.Sal i saa t>^v (a i
CHURCH OF SARUM
THE KALENDAR OF THE SAME CHURCH;
TEANSLATED FROM THE LATIN, WITH A PREFACE AND
BY CHARLES WALKER.
AN INTRODUCTION BY REV. T. T. CARTER, M.A.,
RECTOR OF CLEWER.
J. T. HAYES, LYALL PLACE, EATON SQUARE.
PRINTED AT THE REGENT PRESS, 65, KING STREET,
REGENT STREET, W.
RIGHT REVEREND FATHER IN GOD,
LOKD BISHOP OF SALISBUEY,
PROVINCIAL PRECENTOR OF THE PROVINCE OF CANTERBURY,
i translation of tfje SDitoine Xiturgp
AFTER THE RITE OF HIS ILLUSTRIOUS PREDECESSOR
BY HIS LORDSHIP S KIND PERMISSION,
LITTLE needs to be said in introducing such a work as the
Translation of the DIVINE LITURGY according to the SARTJM
USE to English Churchmen. The study of ancient Liturgies
re-awakened amongst us of late years has been one of the
truest and most valuable results of the profounder view arid
more vivid apprehension of Eucharistic doctrine ; as in return
they form the most important aids in elucidating and main
taining the doctrine which is the most blessed among the
many signs of GOD S good Hand upon us. Eor what surer
token, that, notwithstanding our many losses and our
unworthiness, His love is still renewing and expanding our
life in the midst of our days, can there be, than the restora
tion of a truer, deeper understanding of the Mysteries in
which the Memorial of the Passion and Death of our LORD
is continually offered, and Himself is present to feed His
own elect with His own most precious Body and Blood ?
Liturgies are the surest evidence and exponents of
these momentous verities, which are embodied therein,
not in word only, but in breathing forms and expressive
actions an unceasing utterance, the living voice, from age
to age before GOD of His Church s highest act of service.
It will surely be generally felt to be a boon of the
greatest value, to have supplied to us in our own tongue
that Liturgy which, most extensively used and of highest
authority among our forefathers in mediaeval times, repre
sents the Western Uses in closest connexion with our own
history : nor can its practical importance be too highly
estimated, inasmuch as it supplies many points of Eitual
and traditionary usage, which serve to throw light on
passages often subjects of doubt or questioning in our
present Eucharistic Service, derived as it was mainly from
Careful explanations are given in the Notes and
Preface, which furnish all that is necessary to elucidate
the chief facts of the history of the SARUM USE, and for
the clear understanding of usages and allusions now become
obsolete. The undersigned has had no share in this work.
He only ventures to express his sense of its great value,
and his earnest hope that this endeavour to facilitate a
more extensive acquaintance with the rites of the English
Church of earlier days, with which through the mercy of
GOD we are still preserved in living and substantial union,
may be for the glory of GOD in quickening a devout and
ever-increasing interest in the momentous truths enshrined
in these sacred records.
T. T. CARTER.
THE following Translation of the ORDINARY and CANON of the
MASS, according to the USE of the CHURCH of SALISBURY, is
designed as a humble contribution to that study of matters
Liturgical, which, in GOD S good Providence, is being so happily
revived amongst us at the present day. As a pendant to the
excellent Translations of the Primitice Liturgies, for which the
Church is indebted to Dr. NEALE, this rendering of one of the
most illustrious of Mediaeval Liturgies may not be unacceptable
to students who lack leisure or even inclination to dive into less
easily accessible sources of information ; and as, conjointly with
other similar works, throwing some light on those originals
from which our present BOOK of COMMON PRAYER was compiled,
it may prove of some assistance to those of the clergy who
are anxious to use that Book in the spirit in which it was
For another class of persons a comparison between the
present and the older English rite may serve to demonstrate
the spirit in which the Anglican Eeformers wished to act, in the
revision of the office-books, as declared in the Preface affixed to
the Prayer-Book. The large part common to both rites, and
the actual differences set down totidcm rcrbis, may point out the
wish of the Eeformers to preserve not only what was Primitive,
but what, being of Mediaeval growth, was yet not opposed to
Primitive practice ; and at the same time their desire to mould
the services as much as possible on Primitive principles.
Hence, on the one hand, the retrenchments of some of those
ceremonies e.g., some of the "manual gestures " of the Mass,
which, in the aforesaid Preface, are alleged to have unduly
multiplied in later ages of the Church ; and on the other, the
avowed desire to retain EITUAL, then a recognised science, with
principles and canons of its own, as evinced by the two rubrics
with regard to the " ornaments of the Church, and of the
ministers thereof," and to the chancels remaining as in times
past. In other words, a comparison of the elder with the more
modern rite, will show enough in common to demonstrate the
essential unity of the present with the pre-Eeformation Church
of England, and sufficient divergence in the actual text and
rubrical directions, without necessitating a Protestant interpre
tation, if such be possible, of the Eitual rubrics just alluded to.
As no amount of Eitual carelessness or slovenliness can destroy,
though it may hide, the liturgical connection between the two,
so the highest amount of ritual adornment compatible with the
text of the present English rite w r ould still preserve intact the
principles laid down by the Eeformers in the section of the
Preface to the Prayer-Book, " Of Ceremonies, why some be
The office-books called " of Sarum " belong to the Gregorian
family, and were drawn up in their present form by S. Osmund,
Bishop and founder of the Cathedral church of Salisbury, (A.D.
1078-1099,) in order to consolidate the Anglo-Saxon Eitual, which
had been disturbed by the Norman invasion, and immediately
became the secular use in all churches in the southern dioceses. b
The Anglo-Saxon use, from which it was more immediately
taken, was introduced here by S. Augustine and his companions
in the sixth century. They naturally employed the liturgy to
which they had been accustomed at Eome ; but very early in the
mission they came across three foreign elements the Gallicart,
which was already in use at the court of Ethelbert, in the little
church of S. Martin at Canterbury, where Queen Bertha
a No opinion is advanced as to the relative merits of the two services,
Htnrgically, which is not the point under consideration. The position argued
above is, briefly, that just as (happily or otherwise) the Eeforrners cut off
antiphons, responds, and the like, preserving yet a daily recitation of the
Psalter, so they preserved the Eucharistic vestments, lights, incense, altars,
and the like ; while they provided a vernacular liturgy, and abolished such
ceremonies as the " Pax," touching the eyes, &c., with the paten, and so forth.
b The province of York and the diocese of Lincoln had " uses " of their
own. In North Wales the Hereford Breviary and Missal were used ; in South
Wales that of Bangor. These varied slightly from the Salisbury office-books.
But the Sarum Ordinale (i.e., the "Pica or Pye ") was in use not only
throughout all England and Wales, but ah 1 Ireland also ; the nucleus, perhaps*
of the " United Church of England and Ireland."
worshipped ; the British rite, which was employed by the British
Christians who had taken refuge in Wales ; and the Celtic,
which was that employed by the Scottish missionaries. Both
these latter rites would appear to have been derived originally
from the East, but to have acquired from the mission of S. Ger-
manus, and the constant intercourse between Gaul and Ireland,
a Gallican element. During the mission of S. Augustine the
Roman element was antagonistic to the British and Celtic ;
but friendly relations were kept up with the Gallican Church ;
S. Augustine, indeed, being expressly charged by Gregory, "if he
had found anything either in the Eoman, or the Gallican, or
any other Church, which may be more acceptable to ALMIGHTY
GOD," to " carefully make choice of the same," and having, " as
it were, made them up into one body, let the minds of the
English be accustomed thereto." The earlier Saxon usages
were, therefore, probably compounded chiefly of the Eoman and
Gallican rites. Later, an amalgamation was effected with the
British and Celtic elements, thereby introducing, or rather
strengthening (for it already existed in the Gallican rite) the
Eastern. From this amalgamation arose the use of Sarum,
which thus unites in itself three noble liturgical families, the
Eoman, the Gallican, and the Eastern. d
c Bede, Eccl. Hist. 1. i. c. 27.
d A friend has pointed out that the Cologne Breviary (a reform, probably,
of the celebrated Lyons use) contains an office as in the Sarum rite, for the
feast of the " Holy Name of JESUS," on August the 7th.
The principal office-books of Sarum use were these :
1. The "Missale," of which editions of 1492, 1494, 1498,
1510, 1527, 1534, 1554, &c., are preserved. This contained
the Ordinary and Canon of the Mass, as here translated,
together with the Introits, Collects, Epistles, Graduals, Alleluya,
Tracts, Sequences, Gospels, Offertories, Communions, and
Post- Communions, throughout the year. It was divided
into the " Temporale," containing the services for the
Sundays and ferias from Advent to Advent ; and the
" Sanctorale," containing the services proper for the feasts
2. The "Grayle," or Graduate, which contained the musical
notation to the Introits, Graduals, (whence the name,) Tracts,
Sequences, &c., together with the musical notation to the Nicene
Creed, Gloria in Excelsis, Preface, and such other parts of the
Ordinary and Canon as were sung.
3. The " Processionale," containing such parts of the
services as were sung in processions. 4. The Ordinale, a hand
book of directions to the Priest. So far as regards the^ Mass.
For the choir service were
5. The " Portiforiim," or " Breviary," containing the service
for Matins, Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, Vespers, and
Compline, throughout the year, together with the Litany and
the Vigils for the Dead. It was divided into two parts, " pars
hyemalis," containing the services from the first Sunday in
Advent to the end of "Whit sun week; "pars aestivalis," beginning
with Trinity Sunday, and giving the services thence to Advent. 6
6. The Leyenda, containing the lessons read at matins. 7. The
" Pica," or Pye, a kind of directory as to the order in which the
services were to be said. 8. The Tonale, vulgarly called
"tunnal," containing the Gregorian tones for the Psalms, &c.,
with directions. 9. The Antiphonarium, or " Antiphoner,"
containing the musical notation to the Antiphons.
Lastly, for the occasional services, was 10. The Manual ej
containing the offices of baptism, matrimony, visitation and
anointing of the sick, burial of the dead, &c. And 11. The
Pont-ificale, containing those peculiar to a bishop, as confirmation,
ordination of priests and deacons, consecration of bishops,
ordering of sub-deacons, readers, exorcists, acolytes, door
The present translation has been made from the best existing
editions of the Sarum Missal, chiefly as collated in the recent
reprint issued from the Pitsligo Press ; g use having been made
of such further light as is thrown upon the Sarum liturgy by
the Gradual and Manual, and by the " Consuetudinary of the
Church of Sarum," which is preserved at the end of Mr.
e The Eom. Brev. is divided into four: "pars vernalis," beginning with
the first Sunday in Lent ; and " pars auctumnalis," with the Sunday nearest
the Calends of September.
Or " Sacenlotale"
* Missale ad usum insignis et pracclarae Ecclesico Sarum. Pars Prima :
Temporale. Londini ; Veneunt apud C. J. Stewart, 18G1.
Chambers s magnificent Saruni Psalter. h The Calendar is given
from the Breviary, eight or ten MS. copies of which, together
with several printed ones, exist in the Harleian, Cottonian, and
Old Koyal Libraries in the British Museum.
It is hoped that the notes prefixed to the various parts of the
Liturgy are sufficiently ample to explain any difficulties, and to
give a tolerably clear idea of the manner in which the Divine
mysteries were wont to be offered among our forefathers. One
or two points, however, would seem to demand a longer notice
than could be conveniently given within the limits of a note.
And especially as to the colours employed in the Sarum rite.
The sources from which this has to be decided are, first a rubric
given in the Missals just before the Gloria in Excehis ; 2, exist
ing inventories of Church goods ; 3, occasional notices in State
papers, &c. ; and 4, illustrations of the Sarum ritual occurring
in illuminations. From these four sources it is tolerably easy,
by the guidance of one or two canons, to settle a definite use.
The first canon is that the rubric (marked No. 1 above) refers
primarily to the vestments of the clergy, on which it was binding
so far as it went ; and secondarily if at all, to vestments and
hangings of the altar, which, if we may rely upon our fourth
authority, often differed in colour from the sacerdotal vestments.
h " The Psalter, or Seven Ordinary Hours of Prayer, according to the use
of the illustrious and excellent Church of Saruni ; with explanatory notes and
comments." London : J. Masters, 1852,
The second canon is to give a due and relative value to each
of these authorities. The rubric, as part of the actual Liturgy,
is of the first importance, and the others can only be admitted
to illustrate and to fill up what is wanting in this. Next in
importance are the inventories, as showing what vestments were
actually in use ; then the State papers, which are historical ;
and, lastly, the illustrations, which are of but slight value in this
enquiry, owing to the tendency of illuminators to subordinate
liturgical correctness to harmonious or striking colouring.
The third canon is that, given certain colours, recognised by
authorities 2, 3, and 4, but about which authority 1, is silent, it
is fair to assume that these colours were employed in the same
order as in the rest of the Western Church.
Now to apply these canons :
The authorities mentioned above recognise the following
colours : Black, blue, Irown, cloth-of-gold, grey, green, red,
violet, white, yellow. Of these, those printed in italics are
peculiar to Sarum use, the rest common to the Western rite.
Authority 1, assigns red to all Sundays in the year out of
Eastertide, when the office is of Sunday, Ash Wednesday,
Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday, both feasts
of Holy Cross, and all feasts of Martyrs, Apostles, and
Evangelists out of Eastertide ;* white to all Sundays, feasts and
1 Another rubric assigns red as the colour also of the altar frontal in the
Sundays in Lent.
ferias (except the Invention of the Cross) in the Paschal season
i.e., from Easter-day till the Vigil of Pentecost, the Annuncia
tion, Conception, Assumption, and Nativity of the B.V.M. and
their octaves ; the feast of S. John in Christmas-week, and the
feast of the Dedication of a Church and through its octave, and
both feasts of S. Michael ; yellow to all festivals of a confessor.
The analogy of the Western usage would extend white to
Christmas, Epiphany, the Holy Name of JESUS, the Transfigura
tion, Nativity of S. John Baptist, all feasts of Virgins not
martyrs, Trinity Sunday, and Corpus Christ! ; red to Pentecost
and all feasts of Martyrs out of Paschal-tide. Cloth- of- gold
served for red, white, or yellow in festival use. This leaves the
remaining colours to be shared among vigils and the ferial
seasons between Septuagesima and Easter, after Epiphany, and
For the two latter seasons green is assigned by the Western
usages. Blue may be regarded as equivalent to green, and as
constituting indifferently with it the ordinary ferial colour of the
Church of Sarum. Brown, violet, and grey remain for vigils,
Advent, and the season from Septuagesima to Easter. Black
was confined to the office of the dead.
It will be seen, therefore, that the peculiarities in the Sarum
usage consisted, 1. In the employment of white in the Paschal
season for all feasts indiscriminately. 2. In the use of red as
the ordinary dominical colour. 3. In the employment of yellow
instead of white as the colour for the festivals of confessors.
4. In the indiscriminate use of blue or green for the ferial sea
sons after Trinity and Epiphany. And 5. In the indiscriminate
use of brown, grey, or violet on vigils and other fasting-days, in
Advent, and the ferial seasons of Septuagesima and Lent. 5 -
The vestments to which these colours were applied were as
follows : Of the priest, the chasuble, stole, and maniple. Of the
deacon, the dalmatic, stole, and maniple. Of the sub-deacon, the
tunic and maniple. Of the rulers of the choir, the cope. k Of the altar
the frontal, the chalice-vail, and burse, and the mural hangings.
It is important to settle this sequence of colours, because the
rubric in the Book of Common Prayer which sanctions the
Eucharistic vestments virtually prescribes the form and colours
j It appears from certain entries in inventories, such as the following,
" Item, an altar-cloth of white with spots of blood, for Lent," (which is of
frequent occurrence,) that it was customary to have a second suit of vestments
of a less costly fabric for use on such festivals as occurred in Lent.
k IhQplaneta, or folded chasuble, being only worn by the deacon and sub-
deacon in penitential seasons, followed of course the penitential colour. In
Church inventories the chasuble was often called the " vestment," and this
word frequently meant the whole suit of the priest, and even of the deacon and
sub-deacon also. Thus, " a violet [grey or brown] vestment" would imply a
priest s chasuble, two folded chasubles for deacon and sub-deacon, two stoles,
and three maniples of that colour; "a white [red, yellow, blue, or green]
vestment," a chasuble, dalmatic, tunic, two stoles, and three maniples of
that colour. Sometimes this was expressed as follows : " A [red] chasuble
with deacon and sub-deacon." In Cathedral and Collegiate churches, on
double feasts, not only the rulers, but all the clergy in the choir, wore copes
of the colour of the day.
employed &// the Church of Sarum, when it limits them to " SUCH
as were in use ... in the second year of King Edward the
Sixth." It is not enough for those who would prefer the Eoman
sequence of colours to say that among the vestments shown by
existing documents to have been then in use were some of each of
the five Eoman colours, and to argue from this that it is lawful
to make use of these and reject the rest. The existence in the
same church of several vestments of different colours evidently
implies that they were used in a recognised order with reference
to feast and feria ; and the clause " at all times of their
ministration," must be interpreted to mean not only that each
particular vestment was to be worn at that service for which
it was specially designed, as had been done " in times past,"
but that where a church was provided with vestments of different
colours, (such colours being limited to those actually in use in the
second year of Edward VI.,) those colours were to be employed
in the order for which they had been designed. It would
appear, then, that while a clergyman would be at liberty to use
violet vestments in preference to brown or grey, or green in
preference to blue, 1 he would be acting as illegally in celebrating
1 The Judgment in the " Knight sbridge Churches case " legalised, quantum
raleat, the Eoman sequence for the altar frontal, &c., but did not touch upon
the vestments of the clergy. The following decree of the Sacred Congregation
of Eites (dated " May 7, 1746") will show that in the Eoman rite also the
vestments of the altar are not uniformly of the same colour as those of the
priest. " Priests who are regulars, when they celebrate in a secular church
in a red chasuble on the feast of a martyr in tempore Pascludi, or
a violet one on Ash Wednesday, or a green one on an ordinary
Sunday, as he would in wearing a chasuble of what colour soever
at any such service as Matins or Evensong, on the plea that the
rubric legalised the vestments, but was silent as to when they
should be worn.
The next point that demands a word or two of notice here is
the " division (i.e., the classification) of feasts/ and the terms
employed in the Calendar to note the same. Festivals were
divided into two great classes, Double and Simple feasts. These
were sub-divided as follows : Double feasts into " principal
doubles/ "greater doubles," " lesser doubles," and " inferior;"
Simple feasts into simples cum, and simples sine, re-gimme chori. m
When a moveable feast clashed with a fixed one, (e.g., Easter
Monday with the feast of the Annunciation, or again, a Saint s
day with an Ordinary Sunday,) the lower feast gave place to the
higher ; simple feasts sine reg. chori to " simples " cum reg. chori ;
these again to " doubles," " doubles "to " greater doubles," and
all to " principal doubles." Double feasts were so called because
the antiphons at lauds, vespers, and compline to Benedictus,
on a day which is a semi-double in the secular office, but a double according
to the rite of their order, ought to use the colour of their own office. But the
antependium need not be changed."
m In the Eoman rite the corresponding divisions are called duplex primes
classis, duplex secunda classis, duplex major, duplex; semi-duplex^ [answering to
simplex cum reg. chori,] simplex.
Magnificat, and N-iuic di mitt is were " doubled," (i.e., sung entire
before as well as after their canticle). Feasts were also called
" of nine " or " of three lessons," according as their Matins had
one or three nocturns, [each nocturn haying three lessons]. The
terms " cum regimine chori," and " sine regimine chori," were
used to denote respectively the presence or absence of the rulers
or conductors of the choir. The choir had four rulers on all
double feasts, two on simples cum reg. chori, (which included
ordinary Sundays). 11 Lastly, the terms " Simple," " Double "
and " Triple Invitatory," referred to the manner in which the
psalm Venite was sung at matins. If the Invitatory were
" simplex," it was sung by the precentor only ; if " duplex," by
two rulers of the choir; if " triplex," by three. On all
"principal double" feasts the Invitatory was "quadruple"
i.e., sung by the four rulers ; but as the quadruple Invitat. was
peculiar to these feasts, it is not expressed in the Calendar.
The Divine Liturgy was offered with different degrees of
solemnity. The rubrics which relate to the deacon and sub-
deacon have reference only to High Mass, (missa principalis sire
solennis,) at which the priest was assisted by these ministers, as
also by two acolytes, taper-bearers, (ceroferarii,) thurifers, (tlmri-
fcrarii i.e. incense-bearers,) and the choir. In addition to
this, there was Low or simple Mass, in which the priest was
n The days within octaves were " simplices cum reg. chori," the octave day
itself was " duplex."
assisted by one acolyte, or server, (clcricus, Angliee " clerk,")
according to the canon of S. Dunstan, "Let no Mass-priest
masse alone, but let there be some one to answer him." At
this Mass the incensings, sequence, creed, &c., were omitted,
and the priest read both Epistle and Gospel himself, the server
moving the book from the Epistle to the Gospel corner of the
altar for him. " Hunting Mass," or " the Mass of S. Hubert,"
was a further abbreviated Mass, for the convenience of those
who were engaged in hunting ! Missa PontificaUs was the
Liturgy as said by a Bishop. There were two deacons, and two
sub- deacons, as also two censer-bearers, at a Pontifical High
Mass, and two clerks at a Low.
The leading idea of the ceremonial of High Mass, was a
ritual " showing (/caTa<yye\a)v) the LOED S death," according to the
expression of S. Paul. p It was regarded as, in a high and
ineffable sense, a sacred drama ; and its adjuncts were, in the
true and proper sense of the word, before its use had come to
imply a sneer, " histrionic." Our LORD, as it has been well
Low Mass must not be confounded with the * private masses "
2>ricctt(s) so strongly repudiated by the Eeformers, and which were so frequently
matters of dispute in the controversies of the 16th % century. ]\Iisscc private
were masses said in chantries or at side altars by a priest without a congre
gation, whereas Low Mass was that at which the people were wont to
p Cf. Gal. iii. 1, where S. Paul addresses his converts as those " 0^9
remarked, in instituting a service in His Church, enjoined not
" Say so and so, for a memorial of Me," but " This DO." Hence
the Canon has ever been a close imitation of the Sacred Gestures
employed by Him at the Last Supper. This idea, if it rose to
its highest development in the middle ages, was never absent
from the Church from the very first, though its outward expres
sion was of course kept in check during the ages of persecution.
This " histrionic " element, which grew around the normal action
of the canon, was derived from two sources, (a) the Temple
worship, (/3) the classical drama. The former contributed the
symbolical vestments employed, (and possibly their colour,) the
lights and incense, the ritual music, and the priest (or bishop)
ministering before the altar assisted by his inferior ministers ;
the reading of the law, and the singing of psalms ; the latter the
chorus, with its oft-occurring response, intermingled with the
dialogue of the principal actors ; unless, indeed, which seems
probable, the Greek drama derived its chorus from the worship
of the gods, and that, by tradition, from the primitive worship
of Jehovah. (See Gen. iv. 21; 1 Chron. vi. 31, and xvi. 4, &c.)
The idea then, we repeat, of a solemn celebration of the
Divine mysteries both in the Primitive and in the Mediaeval
Church, was that of a sacred and ineffable drama, enacted in
the presence of the King of Heaven ; the persona of which were
the priest with his inferior ministers in sacrificial garb, and the
Eternal SON of that King, Who having once assumed human
flesh, and offered Himself an oblation for the sins of men, now
came in disguise, to re-present that oblation to His FATHER; the
choir, arrayed in fine linen, formed the chorus.
One difference, however, between the Primitive and the
Mediaeval practice, which at first sight would seem to involve
something more than a mere matter of detail, must not be passed
over. In the latter, the faithful communicated chiefly at Low
Mass, and assembled for purpose of* worship only at the High.
In the Primitive Church " Low Masses " were unknown. There
was only one Liturgy said in the same day, and that at midnight
or in early morning, and with all the ritual appliances that
might be had ; and at this, of course, all the faithful who were
so minded communicated ; q and this is still the custom in the
Oriental Churches. The first step towards destroying the exist
ing (though not essential) union of the sacramental with the
sacrificial feature in the Eucharist, arose in the times of perse
cution, when the assemblies of the faithful could only be held at
irregular intervals, and consisted in the permission accorded to
the laity of reserving the Blessed Sacrament at home, and
communicating themselves. By this means the people could
communicate apart from the sacrifice. The later development
was the exact reverse. Circumstances having led the Western
q In the age of Primitive fervour the bulk of the faithful would naturally
communicate whenever they attended the Divine Liturgy, but there was no
law compelling them to do so ; and as the Church enlarged her borders, more
and more would be willing to assist, who were not prepared to communicate
daily or even weekly.
Church to postpone the principal Mass to a later hour than could
be conveniently attended by fasting communicants, the system
of Low Masses was devised to enable weakly communicants to
break their fast at an earlier hour, and for the convenience of
those who could not attend the principal Mass. Hence arose,
for the first time, a special Liturgy for communicants, and
another practically reserved for worshippers only ; though this
was not the intention of the Church in making the provision,
as may be gathered from her expressed wish, recorded in the
Council of Trent, that "some" sufficiently devoted to share
the priest s protracted fast " might be found to communicate at
Calendar of t\)t Cinird) of
Circumcision. Lesser double feast, of ix lessons.
Octave of S. Stephen. Doub. Invit., iij lessons, cum
Octave of S. John. Ibid. [reg. chori.
Octave of Holy Innocents. Ibid.
Vigil. Oct. S. Thomas. Mem. of S. Edward, K. C.
Epiphany. Princip. double, ix lessons.
Keys of Septuagesima.
Lucian and his companions, MM.
Oct. of Epiph., ix less. Middle of S. Hilary.
Felix, Pr. M., iij lessons.
Maurus, Ab. C., iij lessons.
Marcellus, Pope M., iij lessons.
Sulpitius, B. C., iij lessons.
Prisca, V. M., iij lessons.
Wulstan, B. C., ix lessons.
Fabian and Sebastian, MM. No Exposit., ix less.
Agnes, V. M. Ibid.
Vincent, Levite, M. Ibid.
Conversion of S. Paid, ix lessons. Triple Invit.
Julian, B. C. Double Invit., iij lessons.
Agnes in 2nd place. Double Invit., iij lessons.
Keys of Quadragesima.
Batildis, Q. Y. not M., iij lessons.
THE CALENDAE OF THE
Brigid, V. not M., iij lessons.
Pur if. B. V. M. Gr. double, ix lessons.
Blasius, B. M. Double Invit., iij less.
Agatha, V. M. No Exposit., ix lessons.
Vedastus and Amandus, B. C., ix lessons.
Scolastica, V. not M., iij lessons.
Valentine, M., iij lessons.
Juliana, V. M. Double Invit., iij lessons.
S. Peter s Chair. Trip. Invit., ix less.
Matthias, Ap. Inferior doub., ix less.
%* In Leap-year this Feast of S. Matthias is cele
brated on the 4th day from S. Peter s Chair,
and the letter f is twice numbered.
CHURCH OF SARUM,
David, B. Conf., ix lessons.
Chad, B. Conf., ix lessons.
Perpetua and Felicitas, MM., iij lessons.
Keys of Easter.
Gregory, Pope. Inf. double, ix lessons.
Last of Quadragesima.
Entry of Noah into the Ark.
Edward, K. M., ix lessons.
Cuthbert, B. C., ix lessons.
Benedict, Abbot, ix lessons.
First of Easter.
Here Adam was created.
Annunciation of Our Lady. Lesser double, ix less.
Resurrection of the Lord. Princip. feast, iij lessons.
THE CALENDAR OF THE
Richard, B. C., ix lessons.
Ambrose, cum reg. cliori. Inf. doub., ix lessons.
Tiburtius and Valerius, MM., iij lessons.
Keys of the Eogations.
Alphege, Abp. M., iij lessons.
George, M. Double feast, cum reg. chori, iij lessons.
Mark, Ev. Inf. Double, iij lessons, cum reg. chori.
[Greater Litanies. Last of Easter.
Vitalis, M., cum reg. chori, iij lessons.
Exit of Noah from the Ark.
Erconwald, B. C. Inf. double, iij lessons. (Not of
CHUKCH OF SAKUM.
SS. Philip and James, App. MM. Inf. Double, cum
[reg. chori, iij lessons.
Invent, of H. Cross. Lesser doub., cum reg. chori,
[Invit., iij lessons.
S. John ante Port. Lat., cum reg. chori. Triple
John of Beverley, iij less., cum reg. chori.
Trans, of S. Nicolas, B., cum reg. chori. (Not of
Gordian and Epimachus, MM., iij lessons.
First of Pentecost.
Nereus, Achilles, and Pancras, MM., iij lessons.
%* Note, that the Feast of the Translation of S.
Cedde, Bp., should always be celebrated on the
Sunday next before the Ascension of our Lord,
iij lessons, cum reg. chori. (Not of Sarum.)
S. Dunstan, Abp. C., iij lessons, cum reg. chori.
[Mem. of S. Potentiana, V. M.
Aldhelm, B. C., ix less. Middle of S. Urban.
S. Augustine, B. C., Apostle of England, ix lessons.
German, B. C., iij lessons.
Petronilla, V. not M., iij lessons with nocturn.
THE CALENDAR OF THE
Nicomede, M., iij lessons.
Marcellinus and Peter, MM. Doub. Invit., iij less.
Boniface, B., and his companions, MM. Doub. Invit.,
Medardus and Gildardus, B. C., iij lessons.
Trans, of S. Edmund, Abp. C. Triple Invit.,
Barnabas, Ap. Triple Invit., ix lessons.
Basil, B. C., iij lessons. [iij lessons.
Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, MM. Double Invit.,
Trans, of S. Richard, B. C., ix lessons.
Marcus and Marcellinus, MM. Doub. Invit., iij less.
Gervas and Protasius, MM. Doub. Invit., iij less.
Trans, of S. Edward, K. M., ix lessons.
Alban, M. 9 ix lessons.
Etheldreda, V. not M., ix less, with noct. Vigil.
Nativ. of S. John Bapt. Lesser doub., ix less.
John and Paul, MM. Double Invit., iij lessons.
Leo, Pope and Conf., iij less, with noct. Vigil.
SS. Peter and Paul, App. Lesser double, ix lessons.
Com. of S. Paul. Triple Invit., ix lessons.
CHURCH OF SAEUM.
Octave of S. John Bapt. Double Invit., iij lessons.
Visit. B. V. M. Gr. double, ix lessons.
Trans, of S. Martin, B., ix lessons.
Octave of SS. Peter and Paul, ix lessons. Trip. Invit.
Trans, of S. Thomas of Canterb. Less, doub., ix less.
V First Sunday after S. Thomas is celebrated the Feast of Relics, ix less.
Oct. of Visitat., ix less. Trip. Invitat.
Seven Brothers, MM. Double Invit., iij less.
Trans, of S. Benedict, Ab., ix lessons.
Trans, of S. Swithin, B. C., and his Companions,
Trans, of S. Osmund, B. C., ix less. (Not of Sarum.)
Kenelm, K. M. Double Invit., iij lessons.
Arnulph, B. M., iij lessons.
Margaret, V. M., ix lessons.
Praxedes, V. M., iij lessons.
S. Mary Magdalen, ix lessons. Trip. Invit.
Apollonaris, M., iij lessons.
Christina, Y. M., iij lessons with noct. Vigil.
S. James, Ap. Inf. double, ix lessons.
S. Anne, n. V. n. M. 1 Trip. Invit., ix less.
Seven Holy Sleepers, MM. Doub. Invit., iij less.
Sampson, B. C. Doub. Invit., iij less, [vit., iij less.
Felix, Simplicius, Faustus & Beatrice, MM. Doub. In-
Abdon and Sennes, MM. Doub. Invit., iij less.
German, B. C. Simple Invit., iij lessons.
1 These letters stand for " nee Virginia nee Martyris" and mark the feast of
a Holy Woman who is neither a Virgin Saint or Martyr.
THE CALENDAB OF THE
S. Peter s Chains. Trip. Invit., ix less.
Stephen, Pope, M. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Invent, of S. Stephen, Proto-M.,and his comp.,iz less.
Oswald, K. M. Doub. Inv., iij less. Mary of Snoics.
Transfig. of Our Lord. Lesser doub., ix less.
Holy Name of JESUS. Gr. doub., ix lessons.
Ciriacus and bis comp., MM. Doub. Invit., iij less.
Komanus, M., iij less, with noct. Vigil.
S. Laurence, M. Trip. Invit., ix lessons.
Tiburtius, M. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Hippolytus and his comp., MM. Doub. Inv., iij less.
Octave of Holy Name of JESUS. Trip. Invit., ix
lessons. Mem. of S. Eusebius, Presb. Vigil.
Assumption B. V. M. Princip. doub., ix lessons.
Oct. of S. Laurence.
Agapetus, M. Memorial only.
Magnus, M. Memorial only.
Oct. of Assump., ix less. Triple Inv*
Thomas and Apolina, MM., iij less, with noct. Vigil.
Bartholomew, Ap. Inf. doub., ix less. Mem. of S.
Kufus, M. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Augustine, B. Inf. double, ix lessons. Hermes.
Beheading of S. John Bapt. Trip. Invit., ix less.
Felix and Adauctus, MM. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Cuthburga, V. n. M. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
CHUBCH OF SABUM.
d& eg tern Be r*
Giles, Abbot t ix lessons. Middle of S. Priscus.
Ordination of S. Gregory.
Trans, of S. Cuthbert, B. C., ix lessons.
Bertinus, Ab. C., iij lessons with noct.
Nativ. B. V. M. Gr. double, ix lessons.
Gorgonius, M. Memorial only.
Protus and Hyacinth, MM. Memorial only.
Exaltat. of Holy Cross. Lesser doub., ix less. [mede.
Oct. Nativ. B. V. M. Trip. Inv., midd. less, of S. Nico-
Edith, Y. n. M., ix lessons. Mid. of S. Euphemia.
Lambert, B. M., iij lessons.
Matthew, Ap. Ev. Inf. doub., ix lessons.
Maurice and his comp., MM., ix lessons.
Thecla, V. n. M., iij lessons with noct.
Firminus, B. C., iij lessons.
Cyprian and Justina, MM. Doub. Inyit., iij lessons.
Cosmas and Damian, MM. Doub. Invit., iij less.
Michael, Archangel. Inf. doub., ix less.
Jerome, Pr. Doct. Inf. double, ix less.
THE CALENDAE OF THE
Kemigius, B. C., and his comp., ix lessons.
Leodegarius, B. M., iij lessons. S. Thomas of Here-
[ford, B., ix lessons. (Not of Sarum.)
Faith, V. M., iij lessons.
Marcus, Marcellus and Apuleus, MM. Doub. Invit.,
Denys and his comp., MM., ix lessons.
Gereon and his comp., MM., iij lessons.
Nichasius and his comp., MM., iij less. Doub. Invit.
Trans, of S. Edward, K. C. Inf. Douh., ix less.
Calixtus, Pope, M. Double Invit., iij lessons.
Wulfran, B. C., ix lessons.
Michael in the Mount Tomb. Trip. Invit., ix less.
Trans, of S. Etheldreda, V. n. M., ix lessons.
Luke, Ev., ix lessons. Inf. double, mid. lesson of
Frideswide, V. n. M., ix lessons. [S. Justus.
11,000 Virgins. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Eomanus, Abp. C., iij less, with noct.
Crispin and Crispinian, MM., ix lessons. Mid. of
[S. John of Beverley.
Simon and Jude, App. Inf. double, ix lessons.
Quintin, M., iij lessons with noct. Vigil.
CHUKCH OF SABUM.
Festivity of All Saints. Gr. double, ix lessons.
Commem. of All Souls, ix lessons.
Winifred, V. M., ix lessons.
Leonard, Ab. C., ix lessons.
Four Crowned Martyrs. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Theodoras, M., iij lessons.
Martin, B. C., ix lessons. Trip. Invit. Mid. less.
[of S. Mennas.
Britius, B. C. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Trans, of Erconwald, B. C., ix less. (Not of Sarum.)
Machutus, B. C., ix less. Mid. of S. Martin.
Edmund, Abp. of Canterb. Trip. Invit., ix lessons.
Hugh, B. C., ix lessons.
Oct. of S. Martin. Doub. Invit., iij lessons.
Edmund, K. M., ix lessons.
S. Cecilia, V. M., ix lessons.
Clement, Pope, M., ix lessons.
Chrysogonus, M., iij lessons.
Catharine, V. M., ix lessons.
Linus, Pope, M., iij lessons.
Saturninus and Sisinius, MM., iij lessons, with noct.
Andrew, Ap. Inf. double, ix lessons.
THE CALENDAR OF THE CHUECH OF SARUM.
Deposition of S. Osmund, B. C., ix lessons.
Nicolas, B. C. Trip. Invit.
Oct. of S. Andrew. Double Invit., iij lessons.
Conception B. V. M. Lesser doub., ix lessons.
Lucy, V. M., ix lessons.
Here begins Sapientia.
Thomas, Ap. Inf. doub., ix lessons.
Vigil of Christmas.
Nativ. of Our B. LORD. Princip. double, ix lessons.
Stephen, Proto-M. Lesser doub., ix lessons.
John, Ap. Ev. Lesser doub., ix lessons.
Holy Innocents, MM. Lesser doub., ix lessons.
Thomas of Canterb., Alp. M. Lesser doub., ix less.
Silvester, Pope, Conf., ix lessons.
a. Feasts of the First Class. " Principal Double Feasts."
Assumption B. V. M.
Feast of Patron | of the particular
Feast of Dedication Church.
fi. Feasts of the Second Class. " Greater Double Feasts."
Purification B. V. M.
Feast of Holy Trinity.
Visitation B. "V. M.
Feast of Eelics.
Holy Name of JESUS.
Nativity B. V. M.
82 A TABLE OF FEASTS.
7. Feasts of the Third Class. " Lesser Double Feasts."
S. John, Ev.
S. Thomas, Abp.
Annunciation B. V. M.
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday in Easter week.
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday in Whitsun week.
Invention of the Cross.
Nativity S. John Baptist.
SS. Peter and Paul.
Translation of S. Thomas of Canterbury.
Exaltation of the Cross.
Conception B. V. M.
. Feasts of the Fourth Class. " Inferior Double Feasts.
SS. Philip and James.
S. Augustine, Abp.
S. Augustine, Doct.
S. Jerome. *
Translation of S. Edward C,
SS. Simon and Jude.
The feasts not included in the above table, but which are marked in italics
in the Calendar, are " double feasts," and form the fifth class ; the rest
are " simples."
Cfjurcf) of g>a
BUturgg of tfje Cfwrcf) of g>arum*
A. THE OBDINABY OF THE MASS. 1
The Priest about to say Mass? shall say the following Hymn, while he clothes
himself in the sacred vestments : 8
HOLY GHOST, Creator blest,
Vouchsafe within our souls to rest ;
Come with Thy Grace, and heavenly aid,
And fill the hearts which Thou hast made.
1 The " Ordinary " of the Mass was such parts of the Service prior to the
Canon which did not vary with the different festivals. The " Canon " (or
rule) was the part of the Service containing the actual consecration, and which
was not allowed to vary (as did some parts of the Ordinary) in local Churches.
sands rpj ie term ]yj asS) " ag applied to the Divine Liturgy, is derived by
some liturgical students from the phrase " Ite, missa est," " Go, you are dis
missed," which occurs towards the end of the Roman rite. In the Early Church
the catechumens were dismissed before the consecration. This dismissal was
called "Missa (i.e., missio) Catechumenonim" By an easy transition this term
came to be applied to the part of the Service preceding the dismissal, and
36 THE LITUEGY OF THE
COMFOETEE, to Thee we cry ;
Thou heavenly Gift of GOD Most High :
Thou fount of life, and fire of love,
And sweet anointing from above.
Finger of the Hand Divine,
The sevenfold gifts of grace are Thine ;
The promise of the FATHEE Thou :
Who dost the tongue with power endow.
Thy light to every sense impart,
And shed Thy love in every heart :
The weakness of our flesh supply
With strength and courage from on high,
then the rest of the Service, at which only the faithful (i.e., full Christie
were present, was called " Missa Fidelium" Others, however, derive the
phrase from the Hebrew PID&, MISSAH, (thus, missaJi nedaba, Deut. xvi. 10, a
free-will offering,) the root of which, MAS, is said to signify the tribute or
homage due from a vassal to his lord. Comp. the " this our bounden duty
and service" of the English rite. In Anglo-Saxon, ma&jje signified not only
the Mass, but also a feast ; whence Clivistmas, Michaelmas, &c. : and it would
appear to have had this meaning prior to the introduction of Christianity.
Thus we find maerj-e-lac, (Gloss. MIL, Cot. 92,) a spice-cake, such as were
doubtless used at the feasts accompanying the pagan sacrifices. The phrase,
audire Missam, first occurs in S. Ambrose (Serm. 34 ; 1. ii. Ep. 14).
The priest first put on the amice, a square piece of linen, which fastened
round the neck like a collar or handkerchief ; then he put on the alb, a long
flowing garment of white linen, with tight sleeves ; then the stole of the
colour of the day ; this he crossed over his breast and secured both it and the
alb by a linen girdle ; after this ike f anon or maniple, in shape exactly like the
CHUECH OF SARUM. 37
Drive far away our ghostly foe,
And peace for evermore bestow :
If Tliou be our preventing guide,
No evil can our steps betide.
HOLY GHOST, through Thee alone,
We know the FATHER and the SON ;
Be this our never- changing Creed,
That Thou dost from Them Both proceed,
Praise we the FATHER and the SON,
And HOLY SPIRIT with them One :
And CHRIST the LORD upon us pour,
The SPIRIT S gifts for evermore. Amen.
stole, but of course much shorter, over his left arm ; lastly, he put on the
principal vestment or chasuble, a large oval cloak, reaching in front to about
the knees, and about si*x or eight inches longer behind, and narrowed off at
the side to about half-way between the elbow and wrist. It was made of
various stuffs, (never of linen,) and followed like the stole the colour of the
day. [See the Preface.]
The Deacon and Sub-Deacon vested: 1, in albs; 2, in amices; 3, the
Deacon in a stole worn over the left shoulder and crossed under the right
arm, but the Sub-Deacon did not wear a stole ; 4, in the girdle ; 5, in the
maniple. Lastly, the Deacon put on his dalmatic, and the Sub-Deacon his
tunic, except throughout Advent and from Septuagesima Sunday to Maundy
Thursday, in the ferial office, and on certain Vigils and Ember Days, when
they wore instead the planeta or folded chasuble ; and on Good Friday, on the
Eogation Days, and in the Service for the Dead, when they wore albs and
amices only. The other ministers, i.e., the Taper-bearers, Thurifers, and
Acolytes vested in albs and amices.
38 THE LITURGY OF THE
p. Send forth Thy SPIRIT, and they shall be created.
$. And Thou shalt renew the face of the earth.
C\ GOD, unto Whom all hearts be open, all desires known,
and from Whom no secrets are hid; cleanse the thoughts
of our hearts by the inspiration of Thy HOLY SPIRIT, that we
may be able to love Thee perfectly, and to praise Thee worthily.
Through JESUS CHRIST our LORD, Who with Thee liveth and
reigneth in the Unity of the same SPIRIT, GOD, world without
end. Amen. 4
The Choir having taken their places, the Priest standing with his assistant
below the sanctuary -step shall say this Antiphon.
Ant. I will go to the Altar of GOD. Psalm 43, Juclica me,
Dem, entire, wiili Gloria Patri. Then is said the Antiphon, I will
go to the Altar of GOD, the GOD of my joy and gladness.
Kyrie, eleyson. Christe, eleyson. Kyrie, eleyson.
Our FATHER. Hail Mary, all in secret. 5
4 In cathedrals and collegiate churches on all Sundays and double feasts
there was a procession ante crucem, i.e., headed by the processional cross,
before High Mass. In parish churches it would appear, however, that the
priest alone, accompanied by a single boy, went and sprinkled the people and
each altar with holy water. In either case, on arriving at the rood-screen,
the priest, turning to the people, read the " Bidding Prayer," i.e., a lis of
those who were to be prayed for at that Mass.
I.e., inaudibly. See below, Note (54) p. 80,
CHURCH OF SAEUM. 89
Let the principal ruler of the Choir then enquire the Introit? of the Precentor,
and inform his fellow, and let it be begun together by them both; which
shall also be observed in the sinyiny of the Kyrie, Sequence, Offertory,
Sanctus, Agnus, and Communlo.
While it is being sung, the ministers go up to the Altar in order ; first the
two taper-bearers, then the thmifers, afterwards the Sub-Deacon, then the
Deacon, and lastly the Priest. Arrived at the step of the Altar, the Priest
says the Confession as follows, the Deacon assisting at Ids right hand, the
Sub-Deacon at the left. 1
And lead us not into temptation. But deliver us from evil.
c The Introit consisted of a short Antiplion, with one or two verses of a
Psalm with Gloria. When the Choir had rulers, the Antiphon was repeated
three times, viz., once at the beginning, once before the Gloria of the Psalm,
and again after; but otherwise only twice. The Service was sung cum
regimine chori " on all Sundays and double feasts and on simple feasts so
marked in the Calendar. On double feasts there were four rulers, on simple
feasts, cum reg. chori, two. The Introit for the First Sunday in Advent is
appended, by way of specimen.
Introit. (The Eiders begin,} To Thee (the Choir continue) do I lift up my soul :
my GOD, I have hoped in Thee, and shall not be confounded ; neither shall
mine enemies laugh me to scorn, for all they that hope in Thee shall not be
confounded. Psalm, Shew me Thy ways, LORD : and teach me Thy paths.
The Introit, To Thee . . . confounded, is then repeated, and at the end is
sung Glory be, As it was. Lastly, the Introit is again repeated.
7 By the terms " deacon and sub-deacon " is generally implied two priests
acting in that capacity; by "acolyte," a boy acting as such; though, of
course, (especially where there was a large body of clerics as in cathedral,
collegiate, or monastic churches,) it frequently happened that those serving
these offices were actually in deacons , sub-deacons , and acolytes orders,
respectively ; and this was the intention of the Rubric. The other orders in
40 THE LITUBGY OF THE
T ET us confess unto the LORD, for He is good : and His
mercy enduretli for ever.
T CONFESS to GOD, to blessed Mary, to All Saints, and to you,
(turning to the choir,) that I have sinned exceedingly, in
thought, word, and deed ; by my fault : therefore I beg Holy
Mary, All Saints, and you, (turning to the choir,) to pray for me.
The ministers reply,
TI/TAY ALMIGHTY GOD have mercy upon you, pardon you all
your sins, deliver you from evil : preserve and confirm
you in good : and lead you to everlasting life.
Then the ministers say, I confess to GOD, as above, which done, the Priest says,
May ALMIGHTY GOD, the ministers replying, Amen. Then the Priest
A BSOLUTION and remission of all your sins, space for
true repentance, and amendment of life, grace and con-
the Early and Mediaeval Church were : 1, the door-keeper ; 2, the lector or
reader ; 3, the exorcist. In the Early Church, (as in the present English,)
these three were reckoned " Holy Orders," bishop, priest, deacon; the others
were called Minor Orders ; but in the Mediaeval Church, another classification
obtained, bishop and priest being reckoned as grades only of the same order,
and priests, deacons, and sub-deacons being accounted the three " Holy
Orders." The acolyte (a-colytus, puer acolytus, or acolythus) was called collo
quially, collett, among our forefathers. The deacon and sub-deacon were
similarly styled respectively "gospeller" and (l epistoler " a slipshod
phraseology that nas descended to modern times.
CHUECH OF SABUM. 41
solation of the HOLY SPIRIT, may the Almighty and merciful
LORD grant you.
The ministers reply, Amen.
And here it is to be noted, that what Priest so ever be celebrating, if the Bishop
be present, he (the Bishop) shall saij the Confession, the May ALMIGHTY
GOD, and the Absolution, at the step of the Altar.
Then the Priest says,
y. Our help standeth in the Name of the LORD,
ft. Who made heaven and earth.
<P. Blessed be the Name of the LORD,
ft. From this time forth for evermore.
Let us pray.
The prayers being finished, the Priest gives the kiss of peace to the Deacon,
and afterwards to the Sub-Deacon, saying,
T3ECEIVE the kiss of peace and charity, that ye may
worthily minister at the Holy Altar, and perform the
And this is done throughout the whole year, except in Masses for the Dead,
and on the three days before Easter.
Then the taper-bearers place their candlesticks at the step of the Altar, and
the priest goes up to the Altar, saying in the midst thereof, in a low voice,
u ith his body inclined towards the Altar, and his hands joined,
nPAKE away from us, we beseech Thee, LORD, all our
iniquities, that we may be worthy to enter with pure
minds into the Holy of Holies, through CHRIST our LORD.
42 THE LITUEGY OF THE
Then the Priest raises himself and kisses the Altar in the midst, and signs
himself on the face, saying,
TN the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY
Then the Deacon puts incense in the censer, and says first to the Priest,
And the Priest replies,
LOED. By Him may this incense be blessed, in Whose
honour it shall be burned. In the Name of the FATHER, &c.
Then the Deacon, handing him the censer, kisses his hand, and the Priest
incenses ~the midst and either side of the Altar, first on the right part,
aftenvards on the left, and intermediately in the midst. Then the Deacon
incenses the Priest, and after this the Priest kisses the text, or look out of
which the Sub-Deacon executes his ministry.
Meamvhile the Choir, having finished the Introit, proceed ivith the Kyrie, as
Kyrie, eleyson, three times.
Christe, eleyson, three times.
Kyrie, eleyson, three times.
Then the Priest, in the midst of the Altar, sings aloud, Glory be to GOD on
high, (except in Advent, and from Septuagesima to Easter, and in
Masses for the Dead, when it is omitted;) 8 and the Choir continue the
Gloria in Excelsis as follows :
Except, however, Maundy Thursday, if the bishop celebrated, for then,
according to Sarum Use, Gloria in Excelsis was to be sung.
CHURCH OF SABUM. 43
f~^ LORY be to GOD on high : and in earth peace, goodwill
We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we worship Thee, we glorify
Thee, we give Thanks to Thee for Thy great glory, LORD
GOD, heavenly King, GOD the FATHER ALMIGHTY.
LORD, the only-begotten SON, JESU CHRIST : LORD GOD,
LAMB of GOD, SON of the FATHER, that takest away the sins of
the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takset away the sins
of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the
sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou that sittest at the
right hand of GOD the FATHER, have mercy upon us.
For Thou only art holy: Thou only art the LORD: Thou
only, CHRIST, with the HOLY GHOST, art most high in the
glory of GOD the FATHER. Amen.
While the Choir are singing this Gloria, the Priest and his assistants go to
the right corner of the Altar, the Deacon standing to his right, the
Sub-Deacon to his left, where they say the Gloria in a low voice. At
its conclusion, the Priest and his ministers return to the Altar, and
having signed himself on the face, the Priest turns himself towards the
people, and with his arms slightly raised, and with joined hands, says,
The Lord be with you.
Choir. And with thy spirit. 9
9 Ordinarily the collect for each Sunday served in the ferial office through
the week ; but each day in Lent had its own CoUect, Epistle, and Gospel, as
also Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday in the four Ember weeks, &c.
44 THE LITURGY OF THE
Tlien the Priest turns again to the Altar, saying,
Let us pray.
Then follows the Collect for the day. And after the Collect for the day,
sundry other Collects as hereunder noticed, The LOUD be with you, And
with, and Let us pray "being said before the first after that for the day,
and all the others folloiciny under one Let us pray. 10
As soon as the last Collect is begun, the Sub-Deacon, [having taken off his
planeta behind the High Altar, 11 ] goes through the midst of the Choir to
the pulpit or lectern, to read the Epistle, if the service is sung " cum
regimine chori;" but otherwise the Epistle is read at the step of the
10 The Collects varied from one to seven, but were always uneven in
number, according to Sarum Use, except during the Octave of the Nativity
only, when this rule was not observed. The first was always of the day ; the
others varied. In Lent, in the ferial office, the week-day collects were seven,
the Sunday, one; in Eastertide, three; in the ferial service from the first
Sunday after Trinity to Advent, and from the second Sunday after the
Epiphany to Septuagesima, five. In Easter the three were : 1, of the day;
2, of the season (i. e., of Easter-day) ; 3, of All Saints. In Lent the seven
were : 1, of the day ; 2, for penitents ; 3, of S. Mary ; 4, of All Saints ; 5, for
the Universal Church; 6, for peace; 7, one of the "general" collects in
order. In the ferial service after Trinity, &c., the five were : 1, of the day;
2, of S. Mary ; 3, of All Saints ; 4, for the Universal Church ; 5, for peace.
On Sundays and festivals " cum rey inline chori," throughout the year, if the
collects for the day were even, e.g., if a second feast had to be commemorated
by its collect, the third or fifth was that of All Saints.
11 If he wore the tunic, he did not remove it.
CHUECH OF SAKUM. 45
The reading of the Epistle of B. [Paul] the Apostle to the
When the Epistle is read, two boys in surplices, having reverently lowed
towards the Altar before the step of the Choir, go through the midst of
the Choir to the lectern to sing the Gradual; unless it be a double feast,
for then the Gradual is sung by three clerics in silken copes.
Gradual. (The boys or clerics sing) All they (the Choir continue)
that hope in Thee shall not be confounded, LOED.
The boys (or clerics) then sing the Verse, Shew me Thy ways,
LOED : and teach me Thy paths. The Choir then repeat the
.Gradual, All they that hope.
In this u-ay is the Gradual sung throughout the year, 12 except that on certain
vigils and fasting-days when the Gradual is to be said, it is not repeated
after its Verse.
The Gradual ended, AXLebija follows, daily, except from Septuagesima to the
Vigil of Easter, and except on the Vigils occurring not on Sunday, 1 * or
2 The Gradual varied on eacli Sunday and festival. That given above is
for the First Sunday in Advent. It should be added that when the service was
sung " sine regiminc chart," the Gradual was sung by a single boy in a surplice
at the step of the choir.
13 The vigil of a feast occurring on Monday was ritually observed on the
Sunday, though the physical fast was kept on the Saturday. The Allelinja
was sometimes sung by two clerics of the superior grade, in silken copes at
the lectern, sometimes by the rulers of the choir, in their place, sometimes by
two boys in surplices at the step of the choir, and sometimes by a single boy
in the same habit and place.
46 THE LITURGY OF THE
in Eastertide, except also on the Ember seasons which happen without
the week of Pentecost.
(The clerks or boys begin) Alleluya, (which the Choir then repeats, and
continues tvith pnewna). 1 * Then the clerks sing the Verse, which varies
throughout the year ; and the Verse ended, Alleluya is repeated without
pneuma if the Sequence is to follow, but with pneuma if otherwise.
The Sequence is not sung on Sundays, ivlien the service is of Sunday, except
only on the Sundays in Advent, and Eastertide, and within the octave
of Christmas. But in all festivals of the Saints, w lien the Choir has
riders, throughout the year, except from Scptuageslma to Easter, and
except in the feast of many Confessors, and ofS. Michael in the Mount
Tomb (Oct. 16) the Sequence is sung.
Here follows the Sequence. 15 And at the end of the Sequence, whatever it
be, Amen is not sung, as is done at the end of other hymns.
But, from Septuagesima to Maundy Thursday, both on Sundays, and feasts
of nine lessons, instead of the Alleluya a nd Sequence, the Gradual having
been sung with its Verse, then follows the Tract, which is sung by four
clerics of the superior grade, in red silken copes, at the step of the
u ijj} ie p neuma " was a musical phrase, either sung by the choir to the
last syllable of the antiphon, response, &c,, as in the case noted above, or
played by the organ, after the choir had ceased. Instances of " pneumas "
will be found in the Hymnal Noted, Hynin 28, " Victimse Paschali," and
Hymn 84, " Veni, Sancte Spiritus."
15 The sequence was a hymn, begun by the rulers of the choir, and carried
on by the choir. It varied with each festival. The sequences for Easter and
Pentecost, "To the Paschal Victim, Christians, bring," and "Come, Thou
Holy Paraclete," are given in the Hymned Noted, which see.
16 ijhe (( rp rac ^ . ( w hi c k was a i so |g Un g on some vigils and fasts) differed
CHURCH OF SAEUM. 47
At the end of the Alleluya, Sequence, or Tract, the Deacon before he goes to
the lectern to read the Gospel, incenses the Altar, in the midst only ; for
he shall never incense the lectern) cither at Mass or Matins, before he
reads the Gospel. Then he receives the Text, that is the book of the
Gospels, and bowing humbly before the Priest who stands before the
Altar, with his face towards the south, says without note, 11 Sir, be
pleased to bless. The Priest replies, The LORD be in thy heart and on
thy lips that thou mayest worthily announce the Holy Gospel of GOD.
In the Name, &c. 18
Meanwhile the Sub-Deacon receives bread, and wine and water with the
chalice, and prepares it for the administration of the Eucharist; first
seeking a blessing of the water from the Priest thus ; Bless. The Priest
replies, The LOED. May it be blessed by Him, out of Whose side there
came blood and water. In the Name, &c.
hen the Deacon passes through the midst of the Choir, solemnly holding the
Text in his left hand, the Taper-bearers and Thurifer going before ; and
if it be a double feast, the Cross also goes before, which u ill be held
opposite to the Deacon, the face of the Crucifix turned towards him.
Whenever the Epistle is read at the lectern, the Gospel is to be read in
the same place.
from the verse attached to the Alleluya, in being of some considerable length.
Thus the Tract for the First Sunday in Lent consisted of thirteen verses of the
91st Psalm ; that for the Saturday in the Ember Week in Advent a large
portion of the Song of the Three Children ; that for Palm Sunday thirteen
verses of the 22nd Psalm ; sometimes, however, the Tract consisted of only
two or three verses.
17 I.e., without musical inflexion.
18 At Low Mass when the priest celebrated by himself, he said privately,
Jule, Domine, benedicere, which might also be translated, Be phased, Lord, to
bestow a blessing, and then added, The Lord be in my heart, &c.
48 THE LITURGY OF THE
When the Deacon is come to the place of reading, the Sub-Deacon receives
the Text, and standing opposite to the Deacon to his left holds the book
open ivhile the Gospel is read, the Taper-bearers assisting the Deacon,
one on his right, the other on his left turned towards him ; but the
thurifer stands behind the Deacon, also turned tou ards him : and the
Gospel is always read towards the north. And if the Bishop) celebrates,
all the ministers come down into the Choir to sing the Sequence, if there
be one; except the principal Deacon, and the principal Sub-Deacon.
When the Deacon begins the Gospel, after The LORD be with you, he
makes the sign of the Cross first on the book, then on his forehead, and
lastly on his breast with his thumb.
The LORD be with you. And with thy spirit. The Continu
ation of the Gospel according to [Matthew]. The Choir respond,
Glory be to Thee, LORD ; and turning towards the Altar sign them
selves ivith the sign of the Cross. 19
The Gospel ended, let the book be kissed; and then let the Sub-Deacon
hand the Text to the Deacon, who carries it before his breast.
The Priest returning to the midst of the Altar, sings aloud, I believe in One
GOD, and the Nicene Creed is sung by the whole Choir. These are the
feasts in which this Creed is sung, according to Sarum Use: all Sundays
throughout the year at the Chief Mass ; whether the service be of the
Sunday or not. 2Q It is also said through the Octaves of Christmas, Easter
and Pentecost, and in all double feasts throughout the year ; also in all
feasts of Apostles and Evangelists ; in both feasts of the Holy Cross ; in
the feast of S. Mary Magdalene ; in both feasts of S. Michael ; and in
19 The Gospel was sung with musical inflexions throughout.
20 That is, whether a festival supersedes the Sunday services or not.
CHUECH OF SARUM. 49
a Mass for bride and bridegroom. It is also said at the commemoration
of S. Mary throughout the year, and in the feast of any saint in u liose
honour the Church or Altar is dedicated, at the Altar of such saint
only. Otherwise it is omitted.
T BELIEVE in One GOD : the FATHER ALMIGHTY, Maker of
heaven and earth, And of all things visible and invisible.
And in One LORD JESUS CHRIST, the Only-begotten SON of
GOD, Begotten of His FATHER before all worlds, GOD of GOD,
Light of Light, Very GOD of very GOD, Begotten, not made,
Being of one substance with the FATHER ; By Whom all things
were made : Who for us men, and for our salvation came down
(Here the Choir inclines towards the Altar, saying,) 21
And was incarnate by the HOLY GHOST of the Virgin Mary.
(Here the Choir inclines again, saying),
And was made man.
(The Choir inclines a third time, saying,)
And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered
and was buried, And the third day He rose again according to
the Scriptures, And ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the
Eight Hand of the FATHER. And He shall come again with glory
to judge both the quick and the dead: Whose kingdom shall have
21 These, and all inclinations of the choir were made turned towards the
50 THE LITUKGY OF THE
And I believe in the HOLY GHOST, the Lord and Giver of life,
Who proceedeth from the FATHER and the SON, Who with the
FATHER and the SON together is worshipped and glorified, Who
spake by the Prophets. And I believe One Holy Catholick and
Apostolick Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission
of sins. And I look for the resurrection of the dead, (the Choir
again inclines, saying,) And the life of the world to come. Amen.
After the beginning of the Nicene Creed, the ministers having returned from
the lectern to the Altar, the Deacon gives the look of the Gospels to the
Priest to be kissed ly him. Then the Priest turned towards the people
The LORD be with you.
The Choir reply, And with thy spirit.
Then turning to the Altar he says, Let us pray.
Then is said the Offertory
ifter the Offertory the Deacon carries to the Priest the chalice with the paten
and sacrifice, and kisses his hand each time. And he, receiving the
22 The Offertory is a short antipliou generally taken from the Psalms.
That for the First Sunday in Advent is given as a sample :
Offertory. To Thee, LOKD, do I lift up my soul : my GOD, I have hoped
in Thee, and shall not be confounded : neither shall mine enemies laugh me
to scorn : for all they that hope in Thee shah 1 not be confounded.
In the ferial service in Lent and Advent a verse was added; otherwise not.
23 During the Offertory, the alms of the faithful were collected as in the
present English rite. After this came the oblation of the elements. The
"Sacrifice" was the technical term (answering to "Host") for the large
CHURCH OF SARUM. 51
chalice, reverently places it in its accustomed place in the midst of the
Altar; and bowing for a space, elevates the chalice with both hands,
offering the sacrifice to God, saying this prayer of oblation.
"DECEIVE, HOLY TRINITY, this oblation, which I, unworthy
sinner, offer to Thy honour, and that of Blessed Mary and
All Saints, for my sins and offences : for the health of the living
and the repose of all the faithful departed.
In the Name of the FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY
GHOST, may this sacrifice be acceptable to ALMIGHTY GOD.
This done, he replaces the chalice, and puts the bread reverently upon cor
porals, in front of the chalice, and having kissed the paten, places it
upon the Altar to the right of the sacrifice, and covers all 2 * with cor
porals. Having done ichich he receives the censer from the Deacon,
and incenses the sacrifice thrice in the form of a cross, and round the
chalice and sacrifice ; and then he incenses the place between himself
and the Altar, saying meanwhile this verse :
T ET my prayer be set forth, LORD, as the incense in the
sight of Thy Majesty.
After this, the Priest is incensed by the Deacon, and the Sub-Deacon gives
him the Text to kiss: then the acolyte incenses the Choir: beginning
with the riders ; then the upper grade on the decani side [beginning with
wafer, which the priest broke in two at the consecration, and from which he
communicated. At this oblation the paten with the sacrifice was placed on
the top of the chalice, and both were elevated together.
24 I.e., the chalice, sacrifice, and paten. The sacrifice " includes also the
wafers for the communicants.
52 THE LITUBGY OF THE
the Dean himself in Cathedrals, or if he be absent at the nearest stall ;]
then the upper grade on the cantoris side ; then the lower grades in like
manner; the boy bowing to each one as he incenses him, the Sub-Deacon
following with the text for each one to kiss.
Ij the Bishop celebrate and it be a double feast, two boys go ivith censers, and
two Sub-Deacons with two Texts. But when the Nicene Creed is not
said, the Choir is not incensed.
This done, the Priest goes to the right corner of the Altar, and icashes his
/CLEANSE me, LORD, from every defilement of mind and
body; that I may be able purely to perform the Holy work
of the LORD.
The Deacon in the meantime incensing the Altar at the left corner thereof, and
the relics in the accustomed manner. Having washed his hands, the
Priest returns to the [midst of the] Altar, and continues the service ; the
Deacon and Sub-Deacon standing in order on their accustomed steps. 25
25 The normal position of all the ministers was standing. Whenever the
priest stood, the deacon and sub-deacon stood, the one on the next step behind
him, the other on the next below that. When the priest turned towards the
people the deacon turned also, and when he genuflected, the deacon and sub-
deacon genuflected simultaneously. During the sermon and elsewhere occa
sionally the priest sat in the sedilia, in the midst, the deacon being to his
right, the sub-deacon to his left, if the seats were even ; but if they were raised
after the manner of steps, he occupied the highest seat near the altar, the
deacon that below him, and the sub -deacon the last. All that the priest said
prior to-the Epistle, (except the Gloria in excelsis,} he said at the right corner
of the altar; and also all the service after the reception of the sacrament,
the rest he said in the midst of the altar.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 53
Then standing before the Altar, with head and body bowed down, and with
hands joined, he says this prayer :
TN the spirit of humility and contrition of heart, may we be
accepted by Thee, LORD; and so order our sacrifice in Thy
sight, that it may this day be accepted by Thee, and be pleasing
to Thee, LORD my GOD.
And raising himself up, he kisses the Altar to the right of the sacrifice, and
giving his blessing upon the sacrifice, 26 he afterwards signs himself saying ,
TN the Name of the FATHER, &c.
Then turning himself to the people, he says with a low voice,
"13 BAY, brothers and sisters, for me, that this sacrifice, yours
equally with mine, may be accepted by the LORD our GOD.
The clerks reply, privately,
TV/FAY the grace of the HOLY SPIRIT illumine thy heart and lips,
and may the LORD accept this sacrifice of praise at thy
hands, for our sins and offences.
26 In the Eoman Mass there are separate oblations of the host and chalice,
a prayer intervening when he pours the wine and water into the chalice. The
prayer, In the spirit of humility, immediately follows the oblation of the chalice ;
and the priest gives his blessing upon the Sacrifice in this form: " Come, O
Holy and Eternal GOD, the Sanctifier, and bless this Sacrifice, prepared for
the glory of Thy Holy Name." After this the priest washes his hands, saying
Psalm xxvi., verses 6 to end with Gloria Patri. Then he returns to the midst
of the altar, and says a prayer of oblation over both host and chalice.
54 THE LITUEGY OF THE
[But in Masses for the Dead, after the Priest has ivashed his hands
he sings aloud. We offer Thee sacrifices and praises, LOUD, And
the Choir reply, also singing aloud, Which do Thou accept for their
souls, of whom we this day make mention ; translate them,
Lord, from death to life. While they are singing this, the Priest
says, In the spirit of humility, as above. Then he says, in a low voice,
turning towards the people, Pray, brothers and sisters, for the faithful
departed. The clerks reply singing aloud, Grant them, LORD,
eternal rest, and let light perpetual shine upon them, which
things Thou didst promise to Abraham and his seed.]
Turning again to the Altar, the Priest says the Secret Prayers, according to
the number of the Collects that were said before the Epistle, thus
beginning, Let us pray, 27 and continuing the prayers in a low voice till
the end when he says aloud, For ever and ever; 28 not raising his hands
till the Lift up your hearts. Then the Sub-Deacon receives from the
Deacon the offertory and paten, and holds the paten till Our FATHER is
said, (when he gives it covered ivith the offertory 29 to the acolyte,)
standing meanwhile on the step behind the Deacon.
27 The Secretae varied with the collects, to which they corresponded. The
Secreta for the First Sunday in Advent is given below as a sample:
Secreta. Grant, LOED, that these Sacred Mysteries may cleanse us by their
powerful virtue, and bring us with greater purity to Him by Whom they were
instituted. Through our LORD.
3 When the priest said any prayers in secret, the last clause, For ever and
ever or World without end, was said aloud as a signal to the sacred ministers
that these prayers were finished.
The "offertory" was a long veil or scarf of linen, originally used to
cover the offerings of the faithful, (i.e., the holy loaf then presented in kind ;)
CHURCH OF SARUM. 55
Then the Priest elevates his hands, saying,
The LORD be with you.
R. And with thy spirit.
Lift up your hearts.
R. We have [lift them up] unto the LORD.
Let us give thanks unto our LORD GOD.
R. It is meet and right [so to do].
Then follows the Preface.
The following is the ordinary Preface and is said daily: except on the feasts,
and throughout the octaves to which proper Prefaces are assigned.
TT is very meet and right, just and healthful, that we should
at all times and in all places, give thanks unto Thee,
LORD, HOLY FATHER, Almighty, Everlasting GOD : through
CHRIST our LORD.
* By Whom the Angels praise Thy Majesty, the dominions
adore Thee, the powers tremble, the heavens and the heavenly
virtues, and the blessed seraphim, together rejoice with holy
exultation, with whom we pray that Thou wouldst vouchsafe us
to join our voices, saying with suppliant confession :
Holy, Holy, Holy, LORD GOD of HOSTS, heaven and earth are
full of Thy Glory : Hosanna in the Highest.
hence its name. In later use it was worn over the shoulders like the humeral,
the paten heing wrapped in one extremity of it. At the " Pater Noster " he
unwrapped the paten, and the offertorhun was removed by an acolyte.
56 THE LITUEG5 OF THE
PROPEE PREFACE S. 30
The following Preface is said on Christmas-day at every Mass, and daily
throughout the iccek, and in the Circumcision of the Lord ; and in all
Masses of S. Mary up to and upon the Feast of the Purification ; also
on the Feast of Corpus Christi and through the Octave. The prayer
" within the Canon" 51 Being united in communion, is said, however,
only up to and upon the Circumcision.
TT is very meet right .... Everlasting GOD.
Because by the mystery of the WORD made flesh, a new ray of
Thy Glory hath shone upon the eyes of our soul : that while we
behold GOD visibly we may be carried by Him to the love of
invisible things. Therefore with Angels, &c., as below.
Within the Canon. Being united in Communion, and cele
brating this most sacred day [at the midnight Mass is said this
most sacred night] on which the spotless virginity of Blessed
Mary brought forth the SAVIOUR of the world, and commemorating
as bcloiv in the Canon.
80 The Proper Prefaces have varied in number considerably in the Western
Church; at one time not only every principal festival of our LOKD, but of nearly
every distinguished saint having its Proper Preface. About the year 1050,
just as the Sarum rite was being consolidated, all were abolished but the ten
here given, which are found in the Sacramentary of S. Gregory, and are now
used in the Roman rite. In the Greek Church there is only one Preface. The
use of the Trinity Preface for masses "in capitulo " is, I believe, peculiar to
the Sarum Eitual ; the feast itself having an octave in the Salisbury family of
offices, but not elsewhere ; the Sundays after counting from " Trinity" in the
former, from " Pentecost " in other Western rites.
81 The prayer called "Infra Canonem" occurs below, (p. 64.) The ordinary
form is there given ; those above were substituted as directed.
CHURCH OF SAEUM. 57
Upon the Feast of the Epiphany, and seven days after.
EVERLASTING GOD; Because when Thy only begotten
SON appeared in substance of our mortal flesh, He renewed
us by the new light of His immortality. Therefore.
Within the Canon. Being united in Communion, and celebra
ting that most sacred day, in which Thy only-begotten SON,
co-eternal with Thee in Thy Glory, was manifested visibly in
the reality of our flesh, and commemorating.
On Ash Wednesday, and on all ferial days, Sundays excepted, to Maundy
PVEKLASTING GOD, Who by this bodily fast extin-
guishest our vices, elevatest our understandings, and be-
stowest upon us the rewards of virtue, through CHRIST our
LORD. By Whom the Angels, as in the ordinary Preface above.
. The prayer within the Canon as there noted.
On Easter-day, and seven days after, and on all Sundays thence up to the
Ascension, when the service is of Sunday. The prayer ivithin the
Canon only till Low Sunday.
"PVERLASTING GOD : But chiefly in this most holy time
when CHRIST our Passover was sacrificed for us : for He is
the true LAMB, that hath taken away the sins of the world, Who
by His death hath destroyed death, and by His rising to life
again hath restored to us life. Therefore with Angels.
58 THE LITURGY OF THE
Within the Canon. Being united in Communion, and cele
brating this most sacred day of the Resurrection of our LORD
JESUS CHRIST, according to the flesh, and commemorating.
0)i Ascension day, and seven days after.
PVEBLASTING GOD, through CHRIST our LORD, Who after
His Resurrection manifestly appeared to all His disciples,
and in their sight ascended up into heaven, that He might make
us partakers of His Divine Nature. Therefore.
Within the Canon. Being united in Communion, and cele
brating this most sacred day on which our LORD JESUS CHRIST,
Thy only-begotten SON, placed the substance of our frail nature
which He had taken to Himself, on the Eight Hand of Thy
Glory, and commemorating.
On Whitsunday, and six days after ; and in all Masses de Sancto Spiritu.* 2
T^HEOUGH CHRIST our LORD, Who going up into Heaven,
and sitting down at Thy Eight Hand, didst send down as
on this day, the HOLY SPIRIT of promise upon the children of
adoption. Whereof the whole orbit of the world rejoices with
joy unspeakable; the heavenly Virtues also and the angelic
Powers everlastingly hymn Thy Glory, saying,
Holy, Holy, Holy, as "below.
32 That is, a mass said on special occasions in honour of, or to impetrate,
the HOLY GHOST, e.g., before an episcopal synod, or a session of convocation,
or a general or provincial chapter of a religious order. The prayer " within
the Canon " was only said, however, at Pentecost.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 59
Within the Canon. Being united in Communion, and cele
brating this most sacred day of Pentecost, in which the HOLY
GHOST appeared to the Apostles in the likeness of fiery tongues :
On the Feast of Trinity : and on all Sundays thence to Advent, when the
service is of Sunday, at the Mass called, in Capitulo.^ Also in all
Masses de Sancta Trinitate, throughout the year ; and in all Masses at
the Solemnization of Marriage.
T7VEKLASTING GOD, Who with Thy only-begotten SON
and the HOLY GHOST, art one GOD, one LORD; not one only
person, but a TRINITY of persons in One Substance. For that
which we believe of Thy Glory, the same we believe of Thy SON,
the same of the HOLY GHOST, without any difference, or
inequality, so that in the Confession of Very and Eternal DEITY,
both the distinction of Persons, and the unity of Essence, and
the Equality of Majesty is to be worshipped : Whom the Angels
and the Archangels praise, the Cherubim also with the Seraphim,
who cease not to cry with one voice, saying,
Holy, Holy, Holy.
83 Tlie Missa in Capitulo (Chapter Mass) was a mass celebrated in tho
chapter-house in cathedral and collegiate churches. Thus, if the octave of
S. Andrew occurred on Saturday, its mass was said " in capitulo." Similarly
in Advent, and from the octave of Epiphany to Maundy Thursday, and from
Trinity Sunday till Advent, mass was said daily " in capitulo " for the faithful
60 THE LITUEGY OF THE
On the festivals of Apostles and Evangelists ; and throughout the Octaves of
SS. Peter and Paul (June 29) and S. Andrew, when the service is of
pVEKLASTING GOD : and humbly beseech Thee, LORD,
our Eternal Shepherd, that Thou wouldst not forsake Thy
flock, but keep it under the perpetual protection of Thy blessed
Apostles, that it may be governed by those whom Thou hast
appointed its vicars and pastors. Therefore.
On both feasts of the Holy Cross, 35 and in Masses De Sancta Cruce through
out the year.
Tj^VEELASTING GOD, Who hast appointed that the salvation
of mankind should be wrought on the wood of the Cross :
that from whence death came, 36 thence life should arise ; and
that He "Who by the tree overcame, might also by the tree be
overcome. Through CHRIST our LORD, By Whom the Angels
praise Thy Majesty, as above in the ordinary Preface.
On all feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, (except the Purification,) and
throughout the Octaves of her Assumption and Nativity. And in all
84 This preface was not, however, said on the feast of S. John the Evangelist,
because it happened in Christmas week; but it was said on the octave, (Jan. 3,)
and on the feast of that saint in the summer; (May 6, " S. John ante Port.
35 Viz., May 3 and September 14. According to the Eoman rite this
preface is also said on Passion and Palm Sundays and on Maundy Thursday.
86 The allusion is to the wood of the tree of which Adam ate.
CHURCH OF SARUM.
glorify Thee on the -<
of the Blessed Mary,
Memorial Masses of S. Mary throughout the year, except from the
Nativity of our Lord to Candlemas.
JVERLASTING GOD; and should praise, bless, and
Ever Virgin. Who by the over- shadowing of the HOLY GHOST
conceived Thy only -begotten SON, and the glory of her virginity
still remaining, brought forth the Eternal Light of the World,
JESUS CHRIST our LORD, By Whom the Angels, as above in the
After each of these Proper Prefaces, not otherwise marked, is said:
^THEREFORE with Angels and Archangels, with Thrones and
Dominations, and with all the company of the heavenly
host, we praise Thy glorious Name, evermore saying. Then
follows the Sanctus.
When the Priest says Holy, Holy, he raises for a space his arms, and joins
Ids hands to the words, In the Name of the LOBD,/O/ at those icords he
signs himself on the face.
TTOLY, Holy, Holy, LORD GOD of HOSTS, heaven and earth are
full of Thy Glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is
He that cometh in the Name of the LORD; Hosanna in the
62 THE LITUEGY OF THE
Then immediately without pause, with Jus hands joined and eyes lifted up,
the Priest begins the Canon as follows :
rpHEEEFOEE most merciful FATHER, &c.
1f And here it is to be noted, that in every Mass, ichen the service is of the
Feria, immediately after the Sanctus the Choir kneel till the Pax, (see
below, p. 75), throughout the year, except from Easter till the First
Sunday after Trinity, when there is no kneeling.
CHURCH OF SAEUM. 63
B. THE CANON OP THE MASS.
rpHEKEFOEE most merciful FATHER, through JESUS CHRIST
Thy SON our LORD, we humbly pray, (here the Priest inclines
his body, saying,) and beseech Thee, (here he raises himself, and kisses
the Altar at the right of the sacrifice, saying,) that Thou wouldest
vouchsafe to accept and bless (here he makes three crosses over the
chalice and bread, saying,) these S gifts, these B presents, these
holy and ggj unspotted sacrifices : (Having made the sign over the
chalice, he lifts up his hands and continues,) which in the first place
we offer to Thee for Thy Holy Catholic Church, that Thou
wouldst vouchsafe to grant her peace, and to preserve, unite, and
govern her throughout the world ; together with Thy servants
N, our Pope ; N, our Bishop ; and N, our King ; as also all
orthodox believers, and professors of the Catholic and Apostolic
Here he makes a commemoration of the Living, saying,
T3E mindful, LORD, of Thy servants N and N*
64 THE LITUEGY OF THE
III which prayer let the order of charity be observed. Five times the
Priest prayeth : firstly for himself; secondly for his father and
mother, u hcthcr after the flesh or spiritual, and for his other rela
tions; thirdly for his special friends, parishioners and others; fourthly
for all now present ; fifthly for all Christian people. And the Priest
may here commend all his friends to God; "but warily, that none be
overmuch delayed, because of distraction of mind, or thoughts suggested
by evil angels, or other dangers that might occur.
A ND all here present, whose faith and devotion are known to
Thee, for whom we offer, or who themselves offer to Thee
this sacrifice of praise, for themselves and all who belong to
them : for the redemption of their souls, for the hope of health
and salvation, and who now pay their vows to Thee, the Eternal
living and true GOD.
37 Being united in Communion" with, and commemorating,
in the first place, the glorious and Ever- Virgin Mary, Mother of
our LORD and GOD JESUS CHRIST : as also of Thy Blessed Apos
tles and Martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas,
James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Thaddeus,
Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence,
Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian, and all Thy
Saints, by whose merits and prayers grant that we may always
be defended by the help of Thy protection. Through the same
CHRIST our LORD. Amen.
87 This is the prayer "infra Canonern," which varies on certain festivals
as noted above after the proper prefaces.
CHURCH OF SAROL 65
Here the Priest regards the Host with great veneration, $aying t K
beseech Thee therefore, LORD, graciously to accept this
oblation of our service 39 and of Thy whole family ; dispose
our days in Thy peace, preserve us from everlasting damnation,
and number us among Thine elect. Through CHRIST our LORD.
Here he again regards the Host, saying,
ICH oblation do Thou, ALMIGHTY GOD, vouchsafe in all
respects (here he makes three signs of the Cross over each,
saying,) to ffl bless, ap ffi prove, ra gg tify and accept, that it may
be to us (h-ere he makes a cross over the bread) the ffi Body (and here
over the chalice) and g Blood (tlien lie joins his hands, continuing) of
Thy most well-beloved SON JESUS CHRIST our LORD.
88 The Eoman rubric here is, " Spreading his hands over the oblation, he
89 Compare the phrase " hanc oblationem servitutis nostra" with the " This
our bounden duty and service " of the present English rite. The language in
both is borrowed from the feudal system (servitiuui being equivalent to the
corporal assistance, debit uni to the homa ge, due from a vassal to his liege lord)
to express the truth that the Christian Sacrifice is the divinely- appointed
worship due from the creature to his Creator. The modern English Church,
while endeavouring to bring about a more frequent reception of the Eucharist
than had obtained in the ages immediately preceding the Reformation, sought
to guard against a possibly consequent neglect of the Sacrifice by those not
prepared to communicate, by not only preserving this clause of the older
service, but by casting it in a stronger form " this our boumlen duty and
service." But the phrase fared as badly as the positive injunction to the
clergy to recite matins and evensong daily, and to celebrate weekly in
cathedral and collegiate churches, and we may add those to the laity to com
municate three times a year.
66 THE LITUEGY OF THE
Here the Priest raises his hands and again joins them; afterwards he ii ipcs
his fingers and then elevates the Host, saying,
the night before He suffered took bread into His Holy
and Venerable Hands, and lifting up His eyes to heaven,
(here he lifts up his eyes,} to Thee, GOD, His ALMIGHTY FATHER,
(here he boics himself) and then raises himself somewhat, saying,} and
when He had given thanks to Thee, He blessed it and brake it
(here he touches the host,) and gave to His disciples saying, TAKE
AND EAT YE ALL OF IT,
And these words of Consecration are to be said uith a single breath, without
any pause between them, After these words the Priest inclines to the
Host ; 40 and then elevates It above his forehead, so that It can be seen by
the people : and then reverently replaces It before the chalice after the
manner of a cross. Then he uncovers the chalice and holds it with
both hands, not disjoining his thumb and forefinger,* 1 only when he
makes the sign of the Cross, thus saying.
T IKEWISE after supper, He took also this most excellent
chalice into His Holy and Venerable Hands, and having
(here he inclines} given thanks to Thee, He 33 blessed it, and gave
10 Here the priest, and with him simultaneously the deacon and sub-
deacon, genuflected in adoration of the newly-consecrated Host.
41 It will be seen that the priest, in elevating the Host, did not elevate the
wafers prepared for the communicants, but only the larger wafer, technically
called " the Sacrifice " or " Host." This he took to elevate between his
thumb and forefinger. Hence the direction in the text. (The first elevation
CHUBCH OF SARUM. G7
it to His disciples, saying, Take and drink ye all of it, (here -he
elevates the chalice, continuing,)
xfor Cinsi is tfje Chalice of JH^ Bloofc
OF THE NEW AND EVERLASTING TESTAMENT, THE MYSTERY OF
FAITH, WHICH is SHED FOR YOU AND FOR MANY FOR THE REMISSION
OF SINS. (Here he elevates the chalice to his breast, or above his head,
saying,) THIS Do AS OFT AS YE SHALL DO IT, FOR A MEMORIAL OF ME.
Here he replaces the chalice, and rubs his fingers over it, on account of any
fragment [of the Host] : and covers the chalice. Then he raises his
arms after the manner of a cross, his fingers Icing joined together, till
he comes to the words, Thy gifts bestowed upon us.
Y^THEKEFOBE, LORD, we Thy servants, as also Thy holy
people, being mindful of the Blessed Passion of this
CHRIST Thy SON, our LORD and GOD ; and of His Resurrection
from the dead, and of His glorious Ascension into heaven, offer
unto Thy most excellent Majesty of Thy gifts bestowed upon us
(here he makes five crosses, the first three over both Host and chalice.
of the Host (at the words " Who the night before He suffered") was, we learn
from the " Manual," to be " parumper, ita quod non videatur a populo." The
"Host" (i.e., the celebrant s wafer) was so held till the consecration, then
elevated before the people. There were two similar elevations of the chalice.
The second elevation of either kind was called " elevatio " or " ostensio,"
indifferently, according as it was regarded as an act of oblation to ALMIGHTY
GOD, or as a proposition of CHRIST under the sacramental veils, to receive the
adoration of the faithful.
G8 THE LITURGY OF THE
saying,) a pure gg Host, an Ho Sly Host, a Host gB immaculate,
(the fourth over the bread, saying,) the Holy Bread of Eternal Life
(the fifth over the chalice, saying,) and the chalice of Everlasting
Upon which do Thou vouchsafe to look with propitious and
serene countenance, and to accept them as Thou wert pleased to
accept the gifts of Thy righteous servant Abel, and the sacrifice
of the patriarch Abraham, and that which Thy High-Priest
Melchisedech offered to Thee, a holy sacrifice, a spotless victim.
Here the Priest, bowing down his body, and crossing his fingers, says,
most humbly beseech Thee, ALMIGHTY GOD, command
these things to be carried by the hand of Thy Holy Angel
to Thy Altar on high, in the sight of Thy Divine Majesty, that
as many (here raising himself he kisses the Altar to the right of the
sacrifice, saying,) as shall partake at this Altar of the Most Sacred
Body (here he makes the sign of the Cross over the Host) and Blood
(and here over the chalice) of Thy SON may be filled (here he signs
himself on the face) with all heavenly grace and blessing. Through
the same CHRIST our LORD. Amen.
Here he makes a commemoration of the Departed, saying,
"DE mindful also, LORD, of the souls of Thy servants and
handmaidens N and N, who are gone before us with the
sign of faith, and who sleep the sleep of peace; to these,
LORD, and to all who sleep in CHRIST, we pray Thee to grant a
place of refreshment, light, and peace. Through the same CHRIST
our LORD. Amen.
CHURCH OF SARinr. 69
Here he striken liis breast once, saying,
\ ND to us sinners also, Thy servants, who hope in the multi
tude of Thy mercies, vouchsafe to grant some part and
fellowship with Thy Holy Apostles and Martyrs, with John,
Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus,
Peter, Felicitas, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anasta-
sia, and with all Thy Saints, into whose company we pray Thee
to admit us, not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences.
Through CHRIST our LORD,
By Whom, LORD, Thou dost always create, (here the Priest
signs the chalice thrice,) sanctify, quickgten, gg bless, and give us
all these good things.
Here the Priest uncovers the chalice, and makes the sign of the Cross with
the Host five times : once beyond the chalice on either side ; once even
ivith the chalice ; once below the chalice ; fourthly as at first ; and
fifthly in front of the chalice, the Deacon meanwhile having washed his
hands, ministering to him on liis right with a corporal. 42
T>Y 33 Whom, and with 33 Whom, and in 33 Whom, be unto
Thee GOD the FATHER AL 33 MIGHTY, in the unity of the
HOLY 33 GHOST, all honour and glory :
Having said these prayers in a low voice, the Priest covers again the chalice,
and resting Ids hands on the Altar, sings aloud,
World without end.
The Choir responding, Amen.
42 The deacon, as we learn from the Sarum Manual, here kissed first the
altar and then the priest s shoulder.
70 THE LITURGY OF THE
Then he sings, Let us pray.
TNSTKUCTED by Thy saving precepts, and following Thy
divine institution, we presume to say :
Here the Deacon receives the paten from the Sub-Deacon, and holds it
uncovered on high with both hands at the right of the Priest; the Priest,
raising his arms, continuing,
FATHER, Which art in heaven, Hallowed be Thy Name.
Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth, As it is in
Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our
trespasses, As we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead
us not into temptation.
The Choir replies, But deliver us from evil.
The Priest says in a low voice, Amen.
TT\ELIVEE us, we beseech Thee, LORD, from all evils, past,
present, and to come ; and by the intercession of the Blessed
and Glorious Ever-Virgin Mary, Mother of GOD, and of the Holy
Apostles, Peter and Paul, and of Andrew, and of All Thy Saints;
(here the Deacon gives the paten to the Priest, kissing his hand; and
the Priest hisses the paten : then he places it to his left eye, afterwards
to his right, then he makes the Cross with it over his head. Lastly he
puts it in its place on the Altar, saying, ) mercifully grant peace in
our days, that through the assistance of Thy mercy, we may be
always free from sin, and secure from all disturbance,
CHURCH OF SARUM. 71
Here he uncovers the chalice, and taldny the Host with genuflexion, he holds
It between his fingers and thumb, in the bowl of the chalice, and breaks
It into three parts, saying at the first fraction ,^
HPHBOUGH the same JESUS CHRIST, Thy SON, our LORD, (and at
the second fraction,) Who liveth and reigneth with Thee in
the Unity of the HOLY SPIRIT, GOD :
Here he holds two fragments In his left hand, and the third in his right, at
the top of the chalice, saying aloud,
World without end.
The Choir reply, Amen.
[Here, from the Sunday after the Octave of the Epiphany up to Maundy
Thursday, and from the first Sunday after Trinity to the Vigil of the
Nativity, these following prayers are said, in the ferial service and in
feasts of three Lessons sine regimine chori ; and within such octaves, or
upon such octave-days as are celebrated without rulers of the Choir, only:
the Choir and the Priest with his ministers first saying together these
Psalms without note, all kneeling.
Psalm 79. Deus venerunt, ivith Gloria Patri.
Psalm 67. Deus misereatur, ivith Gloria Patri.
Psalm 21. Domine, in virtute Tua, with Gloria Patri.
43 It will have been observed that no fraction of the Host occurs in the
Canon before consecration, as in the present English rite,
72 THE LITURGY OF THE
Antiplwn. Thine is the power and the kingdom, LORD;
Thou art over all people : give peace, LORD, in our days.
Kyrie, eleyson. Christe, eleyson. Kyrie, eleyson.
Our FATHER. Which done tlie Priest adds with note, And lead us
not. But deliver. 44
Arise LORD, and let Thine enemies be scattered.
Let them also that hate Thee flee before Thee.
Not unto us, LORD, not unto us ;
But to Thy Name give the glory.
Let us pray for the afflicted, and for captives.
Deliver Israel, LORD, out of all his troubles.
Send them help, LORD, from the sanctuary.
And strengthen them out of Syon.
Be to us, LORD, a tower of strength.
From the face of our enemy.
LORD, save the King.
And hear us in the day wherein we call upon Thee.
LORD, hear my prayer.
And let my cry come unto Thee.
The LORD be with you.
And with thy spirit.
44 See note (59) below, p. 83.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 73
Let us pray.
i~\ GOD, Who in Thy wonderful providence orderest all things,
we humbly beseech Thee to snatch that land which thy
only-begotten SON has consecrated with His own Blood from the
hand of the enemies of the Cross of CHRIST, and restore it to the
Christian worship, mercifully directing in the way of everlasting
peace the fervent prayers of the faithful to its deliverance.
EKN, we beseech Thee, LORD, Thy servant our Bishop :
multiply upon him, by the intercession of Blessed and
Ever- Virgin Mary, Mother of GOD, and of all Thy Saints, the
gifts of Thy grace, that he may be delivered from all offences,
and not being destitute of temporal aids, may rejoice in eternal
we beseech Thee, ALMIGHTY GOD, to Thy servant
our King, health of mind and body ; that being established
in good works, he may be counted worthy to be ever defended by
Thy mighty power. Through the same CHRIST our LORD. Arnen.]
Here the Choir rises from prostration. 45
45 I.e., from kneeling.
74 THE LITUEGY OF THE
[Here if the Bishop be the celebrant, 46 the Deacon turning towards the people
and holding the Bishop s staff in his hand, the crook turned inwards
towards himself, says,
Bow down for the Blessing.
The Choir replies, Thanks be to GOD.
Then the Eucharist* 1 being placed upon the paten, the Bishop gives his Bene
diction to the people.]
Here he makes three crosses bcloiv the chalice ivith a third part of the Host,
The Peace of the LORD ffl be alSways with gg you.
The Choir replies, And with thy spirit.
Wliile the Agnus Dei is being said, the Deacon and Sub-Deacon go up to the
Priest, both on the right, the Deacon being nearest to him, the Sub-
Deacon further off, and say it privately.
i~\ LAMB of GOD, that takest away the sins of the world : have
mercy upon us.
LAMB of GOD, that takest away the sins of the world : have
mercy upon us.
46 I.e., if the celebrant be a bishop celebrating within his own diocese.
47 Eucharistia is here equivalent to " Sacrifice " and " Host " elsewhere,
viz., the large wafer, which has just been broken.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 75
LAMB of GOD, that takest away the sins of the world : grant
us Thy peace.
[In Masses for the Dead, instead of the clauses, Have mercy upon us ; Grant
us Thy peace, are said, Grant them rest, Grant them rest : Grant them
Here, making the sign of the Cross, he places the aforesaid third portion of
the Host in the Sacrament of the Blood, saying,
"jl/TAY this hoSly admixture of the Body and Blood of our
LORD JESUS CHRIST be to me and to all partakers thereof
health of mind and body, and a salutary preparation to the
obtaining of eternal life, through the same CHRIST our LORD,
Before the Pax is given the Priest says,
C\ LOBD, Holy FATHER, Almighty Everlasting GOD, grant
that I may so worthily receive this most sacred Body and
Blood of Thy SON JESUS CHRIST our LORD, that by It I may
obtain remission of all my sins, and be filled with Thy HOLY
SPIRIT, and with Thy peace, for Thou only art GOD, and beside
Thee there is none other, Whose glorious kingdom and empire
remaineth for ever and ever. Amen.
Here the Priest kisses the corporals on the right part, and on the top of the
chalice, and then he kisses the Deacon, saying,
Peace be to thee, and to the Church of GOD.
$. And with thy spirit.
76 THE LITURGY OF THE
Tlie Deacon to the rigid of the Priest receives the Pax/ro?;i him and gives
it to the Sub-Deacon. Then the Deacon carries it to the rulers of the
Choir, and they carry it to the Choir, each one to his own side, beginning
with the principal persons. But in feasts andferias sine regimine chori,
the Pax is carried by the Deacon to the choir by the tico extremities of
the second form ; 48 the rest as before.
After the Pax has been given, the Priest says privately the following prayers
before he communicates himself: holding the Host icith both hands.
/^ OD the FATHER, Fountain and Source of all Goodness, Who
led by mercy didst will that Thy only-begotten SON should
descend for us to this lower world, and take our flesh, which I
unworthy here hold in my hands, (here he inclines towards the Host,)
Thee I adore, Thee I glorify, Thee with all desire of mind and
48 In the mother- church of Sarum, (i.e., Salisbury Cathedral,) which
served as a model for all churches of the same rite, the four extremities of the
choir were assigned to the four principal dignitaries. Entering the choir
through the rood-screen, on the right was the stall of the dean, on the left
that of the precentor. Nearest the sanctuary on the right was the stall of the
chancellor, opposite that of the treasurer. Next to the dean stood the Arch
deacon of Dorset, then the sub-dean. Next to the Chancellor stood the
Archdeacon of Wiltshire ; next to the precentor stood the Archdeacon of
Berkshire, then the sub-precentor ; and next to the treasurer the other Arch
deacon of Wiltshire ; in the midst on either side the canons who were prior
in dignity. This constituted the superior grade. Below these sat the minor
canons, the deacons, and other clerks in similar order. This was called the
second form, and below these again the boys on stools. The rulers of the
choir sat in the midst at the western extremity of the choir facing the altar, on
seats prepared for them, and executed their office at a lectern in medio chori.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 77
heart I praise, and pray Thee not to desert Thy servants, but to
forgive our sins, that we may be worthy to serve Thee, the only
living and true GOD, with pure heart and chaste body. Through
the same CHRIST our LORD. Amen. 49
Q LOKD JESUS CHRIST, SON of the Living GOD, Who by
the will of the FATHER, and through the co-operation of
the HOLY GHOST, didst restore life to the world by Thy death :
deliver me, I pray Thee, by this Thy most Holy Body and Blood
from all mine iniquities and from every evil ; make me ever to
obey Thy commandments, and suffer me not to be eternally
separated from Thee, SAVIOUR of the world, Who with the
FATHER and the same HOLY SPIRIT, livest and reignest GOD, for
ever and ever. Amen.
This he says to the Body, bowing down, before reception.
TTAIL through all eternity, most Holy Flesh of CHRIST, my
chiefest delight, before all things and above all things.
May the Body of our LORD JESUS CHRIST be to me a sinner the
way and the life. In the ffi Name of the FATHER, and of the
SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen.
49 In the Roman rite, instead of this prayer is said, " LORD JESU CHRIST,
Who saidst unto Thy Apostles, My peace I leave with you ; My peace I give
unto you : Eegard not my sins, but the faith of Thy Church, and grant her
that peace and unity which is agreeable to Thy Will, Who livest." The other
prayers before the priest s reception also vary.
78 THE LITURGY OF THE
Here lie receives the Body, having first made with It the sign of the Cross
before his mouth. Then he says to the Blood, with great devotion,
TTAIL through all eternity, heavenly beverage, my chiefest
delight before all things and above all things. May the
Body and Blood of our LORD JESUS CHRIST be to me a sinner
a perpetual remedy to everlasting life. In the 03 Name of the
FATHER, and of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST. Amen.
Here he communicates himself in the Blood; w hich done, he lows down, and
says witli devotion this prayer.
T GIVE Thee thanks, LORD, Holy FATHER, Almighty Ever
lasting GOD, that Thou hast refreshed me with the most
sacred Body and Blood of Thy SON JESUS CHRIST our LORD ; and
I pray Thee that this sacrament of our salvation, which I a
sinner have received, may not be to me for my judgment or for
my condemnation, according to my deserts, but for the per
fecting of soul and body to life everlasting. Amen. 50
Which done, the Priest goes to the right corner of the Altar with the chalice
between his hands, his fingers being joined, as heretofore : and the Sub-
Dcclcon goes to him, and pours into the chalice u ine and water. And
the Priest rinses his hands, lest any remnants of the Body or Blood
should have remained on his fingers or in the chalice.
50 The priest then communicated the people, if there were any commu
nicants, making the sign of the Cross with the Host over each. But at High
Mass, the priest generally communicated alone, the faithful haying done so at
an earlier celebration.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 79
[But if any Priest has to celebrate twice in one day, then at the first Mass
he must not take the Ablutions, 51 but must place them in the sacrarium,
or in a clean vessel till the end of the last Mass, when lie will take both
After the first Ablation is said this prayer.
T/TTHAT we have received with our months, LORD, may we
retain with pure minds : and may the temporal gift be for
us an eternal remedy.
Here he washes his fingers in the bowl of the chalice with wine poured there
in^ by the Sub-Deacon : having drank wluch, he says this prayer.
1VTAY this communion, LORD, purge us from crime, and
make us partakers of the heavenly remedies.
After the consumption of tin Ablutions, the Priest puts the chalice boicl down-
ivards on the paten, that if any remains it may drain out. Then,
bowing himself down, lie says,
T ET us adore the sign of the Cross : 53 by means of which w r e
receive the sacrament of salvation.
51 Because in so doing he would break his fast.
52 I.e., poured over his fingers into the chalice. This is the Second Abliv
tiou. In the Eoman rite the ablutions are three : the first with wine only,
the second with wine and water, the third with water only.
53 Adoremus in Latin does not convey the modern idea of adoration, i.e., the
supreme worship due to GOD alone, but is rather equivalent to let us venerate,
Comp. " With my body I thee worship " in the Solemnization of Matrimony*
The derivation is ad, to, and os, the mouth, I salute by putting niy hand to
my mouth : formerly done by inferiors in saluting the great.
80 THE LITURGY OF THE
Then lie washes his hands, the Deacon meanwhile folding the corporals. The
Priest having washed his hands, and returned to the right corner of the
Altar, the Deacon places the chalice to the lips of the Priest if anything
remains in it to be consumed. Then he says the " Communion " with
his ministers: the Choir meanwhile catching it up from the rulers, and
singing it through.^
Then, having made the sign of the Cross on his face, the Priest turns to the
people, and elevating somewhat his arms, and joining his hands, he saus,
The LORD be with you.
$. And with thy spirit.
Then turning again to the Altar, he says, Let us pray. Then he says the
"Post-Communion" after the number and order of the Collects which
were said before the Epistle. 55
64 The " Communio " was a verse generally taken from the Psalms, and
varied. That for the first Sunday in Advent is subjoined as a sample :
Communio. The LOKD (the Choir continues) shall shew loving-kindness : and
our land shall give her increase.
55 rpkg tt Post- Communio " was a prayer answering to, and varying with,
the collect and secreta. That for Advent Sunday is here given :
Post-Communion. May we receive, LORD, Thy mercy in the midst of Thy
temple, that with due honour we may prepare ourselves for the approaching
solemnity of our redemption. Through our LORD.
In Lent another prayer followed the Post-Communion, called " Super
Populum," but this was omitted on Sundays. That for the first Monday in
Lent is subjoined :
Super Populum. Bow down your heads to the LORD. (This phrase always
CHURCH OF SARUM. 81
The Post-Communion ended, the Priest haruiff made the sign of the Cross on
his forehead, turns himself again towards the people, saylny,
The LORD be with you.
R. And with thy spirit.
Then the Deacon, vested again In the folded cliasuble, wJten It Is used, says,
T ET us bless the LORD.
But at other times Instead of Let us bless, is said,
f^ 0, you are dismissed.
And whensoever Go, you are dismissed, is said, it Is to be said by the
Deacon turned towards the people : but when Let us bless Is said he
sings it turned towards the Altar. But in Masses for the Dead, the
Deacon, turned towards the Altar, says Instead,
"jl/TAY they rest in peace. Amen.
This done, the Priest, with body bowed down and hands joined, says this
prayer In a low voice before the midst of the Altar.
T ET the performance of my homage be pleasing to Thee,
HOLY TRINITY; and grant that this sacrifice which I,
unworthy, have offered up in the sight of Thy Majesty, may be
acceptable to Thee, and through Thy mercy, be a propitiation
preceded the Super Popuhun.) Collect. Loose, we beseech Thee, LORD, the
chain of our sins, and whatsoever we have deserved through them mercifully
avert. Through our LORD.
82 THE LITUKGY OF THE CHURCH OF SABUM.
for me and all those for whom I have offered it. Who livest and
reignest GOD, world without end. Amen. 66
Which done, the Priest raises Jilmsclf, signing himself on the face, saying,
In the Name of the FATHER, &c, and so, u ith inclination, 57 in the same
order in which they first u cnt to the Altar at the beginning of Mass,
icith the Taper-bearer and other ministers they return. And imme
diately after [High] Mass, the hour of Nones is begun in the Choir
when it is to be said after Mass. 58
56 Here in the Roman rite, and probably also in the Sarum, though not so
expressed in the books handed down to us, the priest " let the people depart
with his blessing," as in the modern English rite, on this wise :
Blessing. May GOD ALMIGHTY, the FATHER gg, SON, and HOLY GHOST, bless
you, JJ. Amen.
57 I.e., genuflexion, if the Blessed Sacrament were reserved, bowing towards
the altar, if otherwise.
58 In vigils, and during Lent, the principal Mass was said after Nones, at
other times generally after Terce and Sext. At Christmas there were three
solemn Masses; one at midnight between Matins and Lauds; one "in galli-
cantu;" and the third at the usual hour. Of course, as the Eucharist could
not be celebrated after noon, Sext and Nones were "anticipated," i.e., sung
prior to the canonical hours of twelve and three.
Drapers tofncf) toere satfc in tije
Priest was removing Jtis chasuble and other sacerdotal vestments
he recited the following prayers, beginning with the undermentioned
psalms under one Gloria Batri with this Antiphon, Let us sing: namely
the Canticle, Benedicite, omnia opera, beginning at the clause, all yc
Priests of the LORD to the end ; Psalm 150, Praise GOD in His
Holiness tJiroughout, and the Canticle LORD, now lettest Thou Thy
servant depart in peace, with Gloria Patri.
Antiphon t Let us sing the hymn of the Three Children,
they sang in the fiery furnace, blessing the LORD.
Eyrie, eleyson. Christe, eleyson. Kyrie, eleyson.
Our FATHER. 69
And lead us not into temptation. But deliver.
59 The LORD S Prayer, according to Saiiim Use, was wont to be said secretly
throughout in all services, except the Mass only; then "Hail Mary" being
added also secretly, the officiant said aloud, "And lead us not," &c. ; the
choir replying, "But deliver us from evil." " After your Paternoster and Ave
J^/>-m, which ye say in silence for to gather more restfully your mind together
ye say again two petitions of your Paternoster all aloud, that is, Et tie w;.s-,
1 Red Ultera HW, asking to be delivered from the malice of the fiend that he
84 THE LITURGY OF THE
Let us bless the FATHER, and the SON, with the HOLY
Let us praise and exalt Him above all for ever.
Blessed art Thou, LORD, in the firmament of heaven : and
worthy of praise and glorious for ever.
May the HOLY TRINITY bless and preserve us. Amen.
Enter not into judgment with Thy servant, LORD ; for in
Thy sight no man living shall be justified.
Turn us, LORD GOD of Hosts.
Shew Thy face, and we shall be saved.
LORD, hear my prayer.
And let my cry come unto Thee.
The LORD be with you.
And with thy spirit.
overcome not by any temptation," says the " Mirroure," (A.D. 1530,) explaining
the service to the nuns of Sion Monastery. In the Koman rite, " Ave Maria "
is not interpolated, but the LORD S Prayer being said secreto down to the words
" And lead us not," that and the following clause are said aloud. The
Apostles Creed is said in the same way. S. Benedict in his Rule (ch. 13)
orders the LORD S Prayer to be said aloud throughout in the monasteries of his
obedience at Lauds and Vespers ; and this custom is now observed throughout
the Roman Church.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 85
Let us pray.
r\ GOD, Who didst cool the flames of fire to the Three
Children ; mercifully grant to us Thy servants, that the
flames of our vices may not consume us.
"OUEN, LORD, our reins and our heart with the fire of Thy
HOLY SPIRIT, that we may serve Thee with chaste body,
and please Thee with a pure heart.
"DKEVENT, LORD, all our doings with Thy favour, and
further them with Thy help : that all our work may be
begun and ended in Thee.
Wldcli three Collects were tit us finished.
Through CHRIST our LORD. Amen.
Comparative ilteto of t|)e ^arum ant)
1. Eubric as to vestments.
2. Hymn Come, Holy Ghost, with
P and R.
8. Collect O God, unto Whom all
1. Implied in rubric on ornaments
of Ch. and ministers.
2. Permissible as private Prayers of
3. Placed after the LORD S Prayer at
the commencement of the Ordi
4. The Procession of Celebrant and ministers.
5. The Antiphon and Psalm Judica. 5. Wanting.
C. The Kyrie.
7. The Our Father.
8. The Hail Mary.
2. The Introit.
10. Said before. See Nos. 7 and 8.
11. The Confession and Absolution.
12. The p. P. Our help standcth, &c.
13. The kiss of peace.
14. The prayer Take away from m.
15. The first incensing.
7. Transposed till after the Introit.
0. Permissible on the principle which
sanctions hymns and anthems
10. The LORD S Prayer and Collect
God unto Whom all Jt carts be
11. Transposed till later. See No. 40.
13. f Wanting.
15. Implied by the ornaments of the
Ch. amongst which were thuri
THE LITURGY OF THE
16. The Kyrie.
17. The Gloria in Excehis, omitted in
Lent and Advent.
16. Intermingled with the Ten Com
mandments, and their respon-
17. Transposed till after the Post
Communion, 60 and no direc
tions for its omission in Advent
19. The Prayer for the King.
23. The AUehn/a.
24. The Sequence.
25. The second incensing.
26. The Dominus Voliscum.
18. The Domiuus Vobiscum.
19. Wanting, but embodied in the
Preces in prostrations. See No. 58.
20. The Collect or Collects for the day, varying from one to seven.
21. The Epistle.
The Gradual, or the Tract. 22.)
23. L Permissible as No. 9.
25. Implied as No. 15.
27. The Gospel.
28. The Nicene Creed, on Sundays 28. The Nicene Creed ; no limitation
and festivals. as to its use.
29. The offertory, varying with the 29. The offertory sentences, varying at
Gradual. discretion of the Celebrant or
30. Bringing of the chalice and paten with the bread from the Credence.
81. The oblation of host and chalice. 31. Incorporated in
32. Wanting. 32. The Prayer for the Ch. militant.
33. The third incensing. 33. Implied as No. 15.
34. The washing of hands. 34. Implied by Rubric on ornamenta
tion of Ch. among which were
vessels for this function.
60 Probably with a view to its corresponding with the
our LORD a/to- the Last Supper.
hymn " sung by
CHURCH OF SARUM.
85. In the spirit of humility, &c.
30. Pray, brothers and sisters, &C.
37. The " Secrete" corresponding in
number and arrangement with
38. The Dominus Vobiscum.
40. Said before. See No. 11.
39. The Exhortation.
40. The Confession and Absolution.
41. The " Comfortable Words."
42. Lift up your hearts, &c.
43. The Preface.
44. The Sanctus.
45. Wanting, but embodied in No. 37. 45. The We do not presume.
4G. Therefore, most merciful Father, Sc
47. Commem. of the living.
48. Being united in- communion with.
49. We beseech Thee therefore.
50. Which oblation.
Wanting, but embodied in No. 32.
49. Transposed to the Post Commu
50. Embodied in the Prayer of Conse
51. The fraction of the Host.
51. Not done in the Sarum rite till
later. See No. 57.
52. Consecration of the Host.
53. The Consecration of the Chalice.
54. The Prayers, Wherefore, Lord; 54. Omitted, but embodied in the
Upon which do Thou, Lord,
and We most humbly beseech Thee.
55. Commem. of the Departed.
56. Paternoster, with preamble.
55. Wanting, but embodied in No. 32.
56. Preamble wanting, and Paternoster
transposed till after the Com
munion of the people.
90 THE LITUEGY OF THE CHUBCH OF SARUM.
57. Fraction of the Host. 57. Omitted here, having been done
at the Consecration. See No.
58. The prayers in prostration. 58. Wanting ; that for the King hav
ing been said before. See No.
59. The Pax Domini. 59. Wanting ; but embodied in the
final Benediction. See No. 69.
60. The Agnus Dei. 60. Permissible as No. 9.
61. The Priest s Communion. 61. The Priest s Communion ; accom
panying prayers permissible as
62. The Communion of the people.
63. The Ablutions. 63. Omitted here, and taken at the
end of the service. See No.
64. The " Communio," varying with 64. Permissible as No. 9.
65. Said before. See No. 56. 65. The Lord s Prayer.
66. The " Post-Communion," varying 66. The Post- Communion; invariable.
with the Collect for the day.
67. Said before. See No. 17. 67. The Glo ria in Excelsis.
68. lie missa est, or Benedicamits. 68. Wanting.
69. The Blessing. 69. The Blessing, with which the Pax
Domini, (See No. 59,) is incor
70. Taken before. See No. 63. 70. The Ablutions.
71. Prayers in vestry while unvesting. 71. Permissible as No. 2.
Comparative Steto of tf)e Ctoo Calendars,
THE 182 fixed Feasts of the Church of Sarum are represented
by 92 in the present Anglican Calendar. Of moveable feasts, the
7 Sarum are represented by 5 Anglican, those of Corpus Christi
and of Eelics being omitted in the latter. Of these Feasts (Fixed
and Moveable combined), 20 have Octaves in the Sarum rite; 7 in
the English. 61 The 8 " Principal Double Feasts " of Sarum are
represented by 7 Anglican, the Assumption being omitted. The
8 " Greater Double Feasts " of the former are represented by 6
Anglican ; Corpus Christi and the Feast of Eelics being wanting.
The 20 " Lesser Double Feasts" of the Sarum Calendar are
represented by 18 Anglican : the two Feasts of S. Thomas of
61 I.e., Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, and the Feasts
of the Patron Saint, and of the Dedication of a Church. If the Sarum
Octaves, however, are held to be tacitly included in the Anglican Calendar,
the proportion expressed below will be considerably modified. The Anglican
Calendar would then give 230 festivals to 135 ferias.
92 THE LITURGY OF THE
Canterbury being omitted. 62 The 18 " Inferior Doubles " are all
preserved. Of Vigils, the Sarum Calendar gives 11 ; the Angli
The actual changes in the Calendar may therefore be summed
up as follows : the omission of 90 feasts, of which 7 only are of
the superior grade, the remaining 83 consisting almost entirely
of " Simple " Feasts and memorials. Taking in the Octaves,
and allowing a Feast of Dedication and of the Patron Saint
to each Church, the Sarum rite appointed 329 festival days
to 36 ferial ; while the Anglican allows 146 festal to 219
Of the 197 Saints commemorated in the Sarum Calendar,
some 49 are local, most of which are preserved in the Modern
It must of course be borne in mind that in addition to the
Saints named in the Sarum ritual, 64 many others were honoured
62 These feasts, however, were arbitrarily removed from the Calendar by
Henry VIII. and never by any Church authority.
C3 The chief exceptions are : SS. Cuthbert, Wulstan, John of Beverley.
Aldhelm, Kenelm, Osmund, German, Oswald, Cuthburga, Bertinus, Edith,
Wulfran, Frideswide, Winifred, Edmund.
[In the Eoman Calendar 854 saints are commemorated in 256 festivals.
Of these 108 are contained in the Sarum Calendar. Allowing for the move-
able feasts and octaves, the Eoman Calendar gives 345 feasts to 20 ferias,
the Sarum, as we have seen, 329 feasts to 36 ferias.]
64 The Calendar contained only such festivals and memorials as formed
part of the Breviary services. The " Martyrology " portions of which were
CHUECH OF SABUM. 93
in particular dioceses and places, and in particular Religious
read each day in the service of Prime in cathedral and collegiate churches, and
in the chapels of religious houses (as appears from the Hereford Breviary)
contained brief notices of a much greater number of saints. In England the
most celebrated martyrology was that of S. Bede ; but there were others pecu
liar to various religious orders, as the Benedictine, the Franciscan, &c. The
" Martyrologium Eomanuni," set forth by command of Gregory XIII., and
revised by authority of Urban VIII.,* is that now generally used in the West.
An English translation by a Jesuit Father, [" G. K.,"] printed at S. Omer s by
Thomas Geubels, A.D. 1667, is extant. The Calendar attached to the " Sarum
Encheiridion," (a book of private devotions,) as given by Mr. Chambers,!
contains 225 festivals and memorials, giving with the 140 days " within
octaves " exactly 365 non-ferial days ; but of course many of these festivals
fell within one or other of the twenty octaves ; so that the ferial feature was
not unrepresented. Many of these feasts were peculiar to the Church of York,
and others appear to have been inserted for private observance. The Calendar
translated in the present work is taken from the Breviary printed at Paris by
Chevallon, A,D. 1580.
* The Council of Trent ordered a general revision of the Roman office-books, and
their adoption in all churches which could not claim for their local Rituals a prescriptive
use of 200 years. The Sarum family of Liturgical books would not have fallen within
this decree ; but on the 25th December, 1549, on the occasion of a presumed wish to get
back the Latin services, an order was sent to each bishop from the king, commanding the
"defacing and abolishing" of all the service-books of old English use that could be
found. On the return of England, under Queen Mary, to the Communion of the West,
the consequent difficulty of obtaining copies, combined with a desire to u Romanize " to
the full, led so many of the clergy to apply to Cardinal Pole for particular licenses to use
the Roman Breviary and Missal, that that rite very speedily superseded the old English
uses, and is still the " use " of the Anglo-Roman communion. Thus perished, except as
it is enshrined in the Book of Common Prayer, one of the most venerable of Rituals, after
a career (counting from its first beginning in Saxon times) of a thousand years.
t " The Encheiridion, or Daily Hours of Private Devotion, according to Sarum Use."
Translated and arranged by a Layman of the English Church. London : Lunaley, 1860.
MM of tlje $re$ancttfieb,
AS IT USED TO BE SUNG ON
( 97 )
CJje #la0s of ti)e
65 I.e., the " MissaJi,," or Oblation of the Eucharist (see notes 2 and 3) as con
secrated on the previous day. The season of our LORD S Passion was celebrated
by the Church of Sarum with a solemnity which, beginning with Septuagesima,
culminated in the Three Great Days before Easter. The whole period, con
sisting of seventy days, (sometimes called " the Greater Lent,") was marked
by the assumption of vestments of a penitential hue, by the cessation of the
jubilant strains of the Te Deum even on the greatest festivals, and by the
omission of the triumphant " Alleluia " in every part of the service. Lent
itself, beginning with Ash- Wednesday, was divided into three stages, each
embracing two Sundays. The altar, even on festivals, was arrayed in a
simpler manner than at other seasons ; and the costly cross of brass or
precious metal was replaced by one of wood painted red. This as well as all
pictures and images throughout the church were veiled during the last
fortnight of Lent, commonly called " Passion-tide." Each of the three stages
had proper hymns for Lauds and Vespers. (See " Hymnal Noted," Hymns 47,
48; 49, 50; 51, 52.) In Passion-tide the Gloria was dropped in the Introit,
and on the last three days of Holy Week it was omitted in the Psalms and
Canticles, and wherever else it was wont to be sung.
On Ash-Wednesday, (fcria quarta in capite jejiinii,) after Sext had been sung,
98 THE LITUEGY OF THE
a sermon was made to the people, after which the bishop or clean or the priest
of highest dignity, vested in a silken cope of a red colour, and attended by the
deacon and sub-deacon and other ministers of tho altar, vested in albs and
amices, prostrated themselves in the midst of the choir, and recited the seven
penitential psalms with Gloria Patri, under this Antiphon, "Remember not,*
LORD, our offences, nor the offences of our fathers ; neither have vengeance of
our sins." Then followed the Kyrie and Paternoster, with sundry fr fr and R 1$
and seven collects, each of which were begun with Let us pray, and finished
after the manner of a lesson (i.e., thus :
Through CHRIST cmr LORD.
Ashes were then blessed, and distributed on the foreheads of clerics and laics
in order, the priest signing each one with the cross, saying, " Kemember,
man, that thou art dust : and unto dust shalt thou return. In the Name," &c.
Meanwhile the choir sang one or more antiphons. This finished, the pro
cession passed through the midst of the choir to the western door of the
church with thurifer and taper-bearer, headed by a banner made of hair-cloth
(ciUcinuin) ; where the officiant ejected from the church the paniitcntes (i.e.) those
under ecclesiastical sentence). The Mass then proceeded in the usual form,
the priest changing his scarlet cope for a chasuble of the same colour.
On Maundy Thursday (feriu quint a in Cccna Domini) Nones having been
sung, the " Eeconciliation of the Penitents " (for whom a special " memorial "
had been said at the greater Hours throughout Lent, the original of the
direction in the modern rite to use the Ash-Wednesday collect with the other
collects in Lent) took place on this wise. The priest of highest dignity arrayed
in red silken cope went to the western door of the church with two deacons
vested in albs and amices, but without the sub-deacon and without the cross,
and preceded by the vexillum cilicinum, as on Ash- Wednesday, the penitents
meanwhile being in the church porch. Being introduced by a cleric (or by the
archdeacon if the bishop officiated) into the church, and the procession having
returned to the choir, the seven penitential psalms were again said, with Ityrie,
CHURCH OF SAHUM. 99
Paternoster, r^^ and R ]$, and with three collects, each with Let us pray, and
finished in the tone of a lesson, as noted on Ash- Wednesday. Then followed
a solemn Mass sine reffimine cliori. If the bishop celebrated, the Gloria was
sung in the Introit, as also the Gloria in excehis and Credo ; otherwise not.
The vestments of the celebrant were red, and the deacon and sub -deacon wore
the dalmatic and tunic in place of the folded chasuble. At the consecration
three " hosts" (i.e, larger wafers) were prepared ; two to be reserved for the
morrow, the third for the priest s reception. The former, together with the
cross, were carried to the sepulchre prepared for their reception at a side altar.
After the Communio Vespers were sung festively, but sine regimine cliori ,
beginning at the Antiphon. After the Magnificat and its Antiphon the Post-
Communion was said in place of the collect, and so Mass and Vespers were
finished together, the deacon dismissing the people with Go, you are dismissed,*
if the bishop celebrated ; otherwise with Let us bless the Lord.
At a later hour the clergy assembled to strip and wash the altars, to
perform the Maundy, (i.e., the washing of the feet,) and to say Compline.
* The reader will have observed that the former of these versicles was the jubilant,
the latter the penitential form. The rule was that whenever Te Deum was omitted in
the Divine Service Gloria in Excehis was to be omitted in the Mass, and Benedicamus
Domino said in place of Ite mlssa est. The use of both the latter in a pontifical Mass on
Maundy Thursday was exceptional. The phrase Ite, missa est is very inadequately ren
dered " Go, you are dismissed." It is rather " Go, the sacrifice is finished." The
elaborate chant prescribed for it in the rituals, (consisting at most of thirty notes, at least
of nine,) seems to argue that it was always regarded as more than a mere dismissal.
( 101 )
AT THE CELEBBATION OF THE EUCHABIST
Nones having been said, the Priest ascends to the Altar in his sacerdotal
vestments, with red chasuble, iclth Deacon and Sub-Deacon and the
other ministers of the Altar, who are all vested in albs and amices
66 The following particulars concerning the Mass of the Presanctified are taken
from the " Notes, Ecclesiological and Historical, on the Moveable Feasts and Fasts
of the English Church." " This service is celebrated at Milan on every Friday
in Lent, and in the rest of the Latin Church on Good Friday only ; also in the
Oriental Church on every day in Lent, (saving Saturdays and Sundays,) with
the exception of Good Friday, on which day there is no communion service
whatever, either of the preconsecrated or otherwise ; the offices on Good Friday
being confined to the reading of prophecies and the Passion, followed by the
adoration before a painting of the Crucifixion, a ceremony said to have been
introduced about the 9th century. Until the fourth century there is no proof
that the celebration and consecration of the Holy Communion did not take
place equally on Good Friday with every other holyday. The Liturgy of the
Preconsecrated, however, dated from a very remote period in the Oriental
Church, from which it was subsequently introduced into the Western. Before
102 THE LITUBGY OF THE
without tunides. And immediately an acolyte in alb proceeds to read
the lesson following without title f 1 at the step of the choir, on this wise:
Hosea vi. [1 6].
TN their affliction they will seek me early ; Come and let us
return unto the LORD : for He hath torn, and He will heal
us ; He hath smitten and He will bind us up. After two days
will He revive us ; in the third day He will raise us up, and we
shall live in His sight. Then shall we know if we follow on to
know the LOUD : His going forth is prepared as the morning ;
and He shall come unto us as the rain, as the latter and former
rain unto the earth. Ephraim, what shall I do unto thee ?
Juda, what shall I do unto thee ? for your goodness is as a
morning cloud, and as the early dew it goeth away. Therefore
have I hewed them by the prophets ; I have slain them by the
words of my mouth ; and my judgments shall go forth as the
light. For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice, and the know
ledge of GOD more than burnt- offerings.
its introduction, there were parts of Europe in which the churches were
altogether closed during the whole of Good Friday."
The Latin name for Good Friday is Dies Parasceves (i.e., the day of prepa
ration Trapao-fcevrj). Among the Anglo-Saxons it was originally known as
lang-jrpije-baeg, " Long Friday," probably from the length of the office.
Afterwards piety suggested the more fitting epithet "Good;" and this, like
another popular term, (the Saxon Easter), has been enshrined in the present
Book of Common Prayer.
67 I.e., without announcing the source from whence the lesson is taken,
CHUBCH OF SARini. 103
Then the following Tract is said by the Choir alternately :
TEACT. Hal. iii. LORD, I have heard Thy speech, and
was afraid : I considered Thy works and trembled.
P. In the midst of two animals 68 shalt Thou be made known;
when the years draw nigh Thou shalt be known ; when the time
shall come Thou shalt be shewn.
P. In the time when my soul shall be troubled : in wrath
p. GOD shall come from Libanus, and the Holy One from
the shady and densely- wooded mountain.
p. His glory covered the heavens : and the earth was full of
The Collect follows icitlwut The LOBD be with you, but with Let us pray,
followed by Let us kneel down. R. Rise up.
68 This is an ancient reading of Hab. iii. 2, well known in Christian art as
the authority for representing our BLESSED LORD in the inanger as receiving
the homage of an ox and an ass. Its use on Good Friday, however, in pre
ference to the " in medio annorum notuna facies " of the Vulgate, seems to be
an allusion to our LORD S Crucifixion between the two thieves. The rest of
the Tract follows the same pre-Vulgate version. " Libanus " is rendered " the
south" iii the Vulgate, and "Teman" in the English version; the "shady
mountain " " Pharan " in the Vulgate, " Par an " in the English.
104 THE LITURGY OF THE
C\ GOD, from Whom the traitor Judas received the punish
ment of his guilt, and the good thief the reward of his
confession : grant us the efficacy of Thy loving kindness, that
as our LORD JESUS CHRIST in His Passion rendered to each a
different retribution according to his desert ; so He would
deliver us from our old sin, and bestow upon us the grace of
His Kesurrection. Who with Thee liveth and reigneth.
Then the Sub-Deacon reads this Lesson, without title, at the step of the
Exod. xii. [1 11].
A ND the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of
Egypt, saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning
of months : it shall be the first month of the year to you.
Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the
tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a
lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an
house, and if the household be too little for the lamb, let him
and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the
number of the souls : every man according to his eating shall
make your count for the lamb. Your lamb shall be without
blemish, a male of the first year ; according to which rite also
ye shall take a kid. 69 And ye shall keep it until the fourteenth
69 So the Vulgate renders the " ye shall take it out from the sheep, or
from the goats " of the English version.
CHURCH OF SARUM, 105
day of the same month, and the whole assembly of the children
of Israel shall sacrifice 70 it in the evening. And they shall take
of the blood and strike it on the two side-posts and on the
upper door-post of the houses wherein they shall eat it. And
they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and
unleavened bread, and with bitter herbs shall they eat it. Eat
not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire ;
his head with his legs and the purtenance thereof. Ye shall not
break any bone thereof nor let anything of it remain until the
morning, and that which remaineth ye shall burn with fire.
And thus shall ye eat it : with your loins girded, your shoes on
your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat in
haste : for it is Phase, that is, the LORD S passover.
Then the following Tract is said by the Choir alternately :
TRACT. Ps. cxl. Deliver me, LORD, from the evil man :
and preserve me from the wicked man.
<P. Who imagine mischief in their hearts : and stir up strife
all the day long.
P. They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent : adder s
poison is under their lips.
P. Keep me, LORD, from the hands of the ungodly :
preserve me from the wicked men.
70 " Immolabit." TV//.
106 THE LITURGY OF THE
p. Who are purposed to overthrow my goings : the proud
have laid a snare for me.
p. And spread a net abroad with cords : yea, and set traps
in my way.
c^. I said unto the LORD, Thou art my GOD : hear the voice
of my prayers, LORD.
p. LORD GOD, Thou strength of my help : cover Thou my
head in the day of battle.
p. Let not the ungodly have his desire, LORD : they have
conspired together against me ; forsake me not, lest they should
p. Let the mischief of their own lips fall upon the head : of
them that compass me about.
<^. But the righteous shall give thanks unto Thy Name : and
the just shall continue in Thy sight.
Then shall follow the Passion, 71 without The LORD be with you, and uithout
title, thus :
S. John xviii. [1 to end] ; xix. [1 37].
in. TV/ HEN JESUS had spoken these words, He went forth with
His disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a
71 The Passio was sung every clay in Holy Week in addition to the Gospel.
It was sung in three tones the deep, the middle, and the exalted. The words
CHUKCH OF SABUM. 107
garden, into the which He entered, and His disciples. And
Judas also, which betrayed Him, knew the place : for JESUS oft-
times resorted thither with His disciples. Judas then, having
received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and
Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and
weapons. JESUS therefore, knowing all things that should come
upon Him, went forth, and said unto them, I. Whom seek ye ?
m. They answered Him, a. JESUS of Nazareth, m. JESUS saith
unto them, b. I am He. m. And Judas also, which betrayed
Him, stood with them. As soon then as He had said unto them,
I am He, they went backward, and fell to the ground. Then
asked He them again, b. Whom seek ye ? m. And they said,
a. JESUS of Nazareth, m. JESUS answered, b. I have told you
that I am He : if therefore ye seek Me, let these go their way :
in. That the saying might be fulfilled, which He spake, Of
them which Thou gavest me have I lost none. Then Simon
Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest s
servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant s name was
Malchus. Then said JESUS unto Peter, b. Put up thy sword
into the sheath : the cup which My Father hath given Me, shall
I not drink it ? m. Then the band and the captain and officers
of the Jews took JESUS, and bound Him, and led Him away to
or sayings of the Jews or the disciples and others were sung in the exalted
tone, (cox alta:} those of CHRIST in the deep tone, (vox lassa;) the third, (vox
media,) was employed in reciting the narrative of the Evangelist. In the text
the italic letters prefixed to the sentences refer to these tones, m signifying that
vox media, a that -vox alta, and b that rox lassa is to be employed.
108 THE LITUEGY OF THE
Annas first; for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, which was
the high priest that same year. Now Caiaphas was he which
gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man
should die for the people. And Simon Peter followed JESUS,
and so did another disciple ; that disciple was known unto the
high priest, and went in with JESUS into the palace of the high
priest. But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out
that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and
spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter. Then
saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, a. Art not thou
also one of this man s disciples ? m. He saith, a. I am not.
m. And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a
fire of coals ; for it was cold ; and they warmed themselves : and
Peter stood with them, and warmed himself. The high priest
then asked JESUS of His disciples, and of His doctrine. JESUS
answered him, b. I spake openly to the world ; I ever taught in
the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always
resort; and in secret have I said nothing. Why askest thou
Me ? ask them which heard Me, what I have said unto them :
behold, they know what I said. m. And when He had thus
spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck JESUS with the
palm of His hand, saying, a. Answerest Thou the high priest so?
m. JESUS answered him, b. If I have spoken evil, bear witness of
the evil : but if well, why smitest thou Me ? m. Now Annas had
sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest. And Simon
Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him,
a. Art not thou also one of His disciples ? m. He denied it, and
said, a. I am not. m. One of the servants of the high priest,
CHURCH OF SARUM. 109
being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, a. Did not I see
thee in the garden with Him ? in. Peter then denied again : and
immediately the cock crew. Then led they JESUS from Caiaphas
unto the hall of judgement : and it was early ; and they them
selves went not into the judgement-hall, lest they should be
denied ; but that they might eat the passover. Pilate then went
out unto them, and said, a. What accusation bring ye against
this man ? m. They answered and said unto him, a. If He were
not a malefactor, we would not have delivered Him up unto
thee. m. Then said Pilate unto them, a. Take ye Him, and
judge Him according to your law. m. The Jews therefore said
unto him, a. It is not lawful for us to put any man to death :
m. That the saying of JESUS might be fulfilled, which He spake,
signifying what death He should die. Then Pilate entered into
the judgement-hall again, and called JESUS, and said unto Him,
a. Art Thou the King of the Jews? m. JESUS answered him,
b. Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of
Me ? m. Pilate answered, a. Am I a Jew ? Thine own nation
and the chief priests have delivered Thee unto me : what hast
Thou done ? m. JESUS answered, b. My kingdom is not of this
world : if My kingdom were of this world, then would My
servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews : but
now is My kingdom not from hence, m. Pilate therefore said
unto Him, a. Art Thou a king ? m. JESUS answered, b. Thou
sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this
cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto
the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth My voice.
m. Pilate saith unto Him, . What is truth ? m. And when he
110 THE LITURGY OF THE
had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto
them, a. I find in Him no fault at all. But ye have a custom,
that I should release unto you one at the passover : will ye
therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews? m. Then
cried they all again, saying, a. Not this man, but Barabbas.
m. Now Barabbas was a robber. Pilate therefore took JESUS,
and scourged Him. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns,
and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe, and
said, a. Hail, King of the Jews ! m. and they smote Him with
their hands. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto
them, a. Behold, I bring Him forth to you, that ye may know
that I find no fault in Him m. Then came JESUS forth, wearing
the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto
them, a. Behold the man ! m. When the chief priests therefore
and officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, a. Crucify Him,
crucify Him. m. Pilate saith unto them, a. Take ye Him, and
crucify Him : for I find no fault in Him. m. The Jews answered
him, a. We have a law, and by our law He ought to die, because
He made Himself the Son of GOD. m. When Pilate therefore
heard that saying, he was the more afraid ; and went again into
the judgement-hall, and saith unto JESUS, a. Whence art Thou?
m. But JESUS gave him no answer. Then saith Pilate unto
Him, a. Speakest Thou not unto me ? knowest Thou not that I
have power to crucify Thee, and have power to release Thee ?
m. JESUS answered, b. Thou couldest have no power at all
against Me, except it were given thee from above : therefore he
that delivered Me unto thee hath the greater sin. m. And from
thenceforth Pilate sought to release Him : but the Jews cried
CHURCH OF SARUM. Ill
out, saying, a. If thoti let this man go, thou art not Caesar s
friend : whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against
Caesar, m. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought
JESUS forth, and sat down in the judgement-seat in a place that
is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew Gabbatha. And it
was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour :
and he saith unto the Jews, a. Behold your King ! m. But they
cried out, a. Away with Him, away with Him ; crucify Him.
m. Pilate saith unto them, a. Shall I crucify your King ! m. The
chief priests answered, a. We have no King but Caesar, m. Then
delivered he Him therefore unto them to be crucified. And
they took JESUS, and led Him away. And He bearing His cross
went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called
in the Hebrew Golgotha : where they crucified Him, and two
other with Him, on either side one, and JESUS in the midst.
And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the
writing was, JESUS OF NAZAKETH THE KING OF THE
JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews ; for the place
where JESUS was crucified was nigh to the city : and it was
written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. Then said the chief
priests of the Jews to Pilate, a. Write not, The King of the
Jews ; but that He said, I am King of the Jews. m. Pilate
answered, a. What I have written I have written, m. Then the
soldiers, when they had crucified JESUS, took His garments, and
made four parts, to every soldier a part ; and also His coat :
now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.
They therefore said among themselves, a. Let us not rend it,
but cast lots for it, whose shall it be : in. that the Scripture
112 THE LITUEGY OF THE
might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted My raiment among
[Here two ministers in surplices go up to the Altar, one to the right corner
and the other to the left, and remove from thence the two linen cloths
which had been placed upon the Altar.]
And for My vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore
the soldiers did. Now there stood by the cross of JESUS His
mother, and His mother s sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas,
and Mary Magdalene. When JESUS therefore saw His Mother,
and the disciple standing by, whom He loved, He saith unto His
Mother, b. Woman, behold thy Son ! m. Then saith He to the
disciple, b. Behold thy Mother ! m. And from that hour that
disciple took her unto his own home. After this, JESUS knowing
that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might
be fulfilled, saith, b. I thirst, m. Now there was set a vessel full
of vinegar; and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it
upon hyssop, and put it to His mouth. When JESUS therefore
had received the vinegar, He said, b. It is finished : m. and He
bowed His head, and gave up the ghost.
[Then follows Our FATHER, Hail Mary, Into Thy hands I commend my
m. The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the
bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath- day, (for
that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their
legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of
the other which was crucified with him. But when they came
CHURCH OF SARUM. 113
to JESUS, and saw that He was dead already, they brake not His
legs : but one of the soldiers with a spear pierced His side, and
forthwith came thereout Blood and Water. And he that saw it
bare record, and his record is true : and he knoweth that he
saith true, that ye might believe. For these things were done,
that the Scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of Him shall not be
broken. And again another Scripture saith, They shall look on
Him Whom they pierced.
GOSPEL. S. John xix. .
A ND after this, Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of
JESUS, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate
that he might take away the Body of JESUS. And Pilate gave
him leave. He came therefore, and took the Body of JESUS.
And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to
JESUS by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes about
an hundred pound weight. Then they took the Body of JESUS,
and wound It in linen clothes, with the spices, as the manner of
the Jews is to bury. Now in the place where He was crucified
there was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein
was man never yet laid. There laid they JESUS therefore,
because of the Jews preparation- day ; for the sepulchre was
nigh at hand.
Thai follow the Solemn Prayers; and at each one is said, Let us kneel
down, except at that which is said for the Jews. And first, for the
universal estate of the Church.
114 THE LITUEGY OF THE
T ET us pray, dearly beloved, in the first place for the Holy
Church of GOD, that our LOKD GOD would vouchsafe to
preserve it in peace throughout the whole world, subjecting to it
principalities and powers ; and that He may grant us a quiet
and peaceful life : and to glorify GOD the FATHEE Almighty.
Let us pray.
The Deacon. Let us kneel down. #. Eise up.
A LMIGHTY Everlasting GOD, Who hast revealed Thy glory
in CHEIST to all nations ; preserve, we beseech Thee, the
works of Thy mercy ; that Thy Church, spread over the whole
world, may persevere with steadfast faith in the confession of
Thy Name. Through the same CHEIST JESUS our LOED.
The Choir reply, Amen.
For the Pope.
T ET us pray also for the Blessed N, our Pope ; that our GOD
and LOED, Who elected him to the order of the Episcopate,
may preserve Him safe to His Holy Church that he may govern
the holy people of GOD.
Let us pray. Let us kneel. Eise.
A LMIGHTY Everlasting GOD, by Whose guidance all things
are established ; mercifully regard our prayers ; and of
CHURCH OF SARUM. 115
Thy mercy preserve to us the Chief Bishop whom Thou hast
chosen, that the Christian people, being governed by Thy
guidance, may under so great a Pontiff increase in the merits
of their faith. Through our LORD JESUS CHRIST Thy SON, Who
with Thee liveth and reigneth GOD, for ever and ever. Amen.
For all orders in tlic Church.
T ET us pray also for all Bishops, Priests, Deacons, Sub-
Deacons, Acolytes, Exorcists, Readers, Doorkeepers, Con
fessors, Virgins, Widows, and for all the holy people of GOD.
Let us pray. Let us kneel. Rise.
A LMIGHTY Everlasting GOD, by Whose Spirit the whole
body of the Church is sanctified and governed ; graciously
hear our supplications for all orders in the same ; that by the
gift of Thy grace all in their several degrees may faithfully serve
Thee. Through our LORD JESUS CHRIST Thy SON, Who with
Thee liveth. In the unity of the same.
For the King.
T ET us pray also for our most Christian King N ; that our
LORD and GOD may subdue to him all barbarous nations to
our perpetual peace.
Let us pray. Let us kneel. Bise.
THE LITURGY OF THE
ALMIGHTY Everlasting GOD, in Whose hand is all the
power and the laws of all nations : favourably regard the
sovereigns of all Christian kingdoms; that the Gentiles who
trust in their own strength may be repelled by the might of
Thy Eight Hand. Through our LORD JESUS CHRIST Thy SON.
T ET us pray also for our Catechumens ; that our LORD and
GOD would open the ears of their hearts and the gate of
His mercy ; that having received by the laver of regeneration the
remission of all their sins, they may be found worthy through
CHRIST JESUS our LORD.
Let us pray. Let us kneel. Eise.
A LMIGHTY Everlasting God, Who art ever supplying Thy
Church with new offspring; increase faith and under
standing in our catechumens ; that being born again in the
baptismal Font, they may be numbered among Thine adopted
children. Through our LORD JESUS CHRIST Thy SON.
T ET us beseech GOD the FATHER Almighty, dearly beloved, to
purge the world from all errors ; to remove diseases ; to
keep off famine ; to open prisons ; to loose chains ; and to grant
to travellers return, to the sick health, to mariners a port of
Let us pray. Let us kneel. Eise.
CHURCH OF SARUM. 117
\ LMIGHTY Everlasting GOD, the consolation of the sor
rowful, the strength of the afflicted, let the prayers of all
that cry unto Thee in any tribulation enter into Thine ears ; that
in all their necessities they may rejoice in the help of Thy mercy.
Through our LORD.
T ET us pray also for heretics and schismatics, that our GOD
and LORD JESUS CHRIST would deliver them from all error,
and vouchsafe to recall them to their holy mother the Catholic
and Apostolic Church.
Let us pray. Let us kneel. Eise.
A LMIGHTY Everlasting GOD, Who savest all men, and
wouldest not that any should perish ; regard the souls of
them that are led away by the deceit of the devil ; that laying
aside all heretical wickedness, the hearts of the wanderers may
be reclaimed, and may return to the unity of Thy Truth.
Through our LORD.
For the perfidious Jews.
T ET us pray also for the perfidious Jews : that our LORD and
GOD would take away the veil from their hearts ; that they
also may acknowledge JESUS CHRIST our LORD.
118 THE LITURGY OF THE
Let us pray.
A LMIGHTY Everlasting GOD, Who rejectest not from Thy
mercy even the perfidious Jews ; hear our prayers which
we offer to Thee for the blindness of that people, that acknow
ledging the light of Thy Truth, which is CHRIST, they may be
delivered from their darkness. Through the same.
T ET us pray also for infidels; that GOD Almighty would
remove iniquity from their hearts : so that, forsaking their
idols, they may be converted to the Living and True GOD, and
His only SON, our LORD and GOD JESUS CHRIST, with "Whom
and with the HOLY GHOST, He liveth and reigneth GOD, for ever
Let us pray. Let us kneel. Eise.
A LMIGHTY Everlasting God, Who wouldest not the death of
sinners, but ever seekest for them that they may live :
mercifully receive our prayer ; deliver them from the worship of
idols, and unite them to Thy Holy Church to the praise and
glory of Thy Name. Through our Lord. 72
72 These solemn prayers, which are of great antiquity, are, it will be seen,
the originals of the Good Friday " Collects " in the Book of Common Prayer,
CHUBCH OF SARUM. 119
When these Prayers are finished, the Priest reword* his chasuble, ami sits
in liis seat near the Altar with the Deacon and Sul-Dcacon ; and at
the same time otlier two Presbyters of (he l T pp^r (trade, u itJi bare feet,
and clad in albs u lthout apparels, holding the Cross between them,
reiled, behind the High Altar on the right side, sing these Verses, 71
f~\ MY people, what have I done unto tliee ? or wherein have
I wearied tliee ? Answer Me. Because I led thee out of
the land of Egypt, thou hast prepared a Cross for thy SAVIOUR,
Two Deacons of the second form in their black tippets at the step of the
Choir turned towards the Altar, reply :
A GYOS Theos, Agyos Iskyros, Agyos Athanatos, Eleyson
The Choir answers,
TTOLY GOD, Holy and Strong, Holy and Immortal, have
mercy upon us.
And u henever Holy GOD is sung bij the Choir, it is sung kneeling ; but the
clergy holding the Cross behind the Altar and the Deacons at the step
of the Choir saying Agyos continue standing throughout.
73 The " apparels" were square patches of embroidery stitched on the
collar of the amice, and at the bottom of the alb before and behind, and on
the wrists, and also on the deacon s dalmatic.
74 Commonly called the " Reproaches."
75 Le., Ay LOS o 6>eo9, ayios urftupos, ayw qQavctTos, eXeyvov vf
120 THE LITUEGY OF THE
Then the two clergy not changing their place, continue,
"DECAUSE I led thee through the wilderness forty years, and
fed thee with manna, and brought thee into a land ex
ceeding good, thou hast prepared a Cross for thy SAVIOUR.
The Deacons, Agyos, &c.
The Choir, Holy GOD, &c.
T/TTHAT could I have done more for thee that I have not
done ? I planted thee indeed, My choicest vine, and
thou hast turned for Me into exceeding bitterness : thou gavest
vinegar to quench My thirst, and piercedst with a lance the Side
of thy SAVIOUR.
The Deacons, Agyos.
The Choir, Holy GOD.
Then the two clergy, uncovering the Cross by the right side of the Altar,
sing this Antiphon.
T> EHOLD the wood of the Cross, on which hung the SAVIOUR
of the world. Come let us adore.
76 In the Eoman rite these verses are sung by two cantors of the first and
second choir alternately, the choir responding "Holy GOD" in Greek and
Latin by sides, and the cross is uncovered by the celebrant ; not, as in the
Sarum rite, by two other presbyters. This was probably the Sarum Use also
in villages and other churches where there was a paucity of clergy.
CHUKCH OF SARUM. 121
The Choir, kneeling, and kissing the forms, 77 reply,
T/TTE venerate Thy Cross, LORD, and praise and glorify Thy
Holy Resurrection ; for behold by the Cross has come joy
to the whole world.
Psalm 67. Deus misereatur.
WhicJi psalm is said entire ly the whole choir, without Glory be; the
Antiphon We venerate being repeated after each verse. Meanwhile the
Cross is solemnly deposited upon the third step from the Altar, the two
Priests above mentioned sitting beside it, one on the right, the other on
the left. Then the clergy approach to venerate the Cross, barefooted,
beginning with those of greater dignity. The two Priests meamchile
sitting beside the Cross sing this Hymn.
Cross ! above all other, One and only noble Tree !
None in foliage, none in blossom, None in fruit thy peers
may be : Sweetest wood and sweetest iron ! Sweetest weight is
hung on thee.
Sing, my tongue, the glorious battle With completed victory
rife : And above the Cross s trophy Tell the triumph of the
strife : How the world s Redeemer conquer d By surrendering of
The Choir, sitting, repeat the P, Faithful Cross after each verse.
Q.OD his Maker, sorely grieving That the first made Adam
fell, When he ate the fruit of sorrow, Whose reward was
77 " Oscidando formulas : " i.e., the seats.
122 THE LITURGY OF THE
death and hell, Noted then this Wood, the ruin Of the ancient
wood to quell.
The Choir, Faithful Cross.
the work of our salvation Needs would have His order so,
And the multiform deceiver s Art by art would overthrow,
And from thence would bring the medicine, Whence the insult
of the foe.
The Choir, Faithful Cross.
T^TTHEKEFOBE when the sacred fulness Of the appointed
time was come, This world s Maker left His FATHER,
Sent the heavenly mansion from, And proceeded, GOD Incarnate
Of the Holy Virgin s Womb.
The Choir, Faithful Cross.
r !PHIBTY years among us dwelling, His appointed time ful
filled, Born for this He meets His passion, For that this
He freely willed ; On the Cross the Lamb is lifted, Where His
life-Blood shall be spilled.
The Choir, Faithful Cross.
TTE endured the nails and spitting, Vinegar, and spear, and
reed; From that Holy Body broken Blood and water forth
proceed : Earth, and stars, and sky, and ocean, By that flood
from stain are freed.
The Choir, Faithful Cross,
CHUECH OF SARUM. 123
the TRINITY be glory Everlasting as is meet ; Equal to the
FATHER, equal To the SON and PARACLETE ; Trinal Unity,
Whose praises All created things repeat.
The Choir, Faithful Cross.
This done, the two afore-mentioned Priests carry the Cross through the
midst of the Choir, where it receives the veneration of the people before
some Altar, the Choir, seated, sinning meanwhile this Antiphon with
HILST the Maker of the World suffered the punishment of
death upon the Cross, He cried with a loud voice, and
gave up the Ghost ; and behold the vail of the temple was rent
in twain : the graves opened, and there was a great earthquake :
for the world cried out that it was not able to bear the death of
the SON of GOD.
y. The soldier s lance having opened the side of the cruci
fied LORD, there came out Blood and water, for the purchase of
p. admirable price by whose costliness the world has been
redeemed from captivity, the gloomy prisons of hell have been
shattered, and the gate of the kingdom has been opened for us !
Then is ideated the P. The soldier s lance. After which the same Priests
reverently carry lack the Cross through the midst of the Choir to the
Then all the clergy in choir assemble before the Altar, and the Priest
resumes the chasuble which lie had before put off, and going to the Altar
124 THE LITUEGY OF THE
step with the Deacon and Sub-Deacon, says the Confession, the May
Almighty GOD, and the Absolution, with the Prayers, and collect
Take away from us as in the Ordinary of the Mass ; 79 but the kiss oj
peace is not given.
The Sacrifice being placed upon the Altar, and incensed, and wine and
water poured into the chalice in the accustomed manner, after the
washing of hands the Priest says, bowing down, In the spirit of humility,
&c., 80 kissing the Altar, and blessing the Sacrifice ; and turning himself ,
says, Pray, brothers and sisters, after the accustomed manner.
Then he says immediately in a loiv voice without note, Let us pray. In
structed by Thy saving precepts, 81 with the LOKD S Prayer, that is
Paternoster. The Choir replies, But deliver us from evil. Then he
says, Deliver us, we beseech Thee ; in ichich prayer, when he says
Through the same JESUS CHEIST, he breaks the Body of the Lord, as
he is wont to do on other days. Then he says in a loiv voice, without
note World without end ; and the Choir replies, Amen.
Afterwards he places, as usual, a part of the Host in the Chalice.
The Peace of the LOED is not said, nor the Agnus Dei ; nor is the Pax
given ; but immediately the Priest communicates himself saying, May
the Body of our LOKD, &c. And on receiving the Blood, May the Body
and Blood, &c., 82 without any prayer preceding.
Then after the rinsing of his hands, 83 Vespers follow, without any singing.
78 I e., the p " Our help standeth" &c.
79 See page 41.
80 See page 53.
81 See page 70.
82 See page 77.
83 The priest rinsed his hands by water and wine poured over them into
the chalice, in the usual way. Then he drank the contents of the chalice,
which had not been consecrated, as an ablution.
CHUECH OF SARUM. 125
And In place of the Collect is said, for the Post -Communion, the
Prayer, Look clown, we beseech Thee, upon this Thy family, without
Who liveth. And so the Mass and Vespers end together. Nor is The
LOUD be with you, nor Let us bless the LORD, nor Go, you are dismissed,
to be said.
Vespers finished, the Priest removing his chasuble, places the Cross again in
the Sepulchre, with the Body of the Lord, and incenses the Sepulchre,
and closes the door. Then he resumes his chasuble, and in the same
order in which he entered at the beginning of the service, he departs
with the Deacon and Sub-Deacon, and the other ministers of the Altar.
126 THE LITURGY OF THE
ADDENDUM TO NOTE 2, PAGE 35.
SINCE the note on] p. 35 was in type, the Editor has seen additional
reasons for believing that the derivation of the liturgical word " Mass " from
the Hebrew HDD, there given as held by some writers, is tenable. Could
the point be satisfactorily established, it would be exceedingly interesting.
Archdeacon Freeman, in a recent speech in Convocation, has traced the
Eucharistic vestments to a two-fold origin, viz., as being the ordinary
vestments of the Apostolic age, modified and beautified after the pattern of
the Aaronic garments. The Hebrew derivation of " Missa " would give a cor
responding link between the name of the Aaronic and the Christian Oblation.
The difficulty in the way is the fact that the word is confined to the West.
Whether this be fatal to its claim must be for others to determine. Be this as
it may, the suggestion that the Anglo-Saxon CDsejje, as signifying any (even a
heathen) sacrificial feast, is derived from the Hebrew, is capable of more de
tailed proof. Dr. Bosworth has traced the affinity between the Eastern and
Western languages at some length. Placing Sanscrit as the primary, and
regarding it as the foundation of the " Japhetic " family of languages, he gives
several words which have come down through Greek, Latin, Persian, German,
to Anglo-Saxon, Dutch, Danish, and English with but small modifications.
One or two examples will suffice : Sanscrit, nama ; Greek, ovo^a ; Latin,
nomen ; Persian, nam ; German, nalune ; Anglo-Saxon, nama; Dutch, naam ;
Danish, navm; English, name. Sanscrit, muslia ; Greek, fjuvs ; Latin, miis ;
Persian, moosh; German, mans; Anglo-Saxon, miis; Dutch, muls; Danish,
mum; English, mouse. Sanscrit, krimilan ; Greek, Kdfjuekos ; Latin, camelum ;
Hebrew, gemel; German, kamel; Anglo-Saxon, cameU, a camel. Sanscrit,
yuwanah, young ; Latin, juvenis ; Anglo-Saxon, geony ; Hebrew, jung t a suckling,
CHUECH OF SARUM. 127
a twig, sucker. The latter derivation is noteworthy, because, like MISSAH, it
entirely skips the Greek, to reappear in Latin and the Teutonic languages. 84
The term " Sacrifice " as applied to the larger wafer, which, it is believed,
is peculiar to the Sarum ritual, also demands a word. In the Saxon Church,
the parent of the Salisbury, the wafer was styled oblaten, the Oblation a use
of the word which is common to the Teutonic dialects oblie being the Dutch
equivalent, oblate the German, and obhtta the Icelandic. Somner (Anglo-
Saxon Diet.) renders oblaten " oblationcs, sacrificia," so that, in all probability,
the " Sacrificium" of the Sarum rubric was a literal rendering, on the part
of S. Osmund, of the Anglo-Saxon phrase.
84 The ecclesiastical term Allot is, however, another instance, and directly to the
point. Derived from the Hebrew ^, through the Syriac ID1, it reappears in eccle
siastical Latin without leaving a trace in the terminology of the Eastern Church. If the
Hebrew origin of JMissa be tenable, the phrase (Acts xiii. 2) " \tiTovpy6vruv" rendered
in the Anglican version " ministering," is exactly equivalent to the Missam facere of a
later age. It is used, Heb. x. 11, to describe the sacrificial offerings of the Jewish
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PAEAPHEASTICA EXPOSITIO AETICULOEUM
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paraphrastically considered and explained. By FRANCISCUS A.
SANCTA CLARA (Christopher Davenport). Reprinted from the Edition
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believed that this remarkable Treatise formed the basis of Dr. NEWMAN S Tract No. 90."
" Our dear friend s [Dr. Newman s] Tract [No. 90] has done good and lasting service by
breaking off a mass of unauthorised traditional glosses which had encrusted over the Thirty-
nine Articles. The interpretation which he then put forth, and which in him was blamed,
was at the time vindicated by others without blame. The blame was occasioned by two cir
cumstances, owing to which Tract 90 was thought to admit much more than our friend
meant. . . . But fas principle of Tract 90 viz., that we are not to bring into the Articles,
out of any popular system, any meanings which are not contained in their words, rightly and
accurately understood, was not and could not be condemned." Eirenicon, by Dr. Pusey, 1865.
" It is impossible to over-estimate the enlarged views that must follow upon the careful
and thoughtful study of this noble work of Sancta Clara. The Articles were doubtless framed
most vaguely to allow of the widest conceivable latitude of interpretation, to admit, in short,
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