman of his steadfastness. 
He was baptized at last on January 20th, 1875, and was imme 
diately cast out by his family. He afterwards came to England, 
went through a complete medical course, and now Mr. Dina Nath 
Prithu Datta, M.B. (Edin.), is Government doctor at an important 
town in the Punjab. Several other of these Narowal converts 
afterwards occupied responsible positions. One, who also bore 
Rev. Dina the name of Dina Nath, took holy orders, and became a most 
Nath. aD } e anc [ exemplary clergyman, and a lecturer in Greek, Hebrew, 
and Theology at the Lahore Divinity College. 

About the same time there were similar conversions from the 
school at Dera Ismail Khan, under W. Thwaites. One of the 
Khem converts, Khem Chand whose father poured hot oil on his feet 
Chand. ^o prevent his running away, was afterwards at Islington Col 
lege, and for several years headmaster of the C.M.S. School at 
Multan. But for the most part the Derajat Mission w r as unfruitful 
at this time, though Brodie, Thwaites, and Lee Mayer laboured 
zealously. Unfruitful also were the Himalaya stations, Kotgur 
and Kangra, under Rpbsch, Merk, and Eeuther. 


Nor was Peshawar very different, under Hughes and Jukes, PART VIII. 
though now and then an Afghan of some consideration was bap- 1873-82. 
tized. But the Mission there was growing in influence. The Cha P- ?? 
Edwardes High School, under Worthington Jukes, was one of the Peshawar 
best in India, and was giving Bible-teaching to the sons of Afghan work - 
chiefs as well as others ; the anjuman, a sort of literary institute, 
proved a convenient place of intercourse with the Moslems of the 
city ; while the hujrah or guest-house in the Mission compound 
continually welcomed, according to the regular Afghan customs of 
hospitality, traders and others who came in from the mountains, 
or from Kabul and other inaccessible cities, and gave excellent 
opportunities for conversation and the distribution of Scriptures 
and Christian tracts. 

In 1873 a somewhat exciting incident occurred in connexion 
with Peshawar and the Frontier. Mr. Edmund Downes, who Downes 
had been a Lieutenant E.A., but had left the army and was J^gSTo 8 
helping in the Mission, attempted to leave British territory and Kalrisan. 
get into Kafiristan, as the two Afghan Christians had done suc 
cessfully nine years before.* He left Peshawar disguised as a 
Persian knowing that language with one guide who was in the 
secret, and, eluding the British outposts, got up into the moun 
tains. But someone it was never known who heard of the 
plan and informed the authorities, pocketing a reward for doing 
so ; and at an Afghan village Downes was seized, and handed over 
to a police official who had been sent after him. A Times telegram 
about "the capture of Missionary Downes" caused a mild and 
momentary excitement in England.! He afterwards came home, 
and took a medical course, and in 1877 he went out again as a 
medical missionary to Kashmir. 

In the meanwhile, after Elmslie s lamented death, Dr. Theodore 
Maxwell, a nephew of the famous General John Nicholson who 
fell at Delhi, and a man of considerable academical and pro 
fessional distinction, had gone out to carry on the Kashmir Kashmir 
Medical Mission. The Maharajah of Kashmir was impressed by 
the fact of his relationship with the redoubtable " Neekolsain," 
and allowed him to build a hospital and a house. But his health 
failed, and after two summers in the Valley he was obliged to 
return to England. Mr. Wade, who knew something of medicine, 
left the Lahore College to take his place temporarily ; and while 
engaged in the work he did also important service by preparing a 
Kashmiri New Testament. Then came Dr. Downes, and in 1878 
he and Wade were together overwhelmed with work owing to the 
frightful famine that desolated the district. For six years Downes 
conducted the Kashmir Medical Mission with untiring zeal and 

Through the Kashmir Valley flows the Jhelum, one of the 

* See Chapter LXIII. 

t The whole narrative appeared in No. 1 of thenewC.-M". Gleaner, January, 

L 2 




Chap. 77. 



Papers by 



five rivers of the Punjab. Indeed we are here in the midst of 
the mighty mountain masses where all the streams that combine 
to form the Indus take their rise. Floating down upon their 
united waters till we have passed the entire Punjab, we come at 
last to the Province of Sindh, and find it at this period still 
occupied by such faithful men as James Sheldon and George 
Shirt ; and J. J. Bambridge joined them in 1876. But the fruits, 
at the period now being reviewed, were but small. 

The Punjab was the first province in North India to start a 
Native Church Council, on the lines laid down ^ originally by 
Henry Venn, and already found fairly successful in the South. 
Its inauguration took place at Easter, 1877, with more eclat than 
accompanied the formation of the similar Councils in the North- 
West Provinces and Bengal. Mr. Clark, who was appointed 
Chairman, exerted himself to the utmost to secure that it should 
begin well. The Punjab Mission being much younger, there 
were not the same number of clergy and delegates to assemble ; 
but on the other hand, there were men among them of exceptional 
standing. The inaugural sermon was preached on Easter Day by 
the Eev. Imad-ud-din, on the words, " Thou wilt not suffer Thine 
Holy One to see corruption." After the evening service, at which 
Mr. Bateman preached, a large party of English and Indian 
Christians assembled at the mission-house, presented an address 
to the Commissioner of Amritsar, General Eeynell Taylor, who 
was leaving for England, and were addressed by his successor, 
Mr. H. E. Perkins. On Easter Monday the Council proper met. 
Short papers were read as follows : On the Ministry amongst 
Native Christians, by Mr. Abdullah Athim,* Extra Assistant 
Commissioner at Ambala ; on the Evangelization of the Heathen, 
by Mr. Mya Das, Tahsildar in the Ferozepore district ; on the 
Position and Duties of the Laity, by Mr. Chandu Lall, of the 
Government Education Department ; on Church Committees, 
by Mr. I. C. Singha, Headmaster of Amritsar Main School ; on 
Church Councils, by the Eev. Imad-ud-din ; on Church Funds, 
by Mr. Eallia Earn, Pleader at Amritsar, and by Mr. Nobin 
Chander Das, Master in the Amritsar School ; on Native 
Pastorates, by Mr. Sher Singh, Magistrate of Shakargarh. All 
the papers were in Urdu, but an English translation was made 
of each, in several cases by the writers themselves. Much interest 
was excited ; some of the men in independent positions enrolled 
their names as honorary catechists, to preach the Gospel in their 
leisure hours ; an editorial committee was appointed, to produce 
Christian literature ; and all looked very hopeful. For some years 
similarly interesting gatherings were held annually; yet the 
Council did not increase in strength or in grip of the work it was 
designed to do. Perhaps it began on too grand a scale ; if so, it 
illustrates what Henry Venn always said of the danger of building 
" from the top." I 

* See Vol. II., p. 204. f See Ibid -> P- 419 


Let us now, lastly, before coming to the establishment of the PART VIII. 
bishopric, look at the special work of the man who was destined -^ 73 ~ 82 - 
to be the first bishop the Lahore Divinity College. How it was 
founded we have seen before ; and French s plans regarding it ; Lahore 
and the prospects in the first year." French continued in charge comTge 7 
through three years, and at last, in the spring of 1874, was com 
pelled, by repeated illnesses, again to come home. But he already 
had the joy of seeing several of his students in definite posts of French s 
missionary service. They had come from various parts of North stude 
India, and severally went back to the districts from which they 
had come. Men who had been Brahmans, Sikhs, and Moham 
medans were among them ; Afghans from the mountains and 
Hindus from the plains. Four of them died quite early. One, 
Benjamin, a medical assistant in the Kashmir Mission, was 
drowned when bathing in the Jhelum. A second, Yusuf, of the 
S.P.G. Mission at Delhi, died there of consumption, confessing to 
the Eev. Tara Chand that his real heart-conversion had taken 
place in the College. A third, Ebenezer Amir-ud-din, w T as struck 
down by fever when itinerating, preached in his delirium to those 
about him, and said to French before he died, " If I never preach 
any more, my crown will not be starless. God has used me to 
bring some." A fourth, Andreas, died of consumption, also in the 
midst of his work. French, who had then come to England, 
wrote an "In Memoriam " of him for the G.M. Gleaner (July, 
1876). " His life," says this touching article, " was as exemplary 
and single-minded as one could look to find on earth. He seemed 
so beautifully modelled after the pattern of Jesus." 

Severe as the Lahore curriculum was too severe, some thought, 
though French insisted that the students took with especial kind 
ness to Hebrew, the men were not there only for book- study. 
Evangelistic work in the city and district was carried on, and Their 
there were baptisms year by year in the tank in the College evangelists 
grounds. But besides this, French took his men in the vacations 
to distant parts. One year, the people of the Hazara district were 
surprised at being invaded by ten Indian evangelists. A new 
district on the Jhelum was also taken up, which was to be a 
special field for the Lahore men ; but this plan did not last. 
It was projected by George Maxwell Gordon, who, at French s 
earnest request, and with the Society s sanction, joined his old 
Beddington friend in 1872, instead of returning to the Madras 
Itinerancy. When French went home, Gordon retired from 
college work, and gave himself wholly to itinerant preaching in George 
the Jhelum District. But the students had neither the physical cforSon l in 
nor the spiritual strength to do what he did except Andreas 
above-mentioned, who joined him with zealous self-denial, and 
while with him contracted the disease of which he died. Gordon, 
in fact, became almost a fakir. He lived in a tower, the corner 

* See Chapter LXII I. 


Chap. 77. 



Diocese of 

the first 

bastion of an old fort near PindDadan Khan. He found he could 
generally walk ten miles a day (an unusual thing in India), and 
thus be independent of a horse or " turn-turn." " It would spoil 
the verse, How beautiful upon the mountains, &c.," he said, 
" if feet were exchanged for hoofs." And the district he traversed 
in this way from his old tower was "as if a London clergyman 
had Lincoln, York, and Newcastle under his charge, to be visited 
periodically without railways or coaches." This kind of life did 
not suit Native students. 

French was succeeded in the Principalship of the College by 
W. Hooper, who had previously been a Benares missionary, and 
who was, like French himself, an Oxford man of distinction. With 
him was associated a new man, also from Oxford, F. A. P. Shirreff, 
and subsequently he was joined by H. U. Weitbrecht, Ph.D. of 
Tubingen, son of Weitbrecht of Burdwan, and who had been 
curate to Mr. Hay Aitken at Liverpool. Under these, the College 
quite sustained its reputation ; and Hooper s reports were as 
deeply interesting as French s had been. But his heart was with 
the Hindus on the Ganges, rather than with the Mohammedans 
of the frontier Province ; and after four years he formed the new 
plan, mentioned in the preceding chapter, for a similar institution 
at Benares, which he ultimately established at Allahabad. 
Shirreff then (1879) became Principal at Lahore. 

We may now come to the establishment of the Diocese of 
Lahore. The endowment for this new bishopric was raised, very 
appropriately, as a memorial to Bishop Milman. It was started 
at a meeting at Government House, Calcutta, immediately after 
Milman s death in March, 1876. Lord Northbrook presided, just 
before leaving India ; and on his return to England he attended, 
with Lord Lawrence, another meeting at Lambeth Palace, in July. 
The money was quickly raised, the S.P.G., S.P.C.K., and Colonial 
Bishoprics Fund largely contributing, and, twelve months later, 
Lord Salisbury, as Secretary of State for India, asked Archbishop 
Tait to suggest a name. Tait at once suggested French, who, 
since his last return from India three years before, had been 
Eector of St. Ebbe s, Oxford, having succeeded Mr. Barlow on 
his appointment to the Principalship of Islington College. The 
selection was received with universal approval. Dr. Westcott 
wrote of the " joy and confident hope " of all at Cambridge. Miss 
Marsh, who had known French so well at Beddington, wrote to 
him : "I see to my inexpressible joy the appointment of the best 
man I know left behind on earth (bracketed with perhaps one and 
a half or so besides) to the see his heart would most love, and 
which he himself has done so very much for." * The consecration 
was at Westminster Abbey on St. Thomas s Day (1877), together 
with that of J. H. Titcomb to the other new Indian bishopric, 
Eangoon. It was remarkable that, only twelve days before, at 

* Life of Bishop French, vol. i. pp. 331, 333. 


the Antipodes, French s old comrade, E. C. Stuart, was conse- PART VIII. 
crated Bishop of Waiapu. Together they had gone to India in i? 73 " 8 ^ 
1850 ; almost together they were raised to the Episcopate, after ap " 
twenty-seven years varied labours in each case ; and by-and-by Bishops 
another remarkable parallelism was to be witnessed in their lives, stuart. d 
as we shall see hereafter. 

The new diocese comprised the Punjab and the adjacent Native 
States (such as Kashmir), and also the Province of Sindh, which 
was transferred from Bombay. It will be remembered that, after 
the Mutiny, the city and district of Delhi, although not part of the Delhi in 
Punjab proper, had been included in the domain of the Punjab 
administration, practically as a reward to John Lawrence and his 
lieutenants for having been the chief instruments in saving India 
in the great crisis. Delhi, therefore, with its important S.P.G. 
Mission, now came under the new Bishop of Lahore ; and this 
brought French into pleasant association with a new and interest 
ing work which had just been started started, indeed, at his own 
suggestion two years before. 

It was on this wise. Edward Bickersteth, Fellow of Pembroke, 
Cambridge, eldest son of E. H. Bickersteth of Hampstead (now Delhi 
Bishop of Exeter), and grandson of the fervent C.M.S. Secretary Mlsslon - 
of earlier days, had been stirred up by intercourse with French 
to devote himself to a missionary career, and led also by French 
to plan a brotherhood (without vows) of Cambridge men, which 
should form a strong and concentrated Mission at some central 
station, in affiliation with one of the established Societies. 
Bickersteth s hereditary associations, backed by French s earnest E. Bicker- 
advice, naturally led him to approach the C.M.S., and the idea original 
was warmly welcomed by Henry Wright. But a difficulty arose P lans - 
when the details of the scheme came under consideration. Lead 
ing men at Cambridge, Professors Lightfoot and Westdott among 
them, proposed to form a small committee there to select the men 
for the brotherhood a proper and reasonable plan in itself. But 
the very essence of C.M.S. principles, the very raison d etre of the why not 
Society s existence, for which it had borne reproach for three- c n M e .s. 
quarters of a century, was its absolute discretion in the choice of 
its missionaries. It was felt that whatever confidence might 
justly be felt in the honoured men who were backing Bickersteth, 
it was impossible to infringe so fundamental a principle. The 
readiness of Wright and his colleagues, however, to meet the 
proposal generously is shown by the suggestion they made, 
namely, that the selection should rest with three Cambridge men, 
that one of them should be appointed by the Society, and that 
the appointment of a missionary should depend on his being 
accepted by the three unanimously. This suggestion did not 
prove welcome, and the negotiation fell through. Bickersteth 
then applied to the S.P.G. , which equally on its fundamental 
principles had no difficulty in the matter. Hence the choice of 
Delh for the new "Cambridge Mission," instead of Multan or 



Chap. 77. 

The Delhi 

French in 
nis diocese 



some other city in the Punjab, which French had hoped might be 
fixed upon. 

So when the new bishop journeyed up from Calcutta, he found 
the first station he came to on entering his own diocese, Delhi, 
occupied, not only by the long-established S.P.G. Mission under 
Winter, but by Edward Bickersteth and his first comrade. 
According to the S.P.G. Digest, " the fusion or partial fusion of 
two bodies of men the ordinary missionaries of the Society and 
the Cambridge brotherhood in one Mission was an experiment, 
the difficulties of which were not few "; * but whatever these diffi 
culties may have been, the noble work done during the last twenty 
years by the Cambridge Delhi Mission deserves the most cordial 
recognition from all quarters. 

French received a warm welcome from all in the Punjab ; not 
least from those whom he alludes to as " the dear Presbyterian 
brethren, Newton and Forman " the men who had, five-and- 
twenty years before, invited the C.M.S. to the newly- conquered 
province. The High Church chaplains were afraid of him, but 
they soon found that they had a bishop of singularly independent 
mind and very broad sympathies, and who, while Evangelical to 
his heart s core on fundamental doctrines, was distinctly with 
them, and not with the majority of his old C.M.S. brethren, upon 
many matters external and ecclesiastical. He appointed as Arch 
deacon a leading chaplain, the Eev. H. J. Matthew who in after 
years was destined to succeed him in the see ; and he desired to 
appoint Eobert Clark an Archdeacon specifically for the Native 
Church, but this, on some technical ground, the Government 
would not allow. 

The formation of the new diocese involved the formation of a 
new C.M.S. Corresponding Committee for the Punjab and Sindh. 
It is the rule of the Society that the bishop of a diocese 
assuming that he is willing to be a member of the Society is ex 
officio a member of the Corresponding Committee, and therefore 
naturally chairman when present. Hence it follows that there 
should be a separate Committee for each diocese. Such Com 
mittees, as we have seen, had from the first administered the 
Missions in the dioceses of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay ; and 
now a new one was formed for Lahore. Eobert Clark, of course, 
became Secretary ; and in a province where godly officers and 
civilians had long been so conspicuous, there was no difficulty in 
bringing together a strong body of competent men. General 
Maclagan, Mr. Baden Powell, Mr. Tremlett, and Mr. H. E. 
Perkins, were among the first members appointed. 

New developments, largely due to the energy of Mr. Clark, 
now marked the course of the Punjab Mission. One, upon which 
his heart was much set, was a high-class Boarding School for the 
daughters of Native Christians of some social status. He rightly 

S.P.G. Digest, p. 627. 


urged that educated Christian men should have educated wives, PART VIII. 
and also that capable single women were wanted for educational " 8 

work. His plans were drawn on a large scale, and he asked for 
6000 to erect suitable buildings, the whole of which sum was 
eventually raised by his untiring efforts, many Natives contributing 
handsomely, and the Amritsar Municipality granting Ks. 1000. 
He obtained the permission of the Princess of Wales to name the 
institution the Alexandra School, in memory of the Prince s visit 
to the city ; and she sent her and his portraits to hang upon the 
wall. The School was inaugurated on December 27th, 1878, with 
a little dedication service performed by the Bishop, and at the 
gathering which followed General Maclagan represented the 
English friends and contributors, and Mr. Abdullah Athim ^the 
Native Christians. Its actual work began in November, 1879. 
The I.F.N.S. and subsequently the C.E.Z.M.S. undertook to 
provide the ladies to conduct the School ; and this has been the 
arrangement ever since. In 1880, Lord Eipon, soon after landing in 
India as Viceroy, and being in the Punjab, visited the School, and 
addressed the assembled friends strongly in support of religious 

A Boarding School for Christian boys was opened in the same 
year. This was Mr. Baring s work ; and he fixed its location at school for 
Batala, a small city twenty-four miles from Amritsar. No fund 
was raised to start this School. Baring did it all himself, renting 
an old Sikh palace, and then went and lived there as the first 
Principal; and when he retired from the post he gave the 
C.M.S. an endowment of 350 a year to keep the School going. 
Miss Tucker (A.L.O.E.), as before mentioned, resided at Batala, 
and she was for years the friend and patron of the Batala boys. 
The Bishop of Calcutta s chaplain, the Eev. Brook Deedes, thus 
wrote of her in 1881 : 

" She presides over the whole institution with all the tact and grace 
of a benevolent fairy. To see her, indeed, among the boys now by the 
sick-bed of an invalid, now leading the singing at the daily worship in 
the little chapel, now acting as private tutor to a candidate for the 
Entrance Examination, now setting her own words to stirring tunes, as 
Batala Songs, to be sung in schoolboy chorus ; sharing the feasts, 
the interests, the joys and sorrows of each and all, and withal insensibly 
forming and elevating their character, raising the tone and taste of the 
boyish society, as only the subtle influence of a Christian lady can do ; 
and, to older and younger, the object of a warm personal affection and 
a chivalrous deference, to see this is indeed to realize, as it has 
probably seldom been realized, Charles Kingsley s beautiful conception 
of the Fairy Do-as-you-would-be-done-by among the Water-babies. 
And in this case the Water-babies are swept together from a range wide 
enough to satisfy even Kingsley s world-wide sympathies." 

Women s work increased rapidly in the Punjab during the next 
three or four years, especially after the establishment of the 
C.E.Z.M.S. in 1880. Miss Hewlett, who went out in 1879, 
established, step by step, with quiet perseverance and judicious 



Chap. 77. 

Miss Clay. 

at Lahore. 

work of 
the Rev. 

management, the now famous St. Catherine s Hospital, with its 
numerous supplementary agencies. The Village Mission, in the 
development of which Miss Clay took a leading part, was started 
in 1881-2 at Jandiala and Ajnala, the latter station being 
practically Miss Clay s own. It was an interesting complement 
of this pioneer work of ladies who went and lived where no male 
missionaries had yet done more than pay casual visits, when the 
Native Church Council took up their districts as fields for its own 
evangelistic work, and stationed the Eev. Mian Sadiq Masih at 

It was mentioned in our Fifty-ninth Chapter that the memorable 
Punjab Missionary Conference of 1862 was followed by the 
formation of the Punjab Eeligious Book Society and the Punjab 
Auxiliary Bible Society. Both these had done excellent work, 
chiefly under the guidance of Clark and Baring. In 1875 a 
commodious book-shop was erected at Lahore at a cost of 2000, 
entirely defrayed by Baring. While the two Societies, of course, 
were intended chiefly for the production of vernacular books, the 
shop was used as a depot for good English literature, the sales of 
which proved a source of profit. When Bishop French saw it, 
he wrote : " I am sure there is no such shop of the kind in 
Oxford ; in fact, I have seen no such in London I mean where 
the choice is so happy, of the very books the Christian world 
would be most charmed and edified by." 

Important literary work was done by Imad-ud-din. For some 
years after his conversion and ordination he wrote book after 
book and tract after tract against Islam, and in defence of 
Christianity against Moslem objections ; but in 1873 he said 
touchingly, " I wish to devote the rest of my days in showing to 
them the mercies of God ; that is, I wish to show them the 
excellency of the holy teaching of the Gospels, their mysteries, 
and the hidden treasures which Christ has revealed to His 
faithful servants." In 1875 he wrote a very striking account of 
his work so far, and its results, which was printed in the 
Intelligencer (September, 1875). In it he claimed to have entirely 
defeated his antagonists, who no longer attempted to reply to his 
arguments. " Why therefore," he said, tread on the body of a 
fallen enemy ? . . . Let us pray for those who curse us, and 
stretch out our hands to receive them with the same love with 
which Christ has loved us. Let us lead them in the deepest 
humility, and with tenderest sympathy and love." He did not, 
indeed, entirely abandon controversy. Besides giving public 
lectures, he produced, in 1880, among other works, a large book 
entitled Talim-i- Muhammad, or a Comparison of the Teachings of 
Muhammad with those of the Holy Scriptures. But his chief 
attention was now given to writing, in conjunction with Mr. 
Clark, original commentaries on the New Testament for the use 
of Native Christians. The Gospels of St. Matthew and St. John 
and the Acts of the Apostles were thus dealt with, Mr. Clark 


suggesting the exegesis, and Imad-ud-din throwing it into PART VIII. 
Oriental form and Urdu idiom. He was also a member of the g^jHi 
committee for revising the Urdu Prayer-book. He truly deserved J__ 
the honour of being the first Native of India to receive the degree imad-ud- 
of D.D., conferred on him in 1884 by Archbishop Benson. 

Another important development marked the closing year of our 
decade, 1882. In that year Dr. Henry Martyn Clark went out, Dr. H. M. 
and founded the Amritsar Medical Mission. He was by birth an 
Afghan, but had been adopted in infancy by Mr. and Mrs. Eobert 
Clark, and sent to Scotland for education. As he grew up, he 
entered on a medical course, won distinction in the medical 
schools, and at an unusually early age engaged in medical practice 
in Edinburgh. He offered his services to the Society as a medical 
missionary with European status, and was accepted, and before 
sailing he married a Scottish lady. The Society was at once 
attacked in the Guardian for engaging a Presbyterian, his Scotch 
associations being all of that kind ; but Mr. Wigram replied that 
he had received a special course of theological instruction under 
the direction of the Bishop of Edinburgh, and had given " an 
explicit assurance of his readiness to work as a lay medical 
missionary on Church of England lines, and in full communion 
with the Church of England." We shall see more by-and-by of 
the remarkable work done by the Medical Mission established by 

All this time, the regular evangelistic work was going on, jf,JJJ*J rfc 
particularly in the wide district over which Bateman was con- ofBateman 
stantly itinerating ; and his reports year by year were graphic in 
the extreme. It is especially interesting to read of Christian 
fakirs. One, who, on his conversion, was turned out of his little 
plot of land, built a house by the roadside in a desolate place, 
planted trees, digged a well, received travellers for a night s free 
lodging or a little water, and then preached Christ to them. 
Another was found lying at the point of death, and his coffin by 
his side ready for his corpse. "We all prayed very earnestly 
that his valuable life might be prolonged. He at once ordered the 
coffin out of the house, saying he should not want it now." He 
recovered ; and a year afterwards, meeting Bateman, he threw 
his arms round his neck and exclaimed, "I believe in the Com 
munion of Saints, the Forgiveness of Sins, the Eesurrection of the 
Body, and the Life Everlasting, Amen ! " He was appointed by 
the Native Church Council to be one of its " readers " " strange 
name," wrote Bateman, " for a man who does not know a letter 
in any language ! 

For a time Bateman had charge of the Kangra district also, in Kangra. 
the Himalayas, but he found the people mad upon their idols and 
singularly hard. A " Demetrius " (as he calls him) one day said, 
" We have had three Padri Sahibs, older and wiser than you, who 
preached till they died, and we never listened. What do you 
think you will do among us ? " The three " Padri Sahibs " thus 



Chap. 77. 



Frontier : 


Mayer at 

alluded to were Merk, Menge", and Eeuther. "I never was in a 
place," wrote Bateman, " where I so often thought of the 
command to shake off the dust of the feet." Another sphere of 
his labours, and cause of much toil and anxiety, was an in 
dustrial settlement for Native Christians called (after Mr. Clark) 
Clarkabad. But Narowal continued the centre of his work ; and 
there he made what seems to have been the first attempt to build 
a thoroughly oriental-looking church not unlike a mosque in 
appearance, believing that an ordinary English church, whether 
Gothic or Italian in style, " savours of foreign notions and a 
foreign yoke, and in no way represents the glorious and world 
wide Kingdom of Christ." The church was opened on December 
27th, 1874, and Bateman wrote, referring to the first solitary 
convert at Narowal years before, " How light all the loneliness 
and persecution which that brave old man endured would have 
seemed to him, had he known how soon his sons and grandsons 
would be worshipping with a large congregation where he sat and 
smoked alone in his faith." 

We must now fix our attention on the Frontier, during the 
eventful years 1878-81. Before the close of 1878, England had 
been led by Lord Lytton into a second Afghan War. This drew 
all eyes to the Frontier ; and C.M.S. friends were asking why we 
had no Christian Mission in Afghanistan. " But we have," in 
sisted the Peshawar missionaries ; " Peshawar, though in British 
India territorially, is in Afghanistan ethnologically, and is in fact 
a purer Afghan city than Kabul itself." So also protested Lee 
Mayer from Bannu which station, though regarded as belonging 
to the Derajat Mission, is in a valley within the mountains, quite 
separate from the Derajat plain. Bannu had been the scene of a 
most successful experiment in governing turbulent tribesmen 
peacefully ; but then the Commissioners had been successively 
Herbert Edwardes, Eeynell Taylor, and H. B. Urmston, men 
who feared God and constantly sought His guidance. As a 
mission-field, however, the valley was one of the hardest possible. 
Nowhere were the mullahs more bigoted or violent. Mayer s 
letters for many years told of constant and vehement opposition, 
which he met with a good humour that sometimes disarmed 
opponents. For instance, in this very year 1878, while he was 
preaching in the open-air amid loud outcries and howlings, "a 
wretched, ragged-looking old mullah " kept tugging at his elbow 
and shouting, "Whose son was the devil? whose son was the 
devil? " "At last," wrote Mayer, " I turned round, gave him a 
friendly slap in the back, and roared out, Your son, old man ! 
Let me go on ! which retort secured him ten minutes quiet 
attention. Mayer " thought he had a fair pair of lungs," but " all 
that conceit was taken out of him." He " generally found an 
hour and a half as much as he could stand, and croaked like a 
raven for the rest of the day." But noise was not the worst 
feature of the situation. Sometimes he was stoned, knocked off 


the steps he spoke from, robbed of his turban or his books. But PART VIII. 
nothing could damp his zeal and courage. 

The British forces entered the dominions of the Ameer by two 
routes, through the Khyber Pass on the north, and through the The army 
Bolan Pass on the south. As soon as the northern division had JS 
reached Jellalabad, halfway to Kabul, Hughes, the senior mis- " 
sionary at Peshawar, rode up thither, without escort, " giving the g 
salutations of peace to Afghan friends on the way, and receiving 
invitations to dinner from more than one Afridi men who had 
seen him at Peshawar, and very likely had shared the hospitality 
of the mission hujrah before referred to. At Jellalabad he found 
Afghan chiefs and traders actually reading Scriptures and books 
which he had given them when they stayed in the hujrah." While 
he was there, the skirmish occurred in which Major Wigram 
Battye was killed, and it fell to Hughes s lot to bury that brilliant 
officer, in the presence of the General and of the whole Guide 
Corps. When the war was concluded (temporarily, alas !) by the 
Treaty of Gandamak, the Eev. Imam Shah paid a visit to Kabul Rev. imam 
itself, not for direct evangelistic work among the Afghans the 
Government would not have allowed that but to minister to a 
small congregation of Armenian Christians existing in the city. 
These Armenians had come to Kabul a hundred years before when 
Nadir Shah invaded India, but their numbers had diminished 
until now they were but fourteen souls. They had a little church 
of their own, but no priest from Persia had visited them for many 
years. Two or three of the children had been baptized by chap 
lains with the British army in the first Afghan War ; and others 
had been sent down to Peshawar for baptism. No sermon had 
been preached in the little church since Dr. Joseph Wolff visited 
them in 1832, until August 10th, 1879, when Imam Shah preached 
and administered the Holy Communion. Sad to say, the church 
was destroyed (unavoidably) by the British a few months later, 
when the murder of Sir L. Cavagnari caused a renewal of the 

* But Pushtu New Testaments had got into Afghanistan long before this ; 
indeed before the annexation of the Punjab. In the first Afghan War, 1839, 
Captain Kaban and other Christian officers in the army at Kabul drew lip an 
appeal for a Mission to the Afghans, and collected among themselves Rs. 600, 
which they sent to Bishop Daniel Wilson. The British authorities, however, 
forbad anything of the kind ; but the Calcutta Bible Society did a notable 
thing. They sent a parcel of 200 Pushtu Testaments to Kabul, enclosed 
in some other package, but not addressed. When it reached Kabul, the 
authorities naturally questioned Captain Raban and his comrades ; but they 
had purposely not been informed, so could honestly say that they knew 
nothing of the matter. Thereupon an order was issued to send the books 
back to India ; but the caravan was plundered on the way, and the Testa 
ments (as was found afterwards) wore scattered over the country ! That 
war issued in the total destruction of the British force ; but the Word of 
God remained ! (See an article by Captain Raban s son, in the C.M. Intelli 
gencer of June, 1891.) 

| Imam Shah s account of this small Armenian community is most curious. 
See C.M. Intelligencer, November, 1879, and November, 1880. 



Chap. 77. 






and G. M. 

A. Lewis 
and Dr. A. 

After the war, in 1882, another most interesting expedition was 
successfully accomplished by a Native evangelist, an Afghan 
convert, Syud Shah. He succeeded in reaching Kanristan, as 
Fazl-i-Haqq and Nurallah had done in 1864,* and stayed three 
months in the country, preaching and teaching the Gospel. Then 
he returned via Chitral. f 

The campaigns on the southern side of Afghanistan are linked 
with the name of George Maxwell Gordon. Before the war 
broke out, Gordon had been planning a Mission to the people of 
Beluchistan. They had been upon his heart ever since he had 
travelled from England to the Punjab via Persia. The steamer 
that brought him from the Persian Gulf to Karachi stopped at 
Guadur, a Beluch port, and this reminded him that here was 
one of the wholly unevangelized races of the world. Afghanistan 
and Beluchistan were indeed alike in being closed countries ; but, 
as we have found, Peshawar and Bannu were waving " a flag for 
Christ " which Afghans could and did see, while for the Beluchis 
nothing whatever was being done. In 1876, Gordon extended 
one of his incessant journeyings to Dera Ghazi Khan, the 
southernmost of the three chief cities of the Derajat, which lay 
opposite the north end of the Beluch portion of the Frontier as it 
was then. From there he made his way on his camel across the 
plain to the mountains, and visited some of the Beluch chiefs. 
During the next year or two he was much occupied in the Jhelum 
district, and in establishing a young missionary (C. P. C. Nugent) 
at the central station there, Pind Dadan Khan ; but in 1878 he 
again visited Dera Ghazi with Bishop French, and they went on, 
down the Indus in a boat, as far as Sukkur, whither Mr. Shirt 
came up from Hydrabad and joined them. French preached 
in Pushtu, Gordon in Punjabi, and Shirt in Sindhi. Then 
Gordon wrote to the C.M.S., proposing to start a station with 
a medical missionary at Dera Ghazi, whence visits could be paid 
to the Beluch villages to make Dera Ghazi, in fact, a southern 
Peshawar ; and offering to defray a large part of the expense 
himself. In response to this generous offer, the Society com 
missioned the Rev. Arthur Lewis, Scholar of Queen s College, 
Oxford, and Dr. Andrew Jukes, a medical man in Yorkshire, who 
came forward for missionary service at this time, to go out and 
begin a Beluch Mission at Dera Ghazi Khan. 

Lewis and Jukes reached the Punjab at the end of 1878, to 
put themselves under Gordon s direction. But where was Gordon ? 
Gone up with the British army to Quetta and Kandahar, as a 
volunteer honorary chaplain ; so there was nothing for it but to 
wait awhile at Amritsar. In March they and others w r ent to 
Clarkabad for the dedication by the Bishop of a new church. 
There, "while being entertained" writes Lewis, "in all the 
sumptuous luxury of Mr. Bateman s mud-hut, looking up, we saw 

* See Chapter LXIII. 

| See his journal in the C.M. Intelligencer, July, 1883. 


a stranger approaching," " clad in a costume which displayed the PART VIII. 

calf of a leg of unusual circumference." " His somewhat slow 1873-82. 

gait, his kindly but solemn glance, the long staff in his hand, all Cha P- " 

seemed to combine to give one the impression of a prophet of 

olden time." " Who s that ? " said one. " Why, it s Gordon ! " 

exclaimed Bateman.* And very soon he and his two new friends 

were at Dera Ghazi. This is how they established themselves Beginning 

+U of the 

there . Mission at 

" We found a pomegranate-garden close to the city walls. It belonged 
to a Beluch chief. The owner readily gave his consent to our pitching 
our tent here. Within the garden, too, were the ruins of a native 
bungalow. In this we found one small room, which still had a roof on 
it, which, however, was tenanted by a donkey ; another room of the 
same size was partially roofed ; but, generally, the whole place was a 
scene of debris from fallen masonry, &c. With pickaxe and shovel we 
set to work to clear the place ; we had the roof of the small room 
repaired, the four-footed tenant was ejected, and then, with our tent, 
we had ample accommodation. Here Dr. Jukes began his practice 
amongst the Natives, and had plenty of patients every day." 

Thus began the Dera Ghazi Khan Mission. 

Gordon s letters describing his march with the British force 
through the Bolan Pass to Quetta, and thence on to Kandahar, British 6 
were full of interest.! He ministered faithfully to the troops, troops, 
taking the parade services, and holding less formal prayer 
meetings with godly officers and privates. He made friends with 
various Beluch and Afghan chiefs ; for the route passes through 
Beluchistan into Southern Afghanistan. Let us read a small 
fragment or two from his journal : 

" Monday, January }3th. Had a very hearty little prayer-meeting in Gordon at 
my tent, attended by four officers and eight soldiers. We made room Kandahar - 
by clearing out everything, and sitting on the ground, by the light of a 
home-made candle, composed of sheep s fat, with a piece of tent-rope 
for wick. The singing was very good, and we all felt mutually edified. 

" January 16th. An event of solemn interest occupied us the funeral 
of Lieutenant Willis, R.A., who died yesterday morning from a blow 
dealt by a wild fanatic in the street of Kandahar. His genial and 
attractive disposition had endeared him to us all on the march, and we 
mourned for him as for a brother. It was a privilege to attend his last 
hours, to hear his simple confession of trust in Christ, and to administer 
to him the Holy Sacrament." 

"January 31*2. The day being Friday, all the Mohammedan shops 
are shut (as with us on Sunday). At two o clock, when the prayers in 
the mosque are over, the mullahs repair to the principal bazaar, and 
display books relating to the Mohammedan religion for sale. It was at 
this spot that poor Willis was murdered. Engaging in conversation with Gordon 
a respectable-looking man, named A. K., who proved to be a chief of one Moslem 
of the local tribes, I offered him the New Testament in Arabic, which he AfghlrTs. 
gladly accepted. He asked my address, and promised to call on me, 
which he afterwards did." 

* Memoir of Q. M. Gordon, by the Rev. A. Lewis, p. 327. 
t See C.M. Intelligencer, February and May, 1879; April, 1880; January, 
1881. Also the Memoir of Gordon. 




Chap. 77. 

Gordon s 
visit to 

Defeat of 
British : 
siege of 

" February 3/vZ. Read Pushtu with my munshi, and afterwards went to 
call on the Pathan chief, A. K. His son, A. J., received us at the door 
of his house with great politeness, and showed us up to a highly- 
decorated room in a large court, which was adorned with mural painting. 
There were carpets, arm-chairs, and table-covers, in European style. 
There were books on the shelves, and flower-vases on the table. 
Presently entered a very handsome, well-dressed man, who was intro 
duced to us as the Qazi, or Chief Doctor of Mohammedan law in the 
city. Sweets and fruits were placed on the table, and the kalean (water- 
pipe) and samovar (tea-urn) were introduced, as in Persia. The tea was 
handed round in China tea-cups, and partaken of by all, for it is only in 
India that Mohammedans affect the caste system of refusing to eat and 
drink with Christians. The Qazi told me that he owed his life to our 
arrival in Kandahar, the Ameer having quarrelled with his own brother 
and with him, as his brother s friend. As it was their hour of prayer, I 
offered to retire, but they begged us stay, remarking, If we had been 
attending the Ameer, he would never have consulted our wishes in the 
way that you of another religion have done. They then went alternately 
into an inner room and repeated the evening form of prayer, and 
rejoined us. 

" We then discoursed on the Law and the Gospel. A. J. went to his 
book-shelf and took down two books. One was the Arabic New Testa 
ment which I had given to his father, the other a well-worn copy in 
Hindustani, remarking of the latter. I have not only read, but also 
committed it to memory. He added, There is very little difference 
between the precepts of the Koran and those of the Christian Scrip 
tures. I dwelt, in reply, upon the value of a revelation which told of 
One who has fulfilled the law for us, and he listened very attentively 
while I quoted the prophecies which point to the Atonement of 
Christ. . . . 

" Thus God gives us most unexpected openings. I little thought a 
year ago that I should be discussing with the moulvies of Kandahar, at 
their own invitation, on the teaching of Christ and the Messianic 
prophecies ! Nor did I anticipate, on arrival here, that the Word of 
God had already preceded us, and had been read and committed to 
memory ! " 

As indicated above, Gordon returned quickly to India, and for 
nearly another year was busy with his regular work. Then the 
renewal of the war gave him another opportunity of going up to 
Kandahar, this time with Bishop French. The city, dangerous 
before, was more dangerous now, and very strict orders were 
issued that no one should go away from camp without being armed 
with a revolver. Gordon disregarded this, and went alone and 
unarmed among the people : and " the culprit was informed that 
if he did not submit to discipline, he would forthwith be sent back 
to India." * The Bishop soon returned to India, but Gordon 
stayed on. Then in July came the disastrous battle of Maiwand, 
in which a British force was destroyed; and the garrison of 
Kandahar was besieged, and in great peril, until relieved by 
General (now Lord) Roberts, after his celebrated march from 

During the siege, several unsuccessful sorties were made by the 

* Memoir of 0. M. Gordon, p. 344. 


British troops. On August 16th one of these sorties resulted in PART VIII. 
several wounded men being left outside the walls, two or three 1873-82. 
hundred yards from the Kabul Gate. Gordon at once got a dooly Cha P- 77 - 
and bearers, and hastened out to save them and bring them in. 
The Afghan fire was so hot, that before they could reach the place 
an officer with him said it was impossible to go on. Gordon 
insisted, and as he again started forward, a bullet passed through Death of 
his wrist and entered his side. The dooly he had taken to save G 
others brought him into Kandahar again. In a few hours George 
Maxwell Gordon was dead. 

It was on August 16th, 1880 just three days after Henry Wright 
had been drowned in Coniston Lake. The beloved leader at home 
and the intrepid pioneer in the front of the fight, connected by 
earthly relationship and one in devotion to their Master s service, 
went to their reward together." 

By his will Gordon left a large part of his property to the Society Gordon s 
for the Punjab Mission. A chapel for the Lahore Divinity College and uest 
was built as a memorial to him, and was dedicated to the service memorial, 
of God by Bishop French on February 24th, 1883 ; and on the 
following day, three well-tried Native Christians, Nobin Chander, 
Malik Ishaq, and Thomas Edwards, all of whom had been trained 
in the College, were ordained to the ministry of the Church within 
its walls. Malik Ishaq was a Jat by birth, a native of the Dera 
Ghazi Khan district, baptized by Sheldon at Karachi, and to Dera 
Ghazi he was now sent, and has laboured there ever since. 

The Pilgrim Missionary of the Punjab left a bright example The 
behind him. All he was and all he had were wholly laid upon the 
altar of Christ. He had turned his back upon everything that can 
make life in England happy and attractive. He had refused an 
Australian bishopric. He denied himself even the simple com 
forts which, in the case of most missionaries in India, are essential 
to health. All the Punjab looked upon him as the Christian Fakir. 
He was content to be a pioneer, and to leave others to reap the 
harvest ^in the fields where he only began to "gather out the 
stones." His favourite text was Ps. xc. 16, "Let Thy ivork 
appear unto Thy servants, and Thy glory unto their children." 
" We should be thankful," he said, "if the work is ours, so that 
God s glory is manifest to the next generation." 

* Interesting articles "in memoriam " of Gordon, by General Maclagan 
and the Rev. C. P. C. Nugent, appeared in the C.M. Intelligencer of October, 




Bishop Gell s Episcopate Bangalore Conference Madras Christian 
College David Fenn Madras Native Church Telugu Mission 
Hodges and Poole Tinnevelly Missionaries Prince of Wales 
and Tinnevelly Christians Bishops Caldwell and Sargent Great 
Famine Large Accessions to S.P.G. and C. M.S. Report of Rev. 
Periyanayagam Arumanayagam Balance-sheet of Mengnanapuram 
Church Council Travancore The Syrian Church The Revival of 
1873 Justus Joseph and the Six Years Party Bishopric of Travan 
core and Cochin Bishop Speechly Australian Aid to South India 

[Some seed ] "fell on good ground, and did yield fruit tliat sprang up and 
increased." St. Mark iv. 8. 

" When the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the 
tares also. " 1 St. Matt. xiii. 26. 

PART VIII. |R^^5S1-^ ^ iave now a am * r ^view the four great divisions of 
1873-82. Eft ML Mil tne Society s South India Missions, viz., Madras, the 
Chap. 78. |&^V8I Telugu country, Tinnevelly, and Travancore. Through- 
Bislo~~ JaMlJiSi out our P er i^ the beneficent episcopate of Bishop 

Geii s p Gell continued; and his successive visitations and 

episcopate. c } iar g es re gularly registered the progress of the work of Church of 
England Missions. At the end of 1881, nearly at the close of our 
present period, he could look back over twenty years. In that 
time the Native baptized Christians connected with the Church of 
England, i.e. practically, with S.P.G. and C.M.S., had more than 
doubled, the increase being from 48,252 to 101,246. Of the latter 
figure the C.M.S. share was 62,700. In the twenty years 36,973 
Natives had been confirmed. The Bishop had ordained no less 
than one hundred and twenty Native clergymen, seventy-five of 
them in connexion with the C.M.S. " If," he said in his Charge, 
the greater number of these clergy are sincerely endeavouring to 
fulfil their Christian ministry faithfully, and if a proportion of the 
laity not less than that in the English portion of our Church are 
real as well as nominal Christians and I fully believe that this is 
so, we may thank God for His victories in South India, and 
think lightly of the scorn with which so many who profess to be 
believers in Christ, but cannot be, regard our efforts to bring all 
General India into subjection to the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ." 
progress in The growth in the larger field of Protestant Christianity in 
ind South India was reported on at a General Missionary Conference 



,M " 







Frederick (Jell, Hishop of Madras, 1861-1898. 

J. M. Speedily, Missionary in Travancore, 18GO; First Bishop of Travancore and Cochm r 

1879-1889. (Phot graph : Elliott & Fry.) 
R. CaldwHl, S.l .G. Missionary in Timievelly; Coadjutor Bishop to the Bishop of Madras, 

Edward Sargent, Missionary in South India, 1842; Coadjutor Eishop to the Bishop of 

Madras, 1.S77-1S89. 
David Fenn, Missionary in South India, 1852-1878; one of the founders of the !North 

Timievelly itinerancy, and founder of the Mauritius Mission. 
Henry Baker, Jan., Missionary in Travancore, 1843-1878 Founder of Mission to the ill 




held at Bangalore in 1879. The figures there given were for 
twenty-one years, from 1857 to 1878, and included catechumens 
and inquirers as well as the baptized, and also Ceylon. They 
showed an increase from 91,393 to 295,929, rather more than 
threefold. Just half the whole number were credited to C.M.S. 
and S.P.G., the unbaptized catechumens being very numerous at 
that time, owing to the large accessions after the Famine of 1877-78 ; 
but a considerable part of the increase was due to the remarkable 
progress of the American Baptist Telugu Mission. 

The Bangalore Conference was of course not so important as 
the Conferences for all India at Allahabad and Calcutta; but 
South India has its own features and its own problems, and it 
was good that 118 missionaries should meet together and discuss 
them. In this case the absence of S.P.G. men was more keenly 
felt than at the larger gatherings, because the S.P.G. Missions in 
the South are relatively much more extensive and important than 
in the North. But the papers and addresses, by such men as 
Bishop Sargent, Mr. Sell, Mr. Alexander, and Mr. Lash; Dr. 
Miller and Mr. Eajahgopaul of the Scotch Free Church; Mr. 
Duthie and Mr. Slater of the L.M.S.; Dr. Chester and Dr. 
Boulder of the American Missions, and many others, were 
most interesting and valuable. The Conference endorsed Higher 
Education, condemned Caste, approved C.M.S. plans for Native 
Church organization, commended Medical Missions, and pointed 
out the risks as well as the advantages of Industrial Missions. 
The progress of the Native Churches was thankfully recognized, 
and especially the increasing intelligence of their members. This 
was illustrated year by year by the success of Native Christians in 
the examinations of the University of Madras. Eelatively to their 
numbers they Were now beating all Hindus except Brahmans, and 
of course beating the Mohammedans, and were even in some years 
equal with the Brahmans. Considering the comparative poverty 
and humble social condition of a large part of the Christian 
community, this was almost as if Board-school boys beat Etonians 
and Eugbeians. 

Much of the success of Christian students was due to the 
admirable work done by the Free Church of Scotland in its 
College at Madras. This was another fruit of Alexander Duff s 
mighty influence. His great speech in the General Assembly in 
1835, noticed in our Twenty-first Chapter, was instrumental in 
calling out a like-minded man, John Anderson, who went to 
Madras and founded an institution similar to Duff s at Calcutta. 
Several high-caste converts were his reward, one of whom was 
afterwards well known as a leading man at Madras, the Eev. P. 
Eajahgopaul. In 1874 a proposal was made to connect the 
College, which by that time had attained a high educational posi 
tion, with all the Societies labouring in South India, and a 
memorial to that effect was sent home, signed by missionaries 
of the S.P.G., the C.M.S., the L.M.S., the Wesleyans, arid the 

M 2 

PART Till. 

Chap. 78. 


ana educa 







Chap. 78. 

Dr. W. 




Established Church of Scotland. This plan did not, however, 
prove feasible. It was felt to be wiser to leave the College practi 
cally in the hands of the Free Church, which was doing so much 
for Christian education in India, and to which the able Principal, 
Dr. William Miller, belonged. But arrangements were ultimately 
made for other Societies to assist by grants of money, their local 
representatives having a certain voice in the management. In 
pursuance of this plan, the C.M.S. voted 300 a year, and its 
Madras Secretary, Mr. Sell, has for many years given the College 
such support and co-operation as were necessary. The Madras 
Christian College, as it was now named, has not only attracted 
large numbers of non-Christian students by the superiority of its 
teaching to all other institutions in the Presidency, but has become 
the recognized resort of Christian students seeking University 
distinctions; and their success, as above intimated, is largely due 
to the solid teaching of Dr. Miller and his able lieutenants. The 
plan, therefore, of uniting to support one powerful institution, 
instead of each Society struggling to maintain its own smaller and 
weaker one, has been abundantly justified. Of course the College 
is a place of general education and elementary Bible instruction, 
not of theological training for holy orders or mission service. Such 
training is otherwise provided by the different Societies in their 
respective ways. 

We now turn to the C.M.S. Missions. The Secretaries at 
Madras during the decade, who conducted the business of all the 
Society s South India Missions, were John Barton and David Fenn 
jointly for a time (when the charge of an English church was 
involved), and afterwards Fenn and E. C. Macdonald. From 
1878 to 1881, A. H. Arden of the Telugu Mission was Secretary; 
and in 1882 E. Sell was transferred to the vacant post from the 
Harris School, and began the valuable service which has lasted 
(with slight interruptions) ever since. David Fenn died in 1878, 
deeply lamented. Perhaps no missionary has ever been more 
dearly loved personally by fellow- workers. There was a combined 
tenderness and sprightliness about him, a deep spirituality along 
with much intellectual though tfulness, that attracted men greatly. 
It will be remembered that he was one of the Cambridge men 
whose offers of service made the years 1850-53 such a hopeful 
time. He began his missionary career with Eagland and Meadows 
in the North Tinnevelly Itinerancy. His visit to Mauritius when 
invalided led to the Mission in that island being undertaken. In 
later years he worked as an itinerant missionary in the districts 
round Madras; and then, as above stated, he became Madras 
Secretary. He never married, and he died at the age of fifty-two. 
So greatly was he beloved in Madras, that a fund was raised by 
friends of all denominations, with which a hostel for Christian 
students in various colleges, particularly the Madras Christian 
College, was established as a memorial to him. 

Two years later, the Madras Mission suffered two other losses, 


by the death of J. Bilderbeck, the remarkable Eurasian whom PART VIII. 
Henry Venn described as "electrifying the Committee";- and *^-82 
of Joseph Cornelius, one of the ablest of the Tamil clergy, a fair J__ 
English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew scholar, besides knowing three Joseph 
Indian languages, and the translator into Tamil of Trench s C( 
Parables and Miracles, Blunt s Undesigned Coincidences, and the 
S.P.C.K. Commentary on the New Testament. After their deaths, 
the whole of the C. M.S. work in Madras among both Heathen and Madras 
Native Christians was handed over to the Native Church Council ; church 
the Society only retaining in its own hands the Mohammedan gjS*sT* r 
Mission, which was now worked by the brothers Goldsmith with work, 
indomitable perseverance in the face of incessant opposition. The 
Native Church Council was presided over by the Rev. W. T. JS^mnd 
Satthianadhan, who was pastor of the congregations in the i a it y . 
southern quarters of the city, his own church being Zion 
Church, Chintadrepettah ; while the Eev. V. Simeon shepherded 
the northern pastorate, and the Rev. Samuel John (a son of the 
Rev. John Devasagayam, and therefore brother of Mrs. Satthi 
anadhan) was specially commissioned as a missionary to educated 
Hindus. In 1882 there were about 1000 Christians in the two 
pastorates. The Church Council superintended Vernacular Day- 
schools attended by 1000 children, and Sunday-schools with 500 
scholars ; while Mrs. Satthianadhan had seven schools for Hindu 
caste girls, 450 of whom attended. In connexion with Zion 
Church there was a Chintadrepettah Christian Association, with 
Mr. P. T. Tharyan, B.A., as Secretary, which served as a literary 
institute for educated Native Christians. The Council also, in 
1881, took over from the Society the charge of the Palaveram 
District outside Madras, the scene of David Fenn s itinerations. 
This brought 500 more Christians in connexion with the Council. 
There were in 1882 no less than seventy Native evangelists and 
schoolmasters working under the Council. The contributions of 
the Christians in that year amounted to Rs. 2346. 

We now go northwards to the Telugu Mission. During the Teiugu 
period, the extensive village work in the four districts of which 
the centres were Masulipatam, Bezwada, Ellore, and Raghava- 
puram, continued to be carried on by T. Y. Darling (who left 
finally in 1875, after nearly thirty years service), F. W. N. 
Alexander, J. Harrison, W. Ellington (who died in 1878), W. 
Clayton, and W. G. Baker. In 1876, James Stone went out to the J- stone, 
same department of the Mission, and for several years he and 
Mrs. Stone did important work at Raghavapuram, whence the 
Gospel spread from village to village, not only within the territory 
under British rule, but into the Mohammedan State of Hydrabad. 
H. W. Eales went out in 1878. The remote station of Dumma- 
gudem on the Godavari was occupied by John Cain. John Sharp j. Sharp, 
continued Principal of the Noble High School until 1878, and 

* Vol. II., p. 177. 




Chap. 78. 

T. E. Pad- 

Women s 

and Poole. 

clergy and 

from high 
castes and 

then returned home ; and in 1880 he was appointed Secretary of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society. J. E. Padfield conducted 
the Vernacular Training Institution, which supplied catechists 
and school-teachers to the various districts ; and he also did 
valuable literary work, preparing for the Madras Committee of the 
S.P.C.K. a Telugu version of Bishop Walsham How s Commentary 
on the Gospels, and other works. Mrs. Padfield carried on Mrs. 
Sharkey s well-known Girls Boarding School, after the latter s 
deeply-lamented death in 1878 ; and Mrs. Clayton rendered 
essential service by her schools for Hindu caste girls. The 
Telugu Mission has been singularly happy in the wives of its 
missionaries ; and woman s work of various kinds had long been 
going on when the first I.F.N.S. ladies, the Misses Brandon, 
went out in 1875. Mr. John Thornton, the Training Master who 
had preceded Padfield in the charge of the Vernacular Institution, 
went to New Zealand, and has since been for twenty years head 
master of the important Maori College at Te Aute. Mr. Martin 
Browne, another schoolmaster, came to Ellore in 1879. W. G. 
Peel joined the Mission in 1880. Other men served for a short 
time, but gave way to the ill-effects of the climate. But the most 
important accession to the ranks was in 1877, when two Oxford 
men, intimate friends, E. Noel Hodges of Queen s and Arthur W. 
Poole of Worcester, went out together. Hodges succeeded Sharp 
as Principal of the Noble School ; and Poole became Eugby-Fox 
Master, and was also commissioned to seek to reach the upper 
Hindu classes of Masulipatam generally. 

The Native clergy within our period only numbered four, viz., 
the Kevs. Manchala Eatnam. and Ainala Bhushanam, the first two 
converts from the Noble School ; the Eev. Ganugapati Krish- 
nayya, one of the second batch of converts ; and the Eev. I. 
Vencatarama Eazu, of whom more in our next chapter. Bhush 
anam died in 1877. Eatnam for many years worked zealously, 
first in High Schools, and then as superintending pastor of a large 
district. Krishnayya was a master in the Ellore High School. 
The Telugu Native Church Council held its first meeting in 1876, 
and the missionaries wrote joyfully of the readiness with which 
Christians who, but a short time before, had been Brahmans or 
Vellamas sat down with Mala delegates. But the weak feature of 
the Church was that there were no middle-class converts. The 
high castes had supplied the leaders, and the rank and file came 
chiefly from the Malas, the low-class cultivators who were outside 
the regular castes altogether, though so strong is the caste 
spirit that the Malas themselves looked down upon the Madigas, 
who were lower still. 

While hundreds of these simple rustics were being baptized 
year by year, the high-caste converts were being gathered one by 
one at long intervals. In 1877, a Brahman youth of eighteen in 
the Noble School, came out, despite the piteous distress of his 
parents and friends ; but the changed feeling about such an event 


was strikingly manifest in the fact that not a single boy was PART VIII 


withdrawn from the School. In 1879, another youth, who had 
been deeply affected by the baptism of his class-mate, but who had 
left the School and gone out into life, came forward and confessed 
Christ. But there were many disappointments. Several who 
were almost Christians were drawn back by the temptations of the 
world or the flesh ; and Mr. Hodges wrote in 1882 what fresh 
light was thrown upon various expressions in the Epistle to the 
Galatians by the experiences he passed through. "Bondage" 
and " liberty," Caste and Christianity these four words instantly 
suggest the parallelism. 

Mr. Hodges comrade, A. W. Poole, was only at Masuhpatam a 
year or two. He struggled for some time against ill-health, and 
then was obliged to give in and return home. _ But he did excellent 
work while there, not only taking classes in the School, but 
visiting Hindu gentlemen, and giving public lectures. His first 
lecture, on Oxford, proved a great attraction ; and then he gave a 
course of six on Christianity as a Historical Keligion, which were 
largely attended by the English-speaking Natives. When he 
returned to England, his speeches on the Mission caused much 
interest; and the one he delivered at the C.M.S. Anniversary in H 
1883 was not only memorable for its unexpected consequences speech. 
of which more hereafter, but was intrinsically valuable as giving 
in a picturesque form the results of the Mission. Let one short 
extract be given : 

"It was Robert Noble s aim so to reach men of power among the 
Natives that they should be the pillars of the Native Church when he 
had passed away. In this view it is impossible to over-estimate the Jesuits of 
importance of these conversions, whose number seems so small. Exactly N b ie- s 
opposite to the Noble School stands the native court-house. The judge, work. 
who daily administers impartial justice in the name of the British 
Government in that court-house, is a converted Brahman from the 
School. The magistrate in the adjoining district is another ; the minister 
of the Native congregation and missionary in charge of the district 
of Masulipatam is another ; two of the head-masters of our Anglo- 
Vernacular schools and seven assistant-masters in those schools are all 
men brought to the knowledge of God in the Noble High School of 
Masulipatam. One of them edits the Native Christian magazine. All 
our translating, writing, teaching, guiding and directing the work of the 
Native Church, is in the hands of that small but steadfast community. 
Therefore,! repeat, judging not by their numbers, but by their importance, 
it is impossible to thank God too much for the blessing which He has 
vouchsafed to the work of the Noble High School. We find that 
wherever the district missionary goes, if he meets with a pupil of the 
School, there he has a friend made ready to hand, if nothing more. And 
no language of mine can convey to this meeting an idea of the 
numberless cases which have been brought under our personal notice of 
secret disciples, of men convinced in heart, but still unable to throw oft 
the shackles of their own iron bondage." 

Mr. Cain s remote station on the Godavari, Dummagudem, 
ought to have been noticed before in this History, as it dates 


i<9 fr m 1861 But as ^ was ori g in ally tak en up with a view to 
Ch 78 reach mg the Koi aborigines, its story has been waiting until we 
_U review the Missions to the Hill Tribes ; and this our next chapter 

will do. 

Tinneveiiy We now turn southwards again and visit Tinnevelly. At the 
time that our period opens, negotiations were on foot for the 
Caidweii appointment of Edward Sargent, and of Mr. Caldwell of the 
gent Sar S.P.G., as Assistant Bishops to the Bishop of Madras, for the 
more effective episcopal supervision of the Tamil Christian com 
munities connected with the two Societies. Bishop Gell wished 
for it, and Archbishop Tait approved ; but difficulties arose which 
will be explained in the Eightieth Chapter; and ultimately 
Sargent, who was in England, went back to India as a simple 
presbyter. The Archbishop, however, to mark his approval of 
the plan for giving the two veteran missionaries a position of 
authority, conferred on both Caldwell and Sargent the Lambeth 
degree of D.D. Caldwell certainly merited the distinction, as the 
first of Tamil scholars ; while Sargent, though not a learned man 
in the same sense, had written several Tamil religious books, was 
the most perfect master of the colloquial, and had trained some 
two hundred Native evangelists and teachers, twelve of whom 
had already been ordained, and many more were to be ordained 
afterwards. A striking object-lesson on this training work was 
presented a year or two later, when Bishop Gell (January 30th, 
1876) ordained at Palamcotta eighteen deacons (fifteen C.M S j 
and eleven presbyters (nine C.M.S.), most of whom had been 
Sargent s pupils. Of eighty clergymen present that day (S.P.G 
and C.M.S.), sixty-eight were Tamils. 

The Native The c M s Committee took occasion by Sargent s return to 
mission P roceed farther with their plans for organizing the Tinnevelly 
ariel. n congregations. By his judicious instrumentality more complete 
arrangements were made for the ten Church Councils ad 
ministering the ten districts ; and while the other English mission 
aries, Meadows, Dibb, Honiss, Harcourt, and Lash, were continued 
for a little time as chairmen of five of the Councils, and thus 
mo a v n e y s but * superintendents of the Native clergy in the five respective 
Sargent districts, Sargent was appointed to all the other five, and gradually, 
aays as vacancies occurred, became chairman and superintendent in 
all except North Tinnevelly. Honiss and Harcourt were com 
missioned to give their chief attention to direct evangelistic work 
among the higher castes in the small towns, and H. Horsley was 
sent out to join them in that very important sphere of labour ; but 
Honiss soon came home invalided, Horsley succeeded Meadows 
in North Tinnevelly when the latter retired in 1877, and both 
Harcourt and Horsley were after a time transferred to Ceylon. 
Lash was fully occupied with the Sarah Tucker Institution, and 
when he, too, returned to England in 1880, Harcourt only came 
back to Tinnevelly to succeed him. Dibb came home ill in 1876, 
and died at Southampton within two days of landing a great 


and deeply-felt loss to the Mission; and a young missionary, PART VIII. 
E. Blackmore, died early. The gradual result of all these changes 
was to leave Sargent the sole superintendent of the Native clergy 
and congregations, which was just what the Committee were 
aiming at. They sent out no new man, except H. J. Schaffter in 
1877, and that was for definite educational work, quite apart from 
the Native Church ; and he started, in 1880, a High School in 
the Heathen town of Tinnevelly. Meanwhile, T. Kember, who, 
as a trained schoolmaster, had been for some years engaged in 
training teachers for the vernacular village schools, came to 
England, took the Islington course, was ordained, and went back 
in 1878 as Principal of the Training Institution, including the 
Theological Class which had formerly been successively under 
Sargent and Dibb. These various personal moves and changes 
are, of course, of no historical interest in themselves, but they 
illustrate the practical difficulties of missionary administration, 
and the way in which the course of Divine Providence even in 
minor things works out good designs. 

It was while Caldwell and Sargent were D.D. s but not yet 
bishops that the memorable meeting of the Prince of Wales with 

the Tinnevelly Christians took place, on December 10th, 1875. and th e e 
This meeting was due to Sir Bartle Frere, the Prince s guide upon Jh^tTIns 
his tour, who was determined that if it were any way possible, 
the Heir to the British throne should not miss seeing the results 
of the largest Mission in India. The authorities, of course, had 
no such design, and had arranged for the Prince to sail direct 
from Ceylon to Madras, as nine travellers out of ten do. To cross 
from Colombo to the little Tinnevelly port of Tuticorin was a most 
unusual thing, and up to the last moment it was uncertain 
whether Frere would prevail. But the Prince himself decided to 
take the unusual route, with the sole purpose of meeting the Native 
Christians. The railway that runs southward from Madras had just 
been extended to Tuticorin, with a branch line to Palamcotta, and 
the place fixed upon for the gathering was Maniachi, the junction Maniachi 
station, because the Prince had not time to go to Palamcotta. In station 5 ! 
itself Maniachi was a most unsuitable spot, twenty miles from 
Palamcotta, with no Christians in the immediate neighbourhood, 
and no houses or huts for those who might come together ; in the 
midst, moreover, of a black, boggy plain, famous for its cotton, but 
impassable for carts in the rainy season which was not yet over, 
and the railway not yet available for the public. And when 
some eight thousand Christians had arrived on foot from all parts G f a ^ ring 
of Tinnevelly to meet the Prince on the 9th, a message suddenly Christians 
came that he would not land at Tuticorin till the 10th. Happily ^ml? 
the rain held off, and the people passed the night somehow. At clergy. 
the bare, roofless station the two sides of the line were gravelled 
for a hundred yards, to prevent the crowd, as Dr. Caldwell ex 
pressed it, " going down quick " :;: into the black bog. On one side 
* That is, " alive." See Numb. xvi. 30, 33 ; Vs. Iv. 15. 



Chap. 73. 

PART VIII. were ranged 2000 boys and girls from the various mission-schools, 
1873-82. an( } fifty-three Native clergymen, in their simple white garments, 
only distinguishable from their people by the black scarf round 
their waists ; and on the opposite side stood the thousands of men 
and women. Most of them had never seen a railway train before, 
and great was the excitement as the Prince s train was at last 
seen approaching. On the Prince alighting, an address was read 
to him by Dr. Caldwell, stating that the Christians then present 
represented 60,000 in the Tinnevelly district alone ; that they all, 
in their daily and Sunday services, prayed for " Albert Edward 
Prince of Wales, the Princess of Wales, and all the Eoyal 
Family "; and that while they had not, on becoming Christians, 
" denationalized themselves by adopting English dress or English 
modes of life," they would not yield even to Englishmen in loyalty 
to the Queen. A Tamil lyric was also sung, the translation of 
which is worth preserving : 

A Tamil 
lyric to 
the Prince. 


2. It is our 

Through the grace of the blessed Lord of heaven, O son of our 

victorious Queen, mayst thou ever enjoy prosperity. 
is our peculiar happiness to be subject to a sceptre under 

which the leopard and the deer continually drink at the same 

"3. Crossing seas and crossing mountains thou hast visited this 

southernmost region, and granted to those who live under the 

shadow of thy Royal umbrella a sight of thy benign counte 

" 4. May thy realm, in which sun and moon never set, become from 

generation to generation more and more illustrious ! 
" 5. May the lion-flag of the British nation wave gloriously far and 

wide, and wherever it waves, may the cross-flag of our Lord 

Jesus fly with it harmoniously ! 
" 6. God preserve thee, and regard thee with an eye of grace, and 

grant thee long life and victory, and bless thee for evermore ! 
" 7. Obeisance to thee ! obeisance to thee ! O wise king thou art to 

be ! Safely mayst thou reach again the capital of thy realm ! 

O thou whom all men justly praise ! " 

The The Prince s reply must also be preserved. It was no cautious 

own C repiy. s ^te document, but was actually composed by himself in the train 

that morning. The paper, written in pencil in his own hand 

writing, with his own corrections, was handed to Dr. Caldwell : 

" I thank you for your address, and for your good wishes, and accept 
with pleasure your memento of my visit. 

" It is a great satisfaction to me to find my countrymen engaged in 
offering to our Indian fellow-subjects those truths which form the 
foundation of our own social and political system, and which we our 
selves esteem as our most valued possession. 

" The freedom in all matters of opinion which our Government secures 
to all is an assurance to me that large numbers of our Indian fellow- 
subjects accept your teaching from conviction. 

" Whilst this perfect liberty to teach and to learn is an essential 
characteristic of our rule, I feel every confidence that the moral benefits 
of union with England may be not less evident to the people of India 


than are the material results of the great railway which we are this day PART VIII. 
ODening. 187382. 

" My hope is that in all, whether in moral or material aspects, the Chap. 78. 
nations of this country may ever have reason to regard their closer 
connexion with England as one of their greatest blessings." 

In his interesting account of the meeting,* Caldwell pointed out 
that the Prince of Wales on this occasion saw, not merely Chris- J^V* 1 * 
tians, but "something of the real staple of the population of really saw. 
India. Elsewhere, the picture or at least the foreground has 
been filled with kings, nobles, and chiefs, with a sprinkling of 
millionaire bankers and merchants "; but the people he saw at 
Maniachi represented " the masses, the producers of the country s 
wealth, on whose earnings the rajahs live " " the great majority 
of them small tenant-farmers or small traders," " their aristocracy 
consisting in a few men of letters and subordinate Government 

In comparison with the Queen s son, Anglo-Indian rulers 
count for little ; still, it is worth remembering that several of the 
Governors of the Madras Presidency have visited the Tinnevelly other 
Missions. We have before seen Lord and Lady Napier among vlslts - 
the Christians. The Duke of Buckingham paid them a visit in 
1880, and Mr. Grant Duff in 1882. The former was especially 
warm in his sympathy and commendation, and made a contribu 
tion of Es. 1000. In 1881 the Metropolitan, Bishop Johnson, 
visited several of the Christian villages, and at Mengnanapuram 
nearly 3000 Christians thronged the great church, headed by 
twenty-four of the Native clergy. No wonder he chose for his 
text the angel Gabriel s words to Mary, "For with God nothing 
shall be impossible." But perhaps he was most touched by the 
sight of the venerable Mrs. Thomas, who still occupied her sainted 
husband s bungalow and still occupies it after sixty years of 
residence as wife and widow. 

But before these latter visits took place, the long-delayed plan 
for Tinnevelly had been carried out, and Caldwell and Sargent Caldwell 
had become bishops. They were consecrated at Calcutta on 
March llth, 1877, by the Metropolitan, Bishop Johnson, assisted 
by Bishops Gell of Madras, Mylne of Bombay, and Copleston of 
Colombo. Bishop Gell preached the sermon, and justified the 
arrangement which had been strongly objected to as savouring 
too much of " society " distinctions in the peculiar circumstances 
of Tinnevelly and of the Diocese of Madras. " As for the apprehen 
sion of promoting schism," he said, " I rather see in the twofold 
consecration a good hope of binding together, of helping the Native 
congregations to live in unity and godly love. . . . The double 
stars are separated one from the other by some fixed distance, yet 
they do not part from each other altogether, but attract one 
another; and each no doubt contributes duly to maintain their 

* Printed in the Guardian, January 26th, 1876. Dr. Sargent s account 
appeared in the C.M. Intelligencer and Gleaner of February, 1876. 




Chap. 78. 

Career of 
and Sar 





planets in equilibrium and order." No doubt the success of the 
experiment for it proved emphatically successful was in part 
due, under God, to the warm friendship subsisting between the 
two men. " In all our intercourse," wrote Caldwell after Sargent s 
death in 1889, " the perfect friendliness of our relations was never 
once in the slightest degree disturbed." * When Caldwell s new 
church at Edengudi was opened in 1880, it was Sargent who 
preached the sermon ; and in 1884, when an ordination was held 
at Madras for seven S.P.G. men, he was again invited to preach, 
and took as his text, " I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ." 

Caldwell originally went to India, in 1838, as a missionary of the 
L.M.S.; but in 1841 he joined the Church of England, and was 
ordained by Bishop Spencer for S.P.G. work. Sargent was the 
son of an English soldier who fought at Waterloo, and was born 
in Paris four months after the battle. The regiment w r as after 
wards ordered to India, and wife and child accompanied the father 
thither. Little Edward was afterwards adopted by a Madras 
chaplain, the Eev. W. Sawyer, and educated by him. He was 
trained in a seminary the C.M.S. at that time had near Madras, 
and in 1836, at the age of twenty-one, went to Tinnevelly as a lay 
agent. In 1838, the year of Caldwell s first going to India, 
Sargent was sent to England, and after taking the Islington 
course he was ordained by Bishop Blomfield in the same year in 
which Caldwell was ordained at Madras. 

At the very time when Sargent and Caldwell were consecrated, 
the shadow of impending calamity had already fallen upon India. 
The year 1877 was the year of the great famine which desolated 
the Central and Southern Provinces. The Government made 
superhuman exertions to save life ; but the means of communica 
tion and conveyance of food were not then organized as they have 
been since, and thousands died simply because no food could reach 
them in time. The Society had in hand 10,000, the balance of the 
fund raised in 1873-4 for the relief of the famine in Bengal, a large 
part of which had not been used. At such a time money given to 
a missionary at a remote station may prove utterly useless if there 
are no stores of rice or grain within reach upon which it can be 
expended. The 10,000, however, was at once placed at the dis 
posal of the Corresponding Committees in India, together with 
7000 newly contributed in addition. But they used less than 
10,000, and the balance remained for future use, the interest 
being applied to the maintenance of orphans. Of the amount 
spent, the greater part was for relief in Tinnevelly, where the 
people, though they did not die, were reduced to great straits. A 
much larger sum was dispensed by the S.P.G. missionaries, their 
districts being more seriously affected than those of the C.M.S. 

* From an article on Bishop Sargent contributed by Bishop Caldwell to 
the Madras Christian College Magazine, December, 1889. In that article 
Caldwell also justified the plan of having two Assistant Bishops, and affirmed 
its success. 


The effect upon the people was immediate. "The conviction PART YIIT. 
prevailed," wrote Bishop Caldwell, "that whilst Hinduism had p 73 "^- 
left the famine-stricken to die, Christianity had stepped in like an ap ; 7 
angel from heaven, to comfort them with its sympathy and cheer 
them with its effectual succour." And in the course of a few 
months some 20,000 Heathen in the S.P.G. districts, and 10,000 Large in- 
in the C.M.S. districts, threw away their idols and placed them- J?Su 
selves under Christian instruction. herents. 

Some injudicious friends in England, of both Societies, now 
began to speak of "thousands of conversions " and of " Pente 
costal scenes," and this led to a controversy in the Indian papers, 
some writers in which rejoined with the taunt of " rice Christians." 
In reality the great majority of the new accessions were actuated Real mean- 
neither, on the one hand, by any spiritual motive, nor, on the movement. 
other hand, by the hope of relief for the Heathen were as freely 
relieved as the poor Christians. They simply felt that their demon- 
gods had deserted them, and Christians had fed them; therefore 
it might be to their advantage to try Christianity. What was 
now needed was a large band of teachers to go among them and 
instruct them. Bishop Sargent appealed to the congregations to 
supply volunteer evangelists. At Mengnanapuram a large meeting Volunteer 
was held in the church, which he addressed earnestly, and then evan eh 
asked those to stand up who would undertake to give one day a 
week to going among the new accessions or the surrounding 
Heathen. One hundred and twenty-four men instantly stood up; 
and, on a further appeal, thirty-eight more. Then the Bishop 
called on the women, and seven stood up in estimating which we 
must bear in mind the immense difference in the position of women 
between England and India, even Christian India. Now see the 
general result, in the C.M.S. districts, three years after the famine. 
Here are the comparative figures at the close of 1877 and the close 
of 1880: 

" At the close of 1877 there were 768 villages containing Christian Figures of 
adherents connected with the C.M.S. At the close of 1880 there were ^ and 
955. Increase in three years, 187. 

" At the close of 1877 there were 31,061 baptized persons, and 10,462 
persons under instruction, but not yet baptized ; total adherents, 41,523. 
At the close of 1880 the corresponding figures were 38,657 and 15,606 ; 
total, 54,263. Increase in three years, 7596 baptized, and 5144 nnbap- 
tized ; total, 12,740 souls. (This increase does not represent the whole 
gain from Heathenism ; for the deaths in the Christian community range 
from 700 to 1000 a year.) 

" At the close of 1877 there were 7793 communicants. At the close of 
1880 there were 9517. Increase, 1724. 

" In 1877 there were 349 adult baptisms ; in 1878, 811 ; in 1879, 1511 ; 
in 1880, 1012. (The rest of the increase in baptized members of the 
Church arises from the baptisms of the children of Native Christians.) 

"At the close of 1877 there were 462 churches, chapels, prayer- 
houses, or schoolrooms in which Divine service was held. At the close 
of 1880 there were 669, of which 129 are described as puk&a churches. 
Increase in the three years, 207." 


PART VIII. In January, 1880, a comparison was made, not for three years, 

1873-82. Du f or one hundred years ; for representatives of congregations in 

ap all the districts assembled at Palamcotta to celebrate the Centenary 

Centenary of Christianity in Tinnevelly, and Bishop Gell came from Madras 

anityVn* 1 " on purpose. A historical review was read by Bishop Caldwell, 

Tinnevelly giving the facts summarized in our Fifteenth Chapter. Be it 

observed that although a little congregation of forty souls was 

formed at Palamcottah in 1780, effective operations had not been 

going on for the whole hundred years. The C.M.S. Mission had 

been at work only sixty years ; and the S.P.G. Mission practically 

only forty years (since it began to be successfully built up upon 

the remnants of the old S.P.C.K. work). Therefore a total of 

nearly 100,000 Native Christians (without counting those who had 

died), scattered among nearly 2000 villages, was a mark of real 

progress and of the manifest blessing of God. 

One feature of these last three years of rapid advance is worth 
Romanists noting. The Eoman Catholics suddenly invaded Tinnevelly in 
tists. a] strength, especially the S.P.G. districts; and Mr. Margoschis, a 
well-known S.P.G. missionary, complained that they drew away 
his people by giving theatrical representations of sacred subjects. 
Some Native Baptist preachers also appeared, and began to re- 
baptize baptized people; but mark the difference the Secretary 
of the Baptist Society, Mr. Baynes, was in India at the time, 
and he at once interfered, and peremptorily forbad any intrusion 
into Church of England districts.* 

At this point it may be interesting to glance at the working of 

the new Church Council system. Year by year the Eeports of 

the superintending pastors were sent to England, and many of 

them were published in the C.M. Intelligencer. Let one be 

selected at random. It is from the Eev. Periyanayagam Aruma- 

A Tamil nayagam, Pastor of the Asirvadhapuram circle of village congrega- 

?e a p s ort s tions, for the year 1875 : 

" Let praise and glory be unto the Lord, who hath times and seasons 
in His hands, and who hath richly blessed His Church in these parts this 

fb? e 2 P vfi t0r " General Account of the District. There are thirty-two villages in this 
lages, V 23 circle. The total number of Christians at present is 3091, of whom 1797 
places of are baptized, 1294 catechumens, and 388 communicants. They assemble 
together for Divine worship in twenty-three different places, and in five 
for the Holy Communion ; seventeen adults, six women, and fifty-nine 
children were added into the Church, through baptism, at the current 
year. There are twenty-five schools, where Christian instruction and 
other subjects are taught to 518 boys arid 308 girls. Thus the work of 
this circle is carried on, under God s blessing, by one Native pastor, one 
inspecting schoolmaster, eight catechists, twenty-one schoolmasters, and 
five schoolmistresses. 

" Pastoral Work. I conduct morning and evening prayers on week 
days, and preach in the head station (Asirvadhapuram) when I am at 
home; teach the people Scripture history, &c., so that they might 

* Exactly us in Bengal. See p. 135. 


improve in the knowledge of faith; visit the congregation in their PART VIII. 
houses, converse about the state of their souls, and offer up prayers 1873-82. 
with them. I encourage them in their prayer-meeting by my presence Chap. 78. 

and addresses ; preach to the Heathen when time permits me, and 

question and teach the school-children. I visit every village and hamlet 
of this circle once in a month. In addition to the works I have 
described above, I examine those preparing for the Holy Communion 
and those for the baptism ; after a fair examination I admit them to 
the Holy Sacraments. Visit the sick, converse with them, and conduct 
prayers at their bedside. I spend every Sunday with joy and comfort, 
and think it to be a privilege to me, by the goodness of the Almighty, 
for this reason : that I am engaged the whole of that holy day in 
ministering to the people, by conducting morning and evening sendees, 
and administering the Holy Communion in the noon. Though I am 
exhausted, I think it to be a real rest, and feel with joy the soundness 
of it in my soul. 

"Thanks be to the Lord Jesus Christ, who strengthens me in my 
weakness ! 

" The Works of the Mission Agents. The catechists attend the children The 
in the schools, as well as the congregation and the schoolmasters, vice 
versa. There are catechists who have the congregations only from being 
a large one, or by having one or more neighbouring villages to attend to. 
On the contrary, there are schoolmasters who attend the school-work 
only from the fact of their having a pretty good number of children to 
attend to. They conduct morning and evening prayers on week-days, and 
conduct services and preach on Sundays ; teach the school-children and 
people. I am able to report that there are catechists well skilled in teach 
ing the school-children, and schoolmasters well skilled in spiritual work. 

" Congregation. Much improvement is evidently seen in all the con- Services 
gregations. They never tell now that offering up prayers is the work and P ra y fir 
of the agents only, as they used to say in former years. Among the old m 
congregation, almost all are able to offer short and sweet prayers. They 
attend the Divine services with the greatest eagerness. They have 
prayer-meeting for young men, prayer-meeting common to all, and, I am 
happy to say, mothers meetings also. Poothukkuly, a favourite old 
Christian village, where the whole congregation engaged in nothing but 
prayer and other sacred devotions on Sundays, which I have witnessed 
every month, and in which I have had a share too from 7 to 8 a.m. 
They have their morning service in the church, and then they attend 
their Sunday-school. At ten o clock their prayer-meeting for young 
men, and mothers meeting commence in separate places. From 12 
to 1.30 they have their noon service, at 4 p.m. they meet again for their 
evening service, and at 7.30 p.m. they have their prayer-meeting in one 
of their houses, which closes at 9.30. This mode of spending the Sunday 
exists in some other congregations also. In former years one will hardly 
meet with a man in the congregation having the Holy Bible, &c., of 
their own used in the Divine services ; if at all, they are lent or presents 
from friends. But now they all buy the Holy Book, &c., from their 
own money, and use them freely. They have been liberal and ready in 
contributing for the Native Church Fund. The total number raised 
this year amounts to Rs. 560 : 7 : 5|, which is rather more than last 
year s income. We have received as donations for the repair and 
building of churches Rs. 3996 : 3 : 5, besides contributing gladly to the 
Bible Society, Tract Society, for the spread of the Gospel, arid other 
charitable purposes. 

" This time of the year is a season of joy and gladness to our people, 


A Native 

PART VIII. and even wben I sit to prepare tbis Report, I perceive before me, with 
1873-82. not less joy, all the places look green and verdant, and the ears of 

Chap. 78. different corns richly filled with grain waving to and fro by the wind, 
indicating a plentiful crop. O may the Holy Ghost be abundantly 
poured upon all our people, so that they might yield good fruits of piety 
and godliness, which is acceptable before the heavenly Husbandman ! " 

This extract only describes the pastoral work among the Native 
Christians. Mr. Periyanayagam goes on to describe the evange 
listic work of himself and his helpers among the Heathen, and 
to give particulars of some whole villages that had come under 
Christian instruction. 

Each of the ten districts had its own separate Church funds. 
Let us look at the year s account of the Mengnanapuram Council 
for 1880. Tbis shows the receipts and expenditure in a district 
then comprising 199 villages, with 159 churches and prayer- 
houses, 21 Native pastors, 166 lay agents of all kinds, 4000 
children at school, and a total of 18,000 Christians. It will be 
seen that the account like certain other accounts sometimes, 
nearer home shows a deficit on the year : 



Pay to 21 Native Pastors 4473 
,, 23 Catechists 
,, 10 Jones Fund 

Catechists . 
Pay to 6 Bible-women 
Travelling Allowance for 


Pay for Church Maities . 
Building Churches and 


Furniture for Churches . 
Repair of Pastors and 

Catechists Houses 
Pay to 82 Schoolmasters 8049 
Building Schoolrooms and 

Books, &c., and Prizes to 


Building Houses and Re 
pairs for Schoolmasters 
Expended on Village Girls 

Towards Bible and Tract 

Bread and Wine for Holy 


Grant towards Boys Board 
ing School . 
Cost of Printing Reports 

and Registers . . 246 14 
For Registrar s License to 

4 Pastors . . 32 

Stamps and Cooly, &c. . 193 8 





Grant from the Home 

Committee . . . 8064 

Grant from the William 

Jones Fund . . . 600 

Grant from Henry Venn 

Fund . . 155 



Subscriptions collected for 

Native Church Fund . 3552 



Sunday Collections for 

the Poor and for Church 

Servants . . . 591 



Christmas Collection to 

Native Church Fund . 74 



Contributions by Agents 

towards Bible and Tract 

Society ... 75 

Easter Collections for 

Bible Society . . 74 


Interest on Endowment 

Funds . . . .689 


Interest on Deposits . 800 

School fees . . . 154 



Result Grant . . . 2541 


Subscriptions by Mrs. Carr 

towards Southborough 

School in Arumuganeri 84 

Sundry .... 27 


Us. 17,485 









































Rs. 19,857 7 2 


This account shows that the Society was at that time paying PART VIII, 
about two-fifths of the whole ; a proportion which has been reduced 1873-82. 
since then by means of the annual diminution of the grant by Chap - /78 - 
five per cent. The diminution, however, has sometimes been c.M^sT 
suspended on special grounds, sometimes made only at the rate share in the 
of 2J per cent., and sometimes compensated for by additional Sounds" 
grants for specific temporary purposes. The Society s policy was 
thus ingeniously illustrated by Bishop Sargent : " When I was 
teaching my boy to swim, he had a jacket of about 120 corks, 
and every day I took seven or eight out. In five days he learned 
the art, and became one of the strongest swimmers in Tinnevelly." 

The general character of the Tinnevelly Christians was well Bishop 
described by Bishop Caldwell in 1880 : onthT 11 

" I maintain that the Christians of our Indian Missions have no need 
to shrink from comparison with Christians in a similar station in life 
and similarly circumstanced in England or in any other part of the 
world. The style of character they exhibit is one which those who are 
well acquainted with them cannot but like. I think I do not exaggerate 
when I affirm that they appear to me in general more teachable and 
tractable, more considerate of the feelings of others and more respectful 
to superiors, more uniformly temperate, more patient and gentle, more 
trustful m Providence, better church-goers, yet free from relio-ious 
bigotry and, in proportion to their means, more liberal, than Christians 
in England holding a similar position in the social scale. I do not for a 
moment pretend that they are free from imperfections ; on the contrary, 
living amongst them as I do from day to day, I see their imperfections 
daily, and daily do I reprove, rebuke, exhort/ as I see need ; but I am 
bound to say that when I have gone away anywhere, and looked back 
upon the Christians of this country from a distance, when I have 
compared them with what I have seen and known of Christians in other 
countries, I find that their good qualities have left a deeper impression 
on my mind than their imperfections. I do not know any perfect 
JNative Christians, and I may add that perfect English Christians, if 
they do exist, must be admitted to be exceedingly rare ; but this I see 
and know, that in both classes of Christians may be traced distinct 
marks and proof of the power of the Gospel new sympathies and virtues, 
and a new heavenward aim." 

One good feature in the Tinnevelly Church has been its supply 
of agents to other Missions. We have before seen how its cate- 
chists went to Ceylon and Mauritius. Some of its best-educated 
men, after taking their degrees at Madras University, became 
masters in colleges and schools in the Telugu Mission, and in 
other parts of the Madras Presidency. 

Two or three other events of the period in Tinnevelly remain to 
be noticed. Much might be said of the delightful work done in 
connexion with the Sarah Tucker Institution by Mr. and Mrs. Sarah 
Liash, touching whom (and Bishop and Mrs. Sargent) Professor ? n u s c t fe i 
Jionier- Williams wrote to the Times, June llth, 1877, " All honour 
to those noble-hearted missionaries." In 1878 a building was 
erected in Palamcotta called the Usborne Memorial School, in Usbome 
memory of two ladies who had largely contributed to the work of SchooL 

VOL. in. 



Chap. 78. 

Death of 




The Syrian 

female education. It was to be used for a school for high-caste 
Hindu girls, and also as a hall for lectures to educated Natives. 
At the laying of the first stone a Brahman spoke, warmly 
eulogizing Christian missionaries as pioneers of every good 
work " and as " constituting a bridge over the wide gulf separating 
the people of the land from their rulers." When the building 
was ready, Mr. Lash began with a lantern lecture on the Pilgrim s 
Progress ; and he invited educated Hindu gentlemen, both Chris 
tians and non-Christians, to give lectures. One Brahman took as 
his subject " Natural Theology," and discoursed eloquently on the 
Divine attributes of the One God. " It is written in the Bible," 
he said, " that the fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. 
It does not say the fool thought in his heart there is no God. He 
tried to persuade himself of the non-existence of a God by 
saying it." 

The excellent work of the C.E.Z.M.S. ladies in Tinnevelly was 
initiated by Mrs. Lewis. We shall see more of it hereafter. 

In 1882, Bishop Sargent, having been ill, took a voyage to 
Australia and New Zealand. The interesting connexion which 
had been formed before this between South India and Australia 
will be noticed presently. Sargent was taken in hand by the Kev. 
H. B. Macartney of Melbourne, visited several principal towns in 
the Australasian Colonies, and was given contributions for the 
Tinnevelly Mission by various friends, amounting to 400. Not 
long after his return to India, both he and the Mission suffered an 
irreparable loss by the death of Mrs. Sargent, June 19th, 1883. 
She was a true mother in Israel. 

Finally, let us come to Travancore. In the earlier years of our 
period the missionaries at work were Henry Baker the younger, 
now a veteran of thirty years standing, in charge of the central 
districts and the Arrian Mission ; John Caley, a new recruit, in 
Feet s old districts in the south ; W. Johnson at Allepie on the 
coast, and F. Bower in the northern state of Cochin ; J. H. 
Bishop and W. J. Eichards at the Cottayam College ; and J. M. 
Speechly at the Cambridge Nicholson Institution. E. H. Maddox 
had retired, and was at home ; but in 1876 he went back to the 
field. There were some 15,000 Native Christian adherents, and 
the Church Council system was taking root, fostering self-support 
and self -administration. The Mission had one difficulty from 
which Tinnevelly was free. The Christian community was not 
homogeneous, but a combination of most diverse elements. The 
largest section consisted of the slave converts ; then a considerable 
number from the more respectable Heathen ; then a good many 
who had left the Syrian Church which section comprised most 
of the clergy ; then there were the Hill Arrian Christians, far 
away and quite distinct ; and, in addition, the small congregations 
in the Cochin State. It was not easy for all these to amalgamate. 

The old Syrian Church was at the time, as it so often has been, 



torn by internal dissensions. The presence for so many years PART VIII. 
alongside it of the active and thriving C.M.S. Mission to the !873-82. 
Heathen had gradually stimulated the reforming tendencies of its Cha P- 78 - 
best members, and the Metran or Metropolitan, Mar Athanasius, Ma^Atha- 
encouraged these to the utmost. Athanasius had been a scholar nasius - 
in the old Syrian College at Cottayam at the time when the C.M.S. 
missionaries were in charge of it, and had been selected in 1837, 
just before the separation took place, to be sent to Madras for 
further training in the C.M.S. Theological Seminary which then 
existed at that city under J. H. Gray. Afterwards he went to 
Syria, and there, in 1842, he was consecrated by the Jacobite 
Patriarch of Antioch to be Metran of the Malabar Syrian Church. 
For thirty years he had fulfilled his office faithfully, seeking by 
the grace of God to revive the slumbering life of his people, and 
always grateful for the friendly counsel of the Anglican mis 
sionaries ; and under his benign rule the Syrian Christians had 
increased in prosperity, trebled the number of their churches, and 
greatly improved in moral character. But many of the priests The two 
resented his efforts for reform, and complained to the Patriarch of P arties - 
Antioch, who sent two or three other bishops, not natives of 
India, and therefore regarded as foreign intruders, to supplant him. 
The better disposed of the clergy, however, stood by him, and 
he consecrated his cousin, Mar Thomas Athanasius, to be his 
coadjutor as had been the custom in the Church in former times. 
The inevitable result was the division of the Church into two 
antagonistic parties ; and the spirit of the reactionary bishops was 
shown by one of them throwing down a Malayalam Bible which he 
found in one of the churches and trampling on it. In 1874 the 
Jacobite Patriarch visited England with a view to getting the Jacobite 
British Government to interfere in the quarrel and turn Mar 
Athanasius out of the churches and other properties held by the 
reforming party. He was received by many advanced English 
Churchmen, who knew nothing of the case, with effusive reverence ; 
but Mr. Whitehouse, who had long been chaplain at Cochin, and 
knew more of the circumstances than any other living man, 
exposed his pretensions in the pages of the CM. Intelligencer ; 
showing that the Malabar Church had originally no connexion 
with the Jacobites of Antioch, and that although Antioch had 
done it a good turn by restoring to it the episcopal succession in 
the seventeenth century, it had always had Native bishops and 
was in fact an independent Church. Eventually the Patriarch 
was advised by Archbishop Tait to leave it to manage its own 
affairs ; but meanwhile he had appointed a new Native Metran, 
around whom the reactionary party had rallied, and the division 
and dissension continued and has continued to the present 

But in the midst of these troubles, in 1873, a remarkable 

* For the recent position of parties in the Syrian Church, see an article 
Ly the Rev. W. J. Richards, C.M. Intelligencer, March, 1895 

N 2 




Chap. 78. 


and his 

of the 

A new 

religious revival occurred in Travancore. The conversion in Feet s 
time (1861) of a whole family of Brahmans will not have been 
forgotten/ 11 One of the brothers, Justus Joseph, had been ordained 
in 1865 by Bishop Gell, and had proved an able and zealous 
clergyman. Two of the others, Matthew and Jacob, became 
ardent evangelists, and when, in 1874, the fame of the great 
American revivalists in England reached India, the two brothers 
came to be called the " Moody and Sankey " of Travancore for 
one preached and the other sang. Although they belonged to the 
Anglican community, the spiritual awakening that suddenly began 
in the autumn of 1873 was chiefly among the Syrian Christians. 
It was accompanied, like the Irish revival in 1859 and the North 
Tinnevelly revival in 1860, by strange physical manifestations, 
which the missionaries at once felt were not " of the Lord"; but 
nevertheless there could be no doubt at all of the reality of the 
movement, and that the Holy Spirit was working mightily upon 
the hearts of many of the people. The testimonies of Mr. Speechly, 
Mr. Caley, and Mr. D. Fenn (who went over from Madras), were 
decisive ; and when Mr. Maddox returned to India three years 
later he was struck by the fruits still plainly manifest. One good 
feature was a sudden and urgent demand for Bibles, and the 
Cottayam Press had to work hard to supply them. Another was 
the strong sense of sin in those who were awakened, and a 
readiness to make reparation for wrong done to others. Another 
was the burst of sacred song. Many new " lyrics " were composed 
set to native music, and chanted by the people morning, noon, and 
night. Here is one of them : 

1 . O Spirit, come soon ! bring remembrance to me of all my great sins, 
And at iny remembrance help me mightily to cry. 

Come, O Spirit, O Holy Spirit, come ! 

2. When will flow Peter s tears, O God, from my eyes ? 
Forsake not this sinner, who pleads and falls at Thy feet. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. 

3. Oh ! with Thy word strike my heart, quickly break its stone, 
Make my eyes at once pools of water unceasing. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. 

4. Christ dead upon the cross (His) form 

Help to shine ever in my mind, O God, without delay. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. 
~>. Many times I have grieved Thee, a great sinner I am, 

For self I have walked, Thy golden doctrines have spurned. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. 

6. Pride, lust, unbelief, deceit, envy remove, 
Faith, kindness, and love within me soon impart. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. 

7. Upon the Apostles Thou earnest, so now heaven divide, 
Upon this sinner (too) fall ; ever reign in my heart. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. 

* See Vol. II., p. 539. 


8. Oh, living water! if Thou dwell not in me with compassion and love, PART VIII, 
Eternal death s prey, I a great sinner shall be. Forsake not, O God ! 1873-82. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. Cha P- 78 

9. Oh ! delay not the least to plead with unutterable groans 
Before the Almighty One, for me, a w T orm. 

Come, O Spirit, &c. 

And let us read the account of one of the Syrians awakened 
and, as it seemed, truly converted to God. David Fenn thus 
wrote : 

" On December 17th at Tiruwella, I met the rich man alluded to by 
Mr. Baker as ever in lawsuits with his family, who after his late con 
version had * returned to a Nair some land he had obtained from him by 
fraudulent means. This man is one of the most striking fruits of the 
revival. He lives three miles from Tiruwella. Mr. Johnson and Mr. 
Caley knew him well, as he often called at the Mission bungalow. He 
called again to-day. It was the first time Mr. and Mrs. Caley had seen 
him since his great change. They were very much struck by his altered 
appearance. He was before very stout in person, and haughty and 
swaggering in gait, and he never cared to converse on religion. Now he 
looked like one who had passed through a most severe mental conflict, 
and was very humble and childlike in manner. They found it difficult 
to realize he was the same person. Ever since his conversion, about 
two months ago, he has been going about talking to people about their 
souls. We asked him if he had peace. No, he said, he had much 
sorrow of heart. Why so ? did he doubt God s forgiving mercy ? No, 
he had no doubt. He knew Christ had died for his sins, but he felt 
very great sorrow at the thought of his sins, and had still but little 
peace. He listened with the deepest attention while w T e directed his 
attendant, a young man, to read from the Malayalam Bible, Isa. i. 18, 
xliii. 25, xliv. 22, Iv. 7, and Micah vii. 18, 19. He appeared very 
grateful. Then he asked leave to sing a Tamil lyric, and finally re 
quested that we should obtain the Sircar s permission for him to speak 
to the prisoners in Tiruwella jail, about 150 in number, about their souls. 
We told him we feared there would be a difficulty unless they were 
Syrian Christians. Still the request was very touching. To think of 
this man, so rich and so haughty, as he lately was, now longing to go 
himself to the very lowest and worst, and seek their souls salvation ! 
Every one who knows this man is astonished at the change." 

The good Metran, Mar Athanasius, acted towards the movement 
judiciously and sympathetically, and gave the evangelists leave 
to conduct special services and prayer-meetings in any of his 
churches ; and Philippos, the Malpan or Divinity Professor in the 
old Syrian College, and Vicar-General of the Southern Churches, 
who was an ardent reformer, took an active part in guiding the 
awakened catanars (priests). 

The revival was mainly confined to the Syrian and Anglican 
congregations the former chiefly in the southern districts of 
Mavelicara and Tiruwella. But meanwhile, the ordinary work 
was going on in the Cottayam and Pallam districts with manifest 
spiritual blessing ; and special meetings were arranged by Mr. 
Baker, especially for the numerous catechumens who had come 
out of Heathenism, and had been some time under instruction. 

I 82 



Wild pre 

PART VIII. These were brought to a definite point in the Week of Prayer in 
1873-82. January, 1875, and the result was that five hundred and eighty - 
ap nine converts were baptized on one memorable day. A few 
589 adult weeks later arrived Mr. Sholto Douglas, who (as mentioned in 
?n oneway our Seventieth Chapter) had been an active leader in the 
Mr. Sholto Parochial Mission movement at home, and who was on a tour in 
Douglas. India ; and he too held special services, and materially helped the 
Native clergy and catechists by showing them how to conduct 
after-meetings and the like. Then, in November of the same 
year, came the Bishop of Madras, who confirmed within a fort 
night 970 candidates, and ordained four Native clergymen, " three 
of whom," wrote Henry Baker, " I had baptized as infants." 

But the great Adversary never lets a good work alone, and the 
Eevival was followed by one of the saddest exhibitions of human 
error and fanaticism in modern Church history. The Tamil 
revivalist Arulappen, who, it will be remembered, had a kind of 
little " Plymouthist " band in North Tinnevelly,* was preaching 
on the Second Advent, and his prophetical views spread to 
Kannit in Travancore, where Justus Joseph and his brothers lived. 
One of their company, Thomman, who professed to be a prophet, 
suddenly announced that Christ was coming after exactly six 
years ; and Justus Joseph was led astray into setting forth belief 
in this prediction as a condition of salvation. At the same time 
he began to call upon the people who had been influenced by the 
Eevival to confess their sins in public ; and the churches soon 
witnessed scenes of most shocking confessions of individual 
immoralities. Other extravagances followed, and at length Justus 
Joseph exhibited so much actual deceit that the missionaries, after 
long patience and great forbearance and earnest pleading with 
him, were compelled to cast him off, and the Bishop withdrew 
his license. Mr. Caley wrote: "I cannot but regard it as a 
master-stroke of Satan to destroy a good work. The Joseph 
family wielded an immense power for good, and, had they not 
fallen under the influence of a delusion, might have brought 
about glorious results. Bible-readings, family prayers, &c., were 
becoming common. The Enemy of all righteousness had cause 
to be alarmed, for the Church was awaking to her duty. What 
did he do ? He aimed a blow at the leaders, and it took effect, 
so that now they are leading a movement which often differs little 
from devil-dancing." 

Justus Joseph and his brethren never came back. But 

hundreds of the people they had deceived did. The failure of a 

prediction of three days darkness, and the death of Thomman 

the prophet, and of one of the brothers, who were said to have 

Collapse of been "sealed" and could not die, opened the eyes of many. 

Yeans* Still the " Six Years Party," as it was called, or " Revival 

Party. Church," as it called itself, continued to hold together until the 


* See Vol. II., p. 189. 


six years were over. But on the day fixed upon, October 2nd, PART VIII. 
1881, the sun arose and set as usual, and the movement 1873-82. 
collapsed. Many of the people came to the Anglican or Ee- 
formed Syrian congregations, and asked in shame and confusion 
of face to be restored. But it was long before the sad effects of 
" Satan s master-stroke " passed away. The misguided leader 
died in 1887, ministered to in his last hours by one of the Native 

In 1878 the Travancore Mission lost its senior missionary. 
Henry Baker died on November 13th, after thirty-five years Death of 
zealous service. He was chiefly honoured as the apostle of the elke?. 
Hill Arrians, but he had a very large share in the work among 
all classes in the plains. He was chairman of the Native Church 
Council, and a leading member of the Malayalam Bible Eevision 
Committee/ 1 His mother, the widow of the first Henry Baker, 
still conducted her girls boarding-school ; and his widow and 
daughter continued another girls school for many years. In the 
charge of the Arrian Mission he was ultimately succeeded by a 
new missionary who went out in 1877, A. F. Painter.! 

As mentioned more than once in other chapters, the Society 
had long been anxious for the establishment of a bishopric in Bishopnc 
Travancore and Cochin ; and in 1879, at last, the many difficulties core^nd"" 
were surmounted. The Bishop of Madras, the Metropolitan of Cochin. 
Calcutta, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Secretary of 
State for India, were brought into agreement ; and ecclesiastical 
anomalies were tolerated for the sake of the practical benefit of 
the Church. It was arranged to consecrate a bishop under the 
" Jerusalem Act," Travancore and Cochin being semi-independent 
Native States ; yet that he should take an oath of allegiance to 
two State Bishops, Calcutta (as Metropolitan) and Madras (in 
consideration of certain Madras chaplains being put under him), 
as well as (like other bishops on foreign territory) to the Arch 
bishop of Canterbury. The clergyman chosen by Archbishop 
Tait, on the Society s recommendation, was J. M. Speechly, the 
much-respected Principal of the Cambridge Nicholson Institution, 
who had himself trained several of the Native clergy over whom 
he was now to preside ; and on July 25th, 1879, he was conse 
crated at St. Paul s Cathedral, together with Walsham How to 
the suffragan bishopric of Bedford, J. Barclay to the Anglican 
bishopric in Jerusalem, and W. Eidley to the new bishopric of 

Bishop Speechly found himself at the head of a Mission that 
was distinctly growing. In twenty years the Native Christians 
of the Anglican Church (baptized and catechumens) had in- 

* An interesting " In Memoriain " of Henry Baker was contributed to the 
CM. IidelUgencer (May, 1879) by R. Collins, who had been Principal ot 
Cottayam College, and afterwards of Trinity College, Kandy. 

f Another promising missionary who joined in the same year, I. W. 
Ainley, was soon obliged to return home by failure of health. 

1 84 


PART VIII. creased from 6000 to 20,000; the communicants from 
Chlp~ 8 78 500 ;J he Native clergy from six to seventeen. The 

1200 to 


Council was increasing in strength year by year. The Christians, 
with all their inevitable imperfections, were an example both to 
their Syrian brethren and to the Heathen. As one of themselves 
said : 

" We observe the Sabbath ; we avoid law squabbles ; all disputes of 
brother against brother are settled in Christian panchayats we educate 
our children, and pay for them in greater proportion than others; our 
clergy are being supported by our gifts, and not by the sale of sacra 
ments and prayers for the dead ; the marriage bond is sacred ; drunkards 
and other open sinners are marked men ; we are not dependent upon 
the Mission for our support." 

Testimony The Native Government of Travancore recognized the good 
Heathen work of the Mission. In 1877 appeared a remarkable Census 
Keport, by V. Nagam Aiya, B.A.," which said, " By the inde 
fatigable labours and self-denying earnestness of the learned 
bodies of missionaries, the large community of Native Christians 
are rapidly advancing in their moral, intellectual, and material 
condition." (The italics are Mr. Aiya s.) And in 1880 a new 
Maharajah ascended the throne, who was a very enlightened man 
and a Fellow of Madras University ; and only a few weeks after 
his accession, he visited Cottayam, inspected the schools, and 
assured the missionaries that their labours were " increasing, year 
after year, the number of the loyal, law-abiding, and civilized 
population, the foundation of good government." 

Before leaving South India, we must not omit to notice the 
very interesting links between the C.M.S. Missions there and 
Australia. The first link was forged by George Maxwell Gordon, 
as mentioned briefly in previous chapters/ 1 He took the voyage 
from Madras to Melbourne in 1867, after a fever, under doctor s 
orders ; and at Melbourne he made the acquaintance of the Eev. 
H. B. Macartney, son of the Dean. An address given by Gordon 
to the girls in an industrial school led to their forming a 
little missionary association to give and collect money for " the 
brown children in India." Under Mr. Macartney s energetic 
guidance, the interest spread to other schools, and then among 
Christian people generally. No society was formed, but money 
was annually contributed through Mr. Macartney, and sent by 
him direct to India. By 1875 it amounted to 450 a year, which 
sum was maintaining 111 boys and girls in the boarding-schools 
of Tinnevelly, Travancore, and the Telugu Mission, six catechists 
and teachers in Tinnevelly, and (Gordon now being in the Punjab) 
two students in the Lahore Divinity School. In 1873, Mr. 
Macartney started a little monthly magazine, The Missionary at 
Home and Abroad, in which he published letters and appeals from 

India and 


His fund. 

His maga 

See Vol. II., pp. 408, 527. 


the missionaries he was helping, as well as accounts of local PART VIII. 

Missions to the Aborigines and Chinese in Australia, and which " 

quickly attained a large circulation in the Colonies and did much 

to foster the missionary cause. In 1875 a further development of 

deep interest took place. At a consecration meeting at Caulfield 

(Mr. Macartney s parish, a suburb of Melbourne) on August 18th, 

one of the Sunday-school teachers, Miss Sarah Davies, offered j. s r 

herself for missionary work. A few days afterwards, the Eev. 

F. W. N. Alexander, of the Telugu Mission, arrived at Melbourne, 

having (like Gordon) taken the voyage for health s sake ; and it 

was quickly arranged that he should take Miss Davies back to 

India with him, to work at Ellore. Still no society was formed. 

Mr. Macartney took all the responsibility, and did all the work ; 

and within seven years, i.e. up to the end of our present period, 

he sent seven missionaries to India. One died in Tinnevelly ; 

two went back ill ; the others were still in the field in 1882. Two 

ladies had married C.M.S. missionaries : the first one, Miss 

Davies, became Mrs. Cain, and another, Miss Seymour, became 

Mrs. Browne. The seventh, Miss Digby, who went out in 1882, 

is labouring to this day as a C.E.Z.M.S. missionary. The cause 

was much helped from time to time by visits of missionaries to 

Australia. Bishop Sargent s tour in 1882 has already been 

alluded to. Mr. and Mrs. Cain went twice, and everywhere 

excited great interest. After twenty years, the funds passing 

thus through Mr. Macartney s hands in aid of the C.M.S. and 

C.E.Z.M.S. Missions amounted to 1400 a year ; but this and 

other further developments will come before us hereafter. Let us 

conclude by quoting the words of Mr. Lewis, Gordon s biographer, 

writing in 188G " A fever, if used aright, may be the means of 

producing 1200 a year : precious money for the salvation of still 

more precious souls." 


Chap. 79. 

The Non- 
races of 


Non- Aryan Races of India The Paharis of the Rajmahal Hills 
E. Droese and Hallett Santal Mission Puxley, Storrs, Shackell 
Rapid but unnoticed Growth- Kols, Gonds, Kois Sir A. Cotton 
and General Haig Edmonds and Cain on the Godavari Rev. 
I. V. Razu C.M.S. Non-Aryan Conference Santal Native Clergy 
Gond Mission : Williamson Bheel Mission : Thompson. 

" Who remembered us in our low exkite : for His mercy endureth for ever." 
Ps. cxxxvi. 23. 

" So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground ; . . . 
and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoiveth not hoiv." St. Mark iv. 26, 27. 

HEEE thousand years ago, as it is believed, India was 
invaded by the great Aryan race from Central Asia. 
The country was already occupied by two races, now 
known as Kolarian and Dravidian. The former were 
the older, and are believed to have been subjugated 
by the Dravidians, who were also invaders, and who, in their 
turn, were subdued by the newly-ar lived Aryans. The Aryans 
gradually spread themselves all over Northern and Western India, 
and became the Hindus proper ; and the present Bengali, Hindi, 
Marathi, Gujerathi, Punjabi, and Sindhi languages represent the 
old Aryan tongue, of which Sanskrit is the classical remnant. 
The bulk of the Dravidians were pressed southwards; and the 
great southern peoples, speaking the Telugu, Tamil, Canarese, and 
Malayalam languages, belong to that race. The Brahmans and 
other Aryan castes are in the south but a small, though highly 
influential, minority of the population. But the remnants of the 
old Kolarians, and also certain Dravidian tribes, retired into the 
hill-districts of Central India and Western Bengal ; and these 
constitute the Non-Aryan Hill Tribes of to-day. 

In the course of this History, we have noticed in passing some 
of the efforts of Christian Missions among these Hill Tribes : the 
attempt of Mr. Christian of the S.P.G. to reach the Paharis or 
hill-men of the Eajmahal Hills in Bengal ;* the Berlin Mission of 
Pastor Gossner to the Kols of Chota Nagpore,f and the absorp 
tion of part of it by Bishop Milman and the S.P.G.;| the 

* Vol. I., p. 331. 

t Vol. II., p. 263. 

Ibid., p. 498. 


commencement of schools among the Santals by the C.M.S. ; ;: PART VIII, 
and the C.M.S. Mission among the Hill Arrians in the Southern 1.873-82. 
Ghauts, f But an account of the Santal Mission, and also of a Chap - 79 - 
Mission to the Kois on the Godavari, has been deferred until now, 
in order that the work among these and other tribes might be 
reviewed together. To find the beginning of these two Missions, 
however, we shall have to go back several years before our present 

The first man to call attention to the claims of the hill-tribes in 
Behar upon the Church s sympathy seems to have been Bishop 
Heber.J It was at his instance that the S.P.G. sent the Eev. 
T. Christian to Bhagalpur in 1826. Mr. Christian threw himself 
with much earnestness among the " Paharis " living in the hills The 
south of the Ganges, but after twelve months labours he and his 
wife died of jungle fever within a few weeks of each other. In Raimahai 
No. 11 of the CM. Intelligencer (March, 1850) appeared a letter H 
from the chaplain at Bhagalpur, Mr. Vaux, forwarded to the 
C.M.S. by Archdeacon Pratt, pleading for Behar generally, and 
in particular for two tribes in that same hill-country, viz., "the 
Puharis and the Sontals " (so spelt) ; and in the C.M.S. Eeport of 
1851 Bhagalpur appears for the first time as a station of the 
Society, the missionary being the Eev. E. Droese, who had been E. Droese. 
sent to India in 1842 by the Berlin Society, but had lately been 
engaged by the C.M.S. and ordained by Bishop Wilson. He 
remained at Bhagalpur thirty-six years, with one furlough ; then 
retired to Mussoorie, and died there in 1891, after almost half a 
century of active service. He was one of those sturdy and steady 
German missionaries of whom we seem to know so little, but to 
whom the C.M.S. Missions owe so much. 

The two tribes, Santals and Paharis, are totally different. The The 
Paharis are Dravidian, and the Santals Kolarian. The Paharis 
live on the tops of the hills, and the Santals in the intervening 
valleys. The Paharis were the terror of the whole country until a 
young civil officer, Augustus Cleveland, tamed them by kindness 
in 1780-84. As, however, the Hindus were still afraid to occupy 
the valleys, which were then not peopled, the Government, in 
1832, encouraged the Santals, who lived further south, and were 
increasing rapidly, to settle in them, marking off with stone pillars 
a tract outside the hills to be also reserved for such settlers, and 
called the Daman-i-Koh ("skirts of the hills"). Within forty 
years the Santal Pergunnahs (as the district is now called) were 
swarming with Santals. In 1855 they rose against the extortions 
of the Hindu money-lenders and traders who grew rich upon their 
simplicity, and British troops had to quell the revolt. Then a 
new Commissioner, George Yule, took them in hand, and tamed 

* Vol. II., p. 246. t I67 ^> P- 193 - 

J See his Narrative, vol. i. p. 214. 

"Pahari" is a name for any hill-people. These were the tribe of 
Rajmahal Paharis. 


PART VIII. them as Cleveland had tamed their wilder neighbours on the hills. 

Cha 3 ~ 8 7 2 9 "^ WaS ^ U ^ e W k encoura g e d Droese to open schools for both 
ap Paharis and Santals, and obtained a Government grant for the 
purpose ; and it was Yule who protested so incisively, as we saw 
in our Forty-sixth Chapter," 1 - against the withdrawal of the grant 
by the authorities at home for fear of infringing "neutrality." 
Subsequently, two successive Lieutenant-Governors of Bengal, Sir 
George Campbell and Sir Eichard Temple, did much for the 
material and moral improvement of the Santals. 

iimtai ^ n -^9 *ke Society sent a young man who had been in the 

Mission : uncovenanted Indian service, and who was ordained before sailing, 
the Eev. T. E. Hallett, to Bhagalpur, expressly for new evan 
gelistic work among the Santals. Droese had already opened 
schools in twelve villages, and 400 boys were already under 
instruction. It was, however, only a similar beginning to the 
beginnings of all school-work in Bengal forty years before.f The 
teachers were Heathen, for there were no Christians to be had ; 
and all that was intended was to assist in the taming process, 
and thus prepare the way for a missionary for Droese himself 
was fully occupied at Bhagalpur. Hallett began his itinerating 
zealously, but his health broke down in the malarial jungles, and 
he only stayed a year. But he was followed by a remarkable 
missionary, who really began the great work in which we all now 

Puxiey. Edward Lavallin Puxley came from Dunboy Castle in County 

Cork. He was an Oxford man, but, before taking his degree, he 
had become an officer in the 4th Light Dragoons, and was with 
that regiment in the Crimea. In 1860 he offered his services to 
the Society as an honorary missionary, was ordained by Arch 
bishop Sumner, and was sent out to join the new Mission to 
Lucknow a particularly suitable location for a military man. 
But certain godly officers on board the ship he sailed in so 
interested him in the Santals, that on reaching Calcutta he asked 
leave to go to them instead. Through John Barton, who went 
out in the same ship, he was introduced to Sir George Yule, the 
Commissioner of the Santal districts, and Yule showed him a 
place to begin at, a village called Hiranpur; but in 1863 he pur 
chased (from his own resources) some buildings belonging to the 
East Indian Eailway Company at Taljhari, and presented them to 
the Society. Before he could begin work there, the jungle fevers 
had seized him, and he was quickly ordered to England to save his 
life ; but he must always be remembered as the first missionary 
to live actually among the Santal people. Moreover, he had col 
lected a few promising boys from the schools, and formed them 
into a class to be trained as teachers ; and he had translated 
w T St. Matthew s Gospel, the Psalms, and parts of the Prayer-book, 
storrs. into the Santali language. When he broke down, W. T. Storrs was 

* Vol. II., p. 246. -j- Vol. I., p. 194. 


brought from Lucknow to relieve him ; when he returned to PART VIII. 
India, Storrs was invalided home ; and when Storrs went back, 1873-82. 
Puxley, again ill, was compelled (1866) to retire altogether. Chap. 79. 

From Puxley s training-school came the first two converts, Earn Fir^T" 
Charan, a Hindu by birth who had lived from infancy among the ^"verts 
Santals, and Bhim, a pure Santal. They were baptized by Storrs " 
in 1864, in a tank from which, and from two fine palm-trees, 
Tal-jhari ("palm-tank") is believed to derive its name. Bhim 
owed his conversion to a strange dispensation of Providence. He 
was driving a bullock-cart across the railway, when one of the 
oxen caught its hoof in the rail, and before it could be extricated, 
a train came up and killed it. Bhim was put in prison for 
endangering the safety of the train ; and while there, the Spirit of 
God brought home to his heart the truths he had learned at 
school, and he came out of gaol a new man. Both Earn Charan 
and Bhim became, some years later, among the first Native 
clergymen in the Mission. 

For three or four years no reports were received from the Santal A growing 
Mission. There is no mention of the first baptisms in the noticed 
Intelligencer or Annual Eeport, though a diligent search reveals work. 
a casual allusion to them in a short summary of a Calcutta Eeport 
printed in small type in the C.M. Record. The fact was that 
Puxley and Storrs dreaded publicity. " Some missionaries," 
wrote Eidgeway in the Intelligencer (January, 1870), adopting, as 
his manner was, a horticultural simile, " fear lest the glare of the 
sun should spoil the tender plants, about whose healthful growth 
they are so anxious ; and they throw a covering over them, and 
conceal them as much as possible from public observation." And 
he proceeded to administer a gentle rebuke. Christian people at 
home, he said, who were supporting the work by their prayers 
and contributions, desired to know, and had a right to know, how 
the work was going on. For it was going on. That, after the 
three or four years of silence, was already known. For while, up 
to 1867, one would gather from the Annual Eeport that the 
Mission was only in its first preparatory stages, suddenly, in 1868, 
we read of 400 Native Christians scattered over an extensive 
country ; of schools and catechists, and native contributions ; and 
of Bishop Milman visiting Taljhari and confirming eighty-eight Bishop t 
Santals ! And in the next year, 1869, the Annual Eeport mentions 

the baptism of 300 more converts, and another visit of the Bishop s, 
when he confirmed 106 more candidates ; also that he laid the 
foundation-stone of a large church, which Storrs proposed to build 
on a conspicuous hill just above the mission station, and for which 
900 had been already contributed and 900 more was wanted. 
No wonder the Editorial Secretary, eager for interesting matter, 
and for encouragement for his readers at that period of (as we 
have before seen) so much disappointment and depression, was 
inclined to protest at the details of such a work as this having 
been kept back ! 



Chap. 79. 

H. W. 


J. Brown, 
A. Stark, 
F. T.Cole. 


Storrs s 



In 1868 a valuable recruit appeared. H. W. Shackell, the 
brilliant Cambridge man who had been sent out expressly for 
work among the educated Hindus and Mohammedans, who had 
succeeded French as Principal of St. John s College at Agra, and 
who afterwards took part in the Cathedral Mission College at 
Calcutta, now resolved, with the humility and self-devotion that 
were so strikingly characteristic of him, to bury himself in the 
Santal jungles. He chose a new centre, at a place called 
Godda, remote from Taljhari, and there, like Puxley, at his own 
expense, he erected the necessary buildings for a Mission. In 
the following year he brought there a young wife, a daughter of 
the veteran Hoernle ; but fifteen months afterwards he had to 
bury her, not merely in the figurative sense, but literally. After 
her death, he would gladly have still devoted himself to the 
Santals ; but the exigencies of the Mission, at a time when 
recruits from home were so few, necessitated his transfer again to 
educational work, and for a year or two he conducted Jay Narain s 
School at Benares. In 1873 ill-health drove him from India, and 
in his latter years he was quite blind. At the age of forty-nine, 
one of the most devoted men on the Society s roll died at Bourne 

In 1871, Storrs also was invalided home; but there was now a 
band of younger men to carry on the expanding work. James 
Brown went out in 1868 ; in the following year, an Eurasian 
schoolmaster, Alfred Stark, who was at the time acting as 
Assistant Secretary in the Calcutta office, joined the Mission ; and 
in 1872, F. T. Cole went out. These three have laboured ever 
since (though Stark is now at Calcutta). A fourth, H. Davis, 
joined in 1871, but died after six years service. In 1876, after a 
quarter of a century s interval, the Society once more engaged a 
Basle Seminary man, John Blaich, though not direct from Basle, 
for he had been ten years in Assam ; and he received English 
orders from the Bishop of Calcutta. He also has been labouring 
ever since. Mr. Storrs s imposing church at Taljhari, a con 
spicuous object against the western sky as seen from the railway, 
was opened in January, 1872, on the occasion of another visit from 
Bishop Milman and the confirmation of 100 candidates. A fourth 
visit was in 1874, when 150 were confirmed, and the Bishop 
administered the Holy Communion to 237 Santal converts. In 
1877, at which year w r e will suspend the narrative for a few pages, 
there were about 1500 Christians. 

A few of these Christians were Paharis, and there were also 
Pahari converts in villages approached from the Bhagalpur side 
and reckoned among the 350 adherents of the Mission there ; but 
these hill-men were hard to reach, and hard to influence, and 
their vernacular (Malto) was known only to the veteran Droese, 
though they could be communicated with through the medium of 
Hindi. The linguistic difficulty is a real one. At the Taljhari 
and Hiranpur stations, Bengali is used for the contiguous Hindu 


population, as well as Santali for the Santals. At Godda, which PART Vill 
is fifty miles to the west, we are on the borders of the Hindi- 1873-82. 
speaking country. To be thoroughly efficient, a missionary should Cha P- 79 - 
be able to speak both Bengali and Hindi, which are Aryan 
languages, and Santali, which is Kolarian, and Malto, which is 

South-west from the Santal country lies the Province of Chota T1 ?e Koi 
Nagpore, in which are found the aboriginal Kols. Among them GoSn = 
have been carried on the largest and most successful of all the andS - p - G - 
Missions to Hill Tribes, the Berlin Gossner Mission, and that of 
the S.P.G. So important has the latter become, that a bishopric 
for it was established in 1890. South-west again from Chota 
Nagpore we come to the extensive hilly districts comprised in the 
Central Provinces of British India and the contiguous Native 
States. These districts are to a large extent peopled by the 
Gonds, one of the Dravidian tribes which, like the Kolarians, were TheGonds. 
driven by the Aryan invaders into the mountains and jungles ; 
and the country is sometimes ethnologically called Gondwana! 
A branch of the Gond nation in Orissa, to the ea,st, bears the 
name of Khond ; and it was the Khonds that formerly practised 
the celebrated and horrible " meriah (human) sacrifice." Another 
branch, to the south, reaching to the Godavari Eiver, is the Koi ; T he Kois 
and among the Koi people another of the C.M.S. Missions was 
begun shortly after the commencement of the Santal Mission. 

In July, 1860, the C.M. Intelligencer contained an elaborate 
article on " Gondwana and its Tribes," in which was presented a 
large amount of interesting information from official sources re 
garding these vast districts in the very heart of India. One of the 
communications included in it was a letter from Colonel Arthur 
Cotton asking the C.M.S. to send missionaries to the Kois. Cotton s 
Cotton was at that time engaged in important engineering works c P M. a s. t0 
on the Godavari with a view to irrigating the country, and one of 
the engineer officers employed, Captain F. T. Haig, had his head 
quarters at a place called Dummagudem, close to the Koi district. 
" Two things," said Cotton, " are wanted, to make this country a 
garden : the natural water and the water of life." The former he 
was providing, under Government auspices ; for the latter he 
appealed to the Church Missionary Society. But Haig had not 
waited for the Society. He induced several engineers, officers 
and men, to join him in a prayer-meeting in behalf of the surround- Haig s 
ing Heathen ; and to this prayer God vouchsafed an immediate mating, 
answer, in the conversion of no less a person than the head of 
the local commissariat department, a Hindu Eajput named I. Ven- Conversion 
catarama Eazu. To this man Haig had given a Bible. The 
very first time he opened it his eye fell upon the Lord s Prayer 
in Matt, vi., and he was so struck by it and its context that 
he at once began praying to " the Father which seeth in secret." 
Presently he came to Haig for instruction, and then a month s 
leave of absence was granted him to go to Masulipatam and be 



Chap. 79. 

baptized, there being then no clergyman nearer. His wife 
threatened, if he went, to leave him for ever. He knelt down 
and prayed earnestly for her conversion. The next morning 

the first 

she told him that his God should be her God, and together they 
journeyed to Masulipatam, and were both baptized by Mr. Sharkey 
in August, 1860, just a month after Cotton s appeal appeared in 
the Intelligencer. 

That year, 1860, as we have before seen, was the best year as 
regards men ready to go out that the Society had yet had. 
The "policy of faith" enunciated in 1853 was still in force, and 
the money was amply provided by the addition to the General 
Fund of the Special India Fund raised after the Mutiny. The 
period of retrenchment and then of the " failing treasury and 
scanty supply of men" was not yet. So the Committee were 
able to respond to Cotton s appeal by appointing two Islington 
men, W. J. Edmonds and W. Ellington, to begin a new Godavari 
Mission, as a branch of the Telugu Mission. Ellington, indeed, 
missionary w as stopped en route, and, after learning Telugu, was absorbed 
D1S into the existing missionary staff. But Edmonds got up to Dum- 
magudem ; and there he had the rare privilege of commencing a 
new Mission with a baptismal service. Eazu, after his baptism a 
few months before, had earnestly sought Government official 
though he was, with 2000 mouths to feed daily to win souls for 
Christ ; and three young Hindu converts were ready to confess 
Christ when Edmonds arrived, and were baptized by him on 
Easter Day, 1861. 

But the Godavari Mission, so happily begun, was to have a 
chequered history. In 1863 the health of both Mr. and Mrs. 
Edmonds failed, and they returned home she to die, and he to 
become in after years the learned Canon of Exeter. For a short 
time C. Tanner was in charge. Alexander and Darling occasionally 
visited Dummagudem, and the latter baptized the first Koi con 
verts in 1869. But the work was done by Eazu. In 1863 he 
resigned his post under Government, and the good salary attached 
to it, and became a C.M.S. catechist on less than half the pay, 
indeed only one-fourth of what he would have been entitled to 
very shortly. From that time he ceased not to teach and preach 
Jesus Christ, encouraged by Haig s counsel and support ; and in 
1872 he was admitted to holy orders by the Bishop of Madras. 
At last, a missionary arrived who succeeded in staying. This 
was John Cain, who w r ent out in 1869, and, after a year or 
two at the Noble High School as Eugby-Fox Master, was 
appointed to the Godavari, and has laboured there from 1873 
until the present time. In 1876 there were 330 Native Christians, 
of whom about one-fourth were Kois, and the rest Hindus, if in 
that term may be included the out-caste Malas referred to in the 
preceding chapter. 

Up to 1877, therefore, the C.M.S. Missions to the Hill Tribes 
comprised (1) the Santal Mission, with its Pahari branch ; (2) the 

Razu s 

John Cain. 


Koi Mission, the fruits of which were for the most part not Kois ; PART VIII. 
(3) the Hill Arrian Mission, which has been described before in 1873-82. 
the chapters on South India. In that year, 1877, a Conference on Cha P- ? 9 - 
Non- Aryan Missions was held at the Church Missionary House. The Non- 
It was planned and arranged by Mr. Barton, who had come home conference 
from Madras, and had temporarily rejoined the Secretariat, of 1877. 
Having learned how important General Lake s Conference on 
Mohammedan work in 1875 had proved, it occurred to him to 
bring together in a similar way men interested in the aboriginal 
peoples of India. The Conference was held on February 21st, 
and was attended by Sir William Muir, late Lieutenant-Governor 
of the North-West Provinces ; Sir George Campbell, late Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal ; Sir George Yule, the Commissioner of San- 
talia before mentioned ; Colonel Henry Yule, Mr. E. N. Gust, 
Mr. E. L. Brandreth, &c. ; also by Puxley, Storrs, Shackell, and 
Tanner, who had worked among the Hill Tribes, and by H. P. 
Boerresen, a Danish missionary who had an interesting Santal 
Mission of his own. The opening papers were read by Barton 
and Gust ; and the meeting is memorable as the occasion of the R. N. 
latter s first appearance in Salisbury Square. He joined the a^pewance 
Committee in the following year. A paper on the Gonds was also at C.M.S. 
read, which had been sent by Mr. Champion of Jabalpur. The 
other officials and missionaries made important speeches, and 
Boerresen in particular quite thrilled the meeting by his fervid 
utterances. All were agreed upon two points : (1) that the Hill 
Tribes were singularly open to religious impressions from without ; 
(2) that they would be soon Hinduized if Christians did not step 
in. " No time should be lost," said Gust ; " the angel has troubled 
the water ; while we are pausing, others may step down." " What 
you do," said Muir, " do quickly." 

Two important steps were taken in consequence of the earnest 
representations made by all the speakers at this Conference. 
First, it was resolved to send a man to the Gonds as quickly as 
possible ; and in that same year, the Eev. Henry Drummond ^.Jj^ 
Williamson, of Corpus (Camb.), was designated to that work. son fjf, 
Secondly, it was resolved to open two new stations in Santalia, Gonds. 
Sir W. Muir and Mr. Shackell having each offered 100 for every 
new station ; and with a view to consolidating and developing the 
work, Mr. Storrs, who was at that time a Yorkshire Vicar, con 
sented to go out again for a time. 

Mr. Storrs sailed in the autumn of the same year, accompanied ^"^ 
by a new recruit, J. Tunbridge ; and he worked in the Mission, to 
its great advantage, for twelve months, and then returned to 
England. His most important service was the preparation of 
three pure Santals for holy orders ; and on St. Andrew s Day, 
1878, they were ordained at Taljhari by the Bishop of Calcutta, girst^ 
The Eev. Bhim Hansda was the Bhim before mentioned as one of O rdinati 
the first converts baptized fourteen years before; a thoroughly 
earnest Christian," wrote Storrs, " but sometimes a little timid in 

VOL. in. 

i 9 4 



Chap. 79. 

of the 


Gossner s 

pion s 

speaking though when he does speak it is with a reality and 
outspokenness that carries all before him." The Eev. William 
Sido had been a Christian nearly as long; " a very fine character, 
so thoroughly straightforward, so decided, so uncompromising as 
regards everything that he thinks evil." The Kev. Sham Besra 
rather rough and uncouth, and not very clever, but a 


diamond in the rough and a powerful preacher." In that same 
year, a graduate of Dublin who was also a qualified doctor, Eobert 
Elliott, was appointed to the Santal Mission. Two new stations 
were presently established, at Baharwa and Bhagaya, and every 
thing pointed to an expanding Mission. Mr. Stark, at Godda, was 
successful in getting hold of the Paharis, and in 1882 six whole 
villages renounced idolatry and placed themselves under regular 
Christian instruction. The devil-priest himself, on being asked 
what he had done with his demons, said he had buried them. 
"What did they say?" "Say!" he exclaimed; "what can 
stones say?" Meanwhile Mr. Droese was diligently at work on 
translations, and in 1882 two Gospels and parts of the Prayer- 
book were printed in the Malto language. The Santali Gospels 
had arrived at the stage of revision, and a short Bible History had 
also been prepared. In this work Mr. Cole especially took an 
active part. 

Let us now turn to the Gonds. f Some thirty years before this 
time, that excellent Christian administrator, Donald McLeod, had 
invited Gossner s Mission to send a party of evangelists to the 
Gonds, undertaking to bear the whole expense himself. Six 
German artizans, with their wives and families, were accordingly 
sent to establish an agricultural colony; but, in the mysterious 
providence of God, all the little band except two were swept away 
by cholera, and of these two the mind of one gave way under the 
grief and anxiety he suffered. A few years later, the C.M.S. 
Mission at Jabalpur was established, at the request of the district 
judge and the chaplain, as we saw in a former chapter; \ and one 
object they had in view was to form a base for work among the 
Gonds. The station, however, quickly became important in regard 
to its influence upon the Hindu population in the town and district, 
and there was no time to do more than pay an occasional visit to 
the remoter forests and jungles in which the Gond tribes live. 
The Eev. B. Champion, who was at Jabalpur nearly twenty years, 
1860-79, did what he could; and he constantly pleaded with the 
Society to send other men for the station work, and thus release 
him to go and live in the jungle. At last, after the Non-Aryan 
Conference, the Society (as we have seen) appointed a missionary 

* A photographic group of these three Santal clergymen and their 
families appeared in the Gleaner of January, 1880. Portraits also appeared 
in March, 1883. 

t A valuable account of the Gonds is given by Dr. G. Smith in his 
Memoir of Stephen Hislop, the remarkable Scotch missionary in the Central 

I Vol. II., p. 171, 


for the Gonds, H. D. Williamson; but it is a significant illustra- PARTVTII. 
tion of the way in which good plans are often interfered with by 
emergencies, that on Williamson s arrival in Calcutta, early in 
1878, he was detained there nearly twelve months to help in the 
Old Church and the College. At last, in January, 1879, he was 
able to proceed to Mandla, the new station which was to be the Ne 
headquarters of the Gond Mission. 

For five years Mr. Williamson " ceased not to teach and preach 
Jesus Christ " in the villages scattered among the hills and forests 
accessible from Mandla; travelling often without tents, and sleep 
ing in Gond huts, on purpose to get nearer to the people. Mr. 
Champion, being partly released from Jabalpur by a new arrival, 
was with him for a short time; but his health broke down, and he 
retired to Australia. The first-fruits of the Mission were reaped 
in 1884 ; but this is beyond the limits of our present period, and 
must be left for a future chapter. 

In 1881, General Haig the Captain Haig before mentioned, General 
who was now r in England, volunteered to go out and take charge w Jrks 
of the Godavari Mission during Mr. Cain s furlough. In the mean- 5Jj? S sion 
while, as mentioned in the preceding chapter, Mr. Cain, having 
married Miss Davies of Melbourne, went with her to Australia, and 
was instrumental there in extending and deepening the interest 
of many Christian people in the India Missions. General Haig 
stayed in the country a year and a half, and his counsel and 
support were greatly valued by Eazu, who, in Cain s absence, was 
the only missionary at Dummagudem. He found that the Kois 
continued very timid, and unwilling to embrace the Gospel, and 
that many of those who had been baptized were not proving 
satisfactory. The motto of the Mission, wrote the General, was 
" To the Koi first, and also to the Mala ;" but the Mala, like the 
Gentile of old, had been more ready to receive Christ, and the Koi, 
like the Jew, had been offended thereby. In fact the Kois, 
barbarous people as they were, looked down upon the Malas, 
very much as the Jews looked down upon the Gentiles; and it was 
with difficulty that Haig persuaded the proud savages w 7 ho had 
become Christians to worship with the Mala peasants or kneel 
with them at the Lord s Table. The General formed plans for the 
extension of the Mission northwards, into the Native State of 
Bustar; and for this purpose he asked the Native Church of 
Tinnevelly, through Bishop Sargent, to send Tamil evangelists. Tamil 

mi IT i w e f ^ j.i u evangelists 

Ihis would be in enect a foreign mission for them, as they would in a new 
have to learn a new language. Three men were sent, and the countr y- 
Tinnevelly Christians undertook to support them. Such a plan 
was a delightful development of Native Christianity; but it has 
to be acknowledged that the zealous spirit aroused at first did not 
last, and that after a year or two the scheme fell through. It is, 
however, interesting to observe that a Tamil clergyman, the Rev. 
Samuel Vores, did labour for some years in the Telugu Mission, 
though not on the Godavari or among the Kois. 

o 2 



Chap. 79. 



steth s 

C. S. 

essays to 
begin the 

Its unique 

We have now to turn our attention to one more of the Kolarian 
Hill Tribes the Bheels or Bhils,* of whom there are some three 
millions in the north of the Bombay Presidency and in Eajputana. 
A wonderful work in taming them and winning their confidence, 
and turning some of them into useful soldiers, had been done by Sir 
James Outram in 1828-38 ; but they were very widely scattered, 
and the greater part of them had never heard the Gospel. They 
were much upon the heart of the Eev. E. H. Bickersteth, one of 
whose daughters was married to a British officer stationed at 
Kherwara in Rajputana ; and in 1878 he wrote to the Guardian 
and Record appealing for a missionary to go there and work among 
the Bheels, and offering to raise the necessary funds. To this 
there was no response; but in 1880, when the C.M.S. was keeping 
back all its men who were ready to go out, in pursuance of the 
policy of retrenchment, he came forward and offered the Society 
1000 if one of the men were sent that year to Kherwara. This 
generous proposal was thankfully accepted, and one of the waiting 
men, C. S. Thompson, was designated to the work. 

It was easy to reach Kherwara; but to reach the Bheels was a 
totally different thing. The timid and suspicious highlanders 
doubted which of two things Thompson had come for to kill 
them or to levy fresh taxes ; and the Census taken in the very year 
he arrived added to their fears. Let us read his own account of 
his early difficulties. It is curious indeed: 

" Things being so, when I visited the chiefs I hardly dared to speak 
upon any topic whatever. If I inquired about the family, then how 
very naturally might they have looked upon me as another enumerator. 
If I spoke about their cattle, fields, or crops, then the tax question 
might have disturbed their minds. To talk about God, I knew that with 
them, as with others, nothing could so readily or so strongly call forth 
their highest fears. There was, moreover, another obstacle to be over 
come. I had hoped to have relieved sufferers, and to have gained a 
hearing by treating their sick. I found, however, that they were full of 
fear on this head also. A doctor, who had but just left Khairwara 
before my arrival, had succeeded, by paying premiums, in getting several 
Bheels into hospital to be operated upon. They have now a wholesome 
dread of the knife. The consequence is that, although there are 
hundreds of sufferers lying in the pals, it is a very rare thing indeed to 
see a Bheel man, woman, or child, near the dispensary. Of course they 
looked with suspicion upon me. When I made my appearance in their 
midst, they, in great fear, I am now told, asked one another, l Who is 
he ? What does he want ? What will he do ? Has he come to kill us ? 

" When we began our visits it was almost next to impossible to get near 
the people, fear filled their minds. If we met any one, or passed a hut, 
I endeavoured to be as free and look as unconcerned as possible about 
things in general. Long before we got anywhere near them, the children 
ran off to their homes as fast as their legs could carry them. Men and 
women, peeping round corners, or over the enclosures surrounding their 
houses, might be seen watching us in all directions. 

* A g ood recent account of tho Bheels, by the Rev. T. A. Gurney, 
appeared in the C.M. Intelligencer of August, 1892. 


upon spendi 
instead of going from place to pi a 

"Then we decided upon spending a week or so in one pal (village) PART VIII. 
place to place. It soon became evident that our 1873-82. 

new plan was going to work admirably. In the evening we returned Chap. 79. 
home. On the Tuesday we had 15 visits for medicine or treatment; on 
the Wednesday, 30; on Thursday, 45; on Friday, 59; and on Saturday, theBheSs. 
58 ; total, !207. Among the number was the yammaiti (head-man) of the 
pal. On the Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday we held little meetings 
to make known the Saviour. We did not think it advisable to say too 
much in this way on our first prolonged visit. The great magnet for 
drawing the sinner is love. We wished, one day, to tell the poor souls 
around us how much God loved them. To our surprise we found that 
they had no word for love. The nearest is * haw a word used by the 
people when they meet one another, as haw bo = how are (you)." 

Patiently, cautiously, prayerfully, Mr. Thompson went on, and 
at the end of 1882 he* was able to report that theBheels had " lost 
their fears and suspicions " ; that a great number of patients had 
been successfully treated at his little dispensary ; and that a few 
lads had been brought in to Kherwara for school-teaching. Mr. 
Parker, the Calcutta Secretary, having visited the infant Mission 
and reported very favourably upon its prospects, Mr. Bickersteth 
gave the Society another 1000, with a view to a second missionary 
being sent. 

At this point, being at the end of our period, we must pause, 
thanking God for putting it into the hearts of His servants, 
Droese, and Puxley, and Storrs, and Shackell, and Muir, and 
Cotton, and Haig, and McLeod, and Outram, and Bickersteth, to 
care for the long-neglected Hill Tribes of India. Many of these 
wild people are already safe in the heavenly fold. Will not their 
song in eternity be, " Who remembered us in our low estate, for 
His mercy endureth for ever " ? 



Church Problems in new Fields The Episcopate in India Consecra 
tion of Churches Licensing of Laymen The Ceylon Controversy 
Bishops Copleston and Mylne The Position in Ceylon The 
Tamil Coolie Mission Missionaries Licenses withdrawn C.M.S. 
Protest Resolutions of the Indian Bishops C.M.S. Memorandum 
Alteration in C.M.S. Laws Lambeth Conference Renewal of 
the Controversy Opinion of the Five Prelates Final Arrange 

Chnp. 80. 

in new 

of opinion 

" No small dissension and disputation. . . . And the apostles and elders come 
together for to consider of this matter. . . . When they had gathered the multitude 
together, they delivered the epistle : which when they had read, they rejoiced for 
the consolation." Acts xv. 2, 6, 30, 31. 

T is not surprising that when an old historic Established 
Church began to extend its borders to distant lands in 
totally different circumstances, perplexing problems 
should have arisen. Indeed such problems have arisen 
at home whenever any new and vigorous movement has 
arisen in the Church. How to deal with the Methodist Eevival 
was a hard question for the bishops of the eighteenth century. 
What to do with the Tractarians was not less perplexing in the 
earlier years of Queen Victoria. But if new movements involve 
difficulties at home, where there is at least some law and a large 
amount of recognized usage, what can we expect when the Church 
is planted abroad, whether it be in Colonies like Canada and the 
Cape, or in foreign countries like China and Japan, or, above all, 
in India, where some of the bishops and many of the clergy are 
practically State officers? And obviously these difficulties must be 
greatly complicated when evangelistic work among the Heathen, 
and the pastoral guidance of infant Native Churches, are going 
on side by side with ordinary ministrations for British settlers or 
British troops. It is no discredit to the Church of England that 
the novel problems that have to be faced cause grave differences 
of opinion among Churchmen. Bather should the gracious provi 
dence of God be acknowledged, which has shown a path through 
so many tangles, and prospered, upon the whole, the Church s 
work in all parts of the world. 

In previous chapters we have seen some of these difficulties 
and differences, especially touching India in the Twenty-seventh, 


Thirty-third, and Fifty-fifth Chapters, touching New Zealand in PART VI ri. 
the Nineteenth and Thirty-eighth, touching China in the Sixty- -82. 

fourth; and some controversies on the subject at home were 
noticed in the Thirty-third and Fifty-second. It is necessary now 
to devote a chapter to certain ecclesiastical questions which arose 
in India in the sixties and seventies, and more particularly to the 
important Ceylon Controversy of 1876-80. 

I. The most important of the Indian questions was the ex- $ 
tension of the Episcopate. It will be remembered that Bishop the exten- 
Wilberforce, after the Indian Mutiny, had promoted a plan for p? s o pat e e 
sending a missionary bishop to Tinnevelly, not with an indepen- in India, 
dent territorial diocese, but simply as an episcopal superintendent 
of Missions within the Diocese of Madras ; * and to this the 
C.M.S. objected, (1) because such a bishop would have no defined C; c ? ed 
powers, (2) because he would be intruding into an existing diocese, to purely 
(3) because he would have no endowment, and would be depen- ggJESS?* 
dent upon home societies for his stipend,! (4) because for 
Tinnevelly a Native bishop ought very soon to be appointed. 
The scheme came to nothing ; but the subject was again dis 
cussed in 1864-5, when Bishop Cotton expressed very similar 
opinions, objecting to missionary bishops in the midst of existing 
dioceses, and with jurisdiction limited to Native Christians, and 
holding that such a plan was " opposed to ancient precedent, and 
fraught with practical evils of a serious character : 

" It would divide the Indian Church into two separate portions, and Should^ 
introduce into it distinctions of race scarcely less fatal than those of one church 
caste, from which native believers are with difficulty delivered. There or two ? 
is already too little connexion between Asiatic and European Christians, 
too little sympathy between the missionaries and the ministers of 
English congregations." 

"This sensible judgment," said the Christian Observer, I in 
which Henry Venn had much influence, though he was not yet 
editor, " shows how watchfully we ought to guard against being 
led away by hot and impetuous but ill-informed advocates of 
theories, or, as they may call them, principles, avowedly for the 
furtherance of the Gospel, but possibly for its hindrance." 

Cotton suggested, as a provisional arrangement, that the ^P, S 
existing bishops in India should have power to appoint suffragans, p^g.^ 
either European or Native, who should undertake such episcopal bishops . 
work as the diocesan bishops should allot to them. In this way 
a Native bishop might be practically given to the Native Chris 
tians, without any formal separation of them, for the present, 
from the English bishop and clergy. Such Native bishops to be 
paid in the first instance by C.M.S., or S.P.G., or C.M.S. am 

* See Chapter XXXIII. 

| This was really a ground of objection, strange as it may s 
Vol. II., p. 14. 

J Christian Observer, June, 1865, p. 436. 

Memoir of Bishop Cotton, p. 503 ; C.M.S. Report, 1865, p. 142. 



PA ^_ T Vln . S.P.G. combined. To this proposal the Society agreed in sub- 
Chap 80 stance > as bein g provisional, it would not necessarily put aside a 

. - permanent plan, when the proper time came, for independent 

Native bishops supported by the Native Church. Cotton s 
lamented death, however, suspended the project. 

ia r n g u es of We a g ain notice here how curiously the positions were after- 
linionon wards reversed, the C.M.S. or at least some of its leaders 
s - advocating the entire separation of the English and Native races 
in two Churches, with mutually independent bishops for different 
races or languages within the same area, and seeing no difficulty 
in bishops being supported by societies ; while High Churchmen 
vehemently espoused the views formerly urged by the C.M.S, 
against Bishop Wilberforce. That such changes of view should 
be found on both sides illustrates most significantly the extreme 
difficulty of all these novel problems. 

Bishop Milman succeeded Bishop Cotton, and he, in his second 
miiman-s char g e in 187 1> usecl language almost identical with that frequently 
language used by the C.M.S. : 

like that of 

C.M.S. "Where it is not probable that our countrymen will settle and make 

a home, and originate a nation, the establishment or increase of the 
Episcopate appears a different question [i.e. different from the Colonies], 
and its expediency must be determined on different grounds. If you 
contemplate a Native Church for the future, it seems to me that yon 
must keep your foreign machinery within the limits of present utility 
or necessity. You should look to the Native population and Church to 
supply its Ministry and the various orders of that Ministry." * 

One of the most serious obstacles to an increase of the Indian 
Episcopate in any form was the fact that the existing dioceses of 
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay had been established by Acts of 
Parliament, and those Acts could only be amended by Parlia 
ment ; while to carry any Bill on such a subject through the 
House of Commons seemed hopeless. At length, in 1873, certain 
eminent counsel gave the opinion that " episcopal commissaries " 
might be lawfully consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury 
?ssTst f an r t t0 SCrve Under the Indian bishops ; and accordingly a modification 
Society of Bishop Cotton s plan was agreed upon between the CMS 
bishops, the S.P.G., Bishop Gell of Madras, and Archbishop Tait. Two 
experienced missionaries of the C.M.S. and S.P.G. were to be 
consecrated as assistants to the Bishop of Madras, who should, 
under his direction, have the immediate care of the C.M.S. and 
S.P.G. congregations in Tinnevelly respectively; each society 
providing the stipend for its own bishop-missionary. The C.M.S. 
in particular warmly promoted this scheme, notwithstanding its 
inconsistency with the principles formerly enunciated by the 
Society. The practical gain of getting a C.M.S. missionary as 
bishop over a C.M.S. Mission was held to outweigh theoretical 
objections. But Bishop Milman was strongly opposed to the 
new scheme, and this led to four years delay in carrying it out. 

* Memoir of Bishop Milman, p. 1G2. 


In 1874, when a new Colonial Clergy Act w T as held to make it PART Till. 

lawful for Suffragan Bishops to lie consecrated in India, by the p? ~*j?C 

Indian hishops themselves, he gave way, and consented to join in 

the consecration of two missionaries, as proposed hy Bishop Gell. The plan 

Further delays arose, however, and in 1875 Bishop Milman died. 

At last, in 1877, Dr. Caldwell of the S.P.G. and Dr. Sargent of 

the C.M.S. were consecrated at Calcutta, as we have before seen, 

as Assistant Bishops to the Bishop of Madras. 

Meanwhile, the Church Missionary Society was moving the 
Archbishop and the India Office to promote the appointment of 
Missionary Suffragans for the Punjab and Travancore. But this 
was soon rendered unnecessary by further developments. In 
1876, plans were already on foot to establish a new territorial 
bishopric of Lahore, as a memorial to Bishop Milman ; and at the of Lahore 
same time the Diocese cf Winchester determined to make a 
special effort to raise an endowment for a bishopric of Eangooii 
of which fund the Eev. F. E. Wigram (afterwards C.M.S. 
Secretary) was Hon. Secretary. To both funds the S.P.C.K., 
the S.P.G., and the Colonial Bishoprics Fund, also contributed 
handsomely. It had been pointed out that the old dioceses of 
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, though they could not be sub 
divided without an Act of Parliament, yet, as originally formed 
by Act of Parliament, only comprised the territories actually 
belonging to British India at the time ; and therefore that other 
territories since annexed, though treated conventionally as parts 
of those dioceses, were not technically so, and consequently could 
be dealt with without an Act of Parliament. Now the Punjab 
and Burmah were annexations since the formation of the Diocese 
of Calcutta, and therefore not covered by the Act ; so it proved 
quite easy, after all, for the new dioceses of Lahore and Eangoon 
to be constituted ; and on December 21st, 1877, Bishops French 
and Titcomb were consecrated. Travancore was different. Being and 
a protected Native State, it is not technically in the Queen s 
dominions at all ; so a missionary bishopric was formed under the 
Jerusalem Act, and Mr. Speedily became the first bishop in 1879. 
Later developments will be noticed hereafter. 

II. Another question that caused some controversy was that of f u t e h s e tion 
the consecration of churches. Consecration is a legal act, in- consecra 
volving legal consequences ; and in the transition state of the 
Church in the Mission-field, the C.M.S. Committee, acting under 
very decided legal advice, have generally deprecated the Society s 
churches being regularly consecrated. The great majority of them 
are very simple buildings, which it is always possible to take down 
and put up again at a more convenient place and this the legal 
ceremony would prevent. Moreover it is hoped that those which 
are of a more permanent character will one day be handed over to 
properly-organized Native Churches ; and it is at least conceivable 
that some difficulty might arise in transferring them, if they had 
been set apart for the service of the Church of England for ever. 


PART VIII. It might be contended, for instance, that the Church of Japan is 

1873-82. not the Church of England, and that buildings formally conse- 

p " crated for the one could not legally be transferred to the other. 

At the same time, the Society has always desired that a building 

for divine worship should be solemnly dedicated to God. The 

bishops in India, therefore, agreed, at the Society s suggestion, to 

A dedica- hold a simple dedication service, not accompanied by such a 

Sjbsti 1 " ceremony as would imply legal consecration ; and this method 

tuted. o f meeting the difficulty was formally approved by them at an 

Episcopal Conference held at Calcutta in 1877 of which more 


Question of III. Another question was that of the licensing of laymen by 
\Fcenses 1 tne bishops to perform divine service, &c. In 1872, Bishop 
foriaymen. Milman instituted two lay orders, of readers and sub-deacons, the 
former to conduct services and expound the Scriptures in the 
absence of the clergyman ; the latter, in addition to this, to ad 
minister the cup in the Holy Communion, to prepare candidates 
for confirmation, and to baptize and bury in certain circumstances. 
The question was raised whether some of the Society s Native 
catechists should not be admitted to one or other of these orders. 
The Committee declined to allow this, on the ground (1) that 
objections such orders were not known in the Church of England, (2) that 
to them. an y new arran g emen ts of the kind should be left to the Native 
Church of the future to make, (3) that meanwhile it was better 
for a lay body like the C.M.S. to employ its lay agents without 
their having ecclesiastical status apart from the clerical missionary 
by whom they were superintended, and who was responsible to 
the bishop. Of course, in the Mission-field, lay catechists are of 
necessity continually conducting services, but always under the 
superintendence of a clergyman. Mr. Venn s papers on this 
subject reveal the same fear of innovations as in the case of the 
Mildmay and other deaconesses/ 1 The grounds of objection are, 
of course, different, but the spirit of them is the same. We have 
Advan- since learned to see that a layman loses nothing, and may gain 
thlm? much, by having an episcopal commission to do what, no doubt, 
he can legally do without it. A bishop cannot make a thing legal 
which in itself is illegal ; but when a thing is not illegal, his 
official sanction may, and does, help to make it acceptable. But 
more than twenty years elapsed before the C.M.S. formally 
recognized the advantage of lay ministrations in India being 
episcopally authorized. Meanwhile, however, a system was 
agreed to in Ceylon which partly conceded the principle. Such 
Native lay agents as were not merely evangelists to the Heathen, 
but virtually in charge of small village congregations, were called 
" pastoral catechists," and it was arranged that a certain authori 
zation of their work should be given by the bishop through the 
superintending missionary. 

* See Vol. II., p. 356. 


IV. We must now turn to the great Ceylon Controversy. In PART VIII. 
doing so, let us review the main facts simply as history, seeking 1873-82. 
to state them with strict fairness, and avoiding every word that Cha P- 80 - 
might tend to revive feelings long since put aside. Few bishops The 
in any part of the world have proved more cordial fellow-workers e j lon 
with C.M.S. missionaries than the Bishop of Colombo. Of few versy. " 
have more grateful accounts come of visits paid to stations, 
and kindness at all times manifested. We could not, if we would, 
resume now the attitude of earnest and sorrowful antagonism 
which the Society had to take up twenty-two years ago ; and we 
would not if we could. But the main facts necessarily claim the 
space of a few pages in this History. 

Ceylon had had three bishops since the Diocese of Colombo 
was established in 1845. Bishop Chapman had served sixteen 
years, 1845-61 ; Bishop Piers Claughton, eight years, 1862-70 ; 
Bishop Jermyn, whose health quickly failed, three years, 1871-74. 
In 1875, the Eev. R. S. Copleston, an Oxford Tutor of high reputa- Bishop 
tion, was appointed to the vacant bishopric by Lord Carnarvon, op ei 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies. In the following year, 
the Rev. L. G. Mylne was appointed Bishop of Bombay by Lord 
Salisbury, then Secretary of State for India. The two Bishops 
were personal friends, and were understood to represent the 
ardour and the culture of the younger High Church party. 
Both were invited by the C.M.S. Committee to Salisbury Square, 
according to the regular custom in the case of new bishops pro 
ceeding to dioceses in which the Society works. Bishop Copleston 
came to the meeting of the General Committee on December 13th, 
1875, and spoke with much cordiality ; and he was addressed on 
the Committee s behalf by Lord Lawrence ; but by some over 
sight there was no special prayer, as is usual. Bishop Mylne 
came on June 6th, 1876, and also spoke cordially. He was 
addressed by Mr. Alexander Beattie in a short speech which can 
never be forgotten by those who heard it. The combination of 
an old man s kindly counsel to a young man with a layman s 
respectful attitude towards a bishop was very striking. Mr. 
Auriol then commended the Bishop to God in prayer, and the 
Bishop (without previous arrangement) followed with another 
extempore prayer ; and altogether there was a spiritual warmth 
in the meeting which somehow had not been apparent when 
Bishop Copleston was received. The incident is mentioned here 
because it was recalled afterwards by Bishop Mylne, as we shall 

When Bishop Copleston landed in Ceylon, in February, 1876, 
he found two classes of clergy, (1) missionaries to the Singhalese 
or Tamils, belonging either to the S.P.G. or to the C.M.S. ; in Ceylon. 
(2) " chaplains," as they were called, for the English residents. 
They were not, however, all Government chaplains in the same 
sense as in India ; many were for English planters, &c., especially 
in the coffee districts in the hill country. Now the Bishop was 



Chap. 80. 


Bishop s 

plans for 





of the plan. 

Youth of 

Views of 


himself a, missionary at heart, and was already learning Singha 
lese ; and there is now no greater living authority on Buddhism 
than Dr. Copleston. It was his natural desire, therefore, that those 
of his clergy who were primarily " chaplains " should also he mis 
sionaries as far as possible ; that is, they should learn a vernacu 
lar and try to reach the Heathen in their respective districts. 
But then there were already missionaries, and Native agents 
under the missionaries, seeking the Heathen in these very 
districts: what would be their relation to the new " chaplain- 
missionaries "? The Bishop purposed to regard the latter as 
quasi-rectors, having rights within the areas of their districts 
more or less similar to those of a rector in England only that 
the districts were ten or twenty times larger than English 
parishes; while the "itinerant clergy," i.e. the missionaries, 
working in those areas, would respect their rights, not by subordi 
nating all their work to them the Bishop did not mean that, 
but by keeping them informed of what was being done, and 
refraining from any action, such as preaching or opening a school, 
which might seem to interfere with similar work under the 
" rector." 

Now, whatever might be thought of this scheme in principle, 
there were at least three difficulties in the hill-country of Ceylon. 
(1) The "chaplains" were many of them young men, and the 
Bishop was seeking to obtain more such from England; and 
scarcely any of them knew anything as yet of a native language ; 
while some of the missionaries were veterans of many years 
standing. So the scheme looked to the missionaries almost as 
incongruous as if in an English parish a rector and a curate were 
made to change places. (2) Some at least of the " chaplains " 
had brought from England views and practices of a more advanced 
type than Ceylon was accustomed to ; and there was unquestionably 
a prejudice among many of the Singhalese and Tamil Christians 
against crosses, and flowers, and painted windows with figures in 
them. We in England know well that these things are innocent 
enough in themselves, and are a result of the general growth of 
aesthetic feeling, without the smallest idolatrous intent ; but it 
cannot be denied that some in Ceylon regarded them much more 
seriously. It is a curious illustration of the feeling that prevailed, 
that when, a year or two later, some friends of the C.M.S. wished 
to put a stained-glass window in the Society s church at Colombo, 
not with figures, but only with a geometrical pattern, it was strongly 
objected to in the Island as "the thin end of the wedge." It 
was natural, therefore, that the missionaries should object to any 
scheme that put them, even in a small degree, in the power of the 
" chaplains." Then (3), there was the inter-denominational com 
mittee of the Tamil Coolie Mission. 

The origin of the Tamil Coolie Mission was stated in our 
Forty-eighth Chapter. The planters had formed a committee, 
and raised funds for the support of catechists and schools for their 


coolies. Many of them were Scotch Presbyterians and others PART VIII. 
were English Nonconformists ; but in order that the Mission 
might be one throughout the coffee districts, they committed the 
charge of it to the Church Missionary Society, and the Society 
provided the superintending missionary clergy, two or three 
English and two Tamil. The Mission was conducted entirely on 
Church of England lines. The services were Church services ; 
the Sacraments were administered according to the Anglican use ; 
the children of Christians were baptized, and in due course 
presented for confirmation. But of course the teaching was 
Evangelical ; no other would have commanded the confidence of 
the mixed committee of planters and received their support. Here 
was another reason against the Bishop s plan ; while at the same 
time it was to him rather a reason why he should push his plan 
on, because he doubted the bond fide Church character of a 
Mission for which, in a sense, an inter-denominational local 
committee were responsible. 

It was in this Mission that the difficulties began. Most of the 
services for the coolies on the estates were held in coffee-stores, 
or in schoolrooms at the centres where schools had been opened. 
But in a few places, generally in little towns, there were small 
churches with "chaplains " in charge, and these were ordinarily 
lent to the Mission at certain hours for Tamil services. In some 
of these, new ornaments began to appear ; and in at least two 
cases the chaplains began to make objections to the catechists 
coming into their districts without leave. Whereupon, in June, 
1876, the Eev. W. Clark, the senior C.M.S. missionary in charge The^ 
of the Tamil Coolie Mission, sent a general instruction to the ai Jd M P r. 
catechists to assemble their little congregations only in buildings clark - 
belonging to the Mission or the planters, and not in the chaplains 
churches. The Bishop, disapproving of this as a breach of Church 
unity, called upon Mr. Clark to explain, and also wrote to one of the 
catechists direct, instructing him to resume the service previously 
held in a particular church. Mr. Clark protested against the 
Bishop s action, and gave a counter order to the catechist. His 
position was (1) that he had a right to arrange at his discretion 
regarding the buildings in which the coolie services should be 
held, (2) that the Bishop had no direct authority over the catechist, 
but only through him as the superintending clergyman. 

There had already been a good deal of anxiety among the 
missionaries as to what the Bishop was doing and going to 
do, and also among such of the planters and other English 
residents in the Island as were warm supporters of the 
C.M.S. Missions. Unfortunately the leading English news- ylon 
paper at Colombo was in the hands of a gentleman who was observer." 
not only a good man and a great friend of the missionaries, 
but also a strong Dissenter ; and this paper was keenly ready to 
throw stones at the Bishop and his chaplains. Nothing does more 
harm to the Evangelical cause anywhere than newspapers that 



Chap. 80. 

The Cotta 

of the 


Bishop s 
belief of its 

Appeal to 
the Metro 


letters to 

champion it in a partisan spirit. Evangelicalism in England has 
had to suffer in this way ; and certainly it suffered in Ceylon. 
Not that the paper in question did anything improper or 
unnatural from the point of view of a party newspaper ; but 
the cause of Truth is not really helped by caustic leading articles. 

In July, the missionaries were assembled at Cotta for their half- 
yearly Conference ; and the Bishop came over from Colombo to 
meet them. He desired that they should dissociate themselves 
from Mr. Clark s action, at the same time stating that he could 
not permit the Tamil Coolie Mission to be carried on for the future 
under the control (in a sense) of a mixed Committee, and was 
about to take steps to work it under his own direction. Upon the 
missionaries declining to separate themselves from Mr. Clark, and 
on the contrary justifying his action, the Bishop then and there 
handed them a document withdrawing their licenses. To him the 
unity of the Church, its just order and discipline, the rightful 
authority of the Bishop, the due recognition of his ultimate 
responsibility for all Church work in the diocese, seemed to be at 
stake ; and his plain duty seemed to him to be to grasp the nettle 
firmly, and put things right once for all. There was no personal 
feeling : both then and afterwards he acknowledged the respectful 
courtesy of the missionaries, and spoke kindly and appreciatively 
of their work. But that strong and decisive attitude which all 
parties in turn expect the bishops to take only not against them 
selveshe honestly took in what he fully believed to be the true 
interests of the Church. Moreover, he at once sent a circular 
letter to all subscribers to the Tamil Coolie Mission, informing 
them that he had taken it into his own hands, that the Archdeacon 
(Mr. Matthew, of Kandy) would " henceforth be the centre and 
acting head of the Tamil as well as the English work throughout 
the coffee districts," and that " the Chaplains in each district, 
aided by Native clergy and catechists their Tamil curates " 
would " conduct and supervise it on the spot." 

The missionaries whose licenses were withdrawn now appealed 
to the Metropolitan, who at that time, the see of Calcutta being 
vacant by Bishop Milman s death, was Bishop Gell of Madras. 
But before their appeal reached him he had written to the Bishop 
of Colombo, in reply to a letter from him, counselling him to restore 
the licenses ; and this Bishop Copleston instantly did, excepting 
in the case of Mr. Clark. So the Ceylon Mission, or at least the 
greater part of it, went on provisionally as before. 

Meanwhile the Bishop wrote to Mr. Fenn and to the C.M.S. 
Committee, stating what he had done, expressing sincere regret 
for the necessity of it, and asking them to acknowledge his 
ultimate authority, to make such new arrangements for the Tamil 
Coolie Mission as would warrant him in restoring it to the 
Society," and to recall Mr. Clark. The Bishop of Bombay also, 
having heard all about the affair, wrote to the Society, saying that 
"the fragrant memory of the single half-hour" which he had 


spent in the Committee-room encouraged him to think that a com- PART VIII. 
munication from him would be received, "not only with the 18 ^ s ^- 
consideration which his office would suggest, but with something Cha P- 80 - 
of personal kindness." It was a truly beautiful and Christian 
letter, supporting the Bishop of Colombo s principles, and (as he 
said) " lovingly and sympathetically" entreating the Society not 
to imperil its relations with other bishops by its answer to him. 
Although this and the former reference to Bishop Mylne are only 
incidentally relevant to the subject of this chapter, his letter made 
so deep an impression upon the Committee that the two inci 
dents cannot be omitted. 

Naturally the excitement in England was very great. On one Excite- 
side there were loud and intemperate denunciations of a band of EngiVnd. 
" Low Church " missionaries who had defied their bishop, and 
who were in league with a number of Dissenting planters to resist 
his authority. On. the other hand, there were equally loud and 
equally intemperate denunciations of the "ritualistic boy-bishop" 
who had trampled upon men old enough to be his father ; Dr. 
Copleston s age being constantly referred to ad invidiam. But 
when the General Committee met in October to consider the 
whole question, nothing could exceed the gravity and restraint Attitude of 
with which it was discussed. Bishop Perry, Canon Hoare, and cwnmittee 
Dr. Boultbee had all come with strings of resolutions ready to 
propose ; and all three proposals were so highly approved that it 
was agreed to amalgamate them, fit them together, and reconsider 
them next day ; which was done, and they were duly sent to 
Ceylon. The resolutions defended the Tamil Coolie Mission, Resoiu- 
disputed the right of the chaplains to interfere with it, denied that committee 
the Bishop s claims were in conformity with the laws and practice 
of the Church of England, and declined to recall Mr. Clark pending 
his appeal to the Metropolitan. On more general matters the 
resolutions were as follows : 

" 1 . That the Church Missionary Society has never asserted for itself 
any independence inconsistent with its character as a Church of England 
Society, nor ever claimed for its missionaries any exemption from the 
rightful jurisdiction of the bishops of the several dioceses in which they 
are located. 

" 2. That when a Mission has been established by the Society, and the 
ordained missionaries attached to it have been duly licensed by the 
Bishop of the diocese, the Society is entitled to expect of every 
succeeding Bishop that he will not withdraw the license from any such 
missionary, except for some sufficient and duly-assigned legal cause ; nor 
can it be admitted that the Bishop has authority to assume to himself 
the management of such Mission, or of any part of it, or to transfer the 
charge of it, without the consent of the Society, to any clergyman of his 
own appointment. 

" 3. That with regard to the authority of a Bishop over clergymen, 
lay agents, and congregations, when claimed as a matter of right, the 
extent and the manner of its exercise must he determined in conformity 
with the laws and established practice of the Church of England, and not 
by the conception of that authority which an individual Bishop may form." 



proval and 

PART VIII. The attitude assumed by the Committee was much disapproved 
1873-82. a (j home by not a few of the moderate clergy who support both 
Chap. 80. the two g rea t missionary societies "; and some withdrew their 
subscriptions and church collections. On the other hand, the 
more decided friends of the Society enthusiastically endorsed the 
Committee s action ; and they were greatly pleased when Bishop 
Baring of Durham, in the course of the great sermon preached by 
him at St. Bride s at the next Anniversary, condemned Bishop 
Copleston in strong terms, and warmly commended the Ceylon 

But the area of the dispute now widened. In March, 1877, the 

Resoiu- four bishops of the Ecclesiastical Province of India and Ceylon, 

indTan f the viz., the new Bishop of Calcutta, Dr. Johnson, and Bishops Cell 

bishops. o f Madras, Mylne of Bombay, and Copleston of Colombo, met at 

Calcutta, and passed a series of resolutions. The most important 

of these were as follows : 

" That the Bishop of every diocese is in the last resort responsible for 
all teaching given and all work done within his diocese in the name and 
under the authority of the Church. 

" That in accordance with this principle every appointment to the 
discharge of spiritual functions in the Church ought to be made with 
due recognition of the ultimate right of the Bishop to be consulted on 
such appointment, and to exercise a veto upon the same. 

" That it follows from the same principle that like recognition ought 
to be accorded to the ultimate right of the Bishop to be consulted with 
regard to any change in the management, order of service, or place of 
worship, of any congregation." 

There were also resolutions virtually confirming the arrange 
ment before referred to for the dedication of churches, affirming 
the need for synodical action, and suggesting a new method of 
appeal by a clergyman from the decision of his bishop. 

These resolutions were sent officially to the Society by the 
Bishop of Calcutta ; and after long and careful deliberation the 
Committee adopted an important Memorandum regarding them. 
Here let it be remarked that statements put forth by the Society 
on subjects of this kind are not as is sometimes supposed the 
work of "pious but uninstructed half -pay officers." The men 
who led the Committee throughout these controversies were 
experienced clergymen like Bishop Perry, Canons Hoare and 
Money, Dr. Boultbee, Mr. Billing, Mr. Barlow, and members of 
both branches of the legal profession interested in Church 
questions, like Mr. Gedge and Mr. P. V. Smith ; while the heavy 
and often difficult correspondence involved was conducted b 
Mr. Wright and Mr. Fenn. The Memorandum, finally adopte 
on June 27th, 1877,* laid down four principles, viz., (1) that 
individual Churchmen have a right to combine to carry on 
missionary work, and " to control, within proper limits, the 

* Printed with the Calcutta Resolutions as Appendix IT. in the C.M.S. 
Report of 1877. 




By whom 

laid down. 


organizations created by them"; (2) that the work carried on PART VIII 
with a Society s funds cannot be controlled by a diocesan 1873-82. 
organization ; (3) that a bishop appointed by Letters Patent, with Cha P- 8a 
legally-defined powers, is in a different position from a missionary 
bishop with undefined authority ; (4) that ecclesiastical arran^e- 
ments for Native Christians in countries like India and China, 
where they will be the majority, must differ from the arrange 
ments in Colonies like Canada and New Zealand, where the 
Natives, being a small minority, are naturally absorbed into the 
Colonial Church. The Memorandum proceeded to apply these Appiica- 
principles to the Calcutta Eesolutions. The "ultimate rights " *\ ies 
of a bishop would depend upon which class of bishop he belonged ? 
to; and a bishop without legally defined and limited powers, 
but identified with a particular Mission, might, by arrangement, 
be accorded more authority in details than could be claimed by a 
regular constitutional bishop. Accordingly the Memorandum 
urged the expediency of appointing more missionary bishops, 
for the Native Christian communities only, independently of the 
regular diocesan divisions. At the same time, it recognized the 
propriety of any bishop having some voice regarding both lay 
agents and buildings for worship. We observe how completely 
the Society had changed its mind about missionary bishops since Change or 
the days when Venn opposed Bishop Wilberforce.* The fact was c ^ s 
that the cases of Bishop Crowther and Bishop Eussell of China, ] 
and of the Bishops connected with the Universities Mission, 
which the Memorandum cites, had shown that missionary 
bishops might be nominated by, and connected with, particular 
societies ; which made all the difference. 

Shortly after this, Bishop Copleston approached the Society 
with an offer to recognize the Tamil Coolie Mission as a C.M.S. Question 
Mission, provided the Committee would guarantee its Church of Cojit" 
England character. This guarantee the Committee at once gave, Mi t ff^ n 
though considering it needless; that is to say, they formally" 
stated that the T.C.M. was an integral part of the C.M.S. Ceylon 
Mission, and worked on the same principles as the rest of the 
Mission ; and that its agents, clerical and lay, stood in the same 
relation to the bishop as the agents elsewhere. But what that 
relation was had not yet been settled. Mr. Clark s license had Mr. Clark s 
not been restored ; and his appeal to the Metropolitan had failed, hcense 
because the Calcutta lawyers held that an appeal only lay against 
a decision by a formal court. Upon this the question arose 
whether the revocation of his license was not null and void, and 
some of the Society s legal members urged that Mr. Clark resume 
his work as if it had never been withdrawn. This, however, 
was happily not done ; and Mr. Clark returned to England. But 
many minor points of difference arose, and the strong " Ceylon 
Sub-Committee " were continually at work in Salisbury Square. 

* See p. 200 ; and Vol. II., pp. 13, 14. 
VOL. in. 




Chap. 80. 

Weary dis 

of the 
rights of 

The old 
"H. V." 
not satis 

Mr. Wright, after a long day of difficult discussion, would go 
home and sit up half the night composing a letter to the Bishop, 
or to Mr. Oakley (the veteran Secretary in Ceylon), or to the 
T.C.M. Committee, or to the Native Church Council, upon the 
lines settled during the day ; and next day the letter would be 
considered line by line in the Sub-Committee, and perhaps be 
materially altered. It was a wearying business indeed ; all the 
more so because there were some who wished to write much 
more incisively to the Bishop than others thought wise or 
Christian. Very remarkable throughout were the skill, the 
patience, and the gentleness of Henry Wright. 

The Committee were engaged also upon another important 
matter. It was felt that whether or no the Bishop had the 
inherent right to withdraw the licenses summarily as he had done, 
the Society had certainly recognized that right by its concordat 
with Bishop Daniel Wilson forty years before. In the famous 
" H. V." document,* which had ever since that time been 
printed in every Annual Eeport, it was definitely stated that the 
missionaries stood toward the Bishop "in the relation rather of 
stipendiary curates than of beneficed clergymen," and that the 

11 1 ~l//il P * J_l_ ~1_ 1 J] .! rt 1 T ^ ^ T--N n /- ^-it/-\-p TTTTJ-Tl f} Y0 TXT_ 

The docu 
ment with 

New Note 
to Law 

bishop had " the power of withholding a license, or of withdraw 
ing it, at his sole discretion, without assigning any cause." It 
was for this reason that in the Eesolutions of October, 1876, on 
the Bishop of Colombo s action and demands, there was no 
protest against his summary withdrawal of the licenses. The 
Committee, however, felt that something must be done to secure 
a better footing for the missionaries ; and after long deliberation, 
and full consultation with the Archbishop of Canterbury and 
Bishop of London (Tait and Jackson), it was determined to 
suppress the " H. V." document for the future, and to submit a 
modification of the Society s Laws to a General Meeting of 
Members. This Meeting was held on June 25th, 1878, and 
unanimously accepted the Committee s recommendation, which 
had previously received the approval of both Archbishops and 
the Bishop of London. The alteration made was in the Note 
to the 29th Law. I This Note had been a quotation from the 
" H. V." document, as follows : 

" The Bishops of the Church, under the authority of the law of the 
land, ordain and send forth [ecclesiastically speaking] our Missionaries : 
these Missionaries are licensed and superintended abroad, in every case 
where it is practicable, by Colonial Bishops of the Church of England ; 
as are other Clergymen of the Church officiating in the same Colony. . ." 

The new Note was not a quotation from elsewhere, but an 
independent statement, as follows : 

" The Bishops of the Church of England under the authority of the 
law of the land ordain and send forth [ecclesiastically speaking] the 
Society s Missionaries ; and in the event of their being appointed by 

* See Chapters XXYI. and XXVII. 

See Chapter XXVI. 


the Committee to labour at stations within the jurisdiction of a Bishop PART VIII. 
of the Church of England abroad, it is the practice of the Society to 1873-82. 
apply to the Bishop for licenses, in which are specified the districts to Chap. 80. 
which the Missionaries have been assigned. This is done on the under 
standing that licenses will neither be refused nor when granted be 
withdrawn from the Missionaries, during their connection with the 
Society, except for some assigned legal cause." 

Of course this Note to a Law does not of itself bind any of the 
Bishops j it only professes to describe " the practice of the 
Society." But its adoption by the Society, coupled with the 
withdrawal of the " H. V." document, amounted to a public 
notice that the Society no longer spontaneously gave to a bishop 
abroad authority over its missionaries beyond what he could 
rightly claim whether the Society conceded it or not whatever 
that might be. 

Just a week after this General Meeting of the Society, the 
Second Pan-Anglican Conference of Bishops met at Lambeth. Second 
As mentioned in our Sixty-ninth Chapter, a Committee of that cSS! th 
Conference considered and reported on the questions that had ence > l8 ? 8 - 
arisen in India and Ceylon ; and the Eeport was adopted by the 
Conference, and included in its official Letter. Owing, no doubt, 
to the fact that the C.M.S. at that time was not willing to accord 
any recognition to the utterances and decisions of the Bishops at 
Lambeth, that Eeport never received the attention which it in 
trinsically deserved. For it was, in the main, a striking endorse- Lambeth 
ment of the Society s views touching licenses as embodied in the SmSly 
above-mentioned Note. The Lambeth Conference considered | n ^ or | es 
that no license should be refused or withdrawn without the reasons view on 
being stated, or, in the case of withdrawal, without the missionary p^ s 
having opportunity to show cause against it; in either case, that 
there should be an appeal to the Metropolitan ; and, that " no 
such revocation should take place except for grave ecclesiastical 
offences"; and further, that "the Bishop would probably find it 
desirable, where the clergyman is connected with one of the great 
Missionary Societies, to communicate with the Society, or its 
local representatives, before taking steps for revocation of a 
license." ^ As regards lay agents, the Conference took the view, 
in the main, of the Indian Bishops, rather than that which the but not 
C.M.S. Committee had up to that time adopted. Laymen " em- JSfa. er 
ployed in more important spiritual functions should have the 
license or other express sanction of the Bishop," and " other 
laymen employed in missionary work should be considered to 
have the implied sanction of the Bishop, and should not continue 
to be so employed if the Bishop see fit, for a grave reason, to 
forbid them." As regards buildings for worship, " every place in 
which the Holy Communion is regularly celebrated should have 
the sanction of the Bishop." As regards " Subordinate, Co 
ordinate, or Suffragan Bishops," "to minister to Native con 
gregations within the limits of another Diocese," the Conference 

p 2 


PART VIII. took the older and not the newer view of the C.M.S., and 
1873-82. deprecated the proposal. 

Chap. 80. ^ tne Sheffield Church Congress that autumn, Archbishop 
Thomson of York announced with great satisfaction that the 
The con- deliberations of the Lambeth Conference had resulted in the 
Tuppoled settlement of the disputes between the Bishop of Colombo and 
tobe d the C. M.S. But unhappily this was not so, for the controversy 

immediately broke out again on different lines. 

But re- The Bishop summoned an informal Synod or Diocesan Con- 

question of ference. The missionaries, on receiving notice of it, and of the 
ritual at Bishop s Visitation, and of a Communion Service at the cathedral 
service. to precede them, wrote excusing themselves from attending the 
Service, on the ground of their conscientious objections to the 
ritual customary in the cathedral, including the eastward position, 
the mixed chalice, the elevation of the elements, &c. The 
Bishop, as might be expected, was seriously displeased. He 
wrote defending all the practices objected to (except the eleva 
tion of the elements), and particularly the eastward position, as 
" of the highest value as an exponent of doctrine." A long 
correspondence ensued between the Bishop and Mr. Oakley, in 
which the whole subject of the doctrinal aspect of the Lord s 
Supper was discussed with great ability on both sides. The 
Attitude Committee at home, being appealed to regarding the mis- 
committee sionaries refusal to communicate, strongly supported their action. 
It was afterwards supposed that they had directed the mis 
sionaries not to communicate with the Bishop when the eastward 
position was used ; but this was not the case. The Committee 
gave no orders ; they regarded the question of attendance as one 
for the missionaries own discretion ; but they expressed decided 
approval of the way in which that discretion had been exercised. 
Moreover, they did not attack the eastward position per se, as it 
had recently been declared by the Judicial Committee to be not 
illegal provided the "manual acts" were visible; but they 
pointed out the gravity of the fact that the Bishop defended it on 
the express ground of its value "as an exponent of doctrine." 
Meanwhile the Visitation and Conference were deferred for a few 
The months ; and when they were held in May, 1879, the Bishop, 

general w ^h g r eat generosity, requested Mr. Ireland Jones to officiate at 
concession one of the Communion Services in his own way ; and the Bishop 
and all the clergy received the tokens of their Lord s dying love 
at his hands. 

It \vas hoped that this reunion at the Lord s Table fore- 
Renewed shadowed a general rapprochement; but again hopes were 
s> disappointed. In reviewing the missionaries licenses at the 
Visitation, the Bishop denned their future districts in a way 
which they declined to accept, as it would have left some of their 
converts outside the areas in which they would be allowed to 
work, and committed them to the care of the chaplains. At the 
same time the Bishop declined to license three new men who had 


been sent out, or to ordain certain Native agents presented to PART VIII. 
him. The doctrinal and ritual controversies were also going on, 1873-82. 
and all Ceylon was divided into two camps. At home the con 
troversy grew more bitter. The Guardian and its correspondents, Bitterness 
quite naturally, expressed strong disapproval of the attitude and at home - 
action of the missionaries. On the other hand, there were some 
who openly advocated recommending the Native Christians to 
secede and form a Church of their own ; and suggestions were 
even whispered as to obtaining for them a duly-consecrated 
bishop. Between the two extremes stood Bishop Perry and 
Canon Hoare, who were more and more anxious to find some 
modus vivendi. 

At length, three hopeful things happened simultaneously. 
(1) The Committee resolved to seek the interposition of the Appeals to 
Archbishop of Canterbury ; (2) eleven missionaries, Oakley, bishop^f" 
Jones, Simmons, Rowlands, Schaffter, Allcock, Coles, Dowbiggin, canter- 
Wood, Cavalier, Pickford, addressed a long and earnest appeal 
to the Archbishop on their own account ; (3) the Bishop himself 
wrote to the Society proposing arbitration in two forms. The 
result was that the Archbishop resolved to take up the whole 
matter, associating with himself the Archbishop of York, and Arbitration 
the Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester. Five such p f r eYates. ve 

g relates as Tait, Thomson, Jackson, Lightfoot, and Harold 
rowne could be trusted to give patient and impartial con 
sideration to all the questions ; and great was the general satis 
faction when the proposed arbitration, if so it may be called, was 
announced. It should be explained that this was not a formal 
"reference" under Law XXXII. the Law added when the 
Bishops joined the Society in 1841 ;* because that Law expressly 
provides such " references " only " in the absence of any tribunal 
having legal cognizance of" the case. Now Ceylon being a 
Crown Colony with (at that time) a Church Establishment, 
the tribunals of the Church of England might be presumed to 
have "legal cognizance" of what went on there. Nevertheless, 
even an informal "Opinion" expressed by the Five Prelates 
would have great weight, and neither the Society nor the Bishop 
could afford to disregard it, even if disposed to do so. 

Archbishop Tait s biographers give a graphic account of the Difficulties 
difficulties he had to surmount in carrying the arbitration through, arbitration. 
The other bishops were discouraged by the apparent hopelessness 
of success, and tried to retire. " The expenditure of time was 
very great . . . and as the Bishop of Colombo [who had come 
to England] thought it undesirable ... to meet the Society s 
representatives face to face in the Archbishop s presence, it was 
necessary to hear each side separately, to the great increase of 
labour, and sometimes of misunderstanding. So serious were 
these obstacles that one of the Archbishop s main difficulties 

* See Chapter XXVI. 


PART VIII. throughout the inquiry was to keep his colleagues from giving up 

Cha ^6 their task in des P air - Tne foremost of them argued that it would 

p be better to give no advice or decision than to offer it only for 

rejection : the position and authority of the Archbishops would be 

lowered, and the hopes of peace would be further off than ever." 

But Tait " I admit the risk, answered the Archbishop, but I think it is worth 
perseveres nmn i I1 g j anc i j am prepared to spend twice the time and trouble we 
have already given. We have good men really good men to deal with 
on each side, and it must be in part our fault if we cannot steer their 
ship through the rocks. At least let us say our say, and throw on them 
the responsibility if all comes to grief. Pray abide in the ship, and I 
believe we shall " win " through. " 

thieves Archbishop Tait proved right. On March 1st, 1880, the Society 
success. received the "Opinion or Advice." On its being read to the 
Ceylon Sub-Committee, Canon Hoare rose and said, " Let us 
thank God," and then, kneeling down, poured forth his heart in 
fervent thanksgiving. On March 8th the General Committee 
passed a grateful resolution to send to the Archbishop ; and on 
the same day a letter came from the Bishop of Colombo, pro 
posing immediate friendly negotiations for settling future licenses, 
&c., on the basis of the " Opinion." 

8 i F i i p v n e f Jt ! s not . necessai 7 to print the " Opinion " in full. On the 
Prelates, question of licenses and appeals, it followed much the same lines 
as the Eeport of the Lambeth Conference above referred to ; but 
it was still more satisfactory to the Society, in that it recom 
mended that some licenses should be of a general character, 
authorizing the holder "to minister at any place within certain 
itsim- wide limits"; and in that it expressly stated that 

rnrtant , _ *- J 



statements stations are not "on a par with curacies in England," but that 
the arrangement for licenses is "based on the analogy of insti 
tution to a benefice" thus fully endorsing the Society s with 
drawal of its old concessions made to Bishop Wilson forty years 
before. Moreover, the Prelates " unanimously deprecated the 
imposition of such tests " as the Bishop was accused (perhaps, it 
was suggested, under a misconception) of desiring to impose as 
a qualification for license. Eegarding lay agents, they considered 
that a bishop s direct control should only be over such as, in the 
absence of a clergyman, were virtually doing a clergyman s work. 
In some other matters of immediate and local but not of general 
interest, the Opinion was also welcome to the Society. On the 
other hand, the Prelates expressed in strong terms their view that 
the missionaries "could not be justified in declining to associate 
themselves with their Bishop in the highest act of Christian 
worship," " so long as they were required to do nothing contrary 
to the declared law of the Church." 

But the Opinion was remarkable for two other things. First, it 
wisely left a good many details to settle themselves; and secondly, 
ii] skilfully avoided giving any judgment on past transactions, 
saying that the Prelates "could not understand " this, and 


" thought there was some mistake " about that. For example, PART VIII. 
after mentioning the Society as " acknowledged on all hands to 
be one of the greatest instruments by which our Church spreads 
the knowledge of Christ among the Heathen," and summarizing 
its work in Ceylon, they said that " no Bishop of the Church of 
England could possibly think of interrupting so great a work 
carried on by such an agency." 

Careful negotiations now ensued between the Bishop and the Friendly 
C.M.S. Secretaries, with a view to an agreement on the details. Sons la 
Mr. Wright quite realized that in adjusting these there must be 3^"" 
some " give and take "; but there were others on the C.M.S. side copieston 
who did not see this, and although the Bishop was kindly and ai 
reasonable throughout, these final arrangements cost Mr. Wright 
great labour and trouble. He knew that the future well-being 
of the Mission depended on an honourable peace, and he, with 
Bishop Perry to back him, never rested until this, by God s 
blessing, was finally secured. It is needless to give the details 
now. Suffice it to say that besides careful arrangements regarding 
the forms of license to be used, and the areas of work to be 
covered, provision was made for the Bishop giving his sanction to 
the "pastoral catechists " before alluded to, and for furnishing 
him with a list of all mission buildings in which it was proposed 
that the Holy Communion should be " regularly celebrated." This 
last provision, two years later, was made also in the Diocese of 

So the great Ceylon Controversy came at last to an end. In Peace at 
the Island itself, perfect harmony was not at once restored ; and 
even when all the adjustments made were in working order, 
grave doctrinal differences were of course always present. Never 
theless, the concordat was found to work well ; and the Bishop s 
frank acceptance of some features in the Mission which were not 
to his mind, as well as his personal cordial co-operation thence 
forth, called. for hearty acknowledgment and deep thankfulness 
to God. Peace was, in fact, made just in time. Disestablishment Just in 
was now in the air ; and in 1881 the Government gave notice that tl! 
in five years all State subsidies to the Bishop and chaplains 
would cease. The Bishop thereupon summoned a Eepresentative 
Assembly of clergy and laity to take measures for forming a 
constitution for the future Church. Differences naturally found 
expression in that Assembly, but they did not seriously interrupt 
the new work now in hand. What happened at the end of the 
five years, and, on another matter, within two years, we shall see 

In this brief recital, a vast number of minor questions and ^any 
difficulties have been left unnoticed. The object has been to give Emitted in 
a fairly clear idea of the essentials of the controversy, and to 
mention only such details as are of permanent importance and 
interest. It would have been beside the purpose of this History 
to refer to leading articles and letters on all sides in the Church 


PAR 7 ^ VI1L papers, or even to the numerous articles in the C.M. Intelligencer. 

Chap 80 Mr Knox wrote in nis weightiest manner on the various phases 
2_ of the controversy from time to time ; and as at Mr. Wright s 
express wish he adopted for the most part a cautious and 
restrained tone, he reserved his usually incisive and caustic 
language for his articles in the Record (the newspaper), then still 
in its old form. 

Eeaders of this chapter will gather that the Opinion of the Five 
Prelates is regarded as having, in the main, vindicated the prin 
ciples and practice of the Society. But there has been an honest 
desire to do full justice to the Bishop and his views ; and the 

Sr d c?JEs. n avowal is necessary that if all the turns and windings and corners 

mistakes. of the controversy had been described, the action of the Society, 
and still more the action of at least one or two of the mis 
sionaries, could not in every case have been seriously justified, 
however excusable in such trying circumstances. But God in 
His mercy over-ruled the mistakes of fallible men, guarded His 
own truth, and guided all concerned to satisfactory conclusions. 
And many valuable practical lessons may be learned even from 
this condensed sketch of the Ceylon Controversy. 










William A. Russell, one of the Founders of the Ningpo Mission, 1847 ; First Bishop for North 
China, 1872-1879. 

George Evans Moule, Missionary to China, 1857 ; Bishop in Mid-China, 1880. (Photograph : 
Lord, Cambridge.) 

Arthur Evans Moule, Missionary in China, 1861-1891 ; Archdeacon of Shanghai, 1883. 

Frederick Foster Gough, Missionary in China, 1849-1881. 

Robert W. Stewart, Missionary in South China, 1876 ; murdered at Hwa-sang, August, 1895. 

.John R. Wolfe, Missionary in South China, 1861 ; Archdeacon of Fuh-chow, 1887. (Photo 
graph : Elliott & Fry.) 



China in 1873 Bishop Burdon The Term Question Progress in 
Fuh-kien Native Clergy in Fuh-kien and Che-kiang Rev. Sing 
Eng-teh s Report J. C. Hoare S.P.G. at Peking China Inland 
Mission Political Troubles Chefoo Convention Shanghai Mis 
sionary Conference Stewart s College destroyed C. M.S. ejected 
from the City Miss Gordon-Gumming Death of Bishop Russell 
Mid China and North China Bishoprics- Bishops Moule and Scott 
Fuh-kien Native Conference F.E.S. and C.E.Z.M.S. at Fuh- 
chow Opium Controversy. 

Japan Advance of S.P.G. and C.M.S. in 1873-75 Warren, 
Evington, Fyson, &c. Dening s Separation. 

"A great door and effectual is opened unto me, and there are many adver 
saries." 1 Cor. xvi. 9. 

" Out oficeakness . . . made strong." Heb. xi. 34. 

|S we commence another period in the history of the PART VIII. 
China Missions, we reflect that in 1873 thirty years 1873-82. 
had elapsed since the Treaty of Nan-king first made Cha P- 81 - 
Missions possible at a few ports, and fourteen years china in 
since the Treaty of Tien-tsin opened the interior. But l8 73- 
difficulties were still great, and advance slow. There were now 
about 240 missionary workers of various Protestant societies ; 
schools, hospitals, mission-presses w r ere at work ; and some 8000 
Chinese had professed to embrace Christianity. But the Missions 
were still practically confined to the maritime provinces, though 
two or three ports up the Yang-tse were also occupied ; and nine 
of the eighteen provinces were absolutely without a missionary. 
Three or four enterprising men, however, notably Dr. Williamson 
(Scotch U.P. Mission), Mr. Griffith John (L.M.S.), and Mr. Wylie 
(B. & F. Bible Society), had made exploratory journeys. Just as 
our period opens, in February, 1873, a new Emperor ascended 
the throne ; and an important step forward in the intercourse 
of Foreign Powers with China was taken when, after long 
negotiation, the Ambassadors succeeded in interviewing the young 
sovereign himself without the humiliating obeisances previously 
insisted on, and thus in obtaining a formal acknowledgment of the 
equality of foreign nations. As we shall see presently, within four 
or five years of this time began the great modern extension of 
Missions in Inland China. 

At the opening of our period, it will be remembered, Bishop 
Russell had just been consecrated to the new episcopal see of 


PART VEIL " North China," and Bishop Alford had in consequence resigned 

!* 7:{ s ^- the old see of Victoria, Hong Kong. This time an experienced 

^J missionary in the field was chosen to fill the vacancy, in the 

Bishop person of John Shaw Burdon, the tenth C.M.S. missionary, and 

Burdon. ^ Q third Islington College man, to be raised to the Episcopate. 
Burdon had been early left an orphan, and had been educated by 
an uncle, who, with a curious prescience, declared that the lad 
was being prepared for a bishopric. He was a pupil of Dr. Howson 
and Dr. Conybeare at Liverpool, from whence he came to Islington. 
He had now been twenty years in China, and had been charac- 

JJo S r ioneer teristically a pioneer the first member of the C.M.S. Mission 
to enter Hang-chow, the first at Shaou-hing, the first at Yu-yaou, 
the first at Peking. We have before seen him living in boats, and 
visiting new cities with Dr. Nevius or Griffith John or Hudson 
Taylor.* And yet he had done important work of a stationary 

a vo d rk iteraiy kind, na ving been one of the translators who prepared a new 
version of the New Testament in the Mandarin dialect, direct 
from the Greek, and having also, with an American Episcopal 
missionary, completed a Mandarin Prayer-book. Now he was 
summoned home from Peking, and was consecrated bishop in 
Lambeth Parish Church on March 15th, 1874 ; and thenceforward 
the pioneer of the North was to concentrate his interest and energy 
upon the South. 

Hon d gKo a n From the first, however, Bishop Burdon felt the same difficulties 
at Hong Kong that had so oppressed Bishop Alford s spirit. The 
C.M.S. was the only Church Society labouring in South China, 
and its only important work was in Fuh-kien. A bishop could 
practically neither extend its operations nor start independent 
missionary agencies ; and the colonial work in the island of Hong 
Kong was too small for an able and large-minded man. Burdon, 
however, did what he could. An excellent clergyman, the Eev. 

Mr. Davys. Edmund Davys, son of a former Bishop of Peterborough, joined 
him in 1876, taking out with him six young men as probationers, who 
were to be educated at St. Paul s College, and form a new evan 
gelistic band. These young men the C.M.S. consented to recognize 
as its "students," though they had not been selected by the 
Committee; and they were reckoned among the "eighty-one" 
reported in 1877 as "under training."! All sorts of difficulties, 
however, ensued, and the plan was not persevered in ; but two of 
the men became useful missionaries elsewhere in after years, 
J. Batchelor of Japan and A. Downes Shaw of East Africa. Mean 
while, Mr. Davys continued to labour as an honorary missionary, 

slldonVin iinc ^ ^ 1G numerous out-stations in the Kwan-tung Province which 

Kwan" sm were gradually occupied for the Society by Chinese evangelists 

tung. were f or the most part established, and for some years maintained, 
at his expense. At Hong Kong itself, the C.M S. missionary 
through the greater part of the period was A. B. Hutchinson (now 

* See Vol. II., pp. 300, 306, 310. f See p. 46. 


of Japan). Subsequently J. G randy and J. B. Ost came there, and PART VIII, 
the former for several years served on the mainland and superin- " 

tended Mr. Davys out-stations. One of the best agencies was the 
Girls School of the Female Education Society, in which Miss 
Oxlad, Miss Johnston, and other ladies worked very diligently and 

One of the trials of Bishop Burdon s episcopate must here be 
alluded to what was known as the Term Question. There has The Term 
always been much difference of opinion among missionaries as to 
what Chinese word is the best equivalent for " God." There are, 
(1) Tien-elm, Lord of Heaven ; (2) Shin, Spirit ; (3) Shang-ti, 
Supreme Euler. Ticn-chu was imposed upon the Koman Catholic 
missionaries (against their will) by Papal authority in the eighteenth 
century ; and the Eoman form of Christianity is in China usually 
called the Ticn-chu kiow, as distinguished from the Je-su Mow, 
which stands for Protestantism/ 1 Shang-ti is most commonly 
used by Protestant missionaries ; but some object to it on various 
grounds, and adopt Shin. A few, however, in the North, including 
leading American Episcopalians, prefer Ticn-chu, and so did Bishop 
Burden ; and when he came to the South, where Shang-ti is 
generally employed, he was much harassed by the controversy. 
It is difficult for us to understand, but it is the fact, that consciences 
on both sides were involved. The Bishop did not feel able to use 
Shang-ti when he took confirmation or other services ; while the 
Native Christians objected to Ticn-clm. The Bishop appealed to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Dr. Tait took immense trouble 
in the matter ; \ but no satisfactory solution was arrived at. The 
differences still exist, but happily the controversy is not so acute 
as once it w r as. 

The Fuh-kien Mission naturally attracted much of Bishop 
Burdon s interest and sympathy. During the whole of our period 
it was extending and developing, though, as we shall see, amid 
many trials. In 1873-75, Mr. Wolfe had only one working comrade, 
J. E. Mahood, and that promising young missionary died on his Mahood. 
voyage home invalided, in 1875. Another recruit, J. II. Sedgwick, 
was transferred to another province while still in the stage of 
language-learning. But Wolfe s system of working by the agency ^oife^s 
of Chinese catechists, posting them at various towns and villages, catechists. 
and going round and round to visit and encourage them, was 
receiving signal blessing from on high. In the four years 1873-76, 
the number of adherents (baptized and catechumens) more than 
doubled, rising from 800 to 1650, and more than half the number Rapid 
were communicants. And this was in the teeth of incessant and 38 

bitter persecution. Mission-chapels were wrecked ; catechists 
were ill-treated ; converts were boycotted, bastinadoed, imprisoned, 
and in at least one case killed. Naturally many inquirers fell 
back ; but all the more remarkable was the substantial progress 

* See Vol. II., p. 593. f Life of Archbishop Tait, vol. ii. p. 350. 



Chap. 81. 

of cate- 

and Lloyd, 

Burdon in 




achieved notwithstanding. The names of Lieng-kong, Lo-nguong, 
Ning-taik, and Ku-cheng, cities which were centres of expanding 
work, became familiar at home through Wolfe s graphic letters ; 
and remoter and larger places, 150 to 250 miles off fu cities 
(capitals of prefectures) were entered, long-ping-fu, Kien-ning- 
fu, and Fuh-ning-fu.* It was at these latter that the gravest 
opposition was met with. A zealous catechist, Ling Sieng-sing, 
and three others with him, were brutally treated at Kien-ning 
beaten, stripped, hanged to a tree by their pig-tails, and then cut 
down and driven naked through the streets. Sometimes the 
mandarins encouraged and applauded the rioters ; sometimes, on 
the other hand, they displayed not a little kindness in protecting 
the Christians. 

In 1876, at last, two new men were sent to Fuh-kien, E. W. 
Stewart and Llewellyn Lloyd. Stewart was a man of good Irish 
family, a Marlborough boy and a graduate of Dublin, who had 
read for the English Bar, but who, when about to be called, was 
converted to God through a sermon by Mr. Evan Hopkins at 
Bichmond, and then dedicated himself to the work of God in 
China. He spent some months at Islington reading divinity, 
and then was ordained along with the three regular Islington 
men of 1876, t Lloyd, Bambridge, and J. S. Hill. Then, having 
married Miss Louisa Smyly, one of the well-known Dublin family, 
he and his wife, with Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd, sailed for China. To 
him was committed, so soon as he should have learned the 
language, the training of the Chinese evangelists and pastors ; 
while Lloyd was to take up the district work. 

But before any systematic training had been arranged, before 
Stewart had even left England, the first Native clergy who were 
converts of the C.M.S. Mission had been ordained ; the Bev. 
Wong Kiu-taik, it will be remembered, having been a convert of 
the Americans. In the spring of 1876, Bishop Burdon made his 
first regular visitation of the Fuh-kien Native Church, travelling 
from town to town and from village to village, and confirming 
515 candidates ; and on Easter Day (April 16th) he admitted four 
of Wolfe s catechists, well-tried and faithful men, though not 
highly educated, to the ministry of the Church. These were, 
(1) Ting Sing-ki, who had been an artist and a man of some 
education, though not strictly one of the Chinese " literati," and 
who passed the best examination and, according to English usage, 
read the Gospel on the occasion ; (2) Tang Tang-pieng, who, 
though he had been baptized by the American Methodists, was 
really a convert of Welton s the first missionary at Fuh-chow 
more than twenty years before, but Welton never knew it ; 
(3) Ling Sieng-sing, a schoolmaster, and the man whose sufferings 
at Kien-ning-fu have been already mentioned, and the husband 

* Fuh-ning is the Mandarin form. The local form is Hok-ning, by which 
name this city used to be called hi the Society s reports, 
f See p. 46. 


of a woman since well known for her long and faithfuUabours PARTVIII. 
Chitnio, once a girl in Miss Cooke s famous Chinese School at "Jr^ 
Singapore ; (4) Su Chong-ing, also a schoolmaster, and a man _^_ 
saved with difficulty from the fatal vice of opium-smoking The 
ordination sermon was preached by the Eev. Wong Km-taik from 
2 Cor v 20 _ "We are ambassadors for Christ. Three ol these 
four men died in the next five years, Ting alone rendering 
lengthened service. Ling s death was particularly sad ; he had 
never fully recovered from the shock of his sufferings at Kien- 
nin<* and when a great persecution fell upon the flock committed 
to his pastoral care at Lo-nguong, his distress at their trials 
unhinged his mind, and he put an end to his own life. Two other 
men were ordained within our period, Sia Seu-ong and Ngoi 
Kaik-ki Sia though one of the most interesting converts in the 
history of the Mission, turned out badly. Ngoi is at work to this 
day He was one of the few Chinese literati who have embraced 
Christ, and he forfeited his " degree " when he was baptized. For 
some years he was Vice-Principal of the Theological College unde: 

lithe Che-kiang Mission, also, there were now four Chinese Native^ 
clergymen Bishop Eussell, as soon as he returned to China che-faang. 
after consecration, set about organizing the Native Church ; and 
with some little pains he succeeded in forming a Church Council 
and inducing the Christians to raise a pastorate fund. lnl70, 
on Trinity Sunday, he ordained Sing Eng-teh ; and on Irmity 
Sunday, 1876, Kwong-yiao, Wong Yiu-kwong, and Dzing Ts- 
sin* ::: All four had been zealous catechists or schoolmasters ; 
and all four have continued faithful ministers of the Gospel from 
that day to this. Dzing was a son of Stephen Dzing, the Chinese R|v.Dng 
physician who had been a Eoman Catholic,! and was a well 
educated man. His examination for orders was very satisfactory, 
his written answers being particularly lucid and concise. A. fc. 
Moule sent home one of them as a specimen, and it would have 
been well if all English missionaries in China who professed to be 
Churchmen had been as clear on Infant Baptism as the lev. 
Dzin Ts-sin : 

"Infant baptism is wholly right, for our Lord said that of .such is Hi^vindi 
the kingdom of heaven. Now, baptism is the door of the religion. It Inf t 
then, infants may enter the kingdom, why shut them out of the religion? Bapusn, 
Moreover, our Lord blessed infants ; and this favours the doctrine. \V itn 
reference to immersion, or pouring, or sprinkling the Bible has both. 
For instance, John and Philip evidently practised immersion ; but tl 
3000 converts and the jailor plainly were not dipped. Again, baptis 
implies burial with Christ, and with that view immersion seems .con 
sistent ; but it also signifies the reception of the Holy Ghost-ami sin ely 
the Holy Ghost comes from above, not from beneath. Then who can 

* An interesting photographic group of the clergy, English and^ Chinese, 
present at this ordination, appeared in the Gleaner of January, lb. 
t See Vol. II., p. 306. 



PART VIII. say that pouring or sprinkling are inconsistent ? Both practices are 
.1873-82. right, and neither transgresses Scripture. It is more a question of 
Chap. 81. convenience. If immersion is indispensable, what will you do in the case 
of extreme cold, or extreme old age, or sickness ? " 

Let us also read the translation of one annual report from one 
of these clergy, the Eev. Sing Eng-teh, in 1878 : 

Rev. Sing 
Eng-teh s 

" Salutations to the venerable elders in our Lord Jesus Christ of the 
Church Missionary Society of the honourable country of England. 

" I desire to inform you of all matters during the past year, connected 
with the Church at Kwun-hoe-we, a place in the Z-ky i hieii of the 
Ningpo-foo, province of Cheh-kiang. 

" From the beginning of the first month onwards, some hundreds of 
persons have heard the doctrine every week. On the 21st day of the 
second moon Bishop Russell administered the rite of confirmation. The 
number confirmed was eighteen. There have been in all seventy-one 
communicants. Of candidates for baptism there have been over ten 
persons. The number baptized during the year has been ten. Out of 
fifteen boys in the school, four have received baptism. 

" I have, besides, other good news. In the village of the five li En-ko, 
four or five persons, men and women, have come up to Kwun-hoe-we to 
hear the doctrine and to worship ; they have not missed a Sunday. 
Among them are two old men, one aged seventy-six years, and the other 
over sixty years, who, through the influence of the Holy Spirit, have 
forsaken the evil customs which they formerly loved. They have taken 
the Potoo goddess of mercy paper money to the church, and requested 
me to burn it, and have also earnestly prayed to the Lord to forgive 
them their past sins. There is also the case of a man who lives in the 
city of Kwun-hoe-we. This man is a soldier under* a military mandarin. 
Last year, through the influence of the Holy Spirit, he was led to hear 
the doctrine, and this year he was baptized. He is, indeed, a reformed 
man, and leads a new life. Before his baptism his wife died. On her 
sick-bed she prayed earnestly to God for salvation, and, although she 
did not receive baptism, I confidently hope that the Lord Jesus will 
save her. 

"Although everything is in a better state than the previous year, 
there is one thing, alas ! that I cannot speak well of. The Church Fund 
is not prosperous. And for what reason is it not prosperous ? There 
are several reasons. First, there has been a great deal of rain during 
the year, and the harvest has not been good ; secondly, the two lay 
representatives to the District Committee have not been diligent [in 
making the collections] ; thirdly, some of the members example [lit. 
light ] is not good ; finally, without the Holy Spirit s blessing, nothing 
can be good. 

" There is no need that I should say more. May God assist me hence 
forward, as heretofore, to do His work in the Church at Kwun-hce-we ! 
Next year I shall inform you more at length. 

" Written on December the 20th, in the year of our Lord 1878, and in 
the 4th year of the Emperor Kwong-fu, the llth moon and 9th day." 

C.M.S. The O.M.S. staff in the Che-kiang Province continued very 

che-kiang. small. The labourers in the earlier half of our period were, 

besides the Bishop, the brothers Moule, Gough, Valentine, Bates, 

Gretton, Palmer, Elwin, arid Dr. Gait ; but first one and then 

another were away on furlough, and Gretton, Palmer, and Gait 


presently retired. Sedgwick came from the South in 1877, and PART VIII. 
stayed a few years. The one important recruit was Joseph ^^ 3 " 8 ^ 
Charles Hoare, Scholar of Trinity, Cambridge, and a son of Canon 
Hoare of Tunbridge Wells. He went out in 1875, expressly to j.c. Hoare 
start a College at Ningpo; and a most valuable agency that ^ d n ^ s 
College has been ever since. It was in design and scope more College, 
like the " Seminaries " of earlier C.M.S. history than any other 
modern institution. Stewart s College .at Fuh-chow, like French s 
and Hooper s in India (though these were far higher in educational 
standard), was for Christian men willing to be trained for mission 
service. Hoare s Ningpo College was ultimately to effect the 
same purpose ; but it was to begin by taking boys, Heathen as 
well as Christian, and giving them a Christian education; the 
conversion of the Heathen boys to Christianity, and of both 
Heathen and professedly Christian boys to Christ, being the first 
object aimed at. 

The Mission still occupied only three cities in Che-kiang with 
English missionaries, viz., Ningpo, Hang-chow, and Shaou-hing. 
The out-stations in the Ningpo district, however, were numerous ; 
and in 1877 an extremely interesting work began, from Hang- 
chow as a base, in the Chu-ki district, of which more by-and-by. 
Shaou-hing in 1874-76 gave great promise of an abundant harvest, Shaou- 
and Valentine s letters about it were very hopeful ; but the ex 
pected crop was blighted, arid the station has never been a fruitful 
one. At the great port of Shanghai, McClatchie was still acting Shanghai, 
as Secretary of the whole North China Mission ; but the only 
mission agency the Society had there was an Anglo-Chinese 
School, under an English master. Trinity Church, however, the 
church of the large English community at Shanghai, of which 
Dean Butcher (now of Cairo) was then chaplain, became the 
quas /-cathedral of the diocese. At Peking, Collins was still Peking, 
labouring with some little result, and he was joined in 1875 by 
W. Brereton. 

The S.P.G. had now a permanent Mission in North China, ^P s ( f on m 
which was also, for the time, under Bishop Eussell s episcopal North 
supervision. After the first Day of Intercession, the S.P.G. chl 
Committee were offered 500 a year for five years to support two 
missionaries in China ; and in 1874, two Cambridge men, Miles 
Greenwood and Charles Perry Scott (a nephew of Bishop Charles 
Perry of Melbourne), were sent to Chefoo. At first they were 
guests of Dr. Nevius, of the American Presbyterian Mission, while 
learning the language. When the great North China Famine North 
broke out in 1877, they, like many other missionaries notably Famine. 
Timothy Eichard the Baptist and David Hill the Wesleyan, 
laboured with great devotion to relieve the starving people. "In 
doing so ? they [the two S.P.G. men] ran no small risk, having to 
pass through regions almost untravelled by foreigners, and finding 
it prudent to adopt native costume not for disguise, that bein- 
impossible but so as to attract less notice and avoid being 

22 4 



Chap. 81. 


Its trials. 

Taylor s 


of Mr. 


robbed the aid being distributed in silver." The C.M.S. men 
at Peking, also, Collins and Brereton, were hard at work, and 
dispensed over 2000 contributed by C.M.S. friends in England. 
Among the Chinamen who were impressed by these manifestations 
of Christian benevolence was the famous Viceroy, Li Hung-Chang, 
who said, " There must be something in a faith which induces 
foreign gentlemen to come to China and gratuitously risk their 
lives, and even forfeit them, in assisting and teaching the people 
of this country." 

During the years 1873-77, the still youthful China Inland Mission 
was presenting a most striking illustration of the expression of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, "Out of weakness made strong." The 
chapters on this period in the Story of that Mission are pathetic in 
the extreme. About forty persons men, wives, and single women 
had gone out up to 1872, thirty of them since the Mission was 
regularly organized in 1865 ; and these had occupied several stations 
in the Kiang-su, Che-kiang, Kiang-si, and Ngan-hwei Provinces. 
But the resources of the Mission were very small ; the missionaries 
were sometimes in great straits, even for food ; and a good deal 
of hostile criticism was naturally the result. Then, there being 
as yet no secretary or office, Hudson Taylor had to go home to 
take the headquarters management himself ; and presently he 
was laid up for six months by an accident. But his faith and 
patience never failed ; he simply laid every need before the Lord, 
and the supplies came, over and over again, in the most un 
expected and even unknown ways. When actually on his back 
and a cripple, he put forward a little paper asking for prayer for 
eighteen men, to go two arid two to the nine huge Provinces still 
unreached by any Mission. Candidates at once came forward, 
and though many were rejected, fifteen men were sent out in 
twelve months in 1875-6, some of whom have since made a very 
distinct mark in the history of Missions in China. 

In the meanwhile, the political horizon had once more become 
clouded, and there seemed a danger of another war between 
England and China, and certainly of the Inland Provinces being 
inaccessible. A young English consular official, Mr. Augustus 
Margary, who was sent across China to examine the route over 
the mountains into Burmah, was treacherously murdered, early in 

1875, by the local Chinese authorities near the frontier. Much 
indignation was aroused ; for more than a year and a half the 
British Minister, Sir Thomas Wade, failed to get satisfaction ; and 
at one time war seemed imminent. At length, in September, 

1876, the Chefoo Convention was signed, and instead of Inland 
China being closed, a greater door and more effectual was opened. 
Truly God had made the wrath of man to praise Him ! The 
Convention provided that an imperial proclamation should be 
posted up in all the cities of China, definitely informing the people 

* S.P.G. Digest, p. 708. 


that foreigners were at liberty to travel everywhere. Hudson PART VIII, 
Taylor s "eighteen" were most of them already in China; he 1873-82. 
himself landed at Shanghai just as the Convention was signed ; Cha P- 81 - 
and the extensive itinerations he had projected at once began. In 
the next two years, his men travelled between them 30,000 miles, inland 
and every one of the nine Provinces was traversed. McCarthy JfcSB. 
walked across China, and actually came out into Burmah, where men - 
two of his brethren, Stevenson and H. Soltau, had been waiting 
for two years to get into China from Burmah. The only obstacle Crossing 
in their way was the prohibition by the British authorities in fn tier 
Burmah of their crossing the frontier ; and the same authorities, Burmah. 
when McCarthy came over safely, refused him leave to go back 
again " because it was dangerous." Before twelve months were 
past, another intrepid C.I.M. traveller, Cameron, came over, and 
he also was forbidden by the British officials to go back again. 
Stevenson and Soltau waited two years more, and then got 
through, and crossed China safely the first to do so from West 
to East. Meanwhile, the English Government at home had 
declined to ratify Sir T. Wade s Chefoo Convention, because one 
clause left the Chinese a possible opening to restrict the import of 
opium ; and it actually remained unratified nine years, until a 
modification of that clause had been extorted from the Govern 
ment at Peking. Yet the Convention, all the while, was facilitating 
itineration all over China. 

No forward movement can escape criticism. We have again The C.I.M. 
and again seen in this History how many objections were raised 
to the new plans and methods introduced from time to time by 
the C.M.S. itself. It is a commonplace in politics that a radical 
reformer often becomes conservative when his own scheme of 
reform has been carried ; and not a few C.M.S. men agreed with 
the Presbyterian and other missionaries in the maritime Provinces 
in shaking their heads over the C.I.M. itinerations. What good 
could such aimless wanderings effect? How could incessant 
journeyings over vast areas be called evangelization ? Where was T1 ?e 
the " precept upon precept," the " line upon line " ? The answer SnJw-c 
was that it was a good thing to familiarize the people with the 
fact that there were persons who affirmed that they had good 
tidings to proclaim. To settle down in a strange city might be 
difficult indeed it was often impossible ; but a passing visitor 
might be welcomed as he often was, and more welcomed when 
he came the second time as also proved frequently to be the 
case. The work, in fact, only professed to be preparatory ; and 
in that sense, after years showed that its success was unmistakable. 
Gradually, but after a considerable time, not only the C.I.M., 
but many other Societies C.M.S. for one established regular 
stations in the remoter Provinces ; and of all these new Missions Outcry 
the C.I.M. men were the courageous forerunners. SgJSJS 

Still more incisive was the criticism when women began to go mission - 
into the far interior; and to this day the impropriety of their china 

\r/-\r TTT 




The first 
ladies to 
go inland. 

PART VIII. proceedings is not infrequently urged from the arm-chairs of 
1873-82. London journalists. That some mistakes were made in the 
ear ii er attempts is not disputed, exactly as mistakes are made at 
the commencement of every new movement ; but Mr. Taylor and 
his colleagues have always been ready to learn by experience, and 
they are now able to show others how to do judiciously and safely 
what at first was apt to be injudiciously done, and certainly was 
not safe. If ever undesirable circumstances now arise in con 
nexion with the journeys of Christian women in Inland China, it 
is not the fault of those who belong to the C.I.M. It is interesting 
to remember that the first foreign woman to travel into the far 
interior was Mrs. Hudson Taylor herself, when she went to the 
Province of Shan-si to help in the work of famine relief. To do 
that, and so perhaps open a door to the hearts of the Chinese 
women, she went all the way from England, leaving her husband 
at home. The first unmarried woman to go far inland * was Miss 
Elizabeth Wilson, of Kendal, a lady past middle life, in 1880 the 
pioneer of hundreds of the Lord s handmaidens, of various 
societies, who, since then, have been willing to brave dangers and 
privations, and offences innumerable to sight and hearing and 
smell, for His Name s sake. 

The year 1877 was marked by the assembling of the first 
General Conference of Missionaries, at Shanghai. We have seen 
how interesting and important have been the gatherings of this 
kind held in India ; and certainly they in no way exceeded, either 
in interest or in importance, the Shanghai Conference of 1877. 
One is struck, however, in reading the Eeports, with certain 
notable differences between the India and China meetings. In 
India, the C.M.S. held a very front place; in China it was 
comparatively nowhere. Out of 126 missionaries attending at 
Shanghai, only twelve belonged to the C.M.S. ; but there was one 
S.P.G. member (Scott of Chefoo), and there were six of the 
American Episcopal Church. The Americans, in fact, were a 
majority, seventy-two out of the whole number. An American 
Episcopalian, Dr. Nelson, was chosen as one of the two chairmen ; 
the other being Dr. Carstairs Douglas of the English Presbyterian 
Mission. The only C.M.S. men who took any prominent part 
were Gough and A. E. Moule ; but papers by Mrs. Gough and 
Miss Laurence were read for them. Bishop Eussell was_ a 
member, but his name does not appear in the discussions. Again, 
Subjects of the subjects of debate differed from those in India more than one 
debate. wou ld expect. Of course topics like Native Agency, Literature, 
Medical Missions, belong to both India and China; but at 
Shanghai there were no warm debates on Higher Education, 
because that particular agency did not then exist ; and there was 
comparatively little said about Church organization, as was natural 

* By the phrase " far inland " is to be understood " far from treaty ports." 
There are treaty ports on the Yang-tse which themselves are far inland 

ary Con 


in a Mission-field whose occupation was so much more recent. PART VIII. 
On the other hand, Ancestral Worship, and Opium, were subjects 1873-82. 
peculiar to China. The most marked difference of opinion was Cha P- 81 - 
revealed on the question whether paid Native agents should be 
employed. Such a question could not arise in India at all ; and 
even in China it was clear that to depend wholly upon voluntary 
and unpaid agents, however theoretically desirable, was practi 
cally impossible. It must further be acknowledged that a higher 
spiritual tone is apparent in the papers and addresses than was Spiritual 
observable in the reports of the India Conferences. Dr. Nelson s tone 
paper 011 "Entire Consecration essential to Missionary Success," 
and Mr. Griffith John s on "The Holy Spirit in connexion with 
our Work," had no equals, scarcely parallels, at Allahabad or 
Calcutta ; and these, coming first, seem to have given a tone to 
the entire proceedings. 

The statistics compiled in connexion with the Conference showed Mission - 
a total number of 473 missionaries in 1877, viz., 172 married men, tYsS" 
172 wives, 66 single men, and 63 single women. The American 
Presbyterians (three societies) had 75, the C.I.M. 54 the Epis 
copal Churches 51 (C.M.S. 33, S.P.G. 3, Female Education 
Society 3, American Church 12), the American Board (Con- 
gregationalist) 50, the American Methodists (two societies) 44, 
the L.M.S. 43, the British Presbyterians (three societies) 35, the 
English Wesleyans 33. The total number of baptized Christians, 
or of adherents, is not given; but the communicants were 13 000 
the C.M.S. being credited with 1200. 

We now revert to the C.M.S. Missions; and first we must 
notice a very untoward event which God in His wise providence 
permitted to occur in the year following the Shanghai Conference, 


For twenty-seven years the Society s Fuh-chow Mission had C.M.S. 
been in peaceable occupation of its premises on the Wu-shih-shan M^ston" 
or Black-stone Hill. In 1878, Eobert Stewart proceeded to erect, 
m a corner of the ground, a building for the proposed Theological 
College, having already forty students to accommodate. Every 
care was taken, as with the buildings already occupied, that they Stewart s 
should in no way, by style or height, offend the Chinese super- ^ 
stitions. The plans were submitted to the British Consul, and he, 
after personally inspecting the site, gave his written consent ; and 
the new building was completed without any objection from the 
mandarins, whose club-house was close by, and without the 
slightest indication of any feeling on the part of the people. 
Suddenly, however, on August 30th, while the mandarins them 
selves and a consular officer were viewing the building, a mob of 
hired roughs assembled, and proceeded systematically to burn it, Th e new 
the Chinese authorities making no attempt to stop them, and the 
Consul himself, who was sent for, saying he could do nothing. 
Other outrages followed, and no reparation could be obtained. 

_ f~\ 




Chap. 81. 

Action for 


judge s 


yields for 
peace sake 

the Consul, 
and the 

lets out 
the secret. 

Her in 

Then the owners of the whole plot of land hitherto Occupied 
brought an action for ejectment against the Mission, which, under 
the treaties, had to be tried before the English Consular Judge. 
The plaintiffs put forward seven petitions, but one was withdrawn, 
and five were dismissed. The seventh, however, was successful, 
the Court deciding that the plaintiffs might resume possession of 
their property at three months notice. The lease had recently 
been renewed for twenty years, and it must be added that accord 
ing to Chinese usage, leases carry the right of renewal from time 
to time, provided the rent is duly paid; and without such a 
custom, it is obvious that no one would put up buildings on hired 
ground. The judge s decision, therefore, caused surprise; and 
the Chinese authorities, to prevent an appeal to a higher court, 
offered to grant a new site at a low rent. The new site, however, 
was not in the city at all, but in the Foreign Settlement, which 
the missionaries had always wished to avoid ; but ultimately, for 
peace sake, Stewart yielded (Wolfe was now in England) and 
accepted the compromise. But outrages continued to be perpe 
trated upon schools and other buildings also in the native city ; 
and the inexplicably unfriendly attitude of the Consul led the 
C.M.S. Committee to appeal, in 1880, to Earl Granville, the 
Foreign Secretary. The Society is always exceedingly reluctant 
to resort to Government, and even to seem to rely upon an arm of 
flesh ; but in this case very simple and ordinary rights under the 
treaties were set at nought, and the suspicion arose that there was 
something behind. An adequate cause had been whispered by a 
friend who had been in China, and at the Foreign Office Mr. 
Wright frankly stated it to Lord Granville, and he promised to 
make inquiry. Whether he did, the Society never knew, and the 
matter dropped. 

But when, in 1886, Miss Gordon-Cumming s Wanderings in 
China appeared, the whole story came out. What the Society, 
having no positive evidence to prove, had refrained from even 
hinting at in public, that accomplished traveller and fearless 
Scotch-woman proclaimed to the world. She was actually at 
Fah-chow for some months shortly after the outrage, and knew 
all that went on, in a way that the missionaries very likely did not. 
The fact is that the Chinese authorities, under orders from Peking, 
offered to the Consul full compensation for the Mission, and a 
renewal of the lease of the same ground. This offer he did not 
communicate to the Mission, but on his own account pressed for 
some other concessions. What were they ? The English com 
munity had long wanted a race-course, but could not get the land. 
At the same moment when the Mission was ousted from the city, the 
race-course was granted. In incisive language does Miss Gordon- 
Cumming denounce this transaction, giving all the details in their 
nakedness ; and then she bursts out as follows : 

" There is no gainsaying the fact that many persons look upon mis 
sionaries and their work as altogether a mistake an annoyinf 

effort to 


bring about undesirable and unprofitable changes. What a pity it must PART VII I. 
seem to such thinkers that St. Columba or St. Patrick ever took the 1873-82. 
trouble to come to Britain, or, indeed, that a handful of low-born Jews Chap. 81. 
should have presumed to preach in Greece or Rome to say nothing of 
their little troubles with the literati of Judrea. As regards obedience 
to THE MASTER whose Last Commandment these troublesome mission 
aries are trying to carry out, that may be all very well in theory, but not 
in practice ; and as to a Chinese St. Stephen, they have neither interest 
in nor sympathy with any such, even when his martyrdom is enacted 
almost at their doors ! "* 

While these difficulties were besetting the Fuh-kien Mission, a 
trial of a very different kind was permitted to fall upon the Mis 
sions in the North. On October 5th, 1879, Bishop Eussell fell gjath 01 
asleep, after a nearly seven years episcopate, and thirty-two years Russell, 
of faithful labours in the cause of Christ in China. " A loving and 
noble Christian character," said a Shanghai newspaper; " he was 
honoured wherever he went, and received from all classes the 
homage of affectionate regard. The Chinese knew him, and he 
knew them. They loved him, and he loved them."f " He did 
indeed far exceed common men," wrote the Eev. Dzing Ts-sing, 
" manifestly having the power of God w r ith him. He was wise and 
gentle, very willing to have regard to the sorrows of all, and to 
help them in their difficulties. Whosoever had any trouble would 
at once run to consult with him ; nor was this ever done in vain 
his love and wisdom would always find a good way out of the 
difficulty.";]: Mrs. Eussell continued at Ningpo after his death, 
and rendered valuable service. 

Opportunity was now taken to make a new arrangement of the New plans 
Church of England episcopal spheres in China. The same donor r ?cs. ls 
whose liberality had enabled the S.P.G. to establish its Mission at 
Chefoo now offered 10,000 towards an endowment for a new 
bishopric; and Eussell s " diocese " of North China was divided 
into two. Its southern boundary, separating it from the jurisdic 
tion of the Bishop of Victoria, was, as before explained, an arbitrary 
line, the twenty-eighth parallel of latitude ; but the new division 
between what was now to be called Mid China and North China Mid china 
followed the boundaries of provinces. To North China were chtn? rt 
allotted Chih-li, Shan-tung, Honan, Shansi, Shensi, and Kansuh ; 
and to Mid China Kiang-su, Che-kiang, Ngan-hwei, and Hupeh, 
with almost the whole of Si-chuan, and parts of Kiang-si and 
Hunan, north of the twenty-eighth parallel. To the North China 
see was nominated the S.P.G. missionary, C. P. Scott ; and to the Bishops 

* Wanderings in China, by C. F. Gordon-Gumming. Vol. i. p. 352. The Moule> 
greater part of the eighteenth and nineteenth chapters of this work are 
devoted to the story briefly summarized above. 

f See the In Memoriam, by G. E. Moule (his successor in the bishopric), 
C.M. Iiitellijencer, January, 1880. 

I From an article by the Nov. Dzing Ts-sing, printed in the C.~M. <ll< nmr 
of May, 1H8O. An interesting biographical sketch of Bishop Russell, written 
by Bishop I ukonhum Walsh of Ossory, appeared in the Gleaner of March and 
April, 1888. 


PART VIII. Mid China see, George Moule. The consecration took place at 

1873-82. g t- p au l s Cathedral on October 28th, 1880, together with that of 

Chap. 81. ^ e p resen t Archbishop of Jamaica. The preacher was Archdeacon 

T. T. Perowne, and his text, a very familiar one, was not for 

its familiarity the less precisely appropriate to the occasion 

1 Cor. xvi. 9, " A great door and effectual is opened unto me, and 

there are many adversaries," words which exactly described the 

state of China, and describe it still. The sermon was printed 

with the title, "The Call of Opportunity and the Call of 


C.M.S. Now that the S.P.G. had a bishop in North China who was its 

Mission own missionary, it seemed desirable that he should occupy Peking ; 
transferred anc [ as a t the time the C.M.S. had been thinking of withdrawing 
011 financial grounds from the capital, which was far away from 
its more important Missions, an arrangement was come to by 
which the S.P.G. took over the work and purchased the mission- 
buildings. Of the two missionaries at Peking, Collins returned to 
England, and Brereton, with the Committee s approval, transferred 
his services to the sister Society. 

The C.M.S. Committee were very glad of Bishop Moule s 
inadequate appointment, but they were unable to reinforce the Missions in 
mentfor~ his jurisdiction as he would have wished. Mr. Hoare was now 
Mid China. ass isted in his College work by his broth er-in-law, Reginald Shann ; 
but Shaiin s health only allowed him to stay three or four years. 
In 1881-2, two new men were sent out, Nash and Fuller, but both, 
after a while, were invalided, and had to be transferred to other 
Missions. The one important recruit, who has lasted, was Dr. 
Duncan Main, who went out in 1881 to take charge of the Opium 
Refuge at Hang-chow, and who very soon, owing to the liberal 
gifts of Mr. William Charles Jones, was enabled to build the 
splendid hospital which has ever since been so conspicuous a 
feature of the Hang-chow Mission. At this time, Gough retired 
after thirty years service, and McClatchie after a still longer 
A. E. period of life in China; and A. E. Moule went out to take the 
Arch 1 - 6 latter s Secretaryship at Shanghai, and develop the local work 
deacon. there; whereupon his brother the Bishop appointed him Arch 
deacon. The most interesting work in the Society s Mid China 
New work Mission at the time was in the Chu-ki district, some fifty miles 
south of Hang-chow. It began in 1877 at a village called Great 
Valley Stream. A man from that village, named Chow, had been 
struck by the phrase " Holy Religion of Jesus," over the door of a 
little preaching-chapel opened at the suggestion of Matthew Tai, 
a Christian artist whose clever illustrations of the Parables de 
lighted the readers of the Gleaner some years ago. Chow became 
an earnest inquirer, and was at length baptized by the name of 
Luke ; and he zealously made Christ known to his friends at Great 
Valley Stream. The result was the commencement of a work 

* See C.M. Intelligencer, February, 1881. 


which has since branched out to many villages. Nowhere < has PART^VIII. 
persecution been more bitter ; nowhere have the converts at times 
caused more anxiety ; but Chu-ki is now the station of an English 
missionary ; there is a Chinese pastor over the little congregations ; 
and they number some 600 Christians.* 

In Fuh-kien, too, the work was prospering, despite the troubles. ^ 
The 1650 adherents of 1876 had become 4450 in 1882 ; there 
were now four more missionaries, all of whom were destined, in 
God s good providence, to labour many years, viz., Dr. B. Van 
Someren Taylor, and three clergymen from Islington, W. Banister, 
J. Martin, and C. Shaw ; and in 1882, Taylor and Martin went 
and resided at Fuh-ning-fu, the first missionaries to settle in a 
town in Fuh-kien not a treaty port. Taylor began a medical 
mission which by-and-by proved a great blessing. While Wolfe 
was in England in 1881, important plans were settled for the 
organization of the Native Church, and for the extension of school- Native 
work in the villages. It had been the custom to gather the organiza- 
catechists together at Fuh-chow towards the close of each year, tlon - 
with some members of the congregations, and this Conference was 
now formally organized as a Church Council. The last meeting 
on the less regular footing was in December, 1882, just as our 
period ends, and the account of it is worth reading : 

" The Conference commenced on Monday, December llth, with pre 
liminary services and Holy Communion on the previous Sunday. The 
subiects discussed during the Conference were: 1. Foot-binding of Papers by 
Female Children. Paper by the Rev. Ting Sing Ki. 2. Persecution c 
and Lawsuits. Paper by the Rev. Ngoi Kaik Ki. 3. School and 
Education. Paper by Sing To, one of the city catechists. 4. Women s 
Work. Paper by Ting Sing Ang, catechist at Heng-Iong. 5. Medical 
Work. Paper by the Rev. Wong Kin Taik. 6. The best mode of 
exciting a spirit of liberality in contributing money for support of 
Christian objects. Paper by Yek Sieu Me. 

" On Saturday evening, December 9th, preceding the Conference, there 
was a missionary prayer-meeting held, and many had an opportunity 
of giving their experiences as to the success or otherwise of the mission 
work at their stations during the year. Devotional meeting on Monday 
evening, December llth, was conducted by the Rev. Wong Km Talk. 
Subiect : Thy Kingdom come. Tuesday evening, conducted by ling 
Cheng Seng. Subject : The Power of Faith. Wednesday evening, by 
the Rev. Ngoi Kaik Ki. Subject :< Sanctification. Thursday evening 
by Ling Seng Mi. Subject : The Sympathy of Christ with His People. 
Friday night, by Li Cheng Mi. Subject : The Blessedness of showing 

"Saturday evening, December 16th, a closing missionary prayer- 
meeting was held. All the meetings were deeply interesting, but this 
one was the climax. A great deal of enthusiasm was manifested, when 
towards the close the Rev. Sia, of Lo-Nguong, rose and related 
history of the Lo-Nguong congregation, and told how much he nee 

* The deeply-interesting narrative of Great Valley and the Chu-ki district 
is told fully in A. E. Moule s Story of the Chc-kiany tfuffon, chp. vi. 

(Published by C.M.S.) 



PART Vlil. enlarged accommodation for the numbers who came on Sunday to wor- 
1873-82. ship. . . . The Lo-Nguong Christians headed the list with $200. Mr. 
Chap. 81. A Hok, a Native Christian who was present, gave $500, and before the 
meeting was over, the Rev. Sia had promises of more than $1100. 
Another rich Chinaman, though not a professing Christian, gave $100, 
and the English community subscribed nearly $400 more. We hope 
the rest may be forthcoming. The Rev. Sia, however, has purchased the 
house in faith that the remainder of the money would in some way be 
provided, and I rejoice to say it is now in the possession of the Native 
Church of Lo-Nguong. It is a good start given to the Lo-Nguong 
Church, on its first endeavours towards self-government and self- 

It was at this time that the first steps were taken which led to 
the remarkable work since done in Fuh-kien by Christian women. 
The Society for Promoting Female Education in the East had for 
some years provided a lady to conduct the C.M.S. Girls School 
at Fun-chow. Miss Houston had rendered important service, and 
had been succeeded by Miss Foster. The latter lady was the 
means of the conversion of a Chinese lady afterwards well known 
in England, Mrs. A Hok, wife of a merchant of some wealth and 
standing in the city, who was already a member of the American 
Methodist congregation/" Miss Foster came home in 1881, deeply 
impressed with the importance of extended woman s work in 
China; and she came to the C.M.S. to urge the Society to send 
out ladies. This, however, was not then the Society s practice, 
and she was referred to the recently-formed Church of England 
Zenana Society. But the C.E.Z.M.S. had so far only looked 
upon India as its field, like the Society (I.F.N.S.) from which it 
had separated ; and its Committee, composed for the most part of 
the wives or widows of Anglo-Indians, were not favourably dis 
posed towards the diversion of either funds or labourers from 
India. But the Hon. Secretary, General Sir William Hill, was a 
large-hearted man, and he, backed by two or three of the ladies, 
persuaded them to go so far as this to send to China a lady 
whom Miss Foster was to find, with special funds which Miss 
Foster was to collect. That lady, with an energy all her own, set 
to work and raised the money ; but the woman to go was not 
forthcoming. Meanwhile the C.M.S., though not a Society send 
ing out ladies, did from time to time, as we have seen, employ a 
very few for school-work, particularly the daughters of its mis 
sionaries ; and at this time it had under training a daughter of 
Mr. Gough, who was to go to her father s old field, Mid China. 
It occurred to Mr. Wigram to transfer her to the C.E.Z.M.S. for 
Fuh-kien ; and she went out accordingly ; but subsequently she 
married Mr. Hoare at Ningpo. The next C.E.Z.M.S. ladies to go 

Women s 
work in 


Foster and 
A Hok. 

Appeal to 
and to 


its first 

* The story of Mrs. A Hok was told by Miss Foster in the O.M. Gleaner of 
February and July, 1883. It is also given by Miss Gordon-Gumming, with 
interesting accounts of her own visits to her, in Wanderings in China, vol. i. 
chaps, x. to xii. ; a,nd in] Behind the Great Wall, the account of C.E.Z.M.S. 
work injChina, 


forth were found by Eobert and Mrs. Stewart in Ireland but this PART VIII. 
would carry us beyond our present limits, and must be left for a ^j^ 3 " 8 ^ 
future chapter. 

In 1882, Bishop Burdon was in England, and set forth with Bishop 
great earnestness and power the call for more labourers in China, 
He raised funds for a new C.M.S. Mission in Western Kwan-tung, 
the south-west corner of the empire, where no missionaries of any 
society were at work ; and of this we shall see more hereafter. 
He especially pressed Medical Missions and Woman s Work ; * 
and at the Anniversary he spoke most impressively of the needs 
of both.- One cannot read his speech without deep feelings of 
thankfulness to God for the progress since by His goodness 
achieved in both directions. 

In fact, about this time China began to occupy a much more 
prominent position in the sympathies of the C.M.S. circle than it 
had previously done ; and we shall see the results of this in 
another chapter. A great encouragement, moreover, was given 
to the Society by Mr. Jones s noble gift of 72,000 as a " William a 
Charles Jones China and Japan Native Church and Mission Fu n n d a . 
Fund." He had already given 35,000 for similar purposes in 
India, and 20,000 for Native agents in certain specified Missions, 
besides building the Hang-chow Hospital, giving largely to the 
Alexandra School, and contributing handsomely in various other 
ways. This new fund was not designed to save the Society a 
penny of its expenditure, but rather to make a larger expenditure 
on its part possible and necessary. It was not to be used in any 
way to support English missionaries. Native agents might be 
supported, Native Church Councils might be subsidized, colleges 
or hospitals for training Natives might be built. But of course 
these things could only be done if a larger number of Englishmen 
were sent out to superintend them. The Fund therefore was not 
to supersede but to stimulate the Society s general expenditure. 

So the " great door and effectual " was indeed open. But there 
were " many adversaries "; and indisputably one of the most 
potent was the Opium Trade. The C.M.S. Committee notwith- gggJ 
standing some doubts on the part of two or three of their number, versy. 
Anglo-Indians who could only view the question from the India 
standpoint never wavered in their decided opposition to the 
traffic. Again and again they sent memorials to the Government ; 
they went on deputation to the Foreign and India Offices ; they 
took part in public protests ; and Mr. Knox threw his strongest 
energies, as chief writer in the Intelligencer, into the controversy, against 
He was the last man to sympathize with " faddists and fanatics "; P ium - 
it might not unfairly be said that he was unduly prejudiced against 
the ardent type of men who have generally been in the front of the 
anti-opium agitation ; but he never wrote more incisively, one may 

* Two very vigorous articles were contributed by tho Bishop to the C.M. 
Intelligencer of January and February, 1883. 



Chap. 81. 

awake for 
a moment 

but then 



Japan in 




say vehemently, than on this subject. He denounced the Opium 
Trade with China as a great national crime, and he marshalled 
with unanswerable force the masses of evidence to show its fright 
ful effects upon the Chinese people." In 1881-2, owing to the 
scandal of the Chefoo Convention before mentioned, the agitation 
gained unusual strength ; a memorial to the Prime Minister was 
signed by Archbishops Tait, Thomson, and Trench, and fourteen 
Bishops, besides a host of other leading men ; \ and there did seem 
some hope of the Government taking up the question at all risks, 
and delivering England from the heavy responsibility of the traffic. 
But official opposition proved too strong, and presently the country 
went to sleep again. It is amazing indeed that honourable men 
should be so blinded, and should adduce such preposterous reasons 
for not interfering with a trade forced upon China against her 
strenuous efforts by British guns. Let one single instance be 
given, and let this close our present section. Sir George Birdwood 
said that opium was not only innoxious but positively beneficial to 
the Chinese. Mr. Lloyd mentioned this to the Eev. Ting Sing-ki. 
This was his reply: "Nobody but an opium- smoker could have 
said that." 


A few paragraphs will suffice for a brief summary of the 
Society s advancing movements in Japan during our present 
period. The year 1872, it will be remembered, was the year of 
the sudden and astonishing development of New Japan. The first 
missionary, G. Ensor, had come home invalided, leaving only 
H. Burnside, at Nagasaki, to represent the missionary enterprise 
of English Christendom in the Land of the Eising Sun. But the 
inviting openings now presented led to special funds being 
contributed to two English societies. These were the C.M.S. and 
the S.P.G. It is remarkable that in so interesting a field as Japan, 
no other of the large European missionary organizations has 
entered the field. 

The S.P.G. was the first to go forward ; and it is an interesting 
reminiscence that its first two missionaries to Japan were taken 
leave of at a special service in the Society s chapel, Bishop S. 
Wilberforce giving the valedictory address, only a few days before 
his lamented death in July, 1873. These two, the Eevs. A. C. 
Shaw and W. B. Wright, landed in Japan on September 25th of 
that year, and established themselves at the new capital, Tokio. 
Two years later came H. J. Foss and F. B. Plummer, the 
former of whom has lately been appointed Bishop of the Osaka 

Meanwhile the C.M.S., in 1873-75, sent out six missionaries to 

* See especially the C.M. Intelligence of July, September, and December, 
1876 ; February, 1880 ; and May, 1882. 

t The debate on Opium at the Newcastle Church Congress, 1881, has 
already been mentioned. See p. 13. 






George Smith, Association Secretary C. M.S. , 1841 .Missionary to China, 184-1; Bishop of 

Victoria, Moiiy Konir, 1*19-1864. 

George Ensor, First Missionary of the Church of Kng nd to Japan, 1868-1872. 
J. S. Bunion, Mis>i<>iiiiry in Cliinn since 1853; Bishop of Victoria, Hong Kong, 1874-1896. 
Ivhvanl Bickrr.-totli, Second I .ishop of the Church of Kngland in Japan, 1880-1HU7. (1 hoto- 

--raph : Klliott & Fry.) * 

Arthur* \V. Poole, Missionary in South India, 1877-1880; First Bishop of the Church of 

Enirlaml in Japan, 


Japan. Two of these, C. F. Warren and John Piper, had already PART VIII. 
laboured some few years at Hong Kong ; and two others, II. 1873-82. 
Maundrell and W. Dening, had been missionaries in Madagascar. Chap 81 
These four were all picked Islington men, and their experience in 
other fields was much to their advantage in their new work. Of 
the remaining two, Henry Evington was from Pembroke College, 
Oxford, and Philip Kemball Fyson was a Scholar of Christ s 
College, Cambridge, with double first-class honours. Warren 
arrived on the last day of 1873 ; Piper, Dening, Fyson, and 
Evington in 1874 ; Maundrell in 1875. Maundrell was stationed 
at Nagasaki, succeeding Burnside, who retired. Warren and Treaty 
Evington occupied Osaka, the second city in the empire. Piper Occupied, 
began work at Tokio, in which capital there was plenty of room 
for both S.P.G. and C.M.S., as well as for several American 
societies. Fyson also went to Tokio at first, but moved on to 
Niigata, on the west coast but this station was not ultimately 
persevered in. Dening was sent to Hakodate, in the northern 
island of Yezo. All these five places were treaty ports. The 
other two similar ports, Kobe and Yokohama, were occupied by 
the S.P.G. and the Americans. Eesidence beyond the treaty 
ports was then not possible, and even travelling was hindered by 
vexatious regulations. Nevertheless, Japan was rapidly moving 
forward, and the adoption of the Christian Sunday as the national Japan 
day of rest, from April 1st, 1876, was only one of the most 
conspicuous signs of the adoption of Western ways. Sunday. 

Perhaps no C.M.S. Mission of recent times, not even Uganda, 
has had its earliest history more fully detailed than that of Japan. 
At Osaka especially, we can trace out the narrative, day by day Warren 
and week by week, in the graphic journals of Warren and fon at vms " 
Evington. Warren also sent picturesque descriptions of the Osaka - 
country and the cities, as seen by him in his early tours. Scores 
of pages in the Intelligencer were furnished by his pen, with ample 
details of the most interesting kind. After a year of preparatory 
study, he began Sunday afternoon services on January 3rd, 1875 ; 
on May 30th in the same year, a small mission-chapel was 
opened, in which daily preaching was carried on ; at the beginning 
of 1876 there was a little class of avowed catechumens ; on June 
25th, 1876, he had the joy of admitting six persons into the Church Fi r st 
by baptism ; on July 23rd they were confirmed by Bishop Burdon a t Osaka, 
of Hong Kong ; and on August 20th they received the Lord s 
Supper at the first Japanese Communion Service held in the 
Osaka Mission. A visitor was present at that service, an English 
gentleman in the employ of the Japanese Government, Mr. G. II. 
Pole, who in after years became a C.M.S. missionary in that same 
city of Osaka. 

Interesting baptisms also took place at Nagasaki, and Maundrell 
placed some of his converts out as catechists, at Kagoshima, Saga, 
and Kumamoto. At Tokio the progress was slower ; and in 1880 
this station lost Mr. and Mrs. Piper, owing to the failure of the 


PART VIII. latter s health. They had been very earnest workers, and Mr. 
1873-82. Piper s literary work, especially his Eeference New Testament 
Chapel. with 12> 000 references, has proved of the highest value. At Hako 
date, Dening displayed great energy, not only among the Japanese 
Yezo : the a t the port, but by his journeys into the interior to visit the Ainu 
aborigines, aborigines. Of this strange people little was known at that time. 
English readers came to know of them chiefly from the travels 
of Miss Isabella Bird (now Mrs. Bishop), whose valuable work, 
Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, was published in 1880. But the 
larger part of the information given about them by her in so graphic 
a form had already been in the hands of the C.M.S. circle, 
through Dening s letters printed in the Intelligencer. 

Anglican An interesting event in the history of the Mission was the first 
aries ln 1 " Missionary Conference, on the occasion of Bishop Burden s second 
conference visit in May, 1878. Bishop Williams of the American Episcopal 
Church, who had been one of the very first Christian missionaries 
in Japan, nearly twenty years before, was also present. The 
C.M.S. men held some meetings by themselves, and other 
gatherings were held for the three Anglican Missions, C.M.S., 
S.P.G., and American Episcopal. The important step was taken 
of forming a Prayer-book Translation Committee, the members 
appointed being Bishop Williams and Mr. Quinby (Am. Epis. 
Church), Mr. Shaw (S.P.G.), Mr. Warren, and Mr. Piper. 
Another Conference was held on Bible translation, in which the 
other American Protestant Societies joined. In the important task 
of preparing the Japanese Bible, Piper and Fyson did good work. 
New From time to time the Society sent out additional men. In 

me^; S 1876, J. Williams, who had been invalided from East Africa, was 
transferred to Japan. In 1878, Walter Andrews, a Cambridge 
man, went out, and presently joined the Mission in Yezo. In 
1879, John Batchelor, who had been one of Bishop Burden s 
students at Hong Kong, went also to Yezo, where he subsequently 
became the missionary par excellence to the Ainu. In 1881, went 
forth G. H. Pole, the gentleman above-mentioned, who had come 
home, graduated at Cambridge, and been ordained. In 1882, 
A. B. Hutchinson, of Hong Kong, was transferred to the Japan 
Mission, and joined Maundrell at Nagasaki. The missionaries were 
now crying out for ladies to be sent forth, but the Society was 
not quite ripe for this yet. Three ladies, however, were doing good 
work in connexion with the Mission, though not on the Society s 
roll, viz., Miss M. J. Oxlad, who had worked at Hong Kong under 
the F.E.S. ; Miss Jane Caspari, a former C.M.S. missionary in 
West Africa, who had gone to Japan as governess in one of the 
missionary families ; and IVfrs. Goodall, an excellent widow lady, 
who settled at Nagasaki. 
Dening s But our period closes unhappilv with the disconnexion of a 

newviews, TTT i, -r\ i 11 T i 

and separa- missionary. Walter Dening had been a most vigorous evangelist, 

cM f s m ^ )U ^ * n 1882 he publicly avowed his intention to preach the 

doctrine of Conditional Immortality, as part of his message to 


Japan, and requested the Society s explicit sanction to his doing PART VIII. 
so. The Committee summoned him home for conference, and the ^ 81 
question was carefully discussed with him by such established J_ 
theologians as Bishop Perry and Mr. Fenn. There was no desire 
on the part of the Committee to insist with undue dogmatism upon 
every missionary holding exactly the same views on the exceedingly 
solemn and mysterious subject of the Great Future ; but Dening s 
demands were of a kind which could not be conceded. On his 
separation from the Society, he was immediately taken up by an in 
dependent Cambridge Committee. He returned to his old station at 
Hakodate, and very naturally most of the converts gathered round 
him ; while Mr. Andrews took charge of the C.M.S. work. Very 
soon, however, Dening left the place, and entered the service of the 
Japanese Government at Tokio ; the Cambridge Committee was 
dissolved, its members having found that his departure from 
the faith was more serious than they had thought; and his 
followers at Hakodate rejoined the C.M.S. congregation. 

At the end of 1882 there were about 600 baptized Japanese in 
connexion with the three Episcopal Missions, of whom about one- 
half belonged to C.M.S. The converts of the other American 
Missions were much more numerous, as we shall see more fully 

With these few brief paragraphs we must leave Japan for the 
present ; we shall see much more of the work in this interesting 
country in our next Part. 



Chap. 82. 

The new 
bishops in 
Rupert s 





New Bishops in North-West Canada Lord Dufferin s New World 
Diocese of Rupert s Land Diocese of Saskatchewan The Govern 
ment and the Plain Indians Diocese of Moosonee Peck and the 
Eskimo Diocese of Athabasca Bishop and Mrs. Bompas 
Tukudh Indians Roman Catholic Missions. 

North Pacific Mission Duncan and the Lord s Supper Bishopric 
of Caledonia Bishop Ridley Ultimatum to Duncan His Seces 

" Unto the uttermost part of the earth." Acts i. 8. 

" The ivilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them." Isa. xxxv. 1 . 

|N due course the statesmanlike plans of Bishop Mach- 
ray of Eupert s Land, which were briefly sketched 
in our Sixty-sixth Chapter, and which were in course 
of being matured at the time when our present period 
opened, were successfully completed. John Horden 
had been consecrated bishop for the new diocese of Moosonee 
in December, 1872 ; and on May 3rd, 1874, John McLean and 
W. C. Bompas were consecrated bishops for the two other new 
dioceses of Saskatchewan and Athabasca. The ceremony took 
place at Lambeth Parish Church, and the sermon was preached 
by Bishop Anderson, who had been the first Chief Pastor of the 
vast territories now happily divided. He thus referred to the two 
new dioceses : 

" To-day the noble plan will be consummated by the consecration of 
two more bishops. One will preside over the Church in the western 
portion of the land, labouring among the Indians of the Plains, and 
along the valley of that river whose source is in the Rocky Mountains 
the River Saskatchewan ; whose name, in its sound and meaning, would 
remind us of those surging rapids down which it sends its waters into 
the inland sea of Winnipeg. 

" The other will have the northern diocese as his own, along yet 
mightier lakes, and with rivers which roll down an immense volume, and 
discharge themselves into the Arctic Ocean. 

" Such is the fourfold sub-division of that vast territory, completing 
and carrying out ideas which as day-dreams may have flitted across my 
mind, but which have to-day reality and shape, and a definite existence." 

In the following year, August, 1875, the first Provincial Synod 
of the Ecclesiastical Province of Rupert s Land was held at 






David Anderson, First Bishop of Rupert s Land, 1849-1865. 

R. Machra.y, consecrated Bishop of Rupert s Land, 1865 ; created Archbishop, 1893. 

John Harden, Missionary to North-West Canada, 1851 ; First Bishop of Moosonee, 1872. 

W. C. Bompas, Missionary to North-West Canada, 1865; First Bishop of Athabasca, 1874; 

Mackenzie River, 1881 ; Selkirk, 1891. 
W. Ridley, Missionary in the Punjab, 1866-1870; First Bishop of Caledonia, 1879. 

(Photograph : Sawyer & Lankester.) 
Admiral Prevost, by whose influence the Mission in the North Pacific was founded in 1856 ;. 

Vice-President of the Society, 1882-1891. 


Winnipeg. Bishop Machray presided, and Bishops Horden and PART VIII. 

McLean came from east and west to attend ; but Bishop Bompas jj^ 73 ~ 82 ; 

had gone into that distant North in which he was destined to labour 

a quarter of a century without once returning within the confines 

of civilization. There was a welcome visitor in the person of the 

apostolic American, Bishop Whipple of Minnesota, whose diocese 

lies just to the south of Eupert s Land, across the frontier line. 

Two C.M.S. missionaries took chief offices in the Synod, Arch- 

deacon Cowley being Prolocutor of the Lower House, and Canon 

Grisdale Secretary. A constitution for the Province was drawn 

up, which has been the basis of all subsequent developments. 

About the same time, Bishop Machray made fresh arrangements 

for the increased efficiency of St. John s College, appointing st. John s 

Mr. Grisdale Professor of Systematic Theology, and the Eev. College. 

J. D. O Meara, of the University of Toronto, son of a well-known 

missionary to the Indians of Canada Proper, Professor of Exegeti- 

cal Theology. Winnipeg was now rapidly becoming an important 

town, and Manitoba, as an independent province of the Dominion 

of Canada, rejoiced in its own Legislature and Ministry. In 1878, 

the Premier, the Hon. John Norquay, being twitted at a political 

meeting for his humble origin, acknowledged it gracefully, and 

added that he owed his education, and his consequent prosperity, 

to the Church Missionary Society. 

The work of the Society in North- West Canada was now rapidly ^ c ^ e n a d ^ ed 
expanding. This was quite contrary to the old expectations and tSfof 1 
designs of the Committee. It will be remembered that when the C.M.S. 
financial crisis of 1841-2 occurred, "North-West America " was 
one of the Missions marked out for abandonment, although it then 
cost under 1000 a year. In the period of the " failing treasury," 
in Venn s later years, it was fully hoped that the expenditure, then 
between 5000 and 6000, might gradually be reduced. But 
Bishop Machray s plans, and Henry Wright s love for the Eed 
Indians, altered all that ; and when the great Income of 1873-4 
was reported, those members of the Society who followed the 
details of its work and policy w r ere startled by the Committee 
announcing at Exeter Hall that " the coming year presented three 
special directions for expansion, East Africa, Japan, and North- 
West America." Within nine years, by the close of our present 
period, the cost of the Missions in the Ecclesiastical Province 
of Eupert s Land excluding the growing North Pacific Mission 
in British Columbia had doubled, having risen above 12,000. 
Seventeen English missionaries were sent out in the decade, most New 
of whom laboured for several years, and the following are still, men . 
after from seventeen to twenty-seven years, on the Society s roll : 
E. Young, now Bishop of Athabasca ; A. E. Cowley, son of the 
Archdeacon; J. Hines, J. H. Keen (now in British Columbia), 
E. J. Peck, W. Spendlove, T. H. Canham, and J. Lofthouse. One 
man, V. C. Sim, died at his post, practically of starvation. But more 
important than the Englishmen sent were the increasing number 




Chap. 82. 


Dufferin s 
new world. 

What the 
called a 
the home 
of C. M.S. 
men and 
their wives 

of good men "raised" in the country. St. John s College pro 
duced a long series of excellent missionaries, mostly of mixed 
descent, with a few pure (or almost pure) Indians. Some of them 
graduated at Manitoba University ; and the larger part of the 
work, especially in Rupert s Land and Saskatchewan dioceses, is 
now done by them. The first Red Indian clergyman, Henry Budd, 
died in 1875, after a faithful ministry of a quarter of a century. 

The extension of the Society s work was strikingly illustrated 
when, in 1877, Lord Dufferin, then Governor-General of Canada, 
delivered a memorable speech at Winnipeg. The Times of 
November 28th in that year credited him with " introducing a new 
w r orld to the knowledge of his countrymen." He described in 
picturesque language the Great North- West, and the comment of 
the Times was, " The succession of enormous distances and strange 
surprises reads more like a voyage to a newly-discovered satellite 
than one to a region hitherto regarded simply as the fag-end of 
America and a waste bit of the world." Yet this " new world " was 
simply the field, or rather part of the field, of the C.M.S. Mission. 
The country which, said the Times, "looks on the maps a mere 
wilderness of rivers and lakes, in which life would be intolerable 
and escape impossible," was then the residence of fifteen English 
missionaries, of whom eleven had their wives with them. Let us 
read an extract from Lord Dufferin s speech. After referring to 
Lord Salisbury s famous remark then recently made on the 
importance of not imbibing incorrect ideas from small maps, the 
Governor-General said that the best way of realizing what North- 
West Canada is was to take an imaginary voyage upon its rivers ; 
" for we know that as a poor man cannot afford a large house, so 
a small country cannot support a big river " : 

" Now, to an Englishman or a Frenchman, the Severn or the Thames, 
the Seine or the Rhone, would appear considerable streams ; but in the 
Ottawa, a mere affluent of the St. Lawrence an affluent, moreover, 
which reaches the parent stream 600 miles from its mouth we have a 
river nearly ><50 miles long and three or four times as big as any of them. 
But, even after having ascended the St. Lawrence itself to Lake Ontario, 
and pursued it across Lake Huron, the Niagara, the St. Clair, and Lake 
Superior to Thunder Bay, a distance of 1500 miles, where are we ? In 
the estimation of the person who has made the journey, at the end of all 
things, but, to us who know better, scarcely at the commencement of the 
great fluvial systems of the Dominion, for from that spot that is to say, 
from Thunder Bay we are enabled at once to ship our astonished 
traveller on to the Kaministiquia, a river of some hundred miles long. 
Thence almost in a straight line we launch him on to Lake Shebandowan 
and Rainy Lake and River \_C.M.S. station], a magnificent stream, 300 
yards broad and a couple of hundred miles long, down whose tranquil 
bosom he floats into the Lake of the Woods. . . . From this lacustrian 
paradise of sylvan beauty we are able at once to transfer our friend to 
the River Winnipeg. ... At last, let us suppose we have landed our 
traveller at the town of Winnipeg [C.M.S. headquarters] the half-way 
house of the continent, the capital of the Prairie Province, and, I trust, 
the future umbilicus of the Dominion. Having had so much of water, 


through a 


having now reached the home of the buffalo, like the extenuated Falstaff PART VIII. 
he naturally babbles of green fields, and careers in imagination over 1873-82. 
the primeval grasses of the prairie. Not at all. Escorted by Mr. Mayor Chap. 82. 
and the Town Council, we take him down to your quay, and ask him 
which he will ascend first, the Red River [three CM .S. stations] or the 
Assiniboine [three C.M.S. stations], two streams the one 500 miles long, 
the other 480 which so happily mingle their waters within your city 
limits. After having given him a preliminary canter upon these 
respective rivers, we take him on to Lake Winnipeg, an inland sea 300 
miles long and upwards of sixty broad. At the north-west angle of Lake 
Winnipeg he hits upon the mouth of the Saskatchewan \_fice C.M.S. 
stations], the gateway and high-road to the North-West, and the 
starting-point to another 1500 miles of navigable water, flowing nearly 
due east and west between its alluvial banks. Having now reached the 
foot of the Rocky Mountains, our Ancient Mariner for by this time 
he will be quite entitled to such an appellation knowing that water 
cannot run up-hill, feels certain his aquatic experiences are concluded. 
He was never more mistaken. We immediately launch him upon the 
Athabasca and Mackenzie Rivers [eiyht C.M.S. stations], find start him 
on a longer trip than he has yet undertaken the navigation of the 
Mackenzie River alone exceeding 2500 miles. If he survives this last 
experience, we wind up his peregrinations by a concluding voyage of 1400 
miles down the Fraser River, or, if he prefers it, the Thompson River to 
Victoria, in Vancouver, whence, having previously provided him with a 
first-class return ticket for that purpose, he will probably prefer getting 
home via the Canadian Pacific. Now, in this enumeration, those who 
are acquainted with the country are aware that, for the sake of brevity, 
I have omitted thousands of miles of other lakes and rivers which water 
various regions of the North-West [and the whole Hudson s Bay district, 
or Moosonee Diocese -with twelve or fourteen C.M.S. stations]" * 

Lord Dufferin went on to notice the good feeling subsisting 
between the white man and the red man, attributing it to two or 
three causes. But he omitted to mention one cause, not the 
least effectual of them the fact that some ten thousand of the 
red men were Christians, the great majority the fruit, under God, 
of the Society s labours. 

Let us now take the four dioceses in order, and glance briefly 
at some of the work done in them in our period. 

I. It is not necessary to visit the various stations in that part 
of the reduced Diocese of Rupert s Land which had become the gj 1 OC g" s of 
Province of Manitoba. Under the general guidance of Bishop 
Machray and Archdeacon Cowley, the Indians were well cared 
for. But the diocese extended east to Lake Superior, covering 
the still uncleared country through which, by-and-by, the 
Canadian Pacific Railway was to mark out its course from that 
Lake to Winnipeg ; and in that country Mr. Phair, in 1874, began 
a new Mission to Indians yet unevangelized, making his head- 
quarters at Fort Francis, in the Rainy Lake district. A journal stations, 
of Bishop Machray s visitation of the eastern part of his diocese, 

* The references to C.M.S. stations inserted in this extract are given as 
they were inserted in the C.M. Intelligencer at the time. The work has 
further extended since then. 

VOL. III. u 



PART VIII. in 1880, gives an interesting account of the work there ; par- 
1873-82. ticularly the station founded at the expense of Miss Landon, of 
Chap.^82. j^h, a f ter h er f a n downstairs at the C.M. College/- and named 
at her request " Islington." The people there were called 
" Swampy Crees," and their pastor was a Swampy Cree himself, 
the Eev. Baptiste Spence. The diocese also, for a time, until 
more new dioceses were formed, included the stations of Devon 
and Cumberland on the Lower Saskatchewan ; and those stations, 
after Henry Budd s death, were worked by other excellent men 
from St. John s College. But perhaps the most interesting ex 
tension of the Mission in the mother diocese was witnessed when 
Work some bodies of the famous Sioux or Dakotah nation the greatest 
of all the old Eed Indian tribes took refuge within the borders 
of the Canadian dominion to avoid the advancing tide of American 
emigration south of the frontier line, which had led to desperate 
fighting. The chief of one of the parties was the celebrated 
Sitting Bull, and he very touchingly appealed to the Great White 
Bull." Mother (Queen Victoria) : 

"The Great Spirit has made the Red Man and the White Man 
brothers, and they ought to take each other by the hand. The Great 
Spirit loves all His children. He esteems the White Man and the Red 
Man alike. The wicked White Man and the wicked Red Man are the 
only ones He does not love. It was the Great Spirit, not the White 
Man, who gave us these lands. I do not think that the Great Spirit 
sent the White Man across the waters to execute His works, because 
the White Man has robbed us. ... I trust the Great Mother. I am 
but a poor Indian. I have no friend but the Queen and the Great 
Spirit." f 

To assist the Bishop in planting a Mission among one of the 
bands of Sioux to whom the Government granted some reserved 
lands at a place called Oak River, the Society for some years 
voted 100 a year ; and a young clergyman from St. John s 
College, the Rev. W. A. Burman, went to labour among them. 
Sakatche f ^ ^~^ Q Diocese ^ Saskatchewan was almost virgin soil when 
wan. Bishop McLean, one of the most energetic and self-denying of 
men, took charge of it. As already indicated, it did not at first 
include the Lower River, on which Hunter and Budd had done 
so great a work ; and the only mission stations within its area 
were Nepowewin, just at the entrance to its vast territories, and 
Stanley, on English River, far away to the north. The first 
advance made by the C.M.S. was when John Hines, a practical 
farmer, was sent to the neighbourhood of White Fish Lake, to a 
place afterwards called Asisippi. He threw himself with ex 
emplary zeal into the work, soon won the confidence of the 
Indians, and mastered their language ; and in 1876 the Bishop 

* See Vol. II., p. 319. 

f From an account of an interview with Sitting Bull, in the Toronto 
Daily Globe of November 21st, 1877, printed in the C.M. Intelligencer of 
March, 1878. 

i?i h n"s. 


ordained him. But the great Plains stretching away westward to PART VIII. 
the Eocky Mountains were still untouched. In 1876, however, 1873-82. 
the Government took measures to settle the Plain Crees upon Cba P- 82 - 
reserves ; and some thousands of them assembled in that year at The Plain 
three centres, Carlton, Fort Pitt, and Battle Eiver, to consider Indians - 
the Government proposals for their benefit. At Carlton the 
excellent country-born missionary, J. A. Mackay, was present, 
and sent a most interesting account of the proceedings. As the 
treaty at this spot dealt with the nearest part of the country, 
four of the eight Cree chiefs who were there proved to be 
Christians, two from Nepowewin and two from Hines s new 
station, Asisippi. It was observable that these Christians were 
the most intelligent of the party, and took a leading part in the 
discussions. An account was also sent of the Fort Pitt gathering; 
and the speech of Governor Morris to the Indians there so well 
illustrates the generous, and therefore successful, dealings of the 
Canadian authorities with the Eed Man, that an extract here will 
be acceptable : 

"Indians of the Plains, Crees, Chipewyans, Assiniboines, and Governor 
Chippewas, my message is to all. I come here to-day as your Governor ^Jd r "s S s 
under the Queen. The Crees for many days have sent word that to the 
they wanted to see someone face to face. The Crees are the principal Indians, 
tribe of the Plain Indians, and it is for me a pleasant duty to be here 
to-day, and receive the welcome I have from them. I am here because 
the Queen and her Councillors have the good of the Indian at heart 
because you are the Queen s children, and we must think of you for 
to-day and to-morrow. The condition of the Indians, and their future, 
has given the Queen s Councillors much anxiety. In the old provinces 
of Canada, from which I came, we have many Indians ; they are grow 
ing in numbers, and are, as a rule, happy and prosperous ; for a hundred 
) ears red and white hands have been clasped together in peace. The 
instructions of the Queen are to treat the Indians as brothers and so 
we ought to be. The Great Spirit made this earth we are on He 
planted the trees, and made the rivers flow for the good of all His 
people white and red. The country is very wide, and there is room 
for all. It is six years since the Queen took back into her own hands 
the government of all her subjects, red and white, in this country. It 
was thought her Indian children would be better cared for in her own 
hands. This is the seventh time in the last five years that her Indian 
children have been called together for this purpose. This is the fourth 
time that I have met my Indian brothers ; and standing here on this 
bright day, with the sun over us, I cast my eyes to the east, down to 
the great lakes, and I see a broad road leading from there to the Red 
River ; I see it stretching on to Ellice ; I see it branching thence, the 
one to Qu Apelle and Cypress Hill, the other by Pelly to Carlton. It is 
a wide and plain trail any one can see it ; and on that road, taking for 
the Queen the hand of the Governor and Commissioners, I see all the 
Indians ; I see the Queen s Councillors taking the Indian by th e hand, 
saying, We are brothers ; we will lift you up ; we will teach you, if you 
will learn the cunning of the white man. All along that road I see 
Indians gathering ; I see gardens growing and houses building ; I see 
them receiving money from the Queen s Councillors to purchase clothing 
for their children. At the same time I see them enjoying their hunting 

B 2 



PART VIII. and fishing as before. I see them retaining their old mode of living, 
1873-82. with the Queen s gift in addition 

Chap. 82. 



McLean s 


Diocese of 

nearly all 


You must think of those that come after you. As I came here I 
saw tracks leading to the lakes arid watercourses, once well beaten, now 
grown over with grass. I saw bones bleaching by the wayside, I saw 
the places where the buffalo had been, but where he will never be again, 
and I thought, What will become of the Indian ? I said to myself, We 
must teach the children to prepare for the future ; if we do not, but a 
few suns will pass, and they will melt away like snow before the sun in 
springtime. You know my words are true. You see for yourselves, 
and know that your numbers are lessening every year. Now the whole 
burden of my message from the Queen is, that we wish to help you in 
the days that are to come." 

And here is the chief s reply : 

" I thank you for this day, and I thank you for what I have seen and 
heard. I also thank the Queen for sending you to act for our good. 
I am glad for your offers. I speak this in the presence of the Great 
Spirit. It is all for our good. I see nothing to be afraid of. I there 
fore accept of it gladly, and take- your hand to my heart. May this 
continue as long as this earth stands and the river flows ! If I am 
spared, I shall commence at once to clear a small piece of land for 
myself, and others of my kinsmen will do the same. I am thankful. 
May this earth here never see the white man s blood spilt upon it ! I 
am thankful that I can lift up my head, and the white man and the red 
man can stand together as long as the sun shines." 

Subsequently the Government went further west and south 
west, and dealt in the same way with the still wild and untamed 
Blackfoot and Blood Indians ; and gradually, though slowly, the 
Missions were extended to a few isolated stations on the illimitable 
prairies. In 1882, Bishop McLean held his first Diocesan Synod, 
and reported with thankfulness that he had now sixteen clergy 
men, English, country-born, and Indian, of whom eight were 
C.M.S. and six S.P.G. The S.P.G. men were primarily for the 
settlers, but they by no means neglected the Indians near their 
stations. It should be added that the Canadian Methodists and 
Presbyterians were also at work, and many Roman Catholics. 

III. Turning back to the east, let us visit the Diocese of 
Moosonee. Bishop Horden continued his patient pastoral and 
translational labours at Moose, and his frequent journeys, by 
canoe, or over the snow, to the various stations, east, west, north, 
and south. At Albany was a zealous clergyman of mixed race, 
Thomas Vincent, whom, just as our period closes, Horden 
appointed Archdeacon. Kirkby, at York, had previously received 
the same distinction ; but his always graphic and welcome letters 
ceased on his retirement from the Society in 1880. He had, 
however, been able to report, in 1876, " the End of Heathenism at 
York," the last chief and his people being baptized on Whit 
Sunday in that year. Almost all the Indians in the diocese were 
now professing Christians ; but the Eskimo still remained un- 
evangelized. Those accessible from Churchill, on the west side 
of Hudson s Bay, were visited occasionally from York ; but Mr. 


and Mrs. Lofthouse s brave and successful residence at that in- PART VIII. 
hospitable spot had not commenced in 1882. On the eastern side 
of the Bay a remarkable work was begun in 1876. The privations 
of Mr. Watkins in his efforts twenty years before to reach the 
Eskimo there were noticed in our Fiftieth Chapter ; but no one had 
succeeded in doing much. In 1876, Bishop Horden wrote to the 

Society and begged for a strong, plain man a sailor for choice, appeal for 
who could face real hardships, to come out and seek the Eskimo. 
wanderers in the wilderness of the Whale Eivers and the interior 
of Labrador. On the Atlantic coast of Labrador the Moravians 
had long worked nobly, but they had never crossed the snow-clad 
wastes to the shores of Hudson s Bay. It so happened, in God s 
good providence, that just then a Scripture-reader once aE.j.Peck 
Sunday-school boy, who had been converted to God while a 
seaman in the Navy through reading a Bible given him years 
before by his teacher had been introduced to the Society by the 
Rev. T. R. Govett, Vicar of Newmarket. This man s name was 
Edmund Peck ; and he was keenly desirous of being sent to the 
wildest and roughest Mission-field in the world, if only he might 
there be privileged to win souls for Christ. Mr. Wright was 
charmed with his simplicity and zeal and soundness in the faith ; 
and on July llth Edmund Peck sailed in the annual ship for 
Moose. On September 1st he was warmly welcomed there by 
Bishop and Mrs. Horden ; and after staying with them only one 
week, he started in a small open sailing-boat for Little Whale 
River, which he safely reached in seven weeks, though his boat Hudson s 
was swamped three times. He had with him two or three books Bay - 
in Eskimo prepared by the Moravians, and with these and an 
Indian interpreter named Adam, he set to work. Here is just a 
glimpse of his earliest efforts : 

" October 2oM. The Esquimaux gave me a very hearty welcome indeed, 
which encouraged me much. I went to Mulueto s iyloe, or house. Here Eskimo. 
I read to them the Word of God, which, to my great joy, they under 
stood. This may seem strange, seeing the Testament I have got is 
written in the Labrador dialect, which is supposed to differ from Whale 
River considerably. This is not the case, I find, for when one gets to 
know the peculiar sounds of some of the letters, it then is easily under 
stood. These sounds I learned, in some measure, from Adam, who is 
able to read the Testament. I used also to read to him. I thus got 
into a fair way of reading before my arrival, so that without any delay I 
was able to give these poor people the Word of life, which is the very 
sword of the Spirit. How soon God finds instruments. I little thought 
this would be of such service, as I studied its pages on the trackless 
deep, or even when Adam assisted me to read it, seeing he could not 
tell me, being himself a native of Labrador. 

"November 6th. Study of Indian and Esquimaux words. These I collect 
the night before. My plan is to write down some simple words and 
sentences. I then get the corresponding Indian or Esquimaux words from 
Adam Lucy or Moses Molueto ; the Indian words are gathered from one 
of the Company s men, named David Loutett. I find all very willing to 
help me, for which I am indeed thankful. My daily collection averages 

2 4 6 


His ordi 

His new 


Diocese of 

PART VIII. from eighty to a hundred words. These are learned the following day, 
1873-82. and brought into actual use as soon as possible, thus impressing the 

Chap. 82. same on rny memory, as well as making me familiar with the peculiar 
sounds. I have now got some thousands of words, mostly Esquimaux, 
which I gathered by study of Testament, and from my different friends." 

A year later, at the Bishop s desire, Peck returned to Moose, 
and spent the winter in study ; and Horden, thoroughly satisfied 
with his progress, ordained him to the ministry of the Church on 
February 3rd, 1878. In 1879, through the efforts of Mr. Wright s 
eldest daughter, 300 was collected to purchase, and send out in 
pieces, a little iron church, forty feet by twenty ; and with infinite 
labour this was ultimately conveyed to Little Whale Eiver, put up 
by Peck himself, and opened on October 28th. There were 
already a few converts, even from among the degraded Eskimo ; 
and by the end of 1882, when our period closes, be had baptized 
sixty-four adults and forty children, and there were forty cate- 
cbumens, making 144 souls gathered out of the darkest Heathen 
ism. Truly in the band of our God are " all the corners of tbe 
earth " ! 

IV. We next proceed to the Far North, to the Diocese of Atha 
basca, stretching, as it did at that time, from the watershed, 
between the rivers flowing into Hudson s Bay and those flowing 
into the Polar Sea, to the Arctic coast itself, and thence, over the 
northern extremity of the Eockies, into the basin of the Yukon. 
Three huge dioceses now divide those territories ; but during the 
period under review the Diocese of Athabasca contained the 
whole. Bishop Bompas, on arriving at Fort Simpson on the 
Mackenzie Eiver, the "capital" of the country, at the end of 
1874, began at once to organize his forces. They were scanty 
enough ! When, on September 4th, 1876, he held his first 
Diocesan Synod, and delivered his Primary Charge, his clergy 
numbered exactly three, viz., Archdeacon E. McDonald and 
A. Garrioch, country-born men, and W. D. Eeeve, his single 
English comrade. In addition, he had four or five country-born 
schoolmasters. Yet he proceeded to divide his diocese into four 
great divisions, viz., (1) the Tukudh Mission, in the extreme north 
west, on the Yukon and its tributaries, under McDonald ; (2) the 
Mackenzie Eiver Mission, under Eeeve ; (3) the Great Slave Lake 
Mission, under schoolmasters ; (4) the Athabasca Mission, com 
prising the southern districts and the Peace Eiver, to which latter 
sphere he sent Garrioch. He himself travelled during the summer; 
and what the journeys meant is best illustrated by an expression of 
his -"voyages similar to one from London to Constantinople in 
a canal barge." In the winter he settled at one - or other of the 
posts, generally choosing one where there was no other mission 

When Bompas paid his one visit to England, in 1873-4, for 
consecration, he married ; and his intrepid wife accompanied him 
to the desolate regions in which he has ever since lived. But she 

Bompas s 
Synod of 

Travel in 
the Far 

and his 


could not always be with him. Not only had he to leave her PART VIII. 
during his prolonged journeys, but on at least one occasion ( ^ 73 ~ 8 <? 
they were obliged to separate for a winter, because at the post 
where she was there was only flour enough for one during the 
coming months, so he had to go elsewhere. Her health did 
not allow her to remain permanently in the country ; and three 
times has she travelled backwards and forwards between a 
civilized land (England or Manitoba) and the Arctic Circle, some 
times spending a year or two out there, and sometimes coming 
home for a few months to recruit. But there was a bright side 
to her journeyings. This is what she wrote the first time she 
came southwards to Winnipeg, in 1877 : 

" I am very thankful to have come to the end of my long journey Mrs. 
from Athabasca, which, by God s mercy, I accomplished with less fatigue ^ n ^ pas 
than I anticipated. I met with much kindness on my way at the journey 
various mission stations, and also at the Company s forts, and I visited Jjjjj an 
many Indian camps, where one seldom fails to meet with a hearty Christians, 
welcome. Sometimes I had prayers with some of the women and 
children in my tent. They seem to like to come, and enjoy singing 
hymns. Mr. Mackay has translated Hold the Fort, and The sweet 
by and by/ and I am going home/ into Cree, and they are great 
favourites, as are also Nearer, my God, to Thee and Jerusalem the 
Golden. I was much interested in the Indians at Stanley Mission. 
There are about 500 there. My boat s crew from Isle a la Crosse to 
Cumberland was composed of Stanley men, and a more orderly, well- 
conducted set I never saw. They had a nice little service every morning 
and evening among themselves, which I almost always attended ; it 
consisted of a hymn (beautifully sung in parts}, a few words of Scripture, 
and a few of the Church prayers. Some days the poor men were quite 
worn out with hard work at the portages, and for two days their 
provisions ran short, and they were nearly starving, but they sang their 
hymn and had prayers without fail ; and when relief came, in the shape 
of two canoes bringing bags of flour and pemmican, their shout of 
delight, I think, must almost have reached Salisbury Square ! ... I am 
thankful to find all my powers gradually returning, and the state of 
woful emaciation to which I was reduced giving way under the influences 
of milk and other luxuries, of which I was deprived at Athabasca. I 
deplore my having to leave my work so soon, but I earnestly trust in 
(Jod s mercy to bring me back to it again in the early spring." 

Gradually and steadily the work advanced ; and in 1882 the Extension 
Bishop could report that he had nine stations, viz., Fort Chipewyan work. 
on Athabasca Lake ; Vermillion and Dunvegan, on Peace Kiver ; 
Forts Eae and Resolution, on Great Slave Lake ; Forts Simpson 
and Norman, on Mackenzie Eiver ; Fort McPherson, on Peel 
River ; and Rampart House on Porcupine River, in the Yukon 
basin. Three more men had joined him from England, Sim, 
Spendlove, and Canham, the last-named having been sent out on 
a special donation of 1000 given at the time of recovery from the 
Society s financial crisis of 1879-80, with the express purpose of 
evangelizing the Eskimo of the Arctic coast. 

In 1877, Bishop Bompas estimated the whole population of the 
diocese at 10,000, of whom one half were more or less under 


Chap. 82. 


" Invete 

ism " of 





Romanist influence, while of the other half the Church of England 
had won 3000, and 2000 were still unreached. The Roman 
missionaries held the southern districts strongly, and most of the 
Indians around Athabasca Lake clave to them. The greatest 
success of the Protestant Mission was among the Tukudh tribes 
on the Yukon and its tributaries. In the Roman Catholic Annals 
of the Propagation of the Faith, the priests on the Yukon mourned 
over the invincible heresy of the Tukudh people, and found 
their only comfort in having "regenerated" some Heathen 
children.- Thus, in September, 1874 : 

" On the next morning, the sacred day of Pentecost, I went to the 
other bank to persuade the Indians, by means of the interpreter of 
Nulato, to get their children baptized. With the help of God, they 
raised no obstacles, and ten children more were regenerated. This was 
all I could do in this place. . . . 

" His Lordship Monseigneur Glut joined me at Nulato by the banked 
boat at Youcon, the 4th of June, at night, and we all set off the following 
evening, having added to our registry of baptisms some names of infant 
children. . . . 

" In conclusion, our voyage has been a trying one, but it has given us 
present consolations and future hopes. We commenced it by coming 
into collision unsuccessfully with the inveterate Protestantism of 
Youcon, the more mobile Protestantism, but still serious, of a number 
" of Indians of Nuklukaiet ; then we were well received, sometimes with 
assiduous attention, from Nuklukaiet to Nulato ; from that spot we met 
greater degradation than in any other locality, sometimes amounting to 
utter bestiality. When we arrived here we had registered our 116th 
baptism. Gf the number, how many little angels have flown up to 
heaven and will pray to God for the success of the new Missions ! 
Had this been the only result we obtained, would it not be enough to 
compensate for the troubles and fatigues of the voyage ? " 

These Tukudh Indians, indeed, proved one of the joys of the 
Church Missionary Society. Their simple faith and fervour have 
not been surpassed in any Mission-field ; and by the system of 
"Christian leaders," under which the best men were told off to 
act as catechists to the rest, not ceasing from their hunting and 
fishing, and taking no pay, was an example which more prosperous 
Native Churches might imitate to advantage. 

So much for the " North- West America," or, as it is now 
called, North-West Canada Mission. But we have not yet done 
with the Dominion of Canada. We must cross the Rocky 
Mountains, not only at their northern extremity, within the Arctic 
Circle, to reach the Tukudh Indians of the Yukon basin, but also 
at a far more southerly point, and emerge on to the coast of the 
North Pacific Ocean opposite Queen Charlotte Islands. Here we 

* In the C.M. Gleantr of March, 1880, there was a fac simile of a rough 
picture given by the Roman priests to the Indians, representing the Pro 
testants falling down into hell, the Roman priests and monks ascending 
straight to heaven, and the ordinary Romanists passing thither through 


are once again at the scene of the Mission to the Tsimshean PARTVIIT. 
Indians, and of the work of Mr. Duncan, introduced in our Sixty- l 8 ?3-82. 
sixth Chapter. 

In that chapter we brought the story of this Mission, and of its 
remarkable influence upon the whole coast, well into our present 
period, noting the arrival of W. H. Collison in 1873 and of A. J. 
Hall in 1877. These two, with Duncan and Tomlinson, wielded 
the labouring oars during the decade. Others joined, but did not 
stay long. Metlakahtla was now only the centre of an expanding 
Mission. At Kincolith, on the Nass Eiver, Tomlinson was doing 
a good work. Collison had gone over to Queen Charlotte Islands, J^J^J 1 
the first messenger of the Gospel to the Hydahs, the finest and Hydahs. 
fiercest of all the North Pacific tribes ; and very remarkable 
indeed were the results of his patient and faithful labours. At 
Christmas, 1878, when the Hydahs from outlying settlements 
came in canoes to the chief trading post, Massett, to engage, as 
they expected, in the usual wild dances, " with painted faces and 
blackened naked bodies," they were met, to their astonishment, 
by a choir of one hundred of their own nation, chanting the 
anthem, "How beautiful upon the mountains." Another new 
Mission was started in 1878 three hundred miles to the south, at 
Fort Eupert, a trading post at the north end of Vancouver s 
Island. The tribe there was called Kwa-gutl (at first spelt 
Quoquolt). The Eoman priests had been among them without u ti 
success ; and the head chief, having heard of Metlakahtla, I 
journeyed thither, and said that Duncan had " thrown a rope out 
which was encircling all the Indians in one common brotherhood." 
Mr. Hall settled at Fort Eupert in 1878, and in 1881 at Alert Bay, 
on a neighbouring island ; and in after years he too was privileged 
to reap a harvest of souls. 

It was indicated at the close of our Sixty-sixth Chapter that the 
C.M.S. Committee, while thanking God for Mr. Duncan s re 
markable work, had some grounds for anxiety regarding the 
Mission. We have seen how in its earlier days Bishop Hills of 
Columbia had more than once taken the five hundred miles 
voyage to visit Metlakahtla, and had himself baptized a large 
number of converts. But a sad schism had arisen in the Church 
at Victoria, the capital of British Columbia. Some extreme men Columbia, 
had gone thither and introduced novel ritual ; and as a protest 
against this, Mr. Cridge, the Evangelical chaplain, unhappily 
seceded, and joined the " Eeformed Episcopal Church" then 
lately founded in the United States. Now Mr. Cridge was a 
warm friend of Duncan and of Metlakahtla, and these circum 
stances did not tend to increase Duncan s loyalty to the Church 
of England. In particular, he objected to the Indian Christians Duncan s 

, . -I < r> -i , -i , j-i TT i /~i fears about 

being prepared for confirmation or admitted to the Holy Com- the Lord s 
munion. He feared that if the Lord s Supper were administered Su PP er - 
to them with the usual English service, they would make a 
"fetish " of it. But the Society s experience all over the world 



Chap. 82. 

visits Met 


diocese of 


Ridley at 



assured the Committee if such assurance were necessary that 
the Lord can take care of His own ordinance, and that the most 
infantine Christians, if true Christians, can be safely invited to be 
partakers of its blessing. As we saw in our Sixty-sixth Chapter, 
the Committee again and again commissioned ordained mis 
sionaries to go out and take spiritual charge of the converts, and 
"rightly and duly to administer Christ s holy Sacraments "; but 
one and all failed to over-ride Duncan s authority. Bishop Hills, 
with great generosity, refrained from adding fuel to the flames by 
himself again visiting Metlakahtla, and wrote to Bishop Bompas 
asking him to cross the Eocky Mountains and come down and 
visit the Mission, believing that he, as a C.M.S. man, would 
receive a more cordial welcome. Bompas did take the long and 
(at that time) perilous journey ; he confirmed 124 of the Christians ; 
he directed that they be at once formed into communicants 
classes ; and he gave Collison both deacon s and priest s orders, 
and put him in pastoral charge of Metlakahtla which appoint 
ment the Society at once confirmed. But after he left, Duncan s 
authority was again asserted ; and the Lord s Table was still 
closed against the Indians. 

In 1879, Bishop Hills, being on a visit to England, arranged 
with the Archbishop of Canterbury for the division of the Diocese 
of Columbia into three, two new dioceses, New Westminster and 
Caledonia, being formed out of it. Caledonia, the northern section, 
comprised the C.M.S. Mission-fields, and the Society undertook, 
at Bishop Hills s request, to nominate the bishop and find the 
stipend ; and the scheme was most happily consummated by 
the selection of the Eev. William Eidley, Vicar of St. Paul s, 
Huddersfield. Mr. Eidley had been a C.M.S. missionary at 
Peshawar, and in our Sixty-third Chapter we had a glimpse of 
the devoted labours of both himself and Mrs. Eidley among the 
fanatical Afghans. The consecration took place on St. James s 
Day, July 25th, 1879, together with that of J. M. Speedily to the 
new diocese of Travancore and Cochin, Dr. Barclay to the see of 
Jerusalem, and W. Walsham How to the Suffragan Bishopric of 
Bedford. The sermon was preached by Dean W. E. Fremantle, 
of Eipon, on the familiar but singularly suitable text, Acts i. 8 
"Witnesses . . . both in Jerusalem . . . and unto the uttermost 
part of the earth." 

Bishop Eidley had an easier and speedier journey to his new 
diocese than would have been thought possible a few years earlier. 
The Pacific Eailway was now complete across the United States ; 
and, sailing from Liverpool for New York on September 13th, he 
crossed the continent to San Francisco, and thence went north 
ward by steamer to Victoria, arriving there on October 14th. 
Duncan was there to meet him, and also Admiral Prevost, who 
had gone out a few months before to prepare the way ; and 
together they went on to Metlakahtla, whence the Bishop s first 
letter was dated November 1st. He wrote enthusiastically of 


Metlakahtla; yet his picture of it presents a curious spectacle of PART VIII. 
the reign of " law." Writing of the whole population turning out 1873-82. 
to the Sunday services in the church, he said : Chap. 82. 

" Inwardly I exclaimed, What hath God wrought ! But it would be 
wrong to suppose that the love of God alone impelled them all. All, 
without reasonable cause to the contrary, are expected to attend the 
public services. A couple of policemen, as a matter of routine, are in 
uniform, and this is an indication that loitering during service hours is 
against proper civil order. This wholesome restraint is possible during 
these early stages of the corporate life of the community. At present 
one strong will is supreme. To resist it, every Indian feels, would be as 
impossible as to stop the tides. This righteous autocracy is as much 
feared by the ungodly as it is respected by the faithful." 

The Bishop proceeded at once to visit the various stations ; but Ridley on 
there being only canoes available, even for crossing the stormy the sea 
seas, it was sometimes at the peril of his life. Within a few days 
of his arrival he and nine Indians went a hundred miles in a canoe 
that two men could lift, hollowed out of a tree. In the night a 
gale came on, and, wrote the Bishop, " We were as nearly lost as 
saved men could be." " Unless I get a steamer," he added, " a 
new bishop will soon be wanted, for a very short episcopal career 
is probable ! " He had to wait nearly two years before a steamer 
for the Mission was provided ; but at last, in August, 1881, the 
little Evangeline was launched at Victoria. In a letter from the His little 
Bishop describing his first voyage in her, the following graphic st 
little passage occurs : 

" It is 10.30, and my turn to be on deck. The moon shines brilliantly 
on a glassy sea. The Indian at the helm is singing Rock of Ages, but 
he must go to bed. The only other person on board is the European 
engineer, who is fast asleep. We must go on till we reach the Skeena 
to-morrow morning, as there is no harbour nearer. There we shall 
spend Sunday, and (D.V.) go on to Metlakahtla on Monday morning." 

Metlakahtla continued to prosper in secular affairs. Eeports 
from Government commissioners spoke of it most favourably. 
Duncan, in a brief note to the Society, thus summarized the 
progress in 1880 : 

" Good progress made. Over 300 Indians from Fort Simpson and External 
Kitkatla spent Christmas with us. Our village growing. Over 100 new JJ- SJ. ^ 
houses up. Fresh machinery introduced. A telephone at work at the kahtla. 
saw-mills. A furniture manufactory and sash shop at work. Our 
females have been taught spinning and weaving. The shawls, blankets, 
and cloth manufactured by them have caused great rejoicing." 

But in Church matters there was no improvement. Indeed its 
Bishop Eidley found an unexpected absence of Christian instruc- fmp??fec- 
tion and privileges in the settlement. There were no Bible- tions - 
classes ; there had been no attempt to give the people the 
Scriptures in their own tongue ; while the children were taught 
English in the school, the adults were dependent on the Sunday 
addresses of Duncan and Collison the latter having no power to 


Chap. 82. 

on the 

sends an 
to Duncan, 


institute new plans. The Sunday services under police super 
vision were practically the only religious ordinance ; and the 
people were entirely absorbed in their fast-increasing worldly 
possessions. The typical Industrial Mission, admired by all 
Christendom, was failing to effect its highest purpose. 

The Bishop found himself practically helpless. He wrote home 
very cautiously, anxious not to mar a great work by premature 
action. He actually spent the winter of 1880-81 far up the 
Skeena Eiver, among the Kitikshean Indians of the interior, on 
purpose that his presence at Metlakahtla might not cause friction ; 
and from the Skeena he wrote the earliest of those incomparable 
letters to the Gleaner which have so often thrilled the hearts of 
Christian people at home.* But others were not so forbearing 
and cautious. Mr. Cridge s party at Victoria, and the Presby 
terians and Methodists there, attacked the Bishop in the local 
papers, which found their way to England and influenced the 
minds of some who did believe in Duncan and did not believe in 
" episcopal autocracy." 

But the Committee stood firm to the Scriptural principles of 
the Church of England. Again and again they wrote out, reason 
ing with Duncan and appealing to his loyalty and good feeling. 
At length, in 1881, in reply to a definite challenge from him, they 
sent out an ultimatum. Duncan was required, either (1) to come 
to England at once for conference, or (2) to facilitate the Bishop s 
plans for the religious instruction of the people, or (3) to hand over 
the Mission wholly to the Bishop, and leave the place. In deep 
anxiety the answer was awaited. It came, just as the New Year, 
1882, opened : not in the form of a letter from Duncan, but in the 
person of Bishop Ridley himself, who suddenly landed at Liver 
pool, having come over as fast as possible to report the result, 
leaving his undaunted wife behind. 

What was his report? It was this, that on receipt of the 
ultimatum Duncan had called all the Indians together, told them 
the Society had dismissed him, and asked them whether they 
would stand by him or whether he should go. Their response was 
inevitable. Here was their benefactor, their leader, in effect their 
king ; they were no longer poor wandering Indians, but a thriving 
community with considerable investments at Victoria, and they 
owed it to him. What was the Society, or the Church, or the 
Bishop, to them? Out of nearly one thousand inhabitants of 
Metlakahtla, nine hundred openly refused further intercourse with 
the Bishop and Mr. Collison ; and though the small minority, less 
than one hundred in number, included the very best of the chiefs 
and people, their position was a very difficult one, as they were 
practically "boycotted" by their brethren, and, in particular, 
excluded from the church. 

Bishop Ridley, having consulted with the Society, hastened 

C.M. Gleaner, July, 1881, and October, 1882. 


back to his diocese ; but a long period of anxiety and distress was PART VIII. 
before him. Into that story the present chapter must not enter. 1873-82. 
It will be told hereafter. Chapes. 

Thus the great Enemy had succeeded in inflicting grave injury success of 
upon what was perhaps the most popular Mission of the Society. 
The Committee were in deep sorrow ; and thus they expressed 
themselves in the Annual Eeport on the year 1882, prepared for 
the Anniversary of 1883 : 

" They commit Metlakahtla and all its people to His care unto whom 
all hearts are open, all desires known, praising Him for the manifesta 
tions of His quickening and converting grace in the past, especially for 
the converts who have departed this life in His faith and fear, and thus 
were taken away from the evil to come, and praying that He will 
enable all the Indian Christians, if not to resume their outward union, 
yet to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace." 



Chap. 83. 

An im 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-82. 

Joint Committee of Finance and Estimates Heavy Retrenchments 
Men Kept Back Wright s Ordination Sermon Controversy in the 
I. F.N.S. Establishment of the C.E.Z. M.S. Deaths of Miller and 
Auriol Henry Wright drowned F. E. Wigram appointed Hon. 
Sec. New Group System Retirement of E. Hutchinson Appoint 
ment of General G. Hutchinson and R. Lang Shepherd and Drury 
Fresh Efforts to raise Funds New Missionaries " Half as Much 
Again" Prospects of Extension Childe on the Holy War. 

" He being dead yet speaTceth." Heb. xi. 4. 

" Now after the death of Moses the servant of the Lord it came to pass, that the 
Lord spake unto Joshua . . . Arise, go over this Jordan, . . . As I was with 
Moses, so I will be with thee." Josh. i. 1, 2, 5. 

" The Lord shall help them, and deliver them . . . because they trust in Him." 
Ps. xxxvii. 40. 

N the inner history of Salisbury Square, the twelve 
months from June, 1880, to June, 1881, were an epoch 
of exceptional importance. In June, 1880, the unusual 
number of seventeen Islington men were ordained by 
the Bishop of London, but were all detained in 
England under the Scheme of Eetrenchment adopted in the spring 
of that year an unprecedented event in the Society s history. 
In August, Henry Wright was drowned in Coniston Lake. In 
October, the Rev. F. E. Wigram was appointed Hon. Secretary 
of the Society. In November, the home administration of the 
Society s Missions was put on a new footing by the adoption of the 
Group Committee system. In January, 1881, Wigram came into 
the House. In May, Edward Hutchinson retired from the Lay 
Secretaryship. In June, General George Hutchinson was ap 
pointed his successor. And at the same time, special contributions 
of all kinds had been pouring in ; several retrenchment plans 
were reversed, or were never carried out ; every available man 
was sent into the field, and more asked for ; and the Society 
entered upon the extension and enlargement which have marked 
its career from that time to this. Then in the following year, 
some beginnings were made in what have proved to be important 
developments of home work. In short, as before observed, the 
brief period to be described in this chapter marks the dividing- 
line between the Past and the Present in the history of the 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 255 

The present chapter is a continuation of Chapter LXXI. The PART VIII. 
story of Salisbury Square in that chapter was purposely cut short 1873-82. 
at the beginning of 1880, in order that the events of the last Chap - 83> 
two years and a half of the period we have been reviewing might 
be recorded after, and not before, the accounts of the various 
Missions during the period, and thus form a suitable conclusion to 
this Eighth Part of our History. 

In Chapter LXXI. we saw that in the early months of 1880 a Policy of 
Special Joint Committee of Finance and Estimates were compre- 
hensively reviewing the financial position and prospects of the 
Society, and that, notwithstanding the remarkable token of God s 
goodness seen in the complete wiping out of the previous year s 
deficiency of 25,000, which was completed while the Joint 
Committee were sitting, they declined to swerve from the strong 
policy of Eetrenchment upon which they had resolved. Henry 
Wright struggled hard against this decision, and pleaded for more 
faith in Him who had just sent so unlooked-for a deliverance ; 
but he found scarcely a single supporter. It would not be right 
now to find fault with the able and faithful men who con 
scientiously adopted a policy which they regarded essential both 
to the safety of the Society and to its honest reputation. Their 
strong conviction was that no religious Society ought to run its grounds 
ahead of Divine Providence ; that the Divine Will is indicated 
by the amount of funds committed to the Society s adminis 
tration ; that while it i right to use every talent given to us, 
we are not responsible for talents not given to us. It was this 

Erinciple that the Special Finance Committee of 1841-42 had 
lid down, at that period of unexampled difficulty ; arid their 
Eeport (noticed in our Thirty-first Chapter) was frequently referred 
to in the discussions of 1880. The view that God s will is The other 
indicated, not by money, but by men, and that, for such mis- sn. not 
sionaries (and no others) as are plainly of His raising up, it is not 
presumptuous but reasonable to believe that He will provide the 
means, if simply asked and unreservedly trusted, is a view that 
never found expression at all at the time, and apparently was 
realized by no one. It was not enunciated even bv Henrv 

The Joint Committee felt bound, therefore, to make an estimate 
of probable Income, and to govern Expenditure by it. They esti 
mated the Income at 185,000 a year, and they decided that 
measures must be taken to reduce the Expenditure, which had 
risen to 200,000, to the former figure, not for one year only, but ordered, 
for some years to come. To effect this, (1) various reductions 
were ordered in the Missions, the most important of which were 
the withdrawal of missionaries from several stations in North 
India, including Allahabad, Lucknow, Fyzabad, Aligarh, &c., and 
also from Shanghai and Peking in China. In the event, several 
of these measures were not persevered in; but the withdrawal 
from Peking did take effect, not entirely on financial grounds, 

256 THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 

PART VIII. however, but in pursuance of the arrangement before explained 

1873-82. f or new diocesan divisions in China. (2) For the next three 

Chap. 83. vearg) on i v ve new men were to be sent out each year, and 

Men kept eight of those on furlough to be allowed to return to the field ; 

back - and as seven of the Islington men of 1879 had been already kept 

back under the retrenchment order of that year, it followed that 

the five to go in 1880 would be chosen from these, and not one of 

the 1880 men could be sent at all. (3) The number of men under 

training, which (it will be remembered) had risen to eighty-one in 

1877, was not to exceed thirty-three. 

The Joint Committee also made some financial arrangements, 
on ^ one ^ wn i c k nee ds to be mentioned. The Working Capital 
Fund, which had previously moved up and down with the 
surpluses or deficits of successive years, was in future to be 
stationary at the fixed sum of 60,000, and there being at the 
time a rather larger sum invested than that, the balance was taken 
to start a new fund called the Contingency Fund, which was to 
move up and down as the Capital Fund had done before, and thus 
to be the barometer of the Society s financial position. 

Although the seventeen Islington men now ready were to be 

ordination kept back from the field, they were not to be kept back from holy 

keptbick, orders, but to take curacies for a time. And as there were so 

many, besides others of the preceding year now ready for priests 

orders, the Bishop of London arranged a special ordination for 

them, distinct from the regular one on Trinity Sunday. Some of 

the men are now well known, and it is interesting to observe in 

the list the names of A. E. Ball, J. Field, T. H. Canham, C.^S. 

Thompson, J. H. Knowles, F. Glanvill ; while three to receive 

priests orders, having been kept back the year before, were W. G. 

Peel, J. Eedman, and W. Banister. The special ordination was 

held at St. Paul s on St. Barnabas Day, June llth; and the 

Bishop, who had appointed Mr. Wright a Prebendary of the 

Cathedral just a year before, requested him to preach the sermon. 

Henry ; He took St. Barnabas as his subject, and set forth with great 

sermon. 8 impressiveness the life and character of the " good man, full of the 

Holy Ghost and of faith." : Let the opening sentences be read 

here. They are strikingly beautiful : 

" A dark background throws out in clear relief the noble character of 
the Apostle Barnabas, as he first appears on the page of sacred history. 
The Church of Christ was then in her early spring-time in the days of 
her first love. Her Lord His redeeming work accomplished, and His 
victory over the powers of darkness won had entered in triumph the 
heavenly courts, and taken His seat at the right hand of Power ; and 
thence, in virtue of His atonement, and in proof of His acceptance by 
the Father, as the Head over all things to His Church, He had shed 

* This Sermon was printed in the C.M. Inielligtncer of September, 1880. 
It was already in type when the news of Mr. Wright s death came, and it 
occupies the pages next following the " In Memoriam " which then had to be 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 257 

forth the promise of the Father the earnest of the Spirit. The early PART VIII. 
dew lay copious and fertilizing upon the infant Church ; the graces of 1873-82. 
the Spirit, like flowers of spring, opened their lovely petals to the risen Chap. 83. 
Sun of Righteousness ; penitence and faith, and hope and joy, brought 

new gladness to heaven itself ; and conspicuous among all these tokens X e e * rl y 
of new and heavenly life was the spirit of whole-hearted consecration. 
Fresh from the rapturous sight of a crucified Saviour, and under the 
shadow of His Cross, the happy consciousness awoke in many a bosom, 
silencing for the moment the voice of selfishness, and filling them with a 
sense of holy ecstasy unknown before, that no man liveth to himself, 
and no man dieth to himself. Those who were possessed of wealth 
counted it no longer as their own, but at the service of a brother s 
need. Yea, not a few. desiring to place themselves wholly at the disposal 
of their redeeming Lord, having lands, sold them, and in singleness of 
heart in thankfulness for the privilege of having an offering to bring to 
One to whom they owed their all brought the price, and laid it at the 
Apostles feet. 

" The names of two are mentioned one to encourage and one to 
warn. And Joses, who by the apostles was surnamed Barnabas which Barnabas 
is, being interpreted, the son of consolation a Levite, and of the * nd 
country of Cyprus, having land, sold it, and brought the money and laid 
it at the apostles feet. He did it in singleness of heart, as unto God, 
not to gain glory in the eyes of his fellows, but as a token of his love. 
And the Lord, who knoweth the hearts of all men, accepted his offer 
ing ; and the name of Barnabas was inscribed on the sacred page, as a 
blessed and honoured example of entire devotion to God, and as an 
encouragement to others to follow in his steps. But with the encourage 
ment there is linked warning. The love, the power, the eclat of the 
early Church had drawn one into its ranks whose heart was yet un 
changed ; in whose bosom self was still the idol worshipped ; and who 
was prepared for the sacrilege of making a show of whole-hearted con 
secrationthe choicest and holiest gift that redeemed man can bring to 
God -as an offering at that unholy shrine." 

The greater part of the sermon, naturally, was addressed to the 
men just about to be presented to the Bishop. But at the end 
Mr. Wright turned to the congregation, with the question, " But Wright s 
when are they to go?" " At once, you reply; let this very appea 
autumn see them all upon their way." Then he stated in plain 
words the Committee s decision to keep them all back ; and then 
lifted his voice up to heaven " O Lord Jesus, reach forth Thine and prayer. 
Hand, and waken up the Church of England more effectually to 
her high and holy calling ! Waken up within her the spirit of 
love and loyalty to Thee, her King ! Kindle in her the fervour of 
her first love, and let that love be manifested, Lord, as in the 
days of old, by acts and gifts of whole-hearted consecration !" 

That prayer still needs to be offered ; and yet, has it not been 
answered ? The Church is still far indeed from what she should 
be ; yet what would Henry Wright have said if he could have 
seen eighty or a hundred new missionaries going forth year by 
year ? 

One of the matters which had been greatly straining Mr. 
Wright s strength at this time was the Ceylon Controversy. It 
had indeed been, in substance, brought to a happy conclusion a 

VOL. in. s 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-8% 

Chap. 83. 


PART VIII. few months before, as we have seen ; but, as we have also seen, 
1873-82. the detailed arrangements consequent on the Opinion of the 
Five Prelates had required delicate handling. He had also been 
worried by the affairs of the Zenana Societies, touching which a 
word must be said. 

The admirable work done by the Indian Female Normal School 
Society has been already noticed. Its management at home was 
in excellent hands. Lady Kinnaird,* whose well-known house in 
Pall Mall was the headquarters of numberless good works at 
home and abroad, was the life and soul of the Society, and her 
husband and Sir William Muir were the Treasurers. The 
Secretaries were General Sir William Hill and Mr. James Stuart, 
both Anglo-Indians, and both members of the C.M.S. Committee. 
By the constitution in the framing of which Henry Venn had 
taken a leading part the Society was interdenominational ; but 
in practice it was almost entirely connected with the Church of 
England. In India the C.M.S. Secretaries at Calcutta, Madras, 
and Bombay were its local secretaries also ; and almost all its 
ladies were working in connexion with C.M.S. Missions, while in 
England its supporters were for the most part the supporters of 
the C.M.S. Lady Kinnaird, however, and some other members 
of the Committee, were desirous to give more emphasis to its 
non-denominational basis, and thus, in particular, to secure more 
support in Scotland, by appointing an additional Secretary, a well- 
known Presbyterian missionary. This was objected to by those 
members of the Committee who were most closely identified with 
the C.M.S. There were other causes of friction; and at length, 
in the spring of this year, 1880, Sir W. Hill, Mr. Stuart, his 
^^er Mrs. Sandys, Mrs. Weitbrecht, and other leading members, 
resigned, and proceeded to form a new Society. There were not 
a few C.M.S. people who wished the C.M.S. to start its own 
Zenana Department ; but this was not thought advisable at the 
time, and Mr. Wright encouraged the seceders from the I.F.N.S. 
in starting a new organization. Hence the origin of the Church 
of England Zenana Missionary Society. Its success was imme 
diate. The large majority of the I.F.N.S. members in England 
transferred their support to it ; and the majority of the lady 
missionaries in India elected to join it. The old Society was for 
the moment crippled, for lack of both members and missionaries, 
although it possessed the existing funds ; but the energy of Lady 
Kinnaird and those who remained with her very soon revived its 
influence, and each Society soon became larger than the one 
Society had ever been. But naturally such a separation could 
not take place without arousing a good deal of personal feeling ; 
and Mr. Wright incurred blame in some quarters for having 
somewhat actively supported the new Society. 

tion of 

* The Hon. Arthur Kinnaird, Venn s friend and Parliamentary ally, whose 
name has occurred on previous pages, succeeded to the barony in 1878. 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 259 

Then there came the death of the oldest and most highly PART VIII. 
valued of the clerical members of Committee, Edward Auriol. 1873-82. 
A few weeks earlier, indeed, the Society had suffered no slight 
loss by the death of Canon J. C. Miller, one of the most powerful Deaths of 
advocates, in the pulpit and on the platform, that the missionary MJ!jj > and 
cause ever had, and one never wearied in pleading for it. Never 
wearied, that is, in spirit ; but to a friend, when the end was not 
far off, he said, " These swollen legs have often been tired in the 
service of the Church Missionary Society." But in the Com 
mittee-room the loss of Mr. Auriol was far more serious. He 
stood quite alone as the Nestor of the Society, and indeed of the 
Evangelical body generally. Unbounded confidence was placed 
in his judgment. If ever the phrase mitis sapientia applied to 
any one, it emphatically did to him. If Miller w r as the Society s 
Paul, Auriol was its Barnabas ; and Henry Wright s description 
of the Cypriote Apostle, in the sermon above referred to, might 
well serve for a description of the Eector of St. Dunstan s. To 
the Hon. Secretary of the C.M.S., the loss of such a counsellor 
was especially severe. 

So Henry Wright, with even his buoyant and cheery spirit Death of 
somewhat depressed, his strength weakened, and his heart wdght. 
yearning over the Missions that were sadly waiting for the men 
kept back, went down with his family to Coniston on July 29th. 
On Sunday, August 8th, he was at Keswick, and preached 
missionary sermons in St. John s Church at the invitation of 
Canon Battersby. On the Tuesday he walked the whole way 
back from Keswick to Coniston, up Borrowdale, over the Stake 
Pass, and across Langdale a long and fatiguing march on a hot 
day. On Friday morning, August 13th, he went with his two 
elder sons to bathe in Coniston Lake. Mr. Wright was a 
powerful swimmer, but possibly from some failure of the heart 
he sank, to rise no more. In the afternoon, the fatal telegram, 
sent by his brother-in-law Mr. (now Sir) Douglas Fox, reached 
Salisbury Square " Our dear brother Henry Wright was drowned 
this morning while bathing." That was an afternoon never to be 
forgotten ! 

On the following Sunday evening the Second Lesson was But the 
2 Kings ii. ; and there were those who noticed how, when Elisha p^ent 11 
returned alone to the Jordan, and its rolling stream barred his to faith - 
path, his cry was not, " Where is Elijah? " but " Where is the 
Lord God of Elijah ? " and at the stroke of the mantle, the waters 
struck in victorious faith, as Elijah had struck them but an hour 
or two before, again parted hither and thither before the new 
prophet. The Church Missionary Society, likewise, had had its 
" master taken from its head." It, likewise, would presently find 
rushing streams across its path. Would Henry Wright s mantle 
be needed ? Nay, rather, it was the Lord God of Henry Wright 
that would be needed ; and He, assuredly, would still cleave for 
the Church Missionary Society a safe path through the most 

s 2 


THE EPOCH OF 1880-8% 

Chap. 83. 


PART VIII. perilous waters.* Nevertheless, Mr. Wright was deeply mourned 
1873-82. by us all ; and the thought has often occurred, How gladly he 
would have led the forward movements of subsequent years ! 
How he would have rejoiced in strengthened Missions, open doors, 
multiplied labourers, new developments in prayer and work at 
home ! And with what deep satisfaction he would have seen four 
of his children in succession, one son and three daughters, dedi 
cating themselves to missionary work ! Henry Wright s death at 
such a time, just when the Lord was about to start the Society on 
a new career of extension, is one of those mysterious dispensations 
touching which we can only fall back upon the Master s own 
words, " What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know 

One of Mr. Wright s sisters was married to a Southampton 
clergyman, the Eev. Frederic E. Wigram. He, also, was a man 
of private fortune, and that very year he and his wife had under 
taken, if the Committee would refrain from such retrenchments 
in the field as would seriously injure the work, to guarantee the 
Society against any excess of expenditure above the fixed limit 
of 185,000, to the extent of 10,000. What came of this 
promise we shall see presently. Mr. Wigram, in his quiet and 
unobtrusive way, was a leader among the Evangelical clergy in 
the Diocese of Winchester, in virtue of his goodness and 
liberality, though by disposition never a "party man"; and he 
had been Hon. Secretary of the Fund which the Diocese raised 
to endow the Bishopric of Eangoon. To him the eyes of the 
C.M.S. Committee now tujned ; and though he was not the only 
man thought of as a possible successor to Mr. Wright, the 
ultimate selection of him was speedy and unanimous. He was 
Appointed appointed on October 26th, and immediately after Christmas he 
Hon. sec. en t e red on his new duties. 

Meanwhile, the energy and resourcefulness of Edward Hutchin- 
son were already busy in planning new methods of carrying on 
the Society s business more efficiently; and with the help of 
Canon Money, who was at that time taking a vigorous lead in the 
Committee, he devised what is now known as the Group system. 
The Missions were arranged in three groups, each of which was 
to have a Secretary; and at the same time a new method of 
printing a pr&cis of all foreign despatches was commenced, the 
three groups of Missions being kept separate. Group I. com 
prised Ceylon, China, Japan, North- West America, and the North 
Pacific; Group II., India, Persia, and Mauritius; Group III., 
West and East Africa, Palestine, and New Zealand. Group I. 
was committed to Mr. Fenn, who was to be relieved of the Annual 
Eeport by its transfer to the Editorial Department. Group II. 
naturally fell to Mr. Gray, who was already practically doing its 
work. Group III. Hutchinson kept for himself. The new Hon. 


* CM. Intelligencer, September, 1880. 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 261 

Secretary was not to be burdened with the details of foreign PABTYIH. 
work. 1873-82. 

Before Hutchinson could get firmly settled in his enlarged 
department, certain difficulties on the Niger took him and Mr. 
Whiting to Madeira.* Scarcely had he returned to England, in 
March, 1881, when the circumstances arose which led to his 
retirement. In May, shortly after the Anniversary, he tendered Retire - 
his resignation, which the General Committee accepted, with an Sutchin- 
acknowledgment of the important services he had rendered to the son - 
Society. \ 

In filling up the vacancy, the Committee turned inquiringly New 
towards the able Anglo-Indians who had joined their body in the 
preceding two or three years, men of practical capacity, long ex 
perience, and wide knowledge of affairs ; and it was a cause of 
general satisfaction and thankfulness when General George General G. 
Hutchinson, C.B., C.S.I., consented to accept the post of Lay ^ chin 
Secretary. At the same time the chief assistant in the Lay 
Department, Mr. Stephen F. Purday, was appointed Assistant 
Lay Secretary. But it was further resolved to find an additional 
clerical Secretary for Group III. ; and the Committee s choice 
fell upon a son of Mr. Arthur Lang, a highly-respected member 
of their own body. This was the Eev. Eobert Lang, then Vicar R. Lang, 
of Silsoe, who was well known in cricket circles as the great 
Harrow and Cambridge bowler. J At the same time, the Central 
Secretary and the Editorial Secretary i.e. the Eev. Henry 
Sutton and the present writer were included in the list of full 
Secretaries under Laws XX. and XXII. 

Other changes took place at this time in the Society s chief 
offices. In 1880, Mr. Booker took a church at Clifton, which 
ended his second tenure of the Directorship of the Children s children s 
Home. The loss of his and Mrs. Eooker s influence was greatly Mr. sh ep- 
regretted. The Eev. T. K. Weatherhead of the Bombay Mission herd - 
took charge temporarily ; and in 1881 the Eev. A. J. P. Shepherd, 
who had been chaplain to Bishop French of Lahore, was appointed 
Director. He has been before mentioned as one of a band of men 
at Queen s College, Oxford, several of whom became missionaries. 
Then in March, 1882, Mr. Barlow, whose health had been much Islington 
strained by his untiring and most successful and highly- valued Barlow 
labours as Principal of Islington College, resigned that post on his and Druf y. 
appointment to St. James s, Clapham. In addition to his college 
work, he had been a constant attendant at committees and sub 
committees in Salisbury Square, and no man s counsel was more 

* See Chapter LXXXIX. 

t Mr. Hutchinson subsequently went to Canada, and after laborious 
service as a lay evangelist in the Diocese of Huron he was ordained. He 
was afterwards in the service of the Scotch Episcopal Church for a time, 
but returned to Canada, and died there in 3897- 

% It should be stated that for a few months before Mr. Lang came into 
office, Mr, Whiting conducted the business of Group III. 


THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 


Chap. 83. 

Dr. G. 


New con 
to save 
and for 

respected, especially now that Mr. Auriol was dead. Much prayer 
was offered for guidance in the choice of his successor ; and the 
whole Society now knows what an answer God gave to those 
prayers. The Eev. T. W. Drury, Eector of Holy Trinity, Chester 
field, was selected for the post. His academical attainments gave 
assurance that the education in the College would be kept at its 
high standard ; and much was hoped for also from his personal 
influence. Of the fulfilment of these hopes it is superfluous to 
speak. One more change should be mentioned. In 1882, Dr. 
George Johnson retired from the post he had held for many years 
as Consulting Physician to the Society, in which capacity he had 
rendered important service. 

We must now revert to the great subject of men and means, and 
see how, simultaneously with all these secretarial changes, God, 
in His great goodness, was starting the Society upon a new career 
of extension and enlargement. 

Immediately after the Anniversary of 1880, while Mr. Wright was 
still in office, Mr. Bickersteth of Hampstead again came to the front, 
with a powerful letter entitled, " For My sake and the Gospel s," ap 
pealing especially for enlarged annual subscriptions, with a view to 
encouraging the Society to send out some of the seventeen men 
kept back, after all. To the letter was appended a list of such 
subscriptions obtained by himself, including four of 100 a year, 
one of these being his own. Mr. Stanton, too, came forward, 
suggesting an Extension and Enlargement Fund, for the express 
purpose of receiving definite contributions to send out the detained 
men. Within nine months, the following special gifts were made 
to this Fund : (1) Mr. Bickersteth himself gave 1000 down to 
start a new Mission to the Bheels in a district in which he had 
a family interest ; (2) Mr. Wright s congregation at St. John s 
Chapel raised 600 in memory of their beloved minister, to send 
out one of the missionaries ; (3) St. Paul s, Onslow Square, and 
St. Paul s, Cheltenham, raised respectively 537 and 380 for a 
similar object ; (4) four friends gave 1000 each, one definitely for 
Mid China, one for the Niger, one for Afghanistan, * and one for 
the Eskimo of the Mackenzie Eiver which last gift sent Mr. 
Canham to that neglected people ; (5) another friend promised 
400 a year for her life to keep up the Mission at Allahabad, 
which had been marked for abandonment ; (6) another, through 
Mr. Barlow, 640 per annum for three years, to support fresh 
missionaries on the Afghan Frontier ; (7) other friends of Mr. 
Barlow gave 600 to send out men, who (under the scheme) 
would be thrown on to the following year s list for the field, one 
year sooner ; (8) at Birmingham and in East Herts 640 was 
raised for a like purpose ; (9) in other and smaller ways 9000 
was given to the Extension and Enlargement Fund ; (10) Mr. 
and Mrs. Wigram s guarantee before mentioned had to be 

* This 1000 was subsequently applied to begin the Mission at Baghdad, 
Afghanistan not being accessible. 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 263 

claimed to the extent of 1429, the amount by which the PART VIII. 
year s Income to March, 1881, proved to be short ; but as the 1873-82. 
guarantors had laid aside 5000 in readiness for such a claim, they 
would not take it back, but gave the balance, 3571, to the new 
Extension Fund. 

Our Seventy-first Chapter noticed that Mr. Wright began the 
last Eeport he read at Exeter Hall,* in May, 1880, with the words 
of the 73rd Psalm, " Truly God is good to Israel ! This was in ^ l y 
view of the complete wiping out of the deficit of 1879, and not- good to 
withstanding the severe retrenchment policy just decided on. Israel! " 
What would he have said had he lived to present the Eeport in 
May, 1881 ! First, there was a clear balance-sheet for the year. 
Secondly, the Working Capital was intact, and there was 18,000 
in hand in the Contingency and Extension Funds, besides 
promises. Thirdly, all the men kept back from 1879 and 1880 Islington 
had either sailed, or were to sail in two or three months.! detained. 
Fourthly, all the new men of 1881 were to sail without delay. 
Fifthly, Allahabad, Lucknow, Shanghai, were saved to the Society. 
Sixthly, a host of proposed minor retrenchments in various 
fields had not had to be carried out. Truly God was " good to 

One of Mr. Wigram s first duties after entering on his office was 
invested with a solemn interest in connexion with his predecessor, 
and with these special gifts. Four of the men of 1880 were 
allotted to the fields so provided for, Allahabad, the Punjab 
Frontier, and Mid China. Mr. Wright had been the preacher at 
their ordination as deacons ; Mr. Wigram was the preacher at 
their ordination as presbyters. Mr. Wright had set before them 
the character of Barnabas ; Mr. Wigram took the character of his 
companion St. Paul, as delineated by himself in 1 Thess. ii. 7-12, 
" We were gentle among you," &c. This was at a special ordi 
nation by Bishop Perry at St. John s, Paddington, in March, 1881, 
with the view to their going out at once. When the Bishop of 
London s Trinity ordination came round, he arranged, as in the 
previous year, for a separate one for the C.M.S. men, which was 
held on St. Peter s Day at St. Paul s. Mr. Bickersteth was the And 
preacher on this occasion, and took the Lord s charge to Peter in 
John xxi., translating Peter s word for love," <<Ao>, "cleave 
imto," after the usage of the Septuagint.J 

The arrangements that have been detailed in these paragraphs 
have seemed to apply, and in the main did apply, only to 

* Although Mr. Fenn wrote the bulk of the Report at that time, Mr. Wright 
sometimes added a few lines of his own at the beginning and end. 

t That is, all who were to go out at all. In point of fact, four never 
went. The South American Missionary Society, which had got money but no 
candidates, had applied to the C.M.S. to have some of the Islington men 
transferred to it ; and one man was so transferred. The others were 
absorbed into the home field. 

J Mr. Wigram s sermon was printed in the C.M. Intelligencer in May, 
1881 ; Mr. Bickersteth s in the August number, 

26 4 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-8% 

Chap. 83. 

Other men 
not de 

appeal for 


ordained Islington men. Where, then, were the University men, 
or the lay agents, or the doctors ? One might almost say that just 
at this time there were none. In 1880, two men were sent to 
join the Nyanza Mission, which was financially outside the ordi 
nary arrangements. Four University men were accepted in that 
year, viz., W. E. Taylor of Oxford, J. G. Garrett of Dublin, G. H. 
Pole and T. Bomford of Cambridge. Taylor was appointed as a 
third man to the Nyanza Mission, and therefore was also an ex 
ceptional case ; Garrett offered, in response to a previous appeal 
by the Society for a Principal for Trinity College, Kandy, and 
therefore had to be likewise regarded as an exceptional case ; Pole 
was fixed upon as one of " the five " who were to go out in 1880 
under the Joint Committee s scheme. But Bomford the Com 
mittee at first actually hesitated to accept, when they were keeping 
so many Islington men back, notwithstanding that his offer was 
only the renewal of a former application made in 1875 in response 
to David Fenn s appeal, as mentioned in the Seventy-first Chapter. 
But after the Anniversary of 1881 all was changed ; and it was a 
joyful return to old times when the Committee actually put forth 
a special appeal for more men, and asked for prayer that they 
might be raised up. The result was that in twelve months, from 
October, 1881, to October, 1882, thirteen non-Islington men went 
out, as well as twenty from Islington or Beading.* Among the 
thirteen were Dr. Arthur Neve, Dr. Duncan Main, Dr. Henry 
Martyn Clark, James Hannington, B. P. Ashe, H. A. Bren, W. 
Latham, and A. J. Shields. There were three other graduates 
accepted, who are not included in these figures, because in God s 
providence they were not permitted to go out ; and one of these, 
David J. Stather Hunt, was located to the North-West America 
Mission, the scene of his father and mother s labours and suffer 
ings.! The future successor of Canon Hoare at Tunbridge Wells 
was a C.M.S. missionary "in will," though not " in deed." The 
Eeport presented in May, 1882, spoke of thirteen graduates 
accepted, the largest number in one year on record at the time. 
This was a good beginning for a new period of extension and 
enlargement. Truly God was " good to Israel " ! 

The Valedictory Meetings of 1881 and 1882 partook of the 
hopeful tone that now marked the Society s proceedings. On 
June 30th, 1881, the gathering was held for the first time in 
Lower Exeter Hall, and the Bev. F. F. Goe gave the valedictory 
address. On May 16th, 1882 which that year was the Day of 
Intercession a memorable gathering took place at the lecture 
hall of St. James s, Paddington ; when, among others, James 
Hannington, B. P. Ashe, Cyril Gordon, and the rest of a new 
Uganda party, were taken leave of. Then on July 18th the 
Society took a large public hall for the Dismissal, for the first 

* The Preparatory Institution was at Beading, arid now and then a man 
there was sent out as a lay agent without passing through Islington 
| See Chapter L, 

THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 265 

time since the early days of Freemasons Hall. This was St. PART VIII. 
George s Hall, Langham Place. The address was delivered by 1873-82. 
a friend from the North of England, the Rev. H. E. Fox. Ohap.88. 

The financial prospects continued to improve. Although the 
General Fund was not growing rapidly, and in May, 1882, was 
only reported at 190,000, the additional gifts were equally New 
welcome, because -like our modern Appropriated Funds thev ad ^ ition ^ , 

i-ii ^ ^ >i TV/I-- n , and special 

were applicable to the general work of the Missions ; and not funds, 
only had all the missionaries available been sent out, but there 
was a balance to carry forward in the Contingency and Extension 
Funds of 35,000. God had graciously over-ruled the retrench 
ment policy. It had not really saved much, probably not nearly 
5000 ; but why ? because God had inclined His people to come 
forward so promptly and so efficiently that very few of the pro 
posed reductions had actually been carried out. Moreover there 
were interesting new Special Funds not available for general 
purposes. 5000 was subscribed towards a fund in memory of 
Henry Wright, which was applied to the construction of a mission 
steamer for East Africa ; Mr. W. C. Jones gave special donations 
to build a hospital at Hang-chow and a college at Fuh-chow ; and 
the same liberal donor signalized the year 1882 by the gift of no 
less than 72,000 as a China and Japan Native Church and 
Mission Fund. This was the third of his large gifts in the form 
of investments, and they now amounted in the aggregate to 

Again the sanguine fervour of Mr. Bickersteth now burst forth. 
Two days after the Anniversary of 1882 he addressed another 
letter to the Society, with the motto, " Half as much again." 
This was in consequence of an appeal in the St. Bride s Sermon, 
preached that year by the Bishop of Ossory and Ferns, Dr. 
Pakenham Walsh, to raise the Income from 200,000 to 300,000, 
which would be just " half as much again." Bickersteth enclosed 
his own cheque for 50, " half as much again " on the 100 he had 
begun to subscribe when starting his own appeal of 1880, as before 
mentioned. His stirring words touched many hearts, and many 
were the subscriptions raised in consequence by one-half ; but, in 
the nature of the case, the scheme could not of itself effect its 
object. Church collections, for example, would not be much 
affected by it. An offertory usually amounting to 20 might rise 
to 25 if a particularly good preacher was in the pulpit, or it might 
drop to 15 because the day was wet ; but the cry for " half as 
much again," however readily responded to by friends really 
interested, would rarely even reach the ears of the man with a 
shilling to put in the plate, still less induce him to make it 
eighteenpence. Legacies, again, could not be affected. A 
bequest of 100 in a will did not become 150 because the 
Intelligence}" contained a letter from Mr. Bickersteth. Neverthe 
less, the real progress of a missionary society depends, not upon a 
particular sum of money, but upon the sympathies and prayers of 

266 THE EPOCH OF 1880-82 

PART VIII. God s people being elicited; and this assuredly was done by Mr. 

Ch 73 "^ Bickersteth s repeated and fervent efforts and generous example. 
ap And this was not the last time as we shall see. 

Extension The Extension and Enlargement Fund was not raised in vain. 

Sissfons. Not on ly> as nas been said, were many reductions countermanded; 
but real advances were made. Before the end of 1882, when our 
present period closes, the Bheel Mission had been commenced ; 
the city of Fuh-ning had been occupied the first in Fuh-kien by 
an Englishman beyond the Treaty Ports ; the Pakhoi Mission 
had been planned, Bishop Burdon having raised funds for it ; 
three new posts in the Far North- West of Canada had been 
occupied ; the Taita Mission in East Africa had been started ; 
and the great city of Baghdad had received its first C.M.S. mis 
sionary. And as the year closed, Egypt, just occupied by the 
British forces under Lord Wolseley, was re-occupied by the 
veteran Arabic scholar Klein for the Church Missionary Society. 

So we close this Eighth Part of our History with thankful 
encouragement. And looking for some utterance of the period to 
embody the thoughts of our hearts, we light upon one of the most 
powerful addresses ever given at a C.M.S. meeting delivered by 
the venerable former Principal of Islington College, C. F. Childe, 
to the clergy of Manchester in the year at which we close this 

k>ya?tyto cna P ter and Part 1882 - Jt is on " Missions the Test of Loyalty 

christ y and to Christ." He referred to an attack which had lately been made 

WaJ i ly u P on the Queen. " We have seen what lively concern it wrought 
in all classes of her subjects ; yea, what indignation, and it 
might almost be added, yea, what revenge ! How strong is the 
instinct of loyalty in a people worthy of the name of a Christian 
nation!" And Missions, continued Mr. Childe, make the 
strongest appeal to the loyalty of all true-hearted disciples of 
Christ. Then he referred to the advance of Eussia towards 
Afghanistan, which was causing some alarm at the time. If, 
he said, " the Eussian scare became an accomplished fact, and the 
rumoured scheme outlined by Czar Peter s rumoured will were 
attempted by the capture of Peshawar, the passage of the Indus, 
and an attack upon Delhi, who would not feel bound by his 
sacred duty as a subject, no less than by a sense of wounded 
national honour, to make every possible effort, at every possible 
sacrifice, for the recovery of our beloved sovereign s rightful 
inheritance?" Now Missions, continued Mr. Childe, "are a 
Holy War for the recovery of an alienated province to the 
empire of its Divine Euler," and "it is the actual prosecution 
of this purpose which is solemnly entrusted to His Church." 
What, then, was the Church doing ? This chapter has revealed 
a little awakening in that portion of the Church that uses the 
C.M.S. as its agency in the great conflict ; and the progress of 
that awakening we shall see hereafter. Yet even now, how 
slow and how feeble the endeavours to " make Jesus King " ! 

part fix* 




PART IX. is devoted to the period of Mr. Wigrarn s Secretaryship, 
except that the events of his first two years, 1881-2, have been mostly 
included in Part VIII. The Home Chapters are relatively fuller in this 
Part than in any other, the Period having been marked by so many new 
developments. Commencing, as usual, with the Environment, Chap. 
LXXXIV. introduces us to Archbishop Benson s Primacy and many of 
the events that occurred in its earlier years; also to the rise of the 
modern missionary movements at Cambridge and in connexion with the 
Keswick Convention. In Chap. LXXXV. the Personnel of the Society 
during the period is described, and the incidents are noticed which made 
1883-4 the commencement of a new era of progress. Chap. LXXXVI. 
is entirely devoted to the " three memorable years " that followed, 
1885-7, dwelling on their encouraging features, such as Earl Cairns s 
Meeting, the February Simultaneous Meetings, the new C.M. Unions, 
and the adoption of the Policy of Faith ; while Chap. LXXXVII. notices 
various internal controversies of the period, touching the Jerusalem 
bishopric, &c., and also the attacks of Canon Isaac Taylor and others. 
In Chap. LXXXYIII. the numerous missionary recruits are intro 
duced, particularly the West and East Africa parties of 1890, and the 
Society s new women missionaries. 

Then, turning to the foreign field, we have three long and full chapters 
on African affairs. The first two are entitled " High Hopes and Sore 
Sorrows ": Chap. LXXXIX. relating the developments, difficulties, and 
deaths in the West Africa Missions, particularly the trials of Bishop 
Crowther s last years, and the missions and deaths of Wilmot Brooke 
and Robinson, and Bishop Hill ; and Chap. XC. the advances and the 
trials of the period in East Africa and Uganda, with the deaths of Bishops 
Hannington and Parker and Alexander Mackay. Chap. XCI. continues 
the latter story, with especial reference to the steps which led to the 
establishment of the Uganda Protectorate, and the wonderful progress 
of the Uganda Mission. The following seven chapters, XCII. to XCVIIL, 
take us in succession to India, Ceylon, Mauritius, and New Zealand ; to 
Persia, Palestine, and Egypt ; to China and Japan ; and to the Dominion 
of Canada. Bishops Sargent, French, Stuart, Horden, Bompas, Ridley, 
are among the heroes of these chapters ; and among the leading incidents 
are the Winter Mission to India, the controversy with Bishop Blyth, the 
Si-chuan advance, the Ku-cheng massacre, and the spiritual work in 
Japan and among the Red Indians. 

Finally, Chaps. XCIX. and C. resume the Home narrative. Chap. XCIX. 
reviews the proceedings as regards Missions at the Church Congresses 
and the Lambeth Conference, and describes the General Missionary 
Conference of 1888, the Anglican Missionary Conference of 1894, and the 
S.V.M.U. Conference of 1896. Chap. C. summarizes the home "affairs 
of 1888-94, and shows us the results of the Policy of Faith. 



A New Era Archbishop Benson; his Church Policy; his Relations 
with C.M.S.; his Missionary Sermons and Speeches The Boards 
of Missions Church Defence and Church Reform Jerusalem 
Bishopric Ritual Crisis of 1883 Evangelical Divisions Lincoln 
Judgment Islington Meetings Spiritual Movements Moody at 
Cambridge The C.I.M. Cambridge Seven Mildmay and Keswick 
H. C. G. Moule Keswick and Foreign Missions The Salvation 

" We beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over 
you in the Lord, and admonish you ; and to esteem them very highly in love for 
their ivork s sake. And be at peace among yourselves." I Thess. v. 12, 13. 

" Sanctified, and meet for the master s use, and prepared unto every good 
ivork."2 Tim. ii. 21. 

]S we pass from 1882 to 1883, we feel that we are PART IX. 

already well into the new era in the Society s history. 1882-95. 

It does not begin on New Year s Day, 1883. It has Cha P- 84 ~ 

already begun. We have already seen that the year A new era. 

1881 marked the dividing-line between the Past and 
the Present in C.M.S. affairs ; and we have seen how the year 1882 
witnessed the commencement of several new developments at home 
and extensions abroad. From that time, notwithstanding many 
vicissitudes, controversies, sorrows, disappointments, the Society s 
progress has been continuous. There has not been a single year continu- 
of retrogression. At any moment in the eighteen years we could 
truly say, " The goodness of God endureth yet daily." 

But the reason for including 1882 in the preceding Part, and for 
starting again in this Part at 1883, lies, as before explained, not in 
the Society s inner history, but in its environment in the history 
of the Church of England. For the death of Archbishop Tait 
marked the close of one era in modern Church history, and 
the accession of Dr. Benson to the Metropolitan See of Canterbury 
marked the opening of another era. 

Mr. Gladstone did not keep the Church waiting long for a 
Primate. Tait died on Advent Sunday, 1882 ; and before Christ 
mas the new appointment was announced. And Benson was not Archbp. 
the Premier s original choice. Dean Church had the first offer, Benson - 
and declined the arduous post. Then the claims of Harold Browne 
and Benson were balanced as the dying Archbishop had fore 
seen. " It is better I should go now," he said ; " other men will 




Chap. 84 

Benson s 



and Tait. 

and the 

. do the new work better. The Bishop of Winchester is a man of 
peace. ^ The Bishop of Truro will come forward and do a great 
work." * Ultimately the choice fell upon Benson because so it 
is understood the Queen thought Harold Browne too old. 

Evangelical Churchmen undoubtedly viewed the appointment 
with apprehension; while the Eitualists rejoiced that the new 
Primate was a man who at least knew the history and meaning of 
ritual. So he did; but knowledge does not necessarily imply 
approval, and the advanced party soon had to find out that while 
the new Archbishop was emphatically a believer in the continuity 
of the Anglican Church from primitive times downwards, he never 
theless was no reviler of the Eeformation ; and indeed he 
sometimes proved more severe upon the extreme developments of 
Eitualism than his predecessor had ventured to be. On his 
general Church policy the Record, then rapidly reviving in influence 
in its new shape and under its new and vigorous conductors, 
uttered a forecast of remarkable accuracy, as we can now see. 
" Dr. Benson," it said, " will push any cause which he wishes to 
promote, with judgment, and we doubt not with moderation, but 
he will push it. Under his rule the Church of England, con 
sidered as a great Society, will, we believe, gain strength and 
coherence, and especially independence. Its external aspect will 
become more obvious, its power of existing as an organization 
distinct from the State will be confirmed." Again, it acutely 
observed that while Tait and Benson were " equally desirous that 
the Church should be national, the one was willing that the nation 
should mould the Church, while the other would have the Church 
mould the nation." f This attitude was illustrated, in various 
ways, by all Archbishop Benson s more important acts his 
successful organization of Church Defence, his memorable Lincoln 
Judgment, his institution of the House of Laymen, his bringing to 
a point the long-deferred plan for a Board of Missions, his 
strenuous efforts for the reform of Church Patronage and Dis 
cipline, and his establishment of the Church House (suggested by 
Bishop Harvey Goodwin, but mainly Benson s work) as a memorial 
of the Queen s Jubilee. 

Dr. Tait had been called the Archbishop of the laity. Dr. Benson 
surprised the Church by apparently aiming at deserving the same 
distinction. But there was a difference. Tait had viewed the 
laity as Englishmen. Benson viewed them as Churchmen. His 
institution of the House of Laymen was a remarkable move, the 
fruits of which will yet be seen in the future. And when the 
question arose in Convocation whether laymen should not be 
permitted, on certain conditions, to conduct services, or preach, in 
consecrated churches, Benson spoke and voted in favour of the 

* Life of Archbishop Tait, vol. ii. p. 592. 

t Record, December 22nd, 1882. With this forecast compare a masterly 
article m the Quarterly Review of October, 1897, surveying Dr Benson s 
Primacy after his death. 


proposal, and was supported by Bishops Temple, Ellicott, PART IX. 
Maclagan, C. Wordsworth, Thorpld, Claughton, Wilkinson, and f }^ 82 ~ 95 - 
Mackarness. In York Convocation, Bishops Lightfoot, Eraser, 
Harvey Goodwin, and Ryle, were favourable. Nothing came of 
the scheme at the time ; but it is worth noting that it was just 
when Benson went to Canterbury that Bishop Jackson, for the 
first time, and with unconcealed reluctance, summoned the London 
Diocesan Conference, and that it was in consequence of a memor 
able Report from a Committee of that Conference that Jackson s 
successor, Bishop Temple, instituted, nine years later, the new 
order of Diocesan Readers, authorized to officiate, in certain 
circumstances, in parish churches. 

Other important changes took place in these and the following 
years in the English Episcopate. Benson was succeeded at Truro 
by G. H. Wilkinson. To the new bishoprics of Newcastle and New 
Southwell were appointed Drs. E. R. Wilberforce and G. Ridding. bish P s - 
In 1884 Dr. Stubbs became Bishop of Chester, and W. Boyd Car 
penter Bishop of Ripon, the latter succeeding one of the most active 
and respected of the " Palmerston Bishops," Robert Bickersteth. 
Bishop Jackson of London died on the Epiphany, 1885, and the 
appointment of Bishop Temple of Exeter to succeed him was the 
most important ecclesiastical event of the period. That it was 
heartily welcomed by the Evangelical clergy of London is a 
significant comment on the protests of 1861, and 1870. * In the 
same year Mr. Gladstone surprised the Church by the simultaneous 
appointments of Canon King to the bishopric of Lincoln and of 
E. H. Bickersteth to that of Exeter. Then followed a long series 
of nominations by Lord Salisbury : Bishop Moorhouse of Mel 
bourne to Manchester, Canon J. Wordsworth to Salisbury, Lord 
Alwyne Compton to Ely, Archdeacon J. W. Bardsley to Sodor and 
Man, Bishop Walsham How (Suffragan Bishop of Bedford) to the 
new diocese of Wakefield, Dr. Jayne to Chester, A. G. Edwards 
to St. Asaph, Canon W T estcott to Durham, D. L. Lloyd to Bangor, 
J. W. Festing to St. Alban s, Dean J. J. S. Perowne to Worcester, 
Dr. Gott to Truro, Bishops Magee (of Peterborough) and Mac- 
lagan (of Lichfield) in succession to York, Professor Creighton to 
Peterborough, Canon Legge to Lichfield, Bishop Thorold (of 
Rochester) to Winchester, Dean Randall Davidson to Rochester, 
Bishop Bardsley (of Sodor and Man) to Carlisle, Archdeacon 
Straton to Sodor and Man. This brings us to 1892, when Lord 
Salisbury went out of office. In 1892-95, Mr. Gladstone appointed 
Mr. Sheepshanks to Norwich, and Lord Rosebery appointed 
Bishop Kennion (of Adelaide) to Bath and Wells, and Dr. Percival 
to Hereford. In 1895, Lord Salisbury became Premier, and soon 
afterwards appointed Bishop Davidson (of Rochester) to Win 
chester, and Dr. Talbot to Rochester. 

To revert to Archbishop Benson. As soon as his appointment 

* See Chapter LI. 



Chap. 84. 

and the 

His first 
speech in 
the House 
of Lords. 

At the 

A. W. 

Poole s 


was announced, the Society, according to custom, approached 
him with the request that he would accept the office of Vice- 
Patron. He consented with the utmost cordiality, and, having 
been enthroned at Canterbury, he received the Committee at 
Lambeth Palace on April 19th. In response to the formal 
address then presented, he spoke with deep feeling of the great 
and growing work of Missions, and of his heartfelt desire to 
aid the Society in every way in doing its share of that work. 
" We must have," he said, " all resources at command, but used 
by men who will be determined to know nothing among men save 
Jesus Christ and Him crucified." He thanked the Committee for 
their prayers on his behalf, and added, " You will believe me 
when I say that it is my daily, hourly thought that nothing can 
be done by me at all, but that in me something may be done, and 
that if God has counted me worthy, and has put me in this place, 
He will find the way in which it can be done." Before this 
interview, however, the Archbishop had done the Society one 
important service. It is a memory to be cherished that Dr. 
Benson s first speech in the House of Lords was in its defence, 
when the Duke of Somerset attacked the Niger Mission : but of 
this another chapter will speak. 

Then, at the Anniversary Meeting, on May 1st, the Archbishop 
took the chair, the President yielding the seat to him on his first 
appearance as Primate, according to custom. His speech was a 
remarkable one. It might be summed up in these words : " You 
have preached the Gospel to the poor and the illiterate : now preach 
it also to the rich and the cultured." He referred to the learning 
of St. Paul, and to the advance of the early Church when men 
like Justin and Tertullian and Cyprian came to the front. "You 
know," he exclaimed, "the wonderful letters that Cyprian wrote to 
the most cultivated people of his time, and his conversations with 
people like-minded as himself" and we now know how deeply 
Dr. Benson had studied the life and times of the great Bishop of 
Carthage. Then he went on to refer to a fact mentioned with 
special thankfulness in the Eeport and throughout his speech he 
showed how carefully he had read the Eeport viz., that the 
Society had sent out fifty-five graduates in seven years. " But, 
friends," said the Archbishop, " what are they among so many? " 
and he went on to predict that the day would come when such a 
number would be thought small. But neither he nor the most 
sanguine of his hearers that day dreamed that, only seven years 
later, thirty-four graduates would go out in one year. 

It was singularly appropriate that the Archbishop should be 
followed after Lord Cairns had spoken by one of the fifty-five, 
who could tell, not only of work among the higher classes of 
India, but of conversions from among them. This was A. W. 
Poole of Masulipatam. His speech has been already noticed in 
reviewing the Telugu Mission in our Seventy-eighth Chapter. As 
he ran through the educated converts there the two magistrates 




Archbishop Tait, Vice-Patron of the Society; Preacher of the Annual Sermon, 

Archbishop Benson, Vice-Patron; Preacher of the Annual Sermon, 1886. 

Archbishop Temple, Vice-Patron; Preacher of the Annual Sermon. 1893. (Photograph? 

Russell & Sons.) 
J. C. Eyle, Bishop of Liverpool, Vice-President ; Preacher of the Annual Sermon, 1862. 

(Photograph : Brown, Barnes & Bell.) 
Edward Bickerstcth, Bishop of Exeter, Vice-President ; Preacher of the Annual Sermon, 1888. 


"administering impartial justice in the name of the British PART IX. 
Government," the editor of the local paper, the two head-masters 1882-95. 
and seven assistant-masters in High Schools, the three ordained Cha P- 84. 
clergymen the Archbishop listened with manifest surprise and 
delight. A few weeks later, his chaplain, Eandall Davidson (now 
Bishop of Winchester), happening to meet a C.M.S. Secretary, 
asked him casually about " that missionary who spoke so well at 
Exeter Hall." A few more weeks, and Archbishop Benson s first its sequel, 
episcopal appointment was announced. A. W. Poole was to be 
the first English bishop in Japan. 

During the whole of Dr. Benson s Primacy he was unvaryingly Benson 
kind and cordial towards the Church Missionary Society. That C?M!S? 
does not mean that he said Yes to whatever the Committee pro- Committee 
posed or asked. He never forgot that he was Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and while he was always ready to listen to them, he 
expected them also to listen to him. Very unworthy would he 
have been of his great position had it been otherwise. An Arch 
bishop is not infallible; but neither is a C.M.S. Committee in 
fallible ; and approaching questions, as they necessarily did, from 
different points of view, it is not surprising if they did not always 
agree. But of Benson s kindness, patience, and wisdom, no 
honest C.M.S. historian can speak too warmly. We shall meet 
him several times in future chapters ; but it may be convenient 
to notice here the remarkable Anniversary Sermon which he His 
preached at St. Bride s in 1886.* One of its most striking |*- r 
features was just what might have been least expected. An 
Archbishop of Canterbury might naturally dilate in general terms 
on Missions, and then proceed to deliver to a Society an allocution 
ex cathedra. Not so Dr. Benson. His Sermon evinced his close 
acquaintance with the current affairs of the Society, and bristled 
with allusions to recent events, and to questions at that very time 
before the Committee. It is doubtful whether any other sermon 
of recent years, even from a preacher belonging to the inner 
C.M.S. circle, has been quite like it in this respect. And the 
Archbishop did not use the language of an outsider. He spoke of 
" our President," and of the funds "we" required, and so forth. 
Dr. Benson was always a master of phrases, and not a few 
striking phrases were dotted about in this sermon. For example, 
he drew a distinction between "the world s Church-problems," 
such as questions of establishment and endowment, and " the 
Church s world-problems," such as the future of Church organiza 
tion in Missions, and the adaptation of Western ways to Eastern 
environment upon which point the Archbishop spoke strongly in 
favour of great elasticity. "Not every word of our dearest 
liturgies can be as full of meaning to those who have not lived our 
theological life as it is to us." " The Liberty of Prophesying 

* The text was 2 Tim. ii. 2 or rather, the motto, for the sermon waa 
scarcely an exposition of the passage. 




Chap. 84. 

His great 



His views 
on Mis 

be absolutely conceded [in the Mission-field] to laymen 
accepted by the Church, whether with the individual responsibili 
ties of the early Christian prophet so called, or with the 
corporate responsibilities of preaching orders, or with both side 
by side." And he quoted with high commendation the famous 
opening sentences of the C.M.S. Manual on Native Church 
Organization/ 1 His conclusion was most striking. By way of 
appeal for self-sacrifice in the support of Missions, he referred to 
the vast sums spent by the Chinese upon ancestral worship, and 
quoted the words of a Chinaman who, being asked how he 
managed to give, as he did, a fifth of his income, said that he and 
his family invoked " the Great Bright God of Self-restraint." 

But just a year before this sermon was preached, the Arch 
bishop had preached a still more remarkable one at Cambridge 
the Whit Sunday Eamsden Sermon of 1885. j In it he ex 
pounded his now well-known view of the historical development 
of Missions -first Personal, then Governmental, then of Societies ; 
to be followed, in due time, by Missions of the Church itself. The 
Sermon deserves close study, both for its able exposition of a 
theory, and for its striking phrases. For instance, on the Govern 
ment Missions of the Dark Ages : 

" Their natural climax was Crusading ; their necessary sequel, the 
Inquisition : Crusades redeemed only by the blessings of their failure ; 
the Inquisition unredeemed even by the excellence of the reaction it 

Again, on Society Missions : 

" The Society of Jesus and the Church Missionary Society belong to 
the same era and the same impulse ; the Congregation de Propaganda 
Fide and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society are one in principle ; and differ utterly 
from either the Personal or the Governmental idea of the duty and 
method of Missions." J 

and on Then observe these striking words on elasticity in the arrange- 

churches. ments for Native Churches : 

" To assume as the only admissible model of a Christian Church a 
Church of which every distinct part is inwrought with national 
characteristics and chiselled by special controversies, and to seek to 
build up a like Church, stone by stone as it were, spiritually, out of 
the utterly different characters, experiences, sentiments of any race, 
old or new, is to repeat without excuse the error of the great Boniface, 
in making not a Teutonic but an Italian Church in Germany. 

" To illustrate by an outward instance : If white is the colour of 
mourning for the dead through the Chinese Empire, or if kneeling is the 

* See Chapter LV., Vol. II., p. 415 for these sentences as Venn wrote them. 

t Printed in the Cambridge Review, May 27th, 1885. 

J Nine years afterwards, the Archbishop, in his opening address at the 
Anglican Missionary Conference of 1894, repeated the most important parts 
of this Sermon. An outcry then arose about the sentence above quoted ; 
see Chap. XCIX. 


attitude of easy resting among the Fijians, it may be doubted whether PART IX. 
we shall be as prudent in insisting that the ministering garment shall 1882-95. 
be white for the one, as the Wesleyans are in allowing to the other Chap. 84. 
prostration as their own native posture of worship." 

Again, as showing how Dr. Benson watched and knew what Benson 
was going on even in circles which we might think to be beyond a C?I.M. C 
Primate s range of vision, he mentioned, as one of the good signs 
of the times, "that a new enthusiasm had in that very place 
(Cambridge) inspired a gallant little band to see and work by 
themselves in the most difficult of all such works." What was 
that " gallant little band " ? It was the " Cambridge Seven " of 
the China Inland Mission, who had just sailed for China. 

Another "good sign of the times" noticed by the Archbishop 
was the formation of Boards of Missions for the Provinces of The new 
Canterbury and York. In our Fifty-second Chapter we noticed 
the first inception of the scheme for such Boards. The strong 
objections of both C.M.S. and S.P.G. caused not only its long 
postponement, but also its material modification when brought 
forward again in 1884. In particular, there was now no pro 
vision for the election of certain lay members of the Boards by 
the two Societies. To that both had objected, as making them 
indirectly and partially responsible for the proceedings of the 
Boards. It was now provided, therefore, that the Archbishop 
should nominate them in the first instance, and that afterwards 
they should be co-opted by the Boards themselves.* The C.M.S. 
Committee accordingly passed no resolution regarding the new 
scheme, and in fact took no notice of it at all. t The Board for the 
Province of Canterbury was actually formed in 1887, and that 
for York a little later. Several members of the C.M.S. Committee 
were invited by the Archbishop to join as individuals ; and Sir 
John Kennaway and others gave their names. At its first meeting, 
in July, 1887, the Canterbury Board appointed as its Secretaries 
Canon Edgar Jacob (now Bishop of Newcastle) and General 
Maclagan. The latter gentleman was succeeded, a few years later, 
by Dr. Gust. The Secretaries of the York Board were Archdeacons 
Barber and Long, the latter one of the principal C.M.S. leaders in 
the North, and formerly, as we have before seen, a Secretary in 
Salisbury Square. It cannot be said that the Boards have accom 
plished much. Indeed, any fear that they would try and supplant 
the Societies has been dispelled by what may truly be called their 
curious and excessive modesty. But they have done two useful 
things. (1) They published a volume of Eeports on Missions in 
different parts of the world, some of which were really valuable, 
particularly the comprehensive paper on India by Canon Jacob. 

* This has recently been altered, and the election of lay members now 
rests with the Houses of Laymen. 

t It was in this year, 1884, that the notable debate on Boards of Missions 
took place at the Carlisle Church Congress, when Prebendary Tucker, Secre 
tary of the S.P.G., read a remarkable paper. See Chapter XCIX. 

T 2 


PART IX. (2) They planned and arranged the Anglican Missionary Conference 
1882-95. of 1894, of which another chapter (XCIX.) will speak. 
Chap. 84. j t wag - n fa e year of his Cambridge Sermon, 1885, that the 
mind of the Archbishop, and the minds of many other Churchmen, 
church began to turn definitely in the direction of Church Eeform. In 
?nd en< the autumn of that year, the defeat of Mr. Gladstone s Govern - 
Refo r r C m ment which had been impending since the fall of Khartoum and 
the death of Gordon in the preceding January was followed by a 
General Election. The Record published a memorable list of 
Liberal and Eadical candidates, headed by Mr. Chamberlain, who 
avowed themselves ready to vote for the Disestablishment of the 
Church of England. The whole Church took alarm ; and 
although another Election in the following year, on the Home 
Eule question, which resulted in a Conservative victory bringing 
Lord Salisbury into power for six years, put Disestablishment out 
of men s minds for the time, it was generally felt and certainly 
Dr. Benson felt it that the period of grace thus won ought to be 
used for the strengthening of the Church by well-considered 
reforms. From that time the Record took the lead in pushing 
forward the question of the reform of Church Patronage. The 
Archbishop brought bill after bill into Parliament ; the House 
of Laymen won its spurs by its debates and resolutions on the 
subject ; there was an unusual combination of good and sensible 
men of various parties. Yet, partly owing to the extreme diffi 
culty of getting any ecclesiastical measure through the House 
of Commons, and partly owing to the opposition of the clerical 
agents, backed by some Protestant Churchmen who feared that 
any change would give more power to the bishops, the Archbishop 
and the Record struggled for many years in vain. Indeed Dr. 
Benson did not live to see the partial reform ultimately obtained. 

Benson In 1887 the Archbishop did a notable thing. He decided a 

Jerusalem vehement controversy between High Churchmen and Evangelicals 
Bishopric. i n favour of the latter. He revived the Anglican Bishopric in 
Jerusalem. To describe this act as a decision on the Evangelical 
side may seem strange to readers to-day ; but it is the literal fact 
nevertheless. The Jerusalem Bishopric, as we saw in our 
Twenty-seventh Chapter, was the creation of Lord Shaftesbury 
and the London Jews Society, with the important aid of Bunsen 
the Prussian Ambassador ; and its establishment was one of the 
11 last straws " that made membership in the Church of England 
too heavy a burden for John Henry Newman. For forty years 
there were few things which High Churchmen more cordially 
detested, or in which Evangelicals more delighted. On Bishop 
Barclay s death in 1881, it was the turn of the German Govern 
ment to select a successor, but this they did not do, and after 
five years negotiations declined to continue the arrangement. 
The Missions of the C.M.S. and the Jews Society in the East 
were thus left without episcopal supervision for nearly six years, 


though Bishop Haimington, at Archbishop Benson s request, PART IX 
visited Palestine on his way to East Africa in 1884, held confirma- 1882-95. 
tions, and ordained five deacons (two L.J.S. and three C.M.S.), Chap 84 
including two Native Syrians. The two Societies repeatedly 
represented to the Primate the importance of reviving the Evangeii- 
bishopric, while the High Church party continually protested for its 31 
against it as an intrusion into the jurisdiction of the Orthodox revival - 
Greek Church. When the German Government withdrew from 
the old alliance in 1886, the question became an urgent one ; and 
some correspondents of the Guardian took the opportunity to 
attack the Church Missionary Society s work in Palestine. To 
one letter, which greatly misstated facts, an answer was sent 
from Salisbury Square ; whereupon Canon Liddon appeared, and Canon 
in a letter of three columns proceeded to demolish the unhappy and d th" 
"literary secretary" (as Liddon called the C.M.S. writer). A C.M.S. 
correspondence ensued, in which, in the opinion of some very 
high authorities in the Church of England, the victory remained 
with the C.M.S. representative. :; 

Meanwhile the Archbishop had determined on reviving the Benson s 
bishopric, and was in negotiation with the C.M.S. and the Jews p 
Society regarding it. The withdrawal of the German subsidy had 
left the episcopal stipend entirely dependent upon the old endow 
ment raised by Lord Shaftesbury and his colleagues in 1841 ; and 
the Archbishop asked the two Societies if they would vote 300 
a year each to supplement it. The selection of men, it should be 
explained, rested, under Lord Shaftesbury s trust deed, entirely 
with the two Archbishops, and the Bishop of London. The Jews 
Society at once assented to Dr. Benson s proposal. The C.M.S. 
Committee, at two full meetings, thoroughly discussed the ques 
tion, and finally also resolved, on February 14th, 1887, " relying 
on the wisdom of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York 
and the Bishop of London to select as bishop a clergyman of 
suitable qualifications who can cordially co-operate with the 
C.M.S.," to make a similar grant. Only three members voted 
against the resolution, one of whom was Dr. Gust. But all this 
was unknown to Canon Liddon and his party ; and on February 
16th, two days after the Committee s decision, a leading article 
appeared in the Guardian entitled " The Dead See." Only two 
days again after that, the Times published a joint memorandum 
signed " Edw. Cantuar," " W. Ebor," and " F. Londin," an 
nouncing the revival of the bishopric and the arrangement with jj?JJ ic 
the two Societies. In sending this memorandum to the Society, revived. 
Archbishop Benson further announced that the choice of himself 
and his colleagues had fallen upon the Ven. G. F. Popham Blyth, 
late Archdeacon of Eangoon. In its next issue the Guardian 

* So that representative was afterwards informed by Archbishop Benson 
himself. The correspondence was not reprinted by the Editor of the C.M. 
Intelligencer in his own pages. It is now only accessible in the original 
issues of the Guardian, January and February, 1887. 



Chap. 84. 

Dismay of 
the High 

tion of 




recorded the announcement "with extreme sorrow," and noted 
the arrangement with the Societies "with positive astonishment." 
Referring to a recent sympathetic utterance of the Primate s 
regarding the Eastern Churches, it said, " Truly the voice is 
Jacob s voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau."* Mean 
while, on February 22nd, the C.M.S. Committee, on the motion 
of Canon Hoare, passed the following Eesolutions : 

" (1 ) That the Committee desire to record the deep thankfulness to God 
with which they welcome the information conveyed in the Archbishop s 
letter respecting the appointment of a Bishop of the Church of England 
in Jerusalem. 

" (2) That the cordial thanks of the Committee be given to the Arch 
bishop of Canterbury for the steps which he has taken to procure the 
appointment of a Bishop, and for the sympathy which he has thus, as 
on so many occasions, shown with the work of the Society ; and that his 
Grace be assured of the Committee s hearty readiness to co-operate to 
the utmost of their power with Archdeacon Blyth when consecrated 

The Archbishop was not let alone by the objecting High 
Churchmen. A memorial was presented to him with a very 
remarkable list of influential signatures. The names of twelve 
Deans appeared, including Church, Burgon, and Goulburn ; 
several Archdeacons, Canons, Heads of Houses, &c., including 
not a few moderate men like Mr. Welldon of Harrow; and 
among the laymen, Lord Selborne. They did not oppose the 
revival of the bishopric : it was too late for that ; but they pro 
tested against the work "going on in Palestine under the name 
of the Church of England," and against the new bishop being 
indebted for part of his stipend to a society "whose agents had 
been eager in proselytizing from the Orthodox Church." Dr. 
Benson replied to Dr. Talbot, the Warden of Keble (now Bishop 
of Eochester), who had forwarded the memorial: "I do not 
share the fears of the memorialists with regard to the work of the 
great Society which they mention. Perhaps acquaintance with 
details impossible to set out at length gives me this confidence. 
But I venture to believe it to be well-grounded." Four years after 
wards, the Archbishop, with four other Bishops, confirmed this 
opinion in their "Advice" to Bishop Blyth and the Society, as 
we shall see hereafter. The controversy which meanwhile arose 
within the Evangelical circle touching Bishop Blyth and the 
Society s grant will also come before us in another chapter. 




Conference attended 

July, 1888, was held the Third Lambeth Conference, 
by one hundred and forty-five bishops under the 
presidency of Archbishop Benson. At its proceedings we will 
look in a future chapter. But a word must be added here touching 
the Archbishop s truly great speech at the C.M.S. Anniversary of 

* A curious inversion of the text, \ y the way ; for it was Esau whom 
Isaac desired to welcome, arid Jacob was the deceiver. 


1891. Like his Sermon in 1886, it was full of references to current PART IX. 
events. He had evidently read the Eeport with real care before- ( J^ 2 ~ 9 ^ 
hand, and with unerring instinct had fastened on its important p 
points. Uganda, the Niger, India, the Mohammedan World, the Benson at 
Eastern Churches, Ceylon, Japan, and the statistics of men and %:f- 
funds, were all touched on, and upon every one of them some yersary in 
striking and enlightening word was said. It is an astonishing x 
speech to read now. Some points in it will naturally be noticed 
in the various chapters on the Missions he referred to. Here let 
us recall a never-to-be-forgotten reference to the Second Coming 
of the Lord. Ascension Day fell in the May Meeting week that 
year, and the resolution given to the Archbishop to move spoke of 
"the Ascending Lord s Command," and of " the certainty of His 
Coming," praying that "the whole expectant Church" might be 
" aroused to greater diligence in preparing His way." Dr. Benson 
expressed his thankfulness for these words. " The Advent of our 
Lord," he said, "will come some time, and may come any time." Advent. 
" Could we," he went on, "be discussing trifles if we verily saw 
our Lord either going or coming ? And we ought to see Him if 
the eye of our faith is clear." 

At this point we may conveniently take a brief survey of the 
position, views, and proceedings of the Evangelical circle during 
the period we have been reviewing, the earlier years of Archbishop 
Benson s Primacy. His accession to the Metropolitan See 
occurred at a time when, quite independently of his appointment, 
Evangelical Churchmen were greatly agitated. There was, in 
fact, a "crisis." It is perhaps difficult to name a period in the 
last forty years when there has not been a " crisis," in the opinion 
of some brethren ; but there certainly was a real one at this time. 
Archbishop Tait s kindly effort, on his death-bed, to save the Church 
from the outburst of indignation which would have arisen if the 
sentence of deprivation impending on Mr. Mackonochie had been 
pronounced, had been followed by the virtual exchange of livings 
between that clergyman and Mr. Suckling of St. Peter s, London 
Docks, to which Bishop Jackson had given his consent com 
pelled to do so, as he believed, by the law ; and this manoeuvre 
had rendered nugatory the long series of victories of the Church 
Association in the St. Alban s case. The outburst of indignation 
was now from the Evangelical side, and very strong things were 
said and written upon what was regarded as the toleration of the 
" mass." But as to what should be done, in this and other cases, 
Evangelical Churchmen were not agreed. Perhaps the diversities Evan- 
of opinion among them are not so great a disadvantage as is divisions, 
sometimes suggested. " A rope of sand," they are called. Henry 
Venn used to say he was glad they were " sand," which, though 
consisting of isolated grains, is an excellent barrier against the 
waves. Certainly Protestants ought not to complain of the 
exercise of the right they so greatly value, the right of private 



Chap. 84. 


The Evan 




judgment. Even before Archbishop Tait s death, there had been 
a good deal of dissatisfaction with the results of the policy of 
litigation followed by the Church Association ; the long series of 
victories in the Courts having failed to check the progress of 
Eitualism, and the imprisonment of Mr. Green and others having 
caused, however illogically, a reaction of feeling. In 1880, 
Bishop Perry, Canon Hoare, Dr. Boultbee, and other leading men^ 
formed the Union of Clerical and Lay Associations, with a view 
to providing a new rallying-point for the general body of Evan 
gelicals. The Council of the Church Association in their Annual 
Eeports, particularly in 1885, complained seriously of the growing 
half-heartedness, as they considered it, of "the waning love, the 
dubious attitude, and the declining firmness, of once-familiar 
friends," from which, they said, they suffered more than from 
" the trenchant obloquy of an unscrupulous foe." 

These Evangelical divisions were, of course, reflected in the press. 
The Record, though its pages were open to correspondents on all 
sides, had become, under its new conductors, the recognized organ 
of the larger and more moderate section. The Bock, which had 
been the organ of the more aggressive section, and had distin 
guished itself, as we have before seen, by its violent attacks upon 
men like Eyle and Hoare, changed hands in the earlier eighties, 
and was for a while carried on upon milder lines. It was, how 
ever, quickly replaced by the English Churchman, which in 1884 
was transformed into a vigorous and successful organ of decided 
and aggressive Protestantism; and this character it still main 
tains. At the Islington Clerical Meeting in 1883 on which occa 
sion the division in the Evangelical ranks was unusually con 
spicuous Mr. Goe (now Bishop of Melbourne) urged that it was 
no use barking if we could not bite. The retort was obvious, that 
a barking house-dog, even with a muzzle on, might warn the 
householder against burglars. Certainly the English Churchman 
has " barked " very effectively. 

During the years 1883 to 1890 the columns of the Eecord again 
and again teemed with letters from various sides. How to deal 
with the situation created by the Mackonochie exchange ; whether 
the recommendations of the Ecclesiastical Courts Commission 
should be adopted ; * whether it was expedient to prosecute a 
bishop which the Church Association was contemplating in 1884, 
before Dr. King was appointed to Lincoln ; whether Bishop 
King ought to be attacked ; whether the prosecution of Mr. 
Bell Cox at Liverpool was wise ; f whether a plan put forth 

* Two thousand Evangelical clergymen signed a memorial in favour of the 
Commission s Report; among them Bishop Perry, Deans Fremantle Law 
and Payne Smith ; Archdeacons J. W. Bardsley, T. T. Perowne, and Kichard- 
son ; Canons Bell, Carus, Garbett, Tristram ; Dr. Boultbee, D. Wilson, 
H. a G. Moule, &c. But a considerable section entirely objected. 

t Canon Cadman, Sir Emilias Bayley, and Mr. (now Bishop) Goe, wrote a 
strong joint letter against it, and incurred vehement censure from others for 
doing so. 


by Dean Perowne (now Bishop of Worcester) for virtually PART IX. 
permitting two interpretations of the Ornaments Eubric, and 1882-95. 
thus tolerating the vestments, should be supported ; how to 
coerce Bishop Temple into withdrawing a veto he had put upon a 
proposed suit against the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul s in regard 
to the new reredos ; whether there should be an appeal to the 
Privy Council against the Archbishop s Judgment in the Lincoln 
case ; upon all these points long correspondences ensued, in which 
most opposite views were expressed." In addition to these, ques 
tions of C.M.S. policy were also hotly debated: whether the 
Society was right in subsidizing the Japan and Jerusalem 
bishoprics ; whether a certain clergyman was a proper person to 
be sent as the Committee s representative to Ceylon ; whether, 
and on what conditions, bishops should be vice-presidents ; 
whether the Society had condoned the St. Paul s reredos by 
holding a service in the cathedral after it was unveiled ; and what 
attitude the Society should take on home controversies generally ; 
but these questions w T ill be further dealt with in another 

All this while, the progress of advanced teaching in the Church, 
and of practices avowedly borrowed from Eome, continued to be 
very marked ; and with a view to uniting the general body of 
Evangelical Churchmen more effectively than was done by the 
somewhat loose structure of the Clerical and Lay Unions, the 
Protestant Churchman s Alliance was established in 1889. There 
had been a long correspondence in the Times on " Eitualists Ritualists 
and the Law," d propos of the then pending trial of the Bishop J^. 
of Lincoln. The Ritualists having protested against the Arch 
bishop presuming to try his Suffragan, the Dean of Windsor 
(Randall Davidson, now Bishop of Winchester) had plainly asked 
them to state what Court they really would obey ; and Lord 
Halifax and Lord Grimthorpe had been prominent in the fray. 
The latter nobleman s prowess in the war of words led the leaders thorpe. 
of the new movement to invite him to be chairman of the new 
society. Lord Grimthorpe was, of course, a doughty antagonist 
of sacerdotalism, but he had never been identified with the 
spiritual work of the Evangelicals ; and the position proved a 
difficult one. Ultimately, in 1893, the Alliance was merged in a 
new organization with a new chairman the National Protestant The 
Church Union. 

The confirmation, in 1892, of Archbishop- Benson s Judgment in 
the Bishop of Lincoln s case by the Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council led to another important change. The Church 
Association announced " the abandonment of all attempts at 

* Several letters in 1889-91, which were greatly admired even by those 
who differed from the writer, were signed "An Old Soldier " and "A 
Northern Churchman," two noms de plume that evidently masked the same 
pen. Everybody knew who wrote them. The terse, nervous English was 


PART IX. litigation, for the present," and devoted itself to protest and 
1882-95. persuasion, and to agitation for the rights of the laity ; and from 
ia P that time its influence, which had for a time fallen very low, con- 
New siderably revived. The Privy Council Judgment naturally caused 
fhe church mucn concern in Evangelical circles generally, as it seemed finally 
Associa- to legalize ritual which it was hoped would be forbidden. Three 
clergymen seceded from the Church, and one at least of them 
complained bitterly of the cowardice of the majority in remaining 
in it. But upon the whole there was less agitation than at any 
other "crisis" of the period. Leading men wrote tranquillizing 
letters to the Record, pointing out that even if the Judgment was 
to be regretted (and some did not regret it) , it did not directly affect 
the position of Evangelicals themselves. The Prayer-book was 
not altered ; no man was compelled to take the eastward position 
or sing the Agnus Dei ; and the cowardly course would not be to 
stay in the Church, but to run away. Bishop Eyle, who took as 
Bishop serious a view of the situation as most men, wrote : "We have 
cheerfn liberty to walk in the old paths, and I hope we shall never forsake 
counsels, them. . . . Our honoured fathers in the last century, Eomaine 
and Berridge and Grimshaw and the elder Venn, had far greater 
difficulties around them than we have. But they stood firm, and 
held their ground. Let us do likewise." Again : " I charge my 
brethren not to listen for a moment to those who counsel secession 
from the Church of England. ... So long as the Articles and 
Prayer-book are not altered, we are in an impregnable position. 
We have an open Bible, and our pulpits are free." 

Perhaps the most really fruitful of the numerous letters came 

from the Eev. A. J. Eobinson (now Eector of Birmingham). He 

said, "Let us cease fighting [i.e. among ourselves], and unite 

in work," and by way of application he added, " Support and 

strengthen the Church Pastoral Aid Society." That letter led 

C.P.A.S. to the C.P.A.S. Forward Movement, and to the great advances 

Movement which that Society has made of late years. There could not be 

a more signal illustration of what is the true Evangelical policy. 

The Lincoln Judgment has often been called an Eirenicon, but 
the word is surely a very infelicitous one. While the result on 
one side was the sheathing of the sword, the result on the other 
was more audacious lawlessness than ever. The Eitualists paid 
no more attention to Archbishop Benson s careful explanations, 
limitations, and prohibitions, than if they had emanated from 
Lord Penzance. No other result was to be expected, and certainly 
no other result ensued. 

Islington During the period, the Islington Clerical Meeting continued to 
Meeting, grow in interest, and in the numbers attending. Daniel Wilson, 
the venerable Vicar of Islington, died in 1886, after conducting 
the gathering for fifty-four years. His successor, Mr. Barlow, 
built the new and handsome Bishop Wilson Memorial Hall, and 
the January meeting was held in it for the first time in 1891. 
The subjects taken were less openly controversial at this time than 


formerly ; and although they were always chosen with reference PART IX. 
to Evangelical doctrine and methods, they rarely touched the 1882-95. 
polemics of the particular moment. Canon Hoare continued to Cha P- 84. 
be universally recognized as the " father," so to speak, of the 
meeting ; but Mr. Webb-Peploe was rapidly rising to the position 
of a principal leader. Mr. Barlow s policy was to put younger 
or at all events newer men forward, and in these years we 
find coming to the front as readers or speakers such men as 
E. A. Knox (now Bishop of Coventry), Canons Girdlestone and 
McCormick, Dr. Waller, H. E. Fox, and H. Button. The Church 
at Home almost invariably absorbed the attention of the Con 
ference ; but one hour was given to the Evangelization of the 
World in 1891, when Mr. Lombe read a powerful paper and 
E. A. Stuart delivered a rousing speech; and in 1895 the general 
subject was Foreign and Home Missions, the former being ably 
advocated by Bishop Moule, A. J. Eobinson, and F. S. Webster. 

All through the period of the eighties, the evangelistic and Spiritual 
spiritual movements described in our Seventieth Chapter were 
still powerful, and some of them distinctly growing. Perhaps 
the Parochial Missions were becoming less numerous, and com- 
manding less attention as has certainly been the case since ; 
but this is no reproach to them. They did splendid work for the 
Church, and for the Church s Lord ; and changing years always 
bring changing methods. The last great united Mission in 
London took place in 1884-5, the East and the West being 
attacked separately, to facilitate concentration. It was pre 
ceded, by only a few months, by Mr. Moody s second series of 
services in various London centres, the last of them being on the 
Thames Embankment. Enough was said in our Seventieth 
Chapter touching the remarkable work done by him ; and it is 
only necessary now to notice his memorable visits to Oxford and 
Cambridge, on account of their indirect influence upon the Foreign 
Missionary Enterprise. 

These visits took place in November, 1882, and naturally gave Moody at 
rise to much doubt and questioning. However useful the plain- Cambnd e 
spoken American might be for the London or Birmingham masses, 
how could he be expected to influence communities of young men 
who prided themselves on their social status, their superior 
education, and their utter contempt for anything that they could 
possibly stigmatize as not " gentlemanly " ? The Cambridge men 
quickly gave Moody a taste of their quality by making a cleverly- 
organized disturbance at his first meeting. But he quietly perse 
vered, holding meetings from day to day, and never doubting that 
since before God there is "no difference " among men, and since 
all need the same Saviour, the same straight and simple Gospel was 
suitable for wranglers or " blues " as had proved its power in the 
London slums. After all, the power was not in him, but in the Resultsof 
Spirit of God; and assuredly the Spirit of God worked at Cam- his visit. 

2 ft 4 


PART IX. bridge. There are now devoted clergymen and laymen, both at 
home and abroad, who owe their own selves " to that visit of 
Moody - s Just two years latei% in i) ecem ber, 1884, a C.M.S. 
Secretary was at breakfast at Eidley Hall, and asked the Vice- 
Principal how far the supposed fruits of Moody s \vork remained. 
The Vice-Principal ran his eye round the long table at which 
some thirty theological students, all graduates, were sitting, 
and then gave this answer: " Si monumentum requiris, circum- 
spice." "Yes," he continued, "I think there is not one man 
here whose life was not influenced, more or less, by Moody s 
Cambridge Mission." In fact, those thirty men were but a few 
out of the whole number. That breakfast at Eidley occurred 
on the morning following a memorable meeting of the Cambridge 
University C.M. Union, which will come before us hereafter. The 
Church Missionary Society owes a whole succession of Cambridge 
missionaries to the influences of that period. 

One of the most important events of the period was both a fruit, 
indirectly, of Moody s work, and a fruitful parent of other and 
larger movements. This was the going forth of the famous 
" Cambridge Seven" to China. Extraordinary interest was 
aroused in the autumn of 1884 by the announcement that the 
captain of the Cambridge Eleven and the stroke oar of the 
Cambridge boat were going out as missionaries. These were 
Mr. C. T. Studd * and Mr. Stanley Smith ; and very soon they were 
joined by five others, viz., the Eev. W. W. Cassels, Curate of All 
Saints , Lambeth ; Mr. Montagu Beauchamp, a nephew of Lord 
Eadstock, and also well known as a rowing-man ; Mr. D. E. Hoste, 
an officer in the Eoyal Artillery; and Messrs. C. H. and A. T. 
Polhill-Turner, sons of a late M.P. for Bedford, the former an 
officer in the .6th Dragoon Guards, and the latter a Eidley Hall 
theological student,! and both of them prominent Eton and 
Cambridge cricketers. Mr. Studd s dedication of himself to the 
Mission-field, and Mr. Hoste s conversion to God, were direct 
results of Moody s Missions in London and at Brighton. The 
immense influence of such a band of men going to China as missionaries 
orthePr" was irresistible. No such event had occurred before ; and no 
going forth event of the century has done so much to arouse the minds of 
Christian men to the tremendous claims of the Field, and the 
nobility of the missionary vocation. The gift of such a band to 
the China Inland Mission for truly it was a gift from God was 

* Mr. Studd s father had been converted at Mr. Moody s earlier Mis 
sion in 1875, and had given up worldly pleasures of all sorts to devote 
himself to Christian work. C. T. Studd and two of his brothers were 
the leading players in the memorable cricket match in 1882 between Cam 
bridge University and the Australian Eleven. The three Studds made 297 
runs between them, and C. T. Studd, who was also a bowler, took eight 

| Mr. A. T. Polhill-Turner was to have been ordained, and intended then 
to offer to the C.M.S. ; but the enthusiasm aroused by Smith and Studd led 
him to join them at the last moment. 


a just reward to Mr. Hudson Taylor and his colleagues for the PART IX. 
genuine unselfishness with which they had always pleaded the 1882-95. 
cause of China and the World, and not of their own particular Gha P- 84. 
organization, and for the deep spirituality which had always 
marked their meetings. And that spirituality marked most 
emphatically the densely-crowded meetings in different places at 
which these seven men said farewell. They told, modestly and 
yet fearlessly, of the Lord s goodness to them, and of the joy of 
serving Him ; and they appealed to young men, not for their 
Mission, but for their Divine Master. No such missionary 
meeting had ever been known as the farewell gathering at Exeter 
Hall on February 4th, 1885. We have become familiar since 
then with meetings more or less of the same type, but iif was a 
new thing then. In many ways the Church Missionary Society 
owes a deep debt of gratitude to the China Inland Mission and the 
Cambridge Seven. The Lord Himself spoke through them; and it 
was by His grace that the Society had ears to hear. But all this 
will come before us in another chapter. 

To revert to Cambridge. It was to follow up Moody s work by " Kes- 
leading the men who had been brought to the point of yielding meetings 
themselves to Christ on to a fuller Christian life that, early in at Cam - 
1883, Mr. Webb-Peploe, Mr. Hopkins, Mr. C. A. Fox, and Mr. 
Bowker, who had by that time become known as " the Keswick 
men," held the first Convention at Cambridge on " Keswick 
lines." There were grave doubts, on the part of the Evangelical 
clergy at Cambridge, as to the perfect soundness and wisdom 
of the instruction they would give ; but to a large extent these 
doubts were dispelled when they came. There were, however, 
other teachers, younger men with less well-balanced minds, who other in- 
appeared at Cambridge a little later, and who distinctly taught Hot for 68 
" perfectionism "; and the Salvation Army itself was not slow to good, 
come and set forth its extreme doctrines. Two or three of those 
who seemed the very best among the undergraduates were, 
indeed, led astray in that direction ; but this very fact humbled 
the majority and put them on their guard ; and upon the whole, it 
was a period big with blessings that have since fallen upon many Yet, upon 
English parishes, upon the Colonies, and upon Africa, India, blessing! 6 
China, and Japan. It would not be well to give fuller details 
here, because so many living persons w r ould have to be referred 
to. There is a glimpse of them in Joyfully Heady, the Memoir of "Joyfully 
Harry Maclnnes (son of Mr. Miles Maclnnes, and a great- 
grandson of the first Sir Fowell Buxton), who was Secretary of 
the Cambridge University C.M. Union, and was killed on the 
Alps just at this time (September 24th, 1884). In the recently- 
published Memoir of Pilkington of Uganda, Dr. Harford-Battersby Dr. c. F. 
also, w r ho himself was an undergraduate at the time, lifts the Batters- 
veil a little. He shows us Sidney Swann (one of the Cambridge by s 
" Eight"), Tyndale-Biscoe (the coxswain of the " Eight "), Edmund ac 
Wigram, Edmund Carr, Eric Lew T is, J. M. Paterson all six sub- 





Chap. 84. 





of H. C. G 

seqiienthj C.M.S. missionaries,* and some others, deeply stirred 
while engaged in one of the seaside services of the Children s 
Special Service Mission at Llandudno, and going back to Cam 
bridge to start new Sunday-night meetings for undergraduates, at 
which " the barrier of constraint was broken down which is so 
often felt in speaking of spiritual things," and " men testified to 
the great things God had done for them." He also shows us the 
" aggressive evangelistic set" at Pembroke, among them H. J. 
Molony (now C.M.S. missionary to the Gonds), John Maclnnes, 
and Murray Webb-Peploe, proposing, amid great uproar, that the 
college debating society should take in the Life of Faith which 
meeting seems to have been one of the influences that God used to 
the conversion of Pilkington himself.^ 

Oxford was not without similar movements, but they were on a 
smaller scale and influenced fewer men. J But the two Universities 
now came to be very much in evidence at the two annual gatherings 
which were looked upon as the regular resorts of the younger and 
more fervent Evangelicals, the Mildmay Conference and the 
Keswick Convention. The former, still under Mr. Blackwood s 
presidency, was at this time at the height of its influence ; but, 
though not objected to by the recognized Evangelical leaders, it 
was rarely attended by them. The latter was still regarded as of 
doubtful orthodoxy ; but the numbers flocking to Keswick increased 
year by year. The founder, Canon Battersby, died in 1883, on 
the very day of the assembling of the Convention ; and his lay 
friend, Mr. H. F. Bowker, succeeded him as chairman. The 
leading speakers were now Webb-Peploe, C. A. Fox, Evan Hopkins, 
and Hubert Brooke, with four or five other clergymen ; and one 
Scotch Presbyterian, Dr. Elder Gumming. The only Noncon 
formist minister taking part was Mr. Figgis of Brighton. The 
most important new accession was in 1886 that of Mr. Handley 
Moule ; concerning which a word must be said, as its consequences 
have been great. In 1884, Mr. Hopkins published his Law of 
Liberty in the Spiritual Life, and this and other books on the 
subject were made the text of a valuable series of articles in the 
Record, \\ written appreciatively and in a generous Christian spirit, 
yet upon the whole pronouncing against Mr. Hopkins s teaching. 
Four months later, a letter appeared in the same paper signed 

* E. Wigram, Carr, and Battersby, it should be explained, had dedicated 
themselves to missionary service before this. E. Wigram having written to 
his father, and Battersby having also made his purpose known, Mr. Wigram 
wrote " a most remarkable letter of advice " (says Battersby) to them both ; 
and that letter, read by them to Carr, decided him also. 

t See Pilkington of Uganda, pp. 23-27. 

J One Oxford undergraduate converted to God under Moody s preaching 
was Herbert Knox, afterwards a C.M.S. missionary in Fuh-kien. 

Mr. Meyer did not appear till 1887, and Mr. Macgregor, Mr. G. Wilson, 
and Mr. Inwood, still later, as well as Mr. George Grubb and other clergy 

II Record, June 27th and July 4th, llth, 18th, 1884. 


"The Writer of the Four Papers," stating that he had since met PART IX. 
Mr. Hopkins and others of the " Keswick school," and that, while J? 82 ~ 95 
not at all moving from the doctrinal position taken up in the 
articles, he was now convinced that the teaching of these men 
was not inconsistent with it, and not open to the criticisms then 
current. Then followed this striking and touching confession : 

Never,! say it earnestly and deliberately, have I heard teaching more 
alien from perfectionist error, more justly balanced in its statement of 
possibilities and limits. And then, never have I been so brought person 
ally face to face with the infinitely important reality of self-surrender 
to the Lord, and the promises of His Divine action as the Keeper of the 
spirit committed to Him ; an action which only intensifies the holy work 
of watching and prayer. ... Of personal details I must not speak ; it is 
enough to say that those few days were a crisis never to be forgotten in the 
spiritual life of at least one much-needing Christian. * 

An anonymous and impersonal letter like this passed without 
much notice ; but it marked an event which remembering how 
God uses unexpected things and persons in the working out of 
His purposes we now know to have had immense influence upon 
Evangelical thought and life in the Church of England. For in 
the following June, 1885, the Principal of Eidley Hall was, for 
the first time, one of the speakers at the Mildmay Conference ; f Mouie 
and in July, 1886, the same much-respected Evangelical theo- J{? M?id- 
logian was, for the first time, one of the speakers at the Keswick J?*yjjj 
Convention.]: It is needless to point out the connexion between 
the Eeviewer s confession and the adhesion of Mr. Moule to the 
Keswick movement ; but if the dates just given are compared 
with the dates of the incidents at Cambridge before referred to, it 
will be at once perceived how wonderfully it was ordered, by Him 
who ordereth all things in heaven and in earth, that just when 
scores of fervent young Christians needed guidance and instruc 
tion, a guide and instructor was provided for them who would not 
frown upon their fervour or accuse them of heresy, but who could 
sympathize with them and understand their language. 

The annual Convention at the foot of Skiddaw was now no The Con 

* Record, November 12th, 1884. 

f See his two addresses there, Record, June 26th, 1885. 

J Ibid., August 13th, 1886. 

The story thus briefly sketched has been publicly told by Dr. Moule more 
than once, and more fully. There is therefore no undue trespassing upon 
personal matters in saying what is said above. Indeed, in the lie cord of 
August 1st, 1890, at a time when a hot correspondence on " Keswick 
teaching" was going on in its columns, Mr. Moule closed a long letter 
signed with his name with these touching words : 

"I was brought, not many years ago, amidst much misgiving and un 
justified prejudice, to listen for myself to what was said at a meeting 
conducted by Mr. Evan Hopkins. He who searcheth the hearts found 
me out indeed that evening ; and then, too, He showed me, then and there, 
something of His most gracious power to conquer and to keep in answer 
to the confidence of self-despair, in a way not known by me experimen 
tally before. Who am I that I should speak of it ? But how can I be 
silent ? " 



Chap. 84. 

of the 
listic and 
ments to 


at Keswick 

obscure gathering. It attracted more notice year by year. Quite 
naturally, it was again and again attacked by correspondents of 
the Eecord ; and those who only know Prebendary Webb-Peploe 
now as one of the most trusted Evangelical leaders can scarcely 
realize how doubtfully he was formerly regarded. But when 
Evangelical clergymen whose orthodoxy was above suspicion 
began rather timidly to go and listen and judge, they soon 
found that "Keswick," instead of being "perfectionist," was in 
reality the best safeguard against " perfectionism." For nowhere 
were the sins and shortcomings of the most spiritually-minded of 
Christian people more unsparingly pointed out and condemned. 
It is possible some think so that at one time there was a danger 
of the Convention teaching becoming rather transcendental ; but 
if so, the danger was, through God s great goodness, averted 
once for all by Mr. Webb-Peploe s memorable address on Sin in 
1885. And presently a new movement appeared at Keswick, 
which undoubtedly tended to direct the fervour of the Convention 
into practical channels. This was the Missionary Movement. 

It has been mentioned in former chapters that the Evangelistic 
and Spiritual Movements which had been at work in various forms 
since the epoch of 1856-60 did not at first help Foreign Missions. 
No doubt a fair number of missionaries had been, directly or in 
directly, the fruits of them. Candidates applying to the Church 
Missionary Society, on being questioned as to the particular 
agency which had been the means of leading them to dedicate 
themselves to the service of Christ, frequently mentioned a Mission 
of some sort, whether parochial, like those of Mr. Aitken, or of a 
less regular kind, like Mr. Moody s. Nevertheless the mission 
preachers themselves had not set forth the claims of the Heathen 
World, and most of them certainly regarded missionary societies 
as agencies rather for raising and spending money than for afford 
ing openings for personal service, and therefore as quite outside 
the range of their evangelistic sympathies and efforts. Moreover, 
as has also been shown before, the energies of young men and 
women converted to God under the influence of these movements 
became so absorbed in Christian work at home that the missionary 
call scarcely reached the ear, much less the heart. But a 
few of the leading men in the Evangelistic Movement, notably 
Dr. Grattan Guinness, Mr. James Mathieson, and Mr. Eeginald 
Eadcliffe, gradually became known as ardent missionary advocates, 
and the last-named gentleman devoted all the latter years of his 
life to arousing the circles in which he had influence, namely the 
non-denominational circles that were doing splendid work among 
the poor of our great cities, but totally forgetting the real 

Now it was Eeginald Eadcliffe who was the initiator of the 
Missionary Movement at Keswick. For some time he failed to 
persuade the leaders of the Convention to allow a missionary 
meeting to be held there. Mr. Bowker declared that it would 


result in the secretaries of societies coming down to raise money. PART IX. 
" No," lie said, " we come here to meet with God and to receive 1882-95. 
His word ; and this must not be mixed up with such earthly Cha P- 84 - 
things as missionary collections." At length, in 1886 and 1887, 
he consented to lend the Convention Tent to Mr. Radcliffe for a 
meeting on the Saturday ; but neither he nor his colleagues would 
be present. In the latter year, however, Mr. Webb-Peploe p^. 
attended and spoke ; and that meeting at which Mr. Hudson ~ 
Taylor and Mr. James Johnson (the C.M.S. African pastor at 
Lagos) were also speakers proved a memorable epoch in modern 
missionary history. Mr. Longley Hall of the C.M.S. Palestine 
Mission had " drawn a bow at a venture." He had sent direct to 
Mr. Bowker, without any consultation with the Society, an appeal 
for women missionaries for the Holy Land. "Are there not 
Christian ladies with private means," he wrote, "who are attend 
ing the Convention, and who would come out here and work 
among the Moslem women ? Cannot ten come this year ? 
That appeal was referred to at Eadcliffe s meeting ; God used it to 
touch many hearts ; and offers of personal service flowed in. The 
result to the C.M.S. we shall see by-and-by. Here we have 
only to do with Keswick. Before the next year s Convention 
came round, Mr. Bowker had grasped and enunciated the great 
principle that " Consecration and the Evangelization of the World 
ought to go together." 

In the following year, 1888, missionary meetings were for the The 
first time included in the official programme of the Convention, mPPl 
and the short daily missionary prayer-meeting was begun which 
has been so attractive to the hundreds of people who flock to it. 
At the larger meetings, the missionaries speaking were at first 
almost all either C.M.S. or of the China Inland Mission, with ladies 
of the C.E.Z.M.S. andl.F.N.S. The smaller inter-denominational 
Missions gradually came in ; but the large Nonconformist 
Societies have always been scantily represented. It is worth 
recording that at those first meetings in 1888 the C.M.S. mis 
sionaries who spoke were Bruce of Persia, Bambridge of Sindh, 
Williamson of the Gond Mission ; and, of new recruits going 
out, Carless of Persia, H. S. Phillips of Fuh-kien, Miss Vidal 
of Palestine, and Miss Tristram of Japan. But the most memor 
able incident of the Saturday was a 10 note handed anony- The 
mpusly to the platform by a young Cambridge man (afterwards a Jnlsioi 
missionary himself), " to help to send out a Keswick missionary." Fund. 
It was the signal for other gifts, unasked for and unlocked for, 
and in half an hour more than 800 in cash or promises was in 
the chairman s hands. Some contributions were for various 
Societies, but most for the "Keswick missionary." The fund 
thus unexpectedly and spontaneously started led to the sending 
forth, in the first instance, in 1889, not of missionaries, but of 
"inissioners," Mr. George Grubb being the chief. Mr. Grubb Mr. c. 
had already, as we shall see in another chapter, been sent to ~ 

VOL. in. y 


I AHT IX. India by the C.M.S. on a similar errand; and it was the remark - 
1882-95. a kle blessing that had followed his work then which led to his 
Chap. 84. se } ec ti on now. The Special Missions he now conducted in 
Ceylon, Tinnevelly, Australia, and New Zealand, as an emissary 
of the Keswick Convention, also received great blessing from 
Him who alone can prosper such work ; and we shall see some 
of its fruits hereafter.* In after years the Keswick leaders 
devoted some of the offerings made year by year to the mainte 
nance of missionaries to the Heathen working under various 
recognized Societies. Two C.M.S. missionaries are thus supported. 

One more movement of the period must be mentioned in con 
clusion. At the commencement of the years under review the 
The Salvation Army had gradually made for itself an important 

Army/ r position, and many Churchmen had hoped that it would prove an 
evangelistic agency more permanently effective than Missions 
like Mr. Moody s, while equally subordinate to the more regular 
religious institutions of the country. Several leading clergymen, 
" High " as well as " Low," had held special Communion Services 
for Salvationists, to which they marched with bands and banners. 
Archbishop Tait, in 1882, had sent 5 to their fund for buying the 
notorious Eagle Tavern, being no doubt moved thereto by his 
chaplain and son-in-law (the present Bishop of Winchester), who 
was an admiring auditor at Mrs. Booth s remarkable addresses at 
St. James s Hall. But when the Clapton Hall was opened by 
the Army in that same year, the proceedings were so irreverent 
that both Lord Shaftesbury and Mr. Blackwood, who had at 
first given a generous welcome to the new movement, publicly 
repudiated it. From that time the Army became more and more 
a distinct sect, and the sympathies of Churchmen became more 
and more alienated from it. Its doctrine of holiness, too, seemed 
not only un scriptural in itself, but also singularly inconsistent 
with some of its proceedings. Yet it must be acknowledged that 
many hundreds of most devoted and exemplary Christians, from 
all classes of society, were engaged in its service, and individually 
did a noble work. In India it was joined by a Government official, 
Mr. F. Tucker, a nephew of "A.L.O.E."; but its work there, 
and in other Mission-fields, has been of a very mixed character. 
The "Sub- Its appeal, however, for the " Submerged Tenth " of the popula- 
Tenfh." tion of England touched many hearts and purses that were 
closed against the far more terrible need of the Submerged Half 
of the population of the World the half that still lie in the deep 
darkness of Heathenism. That appeal, it should be added, had 
been anticipated by one from certain earnest Nonconformists who 
The voiced the "Bitter Cry of Outcast London." There was, and 

there is, an "Outcast London"; there was, and is, a "bitter 

* It should be explained that Mr. Gr. Grubb s work in later years has been 
entirely independent of the Keswick Convention. 


cry " from it ; yet when Lord Shaftesbury was entertained at a PART IX. 
grand banquet at the Mansion House by Lord Mayor McArthur 1882-95. 
in 1884, he waxed indignant at the unthankfulness of forgetting Cha P- 84 - 
the enormous improvement in the condition of the working But 
classes, material, social, and moral, since the days when he began ^TiSst?* 
his life-long labours for them. " You talk of the miseries of the 
poor," he said in effect; "yes, there are miseries, it is too true ; 
but you have little idea what they once were ! 

So, in truth and verity, might Evangelical Churchmen speak 
if only they knew, or remembered of the religious condition of 
England in the Past and in the Present. Let this reminder be 

" Lest we forget ! lest we forget ! " 

u 2 


Mr. Wigram s Period Deaths of C.M.S. Men Lord Chichester, Cap 
tain Maude, Sir J. Kennaway Committee-men, &c. The St. 
Bride s Preachers Speakers at the Anniversaries Dr. Westcott 
and Sir M. Monier- Williams Home Developments Missionary 
Leaves Association Missionary Exhibitions Lay Workers Union 
Missionary Missions Medical Missions New Children s Home 
Enlarged C.M. House Pigott and Oliphant. 

-If^n that had understanding of the time*, to tnoic ichat Israel ought to 
do." 1 Chron. xiL 32. 

" Spare not. lengthen thy cord*, and strengthen thy stakes" Isa. liv. 2. 

PART IX. * H lUKXIXG from the Soc 

1SS2-95. fcQ ^| i:self. we find that when we enter on the year 1883, 
Chap. S5. fJJS :be New Era of extension and development has 

--7T7, f^flStSI already begun. Some of the advances of 1882 in 

eiin the foreign field were just mentioned in the closing 

C.M.S. c h a p ter o f t he preceding Part, though they have still to be 
noticed more fully in the chapters on the several Missions yet to 
come. In this and the next three chapters we review the 
Society s home affairs ; and in these also we shall have to go 
back occasionally into 1882. 

Mr. Mr. Wigram s* period as Secretary was by far the most remark - 

able in respect of progress in the history of the Society. If we 
compare the entire eighty years before he came into office with 
the fifteen years and a "half of his Secretaryship, we find that 
while in the eighty years just one thousand missionaries went out, 
Men. in the fifteen years and a half there were six hundred and seventy. 
A^ain, in Henry Venn s thirty-one years, four hundred and 
ninety went out, "while Wigram s six hundred and seventy went 
in just half the time. The one hundred and seventy of Wright s 
eight years a period of notable advance scarcely come into 
l-Miii comparison at all. Or taking the funds : the General Income 
when Venn came into office was (say) 90,000 ; when he retired 
it was (say) 150,000, an increase of" 60,000 in thirty-one years. 
In the united periods of Wright and Wigram, the Income rose to 
(say) 255,000. an increase of 105,000 in twenty-three years, 
which is fairlv distributed between the two periods. Again, when 


Wigram came in, the office arrangements, the home organization, PART IX. 
the plans for meetings of various kinds, the arrangements for *&*- 
candidates, were very much what they had been for thirty or 
forty years. His period saw the House staff organized and made The 
efficient as it had never been before ; ah 1 the Unions and Bands 
established, the Missionary Missions and Exhibitions, the v 
work of the Loan Department, the great development of Publica 
tions ; public meetings and services multiplied, and the meetings 
raised in tone and character. It saw the organization of Medical 
Missions and their maintenance, and the commencement and 
growth of Woman s Work at home and abroad. It saw the 
adoption of the "Policy of Faith," and the new plans for the 
Training of Missionaries and for Appropriated Contributions 
resulting from the " Keswick Letter " of 1890. It saw the visits 
of Special Missioners to various Mission-fields, and the establish 
ment of the first Colonial Associations. We have before noticed 
that the year 1873 marked the dividing-line between the Further 
Past and the Nearer Past, and the year 1881 the dividing-line 
between the Past and the Present. We shall see by-and-by 
that the years 1885-87 also proved an important epoch in the 
development of the Present ; also the year 1890 ; and, one may 
almost say, every year after that. 

Of course it is "not suggested that to Mr. Wigram personally 
were due all these advances and developments. Many minds were 
at work, and the influences were very diversified which, under 
God, produced such results. For several years there were 
scarcely any changes in the Secretariat. For six years there was Secretaries 
no break at all. Tnen Mr. Sutton accepted a Birmingham church. 
and left the Home Organization Departjnent after a period of un 
precedented development and extension. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. B. Baring-Gould, Incumbent of St. Michael s, Blackheath ; 
and the Department owed much to the Assistant Secretary who 
worked for several years from 1886, the Rev. H. Percy Grubb. 
In 1889, General Hutchinson retired from the Lay Secretaryship, 
having in his eight years effected, in conjunction with his able 
lieutenant. Mr. S. F. Purday, many improvements hi the Society s 
office and business arrangements. His successor was General 
Clennell CoUingwood, another Anglo-Indian officer, who served 
five years of what was in several ways an arduous and trying 
period. Mr. Robert Lang retired from Group HI. (Africm, 
Palestine, New Zealand) in 1892, his health having suffered 
under the severe strain caused by the Niger controversies of 
1890-91 ; and was followed by a Manchester Rector, the Rev. 
F. Baylis, an Oxford graduate of distinction, Junior Student of 
Christ Church, and afterwards Vice-Principal of Wycliffe Hall. 
Mr. Fenn continued in charge of Group I. (Ceylon, China, Japan, 
North America), and Mr. Gray of Group EL (India, Persia, 
Mauritius), until 1^94. Another clergyman came to the House 
in 1886, originally to assist during Mr. Wigram s absence on his 

2 94 


Chap. 85. 

PART IX. tour round the world ; and he afterwards rendered important 
niS!!7ftK service in tne Foreign and Editorial Departments. This was 
the Eev. G. Furness Smith, who had been Association Secretary 
in the Midlands, and had offered and been accepted as a mis 
sionary for India, but was prevented by family circumstances 
from going out. Other accessions to the personnel of the House 
during this period will come under our notice hereafter. 

Deaths of 
the period. 

Mr. A. 

Deaths of 

In reporting the deaths of the period, we will only come down 
to 1890, leaving the later years to a future chapter. Of the 
working members of the Committee, there died, the Eev. Sydney 
Gedge, who had been a faithful friend for many years at Birming 
ham and Northampton, and had come in his old age to be a 
habitue of Salisbury Square ; * Mr. Arthur Lang, one of the 
Anglo-Indian civilians to whom the Society owes so much, and 
who was in the very front rank of leading counsellors ; f Dr. 
Boultbee, Principal of Highbury College, one of the wisest and 
most learned of the Evangelical clergy ; Joseph Hoare, kindliest 
of men under a brusque exterior, Chairman of the Bible Society 
and the London City Mission ; J General Sir William Hill, Hori. 
Sec. of the C.E.Z.M.S., and latterly a frequent chairman of the 
C.M.S. Committee; Prebendary Daniel Wilson, fifty-four years 
Vicar of Islington ; j| J. A. Strachan, the Society s honorary stock 
broker ; H the Eev. C. Smalley, one of the oldest in standing of the 
clerical members; and Alexander Beattie, the lay Nestor of the 
Committee, the loss of whom was the most deeply felt of all. He 
was a great railway magnate, being chairman or director of several 
lines, and also a leading county man in Kent. As an adviser in 
all difficult questions, whether of a business or ecclesiastical or 
personal character, there was no one quite like Mr. Beattie. With 
wide experience of men and things, he combined a singular 
gentleness and sweetness, which was rendered all the more 
attractive by his unconcealed love for his Divine Lord. " Our 
precious Saviour" was a phrase often on his lips, and from him 
nothing could be more natural.** 

Another clerical member of the Committee whose death left a 
felt blank is counted rather among the retired missionaries. This 
was James Long, whose remarkable work at Calcutta we noticed 
in our Forty-seventh Chapter. He died in 1887, having previously 
given the bulk of his property, 2000, to the Society to endow a 
Long Lectureship on Oriental Eeligions. Among other retired 
missionaries who died in these years, the names should be 

* See In Memoriam, C.M. Intelligencer, November, 1883. 
t See Committee Minute, Ibid., March, 1883, p. 189. 
% See In Memoriam, Ibid., March, 1886, p. 161. 
See In Memoriam, Ibid., October, 1886, p. 771. 
|| See Ibid., August, 1886, p. 384. 

if See In Memoriam, by Mr. A. Beattie, Ibid , December, 1888, p. 779. 
: * See In Memoriam, Ibid., March, 1889, p. 178. 


specially mentioned of Schon :!: and Townsend of West Africa ; PART IX. 
Jetter of Smyrna, at the age of ninety-four ; Leupolt of Benares 188 
and Gough of Ningpo ; E. Breii of Ceylon, who had charge of the biiap - 
Preparatory Institution at Eeading ; and Mrs. Weitbrecht, whose 
noble work at home for the C.M.S., C.E.Z.M.S., and other good 
causes, made her widowhood even more abundant in blessing than 
her former married life at Burdwan.f The missionaries who died 
in the field in our period will of course be mentioned under their 
respective Missions, including Bishops Sargent and Poole, 
Bishops Hannington and Parker, and Alexander Mackay. 

Of influential fellow-workers and friends at home there were and of 
removed, from the ranks of the clergy, Bishop E. Bickersteth (of f r e ds> 
Eipon), Bishop Jackson (of London), Bishop Anderson (formerly 
of Eupert s Land), Bishop Eyan (formerly of Mauritius) ; Bishop 
Eowley Hill (of Sodor and Man) ; Deans Close, Boyd, and Law ; 
George Lea of Birmingham, an almost ideal Evangelical clergy 
man and untiring friend ; \ Lord Wriothesley Eussell, T. E. 
Birks, C. Clayton, J. F. Fenn, W. Hockin, James Bardsley, 
E. Garbett ; G. T. Fox of Durham, staunchest of Protestants and 
most munificent of benefactors ; || John Venn of Hereford, the 
revered brother of Henry Venn ; and two former Secretaries, 
John Mee and William Knight, the latter of them Venn s intimate 
friend and biographer. H From among the laity were taken the 
Marquis of Cholmondeley, formerly a regular Committee-man, 
and for many years the chairman of the Evening May Meeting ; 
the Earls of Harrowby and Shaftesbury and Earl Cairns ; Lord 
and Lady Kinnaird, great allies of Venn s, and devoted to the 
interests of India ; Sir Bartle Frere,** Sir E. Montgomery, \ \ 
General Eeynell Taylor, \\ and Colonel Martin, all of whom we 
have met in our Indian chapters ; Eobert Williams and E. C. L. 
Bevan, liberal bankers ; Colonel E. M. Hughes, the godly and 
unwearied Hon. Secretary of the Stranger s Home for Asiatics, a 
former regular member of Committee, and greatly beloved ;|||| 
Hudleston Stokes, another excellent Anglo-Indian ; and William 
Charles Jones, the largest of all contributors to the Society. 
Lord Cairns s death will come before us hereafter. Lord Shaftes- 

* Through the influence of Dr. Gust, Schon received the honorary degree 
of D.D. from the University of Oxford, in consideration of his important 
linguistic work, on April 2-tth, 1884, the same day that it was conferred 
upon Archbishop Benson. 

t See In Memoriam, C.M. Intelligencer, May, 1888, p. 315. 

I See In Memoriam, by Rev. C. Marson, Ibid., June, 1883, p. 368. 

See Ibid., June, 1886, p. 518. || See Ibid., July, 1886, p. 578. 

*j[ See In Memoriam, Ibid., June, 1889, p. 370. 

** See letters from W. S. Price and J. Long, Ibid., July, 1884, p. 434. 

ft See In Memoriam, by General Maclagan, Ibid., March, 1888. 

Jt See two articles In Memoriam, by Dr. Gust and General Maclagan, 
Ibid., April and June, 1886, pp. 225, 474. 

See Recollections, by Rev. J. A. McCarthy and Rev. E. Lombe, Ibid., 
June, 1886, p. 500. 

Illl See pp. 43, 44; and C.M. Intelligencer, March, 1886, p. 162. 


bur y s undi sputed position as the greatest Christian layman since 

. Wilberforce is too familiar to every reader to require notice in 

It is certainly a remarkable thing that the leading Evangelical 
nobleman should never have been President of the leading 
sSftes- Evan g elical Society. Lord Shaftesbury was President of a host 
bury. " of other good institutions for the benefit of both the souls and 
bodies^of men ; but although a hearty friend of the C.M.S.,* and 
often its influential helper in official and parliamentary circles, 
especially in matters connected with India and Turkey, he never 
occupied the President s chair. The reason simply was that 
while he was still a commoner as Lord Ashley, and just when he 
was becoming a junior member of Peel s Ministry as Civil Lord 
of the Admiralty, the C.M.S. Committee elected to the office a 
peer of the realm ; and that peer, the Earl of Chichester, outlived 
the Earl of Shaftesbury. 

And this brings us to two other deaths not mentioned in the 
above enumeration. At midnight on March 15th, 1886, the 
Eord hot ag6 ^ Presiden * of tne Society was called to his eternal rest. 
Chichester He nad filled the office fifty-one years, and in all that time he 
had only once missed the Annual Meeting. He had presided 
forty-seven times, the only three occasions when he was present 
but not in his proper seat being when Archbishops Sumner, Tait, 
and Benson respectively took the chair as Vice-Patrons on 
attending for the first time after their elevation to the Primacy. 
But Lord Chichester had been a working President too. He 
frequently presided at ordinary Committee-meetings, and in 
private consultations his "fatherly counsel and sympathy," as 
Mr. Wigram called it, were most highly valued. He was a man 
of wide culture and singularly independent mind, combining a 
firm grasp of Gospel truth with an unusual candour and readiness 
to appreciate the position and views of others. Above all, he was 
emphatically a man of prayer. At one of the Valedictory Dis 
missals in 1884, he told how, in order to remember the various 
missionaries at the Throne of Grace, he was wont to lay the 
Intelligencer and Gleaner open before him while on his knees, and 
pray by name for those mentioned in their pages, f 

Should be T he Commi ^ee were much perplexed about a successor to Lord 
President ? Chichester. The Society had only had two Presidents in its 
eighty-seven years, and both of them were peers. Ought not the 
House of Lords to provide a third ? Lord Shaftesbury had been 
dead only a few months, but even if he had been alive, his age 
would probably have prevented his accepting the post. Earl 
Cairns had been hopefully expected to take the office whenever it 
should be vacant, but he too, a much younger man, had died in 
the preceding year. The Earl of Harrowby, who had succeeded 

* See G.M. Intelligencer, November, 1885, p. 809. 
t &ee further, In Alem<,riam, Ibid., April, 1886. 


his father three years before, was approached, but he had just PART IX. 
accepted the Presidency of the Bible Society on Lord Shaftesbury s 1^82-95. 
death, and his health would not allow him to lead both Societies. 
Ultimately it was resolved to appoint as President for one year the 
venerated Treasurer, Captain the Hon. Francis Maude. At the Captain 
age of eighty-seven he was still a brisk man, and his experience 
in the Committee-room was almost unique, he having joined in 
the same year that Lord Chichester had become President. He 
accepted the post on April 12th, 1886, the Society s eighty-seventh 
birthday ; and at the Annual Meeting three weeks later he made 
a touching and grateful little speech, though he was always a man 
of few words. " God grant," he said, "that we may have more 
Annual Meetings like this, and that we may all be preserved as 
long as it may seem fit to the Lord ! " But he did not live to see 
another. He entered into rest on October 23rd in the same 

The Committee had now two offices vacant, for Maude had been 
both President and Treasurer. The latter post was soon filled up 
by the appointment of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart., grand- 
son of the Thomas Fowell Buxton who had led the campaign Treasurer. 
against West Indian slavery and planned the first Niger Expe 
dition, as related in our Twenty-third and Twenty-ninth Chapters. 
For the Presidency men s minds now turned to a tried friend 
w r ho, but for the one supposed disqualification of being a com 
moner, w r as in many w r ays ideal for the post. This was Sir John 
H. Kennaway, Bart., M.P. for one of the divisions of Devonshire, en 
whose father and grandfather had been warm supporters of the wiy" a 
Society ; and 011 March 29th he was unanimously elected. He President - 
was received on the very day one year after Captain Maude s 
appointment, the Society s eighty-eighth birthday, April 12th, 
1887.1 The new President s old schoolfellow, the Hon. Clerical 
Secretary, Frederic Wigram, was then on his tour round the 
world ; but he had the unfeigned satisfaction of hearing of the 
appointment by telegraph when in Japan. 

Throughout the period the leading lay members of Com- Members 
mittee (in addition to those mentioned above who died in the committee 
earlier years) were Colonel Channer, Mr. C. E. Chapman, Dr. 
Gust, Mr. H. Morris, Mr. J. Stuart, Generals Lawder, Maclagan, 
and Touch, all Anglo-Indians ; also Mr. Sydney Gedge, Mr. P. V. 
Smith, and Mr. Eobert Williams, jun. General Hutchinson 
resumed his membership of Committee when he resigned the Lay 
Secretaryship. Several new men were elected from time to time, 
but some only served for a year or two. General Haig was an 

* See further, In Memoriam, in CM. Intelligencer, December, 1886. 

t Prior to 1890 the General Committee met on Mondays. Captain Maude 
was appointed on Monday, April 12th, 1886. The corresponding Monday in 
1887 was April llth ; but that day being Easter Monday, the Committee met 
on Tuesday, the 12th. Hence it was that Sir John Kennaway also took his 
seat on the Society s birthday. 



Chap. 85. 

New Vice- 

for Life. 

for Life. 

important and highly-valued member for three years. Of the 
new members who have continued to the present time should be 
mentioned General Crofton, Mr. P. S. Melvill, and Mr. H. E. 
Arbuthnot, who joined in 1883 ; Mr. Clarence Roberts and Mr. 
F. P. Ward, in 1884 ; Generals Chitty and Eobinson, in 1885 ; 
Mr. Eliot Howard, in 1889 ; Generals Brownlow and Hatt Noble, 
in 1890 ; Captain Gundy and Mr. Tremlett, in 1891 ; Mr. W. G. 
Hayter and Mr. J. W. Eundall, in 1892. Of the clerical members 
of the period, the most prominent were Bishops Alford and Perry, 
Archdeacon Richardson, Canon Hoare, the Eevs. W. Abbott, 
W. Allan, W. H. Barlow, E. C. Billing (until he became Bishop 
of Bedford), E. B. Ransford, H. Sharpe, W. J. Smith, H. W. 
Webb-Peploe, and J. B. Whiting. 

The new Vice-Presidents Bishops, Deans, Archdeacons, Heads 
of Houses or Regius Professors, and laymen with a title or with 
" M.P." after their names were very numerous. It was not the 
old custom to appoint to this dignity men who were only plain 
"Rev." or "Mr." Those who had done the Society essential 
service, and had no official claim to be Vice-President, were 
appointed Honorary Governors for Life. Up to 1880 there had 
been only one exception. The Committee had appointed Henry 
Venn a Vice-President on his retirement in 1872, but when he 
died within a few weeks, they did a happy thing in appointing 
his brother John Venn instead ; and the name of John Venn 
remained the only untitled name in the list till 1880. * Then Mr. 
Beattie was appointed ; and after that there were a few others 
added from time to time, Mr. A. Lang, Mr. J. Hoare, Canon 
Hoare, Prebendary D. Wilson, Mr. G. Arbuthnot, Canons Carus 
and Christopher, the Rev. C. F. Childe, Mr. T. Fowell Buxton of 
Easneye, and Mr. R. Williams, sen. Mr. Sydney Gedge was 
appointed just before he was elected M.P. for Stockport in 1886. 

But the List of Honorary Governors for Life is perhaps more 
valued than that of Vice-Presidents. The only title to it is " very 
essential service " rendered to the Society. In 1882, the number, 
being then eighty-nine, was fixed for the future at one hundred, 
and only vacancies have since been filled up each year. In 1888 
it was arranged to take advantage of the Society s Law VI., which 
authorizes the Committee to appoint either Honorary Governors 
or Honorary Members for Life, and to use the latter distinction 
for women who had " rendered essential service "; and a first list 
of eleven ladies was agreed upon,! the first name of all being that 
of Dowager Lady Buxton. In the last year of our period, 1895, 
this list contained forty names. 

* There were two or three laymen whose names seem exceptions ; but 
they had been M.P. s when appointed, and had since ceased to sit in 

| Only ten appear in the Report that year. One of the eleven, Mrs. 
George Lea of Birmingham, died only two days after being informed of her 


In noticing, as we have done in previous sections, the preachers PART IX. 
at St. Bride s and the speakers at the Annual Meeting, it may be 1882 ~95- 
convenient to enumerate at once the names of all down to the 
present time. But any reference to particular features of the 
Anniversaries may well be deferred till we are treating the succes 
sive periods. We have therefore now to mention the preachers 
and speakers of sixteen years, 1883 to 1898. 

The preachers comprised seven bishops, viz., Bishop French of J/fe hers 
Lahore, Archbishop Benson, Bishop Bickersteth of Exeter, Bishop period. 
Bardsley of Carlisle, Bishop Temple of London, Bishop Westcott 
of Durham, and Bishop Boyd Carpenter of Eipon ; and nine other 
clergymen, viz., Canon Tristram, Archdeacon Eichardson, the late 
Dean W. E. Fremantle of Eipon, Prebendary Webb-Peploe, the 
Eev. Herbert James, Dean Lefroy of Norwich, the Eev. E. Lombe, 
Dr. Barlow, and Dr. Moule. Taking the sermons in order of 
date, Canon Tristram s was the first, in 1883. It was described Canon 
at the time as "magnificent," and the epithet is not too strong. 
His text was 2 Kings iii. 16, 17 " Make this valley full of ditches. 
For thus saith the Lord, Ye shall not see wind, neither shall ye see 
rain; yet that valley shall be filled with water." Dr. Tristram s 
experience as a traveller in the Land of Moab itself, of which 
Elisha s words were spoken, enabled him to describe the dry 
valleys and the rushing floods most vividly. He went on to 
picture the spiritually dry valleys of Mohammedanism, Brah- 
manism, Buddhism, &c., with no water in them no living water 
for the soul s thirst. Yet there we were to " dig ditches," to pre 
pare the way of the Lord ; and although we might see no signs of 
the " wind " and " rain " that should fill them, they surely should, 
in God s own time, overflow with the river of life. 

Next came Bishop French, with a truly wonderful sermon on H isho 

-i\/r- i -I -i -i French. 

Missions as in a sense priestly work, based on the striking words 
of St. Paul in Eom. xv. 16, where he calls himself the " minister " 
(XctTovpyov) of Christ, "ministering" (lepovpyovvra) the Gospel, 
that the "offering up" (Trpovfopa) of the Gentiles might be 
acceptable. It was full of references to current incidents in all 
parts of the Mission-field. No man, surely, ever brought scholar 
ship and wide reading to bear upon actual work and living men 
as French did. Archdeacon Eichardson took the old yet ever Arch- 
new words of the Great Commission at the end of St. Matthew s Richard- 
Gospel, and impressively urged four exhortations : (1) " Go near, 
to take your commission from the Lord s own hand"; (2) "Go 
out, to carry your message from the Lord s own lips"; (3) "Go 
forward, to claim all that is included in the Lord s own purposes "; 
(4) " Come back, and lay your trophies at the Lord s own feet." 
Archbishop Benson s great Sermon in 1886 was noticed in the 
preceding chapter. Dean W. E. Fremantle, who came next, 
may be regarded as the last of the older Evangelical leaders to 
preach. His text was, " Follow Me, and I will make you fishers of 
men," and he set forth in earnest tones the example of Christ as 

son - 



Bishop of 

PART IX. the pattern Missionary. Bishop Bickersteth s subject in 1888 was, 
" the Gospel of the glory of the Blessed God, which was com- 
mitted to my trust " (1 Tim. i. 11, R.V.). After an exposition, full 
of beauty, of these grand words, the Bishop drew from the phrase 
"committed to my trust" perhaps the most earnest, moving 
appeal for personal service ever heard in St. Bride s ; in the 
course of which he did not shrink from meeting the question, 
" Why don t you go yourself? " in these touching words : 

" But now I feel that it may be not unreasonably asked of me, when I 
am urging others to offer themselves, Why do not you, the preacher, 
offer yourself to go forth into the missionary field ? Brethren, I can 
only say, I desire to be ready to go, if the Master calls. But I do not 
hide from myself that T am in the same year of life in which my honoured 
father entered into his Saviour s rest. I am probably too old for such an 
honour to be conferred upon me. I have probably neither the physical 
strength nor the mental elasticity for such a work. It is probable that 
by me in the brief remnant of my days more can be done for the Master 
at home than abroad. But He knoweth. 

" Now the same conviction will, it is likely, be arrived at by most of us 
who are in the evening- tide of life. I only ask that we should all, 
whether young or middle-aged, or old, prayerfully weigh the question 
before God, and should all be ready and willing, if called by Him, to 
answer, Lord. I am Thine : do with me even as Thou wilt. Consider, 
then, to obey such a call would be a life of the most entire self-sacrifice, 
riot only that sacrifice which every true Christian daily makes to Christ, 
but all that is involved in the surrender of an English home for Christ s 
sake. And you and I should make that surrender, if He demanded it. 
But if He does not ask this at our hands, if He has other work for us to 
do here, oh, my brothers and sisters, with what an overwhelming force 
the appeal comes to us to deny ourselves that we may support those who 
willingly jeopard their lives unto the death in the high places of the 
field ! " 

M e r - Webb 


Mr. Webb-Peploe s Sermon in 1889 was delivered extempore, a 
rare thing at the C.M.S. Anniversary; delivered also in pain and 
weakness, for he was suffering severely in his eyes, and had only 
just been told that they must be operated on upon the following 
Saturday. But this circumstance robbed the sermon of little of 
its anticipated power. Taking the quotation in Hebrews of 
Ps. viii. 4, " What is man, that Thou art mindful of him ? " Mr. 
Webb-Peploe enlarged on the potential greatness of even fallen 
man "a wonderful creature, a marvellous being, fitted, if only 
liberated from his fallen condition, to stand once more in the 
presence of God " if, in fact, united to the Man Christ Jesus ; 
and therefore what a responsibility is ours to win men to Christ ! 
Mr. Herbert James s Sermon was unquestionably, for spiritual 
truth and power, the ideal sermon of the period; and in the 
whole ninety-eight preached during the century, there are very 
few to put on a level with it. The subject was the work of the 
Holy Ghost in Missions. The Spirit, he said, is the Chief 
Worker, (1) in Preparation, preparing (a) the world for the 
Gospel, (b) the Church to preach it, (c) the individual workers ; 


(2) in Evangelization, (a) by supplying the message, (6) by PART IX. 
clothing it with power ; (3) in Consolidation and Eeproduction of 1B82-95. 
the work. Then he went on to show what is our part in the Clm p. 85 - 
enterprise, viz., (1) personal dependence upon the Spirit s aid, 
(2) personal use of His various gifts, (3) personal supplication to 
and for Him as a Personal Spirit. He concluded by setting forth 
most powerfully " the great and growing need of our day, a fresh, 
full baptism of the Holy Ghost." In 1891, Bishop Bardsley Bishop of 
preached 011 "the kingdom of God" (Luke iv. 43), urging that Carllsle - 
the whole idea of the " kingdom," which was so prominent in 
our Lord s teaching, had latterly, so to speak, dropped out ; and 
very strikingly he set forth its importance as an incentive to 
missionary effort. The Dean of Norwich, in the following year, De an 
took the simple words of Christ, " Let us pass over unto the other Lefroy< 
side," and eloquently applied them as a call to the Church to face 
storm and tempest to reach the " Gadarenes " of the Heathen 
World, which was " the moral attraction of the Saviour s pro 
posal." The likeness of Heathendom to the demoniac was most 
powerfully pourtrayed, and the encouragement contained in the 
implied promise of the Lord s presence, " Let us go over," 
invitingly pressed. And then, changing the application of the 
words, he spoke of "the great calm at the other side " awaiting 
the faithful worker. 

Bishop Temple s Sermon in 1893 was an extremely simple but Bishop 
very earnest exhortation to "be not weary in well-doing." Mr. Tem P le - 
Lombe s, in 1894, was "old-fashioned" in the best sense, and Mr.Lombe 
much more like what the elders among us love to remember 
hearing in our boyhood than any other Sermon of recent years. 
Eom. i. 13-16 was his text ; " I purposed, .... but was let," " I 
am debtor," "I am ready," " I am not ashamed," the sentences 
that embodied his leading thoughts. The last Sermon of our period 
was that of the Bishop of Durham in 1895. It was emphatically Bishop 
not "old-fashioned," but entirely modern in its standpoint; yet westcott. 
with that depth of thought, and that fine application of profound 
principles to practical needs, so characteristic of Dr. Westcott. 
His text was the E.V. of Col. ii. 2, 3 ; and he entitled the Sermon 
" Missions a Eevelation of the Mystery of God." 

In looking through the lists of the speakers at the Annual Speakers 
Meetings and only the official Annual Meetings are here referred Annual 
to, not the Evening or other gatherings, one is struck, as in the Meetings, 
preceding period, by the great increase in the number of indi 
viduals invited, in contrast with the first seventy years of the 
Society s history, when the same speakers appeared so frequently. 
Taking, as in the case of the Sermons, the whole sixteen years 
down to 1898, there were one hundred and twelve speeches. We 
find only two names three times, viz., Dr. Temple (as Bishop and Bishops 
Archbishop), and Bishop Bickersteth of Exeter; and only eight and clergy - 
names twice, viz., Archbishop Benson, Bishop Stuart, Bishop 
Tugwell (once before he was a bishop), Prebendary Webb-Peploe, 


Chap. 85. 






Dr. Moule, Mr. Ashe of Uganda, Mr. Hoare of China (now 
Bishop of Victoria), and Mr. Williamson of North India. So 
there were ninety other different speakers, most of them new 
men, but a few who had spoken in previous years. It is needless 
to enumerate them all, but some must be mentioned. Archbishop 
Thomson of York spoke in 1884 for the third time, and Bishop 
Eyle in 1886 for the fifth time ; also Bishops Thorold, Moule, 
McLean (Saskatchewan), and Saumarez Smith (Sydney), for the 
second time ; also Bishops Johnson (Calcutta), Eowley Hill (Sodor 
and Man), Hodges (Travancore) , Whipple (Minnesota), Barry, 
Tucker, Ingham, Wordsworth (Salisbury), Williams (Waiapu), 
Creighton (London), and Lord Plunket, Archbishop of Dublin. 
Of leading clergymen should be mentioned Canon Westcott (now 
Bishop of Durham), Canon Hoare (for the fifth time), Archdeacon 
Bardsley (now Bishop of Carlisle), Archdeacon Lefroy (now Dean 
of Norwich), Dr. Butler (Master of Trinity), Archdeacon Howell 
(now Dean of St. David s), Canon Edmonds, and Dr. Wace. Of 
distinguished laymen there were Earl Cairns (second time), the 
Earl of Harrowby, Professor Sir M. Monier- Williams, Sir Eivers 
Thompson (iate Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal), Sir C. Euan 
Smith (Consul-General at Zanzibar), Sir Charles Bernard (late 
Chief Commissioner of Burmah), Sir E. Temple (late Governor 
of Bombay), Sir Charles Elliott (late Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal), and Mr. James Monro, C.B. Thirty missionaries spoke, 
including three Archdeacons (Warren, Moule, Caley), two who 
afterwards became bishops (Parker and Taylor Smith, besides 
Tugwell, above mentioned), one who appeared for the third time 
(Dr. Bruce), one who had been a servant of the Queen in India 
(H. E. Perkins), and one layman (Dr. Sutton of Quetta). There 
were four Native clergymen, Chalil Jamal of Palestine, James 
Johnson of Lagos, Jani Alii, and Isaac Oluwole (now bishop).* 
Lastly must be mentioned two American brethren, Dr. Pentecost 
in 1892, and Mr. J. E, Mott, of the S.V.M.U., in 1898. These two 
were the only speakers not members of the Church of England. 

Of the Evening Meetings it is only needful here to mention the 
Chairmen. Some incidents will come before us in future chapters. 
The following presided successively, from 1883 onwards : Bishop 
Thornton of Ballarat, Bishop Eyle of Liverpool, Bishop Bicker - 
steth of Exeter, the Earl of Northbrook, the Dean of Windsor 
(Davidson), Bishop Bardsley of Sodor and Man, Bishop Horden 
of Moosonee, the Dean of Norwich (Lefroy), Bishop Gregg of 
Cork, Bishop Straton of Sodor and Man, Bishop E. Bickersteth 
of Japan, Archdeacon Sinclair, Archdeacon Farrar, Mr. James 
Monro, Bishop Jacob of Newcastle, Dean Lefroy again. The 
new Meetings at St. James s Hall, and others, will be noticed 

* Bishop Oluwole also spoke at St. James s Hall, and Mr. Kuttonji 
Nowroji. The latter also, and Bishop Phillips, spoke at evening- meetings ; 
and so did the Rev. Yung King Yen of the American Episcopal Church. 


Perhaps the most remarkable of all these speeches were two PART IX. 
that were delivered on the same day, in 1887, by Canon Westcott 1882-95. 
and Sir M. Monier- Williams. The only others that stand out Ghai> - 85 
before the memory of the present writer (who heard all except TWO 
those in 1892) are Canon Hoare s in 1884 and Archbishop f^ e ^ hes 
Benson s in 1891. Dr. Westcott s address was notable in more Dr West _ 
ways than one. He had never been at a May Meeting before, cott. 
and was quite unprepared for the sight that awaited him. Then 
he arrived after the meeting had begun, and his face not being 
familiar to the stewards, he stood for some time unnoticed in 
a dense throng on the steps of the platform, much too modest 
to give his name and claim the right to pass, while the Secretaries 
were wondering why he had not appeared. Afterwards, when he 
rose to speak, his reception was overwhelming. The cheering 
was renewed again and again, and as he stood there waiting for 
silence it was evident that he was deeply moved. He began his 
speech with these words: "The scene upon which I look is a 
strange one to me. My work has lain for the most part in the 
study and in the class-room : but," he added, " my work there 
has taught me something of the power and the responsibility of 
Missions." He proceeded to deliver a most able and thoroughly 
thought-out address, which was afterwards printed word for word 
as he spoke it. He had three heads, "The Variety of Mission 
Work," "The Promise of Mission Work," and "The Call to 
Mission Work." Noticing with pleasure a statement in the 
Eeport that twelve Cambridge men "an apostolic number," he 
remarked had been accepted in the year, he exclaimed, "But 
what are they among so many ? and then referring to the 
common remark, " We want these men at home," he said, " The 
voice of the Spirit to the Church is always the same, Forget thine 
own people and thy father s house ; and why ? That thou may st 
have children whom thou mayest make princes in all lands. 

Sir M. Monier- Williams s ovation came at the end of his sir M. 
address. There was nothing in it to rouse the feelings. It was 
a quiet, cogent argument, showing the superiority of the Bible 
to those "Sacred Books of the East" which he had so deeply 
studied. But the great audience held its breath, if one may say 
so, not to miss one word, and at the close a roar of delight burst 
forth. "Those non-Christian bibles," he said, "are all develop 
ments in the wrong direction. They all begin with some flashes 
of light, but end in utter darkness. Pile them, if you will, on the 
left side of your study table ; but place your own Holy Bible on 
the right side all by itself all alone and with a wide gap 
between Two illustrations followed of the absolute uniqueness unique- 
of the Bible. First, where else do we read of a sinless Man who Bibie f * 
was "made sin" ? Secondly, where else do we read of a dead and, 
buried Man who is "Life " ? He concluded with these powerful 
sentences : 

" It requires some courage to appear intolerant in these days of flabby 


PART IX. compromise and milk-and-water concession, but I contend that the two 
1882-95. unparalleled declarations quoted by me from our Holy Bible make a gulf 
Chap. 85. between it and the so-called Sacred Books of the East which severs the 
- one from the other utterly, hopelessly, and for ever not a mere rift 
which may be easily closed up, not a mere rift across which the Christian 
and the non-Christian may shake hands and interchange similar ideas in 
regard to essential truths but a veritable gulf which cannot be bridged 
over by any science of religious thought ; yes, a bridgeless chasm which 
no theory of evolution can ever span. Go forth, then, ye missionaries in 
your Master s name ; go forth into all the world, and, after studying all 
its false religions and philosophies, go forth and fearlessly proclaim to 
suffering humanity the plain, the unchangeable, the eternal facts of the 
Gospel nay, I might almost say the stubborn, the unyielding, the 
inexorable facts of the Gospel. Dare to be downright with all the un 
compromising courage of your own Bible, while with it your watchwords 
are love, joy, peace, reconciliation. Be fair, be charitable, be Christ-like, 
but let there be no mistake. Let it be made absolutely clear that 
Christianity cannot, must not, be watered down to suit the palate of 
either Hindu, Parsee, Confucianist, Buddhist, or Mohammedan, and 
that whosoever wishes to pass from the false religion to the true can 
never hope to do so by the rickety planks of compromise, or by help of 
faltering hands held out by half-hearted Christians. He must leap the 
gulf in faith, and the living Christ will spread His everlasting arms 
beneath and land him safely on the Eternal Rock." 

Canon Hoare s speech in 1884 was quite different, being un- 
Gordon. premeditated. The Lord Mayor of that year, Sir Eobert Fowler, 
had promised to come, but failed to appear. Five minutes before 
his proper turn, Mr. Wigram appealed to Hoare to say a few 
words instead. He rose, and began, "I am not the Lord Mayor! " 
Then he went on to refer to Gordon at Khartoum. It was when 
that great hero was shut up there, and news only came scantily 
and irregularly ; and as yet Mr. Gladstone s Government had not 
made up its mind to send an expedition to relieve him. "All 
England," said Hoare, "is ashamed "and no further could 
he get for a minute or two while the pent-up feelings of the 
meeting burst forth in continued applause. "Ah!" continued 
the Canon, " but you did not let me finish my sentence. You 
sent my dear son to China : are you going to leave him alone 
there ? " The assembly had not anticipated so pointed an appli 
cation ! It is easy to cheer oneself hoarse if by so doing one can 
express indignation at the proceedings of political antagonists. 
It is quite another thing to rebuke them by acting meanwhile up 
to one s own responsibilities ! 

Archbishop Benson s speech in 1891 has been already noticed 
in the preceding chapter. Dr. Temple s two speeches as Bishop 
of London deserve quotation, anticipating, as they do, the 
vigorous appeals to the Church by which his later years have 
been so signalized; but this chapter must not be unduly 

Mr. One new feature of the Anniversary proceedings, which first 

appeared in 1883, must not pass without notice. In that year 


Mr. Wigram entertained at breakfast, on the Thursday of the PART IX. 
May week, the Hon. District Secretaries, members of Committee, 1882-95. 
and other friends, to the number of three hundred; and the Cha P- 85 - 
custom has been continued ever since. Very interesting con 
ferences have followed these breakfasts. 

Let us now glance at a few incidents of the early years of Mr. A few 
Wigram s period, to the close of 1884, leaving the following years incidents< 
to be taken separately afterwards. Those early years were a time 
marked, in the Society s proceedings at home, by the beginnings 
of many things that have since proved important. 

1. It was in 1881 that Mr. Sutton developed the system of 
Honorary District Secretaries by encouraging the allotment to Hon. 
them of denned districts, and also fostered the establishment of District 
County Unions of the friends of the Society, in both cases upon 
what was known as the Norfolk plan. This development, however, 

has already been noticed in our Seventy-second Chapter. 

2. It was in 1882 that the Committee, with a view to pro 
moting Juvenile Associations and the use of the Lantern for 
missionary lectures, appointed Mr. E. Mantle, who had been 
Mr. Wright s personal assistant in the office, Assistant Central 
Secretary. To Mr. Mantle is due the initiation of what is now 
known as the Loan Department, from which lantern slides, Loan De ~ 
diagrams and pictures, curios and books, are lent to local friends! P 

In this connexion may also be mentioned Services of Song, 
which at that time were extremely popular, and which Mrs. 
Barlow, wife of the present Vicar of Islington, was the first to 
adapt to direct C.M.S. work by producing a Service of Song on 
"The Church Missionary Society" in 1884. Others were 
prepared and published from time to time. 

3. In 1883 the Committee gave formal and cordial recognition 

to the Missionary Leaves Association. This Association had Missionary 

been founded some years before by the Kev. E. C. Billing, Mrs. 
Malaher of Beading, and other friends, to provide an agency tion - 
through which missionaries could obtain many things necessary 
for their work which, naturally and rightly, were not provided 
by the Society, such as harmoniums, lanterns, church furniture 
and bells, &c., &c., and also contributions for the support of 
orphans and other children in boarding-schools. Private gifts 
and funds of the kind were, and are, numerous ; and it is better 
for money to be paid through a regular organization, and ac 
counted for by it, than for missionaries to have the additional 
labour and responsibility of direct correspondence and account- 
keeping. It is true that some do not avail themselves of the 
assistance thus provided, but many others value it greatly. There 
has always been a difficulty about inserting in the Society s own 
periodicals appeals for special gifts, however necessary ; because 
if it is done for one, it must be done for all, and the general 
interests of the work, which are of course far more important, 

VOL. III. x 


PART IX. might suffer. The Missionary Leaves Association, and its 
1882-95. magazine called Missionary Leaves, supply just w 7 hat is needed 
Chap. 85. or J.JJQ p Ur p Ose . 

FirsTlviis- 4. In 1882 was held the first Missionary Exhibition. The idea 

sionary was ]y[ r Barton s, and he announced that the Cambridge C.M.S. 
" Associations proposed to hold " a Missionary Exhibition of Articles 
of Foreign Manufacture, Samples of Food and Clothing, Models 
of Native Dwellings, and other objects of interest illustrative of 
native life, habits, and religions in the fields of labour occupied by 
the C.M.S." The days fixed were March 7th, 8th, and 9th, and 
it did not fail to be noticed that March 8th was the seventy-eighth 
anniversary of the sailing of the first two missionaries to West 
Africa in 1804. Nor was the place less appropriate than the date, 
remembering that it was Charles Simeon of Cambridge who first 
definitely proposed the establishment of the Society. The Exhi 
bition was a great success. Crowds of people attended ; much 
fresh interest was aroused ; and 400 net profit was made, 
including receipts from the accompanying Sale of Work. Mr. 
Arden, who at that time held office in the University as teacher of 
Telugu and Tamil, wrote to the Gleaner, " Why should there not be 

other EX- an Exhibition every year in one or other of our large towns ? 

hibitions. What town win do it next year?" Norwich took up this 

challenge, and in the following January, 1883, quite outdid Cam 
bridge by filling the fine old St. Andrew s Hall with three thousand 
exhibits " a really magnificent spectacle," it was described. 
About the same time, a small parochial Exhibition was held at 
Holy Trinity, Penge. From the first, Mr. H. G. Malaher, Secre 
tary of the Missionary Leaves Association, rendered important 
help in collecting and arranging the exhibits ; and in after years 
his accumulated experience made him practically indispensable to 
all the larger Exhibitions which have since become so frequent. 
The Church of England Zenana Missionary Society has also 
provided some of the interesting features of the Exhibitions, and 
both it and the Missionary Leaves Association have from an early 
period shared in the profits. Latterly other Societies have also 
been invited to send exhibits, and have received grants from the 
proceeds. It should be observed that the Church Missionary 
Society itself has never had a hand officially in any of the 
Exhibitions. Mr. Barton arranged the first himself as Hon. Sec. 
of the Cambridge Association ; and, ever since, the plans, and the 
labours, and the responsibilities, have been entirely undertaken by 
local friends. They alone decide what Missions or Societies shall 
be represented, and how the proceeds shall be divided. 

5. In 1882 the Society took up a movement, which had 

originated among friends in Islington, for the promotion of 

Missionary missionary interest in Sunday-schools. The custom had long 

5? Sunday- existed, in parishes all over England, more or less earnest in 

schools. supporting the Society, of giving the Sunday-scholars an occasional 

missionary address ; and in a good many schools the children 


were encouraged to give a farthing a week to the cause, thus PART IX. 
becoming Juvenile Members entitled to receive the free Quarterly 1882-95. 
Token. The system was particularly well worked in some Sunday- Cha P- 85 - 
schools in Islington, where the teachers themselves gave such 
addresses periodically. A leading layman there, too, Mr. C. H. 
Lovell, a solicitor, who was afterwards a member of the C.M.S. 
Committee, prepared addresses on all the Missions, and spent his 
Sunday afternoons regularly in delivering them in various schools 
in turn. At a local meeting held in the Missionaries Children s 
Home in 1879, the idea was broached that the Sunday-schools of 
Islington Deanery should unite in devoting a given quarterly or 
half-yearly Sunday definitely to the subject, so that on that day 
teachers who had addresses to give, not being required for their 
own classes, could go to other schools. By this plan, an individual 
teacher had only to get up one subject thoroughly, say Tinnevelly 
or New Zealand, and on successive half-yearly days deliver it in 
different schools ; while if several did this, each taking a different 
Mission, all the schools would be regularly supplied with fresh 
information from fresh voices. This was the origin of the remark 
able system of Simultaneous Addresses which has since become so 
popular and so useful. It was considered and approved at a 
Conference held in the C.M. House on February 20th, 1882, 
which was attended by many active Sunday-school workers in 
different parts of London. 

6. But that Conference had a still more important result. Why, 
it was asked, should not the men who are to get up addresses 
obtain help and instruction by coming to Salisbury Square ? The 
idea ultimately took shape in the formation, at the close of that 
same year, 1882, of the Lay Workers Union for London. Earl Lay 
Cairns accepted the office of President, and Mr. H. Morris that of 
Chairman ; and the first Secretaries were Captain Seton Churchill 
and Mr. Mantle. In the first few months one hundred and fifty 
members were enrolled ; and the monthly meetings were largely 
attended. In after years the Union owed its remarkable progress 
mainly to the energy of Mr T. G. Hughes, who became one of the 
Hon. Secretaries in 1885. Mr. G. A. King became co-Secretary 
in 1886, and both have been in office ever since, to the great 
advantage of the work. Branches were gradually formed in 
various parts of London and the suburbs, and eventually many of 
them took the shape of " Missionary Bands." These were Mission- 
generally formed on the model of a modest but very interesting ary Eands 
little organization started at St. James s, Holloway, in 1885, by 
the Kev. T. Walker, then Curate there, now of Tinnevelly. It 
consisted of a limited number of young men, who met weekly in 
Mr. Walker s rooms for mutual instruction and conference, and 
each of whom undertook to give a missionary address in a Sunday- 
school or a local meeting of some kind when called upon. They 
adopted the name of " the Mpwapwa Band," apparently choosing The 
the C.M.S. station whose name was the hardest to pronounce. 

x 2 

3 oS 


Chap. 85. 


E. H. 
steth s 


The similar Bands subsequently formed took likewise names from 
the Mission-field, calling themselves the Ispahans, Srinagars, 
Hanningtonians, Abdul-Mussihans, Taljharis, Parsis, Cottas, Am- 
ritsars, Ku-chengs, Ouras, Baddegamas, Hausas, Nigers, Yezds, 
Telugus, Sierra Leones, Abeokutans, Sikhs, Ondos, Od Ojumos, 
Nagasakis, Batalas, Gonds, Athabascans, Jebus, Kota Kotas, 
Selwynites, Maories, Nyanzas, Ugandas, Yorubas, Arrians, 
Sindhis, Ainus, Livingstones, Wasukuma, Bengalese, Yukons, 
Allen Gardiners, Kyagwes, Coromandels, Kavirondos, Gordons, 
Macedonians, Ojibways, Osakas, Bagandas, Soudanese, Galunkas, 
Hill-Sealeys, Eskimos, Santals, Mackays, &c. 

7. The Ladies Union and the Younger Clergy Union were 
established in 1885, and will come under our notice in the next 

8. The first "Missionary Missions" or "Special Missionary 
Weeks " were held in 1883-4. They were first suggested by the 
Rev. H. Newton of Ceylon, and advocated by Mr. Bickersteth of 
Hampstead in a letter published in the Record of April 27th, 
1883. * It is interesting to read the form which Bickersteth s 
suggestion took : 

" For example, let there be a nine days Mission in any great town. 
Lot the Mission begin on Saturday with an earnest prayer-meeting of 
those already engaged in the missionary cause. Let those who meet 
around the Table of the Lord plead for the Master s presence with them 
by His Spirit through the Mission. Let sermons (with or without collec 
tions) be preached on the tirst Sunday in every church which can be 
obtained, setting forth the present urgent claims of the Heathen on our 
sympathy and help. Let there be daily service with pastoral addresses, 
and at least one week-day sermon by a special preacher in every friendly 
church. Lot there be two public meetings, morning and evening, in the 
largest hall of the neighbourhood. Let there be an exhibition of objects 
of missionary interest such as have lately excited so much attention in 
Norwich and other cities. Let the young men s associations be invited 
to lend their invaluable aid. Let there be juvenile gatherings in school 
rooms, with missionary magic-lanterns for the children. Let there be 
cottage readings among the poor and drawing-room meetings for the 
educated classes. And then let the second Sunday trownthe effort, and 
surely in the offertories at every service there will be gifts which will 
prove how deeply the hearts of God s people have been stirred. Such a 
nine days Mission held say once in seven years in any of our great 
manufacturing towns, or any of our chief watering-places, or in London 
subdivided into blocks of reasonable area, would, if God prospered it, be 
a new impulse of missionary work in every locality which welcomed it." 

The plan was adopted, however, on a more modest scale to 
begin with. Not a large town, but a single parish, was the first 
to make the experiment, in December, 1883. This parish was St. 
George s, Deal, and the Vicar, the Rev. D. Bruce Payne, took the 
bulk of the work, but he was assisted by the Rev. J. G. Hoare, 
then of Canterbury, and the Rev. S. Coles of Ceylon. There were 
sermons, lectures 011 various Missions, a sale of work, &c., for a 

* Reprinted in the C.M. Intelligencer of June, ]883. 


whole week. Then followed Keynsham, near Bristol, in February, PART IX. 
1884. Here the Vicar was the Kev. J. H. Gray, an Hon. Associa- 1882-95. 
tion Secretary, and who, as will be remembered, had been a 
missionary at Madras forty years before. The chief parts were 
taken by Mr. Newton himself and Mr. Alexander of the Telugu 
Mission. But the plan was more fully worked out by Mr. Whiting, 
who took several such " Missions " in the next few years, the first 
being at Matlock in August, 1884. He gave the mornings, in 
church, to expositions of passages of Scripture bearing on mission 
ary work, and the evenings to lectures in which various missionary 
methods were described and missionary incidents grouped under 
such headings as " Faith, Hope, Love," " Holiness," "Peace and 
Triumph in Death," &c. All these " Missions " were practically 
what would now be called a Missionary Week, the object of which A " Mis- 
is, like an Exhibition, to awaken an interest in the subject in the week"" 
largest possible number of people. This, no doubt, was what Mr. J n ? Mis 
Bickersteth contemplated on an extensive scale ; but it has never sionary 
been better done than in the single parish of Whitechapel under Mlsslon -" 
Mr. Eobinson (now Hector of Birmingham). But a Missionary 
Mission, as now understood, is a different thing. It addresses 
itself primarily to the inner circle of godly people in a parish, and 
calls upon them to devote their personal service to Christ. Mis 
sionary information and narrative is not excluded, but it is sub 
servient to the one purpose. But " Missions " of this kind are of 
more recent date. 

9. In these years the Society was beginning to consider 
seriously the importance of Medical Missions. In 1883 it had 5Jfssion S> 
established one in Persia, two in the Punjab, one in Kashmir, and 
two in China ; and it had seven qualified medical missionaries. 
But such work was still regarded as only suitable in certain cir 
cumstances, and there was no intention to take it up on any large 
scale. In May, 1884, Mr. Gray, the Secretary in Salisbury Square 
for Indian affairs, discussed the question in the Intelligencer, and 
asked why "an expensive medical agency" should be employed 
in countries and districts where the ordinary missionary has free 
access to the people. At the same time he acknowledged that 
" if from inadvertence the Society had left untried, or had only 
partially tried, some part of missionary machinery which growing 
experience had shown to be valuable, it ought not to be slow, so 
far as in it lies, to rectify the omission." This guarding clause 
was inspired by the strong testimony borne to the value of Medical 
Missions at Missionary Conferences both in India and at home. A 
few months later, in consequence of earnest representations re 
ceived from the Punjab, a Sub-Committee was appointed to 
consider the whole subject ; and in July, 1885, on the Eeport of Jonl 
that Sub-Committee, certain Resolutions were adopted, of which 1885. 
the following were the most important : 

" 1. That Medical Missions are specially desirable under the following 
circumstances: (a) In a country where the Gospel cannot freely be 



Chap. 85. 



by the 

preached by ordinary evangelists ; this being the strongest claim, (b) In 
the case of aboriginal and uncivilized peoples likely to be specially 
impressed by the benevolent influence of medical work, particularly 
where medical aid cannot be obtained for the people from the Govern 
ment, or other sources, (c) Where there are special opportunities, or a 
special call, for training Native medical evangelists, (d) Where there is 
a strong missionary centre, with a large body of clerical missionaries, to 
whom a medical colleague may form a valuable auxiliary. 

" 2. That the medical work should always be subordinate to the 

" 5. That with regard to the proposals from the Punjab to form an 
additional society in England to supply medical appliances and wants, it 
is not desirable to promote the establishment of a new society. But in 
view of the importance of sparing the General Fund a heavy expenditure 
upon medical and surgical requirements and appliances, and in view of 
the readiness with which many persons will contribute for such objects 
who will not contribute to general missionary work, the General Com 
mittee be recommended to open a Medical Mission Auxiliary Fund, for 
the purpose of supporting Medical Missions connected with the Society, 
and to appoint an Auxiliary Committee, with an Honorary Secretary, 
who would promote the Auxiliary Fund, and with whom the General 
Committee might confer respecting the Society s Medical Missions 

The Auxiliary Committee was formed accordingly, but very little 
further was done for the next few years, not indeed until, in 
1892, Dr. Herbert Lankester took up the work. 

10. In these years Mr. Wigram was pressing the Committee to 
move the Missionaries Children s Home from Highbury into the 
country, and was earnestly backed by Mr. Shepherd, the new 
Director. At length, in June, 1883, the decision was taken to 
seek for a suitable locality ; whereupon Mr. and Mrs. Wigram 
promised a contribution of Ten Thousand Pounds towards the 
new building, hoping that the sale of the existing premises would 
provide the rest of the required money, or the greater part of it. 
In 1885 a site was finally selected at Limpsfield in Surrey; and on 
April 14th, 1886, the memorial-stone was laid by Mrs. Wigram. At 
ftjjg p O i n t it may be interesting to present just one specimen of the 
kind of gratifying information that was given year by year at the 
pleasant annual prize distributions. This is from Mr. Shepherd s 
Eeport in 1884 : 

" The honours gained by present and former scholars during the year 
included College scholarships and prizes at Cambridge won by Arthur 
and Walter Moule ; the first place in the final examination of all candi 
dates from Cooper s Hill, taken by S. Dyson ; the senior essay prize, and 
a bracketed equal place for the mathematical prize for the whole school, 
at Marlborougb, won by A. S. Weatherhead ; the appointment of the 
Rev. P. Ireland Jones as Vice-Principal of Ridley Hall, Cambridge ; and 
some noteworthy honours gained by three of the girls in the Oxford 
Local Examinations. One, Beatrice Cowley (a daughter of Archdeacon 
Cowley of Rupert s Land), was first in all England in German ; Ethel 
Bruce (a daughter of Dr. Bruce of Persia) and Edith Higgens (daughter 
of a Ceylon missionary) were third and fourteenth in German, out of 
seventy-three candidates ; fourteenth and eighteenth in French, out of 


648 candidates ; and twelfth and seventeenth in Scripture, out of 937 PART IX. 


_.-.,, , TT Chap. h5. 

11. Simultaneously with the plan for a new Children s Home 
came the plan for an enlargement of the Church Missionary New wing 
House. The New House of 1862 * had long been inadequate to church 
the growing needs of the work, and in 1883 it was resolved to buy 

the old house next door, No. 14, the house in which the Society 
had lived for half a century, but which was now a small temper 
ance hotel; and then to pull it down, and build on the site a wing 
of the New House. It was proposed to borrow the money on 
mortgage from the Disabled Missionaries Fund, a freehold site and 
house in the City of London being quite as good security for that 
Fund as Consols ; the only disadvantage being that the General 
Fund would have to pay the interest. But Mr. Bicker steth, ever 
watchful, ever generous, ever resourceful, came forward with a 
new scheme to obviate the necessity for this mortgage a scheme 
devised by him in conference with Mr. Barlow and Mr. Joseph 
Hoare. He proposed that substantial sums (250, or not less The House 
than 100) should be given by friends "in memory of departed 
brothers and sisters in Christ," whose names, thus commemorated, 
should be inscribed on a tablet in the House. The proposal proved 
acceptable beyond the expectations of any but the always sanguine 
author of the plan ; and in less than twelve months 18,000 was 
subscribed in the way suggested. This sufficed, not only to cover 
the whole cost of the enlargement, but also to pay off part of an 
old mortgage on the existing House. The opening of the New 
Wing is one of the events to be recorded in the next chapter. 

12. A minor event of 1884 was an arrangement spontaneously JJJg 
made by the Dean of Westminster (Dr. Bradley) for an annual minster 
sermon in behalf of the Society, with an offertory, at the Morning Abbe y- 
Service in the Abbey. The first of these sermons, in that year, 

was preached by Dr. Westcott, and it was his first sermon as ^West- 
Canon, he having just been appointed. The sermon itself was no sermon, 
minor event. It was worthy of the preacher: more cannot be 
said. | The introductory sentences must not be omitted from this. 
History. Dr. Westcott had been the preacher twice before at 
the Abbey, at two consecrations, those of Bishop Lightfoot to 
Durham and Bishop Barry to Sydney. This will explain his 
opening words. The text was a double one " From strength to 
strength" (Ps. Ixxxiv. 7), and "Faithful is He that calleth " 
(1 Thess. v. 24). 

" Twice before I have been allowed to speak here on occasions most 
intimately connected with the past and present growth of our Church ; 
once when a friend was charged with the oversight of the JSortnern 
Diocese which is still quickened by the memories of the iirst missionary 
victories of England, and again when another friend accepted the over 
sight of the Churches of our southern empire, to guide, as we trust, the 

* See Chapter LIII. 

t It was printed in the C.I/ . Intelligencer of June, 188-1. 


PART IX. promise of fresh life to the fulness of mature vigour. The words which 
1882-95. I have just read guided all my thoughts on those two occasions, con- 
Chap. 85. trusted in circumstances, yet one in spiritual meaning ; and they come 
back to me to-day with over-mastering power, no longer separate, but in 
closest combination, when we have to consider the work and the claims 
of the Church Missionary Society. Taken together, the two phrases 
express the feelings with which our hearts are full. They are a thanks 
giving and an invitation; a grateful recognition of blessings large beyond 
past hope from strength to strength ; an encouragement to efforts 
which shall at least acknowledge new opportunities faithful is He that 

" And if one personal thought may find a place in such a service, I 
cannot but rejoice that I have to plead for Missions when I speak for the 
first time as servant of this Abbey ; that when I enter, as all who labour 
here must enter, on the splendid heritage of the past, I necessarily ask 
that all which we have received may be made contributory, by every 
association of faith and sacrifice, to the present work of Christ ; that 
here, where Livingstone and Lawrence rest side by side, I am charged to 
beg your alms, your sympathy, your prayers for the Society which repre 
sents the first effort of our own Church to bear the Gospel to Africa and 
the East." 

13. One incident, or group of incidents, in these years is 
noteworthy, not so much for itself, as for its connexion with the 
important plans matured in subsequent years for sending " Mis- 
sioners " to hold Special Missions for Native Christians and 
others. In the winter of 1882-3, two of Dr. Boultbee s students 

Pigottand at Stl John s Hall > Highbury, Mr. W. E. Oliphant and Mr. J. H. 

oiiphant. Pigott, offered for missionary service. They were men of ex 
ceptional earnestness and spiritual power, but were regarded as 
rather extreme in their views touching holiness ; and the Com 
mittee accepted them on the understanding that, though they 
were to be ordained for foreign work, they should serve as curates 
for a year before going out. This course was approved by the 
Bishop of London (Jackson) ; they were duly ordained on Trinity 
Sunday; and parishes were chosen for them where the Vicars 
would appreciate their special gifts and at the same time correct 
in them any tendencies to "perfectionism." Mr. Oliphant was 
sent to Mr. Webb-Peploe, and Mr. Pigott to Mr. Hankin at 
Mildmay. Both men, while in those curacies, exhibited great 
devotion and unusual power, not only in winning souls to Christ, 
but more especially in arousing drowsy Christians to a higher 
spiritual life. Their desire was to go to Uganda ; but the 
elementary work there among unconverted Heathen, as it was 
then, did not promise an opening for their special gifts, and the 
suggestion was made that they should be sent to Sierra Leone, to 
be employed for a year or two by the Bishop in conducting Special 
Missions for the English-speaking Christian congregations there 
and elsewhere in West Africa, after which both the Bishop and 
the Society would be better able to judge what work would be 
most suitable for them. Bishop Ingham was written to accord 
ingly ; but before an answer could come, it was found that Pigott 


and Oliphant were holding meetings at Cambridge, and teaching PART IX. 
what men like Mr. Barton and Mr. Moule felt was beyond due 1882-95. 
limits on the subject of sanctification. It therefore became p 85 
desirable to examine them afresh ; and Canon Hoare, Mr. Barlow, 
Mr. Evan Hopkins and others were requested to interview them 
privately. Some of these interviews took place, and the inter 
viewers were to meet on a certain Tuesday to consider the case. 
On the Monday, lett